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OPPORTUNITIES FOR GUIDANCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment for the Requirements of the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Jack Gerald O'Brien June 1950
UMI Number: EP46499
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46499 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 106-1346
Pi- lsf ^ / 3 77m project report, written under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and approved hy him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in partial fulfillm ent of the requirements fo r the degree of Master of Science in Education.
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION .................................. The purpose and nature of the study
. . . .
Importance of the p r o b l e m .................
The problem of juvenile delinquency
The changing concepts of the task of e d u c a t i o n ................
The changing philosophy of physical ..............................
Review of the literature ...................
Method of p r o c e d u r e .......................
Source of d a t a ...................
Treatment of d a t a .......................
Weaknesses and limitations ...............
Definition of t e r m s .......................
G u i d a n c e ...................
N e e d s ....................................
Secondary school physical education program
. . . . .
Organization of the s t u d y .................
PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL YOUTH IN TERMS OF BASIC N E E D S ......................................
PAGE Characteristics of the junior high school b o y ........................................
Characteristics of the senior high school b o y ........................................
Adolescent problems and needs ...............
Chapter summary ..............................
III. SELECTED PROBLEM CASES OF ADOLESCENT BOYS . . .
Introduction Case I
Case d a t a ............
Analysis of c a s e ..........................
Solution of c a s e ..........................
Case I I ......................................
Case d a t a ..................................
Analysis of c a s e ..........................
Solution of c a s e ..........................
Case d a t a ..........
Analysis of c a s e ..........................
Solution of c a s e ......................
Case IV . .
Case d a t a ..................................
Analysis of c a s e ..........................
PAGE Solution of.c a s e ........................... Case V . .....................
Case d a t a ..................................
Analysis of.c a s e ...........................
Solution of.c a s e ...........................
Case V I ........................................
Analysis of e a s e ...........................
Solution of.c a s e ..................
Case V I I ...................................... Case data
Analysis of c a s e ...........................
Solution of c a s e .......................
Case V I I I .................................... Case data
Analysis of c a s e ...........................
Solution of c a s e ...........................
Analysis of c a s e ...........................
Solution of c a s e ...........................
Case X ........................................
Case d a t a ..................................
PAGE Analysis of c a s e .................
Solution of c a s e .........................
IV. SUMMARY OP THE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS.
Recapitulation of theproblem and procedure.
Summary of f i n d i n g s .......................
Summary of weaknesses and limitations.
C o n c l u s i o n s ................................
Psycho-sexual guidance ...................
Family-relationship guidance ........
Civic g u i d a n c e ............................
Recreational guidance Recommendations BIBLIOGRAPHY
vi LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.
PAGE Germane’s Circle Graph .......................
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION THE PURPOSE AND NATURE OF THE STUDY In a postwar world with attention focused upon questions of juvenile delinquency, demand for youth recreation, and education for peaceful living, there is a need for a more effective program of counseling and guid ance in the secondary schools.
The purpose of this study
was to discover what opportunities for guidance exist in secondary school physical education.
Aware of these op
portunities, the physical education instructor may be able to advise boys of this age more adequately in regard to their individual problems. The main areas of adolescent problems and needs were selected through an examination of the current litera ture in the field of personnel work.
Ten problem cases of
adolescent boys were investigated, and an evaluation and interpretation of the cases were made to determine the area in which the individual problem lay and the opportunities for guidance'on the.part of the physical education Instruc tor.
By a classification of this nature, it was believed
that with some of the problems tangibly defined, it would
2 be possible to help other students in making those adjustments— educational, vocational, social and emotional— which lead to successful living.'
IMPORTANCE OP THE PROBLEM The need for more effective guidance procedures is attested to toy three conditions which exist in our second ary schools at the present time: ile delinquency,
(l) the problem of juven
(2) the changing concepts of the task of
education, and (3) the changing philosophy in physical edu cation. The problem of juvenile delinquency.
nation delinquency and crime continue to present a serious problem.
Young boys and ex-service youth are being arrested
for assault, burglary, disorderly conduct, and in some cases for rape and murder.
Tardiness, truancy, stealing, and dis
orderly conduct continue to be problems in our schools. During the last decade there has been a definite in crease in juvenile delinquency.
According to reports by
J. Edgar Hoover, statistics from 19^2 to 19^3 showed the following increase in arrests of young people: Seventeen per cent more boys under twenty-one years of age were arrested for assault. Twentysix per cent more boys were arrested for disorderly
3 conduct. Thirty per cent more boys were ar rested for drunkenness. Ten per cent more boys were arrested for rape.1 The war was in part responsible for this increase in p juvenile delinquency. Because of military or defense work,-one or both parents were taken out of the home. In many areas war production meant congested housing and strange new routines of living; job opportunities were plentiful and wages were high; at the same time new and exciting temptations were thrust before youth. The end of the war remedied some of these conditions. Furthermore, various educational groups have recognized the seriousness of the problem and have made numerous studies to discover ways of combating delinquency.
spite the encouraging decline in youthful delinquency immedi ately after the war, arrests of young people are again on the increase.
J. Edgar Hoover recently stated:
During the first nine months of 19^7 j arrests of boys 18 to 20 years of age increased nearly 27 per cent over the same period in 19^6. More over, some of the wartime teen-age offenders have
1 J. Edgar Hoover, "Youth Running Wild," Los Angeles Times, June 27, 19^3. 2 Special Committee on Juvenile Delinquency, The Effects of the War on Children (Albany: New York State Board of Social Welfare, 19^3)* P. 10.
4 grown up and many are now committing more serious crimes.3 The uncertainty and unrest of the postwar years are in part responsible for this increase in juvenile delinquency. Many of our youth today are living in homes beset with fi nancial worries and housing difficulties, they are living in a world beset with the problems of world peace in all its implications.
The insecurity which surrounds youth
today affects not only those young people whose emotional and personal characteristics are such that tend toward delinquent behavior, but it also affects the normal youth who may react in delinquent ways to the tenseness, strain, and restlessness prevalent today.
this is not due to anything particularly criminal about the young person, but due to the fact that the years of adoles cence generate physical and nervous energies, and if the environment doesn’t absorb these, antisocial conduct results. He continues: The best answer to this particular challenge of youthful delinquency and crime is the same as the answer.to the whole youth problem: programs of con structive activity.5
3 Article by David Sentner, Los Angeles Examiner. December 6, 1947. 4 Howard M. Bell, Youth Tell Their Story (Washington, D.C.: American Council on Education, 1938)> P. loO. 5 L o c . cit.
5 The physical education department can help to set up such a program provided that the physical education instructor approaches the problem in terms of his individual students and their particular needs. The changing concepts of the task of education.
importance of the problem of guidance is also due to the changing concepts of the task of education as Wrenn in his book, Student Personnel Problems, states: No longer were educators content with the single goal of subject mastery; they became concerned with student development in a larger sense. They began to assume responsibility for the development of the total personality of the student--his physical, social and emotional status as well as his intellectual per formance. 6 This recognition of the necessity of developing the pupil as a whole is due in part to the changing school population. With approximately 65 per cent of the high school population fourteen to eighteen years of age in school,7 the school is now faced with the problem of providing a program which will meet the needs of a group widely diversified in ability,
6 C. Gilbert Wrenn and Reginald Bell, Student Per sonnel Problems (New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1942), p. 6. 7 Homer P. Rainey, and others, How Fare American Youth? (New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937)> p. 43.
6 interests, experiences, financial resources, cultural back ground, and vocational needs. The shift in emphasis is also due to the change in social and economic life.
