A grading plan for physical education on the secondary level

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A GRADING PLAN FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON THE SECONDARY LEVEL

A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Maxine Miriam Turek January 1950

UMI Number: EP46106

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T h i s p r o je c t r e p o r t, w r it t e n u n d e r the d ire c tio n o f the c a n d id a te ’s a d v is e r a n d a p p r o v e d by h im , has been presen ted to a n d a ccep ted by the F a c u lt y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the

re q u ire m e n ts f o r

the degree

o f M a s te r of

Science in E d u c a t io n ,

A d v is e r

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

I N T R O D U C T I O N ..............

.

1

The p r o b l e m Statement of the p r o b l e m ................ .

1

.

1

Importance of the s t u d y .....................

2

Scope of the p r o b l e m .......................

2

Definitions of terms

.........................

3

Marking or grading

.........................

3

Specific grades ..............................

3

General grades

..............................

3

Absolute grades ..............................

3

Relative grades ..............................

4

Review of the literature

II.

.

.....................

4

Related investigations in academic subjects .

4

Related investigations in physical education

6

Method of p r o c e d u r e ............................

13

Organization of the remaining chapters

14

PHILOSOPHIC CRITERIA

. . . .

...........................

Elements most commonly mentioned

...........

15 16.

The grading plan should meet the objectives of the c o u r s e ..............................

16

The grading plan should test the information received from the c o u r s e .................

17

iii CHAPTER

PAGE The grading plan should test the achievement made in the course . . .

..........

18

The grading plan should motivate the pupil to greater e f f o r t .......................

18

The grading plan should test the skill gained from the c o u r s e ...................

19

The grading plan should test the attitudes developed in the c o u r s e .................

19

The grading plan should be posted on the bulletin board for reference .............

20

The grading plan for physical education should fit into the school system's grading plan ....................

. . . . .

21

The grading plan should weight each element as to its i m p o r t a n c e .....................

21

Other elements m e n t i o n e d .....................

22

The grading plan should include posture as one element to be g r a d e d .................

22

The grading plan should include attendance, showers, and uniform regulations as elements to be g r a d e d ...................

23

The grading plan should include extra­ curricular activities as an element to be g r a d e d ....................................

23

iv CHAPTER III.

PAGE

THE GRADING P L A N ................................ Determination of

the grading p l a n ..........

24 24

Application of the grading plan to a hypo­ thetical s i t u a t i o n ..........

24

Functional elements used in this grading plan

31

The grading plan should meet the objectives of the c o u r s e ............................

31

The grading plan should be posted on the bulletin board for reference. . . . . . .

31

The grading plan should motivate the pupil to greater e f f o r t .......................

31

The grading plan should weight each element as to its i m p o r t a n c e .....................

32

The grading plan for physical education should fit into the school system’s grading p l a n ......................................

32

Testing elements used in this grading plan . .

32

The grading plan should test the information received from the course .

.............

32

The grading plan should test the achievement made in the c o u r s e .......................

33

The grading plan should test the skill gained from the c o u r s e ...................

33

V

CHAPTER

PAGE The grading plan should test the attitudes developed in the e o . u r s e ............

IV.

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, ANDRECOMMENDATIONS

...

33 35

S u m m a r y ..........

35

C o n c l u s i o n s ..................................

37

R e c o m m e n d a t i o n s .............................

38

B I B L I O G R A P H Y ........................................

39

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II. III. IV. V.

.PAGE Information Testing

............................

Achievement T e s t i n g ..................... Skill Testing

26

................... • . .

Attitude Testing .....................

. . . . .

Composite Grading Table With Weighted Values

25

. .

27 28 29

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION There are a number of questions which bear on the importance of marking in physical education.

These questions

were indicated by Davis and*Lawther to be the following; Why do we give grades? How important and valuable are these reasons? Is it possible to accomplish these purposes without using "letter" or "number" grades? Do grades shift the pupil's attention from the value of learning to the acquirement of grades? Is the basic idea of orthodox grading a product of or related to agrian individualism or industrialism with its emphasis on efficiency and cooperation? Should grades be based upon only objective measures or is it justifiable to include information gained from subjective evaluation? Should grades consider a pupil's level of ability as compared to others in the class? Should grades be chiefly an expression of the acquirement of specific measureable bits such as isolated skills or chiefly function skill such.as playing of a game made up from these skills? Should grades be based on ability, improvement, potentiality, or actual achievement? Should acquirements as knowledges and attitudes be con­ sidered in grading? To what extent should attendance enter into arriving at a grade? Is it possible to give grades but so emphasize the fundamental, valuable learnings that pupils will not seek grades as e n d s ? ^ I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem.

The problem exists con­

cerning what to grade in physical education.

Many systems

have been devised and presented to the professional literature, 1 E. C. Davis and J. D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education (New York: Prentice-Hall, I n c ~ 1948), p. 574.

2 but none appear to have met all the needs of a marking p scheme. It is the purpose of this study to develop a plan for grading physical education for girls on the secondary level. Importance of the study.

Grading in physical education

should be considered as important as grading any other subject; therefore, the attitudes which are developed toward grading in any subject are a reflection of the teacher’s philosophy of education and professional viewpoint.

The

eighteen systems which were studied for this grading project did not meet all the qualifications of a good marking scheme. If traditional grades are used in the school systems, physical education which is an important subject in the curriculum must make these grades as accurate as in any of the subjects in the school. Scope of the problem. to the secondary level.

