Standards for facilities for athletics, health, physical education, and recreation for secondary school boys

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Standards for facilities for athletics, health, physical education, and recreation for secondary school boys

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ufoaltted In partial fulfillment of the requirement for the Doctor of Physical Education degree In the School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation Indiana University June, 1950

ProQuest Number: 10295232

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is d e p e n d e n t upon th e quality of th e c o p y subm itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e author did not sen d a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th e re a re missing p a g e s, th e s e will b e n o ted . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e rem oved, a n o te will indicate th e deletion.

uest ProQ uest 10295232 Published by ProQ uest LLC (2016). Copyright of th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p ro te c te d a g a in st unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States C o d e Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

Accepted by the faculty of the School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation* Indiana University, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree Doctor of Physical Education

Director of Thesis Chairman

Doctoral Committee}


ACKNOWLmCTSHT The writer wishes to express his appreciation for the assistance and guidance given M m by Dr* Karl Weber Bookwalter during his work on this study#

The writer also wishes to

thank the jury members (listed on page 29) as well as the co-worker® on facilities, c. Wesley Dane, Doris Boettjer Stewart, Carolyn Bookwalter and Paris J# Van B o m for their valuable comments and suggestions*

V# K# S.






INTRODUCTION . . . . . . ....... . . . . .







. . . . . . . . . . .


X? .




SERVICE FACILITIES.......................




. . . . . . . . .




. . . . . . . . .









. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ............. .




Table 1* 2*


Fnequency and distribution of Gyiaaasiura Siscs Found In The Literature * * • • « * , • * « Suggested Indoor surface Materials


. . .


2? 152



Figure 1* L&yout~Diagr&m& and Construction Details for Football


2* Layout-D1agrams and Construction Details for Running Track * . • « ........... . * . * .


3* Layoufc-Dlagrams for Tennis Courts Typical Grading and subsoil Drainage « * • • . • • •


[jt* Floodlight

Layout for Football Lighting * •


>. Floodlight Layout for softball Lighting Class "C* a * * * * * . * . * * . * * . * * . * .


6* Floodlight


Layout for Baseball Lighting

* * *

?♦ Floodlight Layout for Archery Range Lighting and Playground Badminton or Volley Ball Court Lighting


6. Floodlight Layout for Playground Tennis Court Lighting (Single Court), (Double courts or Multiples of Two C o u r t s ............... .


9* Suggested Plan for Multiple Gee Area . . * . .


ID* Shovel Shape P o o l ..............



11* Spoon Shape Pool * .............. ..


12* Hopper or Double Spoon Shape Pool



* * * * * *

suggested Plan for Sehools with a Limited Health Service Program . » . « . * • . « * . . * * 135


1 cmPfiB i XIIIBOB'OOfIOH Much has been written In books, magazines and in other publications concerning physical education facilities, but a sunrey of the literature reveals that there is a lack of agreement among authorities regarding standards for facili­ ties*.

At the instigation of this study there was no on©

source of standards for the person In charge of planning and construction whore he might find suggested standards* Many glaring errors of plearning and construction m y be found*

In fact, according to the literature, errors of

omission and commission are so widespread that there are very few facilities deemed as adequate*

A practice quite

common in the planning and construction of facilities lias been to copy fro® a neighboring community*

This perpetuates

the errors and inadequacies already existing* The present trend toward the community use of educa­ tional facilities, and especially, athletics, health, physi­ cal education and recreation facilities, Is more and more apparent in the literature * when the combined use of these facilities Is considered, It Is evident that facilities which were formerly acceptable for a particular group, will not now adequately meet the need© of the entire school comunity* Changes In else, number, types and location of faci­ lities and In administrative policies must be made before the

2 school and community can effefc tively and efficiently utilise them* Professional vorkapfl have boon frustrated and handi­ capped by the lack of adequate facilities and much time and teacher effort have been wasted*

The program has been* in

many cases, dictated or at least curtailed by the facilities which were provided* Professional organissacions recognised the need for a study on facilities as evidenced by the appointment of Dr* Karl Weber Rookwalter as Chairman of the Joint Committee for the Rational Collegiate Athletic Association* American Asso­ ciation for Health, Physical Education and .Recreation and The College Physical Education Association*

The purpose of this

committee was to study standards for facilities for athlet­ ics and physical education,

under Dr* Bookwalter1s guidance*

four doctoral candidates were assigned the problem of compil­ ing standards for facilities for athletics, health, physical education and recreation on the junior high school, secondary school and college levels*

Dr* Carolyn and Dr. Karl Bookwalter

made the preliminary research on the elementary level? Doris BoefctJer Stewart studied facilities for senior high school girlsj Paris J. Van Horn studied facilities for junior high school? the author studied facilities for senior high school boys and C* Lesley Dane studied facilities for college men.

3 Th® reasons most frequently mentioned in the litera­ ture m

to why athletic# health, physical education and

recreation facilities do not moot th© present needs ana the absence of or ignorance of desirable standards, failure of designer® and program specialists to pool their knowledge» a policy of false economy and a policy of imitation which reproduces th© inadequacies already existing* Du® to the high cost of construction at the present time ©eomny must be practiced*

Physical education facili­

ties are expensive and should he extensive*

when the cost

of these facilities Is compared to the cost of the entire educational plant, It represents from 10 to 33 par cent of •& the entire cost of th© educational plant* (117Sv) The average cost in high schools according to Hash (kpi22) is 21«1{. per cant; of the entire cost*

Statement and Purpose of the Problem What should be th© standards for facilities for ath­ letics# health# physical education and recreation in senior high school for boys? It Is th© purpose of this study5 To bring up to date the best recommendations concern­ ing facilities for athletics# health# physical education and •5$ Humber® refer to references of the source mmbors- in th® bibliography*

recreation in the form of standards as revealed by the litera­ ture * To bring together in one publication specific stand­ ards concerning facilities for senior high school boys. To provile a guide for those responsible for the future construction of facilities rather than a rating device for existing facilities. To provide th# national Conference on Facilities with a set of tentative standards for facilities for athletics, health# physical education -and recreation for senior high school boys as was found In th# literature. To provide a basis for future rating scales for health and physical education facilities*

limitation® of the Study This study deals with facilities and not equipment# furniture or accouterments. Specification® for heating# engineering.# electrical and plumbing installations# and stress and strain should con­ form to state or local building codes and are not included in this study except where standards are unique. This study is attempting to deal with standards for facilities but does not determine what facilities any partic­ ular local community should provide. The suggested standards in this study are concerned primarily for the educational institution and secondarily

for th© eomunity us®, hut are not inclusive enough op inten­ ded to meet th© need© of th® imiaiolpal-r®cr«Rtion program*

Definition of Torms .^timdard® are meant the degree or qualities of sis®, type# msaber, shape, color, orientation, location, light and other criteria, which in the opinion of experts, are essential to achieve the educational results expected from the facilities* facilities are meant those permanent fixed spaces, structure® and fixtures basic to a specific activity or pro­ gram conducted for definite educational ends* By equipment is meant the movable non-expendable para­ phernalia, furniture or accouterments essential for th© effec­ tiveness of certain facilities*

(Hot Included in this study.)

By supplies are meant the expendable, movable articles and materials used on or with certain equipment and peculiar to specific activities or functions*

(Hot included in this

study*) By recreation facilities are meant those school faci­ lities utilised by th© participants of the community when the school is not in session and Is not to include facilities necessary for municipal—recreation programs* Athletic facilities here refer to facilities necessary to carry on an inter-scholastic program with facilities for spectators *

6 fh© term senior high school used in this study refers to grades nine to twelve inclusive* Health facilities are those facilities necessary for health instruction, frequent and complete physical examina­ tion and ©mergoney treatment for illness and for accidents to th© staff or participants# education facilities &r© those facilities necessary to implement and accommodate the program of physi­ cal education activities in such a manner as to accomplish their educational objectives# Administrative facilities are spaces or sfcructures utilised primarily by th# staff conducting and maintaining a specific program and which Is primarily for their conven­ ience and effectiveness or for the protection and care of equipment and supplies, Instruetlon-recr®ation facilities are spaces or struc­ tures utilised by staff and participants for the presentation of and practice in activities of a specific program. Service facilities are spaces and structures utilised primarily by the participants in a specific program for their convenience and comfort.*:


mrt rn of phetioits studies A review of previous studies dealing with facilities was necessary in order to acquaint the author with th© lit­ erature thus far published*

Only th© sources most influen­

tial or typical are mentioned her©* In 192J.|., Standards for High School Building;©, strayer and Engleh&rdt, (62) was published*

This was the third pub­

lication of a series of score cards devised to determine the condition of existIng school plants and to afford a basis for the development of the school building program* This publication dealt with general school buildings and Included physical education facilities. These standards were determined by the author*s expe­ rience in conducting school surveys and by a critical analy­ sis of architectural plans for recent buildings. Hany educators have utilised this set of standards to good advantage*

Time, change in philosophy and emphasis upon

the program of sports have modified th© standards to such an extent that saany are now not acceptable, ©specially with regard to physical, education facilities.

Eany of these stand­

ards are still valid, however, and will be referred to later In this study. In 1931# A Score Card for Evaluating Physical Educa­ tion Program for Senior High School Boys (355 was developed

under th© dir©©tion of B# P* Bellaon, in a series of confer­ ences, with th© aid of leaders of physical education in th© State of California*

Th© purpose of this score card was to

provide an objective means of evaluating the physical educa­ tion programs*.

Th© most important topics used la construct­

ing th© score card were Instructional Staff., Facilities, Pro­ gram Organisation, Program Activities and Professional Assistance* The standards .for facilities are mostly ©numenative and briefly described*

Mo attempt was made to bring forth

complete detailed standards for facilities*

This study

emphasises that adequate standards are necessary in order to attain th© aims and objectives of physical education* In 19V?$ LaPorfce, (133») as Chairman of The committee on Curriculum of th© College Physical Education Association assisted by hundreds of physical education supervisors through­ out th© United States, published the Ipth Edition of M s report* This study based on 19 years of research contains a combina­ tion of materials In a highly condensed form presenting a national program of physical education suitable for adoption in high school® and colleges* The two major purposes of this report wore to set standards for a sound educational program of physical educa­ tion activities and a carefully graded program.

Many of the

standards are In a condensed form and suitable only for the purpose of a rating device*

Some cursory treatment is given

to standards for facilities*

Th© bibliography on facilities

is brief but helpful in this study* Duo to the wide acceptance of the curriculum, either totally or in part, and to the fact that facilities should bo planned .and constructed to meet the needs of the program, the present study on facilities was based primarily on acti­ vities recommended in this curriculum study* In 1936# Blair (117) developed a score card for the purpose of determining how the existing facilities for the physical education program in Junior and senior high schools conform to the standards that wore recognised by educators as necessary to carry out an adequate physical education pro­ gram*

This study did not develop standards for the facili­

ties but used those which were already available*

The only

facilities treated were the gymnasium and related rooms, dressing room, team room and sanitary facilities*


recommended additional research in the field of facilities for physical education due to the lack of agreement as to the importance of location* sis©, lighting and other factors, Butler (119), in 1936, revised a publication of the Rational Recreation Association, flay Areas, which was pub­ lished in 1926,

The Here Flay Areas, Their Design and Equip­

ment, places most emphasis on suggestions for planning of the playground, playflaid and athletic field* This hook has been very valuable in presenting the viewpoint of the recreational needs*

reference to this book


will ba found later 1b this study on outdoor facilities. IB 193

Lamax* (200) set forth plana and speciflea*

tions for the layout, equipment and care of the athletic plant#

Many suggestions in this book are valuable. flie purpose of bastards study wm

to bring into one

publication the official dimensions and specifications for field® and equipment to aid coaches, playground director® ©nd physical education teachers* Also In 1938# Luehrlng# {13$) brought forth detailed standard® for planning., constructing and administering swim­ ming pool® in educational institutions*

This Is perhaps the

most important and valuable set of standards yet devised for th® swimming: pool*

Twenty criteria were set forth as guiding

principle® against which all standards war© measured. The organisation# method® and techniques used in the Luahrlng study have greatly Influenced the author In this study on facilities* In 19^0# Oat® (121) as Chairman of the Research Com­ mittee on Playground surfacing# published his report for the national Association of public School Business Officials. (Bulletin Ho* 7*)

This committee tried to determine only th©

commonly used type® of surface® needed for the recognised playground activities in the various schools. This bulletin is perhaps one of th# most valuable con­ tribution® In attempting to solve the problem of surfacing. Reference to the conclusions end type of surfacing will be


found later In this study on facilities. In 'XS^$$ Elliott (123) published A Guide for Planning School Buildings intended primarily to aid local comuni ties to provide cafe and healthful buildings and to provide the architect with knowledge concerning plans and specifications which would be acceptable to the state Department* This publication covers details for the entire school* Those referring to physical education facilities have been used in this study quite extensively*

Minimum standards are

seldom mentioned unless the minimum requirements should become maximum, standards#

This guide is perhaps one of the better

contemporary types of school building codes*

It is informa*

tive rather than regulative. The National Conference on Facilities for Athletics, Recreation* Health and Physical Education was held at Jack* son’s Mill, Weston, West Virginia, December X to X£, 1946* From this conference* two publications resulted,

They were

College Facilities for Physical Education, Health Education and Recreation {202) and A Guide .for Planning Facilities for Athletics, Recreation, Physical and Health Education* {2035 The national Conference on Facilities for Athletics, Recreation, Physical and Health Education was a result of the interest and efforts of several professional organisa­ tions*

In April, 194b* The American Association for Health,

Physical Education and Recreation approved a suggestion that



a grant of money should be secured to sponsor such a meeting on a national scale* Th© Athletic Institute, a non-profit organisation, was approached*

In May, 19^-6# fche Board of Directors of The

Athletic Institute voted a grant of $10,000.00 to finance The national Facilities Conference* At th© Invitation of The Athletic Institute the fol­ lowing organisations accepted the Invitation to sponsor the conferencei Tim American Association for Health, Physical Education and Hsereation, American Association of sroup Work­ ers, American Camping Association, American Institute of Park Executives, American Recreation Association, American Society of Planning Officials, College Physical Education Association, Educational Policies Commission, National Council on schoolhouse Construction., National Federation of State High School Athletic Association and society of state Directors of Health, Physical Education and Recreation. An executive committee was formed by the sponsoring organisations and plans were formulated for th© many and vari­ ous administrative details of th© ’ Workshop*

Arrangements were

mad© with Dr# Karl Eookwaltor to utilise the preliminary research already developed by graduate students at Indiana University under the subsidy from the College Physical Educa­ tion Association, (See page 2} to be used as a guide for the working committee of the conference.

13 A copy of Tentative Standards for Facilities for Health and Physical Education for Senior Hihh School Bovs. niH M friinmii)n'>

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developed by th© author was made available to the members of the conference and is appended hereto* The personnel of the wo rising committee of the con­ ference was carefully selected as to the leaders in Athletics, recreation, physical education and health education programs, as well as architects, landscape architects, engineers and sohoolhovLso construction consultants*

Consideration was

given to geographical representation in the selection of the fifty leaders who were Invited to the workshop* Th© participants in the Working Conference on Facili­ ties are listed below? Abernathy, Ruth - Director of Health Education, State Department of Education, Albany, Hew York Andrews, Robert - Assistant Superintendent (in Charge of Planning and Development), District Recreation Department, Washington, B* 0* Avars, Georg© W« - Director of Physical and Health Education, State Department of Education, Dover, Delaware Bank, Theodore P. - President, Th© Athletic Institute, 209 South State Street, Chicago, Illinois Barrett, Lewis iu - Edwin Gould Foundation for Children, Spring Valley, New York Beaghler, Amos L., IS* D* - Director of Health Service, Public schools, Denver, Colorado Bookwalfcer, Carolyn - Extension Division, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Bookwalter, Earl - School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Butler, Georg© - National [-©creation Association, 31k Fourth Avenue, New York City, New York

14 Camp* Marjori© - Chairman, Health and Safety 0omit toe, American Causing Association, Hempstead, Hew York Christiansen, Milo - Superintendent of Recreation, District of Columbia Recreation Department, Washington, D* c* Dan©, 0* Wesley * School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Kverly, Robert - Superintendent of Parks and Recreation, Village Hall, Glencoe, Illinois Ferguson, Thomas 0* ~ Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation, State Department of Education, Baltimore, Maryland Forsythe, Charles S* - State Director of athletics, state Department of Education, Lansing, Michigan Gable, Martha - Special Assistant, Division of Physical and Health Education, Board of Education, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Gregg, Leah, J« - Associate Professor, Department of Physical Education for Women, university of Texas, Austin, Texas Hadden, Gavin.- Architect and Planning Consultant, Falls Church, Virginia H&mmon, Ray L* - Chief, School Housing, U* S. Office of Education, Washington, D* c* Hay, william M* - Tennessee Department of Conservation, Nashville, Tennessee Hernlund, Verne F. - General Supervisor, Physical Activities, Chicago Park District, Chicago, Illinois Hilton, Ernest ** Hew York Dt&te Teachers College, Fredonia, Ho t York Hughes, William L* - Professor of Health and Physical Edu­ cation, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Hyatt, chauncey A* - Architectural Engineer, 5555 Sheridan Hoad, Chicago, Illinois Jeffers, T. C* - National Capital Park and Planning Commis­ sion, U* S* Department of Interior, Washington, D* C* Jones, Clayton - Federal Public Housing, Longfellow Building, Washington, D. C*


Lonsch, Dorothea M* - Director of Recreation* Bureau of Parks* Portland, Oregon LuehrlBg, F* W* - Professor of Physical Education* University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia* Pennsylvania MeCllntock, Ralph * Director of Recreation, Park and Recrea­ tion Department, Fort Wayne, Indiana McGowan* B* T. - Director of Recreation, Department of Parks and Recreation, Detroit, Michigan Manley, Helen - Specialists in Health Insfcx*uction and Physi­ cal Education, Division of Elementary Education, II. 3* Office of Education, Y»ashing ton, D# 0* Miles* Caswell if* - Supervisor of Physical Education and Recreation, State Department of Education, Albany 1, Hew York Miller, Sen W* - Executive Secretary, American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Washington, D* c* ITordly, Carl L* - Professor of Physical Education, Univer­ sity of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota Oppenaaim, Paul - Planning Consultant, Federal Works Agency, Bureau of Community Facilities, Washington, P. 0# Petticord* B* R* - Division of Deereation, Engineering Department, Bos Angeles, California Prltzlaff, August H» - Director of Health and Physical Education, Board of Education, Chicago, Illinois Roimey, G, Ott - Doan* School of physical Education, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia Hoy, Walter - Assistant Director of Recreation, Chicago Park District, Chicago, Illinois Schooler, Virgil E* - Athletic Director, University High School^ Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana Scott# Harry - Professor of Health and Physical Education, Poachers College, Columbia University, New York Stafford, Frank - Specialist for .Health Education, Physical Education and Athletics, Division of Secondary Edu­ cation, U. S* Office of Education, Washington, D. C.

16 Strelfc, William K* « Director of Health and Physical Educa­ tion jf Public Schools, Cincinnati, Ohio Tarrant, Julian W. - Hoad City Planner# Detroit city Plan Commission, Detroit, Michigan

Trent, W, w* - State SupcrInt©ndent of Free Schools, Charleston, west Virginia Van Horn, Paris J* - Director of Physical B&ue&fcion, Eastern Illinois State Teachers College, High school, Charleston, Illinois Wilson, Charles c»« II. P. - School of Public Health, Tale university, Hew Haven, Connecticut Th© courtesy of attending the workshop was extended to the author of this study.

He served on the Outdoor Com­

mittee and on the Swimming Pool committee. Tim conference recognised the need for unified plan­ ning, Joint financing and integrated use of community faci­ lities for athletics, recreation, health and physical edu­ cation and recommended guiding rules for planning, construc­ tion and maintenance of community facilities. The standards developed for functionally designed facilities are in the opinion of the author, the most -com­ prehensive and detailed set of standards as yet devised and published in one publication.

Reference to this publication

will bo tmde later in this study*


OHAJTER H I kshzods

a w


The general pattern of the research on facilities was determined by a working committee composed -of Dr, Karl W* Bookwalter* Dr, 0arolyn W* Bookwnlter, Doris Boettjer Stewart, C* Wesley Dane# Faria I* Tan Horn and Virgil E# Schooler* the latter four war# doctoral candidates and each had stand­ ards for facilities in a particular school level as his prob­ lem* Certain criteria appearing as items In the literature relative to the planning, use, construction and maintenance of facilities were accepted by the above committee.


criteria were refomnl&ted Into statements in principle form* Th® principles listed below are an adaptation of the princi­ ples' accepted by the committeei

accessibility, beauty,

departmentalisation, economy, expansibility and flexibility, Isolation, safety, hygiene and sanitation, supervision, utility, and validity*: Proper attention must be given each principle as an over or under emphasis on one tends to be reflected in the effects of the others* and related*

These principles are interdependent

They are complementary end supplementary*


The facilities should be



that the proper groups may have safe, ready, direct and convenient availability from without and within.

For example, the gymnasium and related facilities such m

the nafcfttorium, locker and shower rooms and other

rooms used by the proper groups should be accessible from the street* playfield and th© classrooms without having to cross public highways,,, travel groat distances, or disturb the rest of the school* *

Facilities should be attractive and should

inspire appreciative treatment. For 63Cflus$>l&* attractive recreational areas provide th© right environment for recreational enjoyment*


areas should b# bordered by trees and shrubbery, !xtr©» and costly ornamontation on the school build­ ing should be avoided. *

Belated areas and groups should

be In a fimetional unit, suit© or department* For example, facilities for health Instruction and health service should be a related unit yet accessible to th© proper groups. Also facilities for social and recrea­ tional groups should be adjacent or near th© gymnasium and swimming pool* Economy*

The cost-In money, time and energy-of the

cans trust Ion, use and maintenance of health end physical ©du­ cat ion plant should be kept at a minimum compatible with effective Instruction and with maximum wholesome particlpa-

For example, ample space is seldom available on any site for all facilities needed*

Within limits, multiple use

,of tbe samm area lead© to greater economy and makes duplica­ tion of certain f&ellltles unnecessary.

However, the prac­

tice of false economy may Interfere with the utility of the facility* The application of ©conosay requires that there be no area which la useless,


used rarely or only occasionally,

and that no area be larger than la required for its purpose and for reasonable expansion*

Economy must b© considered

from the standpoint of expansibility and flexibility* Expansibility and flexibility*

Increase and decrease

in the range ami amount of activity should be readily and economically possible*

The facilities should be planned so

that they m y fee rearranged to meet present m d probable future needs without unnecessary cost in money or space or at the expense of an effective program* must not be a barrier to progress*

Present facilities

Education is not a static

science and its buildings must bo made for Internal and exter­ nal readjustments In the future*

Interior flexibility Ilka

expansibility la necessary to a farsighted planning* Frequently it is necessary to adapt rooms to special­ ized activities for which they were not originally designed, or it may also be necessary to create a very large room by removing a partition between smaller rooms or to subdivide a room with additional partitions or to install now service


Such item© as fenestration, heating* ventila­

tion, arrangement of corridors* stairways* and exits should be kept in mind in relation to future changes. For example * partitions should be non-bearing so that they m&j be easily moved. The us© of saw-tooth skylight in a gymnasium against which a future addition Blight be built Is an example of the principle of expansibility as such .a skylight would not Interfere with the fenestration of the present structure. Isolation*

The segregation of activity groups* the

reduction of noises* the elimination of odors* the exclusion of undesirable persons and other disturbing factoi's should be as automatic and effective as possible* For example* provision should he made so that groups using the gyimaslum after scliool or In the evening may not have access to the entire school plant* maintenance and supervision.