Not only must the school attempt
to prepare students to deal with-the more complex problems of modern living, but it must also assume the responsibility of providing training formerly supplied by other agencies. In answer to the challenge of the needs of youth from broken homes with little or no religious affiliation, the school has broadened its program in an attempt to provide students with those experiences which will develop the traits neces sary for proper social adjustment. Modern methods of production, based on routine jobs for employees, have tended to lessen the satisfaction to be derived from a man's work.
The trend toward the shortened
work week has left him with more leisure time for which he frequently has no useful purpose.
Furthermore, man's home
and social life no longer require any considerable amount of activity.
The results of these changes in living condi
tions have been expressed by Nixon and Cozens who state: . -The complexity of our present-day social and economic order develops much undesirable emotional tension gor which there are insufficient desirable outlets.° 8 Eugene ¥. Nixon and Frederick ¥. Cozens, An Intro duction to Physical Education (Philadelphia: ¥-.B. Saunders Company, 19^7), p. 12.
7 With this new concept of the task of education has come the realization that if the school is to help each student make a satisfactory adjustment to society, it must first know a great deal about him.
One of the valuable
techniques for securing this information which has come to the foreground in the last few years is the youth survey, As the American Youth Commission^ urges, each community should begin the task of meeting the needs of the presentday student by conducting such a survey. The changing: philosophy of physical education. Along with the changing concepts of the task of education, a new philosophy of physical education has developed.
phasis upon the educational aspect of physical education is dominating its philosophy.-*-0
This emphasis upon physical
education as a phase of the whole educational program has necessitated a change in aims, objectives, and practices. During the last half century the physical education program has changed and the following trends have appeared:
shift from calisthenics and formalized drill to games and o
M: M. Chambers, The American Youth Commission, The Community and Its Young People (Washington, D.C.: American Council of Education, 19^0), p. 9. 10 Walter S. Monroe, Editor, Encyclopedia of Educational Research (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950), p. 820.
free p l a y , ^ a wider variety of activities which are appearing in the program,
and a consideration of the
capacities and needs of the individual students.1^
trends indicate that the physical education program of today is concerned with providing experiences which enrich the life of the individual student.
leaders are aware of the potential values of physical educa tion in meeting the biological, psychological and social needs of students.
They are now faced with the problem of
determining aims, objectives and methods for successfully developing such a program.
Considerable research has been
done in certain phases of this new physical education pro gram.
However, little has been done on the subject of
guidance through physical education.
With the subject of
guidance the focal point of attention in much of our presentday educational thought, there is a need for study of this problem.
11 Laurentine B. Collins and Rosalind Cassidy, Physical Education in the Secondary School (New York: Progressive Education Association, 19^0), p. 13. Nixon and Cozens, op., cit. . p. 17^. 15 Ibid.. p. 71.
9 REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE Within the last few years there have been many ' books published which deal with the subject of guidance in our schools.
However, it is surprising that only a few
of these discuss
in detail the role of physical education 14 teacher in the guidance program. Erickson and Happ
recognize the particular aspects of the physical education program which make it especially adaptable to guidance work. In a quotation from Matthew P. Gaffney of Winnetka, Illinois, they have stated: The physical education instructor enjoys a unique place In the school in so far as his or her •opportunities to observe the actual growth processes of students is concerned. In physical activities the student Is constantly interacting informally with other Individuals and must adapt himself continuously to the social media in which he finds himself. Needs for growth in various areas are revealed at every turn by the student, thereby affording the physical educa tion teacher an opportunity not only to teach skills in activities but to contribute toward the total growth of the student through wise counseling and g u i d a n c e . 5 The authors also give specific instances in which guidance work is furthered in the physical education classes.
Clifford E. Erickson and Marion Crosley Happ, Guidance Practices at Work (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com pany, Inc., 19^6), 525 PP. 15 Ibid.. p. 79.
Warters1® and Strang1? have also published recent books on guidance.
However, both of the authors confine
their discussions concerning physical education in guidance to that material which applies to teachers in general as personnel workers. With the changing philosophy which has developed in physical education,1® there have appeared a number of valuable books written by leaders in this field.
recent publications include the book by L a S a l l e 1^ on guid ance through physical education, the revised edition of Williams and Brownell’s
book on administration of health
and physical education, and the revised edition of the book, 21 An Introduction to Physical Education, by Nixon and Cozens.
1® Jane Warters, High School Personnel Work Today (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1946), 277 P P • -1-? Ruth Strang, Educational Guidance: Its Principles and Practice (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947), 268 pp. 1® C f . ante, pp. 7-8. ^ Dorothy LaSalle, Guidance of Children through Physical Education (New York: A: S: Barnes and Company, 1946) 292 pp. 20
Jesse P. Williams and Clifford L. Brownell, The Adminlstrati on of Health and Physical Education (Philadelphia WfB.: Saunders Company, 1946), 483 P P • O '!
Nixon and Cozens, op., cit. . 251 PP •
Although LaSalle's book deals primarily with physical educa tion in the elementary grades, there is much material which is of value to the physical education teacher in the second- . ary schools.
In the first part of the book the author pre
sents an excellent picture of the guidance problem in physical education.
Through a study of the value to be de
rived from physical education she has set up physical educa tion objectives and has developed the idea of guidance for health, guidance for skill development, and guidance for social development.
Part two consists of curriculum mater
ials for elementary grades.
The other books-mentioned pre
sent an overall view of the physical education field with special emphasis upon the social and economic changes which have come with the close of the war.
The possibilities for
guidance by the physical education teacher is recognized by these authors, but little information was found upon a con crete approach to the problem. Kozman presents a more tangible approach in the article, "Guidance Techniques in Physical Education," which recently appeared in the California Journal of Secondary Education.22
She states that techniques which the physical
22 Hilda Clute Kozman, "Guidance Techniques in Physical Education," California Journal of Secondary Education, 23:77-81, February,.1948.
education teachers use In guiding students In the educa tional process are no different from those used by teach ers In other subject fields.
According to this author the
guidance, process involves the following procedures: 1. Studying the needs of students. 2. Stating the problem or setting objectives. 3- Making a plan to solve the problem or attain the objectives. 4. Carrying out the plan. 5. Evaluating results. 6. Replanning. She states that the purpose of guidance is to help the in dividual student become a mature, responsible cooperative adult with the knowledges, skills, and resources for solving the problems of self and others in our democratic Industrial society and in an interdependent world.
The physical educa
tion teacher contributed to this end through guiding students in solving their problems centered in relationships with others and through particular concern with their problems in the areas of health and recreation.
In addition, teachers
in physical education have a contribution to make in the area of body education through their responsibility for helping boys and girls develop skill and power to act. teachers have this concern in like measure.
13 In 19^4 Wessel2^ made a survey of the counseling functions of physical education teachers.
to discover what counseling was being done by the men and women physical education teachers and the methods by which they were accomplishing it.
Her conclusions were-that in
California schools physical education teachers recognize the fact that guidance is part of their Job.
aids which they employed were available student information, the health program, cooperation of other departments, library facilities, and the training in counseling of the individual teachers.
As recommended by Wessel, it was evident that ad
ditional training in guidance work should be given to physi cal education teachers.
At the present time they are not
making the most of their opportunities for doing effective counseling.
As Nixon and Cozen state:
As an opportunity for service, then, guidance offers to the physical education teacher the possibility for an outstanding contribution to the total educa tional program and for the integration of the field with the other phases of the school curriculum.2^
23 Dorothy ElaJhe Wessel, "A Survey Study of the Coun seling Functions of Physical Education Teachers," (unpublished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1944), 98 pp. 2^ Nixon and Cozens, oja. cit. , p. 193*
14 METHOD OP PROCEDURE In the present investigation a study was made of secondary school hoys.
Through various techniques data
concerning them were assembled.
