A survey of physical education training for classroom teachers

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A SURVEY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TRAINING FOR CLASSROOM TEACHERS

A P ro je c t P re se n te d to t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lf illm e n t o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h e D egree M a s te r o f S c i e n c e i n E d u c a tio n

by D an te L o u is Pozzo A ug ust 1950

UMI Number: EP46527

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP46527 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

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Th is p r o j e c t r e p o r t, w ri tt en under the direction of the candidate’s a dv is e r a n d a p p r o v e d by him, has been p r e s e n te d to and a c c e p te d by the F ac u lt y of the S c h o o l of E d u c a ti o n in p a r ti a l fu lf ill m e nt of the requirements f o r the de gr e e of M a s t e r of Science in E ducation.

Dat

Adviser

Dean

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

I

THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM.................................................

1

The p r o b l e m ............................................................................

1

D e sc rip tio n of th e s it u a ti o n

.............................

S ta te m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ........................

1 2

A u t h o r i t y f o r t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e scop e and im p o r ta n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m ....................... The scope and d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p ro b le m .

4

D e f i n i t i o n o f t e c h n i c a l t e r m s .............................

5

I m p o r ta n c e o f t h e p r o b l e m ......................................

5

.............................

6

PROCEDURE.......................................................................................

S

O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e r e p o r t II

2

Em ergence o f t h e p ro b le m

......................................

B

........................

9

D evelopm ent o f t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y

How r e l i a b i l i t y was c o n c e i v e d .................................. 10 How v a l i d i t y was c o n c e i v e d ....................................... 11 D e t e r m i n a t i o n of a s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y III

11

THE LACK OF TRAINED ELEMENTARY TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION

.................................

S u m m a r y ........................................................................... I?

.

13 .

22

TEACHER-TRAINING COURSE ................................................

25

REQUIRED COURSES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATIONFOR STUDENTS TAKING THE FOUR-YEAR ELEMENTARY

iii ■CHAPTER

PAGE A b ile n e C h r i s t i a n C o l l e g e .........................................

27

...........................

27

Alabama S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e B o s to n C o l le g e

. .

. . . ............................................2$ .........................................

29

..............................................

29

..................................................

30

B righam Young U n i v e r s i t y Humboldt S t a t e C o l le g e F r e s n o S t a t e C o l le g e

U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a ..................................................... 30 G eorge P e p p e r d in e C o l l e g e .........................................

31

Iowa S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e ....................................

32

Summary . V

............................................................................ 32

AVAILABLE PRINTED ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION MATERIALS TO ASSIST IN THE GUIDANCE OF THE TEACHER IN THE F I E L D ............................... \

. . . .

34

P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s f o r S o u th D ak o ta S c h o o l s ................................................................................. 34 H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and S a f e t y : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o rth C a r o l i n a

...........................

36

P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n S y l l a b u s , New York S t a t e E d u c a tio n D e p a rtm e n t

. . .........................37

C o u rse o f S tu d y , O a k la n d , C a l i f o r n i a

. . .

39

P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n C o u rse o f " S t u d y , Long Beach C i t y S c h o o l s ........................................... 40

CHAPTER

PAGE A C o u rse o f S tu d y i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Commonwealth o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ............................. 42 P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n T e a c h in g G u id e , Kern C o u n t y C a l i f o r n i a ..................................................... 42 P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n and H e a l t h , C o u rse o f S tu d y , S t a t e o f D ela w are

.................................

44

C o u rse o f S tu d y f o r E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls of Los A n g e le s , C a l i f o r n i a Summary VI

......................................

.............................................................

45 4$

IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE PREPARATION FOR T E A C H E R S ...................................................................................... 52 S u m m a r y ................................................................................

V II

DEVICES USED FOR IN-SERVICE PREPARATION . . . . Summary . ....................................................

. . . . .

57 59 63

V III

CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................... 65

IX

RECOMMENDATIONS.............................................................................. 6S

BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................................................................................... 71

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I

PAGE I n s t i t u t i o n s S u rv e y e d , i n R e g a rd s t o P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n U n i t s R e q u ir e d f o r t h e F our Y e a r E le m e n ta ry T e a c h in g C r e d e n t i a l ..................................................................................26

II

F re q u e n c y o f A c t i v i t i e s o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n Found i n t h e M a t e r i a l .................................

51

A SURVEY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION TRAINING FOR CLASSROOM TEACHERS

CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM ■ I t was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s tu d y t o make a ' s u r v e y o f t h e t r a i n i n g of e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m .

I n s p i t e o f t h e added y e a r s o f s t u d y

r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l and t h e w e a lth o f w r i t t e n m a t e r i a l s on t h e s u b j e c t o f e le m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , t h e e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m h a s n o t k e p t p a c e w ith t h e o b j e c t i v e s and aim s o f t h e e l e m e n ta r y sc h o o l.

The p ro b lem o f g u i d i n g t h e e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r i n

t h i s f i e l d o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s become an e s s e n t i a l t a s k f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and s u p e r v i s o r . I .

THE PROBLEM

D e sc rip tio n of th e s i t u a t i o n .

P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n

i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l h a s b e e n u n d e r g o in g a r a p i d c h a n g e . P h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s b e e n p l a c e d i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m s i d e b y s i d e w i t h t h e ac ad e m ic s u b j e c t s .

In

m odem m eth o d s o f c h i l d g u id a n c e i t h a s b e e n fo u n d t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p l a y s a m a jo r r o l e i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e c h i l d Ts p e r s o n a l i t y .

E le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s aw a re o f

t h i s im p o rta n t r o l e a r e s t i l l n o t u sin g p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n to i t s b e s t c a p a c ity .

The a d m i n i s t r a t o r and s u p e r v i s o r n ee d

2

t o g u i d e t h e t e a c h e r s i n t o s i t u a t i o n s w here more k n o w le d g e , t r a i n i n g , and e x p e r i e n c e can b e g a i n e d t o a s s i s t t h e c l a s s ­ room t e a c h e r s i n c a r r y i n g on a p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program w o r th y of th e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l . S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b le m . are o th e r a sp e c ts of t h is

R e c o g n iz in g t h a t t h e r e

p ro b le m , t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r h a s

d e l i m i t e d t h i s s t u d y t o ,TA S u rv e y o f P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n T r a i n i n g f o r C la ssro o m T e a c h e r s . n

T h e r e f o r e , t h e p ro b le m

p r e s e n t e d i s t h a t o f d e t e r m i n i n g w h e th e r p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a s met t h e a im s and o b j e c t i v e s o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l th r o u g h a s t u d y o f (1) t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s t o p r e s e n t a w o r th w h ile p ro g ra m , (2) p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s r e q u i r e d by t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g in s titu tio n s ,

(3) t h e c o u r s e s o f s tu d y a v a i l a b l e t o t h e

te a c h e r s in th e f i e l d , p re p a ra tio n ,

(4 ) t h e im p o r ta n c e o f i n - s e r v i c e

(5) d e v i c e s u s e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n ,

and, in th e l i g h t of th e s e f in d in g s ,

(6 ) t o make recommenda­

t i o n s w hich a r e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . A u t h o r i t y f o r th e d ev e lo p m e n t o f t h e s c o p e and im p o r ta n c e o f t h e p r o b le m .

