A history of the problem of general education in the United States on the secondary level

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A HISTORY OF THE PROBLEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES ON THE SECONDARY LEVEL

A D is s e r ta tio n P r e se n te d t o th e F a c u lty o f th e S c h o o l o f E d u ca tio n The U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th ern C a lif o r n ia

In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f th e R equirem ents f o r th e D egree D octor of E d u ca tio n

by A lfr e d Ehrhardt June 1950

UMI Number: DP25777

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This dissertation, writ ten under the direction of the Chair man of the candidate*s Guida nce C o m m i t t e e and a p p r o v e d by all me m be rs of the C om m it te e , has been pr esented to an d a c ce pte d by the F ac u lty of the Scho ol of E d uc at io n in p a r ti a l fu lfillment of the requirements fo r the deg ree of D o c t o r of Education. D a te ..I )

t Guidance C om m ittee

Chairman

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE PART I THE RISE OF GENERAL EDUCATION

I. II. III.

I n tr o d u c tio n s The Problem o f G eneral E d u ca tio n i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . ........................

1

The Greco-Roman B ir t h o f G en era l E d u ca tio n (3 5 0 0 B. C. - 65 A . D . ) ................................................

12

The P e r s is t e n c e o f H u m an istic G en eral E d u ca tio n th rou gh European C u ltu re (6 5 - 1600)

25

PART I I THE RISE AND DECLINE OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES IV . V.

V I.,

The R is e o f G en era l E d u ca tio n in th e U n ite d S t a t e s (1 6 3 5 - 1900) .........................................................

37

The I n flu e n c e o f S c i e n t i f i c R esea rch and I n d u s t r ia l E f f i c i e n c y on G en eral E d u ca tio n (1900 - 1 9 3 0 ) .............................................................

54

The P er io d o f C haos, C ourses o f S tu d y , and E x p e r im e n ta tio n : The C o lla p se o f G en eral E d u ca tio n (1 9 3 0 - 1935)

79

PART I I I THE RISE OF THE GENERAL EDUCATION MOVEMENT V II. V III. IX .

The Q uest fo r 'U n ity * The E v o lu tio n o f th e Core Course f o r G en eral E d u c a t i o n ........................

122

The Growth o f th e G en eral E d u ca tio n Movement: The D e lin e a t io n o f I s s u e s (1 9 3 5 * 1940) . . .

159

G en eral E d u ca tio n In th e War and Post-W ar E ra s: The G reat D ichotom y (1940 - P r e s e n t ) .

.

229

iii PAGE

CHAPTER PART IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND SUGGESTED STUDIES X.

Summary, C o n c lu s io n s , and S u g g e ste d ...................................................................... S tu d ie s . .

306

BIBLIOGRAPHY.......................

330

APPENDIX....................................................................................................

338

PART I THE RISE OF GENERAL EDUCATION

“But we h ave n o t as y e t sp o k e n , 0 i l l u s t r i o u s g u a rd ia n o f e d u c a t io n , o f th e manner i n w h ich your p u p ils a r e t o u s e t h o s e s t r a i n s w h ich a re w r it t e n i n p r o s e , a lth o u g h you have b een in form ed what m a r t ia l s t r a i n s th e y a r e t o le a r n and p r a c t i c e ; what r e l a t e s i n th e f i r s t p la c e t o th e le a r n in g o f l e t t e r s , and s e c o n d ly , t o th e l y r e , and a l s o t o c a l c u l a t i o n , w h ic h , a s we were s a y in g , i s n e e d f u l f o r them a l l t o le a r n and any o th e r t h in g s w hich a re r e q u ir e d w ith a v ie w t o war and th e management o f th e h ou se and e i t y .

• • •” - -P la to

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTIONS

THE PROBLEM OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

T oday, as a p e o p le , A m ericans a r e e x p e r ie n c in g what s c h o la r s c o n s id e r th e m ost t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r io d i n human h is t o r y .^

A d e v a s t a t in g econom ic d e p r e s s io n , a seco n d and

more a w fu l g lo b a l c o n f l i c t , and a p e r io d of p o st-w a r r e ­ c o n s t r u c t io n fr a u g h t w it h a 11c o l d 11 w a r, f e a r o f a tom ic a b u s e , and p o lit ic o - s o e i o - e c o n o m ic t e n s io n s have crowded th e l a s t q u a r te r o f a c e n tu r y i n r a p id s u c c e s s i o n .

The y e a r o f t h i s

d i s s e r t a t i o n , 1 9 5 0 , u sh e r s i n th e se co n d h a l f o f th e t w e n t ie th c e n tu r y under c o n d it io n s i n t e r e s t i n g a s w e l l a s str a n g e * They a re i n t e r e s t i n g b e c a u se 1950 f in d s hum anity “a t th e z e n it h o f i t s s c i e n t i f i c and econom ic p r o g r e s s , 11 and str a n g e b e c a u se “w ith a l l t h i s p r o g r e ss th e w orld f e e l s s o a f r a id p and s o u n c e r ta in o f the f u t u r e * M In th e f i e l d o f s c ie n c e man has rea ch ed new su m m its, a t t h e same tim e t h a t he i s f e a r f u l l e s t h i s v e r y p r o g r e s s d e s tr o y b o th him and a l l th e c i v i l i z e d w orld*

And the e x p la n a tio n o f a l l t h i s c o n fu s io n i s

1 B a r n e s, H. E* S o c i e t y i n T r a n s it io n , P r e n t ic e - H a ll, 1939? pp* 659-6& 0.

New Y ork,

2 P o ly z o id e s . “Mankind F e a r f u l o f Own P r o g r e s s , 11 Los A n g eles Times * January 1 , 1950

2 t h a t 11our p o l i t i c a l th in k in g has n o t k ep t p a ce w ith t h a t o f s c i e n c e . “3

T r u ly , i n th e s p i r i t o f D ick en s1* i t m ight be

s a id t h a t t h i s i s th e b e s t o f t i m e s , i t i s th e w o r st o f t im e s , i t i s th e a g e o f w isdom , i t i s th e a g e o f f o o l i s h n e s s , i t is

th e ep och of b e l i e f , i t i s th e epoch o f i n c r e d u l i t y ,

i t i s th e s e a s o n of L ig h t , i t i s th e s e a s o n of D a r k n e ss, i t i s th e s p r in g o f h o p e , i t i s th e w in te r o f d e s p a ir . I t i s t o be e x p e c te d th a t in su c h a c r i s i s th e s c h o o ls g e n e r a lly w ould be one o f th e f i r s t s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s t o be th e o b je c t o f s c r u t in y and c r i t i c i s m .

P a r tic u la r ly is

t h i s tr u e o f th e h ig h s c h o o l s in c e i t d e a ls w ith a p e r io d o f e d u c a tio n c l o s e s t to th e a c t u a l t e n s io n s of s o c i e t y and s e r v e s as te r m in a l e d u c a tio n f o r th e v a s t m a jo r ity o f y o u t h .5 Y et i t i s e q u a lly tr u e t h a t th e se co n d a r y program has ev e r la g g e d b eh in d c u l t u r a l and s o c i a l ch an ges d e s p i t e r e p e a te d e f f o r t s a t r e c o n s t r u c t io n and r e v i s i o n . B e l l c o n c lu d e s from h i s M aryland Youth S u rvey t h a t h i s d a ta ” . . .

r e v e a l th e a c t i v i t i e s and th e th in k in g o f

a g e n e r a tio n t h a t i s s t i l l making an e f f o r t t o a d ju s t i t s e l f

3 L oc. c i t . ^ D ic k e n s , C h a r le s . A T a le o f Two C i t i e s ,. G r o sse t & Dunlap P u b lis h e r s , 19*+o, p . 3 .

Mew Y ork,

5 A lb e r t y , H a ro ld . R e o r g a n iz in g th e High S c h o o l C u rricu lu m . New Y ork, th e M acm illan Company, 19**7* P* 3*

3 t o th e e d u c a t io n a l, s o c i a l , v o c a t io n a l r e a l i t i e s

o f an era

t h a t i s p a s t . 11^ The R e g e n t’s In q u ir y i n Mew York S t a t e p o in t s ou ts The s c h o o l work f o r hoys and g i r l s has n o t b een r e ­ d e s ig n e d to f i t them f o r th e new and ch a n g in g work o p p o r tu n itie s w h ich th e y must f a c e i n modern econom ic l i f e . . . . The e d u c a t io n a l s y ste m h as n o t b een r e ­ p lan n ed t o m eet th e new c o n d it io n s o f modern l i f e and t h e new ways o f l i v i n g . . .7 Barnes i s ev en more c a u s t i c when he s a y s : I f we a r e r e a l i s t i c ab out th e m a tte r , we must admit t h a t our e d u c a t io n a l program has n o t e v e n a t t a in e d th e h o rse -a n d -b u g g y s t a g e . I t i s more c o m p a tib le w ith th e days o f h o rse b a c k r id in g and m e d ie v a l c h i v a l r y . Our cu rricu lu m i s a s tr a n g e m o s a ic , a compound o f c o n tr ib u ­ t io n s made somewhere b etw een th e S to n e Age and the days o f R o u ssea u . . . . Our e d u c a t io n a l o f f e r in g i s in a d e ­ q u a te t o t r a i n our you th t o l i v e s u c c e s s f u l l y i n our own a g e , t o s a y n o th in g o f b e in g a b le t o b u ild a b e t t e r fu tu r e f o r t h e i r d e s c e n d a n ts . 8 For s i x t y y e a r s (1 8 9 0 -1 9 5 0 ) th e r e have b een a s e r i e s o f i n v e s t i g a t i o n s by and r e p o r ts from d e l i b e r a t i v e c o u n c ils on th e r e c o n s t r u c t io n o f th e h ig h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m , and r e p e a te d a tte m p ts h ave b een made t o fo r m u la te o b j e c t iv e s and p la n s w hich w ould put th e h ig h - s c h o o l p u p il i n to u ch w ith contem porary l i f e .

But w h a tev er c o n t r ib u t io n s to th e r e c o n ­

s t r u c t i o n o f th e seco n d a ry program may have b een e f f e c t e d ,

6 B e l l , Howard M. Youth T e l l 4T h eir S t o r y . C o u n c il on E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 8 , p . 6 . L ife .

Am erican

7 G u lic k , L uther H ., e t a l . E d u ca tio n f o r Am erican Mew Y ork, M cG raw-H ill Book Company, 1 9 3 8 , pp. ^-5* 8 B a r n e s, H. E . , op. c i t . , p . 6 5 9 .

b th e y have l o s t m ost of t h e i r r e le v a n c y in th e l i g h t o f p r e s e n t \

s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h and s o c i a l ch a n g e. At t h i s v e r y moment th e cu rricu lu m o f th e A m erican h ig h s c h o o l i s b e in g s u b je c te d to th e im pact o f p o l i t i c o so c io -e c o n o m ic t e n s i o n s , a t the_sam e tim e as t h e im p lic a ­ t io n s o f s c i e n t i f i c d is c o v e r y c h a lle n g e th e v e r y s u r v iv a l o f th e r a c e .

Ho p e r io d i n the h i s t o r y o f mankind h as b een

burdened w ith problem s com parable t o th e p r e s e n t f o r d e a d ly con cern .

I t i s an a g e when com m unication and t r a n s p o r t a t io n

a r e r a p id ly ap p roach in g th e i n c r e d ib l y in s t a n t a n e o u s .

It

i s an age when s c i e n t i s t s a re s e r i o u s l y c o n s id e r in g th e i n ­ e v i t a b l e r e c o n s t r u c t io n o f th e e a r th and s e c t i o n s of th e u n iv e r s e th rou gh th e r e a l i z a t i o n and th e u t i l i z a t i o n o f l a r g e - s c a l e n u c le a r f u s i o n ( i f , in d e e d , the w hole e a r th m ight n o t be ex p lo d ed in t o n o th in g n e s s b eforeh an d th rou gh c a r e l e s s e x p e r im e n ta tio n ) . ^

I t i s an a g e when th e a t t i t u d e s and

th in k in g o f A m ericans r e v e r s e th e m s e lv e s w ith su ch u n b e lie v ­ a b le r a p i d i t y , t h a t th e v e r y same in d iv id u a ls who were thrown i n t o p a n ic by an im a g in a ry in v a s io n of M a r tia n s, a l i t t l e

le s s

th a n tw en ty y e a r s l a t e r a c c e p t w ith p a s s iv e in d i f f e r e n c e and r e s ig n a t i o n th e p s e u d o - s c i e n t i f i c b e l i e f t h a t f,men from Mars” a re making s y s t e m a t ic v i s i t s t o t h i s g lo b e i n f,f l y i n g

^ I«QS A n g e le s T im es« March 2 0 , 19^9.

5 s a u c e r s . ”10

In j u s t su ch an age i s th e d em o cra tic way o f

l i f e b e in g q u e s tio n e d and t e s t e d a s n ev er b e fo r e * Having s t o l e n from th e w e s t th e name o f dem ocracy, and a p p r o p r ia te d i t f o r t h e i r own t o t a l i t a r i a n aim s and o b j e c t i v e s , th e le a d e r s who have e n s la v e d th e e a s t e r n h a l f o f th e European C o n tin en t a r e now b u sy d e s tr o y in g th e l a s t v e s t i g e s o f human freed o m , a l l th e tim e o p e r a t­ in g under th e c lo a k o f p ea ce lo v e r s and p eacem ak ers. T h is i s th e g r e a t paradox of tim e s as 1950 dawns upon m ankind.1 1 I f one o f the fun d am en tal in g r e d ie n t s r e s p o n s ib le f o r th e s u c c e s s of our Am erican dem ocracy i s th e p a r a d o x ic a l p h ilo so p h y o f form in g e n lu r ib u s unum w h ile e x a l t i n g th e in d i v id u a l w orth o f each p ie c e in th e n a t io n a l m o s a ic , th en i n t h e s e days o f c h a lle n g e the need f o r a common u n it y p r e ­ d ic a t e d upon in d i v id u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i s v i t a l l y n e c e s s a r y f o r th e v e r y p r e s e r v a t io n o f our way of l i f e .

T h is , t h e n , i s

th e e s p e c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i n a dem ocracy:

t o e f f e c t what Hugg c a l l s a “u n it y c o n d itio n e d

by d i f f e r e n c e ”— n o t a r e g im e n ta tio n — b u t a “p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y . . • p a r a lle d by a p r i n c i p l e o f d i v e r s i t y w hich i s s o c i a l l y p o w e rfu l enough t o tra n sfo r m e g o c e n t r ic and compe­ t i t i v e i n d i v i d u a l i s t s i n t o m ature and c o o p e r a tiv e p e r s o n s . ” 12

K ehoe, D on ald . “The F ly in g S a u c ers a re R e a l .” J a n u a ry , 1 9 5 0 , pp. 11-13? 83- 8 7 .

T rue.

11 P o ly z o i d e s , l o c . c i t . 12 Rugg, H a ro ld . F o u n d a tio n s f o r A m erican E d u c a tio n . Y onk ers-on-H u dson , New Y ork, World Book Company, 19^7? p . ! 0 .

There i s need f o r some u n i f i e d c o r e o f le a r n in g common t o a l l A m erica n s, a s n ev er b e f o r e .

There i s an u r g e n t need

to d a y , th e n , f o r some form of r e a l g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n . No wonder tr e n d s p o in t u n m ista k a b ly t o a movement i n the d i r e c t i o n of a r e v i v a l o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

The

m ost c a s u a l p e r u s a l o f th e e d u c a t io n a l l i t e r a t u r e o f th e l a s t d ecad e w i l l r e v e a l t h a t th e theme and i s s u e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n a re b ein g hammered o u t w ith in c r e a s in g tempo and in s is te n c e .

S in c e 1938 f,g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n ” i s a ffo r d e d a

s e p a r a te l i s t i n g i n The E d u ca tio n In d e x 3-3

in 191+6 th e

I

S t a t e U n iv e r s it y of Iowa began p u b lis h in g a q u a r t e r ly , The J o u r n a l o f G en era l E d u c a tio n , t o s e r v e a s a medium f o r th e e x p r e s s io n o f id e a s r e la t e d t o th e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n move­ m en t.

The f i r s t i s s u e d e c la r e d e d i t o r i a l l y :

e d u c a tio n movement i s underw ay.

uk g e n e r a l

I t i s moving a c r o s s th e

e d u c a t io n a l la n d sc a p e w it h sp ee d and f o r c e .

I t w i l l sweep

away many c o n v e n t io n a l form s o f h ig h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e e d u c a tio n . . . .

I t w i l l p r o fo u n d ly a f f e c t t h e t h in k in g

and th e l i v e s of our p e o p le . 11ll+

In d e e d , the J o u r n a l w ent

s o f a r a s t o d e s c r ib e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n a s lla movement o f

^3 C a r p e n te r , D o ro th y , and F u r lo n g , M a rg a ret, ed* The E d u ca tio n In d e x . New Y ork, The H. W. W ilso n Company, 1 9 3 8 -4 1 , 1 9 ^ 1 -4 4 , 1 9 4 4 -4 7 , 1 9 4 7 -^ 9 . ll+ McGrath, E a r l J . ftThe G en era l E d u ca tio n M ovem ent.” The J o u r n a l o f G en era l E d u c a tio n . 1 : 3 - 8 , O c to b er , 19^6? P» 3

7 d e te r m in a tiv e s i g n i f i c a n c e i n th e r a c e "between e d u c a tio n and e a s t a s t r o p h e .” *^

G en eral e d u c a tio n i s c h a r a c t e r iz e d by

Rugg a s th e ^major problem ” b e fo r e e d u c a tio n i n th e p o st-w a r w orld*

”Three o f th e d o zen books b e fo r e u s , ” he com m ents,

11b ear th e words g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n 1 i n t h e i r t i t l e s — th o s e o f th e Harvard C om m ittee, the N orth C e n t r a lfs com m ittee o f a d m in is t r a t o r s , and th e N a tio n a l S o c i e t y ’s com m ittee o f ed u c a tio n p r o f e s s o r s .”

16

F u r th e r , Rugg re g a rd s g e n e r a l ed u ca -

i

t i o n as ”th e s t a g g e r in g problem t h a t w i l l c o n fr o n t ed u c a to r s d u rin g th e rem ain in g d eca d es of our c e n t u r y .”^*7 But when Rugg s a y s our b ig g e s t e d u c a t io n a l problem o f th e c e n tu r y i s t o b u ild a new g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , d oes he mean?

Why ”new”?

a s o ld as th e G reek s. ” o ld ”?

what

A ft e r a l l , g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i s

How d o es th e ”newft d i f f e r from th e

What a r e th e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s ib le f o r t h i s r e n a is s a n c e

o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n th rou gh th e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n movement? What a r e th e i s s u e s in v o lv e d ? ment i n g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n ?

What a r e th e p o in t s o f a g r e e ­

Of d isa g re em en t?

J u st what i s g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i t s e l f ?

15 I b i d . , p . 8 . 16 I b id - P -

9.

17 I b i d . , p . 1 1 . 18 L oc. c i t .

And, in d e e d ,

8 Good, in h i s D ic t io n a r y o f E d u c a tio n « d e f in e s 11g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ” a s : (1 ) A broad ty p e o f e d u c a tio n aim ed a t d e v e lo p in g a t t i t u d e s , a b i l i t i e s , and b e h a v io r c o n s id e r e d d e s ir a b l e by s o c i e t y b u t n o t n e c e s s a r i l y p rep a rin g th e le a r n e r f o r s p e c i f i c ty p e s o f v o c a t io n a l or a v o c a t io n a l p u r s u it ; ( 2 ) som etim es u sed a s a synonym f o r c u l t u r a l e d u c a tio n or l i b e r a l e d u c a t io n . 19 For a b e g in n in g , t h e n , g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n s h a l l be c o n s id e r e d as t h a t b lo c k o f th e cu rricu lu m r e q u ir e d o f , and o f f e r e d t o , a l l p u p ils a l i k e f o r t h e i r p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n a s d is t in g u is h e d from t h a t p a r t o f th e cu rricu lu m d e s ig n e d fo r t h e i r v o c a t io n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .

O b v io u sly ,

su ch a d e f i n i t i o n w i l l b ea r a s many in t e r p r e t a t io n s a s th e r e a re s o c i e t i e s and p h ilo s o p h ie s o f e d u c a tio n . c e p t of g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i s

Thus th e co n ­

a grow ing or dynamic o n e.

It

can o n ly be d e s c r ib e d a t s u c c e s s i v e s t a g e s o f d ev elo p m en t. I t becom es im m e d ia te ly ap p a ren t t h a t we ca n n o t e s c a p e t h e h i s t o r i c a l approach i f we w ould f u l l y g ra sp th e r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e o f th e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n movement t o d a y , f o r we can r e a l l y u n d ersta n d th e p r e s e n t o n ly by e x p lo r in g th e p a s t; th e p r e s e n t i s m e a n in g le ss when d iv o r c e d from i t s c h r o n o lo g ic and e v o lu t io n a r y c o n t e x t u r e . F u lly aware of th e f a t e o f L o t fs w i f e , who was r e ­ duced t o a mass o f sodium c h lo r id e f o r v e n tu r in g t o s t e a l

Good, C a rter V . , e d . D ic t io n a r y o f E d u c a tion . New Y ork, M cG raw-H ill Book Company, I n c . , 19*+5j P* 183*

a g la n c e i n t o th e p a s t , we must lo o k b a ck .

We must lo o k

b a c k , i f o n ly t o s e e th e p r e s e n t i n th e l i g h t o f th e p a s t . We must lo o k b a c k , i f o n ly t o s e e th e th in g we w ould e s c a p e . We must lo o k b a c k , i f o n ly to know, l e s t h i s t o r y r e p e a t i t s e l f , th e v i c i o u s c i r c l e we w ould a v o id .

We must lo o k

b a c k , i f o n ly to lo o k ah ead . The approach m u st, t h e r e f o r e , be h i s t o r i c a l .

And

s i n c e th e d evelop m en t of th e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i n th e h ig h s c h o o l i s in s e p a r a b le fr o m , and in e x t r i c a b l y bound up w ith th e e v o lu t io n o f th e seco n d a ry cu rr icu lu m i n g e n e r a l, and th e grow th o f th e A m erican h ig h s c h o o l i n p a r t i c u l a r , a s tu d y o f th e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n ca n ­ n o t be i s o l a t e d from a stu d y o f our seco n d a ry cu rr icu lu m w ith i t s c l a s s i c a l r o o t s and European b ack grou n d .

A sh o rt h is to r y

o f th e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n w i l l be a tte m p te d , t h e r e ­ f o r e , w ith em phasis upon i t s r e l a t i o n to and in f l u e n c e upon th e t o t a l cu rr icu lu m p a tt e r n o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n i n the U n ite d S t a t e s . For th e sa k e o f o r g a n iz a t io n and c o n v e n ie n c e , th e c h r o n o lo g ic a l ap p roach w i l l b e em ployed and th e n a r r a t iv e w i l l f a l l i n t o e i g h t c h a p te r s or p e r io d s s

The Greco-Roman B ir t h

o f G en era l E d u ca tio n (3500 B .C .- 6 5 A J > .); The P e r s is t e n c e o f H u m an istic G en era l E d u ca tio n Through European C u ltu re (6 5 -1 6 0 0 ) ; The R is e o f G en era l E d u ca tio n i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s

10 (1 6 3 5 -1 9 0 0 ); The I n f lu e n c e o f S c i e n t i f i c R ese a rc h and I n ­ d u s t r i a l E f f i c i e n c y on G en era l E d u ca tio n (1 9 0 0 -1 9 3 0 ); The P e r io d o f C haos, C ourses o f S tu d y , and E x p e r im e n ta tio n : t The C o lla p s e o f G en era l E d u ca tio n (1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 5 ); The Q uest f o r U n ity :

The E v o lu tio n o f th e Core C ourse f o r G en era l Educa­

t i o n ( I 93O -I9 3 5 ) ; The Growth o f th e G en era l E d u ca tio n Move­ m ent:

D e lin e a t io n o f I s s u e s (1 9 3 5 -1 9 ^ 1 ); and G en era l Educa­

t i o n i n th e War and Post-W ar E ra s: ( 1 9 ^ 1 -P r e s e n t)♦

The G reat D ichotom y

W hile t h e s e p e r io d s h ave b een a r b i t r a r i l y

d e f in e d , i t w i l l be found t h a t th e p a t t e r n h a s b een d e­ term in ed by th e c o u r s e o f th e e v e n ts t h e m s e lv e s .

The l a s t

ch ap ter, sum m arizes th e s tu d y and draws some d e f i n i t e con ­ c l u s i o n s from th e m a t e r ia ls p r e s e n te d . I t i s hoped t h a t t h i s h i s t o r y w i l l p ro v e e n jo y a b le as w e l l a s in f o r m a t iv e , and th a t i t w i l l p r o v id e th e b u sy edu­ c a t o r and s tu d e n t o f e d u c a tio n a l i k e a f a i r , i f n o t e x h a u st­ i v e , u n d er sta n d in g o f so im p o rta n t a problem as t h a t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . For i f th e tim e s have alw ays outrun th e s c h o o l , and now a r e ou trun ning t h e m s e lv e s , i f t h e s e are p e r ilo u s days f o r dem ocracy and c i v i l i z a t i o n i t s e l f , any movem ent, l i k e th e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n m ovem ent, w h ich a tte m p ts t o put th e se co n d ­ a ry s c h o o l i n to u ch w ith con tem porary l i f e , w h ich f e v e r i s h l y la b o r s t o ta k e up th e s la c k i n th e la g o f th e s c h o o l beh ind s o c i e t y , w h ich d e s p e r a t e ly a tte m p ts t o b r id g e th e a w fu l and

11 e v e r -w id e n in g chasm b etw een th e p h y s ic a l and th e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , w h ich t r i e s t o f o s t e r t h a t u n it y in d is p e n s a b le t o th e p r e s e r v a t io n o f American d em ocracy, any su ch movement i s s u f f i c i e n t l y w orth y t o m e r it our a t t e n t i o n and s u f f i c i e n t l y im p o rta n t t o w arrant our s e r io u s stu d y* L et u s t r a c e th e h i s t o r y o f th e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i n our se c o n d a r y s c h o o ls w ith th e s p i r i t and pur­ p o se o f R ugg, and w ith him e x c la im s T h is , t h e n , i s a moment i n w h ich men o f th ou gh t can ta k e th o u g h t t o g e t h e r , lo o k upon our w o rld and our t im e s , a p p r a is e c o n d it io n s and p ro b lem s, and r e d e s ig n our way o f l i f e . We have clim b ed up th e s t e e p s lo p e o f a d iz z y new s o c i e t y . Mow we can p a u se on a summit t o lo o k backward and fo r w a r d , t o a p p r a is e our p a ss a g e and c h a r t our n e x t s t e p s . 20

20 R ugg, op . c i t . , p . 1 5 .

CHAPTER I I GRECO-ROMAN BIRTH OF GENERAL EDUCATION (3 5 0 0 B .C .- 6 5 A .D .) G reece o f f e r s a n a t u r a l g e n e s is t o th e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n f o r , a lth o u g h n e it h e r th e o l d e s t nor th e s o l e c o n t r ib u t o r t o our c u r r ic u lu m , i t i s th e c i v i l i z a t i o n o f Greek c u l t u r e , handed down th ro u g h th e c u r r ic u la o f s u c ­ c e e d in g c e n t u r i e s , w h ich h as c o n tin u e d t o f u n c t io n m ost p e r e n i a l l y i n con tem porary l i f e . 1

And in c o n s id e r in g Greek

e d u c a t io n , th e th e o r y and p r a c t ic e s o f A thens w i l l be view ed as r e p r e s e n t a t iv e s in c e -, a s f a r a s ean be d is c o v e r e d from th e somewhat fra g m en ta ry e v id e n c e , th e A th en ia n ty p e o f edu­ c a t i o n was p r e v a le n t th ro u g h o u t th e g r e a te r p a r t o f t h e c i v i l i z e d H e lle n ic w o r ld .

2

A lth ou gh a g r e a t d i s p a r i t y e x i s t e d b etw een e d u c a t io n a l th e o r y and e d u c a t io n a l p r a c t ic e among th e G r eek s, b o th must be c a r e f u l l y a n a ly s e d s i n c e b o th h ave e x e r c is e d a profound i n f l u e n c e on g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n down t o our v e r y d a y . E a r ly i n t h e fo u r th c e n tu r y b e fo r e C h r is t th e r e a r o s e

1 B ru b a ch er, John S . A H is to r y o f t h e Problem s o f E d u c a tio n . New Y ork, M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 19^7, p . 250* B . C.

2 Freem an, K. J . S c h o o ls from H e lla s from 600 t o jJOO London, M acm illan and Company, L t d . , 1 9 3 2 , p. 7 6 .

13 e s t a b lis h e d se c o n d a r y s c h o o ls i n A t h e n s .3

The to n ify in g

p h ilo s o p h y or aim of Greek e d u c a tio n began w ith t h e S p a rta n n o t io n o f co m p lete s e r v i c e t o th e s t a t e . ** B u t ,u n lik e th e S p a r ta n i d e a l , e v e n i n Old A th e n s , t h e o b je c t o f e d u c a tio n was th e developm ent o f th e i n d i v id u a l i n b o d y , m ind, and m o r a ls , f o r h i s own w e lf a r e a s w e l l as t h a t o f t h e s t a t e . H ere e x i s t e d a d eep r e s p e c t f o r th e in d i v id u a l and h is w o r th . 5 That t r a in in g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p was t h e c h i e f aim o f A th en ia n se c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n i s a p p a r en t from th e f a c t t h a t a t e ig h t e e n when th e young man f i n i s h e d h i s se co n d a r y e d u c a t io n , h e was p r e s e n te d by h i s f a t h e r a s a c a n d id a te f o r c i t i z e n ­ s h ip .^ The Greek se co n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m was c o m p le te ly i d e n t i ­ f i e d w ith g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n as f a r as c o n te n t i s co n cern ed inasm uch a s th e t o t a l program o f s t u d i e s was o f f e r e d t o a l l a l i k e who w ere e d u c a te d .

I s o c r a t e s , sp ea k in g o f t h e P r o f e s ­

s o r s o f E t h i c s , t e l l s us t h a t 11t o t h e o ld A th en ia n e d u c a t io n , o f L e t t e r s and M usic and G y m n a stics, th e y h a v e added a more advanced c o u r s e , c o n s i s t i n g o f Geometry and A stronom y and

3 I b id . , p. 180.

b G r a v es, Frank P . A H is to r y o f E d u ca tio n b e f o r e t h e M iddle A g e s. New Y ork, The~Macmi l l a n Company, 1 9 0 9 , p . 1 7 0 . 5 M ulhern, Jam es. A H is t o r y o f E d u c a tio n . The Ronald P r e s s Company, 19^ 6, p . 1^5. 6 G ra v es, o p . c i t . « p . 167*

New Y ork,

lb 7 su ch s u b j e c t s , t o g e t h e r w ith e r i s t i c d i a l o g u e , 1*

Thus th e

s u b j e c t s o f th e Greek cu rr icu lu m l a i d th e b a s i s f o r th e c o n c e p t a c c e p te d u n i v e r s a l l y as th e s e v e n l i b e r a l a r t s , l a t e r d iv id e d under th e h e a d in g s o f th e t r iv iu m . or low er s t u d i e s — grammar, r h e t o r i c , and l o g i c , and th e q u a d riv iu m . or h ig h e r s t u d i e s — a r i t h m e t i c , g eo m etry , m u s ic , and astronom y*^ The se co n d a r y cu rricu lu m o f G reece was a l s o c o m p le te ly i d e n t i f i e d w ith g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n inasm uch as i t ^ u r p o s e was n o t v o c a t io n a l b u t l i b e r a l *

In s o f a r a s th e i d e a l f o r

d e v e lo p in g b o d y , m ind , and m orals f o r th e sa k e o f m oulding men was em bodied i n th e e d u c a tio n o f Old A th e n s , t h a t edu­ c a t i o n was th e fo r e r u n n e r o f th e i d e a l o f a l i b e r a l e d u c a tio n w h ich marked t h e A th en s o f s u c c e e d in g p e r io d s *

P r o f e s s io n a l

and v o c a t io n a l s k i l l s w ere n e v e r aim ed a t i n th e s c h o o ls * ^ I t must be remembered t h a t th e Greeks a s a n a t io n rega rd ed h a n d ic r a f t s and tr a d e s a s c o n te m p tib le and unw orthy o f c i t i ­ z en s , w orthy o n ly o f s l a v e s .

Xenephon c h a r a c t e r iz e d them as

th e 11i l l i b e r a l a r t s ,*1 e x p la in in g t h a t su ch o c c u p a tio n s ca u sed th e body t o become e f f e m in a t e and th e c h a r a c te r t o become weak*

He ev en b o a s te d t h a t i n some o f t h e s t a t e s f,i t

7 Iso c ra tes* P a n a th e n a ic u s , 26* ( N o r lin , G eorge, T r a n s. I s o c r a t e s * New Y ork, G. P . Putnam*s S o n s , 1 9 2 9 ,

n , p. 3W7)

8 M ulhern, oj). c l t . , p . 2 0 5 . 9 I b i d . , p . l “+5.

\___

i s u n la w fu l f o r any of th e c i t i z e n s t o work a t i l l i b e r a l

ley

a r t s . 11 w

The so n s o f a l l A th e n ia n c i t i z e n s , b o th r i c h and

p o o r , w ere e d u c a te d .

The s t u d i e s w ere th e same f o r a l l .

Even M etics w ere n o t e x c lu d e d .

11

D e s p it e th e o b v io u s ly f u n c t i o n a l v a lu e o f many o f th e s u b j e c t s o f th e Greek se co n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m , th e aim s and m ethods o f t e a c h in g them w ere c l e a r l y i d e n t i f i e d w ith t h o s e o f g e n e r a l or l i b e r a l e d u c a t io n .

The s u b j e c t s w ere j u s t i f i e d

p r im a r ily f o r what has s in c e become known a s t h e i r p o t e n t i a l " t r a n s f e r o f t r a in in g " and "m en tal d i s c i p l i n e " v a l u e s , and th e y w ere ta u g h t i n a manner d e s ig n e d e x c l u s i v e l y toward th o s e e n d s . Brubacher t e l l s us t h a t th e tr iv iu m was n o t "ex­ c l u s i v e l y j u s t i f i e d by i t s p o l i t i c a l u s e f u l n e s s , ” and t h a t th e Greeks v iew ed t h e s e t h r e e d i s c i p l i n e s a s " t o o ls by w hich th e t e a c h e r , l i k e a s c u l p t o r , m ight sh ap e th e s o u l or i n ­ t e l l e c t o f th e c h i l d a c c o r d in g t o th e in h e r e n t law o f i t s own s t r u c t u r e ."

T h is v ie w , t h a t th e tr iv iu m s t a t e d th e law s

o f t h e mind i t s e l f , became th e p reem in en t and p e r e n n ia l j u s t i ­ f i c a t i o n f o r i t s i n c l u s i o n i n th e cu rr icu lu m i n th e c o u r se o f su b seq u en t c e n t u r i e s . ^ X enephon. D econom icu s« IV . 3* (M archant, E . C. Xenephon: M em orabilia and O econom icus. C am bridge, M assachu­ s e t t s , Harvard U n iv e r s it y P r e s s , 1 9 3 8 , p . 391*) H M ulhern, op . c i t .« pp. l*f7-^ 8.

16 Even th e s u b j e c t s o f th e g u a d riv iu m . w hose p r a c t i c a l v a lu e i n th e v a r io u s c r a f t s and in d o m e stic economy was o b v io u s , w ere p r iz e d r a th e r f o r t h e i r ’’t r a n s f e r ” and ’’d i s ­ c i p l i n a r y ” v a l u e . 12 To th e ch a rg e t h a t some s u b j e c t s , su ch a s G eom etry, A stronom y, and D i a l e c t i c , w ere a mere w a ste o f tim e s i n c e th e y w ere o f no p r a c t i c a l u s e and know ledge s o o b ta in e d was f o r g o t t e n i n a f t e r l i f e , I s o c r a t e s co u n te red t h a t th e s tu d y o f su c h d i f f i c u l t m a tte r s l,t r a i n s a boy t o keep h is a t t e n t i o n c l o s e l y upon th e p o in t a t i s s u e and n o t t o a llo w h i s mind t o w ander; s o b e in g p r a c t ic e d in t h i s way and h a v in g h i s w it s sh a rp en ed , he w i l l b e made c a p a b le o f le a r n in g more im p ortan t 13 m a tte r s w it h g r e a t e r e a s e and s p e e d .” P la t o recommended A r ith m e tic even t o t h o s e who a r e s lo w a t i t f o r th e y f,[email protected] t h e i r g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e much in c r e a s e d by s tu d y in g i t . ”

lb

’’P l a t o ’s fo r m a l d i s c i p l i n a r y

c o n c e p tio n o f e d u c a tio n has e x e r t e d a g r e a t in f l u e n c e on cu rr icu lu m and m ethods o f i n s t r u c t i o n a lm o st t o our own d a y .”1 ^

12 B ru b a ch er, op. c i t . « pp. 2 5 0 -5 1 . 13 I s o c r a t e s . A n t i d o s i s . 265> ( N o r lin , op . c i t . , I I , P. 3 3 3 ) . 1^ P l a t o . R e p u b lic . 526 b . ( J o w e tt , B . , t r a n s . The D ia lo g u e s o f P l a t o . New Y ork, Random H ou se, 1937 e d . , I , p . 7 6 5 ). 15 M ulhern, p p . c i t . . p . 1 5 5 .

A lth ou gh P la t o saw a p r a c t i c a l and f u n c t i o n a l v a lu e in th e s u b j e c t s o f h is c u r r ic u lu m , he e s p e c i a l l y v a lu e d them f o r t h e i r " d i s c i p l i n a r y ” v a lu e *

B e s id e t h e i r o b v io u s u t i l i ­

t a r ia n v a lu e , d i a l e c t i c s was b a s ic t o t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l com­ p r e h e n sio n o f any t r u th w h a ts o e v e r , and m ath em atics sh arp en ed th e mind s in c e i t e n a b le d i t t o r e a so n i n th e a b s t r a c t w ith o u t r e f e r e n c e t o c o n c r e t e r e a l i t y and th u s le d one t o t h e realm o f tr u e b e in g .

The p u r s u it o f s c ie n c e n ev er loom ed v e r y

la r g e i n t h e e d u c a t io n a l t h in k in g o f th e G reek s.

The p u r s u it

o f s c ie n c e in v o lv e d th e s tu d y o f c o n c r e t e o b j e c t s th rou gh th e s e n s e s .

But P la t o h e ld t h a t th e s e n s e s r e p o r t o n ly th e

sh ad ow s, th e " a c c id e n t s 11 o f r e a l i t y . was i n t e l l e c t u a l and c o n c e p t ! o n a l.

Thus t r u e know ledge T h is th e o r y had profoun d

im p lic a t io n s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , f o r , a c c o r d in g t o B ru b ach er, i t le a d t o a f i n a l c o n c lu s io n r e l a t i v e t o th e n a tu r e o f know­ le d g e w h ich p r o fo u n d ly a f f e c t s th e cu rr icu lu m i n s u b j e c t m a tte r and m eth o d o lo g y , and t h a t i s , t h a t know ledge d id n ot v a ry w ith t h e p a s s in g p h a ses o f s e n s e or o p in io n , b u t t h a t , on th e c o n t r a r y , i t was i n v a r i a n t , u n i v e r s a l , and e t e r n a l — th e same in a l l p l a c e s , f o r a l l m en, a t a l l t im e s . The c o n t e n t and method o f se co n d a r y e d u c a tio n i n G reece was c o m p le te ly g e n e r a l or l i b e r a l , t h e n , s i n c e th e

16 B ru b a ch er, .op. c i t . . p p . 1 0 1 , 251*

18 cu rr icu lu m was d e s ig n e d f o r a l l , was aim ed a t co m p lete l i v i n g r a t h e r th a n a t v o c a t io n a l p r e p a r a t io n , a n d , b eca u se o f th e c l o s e r e l a t i o n o f th e s u b j e c t s in th e cu rricu lu m t o t h e v e r y n a tu r e o f know ledge i t s e l f , was f i x e d and e t e r n a l . B u t, a lth o u g h a l l had t h e same e d u c a t io n , e d u c a tio n i n G reece was n o t f o r a l l .

In th e f i r s t p la c e / s i n c e tr u e

e d u c a tio n was t h a t l i b e r a l or g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n (a lr e a d y d e s c r ib e d ) w h ich aim ed a t good c i t i z e n s h i p , and s i n c e t e c h n i ­ c a l i n s t r u c t i o n and a l l te a c h in g w hich aim ed o n ly a t money making was v u lg a r and d id n o t d e s e r v e th e name o f e d u c a t i o n , ^ i t f o llo w s t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n was n o t f o r s l a v e s but f o r c i t i z e n s o n ly .

S e c o n d ly , e d u c a tio n was n o t a s t a t e f u n c t io n

b u t a p r iv a t e u n d e r ta k in g , and h en ce n e it h e r com p ulsory n or free .

The p a l a e s t r a , or p h y s ic a l t r a in in g s c h o o l , and

d id a s c a le u m . or s c h o o l o f m usic or l e t t e r s , w ere la r g e l y p r iv a t e s c h o o l s , co n d u cted f o r in d i v id u a ls f o r p r iv a t e g a in . E p h ib ic t r a i n i n g , g iv e n upon c o m p le tio n o f se co n d a r y ed u ca­ t i o n , was th e o n ly s c h o o lin g t h a t was ev e r com p u lsory i n A th e n s.

The e n t i r e c o s t o f l i t e r a r y i n s t r u c t i o n had t o b e 1 Q

b orn e by p a r e n ts d i r e c t l y .

I t f o llo w s th e n t h a t se c o n d a r y

e d u c a tio n was e c o n o m ic a lly s e l e c t i v e f o r r i c h and poor w ere ed u ca ted i n d i f f e r e n t s c h o o ls and f o r d i f f e r e n t le n g t h s o f

17 P l a t o .

Laws. 6^3E.

( J o w e t t , op . c i t . , I I , p . b 2 k . )

18 M ulhern, p p . c i t . , pp. l*+6-V7.

t im e .

The r i c h rem ained i n s c h o o l u n t i l t h e a g e o f s i x t e e n

or s e v e n te e n ; th e poor l e f t much e a r l i e r . ^

The poor c o u ld

n o t a f f o r d t o keep t h e i r so n s away from th e t r a d e or farm any lo n g e r . 20

And, f i n a l l y , th e r e g u la r c o u r s e o f e d u c a tio n

i n A thens and m ost H e lle n ic S t a t e s was f o r h oys a lo n e : g i r l s need a p p ly . 2 1

no

And s o i n s o f a r a s i t was n e it h e r

com p ulsory nor f r e e , i n s o f a r as i t ex c lu d e d s l a v e s and g i r l s , i n s o f a r as i t o p e r a te d t o e lim in a t e th e p o o r , se co n d a r y e d u c a tio n i n G reece was n ot g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n . Turning from th e e d u c a t io n a l p r a c t ic e o f th e G reek s, l e t us c o n s id e r t h e i r e d u c a t io n a l t h e o r ie s r e l a t i v e t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

As re g a rd s th e same c o n t e n t f o r a l l ,

p r a c t ic e i s c o r r o b o r a te d by t h e o r y .

So i n s i s t e n t was P la t o

on u n ifo r m ity i n e d u c a tio n and s o f e a r f u l was h e t h a t f a m ily l i f e m ight endanger t h e u n it y o f t h e body p o l i t i c , t h a t he w ent s o f a r a s t o d e c la r e t h a t Mth e p u p ils sh o u ld be reg ard ed op

as b e lo n g in g t o th e s t a t e r a th e r th a n t o t h e i r p a r e n t s .**

A r i s t o t l e , t o o , b e lie v e d t h a t e d u c a tio n makes f o r a community o f i n t e r e s t and m ust b e th e same f o r a l l :

Ma s th e end

B lum ner, H. The Home L if e o f th e A n c ie n t G reek s. London, C a s s e l l and Company, Lt+

th e o th e r h an d , c a r e d l i t t l e about th e c o n t e n t o f th e cu rr icu lu m so lo n g a s i t was d i f f i c u l t enough t o b ree d h a b it s o f p e r s i s t e n c e and in d u s t r y , memory and r e a s o n in g . I n s te a d o f a c c e p tin g t h e i d e a l s and s p i r i t o f Greek e d u c a t i0*1 as a fram ework f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n :

a common

c o r e o f l i b e r a l t r a in in g aim ed a t th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e w h o le man and f o r a l l men; an u n d er sta n d in g cf l i f e and human problem s f o r t h e sa k e of b u ild in g a b e t t e r w o r ld ; t h e u n io n o f mankind by a common c u lt u r e ; th e f r e e in g o f m an’s s o u l from f e a r s , h i s i n t e l l e c t from ig n o r a n c e , and h i s body from *1z in fir m itie s , i t w ould seem t h a t th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o ls o f th e s e v e n t e e n t h c e n tu r y a c c e p te d a s t h e i r o n ly le g a c y f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n from G reece th e g h o s t o f a dead cu rr icu lu m w it h a v e r y much a l i v e em p h asis on grammar and v e r b a lis m p r im a r ily f o r t h e i r m e n ta l d i s c i p l i n e .

In d e e d , Greek ed u ca­

t i o n a l th e o r y ev en succumbed t o p r a c t i c e when th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o ls in h e r it e d H e lle n ic e x c l u s i o n o f g i r l s , and th e s e l e c t i o n o f b o y s on t h e b a s e s o f s o c i a l and econ om ic f a c t o r s C e r t a in ly , th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o ls o f f e r e d a l l th e same edu­ c a t i o n , b u t t h e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o ls d id n o t o f f e r e d u c a tio n to a l l . B u tts t e l l s u s t h a t c o n s t a n t a tte m p ts were made t o make th e s t u d e n t s wt o e th e mark. 11 15 B ru b a eh er, op . c i t . . p . 2 6 0 . 16 M ulhern, o p . c i t . , p . 2 9 1 .

32 • • • Innum erable r u l e s w ere p a ss e d t o p r e v e n t f i g h t ­ in g , c a r r y in g w ea p o n s, l y i n g , c h e a t i n g , d r in k in g , gamb­ l i n g , s w e a r in g , card p la y in g , d i c i n g , and e v e n swimming, s k a t i n g , f i s h i n g , and b i r d - c a t c h i n g # S e v e r e punishm ents w ere m eted ou t i n an a tte m p t to e n f o r c e d i s c i p l i n e •17 And t h e r e a s o n f o r th e n e c e s s i t y o f a l l t h i s d i s c i ­ p lin e ?

I t i s q u it e a p p a r e n t.

For when B u tts t e l l s us t h a t

p a r t of th e n e c e s s i t y f o r d i s c i p l i n e was d o u b t le s s the f a c t t h a t th e R efo rm a tio n se co n d a r y s c h o o l s , e s p e c i a l l y i n Germany and F r a n c e , began t o ta k e o v er many o f th e s u b j e c t s o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l a r t s t h a t had b een fo r m e r ly ta u g h t i n t h e m e d ie v a l u n i v e r s i t y , ^ how th e g h o s t l y v o i c e o f I s o c r a t e s h au n ts th e se c o n d a r y s c h o o l w it h h i s gloom y w a rn in g : _ Some o f t h o s e who h ave become s o a d ep t i n t h e s e / u n p r a c t i c a l / s u b j e c t s t h a t t h e y te a c h them t o o t h e r s , show th e m s e lv e s i n th e p r a c t i c a l co n d u ct o f l i f e l e s s w is e th a n t h e i r p u p i l s , n o t t o s a y t h e i r s e r v a n t s . 19 >

Thus t h e shadow o f Greco-Roman g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n p e r -

s i s t e d th rou gh European c u lt u r e — ev en th o u g h th e s u b s ta n c e was fa d in g f a s t .

True humanism e x a lt e d th e s p i r i t and id e a s

i n l i t e r a t u r e above i t s fo r m s.

When i t i s r e a l i z e d , h o w ev er,

t h a t i n s t r u c t i o n i n th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l d e g e n e r a te d i n t o t h a t b a rren fo r m a lism w h ich Erasmus had e a r l i e r c h a r a c t e r is e d

B u t ts , on. c i t . . p. 272. 13 L o c. c i t . 19 I s o c r a t e s . P a n a th e n a ic u s « 27* ( N o r lin , G eorge, t r a n s . I s o c r a t e s . New Y ork, G. P . P utnam 's S o n s , 1 9 2 9 , I I , p . 3 9 1 .)

33 a s " C ic e r o n ia n ism ;11 t h a t t h e g r a d u a te o f th e c l a s s i c a l s c h o o l knew w o r d s, but n o t t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l i f e and th e w o r ld ; t h a t th e tr u e s p i r i t of humanism— l i f e , and th o u g h t, and know ledge had d e p a r te d from th e s c h o o l s , ^

i t is d i f f i ­

c u l t n o t to c o n c lu d e t h a t a g r e a t many s o u ls who ev en to d a y lo n g f o r a c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n p r e d ic a te d upon "th e g lo r y t h a t was G r e e c e , and th e gran d eu r t h a t was Rome" a r e i n r e a l i t y s ig h in g f o r " th e to u c h of a v a n is h e d hand and th e 21 sound o f a v o ic e t h a t i s s t i l l *11

'•W.

20 M ulhern,

o jd

.

c i t . , p . 291*

21 W ith a p o lo g ie s t o Poe and T ennyson.

3^

" F u rth erm ore, t h i s w i l l a l s o h e a g re ed t o by a l l men, n a m ely , t h a t i n a l l th e a r t s and c r a f t s we re g a r d th o s e as th e m ost s k i l l e d who tu r n ou t p u p ils who a l l work a s f a r a s p o s s i b l e i n th e same m anner.

Now i t w i l l b e s e e n t h a t t h i s

i s th e c a s e w ith p h ilo s o p h y .

For a l l who h ave b een under a

tr u e and i n t e l l i g e n t g u id e w i l l be found t o h ave a power o f sp e e c h s o s i m i l a r t h a t i t i s

e v id e n t t o e v e r y o n e t h a t th e y

h a v e sh a red th e same t r a i n i n g .

And y e t , had n o t a common

h a b it and a common te c h n iq u e o f t r a in in g b e e n i n s t i l l e d i n t o them , i t i s in c o n c e iv a b le t h a t t h e y sh o u ld h ave ta k e n on t h i s lik e n e s s .

— Iso c ra tes

PART I I THE RISE AND DECLINE “OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES

" I n i t i a t i o n i n th e same s t u d ie s has a l l th e s a n c t i t y

of i n i t i a t i o n i n th e same m y s te r ie s o f r e l i g i o n .

And where

s h a l l he a c q u ir e t h a t t r a i t w hich we c a l l common f e e l i n g i f i t he s e c lu d e d from th a t in t e r c o u r s e w h ich i s n a t u r a l n o t m ere ly t o mankind h u t ev en t o dumb a n im a ls ? 11 — Q u in t il ia n

CHAPTER IV

THE RISE OF GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE UNITED STATES (1 6 3 5 -1 9 0 0 ) The A m erican h ig h s c h o o l h as i t s r o o t s i n th e e x ­ c l u s i v e , E u ro p ea n -E n g lish im p o r te d , c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y L a tin grammar s c h o o l , th e f i r s t

o f w h ich was e s t a b l i s h e d

under r e l i g i o u s a u s p ic e s a t B o sto n i n 1 6 3 6 .^*

The c i t i z e n s

o f B o sto n e s t a b l i s h e d i t by v o t e , b u t o n ly t h o s e c o u ld v o te who h e ld much p r o p e r ty and w ere members o f th e P u r ita n ch u rch .

Sup port came from v o lu n t a r y s u b s c r ip t io n s u n t i l ,

i n 1 6 5 0 , a com p u lso ry t a x - r a t e was a d o p te d . F o llo w in g th e exam ple o f B o s to n , th e M a s sa c h u s e tts G en era l C ourt ord ered e v e r y town o f a hundred f a m i l i e s t o e s t a b l i s h a L a tin grammar s c h o o l under p e n a lt y o f a f i n e o f f i v e p ou n d s. 2 What w ent on i n th e L a t in grammar s c h o o l can be i n ­ f e r r e d from th e ord er p la c e d by a B o sto n b o o k s e lle r i n 1681* f o r 100 c o p ie s o f L a tin r e a d e r s , 50 c o p ie s o f C a to , 20 L a t in r h e t o r i c s , 18 Greek gram m ars, and 50 L a tin gram m arsi3

1 M ulhern, Jam es. A H is t o r y o f E d u c a tio n . The B on ald P r e s s Company, 1 9^ 6, p . 2 8 8 . O

2

New Y ork,

L o c. c i t .

3 B u t t s , B . F . 4 C u lt u r a l H is t o r y o f E d u c a tio n . New Y ork, M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1 9 ^ 7 , p . 2 9 3 .

33 That some L a tin grammar s c h o o ls a l s o ta u g h t th e ru d im ents o f Greek i s shown by th e e n tr a n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts o f Harvard C o lle g e w hich in c lu d e d i n l6k-2 th e f o llo w in g :

th e a b i l i t y

t o read C ic e r o a t s i g h t , th e a b i l i t y t o sp ea k L a tin p r o se and p o e t r y , and th e a b i l i t y t o

d e c l i n e Greek nouns and con ­

j u g a t e Greek v erb s*

to B u tts:

A ccord in g

Here i s th e o r i g i n i n A m erica o f th e t r a d i t i o n o f r e q u ir in g L a tin f o r e n tr a n c e t o c o l l e g e t h a t was m ain­ ta in e d i n a l l c o l l e g e s th ro u g h o u t th e e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y and i n m ost c o l l e g e s th ro u g h o u t th e n in e t e e n t h c e n tu r y . H ere a l s o i s a c l e a r exam ple o f th e way i n w h ich th e c o l l e g e s dom inated th e c u rr icu lu m o f th e se co n d a r y s c h o o ls o f A m erica, a n o th e r t r a d i t i o n th a t p e r s i s t e d th ro u g h ou t m ost o f th e n in e t e e n t h and i n t o th e t w e n t ie t h c e n tu r y .^ D en o m in a tio n a l groups sp o n so red i n and o u t s id e o f New E n g la n d ,

L a tin grammar s c h o o ls

so th a t th e se c l a s s i c a l

se co n d a r y s c h o o ls w ere e s t a b l i s h e d i n C o n n e c tic u t and New H am pshire, New Amsterdam, New J e r s e y , P e n n s y lv a n ia , M aryland, and th e C a r o lin a s . The L a tin grammar s c h o o l was h ig h ly s e l e c t i v e .

Its

t r a d i t i o n a l l y c l a s s i c a l cu rr ic u lu m was in te n d e d f o r boys who w ere c a n d id a te s f o r th e m i n i s t r y , m a g is t r a c y , or te a c h in g i n a L a tin grammar s c h o o l .

Even thou gh m a in ta in e d as a

town s c h o o l, th e L a tin grammar s c h o o l became a c l a s s s c h o o l a tte n d e d by th e w e a lt h y .

Such a p u r e ly l i b e r a l , non­

f u n c t i o n a l e d u c a tio n so o n became u np opu lar w it h th e p e o p le ,

h I b id . . p . 30 2.

and f a i l u r e t o su p p o r t th e town s c h o o l i s r e f l e c t e d i n th e f a c t t h a t th e o r i g i n a l f i n e o f f i v e pounds f o r n o t e s t a b l i s h ­ in g a L a tin grammar s c h o o l was r a i s e d s e v e r a l tim e s u n t i l i t rea ch ed t h i r t y pounds by 1 7 1 8 .5

Many towns p r e f e r r e d t o

pay th e f i n e r a th e r th a n be put t o th e ex p en se and b o th e r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g su ch s c h o o l s . 6

Even where L a tin grammar

s c h o o ls w ere e s t a b l i s h e d , th e r e was doubt about t h e i r v a lu e . E a r ly i n th e e ig h t e e n t h c e n tu r y a m em orial o f th e s e le c tm e n o f B o sto n co m p la in ed : . . . many hundreds o f b oys i n t h i s tow n , who by t h e i r p a r e n ts w ere n e v e r d e s ig n e d f o r a more l i b e r a l e d u c a t io n , h ave s p e n t tw o , t h r e e , fo u r y e a r s or more o f t h e i r e a r ly days a t th e L a tin s c h o o l, w h ich h ave proved o f v e r y l i t t l e or no b e n e f i t as t o t h e i r a f t e r a cc o m p lish m en t.7 About th e m id d le o f th e E ig h te e n th c e n tu r y th e L a tin grammar s c h o o l w it h i t s p r e p a r a to r y e n d s , i t s

lim it e d c u r r ic u lu m , i t s

c o l le g e ^

e x c lu s io n o f g i r l s , and i t s

s o c io ­

econom ic s e l e c t i v i t y was w h o lly in a d e q u a te t o m eet th e n eed s o f y o u th .

The r e s u l t was th e g r a d u a l d yin g o u t o f th e L a tin

grammar s c h o o l and th e e v o l u t io n o f th e t u i t i o n academy w hich had a lr e a d y b een underway i n Germany and F r a n c e .

M ulhern

z? M ulhern, o p . c i t . . p . 2 8 8 . B ru b a eh er, John S . A H is t o r y of th e Problems, o f E d u c a tio n . New Y ork, M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 19^*7 p . *+29.

^ S m a ll, W. H. E a r ly New E ngland S c h o o ls . Ginn and Company, 191^? P« 35o»

B o s to n ,

sum m arizes th e ch a n g es i n e a r ly A m erican s o c i e t y w hich le d t o th e academy movement: The P h ila d e lp h ia Academ y, a s w ere a l l our a c a d e m ie s, was a p ro d u ct o f our r a p id ly ch a n g in g s o c i e t y . Back o f i t l i e th e C om m ercial R e v o lu tio n and th e r a p id econom ic e x p a n sio n o f th e New W orld; th e r a p id in c r e a s e i n our p o p u la t io n and th e em ergence o f a s tr o n g m id d le c l a s s ; th e grow in g h e t e r o g e n e it y o f our p o p u la tio n from th e s t a n d p o in t s o f n a t i o n a l o r i g in s and r e l i g i o n ; th e sp rea d o f r e l i g i o u s d i s s e n t and th e breakdown o f e s ­ t a b lis h e d ch u rch es and d e n o m in a tio n a l e x c l u s i v e n e s s ; th e grow th o f dem ocracy w h ic h , i n i t s e a r l i e r s t a g e s , was an a r i s t o c r a t i c dem ocracy; and th e s c i e n t i f i c movement a b ro a d , o f th e i n f l u e n c e o f w h ich t h e r e i s an abundance o f s tr o n g c i r c u m s t a n t ia l e v id e n c e .® The m ain p u rp ose o f th e academy was th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f c o u r s e s w hich sh o u ld be p r a c t i c a l r a th e r th a n a mere p r e p a r a tio n f o r c o l l e g e .

Among th e m ost commonly foun d new

s u b j e c t s w ere a lg e b r a , a stro n o m y , b o ta n y , c h e m is t r y , g e n e r a l h i s t o r y , U n ite d S t a t e s h i s t o r y , E n g lis h l i t e r a t u r e , s u r v e y ­ i n g , i n t e l l e c t u a l p h ilo s o p h y , d e c la m a tio n , and d e b a t in g .9 The Academy ga v e a f u n c t i o n a l em p hasis t o t h e program and p io n e e r e d su ch p r a c t i c e s l a t e r a d o p ted by th e p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l as th e m u lt ip le c u r r ic u lu m , C l a s s i c a l and E n g lis h , and d e p a r tm e n ta l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n r e s u l t i n g from th e m u lt ip le te a c h e r s c h o o l.

The academ y, t o o , from th e b e g in n in g ,

r e c o g n iz e d th e im p o rta n ce o f su ch a c t i v i t i e s a s s p o r t s f o r

® M ulhern, op . c i t . . p . 293* 9 C u b b e r le y , Edward P . The H is t o r y o f E d u c a tio n . B o s to n , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 2 0 , pp. 6 9 6 - 9 8 .

* fl

h e a l t h , d e b a t in g , and l i t e r a r y e n d e a v o r s *10

W h ile i t i s

t r u e t h a t th e academy was o r i g i n a l l y in te n d e d f o r boys o n ly , se c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n f o r g i r l s b egan i n a ca d em ies w e l l b e f o r e 1800 and th e f i r s t c o e d u c a t io n a l se co n d a r y s c h o o l was th e L e ic e s t e r Academy, e s t a b l i s h e d i n 178*+.11 T h u s, b e c a u se i t was n o t s o l e l y c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y , n o t h ig h l y s e l e c t i v e , and n o t r e s t r i c t e d t o m a le s , th e academy marked a t r a n s i t i o n t o th e more d e m o c r a tic , m odern, c o e d u c a t io n a l h ig h s c h o o l*

Though b o th th e e x p a n sio n o f

th e cu rr ic u lu m and th e a d m is s io n o f g i r l s a u g ered w e l l f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , o th e r f a c t o r s i n th e academy o p e r a te d t o lim it i t s

p r o v is io n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

In th e f i r s t p l a c e ,

th e academ y*s su p p o rt was g e n e r a l l y p r iv a t e and n o t p u b lic ; and e v e n where p u b l i c l y s u b s i d i z e d , th e academy c a t e r e d t o a s e le c t c lie n te le *

F u rth erm o re, th e academy was n o t an e x ­

t e n s io n o f th e common s c h o o l , but l i k e th e L a tin grammar s c h o o l , ra n p a r a l l e l t o i t . 1^ W ith th e a e c e p ta h c e o f g e n e r a l t a x a t io n f o r e d u c a tio n and th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f p u b lic c o n t r o l ov er th e e n t i r e e l e m e n ta r y -s c h o o l s y s te m , th e f u n c t io n o f th e academy was

10 D o u g la s, H a r l R. The H igh S c h o o l C u rricu lu m . Y ork, The R onald P r e s s Company, 19*t7, p . 17* ^ L o c. c i t . TO B ru b a eh er, op . c i t . ?

P# ^ 3 2 .

New

b2 q u e s tio n e d and th e i s s u e o f e x te n d in g f r e e p u b lic e d u c a tio n upward ( t h a t i s , b u i l t u p on , and n o t p a r a l l e l t o th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l) was r a i s e d .

Thus was e s t a b l i s h e d th e f i r s t •public

h ig h s c h o o l i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s , th e E n g lis h C l a s s i c a l S c h o o l, a t B o sto n i n 1 8 2 1 .

The r e a l b e g in n in g o f th e A m erican h ig h

s c h o o l d a te s from th e M a s sa c h u se tts law o f 1 8 2 7 . ^

Other

s t a t e s f o llo w e d th e exam ple o f M a s s a c h u s e tts , a lth o u g h d e ­ velop m en t was s lo w .

S t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n was n e a r ly alw ays p e r ­

m is s iv e and n o t m and atory.

Im petus was g iv e n t h e movement

n a t i o n a l l y by th e famous “Kalam azoo C a se” w hich' e s t a b l i s h e d th e l e g a l i t y o f ta x -s u p p o r te d h ig h e d u c a t io n .

G ra d u a lly

th e h ig h s c h o o l was a c c e p te d a s a p a r t o f th e s t a t e commons c h o o l sy stem by a l l th e A m erican S t a t e s . The f i r s t p u b lic h ig h s c h o o ls assum ed th e f u n c t i o n a l c u rr icu lu m o f th e academ y, b u t so o n to o k on th e a d d i t i o n a l f u n c t io n o f p r e p a r a t io n f o r c o l l e g e . T h u s

th e y o f f e r e d a

c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e and a n o n - c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y cou rse.

T y p ic a l o f t h i s d u a lism w ere th e “d e p a r tm e n ts” s e t

up by th e C l a s s i c a l or L a tin and E n g lis h High S c h o o l o f W o rcester i n 18^ 5.

The c l a s s i c a l d ep a rtm e n t, w h ich was

c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y and fo u r y e a r s i n le n g t h , in c lu d e d

^

C u b b e r le y , .ojd. c i t . , p . 7 0 0 .

llf S t o u t , John E. “The D evelopm ent o f H igh S c h o o l C u r r ic u la i n th e N orth C e n tr a l S t a t e s from i8 6 0 t o 1 9 1 8 .” S u p p lem en tary E d u c a tio n a l M onograph. No. 15* The U n iv e r s it y o f C h ic a g o , 1 9 2 1 , p . l^f*

^3 a r i t h m e t i c , E n g lis h grammar, L a t in , G reek , a n c ie n t g eo g r a p h y , and a lg e b r a .

The E n g lis h d e p a r tm e n t, w hich was n o n - c o l l e g e -

p r e p a r a to r y and th r e e y e a r s i n le n g t h , c o n s i s t e d o f a r ith m e ­ t i c , E n g lis h grammar, h i s t o r y , b o o k k e e p in g , F r e n c h , b o ta n y , tr ig o n o m e tr y , p h y s io lo g y , n a t u r a l p h ilo s o p h y , c h e m is tr y , a stro n o m y , m oral p h ilo s o p h y , m e n ta l p h ilo s o p h y , r h e t o r i c , th e c o n s t i t u t i o n s o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s and o f M a s s a c h u s e tts , and p o l i t i c a l eco n o m y .15

Thus th e h ig h s c h o o l i n h e r it e d th e

sy ste m o f " d e p a r t m e n ta liz a t io n 1’ from th e academ y. Beyond th e i n i t i a l c h o ic e b etw een c o l l e g e and non­ c o l l e g e c u r r i c u l a , th e r e was no d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n ; a l l s u b j e c t s w ere demanded o f e v e r y p u p il w h a tev e r h i s a p t it u d e s or p la n s . A l l th e work was f o r m a l, a n d , t o th e m a jo r ity o f s t u d e n t s , d e v i t a l i z e d , t e d i o u s , and a i m l e s s . ^ Brubaeher warns us t h a t , a lth o u g h th e p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l a r o s e a s an E n g lis h r a t h e r th a n a L a tin s c h o o l and th u s d e f i n i t e l y b rok e th e m onopoly o f th e c l a s s i c a l la n g u a g e s as th e s i n g l e b e s t form o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n , th e h ig h s c h o o l d id n o t f o r e g o i t s H u m a n istic or l i b e r a l c h a r a c t e r . " I n s te a d o f aim in g t o te a c h i t s jr

e le g a n t L a t in , . . . th e

p u p ils t o sp eak and w r it e

h ig h s c h o o l aim ed t o t e a c h them t o

G r i z z e l l , E m il D. O r ig in and D evelopm ent H igh S c h o o l i n New England b e f o r e l 8 o 5 . New Y ork, The M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 3 , p p. 303-3®1** Y ork ,

^ J o h n s to n , C h a r le s H. H igh S c h o o l E d u c a tio n . C h a r les S c r ib n e r * s S o n s , 1 9 1 2 , p . 73*

o f t he

New

Vf form t h e i r p r o se s t y l e s on E n g lis h m odels* In i t s a tte m p t t o m eet t h e n eed s n o t o n ly o f th o s e p r e p a r in g f o r c o l l e g e b u t a l s o o f t h o s e p r e p a r in g f o r p r a c t i c a l l i f e i n com m ercia l and m e c h a n ic a l p u r s u i t s , a g r e a t m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s u b j e c t s was in tr o d u c e d .

The r a p id d e v e lo p ­

ment o f th e s c i e n c e s and th e grow ing i n d u s t r i a l demands a l s o e x e r t e d c o n s id e r a b le in f l u e n c e on th e e x p a n sio n o f th e curricu lu m .Inglis

lis ts

s e v e n t y - t h r e e s u b j e c t s and t h e i r

b ran ch es fou n d i n th e c u r r ic u la o f th e s c h o o ls i n s i x t y - t h r e e towns o f M a s s a c h u s e tts b e f o r e 1 8 6 1 .^ 9

i/tfhat a d v e r s e e f f e c t

t h i s m u l t i p l i c i t y o f s u b j e c t s had on g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n can be in f e r r e d from th e com p a riso n b etw een E n g lis h and Am erican se c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n made by F r a se r i n l 86*f: I f I w ere t o compare them w it h t h e r e s u l t s o f th e b e s t e d u c a tio n a t hom e, I sh o u ld s a y t h a t an A m erican p u p il prob­ a b ly le a v e s s c h o o l w ith more s p e c i a l k n o w le d g e , b u t w ith l e s s g e n e r a l d e v e lo p m e n t. He w ould h a v e more a c q u a in ta n c e (n o t v e r y p ro fo u n d , though) w ith c e r t a i n b ra n ch es o f p h y s i c a l s c i e n c e , c e r t a i n l y as much a c q u a in ta n c e w ith m a th e m a tic s, b u t n o t more a c q u a in ta n c e w ith modern la n g u a g e s and much l e s s a c q u a in ta n c e w ith th e a n c ie n t la n g u a g e s and c l a s s i c a l l i t e r a t u r e . 20

^ B ru b a ch er, oq. c i t . . p . k-52. no K a n d e l, I . L. H is to r y o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a tio n . New Y ork , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 3 0 , p . ^ 5 0 . ^ New Y ork,

Brown, E . E. The Making Longman, Green and Company,

of

Our M idd le S c h o o ls . 1 9 2 1 , p . 35^*

20 R ep ort by R ev . J . F raser on th e CommonS c h o o l S ystem o£ th e U n ite d S t a t e s and o f th e P r o v in c e s o f U p e r anri Lower Canada. S c h o o ls I n q u i r y C om m ission, I , 186*+, p . 1 7 2 .

±5 To c o r r e c t th e w ea k n e sse s in h e r e n t i n s o g r e a t a number o f o f f e r i n g s , th e s u b j e c t s w ere o r g a n iz e d i n t o p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s*

A s tu d e n t c o u ld e l e c t any one c o u r s e to

b e pursued th ro u g h o u t h i s h ig h - s c h o o l d a y s , b u t th e s u b j e c t s w it h in th e c o u r s e w ere p r e s c r ib e d and o f f e r e d n o .c h o ic e on ce th e c o u r s e was e le c t e d *

The number o f p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s

so o n in c r e a s e d a t a g r e a t r a te *

A s u r v e y o f th e h ig h s c h o o ls

i n th e N orth C e n tr a l S t a t e s r e v e a le d , f o r ex a m p le, th a t in I 86O- 6 5 t h e r e w ere s e v e n p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s ; and i n 1880- 8 5 , t w e lv e . 21 By 1890 a lo n g l i s t o f s h o r t t e n - , t w e l v e - , and f o u r t e e n week c o u r s e s had a p p e a r e d , w ith o u t any c l e a r o r g a n iz a t io n or d o v e t a i l i n g , e x c e p t su ch as was e n fo r c e d by c o l l e g e e n tr a n c e e x a m in a tio n s .

A sy ste m o f f r e e e l e c t i o n s had a l s o grown up

i n some l o c a l i t i e s , w it h s e r io u s e f f e c t s on th e o r g a n iz a t io n o f o r d e r ly s t u d i e s . 22 The t h r e a t t h a t t h i s d i v e r s i t y o f s u b j e c t s , c u r r i c u l a , and e l e c t i v e s p r e s e n te d t o g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n was w e l l e x ­ p r e s s e d by K andel when h e s a id : W hile th e European c o u n t r ie s n e a r ly w recked t h e ir sy ste m s o f e d u c a tio n by t o o r i g i d a d h e s io n t o th e t r a d i ­ t i o n a l f a i t h i n a lim it e d number o f s u b j e c t s , w h ich w ere presumed t o c o n t a in i n th e m s e lv e s a l l th e e d u c a t io n a l v a l u e s , th e h ig h s c h o o ls o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s w ere

21 S t o u t , l o c . c i t . K a n d e l, o p . e l t . . p. b 7 1.

c o n fr o n te d w it h t h e d anger o f f a i l u r e b e c a u s e o f a c e r t a i n l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e w h ich s a t i s f i e d th e i n t e n s e p op u la r f a i t h i n e d u c a tio n by p r o v id in g e v e r y boy and g i r l w it h th e o p p o r tu n ity t o a t t e n d h ig h s c h o o l . 23 The y e a r 1890 a l s o marked th e d a te o f th e c o n q u e st o f th e A m erican f r o n t i e r , as i t a l s o marked th e b e g in n in g s o f th e m ost rem ark ab le p r o g r e s s i n i n d u s t r i a l and com m ercial e x p a n s io n .

Such econom ic ch a n g es meant t h a t th e h ig h s c h o o l ,

by p o p u la r demand, w ould h ave t o o f f e r many p r a c t i c a l and v o c a t io n a l c o u r s e s to m eet t h e n eed s o f in d u s t r y and com\

m erc e.

T h ese in n o v a t io n s , i n t u r n , im m e d ia te ly r a i s e d th e

q u e s t io n o f a r t i c u l a t i o n o f th e h ig h s c h o o l w ith th e c o l l e g e . The h ig h s c h o o ls w ould h ave t o c o n v in c e th e c o l l e g e th a t what was c o n s id e r e d good enough f o r se c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n was a l s o good enough f o r a d m is s io n t o c o l l e g e .

But i t went

f u r t h e r than t h i s as f a r as g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n was c o n c e r n e d . I t im p lie d t h a t th e c o n c e p t o f a l i b e r a l e d u c a tio n c o u ld n o t b e r e s t r i c t e d m e r e ly t o s o - c a l l e d i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a i n i n g , b u t m ust b e in t e r p r e t e d b r o a d ly i n th e l i g h t o f s o c i a l r e o r g a n iz a ­ t i o n , and must a c t u a l l y r e c o n c i l e i t s e l f t o in c lu d e v o c a t io n a l s u b j e c t s , a c o n c e p t t o w h ich th e H u m a n itie s , a s we h ave s e e n from th e days o f G r e e c e , had e v e r b een i r r e c o n c i l a b l e . D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w ith th e o ld ord er f i r s t foun d e x ­ p r e s s io n i n th e R ep ort o f th e C om m ittee o f Ten ( 1 8 9 3 )•

i b i d . , p . ^6 0 .

The

c o m m itte e , headed by P r e s id e n t E l i o t o f Harvard U n i v e r s i t y , had b een a s s ig n e d th e ta s k by th e N a tio n a l E d u ca tio n A s s o c ia t i o n o f recommending tim e s c h e d u le s and c o u r s e o u t­ l i n e s f o r th e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s o f th e h ig h s c h o o l program .

It

demanded an e n r ic h e d c u r r ic u lu m , a f l e x i b l e c u r r ic u lu m , and an a r t i c u l a t i n g c u r r ic u lu m .

Four s e p a r a t e c u r r ic u la r e s u l t e d

th e C l a s s i c a l C o u r se , th e S c i e n t i f i c C o u r se , th e Modern Language C o u r se , and th e E n g lis h C o u r se .

But t h e s e c o u r s e s

w ere a l l acad em ic and d i f f e r e d from each o th e r o n ly i n th e la n g u a g e req u irem en t and th e tim e a l l o t t e d t o h i s t o r y , m a th e m a tic s, and s c i e n c e . its

Only th e C l a s s i c a l C o u r se , w ith

L a t in , G reek , and m a th e m a tic s, was t r u l y c o l l e g e -

p r e p a r a to r y .

The Com m ittee hoped t h e c o l l e g e s w ould a e c e p t

o th e r c o u r s e s f o r e n t r a n c e , b o ld l y a s s e r t i n g t h a t h i s t o r y , modern la n g u a g e s , and s c i e n c e m ight t r a i n th e power o f th e mind a s w e l l as L a t in , G reek ,, and m a th e m a tic s.

M en tal d i s c i ­

p l i n e was s t i l l h e ld t o be th e c h i e f c r i t e r i o n o f th e c u r­ r ic u lu m , b u t t h i s marked th e l a s t p u b lic u t t e r a n c e o f t h i s e d u c a t io n a l t h e o r y .2*+

The r e s u l t o f th e R ep ort o f th e Com­

m it t e e o f Ten was th e o f f e r in g by h ig h s c h o o ls o f an ev en g r e a te r v a r ie ty of p a r a lle l, but f ix e d , c o u r se s.

As a

.N orth C e n tr a l A s s o c ia t i o n o f C o lle g e s and S eco n d a ry S c h o o ls . *G e n e ra l E d u ca tio n i n th e A m erican H igh S c h o o l. New Y ork , S c o t t , ’' F oresm an and Company, 19^ 2, PP« 5 9 -6 0 .

b8 r e s u l t , th e number o f p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s i n th e N orth C e n tr a l S t a t e s r o s e i n 1 8 8 6 -1 9 0 0 t o no l e s s th an t h i r t y - s i x * 25 But a l l th e c o u r s e s or c u r r ic u la in c lu d e d , a s we h ave s e e n , E n g lis h , f o r e i g n la n g u a g e , m a th e m a tic s, and h i s t o r y . Thus th e R ep ort o f th e Com m ittee o f Ten h as s i n c e become famous f o r what i t had f a i l e d t o do r a th e r th a n what i t had done f o r th e h i g h - s c h o o l

c u

r r i c u

l u

m

.

26

r e l a t i v e t o th e c u r r ic u lu m , I n g l i s l i s t s

Among i t s f a i l i n g s th e f o l l o w i n g :

(1 )

th e co m p lete f a i l u r e t o r e c o g n iz e p r a c t i c a l and v o c a t io n a l su b je c ts;

( 2 ) e o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e d o m in a tio n ;

( 3 ) th e d i f f e r e n t i a ­

t i o n o f c u r r ic u la on th e b a s is o f r e l a t i v e s u b j e c t emphases r a t h e r th an l i f e - n e e d s 5 (b) th e o v e r -e m p h a sis o f f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s tu d y ; g r a d u a te ;

( 5) th e f a i l u r e t o p r o v id e f o r th e non­

(6 ) th e la c k o f f l e x i b i l i t y ; and ( 7 ) th e f a i l u r e

t o p r o v id e f o r in d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 2 ? In 1895 th e R ep ort o f t h e Com m ittee on C o lle g e E n tra n ce R eq u irem en ts recommended t h a t th e 11e l e c t i v e sy ste m 11 a s th e n em ployed a t Harvard th ro u g h th e i n i t i a t i v e o f P r e s i ­ d en t E l i o t , be u n i v e r s a l l y ex ten d ed t o th e h ig h s c h o o l . S o d i v e r s i f i e d had th e c u r r ic u la becom e, t h a t so o n s e p a r a te

^ 26 27 E d u c a tio n .

S to u t, lo c . c i t . D o u g la s , o p . c i t . . p. 2 0 . I n g l i s , A le x a n d e r . P r i n c i p l e s o f S eco n d a ry ^ ^ B o s to n , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 3 , pp. 6 6 5 - 6 6 .

b u ild in g s h ou sed t h e d i s t i n c t c u r r i c u l a , and la r g e c i t i e s c o u ld b o a s t o f h a v in g a c l a s s i c a l , a co m m erc ia l, an i n d u s t r i a l or v o c a t i o n a l , and an a g r i c u l t u r a l h ig h s c h o o l .

T h is tr e n d

ga v e w ay, h o w ev er, t o h o u sin g t h e c u r r ic u la u nd er one g r e a t ro o f.

But ou t o f th e e l e c t i v e s y ste m grew s u b j e c t o r g a n iz a ­

t i o n s known as th e c o n s t a n t s - w i t h - v a r ia b le s ty p e ( i n w h ich no s p e c i f i c c u r r ic u la w ere s e t up and th e p u p il was f r e e t o c h o o se h i s e l e c t i v e s a f t e r s a t i s f y i n g a c o r e o f p r e s c r ib e d s u b j e c t s ) , and th e c o m b in a tio n ty p e ( i n w h ich t h e r e w ere p a r a l l e l c u r r i c u l a , b u t c o n s t a n t s and v a r ia b le s w it h in each c u r r ic u lu m ) . Two s i g n i f i c a n t s t a te m e n t s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n w ere made by th e C om m ittee on C o lle g e E n tra n ce R eq uirem en ts i n i t s f i n a l r e p o r t i n 1899*

They w ere c o n ta in e d i n th e

s ix t h r e s o lu tio n of fo u r te e n r e s o lu tio n s : VI* R e s o lv e d . T h a t, w h ile th e co m m ittee r e c o g n iz e s as s u i t a b l e f o r recom m endation b y th e c o l l e g e s f o r a d m is s io n th e s e v e r a l s t u d i e s enum erated i n t h i s r e p o r t , and w h ile i t a l s o r e c o g n iz e s th e p r i n c i p l e o f la r g e l i b e r t y t o th e s t u d e n t s i n se c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , i t d oes n o t b e l i e v e i n u n lim it e d e l e c t i o n , b u t e s p e c i a l l y em p h a sises th e im p o rta n ce o f a c e r t a i n number o f co n ­ s t a n t s i n a l l se c o n d a r y s c h o o ls and i n a l l r e q u ir em en ts f o r a d m is sio n t o c o l l e g e . R e s o lv e d . That th e co m m ittee recommends t h a t t h e number o f c o n s t a n t s be r e c o g n iz e d in th e f o llo w in g p ro p o r­ t i o n , nam ely: fo u r u n i t s i n f o r e i g n la n g u a g e (no la n g u a g e i n l e s s th a n two u n i t s ) , two u n i t s i n m a th e m a tic s, two i n E n g lis h , one i n h i s t o r y , and one i n s c i e n c e . 28 28 "R eport o f th e C om m ittee on C o lle g e E n tra n ce R e q u ir e m e n ts, ” P r o c e e d in g s and A dd ress %N a t io n a l E d u ca tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , C h ic a g o , 1899, p p . 632 f f .

T h u s, u n w it t i n g ly or n o , c o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e r e q u ir e ­ m ents s e t th e p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n th ro u g h a c o r e o f p r e s c r ib e d c o n s t a n t s .

Here we h ave a b lo c k o f s u b j e c t s ,

c a l l them c l a s s i c a l , H u m a n istic , t r a d i t i o n a l , or l i b e r a l , form in g th e c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n f o r a l l p u p ils r e g a r d ­ l e s s o f th e c u r r ic u lu m p u r su e d .

Thus c o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e r e ­

q u ir e m e n ts , f o llo w e d by s t a t e a n d /o r l o c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n , so o n c r y s t a l l i z e d and p e r p e tu a te d t h e same l i b e r a l c o r e o f s u b j e c t s ( w ith few m o d if ic a t io n s ) w h ich had b een a lr e a d y s o l i d i f i e d and h a llo w e d by t r a d i t i o n . And a lt h o u g h , by th e tu r n o f th e c e n t u r y , m ost o f th e h ig h s c h o o l s , i n a d d it io n t o th e E n g lis h and L a tin c o u r s e , o f f e r e d a t h ir d c o u r s e , u s u a l l y com m ercia l or in d u s t r ia l ,2^ b e f o r e th e n in e t e e n t h c e n tu r y was o u t , th e h ig h s c h o o l 1s p rim ary p u r p o se , p r e p a r a tio n f o r l i f e , bowed t o p r e p a r a tio n f o r c o l l e g e , w h ich moved i n t o th e d o m in a tin g p o s itio n .

B rub ach er t e l l s u s t h a t :

The g r e a t w e ig h t o f t r a d i t i o n s o fa v o r e d c l a s s i c a l and c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y s t u d i e s t h a t th e y emerged th e c e n t r a l and s t a b l e c o r e o f a h ig h s c h o o l cu rr ic u lu m o th e r w is e f r e q u e n t ly com posed o f o n ly s h o r t in f o r m a t io n a l c o u r s e s . The c o l l e g e s th e m s e lv e s c o n t r ib u t e d no l i t t l e t o t h i s r e s u l t by th e in f l u e n c e t h a t t h e i r e n tr a n c e re q u ir e m e n ts e x e r t e d on h ig h s c h o o l aim s and c u r r i c u l a . The p e r io d a t th e end o f th e c e n t u r y , when th e h ig h s c h o o l b eg a n i t s m ost r a p id e x p a n sio n i n num bers, p roved

B ru b a ch er, op . c i t . , pp. ^3 6 - 3 7 .

v e r y c r i t i c a l f o r th e c o n t in u a t io n o f t h i s i n f l u e n c e . The b u lk o f th e new h ig h s c h o o l p o p u la t io n had no c o l ­ l e g e e x p e c t a t io n s ; y e t th e b e s t p a r t o f th e h ig h s c h o o l cu r r ic u lu m was c o l l e g e p r e p a r a to r y . 30 From i t s

in c e p t io n i n 1636 t o th e b e g in n in g o f th e

T w e n tie th c e n t u r y , t h e n , we f i n d th e A m erican se co n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m b e g in n in g w ith o n e , f i x e d , c o l le g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e i n th e L a tin grammar s c h o o l; e v o lv in g i n t o two p a r a l­ l e l or f i x e d c o u r s e s ( c o lle g e - p r e p a r a t o r y and n o n - c o l l e g e p r e p a r a to r y ) i n th e academ y; r e s o lv in g i t s e l f i n t o a v a r i e t y o f p a r a l l e l b u t f i x e d c o u r s e s i n th e p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l; and f i n a l l y em erging a s a c o m p o site o f p a r a l l e l c o u r s e s , ea ch c o u r s e c o n t a in in g a number o f e l e c t i v e s and c o n s t a n t s , th e c o n s t a n t s b e in g s u b s t a n t i a l l y th e same i n a l l c o u r s e s (a c o r e o f l i b e r a l or c l a s s i c a l s u b j e c t s ) , d i f f e r i n g i n th e v a r io u s c o u r s e s o n ly i n th e amount o f em phases i n term s o f u n i t s and tim e .

And what had b een p r e s c r ib e d as c o n s t a n t s

f o r a l l , and f u r t h e r d e f in e d and s ta n d a r d iz e d in term s o f u n i t s th ro u g h th e i n f l u e n c e o f c o l l e g e e n tr a n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts , was f u r t h e r p r o t e c t e d and p e r p e tu a te d by s t a t e a n d /o r l o c a l p r e s c r i p t i o n and l e g i s l a t i o n .

T h u s, d e s p i t e th e m u t ip lic a t io n

o f c u r r ic u la and c o u r s e s , th e a d d it io n o f f r e e e l e c t i v e s , and th e a d v en t o f e x t r a - c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s ,

th e c o r e o f

g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n was s u b s t a n t i a l l y th e same f o r a l l , w ith

30 I b i d . , p . *4-37.

52 th e Ma l l ,f in c lu d in g more y o u th th ro u g h th e a d m is sio n o f g i r l s and p u b lic s u p p o r t, we h ave a v e r y r e a l e f f o r t t o p r o v id e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n :

a l l r e c e iv in g s u b s t a n t i a l l y th e same

e d u c a t io n , and th e same e d u c a tio n open t o a l l . But by now th e r e a d e r must h ave se n s e d th e p a ra d o x , or perhaps th e dilem m a, in v o lv e d i n t h i s problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

I f i t w ere n o t f o r th e c o r e o f s u b j e c t s p r e s e n te d

f o r c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e , and recommend f o r n o n - c o ll e g e p u p ils as w e l l , t h e r e m ost l i k e l y w ould h a v e b een no c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , and o rd er m ight n o t h ave b een r e s t o r e d out o f th e ch aos o f s u b j e c t s and c u r r i c u l a .

A b lo c k o f u n if o r m it y i n

th e c u r r ic u lu m becom es i n c r e a s i n g l y e s s e n t i a l t o c o u n te r a c t t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c u r r ic u la demanded t o p r o v id e f o r th e v a r i e t y o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h ich i n e v i t a b l y accom p an ies an in c r e a s e i n t h e s c h o o l p o p u la t io n .

