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AN OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION CLASS FOR A SMALL HIGH SCHOOL

A Project Presented

to

the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by Marvin Arthur Langlois August

1950

UMI Number: EP46421

All rights reserved INFO R M A TIO N TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46421 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8 1 0 6 - 1346

/£ i

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pr *y

T h is project report, w ritten under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty of the School of E d u catio n in p a r t ia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree

of M a s t e r of

Science in E ducation.

D ate

.................

...... A d v is e r

Dean

TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

II.

PAGE

THE SITUATION AND THE N E E D ...............

1

The s i t u a t i o n ..........................

1

The need for vocational g u i d a n c e .......

7

AN OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION CLASS FOR THE SMALL HIGH S C H O O L .........................

III.

17

A DISCUSSION OF METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION

35

M e t h o d s ................................ An occupational information class

40

. . . .

40

Use of courses in English and Social S t u d i e s ............................

40

Use of tests and test interpretation . . .

4l

Talks by the p a r e n t s ................

42

Talks by the faculty m e m b e r s .............

43

Talks by business m e n ...................

43

Talks by college men and o t h e r s ........

44

Talks by the armed s e r v i c e s .............

44

Reading of books, magazines, pamphlets

45

..

Assignments on relation of subjects to j o b s .................... >...............

45

Field t r i p s ..........................

46

Audio-visual a i d s ....................

46

Career d a y s ..........................

46

CHAPTER

PAGE Achievement d a y s .....................

47

The use of shops and laboratories

. . . .

47

.................

47

Summer and part time p l a c e m e n t ...........

48

Surveys of community needs

.............

48

Compilation of occupational

materials

Job experience programs

Careers club .

.........................

Career consultation services .

49

........

50

Units on job g e t t i n g .....................

50

Survey of alumni j o b s ...................

51

Radio and television

.............

51

C h a r t s ....................................

52

P o s t e r s ..................................

52

Questionnaire on study habits

53

..........

Assigning of jobs to s t u d e n t s ............

53

Library functions assigned to students . .

54

Personal history folders .................

54

School newspaper columns ........

. . . .

54

. . . . .

55

Letters of application ...................

56

Interviews

56

Careers council ................

IV.

. . 49

..............................

THE P E R S O N N E L ...................

60

Line and staff relationships . . . . . . . .

60

Responsibilities of personnel

62

.............

CHAPTER

V.

PAGE Selection of personnel ...................

66

In-service training of staff .............

69

Qualifications of speakers ...............

73

EVALUATION OP THE P R O G R A M .................

76

Some evaluative studies

.................

77

Outcomes of a guidance program ...........

8l

BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................

84

A P P E N D I X ..........................................

89

CHAPTER I THE SITUATION AND THE NEED Sebewaing High school is a four year high school located in a rich farming community.

The township has

Just recently been consolidated into a single school unit with the exception of three parochial schools.

Two of these

schools have grades from one through eight and the other has grades one through ten.

Neither of the parochial schools

has a kindergarten class, and consequently the pupils go to the public schools, for their first year and then transfer to the parochial schools.

Upon finishing their education

in these schools they return to the public school.

Their

cumulative cards follow them from one school to the other so the records are quite complete.

The public high school

has an enrollment of from 175 to 200 each year and is on the increase each year.

There have been approximately

fifty-five freshmen entering the high school each year. It is anticipated that there will be a definite increase in this population within a few years.

In order to accom­

odate this anticipated Increase, the school board has started a new building program which was voted in during the past session.

There is to be a new shop, laboratories,

music facilities, and more classrooms.

Besides this, an

allotment has been set aside for more teachers.

This will

be beneficial in that it will make it possible to set aside time and space for the activating of the occupational in­ formation set-up. The school day has been divided into eight fortyfive minute periods, four of which are class periods, two study periods, and two activity periods.

The athletic

program is carried on during the last two periods of the day during the activity periods.

This is necessary because

many of the boys have to take the four o'clock bus in order to get home.

On evenings when it is necessary for them to

attend practice sessions, they make arrangements to ride home later with those who have car3. The students are divided by classes into home rooms. Each home room has a teacher in charge who is the class adviser or sponsor.

Up to the present time, this has been

for the most part merely an administrative convenience, although some guidance is carried on in these periods. The home room period is a full forty-five minute period. The guidance program which exists at present in the school consists mostly of orientation and placement.

The

guidance work is not organized as such, and therefore operates with only a fair degree of adequacy.

It is the

purpose of this project to suggest the organization of an adequate and effective guidance program suitable to the

3 general program of this school, beginning with the ini­ tiation of an occupational information class. It will only be fair to describe the guidance func­ tions now present in order to establish a basic foundation on which to set up the proposed program.

These functions

are:

Pre-school Orientation A.

Eighth grade classes spend a day in the high school.

B.

Activities (morning): 1.

Half period classes which the students visit.

2.

Two assemblies, before and after visits.

3.

Handbooks given to new students.

C.

Lunch served at noon in the cafeteria and gym.

D.

Activities (afternoon): 1.

General assembly in gymnasium. (a)

Each department puts on skits for new students.

E.

2.

Sports events— prizes given to winners.

3.

Baseball game--free admission to all students.

4.

Gymnasium open for all other sports.

5*

Tennis courts utilized.

Teachers are available for pre-programming, etc.

4 Pall Registration and Orientation A.

Monday and Tuesday:

freshman registration.

1.

All teachers available for consultations.

2.

Short assemblies each morning for group instruction.

3.

Activities: (a)

Group guidance.

(b)

Individual guidance.

(c)

Programming

(a)

Reviewing of the handbooks.

(e)

Meetings with coach and music in­ structors .

B.

Wednesday:

registration of Junior, Senior

and Sophomore classes (re-registration). C.

Thursday:

Regular classes begin.

Vocational and Educational Guidance. A.

School catalogues in the principal's office.

B.

Vocational pamphlets also located in this office.

G.

Method of referral:

student comes of own

accord, or is sent by teacher when need be­ comes apparent.

The previous description would seem to indicate that the guidance program is not as well organized as it might be.

There is a need for a program which is definitely

planned for guidance purposes, and the administration has expressed itself as being in favor of such a program being inaugurated.

This willingness on the part of the admin­

istration immediately solves one of the most important problems— namely, the active support of the administration. The next problem is that of adapting the guidance program to the vocational needs of the students and of the community.

While this is primarily a farming community,

there are many students attending the high school who do not wish to remain on the farms.

These students upon grad­

uation go to the surrounding towns to study trades, to Join police forces, to go into military or civil service, and enter many occupations other than farming.

It is felt that

it would be much to their benefit if they could receive some previous instruction about opportunities in these towns, and about Job opportunities in various industrial and commercial fields— instruction that is both realistic and usable. Vocational education must teach the student how to work.

For the educator it is the teaching of others how

to work.

At some time or other all persons must acquire

some type of vocational education.

The sooner it is

acquired the sooner will the student become proficient through practice and repetition. In planning the initiation of a vocational guidance program, many questions arise: anized, vocational education?

Do we need planned, org­ Is it, In last analysis,

the function of the school to provide such training? should administer it?

What students should be allowed to

take advantage of such a program?

At what age should they

be considered eligible for vocational training? an important factor?

Who

Is age

Obviously the answers to these ques­

tions are dependent upon many factors, and are bound up with the attitude of the school and community toward such basie questions as:

the American philosophy of education,

the American democratic pattern, freedom and equalities of opportunity, and the like. The main purpose of this project is to attempt to answer some of these basic questions, and to suggest, in line with these answers, a practical and workable program of vocational guidance for a small high school. The presentation of well planned, organized voca­ tional guidance programs has come late in the history of American schools.

Apprenticeship is one of the earliest

forms, vocational schools one of the latest developments. Before this period, people gained whatever vocational in-

formation they acquired more by accident than by design. The only method open to them was that of "trial and error," with emphasis on the latter, and while it served as an expedient at the time, it is totally inadequate to the demands of the modern-day educational program.

Nowadays

it is considered of vital importance that the student, during his high school program, be given an orientation into the vocational world of which he is soon to be a participating member.

He must be shown "how," and must

have first-hand information to guide him in his choice of and preparation for a career. This is not to say that all schools must be pri­ marily vocational schools.

They must all, nevertheless,

give the students help vocationally--even the smaller schools can be of great assistance in helping students to plan their careers.

They can put into their curriculum

a class in vocational informations, and can run a voca­ tional guidance program to parallel it. The need for vocational guidance.

Upon questioning

the large majority of students entering high school as to their plans for a vocation, any of the following answers may be expected: know." for."

"I had not thought about it."

"I am undecided." And the like.

"I don't

"I don't know what I am fitted

This type of response is not so much

an answer on the part of the student as it is an inquiry— a tacit request for help on that very problem.

It is im­

portant that the teacher learn to detect the implied re­ quest on the part of the student, and to recognize the opportunity which is there.

A student at this point is

facing one of his first major decisions.

It may be the

first that he has been required to make for himself and is in consequence one of tremendous importance in his life. Without assistance from a well planned guidance program the student is thrown altogether upon his own judgment and the limited resources at his command. The school has the opportunity of furnishing a wealth of vocational "resources" to the student, and these resources which should be provided should include an occupational information class, some occupational guidance systematically presented, and opportunities for individual counseling from a qualified source.

The lat­

ter, in the form of merely a friendly boost from a teachercounselor who is qualified, can be of inestimable value not only to the student but to the school, as well.

The

student who has been guided into a field where he is hap­ pily adjusted will be a happy student and an industrious one.

His work will be more to his liking, and consequently

will be easier for him, thus setting the stage for his successful completion of his work program.

The school,

9 moreover, will be benefitted in many ways:

the student

will be an asset to any class he attends, he will be less trouble to the teacher in matters of discipline, and it will be easier for him to achieve his maximum academically. And as his life is running smoothly in his vocational work, he will carry this attitude over into his other contacts and will be an all-round asset to the school. The planning of a vocational guidance program must, first of all, take into consideration the oeeupational world which the student is to enter upon his grad** uation from school.

Factories, offices, stores and farms

have all become definitely more mechanized than ever be** fore*

These mechanizations are everywhere about the

student.

All of them have, in their inner structure,

complicated machinery which makes possible the mechanized marvels of our present«day world.

To young people they

do not need to remain complicated "mysteries;" they are fast becoming less so.

indeed,

Young minds are endowed

with an immense sense of curiosity, and along with their desire to learn a trade is a capacity for observation and reasoning about all the various so*»called "marvels" that are a part of his new vocational world.