T h is p ro b le m i s l i m i t e d t o a

su rv e y o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n t r a i n i n g of cla ssro o m t e a c h e r s . I t was p o i n t e d o u t by s e l e c t e d a u t h o r i t i e s who h ave w r i t t e n

on th e p r o b le m . Curtiss-*- s t a t e :

Mary L o u is e C u r t i s s and A d e la id e B. f,A c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s n o t r e a d y t o t e a c h

p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n .

W ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f th e u s u a l

c o l l e g e fre sh m an and sophom ore p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e , she i s t o t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d .”

The c u r r e n t t r e n d i n d i c a t e s

t h a t t h e g e n e r a l c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s t h e one t o t e a c h p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

N e i l s o n and Yan H agen2 s t a t e :

’’T h is

means t h a t t h o u s a n d s upon th o u s a n d s o f t e a c h e r s now i n s e r v i c e m ust t h r o u g h e n c o u r a g e m e n t, t h r o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n , and i n some c a s e s a l m o s t t h r o u g h c o m p u ls io n , become a c ­ q u a i n t e d w i t h and p r e p a r e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . ”

W illia m s

and B r o w n e ll3 sp eak o f t h e p ro b le m i t s e l f when t h e y s t a t e : ’’A lth o u g h t e a c h e r ’ s c o l l e g e s a r e im p r o v in g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l r e m a in s t o be d o n e . ”

-*- Mary L o u is e C u r t i s s and A d e la id e B . C u r t i s s , ’’The C la ssro o m T e a c h e r ’ s D ile m m a ,” The J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 7 :3 3 5 , J u l y , 1 94 6 . ^ N. P . N e i l s o n and W i n if r e d Van H agen, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r E le m e n ta ry S c h o o ls (New York: A. S . B a rn e s and Company, 1 9 3 6 )•

3 J e s s e F e i r i n g W illia m s and C l i f f o r d Lee B r o w n e ll , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n . ^ P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B . S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 4 6 ) , p . 199•

The sc o p e and d e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e p r o b l e m .

S in c e

th e c u rr e n t tre n d i n d ic a t e s t h a t th e classro o m te a c h e r i s t h e one t o t e a c h e l e m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , and s i n c e t h e l i t e r a t u r e e m p h a s iz e s t h a t t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s not a d e q u a te ly t r a i n e d in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n , i t i s ev id en t t h a t a survey of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n t r a i n i n g f o r classro o m te a c h e rs be in v e s tig a te d . n u m e ro u s.

J h f i^ e x te n t- .o f t h e p ro b lem i s

A m u l t i t u d e o f q u e s t i o n s would a r i s e , such a s :

Why sh o u ld t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t e a c h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? Why d o n ’t t h e y t r a i n s p e c i a l i s t s t o t e a c h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? Why do t e a c h e r s l a c k t r a i n i n g i n e le m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­ tio n ?

What a r e th e r e q u i r e d e l e m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n

co u rses fo r th e te a c h in g c r e d e n tia l?

Are t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o ls

o f f e r i n g s u f f i c i e n t c o u r s e s i n e l e m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? Are t h e r e u s e a b l e p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s i n t h e f i e l d f o r t h e g u id a n c e o f t e a c h e r s ?

What o t h e r means can be u s e d t o g i v e

a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n to th e classro o m te a c h e r?

What a r e t h e b e s t d e v i c e s t o u s e f o r i n - s e r v i c e

p re p a ra tio n of te a c h e rs?

What can t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s do

to w a r d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g o f c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s ? To a n s w e r a l l t h e s e q u e s t i o n s would make an i n v e s t i g a t i o n to o g e n e ra l.

5 To l i m i t t h e p ro b le m a s e l e c t i o n o f t h e f i v e most i m p o r t a n t q u e s t i o n s w ere m ade, t h e y a r e : 1 .

Is th e re a

la p k o f t r a i n e d e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? 2.

What a r e t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n

f o r s t u d e n t s t a k i n g t h e f o u r - y e a r e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r tra in in g

course?



Are t h e r e a v a i l a b l e p r i n t e d e l e m e n ta r y

p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s t o a s s i s t i n t h e g u id a n c e o f th e te a c h e r in th e f ie l d ? in - s e r v ic e p re p a ra tio n ?

4» 5*

What i s t h e i m p o r ta n c e o f What d e v i c e s a r e u se d f o r i n -

s e rv ic e p re p a ra tio n ? D e fin itio n of te c h n ic a l te rm s .

T h is r e p o r t i s

l i m i t e d t o t h e e le m e n ta r y c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i n g r a d e s t h r e e , f o u r , f i v e , and s i x .

H e a l t h and r e c r e a t i o n a r e n o t con­

sid e re d in th i s in v e s tig a tio n .

The p h y s i c a l a c t i v i t i e s

, a r e t h e p r im a r y i n t e r e s t o f t h i s r e p o r t . I m p o r ta n c e o f t h e p r o b le m .

N e a rly ev ery p u b l i c a t i o n

d e a l i n g w i t h e l e m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p o i n t s o u t t h e n e e d f o r c a r e f u l s e l e c t i o n ancl t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s i n te r m s o f p r o v i d i n g ample e x p e r i e n c e s f o r c h i l d r e n w hich a r e g e a r e d t o t h e econom ic and s o c i a l c h a n g e s i n o u r modem d e m o c r a t i c so c ie ty .

As p o i n t e d o u t by Hice^* " t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e c l a s s -

4 R o b e r t C. R i c e , P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n o f t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l " (M in n e a p o lis , Minin. : B u r g e s s P 'u b lish in g " 'CTompany, 1 93 4 ), p . 1 .

6 room t e a c h e r i s p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h a c a d e m ic s u b j e c t s she i s not a d e q u a te ly t r a i n e d fo r th e te a c h in g o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ."

T h is becom es a p ro b le m o f n o t o n l y one s c h o o l

but of a l l sc h o o ls. O rg a n iz a tio n o f th e r e p o r t .