This investigation was limited

A further limitation of this problem

was that it was a study of eighteen authors who wrote about grading in physical education in an attempt to synthesize the best thinking on grading in physical education as taken from the literature.

2 E. W. Nixon and P. W. Cozens, An Introduction to Physical Education (Philadelphiar W. B. Saunders Company, 1947), p. 113.

3 No attempt was made in this project to develop a testing program.

The tests and measurements available in

the field are accessible to all and should be used at the discretion of the physical educator adopting this grading scheme. II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS

Marking or grading.

These words are used inter­

changeably throughout this project.

"Marking,11 "mark," or

"marks,” "grading," "grade,” or "grades" will be interpreted in this study to mean the teacher’s estimate of the student’s achievement in a given activity or set of activities based r? on subjective opinion or objective evidence or both. Specific grades.

Specific grades will be individual

grades given for each activity such as A in basketball, C in apparatus, B in swimming, etc.^ General grades.

General grades will be average

grades and represent an average of the specific grades. Absolute grades.

5

Absolute grades will be grades given

3 Ibid., p. 141. 4 C. H. McCloy, Tests and Measurements in Health and Physical Education (New York: Appleton-Century-Cr'ofts, Inc., 1942), p. 300. 3 Loc. cit.

4 for actual achievement without taking into consideration the capacities or potentialities of the student. Relative grades.

g

Relative grades will be grades given

with reference to the capacities and potentialities of the student.7 III.

REVIEW OP THE LITERATURE

Related investigations in academic subjects.

There

has been a great deal of research done on grading of academic 8 subjects. Wakeham made a study of grading in chemistry and indicated that students should take for granted that grading will contain the following factors:

that they will be fair,

impartial, impersonal, uniform, and understandable to the pupil.

The element of the grade being helpful to the student

should also be included in every grading plan. Close

Q

devised a plan for improving students’ work in

mechanical drawing.

The author felt that the failure of most

grading systems was the students ’ unawareness of why they 6 Loc. cit. 7 Loc. cit-. 8 G. Wakeham, "Humanizing Grades," School and Society, 34:596-8, October, 1931. ® L. Clark Close, "A Grading System that Improves Students' Work," Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 35:4-5, January, 1946.

5 received a certain grade.

The use of student conferences

was his method for informing the students why they were graded in a certain way.

He also felt that an adaptation of

this method could be made to other fields of work. Another investigation made in industrial arts and 10 vocational education by Marshall discussed marks and what they mean.

He came to the conclusion that students had to

cooperate in evaluating themselves in order for a mark to be meaningful.

He also advocated that most discipline problems

would be eliminated if the students and teachers became acquainted through cooperation on grades. Broome,^

in an article written concerning the use of

traditional marks, completely denounced marks and substituted individualized notes to be sent to the parents giving infor­ mation on the progress of the student in his studies, attitudes, and conduct. In contrast to the above article, Haner

12

wrote a poem

on marking in which he indicated the use of traditional marking as the fairest way in the end.

10 D. C . Marshall, ’'This Matter of Grades," Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 33:228-9, June, 1944. H e . C. Broome, "Marks, Marks, MarksJ" School and Society, 62:76, August 4, 1945. r

12 w. W. Haner, "Appraisal," School and Society, 65:249-50, April 5, 1947.

Related Investigations in physical education. educators have also investigated grading.

Physical

Many attempts have

been made in developing methods by the different authorities in the field.

Barton 13 developed a constructive, logical

solution to the problem of grading on the college level. common factors which she considered were; values on a one hundred points basis,

The

(1) scaling of

(2) fitting the

grading system into the grading system now in use in the institution,

(3) posting the grading system on charts and

make it available to students throughout the semester, (4) including a sportsmanship column which would require sub­ jective evaluation by the teacher,

(5) testing achievement,

and (6) testing information. Marks have their purposes to the pupils, teachers, parents, and school administrators.

These purposes were

given consideration in a system developed by Bookwalter. He emphasized the weighting of elements. in its determination of the grade:

14

This system included

attendance, posture tests,

rules, teacher's estimate, and skill on stunt tests.

1 3 e 7 m 7 Barton, "A Grading Plan for Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 20:512, 540-44, October, 1949. 14 g. w. Bookwalter, "Marking in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7;16, January, 1936.

7 Brown

15

made it clear that a perfect grading system

has not yet been devised and most likely will never be achieved, but this does not excuse teachers from using a marking system of some kind.

He suggested the use of seven

principles to be considered when developing a grading system: (1) understanding grading,

(2) knowing where, you are at -all

times, (3) questioning of grade by student, (4) initiating greater effort through the grade, (5) feeling that grade received was grade earned,

(6) fitting physical education

grading into the grading of the school system, and (7) classi­ fying of students for grading. The elements to be graded in physical education according to Davis and Lawther 16 were:

(1) tests of know­

ledges; (2) estimation of social behavior, attitudes, and personality development; and (3) tests of skill, endurance, speed, and strength. Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson 17 had some comments to make concerning the grading of physical education.

They

suggested that marking be considered in relation to map making. 15 a . C. Brown, ’’Criteria for Grading in High School Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 14:454, October, 1944. 16 Davis and Lawther, op. cit., p. 622. I*7 H. C. Kozman, R. Cassidy, and C. 0. Jackson, Methods in Physical Education (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947), pp. 169-70.