These things

they want to understand, and they are willing to go to great effort to satisfy this desire.

In earlier times the school did not have to plan for educational and vocational education, as the students who entered the high school were of different calibre than they are today.

Then, students attended school with

a different purpose in mind.

They were working in order

to better their opportunities.

They already had an in­

centive to work and an occupational goal towards which to work.

There was little need for motivation, on the part

of the school.

The school, therefore, was able to devote

Itself entirely to the simple academic program, with little concern for its practical application to life situation to be met by the students*

The curriculum, in other words,

did not have to be projected beyond the classroom*

Those

students who were not capable of doing the best work were silently dropped from school rolls, and were soon forgotten. They were needed at home, and there were many opportunities for them to live out good lives quite apart from the in­ fluences of school life. is quite different.

Nowadays, however, the picture

A greater variety of students make

up the school population.

The industrial revolution has

had a great effect on our schools, and the result is a school population of great diversities of abilities and goals.

This, in turn, calls for skillful planning on

the part of the schools, especially in the matter of

11 vocational guidance and the integration of occupational information and skills into the total school curriculum. Some of the major factors that have contributed to the increase of our high school population are well set forth by Edmundson, Roemer and Bacon,* who list them as follows: 1. American traditions have demanded education for all. 2. The invention of labor saving machinery and increased per-capita wealth have made possible more and better schools. 3. The increase of leisure time has encouraged parents to send their children on to school. 4. The decrease in child labor has placed students of school age in school.

many

5- The compulsory school attendance laws of the various states has Increased the secondary school enrollments. 6 . Large scale industry, complex machinery, and business efficiency have called for larger numbers of trained and educated workers. 7. New modes of transportation and the growth of cities have resulted in easier access to schools and, consequently, have increased the secondary school enrollments. 8 . Enriched curricular offerings with their corresponding wider appeals to all types of adol­ escents have attracted an increased number of students.

James B. Edmundson, Joseph Roemer, and Francis L. Bacon, The Administration of the M o d e m Secondary School. New York: The Mac'miTTan Company, l$4l.

12 9. The development of the extra-curricular act­ ivities program has attracted more adolescents to the secondary schools. 10. The fostering of part time and evening schools, vocational schools, CCC camps, and other types of schools has encouraged many students to continue their secondary school education, and has made it possible for them to do so. 11. The depression, which threw large numbers of adolescents out of work, served to increase the number of students in the secondary school. There is no doubt that there are a great number of factors that have contributed to the increase of the secondary school population, but we can see from the above mentioned reasons why the school situation is so different from that of a few years back. The most frequent criticism of a vocational edu­ cation program is that "One should not only learn to earn a living, but also to live a life."

Nevertheless,

in order to learn to live a life, a man must first of all have something to do his living with.

The worker

does not have things given to him on the proverbial "silver platter;"

neither does he find them growing

on trees.

To earn them, he must, in most cases, work

for them.

And this is specifically where vocational

education comes into being, and finds its greatest just­ ification.

The sooner a student finds his own vocation

and is working at it, the sooner will he be in a position

13 to start this "living of a life."

And this is absolutely

essential to his living of a happy life. There are many different attitudes the student may assume in looking at his training for a position. He may, at the bottom of the attitude scale, look upon it as the ugly aspect of a sordid fate that will inevitably catch up with him, and his attitude will insure that his fate will be Just that.

His Job will be a means of dis­

comfiture, and the Job he enters will be merely one which is to be endured because he must eat.

On the other hand,

he may reach out positively to his Job as a means for making possible a happier life— a life which is to be as full as he can make it of worth-while and happy ex­ periences.

His slant will be a completely different one,

and his work thereby becomes an opportunity to better his life, a chance to give scope to his personality, to be­ come creative in his own right, to become A great number of students wish

an individual.

to have a vocation

which will be of benefit to them, but do not know Just how to go about looking for it or preparing for it.

To

them the school is a place for "book larnin," no more, no less.

But it could be the place for them to start

on the road to the realization of their ambitions.

The

school could provide, if nothing else, a class in voca­ tional education or occupational information and the

14 parallel of guidance above-mentioned.

The opportunity

would thus be provided so that the student might obtain the help he seeks in finding his proper occupational niche. Hot too long ago a boy or girl could, upon leaving school, go out and find a job which paid a fairly high wage;

today they are finding that this abundance of work

opportunities is no more.

Young people are finding it

necessary to look carefully into the available fields for their work; furthermore, they are called upon for a greater selective ability, as they do not have the large wage-scales upon which to draw in compensation for the type of work which they are able to do upon completion of a secondary school education.

Their selection of a

job field must be made on the basis of the field in which they will find the greatest enjoyment and satisfaction in performing the work required; personal satisfaction will compensate, somewhat, for the relatively smaller salary which is to be anticipated.

This is itself re­

quires that those teachers and counselors who are entrusted with the guidance of young people shall be able to find and analyse their needs. In general, the needs of young people who are thrown into the situation of finding themselves voca­ tionally may be listed briefly as follows:

15 1.

Young people need to know themselves.

2.

Youth should learn to know other people.

They

should know life. 3.

Youth must know about jobs.

Most knowledge

of this kind comes from off-hand casual observation. Much of it is either wrong or wrongly Interpreted and thus relatively valueless.

A knowledge of jobs for

which they have special interests, aptitudes, and cap­ acities requires a careful, organized teaching that is found in the school. 4.

Youth must develop a philosophy.

5.

Youth needs to make a choice of a vocation,

or rather, a series of choices. 6.

Youth needs

to learn how to work.

Most of these facts, though of a general nature, apply to Sebewaing high school.

Its curriculum does not

serve the specific needs of the community, as has been brought to its attention on several other things that have

occasions. There are

been brought to

theirattention

that could be done to make the school a better school and consequently better serve the community and the students alike.

These are the things which the admin­

istration hopes to remedy and add to as the guidance program is developing.

This will also add to the program in offering increased opportunities for projects to be worked out in conjunction with the school and community, thus making for better public and community relations.

CHAPTER II AN OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION CLASS FOR THE .SMALL HIGH SCHOOL It is estimated that 1,750,000 additional youth enter our national labor market each year.

There are, HQ)

in the United States, roughly, between 3G-f0©@-andH35jOGO separate Jobs for these youths to choose from. they to make a choice? method still be used?

How are

Must the old trial and error It looks like too large a Job for

a small high school to handle.

But this is not neces­

sarily so. Hie task of bringing about a satisfactory adjust­ ment for these youth can be simplified by approaching the problem from the community point of view.

The youth

of each locality can usually be grouped into fi&'rly def­ inite groups or families.

The Interests of a good many

of them are going to be quite similar due to their en­ vironmental surroundings. of.

These can be easily taken care

Those that do not come within this pattern can be

handled spearately or in groups as the situation, requires. A vocational information class offened in the ninth grade consisting of methods of explaining the various types of occupations could be offered.

The students themselves

18 could assist in the setting up of the program by suggest­ ing the occupations they wished to study.

Each should

be encouraged to suggest as many as they wished.

These

then would be tabulated and the faculty could go about arranging to prepare the necessary material and program needed.

Of course there is always room for anticipation.

The common interests of the groups would carry over from year to year and thus the program could start with a minimum loss of time.

i

1

These vocational choices would be kept on file and would be available for use from year to year.

The new

assignments that appear from time to time could be as­ signed as special topics to those students who have ex­ pressed their especial interest in them.

Individual ad­

vice would have to be given to these students as to sources for materials, where to look and write in order to obtain information on these particular occupations. Reports on these occupations could be given to the class and should also be included in the student’s files for future reference. The teacher of this course should have as complete a knowledge of source materials as possible, and should always be alert for new sources of material.

He or she

should have a wide personal knowledge of many occupations

19 other than that of teaching.

It would be preferable if it

could be first-hand knowledge, but if that is not possible, then the teacher should talk personally with as many bus­ iness men as possible, so that concrete, accurate knowledge is given to the class or individual.

It would also be

desirable that this teacher's schedule be so planned that free periods for individual counseling with students be permissable, so as to make the program more effective. If possible, the teacher should be able to observe the students at some of their other activities; he should also receive reports from other teacher-counselors who have opportunities to observe the students in action in their various curricular and extra-curricular activities. This is of vital importance to the successful and effect­ ive operation of a counseling program.

It goes without

saying that the instructor, above all, must have an intense interest in guidance work, and must visualize the import­ ant role which adequate vocational guidance plays in the lives of young people.

The instructor should be given

the opportunity to improve her knowledge through attend­ ance at night classes, correspondence or extension courses and the like.

The school -could offer tangible encourage­

ment to the instructor in the form of advancement or paid tuition fees in such courses.

20 The instructor must be familiar with the various devices for the disseminating of occupational information and must be on the alert to use them to their best ad­ vantage when the proper opportunity presents itself. Some of the devices or methods at her command are as follows: 1.

The use of testing materials.

2.

Written and oral reports.

3.

Talks by the parents of the students.

4.

Faculty talks on their own fields, and on other

occupations which they are qualified to discuss. 5.

Talks by business men of the town and surround­

ing areas. 6.

Assignments on the relations of jobs to high

school subjects. 7.

Field trips.

8.

Audio-visual aids.

9.

Setting up of career and achievement days.

10.

Use of the laboratory and shops for school

tryouts and simulated work conditions. 11.

Job experience programs worked out with the

business people in town. 12.

Summer placement research and results.

13*

Surveys of community needs.



14.

Talks by men from various schools and colleges.

15*

The compiling and filing of the occupational

materials collected. The-above is Intended as merely-a-suggestive list to which many-other-devices will be added by the resource­ ful teacher.

The final point listed— that of the compil­

ing and filing of the occupational materials collected— is possibly the most important of them all, from the student's standpoint.

A class of this nature must have

at its disposal a complete occupational file, as an in­ dispensable tool.

It is anticipated that the instructor

will make it as complete as possible in as short a time as possible, and will add to it at every opportunity, and as the budget allows.

The more comprehensive the

file the greater will be its value to the student.

There

are many good sources of occupational information avail­ able at the present time.

Many government and non-gov­

ernment organizations publish occupational pamphlets at little or no cost to the schools. can supply quite a few.

Community sources

Many of the bigger business

firms now issue a great deal of valuable material which is adaptable to this program.