S in ce t h i s r e p o r t i s

a s tu d y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f i e l d , t h e f o l l o w i n g o u t l i n e o f t h e c h a p t e r s w i l l b e f o l l o w e d : C h a p te r I I w i l l c o n ta in a sta te m e n t o f th e p ro c e d u re s used in t h i s s t u d y , C h a p te r I I I w i l l p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s fro m t h e l i t e r a t u r e w hich w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e i n s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , C h a p t e r IV m i l p r e s e n t a s u r v e y o f r e q u i r e d p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s fro m a g ro u p o f t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s th r o u g h o u t t h e U n ite d S t a t e s , C h a p te r V w i l l p r e s e n t a s u r v e y o f t h e c o u r s e s o f s t u d y a v a i l a b l e t o e le m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d , C h a p te r VI w i l l p r e s e n t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e im p o r ta n c e o f i n s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n , C h a p te r V II w i l l i l l u s t r a t e d e v i c e s u s e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n , C h a p te r V I I I w i l l p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d on t h e f i n d i n g s , and C h a p te r IX w i l l in c lu d e s u g g e s tio n s f o r a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f classro o m te a c h e rs in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

7 In c lu d e d i n t h i s c h a p te r h as been a b r i e f d e s c r i p ­ t i o n o f t h e s i t u a t i o n , a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m , i n c l u d ­ i n g t h e s c o p e , d e l i m i t a t i o n , im p o r ta n c e o f t h e p ro b le m , and t h e s u b s e q u e n t o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e r e p o r t -

The f o l l o w ­

in g c h a p te r w i l l in c lu d e th e p ro c e d u re s o f th e s tu d y .

CHAPTER I I PROCEDURE The i m p o r ta n c e o f t h e p ro b le m o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g f o r c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s h a s been o u t l i n e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g c h a p t e r and a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p ro b le m o f t h i s s tu d y h a s been i n c l u d e d .

The p r o c e d u r e f o r t h e r e p o r t w i l l

be p re se n te d in th e p re se n t c h a p te r. Em ergence o f t h e p r o b le m .

The s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s o f

t h i s s tu d y a r o s e from t h e n eed o f m e e tin g a s p e c i f i c s i t u a ­ t i o n r e l a t i v e t o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and s u p e r v i s i o n o f a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n f o r th e c lassro o m te a c h e r . B e c a u se o f a u n iq u e s i t u a t i o n , w here a s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l ed u ­ c a t i o n t e a c h e r was u s e d i n a g iv e n e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l , and b e c a u s e o f t h e g e n e r a l f e e l i n g on t h e p a r t o f t h e t e a c h e r s t h a t f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h was n ee d e d t o v e r i f y t h e u s e o f a s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r , i t was d e c i d e d t o exam ine t h e w r i t i n g s o f p r o m in e n t e d u c a t o r s .

The r e s u l t s w ere /

d e f i n i t e l y in fa v o r of th e classro o m te a c h e r a s th e te a c h e r t o t e a c h e l e m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .

F o r f u r t h e r con ­

s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p ro b le m , t h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l e n d e a v o r t o answ er th e s e s p e c i f i c q u e s tio n s : 1 .

I s t h e r e a la c k of

t r a i n e d e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ?

2.

What

9 a r e th e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s ta lc in g t h e f o u r - y e a r e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g c o u r s e ? 3*‘ Are t h e r e a v a i l a b l e p r i n t e d e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s t o a s s i s t i n t h e g u id a n c e o f t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e fie ld ? 5*

4*

What i s t h e im p o r ta n c e o f i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n ?

What d e v i c e s a r e u s e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n ? D evelopm ent o f t h e b i b 1 i o g r a p h y .

A fter a b r i e f

s u r v e y o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e , t h e p ro b lem was found t o d i v i d e i t s e l f i n t o f o u r m a jo r p a r t s .

F i r s t , i t was n e c e s s a r y t o

e s t a b l i s h t h e n ee d f o r a s u r v e y o f a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g . Second, a su rv ey of t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s .

T h ird ,

an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f c o u r s e s o f s t u d y u s e d i n t h e t e a c h i n g fie ld .

F o u r t h , t h e im p o r ta n c e and d e v i c e s u s e d f o r i n -

se rv ic e p re p a ra tio n . F o r p a r t s one and f o u r o f t h e p ro b le m , a w e a lth o f l i t e r a t u r e h a s b een w r i t t e n on t h e s u b j e c t .

I t is not

p o s s i b l e t o r e a d and q u o te fro m a l l t h e l i t e r a t u r e . f o r e a m ethod o f s e l e c t i o n was u t i l i z e d .

T here­

I t was n e c e s s a r y

t o s e t some a r b i t r a r y s t a n d a r d o f s e l e c t i o n o f r e f e r e n c e s . I t was d e c i d e d t o l i m i t r e f e r e n c e s t o t h e f o l l o w i n g t y p e s o f l i t e r a t u r e : b o o k s by c o m p e te n t a u t h o r i t i e s i n t h e f i e l d , d e t e r m i n e d b y p o s i t i o n , such a s P r o f e s s o r s o f E d u c a t i o n ,

10

Dean o f D e p a r tm e n t, w r i t e r s o f t e x t b o o k s , e t c . ; by e x ­ p e r i e n c e and f r e q u e n c y o f m e n tio n i n t h e l i t e r a t u r e ;

and

a r t i c l e s i n n a t i o n a l l y known p e r i o d i c a l s . I n p a r t s two and t h r e e o f t h e p ro b le m i t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o e s t a b l i s h a c r i t e r i a o f c o m p e te n c e .

The

m a t e r i a l u se d was f a c t u a l and d id n o t c o n t a i n t h e o p i n i o n s of w rite rs . I t was n o t n e c e s s a r y t o l i m i t t h i s

in v e s tig a tio n to

an y one p e r i o d o r t o r e c e n t y e a r s , a l t h o u g h m ost o f t h e r e f e r e n c e m a t e r i a l used ex ten d ed o v e r th e p a s t te n y e a r s . O nly i n a few c a s e s d i d t h e m a t e r i a l e n t e r i n t o t h e 1930 t o 1940 p e r i o d .

The d a t e l i m i t a t i o n o f t h e r e f e r e n c e

m a t e r i a l u s e d was fro m 1930 t o 1 9 3 0 . Flow r e l i a b i l i t y was c o n c e i v e d .

R e l i a b i l i t y means

t h e d e g r e e t o w hich t h e p r o c e d u r e can b e g u a r a n t e e d t o g i v e c o n siste n t r e s u l t s .

I t was t h e i n t e n t o f t h e i n v e s t i g a t o r

t o make t h i s s tu d y r e l i a b l e .

Random s a m p lin g was t h e p r o c e s s

u s e d t o i n s u r e some d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y .

T h is r e l i a b i l i t y

h a s b een c h e c k e d th r o u g h t h e u s e o f t h e se co n d s a m p lin g . T h e r e was a h ig h d e g r e e o f c o n s i s t e n c y i n t h e f i n d i n g s o f b o th sa m p lin g s.

The c o n s i s t e n c y o f t h e f i n d i n g s i n t h e

two s a m p lin g s i s an i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e d e g r e e o f r e l i a b i l i t y of th is stu d y .