But i t i s

t h i s same

h e t e r o g e n e it y w h ich p r e c lu d e s th e p o s s i b i l i t y o f a u n if o r m it y f a s h io n e d o f c l a s s i c a l d e s ig n .

F o r , when th e c o l l e g e -

p r e p a r a to r y ty p e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i s r e q u ir e d o f a l l s t u d e n t s , r e g a r d le s s o f t h e i r s o c i a l and econom ic s t a t u s , t h e i r a b i l i t i e s , n eed s and i n t e r e s t s , p r i n c i p l e s o f s e l e c ­ t i v i t y a r e o p e r a tin g q u i e t l y b u t e f f e c t i v e l y . S o i t must n o t be f o r g o t t e n t h a t th e program o f th e h ig h s c h o o l a t t h e tu r n o f th e e e n tu r y was t r a d i t i o n a l l y a c a d e m ic , c o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e d o m in a ted , s u b j e c t —c e n t e r e d ,

h ig h l y d e p a r t m e n t a liz e d , s ta n d a r d iz e d in term s o f c o l l e g e u n i t s , and f ir m ly b a sed upon th e th e o r y o f m e n ta l d i s c i p l i n e . The h ig h s c h o o l o f th e e a r ly 1900*s m ight t r u l y b e c h a r a c t e r ­ iz e d a s ,1th e l e g a l s u c c e s s o r t o t h e L a tin grammar s c h o o l and th e n a t u r a l o f f s p r i n g o f th e academ y."

Such a s c h o o l , o f i t s

v e r y n a t u r e , was h ig h l y s e l e c t i v e and h a r d ly t y p i f i e d th e A m erican i d e a l o f a d em o cra tic h ig h s c h o o l c o n c e iv e d f o r a l l t h e c h ild r e n o f a l l th e p e o p le .

I n d e e d , i t was a f a r c r y

ev e n from B enjam in F r a n k lin * s i d e a l a s recommended f o r h i s 11P h ila d e lp h ia P u b lik Academy11 a hundred and f i f t y y e a r s e a r l i e r when he s a i d : As t o t h e i r s t u d i e s , i t w ould be w e l l i f th e y c o u ld b e ta u g h t e v e r y Thing t h a t i s u s e f u l , and e v e r y Thing t h a t i s o rn a m en ta l; But A rt i s lo n g , and t h e i r Time i s s h o r t . I t i s t h e r e f o r e propos *d t h a t th e y le a r n t h o s e T h in gs t h a t a r e l i k e l y t o be m ost u s e f u l and m ost o r n a m e n ta l. 31

^ F r a n k lin , B en jam in . P r o p o s a ls R e la t in g t_o th e E d u c a tio n o f Youth i n P e n n s y lv a n ia . P h i la d e lp h i a , 17^9* p. 11.

CHAPTER V

THE INFLUENCE OF SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH AND INDUSTRIAL EFFICIENTY ON GENERAL EDUCATION (I9OO-I93O) The t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y saw t h e s e e d s o f i n d u s t r i a l and co m m ercia l e x p a n s io n , sown a t t h e tu rn o f t h e l a s t c e n t u r y , bloom i n t o f u l l and v ig o r o u s growth*

The s i z e o f

t h e u s u a l p r o d u c t iv e u n i t i n i n d u s t r y had c o n t in u e d t o grow* The e a r l y i n d i v i d u a l p r o p r i e t o r s h i p gave way t o t h e p a r t n e r ­ s h i p * and t h e l a t t e r was g r a d u a l l y r e p l a c e d , i n a l a r g e p a r t o f i n d u s t r y , by t h e c o r p o r a t i o n .

A b s e n te e o w n e r s h ip , as a

r e s u l t , became common, w i t h owners ( s t o c k h o l d e r s ) e n t r u s t ­ in g t h e i r p r o p e r t y t o h i r e d e x e c u t i v e s (m anagers) and d e ­ p en d in g upon t h e l a t t e r t o d e te r m in e th e p o l i c i e s o f th e b u sin e ss.

R e s u l t s were measured by p r o f i t s ; a n d , s i n c e

management f e l t th e p r e s s u r e f o r p r o f i t s , and la b o r c o s t s red u ced p r o f i t s , t h e r e was a c o n t in u e d downward p r e s s u r e on w ages.

T hus, t h e la c k o f f a c e - t o - f a c e r e l a t i o n s h i p s i n b ig

b u s i n e s s was one o f I t s g r e a t e s t l i a b i l i t i e s , s i n c e im p erso n ­ a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a r e h a r d ly c o n d u c iv e t o l o y a l t y .

To b r id g e

t h i s gap b etw e en owners and w o r k e r s , t h e r e emerged t h e movement known as 11p e r s o n n e l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . tf o u tw a rd ly p r o c la im in g i t s

But w h i l e

o b j e c t i v e t o be t h e b r in g in g t o ­

g e t h e r o f la b o r and management, i t

o f t e n was a d e v i c e u se d

t o p r e v e n t t h e grow th o f in d e p e n d e n t la b o r o r g a n iz a tio n .^ At t h e c l o s e o f th e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y , F r e d e r ic k W. T a y l o r , i n l i n e w it h th e grow ing im pact o f s c i e n c e upon s o c i e t y , a p p l i e d t h e s c i e n t i f i c method t o th e problem s of b u s i n e s s management and i n 1911 came out w it h h i s book The P r i n c i p l e s o f S c i e n t i f i c Management. In 1910 p o p u la r i n t e r e s t i n " i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y ” was a ro u se d w hen, a t t h e h e a r in g s o f th e I n t e r s t a t e Commerce Comm ission i n w h ich t h e r a i l r o a d s w ere s e e k in g r a t e a d va n ces t o c o v e r wage i n c r e a s e s , th e o p p o s i t i o n c la im e d t h a t t h e ro a d s c o u ld i n c r e a s e wages and a c t u a l l y s a v e a m i l l i o n d o l ­ l a r s a day i f

t h e y would ad opt t h e t e c h n iq u e s and p r i n c i p l e s

o f " s c i e n t i f i c management. 1,2

I n 1 9 1 1 , under th e le a d e r s h i p

o f P e r so n s and C ooke, a c o n f e r e n c e on s c i e n t i f i c management was h e ld a t Dartmouth C o l l e g e .

In 1912 t h e r e was o r g a n iz e d

t h e S o c i e t y t o Promote t h e S c i e n c e o f Management w h ic h , i n 1 9 1 5 , was renamed t h e T a y lo r S o c i e t y . I n 1912 C on gress o rd ered a co m m ission t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e p r a c t i c e s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d s c i e n t i f i c management.

Forty-

one o b j e c t i o n s t o t h e movement w ere l i s t e d , t h e most n o t a b l e

1 Y o d er, D a l e . P e r s o n n e l Management and I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s . New Y ork, P r e n t i c e - H a l l , I n c . , 194-3, pp. 4 1 - 4 3 . 2 F i l i p e t t i , G eo rge. I n d u s t r i a l Management i n T r a n s i t i o n . C h ic a g o , R ich a rd D. Ir w in Company, I n c . , 194-6, p. 1 .

56 b e in g t h e s e f o u r s

( 1 ) s c i e n t i f i c management i n c r e a s e s

la b o r fs e f f i c i e n c y but not h is p r o f i t s ; gard w orkers as m a ch in e s;

(2 ) i t

te n d s t o r e ­

( 3 ) i t e n co u ra g e s an i n d u s t r i a l

a u t o c r a c y w it h a l l t o p - p l a n n in g done by management; (*t) i t is

opposed t o la b o r o r g a n i z a t i o n . 3 But t h e i n d u s t r i a l - e f f i e i e n e y movement c o n t in u e d .

In

1917 t h e S o c i e t y o f I n d u s t r i a l E n g in e e r s was o r g a n iz e d , and i n 1922 th e Am erican Management A s s o c i a t i o n came i n t o b e i n g . Frank G i l b r e t h was known f o r h i s r e f in m e n t s o f m o tio n and tim e s t u d y th ro u gh th e u t i l i z a t i o n o f th e m o tio n p i c t u r e , l a t e r known as th e m icr o m o tio n t e c h n iq u e .

H a r r in g to n Emerson

was famous f o r h i s T w elve P r i n c i p l e s o f E f f i c i e n c y . ** A f t e r World War I T a y lo r made r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e g e n e r a l w e l l b e in g o f t h e n a t i o n t h a t would r e s u l t from i n c r e a s e d p r o d u c t iv e e f f i c i e n c y .

N a tio n a l p r o sp e r ity

was t o be a s o r t o f b y -p r o d u c t o f i n d i v i d u a l p l a n t e f f i ­ c i e n c y , ^ a n d , o f c o u r s e , I n d i v i d u a l p la n t e f f i c i e n c y would depend upon th e i n d i v i d u a l w ork er*s e f f i c i e n c y . Now th e h ig h s c h o o l , t o o , e x p e r ie n c e d an enormous grow th a lo n g w it h commerce and i n d u s t r y d u r in g t h i s same

^ H o x ie , E. F . S c i e n t i f i c Management and Labor. New Y ork, D. A p p le to n Company, I n c . , 1915* ** F l i p e t t i , op. c i t , . , pp. 1 - 8 .

K

L oc. c i t .

57 p e r io d ( 1 9 0 0 - 1 9 3 0 ) .

From 519*251 p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n t h e

l a s t f o u r y e a r s o f p u b l i c h ig h s c h o o l i n 1900 (11.*+$ o f th e p o p u l a t i o n b etw e en t h e a g e s o f 1*+ t o 1 7 ) , t h e f i g u r e r o s e t o *+,l*+5,669 i n 1930 ( 5 1 . 1 $ o f th e p o p u la t io n b etw e en th e a g e s o f l*f and 17) And t h e i n d u s t r i a l - e f f i c i e n c y movement o f t h e b u s i n e s s w o rld had p r o f o u n d ly i n f l u e n c e d e d u c a t io n i n a t l e a s t two resp ectss

f i r s t , i t p r o v id e d t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r t h e

a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e s o f e f f i c i e n c y and economy ( d e r iv e d through s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h ) t o e d u c a t i o n , and i t g a v e t h e h ig h s c h o o l a new g o a l — t o adapt t h e i n d i v i d a u l t o th e i n d u s t r i a l w o rld th rou g h t h e d evelop m en t o f p e r s o n a l e ffic ie n c y . Thus th e s p i r i t o f e f f i c i e n c y and economy s t r u c k t h e s c h o o l s and u sh e r e d i n a s e r i e s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e s e a r c h e s w h ich s u c c e s s i v e l y , i f n o t s u c c e s s f u l l y , c h a l l e n g e d t h e t r a d i t i o n a l h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m .

T h o r n d ik e 1s law s o f

l e a r n i n g w ere made known and w i t h them su c h i d e a s a s r e a d i n e s s e x e r c i s e - e f f e c t , s t u d e n t * s mind s e t , a t t i t u d e , i n t e r e s t , m o t i v a t i o n , p r a c t i c e , reward and punishm ent promoted ch an ges in sch o o l p r a c tic e . z

E b b in g h a u sfs " co re o f f o r g e t t i n g 11 was

U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n " S t a t i s t i c s o f P u b l i c High S c h o o l s , 1 9 3 7 - 3 8 V, B i e n n i a l S u r v e y o f Educa­ t i o n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . B u l l e t i n No. 2 , p . 2 0 .

58 c o n fir m e d by A m erican p s y c h o l o g i s t s , and t h e t h e o r y o f “t r a n s f e r o f l e a r n in g * was e x p lo d e d .

G a lto n and G a t t e l l

p u b l i c i s e d “i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s * and c h i l d r e n were grouped a c c o r d in g t o I .Q . a s m easures o f s e n s o r y a c t i v i t y , r e a c t i o n t i m e , a t t e n t i o n s p a n , v o c a b u la r y , r a t e o f l e a r n i n g , s c o p e o f in f o r m a t i o n , and a b i l i t y t o s o l v e problem s and p u z z le s were d e v e lo p e d .

G. S t a n l e y H a l l made h i s s t u d y o f c h i l d

d e v e lo p m e n t. 7 The “e l e c t i v e s y s t e m *1 a s a means o f economy i n edu­ c a tio n flo u r ish e d .

Hew c o u r s e s were i n c r e a s i n g l y added and

f e w , i f a n y , dropped from t h e c u r r ic u lu m .

“The m u l t i p l i c a ­

t i o n o f th e number o f s u b j e c t s and c o u r s e s was a t f i r s t co n ­ s i d e r e d th e n a t u r a l way t o c a r e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 11^ H a r l D ou glas a t t r i b u t e d th e g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n e l e c t i v e s s i n c e 1910 t o s e v e r a l i d e n t i f i a b l e f a c t o r s :

( 1 ) th e g r e a t i n ­

c r e a s e i n t h e number o f young p e o p le g o in g t o h ig h s c h o o l and t h e c o n s e q u e n t i n c r e a s e i n h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e s t u d e n t p o p u la t io n r e l a t i v e t o a b i l i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s , and f u t u r e need s; (2 ) the c u r r ie u la r iz a t io n of e x tr a -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i ­ t i e s , su ch a s j o u r n a li s m , m u s ic , and d r a m a t ic s ;

( 3 ) th e

^ N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S eco n d ary S c h o o l s . G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n th e American High S c h o o l . New Y ork, S c o t t , Foresman and Company, 1 9^ 2, pp. hS - W . L ife .

® S p e a r s , H a r o ld . S eco n d a ry E d u c a tio n i n American Hew Y ork, Am erican Book Company, 1 9 ^ 1 , p . 7 9 .

ly

jfd**1

|

59

o f new c o u r s e s i n t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s , home e c o n o m ic s , and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ; and (if-) t h e exam ple s e t by t h e c o l l e g e s a s i n i t i a t e d by Harvard U n i v e r s i t y under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f C h a r le s W. E l i o t . 9 But a f e a r o f t h e a b u se o f t h e e l e c t i v e sy s te m a s w e l l a s a p r o p h e t ic i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n eed f o r g e n e r a l edu­ c a t i o n a s an a l t e r n a t i v e w ere v o i c e d by Brown a s e a r l y a s 1921. A l l s t u d e n t s must be in t r o d u c e d t o t h e same c i v i l i ­ z a t i o n , and s i n c e a l l a r e human t h e i r s e v e r a l ways o f a p p r o a ch in g i t w i l l n o t b e fu n d a m e n t a lly d i f f e r e n t . What seem s s t i l l more s i g n i f i c a n t i s t h e i s : ev e n i f i t b e t r u e t h a t what i s b e s t f o r one s t u d e n t i s l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t from what i s b e s t f o r a n o t h e r , t h e f a c t rem ains t h a t ea ch s t u d e n t n eed s f o r h i s own p u rp o se a w e l l o r g a n iz e d , u n i t a r y c u r r ic u lu m . I f e a r we a r e t e n d in g toward m is c e lla n e o u s , e l e c t i o n from a m i s c e l l a n e o u s mass o f o f f e r e d c o u r s e s . But t h e r e i s a d ee p e r t e n d e n c y , w h ieh w i l l s u r e l y become dom inant— a te n d e n c y toward o r g a n ic e l e c t i o n from what i s o f f e r e d no m a tte r how m i s c e l l a n e o u s t h a t may b e . 10 During t h i s p e r io d many o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m were l i k e w i s e t h e o b j e c t s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l research .

M en tal h y g ie n e w i t h i t s c o n c e p t s o f a d j u s t m e n t ,

p e r s o n a l i t y c o n f l i c t s , e m o t io n a l c o m p le x e s , le a r n in g f a t i g u e , and i n d i v i d u a l i n t e g r a t i o n g a ve im p etu s t o t h e g u id a n c e

9 D o u g la s , H a r l R. “G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n t h e E l e c t i v e S y s t e m , 11 S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n . 1 2 : 6 - 8 , F eb ru ary-M arch , 19^6. 10 Brown, E. E. The Making o f Our M idd le S c h o o l s . Hew Y ork, Longman, Green and Company, 1 9 2 1 , p . M+0.

60 movement a lr e a d y born o f t h e n e c e s s i t y o f s t e e r i n g th e s t u d e n t s a f e l y th r o u g h a maze o f c o u r s e s , s u b j e c t s , and e le c tiv e s. The i n d u s t r i a 1 - e f f i c i e n c y and r e s e a r c h movements as a p p l i e d to e d u c a t io n c a u se d a sudden r e b i r t h o f i n t e r e s t i n th e ele m e n t o f "economy” im p lie d i n H e r b e r t S p e n c e r ' s e s s a y What Knowledge I s o f Most Worth? p u b lis h e d a l i t t l e p a s t t h e m id d le o f t h e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y .

S p e n c e r had

a rr a n g e d h i s s t u d i e s i n order o f t h e i r u s e i n a i d i n g s o c i e t y t o su r v iv e : ( 1 ) t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h ich d i r e c t l y m i n i s t e r t o s e l f p r e s e r v a t i o n ; ( 2 ) t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h , by s e c u r in g th e n e c e s s it ie s of l i f e , in d ir e c t ly m in iste r to s e l f p r e s e r v a t i o n ; ( 3 ) t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w hich h a v e f o r t h e i r end th e r e a r i n g and d i s c i p l i n e o f o f f s p r i n g ; (b) t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w h ich a r e in v o l v e d i n t h e m a in ten a n ce o f p r o ­ p er s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s ; ( 5) t h o s e m i s c e l l a ­ n eou s a c t i v i t i e s w hich f i l l up th e l e i s u r e p a r t o f l i f e , d e v o te d t o t h e g r a t i f i c a t i o n o f t h e t a s t e s and f e e l i n g s . 11 When i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e v e r y l i t e r a r y s t u d i e s w h ich dom inated t h e h u m a n is tic c o n c e p t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n were p la c e d by S p e n c e r a t t h e bottom o f t h e l i s t , we can u n d e r sta n d how r a d i c a l was h i s p ro p o sa l* c r itic ism

Spencer a n tic ip a te d

on t h i s p o i n t when h e s a i d i n h i s e s s a y , ”We y i e l d

t o none i n th e v a lu e we a t t a c h t o a e s t h e t i c c u l t u r e and i t s p l e a s u r e s . . . / b u t 7 as th e y occupy th e l e i s u r e p a r t o f 11

S p e n e e r , H e r b e r t . E d u c a t io n s I n t e l l e c t u a l . M o r a l. and P h y s i c a l . London, J . M. Dent and S o n s , L t d . , p . 7 .

61 l i f e , s o t h e y s h o u ld occupy t h e l e i s u r e p a r t o f e d u c a t i o n . M^ In a t te m p tin g t o answ er S p e n c e r * s q u e s t i o n What Knowledge I s o£ Most Worth? many eu rr ieu lu m -m a k e rs made u s e o f v a r io u s t e c h n iq u e s t o f i n d o u t .

C h a r te r s employed jo b -a n a l y s i s •

The

p h i l o s o p h e r s r e m o n s tr a te d t h a t j o b - a n a l y s i s c o u ld o n ly t e l l what is . and c o u ld n e v e r t e l l what ought t o b e .

B o b b it t

th o u g h t t h e b e s t way o f d e c i d in g what k now ledge i s

o f most

w orth was by g e t t i n g a m a j o r it y o p in i o n on th e s u b j e c t . c o n s e n s u s o f o p in i o n d e te r m in e s t h e c u r r ic u lu m .

The

But t h e

q u e s t i o n i s r a i s e d a s t o w h eth er a c u r r ic u lu m can be b u i l t of t h i s t im b e r .

Does mass ig n o r a n c e metamorphose i n t o mass

wisdom? C a r le t o n Washburne u se d f o r c u r r ic u lu m - b u il d i n g what s i n c e has b een known as t h e s t a t i s t i c a l d e t e r m in a t i o n o f e d u c a tio n a l c o n te n t.

B u t , a g a i n , t h e p h il o s o p h e r s c o m p la in e d .

An a n a l y s i s o f t h e s t a t u s q u o , t h e y s a i d , c o u ld n ev e r d e te r m in e what know ledge i s

o f most w o r th .

Knowledge t h a t i s

w orth w h i l e must s t a n d th e a c i d t e s t o f t i m e . K i l p a t r i c k f e l t i n h i s E d u c a tio n f o r a C hanging C i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t e d u c a t io n i s c h a n g in g s o r a p i d l y t h a t you ca n n o t p la n a c u r r ic u lu m i n a d v a n c e , w h i l e C ounts would want a c u r r ic u lu m w h ich would e n a b le t h e s c h o o l s t o c r e a t e a new s o c i a l order.

12 Ibid.. pp. 30-32.

62 But t h e m ost r a d i c a l c u r r ic u lu m p r o p o s a l o f a l l , t h e one t h a t was d e s t i n e d t o u p s e t t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , as we s h a l l s e e , was t h e p r o p o s a l o f John Dewey i n h i s The C h ild and t h e C urriculum o f 1 9 0 S • t h a t l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a tte r was p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y unsound f o r t h e c h i l d .

Dewey would make t h e c u r r ic u lu m

c h i l d - c e n t e r e d i n s t e a d o f s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d , o r g a n iz in g i t around a c o r e o f t h e c h i l d !s p r e s e n t e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r th a n s u b j e c t s . ^-3 In l i n e w it h t h e s p i r i t o f i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y th e C a r n e g ie F o u n d a tio n f o r t h e Advancement o f T each in g s p e c i f i e d i n 1906 t h a t a tfu n i t f1 was a *'c o u r s e o f f i v e p e r i o d s w ee k ly th r o u g h o u t t h e acad em ic y e a r o f t h e p r e p a r a t o r y s c h o o l . " I 1* I t would be d i f f i c u l t t o e s t i m a t e t h e amount o f i n f l u e n c e t h i s d e f i n i t i o n and s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n o f t h e u n i t had on s o l i d i f y i n g and p e r p e t u a t in g d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n and s u b j e c t em phasis i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . A ls o i n l i n e w it h t h e s p i r i t o f i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y was t h e " e c o n o m y -o f-tim e 11 p r o p o s a l i n 1902 by P r e s i d e n t Harper o f C h ica g o U n i v e r s i t y t h a t g r a d e s e i g h t t o f o u r t e e n

^ Dewey, J o h n . The C h ild and t h e C u r r ic u lu m . C h ic a g o , The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ica g o P r e s s , 1903* llf C a r n e g ie F o u n d a tio n f o r th e Advancement o f T e a c h in g , A nnual R e p o r t . 1 9 0 6 , p . 3 ^ . ♦

63 be red u ced from s e v e n y e a r s t o s i x and o f f e r e d i n h ig h sc h o o l.

T h is s u g g e s t i o n g ave r i s e t o t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l

movement around 1 9 1 0 .

The j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l was e s t a b l i s h e d

t o s a v e tim e and b r id g e t h e gap b etw een th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l and t h e h ig h s c h o o l , a gap w h ich had b een e v e r w id e n in g b e ­ c a u s e o f th e m u l t i p l i c i t y and c o m p le x it y o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l * s o ffe r in g s.

I t i s d o u b t f u l w h e th er t h e j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l

e v e r s u c c e e d e d i n r e a c h in g t h i s g o a l .

By 1930 t h e r e were

a b o u t s i x th o u sa n d j u n io r h ig h s c h o o l s and u n d iv id e d h ig h s c h o o l s em bracing a t l e a s t t h e e i g h t h g rad e and o f t e n t h e s e v e n t h , e n r o l l i n g ab out o n e - t h i r d o f t h e p u p i l s i n g ra d es s e v e n , e i g h t , and n i n e . l ? A lth o u g h p r a c t i c a l and v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s had b een in t r o d u c e d d u r in g t h e l a s t p a r t o f th e N in e t e e n t h C e n tu r y , t h e i r sp r e a d was s lo w f o r t h e y w ere n o t th o u g h t t o have much d i s c i p l i n a r y v a lu e and s o , i n v ie w o f t h e p r e v a i l i n g p s y c h o lo g y o f t h e d a y , t h e y w ere n o t a c c o r d e d a p o s i t i o n o f much im p o r ta n c e .

H igh er i n s t i t u t i o n s were d e c i d e d l y

s lo w i n a c c e p t i n g them f o r e n t r a n c e c r e d i t .

N e it h e r th e

Committee o f T en, i n 1 8 9 3 , nor th e Committee on C o l l e g e E n tra n ce R e q u ir e m e n ts , i n 1 8 9 9 , c o n s id e r e d them o f enough

O d el, C h a r le s W. The S eco n d a ry S c h o o l . I l l i n o i s , The Gerrard P r e s s , 1 9 3 9 , P* **62.

Champaign,

moment ev e n t o i n c l u d e them i n t h e i r r e p o r t s • -*-6 The ch a n ges i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l and e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y w h ich to o k p l a c e ab ou t th e end o f t h e N in e t e e n t h C entury and d u r in g t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f th e T w e n t ie t h , th e ch a n g in g c h a r a c t e r o f t h e se c o n d a r y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n as a much l a r g e r p er c e n t o f t h e e l i g i b l e age group e n r o l l e d i n h ig h s c h o o l , th e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n eed s o f th e many who had b een fo r m e r ­ l y e l i m i n a t e d from h ig h s c h o o l a t an e a r l y a g e , th e e v i d e n t i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f th e program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n p r e d i c t e d upon f o r m a l and c l a s s i c a l d i s c i p l i n e s , t h e i n c r e a s i n g demands o f i n d u s t r y and commerce, began t o c a u s e a marked s t i m u l a t i o n o f t h e s u b j e c t s i n t h i s g ro u p .

A g r e a t number o f v o c a t i o n a l

s u b j e c t s and o t h e r c o u r s e s w ere added; and c u r r ic u lu m a im s , m e th o d s, and c o n t e n t w ere b e in g r e v i s e d t o f i t t h e s c h o o l t o l i f e . 1 '7 But r e a l l i f e i n t h e f i r s t t h r e e d e c a d e s o f t h e T w e n tie th C en tu ry meant f i t t i n g y o u th f o r h i s p l a c e i n th e w o rld o f i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y . Not o n ly was 1900 th e a p p r o x im a te d a t e o f t h e b e g i n ­ n in g o f marked e x p a n s io n o f su ch work i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l s , b u t a l s o t h e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s b egan t o g i v e c r e d i t f o r su c h c o u r s e s ab o u t t h e same t i m e . The o rd er i n w h ich t h e y a c c e p t e d them has b een r o u g h ly a s f o l l o w s ; draw ing shop w ork , home e c o n o m ic s , a g r i c u l t u r e , b ookk eep ­ i n g , m u s i c , o th e r co m m ercial s u b j e c t s . Even y e t many

l6 Ib id . , p. 303. L o c. c i t .

h ig h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s p l a c e d e f i n i t e l i m i t a t i o n s on th e number o f u n i t s o f c r e d i t o f su c h work a c c e p t e d f o r c r e d i t . 18 V o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n r e c e i v e d i t s g r e a t e s t s i n g l e s t i m u l a n t th ro u g h t h e V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n or Sm ith-H ughes A c t , w h ich C o n g ress p a s s e d i n 1 9 1 7 .

I t p r o v id e d f o r t h e

e x p e n d it u r e a n n u a lly o f t h r e e m i l l i o n d o l l a r s o f f e d e r a l fu n d s t o a s s i s t i n p ay in g t h e s a l a r i e s o f t e a c h e r s and s u p e r v i s o r s o f a g r i c u l t u r e , a l i k e amount f o r t h o s e i n i n ­ d u s t r i a l e d u c a t io n and home e c o n o m ic s , and one m i l l i o n f o r use in teach er tr a in in g .

A l l t h e s e sums w ere l a t e r i n c r e a s e d

and co m m ercial work i n c l u d e d .

The law r e q u ir e d t h a t a l l t h e

work w h ich i t f i n a n c i a l l y s u p p o r te d had t o be s t r i c t l y v o c a t i o n a l , p r e p a r in g boys and g i r l s

of at le a s t fo u rteen

y e a r s o f a g e f o r g a i n f u l em p lo y m e n t.19 The a d v e r s e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e encouragem ent o f v o c a ­ t i o n a l e d u c a t io n th r o u g h governm ent s u b s id y on g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was n o te d by many e d u c a t o r s .

O d e ll t e l l s us t h a t

many e d u c a t o r s b e l i e v e d t h a t Mi t r e q u ir e d t h a t t o o l a r g e a p o r t i o n , h a l f , o f t h e tim e o f p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s be d e v o te d t o more or l e s s narrow t r a i n i n g and th u s l e f t to o l i t t l e

f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 11^

19 I b i d . , p. 301*-.

66 Many e d u c a t o r s and o t h e r s h a v e opposed th e i n t r o d u c ­ t i o n o f much, i f a n y , d i r e c t l y v o c a t i o n a l work i n t o t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , and son© s t i l l do* T h e ir o p p o s i t i o n i s u s u a l l y b a sed on one o f two c h i e f a r g u m e n ts. One i s t h a t t h e e d u c a t io n g i v e n up t o th e end o f t h e se c o n d a r y s c h o o l p e r io d sh o u ld be g e n e r a l , c h i e f l y l i b e r a l or c u l t u r a l b u t perhaps w it h some n o n - v o c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c a l c o u r s e s , and t h a t v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g sh o u ld come l a t e r . 21 In 1916 John Dewey p u b lis h e d h i s Democracy and E d u c a tio n w h ich f u r n is h e d new c o n c e p t s o f d em o cra cy, t h e c h i l d , e d u c a t i o n a l a im s , l e a r n i n g , i n t e r e s t , d i s c i p l i n e , c u r r ic u lu m , s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , e x p e r i e n c e , and a c t i v i t y .

Of

s p e c i a l im p o r ta n c e was h i s em phasis t h a t e d u c a t io n i s

life

r a t h e r th a n a p r e p a r a t io n f o r l i f e . 22 A lth o u g h i t would be r u n n in g ahead o f th e s t o r y t o t e l l why, a most rem arkab le book made i t s a p p ea ra n ce i n 1 9 1 7 . I t was t h e p u b l i c a t i o n o f P roblem s o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a tio n by D avid S n ed d en .

The i n t r o d u c t i o n was w r i t t e n by E llw ood

C u b b e r le y , who s a i d , i n p a r t : Though t h e d ev elo p m en ts i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n d u r in g t h e p a s t q u a r te r o f a c e n t u r y h av e b een r e m a r k a b le , and a lt h o u g h t h e number o f new c o u r s e s and s u b j e c t s o f s t u d y o f f e r e d and t h e number o f new t y p e s o f h ig h s c h o o l s h ave b een e v o l v e d t o m eet new demands e x c e e d t h e d ev elo p m en t o f any p r e v i o u s p e r i o d , we c a n n o t f e e l t h a t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s has as y e t i n any way r e a c h e d i t s f i n a l fo rm . We a r e s t i l l e v i d e n t l y i n a p e r io d o f t r a n s i t i o n , and i n t h e n ea r f u t u r e s t i l l more fu n d a m e n ta l r e o r g a n i z a t i o n w i l l h ave t o be made.

21 I b i d . , p . 3 0 9 . 22 Dewey, J oh n . Democracy and E d u c a t io n * The M acm illan Company, 1 9 1 6 , 43** PP*

Uew Y ork,

67 The o ld and i n d e f i n i t e i n t e l l e c t u a l aim s o f " c u l t u r e , 11 "m ental d i s c i p l i n e , " and " c i t i z e n s h i p , 11 w h ich w ere s e t up a f t e r t h e h ig h s c h o o l c e a s e d t o he p r i m a r i l y a v o c a ­ t i o n a l s c h o o l t o p rep a re f o r th e m i n i s t r y , and w hich have dom inated i n s t r u c t i o n i n our s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s f o r t h e p a s t h a l f - c e n t u r y , a re now i n p r o c e s s o f b e in g su p ­ p la n t e d by new aims and p u r p o s e s , — aimls and p u r p o se s i n ­ s p i r e d by a v ig o r o u s d e m o c r a tic c i v i l i z a t i o n , a c t u a t e d by a s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e toward th e problem s o f i n d u s t r i a l , c i v i c , and human w e l f a r e . W ith th e i n c r e a s i n g te n d e n c y o f our A m erican S t a t e s t o r e q u i r e some ty p e o f s c h o o l t r a i n i n g up t o s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , and t h e i n c r e a s i n g te n d e n c y o f many forms o f our n a t i o n a l a c t i v i t y — a g r i ­ c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i a l , s o c i a l , and p o l i t i c a l — t o t u r n t o t h e s c h o o l f o r h e l p and g u id a n c e , th e demand t h a t our se c o n d a r y s c h o o l s s h a l l f o r m u la t e t h e i r aims i n term s o f s o c i a l l y u s e f u l ends i s becom ing more u r g e n t ea c h y e a r . That th e c r i t i c a l m ethods o f s c i e n t i f i c i n q u i r y a re t o be a p p li e d t o t h e work and problem s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n seems now a p p a r e n t , and t h a t th e p r e s e n t smug com p lacency o f many h i g h - s c h o o l p r i n c i p a l s and t e a c h e r s must so o n be su p e r s e d e d by an e x p e r im e n t a l a t t i t u d e as t o means and methods i n th e e d u c a t io n o f a d o l e s c e n t s f o r p e r s o n a l u s e f u l n e s s i n a modern w o r ld , i s a l s o coming t o b e an a c c e p t e d p r i n c i p l e i n our e d u c a t i o n a l w o rk . 23 I n h i s p r e f a c e , Snedden h e l d t h a t " th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i n some form or o t h e r must i n c l u d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n ," b u t h e d id n o t f o r a moment admit t h a t " th e f o s t e r i n g o f v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l s s h o u ld i n th e s l i g h t e s t d e g r e e be a llo w e d t o d im i n is h th e i n t e r e s t i n and e f f o r t s toward b e t t e r l i b e r a l or g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , a s lon g o Ll

as p u p i l s a r e w i l l i n g t o d e v o t e t h e m s e lv e s t o i t . " ^

S n ed d en , D a v id . Problem s o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t io n . B o s t o n , Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1 9 1 7 , p p . v i - v i i i . 2b

Ibid.. p. xii

68 Problem s o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a tio n c o n s i s t e d o f a s e r i e s o f p ap ers c a s t i n th e form o f l e t t e r s t o a c h i e v e a more d i r e c t and p e r s o n a l a p p r o a c h .

In h i s l e t t e r t o a S u p e r in t e n d e n t

o f S c h o o l s , S nedd en made an a s t o u n d i n g l y p r o p h e t ic p le a f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n : W ith in t h e f i e l d o f l i b e r a l or g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n t h e r e i s one n eed ed d ev elo p m en t w h ich has n o t y e t b e e n ap proached i n any w h o le h a r te d way i n t h i s c o u n t r y , and y e t w hich c e r t a i n l y demands s e r i o u s a t t e n t i o n . I t c a n n o t have e s ­ caped your n o t i c e t h a t a v e r y l a r g e p r o p o r t io n o f th e young p e o p le making up t h e i n c r e a s e d a t t e n d a n c e upon our h ig h s c h o o l s a r e s o s i t u a t e d t h a t t h e y w i l l e n t e r upon t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o l work o r , i n l i e u o f t h a t , on t h e i r p r a c t i c a l l i f e w ork , a t or about s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . Wot o n ly i s t h i s th e p r e v a i l i n g p r a c t i c e , but on t h e w h o le i t i s a norm al p r a c t i c e i n most c a s e s , and s h o u ld n o t be d is c o u r a g e d . Now t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h i s grow ing c l a s s o f f e r s t o th e h ig h s c h o o l l a r g e oppor­ t u n i t i e s t o d e v e lo p s p e c i a l programs o f rounded l i b e r a l e d u c a t io n s u i t e d t o t h e s e young p e o p le who w i l l p r o b a b ly d i s c o n t i n u e a t t e n d a n c e on s c h o o l s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n a t or n ear s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e . A lm ost nowhere i n our A merican s y s t e m o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s do we f i n d w e l l o r g a n iz e d c o u r s e s , t e r m in a t in g a t a p p r o x im a t e ly s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e , and h a v in g some form o f d iplom a or o th e r h o n o r a b le d i s t i n c t i o n , a v a i l a b l e f o r t h o s e who can g i v e o n ly t h a t amount o f tim e t o t h e i r f i n a l e d u c a t i o n . T h is seems t o me a d e c id e d d e f i c i e n c y , and one t h a t sh o u ld b e s p e e d i l y rem ed ied through t h e c r e a t i o n i n our l a r g e h ig h s c h o o l s o f d i s t i n c t l y t w o - y e a r s 1 c o u r s e s , ea c h r i c h i n E n g l i s h l i t e r a t u r e , E n g lis h e x p r e s s i o n , h y g i e n e , g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , s o c i a l s c i e n c e , p r a c t i c a l a r t s , and s i m i l a r stu d ie s. In cou rses of t h is s o r t th e stu d y of fo r e ig n la n g u a g e s i s n o t n e e d e d , nor s h o u ld tim e be ta k e n f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l a lg e b r a or g e o m e t r y .2 ? When Snedden q u e s t io n e d t h e b a s i s o f s e l e c t i v i t y

Ibid., pp. 7-8.

69 em ployed by t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r l e a r n i n g , he showed a rem a rk ab le i n s i g h t i n t o th e d o u b t f u l v a lu e o f th e w h ole t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m . C o l l e g e e n t r a n c e co m m itte e s s t i l l c h e r i s h th e co n ­ v i c t i o n t h a t t h e s t u d y o f f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s and m athe­ m a tic s c o n s t i t u t e s , on th e w h o l e , t h e b e s t p r e p a r a t i o n ' f o r c o l l e g e work. T here i s no s a t i s f a c t o r y e v id e n c e t h a t t h i s v ie w i s more th a n a b e l i e f , n o t w it h s t a n d i n g th e lo n g p e r s is t e n c e of th e t r a d i t i o n . I t i s p r o b a b le t h a t young men and women most re a d y f o r c o l l e g e work h a v e b een a l s o most c a p a b le o f p a s s in g p r e s c r i b e d e x a m in a tio n s i n t h e s e a b s t r a c t and fo r m a l s t u d i e s , and t h a t u n j u s t i f i a b l e i n f e r e n c e s h a v e b e e n made as t o th e v a l u e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s i n c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y w o r k .26 But perhaps t h e m ost dynamic s t a t e m e n t t o appear i n 1917 (and f o r a lo n g tim e s i n c e ) w as: I b e l i e v e . • . t h a t u l t i m a t e l y we s h a l l l e a r n t o s t a t e t h e p u r p o se s o f a l l form s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n i n terms o f t h e s o c i a l l y u s e f u l t o be a c h i e v e d , r a t h e r th a n i n term s o f t h e m a s te r y o f s o much sub j e c t f - m a t t e r — i n o t h e r w o r d s, t h a t we s h a l l l e a r n t o i n d i c a t e c l e a r l y w h ere­ i n any g i v e n m a s te r y o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a c t u a l l y flf i m c t i o n s H i n p e r s o n a l or s o c i a l p o w e r .27 Did Snedden h e r e f o r e s e e t h e e v e n t u a l movement t o b r e a k down t h e c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n o f s u b j e c t m a tt e r and b a s e a program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n on a c o r e o f p e r s o n a l s o c i a l e x p e r ie n c e s ? I n h i s l e t t e r t o a C o l l e g e P r o f e s s o r o f E d u c a t io n , Snedded w r o t e :

26 I b id - , P- 9 .

27 I b i d . , p p . 8 - 9

70 I t seems t o me t h a t t h e d ep a rtm en ts o f e d u c a t io n i n A m erican c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s h a ve c o n t r i b u t e d i n a l a r g e m easure t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n w h ich now seems t o be i n p r o g r e s s i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n i n t h i s cou n try* A p a r t o f t h i s c o n t r i b u t i o n has b een o f a n e g a t i v e n a t u r e ; t h a t i s , i t h as c o n s i s t e d o f r a t h e r s e a r c h in g c r i t i c i s m s o f t h e t r a d i t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n , no l e s s th a n t h e making o f s u g ­ g e s t i o n s a s t o p o s s i b l e s u b s t i t u t e s f o r th e t r a d i t i o n a l a im s , s t u d i e s and methods o f i n s t r u c t i o n i n h ig h s c h o o l s . I t i s s a f e t o s a y t h a t a lm o st e v e r y i n s t r u c t o r i n d e p a r t ­ ments o f e d u c a t i o n i n Am erican c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s i s r e g a r d e d a s an e d u c a t i o n a l r a d i c a l . T h ese men and women h a v e m a n if e s t e d c o n s i d e r a b l e im p a t ie n c e toward e d u c a t i o n a l t r a d i t i o n s , and have b e e n e s p e c i a l l y c r i t i c a l o f th e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d o c t r i n e s upon w h ich t h e h i s t o r i c programs o f s t u d y a r e , or a r e su p p osed t o b e , b a s e d . Then, t o o , t h e r e h as b een a s t e a d y te n d e n c y on th e p a r t o f t h e s e men t o i n s i s t on t h e p o s s i b l e h ig h v a l u e s o f s t u d i e s now r a r e l y foun d i n s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a , su ch as s o c i a l s c i e n c e , a p p l i e d a r t , and v o c a t i o n a l su b ­ jects. I n t h e s e d ep a rtm en ts we f i n d , f o r th e f i r s t t i m e , th e b e g in n i n g s o f a s c i e n t i f i c a t t i t u d e tow ards e d u c a t io n a s a s p e c i a l f i e l d o f s t u d y . E v e r y o n e , c e r t a i n l y , who i s i n t e r e s t e d i n th e r i g h t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f se c o n d a r y edu­ c a t i o n must lo o k h o p e f u l l y t o d ep a rtm en ts o f e d u c a t io n i n American c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s f o r g u id a n c e i n t h e f u t u r e . 28 Snedden d e p lo r e d t h e f a c t t h a t d ep a rtm en ts o f ed u ca­ t i o n had n o t c la im e d t h e se c o n d a r y s c h o o l a s t h e i r s p e c i a l t e r r i t o r y and had n o t t r a i n e d h i g h - s c h o o l t e a c h e r s i n t h e fu n d a m en ta l p rob lem s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , and t h a t t h e r e was a s u r p r i s i n g s c a r c i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e o f a fu n d a m en ta l n a tu r e d e a l i n g w i t h t h e problem s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . ^9 The a u th o r f o r e s a w th e n eed f o r broad t r a i n i n g i n c i t i z e n s h i p .

I b i d . , pp. 3 2 -3 3 . 29

7 Ibid.. pp. 3 M-3 5 .

71

A g a in , t]/ake th e f i e l d o f t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p , or t h e f i e l d o f th e b ro a d er m o ra l e d u c a t i o n . H e r e , t o o , I am c o n v in c e d t h a t we a r e i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f a w id e sp r e a d s o c i a l demand f o r new and a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s o f t r a i n i n g and i n s t r u c t i o n f o r a d o l e s c e n t s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , d e p a r t ­ m ents o f e d u c a t io n th r o u g h o u t t h e U n ite d S t a t e s seem t o me a s y e t t o be c o n t r i b u t i n g i n a r t i c l e form v e r y l i t t l e , i n d e e d , t o t h i s im p o r ta n t f i e l d o f e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t . 30 Nor was Snedden l e s s s p e c i f i c i n naming t h o s e f a c t o r s w h ich h e deemed r e s p o n s i b l e f o r r e t a r d i n g t h e grow th o f th e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m . I n g e n e r a l , t h e r e f o r e , I b e l i e v e t h a t , when ap proach ed from a lm o s t any p o i n t o f v i e w , th e p r e s e n t h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m , b o th as r e g a r d s i t s aims and i t s commonly f o l l o w e d m e th o d s, shows t h e e f f e c t o f t r a d i t i o n and un­ s c i e n t i f i c t h in k in g t o a marked e x t e n t . . .The c o l l e g e h as p la y e d i t s p a r t i n t h r e e d i f f e r e n t w a y s , — f i r s t , th ro u gh i t s a d m is s io n s t a n d a r d s ; s e c o n d , th ro u gh i t s t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s ; and t h i r d , through t h e f a c t t h a t t e x t b o o k s and manuals h a ve b e e n l a r g e l y i n f l u e n c e d by c o l l e g e men. A g a in , t h e i n a b i l i t y o f h i g h - s c h o o l t e a e h e r s and p r i n c i p a l s t o d e v e lo p c o n c e r t e d a c t i o n a s t o t h e i r work has b een i n f l u e n t i a l i n r e t a r d i n g t h e d ev elo p m en t o f new and more h e l p f u l c o n c e p t i o n s o f l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 31 Out o f World War I came i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t i n g an d , l a t e r , t h e Harvard Growth S tu d y ( 1 9 2 1 ) , b o th o f w h ich a ccen tu a ted in d iv id u a l d if f e r e n c e s .

I n d i v i d u a l i s m was em­

p h a s i z e d , and a l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e assumed w h ich was a l s o r e f l e c t e d i n b u s i n e s s i n d e f e r e n c e t o g o v er n m en ta l c o n t r o l s or r e s t r a i n t s . World War I p r o v id e d a s t im u lu s f o r b u s i n e s s and was

I b id . , p. 3 6 . ^

I h id . , p. 53* *

f o l l o w e d by an enormous grow th o f t r u s t s and c o m b in e s, d e s p it e th e e x i s t i n g a n t i - t r u s t a c t s .

I n 1918 C on g ress

exempted from t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e a n t i - t r u s t law s a l l c o m b in a tio n s en gaged i n f o r e i g n t r a d e .

D uring t h e p e r io d

o f World War I and im m e d ia te ly a f t e r , Am erican c o r p o r a t i o n s rep o rted n et p r o f i t s

o f more th a n t h i r t y b i l l i o n d o l l a r s ,

and 2 1 ,0 0 0 new m i l l i o n a i r e s w ere c r e a t e d by 1 9 1 9 .

Under

g e n i a l R e p u b lic a n a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s l a s t i n g from 1921 t o 1933> A m erican b u s i n e s s men formed s t i l l b i g g e r c o m b in a t io n s , h o ld i n g c o m p a n ie s, and c o n s o l i d a t i o n s — ffg i a n t s more b e w i l d e r ­ in g i n t h e i r c o m p l i c a t i o n s and s t a g g e r i n g c a p i t a l i z a t i o n s th a n any o f t h e s im p le t r u s t s , c o r p o r a t i o n s , and com bines w h ich had r a i s e d p o p u l i s t f u r y f o r t y y e a r s p r e v i o u s l y , H32 In 1919 t h e P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n was fo rm ed .

I t s members e la im e d t h a t s t u d e n t s s h o u ld p rep a re f o r

im m ediate l i v i n g i n a ch a n g in g w o r ld , t h a t le a r n i n g was b e s t th r o u g h s e l f - p l a n n e d and s e l f - e x e c u t e d p r o j e c t s . lo o k e d f o r a ■unifying c o n c e p t f o r t h e i r t h e o r y .

tfSome ad­

v an ced c h i l d grow th and o t h e r s c h o s e g e n u in e d em o cra cy . I n making su ch c h o i c e s as t h e y th o u g h t i n t h e s p i r i t o f John Dewey f a i l e d

32

They

to remember t h a t he c h o s e b o t h as

B e a r d , M iriam . A H i s t o r y o f th e B u s i n e s s Man. Hew Y ork, The M acm illan Company, 1 9 3 8 , pp. 7 1 9 - 2 0 .

Many

73

i n d i s p e n s a b l e and i n s e p a r a b l e c r i t e r i a o f t h e good ed u ca­ t i o n , m-33

The f i n d i n g s and i m p l i c a t i o n s o f s c i e n t i f i c r e ­

s e a r c h w ere u s e d as t h e b a s e s f o r i n n o v a t i o n and change on th e e le m e n ta r y l e v e l , b u t “s e c o n d a r y t e a c h e r s i n g e n e r a l c o n ­ t in u e d to t u r n a r a t h e r g la ls s y e y e toward t h e t r i c k y new con cep ts.

• • w3*f

The n e x t m ajor p h ase i n t h e r e v i s i o n o f t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m w h i c h , l i k e th e ” e l e c t i v e s y s t e m , 11 r e f l e c t e d th e s o c i a l movements of e f f i c i e n c y and s c i e n t i f i c management t h e n c u r r e n t i n i n d u s t r y and b u s i n e s s was t h e i s s u a n c e of t h e “C a r d in a l P r i n c i p l e s of S eco n d a ry E d u c a tio n 11 i n 1918 by th e c e n t r a l com m ittee o f t h e Comm ission on t h e R e o r g a n iz a t i o n o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t io n ( 1 9 1 2 - 1 9 2 0 ) , s is t e d of:

(1 ) h e a l t h ;

T h ese “p r i n c i p l e s 11 c o n ­

(2 ) command o f fu n d a m e n ta l p r o c e s s ;

(3 ) w orth y home membership; (*f) v o c a t i o n ;

( 5 ) c i v i c e d u c a t io n ;

(6 ) w o rth y u s e o f l e i s u r e ; and ( 7 ) e t h i c a l c h a r a c t e r . 35 The r e p o r t was perhaps th e most f a r r e a c h in g document t h a t h as e v e r b e e n i s s u e d i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n f o r i t g av e t h e h ig h s c h o o l a f u n c t i o n o f i t s

own.

The s e v e n p o i n t s

33 N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S eco n d a ry S c h o o l s , op> c i t . , p . 58. 3^ I b i d . , p. *+?. 35 U n ite d S t a t e s Bureau o f E d u c a t io n . C a r d in a l P r i n c i p l e s o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n . B u l l e t i n 1 9 1 8 , Ho. 3 5 .

71* form ed th e framework o f in n u m era b le c o u r s e s o f s t u d y and c u r r i c u l a r s t a t e m e n t s o f p h i l o s o p h y . 36 The c o n e e p t o f s o c i a l e f f i c i e n c y , an o f f s h o o t o f H e r b e r t S p e n c e r * s a n a l y s i s of c o m p le te l i v i n g , c o n t in u e d t o s e r v e as th e norm f o r th e r e d i r e c t i n g o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , i n r e v i s i n g e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t s , i n a d m it t in g new s u b j e c t s , i n p r o v id in g e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , i n d e v i s i n g s y s te m s o f g u id a n c e , and ev en i n p la n n in g b u i l d i n g s #37

The c u r r ic u lu m

was e n r ic h e d h o w e v e r , and f o r m a l d i s c i p l i n e f i n a l l y d i s ­ c r e d ite d .

T here was a s t r i v i n g t o become l e s s “academ ic , ,f

l e s s c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y , and more v i t a l l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h p r e p a r in g y o u th f o r l i v i n g i n con tem porary s o c i e t y .

The

e m p h a s is , n e v e r t h e l e s s was on t h e i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r th a n on so c ie ty .

The s e v e n a r e a s com peted a g a i n s t ea ch o t h e r .

c h i l d was n o t c o n c e iv e d as a d em ocracy.

The

In s h o r t , t h e

program la c k e d a u n i f y i n g p h ilo s o p h y .3 & During t h i s p e r io d ( 1 9 0 0 -1 9 3 0 ) s o c i o l o g y i n g e n e r a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l s o c i o l o g y i n p a r t i c u l a r , came i n t o t h e i r own and b ro u g h t t o t h e s c h o o l s su ch c o n c e p t s as f o l k w a y s , s o c i a l c o n t r o l , s o c i a l f o r c e s , s o c i a l p r o g r e s s , and community. P s y c h o lo g y and s o c i o l o g y came t o be r e c o g n iz e d as m u t u a lly

^ S p e a r s , op . c i t . . p . 7 1 . 37 N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S eco n d a ry S c h o o l s , oj). c i t . . p . 55. 3^ I b i d . , p . 5 6 .

75 d ep en d en t i n t h e i r j o i n t e f f o r t t o a d j u s t th e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s o f p e r s o n s t o th e common n e e d s o f s o c i a l l i v i n g . During t h i s t i m e , t o o , t h e m easurement movement had come i n t o i t s

own.

c u r r ic u lu m had i t s

By 1930 e v e r y s u b j e c t i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l s t a n d a r d iz e d t e s t s and s c a l e s .

But t h e

m easurement movement a l s o ex p o sed many o f th e i n h e r e n t weak­ n e s s e s o f th e h ig h s c h o o l by c o n f ir m in g o b j e c t i v e l y t h e range and p e r s i s t e n c e of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h ich w ere n o t a d e q u a t e ly p r o v id e d f o r , by r e v e a l i n g t h e w a s t a g e o f t e a c h e r e f f o r t , by e x p lo d in g th e r e l i a b i l i t y

o f s c h o o l marks and

t e a c h e r a p p r a i s a l , b y d e m o n s tr a tin g th e n eed f o r a b o l i s h i n g u n d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c u r r i c u l a , u n r e l i a b l e s t u d e n t p ro m otion s y s t e m s , and c o l l e g e a d m is s io n s a s c u r r i c u l a r c r i t e r i a . 39 , E x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s i n c r e a s e d and became th e m ain s o c i a l i z i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e s c h o o l .

But t h e y Ww ere

sm uggled i n t h e back door by t h e p u p i l s t h e m s e l v e s .

. . .

They were a c c e p t e d o n ly a f t e r i t was s e e n t h a t s u p r e s s i o n was n o t p o s s i b l e . 11^0

Many p o in t e d t o t h e phenom enal grow th

o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n and th e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c u r r i ­ c u l a and s u b j e c t s a s e lo q u e n t p r o o f s t h a t t h e Am erican h ig h s c h o o l o f 1930 was j u s t ab ou t t h e m ost d e m o c r a tic i n s t i t u t i o n

39 I b i d . , p . **8 . 1*0

S pears,

c i t . . p . 7 9«

i n A m e ric a , t h a t i t was r e a l l y a s c h o o l f o r a l l t h e c h i l d r e n o f a l l th e p e o p le *

But was i t ?

Some w ere i n c l i n e d t o for

th in k s o .

C a r p e n te r and R u f i ,

e x a m p le, s a i d , “W hatever d e f e c t s t h e Am erican p u b l i c h ig h

s c h o o l may p o s s e s s , i t a t l e a s t i s n o t e x c l u s i v e .

Whatever

i t s f a u l t s may b e , i t d oes n o t r e s e r v e i t s a d v a n ta g e s f o r t h e p r i v i l e g e d f e w . 11^-*But t r u e d e m o c r a t iz a t io n o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n must be r e v e a l e d i n p r a c t i c e s as w e l l a s i n numbers e n r o l l e d . Broad a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e s e a r c h (b e tw e e n 1900 and 1930) e s t a b l i s h e d a s an u n d e n ia b le f a c t t h a t d u r in g th e f i r s t d e c a d e o f t h i s c e n t u r y n o t more th a n one c h i l d i n t e n c o n t in u e d i n s c h o o l from t h e f i r s t grad e t o t h e t w e l f t h , and t h a t l e s s th a n one who e n t e r e d t h e n i n t h gra d e r e a c h e d t h e t w e l f t h . ^3 As f o r t h e v a r i e t y i n

o f f e r i n g s , i f a c o r e o f t h e sam e,

or s i m i l a r , l i b e r a l s t u d i e s be r e q u ir e d

of a l l in s p it e of

a s t i l l more h e t e r o g e n i o u s p o p u l a t i o n , th e n g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n in d e e d becomes a problem and s e l e c t i v i t y becomes g r e a t e r th a n e v e r b e f o r e .

Such was t h e c a s e .

B rubacher s t a t e s ?

Ul

C a r p e n t e r , W. W ., and R u f i , J oh n . The T each er and S eco n d a ry S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . B o s t o n , Ginn and Company, 1 9 3 1 , p. 3 0 9 .

b2

Spears,

o jd

.

c i t . . p. 98.

N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S eco n d a ry S c h o o l s , o £. c i t . « pp. W -M ?.

77 P o p u la r as t h e e l e c t i v e c u r r ic u lu m becam e, i t n e v e r c o m p l e t e l y sm oth ered th e p r e s c r i p t i v e p r i n c i p l e . As th e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y wore o n , i n t e r e s t i n some s o r t o f p r e ­ s c r i b e d c o r e o f s t u d i e s began t o r e v i v e . Such a c o r e f i r s t showed s t r e n g t h by b e in g a b le t o f o r c e a t r u c e w it h t h e e l e c t i v e s y s t e m . Some s u b j e c t s were t o e n j o y a p r i v ­ i l e g e d p o s i t i o n i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m , as i f p r o t e c t e d by an e d u c a t i o n a l t a r i f f w a l l ; o t h e r s u b j e c t s w ere made e l e c t i v e and th u s thrown o u t on t h e i r own r e s o u r c e s t o s u r v i v e i n t h e c o m p e t i t i o n t o a t t r a c t s t u d e n t s . The p r e c i s e fo rm u la f o r t h i s compromise was t o a r r a n g e th e c u r r ic u lu m s o t h a t i t would p r o v id e f o r b o th ^ c o n c e n t r a t io n 11 and 11d i s t r i b u ­ t i o n -.*1 In some c u r r i c u l a t h i s to o k th e form o f a s y s te m o f major and minor s t u d i e s . I n o t h e r s i t t o o k th e form o f p r e s c r i b e d groups o f s t u d i e s w it h e l e c t i o n p e r m it t e d w i t h i n ea c h g r o u p .44 At th e end o f t h i s p e r i o d (1 9 0 0 -1 9 3 ® ) we f i n d t h e Am erican h ig h s c h o o l s t i l l h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e ; o f f e r i n g a s u b j e c t c e n t e r e d , l o g i c a l l y d e v e l o p e d , and d e p a r t m e n t a liz e d c u r r ic u lu m composed o f a c o m p le x it y o f c o u r s e s and s u b j e c t s w it h c o n s t a n t s and v a r i a b l e s ; w it h s o c i a l i z i n g e x p e r i e n c e s r e l e g a t e d f o r the most p a r t t o e x t r a c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s ; w it h a p h i l o s o p h y o f e d u c a t io n p r e d i c a t e d upon t h e S e v e n C a r d in a l P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n , w it h t h e em p h asis on th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e i n d i v i d u a l , and w it h th e aim o f p r e p a r in g him f o r c o l l e g e o r a d j u s t i n g him t o a w o rld o f 11i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y . 11

The

h ig h s c h o o l c lu n g a c a d e m i c a l l y t o th e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o l l e g e w hich i t s l a v i s h l y s e r v e d and, i g n o r i n g f o r t h e m ost p a r t th e c u r r i c u l a r i m p l i c a t i o n s o f p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , e v e r w id ­ en ed t h e gap b etw een i t and th e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l — a gap

^ B ru b a ch er, John S . A H i s t o r y o f t h e P roblem s o f E d u c a t io n . New York, McGraw-Hill' Book Co. , I n c . , 1 9 4 7 , p . 313*

w h ich t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f th e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l s o u g h t t o b r id g e w it h q u e s t i o n a b l e s u c c e s s . I f l e a d e r s h i p w i t h i n th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c o u ld n o t e f f e c t th e re fo r m n e c e s s a r y t o p u t th e s c h o o l i n to u c h w it h life ,

th e sto rm o f s o c i a l and econom ic f o r c e s so o n t o b e a t

a g a i n s t i t s d oors m ig h t .

CHAPTER V I

PERIOD OF CHAOS, COURSES OF STUDY, AND EXPERIMENTATION (1 9 3 0 -1 9 3 ? ) S THE COLLAPSE OF GENERAL EDUCATION I n 1930 t h e er a o f s o c i a l and i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y came t o a rude end when t h e c o u n t r y was p lu n ged i n t o an econom ic d e p r e s s i o n t h e s e v e r i t y and s c o p e o f w h ich knew no p r e c e d e n t i n A m erican h i s t o r y .

W idespread unem ploym ent, t h e

r a i s i n g o f t h e co m p u lsory s c h o o l a g e t o e x c lu d e y o u th from i n d u s t r y , t h e i n c r e a s e i n t h e h i g h - s c h o o l age p o p u la t io n c o u p le d w it h i t s s h i f t from r u r a l t o urban a r e a s , an d , f i n a l l y , t h e g r e a t e r number o f y o u th s u c c e s s f u l l y c o m p le tin g t h e e le m e n ta r y program , ca u se d t h e h i g h s c h o o l s o f t h e n a t i o n t o be th r o n g e d as n e v e r b e f o r e . And j u s t as t h e L a t in grammar s c h o o l c a t e r e d . t o p u p i l s w it h tfno money b u t b r a i n s , 11 t h e academy t o t h o s e w i t h "some money and some b r a i n s , 11 and t h e e a r l y p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l t o t h o s e f1w i t h or w it h o u t money b u t b r a i n s , ** s o t h e h ig h s c h o o l o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n era was f l o o d e d w it h p u p i l s w it h Hno money and no b r a i n s . 1*

P h y s i c a l p l a n t s w ere ta x e d beyond t h e i r

c a p a c i t y , and economy and d o u b le s e s s i o n s w ere t h e ord er o f th e day. But t h e c u r r ic u lu m l i t e r a l l y b u r s t a t t h e se a m s. paramount problem i n t h e c o n f u s i o n was t o p r o v id e f o r t h e

The

s o - c a l l e d "non-academ ic" s t u d e n t , how t o make him conform t o t h e p r e s e n t program , or t o a d j u s t t h e p r e s e n t program t o h im .

New d ep a rtm e n ts were added t o c a r e f o r a w id e r range

o f i n t e r e s t s , and t h e s e p u p i l s w ere h erd ed i n t o c o u r s e s c l o s e r t o l i f e su ch as t h e c o m m e r c ia l, i n d u s t r i a l , and home econom ics p rogram s. c la sse s.

" S p e c i a l 11 c l a s s e s were run p a r a l l e l t o " r e g u la r ” " G en era l” s u b j e c t s w ere d e v i s e d ; a lg e b r a and geome­

t r y , f o r exam ple became " g e n e r a l m a th e m a tic s;" and c h e m i s t r y , p h y s i c s , and b i o l o g y became " g e n e r a l s c i e n c e . "

Some id e a o f

t h e g r e a t number o f c o u r s e s added t o th e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r i ­ culum can be g a in e d from t h e f a c t t h a t a f t e r a s t u d y o f t r e n d s i n h ig h s e h o o l o f f e r i n g s o ver a lm o s t a q u a r te r c e n t u r y , Van Dyke r e p o r t e d i n 1931 t h a t t h e a v e r a g e number o f c u r r i c u l a

j

( s c h e m a t ic arrangem ent o f c o u r s e s ) had i n c r e a s e d from 2 . 5 t o

j

5 .2 p er s c h o o l , and t h a t t h e t o t a l number o f d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s o f f e r e d i n c r e a s e d from 52 t o 306.^-

Yet Koos co m p la in ed i n

1935 t h a t th e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m was n o t s u f f i c i e n t l y d i f f e r e n t i a t e d t o p r o v id e f o r t h e i n c r e a s i n g number o f h eterogen eou s y o u th .2

^ Van Dyke, George E. "Trends i n t h e D evelopm ent o f t h e High S c h o o l O f f e r i n g , " S c h o o l R e v ie w , 3 9 * 6 5 7 - 6 ^ , November and Decem ber, 1931* 2 K o o s, Leonard V. "The Next S te p i n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n ," S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n , b : 1 8 - 2 0 , J a n u a r y , 193?•

81 And what e f f e c t d id a l l t h i s c u r r ic u lu m e x p a n s io n have upon g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ?

F ir s t, i t

em p h asized t h e f a c t t h a t

t h e o n ly c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was th e l e g a l l y p r e s c r i b e d c o n s t a n t s , b u t t h a t t h e s e c o n s t a n t s w ere " c o n s ta n t" i n name o n ly a n d , th ro u g h them, g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was becom ing more j

and more a m yth.

And, s e c o n d , t h e breakdown o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m

e x e m p l i f i e d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e v e r y p u rp o se o f th e h ig h s c h o o l was c h a l l e n g e d ; t h a t t h e u n p a r a l l e l e d h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f th e new h i g h - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n w h ich c a u se d th e c o l l a p s e o f t h e o ld c o r e o f c o n s t a n t s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n had ca u se d th e " g e n e r a l c u rr icu lu m " t o e v o l v e ; and t h a t t h i s g e n e r a l c u r r i ­ culum had w i t h i n i t

t h e s e e d s o f a new and w o rk a b le g e n e r a l

e d u c a t io n ; b u t t h a t , i n r e a l i t y , t h e " g e n e r a l cu rricu lu m " had c a u se d t h e f u r t h e r d e c l i n e and u l t i m a t e c o l l a p s e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l .

L et us exam ine ea c h o f t h e s e

two c o n c e p t s i n d e t a i l . F ir s t,

t h e o n ly c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n c o n s i s t e d i n

l e g a l l y p r e s c r i b e d c o n s t a n t s , or s u b j e c t s , b u t t h e s e c o n s t a n t s had l i t t l e

i n common and w ere more o f a myth th a n a r e a l i t y .

By 1 9 3 0 , t h e s i n g l e - e u r r i c u l u m and t h e pure m u l t i p l e - c u r r i c u l u m t y p e o f s u b j e c t arrangem ents had d ie d out and most s c h o o l s em ployed t h e c o n s t a n t - w i t h - v a r i a b l e s ty p e ( r e q u ir e d s u b j e c t s p lu s e l e c t i v e s w it h no c u r r i c u l a r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n ) and t h e c o m b in a tio n t y p e (a c h o i c e o f c u r r i c u l a p lu s a c h o i c e o f e l e c t i v e s w ith in th e c u r r ic u la ) .

Of e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t t o

82 g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i s

t h e f a c t t h a t i n th e h ig h s c h o o l s

em p lo yin g t h e c o n s t a n t s - w i t h - v a r i a b l e s ty p e o f program , a little

over n i n e - s i x t e e n t h s o f t h e p u p i l lo a d was composed o f

s u b j e c t s ta k e n by a l l th e p u p i l s a l i k e , w h i l e a b o u t s e v e n s i x t e e n t h s o f t h e lo a d was g i v e n ov er t o t h e v a r i a b l e e l e ­ ment o f t h e program .3 In 1931 K e e se c k e r showed t h a t t h e r e was no agreem en t a s t o what was r e q u ir e d by law t o be ta u g h t i n h ig h s c h o o l , n or was t h e r e any agreem en t a s t o what sh o u ld have b e e n r e ­ q u ir e d by l a w . 1*

P a t t y i n 1927 r e p o r t e d 87 d i f f e r e n t s u b j e c t s

p r e s c r i b e d by s t a t u t e s i n t h e d i f f e r e n t s t a t e s , ? and T r o x e l r e p o r t e d *+3 i n 1 9 2 8 .6

H ow ever, a s t u d y o f t h e s u b j e c t s r e ­

q u ir e d by S t a t e d ep artm en ts o f e d u c a t io n f o r g r a d u a t io n from a f o u r - y e a r a c c r e d i t e d h ig h s c h o o l b a se d upon t h e d a ta

^ L o om is, A. K. , e t a l . "The Program o f S t u d i e s , 11 O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 2 , No. 17* Monograph No. 1 9 , W a sh in g to n , D. C . , U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1933? PP» 1 1 8 -1 9 •

b

K e e s e c k e r , Ward W ., " L eg a l and R e g u la t o r y P r o v i s i o n s A f f e c t i n g S ec o n d a r y E d u c a t io n , 11 O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n . B u l l e t i n , 1 9 3 2 , No. 1 7 , Monograph No. 9 , W a sh in g to n , D. C . , U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 3 2 , pp. 7 7 - 8 2 . *5

' P a t t y , W. L. L e g a l B a s i s o f t h e P u b l i c S eco n d a ry E d u c a tio n Program o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s . A lb a n y , New Y ork, 1927, p. 227. T r o x e l , 0 . L. S t a t e C o n t r o l o f E d u c a t io n . B a l t i m o r e , Warwick and Y ork, I n c . , 1 9 2 8 , p . 5 0 .

j ^

83 a v a i l a b l e i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n i n 1931 showed t h a t 3 5 s t a t e s r e q u ir e d s p e c i f i c s u b j e c t s , and t h a t th o se su b je c ts c o n s is te d c h i e f l y of E n g lis h , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , m a th e m a tic s , and s c i e n c e .

D e la w a r e , f o r e x a m p le , p r e s c r i b e d

c e r t a i n c o n s t a n t s and c e r t a i n v a r i a b l e s f o r t h e a c a d e m ic , s c i e n t i f i c , g e n e r a l , v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r a l , v o c a t i o n a l home e c o n o m ic s , and co m m ercia l c u r r i c u l a ; but c o n s t a n t t o a l l o f them was E n g l i s h , g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , c i v i c s and e c o n o m ic s , and U n ite d S t a t e s h i s t o r y . ? The l a s t v e s t i g e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e n , was th e s t a t e ' s p r e s c r i p t i o n o f s u b j e c t s m andatory f o r a l l .

But how

g e n e r a l was t h i s g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w hen, t o m eet t h e v a r i o u s n eed s o f t h e h e t e r o g e n e o u s s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , a m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c u r r i c u l a a r o s e , and each c u r r ic u lu m f a s h i o n e d and shaped one or more o f t h e p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e s f o r i t s

own ends?

E n g l i s h , f o r ex a m p le , m igh t be demanded o f a l l p u p i l s , but t h e r e i s l i t t l e u n i t y r e s u l t i n g from c h a n n e lin g o f f p u p i l s i n t o C o l l e g e E n g l i s h , B u s in e s s E n g l i s h , G e n e r a l E n g l i s h , N u r sin g E n g l i s h , Shop E n g l i s h , e t c . , ad i n f i n i t u r n . a s a r e s u l t o f th e s c i e n t i f i c movement and i t s

And when,

t e s t in g pro­

gram, p u p i l s w ere f u r t h e r s e g r e g a t e d and s u b d iv id e d th ro u gh a b i l i t y g r o u p in g , s o t h a t , w i t h i n B u s in e s s E n g l i s h , f o r ex a m p le , t h e r e m ig h t be f a s t , medium, and s lo w g r o u p s , t h e n ,

K eeseck er, l o c . c i t .

84 i n d e e d * g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n had v a n ish e d * s t a t e l e g i s l a t i o n t o th e c o n t r a r y . A b i l i t y g ro u p in g h as b een a f o e t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ) and d e s p i t e i t s g r e a t u se i n th e h ig h s c h o o l r e s e a r c h shows t h a t e x p e r im e n t a l e v id e n c e as t o t h e a c h ie v e m e n t s t a t u s o f Q p u p i l s under a p la n o f a b i l i t y g r o u p in g i s i n c o n c l u s i v e . Nor i s

t h e r e u n i f o r m i t y i n e i t h e r t h e o r y or p r a c t i c e r e g a r d ­

in g t h e number and s i z e o f t h e groups* th e amount o f a c c e l e r a ­ t i o n or d e c e l e r a t i o n * or t h e p ro p er d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n methods 9 and c u r r i c u l a . B i l l e t t c la im s t h a t i n h ig h s c h o o l s p e c i a l c l a s s e s a r e f o r t h e v e r y s lo w l e a r n e r a b o u t n i n e tim e s as f r e q u e n t l y a s t h o s e f o r th e v e r y b r i g h t . 10

Indeed* so

a t o m i s t i c had t h e a lr e a d y f r a g m e n tiz e d c u r r ic u lu m become th r o u g h a b i l i t y grou p in g* t h a t th e s i t u a t i o n has b een th u s s a tir iz e d : Johnny J o n es has l o s t a l e g * Fanny*s d e a f and dumb*

C o r n e ll* E t h e l L. " E f f e c t s o f A b i l i t y Grouping D e te r m in a b le from P u b lis h e d Studies*** T h i r t v - F i f t h Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t io n . Part I . B loom in gton* I l l i n o i s * P u b lic S c h o o l P u b lis h i n g Company* 1936* p . 2 9 5 . 9 R oss* C. C. Measurement i n T od ay1s S c h o o l s . New Y ork , P r e n t i c e - H a l l * I n c .* 1946* p . 4 7 5 . 10 B i l l e t t * Roy 0 . " P r o v is io n s f o r I n d i v i d u a l D i f f e r e n c e s , Marking and P ro m o tio n ," O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , N a t i o n a l S u r v ey o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n . B u l l e t i n , 1932* Monograph No. 1 3 , W a sh in g to n , D. C . , U n ite d S t a t e s Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e * 1932* p . 8 .

85 M arie h as e p i l e p t i c f i t s , Tom's e y e s a r e on th e bum. S a d i e s t u t t e r s when sh e t a l k s , Mabel h as T . B. M orris i s a s p l e n d i d c a s e Of i m b e c i l i t y . B i l l y Brown*s a t r u a n t , And H a rold i s a t h i e f , T edd y’s p a r e n t s g a ve him d o p e , And s o he came t o g r i e f . > G w e n d o lin e ’ s a m i l l i o n a i r e G erald i s a f o o l : S o e v e r y one o f t h e s e dark k i d s Goes t o a s p e c i a l s c h o o l . T h e y ’v e s p e c i a l l y n i c e t e a c h e r s , And s p e c i a l t h i n g s t o w e a r , And s p e c i a l tim e t o p la y i n , And a s p e c i a l k in d o f a i r . They*ve s p e c i a l lu n c h e s r i g h t i n s c h o o l . W h ile I — i t makes me w i l d ! — I h a v e n ’ t any s p e c i a l t i e s , I*m j u s t a norm al c h i l d . No wonder A b l e r t y , i n d i s c u s s i n g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , e x c la im e d :

I f you must d i s p e n s e w it h s o m e t h in g , throw out

t h e s t a n d a r d iz e d t e s t s , u n l e s s t h e y be u se d f o r p r i v a t e reasons The se c o n d im p o r ta n t i m p l i c a t i o n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n as e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e c o l l a p s e o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m d u r in g t h i s p e r io d o f n a t i o n a l c r i s i s was t h e f a c t t h a t t h e v e r y f u n c t i o n and aim o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n was c h a l l e n g e d as n e v e r b e f o r e .

^ W i l d s , Elmer H. The F o u n d a tio n s o f Modern E d u c a t io n . New Y ork, F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 193&J P* 523* 12 A l b e r t y , H a r o ld . L e c t u r e n o t e s t a k e n i n C urriculum O r g a n iz a t io n and D evelopm ent (b ou rse. The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Summer S e s s i o n , 19^9.

86

The o ld c o r e o f s u b j e c t - c o n s t a n t s m ight h a v e s u f f i c e d as g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n f o r c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y p e o p l e , an d, w it h g r a v e d o u b t, m ig h t h ave p r o v id e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r v o c a t i o n a l l y minded p eo p le #

But now t h e h ig h s c h o o l found

t h a t i t s aim c o u ld be n e i t h e r c o l l e g e nor v o c a t i o n a l p r e ­ paratory i n f a c t .

Fewer h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a te s c o u ld a f f o r d

c o l l e g e , t h e number d ro p p in g from 3 1 . 5$ i n 1929 t o 2 2 .9 $ i n 1 9 3 3 , 13 and j u s t as fe w c o u ld f i n d ”w h i t e c o l l a r ” jo b s or any kind- o f employment upon g r a d u a t io n .

T h is p a t t e r n o f

p e r s o n a l and i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y , i n t o w h ich t h e p ro d u ct o f t h e American h ig h s c h o o l had b een d e v e lo p e d t o f i t

in the

’ t w e n t i e s , c o u ld s e r v e no lo n g e r as t h e aim o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n .

By 1937 some one and t h r e e - q u a r t e r m i l l i o n boys

and g i r l s f i f t e e n t o n i n e t e e n y e a r s o f ag e w ere t o t a l l y un­ em ployed and n o t i n s c h o o l .

In a d d i t i o n , two or t h r e e m i l l i o n

y o u th s beyond h ig h s c h o o l a g e w ere t o t a l l y u n em p loyed . And, when employment was f i n a l l y s e c u r e d , how e f f e c t i v e c o u ld t h e p a t t e r n o f ”i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y ” p r e p a r e y o u th f o r t h e ”dead end” and ”b l i n d a l l e y ” jo b s t h a t a w a it e d them?

P h il­

o s o p h i c a l l y , t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , now b e in g n e i t h e r c o l l e g e nor v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t o r y i n e f f e c t , c o u ld s c a r c e l y j u s t i f y

^ U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , B i e n n i a l S u r v e y o f E d u c a t io n . 1 9 3 2 -1 9 3 ^ , C hap ter I , p . 8 . ^ l i b e r t y , H a r o ld . R e o r g a n iz in g t h e H igh S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m . Mew Y ork, The M acm illan Company, 19^7* p . 1 3 9 .

87 its

e x iste n c e .

And i t s a t t e m p t s t o a d j u s t t o t h e n eed s o f

y o u th t h e e x i s t i n g c u r r ic u lu m w i t h i t s g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n th r o u g h a c o r e o f c o n s t a n t s — d e s p i t e e n d l e s s m o d i f i c a t i o n s — f o r t h e m ost p a r t , f a i l e d . The c u r r ic u lu m answer t o t h e n eed s o f t h e s o - c a l l e d n o n -a ca d em ic y o u th seemed t o l i e i n some k in d o f g r e a t e r u n i t y , i n t e g r a t i o n , or c o r r e l a t i o n .

The s u b j e c t c o u r s e s

w h ich seemed t o m eet w it h a t l e a s t some l i t t l e

s u c c e s s were

t h e " g e n e r a l" c o u r s e s , su ch as g e n e r a l m a th e m a tic s , g e n e r a l s c i e n c e , and t h e l i k e .

T h ese w ere thrown t o g e t h e r h aph az­

a r d l y i n t o a c o r e or c u r r ic u lu m known as t h e " g e n e r a l c o u r s e . " I t c o n s i s t e d c h i e f l y i n a number o f "w atered down" or " g e n e r ­ a l i z e d " a cad em ic s u b j e c t s a s c o n s t a n t s , w i t h a s many " p r a c t i ­ ca l" s u b j e c ts as p o s s ib le fo r e l e c t i v e s .

I t was f o r th e boy

and g i r l who h a d .n o p la n s f o r t h e f u t u r e . The " g e n e r a l co u rse" o r " g e n e r a l cu rricu lu m " so u g h t t o p r o v id e g r e a t e r v a r i a t i o n or d i v e r s i f i c a t i o n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l program a s th e r e s u l t o f an i n c r e a s i n g r e a l i z a t i o n o f th e l a r g e r p u r p o se s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n and an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e r e a c t i o n o f c u r r ic u lu m t o an i n c r e a s i n g l y h e t e r o ­ g en e o u s body o f young p e o p le f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e .

The

term " g e n e r a l cu rr icu lu m " s u g g e s t e d a s e q u e n c e o f s t u d i e s le a d i n g t o no s p e c i f i c g o a l but a f f o r d i n g t h e p u p i l a c u l t i v a ­ t i o n o f t h e powers n eed ed f o r g e n e r a l l i v i n g . I n 1931 Van Dyke fo u n d i n h i s s t u d y o f t r e n d s i n t h e

d ev elo p m en t o f h ig h s c h o o l o f f e r i n g s t h a t t h e d ev elo p m en t o f g e n e r a l c o u r s e s was l a g g i n g , and t h a t t h e b r o a d e r movement toward a more p e r v a s i v e i n t e g r a t i o n and i n t e r - c o r r e l a t i o n o f t h e w h o le program had h a r d ly emerged a t a l l . 15 An i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m was made i n 193 5 by B ry so n and H u tson w it h t h e o b j e c t o f d i s c o v e r i n g a m o re^ ex act d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m , i t s n a t u r e , and f r e q u e n c y o f u s e .

The s t u d y d i s c l o s e d t h a t a t t h a t tim e

( 1 9 3 5 ) t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m ran k ed t h i r d i n t h e fr e q u e n c y o f a p p e a r a n c e , b e in g outnumbered by t h e acad em ic and com­ m e r c i a l c u r r i c u l a 5 t h a t i t was o f r e c e n t o r i g i n ; t h a t a lt h o u g h t h e s u b j e c t s r e q u ir e d f o r t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m v a r i e d w it h d i f f e r e n t h ig h s c h o o l s , i t was p r a c t i c a l l y unanimous p r a c t i c e t o r e q u i r e no f o r e i g n la n g u a g e , and most s c h o o l s r e q u ir e d no more th a n one u n i t o f m a th e m a tic s; t h a t ab o u t 2 5 % of th e p u p i l s i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l s s t u d i e d w ere e n r o l l e d i n th e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m ; and t h a t p u p i l s w ere g u id e d i n t o t h e g e n e r a l c u r ­ r ic u lu m b e c a u s e o f t h e l a c k o f c a p a c i t y f o r , or i n t e r e s t i n , some r e q u ir e d s u b j e c t s o f t h e more s p e c i a l i z e d c u r r i c u l a t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e p u p i l 1s and s o c i e t y ’ s u n c e r t a i n t y w it h r e s p e c t t o e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . The i n v e s t i g a t o r s i n t e r p r e t e d t h e s e d a ta t o mean t h a t

89

" in t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m t h e r e had b e e n d e v e lo p e d an e f f e c t ­ i v e in s t r u m e n t f o r e d u c a t i o n a l d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n , 11 and t h a t " in c r e a sin g s e n s i t i v i t y t o th e v a r i a t io n in i n t e r e s t s , a b i l i t i e s , and a m b it io n s o f p u p i l s , c o u p le d w it h t h e demand f o r u n i v e r s a l s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , h as e v o l v e d t h e g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m . 11^ The f a c t t h a t t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m was r e c o g n iz e d n ot as a s a t i s f a c t o r y

s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem o f

general

e d u c a t i o n , b u t m e r e ly as an e v o l u t i o n a r y s t e p t o g r e a t e r t h i n g s y e t t o come ca n b e i n f e r r e d from t h e w arning v o i c e d b y th e i n v e s t i g a t o r s when t h e y s a id * . . . i t was tim e th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s and t h e meaning o f t h e g e n e r a l c u r r ic u lu m be g i v e n more c a r e f u l t h o u g h t . There i s some e v i d e n c e t h a t i t h a s b e e n c r e a t e d as a m a k e s h if t d e v i c e t o m eet t h e o v e r sh e lm in g p r e s s u r e o f dem ocracy f o r e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n t a g e s . In a l l p r o b a b ilit y , i t r e p r e s e n t s b u t one s t e p i n th e e v o l u t i o n o f a t r u l y d e m o c r a tic s c h o o l s y s t e m . I f su ch e v o l u t i o n i s un­ p la n n ed and w a s t e f u l , we a r e c h a l l e n g e d t o d e f i n e t h e g o a l s o f our a c t i v i t y i n o rd er t h a t t h e ch an ge may be r a tio n a l. I n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e program o f s t u d i e s s o t h a t p r o g r e s s may be,m ade i n t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f our i d e a l s , v a l u a b l e l e s s o n s may b e le a r n e d from our e x ­ p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e g e n e r a l c u r r i c u l u m .17 The same s e n t im e n t was e x p r e s s e d f i v e y e a r s l a t e r by B r a c k in .

He e x p l a i n e d t h a t t h e " g e n e r a l program" was s e t up

i n h i s h ig h s c h o o l t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f t h e n on -a cad em ic

^ B r y s o n , W i l l i a m , and H u ts o n , P e r c i v a l . "The G e n e r a l C u r r ic u lu m ,11 The S c h o o l R e v ie w . b $ i V7 -2 7 , J a n u a r y , 1935. 17

Loc. c i t .

p u p i l s , t h o s e who “w ere u n a b le t o c a r r y any o f t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y t h a t we h a d ,” who "were n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e v o c a ­ t i o n a l c o u r s e s t h a t we o f f e r e d , n o t i n t e r e s t e d i n homee c o n o m ic s c o u r s e s , or i n t h e c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s . ” -*-® How c l o s e t h e “ g e n e r a l program” came, i n a d v e r t e n t l y p e r h a p s , t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c a n be s e e n from t h e f a c t t h a t “ good c i t i z e n s h i p ” was i t s g o a l . ^*9 from t h e i d e a l o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l ,

But i t was f a r fo r the p u p ils

i n t h e “g e n e r a l program” w ere “ s e g r e g a t e d i n t h e E n g l i s h , s o c i a l s c i e n c e , m a th e m a tic s , and s c i e n c e c l a s s e s . “2

making p r o v i s i o n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m f o r t h i s phenomenon, D u d ley s im p ly s t a t e d : One o f t h e g r e a t e s t s e r v i c e s t h a t t h e h ig h s c h o o l may r e n d e r t h i s g e n e r a t i o n i s t h a t o f c h e c k in g t h e movement from t h e c o u n tr y t o t h e c i t y . The t e a c h in g o f a g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s one o f th e b e s t s o l u t i o n s t o t h i s p ro b lem . D u d ley *s c l o s i n g remark w ould h a ve made A r i s t o t l e r e j o i c e , th ou gh h a r d ly t h e h i g h - s c h o o l y o u th th e n p la g u e d b y econom ic i n s e c u r i t y : A n yth in g t h a t te n d s t o draw t h e a t t e n t i o n o f b oys and g i r l s from th e co m m ercia l s p i r i t t h a t i s now dom inant and f i x i t upon so m eth in g t h a t u p l i f t s and e n n o b le s s h o u ld n o t need t o o f f e r any o t h e r e x c u s e f o r i t s b e i n g . And a n o th e r exam ple o f t h e same k in d o f d e f e n s e o f s u b j e c t s a s su ch was t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o n f e r e n c e sp o n s o r e d by t h e Department o f S ec o n d a r y E d u c a t io n o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1935 i n w h ich t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s o f h i g h - s c h o o l s u b j e c t s t o th e s o l u t i o n o f y o u th problem s was d isc u sse d .

I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t Young, s p e a k in g

f o r L a tin , d e cla red : . . . L a t in d o es n o t h e l p t h e j u n io r h ig h c h i l d s o l v e

97 any p r o b le m s . • . • L a t i n i s f o r him, h ow ever, a medium f o r h i s d ev elo p m en t i n c o n c e n t r a t i o n — t h e a b i l i t y t o s t i c k t o a t h i n g on ce s t a r t e d u n t i l i t i s f i n i s h e d ; i n memory w h ic h a t th e p r e s e n t tim e a c c o r d in g t o a l l a u t h o r i t i e s seems t o be u n n e c e s s a r y t o dr lo p b u t w h ich I b e l i e v e t o be a v a l u a b l e a t t r i b u t e And sp e a k in g f o r m a th e m a tic s, Lavengood a s s e r t e d : \

Geometry i s a p o w e r f u l t r a i n i n g i n l o g i c . When L i n c o l n had a d i f f i c u l t c a s e t o t r y i n c o u r t he would r e s o r t t o E u c l i d a s t h e m ost h e l p f u l a i d t o j u r i s p r u d e n c e . The p r a c t i c a l v a lu e o f g eo m etry was much more t o L i n c o l n th a n i t s mere a p p l i c a t i o n t o t h e a r t s and i n d u s t r i e s .2 4 So t h e g h o s t o f the o l d L a t i n grammar s c h o o l s t i l l haun ted th e h ig h s c h o o l , and th e c o n c e p t s o f e d u c a t i o n - f o r s t a t u s o f t e n gave t h e nod o f a p p r o v a l t o th e acad em ic c o u r s e and a t t a c h e d t o th e ,rp r a e t i c a l fl c o u r s e s a l l t h e s o c i a l d i g n i t y o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n camps f o r d i s p l a c e d p e r s o n s •

De­

p a rtm e n ts and t e a c h e r s a l i k e s t r u g g l e d t o ward o f f t h e stig m a a t t a c h e d t o t h e i r c l a s s e s * becoming t h e c a t c h a l l s f o r c l a s s i c a l c a s u a ltie s• But i f 1930 was a y e a r o f s c h o l a s t i c c h a o s , i t a l s o aaw t h e f i r s t c o o p e r a t i v e and s c i e n t i f i c movement c o n c e iv e d t o r i d t h e h ig h s c h o o l o f c o l l e g e d o m in a tio n w i t h i t s e d u c a t i o n - f o r - s t a t u s and t r a d i t i o n a l l y im posed acad em ic c u r ­ r i c u lu m .