This information was then
used as a source for the discovery of opportunities for guidance in secondary school physical education. Three great steps in the advance of the American secondary school have been vocational guidance, educational guidance, and social guidance: When secondary education first became conscious of its function to prepare for vocations, vocational guidance as a process came into existence. When em phasis on proper educational orientation within the school came to the fore, educational guidance was thought important. When the social character of the adolescent became recognized as a concern for the secondary school, social guidance was born.25 It behooves everyone who is responsible for the functioning of such a program to equip himself to the best of his ability to perform this task.
An essential factor in this care and
education of youth is a knowledge of youth.
The present study
was conducted to acquire this knowledge. Source of data.
The information which was used in the
study was secured from the following sources: the literature
Harry N. Rivlin and Herbert Schueler, Encyclopedia of Modern Education (New York: The Philosophical Library of New York City, 1943), p. 720.
15 dealing with the principles of adolescent psychology, with secondary education, and with physical education; interviews with athletic directors and coaches employed in secondary schools; and case studies from personal experience in ath letics . Treatment of data.
After the information concerning
the characteristics of secondary school youth was secured and the areas of adolescent problems and needs were reviewed, ten problem cases of adolescent boys were investigated.
each case data concerning the situation were assembled.
analysis of the data was made on the basis of the principles of adolescent physiology and psychology previously reviewed. The solution of the case was discussed with emphasis upon the contributions the physical education teacher might make to this solution.
By such a procedure an attempt was made
to discover some of the opportunities for guidance which exist in the physical education department. Weaknesses and limitations.
The present study was
limited to an investigation of ten problem cases of adoles cent boys.
It was recognized that such a study will not
bring forth all the desirable principles of guidance.
more, the prominence of youth surveys in recent years has demonstrated the value of each community making its own survey
16 As Homer P. Rainey, who was formerly director of the Ameri can Youth Commission, stated: An essential step in the care and education of youth is for each community which has its own dis tinctive pattern to make its own inquiry to ascer tain what are the present needs and wants of its young people.2© Obviously, all the principles and techniques of guid ance which have been developed in recent years could not be included in a limited study.
Consequently, no attempt has
been made to discuss these topics.
However, they suggest
contributing problems for further study.
DEFINITION OF TERMS Three terms require definition for a clearer understand ing of their use in the study. Guidance.
Guidance implies an individual appraisal
of personal attributes and traits followed up by education toward desirable courses of action and understanding.^ Needs.
In present educational thought pupil needs are
the keynote in the guidance program.
These needs are consid
ered twofold: first, those needs which lie within the pupil
26 Bell, op_. cit., foreword by Homer P. Rainey. Thomas Kirk Cureton, and others, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance (St. Louis: The G. V. Mosby Company, 19^7), P. 479.
and which are concerned with the demands which his adoles cent personality make upon the environment; and secondly, the requirements imposed by the responsibilities a democratic society makes of its citizens.
Secondary school physical education program.
and Brownell2^ define physical education as the sum of man's physical activities selected as to kind, and conducted as to outcomes.
From this definition the secondary physical educa
tion program was interpreted to mean those experiences which have been selected and conducted in such a manner as to aid \, the individual student to attain "his fullest development in meeting the demands of living in a democracy and in an inter dependent world."30
ORGANIZATION OF THE STUDY In the second chapter the characteristics of secondary
u Educational Policies Commission, Planning for American Youth (Washington, D . C N a t i o n a l Association of Secondary-School Principals, 1944), p. 45. ) 29 Williams and Brownell, o p . clt., p. 20. 3® Hilda Clute Kozman, Rosalind Cassidy, and Chester 0. Jackson, Methods in Physical Education (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1947), p. 116.
18 school youth are discussed.
This material is organized
into two sections: characteristics of the junior high school boy and characteristics of the senior high school boy.
latter part of chapter two consists of a review of adoles cent problems and needs. In Chapter Three, ten problem cases of adolescent boys are presented.
The Procedure which is followed in the in
vestigation of the cases has been previously described. The final chapter is devoted to a summary of the study as a whole with emphasis upon the development of a guidance program In physical education.
made for the application of the results of the study to such a program.
CHAPTER II PROBLEMS OF SCHOOL YOUTH IN TERMS OF BASIC NEEDS INTRODUCTION Today the emphasis in educational research appears to be upon the needs of youth.1
Consequently, the topic
of guidance in physical education was approached from that standpoint.
As a preliminary background to the discussion
of the specific problem, it seemed pertinent to discuss briefly the physical, mental, and social or emotional traits characteristic of junior and senior high school boys.
discussion served as a transition to a review of the areas of youth problems as they reflect youth needs.
CHARACTERISTICS OF THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL BOY The junior high school boy is ordinarily between the ages of twelve and fourteen.
Psychologists generally refer
to these years as the period of "preadolescence,"
1 "The Imperative Needs of Youth of Secondary-School A g e ," The Bulletin of the National Association of SecondarySchool Principles. 31s7-144, March, 19^7* ^ Lawrence A. Averill, Adolescence Mifflin Company, 1936 )> p. 3*
20 this period which marks the change from childhood to adolescence, boys display certain distinctive character istics . Considering the physical aspects of this period, it is generally agreed that pubescent changes in boys ordin arily occur at about the age of fourteen.3
This would in
dicate that most junior high school boys have not yet reached this stage of development.
They are rather at the peak of
that period of childhood development which is characterized by moderate and uniform growth in all parts of the body. As A v e r i H 2* explains, the boy has acquired progressively greater control over his body, and has succeeded in building up remarkably good co-ordination.
Due to this excellent
physical condition and due to the strenuous physical activi ties the majority engage
in, their health isextremely
However, to maintain the
health of boysofthis
good. a large
amount of food and plenty of sleep are required. Considering the outstanding mental characteristics of this age, boys are interested primarily in objects and things.^
3 Maurice M. Smith, L. L. Standley, Cecil L. Hughes, Junior High School Education (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, I n c ~ 1942), p. 5 7 . ^ Averill, op., cit. , p. 44. 5 Ibid.. pp. 9-10.
21 They display enthusiasm for objective contacts, for explor ation and for factual Information.
Collecting and hoarding
Is one of their favorite pastimes.
The popularity of
elementary science courses during the period is due to this interest in the world of objects. Another characteristic of junior high school boys is the imitative skills for which they strive--throwing the baseball in the desired course or cutting figures on the ice. The activities which appeal to this group require considerable movement and involve skill in the use of the arras and legs. Closely associated with the imitative abilities which inter est them is the hero-worshipping instinct of this age.
physical education instructor is in a particularly strategic position to direct these interests into desirable channels. The junior high school students generally possess an f\ excellent memory of a verbal, non-logical nature;0 that is, they memorize easily but frequently miss the meaning of what they memorize.
This failure to grasp meanings ties up with
their inability to generalize both in objective values and in standards of conduct. Considering the emotional and social characteristics of this age, psychologists find that junior high school students display a preference for spending their time in 6 Ibid., p. 11.
22 groups of their own sex.^
In the case of boys the "gang"
generally provides this companionship.
are frequently noisy and boisterous, but the training they get in these groups in cooperation,team work and loyalty offsets the undesirable factors.
Furthermore, boys of this
age have not yet acquired a clearly defined pattern of morals, and their later moral status is largely determined by the training from these group contacts. Closely associated with the tendency to belong to gangs is the competitive factor which comes to the foreground as another characteristic of this age.