A f u r t h e r c h e c k on r e l i a b i l i t y may b e made

11

b y e x t e n d i n g t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y and t h e r e b y p r o v i d i n g new m a t e r i a l f o r a t h i r d s a m p lin g . How v a l i d i t y was c o n c e i v e d .

V a l i d i t y i s m eant t h e

e x t e n t t o w hich t h e d e v i c e a c t u a l l y d o e s w hat i t p u r p o r t s to do.

T r a n s f e r r e d t o t h e p r e s e n t p r o b le m , i t

th ro u g h t h r e e p r o c e s s e s .

i s secured

F i r s t , t h e e x t e n t t o w hich t h e

a u t h o r i t i e s q u o te d a r e a c t u a l l y a u t h o r i t i e s .

S eco n d ly ,

t h o s e d a t a and o p i n i o n s t h a t r e p r e s e n t a s t r o n g m a j o r i t y . T h i r d , t h e r e f e r e n c e s u s e d a r e from s t a n d a r d w o rk s b y s ta n d a rd

a u th o rs.

Thus h a s v a l i d i t y b een e s t a b l i s h e d .

D e te rm in a tio n o f a s e le c te d b ib li o g r a p h y .

As w i l l

be n o t e d a t t h e c l o s e o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n s is ts of books, p e r io d ic a ls , i n s t i t u t i o n c a ta lo g u e s , c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , and r e s e a r c h s t u d y .

F or th e purpose o f

s e c u rin g a s e le c te d b ib lio g ra p h y , th e a u th o r s of l i t e r a t u r e w hich h ad s a t i s f i e d - t h e c r i t e r i a o f co m p ete n ce w ere p l a c e d in a lp h a b e tic a l o rd er.

T h is l i s t

c o m p ris e d t h e s e l e c t e d

b ib lio g ra p h y . From th e s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , e v e ry se c o n d a u t h o r was s e l e c t e d t o become a p a r t o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e m aking t h e f i r s t s a m p lin g .

The r e m a in in g p i e c e s o f l i t e r a t u r e made

t h e seco nd s a m p l i n g .

The o p i n i o n s o f t h e a u t h o r s o f t h e

12

f i r s t s a m p lin g h a s been com pared -with t h e o p i n i o n s i n t h e seco nd s a m p l i n g .

I n t h i s m a n n e r, t h e a u t h o r a t t e m p t e d t o

make a r e l i a b l e s t u d y , and t o ch eck t h e r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s tu d y w ith a seco nd s a m p lin g . The s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y c o n s i s t s o f f o r t y - o n e referen ces.

T h e re w e re tw e n ty r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e f i r s t

s a m p lin g and t w e n t y - o n e r e f e r e n c e s i n t h e se c o n d s a m p lin g . T h is c h a p t e r h a s s t a t e d t h e e m erg en ce o f t h e p ro b le m a l o n g w ith t h e s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n s o f t h i s s t u d y , t h e d e ­ v elo p m en t o f a b i b l i o g r a p h y , d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a s e l e c t e d b i b l i o g r a p h y , and how r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y was c o n c e i v e d . C h a p te r I I I w i l l p r e s e n t th e f in d in g s i n d i c a t i n g th e i n ­ s u f f i c i e n t t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n .

CHAPTER I I I THE LACK OF TRAINED ELEMENTARY TEACHERS IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION In th e l a s t c h a p te r th e sta te m e n t of th e p ro ced u res was d e v e l o p e d .

T h is c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s fro m t h e

l i t e r a t u r e w hich w i l l i n d i c a t e t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d e l e ­ m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . As one g o e s th r o u g h l i f e , t h e r e i s no one a c t i v i t y t h a t d o e s n o t demand c o o r d i n a t e d movement t o some d e g r e e . To u s e o n e ’ s body w e l l g i v e s p e r s o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n , g ro u p r e c o g n i t i o n , h e a l t h , and h a p p i n e s s .

S in c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­

t i o n i s c a p a b le o f d e v e l o p i n g i n d i v i d u a l s i n such i m p o r t a n t a s p e c ts and, sin c e th e s e l i f e p a tte r n s a re e s ta b lis h e d in t h e p r im a r y y e a r s o f o n e ’ s l i f e , one c a n n o t h e l p b u t a g r e e t h a t p h y s i c a l ' e d u c a t i o n p l a y s p r o b a b l y i t s m ost o u t s t a n d i n g r o l e X'd.th t h e e l e m e n ta r y c h i l d . I n r e a l i z i n g t h i s , m ost s t a t e s h a v e e n a c t e d la w s p e r t a i n i n g to p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

In th e S ta te o f C a lif o r n i a ,

t h e E d u c a t i o n a l Code o f t h e s t a t e p r o v i d e s t h a t : A l l p u p i l s e n r o l l e d i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l s , except p u p ils excused, s h a ll be re q u ire d to a tte n d upon t h e c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r an

14 i n s t r u c t i o n a l p e r i o d i n each s c h o o l day w hich s h a l l b e n o t l e s s t h a n 20 m in u t e s e x c l u s i v e o f r e c e s s e s and t h e lu n c h p e r i o d *1 T h ese la w s even s t i p u l a t e t h e b a s i c a im s and p u r ­ p o s e s o f such p r o g ra m s ; i n c l u d i n g s o c i a l , p h y s i c a l , and p sy c h o lo g ic a l f a c t o r s . S i n c e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n p l a y s i t s m ost o u t s t a n d i n g r o l e •i n t h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y c h i l d , a n d , s i n c e t h i s h as been r e a l i z e d by th e s t a t e d e p a rtm e n ts o f educa­ tio n

( a s shown by la w s w hich t h e y h av e e n a c t e d ) , i t becom es

o b v io u s t h a t e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s t r a i n e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­ tio n are d e fin ite ly e s s e n tia l.

sA.t

f i r s t , th is in v e stig a to r

f e l t t h e s t r o n g n e e d , fro m p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , o f a s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l . i n g i n t o r e s e a r c h on t h i s p ro b le m , t h i s

E n te r­

i n v e s t i g a t o r fo u n d

t h a t a o n e -s id e d o p in io n by n o te d e d u c a to rs s t a t e d t h a t t h e s p e c i a l i s t h a d no p l a c e i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l .

The l i t e r a ­

t u r e h a s in d ic a te d t h a t l a t e l y th e g e n e ra l tr e n d h as been away fro m s p e c i a l t e a c h e r s and d e p a r t m e n t a l i z a t i o n i n t h e e le m e n ta ry s c h o o l.

I t is g e n e ra lly f e l t th a t th e re g u la r

t e a c h e r can b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e t h e s c h o o l pro gram i f sh e handl-os a l l p h a s e s o f i t h e r s e l f .