This type of planning would help to get rid of marks as only undertaken at the end of the semester.

They would like the

student to have an understanding that these marks are another person's estimate of his growth and development.

They also

felt that the student should be given ways to help him estimate his own progress; so that he can make a comparison with the actual mark received. -I Q

Giving marks, according to LaPorte, along four major items.

should follow

The four items to base marking on

were allowed a weighted value of 25 per cent each and were: (1) performance skills,

(2) knowledge of rules, (3) social

attitudes, and (4) posture.

He felt that at some time it

would be practical to include some other items such as effort, improvement, regularity of attendance, taking showers, costume, etc., but these could be considered in number three. He also believed that the student should have a part in grading. Lee

19

said that marks are a strong part of our edu­

cational system; therefore, we must try to give them with as much accuracy as possible.

Lee felt that attendance,

attitudes, and the enforcement of regulations should not be 18 W. R. LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum (Los Angeles: The University of Southern California Press, 1947), p. 50. 19 Mabel Lee, The Conduct of Physical Education (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1937), pp. 415-16.

9 included in the mark absolute.

When it is desirable to know

the rating of a student in attendance, attitudes, hygiene, degree of improvement, etc., a separate report could be used. The following items could be used to grade, according to Lee: (1) performance,

(2) techniques, and (3) knowledges.

A complicated system for giving grades in physical 20 education was developed by McCabe in which she used the point system and the positive approach to grading.

This plan

was devised for the secondary level girls physical education but could be used for any physical education program.

The

whole basis of this plan was the development of a fair plan for giving physical education grades. McCloy

21

believed that grades should be used to better

serve the students.

He classified grades into absolute and

relative and proposed that relative grades were the most satisfactory in physical education.

Relative grades give the

deviation from expectancy for the student’s capacity.

The

following procedure for itemizing grades was suggested: (1).testing general motor ability, (3) grading sports,

(2) testing strength,

(4) giving self-testing activities, and

(5) estimating 'attitudes.

He would not place number five on

20 k . D. McCabe, nA Point System for Giving Marks in Physical Education, " Journal of Health and Physical Education 2:11-13, November, 1931". 21 McCloy, o£. cit., pp. 301-3.

10 the report card, but he would prepare this grade for use in counseling. A grading procedure for physical education on the college level was evolved by McCormick. 22

This plan took

grading out of the guesswork realm and made it more accurate. Each student knew that his grade in physical education would be fair.

The author of this method felt that the extra

effort put forth by the staff toward using this grading pro­ cedure was worthwhile. Mitchell

23

attempted the reporting of student accom­

plishment in physical education to the parents in a more individual manner.

This all came about with his dissatis­

faction with the traditional grading systems used to grade physical education.

This type of report card would make for

better cooperation between the home and the school in Mitchell's opinion. Another study on grading physical education on the secondary level was attempted by Neilson. which he would rate students were:

24

The factors on

(1) attendance regularity,

22 H. J. McCormick, "A Grading Procedure for the Physical Education Activity Program," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 18:716-17, 742-43, December, T947. 23 P. M. Mitchell, "Physical Education Reports," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7:448, September, 1936. 24 n . P. Neilson, "Rating Pupils in Physical Education on the Secondary Level," Mind and Body, 41:13-15, April, 1934.

11 (2) sportsmanship, achievement, fitness,

('3) posture,

(6) knowledge,

(8) shower taking,

(4) effort, (5) skill

(7) improvement in physical (9) neat and clean gym dress,

and (10) attitude achievement.

He did not provide a weight­

ing scale with his plan. It was felt by Nixon and Cozens

25

that although a

large number of marking schemes in physical education had been developed there will probably never be one standardized form.

They were under the impression that as long as a plan

met the objectives and had a sound philosophy it would be a good marking plan.

The general features of a marking plan

which they advocated were:

(1) evaluating achievement,

(2) measuring elements in the course, measurement,

(3) weighting each

(4) evaluating objectively and subjectively, and

(5) fitting system in so it is practical. Roberts

26

also devised a point system for giving

grades in physical education.

Her system was based on ease

of recording, and the knowledge each student had of where they were at all times.

This system attempted not only to

give physical directors a definite basis for grading, but also tended to create, among the girls, an added interest in 25 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit., pp. 116-17. 26 m . Roberts, ,1A Simple Point System for Grading in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3:51-2, November, 1933.

12 their work.

There was no mention of sportsmanship, attitudes,

or citizenship in this plan.

Roberts felt that these items

were not clearly understood by the girls. The plan for grading physical education originated by Spindler

27

was a chart method.

It was not based on the

teacher's estimate and attendance nor a long list of items and complicated methods of figuring percentages.

This was a

practical method and still it was adequate, accurate, elastic, and time saving.

The teacher must outline the course

carefully for an entire semester at the beginning of the semester so that the objectives of the course can be met. According to Warden,

28

grades for physical education

activities on the high school level should contain the following factors*

(1) attendance,

tudes, (4) physical achievement, curricular activities. each of the factors.

(2) equipment, (3) atti­

(5) effort,

(6) extra­

A weighting scale was provided for This was the only system studied which

mentioned extra-curricular activities as part of the physical education grade. Carroll

29

devised an objective plan for grading physical

27 E. Spindler, "Do You Grade or Guess?" Journal of Health and Physical Education, 2t26-8, 48-9, October, 193T. 28 R. D. Warden, "The Rating of High School Pupils in Physical Education," Mind and Body, 41:5-9, April, 1934. 29 M. Carroll, "An Objective Plan for Grading Physical Education for High School Girls," (unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935).