As Conklin® points
out, when gang activity develops, team play also appears. However, it Is sometimes difficult to get satisfactory team play among junior high school boys because the tendency of showing off for the purpose of winning the notice and approba tion of one's companions is strong.
It frequently manifests
itself in much talking and physical activity. In general junior high school boys show a great deal of self-assertiveness. everything and everyone.
They are always ready to challenge They display a desire for independ
ence from home ties and demonstrations of family affections-7 V. T. Thayer, Caroline B. Zachry, Ruth Kotinsky, Reorganizing Secondary Education (New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, 1939)» P* 120. 8 Edmund S. Conklin, Principles of Adolescent Psychol ogy (New York-* Henry Holt and Company, 1935)* P- 71*
23 particularly in public.
However, the whole-hearted interest
they show in all that is going on in their own world and the democratic approach they make to their own problems offsets this over-aggressiveness.
CHARACTERISTICS OP THE SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL BOY As the junior high school boy is characterized by certain physical, mental, and social or emotional traits, so there are changes which take place in these areas as he moves from the junior high school into the senior high school. By the time most boys enter senior high school, they have reached the adolescent period— that is, the physiologi cal changes characteristic of this period have taken place. The boy grows taller; according to Arlitt,9 as much as a six inch growth in a period of two years has been noted.
is a corresponding increase in weight, but he loses his childish chubbiness.
However, in such matters as height and
weight wide discrepancies between individuals are found. Averill states: Boys at fourteen may vary between 54 and 71 inches in height, and between 72 and 148 pounds in weight, with median height and weight respectively approximately
9 Ada H. Arlitt, Adolescent Psychology (New York: American Book Company, 1933)> P P . 14-15.
24 62 inches and 105 pounds.-*-® These variances are due to such factors as race, heredity, and conditions of health. The sex glands begin their development during the 11 adolescent period. Their functions are to produce the secretion of reproduction and to regulate secondary sex characteristics by discharging secretions into the blood stream.
The growth of the sex organs, the deepening of the
male voice, and the growth of hair in certain areas, are examples of secondary sex characteristics. Other physical changes are: the boy's chest grows broader and larger, and his breathing capacity increases; his hands and feet enlarge, and, until he becomes accustomed to this change, it makes him clumsy and awkward.
and muscles show rapid growth--sometimes at irregular rates. If the muscles develop more rapidly, there is a looseness which results in clumsiness and lack of coordination; if the bones excel, there are cramps and growing pains.
this ungainliness boys are inclined to be uncertain on their feet, clumsy .in.the use of their hands and lacking in poise
Averill, op., cit.. pp. 4-5. 11 Ralph W. Pringle, The Psychology of High-School Discipline (Boston: D. C. Heath and Company, 1931), pp. 231_
25 and self-possession.
Due to this growth new controls and
new coordinations must be learned.
There is a need for a
high amount of physical activity to develop these controls, and the enormous increase in physical energy that comes to youth of this age fits them for these activities. Prom the standpoint of health, there are frequently minor functional disturbances of the digestive, circulatory and nervous systems associated with this age.
the vast amount of energy released is a distinct asset on the side of health, and the mortality rate among this group 12 is extremely low. The growth in the brain manifests itself in a craving for knowledge and information, and the wide range of intelli gence found among adolescents and adults is apparent.
is due in part to the demand in high school for increasing ability in using the mind reflectively.
There is less em
phasis on verbal aptitude and more stress on reflectional reactions. From an emotional and social standpoint, the period of early adolescence is frequently one of considerable insta bility for senior high school b o y s . ^3
Aware of their physical
Averill, ojd. cit. , p. 6 6 .
13 Thayer, Zachry, Kotinsky, loc. cit.
26 ungainliness, they are inclined to be reticent and bashful. However, as they have an opportunity to participate in athletics, they develop muscular control and poise.
is also during this period a pronounced alteration in their feelings for the other sex.
Their previous aversion
gradually changes to interest and attraction, and there is an increasing tendency toward activities in which young men and women may both participate,
ADOLESCENT PROBLEMS AND NEEDS One of the main objectives personnel work is helping youth recognize and understand their many baffling problems. As Erickson states: ". . .attention must always be focused on the individual student and his p r o b l e m s W i t h i n
last few years numerous studies have been made concerning youth problems and youth needs.
The results of such studies
have furnished excellent categories for classifying adoles cent problems. One of the earliest of these was the survey made by Germane when he was professor of education at the University
p. 7 3 .
^■5 Clifford E. Erickson, A Basic Text for Guidance (New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 19^7 ), p. 195.
1f\ In his book, Personnel Work in High School,
he describes this survey, and he uses a circle graph to show the ten areas into which the data were classified. A copy of this graph appears on the following page.
significant factor of his results was the emphasis which he placed upon the importance of a unified and wholesomely integrated personality which is the product of the interac tion of all the adjustment patterns a student has acquired in the ten areas. Carr1? approaches the problem from the standpoint of needs and states that every child has four basic needs or four wish-satisfaction goals.
1. Physical needs: (a) food, (b) clothing,
2. Emotional needs: (a) status, (b) affection, (c) familial relationships, activity,
(d) psycho-sexual adjustment,
(f) growth, (g) achievement.
3. Skills: (a) comfort skills, (b) age-group skills, (c) vocational skills, (d) personality-adjustment skills, i.e., habits of adjustment to success or failure.
Charles E. Germane and Edith E. Germane, Personnel Work in High School (New York: Silver Burdett Company, 1941), pp. 2 ^ 5 5 . ■*■? Lowell Juilliard Carr, Delinquency Control (New York: Harper and Brothers, 19^1), p. 82.
Leisure Aesthetics Culture
Physical Individual Health
Figure 1 GERMANE'S CIRCLE GRAPH 18 1O
Germane, o p . cit., p. 30-
29 4. Social orientation: (a) values,
(c) insight, or understanding of other persons,
(d) a code
of conduct. He states that failure to satisfy these needs creates some kind of emotional disturbance in the personality which drives the personality to seek methods of reducing the ten sion.
In general, Carr continues, there are three kinds of
obstacles to the satisfactions of any of these needs: (1 ) en vironmental obstacles, (2 ) personal defects, and (3 ) wish conflicts within the individual himself. Another classification of youth needs is found in the book Planning for American Youth.^9 mary of Education for All American Youth,
Written as a sum . this publication
emphasized the need for planning for the welfare of youth now.
Fully recognizing the fact that birth and environment
have made boys and girls different, the authors state that *
there must be equal educational opportunities for all and that it is the job of the school to meet both the general and
•*•9 Educational Policies Commission, Planning for American Youth (Washington, D.C.: National Association of Secondary-School Principals, 1944), 63 pp. 20 Educational Policies Commission, Education for All American Youth (Washington, D.C.: National Education Associa tion of the United States and the American Association of School Administrators, 1944), 421 pp.
30 the specific needs of youth.
The demands which society
today makes of its members form the basis for their classi fication of common educational needs which they express as follows: All youth need to develop salable skills. All youth need to develop and maintain good health and physical fitness. All youth need to understand the rights and duties of the citizen of a democratic society. All youth need to understand the significance of the family for the individual and society. All youth need to know how to purchase and use goods and services intelligently. All youth need to understand the influence of science on human life. All youth need an appreciation of literature,, art, music, and nature. All youth need to be able to use their leisure time well and to budget it wisely. All youth need to develop respect for other persons. All youth need to grow in their ability to think rationally.21 If these needs are not being met in the case of individual students, it is an indication that the pupils are faced with problems In certain areas.