R ic e s t a t e s :

1 E d u c a tio n a l . C o d e, S t a t e o f C a l i f o r n i a , S a c r a m e n to , C a l i f o r n i a , 1948> A r t i c l e 1 0 1 2 3 , p* 266*

15 The m a j o r i t y o f t h e w r i t e r s i n e d u c a t i o n d e f i n i t e l y f e e l t h a t t h e r e g u l a r t e a c h e r h a s more e x p e r i e n c e i n h a n d l i n g c h i l d r e n on t h e e l e m e n ta r y a g e l e v e l . P h y sic a l e d u c a t i o n can h a v e more m eaning t o t h e c h i l d r e n when i t i s i n t e g r a t e d w ith t h e o t h e r s u b j e c t m a t t e r . T h is g i v e s t h e s t u d e n t more o p p o r t u n i t y f o r o r i g i n a l i t y and i n i t i a t i v e i n c r e a t i v e w o rk . The c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s more a l e r t to s e e t h i s and t h u s t h e i d e a l p e r s o n t o te a c h p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n fo r i n t e r e s t s s a k e .2 E v id e n c e shows t h a t t h i s s u b j e c t o f s p e c i a l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t e a c h e r i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y f i e l d v e r s u s t h e c l a s s ­ room t e a c h e r a s t h e t e a c h e r o f e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n has been d is c u s s e d th ro u g h th e y e a r s .

F o u r te e n

y e a rs a f t e r R ic e ’ s s ta te m e n t, B o n itz w r i t e s : The c u r r e n t t r e n d seem s t o be f o r t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r t o assume c h a r g e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e r e s p e c tiv e g rad es und er th e s u p e rv is io n of a s p e c i a l ­ i s t . ^ She h a s an i n t i m a t e know ledge o f t h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r h e r s u p e r v i s i o n and i t i s d e s i r a b l e t h a t she h a v e an o p p o r t u n i t y t o o b s e r v e them i n p la y s i t u a t i o n s w h ere many o f th e a d u l t p a t t e r n s fo u n d i n t h e c l a s s ­ room a r e t h r u s t a s i d e . 3 / Q u e s t i o n s su c h a s t h e s e w i l l n a t u r a l l y a r i s e .

Is

th e cla ssro o m t e a c h e r t r a i n e d t o te a c h th e r e q u ir e d p h y s ic a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l?

Does she h av e

th e i n t e r e s t in th e f i e l d of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n ?

I s sh e

crv

4 R o b e r t C. R i c e , P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n - o f - t h e E le m e n ta ry S ch oo 1 (Minn eap o l i s , M inn . : Bur ge s s Publ is h in g " "Com pany, 1934)", P* 1* 7 3 J e a n B o n i t z , ’’Some P ro b lem s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e E le m e n ta ry S c h o o l , ” The J o u r n a l o f H e a lth and P h y s i c a l 4. 07 E d u c a t i o n , V o l. 1 9 , No. 6 , "June, 19 48 •

16 c a p a b le o f t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ?

I s sh e u s i n g

t r a i n e d m etho d s i n t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ?

Does she

c o r r e l a t e c l a s s work w ith p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n ? E v id e n c e s t h a t c l e a r l y ansxver t h e s e q u e s t i o n s h a v e been f o u n d .

In a s tu d y of t h e ele m e n ta ry s c h o o ls o f th e

S t a t e o f C o n n e c tic u t^ - i t was r e v e a l e d t h a t , ’’I n a d e q u a t e p ro g ra m s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t i n u e t o p e r s i s t i n a g r e a t many o f t h e s t a t e ’ s c o m m u n iti e s ."

T h is i n v e s t i g a t i o n

a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t i n many s c h o o l s t h e s e s u b j e c t s a r e s t i l l b e i n g t a u g h t b y e l e m e n ta r y s c h o o l t e a c h e r s who h av e l i t t l e s p e c ia liz e d tr a in in g in p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n . Mary L o u is e C u r t i s s and A d e la id e B. C u r t i s s , i n t h e i r a r t i c l e , s t a t e th e fo llo w in g w ith r e g a r d to th e t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s . A c lassro o m t e a c h e r i s n o t rea d y to te a c h p h y s ic a l e d u c a t i o n . W ith t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e u s u a l c o l l e g e fre sh m a n and sophomore p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s , she i s t o t a l l y u n p r e p a r e d . Deep i n t o t h e l i t e r a t u r e o f t h e f i e l d s h e w a d e s, g l a n c i n g a b o u t w i l d l y f o r a i d . C o l l e c t i o n o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s , she f i n d s . But t h e y a r e s l a n t e d t o t h e s p e c i a l i s t s o r t o t h o s e who t h r o u g h much p r a c t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e h a v e l e a r n e d t o s e le c t a c t i v i t i e s s u ita b le t o th e ir n e e d s .5

T eacher P erso n n el S tu d y , C o n n e c tic u t S ta te D e p a r tm e n t'.o f 'E d u c a tio n and C o r m e c tic u t S t a t e T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 1 , p* 4* 5 Mary L o u is e C u r t i s s and A d e la id e B. C u r t i s s , "The C la s s ro o m T e a c h e r ’ s D ilem m a," The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 1 7 :3 3 5 , J u l y , 1 9 4 6 .

r

17 F u r th e r ev id en ce o f t r a i n i n g o f te a c h e r s f o r e l e ­ m e n ta r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n r e f e r e n c e t o t h e q u e s t i o n s was c i t e d by R i c e .

He d o e s f e e l t h a t e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s

a r e t r a i n e d a d e q u a t e l y i n . t h e ac ad e m ic s u b j e c t s b u t n o t so in th e s u b je c t of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

R ic e s t a t e s :

The f a c t s t i l l r e m a in s t h a t i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y sc h o o ls o f th e c o u n try a m a jo rity of th e p u p ils a r e b ein g ta u g h t t h e i r p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n le s s o n s b y t e a c h e r s who a r e p r i m a r i l y p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h acad em ic s u b j e c t s . 6 M cC reary^ i n h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n s came o u t w ith some r e m a r k a b le c o n c l u s i o n s .

From . q u e s t i o n n a i r e s s e n t t o c i t y

and s t a t e d i r e c t o r s , he foun d t h a t th e y r a n k e d t h e h a n d i ­ caps o f e le m e n ta ry t e a c h e r s i n th e f i e l d of p h y s ic a l educa­ t i o n as fo llo w s: la c k o f i n t e r e s t ,

” ( a ) l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e , (b) (c) i n a b i l i t y to ta k e p a r t ,

method o f t e a c h i n g ,

(d ) u n t r a i n e d

(e ) i n a b i l i t y t o c o r r e l a t e c l a s s work

i n o th e r s u b j e c t s w ith p h y s ic a l e d u c a t i o n .” I f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i s to be ex ten d ed to t h e g r e a t m a jo r ity o f c h i l d r e n i n th e ele m e n ta ry sc h o o ls of t h i s c o u n try th e g e n e ra l classro o m t e a c h e r , as th e c u r r e n t tr e n d

6 R ice, £ p . c i t . , p . 1 . 7 A aron M c C reary , ” The Minimum E s s e n t i a l s i n H e a lth and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r a l l T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g I n s t i t u ­ t i o n s , ” ( u n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e le s , 1 9 3 0 ) , p . 1 3 3 .