Reports given in class

may be included in the file if they are of a nature that makes them valuable to future classes.

There are a

great number of textbooks that should be purchased as the opportunity occurs.

Of first Importance Is the

Dictionary of Occupational Titles, which is essential both as a source and as a means of indexing all occupa­ tional materials.

Margaret Forrester's publication,

Occupational Pamphlets, is another important source addition to the library. occupational materials.

It lists most of the important The appendix lists other books

which would be desirable for purchase by the library. This file and library can be built up quite easily if the school will take the responsibility of selling it to the community.

A file of this nature has many uses

other than for a school occupational information class. Some of these uses might well be listed to be used as "convincers” in trying^t-o-'Bell it to the community. A.

B.

Use in industry. 1.

By job analysts and unions.

2.

For the more efficient placing of personnel

3.

Occupational deferments in war periods.

4.

In training programs.

5.

Veterans' employee selection, transfer, etc

Civilian governments. 1.

Works Progress Administration and National Youth Administration use it to fit jobs to

persons, and persons to jobs. 2.

The United States Employment Service has been instrumental in developing such a program.

C.

3.

Vocational training for war jobs.

4.

Night schools for veterans and adults.

Military. 1.

The Army and Navy use them in conjunction with the United States Employment Service.

2.

They are used in separation centers to compare service duties and civilian occu­ pations .

D.

Education. 1.

Individual and group counseling.

I

2.

Planning of courses.

3.

Correction or revision of courses of study.

4.

Private companies supply the schools with­

5.

United States Office of Education keeps

out charge.

files and~furnishes to schools on request. E.

Community. 1.

Occupational information files and trends on being open to citizens would help them in locating work and solving their own problems.

2.

Aid to returning veterans.

3.

Surveys of own and surrounding territories are of great help to the working popula­ tion.

4.

Evening classes.

From the above it can be seen that an occupational information file can do many things to help the general public.

This file must be compiled carefully so as to

obtain only the correct information and the current inf­ ormation.

All information included in such a file must

be both accurate and usable in the present situation. It must furnish information about industry, pertinent facts on occupational trends, and pertinent facts on the supply and demand of labor.

If this is done carefully

there is no end of the uses to which the file may be put. Briefly, there are three main steps in the setting up and operation of such an occupational file.

These are

1.

The proper securing of the information.

2.

The presentation of the information in usable

3.

The proper application of the information.

form.

Not one of these three steps can be omitted if the file is to serve its purpose.

It is suggested that

use may be made of the first two steps in the occupations class, as methods of acquainting students with occupations, jpiseussions as to the materials that are good and bad, as well as the places where they may be secured, should be included.

Classes should also be oriented in how to

look for and recognize these materials— -good and bad-* and in methods of putting them into usable form.

Stu­

dents can assist in the filing and display of materials. After these two steps have been taken, classes can make use of the afore-mentioned techniques of applying the information to the specific interests and problems of V

the students. A detailed discussion of these techniques or de­ vices will be given later in the present study.

At this

point, it would be appropriate to suggest the use of a planned set of structured topies for week-to-week assign­ ments.

A class of this type should be operated on a

laboratory basis, with each student working individually on his or her special occupational interests.

DetJen’s

book on Home Room Guidance contains a suggested program which is suitable for classroom use. part, below.

It is included, in

The home room situation could be easily

adapted to this type of organization.

Detjen divides

the class into three periods a week— one an auditorium

period, the second a library period, and the third a home room discussion period.

Using this plan as a

basic structure for the program, the other two periods each week could be used as supervised study periods in which the students could work on their individual pro* jects.

The auditorium periods each week will be used

to bring in speakers on different occupations and to show occupational movies.

The library periods will be used

to read up on the occupational projects the students are working on.

This may be done in groups or singly.

Also, there may be chances for exhibits of pictures and charts on occupations.

Studies of high school and col­

lege offerings can also be delegated to this period. These events will follow the general trend of the week's work and will parallel the work done in the auditorium and the home rooms.

An outline of the topics and scope,

together with the home room activities, follows below.

Week 1

Topic and scope

Home room activity

Importance of vocational

Organization

planning. (a) to the Individual (b) to the community Importance of a wise choice of occupation.

27 Week

Topic and scope

Home room activity

2

Essentials of vocational

Discuss the advantages

planning.

of education.

(a) Know world of work. (b) Need for study of oc­ cupational interests and aptitudes.

3

Understand self.



Discussion of person­

(a)

Abilities.

ality traits and

(b)

Interests.

habits essential to

(c)

Aptitudes.

success in school.

Definitions and descriptions, analysis and questionnaires. 4

Comparison of assets and

Same as above.

liabilities with require­ ments of the vocation under consideration. 5.

Important realizations.

Occupations open to

(a) Need for training.

Junior and Senior

(b) Need for possession

high school graduates,

of more than one skill. (c) Fallacy of "blind alley jobs.”

28 Week

Topic and scope

Home room activity

(cL) Square peg in round hole fallacy. (e) Need for flexible attitudes. 6

Important realizations:

Same as above.

(a) Avoid common errors in making choice. (b) Next person's Job better. (c) White collar illusion. (d) Perfect niche. (e) Jumping to wrong conclusion. 7

Aids to good vocational planning. Discussion of -Whether; (a) Tryout experience.

-to—go-to high school

(b) Activities outside of school: or to work, part-time employment, hobbies, vacation jobs, summer camps, training program in industry. 8

Substitutes for tryout experiences: Work samples. Psychological tests. Hobbies.

Discussion of the 9th grade course.

Week

Home room activity

Topic and scope Interviewing workers. Field trips to observe. Reading. Radio and records. Motion pictures.

9

World of work today.

Choosing high school

(a) Contrast before indust­ rial revolution.

subjects according to abilities.

(b) New inventions. (c) Change to factory and mass production. 10

^

World of work today.

Same as above.

(a) Growth of cities. (b) Women and children in industry. (c) Machine age. 11

Labor unions. (a) Why formed. (b) What types. (c) Objections to. (d) Arguments for:

Discussion of plans for the future.

30 Week

Topic and scope

Home room activity

labor's weapons. industry's weapons. Effect of industrial warfare. Fath to industrial peace. 12-19

A close-up individual study

Cases of vocational

of one or more fields of

failures,

occupations based on the following plan: (a) What are occupations in this field of work?— for beginners? --for experienced workers? (b) What do workers in these occupations do? 12-19

(c) How best to train for

The importance of self-

these occupations— what

analysis in. the choos-

high school subjects

ing of vocations,

offer best preparation?— is college education needed?-what schools offer training?— what is the cost of training?— what does it consist of?

31 Week

Topic and scope"

Horae room activity

12-19

(d) How difficult is it for

Important facts one

beginners to get jobs?—

should know in

Is the field overcrowded?

making a vocational

How does it compare to

choice.

others in this respect?

12-19

(e) What are the chances of

Applying for a position.

advancement ?— How quickly?— What are top jobs?— Pay? 12-19

(f) What kinds of people

Intensive personal

are successful in this

study of a few

work?— What are my pos­

occupations or

sibilities?

schools.

(g) Where to go to observe or talk with successful informed workers?

12-19

(h) What can I read that will

Same as above,

help me understand this kind of work? (i) What schools in the vicinity offer training in this work? Summary and culmination.

The previous outline need not be followed in strict order as it is shown, since the order of topics to be discussed allows for considerable flexibility.. Some amount of structuring is advisable, however, in order to make the class more effective in its working. The problems to be discussed should be adapted to the needs at the time when they arise.

Motivation would

then be at its best. In suiting the course of study to the needs of the students, it might be well to consider the occupa­ tional choices which are to be made by the students. Here, briefly listed, are the three choices to be made and the suggested handling of these choices for the i individual student. These are the things which the alert instructor must keep in mind in dealing with in­ dividual choices. A.

Those who choose to leave school for work. Intense study of selected occupations. Comparison of assets and liabilities of student as compared to those already in jobs. Individual counseling with teacher, ad­ viser, and counselor. Parents should also be consulted.

Those who select to go to high school. 1.

Set up their programs.

2.

Be available for any needed help.

Pacts about education for all of both groups 1.

Importance of educational training and planning should be discussed in detail

2.

The essentials of planning should be outlined.

3*

Educational opportunities in the high schools outlined. (a)

Characteristics common to all.

(b)

How own differs from other high schools.

(c)

Discussion of courses of study offered.

4.

Educational opportunities in private schools, on the high school level, dis­ cussed.

5.

Educational opportunities beyond the high school.

6.

(a)

Non-degree granting schools.

(b)

Degree granting schools.

Financial aids to obtaining an education (a)

While at high school.

3* (b)

After graduation from high school. (1)

Scholarships.

(2)

Foundations, etc.

{3)

Work s tudy plans.

These are things that the student will be inter­ ested in

finding

out

and it is bestif they learn it

early in

their high school careers.

They will be able

better to plan their courses of study and also their final

obj ec tives. This program has been planned for the ninth

grade as

this is

the

point at which it is most import­

ant that

we help

the

students to straighten out their

educational and vocational problems.

Thus they can

more effectively plan their stay in high school, or their next step in their occupational careers.

As the

program builds up from year to year we can inaugurate more things into it, and make it of increased value to the whole school in more than Just one aspect.

And

the logical starting point for a continuing occupational guidance program throughout the high school course would seem to be an occupational information class.

CHAPTER III A DISCUSSION OP METHODS AND THEIR APPLICATION The preceding chapters have dealt with a discus­ sion of occupational guidance from the point of view of a freshman class in occupations.

This is a good start­

ing point, but it must not end there.

The occupational

guidance program should be carried on throughout the total high school career, if it is to be at all effect­ ive in the lives of the students.

At this point it

would be appropriate to discuss the program as an over­ all program for the whole school and at the same time bring in the use and application of technics in the dissemination of this occupational material. Briefly to review the functions of the fist-year class in occupational information:

It appears that the

course of study is of a broad nature, starting with broad fields and working gradually towards more specific occupational information.

Those students who Intend to

leave school at the end of their ninth year, for some reason, will do a more intensive amount of studying than those who intend to complete their high school courses.

For the latter students, a program should be

outlined which Is not so intensive In nature, and will

be of greater benefit to them.

It is planned that their

most intensive study of occupational fields and colleges will come later in their senior year of high school. Grade ten will be similar to grade nine, with the exception that no class in occupational informations will be offered.

There are many ways in which this can

be carried through.