Educational Policies Commission, Planning for American Youth, o p . cit.., p. 6 3 .
31 In his consideration of student problems Erickson chooses the following areas:
vocational problems, academic
problems, emotional and social problems, health problems, and financial problems.
He states that many particular
problems may exist in any one area; it is erroneous to as sume that all problems in a certain area are in general alike and may be approached with the same guidance tech niques . In one of the more recent books, Adolescence and Youth,it
is stated that the adolescent-youth group wants
what all people in our culture want:
(l) recognition and
status, (2 ) respect and social■favor, (3 ) response and happy social interaction, (4) security and group acceptance, experience and expression, happiness and freedom.
(6 ) achievement and success, (7 )
The problem of the school is to
create situations in which these basic wants of adolescents and young people find satisfaction. pit
According to Eckert, ^ consultant on parent education for the State Department of Education of California, the
22 Erickson, pp. cit.. p. 19923 Paul H. Landis, Adolescence and Youth (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1945), p. 8 9" Dally News (Los Angeles), February 25, 1948.
32 three basic needs of adolescent boys are the need for genuine affection, the need to become biologically mature, and the need for a sense of achievement and growth.
claims that the basic needs of adolescent boys are different from those of individuals of all other ages in that they are more intense.
CHAPTER SUMMARY From the study of the characteristics of secondary school youth, it was evident that many changes--physical, mental, emotional and social— occur.
With these changes come
problems, and students frequently need help in solving their particular difficulties. In the review of adolescent problems and needs it was apparent that the classification of the data into areas var ies considerably.
However, certain trends of similarity were
discovered in most of these investigations.
1. The recognition of the need for helping youth to analyze their problems so that desirable adjustments may be made which will lead to self-improvement. 2. The implication of the importance of over-all ad justment on the part of students. 3. The significance of an understanding of student problems to postwar educational plans. 4. The integration of the total school guidance pro gram.
CHAPTER III SELECTED PROBLEM CASES OP ADOLESCENT BOYS INTRODUCTION It is obvious that not all of the problems of secondary school youth can be solved through the physical education department. of education.1
Physical education is only one phase
However, the physical education teacher
will desire to teach so that the physical education program makes its rightful contributions to the guidance program of the school.
To determine what some of these contributions
might be, ten problem cases of adolescent boys were selected for investigation.
Data were assembled in each case, an
analysis was made of the factors Involved in the maladjust ment, and the role of the physical education teacher in the solution of the problem was discussed.
By such a procedure
an attempt was made to suggest some ways in which the physi cal education teacher may help the student in solving his problems.
CASE I Case data.
Case I was a Mexican boy fifteen years
1 Elwood C. Davis and John D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education (New York: Prentiee-Hall, Inc. 1948), P. 112.
34 of age.
He was the oldest of a large family.
worked as a railroad section hand, and neither parent spoke English.
The boy was enrolled in the tenth grade at school,
and the school record of his intelligence showed an I.Q. of 105.
However, his class work was poor and he presented a
discipline problem in a number of his classes.
He did not
participate in the extracurricular program and his asso ciates were boys who were also disinterested in school.
frequently was on the attendance officer’s list for truancy. Analysis of case. into several areas.
The problem appeared to extend
In the academic field, the school appar
ently was failing to provide sufficient incentive to the interests of Case I.
The health of the boy was being im
paired by the extensive use of tobacco and irregular eating and sleeping habits.
Furthermore, racial barriers were pre
venting the boy from participating in the social activities of the school. Solution of case.
In studying this case, the coun
selor discovered that in elementary school the boy had showed considerable skill in basketball.
was relayed to the athletic coach and his aid enlisted in interesting the boy in the athletic activities of the school. The coach discovered that the boy had real ability in
35 basketball, and he became a member of the nB" team. following two years he played on the varsity team. was no longer a problem In the school.
His attendance im
proved as well as his class room behavior. more interest in his studies.
With the training schedule
set up for the athletie teams, his health improved.
successful member of the varsity team, his social status was raised. After graduating from high school, Case I completed a two year junior college course.
He was a member of the
junior college basketball team which won the local A.A.U, championship.
Academically, he enrolled in those courses
which would enable him to secure a clerical position with the railroad for which he wishes to work. Without his interest in athletics, the school admin istrators feel that the boy probably would not have completed his education.
Athletics provided an activity in which he
could excel and receive the approbation of both classmates and adults.
CASE II Case data.
Case II, a seventeen year old boy, was a
sophomore In high school.
His parents had died when he was
a small boy, and he was living with his grandmother in a
36 small shack on the edge of town. his earnings for their living.
They were dependent upon The boy had a paper route,
and he also worked after school, on Saturday and a part of Sunday for a refrigeration company.
At night he worked in
a bowling alley. His scholastic record showed an I.Q. of 84.
grades were very poor, and he was falling in some subjects. He did not belong to school clubs or organizations.
health data showed he was decidedly underweight, and that he was frequently absent from school because of illness. His physical condition apparently resulted from insufficient food, long hours of work, too little sleep, and worry. Analysis of case. financial problems.
This was a case of poor health and
Case II was not an incorrigible boy.
He was a hard worker and a slow plodding student. Solution of case.
The physical education teacher
was appointed the b o y ’s advisor.
Through his efforts, ar
rangements were made for the grandmother to be sent to live with a niece in a distant city and for the boy to move to a nearby ranch where he would have the opportunity to work for his board and room.
He was advised to give up his work
at the bowling alley; and at the same time, the matter of high school boys working in bowling alleys at late hours was
37 called to the attention of proper authorities and a check up was made upon work permits.
Furthermore* the boy was
encouraged to participate in physical activities approved by the school physician. With the aid of the counselor* his school course was revised and vocational courses were substituted for the academic subjects in which he was failing.
The boy became
much happier* and the physician reported an improvement in his health.
What this boy needed most was a chance to
finance himself without such strenuous efforts and to have teachers who were interested in him.
CASE III Case data.
Case III was a good student, a fair ath
lete* and a natural leader.
However* he was constantly be
ing reported to the principal because of his obscene language. In the halls, the lavatories, and the locker room* he would gather an audience with his knowledge of offensive stories. However, it was apparent in talking to the boy that he was amazingly ignorant of the elementary facts of sex.
further investigation It was learned that sinee earliest childhood he had had a great curiosity regarding anatomical differences between boys and girls, the process of birth, and the sensations of his own body.
When he had approached
38 his parents with questions, they had been evasive and given him no satisfactory answers to his questions.
he had searched elsewhere for the answers to his questions. From older youth and from cheap literature, the only kind available to the boy, he had managed to pick up considerable information.
He soon discovered that this information was
interesting to other students.
He failed to realize that
even though his stories afforded prestige of a certain kind, nevertheless, those boys and girls with whom he would have liked to associate excluded him from their social activities because of his vulgarity. Analysis of case.
The problem presented by Case III
might be classified as an emotional problem.
Today sex edu
cation is accepted as an essential phase of learning.2
ever, Case III illustrated the problem that exists when both the home and the school were failing in furnishing adequate sex education.
As a result, the boy was getting his informa
tion from unwholesome sources.
This erroneous information
was leading to over-curiosity and harmful attitudes. Solution of case.
The method of handling such a prob
lem depends upon the type of individual concerned.
2 Landis, op., cit. . pp. 36-38.
39 ease of this boy, a frank talk with him by the physical education instructor on the subject of sex, interesting and unemotional, did more good than anything else.
only satisfied his curiosity on the subject, but it gave him a new and more responsible attitude toward keeping the whole subject of sex clean.