13 education for high school girls.

This scheme was made for a

particular situation and was found satisfactory through trial. A method for determining grades in physical education for boys in the secondary schools of Iowa was developed by -ZA

John Harp.

This grading system was used for one year in

certain Iowa secondary schools and then evaluated by the physical educator by answering the questions asked in a questionnaire.

Changes were made in light of the question­

naire answers and then this plan was finally devised. IV.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

The following procedure was used in formulating this study: 1.

In order to develop a philosophy of grading which

was educationally sound, a study was made of the material written by educators on grading. 2.

Uext, a study of related investigations both in

academic studies and physical education was made in order to know what methods had been developed. 3.

From the literature in the field, criteria for

grading physical education were set up, 4.

A plan for grading physical education on the

secondary level was then formulated. 30 John W. Harp, "A Method of Determining Grades for Boys in Physical Education in the Secondary Schools of Iowa," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1948).

14 V.

ORGANIZATION OP THE REMAINING CHAPTERS

Chapter I has included in it a general introduction to the project. Chapter II presents a discussion of the different philosophies evolving out of the plans for grading which were found in the literature. Chapter III develops a plan for grading physical education on the secondary level. Chapter IV contains a summary of the entire project with conclusions arising from the study. are also found in this final chapter.

Recommendations

CHAPTER II PHILOSOPHIC CRITERIA The whole subject of marks in physical education is highly important, although some teachers and adminis­ trators may not consider it so. Attitudes toward marking are important to the teacher and to the pro­ fession because they reflect the teacher’s philosophy of education, his professional viewpoint, the objectives to which he subscribes and the principles which guide him in his procedure. They are important to the best welfare of the student because they affect his attitude toward the program in the school and toward physical education activities in general. They are important to him because they must guide him and his advisers with reference to conditions and needs. For these reasons, marking in physical education should be done upon some rational basis. The practice at present shows uncertainty and in many instances in­ excusable inconsistency, carelessness and indifference. What is rational basis to be will be determined by future study and investigation. It seems probable that the ultimate solution may involve scrapping the entire system of marking now used in schools generally and the adoption of some new plan of measuring the student's progress, or the total abandonment of formal attempts to mark students in their work. In the mean­ time physical educators must use the utmost intelligence in marking and be on the alert to discover a better method of procedure. The determination of philosophic criteria started with a search through eighteen different plans for grading physical education as found in the literature.

These numerous plans

were analyzed to discover the most commonly named elements. Use of these basic elements was considered to be the best I E . W. Nixon and F. W. Cozens, An Introduction to Physical Education {Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947}, "p. 116.

16 method by which grades in physical education might be assigned.

The criteria to be found in the following pages

of this project were agreed upon by at least 50.per cent of the plans on which this study was based. I.

ELEMENTS MOST COMMONLY MENTIONED

The grading plan should meet the objectives of the course.

The objectives of the course must be met through

the grading scheme in operation. Barton; 2 Bookwalter; 3 4: 3 6 Brown; Davis and Lawther; Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson; LaPorte;7 Lee;8 McCabe;9 McCloy;10 Nixon and Cozens;11 and 2 H. M. Barton, "A Grading Plan for Physical'Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 20:540, October, 1949. 3 K. W. Bookwalter, "Marking in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7:16, January, 1936. 4 A. C. Brown, "Criteria for Grading in High School Physical Education Classes," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 144:54, October, 1944. 5 E. C. Davis and J. D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education (New York: Prentice-Hall, I n c ~ 1948), p. 622. 6 H. C. Kozman, R. Cassidy, and C. 0. Jackson, Methods in Physical Education (Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947), pp. 169-70. 7 W. R. LaPorte, The Physical Education Curriculum (Los Angeles: The University of Southern California Press, 1947), p. 50. 8 Mabel Lee, The Conduct of Physical Education (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company^ 1937), p. 410. 9 K. D. McCabe, "A Point System for Giving Marks in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 2:11, November, 1931. Additional footnotes continued on following page.

17 Spindler

12

would consider this element as most important in

any grading plan for physical education. The grading plan should test the information received from the course.

The information gained in physical education

must be tested through the use

of objective tests.

ing authors indicated that the

use of information testing was

essential:

Thefollow­

B a r t o n ; ^ Bookwalter;"^ Davis and Lawther;^ 1 7

1 Q

“| Q

Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson; LaPorte; Lee; McCabe; PO 21_ 22 23 Neilson; Nixon and Cozens; Spindler; and Warden. 10 C. 17 McCloy, Tests and Measurements in Health and Physical Education (New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1942), p. 300. 11 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit., pp. 116-17. 12 E. Spindler, "Do You Grade or Guess?" Journal of Health and Physical Education, 2:26, October, 1931. 13 Barton, ££. cit., p.

542.