The testing program at this level

will be intensified as a checking device.

It will be

given as a check to see whether possible discrepancies have developed on tests formerly given, and whether the student has made real progress in the year he has been in attendance in the school.

Additional aptitude tests

may be applied as the need arises.

Greater emphasis

may be placed on the study of occupational fields, and some research can be done if the student exhibits an interest and a desire to do so.

Some of the methods

of keeping the occupational program alive and running during this and the Junior year are these: 1.

An unsigned questionnaire on why we do or

do not study. 2.

Many interesting facts show up here.

Assigning of jobs around the school to in­

dividuals on a point bonus basis.

This may serve as

a sort of job experience. 3.

Delegating the handling of bulletin boards

37 and displays to students in these classes. 4.

The organizing of a careers club in which

the student may get together with his fellow students and discuss common interests in occupations. 5.

Assigning of library functions to students,

especially in the occupational files. 6.

Assigning the posting of announcements of

pictures, assemblies, radio programs, and field trips to members of the class. 7.

Interesting the students in starting their

own personal history folders, and keeping them up to date. 8.

Having the school newspaper start a column

on occupations, keeping it active throughout the year. 9.

Setting up of a careers council made up of

two students from each home room, thus keeping the voca­ tional problem in front of the students.

This council

can do much towards the helping of the whole guidance program. 10.

Cooperation of the classes in English and

Social Studies. 11.

Making of field trips, assemblies, auditorium

programs, and the like available to all classes. 12.

Posting of all reading assignments so that

others not in occupations classes can see them and

38 possibly take an interest and read, "on their own hook." 13-

These students can be given the responsibil­

ity of helping to organize the field trips, movies, career days, achievements days, etc. 1%.

Shop and laboratory classes can assist in

showing connections to actual job situations. 1 5.

Make use of summer and part-time employment

as a discussion tool with these students. 16.

Let these students help in the procuring

and compiling of the occupational materials. Prom the above it can be seen that there is a great variety of activities which will serve to keep the students actively engaged and alertly aware of their occupational orientation.

These functions can best be

carried on through the eareers club, the careers council, or some other similar organization.

These various de­

vices will be discussed in more detail later in this chapter.

Some of these functions can be used in more

than one class. It is anticipated that by the senior year many of the students will be ready to express at least a tentative choice of occupation.

This does not have

to be a definite and final choice, but students should have some definite leanings, so that the work of their

39 senior year may be planned carefully to be of definite value to them, in relation to their college or career plans.

In this way, the work of curriculum planning

for the senior year in high school is quite definitely cut out for the school.

Course emphases will be def­

initely occupational in character.

Before treating

each of the devices in detail, it will be well to list those methods and devices which must receive emphasis at this point: 1.

Emphasis on the selection of suitable occu­

pational fields. 2.

Completion of students' individual personal

history folders. 3*

Plans for the finding of jobs.

4.

A review of those elements that make for

success in work and In life. 5.

Consideration of further training and the

need for continuing training throughout life. 6.

How to get along with people.

7.

How to arrange to carry through a job

In­

terview. a.

An interview to find out information

about a vocation. b.

An interview to get a job.

40 Having outlined the general plan for a vocational guidance program suitable forra small high school, the various devices and their applications will be presented.

METHODS An occupational information class.

The planning

and presentation of an occupational information class has been discussed earlier in this chapter, so that no further discussion of it will be given at this point. The class will, if it is comprehensive, make use of many of the available methods of acquainting students with occupational information, and will actually conduct an intensive study of those occupations.

It will cover

the broader fields of work, at the outset, and as the students gain the ability to discriminate and make their own choices, individual occupations will be selected for study, with the view of making choices of definite fields of study, or an actual vocation.

A great deal of group

and individual work is possible, and a well organized class will be an invaluable experience in the life of the student, and an asset to the life of the school. Use of courses in English and Social Studies. Students in these classes can be given short projects

on occupational subjects in which they are interested. The detail of the project will be worked out between the individual student and the teacher, taking into account the amount of time that it is felt should be profitably devoted to it.

If time allows, it would be

advisable to let the student pursue the subject on an individual research basis (guided) in his particular field of interest.

The results should be kept on file

for future use for the student, and for others who are interested in the same or allied fields.

It is suggested

that the English class have the student write life hist­ ories which can be used as aids in the ascertaining of whether his background will help or hinder him in cer­ tain occupations.

There are many values to be derived

from such a series of projects.

Students will gain from

classroom discussion of the projects of others.

They

may find that they discover other interests, and may find facts which confirm their own convictions as to choice of occupations. Use of tests and test-interpretations.

A stu­

dent will be able to find out a great deal about himself if the program is handled effectively.

He can match his

interests, abilities, and aptitudes with the requirements of the particular occupations he is interested in, and

will thus gain a greater insight into his chances of success or failure in this field.

It will be much

better to find out his particular aptitudes at this level, so that he is saved the time and money of in­ vesting in training for which he is not fitted.

Early

in his training he should be given many opportunities to match his own abilities against those which are re­ quired on different jobs, so that his final decision may be the choice of a really suitable occupation. Talks by the parents.

Many parents will be more

than willing to come to school and discuss their own occupations.

If the teacher or administrator is careful

in his selection of parents, he can gain a great deal from such an association, both for the students and the school, in public relations alone.

The parent should,

of course, be given an idea of what is expected of him, and an outline of the basic facts he should have ready to discuss. list.

This can be done by the use of a check

In this way, there can be established a reason­

able amount of uniformity in the handling of all such talks, and the parents will have a feeling of compet­ ence In the presentation of their talks.

Students, it

will be found, will take great pride in being able to bring their parents Into the school to give information

43 to their classmates. Talks by the faculty members.

Many of the

members of the faculty have had experiences in other types of work besides teaching.

They should be called

upon to give talks on these subjects, as well as about their teaching.

This will be of greater value to the

class if preliminary arrangements are made with the guest faculty member so that he or she is fully oriented on the aims and responsibilities of the talk.

The talk

will consequently call for some "boning up" on the many phases of the subject. Talks by business m e n .

Many business men are

more than happy to give some of their time to the school and to the students.

They should also be given a check

list as an outline to follow in presenting their in­ formation to the class.

Needless to say, these ses­

sions will be most effective if they are carried on in as informal a manner as is possible.

The talk

should be followed by a discussion period in which the students feel free to ask questions as they please. If the town is a small one, it might be well to reach outside of the small community and Invite guest speakers from larger centers nearby.

Students will enjoy and|

44 place greater value on the ideas of these persons than on their own reading or classroom discussion. Talks by college men, professors, business men and school teachers.

It will be well to bring in men from

the schools of higher learning to tell of the training available in their respective institutions.

The stu­

dents who are interested in going on to school can then get all the information they wish concerning the quali­ fications required for entrance, the cost per year, and other information desired. Talks by the armed services.

It would also be

of value to bring in the various services, and have them take a little of the glamour out of the idea of being a soldier or an airman.

Some of the students who have

definite aspirajtions toward these fields might learn of some of the rigid qualifications needed to enter— qual­ ification which they possibly cannot meet, and which may well turn their interests elsewhere in time to save themselves later disappointment and expenditure of time and money.

On the other hand, some students may find

in the armed services just the vocations which are best for them, and may be able to take advantage of the opportunities for education and travel offered by these services.

Reading of books, magazines, pamphlets♦

There

is much of value in the form of written material of which the students can avail himself, if he has someone to direct him properly to the proper sources.

This is, of

course, where the importance of the occupational file comes in.

The librarian will also play an important

role in the class at this point.

A good, well organized

library, and an occupational file, are invaluable ad­ juncts as sources of information.

The student should

be made aware of this early in his high school career, and should be given many opportunities to make use of reading materials.

Listed in the Appendix section of

this study is a list of sources for these materials. Forrester’s book, Occupational Pamphlets, also lists a great many valuable titles. Assignments on relation of subjects to jobs. Students can be given assignments and guided to sources of information on the relative importance of the various high school subjects to their future courses of study or vocations.

There are many of these sources available.

One very good one is the series of charts which are put out by the faculty of the Champaign Senior High School. These charts present an effective and graphic account of these relationships between school subjects and jobs.

46 Field trips.

Field trips can be of two types.

Individual students may interview employers for reports, part-time, placement or summer jobs, or for survey material.

The student will gain much

in

information

and experience from such an endeavor. Groups of students may visit factories or business places to observe the actual conditions present in the fulfilling of the duties of the various positions. Audio-visual aids.

There are quite a few sound

and silent films on occupations, and others are being produced right along.

These have proven very valuable i

as they give the student a broader outlook on many of the occupations visualized.

There are also many slide

films, strip films, and the like, which are available to the schools at little or no cost.

They also give

the student who is interested in the operation of motion picture machines the chance for a work

exper­

ience in the showing of the films and slides. Career days.

The planning of "Career Days"

is an instrument that gives the student a chance to get first-hand information about three or four differ­ ent occupations he may be interested in.

There are

many chances to obtain the services of persons who are

authorities in various fields, and who would he glad to participate in such a planned program.

Many high

schools are now using career conferences to inform their students of occupational fields, and to stimulate in­ terest in the community. Achievement days♦

The students can exhibit

their work done during the year and can see what others have accomplished.

They may discuss the skills neces­

sary to complete a project of this nature.

They can

then relate them to actual job conditions which are sim­ ilar in nature to the projects displayed. The use of shop and laboratory.

The shop and

the laboratory may be used for tryout jobs.

The job

situations can be simulated and the students can try out their desires and see if the particular job holds its attraction.

Many larger schools can set up quite

an elaborate program along these lines. Job experience programs.

Many communities

offer the possibility for students to work out a jobschool program,Consisting of part-time attendance at school alternating with part-time on a job. -o

0

In this way

'

they spend half of^their day on the job in some factory, store or shop, and the other half in school.

This en­

k8 ables the student to gain first-hand knowledge about the ramifications of the particular position in which he is employed.

It also furnishes the student a valu­

able head start in work experience if he should decide to stay on the job.

On the other hand, it also gives

him the opportunity to learn the shortcomings of the job, and to decide on the basis of first-hand experience whether he wishes to make a change upon his completion of school.

These job-school programs are gaining in

popularity in many schools, and the results have justi­ fied the experiment in terms of value to the students. Summer and part-time placement.

Some schools

are equipped to place their students in after-school situations, in Saturday positions, and summer jobs. Through the experience gained in these part-time oc­ cupations students learn a great deal about the various kinds of work to be done.

