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AN ANALYSIS OP THE FRESNO STATE COLLEGE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM IN RELATION TO STATES CERTIFICATION REQUIREMENTS FOR SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Robert C. Burgess Jr. August 1950
UMI Number: EP46212
All rights reserved INFO RM A TIO N T O ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
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This project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate's adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of Ed ucatio n in p a r t ia l fu lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree Science in Education.
& M .& .U 13..7.
o f M a s t e r of
TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
The p r o b l e m .............................
Statement of the problem ................
Importance of the problem Method of procedure
Definitions of terms used Certificate
Informal activities Requirement
4 4 4 4
Student teaching .......................
Limitations to the s t u d y ...........
Outline of remaining chapters
. . . . . . .
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE................
C o o k ...................................
Morehouse and S c h a a f ....................
PAGE B l e s h .............................. Morehouse and Aloia
. . . . . .
S u m m a r y ............................... III.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OP TEACHER 14
CERTIFICATION......................... Development of certification laws
History of physical education teacher training ...................
Preparation for teaching health
e d u c a t i o n .........................
S u m m a r y ...............................
PRESENT DAY CONCEPTS OF CERTIFICATION LAWS .
Objectives of physical education-.....
Objectives of physical education teacher certification
S u m m a r y ........................... V.
PRESENT REQUIREMENTS FOR CERTIFICATION OF SECONDARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION TEACHERS General degree requirements
Biological science requirements
General requirements in physical e d u c a t i o n ................... Health education requirements
Requirements in professional education .
PAGE Requirements in student teaching . . . . .
S u m m a r y .................................
AN ANALYSIS OF THE FRESNO STATE COLLEGE ............
General requirements ....................
Biological science requirements
Physical education requirements
PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM
Health education requirements
Professional education requirements
S u m m a r y .................................
Student teaching requirements
STATES REQUIREMENTS COMPARED TO FRESNO STATE COLLEGE REQUIREMENTS................
Degree r e q u i r e m e n t s ....................
Biological science requirements
Physical education requirements
Health education requirements
Professional education requirements Student teaching requirements Specific state requirements
S u m m a r y .................................
SUMMARY AND C O N C L U S I O N S ...................
S u m m a r y .................................
PAGE C o n c l u s i o n s .............................
. . . . . . .
LIST OF TABLES TABLE
I. Biological Science Requirements ..............
II. Requirements in Physical Education and Health E d u c a t i o n ......................... III.
Requirements in Professional Education and Student Teaching ......................
CHAPTER I THE INTRODUCTION The certification of teachers has tended to serve as a means of safeguarding the public from the admission of incompetent persons into the teaching profession.
the early history of American education no certification laws existed.
At that time the education of children was
the responsibility of the parents.
As churches and commu
nities gradually assumed the responsibility for education of children, qualifications for teachers were stipulated.1 Although teacher certification now is generally considered a state function, it was originally a local responsibility.
This transition from local to state author
ity for the authorization of the issuance of certificates has been accomplished by a transference in department agencies from local to county, and from county to state.
A survey of the current regulations for the issuance of certificates to secondary physical education teachers
1 Ellwood P. Cubberly, Public Education in the United States (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 193*0, P* 55* 2 Katherine M. Cook, State Laws and Regulations Governing Teachers * Certificates (United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education Bulletin, 1927, No. 19. Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1928), pp. 2-3-
2 should be of value, since such regulations would tend to reveal the trends in the establishment of accepted stand ards for the professional preparation of this important group of teachers.
Statement of the problem.
It was the purpose of
this study: (1) to analyze the certification requirements of secondary physical education teachers in the forty-eight states and (2 ) to analyze the physical education curriculum of Fresno State College in relation to these requirements of the other states in regard to: degree requirements, fundamental biological science requirements, physical edu cation requirements, health education requirements, pro fessional education requirements and student teaching requirements. Importance of the problem.
requirements arq constantly changing to keep abreast with social and economic periods.