The P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n a p p o in t e d a

" C o n t r ib u t io n s o f H ig h - S c h o o l S u b j e c t s t o th e S o l u t i o n o f Youth P rob lem s,*1 S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n * 4:205'-23 > S ep te m b er , 1 9 3 5 . ^

Loc. c i t

Com m ission on R e l a t i o n o f S c h o o l and C o l l e g e w h ich d e v e lo p e d a p la n by w h ich more th a n two hundred and f i f t y

of th e le a d ­

in g c o l l e g e s c o n s e n t e d t o adm it recommended g r a d u a te s o f a s e l e c t e d group o f h ig h s c h o o l s

( 3 0 ) w it h o u t a d h e r in g t o f o r m a l

c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e r e q u ir e m e n t s .

Under t h i s arran gem en t t h e

c o o p e r a t i n g h ig h s c h o o l s would be f r e e t o en g ag e i n p r o g r e s ­ s i v e e x p e r im e n t a t io n and u l t i m a t e l y d i s c o v e r w h e th er p u p i l s p rep a r e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w it h p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s would do b e t t e r or w o rse i n c o l l e g e th an t h o s e who met e x i s t i n g r e q u ir e m e n t s . Thus was i n i t i a t e d t h e " B igh t Year S tu d y 1* w h ich was p la n n ed t o a c t u a l l y g e t underway i n 1 9 3 6 .^ 5 T e c h o n o l o g i c a l advancem ents and t h e s o c io - e c o n o m i c c r i s i s in t r u d e d t h e m s e lv e s upon t h e l i f e

of the s c h o o l.

Sound m o tio n p i c t u r e s made t h e i r a p p e a r a n c e , and r a d i o was i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o th e a c t i v i t i e s

of th e cla ssr o o m .

G r e a te r

em p hasis was l a i d on t h e u t i l i z a t i o n o f community r e s o u r c e s , and t e a c h e r s tu r n e d t h e i r a t t e n t i o n t o t h e home c o n d i t i o n s of t h e ir p u p ils as never b e fo r e . T h in g s g o t s o bad t h a t e v e n t h e C a r n e g ie F o u n d a tio n in i t s

1933 r e p o r t n o te d t h a t b e c a u s e o f t h e ch an ged c o n d i ­

t i o n s th e u n i t s y s te m w h ich i t had i n i t i a t e d s h o u ld

U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n . S o c i a l Trends and C u r r i­ culum R e v i s i o n . Monograph No. 1 o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n , U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n , 1935? P» 91*

99

11u n d o u b te d ly g i v e p l a c e t o more f l e x i b l e , more i n d i v i d u a l , more e x a c t , and more r e v e a l i n g s t a n d a r d s o f p erform a n ce a s 26 r a p i d l y a s t h e s e may be a c h ie v e d .* 1 In 193^ t w e n t y - e i g h t monographs w ere i s s u e d by th e N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n ( 1 9 2 9 - 1 9 3 2 ) , s p o n s o r e d by t h e U n ite d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Leonard V. K o o s.

The s u r v e y fo u n d t h a t t h e h ig h s c h o o l

la c k e d o v e r a l l o b j e c t i v e s , la c k e d a u n i f y i n g p h i l o s o p h y . Economy o f l e a r n i n g was t h e h i g h l i g h t o f th e r e p o r t .

Among

o t h e r t h i n g s , i t a d v o c a te d t h e a d ju s tm e n t o f a s s ig n m e n ts t o d iffe r in g a b ilit y

l e v e l s , t h e d ro p p in g o f s u b j e c t m a tte r

r a r e ly w e l l m a stered , r e c o g n itio n of in d iv id u a l i n t e r e s t s , i n c r e a s e o f e l e c t i v e s , r e d u c t i o n o f m e m o r iz a tio n , and a more g e n e r a l ap proach t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and th e a r b i t r a r y l i m i t a ­ tio n of f a ilu r e . But i t was t o o l a t e .

I n a n a t i o n a l en v iro n m en t u n d e r ­

g o in g a b l o o d l e s s r e v o l u t i o n w here g o v e r n m e n ta l p la n n in g was th e byw ord, sc h o o lm en f i n a l l y came t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m c o u ld no lo n g e r be e x t r i n s i c a l l y r e v i s e d or r e fo r m e d , s u p e r f i c i a l l y a l t e r e d or amended.

I t was a l r e a d y

t o r t u r e d o u t o f a l l r a t i o n a l sh a p e and beyond b e in g p a t c h e d .

The C a r n e g ie F o u n d a tio n f o r t h e Advancement o f T e a c h in g . T w e n ty -E ig h th A nnual R ep ort o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and T r e a s u r e r , 1933* P» 3&.

100

I t had f a i l e d #

Many began t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e c u r r ic u lu m

must be f u n d a m e n t a llv r e b u i l t t o c a r e f o r a l l , and i t s

"re­

o r g a n i z a t i o n 1* was "not t o be l i m i t e d t o a program o f h o s p i t a l i z a t i o n f o r th e weak . . • / b u t 7 a l i f e g i v i n g p r o ­ gram c a l l i n g f o r p ro p er grow th e x p e r i e n c e s f o r a l l . "27 In t h e m ea n tim e, t h e v o t e r s o f th e c o u n tr y had r e ­ p u d ia t e d t h e d o c t r i n e o f "rugged in d i v i d u a l i s m " a t t h e p o l l s , and had sc r a p p e d t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e a t t i t u d e o f governm ent toward b i g b u s i n e s s i n f a v o r o f p la n n ed economy and g o v e r n ­ m e n ta l c o n t r o l s .

E d u c a t io n a l s o c i o l o g i s t s l i k e Kinneman

p o in t e d o u ts P r o b a b ly we a r e j u s t a t t h e b e g in n in g o f t h e s u c c e s s ­ f u l c o n t r o l o f th e l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o i n t o f v ie w . And u n t i l we can u s e our e n e r g i e s toward making p e o p le c a p a b le o f l e a d i n g t h e group l i f e and making th e group l i f e t h e h a b i t , we s h a l l n o t have o verth row n th e l a i s s e z - f a i r e i d e a , f o r t h e ov erth row o f t h e l a i s s e z - f a i r e p o s i t i o n i s c o n t r o l . 28 And w it h t h e c o l l a p s e o f "rugged i n d i v i d u a l i s m , " t h e f a t a l i t y o f em p h a siz in g " i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s " when d iv o r c e d f r o m " s o c i a l h om ogen eity" became a p p a r e n t .

I t to o k

a n a t i o n a l d e p r e s s i o n t o im p r ess upon us a s a n a t i o n th e f a c t t h a t , a lt h o u g h we a r e a l l d i f f e r e n t , we a r e " a l l i n 27

N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S ec o n d a r y S c h o o ls. G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e A m erican H igh S c h o o l . New Y ork , S c o t t , Forseman and Company, 1 9 ^ 2 , P* 1 7 8 . Kinneman, John A. " S o c i a l T h e o r ie s i n E d u c a t io n ." S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . 3 9 s 1+ 8 9 -9 5 , A p r i l 2 1 , 193^»

I j I

t h e same b o a t . 11

101

In our d a y , o p p o r t u n i t i e s b ased on t h e e x p l a n a t i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f a new c o u n tr y have p r a c t i c a l l y d i s ­ a p p e a r e d . The d ev elo p m en t o f s c i e n c e h as m ark ed ly i n ­ c r e a s e d th e amount and e x t e n t o f our k now ledge o f th e o p e r a t i o n s o f n a t u r e , and h a s r e s u l t e d i n more r a p id means o f co m m u n ica tio n , t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , and e x c h a n g e . I t i s now p o s s i b l e f o r a g r e a t mass o f i n d i v i d u a l s t o l i v e i n t h e in t e r d e p e n d e n t r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f l a r g e c o m m u n itie s . W ea lth i s t e n d in g t o be c o n c e n t r a t e d i n th e hands o f t h e owners o f p r o d u c t i o n , and a t th e same t i m e , m ach in es tend c o n s t a n t l y t o r e p l a c e human b e in g s a s a g e n t s o f p ro d u c­ tio n . Our c o u n tr y was b u i l t on i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n t e r ­ p r e t a t i o n s o f l i b e r t y , j u s t i c e , s e c u r i t y , p e a c e , and h a p p i n e s s . Today t h e problem s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , unem­ p lo y m e n t, c r im e , w ar, power and c o n t r o l , a l l em p h asize th e s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f men. To t e a c h th e i n d i v i d u ­ a l i s t i c a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s - once e s s e n t i a l t o s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g w it h o u t t e a c h i n g a l s o how t h e s e t h i n g s a re t o be a d j u s t e d t o demands o f p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i a l i n t e r ­ r e l a t i o n s h i p i s t o c r e a t e c o n f l i c t s and c o n f u s i o n s w h ic h , a s t h e y a c c u m u la te , can o n ly e v e n t u a l l y r e s u l t i n c h a o s . 29 The s h i f t from em p h a sis on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s t o em p h a sis on s o c i a l n e e d s was a l s o r e f l e c t e d by Kinneman. Commenting upon th e w i d e l y p u b l i c i z e d b e l i e f o f c r i m i n o l o g i s t s a t th e tim e t h a t a d e l i n q u e n t c h i l d can n o t r i s e above t h e group w i t h w h ich he i s a s s o c i a t e d , Kinneman s t a t e d . • . . i f t h i s i d e a o f th e c r i m i n o l o g i s t s e v e r g e t a f l o a t among th e e d u c a t o r s , we a re g o in g t o f o r g e t much about i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s quit© a s r e a d i l y as we have e a g e r l y embraced t h e d o c t r i n e . I f our t e a c h i n g were s o c i a l l y so u n d , we would r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e a r e r e a l l y few d i f f e r e n c e s , b u t t h a t a l l o f us a r e c r e a t u r e s o f th e g rou p s w i t h w h ic h we make our c o n t a c t s .

U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n , o p . c i t . , p . 8 8 . Kinneman, l o c . c i t .

102

I n f a c t , Kinneman w ent s o f a r a s t o s t a t e t h a t i f t h e f e d e r a l program o f P r o h i b i t i o n e n fo r c e m e n t s h o u ld f a i l , 11 . . .

i t w i l l be a p ro d u ct o f a c e n t u r y fs e x p l o i t a t i o n o f

t h e id e a o f 1ru g g ed i n d i v i d u a l i s m 1 r a t h e r th a n t h a t o f i n ­ t e l l i g e n t c o o p e r a tio n .” Thus w h i l e t h e em phasis on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s was t h e p s y c h o l o g i s t s 1 c o n t r i b u t i o n t o e d u c a t i o n , t h e em phasis on group n eed s came from t h e s o c i o l o g i s t . 3 1

F in n e y t e l l s us

th a t: J u s t to the d egree th a t b e l i e f s d i f f e r , r e l a t i v e to e c o n o m ic , p o l i t i c a l , e t h i c a l , r e l i g i o u s , and s o c i o l o g i c a l phenomena, i s a g r e a t p e o p le bound t o ' s u f f e r disharm ony and d i f f i c u l t y o f s o c i a l c o o p e r a t i o n ; e s p e c i a l l y i f t h a t p e o p le i s t r y i n g t o d e te r m in e and e x e c u t e i t s s o c i a l p o l i c i e s th r o u g h a f r e e c r y s t a l l i z a t i o n o f p u b l i c o p i n i o n . . . . we s h a l l be more d i s p o s e d t o r e g a r d i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s a s o b s t a c l e s t h a t must be overcom e i f p o s s i b l e , i n o rd er t h a t we may a c h i e v e t h e same o b j e c t i v e s f o r . a l l c h i l d r e n . . . . E d u c a tio n has a r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o make us a l i k e i n a c q u ir e d m e n ta l c o n t e n t s . no l e s s th a n t o c a t e r t o our I n d i v i d u a l t a s t e s and c a p a c i t i e s .1 2 What f u r t h e r p r o o f be n eed ed th a n t h i s :

th at g en era l

e d u c a t i o n — i n a c u r r ic u lu m w h ich em p h asized and s e g r e g a t e d i t s h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n a c c o r d in g t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f ­ fe r e n c e s a t th e expense of s o c i a l h o m o g e n e ity -h a d c o lla p s e d ? To a c h i e v e some s o r t o f s o c i a l u n i t y , e d u c a t o r s turn ed 11 ° W a h lq u is t , John T. The P h i lo s o p h y o f A m erican E d u c a t io n . New Y ork, The R onald P r e s s Company, ^ F i n n e y , R oss L. A S o c i o l o g i c a l P h i l o s ophy o f E d u c a t io n . New Y ork, The M acm illan Company, 1 9 2 6 .

305.

103 i n c r e a s i n g l y f o r g u id a n c e t o t h e s o c i o l o g i s t s .

Men l i k e

Kinneman c la im e d t h a t k now ledge must be u n i f i e d and i n t e g r a t e d . And t h i s i s s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e jo b o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . Kinneman, r e f l e c t i n g

th e econom ic and s o c i a l u n c e r t a i n t y o f

t h e p e r i o d , tu r n e d f o r g u id a n c e i n e d u c a t io n toward su c h S o c i a l T h e o r i s t s a s A u g u ste Comte,

Kinneman i n s i s t e d upon two

p r i n c i p l e s as im p e r a t iv e f o r t h e s c h o o l t o a c c e p t , n a m e ly , t h e u n i t y o f k n ow led ge and t h e im p o r ta n c e o f c h a n g e . As f o r u n i t y o f k n o w le d g e , Kinneman33 d e c l a r e d : . . . W h ile I f u l l y r e a l i z e t h a t i t i s d i f f i c u l t , maybe i m p o s s i b l e , t o s e c u r e t e a c h e r s who a r e f a m i l i a r w it h t h e w o r l d ' s k n o w le d g e , n e v e r t h e l e s s t h a t s h o u ld be our id e a l. I n t h e f a i l u r e t o a c h i e v e t h a t i d e a l , th e n e x t b e s t s t e p s h o u ld be i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a t t e m p t in g t o i n t e g r a t e and c o r r e l a t e t h e V a rio u s s u b j e c t f i e l d s . T h is u n i t y o f k now ledge i s m a n i f e s t n o t o n ly from t h e s o c i a l t h e o r i s t , whom t h e e d u c a t o r s h o u ld c o n s t a n t l y c o n s u l t , b u t i t i s a b s o l u t e l y im p e r a t i v e from t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f a t t e m p t in g t o comprehend c u r r e n t p r o b le m s. . . . How­ e v e r , I want t o make i t c l e a r t h a t t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l i n t o a new c u r r i c u l a i s o n ly h a l f o f t h e j o b . The o t h e r h a l f c o n s i s t s o f e s t a b l i s h i n g t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l s and p r o c e s s e s w h ich a r e com m ensurate w it h con tem p orary n eeds• I f we a r e t o i n t e g r a t e and u n i f y k n o w le d g e , I s e e no r e a s o n why we s h o u ld n o t do more o f i t i n t h e s e n i o r h ig h s c h o o l , t h e one p l a c e w here t h e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m i s m ost i n n eed o f r e v i s i o n . T urning t o t h e se c o n d p r i n c i p l e w h ich h e l a i d down a s im p e r a t iv e f o r t h e s c h o o l s t o a c c e p t , Kinneman sp o k e o f

33 Kinneman, l o c . c i t .

loa­ th e Ma l l im p o r ta n t p r i n c i p l e o f s o c i a l ch a n g e,* 1 He f e l t t h a t one p h a se o f t h i s s u b j e c t o f change w h ich was u n d er­ s c o r e d by P r e s i d e n t H o o v e r fs Com m ission on S o c i a l Trends and w h ich s h o u ld be u n d e r s to o d and e x p l o i t e d by t h e e d u c a to r was 8 . . ., t h e f a i l u r e o f o r g a n iz e d s o c i e t y t o make a d j u s t ­ m ents or a d a p t a t i o n s t o p h y s i c a l c h a n g e s . T h is f a i l u r e t o b r in g s o c i a l a c t i o n i n t o c o n s i s t e n c y w i t h m e c h a n i s t i c s o c i e t y and t h e a n t i q u a t e d modes o f c o n t r o l i s everyw h ere a b o u t u s . • • . 1 s h o u ld l i k e t o em p h a size t h a t i t i s r a t h e r d i f f i c u l t t o name a s i n g l e problem w h ich i s n o t a c u l t u r a l l a g , w h ich i s n o t r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f a i l u r e o f o r g a n iz e d s o c i e t y t o ad ap t i t s a g e n c i e s o f c o n t r o l t o some p r o c e s s o f m e c h a n iz a t io n or t o some p r i n c i p l e o f c h a n g e , I m a in t a in t h a t i f th e s c h o o l i s t o be u s e d t o a d apt p e o p le t o s o c i e t y i n w h ich t h e y l i v e , th e n t h a t s c h o o l must make i t s c h a r g e s aware o f t h e c u l t u r a l l a g s w h ich are c o n sta n tly a r is in g , Kinneman was q u ic k t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e was t h e q u e s t i o n o f t h e im p o r ta n c e o f t h e fo lk w a y s i n modern s o c i e t y and t h e n e c e s s i t y o f c o n s e r v in g them i n an age o f c h a n g e . But h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e y b e le a r n e d as q u i c k l y and a s e f f i c i e n t l y as p o s s i b l e .

In t h e c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n ch an ge and

t h e c o n s e r v a t i o n o f t h e f o l k w a y s , Kinneman s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e r e was f a r g r e a t e r d a n g er i n r e f u s i n g t o make ch a n g es th a n t h e r e is

i n t h e making o f c h a n g e . In f a c t , Kinneman w en t s o f a r a s t o s t a t e : I s h o u ld l i k e t o s a y t h a t two groups o f p e o p le s h o u ld make t h e c u r r ic u lu m — t h e s o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s , who know what t o t e a c h , and t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s , who s h o u ld b y t h i s tim e h a v e e v o lv e d m ethods and t e c h n iq u e s o f te a c h in g . G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n had c o l l a p s e d .

none c o u ld d e n y .

T h is was a r e a l i t y

But t h e s o l u t i o n t o t h e problem was n o t s o

105 sim p le *

H e r e , i n d e e d , a r e t h e s e e d s o f c o n t r o v e r s y and warm

d eb a te.

T h is much was c l e a r :

t h e r e was a n eed f o r some

k in d o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w hich w ould m eet t h e n ee d s o f

r

s o c i a l l y h o m o g e n iz in g t h e v a s t l y h e t e r o g e n e o u s h i g h - s c h o o l | p o p u l a t i o n a n d , a t t h e same tim e o f d e v e l o p in g i n d i v i d u a l p e r so n a litie s.

!

C a ll i t c o r r e la tio n , in te g r a tio n , fu s io n ,

or w h a t e v e r , t h i s much was c l e a r :

j u s t as th e n a t i o n was

u n d e r g o in g a b l o o d l e s s r e v o l u t i o n d u r in g t h e

‘t h ir t i e s to

e f f e c t p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , and econom ic r e fo r m , s o t h e s e c o n d ­ a r y c u r r ic u lu m , t o o , would h a v e t o u n d ergo c o m p le te r e o r g a n i ­ z a t i o n , r a d i c a l a l t e r a t i o n , and fu n d a m e n ta l r e v i s i o n , a t l e a s t a s f a r a s g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d . . . . I t i s p o s s ib le fo r a n a tio n i n t e l l i g e n t l y to a d j u s t i t s p h il o s o p h y and mode o f l i f e t o a ch a n g in g o r d e r , and t o move forw ard t o new l e v e l s o f grow th and d ev elo p m en t w it h o u t t h e w a s te and d i s t r u c t i o n o f c i v i l w ar. But what o f t h e f u t u r e o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ? It is a l l t o o e v i d e n t t h a t so m eth in g i s a m iss i n our n a t i o n a l l i f e . We . . . h a v e a r r i v e d a t t h e . . . a g e o f c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t . E v e n t u a l l y , a d e c i s i o n must be made. The q u e s t i o n c o n f r o n t i n g e d u c a t i o n I s , "Can t h e s c h o o l s o t r a i n c h i l d r e n t h a t a s a d u l t s t h e y w i l l make th e d e c i s i o n i n t e l l i g e n t l y , or must wea g a i n p a s s th r o u g h th e p h a se o f ch ao s and d e s t r u c t i o n b e f o r e t h e new ca n come i n t o i t s own?11 The c u r r ic u lu m o f th e p r e s e n t was d e s ig n e d t o f i t c o n d i t i o n s w h ich no lo n g e r e x i s t . The tim e has come f o r a r a d i c a l r e a d j u s tm e n t o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m , i f e d u c a t io n I s t o p la y a h e l p f u l part in t h e e v o l u t i o n a r y s t r u g g le .3 * f I n d e e d , s o a c u t e had t h e c r i s i s i n e d u c a t i o n become

^

U n i v e r s i t y o f M ic h ig a n , o n . c i t . . pp. 88 - 8 9 .

t h a t , when i t c r e a t e d t h e A m erican Youth Com m ission i n 1 9 3 5 , t h e American C o u n c i l on E d u c a t io n c a l l e d a t t e n t i o n t o th e n eed o f a n a t i o n - w i d e s t u d y o f t h e problem s o f A m erican y o u th i n t h e s e term s: R e c e n t s o c i a l and econom ic ch a n g es i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s h ave g i v e n r i s e t o t h e d i f f i c u l t i e s i n th e c a r e and e d u c a ­ t i o n o f t h e young p e o p le w i t h w h ich e x i s t i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e q u i t e u np rep ared t o d e a l a d e q u a t e l y . . . . W ithout some p r o v i s i o n f o r b a s i c -planning t o m eet t h e s i t u a t i o n , t h e r e i s a s e r i o u s d anger t h a t p r e s e n t c o n d i t i o n s may c o n s t i t u t e a fu n d a m e n ta l t h r e a t t o t h e n a t i o n a l w e I f a r e . 3 5 Y e t , i n c o n t r a s t , t h e S o c i e t y f o r C urriculum S tu d y r e ­ p o r t e d a t t h i s same tim e (1 9 3 5 ) t h e s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l . Compared w it h t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s • • . th e s e c o n d ­ a r y s c h o o l rem ain s r e l a t i v e l y s t a t i c . I t has b e e n t o o l i t t l e a f f e c t e d by t h e s o c i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n now underway i n A m e r ic a , b y t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f k now ledge p rod uced by s c h o l a r l y r e s e a r c h , or by t h e c o n c e p t io n s o f c h i l d d e v e l o p ­ ment and new em phasis on t h e p s y c h o lo g y o f l e a r n i n g . . . • A m erican s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a r e s t i l l d om in ated by a c l a s s i c a l t r a d i t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n . The em phasis upon la n g u a g e and m ath em a tics as w e l l as upon s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e in t e n d e d t o p re p a r e a s m a l l s e l e c t group f o r c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s s t i l l p e r s i s t s . I t p e r s i s t s d e s p i t e t h e m ajor ch a n g es i n th e c h a r a c t e r o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . 36 The gap b e tw e e n t h e e le m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s h as a l r e a d y b e e n d e l i n e a t e d .

But now a c u r i o u s t h in g b egan

3 5 A m erican C o u n c i l on E d u c a t io n , The A m erican Youth C om m ission. What t h e H igh S c h o o ls Ought t o T e a c h . W a sh in g to n , D. C. , A m erican C o u n c i l o f E d u c a t io n , 19*+0, n*p.

36 E v e r e t t , Samuel, ed . A C hallenge t o Secondary E du cation . New York, D; Appleton-Century Company, 1935, pp. 3 , 6 .

107

to o ccu r.

The c o l l e g e s , l i k e th e h ig h s c h o o l s , had b e e n p r e ­

p a r a t o r y i n n a tu r e i n t h a t t h e y had from t h e b e g in n i n g p rep a red s t u d e n t s f o r h ig h e r e d u c a t i o n i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s .

G r a d u a lly ,

h o w ev er, t h e c o l l e g e s had en gaged i n so much s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , th a t a g rea t m u lt ip l ic it y o f c o l l e g i a t e c u r r ic u la a r o s e . t h e e a r l y c o l l e g e s p r o v id e d a b ro a d , l i b e r a l ,

Thus,

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n

a lo n g c l a s s i c a l and t r a d i t i o n a l l i n e s w h ich a f f o r d e d t h a t c u l ­ t u r a l background f e l t t o be i n d i s p e n s a b l e t o t h e m i n i s t e r , p h y s ic ia n , or te a c h e r .

But so o n s p e c i a l i z a t i o n on th e c o l l e ­

g i a t e l e v e l c a u se d d e g r e e s t o be g r a n t e d i n su ch f i e l d s a s commerce, s c i e n c e ,

e d u c a t i o n , and t h e l i k e .

T h is, o f c o u rse,

p ro ved t o become a t h r e a t t o th e w h o le id e a o f g e n e r a l e d u c a ­ t i o n in th e c o l l e g e .

To c o u n t e r a c t th e a d v e r s e i n f l u e n c e s o f

m in u te and a t o m i s t i c s p e c i a l i z a t i o n on g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e c o l l e g e s b egan t o o r g a n i z e s o - c a l l e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s r e q u ir e d o f a l l s t u d e n t s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l or p r o fe ssio n a l s p e c ia liz a tio n s .

The c o u r s e ,

”Man and C i v i l i s a ­

t i o n , ” g i v e n a t The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a was i n s t i t u t e d fo r j u s t t h i s p urpose.

T h is t r e n d i n g e n e r a l ed u ­

c a t i o n c o u r s e s was i n i t i a t e d by su c h i n s t i t u t i o n s a s S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y and th e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o , and was so o n f o l ­ low ed by many o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r l e g r n i n g th r o u g h o u t th e n a tio n .

T h ese c o u r s e s i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s o u g h t t o p ro ­

v i d e s t u d e n t s w i t h a w a r e n e ss o f th e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . And, a s a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s i s what b egan

108

t o h a p p en .

The S e c o n d a r y s l a v e ” was b e in g d e s e r t e d by i t s

”c o l l e g i a t e m a s t e r . ”

B e ca u se many c o l l e g e s and j u n i o r

c o l l e g e s were e n g a g in g i n some c u r r i c u l a r e x p e r im e n ts o f t h e i r own and c h o s e t o a d o p t , i n p a r t , t h e e le m e n ta r y p a t t e r n o f c u r r ic u lu m w it h i t s

em phasis on i n t e r g r a t i o n and i t s d e ­

em p hasis o f s u b j e c t m a tt e r c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n , t h e h ig h s c h o o l would be l e f t a s an i n s t i t u t i o n u n iq u e i n t h e ed u ca ­ t i o n a l w o rld and c o m p l e t e l y d iv o r c e d from r e a l i t y .

I t w ould

be a b r id g e from n o w h ere, t o n ow h ere.

£kn/ i n c r e a s i n g number o f c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , a r e making d e p a r t u r e s from a p u r e l y acad em ic k in d o f l e a r n in g by r e q u i r i n g t h a t a p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t ’s tim e be s p e n t i n s o c i a l l y u s e f u l w o rk , t r a v e l and s t u d y . Such ch an g es a r e t o be s e e n , f o r e x a m p le , i n t h e t y p e o f work done a t A n t i o c h , B e n n in g to n , Bard C o l l e g e , and New C o l l e g e a t C o lu m b ia . In many i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g s p e c i a l i z e d d ep a rtm e n ts a r e b e in g r e o r g a n iz e d i n t o b roa d f i e l d s o f e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e p u rp ose o f show ing th e i n t e r r e l a t i o n ­ s h i p s b o th w i t h i n f i e l d s and b etw e en s u c h a r e a s as s c i e n c e , h i s t o r y , s o c i a l s t u d i e s , and f i n e a r t s . The r e ­ c e n t r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o i s an o u t s t a n d in g d e v e lo p m e n t, a s i s t h a t now underway a t T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , w here e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y , p s y c h o l o g y , s o c i o l o g y , c o m p a r a tiv e e d u c a t i o n , e d u c a t i o n a l eco n o m ics and t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t i o n a r e b e in g i n t e g r a t e d i n t o one g e n e r a l c o u r s e o f s t u d y . An i n c r e a s i n g number o f h ig h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e b u i l d i n g new g e n e r a l t h a t a r e in t e n d e d t o o f f e r a v i t a l h i s t o r i c a l background and i n t e r p r e t t o a l l s t u d e n t s i n th e c u l t u r e i n w h ich t h e y l i v e . 37 In th e m ea n tim e, t h e ’’N .Y .A .” and t h e ”C .C .C .” were a s p e c t s o f t h e ’’r e c o v e r y program” o r g a n iz e d t o p r o v id e

37 Ibid., p. 5*

109

f i n a n c i a l a s s i s t a n c e and employment f o r y o u t h .

They r e ­

p r e s e n t e d an i n t e r e s t i n g exam ple o f th e e x p a n s io n o f e d u ca ­ tio n a l a c t iv it ie s

on t h e p a r t o f t h e f e d e r a l g ov ern m en t.

But

t h e y r e p r e s e n t e d e v e n a sa d d e r t r u t h as f a r a s th e s c h o o l s w ere c o n c e r n e d .

F o r , a lt h o u g h some c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n

f e d e r a l works p r o j e c t s and t h e s c h o o l s had d e v e l o p e d , i t was g e n e r a l l y t r u e t h a t t h e s c h o o l s rem ained a l o o f from t h e p u b l i c works p rog ram .3 8

But n o t h a l f a s a l o o f as t h e f e d e r a l

governm ent rem ained from t h e s c h o o l s .

F or, in a d d itio n to

t h e N a t i o n a l Youth A d m in is t r a t io n and t h e C i v i l i a n C o n serv a ­ t i o n C o r p s, t h e f e d e r a l governm ent had s e t up W .P.A. n u r s e r y s c h o o l s , a d u l t c l a s s e s , and some a s p e c t s o f t h e W.P.A. a r t and m u s i c a l p r o j e c t s w h ich m ig h t be c l a s s i f i e d a s e d u c a t i o n a l a c tiv itie s.

And e v e r y one o f t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s had

b e e n s e t up c o m p l e t e l y o u t s i d e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m s . In t h e i r o r g a n i z a t i o n th e e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s h i p o f th e c o u n tr y had b e e n l a r g e l y i g n o r e d .

The r e a s o n f o r t h i s a c t i o n ,

a c c o r d in g t o P u l l i a n , was t h e g e n e r a t i o n s o f d i s a p p o i n t i n g e x p e r i e n c e on t h e p a r t o f t h e s o c i a l l y minded laymen w it h the t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o ls . E very s i n g l e s t e p t h e F e d e r a l Government has t a k e n i n th e i n t e r e s t o f e d u c a t io n h a s b een an e x p r e s s i o n o f a n eed f o r e d u c a t i o n , and ea ch n eed b e sp o k e some f a i l u r e

A m erican C o u n c i l on E d u c a t io n , The A m erican Youth C om m ission, o p . c i t . , p . 19-

110

on t h e p a r t o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s . We w ere i n p a r t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r th e c r i s i s t h a t c a l l e d th e CCC i n t o b e i n g . We had p r o v id e d n e i t h e r c i v i c nor v o c a t i o n a l ed u ­ c a t i o n t o i n s u r e t h e a d ju s tm e n t o f a m i l l i o n young men who foun d t h e m s e lv e s w it h o u t j o b s and w i t h o u t s c h o o l s t h a t c o u ld o f f e r them so m e th in g s u i t a b l e t o t h e i r n eed and a b i l i t i e s . . . . W e w ould h ave b een a b l e t o t h in k o f n o t h in g more o r i g i n a l th a n t o i n v i t e t h e i d l e b oys t o come back t o h i g h s c h o o l and f l u n k a lg e b r a once m o r e .39 F u th e r p r o o f o f t h e f a i l u r e o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m i n g e n e r a l , and o f t h e c o l l a p s e o f g e n e r a l ed u ca ­ t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r , l a y i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l had lo st it s j.

lfh o l d i n g p o w e r .”

Here y o u th were d e t a i n e d by law

u n t i l a t l e a s t s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e t o bar them from i n d u s t r y , and t r u a n c y and d r o p - o u t s r e a c h e d an a l l - t i m e h i g h .

S tu d ie s

o f f a i l u r e s were topp ed o n ly by e f f o r t s a t c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n . In 1935 Amy H e w e s ^ made a s t u d y o f why p u p i l s l e f t s c h o o l and fou n d from a s u r v e y o f H olyok e ( M a s s a c h u s e t t s ) H igh S c h o o l t h a t a b o u t o n e - q u a r t e r o f t h e p u p i l s who e n t e r e d t h e h i g h s c h o o l n e v e r c o m p le te d i t s

c o u r s e o f s t u d y , and

t h a t w ith d r a w a ls i n l a r g e numbers o c c u r r e d i n s e a s o n s o f p r o s ­ p e r i t y and i n s e a s o n s o f d e p r e s s i o n .

HSo many p u p i l s a r e

l o s t from t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e c o u r s e t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who w ith d rew may be s a i d t o h av e had fe w o f t h e b e n e f i t s

P u l3 .ia n , R o s c o e . "The I n f l u e n c e o f t h e F e d e r a l Government i n E d u c a t io n ," S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . M-7s66-71t , J a n u ary 1 5 , 1 9 3 8 . ^

H ew es, Amy. !lWhy P u p i l s Leave H igh S c h o o l , 11 The S c h o o l R e v ie w . 1+ 3 :2 8 7 -9 1^, A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 .

I ll

o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n .* 1 A lth o u g h Hewes fou n d t h a t econom ic r e a s o n s ca u se d th e l a r g e s t group t o drop o u t , t h e se c o n d l a r g e s t group dropped ou t b e c a u s e t h e p u p i l l o s t i n t e r e s t i n s c h o o l w ork, c a u s in g th e i n v e s t i g a t o r t o comment t h a t t h i s group " d e s e r v e s f u r t h e r s t u d y , f o r t h e problem o f i t s members i s p u r e l y e d u c a t i o n a l and t h e i r n eed p r e s e n t s a c h a l l e n g e t o t h e m ethods and t h e aims o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l program i n d e p r e s s i o n y e a r s a s w e l l )

as p r o s p e r ity ." Of t h e p u p i l s who l e f t s c h o o l f o r em ploym ent, Hewes fou n d t h a t t h e y "d id n o t f i n d a p e rm a n en tly s a t i s f a c t o r y o c c u p a t i o n a l a d ju stm e n t i n t h e i r f i r s t j o b s .

They d r i f t

from one shop and i n d u s t r y t o a n o th e r . . . " The s t e a d y d e c l i n e o f job o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r y o u t h ,

\

t h e h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s t a u g h t , or t h e patchw ork in n o v a t i o n s o f t e n r e s o r t e d t o p r e v e n t e d v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n from s o l v i n g t h e p roblem s o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . ^ Out o f t h e c r i s i s f a c i n g t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t h e r e grew a f e v e r i s h a tte m p t t o o v e r h a u l t h e c u r r ic u lu m .

T h is

" c u r r ic u lu m movement1* t o im prove t h e s c h o o l s r e a c h e d an a l l tim e h i g h .

>

j

E veryw here th r o u g h o u t t h e n a t i o n , t e a c h e r s , s u p e r ­

v i s o r s , and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s e r v e d on c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n or

A m erican C o u n c i l on E d u c a t io n , A m erican Youth C om m ission, .op. c i t . , pp. 9 - 1 0 .

112

c o n s t r u c t i o n c o m m it t e e s .

Thousands o f c o u r s e s o f s t u d y w ere

tu r n e d out on a s t a t e , c o u n ty and l o c a l s c a l e .

Two exam p les

o f n a t i o n a l l y d e v e lo p e d s t u d i e s a r e t h e p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1935 o f an ’’E x p e r ie n c e C urriculum i n E n g l i s h ”^

by a Com m ittee o f

th e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a ch er s o f E n g l i s h u nder t h e c h a i r ­ m anship o f W. W. H a t f i e l d , and t h e s e r i e s o f r e p o r t s grown ou t o f t h e I n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s .

C u rriculum

p o s i t i o n s w ere c r e a t e d , c u r r ic u lu m l a b o r a t o r i e s and c o u r s e s w ere opened i n t h e s c h o o l s o f e d u c a t i o n , and c u r r ic u lu m p r o ­ blem s w ere g i v e n to p b i l l i n g a t e d u c a t i o n a l g a t h e r i n g s and th e w id e st d isse m in a tio n i n e d u c a tio n a l jo u r n a ls . C o n t r i b u t i o n s t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m movement w ere made from tim e t o tim e by d e l i b e r a t i v e n a t i o n a l c o m m it t e e s .

A ll

o f them s t r e s s e d t h e n eed f o r r e o r g a n i z i n g e d u c a t i o n t o d e ­ v e l o p th e s o c i a l n eed s o f th e c h i l d as w e l l as h i s p e r s o n a l ones .**3 To g i v e a re su m e , t h e n o f t h e fu n d a m e n ta l f a c t o r s u n d e r ly in g t h e s t a t i c c o n d i t i o n o f t h e h i g h - s e h o o l c u r r ic u lu m as s e e n from th e l i t e r a t u r e up t o t h i s tim e ( 1 9 3 5 ) 9 t h e r e

N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h . C urriculum C om m ission , An E x p e r ie n c e C u rricu lu m i n E n g l i s h . New Y ork, D. A p p le to n -C e n tu r y Company, I n c . , 1935* 232 p p. lf3

For a l i s t o f 250 su c h c o m m itte e s w h ich d e a l t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l i s s u e s a t (o r up t o ) t h i s tim e (1 9 3 5 )> s e e , ’’N a t i o n a l D e l i b e r a t i v e C om m ittees i n E d u c a t i o n ,1* R e s e a r c h I B u l l e t i n o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , X I I , No. *f, / S e p te m b e r ,

113 w ere t h r e e m ajor f o r c e s w hich r e t a r d e d i t s d e v e lo p m e n t: t h e s o c i a l * t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l . and t h e n h i l o s o n h i c a l . F i r s t , th e s o c i a l .

The h ig h s c h o o l had f a i l e d t o

k eep p ace w i t h and a d j u s t t o th e s w i f t l y ch a n g in g s o c i a l ord er#

I t was n o t a t r u l y d e m o c r a tic i n s t i t u t i o n s i n c e i t

o p e r a t e d on m e n ta l and econom ic b a s e s o f s e l e c t i v i t y . S econ d , th e n s v c h o lo g ic a 1 .

The h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m

had n o t k e p t p a c e w i t h or b e e n a d j u s t e d t o th e f i n d i n g s o f *\

e d u c a tio n a l p sy c h o lo g y .

D i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y , se c o n d a r y

s c h o o l s were s t i l l dom in ated by a c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c u r r i ­ culum w it h i t s le a r n i n g g o a l s .

s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n and f a c t S i n e e t h e g o a l s t h a t a d o l e s c e n t s v a lu e a r e

r a r e l y g o a l s t h a t t o them a r e r e a s o n a b ly r e l a t e d t o th e m a s te r y o f o r g a n iz e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e c u r r ic u lu m w ould h a v e t o be an arrangem ent o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t would c a s t l i g h t upon c e r t a i n m ajor p roblem s o f l i v i n g .

M o t iv a t io n

w ould t h e n n a t u r a l l y r e s u l t from i n t r i n s i c n ee d s and i n t e r e s t s , and n o t from e x t r i n s i c , a r t i f i c i a l r e w a r d s.

And t h e l e v e l

o f a c h ie v e m e n t w o u ld , o b v i o u s l y , h a v e t o be r e l a t i v e t o th e m a t u r a t i o n a l l e v e l o f th e l e a r n e r . S c r o g g s , a l t h o u g h sp e a k in g on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l , n e a t l y summ araized th e p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s i n c u r r i ­ culum r e v i s i o n w h ich t h e h ig h s c h o o l s h a d , f o r t h e most p a r t , ig n o r e d when he s a i d : The problem o f m o t i v a t i n g th e n o n s c h o l a r , o f b u i l d i n g

lib f o r him a s t u d e n t - c e n t e r e d i n s t e a d o f a c o n t e n t - c e n t e r e d c u r r ic u lu m , o f a c c e p t i n g h i s n eed s as c r i t e r i a o f s u b j e c t m a tte r s e l e c t i o n , o f i n s u r i n g h i s c o m p reh en sio n o f ob­ j e c t i v e s and ends i n t h e e d u c a t iv e p r o c e s s , i n v ie w in g e d u c a t i o n a s a p r o c e s s r a t h e r th a n a g o a l , a s t h e m u l t i ­ p l i c a t i o n o f n e u r a l c o n n e c t i o n s r a t h e r th a n t h e m a s te r y o f sy ste m s o f k n o w le d g e , o f s o in t r o d u c i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o a s e l e c t e d s e r i e s o f e x p e r i e n c e s and a i d i n g and s t i m u l a t ­ in g him t o t h in k ab out them m e a n in g f u lly t h a t h e w i l l s l o w l y but s u r e l y e v o l v e a scheme o f v a l u e s t h a t w i l l b r in g a s e n s e o f v a l i d i t y i n t o h i s l i f e — t h e s e problem s a r e among t h e m ost u r g e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . The d i f f i c u l t y i s s im p ly n o t one o f r e -w o r k in g o ld sy s te m s i n t o a p a l a t a b l e form f o r i n f e r i o r i n d i v i d u a l s who h ave b een a d m it t e d i n t o t h e s a c r e d c l o i s t e r s . It is one o f f i n d i n g new b a s e s f o r s y n t h e s i s f o r w id e a r e a s o f k n ow led ge t h a t h a ve lo n g ago expanded beyond t h e p o s s i b i ­ l i t y o f t h e i r s y s t e m a t i c m a s te r y ev en by e n c y c l o p e d i c m in d s. I t i s one o f f i n d i n g new b a s e s f o r s y n t h e s i s w h ich r e c o g n i z e n o t o n ly t h e changed o r g a n i z a t i o n and c l i e n t e l e o f th e c o l l e g e , b u t t h e new rea on ro a ch m en t b e ­ tw een s c h o o l and s o c i e t y w h ich c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e coming o r d e r ; w h ich w i l l t a k e i n t o a c c o u n t t h e r e c e n t d e v e l o p ­ m ents i n p s y c h o lo g y . B o th o f t h e s e l a t t e r f a c t o r s a rg u e f o r a p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r th a n a b i o l o g i c a l approach t o l e a r n i n g .MiT h ir d , t h e n h i l o s o p h i c a 1 .

The h ig h s c h o o l had n o t y e t

come t o r e a l i z e t h a t e d u c a t i o n i s n o t p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d on t h e s e c o n d a r y l e v e l w i t h c o l l e g e or v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n , but w ith ed u c a tio n f o r l i f e . end i n i t s e l f :

That t h e h ig h s c h o o l must be an

t o p rep a r e f o r l i v i n g .

That t h e c la s s r o o m

and t h e com m unity, t h e ch u rch and t h e home, t h e c u r r i c u l a r and t h e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a r e a l l one on going e x p e r i e n c e under 1+1+

S croggs, S c h ille r . “Some F a c t o r s i n G e n e r a l Edu­ c a t i o n , 11 J o u r n a l o f H ig h er E d u c a t io n . 1 0 : 1 ^ 7 - 5 2 , Ohio S t a t e U n iv e r s ity , 1939, p. 152.

115 th e d ir e c t io n of th e s c h o o l. To summarize t h e more im m ediate r e a s o n s foun d i n t h e lit e r a t u r e fo r th e f a ilu r e of th e h ig h -s c h o o l c o u r s e -o f-s tu d y movement t o f r e e t h e s e c o n d a r y program from i t s s t a t i c c o n d i ­ t i o n , we f i n d t h e s e t h r e e s

(1 ) c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n b egan

w i t h i n d e p a r t m e n t s , em p hasized s u b j e c t a p p r o a c h , f a i l e d t o c u t a c r o s s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l i n e s , and r e s u l t e d i n s p e c i f i c su b ject courses;

(2 ) t h e s u b j e c t m a tt e r was i n v a r i a b l y o u t ­

l i n e d i n t o s u b j e c t - m a t t e r - t o - b e - l e a r n e d , or s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t o - b e - c o v e r e d ; and (3 ) t h e c o u r s e of s t u d y f i n a l l y d e g e n e r a t e d i n t o a t o m i s t i c , s t a t i c , and i s o l a t e d c o n c e p t s o f le a r n i n g b e c a u s e o f p r e - p l a n n e d , a d u lt - im p o s e d s p e c i f i c k now ledge and sk ills

t o be le a r n e d f o r p o s s i b l e f u t u r e u s e . l i b e r t y sum m arizes t h e s i t u a t i o n when h e s a y s :

The s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d ap p roach t o l e a r n i n g i s a lm o st u n i v e r s a l l y p r a c t i c e d i n A m erican s c h o o l s . I t has b e e n assumed t h a t a l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d r a c e e x p e r i e n c e i s a s a t i s f a c t o r y b a s i s f o r o r g a n iz in g le a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e . I t h a s p e r s i s t e d i n s p i t e of i t s p s y c h o l o g i c a l s h o r t ­ c o m in g s , and i t s r e l a t i v e i n e f f e c t i v e n e s s i n c o n t r i b u t i n g t o d e m o c r a t ic p u r p o s e s , b e c a u s e o f t h e p r e s t i g e o f s c i e n c e , th e en d o rsem en ts o f t h e c o l l e g e s , t h e s i m p l i c i t y o f th e c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n w h ich i t p r o v i d e s , and th e g e n e r a l a p p r o v a l o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s , t e a c h e r s , la y m en , and s t u d e n t s . Many o f , i t s w e a k n e s s e s ten d t o b e c o r r e c t e d by t h e b r e a k ­ in g down o f s u b j e c t l i n e s , and t h e i n c l u s i o n o f much d i r e c t e x p e r i e n c e f o r th e p u r p o se o f i l l u m i n a t i n g f a c t s and p r i n c i p l e s A 5 I n s h o r t , t h e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m had b een

^

Alberty, Harold, op. cit., pp. 117-18.

116 r e s t r i c t e d by t r a d i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s and th e i n f l u e n c e o f c o l l e g e r e q u ir e m e n ts t o a r a t h e r narrow and f o r m a l academ ic c u r r ic u lu m .

The c u r r i c u l a r ch an g es t h a t had c r e p t i n t o

s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s had b e e n a d d i t i o n s t o t h e e x i s t i n g com­ p a rtm en ts o f t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m r a t h e r th a n i n c l u s i v e changes.

The refo rm s had b e e n p i e c e m e a l , p a r t i a l , o p p o r t u n i s ­

t i c , and u n c o o r d in a t e d w i t h any c o m p reh en siv e e d u c a t i o n a l o u t lo o k or p h i l o s o p h y . More p e r t i n e n t l y , t h e s i t u a t i o n s p e l l e d t h e c o l l a p s e of g e n e r a l ed u c a tio n .

In 1 9 3 ? , H a r l D o u g la s s o u t l i n e d t h e

ch a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s w h ich were c a u s in g t h e t r a n s f o r m a t io n o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and demanding a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n on a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s :

? , * * (1 ) t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n th e p r o p o r t io n o f young t p e o p le g o in g t o h ig h s c h o o l ; (2 ) t h e i n c r e a s e d c o m p le x it y and s e r i o u s problem s o f A m erican c i v i c , p o l i t i c a l , and econom ic l i f e and i n s t i t u t i o n s ; and (3 ) t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e f u t i l i t y o f t h e e f f o r t s t o s u b s t i t u t e f o r edu­ c a t i o n t h e tem porary l e a r n i n g o f e n c y c l o p e d i c s u b j e c t m a tte r f a c t s . to To m eet t h i s h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u l a t i o n , t h e c o n s t a n t s

or s u b j e c t s c o n s t i t u t i n g

th e c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ere

" s p e c i a l i z e d , 11 " g e n e r a l i z e d , 11 or m o d if ie d ," and f i n a l l y e v o l v e d i n t o t h e " g e n e r a l" c u r r ic u lu m or c o u r s e f o r t h o s e n o n acad em ic y o u th s who c o u ld n o t t a k e t h e " r e g u la r " s u b j e c t s . 1+6

D o u g la s , H a r l R. "The N ext S t e p i n S eco n d a ry E d u c a t io n ," S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , h i 2 3 - 2 7 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 ? , p. 23.

117 M u l t i p l i c i t y o f c u r r i c u l a and s u b j e c t s , i n c o n s t a n t c o n s t a n t s , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , em p h a sis on i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s and i t s a t t e n d a n t s e g r e g a t i o n a c c o r d in g t o a b i l i t y g r o u p in g l e n t f u r t h e r im p e tu s t o t h e c o l l a p s e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

And

a l l t h i s a t a tim e when s o c i a l h o m o g e n e ity was becom ing i n ­ c r e a s i n g l y e s s e n t i a l f o r t h e v e r y p r e s e r v a t i o n o f American dem ocracy i n th e f a c e o f n a t i o n a l d i s i n t e g r a t i o n . By t h e end o f 1935;? t h e n , a f t e r f i v e y e a r s o f c u r r i ­ culum c r i s e s , e d u c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s were c o n v in c e d o f two th in g s:

( 1 ) t h e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m was i n d i r e need o f

r e v i s i o n , and ( 2 ) th e r e fo r m would have t o be r a d i c a l , f u n d a - , m e n t a l , c o m p r e h e n s iv e , and t h o r o u g h g o in g .

But o u t o f th e

r e s i d u e o f ch a o s came one h e a r t e n in g r e a l i z a t i o n s

. th a t the

h ig h s c h o o l was p r i m a r i l y n o t co n cern ed w i t h e i t h e r c o l l e g e or v o c a t i o n a l p r e p a r a t i o n . t i o n f o r " l i f e ”?

What th e n ?

Could i t be p r e p a r a ­

Such a r e d i c a l id e a m ig h t a t l e a s t p r o v id e

t h e w ork in g b a s i s f o r t h e aims and c o n t e n t o f i t s

c u r r ic u lu m .

Such an i d e a m ight e v e n p r o v id e th e b a s i s f o r a new p h il o s o p h y o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , o n e , n o t s u b s e r v i e n t t o , b u t eo m p a ta b le w i t h t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n s and f i n d i n g s o f p s y c h o lo g y and s o c i o l o g y . And what a p r o m isin g b a s i s ab out w h ich t o b u i l d a c o r e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ; what a r e a l i s t i c b a s i s upon w h ich t o b u i l d a r e d e f i n i t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ! And i f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o l l a p s e d i n th e e a r l y n i n e t e e n - t h i r t i e s , by 19 3 5 i t was a l r e a d y becom ing e v i d e n t

t h a t a n y hope o f r e v i v i n g a common c o r e seemed doomed a s lo n g a s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n was a l l i e d t o t h e o l d c o r e o f l i b e r a l , or s o - c a l l e d H u m a n is t ic , s u b j e c t s .

And t h i s f a i l u r e i s n o t

s u r p r i s i n g when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e c h i e f argum ents o f t h e a d v o c a t e s f o r th e r e t e n t i o n o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s i n t h e common c o r e were t r a n s f e r and d i s c i p l i n e — myths b a d ly dam­ aged by th e f i n d i n g s o f modern p s y c h o lo g y - - m y t h s c o m p l e t e l y r e j e c t e d by t h e h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . A new ap p roa ch w ould h ave t o be fo u n d i f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n were t o be s a l v a g e d a t a tim e when i t was m ost s o r e l y n e e d e d . B u t, i f t h e r e c o u ld n o t be a r e n a i s s a n c e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e an ap proach o t h e r th a n t h e o l d , l i b e r a l c o r e o f c o n ­ s t a n t s , c o u ld n o t be f o u n d , t h e n t w e n t i e t y - c e n t u r y e d u c a t i o n i n A m erican dem ocracy must s u r r e n d e r t o th e p a s t , and i n th e h u m i l i t y o f d e f e a t e x c la im :

"^HSHS^-'-thou h as co n q u ered 111 2>^ h c ?lc {.

"Human e d u c a t i o n t o t r u e p e a c e - g i v i n g wisdom must be s im p le and a v a i l a b l e f o r a l l . make t h e i r new l i f e

. . .

My one aim was t o

i n common* and t h e i r new powers* awaken

a f e e l i n g o f b roth erh ood .

. . ri -P e sta lo z z i

PART I I I

THE RISE OF THE GENERAL EDUCATION MOVEMENT

11We d e s i g n f o r a l l who h a v e b e e n born human b e in g s, g en era l in s tr u c tio n to f i t human.

them f o r a n y th in g

They m u st, t h e r e f o r e , a s f a r as p o s s i b l e be

t a u g h t t o g e t h e r , s o t h a t t h e y may m u t u a lly draw e a c h o t h e r o u t , e n l i v e n and s t i m u l a t e . ” -Com enius

CHAPTER V I I

THE QUEST FOE UNITY:

THE EVOLUTION OF THE CORE

COURSE FOR GENERAL EDUCATION ( 1 9 3 0 - 1 9 3 5 ) The p e r i o d o f 1 9 3 0 - 3 5 w h ic h w i t n e s s e d t h e c o l l a p s e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n w as, in d e e d , an era of c h a o s . n eed h u t c a s u a l l y g l a n c e a t t h e t i t l e s

One

o f a r t i c l e s a p p e a r in g

a t t h i s tim e i n t h e E d u c a t io n I n d e x t o l e a r n t h a t t h e s e w ere t h e d ays o f b u d g e t - c u t t i n g , an o v e r - s u p p l y o f t e a c h e r s (3 * 0 0 0 on New York C i t y ’ s w a i t i n g l i s t a l o n e ) , t h e c l o s i n g o f s c h o o l s i n many s e c t i o n s of th e n a t i o n , t h e t a x p a y e r s 1 a t t a c k on “f r i l l s and f a n c i e s , ” and th e e d u c a t o r s * d e f e n s e of th e ir su b jects

(and t h e i r j o b s ) .

As b u d g e t a r y p r o v i s i o n s

d e c r e a s e d , th e h ig h -s c h o o l p o p u la tio n in c r e a s e d , s o th a t from 3 * 9 1 1 ,2 7 9 p u p i l s i n 1 9 2 8 , i t

jumped t o 5*97^*537 3-n 1936

Thus rooms and b u i l d i n g s w ere overcrow d ed and d o u b le s e s s i o n s w ere t h e ord er o f t h e d a y .

F r a n t i c e f f o r t s w er e made t o

make t h e s o - c a l l e d n o n -a ca d em ic y o u th conform t o t h e c u r r i c u ­ lum , o f t e n w i t h f r a n t i c r e s u l t s .

E f f o r t s w ere t h e n made t o

make th e c u r r ic u lu m conform t o t h e n o n -a ca d em ic y o u th o f t e n w i t h e q u a l l y poor r e s u l t s .

A cadem ic c o u r s e s w ere g e n e r a l i z e d

1 F o s t e r , Emery H. “H igh S c h o o l E n r o llm e n ts I n c r e a s e . S c h o o l L i f e . 2 3 : 7 7 , November, 1 9 3 7 .

123 and w a te r e d down* and o ld s u b j e c t s made a s f u n c t i o n a l and co n tem p o ra ry a s p o s s i b l e , o f t e n w i t h l u d i c r o u s r e s u l t s * p Rugg came o u t w i t h h i s C u ltu r e and E d u c a t io n i n A m e r ic a . and i n 1933 p rod uced h i s The G reat T e c h n o lo g y ^ i n w h ich he made a p l e a f o r s c h o o l s o f l i v i n g i n s t e a d o f s c h o o l s o f l i t e r a c y , and f o r c u r r i c u l a w h ich w o u ld s t r e s s

"man-man"

r a t h e r th a n "m an-machine11 r e l a t i o n s h i p s . E v e n ts move s o f a s t i n t im e s of n a t i o n a l c r i s e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l , e v e r b e h in d t h e t i m e s , was j a r r e d i n t o making a d e s p e r a t e e f f o r t d u r in g th e d e p r e s s i o n t o g e t i n to u c h w i t h s o c ia l r e a lity *

How c o u ld i t

e s c a p e t h e s e r e a l i t i e s when s o

many o f i t s p o p u l a t i o n w ere u n d e r n o u r is h e d , i l l h o u s e d , p o o r l y c l a d , and b e r e f t o f v o c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n it y ? A s t r a n g e b y -p r o d u c t of t h e e f f o r t t o p r o v id e f o r t h e n o n -a ca d em ic was th e f e e l i n g t h a t c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y p e o p le w ere b e in g s l i g h t e d .

In an a r t i c l e i n w h ic h h e d e p lo r e d th e

bad e f f e c t s t h e s y s t e m of c o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts had on e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e e,i t g r e a t l y re d u ce d t h e f l e x i b i l i t y o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m and s c h e d u le " and "seemed t o s a n c t i f y t h e n a t u r a l c o n s e r v a t i o n o f p e d a g o g u e s ," W illia m B . Curry p o in t e d

2 R ugg, H a r o ld . C u ltu r e and E d u c a t io n i n A m e ric a . New Y ork, H a r c o u r t , B ra ce and Company, 1931* **0^ PP* ^ 3 Rugg, H a r o ld . The G reat T e c h n o lo g y * John Day Company, 1933? P a r t V.

New Y ork, The

12 *f out t h e u s e l e s s n e s s o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s e v e n f o r many g o in g t o c o l l e g e . I t i s p a t h e t i c t o s e e s t u d e n t s who a r e c a p a b le o f e x c e l l e n t work i n c e r t a i n f i e l d s and who m ig h t , g i v e n some c h o i c e , d e v e l o p g e n u in e i n t e l l e c t u a l e n th u sia m s a g o n i z i n g o v er L a t in or a l g e b r a or g e o m e t r y , a s t h e c a s e may b e , when s u c h s u b j e c t s a r e a lm o s t m e a n in g l e s s t o them and when t h e y a r e s t u d i e d f o r no o t h e r p u rp o se th a n t h a t o f c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e •*+ The wrong k in d o f p u p i l had r e a c h e d th e h i g h s c h o o l . That much was c l e a r .

The c u r r ic u lu m w it h i t s n o b le a n c e s t r y

w as, of c o u r s e , i n f a l l i b l e .

But d e s p i t e t h e e f f o r t s t h a t

w ere made t o a d j u s t t h e n o n -a c a d e m ic y o u th t o t h e e x i s t i n g c u r r ic u lu m , or ad a p t t h e h i g h - s c h o o l program t o him , t h e outcom es w ere n o t t o o p r o m is in g . Many o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n s u n d e r ta k e n a t t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , w ere r e a l l y a t t e m p t s t o make t h e o ld c u r r ic u lu m work by v i t a l i z i n g i t th r o u g h t h e a c t i v i t y program .

As was )

i n e v i t a b l e , g r e a t e r c o n f u s i o n and c h a o s en su ed and th e end / p ro d u c t was a s l i f e - l i k e as r o u g e on a c o r p s e .

As Gordon'

p o in t e d o u t , **One o f t h e phenomena o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l cosmos d u r in g t h e l a s t f i v e y e a r s / 1 9 2 6 - 1 9 3 J 7

b e e n a h a s t y and

h e a d lo n g movement known a s c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n . * 1 He c la im e d

^ C u r r y , W illia m B. 11E d u c a t io n V ersu s C o l l e g e E n tr a n c e Requirem ents.** J u n i o r - S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C l e a r i n g H o u se, 5:5 3 1 -3 ^ , 1931. 5 G ordon, M e lv in A. **Current C o n f u s io n C on cern in g t h e C u r r ic u lu m .** S c h o o l and S o c i e t y « 3 3 » 7 2 9 -3 1 ? M ay '3 0 , 1931*

t h a t b e c a u s e t h e r e seem ed t o be “ t h e w i d e s t c o n f u s i o n among s c h o o lm e n , and e v e n c u r r ic u lu m

’ e x p e r t s * 11 as t o what t h e y

w ere d o i n g , or why t h e y w ere d o in g i t , i t became a v e r y im p o r ta n t m a tte r t o c o n s i d e r w h e th e r t h e movement f o r c u r r i ­ culum r e v i s i o n was “p r o c e e d in g ad rem or ad nauseam . 11 Much o f t h e c o n f u s i o n t h a t e x i s t e d c o n c e r n in g c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n , a c c o r d in g t o Gordon, was “ l a r g e l y due t o t h e c o n f u s i o n i n t h e m inds o f many b e tw e e n t h e r e a lm s o f c u r r ic u lu m and m ethod. In t h e i r e n th u s ia s m f o r a c t i v i t y programs t e a c h e r s have so m etim es f o r g o t t e n c u r r i c u l a .

T here i s th e m ost u r g e n t

n eed f o r t h e r e v i s i o n o f c u r r i c u l a a s c u r r i c u l a , f o r a s t a t e ­ ment o f c u r r i c u l a g o a l s i n a form w h ic h w i l l make them s u i t a b l e f o r u s e w i t h a c t i v i t y p r o g r a m s .“ Lou L. L aB rant0 p o i n t e d o u t t h e f a l l a c y o f t h e s o c a l l e d “m o d if ie d c o u r s e s* 1 w h ic h w ere in t e n d e d f o r t h e n o n acad em ic p u p i l .

I n s t e a d o f d e t e r m in in g th e c u r r ic u lu m c o n t e n t

o f t h e s e c o u r s e s th r o u g h t h e n e e d s , i n t e r e s t s , and a b i l i t i e s o f t h e p u p i l s t h e y w ere t o s e r v e , t h e c o n t e n t was a f a i n t shadow o f t h e i n t e r e s t s o f more s c h o l a r l y p u p i l s .

Thus

m o d if ie d E n g l i s h came i n t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m , f o r e x a m p le , c l a s s i c s “w r i t t e n down” i n s t e a d o f b ooks s e l e c t e d f o r t h e r e a d i n g n eed s and i n t e r e s t s o f a v e r a g e c h i l d r e n .

T h is t r e n d ,

6 L a B ra n t, Lou L. “The F a l l a c y o f ‘M o d ifie d C o u r s e s . 1,1 E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n . l 5 s l ^ l - ^ 3 ? May 13> 193&*

126 t h e a u th o r a s c r i b e d t o t h e m e n t a l t e s t i n g program w h ic h i s p r e d i c a t e d upon t h e a s s u m p tio n t h a t c e r t a i n acad em ic e x ­ p e r i e n c e s a r e common t o t h e mass o f i n d i v i d u a l s , and r e f l e c t what h ave b e e n come t o b e t h o u g h t o f as b a s i c h i g h - s c h o o l e x p e r ie n c e s.

Thus we s e e th e a t te m p t t o ad apt th e o ld form

o f c l a s s i c a l g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e new s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n t h r ough Mm odif i e d c o u r s e s • ** I n 193 1 David Snedden came o u t w i t h a n o t h e r b o o k , S c h o o l E d u c a tio n s J

w h ich demanded t o know why money and

e f f o r t s s h o u ld b e w a s te d on h ig h s c h o o l a l g e b r a , a non­ f u n c t i o n a l and v a l u e l e s s s u b j e c t f o r n e a r l y 9 0 $ o f a l l b oys and 99 % o f a l l g i r l s , t h e r e b e in g no p o s s i b l e ch a n g es i n method or c o n t e n t t h a t w ould im prove t h e s i t u a t i o n .

I t de­

manded t o know why modern la n g u a g e i n s t r u c t i o n was c o n t in u e d when i t was a t r a v e s t y on good e d u c a t i o n , a g i g a n t i c q u a ck ery p r a c t i c e d on p a r e n t s and t h e p u b l i c .

I t demanded t o know why

t h e c o l l e g i a t e c o n t r o l o f th e h i g h s c h o o l was n o t throw n o f f s i n c e i t had b e e n a d i s s e r v i c e t o b o th t h e h ig h s c h o o l s and th e c o l l e g e s . A n o th er e d u c a t o r c h a r a c t e r i z e d th e c u r r e n t (1 9 3 0 ) c u r r ic u lu m a s 11e d u c a t i o n a l j u n k , ft and c la im e d t h a t t h e b o y and g i r l w ent f o r t h " i n t o th e w o r ld o f tomorrow t o t a k e h i s 7 S n e d d e n , D a v id . S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n s : S o c i o l o g i c a l S o u r c e s o f V a l u e s . New York C i t y , T e a ch er s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 3 0 , 187 PP*

12? p l a c e i n th e w o r ld of y e s t e r d a y . ”

He u rg ed c u r r ic u lu m makers

n o t t o r e t a i n e v e r y t h i n g t h a t had b e e n fo u n d good i n th e p a s t u n l e s s i t was a l s o p r o v in g good t o d a y .

mI f

we c a n d i s c a r d

t h e e d u c a t i o n a l junk we w i l l h a v e t im e i n w h ich t o t e a c h t h e t h i n g s w hich t h e e v e r y d a y w o rld i s u s in g t o d a y or w i l l u s e Q when t h e c h i l d i s a man.*1 One w ould e x p e c t t h a t a t l e a s t t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s w ould h a v e b een c l o s e t o t h e r e a l problem s o f y o u th and co n tem p o ra ry s o c i e t y , and y e t , as A r e s u l t o f a s t u d y made by I r v in g B . M elb o ,^ i n a c o m m ittee r e p o r t d e l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e C a l i f o r n i a High S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s A s s o c i a t i o n i n 1933? t h e s t a t e m e n t was made t h a t "most o f t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e , as ta u g h t, i s

s o c i a l l y im p o ten t, p o l i t i c a l l y s p i n e l e s s ,

e c o n o m i c a l l y in n o c u o u s — acad em ic a p p l e s a u c e — c u l t u r a l c u s t a r d . ” 1^

H art c la im e d t h a t t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s "as a means

o f t r a i n i n g our young p e o p le f o r e f f e c t i v e , i n t e l l i g e n t p a r t i ­ c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y

. . . are t r a g ic a ll y

f u t i l e . 11 ( 8 8 ) 11 ® (Anonym ous.) " E d u c a t io n a l Junk.*1 The H igh S c h o o l T e a c h e r , 6 : 1 9 9 - 2 0 0 , May, 1 9 3 0 . 9 M elb o , I r v i n g R. "G raduating S e n i o r s 1 (H igh S c h o o l) I n f o r m a t io n on Contem porary P r o b le m s , S o c i a l , P o l i t i c a l , and E conom ic.*1 S o c i a l S t u d i e s . 2 7 * 8 2 - 8 6 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 0 . 10 H a r t , Frank W. "A New D e a l i n S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1* C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r ly of S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . ^ * 3 3 1 * 3 8 , J u n e , 1933. 11 H a r t , Frank W. "The Im p oten cy o f t h e S o c i a l S t u d i e s a s Now T a u g h t." C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r ly o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t io n . 1 0 : 8 7 - 8 9 , J a n u a r y , 1935»~«

128 I n 1933 C hapin co m p la in ed t h a t t h e s o c i a l h e r i t a g e was p i l i n g up a t an a la r m in g r a t e due t o m e c h a n ic a l in v e n t i o n * s c i e n t i f i c d is c o v e r y * and t h e grow th o f t e c h n i c a l v o c a b u ­ la r ie s.

B a s in g h i s f i g u r e s upon R e c e n t S o c i a l Trends i n

t h e U n ite d S ta tes,*

IP

C hapin argued t h a t * from 1900 t o 1930*

\

t h e sp a n o f man’ s y e a r s a s r e f l e c t e d i n t h e e x p e c t a t i o n o f life

had in c r e a s e d o v e r tw e n ty p er c e n t * w h i l e t h e volum e

j

j

I o f c u l t u r e had p i l e d up a t a f a r more r a p id r a t e . A d d i t i o n s !i o f new s u b j e c t s t o t h e s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m had in c r e a s e d one,- f| hundred and s i x t y - o n e p e r c e n t .

(The number o f new c o u r s e s

j

i n t h i r t y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s had i n c r e a s e d tw o-hundred and t w e lv e p er c e n t . )

The number o f

p a t e n t s g r a n te d by th e U n ite d S t a t e s P a t e n t O f f i c e had i n ­ c r e a s e d n i n e t y - f i v e p er c e n t .

11I n f a c t * * 1 c la im e d Chapin*

tfi f a s im p le a v e r a g e i s s t r u c k we f i n d t h a t t h e s e t h r e e i n ­ d i c e s show a mean a v e r a g e o f on e-hu nd red and f i f t y - s i x p er /

c e n t * o r a r a t e o v e r s i x t im e s g r e a t e r th a n th e p er c e n t i n c r e a s e i n e x p e c t a t i o n o f l i f e . 11

C hapin c o n c lu d e d t h a t :

. . • t h e f i g u r e s s u g g e s t t h a t man’ s l i f e i s a l l t o o s h o r t a p e r io d o f l e a r n i n g t o a c q u ir e a d e q u a te f u n c t i o n a l k now ledge o f th e r a p i d l y a c c u m u la tin g s o c i a l h e r i t a g e . I t ap p ea rs* t h e r e f o r e * t h a t more a t t e n t i o n th a n h i t h e r t o sh o u ld be g i v e n by e d u c a t o r s t o t h e p rob lem o f p r o v id in g young p e o p le w i t h new t o o l s u b j e c t s * new d e v i c e s o f sim ­ p l i f i c a t i o n and new means o f t h r e a d in g o n e ’ s way s e l e c t ­ i v e l y th ro u g h t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y com p lex n etw o rk o f s o c i a l 12 P r e s i d e n t ’ s R e s e a r c h Committee on S o c i a l T r e n d s. R e c e n t S o c i a l Trends i n th e U n ite d S t a t e s . R ep ort o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s R e se a r c h C om m ittee on S o c i a l T r en d s. New York* McGraw H i l l Book Company, I n c . * I* p p. 126* 330* 3 3 3 , 350 and 6 0 5 .

! £ j

129 r e l a t i o n s h i p s and c u l t u r e a c c u m u l a t i o n s .1 3 The ch a r g e was a l s o made t h a t t h e h ig h s c h o o l , d e s p i t e i t s trem en d ous grow th i n num bers, d e s p i t e a l l i t s c o n to r tio n in g , d e sp ite a l l i t s

c u r r ic u lu m -

" l e v e l i n g - d o w n ” and c o n d e ­

s c e n d i n g , was n o t d e m o c r a t i c , was s t i l l h i g h l y s e l e c t i v e , and its

c u r r ic u lu m d id n o t p r o v id e f o r a l l . A d d r e s s in g a group o f e d u c a t o r s i n New York C i t y i n

May, 1 9 3 1 5 Thomas H. B r ig g s d e c l a r e d t h a t ,four s e c o n d a r y and h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n i s s t i l l , d e s p i t e our p r o f e s s i o n o f d em o cra c y , h i g h l y u n d e m o c r a tic .

He c la im e d t h a t w h i l e

we avow s t r o n g d i s a p p r o v a l o f an a r i s t o c r a t i c s y s te m o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and p r o f e s s t o s u p p ly an e q u a l o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a l l , we do no su c h t h i n g .

He c o n te n d e d t h a t t h e r e was

abundant o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e t h a t h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n was s e v e r l y s e l e c t i v e , and t h a t , a lt h o u g h e v e r y c i t i z e n must pay t a x e s t o su p p o r t o u t h ig h s c h o o l s , th e programs o f f e r e d a re a p p r o p r ia t e and p r o f i t a b l e t o o n l y a r e l a t i v e l y s m a ll f r a c t i o n o f y o u t h . MWhat w i l l happen when t a s p a y e r s r e a l i z e t h a t se c o n d a r y ed u ­ c a t i o n , a s now c o n d u c t e d , i s an e x t r a v a g e n t lu x u r y r a t h e r th a n a w i s e in v e s t m e n t p a y in g a s s u r e d d i v i d e n d s i n y o u th made

^ C h a p in , F . S t u a r t . on t h e Back o f th e S c h o o l . ” A ugust 1 9 j 1 9 3 3 .

MThe S o c i a l H e r it a g e R o l l s up S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . 3 8 :2 4 8 -4 9 >

B r i g g s , Thomas H. " E d u c a tio n i n A c t i o n . 11 o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . May 25> 1931> P* 5 6 4 .

Journal

130 b e t t e r a b le and b e t t e r d i s p o s e d t o c o n t r i b u t e t o h a p p ie r and more e f f e c t i v e l i v i n g ? ”

he asked*

B r ig g s a g a in c r i t i c i s e d

th e h i g h - s e h o o l c u r r ic u lu m

i n an a r t i c l e a p p e a r in g i n th e J u n i o r - S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C l e a r i n g House i n 1931?

w h ic h was c h a r a c t e r i s e d by t h e

e d i t o r s a s “one o f t h e m ost s e a r c h in g o f many a p p r a i s a l s o f modern e d u c a t i o n t h a t have ap peared i n p r i n t . ”

The a u th o r

la m e n te d t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e was no co m p re h e n siv e and g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d p h i l o s o p h y a s t o what se c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld a c c o m p lis h . The C a r d in a l P r i n c i p l e s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n , p u b lis h e d i n 1918 by t h e Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e f o r - th e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n a l A s s o c i a t i o n i s p r o b a b ly th e b e s t populai* s t a t e m e n t t h a t we h a v e . I t has i t s d e f e c t s , w h ich p r o f e s s i o n a l c r i t i c s have b een more a c t i v e i n p o i n t i n g o u t th a n i n r e m e d y in g , b u t i t i s s e n s i b l e . In t h e S e v e n t e e n t h Y earbook o f t h e D epartm ent o f S u p e r in ­ te n d e n c e t h e r e i s p ro p o sed a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e s p e c i a l f u n c t i o n s o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . A c o m p a riso n o f p r a c t i c e s ev e ry w h ere p r e v a l e n t w i t h t h e s e o r w i t h any s i m i l a r s t a t e m e n t s , h o w e v e r , w i l l r e v e a l su c h w id e d i s c r e p a n c i e s as t o w a rr a n t th e a s s e r t i o n t h a t we have no d i r e c t i v e co m p reh en siv e u n d e r s t a n d in g o f what our h i g h s c h o o l s sh o u ld s e e k t o d o . No r e a s o n a b l e p h i l o s o p h y more th a n a t h i r d o f t h e i r c u r r i c u l a r p ro gra m s. The one p r i n c i p l e t h a t i s g e n e r a l l y approved i s t h a t our s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s sh o u ld f u r n i s h an e d u c a t i o n a p p ro ­ p r i a t e t o t h e c a p a c i t i e s , i n t e r e s t s and n e e d s o f e v e r y y o u t h . We have a c c e p t e d i n p r a c t i c e a l l o f t h i s p r i n c i p l e e x c e p t t h a t p a r t e x p r e s s e d by t h e im p o r ta n t word “a p p ro ­ p r i a t e . ” S e v e r a l m i l l i o n b o y s and g i r l s a n n u a lly e n t e r our h ig h s c h o o l s w i t h e x p e c t a n c y and h o p e , b u t “t h e h un gry sh e e p l o o k up and a re n o t f e d . ” No s t r e t c h o f th e

B r i g g s , Thomas H. “C a v i l i n g a t C o m p la c e n c y .” J u n i o r - S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C le a r in g House,, 6 : 7 0 - 8 3 ? O c to b e r , 1931.

131 i m a g i n a t i o n , no s u b t l e t y o f r a t i o n a l i z a t i o n c a n p ro ve t h a t , f o r e x a m p le , a f o r e i g n la n g u a g e i s an A p p r o p r i a t e ” s t u d y f o r a n y th in g l i k e thenumber o f y o u th who a r e p e r ­ m i t t e d or f o r c e d t o e l e c t i t , or t h a t a l g e b r a i s A p p r o ­ p r i a t e ” f o r a l l b oys and g i r l s i n t h e n i n t h g r a d e . Such s t u d ie s a r e f u l l y j u s t i f i a b l e f o r a f r a c t i o n of y o u th , but f o r t h e m a j o r i t y a r e a s u n s u i t e d a s houdan t r a p p in g s f o r a h o r s e or a s o a t s f o r an a u t o m o b i le . S i m i l a r l y , many d e t a i l s i n s u b j e c t s t h a t c o u ld be made a p p r o p r ia t e a r e fo r a la r g e f r a c t i o n of th e c l a s s e s not c o n tr ib u to r y t o im m ed iate or t o any p r o b a b le f u t u r e n e e d s . M o reo v er, a lt h o u g h we u n i v e r s a l l y p r o f e s s a commitment t o t h e i d e a l o f p r o v id in g an a p p r o p r i a t e e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l y o u t h , we a c t u a l l y e n r o l l o n ly h a l f o f t h o s e who by t h i s i d e a l s h o u ld be i n s c h o o l , ' Why have t h e o t h e r s l e f t ? L a r g e ly b e c a u s e t h e s c h o o r n m a s te r s h a v e d e c id e d t h a t t h e y a r e in c o m p e te n t t o a c h i e v e e v e n t h e s m a l l r e q u ir e m e n ts t h a t a r e demanded. As w i l l b e shown d i r e c t l y , th e s t a n d ­ a rd s f o r p a s s i n g su ch c o u r s e s a s we do o f f e r a r e u n j u s t i ­ f i a b l y and d i s g r a c e f u l l y lo w . But ev e n by su c h s t a n d a r d s hundreds o f th o u sa n d s o f y o u th a r e f o r c e d ou t o f h ig h s c h o o l s , d r i v e n from t h e A q u a l c h a n c e 1’ t h a t dem ocracy p r o m is e s . I f t h e s u b j e c t s t h a t now c o m p r ise t h e c o n v e n ­ t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m a r e p r o p e r , a l a r g e f r a c t i o n o f y o u th s h o u ld be d e t e r r e d from t a k in g them and e l i m i n a t e d from sc h o o l. I f a l l y o u th o u ght t o be p rep a r e d d u r in g a lo n g e r p e r i o d , when i n d u s t r y h a s n o r e a l n eed f o r th em , t h e n i t i n e v i t a b l y fo llo \\r s t h a t an a p p r o p r ia t e c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld be d e v i s e d f o r ea c h o n e. By and l a r g e , t h o s e who a r e e l i m i n a t e d a r e i n d u b i t a b l y o f l e s s com petence i n su c h i n t e l l i g e n c e a s i s demanded f o r s t u d i e s o f a b s t r a c t i o n s . But i t s h o u ld n o t be o v e r lo o k e d 5 t h a t many y o u th o f h i g h co m p eten ce v o l u n t a r i l y l e a v e s c h o o l b e c a u s e , i n s p i t e o f i t s s o c i a l c o m fo r t and o t h e r ad­ v a n t a g e s , t h e y a r e n o t c o n v in c e d t h a t i t s o f f e r i n g s a r e w o r th w ork in g f o r . N e i t h e r s h o u ld i t be o v e r lo o k e d t h a t a l l o f t h e e l i m i n a t e d become c i t i z e n s , w i t h or w it h o u t p r e p a r a t i o n f o r t h e d u t i e s t h a t f a l l t o them . F o r t u n a t e l y t h e w o r ld h a s a p l a c e f o r th em . Who c a n doubt t h a t t h e y make a g r e a t e r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o t h e i r own s u c c e s s and h a p i n e s s as w e l l as t o t h a t o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r i f t h e y had t h e b e s t t r a i n i n g t h a t c o u ld be p r o v id e d f o r t h e i r p e ­ c u l i a r n e e d s and c a p a c i t i e s ? S t u d i e s by C o u n t s , H o l l e y , L i d e , and o t h e r s show t h a t a t p r e s e n t our s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a r e c o n t r i b u t i n g m ost t o t h o s e who h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n m ost f a v o r e d by t h e f o r t u n e s o f n a t u r e and e n v i r o n ­ m en t. F or e v e r y 1 ,0 0 0 men en g a g ed i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s

132 C ounts showed t h a t t h e r e a r e 3 6 0 c h i l d r e n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l s 5 t h e same number o f men en g a g ed i n t h e m ach in e t r a d e s , p e r s o n a l s e r v i c e , and common la b o r o n ly 2 1 , 2 2 , and 12 r e s p e c t i v e l y . From s u c h f a c t s i t a p p e a r s t h a t dem ocracy p r o v i d e s from t h r e e t o f i v e t im e s a s w e l l i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r t h o s e from th e e c o n o m i c a l l y s u p e r i o r f a m i l i e s a s t h o s e w i t h th e m ost n e e d . T r u ly dem ocracy g i v e s to t h o s e who h a v e . And b e c a u s e i t s program was o u t o f t o u c h w i t h l i f e and d id n o t a p p e a l t o th e m a j o r i t y o f i t s p e o p l e , d r o p - o u t s and f a i l u r e s c o n t in u e d t o m a n i f e s t t h e m s e lv e s t o an a la r m in g degree.

A s t u d y ( p u b l i s h e d i n 1932) o f t h e f a c t o r s r e s p o n s i ­

b l e f o r t h e l o s s of i n t e r e s t i n h i g h - s c h o o l s u b j e c t s r e v e a l e d t h a t lfs u b j e c t - m a t t e r c a u s e s 11 w ere o verw h em in gly named a s t h e m ost p ro m in en t among t h i r t y - t w o f a c t o r s , and th e m ost prom i­ n e n t f a c t o r w i t h i n 11s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c a u s e s ” was t h e " f a i l u r e t o s e e a n eed f o r t h e s u b j e c t . " I n r e t r o s p e c t , i t i s e a s y t o s e e t h a t c u r r ic u lu m c h a o s was i n e v i t a b l e j u s t a s lo n g a s t h e h ig h s c h o o l had n o aim o f its it

own.

I t had b e e n a s l a v e t o , c o l l e g e and i n d u s t r y .

S in c e

c o u ld s e r v e t h e s e two m a s t e r s ( a t l e a s t e x c l u s i v e l y ) no

l o n g e r , t h e h i g h s c h o o l m ust h a v e a p u rp o se o f i t s i t w o u ld f i n d a p u r p o se o f i t s

own.

When

own, i t w ou ld t h e n p o s s e s s

a u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e w h ic h w o u ld be c a p a b le o f b r i n g i n g o rd e r out o f c h a o s .

T h is q u e s t f o r u n i t y i n e d u c a t i o n was

16 Young, F l o r e n c e M. "C auses f o r L oss o f I n t e r e s t i n H igh S c h o o l S u b j e c t s a s R e p o r te d by 6 5 1 C o l l e g e S t u d e n t s . " 1 Journal o f E d u c a t io n a l R e s e a r c h , 2 : 1 1 0 - 1 5 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 2 .

133 n o t new..

From t h e days o f t h e Greeks down t o H e r b e r t and

h i s " a p p e r c e p t iv e m a s s ," M o rriso n and h i s " u n it" p l a n s , t h e " g e s t a l t i s t s " and t h e i r " h o l i s t i c " p s y c h o l o g y , and John Dewey w i t h h i s i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n w i t h l i f e , ed u ­ c a t o r s have b e e n s e e k i n g some common d en o m in a to r w h ic h w ould make f o r g r e a t e r u n i t y th r o u g h i n t e g r a t i o n and c o r r e ­ la tio n . To b e s u r e , t h e h ig h s c h o o l p o s s e s s e d a d e f i n i t e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y when i t s

s o l e p u r p o se was t o p r e p a r e a

s e l e c t few f o r h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n .

The c o r e o f p r e s c r i b e d

s u b j e c t s , or aca d em ic c o n s t a n t s , s e r v e d a s a u n i f y i n g p r i n c i ­ p l e i n t h e f a c e o f t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f many new s u b j e c t s , a v a r i e t y o f c u r r i c u l a , and a s y s t e m o f e l e c t i v e s .

W ith

q u e s t i o n a b l e s u c c e s s , t h e h ig h s c h o o l im posed t h i s same p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y on t h e c o m p a r a t iv e ly s e l e c t group who s o u g h t , i n a d d i t i o n t o p r e p a r a t i o n f o r c o l l e g e , p r e p a r a t io n fo r in d u str ia l e ffic ie n c y .

But when t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l

a t te m p te d t o im pose t h i s same p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y upon t h e m ost h e t e r o g e n i o u s p o p u l a t i o n w h ic h e v e r th r o n g e d i t s a c a ­ dem ic h a l l s , t h e c o n s t a n t s t h e m s e lv e s became i n c o n s t a n t , t h e c u r r ic u lu m was f u r t h e r a to m iz e d t o p r o v id e f o r i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o l l a p s e d , and th e p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y was l o s t .

W ithou t a new and w o rk a b le p r i n c i p l e o f

u n i t y f o r i t s d i r e c t i o n , t h e r e c o u ld b e no hope o f e v e r r e b u ild in g g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

13b But h e r e i s t h e m i r a c l e !

W ith t h e breakdown o f t h e *

c u r r ic u lu m and t h e c o l l a p s e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e r e came n o t o n ly t h e v e r y p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y s o u g h t f o r t h e r e d i r e c ­ t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t t h e d e f i n i t i o n i n c l e a r term s o f t h e p rim ary aim and f u n c t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n — t h e v er y p h ilo s o p h ic a l j u s t i f i c a t i o n of th e h ig h s c h o o l' s e x i s t ­ e n c e and i n t e g r i t y .

I t d id n o t come from t h e s c h o o l s o f

e d u c a t i o n or r e s e a r c h , from t h e p r o f e s s o r s o f e d u c a t i o n or s c h o l a r s , from t h e t e a c h e r s or a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n t h e f i e l d . I t came from th e h e t e r o g e n e o u s y o u th t h e m s e lv e s f o r whom n e i t h e r th e s c h o o l n o r s o c i e t y had made a d e q u a te p r o v i s i o n . F or t h e s e v e r y same n o n -a c a d e m ic y o u t h , who s h a t t e r e d t h e u n i t y o f t h e o l d t r a d i t i o n a l c o r e o f acad em ic s u b j e c t s , demanded t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l q u i t p r e p a r in g them f o r c o l l e g e ( t o w h ic h t h e y w ere n o t g o in g )

or f o r i n d u s t r i a l e f f i c i e n c y

(w h ic h was now a m y t h ) , and demanded, i n s t e a d , t h a t th e h i g h s c h o o l g i v e them a c u r r ic u lu m , a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , w h ic h w ould p r e p a r e them f o r l i f e .

I t was a r e b e l l i o n , i n ­

d e e d , w it h h ea v y c a s u a l t i e s i n t r u a n c i e s , d r o p - o u t s , and fa ilu r e s .

But th a n k s t o t h e r e v o l u t i o n o f t h e s e n o n -a ca d em ic

y o u t h , t h e J jn e r ic a n h i g h s c h o o l f o r t h e f i r s t t im e i n i t s e x i s t e n c e c o u ld g a i n i t s in d e p e n d e n c e a s a s e p a r a t e e n t i t y , b r e a k f o r e v e r w it h E urop ean t r a d i t i o n , and become t r u l y a s c h o o l fo r a l l th e c h ild r e n o f a l l th e p e o p le .

What a

m ir a c u lo u s m a n i f e s t a t i o n of t h e w o rk in g s o f d em o c r a c y !

135 P r e p a r a tio n f o r l i f e ,

t h e n , became t h e new c h i e f aim

o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , and e d u c a t o r s , s l o w l y b u t s u r e l y , b eg a n t o a p p ly t h i s aim as a c r i t e r i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g e x i s t ­ in g c u r r ic u lu m m a t e r i a l s , a s a g o a l f o r d e s i g n i n g new c u r r i ­ culum p a t t e r n s f o r g r e a t e r i n t e g r a t i o n and c o r r e l a t i o n , and as t h e b a s i c p r i n c i p l e o f u n i t y i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a new g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

C u rricu lu m r e v i s i o n now c o n c e n t r a t e d on

two s p e a r - h e a d e d d r i v e s s

c o n te n t fo r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n

c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o t h e co n te m p o r a r y l i f e

o f t h e p u p i l , and a

c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a f f o r d i n g t h e g r e a t ­ e s t u n i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n . The c o m p la in t t h a t t h e c u r r ic u lu m la c k e d c o r r e l a t i o n and a r e l a t i o n t o l i f e was ec h o e d b y H a g ie .