This reduces the

The facilities should be prop­

erly Insulated to aid In the reduction of noise.

The viti­

ated air from the locker room and the gymnasium should not be recirculated. Safety and sanitation,

hue consideration should be

given to the safety of the participants and to the sanita­ tion of the plant when planning for the arrangement and for the maintenance of the facility. For example, when planning for maximum student or spectator traffic * the location and the width of stairways *

the masher and width of vomitories and the mincer of well lighted exit© should he considered. All heating device©., pipes and drinking fountains in the gyrsi&siuM or corridors should be recessed or enclosed* Lighting, sunshine and ventilation greatly aid in the mlntenanee of a sanitary and hygienic plant, especially in the locker and shower rooms# The materials selected for the floors of the locker room, shower room and swimming pool should b© of the type to prevent slipping*

The materials selected should also be of

the type that may be easily cleaned* Supervision*

The oversight, control end management

of activities and groups should be facilitated by visibility, conveniens© and access* For example, all areas to be supervised should be functionally related*

Certain areas requiring constant

supervision should be located near a central point of con­ trol.

Fewer entrances than are usually provided to the play­

ground make for easier supervision. The offices, attached to the swimming pool and gymna­ sium, should afford an unobstructed view of the entrances as well as to the entire areas. Utility.

To be most usof\xl facilities must be planned

» x 9 6 * 70* x 90* 6 3 * x 90* 6 b* x 9 0 *


1 1






1 1

X 1 1



1 1 1




1 2 1 1 1 2

1 1





1 1

TA2LE 1 indicates that the sisee most froquentlY -i

saentioned were l\JQ by 60 feet or 60 by 90 feet. ssa&ll sises were mlnlruum recommendations *

Host of the

Eased upon fro**

quency and recency alone, it would so cm apparent that a floor 40 by 60 foot or 60 by 90 foot would he acceptable#

In order

to select a tentative standard the basic principles of utility

and validity wore then applied to those sices# The principle of utility would indicate that the gymnaslnn floor should accomodate basketball, volleyball, bad­ minton, apparatus and tumbling relays and other activities commonly found in the program*

By the principle of validity

the standards should moot the official mile requirements• Those principles would immediately discard bho !i0 by 60 foot floor sise as wall as the 60 by ()0 foot sis©* In order to aocamraodate a class in volleyball, two or more courts are usually necessary and the usual practice is to play cross court*

The volleyball court is 3$ by 60 feet*

In order to play volleyball a width of at least 6y foot or sore should be provided*

The final tentative standard of

acceptable sise for a gymnasium floor was 6> feet by 9t feet* This sis© would satisfy the principles of utility, safety and validity#

This tentative standard was submitted to the

jury -with no dissenting opinions* The Hatlonal Federation of State High School Athletic Association Buie Book (Basketball) states that the most ideal siae for the basketball floor* Is 30 by 3!l foot, with an unobstructed space of at least 3 feet and preferably 10 feet outside the boundaries* (207)

Th# jury was eompoaed of the following persons j Vaughn Blanchard* Detroit, Michigan, Director of Health and Physical Education R, D* Behlmer, Indianapolis, Indiana, Arsenal Technical High School, Director of Health and Physical Education Victor J, De Filippo, Department of Health and Physical Edu­ cation, $eton Hall, South Orange, Hew Jersey Arthur L* Essllnger, Springfield, Massachusetts, Springfield College Edwin B« Henderson, Public School, Department of Health, Physical Education and Safety, Washington, D. C* Clair V, Langton, Oregon State College, Corvallis, Oregon Dorothy LaSalle, Department of Physical Education, Wayne Halvereity, Detroit, Michigan David £« McCoe, St* Marks 4 School, sonthburough, Massachu­ setts Huth II# Morris, Public Schools, Denver, Colorado Gladys M* Scott, College of Liberal Arts, State University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa Harvey selvidge, Supervisor of Physical Education, Public Schools, Kansas City, Missouri Do Forrest Showley, Department of Physical Education, lew Trier High School, Wimetka, Illinois David P* Snyder, Supervisor of Boys 4 Physical Education, Department of Physical Education, Oakland, California Clair E* Turner, Professor of Public Health, Emeritus, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 19 Village Lane, Arlington, Massachusetts William P* Uhlor, Jr#, Assistant in Physical Education, State Department of Education, Trenton, Hew Jersey

30 The comments and suggestions were itemized with mar­ ginal notes on the check list wherever the jury disagreed* These comments and criticisms were listed and if at least three objections were registered to a particular standard, the standard was then reviewed in the light of the basic principles, recency, frequency and authoritativeness. Most cirticisms were quite simple. Du© to the reactions and criticisms of the jury as well as the Information acquired at the National Facilities Conference, another revision of the tenative standards was made and presented to the working committee on facilities. After careful review by this committee the standards appear in final form. Detailed criticisms and suggestions of the jury rela­ tive to the tentative standards may be found in Appendix II, pages 268 to 281*

At the end of many of the criticisms will

be fotmd a page number on which the final standard appears. By comparing the criticisms and the final standards, the reader may determine how the criticisms and suggestions of the jury aided the author in arriving at the final standards.


Sit© Authorities do not agree as to the siste of


the site, tout most of them agree that the present sites are inadequate,

To acquire additional satisfactory lands located

near the present site is very expensive#

It would seem more

economical to purchase undeveloped sites with sufficient acreage to care for all possible estimated .future needs. The community use of the educational facilities will neces­ sitate more fields and greater acreage than has customarily been provided* Til© 9Park school9 plan is receiving much considera­ tion at pros exit.

This plan provides for the park to incor­

porate the

school site*

The school could use the park and

the fields

for* educational experiences and in turn the com­

munity and park officials would us© the educational indoor facilities, thus eliminating the duplication of many faci­ lities*

(159:^1-23) (20319$ 22) For

the *Park school51plan LtO acres

or more are recom­

mended as desirable for a school of 1,000 pupils. Wliere a park is already available In the community and space for school and community recreational ana educa­ tional activities is needed, 20 acres or more are recom­ mended as desirable#

For smaller schools, and especially in rural cojsmunities where a rapid expansion Is not contemplated, 10 to 12 acres are recommended for the site exclusive of the build­ ings*

This area will be limited as to the number of activi­

ties it m y


Before the pure 0 foot centers connected with mains located on each side of the field has given good service.

The drains for the football

fl#M m i

mm usually ootimotM* um Pijli)

See official rules for sis© and dimensions.

Usually 300 feet by 300 feet is necessary for a regulation diamond.

A plan for a combination baseball and football

field is worth considering In situations where there is no track oval and where portable seating is provided for foot­ ball*

A space 360 feet by 350 feet is desirable for a com­

bination field, although 3-0 feet by 300 foot is acceptable* Th© baseball diamond in this situation should be located in th© southeast, southwest or northwest corner and th© foot­ ball field should be located on th© east or west side with & nortli and south orientation* Surface. The most desirable surface for a baseball field, provided it can be maintained, Is grass or turf with th© base lines skinned.

An acceptable surface Is to have

the infield skinned and th© outfield turfed or stabilized In some manner to prevent dust and erosion due to rains* Beating.

The most desirable seats for watching a

baseball gara© are on the sides parallel to first and third base lines*

If permanent seating or a stadium is provided,

th® backstop is usually placed or attached to the structure,

thus providing protection for th© spectators.

A distance of

60 feet between th© home plat© and th® backstop is usually required.

(205:5 ) The seats along th© base lines should be

50 feet from th© baa© lines. Permanent seating is safer but more expensive#


portable bleachers are used/ they must be constructed and erected against collapse * Bleachers may rot or deteriorate after being exposed to th© weather, making them unsafe. Flayers * duffout*


he mad© for seating th© players*

Some provision should

This may be done by th©

us© of portable benches or permanent seating arrangements. If a dugout is desired, th© floor should be placed below the ground level, (approximately 3 feet) so that the roof of the structure will not interfere with the sight line of the spec­ tator a,

Drainage and drinking water should be provided.


telephone to the press box and to the score board may be desired.

A space 5 to 6 feat wide by 35 feat long will accom­

modate 22 players.

Fencing Outdoor facilities should be fenced for isolation, supervision, protection of property, protection of partici­ pants and th© protection of the general public.

Some of the

characteristics of good fencing are attractiveness, stability, durability, economy of upkeep and effectiveness.

Chain link

56 is most ppactie&l and economical and la preferred*

it should

b© mounted on rust resistant metal posts securely .set or on rust resistant steel .frames.

Any woven wire fence which

meets th© foregoing characteristics Is acceptable*


gauge of thickness of the wire varies from 11 to 6 gauge which is used in municipal installations.

A 9 gauge thick­

ness is most generally used* In some areas an atmospheric study should be mad© in order to select th© typo of fence which resists chemical reaction.

Sine-covered aluminum, stainless steel and gal­

vanised ingot iron have their uses.

Wrought iron fences are

sometimes used for frontage when the school is located in the finer residential districts. Solid fencing should be avoided around the playground as it prevents supervision, suggests restraint and is bad psychology. A space of 10 to 15 feet between the sidewalk and th© fence is recommended for the planting outside of the fence* Entrances and exits.

Entrances ana exits should b©

strategically located to aid in supervision, circulation and provide for direct egress and Ingress.

The opening should

have a baffle set back from the fence in order to prevent a too rapid entrance or exit. Segregated areas should have two gate ways conveni­ ently located In order to aid in the circulation of traffic. This flow of traffic should not Interfere with spectators

or participants engaged in other activity.

Fencing for Special Areas Instructional game fields.

G-am© fields need to be

fenced around the boundary lines of the sit©.


a fence will b© needed to prevent pedestrians from crossing th© playing areas*

Fences for the game areas should be from

5 to 6 feet In height* Solid fencing, concrete or brick walls are acceptable on three sides of the athletic field*

A very economical type

of wire fencing with privet shrubbery next to the fence pro­ vides an excellent screen*


Fences around the athletic field have as theIp main purpose the exclusion of spectators who do not wish to pay. These fences should b© sturdy and effective as attempts will be made to climb over or under*

A chain link fence 6 to 8

feet in height with barbed wire on top (If permitted by local ordinances) usually discourages those who wish to enter illegally.

The location of trees outside the fence

around the athletic field should be avoided as it Is very tempting to climb th© trees and drop inside the fence.


crete walls or brick wall® are very effective but too expen­ sive.

sometimes th© permanent seating strueture may be used

for part of the fence. Tennis courts* A fence made of 2 Inch mesh chain link, 12 f©et high mounted on rust resisting metal, set in

concrete or mounted on steel frames# 21 feet behind the base line and extending 10 feet beyond th© side lines is desirable* ‘tings set at an angle extending 10 feet beyond the side bound­ ary linos Is a practical installation v/hen th© courts arc not fully enclosed*

Hard surface courts# when used for emergency

parking# should not be fully enclosed. Clay courts should be fully enclosed with gate open­ ings, 7 feet high by 3 feet 6 Inches wide equipped with hasp and padlock#

Enclosed hard surface tennis courts do not

need a gate but the opening should have a screen or a baffle set outside th© fence to prevent balls from going outside. The same sized gate openings, 7 feet by 3 feet 6 Inches, are recoimaended. Track f©nee*

p.. fence is sometimes needed to control

th© participants and tho crowd at track meets*

A low (Ip feet)

fence to control the participants should be set at least 5 yards Ins id© the track on the straight-a-way. should be a temporary or portable fence.

This fence

Sleeves may be set

In below tho ground surface with provisions for capping when not in use as no projection should be above the ground dur­ ing football season.

A fence should be set back to beyond

arms reach of the track curb as greater proximity is a men­ ace to manners and hurdlers, Th© fence to control th© crowd will not be needed In front of permanent seats, but where temporary seating Is provided a low fence Is recommended or at least some type of


Vovan wire, concrete or brick wall© are aonetimes

unod. Barriers of concrete, atone# brick or woven wire should bo erected between th© ©eating facilities and the track in order to keep spectators from interfering with the X-farticipants* Back stops. permanent*

Back stops may be either movable or

For field game© movable back ©tops permit the

change of gsioe areas*

Permanent back stops should be of

sufficient size to car© for the need.

Baseball back stops

are usually from 20 to !i.O foot high and wide enough to pro­ tect the spectators behind the plat©.

A back stop, 120 feet

in width comprised of two 60 foot wings, set 90 feet behind th© plate Is suggested.


and small enough to stop the balls.

The mesh should be sturdy In closely congested

areas closed or covered hack stops may be desired,

The manu­

facturers of school equipment have information on tbls type of back stop. Apparatus area. munity.)

(Optional unless used by the com­

The apparatus area should to fenced with a medium

height fence.


Th© play lot should be fenced with

a low fence approximately 3 feet in height. The wading or spray pool should be fenced and pro­ vided with an opening located to aid in supervision and con­ trol of the participants.

Low thorny plantings may be

desired outside of those fences.

60 Lighting for Outdoor Facilities Some of th© seemingly justified values attributed to artificial illumination of outdoor facilities are that It Increases th© hours that the facility may be used, that more people can b© accommodated^during their leisure hours, that Increased spectator attendance results In larger gate receipts and that games may b© played at night without Interrupting school routine*

Most authorities agree that outdoor facili­

ties should be lighted. Some of the characteristics of a good lighting system are economy of operation and upkeep, ©as© of maintenance, even distribution of light— vertically as well as horizontally— sufficient intensity so that players and spectators have good visibility, freedom from glare, appearance of the system, durability and safety of the installation* The location of th© floodlights, the mounting height, the number, th© kind and the distance from th© activity will have much to do with the quality and quantity of light needed for the most satisfactory visibility by the player and the spectator* Some activities require more Intensities than others* For example, baseball requires more light in the infield than in the outfield, also baseball requires more light than football*

Higher intensities are required for game condi­

tions than for practice*

Professional exhibitions require

greater Intensities than, playground or recreational activities*

Ft* if# S\vaol&8mar>* (2X0) Illuminating Engineer* General Kleetrie Company* sayss Sports lighting In general has been guided largely for the past several years by the recommended practice of th© National Kleetrieal Manu­ facturers Association# The N M A recommended practice for sports lighting represents a compos­ ite view of li|. floodlight manufacturers. The standards of Intensity for the most part have boon without regard to— the main reason being that v/ibh a group of l!;,. or more manufacturers, some advocate open* wide angle floodlights, while others advocate and nantxfaeture the more modem enclosed types of floodlights# (210} Since the Iffit scoria to bo the most influential in setting standards for sports lighting, sketches showing the ITbTIA recommended practice for sports and recreational light­ ing are to be found on pages 70 - 7 Sw&ckh&rior also makes the statement fiats The Illuminating Engineers Society is doing current research on sports and recreational light­ ing* A committee of this society has recently re commended some tentative ■''oot-candlo values which have been approved and are listed below; Average florisontal Footcandlee in Service Infield


aseball Major League AA and ATA League A and B League C ancl. f) League Semi-Fro and Municipal League

100 :>G 30 20

D1stanoo frora nearest Sid©lino to Farthest How of Average TIorisontal Spectators 'ootcandles in Service

Football O'lass Index I II III IV V

Over 100 feet 50 feet to 100 feet 30 feet to $0 feet Under 30 feet Fo Fixed Seating Facilities


100 50 30 20



Tournament Club Recreational Mote;


30 20




(CAU ?*?n ‘ i

The lighting of outdoor facilities, especially

football and baseball Is of such a technical nature that a lighting engineer or commercial company should be consulted for best results*

Specific Sports Area Requirements Archery, The archery rang© should be Isolated for safety reasons*

Provisions should bo made to prevent pedes­

trian traffic from crossing the range • The archery lanes should -e 10 fee fc wide and long enough to provide a space of at least 10 yards behind the target*

If topography no mite,

a knoll or hill behind the targe is provides a&uitional safet T-:rgets may be cot at 20# 30, IpQ, 3’G, rQ# 70, or 00 yards and sometimes, though rarely at 100 yards• Ing is advisable *

bo© lighting, page 73*

artificial light*


standard sised basketball courts are

desirable or slightly modified (IjS foot by 7h foot), are acceptable* with orientation approximately north and south. Courts should be located in the multiple use area.


courts are minimum# four courts are desirable end additional space should be available for .future additions as needed. Th© backboards should be permanent and constructed of rust resistant steel or solid wood construction,

(For lighting,

same as for volley ball, see page 73.

0roquet. A croquet court 30 feet by' 60 feet made of smooth turf or earth, with boundaries marked either by boards or other markings, is desirable. be lighted for night play.

This area should

Space should be provided for

additional courts as the need for them arises,

(For light­

ing, Bairn as for volley ball, see page Golf *driving cages. .■>!m

tmn,n ■



« >»w

Golf driving cages should be ^


mad© with steel frames covered with small mesh wire and equipped with a canvas

back drop.

Cages 10 feet by 10 feet

by 12 feet In length would seem to be adequate. should be q Inches In diameter and I;., inches deep. greens should be located near the fence.

The cup These

Approximately 500

square feet would seem to be adequate for one putting green. Handball, Handball courts should be 20 feet by br6 feet and should be located on the hard surface area,


walls m y be constructed of eone ret© or tongue and grooved wood painted whit©*

Two, three or four walled courts are


A suggested location for th© handball courts

Is to place the® behind the back side of the backstops* This would necessitate the us© of solid backstops up to a certain height#

For night use, one pole 25 feet high with

two IpOO watt lamps is desirable for each courts* Horseshoe*

A space of 50 feet by $0 feet should be

provided to accommodate 1$. horseshoe courts*

The official

pitching distance is IpG feet* Multiple courts should be in batteries of four.


should be spaced on 10 foot centers and at least 10 feet or more between batteries*

Boxes should be filled with gummy

blue clay or potters clay*

One inch stakes should extend

10 inches above th© ground and should slant 2 Inches toward each other*

A backstop mad© of wood or a low fence made of

heavy wire should be placed behind th© boxes for safety,


platform, 2 feet wide by 3 feet long made of wood strips at the sides of each box is an aid to the participants in pitch­ ing*

Artificial lighting, arranged on 20 foot polos equipped

with one 500 watt lamp on each pole, adequately lights from

1 to 3 courts. Shuffle board courts* Shuffle board courts should b© constructed of lj. inches of concrete reinforced with steel mesh 1 l/2 inches below the surface.

In order to facilitate

drainage and prevent damage to the courts by free sing, the courts should be built on a porous soil or on a base of 5 laches of cinders, crushed stone ox* gravel.

A smooth

surface Is necessary*

Adequate lighting may be provided for

1 to 3 courts by mounting two S>QG watt lamps on each of 2 poles 20 feet high* goc.eer field* Standard dimensions are lOo feet by 300 foot*

Utility would indicate that this x x©lei may be

used for other games such as hockey, softball, toucli-football, and speed b all*

A turfed surface is desirable with the ori­

entation north and south*

If weather conditions require it,

subsoil drainage should bo provided* agricultural tile is recommended.

The use of hr inch

In schools ihare boys*

and girls* classes meet at th© some hour, a minimum of k fields (2 for boys and 2 for girls) Is recommended* Softball* Th© soft ball fields may be superimposed upon other fields* require 2 fields*

Classes of enrollments of 10 pupils will (see orientation, page 38*)

ing, see page 71.

(Fox* light­

A space of 180 feet by 180 feet is a

desirable sis© for the softball field and a space of 12> feet by 12y foot is acceptable# Tennis courts* At least bt tennis courts should be provided end space for k to 6 more should he reserved for future needs*

At least 2 of the courts should be located

on tii© multiple use area with provisions for the net posts to be removed when th© space is used for other activities. Courts should be arranged In pairs with at least t feet between courts*

A space of 100 feet by 120 feet is usually

required for a double court*

For lighting see P&G® 7k-

Desirable surface materials for termis courts are asphaltic or bituminous materials, clay, loam, cement, grass or dirt*

Hard surfaces are most expensive to build, but they

provide more utility as they may b© used soon after rains and when the grounds are wet and muddy*

Clay courts are less

expensive to build but require constant maintenance*


courts are the most expensive to install, but if constructed correctly may require


little maintenance.


surfaces are preferred over cement by many because cement courts have less resiliency.

This condition is hard on the

feet and lags of the players* Bituminous surfaces may be marked with traffic white. Cement courts may be marked with white cement laid in grooves during the construction*

Grass or clay courts may be marked

with calcimine. Subsoil drainage is necessary If hard surface is used in regions of severe frost; otherwise local conditions will determine th© subsoil drainage*

A heavy base, well drained,

prevents damage from freesing. Tlx© use of if, inch agricultural tile spaced 10 to 12 feet apart, arranged in a herringbone fashion sloped to a main drain located under the not is th© most desirable. Main drains of 6 Inch tile located on one side with laterals of l\- inch agricultural tile spaced 10 to 15 feet apart and running across the short axis of th© court have also given good service.

An acceptable type of drainage is to have a








N O TE .S Toa

La t c c a l A PA CT -

1 ! 1 4— M -


O a tn tM

Dc t a i l s

Sa c


O b a i k T i l C S S m a l l BA i A m l P O c P l N O l M A U *D M T t A C OP S o u .

is l v « « i | T ( p

P lIfU A S L L



A d d it io n a l

T hat


O mC


P tA Y rfm

H ATW O T * 0


Im o o a t a m t

Co m * i PC CA T IO N

Tm at W N ca


K) t o

S w a p AC A




Mo A A

Ti l e P a A i m * W i l l O n l y B e Ra o u i a a p W m a w Co a o i t i o m s [ > itr. Ih Lo c a l i t i a s S w a j a c t a o 19

No. 6 i * - i v o *

P aom

P A A IM A A t

SuA PA C t

O ne

um ua oal to


R e c e iv e


>2 P c t t




P a a in a m . f A O S T IT

Ca a a pu l U * » ft




T-1L i













43c» » _ 2 —



A P P R O V E D /V



0RAMN8 num ber •D L.6A .52 p P M S t N aw.



6 inch main located on one side with 4 inch laterals running diagonally aoros® the courts on 10 to 12 foot centers* A slope of 2 inches In 50 feet is desirable. surface may be pitched In the following ways?


Pitched from

end to center, pitched from end to end, pitched to the aid© line, a diagonal pitch toward on© corner and a pitch from center to end.

when courts are arranged In a battery, a

playing surface of on© plane is more desirable than one with two or more slopes. Apparatus area. An area of 10,000 square foot (203:

13) Is suggested on th© high school sit© for th© younger age children.