14 Bookwalter, op. cit. 15 Davis and Lawther, op. cit. 16 Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson, ojs. cit., p. 367. 17 LaPorte, op. cit. 18 Lee, o£. cit., pp. 415-16. 19 McCabe, op. cit. 20 N. P. Neilson, "Rating Pupils in Physical Education on the Secondary School Level," Mind and Body, 41:13-5, April, 1934. 21 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit. 22 Spindler, op. cit. 23 R. D. Warden, "The Rating of High School Pupils in Physical Education," Mind and Body, 41:5-9, April, 1934,

18 The grading plan should test the course.

the achievement made In

Objective tests should be given to students in

physical education in order to determine the achievement made by the program to develop their entire bodies* was named by

the following writers; Barton;

or

Lawther;

o

Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson; pQ

McCormick;

*ZA

Neilson;

a

24

This factor Davis and 9 7

Lee;

p p

McCloy;

fZ"|

Nixon and Cozens;

and Spindler.

The grading plan should motivate the pupil to greater effort.

A grading system in physical education must initiate

effort from the students by motivating them to greater effort* Brown,33 Lee,34 McCabe,35 McCloy,36 McCormick,37 Neilson,38 24

Barton op. clt.

25 Davis and Lawther, op. cit« 26 Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson, op. cit. 27 Lee, oip. cit., pp. 411-12. 28 McCloy, _op. cit. 29 McCormick, op. cit. 30 Neilson, op. cit. 31 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit. 32 Spindler, op. cit. 33 Brown, op. cit. 34 Lee,

0 £.

cit.

35 McCabe, op. cit. 36 McCloy, op. cit. 37 McCormick, op. cit. 38 Neilson, op. cit.

19 Roberts,

39

Spindler,

40

and Warden

41

advocated this element.

The grading plan should test the skill gained from 42 43 44 .the course. Bookwalter, Davis and Lawther, LaPorte, Lee,45 McCabe,46 McCloy,47 Neilson,48 Nixon and Cozens,49 50 and Spindler were in agreement that testing the ability of a student to perform certain fundamental skills in the activities taught an important item to be considered in grading physical education. The grading plan should test the attitudes developed in the course.

More than one half of the grading plans

studied stressed that attitudes should play an important part 39’Mary Roberts, "A Simple Point System for Grading in Physical Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3:51-2, November, 1933. 40 Spindler, op. cit. 41 Warden, oj>. cit. 42 Bookwalter, op. cit. 43 Davis and Lawther, op. cit. 44 LaPorte, ojc>. cit. 45 Lee, op. cit. 46 McCabe, op. cit. 47 McCloy, ojp. cit. 48 Neilson, op. cit. 49 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit. 50 Spindler,

0 £.

cit.

20

In the grade received in physical education. The authors c-1 132 who used this factor were Barton, Bookwalter, Davis and (=4

CC

Lawther,

LaPorte, McCabe, cp 50 Spindler, and Warden.

EC

Neilson,

57

Nixon and Cozens,

The grading plan should be posted on the bulletin board for reference«

Students should always be able to

refer to their grade.

This will make it possible for them

to question it; if they are not entirely satisfied that it is a fair grade.

Barton;

60

Bookwalter;

61

Brown;

62

Cassidy, and Jackson;®^ Lee;®^ M c C a b e ; ^ McCloy;^® 51 Barton, op. cit. 52 Bookwalter, op. cit. 55 Davis and Lawther, op. cit. 54 LaPorte, op. cit. 55 McCabe, op. cit. 56 Neilson, op. cit. 57 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit. 58 Spindler, o£. cit. 59 Warden, op. cit. 60 Barton, op. cit. 61 Bookwalter, o p . cit. 62 Brown, £p. cit. 63 Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson, op. cit. 64 Lee, op. cit. 65 McCabe, op. cit. 66 McCloy, op. cit.

Kozman,

21

McCormick;

67

Roberts;

68

and Spindler

69

were all in favor of

having grades posted in an accessible place for reference. The grading.plan for physical education should fit into the school system>s grading plan.

A grading system must

be practical; therefore, it must fit the system which is now in operation at the particular school.

One half of the

people writing about grading in physical education felt this was very important when making a grading plan.

This item 70 was taken into consideration by the followingr Barton; 71 72 73 74 Brown; Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson; Lee; McCabe; rye 77 McCloy; Nixon and Cozens; and Spindler. The grading plan should weight each element as t_o its importance.

Every element used in grading should be given a

67' McCormick, op. cit. 6 8

Roberts,

o jd.

cit.

69 Spindler, op. cit. 70 Barton, op. cit. 71 Brown, op. cit. 72 Kozman, Cassidy, and Jackson, op. cit. 73 Lee, op. cit. 74 McCabe, op. cit, 75 McCloy, op. cit. 76 Nixon and Cozens, op. cit. 77 Spindler, op. cit.

22

weighted value according to its importance. 78

It was agreed 79

by the following authors Barton, Bookwalter, LaPorte, 81 „ 82 83 , T„r , 84 ±. Nixon and Cozens, Lee, McCloy, and Warden that

80

different elements in grading physical education should be given weighted values.

These values were set arbitrarily

by the different authors. II.

OTHER ELEMENTS MENTIONED

The grading plan should include posture as one element to be graded.

Out of the sixteen schemes for grading physical

education studies it was found that only four were in agree­ ment that posture should be considered as a part of the physical education grade.

This element was not discounted by

the others entirely, but it was felt that through a well planned program in physical education good posture would be an outcome.

The writers that mentioned posture as an element

were Bookwalter,

88

LaPorte,

8fi

Neilson,

87

and Spindler.