When school resumes they

can benefit from the experiences of others through class discussions and assignments.

Some have even

found full-time employment through their part-time job contacts. Surveys of community needs.

This is a project

which must be handled by the more industrious and

intelligent student. industry.

It must be handled with tact and

Before embarking upon the survey, students

should provide themselves with a check list of the things they wish to ask of the employers or managers.

These

should be tabulated and put into a form that is usable, since the information obtained Is useful in more than one way.

It can be used by the employer as a basis for

hiring; by the school as a basis for the giving of inform­ ation to the student body as to trends In the community; and as a means or basis for the revision of school programs. Compilation of occupational materials.

The

students who are Interested should be allowed to help the counselor with the compiling, filing, and posting of occupational information.

Besides helping to lessen

the burden of work of compiling and filing the materials in the files and library, this brings the students in close contact with many different types of occupational information and may be of help to them in making their final occupational decisions. Careers Club.

Some schools have encouraged

groups of students who have a common interest in gain­ ing occupational information to form a club or series

50 of clubs.

They do their research and projects together

and benefit from each others' efforts.

It works out

very well, In cases where there are enough students who are Interested in the same general fields, to form a series of clubs or groups within the club.

Smaller

groups go on field trips, make community surveys, In­ terview men in the industrial world, and further their research by Inviting guest speakers to conduct dis­ cussion meetings. Gareer consultation services.

A career con­

sultation service is of great value to the students. It requires a person in charge who is aware of all the various ramifications, and who is well versed in all occupations, as well as in sources of materials.

Use

of referral agencies in this type of a program is essential, as one person cannot be expected to be authoritatively versed in too great a variety of oc­ cupations. Units on Job getting.

This is a particularly

important unit in the total program.

The student needs

training In the niceties of Job hunting.

He should be

given practical Information on how to dress, how to talk, how to sit, etc.

For in the conduct of any Job

Interview the impression he makes determines his suc­ cess or failure in landing the job.

If the student has

had the chance to learn and discuss these eventualities he will have a much better chance of succeeding in his effort to obtain a position. Survey of alumni Jobs.

The senior students

or any of the other students who are interested, should be encouraged to contact graduates either by question­ naire or by interview and find out the kinds of jobs they are in.

They should also inquire about the type

of training required for the job, and whether that training has helped in the obtaining and holding of their particular positions.

This gives the boys and

girls much information, and also serves as a check on the information given in the guidance program of the school. Radio and television.

The radio has been

giving programs intended to be of service to students in their quest for jobs and job information.

The in­

structor will want to check these carefully to ascer­ tain whether they are valuable to the student or not. Although new in the field, television can also be of great help in staging programs which can be of assist­ ance to students.

52 Charts.

There are many occupational charts

that are valuable in the dissemination of occupational information.

These charts show the occupations, their

relations to other occupations, how to train for them, what the requirements are, what the salary and working conditions are, and other pertinent information. are many sets of charts available. those published by B'Nai B ’rith.

There

Among the best are These are based on

the information contained in the Dictionary of Oc cup ac­ tional Titles, and fit in very well in this capacity. A complete listing of further charts and occupational materials is contained in Gertrude Forrester’s book on Occupational Pamphlets, and it is very comprehensive * and useful.

Although a number are out of print at the

present time, there are many that are still available and others which are coming into print.

Both of these

titles should be added to the occupational library. Posters.

The importance of the bulletin board

cannot be forgotten.

There are many posters available

which are of great help, and if used in connection with the vocational guidance program, fit in well in the dissemination and motivation of the vocational inform­ ation program.

53 A questionnaire on why students do or do not study.

Needless to say, a questionnaire on why students

do or do not study should be given anonymously.

The

results obtained by such a questionnaire will furnish information which will be both surprising and useful to both students and teachers.

Students in general

are quite critical of themselves and are quite willing to say so truthfully if they do not have to sign their names to the information given.

This device has been

used in a number of schools, and with surprising re­ sults.

It is quite probable that many problems can

be partially solved through the use of this information. Assigning of jobs to students.

Schools have

made good use of the assignment of jobs to students as a device for giving them the experience of having a certain amount of responsibility.

The device works

well, both from the point of view of the student and i

the school.

The student is put into a simulated job

experience and learns from this experience.

The school,

on its part, gets a number of things done which might be left undone if this method were not employed.

Some

schools give point bonuses for this work, even counting a certain number of such points as credit towards graduation.

No attempt will be made to list in detail

54 the jobs suitable to such a program, since they depend largely upon the needs and situations of the individual school. Library functions assigned to students.

This

particular device, while it might be classed under the preceding heading, is worthy of note in that the student not only learns how to operate library functions, but also comes into contact with other matters of interest which might help him in his choosing of an occupation. Especially is this true if the student can be put in charge of the occupational files. Personal history folders. can serve a variety of purposes.

The personal history The student is made

aware of the importance of a personal history folder; he can use it in the filling in of applications, since it will contain practically all the information needed; he will see the importance of having good references in the folder and will commence to get these for him« self; and he may find many other motivating factors in the compiling and validating of his materials, as well as in their display. School newspaper columns.

It is obvious that

the school newspaper will be valuable as a means of

55 keeping the student body informed as to the doings, functions and events of the occupations groups. Careers council.

A careers council should be

made up of two students from each home room.

It will

be their responsibility to keep the home rooms advised as to the happenings in the vocations groups and meet­ ings.

There are many other functions which this group

can perform.

Some of those that have been done in

schools are: 1.

Sponsors occupational group conferences.

2.

Sponsors career programs.

3*

Gives plays for the assembly programs.

4.

Gives information to the lower grades about

the high school program. 5.

Raises money through various efforts for

the occupational library. 6.

Assists the counselor in clerical work.

7.

Presents occupational movies.

8.

Helps in the building and filing of occu­

pational materials. This council could furnish the basis for the program for the sophomore and junior years. many potential uses.

It has

56 Letters of application.

Letters of application

could very well be handled by the English classes, or by other core classes such as the senior problems class, economies, government class, etc.

The proper methods

and precautions in the writing of letters of application are of great practical assistance to the average high s chool s tudent. Interviews.

Job interviews may be accomplished

in either of two ways, both of which should preferably be used.

(1)

The student may go out and interview the

person, or (2) the person may be brought into the class­ room.

It is essential In this case, as well as In all

cases of using outside persons to structure their con­ tributions by furnishing them with an outline of what to expect and what is wanted of the interview. When the interviewee comes to the classroom, it would be well if he could be dressed in his work clothes and carried with him a few tools of his trade. This would help to motivate the session, and would stimulate the asking of questions, besides setting an informal atmosphere for the interview.

It is suggested

that the interview be handled on a discussion basis. When the student goes out to interview the business man, he should be supplied with an outline on which to structure the interview.

The business

57 man should be called well in advance of the planned interview and an appointment made.

He should be informed

of the nature of the interview, and arrangements made as to how wasted

best

to facilitate matters so that no time is

at the time of the interview.

He should

be

offered an outline of the points which are to be covered. If the interview is correctly set up and conducted, it can be a very valuable experience not only to the student but to the teacher and the interviewee as well. Some of the values which may accrue to the student are listed below: A.

Values in Interest. 1.

The pupil's immediate attention and in­ terest are gained.

This is essential to

successful learning. 2.

The subject is dealt with on the pupil's level.

The subject matter is of the

student's choosing, and one in which he is interested. 3-

By structuring the unnecessary information is avoided, and the lesson is adapted automatically to the capabilities and interests of the class.

B.

Values in Knowledge.

1.

A great deal of new knowledge is gained regarding the worker's life, work, mater­ ials, problems, pleasures and goals.

2.

The material is accepted and absorbed because the material has come from an authority.

Values in Attitudes. 1.

A sympathetic understanding of the worker and his problems is aroused in the student.

2.

The worker is met as a friend and a human being and this tends to break down bar­ riers of class and trade.

3.

The worker sees the student and the school from a new point of view and the public relations of community and school is enhanced.

Values in Skills. 1.

The student learns to ask intelligent questions.

2.

He gains in alertness which has a good carry-over value.

3-

He learns to listen to other questions and to formulate more of his own because of this.

4.

He learns to think constructively.

59 5-

He learns to listen to others.

6.

He learns to wait his turn.

There are doubtless many other methods of dis­ seminating occupational materials and information. These which have been herewith mentioned will point the way toward making the student more aware of the im­ portance of knowing occupations before making his oc­ cupational choice.

CHAPTER IV THE

PERSONNEL

LINE AND STAFF RELATIONSHIPS It Is difficult to conceive of any member of the school staff as being entirely free from guidance sponsibilities.

re-

Even the janitor and the custodians

have some part in the program.

Some of the teachers

might be pleasantly surprised were they to learn just how much guidance these people really do.

If custodians

were trained to observe and to report significant pupil attitudes and behaviors, the counselors would find much in their reports that would be of great use.

There must

be a very close working relationship between line and staff officers in any guidance program.

Cooperation

between these two corps is essential to a smoothly working program. Line officers will be recognized as those per­ sons who have major administrative or supervisory duties in the school.

These persons are concerned

primarily with the duties and responsibilities that contribute directly to the administrative and super­ visory capacities of the total school program.

How­

ever, line officers may, and frequently do, perform

6l staff functions, while staff officers assume line functions less frequently.

The emphasis that the

guidance program places upon the importance of pupils and their needs has tended to obscure in many respects the line of demarcation between line and staff officers. Staff officers may be identified as those per­ sons in the school who are directly responsible for services to pupils.

Usually staff officers have only

minor administrative or supervisory duties, and those are delegated by the principal. Although the present project is concerned pri­ marily with the ninth grade occupational information class, it might be well to discuss also the responsi­ bilities of the other officers of a guidance program, as it is hoped that that is what this minor program will develop toward.

We plan to start with the fresh­

man occupations class, and build the guidance program as the class work develops from month to month, and year to year.

As can be seen from the first chapter,

the class in occupational information is but a starting point; the building of the total guidance program will thus be less difficult with this as a groundwork.

In

the Appendix of this project will be found the organi­ zational charts for this particular program.

Prom these

charts it is possible to visualize the goal, and to

62 build toward it. With this introduction, we shall outline the responsibilities to be vested in those persons who participate in the guidance program. RESPONSIBILITIES OP PERSONNEL A.

Responsibilities of the superintendent. 1.

Arranges the schedule to allow time for the occupations class, and later the guidance program as a whole.