The area should be segregared by divisional

fence® away from building®, trees, backstops and traffic lanes*

Access to toilets and drinking facilities is desir­


soft surface, such as tan bark, Is recommended under

th© apparatus* play lot* An area of 10,000 square feet is suggested for a play lot for pre-school children (203:13)*

Th© area

should b© located near the main entrance close to th© build­ ing with easy access to the toilets. desirable*

Shade for this area is

Good drainage is also desirable.

Th© area should

be segregated from th© older children* s play area by divi­ sional fences. Spray pool or wading pool* apr&y pools are more desirable from th© health and sanitary standpoint than the wading pools unless the wading pools are provided with

66 treated y&ter.

An area of >,000 square feet is suggested,

(20l{,:l6 ) curvilinear in shape#

Provision for one or mo re

sprays should not bo deeper than 16 inches in the center and graduated to a few inches in depth at the outer curb*


area should bo surrounded by a low fence and located to facilitate supervision and safety, desirable*

Cement construction is

spectator space end seating should be provided

for mothers who arc catching their children. Volleycall* Volleyball courts, 31 foot wide by £0 foot long#

bo super isngooed on other courts on the hard

surface area*

fpaco dor 4 courts or rare* as the need

arises, is desirable*

Posts set in sleeves in the hard sur­

face area is a desirable method of supporting tho nets* v;Inter skating*

there climatic conditions are satis­

factory to provide for winter skating, a goroo field or a depressed area should be provided*

A depression of opgrcoci-

natoly one ; ',oob is usually sufficient. flooded ’or winter skating.

fills area can be

If It Is impossible or If It is

Impractical to construct a field In this manner, then winter skating nay be provided for on the hard surface areas.


coating of sand should be applied over :he hard surface area before spraying in order to prevent the hard surface area from absorbing the heat nro:u the cun and molting off tho Ice. A fcorjper&bure of from If degrees to 23 negroes raroriksit Is the most ideal .for use o" the spray method*

69 Artificial illumination of the skating area is reeommended*

The KEIIA recommends 6 or more medium beam flood

lights located on poles at least 2$ feet high, with the space between the poles not to exceed L times the mounting height* The HEMA also recommends the use of 1,500 watt general ser­ vice PS-52 clear bulbs, operated at rated voltage*



locations 'o




120 '

101' «4» — fj- - »|»rs '

100 'S'

no X o (9 I »-

z 3 0 1 40










10 e 6

30* OR UNDER 30* - 7 5 ' 7 5 ' OR OVER

10 e 6

3 0 ' OR UNDER 30' - 75' 7 5 ' OR OVER

10 86

30* OR UNDER 30' - 75’ 7 5 ' OR OVER

10 8 6

12 16 24 CLA8S B INSTALLATION e 12 18

120 126 144

208 215 250

80 96 108

1 39 167 1 88

60 72 84

104 125 146

40 48 54

70 84 94









? .odlight

out for Football Lighting





26 30'



Floodlight Layout for Softball Lighting Cla?3 :‘C”









20 %






A* 30* MIN. B a40* MIN. C ,/20‘ MIN. l30* MAX. D. 130-180'


750 400 240 160

1305 696 418 ?78







60*- 00*


Floodlight Layout for Baseball Lighting


----“^KODtlGflT ’~ " Narrow Angle 250 Watt, G-30 Bulb Narrow Angle 500 Watt, (£-40 Bulb Narrow Angle 1000 Watt, 0-40 Bulb Mounting Height:

10 Feet

■ " ......... Up to 30 yards 30 yards to 50 yards 50 yards to 100 yards Poles;

One per Target


V Floodlights; 4 per court, wide beam; Lamps; 500 watt general service PS-40 bulb (operate lamps at rated volt­ age); Load; 2 kw.; Mounting Height: 20 - 25 feet above ground: Poles; Two# Ficure 7, Floodlight Layout for Archery Range Lighting and f o r Playground Badminton or Volley Ball Court Lighting


s in g l e


Play gro und c o u r t




12 MN




Figure 8. Floodlight Layout for Playground Tennis Court Lighting (Single Courts)* IV 'bio Courts or Multiples of Two Courts)

IS Multiple Use Area This area is often referred to as the outdoor gym­ nasium and is a most impoi^tant part of the outdoor facili­ ties*

The games of basketball, volleyball, tennis and the

termis-llke games, handball and activities of roller skating \md outdoor social functions may be accommodated on the multiple use area*

Ice skating may also be aeeommoelated*

(See winter skating, page 68,}

ss the name, implies, the

boundaries of one game may bo superimposed upon other gam©

boundaries * Construction* Where climatic conditions bring about deop free sing, the multiple use area should have subsoil drainage and a base of cinders or gravel as an aid to pre­ vent cracking in the surface from freezing*

Usually h. inches

of a bituminous stabilised base Is laid and after rolling, compacting and levelling, a one inch surface, as specified,

is applied*

Various surfacing materials have been and are

used but an asphalt emulsion containing cork is most desir­ able • Cement Is hard on the foot and legs of the partici­ pants and Is not a satisfactory surface.

The qualities or characteristics of good surfacing are economy of original cost and maintenance, durability, resilience,

n o n — abrasiveness, i irmncss,

from dust, utility and -rood appearance.

siaootiUioss, irceuom Then selecting

surfacing® these qualities snoula oe usea in judgxn;

76 various materials.

how products are being developed which

may bo better than asphaltic combinations, hut they are still In the experimental stage. Surface drainage. a slope of 2 inches in >0 feet is dosirable• Sleeves with caps should bo ins tailed at the time of construction for the erection of posts and equipment for the various activities, Size* An area of 30,000 to 64,000 square feet is recommended for the multiple use hard surface area.


ations from these sizes m y be desirable due to the sisa of the local school,


If it is, at present, imprac­

ticable to construct a hard surface area of this size, it is advisable! to reserve sufficient space for future construc­ tion. Location. The multiple use area should be located near the building at the opposite end from the academic classrooms.

The orientation of most games should be approxi­

mately north and south* Bachs'.ops* The construction of the backstops should be designed to care for activities which need a solid sur­ face, such as the practice of tennis strokes end the play­ ing of handball.

The solid walls should be of such height

that official sizes of handball courts are mot.



i r




Suggested Plan for wultioie Use Area

Legend A*

Handball Courts (Optional) or Basketball


Tennis, Basketball, Games of low organization


Basketball, Paddle Tennis, Volley Ball or Tennis

D, E, F, G, E, I. Orientation. Size.

Space allocated for additional hard surface areas as needed

Approximately north and south

30,000 to 64,000 square feet

Surface Drainage.

2 inches in 50 feet

Surface Material.

Asphalt Emulsion

X, Y.


*Not drawn to scale


xnmon m sm iorxow ^jscm ATton facilities Gymnasium Th© gymnasium should be planned to hone® th© Instruc­ tion and recreation activities of the school and community groups during inclement weather,

Th© school size* its pro­

gram, the climatic conditions, the attitude in the locality toward interscholastic athletics, the present community facilities available and the community us© of the school should be considered

in determining the quantity and quality

of the facilities to

bo provided*

Location* The gymnasium should be accessible to the play areas, locker .and shower rooms, to th© public and to th© pupils*

It should be isolated in a separate wing from

academic classes with provisions for night use of the gym­ nasium without opening the entire school*


ground floor

level seems most desirable, but a second floor level is acceptable*

Th© gymnasium should in no case be located in

the basement* Much is added

to appearance and safety if the gym­

nasium is placed on the th© street.

site from 100 to 300 feet back from

It is desirable to locate th© gymnasium adja­

cent to the play areas in such a manner that possible future additions will not interfere with these areas.

79 jjugfegff* 2*11® number of gymnasiums necessary is depend­ ent upon reasonable standards of class size* the universality of the program, the degree of athletic and intramural organi­ zation, upon enrollment and other available physical end health education facilities or teacher stations such as, health room, classroom* swimming pool or bowling alleys.


formula devised by the participants of the national Facili­ ties Conference (203*34) is suggested as the method for determining the number of teaching stations needed, a gym­ nasium is usually necessary in most sections of the country. Hie formula for determining the number of teaching stations needed la as follows* a*

dotal school enrollment » „ „ '^XajssT"aTser"'"

The number of physical

'm m

education classes to be scheduled dally* Humber of physical education classes daily x 1*25 of^eiriodF1pdt school hay


(Schedule) (Efficiency) (Weighting)

2 The number of teaching

stations needed. Obviously the needs for the gymnasium in th© small school will not be the same as that of the large school.


some communities a field house may be necessary while in a small community a field house would not be advisable. because of the variation In th© needs of th© various school sizes, the following types of gymnasiums are recom­ mended 5

80 Type I#

Large high schools should have separate

gymnasiums for girls ancl for hoys#

The use of a folding

partition* electrically operated m y be desirable in order to divide each of these gymnasiums into two or more separate floors* Type IX*

For medium sised schools* when th© enrol­

ment reachos th© point where it is administratively expedi­ ent to schedule boys* and girls* physical education and health classes at the same hour* a divisible gymnasium* equipped with electrically operated folding partition* is recommended*

This arrangement permits the separation of

&®xm for physical education classes and will provide a large gymnasium for exhibition games* where large spectator crowds can be accommodated* Type III*

For small rural communities where classes

can be arranged to meet without the mixing of sexes* a single gymnasium is recommended. Type XT*

A gymnasium-auditorlum is not recommended

by most authorities as It neither meets th© needs as a gym­ nasium nor as an auditorium*

Financial conditions m y dic­

tate a combination gyimas ium-audi torlimu

If it should be

cons true tod Its us© primarily should be as a gymnasium and secondarily for use as an auditorium*

This type should not

be built except for the very smallest high schools*


these small schools arc economical and whether they should or should not be built Is not within the scope of this study.


Th© o o m m d t y use of this facility would further negate Its usefulness to the school* Type ¥*

The fieldliouse#

The fieldhouso is a struc­

ture providing for, unobstructed cpaco adaptable to indoor and outdoor activities and large spectator attendance#


is in no way to be regarded as a service facility only.


fiel&house is not a substitute for a gymnasium, but comple­ mentary and supplementary to It*

Some activities may be

accommodated better in a gymnasium as dust Is usually present in th© fleld&ouas*

Pieldhcmses aro very expensive due to

their unusually large sis©.

The financial ability of the

community is as a rule the determining factor in their selec­ tion and construction. A practical and economical method of providing on© fieldhouse within a city with provision for all high schools of that city to us© the fieldhouse for athletic games and contests is suggested as this prevents duplication of large structures at each school which would ordinarily be needed to care for spectator sports• In order to eliminate duplication of shower and toilet facilities, the fieldhous© should be located adjacent to th© already existing physical education facilities*

This should

©specially b© true whoro only on© high school is located within th© city; unless other determining factors are present.

In cities containing several high schools, the fieldhouse should be located centrally and adjacent to th© exist­ ing physical educational facilities of a school in that area* Si^e#

Th© ftollhouse should be of such sice that It

m y accommodate football practice, spring baseball practice, basketball practice, basketball games, spectator sports, indoor track and field events and all other activities which include large spectator attendance * A cinder or clay run­ ning track, 8 laps to the mile is desirable, with sufficient space Inside the oval for a portable basketball floor and seating space* Ticket booths* Ticket booths should be located so as to be accessible to the traffic of the crowds*


should be provided by folding or temporary bleachers and permanent sects In the balcony. Toilets* Toilets should be conveniently located for the spectators and separate from toilets used by th© playei's or participants* A door sufficient in sise (12 feet by ll|. feet) to accommodate trucks, busses or other mechanical equipment should be provided* An engineer should be consulted regarding the essen­ tial heating, lighting, ventilation and acoustics* Sii©.

The sis© of the gymnasium floor shall mean the

free floor area available for activity.

Th© factors deter­

mining the dimensions of si&e snoalct. bo the number ana type

of activities, instructional and recreational# engaged In by th© school and by the comuntty*

‘ The criterion of square

footage is not a satisfactory method of determining size* Since basketball is th© most popular indoor sport for participants and the most popular interseholastlc sport in th© secondary schools in th© United states# appropriate spac© should be provided for accommodating th© playing of the gam© and for spectators who will attend#

spaces for

volley ball# badminton# mewcomb# paddle tennis# deck tennis# apparatus work# mass games# social dancing# conditioning exercises and individual and dual sports, may bo adequately provided for if space for basketball and spectator attend­ ance is wisely arranged and allocated during the planning and th© construction of th© gymnasium* A length of 100 feet to lGfy, feet or more is desirable*

There should b© enough length for a regulation

basketball floor of 81^ feet plus th© safety distance from th© end boundary line to the nearest obstruction of at least 9 to 10 feet at each end. Width.

A desirable floor width would be >Q feet plus

the safety distance of 5 feet on each side from th© side boundary to th© bleachers# plus the space for folding bleach­ ers*

If all seats are of the permanent type# then enough

spac© should be provided for volleyball cross courts with an out of bounds area of from 3 to p feet at each end*

A u> to

70 foot width is acceptable., but this width is exclusive of

space for spectators» Height . The recommended height free of obstruction should be at least 20 feet and preferably 22 feet or more, if a balcony is provided*, Seating* Bourn arrangement for spectators mist be provided, but this space should be secondary to space pro­ vision for pupil activity* The seating capacity for a gymnasium is a problem which involves consideration of the local community*


activities, the interest in athletics, the siae of tho com­ munity, the enrollment of the school, the proximity of other cities and the athletic rivalry determine the need* tfhon planning Indoor seating it is essential to consider average attendance rather than maximum attendance.


tional space should be considered for emergency seating. Standards for determining seating. Bleacher seats, folding, telescopic or knock-down type require 19 inches to 22 inches for each row of seats.

A standard of 25 inches to

32 inches for each row of permanent seats is recommended.


standard width of 16 inches to 18 laches for each person when seated is recommended# A standard of 2 l/Z square foot per person 'when seated on bleacher seats is reasonable for determining seat­ ing capacity* Floors* Gymnasium floors should be durable, easy to maintain, resilient, smooth, fire resistant end economical

in Installation* The above mentioned characteristics depend to some extent upon the manner of construct ion and th© materials used*

Provision should be made to guard against noistup©

and to ventilate the space beneath th© floor*

An acceptable plan for constructing the sub-flooring of the gymnasium is to place impregnated sleepers on cement supports with the joints resting on the supports to which la nailed a sub-floor of rough lumber laid diagonally*

/ layer

of tar paper is placed on top of the sub-flooring* Another plan of constructing fch© sub-flooring is to have the impregnated sleepers or felt lined e creeds imbedded in concrete on 12 inch centers, anchored and vm tor-proofed

with a ventilated air space over which is plaee-d a rough pine floor j/B inch thick, laid diagonally and covered with tar paper* Th© top flooring should be hard maple, tongue-and-

grooved* to X 3A

The width of the boards should be from 1 1/2 inches inches*

The thickmss of the board is usually 3A

inch to 1 1/8 inches*

Other hard woods such as beech, birch,

or oak are satisfactory*

Wood blocks sot in m s tic are well

received by some, but are not generally recommended for the flooring in the gymnasium. Harking * lines should bo scratched into 'the floor for throe or .four games which require boundary linos and painted In different colors before the final coat is appliocu


Th© qualities of a good floor finish a m

durability,, economy, ©as® of cleaning, non-slippery, fire resistant and a light reflecting factor of 25 per cent to 35 per cent* Bakelit® or phenol finishes are recommended.


linseed oil is a most economical finish for the floor, but it does not prevent cracks fro© opening and does not qualify as a most desirable finish. Walls, Walls should be constructed which ar© thick enough to support apparatus or an apparatus strip.


comers and coving at the base of the wall are desirable features. The materials used in the lower walls should be easily washed, hard to stain and not easily scratched*


colored glased or pressed brick ar© desirable materials and glased tile is acceptable* Th© upper walls should be eons true ted with considera­ tion for acoustical effects* Brick, glased tile, and cinder block are the most desirable materials*

wood, concrete and

acoustical plaster ar© sometimes used, however, acoustical plaster should never b© used where it may be exposed to rough usage• Windows * The windows may be located on either or both long sides starting 10 feet to 12 feet above the floor. Th© glass area is usually 1/6 to l/]. of the total floor area.

Tinted or obscure glass Is recommended on the sides

exposed to the diroot sun light * Glass brick has bees used with varying results*.

Consideration of possible heat, glare

and replacement i© urged In the use of glass brick* Type of windows* The pivoted or louver type is desirable*

All large windows should be mechanically operated

with the exception that if in the gymnasia® visual aids instruction is to be used and darkening equipment will be required, arms and levers should not interfere with th© instal­ lation of th# darkening equipment• Northern exposure saw-tooth sky lighting has some advantages end is perhaps desirable In soma locations*


©id® window© are necessary if this type of installation Is desired.

Fixtures Basketball backboards* Six or more official back­ board© for basketball are needed#

They should b© located to

accommodate a main court and the two or more cross courts# The backboards for th© cross courts should be hinged so that they may b© pulled up toward the ceiling, during official games. Chalkboard * A permanent chalkboard may be desired and It should b© located near a corner at th© entrance to the gymnasium.

Ten linear feet of chalkboard, green or

whit© is recommended a© desirable-*

Bulletin board,

k cork bulletin board at least 3 feet

by $ feat and. preferably larger should be located near the entrance from the gymnasium and should be neatly framed.


the board is glass enclosed, It should be screened, lighted and provided with a look. Cuspidors different in form and color from drinking fountains should be recessed on an inside wall,

Two or more are desirable.

A constant flow or inter­

mittent flow of water to these cuspidors is desirable. Wall base * A baffle plat© or a 2 inch by hr inch angle iron at the junction of the floor and wall is desir­ able. floor*

It should 'be fastened to the wall instead of the a

quarter round of wood may be used instead of

steel and is acceptable* Press box. A press box may b© desirable if the gym­ nasium is designed for large crowds and exhibition matches. Broadcasting.


At the present time many

towns and cities permit interecholas tic sports to be broad­ cast directly from the gymnasium. be given to this procedure*

Some consideration should

A broadcasting booth or booths

may bo desirable along' with electrical wiring and connections for telephones.

The extent to which facilities are provided

for this will be governed by th© policy of th© local board of education. Broadcasting facilities are usually located so that an unobstructed view of the game is possible and so that

the booths do not obstruct the vlew of spectutors# These fee illties should be large enough and inde­ pendently arranged in order to protect the ecjuipmont from damage by the normal flow of the crowd. Bind alcove*. A band ale ore may he desirable too, but it Is not essential*

A convenient separate entrance to the

alcove is roeamended* flisoellaneotts*

The placing of attachments for th®

hanging of equipment from the ceiling, If desired, should be done at the time of construction*

Lobby or Foyer The main lobby should present a pleasing architec­ tural appearance in conformity with the nature of the build­ ing and should reflect th© past history of the school#


sive lobbies Independent of the rest of the building are desirable* Th© floor® of th© lobby should be water proofed.-


razao, tile, linoleum, concrete and hard wood are acceptable materials* The walls should be faced with hard smooth tile or brick or other scratch proof material,

sanitary coves at

th© floor and bullnos© brick at projecting angles are desir­ able*

90 Entrances and Exits Th© gymnasium should have outside doors or exits separate from the general school doors. should he on a street,

The main entrance

Th© doors should be so located that

Individual* will not have to cross the main floor or use the gymnasium as a passage way to other parts of the building. Doors from the gymnasium and activity rooms should siring outward* It Is desirable to have a minimum number of stair® or steps.

Outside step® should not b© exposed to the weather*

Steps should have a non-*siip safety tread and a separate nosing set flush with the tread.

Preferred material® for

treads are stone, til®, alundum.

Acceptable materials are

concrete or rubber tile,

Contra-Indicated or debatable Features A basement location of the gysmasium is undesirable^ A b alcony running track Is not desirable In the main gymnasium. Cold air vents directly behind th© baskets ar© undesirable, Electrical outlets in the floor are not recommended. Cement floors are undesirable for pupil use in th© gymnasium*

Oil finishes for floors ar© not approved.


garnish should not be used on th© gymnasium floor* Oaudy, useless and expensive ornamentation Is con­ demned* The old type skylight has not been satisfactory because of condensation, loss of heat and excessive sun­ light, Floors built on springs are questionable. Yens©red doors should not be used at the outside entrances* Fluorescent lighting is still In the experimental stage, but It has some qualities of ideal lighting and may be the lighting of the future*

Auxiliary Gymnasium A space should be provided for wrestling, apparatus and tusfcling* instruction for small groups, fencing, social groups such as dances or community groups.

In some situa­

tions a separate wrestling room m y be desired*

If so, a

space 30 feet by 50 feet la recommended. The auxiliary gymnasium, should be located adjacent and accessible to th© main gymnasium and also accessible from a secondary corridor* A maximum sis© of 1*5 fast by 70 feet may be desirable In a large school while an optimum sis© of 30 feet by 50 feet would seam advisable depending upon th© intended us©*

92 Folding partitions may also be desired in order to isolate th® auxiliary gymnasium from the main synmasii.M and yet still be able to us® It for seating of spectators on roll—a-way telescopic bleachers at athletic events, A kitchen should be accessible from this unit in order to car© for banquets or other social gatherings. Storage space for equipment should be accessible to th© auxiliary gymnasium. Heatings ventilation* light* materials for floors and windows should conform to other contiguous areas, Tack boards and chalk boards should b© located near the ontrance.

Remedial or Special Exercise Room A room for teaching students needing remedial instruc­ tion or special exercise Is desirable,

It should be located

adjacent 'to the gymnasium end accessible without climbing up or down stairs,

A space* 20 feet by 30 feet by 10 feet*

would seem to be sufficient* however* the enrollment may indi­ cate that additional space may b© desirable, A special remedial room may not be practical In some

schools* in which case a portion of th© auxiliary gymnasium may be allocated to remedial activities* Windows are desirable but should be located high enough to provide as much wall space as possible• Obscure glass is recommended.

Tackboards and chalk boards should bo provided near the entrance* Hie walls and ceilings should b© pleasing in color and capable of being cleaned*

Ceilings should be acousti­

cally treated. Lighting, heating and ventilation should conform to standards appropriate to the activity*

Club Hoorn A multiple use room with a home-like atmosphere should be provided in the physical education unit for the use of individuals and groups*

the club room could be used

for meetings of such school groups as leader’s club, letter men’s club and athletic associations.

It might also be used

by comsmmlty groups such as boy scouts, girl scouts and the parent teacher associations. At least on© such room should be provided and two rooms may be desirable*

A plan of placing folding parti­

tions between the boys* club room and girls* club room makes possible one large area which may be used for community group meetings or for parties* A minimum sis© of IlOO square feet is recommended for the club room* A fireplace is desirable*

closets for wraps and

cabinets, equipped with locks, for the storing of materials used by the different groups should be provided*


and drinking fountains should b© directly adjacent or acces­ sible*

Standard classroom construction, ventilation, floor­

ing and lighting are recommended* A desirable location for the club room is on the

first floor level directly accessible from the foyer* ever, a front basement location Is acceptable,


Entrance to

the club room should be arranged for evening and night use without providing the user© access to the rest of the build­ ing*

A separate outside entrance may b© desirable.