88

78 Barton, ojo. cit. 79 Bookwalter, op. cit. 80 LaPorte, op. cit. 81 Nixon and Cozens, o£. cit. 82 Lee, £p. cit. 83 McCloy, o£. cit. 84 Warden, op. cit. 85 Bookwalter, op. cit. Additional footnotes continued on following page.

23 The grading plan should include attendance, showers, DQ

and uniform regulations as elements to be graded, McCabe, Qfl 91 92 Neilson, Spindler, and Warden were the only ones to mention the use of this element for evaluation in the physical education grade.

The other authors recognized that this

element was important but thought through good program organi­ zation this element would be administratively effective. The grading plan should include extra-curricular activities as an element to be graded.

This element was

mentioned by only one writer as an element to grade in physical education.

The inclusion of extra-curricular

activities in the grade was advocated by Warden.

93

Extra­

curricular activities are of a voluntary nature with many of them coming after school hours; therefore, the other writers felt that this item would not make a good one to include in the grading scheme. 86 LaPorte, op. cit. 87 Neilson, op. cit. 88 Spindler, op. cit.89 McCabe, op. cit. 90 Neilson, og. cit. 91 Spindler, o£. cit. 92 Warden, op. cit. 93 Loc. cit.

CHAPTER III THE GRADING PLAN It seems to be a reasonable assumption that, as long as grades are given, they should represent the estimated degree of achievement the pupil has made of the outcomes of physical education, toward which teaching and learning have been directed. Obviously, this includes testing the kinds and extent of knowledges acquired, estimating social behavior, attitudes, personality development, as well as testing skill, endurance, speed, and strength.^ I.

DETERMINATION OP THE GRADING PLAN

Considering all the elements commonly agreed upon the grading chart was drawn up.

Weightings were assigned

arbitrarily to the several factors for ease of calculation. Each of the four major elements received equal weighting in the final grade.

The next five pages show the charts on

which this grading plan is based. II.

APPLICATION OP THE GRADING PLAN TO A HYPOTHETICAL SITUATION

An eleventh grade girl received the following number of points for the different elements in the grading scheme: Information testing:

Rules, IS points; history, 15

points; strategy, 20 points; offensive play, 10 points; and I E . C. Davis and J. D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1941), p. 662.

25

TABLE I INFORMATION TESTING

Tests

A

B

C

D

E or F

Rules

20

15

10

5

0

History

20

15

10

5

0

Strategy

20

15

10

5

0

IV.

Offensive play

20

15

10

5

0

V.

Defensive play

20

15

10

.5

0

100

75

50

25

0

I. II. III.

Total number of points possible

The information test grade will be determined as followsr Total points from 90 to 100 inclusive equals grade A Total points

from 66 to 89 inclusive equals grade B

Total points

from 29 to 65 inclusive equals grade

Total points

from 5 to 28 inclusive equals grade D

Total points

of 4 or less equals grade E or F

C

26

TABLE II ACHIEVEMENT TESTING

Tests

A

B

C

D

E or P

Strength test

20

15

10

5

0

General motor ability

20

15

10

5

0

Self-testing activities

20

15

10

5

0

Total number of points possible

60

45

30

15

0

I. II. III.

The achievement test grade will be determined as followst Total points

from 54 to

60 inclusive equals grade A

Total points

from 40 to

53 inclusive equals grade

B

Total points

from 17 to

39 inclusive equals grade

C

Total points from 3 to 16 inclusive equals grade D Total points of 2 or less equals grade E or P

27

TABLE III SKILL TESTING

A

B

C

D

E or P

Skill tests

20

15

10

5

0

Evaluation of playing ability

20

15

10

5

0

40

30

20

10

0

Tests I. II.

Total number of points possible

The skill test grade will be determined as follows: Total points

from 36 to 40 inclusive

equals grade A

Total points

from 26 to 35 inclusive

equals grade B

Total points

from 11 to 25 inclusive

equals grade C

Total points from 3 to 10 inclusive equals grade D Total points of 2 or less equals grade E or F

28

TABLE IV ATTITUDE TESTING

A

B

G

D

E or F

Attendance

20

15

10

5

0

II.

Uniform

20

15

10

5

0

III.

Showers

20

15

10

5

0

Sportsmanship

20

15

10

5

0

Posture

20

15

10

5

0

100

75

50

25

0

Tests I.

IV. V.

Total number of points possible

The attitude test

gradewill he determined as follows:

Total points

from 90 to 100 inclusive equals grade A

Total points

from 66 to 89

inclusive equals grade B

Total points

from 29 to 65

inclusive equals grade C

Total points from 5 to 28 inclusive equals grade D Total points of 4 or less equals grade E or F

29

TABLE V COMPOSITE GRADING TABLE OF WEIGHTED VALUES

Elements

A

B

C

D

E or F

I.

Information testing

20

15

10

5

0

II.

Achievement testing

20

15

10

5

0

Skill testing

20

15

10

5

0

Attitude testing

20

15

10

5

0

80

60

40

20

0

III. IV.

Total number of points possible

In this table the following evaluations were given to A, B, C, D, and E or F:

A, 4 points; B, 3 points; C, 2 points;

D, 1 point; E or F, 0 points.

These basic units are used and

the weighting of five points or 25 per cent was used for each element. The final grade will be determined as follows: Total points

from 72

to80inclusive equals grade A

Total points

from 53

to71inclusive equals

grade B

Total points

from 23

to52inclusive equals

grade C

Total points

from 14

to22inclusive equals

grade D

Total points of 13 or less equals grade E or F

30 defensive play, 12 points.