13 i n d i c a t e s , w i l l h a v e t o do t h e w o rk .

N e i l s o n and Van

Hagen s t a t e : T h is means t h a t t h o u s a n d s u po n t h o u s a n d s o f t e a c h e r s now i n s e r v i c e m ust t h r o u g h e n c o u ra g e m e n t, t h r o u g h s u p e r v i s i o n , and i n some c a s e s a lm o s t th r o u g h c o m p u ls io n , become a c q u a i n t e d w i t h and p r e p a r e d i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s and m eth o d s o f t e a c h i n g them t o c h i l d r e n . I t a l s o means t h a t t h e oncoming g e n e r a t i o n s o f t e a c h e r s now i n t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s , or y e t i n t h e e l e m e n ta r y o r h ig h s c h o o ls of t h e n a t i o n , m ust b e n o t o n ly e x p o s e d t o , b u t become t h o r o u g h l y f a m i l i a r w ith t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o n t e n t m a t e r i a l s so e s s e n t i a l t o c h i l d r e n ’ s p h y s i c a l , m e n t a l , and s o c i a l d e v e lo p m e n t .3 The t e a c h e r o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n e n jo y s a u n iq u e p o s i t i o n b e c a u s e s h e d e a l s d i r e c t l y w i t h many o f t h e c h i l d ’ s i n n a t e d e s i r e s — t o r u n , jum p, t h r o w , c l i m b , and d a n c e — and a t t h e same tim e d i r e c t s t h e s e d e s i r e s i n t o c h a n n e l s r e p r e ­ s e n t i n g a p p ro v e d s o c i a l c o n d u c t .

No o t h e r t e a c h e r h a s so

r i c h an o p p o r t u n i t y . I t i s t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e im p o r ta n c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t h a t h a s c a u s e d many w r i t e r s to s t a t e t h e l a c k o f p r o p e r t r a i n i n g o f e l e m e n ta r y t e a c h e r s i n t h e fie ld

of p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n .

W illia m s and B ro x m e ll f e e l

t h a t w h ile t h e p r i n c i p l e o f th e te a c h in g o f p h y s ic a l edu­ c a t i o n by t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r r a t h e r t h a n by a s p e c i a l i s t

$ N . / p . N e i l s o n and W i n i f r e d Van H agen, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r 7,E lem ent a r y S c h o o ls (New Y ork: A.""S . tia r n e s and Company, 1936 ) •

19 is

e d u c a t i o n a l l y s o u n d , t h e y do f e e l t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­

t i o n s u f f e r s f r e q u e n tly b ec a u se th e classro o m te a c h e r la c k s a d e q u a te te c h n ic a l t r a i n i n g in t h i s f i e l d .

A d ire c t

p a ra g ra p h g iv e s t h e i r o p in io n w ith re g a rd t o th e c lassro o m te a c h e r in th e te a c h in g o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n : s/ v

I n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l , p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n sh o u ld b e t a u g h t b y t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r . As y e t , she i s n o t a s w e l l p r e p a r e d t o t e a c h p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a s she i s to g iv e i n s t r u c t i o n in o th e r s u b je c ts o f th e g ra d e s . A lth o u g h t e a c h e r ’ s c b l l e g e s a r e im p ro v in g t h e i r c u r r i c u l a i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , a g r e a t d e a l r e m a in s t o b e d o n e . 9 P h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n s e rv e s m u ltip le r o l e s in th e

s c h o o l p r o g ra m .

A n o th e r u r g e n t p r e s e n t n eed i s a th o r o u g h

g o i n g r e v i s i o n o f c o n c e p t and v ie w p o i n t r e g a r d i n g th e p l a c e w h ich p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n s h o u ld occu p y i n a m odern e l e ­ m e n ta r y s c h o o l p r o g ra m .

Some p e o p l e b e l i e v e t h a t p h y s i c a l

e d u c a t i o n i s an a n t i d o t e f o r t h e cram ped m u s c le s r e s u l t i n g fro m t h e more s e r i o u s b u s i n e s s o f t h e s c h o o l .

S t i l l o th e rs

t h i n k t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s synonymous w ith r e c e s s p e r i o d s , and t h a t r e c r e a t i o n i s no c o n c e rn o f t h e s c h o o l . Some o f t h e s e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s h a v e b een a p t l y sum m arized b y S a l t , F o x , D o u t h e t , and S te v e n s :

9 J e s s e F e i r i n g W illia m s and C l i f f o r d Lee B r o w n e l l , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a lth and P h y si c a l E d u c a tio n ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B . S a u n d e r s Company, 1 9 1 6 ) , p . 199•

20

The d e v e lo p m e n t o f m o de m p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s o f t e n r e t a r d e d b e c a u s e o f t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s which some p e o p l e h a v e c o n c e r n i n g t h e n a t u r e and f u n c t i o n o f t h i s p h ase o f education*. There a r e s t i l l to o many e d u c a t o r s and laymen who s u b s c r i b e t o t h e f a c t t h a t p h y s ic a l education i s a r e c e s s p e rio d , a necessary e v i l when t e a c h e r s must ir a tc h c h i l d r e n t o s e e t h a t t h e r e a r e no f i g h t s ; t h a t f o r m a l and a r t i f i c i a l e x e r ­ c i s e s p r o v i d e a good s u b s t i t u t e f o r ’ p l a y s i t u a t i o n s ; t h a t p l a y i s a w a s t e o f tiirfe; t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n is a t h e r a p e u t i c agency concerned p r im a r il y w ith the c o r r e c tio n of d e f e c ts ; t h a t p h y sic a l e x e rc is e obtained t h r o u g h work i s a good s u b s t i t u t e f o r r e c r e a t i o n ; t h a t th e prim ary p u rp o s e .o f p h y s ic a l edu catio n is t o p ro ­ v i d e an a n t i d o t e o r r e l i e f from t h e m e n t a l t a s k s o f t h e c l a s s r o o m ; t h a t p l a y i s an e n e r g y - r e l e a s e p r o c e s s and a s s u c h , i s n o t a p h a s e o f e d u c a t i o n ; t h a t p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s p r i m a r i l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e deve lopm e nt o f d i s c i p l i n e and o b e d i e n c e . > I t s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e s e do n o t i n c l u d e a l l of t h e m i s c o n c e p t i o n s r e g a r d ­ ing p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n b u t m erely se rv e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e numerous u n f o u n d e d b e l i e f s w h ic h h a n d i c a p s t h e d ev e lo p m e n t o f modern p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .10 S t a t e m e n t s hav e a r i s e n from e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s t h a t t h e y do n o t nee d s p e c i a l t r a i n i n g i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . They s t a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n o f e l e m e n t a r y l e v e l s n e e d o n l y t o p l a y low t y p e o r g a n i z e d games f o r s o c i a l and p h y s i c a l purposes.