17'

H a g ie c o n ­

te n d e d t h a t p u p i l s 1 minds w ere b e in g crammed w it h c o n s e c u t i v e c o u r s e s o f u n c o r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e r e b y w a s t in g much t im e and f a i l i n g t o f i t c h i l d r e n f o r l i f e .

" B eca u se our

P u r i t a n a n c e s t o r s fo u n d ed a s y s t e m o f e d u c a t i o n i n w h ic h t h e y b ro k e up t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t o

Com ponent* p a r t s , 11

c la im e d H a g ie , " . . . i s no r e a s o n why we s h o u ld c o n c e i v e o f e d u c a t i o n a s a p r o c e s s o f cramming c h i l d r e n ’ s m inds w i t h c o n se c u tiv e

1c o u r s e s 1 o f u n c o r r e l a t e d s u b j e c t m a t t e r . ”

H ag ie a sk e d w hat m a t t e r c o n t a i n e d i n t h e p r e s e n t

17 H a g i e , C. E . " T r a d i t i o n Cramps t h e C u r r ic u lu m .11 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n . May 2 5 , 1931? PP* 5 5 1 - 5 2 .

136 s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m s had any v i t a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t o t h e p r e s e n t c iv iliz a tio n .

MThe more we s p e c i a l i z e , ” h e s a i d , 11e s p e c i a l l y

i n t h e e le m e n t a r y and h ig h s c h o o l , t h e l e s s c o r r e l a t i o n we have o f r e le v a n t m a te r ia ls .

P e r s p e c t i v e i s t h e e le m e n t

r e q u ir e d i n t r u e e d u c a t i o n , and i t c a n b e a c q u ir e d o n ly when th e re i s a p e r f e c t c o r r e la t io n o f a l l the p e r tin e n t f a c t o r s t h a t g o t o make up our c i v i l i z a t i o n . ” H a g ie f o r e s a w th e n eed f o r a g r e a t e r u n i t y i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l when he s a i d , ”I f I th o u g h t I had n o t h in g b e t t e r t o s u g g e s t I s h o u ld n o t w a s te my t im e c r i t i c i s i n g t h e p r e s e n t o r th o d o x c u r r ic u lu m .

To my m ind ,

we s h o u ld b e g i n by r e - e v a l u a t i n g t h e m a t e r i a l s o f our c i v i ­ l i z a t i o n from t h e s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e i r u s e i n b u i l d i n g up a background o f a p p r e c i a t i o n o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y i n s t i t u t i o n s and f u t u r e r e q u ir e m e n t s .

T h is d o n e , t h e s e m a t e r i a l s s h o u ld

b e c o r r e l a t e d i n t o a u n i f i e d program o f s t u d y . ” The f i r s t a t t e m p t s t o endow t h e c u r r ic u lu m f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w it h a c l o s e r r e l a t i o n s h i p t o l i f e and w i t h g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n w ere made by a t t e m p t i n g t o r e n n o v a t e th e o ld s u b j e c t s and c o u r s e s tow ard t h e s e e n d s .

One o f t h e p i o n e e r s

i n s e e k i n g u n i t y th r o u g h t h e g r e a t e r " g e n e r a l i z a t i o n ” o f s u b j e c t m a tt e r was H aro ld Rugg.

H is book i n 1929? An TO

I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A m erican C i v i l i z a t i o n .

z a tio n .

showed t h e

R ugg, H a r o ld . An I n t r o d u c t i o n t o A m erican C i v i l i ­ B o s t o n , Ginn and Company, 1 9 2 9 .

137 a d v i s a b i l i t y o f f u s i n g h i s t o r y , c i v i c s , and g eo g r a p h y i n t o s o c ia l sc ie n c e .

Many books and much m a t e r i a l on th e f u s i o n

o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r and u n i f i e d t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g a p p ea red i n th e e a r l y

1t h i r t i e s . ^

In f a c t t h e w h o le p e r i o d ( 1 9 2 9 - 3 5 )

r e p r e s e n t s an e r a o f f u s i o n (a s w e l l a s c o n f u s i o n ) - - b o t h com b ining s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f i e l d s and making c o u r s e s more g e n e r a l . 20 Other c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n s f o l l o w e d .

The c o r r e l a t e d

c u r r ic u lu m a t te m p te d t o e f f e c t g r e a t e r u n i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n by r u n n in g tw o or more c o u r s e s or s u b j e c t s a lo n g p a r a l l e l l i n e s s o t h a t v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f a t o p i c or u n i t c o u ld r e ­ c e i v e r e l a t e d and s im u lt a n e o u s t r e a t m e n t .

The f u s e d c u r r i c u ­

lum n o t o n ly com bined s e v e r a l s u b j e c t s w i t h i n t h e same f i e l d or d e p a r tm e n t, b u t e v e n so u g h t t o com bine s u b j e c t s from o t h e r fie ld s

or d e p a r t m e n t s , su ch a s E n g l i s h , S o c i a l S t u d i e s , A r t ,

M u s ic , e t c .

F i n a l l y , t h e b r o a d - f i e l d s c u r r ic u lu m b u i l t

c o u r s e s around "themes" i n s t e a d o f s u b j e c t s , them es s u c h a s h e a lth , le is u r e - t im e , v o c a tio n , e t c .

But i n i t s

in te r n a l

o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e b r o a d - f i e l d s c u r r ic u lu m was g e n e r a l l y

19 a b i b l i o g r a p h y o f t h o s e w orks a p p e a r in g i n 1 9 3 0 3 5 ca n be fo u n d i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a J ou rn a 1 o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 2 9 6 - 8 , A p r i1 , 1935• 20 The w h o le i s s u e o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r t e r ly o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n f o r A p r i l , 1 9 3 i s d e v o t e d t o " f u s io n " and i n c l u d e s a b i b l i o g r a p h y on " f u s i o n . "

138 c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f th e c o r r e l a t e d , f u s e d , o r s u b j e c t c u r r i c u lu m s • E m il Lange21 u n d e r to o k a s t u d y i n 19 3 4 t o d e te r m in e t h e d i r e c t i o n i n w h ich s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n C a l i f o r n i a was m o v in g .

H is f i n d i n g s w ere b ased upon a c o m p a riso n o f c o n d i ­

t i o n s a s t h e y o b t a in e d 1 9 2 9 - 3 0 , i n 1 9 3 3 - 3 4 , and a s f o r e s e e n i n th e f u t u r e .

Among some o f th e s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s a s i n ­

t e r p r e t e d by th e i n v e s t i g a t o r was t h e f a c t t h a t b r o a d - f i e l d s and t h e u n i t s - o f - w o r k c u r r i c u l a a s th e f a v o r e d b a s i c form o f curricumum o r g a n i z a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t more th a n t w i c e as many s u b j e c t s w ere added a s w ere dropped i n th e p e r i o d from 1929 t o 1 9 3 4 .

The s t u d y a l s o d i s c l o s e d t h a t ,

a lt h o u g h homogeneous g r o u p in g was g e n e r a l l y em p lo y ed , e s ­ p e c i a l l y i n th e l a r g e r s c h o o l s , t h e c r i t e r i a f o r s e c t i o n i n g was " b ein g r © - e v a lu a t e d '1 and t h e v a lu e o f homogeneous gro u p ­ in g i n an in f o r m a l program was " b ein g q u e s t i o n e d . " I n commenting on t h e t r e n d s i n th e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , Lange s t a t e d t h a t "a l e a v e n o f change i s o p e r a t i n g th r o u g h o u t t h e e n t i r e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s y s te m o f t h i s S t a t e / C a l i f o r n i a .? " and t h a t " th e movement f o r r e o r g a n i ­ z a t i o n i s a c o u n t e r p a r t o f movements th r o u g h o u t t h e U n ite d 21 L an g e, E m il. " S ig n s o f C u rricu lu m P r o g r e s s i n H igh S c h o o ls in C a lif o r n ia ." C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t i o n * 1 0 : 9 - 1 2 , O c to b e r , 1 9 3 4 .

139

S t a t e s . 11

The c a u s e o f t h i s movement f o r s e c o n d a r y c u r r i c u ­

lum r e v i s i o n on a n a t i o n a l s c a l e was e x p l a i n e d by Lange when h e a s s e r t e d t h a t **the c o l l a p s e o f t h e econom ic s t r u c t u r e and t h e t h r e a t e n e d c o l l a p s e o f t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e h ave b e e n a c c e p t e d by many p e o p le a s p r o o f p o s i t i v e t h a t s e c o n d a r y v

e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n o p e r a t in g i n a s o c i a l vacuum— an i n s t i t u ­ tio n ap art.

N a t i o n a l l e a d e r s o f e d u c a t i o n a l thou gh h a v e

h aran gu ed s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n f o r i t s f a i l u r e t o s e n s e and m eet i t s p o s s i b i l i t i e s , u n t i l s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p e o p le h ave now b e e n d r i v e n i n t o a n ea r s c r a m b le t o r e o r g a n i z e t h e i r i n s t i t u t i o n s o t h a t i t ca n a c c e p t t h e c h a l l e n g e o f t h e t i m e s . M F a c to r s a s s i s t i n g th e r e o r g a n iz a t io n of th e secon d ary c u r r ic u lu m a t t h i s t im e (193*0 were r e p o r t e d a s a more l i b e r a l a t t i t u d e on t h e p a r t o f t h e c o l l e g e s tow ard t h e h ig h s c h o o l , and t h e d e s i r e on t h e p a r t o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t o r s t o make t h e h i g h s c h o o l an i n s t i t u t i o n s e r v i n g a u n iq u e p u rp o se o f i t s own.

F a c t o r s r e t a r d i n g th e movement w ere g i v e n a s t h e

c u r t a i l m e n t o f programs due t o econom ic s t r e s s , t h e r e - t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s , and t h e r e - e d u c a t i o n o f p a r e n t s t o t h e o b j e c t i v e s o f p r e se n t-d a y e d u c a tio n . I n t h e same i s s u e o f t h e C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . Frank L . Cummings22 i n d e s c r i b i n g t h e p r a c t i c e s 22 Cummings, Frank L. 18P r a c t i c e s i n F u s io n o f S u b j e c t M a tter i n V a r io u s C o u r s e s . 11 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . 1 0 M 3 - 1 8 , O c t o b e r 193*0

o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f u s i o n t h e n i n p r o g r e s s a t E n c in o H igh S c h o o l , C h ic o , C a l i f o r n i a , c la im e d t h a t t h e b a r r i e r s e t up b y d e p a r t m e n t a l o r g a n i z a t i o n was p r o b a b ly one o f t h e g r e a t ­ e s t h in d r a n c e s t o t h e f u s i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s h ig h s c h o o l c o u r s e s .

”Heads or c h a ir m e n o f

t h e d ep a rtm e n t j e a l o u s l y w a tc h f o r any movement t h a t t e n d s t o f u s e t h e c o n t e n t o f h i s o r h e r p a r t i c u l a r d ep a rtm e n t w it h a n o t h e r . 11

Cummings g a v e tw o c o n c r e t e ex am p les o f f u s i o n o f

s u b j e c t m a t t e r b e in g a c c o m p lis h e d a t h i s s c h o o l .

A m erican

H i s t o r y became a f u s i o n o f H i s t o r y , E c o n o m ic s , S o c i o l o g y , A m erican L i t e r a t u r e , and Law; S c i e n c e became a c o m b in a t io n o f C h e m is tr y , P h y s i c s , and B i o l o g y .

But t h e r e w ere two

a s p e c t s o f t h e program d e s c r i b e d by Cummings w h ic h h ave g r e a t s ig n if ic a n c e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

F i r s t , t h e r e was

t h e d e s i r e t o b e g i n w i t h t h e co n tem p o ra ry p rob lem s o f t h e p u p i l as t h e p r o p e r a p p ro ach w i t h i t s c o r r e s p o n d in g d i s s a t i s ­ f a c t i o n w it h e x i s t i n g t e x t b ooks w h ich ”b e g i n a t t h e wrong end i n s t e a d o f w i t h p r e s e n t - d a y p r o b le m s ,” a n d , s e c o n d , t h e o ld c l a s s i c a l s u b j e c t m a tter h e r e to f o r e i d e n t i f i e d w ith g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w o u ld now b e r e l e g a t e d t o th e c a t e g o r y o f s p e c i a l i z e d e l e c t i v e s , a s im p l ie d i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t t h e r e w ou ld be ”s p e c i a l c l a s s e s f o r th e s t u d y o f C l a s s i c s , pure m a t h e m a t ic s , and f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e s , w here the number and f u t u r e p la n s o f s t u d e n t s s o r e q u i r e t h e m .” Cummings j u s t i f i e d

th e f u s i o n of s u b j e c t m a t t e r on

th e grounds t h a t s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n o u g h t t o g i v e s t u d e n t s an i n t e l l i g e n t u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e i r e n v ir o n m e n t, by p r e ­ s e n t i n g t o them a t l e a s t a c r o s s s e c t i o n o f i t .

r,The p r e s e n t

m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c o u r s e s and s u b j e c t s makes t h i s i m p o s s i b l e . Only by b r e a k in g down d e p a r t m e n t a l b a r r i e r s by f u s i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n ca n t h i s be d o n e . ” O ther s i g n i f i c a n t t r e n d s i n a s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m r e o r g a n i z a t i o n were d e s c r i b e d by W i l l i a m s . 2 *^

He p o in t e d

o u t t h a t many f u n c t i o n a l c o u r s e s w h ich had b een in t r o d u c e d d e s p i t e th e a b s e n c e o f w o rth y r e c o g n i t i o n by c o l l e g e ad­ m i s s i o n board had become so s u c c e s s f u l t h a t i t had b e e n " p o s s i b l e t o d e m o n s tr a te c o n c l u s i v e l y t o c o l l e g e a d m is s io n a u th o r itie s that th ese

’ s t o n e s w h ich th e b u i l d e r s r e j e c t e d 1

/

have a c t u a l l y

'become th e head o f th e c o r n e r 1."

A n oth er im p o r ta n t p o i n t n o te d by W illia m s was t h a t th e ch a n g e s b ro u g h t a b o u t , w h eth er o f m e th o d s, o f c o u r s e s c o n t e n t or o f o b j e c t i v e s , w ere t h e r e s u l t o f an e x a m in a t io n and study o f i n v e s t i g a y o r s c o n d u c te d on an o b j e c t i v e and a t l e a s t n e a r e x p e r im e n t a l b a s i s .

"High s c h o o l s a re s c h o o l s a r e t u r n in g t o

t h e u se o f o b j e c t i v e e v i d e n c e i n p r o f e s s i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e a s a b a s i s f o r e f f e c t i n g c h a n g e s i n t h e i r p r a c t i c e s and p r o c e d u r e s . Trends toward th e l o n g e r p e r io d and more l i f e - l i k e

g u id a n c e

w ere a l s o n o t e d .

2 3 W i l l i a m s , L. A. "G hosts o f t h e C l o i s t e r s R e t r e a t i n g C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a ry E d u c a tio n * 1 0 : 1 9 - 2 3 , O c to b e r , 1934.

Ik2 A c o l o r f u l p i c t u r e o f th e p e r i o d , t h e e a r l y 3 0 fs , ca n be g a in e d i n W illiam s^ w arn in g t h a t i t w o u ld be " n e i t h e r w i s e , nor j u s t , e v e n i f p o s s i b l e , t o im pose V i c t o r i a n s t a n d ­ a r d s upon y ou th l i v i n g i n a P a u l Whitman— T ex as Guinan— A1 Capone e r a ." In a symposium o f a r t i c l e s

on th e v a l u e s and s h o r t ­

com in gs o f s u b j e c t - f u s i o n p r o j e c t s , a p p e a r in g i n t h e C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n f o r A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 ,

ph.

i n t e g r a t i o n was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by W illia m A . S m ith a s "po­ t e n t i a l l y t h e m ost s i g n i f i c a n t fo rw a rd s t e p i n t h e h i s t o r y o f A m erican E d u c a t io n * 11

C. F . W oodruff d e s c r i b e d t h e

s h o r t c o m in g s m ost e v i d e n t i n f u s i o n programs as r e s u l t i n g from " t o o a b ru p t i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f u s i o n c u r r i c u l a and methods i n t o a s c h o o l and co m m u n ity, p oor o r g a n i z a t i o n o f m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , f a i l u r e t o r e t a i n a tea c h in g s t a f f , f a i l u r e t o in fo r m and e d u c a t e p a r e n t s and t h e g e n e r a l p u b l i c a s t o a i m s , m e th o d s , and p o s i t i v e r e s u l t s , l a c k o f v a r i e t y i n t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f f e r e d p u p i l s , o v e r e m p h a sis on t h e m anual p h a s e s o f c o n s t r u c t i o n , and t h e o v e r u s e o f n o t e b o o k s , c h a r t s ,

«V alue and S h o r tc o m in g s o f S u b j e c t - F u s i o n P r o j e c t s : A Sym posium ." C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a 1 o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t i o n * 1 0 :2 6 9 -3 0 2 , A p r il, 1935. 25 S m it h , W illia m A. " I n t e g r a t i o n : P o t e n t i a l l y t h e Most S i g n i f i c a n t Forward S t e p i n t h e H i s t o r y o f t h e A m erican S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n ." C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a tio n . 1 0 :2 6 9 -7 2 , A p r i l , 1935.

1^3 m aps, and o t h e r o u tp u t d e s i g n e d p r i m a r i l y f o r s h o w .1*2^ Aymer J . H a m ilto n f e l t t h a t t h e g r e a t e s t h a n d ic a p to t h e f u s i o n p r o j e c t was t h e f a c t t h a t t e a c h e r s w ere t r a i n e d t o be s u b j e c t - m a t t e r s p e c i a l i s t s *

To t r a i n t e a c h e r s

b r o a d l y , H a m ilto n f o r e s a w t h a t p r o b a b ly f,s e v e n y e a r s above h ig h s c h o o l w ould b e n e c e s s a r y . * 1

T h is was j u s t i f i e d

on th e

g rou n ds t h a t i t r e q u i r e d s i x y e a r s t o t r a i n a l a w y e r , s e v e n or e i g h t t o t r a i n a p h y s i c i a n a n d , p e r h a p s , a d e n t i s t . ’’S u r e l y t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f th e t e a c h e r ’s work i s a s g r e a t as e i t h e r t h e p h y s i c i a n or th e d e n t i s t , ” argued H a m ilt o n , ”and 27 much g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e lawyer.** By now i t must be a p p a r e n t t h a t , d e s p i t e th e many r e a s o n s f o r f a i l u r e a l r e a d y en u m e r a te d , th e f u n d a m e n ta l c a u s e o f th e f u t i l i t y o f t h e s e a p p r o a c h e s t o g r e a t e r c o r r e l a ­ t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n l a y i n t h e ,f a c t t h a t a l l t h e s e new c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n s w ere wedded t o l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d su b ­ j e c t m a tter.

Any a tte m p t t o c r e a t e a new d e s i g n f o r g e n e r a l

e d u c a t i o n w o u ld h a v e t o b e p r e d i c a t e d upon a d i s t i n c t b reak from s u b j e c t m a tt e r i t s e l f .

L ik e a v o i c e c r y in g i n t h e

w i l d e r n e s s , Dewey i n 193 1 d e c r i e d t h e i s o l a t i o n and 26 W o o d ru ff, C. H. "V alu es and S h o r tc o m in g s o f S u b je c t-F u s io n P r o j e c t s . ” C a lif o r n ia J o u m a l of Secondary E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 2 7 9 - 8 1 , A p r i l , 1935* 27 H a m ilt o n , Aymer J . "Some H azards i n S u b j e c t F u s io n P r o j e c t s . ” C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 2 7 9 - 8 1 , A p r i l , 193?»

lMf c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r : The t i t l e s we f i n d i n a s c h o o l p rogram , su c h a s h i s t o r y , g e o g r a p h y , a l g e b r a , b o t a n y , assum e t h a t le a r n i n g i s a l r e a d y a t h a n d , s e t i n p r o p e r summaries and n e e d in g o n l y t o be d i v i d e d up i n t o p r o p e r d o s e s * They assum e t h a t t h e m a t e r i a l w h ic h i s u n i f i e d th r o u g h i t s i s o l a t i o n from o t h e r t h i n g s i s t h e n a t u r a l o c c a s i o n f o r t h e a c t o f s t u d y in g * T h is a s s u m p t io n had b ro k en down th ro u g h t h e e x p a n s io n o f k n ow led ge and modes o f e x p e r t s k i l l ; t h i s breakdown h a s c a u s e d th e immense v a r i a t i o n i n a c t u a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r w h ich h a s come a b ou t e v e n when t h e n o m in a l t i t l e s rem ain t h e same* The c o n t e n t c h a n g e s ; t i t l e s p e r s i s t . 28 No one summ arized th e s i t u a t i o n b e t t e r th a n Gordon M ackenzie o f Columbia U n i v e r s i t y *

He c la im e d t h a t t h e

i n s t r u c t i o n a l program f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h ich i s b a se d on a s e r i e s o f r e q u ir e d s u b j e c t s s h o u ld b e s e r i o u s l y q u e stio n e d , s in c e th e t r a d it io n a l s u b je c t c o n te n t, even i f w e l l t a u g h t , d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n t h e en d s c o n c e i v e d f o r g e n e r a l ed u c a tio n .

O r g a n iz a t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a lo n g

s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l i n e s im p o ses a s e r i o u s l i m i t a t i o n s i n c e some p a r t s o f a d o z e n or more s u b j e c t s a re n e c e s s a r y f o r a c h ie v in g th e o b j e c t iv e s d e sir e d * T here i s no t im e t o i n c l u d e a l l o f th e s u b j e c t s , p a r t s o f w *ich a r e n e e d e d . Some s c h o o l s h a v e f r a n k l y r e c o g n i z e d th e i n a d e q u a c i e s o f th e p r e s e n t s y s t e m o f r e q u ir e d and e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s w i t h t h e added s p e c i f i ­ c a t i o n o f m ajors and m in o rs • * • » Q u ite a p a r t from t h e r e g u l a r c u r r ic u lu m , i t i s common t o f i n d a l i t t l e t i n k e r i n g or t h e t r i a l o f new k in d s o f a c t i v i t i e s or c o u r s e s , t h u s i n d i c a t i n g some r e c o g n i t i o n o f th e

28 Dewey, J o h n . The Way o u t o f E d u c a t i o n a l C o n f u s io n . C am bridge, Harvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931> P* 3*3•

1^5 in a d e q u a c y o f t h e s u b j e c t o r g a n i z a t i o n . The c o r r e l a t e d , f u s e d , and b r o a d - f i e l d s p a t t e r n s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ere n o t a r e a l i s t i c a p p r o a ch f o r , a s i d e from th e f a c t t h a t t h e y w ere o r g a n iz e d a lo n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r l i n e s , t h e y demanded e n d l e s s i n t e r - and i n t r a d e p a r t m e n t a l p la n n in g and r e v i s i n g .

M ackenzie c la im e d t h a t

v e r y fe w s c h o o l s had e v e r a c t u a l l y t r i e d t h e b r o a d - f i e l d s p la n .

As f o r t h e c o r r e l a t e d and f u s e d t y p e s o f c u r r i c u l u m ,

he c la im e d t h a t : W hile b o th c o r r e l a t i o n and f u s i o n c a n b e r e g a r d e d a s t y p e s o f r e o r g a n i z a t i o n w h ich h av e b e e n i n v o l v e d i n t h e p rob lem of p r o v i d i n g b e t t e r program s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , more d r a s t i c r e o r g a n i z a t i o n h a s b e e n s e e n t o b e n e c e s s a r y t o p r o v id e t h e new k in d s o f l e a r n i n g e x ­ p e r i e n c e and new c o n t e n t n e ed ed t o r e a c h th e d e s i r e d o b j e c t i v e s .3 0 I f t h e b r o a d - f i e l d s p a t t e r n c o u ld b e d i v o r c e d from s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n and d e v e lo p e d a lo n g them es w h ich w ould p r e p a r e y o u th f o r c o n tem p o r a ry l i f e ,

i t w o u ld seem t o

b e t h e m ost w o r k a b le p la n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . is

p r e c i s e l y what h a p p en ed .

And t h i s

The B r o a d - f i e l d s p a t t e r n , w i t h

t h e s e and s e v e r a l o t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n s , e v o l v e d i n t o what has s i n c e b e e n known a s t h e c o r e c o u r s e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

M a c k e n z ie , Gordon. G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n . D o u g la s , H a r l R . , e d . , The H igh S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m . Few Y ork , The R onald P r e s s Company, 1 9 ^ 7 , PP* 2 6 6 - 6 7 . 30 ibid., p. 2 6 7 *

Ib6 The F e b r u a r y , 1935? i s s u e o f th e C a l i f o r n l a J o u r n a 1 o f Secondary E d u c a tio n , c a r r ie d s i x a r t i c l e s

on t h e c o r e

c u r r ic u lu m u nder t h e h e a d in g o f a symposium e n t i t l e d , “S h o u ld There Be a Core C u rricu lu m i n S e c o n d a r y Schools?** 31 Frank W. Thomas i n a n sw e r in g t h e q u e s t i o n , “What I s a Core C u rricu lu m and Why?*1 s t a t e d t h a t “o n ly i n t h e n e e d s f o r a common a c q u i s i t i o n o f i n f o r m a t i o n , a t t i t u d e s , and accom­ p l is h m e n t s i s

t h e r e j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r a c o r e c u r r ic u lu m .

When we h a v e a g r e e d upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e s e ou tcom es we s h a l l t h e n h a v e a b a s i s f o r p la n n in g t h e common e x p e r i e n c e s o u t o f w h ic h t h e s e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s u l t s may c o m e .11

Thomas

l a i d down as a b a s i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t s u b j e c t m a t t e r becom es e x p e r i e n c e , or a r e a l c u r r ic u lu m , o n ly when it

is

l i v e d by th e p u p i l s and t h a t , c o n s e q u e n t l y “an y s o -

c a l l e d c o r e c u r r ic u lu m m ust d e r i v e i t s u n i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n from t h e r e s p o n s e s o f th e p u p i l r a t h e r th a n from a n y l o g i c a l or t r a d i t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n of o u t s i d e m a te r ia ls .* *

As a

b e g in n i n g p o i n t , Thomas s u g g e s t e d t h a t “ p r o b a b ly t h e m ost im p o r ta n t t y p e o f common e x p e r i e n c e s w h ic h h i g h s c h o o l p u p i l s s h o u ld s h a r e a r e t h o s e w h ic h may b e d e s i g n a t e d a s s o c ia _ l d i s c o v e r y and ad.iustm ent “i n t h e i r w i d e s t i m p l i c a t i o n s .

3 1 Thomas, Frank W. “What I s a Core C u rricu lu m and Why?11 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 1 3 7 - 3 9 , F e b r u a r y , 1935*

Thomas r a i s e d an i n t e r e s t i n g and c h a l l e n g i n g q u e s t i o n when h e a s k e d , " I s i t n o t c o n c e i v a b l e t h a t one i n d i s p e n s a b l e e le m e n t i n t h i s c o r e o f e x p e r i e n c e s must be a r e a s o n a b l e harmony i n t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e t e a c h e r s t o whom t h e p u p i l i s

e x p o s e d , w i t h whom h e i s i n f l i c t e d , or

th r o u g h w hose i n f l u e n c e he i s

in s p i r e d ? "

(F ou rteen years

l a t e r , i n t h e simmer o f 19 ^ 9 , i n a c u r r ic u lu m c o u r s e g i v e n a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a , l i b e r t y i n s i s t e d on t h i s p r i n c i p l e , and i n d e e d , w o u ld i n s u r e i t s a p p l i c a t i o n by em p lo y in g i t

a s a s c r e e n i n g d e v i c e i n h i r i n g new t e a c h e r s ;

i n a w ord , a p h i l o s o p h i c a l l y " c l o s e d sh op*" ) To t h e o b j e c t i o n t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a b i l i t y and a p t i t u d e m ig h t d i s r u p t t h e u n i t y and u n b a la n c e th e common outcom es s o u g h t i n t h e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m , Thomas r e p l i e d , "In s c o p e o f i n f o r m a t i o n and i n power o f a n a l y s i s t h e r e w i l l c e r t a i n l y be w id e d i ­ vergences.

But i n fu n d a m e n ta l s o c i a l u n d e r s ta n d in g and

s o c i a l gopd w i l l t h e r e n eed b e no l a c k o f common a g r e e m e n t." Thomas p o i n t e d o u t t h a t , i n f a c t , a h ig h s c h o o l c l a s s c o n ­ s t i t u t e s a f a r more n e a r l y homogenous group th a n t h e a d u l t s u s u a l l y a s s o c i a t e d i n any c o - o p e r a t i v e e f f o r t n e c e s s a r y t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f a c o m p r e h e n siv e s o c i a l u n d e r t a k i n g . Thomas c l o s e d h i s p a r t o f t h e symposium w it h t h i s c h a l l e n g i n g remarks

" P u p i ls who go f o r t h from t h e h ig h s c h o o l s o f a

dem ocracy s h o u ld be c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y c e r t a i n common a t t a i n ­ m ents e s s e n t i a l t o t h e m a in te n a n c e and im provem ent o f a

Ib 8 d e m o c r a tic s o c i a l o r d e r .

The s e q u e n c e o f e x p e r i e n c e s b e s t

c a l c u l a t e d t o prom ote t h o s e a t t a i n m e n t s must s e t t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m .” I n t h e s e c o n d a r t i c l e o f t h e sym posium , ”A Gore C urriculum f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s , ” George H. M e rid eth ^ 2 showed t h a t o n e ’s c o n c e p t o f th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m w i l l b e c o n d i t i o n e d by o n e ’ s c o n c e p t o f th e s c h o o l .

I f , f o r e x a m p le ,

one c o n c e i v e s t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l t o b e t h a t o f t r a n s m i t t i n g t o oncoming g e n e r a t i o n s t h e cu sto m s and p a t t e r n s o f p a s t g e n e r a t i o n s , em p h a sis w o u ld be p la c e d upon f a c t s r e l a t i v e t o t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and a c h ie v e m e n ts o f p a s t g e n e r a ­ t i o n s and o f t h e p r e s e n t a d u l t w o r l d .

Such an e m p h a s is ,

M e r id e th p o i n t e d o u t , w ould n e c e s s i t a t e a c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i n v o l v i n g ”an h i s t o r i c a l ap p ro ach and d e a l i n g e s s e n t i a l l y w i t h t h e f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l s o f our s o c i a l h e r i t a g e em bodied i n p a s t r a c i a l e x p e r i e n c e . 11 have i t s

And s u c h a c u r r ic u lu m would

arrangem ent o f m a t e r i a l s and s e q u e n c e 11f o l l o w

l a r g e l y t h e c h r o n o l o g i c a l or l o g i c a l o r d e r r e p r e s e n t e d i n our t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f i e l d s . ” But i f

one a c c e p t s John

Dew ey’s p h i l o s o p h y and d e f i n e s e d u c a t i o n a lo n g w i t h M e rid eth a s 11a p r o c e s s o f gro w th th r o u g h t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e x ­ p e r i e n c e tow ard t h e b e s t p o s s i b l e outcom es f o r t h e i n d i v i d u a l 3 2 M e r id e t h , George H. ”A Core C urriculum f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . 11 C a l i f o r n i a JournaJ. o f S e c o n d a r y Educa­ t i o n . 1 0 :1 39 -^ -2, F e b r u a r y , 1935*

Ib 9 and f o r t h e s o c i e t y o f w h ic h h e i s th at i t is

a p a r t , M and i t f o l l o w s

th e f u n c t i o n o f th e s c h o o l t o p r o v id e s i t u a t i o n s

i n w h ich y o u th may d i s c o v e r t h e p e r t i n e n t p rob lem s o f t h e i r d ay and g e n e r a t i o n and s t u d y them w i t h a v ie w t o d e t e r m in in g th e b e s t a lt e r n a t iv e s of p o s s ib le s o l u t i o n s , th en th e 11em p h a sis w i l l b e p la c e d upon t h e p r e s e n t and em erg in g e x ­ p e r i e n c e s o f y o u t h , and upon t h e im p o r ta n c e o f a s c i e n t i f i c o u t l o o k and a s c i e n t i f i c p rob lem s o l v i n g t e c h n i q u e , a s w e l l a s t h e n e e d f o r an a d e q u a te p h il o s o p h y o f l i f e .

T h u s, i n

a w o r d , M e r id e th summed up h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e c o r e c u r ­ r ic u lu m when h e s a i d : . . . t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m w i l l d e a l w i t h t h o s e e x ­ p e r i e n c e s w h ic h . p e r t a i n t o p r e s e n t s i g n i f i c a n t problem s o f s o c i e t y and o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , w h ich a r e b o th s o c i a l and s e l f - r e v e a l i n g , and w h ic h w i l l le a d t o v i t a l and dynam ic u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e p r e s e n t . I n su c h an a p p r o a ch t h e p a s t w i l l b e u t i l i z e d a s a n e s s e n t i a l a i d i n t h e c h o i c e o f a l t e r n a t i v e s f o r t h e p r e s e n t and f u t u r e . . . . I n t h i s c u r r ic u lu m t h e s e q u e n c e and a r ­ ran gem en ts o f m a t e r i a l s w i l l be d e te r m in e d b y th e p a s t , p r e s e n t , and em er g in g e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e l e a r n e r i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s f e l t n e e d s . The l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s w i l l i n v o l v e i n t r i n s i c v a l u e s , t h a t i s , t h o s e w h ic h a r e in h e r e n t i n or grow n a t u r a l l y o u t o f t h e s i t u a t i o n s f o r w h ich th e m a t e r i a l s a r e u s e d , r a t h e r th a n t h e e x t r i n s i c or i n s t r u m e n t a l V a lu e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h d i r e c t e d s t u d y o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r co m p a r tm e n ts. • • . The a p p ro a ch . . . w i l l b e l a t e r a l , c u t t i n g a c r o s s many s u b j e c t s and a r e a s o f human i n t e r e s t , i n s t e a d o f l o n g i t u d i n a l , t r a c i n g one t h r e a d o f human i n t e r e s t h i s t o r i c a l l y . • . . T h e problem s o l v i n g t e c h n iq u e u s e d / i n th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m / w i l l i n v o l v e t h e f o r m u l a t i o n o f p r o b le m s , g a t h e r i n g and w e ig h in g o f p e r t i n e n t d a t a , t h e draw ing o f t e n t a t i v e c o n c l u s i o n s i n harmony w i t h a v a i l a b l e e v i d e n c e , and t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a t t i t u d e s and b e h a v io r c o n s i s t e n t w it h t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d ed uced from s u c h s t u d y . The t h i r d w r i t e r i n t h e symposium on t h e c o r e

150 c u r r ic u lu m , G rayson N.

K e f a u v e r , ^

e n d ea v o re d t o d e f i n e t h e

d i f f e r e n t m ean ings o f a c o r e c u r r ic u lu m a c c o r d in g t o t h e V a rio u s p la n s o f c u r r ic u lu m o r g a n i z a t i o n i n vogu e a t t h e tim e and made an a tte m p t t o a n sw er t h e q u e s t i o n s

“What Type

o f Core C u rricu lu m I s A c c e p t a b le f o r S e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls? * 1 K efa u v er saw f o u r t y p e s o f c o r e c u r r i c u l a .

F i r s t , th e co re

was t h a t p a r t o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m i n w h ich f,c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s a r e r e q u i r e d o f a l l s t u d e n t s , and t h e c o n t e n t and a c t i v i t i e s o f t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e s i m i l a r f o r a l l g ro u p s o f s t u d e n t s . 11 The s e c o n d t y p e o f c o r e c u r r ic u lu m was t h e same a s t h e f i r s t , ex cep t th a t " v a r ia tio n s in the c a p a c i t ie s o f stu d e n ts are R e c o g n iz e d by p r o v id in g d i f f e r e n t m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n and l e a r n i n g a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e v a r i o u s a b i l i t y l e v e l s * 11 A t h i r d c o r e p la n r e q u ir e d c e r t a i n s u b j e c t s o f a l l p u p i l s , b u t made p r o v i s i o n f o r " v a r i a t i o n o f t h e a c t i v i t i e s w i t h i n a s u b j e c t i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h th e i n t e r e s t s , c o n c e r n s , g o a l s , and n e e d s o f t h e s t u d e n t s a s t h e t e a c h e r c a n d i s c o v e r and d e f i n e them i n c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h t h e s t u d e n t s . "

In t h is s e n s e ,

t h e n , th e r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s m e r e ly r e f e r t o a r e a s o f a c t i v i t y and g u a r a n t e e s t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s w i l l s t u d y i n c e r t a i n fie ld s.

The f o u r t h c o r e p la n i n v o l v e s "a breakdown o f su b ­

j e c t l i n e s and t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f a u n i t a r y grou p o f

33 K e f a u v e r , Grayson N. "What Type o f Core C urriculum I s A c c e p t a b le f o r S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls ? " C a lifo rn j_ a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 :1 ^ 2 -^ 5 9 F e b r u a r y , 1 9 3 5 •

151 a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h grow ou t o f th e i n t e r e s t s , c o n c e r n s , and g o a ls ."

The t e a c h e r b e g i n s w i t h t h e a c t i v i t i e s h a v in g v i t a l

r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and i n t e r e s t s stu d en ts.

of th e

The " co re" e le m e n t i n t h i s program i s t h e group

o f o b j e c t i v e s tow ard w h ic h t h e s t u d e n t s a r e s t r i v i n g and tow ard w h ic h t h e s c h o o l program i s d i r e c t e d .

I t does n ot

i n v o l v e s e t t i n g up a f i x e d body o f c o n t e n t or group o f a c t i v i t i e s and r e q u i r i n g a l l s t u d e n t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e . In a n s w e r in g t h e q u e s t i o n as t o w h ich c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i s a c c e p t a b l e , K e fa u v e r r e j e c t e d th e f i r s t tw o on t h e grounds t h a t t h e y " f a i l t o g i v e a d e q u a te r e c o g n i t i o n t o i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , t h e y f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e a d e q u a t e ly t h e i n t e r e s t s and g o a l s o f s t u d e n t s , and t h e y a r e s u b j e c t c e n t e r e d r a t h e r th a n s t u d e n t c e n t e r e d . "

The t h i r d t y p e o f c o r e was a c c e p t e d

a s " o n ly p a r t i a l l y s a t i s f a c t o r y " s i n c e i t r e q u i r e s s t u d e n t s t o s t u d y i n c e r t a i n s u b j e c t f i e l d s r e g a r d l e s s of "w hether or n o t t h e s t u d e n t s want t o , w h e th e r or n o t th e c o u r s e s r e l a t e t o t h e g o a l s w h ic h a r e c o n s i d e r e d by t h e s t u d e n t s t o be o f g r e a t e s t im p o r ta n c e , and w h e th e r or n o t t h e s t u d e n t s s e e v a l u e i n them ."

The w r i t e r f e l t t h a t t h i s t h i r d t y p e o f

c o r e w ould l o s e much of i t s

o b j e c t i o n a b l e f e a t u r e s i f th e

s u b j e c t f i e l d s w ere b ro ad en ed by f u s i n g e x i s t i n g s u b j e c t s , and t h e t e a c h i n g c o n t e n t and a c t i v i t i e s w ere s u f f i c i e n t l y f l e x i b l e a s t o b e sh ap ed i n term s o f th e i n t e r e s t s and concerns o f th e s t u d e n ts .

152 The f o u r t h t y p e o f c o r e — a c o r e w h ich i n v o l v e d a breakdown o f s u b j e c t l i n e s and freed o m f o r t h e t e a c h e r and th e s t u d e n t s t o s h a p e a program o f a c t i v i t i e s i n term s o f th e i n t e r e s t s , n e e d s , and g o a l s o f s t u d e n t s i n l i n e w i t h t h e o b j e c t iv e s of th e s c h o o l— t h i s t y p e of core r e c e iv e d th e u n q u a l i f i e d s u p p o r t o f K efa u v er a s b e in g *•e n t i r e l y d e f e n s i b l e i n t h a t t h e m ajor o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e s c h o o l w ou ld c o n s t i t u t e th e c o n c e r n f o r a l l s t u d e n t s . 11

T h is ty p e of c o r e , " d e f i n e s

th e n a t u r e o f t h e d evelop m en t o f t h e s t u d e n t s w h ich i s d e ­ s i r e d , f o c u s e s a t t e n t i o n on t h e c h i l d i n s t e a d o f on a b ody o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , and r e c o g n i z e s th e i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n e x p e r i e n c e , i n t e r e s t s , and g o a l s o f s t u d e n t s . "

The

p h i l o s o p h y of e d u c a t i o n w hich “ i n v o l v e s a i d i n g s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n o f g o a ls " and “ p la n n in g a program o f t r a i n ­ in g w h ic h w i l l a i d them i n moving tow ard a t t a in m e n t o f t h e i r g o a ls" i s

in h e r e n t i n th e fo u r th ty p e of c o r e .

I t is th is

i n t i m a t e and i n t e g r a l e le m e n t o f g u id a n c e w h ich makes t h i s p la n s o a c c e p t a b l e .

The g u id a n c e program s h o u ld a i d s t u d e n t s

i n p r o j e c t i n g s o c i a l - c i v i c , v o c a t i o n a l , r e c r e a t i o n a l , and h e a l t h g o a l s , b u t t h e s e g o a l s " s h o u ld n o t be f o r c e d upon stu d en ts.

I f t h e y are t o be r e a l , v i t a l and e f f e c t i v e , t h e y

must grow ou t of t h e i r own e x p e r i e n c e . "

K e fa u v er a d m itte d

t h a t t h i s f o u r t h t y p e o f c o r e " i s more d i f f i c u l t and h as b e e n u n d e r ta k e n by o n ly a few o f t h e s c h o o l s . " H e le n C o r l i s s Babson made th e f o u r t h c o n t r i b u t i o n

153 t o t h e symposium on th e c o r e c u r r i c u l u m B a b s o n e x p l a i n e d how t h e p u r p o se o f th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m was i n h e r e n t i n th e i d e a t h a t nc u r r i c u l a s h o u ld be c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h l i f e and w i t h i n t e l l i g e n t l i v i n g

• . . / a n d w i t h s u p p l y i n g 7 th e

c h i l d t h o s e e x p e r i e n c e s w h ic h may h e l p him t o grow i n an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f h i m s e l f and o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r w h i c h , p a r a ­ d o x i c a l l y , he makes and by w h ic h h e i s m a d e .” fe lt

The w r i t e r

t h a t none o f th e term s u s e d c u r r e n t l y t o e x p r e s s su c h

p r o c e d u r e , l i k e c o r r e l a t i o n , i n t e g r a t i o n , and f u s i o n , w ere q u i t e a d e q u a t e , f o r , s h e c o n t e n d e d , w here a c o u r s e i s b e in g t r i e d by t e a c h e r s who a r e c h i l d - , r a t h e r th a n s u b j e c t - m i n d e d , " so m eth in g q u i t e d i f f e r e n t from a c o m b in a t io n o f s u b j e c t f i e l d s r e s u l t s , a new t y p e o f m a t e r i a l w i t h a u n i t y , a symmetry o f p a t t e r n , and a p r o g r e s s i v e p u r p o se i n h e r e n t i n its e lf.”

A r e a listic

l i s t o f p roblem s f a c i n g t h e i n n o v a t i o n

o f th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i n c l u d e d s u c h f a c t o r s a s s . . . m a t e r i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s w h ich work p e r f e c t on p aper but r e f u s e t o work o u t i n a p p l i c a t i o n ; t e a c h e r s , w ho, w h i l e e n t h u s i a s t i c i n t h e o r y , c o n t in u e t o work out t h e same o ld m eth o d s; c h i l d r e n , s o imbued w i t h t h e i d e a o f "what t e a c h e r w a n t s 11 and o f r e c e i v i n g c r e d i t s f o r r o u t i n e e f f o r t , t h a t t h e y r e f u s e t o a c c e p t th e c h a n ce t o t h i n k f o r t h e m s e l v e s ; in a d e q u a t e t e x t b o o k s and eq u ip m en t; m is u n d e r s ta n d in g o f p a t r o n and a s s o c i a t e s . Many, many p roblem s l i e a h e a d , t h e g r e a t e s t p e r h a p s , t h e d i s c o v e r y o f some form o f t r e a t i n g t h e r e s u l t s .

3^ B a b so n , H e le n C o r l i s s . f,The Core C urriculum .*1 C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S eco n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 i l b 5 - b 8 , F e b r u a r y , 1935*

151* The f i f t h member o f t h e sym posium , L. A*

W

i l l i a m s , ^

w h i l e g e n e r a l l y r e a f f i r m i n g w hat had a l r e a d y b e e n s a i d o f t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m , d id remark s i g n i f i c a n t l y t h a t t h e c o r e " cu rricu lu m " s h o u ld r e a l l y be c a l l e d a c o r e '‘c o u r s e 11 s i n c e i t w ould n o t c o n s t i t u t e th e e n t i r e c u r r ic u lu m , e s p e c i a l l y on th e secon dary l e v e l .

"In o t h e r w o r d s," s a i d W i l l i a m s , " e x ­

p e r i e n c e s n e c e s s a r y i n common t o a l l , become d e c r e a s i n g l y p o s s i b l e and d e s i r a b l e th r o u g h th e p e r i o d o f s e c o n d a r y ed u ­ c a t i o n , w h i l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o u r s e s a s su p p le m e n ts t o th e common c o r e become i n c r e a s i n g l y a n e c e s s i t y . "

The r o l e o f

g u id a n c e i n th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m ( c o u r s e ) was a l s o em p h a sized by W ill ia m s :

" It i s ev id e n t th a t a d m in is t r a t iv e ly t h is typ e

o f c o r e c u r r ic u lu m ( c o u r s e )

is

and must b e th e v e r y h e a r t

and c e n t e r of t h e g u id a n c e and c o u n s e l l i n g program .

T h ose i n

c h a r g e o f t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m a r e , i n th e n a tu r e o f t h e c a s e , i n t h e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o a i d and d i r e c t i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t s i n making l i f e c h o i c e s

. . ♦"

W illia m s c o n c lu d e d w i t h an ob­

s e r v a t i o n t h a t th e c o r e c o u r s e m ust b e g i n w i t h human e x p e r i ­ e n c e s and n o t s u b j e c t m a t t e r .

H is c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e c o r e

c o u r s e d id n o t i n v o l v e t h e q u e s t i o n o f w h eth er th e c o r e s h o u ld be s o c i a l , a r t i s t i c ,

l i t e r a r y , or s c i e n t i f i c

i n n a tu r e *

3 5 W i l l i a m s , L. A. " S h a l l We Have A Core Curriculum ?" C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S ec o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 1 ^ 8 - 5 2 , F e b r u a r y , 193 5•

155 "H ence," c la im e d W i l l i a m s , " i t becom es i m p o s s i b l e as w e l l a s u n d e s i r a b l e t o a s s i g n th e c o r e an y s u b j e c t - m a t t e r l a b e l su ch a s a ’ s o c i a l c o r e , 1 a ’v o c a t i o n a l c o r e , * and t h e lik e.* * S i m i l a r l y , he f e l t

t h a t t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r making t h e

c o r e d id n o t b e lo n g t o an y s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d e p a r t m e n t , b u t , on th e c o n t r a r y , " th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a u t o m a t i c a l l y f a l l s uPon a l l s u b j e c t d e p a r tm e n ts t o work c o o p e r a t i v e l y toward f o r m u la t in g a j o i n t c o u r s e " t o p r e p a r e p u p i l s t o " e n jo y ’lif e ,

l i b e r t y , and th e p u r s u i t o f h a p p i n e s s * ’ " _ Two o f th e p rob lem s o f th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m w ere

em p h a sised by H. S . Upjohnsym posium .

i n th e l a s t a r t i c l e

o f th e

F i r s t , t h e r e s h o u ld b e no c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n t h e

a r t s and t h e s c i e n c e s f o r a p l a c e i n the c o r e , f o r t h e c o n ­ t e n t o f th e c o r e s h o u ld be "b ased upon r e a l p roblem s p u p i l s / , " a n d , - s e c o n d , t h e e m p h a sis o f t h e work s h o u ld be " p la c e d upon n o t o n ly f i n d i n g th e a n sw e r , b u t upon th e method o f f i n d i n g th e a n s w e r ," s o t h a t t h e s t u d e n t w ould c a r r y from sch ool in to l i f e

"more th a n m em orized f a c t s , " b u t w ould

r a t h e r h a v e i n h i s permanent p o s s e s s i o n "a body o f h a b i t s and a t t i t u d e s , a t r a i n i n g i n t e c h n i q u e s , " T h u s, i f

th e p e r i o d o f 1 9 3 0 - 3 5 saw t h e c o l l a p s e o f

g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h i s same p e r i o d saw th e s e e d s sown f o r a new and w o r k a b le p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

With t h e

c o l l a p s e of t h e eco n om ic s t r u c t u r e o f th e n a t i o n and th e 36 U p jo h n , H. S . " V ita N uova." C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 1 5 2 - 5 5 * F e b r u a r y , 1935*

156 t h r e a t e n e d c o l l a p s e of t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e , w i t h t h e t r e ­ mendous i n c r e a s e i n t h e g row th and h e t e r o g e n e i t y o f th e h i g h s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n , t h e A m erican s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l f o r th e f i r s t tim e i n i t s h i s t o r y fou n d a u n iq u e f u n c t i o n o f i t s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r con tem p o ra ry l i f e .

own:

And t h i s same f u n c t i o n

became a t once th e u n i f y i n g p r i n c i p l e f o r d i r e c t i n g t h e r e o r g a n iz a tio n of g en er a l ed u c a tio n .

S i n e e t h e aim o f

g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w a s , t h e n , p r e p a r a t i o n f o r co n tem p o r a ry l i v i n g , i t must f o c u s i t s s o c i a l p rob lem s of y o u t h . must be c h i l d - c e n t e r e d .

a t t e n t i o n on t h e p e r s o n a l and G eneral e d u c a tio n so co n stru ed I t c o u ld n e v e r be s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d .

For t h e s e r e a s o n s , b e c a u s e t h e y w ere wedded t o s u b j e c t m a t t e r , t h e c o r r e l a t e d , f u s e d , and b r o a d - f i e l d s t y p e s o f c u r r ic u la fo r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n f a i l e d .

At w o r s t , th e s e

c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n s w ere no d i f f e r e n t i n e f f e c t from t h e o ld s u b j e c t c o n s t a n t s .

At b e s t , t h e y w ere a s u b j e c t - c e n t e r e d

co m p ro m ise, u n r e a l i s t i c and i m p r a c t i c a l .

A more r a d i c a l

a p p r o a ch was i m p e r a t i v e , one t h a t w ould c u t a e r o s s s u b j e c t m a tt e r l i n e s , d e p a r t m e n t a l b a r r i e r s , and a r t i f i c i a l com p art­ ment a l i z a t i o n .

Out o f su c h a r e a l i z a t i o n , and a f t e r much

t r i a l and e r r o r , i t was d i s c o v e r e d t h a t any c u r r ic u lu m p a tte r n fo r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n , i f

i t were t o b e r e a l i s t i c ,

p r a c t i c a l , and c o n s i s t e n t w it h t h e new aim o f th e h i g h s c h o o l , must shun th e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r b a s i s o f o r g a n i z a t i o n and must be p r e d i c a t e d upon t h e n e e d s , a b i l i t i e s , and i n t e r e s t s

of

157 y o u th i n r e l a t i o n t o t h e i r p e r s o n a l —s o c i a l p rob lem s i n our co n tem p o ra ry c u l t u r e .

Such a c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l

e d u c a t i o n was th e c o r e c o u r s e . G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e means a b l o c k of tim e ru n n in g from o n e - t h i r d t o o n e - h a l f t h e s c h o o l day u nder th e d i r e c t i o n o f one t e a c h e r .

I t i s r e q u ir e d o f

a l l p u p i l s r e g a r d l e s s of t h e i r p la n s f o r th e f u t u r e , t h e i r i n d i v i d u a l p r o g r a m s s p e c i a l t i e s , or e l e c t i v e s .

W it h in t h e

c o n c e p t o f i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e s e e k s t h a t common d en o m in a to r o f l e a r n i n g s and a d ju s t m e n t s w h ich make f o r i n t e l l i g e n t d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y .

liv in g in a

Under one a s p e c t or a n o t h e r , and i n a

g r a d u a l l y l e s s e n e d d e g r e e , t h e c o r e i s c o n t in u e d th r o u g h o u t th e e n t i r e s c h o o l l i f e

o f th e p u p il.

T h u s, t e a c h i n g and

g u id a n c e em erge as com p lem en tary f u n c t i o n s .

The c o r e i s

p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h th e p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l p rob lem s o f th e i

p u p ils.

I t s a c t i v i t i e s a r e g e n e r a l l y p la n n ed c o o p e r a t i v e l y

by p u p i l s and t e a c h e r .

I t e m p h a s iz e s th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f

a t t i t u d e s and s k i l l s r a t h e r th a n th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a tt e r i n f o r m a t i o n . o n ly i s

I t i s t r u ly g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n fo r not

i t fo r a l l p u p ils a l i k e , but a ls o i s i t

lib e r a l—

n o t i n t h e Greek s e n s e o f an e d u c a t i o n f o r f r e e men, b u t i n t h e A m erican and d e m o c r a tic s e n s e o f an e d u c a t i o n t h a t w i l l make men f r e e . O b v i o u s l y , many p rob lem s w ere i n h e r e n t i n t h e

158 r e a l i z a t i o n o f su c h a scheme f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . t h e h ig h s c h o o l fs f i n d i n g a f u n c t i o n o f i t s in g i t s

W ith

own and a c h i e v ­

in d e p e n d e n c e , a new and r e a l i s t i c a p p ro a ch w ould h ave

t o be fou n d i n th e r e l a t i o n o f th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l t o t h e c o lle g e .

T h en , t o o , s i n c e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was a r e a c t i o n

a g a i n s t o v e r - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g , i t w ould h a v e t o e s t a b l i s h w ork in g r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e s e fie ld s.

T o o , s i n c e t h e outcom es o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ere

n o t t o be m easured i n term s o f f a c t u a l c o n t e n t m a s t e r e d , b u t r a t h e r i n term s o f su c h i n t a n g i b l e s a s a t t i t u d e s , i d e a s , and i d e a l s , new means o f e v a l u a t i n g t h e outcom es o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ould h a ve t o be f o u n d .

B u t , b y and l a r g e , i n

o r g a n iz in g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h th e c o r e c o u r s e , th e m ajor i s s u e , b e c a u s e o f c e n t u r i e s o f t r a d i t i o n and i n e r t i a , w ould be t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a p p ro a ch v e r s u s t h e p r o b l e m s - o f y o u th a p p r o a c h .

And so t h e l i n e s w ere drawn and th e b a t t l e

about to b e g in .

The outcome was u n p r e d i c t a b l e .

t h i n g was c e r t a i n s was on th e m arch.

But one

b y 193? & g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement

CHAPTER V I I I

THE GROWTH OF THE GENERAL EDUCATION MOVEMENT s DELINEATION OF ISSUES By 19 3 ? t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement was on t h e m arch.

T hat d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n w ould a r i s e o v er t h e

c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n and c o n t e n t f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ere t o b e a n t i c i p a t e d t o th e same d e g r e e t h a t t h e r e w ere v a r i e d and c o n f l i c t i n g t h e o r i e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p h il o s o p h y and p sy c h o lo g y .

B ut a t l e a s t , by t h i s t i m e , t h e r e was u n i v e r s a l

a g reem en t t h a t an em p hasis on g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was n eed ed t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e o v e r - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n w rought by t h e e l e c t i v e s y s t e m and t h e f r a g m e n t i z a t i o n o f t h e program r e s u l t i n g from t h e m u l t i p l i c i t y o f c u r r i c u l a and t h e v a r i e t y o f a b i l i t y g r o u p in g s.

The g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement was d e f i n i t e l y

on t h e m arch.

E verett^- had an o p t i m i s t i c v ie w o f t h e f u t u r e

fo r secondary ed u c a tio n .

In t h e fo rw a rd o f h i s b o o k , A

C h a l le n g e t o S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . E v e r e t t f o r e s a w i n 193? th a t: The s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l l y in the n ex t d ecad e. i n c r e a s e ; t h e number o f v o c a tio n a l courses w i l l

i s d e s t i n e d t o ch an g e fu n d a m e n ta l The e n r o l lm e n t w i l l c o n t i n u e t o p o s e g r a d u a te s t u d e n t s w i l l r i s e ; be m erged w i l l g e n e r a l c o u r s e s ;

1 E v e r e t t , S a m u e l, e d . A C h a lle n g e t o S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . New Y ork , D. A p p le to n -C e n t u r y Company, 1935? P * v .

160 t h e d o m in a t io n o f t h e c o l l e g e w i l l d e c l i n e ; t h e c u r r i c u ­ lum w i l l r a d i c a l l y r e v i s e d ; and t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w i l l e s t a b l i s h i t s e d u c a t i o n a l in d e p e n d e n c e . I n 19 3 5 ) 't0 0 ) F r a n k l in B o b b it t ^ made an e lo q u e n t p l e a f o r a program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o n s i s t e n t w it h t h e n ew -fou n d aim o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n s

p r e p a r a tio n fo r l i f e .

C o g e n t l y , y e t s u c c i n t l y , B o b b i t t summarized t h e argum ents f o r p r e d i c a t i n g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n upon t h e p rob lem s o f y o u th in s te a d of a core of con stan t s u b j e c ts .

B o b b itt e x p la in e d

how ea c h p e r s o n r e a l l y l i v e s a d u a l l i f e :

th e l i f e

of h is

c a l l i n g or v o c a t i o n , and h i s l i f e as a human b e i n g .

It is

t h e l a t t e r , t h e p r o f i c i e n c y i n g e n e r a l human l i v i n g , w h ich is

th e g o a l o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

G eneral e d u c a tio n ,

a c c o r d in g t o B o b b i t t , aims t o make p e r s o n s p r o f i c i e n t i n t h o s e f u n d a m e n ta l f i e l d s

o f human p erfo rm a n ce t h a t a r e

common t o a l l human b e i n g s , su c h a s c i t i z e n s h i p , h e a l t h c a r e , home d u t i e s , consum er a c t i v i t i e s ,

l e i s u r e o c c u p a t i o n s , la n g u a g e ,

and t h e c u r r e n t t h o u g h t - l i f e . B o b b i t t c o n t in u e d t o show how g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was t h e f u n c t i o n o f t h e e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l s i n c e i t was assumed y e a r s ago t h a t p e r s o n s n eed ed g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n u n t i l t h e a g e o f p u b e r t y , and w ere h e l d , f o r t h i s r e a s o n , i n s c h o o l by a t t e n d a n c e law s u n t i l t h e a g e o f f o u r t e e n .

The prim e p u r p o se

2 B o b b itt , F r a n k lin . " G en era l E d u c a t io n i n t h e H igh S c h o o l . 11 S c h o o l R e v ie w . ^ 3 * 2 5 7 - 6 6 , A p r i l , 1 9 3 5 .

161

o f h i g h s c h o o l was v o c a t i o n a l , inasm uch as i t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s , su c h a s e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l t e a c h i n g , e d i t i n g a l o c a l p a p e r , r e a d i n g law and a s s i s t i n g i n a law o f f i c e , or p r e p a r in g f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l work i n a u n i v e r s i t y .

"Even t h e

f g e n e r a l c u l t u r e 1 a t w h ich t h e h ig h s c h o o l a im ed ," s a y s B o b b i t t , "was t h a t r e q u ir e d f o r t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e g e n tle m a n i n a p r o f e s s i o n , and i t was v ie w e d as p a r t o f t h e s p e c i a l i z a ­ tio n ." Showing how t h i s p o s i t i o n was no lo n g e r t e n a b l e i n 1935? B o b b it t d e c l a r e d : I n t h i s a g e o f s o c i a l and t e c h n o l o g i c a l c o m p l e x i t y , t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n n eed ed b y e v e r y b o d y i s g r e a t l y in c r e a s e d . I t c a n n o t b e f i n i s h e d by t h e a g e o f f o u r t e e n . The new n eed i s r e c o g n i z e d i n t h e te n d e n c y t o a d va n ce t h e upper l i m i t s o f c o m p u lso r y a t t e n d a n c e t o t h e a g e s o f s i x t e e n and e v e n t o e i g h t e e n . The p u r p o se i s n o t t o co m p el a l l p e r s o n s t o p r e p a r e f o r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . It i s s im p ly a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e p r e s e n t n eed f o r more g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . I t i s t h e new r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l. B o b b i t t showed t h a t a lt h o u g h t h e h i g h s c h o o l was g o in g th ro u g h a t r a n s i t i o n a l p e r i o d i t was s i t l l a c u t e l y co n sc io u s of i t s

a g e - o l d f u n c t i o n o f t r a i n i n g f o r t h e p ro ­

f e s s i o n s and some o f t h e s i m p l e r c a l l i n g s a s , f o r e x a m p le , c l e r i c a l work and a g r i c u l t u r e .

B o b b i t t a l s o showed how

C ounts^ fou n d t h a t Los A n g e l e s , f o r e x a m p le , o f f e r e d t h e

C o u n t s , G eorge S . The S e n i o r H igh S c h o o l C u r r i­ cu lu m . S u p p le m e n ta r y E d u c a t i o n a l M onographs, No. 2 9 , C h ic a g o , U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o , D epartm ent o f E d u c a t io n , 1926*

162 fo llo w in g s p e c i a l cu r r ie u lu m s:

a g r ic u ltu r e , a r t , d r a ftin g ,

e n g i n e r r i n g p r e p a r a t o r y , home e c o n o m ic s , l i t e r a r y , m u s i c , s c i e n t i f i c , s o c i a l s c ie n c e , a c c o u n tin g , s e c r e t a r i a l , s a l e s ­ m a n sh ip , a u t o m o b ile i n d u s t r y , b u i l d i n g i n d u s t r y , e l e c t r i c a l i n d u s t r y , m ech an ic a r t s , p r i n t i n g , and e l e c t i v e . c itie s

Other

o f f e r e d su c h a d d i t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m s a s a r c h i t e c t u r e ,

m e d i c i n e , t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , d r e s s m a k in g , home n u r s i n g , p u b l i c h e a l t h , c o m m e r c ia l fo o d s e r v i c e , f i n e a r t s , c a b i n e t and p a t t e r n m a k in g .

The m u l t i p l i c a t i o n o f s p e c i a l c u r r i c u l a

made i t ap p ea r t o B o b b i t t 1** t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was b e in g l e s s and l e s s r e c o g n i z e d . Y et t h e h i g h s c h o o l c a n n o t f a i l t o r e c o g n i z e t h e 130 h o u r s o f human tim e t h a t go on p a r a l l e l w i t h t h e *+0 h o u r s of v o c a t io n a l tim e . I t c a n n o t f a i l t o s e e t h a t t h e 130 h o u r s c o v e r a w id e r ra n g e o f f u n c t i o n s th a n do t h e *+0 h o u r s and t h a t p r o f i c i e n c y i n t h e s e f u n c t i o n s i s much more d i f f i c u l t t o a t t a i n . As a c o n s e q u e n c e , t h e more t h o u g h tfu l w orkers i n th e h ig h s c h o o l a r e g r a d u a lly coming t o s e e t h a t t h e i r b a s i c r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s shown b y t h e " c o n s ta n ts ." T h ese a r e r e q u i r e d o f a l l p u p i l s w it h o u t regard to t h e ir f i e l d s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . T hat t h e c o n ­ s t a n t s ta k e preced en ce over e l e c t i v e s proves th e su p e r io r e s te e m i n w h ich g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s h e l d . The c o n s t a n t s show what t h e h ig h s c h o o l r e g a r d s a s e s s e n t i a l f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . A c c o r d in g t o t h e N a t i o n a l S u r v e y o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , a b o u t h a l f o f t h e program i s a l l o t t e d t o t h e con stan t s u b j e c ts . T h ese f i g u r e s w o u ld i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l b e l i e v e s t h a t t h e m ost e s s e n t i a l t h i n g i n l i f e i s fou n d i n t a l k , l e t t e r - w r i t i n g , and t h e r e a d in g and t h e If

Bobbitt, loc. cit.

163 am ateur w r i t i n g o f l i t e r a t u r e ; t h a t n e x t i n v a l u e i s t h e backward v ie w o f a w o rld t h a t i s s a f e l y d ead ; and t h a t t h e t h i r d l a r g e s t t h i n g i s t h e m a th em a tics w h ich p e r s o n s do n o t u s e i n t h e i r g e n e r a l l i v i n g . If in te llig e n t laym en w ere a s k e d , "What a r e t h e t h r e e m ost e s s e n t i a l t h i n g s i n g e n e r a l human l i v i n g ? 11 i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t t h o s e a r e t h e a c t i v i t i e s w h ich t h e y w ould m e n tio n . In s c i e n t i f i c a n a l y s e s t h a t h a v e b e e n m ade, t h e se c o n d and t h e t h i r d o f t h e s e a r e i n c o n s p i c u o u s , and ev e n th e f i r s t t a k e s a form d i f f e r e n t form t h a t o f t h e u s u a l E n g lish c o u r s e s . The same d ^ ta o f t h e N a t i o n a l S u r v e y , a c c o r d in g t o B o b i t t , showed t h a t : . . . t h e h i g h s c h o o l s r e c o g n i z e t h r e e o t h e r m inor fa cto rs. To t h e c i t i z e n s h i p e d u c a t i o n t h a t p r e p a r e s f o r t h e w o r ld o f t h e l i v i n g r a t h e r th a n f o r t h a t o f t h e dead i s a c c o r d e d a s e m e s t e r o f a t t e n t i o n . In s p i t e o f t h e s t i r r i n g c h a r a c t e r o f l i f e i n t h i s t h r i l l i n g ag e o f g i a n t f a c t o r s , b a f f l i n g p r o b le m s , and a b e w ild e r e d p o p u l a t i o n , c i t i z e n s h i p i s v ie w e d by t h e s c h o o l s as e i t h e r u n im p o r ta n t or e a s i l y m a s t e r e d . S i n c e we know t h a t i t i s n o t e a s i l y m a s t e r e d , t h e h ig h s c h o o l s must t h i n k i t u n im p o r t a n t . As a r e s u l t , t h e p o p u l a t i o n i s t o ­ day a p p a l l i n g l y u n p rep ared t o m eet i t s th o u sa n d s o c i a l p r o b le m s . The f i g u r e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t , i n t h i s t e c h ­ n o lo g ic a l a g e , n a tu r a l s c ie n c e i s ex p ected to c o n s t i t u t e but a " trace" i n th e m en ta l l i v e s o f p erso n s In g e n e r a l. The a v e r a g e amount r e q u ir e d i s t o o s l i g h t t o h a v e v a l u e . Thanks t o t h e a g i t a t i o n o f t h e war p e r i o d , t h e r e i s a l i t t l e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e n eed o f p h y s i c a l d ev elo p m en t and m a in t e n a n c e , b u t th e s m a l l amount o f p h y s i c a l t r a i n ­ in g i n t h e c o n s t a n t s seem t o i n d i c a t e a r e l a t i v e l y low v a lu a tio n . I t i s t h e c o n s t a n t s w h ic h a r e presumed t o p r e p a r e a l l p e r s o n s f o r t h e 130 h o u r s o f u n s p e c i a l i z e d l i v i n g . T h ese s i x t h i n g s th e n c o n s t i t u t e g e n e r a l l i v i n g a s v ie w e d b y t h e h i g h s c h o o l . The p a t t e r n b e a r s l i t t l e r e s e m b la n c e , h o w e v e r , t o t h e r i c h and v a r i e d l i f e o f man a t i t s b e s t i n t h i s w o r ld o f d i v e r s i f i e d o p p o r t u n i t y and r e s p o n s i b i l i t y . I f t h a t program p i c t u r e s t h e 130 h o u r s o f g e n e r a l l i v i n g , t h e n i t i s a q u e s t i o n why one s h o u ld want t o be e d u c a te d a t a l l f o r s o c o l o r l e s s and I r r e s p o n s i b l e an e x i s t e n c e . The program i n d i c a t e d s l i g h t s or o m its m ost o f t h e fu n d a ­ m e n ta l t h i n g s o f e n l i g h t e n e d l i v i n g . . . .

16k . . . I t i s e a s y t o t e a c h t h e w o rld o f t h e dead s i n c e nobody c a r e s much a b o u t i t . T h is i n s t r u c t i o n can t h e r e ­ f o r e be g i v e n i n t h e a u t h o r i t a r i a n a ca d em ic m anner. But l e t t e a c h e r s o f unm atured u n d e r s t a n d i n g , l i v i n g i n t h e p a l e realm o f b o o k s , em ploy t h e f a m i l i a r a i r o f i n f a l l i ­ b i l i t y i n te a c h in g d e f i n i t e d o c tr in e s w ith regard t o t a r i f f s , s a l e s t a x e s , m i n i c i p a l o w n e r s h ip , c a p i t a l i s m , l a b o r u n i o n s , or t h e p r o f i t m o t i v e , and a l l s o r t s o f p e r s o n s a r e up i n arm s. T h is s t a t e m e n t d o e s n o t mean t h a t e d u c a t o r s a r e t o be i n t i m i d a t e d and p u s i l l a n i m o u s l y t u r n and f l e e t o th e s a f e acad em ic p r e c i n c t s o f in n o c u o u s n ess. Our l a r g e s t p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s t o p r e ­ p a r e our c i t i z e n s f o r p r o f i c i e n c y i n d e a l i n g w i t h th e l i v e and c u r r e n t w o r l d . We a r e n o t t o r e f u s e , nor t i m o r o u s l y t o e v a d e , th e e d u c a t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y m ere­ l y b e c a u s e i t i s d i f f i c u l t and c a l l s f o r p r o lo n g e d th o u g h t i n r e p la n n in g our o u td a te d p r o c e d u r e s . However t r y i n g i t may b e , our t a s k i s t o f i n d a way i n w h ich t h e r e s p o n s i ­ b i l i t y ca n b e e f f e c t i v e l y d i s c h a r g e d . The problem I s n o t i n s o l u b l e . . . . The t a s k r e q u i r e s a h u m a n izin g o f ed u ­ c a t i o n w h ich s c h o o l s i n i s o l a t i o n h a v e n e g l e c t e d . . . . The work r e q u i r e s m atu re-m in d ed men and women. I t c a n ­ n o t be done by b o y s and g i r l s o u s t ou t o f c o l l e g e . If it i s n o t d o n e , t h e f a i r v i s i o n o f our c o u n t r y ’ s f u t u r e w h ich h a s lo n g i n s p i r e d A m ericans must p r o v e t o h a v e b e e n b u t a m ira g e l e a d i n g t o d e s o l a t i o n . The y e a r s ahead c a n be t r a v e r s e d i n s a f e t y and c e r t a i n t y o n ly b y a p o p u l a t i o n g u id e d and s t a b i l i z e d by e n li g h t e n m e n t . B o b b i t t showed t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f ’’w o r th y home m e m b e r sh ip ,” o b v i o u s l y b e l o n g i n g t o t h e 130 h o u r s o f g e n e r a l l i v i n g , was n o t b e in g r e a l i z e d .

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i s y e t in th e e a r l i e s t s t a g e s o f i t s d e v e lo p m e n t.”

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dom inant B o b b i t t added a f u r t h e r b a s i c i n g r e d i e n t , n o t i n ­ c lu d e d i n t h e c a r d i n a l o b j e c t i v e s , w h ic h must be added t o t h e program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n * liv in g .

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166 w eek when h e i s n o t o c c u p ie d w i t h h i s v o c a t i o n , and d u r in g th e 168 h o u rs f o r t h e more numerous group n o t en ga ged i n an y s p e c i a l c a l l i n g .**

B o b b it t showed t h e im p o r ta n c e o f t h i s

o b j e c t i v e when h e s t a t e d : D uring a l l w aking h o u rs o f t h i s tim e (7 0 t o 100 h o u r s a w ee k ), th e flo w of thou ght i s c o n tin u o u s. S in c e vo­ c a t i o n a l la b o r s ten d t o become a u t o m a t i c , t h i s g e n e r a l t h o u g h t l i f e a l s o f lo w s more or l e s s u n o b s t r u c t e d l y th r o u g h e v e n a g o o d ly p o r t i o n o f t h e h o u r s o f o n e fs c a llin g . D uring t h i s l a r g e p a r t o f e v e r y w eek m an's t h o u g h t l i f e may be w h o le so m e , h u m a n ized , and f r u i t f u l ; or i t may f l o w th ro u g h t h e se w e r s o f human e x p e r i e n c e , or th r o u g h c h a n n e l s , as i n t h e a n im a l w o r ld , i n w h ich th o u g h t i s d om in ated by f e e l i n g s , g r a t i f i c a t i o n s , and d e s i r e s , r a t h e r t h a n by c l e a r v i s i o n o f r e a l i t i e s , r e l a t i o n s and v a l u e s . T h ere a r e r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e o u t s t a n d in g f u n c t i o n o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l s h o u ld be t h e e l e v a t i o n and t h e g r a d u a l m a t u r a t io n o f t h e d u r r e n t th o u g h t l i f e o f t h e young p e o p l e . T h is f u n c t i o n i s m an's p e c u l i a r human a c t i v i t y . I t seem s t h a t t h i s f u n c t i o n ou g h t t o be v ie w e d a s t h e dom inant f e a t u r e o f g e n e r a l human liv in g . The th o u g h t l i f e g u id e s and d e t e r m in e s t h e c h a r a c t e r b o th o f i t s e l f and o f e v e r y o t h e r p h a se o f l i f e . And y e t , i n c r e d i b l e though i t may b e , t h i s f u n c t i o n i s a p h a se of l i f e and o f e d u c a t i o n w h ic h t h e s c h o o l s h a ve n o t y e t d e f i n e d , much l e s s a t t e m p t e d by a program s a n c ­ t i o n e d by e d u c a t i o n a l s c i e n c e . B o b i t t w en t on t o show t h a t i n t e l l e c t u a l l i v i n g was n o t r e s u l t i n g from t h e " i n t e l l e c t u a l d i s c i p l i n e 11 su p p o sed t o f l o w from t h e t e a c h i n g o f s c i e n c e , m a t h e m a t ic s , and s o c i a l s tu d ie s. There i s c o n s i d e r a b l e u n c e r t a i n t y i n t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t th e c o n s t a n t s show t h e y a r e r e c o g n i z e d as g e n e r a l ed u ca ­ t i o n . As one com pares t h e t h i n g s req x iired w i t h t h o s e t h a t s h o u ld e v i d e n t l y make up a w e ll - r o u n d e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , and n o t e s t h e l i t t l e r e s e m b la n c e b e tw e e n t h e tw o , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o b e l i e v e t h a t i n t e l l i g e n t p e r s o n s

167 a im in g a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u ld h a v e a r r i v e d a t p la n s s o f r a g m e n t a r y , d i s p r o p o r t i o n e d , and i n a d e q u a t e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e h ig h s c h o o l h a s had i n mind i n i t s c o n s t a n t s , n o t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e 130 h o u rs o f g e n e r a l l i v i n g ea c h w ee k , b u t r a t h e r t h a t 11c u l t u r e " w h ic h i t h a s a lw a y s assum ed t o b e t h e common n eed o f t h o s e who s p e c i a l i z e d i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s . T h is id e a i s th e s o l e p la u s ib le e x p la n a tio n fo r th e l i t e r a t u r e , th e c o m p o s i t i o n , t h e non-A m erican h i s t o r y , and t h e " h ig h e r 11 m a th em a tics i n c l u d e d i n t h e c o n s t a n t s * V a lu e f o r g e n e r a l - l i v i n g p erh ap s d o m in a te s i n t h e p r e s c r i p t i o n o f a m e r ic a n h i s t o r y and p h y s i c a l t r a i n i n g . I t is d i f f i c u l t to b e lie v e t h a t e i t h e r p u r p o se had d i c t a t e d t h e s m a l l and p e r f u n c t o r y a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e i n f i n i t e l y more im p o r ta n t n a t u r a l and s o c i a l s c i e n c e s . . . • The p u r p o se / o f t h i s a r t i c l e / h a s b e e n t o show t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l h a s n o t y e t p la n n e d t h e program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t h a t t h e r e i s d oubt w h e th e r h i g h s c h o o l p e o p le r e a l i z e t h e n a t u r e and e x t e n t o f t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r d o in g s o . The h ig h s c h o o l c a n n o t p le a d t h e e x c u s e t h a t i t s v o c a ­ t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s l e a v e i t i n s u f f i c i e n t tim e f o r a b a la n c e d and a d e q u a te program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I t h a s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h e e n t i r e tim e d u r in g a l l th e years of th e h ig h - s c h o o l c a r e e r s o f t h a t la r g e p e r c e n t a g e o f p u p i l s who have n o t y e t c h o s e n v o c a t i o n s and whose e d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e f o r e p u r p o s e l e s s e x c e p t as i t i s f o r g e n e r a l human l i v i n g . Even when h a l f o f t h e program i s p r e -e m p te d f o r t h e o c c u p a t i o n a l s i d e o f t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y , t h e r e i s a l l t h e more r e a s o n why t h e g e n e r a l h a l f s h o u ld b e g i v e n a l l p o s s i b l e b a l a n c e and adquacy. I n 193 5 t h e C om m ittee on S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n f o r t h e S o c i e t y f o r C u r ric u lu m S tu d y was i n c l e a r - c u t ag reem en t on s e v e r a l m ajor i s s u e s .

P erhap s m ost s i g n i f i c a n t was i t s

s t a n d on fu n d a m e n ta l r e v i s i o n o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m and g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m . . • • t h e r e i s t h e i s s u e a s t o w h e th er we s h o u ld a t te m p t t o r e c o n s t r u c t , i n a th o r o u g h g o in g f a s h i o n , e v e r y a s p e c t o f t h e A m erican s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . The a t l e r n a t e p o s s i b i l i t y , i s o f c o u r s e , s p e n d in g our tim e

168 and e n e r g i e s i n making ch a n g es i n s i n g l e s u b j e c t s , g r a d e s , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e t e c h n i q u e s , and t h e l i k e w i t h o u t f i t t i n g them i n t o a c a r e f u l l y c o n s i d e r e d c o m p r e h e n siv e program . • • . I t / t h e C o m m itte e / assu m es t h a t t h e t h r o u g h g o in g c o m p r e h e n siv e t y p e o f e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n i s o f v e r y g r e a t im p o r t a n c e . Not o n l y was t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement on th e m arch , b u t t h e r a d i c a l l y d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l edu­ c a t i o n , t h e c o r e c o u r s e , was b ecom ing i n c r e a s i n g l y e n d o r se d by l e a d i n g e d u c a t o r s and d e l i b e r a t i v e c o u n c i l s .

In deed , th e

c o n c e p t s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e c o r e c o u r s e seem ed d e s t i n e d f o r synonom y. . . . I n th e U n ite d S t a t e s s p e c i a l i z a t i o n h a s become ram p ant. U n c o n t r o l l e d and u n c o o r d in a t e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n ; , w h ich i s one a s p e c t o f ru g g e d i n d i v i d u a l i s m , p r o b a b ly i n th e p a st has been of g r e a t v a lu e . . . . I t seem s i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t h a t e d u c a t i o n , s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n , c a n n o t e s c a p e t h o r o u g h g o in g p l a n n i n g , f o r t h i s i s t h e b a s i c c h a l l e n g e o f our g e n e r a t i o n . A p l e a f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th ro u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e was made by t h e Com m ittee when i t s t a t e d : T h ere a r e c e r t a i n k in d s o f e x p e r i e n c e w h ich a l l p e r ­ so n s m ust h a v e i f we a r e t o h a v e any common c u l t u r e i n term s o f k n o w le d g e , a t t i t u d e s , b e l i e f s , i d e a l s , l o y a l t i e s , or s k i l l s . T h ese we must h a v e i n o rd er t o i n s u r e t h a t r e a so n a b le d egree of s o c i a l s o l i d a r i t y e s s e n t i a l t o th e o n g o in g n a t u r e o f l i f e i t s e l f . . . . The e s s e n t i a l t h i n g , h o w e v e r , i s . • . t h a t we s h a l l r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e r e i s a n eed o f su c h a t h in g a s a common group o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h ich a l l p e r s o n s s h a l l p e r f o r m .5 I n t h e m eantim e t h e E ig h t - Y e a r S tu d y had p r o g r e s s e d

^ Everett , op. cit.. pp. 339-^0, 6*4— 65*

169

t o t h e p o i n t w h ere an a p p r a i s a l was made i n 1936 o f t h e work g o in g on i n t h e c o o p e r a t i n g e x p e r im e n t a l s c h o o l s .

In a r e ­

p o r t fin a n ce d , by t h e G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n Board and t h e Works P r o g r e s s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , W r ig h t s t o n e d e c l a r e d : In accord an ce w ith th e o b j e c t iv e s of r e o r g a n iz in g th e c u r r ic u lu m s o t h a t p u p i l s may l e a r n more e f f e c t i v e l y , e x p e r i m e n t a l h i g h s c h o o l s h a v e moved tow ard r e d u c t i o n o f s e p a r a t e and c o m p a rtm e n ta l c o u r s e s by c o r r e l a t i n g or i n ­ t e g r a t i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l s u b j e c t m a tt e r from s e v e r a l c o u r s e s around a c l a s s or an i n d i v i d u a l problem or n e e d . S u b j e c t m a tt e r th u s te n d s t o become a means r a t h e r t h a n an end o f i n s t r u c t i o n . S e v e r a l p a t t e r n s o f c o r r e l a t i o n or i n t e g r a ­ t i o n among t h e s c h o o l s u b j e c t s h a v e begu n t o a p p e a r . . .6 The t r e n d t o e x t e n d t o t h e s e c o n d a r y program t h e c h a r a c te r is tic s

o f u n i t y and i n t e g r a t i o n common t o t h e e l e ­

m en tary c u r r ic u lu m and c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i n d i n g s o f ed u ­ c a t i o n a l p s y c h o lo g y was g i v e n f u r t h e r im p e tu s by W illia m H. K ilp a tr ic k .

He a rg u ed a g a i n s t a c u r r ic u lu m o f s e p a r a t e

su b j e c t s : From our o r g a n is m ic c o n c e p t i o n t h e u n i t e le m e n t o f s u c h a c u r r ic u lu m b e c o m e s , n o t a s p e c i f i e d l e s s o n o f , s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o be l e a r n e d , a s was f o r m e r l y h e l d , b u t a p e r s o n f a c i n g an a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n . That i s an a c tu a l in s ta n c e of c h ild l i v i n g — t h i s , fo r th e te a c h e r , t o be e d u c a t i o n a l l y c o n c e iv e d and e d u c a t i o n a l l y d i r e c t e d . That t h i s c o n c e p t i o n demands t h e th o r o u g h g o in g r e c o n ­ s t r u c t i o n o f any r e m a in in g t r a d i t i o n a l t y p e o f s c h o o l p r a c t ic e i s h ere c o n s c io u s ly in te n d e d . I t i s h a r d ly p o s s i b l e t o o v e r - e m p h a s iz e t h e r a d i c a l c h a r a c t e r o f t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s o u g h t . Many e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s , e s ­ p e c i a l l y f o r t h e e a r l y y e a r s , h a v e a l r e a d y gone f a r

W r i g h t s t o n e , J a co b W. A p p r a i s a l o f E x p e r im e n ta l H igh S c h o o l P r a c t i c e s . New Y ork , T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1936, p. 187.

170 w i t h t h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n . Few s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s h a v e , s o f a r as t h i s w r i t e r k n ow s, b e e n a b l e a s y e t t o s e e beyond s p e c i f i e d s e p a r a t e s u b j e c t s . Most o f us s t i l l t h i n k i n t h e o ld t e r m s . 7 K ilp a t r ic k ad vocated g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n f o r l i v i n g th r o u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e . P r o b a b ly i t i s th e e x i s t e n c e o f d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d t e a c h i n g t h a t op posed t h e s p r e a d o f t h e **a c t i v i t y * 1 movement t o t h e h ig h s c h o o l . • • • t h e r e a r e s t r o n g r e a s o n s why some one t e a c h e r s h o u ld h a v e c o n t i n u a l and e x t e n d e d a c q u a in t a n c e w i t h ea c h d i s t i n c t p u p i l a s t o p e r m it a d e g r e e o f p e r s o n a l c o u n s e l i n g and g u id a n c e d e n ie d u nder a c o m p le te re g im e of d e p a r tm e n ta liz a tio n . I t appears e x c e e d in g ly d o u b tfu l t h a t demands e i t h e r o f m e n ta l h y g i e n c e or o f p ro p er edu­ c a t i o n a l g u id a n c e ca n be a d e q u a t e l y s a f e g u a r d e d on th e u s u a l b a s is o f d ep artm en tal te a c h in g . F u r th e r m o r e , t h e r e a r e many h i g h - s c h o o l p u p i l s f o r whom th e n e e d f o r e x te n d e d s p e c i a l i z a t i o n i s f a r from c le a r . E s p e c i a l l y i s t h i s t r u e w here a n y t h in g l i k e a l l p u p ils o f h ig h - s c h o o l age c o n tin u e in s c h o o l. . . . I n f a c t i f t h e argum ents h o ld f o r t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l , t h e b u rd en o f p r o o f w ould seem t o l i e w i t h t h o s e who c l a im a d i f f e r e n c e f o r t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . I t i s from t h e s e c o n s i d e r a t i o n s t h a t t h e p r o p o s a ls a r e h e r e i n made f o r a new t y p e o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l . The aim i s t o c o n t r i v e a s c h o o l program t h a t w i l l k eep e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l p u p i l s on a b a s i s o f l i v i n g f o r m ost o f e a c h d ay a t t h e b e g in n i n g o f t h e h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d and g r a n t t h e p r i v e l e g e o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n o n ly a s an a f f i r m a t i v e c a s e i s made o u t f o r ea ch i n d i v i d u a l c o n ­ cerned. 8 T hose c o n s e r v a t i v e e d u c a t o r s who w ou ld l e a v e w e l l

7 K i l p a t r i c k , W illia m H New Y ork , Newsom and Company, 8 I b i d - • PP- 9 9 - 1 0 1 .

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171 enough a l o n e w ere f o r c e d t o come t o some k in d o f c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n i n t h e p e r s i s t e n t f a c e o f t h e n o n -a c a d e m ic p u p i l . And a l t h o u g h t h e y would he t h e l a s t t o ad m it i t ,

th e ed u cators

who d o g g e d ly c lu n g t o t h e id e a o f a d a p t in g t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m t o t h e s e " s p e c i a l " p u p i l s w ere f r u s t r a t e d a t e v e r y t u r n b y new p r o b le m s .

F or e x a m p le , t h e problem a r o s e

a s t o t h e m a in te n a n c e o f s t a n d a r d s and t h e " w a te r in g down11 o f e d u c a t i o n b e c a u s e t h e s o - c a l l e d e o l l e g e - e n t r a n c e s ta n d a r d had come t o be a r b i t r a r i l y a d o p ted as t h e c r i t e r i o n b y w h ich a l l p u p i l s w ere t o be j u d g e d . 9

S t e w a r t ^ c h a lle n g e d t h is

s t a n d a r d when h e s a i d : C o l l e g e s h a v e a r i g h t t o demand c e r t a i n s t a n d a r d s o f a c h ie v e m e n t f o r e n t r a n c e , b u t when t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l has t o s a c r i f i c e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s o f a m a j o r i t y o f i t s p u p i l s i n a t t a i n i n g t h e s e s t a n d a r d s , we a r e f a c e d w ith a s e r io u s s i t u a t i o n i n a p u b l i c l y su p p o rted in s titu tio n . The em p h a sis on g r e a t e r c o r r e l a t i o n c o n t in u e d as L. T. H opkins p u b l i s h e d h i s b o o k , I n t e g r a t i o n .