Bowling Alley and Hlfle Range• In some situations where community use of the physi­ cal education facilities is contemplated, a space for bowl­

ing alleys and a rifle range may be desired*

These com­

panion facilities should be located In the basement parallel to the long sides of the building with separate outside entrances to each or from a basement foyer served by an out­ side entrance,

Hatatorium The tana nat&torlum shall mean the building housing the swimming pool, including the decks, the service facili­ ties and the space for spectators. Location# The natatorlum should be located on a sit© free from dust, earth tremors ami vibration:,,


should, be given to the nature of the sub-surface structure to determine the elevation*

Railroads and heavy traffic

tend to cause cracks In the mills of the pool foundation and location, near these luusarda should be avoided# Th© swimming pool should be located on the ground floor and as an integral part of the gymnasium unit or in a separate wing and served by the same locker room and toi­ let facilities#

The placing of th© swfauing pool in th©

basement is to be avoided#

Pull southern exposure plus

east and west fenestration Is the most desirable#

A pool

located above the ground level m y have the benefit of th© natural lighting but this location Is not preferable to the ground floor level# S i m * The swimming pool should bo designed in accord­ ance with th© Xnteracholastic and Intercollegiate regula­ tions.

There is a trend toward the 75 foot pool and some

desire a pool 25 meters In length#

A pool 75 feet by ii.2

feet would seem most desirable for large high'schools engag­ ing in competitive swimming as this width would accommodate six lanes seven feet wide which is Hie official width of lanes#

A pool 75 feet by 28 feet or more in width is an

acceptable sis©#

The length of the pool, inside finished

dimensions should be 75 foot plus a fraction of an Inch over, in order that any record established In the pool may be official#.

96 The former standard of 60 feet by 20 foot represents early construction and does not meet the official swissning meet standards*

A record mad© in a 60 foot pool is not rec­

ognised* as the more frequent turn enables the swimmer to travel through water faster*

The community us® of the pool

requires a larger pool than the former standard* Shape» The rectangular shaped indoor pool is recom­ mended for educational Institutions* Depth* The minimum depth of the pool in the shallow end should be 3 feet when the closed overflow system Is used. (203*86) The slope of the bottom generally recommended is a gradual slope of not more than 1 foot in 15' feet In the shallow area, under foot in

5 feet, and a slop© of not more than 1

3 feet in the deep area,

A one-meter board requires an area of water of proper depth approximately 700 square feet*

The minimum depth for

one-meter board Is 8 feet and 9 l/2 feet is recommended for safety reasons.

A 3 motor board requires a minimum depth of

9 l/2 feet and 11 feet or more is recommended for maximum safety*

An area of deep water approximately 1,000 square

feet (25 foot by I4.O feet) Is recoasnended for 3 meter board, Contour of the bottom.

■munp. ii*Mii«ffuw— — — »


wni ...wmigi.

tom of the pool are used.

Various contours of the bot-

The shovel shaped pool has been

the moot common type of construction.

It provides for the

maximum depth over the entire deep area with the deepest point near the end wall*

Prom the deep end wall, the bottom

of the pool should be pitched to the drain#

The single

spoon shaped pool resembles the shovel shaped pool with the exception that the maximum depth is provided near the end of the board where it Is needed#

The floor then slopes upward

to a depth of 7 feet at the wall#

The hopper bottom or

Hdouble spoon11 provide® sufficient depth under the boards where it is needed but the floor of the pool then graduates upward to both side walls and end walls* The spoon or hopper shaped bottom seems to be more economical in structure, reduces the amount of water to be treated and heated and aids in the movement of accumulations to the low points*

Sufficient depth of the water along the

walls is necessary for safety in the spoon or hopper type bottoms*

Consideration should be given to this type of con­

tour especially if a pool Is to be provided with a high board* Fool deck* The deck should be constructed around the entire perimeter of the pool*

A desirable wdith at the

sides of the pool Is 10 feet with 8 feet as an acceptable width*

A desirable width at the deep end is 20 feet with a

width of 15 feet as acceptable*

A desirable width at the

shallow end is 20 feet with 12 feet as an acceptable minimum* The deck should be constructed of materials which are light in color and which are easily cleaned.

The finish of

the deck should have a carpet, lift, or oatmeal finish If cement or mastic materials are used,


non-slip tils is the

most desirable finish, however, ceramic tile, terra cotta and white cement with white aggregate are acceptable materials. Another material which has been used with success as a finish Is mastic containing eupric oxychlorj te or copper compounds. It is claimed to help control athlete’s foot infection and is easily applied and does not crack.

The Huhbelit© material

is worthy of Investigation. The slope of the pool deck should be 3 inches in 10 feet, away from the pool to a coving which joins the deck and the wall, with covered drains sot flush with the floor ©very 10 feet*

These drains should lead to the sewer.

Pool marking. Depth markings should be permanently embedded In til© or other approved materials, in contrast­ ing colors, on top of the coping, on the sides of the coping facing the water above the overflow drains at least at 3 feet, 5 feet and the deepest level*

If finances are avail­

able, depth markings at each five linear feet may bo desir­ able.

The words, "SHALLOW" and "DEEP" should be permanently

embedded at the shallow and deep ends respectively, on top of the coping and on the face of the coping*

All markings

should be set In tile 1 Inch wide and 6 to 0 inches high. Distance markings are not essential but symbol or numeral markings are useful* Lane markings should be 7 feat apart in order to be official*

Quid© lines in the center of each lane, 10 inches

wide starting Ip feet from each end of the pool, with a cross

99 mark 7 feet from the and wall of the pool, should be laid in th© bottom of the pool*

The markings should be of the same

material but in contrasting colors* usually used for guide lines*

Green or black are

Paint is not a satisfactory

material for marking* Pool lining* The pool lining should be of tile or other approved materials*

White cement with white aggre­

gate is an acceptable finish for the pool* Coping and parapet* The coping should be 12 inches wide* 12 inches above the water line find extend 1 inch above the walkway on the sides of the pool*

At the end of the

pool the coping should be 2lj. inches wide and 18 inches above the water level.

Some local regulations may forbid the use

of a parapet, if so, the coping should be only 12 inches above the water line at the ends* Steps and ladders.

Recessed steps are the most


desirable although recessed ladders are acceptable, or ladders should b© located near the corners.


In large

pools over 75 feet in length it may be advisable to locate additional steps and ladders at the middle of each side* Steps should be 3 inches deep by 18 inches wide made of material which 1® non-si ip and impervious to moisture.


rails should not protrude into the pool, but should be set in the coping. mended.

Hand niches In the deck or coping are recom­

Material for hand rails should be non-corrosive.

100 The ceiling of the natatorium should be


treated for acoustics with moisture-proof material#

tical til©and, artificial sfcono are best but Cork board


most expensive-#

is also rocosBaonded• Thecelling should hanaon-

iz® with tii© color scheme of the natatorium# are desirable*

Light colors

A light reflection co-efficient of from 85

to 65 per cent is recomnended*

There should .;© at least 12

feet of unobstructed space above th© top of the diving board* (203*86)

This Is true regardless of whether a one-meter or

a three-meter board is used# Overflows#


The closed system of overflows

in which the water from th© overflows goes through th© fil­ ters and water treatment and is then returned to th© pool has several advantages* tages seem

The two most outstanding advan­

to be that less water andheat Is wasted and th©

water level is ©asler to maintain#

In th© open system of overflows, water received in th© overflows Is diverted directly to the sewer*

This is

no doubt a waste of water and heat and It I© necessary to replace this water in order to maintain a required depth#

Th© type to be selected usually depends upon the local or ©tat© board of health requirements# Shape of the overflows# used, th© open and th© recessed*

Two types of overflows are The open type would seem

to be more practical as it is more easily cleaned.

The top

of th© overflow© should, b© level anu tlie trough should have

101 a pitch of 3 laches la 10 feet to tot ins of aaaple oise located at Intervals of not more than 1$ foot*


local or state board of health laws may prevent the use of the closed system* Inlets* Efficient circulation depends upon the loca­ tion and number* of inlets and outlets*

Many controversial

theories are advanced concerning this detail.

They should

fee located to prevent treated water from, going directly into the outlet,

inlets should be submerged and spaced to pro­

duce uniform circulation without dead spots* and carry deposits on the bottom of the pool to the outlets. Main drain. The main drain or drains should be located at the low point of the pool and should be covered with a grating designed for safety and fixed in such a man­ ner that it will stay in place*

Some authorities recommend

that it be of sufficient B i m to drain the pool in k hours. A drain of such size in many locations would flood th© sewer system and since pools with water treatment equipment ar© seldom drained* a reconsaonclation of this sloe would not seem logical.

Hapid drainage suitable for the particular instal­

lation would seem more feasible* Clarification. Filtration alone is not a safe method of bacterial control.

Adequate filters are essential aids

in maintaining a practically turbidity free water which is necessary to sanitation and personal physical safety. Type of filter.

Filters may be of the pressure*

102 gravity or the diatomlte byp@* tors

Th© vertical pressure T u ­

to be preferred for indoor pool#, since they require

less space than the gravity,

although the latter seen# to

be more effective in removing bacteria.

The diatom!to fil­

ter has been used by industries for many years but only recently during the war has this type been used to filter water*

It requires less space and seems to perform as well

as either of the other two.

Consideration should bo given

to this type of filter before final selection Is mad©, Sis© of filter.

The pool capacity, in gallons, peak

load, hours of us#, and th© capacity of the circulation sys­ tem determine the sis# of the filters*

Regardless of th©

type or size used, they should be properly designed and adapted to the particular installation*

Th© capacity of th®

recirculation system should be such that a turn aver of the water in 0 hours or less is provided, Disinfection, Removing dirt and. foreign matter from th© pool water Is only part of tha problem of maintaining clean water*

Th© other part Is the destruction of infective

materials which enter th© pool*

Chlorine is the most gener­

ally used and the most satisfactory*

It still has many dis­

advantages, such as, causing irritation of the eyes, nose, and throat of the swimmer and It m y be dangerous to use* Hypochlorite of lime or soda is commonly used with good results*

Ultra-violet ray is used but produces no residual

in tli© pool*

Bromine appears to have certain advantages as

a disinfectant agent*

They are as follows:

203 Xm It is more effective than chlorine on certain bacteria particularly so on B* Coli, 2* It is almost entirely non-irritating to bathers* eyes, skin, mucous membranes, etc#, even at residuals many times in excess of its optimum dosage* (0.2 ppm*) 3* It is safer to handle than gaseous chlo­ rine because it Is not under pressure and liable to explode or leak* (It Is shipped "White Label”'.) ij,« Th© equipment for Its application Is simp!©, inexpensive and fool-proof. 5* It m s available without priority during th© emergency and th© supply Is unlimited.

6 . It can b© applied without nuisance during periods of excessive bather loads, when greater pro­ tection Is needed* 7*

It Is less affected by sunlight than chlo­

rine « 8* Residuals with bromine can be maintained at water temperatures considerably higher than with chlorine. 9# Bromine dosages can b© applied without nuisance, far In excess of that possible with chlo­ rine and for this reason resistant bacteria and viruses, etc* can be eliminated without spoiling the water for swimming. (199) Seating* Spectator attendance depends upon many factors, such as, the popularity of the sport and the inter­ scholastic competition*

Just how much space should be

allocated to seating of spectators will vary in each local­ ity*

When planning for seating, It is essential to consider

th© average rather than the maximum attendance. Type* The folding type of bleacher seat would seem to be preferred because of economy of space, multiple use


of space when seating is not required, and ©as© and con­ venience of cleaning the area*

Fixed chair type of seats

are more comfortable but are expensive and extravagant in the space used*

Fixed seats may be justified if used as th©

upper tiers above th© folding seats or if they are placed over lobbies or other rooms or placed where th© space can not be used for any other activity* Location#

The best place to view a meet or exhibi­

tion is at the deep end or on the sides near the deep and# The first row of seats should start at the deck level and be separated from the pool by a splash wall at least 3 feet high#

Th© rows of seats should be elevated in tiers in such

a mimer that all spectators will have a view of th© swimmer in the nearest lane*

Balconies have boon used but the sight

lines are usually poor unless a huge seating capacity has been constructed*

If balconies are included in th© plans,

no part should extend over th® pool# The spectators* gallery should be isolated from the swimmers and should have separate entrances*

It should also

be accessible to students and public without opening the other parts of the building during exhibitions or meets. When planning for the folding type of bleachers, a reasonable standard of 2*5 square feet per person would seem adequate for determining capacity# Fixtures. All metal fixtures and equipment should b@ of such materials and construction to withstand corrosion

105 and moisture.

Benches of concrete should be provided if the

walkway is 9 feet or wider. CSmlkboard*

A permanent chalkboard located in the

side wall near th© deep end is desirable.

A chalkboard at

the shallow end of th© pool is optional. Bulletin board*

A moisture-proof bulletin board in

th© side wall near th© entrance is desirable. Cuspidors*

Foot operated cuspidors should be pro­

vided In the natatorlum room preferably recessed in on© or both walls. Drinking fountains#

Foot operated drinking fountains

should be located or recessed in the aide wall of the nata­ torlum# Hoe© bibs*

At least one hoseblb connection at each

end and at the aid® of the pool Is desirable,. should be recessed at least 2 Inches*

These bibs

They should bo high

enough to get a pail or water container under them. Score board.

On© or more score boards, visible to

the gallery are desirable*. Springboards•

Official springboards are desirable*

Th© 16 foot board Is preferred, but the l!«.. foot board is acceptable. matting.

These boards should be covered with cocoa-

A mechanically adjusted fulcrum is desirable for

both the low and high boards.

Provision for locking the

boards in place, so semi-permanent adjustment can be con­ trolled by th© person in charge has been suggested to prevent

too miany boards from being broken#

Provision which makes

possible ike temporary removal of th© board by swinging It out of position and by fastening th© top to the wall m y b© desirable during races. Height and slope,

The forward ©rid of the one~mt©r

board Is approximately 1-.0 inches above the water.

A three*

meter board is approximately 10 .iXeb above th© water.


platform for a whree-meiter board should be provided with steps and hand rails*

The slop© of the boards should be

2 to 2 l/2 degrees upward* Office * An office for th© swimming pool Instructor should he located near the deep end.

A space of at least

120 square feet or more should be provided* Large windows which permit a view of the entire pool should be placed between the pool and the office.


to the office from outside th© pool room should be provided. Also a door from the pool room is necessary. A telephone# not connected with the school system. Is desirable* Toilet, lavatory and shower should be included in th© office. Access channel or tunnel. An access channel should be constructed around the entire 'pool ©asin.

The tunnels

should be of sufficient sise, at least Ij. to 6 feet, for easy access to all the equipment anci plumbing*

without th©

access tunnel minor I’Qpairs lean to excessive costs, lights should ba included.



Contour of Pool Bottoms


WATER IE v e u

of w a l l

Figure 30.


Shovel Shape



Figure 13..


Spoon Shape






Figure 12. Hopper or Double Spoon Shape (Cross Section of Deep End)

108 CHAPTER VI SSmriOE FACILITIES Service facilities are those spaces, structures and permanent fixtures intended primarily for the health, com­ fort and convenience of the pupil© and other persons using the physical education facilities.

Locker or Dressing Hoorn The locker room should he planned to meet the needs of the particular school.

Factors such as light, ventila­

tion, accessibility, coasaunity use, supervision, numbers to be accommodated and the type of locker system to be used must be considered when planning this facility. Location.

The locker room should be on the same

floor level as the gymnasium and the swimming pool and adjacent to th© shower room and toweling room, in direct access to the playflelds*

When th© gymnasium is located on

th© second floor the location of the locker room beneath th© gymnasium is an acceptable location.

Southern exposure Is

preferred* Slse* 12 feet.

The ceiling height is usually from 10 feet to

Most authorities recoasnend that the width should

not be more than twice the height of the coiling,


locker rooms have southern exposure as much width as three times the height Is acceptable.

With clerestory lighting

additional width nay bo attained.

The length of the locker

room will depend upon the number of lockers and parsons to be accommodated and the type of locker system.

Also the

arrangement of the lockers, the width of th® main aisles, th© number of secondary aisles, and. whether one or two benches are placed between the tiers of lockers should be considered in determining the length of the locker room.

In general a

minimum of 12 square feet is required for each individual at th® peak load plus additional space for lockers and for approaches.

This will vary from 12 square feet to 20 square

feet for each Individual at th© peak load* Th© recommended width for main aisles in the dressing room Is from 6 feet to S feet, depending upon the amount of traffic.

For the secondary aisles, from $ feet to 6 feet are

needed If one bench Is used between th© tiers of lockers and

7 l/2 feet plus the width of th© two seat boards if two benches are used. Types of locker systems.

.1 iiJl>iiijfciM»nm.i

iir i r r p

iim mwW iM taM M wN.

**r«|Sf.*|iiiiitaifii.*i nfcuiMwifl

Many types of locker sys-

terns are being used, but no one system seems to meet the needs of all secondary schools satisfactorily*

Two needs

must fee met by any locker system, a place for storage of uniforms and a place to safely guard the street clothes. These needs are met most adequately by th© individual locker, but th© Individual locker is also th© most expensive in use of space.

These lockers are usually constructed of steel in

the following sizes:

a full length locker 12 inches by 12

110 inches by 72 inches, a 12 Inch by 12 inch by 60 Inch locker, or 12 inches by 12 inches by St inches or they may be halfsize lockers, 12 inches by 12 inches by 36 Inches, 7 1/2 inches by 12 inches by St Inches or even 60 inches or 72 Inches in length. A more recent trend is to provide for the storage of the ‘ uniform in a metal box which la built in tiers adjacent to the dressing looker*

Some times it may be practical to

have a separate room for the storage lockers and in th© dress­ ing room have enough full length dressing lockers to accom­ modate the peak load plus ten per cent*

The storage lockers

when built In conjunction with the dressing lockers are usually In a ratio of fg11, 5:1 or 8:1 depending on th© num­ ber of classes per day. All lockers should be ©quipped with a combination lock controlled by a master key, The basket system Is not recommended because of cost of maintaining an adult attendant, time lost in getting and returning the basket, general sanitation of th© system and the hard usage received*

Some schools have modified the

basket system into a self-service unit with rasher good results. Gelling*

fhe ceiling should be light In color and

treated to reduce noise, Entrance and exifco.

cement plaster Is acceptable* Th© locker r 'om should be

directly accessible from the gymnasium and drying room and

1X1 doors should load to fcho toilet and shower room pas sac®.*


door direct to th© playground and gymnasium is desirable. Th© location of the doors should he considered from the standpoint of all Instructional units and from the stand­ point of community use.

Entrances should he screened prefer­

ably by an offset* or by a baffle or double set of swinging doors» Humber of looker rooms*

A locker room for physical

education classes* faculty-oomimity locker unit and team rooms are recommended In large schools*

(For further dis­

cussion* see Teato Rooms* page 116. Provision should be mad® for checking valuables in or near the locker room. Floors. The floors of the locker room should be non-slip* Impervious to water, light In color and easily cleaned*

A non-slip til© is best but most expensive.


ras 20 is recouaaended if a sufficiently non-slip finish can be attained*

Cement Is most economical.

If cement is used

it should bo dust proof and have an abrasive added* The floors should be constructed without joints or cracks*

The comers should be rounded with a coving at the

junction of the walls and floor*

If cement is used it should

extend up the wall at least 6 inches*

In order to get good

drainage when th© floors are scrubbed or hosed, they should be pitched to a drain or drains with a minimum slope of on©fourth inch to the foot*


The materials eomonly used ape glased trick,

cement plaster and recently glass brick has been need to provide additional natural light*

All corners should be

rounded* Windows» The glass area should bo from one-sixth to one-fourth of the total floor area with the windows start­ ing at least 5 1/2 feet above the floor and extending to the ceiling*

To Insure privacy th© windows should be non­


Frosted or obscure glass is raconmended with

•the rough side out for ease of washing* recommended*

The louver typo 1©

The hardware of the windows should bo of

moisture resistant and of rust resistant material* Fixturea*

Stationary benches, 17 inches high by o

to 10 inches wide, securely attached to the floor are recom­ mended*

The seat boards made of oak or maple with a smooth

finish Is desired* Lockers should bo installed on a ]p to 6 inch concrete bass with a cove at the junction of the floor and th© base* Lookers should be sot in tiers oaok to Lack perpen­ dicular to th© windows in order to obtain the best natural lighting* A book shelf near the entrance is recommonclGd if provisions have not been made to car© for the eooks in the lookers* Cuspidors and drinking fountains eliouln bo located in the locker room*

(So© page 126 for standards•)


should be installed on the wall space in the line of passage to the exit and should not be located over the lavatories* Two full length mirrors are desirable but not essential# Lockers with a heat pipe laid in the base and a venti­ lation exhaust at the top are desirable.

Shower Room Location, The shower room should be adjacent to the locker room and swimming pool.

The flow of the traffic

should be from the locker room past or through the toilets, to the showers, to or past the entrance to the pool., to the towel dispensing windows, to the toweling room and then back to the looker room, Hntranc© and exits. Double doors opening in the direction of the traffic is desirable*

If a circuitous

route is not provided, double doors, each opening In one direction, one marked WI H% th© other n0UTw are acceptable. Size,

The size of the shower room will depend upon

the number* of persons to be accommodated in th© peak load* Th© optimum number of shower heads in the peak load is on© shower for each three boys,

Th© average number of shower

heads is on© for each four boys In a peak load*

The opti-

mma number of square feet for each shower head is 20. acceptable minimum Is Ip square feet.


lumbar or shower rooms. A faculty shower Is advisable in a large school, but if the faculty, comunmity and visit­ ing team room is combined, then the showers far this facility should be combined*

Several small shower roams are prefer­

able to on© large one* Floors« All floors In shower rooms should be as nearly non-slip as possible and impervious to water*


seems to be the most desirable but also the most expensive* Cement with, an abrasive added or a carpet or lift-finish is acceptable and the most economical* tory if non-slip*

Terrasso Is satisfac­

Most terrasoo floors arc finished too

smoothly for shower or dressing room floors. It Is desirable to slope the floor from the center to the gutters along two or throe sides with drains In the corners*

A slop© of one-fourth Inch In one foot is recom­

mended* Thor©

should be no steps or ledges in the shower

room*The floors should extend

up the wall at least 6 Indies

In th© shower room with a coving at the junction of the floor and wall. Plumbing* All [ip©s should L-o accessible from an access chamber or exposed In the shower room, are costly to replace or r©j)&ir# be provided In the access chamber*

burled pipes

Artificial light should All pitmioIn,;■' an. •''■’ •1cl ao

Type of yshowers* r \

MW— Wi^

iy u m

nr T irtg ti i m

ik i im

Open showers with a few individual

showers for after school use are recommended for pupils* central control is desirable for open showers.



operated showers are desirable for faculty, community and visiting team us©.