He realized how his stories
must have sounded to boys who had received better instruc tion and had a better understanding of his stories than he had.
In addition to the provision for sex education, the
boy was encouraged to seek other ways of gaining popularity such as through his skill in some of his favorite sports.
CASE IV Case data.
Case IV was a boy of sixteen, who was a
junior in high school.
An investigation of his family back
ground showed that the parents were both almost illiterate, and none of his older brothers or sisters had ever finished high school.
The father was a successful farmer.
he was disliked by most of the neighbors, and the family did not mingle with the other people in the community. The boy's scholastic record was poor.
his teachers he was lazy, thievish, and indifferent to punishment.
He did not know how to study nor did he want to
He did not participate In high school sports or
He was regarded with distrust by most of the boys
as he was suspected of stealing money which had disappeared from the locker room of the gymnasium. Analysis of case.
This case appeared to be one of
very low scholarship and extreme indifference to school work, accompanied by very undesirable social and ethical habits. Apparently the home offered no encouragement to the boy to finish high school.
Furthermore, the boy had received
little or no ethical training. Solution of case.
It was decided that something
should be done to reinstate the boy in good standing with his classmates.
As the boy was interested in hunting, the
physical education teacher arranged to take a group of the boys in the school on a hunting trip in that section of the country where the boy could guide them.
On this trip the
teacher managed to break down the antagonism which the boy had previously exhibited toward all teachers, and to estab lish rapport with the boy.
As a result he made an attempt
to participate in the physical education activities and at the same time there was an improvement in his general atti tude and in his school work.
He became interested in the
agricultural courses offered by the school and joined the Future Farmers of America.
41 CASE ¥ Case data.
He ranked near the head of his
a senior in high school. class in all subjects.
was a young man of splendid physique and clean-cut appear ance.
He came from an excellent home, and his father was
a prominent banker.
Prom the b o y ’s childhood, the father
had said that it was his life ambition to see his son take over the management of thebank. to send his son to
he could well afford
believed that the boy should
learn the business as he had done— by going to work in the bank as soon as he completed his high school course. The boy's extracurricular record showed active partici pation in athletics.
He excelled in a number of sports.
was also very prominent in student body affairs and had been elected student body president.
A number of schools were
Interested in seeing the boy enroll at their institution. The boy wished to continue his education, and had hopes of becoming a professional baseball player.
However, the father
refused to permit this. Analysis of case.
This was a family problem.
boy was getting along splendidly at school. that was the source of friction.
3 Germane, o p . cit.. p. 344.
It was the home states, in such
cases the chief causal factor was the father's ignorance of the psychology of individual differences and his son's special aptitudes and interests.
It was a case of a
selfish father who wanted to direct his son's life and who was using every means within his power to force the son to accept his choice of vocation. Solution of ease.
As the boy had discussed the
matter extensively with one of the coaches, the man arranged for the school psychologist to interview the banker and ac quaint him with certain psychological facts pertinent to the choosing of a profession, such as the significance of "drive" and interest in one's life work, and the need for pronounced aptitude or ability in a chosen field.
also talked to the father about the son's athletic ability and provided information concerning the opportunities In the athletic field.
The father was receptive to these sugges
tions, and agreed to let his son continue his education. With the way open for him to continue his athletic eareer, the boy decided to major in banking and the decision on his future career was postponed until he completed his college career.
43 CASE VI Case data.
Case VI was concerned with a seventeen year
old boy who had been brought before the Coordinating Council on a charge of burglary.
Placed on probation, he had not been
adjusting well socially or educationally since his return to school.
The girls in particular did not accept him and r e
fused dates with him. His previous school record had been excellent.
I.Q. was listed as 110, and teachers had rated him high in such traits as industry, reliability and initiative.
attendance record had been good, and he had participated in football and track. His parents reported strain and tension at home. family background was better than average.
The boy had the
use of the family car and he was provided-with ample spending money.
His friends were welcome in the home.
investigation showed that these friends were boys who were frequently in trouble for truancy, misconduct, and also more serious misdemeanors. Analysis of case.
It was believed that the boy was
probably weak In his ability to resist the influence of his companions.
If separated from undesirable companions, he
could undoubtedly maintain acceptable social conduct. Furthermore, possibly the parents had allowed the boy too
44 much freedom. Solution of case.
It was decided that the school
should institute a definite program to aid in the boy's social rehabilitation.
He was assigned to committee work
relating to the social events of the school.
Since he had
previously been successful socially, his association with students in committee work should eventually draw him again into the life of the school.
He was also given careful
educational guidance, and a weekly check was made on his atten dance and scholarship. As he had withdrawn from school at the time of his arrest and had not completed the previous semester, he was ineligible for competition in athletics at that time.
he was given some athletic responsibility in connection with the teams, and this served to renew his Interest in sports. The following semester, he was eligible and became an out standing member of the track team.
CASE VII Case data.
This case was a boy in the ninth grade
and fourteen years of age.
In comparison with other boys in
his class, he was physically immature.
He was about five
feet in height, and he still showed the plumpness character istic of many adolescent boys.
He had little interest in the
45 activities of the school, and he preferred the companionship of elementary school boys to that of his classmates.
test data showed that his I.Q. was 123, but his scholastic record was very poor. Attention was first attracted to the boy when he refused to strip for physical education.
tion showed that some of the older boys were commenting on his physical appearance, and the boy was beginning to believe that he was abnormal. Analysis of the case.
Here was a case of delayed
pubescent changes, a boy who had not matured as rapidly as his classmates.
Furthermore, medical examination showed that
a glandular condition complicated the case.
was adversely affecting his social and school life.
a feeling of inferiority as he saw those about him developing normally.
Emotionally upset, he could not make the proper
adjustments. Solution of case.
The physical education teacher
recommended to the parents that the boy be examined by a physieian.
The doctor found that the boy was not developing
properly sexually and he prescribed medicine to remedy the condition.
At the same time, a frank discussion of the whole
subject of sex and its functions enabled the boy to look at his problem objectively.
With the knowledge that something
46 was being done about his condition, he was able to compare himself with others without fear.
CASE VIII Case data.
Case VIII involved a boy who was a fairly
good athlete but a poor sport.
He excelled in track, but
on several occasions when he was threatened with defeat, he would refuse to run in a meet on the grounds that he was ill. Repeated examinations by the doctor indicated that the boy was feigning illness in order to avoid defeat. Analysis of case.
The characteristic exhibited by
this boy is closely associated with cheating.
J this emotional problem, in the pamphlet, Guiding the Adolescent, appear the following statements: The habit of cheating and the tendency toward evasion are utilized by children, adolescents, and adults in attempting to attain certain objectives in life without making the necessary effort. . . . The love of winning or the inability to lose gracefully— that attitude called poor sportsmanship— may lead to difficulties in this direction. The inability that many individuals have to meet any situation frankly, that is, just as it exists, also leads to cheating, evasiveness, and lyi n g . 5
^ Federal Security Agency, Guiding the Adolescent (Wash ington, D.C.: United States Children's Bureau, 1946), 83 pp. ^ Ibid., p. 6 5 .
47 This boy had not learned how to meet failure as well as success. Solution of case.
The coach informed the boy that
he would be forced to drop him from the track squad because he was unable to depend upon him for participation in meets. As the boy was genuinely interested in athletics, he asked for another chance to maintain his position on the team. At the same time emphasis upon the tenets of good sportsmanship helped the boy to readjust his attitude on winning and losing. Eventually the boy was able to meet defeat in a normal, socially acceptable manner.