H opkins

assum ed r e a l i n t e g r a t i o n t o be i m p o s s i b l e th r o u g h t h e s u b j e c t c u r r ic u lu m and f e l t t h a t i n t e g r a t i o n c o u l d b e s t be a c h ie v e d th r o u g h t h e e x p e r i e n c e program . The f i r s t s t e p i n t h e movement from t h e s u b j e c t t o t h e

^ K r ey , A . C. " M a in ta in in g S ta n d a r d s i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . " S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 5 * 6 7 - 7 0 , March, 1 9 3 6 . 10 S t e w a r d , Hugh H. " D i f f e r e n t i a t e d C u r ric u lu m s and T h e ir E f f e c t on M a in t a in in g S ta n d a r d s i n t h e H igh S c h o o l . " S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 5 * 7 1-7 5? March, 1 9 3 6 .

172 e x p e r i e n c e c u r r ic u lu m a p p e a r s t o be i n t h e c o r r e l a t e d c u r r ic u lu m . . . . By r e l a t i n g t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r o f one s u b j e c t t o t h a t o f a n o th e r w h e r e v e r f e a s i b l e , t e a c h e r s h a v e le a r n e d t h a t an im provem ent i n l e a r n i n g e f f e c t i s e x p e r ie n c e d i n ea c h s u b j e c t . . . . The c o r r e l a t e d c u r r ic u lu m makes o n ly a v e r y s l i g h t c o n t r i b u t i o n toward any a c c e p t a b l e m eaning o f t h e term i n t e g r a t i o n s i n c e i t i s . g o v e r n e d by t h e b a s i c s u b j e c t - c u r r i c u l u m i d e a s . / I t a l i c s not in o r ig in a l^ / . . . t h e e x p e r i e n c e c u r r ic u lu m o f f e r s g r e a t e s t p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r m e e tin g t h e i n t e g r a t i n g n e e d s o f p u p i l s and t e a e h e r s . l l At t h e same t im e (193&) t h e C om m ittee on t h e O r ie n t a ­ t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n , among o t h e r t h i n g s , recommended t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s h o u ld be c o n c e r n e d p r i m a r i l y w i t h th e v a lu e of i t s

own c o u r s e s a s ends i n t h e m s e lv e s r a t h e r th a n

a s p r e p a r a t i o n f o r ad van ced s t u d i e s and t h a t a new c u r r ic u lu m be o r g a n iz e d on t h e b a s i s o f l i f e r a t h e r t h a n t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s . -1-2 I t w ould a p p e a r t h a t , s o f a r , t h e c o r e c o u r s e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , a s r a d i c a l a d e p a r t u r e as i t w a s , had met w ith l i t t l e

a r tic u la te r e sista n c e .

But t h e a b s e n e e o f

v o l u b l e o p p o s i t i o n p rov ed b u t t o b e t h e l u l l b e f o r e t h e s t o r m . L ik e a bomb d ropped on an e d u c a t i o n a l w o r ld k ey ed t o s o c i a l and f u n c t i o n a l n e e d s d r a m a t i c a l l y h e i g h t e n e d by econom ic

H o p k in s, L. T. I n t e g r a t i o n . New Y ork , D. A p p le t o n C e n tu r y Company, 1937> p . 1 9 5 . 12 C om m ittee on O r i e n t a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n o f t h e D epartm ent o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . " Issu e of S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 11 B u l l e t i n o f t h e D epartm ent o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s « No. 5 9 , XX, J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 6 , p p . 24-8, 2 5 8 .

- 173 c a t a e l s y m s a t home and d i s t u r b i n g i d e o l o g i e s a b r o a d , R o b ert M. H u tc h in s b l a s t e d t h e u t i l i t a r i a n g o a l s and c o n t e n t o f e d u c a tio n .

I n h i s book p u b l i s h e d i n 1 9 3 6 , H ig h e r L ea rn in g i n

A m e r ic a . H u tc h in s ig n o r e d t h e a d v a n c e s o f e d u c a t i o n a l p s y c h o lo g y and a d v o c a t e d a s y s t e m o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h ich a p p e a red t o b e a m e d i e v a l s y n t h e s i s T h o m is t ic p r i n c i p l e s .

o f A r i s t o t e l i a n and

S i n c e h i s i n s t a l l a t i o n as p r e s i d e n t o f

t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o i n 1929* Mr. H u tc h in s had a r o u s e d w i d e , g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t by e x p r e s s i n g o p in i o n s from t im e t o t im e w h ich seem ed t o c o n f l i c t w i t h p r e v a l e n t e d u c a t i o n a l p r i n c i p l e s and p r a c t i c e s .

H is v ie w s w ere s t r i k i n g l y a t v a r i ­

ance w ith th o se of th e g r e a t m a jo r ity o f p r o f e s s io n a l ed u ca to rs• H u tc h in s 1s p r e s e n t (1 9 3 6 ) p r o p o s a ls f o r t h e o b j e c t i v e s and c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w e r e a c o m p le t e i n d i c t m e n t o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a d v o c a t e d b y Dewey, B o b b i t t , K i l p a t r i c k , and o t h e r s , d e s c r i b e d s o f a r as th e core co u rse.

W h ile i t i s

t r u e t h a t Mr. H u t c h i n s ’

book d e a l t a lm o s t e x c l u s i v e l y w i t h t r a i n i n g on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l and a b o v e , i t had d e f i n i t e i m p l i c a t i o n f o r and r e f e r e n c e t o th e secondary s c h o o l. The w id e c l a s h o f o p i n i o n — p r o f e s s i o n a l and l a y c r e a t e d by Mr. H u t c h i n s ’s p o s i t i o n n e c e s s i t a t e s a c l o s e e x a m in a t io n o f h i s t h e o r i e s . H u tc h in s d e s c r i b e d t h e n e e d f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on

17b th e c o lle g e

le v e l:

E v eryb od y c a n n o t be a s p e c i a l i s t i n e v e r y f i e l d . He m ust t h e r e f o r e be c u t o f f from e v e r y f i e l d b u t h i s own u n l e s s h e h a s t h e same b a s i c e d u c a t i o n t h a t o t h e r s p e c i a l i s t s h a v e . T h is means more th a n h a v in g t h e same la n g u a g e and t h e same g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n a d v a n c in g k n o w le d g e . I t means h a v in g a common s t o c k o f fu n d a m e n ta l id e a s . T h is becom es more im p o r ta n t a s e m p i r i c a l s c i e n c e a d v a n c e s and a c c u m u la te s more and more d a t a . . • » O ther men / i n t h e same d ep artm en t a s t h e s p e e i a l i s t s 7 • • • may now e x p e c t t o h a v e some g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d in g o f what h e i s d o in g b e c a u s e t h e y a l l h a v e so m e th in g i n common, t h e y a r e i n t h e same d e p a r t m e n t . But t h e d ay w i l l s h o r t l y b e upon us when ev e n t h i s d e g r e e , o f c o m p r e h e n sio n w i l l be im p o s s ib le , b ecau se o f th e i n f i n i t e s p l i t t i n g of s u b j e c t m a t t e r s and t h e p r o g r e s s i v e su b m ergen ce o f any i d e a s b y our own i n s i s t e n c e on i n f o r m a t i o n a s t h e c e n t e r o f e d u c a t i o n . 13 S o f a r , H u tc h in s seem s t o be a g reem en t w i t h e v e r y o n e on t h e n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r e v e r y o n e , b u i l t upon b road c o n c e p t s and a t t i t u d e s r a t h e r th a n t h e a t o m i s t i c a c c u m u la t io n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r f a c t s .

But t h e ag reem en t was

s h o r t l i v e d , h o w e v e r , a s H u tc h in s u n e q u i v o c a l l y s t a t e d t h a t t h e p rim a ry end o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was t h e c u l t i v a t i o n o f th e i n t e l l e c t .

"The c u l t i v a t i o n o f t h e i n t e l l e c t i s t h e same

good f o r a l l men i n a l l s o c i e t i e s .

I t i s , m o r e o v e r , t h e good

f o r w h ich a l l o t h e r good s a r e o n l y t h e m ea n s• ,,llf

He d e n ie d

t h a t t h e o b j e c t i v e o f e d u c a t i o n was t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e w h o le man, s i n c e t h e s c h o o l i s

o n ly one o f many s o c i a l i z i n g

^ H u t c h i n s , R ob ert M. The H ig h e r L earn in g i n A m e r ic a . New H aven, Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 3 ^ , p p . 5 9 - 6 0 . Ihid., p. 6 7 .

175 a g en cies c o n tr ib u tin g t o h is d e v e l o p m e n t . ^ Mr. H u tc h in s d id n o t b e l i e v e i t

t o be t h e b u s i n e s s

of the sc h o o l to a d ju st th e c h ild t o h is s p e c i f i c s o c i a l o r d e r or t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e b u i l d i n g o f a new s o c i a l o r d e r . "The n o t i o n o f e d u c a t in g a man t o l i v e i n a n y p a r t i c u l a r tim e or p l a c e , t o a d j u s t him t o any p a r t i c u l a r e n v ir o n m e n t, is

t h e r e f o r e f o r e i g n t o a t r u e c o n c e p t i o n o f e d u c a t i o n .*1

He a l s o s t a t e d t h a t "The p r o p o n e n ts o f c u r r e n t e v e n t s as t h e s u b j e c t m a tt e r o f e d u c a t i o n g a i n l i t t l e

by i n s i s t i n g

on t h e

im p o r ta n c e o f p r e s e n t t h o u g h t , f o r t h e y a r e n o t much i n t e r e s t e d i n th o u g h t o f any kind.**

1 c.

-

G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r Mr. H u tc h in s w ould b e g i n a t t h e t h i r d y e a r o f h i g h - s c h o o l and c o n t i n u e th r o u g h t h e second year of c o l l e g e .

The c o r e o f t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n

c u r r ic u lu m w ould be t h e g r e a t b ook s w h ich embody t h e t r a d i ­ t io n of w estern th o u g h t, th e c l a s s i c s in a l l f i e l d s

of

l e a r n i n g and l e t t e r s . I c o n c e d e t h e g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y o f com m un icatin g t h e k in d o f e d u c a t i o n I f a v o r t o t h o s e who a r e u n a b le or u n w i l l i n g t o g e t t h e i r e d u c a t i o n from b o o k s . . . . We s h o u ld f i n d o u t how t o g i v e i t t o t h o s e whom we do n o t know how t o t e a c h a t p r e s e n t . You c a n n o t s a y my c o n t e n t i s wrong b e c a u s e you do n o t know t h e method o f t r a n s ­ m ittin g i t . . . . Economic c o n d i t i o n s r e q u i r e u s t o p r o v id e some k in d o f e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e y o u n g , and f o r a l l t h e y o u n g , up t o about t h e i r t w e n tie th y e a r . P r o b a b ly o n e - t h i r d o f

15

Ib id .,

^

Ib id . , p.

pp.

68 - 69 . 66.

176 them c a n n o t l e a r n from h o o k s . T h is i s no r e a s o n why we s h o u ld n o t t r y t o work o u t a b e t t e r c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r t h e o t h e r t w o - t h i r d s • A t t h e same tim e we s h o u ld c o n ­ t i n u e our e f f o r t s and e x p e r im e n ts t o f i n d ou t how t o g i v e a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t o t h e hand-m inded and t h e fu n c tio n a lly i l l i t e r a t e . Even t h e s e a t t e m p t s may b e somewhat s i m p l i f i e d i f we know what a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n is . P l e a s e do n o t t e l l me t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n I p r o p o se s h o u ld n o t b e a d o p ted b e c a u s e t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h o s e who p a s s th r o u g h i t w i l l n o t go on t o th e u n iv e r sity . The schem e t h a t I ad v a n ce i s b a se d on t h e n o tio n th a t g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i s e d u c a tio n f o r everyb od y, ' w h eth er h e g o e s on t o t h e u n i v e r s i t y or n o t . I t w i l l be u s e f u l t o him i n t h e u n i v e r s i t y ; i t w i l l be e q u a l l y u s e ­ f u l t o him i f h e n e v e r g o e s t h e r e . I w i l l adm it t h a t i t w i l l n o t be u s e f u l t o him o u t s i d e t h e u n i v e r s i t y i n t h e p o p u la r s e n s e o f u t i l i t y . I t may n o t a s s i s t him t o make money or t o g e t a h e a d . I t may n o t i n any o b v io u s f a s h i o n a d j u s t him t o h i s en v ir o n m en t or f i t him f o r t h e co n tem p o ra ry s c e n e . I t w i l l , how ever, have a d eep er , w id e r u t i l i t y : i t w i l l c u lt iv a t e th e i n t e l l e c t u a l v ir t u e s . The t r o u b l e w i t h t h e p o p u la r n o t i o n o f u t i l i t y i s t h a t i t c o n f u s e s im m ed ia te and f i n a l e n d s . M a t e r i a l . p r o s p e r i t y and a d ju s t m e n t t o t h e en v ir o n m en t a r e good more or l e s s , b u t t h e y a r e n o t good i n t h e m s e lv e s and t h e r e a r e o t h e r good s beyond them . The i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s , h o w e v e r , a r e good i n t h e m s e lv e s and good a s means t o h a p p i n e s s . By t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l v i r t u e s I mean good i n t e l l e c t u a l h a b i t s . . . .1 7 An open c h a l l e n g e was h u r le d a t t h e c u r r e n t t r e n d tow ard g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e . I f t h e r e a r e perm anent s t u d i e s w h ich e v e r y p e r s o n who w is h e s t o c a l l h i m s e l f e d u c a te d s h o u ld m a s t e r ; i f t h o s e s t u d i e s c o n s t i t u t e our i n t e l l e c t u a l i n h e r i t a n c e , t h e n t h o s e s t u d i e s s h o u ld b e t h e c e n t e r o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . They c a n n o t ,b e ig n o r e d b e c a u s e t h e y a r e d i f f i c u l t , or u n p l e a s a n t , or b e c a u s e t h e y a r e a lm o s t t o t a l l y m i s s i n g from our c u r r ic u lu m t o d a y . The c h i l d - c e n t e r e d s c h o o l may

^

Ibid., pp. 61-62.

177 b e a t t r a c t i v e t o t h e c h i l d , and no doubt i s u s e f u l a s a p l a c e i n w h ich t h e l i t t l e ones may r e l e a s e t h e i r i n h i b i ­ t i o n s and h e n c e b eh a v e b e t t e r a t home. But e d u c a t o r s c a n ­ n o t p e r m it t h e s t u d e n t s t o d i c t a t e t h e c o u r s e o f s t u d y u n l e s s t h e y a r e p rep a red t o c o n f e s s t h a t t h e y a r e n o t h in g b u t c h a p e r o n s , s u p e r v i s i n g an a i m l e s s , t r i a l - a n d - e r r o r p r o c e s s , w h ich i s c h i e f l y v a l u a b l e b e c a u s e i t k e e p s young p e o p le from d o in g so m e th in g w o r s e . The f r e e e l e c t i v e s y s t e m a s Mr. E l i o t in t r o d u c e d i t a t H arvard and as P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t io n a d a p te d i t t o lo w e r age l e v e l s amounted t o a d e n i a l t h a t t h e r e was c o n t e n t t o e d u c a t i o n . S i n c e t h e r e was no c o n t e n t t o e d u c a t i o n , we m ig h t a s w e l l l e t s t u d e n t s f o l l o w t h e i r own b e n t . They w ould a t l e a s t be i n t e r e s t e d and p l e a s e d and w ould be a s w e l l e d u c a te d as i f t h e y had p ursued a p r e s c r i b e d c o u r s e o f s t u d y . T h is o v e r lo o k s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e aim o f e d u c a t i o n i s t o c o n n e c t man w i t h man, t o c o n n e c t t h e p r e s e n t w i t h t h e p a s t , and t o a d v a n c e t h e t h i n k i n g o f th e r a c e . I f t h i s i s t h e aim o f e d u c a t i o n , i t c a n n o t be l e f t t o s p o r a d i c , s p o n t a n e o u s i n t e r e s t s o f c h i l d r e n or e v e n o f u n d e r g r a d u a t e s .1 8 To summ arize h i s p o s i t i o n , Mr. H u tc h in s e l i m i n a t e d th e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e w h o le man, t h e im p a r tin g o f p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , a d ju s tm e n t t o t h e e n v ir o n m e n t, and t h e im p ro v e­ m ent o f s o c i e t y a s t h e ends o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

Its

c e n t r a l o b j e c t , a c c o r d in g t o H u t c h i n s , was th e c u l t i v a t i o n o f th e i n t e l l e c t .

He recommended a c u r r ic u lu m b a s e d upon a p ­

p r o x i m a t e l y o n e-h u n d red o f t h e g r e a t books o f a l l t i m e s , a ccom p a n ied by s t u d i e s i n grammar, r h e t o r i c , and l o g i c d e ­ s i g n e d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e s e b ooks • N e e d l e s s t o s a y , H u tc h in s s e t o f f a s p a r k w h ich e x p lo d e d i n t o much c o n t r o v e r s e y .

F or h e r e we h a v e t h e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r

i Q

Ibid., pp. 70-71.

178 a p p ro a ch t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n u p h e ld w i t h o u t one c o n c r e t e p r o p o s a l as t o how i t m ig h t h e d o n e , e v e n i f i t w ere d e s ir a b l e , i n th e fa c e of th e g r e a t h e t e r o g e n e ity o f the h ig h -s c h o o l p o p u la tio n .

One o f t h e f i r s t t o r e p l y t o

H u tc h in s was John Dewey th r o u g h t h e p a g e s o f t h e S o c i a l F ro n tie r .

He s c o r e d a p o i n t f o r a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n d e a l i n g

w i t h co n tem p o r a ry l i v i n g when h e a rg u e d : The c o n s t a n t a p p e a l o f P r e s i d e n t H u tc h in s t o P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e , and S t . Thomas u r g e n t l y c a l l s f o r a v e r y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n from t h a t _ w h ic h i s g i v e n i t £Ln The H ig h er L e a rn in g i n A m erica /* T h e ir work i s s i g n i f i c a n t p r e c i s e l y b e c a u s e i t d o es n o t r e p r e s e n t w it h d r a w a l from t h e s c i e n c e and s o c i a l a f f a i r s o f t h e i r own t i m e s . . . . The r e a l c o n c l u s i o n t o b e drawn i s t h a t t h e t a s k o f t h e h i g h e r l e a r n i n g a t p r e s e n t i s t o accomp­ l i s h a s i m i l a r work f o r t h e c o n f u s e d and d i s o r d e r e d c o n d i t i o n s o f our own d a y . . . • H ig h er l e a r n i n g can become i n t e l l e c t u a l l y v i t a l o n ly by coming t o t h a t c l o s e g r i p w i t h our co n tem p o r a ry s c i e n c e and co n tem p o r a ry s o c i a l a f f a i r s , w h ich P l a t o , A r i s t o t l e , and S t . Thomas e x e m p l i f y i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e w a y s . 19 That same y e a r (1 9 3 7 ) H arry D. G i d e o n s e , chairm an o f th e s o c i a l s c ie n c e co u rses in the C o lle g e of th e U n iv e r s ity o f C h ic a g o , a l s o w r o t e 1fA R e p ly t o P r e s i d e n t H u tc h in s* C r i t i q u e o f t h e A m erican U n i v e r s i t y , 11 u nder t h e t i t l e The H ig h er L e a r n in g i n a D em ocracy.

of

W h ile G id eo n se was a l s o

t r e a t i n g e d u c a t i o n on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l , t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n w ere q u i t e c l e a r .

H u tc h in s* c r i t i c

rem ind ed him t h a t t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e C o l l e g e F a c u l t y 19

Dewey, J o h n . " P r e s id e n t H u tc h in s* P r o p o s a ls t o Remake H ig h er E d u c a t i o n . 11 S o c i a l F r o n t i e r * J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 .

179

a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o a s r e f l e c t e d i n i t s The E d u c a tio n a 1 Qb.1 e c t i v e s o f t h e C o l l e g e i n The U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o s t r e s s e d t h e e d u c a t i o n o f t h e “w h o le p e r s o n 11 and t h a t i t esch ew ed t h e i s o l a t e d and e x c l u s i v e c u l t i v a t i o n o f th e i n t e l l e c t as su c h .

I t s t r e s s e d t h e u n d e r s t a n d in g and

en r ic h m e n t o f t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y l i f e

in a l l i t s

p hases, in ­

c l u d i n g , t h e r e f o r e , p r o p er em p h a sis upon t h e s c i e n c e s and t h e i r d r a m a tic s i g n i f i c a n c e t o our c u l t u r e . C r i t i c i s i n g t h e d iv o r c e m e n t o f t h e c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n from co n tem p o ra ry l i v i n g , G id e o n se s t a t e d : Other t h i n g s b e in g e q u a l , t h e t e s t f o r d e c i d i n g t h e i n c l u s i o n or e x c l u s i o n o f a g i v e n s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m must be i t s s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r l i v i n g th e l i f e o f our s o c i e t y . N o t h in g , h o w e v e r , s h o u ld be i n c l u d e d i n s u c h a c u r r ic u lu m m e r e ly b e c a u s e i t h as t h e p r e s t i g e t h a t comes w i t h a n t i q u i t y or b e c a u s e i t i s c a l l e d a c l a s s i c . 21 I t m ig h t b e n o t e d I n p a s s i n g t h a t i n 1937 S t . J o h n f s C o l l e g e i n A n n a p o l i s , M ary la n d , a s m a l l u n d e n o m in a t io n a l c o l l e g e f o r men and t h e t h i r d o l d e s t i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s , I n s t i t u t e d a c u r r ic u lu m s u b s t a n t i a l l y t h e same a s t h a t recommended b y Mr. H u t c h i n s . In i t s

s e c o n d r e p o r t ( 1 9 3 7 ) , t h e C om m ittee on

O r ie n ta tio n o u tlin e d th e fu n c tio n s o f the secon d ary s c h o o l. 20

G id e o n s e , Harry D. The H ig h e r L e a r n in g i n a D em ocracy. New Y ork , F a r r a r and R i n e h a r t , I n c . , 1 9 3 7 , P« 12* Ibid., p. I1*.

180 I t s t r e s s e d t h e n eed f o r f u l l d ev e lo p m e n t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l as w e l l a s t h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f h i s s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n .

Of

e s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e was i t s s t a t e m e n t t h a t , a l t h o u g h t h e h i g h s c h o o l s h o u ld b e g i n w it h and g r a d u a l l y I n c r e a s e d i f f e r ­ e n t i a t e d e d u c a t i o n on t h e e v i d e n c e o f c a p a c i t i e s , a p t i t u d e s , and i n t e r e s t s d e m o n str a te d I n e a r l i e r y e a r s , 11 . . . c a r e must b e t a k e n t o p r o v id e p r e v i o u s t o and a lo n g w i t h d i f f e r ­ e n t i a t e d e d u c a t i o n a s b a la n c e d and e x te n d e d a, g e n e r a l 22 e d u c a t i o n a s i s p o s s i b l e and p r o f i t a b l e . ” S t i l l t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y w ere tu r n e d o u t , b u t ju d g ­ in g from t h e p e s s i m i s t i c remarks o f P h i l i p C o x ^ i n 1937? t h e s i t u a t i o n was n o t im p r o v ed .

He d o u b te d t h e v e r y s u r v i v a l o f

th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e c u r r ic u lu m w ould h a v e t o be ch an ged and made more s e r v i c a b l e t o y o u th i f t h e h ig h s c h o o l w er e t o j u s t i f y i t f s s u r v i v a l .

r,U n l e s s su c h

ch a n g es a r e made and t h a t r i g h t s o o n , h o w e v e r , t h e c o n c l u s i o n seem s i n e v i t a b l e .

The h i g h s c h o o l i s doomed.*1

P r e s i d e n t N ic h o l a s Murray B u t l e r ^ o f C olum bia U n i v e r s i t y

22

C om m ittee on t h e O r i e n t a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n o f t h e D ep artm ent o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s P r i n c i p a l s . " F u n c tio n s o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n ." B u l l e t i n o f t h e D epartm ent o f S e c o n d ­ a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s . No. 6 ^f , XXI, J a n u a r y , 1937* 23 C ox , P h i l l i p s . "Must t h e H igh S c h o o l S u r v i v e ? 11 The E d u c a t i o n a l Forum. 2 :3 9 ? Novem ber, 1 9 37 • 2 B u t l e r , N i c h o l a s Murray. " I n s t r u c t i o n , Not E ducat i o n . " S e c ondarv E d u c a t i o n . 6 .^-3 -^-V, J a n u a r y , 1937*

i n h i s a n n u a l r e p o r t i n 1937 made a p l e a f o r g e n e r a l

181

e d u c a t i o n and c o m p la in e d b i t t e r l y a b o u t t h e h a v o c w rought b y t h e e l e c t i v e sy ste m ? No m a tt e r how v a r i e d t h e t y p e o f s t u d e n t s may b e or how v a r i o u s t h e i r s e v e r a l i n d i v i d u a l p e r s o n a l i t i e s , e d u c a t i o n f a i l s e n t i r e l y u n l e s s i t p r o v id e s th e m , e a c h and a l l , w i t h a common i n t e l l e c t u a l d en o m in a to r* The p r a c t i c e and p o l i c y o f p e r m i t t i n g t h e s t u d e n t who i s a mere c h i l d t o c h o o s e h i s own s u b j e c t s o f s t u d y w i t h o u t d i r e c t i o n or o v e r s i g h t , or t o p u r su e t h o s e and o n ly t h o s e w h ic h a p p e a l t o h i s t a s t e or t o h i s f a n c y , i s a c o m p le t e d e n i a l o f t h e w h o le e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s * D a v i s ^ compared t h e p r e s e n t ( 1 9 3 7 ) c u r r ic u lu m t o t h e p r e - d e p r e s s i o n c u r r ic u lu m t o d e t e c t t h e t r e n d s t h a t m ig h t b e p resen t.

W r itin g s e v e n y e a r s a f t e r t h e f i n a n c i a l c r a s h o f

O c to b e r , 1 9 2 9 , D a v is f e l t t h a t a f t e r a p e r i o d i n w h ich t h e s c h o o l s had s u f f e r e d n o t a b l y from r e d u c t i o n s i n o p e r a t i n g means and p e r s o n n e l , from u n c e r t a i n t i e s i n l e g i s l a t i o n , and from u n j u s t , d e s t r u c t i v e c r i t i c i s m , c o m p le t e econom ic r e ­ c o v e r y a p p e a red on t h e w ay.

As a r e s u l t o f t h e d e p r e s s i o n ,

D a v is c la im e d t h a t t h e s u b j e c t o f f e r i n g s o f b o t h e le m e n t a r y and h i g h s c h o o l s u nd erw ent n o t a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n s everyw h ere* ”1 much l a r g e r p l a c e th a n f o r m e r l y i s g i v e n t o i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s w h ich a r e p r eg n a n t w i t h human v a l u e s a s c o n t r a s t e d w i t h a b s t r a c t , aca d em ic or f o r m a l v a l u e s . ”

D a v is c la im e d

t h a t t h e em p h a sis had come t o be on man as a s o c i a l b e in g

25

D a v i s , C a l v i n G. "Tomorrow1s C u r r ic u lu m . 11 N a t i o n 1s S c h o o l s , 1 9 2 1 7 - 1 8 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 .

The

182 r a t h e r th a n a s an " i s o l a t e d i n d i v i d u a l s e e k i n g l a r g e l y t o a c h i e v e h i s own p e r s o n a l e n d s . ” T h ree em phases fo u n d i n th e c u r r ic u lu m a t t h i s tim e ( 1 9 3 7 ) w ere t h e s t r e s s on s o c i a l p r o b le m s , consum er e c o n o m ie s , and t h r i f t *

But D a v is s o u g h t n o t t o r e p l a c e g e n e r a l e d u c a ­

t i o n w i t h t h e s e f u n c t i o n a l g o a l s , b u t t o r e c o n c i l e them w i t h g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n * The new p roblem i n v o l v e s n o t o n ly t h e g i v i n g o f an ad ­ v a n ced c u l t u r a l e d u c a t i o n , w h ic h m ust be b road and v a r i ­ ed., b u t a l s o many k in d s o f s p e c i f i c v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , hobby e d u c a t i o n , l e i s u r e tim e e d u c a t i o n , and t y p e s o f an y and a l l e d u c a t i o n f o r w h ich t h e r e i s a r e a l p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l need* I n s h o r t , t h e s c h o o l s o f tomorrow m u s t, i n an e n la r g e d w ay, become t r u l y s c h o o l s o f t h e p e o p l e , b y t h e p e o p l e , and f o r th e p e o p l e . T h ere was no d ou b t i n r e g a r d t o J o e A. A p p l e f s p o s it io n r e le v a n t t o the co re co u rse f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . He was a g a i n s t i t , b u t d e f i n i t e l y .

W h ile A p p le d e p lo r e d t h e

la c k o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n in th e secon d ary s c h o o l, he sq u a r e ly p la c e d th e blam e f o r i t s a b s e n c e on t h e "mania f o r home-grown c o u r s e s - o f - s t u d y w h ic h ca n b e f o l l o w e d on s p a s m o d i c a l l y and w i t h much d i f f i c u l t y , b u t w h ich t h e s u p e r i n t e n d e n t can p r o u d ly d e s c r i b e a s

*our new c o u r s e o f s t u d y . *"

A p p le e v e n

f e a r e d t h a t , i n our h u r r y t o b e " e d u c a t i o n a l l y p r o g r e s s i v e , " we c o u ld e v e n b e making an e d u c a t i o n " F r a n k e n s t e in ."

A p p le , J o e . "Some I m p l i c a t i o n s o f C e r t a i n Modern E d u c a t i o n a l C h a n g e s." E d u c a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and S u p e r v i s i o n . 2 3 : 2 5 5 - 6 2 , A p r i l , 1937*

183 Some t e l l u s t h a t we a r e i n a p e r i o d o f r a p id s o c i a l c h a n g e . . . . Some t e l l us t h a t we a r e i n t h e m id s t o f a r a d i c a l e d u c a t i o n a l change and t h a t we must work i n ­ d u s t r i o u s l y t o make t h i s ch a n g e ev e n more r a p id i n o r d e r t o b r in g e d u c a t i o n up t o d a t e , t o make i t p r a c t i c a l , t o i n t e g r a t e i t w i t h l i f e , t o make i t s t r e a m l i n e d f o r a str e a m lin e d a g e . Not o n ly t h a t , b u t some e v e n s u g g e s t t h a t we make e d u c a t i o n o v er t o su c h a n e x t e n t t h a t t h e s c h o o l s t a k e t h e le a d i n an y new streamlin%hgt n e c e s s a r y i n t h i s modern w o r ld . A p p le p r e d i c t e d t h e f a i l u r e

o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n th ro u g h

t h e c o r e when h e saw n o t h in g b u t f u t i l i t y i n t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r a t h e r th a n t h e l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r , w h ich h e c h a r a c t e r i z e d a s " r e v o l u t i o n 11 and n o t 11e v o l u t i o n . " They s a y , t e a r up t h a t w h ic h h as t a k e n c e n t u r i e s t o o r g a n iz e from t h e b o ttom u p . T h is seem s t o me t o b e an a t te m p te d r e v o l u t i o n , and n o t e v o l u t i o n , o f a b a s i c p h a se o f our c u l t u r e . . . . N o t i c e t h e b o a s t s o f t h e f a t h e r s o f th o u sa n d s o f new c o u r s e s o f s t u d y . A l l c o n c e i v a b l e s u b j e c t - m a t t e r h a s b e e n p i l e d t o g e t h e r and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r p e o p le h a v e b e e n t o l d t o "come and g e t i t . " E d u c a tio n a l g a t e s a r e now down— e v e r y g r a d e or d ep a rtm e n t f o r i t s e l f ! T here i s b u t one q u a l i f i c a t i o n . That g u i d i n g , p r o g r e s s i v e e d u c a t i o n p r i n c i p l e o f " im m ed iate p u p i l i n t e r e s t " must d e t e r m in e t h e c h o i c e . Mhat w i l l t h e u l t i m a t e r e s u l t o f t h i s free d o m i n term s o f t h e n e c e s s i t y and wisdom o f g u i d in g our c h i l d r e n i n t o some o h a s e s o f a common c u l t u r e ? And t h e s o l u t i o n s u g g e s t e d b y A p p le f o l l o w e d t h e same l i n e of re a so n in g .

G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u ld be s a v e d , b u t :

. . . p r o b a b ly n o t u n t i l c e r t a i n f e n c e s a r e r e b u i l t y and a c c e p t e d a n d , i f changed a g a i n , changed s l o w l y ; p r o b a b ly n o t u n i t l we h a v e l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r a s w e l l as p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , and p e r s i s t e n t , c u l t u r a l s u b j e c t - m a t t e r as w e l l a s im m ed ia te i n t e r e s t s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ; n o t p r o b a b ly u n t i l t h i s mania f o r i n d i v i ­ d u a l i m m e d i a t e - i n t e r e s t , im m e d ia te -e n v ir o n m e n t c o u r s e s o f s t u d y h as run i t s c o u r s e ; n o t u n t i l we h a v e a fe w l e s s th a n t h e t h i r t y - f i v e th ou san d s e p a r a t e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y t h a t T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e (Colum bia U n i v e r s i t y ) now h as on f i l e ; and p r o b a b ly n o t t i l l some l i m i t a t i o n s a r e a g a i n p la c e d on t h e s c o p e o f ea c h f i e l d . T h i r t y - f i v e th o u sa n d

18b c o u r s e s o f s t u d y s u g g e s t t h i r t y - f i v e th o u sa n d d i f f e r e n c e s . Where i s -th e r e room f o r th e common c u l t u r e t r a i n i n g n e e d ­ e d ? Here a r e t h i r t y - f i v e th o u sa n d c h a n c e s f o r t h o s e r e a l l y v i t a l e le m e n t s i n our c u l t u r e t o h e l e f t o u t . We t a l k o f i n s t a b i l i t y and l a c k o f co m m o n a lity i n modern A m ericans now. What w i l l t h e r e be t o s t a b i l i z e t h e s e new g e n e r a t i o n s ? C e r t a i n l y t h e s c h o o l s w i l l n o t be p r o m o tin g , t o any g r e a t e x t e n t o v er w id e a r e a s , common e le m e n t s w h ich i n c r e a s e u n d e r s t a n d in g and c o o p e r a t i o n among our c u l t u r a l g r o u p s . T here w i l l b e no common b a s i s . A p p le , l i k e B a g l e y , f e l t t h a t th e m o b i l i t y o f t h e A m erican s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n made c l e a r t h e im p o r ta n c e and n eed o f some w i d e l y a c c e p t e d t y p e o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n i n A m erican s c h o o l w ork. . • • I f tren d s count f o r a n y th in g , m o b ilit y in A m erican l i f e ca n b e e x p e c t e d t o i n c r e a s e c o n s i d e r a b l y i n the f u t u r e . Thus t h e p roblem w i l l b e a c c e n t u a t e d u n l e s s e d u c a t o r s do so m e th in g t o s t o p t h i s h ap h azard p h a se o f A m erican e d u c a t i o n . T h is m o b i l i t y o f s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n i s n e i t h e r a l o c a l n o t a S t a t e p ro b lem . M o b i l i t y d o e s n o t s t o p a t c o u n ty or S t a t e b o u n d a r i e s . T h ere seem s t o b e no e s c a p e from t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p r e p a r in g f o r p u p i l m o b i l i t y u n l e s s we s u b s c r i b e w h o l e h a r t e d l y t o th e p h i l o s o p h y t h a t p u p i l s a r e t h o r o u g h ly e d u c a t e d n o m a tt e r what s u b j e c t m a tt e r i s em p loyed ; t h a t one s u b j e c t - m a t t e r i s j u s t a s v a l u a b l e f o r t h i s e d u c a t i o n a s any o t h e r . D e s p i t e many e le m e n t s o f wisdom i n some o f s u c h a s s u m p tio n s we can h a r d l y be g u id e d c o m p l e t e l y b y them . D e s p i t e t h e d an g er o f c e n t r a l i z e d d i c t a t o r s h i p i n e d u c a t i o n , i t seem s t h a t some c e n t r a l i z a t i o n m ust come t o s o l v e t h e s e p rob lem s o f n e c e s s a r y u n i f o r m i t y . Some u n i f o r m i t y must come t o i n s u r e a c o n t in u a n c e o f enough o f our c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e t o g i v e s t a b i l i t y t o our c i v i l i z a t i o n w h i l e i t i s c h a n g in g . A p p le i l l u s t r a t e d

th e l a c k o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n p r e ­

v a l e n t by d e m o n s t r a t in g how m o b ile p u p i l s w i t h i n t h e same c i t y who e n t e r t h e h i g h s c h o o l h a ve no common b ackground ev e n i n th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s .

T h is s i t u a t i o n was t h e r e s u l t , he c o n ­

t e n d e d , o f t e a c h e r s b e in g " f o r c e d t o hand o u t t h e i r e x c l u s i v e

18? hom e-m ade, hom e-grown c u r r ic u lu m g o u l a s h , 11 and h e warned t h a t a l l A m erican e d u c a t i o n w ould “b e i n f o r a " c o n v u ls iv e h ea d a c h e if

our h a sh y e d u c a t i o n a l r e c i p e s a r e n o t d e m o c r a t i c a l l y u n i f i ­

e d . 11

I n f a c t , A p p le w ent s o f a r a s t o p le a d f o r “some k in d

of a lim ite d

*A th e n ia n Democracy* i n c u r r ic u lu m m a t t e r s 11 u n t i l

t h e r e e x i s t e d i n Am erica a t r a i n e d t e a c h e r p e r s o n n e l . • . . The remedy? R e g im e n t a t io n ] Y es; b u t , r e g i ­ m e n t a t io n f o r t h e good o f t h e w h o l e . S t i f l e m e n t o f o r i g i n a l i t y , i n d i v i d u a l i t y , and l o c a l n e e d s ? . S t a n d a r d i ­ z a t i o n o f some t h i n g s p rom otes o r i g i n a l i t y and i n d i v i d u ­ a l i t y i n o t h e r s . We ca n h a v e a d e m o c r a t ic u n i f o r m i t y h e r e and a t t h e same tim e k e e p p r a c t i c a l l y a l l n eed ed l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and in d e p e n d e n c e . C e r t a i n l y t o d a t e we h a v e had fe w d e f i n i t e e d u c a t i o n a l rew ard s from s o much l o c a l i n i t i a t i v e and m is g u id e d i n d i v i d u a l i t y . A p p le f u r t h e r a rgu ed t h a t i t didn* t m a t t e r f u n d a m e n t a lly w h e th e r c o u r s e o b j e c t i v e s be s t a t e d i n term s o f t h e t e a c h e r or t h e p u p i l or how t h e y m igh t be s t a t e d , as lo n g a s t h e g o a l s w ere e a s i l y r e c o g n i z a b l e by a l l p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d . . . . The w o r d in g s o f some o f our m ost common o b j e c t i v e s a r e done up i n su c h e e l l a p h a n e w r a p p in g s t h a t t h e y rem ind u s p a i n f u l l y o f some o f our modern e d u c a t i o n a l p h i l o s o p h e r s who r a c k t h e i r v o c a b u l a r i e s t r y i n g t o make u s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e y h a v e some w o n d e r f u l new e d u c a t i o n a l r e v e l a t i o n . U s u a l l y we a r e t o o dumbfounded by th e p o m p o sity o f t h e i r w ords t o wake up t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e same i d e a s w ere e x ­ p r e s s e d y e a r s a g o — and i n good p l a i n E n g l i s h a t t h a t . I n c o n c l u s i o n A p p le la m en ted t h e f a c t t h a t “We h a v e a le w E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission.

It is

t o o bad t h e y h a v e

e l e m in a t e d t h e p roblem o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n from t h e i r p r o g r a m .11 l o r was A p p le a l o n e i n c r i t i c i z i n g

t h e breakdown o f

s u b j e c t - m a t t e r b o u n d a r ie s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

C a r le to n

186 W a sh b u rn ^ made o u t a c a s e f o r s u b j e c t s i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m i n The J o u r n a 1 o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n i n w h ich ✓

h e d e n ie d t h a t d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d e s t r o y e d i n t e g r a t i o n , Washburn c l a i m e d , i n f a c t , t h a t : • . . no harm w h a te v e r i s d one by a v a r i e t y o f e x ­ p e r i e n c e s , p r o v id e d t h a t t h e s e p a r a t i o n i s b e tw e e n one s u b j e c t and a n o t h e r , and n o t a s e p a r a t i o n b e tw e e n th e s u b j e c t and t h e c h i l d , Washburn d e f e n d e d t h e l o g i c a l o rd er o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r o r g a n i z a t i o n on t h e grounds t h a t : I n m a s t e r in g k n o w le d g e , a c e r t a i n o rd er and o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n a r e n e e d e d . S o , t o o , a r e c e r t a i n f o u n d a t i o n s . To g i v e a b i t o f k n o w led g e h e r e and a b i t o f k n o w led ge t h e r e , b e c a u s e t h e y h appen t o be r e l a t e d t o a p r o j e c t or c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t i s t o f a i l i n t h e o r d e r l y d e v e lo p m e n t t h a t c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h e t h i n k i n g o f an e d u c a t e r p e r s o n . . . . t h e tim e h as come when a p e r s o n h as t o a p o l o g i z e f o r a c e r t a i n k in d o f e d u c a t i o n t h a t d e v e l o p s a s u b j e c t i n an o r d e r l y , s y s t e m a t i c m anner. He condemned c o m p le te c o r r e l a t i o n "which assu m es t h a t a l l s u b j e c t s m ust be I n t e g r a t e d w i t h e a c h o t h e r and w i t h some c e n t e r o f i n t e r e s t or grow ou t o f some one a c t i v i t y . ” seem ed t o f a v o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n when h e w r o t e :

But he

"The s o l u ­

t i o n l i e s i n h a v in g a b a s i c c o u r s e r e q u i r e d o f e a c h c h i l d a s he r e a c h e s t h e r i g h t s t a g e o f d e v e lo p m e n t.

• . ."

I n h i s b o o k , The S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l , C h a r le s O d e l l ,

^ Washburn, C a r l e t o n . "The C ase f o r S u b j e c t s i n t h e C u r r ic u lu m .H The J o u r n a l o f t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , 2 6 - : l, J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 7 . 2S O d e l l , C h a r le s W. The S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l . Champ a i g n e , 1 1 1 . , The Gerard P r e s s , 1939? p . 229*

t o o , w h i l e f a v o r i n g i n t e g r a t i o n , v ie w e d t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n w i t h d i s f a v o r . As t o t h e q u e s t i o n o f i n t e g r a t i o n , c o r r e l a t i o n , and s o f o r t h , g e n e r a l modern e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t d o e s n o t f a v o r a b o l i t i o n o f a l l , or ev e n m o s t , s u b j e c t d i v i s i o n s . . . . In s h o r t , i t f a v o r s i n t e g r a t i o n , b u t n o t t o an ex trem e d e g r e e , and u n i f i c a t i o n i n f u n c t i o n and s p i r i t r a t h e r th a n i n fo r m . O d e ll f a i l e d t o i d e n t i f y s p e c i f i c a l l y whom or what he meant by " g e n e r a l modern e d u c a t i o n a l t h o u g h t . 11 A n o th er problem c o n f r o n t i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n and c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was th e r e l a t i o n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld bear t o v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n .

E ver s i n c e t h e G reeks d iv o r c e d

p r a c t i c a l t r a i n i n g from l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was n o t c o n c e r n e d w i t h v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n .

H ow ever, e v e n

th o u g h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n b e d e s i g n e d f o r a l l p u p i l s r e g a r d ­ l e s s o f t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s , y e t , s i n c e t h e new p u r p o se o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was p r e p a r a t i o n f o r l i f e , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a ­ t i o n c o u ld n o t be c o m p l e t e l y i g n o r e d , e s p e c i a l l y from th e v ie w ­ p o i n t o f g u i d a n c e - - a paramount f e a t u r e o f t h e c o r e c o u r s e . J . W. S t u d e b a k e r , 2 ^ U n ite d S t a t e s C om m issioner o f E d u c a t io n , i n an a d d r e s s b e f o r e t h e A m erican V o c a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n Con­ v e n t i o n i n 1937* showed how v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n d e v e lo p e d from t h e i n c r e a s i n g demand f o r t r a i n e d w o r k e r s .

He c la im e d

t h a t i t had b e e n n e c e s s a r y t o cam paign f o r v o c a t i o n a l

S t u d e b a k e r , J . W. E d u c a t io n f o r t h e E i g h t y - F i v e P er C e n t . 11 The E d u c a t io n D i g e s t . 3 * 3 7 - 3 9 , March, 1 9 3 8 .

188 e d u c a t i o n t o b r e a k down t h e a p a th y o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s w h ich c a t e r e d l a r g e l y t o young p e o p le who p la n n e d to e n t e r c o lle g e .

S tu d e b a k e r s o u g h t t o show t h e r e l a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n

e d u c a t i o n t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n when h e s a i d ? . . . T h o se en gaged i n t h e s e cam paings / f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n / h a v e so m etim es b e e n l e d by t h e i r e n th u s ia s m t o s t r e s s t h e n e e d s o f su c h t r a i n i n g t o t h e p o i n t o f d i s ­ c o u n t in g t h e v a l u e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , s o - c a l l e d . The tim e h a s com e, h o w e v e r , when t h e b e s t i n t e r e s t s o f v o c a ­ t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i t s e l f w i l l b e s e r v e d by a b e t t e r i n ­ t e g r a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n i n t o t h e w h o le program o f e d u c a t i o n . . . . O b v io u s ly , t h e n , v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n when p r o p e r l y c o n c e iv e d has a v e r y d i r e c t r e l a t i o n t o g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . I t p r o v id e s t h e b a s i s on w h ic h many young p e o p le m ust b u i l d t h e i r p e r s o n a l i t y d e v e lo p m e n t. T h ese p u p i l s w i l l d e v e lo p c u l t u r a l l y from v o c a t i o n a l s t u d i e s , r i g h t l y u s e d , b e t t e r th a n t h e y w i l l from t h e more a b s t r a c t s t u d i e s . Other v o c a t i o n a l l e a d e r s w ere s t i l l l e s s c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e ir th in k in g th a n S tu d eb a k er.

The n eed f o r econom ic

s e c u r i t y c a u s e d some e d u c a t o r s t o d e m a n d " s p e c ia liz a t i o n " fir st.

H a ll,

f o r ex a m p le , ch a rg e d t h a t t h e a d v o c a t e s o f a

l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n had t h e m s e lv e s a c h i e v e d some d e g r e e o f econom ic s e c u r i t y and had o r g a n iz e d a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r t h e f r e e man, man f r e e d from th e n e c e s s i t y o f w ork.

"The

t h e o r y h as ch an ged b u t t h e p r a c t i c e c o n t i n u e s , " h e c l a im e d . "Today e d u c a t i o n p r o v id e s a broad b ack grou nd b e f o r e s p e c i a l i z a ­ t i o n . 11

H a l l f e l t t h a t o n ly a f t e r man h a s s a t i s f i e d h i s n e e d s

f o r f o o d and s h e l t e r ca n he be e x p e c t e d t o a t t a c k h i s s e c o n d

H a l l , D. M. " S p e c i a l i z a t i o n F i r s t . " S c h o o ls , 2 1 :3 2 , A p r il, 1933.

The N a t i o n ^

189 p roblem o f f i n d i n g a “more abundant l i f e . 11

In te r e st in

g o v e r n m e n t, b i o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , and l i t e r a t u r e come l a t e i n l i f e , he a r g u e d .

The jo b o f t h e s c h o o l , H a l l i n s i s t e d , i s

to

g e t t!y o u th r e a d y t o a c c e p t employment and m a r r ia g e a s s o o n as p o s s i b l e .

. . .

I t means s p e c i a l i z a t i o n b e f o r e g e n e r a l i z a ­

t i o n . 11 In June 1 9 3 8 , t h e N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n th r o u g h i t s

E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission p u t i t s b l e s s i n g

on t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n and e v e n a p p roved t h e breakdown o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p a r t m e n t s liz a t io n to a c h ie v e t h is o b j e c t iv e .

In i t s

r e p o r t , The

S t r u c t u r e and t h e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E d u c a t io n i n A m erica * t h e C om m ission d e s c r i b e d t h e n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and o f f e r e d c i v i c e d u c a t i o n a s t h e 11c o r e f1 around w h ic h s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s and e x p e r i e n c e s m ig h t be c e n t e r e d . A program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l c i t i z e n s must be d e f i n e d and d e v e l o p e d e x p e r i m e n t a l l y . T h is w i l l u n d o u b te d ly i n v o l v e ch a n g es i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m i n p r a c t i c a l l y a l l a s p e c t s . W hatever t h e d e g r e e s o f s p e c i a l i z a t i o n u n d e r ta k e n by t h o s e who a r e n o t t o c o m p le t e t h e i r f u l l - t i m e e d u c a t i o n by t h e end o f t h e f o u r - y e a r h i g h s c h o o l , t h e y a s w e l l a s t h o s e who a r e t o go on t o c o l l e g e and u n i v e r s i t y w i l l spend a c o n s i d e r a b l e p a r t o f t h e i r t im e i n w hat may p r o p e r l y b e term ed 11g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 11 A l l o f them s h o u ld b e g i v e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s l e a d i n g t o a b e t t e r u n d e r ­ s t a n d in g o f t h e s o c i a l e c o n o m ic , and g o v e r n m e n ta l p rob lem s w h ic h c o n f r o n t a l l members o f s o c i e t y . 3 1 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n . E d u c a t io n P o l i c i e s C om m issio n . The S t r u c t u r e and A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f E d u c a t io n i n A m erican D em ocracy. W a sh in g to n , D. C . , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 3 8 , p . 17*

190 The breakdown o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r t o a f f o r d g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y was ap p roved by t h e C om m ission, One o f t h e m ost im p o r ta n t e x p e r im e n ts now b e in g c o n ­ d u c te d i n A m erican e d u c a t i o n s e e k s t o d e v e l o p a new ty p e o f s e c o n d a r y ' s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m . I n some s c h o o l s t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l s u b j e c t s a r e b e in g r e o r g a n i z e d i n term s o f th e i n t e r e s t s and n e e d s o f b o y s and g i r l s i n modern s o c i e t y . . . . A r e s u l t o f t h e s e e x p e r im e n ts may b e a g r e a t e r c o n t i n u i t y i n t h e program o f e d u c a t i o n from t h e e le m e n t a r y th ro u g h t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l p e r i o d . The em p h asis w i l l b e p la c e d upon m e a n in g f u l e x p e r i e n c e r a t h e r th a n upon t h e a c c u m u la t io n o f k n o w le d g e . 32 And a g a i n , i n i t s r e p o r t o f S e p te m b e r , 1 9 3 8 , The P u r n o ses o f E d u c a t io n i n A m erican D em ocracy, t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission ap proved t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a tter i n fa v o r o f th e in t e g r a t io n o f th e le a r n e r . The c e n t e r o f em p hasis i n e d u c a t i o n i s b e in g s h i f t e d from th e program o f s t u d i e s t o t h e i n d i v i d u a l l e a r n e r . There i s a c l o s e r c o n c e r n w i t h t h e m ajor s t r a t e g y o f t h e c l a s s r o o m a s op p osed t o t h e m in or t a c t i c s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r r a n g e m e n t. . . . The p r o c e s s o f e d u c a t i o n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n m ust p e n e t r a t e d e e p l y ; i t m ust n o t b a lk a t l e a p i n g t h e b a r r i e r s s e t up by t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s c h o o l program . I t m ust t h i n k beyond mere Hs h i f t i n g ” c o u r s e s and a d d in g or s u b s t r a c t i n g 11t o p i c s . r133 A g a i n s t t h e o b j e c t i o n t h a t t h i s new t y p e o f c u r r ic u lu m m ig h t n e g l e c t t h e Mt h r e e R fs , ” t h e C om m ission d e fe n d e d o n e hundred p er c e n t a c c u r a c y i n t h e f u n d a m e n t a ls , b u t o b se r v e d

3 I b id . , p. 12. 33 N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n . E d u c a t io n P o l i c i e s C om m ission . The P u r p o se o f E d u c a t io n i n A m erican D em ocracy. W a sh in g to n , D. C . , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , 193°* pp. 1b 6 -b ? .

191

th a t: S o c i a l and econom ic t r e n d s a r e c a u s in g an i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f y e a r s w h ich t h e a v e r a g e p e r s o n sp en d s i n s c h o o l . Some o f t h i s le e w a y m ig h t w e l l be u s e d t o a l l o w f o r a more g r a d u a l m a s te r y o f t h e t o o l s o f l e a r n i n g , f o r t h e p o stp o n em en t o f some t y p e s o f l e a r n i n g u n t i l g r e a t e r m a t u r i t y i s a t t a i n e d . . . 3 *f Por a v i v i d i n s i g h t i n t o t h e s o c i a l and econom ic c o n ­ d i t i o n s o f t h e t i m e s , t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission p a i n t e d t h i s g r a p h ic p i c t u r e s Here i s a s c e n e f o r th e pen o f a s a t i r i s t . T im es 1938. P l a c e s an A m erican h i g h s c h o o l . S e t t i n g s a d em ocracy s t r u g g l i n g a g a i n s t s t r a n g u l a t i o n i n an era marked by c o n f u s e d l o y a l t i e s i n th e p o l i t i c a l r e a lm , by u n r e s t and d e p r i v a t i o n , b y much u n n e c e s s a r y i l l - h e a l t h , b y h i g h - p r e s s u r e p ro p a g a n d a , by war and t h r e a t s o f w a r , b y many b r o k e n or i l l - a d j u s t e d h om es, b y f o o l i s h s p e n d i n g , by h ig h c r im e r a t e s , b y bad h o u s i n g , and by a m yriad o f o t h e r u r g e n t , r e a l human p r o b le m s . And w hat a r e t h e c h ild r e n in t h is s c h o o l, in t h is a g e, in t h is c u ltu r e l e a r n i n g ? They a r e l e a r n i n g t h a t t h e s q u a r e o f t h e sum o f two numbers e q u a ls t h e sums o f t h e i r s q u a r e s p lu s t w i c e t h e i r p r o d u c t ; t h a t M i l l a r d F i l l m o r e was th e t h i r t e e n t h P r e s i d e n t o f th e U n it e d S t a t e s and h e l d o f f i c e from J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1 8 5 0 , t o March *f, 18535 t h a t t h e c a p i t a l o f Honduras i s T e g u c i g a l p a ; t h a t t h e r e w ere two P e lo p o n ­ n e s i a n Wars and t h r e e P u n ic w a r s ; t h a t L a t i n v e r b s m eaning command, o b e y , p l e a s e , d i s p l e a s e , s e r v e , r e s i s t , and t h e l i k e t a k e t h e d a t i v e ; and t h a t a gerund i s a n e u t e r v e r b a l noun u s e d i n t h e o b l i q u e c a s e o f th e s i n g u l a r and g o v e r n in g t h e same c a s e as i t s v e r b . 3 5 N in e t e e n - h u n d r e d t h i r t y - e i g h t saw an a tte m p t a t n a t i o n a l p la n n in g f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n when n i n e t e e n n a t i o n a l o r g a n iz a tio n o f te a c h e r s i n th e v a r io u s s u b j e c t s s e n t d e le g a t e s

I b i d * » P. 1 5 2 . I b id . , p. 151.

192

t o t h e N a t i o n a l C om m ission on C o o p e r a t iv e C u r ric u lu m P la n n in g t o p u b l i s h a docum ent d e s c r i b i n g

th e r e l a t i o n o f ea c h o f t h e

c u r r ic u lu m a r e a s t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

I t was hoped t h a t ,

a l t h o u g h q u a l i f i e d t o o f f e r e x p e r t g u id a n c e i n a s p e c i a l fie ld

o f i n t e r e s t , t e a c h e r s i n a ■unified program w ould c e a s e

t o be m e r e ly t e a c h e r s o f some s u b j e c t and w ould become s p e c i a l i s t s i n c h i l d h o o d and y o u t h .

A s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t was

t h e s t a n d t a k e n by t h e E n g l i s h f i e l d

in favor of su b je c t-

m a t t e r breakdown f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

In an a d d r e s s d e ­

l i v e r e d b e f o r e t h e r e g i o n a l m e e tin g o f t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l o f T e a c h e r s o f E n g l i s h a t Los A n g e le s i n 1939> John J . De B o e r ,3 6 Chairman o f t h e N a t i o n a l C om m ission on Group C u r r i­ culum P la n n in g and t h e N a t i o n a l C o u n c i l fs C om m ittee on th e P l a c e o f E n g l i s h i n A m erican E d u c a t io n , e x c la im e d : A c u r r ic u lu m b a se d d i r e c t l y upon t h e l i f e - n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n and y o u th c a n n o t be a d m in is t e r e d e f f i c i e n t l y u n d er a s y s t e m o f i s o l a t e d d e p a r tm e n ts p r e o c c u p ie d w i t h in d e p e n d e n t p ro gra m s. . . . I f we a r e t o e x p e c t any c o n ­ s i d e r a b l e p r o g r e s s i n t h e im provem ent o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m we s h a l l n eed t o c e a s e t h i n k i n g ab o u t t h e u n iq u e n e s s o f i n d i v i d u a l s u b j e c t s or a b o u t a c u r r ic u lu m o r g a n i z a t i o n p la n n e d e x c l u s i v e l y i n term s o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r d i v i s i o n s . S c h o o l work must be o r g a n iz e d around t h e p rob lem s and c e n t e r s o f i n t e r e s t w h ic h make up t h e l i f e o f t h e boy or g i r l t o b e e d u c a t e d . I f t h e aim o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and t h e end o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a r e t h e same:

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p r e p a r a tio n f o r l i f e ,

th en

De B o e r , Joh n J . ffN a t i o n a l P la n n in g f o r a U n i f i e d P r o g r a m .M The E n g l i s h J o u r n a l * 2 9 : 2 8 1 - 8 9 * A p r i l , 19 ^ 0.

193 t h e v e h i c l e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e c o r e c o u r s e , must be o r g a n iz e d a b o u t t h e l i f e

p rob lem s o f y o u t h .

p ro b lem s o f y o u th must f i r s t be a s c e r t a i n e d .

B ut t h e s e l i f e T h is u n d e r ­

t a k i n g was p io n e e r e d by F r e d e r i c k and F a rq u ea r i n 1 9 3 8 ,3 ? and s o s i g n i f i c a n t a r e t h e i r s t a t e m e n t s and f i n d i n g s , t h a t t h e y m ust b e q u o te d i n f u l l . The c r i t i c a l p e r i o d th r o u g h w h ich our c i v i l i z a t i o n i s p a s s i n g p r e s e n t s t o t h e e d u c a t o r a u n iq u e o p p o r t u n i t y . Our n a t i o n h a s r e a c h e d a s t a g e i n i t s i n d u s t r i a l d e v e l o p ­ ment when i t m i g h t , t h r o u g h i n t e l l i g e n t l y p la n n e d a c t i o n , a c h i e v e t h e m ost e f f i c i e n t and w e ll - r o u n d e d c i v i l i z a t i o n t h a t t h e w o rld has e v e r known. Much o f th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r a c h i e v i n g a h i g h l y e f f i c i e n t c i v i l i z a t i o n r e s t s on th e s c h o o l and i t s e d u c a t i o n a l program . The s c h o o l has n e v e r f a c e d a g r e a t e r t a s k th a n i t f a c e s t o d a y . The p r e s e n t s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m , h o w e v e r , i s n o t a d e q u a te fo r th is ta sk . I t h a s b e e n c l i n g i n g t o o ld t r a d i t i o n s and aim s i n t h e f a c e o f s tu p e n d o u s c h a n g e s w h ich l i f e h as u n d e r g o n e . Whether or n o t a l l t h e s e s o c i a l c h a n g e s a r e d e s i r a b l e and b e n e f i c i a l , t h e y a r e h e r e and t h e y must be f a c e d as r e a l i t i e s , n o t i g n o r e d . C u rricu lu m -m ak in g i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s h a s a lw a y s b e e n done i n a p i e c e m e a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , and p a tc h e d - u p w ay. C e r t a i n m a t e r i a l s o f i n s t r u c t i o n a r e i n c lu d e d s im p ly b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e b e e n ta u g h t in th e p a s t . O ther m a t e r i a l s a r e t a u g h t b e c a u s e c e r t a i n o r g a n iz e d grou p s h a v e , f o r t h e i r own p u r p o s e s , i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e s e be added t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m . By s u c h p i e c e m e a l , t r a d i t i o n a l , p a tch w ork m ethods i t i s n o t p o s s i b l e t o g i v e t o y o u th a n a d e q u a te u n d e r s t a n d in g o f t h e t w e n t i e t h - c e n t u r y , i n d u s t r i a l , d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y i n w h ich t h e y l i v e and o f t h e p roblem s w h ich v i t a l l y a f ­ f e c t t h e i r w e l f a r e . A c u r r ic u lu m p rod uced by su c h m ethods c a n n o t t r a i n y o u th f o r b u i l d i n g our d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y i n ­ to th e e f f i c i e n t , w e ll-r o u n d e d , c u lt u r a l s o c i e t y th a t i s b o t h p o s s i b l e and n e c e s s a r y . F or s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e r e f o r e ,

L ife .”

3? F r e d e r i c k , 0 . I . , and F a r q u e a r , I». J . ^Problem s o f S c h o o l R e v ie w . * + l:3 3 7 -^ 5 , H-15-22, May and J u n e , 1 9 3 8 .

19^ e d u c a t i o n a l t h i n k e r s h a v e b e e n e m p h a s iz in g t h e n eed f o r c o n s t r u c t i n g a v i t a l i z e d c u r r ic u lu m . Much h a s b een w r i t ­ t e n on t h e s u b j e c t , v a r i o u s v i e w p o i n t s b e in g p r e s e n t e d and d e b a t e d , and c e r t a i n n o te w o r th y a t t e m p t s h a ve b e e n made t o e f f e c t a dynamic and c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t e d c u r r ic u lu m . A lth o u g h t h e y v a r y i n c e r t a i n p h a se s o f t h e i r t h i n k i n g a b o u t t h e c u r r ic u lu m , p r a c t i c a l l y a l l e d u c a t o r s a g r e e t h a t e d u c a t i o n f o r e f f i c i e n t and w holesom e l i v i n g i s t h e m ost im p o r ta n t b u s i n e s s o f our d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y , t h a t t h e A m erican s c h o o l n e e d s a r e c o n s t r u c t e d c u r r ic u lu m t h a t w i l l t r a i n f o r e f f i c i e n t and w holesom e l i v i n g , and t h a t t h e b a s i s o f t h a t r e c o n s t r u c t e d c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld b e t h e p rob lem s o f l i f e . The f i r s t s t e p , t h e n , i n p la n n in g t h e s c o p e o f t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m — t h e c u r r ic u lu m f o r a l l — i s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e a c t u a l problem s o f l i f e w h ic h c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s a r e c a l l e d on t o f a c e e i t h e r as i n d i v i d u a l s or g r o u p s . . . An a n a l y s i s o f t h e problem s o f l i f e

i n th e n i n e m ajor

a r e a s o f human a c t i v i t y was made i n o rd er t o c o n t r i b u t e a f e a s i b l e dynamic b a s i s f o r t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i n s e c o n d a r y sc h o o ls.

The n i n e m ajor a r e a s o f human a c t i v i t y w ere

a r r iv e d a t as a r e s u l t of c a r e f u l r e se a r c h in v o lv in g a stu d y of t h ir t y - e ig h t c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s a c t i v i t y . 3^

o f a r e a s o f human

An a n a l y s i s was made o f t e n r e c e n t and f i v e

l e s s r e c e n t books d e a l i n g w it h co n tem p o ra ry p rob lem s o f life .^

T h ese f i f t e e n b ooks w ere c a r e f u l l y r e a d and ea c h

^ C f• May, 1 9 3 7 .

J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t io n a 1 R e s e a r c h . 3 0 * 6 7 2 —79*

^ The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e f i f t e e n b ooks a n a l y s e d f o r p r o b le m s: Adams, A rth u r B . R a t i o n a l Economic S e c u r i t y . Norman, Oklahoma, U n i v e r s i t y o f Oklahoma P r e s s , 1 9 3 6 .

195

39 ( c o n t i n u e d ) B e a rd , C h a r le s X . , e d . Hew Y ork, Longmans, G reen and Company, 1 9 3 8 .

W hither M ankind.

B o s s a r d , James H. S o c i a l Change and S o c i a l P r o b le m s . New Y ork, Harper and B r o t h e r s , 193** • C h a s e , S t u a r t , Men and M a c h in e s , M acm illan Company, 1929*

New Y ork , The

C o u n t s , G eorge S . , and O t h e r s . The S o c i a l F o u n d a tio n s o f E d u c a t io n . R ep o rt o f t h e C om m ission on th e S o c i a l S t u d i e s o f t h e A m erican H i s t o r i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n , P a r t IX . New Y ork, C h a r le s S c r i b n e r ' s S o n s , 193*+. D i e h l , H a r o ld S . H e a l t h f u l L i v i n g . M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1935* F o lso m , J o s e p h K. and S o n s , I n c . , 193^-*

New Y ork,

The F a m i l y . New Y ork , John W ile y

G i l l e t t e , John M ., and R e i n h a r d t , James M. P r o b le m s . New Y ork , A m erican Book Company, 1933*

C urrent

G i l l i n , John L . , D i t t m e r , C la r e n c e G . , and C o l b e r t , Roy J . S o c i a l P r o b le m s . New Y ork, D. A p p le to n -C e n tu r y Company, 1932 ( r e v i s e d ) . M o u lto n , H arold G. "The T r o u b le w i t h C a p i t a l i s m I s th e C a p i t a l i s t s . " F o r t u n e . X II (November, 193 5) 7 7 - 8 1 . O sborn, Loran D . , and N eum eyer, M a rtin H. The Community and S o c i e t y . New Y ork , A m erican Book Company, 1933* O 'S h ea , M. V. , e d . 'The C h i l d s H is N a tu re and H is N e e d s , Chap. x x . V a l p a r a i s o , I n d ia n a s C h i l d r e n ' s F o u n d a t io n , 192 57 R ec en t Trends i n t h e U n it e d S t a t e s . R ep o rt o f th e P r e s i d e n t ' s R e s e a r c h Com m ittee on S o c i a l T r e n d s . New Y ork, M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n c . , 1933* S c h o r l i n g , R . , and M cC lusky, H. E d u c a t io n and S o c i a l T r e n d s . Y o n k er s- on -H u d son, New Y ork, World Book Company, I n c . , 1933* W i t h e r s , W ., e t . a l . C urrent S o c i a l P r o b le m s . Y ork , P r e n t i c e - H a 1 1 , I n c . , 1 9 3 ^ .

New

196

prob lem m e n tio n e d was n o t e d .

The l a r g e l i s t

o f p rob lem s was

c a r e f u l l y s t u d i e d , and e a c h problem was p la c e d u nd er t h e m ost a p p r o p r i a t e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g n i n e m ajor a r e a s o f human a c tiv ity :

( 1) p r o te c tin g l i f e

and h e a l t h ;

( 2 ) making a home;

( 3 ) c o n s e r v i n g and im p r o v in g m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n s ; o p e r a t i n g i n s o c i a l and c i v i c a c t i o n ; ( 6 ) s e c u r i n g an e d u c a t i o n ;

(*+) c o ­

( 5) g e t t i n g a l i v i n g ;

( 7 ) e x p r e s s i n g r e l i g i o u s im p u l s e s ;

( 8 ) e x p r e s s i n g a e s t h e t i c i m p u l s e s ; and ( 9 ) e n g a g in g i n r e c r e a tio n .

Each p roblem was t h e n c h e c k e d a g a i n s t t h e f o l ­

lo w in g s e v e n c r i t e r i a , and o n ly t h o s e w h ic h met a l l t h e c r i t e r i a w ere r e t a i n e d :

The p roblem s h o u ld (1 ) b e s p e c i f i c ;

(2 ) be a v i t a l a s p e c t o f A m erican l i f e ; (*+) b e p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l ; d e v e lo p m e n t;

( 3 ) be c o n tem p o r a ry ;

( 5 ) le n d i t s e l f t o a c c u r a t e , r e a l i s t i c

( 6 ) c a l l upon v a r i o u s f i e l d s

o f k n o w le d g e ; and

(7 ) b e e s p e c i a l l y s u i t a b l e f o r t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m .

One

hundred f o r t y - f i v e r e c e n t t e x t s w ere a l s o c h e c k e d f o r p ro b lem s and c o v e r a g e . I.

MAKING A HOME A. B. C. D. E. F. G.

C a r r y in g on t h e s o e i a l i z a t i n g f u n c t i o n s o f t h e home. C a r r y in g on t h e c o n su m e r-ec o n o m ic f u n c t i o n s o f t h e home. C a r r y in g on th e e f f i c i e n t management o f t h e home. C a r r y in g on t h e b i o l o g i c a l f u n c t i o n s o f t h e home. A d j u s t i n g t o c h a n g e s and t r e n d s i n t h e home. S t a b i l i z i n g th e home. E x te n d in g f a m i l y b o u n d a r ie s by p rom otin g t h e e h i l d - w e l f a r e m ovement.

197

II.

CONSERVING AND IMPROVING MATERIAL CONDITIONS A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N.

III.

COOPERATING IN SOCIAL AND CIVIC ACTION A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

IV .

U sin g and c o n t r o l l i n g f i r e , h e a t , and l i g h t . Making a d ju stm e n t t o g e o g r a p h ic f a c t o r s . G a in in g p r o t e c t i o n a g a i n s t n a t u r a l c a t a s t r o p h e s . Im proving p l a n t c u l t u r e . Im provin g a n im a l c u l t u r e . Im provin g and c o n s e r v i n g la n d . R e l a t i n g th e e a r t h t o o t h e r b o d ie s i n t h e u n iv e r se . D e v e lo p in g and c o n s e r v i n g t h e n a t u r a l r e ­ sou rces w ith in th e e a r th . Making and u s in g m a c h in e s . D e v e lo p in g and u s i n g pow er. C r e a t in g a new t y p e o f p h y s i c a l e n v ir o n m en t by i n v e n t i o n s and a d j u s t i n g man t o i t . C on q u erin g tim e and s p a c e th r o u g h t r a n s p o r t a ­ t io n in v e n tio n s. C on q u erin g d i s t a n c e th r o u g h co m m u n ica tion i n ­ v e n tio n s. O r g a n iz in g and e n c o u r a g in g a b a la n c e d program of s c i e n t i f i c resea rch in th e in t e r e s t s of s o c i e t y as a w h o l e .

P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n n o n - p o l i t i c a l community a f f a i r s . F u l f i l l i n g o n e ' s r i g h t s and d u t i e s as a good c itiz e n . Im provin g r e l a t i o n s w i t h m i n o r i t y r a c e g r o u p s . D e v e lo p in g a d e f i n i t e p o p u l a t i o n p o l i c y . F in a n c in g t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o p e r a t i o n s . V o tin g i n t e l l i g e n t l y . P r o v id in g and o b s e r v in g law e n f o r c e m e n t . C o o p e r a t in g i n p o l i t i c a l g o v e r n m e n t a l f u n c t i o n s . E s t a b l i s h i n g and im p r o v in g i n t e r n a t i o n a l r e la tio n s.

GETTING A LIVING A. B. C. D. E. F.

P r o d u c in g and p r e p a r in g g o o d s . E xch a n g in g g o o d s . E n g ag in g i n p r o f e s s i o n s and s e r v i c e o cc u p a ­ tio n s . Consuming goods i n t e l l i g e n t l y . P r o v id in g f o r p r o p er c a r e and u s e o f m on eta ry v a l u e s and money. P r o v id in g f o r a more n e a r l y e q u a l d i s t r i b u t i o n o f n a t i o n a l in c o m e , w e a l t h , and r e s o u r c e s .

198 G. H. I. J• K. L. V.

SECURING AN EDUCATION A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

V I.

Making t h e m ost o f on e*s e d u c a t i o n op por­ tu n itie s. E x te n d in g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t y t o a l l . P r o v id in g a d e q u a te s c h o o l f a c i l i t i e s . F in a n c in g e d u c a t i o n . Im provin g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f s c h o o l s . D e c id in g on h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n . C o n t in u in g e d u c a t i o n a f t e r l e a v i n g s c h o o l . I n te g r a tin g a l l e d u c a tio n a l a g e n c ie s . C hanging t h e s c h o o l s t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f a c h a n g in g c i v i l i z a t i o n . P r e s e r v i n g aca d em ic fr e e d o m .

EXPRESSING AESTHETIC IMPULSES A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J.

V II.

C h o o sin g a v o c a t i o n . P r o t e c t i n g and im p r o v in g c o n d i t i o n s o f l a b o r . Im proving t h e a g r i c u l t u r a l s i t u a t i o n . D e te r m in in g t h e s c o p e and c o n t r o l o f econom ic fr e e d o m . M a in t a in in g b a la n c e i n our econom ic sy s te m w h i l e a d j u s t i n g t o m a c h in e r y . Making our econom ic o r g a n i z a t i o n more e f f i c i e n t and more s e c u r e .

R e l a t i n g a r t t o e v e r y d a y l i f e and e x p e r i e n c e . E x p r e s s i n g , r e p r o d u c i n g , or e n j o y i n g b e a u t y through th e f i n e a r t s . D e v e lo p in g a r t i s t i c h o b b i e s . S u p p o r t in g and u t i l i z i n g a g e n c i e s f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a r t . D e v e lo p in g good t a s t e . G iv in g t o a l l p e o p le more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n and e n jo y m e n t. D e s i g n in g new form s and t y p e s o f a r t a p p r o p r i a t e t o new m e c h a n ic a l p r o c e s s e s and new m a t e r i a l s . E n co u ra g in g t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n o f t h e g o v e r n ­ ment t o t h e f i n e a r t s . D e v e lo p in g i n t e r n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g th r o u g h t h e fin e a r ts. R e la tin g a r t to b u s in e s s .

ENGAGING IN RECREATION A. B.

D e te r m in in g i n w hat k in d s o f r e c r e a t i o n t o engage. S u p p o r t in g and c o o r d i n a t i n g th e o r g a n i z a t i o n s

199

0* D* E.

c o n c e r n e d w it h t h e r e c r e a t i o n a l n e e d s o f so c ie ty * A d j u s t i n g t o c h a n g in g form s and t h e n e e d s o f r e c r e a tio n * Making r e c r e a t i o n more a v a i l a b l e t o a l l p e o p le . C o n t r o l l i n g and im p ro v in g co m m e r c ia l am usem ents•

"The p rob lem s o f l i f e , ” c la im e d t h e a u t h o r s , "may be t a u g h t c o o p e r a t i v e l y by two or more t e a c h e r s i n an i n t e g r a t e d c o r e c u r r ic u lu m , or ea ch o f th e p rob lem s o f l i f e may be a l l o c a t e d t o t h e r e q u ir e d s u b j e c t - f i e l d be m o st r e l a t e d *

t o w h ic h i t seem s t o

I f th e l a t t e r procedure i s fo llo w e d , i t

is

h i g h l y im p o r ta n t t h a t t h e t e a c h e r b r o a d en h i s h o r i z o n s o t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n from s u b j e c t f i e l d s life

o t h e r th a n h i s

own and from

i t s e l f c a n be b ro u g h t t o b e a r on th e' problem b e in g

ta u g h t.

. . ." A n o th er a t te m p t t o d e f i n e t h e r e l a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l

t o g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was made b y Judd In an a r t i c l e

XlQ

n

in 1938.

e n t i t l e d "Hhat I s G e n e r a l E d u ca tio n ?* 1

Judd p o i n t e d o u t t h e c l a s s i c a l and European i n f l u e n c e s on " L ib e r a l* 1 e d u c a t i o n , th e d iv o r c e m e n t o f v o c a t i o n a l from " l i b e r a l * 1 e d u c a t i o n , and t h e in a d e q u a c i e s o f t h i s t y p e o f " l i b e r a l " e d u c a t i o n a s g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n A m erica today* He p r e d i c t e d t h a t someday t h e p e o p l e o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s w ould r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e European t r a d i t i o n and t h e European LlO

J u d d , C h a r le s H. "What I s G e n e r a l E d u ca tio n ? " The E d u c a t i o n a l D i g e s t . 3 : l - 3 > J a n u a r y , 1 9 3 8 .

d e f i n i t i o n o f l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n h a v e no more p l a c e i n A m erica th a n h as a t1m o n a r c h ia l form o f governm ent or i t s d e s c e n d a n t , F a c i s m . t!

ille g itim a te

They w ould r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e A m erican

e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n w h ich a t t e m p t s t o m a in t a in a L a t i n g eo m etry c u r r ic u lu m i s d e c e i v i n g i t s e l f and i t s

p a tr o n s tfb y

w e a r in g t h e l a s t t a t t e r e d fr a g m e n ts o f t h e to g a o f a r i s t o c r a c y . In t h e p l a c e o f t h i s l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n , Judd c a l l e d f o r a new k in d o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h ic h t h e r e w ould b e no c o n f l i c t b e tw e e n t h e g e n e r a l and t h e v o c a t i o n a l a im s .

As

r e g a r d t h e c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , Judd s t a t e d : The new c u r r ic u lu m s h o u l d i n c l u d e , f i r s t , c e r t a i n g e n e r a l c o u r s e s n eed ed by a l l members o f a modern demo­ c r a t i c s o c i e t y — a com pact v ie w o f th e s c i e n c e s , n a t u r a l a n d . s o c i a l ; c o u r s e s on t h e d u t i e s o f a member o f a community; c o u r s e s i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e w h ic h r e c o r d s t h e e x p e r i e n c e s and i d e a s o f t h e r a c e ; and a c o u r s e i n s o c i a l p s y c h o lo g y d e s c r i b i n g i n d i v i d u a l s and t h e i r p l a c e i n t h e s o c ia l order. The c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld i n c l u d e , s e c o n d , v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n — th e c u l t i v a t i o n o f th e s k i l l s n e c e s s a r y i n t h e t r a d e s and p r o f e s s i o n s . A movement w h ic h a l s o i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r w i t h r e g u la r -c u r r ic u la r a c t i v i t i e s .

T y p i c a l o f t h i s t r e n d was t h e

s t a n d t a k e n b y R. L. Hunt^^* t h a t a l l work o f f e r e d i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l s h o u ld be r e g a r d e d as fu n d a m e n ta l or e l i m i n a t e d . He made t h e p o i n t t h a t i f r e g u l a r c o u r s e s o f s t u d y do n o t p r o v id e f o r t h e i n t e r e s t s and a c t i v i t i e s

o f the stu d e n ts

1+1 H u nt, R. 1 . "Why a D u a l Program i n t h e H ig h S c h o o l? " The S c h o o l E x e c u t i v e . 5 7 : 2 2 8 - 2 9 , J a n u a r y , 193&.

201

w h i l e e x t r a - c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s d o , t h e fo rm er s h o u ld he dropped fro m , and t h e l a t t e r t a k e n i n t o t h e r e g u l a r c u r r ic u lu m . To e l i m i n a t e t h e 11d u a l program11 o f c u r r i c u l a r and e x t r a ­ c u r r i c u l a r a c t i v i t i e s , Hunt s u g g e s t e d a f o u r - p o i n t program: (1 ) t h e s c h e d u l i n g o f a l l work u n d er t e a c h e r d i r e c t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n d u r in g t h e r e g u l a r s c h o o l d ay program ; g r a n t i n g o f c r e d i t f o r a l l work;

(2 ) t h e

(3) th e p r e p a r a tio n of

c o u r s e s o f s t u d y f o r a l l work t a u g h t (h a n d , n e e d l e c r a f t , e t c . ) ; and (*+) t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n by r e s e a r c h o f t h e r e l a t i v e im­ p o r t a n c e o f ea c h d u b j e c t and a c t i v i t y a s t o i t s

c o n tr ib u tio n

t o t h e g e n e r a l o b j e c t i v e s o f e d u c a t i o n , and t h e tim e n e ed ed fo r each. I n 1939 t h e movement tow ard g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l r e c e i v e d f u l l and e x c l u s i v e t r e a t m e n t i n t h e T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n . P a r t I I , under t h e t i t l e E d u c a t io n I n t h e A m erican C o l l e g e . 11

o f " G en era l

T h ree c o n t r i b u t o r s t o

t h e Year B o o k . M acK en zie, R a in e y , and E u r i c h , w i l l be q u o ted a t l e n g t h b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e a n a l y s e d s o w e l l and sum m arized s o c o n c i s e l y t h e p roblem s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n b o th a t t h e c o l l e g e and s e c o n d a r y l e v e l s . Mackenzie**2 d i s c u s s e d t h e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n **2 M a c k e n z ie , Gordon N. "Youth and t h e H igh S c h o o l . tf T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu fly o f E d u c a tio n . P art I I . B lo o m in g t o n , 1 1 1 . The P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 , PP* 5 5 - 5 6 .

a s i t was t h e n b e g in n i n g t o a f f e c t t h e r e l a t i o n s o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l t o th e c o l l e g e .

Under t h e t i t l e

o f "Youth and t h e

H igh S c h o o l 11 M a ck en zie a r g u e d i The t r e n d i s toward t h e d e - e m p h a s is o f s p e c i f i c t r a i n ­ in g f o r c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e and t h e em p h asis on th e u n i f i c a ­ t i o n o f t h e w h o le e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s t o become more e f f e c t i v e i n d e v e l o p i n g t h e i n s i g h t , p o w e r s , and s e l f d i r e c t i o n n e c e s s a r y f o r r e s o u r c e f u l and c o n s t r u c t i v e l i v i n g — a s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n w h ic h w i l l b e f l e x i b l e , r e s p o n s i v e t o ch a n g in g n e e d s , and c l e a r l y b a s e d upon an u n d e r s t a n d in g o f young p e o p l e and t h e i r r e q u ir e m e n ts a s w e l l a s an u n d e r s ta n d in g o f t h e q u a l i t i e s n eed ed i n a d u lt l i f e . . ♦ . T h ere a p p e a rs t o be l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e A m erican h i g h s c h o o l has any w e l l - p l a n n e d program t h a t w i l l a s s u r e t h e v a l u e s o f a b roa d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l i t s stu d en ts. Thus i t i s p o s s i b l e f o r a s t u d e n t t o g r a d u a te from h i g h s c h o o l w i t h l i t t l e or no t r a i n i n g i n h om e-m ak in g, w i t h l i t t l e e n r ic h m e n t or u n d e r s ta n d in g o f r e l i g i o u s or a e s t h e t i c e x p r e s s i o n , w i t h l i t t l e or no e x p e r i e n c e i n c o o p e r a t i n g w i t h h i s f e llo w - m e n i n s o c i a l and c i v i c a c t i o n , w i t h l i t t l e a b i l i t y t o en g a g e w i t h s a t i s f a c t i o n i n l e i s u r e tim e a c t i v i t i e s , and w i t h l i t t l e k n o w le d g e , u n d e r s t a n d i n g , or v i s i o n o f th e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f im p r o v in g man’ s m a t e r i a l c o n d i t i o n . . . . The c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s a t t e m p t i n g t o d e v e lo p programs o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . . . h a v e a s e r i o u s problem o f r e o r i e n t a t i n g t h e s t u d e n t s t h e y r e c e i v e from s e c o n d a r y sc h o o ls . The programs o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n em ergin g from th e c o l l e g e l e v e l w i l l be l e s s e f f e c t i v e i f th ey a re p u rsu ed by h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s who a r e t h e p r o d u c ts o f a d if f e r e n t con cept of e d u c a tio n . T h ese s t u d e n t s w i l l l a c k b ro a d u n d e r s t a n d i n g , and w i l l be in c a p a b l e o f i n ­ d e p e n d e n t s t u d y o f o u t s t a n d in g co n tem p o r a ry p r o b le m s. T h u s , a l t h o u g h some c o l l e g e s h a v e b ro k en w i t h t h e p a s t and h a v e e s t a b l i s h e d new c u r r i c u l a , t h e i r aim s c a n n o t be f u l l y r e a l i z e d u n t i l t h e y h a v e t h e c o o p e r a t i o n and s u p p o r t o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s from w h ic h t h e y draw s t u d e n t s . M ack en zie s t r e s s e d t h e p roblem o f e v a l u a t i o n i n t h e new g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n p rogram s. The problem o f e v a l u a t i o n , h o w e v e r , i s f a r from s o l v e d and program s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n n eed much r e f i n i n g . The

203 w id e s p r e a d a t t e n t i o n b e in g g i v e n t o t h e problem seem s t o f o r e c a s t c o n s i d e r a b l e m o d i f i c a t i o n o f h i g h - s c h o o l programs o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n th e y e a r s a h e a d , and much s e n t i ­ ment i n f a v o r o f new form s o f c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n h ig h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s , t o t h e end t h a t a c o n t in u o u s program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n may be p r o v id e d from t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n th ro u g h a t l e a s t t h e j u n i o r - c o l l e g e p e r i o d - - a program i n w h ich e a c h o f t h e a g e n c i e s , r e g a r d ­ l e s s o f l e v e l , w i l l c o n t r i b u t e e f f i c i e n t l y and e f f e c t i v e l y t o t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f co m p eten ce i n a l l a s p e c t s of, l i v i n g . Most o f t h e newer programs / o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ? h a v e n o t b een i n o p e r a t i o n lo n g enough t o w a r r a n t a c o m p le te and a d e q u a te e v a l u a t i o n . H ow ever, i t i s e n c o u r a g in g t h a t a t t e m p t s a r e b e in g made t o c h e c k t h e c l a i m s on w h ich t h e y are b ased. I n t h e same T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year Book Homer P . R a i n e y ^ d e s c r i b e d t h e " S o c i a l F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n ." R a in e y e x p l a i n e d t h a t numerous c h a n g e s i n A m erican l i f e — some o f w h ic h h a v e come w i t h g r e a t r a p i d i t y i n r e c e n t y e a r s — a r e to d a y by t h e i r c u m a la t i v e e f f e c t p r e c i p i t a t i n g a c r i s i s our e d u c a t i o n a l s y s t e m .

in

R a in e y i n s i s t e d t h a t a l l s o c i a l

f a c t o r s w h e th e r d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y a f f e c t e d t h e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , s i n c e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was c o n c e r n e d w i t h u n d e r s t a n d in g t h e s o c i a l p a t t e r n i n w h ic h i t

o p erates.

As f o r th e problem o f r e c o n c i l i n g v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , R a in e y h e ld t h a t " s i n c e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n is

i n one s e n s e t h e a n t i t h e s i s o f t e c h n i c a l or p r o f e s s i o n a l

^ R a in e y , Homer P . " S o c i a l F a c t o r s A f f e c t i n g G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n .'1 T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t i o n . P a r t I I . B lo o m in g t o n , 1 1 1 . The P u b l i c S e h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 , p p . 1 5 - 2 7 .

20*+ ed u c a tio n , i t

i s n ece ssa r y to ta k e account of c e r t a in fa c to r s

t h a t a r e a f f e c t i n g t e c h n i c a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , 11 R a in e y l i s t e d g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

th e f o llo w in g s o c i a l f a c t o r s a f f e c t i n g F i r s t , t h e r e w ere t h e c h a n g e s i n p o p u la ­

t i o n and im m ig r a t io n .