Progressive showers are satisfactory

where large classes shower in a short time*

A single master

control easily operated Is recommended• The shower heads should be self cleaning and con­ structed to permit dismantling only with a special wrench. They should be equipped with mixing valves or anti-scald


Ball and socket as well as non-adjustable shower

heads are commonly used, Th© shower* heads should approximately at shoulder height.



Shower aisles should be at

right angles to the window, if possible. Celling. The ceiling should be constructed of hardened cement plaster or tile.

A curved surface la suggested so

th© moisture or condensation will drain against the wall, Tli© ceiling should be light in color, balls. Desirable materials for walls are glassed til© and smooth faced trick.

Hardened cement is acceptable.

Slate is sometimes used for facing.

If slat© is used, it

should extend to the colling and b© provided with drains at th© bottom to prevent water from soaking 'through th© walls behind the slat©.

All comers should be rounded.

116 Contra-!n&ic at©d Features 1*

Avoid th© use of paint in th© shower room.


Thor© should be no built-in foot tub,


There should be no floor covering or steps,

4.* There should be no curb to shower entrance, 5 * Plaster should not be used, 6 , Ho corrosive mefcal should be used, 7#

Light switches should not be placed in th©

shower room*

Team Rooms It is desirable to have separate rooms for athletic teams*

In small schools, an arrangement of several large

lockers located in one end of the sain locker room for the home team is satisfactory.

The entire room and equipriant

should be such as to prevent damage by Irat© or elated athletes or visiting teams.

Team rooms should have a sepa­

rate entrance from student locker rooms, be equipped with lockers, hooks and a shower and drying room. to 300 square feet or nor© is desirable*

An area of 200

Team rooms located

conveniently to the gymnasium, accessible to showers, and toilets are acceptable. b© narrow and short, community and faculty.

All necessary passage ways should

Visiting team room® may be used 'by th© Lockers should be air conditioned

In team rooms v/ith heating pipe in th© base and a fan system

117 drawing th©

air out at th® top*

for boy© is desirable*

A minimum of two team rooms

An area of 34 square feet per person

during th© peak period load plus

sufficient space for lockers

plus 10 per cent is recommended •Lockers should b© 12 inches by 12 inch©® by J2 inches*

Check Room A space for storing wraps and clothing during exhibi­

tion games and other spectator sports and during the evening us© of the physical education facilities is desirable*


cheek room should b© located m a r the gymnasium* preferably in the lobby*

The apparatus room smy be used, in a school,

as a check room in which case provision must be mad© for temporary rods for the hanging of clothes*

Towel Room and Toweling Room Location* A door from the shower room should open directly into the toweling room with the flow of traffic past the dispensing door of the towel room*

A chute Into

th© towel room should be provided so soiled towels may be returned* Slso*

An area of 15 square feet per shower ho ad is

recommended for th© sis© of th© toweling or drying room. Th© towel room should be of sufficient sis© to care for the


towel storage and dispensing*

A room 6 foot to 8 feet wide

by 10 feet to 1> feet long by 10 feet to 12 feet high is usually sufficient for towels#

If other laundry materials

are to be dispensed and stored here* additional space will be neee&s&ry* Floors*

The floors, coiling and walls of the drying

room and towel room should be of the same material and the same qualities as the contiguous areas*

Floor drainage

away from the towel room to a drain or to the shower room Is imperative * The towel room should be equipped wi th a lock, storage shelve® and a dispensing window or Dutch doors*


ADMIS'13T M TIVE FACILITIES Administrative facilities are those spaces or struc­ tures utilised primarily by the staff conducting or maintain­ ing a specific program and which are primarily for their convenience and effectiveness#

Office bulk© This unit includes such facilities as are deemed necessary for the administrative personnel including office space and dressing room, shower and toilet facilities.


The office should be located near the

entrance to the gymnasium* on the floor level and convenient for direct supervision of the exercise floor and looker rooms* If possible, It should also be located for supervision of playfields,

In departments with several instructors, it Is not necessary to have each office located so as to permit view of the locker and shower room# Size ♦

A space 10 feet by 12 foot or a unit sia© of

120 feet is a desirable sis© for an office for each instruc­ tor#

If the school is to bo used for community recreation,

an office should be provided, for the recreational leader or leaders*

A unit of 120 square feet should be added for each

additional Instructor#

A space of 120 square feet Is desirable

120 for a waiting room and clerical space. For th© combined shower-dressing room a space of 80 square feet would seem adequate for two or three instructors

and a space of 120 square feet for four or five instructors#

Supply Storage A storage room for all supplies such as balls, bats, archery tackle, paddles, etc. is essential in the gymnasium unit.

A location adjacent to the gymnasium is desirable

but not essential. to the office*

Th© room should be located conveniently

Humidity should be controlled as a dry

atmosphere is essential where supplies are stored.

Some authorities prefer to have one room for storage of current or seasonal supplies and one for dead or non­ seas enable equipment and other items such as new equipment or reserve equipment .

A solid wall between the two rooms,

with access to the dead storage room, via the current supply room is advisable.

The spec© required will vary with the individual school.

Usually a space of 160 square feet to 300 square

feet is sufficient for most schools*

In schools with less

than 100 enrolled, pupils in the high school will usually need from 00 square feet to 100 square feet for storage. Th© door to the supply room should be sturdy and protected "by looks.

A door such as a Dutch door should v.o

used If a dispensing window is counters, bins


Large drawers,

not provided#

shelving are desirable,




with electric outlets is dosirable. All windows should be protected by locks and guards*

Small windows located near the ceiling would seem advisab1© as they would be harder to reach from the outside.

If ade­

quate ventilation can be provided, a room with no windows would bo safer from pilferage than one with windows,

hquipemnt Drying noon A room for drying “ uniforms is recommended, provided the team rooms are not equipped with steam pipes end exhaust ventilation system,

Th© drying room should be adjacent to

th© dressing room or team room for the most desirable loca­ tion,

An acceptable location would be convenient bo the

locker room.

An acceptable standard is 100 square feet and

In large schools the size should increase with the demand. Heat and ventilation. Special steam coils or dry heat with provision for super heating is desirable, controls should be thermostatic,


Exhaust fans are desirable

but care must be exercised so as not to throw the dressing room ventilation out of balance,

A separate ventilation

system is recommended, for this room, by some authorities. Windows &r© unnecessary in the drying room, but arti­ ficial light must be provided*

boors should re large enough

122 to accomodate an equipment truck*

If no truck is used, a

door, 3 feot by 7 feet is acceptable.

Laundry General remarks*

Space for a laundry Is recommended

whan planning for a school,

A laundry Is desirable as it

provides more economical and convenient sanitary practices* It is recommended that a laundry is necessary when 300 pounds per week Is laundered* Location#

P most desirable location .for the laundry

la adjacent to the looker room#

An acceptable location Is

in the physical education unit* Sise*

A floor space of from [j.00 to 700 square feet

may be required, depending upon the m o u n t of th© equipment or the sise of th© installation. Light * Vapor-proof fixtures arc desirable* direct or direct type of fixtures are acceptable.

bemiThe Inten­

sity should be from 10 foot candles to 1$ foot candles. Windows« Natural day light and sunshine are desir­ able* space.

Glass area should oe equal to one-fifth of the floor Hatural day light Is not necessary, however, If

compensated oy artificial light and adequate ventilation. Fixtures* Washers, extractors, ironers and drying tumblers to fit th© need of the particular job involved

should b© provided.

These fixtures should 00 ample to meet

123 vA8 preoon t and anticipated future needs#

Small machines

increase the cost#

Fxoora» i0 square foot will bo neeaed for a

large school for storage of apparatus* Doors*

The doors should be ©quipped with locks.

Sliding doors are desir&Dl©« given good service*

Fire resistant doors have

These doors should he flush with the

walls and easily opened and closed from either side*


should be no sills or thresholds on the inside doors* Th© doors should be at least wide enough to permit all dollies, carts or rolling equipment to pass through the doorway*

a suggested size la 8 feet In

width by 7 feet in


Sanitary Facilities Drinking fountains*

Sanitary drinking fountains

should be constructed of impervious material* china is preferred*


The jot should os set at an angle with

the nozzle high enough to prevent being flooded*

The noz-

si© ends should be protected by a non-oxidising guard*


bowl should be designed free of comers with self-cleaning anti-splash rims*

A direct drain pipe whould be of suffi­

cient size to carry away th© water. covered by a strainer*

The opening should be

Pressure should be automatic with a

key control, The height should bo convenient to the users.


adults and secondary school pupils 3b inches to 36 unches is desirable,

The fountains should be well supported with

a knee or foot control#

All Indoor fountains should be

recessed* For school use, at least one fountain should be located in the locker room*

Several fountains should be

made available near the various activity areas* should be

provided in each end of the gymnasium,

c o m e r or

in the corridor outside thegyssnasium*


a .fountain near a

accomodate spectators, thefountains should be

located In the lobby or hall near

the entrance*

Water temperature should be from k$ degrees to 50 degrees*

Pipes to the fountains should not be laid near

hot water pipes# Lavatories*

Vitreous china lavatories are preferred*

They should be controlled by a faucet of the spring type, hand or foot operated with all metal non-corrosive fixtures and should be as tamper proof as possible# There should be at least two fixtures in each wash room*

An acceptable ratio is one lavatory to every two

toilet fixtures. The wall siipporfced bowl is desirable* should have hot and cold ruinning water*

All lavatories

The hot water should

be thermostatically controlled* Th© most desirable location for wash bowls Is between

the toilets and the exit door* The top of the bowls should be 3$ inches in height* Urinals*

The automatic flushing typo of urinals Is


Hand or foot operated flushing type is acceptable.

Vitreous china Is preferred and porcelain ov glass is acceptable*. The moat desirable urinal is the stall type, integral lip constructed with the bottom of the fixture recessed slightly below the floor level and the floor strongly pitched to the drains * An acceptable urinal is the stall typo with

an extended lip*

The bottom of the fixture should be 20

inches to 22 inches above the .floor level and wall hung.


urinals may be flushed by hand, foot or automatic ally operated* There should be one urinal for each 1$ to 20 boys in the peak load with at least 3 fixtures for physical educa­ tion classes*

A ratio of 1*30 for all boys in the peal: load

is acceptable with not less than two fixtures In each toilet room* Toilets* Wash bowls, urinals and closet bowls should be arranged in that order as the person enters the toilet room*

hooker room toilets should bo accessible from the

line of travel of pu£>ils to th© shower room*

loilets should

be located along the wall* The bowls should be constructed of vitreous china, flush rim, syphon jet, elongated bowl or extended lip, with open-front seats*

Porcelain is an acceptable material and

the floor type of .installation is acceptable altnougn it is hard to clean*

The seats should be mad© of impervious material. Hard rubber seems to be first choice# There should be one seat for each 23 boys in the peak load and at least two fixtures for each toilet room# acceptable standard is one seat for each JO to


33 boys in

th© peak load, with a minimum of two seats# Toll© b rooms *

the basement#

Toilet rooms should not be located in

Toilet rooms for students and toilet rooms

for the public should be separate#

Toilet rooms should bo

in a room separate from the dressing rooms* Long narrow rooms s&om to lend themselves to better arrangements * For public use, one toilet for each 1,000 man is

recommended. Partitions should bo made of porcelain or opaque glass and metal with enamel finish is acceptable#


The recommended sis© of stalls is % feet by 3 feet 6 inches with partitions starting; 12 inches above the floor, with gravity hung doors which will stand open when toilet is not in use#

Access chamber, A narrow room behind the toilets, urinals, and showers should be provided.

This will permit

all water valves and plumbing connections to be hidden behind the wall, yet be accessible for repair and maintenance, The

chambers should normally be at least 3 feet in width*

1.30 Artificial illumination should be provided in the Entrance to the access chambers should b©

access chamber*

made available only to service men*

A steel plate or steel

door with a locking device is recommended*

Hose bibs.

Connections for attaching a water hose

should be provided in order to aid in the cleaning and the

maintenance * Hose bibs should be located in the swimming pool, dressing rooms, custodial units, toilet rooms, play­ ground and outside the building*

All outside hose bibs

should be equipped with cut-offs Installed to be properly drained to prevent free sing of pipes*

All Inside hose bibs

should be recessed and located high enough to accommodate a bucket.

Hose bibs on the playground should be set below

the ground level and protected by a hinged metal cover, set flush with the ground surface. Pipes not In the access chambers should be Insulated against loss of heat And prevention of condensation*


should not bo buried in the walls or located so pupils might swing on them*

All pipes should be non-corrosive •


All plumbing should have cut-off valves,

so the fixtures can be repaired without cutting off the

water supply in the entire building or unit*

t.i£S bfO ut,JL


If the gymnasium is separate from the main school building, a room should be provided for the custodian,


131 space, 10 feet by 1$ feel would seam adequate "'or* the stor­ age of cleaning equipments supplies and other equipment

used by the custodian* vided in this unit*

A toilet and shower should be pro­

Xx blie unit has been provided in th©

main building .for the custodian, then a closet l\. feet by 6 feet should be provided near the gymnasium and locker room. This closet should include a slop sink end shelves for the cleaning supplies*

Access to this closet nay be from a

secondary corridor* Location* The location of the closet for cleaning supplies should be near the center of operation*

Health Unit The health unit should bo planned in relation to the needs and the type of the community and school programs. These needs will not necessarily be the same.

They may

vary due to th© philosophy of health service or according to the emphasis placed on health service In the various

communities* For th© purpose of this study the accepted aims of health service are to discover health status by periodic examination, to inform parents of defects found, to educate parents and children as to preventive measures and early

signs of disease and defect, and to assist in the correc­ tion of remedial defects.


Th© planning of the health •unit should be a coopera­ tive enterprise involving the principal, nurso, director of school health, a representative of the local medical society and th© architect*

Facilities should fco planned with the

aims and purposes for which the unit is intended. Location. Much care should be exercised to secure a quiet location, accessible from a corridor near an out­

side entrance which is available to a driveway for ambulance service*

The availability of th© clinic for pre-school or

summer round-up without unnecessary access to the entire building should be possible.

(208:1) A first floor loca­

tion which eliminates steps or stairways is desirable*

Authorities do not agree as to whether it should be located near the administration unit or in the physical education unit.

Since many more accidents happen on th© athletic

field and in th© gymnasium and many of the examinations are of physical education students, It would Beem feasible to locate the health unit In close proximity to both if it is

possible* Slae *

The sis© of the health unit depends upon th©

enrollment, type of health service, emphasis and extent of the health service offered by th© school*

In small schools

where th© health service Is limited, a waiting room end. an examination room serving as a nurses room Is essential.


large schools a spec© requirement ol 1,000 square ieet may

be required*

This space may be olviucd Into th© a ollowxng

133 examination room with dressing cubicles and toilet


adjacent, a waiting room, a dental clinic, a nurse *s room,

a psychological clinic, a doctor1© room, a rest room or an infirmary and. bath room* A compact unit is very desirable *

It m y bo arranged

in 12, 2lj. or 3^ foot units and unless enrollments increase economy would demand that it be contained within the space

allocated to the regular sized classroom or less* ■cceptable sizes are as follows; 8 foot by 12 feet

Waiting Hoorn Examination Room

10 foot by 2lr foot


6 feet by 12 feet


6 feet by 8 feet


6 feet by 8 feet

Toilet and Lavatory

6 feet by 8 feet


The following fixtures should be provided:

a neatly framed bulletin board, a quiet clock, electrical

outlets of sufficient size and number, conveniently located to care for the contemplated needs, such as special light-* ing, with an opaque reflector for ©ye testing, a full mirror, built-in supply cabinets (elective, a telephone and toilets*) Wash vasins provided with hot and cold water, Imee or foot operated are desirable*

Ceiling and walls.

The ceiling and walls should be

finished to avoid glare, in pleasant pastel colors and should be acoustically treated.


Daairabl© floor materials arc heavy lino­

leum or asphaltic tile, Tentllalion» hpeelal ventilation Ghould be provided in tii© toil© t and buth ro Temponature» The temperature in the n r w e 1a office should be 60 h.egpeoo to 72 d@.;;ro©s,

ut higher in the exam-

ination room and lower in the infiraary or rest rooms•

At least on© door should be wide enoiyh to car# tor stretcher cases* Traffic.

Traffic should be routed in a circuitous

route so that persons do not have to leave via th© wa***

room or dr©©sing cubicles.*


Health Instruction Classroom



r 1


] C


i -----

Waiting Room





Examination Room

Nurse or Doctor

| i f

—i • 1 ~ • Rest ' Room i i




— m



Fig« 13* Suggested Plan for Schools with a Limited Health Service Program

Entrances and Exit®

Apparatus room#

Th© doors to

should be equipped with locks#

the apparatusroom

Sliding doors are desirable#

A suggested ®iae for a door is 0 feet wide by 7 feat high. The door should be metal cohered or made of heavy wood. Custodial unit*

V'/here a separate custodial unit is

provided for in the gymnasium unit* a direct entrance from the outside is desirable*

The cleaning closets should be

accessible from secondary halls or corridors* Office suite* desirable*

An liasid© end an outside entrance are

The door® should be located in order to observe

the gyimasium*

Glass panel doors facilitate supervision*

All door® should be equipped with locks* Supply storage*

Doors to the

be sturdy and protected by locks* if no

supply storage should

A Dutch door is desirable,

dispensing window is provided* Club room* Separate entrances should be provided to

club rooms so they may be used at night without providing access to the rest of the school# gymnasium* All doors should swing outward from the gymnasium and activity rooms.

Anti-panic hardward should

be provided on all exit doors. project into th© gymnasium#

Door handles should not

All doors should be equipped

137 with klek plate®, push plates and locks*

The outside doors

or exits should he separate from th© main entrance to the gynmaslua*

The doors should be arranged so that the gym­

nasium floor will not be used as a passageway* When glass is used in doors In th© gymnasium unit, It should b© shatter-proof» Humber of doors* A unit of door width Is 22 inches, how©vex*, a ltd inch to if.2 inch door may be counted as two units*

It Is desirable that the gy xmsium should have on©

unit of door width fox* each 600 square feet of total floor ■area plus on© additional unit of door width for ©ach 1>0 seats in the gymnasium*

All doors should be located so that all

persons have ready egress directly to the outside* Formula for determining door unitss Total square feet of floor area / Total seating « Humber of 600 1$Q units of door width* Stairs and steps* It Is desirable to have a minimum of stairs and steps* to the weather*

Outside steps should be non-oxposed

Steps should have a non-slip safety tread

and a separate nosing, set flush with the tread* Risers should be uniform but may vary In height from 6 inches to 7 l/2 inches and treads should also b© uniform but may likewise vary in width from 10 inches to 12 inches, Stairs should be 5 feet or sore in width.

Stairs over 66


inches in width should have an intermediate hand rail* Barrps stay be preferred to stairs in the gymnasium, as they are safer1and are easier to clean*

The ratio of romp rise

should be not loss than Is8 or more than IjlO, Bwimraing pool* the pool*

All doors should open outward from

The doors should h© made of bronze, aluminum or

some non—corrosive metal*

The doors should b© equipped

with locks not available to a master key and should be located near the shallow end of the pool*

There should be

a separate entrance and exit for spectators.

Access to

the pool by users should be only through the shower room* Health unit* 'The main entrance to the health unit ■ should be from th© corridor, although an outside entrance should be provided for the staff.

At least one door or

double doors wide enough to accommodate the use of stretch­ ers is desirable* Locker room, A cloor or doors should lead directly to the gymnasium. room*

Another door should lead to the shower

An outside door to the playground la desirable.


case the circulation of traffic is not continuous, that is, from the locker room to the shower room, to the drying room and back to the locker room and users of the shower room must enter the shower room and return over the same route; double leaf doors, each opening in on© direction, one marked nIWw, the other “OUT1*, are desirable*


hardware and. non-corrosive doors should load from th© locker


room to the showers*

Veneer5 doors should not be used between

the looker room end the shower room* Toilets» Doors to toilets should, be screened prefer­ ably by an offset or winding entrance* double swinging doors are acceptable* labeled for each sex*

Permanent screens or Outer doors should be

The doors should be master keyed and

equipped with door closers, kick plates and push plates* Gravity hinges are recommended for all stall doors in order that doors, m y remain open when toilets are not occupied* Towel room* The towel room door should be equipped with a special lock and a Dutch door, if no dispensing window Is provided*

Heating and ventilation Th© heating and ventilation of facilities are techni­ cal engineering jobs, however, a few general statements should b© made in order to focus attention to these certain details* Radiators in' th© shower room should he non-corrosive# Brass la recommended#

These radiators should be located on

the colling in order to prevent injury to pupils or damage to the radiators#

Radiators in the gymnasium should be at

least 8 foot above the floor le’ &el, screen©©, one recessed* Th© heating system should

zoned so that any part

of the building may be used at night without having to heat all th© building* All heating devices should be automatically controlled with the equipment drying room equipped so that higher tem­ peratures might be used at night. If an equipment drying room is not provided for the athletic uniforms, steam pipes should be laid in the base of the lockers and perforations should be made in th© lock­ ers to permit the heat to'rise*

Vents at the top of th©

lockers connected with an exhaust fan are recommended. Relative humidity In the gymnasium, classrooms, recre­ ation said club room© should be maintained between 1±Q degrees to 60 degrees for best conditions* All storage ©paces should be ventilated,

pry boat

should be provided for the laundry, shower rooms, toilets and dressing rooms. All heatiny pipes and ventilation systems should be insulated to prevent noise from being transferred to other parts of the building* Suggested air room temperatures at k feet above the floor are as follows:

(See page lul)



68° -


cla sgrooms, Custodial Units, Offices, Health Unit

6o° -


Gymnasium and Activity Dooms

80° -


Awiuming Pools

70° -


Showers, "ressing


Area 7$° - 80® 90° - 105° - 90° - 75° • 6o°

Swimming Pool Progressive Showers

Mechanical ventilation ia needed in the gymnasium, swimming pool, showers, toilets, dressing rooms and team rooms*

The air from these units should not h© recirculated

hut exhausted or vitiated. Methods for dehumidlfying the air and for the pre­ venting of condensation In the swimming pool are desirable*. For toilet rooms having more than one or two fixtures a separate positive mechanical exhaust ventilation unit Is essential#

The exhaust should be in excess of the Intalc© of

supply fans in order to dispell odors*

Electrical Service A M i tpEy signals *

Buzzers, bells, chimes or other

auditory signals should b© located in the classroom, gym­ nasium, swimming pools, health unit, waiting room and dress­ ing rooms*

These signals should be Independent of the fire

alarm systems*

They should be loud enough to be efficient

but not irritating in nature* buzzers in noisy places*

Bells are preferred rather than

These should be included in the

above locations or provisions for future installation should be made*

/• hand operated electrlcal auditory signal should

also be provided for us© by the teachers, with a switch located in the office* Clocks. A master clock system is desirable in the departmentalized schools, with secondary clocks in class­ rooms, gymnasium and swimming pools.