Total number of points for infor­

mation testing equals 75 points.

This is a grade of B for

information testing as found on Table I* Achievement testing:

Strength test, 18 points; general

motor ability, 15 points; and self-testing activities, 12 points.

Total number of points for achievement testing

equals 45 points.

This is a grade of B for achievement

testing as found on Table II. Skill testing:

Skill tests, 17 points; and evaluation

of playing ability, 15 points. skill testing equals 32 points.

Total number of points for This is a grade of B for

skill testing as found on Table III. Attitude testing:

Attendance, 20 points; uniform, 20

points; showers, 19 points; sportsmanship, 20 points; and posture, 15 points.

Total number of points for attitude

testing equals 94 points.

This is a grade of A for attitude

testing as found on Table IV. Pinal physical education grade:

Information testing,

B or 15 points as found on Table V; achievement testing, B or 15 points as found on Table V; skill testing, B or 15 points as found on Table V; and attitude testing, A or 20 points as found on Table V.

Total number of points for com­

posite grade equals 65 points which is equivalent to B as found on Table V. This eleventh grade girl will receive a B as her final grade in physical education if this grading plan is used.

31 III.

FUNCTIONAL ELEMENTS USED IN THIS GRADING PLAN

The grading plan should meet the objectives of the course.

This plan for grading was based on the objectives

of education and physical education.

Since this is to be a

general grading plan applicable to any g i r l ’s physical edu­ cation program on the secondary level no specific group of activities were stated in this scheme. The grading plan should be posted on the bulletin board for reference.

The student should know just where she

is at all times; therefore, it is important for the grading system, grades, etc. to be put in a convenient place for the students to be able to refer to them from time to time.

The

student then feels that she can go in the direction she wishes to.

Here also there is a feeling that the instructor

is playing fair with her; for if she is not satisfied with her grade as posted she can question it. The grading plan should motivate the pupil to greater effort.

This plan should motivate the students to better

performance.

A grading system that is too simple will not

motivate the student to perform better so in this scheme a middle of the road policy was followed.

The grading plan is

so stated as to motivate the student to better performance without penalizing her.

32 The grading plan should weight each element as to its importance.

Weighting of each of the elements should be

followed in this system.

These weightings may be changed

from time to time without causing the entire system to break down.

Weighting of the elements is arbitrary; therefore,

they should be decided upon by any group using this plan. The grading plan for physical education should fit into the school system1s grading plan. be based on points earned.

This scheme should

These points can be converted to

letters, numbers, etc. without too mueh difficulty.

The

physical education grade must be as explainable as any other grade in the school system.

The administration will stand

behind any grade that is based on sound educational principles and fits into the general grading system of the school. IV.

TESTING ELEMENTS USED IN THIS GRADING PLAN

The grading plan should test the information received from the course.

The following information should be tested

through the use of objective evaluation:

rules, history,

strategy, offensive play, and defensive play. should not attempt to name any specific tests.

This plan The tests

can either be standardized or teacher made depending upon the material to be tested.

33 The grading plan should test the achievement made in the course.

This element is concerned with what the program

has done to develop the whole bodies of the girls ' in the program.

This plan suggests all of the following types of

evaluation:

strength, general motor ability, and self­

testing activities.

Any of these objective evaluations

should give the educator part of the benefit of the entire program, and these tests used in combination should serve the purpose of testing achievement gained from the whole program.

When other tests are made to do a better job of

testing achievement they should be substituted for the above named tests. The grading plan should test the skill gained from the course.

When testing skill we are interested in progress in

skill in each activity within our program.

There are many

tests of skill available in the literature which have fairly good validity and reliability.

When there are no specific

skill tests available they can be developed by the teacher. This element should also include the subjective evaluation of the teacher as to the ability of the student to play the game • The grading plan should test the attitudes developed in the course. Thire"plah"¥Hould include the following factors ~ 1 “ S as attitudes: attendance, uniform, showers, sportsmanship,

and posture.

The preceding factors can only be graded by

the use of subjective evaluation.

Subjective evaluation can

be objective in degree when done categorically.

Attitudes

are a definite outcome of physical education, and physical educators are concerned with their evaluation to determine to what degree they have been made positive.

CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS To conclude this grading plan for marking physical education for girls on the secondary level, a summary will be made of the plan devised.

The summary will be followed

by the conclusions and recommendations which have evolved out of this study. I.

SUMMARY

The purpose of this study was to develop a plan for marking physical education for girls on the secondary level. This study was preceded by a review of the literature written by many educators in order to formulate a background to devise this marking plan.

Related investigations in marking

both in physical education and in academic studies were studied to determine what had been going on in the past. Prom all this research a set of basic criteria were developed which were used to develop this system of grading. The plan for grading physical education for girls on the secondary level was developed.

The elements which were

found to be most important by the authors writing on the subject of grading were included.

The functional elements

which were brought out in the philosophical criteria and used in this scheme are:

36 1.

Objectives of the course

to be met

2.

Posted on the bulletin board

for

reference

3.

Motivation inherent within the

plan

4.

Weighting of each element used in this plan

5.

Meet the system of grading used within the

school

system The elements which were used in this plan that could be actually evaluated either subjectively or objectively are: 1.

2.

3.

4.

Information testing a.