(a ) T h ere was t h e ch a n ge from a r u r a l

t o an urban p o p u l a t i o n .

In 1 8 8 0 , 71***$ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n

was r u r a l , on 2 8 . 6 % was u r b a n . c itie s; le ss

In 1 9 3 0 , 5 6 . 2 $ l i v e d i n

t h u s t h e m a j o r i t y l i v e d i n c i t i e s w here t h e r e was

o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s o c i a l p a r t i c i p a t i o n and s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n ,

l e s s r e c r e a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s , and a g r e a t e r breakdown o f s t a n d a r d s o f c o n d u c t and i n c r e a s e i n cr im e due t o c o n g e s t i o n , poor h o u s i n g , and o t h e r e n v ir o n m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n s .

(b) T here

was a marked ch a n g e i n t h e r a t i o o f a d u l t s o v e r 20 t o y o u th u n d er 1 6 .

I n 1850 t h e r a t i o was 880 t o 1 , 0 0 0 .

r a t i o was 2 , 1 0 0 t o e v e r y 1 , 0 0 0 .

I n 193& t h e

The r a t i o o f e m p lo y a b le s

t o t h e t o t a l p o p u l a t i o n had g r e a t l y i n c r e a s e d .

T h erefore i t

was u n u s u a l l y d i f f i c u l t f o r y o u th u nd er 21 t o f i n d o p p o r t u n i­ t i e s f o r em p loym ent. t i o n and w i t h i t ,

( e ) T h er e was t h e c e s s a t i o n o f im m igra­

th e g r e a te s t so u rce of u n s k ille d la b o r .

own p o p u l a t i o n now had t o p r o v id e low p a id l a b o r e r s .

Our

(d)

T h ere was t h e g r e a t i n c r e a s e i n t h e h i g h - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n . I n 1 9 3 8 , 6 5 $ o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e a g e s o f 1^ and 17 w ere e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l .

T h is i n c r e a s e i n t h e s e c o n d a r y

p o p u l a t i o n was w i t h o u t p a r a l l e l i n t h e h i s t o r y o f t h e w o r ld . I n 1 9 0 0 , 7 0 0 ,0 0 0 p u p i l s w ere i n our h i g h s c h o o l s .

In 1 9 3 8 ,

205 more than 6,000,000, The s e c o n d s o c i a l f a c t o r a f f e c t i n g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was t h e enormous e x p e n s io n o f t h e f i e l d s

o f k n ow led g e i n

t h e p a s t few d e c a d e s . The a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s c i e n t i f i c s t u d y o f t h e p r o ­ blem s o f modern l i f e i n r e c e n t y e a r s i n p r o d u c in g an a lm o s t overw h elm in g body o f k n ow led ge i n e v e r y a re a o f l i f e . . . . The o r g a n i z a t i o n and m a s te r y o f t h i s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g amount o f k n o w led g e c o n s t i t u t e s one o f t h e m ost p r e s s i n g p rob lem s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . The t h i r d f a c t o r was t h e i n c r e a s i n g tempo o f s o c i a l change. P erhaps one o f th e m ost c h a r a c t e r i s t i c f e a t u r e s o f s o c i a l ch a n g e i s i t s s t e a d i l y i n c r e a s i n g tem po, w h ic h p l a c e s c i t i z e n s u nder t h e i n c r e a s i n g d i f f i c u l t y o f g e t t i n g any s o r t o f a d e q u a te u n d e r s t a n d in g o f t h e i r w o r ld i n o r d e r t o a d j u s t t h e m s e lv e s t o i t . T h is s i t u a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e phenomenon o f " s o c i a l l a g . 11 I n ­ v e n t i o n and s c i e n t i f i c k n o w le d g e a r e a d v a n c in g s o r a p i d l y t h a t our s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s c a n n o t k e e p p a c e and we a r e , t h e r e f o r e , c o n f r o n t e d w i t h one o f t h e s e r i o u s s o c i a l p rob lem s o f t h i s a g e . As a r e s u l t o f t h i s i n c r e a s i n g tempo o f s o c i a l c h a n g e , R a in e y f o r e s a w th e n e c e s s i t y o f s t r e s s i n g t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s and t h e s c i e n c e s as t h e fu n d a m e n ta l c o r e upon w h ich g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w \o u ld b e b u i l t as w e l l a s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r s t r e s s i n g g u id a n c e i n t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n program . The c h a n g in g n a t u r e o f t h e work p r o c e s s and t h e d e l a y o f y o u th i n g o in g i n t o employment was t h e f o u r t h f a c t o r g i v e n by R a in e y . A n o th er t r e n d t h a t i s p r o f o u n d l y i n f l u e n c i n g our problem i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e j o b s i n A m erican s o c i e t y a r e becom ing more and more m e c h a n iz e d . The employment

206 p r o c e s s seem s t o b e r e q u i r i n g f i n e r and h i g h e r s k i l l s o f r e l a t i v e l y fe w e r and fe w e r p e o p l e , w h i l e i n c r e a s i n g p e r ­ c e n t a g e s o f t h e jo b s a r e t e n d in g t o f a l l i n t o t h e r o u t i n e , r e p e t i t i v e , and o p e r a t i v e t y p e s t h a t r e q u i r e l i t t l e or no t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g f o r i n i t i a l com p eten ce i n them. In s h o r t , we a r e f a c i n g an o c c u p a t i o n a l f u t u r e i n i n d u s t r y t h a t i s becom ing more m e c h a n iz e d , l e s s c o n c e r n e d w i t h h i g h l y d e v e lo p e d m e c h a n ic a l s k i l l s , l e s s g i v e n t o p r a c t i ­ c a l i n s t r u c t i o n o u t s i d e t h e i n d u s t r i a l p l a n t , and more i n s e c u r e f o r w ork ers w i t h a s i n g l e v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l . . . • The problem o f unemployment i s v e r y g r e a t , b u t e v e n em ployed y o u th f a c e s e r i o u s d i f f i c u l t i e s . R a te s o f pay te n d t o be low ; h o u r s te n d t o be l o n g ; a m a j o r i t y o f y o u th a r e i n b l i n d - a l l e y j o b s ; some a r e i n j o b s t h e y w i l l s h o r t l y l o s e b e c a u s e o f a d v a n c in g a g e . Many y o u th must c o n tr ib u te to th e support of f a m i l i e s . Many more y o u th a s p i r e t o e n t e r p r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s th a n a r e a t a l l l i k e l y t o be accom m odated, and t h e m a j o r i t y a r e f o r c e d i n t o u n s k i l l e d or o n ly s l i g h t l y s k i l l e d o c c u p a t io n s i n w h ic h t h e t u r n o v e r i n employment i s v ery r a p id . . • . F u r th e r m o r e , o f th e j o b s t h a t do r e q u i r e t e c h n i ­ c a l t r a i n i n g , i t i s e stim a te d t h a t , e x c lu s iv e of th e v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n f o r s p e c i f i c j o b s , e x c lu s iv e of th e p r o f e s s i o n s and s k i l l e d t r a d e s , a s much a s 9 0 % o f t h e v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s p e c i f i c job t r a i n i n g ca n b e a c q u ir e d i n s h o r t - t e r m c o u r s e s v a r y i n g from a fe w d ays t o s i x months a s a maximum. A n o th er f a c t o r o f im p o r ta n c e i s t h e d e la y e d em ploy­ ment o f many y o u th s u n t i l t h e y a r e 1 8 , 19* and 20 y e a r s o f age . H ence, th e t r a in in g f o r s p e c i f i c v o c a t io n a l s k i l l s c a n b e , and a c t u a l l y i s b e i n g , d e la y e d t o a p o s t - h i g h - s c h o o l p e r i o d . As many a s 90% o f t h e s e s t u d e n t s e n r o l l e d i n t h e s e s c h o o l s h a v e a l r e a d y c o m p le t e d t h e h ig h s c h o o l b e fo r e e n t e r in g . B e c a u s e o f t h e s l a c k o f employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s and t h e r e d u c t i o n i n h o u r s o f l a b o r , t h e m a tt e r o f l e i s u r e tim e em erges a s a s o c i a l problem o f r e a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . The t r a i n i n g o f y o u th and a d u l t s a l i k e f o r a c o n s t r u c t i v e u s e o f t h e i r s p a r e tim e i s s u r e l y one o f t h e m ajor o b j e c t i v e s o f modern g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . B e c a u s e o f t h e s e f o u r s o c i a l f a c t o r s j u s t en u m e r a te d , R a in e y was c o n v in c e d a new s i t u a t i o n was b e in g p rod uced i n

207

A m erican e d u c a t i o n w h ich c a l l e d f o r i n c r e a s e d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e problem s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

He £l%t t h a t t h e l a c k o f

o p p o r t u n i t y f o r s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n c a l l e d f o r more o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r c r e a t i v e e f f o r t a s a p a r t o f t h e program o f g e n e r a l ed u ­ c a tio n .

T h is m eant g i v i n g a g r e a t d e a l more a t t e n t i o n t o th e

programs o f a r t s , c r a f t s , m u s i c , group g a m es, f o l k - d a n c i n g , and s o f o r t h . The breakdown o f t r a d i t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s o f v a l u e s c a l l s f o r a s y s t e m o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t w ould a i d y o u th i n b u i l d i n g a fram e work o f v a l u e s c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e demo­ c r a t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f l i f e , and t h e s h i f t from an em p h asis upon p r o d u c t i o n t o an em p h asis upon d i s t r i b u t i o n and c o n ­ su m p tio n c a l l s f o r a g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t e m p h a siz e s t h e p r o c e s s e s o f i n t e l l i g e n t c o n s u m p tio n . Me made a commitment t o g i v e a s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t o a l l y o u th a p p r o x im a t e ly 100 y e a r s a g o . In th e b e g in n in g i t was a s im p le problem s i n c e o n ly a s m a l l p e r c e n t a g e o f our p o p u l a t i o n s o u g h t t o t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f t h e o f f e r . But i n 1939 and 19^0 we b e g a n t o r e a c h t h e r e a l t e s t o f t h i s com m itm ent. F or t h e f i r s t 7 5 y e a r s o f t h i s program no s e r i o u s p r o b le m , a r o s e . The A m erican e d u c a t i o n a l fo rm u la w h ic h had e v o l v e d w a s , i n e s s e n c e , t h a t t h e e le m e n t a r y s c h o o l s s h o u ld p r e p a r e c h i l d r e n f o r h i g h s c h o o l , and t h e h ig h s c h o o l s h o u ld p r e p a r e y o u th f o r c o l l e g e . T h is fo r m u la worked v e r y w e l l d u r in g t h e p e r i o d i n w h ic h our c o u n t r y was grow in g i n p o p u l a t i o n and w e a l t h , and w h i l e a l a r g e p a r t o f th e c o n t i n e n t had n o t b e e n s e t t l e d , t h u s p r o v id in g abundant o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r a l l o f t h o s e who w ere f o r t u n a t e enough t o go th r o u g h our s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s . Now c o n d i t i o n s h a v e changed^ and t h e fo r m u la h a s v i r t u a l l y c o l l a p s e d . We a r e r a p i d l y a p p r o a c h ­ in g t h e t im e when m ost y o u th s u nd er 18 y e a r s o f age w i l l be e n r o l l e d i n s c h o o l ; a f r o n t i e r no lo n g e r e x i s t s t o a b so rb our i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a t i o n ; t e c h n o l o g y i s r e d u c in g t h e number r e q u i r e d t o c a r r y on t h e work o f s o c i e t y , and an o u t l e t i n t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and w h i t e - c o l l a r jo b s i s no lo n g e r a v a i l a b l e f o r our h i g h - s c h o o l and c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s . We a r e , t h e r e f o r e , f a c i n g a r e a l c r i s i s i n our d e m o c r a t ic t h e o r y o f e d u c a t i o n . The f i e l d o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i n t h e n e x t t e n y e a r s i s g o in g t o b e t h e b a t t l e - g r o u n d

208 upon w h ich th e s u c c e s s o f our d e m o c r a t ic e x p e r im e n t i n e d u c a t i o n w i l l be t e s t e d . Our modern h i g h - s c h o o l program i s no l o n g e r f o r a s e l e c t e d few o f A m erican y o u t h , b u t f o r p r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f them . I t i s n ot p r im a r ily a c o l le g e p rep a ra to ry i n s t i t u t i o n , a s i t was i n i t s e a r l y d a y s , b u t must now p r o v id e a p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a l l s t u d e n t s f o r a c t i v e p a r t i ­ c i p a t i o n i n c o n tem p o r a ry l i f e . We a r e f o r c e d , t h e r e f o r e , t o d e v e l o p a new i n t e g r a t i n g i d e a f o r g e n e r a l h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n . . . . Some o f t h e r e c e n t s t u d i e s made by the A m erican Youth C om m ission r e v e a l s t h a t as many a s 70 p e r ­ c e n t of a l l young p e o p le d e s i r e t o e n t e r th e p r o f e s s i o n a l and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l f i e l d s , w h erea s a c e n s u s o f job o p p o r t u n i t i e s r e v e a l s t h a t p o s s i b l y nor more th an 12 % ca n b e a b so r b e d i n t h e s e o c c u p a t i o n s . . . ,. T h u s, i f p r a c t i c a l l y a l l A m erican Youth a r e t o be s e n t t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l , and i f n o t more th a n 12 p e r c e n t ca n b e a b so r b e d i n t h e i n ­ t e l l e c t u a l p r o f e s s i o n s , and i f i t i s t r u e t h a t 5 5 t o 7 0 % o f a l l t h e jo b s r e q u i r e l i t t l e or no f o r m a l or t e c h n i c a l t r a i n i n g , th e c o n c l u s i o n i s i n e s c a p a b l e t h a t a r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n o f our e n t i r e c o n c e p t o f h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n is e s se n tia l. I f our p r e m is e s a r e t r u e , t h e n , many h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s w i l l be f o r c e d i n t o common la b o r and d e a d -e n d j o b s . When t h i s s i t u a t i o n i s r e a c h e d , t h e p u rp o se o f h i g h - s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n w i l l h a v e t o be so m e th in g more th a n " p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a j o b ." I t d o e s n o t seem p o s s i b l e t o o v e r e m p h a s iz e t h e im­ p l i c a t i o n of t h i s s i t u a t i o n as a c r u c i a l t e s t o f th e t h e o r y o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . U n l e s s we ca n a d ap t our program o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n t o t h e r e a l i s t i c n e e d s o f co n tem p o ra ry l i f e , t h a t i s a s e r i o u s q u e s t i o n a s t o t h e u l t i m a t e s u c c e s s o f our e x p e r im e n t i n u n i v e r s a l s e c o n d a r y e d u c a tio n . Thus R a in e y c la im e d t h a t " th e h i g h s c h o o l i n t h e f u t u r e is

t o be p r i m a r i l y a p l a c e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n — a form o f

e d u c a t i o n s o much more im p o r ta n t th a n any o f t h e e l e c t i v e s or t h e v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s t h a t no s c h o o l s h o u ld om it i t . " Nor was R a in e y s i l e n t i n t h e r e l a t i o n o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n t o g en er a l e d u c a tio n . The program o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n we h a v e had i n our h i g h s c h o o l s i s n o t an a d e q u a te answ er t o our p r e s e n t

209

p ro b le m . I t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n p o i n t e d ou t t h a t jo b o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e t o many h i g h - s c h o o l g ra d u a tes. R e c e n t s t u d i e s a l s o i n d i c a t e t h a t among t h e unem ployed a s many young p e o p le may be fo u n d who h a v e had v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n a s h a v e n o t had i t . A ls o , the t r e n d s i n e n r o l lm e n t i n t h e t e c h n i c a l s c h o o l s i n our l a r g e c i t i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t many o f t h o s e e n r o l l i n g i n th e t e c h n ic a l s c h o o ls are a lr e a d y h ig h - s c h o o l g r a d u a te s. It s h o u ld b e n o t e d f u r t h e r t h a t m ost o f t h o s e who drop out o f s c h o o l b e f o r e c o m p le t in g t h e h ig h s c h o o l g o i n t o t h e u n s k ille d tr a d e s . T e ch n ica l tr a in in g of a s p e c i f i c s o r t , t h e r e f o r e , i s in a p p r o p r ia te t o th e s e y o u th , sa v e f o r a g e n e r a l i z e d v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g f o r a 11f a m i l y 11 o f o c c u p a t i o n s . 'C o n s id e r a b le r e s e a r c h done by t h e U n ite d S t a t e s Employment S e r v i c e i n d i c a t e s u n r e a l i z e d p o s s i b i l i ­ t i e s o f g e n e r a liz e d v o c a t io n a l t r a in in g f o r such " f a m ilie s ” of j obs. T h ese f a c t s i n d i c a t e t h a t we a r e now a p p r o a c h in g t h e tim e when t h e h i g h - s c h o o l c a n b e r e l i e v e d o f t h e r e ­ s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r v o c a t io n a l ed u c a tio n of a s p e c i f i c s o r t and th u s d e v o t e i t s e l f a lm o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o a program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . D e s c r i b i n g f,A Renewed Em phasis upon G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n ” i n t h e same p u b l i c a t i o n , t h e T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year B o o k . A l v i n C. E u r ic h

ask ed th e q u e s tio n :

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been concerned w ith g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n ? ”

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i n q u i r y by r e p l y i n g : To b e s u r e , t h e common s c h o o l s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d f o r t h is purpose. I n an e a r l y p e r i o d , t h e t h r e e R f s form ed t h e m ajor p a r t o f a c u r r ic u lu m o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I n s t r u c t i o n in t e n d e d t o d e v e l o p c h a r a c t e r and t r a i n i n g f o r c i t i z e n s h i p w ere l a t e r b r o u g h t w i t h i n i t s s c o p e . S t i l l l a t e r , em p h asis upon a c t i v i t i e s — l e a r n i n g t o do by d o i n g — came a s a r e s u l t o f an e f f o r t t o make g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n ap p ea r more e f f e c t . At p r e s e n t t h e s c o p e o f kk

E u r i c h , A l v i n C. "Renewed Em phasis upon G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n . ” T h i r t y - E i g h t h Year Book o f t h e N a t i o n a l S o c i e t y f o r t h e S tu d y o f E d u c a t io n . B lo o m in g t o n , 1 1 1 . The P u b l i c S c h o o l P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 9 , p p . 3 -1 3 *

210 g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a p p e a r s t o be a l l - p e r v a s i v e , i n c l u d i n g t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e w h o le p e r s o n a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o so c ie ty . T h u s, th rou g h th e y e a r s , new m ean in gs h ave ev o lv ed . B u t, in s p i t e of t h is p r a c t ic a l i n t e r e s t in th e g e n e r a l a s p e c t s o f e d u c a t i o n , h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s came t o assum e o t h e r f u n c t i o n s t h a t , p a r t i c u l a r l y th r o u g h o u t t h e f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s o f t h e p r e s e n t c e n t u r y , h e l d a p o s i t i o n o f p rim ary im p o r t a n c e . H igh s c h o o l s , by and l a r g e , came t o p r e p a r e f o r c o l l e g e , s u p p le m e n tin g t h e i r programs from tim e t o tim e some v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . E u r ic h t h e n d e s c r i b e d how t h e c h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s c a l l e d f o r a renew ed em p hasis on g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on t h e c o lle g e le v e l. S t u d e n t s came i n i n c r e a s i n g numbers; t h e y l i k e w i s e dropped o u t o f s c h o o l i n l a r g e num bers, e i t h e r b e c a u s e t h e y f a i l e d or b e c a u s e t h e c o l l e g e s f a i l e d t o p r o v id e e d u c a t i o n a l f a c i l i t i e s o f t h e t y p e t h a t i n t e r e s t e d them . The c o l l e g e s w ere n o t a lw a y s aware o f or g r e a t l y c o n ­ c e r n e d a b o u t t h e h ig h m o r t a l i t y r a t e . On t h e c o n t r a r y , some w ere proud o f i t . Such w h o l e s a l e e l i m i n a t i o n seem ed an e x p r e s s i o n o f h ig h s t a n d a r d s t h a t enh anced t h e v a l u e o f h ig h e r e d u c a t i o n . Even i n a d em o cra c y , e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t ca n be had o n ly by a c h o s e n fe w a r e more h i g h l y a p p r a i s e d — t h e s m a l l e r t h e number, t h e more r i g i d t h e s e l e c t i o n ; t h e more s e v e r e t h e e l i m i n a t i o n , th e g r e a t e r t h e w o r th o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s . O u ts id e t h e c o l l e g e , t h e h i g h m o r t a l i t y r a t e w ent a lm o s t u n n o t i c e d . As s t u d e n t s dropped ou t b e f o r e c o m p le t in g t h e i r c o u r s e s , i n d u s t r y and v a r i o u s co m m e r c ia l e n t e r p r i s e s or a g r i c u l t u r e r e a d i l y a b so r b e d them. Then came a r a t h e r sudden s h i f t i n t r e n d s . S t u d e n t s l e a v i n g c o l l e g e s c o u ld no lo n g e r f i n d j o b s . H igh s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s n o t p la n n in g t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t i o n fo u n d t h e m s e lv e s i d l e . A c c o r d in g t o E u r i c h , b e c a u s e o f unemploym ent and t h e f i n a n c i a l en cou ra gem en t a f f o r d e d by t h e N a t i o n a l Youth Ad­ m i n i s t r a t i o n , s t u d e n t s who i n p r e v i o u s y e a r s w ould h a v e had no s p e c i a l i n c l i n a t i o n t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e tu r n e d t o t h e

211 in stitu tio n s

o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g i n i n c r e a s i n g num bers.

From

1929 t o t h e p r e s e n t (1 9 3 8 ) i t became p r o g r e s s i v e l y e a s i e r f o r s t u d e n t s t o a t t e n d c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s and 11i n s t i t u t i o n s s o o n b eg a n t o s e a r c h f o r new program s t h a t w ere b e t t e r a d a p te d t o th e group e n r o l l e d p r i m a r i l y b e c a u s e o f c u r r e n t s o c i a l p r o b l e m s . 11

E u r ic h l i s t e d B e n n in g t o n , S a ra h L aw ren ce, and

S t e p h e n s as exam p les o f su c h c o l l e g e s .

In t h e f a l l o f 1932

t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M in n eso ta opened what i t “G e n e r a l C o l l e g e . 11

l a t e r named i t s

The C o l l e g e c o n s i s t e d o f two y e a r s o f

lo w e r d i v i s i o n work and em p h a sized an e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s r e g a r d l e s s o f w h e th er t h e y c o n t in u e d i n s c h o o l f o r o n ly a te r m , or a y e a r , or c o m p le te d t h e i r u n iv e r sity cou rse.

D uring t h e i n t e r v e n i n g y e a r s t h e i n ­

t e r e s t i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l had m u l t i p l i e d many f o l d .

“G e n e r a l C o l l e g e s may n o w ,” s a i d

E u r i c h , “be fo u n d i n e v e r y s e c t i o n o f t h e c o u n t r y from c o a s t to co a st.

C o l l e g e s n o t c h a n g in g t h e i r names h a v e i n c r e a s i n g l y

g i v e n p u b l i c i t y t o programs o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . 11 E u r ic h r e f e r r e d t o t h e I n s t i t u t e f o r A d m i n i s t r a t i v e O f f i c e r s o f H ig h e r I n s t i t u t i o n s c a l l e d i n t h e summer o f 193^ a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o t o c o n s i d e r a new d e f i n i t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

I n t h e P r e f a c e t o t h e P u b l i s h e d P r o c e e d in g s

o f t h i s I n s t i t u t e , Gray s t a t e d t h a t “t h i s t o p i c was c h o s e n a s a r e s u l t o f s u g g e s t i o n s r e c e i v e d from more th a n a hundred o ffic e r s

o f h i g h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s c o n c e r n in g t h e p rob lem s and

212 t r e n d s w h ic h m e r i t i n t e n s i v e s t u d y and c r i t i c a l d i s c u s s i o n at t h is tim e .” th e t i t l e

The new d e f i n i t i o n was n o t f o r m u l a t e d , and

o f t h e p r o c e e d in g s was ch an ged t o G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n ?

I t s N a t u r e . S c o n e . and E s s e n t i a l E l e m e n t s , E u r ic h c la im e d t h a t many q u e s t i o n s a r o s e ou t o f t h e tren d , c h ie f l y :

What i s g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ?

"Commonly i t i s

th o u g h t o f i n c o n t r a s t t o s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and a s im p ly in g an em p h a sis upon l i v i n g i n a d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y , " e x p l a i n e d E u r ic h .

He was q u ic k t o a d d , h o w e v e r , "But c o n f u s i o n h a s

r e s u l t e d o v er t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e means or m ethods o f im p le m e n t a t io n f o r a c h i e v i n g t h e s e g o a l s . As a r e s u l t , v a r y in g c o n c e p t s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n h a v e b e e n e x p r e s s e d , r a n g in g th r o u g h t h e w h o le gamut from d e p en d e n c e upon t h e s t u d y o f " f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s " or upon a b s t r a c t i o n s t h a t r e s i d e o u t s i d e t h e s t u d e n t t o an e d u c a ­ t i o n t h a t grows ou t o f th e c e n t e r s f u n d a m e n t a lly w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t — an e d u c a t i o n c o n c e i v e d p r i m a r i l y i n term s of h is b a s ic p e r s o n a l needs in r e l a t i o n to s o c i e t y . F u n d a m e n t a lly , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a common c o n c e r n t h a t u n d e r l i e s a l l e f f o r t s t o s t r e s s e d u c a t i o n i n t h e upper s e c o n d a r y and h i g h e r l e v e l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e d i f f e r e n t em p h a ses. I t i s a c o n c e r n t h a t grows o u t o f ( 1 ) a d i s ­ s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n as now o r g a n i z e d , (2 ) a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t an o v e r e m p h a sis upon s p e c i a l i z a ­ t i o n i n t h e c o l l e g e s , (3 ) a new b ody o f i n f o r m a t i o n r e ­ g a r d in g t h e n a t u r e o f a c o l l e g e and t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f a s t u d e n t b o d y , (b) t h e c u r r e n t y o u th problem i n s o c i e t y , and ( 5 ) a d eep en ed d e s i r e t o do^ s o m e th in g t h a t w i l l make e d u c a t i o n more e f f e c t i v e th a n i t h a s b e e n i n th e p a s t , l a r g e l y , p e r h a p s , i n t h e hope t h a t f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s w i l l be a b le t o s o l v e b e t t e r s u c h s o c i a l prob lem s a s t h o s e t h a t b a f f l e p r e s e n t - d a y s o c i e t y . But E u r ic h a l s o f o u n d , a lo n g w i t h t h i s common c o n c e r n , a common p u r p o se i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

213

E v e r y program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o d a t e s t r e s s e s t h e n eed f o r i n t e g r a t i o n . The word h a s , p e r h a p s , th r o u g h e n d l e s s r e p e t i t i o n and o v e r u s e , l o s t some o f i t s fo r c e fu ln e ss. N e v e r t h e l e s s , th e c o n s t a n t em p h asis upon ' i t s i g n a l i z e d a q u e s t f o r some s o r t o f u n i t y now l a c k i n g in e d u c a tio n a l m a tte r s. At t h i s p o i n t , E u r ic h summarized t h e d i f f e r e n t a p ­ p r o a c h e s f o r t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h ich we have s e e n so f a r . Some w ould a c h i e v e u n i t y b y h a v in g a l l s t u d e n t s s t u d y b a s i c a r e a s o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r i n o rd er t o g i v e them a common ground f o r u n d e r s t a n d in g ea c h o t h e r . Some t h i n k o f u n i t y a s i t i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n g r e a t b ook s t h a t h ave s t o o d t h e t e s t o f t im e and t h e a t t a c k s o f c r i t i c s . Some keep se a r c h in g f o r f i r s t p r i n c i p l e s , g r e a t t r u t h s , th a t h o l d a t a l l t im e s and i n a l l p l a c e s ; i f we c o u ld o n ly d i s c o v e r t h e s e , t h e y a r g u e , u n i t y c o u ld r e a d i l y be a r r i v e d a t th r o u g h a s t u d y o f them. Some w ould c e n t e r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a b o u t t h e s t u d e n t fs i n d i v i d u a l and p e r s o n a l p r o b le m s , h i s a d j u s t m e n t s and m a la d j u s tm e n t s ; f o r , t h e y s a y , i n t e g r a t i o n i s n o t r e a l l y a c h ie v e d u n l e s s i t t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h e s t u d e n t . Some t h in k o f i n t e g r a t i o n a s grow in g ou t o f a s t u d y and an u n d e r s t a n d in g o f b a s i c n e e d s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l , su c h a s f o o d , s h e l t e r , c l o t h i n g , s e x o r r e p r o d u c t i o n , and a l l t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ic h he must engage i n order t o s a t i s f y th e s e n e e d s . Some a r e f i r m l y c o n v in c e d t h a t t h e q u e s t f o r u n i t y c a n b e s a t i s f i e d o n ly th r o u g h an em p h a sis upon t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l t o s o c i e t y ; upon t h e a c t i v i t i e s i n w h ich h e e n g a g e s , s u c h a s o b s e r v a t i o n and c o m m u n ic a tio n , i n o r d e r t o c o n t r i b u t e t o , and t o b e f u l l y a p a r t o f , a s o c i a l g r o u p . To b e s u r e , th e s e p o in ts o f u n it y a re n o t m u tu a lly e x c l u s i v e . They r e p r e s e n t c e n t e r s o f i n t e r e s t . They r e v e a l c o n ­ t r a s t i n g p o s i t i o n s a s w e l l a s t h e dom inant q u e s t . R e g a r d le s s o f t h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s i n a p p r o a c h , E u r ic h saw a common d e s i r e ru n n in g th r o u g h t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e p la n s fo r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r , t h e r e i s a common d e s i r e , i n th e m a jo r ity of p la n s , f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n a t t h e u pp er s e c o n d a r y and c o l l e g e l e v e l s , t o r e l a t e e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s more d i r e c t l y t o t h e n e e d s o f

21*+ human b e i n g s who a r e members o f co n tem p o r a ry s o c i e t y , t o c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e grow th o f i n d i v i d u a l s s o t h a t t h e y w i l l be more e f f e c t i v e i n m e e tin g t h e i r r e a l d a y - b y - d a y p rob lem s — t h e more s o c i a l a s w e l l a s t h e more p e r s o n a l , t h e p r o s p e c t i v e a s w e l l ..as t h e more im m e d ia te — and t o d e v e lo p t h e d e s i r e and c a p a c i t y f o r c o n t in u o u s s e l f e d u c a tio n . Bound up w i t h t h e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , E u r ic h f e l t , was t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f man, o f s o c i e t y , a n d - o f th e le a r n in g p r o c e s s .

S i n c e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s aim ed a t t h e

f u r t h e r d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e d e m o c r a t ic way o f l i f e , E u r ic h summed up t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f man and o f s o c i e t y by t h r e e p r o p o sitio n s:

(1 ) t h e u n iq u e n e s s o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l ,

(2 ) h i s

s o c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n , and (3 ) t h e a c h ie v e m e n t o f s o c i a l w e l l ­ b e in g and d e s i r a b l e s o c i a l a c t i o n th r o u g h common u n d e r s t a n d in g s a s t h e b a s i s o f i n t e l l i g e n t and w i l l i n g c o o p e r a t i o n .

If

g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w ere p r e d i c a t e d upon su c h a c o n c e p t o f man and s o c i e t y , t h e n t h e aim o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , c o n c lu d e d E u r i c h , i s n o t o n ly t o a d j u s t t h e m s l e v e s e f f e c t i v e l y and w i t h o u t c o n f u s i o n t o c o n tem p o r a ry l i v i n g , b u t b e c a u s e s o c i e t y i s d y n a m ic, i t m ust s e e k t o e q u ip young p e o p le t o a d j u s t t h e m s e lv e s t o ch a n g e and v a r i e t y .

M a te r ia ls f o r g e n e r a l

e d u c a t i o n m ust b e s e l e c t e d , t h e n , w h ich w i l l a f f o r d y o u th c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i s s u e s , p r o b le m s , and p o t e n t i a l i t i e s y o u th .

of

T h is v ie w o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n v o l v e d d e f i n i t e

c o n c e p t i o n s o f t h e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , w h ich E u r ic h summarized u n d er two h e a d s : t i e s th at are f e l t

(1 ) e f f e c t i v e l e a r n i n g r e s u l t s from a c t i v i ­ t o b e v i t a l , and (2 ) t h e r e l a t i o n o f p a s t

215 wisdom t o p r e s e n t p ro b lem s n e c e s s i t a t e s t h e u n io n o f i n ­ s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s from s e v e r a l c o n v e n t i o n a l l y s e p a r a t e d su b ject-m a tter f i e l d s . From t h e f o r e g o i n g p o s i t i o n s t a k e n r e l a t i v e t o t h e n a t u r e o f man and s o c i e t y and t o t h e n a tu r e o f th e l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , a c c o r d in g t o E u r i c h , s h o u ld h av e th e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (1 ) b r o a d — c o n c e r n in g i t s e l f w it h t h e w i d e s t p o s s i b l e ra n g e o f b a s i c human a c t i v i t i e s , w i t h due r e g a r d f o r t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t and f o r t h e i r e s s e n t i a l i n t e r r e l a ­ t i o n ; (2 ) s c h o l a r l y — g u i d i n g t h e s t u d e n t t o th e d i s c o v e r y o f t h e b e s t t h a t i s c u r r e n t l y known and th o u g h t c o n ­ c e r n in g t h e v a r i o u s p rob lem s t o w h ich h i s a t t e n t i o n i s t u r n e d ; ( 3 ) d yn am ic— s t r e s s i n g t h e ways i n w h ich s o c i a l ch a n g es and t h e d i s c o v e r y o f new k n ow led ge c o n t i n u o u s l y i n v a l i d a t e e s t a b l i s h e d v ie w s and le a d t o new and more a p p r o x im a t e ly c o r r e c t c o n c l u s i o n s ? (*+) d e m o c r a t i c — a c ­ c e p t i n g t h e m ethods o f d i s c u s s i o n and p e r s u a s i o n i n d e a l ­ in g w i t h su c h d i f f e r e n c e s ; (5 ) s y s t e m a t i c — c o n s t a n t l y e m p h a siz in g t h e m ethods by w h ic h so u n d c o n c l u s i o n s a r e r e a c h e d and d e s i r e d en d s a t t a i n e d ; and (6 ) g e n e r a l i z e d — d e v e l o p i n g i n t h e s t u d e n t a r e a l g r a s p o f t h e m ost w i d e l y r a m if y in g g e n e r a l i z e d i n s i g h t s — i n t e l l e c t u a l , e t h i c a l , and a e s t h e t i c . S uch i n s i g h t s , w h ic h grow ou t o f t h e r e f l e c t i v e c o n s i d e r a t i o n and co m p a r iso n o f e x p e r i e n c e s , a r e among t h e m ost v a l u a b l e c o n s e q u e n c e s o f l e a r n i n g . They r e s u l t from a c o m p r e h e n sio n o f th e r e l a t e d n e s s o f t h i n g s t h a t makes e v e r e a s i e r t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f new e x p e r i e n c e s and t h e s o l u t i o n o f new p r o b le m s , and t h e y t h e m s e lv e s a r e t h e m ost f l e x i b l e t o o l s f o r su c h i n t e r ­ p r e t a t i o n and su c h s o l u t i o n . In c o n c l u s i o n , E u r ic h warned t h a t , a l t h o u g h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was f o r a l l p u p i l s , i t

s h o u ld n o t n e g l e c t i n d i v i d u a l

d i f f e r e n c e s and v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . W h ile g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n as th u s e n v i s a g e d i s d e s i g n e d t o be s u i t a b l e f o r a l l n orm al s t u d e n t s and t o be b r o a d ly i n c l u s i v e , y e t i t n eed n o t be e i t h e r s t e r e o t y p e d or un­ r e la t e d to s p e c i a l , even v o c a t io n a l, i n t e r e s t s . Indeed,

216 s i n c e i t i s f u n d a m e n t a lly l i n k e d t o n e e d s , w h ich must v a r y from p e r s o n t o p e r s o n , i t i m p l i e s i n d i v i d u a l i z a t i o n o f i n s t r u c t i o n w i t h i n i t s b ro a d fram ew ork. I t may p r o ­ p e r l y em ploy v o c a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s a s a means o f m o t i v a t i n g t h e l e a r n e r , p r o v id e d undue n a rro w n ess d o es n o t r e s u l t ; and i t may t e a c h b o th s k i l l s and t e c h n i q u e s , p r o v id e d t h i s i s d on e w i t h su c h b r e a d t h o f v ie w as w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e en d s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . I t s o u tc o m e s , m o r e o v e r , s h o u ld be a s a p p l i c a b l e t o v o c a t i o n a l a s t o o t h e r pur­ p o s e s ; i n d e e d , t h e y a r e l i k e l y t o be o f more v o c a t i o n a l v a l u e i n th e modern w o rld th a n mere 15t r a i n i n g 11 i n t h e u n c r i t i c a l and u n im a g in a t i v e p e rfo rm a n ce o f s p e c i a l i z e d o c c u p a tio n a l h a b it s . The w id e n in g g u l f b e tw e e n th e h ig h s c h o o l and t h e j u n i o r h i g h s c h o o l on t h e one h a n d , and t h e h ig h s c h o o l and t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e on t h e o t h e r , o v e r t h e i s s u e s o f g e n e r a l 1*5

e d u c a t i o n was d e s c r i b e d by Gwynns '

B o th t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l and j u n i o r c o l l e g e a r e p o i n t e d more th a n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l tow ard g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f t h o s e common k n o w le d g e s , s k i l l s , a t t i t u d e s , and i d e a l s w h ich a l l s t u d e n t s a r e su p p o se d t o g a i n f o r , s u c c e s s f u l l i v i n g i n a d em o cra cy. As a r e s u l t o f b e in g c o n c e r n e d more s p e c i f i c a l l y w i t h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , b o t h t h e j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l and t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e h av e g i v e n e v i d e n c e o f r a t h e r re m a r k a b le s t r i d e s i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f c u r r ic u lu m e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n . *





There i s a q u e s t i o n as t o w hat s c h o o l l e v e l s h o u ld mark t h e end o f t! common11 or 11g e n e r a I 11 e d u c a t i o n . If g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n f o r a l l s t u d e n t s s h o u ld s t o p a t t h e end o f th e ju n io r h ig h s c h o o l, th en th e p r e s e n t d e p a r tm e n ta li­ z a t i o n , s p e c i a l i z a t i o n , and d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l m ig h t b e j u s t i f i e d a s lo n g a s t h e i n t e r ­ r e l a t i o n s h i p s o f s u b j e c t s a r e t a k e n i n t o a c c o u n t more th a n t h e y h a v e b e e n i n t h e p a s t . I f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i s t o c o n t i n u e th r o u g h t h e f i r s t two y e a r s of t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e , th en th e s e n io r h ig h s c h o o l w ith i t s h ig h ly 1*5 Trends.

Gwynn, J . M inor. C u r ric u lu m P r i n c i p l e s and S o c i a l New Y o rk , The M a c m illa n Company, 19*3, P* 3 2 7 .

21? s p e c i a l i z e d and d i f f e r e n t i a t e d c o u r s e s i n t h e s u b j e c t m a t t e r a r e a s i s an anom aly b e tw e e n t h e lo w er and upper l e v e l s w h ich c o m p r is e t h e c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h i s common core of g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n . And what a p p e a red t o be c o l l e g i a t e a p p r e h e n s io n o v e r t h e h ig h s c h o o l ' s t h r e a t e n i n g s t r i k e f o r s c h o l a s t i c in d e p e n ­ d e n c e from c o l l e g e d o m in a t io n was v o i c e d i n t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l , u n p u b l i s h e d , p r e l i m i n a r y r e p o r t o f t h e C om m ission o f Educa­ t i o n Trends i n t h e H u m a n ities o f t h e A m erican C o u n c i l o f L earned S o c i e t i e s

1+6

when i t s t a t e d :

The t e n d e n c y t o d a y o f many h ig h s c h o o l s to i g n o r e t h e f u t u r e e d u c a t i o n a l n ee d s o f t h e i r a b l e r s t u d e n t s i s d e ­ p l o r a b l e , and t h e i n s i s t e n c e on c o m p le te autonomy i s q u i t e u n in te llig ib le . E d u c a t io n i s e s s e n t i a l l y a c o n t in u o u s p r o c e s s , and no c o n t i n u i t y c a n p o s s i b l e be a c h i e v e d s a v e th ro u g h c o o p e r a t i o n o f t h o s e i n c h a r g e a t th e v a r i o u s a cad em ic l e v e l s . On t h e one h a n d , o n ly t h d s e i n c h a r g e a t e a c h l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n ca n f u l l y r e a l i z e th e c o n ­ c r e t e problem s w h ich must be f a c e d a t t h a t l e v e l . T h is f a c t i n v a l i d a t e s a t te m p ts a t w h o l e s a l e d i c t a t i o n , e i t h e r from a b o ve or from b e lo w . B u t , on t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h o s e i n c h a r g e on a h i g h e r l e v e l a r e b e s t q u a l i f i e d t o d e c i d e what t y p e o f t r a i n i n g t h e i r e n t e r i n g s t u d e n t s must h a ve r e c e i v e d i n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r work a t t h i s h i g h e r l e v e l . What i s e s s e n t i a l , t h e r e f o r e , i s t h e abandonment o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f autonom y, t h e r e a s s e r t i o n o f t h e p r i n c i p l e o f c o n t i n u i t y , and t h e p r o m o tio n o f s i n c e r e and i n ­ t e l l i g e n t c o o p e r a t i o n b e tw e e n t h e s e v e r a l l e v e l s o f a cad em ic i n s t r u c t i o n . In 1939 th e N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s C om m ission on C u r r i c u l a o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s and I n s t i t u t i o n s o f H ig h er E d u c a t io n a p p o in t e d a G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n C om m ittee t o s t u d y t h e problem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l .

^ A m e r ic a n C o u n c i l o f Learned S o c i e t i e s D ev o ted t o H u m a n istic S t u d i e s . C om m ittee on E d u c a t i o n a l Trends i n t h e H u m a n it ie s . L i b e r a l E d u c a t io n and D em ocracy. New Y ork, C o l o r i t e O f f s e t P r i n t i n g Company, 19*+0, p . 99*

218 I n 1 9 3 9 , t o o , was p u b l i s h e d th e r e p o r t o f t h e C om m ittee on S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m .

The r e p o r t c e n t e r e d

on t h e i n d i v i d u a l and h i s n e e d s , b u t e x p l a i n e d t h a t fra w o rk in g c o n c e p t o f an e d u c a t i o n a l n eed must a lw a y s be b o t h p e r s o n a l and s o c i a l I n r e f e r e n c e . And i n 19^-0 s t i l l a n o t h e r r e p o r t o f t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s Commission was p u b l i s h e d u nd er t h e t i t l e L e a rn in g t h e Ways o f D em ocracy.

of

T h is r e p o r t , l i k e t h e o t h e r s

f o c u s e d a t t e n t i o n upon th e n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and th e n e c e s s i t y o f b r e a k in g down s u b j e c t - m a t t e r t o a e h i e v e g r e a t e r in te g r a tio n . The E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission h a s p o i n t e d ou t e l s e w h e r e t h a t t h e r e i s em erg in g i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a new t y p e o f common or g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n d e s i g n e d t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f a l l A m erican b o y s and g i r l s , a program o f e d u c a t i o n a s u n i v e r s a l a s t h e o ld e r program o f common e l e m e n t a r y e d u c a t i o n , a program i n w h ich c i t i z e n s h i p i s a m ajor p u r p o s e . To r e d u c e t h e c h a o t i c mass o f new m a t e r i a l s w h ic h a r e g r o p in g t h e i r way i n t o th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l program t o a c o h e s i v e s e r i e s o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i ­ e n c e s i s t h e n e x t m ajor c u r r ic u lu m p r o b le m , b o th f 6 r c i v i c e d u c a t i o n i n p a r t i c u l a r and f o r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n as a w h o l e . . . . S e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , g e n e r a l l y , n eed a b e t t e r o r g a n i z a ­ t i o n o f new m a t e r i a l s o f I n s t r u c t i o n . New s u b j e c t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n su c h a s m e n t a l h y g i e n e , s e x e d u c a t i o n , home and f a m i l y e d u c a t i o n , s a f e t y e d u c a t i o n , c o n s e r v a t i o n , p e r s o n a l r e g im e n , propaganda a n a l y s i s , consum er e d u c a t i o n , and o t h e r s a r e b e in g added t o t h e program o f s t u d i e s . T h ese a r e im p o r ta n t m a t t e r s ; y e t i t i s u n d e s i r a b l e and I m p r a c t i c a l t o o r g a n iz e them as a d d i t i o n a l s e p a r a t e

T h a y e r , V. T . , e t a l . R e o r g a n iz in g S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . New York, D. A p p le to n -C e n t u r y Company, 1939, p . 3 8.

cou rses. T h ese e s s e n t i a l new t o p i c s o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e m ost v a l u a b l e e le m e n t s o f t h e o ld e r o f f e r i n g , n eed now t o be a s s i m i l a t e d i n t o an on g o in g program w h ic h , w i t h due a d a p t a t i o n s t o l o c a l n e e d , w i l l b e p r o v id e d f o r a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n A m e r ic a .**8 The r e p o r t a l s o f o r e s a w t h a t one o f t h e f a c t o r s r e ­ t a r d i n g t h e r e a l i z a t i o n a t t h e i n n o v a t i o n s i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m it

s u g g e s t e d w ou ld l i e

in teach er tr a in in g .

One o f t h e o b s t a c l e s t o t h i s new program o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i s t h e n e c e s s i t y f o r r e - e d u c a t i n g t e a c h e r s w hose w h o le p r o f e s s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n and e x p e r i e n c e h as b een i n term s o f c o m p a r tm e n ta liz e d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r . k-9 The n e c e s s i t y o f r e - e d u c a t i n g t e a c h e r s was a l s o r e ­ f l e c t e d i n an a r t i c l e by Tenenbaum e n t i t l e d " I t 111 Come i n Handy Some D a y ln

Tenenbaum

c la im e d t h a t , d e s p i t e th e f a c t

t h a t new c o u r s e s o f s t u d y w ere b e in g d e v e lo p e d f o r t h e new t y p e o f h i g h - s c h o o l s t u d e n t who c o u ld n o t f i t

i n t o t h e o ld

program , t e a c h e r s w ere m ost r e l u c t a n t t o s u r r e n d e r any p a r t o f th e c o n t e n t o f t h e o ld c u r r ic u lu m .

In t h e f a c e o f t h e

more im m ed ia te and u r g e n t p rob lem s o f t h e i r p u p i l s d u r in g t h i s p e r i o d , t e a c h e r s c lu n g t e n a c i o u s l y t o much f a c t u a l m a t e r i a l q u i t e i r r e l e v a n t t o t h e co n tem p o ra ry n e e d s o f t h e i r s t u d e n t s , c o n t e n d in g t h a t !!i t m ig h t come i n handy some d ay .* 1

*+8

N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n . E d u c a tio n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission. L e a r n in g t h e Wavs o f D em ocracy. W a sh in g to n , D. C . , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n , 19^0• A9 L o c. c i t . 50 Tenenbaum, S a m u el. " I t ’ l l Come i n Handy Some DayI" The E d u c a t i o n a l D i g e s t . b s M - l - ^ , Novem ber, 1 9^ 0.

2 20 I n d e e d , t h e w h o le p ro b lem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n — w i t h a ll its

i s s u e s and i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n o f t h e

c u r r ic u lu m — m ig h t have b e e n ig n o r e d and m ig h t h a v e rem ained a n a ca d em ic q u e s t i o n b u t f o r one f a c t :

t h e n o n -a c a d e m ic

p u p i l i n s i s t e d upon com ing t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l i n e v e n i n c r e a s ­ i n g numbers and he d o g g e d ly p e r s i s t e d i n r e m a in in g n o n a c a d e m ic . When T . E. M cM u llin ^ l a s k e d i n an a r t i c l e lfWho Are t h e E d u c a t i o n a l l y U n a d ju s te d Y outh and What Are T h e ir Heeds?" and i n r e p l y t o h i s own q u e s t i o n e x p l a i n e d "Many, p o s s i b l y m o st, o f t h e u n a d j u s t e d y o u th e x p e r i e n c e t h e i r g r e a t e s t d i f f i c u l t y i n t h o s e s c h o o l a c t i v i t i e s w h ich r e q u i r e e x t e n s i v e u s e o f sym b ols and a b s t r a c t t h i n k i n g , " and when he a d m it t e d t h a t t h e y " ten d t o e x p e r i e n c e l e s s d i f f i c u l t y i n t h o s e su b ­ j e c t s w h ic h p r o v id e e x t e n s i v e l y f o r s e n s o r y and m otor e x p e r i ­ e n c e s , " and when he f u r t h e r a d m it t e d t h a t " t h i s i s u s u a l l y i n t e r p r e t e d a s lo w m e n ta l a b i l i t y , a lw a y s t h e c a s e , "

p er s e , b u t su c h i s n o t

one c a n n o t wonder why i t n e v e r seem ed t o

dawn on t h e s e e d u c a t o r s t h a t i t was t h e t r a d i t i o n a l c u r r ic u lu m w h ic h was u n a d j u s t e d t o l i f e and r e a l i t y , and n o t y o u th who was u n a d j u s t e d t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m .

Had t h e s e g e n t le m e n h e a r d o n l y o f

P l a t o and A r i s t o t l e , and n o t o f Comenius and P e s t a l o z z i ?

51 M cM u llin, T. E . "Who Are t h e E d u c a t i o n a l l y U n a d j u s t ­ ed Youth and What Are T h e ir Needs?" The E d u c a t i o n a l O u tlo o k , 1 5 : 1 1 7 - 2 4 , November, 1 9 4 0 .

221 And a g a i n , F r a n c is T. S p a u l d i n g ^ fou n d i t n e c e s s a r y t o rem ind t h e e d u c a t i o n a l w o r ld t h a t , j u s t b e c a u s e t h e n o n acad em ic p u p i l was n o t u s u a l l y s o w e l l e q u ip p ed as t h e a cad em ic p u p i l s w i t h acad em ic s k i l l s , t h a t "d oes n o t mean t h a t t h e y h a v e s o m e th in g i n h e r e n t l y wrong w i t h t h e m ,” S p a u ld in g a d m it t e d t h a t t h e i r d i f f i c u l t y was n o t a d i f f i c u l t y of i n t e l l i g e n c e but a d iff e r e n c e of m o tiv a tio n , ” of se e in g s e n s e i n t h e t h i n g s t h e y a r e c a l l e d on t o d o . n 53 A rn old b e l i e v e d t h a t f u n d a m e n ta l t o any ch a n g es i n t h e s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f t h e ’’u n a d j u s t e d ” y o u th was t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a more r e a l i s t i c p h i l o s o p h y on t h e p a r t o f th e f a c u l t y . I t i s p r o b a b ly t r u e t h a t a c o n s i d e r a b l e number o f t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s h a v e a ns u b j e c t - m a t t e r 11 c o n c e p t o f e d u c a t i o n and i n some c a s e s a v e r y in a d e q u a t e u n d e r s t a n d in g n o t o n ly o f p r e s e n t s o c i a l and econom ic problem s b u t a l s o o f t h e n e e d s o f y o u t h , A rn old f e l t t h a t once t h i s p h i l o s o p h y had b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h e way w ould b e p r e p a r e d f o r an e f f e c t i v e a t t a c k upon t h e c u r r ic u lu m .

The c h i e f c u r r ic u lu m n e e d , a s A rn o ld

saw i t , was g r e a t e r f l e x i b i l i t y . T here must b e l i b e r a t i o n from r i g i d r e s t r i c t i o n s o f

^ S p a u l d i n g , F r a n c is T. ’’E d u c a t i o n a l Needs o f th e Non-Academic P u p i l s • ” The E d u c a t i o n a l O u t lo o k , 1 5 * 5 7 -5 8 * N ovem ber, 19 ^ 0. 53 A r n o ld , W illia m E. ’’Changes i n t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l t o Meet t h e Needs o f A l l Y o u t h .” The E d u c a t i o n a l O u tlo o k , Novem ber, 19^ 0.

222 o r g a n i z a t i o n and a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Even th ou g h t h e r e a r e v a r i e t i e s o f " c u r r i c u l a ” o f f e r e d by t h e s c h o o l su c h as C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t o r y r- C om m ercia l, V o c a t i o n a l , or G e n e r a l, t h e r e n e e d s t o b e a maximum o f f l e x i b i l i t y w i t h i n and b e ­ tw een t h e s e . The program o f s t u d i e s and o f a c t i v i t i e s f o r e a c h p u p i l must be a r r a n g e d t o p r o v id e m ost e f f e c t i v e ­ l y f o r h i s p a r t i c u l a r n e e d s r e g a r d l e s s o f any p r e a r r a n g e d or f i x e d c u r r ic u lu m . And h e r e an im p o r ta n t a d m is s io n was made.

A rn o ld c o n ­

f e s s e d t h a t m o d i f i c a t i o n o f th e c o n t e n t o f t h e e s t a b l i s h e d s u b j e c t s t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f th e ”u n a d j u s t e d ” or " n o n -a c a d e m ic ” y o u th was t h e wrong a p p r o a c h .

He b e l i e v e d t h a t c u r r ic u lu m

r e v i s i o n sh o u ld n o t s t a r t w i t h s u b j e c t s b u t w i t h th e p u p i l s th e m se lv e s.

T h u s, s u b j e c t b o u n d a r ie s w ould h a v e t o g o ; and

e l i m i n a t e d f o r e v e r , t o o , w ould be r i g i d l y s t a n d a r d i z e d g r a d u a t i o n s , t h e l i m i t e d d e f i n i t i o n and a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d u n i t o f c r e d i t , and t h e s i n g l e ty p e o f h i g h - s c h o o l d ip l o m a • By 1 9 ^ 0 , t h e n , i t was g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d and i n s i s t e d upon t h a t t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m was i n n eed o f fu n d a m e n ta l r e v i s i o n and t h a t t h e r e was n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h i g h s c h o o l program . S p e a r s sums up t h e form er c o n c l u s i o n when he s a i d : D i s s a t i s f a c t i o n s w i t h t h e p r o g r e s s / o f c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n / t o d a t e (19^ 0) i n d i c a t e t h a t an e n t i r e r e ­ c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l o r g a n i z a t i o n may be e x p e c t e d i n t im e . The f i e l d o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n i s now c a l l i n g f o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l t e c h n i c i a n s who ca n t e a r down t h e o ld s t r u c t u r e and b u i l d i t o v e r t o c a r e f o r t h e n ew ly c o n c e iv e d g ro w th p r o g r a m .5^ ^ S p e a r s , H a r o ld . S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n i n A m erican L i f e . New Y ork , A m erican Book Company, 19^1? P* *+7•

223 And h e sum m arizes t h e l a t t e r p o i n t when h e s t a t e d :

^

By and l a r g e , t h e new programs back i n t h e 1 9 3 5 -1 9 ^ 0 p e r i o d w ere i n t h e f i e l d o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n * • • • We w ere p o i n t i n g ou t t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s t h a t p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t Ts t o t a l program t h a t i s sh a r e d by t h e e n t i r e g r o u p , s o d e s i r a b l e do t h e program p la n n e r s c o n ­ s i d e r i t as t r a i n i n g f o r t h e common g o o d — f o r t h e e v e r y ­ d ay l i f e o f a l l — f o r g e n e r a l c i t i z e n s h i p . 55 F u r t h e r im p e tu s was g i v e n t o th e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n

movement i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l by t h e a g reem en t now e v id e n c e d on t h e i s s u e t h a t t h e p u rp o se o f e d u c a t i o n was n o t o n ly t h e f u l l e s t d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e p o t e n t i o n c a p a c i t i e s

of the i n ­

d i v i d u a l , b u t t h e d ev elo p m en t o f h i s s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s a s w e ll.

The C om m ission on t h e S e c o n d a r y C u rricu lu m o f t h e

P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n su m m arily a s s e r t e d t h a t Mt h e p u r p o se o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s

t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f

i n d i v i d u a l s i n t h e b a s i c a s p e c t s o f l i v i n g i n s u c h a way a s t o prom ote t h e f u l l e s t r e a l i z a t i o n o f p e r s o n a l p o t e n t i a l i t i e s and t h e m ost e f f e c t i v e p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y . **56 A lth o u g h t h e l i t e r a t u r e r e v e a l s , s o f a r , s u b s t a n t i a l a g reem en t on t h e n e e d f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l t o m eet t h e c h a l l e n g e o f th e t i m e s — t h e p e r s o n a l a d ju stm e n t and t h e s o c i a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e p u p i l i n a r a p i d l y ch a n g in g s o c i a l o r d e r , and a l t h o u g h ! t h e l i t e r a t u r e a l s o r e v e a l s a

55 I b i d . , p . 3* 56 P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a t io n A s s o c i a t i o n . S c ie n c e in G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n . New Y ork, D. A p p le to n -C e n t u r y Company, 1938, p. 23.

22k s t r i k i n g a g re em en t on t h e u n i f y i n g p h i l o s o p h y o f su c h a program aimed a t d e m o c r a t ic l i v i n g — t h e d i g n i t y o f man— t h e w o r th o f t h e human i n d i v i d u a l — a c o n c e p t h e i g h t e n e d , no d o u b t , b y c o n tem p o r a ry "hot" and " co ld " s t r u g g l e s w it h t o t a l i t a r i a n i d e o l o g i e s , th e lit e r a t u r e a ls o r e v e a ls a d i s ­ a g re em en t a s t o t h e manner i n w h ich g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e h i g h - s c h o o l program . I n t h e E d u c a t i o n a l R ecord o f J u l y , 1 9 3 9 , Thayer w r o te on ,fC u r re n t Trends i n t h e D evelop m en t o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n . 11 A lth o u g h h e was p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on th e c o l l e g e l e v e l , Thayer d i s c u s s e d t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n ­ c e p t s u n d e r ly in g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w h ic h a r e j u s t a s a p p l i c a b l e t o h ig h s c h o o l as to th e c o l l e g e . T hayer f i r s t summarized t h e p o i n t s o f a g re em en t among t h e d i f f e r e n t s c h o o l s o f p h i l o s o p h y a s r e g a r d s g e n e r a l ed u ca ­ tio n .

He p o i n t e d ou t t h a t :

(1) a l l se e k a s u b s t i t u t e f o r th e

e l e c t i v e s y s t e m w h ich h a s p u l v e r i z e d e d u c a t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s o f young p e o p l e ,

( 2 ) a l l a g r e e t h a t g r e a t e r u n i t y and i n t e ­

g r a t i o n must be i n t r o d u c e d i n t o t h e s t u d e n t f s e d u c a t i o n , and ( 3 ) a l l a g r e e t h a t c o u r s e s must be o r g a n iz e d and p u p i l s s o *>7 g u id e d a s t o f i n d p u r p o se and m eaning i n t h e i r l i v e s . y But t h e u l t i m a t e c a u s e s o f d i s a g r e e m e n t , Thayer f o u n d ,

^ T h a y e r , V. T. o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n . 11 1 9 3 9 , P. 3 9 ^ .

"C urrent Trends i n t h e D evelopm en t E d u c a t i o n a l R e c o r d , 2 0 : 3 7 3 -9 ^ 5 J u l y

w ere i n t h e o p p o sin g t h e o r i e s o f l e a r n i n g e s p o u s e d by t h e d i f ­ f e r e n t s c h o o ls o f e d u c a tio n p h ilo s o p h y .

" T h e o r ie s o f l e a r n i n g ,

s t a t e d T h a y e r , "are i n t h e end i d e n t i c a l w i t h what t h e i r ad ­ v o c a t e s b e l i e v e t o be t h e n a t u r e o f man and o f good s o c i e t y . What e a c h one o f us th u s b e l i e v e s s h o u ld c h a r a c t e r i z e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n i s

one w i t h w hat h e h o p e s i n f a c t w i l l become t h e

w o r ld o f to m o r r o w .” ?^ Thayer c la im e d t h a t t h e t h r e e m ajor c o n c e p t s o f l e a r n ­ in g w h ic h w er e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e d is a g r e e m e n t as t o t h e manner i n w h ie h g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld be i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o t h e c u r r ic u lu m w ere (1 )

l e a r n i n g c o n c e iv e d a s e s s e n t i a l l y an

a b s o r p t i v e p r o c e s s or a s h a b i t f o r m a t i o n ,

(2 ) l e a r n i n g d e f i n e d

a s t h e d i s c o v e r y o f t r u t h s t h a t e x i s t w it h o u t r e f e r e n c e t o t h e c h a n g in g c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f men, and (3 ) l e a r n i n g v ie w e d a s a c r e a t i v e p r o c e s s i n w h ich a u n iq u e s e l f now w r e s t l e s w ith i t s

e n v ir o n m e n t, now c o o p e r a t e s w i t h i t s

s u r r o u n d in g s

i n an e f f o r t t o p ro d u ce a manner o f l i v i n g w h ic h i s g e n e r a l l y n o v e l. The t h r e e m a jo r t r e n d s i n e d u c a t i o n w h ich f o l l o w e d from t h e t h e o r i s t by T h a y e r .

F ir s t,

o f l e a r n i n g enum erated a b o v e w ere d e s c r i b e d t h e r e was Neo F orm alism w h ieh s t r e s s e s

226 d i s c i p l i n a r y v a l u e s w i t h i n a w e l l p la n n e d and w e l l b a la n c e d program o f a c t i v i t y . e d u c a tio n i s

I t h o ld s t h a t th e m ajor f u n c t i o n o f

t o t r a i n t h e mind or i n t e l l i g e n c e .

In te llig e n c e

t h u s d i s c i p l i n e d and t r a i n e d i s a g e n e r a l i z e d p o w er, c a p a b le o f g u id i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g a l l o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts o f man*s n a tu re. group.

Thayer p la c e d H u tc h in s and S t . J o h n ’s C o l l e g e i n t h i s “H u t c h i n s , ” c la im e d T h a y e r , “i s n o t moved t o ch an ge

t h e c h a r a c t e r o f s c h o o l e d u c a t i o n , p resu m a b ly b e c a u s e h e b e ­ l i e v e s t h a t t h e e s s e n t i a l c o n t e x t o f an e d u c a t i o n i s , i f r i g h t l y u n d ersto o d ,

’ t h e same a t any t i m e , i n any p l a c e , u nder

an y p o l i t i c a l , s o c i a l , or econom ic c o n d i t i o n s . 1 he i n s i s t s

A c c o r d in g l y

’Today a s y e s t e r d a y we may l e a v e e x p e r i e n c e t o

o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s and i n f l u e n c e s *

and e m p h a s iz e s i n e d u c a ­

t i o n t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t i t i s su p r e m e ly f i t t e d

t o m ake,

th e i n t e l l e c t u a l t r a in in g of th e young. Thayer a s s e r t e d t h a t j u s t a s t h e e s s e n t i a l i s t s i n t h e e le m e n t a r y and e a r l y s e c o n d a r y y e a r s i n s i s t e d upon t h e c o n ­ s t r u c t i o n o f a r i c h , s e q u e n t i a l , and s y s t e m a t i c c u r r ic u lu m b a s e d on an i r r e d u c i b l e body o f k n o w le d g e , s k i l l s , and a t t i ­ t u d e s common t o a d e m o c r a t ic c u l t u r e , t h e m a s t e r y o f w h ich s h a l l be s t r e s s e d , s o t h e n e o - f o r m a l i s t s s e e k t o r e s t o r e a s c e n t r a l i n g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n th e a b i l i t i e s t o s p e a k , and t o t h i n k .

60 Ibid., p. 375

to read, to w r ite ,

The n e o - f o r m a l i s t s , Thayer f u r t h e r a s s e r t e d , do n o t a g r e e among t h e m s e lv e s upon how t h e s e a b i l i t i e s a r e t o be d e v e l o p e d and what s h o u ld c o n s t i t u t e t h e s u b j e c t m a tt e r o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

They b e l i e v e t h e v a l u e s i n h e r e n t i n edu­

c a t i o n a r e th o u g h t t o i n h e r e i n a s u b j e c t m a t t e r or f o r m a l p r o c e s s a s su c h and n o t i n t h e u n iq u e i n t e r a c t i o n b e tw e e n a l i v i n g p e r s o n a l i t y and t h i s s u b j e c t m a tt e r or p r o c e s s .

T h u s,

t h e c r i t e r i a w h ic h d e t e r m in e an e d u c a t i o n a l program a r e f o u n d , f o r t h e n e o - f o r m a l i s t s , i n m e t a p h y s i c s , and t h e r e i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d is a g r e e m e n t among them on m e t a p h y s i c a l c o n c e p t s . The se c o n d t r e n d d e l i n e a t e d by Thayer was what h e c a l l e d e d u c a t io n f o r a d j u s t m e n t .

T h is t r e n d e m p h a siz e s t h e

a d a p t a t i o n o f t h e s t u d e n t t o what a l r e a d y e x i s t s him — t h e d e t a i l s

o u tsid e of

o f k n o w led ge and t h e p r a c t i c e s o f men, a s

a g a i n s t an o r i g i n a l and c r e a t i v e w ork in g o v e r on h i s p a r t o f w hat h e th u s e n c o u n t e r s .

I n c r e a s i n g non-em ploym ent o f y o u th

b e tw e e n t h e a g e s o f s i x t e e n and tw e n ty on t h e one hand and t h e m ounting s c h o o l e n r o l lm e n t s i n t h e u pp er y e a r s on th e o t h e r demand an e d u c a t i o n d e s ig n e d t o a c h e i v e c e r t a i n broad s o c i a l ends. F i n a l l y , a c c o r d in g t o T h a y e r , t h e r e was t h e n eed s -app roach .

T h is t r e n d a t t e m p t s t o i d e n t i f y t h e p o i n t s o f

g ro w in g p a in a l i k e i n t h e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e s o c i e t y w h ich

61 Ibid.. pp. 378-79.

228 s u s t a i n s h im , t o d e t e r m in e what a r e t h e g e n e r a l p rob lem s o f g r o w th , o f c o n c e r n , and o f i n t e r e s t f o r t h e s t u d e n t ; t o a s c e r t a i n what i n h i s c u l t u r e g i v e s r i s e t o t h e s e p r o b le m s; and by means o f a n a l y s i s and s t u d y o f c o n c r e t e i n d i v i d u a l s in s p e c if ic s itu a tio n s

t o p r o v id e t h o s e r e s o u r c e s o f m a t e r i a l

and e x p e r i e n c e w h ich w i l l e n a b le t h e s t u d e n t c r e a t i v e l y t o m eet h i s n e e d s i n w o rk in g harmony w i t h t h e m ajor v a l u e s o f a d e m o c r a t ic s o c i e t y .

I t c o n s i s t s o f a b le n d o f t h e s o c i a l

w ith th e i n d i v i d u a l a s p e c ts o f th e needs approach.

I t seek s

t o s t r e s s more c o n s c i o u s l y t h e m ajor p u r p o se s o f e d u c a t i o n i n a d em o cra c y .

I t r e e o g n i z e s t h e w o r th o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l a s a

p r i n c i p l e w h ic h c a n o rd er l i f e w i t h i n c la s s r o o m and s c h o o l and must s o o r d e r l i v i n g a rr a n g e m e n ts i f i n t e l l e c t u a l f o r m u l a t i o n s a r e t o h a ve m e a n in g .

62

W ith t h e a t t a c k on P e a r l Harbor i n 19*+1 and t h e o v e r t e n t r a n c e o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s i n t o World War I I , our s t r u g g l e w ith t o t a l i t a r i a n i d e o lo g i e s h ig h lig h t e d as n ever b e fo r e th e c o n c e p t o f t h e supreme w o rth o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l fram ework o f d em o cra cy.

T h u s, t h e u n i f y i n g p h i l o s o p h i ­

c a l p r in c ip le fo r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n :

th e d i g n i t y o f man,

p a s s e d from a p io u s and p l a t i t u d i n o u s p i e c e o f p e d a g o g u e r y t o a v e r y r e a l e n t i t y so o n t o e x a c t f o r i t s

p r e se r v a tio n

th e supreme p r i c e i n su c h t a n g i b l e s as money and b l o o d .

62 I M d . , pp. 387, 392

CHAPTER IX

GENERAL EDUCATION IN THE WAR AND POST-WAR BRAS: THE GREAT DICHOTOMY The coming o f war i n 19^1 e x e r t e d a p a r a d o x i c a l e f f e c t on th e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n movement.

On th e one h a n d , i t

a c c e n t u a t e d v o c a t i o n a l s k i l l s a s th e War D epartm ent r e q u e s t e d th e s c h o o ls t o o f f e r s p e c i f i c c o u r s e s to t r a i n p r e -in d u c te e s f o r t h e armed f o r c e s a s w e l l a s t o p r e p a r e p o t e n t i a l war w o rk ers f o r t h e f a c t o r i e s and f a r m s .

On t h e o th e r h a n d ,

th e war m a g n if ie d th e s o c i a l c o n c e r n s and p ro b lem s common t o a ll.

A l l w ere 11i n th e same b o a t , 11 and v i c t o r y c o u l d be

a c h i e v e d o n ly b y a common p o o l i n g o f m a t e r i a l r e s o u r c e s and s k ills .

A lth o u g h e f f o r t s a t c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n d u r in g t h i s

p e r i o d o f n a t i o n a l em ergen cy g a v e way t o t h e more u r g e n t n e e d s o f war and v i c t o r y , t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l b a t t l e o v e r t h e t y p e o f c u r r ic u lu m s t r u c t u r e w h ich s h o u ld h b u se th e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n program c o n t i n u e d . Nor was th e l a s t word i n th e c o n t r o v e r s y h e a rd o v er H u tc h in s* p r o p o se d c u r r ic u lu m f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n .

Com-

'x'

m en tin g on H u tc h in s* v i e w s , James M a r s h a l l , P r e s i d e n t o f t h e B oard o f E d u c a t io n o f New York C i t y , s a i d i n p a r t : I t was n o t t h e a t t i t u d e o f c l a s s i c a l c o n t e m p l a t i o n , b u t a mood o f dynamic i n q u i r y , a s t o how t h e n e e d s o f men w ere t o be met and a s t o what w ere t h e l i m i t s o f m an's w o r l d , t h a t s e t i n m o tio n s c i e n c e and th o u g h t i n

t h e d ays o f C o p e r n ic u s and G a l i l e o , j u s t as i t h a s s e t i n m o tio n th e a r t s , th e i n q u i r i e s , th e p o l i t i c a l and co m m e r c ia l a d v e n t u r e s o f t h e Greek e r a . As human e n t e r p r i s e s d e v e l o p our n e e d s and new means f o r t h e i r s a t i s f a c t i o n , t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s and s c i e n t i ­ f i c and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n h a v e e n t e r e d t h e s c h o o l s t o c h a l l e n g e t h e m onopoly h e ld f o r s o many c e n t u r i e s b y th e t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r a l a r ts*

I f th e t e a c h e r h as n o t b e e n t o o n a r r o w ly e d u c a t e d i n th e c l a s s i c s , t h e s c i e n c e s , t h e s o c i a l s c i e n c e s , or e v e n t h e mere d i r e c t l y v o c a t i o n a l s u b j e c t s , i f h e h a s t h e t e a c h i n g s p a r k , w i l l i t m a t t e r i n t h e lo n g r u n w here t h e p o i n t o f d e p a r t u r e may b e? E l e c t r i c i t y , th e law o f p r o p e r t y , or t h e m e r c a n t i l e s y s t e m may n o t a f f o r d i d e n t i ­ c a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s , b u t e a c h o f them may o f f e r an av en u e o f c u l t u r e t o th e t e a c h e r who i s n o t wedded t o th e "dead t e a c h e r s " o f h i s s p e c i a l t y , and a l e a r n i n g s i t u a ­ t i o n t o t h e s t u d e n t w hose mind i s s t i m u l a t e d by t h e p a r ­ t i c u l a r a p p r o a c h . B ut t h e r e i s no d e a d e r dog th a n t h e m ish a n d le d c l a s s i c s , a s g e n e r a t i o n s o f L a t i n s t u d e n t s c a n a t t e s t ; and t h e r e i s no more v i t i a t i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l e f f o r t th a n t h a t w h ich commences w i t h a w o r s h ip o f p a s t g r e a t n e s s and le a d s t o r e g u r g i t a t i v e c o n t e m p l a t i o n o f i d e a s d i s r u p t e d from th e c u r r e n t o f t h e i r c o n t e x t . 1 The N a t i o n a l C om m ittee on C o o p e r a t iv e P la n n in g i n i t s r e p o r t o f 19*+1, The S u b .iec t F i e l d s i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n , n o t o n l y f r a n k l y r e c o n g i z e d th e n e e d f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , b u t even fo resa w th e p o s s i b i l i t y

of s u c h a p rogram 1s c a l l i n g " fo r

a c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n d i f f e r i n g from t h e t r a d i t i o n a l d e p a r t ­ m e n t a l sc h e m e . 11

I n t h e m ea n tim e, h o w e v e r , i t s o u g h t t o r e ­

c o n c i l e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n w it h t h e d e p a r t m e n t a l i z e d c u r r ic u lu m

1 M a r s h a l l , Jam es. " P l a t o , B udha, and P r e s i d e n t H u t c h i n s ." H arpers M a g a z in e . 1 8 3 * 2 7 - 3 5 , J u n e , 19*+!.

231 by d i s c o v e r i n g "what o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts o f t h e s c h o o l w ere a t t e m p t i n g t o do and t o i n v e n t e f f e c t i v e m ethods o f c o o p e r a p

t i o n among t h e m .1*

I n 19*+2 t h e G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n C om m ittee o f th e Worth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n ' s C om m ission on C u r r ic u l a o f S e c o r d a r y S c h o o l s and I n s t i t u t i o n s o f H ig h e r E d u c a t io n p u b l i s h e d i t s r e p o r t , G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n i n t h e A m erican H igh S c h o o l .

The

r e p o r t d i d n o t r e p r e s e n t a p ronouncem ent o f p o l i c y , b u t m e r e ly s e t o u t t o g i v e th e b ack g ro u n d of t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a ­ t i o n m ovem ent, th e s o c i a l , p s y c h o l o g i c a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l b a s e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , a s w e l l a s some ex a m p les o f g e n e r a 1- e d u e a t i o n program s t h e n c u r r e n t l y i n p r a c t i c e on t h e secondary l e v e l . The r e p o r t summ arized t h e t r e n d to w a rd t h e breakdown o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a t io n as a l r e a d y i n d i c a t e d in th is stu d y. Many modern h i g h s c h o o l s a r e r e a l i z i n g t h e p s y c h o l o ­ g i c a l i n e f f i c i e n c y o f a c u r r ic u lu m w h ic h p l a c e s t o o much em p h a sis upon l e a r n i n g l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d s u b j e c t m a tter. C o n s e q u e n t ly , t h e y a r e a t t e m p t in g t o d e v e l o p an a rran g em en t o f l e a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e t h a t w i l l c a s t l i g h t upon c e r t a i n m ajor p rob lem s o f l i v i n g . Some o f t h e names g i v e n r e c e n t a d d i t i o n s t o t h e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m , s u c h a s c o n su m e r s' p r o b le m s , m e n t a l h y g i e n e , p rob lem s o f d em o cra c y , home e c o n o m ic s , and i n d u s t r i a l

^ N a t i o n a l Com m ission on C o o p e r a t iv e P l a n n i n g . The S u b .ie c t F i e l d s i n G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n . New Y ork , D. A p p le t o n C e n tu r y Company, I n c . , 19*+19 p* v i .

232 a r t s , i l l u s t r a t e t h i s t r e n d , w h ie h i s p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y sound. 3 I n s k e t c h i n g t h e t r e n d s tow ard g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e o r y and p r a c t i c e a s o b se r v e d i n s e v e r a l e x p e r i m e n t a l programs i n A m erican h ig h s c h o o l s , t h e r e p o r t o f f e r e d t h e Kansas Program

k

f o r t h e Improvement o f E d u c a t io n a s a s u g ­

g e s t e d c o r e program i n g r a d e s one t h r o u g h f o u r t e e n . program p r o v id e d f o r

The

( 1) o p p o r tu n itie s fo r e x p e r ie n c in g th a t

w ould d e v e lo p s o c i a l u n d e r s ta n d in g and s e n s i t i v i t y t o s o c i a l n eeds;

( 2 ) o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l , a e s t h e t i c , and

c r e a t i v e e x p r e s s i o n ; and ( 3 ) o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o d e v e l o p s p e c i a l a b i l i t i e s and t o p r o v id e f o r i n d i v i d u a l , n e e d s .

One-

h a l f or l e s s o f e a e h d ay i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l was t o b e d e v o t e d t o a c o r e program — a c t i v i t i e s

t h a t w ould a r i s e i n

o p e r a t i n g t h e s c h o o l as a com m unity, and u n i t s o f work i n t h e b road f i e l d s o f s o c i a l s c i e n c e , h e a l t h and s c i e n c e , and E n g lish s k i l l s .

About o n e - f o u r t h o f t h e day w as r e s e r v e d

f o r t h e s e c o n d a r e a m e n tio n e d a b o v e .

T h is c o u ld b e h a n d le d

th r o u g h t h e c o r e p rogram , t h e e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s , and e x t r a c la ss a c t iv it ie s *

O n e - fo u r t h o f t h e d ay was f o r d i r e c t

3 N orth C e n t r a l o f C o l l e g e s and S e c o n d a r y P l a n n i n g . G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n i n t h e A m erican High S c h o o l . Hew Y ork, S c o t t , Forsman and Company, 19*4-2, p . lM-2. ** The K ansas Program f o r th e Imur ovement o f In s t r u e t i on s S u g g e s t e d G uidance and M a t e r i a l s i n D e v e lo p in g si Core Program f o r Grades 1-lM-. T o p ek a , K a n s a s , B u l l e t i n No. 6 , A p r i l , 1939*

t e a e h i n g or e m p h a sis on th e s k i l l s . s t u d y i n o r g a n iz e d f i e l d s

N eeds f o r s y s t e m a t i c

or f o r v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g c o u ld

he met th r o u g h t h i s a s p e c t o f t h e w o r k .^ i

W h ile t h e r e p o r t d i d n o t a l l i g n i t s e l f w i t h any one c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n , i t d i d o p e n ly a d o p t t h e t h e o r y t h a t a l l b e h a v io r , in c lu d in g i n t e l l e c t u a l f u n c t io n in g , i s a fu n c tio n of t o t a l p e r so n a lity . A c c o r d i n g l y , t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e d u r e s w h ic h a r e f a v o r e d / i n t h i s r e p o r t / s t r e s s t h e im p o r ta n c e o f t a k i n g the le a r n e r * s g o a ls in t o a c c o u n t, o f r e l a t i n g a stu d e n t* s s c h o o l work w it h h i s b a s i c i n t e r e s t s , o f g i v i n g s t u d e n t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y w i t h t e a c h e r s f o r s e t t i n g up t h e g o a l s o f s c h o o l w o rk . 6 Thus t h e r e p o r t , w h i l e a v o i d i n g open a l l e g i a n c e t o t h e Dewey-Ki l p a t r i c k - P r o g r e s s i ve s c h o o l o f p h i l o s o p h y , d id o v e r t l y avow d is a g r e e m e n t w i t h s u c h e d u c a t o r s a s R o b e rt M. H u t c h i n s , I s a a c K a n d e l, Norman F o e r s t e r , S c o t t B uehanan, W illia m G. B a g l e y , and Henry C. M o r r is o n , whom i t c h a r a c t e r i z e d as e m p h a s iz in g th e i n t e l l e c t u a l a s p e c t o f man a s c a p a b le o f 7 t r a i n i n g w it h o u t much r e f e r e n c e t o h i s e m o t i o n s . An i n s i g h t i n t o some o f t h e s o c i a l g o a l s o f e d u c a t i o n t h o u g h t d e s i r a b l e , no d o u b t , i n s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e c o n c e p t o f

5 N o rth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f C o l l e g e s and S e c o n d a r y S c h o o ls, on. c i t . , p. 99. 6 i b i d . , p . 165. 7 I b id . , p. 166.

2.3b th e d i g n i t y or man a g a i n s t a b ack grou n d o f d em o cra c y ’ s s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t t o t a l i t a r i a n i s m , ca n be g lim p s e d from th e fo rew o r d o f D en to n L . G e y e r ’ s p u b l i c a t i o n o f 19^-2.

C u rren t

I s s u e s i n E d u c a t io n : To a s s i s t i n r e a l i z i n g th e d e m o c r a tic way o f l i f e i n A m erica i t seem s n e c e s s a r y t h a t m ea su res b e ta k e n t o im plem en t som e o f i t s i d e a l s , su c h a s r e s p e c t f o r p e r s o n a l i t y and a l l t h a t t h i s im p l ie s i n t r e a t i n g th e p e r s o n a s a n end r a t h e r th a n a m eans; p r o v i s i o n f o r e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n it y , o f s t a t u s , and o f r i g h t s ; p r o v i s i o n f o r unim peded e x c h a n g e o f id e a s and e x p e r i ­ e n c e s ; and p r o v i s i o n f o r a f r e e r e g i s t r a t i o n o f i n d i ­ v i d u a l d e c i s i o n s on m a tte r s o f p u b lic p o l i c y . 8 P a r t IV o f th e sam e p u b l i c a t i o n was d e v o te d t o a c r i ­ t i q u e o f H u t c h in s ’ H ig h er L ea rn in g i n A m erica u nd er th e title

o f ”A P r o p o s a l t o R e v iv e M e d ie v a l E d u c a tio n ."

The

q u e s t i o n was r i a s e d by Geyer a s t o w h e th e r e d u c a t io n s h o u ld c o n c e n t r a t e on man’ s a b i l i t y to r e a s o n a s a c e n t r a l t r a i t t o th e e x c l u s i o n o f o t h e r c a p a c i t i e s , s u c h a s th e power f o r t h o u g h t , or s o c i a l i z a t i o n .

A nd, g r a n te d t h a t e d u c a t io n

s h o u ld d e v o t e i t s e l f t o p e r f e c t i n g man’ s r e a s o n , G eyer argu ed t h a t i t d id n o t f o l l o w t h a t t h e 11g r e a t B o o k s” m ethod was th e b e s t p la n t o be u t i l i z e d f o r t h i s e n d . . . . I t i s m e r e ly a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e y w i l l . lAfhile c e r t a i n e v id e n c e e x i s t s , i t t e n d s , u n f o r t u n a t e l y , t o p ro v e e x a c t l y th e o p p o s i t e . . . . I t show s t h a t a b i l i t y a c q u ir e d i n on e ty p e o f e n d ea v o r may n o t b e " t r a n s f e r r e d ” w it h o u t g r e a t l o s s t o a n o th e r t y p e .9 8 G e y e r , D en ton L. C u r re n t I s s u e s i n E d u c a t io n . C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , Werkman’ s Book H o u se , 1 9 ^ 2 , n . p . i n F o rew o rd . 9 Ibid., p. 79*

23? G eyer a l s o a t t a c k e d Mr. H u tc h in s on o t h e r p o i n t s as w e ll.

He c h a lle n g e d th e A r i s t o t e l i a n m e t a p h y s ic a l h a s i s o f

H u t c h in s 1 p h ilo s o p h y by c la im in g t h a t ( 1 ) A r i s t o t l e h i m s e l f d id n o t r e s t h i s s y s te m o f e d u c a t io n upon m e t a p h y s ic s , b u t upon h i s e t h i c s and p o l i t i c s , ( 2 ) A r i s t o t l e fs s y s te m o f m e ta p h y s ic s f a l l s

f a r s h o r t o f g e n e r a l a c c e p ta n c e among

p h i l o s o p h e r s , and t h a t Mr. H u tch in s* s y s te m o f m e ta p h y s ic s i s e v e n l e s s a d e q u a te th a n A r i s t o t l e ' s , and ( 3 ) H u t c h in s 1 a t t a c k on nn a t u r a lis m 11 i s

i n v a l i d s i n c e i t r e s t s upon th e

A r i s t o t e l i a n c o n c e p t o f m a tte r and form lo n g d i s c r e d i t e d by modern physics.***^ G eyer co n ce d e d t h a t th e s o u n d e s t s u g g e s t i o n made by t h e H u tc h in s group seem ed t o be t h e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t 11g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n s h i f t i t s

em p h a sis from t h e a c c u m u la tio n o f f a c t s

t o th e s t u d y o f p r i n c i p l e s and v a l u e s . 11

B u t, G eyer i n s i s t e d ,

t h i s end c o u ld b e a c h ie v e d b y v e r y d i f f e r e n t m ean s.

Ifl f

t o t h e s e we s h o u ld add c o n c r e t e e x p e r ie n c e s i n m aking d e ­ c i s i o n s w h ich i n v o l v e q u e s t io n s o f v a l u e , and i n a c t i n g upon them , we w ould a c h ie v e a c u r r ic u lu m w h ich w ould a t l e a s t be a g r e a t im provem ent o v e r t h a t w h ich Mr. H u tc h in s s o e ffe c tiv e ly c r it ic iz e s And s o th e pendulum swung from th e d e f e n s e o f th e c o r e 10 I b id . , pp. 8 2 -8 4 . 11 Ibid.. pp. 8 9 -9 0 .

236 w h ich c u t s a c r o s s s u b j e c t - m a t t e r b o u n d a r ie s t o th e d e f e n s e o f a c o r e o f c o n s t a n t s c o n s i s t i n g o f l o g i c a l l y o r g a n iz e d and d e ­ p a r t m e n t a liz e d s u b j e c t s .

I t w ould seem t h a t t h i s was b ecom in g

th e c h i e f i s s u e in v o lv e d i n th e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n s

a p r o b le m -o f - y o u t h c o r e v e r s u s a c o r e o f t r a d i ­

tio n a l su b je c ts. A grand d e f e n s e o f th e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s and a p r e ­ d i c t i o n t h a t t h e s e 11e x a c t and e x a c t i n g 11 s t u d i e s w ou ld come i n t o t h e i r own a g a in i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n j u s t a s th e " th r e e R *s w ould a g a in h a v e t h e i r d ay i n e le m e n ta r y e d u c a t io n w as made by H enry D o y le .

12

He c la im e d t h a t tim e and e v e n t s

w ere m aking i t i n c r e a s i n g l y c l e a r t o A m erican s t h a t a " b a c k b o n e -le s s , c o n t e n t - l e s s , e n te r t a in m e n t - a n d -b u s y -w o r k i n s p i r e d t h e o r y o f e d u c a tio n " had n o p la c e i n t h e p r e s e n t d ay w o r ld .

The a t t i t u d e o f e d u c a t o r s who had d is c o u r a g e d th e

s t u d y o f f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s w as b ran d ed a s " u n r e a l i s t i c , p ro ­ v i n c i a l , o p in io n a t e d , s h o r t - s i g h t e d , u n i n t e l l i g e n t ,

. ♦ .

narrow m inded, p r e j u d ic e d , s t u p id ," and e v e n p o s s e s i n g , i n e x tr e m e c a s e s , a " r a c e - s u p e r io r it y - c o m p le x " c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f " N a zi p h ilo s o p h y ."