CASE IX Case data. capped.
Case IX was a boy who was physically handi
A victim of poliomyelitis, he had a badly crippled
left leg and walked with a cane.
Enrolling as a junior, he
presented a serious problem as his handicap had given rise to serious personality maladjustments.
He worried about his
condition and was constantly comparing his lot with those of more fortunate Individuals.
He also used his handicap as an
excuse for failing to participate In many school activities. Analysis of case.
One of the recognized principles
48 of mental health Is to avoid worrying about problems not amenable to s olution. ^
As everything possible had been
done for the boy from a medical standpoint, it appeared that he would have to accept his handicap and it was evident that he would need help in making a satisfactory adjustment. Solution of case.
It was suggested that an effort be
made to find tasks for the boy in connection with the various school activities.
By such a procedure It was believed that
he would have less time to think about himself and might develop some worthwhile interests.
Under protest he agreed
to run the time clock at the basketball tournament.
it was encouraging to note that he diffidently inquired who would handle the clock at future events. job.
He was given the
While the boy's rehabilitation was far from complete
at the close of the school year, it was felt that considerable progress had been made.
CASE X Case data.
Case X illustrated the problem of the boy
with inferior physical and mental ability.
His I.Q. was 7 5 ,
^ Louis P. Thorpe, Psychological Foundations of Per sonality (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938), p . 427.
49 and his achievement was on about fourth grade level.
lacked muscular coordination and was able to participate in only very simple activities.
Even though he lacked
manual dexterity, tests showed that he would be most likely to succeed at manual tasks.
His parents were average in
dividuals who recognized the limitations of their son, but who lacked the ability to help the boy in making the most of his limited assets. Analysis of case.
In the pamphlet, Guiding the
A d o l e s c e n t ,7 three principles to be observed by parents and
teachers in planning for the boy with the slow mind are sug gested.
The necessity of giving frank and early recogni tion to whatever handicap he may have. The importance of placing him properly in school so that he will not have to struggle beyond his capacity, or constantly experience a sense of dis couragement and failure. The wisdom of planning for the child's greatest satisfaction and happiness rather than for the ful fillment of parental ambition.° A frank discussion of these principles enabled the boy's parents and teachers to see the importance of applying them to his case.
7 Federal Security Agency, Guiding the Adolescent, o p . cit. 8 Ibid., p. 22.
50 Solution of case.
In accordance with the above
principles, it was recommended that the parents and teachers undertake to find out more about the boy's particular liabili ties and assets.
The vocational guidance counselor provided
information concerning the type of vocation which would be open to him and in which he could use his willingness to work, his perseverance, and his other assets to the best advantage. The contribution of the physical education department consisted in teaching the boy to swim.
made the b o y ’s physical education class the high point in his school day rather than a period to be dreaded and dis liked.
The b o y ’s satisfaction in this achievement was ample
reward for the patience and time required of the instructor.
CHAPTER SUMMARY Chapter III has presented selected problem cases of adolescent boys.
Ways have been suggested in which the
physical education teacher can contribute to the solution of their problems.
In the analysis of the cases, It was ap
parent that a knowledge of adolescent psychology and growth was essential to the understanding of the problems.
nition of this fact, It behooves the teacher of physical education to learn all he can about the topic so that he may
51 be better able to apply this knowledge to his teaching. By such a procedure it is believed that the physical educa tion program will be able to take full advantage of the opportunities for guidance.
CHAPTER IV SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS RECAPITULATION OF THE PROBLEM AND PROCEDURE The purpose of this study has been to determine what opportunities for guidance exist in secondary school physical education.
Selected problem cases of adolescent boys were
These cases were analyzed to determine the
factors of maladjustment involved and suggestions were made whereby the physical education teacher might help in the solu tion of the problem.
By such a procedure an attempt was made
to discover the guidance opportunities which are to be found in the physical education department. A library study was made of the books on guidance, and special attention was given the subject of guidance through the physical education program.
It was found that the material
relating to this topic was rather limited. Some of the characteristics of secondary school youth which have a direct bearing on adolescent problems were dis cussed.
Youth needs were briefly reviewed and it was concluded
that most problems among adolescents result from the failure to satisfy one or more of these basic needs.
of ten selected problem eases interpreted in terms of these principles comprised the material for the present study.
53 SUMMARY OP FINDINGS To summarize the findings of the present study, the outstanding contribution of the physical education teacher in the solution of each of the ten cases, which were dis cussed in Chapter III, has been presented.
In the selection
consideration has been given not only to the b o y ’s present adjustment, but also to his future adjustment in the adult world. 1.
In Case I1 the boy's interest in athletics appears
'to have been the important factor in furthering his vocational training.
The physical education teacher offered an athletic
program in which ability and achievement did not depend upon race or social standing. 2.
Through the help of the physical education teacher O the boy in Case II was able to satisfy the physical needs of food, clothing and shelter. 3.
The boy in Case III^ illustrated a problem of
psycho-sexual adjustment int.the emotional area.
education teacher was able to furnish him with wholesome sex education. ♦
1 5JL* ante, p. 33 . 2 C£. ante, p. 35* 3 C f . ante, p. 37*
In Case IV^ the physical education teacher pro
vided, an opportunity for the boy to excel in an activity so that he could gain the respect and esteem of his classmates. 5.
When the boy in Case V"5 was able to attain a
satisfactory relationship with his father, the problem of vocational preferences was more amenable to solution.
fact that the boy had confided in the physical education teacher— a coach in this case— opened the way for confer ences with the father with desirable results. 6.
In Case VI^ the physical education teacher was
able to create situations in which the boy was able to gain the respect and social favor of his classmates.
wants are desired by all individuals, adults as well as adolescents. 7.
Case VII^ illustrated the need of boys to become
The physical education teacher observed
variances in this boy's physical development, and made recom mendations for correction of the condition.
^ Cf. ante, p. 3 9 . 5 C f . ante, p. 41. 6 Cf. ante. p. 43* 7 Cf.. ante, p. 44.
The boy in Case VIII
lacked the ability of ad
justing to failure as well as to success.
education teacher provided situations which inculcated a sense of fair play and good sportsmanship. 9.
The physical education teacher was able to help
the boy in Case IX^ to participate in activities of the de partment in which his defect handicapped him the least.
sense of achievement enabled him to overcome his feeling of inferiority and see his physical handicap in its true perspective. 10.
For the boy in Case X
. learning to swim pro
vided him with an activity in which he could find enjoyment for many years.
The physical education teacher contributed
to the b o y ’s leisure time interests by teaching him to swim.
SUMMARY OF WEAKNESSES AND LIMITATIONS Certain weaknesses and limitations in the study were apparent.
The limited scope of the study did not permit in
clusion of cases illustrating all types of adolescent prob lems.
However, an attempt was made to include sufficient
® Cf. ante. p. 46. ^ ££.* ante, p. 4?. 10 ££» ante. p. 48.
56 examples of various need areas to serve as a guide. In the analysis of the data in the cases selected for investigation it was difficult to classify the problem into one area.
In most cases It was found that maladjustment
in one area frequently caused maladjustments in other areas. Germane11 - has discussed the importance of a unified and wholesomely integrated individual. Emphasis was placed on the discovery of ways in which the physical education teacher may participate In the guidance program. presented.
Consequently, the complete picture has not been As previously mentioned, the guidance viewpoint
must be made to permeate the entire school situation.
CONCLUSIONS The ten cases which have been discussed in Chapter III suggest a number of areas in which there are opportunities for guidance in secondary school physical education.
areas may be classified as follows: i.