The t e a c h i n g o f s k i l l s , s u c h a s t h e s k i l l o f

p i t c h i n g o r b a t t i n g i n s o f t b a l l , w i l l b e t a u g h t by t h e s p e c i a l i s t i n t h e j u n i o r and s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d e s .

10 E. b . S a l t , G. I . Fox, E. M. D o u t h e t , and B. K. S te v e n s , Teaching P h y s ic a l E d u ca tio n in t h e Elem entary S c h o o l (New1 Y ork: A. S.' "Barnes and Company, 1942 )» PP • 1 1 -

TT.

21

La S a l l e h a s t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n h a s s u f f e r e d f ro m t h e d i c t u m t h a t young c h i l d r e n s h o u l d n o t be t a u g h t s k i l l s . t h a t th e p r a c t i c e of th e s k i l l s

I t was b e l i e v e d

i n g am es, even th o u g h w i t h ­

out c o n s c i o u s a t t e n t i o n , was s u f f i c i e n t .

Such a p o i n t o f

v ie w seems e r r o n e o u s b e c a u s e c o m p a r a t i v e l y few c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m t h e s k i l l s n a t u r a l l y and w i t h e a s e .

Many c h i l d r e n

show awkward c o o r d i n a t i o n s w hich soon become p a t t e r n s o f b e h a v i o r v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o overcome i n l a t e r g r a d e s . La S a l l e makes a d e f i n i t e s t a t e m e n t w i t h r e g a r d t o the te ach in g o f s k i l l s : T h a t many o f o u r u p p e r g r a d e c h i l d r e n h a v e f a u l t y s k i l l s i s r e c o g n i z e d b y even a c a s u a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f an a v e r a g e s i x t h g r a d e , a h i g h s c h o o l and a f r e s h m a n college c la s s . That s k i l l s have not been w e l l - l e a r n e d i n t h e e a r l y g r a d e s i s o b v i o u s and t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t been c o r r e c t e d i n l a t e r g r a d e s i s a s a d commentary on p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . The v a s t m a j o r i t y o f c h i l d r e n l e a v e t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l xvLth s k i l l s so p oor as t o g i v e them l i t t l e or no s a t i s f a c t i o n i n p e r f o r m i n g th e m . I f t h i s i s t r u e , how c a n we hope t h e y w i l l p u r s u e physical education a c t i v i t i e s in t h e i r a d u lt le is u r e t i m e . 11 We a r e a w a re t h a t i n a number o f s t a t e s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e d b y l a w , and i n c o u n t l e s s d i s t r i c t s and c o m m u n iti e s t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s g i v e n t h e

D o r o t h y La S a l l e , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r (New York: A. S . B a r n e s and 5 ompany, • 1 9 3 7 i , p . W-

22

r e s p o n s i b ilit y of teaching th e s u b je c t.

La S a l l e w r o t e ,

i n 193 7 , a p o p u l a r r e a s o n why c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r s a r e avoiding th e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f te a c h in g p h y sic a l education: Many w ere n o t p r e p a r e d f o r t h e t a s k i n t h e i r t r a i n ­ i n g s c h o o l s . Many a r e w i t h o u t a d e q u a t e s u p e r v i s i o n . U n t r a i n e d and u n d e r s t a n d i n g b u t l i t t l e o f t h e v a l u e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e whole c h i l d , i t i s s m a l l wonder t h a t t h e t e a c h e r o f t e n r e g a r d s i t a s o f much l e s s i m p o r t a n c e t h a n o t h e r a r e a s o f t e a c h i n g . 12 Summary.

Sum m arizing t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s i t was

found t h a t a l l t e n s o u rc e s i n v e s t i g a t e d m entioned a t l e a s t one p h a s e o f t e a c h i n g w hich i n d i c a t e d t h a t c l a s s r o o m t e a c h ­ e r s did la c k t r a i n i n g i n t h e t e a c h in g o f e le m e n ta ry p h y s i c a l education.

The f o l l o w i n g i s a breakdow n o f t h e p h a s e s

in d icated : 1.

Four s o u rc e s d i r e c t l y c i t e d t h a t t h e r e g u l a r

classroom t e a c h e r , alth o u g h not a d e q u a te ly t r a i n e d in p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n , i s i n a p o s i t i o n w hereby s h e can b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e t h e s c h o o l pro gram w i t h t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n program . 2.

Four s o u r c e s s t a t e d t h a t t h e c la ssro o m t e a c h e r

i s not ready t o te a c h p h y sic a l ed u c atio n . t e a c h e r s have l i t t l e

That elem entary

sp e c ia liz e d tra in in g in physical

12 I b i d . , p p . 1-2

23 e d u c a t i o n , b u t a r e t r a i n e d a d e q u a t e l y i n t h e a c a d e m ic su b je cts. 3*

Two o f t h e s o u r c e s s t a t e d t h a t e l e m e n t a r y

te a c h e r s a r e handicapped in t h e f i e l d

o f p h y s ic a l educa­

t i o n due t o t h e l a c k o f i n t e r e s t . 4*

One s o u r c e c i t e d t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s do

not have th e a b i l i t y to ta k e p a r t in p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n . 5.

Two s o u r c e s c i t e d t h a t e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s

a r e t e a c h i n g p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n w ith u n t r a i n e d m ethods. 6.

Three o f t h e s o u rc e s f e l t t h a t a g r e a t d e a l

r e m a i n s t o b e done t o im p ro v e t h e c u r r i c u l a o f t e a c h e r ’ s co lleg es in th e f ie ld 7.

of elem entary p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

Two s o u r c e s f e l t t h a t p e o p l e must b e e d u c a t e d

and t h e i r b e l i e f s i n r e g a r d s t o t h e p l a c e o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l must b e c h a n g e d . 3.

One s o u r c e b e l i e v e d t h a t t e a c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d

m ust b e r e e d u c a t e d t h a t s k i l l s a r e t a u g h t i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y g r a d e s and n o t l e f t t o t h e s e c o n d a r y g r a d e s . 9*

Three s o u r c e s f e l t t h a t t e a c h e r s r e g a r d th e

te a c h in g o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n as l e s s im portant than o th e r a re a s of te a c h in g . I n c l u d e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r h a v e been p r e s e n t a t i o n s from t h e l i t e r a t u r e g i v i n g e v i d e n c e o f t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d

elem entary te a c h e r s in p h y sic a l e d u c a tio n .