D o y le p r o t e s t e d t h a t th e b r a n d in g o f

th e " t r a d i t i o n a l " o r " l i b e r a l " a s " sh eer in te lle c tu a lis m "

s u b je c ts as " a r is to c r a tic " or

c l o s e l y p a r a l l e l e d t h e w ords and

D o y le , H enry G. " C o n cern in g C o n te n t— S u b j e c t s ." S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . 1 0 : 2 4 5 - 5 4 , D ecem ber, 1 9 4 1 .

237

w r i t i n g s o f A d olp h H i t l e r h i m s e l f .

As f o r m a th e m a tic s, H o y le

e c h o e d t h e v e r y w ords o f P la t o ( s e e Ch. I I . ) when h e h e ld t h a t th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f number s k i l l s was fu n d a m e n ta l e v e n f o r t h o s e o f lo w a v e r a g e m e n ta l c a p a c i t y . As t o m aking c u r r ic u lu m p r o v i s i o n f o r th e v a r ie d n e e d s o f th e h e t e r o g e n e o u s p o p u la t io n e n t e r i n g th e h ig h s c h o o l , D o y le e x c la im e d : . . . I am c o m p le t e ly o p p o sed t o t h o s e who a p p a r e n t ly b e l i e v e t h a t th e i n f l u x i n t o o u r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls o f l a r g e num bers o f s t u d e n t s from s o - c a l l e d “u n d e r - p r i v i l e g e d 11 homes makes i t n e c e s s a r y t o ifl e v e l down11 i n se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n , r a t h e r th a n “l e v e l u p . ” I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c u r r e n t “l e v e l i n g down” p h ilo s o p h y i n e d u c a t io n i s i n e s s e n c e s h o r t - s ig h t e d , tim id , d e f e a t i s t . I t v io la te s A m erican t r a d i t i o n s and d e m o c r a tic i d e a l s ; i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o c o n d it i o n in g ou r p e o p le f o r l i v i n g u n d er a t o t a l i ­ t a r i a n reg im e* As t o C o u n ts 1 s***3 u t t e r a n c e s t h a t t h e s c h o o l s s h o u ld h a ve a v e r y d e f i n i t e p a r t i n b u i l d i n g a new s o c i a l o r d e r , D o y le f e l t t h a t , o f a l l t h e “h a lf - b a k e d 11 u t t e r a n c e s o f A m erican e d u c a t o r s , none had c r e a t e d s o much e m n ity f o r ed u ­ c a t i o n among i t s f r i e n d s and d e f e n d e r s , and none had g iv e n so much a m n u n itio n t o “ p r o f e s s i o n a l r e d - b a i t e r s , t e x t b o o k - p u r g e r s , and w i t c h - b u r n e r s .“ D o y le co m p la in e d t h a t E n g lis h c o m p o s it io n , a lg e b r a , and f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s , t h e “ t r a d i t i o n a l 11 s u b j e c t s , w ere no lo n g e r 13 O rder?

C o u n ts, G eorge S . D are th e S c h o o ls B u ild a N e w S o c i a l New Y ork. The Joh n Day Company, 1 9 3 2 .

238 c o n s id e r e d s im p ly a s " u s e l e s s ” o r " u n n e c e ssa r y " a s p e c t s o f th e se c o n d a r y program , b u t w ere now l a b e l e d a s " v i c i o u s ," and a l l b e c a u s e t h e s e s u b j e c t s had b e e n fo u n d t o be "hard" in s t e a d o f " i n v it in g " and " e n t e r t a i n in g ." ' The w h o le movement t o o r g a n iz e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n around a c o r e o f th e p e r s o n a l p rob lem s o f y o u th was condemned and th e a tte m p t t o c o u n t e r a c t i t c h a r a c t e r iz e d a s a " g e n e r a l b a t t l e f o r th e p r e s e r v a t io n o f a l l l e a r n i n g , s c h o l a r s h i p , and c u l t u r e , " a b a t t l e a g a i n s t th e t h in g summed up i n a c u r r e n t c o l l e g e son gs To h e l l w it h L a t in , m ath, and G reek . My mom sh e no c a n E n g lis h s p e a k . And a s f o r a l l t h i s c u l t u r e s lo p "No c a t c h *em, " s a y s my s e l f made pop 1 T h ose who b e l i e v e t h a t e d u c a t io n s h o u ld b e b u i l t upon t h e n e e d s , d r i v e s , u r g e s and i n t e r e s t s o f th e p u p i l s w ere s a id b y D o y le t o be t h o s e same i n d i v i d u a l s who h a v e r e j e c t e d th e p a s t , a r e b e w ild e r e d i n th e p r e s e n t , and a r e p r e p a r in g f o r th e d u tu r e • The E ig h t-Y e a r S tu d y o f thq C om m ission on R e l a t i o n o f S c h o o l and C o lle g e o f th e P r o g r e s s i v e E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n w h ich b eg a n i n 1 9 3 & ( t o d e te r m in e w h e th e r p u p i l s p rep a re d i n a c c o r d a n c e w it h p r o g r e s s i v e i d e a s w ou ld do b e t t e r o r w o rse i n c o l l e g e th a n t h o s e who m et t h e e x i s t i n g r e q u ir e m e n ts ) now

239

made i t s

rep o rt in 1942.

The r e p o r t f a v o r e d th e c o l l e g i a t e

a c h ie v e m e n t o f t h o s e p u p i l s who w ere th e p r o d u c ts o f t h e e x ­ p e r im e n t a l s c h o o l s , and l e d t h e C om m ission t o draw th e fo llo w in g c o n c lu s io n : 1 . The a s su m p tio n t h a t p r e p a r a t io n f o r t h e l i b e r a l a r t s c o l l e g e d ep en d s upon t h e s t u d y o f c e r t a i n p r e s c r ib e d s t u d i e s i n th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l i s no lo n g e r t e n a b l e . . • . The c o n c l u s i o n m ust b e draw n, t h e r e f o r e , t h a t th e a s s u m p tio n upon w h ieh c o l l e g e r e l a t i o n s h a v e b e e n b a se d i n t h e p a s t m ust b e a b a n d o n ed . • * . To move ah ead s c h o o l s m ust h a v e en co u ra g em en t from c o l l e g e . To g i v e t h a t en co u ra g em en t c o l l e g e s m ust abandon t h e i r p r e s e n t a d m is s io n s p o l i c y . 2 . S eco n d a ry S c h o o ls ca n b e t r u s t e d w it h a g r e a t e r m easu re o f freed o m th a n c o l l e g e r e q u ir e m e n ts now p e r m it . 14 The r e p o r t a l s o a d o p te d a s a u n i f y i n g p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a t io n t h a t c o n c e p t w h ich h a s a lr e a d y b e e n m e tio n e d a s e v o l v i n g - - t h e c o n c e p t o f th e d i g n i t y o f man. The p u rp o se o f th e s c h o o l c a n n o t be d e te r m in e d a p a r t from t h e s o c i e t y w h ieh m a in t a in s t h e s c h o o l . The p ur­ p o s e s o f any s o c i e t y a r e d e te r m in e d by th e l i f e v a lu e s w h ic h t h e p e o p le p r i z e . I n th e A m erican way o f l i f e our p e o p le p r i z e i n d i v i d u a l human p e r s o n a l i t y ab o v e e v e r y t h in g e ls e . T h is i d e a l ca n b e p rom oted by a dem ocracy b e t t e r th a n b y a n y o t h e r form o f s o c i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n . It fo l­ lo w s , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t th e C h ie f p u r p o se o f e d u c a t io n i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s s h o u ld b e t o p r e s e r v e , p ro m o te, and . r e f i n e t h e way o f l i f e i n w h ic h we a s a p e o p le b e l i e v e . 1 -* I n 1942 a book a p p e a red u n d er th e t i t l e Sl H ir h - S c h o o l n u rriew in m by P a u l R . P i e r c e .

o f D e v e lo p in g

G eorge D .

^ A ik e n , W. M. The S t o r y o f th e E ig h t-Y e a r S tu d y . New Y ork , H arper and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 2 , p p . 1 1 8 - 2 4 . 15 I b id .,

pp.

13 2 -3 3 .

24 0 S t r a y e r , who w r o te th e i n t r o d u c t i o n , s t a t e d t h a t f,¥ e f a c e th e p rob lem o f d e v e lo p in g s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n i n su c h a manner a s t o m eet th e n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s o f a l l y o u t h .”

He c la im e d

t h a t th e s i t u a t i o n was u n iq u e i n t h e h i s t o r y o f e d u c a t io n and c a l l e d f o r m ajor m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f t h e program o f s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n . F or som e, t h e u p p er y e a r s o f th e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l w i l l c o n s t i t u t e p r e p a r a t io n f o r t h e i r w ork i n c o l l e g e and p ro ­ f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s ; f o r o t h e r s , t h i s p e r io d w i l l b e d e v o te d t o v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l c o u r s e s p r e p a r in g them f o r j o b s . I n th § ju d gem en t o f s t u d e n t s o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n , t h i s s p e c i a l i z e d program i n th e u p p er y e a r s o f th e s e c o n d ­ a r y s c h o o l s h o u ld be b a se d upon a porgram o f g e n e r a l ed u ­ c a t i o n e x t e n d in g th r o u g h t h e s i x - y e a r e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l and th r o u g h a p p r o x im a te ly f o u r y e a r s o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n . 16 The sh o r tc o m in g o f t h e t y p i c a l h i g h - s c h o o l program w ere g r a p h i c a l l y sum m arized b y P i e r c e . The A m erican h ig h s c h o o l i s t h e l o g i c a l c e n t e r o f y o u th a c t i v i t i e s , and i s p o p u la r ly s o r e g a r d e d . R e c e iv in g b o y s and g i r l s a t th e o n s e t o f a d o l e s e n c e , i t o c c u p ie s a s t r a t e g ic p o s it io n o f in flu e n c in g v i t a l l y t h e ir p h y s ic a l, i n t e l l e c t u a l , and e m o tio n a l l i v i n g . P o t e n t i a l l y , th e h ig h s c h o o ls a r e y o u th * s own w o r ld , i n w h ich y o u t h 's i n ­ t e r e s t s , i d e a l s and e n t e r p r i s e s h a v e abundant p l a y . The s ta te m e n t t h a t th e h ig h s c h o o l o f to d a y n e i t h e r a s ­ sumes n o r d is c h a r g e s r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f su c h a t im e ly c h a r a c t e r may come a s a sh o c k t o m ost l a y p e o p le and be r e c e iv e d s k e p t i c a l l y b y many e d u c a t io n a l w o r k e r s , b u t i t i s r e a d i l y b orn e o u t by th e s t a t i s t i c s . The s im p le f a c t t h a t l e s s th a n h a l f o f th e b o y s and g i r l s who e n t e r th e h ig h s c h o o l rem a in t o c o m p le te i t s c o u r s e s i s am ple p ro o f. The p r e s e n t e x t e n s i v e s e r v i c e s o f th e h ig h s c h o o l a r e 16

P i e r e e , P a u l R . D e v e lo p in g a H igh S c h o o l C u r ric u lu m . New Y ork, A m erican Book Company, 194*2, p . V I I .

241

i n no way t o be g a i n s a i d . I t s sh o r tc o m in g s a r e t h o s e o f k in d r a t h e r th a n am ount. The h ig h s c h o o l k e e p s n e a r l y h a l f o f i t s p u p il p e r s o n n e l th r o u g h o u t th e f o u r y e a r s ; i t p r o v id e s good a ca d em ic i n s t r u c t i o n ; i t f u r n is h e d a c h o ic e o f v a r ie d a c t i v i t i e s f o r a p p r o x im a te ly one f o u r t h o f i t s p u p i l s ; i t a s s i s t s many o f i t s g r a d u a te s t o f i n d p o s i t i o n s or e n t e r s c h o o ls o f h ig h e r le a r n in g ; and i t d e l e g a t e s c o n ­ s i d e r a b l e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i n r o u t in e m a tt e r s t o th e p u p i l s . But i t i s s e l e c t i v e , s e r v in g a l i m i t e d number o f p u p i l s ; i t e m p h a siz e s a f o r m a l, s t e r o t y p e d form o f i n s t r u c t i o n ; i t d is r e g a r d s p u p ils who w ith d ra w b e f o r e g r a d u a tio n ; i t r e ­ m ains a lm o st w h o lly i s o l a t e d from home and com m unity l i f e o u t s i d e ; and i t g i v e s p u p ils l i t t l e c h o ic e i n p la n n in g t h e i r own a c t i v i t i e s .1 7 P ie r c e l i s t e d

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n th r o u g h th e c o r e c o u r s e a s

one o f th e means tow ard b a s ic c u r r ic u lu m im p rovem en t. True g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , th e m ain in g r e d i e n t o f th e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m — c o n s i s t s n o t i n t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f f o r m a liz e d in f o r m a t io n , b u t i n th e p r a c t i c e o f s u c c e s s f u l c u r r e n t and f u t u r e d a i l y l i v i n g . . . a c o r e c u r r ic u lu m f o r a l l p u p i l s r a t h e r th a n s p e c i a l c o u r s e s f o r v a r y in g a b i l i t y g r o u p s , sh o u ld be th e k e y s to n e o f d e m o c r a tic c u r r ic u lu m o p p o r tu n i­ t i e s f o r y o u th . . . S u b j e c t f i e l d s , when u sed f o r g e n ­ e r a l e d u c a t io n p u r p o s e s , sh o u ld be m e a su r a b ly b r o a d e n e d . I t i s im p o s s ib le t o e f f e c t marked c u r r ic u lu m im provem ent u n d er c o n v e n t io n a l s u b j e c t c a p t io n s . . . 18 The a d v o c a t e s o f th e c o r e c o u r s e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n f a v o r e d , a s we h ave s e e n , a c o n t e n t b u i l t a b o u t th e p ro b lem s o f y o u th i n o r d e r t o more e f f i c i e n t l y r e a l i z e d fo r -life

aim o f th e h ig h s c h o o l .

th e p r e p a r a t io n -

We h a v e a l s o s e e n how

F r e d e r ic k and F a rq u ea r (C h a p ter V I I I ) s e a r c h e d th e co n tem p o ra ry l i t e r a t u r e d e a lin g w it h s o c i a l p ro b lem s t o a s c e r t a i n t h e s e

^

Ibid.* pp. ix-x.

18 Ibid.i pp. 136-37.

p ro b lem s o f y o u th .

I n t h e wake o f t h i s p io n e e r in g s tu d y

many o t h e r a p p r o a c h e s w ere em p loyed t o d i s c o v e r t h e b a s i s f o r th e c o r e c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

D on ald C. D o a n e,* ^ f o r

ex a m p le , i n 1942 s o u g h t t o f i n d "The N eeds o f Youth'* b y g o in g t o th e p u p i l s t h e m s e lv e s .

He h op ed t o r e v ie w y o u t h 's n e e d s ,

p r o b le m s , and c o n c e r n s t o d e te r m in e t h e i r i m p l i c a t i o n a s t o th e o b j e c t i v e s , c o n t e n t , and p a t t e r n o f se c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n . D o a n e 's s t u d y d i s c l o s e d t h a t th e " c o u r s e s ” w h ich y o u th w ou ld c h o o s e i f g iv e n th e o p p o r tu n ity " w e r e t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t h e i r o r d e r o f im p o r ta n c e s w it h p e o p le ;

(3 ) h e a lth ;

and r e c r e a t i o n ;

( 7 ) p la n s f o r m a r r ia g e and f a m il y ;

( 9 ) m e n ta l h y g ie n e ; ( 1 0 ) l e i s u r e tim e

( 1 1 ) m o r a ls ; ( 1 2 ) r e l i g i o n ;

c u r r e n t p r o b le m s;

( 2 ) g e t t i n g a lo n g

( 4 ) s e x ; ( ? ) r e l a t i o n w it h th e

o p p o s ite se x ; ( 6 ) fin a n c e s ; ( 8 ) p h ilo s o p h y o f l i f e ;

( 1) v o c a tio n a l;

(13) h is to r y ;

(14)

( 1 ?) m u s ic , a r t , and d r a m a tic s ; ( 1 6 ) s c i e n c e s

( 1 7 ) f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s ; and (1 8 ) l i t e r a t u r e .

Thus we s e e th e

rem nant o f th e c l a s s i c a l o r t r a d i t i o n a l g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n t r a i l i n g a t th e e n d . The f i n d i n g s o f t h i s s tu d y s u g g e s t e d c o n s id e r a b le s h i f t i n t h e f o c a l p o i n t s a b o u t w h ich th e p r e v a i l i n g se c o n d ­ a r y c u r r ic u lu m sh o u ld be p a tt e r n e d i f e f f e c t i v e l e a r n in g was to r e s u lt . 19

I t show ed t h a t th e s h i f t s h o u ld be away from a

P o a n e , D on ald C. "The N eeds o f Y o u th ." n o l l e g e R e c o r d . 443 * 6 6 1 -6 2 , May, 1 9 4 2 .

T each ers

243

f o c u s p r im a r ily on a d u l t c o n c e r n s and s u b j e c t m a tte r and tow ard a f o c u s on t h e y o u th h im s e lf * -- a s an i n d i v i d u a l and a s a member o f s o c i e t y .

I t d id n o t p r o p o se t h a t th e c u r r ic u lu m

c o n s id e r o n ly r e c o g n iz e d o r " f e l t ” n e e d s , b u t r a t h e r t h a t su c h n e e d s p r o v id e v a l i d f o c a l p o i n t s o r m o t iv a t io n a l b a s e s o f t h e l e a r n in g e n t e r p r i s e s w h ich make up th e c u r r ic u lu m .

The s t u d y

a l s o i n d i c a t e d th e n eed f o r a c o n s id e r a b l e number o f ch a n g es i n th e c o n t e n t o f th e p r e v a i l i n g se c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m i f

th e

commonly a c c e p t e d aim s o f e d u c a t io n w ere t o b e a c c o m p lis h e d . I n t h e m ea n tim e, e d u c a t o r s w ere v ie w in g w it h m ixed emo­ t i o n s t h e a c c e l e r a t e d program s o f i n s t r u c t i o n and t r a i n i n g s p o n s o r e d b y th e armed f o r c e s .

Much s p e c u l a t i o n en su ed a s t o

w hat perm anent e f f e c t s , i f a n y , t h e s e m i l i t a r y program s m ig h t h ave on p u b lic e d u c a t io n a f t e r t h e w a r.

H ow ever, one p o in t

f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n sh o u ld b e n o te d h e r e , d e s p i t e th e f a c t t h a t s e r v i c e men w ere c h a n n e le d o f f i n t o a g r e a t v a r i e t y o f c o u r s e s d e a lin g w it h h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d s k i l l s , a l l w ere g iv e n a "hasid" o r "b oot" t r a i n i n g i n w h ic h th e s k i l l s ,

p r o b le m s, and

a t t i t u d e s n eed ed and sh a r e d i n common w ere e m p h a siz e d . As e a r l y a s 1943 p la n s w ere b e in g fo r m u la te d f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i n t h e p o s t-w a r p e r id d .

In a r e p o r t t o th e

T w e lft h A nnual C o n fe r e n c e f o r A d m in is t r a t iv e O f f i c e r s o f P u b lic and P r iv a t e s c h o o l s , h e ld i n 1943 u n d er th e a u s p ic e s o f C h ica g o U n i v e r s i t y , H enry H. H i l l sp o k e on "Changes i n

t h e C o n te n t o f G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n th e War and P ost-W ar P e r io d s ." ^ * of s p e c ific s .

The e n t i r e a d d r e s s w as c o n s p ic u o u s by t h e a b s e n c e P erh a p s t h e n e b u la r a p p ro a ch w as a n a tte m p t t o

a c h ie v e u n i t y , o r a t l e a s t a n a r m i s t i c e , among t h e w a r r in g e d u c a t o r s a t a tim e o f n a t i o n a l c r i s i s and c o n f l i c t . d id s a y , h o w e v er , t h a t , i f

H ill

th e c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n

i n our s c h o o ls was t o p r o f i t b y our e x p e r ie n c e s d u r in g t h e 1 9 2 0 ' s , and 11i f we c a n p r e v e n t a n o th e r u n w ise sw in g from e x ­ trem e i d e a l i s m t o c r a s s r e a l i s m , 11 we w i l l h a v e a c h ie v e d som e­ t h in g o f l a s t i n g v a l u e .

A g a in , a v o id in g t h e c o n c r e t e , he

s t a t e d t h a t we m ust t e a c h fe w e r t o p i c s and r e c a p t u r e a t l e a s t some o f th e a n c ie n t v i r t u e o f th o r o u g h n e s s •

" G oals t o be

a c h ie v a b le ca n b e n e i t h e r s c h o l a r l y n o r a b s t r a c t . "

The p e r ­

s i s t e n t p rob lem o f t h e r e l a t i o n o f " v o c a tio n a l" e d u c a t io n t o " g e n e r a l" e d u c a t io n was d is p o s e d o f su m m arily w it h th e s t a t e ­ m en t, 11. . . w e n eed t o m ix up g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n w it h v o c a ­ t i o n a l e d u c a t io n and v i c e v e r s a ." H i l l c la im e d t h a t h e was a t home i n e i t h e r camp, th e " t r a d i t i o n a l i s t s " o r t h e "m oderns," b u t t h a t h e was n o t com­ p l e t e l y happy i n e i t h e r .

He d id p a y a s i g n i f i c a n t t r i b u t e t o

th e " e x p e r im e n t a lis t s " f o r t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o g e n e r a l

H i l l , H enry H. "C hanges i n th e C o n te n t o f G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n th e.W ar and t h e P ost-W ar P e r io d s ." War and P o s t War R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f A m erican S c h o o l s . U n i v e r s i t y o f C h ic a g o , P r o c e e d in g s , o f t h e ^ w e l f t h A nnual C o n fe r e n c e o f Pub­ l i c and P r iv a t e S c h o o l s , 1 9 4 3 , V I, p p . 7 2 - 8 3 .

24? e d u c a t io n when he s a i d : A s a p r a c t i c t i o n e r , I f i n d m y s e lf m ost f r e q u e n t l y i n t h e camp o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l i s t s b e c a u s e th e y h a v e made m ass e d u c a t io n p o s s i b l e . / Mass e d u c a t io n e x i s t e d n e i t h e r i n G r e e c e , Home, n or anyw here d u r in g th e m id d le a g e s . It w as n e v e r p o s s i b l e u n d er th e o ld a ca d em ic c u r r ic u lu m and n ev er can b e . To l e a r n w hat a s p e c t s o f t h e war c u r r ic u lu m s h o u ld be s a lv a g e d , Sam uel J . M cL aughlin

21

q u e s t io n e d n e a r l y f iv e - h u n d r e d

p e r s o n s who w ere i n th e A ir C o rp s, i n d u s t r y , o r c o l l e g e , who had e x p e r ie n c e d th e program o f co n tem p o ra ry s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and w o u ld h a v e a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n sh a p in g i t s

fu tu r e .

The

s tu d y sh ow ed , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t h a t , th o u g h a few s t r o n g l y u rg ed an 11a l l o u t *1 v o c a t i o n a l o r i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t io n , i t was g e n e r a l l y co n ce d e d t h a t a w e ll - b a la n c e d program o f g e n e r a l and v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n w ould b e n eed ed i n th e p o s t-w a r s c h o o l . I t w as f e l t t h a t t h e s o - c a l l e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n had b e e n a ca d em ic and t o o o u t o f tim e w it h co n tem p o ra ry l i f e .

. . .

th a t

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n sh o u ld p r e p a r e y o u th t o l i v e e f f e c t i v e l y i n t h e a r e a s common t o a l l c i t i z e n s and s h o u ld d e a l w it h t h o s e p ro b lem s w h ich a r e b a s i c t o th e co n tem p o ra ry w o r ld .

. . th a t

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i n t h e f u t u r e m ust d e v e lo p a h ig h e r d e g r e e o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n c u r r ic u lu m and c o n t e n t and th e a c t u a l life

o f y o u th , and s t r e s s t h e n e c e s s i t y o f t e a c h in g th e 21

M cLaughlin, Samuel J . “What S h a ll We S a lv a g e? 11 E d u ca tio n a l L ea d ersh ip . I s 267-73* February, 1944.

246 m a t e r ia l on a more e x p e r im e n t a l, f u n c t i o n a l b a s i s

. . . th a t

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n f o r ‘’s t o r a g e ” and c o u r s e s w it h no more ob­ j e c t i v e th a n " i t s good f o r y o u ” sh o u ld be p o i n t e d l y condemned . . * and t h a t t h e r e was no a g reem en t on t h e p la c e m e n t o f v o c a t i o n a l and t e c h n i c a l o f f e r i n g s i n t h e schem e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n * I n 19 4 4 t h e E d u c a t io n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission o f t h e N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n made i t s gent t i t l e

r e p o r t u n d er th e c o ­

o f E d u ca tio n : f o r A l l , A m erican Y o u th *

I t s e n s e d th e

i

n eed f o r a g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n program i n th e h ig h s c h o o l w h ich w ou ld p r o f i t a l l p u p ils *

B u t, b e c a u s e , p e r h a p s , i t d id n o t

w is h t o becom e in v o lv e d i n th e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i s s u e s a l ­ r e a d y d e s c r ib e d , th e r e p o r t d id n o t em ploy th e term " g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ” o r " c o r e c o u r s e . ”

I n s t e a d i t d e s c r ib e d a "Common

L e a r n in g s ” c o u r s e u s in g two o r more h o u rs d a i l y th r o u g h o u t th e u p p er se c o n d a r y s c h o o l .

I t was a c o n tin u o u s c o u r s e from

th e b e g in n in g o f G rade X t o th e end o f Grade XIV and was d is ig n e d : t o p r o v id e m ost o f th e l e a r n in g e x p e r ie n c e s w h ic h , i t i s b e l i e v e d , a l l young p e o p le s h o u ld h a v e i n common i n o r d e r t o l i v e h a p p ily and u s e f u l l y d u r in g th e y e a r s o f y o u th and grow i n t o th e f u l l r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f a d u lt life . I t i s n o t in te n d e d t o p r o v id e e d u c a t io n i n v o c a ­ t i o n a l s k i l l s and k n o w le d g e ; i n m a th e m a tic s , th e s c i e n c e s , f o r e i g n la n g u a g e s , o r o t h e r s u b j e c t s r e q u ir e d f o r v o c a ­ t i o n a l p u r p o se s o r f o r a d v a n ced s t u d y ; o r i n t h e a v o c a t i o n a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l f i e l d s w h ic h s t u d e n t s may e l e c t b e c a u s e o f p e r s o n a l i n t e r e s t . 22 11

"

"l i n

1

11

N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n . E d u c a t io n a l P o l i c i e s S o m m issio n . E d u c a tio n f o r A l l A m erican Y o u th . W a sh in g to n , D . C ., N a t io n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 4 , p p . 2 3 4 , 2 4 8 - 4 9 .

I t w as v a g u e , t o o , on th e i s s u e o f s u b j e c t - m a t t e r com­ p a r t m e n t a liz e t i o n . The r e a d e r t o whom t h i s t y p e o f c o u r s e i s new may a s k , “What h a s becom e o f th e f a m i l i a r h i g h - s c h o o l s u b j e c t s i n t h i s new c u r r ic u lu m ? What h a s h ap p en ed t o E n g lis h la n g u ­ a g e and l i t e r a t u r e , m a th e m a tic s , and A m erican h i s t o r y ? ” The a n sw er i s t h a t s t u d e n t s s t i l l l e a r n t o u s e t h e E n g lis h la n g u a g e and m a th e m a tic s, t h a t t h e y s t i l l re a d l i t e r a t u r e and s t u d y A m erican h i s t o r y — b u t t h e c o n v e n t io n a l l a b e l s o r t h e a cc u sto m ed s e t t i n g may b e m i s s i n g . 23 I n 1 9 4 4 M e lv in S tr o n g

04 .

made a s t u d y o f th e c o r e c o u r s e ,

s e n d in g q u e s t i o n n a i r e s t o c u r r ic u lu m s p e c i a l i s t s and c o r e ­ c o u r s e t e a c h e r s i n s e l e c t e d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o ls o f th e n a t i o n . I n r e p l y t o th e q u e s t i o n , “What i s t h e m ajor p u rp o se f o r w h ich a c o r e c o u r s e i s p u t i n t o o p e r a t io n ? ” a l l who re sp o n d e d c la im e d th e m ajor p u r p o se t o b e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n . S tr o n g sum m arized h i s s tu d y o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n th r o u g h t h e c o r e c o u r s e by s t a t i n g : G e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , t h e n , r e p r e s e n t s a s h i f t from su b ­ j e c t s m a tte r a s an end t o th e p u r p o se o f im p ro v in g l i v e s o f p u p i l s ; from a p r e -a r r a n g e d c u r r ic u lu m p rep a red by th e t e a c h e r , o r c u r r ic u lu m e x p e r t s , t o c o o p e r a t i v e p la n n in g , and from a s i n g l e t e x t b o o k t o m u lt ip le t e x t s and l i f e s i t u a t i o n s . G e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i s c o n c e r n e d w it h t h o s e a t t i t u d e s , u n d e r s ta n d in g s a p p r e c i a t i o n s and r e l a t i v e v a lu e s common t o a l l i r r e s p e c t i v e o f s e x , s o c i a l s t a t u s , o r f u t u r e v o c a t i o n . The two v a r i a b l e s t h a t w ou ld co n ­ t r o l t h i s g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n a r e th e n e e d s and m a tu r it y o f th e c h i l d , and modern s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s . . . . G e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , a s a m ajor r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e c o r e c o u r s e

I b i d . . p p . 2 5 6 -5 7 . 24

S t r o n g , M e lv in . “G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e Core C o u r se . The C le a r in g H o u se. 1 9 * 2 1 1 -1 6 , D ecem b er, 1 9 4 4 .

2*f8

Must d e a l w it h s u c h c o n t e n t a s w i l l e n a b le us t o l i v e h a p p ily and u s e f u l l y i n t h e co n tem p o ra ry w o r ld . F a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g t h e d ev elo p m en t o f g e n e r a l edu­ c a t i o n a s r e p o r t e d b y t h e G © o p er a tiv e S tu d y i n G e n e r a l Edu­ c a t i o n w ere o u t l i n e d by E a r l J . McGrath2 5 i n 19^5 •

Among

th e s o c i a l , e c o n o m ic , and e d u c a t io n a l f o r c e s w h ich had im ­ p in g e d upon e d u c a t io n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s i n r e c e n t d e c a d e s and w h ic h c a l l e d f o r a new ty p e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n w ere t h e fo llo w in g :

( 1 ) t h e ch a n g e i n th e n a tu r e and number o f h i g h -

s c h o o l p o p u la t io n s ;

( 2 ) th e l e g a l c u r t a ilm e n t o f c h i l d la b o r

th ro u g h t h e e f f o r t s o f l a b o r , s o c i a l , and h u m a n ita r ia n gro u p s ( i n 19*+0 th e m a j o r it y o f s t a t e s had l e g a l l y f o r b id d e n th e em ploym ent o f c h i l d r e n u nd er s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e ) ; ( 3 ) t h e s c a r c i t y o f em ploym ent f o r young p e o p le o f h i g h - s c h o o l age;

(h) th e r a i s i n g o f e d u c a t io n a l r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r em p loy­

m ent ( b u s in e s s h o u s e s w h ich tw e n ty y e a r s a g o en g a g ed h e lp w it h o n ly an e le m e n ta r y e d u c a t io n had r a i s e d th e s ta n d a r d t o h i g h - s c h o o l g r a d u a t io n ) ;

( 5) th e i n f l u e n c e o f la b o r u n io n s

i n a d v o c a tin g th e e x t e n s i o n o f e d u c a t io n among th e w ork in g c la s s e s ;

( 6 ) th e r e a l i s a t i o n t h a t th e d e t e r m in a t iv e i n f l u ­

e n c e of German p h ilo s o p h y on A m erican e d u c a t io n was fo u n d ed on i n t e l l e c t u a l a s w e l l a s s o c i a l p u r p o se s w h ich le a d t o

25 M cG rath, E a r l J . " F a c to r s I n f l u e n c in g t h e D e v e lo p ­ m ent o f G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n . 11 A s s o c i a t i o n o f A m erican C o lle g e s B u l l e t i n . 3 1 : 5 6 6 - 8 6 , D ecem ber, 19^5*

o v e r - s p e c i a l i z a t i o n and w h ich w ere no lo n g e r c o n s i s t e n t w it h th e n eed s o r i d e a l s o f A m erica;

( 7 ) th e h ig h m o r t a l i t y

r a t e o f y o u th s u b j e c t t o t h e o ld h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m ; ( 8 ) t h e i n f l u e n c e o f th e wG e s t a l t ” s c h o o l o f p s y c h o lo g y i n f a v o r o f c o r r e l a t i o n and i n t e g r a t i o n o v er s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g ; ( 9 ) th e d i s c r e d i t i n g o f th e d o c t r in e o f “fo r m a l d i s c i p l i n e ” ; ( 1 0 ) t h e a d v e r s e i n f l u e n c e on t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f th e “i d e n t i ­ c a l e le m e n t s ” t h e o r y o f T h o rn d ik e and Woodworth a s m a n if e s te d in s p e c ia liz a tio n ;

( 1 1 ) th e f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h w h ich i n d i ­

c a t e t h a t a narrow h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d c o u r s e o f i n s t r u c t i o n makes f o r no g r e a t e r s u c c e s s l a t e r i n p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o ls or i n p r o f e s s i o n a l p r a c t i c e th a n a b road g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ;

( 12)

th e f a c t t h a t v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t io n o f s p e c i f i c n a tu r e w as u n n e c e s s a r y and u n d e s ir a b le s i n c e s t u d i e s o f th e amount o f e d u c a t io n r e q u ir e d f o r i n i t i a l em ploym ent i n v a r io u s o c c u p a t i o n s i n t h e U n ite d S t a t e s show t h a t v e r y l i t t l e tr a in in g is

s p e c ific

r e q u ir e d o t h e r th a n t h a t w h ich c a n b e s e c u r e d

on t h e j o b ; and ( 1 3 ) t h e f a c t t h a t a g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was n e c e s s a r y a s a common b ack grou n d o f e x p e r ie n c e e v e n t o t h o s e who w i l l e n t e r t h e p r o f e s s i o n s and o th e r s p e c i a l i z e d l i n e s o f work* Some to o k a d v a n ta g e o f w a rtim e t o g r in d a x e s w h ich had lo n g b een d u lle d *

W illia m C ly d e D ev a n e,

Dean o f Y a le

26 D ev a n e, W illia m C ly d e . “A m erican E d u c a tio n A f t e r t h e W ar.” Thg. Y a le - R e v ie w . 3 3 *3^ -36> Autumn, 1 9 ^ 3 .

250

C o l l e g e , f o r exam p le’, t o l d th e h ig h s c h o o ls t h a t t h e i r c u r ­ r ic u lu m " s h o u ld b r in g th e p u p ils t o a h ig h d e g r e e o f p r o ­ f i c i e n c y i n a few fu n d a m e n ta l d i s c i p l i n e s . ”

The f i r s t o f

t h e s e s h o u ld d e a l w it h la n g u a g e a r t s and " sh o u ld r e s t upon r ig o r o u s g r a m m a tic a l a n a l y s i s . "

The se c o n d d i s c i p l i n e

sh o u ld be " fo u r ard u ou s y e a r s" o f m a th em a tics s i n c e "The b e a u t i f u l p r e c i s i o n o f m a th em a tics a f f o r d s th e b e s t t r a in in g i n t h e h a b it o f c o r r e c t t h in k in g w h ich i s a v a i l a b l e t o u s ." But j u s t how " g e n e r a l" s h o u ld g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n be? One c a n n o t h e lp b u t w onder i f

Jam es C onan t*s c o n c e p t o f

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n d oes n o t c o n t a in w i t h i n i t s e l f a c o n t r a ­ d i c t i o n o f te r m s .

In a s e r i e s o f l e c t u r e s d e l i v e r e d a t

T e a c h e r s C o lle g e i n N ovem ber, 19^5? James B r y a n t C o n a n t, 2 '7 P r e s id e n t o f H arvard U n i v e r s i t y , d is c u s s e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i n r e l a t i o n t o th e s t r u c t u r e o f A m erican s o c i e t y .

Conant

was em p h a tic i n h i s t h e s i s t h a t th e p r e s e n t s t r u c t u r e o f A m erican s o c i e t y i s a s t r a t i f i e d

one.

I t w ou ld b e my own g u e s s t h a t s o f a r t h e sum t o t a l e f f e c t o f a l l th e ch a n g es i n A m erican l i f e s i n c e t h e . 1 8 7 0 *s h a s b e e n t o in c r e a s e th e s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f A m erican s o c i e t y . C onant p o in t e d ou t th e i n e q u a l i t y o f e d u c a t io n a l op­ p o r t u n it y i n t h i s c o u n tr y due t o su c h f a c t o r s a s p a r e n t a l p r i d e , h o s t i l i t i e s , s o c i a l p r e j u d i c e s , and d eep s e a t e d 2 ^ C o n a n t, Jam es B. "The S t r u c t u r e o f A m erican S o c ie t y ." T ea ch ers C o lle g e H e c o r d « * f7 sl* + 5 -6 l, D ecem ber,

19^5 .

2 51

t e n s i o n s in v o l v i n g r a c e , c o l o r , and c r e e d .

The p rob lem o f

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , C onant b e l i e v e d , c o u ld n o t b e s o lv e d w ith o u t s q u a r e ly f a c in g th e s t r a t i f i e d s o c ie ty .

s t r u c t u r e o f A m erican

And y e t , s t r a n g e l y e n o u g h , Conant h e ld t h a t i t was

our a d h eren ce

t o th e b a s ic A m erican d o c t r in e o f e q u a l i t y o f

o p p o r tu n ity w h ich p r e v e n te d our f o c u s in g a c c u r a t e l y on th e p rob lem and b lu r r e d our d i s c u s s i o n o f th e n e e d s o f A m erican y o u th . th is :

And th e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ?

Ju st

t h a t t h e r e m ust be s e v e r a l k in d s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n

a d a p ted t o t h e v o c a t i o n a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n o f A m erican s o c ie ty . . . . " g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n ” or "e d u c a t io n f o r c i t i z e n ­ s h i p 11 or a c o u r s e i n "common le a r n in g " c a n n o t be d i ­ v o r c e d from a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a s t u d e n t *s a m b itio n s as r e g a r d s h i s su b s e q u e n t o c c u p a t io n . The id e a o f " g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n " a s so m eth in g s e p a r a t e from s p e c i f i c e d u c a t io n f o r a v o c a t i o n i s a u s e f u l c o n c e p t . The o n ly d a n g er i s t h a t when c o n s id e r in g a l l A m erican y o u th we g e n e r a l i z e our c o n c e p t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , and by s o d o in g ab ­ s t r a c t from i t c o n t a c t w it h f a c t s . . . . The im p o r ta n t m a tte r i s th e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t we m ust be c o n t e n t w it h a fe w p r o p o s i t i o n s a b o u t g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n o f a l l A m erican y o u th and th e n from t h o s e d e r i v e h a l f a d o zen or s o t y p e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , ea c h a p p r o p r ia t e f o r d if f e r e n t v o c a tio n a l g ro u p s. The fe w s im p le p r o p o s i t i o n s w h ich w ould t i e

to g eth er

th e d i f f e r e n t t y p e s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n w ou ld be fo u n d ed on th e i d e a l a d u lt b e h a v io r o f a l l A m erican c i t i z e n s . th is

And

i d e a l m ig h t b e e p it o m iz e d b y su c h p h r a s e s a s " i n d i v i d ­

u a l i n t e g r i t y i n d e a lin g w it h o th e r p e o p le , human sy m p a th y , and m o ra l c o u r a g e ."

2?2 The r e a c t i o n a g a in s t th e c o r e c o u r s e b a s e d on th e c o n ­ tem p ora ry p rob lem s o f y o u th as th e p ro p er c o n t e n t and m ethod f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n h ad b e e n s t e a d i l y in c r e a s in g s in c e H u t c h in s 1 i n i t i a l a t t a c k i n 193&*

A f r e s h a s s a u l t came i n

19^5 when th e C om m ittee on th e O b j e c t iv e s o f G e n e r a l Educa­ t i o n i n a F r e e S o c i e t y o f H arvard U n i v e r s it y c a l l e d f o r th e n eed o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n f o r th e sa k e o f u n i t y , b u t i n ­ s is te d

t h a t i n an y g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n program , e m p ir ic is m

m ust b e im p lem en ted b y r a t i o n a l i s m and r e v e l a t i o n .

The

C o m m ittee’s r e p o r t , s i n c e known a s th e H arvard R e p o r t, l i k e H u t c h in s , t r e a t e d o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n on th e c o l l e g e l e v e l , b u t c o u ld n o t e s c a p e th e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t io n . In e x p la in in g th e n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n a s a means o f u n if y in g th e e d u c a t i o n a l p rogram , th e R ep o rt c la im e d 11 . .

. th e h ig h s c h o o l i s m o r a lly o b lig e d t o a d a p t

i t s e l f t o e v e r y k in d o f s t u d e n t ’1 w it h a c o n se q u e n c e o f h a v in g e n d l e s s v a r i a t i o n s i n s u b j e c t m a tte r and m eth od , t h r e a t e n in g t o make e d u c a t io n j u s t a c o l l e c t i o n o f s p e c i a l i s m s . q u e s t i o n o f u n i t y h a s become i n s i s t e n t . a d i v e r s i t y o f e d u c a t io n w h ic h , i f

The

We a r e f a c e d w it h

i t h a s many v i r t u e s ,

n e v e r t h e l e s s w orks a g a i n s t th e good of s o c i e t y b y h e lp in g t o d e s t r o y th e common g r o u n d ;o f t r a i n i n g and o u tlo o k on p Q

w h ich an y s o c i e t y d e p e n d s . 11 23 H arvard U n i v e r s i t y . C om m ittee on th e O b j e c t iv e s o f a G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n a F v ee S o c i e t y . G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n i n a F r e e S o c i e t y . C am b ridge. M a s s a c h u s e t t s , H arvard U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19^5> PP« 1 3 ,

253 The R e p o r t 's r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t th e e x p e r ie n c e c o r e was e v id e n t i n i t s

b e l i e f th a t th e b a s is

o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was

th e m o ld in g o f s t u d e n t s t o a p a t t e r n s a n c t io n e d i n th e p a s t , a d i s t i n c t e c h o o f H u tc h in s ' " g r e a t books" c o n t e n t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n .

The R ep o rt s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e common ground as

a b a s i s f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was t h e "common h e r i t a g e . " T h is im p u ls e t o mold s t u d e n t s t o a p a t t e r n s a n c t io n e d by th e p a s t c a n , i n one form or a n o t h e r , n e v e r be a b s e n t from ed u ­ c a tio n . The them e f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n s u g g e s t e d b y th e H arvard R ep o rt d id c o i n c i d e w it h a t c o n c e p t a lr e a d y u rg ed on a l l s i d e s a s a u n if y in g p h ilo s o p h y o f e d u c a t i o n - - t h e d i g n i t y „ 29 o f man• At t h e tim e (1 9 ^ 5 )> G eorge S to d d a r d , P r e s id e n t o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f I l l i n o i s , c la im e d t h a t t h e tw o b a s i c p rob lem s i n e d u c a t io n i n t h a t d ay w ere th e s e a r c h f o r a c o r e o f g e n e r a l o r l i b e r a l e d u c a t io n .

"The r e a l s t r u g g le "

i n e d u c a t io n to d a y ," s a i d P r e s id e n t S to d d a r d , " i s an a tte m p t t o a c h i e v e u n i t y and d i r e c t i o n on some b a s i s , b e i t a n c i e n t , m e d ie v a l, or m odern, or a m ergin g o f a l l t h r e e . ^1 B o b b it t had hoped t h a t th e f u n c t i o n a l a p p ro a ch i n ^

I b id . , p. 6 7 .

3 ° S to d d a r d , G eorge D. F r o n t i e r s i n E d u c a t io n . S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y , S ta n fo r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 19^5? PP* 1 -2



3 1 B o b b i t t , F r a n k lin . "The P o stw a r C u r ric u lu m : The F u n c t io n a l V ersu s th e A cadem ic P la n ." The S c h o o l R e v ie w , 53s 7 7 - 8 ^ , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 ^ 5 .

251* e d u c a t io n , w h ich had "been h i g h l y p r iz e d d u r in g t h e w a r, w ould r e p l a c e t h e a ca d em ic

fo r m u la i n th e p o s t-w a r e r a .

B ut h e

was f a r from o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e r e a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e h o p e s . In f a c t i n 19^5* B o b b it t g a v e t h e s e s i x t e e n f a c t o r s w h ich w ould c a u s e c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n i n th e p o s t-w a r e r a t o b e ­ come i n e f f e c t i v e and f u t i l e : ( 1 ) th e s u b j e c t m a tte r t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e p rep a re d t o ' t e a c h ; ( 2 ) t h e m ethods th e y a r e p rep a re d and p r e d is p o s e d t o u s e ; ( 3 ) th e k in d s o f te x t b o o k s t h a t a r e a v a i l a b l e ; (b) th e c u r r ic u lu m and m eth od s t h a t a r e p r e d e te r m in e d b y th e n a tu r e o f t h o s e t e x t b o o k s ; ( 5 ) th e n a tu r e o f th e t e s t s t h a t t e a c h e r s a r e p rep a re d t o u s e ; ( 6 ) th e c h a r a c ­ t e r o f t h e t e a c h in g c o m p e lle d b y th e n a tu r e o f th e t e s t s ; ( 7 ) th e c o n c e p t io n o f e d u c a t io n t h a t h a s b e e n d e e p ly and ir r e m e d ia b ly im p la n te d i n t h e m inds o f t e a c h e r s and l a y ­ men; ( 8 ) th e c o n t r o l l i n g a ssu m p tio n s o f t h o s e who t r a i n t e a c h e r s f o r a l l th e a g e l e v e l s ; ( 9 ) th e n a tu r e o f th e s ta n d a r d s s e t up b y th e s t a t e d ep a rtm e n ts o f e d u c a t io n ; ( 1 0 ) th e power o f c o l l e g e e n t r a n c e demands on h ig h s c h o o ls and o f e o l l e g e - g r a d u a t i o n r e q u ir e m e n ts ; ( 1 1 ) t h e i n f l u e n c e o f th e a c c r e d i t i n g a g e n c i e s ; ( 1 2 ) th e l i m i t e d f r a c t i o n o f program tim e t h a t ca n b e a l l o t t e d t o e a c h p o r t io n o f th e work; ( 1 3 ) th e i n f l u e n c e o f f i n a n c i a l l i m i t a t i o n s upon s i z e s of c l a s s e s , t e a c h in g m a t e r i a l s , c h a r a c t e r o f p e r s o n n e l, and a b o u t e v e r y t h in g e l s e ; ( 1*+) th e e x p e c t a t io n s and i n s i s t e n c e s o f p a r e n ts and g e n e r a l com m unity; ( 1 5 ) th e momentum o f lo n g - o p e r a t i v e a d m in is t r a ­ t i v e p r o c e d u r e s ; and ( 1 6 ) t h e u n r e s p o n s iv e i n e r i n e s s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s t h a t h ave d r i f t e d from t h e i r s o c i a l m o o r in g s . And j u s t a s t h e f e v e r of c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n o f th e 1 9 3 0 f s g e n e r a te d much h e a t and v e r y l i t t l e

l i g h t , s o B o b b it t

p r e d ic t e d t h a t t h e p o s t-w a r program w ould succumb t o t h e s e a l l - p o w e r f u l i n f l u e n c e s and rem ain a s i t was b e f o r e th e w ar. Numerous s h i f t s , r e a r r a n g e m e n ts , and r e - p a t t e r n i n g s o f c u r r ic u lu m m a t e r ia ls w i l l b e made. New f a s h i o n s w i l l b e h e r a ld e d a s fu n d a m e n ta l a d v a n c e s ; b u t , l i k e w aves

2

55

b low n up b y f r e s h b r e e z e s , t h e y a r e b u t s u p e r f i c i a l and t r a n s i e n t . T h ere i s g r e a t show on th e s u r f a c e , b u t th e s u b s ta n c e o f t h in g s re m a in s t h e sam e. In s p i t e o f th e enorm ous la b o r s o f c u r r ic u lu m w o rk ers d u r in g t h e p a s t t h r e e d e c a d e s , i n s p i t e o f t h e v a s t and im p r e s s iv e - lo o k in g l i b r a r i e s o f docum ents t h a t t h e y h a v e p r e p a r e d , t h e r e a l s u b s ta n c e o f t h e e d u c a t iv e p r o c e s s h a s b e e n b u t l i t t l e ch a n g e d . When t in k e r in g was t h e b e s t we c o u ld do u n d er th e f a v o r a b le c o n d it i o n s o f p e a c e , i t i s s c a r c e l y t o be h oped t h a t we s h a l l do b e t t e r , or e v e n a s w e l l , d u r in g th e d i s t r a c t i o n s and d i s l o c a t i o n s o f w a r . And H a ro ld S p e a r s ,

*32

w r i t i n g on t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r

P o s t War E d u c a tio n o f G e n e ra l E d u cation s: 1 S e c o n d a r y L e v e l” i n 19^ 5 , w arned t h a t we m ust n o t g i v e any more c r e d i t t o s t a n d a r d iz e d t e s t s th a n th ey, a c t u a l l y d e s e r v e s i n c e i t i s

ex­

c e e d i n g l y d i f f i c u l t t o m easu re o b j e c t i v e l y some o f t h e accom ­ p lis h m e n t s we a r e a f t e r i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n . In 19b6 t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f Iowa b eg a n t o p u b lis h The J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n .

E a r l J . M cG rath,33 ±n i t s

f i r s t num ber, s t a t e d e d i t o r i a l l y t h a t : T h ese th e n a r e t h e s a l i e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n m ovem ent: a r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t s p e c i a l i s m and v o c a t io n a lis m ; an e f f o r t t o i n t e g r a t e t h e s u b j e c t m a tte r . o f r e l a t e d d i s c i p l i n e s ; an in c r e a s e d p r e s c r i p t i o n o f r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s u b j e c t m a tt e r ; an a tte m p t t o a s s i s t t h e s t u d e n t i n s e e i n g t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b etw e en le a r n in g and l i f e and i n u s in g h i s k n o w led g e and s k i l l s i n d a i l y l i v ­ in g ; and an e f f o r t t o re fo r m g r a d u a te e d u c a t io n f o r

^ s p e a r s , H a r o ld . “I m p l ic a t io n s f o r P o s t War Educa­ t i o n o f G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n : S e c o n d a r y L e v e l .*1 The N orth C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n Q u a r t e r ly . 1 9 * 2 6 0 - 6 9 , J a n u a r y , lSM+jT. ^ M cG rath, E a r l J . “The G e n e r a l E d u c a tio n Movement: An E d i t o r i a l . “ The J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n . 1 * 3 - 8 , O c t . ,

19^6 .

256 t e a c h e r s t o th e end t h a t thej^ may b r in g t o t h e c la s s r o o m t h e s k i l l s o f t h e m a ste r t e a c h e r , a b road k n o w led g e o f t h e i r own and r e l a t e d f i e l d s , and a v i t a l i n t e r e s t i n th e n o b le t a s k o f i n s t r u c t i n g y o u t h . I n t h e J o u rn a 1 o f H ig h er E d u c a tio n Boyd Bode a t t a c k e d t h e H arvard R e p o r t f s s a n c t io n in g a s an aim o f e d u c a t io n th e m o ld in g o f s t u d b n t s t o a p a t t e r n a p p ro v ed by t h e p a s t . The w ea k n ess o f t h e R ep o rt d o e s n o t l i e i n i t s a p p e a l t o t r a d i t i o n or t h e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e , b u t i n t h e assum p­ t i o n t h a t th e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e h e r i t a g e be d e te r m in e d i n a d v a n c e . . • • The p o s s i b i l i t y i s ig n o r e d t h a t th e h e r i t a g e may b e a p r o c e s s o f g ro w th w h ich m ust be d e a l t w it h a s we go a lo n g , w ith o u t an y s t u l t i f y i n g p r e c o n c e p t io n a s t o t h e l i m i t s w it h in w h ich our r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s m ust b e c o n f in e d — a p resu m p tio n w h ich i n i t s p r a c t i c a l c o n s e ­ q u en ces am ounts t o a c o n s p ir a c y t o r e s t r i c t s c i e n t i f i c m e th o d .3^ Bode a d m itte d t h a t ,ft h e R ep o rt o f f e r s many u s e f u l s u g g e s t io n s tow ard t h e im provem ent o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , 11 b u t c la im e d f,i t f a i l e d c o m p le t e ly t o g e t down t o t h e / r o o t o f t h e t r o u b l e . tf

He c o n c lu d e d by s t a t i n g :

Gur c i v i l i z a t i o n i s a t t h e c r o s s r o a d s , and i t i s now f a c e d w it h t h e q u e s t i o n o f s h e e r s u r v i v a l . T r a d it io n n e e d s t o b e r e i n t e r p r e t e d , w it h no h o ld s b a r r e d , i f we a r e t o h a v e an a d e q u a te p h ilo s o p h y o f A m erican e d u c a t i o n .3 5 I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n th e same i s s u e o f t h e J o u r n a l o f H ig h er E d u c a tio n i n w h ic h Bode g a v e h i s c r i t i q u e o f t h e H arvard R e p o r t, t h e e d i t o r , R . H. E c k e lberry,^

commented on P r e s id e n t H a ro ld T a y lo r f s in a u g u r a l

B o d e, Boyd H. "The H arvard R e p o r t . 11 H ig h e r E d u c a t io n . 1 7 * 1 - 8 , J a n u a r y , 1 9 ^ 6 . 35 , L o c. c i t . 36 ----- ----Ibid., pp..50, 51* ^

The J o u r n a l o f

257 a d d r e s s e d a t S a ra h Law rence C o lle g e a s f,a s t i m u l a t i n g d i s c u s ­ s i o n o f t h e p rob lem o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n and a n o te w o r th y d e f e n s e o f t h e e l e c t i v e sy ste m ."

P r e s id e n t T a y lo r was q u o ted

a s s a y in g t h a t w hat was n eed ed was n o t p r im a r ily 11a r e fo r m a ­ t i o n o f th e c u r r ic u lu m and s u b j e c t - m a t t e r ," b u t "a r e fo r m a ­ t i o n o f w ays i n w h ic h e d u c a t io n t a k e s p la c e and i s u s e d . 1* The e d i t o r com m ented:

HI n t h e s e d a y s when i t

i s so fa s h io n ­

a b le t o a t t a c k t h e e l e c t i v e sy ste m and t o im p o se c e r t a i n c o u r s e s on a l l s t u d e n t , Mr. T a y lo r f s a d d r e s s d e s e r v e s s e r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 11 W akeham 37

c la im e d t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n was a m a tte r

s e l e c t i o n and condemned t h e tr e n d o f in c lu d in g e v e r y t h in g i n t h e c u r r ic u lu m demanded by p r e s s u r e g r o u p s; th e t r e n d , i n s h o r t , t h a t " ev er y b o d y s h o u ld know e v e r y t h i n g . 11

The Army

and Navy had lo b b ie d f o r m a th em a tics o v er t h e d ead b o d ie s o f th e P r o g r e s s i v e s

( s p e l t w it h a v e r y la r g e f,PM) .

c a n o n iz e d c h e m is t r y and p h y s i c s .

The war had

The C om m u nists, or a t l e a s t

t h e C o l l e c t i v i s t s , w ere r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i n f i l t r a t i o n o f s o c i o l o g y , e c o n o m ic s , and p o l i t i c a l econom y i n t o n e a r l y a l l t h e s e c o n d a r y c u r r ic u lu m a s a p r e p a r a t io n f o r t h e g r e a t r e v o ­ lu tio n .

P s y c h o l o g i s t s l i k e A . J . C a r ls o n had ta k e n th e stump

f o r c o m p u lso ry b i o l o g y and a n im a l e x p e r im e n t a t io n . _

Even a

_

Wakeham, G. "Everybody S h o u ld Know E v e r y t h in g . 11 S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . 6 1 : 3 7 9 - 8 0 , J u n e , 19*+5*

258

few h a r d -p r e s s e d c l a s s i c i s t s , t h e i r b ack s t o t h e w a l l , w it h t h e i r d y in g b r e a t h s s t i l l f e e b l y " p lu g g e d ” f o r L a t in and G reek a s in d i s p e n s a b l e t o c u l t u r e and c i v i l i z a t i o n .

And lo u d was

t h e clam or o f t h e H e a r s t ia n p a t r i o t s f o r a s o l i d b lo c k o f A m erican h i s t o r y from k in d e r g a r t e n th r o u g h u n i v e r s i t y . In th e F e b r u a r y , 1 9 ^ 6 , i s s u e o f The J o u r n a l o f H ig h er E d u c a t io n . R a p h a el D em o s^ d e fe n d e d t h e H arvard R ep ort a g a i n s t t h e i s s u e s r a i s e d by Mr. B o d e.

He c la im e d t h a t t h e R ep o rt d id

n o t t a k e t h e p o s i t i o n a g a in s t t h e s c i e n t i f i c m eth o d , b u t t h a t it

s t a t e d th e s c i e n t i f i c m ethod was n o t e n o u g h .

t o be " in a d e q u a te i n t h e f i e l d

of v a lu e s .

p ro p er wagon t o c a r r y u s t o th e t r u t h

.

I t was h e ld

. . s c ie n c e i s a

. . . but i t

cannot

c a r r y u s e v e r y w h e r e .” Demos a s s e r t e d t h a t t h e u s e o f t r a d i t i o n i n e d u c a t io n was n o t " t r a d i t i o n v e r s u s in n o v a t io n ," b u t " t r a d i t i o n w it h in n o v a t io n ."

T r a d i t io n was n o t " c o n t e m p la tiv e d w e llin g upon

th e p a s t f o r i t s

own s a k e ," b u t a n e c e s s a r y back grou nd f o r

m e e tin g p r e s e n t n e e d s , a "draw ing b ack i n o r d e r t o a c h ie v e p e r s p e c t i v e ." P erhap s t h e g r e a t e s t r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e H arvard R ep o rt was v o ic e d by t h e Joh n Dewey S o c i e t y by i t s t i o n i n 19^6 o f "The A m erican H igh S c h o o l."

p u b lic a ­

The s o c i e t y

^ D em os, R a p h a e l. "Mr. Bode and t h e H arvard R ep ort on E d u c a tio n ." The J o u r n a l o f H ig h e r E d u c a t io n . 1 7 : 6 2 , F e b , 19^ 6 .

259

d e v o te d i t s

E ig h th Year Book t o e s t a b l i s h i n g t h e n eed f o r

g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n i n th e h ig h s c h o o l , t h e n eed f o r in c lu d in g a l l h i g h - s c h o o l y o u th i n t h e g e n e r a l- e d u c a t io n p rogram , d i s ­ e s t a b lis h m e n t o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a liz e d c u r r ic u lu m , and t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f a c o r e c o u r s e b u i l t upon t h e e x p e r ie n c e s o f t h e p u p ils t o a c h ie v e t h e g o a ls o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n . The E ig h th Year Book d e f in e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n a s s . . . t h a t p a r t o f t h e s t u d e n t f s c o m p le te program t h a t i s b e in g e x p e r ie n c e d by th e e n t i r e g r o u p , i t b e in g c o n c e iv e d a s t h e t r a i n i n g f o r g e n e r a l c i t i z e n s h i p , f o r t h e common l i f e , f o r t h e common g o o d . The p r i n c i p l e i s n o t s e r v e d by t h e u s u a l p r a c t i c e o f m e r e ly r e q u ir in g a number o f t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t s , su c h a s E n g lis h and A m erican h i s ­ t o r y , o f a l l s t u d e n t s , and p a s s in g t h e l o t o f f a s t h e im p o r ta n t t h in g s t h a t a l l n e e d . R a th e r , t h i s id e a o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n b e g in s f u r t h e r b a c k , b a ck w it h th e l i v e s o f b o y s and g i r l s a s t h e y s t r u g g l e t o d e v e lo p t h e w ays o f a c t i n g and t h in k in g t h a t w ould b e s t s e r v e them i n t h e d e m o c r a tic s o c i e t y t h a t i s A m erica* D is t in g u is h e d from t h i s program o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n , w h ieh n a t u r a l l y n e e d s t o command a w o rth y p o r t io n o f t h e s c h o o l day o f a l l t h e s t u d e n t s , a r e t h e more s p e c i a l i z e d a s p e c t s o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m .39 The R ep o rt i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e program o f g e n e r a l e d u ca ­ t i o n m ust in c lu d e a l l h i g h - s c h o o l p e o p le when i t

s a id :

I n b r i e f , t h e d e s i r e d s o l u t i o n i s n o t one w h ich makes a v a i l a b l e g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n t o some y o u th and n o t t o o t h e r s , e d u c a t io n f o r work and n o t some t o o t h e r s , and p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n s o c i a l l y u s e f u l e n t e r p r i s e s t o some and

39 C a s w e ll , H o l l i s , e d . "The A m erican H igh S c h o o ls I t s R e s p o n s i b i l i t y and O p p o r t u n it y .t$ E ig h th Y ear Book o f t h e lo h n Dewey S o c i e t y . New Y ork , H arper and B r o t h e r s , 19*+o7 p . 117.

260

not to o th e r sI t i s , r a t h e r , t o have a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h young p e r s o n t h o s e o p p o r t u n i t i e s w h ich w i l l a f f o r d him w e ll-r o u n d e d d e v e lo p m e n tAs a m a tte r o f e d u c a t i o n a l and s o c i a l p o l i c y , t h i s i n d i c a t e s t h e n e c e s s i t y and w isdom o f b r o a d e n in g and r e v i s i n g , how ever d r a s t i c a l l y , t h e program o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l t o make i t t h e b a s i c y o u th e d u c a t in g a g e n c y i n our s o c i e t y . 40 t o d j u s t a s i n s i s t e n t w as th e Joh n Dewey S o c i e t y t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n c o u ld be made a r e a l i t y i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l o n ly by a r e v i s i o n o f t h e h ig h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m s u f f i c i e n t l y fu n d a m en ta l t o d is c a r d s u b j e c t - m a t t e r c o m p a r t m e n t a liz a tio n . To t h o s e who o b j e c t t o th e r a d i c a l r e v i s i o n o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t a liz e d c u r r ic u lu m on t h e grou n d s t h a t r e a l l y good t e a c h in g w i t h i n th e c o n v e n t io n a l c u r r ic u lu m p la n w i l l a c h ie v e w h a te v e r p u r p o se s may be d e s i r e d , i t i s t h e o p in io n o f t h i s co m m ittee t h a t t h i s p o in t o f v ie w i s b a s i c a l l y u n so u n d . I t i s t r u e t h a t im proved t e a c h in g a lw a y s r e s u l t s i n b e t t e r e d u c a t io n , b u t th e c o n v e n t io n a l c u r r ic u lu m fram ew ork i s t h e g r e a t e s t s i n g l e o b s t a c l e t o t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a program i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l w h ich p r o v id e s t h e n e c e s s a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o y o u th i n a c h ie v in g i n a c t u a l l i v i n g th e v a r io u s d e v e lo p m e n ta l t a s k s w h ich our s o c i e t y d em an d s.41 F i n a l l y , th e Joh n Dewey S o c i e t y s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e g e n e r a l - e d u c a t i o n program be p r e d ic a t e d upon a c o r e c o u r s e w h ic h , i n t u r n , sh o u ld be b a se d upon t h e l i f e

p ro b lem s o f th e

p u p ils . T here i s or co re o f d e n ts. An w it h l i t t l e o th e r. . . 40

no p r o v i s i o n f o r a common, o r g a n iz in g c e n t e r e x p e r ie n c e i n th e e d u c a t io n o f i n d i v i d u a l s t u ­ a lm o st e n d le s s c o m b in a tio n o f c o u r s e s a r r a n g e d or no e f f o r t t o r e l a t e th e c o u r s e s t o ea ch . The c e n t r a l p rob lem o f program d ev elo p m en t

I b id ., p . 136. Ibid., pp. 139-40.

261

i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l m ust be t o o r g a n iz e a g e n e r a l d e s ig n w i t h i n w h ich y o u th ca n b e g iv e n d i r e c t h e lp i n a c h ie v in g a l l t h e i r d e v e lo p m e n ta l t a s k s . *+2 The s o c i e t y c la im e d t h a t t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n b road d e ­ v e lo p m e n ta l t a s k s , t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n common e x p e r ie n c e s w h ich a l l y o u th sh o u ld h a v e i n o r d e r t o t a k e t h e i r a p p r o p r ia te p la c e i n a d u lt s o c i e t y .

It is

th e c e n t r a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y

o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l t o c a n v a s s t h e s e e x p e r ie n c e s w it h c a r e and t o s e e t h a t t h e y a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o a l l s t u d e n t s .

The

c o r e c o u r s e sh o u ld be t h e p la n n in g c e n t e r f o r t h e s e e x p e r i ­ e n c e s u n d er t h e g u id a n c e on one t e a c h e r who s h a l l work w it h and know w e l l t h e p u p i l .

E l e c t i v e s and o c c u p a t io n a l p r e p a r a ­

t i o n w ould su p p lem en t t h i s g e n e r a 1 - e d u c a t io n p ro g ra m .^-3 As l a t e a s 19b6 G eorge C . H a ig , i n h i s b o o k , H igh S c h o o ls f o r Tom orrow, co m p la in ed t h a t : . . . i n a s i n g l e g e n e r a t i o n , A m erican l i f e has u n d er­ gon e a s e r i e s o f r e v o l u t i o n s , w it h e a s y co m m u n ica tio n , p o w e r fu l p u b l i c i t y e n g i n e s , and a d o zen o th e r new d e v e lo p ­ m ents h i t t i n g u s one w a llo p a f t e r a n o t h e r . The h ig h s c h o o l , m e a n w h ile , h a s rem a in ed r e l a t i v e l y sta tic . L a ck in g b o th le a d e r s h ip and econom ic d r i v e , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o f i n d t h a t h ig h s c h o o l s a r e s t a t i c , m orib u n d , r id d e n w it h t r a d it io n .M +

^

I b i d . , p . lM-0 •

**3 I b i d . , p . m -1. vp,

S t i l e s , Dan. H igh S c h o o ls f o r Tomorrow. H arper and B r o t h e r s , 1 9 ^ 6 , p p . 7 , 9 .

New Y ork,

262

Haig e x p l a i n e d t h e n eed f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l. The t r e n d tow ard g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s e s p e c i a l l y m a n i f e s t on t h e c o l l e g e l e v e l a s w i t n e s s e d b y Y a l e , Har­ v a r d , and t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f M arylan d, and e v e n on t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e l e v e l a s p io n e e r e d by P asad en a ( C a l i f o r n i a ) J u n io r C o l l e g e . But t h e 36b c a n n o t be l e f t t o t h e c o lle g e s• There h as b e e n a s t e a d y i n c r e a s e i n t h e number o f young p e o p l e g o in g t o c o l l e g e and t h a t t r e n d w i l l i n a l l l i k l i h o o d c o n t i n u e . But i t w i l l be y e a r s , p erh a p s n e v e r , b e f o r e s o c i e t y c a n s a f e l y p a s s on t o t h e c o l l e g e s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n fo r a l l . I f b oys and g i r l s o f t o d a y a r e t o g e t t h a t k in d o f e d u c a t i o n t h e h i g h s c h o o l must p r o v id e i t . ^5 H aig a l s o s u g g e s t e d an a c t i v i t y program as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n w h ic h t h e s c h o o l w ould r e s e m b le a m i n i a t u r e com m unity.

He c la im e d t h a t :

The o u t l i n e s o f t h e new h i g h s c h o o l program a r e a l ­ ready c l e a r . . . . I n term s o f p e d a g o g y , i t means t h a t a l l young p e o p le f o l l o w f o r t h e m ost p a r t t h e same co u r se of s tu d y , w ith l i t t l e p e r s o n a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n . T h is k in d o f p rogram , u s u a l l y d e s c r i b e d a s 11g e n e r a l e d u c a t io n " h a s s o f a r b e e n more t a l k e d a b o u t t h a n a c t e d upon among s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s . • • • I n d i v i d u a l e d u c a t o r s i n many p a r t s o f t h e c o u n t r y a r e l e a n i n g i n t h e same d ir e c tio n . But w h i l e s e n t im e n t f o r t h i s t y p e o f program a p p e a r s t o be s n o w b a l l i n g , n o t h in g much i s done.*fo M ack en zie and Efcans so u g h t t o c l a r i f y some o f t h e

*5 I b i d . , p . 2 3 . I b i d . . pp.

2 1 -2 3 .

263 c o n f u s i o n and c o n f l i c t s i n v o l v e d i n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n . F i r s t , t h e r e was t h e f a i l u r e t o r e a l i z e t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s r o o t e d i n t h e c u l t u r e , and t h a t t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a d v o ­ c a t e d t o d a y i s a r e s p o n s e t o an a g e o f i n c r e a s i n g s p e c i a l i z a ­ t i o n i n p r o d u c t io n and i n s e r v i c e s t o our econom y, t o t h e d e l a y e d i n d u c t i o n o f y o u th i n t o s o c i e t y a s w ork in g member, and t o t h e c e n t u r y o ld problem i n /im erica o f how t o make edu­ c a t i o n c o n t r i b u t e more d i r e c t l y t o t h e s o l u t i o n o f p r i v a t e and p u b l i c p r o b le m s .

S e c o n d , t h e r e was t h e i s s u e o v e r t h e

n a t u r e o f k n ow led ge and r o l e o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r — c o n t e n t and m ethod i n e d u c a t i o n .

T h is i s s u e r a i s e d su c h q u e s t i o n s a s t o

w h e th e r s u b j e c t m a tt e r i s a means or an end; w h e th e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r c a n make a c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a n y t h in g e x c e p t s u b j e c t m a t t e r ; w h e th er s u b j e c t m a t t e r s h o u ld b e s e c o n d a r y t o t h e p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s , n e e d s , and p ro b lem s o f y o u th and t h e com­ m u n it y .

T h ir d , t h e r e was t h e r e s t r i c t i o n o f t h e g e n e r a l edu­

c a t i o n movement by t h e c u r r e n t s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l , su c h a s t h e p r e s e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l d a y , its

s y s t e m s o f c r e d i t s , m a rk s, p r o m o t io n s , and g r a d u a t i o n .

E x p e r ie n c e t o d a t e seem ed t o s u g g e s t t h a t a g e n u in e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n program w i l l n e v e r m ature w i t h r a d i c a l ch a n g e s i n

b7

M a c k e n z ie , Gordon N . , and E v a n s , H u b e r t. "The C h a lle n g e o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n f o r t h e S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l s . " J o u r n a l o f G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n . l : 6 Lf—? l , O c to b e r , 1 9^ 6 .

26*4th e se tu p of th e secondary s c h o o l.

F o u r t h , t h e r e was t h e

l a g o f e d u c a t i o n a l p r a c t i c e b e h in d e d u c a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h and th eory.

I f t h e f i n d i n g s o f r e s e a r c h c o u ld n o t he c h a n n e l l e d

i n t o c la s s r o o m p r a c t i c e , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was dommed t o f a i l ­ u r e , f o r t h e new g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n was s u r e l y t h e c h i l d o f modern e d u c a t i o n a l t h e o r y , p o l i c y , and k n o w le d g e . t h e r e was t h e c o n f u s i o n i n v o l v i n g s e m a n t i c s . m is u n d e r s t a n d in g and l i t t l e

F ifth ,

T h ere was much

c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f su c h c o n c e p t s

a s c o r e c u r r ic u lu m , b a s i c e d u c a t i o n , common l e a r n i n g s , n e e d s , in te r e sts, lif e

e x p e r i e n c e s , common e x p e r i e n c e s , common n e e d s ,

s p e c i a l i z e d , n o n - s p e c i a l i z e d , s k i l l s , p r o b le m s , problem a p ­ p r o a c h , work e x p e r i e n c e , a n d , i n d e e d , g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n its e lf. I n t h e s t r u g g l e b e tw e e n t h e [email protected] and L a t i n B o y s” and t h e “b e e - k e e p i n g , g o a t ^ c u l t u r e , u t i l i t a r i a n c o u r s e s *1 i n s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , Meeks

L.Q

d e s c r i b e d c o l l e g e d o m in a t io n o f t h e

h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m a s a “m yth11 o r , a t b e s t , a “h a l f t r u t h ,*1 and saw no c o n f l i c t i n u n i t i n g g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n . The myth t h a t i t must b e e i t h e r v o c a t i o n a l or g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld b e f o r g o t t e n and t h e e n e r g y d e v o t e d t o d e b a t in g t h i s q u e s t i o n u s e d t o d i s c o v e r ways and means o f d e v e l o p i n g c u r r i c u l a i n our h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s

N-8

M eek s, I . D. “A n oth er E d u c a t i o n a l Myth. 11 and S o c i e t y . 6 3 : 3 2 1 - 2 2 , May *f, 1 9 ^ .

School

t h a t w i l l p r e p a r e y o u th b o th t o l i v e and t o e a r n a l i v i n g . The C om m ittee on G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n and C o l l e g e P r e p a r ­ a t i o n o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e on t h e E d u c a t io n o f Y outh i n

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h e l d a t T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e i n 1 9 ^ 6 , d e c l a r e d t h a t g e n e r a l ed u ­ c a t i o n c o u ld e v o l v e o n ly a s lo n g a s s c h o o l s had freed om and w ould a c c e p t r e s p o n s i b i l i t y .

The h i g h s c h o o l , i t was s a i d ,

e n j o y e d , t h e l e a s t freed o m due t o c o l l e g e d o m in a t io n .

T h is

was e x p l a i n e d a s h a v in g come a b o u t b e c a u s e t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l ’s s o l e p u r p o se a t i t s

i n c e p t i o n was c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t o r y

— p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e l i b e r a l a r t s . The r e p o r t o f t h e c o m m itte e showed how t h e p r e s e n t p a t ­ t e r n o f s c h o o l and c o l l e g e r e l a t i o n s s e r v e d a s a h a n d ic a p t o t h e im provem ent o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l fo r th e fo llo w in g r e a so n s:

( 1) c o lle g e -p r e p a r a to r y cou rses

had b e e n g i v e n u n w a rra n ted em p h asis a t t h e e x p e n s e o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n e v e n f o r t h o s e g o in g t o c o l l e g e ;

(2 ) th e s o c i a l

p r e s t i g e w h ic h had su rr o u n d e d c o l l e g e - p r e p a r a t o r y c o u r s e s h a s c a u s e d them t o d o m in a te t h e c u r r ic u lu m , e v e n f o r a g r e a t m a j o r i t y n o t g o in g t o c o l l e g e ;

( 3 ) t h e form and o r g a n i z a t i o n

o f t h e c u r r ic u lu m i n t o c o u r s e s , c r e d i t s , m a j o r s , e t c . , a s handed down by t h e c o l l e g e had h in d e r e d t h e d ev elo p m en t o f

^ R ep o rt o f t h e C o n fe r e n c e i n E d u c a t io n o f Y ou th . " G en era l E d u c a t io n and C o l l e g e P r e p a r a t i o n - 11 T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e R e c o r d . **8 : 2 2 5 - 3 8 , J a n u a r y , 19^7*

g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n th e h i g h s c h o o l . The C om m ittee s u g g e s t e d f i v e w orking b a s e s f o r e s t a b l i s h ­ in g a new p a t t e r n o f r e l a t i o n s h i p b e tw e e n t h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l and c o l l e g e s

( 1 ) a u n i t y o f m ajor p u r p o s e s ;

ance o f e q u a lit y o f s t a t u s ;

( 2 ) th e a c c e p t ­

( 3 ) an a g reem en t t h a t th e s e c o n d ­

a r y s c h o o l s h o u ld s e e k t o s e r v e e q u a l l y w e l l a l l A m erican y o u t h ; and (*f) a r e a d i n e s s t o a d m it and t o e x p l o r e r e a l d i f ­ f e r e n c e s i n p o i n t o f view * H igh s c h o o l s a r e f r e e t o wark o u t t h e i r program s o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n when c o l l e g e s w i l l a c c e p t p u p i l s s o l e l y on th e b a s i s o f g r a d u a t io n from an a p p roved h i g h s c h o o l a n d /o r a d e m o n s t r a t io n o f a p t i t u d e and g e n e r a l a b i l i t y t o do c o l l e g e w ork .

A n y th in g more th a n t h i s , t h e C om m ittee d e c l a r e d , w i l l

h a v e a d e t e r m i n a t i v e i n f l u e n c e on th e h i g h - s c h o o l program . Only w here d e f i n i t e c o u r s e s a r e n e e d e d as p r e r e q u i s i t e s f o r h i g h e r s p e c i a l i z a t i o n s h o u ld t h e y be p r o v id e d i n h i g h s c h o o l . I n s t r i k i n g c o n t r a s t t o th e Greek i d e a l o f a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n — an e d u c a t i o n f o r f r e e men— t h e b u rd en o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i n a d e m o c r a c y , a c c o r d in g t o th e C o m m itte e, i s t o make men f r e e .

Commenting on th e p e r s o n a l - s o c i a l g row th o f

th e i n d i v i d u a l i n v i r t u e as th e f i n a l aim o f g e n e r a l e d u ca ­ t i o n , the re p o r t a s s e r t e d : S i n c e a l l o t h e r s y s t e m s b u t d em ocracy b e g i n t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s o f e d u c a t i o n from th e p o i n t o f v ie w o f how e d u c a t i o n may or m ust s e r v e t h e ends o f t h e s t a t e , l e t u s a r b i t r a r i l y and p erh ap s p e r v e r s e l y d e f i n e g e n e r a l

a.......

.

267

e d u c a t i o n i n dem ocracy *s h i g h s c h o o l s and c o l l e g e s i n term s o f how i t may g u id e and f o s t e r th e g ro w th o f th e in d iv id u a l. I n o t h e r wards', l e t us t a l k a b o u t th e end p r o d u c t , t h e f r e e man, n o t b e c a u s e t h i s i s th e s o r t of man we n e e d i n o r d e r t o p r e s e r v e d em ocracy or b e c a u s e i n p r o d u c in g him d em ocracy makes i t s own f u t u r e s e c u r e , b u t b e c a u s e we b e l i e v e t h a t dem ocracy h a s no o t h e r e x c u s e f o r b e in g th a n th e making o f a f r e e man. . . . I f t h e u l t i m a t e aim o f e d u c a t i o n i s a good m a n --n o t a good c i t i z e n or a good d o c t o r or a good s a le s m a n o r a good b r e a d w in n e r , b u t j u s t a good man— t h e f i n a l end o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n i s th e t e a c h i n g o f g o o d n e s s . I n 19*f6- H a r l D o u g la s ^0 d e f i n e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a s t h a t " e d u c a t io n i n d i c a t e d by t h e tim e s and t r e n d s f o r th e g r e a t m ass, I f not a l l in d i v id u a ls , r e g a r d le s s of fu tu r e econ om ic s t a t u s or o c c u p a t i o n ."

I t was op posed t o " s p e c i a l i z ­

ed e d u c a t i o n f o r s p e c i a l g r o u p s 5 e g . , s p e c i a l i z e d v o c a t i o n , c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n , or s p e c i a l i z e d l e i s u r e i n t e r e s t s . " D o u g la s f e l t t h a t t h e f i r s t s t e p i n d e t e r m in in g w hat k in d o f e d u c a t i o n g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld be i n v o l v e d t h e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f th e n e e d s o f s o c i e t y and o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l fo r e d u c a tio n . ted fo r

He f e l t t h a t a l l i n d i v i d u a l s s h o u ld be e d u c a ­

( 1) c iv ic e ffic ie n c y ;

( 2 ) h o m e - l i v i n g and p a r e n th o o d ;

( 3 ) a e s t h e t i c a p p r e c i a t i o n and e n jo y m e n t; e d u c a t i o n th r o u g h o u t l i f e ;

(b) c o n t in u a n c e o f

( 5 ) b ro ad v o c a t i o n a l co m p e te n c e ;

and ( 6 ) m e n t a l , s o c i a l , and p h y s i c a l h e a l t h and s t r e n g t h . Two s i g n i f i c a n t p o i n t s w er e made by D o u g la s .

F ir s t,

50 D o u g l a s , H a r l R. " G en era l E d u c a t io n th e E l e c t i v e S y s te m ." S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 2 : 6 - 8 , March, 19*to.

268 h e a d m it t e d t h a t , s o f a r , i t had n o t b e e n p o s s i b l e t o o rg a n ­ i z e g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f s u b j e c t s o f i n s t r u c ­ t i o n and t h a t p erh a p s i t n e v e r w ould b e p o s s i b l e , d e s p i t e th e f a c t t h a t many s u b j e c t s m ig h t make u n iq u e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n .

S e c o n d , he p o i n t e d o u t t h a t i n t h e

i n d i v i d u a l s t u d e n t program , th e p r o p o r t i o n o f e l e c t i v e s t o r e q u i r e d s u b j e c t s w ould be i n th e f u t u r e s m a l l e r .

He f e l t

t h a t i t was b ecom ing more g e n e r a l l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e n e e d f o r e d u c a t i o n i n m a t h e m a t ic s , s c i e n c e , and t h e s o c i a l s t u d i e s was s o g e n e r a l and s o i m p e r a t i v e t h a t i t was n o t sound t o p e r m it s t u d e n t s t o s u b s t i t u t e e l e c t i v e s u b j e c t s f o r t h e m ost commonly n e e d e d g ro w th i n t h e s e f i e l d s . The t h r e e m o st v i t a l p rob lem s f a c i n g e d u c a t i o n were summ arized i n 19^7 by R o b ert W h ite .

Among t h e s e p r o b le m s ,

W hite i n c l u d e d g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f a s u i t a b l e c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n when h e s a i d : Forward l o o k i n g r e s e a r c h i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n must u s e fo rw a rd lo o k i n g t h i n k i n g i n t h e f i e l d a s a p o i n t of d ep artu re. Forward t h i n k i n g i n s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n a s r e p r e s e n t e d i n su c h exa m p les a s K o o s 1 I n t e g r a t i n g H igh S c h o o l and C o l l e g e . E d u c a t io n f o r A l l A m erican Y o u th , or t h e E ig h t h Year Book o f t h e John Dewey S o c i e t y . The A m erican H igh S c h o o l , among o t h e r , h a s a c o n s e n s u s o f c o n c e r n w i t h c e r t a i n l a r g e and s i g n i f i c a n t l i n e s o f d e v e lo p m e n t or s e c o n d a r y e d u c a t i o n . A l i s t o f t h e s e c o n c e r n s w h ic h h a v e s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n or o r g a n i z a t i o n w ould i n c l u d e s ( 1) t h e f u t u r e p a t t e r n o f o r g a n i z a t i o n o f s e c o n d a r y ed u ca ­ t i o n , ( 2 ) th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a p r o p e r c u r r ic u lu m w i t h p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o th e c o n c e p t o f g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , and ( 3 ) th e d e g r e e and a v a i l a b i l i t y o f s e c o n d a r y

269

e d u c a t i o n t o a l l y o u t h . 51 W illia m Newsom d e f i n e d t h e new c u r r ic u lu m p a t t e r n em ergin g a s t h e r e s u l t o f t h e modern c o n c e p t i o n o f i n t e g r a ­ tio n .

I n h i s " R ecen t Trends i n C u rricu lu m B u i l d i n g i n th e

S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l 11 he a s s e r t e d s An i n t e g r a t e d c u r r ic u lu m means more th a n s im p ly r e ­ l a t i n g some a c t i v i t i e s o f d i f f e r e n t c o u r s e s or e v e n courses w ith in a su b ject f i e l d . C u r ric u lu m i n t e g r a t i o n t o d a y i s th o u g h t o f as a means o f b r e a k in g down a l l s u b j e c t f i e l d b o u n d a r i e s , when t h e c u r r ic u lu m i s a s u b j e c t c u r r i c u l u m , and o r g a n iz in g a l l a c t i v i t i e s and le a r n i n g e x p e r i e n c e s around some b a s i c i d e a or c o n c e p t , or s k i l l s , or b e h a v io r p a t t e r n s t o be a c q u i r e d . The same i s t r u e i f t h e c u r r ic u lu m i s a s o c i a l e x p e r i e n c e c u r r ic u lu m . 52 I . L. K a n d el f e a r e d i n 19*+7 t h a t , a lt h o u g h t h e r e was some j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r t h e h i g h s c h o o l ’ s r e b e l l i o n a g a i n s t c o l l e g e d o m in a t io n s i n c e t h e m a j o r i t y of i t s

y o u th s h o u ld

n o t be s a c r i f i c e d t o t h e m i n o r i t y p la n n in g t o e n t e r c o l l e g e , now t h e d r i f t o f t h e h i g h s c h o o l s away from th e c o l l e g e s was b a s e d on th e a s s u m p t io n t h a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l s s h o u ld become v i r t u a l l y " au ton om ou s. H As. a c o n s e q u e n c e , K a n d e l co m p la in e d th a t s

t? l

W h ite , R o b e r t . " F r o n t ie r s i n E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h i n S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n and O r g a n i z a t i o n . 11 J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h . ^-0:328-39? J a n u a r y , 19^7• S2 ' Newsom, W ill ia m . "R ecent Trends i n C u rriculum B u ild in g in th e Secondary S c h o o l.w^ N a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s B u l l e t i n . V o l. 2 3 , No. 157? Novem ber, 1 9 ^ 3 , ppl 1 1 6 -2 3 *

270 • . . t h e r e i s no c o l l e g e w h ic h has n o t f e l t i t n e c e s s a r y to p r o v id e r e p a ir or re m ed ia l c o u r se s or i n t r o d u c t o r y c o u r s e s b e c a u s e o f t h e in a d e q u a t e p r e p ­ a r a t i o n o f s t u d e n t s i n t h o s e s u b j e c t s w h ich th e h i g h s c h o o l s s t i l l p r o f e s s t o t e a c h . 53 And s t i l l t h e n o n -a c a d e m ic y o u th came t o t h e h i g h s c h o o l and dropped o u t i n g r e a t e r numbers th a n e v e r b e f o r e . D ro p o u ts from g r a d e s one th r o u g h t w e l v e w ere an a c c e p t e d f a c t up u n t i l 1 9 2 5»

B o th t h e e le m e n t a r y and j u n i o r h i g h

s c h o o l s had so im proved t h e i r c u r r i c u l a s i n c e t h e n t h a t th e h o l d i n g power o f t h e s c h o o l was good up th r o u g h t h e n i n t h grade.

B ut d r o p o u ts i n t h e t e n t h , e l e v e n t h , and t w e l f t h

g r a d e s had c o n t i n u a l l y i n c r e a s e d i n th e 1 9 3 0 * s and 1 9 4 0 * s . C h e s t e r Swanson-*4 g i v e s us an i n s i g h t i n t o t h e t y p e o f c u r r ic u lu m r e v i s i o n t h a t was a t te m p te d t o m eet t h e p r o b ­ le m o f d r o p o u t s .