This study should be of in
terest and value to physical education teachers who may be interested in obtaining positions in other states. The results of this study should also be particular ly useful to the investigator in counseling and giving guidance to prospective physical education teachers at
3 Fresno State College. Method of procedure. Bata for this study were col lected through an investigation of specific certification . requirements for secondary physical education teachers in the forty-eight states.
In order to obtain the latest
information, data on minimum requirements were solicited directly from the various State Bepartments of Education. The majority of the states furnished the information through bulletins, pamphlets and mimeographed material prepared for this purpose.
The remaining states indicated their certi
fication requirements by letter.
The findings were sum
marized and recorded. A brief history of certification of teachers and of physical education teachers was presented in order to form ulate a background so that an appreciation of the present requirements would be forthcoming. An analysis of the physical education curriculum at Fresno State College leading to a teaching credential was made.
A comparison was then formulated between the basic
requirements of this specific curriculum and the basic requirements for certification to teach physical education in the other forty-seven states. Books, periodicals and pamphlets from the Edward L. Boheny Jr. Library on the campus of the University of Southern California were also used in the Investigation.
DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED
In order to avoid misinterpretation, the following terms are defined. Certificate. A legal instrument which grants the holder the right to teach in the public schools of a par ticular state in accordance with the terms of the certificate. Formal activities. These activities are defined as invented movements or natural movements formalized for formal purposes, and include marching, calesthenics, stunts and gymnastics. Informal activities. These activities are defined as all activities in the physical education program other than formal activities. Requirement.
A prescribed course that is required
by a specific state before certification is granted. Secondary teacher.
A teacher that teaches from the
seventh to twelfth grades, respectively. Student teaching. Directed teaching in a school system under supervision of teachers, principals and college or university supervisors.
LIMITATIONS TO THE STUDY
Certain limitations appear in this study.
search consisted of evaluating curricula of the various states for the certification of secondary physical educa tion teachers.
Some requirements were vague and did not
list specific courses but merely mentioned broad areas. The experience of the investigator in evaluating a curricu lum was limited. Where more than one certificate was offered, the certificate requiring the least amount of preparation on the part of the prospective teacher was used in this study. An analysis of a specific curriculum was limited to that of Fresno State College.
OUTLINE OF REMAINING CHAPTERS
The remainder of the study consists of the following divisions: literature.
Chapter II contains a review of the related A brief history of teacher training and cer
tification is discussed in Chapter III.
Chapter IV con
tains the present day concepts of certification laws, while the present certification requirements of secondary physi cal education teachers is reviewed in Chapter V.
lysis of the physical education curriculum at Fresno State College is made in Chapter VI.
A comparison of the states
6 requirements to Fresno State College requirements is con tained in Chapter VII.
Chapter VIII contains the summary
and conclusions which are derived from this study. chapter is followed by the Bibliography.
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Many studies have been made in regard to teacher certification which have included such aspects of the sub ject as the history, administrative agencies, laws govern ing certification and the like.
Only a brief review of
investigations closely related to the present problem, certification requirements of secondary physical education teachers, has been presented.
These closely related studies
are not up to date as certification requirements change from year to year. Cook.1
In 1927 Katherine M. Cook compiled for the
National Bureau of Education a very detailed study on state laws and regulations governing the issuance of cer tificates to teachers in the forty-eight states.
study presented the data concerning the agencies of certification, minimum requirements, classification and revocation of certificates.
It was also brought out in
the study: (l) certification was growing In recognition; (2) there was a general tendency to centralize certification
1 Katherine M. Cook, State Laws and Regulations Governing Teachers1 Certificates (United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education Bulletin, 1927> No. 19* Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1928), 296 pp.
8 authority in the state educational organization; (3 ) the old method of certification by examination was being re placed by specific requirements; and (4) the prominent trend is to increase the minimum scholarship requirements. Bollinger.
Bollinger completed a study in 1930
which he found the following: (l) the issuance of special ized credentials has developed very rapidly; (2 ) state boards of education were then responsible for certification; (3) certification laws had raised the standards of the teaching profession; and (4) fewer life certificates were being issued at that time as compared to previous times. 4 Siedle.