Gymnasium clocks should

be screened and recessed and located for visibility. on a clock face reduces Its value*


In the swimming pool the

clock should be enclosed in a vapor proof case*

A quiet

clock should be provided in th© health unit* Inter-communication or call system*

Provision should

be made for the immediate or future Installation of Inter­ communication or flasher call systems when plans for a build­ ing are being drawn. Fire alarms * Fire alarms should be on a separate circuit from other electrical units and the signal should be

3ij-3 distinct from other auditory signals. arc preferred.

Electrical fir© alarms

Operation bases should be conveniently avail­

able from halls. Exit lights should be on a separate circuit.


provisions cover the above items and all installations should bo mad© according to the legal provisions.

Telephone. Telephones not connected with the central school telephone should be provided in the gymnasium unit* swimming pool and lobby of the gymnasium.

In stadiums, field

houses or large gymnasiums where exhibitions and games are broadcast, provisions for these should be planned and pro­ vided for.

For other units which operate only while school

is in session, a telephone connected with the school system is desirable* Outlets*

Wall plugs for use of electrical maintenance

equipment, visual aids and special lighting should be pro­ vided for in the gymnasium and swimming pool.

A convenience

outlet every 2$ feet is desirable.. The outlets should be located on the wall, but not in the floor. Classrooms and visual aids rooms should have at least two outlets and three are desirable.

An outlet should be

provided in each office* club room, storage room or other facilities. The health unit should b© provided with special out­ lets for use of X ray, or other special equipment. Special conduits and wiring should be provided for if

electrical stoves are to be used in the kitchenette

Lighting General * In recent years much over—emphasis has been placed upon the amount of light which is necessary for visual efficiency,

Ifow emphasis is being placed upon the condition­

ing of the surroundings so that seeing can be done with ease and comfort.

The quality of the light is more important than

the quantity*

The following factors seem to have much to clo

with the quality of lights Distribution. Distribution of light should be spread evenly over the entire area and free of shadows. Glare. Glare should be held to a minimum, with no direct glare# Brightness ratio or balance. The ratio between the seeing task and the brightness of the surroundingsf to be ideal should be fairly equal.

A maximum variation in this

ratio should not exceed >0:1 for eye comfort and ease of seeing.

A ratio between the darkest and tho brightest sur­

face in the room should not exceed 2j?Qsl*

In order to achieve

the desired brightness ratio, the surroundings must be prop­ erly conditioned.

The reflection coefficient should be as

high as possible.

For example, whit© or near white ceiling

surfaces reflect from 80 per cent to 85 per cent,



faces should have a mat or dull finish to prevent glare.

Upper wall® should he finished to reflect 6f> per cent of the light* floors, furniture and equipment 30 per cent to kO per cent and chalkboard* 20 per cent to 30 per cent.


Uoiuiio) Windows>


In our present day architec­

ture* usually only one side of the room is exposed to the light*

The window heads should extend entirely to the ceil­

ing because the most valuable light enters at the top of the window*

Ceiling heights most commonly found are 12 feet for

elassrooas having a width of 22 feet.

For a room with a

width of 2it, feet, the celling should be llf, feet high* Horth saw-tooth sky lighting is recommended for the gymnasiums because of the advantages in lighting extremely wide areas• Much criticism has been directed against sky­ lights out in most cases the faults were due to- faulty con­ struction or the typo of aky-lights • North saw-tooth sky­ lighting, to be the most efficient must face approximately due north*

Slight variations from true north will bo neces­

sary due to location in the time sones* Windows In the gymnasium should be from 10 feet to 12 feet from the floor in order to provide more available wall ©pace.

Windows should not be placed in the ends of the gym­

nasium as light from these windows shines into the faces of the participants in many games. The pivoted or louver type of window seems the most desirable as they provide more privacy in the dressing and


shower rooms and make for better ventilation even in rainy or bad weather.

These windows In the gymnasium should be

mechanically operated,

If ‘ the gymnasium is to be used for

visual education for which it is necessary that the area be darkened* no anas or levers should interfere with the instal­ lation of the darkening equipment. All window frames in the shower room, laundry or other rooms exposed to excessive moisture should be noncorrosive • Obscure and reinforced glass should be used in shower and dressing rooms. Artificial illumination. Artificial light has been provided in the past with the incandescent electric lamp* These lamps have been used in fixtures which produce Indirect lighting.

In this system, all light Is reflected and the

lamp Itself is not visible.

This type of fixture has pro­

duced satisfactory results in many places, but it seems too expensive to be used In physical education facilities. The direct type of lighting fixture provides for the bare lamp to be exposed.

It produces a hard glaring

light and is usually not used where critical seeing is neces­ sary except for specific areas, The semi-direct lighting fixture seems best because it has both a direct and indirect component, throwing suf­ ficient light on the coiling to give it about the same brightness as the lighting unit Itself,

In the past few years much has been written and many investigations have been made of the fluorescent type of lighting.

Many ij^rovemenfcs in this type of lighting seem

to do iorthooming, It seems to be a very pi^om!s5ng method of lighting. Locker and dressing rooms. Locker and dressing rooms should be provided with Intern itlea of from $ to 10 foot candles.

The lights should be recessed or in cages and

arranged in rows over the aisles between the lockers. Shower room. Shower room lights should be vapor prooft non—corrosive and recessed,

The switch to the shower

room lights should be outside the shower room,


intensities are 10 foot candles, Swimming pool, A complete artificial lighting sys­ tem should be installed in the swiiimiing pool* lights are most desirable*


Flood lights are requested and

recommended in many situations*

Underwater lighting may be

desirable ospecially if water carnivals and exhibitions are contemplated* Location* All ceiling lights should be located so that no glass can get into the pool,

If flood lights are

used, they should b© placed near the corners, If underwater lighting is used, underwater projectors should be spaced on 10 to 12 foot centers in the walls, I to

1 1/2 feet below the surface, however, they may be sot as much as 30 inches below the surface In the shallow end and as ranch

348 as || 1/2 feet below the surface in the deep end.


water lights should not be located in the ends of the pool. Type of lighting» Flood lighting or indirect light­ ing is most desirable, is acceptable.

Holophane or semi-direct lighting

Fluorescent lighting has been used with suc­

cess, Either wet or dry niche system seems to be successful for under water lighting, if properly Installed and main­ tained,

The projectors should have a ipG degree spread or

have a prismatic lens.

In the wet niche system all fixtures

must be underwater equipment. Warning light. A warning light should be provided In all pools.

The function of this light Is to indicate

that the pool has been drained of water, or that the pool Is not in condition to be used. Intensity. Fifteen or more foot candles of overhead lighting ai*e desirable or 7 to 8 foot candles may be the minimum.

For underwater lighting from 2.5 to 3 watts per

square foot of water surface with 25 to 30 por cent of the wattage located in the deep end is recommended, Gymnasium. The location of light units in the gym­ nasium should be arranged so as to prevent shadows.


units should be flush with the bottom of the girders and arranged on separate circuits. separate circuit.

They should be located on a

Guards »

All light fixtures should he protected by

guards or screens.

The guards should 'bo fastened to the

ceiling or to solid objects rather than to the light fix­ tures unless the light fixtures are of such height that there is little possibility of their becoming damaged by balls or other flying objects* The favored types of reflectors are porcelain, white enamel, X ray and Cahill« Special lighting should be focused on basketball goals# Switches and panel boxes should be located in or near the director’s office. safe#

All switches should be protected and

Knife edged switches are not acceptable.


switches to all rooms should be in • the panel box* Intensity. Exhibition matches require 30 foot candles. Desirable intensities for normal use may vary from 1> to 2> foot candles.

All intensities should ’,© taken at I. foot

above the floor* Laundry*

Vapor proof fixtures ar© desirable.

semi-direct type of fixture is acceptable*


The Intensity

should be from 10 to 1$ foot candles, Shower room.

Shower room lighting fixtures should

be vapor proof and recessed.

The switch to the shower room

lights should --'C outsius tn© suo$er room#

©s xrcc, m*oonsxfjj,

Ip feat above the floor is 3 to 10 loot cancles *

*? rJ J .JV

Dressing room.

Dressing room lighting; units should

bo arranged in rows ovor the aisles between the lockers. Becessed lights or lights encased in cages of some kind are recommended*

Inteneit should be from 5 to 10 foot candles.

It. foot above the floor* The intensity of the light in the storage 2’oom should be from 3 to 10 foot candles* K®ere at Ion and club rooms*

Recreation and club rooms

should have an Intensity of 1$ to Z$ foot candles* Office and classrooms. Offices and classrooms should have an intensity of 1> to £5 foot candles of artificial illumination.

Artificial Lighting Schedule Area Classrooms

.Foot Candles 15 - 2p

at working plane

Corridors and stairs

b - 10

!{, feet above the floor

Dressing Rooms



1| fact above the floor


on the chart

Eye Charts (Health Unit) Examination Hoorn

15 - 20 4 feet above the floor


15 - 30 Ij, feet abovB the floor


10 m- 15 1|, feet above the floor


15 . 25 at working plan©

Recreation Rooms

10 -

r4 If feet above the floor







if. feet above the floor

Storage and Supply Rooms




If. feet above the floor

swimming Pool Waiting Room

15 - 20 *•* 10 •

at water level

1|. feet above the floor

Surfacing For the most part# indoor surfacing materials have been dealt with in connection with the unit of facility# -TABLE 2 suggests various materials ?iileh have given good service in practical situations.

Hew materials which are

now in an experimental stag© may prove better than those in TABLE 2, page 152 » SUGGESTED XHDOOR SURFACE LtATERI/.LS.

OS H H «J p ©

8 ©


jooact ®Jttiq.BT°W

8-39, March, 1931* v







i '*»JW

■i.w m W iUM ii»»W

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“Conerata Tennis Courts Ideal for Student tTs#,n A the1tic Journal, vol. 18, no* 3% PP* 15* 30, January*’"TsQBT


Cotanche, P. PU, and Isaacson, Harold, WA Modem High school Plant,” Athletic Journal, vol* 21, no. 10, pp. 11-12, J u n o , T ^ n ~


Bounce 11, W. K*, ”The Care of At'1;.!©Lie Fields,” Athe1tic Journal, vol* 24* no* 10, pp. 34, 22, j u m 1,' l^Ifr .


Gaylord, S. b *, rrA Hew Floodlighting System for Football, Baseball and. Softball,” Athletic Journal, vol. 21, no* 10, pp. 13*14, June, itf


Kamo a, B* S,» ”Protect the cwiimtasr,” Athletic Journal, Vol* 20, no* 2, p. 38, October, 1930.


Matt©, Otto, ”Indoor Swixm&nz Pool design,’5 Athletic Journal, vol. 18, no* 8, p* 29* April, 1938*


Ifovak, Leo, 'nfha lew Track and Athletic Field at West Point** Athletic Journal, vol* 28, no* 7, P* 5* March,


Blair, Herbert, Physical Education Facilities for The. Modern Junior and SeniBF"SS^sclioorf~T 7 H * Barnes HntTlTo *",r'"leF"y§FE:,“T5jB7


Brown, J* Lee, "Planning for Recreational Areas and Facilities In Snail Towns and Cities,® Federal Security Agency, Washington 25, “•


Butler George 13*, The Hew Play Areas, Co*, lew'York, T9I8“ p 7 ^ 1 ^ m F :

120. 121*

S. Barnes

PLaygroupda— Their Administration and Operation, A * s 7 l a r n M IT 0 1^ Gate, John, Chairman, Playground Surfacing, Prepared by Research Committee on riayf^roixiiu l^urTaeIng, national Association of Public school Business Officials, Pittsburgh, 1940# pp. 55*


Comoobiout state Department of Education# .1vision of Institution# School ’ Building Code# Hartford, i9i.1l# p* 127# ' ‘


Elliott# Eugene# B«, ”A Guide for Planning Softool Build­ ings#1* Bulletin 338# pep&rteanb of Public Instruction# Lanaing, Michigan# w , pp* lix7*


Holy, T* 0## and Arnold, H* £*# Standards for tho ^valu­ ation wof mmp.■school Buildings, Ohio '">taWIfflveraTt^ Scuttle*, auretm or &duoaclonai Jase&rela# Jfonoyrauh®# no* 20, p. 77* ipmw u idnw un g w y ii

! -« » **■#—*#*»■»■!»jwm i





Hanson, Hap t»», * Issued bp ;.ho Interstate School Building* StirvHeJ Peabody College, Hashville# T m m m m ® # Bepteiriber, 19^2# 12 pp*


Hughes,. Billina L*, and william, J# f ♦# -forts— Their Organisation and Ad&inist**atlon# A* r V t f a w & a F U o T * W w Y q W T W ' W ’* pp*Ti|!o-J?qT^

127* Illuminating •.Kugiaoorius Society and the American Insti­ tute of jvrehibsets# ”American f^comomtd Practice of School Ughting,” Washington# B* c*

wrmmL or msAias mr> p'ttsical sDuc/ sior 128*

Bartholomew# Cl.aranee, nStandards for lacker and Shower Hoorn,* Journal of Health and Physical Educefclon# vol* 12# no * I# p* SviTJanuairy# I9fi* A *

* * * * , * » . ..... ......

a m wwr«i»ii

•m w w rt


w **w ^*A w yffC >1'.ng-*** ■*■**>


Beslrey# Arthur, ^Cen the clyxsnasiuia be Made safer?* Journal of Health and Physical Education, vcl* 13# no# >, p* 3^FTFSs9FT';^Tp...*


Hagen# George# wH@w Features In nysnaaiua Planning#3 Journal of I|eal^ and Physical Education# vol* 6# no* b# p* 27


Il.eOrlstal# K# J#* nThe Latest In Sports Buildings*' Journal of Health and Physical Education# vol* 11# no * o* -p * 40Jj.w1.Ot>*

i m w t o «—


■** '*■nwrnr

—— —— ■

-....... ...........

■■■— — »n——

fornoy, John a Jin, "The Hew University of i/ashlngton# awtenin snimt&ag Tool,1* vol* 11# no# 9, -n* 302-10;;, 15*0- May# idTn. 329#



Kansas CJity Missouri Public School Improving School Environment# June, I9I4S*

176 13l(..

Lsngton, Clair V.. Orientation in achool Health» Harper® and BrosT W©w YorScV Ty],.TT“


La Port®, William Balph, Th& Physical Education Currie cultaa, College of Physiol iSucaii'on ^ssocI'atXcS,™, r University of Southern California Pres®, 1947, 4 tli ©d., pp* 65 *0 6 *


Lee, Mabel, Tlia Conduct of Physical I:ducation, A# S. Bftmas ^ T T o ^ -T C 'l:l5L» 57*15* Thermostatic control ia desirable* Sxhaust fans are desirable, but care Must bo exercised a© as not to throw the dressing room ventilation out of balance* 7 7 *26 ©, 9^*35*

Light (Artificial) 'Direct type of lighting fixture is reeomousndsd* sity should he 2 to $ foot candles*


Location Brying room should 'be adjacent to the dressing room, or team room for the most desirable location. l|iS*l54# 77*263# 130i20* The drying, room convenient to the locker room ia m acceptable location* 5?*15# Umber "" rTJta,© drying room is usually sufficient*. Siaa On© hundred e 113?22, fipLtijA), I6pi219* Ilumber ^ T n schools haring 3DO pounds of 1mxn&ry per week, a l&imdry is advisable* Sig© desirable size is 600 to TOO square feet of floor apace* Acceptable si«© is ]|0Q to .900 square feet of floor space. Also acceptable is as such as 4OO to ?00 square feet of floor space. Ventilation Clean air and changes of air by fan ventilation is desirable and natural ventilation is acceptable* 72 s398» 11^19. Windows ,w'IfStur&X daylight is desirable with the glass area equal to one-fifth of the floor area. ll|.l?ii.9* natural daylight is not necessary if compensated by artificial lighting and fan ventilation. 141*49. Walls ”e"~™’lociruble materials arc concrete, brick and til© Office Suita General Hecutrks* This unit includes such facilities as a r e s s a r y for the adiainistrat1ve personnel including dressing room, office showers, toilet, waiting room and provision for a ticket office 1 in a small school this unit may be one room with dressing room adjacent to the office space* (V* B* -Schooler)


~~y‘~': late rial Acoustical treatment is desirable except In shower and dressing room whore the ceiling should be the same as the pupil shower room. Plaster is satisfactory if hardened Keene 0omen t« lS^ :192* Entrances and Exits " poor The door should open inwardly and be located, so as to obwerve the i0isn&slum* Inside and outside entrances are desirable* 184*4* Material ~"*w W a s s paneled doors facilitate supervision and are desirable.* 128*29* 189*315* A door J feet by ? feet is desirable* Fixtures ’" “ IS^err&tion window to shower or dressing room m j be desirable* Floors ™Fra.ferrad materials are asphalt tile and lino­ leum* 123:104* Acceptable materials are pine, oak, rubber til© or cork* 123:104* Heat Temperature automatic 60 to 72 degrees* lol :8i{.* Light rr""^,r3wit dies should be located near entrance on knob side of the door* Semi-direct lighting fixtures with an inten­ sity of 15 to 25 foot candles is desirable• 123:70, 133*3* 101:02* Location Too ally the office suite should be located to permit ease of supervision of playfields, locker room, gymnasium, shower and dressing room. H O s 29, 133J21, l6l:50, l66:3 139s37. If possible have ready access to room of the physicians and examination room, 48:153, 632 126, on gymnasium floor level and so located as to bemused for a ticket office* 144*50, iSljloS}., 132:173, lBIj-sl)-.


Acceptable locations* In large staffed schools it Is not necessary to nave the office located so as to permit vim of locker and shower room* It should ho conveniently located for ease of super* vision of play-fields and gymnasium* 35»13* 45:249, 117:62, l8£sl86, 189:373. limber -1 or Z instructors*, 1 office, 35:13, several instructors, 2 small offices, 35*13# large school two or more, 131:101, with at least one office for men and one for women* 6 3 *1 27 , 98:35, 124.0 8 , 139:54, 1 8 1 *1 01 . Acceptable— 1 office for each director.

3 7 *1 63 ,

117*62, 182*177.

Sim© of Office PesTrBBSS sis# la 10 feet by 20 feet# 133:21* Desirable sis© of waiting roc® is 10 feet by 10 feet. 56*126* Shower and ■dressing room combined should b© 8 t m t by 10 t m t for two instructors, and 10 feet by 20 feet for more than two instruc­ tors* l88s123* Ventilation "WiluFal ventilation Is desirable. Walla Blaster Is desirable material. Window© Outaid© light preferred* 133*21, l6li*>0. Windows should b© large preferable 4 foot by 8 feet* pivot typo with non-rust metal win­ dow frames* tZ Storage Poors ~ ^ T h © door to the supply storage room should be sturdy and protected by locks not available to a master key* 139*53, I08s126• A Dutch door, 3 feet by 7 feet may be desirable* Fixtures ~ "X^Ispons 1nr window with shelves beneath Is desirable. 45:249. 168*126. A Dutch door is acceptable in lieu of the dispen­ sing window*


Larg© drawers, counter and bins of various sizes are desirable. $$%&, X8£:£, Boim of the bins may be cedar lined for storage for woolen equipment* A work bench with electric outlets is desirable. Floors ""Hardened cement or terr&sxo is desirable, 123 *lot. Hardwood is an acceptable material*


Heat and Ventilation MSSbBaKar^sySTem Is desirable with circulation of air 'a necessity* 103:101*2 , Direct heat la acceptable* Humidity content should be low* Llflit ' Illumination should be 5 to 10 foot candles with supplementary lighting at work bench* seal-direct lighting fixtures are desirable. Direct lighting fixtures* are acceptable* Switch should #be located on the knob side of the door entry* 8 :6C>*7®# 57»2&» 123tX0k. Location ™~ IHJacent to the gymnasium 1® a desirable location. 35*13# £5*228, £osl£9» 8209# 117j65# l&m£# 135$ 186# l8§j395 * Convenient to office and dressing room is an accept* able location. 62s188, 188:125* Number room ±& usually sufficient* sis© In a large school a desirable size Is loO to 300 square feet. l££t.50# 1683126, An acceptable sis# is 80 to 100 square feet for the small school* 35*13# 182:177 * Walls "“ "Brick or concrete Is desirable material for walls, l£0 s2£* Windows ""fH® windows should be protected by looks and guards. Small windows near the celling would seem advisable as they would b© more difficult to reach from the outside,

unit i n Ins true tion&l— Recreational Classroam General Remrks* Standards for classrooms are generally acc©x>'C8d'^md', '','!mve been given careful consideration, and only those criteria which deserve unique or special treatment are considered in the re cemendations. Class rooms within the physical education unit will have many functions* namely, instruction in health, for phy­ sical education classes and used as an. activity room In some instances. Color "Light colored coiling aids illumination* The color should have a dull finish— no gloss

25*14.0, Cy.Zlt, 123s 106» 133s 10, 134*241, 139:22, lb!ps?k, with a light reflection fac­ tor of from 75 P®** cent to 80 per cent as a desirable standard, 13i;.*2l*.l, lbk:7i[,, however,

in tropical aones the light reflection may be 60 per cent to 65 per cent* 123s109* hi %>r special rooms the height say be increased above 12 feet in relation to the use 123j1^3, as the activity determines the sise of the class room* A desirable height should be 15 feet to 18 feet if used for play* An accept­ able height should be ID feet to 12 feet* 61*213, 6 2 *14.0 , 122*37, 123*43, 164*73, Material Acoustical treatment is not a luxury but a necessity* 123:106. All class rooms should be treated with acoustical materials having an absorptive co-efficient of not less than *50 and more is desirable if any physical activity is to be conducted in the room* It is desirable to have all acoustical material sufficiently reinforced with backing to with­ stand the impact of balls. 139:22. Acousti­ cal plaster is acceptable. lo5 slv‘2 * Fixtures """ Audio-visual Aids

197 Provisions for loud speaker and visual aid equipment la desirable 133120, 152:49# with convenience outlets located near the front, rear and on the side opposite' the windows* 18? 100. Outlets m a r the- front and rear are acceptable. 123*76, 139*71* Opaque window shades or draperies are dosirable for roost effective results. 123*101, 1&M96, 107:31* Blackboards (chalkboards) ~FirsF'qmlifcy slat© is preferred for chalk** boards* 123i110, 137:39* Structural glass, green, black or white is acceptable. 123:101, 187 *39* xlie chalkboards should fee located on the front wall or apposite the light & ounce, 2£jllpL, lj.2 : 53j 133:7* A limited use of chalkboard is reooBsaendwd, 61:225* 123:109* Twenty lineal feet are desirable, 187*39 while ten lineal feet are acceptable 168*23. ’Hie width should not be lees than lp.S inches with Joints smooth. Bookcases, Cabinets, Shelves Boolccaecs, cabinsEi and shelves should be reeeeeed in the walls* 61:225* Twenty lineal feet of cases and cabinets are desirable 61:2.23% and on®*fourth of the breather wall space is acceptable. Mo shelf should be closer to the floor than, six Inches. 1(4:78. That the shel­ ves be throe .feet long and eight inches deep except that a limited number of sections 3 feet by 10 inches deep and also a limited num­ ber 3 feet by 12 inches shall bo provided. On© shelf should be provided for each 10 inches of height and devices for supporting the shelves be made movable to one inch adjust­ ments* Built-in shelving should be of the fire resistant type. 123567, l64:7?~$* Bulletin Boards. (Tack Beards) CcrfeTTS She preferred material 61:225, 16? :6.0* An area equal to the chalkboard should he pro­ vided, the bottom of which should be not less than 32 inches to 39 inches from the floor* {•1:22;;, l0?s!fO. Demonstration Sable s table with gas, water, electri­ cal connections# acid resisting s ink with water drain is desirable, 123:6?, l6i}.:79# 107:52,

196 if health instruction In to re.carried on in this room* Electrical 1 *15Spie" ""Hells, buzzers, or a flasher call sys­ tem is desirable ijiJiij.9, >6:lli6, 123380, 187360, and should be independent of the fire a l a m system#

Clocks nrY t is desirable in schools of 300 pupils or more operating on a departmentalized basis to have a master clock system with secondary clocks In each class room or provisions should be made for future installation. 1 22 :6 6 , 123:30, 133:20, la?:6o An electrical clock energised by means of clock outlets at proper locations Is acceptable* 123:80, 139*71* Convenience Outlets oSiT''eSould be provided with three or more duplex outlets, one at the rear, front and side opposite the window, loca­ ted not less than 2 i|, inches from the floor# 1873 8 0 # Two outlets are accept­ able* 123:78# 187560# Intercosmmication sya tern "^"mr^fir8irco^i^ir6uTlcH*Tyat m m are desirable In s chools with an enrollment of 300 pux>ils, or more or provisions should b© made for future installations# 123 :80 , 187:60#

Shades wwwwl*~Td jus table, translucent materials, fix­ tures installed at the middle of the w In* dow, one shad© to pull up, the other down are preferred# 2 3 :139 # 1 22 :8 1 , 123;98, 133:2, Igkj238. Venetian blinds are questionable because of dust, maintenance and sunlight streaks. Floors 'Treferred floor materials ©re First grade maple# 4 2 :4 0 , 50:397* Asphalt til®, 123:10lj» 137»2|. Linoleum, 6l:213, 123tlol+, lo7:2>. Acceptable floor materials are


Rubber tile (expensive) 6l:2l5, X23:X0l;.* Te rraa so, 123 *XOi*.* Ceramic tile 123* 18, 57*21. Glased briok is most highly reeomendftd# 10*1*.0# 12:35*08# 19:701# 23:480, 44:8, 52:21, 62:71, 86s 45* 107:143# 117:84, 126:368, 184*3# 185:190, 1895 3 6 8 . Tile also is reoomended. 45:214# 185:190* Partitions """‘ FoXETng partition® electrically operated and sound proofed to divide the ^masiisa are desirable if extra teaching stations are needed. 39:10# 99:74# 111:XI, 123*57# 130:21# 152:49# l6l*50, 180*53# 184*3# 109:364* windows fSe glass area should usually be one-ftnirth to one-fifth of the total floor area* 107:143# 1 3 3 :2 0 , 166:127# 1 7 0 :2 2 0 # 1 8 1 :1 0 1 # 182 :1 ??. Kotet

la the northern part of the Onlfced States, a ratio of 1 to 3 ®ssy 6-o desirable.