When t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f t h e A lle n t o w n

( P e n n s y l v a n i a ) s c h o o l s was r e v i s e d i n 1 9 4 6 - 4 7 t o m eet th e i m p e r a t i v e n e e d s o f y o u t h and t h e q u e s t i o n was a sk e d a s t o why t h e c h a n g e s were n o t made a lo n g t h e l i n e s o f a c o r e c u r ­ r ic u lu m r a t h e r th a n an a t t a c k a lo n g t h e more t r a d i t i o n a l lin e s ,

t h e r e p l y w a s:

We a re d e a l i n g w it h a h i g h - s c h o o l f a c u l t y where m edian age was a b o u t f i f t y and w here p a t t e r n s had b een s o s e t t h a t we c o n s i d e r e d an y o t h e r method i m p o s s i b l e ^ K a n d e l, I . L . “A n o th er P rob lem o f . A r t i c u l a t i o n . 11 S c h o o l and S o c i e t y . 6 5 * 5 -6 ? J a n u a ry 4 , 1 9 4 7 . -*4 Sw anson, J . C h e s t e r . “B u i l d i n g t h e C u rricu lu m to Meet t h e I m p e r a t iv e N eeds o f Youth.*1 N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y - S c h o o l P r i n c i p a l s B u l l e t i n . 3 1 * 1 ^ 2 - 6 2 , A p r i l , 1947*

271

d u r in g t h e t im e p e r i o d i n w h ic h we hoped t o make e x t e n ­ s i v e ch a n g es and a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r h o l d i n g power / o v e r d r o p o u t s / . We f e e l t h a t a f t e r t h i s program h as b een a c ­ c o m p lis h e d , i t t h e n may be w i s e t o r e o r g a n i z e our h i g h s c h o o l o f f e r i n g s a g a i n a lo n g t h e l i n e s o f a c o r e c u r r i c u ­ lum# I n Jan u ary o f 19^9 W illia m G. B r i n g , ^ p r o f e s s o r o f e d u c a t i o n a t N o r t h w e s te r n U n i v e r s i t y , s t a t e d t h a t , a f t e r a s u r v e y o f p u b l i c h ig h s c h o o l s f o r t h e O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , t h e m ain r e a s o n why o v e r a m i l l i o n A m erican b o y s and g i r l s d rop o u t o f h ig h s c h o o l b e f o r e g r a d u a t i o n i s t h a t th e h i g h - s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a a r e n o t i n t e r e s t i n g , s a t i s f y i n g , and c h a l l e n g i n g , and t h a t t h e n a t i o n c o u ld i l l a f f o r d t h i s p r o d i g i o u s w a s t e o f human r e s o u r c e s . I n 19^-8 M orton N a c h l a s ^ made rlA C r i t i c a l S tu d y o f Two C o n f l i c t i n g P r o p o s a ls f o r R e o r g a n iz in g S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n 68 i n t h e N a t i o n a l A s s o c i a t i o n o f S e c o n d a r y S c h o o l P r in c ip a ls B u lle t i n .

The a u th o r s e t up s e v e n c r i t e r i a b a s e d

upon th e p r o g r e s s i v e p o l i c y o f e d u c a t i o n f o r e v a l u a t i n g a h i g h - s c h o o l program and a p p l i e d t h e s e c r i t e r i a t o t h e s e c o n d ­ a r y programs s u g g e s t e d b y t h e Harvard R ep o rt and t h e Educa­ t i o n a l P o l i c i e s C om m ission .

The Harvard R ep o rt was downed

on e v e r y c o u n t a n d , a s f o r t h e E d u c a t i o n a l P o l i c i e s ^ B r in k , W illia m G. !,W hat1s Wrong w i t h t h e C u r ric u lu m ? 11 S c h o o l L i f e . 3 2 ; 2 ^ -2 7 > J a n u a r y , 19^9# ^ N a c h l a s , M orton. "A C r i t i c a l S tu d y o f Two C o n f l i c t i n g P r o p o s a l s f o r R e o r g a n iz in g S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t io n . 11 N a tio n a l A s s o c ia t io n o f Second a rv -S c h o o l P r in c ip a ls B u l l e t i n . V o l . 2 3 , No. 1 ? 7 , November, 19*+8, p p. 2 9 - 3 8 .

272

C o m m issio n ’ s program , t h e a u th o r s t a t e d t h a t ’’f o r him and t o him i t i s

t h e b e t t e r o f t h e tw o .

I t i s d em ocracy i n a c ­

t i o n , dem ocracy i n t h o u g h t , and d em ocracy i n c o n t e n t . ” H arold S p e a r s came ou t w i t h a 19^8 e d i t i o n o f h i s The Em erging H ig h - S c h o o l C u r r ic u lu m , w h ich had made i t s o r i g i n a l a p p e a ra n ce i n 19^1 u nd er t h e t i t l e E d u c a t io n i n A m erican L i f e .

o f Secondary

The l a t e r e d i t i o n c la im e d t h a t

t h e A m erican s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l was t u r n i n g t o u n f i n i s h e d b u s i n e s s — t o t h e t a s k o f r e m o d e lin g t h a t w as s o s u d d e n ly i n ­ t e r r u p t e d by w ar. Spears d e fin e d g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n as r e p r e s e n tin g : . . . t h a t g ro w th and d e v e l o p i n g e v e r y o n e must have i n o rd er t o l i v e i n t e l l i g e n t l y i n h i s c u l t u r e . I t d o es n o t r e p r e s e n t a common b ody o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , or e v e n e x p e r i e n c e s and a c t i v i t i e s , w h ic h w ould be throw n over' t h e t o t a l s e c o n d a r y - s c h o o l p o p u l a t i o n a s a c l o a k . Such a common c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i s n o t t o b e c o n f u s e d a s an acad em ic r e v i e w o f a number o f t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s u b j e c t f i e l d s , a s a r e v ie w o f t h e e x p e r i e n c e s o f t h e r a c e . I n s t e a d , i t b e g in s w it h th e le a r n e r i n h i s p r e se n t s i t ­ u a tio n . P r o v id e d w i t h an ey e t o t h e k n o w le d g e s o f th e i n d i v i d u a l and t h e g row th p r o c e s s t h a t modern p s y c h o lo g y h a s t o o f f e r , t h e c o r e or t h e e x p e r i e n c e c u r r ic u lu m , a s g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n , w ou ld be d i s t i n c t i v e f o r e a c h p u p i l . 57 The a u th o r f e l t t h a t g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o u ld b e s t be a c h i e v e d b y a f u s i o n o f t h e e le m e n t s o f t h e c o r e c u r r ic u lu m and t h e e x p e r i e n c e c u r r ic u lu m . I f t h e term c o r e c u r r ic u lu m i s e v e r t o become a c o n c e p t w it h a more or l e s s d e f i n i t e m ean ing f o r 31 PP*

B o sto n , Ginn and

Snedden, D avid. Problems o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . Houghton M i f f li n Company, 1917 • 333 PP •

New York,

Snedden, D avid. S ch o o l E du cations : S o c io lo g ic a l S ou rces o f v a lu e s . New York C ity , Teachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s it y , 1 9 3 0 . l8'7 pp. S p e a rs, H arold. Secondary E d u cation in American L i f e . York, American Book Company, 1 9 4 1 . 409 PP* S p e a rs, H arold. The Emerging H igh-School Curriculum . York, The American Book Company, 1948. 416 pp.

New New

S pencer, H erb ert. E d u ca tio n : I n t e l l e c t u a l . Moral and P h y s ic a l. London, J . M. Dent & S ons, L t d " 2 o 3 PP* S t i l e s , Dan. High S ch o o ls fo r Tomorrow. and B r o th e r s, 1 9 4 6 . 212 pp.

New York, Harper

335

Stoddard, G eorge. F r o n tie r s in E d u ca tio n . S tan ford U n iv e r s ity , S ta n fo rd U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1946. 41 pp. Thayer, V. T., et al. Reorganizing Secondary Education. York, D. Appleton-C entury Company, 1939* 4&3 pp.

Weldon, J . E ., t r a n s . The P o l i t i c s o f A r i s t o t l e . The M acm illan "Company, 1 8 9 2 . 4 0 7 PP*

New

London,

W rig h tsto n e, Jacob W. A p p ra isa l o f E xperim ental High S ch ool P r a c t i c e s . New York, T eachers C o lle g e , Columbia U n iv e r s ity , 1 9 3 6 . 194 pp. Yoder, Dale• Personnel Management and Industrial Relations. New York, Prentiee-Hall, 1943. o48 pp.

B.

PERIODICAL LITERATURE

A lb e r ty , H arold. “B rin gin g th e Gap betw een G eneral E du cation and V o c a tio n a l E d u cation i n th e High S c h o o l.” The E d u ca tio n a l Forum. 1 3 :2 1 1 -1 7 , January, 1949. (Anonymous.) “E d u ca tio n a l Ju n k .” 6 :1 9 9 -2 0 0 , l a y , 1930.

The High S ch ool T each er.

A pple, Joe A. “Some I m p lic a tio n s o f C erta in Modern E d u ca tio n a l C hanges.11 E du cation A d m in istra tio n and S u p e r v isio n . 2 3 :2 5 5 -6 2 , A p r il, 1937. A rnold, W illiam E . “Changes in th e Secondary S ch ool to Meet th e Needs o f A l l Youth." The E d u ca tio n a l O utlook. 15* 1 4 7 -4 9 , November, 1940. Babson, H elen C o r l i s s . “The Core C urriculum .” C a lifo r n ia J ou rn al o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 0 :1 4 5 -4 8 , February, 1935* Blumberg, P h ilip S . “G eneral E d u cation i n our H^gh S ch o o ls? ” Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 4 :1 -3 , A p r il-J u n e , 1949. B o b b itt, F r a n k lin . “G eneral E d u cation in th e High S c h o o l.” S ch o o l R eview . 4 3 :2 5 7 -6 6 , A p r il, 1935* B o b b itt, F r a n k liu . “The Postwar Curriculum : The F u n c tio n a l V ersus th e Academic P la n .” The S ch ool R eview . 53*77-^4, February, 1945. Bode, Boyd H. “The Harvard R e p o r t.” The Journal o f Higher E d u ca tio n . X V II:1 -8 , January, 1940.

336 B r ig g s . Thomas H. “C a v ilin g a t Com placency.” J u n io r -S e n io r High S ch o o l C lea rin g H ouse. 6 : 7 0 - 8 3 , O ctober, 1931• B rin k , W illiam G. “What's Wrong w ith the Curriculum ?11 S ch ool L i f e . 3 2 :2 4 -2 7 , January, 194-9* B u t le r , N ich o la s Murray. ”I n s t r u c t io n , Not E d u c a tio n .” Secondary E d u ca tio n . 6 :4 3 -4 4 , January, 1937* Chapin, P. S tu a r t . “The S o c ia l H erita g e R o lls Up on the Backs o f the S c h o o ls .” S ch o o l and S o c i e t y . 3 8 :2 4 8 -4 9 , August 1 9 , 1933* Conant, James B.. “The S tr u c tu r e o f American S o c i e t y .” C o lle g e R ecord. 4 7 :1 4 5 -6 1 , December, 194-5* Cox, P h i l i p . “Must the High S ch o o l S u rv iv e? ” Forum. 2 : 3 9 , November, 1937*

Teachers

The E d u ca tio n a l

Cummings, Frank L. “P r a c tic e s in F u sion o f S u b je c t M atter in V arious C o u r se s.” C a lifo r n ia Journal o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 0 :1 3 -1 3 , O ctober, 1934-* Curry, W illiam B. “E du cation V ersus C o lle g e Entrance R equire­ m en ts.” J u n io r -S e n io r High S ch o o l C lea rin g House. 5 :3 5 1 54, 1931* D a v is, C a lv in 0 . “Tomorrow1s C urriculum .” S c h o o ls . 1 9 :1 7 -1 3 , January, 1937*

The N a tio n 1s

DeBoer, John J . “N a tio n a l P lanning fo r a U n ifie d Program.” The E n g lish J o u r n a l. 2 9 :2 8 1 -8 9 , A p r il, 1940. Demos, R aphael. “Mr. Bode and the Harvard Report on E d u c a tio n .” The Journal o f Higher E d u ca tio n . 1 7 :6 2 , February, 1 9 4 6 ^ D evane, W illiam C lyd e. “American E du cation a f t e r th e War.” The Yale R eview . 3 3 :3 4 -3 6 , Autumn, 1943. Dewey, John. “P r e sid e n t H u tch ins' P rop osals to Remake Higher E d u c a tio n .” S o c ia l F r o n t ie r . January, 1937. Doane, Donald C• "The Needs o f Y outh.” R ecord. 4 3 :6 6 1 -6 2 , May, 194-2.

T eachers C o lleg e

D o u g la ss, Harl R. “ G eneral E du cation the E le c t iv e S y stem .” Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 2 :6 -8 , February-M arch, 1946.

337 D o y le, Henry G. "Concerning 'C o n te n t-S u b je e ts . 1,1 E d u ca tio n , 1 0 :2 4 5 -5 4 , December, 1 9 4 1 .

Secondary

F o s t e r , Emery H. “High S ch o o l E nrollm ents I n c r e a se . 11 L i f e . 23*77, November, 1937-

S ch o o l

F r e d e r ic k , 0* I . , and L u c i l l e F a r q u e a r . “P rob lem s o f L i f e . 11 S c h o o l R e v ie w . 4 1 : 3 3 7 - 4 1 , May, 193$ and 42:515-19? J u n e , 1 9 3 s .

F u rth , A lb ert L.

" I t ' s a Wonderful High S c h o o l— Or Is It?"

The P h i D e lt a K ansan. 3 1 : 1 7 0 - 7 4 , D ecem ber, 1949* Gars t i n , L. H. " N e o - S c h o la s t ic is m i n H igh S c h o o l E d u c a tio n ." The E d u ca tio n a l Forum. 13*359-65? March, 1949* G aum nitz, W a lter H. " 'Road B l o c k s 1 t o L ife -A d ju s tm e n t E d u c a tio n ." S c h o o l L i f e . 3 2 : 1 9 - 2 0 , N ovem ber, 1 9 4 9 .

Gordon, M elvin A. "Current C onfusion Concerning the C urricu­ la1131*” S ch o o l and S o c i e t y . 33*729-31? May 3C? 1931* H a g ie, C. E . " T ra d itio n Cramps th e Curriculum ." E d u ca tio n . May 2 5 , 1931? PP* 551-52. H a ll, D. M. " S p e c ia liz a t io n F ir s t ." 3 2 , A p r il, 1938.

Jou rn al o f

The N a tio n 's S c h o o ls . 21:

H a m ilto n , Aymer J . "Some H azards i n S u b j e c t - F u s io n P r o j e c t s ." C a l i f o r n i a J o u r n a l o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a tio n , 1 0 : 2 8 1 - 8 2 ,

A p r il, 193 5^

~

H a r t, F rank W. "The Im p oten cy o f th e S o c i a l S t u d ie s a s Now T a u g h t." C a l i f o r n i a Q u a r te r ly o f S e c o n d a r y E d u c a tio n , 1 0 :8 7 -8 9 , J a n u a r y , 193*^

H art, Frank W ., "A New D eal in Secondary E ducation." C a lifo r n ia Q u arterly o f Secondary E d u ca tio n , 4 : 3 3 1 - 3 6 , June, 1933* H a sty , C. G erald. " S u b je c t-c e n te r e d Curriculum ." H ouse, 2 3 :5 2 7 -2 8 , May, 1948.

The C learin g

H errick , T heral T. "Common L earn in gs: The What, Why, and How.? The C lea rin g H ouse. 2 3 :5 2 9 -3 3 , May, 1§49. Hunt, R. L. "Why a Dual Program in th e High School?" S ch o o l E x e c u tiv e . 57*288-89, January, 1938.

The

338

H u tch in s, Robert M. “E ducation and Democracy . 11 S ch ool and S o c i e t y . 6 9 * 4 2 5 -2 8 , June 1 8 , I 9 4 9 . , Judd, C harles H. “What Is G eneral E d u cation ?11 The E ducation in d e x . 3 : 1 - 3 , January, 1938# Kandel, I . L. “Another Problem in A r t ic u la t io n . 11 S ch ool and S o c i e t y . 6 5 * 5 -6 , January 4 , 1947. K andel, I . L. “Contemporary H isto ry fo r Meaner I n t e l l i g e n c e s . 11 S ch o o l and S o c i e t y . 6 9 :4 2 8 -2 9 , June 1 8 , 1949• K efauver, Grayson N. “What Types o f Core Curriculum I s A ccep tab le f o r Secondary S c h o o ls? ” C a lifo r n ia Jou rn al o f Secondary E d u ca tion . 1 0 :1 4 2 -4 5 , F ebruary, 1935* Keyhoe, Donald. 1950.

“The F ly in g Saucers Are R e a l.” True. January,

Krey, A. C. “M ain tain in g Standards in Secondary S c h o o ls .” Secondary E d u ca tio n . 5*67-70, March, 1936. LaBrant, Lou L . “The F a lla c y o f ‘M odified C o u r s e s .1” E d u ca tio n a l R esearch B u l l e t i n . 15*141-43, May 1 3 , 1936. Lange, E m il. “S ig n s o f Curriculum P rogress in High S ch o o ls in C a lif o r n ia .” C a lifo r n ia Jou rn al o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 0 :9 -1 2 , O ctober, 1934. “L ife Adjustm ent fo r Y ou th .” 1949.

S ch o o l L i f e . 3 2 : 4 0 - 4 2 . December. — 7

M ackenzie, Gordon H ., and Hubert Evans. “The C h allen ge o f G eneral E du cation fo r th e Secondary S c h o o ls .” Jou rn al o f G eneral E d u ca tio n . 1 :6 4 -7 1 , O ctober, 1946. M a rsh all, James. “P la t o , Buddha, and P r e sid e n t H u tc h in s.” Harpers M agazine. 1 8 3 :2 7 - 3 5 , June, 1941. M erideth, George H. “A Core Curriculum fo r Secondary S c h o o ls .” C a lifo r n ia Jou rn al o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 0 :1 3 9 -4 2 , 5

McGrath, E a rl J . “E du cation in 1949* Review and Recommenda­ t i o n s . ” S ch o o l L i f e . 3 2 *72-73? February, 1950. McGrath, E a rl J . “F a cto rs In flu e n c in g th e Development o f G eneral E d u c a tio n .” A s s o c ia tio n o f American C o lle g e s B u l l e t i n . 2 1 :5 6 6 -8 6 , December, 1945.

339

McGrath, E a rl J . "The G eneral E du cation Movement: An E d it o r ia l." The Jou rn al o f G eneral E d u cation . 1 :3 -8 , O ctober, 1 9 4 6 . McGrath, G. D. "T raining Program fo r T each ers." E d u cation . 1 4 :4 -6 , January, 1950.

Secondary

M cLaughlin, Samuel J . “What S h a ll We S a lv a g e? ” L ead ersh ip . 1 :2 6 7 -7 3 , February, 1944.

E d u c a tio n a l

McMullin, T. E. "Who Are th e E d u c a tio n a lly U nadjusted Youth and What Are T heir Needs?" The E d u ca tio n a l O utlook. 1 5 :1 1 7 -2 4 , November, 1940. Melbo, I r v in g R. “G raduating S e n io r s (High S ch o o l) Informa­ t io n on Contemporary Problem s, S o c ia l P o l i t i c a l , and Econom ic. S o c ia l S t u d ie s . 2 7 : 8 2 - 8 6 , January, 1 9 3 6 . R eport o f th e C onference on E du cation o f ' Youth. "General E ducation and C o lleg e P re p a r a tio n ." Teachers C o lle g e Record, 4 8 :2 2 5 -3 8 , January, 1947* S cro g g s, S c h i l l e r , "Some F a cto rs in G eneral E d u cation ." Jou rn al o f Higher E d u cation . 1 0 :1 4 7 -1 5 2 , Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , 1939* Sm ith, W illiam A. " In te g r a tio n : P o t e n t ia ll y th e Most S ig n if ic a n t Forward S tep in th e H isto r y o f American Secondary E d u cation ." C a lifo r n ia Jou rn al o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 1 0 :2 6 9 -7 2 , A p r il, 1935* S p a u ld in g , F ra n cis T. "E ducational Needs o f th e Non-Academic P u p ils ." The E d u ca tio n a l O utlook. 15*57-53, November, 1940. S p ea rs, H arold. " Im p lica tio n s fo r P o st War E d u cation o f G eneral E d u cation : Secondary L e v e l." The North C en tral A s s o c ia tio n Q u a rterly . 1 9 : 2 6 0 - 6 9 , January, 19457 Stew ard, Hugh H. " D iffe r e n tia te d Curriculums and T heir E f f e c t on M ain tain in g Standards in th e High S ch o o l." Secondary E d u ca tio n . 5*71-75, March, 1936. S tro n g , M elvin . "General E d u cation in th e Gore Course." The C learin g House. 1 9 :2 1 1 -1 6 , December, 1944. S tudebaker, J . W. "Education fo r th e E ig h ty -F iv e Per Cent.", The E ducation D ig e s t . 3 * 37-39, M arch,, 193^.

340

TenenbauM, Samuel. " I t 111 Come in Handy Some Day llf E d u cation D ig e s t . 6:41-4-3, November, 1940.

The

Thayer, V. T. "Current Trends in th e Development o f G eneral E d u c a tio n .1* E d u ca tion al R ecordr 2 0 :3 7 3 -9 4 , J u ly , 1939. Thomas, Frank W. "What I*s a Core Curriculum and Why?" C a lifo r n ia Journal o f Secondary E d u cation . 1 0 :1 3 7 -3 9 , F ebruary, 1935* Upjohn, H. S . "Y ita Nuova." C a lifo r n ia Journal o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 10:152-55* February, 1935* "Values and Shortcom ings o f S u b je e t-F u sio n P r o je c ts : A Symposium." Ca1 if o r n ia Journa1 o f Secondary E d u cation . 1 0 :2 6 9 -3 0 2 , A p r il, 1935. Wakeham, G. "Everybody Should Know E v ery th in g ." S o c ie t y . 6 1 :3 7 9 -8 0 , June, 1945*

S ch ool and

Washburne, C a rle to n . "The Case fo r S u b je c ts in th e Curricu­ lum." The Jou rn al o f th e N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia t io n . 2 6 :1 , January, 1937* Weeks, I . D. "Another E d u ca tio n a l Myth." 6 3 :3 2 1 -2 2 , May 4 , 1946.

S ch ool and S o c ie t y .

W hite, R ob ert. " F ro n tiers in E d u ca tio n a l R esearch in Second­ ary S ch o o l A d m in istra tio n and O rg a n iza tio n ." Journal o f E d u ca tio n a l R esea rch . 40:328-39* January, 1947. W illia m s, L. A. "Ghosts o f the C lo is t e r s R e tr e a tin g ." C a lifo r n ia Journal o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . 10:19-23* O ctober, 1934. W illia m s, L. A. " S h a ll We Have a Core Curriculum?" C a lifo r ­ n ia Jou rn al o f Secondary E d u cation . 1 0 :1 4 8 -5 2 , February, 1935. W oodruff, C. H. "Values and Shortcom ings o f S u b je c t-F u sio n P r o j e c ts ." C a lifo r n ia Journal o f Secondary E d u cation . 1 0 :2 7 9 -8 1 , A p r il, 1935* Young, F lo ren ce M. "Causes fo r L oss o f I n t e r e s t in High S ch ool S u b je c ts a s Reported by 651 C o lleg e S tu d e n ts." Journal o f E d u ca tio n a l R esearch . 2:110-15* February, 1932. C.

PUBLICATIONS OF LEARNED SOCIETIES

341

American C ou n cil on Education* The American Youth Commis­ s io n . What the High S ch o o ls Ought to T each. W ashington, D. C ., American C ouncil on E d u cation , 1940. American C ouncil o f Learned S o c i e t i e s , Committees on Educa­ t i o n a l Trends in th e H u m anities. L ib e r a l E du cation and Democracy. P r in c e to n , N. J . , 1940~ (U npublished, c o n f id e n t ia l, p relim in a ry r e p o r t .) The C arnegie F oundation fo r th e Advancement o f T eaching, Annual R ep ort. 1906. The C arnegie Foundation fo r th e Advancement o f T each in g. Twenty-Eight Annual Report o f th e P r e sid e n t and T reasu rer. 1933. ; ~ C a sw ell, H o l l i s , e d . "The American High S ch ools I t s Re­ s p o n s i b i l i t y and O pportunity." E igh th Year Book o f th e John Dewey S o c ie t y . New York, Harper and B r o th e r s, 1946. Committee on th e O r ie n ta tio n o f Secondary E du cation o f th e Department o f Secon d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls . " Issu e o f Secondary E d u cation ," B u ll e t in o f The Department o f S econ d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls , No.~l>9, January, 1936, V o l. 2 0 . Committee on th e O r ie n ta tio n o f Secondary E du cation o f th e Department o f S econ d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls . "Functions o f Secondary E d u cation ." B u l le t in o f th e Department o f Secondary-School P r in c ip a ls . No. 64, XXI, January, 1937. Counts, George S . The S en ior High S ch ool Curriculum . Supplem entary E d u ca tio n a l Monographs, No. 2 9 , C hicago, U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago, Department o f E d u cation , 192o. E u rich , A lv in C. "A Renewed Emphasis upon G eneral E d u cation ." T h ir ty -E ig h th Year Book o f the N a tio n a l S o c ie ty fo r th e Study o f E d u ca tio n . Part I I . B loom ington, I l l i n o i s , The P u b lic S ch ool P u b lish in g Company, 1939. F r a se r , J . Report by Rev. J . F raser on th e Common School System in th e U n ited S ta te s and o f th e P rovin ces o f Upper and Lower Canada. S ch ools In q u iry Commission, I , 18 6 4 . Jacobson, Paul B. "How Can Curriculum to Serve th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f B u l l e t in . No. 1 6 7 . V o l.

We O rganize th e H igh-School L ife Problems o f Youth." Secon d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls 34, January, 1950.

342

Harvard U n iv e r s ity . Committee on th e O b je c tiv e s o f A G eneral E ducation in a Free S o c ie t y . G eneral E du cation in a Free S o c ie t y . Cambridge, M a ssa ch u setts, Harvard U n iv e r s ity P r e s s , 1945* H i l l , Henry H. r,Changes in th e C ontent o f G eneral E ducation in th e War and Post-War P e r io d s. War and Post-War R e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f American S c h o o ls . P roceed in gs o f th e T w elfth Annual C onference o f P u b lic and P r iv a te S c h o o ls , C hicago, The U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago, 1943. The Kansas Program fo r th e Improvement o f I n s t r u c t io n s S u ggested Guidance and M a te r ia ls in D evelopin g a Core Program fo r Grades 1 -1 4 . Topeka, K ansas, B u l le t in Ho. 5 , A p r il, 1939. Koopman, G. R ob ert. "Removing B a r r ie r s to th e New C u rriculum .,f N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f S econ d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls B u l l e t i n . 33*133-3&, A p r il, 1949. M ackenzie, Gordon N. "Youth and th e High S c h o o l.11 T h ir ty E ig h th Year Book o f th e N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n fo r th e Study o f E d u ca tio n . Part I I , B loom ington, I l l i n o i s , The P u b lic S ch o o l P u b lish in g Company, 1939* N a ch la s, Morton. nA C r i t ic a l Study o f Two C o n flic tin g P ro p o sa ls fo r R eorgan izin g Secondary E d u cation . n N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f S econ d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls B u l l e t i n . No. 157. V o l. 23, November, 194BT N a tio n a l C ou n cil o f T eachers o f E n g lis h , Curriculum Com­ m is s io n . An E xp erien ce Curriculum in E n g lis h . New York, D. A ppleton-C entury Company, 1935* N a tio n a l E d u cation A s s o c ia tio n , E d u ca tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission. E du cation fo r A l l American Y outh. W ashington, D'. C ., N a tio n a l E d u cation A s s o c ia tio n , 1944. N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia tio n . E d u ca tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission. L earning th e Wavs o f Democracy. W ashington, D. C ., N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia t io n , 1940. N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia tio n . E d u ca tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission. The Purpose o f E d u cation in American Democracy. W ashington, D. C ., N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , 1935. N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia tio n .

"Report o f th e Committee

343 on C o lle g e E ntrance R eq u irem en ts," P roceed in gs and A d d resses. N a tio n a l E ducation A s s o c ia tio n , C hicago,

15991

N a tio n a l E d u cation A s s o c ia t io n . E d u ca tio n a l P o l i c i e s Commission. The S tru ctu re and th e A d m in istra tio n o f E du cation in American Democracy. W ashington, D. C ., N a tio n a l E du cation A s s o c ia tio n , 1 9 3 8 . N a tio n a l S o c ie t y fo r th e Study o f E d u cation .

"General

E d u c a tio n i n th e A m erican C o lle g e ." T h ir t y - E ig h t h Y ear Book o f t h e N a t io n a l S o c i e t y f o r th e S tu d y o f E d u c a tio n .

1939. Newsom, W illia m . "Recent Trends in Curriculum B u ild in g in th e Secondary S ch o o l." N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Secon d ary-S ch ool P r in c ip a ls B u l le t in . No. 2 3 , V o l. 2 3 , November, 1 948. P r e s id e n t’ s R esearch Committee on S o c ia l T rends. R ecent S o c ia l Trends in the U n ited S t a t e s . Report o f th e P r e s i d e n t’ s R esearch Committee on S o c ia l T rends. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c ., I* S to u t, John E . The Development o f High S ch ool C u rricula in the North C en tra l S t a t e s from 1 S 60 to 191 0 . Supplement­ a ry E d u ca tio n a l Monograph No. I*?, The U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago, 1921. Swanson, J . C h este r. "B u ild in g tike Curriculum to Meet th e Im p erative Needs o f Youth." N a tio n a l A s s o c ia tio n o f Secondary-School P r in c ip a ls B u l l e t i n . 3 1 s1 5 2 -6 2 , A p r il, 1947. U n ited S ta te s Bureau o f E d u cation . C ardinal P r in c ip le s o f Secondary E d u ca tio n . B u l le t in , 1918, No. 3 5 . U n ited S t a t e s O ffic e o f E d u cation . " S t a t i s t i c s o f P u b lic High S c h o o ls, 1937-38*" Chapter V. B ie n n ia l Survey o f E du cation in th e U n ited S t a t e s • B u l le t in , 1940, No. 2 . U n iv e r s ity o f M ichigan. S o c ia l Trends and Curriculum Re­ v i s i o n . Monograph No. 1 o f th e S ch ool o f E d u cation , U n iv e r s ity o f M ichigan, 1935* D.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

J o h n s to n , G e r a ld in e .

"The E d u c a t io n a l I m p l ic a t io n o f

344

O ccupational C hange." U npublished M a ster's t h e s i s , U n iv e r s ity o f C hicago. Lurry, L u c i l l e . "Home Economies in th e Core Program a t th e Secondary S ch ool L e v e l." U npublished D o cto ra l d i s s e r t a ­ t i o n , Ohio S ta te U n iv e r s ity , 1949* P erry, Fay Van N ess. "The Development and E v a lu a tio n o f an A d ju stiv e C o lle g e Program in G eneral E ducation fo r A cad em ically L ess Prom ising S tu d e n ts." U npublished D o cto r’ s d i s s e r t a t io n , The U n iv e r s ity o f Southern C a lifo r n ia , Los A n g e le s, 194?. E.

NEWSPAPERS

Los A n geles Tim es. March 2 0 , 1949. Los A n geles Tim es. January 1, 1950.

APPENDIX

APPENDIX A SUGGESTED PROBLEM AREAS APPROPRIATE FOR A GORE PROGRAM IN THE HIGH SCHOOL These problem areas su g g ested as appropriate fo r th e core program th e high sch ool were developed i n r e la tio n s h ip t o a s e t o f c r i t e r i a , a rev iew o f th e l it e r a t u r e over a p e r io d o f te n y ea rs (1938-ij.8 ) , and th e judgments o f t h i r t y p eople i n th e f i e l d o f core curriculum developm ent. The c r i t e r ia used in developing the problem a r e a s, to g e th e r w ith th e concept o f Gore and Problem Area as used i n t h i s c o n te x t, fo llo w : CRITERIA : A problem area should: 1.

Represent p e r s is t e n t problems o f a p e r s o n a l-s o c ia l nature common t o a d o le sc e n ts i n our c u ltu r e ,

2.

Be adapted to th e m aturity l e v e l o f th e group,

3*

Provide ex p erien ces fo r growth in term s o f such v a lu e s as to le r a n c e , s o c i a l s e n s i t i v i t y , c o o p e r a tiv e n e ss, c iv i c competence, a e s t h e t ic a p p r e c ia tio n s , s e l f - d i r e c t i o n , c r i t i c a l th in k in g*

k*

Encourage th e u se o f th e p rob lem -solvin g techn iqu e to attack problems in a H areas o f liv in g *

m

5>*

Provide opp ortu nity f o r c o o p era tiv e planning in th e group, i . e « , te a c h e r -p u p il, te a c h e r -te a c h e r , p u p ilp u p il planning*

6*

Provide op p ortu n ity fo r g e n e r a liz a tio n beyond the exp erien ce o f a d o le sc e n ts and t h e ir own d a ily liv e s *

?•

Provide opp ortu nity fo r m eaningful d ir e c t ex p erien ces and en rich in g v ic a r io u s e x p erien ces through a wide v a r ie ty o f r eso u rc es i n men, m a te r ia ls and techn iqu es*

8,

Provide fo r th e in t e g r a t io n o f knowledge through th e use o f su b je c t m atter as i t bears upon th e problem a t hand*

9*

Provide ex p erien ces -which develop c o n tin u ity i n th e em otion al, i n t e l l e c t u a l and p h y s ic a l a sp e c ts o f the lea rn in g process*

10.

Provide op p ortu n ity fo r th e guidance fu n c tio n s o f te a c h in g , both in d iv id u a l and group, t o become an in t e g r a l p a rt of th e curriculum .

11.

Extend th e i n t e r e s t s o f in d iv id u a ls in to th e v a riou s s p e c ia l- in t e r e s t a r ea s.

12*

Lead to oth er m eaningful le a r n in g e x p erien ces— su g g est new problem a r e a s. DEFINITIONS

COREs Core i s th a t part o f the curriculum to be req u ired o f a l l stu d en ts on th e ground th a t i t p rovid es f o r th e v a lu e s , understandings, and s k i l l s needed by a l l c i t i z e n s . The core c o n s is t s o f broad pre-planned problem a r ea s, from which are s e le c t e d le a r n in g ex p erien ces i n term s o f th e p s y c h o b io lo g ic a l and s o c i e t a l n eed s, problem s, and in t e r e s t s o f stu d e n ts. PROBLEM AREAs A problem area i s a broad pre-planned area o f l i v i n g i n which stu d en ts u s u a lly have problem s. These areas rep resen t th e b a s ic c u r r ic u la r str u c tu r e o f th e s c h o o l. Problem areas are s e t up by th e f a c u lt y o f a sch o o l in terms o f a stucfer o f p sy c h o b io lo g ic a l and s o c i e t a l n eed s, problem s, and i n t e r e s t s o f stu d e n ts. These problem areas are a p art o f a d o c to r a l study in secondary edu­ c a tio n . They were prepared by L u c ile Lurry under th e d ir e c t io n o f th e w r ite r . They are p resen ted in t h i s form in th e hope th a t th e y w i l l be o f value t o stu d e n ts, a d m in istra to r s, and curriculum workers who are concerned w ith th e problem o f develop in g a core curriculum i n th e high school* I t i s not exp ected , o f c o u r se, th a t th e y would be appropriate f o r a l l sch ools* Rather th e y are o ffe r e d as a su g g e stiv e approach t o th e problem* Each sc h o o l would need to develop i t s own curriculum str u c ­ tu r e i n l i g h t o f i t s p a r tic u la r s it u a t io n .

Harold A lb erty The Ohio S ta te U n iv e r sity March, 19h9

_PROBIEMS OF SCHOOL LIVINGS How can a d o le sc e n ts get most out o f th e ir sc h o o l exp erien ces? In clu d e such problems ass (a) Making fr ie n d s w ith th e p eop le i n t h e i r c la s s and o th ers in th e sc h o o l, e . g . , other stu d e n ts, a d m in istra to rs, te a c h e r s , c u sto d ia n s, c l e r i c a l workers; (b) Understanding th e c o n trib u tio n s o f each of th e se people to sch o o l l i f e ; (c ) G etting acquainted w ith the p h y sic a l a sp e c ts o f th e sch o o l; (d) Understanding th e o p p o r tu n itie s o ffe r e d by th e sch o o l and how th e se can b e st be u sed by stu d e n ts; ( e ) E xperiencing th e v a lu e s o f co o p era tiv e p la n n in g -te a c h e r -p u p il, p u p il-p u p il and sm all and la r g e group plan ning; ( f ) D eveloping s e l f - d i r e c t i o n through self-govern m en t; (g ) D eveloping d e sir a b le hom e-school r e la tio n s h ip s ; (h) E valu atin g , se r v in g , improving th e sch o o l to g e th e r ; ( i ) D eveloping a r e la tio n s h ip w ith th e sc h o o l which w i l l continu e a f t e r graduation; ( j ) H elping to fo rm u late, execu te and e v a lu a te o b je c tiv e s o f th e sc h o o l. PROBLEMS OF SELF-UNDERSTANDING: How can we know more about o u rselv es? In clu de such problems a ss (a ) Understanding my body; (b) Improving . my p erson al appearance; (c ) R e a liz in g my str e n g th s and w eaknesses; (d) Gaining in s ig h t in t o my own b eh a v io r, e . g . , understanding th e lo n g in g s, u r g e s, d e s ir e s which d riv e me t o a c tio n ; (e ) Achieving in c r e a s in g ly mature r e la tio n s h ip s w ith th e o p p o site sex; ( f ) G etting along w ith Dad, Mother, s ib lin g s and age-m ates; (g ) Overcoming i n ­ f e r i o r i t y and a d ju stin g to decrease a g g r essio n or s e lf - p r o t e c t iv e n e s s ; (h) Changing environment and i t s e f f e c t in my l i f e ; ( i ) Doing th e r ig h t th in g a t th e r ig h t tim e; ( j ) Making and carryin g out plan s fo r improving my p e r s o n a lity ; (k) Knowing where I can go to g e t h elp w ith my problems; (1 ) E xperiencing th e use o f th e prob lem -solvin g method in d ea lin g w ith in d iv id u a l and group problems; (m) Gaining some in ­ s ig h t in to th e problems o f fe a r and in s e c u r it y . PROBLEMS OF FINDING VALUES BY WHICH WE LIVE: What means most to us i n l i f e and why? In clu d e such problems a s: (a) C onsidering what I v a lu e most and why; (b) E xploring th e variou s sou rces o f our v a lu e s; (c ) Studying th e g rea t r e lig io n s ; (d ) Understanding th e b a s ic t e n e t s o f th e major c o n f lic t in g id e o lo g ie s ; (e ) A chieving v a lu e s we ch erish i n a democracy; ( f ) D eveloping s k i l l i n using i n t e ll i g e n c e to a r r iv e a t v a lu es i n a l l areas o f l iv i n g ; (g ) Understanding th e r e la t io n o f v a lu es t o a c tio n in a l l areas o f liv i n g ; (h) Changing world c o n d itio n s and how th e se a f f e c t v a lu e s; ( i ) Understanding th e problems o f l iv i n g w ith o th ers whose v a lu e s may be d if f e r e n t from ours; ( j ) E xperiencing many s itu a tio n s i n which c h o ic e s must be made; (k ) I n t e l l e c t u a l iz i n g th e p rocess o f making c h o ic e s as a way o f l i f e ; (1 ) Becoming aware o f th e c o n f lic t in g v a lu e s in American n f e e v id e n t i n th e immediate and wider community. PROBLEMS OF FORMING SOCIAL CONCEPTS IN TERMS OF THE DEMOCRATIC IDEAL: 'What i s our r e s p o n s ib ilit y (in d iv id u a l and group) in fa c in g and h elp ­ in g to s o lv e th e s o c i a l problems o f our community, s t a t e and nation ?

In clu de such problems a s: (a) S o c ia l S e c u r ity ; (b) M edical Care; (c ) Housing; (d) Ju v en ile Delinquency; (e ) Legal a sp e c ts o f fa m ily l i f e , e . g . , divorce and marriage law s; ( f ) C iv il L ib e r tie s ; (g ) Community R ecreation; (h) Government r e g u la tio n o f p u b lic u t i l i t i e s , e . g . , T .V .A .; ( i ) Family and C hild W elfare A gencies; ( j ) Labor-Management R e la tio n s; (k) C ooperatives; (1) C ity and R egional Planning; (m) Understanding th e c o n f l ic t between dem ocratic coop eration and s o c a lle d r,f r e e rt e n te r p r ise ; (n) C on sid eration o f the tren d toward e co n o m ic -so cia l interdependence and th e need o f a p h ilosop h y o f demo­ c r a t ic coop eration here# PROBLEMS OF EMPLOYMENT AND VOCATION: What are our o p p o r tu n itie s for' employment i n th e community now? What f a c to r s should we co n sid er in choosing a career? In clu d e such problem as: (a) E xploring opportuni­ t i e s fo r work ex p erien ces in the community f o r us now; (b) Having m eaningful work ex p erien ces and e v a lu a tin g th e se i n terms o f economic s k i l l s developed, i n t e r e s t s widened and s o c ia l in s ig h t s gained; (c ) G ettin g and keeping a jo b , e . g . , s e le c t in g my jo b , g e ttin g a jo b , g e tt in g along w ith oth ers on th e jo b , making th e most o f my job; (d) E xploring v o c a tio n s in th e immediate and wider community; (e ) R e a liz ­ in g my v o c a tio n a l a p titu d e s ; ( f ) G iving a tt e n tio n to the p rep aration needed fo r variou s v o c a tio n s; (g) C onsidering the im portance o f v a rio u s v o c a tio n s in terms o f group w e lfa r e ; (h) Homemaking as a v o c a tio n fo r a l l ; ( i ) R ela tin g the c h o ice o f a v o c a tio n to th e chang­ in g American and world scen e; ( j ) Understanding the s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , and economic im p lic a tio n s o f a v o c a tio n a l c h o ic e ; (k) Gaining some in s ig h t in to labor-management r e la tio n s h ip s ; (1 ) C onsidering th e problems o f s h if t in g p op u lation i n r e la tio n s h ip to employment; (m) Understanding th e im portance and the problems in h eren t o f m aintaining high employment; (n) Becoming aware o f th e f a c t th a t some high sch o o l stu d en ts must look forward to u n s k ille d la b o r . PROBLEMS OF USING AND CONSERVING NATURAL RESOURCES: How can our n a tu ra l reso u rces be b e s t developed and used? In clu d e such problems a s: (a ) E xploring the n a tu ra l reso u rces o f our own community and con­ sid e r in g t h e ir development and use in terms o f th e common w e lfa r e ; (b) M eeting our b a sic needs fo r food , s h e lt e r , c lo th in g , r e c r e a tio n through w ise u se o f resou rces; (c ) Meeting th e is s u e o f c o n se rv a tio n o f n a tu ra l reso u rces in a democracy through education f o r s e lf - c o n t r o l; (d) R e a liz in g th e importance o f producing, b u ild in g , growing w ithout d e str o y in g , th e b a ses o f th e fu tu re e x is te n c e o f democracy; (e ) J o in t dem ocratic planning fo r resou rce use by th e c i t i z e n and h is government; ( f ) C onsidering th e world-w ide s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l im p li­ c a tio n s in v o lv ed in th e need o f a l l p eople fo r v i t a l sou rces o f energy; (g ) R ela tin g w ise u se o f n a tu ra l reso u rces to c o n serv a tio n o f human resou rces* PROBLEMS OF EDUCATION IN AMERICAN DEMOCRACY: lh y i s education an im portant fa c to r in our l i v e s as c i t i z e n s o f a democracy? Include

3^0 such problems a s s (a) E xploring th e e d u ca tio n a l o p p o r tu n itie s i n th e immediate community; (b) Studying th e h i s t o r i c a l development o f edu­ c a tio n i n America; (c ) P erp etu atin g, y e t r e -c r e a tin g dem ocratic id e a ls through education; (d) R e a liz in g ed u cation al in e q u a lit ie s p re v a le n t in th e immediate and wider community; (e) Using an ed u cation to h elp r a is e th e standard o f l iv i n g i n th e group; ( f ) Understanding th e impact o f ed u cation on such s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s as th e home, church, govern­ ment, e t c * ,; (g) Becoming a more i n t e l l i g e n t p a r tic ip a n t in th e demo­ c r a t ic p r o cess through education; (h) Making use o f v a rio u s ed u ca tio n a l s e r v ic e s in th e community f o r members o f th e fa m ily ; ( i ) D if f e r e n t ia t ­ in g th e p r a c tic a l im p lic a tio n s of th e more im portant t h e o r ie s o f ed u cation th a t e f f e c t cu rren t sch o o l p r a c tic e s ; ( j ) Considering how and why sc h o o ls should make p r o v isio n s fo r in d iv id u a l d iffe r e n c e s ; (k) Understanding the v a rio u s p ressu re groups th a t operate on educa­ t io n ; (1 ) C on trastin g v a lu e s and b e l i e f s and r e s u lt in g im p lic a tio n s fo r l i v i n g s t r e s s e d by American sch o o ls and th o se s tr e s s e d by R ussian schools* 8.

9.

PROBLEMS OF•CONSTRUCTIVE USE OF LEISURE; How can we become more i n ­ t e r e s t in g and b e tt e r a d ju sted people through exten d in g in d iv id u a l and group in t e r e s t ? In clu de such problems ass (a ) Extending a e s t h e t ic a p p r e c ia tio n s, e . g . , m usic, p a in tin g , l it e r a t u r e , n atu re, sc ie n c e through p a r tic ip a tin g in ex p erien ces in th e se areas; (b) Having ex­ p e r ie n c es in th e s p e c ia l in t e r e s t areas o f the s c h o o l, e* g . , in ­ d u s t r ia l a r t s , home a r t s , f i n e a r t s , dram atics, p h y sic a l ed u cation ; ' (c ) R ecreation in the home; (d) Hobbies; (e ) D eveloping, ex ten d in g , m aintaining adequate community r e c r e a tio n a l f a c i l i t i e s fo r a l l c it i z e n s ; ( f ) D eveloping a concept o f c r e a tiv e experien ce as i t i s r e la t e d to w e ll-b a la n ce d liv in g ;, (g) E xperiencing in d iv id u a l and group a c t i v i t i e s as c o n str u c tiv e use o f le is u r e ; (h) D eveloping a f a i r degree o f s k i l l in s e v e r a l typ es o f r e c r e a tio n a l a c t i v i t y (in d iv id u a l and group); ( j ) Having ex p erien ces in which in d iv id u a ls and groups engage i n thoroughly c r e a tiv e a c t i v i t y , PROBLEMS OF FAMILY LIVING: How can fa m ily l iv i n g make fo r happier in d iv id u a ls? In clu d e such problems a s: (a) D efin in g th e ch a ra cter­ i s t i c s o f th e dem ocratic home; (b) In te r p r e ta tin g th e se c h a r a c t e r is t ic s i n terms o f b eh aviors o f th e in d iv id u a l in th e home; (c ) Sharing in th e maintenance a sp e c ts o f fa m ily l iv i n g ; (d) S o lv in g fa m ily c o n f l ic t s through th e fa m ily c o u n c il; (e ) Making a house a home; ( f ) Developing a c o n s is te n t s e t o f v a lu e s to guide l i f e through fa m ily liv in g ; (g ) Having and rea rin g c h ild r e n ; (h) Understanding n y s e lf and oth ers as members o f a c lo s e l y k n it group; ( i ) C reating our own ho»me, i . e . , problems o f e u g e n ics, c o u r tsh ip , m arriage; ( j ) C onsidering th e fa m ily as a u n it i n a democratic s o c ie t y and I t s r e la tio n s h ip to oth er s o c ia l i n s t i t u t i o n s ; (k) Planning in f a u i l y l i v i n g as to th e use o f r eso u rces such as tim e, money, energy; (1) Studying th e e f f e c t o f te c h n o lo g ic a l development on home l i f e in our s o c ie ty ; (m) D eveloping an understand­ in g among fa m ily members o f th e problems o f o ld -a g e; (n) R eco n cilin g

351 c o n f l ic t s between home standards and community standards j (o) P a r t ic i­ p a tin g as a fa m ily u n it i n develop in g community standards; (p) Con­ s id e r in g s i m i la r i t i e s and d iffe r e n c e s concerning fa m ily l i f e , in g e n e r a l, i n a democracy and in other s o c ie t ie s * PROBLEMS OP COMMUNICATION8 How can we ex p ress our id e a s more c le a r ly to o th e r s , and how can we understand b e tte r th e id e a s o f other people? Might in c lu d e such problems a s: (a ) E xploring th e variou s media which . we have used to communicate our id e a s and em otions, e . g . , m usic, p a in tin g , dancing, d ram atization , a r ts and c r a f t s , group d is c u s s io n , w r itin g , drawing, m odeling; (b) D eveloping a p le a sin g v o ic e as regards p it c h , to n e , a r tic u la t io n ; (c ) Learning to l i s t e n , read and observe w ith understanding; (d) R ecognizing advantages th a t s k i l l in communi­ c a tin g w i l l g iv e in d iv id u a ls i n group s it u a t io n s ; (e ) R ecognizing b e n e f it s and dangers o f mass communication i n l ig h t o f dem ocratic v a lu e s; ( f ) Learning t o compute and to c a lc u la te s p e e d ily ; (g) U t iliz in g many d e v ic e s fo r communicating, such as r a d io , m ovies, f ilm s t r i p s , s l i d e s , p ic tu r e s , graphs, maps, p r in te d m a te r ia ls , p r in t s , dramatics* PROBLEMS OF DEMOCRATIC GOVERNMENT s How do we share i n government in * a democracy? Include such problems a s: (a ) Learning th e r ig h ts and o b lig a tio n s o f c it i z e n s by sh arin g in s o lu tio n o f sc h o o l and community problems p e r tin e n t a t t h i s l e v e l ; (b) Seein g c it iz e n s h ip in a wider p e r sp e c tiv e by being concerned w ith current l o c a l , n a tio n a l and in t e r ­ n a tio n a l is s u e s ; (c ) Gaining in s ig h t in to problems o f carryin g on c i t y , s t a t e , n a tio n a l government through s e le c t e d r e p r e s e n ta tiv e s ; (d) Seeking understanding o f th e p ro cess o f in t e r a c tio n in a group; (e ) Studying how group c o n clu sio n s are formed; ( f ) D eveloping a con­ cep t o f p erson al r e s p o n s ib i li t y f o r democratic government through sharing in sch o o l government; (g ) E xperiencing ways to improve sch o o l and community through dem ocratic government; (h) S eein g the r e la t io n s h ip s between school-community problems and problems fa c e d by a d u lts o u tsid e the sch o o l; ( i ) Studying c o n d itio n s under which in d iv id u a ls a c tu a lly develop a t t itu d e s o f r e s p o n s ib ilit y , i . e . , in sharing s it u a t io n s or r e la tio n s * 12*

PROBLEMS OF COMMUNITY AND PERSONAL HEALTH: How can we ach ieve and m aintain h e a lth fu l l iv i n g f o r our s e lv e s and a l l oth ers in th e com­ munity? Include such problems a s: (a) A scertain in g my p resen t h e a lth s ta t u s ; (b ) Understanding th e problems and the importance o f p erso n a l and community n u tr itio n ; (c ) Understanding the f a c t s about se x u a l development; (d) Gooperating w ith v a rio u s community a g e n c ie s in main­ ta in in g h e a lt h f u l l iv i n g c o n d itio n s ; (e ) Improving p erson al a ttr a c ­ t iv e n e s s and p h y sic a l f i t n e s s by p r a c tic in g h e a lth fu l l iv i n g ; ( f ) Studying causes o f a ccid en ts and removing th e se causes in homes and community, i f p o s s ib le ; (g ) C onsidering th e s o c ia l and economic a sp ec ts o f p erson al and community h e a lth Im plied in h e a lth in su ra n ce, h o s p it a liz a t io n , ^ s o c ia liz e d ” m edicine; ( i ) Provide and m aintaining

fa m ily h e a lth ; ( j ) Understanding th e problem o f world h e a lth —th e w ider community; (k) C onsidering th e p resen t day causes o f w ide-spread m ental h e a lth ; (1 ) Understanding th e importance o f community and home l i f e i n development o f m ental h e a lth ; (m) C onsidering th e s ig n if ic a n c e o f-r e c e n t fin d in g s in th e f i e l d o f psychosom atic m ed icine. 13.

PROBLEMS OF ECONOMIC RELATIONSHIPS IN A DEMOCRACY; How can we become more i n t e l l i g e n t consumers? How does th e p a tte r n o f our economic l i f e r e la t e to th e id e a l o f democratic economic p a r tic ip a tio n o f a l l? In clu d e such problems a s: (a ) How can I know th a t I am g e tt in g my money's worth? (b) Government p r o te c tio n o f th e consumer; (c ) Problems o f banking, in vestm en t, e t c . ; (d) D u ties and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f labor and management i n produ ction and management; (e ) V arious economics system s and im p lic a tio n s o f each f o r producing and d is tr ib u tin g goods i n a democracy; ( f ) The M arsh all, P lan and i t s im p lic a tio n s fo r world s e c u r ity ; (g ) The p la c e o f c r e d it in th e economic system ; (h) Recog­ n iz in g cause and e f f e c t r e la t io n s h ip s in spending, sa v in g , and em­ ploym ent; ( i ) Changing p a tte rn o f fa m ily spending in th e American economy; ( j ) R ecognizing th e fa m ily 's sta k e in th e gen eral economic p o lic y ; (k) Understanding th e changing p a tte r n o f government spending i n American economy and i t s e f f e c t on group and in d iv id u a l w elfa re; (1 ) Understanding th e whys and hows o f th e American system o f taxa­ t io n ; (m) R ecognizing th e r e la tio n s h ip between the economic and s o c i a l s ta tu s ; (n) Having eixperiences in choosing and buying goods and b ein g r e sp o n sib le fo r funds and t h e ir use; (o ) R ecognizing the tren d toward economic interdependence1; (p) Noting th e tren d toward co n cen tra tio n o f w ea lth and monopoly c o n tr o ls and e f f e c t s on in d iv id u a l and group w e lfa r e .

1U.

PROBLEMS OF CRITICAL THINKING: How can we develop s k i l l in forming co n clu sio n s? What- are th e sou rces o f inform ation? What i s a sound b a s is fo r forming c o n clu sio n s in a democracy? Might in clu d e such problems ass (a) D eveloping th e a b i l i t y to reco g n ize and d e fin e prob­ lem s; (b) Studying th e complete act o f thought in r e la t io n s h ip to a ch iev in g dem ocratic p r o c e sse s; (c ) E xploring th e sou rces o f in fo r ­ m ation, e . g . , p r e s s , m ovies, r a d io , sp eech es, t e le v is io n ; (d) D eveloping s k i l l in r eco g n izin g propaganda tech n iq u es; (e ) R ecogniz­ in g common f a l l a c i e s in th in k in g , e . g . , reason in g by analogy, g e n e r a liz in g upon b a s is o f inadequate data, in c o n s is te n c y between assum ptions and c o n c lu sio n s; ( f ) R ecognizing f a l l a c i e s a r is in g from p sy c h o lo g ic a l m aladjustm ents, e . g . , r a tio n a liz a t io n , p r o je c tio n , id e n t if ic a t io n ; (g ) D eveloping an a b i l i t y to l i v e in a te n ta tiv e mood; (h) D eveloping c o n s is te n t a t t it u d e s toward the problem o f apply­ in g c r i t i c a l th in k in g to human concern in a l l areas o f liv in g ; ( i ) A ccepting r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r a c tio n on th e b a s is o f sound conclu­ sio n s; ( j ) R eorganizing and r e c o n str u c tin g exp erien ce as a guide to fu tu r e b eh a v io r.

PROBLEMS OF ACHIEVING WORLD PEACE IN THE ATOMIC .AGE: What are th e c o n tr ib u tio n s we can make toward world peace? H o y * does atom ic energy a f f e c t our l i v i n g today? Include such problems as: (a ) E xploring the causes o f c u ltu r a l c o n flic t* e . g.* economic* p o l i t ic a l * s o c ia l; (b) Widening th e areas o f mutual concern and in t e r e s t s in th e immediate and wider groups (c ) Understanding th e b a ses o f world peace* (d) Basing em otion alized a t t itu d e s on sound i n t e l l e c t u a l grounds; (e ) Sharing e f f e c t i v e l y i n a world o rg a n iza tio n such as U nited N ations; ( f ) Studying how ed u cation o f th e in d iv id u a l as a unique* dynamic* f le x ib ly -e x p e r ie n c in g person might be a s o lu tio n ; (g) E xploring p resen t and probable fu tu r e u ses o f atomic energy; (h) Considering how th e b e n e f it s o f atom ic energy might be made a v a ila b le to a l l our people* ( i ) C onsidering problems produced by the lib e r a t io n o f atomic energy* e* g.* p h ilo so p h ic a l* p s y c h o lo g ic a l, te c h n o lo g ic a l; ( j ) Study­ in g th e str u c tu r e and fu n c tio n o f o r g a n iza tio n s d e a lin g w ith problems crea ted or accentuated by atomic energy* e . g** U nited S ta te s Atomic Energy Commission* U nited Nations* and p rop osals fo r c o n tr o l o f atomic energy fo r world s e c u r ity —d iffe r e n c e s between United S ta te s and R u ssia a t t h i s p o in t; (k) Widening h orizon s to in c lu d e “One World“ by g a in in g fu n c tio n a l knowledge o f how people l i v e in oth er geograph­ i c a l areas* e . g.* emphasizing both c u ltu r a l d iffe r e n c e s and s im ila r i­ t i e s — a r ts and c r a fts* r e lig io n * fa m ily l i f e * means o f liv e lih o o d , food* t h e ir l i f e valu es* PROBLEMS OF INTERCULTURAL RELATIONS: What are th e f a c t o r s in liv in g d em o cra tica lly w ith many d iv erse s o c i a l groups? What i s our in d iv id ­ u a l and group r e s p o n s ib ilit y in becoming aware o f and h e lp in g to de­ crea se in t e r c u lt u r a i te n sio n s? In clu d e such problems a s: (a) Under­ standing th e r e la tio n s h ip of variou s groups in the environment to development o f in t e r c u lt u r a i a ttitu d e s* e . g.* v a riou s ty p e s o f homes* churches* s c h o o ls , oth er community groups; (b) Understanding th e e f f e c t s in th e immediate and w ider community o f bias* prejudice* d is ­ c rim in ation a g a in st m in ority groups; (c ) B u ild in g an in c r e a s in g ly mature understanding o f what democracy means, h i s t o r i c a l l y and e t h ic a lly ; (d) Learning in c r e a s in g ly to use th e method o f co n ferrin g — th e method o f b asin g group a c tio n on group d is c u s s io n and d e c is io n ; (e ) Coming to understand the in te r n a tio n a l a sp ect o f in ter-g ro u p p r e ju d ic es and d isc r im in a tio n s; ( f ) Understanding and a p p recia tin g com posite ch aracter o f American p op u lation and i t s consequent advan­ ta g e to our c i v i l i z a t i o n ; (g) A cting on th e b a s is o f th in k in g ra th er than on h a b it or pure im pulse; (h) Studying variou s h i s t o r i c causes and supporting r a t io n a liz a t io n o f group p r e ju d ic e s; ( i ) B u ild in g th e h a b it o f a c tin g on th e b e s t th a t we have found* o f l iv i n g up t o the h ig h e st in s ig h t th a t we can gain through search in g; ( j ) Studying out th e problems o f race and the evid en ces a g a in st racism ; (k) Developing an awareness o f in t e r c u ltu r a i te n s io n s a r is in g to th e immediate com­ munity* e . g.* race* r e l ig i o n , n a tio n a lity ; (1 ) D eveloping a f e e l in g o f p erson al r e s p o n s ib ilit y fo r s o lu tio n o f th e se problems through

in d iv id u a l concern and by coop eratin g w ith community a g e n c ie s ; (m) C ontributing toward in d iv id u a l growth by c o n tin u a l w idening o f areas o f mutual concern among v ariou s groups3 (n) Understanding th e b a ses o f world c o n f lic t ; (o ) Noting the c o n f l ic t s i n th e school-community s it u a t io n ; (p) Breaking down th e se c o n f l i c t s through stu dying the Hf a c t s 11 i n each s itu a tio n * and by co o p era tiv e d e a lin g w ith common problems and i n t e r e s t s .

APPENDIX B TOUR SCHOOL AND GENERAL EDUCATION

C it y _____________________ Current enrollm ent

S ta te ____

Name o f sch ool___________

No. o f te a c h e rs

D epartm entalized?

'

Xes - No Check ONE:_____ High School (Grades IX -X Il)______ Senior High (Grades X-XII)

GENERAL EDUCATION In t h i s q u estio n n a ire th e term , gen eral ed u cation , i s used in i t s broadest meaning. I t i s d e fin e d as th a t part o f th e h ig h -sc h o o l program req uired o f a l l p u p ils , r e g a r d le ss o f t h e ir p lan s f o r th e fu tu r e , t h e ir in d iv id u a l programs, s p e c i a l t i e s , or e l e c t i v e s . W ithin th e concept o f in d iv id u a l d iffe r e n c e s , gen eral education seek s th a t common denominator o f lea rn in g and adjustm ents which are con sid ered n ecessa ry fo r i n t e l l i g e n t and s u c c e s s fu l l iv i n g in a dem ocratic s o c ie t y . (P le a se read pp. 1-3 c a r e f u lly b efo re c h e ck in g .) P le a se check th e ONE curriculum p a tte r n predom inantly employed in th e g en era l education program o f your sch ool## 1.

SUBJECT CURRICULUM

G eneral ed u cation i s provided through th e su b ject curriculum by req u irin g a l l p u p ils , r e g a r d le s s o f t h e ir programs, to take a c e r ta in number o f su b je cts or co u rses p rescrib ed by s t a t e and/or l o c a l r e g u la tio n .

2.

CORRELATED CURRICULUM

General ed u cation i s provided through th e c o r r e la te d curriculum as in th e su b je c t curriculum d escrib ed above, excep t th a t g r ea ter c o r r e la tio n i s attem pted by running th e req uired cou rses along p a r a lle l l i n e s so th a t v a rio u s a sp ec ts o f a to p ic or u n it w i l l r e ­ c e iv e r e la te d treatm ent sim u ltan eou sly in se v e r a l su b je c ts or c o u r ses.

#To make p r e c is e d e f in it io n s in th e realm o f th eory i s c o n tr o v e r s ia l, but to f in d p r e c is e d e f in it io n s i n th e realm o f p r a c tic e i s im p o ssib le . T h erefore, f o r th e sake o f u n ifo rm ity check th a t p a tte rn of curriculum which resem bles most c lo s e l y th e p r a c tic e o f your sc h o o l. I f any o f the s i x d escrib ed i s too remote from your curriculum d esig n , then f i l l in No. 7 on p . 3 . , .

(i)

FUSED curriculum

BRQAD-

FIELDS CURRICULUM

CORE CURRICULUM

General ed u cation i s provided through th e fu sed curriculum by req u irin g of a l l p u p ils one or a number o f cou rses i n which se v e r a l su b je c ts have been combined or ’’fused** in to one course* Sometimes th e f u s io n i s ach ieved w ith in a su b ject f i e l d or department (such as s e v e r a l branches o f sc ien ce be­ coming a gen eral sc ie n c e course)* Sometimes the fu s io n i s ach ieved b y combining su b je c ts from other f i e l d s or departments in to one course (such as the fu s io n o f E n g lish , s o c i a l s t u d ie s , a r t, and music in to one c o u r se ). General ed u cation i s provided through th e broadf i e l d s curriculum b y req u irin g o f a l l p u p ils one or more cou rses which have been b u i l t around a few com­ p reh en sive themes (such as h e a lth , v o c a tio n , l e i s u r e , and s o c ia l r e l a t i o n s ) . O rganization o f th e broadf i e l d s curriculum can le a n toward th e ( l ) s u b je c t, ( 2) c o r r e la te d , or (3 ) fu se d c u r r ic u la r d escrib ed above. Ih eth er th e themes are developed w ith in a framework o f su b je c ts accorded s in g le , c o r r e la te d , or fu sed treatm ent i s n ot a paramount concern sin c e su b ject m atter i s o f secondary im portance, i s not presen ted in a l o g i c a l l y organized sequence, and i s drawn upon only a s i t e f f e c t i v e l y c o n trib u te s to the development of th e major themes o f th e co u rse. The p u p ils ’ problem s, n eed s, and i n t e r e s t s in h eren t in th e themes are o f primary im portance and, when a sc e r ta in e d , provide the conten t around which th e course may be planned. General education i s provided through th e core cur­ riculum by req u irin g a l l p u p ils to p a r tic ip a te i n a course vvhich p ro v id es a common body o f growth ex­ p e r ie n c e s . I t d e f i n i t e l y breaks w ith th e (1 ) sub­ j e c t and ( 2) c o r r e la te d as w e ll as th e (3 ) fu sed c u r r ic u la in o r g a n iz a tio n . I t resem bles th e (it) ' b r o a d -fie ld s curriculum but w ith se v e r a l in n o v a tio n s. The core course runs from o n e -th ir d to o n e -h a lf th e day and i s under th e d ir e c tio n o f one te a c h e r . Under one asp ect or an oth er, and In a g rad u ally le s se n e d degree, th e core i s continued throughout the e n tir e sch ool l i f e o f th e p u p il. Thus i t makes f o r a c lo s e r . p u p il-te a c h e r r e la t io n s h ip , and tea ch in g and guidance emerge as complementary fu n c tio n s . The core i s p rim a rily concerned w ith broad areas r e la te d to th e p resen t and fu tu re l i f e a c t i v i t i e s o f the p u p ils . U su ally th e s e a c t i v i t i e s are planned c o o p e r a tiv e ly

3 57 by p u p ils and tea ch er, ^he emphasis on developing a t t itu d e s and s k i l l s in s te a d o f th e a c q u is itio n o f su b ject-m a tter in form ation i s a concept which, w h ile i t may or may not be p red ica ted o f oth er p a tte r n s o f curriculum , i s p r a c t ic a lly i d e n t i f ie d -with th e core cou rse. 6.

EXPERIENCE- General ed u cation i s provided through th e e x p e rien ce core curriculum by req u irin g o f a l l p u p ils a course CORE CURRICULUM whose o r g a n iza tio n i s th e same as th e (5 ) core cur­ riculum d escrib ed above, but whose method and content ( r e a l ly one) are i t s d is tin g u is h in g fe a tu r e . I t be­ g in s w ith experien ce s it u a t io n s as and when th e y a r is e . Hence i t has no f ix e d or pre-planned content* I t u t i l i z e s th e p u p il’s exp erien ces fo r h is in d iv id u a l and s o c ia l in te g r a tio n . I t measures i t s outcomes in terms o f b eh avior ra th er than any o th er c r i t e r i a .

7 . SOME OTHER P le a se describe* FORM OR COMBINATION OF CURRIC­ ULUM

PROCEDURE I f you have checked (1) SUBJECT CURRICULUM proceed t o page U. I f you have checked (2) CORRELATED CURRICULUM proceed to page iu I f you have checked (3 ) FUSED CURRICULUM proceed to page 8 . I f you have checked (U) BROAD-FIELDS CURRICULUM proceed t o page 12. I f you have checked (5 ) GORE CURRICULUM proceed t o page l £ . I f you have checked (6 ) EXPERIENCE-CORE CURRICULUM proceed t o page 1$. I f you have checked (7 ) SOME OTHER CURRICULUM proceed to page 17. (3 )

358 GENERAL EDUCATION THROUGH THE SUBJECT AND CORRELATED CURRICULA

I P lea se check below th e su b je c ts req u ired o f a l l p u p ils r e g a r d le ss o f t h e ir in d iv id u a l programs. P le a se check on ly th o se su b je c ts which are given in your sch o o l as SEPARATE COURSES. For example, do n ot check C itiz e n sh ip i f i t i s in clu d ed in U nited S ta te s H isto r y . F i l l in blanks fo r su b je c ts not lis te d . Local ReC ir c le Grade (s ) S ta te Re- quirement No.' Per. No. in which req u ired quirement on ly ______ per wk. Terms or OP i f o p tio n a l

1. 2.

Bible C itizenship

IX IX IX IX IX IX

3•

C ivics English 5 * Manners 6. Morals 7* United States Constitution 8. 9* 10. 11. 12.

XII XII XII XII XII XII

OP OP OP OP OP OP

IX X XI XII OP

United S tates History Physical Education Problems in Democracy Hygiene

X XI X XI X XI X XI X XI X XI

IX X XI XII OP IX X XI XII OP

IX X XI XII OP IX X XI XII OP IX X XI XII OP

13. l±u

IX X XI XII OP

15* 16.

IX X XI XII OP IX X XI XII OP IX X XI XII OP

IX X XI XII OP

17. 18.

IX X XI XII OP

(fc)

3?9 II

P le a se in d ic a te th e exp erien ce o f your sch o o l (w ith in th e l a s t t e n or f i f ­ te e n y e a r s) in co n sid erin g other curriculum p a tte rn s fo r gen eral education* P lea se check w ith in a l l fou r major p a tte rn s o f curriculum l i s t e d below . 1.

CORRELATED CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a* b*

Has

been con sid ered and regarded as unfavorable#

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p o ssib le o f execution* Why?

d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded fu tu re adoption#

e. f• 2.

Has not been considered*

Has

been t r ie d and abandoned,

as fa v o r a b le , Why?

andplanned fo r

.___________________

I s now b ein g considered*

FUSED CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION

t

a.

Has

not been co n sid ered .

b.

Has

been con sid ered and regarded as

u n favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p ossib le o f e x e c u tio n . Why? _____________________ _____ ________ ________

d.

Has been co n sid ered , regarded fu tu r e adoption.

e*

Has

been t r i e d and abandoned.

as fa v o r a b le ,

andplanned f o r

Why? _____________________

f# I s now being con sid ered . 3.

BROAD-FIELDS CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a.

Has

not been con sid ered .

b.

Has

been consid ered and regarded as

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as o f e x e c u tio n . Why?

(5)

un favorab le. fav o ra b le but im p ossib le

360

lw

d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu re ad op tion .

e.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned.

f.

I s now b ein g con sid ered .

GORE CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a.

5.

Why?

Has n ot been co n sid ered .

b.

Hasbeen con sid ered and regarded as u n favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p ossib le o f ex ec u tio n . Why? ________________________________ _______

d.

Has been c o n sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu re adoption.

e.

Has

been t r i e d and abandoned.

f.

I s now b ein g co n sid ered .

Why?_______________________

EXPERIENCE-CORE CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a. b.

Has n o t been con sid ered . Hasbeen con sid ered and regarded as u n favorab le.

_____ c .

Hasbeen con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p ossib le o f e x ec u tio n . Why? ______________________ _________

d.

Has been co n sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu re ad op tion .

e.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned.



I s now b ein g con sid ered .

(6)

Why? __________________________

361 in P le a se in d ic a te th e experience o f your sch o o l (w ith in the l a s t te n or f i f ­ te e n y e a r s) i n con sid erin g th e breaking down o f su b ject-m a tter boundaries ( i . e . , the'abandoning o f su b je ct com partm entalization and/or departm ental­ iz a t io n ) as a means o f a c h iev in g g r ea ter in te g r a tio n in th e g en eral educa­ t io n program. P le a se check ONE. 1.

Has never been co n sid ered .

2.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as u n favorab le.

3*

Has been co n sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r th e fu tu r e .

U*

Has been consid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p o ssib le N o f ex ecu tio n .

5.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned.

6.

I s now b ein g con sid ered .

TShy f

IV Guidance (g en era l and v o c a tio n a l) i n th e g en era l education program in your sc h o o l i s th e s p e c i f i c a l l y d e leg a te d r e s p o n s ib ilit y o f one o r more o f th e fo llo w in g p erso n s. (P lea se c i r c l e “X** b e fo r e th e person c h ie f ly r e sp o n s ib le , c i r c l e M2 Wb efo re th e person n ext r e s p o n s ib le , and so on. C ir cle nQw b e­ fo r e th o se persons not d ir e c t ly r e sp o n sib le fo r gu id a n ce.)

1 2 3 k 5 6 0 1 2 3 k £ 6 0

(1)

Classroom tea ch ers

(2)

Core teach er

1 2 3 k 5 6 0 1 2 3 h 5 6 0

(3)

Guidance c o u n se lo r (s)

(h)

Home-room teach er

1 2 3 k 5 6 0

(5)

P r in c ip a l

1 2 3 U5 6 0

(6)

V ic e -p r in c ip a l

1 2 3 k 5 6 0

(7)

Some oth er (P lea se s p e c ify V

In th e g en eral education program in d iv id u a l d iffe r e n c e s are provided fo r bys 1.

Grouping w ith in c la s s e s

2* Grouping by c la s s e s 3*

Not grouping but in d iv id u a l

handling

U* Some other method (P lea se s p e c ify ______________________________ ) PLEASE TURN TO PAGE 17 (7)

362

GENERAL EDUCATION THROUGH THE FUSED CURRICULUM

Flease describe the fused course or courses required o f a l l pupils in your general education program. Subjects combined (a) A.

1. 2. 3.

5.

Name of course Length of period Period per week Terms in length Grade in which required

6.

Taught by

U.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

(b) (c)

(d) (e) (f)

(a) IX .(b) X ,(c) XI .(d) XII (e) Optional One teacher Two teachers ) (. Three teachers) („ Four teachers ) (.

A lternately J o in tly Some other way. Explain Subjects combined

B.

3^.

.

2 3.

A. 5.

6.

Name o f course _ Length of period Period per week w Terms in length Grade in which required

Taught by

(a) (b) (c) .(d)

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (a) IX

-_0>) X (e) XI (d) XII (e) Optional One teacher Two teachers ) (_____ Three teachers) Four teachers )

(f)

A lternately J o in tly Some other way. Explain

(8)

363

i i

P lea se in d ic a te th e experien ce o f your sc h o o l (w ith in th e l a s t te n or f i f ­ te e n y e a r s) in con sid erin g oth er curriculum p a tte rn s fo r g e n e ra l education* P le a se check w ith in a l l th ree major p a tte rn s o f curriculum l i s t e d below. 1.

2.

BROAD-FIELDS CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a.

Has not been considered*

b.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as u n favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p o ssib le o f e x ec u tio n . TOiy? ___________________________________________

d*

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o ra b le, and planned fo r fu tu r e e x ec u tio n .

e.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned.

f.

I s now being con sid ered .

CORE CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a. b.

3.

Why?

Has not been con sid ered . Has

been con sid ered andregarded

as

u n favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered andregarded as fa v o ra b le but im p o ssib le o f e x ec u tio n . Ihy? _____________________________________________

d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu re ex ec u tio n .

e.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned*

f*

I s now b ein g con sid ered .

Why? ________ _______

EXPERIENCE-CORE CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a. b. c.

Has not been co n sid ered . Has

been con sid ered and regarded as unfavorable*

Has been con sid ered and regarded as favorab le but im p o ssib le o f ex ec u tio n . Ihy? _____ _______________________________________

2,6b d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu r e ex ecu tio n .

e.

Has been t r ie d and abandoned.

f.

I s now b eing con sid ered .

Wiy?

I ll P lea se in d ic a te the experien ce o f your sch ool (w ith in th e l a s t ten or f i f ­ te e n y e a r s) in breaking down su b ject-m a tter boundaries ( i . e . , th e abandoning o f su b ject com partm entalization and/or d ep artm en ta liza tio n ) as a means o f ach ievin g g r ea ter in te g r a tio n in the gen eral ed u cation program. 1 . Has not been con sid ered . 2.

Has been consid ered and regarded as fa v o r a b le .

3.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , andplanned fu tu r e ex ec u tio n .

fo r

U* Has been con sid ered and regarded as fav o ra b le but im p ossib le o f e x ec u tio n . Ihy? _____ _________________ ______________________ 5.

Has been t r ie d and abandoned.

6.

I s now b ein g con sid ered .

Hhy?_____________________________

IV Fusion o f su b je c t m atter in your g en eral ed u cation program has been accom­ p lis h e d bys 1* F usion o f su b je c ts w ith in one or more departm ents. 2.

Fusion o f su b je c ts from and through th e coop eration o f two or more departm ents.

3* Fusion o f su b je ct m atter by breaking down su b ject-m a tter p a r tm en ta liz a tio n and/or com partm entalization.

de­

1*. Some other method. E xp lain . ___________________________________

(1 0 )

365

v Guidance (gen eral and v o c a tio n a l) in th e gen eral ed u cation program o f your sc h o o l i s th e s p e c i f i c a l l y d elegated r e s p o n s ib ilit y o f one or more o f the fo llo w in g p erso n s. P le a se c i r c l e - "I11 b efore the person c h i e f l y r e sp o n s ib le , c i r c l e ,l2 11. b efo re th e person next r e s p o n s ib le , and so on. C ir cle M 0 n b efo re th o se persons not d ir e c t ly r esp o n sib le fo r guidance. 1 2

3 li 5 6 0 (1 )

Classroom tea ch ers

1 2

3 k $ 6 0 (2)

T each er(s) o f th e fu sed (in te g r a te d ) c o u r se (s)

1 2

3 I* 5 5 0 (3 )

Guidance c o u n se lo r (s)

1 2 3 1 5 6 0

(k)

Home-room teach er

1 2 3i 5 6

0 (5)

P r in c ip a l

1 2 3U 5 6

0 (6)

V ic e -p r in c ip a l

1 2 3 1* 5 6

0 (7 )

Some other*

S p e c ify . VI

In d iv id u a l. d iffe r e n c e s o f p u p ils are provided fo r i n the fu se d c o u r se (s) in th e gen eral education program by: 1*

Grouping w ith in c la s s e s

2.

Grouping by c la s s e s

3*

Hot grouping but in d iv id u a l handling by te a c h e r (s )

iu

Some oth er p la n .

S p e c ify .

PLEkSE TURN TO PAGE 17

(ii)

366 GENERAL EDUCATION THROUGH THE BROAD-FIELDS CURRICULUM

I P lea se d e scrib e th e b r o a d -fie ld s course or cou rses req uired o f a l l p u p ils in the g en eral education program o f your school* 1*

Name o f AREA_________________________________________

2.

Length o f p eriod per day ________

3*

Number o f p eriod s per week ________

U*

Number o f terms required ________

5*

Grade in which req uired:

6.

The a rea i s taught ass

IXj

X;

XI;

XI I ;

Op t io n a l.

(a ) One su b ject w ith in a su b je ct f i e l d , (b)

Two or more c o r r e la te d su b je c ts from d if fe r e n t su b je ct f i e l d s .

(c )

Two or more fu sed su b je c ts w ith in th e same su b je ct f ie ld *

(d)

Two or more fu sed su b je c ts from d iff e r e n t su b je ct f i e l d s ; handled b y

One teach er Two or more tea c h e rs a lt e r n a t e ly Two or more tea ch ers j o i n t l y

(e )

A f i e l d in i t s own r ig h t through the complete breakdown o f su b ject-m a tter boundaries and departments and handled by One teacher Two or more tea ch ers a lt e r n a t e ly Two or more tea ch ers j o i n t l y

(12)

367 II

P lea se in d ic a te the exp erien ce o f your sch o o l (w ith in th e l a s t te n or f i f ­ te e n y e a r s) in con sid erin g other curriculum p a ttern s fo r gen eral ed u cation . P lea se check w ith in both p a tte rn s l i s t e d below. 1,

GORE CURRICULUM IN GENERAL EDUCATION a.

Has n ot been con sid ered .

b.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as un favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fav o ra b le but im p o ssib le o f e x e c u tio n . Why? ______________________________ ___ __________

d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned f o r fu tu r e e x ec u tio n .

___ e . 2.

Has been t r i e d and abandoned.

Why?___________________________

EXPERIEMCE-rCORE IN GENERAL EDUCATION a.

Has not been considered*

b*

Has been

consid ered and regarded as

u n favorab le.

c.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p o ssib le o f ex ec u tio n . Why? ___________________ ________________________

d.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu r e ex ec u tio n .

e*

Has been

t r i e d and abandoned.

Why?______________

III P lea se in d ic a te th e exp erien ce o f your sch o o l (w ith in th e l a s t ten or f i f ­ tee n y e a r s) in breaking down su b ject-m a tter boundaries ( i . e . , th e abandoning o f su b ject-m atter com partm entalization and/or d ep artm en talization ) as a means o f ach iev in g g rea ter in te g r a tio n in th e gen eral education program. 1.

Has not been con sid ered .

2.

Has been con sid ered and regarded as un favorab le.

3.

Has been con sid ered , regarded as fa v o r a b le , and planned fo r fu tu re e x ec u tio n . _*

368

~

2j.« Has been con sid ered and regarded as fa v o ra b le but im p ossib le o f ex ecu tio n . Ihy? ______________________________________ _____ 5.

Has been t r ie d and abandoned. Why? ___________________________

6.

Has been adopted and i s not current p r a c tic e . IV

Guidance (gen eral and v o c a tio n a l) in th e general ed u cation program o f your sch o o l i s th e s p e c i f i c a l l y d eleg a ted r e s p o n s ib ilit y o f one or more o f th e fo llo w in g p erson s. P le a se c i r c l e lfl w b efo re th e person c h ie f ly r e sp o n sib le , c i r c l e n2 n before th e person next r e s p o n s ib le , and so on. C ircle tr0 ff be­ fo r e th o se persons not d ir e c t ly r e sp o n sib le fo r guidance.

12 3 4 5 6 0

(i)

T each er(s) o f the b r o a d -fie ld s c o u r se (s)

12 3 4 5 6 0

(2)

Guidance c o u n se lo r (s)

l 2 3 4 5 6 o

(3)

Home-room teach er

12 3 4 5 6 0

(4)

P r in c ip a l

12 3 4 5 6 0

(5)

V ic e -p r in c ip a l

12 3 4 5 6 0

(6)

Classroom tea c h e rs n ot i n th e b r o a d -fie ld s

12 3 4 5 6 0

(7)

Some o th er.

S p e c ify . V

In d iv id u a l d iffe r e n c e s o f p u p ils are provided fo r i n the b r o a d -fie ld s cou rses in gen eral education bys 1.

Grouping w ith in c la s s e s (b r o a d -fie ld s c o u rses)

2.

Grouping by c la s s e s (b r o a d -fie ld s co u rses)

3*

Hot grouping but in d iv id u a l handling by te a c h e r (s )

k*

Some other p la n .

S p e c ify . ________________________ _____

PimSE TURN TO PAGE 17

(i4)

369 GENERAL EDUCATION THROUGH THE CORE OR EXPERIENCE-CORE CURRICULUM

I 1.

P lea se in d ic a te the year in which the core curriculum was f i r s t put in to e f f e c t . 19_______ •

2.

What type o f curriculum was i n e f f e c t b efo re th e core was adopted?

II 1*

How many p eriod s in your normal sch o o l day?

2.

P le a se in d ic a te (by c ir c lin g ) th e number o f p eriod s per day employed by th e core course in th e gen eral education program o f your 1 2 3 1*56 7 8

(a)

F ir s t term o f Grade IX

1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8

(b)

Second term o f Grade IX

1 2 3 1*56 7 8

(c )

F ir s t term o f Grade X

12 3 k 5 6 7 8

(d)

Second term o f Grade X

1 2 3 1*56 7 8

(e)

F ir s t term o f Grade XI

1 2 3 1* 5 6 7 8

(*)

Second term o f Grade XI

1 2 3 1*56 7 8

(g )

F ir s t term o f Grade XII

1 2 3 1*56 7 8

(b)

Second term o f Grade XII III

In d iv id u a l d iffe r e n c e s o f p u p ils are provided fo r in th e core cou rses in g en era l education by: _____ ! • 2.

Grouping w ith in c la s s e s (core c o u rses) Grouping by core cou rses

3 # Not grouping but in d iv id u a l handling U* Some oth er p la n . S p e c ify . (15)

by core tea ch ers

370 IV

Guidance (g en era l and v o c a tio n a l) in th e gen eral education program o f your sch o o l i s th e s p e c i f i c a l l y d elegated r e s p o n s ib ilit y o f one or more o f the fo llo w in g persons* P lea se c ir c l e ril ,f b efo re th e person c h ie f ly r e sp o n sib le , c i r c l e B2 n b eford th e person next r e sp o n s ib le , and so on. C ir c le H0 fl be­ fo r e th o se persons not d ir e c t ly charged w ith guidance.

1 2 3 h 5 6 0

(D

Core te a c h e r s

1 2 3 h 5 6 0

(2)

Guidance c o u n s e lo r (s )

1 2 3 h 5 6 0

(3)

Home-room

1 2 3 h 5 -6 0

(U)

P r in c ip a l

1 2 3 k 5 6 0

(5) ' V ic e - p r in c ip a l

1 2 3 k 5 6 0

(6)

Some other*

S p ecify *

PLEASE CONTINUE ON PAGE 17

(16)

371 1 -2

IBS

MO

_

1.

Is provision made in your general education program for the continuous improvement of fundamental processes?

2.

Is provision made in your school system for general edu­ cation on the high-school level for adults in evening or some other time?

3.

The unifying philosophy of your general education program is the ^dignity of man*w If not, what is it?

4*

The general education program must he taken by all pupils, II~2

The general education program is placed ins 1. ____ 2*

Grade IX exclusively Grade IX in addition to electives

3*

Grade X exclusively

X*

Grade X in addition to electives

5. Grade XI exclusively _ 6 .

Grade XI in addition to electives

7.

Grade XII exclusively

8*

Grade XII in addition to electives III-3

The general education program in your school Is for? 1, College preparatory pupils 2. Pupils in the general course _

3* Mon-academic pupils X* Pupils who plan to complete high school (17)

(Check one or more)

372 5.

Pupils who do not intend to complete high school

6*

All pupils

7. Some other ___________ IV-2 Pleasecheck those factors which, in the last ten or fifteen years* experi­ ence of your school, have made curriculum reform difficult or impossible. 1. ^Freeze11 of the curriculum pattern through:

_

a.

Teacher licensing and/or certification,

b.

Textbooks.

c. _ _

d.

State and/or loeal regulations (courses of study, etc), College entrance requirements.

2. Influence of vested interests, pressure groups, politicians, etc. 3. Inability to adapt present buildings and equipment to change. _

4.

Lack of money for such Mfadstt as curriculum experimentation and innovation.

5. Failure of teacher-training institutions toinstruct in methods of building and handling new type curricula. 6. Lack of adequate in-service training toorientatepresent staff in new types of curricula. 7. Opposition to change by

a.

Administrators

b*

Teachers

c.

Pupils

d.

Parents

e.

Community



Others

8. Indifference

(18)

373 9*

Some other factors:

7 -2

In thelist below, place an X before those aims which are included,and a 0 before those aims which are not included in the general education pro­ gram of your school. (The following list is not intended to be complete.) .

1. Remedial work

_ _

2.

Citizenship

_ _

3.

Guidance (general)

_ _

4.

Broad outlooks, attitudes, and Neills

_

5

Indoctrination of Americanism

_

*

_______ 6*

Improvement of fundamental processes (three R*s)

_____ 7.

Guidance (vocational)

8.

Development of individual differences (personality)

9

Improvement of the social order

*

10. 11.

Subject matter mastery Development of the intellect

12.

Social adjustment of the pupil

13.

Preservation of the present social order

14.

Solution of the immediate, personal problems of pupils

15.

The discipline of the mental faculties 7 1 *2

In the general education program of your school, the term 11curriculum” means one or more of the followings _ _

1.

Subjects or subject matter taught

_____ 2.

Extra-curricular activities

_____ 3.

The community brought into the school

A.

The school brought to the community

5.

All the experiences of the pupil (home, church, jukejoint, theatre, etc.) under the direction of the school

6.

Some other. ___________________________________________

(19)