The following main points were brought out
in this study completed in 1934: (l) some states were raising the requirements for all teachers; (2 ) provision for teachers preparation were being extended and improved; (3 ) state requirements for certification were being made more definite and specific; and (4) states were rapidly
2’Cook, loc. cit. ^ Roy Arthur Bollinger, "Trends in State Requirements for the Certification of Teachers, Supervisors, and Adminis trators," (unpublished Master's thesis. The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1930), 97 pp. 4 Theodore A. Siedle, "Trends in Teacher Preparation and Certification," Educational Administration and Super vision, XX (March 193^), 193-209.
9 assuming the responsibility of certification of teachers. 5 Jaramilio.
This study was limited to a history of
certification in four western states and brought out two main findings: (l) among the more progressive states the credentials were favored in preference to examinations; and (2) teachers colleges were then very important in the state
educational plan due to certification centralization. Clement.^
A brief history of certification of
teachers in California was made by Clement in 1937*
study dealt mainly with legal aspects of certification and county examinations. 7 Acheson.
A very comprehensive study was made in
19^1 by Acheson on the certification requirements of elementary teachers in the United States.
The main points
found in this study were: (l) state controlled certification
Teofilo C. Jaramilio, "A Study of the Certification System and Legal Requirements for Teachers1 Credentials or Certificates in the States of New Mexico, California, Arizona, and Texas," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1936), 160 pp. /r
Evelyn Clement, "County Examinations," Sierra Educational News. XXXIII (April, 1937), 160 pp. 7 Margaret Acheson, "A Comparative Study of the Current Requirements for Certification of Elementary Teachers in the United States," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 19^1), 191 pp.
10 had become the accepted practice in over 90 per cent of the states; (2) certification practices are complicated due to the wide range in the number and types of certifi cates; and (3) no reciprocity between states on a national basis had been brought about. o Morehouse and Schaaf♦
A study -was made in 1942 of
the general requirements for certification of health and physical education teachers.
This study concentrated only
on the degree requirement and was not specific as to various number of units required in specialized fields. The main findings were: (l) no agreement among states as to certification of physical education teachers; and (2 ) in preparing the major's curriculum in physical education, the committee.should select appropriate courses so that the graduate could teach in any nearby state following additional courses in one summer school just preceding his job. Blesh.^
A study was conducted in 1946 on pre-war
® L. E. Morehouse and Oscar Schaaf, "Prerequisites for Teacher Certification in Physical Education in the United States," The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, XIII(October, 1942),286-29B. 9 T. E. Blesh, "An Analysis of Pre-War Certification Requirements for Teachers of Health and Physical Education in the 48 States," The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, XVIII (March, 1947), 54-51?
11 certification of health and physical education teachers. This study was certainly not up to date in any respect. The important points found were: (l) all but five states required graduation before being able to teach health and physical education; (2 ) foundation science courses were not clearly stated; (3) six to twenty-four units of education were required; and (4) there was a range of from ten to sixty semester units of required physical education courses. 10
Morehouse and Aloia.
In 1948 a follow-up study
was conducted in conjunction with the previously made study by Morehouse and Schaaf.
The purpose of this study
was to find the changes of requirements made by the various states sinGe the end of the war.
The study was summarized
as follows: (l) seven states had increased physical educa tion unit requirements for certification; (2 ) three states had reduced the unit requirement; (3) Nevada had reduced all unit requirements in physical education; and (4) no two states had the same requirements.
L. E. Morehouse and A. D. Aloia, "Change in Certification Requirements of Physical Education Teachers in 13 States Since 1942,” The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health. Physical Education and Recreation. XVIII (December. 1948), 276-281.
The most significant findings of this chapter on the review of the related literature are presented in the fol lowing statements. 1.
The old method of certification by examination
is being replaced by specific requirements. 2.