Location of window ""TS© ??ihHois snould ho located opposite the two long sides & tarting 10 feet to 12 foot above the floor*. 44*223* However, windows strutting 6 Test above th© floor are acceptable• 23*480, 38:134, 57*23, 165:?2# 184:3* Window® should not be placed in line with basketball goal®.

gyp® Of Olase It xFHeslraQle to have obscure or tinted glass in 'the no at windows and in the nest half of tho south side* dr J223# 1.36:133# 155:194* T/indows should have wire glass especially on the playground side* 165*73# 175*220* Glass brick is being used quite satisfactorily* 19:731, 95*34# Type of hlgdow ’PEe^plro^ed or lower typo is decir&blo* 2$:l\&0§ 37 0* 45*223# I365I33, 3&Oil6, I3>sl9k. Windows should be mclumically operated, 19*701# 23:^.0O, 133*20, 340s 16, 1.34:3, with the exception that If tho gymnasium is to h& used for visual aids instruction for which it Is necessary to be dark­ ened, no a m s or levers should interfere with the Installation of darkening equipment* V* 2 * schooler Contra-Indicatimz and Xlew Features A USSHoHWtocEIlon"foFgymasiua is undesirable. 57s12, 136*132-3; XSlslOl.


A running track is not much in demand or desirable in a main gygmactou 1C. .,40# 19*779# 45*225* Gold air vents directly behind the baskets are undesir­ able * 109120* Electrical outlets in the floor not recoinrsonded. Cement floors are not satisfactory for us© by pupils either instructional or recreational* 123:105* Oil finishes for wood floors are not approved» 13:39# 123*105* The use of varnish should be avoided on tho yyrmaoiimi floor. 19:781. Gaudy and useless ornamentation should be severely con­ demned* Sky lights are ob j0ctienable * 3:130, 57:23, 64*343, I8g 3,~ 109:370. A new floor built on springs has boon well received, but is too new to recommend* Factory type windows are undesirable *

Fluor#© cant and cold cathode lighting still la in the procoss of development of lighting. Those types of lightly m & be the lighting of th© future. 139 slf>t. Veneered doors should not be used an outs id© entrances. Hatafearturn General Remarks, Th© t o m natabarium shall moan build­ ing eneloslng^ie swimming pool, including th© calling, docks and walkways* The ceiling of th© nabatorlum should be treated for acoustics with moisture proof materials* kt76, 26:79-80, *4.9:29* 58:29* 76:221, 85:256, 96:8, ill: 17* 115:30, 123:72, 133:2^, 136:53* l85s!j.02. Color The ceiling should harmonise with the color scheme of the natatorial* Light colors are desirable# The us# of mineral coloring intro­ duced in cement is desirable. Stuccoes hair­ ing liae gypsum and^veg© table coloring should be avoided# 26:75-80* The water in the pool m y be shades of blue# green or yellow depending on th# nature of the water used* the direction of th© sunlight and the reflection of the celling# dray-green tile enlivened by the use of intense colors such m red for numerals may be desirable# 26:75. Materials ' m ~TcouBtiQrnl tile and artificial stone are bast but most expensive, 16:106, 19*706, 26:79* 115:30, Cork board is also reconaaen&ed. 191 70, 28:79* 132:302, 133:92# 189402. Acousti­ cal plaster is satisfactory* 19*703# 26*79# 50*247. Entrances and Bslts

open outward from the pool. 16?: 31, Doors should be made of .bronse# aluminum or some non-corrosive metal* 20:76, Doors should be equipped with locks not available to a master key 1*1 *6 . 133*2lu 107:31 > located under full observa­ tion of th© instructor, 133s93# near the shallow

:„X0 end of the pool, is1X81, 138;93* There should be a separate ontrance and exit for spectators not m m e0ible to the pool deck* kl:6, 81:162, 138s 94» 183:204* 189?402* Access to the pool by users should be only through th© shower room, 35*14# 37:17, 1361149# 183:186, 189:393* Fixtures benches >s should be of concrete and should be provided If walkway is 9 feet or wider, 26s7 6 , 1 3 8 :121 , Blackboard 'blackboard located in the side wall near the deep end is desirable, 132:302, I38t120* .Bulletin Scard proof bull©tin board 4 by 8 feet located near the entrance 1® desirable, 1 3 2 :3 0 2 , 1381 X2 0 . Ouspigor “"“ ^SSpi&ors should be provided in the nat&torium room 4l 56, 124:39 # preferably recessed in one or both walls (end walls), Brlnklng Fountains "“^onllHgTomtains should be located in the hall or recessed in the wall of th© natatorium. 26s76, 133:25* 138:22. Electrical Fixtures An axidTtory^sTgual which will cause all per­ sona to leave the pool is desirable* 132:320, l6.9:74* It is desirable to have an electric clack enclosed in a vapor proof case* 26:76,

132:302, 133:^, 138:22.

Plugs for public address system are desired. 132:302* hose Bibs Tiose bibs connections for flushing, located at each end of th© room are desirable, 38s147• Life Saving and First Aid ww*™~ SIT© first aid equipment arc recom­ mended, 26:78* Scoreboard visible to th© gallery is desirable, 138*21.

21? Springboards " llprSJfl^OQPds shall fee 3 thick by 20 Indies wide fey 14 feet long and a 16 foot board Is desir­ able. 4l*6, 130? 116, l63*ll|5 * Fulcrum ”X~mechanically adjusted ful&rum is desirable

for both the low and high boards# 134*321, l63*ll).6, 160*135*


Height and Slope X one l e w board is approximately 40 inches measured from the end of the board to the water* A three meter board Is approximately 10 feet measured from the end of the board to the water* The platform for the three meter board should be provided with a hand rail* 96170* 104*70, 133*24, 120*123, 163*146, 1675 31, 168:135* The slop© of the board should be 2 bo 27' degree© upward* 138s129* location springboards should be located in the deep end of the pool, 133:123, 167531 and pro­ ject over the pool at least one meter and preferably five feet* 1385I23* l63?lip* In wide pools th© board may be located on th© ©ides* X38?123* Material, Covering, Finish ” XoFoaXiTHng, ’ S oISShes wide covering th© entire length of the board is desirable* 1385123, 163?l4S* Springboards should be treated with water-proof paint, shellac or hot linseed oil* 138?132. Springboards shall be made of wood, 163 ?145, one piece straight vertical grained wood fro© from defects, douglas fir or Oregon fir is desired* 138?125♦ Laminated boards' are not yet accepted as offi­ cial* 136*125* Humber



one mater board and a three meter board are desirable* 104*70, 138?123* In large pool© two low boards and one high board are cl©sirable.

Starting Boxes ' THS "Harming boxes, stainless steel, high enough to place th© swimmer 18 inches above th© water are de sirabl© • 59* 3.34*

218 Steps and Ladders S e e © s p s are desirable* 19:703* 1*4:39* 130:119* 167:31, 168:134* T.emnmd ladders are acceptable* steps and ladders should be located In the comer near the deep end* 26:77* 133*£5 * 130:110, 166:134* in large pools they should be in the middle of both sides* 124:39* Steps should he 3 Inches wide with rounded corners* l6?:3X* Ladders should hare tile covered rounds, with chrom­ ium plated brass,pipe hand grips above the pool* 1:1191, 28:77, 166:134* Material of step holes should be non-slip Impervious to moisture and noncorrosive* 138*119* Telephone " ^ ’’Telephone Is desirable In the instructor1s office*

132: 302.

Thermometer ~ ffiemfeiaetore should, be placed on the wall approxi­ mately 5 feet from the floor* 133:24* Vacuum Cleaning Connections *” cuK’ ^le@HIHrr, ’coEmeatIone are necessary* 115:32, 132:302.



" * ^ T h e coping should 12 Inches to 18 inches wide at the end of the pool extending 1 inch above the walkway* 59*134* 138:92* The top of the coping ^should b© level'or sloping away from the pool, 55:255, nnd should have an even slope up from the floor* 1:1192, 181X87. On the sides It should be ID inches to 12 inches wide— 12 Inches above the wat©i# line* 59*3.8?* Material and Finish ’' Vith an oatmeal finish is desir­ able* 10:187, 83:235* Msirol® and smooth tile are dangerous and subject to discoloration* 10:187-■" Peck or walkway ~ : fhe“^oXor should be light to facilitate cleanliness* 138:87. Construction

^CTeeTrshould. be constructed entirely around 'liie pool. 123:71. 133*2?. 133:37. Sot loss than 12 inches above the water line* The sur­ face should be of non-slip construction*, 10192. 13,107. 26,73, A , 38:133, 134:306, 135 43 134 5 139s i

, . :,


The deck should be fir© resistant and easily cleaned* 138*52* The width of th© deck along

the sides should be at least ? feet to 8 feet and 10 feet is desirable* 124*39* A width of 15 feet to 20 feet at th© deep end should be provided. 19*783, 3,23*71, 124*39. 133*25, 138 {88, 1681134.. Drainage

The deck should be pitched § inch to the foot to facilitate drainage* The following author! ties disagree as to whether It should drain to the scum gutter or toward the wall* Those favoring the drainage toward the scum gutter are 1*1192, 35*34, 168*134* 189*4oi* Those favoring drainage toward the wall are 1x1 *6, 85*261/124*39, 138*8?* material and Finish of the Deck mo st“ll¥iTrable loatlrlal is a non-si ip tile* 18*18?, 35*14, 124*39, 133*24. 135i43. .138*8?, 168*134, 1S4*5. Aooeptable materials are ceramic til©, ?6*221 123*104, and terra cotta, 138*87, and eexaent are most economical* l85s.ldL Marble or terrasso are not to be used* 138*87* Hubbellte floor, the ingredient of which is euprle 0x7chloride, Is suggested as it reduces athlete foot from 40 per cent to 91 per sent* 115*30* Floor of the Fool

Marking,® Depth markings should be set in tile in on© foot increments along both side® above the scum gutter*

1*1189* 103*72,'124.39. 189*398. distance marking* should b# set in tile every $


13*187, 19*783, 26*72, 124*39.

Lane larking®

lane center to center Is official. 138?X33, l6 3 «1 2 4 # The first guide line should be 3-| feet from the wall. 138:132. Six lanes are desirable. Width of Markings *fES Iln5 should be 10 inches wide on the bot­ tom of the pool starting 4 f r o m one end of th© pool and terminating 4 foot from the other end with a cross mark ? feet from the end.

Material and Color of Markings HSrkings sHouT^ee*'in contrasting colors of the same material as the pool lining*. 13? 137, 19*703, 1X>?32, 12/4.?39 1 139:398. Intense colors are desirable for mineral mark­ ings * 138?13E, Black or green should be used for lanes* 8l:l6l-4. Faint should be used for gam© lanes or lines instead of til© because of rule changes of games* 26*72* Heat Control H i heat thermostatically controlled is desirable* 113*30* 13£t2S* 138*189* 189*4®* and a separate unit for the pool Is also desirable* 133*25* Fixtures TIT radiators and 'heat pipes below 6 feet should be recessed and screened* 26*77 * 35*14* 124*39, 13dt08, 139*78* l68tl35* Hadlators and all metals, brass or copper should be non-corrosive* 26s77* 38s-X4» 124:39* 138*88* 139*76* 168*35* The hot water heater should be such capacity as to fill the pool id th water within 8 to 16 hours# 21 *167-8. TeaflperaturQ Desired (Air) not less than 3® degrees or more than 50 degrees warmer than water temperature. 138s156, 164*101, lS9 *4®9* 75 degrees to oO degrees I® desirable* 26*77, 59*134, 81*162# 123*32, J24&51, 139*74, 189*409* Water temperature for beginners should be 78 to o0 degree®. 20:458, 28i?7 » 138:185, and for recreation and all around use, 74 to 76 degrees, 138?135? 78 degrees In winter; for contestants 70 to 72 degrees is desirable. 138:135* 109:402. Mechanical system preferred. 26:77, 139*75. Steam recirculated hot air, unit system is acceptable. 19:76.3 Badiant heat with pipes in floors and walls— too new to recommend* 104*71* Lighting {Artificial} 7L complete artificial lighting system should be installed In the natatorlum. 115?32, 107:31, l89*4®2. Overhead lighting sind under water lighting are desirable. 24*94* 51:52, §8 :101, 70:55, 05:256, lit:55, 127:1|.6, 133*2!}-. 138:192, 139:70, 17640,

221 Fixtures and Controls T I T Tlxtures' should be vapor proof and non-'corrosive< 2.617?* 138:196, 1395 70* Under water fixtures should he grounded to prevent shook, 68:101, 26:77* Location location of all calling lights should bo In such a position that no glass can get into the pool, 133:2k, 139t70* It flood lights ar© used they should 1© placed near the corner, 6?:69* Ufader water projec­ tors spaced on 10 to 12 foot centers in the walls, 1 to lj feet below the surface of the water* arc d©sIrable« 2k:35, 28:77* 1271k&* lkk:38. However, these under water projec­ tors may be set 30 inches below the surface in the deeper water* Lights should not b© located in the ends of the pool, 127*k&# X38sl97* Type of Lighting W o o d iightlng or indirect lighting is most desirable. 67:69, 70:55* llii:33, 133:2k* 138:192* Holiophan© or seni-direct type of lighting is acceptable• 26:77* 138:192, Fluorescent lighting has been used with suc­ cess* 176«ko* The dry or wet niche type of under water lighting is desirable* The projo©tors should have a l]f> degree spread lens or be in a prism tic lens system, In the wet niche method all fixtures shall b© under water equipment, 127 A warning light should illuminate the inter­ ior when a door opens to prevent diving into an empty pool* 26 577* 138:193# 167:31* Intensity “ T T o r more foot candles of overhead lighting ar© desirable, but 7 or 8 foot candles may be acceptable* 2k*9k# 127:11# 138:192* For under water lighting 2*5 to 3 watts per square foot of water surface with 25 to 30 per cent of the wattage in the deep end is desirable, A formula for figuring the number of units is as follows: In pools up to 4.0 foot In width 250 watt projectors should be used? in pools kO to 60 foot in width, 560 watt projectors

232 should be used| in pools 60 to 90 feet in width* 1000 watt projectors should be used* 111?*33* .foot of water surface times 3 watts per square foot » " " n o c c S o j i e tor number of units*


locatio-n w" wwfHe most desirable location for the n&b&toriwm Is on the ground floor. 123*71* 124:39* 133:24* 134:301, XSOsB^* Pools on the upperfloors areacceptable* 115*30. Pools should not be located in the b&soxaent* 7 *62, !85j20!j.. The pool should he located near the shower room and an integral part of the gymnasium unit and served by the same looker room and toilet facilities* 22 :439* 382X36, 123*71* 130:So* The a&tatorium should, be located on a alto free of dust* earth tremors or vibrations* 130:52* and not adjacent to a railroad* Humber of Fools 1,ITI"^ r"XllT*»eeSSSary high schools should 'have a swimming pool and large high schools should have a separate pool for boys and one for girls* Recirculation System ~~~'™TThe capacXt5~THould be such that a turn over of water in 8 hours or less will bo provided. 6 3*52, 132*302, 134*307, 138*165. There should be an automatic control on the recirculation system, 132:302, 134:307, with pro­ visions for treating water with chemicals for purifica­ tion* Chlorine Is most generally used and the most satisfactory. 1*1197, 18*18?, 22*1l39, 26*04, 33*139, 43*154, 51*51, 70*55, 134*139, 138sl6S. hypochlorite of lla. or hypochlorite of soda is next best to chlorine. Is 1197, 26 jo4* Osono is used, X8 ;lS6, 22:439* 28:86, 134:31!'., but the data are few and inconclusive» 1:1197* Ultra violet ray is used and suggested but not recommended where high regular or temporary load occurs. XsX197, 16*187, 22*439. 26*65, 51*51, 134*314. Provisions should include alkalinity and co&nulant, 81:162, feeders. 139*81, 1601135. Mechanical sitlon alone is an unsafe method of bacterial

223 control, 132:161:., but filters ape indispensable to maintaining wc.tor in good condition. Kind "**’ * Pressure filters arc roeomraended for inside Vertical filters are more efficient than hor1sontal* 26 j36. Gravity atmd. filters are more effective (remove 80 to 93 per cent of bacteria) but too largo for inside pools. 26:36, 113':33* r Pool capacity, peak load, hours of use, capa­ city of circulation system determine the sis© of filters, 133sl3lj.* Batteries in multiples of two are arranged in a parallel series find are preferred to on® single unit. 133:1>1u Hair Catcher-*»Strainers ~ 3houIO>e InsFElied as part of th® recircula­ tion system. 1:1197, 38:139, 70*55, 115:32, 133:l]rS. Inlets and outlets ll,r1'W f i elent circulation depends upon the loca­ tion of inlets and outlets, 26;85* Inlets should be spaced equidistant across th© ends and sides of th© pool approximately^12 Inches below the surface of water* 20:35, 11>: 32, 13'. 023. The outlets located in the deep end, 26:05, 131:3*-. Olsa Inlets should be k times as large as outlet pipes, 26:05, 13k *30*1-•

Kind of Recirculation System , t OToiel^oFmeoHanicaT system recomendacl, 2o:dp, qj:136, 51:51, ol:l6o, 115:33, 12i|.:^t>* 133:2k, 13o:y2 , Pill and draw system or flow through no longer safe for th® health of swimmers. 30:262, 8lsl6o, 13k:301, 130:

All piping and mechanical equipment should be loc atod lu Ismael vm&er pool dscl-:, !,|i:10t I32i3Qu.. All pipes s hould be double theoretical size with flan­ ged milt permitting oaay tak© dom* opening for gauges and outlets for water a m Clearly marked according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineering Standards« 1:1197* Cross connection so constructed that there is no posai* billty of swimming pool water sotting into drinking water supply, 138*145# 16.9:74. Ma Spectator attendance depends upon many factors such as the popularity of the sport and Inter-scholastio com­ petition# 2 *9 square foot 1 b a d e s i r a b l e standard for determining seating capacity* 176s18* Th® best place to view a m e t or exhibition is at the deep end 02* sides near the deep end* 26:79# '01*162, xol):69 , 132:703* Starting at floor level or at right anglesAto the swim­ ming course, facing away from the sxax* 136:134* Acceptable location of scats in a balcony above the pool l8 :Xo9 , 124:39* but no port to extend over the pool. 104:69# 139:282. The spectator seating should be ^separated from the pool by a vail or artistic fence* 13:1(35/ 26*79, ip*:6, cl: 162, 104:69, 115:34# 124:39, 132:763, 130:40* Care must be exercised to provide a sight line enabling all persons to see both sides of the pool* 85*261.* A spoon shaped floor in th© gallery.provides better visi­ bility* 1335137* Permanent seats with backs ar# desirable* 104:69, 115:134, 12.4:39, 133:25, 130:137*

19*783# 26:75,

Folding bleachers are acceptable* 35:14# 177:15* All seating material, wood or metal, should be treated for corrosions, 177:15, and should permit washing with a hose * 104:69 * 115234*

zz$ Biz® and Shape

Remarks. Th® pool should be designed to moot or^lcTi,! s m S T n g meet standards* The trend toward a pool 75 feet in length is prevalent • 138:105, 163:X2],l, 179:93, a determining the capacity of a pool, allow 10 square feet of water surface for each person in the shallow area. {Leas than 5 feet deep.) 1 :1190 , 6 6 *8 ?# 179:93.

Allow 2? square feet of water surface for each swimmer in the deeper area. 1 :1190 , 86 s8 ?, 13ks 303, 179:93* A maximum of 12 persons in the diving area. feet from the board.) 1*1X90# 6 6 5 8 7 .