2.

Designates a head counselor and helps to select the grade counselors.

3.

Organizes and supervises the program.

4.

Provides adequate facilities and materials

5*

Encourages and assists guidance workers to secure professional training.

6.

Assigns definite guidance responsibilities to staff members.

B.

Responsibilities of the principal. 1.

The principal takes care of all discipline problems, so that the disciplinary and guidance functions shall be completely separated.

2.

Has charge of all attendance records.

3.

Is responsible for contacting parents in cases of need.

4.

Works with the superintendent with duties that are too heavy to be handled by one person.

Responsibilities of the head counselor. 1.

Assists the principal and the superin­ tendent in the organization of the program.

2.

Counsels with pupils referred by other staff members.

3.

Coordinates the activities of the program.

4.

Assists counselors and staff members with guidance activities.

5.

Prepares materials for counselors, teachers, and pupils.

6.

Prepares case studies, holds case confer­ ences, and draws community resources into the program.

Responsibilities of the counselors. 1.

Assembles individual inventories of own counselees, with the assistance of other staff members.

2.

Familiarizes self with occupational and training information sources and with

their titles and their location in the library, and suggests additional titles. 3.

Counsels with pupils.

4.

Carries on placement functions with own counselees.

5.

Follows up all in-school placements.

6.

Follows up former counselees who have left the school.

Responsibilities of the classroom teacher. 1.

Disseminates occupational information through his own subject.

2.

Helps pupils to discover their own abilities and limitations.

3.

Encourages and assists with school act­ ivities having exploratory implications for students.

4.

Encourages all pupils to avail themselves of the counseling services.

5.

Builds up a favorable attitude on the part of pupils toward the guidance program.

6.

Observes and reports in writing to coun­ selors significant data concerning pupils.

Responsibilities of the librarian. 1.

Familiarizes herself with the services of the guidance program.

65 2.

Secures and files unbound occupational and educational information.

3.

Maintains an open separate shelf for occupational materials.

4.

Gives the library a laboratory aspect for the students looking for materials.

5.

Acquaints counselors and teachers with new guidance materials reaching the library.

6.

Cooperates with administrators, coun­ selors, and teachers in making the lib­ rary of service to pupils and staff members.

G.

Responsibilities of the nurse and doctor. 1.

Primarily, cares for the health of all students.

2.

Cooperates with the staff in keeping them informed about the health conditions of students.

3.

Cooperates with the parents in advising treatment or referrals when necessary.

4.

Handles health examinations for the athletic department.

66 H.

Responsibilities of the guidance council. 1.

Cooperates with staff to help in the bet­ terment of the guidance program as a whole.

2.

To hold meetings of the staff and students on the committee to discuss and plan needed changes in the program.

3.

Helps keep the guidance program in the public eye by advertising it by word of mouth.

4.

Coordinates the activities of all student committees through careful examination of progress reports.

5.

Establishes organizational and admin­ istrative practices and procedures for the long-term guidance program.

6.

Appoints study committees for the research in the various fields of guidance.

SELECTION OF PERSONNEL The selection of counselors is of utmost import­ ance.

The entire guidance program's success depends

upon the ability of the counselors to perform their respective functions.

In the case of the small high

67 school, counselors will naturally be selected from the teachers already on the staff.

The fact that the pro­

gram is to be built around these teachers makes it im­ perative that they be selected because of a real interest in helping individual students to make their vocational adjustments.

They must, furthermore, already have won

the respect and cooperation of the students in their classes.

The program will almost certainly fall short

of expectations unless the administrator is careful in the selection of the key people.

Not only is it import­

ant to make a right initial selection; it is doubly im­ portant that they receive proper training in the system. Counselors have a triple role to play in the guidance program, and it is essential that they be able to play them with reasonable skill.

They must be adept at coun­

seling and working with pupils.

They must be able to

work with other staff members and to be of service to them.

They must be able to carry on research and study

projects that are basic to the development of the pro­ gram.

Thus we see the need for an effective in-service

training program.

This will be discussed in more detail

in the following pages. The following suggestions may prove helpful in the selection of these counselors.

1.

If possible, select from the present staff.

2.

The person should have the confidence of the

rest of the teaching staff. 3.

Outside counselors who are brought in should

have a first-year schedule largely devoted to teaching. .

Clearly define the duties of the counselor

for the benefit of both staff and counselor. 5.

The counselors should be persons who possess a.

An outstanding degree of personal adjust ment.

b.

The ability to be effective in face-toface relationships with pupils.

c.

A genuine interest in education as a career.

d.

A genuine interest in people.

e.

An interest in psychology, sociology, philosophy, and education.

f.

The desire to secure adequate guidance training.

g.

Reasonable freedom from biases and pre­ judices .

h.

The desire to help each person develop the ability to help himself.

i.

The ability to get along with others.

69 j.

An Interest in research.

k.

Some occupational experience in fields other than teaching.

1.

A background of successful teaching.

IN-SERVICE TRAINING OP STAFF The administrator should not only select coun­ selors who meet the requirements suggested above, but he should also be assured of their interests in pro­ fessional improvement through additional training.

It

Is the responsibility of the administrator to plan a definite program of in-service training for all persons who take part in the program. It is desirable to arrange for a course dealing with the basic elements of the guidance service to be offered in the local community.

Teacher-training in­

stitutions usually have facilities for extension classes in guidance.

On-the-job training of this kind

permits the staff to deal with problems in the training program as they arise in the school's developing program. In addition to training of a general nature for all teachers, counselors should be encouraged to seek oncampus training during the summer sessions.

This could

be accomplished by the administration offering to pay

the tuition costs.

The teacher who desires to become

effective as a counselor needs training in the gathering, assembling, and interpreting of personal data; in sources and methods of securing, filing, and disseminating occu­ pational materials; in the techniques and practices of counseling; in techniques of placement, follow-up, com­ munity occupational surveys, and in the use of community resources.

The teachers who are interested in obtaining

this type of training should be encouraged by the offer of salary raises, paid tuitions, rise in status and the like.

It is only fair that these be given credit for

their interest in the school. In the particular set-up at Sebewaing High School the head counselor, it is anticipated, will be the one who teaches the occupations class, as it will be this person who possesses the best qualifications to fit the situation.

It is hoped that his adeptness at counseling

will grow from year to year as the guidance program develops.

The grade counselors will pick up their

class on its entry and follow it throughout its first three years of high school.

There they will be picked

up by the senior counselor who should be well trained in the areas needed in the preparing of high school seniors to leave for their respective occupations or

71 educational training.

This counselor must be especially

well trained— in fact, more so than the rest of the staff with the possible exception of the head counselor.

In

some cases, he might even be the head counselor. The in-service training program should include the study of the following areas: 1.

Form and uses of cumulative records.

2.

The teacher's part in building and keeping

records up-to-date. 3.

Sources and uses of occupational and educa­

tional information. 4.

Teaching and vocational implications of sub­

5.

Exploratory and training opportunities in

ject.

the school’s curriculum. 6.

Functions of the teacher as an incidental

counselor. 7-

How to observe and Interpret the behavior of

pupils. 8.

The use of the anecdotal methods.

9.

How to make case studies.

10.

The teacher's role in case conferences.

11.

The teacher's responsibility for gathering

data. 12.

The development of proper pupil attitudes.

72 13.

Assisting with the orientation program.

14.

The role of the teacher as a referral

15.

Techniques of interviewing.

16.

The functions and practices of placement

agent.

and follow-up. 17.

Other functions and practices that the

classroom teacher will he responsible for. 18.

A special training program for the coun­

selors, which shall include: a.

Extension courses.

b.

On-campus courses.

e.

Field service training.

d.

Learning through observation.

This program should provide the backbone for the entire guidance program of the school, so it is essential that it be a good one.

These persons should have avail­

able for their use a minimum library and selective index, which could be compiled by the head counselor.

A prac­

tical suggestion for this library is to be found in Erickson and Smith's Practical Guidance Series.

73 QUALIFICATIONS OF SPEAKERS It Is essential to the success of the program that all guest speakers and vocational leaders be selected with the same care with which the rest of the staff is picked. At the outset this will admittedly be difficult, since qualifications can only be judged on the basis of trialand-error, or by insight.

Little by little, however,

practice should make the selection of speakers a less doubtful process.

At this point, it would be appropriate

to list those criteria which should be kept in mind in the selection of speakers: 1.

He must be recognized as a leader, or have

a superior amount of experience to draw from. 2.

He should be progressive in his ideas.

3.

He must stand well in his vocation.

4.

He must be respected in his community.

5.

He should have won a reputation for civic-

mindedness. 6.

He must recognize the social significance

of his vocation. 7.

His outlook on his vocation must not be

8.

He must be prepared to present all the

9.

He must be careful not to recruit.

warped. facts.

10.

He must be careful not to discourage.

11.

He should preferably be represented by some

civic organization. Summary.

The quality and extent of the in-

service training program in guidance for all staff mem­ bers will play an important role in the effectiveness of the guidance program.

It should be planned so that

each staff member will understand his place in the program.

Insofar as possible, experience in the develop

ing guidance program and training for more effective participation should occur simultaneously.

Certainly,

the in-service training program should be sufficiently flexible in its organization to permit treatment of problems encountered by staff members as they parti­ cipate in the guidance program. While training for all staff members will not need to be extensive, training for counselors needs to be sufficient to prepare them for specialized responsi­ bilities in the guidance program.

Standards for coun­

selor training are being steadily raised in almost every state.

Several states now issue special certificates

for counselors, which require that they have graduate training closely approximating that required for the master's degree.

Growing recognition of the need for

trained counselors dictates that those who desire to serve as counselors for an extended period must secure extensive training in all areas related to the functions of the guidance service.

Thus, the importance of the

in-service training program is evident.

CHAPTER V EVALUATION OP THE PROGRAM The guidance program is not complete unless there is some specific means of evaluating it.

We will need

to know whether the program is performing the function for which it was instituted.

Some of the methods men­

tioned in the chapter on the dissemination of occupa­ tional information could well be used in this connec­ tion.

A particular device which is applicable to the

present function of evaluation is the project in which students study alumni jobs.

There are many other

projects or evaluative studies which could be applied with equal efficacy. It Is not expected that every item listed in the program will lend itself to evaluation equally well, since some of the outcomes are not as apparent as are others.

There is much to be gained, however, through

an evaluation of the services and outcomes of the pro­ gram.