There is a general tendency to centralize certi
fication authority in the state educational organization. 3.
Some states are raising the requirements for
all teachers. 4.
State requirements for certification are being
made more definite and specific. 5.
State controlled certification had become the
accepted practice in over 90 per cent of the states. 6 . No reciprocity between states on a national basis has been forthcoming. 7.
Forty-three states required graduation from an
approved institution prior to certification. 8 . Requirements in the field of education ranged from six to twenty-four semester hours with forty-one states requiring work in this field. 9.
Requirements in the field of physical education
ranged from ten to sixty units. 10.
Seven states had increased physical education
13 unit requirements for certification after World War II. 11.
Three states had reduced the physical education
requirements after World War II. 12.
No two states had the same requirements for
CHAPTER III HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF TEACHER CERTIFICATION Historical perspective truly sheds light on many questions that otherwise would he meaningless.
one aware of the circumstances that contributed to the rise and to the complexity of a problem.
A review of the
history of the development of certification laws and the training .of teachers for health and physical education should be known that may influence future trends of certi fication practices. Development of certification laws.
of teachers in America dates back to early colonial days when certification or its equivalent was administered by the church.
The ministers, through oral questioning,
assured themselves that the candidates knew a little about the elementary subjects.'1' As local political government grew more independent of church domination,.the qualification of teachers was passed upon by ecclesiastical and lay authorities, and eventually by lay authorities alone.
As the early towns
1 B. W. Frazier, Development of State Programs for the Certification of Teachers (United States Department of the Interior, Office of Education, Washington, D. C.: Government Printing Office, 1938), p. 15.
15 were broken up educationally into small school districts, the district school committee mid township authorities took over the certification function in conjunction with 2 their control over general education matters. The early decades of the nineteenth century wit nessed rapid advancement of public education and the development of larger school administration units (county, township and city) as intermediate units of control between small local districts and central state education offices. To these intermediate units went the power to certify teachers.
Extension of intercounty recognition of one or
more grades of county certificates, the strengthening of state departments of education, and more state participa tion in administration of examinations and issuance of certificates, led to increasing assumption of control by the states over certification of teachers.3 There has been a gradual increase in differentiation of state certification according to grade level and subject or type of work for which issued.
This increase in the
number of types of state certificates has been brought about largely through an increase in the amount of academic or special work required and an increase in the number of
2 Frazier, lac. cit. 3 Loc. cit.
16 specialized subjects or fields taught in public schools. The first significant step in specialization was the elim ination of certificates permitting the holder to teach in all school grades and types of educational service. Spe cialization has resulted in the separate issuance of elementary and secondary certificates and has extended to specification of subjects, grade level and fields of work. An increase from sixty-one kinds of special certificates in 1925 to one hundred and twenty-two types in 1930, well illustrates the trend during the second decade of the twentieth century toward certification of teachers by subjects.
This has led to more recent specification major and minor requirements. 4
The rise in levels of certification bear close relationship to rise in levels of preparation of teachers. The amount of time spent in preparation by public school teachers, on an average, has increased about one year in every sixteen.
The typical public school teacher had in
1839 no more than eight years of schooling.
In 189O the
average level of teacher training almost reached the equivalent of a high school education, while in 1910 it did reach high school graduation.
Slightly less than two
years beyond high school graduation was the average level
^ Ibid., p. 72.
IT of teacher education in 1922 and in 1931 It was between two and three years above high school g r a d u a t i o n . ^
to World War II the average level of teacher education was a bachelor’s degree from an approved institution.^ In order to meet the shortage of teachers during World War II, a number of states effected reductions in the minimum number of years of college training required: one state reduced requirements by one-half year, seven states by one year, and six states by two years.
One state re
quired a minimum of ten semester hours of college work, two states required high school graduation, while nineteen states failed to specify minimum requirements.^ In 1906 only one subject in professional education, Art of Teaching, was required by about three-fourths of the states.
By World War II all states were requiring courses
in professional education; courses required were specified in increasing variety and by a greater number of states.