Indoor pools- should he rectangular in shape# deep at on© &nd and shallow at the other. 1 :1189, 115s29# A double spoon shaped pool is recommended for pools over 60 feet in length. A spoon shaped pool usually has three gradations of d epth. Another shape in which th© shallow area M s a level floor# th® ml Ml© area sloped, end the deepest area has a level floor# Another has a gradual slop© from the shallowest part to th© deep­ est part# 184188. Width "The width of the pool was formerly based upon the width in multiples of fives# the official width of lanes. I8 tl86# 12^:39* The width for th© same reason should now be baaed upon multiple of 3oven feet. 59*131# 805262# idj,169. A desirable sis© for a secondary school and communi tv use is 75 feet by h'Z foot and an acceptable sis© 6 0 foot by 28 feet, Desirable sis© for a divisible pool Is 75 feet by 56 feet and an accept­ able sis© is 75 feet by kZ foot, trend Is toward a 75 foot pool. 12k# 179:93

130:105, 163

Standard lengths are 60 feet, 75 feet, 90 feet, 3.05 feet and 12$ feet. 26*68. ' A pool 75 feet in length 1$ desirable for © ond&ry school and a 60 foot pool is lalnlmmaly acceptable* besirablo depth is 3 to 10 feet*

Ip.*6# 133if103*

Acceptable length is 3§ to 8 feet, ~ f, 111:11, 123*72.

36*14# 38*138,

The area of the shallow end varies f rorn br0 to per cent of the total pool area. 138:100, The else of th© area depends upon th.® volume, bathing load. Sam© authorities recommend & area to be shallow* 1:1189,

per cent of total

Ventilation A rop^ly and exhaust of 12 change© per hour is desirable, 21 si68, 8l*lo2. The air movement should not exceed 25 lineal feet per minute• 139*?4~5 * for th# spectator area 20 cubic feet per hour for each spectator seat is desirable*. 8 cubic feet per hour per square foot of floor area and cubic foot per hour' for each square foot of open spectator*# spaces with no fixed seats. 0X 1X62* Mechanical ventilation Including air supply and exhaust is desirable, 21:166, 56:77# 81:3*1# 132: 302, 109s403* Th# natatorim and the room used, for basketball should not be tied together. 126: 368. If the. pool is located in the upper floor, natural ventilation is acceptable* ldtlS6 * Walls Th# foundation and shell should be adequate to carry the load of the roof, walkway, equipment, a filled pool and a maximum load of spectators* 138:82* Th© basin m designed as to stand full or empty without cracking* 130:94* The walls ar# usually mad©#of reinforced con-* crate 12 inches thick* 19:783, 1x1:6, 115*30* & welded steel shell is recommended for upper floors* 19:783, 124:40* Materials

upper walls should be designed m d constructed to insure satisfactory acoustics and the outside


walls should be insulated to prevent condensation* 26#75. 13S 3.92+ -Seat should lie provided fop the space between the inner and outer walls* 136368* Desirable materials for the upper walls are pres­ sed cork slabs i|- inches thick* 19*783* 82*255* Acoustical plaster or Portland cement plaster ar© also desirable* 26375# 5?jlk5* Brick is economi­ cal and acceptable# 10:Xo6* Lower falls f jfi© material should be impervious to moisture* easily cleaned and hard to scratch* 1X5*30. 133:2k# 130*85* Desirable Materials “nTeiTrauTe^smWrinis ar© vitreous glased brick, 19:783# 26:75, 115*30. 121*.#39. «eA glased tile* U*7, 58s 145, 85*225, 12lf*39, 138185. 01a©fl brick is acceptable*


White biscuit tile m3, vlvita ceramic tile ar© undesirable* 2.6375# Fore©lain tile is also undesirable* 115 s30 Seim Gutters gutters are mechanical c ontrivimc©© to kill the waves, 59# 13k. hut sanitarians are unanimously in favor of b cum gutters* 1385108 * They should extend completely around the pool, lsll91, 381138, U5:3k, at the ends as well as at the sides* 87*71. 85*261. 134:305* However, in ©aj^etitivo pools the overflow gutters at the end of the pools ar© hazards to the swimmers and objectionable in water polo-* 59# 13kt 138:108* It is desirable to have the scum gutters reeessed in th© walls with the lip and the front ©dp;© flush with the pool wall* They should be so constructed as to prevent the splash from th© scum gutter going back to th© pool with drain® ©very 10 feet* 5.1:6, 33il38, 133*23. 13k*305, 189*1*00. Ihia open t?p* scum gutter© ar© cheaper and easier for the swimmer to get out of th© pool* 26:72* Windows “H a a s Area "ITT! desirable to have the glass area equal to 50 per cent of the pool surface Including th© decks* 19*783» 38*130, 123*307, 133*2k* 133*90. 25 l> feet in height with 60 to ?0 feet most commonly used are erected on each side of th© field* the open or closed reflector may be used* Th© number of lamps vary and a 1500 watt lamp is desir­ able# 120,000 watts ar© desirable with O0,000 watts an acceptable standard* 11.2:22, 113Jl^* All wir­ ing should be underground* 112j22, 113si!*.*

location ww~ ^ T wEesirabl© location Is within the oval track 73? 216, 119:162, X03*lf2X, arranged so the football field does not overlap the baseball infield* The orientation of the football field should he considered from th© standpoint of th© players com­ fort* 27*15?, 172:22* Desirable orientation should, he such that the long axis of 'Hie field should be at right angles to the sim»s azimuth* This will be approximately north and south, but It may vary 6 degrees* 2 ? 2157, 1 7 2 :2 2 ,

136:6ll:-203* Seating See stadium, page Sis© See chart Surface

favf surface is most desirable* 36:3-1.;., 6.2 :26.8, il5j.236, 112:li|., 119:162, 121:?, 13? tU, 16?:26, 173:220, 139 ili20. Marking should b© with agricultural lime or "traf­ fic” whit© paints* 112:22*

Track and Field Curb

The inner curb may be constructed of wood, Douglas fir," ll6 :6, 171*23, yellow pine creosotod* 3d;191,

Acceptable materials ar© interlocking steel pipes* 119s168* The outer curb should be concrete*


The curb should oc omitted if baseball and football are played on the same field* 27:157* Curbs should be if inches wide on the top and 6 to 8 inches at the bottom* 119:16-3, 171:23* Drainage "SuHsoil drainage is to be used only if local con­ ditions require it* 18-6:6l2f~21.8* The depth of excavation depends upon the type of soil as a track on porous soil should be deeper than on a non-porous soil* 171:26• Deeper tracks have longer life*


Th® depth of the excavation m y be as much as l6 to 30- inches* 171:2. 6, 112:22 * The subgrade may have aside slop© of 2-J inches to the center along which is laid a 4 Ineh drain tile in a cinder filled trench 12 inches wide and 1.2 inches deep* The tile drains are connected to 8 inch drains at >0 foot intervals which In. turn lead to a a t o m sewer* 171*26* Some tracks slope 4 Inches from the outside to the inside curb, 27:157, 149:52, where a 4 inch to 6 Inch drain tile parallels the curb and connects with s t e m sewers* Xl6s6* Surface Drainage fEe surface slope on curvea varies from 1> inches in 25 feet, 32:9, to & 2 Inch slope toward the inside* l4 feet to 125 foot* A true semi-circle for the curve la roeomon&ed* kpj2k0*l, 119:3.68, 17X 526, 1*34*2 Surface of Track ' *"""T@XT”construe ted tracks are put; down In three layers, a coarse layer, a middle layer and a top layer* 27:15?* 34*19* 112*22, 1X9*168, 149*50, 171$26, 186:6x4-218, The coarse layer consisting of coarse rubble, atone, clinkers, leveled and ’heavily rolled. The rough fill is estimated from 3 to 10 inches deep, 32:9, 34*19# 140:51, 1?1 :28, 186:218, The middle layer usually is from 3 to 9 inches in depth and. of locomotive cinders, coarse cinders or straight-run cinders * 32:9* lit$19, 112:22, 148:51, 171:2-6, The top layer is usually from 1 to 5 Inches composed of clay or top soil and cinders, (1 part clay, 168*139 to 3 to 4 parts cinders, 1/8 inch mash,) 32:9, 34*9, 112:22, 148:51, 1718 20-30, 185:6x4-210. Stactla Stadia are- permanent outdoor seating structures with their arenas Intended primarily for viewing athletic con­ tests and athletic exhibitions, Auxiliary Hoops PresslnS^looaas "ISroasTng-rooms should be provided for houm and visiting teams. Drying Booms ,J" rooms should X© provided for clothing, first Aid and Training Boom Fl^t'" aid'"m& ¥raiHlng room should bo provided*

General Offices 'offices near the mall entrance should be provided* Officials * Rooms ~ ~ 0 ? ? U iaXs’ rooms with showers ana sanitary facilities should be provided,

238 PP6 B8 Box A press box and broadcasting facilities for football should be located on top of the stadia at th© 50 yard line* for baseball near home plate with unobstructed view* Provisions for heating should be mad©* A continuous deads with an allowance of fros Z to 1 foot candles is the minimum of intensity#


Location — *Hio preferred location is on the ground floor or above— never in the basement* >2 :20, 79:223# Oriemfcation

'XFTeast one long side of the room should bo exposed to 1ight* 79:223 * The corrective room should b© adjacent to the main gymnasium, health service# a ccessible to the locker

i*ooia and connected with the rest room. 57tl4 » 79i223, 168i20, An acceptable location Is In the physical education unTSl , 62:72* All secondary schools should have at least one cor­ rective room# 107t\l\3 * It is desirable to have corrective rooms in pairs, one for boys and one for girls, 57*28, ?V:22l;., 107*143. Bis©

A room lj.0 by 60 by 20 feet is desirable in a large school to serve as an auxiliary gymnasium and cor­ rective room* 3>:Xi].. A room-. 30 by 50 by 20 feet is desirable for maditm sis© school and acceptable for a large school* 19:788, 35'sIlf, 79:2if* A room 25 by >0 % 20 feet Is acceptable* 38:133-6, 62:72, 189*365.* Walls &La$s brick or glased brick are desirable materials. 159:53* The walls should be light In color* 57*29* A wall strip is advocated* 57:29* Window® fE© window area should be equal to 25 per cent of the floor space. The windows should be located on one or both long side® with diffusing glass if there Is a direct sunlight In the windows* Hon-transparent glass should b© used for the first floor or basement level windows* The windows should be protected by iron wire mesh, flush with the wall* 57:29, 79*222. Pivot or louver type windows mechanically operated are desirable. Skylights

’ sIE^Iiglifcs a re u n s a tis f a c to ry in most p y m asia* 79:223*

250 UNIT IV Service Facilities General Spaces, structures and fixtures inten* cBS^pi^karfSjTfor the health* coafart and convenience of the pupils and other persons who might us© the physical education facilities#. XTljjljJf.* Check loom A ©pace for storing wraps and clothing during the exhibition games and other spectator sports and during the evening use of the physical education facilities is desirable. 2^ 383# 179I88. The check room should he located near the gymnasium preferably in the lobby. 2^*83, 179*83. The appa­ ratus room m y be used in a small school as a, chock room* Prying loom “ The ceiling should be the same as the shower room* Entrance *”**' Tif"is desirable to ‘ nave a one-way traffic from the showers to the drying room to the to the looker room* 59*139* Double doors each opening in one direction *IN** and !*0l?T** are acceptable* 167*33 Fixtures *^w^Towel bars, non-rust, and non-corrosive arc desirable# 128*>7* Hooks for towels are accep table * I33125 * The floors, heating and ventilation, and lighting snoiila fce tne same as the shower room M

m mu munmmmjsmv

w .

'1,8111 w m *mi** «a » k m h i.

■amp . uw ia ,

» Mrw«..*M-'**'iri*i .*>*»«

mnm mnmm

Location ~ “T S ’Jacent to the shower room with the direct passage to the locker room Is desirable# 35ilg lj.6il56, 62s35. 7?:2&3, 117:66, 133:25, 167:33. 5 la© Prom 15 to 25 square foot per shower head Is recommended for the sis© of the drying room* 35:11*., 36:13. 37:152, U:l5,6, 57:31,,77:263, 92:55, 128:29, 133:25, 136:Ij.2» 117:66, 167:33.

251 Health XJnlt tn large schools the following spaces should be provided for in the health unit* dental clinic, medical clinic, psychological clinic, office suit©, rest rooms, and a reception room* In smaller schools the nurses room nay fee combined with the psychological clinic| the physiclangs and dental clinic m y be combined* In email schools a single room may well serve all purposes* The unit should be planned In relation to community needs and available for community services* tlcal treatment for celling® is desirable. Light grey colors are gradually supplanting whit©* 167*33* Light, values of green are also desirable. Oar© should be exercised to avoid the characteris­ tics of an operating room* 123:61. Entrances ~ At least one door or double door® wide enough to accommodate the use of stretchers Is desirable* h door should lead from the corridor Into the recep­ tion room* Other door® should lead from the recep­ tion room into the medical and dental clinics. Fixtures following fixtures should be provided: a neatly framed bulletin board, a quiet clock, elec­ trical outlets of sufficient sis© and number, con­ veniently located, to car© for the contemplated needs, a full length mirror, built in supply cabi­ nets, a telephone and toilet®. Th© toilet© should be made of vitroua china, wall hung, automatic flush* Wash basins provided with hot and cold water, Imeo or foot operated are desirable* 45:251, 123: 60, 12M5Q, 133:12, 181*1)7. Floors Asphalt tile and linoleum are the best floor mater­ ial© for th© health unit* ?bs221, 122:66, 123:XOit,. Acceptable material© are rubber tile, 122s86, ter­ ras®©, 60:39-3, 122:66, ceramic tile, 122:86* Floors should have rounded comer® and covered base boards. Heat and Ventilation g*n© Hi¥$r©‘^™temperatur© is 66 to 72 degree®, however, it should bo higher In the examination room and th© temperature should be lower in the infirmary. The mechanical ventilation, automatically controlled, Is desirable*

or semi-direct lighting Is desirable • 4*31loo* ly© ©harts and dental.clinics should have supplementary lighting. I4.3 1166, 5 foot candles of general ilimitation are recommended* hooatlon TrT"l&rg© schools it is desirable to locate the health clinic within the physical education unit, accessible from a corridor and near an outside entrance which is available to a driveway*. Much care should bo exercised to secure a quiet loca­ tion and acoustical treatment is desired. An acceptable location for the health unit should b© near the administrative offices or the library, accessible from a corridor and near an outside entrance* Humber schools with an enrolment of >00 boys, one room is sufficient* Mien th@ enrolment is larger than 500 boys a room for the mra®, physician and a waiting room with toilet facilities is necessary. 35s13* kStS&Xf 133:12. Si&e The b ±%® of the health unit depends upon the type and the extent of the health services offered by the school* In large clinics a space of approxi­ mately 600 square feet or more is desirable. This space may be divided into the following rooms 5 examination room, with dressing booths and toilet adjacent, waiting room with toilet connections, a dental clinic, a nurse*© room, a psychological clinic, a doctor’s room, a rest room or infirmary* In a small school, 200 to 300 square feet is an acceptable also, with one dimension 22 feet or more, lS9 t22i|,, or a single room mad© avail­ able for emergency. 3?:l65. Recommended siae of dental clinic is 9 by 9 foot* Recommended sis* of medical clinic Is 22 feet as minimum length with ^ T e a s t “>iKr¥quare feet. 35:13* 62:72. baiting room recommended is 100 square feet* O *1^J♦ Rest room or infirmary else recommended Is 160 'iquar©~T©et--si¥e~Tolnc reas© with the enrolment • 35:13*

253 Walls The wainscoting should be tile, marble or ceiaent plaster, finished to permit frequent scrubbing* The upper walls should be lacquered hard cement plaster* Windows Tfatural light is desirable* The window area should be ona-fourth of the total floor area. 3?31&6 * hooker Hoorn Faculty-CormniMiity A separaueiocker and shower room for faculty and oommmity us© is r© commended, 42 *03* ' 43*8?, 123 s 56, 156*19* It is desirable in many situations to combine this room with the visitors* team room. 131*64-5. {For other standards so© Student looker 1100m.} Student hooker Boom r “'WsXs^sliouXBT'be located at rihht angles or nerpendlcular to th« light. 4: 69, 128:19* Bhowors may be either above or below the gymnasium as an acceptable location# 116*152# Aisles at right angles to windows

are desirable,. 45 *!{." lockers fine for girls* locker rooms. They can keep clothes much neater. We use these with a cube storage locker, 12" x 12" x 12","


Ventilation Snyder - "Mechanically ventilating our lockers overcomes much of the bad odor,"


Shower Room Selvldge - "Master control should be established outside shower room*"


Di filippo - "Special type wrench so that souveniers will not be taken," P

115 115

Team Rooms Snyder ■ "This can be done by using steel open mesh doors or fence that can be unfolded over main locker room when building is used at night and by placing lockers in sufficient numbers and adjacent to shower and toilets. We have found this successful," P



Foot Tubs Esslinger - "Positive-long trough? 2 or 3 steps,"

p. 116

Office suite Doors Henderson ** "Is this necessary? Instructors should be on the floor— not observing through the office," p. 119 Location Snyder - "In order to save play space we build many buildings 2 storeys— gym over locker rooms and offices*" p, 119 Humber Snyder - "We prefer one large area for all instruc­ tors with one private office for director and if 2 storey building, this office on first*" p* 119 Supply storage Behlmer - "Master key*"

p* 120 pp* 120-1

Esslinger - "Why?" Equipment Drying Hoorn Heat and ventilation Esslinger - "Separate ventilation system,"

p* 121

Laundry Henderson - "Accessible to both boys and girls locker rooms,"

p* 122

La Salle - "Laundry is desirable for washing towels Instead of the unsanitary practice of hanging wet towels inlockers," p* 122 Henderson - "Humber of pieces to belaundered should be Indicated to assure right size." fflasaroom Fixtures

pp* 122-3


Snyder - "Mot in rooms used for exercise*” "Important-audio-visual aids equipment.”

p, 123 p, 12i|.

Scott ~ "Why is all this necessary in a physical education set up?”



Uhler - "A classroom is never a good placefor physical education activities.”



Apparatus Storage Boom McCoe - "Separate rooms*" Uhler - MA storage room should not be usedas an activity room. The two uses are not com­ patible,” ”1 strongly object to the suggestion that an apparatus storage room can be used for activity.”

p, 125

pp. 125-6

p. 125

Selvidge - "Leather goods and lime in the same room— not good,”

p. 125

Uhler - "Isnfb it good procedure to have all locks in a building fitted to open with a master key?”

p* 126

Scott - nHow about height?”

p. 126

Sanitary Facilities Uhler - "Have omitted mentioning there should be no open toilets in locker room. There should be a separate room with walls to ceiling." P. 129 Custodial Unit Scott - "Why so warm?”

p. 130

Service Facilities Check Room Selvidge - "In which case provision must be made for temporary rods for hanging clothes.” Health Unit Turner - "Do you mean treatment clinics or examination rooms?" p. 131

278 La Salle ** I disagree* All school doctors and nurses with whom I have worked, also other health workers believe that health rooms should be centrally located near main office. See eomment on Jr. Hi. report. There is no valid reason for locating near physical education unit.” p. 132 Esslinger - "Most new plans show in connection with administrative unit.”

p. 132

”What about girls?” Uhler * ”Can the use of lacquer rather than paint prove superior?”

p. 133

General Building La Ball© ** ”Anti-panic hardware essential*11

p. 136


p. 137


”Hon-shatter glass.” "Doors leading outdoors should bo locked from outs ide.”


Showley - "That any heating coils or radiators be placed high enough or else covered with a flat surface so as to permit practice for tennis against the wallsin gymnasium.” p.


Heating and Ventilation Scott - ”70 to 76 degrees too cold during winter for any type of swimming.”

p. llpl

Type Esslinger - Radiant heat— "Not new, used in England for years.” Ventilation Scott - ”Should not create drafts or blow on the swimmer. ” Esslinger - "Separate systems.” "Provision for sunlight.”

P* p. llfl

Electrical Service Fire protection and "Protective Devices" Switches

p. Dp2

279 Showley « "Xn connect ion with th© usual number of plug-in switches* I Y/ould suggest plug-in switches be included on all light switches for convenience in using portable electric cleaning appliances* flood lamps for taking^pictures* etc* Extra expense is negligible and they often work as an excellent convenience.” p, I);3 Lighting Ssslinger - "Off white better reflection contrast* p • Xljlp

"Hard to clean pool,”

p* lip7

’’Light intensities should b© stated height from floor.”

p* l£l

La Sail© *• ’’Suggest a little higher for better cleaning*”

p. 1£>1

Indoor Surface Materials

Scott - ”Upper walls— glazed brick?”

p. 152

McCoe - ’’Lower walls--A good grade of light pressed brick very satisfactory for entire height of wall*11 P* 152 Snyder - ’’Acoustical treatment* important*”

p. 152

Uhler - ’’Asphalt hard on feet and calves* slip- ' pery would favor linoleum or rubber tile* maple* oak.”

P* 152

’’Fire resistant better work.”

p. 152

general Remarks McCoe - ’’Very comprehensive and complete report— I have only very few comments and those are minor differences of opinion.” C* V. Lang ton - ’’This is an excellent study." Selvidge - "A master control should be established outside the shower room and that a special equipment room should b© established for such materials as lime ••*•”

280 Turner - "I think it important for the introduction to Indicate that these represent what would be ideal so that the public will not think we expect as extensive facilities as these in all situations," Behl&er - "I^f ind nothing to comment on adversely. a job well done*,,*11

It is

Scott - "*.,The high school boys report seems less dogmatic and gives more leeway and adaptability to local standards and demands, I also like the item in the report on ’’contra indications” ,In many respects I consider the high school boys report as having many de s irable fe atur© s ,,,,” Henderson * ” *,,This work done by you and your co-workers is a tremendous task and will have wide-spread influence for good in our field throughout th© entire nation,” ”Is protection provided for windows facing areas where children might throw missiles, balls, etc*? All play areas should be devoid of stones, etc,” ”In the use of panic bolts on doors what provi­ sions can be thought of to prevent entry to parts of the building by outsiders during crowded per­ iods and yet furnish means of egress. Of course in new buildings planned recreation units or community used parts of a building can be sepa­ rated from the sections not being used." "I suppose that lities in those temperatures as moderate during

suggestions will be made for faci­ sections of the country where ?/ell as other conditions are the entire year,”

"All rooms in which pupils congregate should b© deadened for noise repercussion b y suitable acoustic provision as well as the gymnasium," "Are score boards part of equipment to be con­ sidered in standards for facilities?" "Should there not be at least two instruction rooms in junior and senior high schools as teach­ ing units?" "I am thinking of systems where health teaching runs concurrently with gymnasium periods one or two times a week."

281 ’’Should provision for tumbling and apparatus classes be in special or auxiliary gymnasium rooms?” "We had a tragic occurrence here when some how a swim­ mer came in contact with an under-water lighting fixture.” "What about those schools where service units ar© established under stadium?” "In many cities it Is expected that gate receipts shall support some phases of the athletic program. Hence some school stadium or more than one should be fitted out to provide for paying spectators. An open wire fence should be backed up by high privet planting or some provision should be made. Poes this come within the planning for facility standards?” "I believe many flat walls adjacent to hard surface courts should serve as teaching spaces for one-wall handball* tennis serving, etc." "Again I want to commend you on the work done....”