For all youth the recognition
of the importance of health and physical fitness is an importand objective in the physical education program. 11 Cf. ante. p. 2 7 . 12 Cf. ante, p. 32.
57 the physical education teacher is in a position to observe variances in physical development and make recommendations for correction of such conditions.
For all youth the
physical education department can furnish a knowledge of available health services in the community and encourage the habit of using these services.
For the handicapped youth,
corrective physical education should be provided.
dividual should be taken as he is with respect for what he may become, and helped to improve himself so that he may ad just to life in school and thereafter. 2.
For all youth the establish
ment of good health practices, the development of desirable character traits, and the acquisition of useful' motor skills have vocational values.
The acceptance of the fact that
ability and achievement do not depend upon race or social standing is also an important contribution to the student's education. 3* Psycho-sexual guidance.
For all youth the physical
education department can provide knowledge of the biological foundations of family life and encourage the development of wholesome boy and girl relationships. 4.
For all youth the physical educa
tion department should provide an opportunity for acquiring recognition and status, group acceptance, and achievement.
58 However, there should also be opportunities for developing the ability of adjusting to failure as well as to sueoess, and a coach’s conduct when his team wins or loses may be an important factor in influencing the attitudes of his boys. 5.
For all youth
sound family relations and lasting home interests may be developed in the realm of sports. 6*
All youth should participate in
experiences where there is an opportunity to practice demo cratic principles and accept civic responsibility. 7*
For all youth the provi
sion of leisure time interests— both as a spectator and as a participant, and the acquisition of the necessary knowledge skills, and attitudes for participation should be made avail able through the physical education department. The responsibility for successfully putting into ef fect a secondary school physical education program which will recognize these opportunities and make use of them lies in the hands of the personnel in the department.
RECOMMENDATIONS The value of the present study lies in the applica tion of the guidance practices which have been developed
59 to the problems facing other boys.
The following recommenda
tions have been presented to clarify the use of these prac tices by the physical education teacher. 1.
The principles of adolescent physiology and
psychology should be thoroughly understood by every teacher. 2.
The needs of the individual student should be
carefully studied to determine the particular area in which guidance is required and will be effective. 3.
Student participation in selecting areas for em
phasis in the guidance program will increase the effective ness of the program. 4.
Rapport between student and counselor is essential
to the success of the guidance work. 5-
Every teacher should feel that he has a definite
responsibility in the total guidance program. 6.
The principles of personal integration on the part
of the pupil should be an important objective of the guidance program. 7.
Provision should be made for follow-up procedures
to determine the success of the guidance program. In the last analysis, the value of the guidance program is measured by the outcomes as expressed in patterns of stu dent conduct.
The changes in growth, in desirable behavior,
in increased knowledge, and in improved skills among students
60 are the criteria for evaluating the worth of the guidance procedure in the physical education department.
than ever before, the particular aspects of the physical education program which make it especially adaptable to the development of the total personality of the student offer a challenge to teachers in physical education.
Arlitt, Ada H., Adolescent Psychology. Book Company, 1933* 250 pp. Averill, Lawrence A . . Adolescence. Company, 1936. 475 PP-
New York: American
Boston: Houghton Mifflin
Bell, Howard M., Youth Tell Their Story. American Council ofi Education, 1938*
Washington, D.C.: 277 pp.
Carr, Lowell Juilliard, Delinquency Control. Harper and Brothers, 1941. 447 pp.
Collins, Laurentine B., and Rosalind Cassidy, Physical Educa tion in the Secondary School. New York: JProgressive Education Association, 1940. 120 pp. Conklin, Edmund S., Principles of Adolescent Psychology. New York: Henry Holt and Company, 1935* ^37 PP* Cureton, Thomas Kirk, and others, Physical Fitness Appraisal and Guidance. St. Louis: The C. V. Mosby Company, 1947566 pp. Davis, Elwood C., and John D. Lawther, Successful Teaching in Physical Education. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1948. 617 PP. Erickson, Clifford E., and Marion Crosley Happ, Guidance Practices at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, m 325"pp“— Erickson, Clifford E . , A Basic Text for Guidance Workers. New York: Prentice-Hall Inc., 1947. 566 pp. Germane, Charles E . , and Edith E. Germane, Personnel Work in High School. New York: Silver Burdett Company, 1941. 599 PP. Kozman, Hilda Clute, Rosalind Cassidy, and Chester 0. Jackson, Methods in Physical Education. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1947. 552 pp. Landis, Paul H., Adolescence and Youth. New York: McGrawHill Book Company, Inc., 1945~ ^70 pp.
62 LaSalle, Dorothy, Guidance of Children through Physical Education. New York: A.S. Barnes and Company, 1946. 292 pp. Monroe, Walter S., Editor, Encyclopedia of Educational Research. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1950. 1520 pp. Nixon, Eugene W., and Frederick W. Cozens, An Introduction to Physical Education. Philadelphia: W.B* Saunders Company, 19^7* 251 PP. Pringle, Ralph ¥., The Psychology of High-School Discipline. Boston: D.C. Heath and Company, 1931* 362 p p . Rainey, Homer P., and others, How Fare American Youth? York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1937* 186 p p .
Rivlin, Harry N., and Herbert Schuele.r, Encyclopedia of Modern Education. New York: The Philosophical Library of New York City, 19^3- 902 pp. Smith, Maurice M . , L.L. Standley, Cecil L. Hughes, Junior High School Education. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Com pany, Inc., 1942. ¥70 pp. Strang, Ruth, Educational Guidance: Its Principles and Practice. New York: The Macmillan Company, 1947. 268 pp. Thayer, V.T., Caroline B. Zachry, Ruth Kotinsky, Reorganiz ing Secondary Education.~ New York: D. Appleton-Century Company, 1939. 483 PPThorpe, Louis P., Psychological Foundations of Personality. * New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1938. 602 pp. Warters, Jane, High School Personnel Work Today. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1946. 277 PP* Williams, Jesse F., and Clifford L. Brownell, The Administra tion of Health and Physical Education. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1946. 483 pp. Wrenn, C. Gilbert, and Reginald Bell, Student Personnel Problems. New York: Farrar and Rinehart, Inc., 1942. 233 PP.
PUBLICATIONS OP LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS
Chambers, M.M., The American Youth Commission, The Community and Its Young People. Washington, D.C.: American Coun cil on Education, 1940. Educational Policies Commission, Education for All American Y outh. Washington, D.C.: National Education Association of the United States and the American Association of School Administrators, 1944♦ 421 pp. Educational Policies Commission, Planning: for American Youth. Washington, D.C.:"National Association of Secondary School Principals, 1944. 63 pp. "The Imperative Needs of Youth of Secondary-Sehool Age," The Bulletin of the National Association of Secondary-School Principals. 31:7-144, March, 1947. Federal Security Agency, Guiding the Adolescent. D.C.: United States Children’s Bureau, 1946.
Washington, 83 pp.
Kozman, Hilda Clute, "Guidance Techniques in Physical Educa tion," California Journal of Secondary Education. 23:77'*' 81, February, 194*8. Special Committee on Juvenile Delinquency, The Effects of the War on Children. Albany: New York State Board of Social Welfare, 1943189 PP.
Daily News (Los Angeles), February 25* 1948. Los Angeles Examiner. December 6 , 1947. Los Angeles Times. June 27* 1943*
Wessel, Dorothy Elain, "A Survey Study of the Counseling Functions of Physical Education Teachers/’ (unpub lished Master's thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1944), 98 pp.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LIBRARY