5 Ibid., p. 74. ^ T. E. Blesh, “An Analysis of Pre-War Certification Requirements for Teachers of Health and Physical Education in the 48 States," The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, XVIII (March, 1947), 60. ^ L. S. Cobb and V. S. Landreth, "War Emergency Teacher Certification in Physical Education in the United States," The Research Quarterly of the American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, XIV (December, 19^3)> 342.
18 An example of this increase was found in student teaching requirements.
In 1925 twenty-two states required student
teaching, while in 1930 it was required by twenty-six states.
Just prior to World War II thirty-three states had
student teaching as a requirement for certification.
History of physical education teacher training. The preparation of physical education teachers in the United States dates back to l86l when the first Normal School of Physical Education was established by Dio Lewis.9
school offered a curriculum composed of anatomy, physiology, hygiene, gymnastics and elocution.
Two ten week courses of
a study comprised the year's work with the second ten week course adding instruction in the Swedish Movement Cure, treatment of curvature of the spine and a general study of Ling's system.10 In 1866 the Normal College of the American Gymnastic Union (Turnerbund) began its first complete course which graduated five men at the end of four months.
lum included history and theory of the various physical education systems, anatomy, first aid, and gymnastic 8
Frazier, oj>. cit.. p. 15.
^ Emmett A. Rice, A Brief History of Physical Education (New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1939), p. 264. 10 Ibid., p. 179.
19 nomenclature and practice.
The school was originally estab
lished as a training school for teachers of gymnastics who were to return to the Turnvereins as physical directors. By the year 1888 the course of study had been lengthened to ten months and was made up of the history and literature of physical education, anthropology, anatomy, physiology, hy giene, first aid, principles of education, German and English language and literature, fencing, swimming and observation and practice teaching.
In 1907 the school was
authorized by law to confer degrees and titles.
of study were increased to two years, and in later years 1 n
to three and then four years of study. x Dr. Sargent began his training of hundreds of phy sical education teachers in l88l with the graduation of one pupil from his one year course of study.
He soon lengthened
the curriculum to two years and in. 1902 it was lengthened to three years.12 The Brooklyn Normal School for Physical Education was founded in Brooklyn in 1896 by Dr. W. C. Anderson. The school offered about ten months instruction in theory and practice of gymnasties.1^
11 Ibid., p. 167. 12 Ibid., p. 26k. 1^ Loc. cit.
20 In order to furnish the Y.M.C.A. with trained leader ship, the International Training School of the Young Men's Christian Association was founded in 1885 in Springfield, Massachusetts.
A department of Physical Education was
added two years later.
Summer courses were also offered
and in addition, similar schools were opened in Chicago and Nashville.
In 1889 in order to inaugurate the Swedish system in the Boston schools, Mrs. Mary Hemingway provided one year of free instruction for onehundredteachers. ^ marked
the start of the Boston Normal
School of Gymnastics.
Baron Posse taught in this school which in 1909 became known as the Hygiene and Physical Education Department of Wellesley College.1^ In 1890 Baron Posse established a private gymnasium, later called the Posse Normal School of Gymnastics, which became the center of Swedish gymnastics in this country. ^ As late as 191k about fourteen institutions offered training leading to degrees in physical education.
the wide acceptance of the physical education program and
lif Ibid.. p. 194. 15 Ibid.. p. 229. 16 Ibid.. p. 265. 17 Ibid., p. 266.
21 the demands for recreation supervisors induced more and more schools to establish courses for the training of physical education teachers.
In 1921 approximately seventy
institutions of higher learning offered courses leading to degrees in physical education, while in 1925 this number 18 had increased to nearly one hundred. As a result of the importance of physical education during World War II, four hundred and sixty-two institutions were offering courses leading to degrees in this field in 1 9 ^ 5 .1 9
Preparation for teaching health education. During the period immediately preceding World War II, health and physical education had been generally taught as combined courses.