There are a number of goals which are set up to

be achieved by the program, and the effectiveness of the guidance service must be checked carefully In order to ascertain whether or not these achievements have been made.

Most important among the activities and

77 functions to be evaluated are these: inventory,

(l)

individual

(2) occupational and educational information,

(3) counseling, { k )

training opportunities,

ment, (6) follow-up,

(5) place­

(7) organization and administration,

and (8) teacher participation. It Is suggested that a number of study projects be carried on in the evaluation process.

A number of

specific possibilities are suggested by Erickson and Smith in their Practical Guidance Series,

andothers

might be added, among them the following: SOME EVALUATIVE STUDIES 1.

Study the number of drop-outs to see if they

are on the decline. 2.

Analyze causes for drop-outs.

Study the students' programs for appropriate­

ness. 3.

Study the number of pupils who

vocational plans. 4.

have made their

Are they suitable?

Study the college-going students.

Have they

accurate and adequate information about colleges?

Is

their college choice a good one? 5.

Study the problems still unsolved.

6.

Study the relationship between educational

and vocational plans and actual activities engaged in after leaving school.

7o 7.

Follow up former pupils to secure their re­

actions to the program. d.

Ask parents, employers, and other citizens

of the community to react to the program. 9.

Determine the extent to which pupils work

up to their abilities. 10.

Measure the students’ reactions toward

school activities. 11.

Measure the amount and accuracy of pupils 1

information in regard to the offerings of the school. 12.

Measure the amount and accuracy of pupils'

occupational and training information. 13*

Measure the pupils' information about guid­

ance agencies and resources in the community. 14.

Measure the amount of pupil failure In the

school program and any trends in the reduction of same. 15*

Make an analysis of pupils' reasons for

their curricular and vocational choices. 16.

Study the effectiveness of the school in

placing pupils in subjects and on Jobs. 17-

Study the part-time employment program.

18.

Survey the cumulative records for:

availability, 19*

(2) use,

(3) completeness,

(l)

(4) accuracy.

Study the testing program— its purpose,

comprehensiveness, use.

79 20.

Measure the participation of the subject

teachers. 21.

Study community resources, to determine the

extent to which they are being used by the pupils. 22.

Study the relative stability of the educa­

tional and vocational plans of the pupils. 23.

Study the counseling program— do all pupils

have counselors? 24.

Is the counseling complete?

Study the materials in the library.

Prom the above suggestions we can see that there is a wide range of studies and projects which can be utilized in the evaluating of a guidance program.

This

evaluation process may be carried on while the program is in progress, and also after the pupils have left the school. Each student should be followed all during his school career from the standpoint of placement, and, if possible, this guidance should continue left the school.

after he has

There is little danger that his voca­

tional outlook will become a problem to him during his years in high school, but after he has left school problems of a serious nature are likely to develop unless the school guidance program has served him successfully. There are many ways of counteracting this possibility.

Many teachers continue to correspond with students who have graduated.

Information about the students may be

obtained from sisters, parents, or friends of the stu­ dent; or questionnaires may be sent to those who are traceable.

Counselors and administrators can use these

or other methods of their own devising to obtain inform­ ation from a large number of graduates.

If it is not

feasible to construct their own questionnaire, it is possible to find well devised ready-made questionnaires which are available for use at little or no cost to the school.

It is important that a uniform list of

questions be used, so that the same information is col­ lected from all. By checking and evaluating the guidance program as it is functioning, the counselor may see the areas in which there should be change.

He may find whether

the library needs more and up-to-date materials, whether the teachers are getting the help they need, whether the pupils are able to obtain accurate and usable information easily, and such other problems as may turn up.

A pro­

gram of constant check-ups must be devised for proper evaluation of the growing organization, as well as a pro­ gram for checking the final results after the student has left the school.

81 Only through a systematic checking of the guid­ ance program and its activities can the potential values of its operation be determined.-

Once the program has

gotten established and is developed to a satisfactory point, the school will need to evaluate the beneficial effectiveness of its services to the pupils and to the school*

After using the check-ups suggested above, a

fair knowledge of the effectiveness of the program will have been gained. Any instrument used to measure the outcomes of the particular school activity must be made in such a manner as to measure these objectives for the school itself.

As to what outcomes should be anticipated from

a well organized and well operated guidance program, the following questions are suggestive. OUTCOMES OP A GUIDANCE PROGRAM 1.

Is the school's record system becoming more

useful and more used? 2.

Are teachers, counselors, and administrators

using records more effectively? 3.

Are staff members becoming more pupil-cent­

4.

Are pupils' problems becoming more generally

ered?

82 recognized and are they being assisted in solving these? 5.

Are students choosing subjects and programs

in which they can succeed more easily than before? 6.

Does the school know what happens to school

7.

Has the percentage of drop-outs decreased?

8.

Are pupils learning about occupations?

9.

Are they choosing occupations according to

leavers?

their abilities, aptitudes and interests? 10.

Are pupils taking advantage of opportunities

offered? 11.

Are fewer failures resulting among college

entrants from the school? 12.

Have changes occurred in the curriculum

as a result of follow-up studies? 13-

Do a greater number of former pupils come

back to the school for assistance with problems? 14.

Are teachers having fewer discipline

problems? 15.

Has there been noticeable improvement in

morale among pupils and teachers? 16.

Are pupils making more use of guidance

materials? 17-

Are former pupils remaining on their first

83 jobs for a longer period? 18.

Are more pupils employed on part-time and

vacation jobs, and are they choosing Jobs more consist­ ent with their interests, abilities, and vocational plans? If the answer is yes to most of these questions, then the counselor may feel that the program is a success. But if the answer is no on some of them, it is a sign that adjustments must be made in the program so that it can measure up affirmatively on all important eval­ uative questions. It is anticipated that in setting up the guidance program at Sebewaing High School, it will be initiated with the view of being able to measure up to the above check-lists.

Use will be made of the lists given in

the Erickson and Smith text, Organization and Admin­ istration of the Guidance Services;

and to make use of

the devices above-mentioned in this chapter.

These

check-lists will serve as a guide in the evaluating of the program, and as the program develops and becomes an integral part of the total curriculum of the school, it is hoped that it may measure up to the standards of excellence set for it.

University of Southern California Library

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY Allen, Richard D . , A Self Measurement Project In Group Guidance. New York: Ivor Publishing Company, Bacher, Otto, and Berkowitz, School Courses and Related Careers. Chicago: Science~Hes‘earch Associates, Billings, Mildred Lincoln, Group Methods of Studying Occupations. Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1941. Bingham, Walter V., and Bruce V. Moore, How to Interview. New York: Harper and Brothers, 1941. Brelnan, Alexander, "An Approach to Vocational Guidance Through a Careers Club," High Points, 22:70-76, March, 1940. Cox, Phillip W. L., and Duff, John C., Guidance by the Classroom Teacher. New York: Prentlce-Hall, Inc., T53ST---------------Darley, John G . , Testing and Counseling in the High School Guidance Program. Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1943* Detjen, Mary E., and Ervin W. Detjen, Home Room Guidance. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1940. Diebel, P. W . , "A Career Planning Program," The School— Elementary Edition, 32:768-70* May, 1944. Dunsmoor, Clarence E., and Leonard M. Miller, Guidance Methods for Teachers. Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1942. Edmonson, James B . , Joseph Roemer, and Prances L. Bacon, The -Administration of the Modern Secondary School. New York: The MacmTTlan Company, 1941. Erickson, Clifford E . , A Practical Handbook for School Counselors. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1949.

86 Erickson, Clifford E., and Marion C. Happ, Guidance Practices at Work, New York: McGraw-Hill Book C o m p a n y , I n c ., 1946. Erickson, Clifford E., and Glenn E. Smith, Organization and Admlnlstration of Guidance Services. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1947276 pp. Flynn, Sylvester, "Making the Students Vocations Con­ scious," High Points, 14:55-56, November, 1932. Forrester, Gertrude, Giving Information about Occupations. Chicago: Science Research Associate's,' I94TI , Occupational Pamphlets. New York: Wilson Company, 1948"! 351 p p .

The H. W.

Frame, Don H., "Pupils Gather Job Information," Occu­ pations, 19:188-90, December, 1940. Germane, Charles E . , and Edith G. Germane, Personnel Work in High School♦ New York: Silver Burdett Company, 1941. Hamrin, Shirley A., and Clifford E. Erickson, Guidance in the Secondary School. New York: D. AppletonCentury Company, Inc., 1939Hand, Harold C., An Appraisal of Occupations or Life Careers Course. Unpublished Doctor1s dissertation, Columbia University, 1934. Johnston, Edgar G . , Administering the Guidance Program. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Educational Publishers, Inc., 1942. Kidd, John P., "Group Project In Vocational Guidance," The School— Secondary Edition, 30:441-43* January, T9?2~ Koos, Leonard V., and Grayson N. Kefauver, Guidance in Secondary Schools. New York: The Macmillan Com­ pany, 1 937Lefever, D. Welty, Archie M. Turrell, and Henry I. Weitzel, Principles and Techniques of Guidance. New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1941.

87 Lincoln, Mildred E . , A List of References on Methods of Teaching Occupations. Scranton, Pennsylvania: International Textbook Company, 1937* Lindholm, Richard W., and Ruth B. Powell, "Pupils Survey Alumni Jobs," Occupations, 19:198-99, December, 194-0. Marshall, John E., "Career Consultation Service," The School Executive, p. 32, July, 1949* McGarey, Donald G., and Charles A. Service, "Orientation Institute for High School Freshmen," Occupations, 19:194-97, December, 1940. Murray, Evelyn, "Unit on Job Getting," The Clearing House, 14:471-73, April, 1940. Myers, George E., Planning Your Future. New York and London: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1940. Myers, George E . , Principles and Techniques of Vocational Guidance. New York: McGraw-Hill BookCompany, Inc., t w t .-----

Paterson, Donald G . , Gwendolyn G. Schneidler, and Edmund G. Williamson, Student Guidance Techniques. New Y o r k : MeGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., ±938. Rosenblatt, Alexander, "Ninth Year Careers Course," High Points, 29:34-44, June, 1947* Shartle, Carroll L., Occupational Information. Prentice-Hall, Inc. , 1946. 339 PP*

New York:

Simonds, Rollin H., "Freshman Course: Guidance for New­ comers," The Clearing House, 14:36-38, September, 1939* Smith, Charles M., and Mary A. Roos, A Guide to Guidance. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc., Ip4l. Stevens, Russell D., "High School Commercial Occupations Club," Occupations, 19:191-93 t December, 1940. Strang, Ruth, Pupil Personnel and Guidance. The Macmillan Company, 1940.