Rules

b.

History

c.

Strategy

d.

Offensive play

e.

Defensive play

Achievement testing a.

Strength test

b.

General motor ability

c.

Self-testing activities

Skill testing a.

Skill tests

b.

Evaluation of playing ability

Attitude testing a.

Attendance

b.

Uniform

c.

Showers

57 d.

Sportsmanship

e.

Po sture II.

CONCLUSIONS

The authors writing concerning grading in physical education do not thoroughly agree on every element included within this plan, but the elements which were included are in very good agreement.

This plan was not evaluated in any

particular school system; but in the opinion of the writer of this project, it would be evaluated as satisfactory. This opinion is based on the many grading plans studied and the inclusion of their many ideas into this scheme. This systematic procedure for grading physical edu­ cation gives the student an opportunity to know where she is going and how to get there.

This type of grading system will

in turn enhance the student’s desire to become as skillful as possible. The use of grades can be very unsatisfactory for both the student and the teacher; but through the use of this workable grading scheme dissatisfaction is decreased to a minimum.

This scheme placed a stress on being fair to the

student.

Every phase of physical, mental, and social develop­

ment was included as an element to be graded.

When the teacher

has fallen down in any area of her objectives this plan will emphasize the place.

This self-evaluation for the teacher was

considered important by several of the written plans.

38 III.

RECOMMENDATIONS

After careful consideration of this grading plan the following recommendations are suggested: 1.

This plan .should be used in a school system for

at least one year to test its validity;

so that the necessary

changes could be made. 2.

It is further recommended that inclusion or

elimination of any items be done with discretion on the part of the individual physical education teacher. 3.

This is not a hard and fast grading procedure

which can not be changed to fit any situation; therefore, changes are recommended that will make the system more applicable.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

40 BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

Davis, E. C. and J. D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education, New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1941 and 1948. 574 pp. Educational Policies Commission, The Purpose of Education in American Democracy. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association, 1938. 157 pp. Irwin, Leslie W., The Curriculum in Health and Physical Education. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosley Company, 1944. &91 pp. Kozman, H. C., R. Cassidy, and C. 0. Jackson, Methods in Phys ical Education. Philadelphia: W, B. Saunders Company, 1947. 552 pp. LaPorte, William R., The Physical Education Curriculum. Los Angeles: The University of Southern California Press, 1947. 92 pp. Lee, Mabel, The Conduct of Physical Education. A. S. Barnes and Company, 1937. 561 pp.

New York:

McCloy, Charles, Tests and Measurements in Health and Physical Education. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, Inc., 1942. '412 pp. Nixon, E. W. and Frederick W. Cozens, An Introduction to Physical Education. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1947. 251 pp. Rogers, F. D . , Fundamental Administrative Measures in Physical Education. Newton, Massachusetts: The Pleiades,Company, 1932. 261 pp. _______ , Tests and Measurement Programs in the Redirection of Physical Education. New York: Bureau of Publications Teachers College, Columbia University, 1927. 166 pp. Williams, J. F. and C. L. Brownell, Health and Physical Education for Public School Administrators. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. 117 pp.

41 Wrinkle, William L., Improving Marking and Reporting Practices. New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1947. 120 pp. B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

Barton, Helen M . , "A Grading Plan for Physical Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education, 20:512, 540-44, October, 1949. Bookwalter, Karl W., "Marking in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7:61-2, January, 1936. Broome, Edwin C., "Marks, Marks, Marks!" School and Society, 62:76, August 4, 1945. Brown, Alvin C., "Criteria for Grading in High School Physical Education Classes," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 14:454, October, 1944. Close, L. Clark, "A Grading System that Improves Students' Work," Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 35:405, January, 1946. Haner, Wendall, W., "Appraisal," School and Society, 65:249-50, April 5, 1947. Marshall, D. C., "This Matter of Grades," Industrial Arts and Vocational Education, 33:228-29, June, 1944. McCabe, Kathryn D., "A Point System for Giving Marks in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 2:11-13, 54, November, 1931. McCormick, H. J., "A Grading Procedure for the Physical Education Activity Program," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 18:716-17, 742-43, December, 1947. Mitchell, Paul M., "Physical Education Reports," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 7:448, September, 1936. Neilson, N. P., "Rating Pupils in Physical Education on the Secondary Level," Mind and Body, 41:13-15, April, 1934. Reily, Helen M., "Basis for Grading in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 6:40-41, 58, October, 1935.

42 Roberts, Mary, "A Simple Point System for Grading in Physical Education," Journal of Health and Physical Education, 3s51-52, November, 1933. Rogers, F. R., "Education Versus Marking System," Education, 54:234-9, December, 1933. •

Spindler, Evelyn, "Do You Grade or Guess?" Journal of Health and Physical Education, 2:26-28, 48-49, October, 1931. Wakeham, G., "Humanizing Grades," School and Society, 34:596-98, October, 1931. Warden, R. D., "The Rating of High School Pupils in Physical Education," Mind and Body, 41:5-9, April, 1934. Wayman, Agnes, "What to Measure in Physical Education," Research Quarterly, 1:97-110, May, 1930. C.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL

Carroll, M., "An Objective Plan for Grading Physical Education for High School Girls." Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1935, Harp, John W., "A Method of Determining Grades for Boys in Physical Education in the Secondary Schools of Iowa." Unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1948. University of Southern C alifornia Library