Health was usually offered one hour a week in
junior and senior high school with the physical education teacher in charge of instruction.20 An examination of the principal causes of rejection for the armed forces during the past war revealed the prevalence of dental, visual and other defects of this
18 Ibid.. p. 265. C. V. Good, A Guide to Colleges, Universities and Professional Schools in the United States (Washington, D. C.: United States Government Printing Office, 19*1-5), P« 250. on
H. P. Kilander, "The Concentrated Health Courses, The Journal of Health and Physical Education, XVIII (January, 19~%7), 1 .
22 nature that were due in part to ignorance in health mat ters.^1
As a result, the general trend has been to re
place the one period a week health education class with a more concentrated course offered three to five hours per week for one to two semesters.22 The State Directors of Health and Physical Education have recommended health instruction be offered five periods a week for two semesters.2^
jn accordance, the National
Committee on School Health Policies of the National Confer ence for Cooperation in Health Education have gone on record for specific health courses in secondary schools for a minimum of a daily period for at least one semester during the ninth or tenth grades and a similar time allotment in pii the eleventh or twelfth grades. The emphasis that health education received during the war period has led to recognition of the need of a person in every school who would be in general charge of
21 A. A. Esslinger, ‘'The Middle Course is Better," ■ The Journal of Health and Physical Education. XIII (June, 19^2), 351'.' 22 Kilander, op. clt.. p. 1. 23 c. A. Bateman, "Health and Physical Education Resolutions of Society of State Directors of Health and Physical Education," School Life. XXVIII (October, 1945), 12 . 2^ National Committee on School Health Policies* of the National Conference for Cooperation in Health Education, "Suggested School Health Policies," The Journal of Health and Physical Education. XVII (January, 1946), p.” 42.
23 the entire health program and who would be fully prepared by training and by experience to direct and coordinate the health education program.2^
The National Committee on
School Health Policies of the National Conference for Co operation in Health Education has recommended that health education courses be taught by teachers with special prepa ck ration and with certification in health education. The Committee on Professional Education of the American Public Health Association has recommended a program of study for prospective health education teachers that would require at least five years work for completion.2*^ A number of subjects in the school curriculum offer valuable opportunities for supplementing the instruction given in specific health courses.
The health education
specialist should coordinate the various departmental pro grams in order that full advantage be taken of the oppor tunities offered.
Physical education is among the school
subjects offering opportunities for supplementation of
2^ C. J. Rhiner, "Recommendations from the Seattle Convention Workshops," The Journal of Health and Physical Education. XVIII (September, l'9"47),T30.
26 National Committee on School Health Policies of the National Conference for Cooperation in Health Education, op. cit., p. 42. Committee on Professional Education of American Public Health Association, "Proposed Report on Educational Qualifications of Health Educators," American Journal of Public Health, XXXIII (August, 19^3), 999.
Knowledge of the fundamentals of hygiene
and of healthful living Is essential to the physical educa tion teacher in order that he is able to make his contri butions toward this important phase in the student's trainxng. 29 As has been mentioned, the physical education teacher has generally been assigned the duty of teaching health education.
This was apparently due to the fact that the
physical education teacher, due to training in the funda mental biological sciences and health courses, was often better qualified than other faculty members to teach the s u b j e c t .
The use of full-time health education special
ists will limit the physical education teachers' job in the health area to that of making use of such opportunities for teaching healthful living as are presented in the phy sical education classes. The major objective of health education is to con tribute to healthful living for all.
The school, through
competent leadership, can add to the realization of this o ft
National Gommittee on School Health Policies of the National Conference for Cooperation of Health Education, op. cit., p. 42. 29 C. H. McCloy, Philosophical Basis for Physical Education (New York: F. S. Crofts and Company, 1940), p. 19. 30 Kilander, ojd. cit., p. 1 .
25 general objective by guiding students in experiences which will allow them to direct intelligently their own health behavior and to assume their responsibilities for the health of others.