New York:

88 Thorndike, Edward L., "Vocational Guidance a Function of Public Education," Occupations, 19:163-67, December, 1940. Traxler, Arthur E., Techniques of Guidance. Harper and Brothers, 19^5 •

New York:

Williamson, E. G., Students and Occupations. NewYork: Henry Holt and Company, 1937* Williamson, E. G., and M. E. Hahn,Introduction to High School Counseling. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1940. Willis, Charles W . , and Robert C. Henley, "Real Inter­ views for High School Seniors," The Clearing House, 14:464-66, April, 1940. Yale, John R . , How to Build an Occupational Information Library. Chicago: Science Research Associates,

1944.

University of Southern Cattfdmfa Library

A P P E N D I X

APPENDIX A BASIC OUTLINE FOR THE STUDY OF AN OCCUPATION

History of Occupation. Importance of the occupation and its relation to society. Number of workers engaged in occupation, a.

Give source, data, and area covered. (1) Total number engaged in occupation. (2) Total males under 18— over 18. (3) Total females under 18— over 18. (4) Number of other significant groups— e.g., megroes, Mexicans, etc.

Need for workers— trends. a.

Note increase or decrease in number of workers in relation to population and other occupations. Note whether there is an over or under supply of workers and explain. over supply.

Note centers of under and

Summarize important trends that will

affect numbers of workers. Duties. a.

Specific tasks performed, divisions of the work, other occupations with which this work may be combined, nature of the work, tools, machines, and materials used.

91 APPENDIX A (continued) b.

Definition of occupation. (1)

As given in the law.

(2)

As determined by an official organization.

(3)

Carefully formulated definition accept­ able to those in the occupation (D.O.T.).

6.

Qualifications a.

Sex.

Opportunities for both sexes.

Married

status. b.

Age.

For entrance, retirement, preferred.

c.

Race or nationality.

d.

Other qualifications.

Restrictions. Include physical, mental,

social and moral.

7.

e.

Special skills.

f.

Special tools or equipment.

g.

Legislation affecting occupation.

Preparation. a.

b.

General education required. (1)

Necessary.

State amount absolutely needed.

(2)

Desirable.

State amount that is desirable.

Special education or training. (1) Necessary (2) Desirable (3) Training centers.

92 APPENDIX A c.

8.

(continued)

Experience (1)

Necessary

(2)

Desirable.

Methods of entering. a.

Use of employment agencies.

Give specific ways

of entering occupation. 9-

Length of time before skill is attained, a.

Include special .regulations regarding union or other apprentice rules.

How soon maximum pay

reached. 1 0 . Advancement. a.

Line of promotion.

b.

Opportunity for advancement.

1 1 . Related occupations to which job may lead.

12 . Earnings. a.

Include statements of deductions for uniforms, equipment; and additions because of tips, com­ missions, etc. (1)

Beginning wage.

(2)

Most common wage.

(3)

Maximum wage— hourly, monthly, yearly. Basis.

Pensions, unemployment compensation,

etc. (4)

Regulations--laws. Labor Board, union, etc.

93 APPENDIX A (continued) 13.

14.

Hours. a.

Daily.

b.

Weekly.

c.

Overtime.

d.

Irregular hours or shifts.

e.

Vacations, and whether with pay.

f.

Regulations.

Give frequency.

Regularity of employment. a.

Normal months.

b.

Busy months.

c . Dull months. d.

Shutdowns of plants.

e.

Cyclical unemployment

Indicate number of workers

employed during these periods. 15*

Health and accident hazards.

16.

Organizations. a.

Employers-*-functions, purpose, size, etc.

b.

Employees— function.

17.

Typical places of employment.

18.

Supplementary information. a.

Suggested books.

b.

Magazines.

c.

Films.

d.

Pictures.

APPENDIX A

(continued)

Additional sources of information, including governmental departments, list of key firms, list of persons, etc.

APPENDIX B A SELECTED LIST OF BOOKS FOR THE LIBRARY FOR THE GENERAL SECTION Dome, Dr. Herbert, The Meaning of Marriage. Sheed and Company. Dreese, Mitchell, How to Get a Job. Kempf, J. G., Helping Youth to Grow. and Company, 1941.

New York:

Chicago:

S.R.A.

New York:

Bruce

Lenrow, Elbert, Reader1s Guide to Prose Fiction. New York: D. Appleton-Century (Company. (A section refers to vocational informative fiction.) Lingenfelter, Mary R . , Vocations in Fiction: An Anno­ tated Bibliography. Chicago,“Tlli n o i s : American Library Association. Lovejoy, Clarence, So Y o u ’re Going to College. Simon and Schuster Company. Morgan, Vera E., Vocations in Short Stories. American Library Association.

Chicago:

Chicago:

Platt, R . , Book of Oppor tunlties, a Dictionary of Jobs: Personal Sidelights on 4,600 American Opportunities. New York: Putnam and Sons. Richmond, W. V . , Making the Most of Your Personality. New York: Farrar and Rinehart Company, 1942. Scholarships and Fellowships Available at Institutions of Higher'learning. Washington, D.7J7: U. S . Gove m m e n t Printing Office. Schulz, Cecelia, Your Career in Nursing. McGraw-Hill Book Company,The.

New York:

Scott, Louise H., and E. C. Belcher, How to Get a Sec­ retarial Job. New York: Harper Brothers, 1941. Tunis, John R., Choosing a College.

New York:

Harcourt

96 APPENDIX B

(continued)

Brace and Company. Woodhouse, C. G., The Big Store: Opportunities in Department Store Work. New York: Funk and Wagnalls, FOR THE STAFF Books about Jobs: A Bibliography of Occupational Lit­ erature . Chicago: American LTETrary Association. Brewer, John H., History of Vocational Guidance. York: Harper Brothers, 1942. Buros, 0. K., Mental Measurements Yearbook. American Council on Education.

New

New York:

Darley, John G., Testing and Counseling in the High School Guidance Program. Chicago, iTTinois: S. R. A.,

1943. Dictionary of Occupational Titles, Volumes I-IV. Washington, D.C.: U! S . Government Printing Office. Erickson, Clifford E., and M. C. Happ, Guidance Practices at Work. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,

T94F:



Erickson, C. E . , and S. A. Hamrin, Guidance Manual for Teachers. Bloomington, Illinois! McKnight" and McKnight, 1939* Reed, Anna Y., Guidance and Placement Services in Edu­ cation. Ithaca, New York! Cornell University Press, 1944. Rogers, Carl R., Counseling and Psychotherapy. Houghton Mifflin Company, 1939*

New York:

U. S. Office of Education, Guidance Bibliography. Washington, D . C . : U. S. Government Printing Office. Williamson, E. G., How to Counsel Students. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1939*

New York:

97 APPENDIX B

(continued)

SELECTED LIST OP SOURCES OP OCCUPATIONAL PAMPHLETS AND AUDIO-VISUAL AIDS B ’Nai B'rith Vocational Service Bureau, Washington, D.C. American Council on Education, 152 West 42nd Street, New York. Bray Pictures Corporation, 729 7th Avenue, New York. Castle Films, 30 Rockefeller Plaza, New York City. Commonwealth Book Company, 80 East Jackson Blvd., Chi­ cago, Illinois. Coronet Productions, Glenview, Illinois. Institute for Research, 537 South Dearborn Street, Chicago, Illinois. Encyclopedia Britannica Films, Inc., 20 North Wacker Drive, Chicago, Illinois. Forum Films, Inc., 8913 Sunset Blvd., Los Angeles, California. Occupational Index, New York University, Washington Square East, New York City. Seienee Research Associates, 228 South Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Illinois. Society for Visual Education, 100 East Ohio Street, Chicago, Illinois. Superintendent of Documents, Price List No. 31» U. S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D. C. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Office of Information, Washington, D. C. U. S. Department of Commerce, Division of Publicity, Office of the Secretary, Washington, D. C.

98 APPENDIX B

(continued)

U. S. Office of Education, Vocational Division, Occupa­ tional Information and Guidance Section, Washington, D. C. U. S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Washington, D.C. U. S. Department of Labor, Occupational Outlook Service, Washington, D. C. MATERIALS OR THE USE OP THE LIBRARY AND OCCUPATIONAL INFORMATION A Plan for Filing Unbound Occupational Information. Port Byron, New York: Chronicle Publishing Company. Erickson, C. E., and G. E. Smith, Organization and Ad­ ministration of Guidance Services. New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 19^7• Forrester, Gertrude, Guidance Plans and cago, Illinois: S. R. A.

Methods.

Chi­

Hilton, M. E., Selected Bibliography of Guidance Mater­ ials . Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press. Kaplan, 0. York:

J., Encyclopedia of Guidance Material. Philosophy Library, Xnc.

Shartle, Carrol, Occupational Information. D. Appleton-Century Company, 1$46.

New

New York:

Sweeney, Mary A., Today's Handbook for Librarians. Chicago: American Library Association, 19^4. The Educational Role of the Librarian. Chicago: American Library Association, 1^47The Library's Place in the School, with Special Emphasis on Its VocatTonaT~Guidance function. “Camden, New Jersey: N e w J e r s e y Library Service.

APPENDIX C ORGANIZATIONAL CHART # 1 The School District

isl'eiru School jf I Grades - 1 to 8 Enrollment - 100 Full time Prln-Coun

ElemV School $ 2 Grades - 1 to 8 Enrollment - 100 Full time Prln-Coun

Guidance Council Rotary Club Member Elem. School Principals High School Counselors School Nurse School Doctor H.S. Superintendent High School Principal Classroom Teachers School Board Member Students

FT

felenu School .— Grades - 1 to 10 Enrollment - 150 Full time Prin-Coun

Line relationship Staff relationship

1 Sebewalng Public School Grades - K through 12 Enrollment - High School - 250 Elementary - 340 5 - part time counselors 1 - head counselor 1 - 9th grade counselor 1 - 10th grade counselor 1 - 11th grade counselor 1 - 12th grade counselor

APEENDIX C (continued)

100

ORGANIZATIONAL CHART § 2 The High School

Superint endent

Nurse

Doctor

Guidance Committee

Counselors

_ _ 1

Teachers

Librarian

Pupils

Pupils

Parents

University of Southern California Library