Health teachers should develop compe
tencies through their training; to identify the health needs and interests of students, to plan and conduct teaching activities to meet these needs and interests, and to inte grate the classroom health activities with the community health program.31
The most significant findings of this chapter on the historical background of teacher training and certification are presented in the following statements. 1.
In early colonial days certification or its
equivalent was administered by the church. 2.
The authority for certification passed from
local to county and later from county to state. 3.
The rise in levels of certification bear close
relationship to rise in levels of preparation of teachers.
The National Conference on Undergraduate Profes sional Preparation in Health Education. Physical Education and Recreation (Studies in Physical Education, Health Education and Recreation, Chicago: The Athletic Institute, 19^8), p. 11.
In l86l the first Normal School of Physical
Education was established by Dio Lewis. 5 . Due to the great emphasis on physical education in World Wars I and II, the number of schools offering this curriculum grew from fourteen institutions in 1914 to four hundred and sixty-two in 19456.
There is a tendency to make health education
instruction a separate course from physical education. 7.
The amount of time spent in preparation by
public school teachers has increased about one year in every sixteen years.
CHAPTER IV PRESENT DAY CONCEPTS OF CERTIFICATION LAWS By studying what people consider valuable, the actions of people can be understood.
The traditions and
customs of any group of people are merely the results of the dominant forces of thought that stood out in any period. This has been true of the schools and the curricula of the schools has been no exception to this social rule.1 In order to obtain a true picture of how curricula are formulated for the preparation of teachers, it is necessary to be aware of the social forces that were dom inant factors in bringing these curricula about. and objectives must be investigated.
Objectives of physical education.
In the two decades
prior to World War II physical education decreasingly eraphar sized strength, agility, motor skills, and other biological objectives that had been its most important goals for two thousand years.^
Programs and procedures conforming to
1 J. Paul Leonard, Developing the Secondary School Curriculum (New York: Rinehart and Company, Inc., 1946), P- 3Loc • ext)• 3 A. A. Esslinger, "The Middle Course is Better," The Journal of Health and Physical Education, XIII (June,
1^ 2 ) , 351.
28 educational theory and practice were introduced.
stunts, gymnastics, etc. became tools of learning that were means to an end and not ends in themselves.^
education became education through the physical rather than of the physical and consequently, teachers in the field became increasingly interested in personality development, integration, mental hygiene, guidance and recreational values. Mobilization of the armed forces and industry at the beginning of World War II revealed glaring deficiencies in the physical fitness of the population as a whole.
though the major causes of rejection for the armed forces were found to be visual, dental and other defects of this nature, physical education for the most part was blamed for shortcomings found.^
As a result, the advent of World War
II saw our pre-war physical education program, designed to meet the needs of the many, superseded by a physical fitness program.*^
Preparation of youth for military service became
the primary goal of secondary school physical education
^ J. E. Rogers, ’’Trends in Physical Education,” Mind and Body. XLII (May, 1935), 46. 5 Esslinger, ojc. cit., p. 351. ^ Loc. cit. ‘ H. E. Kenny and S. Fourier, ’’Are We Going to Reconvert?” The Journal of Health and Physical Education, XVIII (April, 19%>y, 222.
29 programs, resulting in the emphasizing of physical fitness rather than the development of the whole individual in all o
his social, intellectual, psychological and organic aspects. Conditioning exercises and other formal activities were used to put a large number of individuals in satis factory physical condition within a short period of time. A survey of state wartime physical fitness programs con ducted by Cassidy and Kozman revealed that, although states were not discarding game and sports programs, a definite trend toward formalized discipline and routine response to commands was evident, with emphasis being placed on condi tioning exercises, calisthenics and military drill.
revived interest was also shown in the use and construction 9 of tests. Following inauguration of the physical fitness pro gram it was thought that a new approach to health and physi cal education had been provided.
It soon became evident,
however, that the physical fitness program differed from the pre-war physical education program mainly in the degree of emphasis.
In addition to the emphasis on physical
® C. G. Schrader, "The New Idea,11 The Journal of Health and Physical Education. XVIII (April, 194-7),23