The f o l l o w i n g

c h a p te r w i l l p re se n t a su rv ey of th e c o u rse s of study w i t h e m p h a s is upon t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s o f s t u d y i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n f o r s tu d e n t s t a k i n g t h e f o u r - y e a r elem entary te a c h e r-tra in in g course.

CHAPTER IV

REQUIRED COURSES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR STUDENTS TAKING THE FOUR-YEAR ELEMENTARY TEACHER-TRAINING COURSE F i n d i n g s f ro m t h e l i t e r a t u r e w hich i n d i c a t e d t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w ere p re s e n te d in C hapter I I I .

I n t h i s c h a p t e r an i n v e s t i g a t i o n

was made o f t h e r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s t u d e n t s ta k i n g th e f o u r - y e a r elem entary te a c h i n g program . The p u r p o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r i s t o p r e s e n t a s u r v e y o f re q u ire d p h y sical education courses o ffe re d to th e c a n d i d a t e f o r t h e t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l by f o u r - y e a r t e a c h e r train in g in stitu tio n s .

A group of i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout

t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s was u s e d a s t h e b a s e s f o r t h i s s t u d y . The c h a r t on t h e n e x t p a g e g i v e s a l i s t o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d , t h e t o t a l r e q u i r e d u n i t s f o r th e elem entary te a c h in g c r e d e n t i a l , the t o t a l e l e c t i v e u n i t s a v a i l a b l e , and t h e r e q u i r e d u n i t s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . A d e t a i l e d study of th e r e q u ir e d co u rse s i n p h y s ic a l e d u c a t i o n o f f e r e d by e a c h i n s t i t u t i o n i s a s f o l l o w s :

26 TABLE I

INSTITUTIONS SURVEYED, IN REGARDS TO PHYSICAL EDUCATION UNITS REQUIRED FOR THE FOUR YEAR ELEMENTARY TEACHING CREDENTIAL

In stitu tio n

T otal U nits (fo u r E l e c t i v e P hys.E d. years) U nits U nits

A bilene C h r i s t i a n C ollege A b i l e n e , T e x a s , 19 49-1950

124

24

4

Alabama S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e L i v i n g s t o n , Alabama, 1949-1950

12$

27

6

Boston C o l le g e , U n iv e r s it y H eig h ts C h e s t n u t H i l l , M a s s . , D ec . 1949

12$

30

0

Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y P r o v o , U t a h , 1 9 4 9-1950

124

(*)

4

Humboldt S t a t e C o l l e g e A r e a t a , C a l i f o r n i a , 1949-1950

120

26

6

Fresno S t a t e C ollege F r e s n o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 9 -1 9 5 0

120

33

5

U n iv e rs ity of F lo rid a G a i n e s v i l l e , F l o r i d a , May, 1949

124

21

7

George P e p p e rd in e C o lle g e Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 9 -1 9 5 0

12$

(*)

6

Iow a S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C e d a r F a l l s , Io w a , 1949-1950

124

46

.4

(*)

U n i t s could n o t be c o u n t e d t o make a c o r r e c t s t a t e m e n t .

27 A b i l e n e C h r i s t i a n C o l l e g e Four s e m e s t e r s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a r e r e q u i r e d o f a l l s t u d e n t s a n d one c o u r s e s h o u l d b e t a k e n ea ch s e m e s t e r o f t h e f i r s t two years.

Any c o u r s e numbered 100 t o 129 i n c l u s i v e w i l l

meet th e r e q u i r e m e n t s .

T hese a r e a l l a c t i v i t y c o u r s e s

su c h a s : 100 F o o t b a l l , 101 B a s k e t b a l l , 102 T r a c k , 115 A r c h e r y , 119 G o l f , e t c .

No c o u r s e o r c o u r s e s a r e r e q u i r e d

in ch ild ren a c t i v i t i e s . Alabama S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e Of t h e 12$ u n i t s re q u ire d for the teaching c r e d e n tia l, 6 u n its are req u ired in courses of physical ed u catio n . P . E . 131*

They a r e a s f o l l o w s :

F re sh m an P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n .

T h is c o u r s e

in c lu d e s p h y s ic a l t r a i n i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n in t h e fundam ental s k i l l s , game s k i l l s ,

com bative a c t i v i t i e s , s e l f - t e s t i n g

s t u n t s , t u m b l i n g , i n d i v i d u a l g am es, and te am g a m e s.

C redit

i s one-q u arter hour. P . E . 13 2 .

F re shm an P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n .

i s a c o n tin u a tio n o f P .E . 131.

This co u rse

C redit i s o n e -q u a rte r hour.

1 A bilene C h r i s t i a n C o lle g e C a talo g u e T e x a s , 1 9 ^ + 9 ) ” ------------------------- ----------------

(A bilene,

^ Alabama S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e ( L i v i n g s t o n , A lab a m a, 1 9 4 9 -1 9 5 0 ) •

2^

P . E . 133*

F reshman P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n .

concludes freshm an p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n .

T h is c o u r s e

C re d it i s one-

q u arte r hour. P .E. is

23I .

Sophomore P h y s i c a l

E d u c a tio n ..

T h is c o u r s e

a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f t h e f r e s h m a n program w i t h e m p h a s i s

upon t h e " c a r r y - o v e r ” v a l u e o f s p o r t s .

C re d it i s one-

q u a rte r hour. P .E .

2 32.

Sophomore P h y s i c a l

a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f P . E . 231* P .E .

E ducation.

T h is i s

C redit is o n e -q u a rte r ho u r.

233* Sophomore P h y s i c a l

E ducation.

c o n c l u d e s sophomore p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .

This co u rse

C re d it is one-

q u a r t e r hour • P . E . 361*

H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r t h e

E lem entary T ea ch er.

This c o u r s e i s d e s ig n e d t o g iv e th e

p r o s p e c t i v e ele m e n ta ry t e a c h e r a b a s i c u n d e r s ta n d in g of h e a l t h p r i n c i p l e s and o f games and a c t i v i t i e s u s e f u l i n the grade.

C redit is th re e q u arte r hours.

B o s t o n C o l l e g e .3

Of t h e 12$ u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e

t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l , no u n i t s a r e r e q u i r e d i n p h y s i c a l education.

^ B o s to n C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e ( U n i v e r s i t y H e i g h t s , C h e s t n u t H i l l , M a s s . , December, 1 9 4 9 ) •

B r i t a i n Young U n i v e r s i t y . ^

F o u r u n i t s i n games

and rh y th m s f o r e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l c h i l d r e n a r e r e q u i r e d o u t o f t h e t o t a l 12 4 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g cred en tial.

The u n i t s r e q u i r e d a r e a s f o l l o w s :

P .E . 120.

P h y s ic a l E ducation f o r Elem entary T eachers

T his c o u rs e i s r e q u i r e d of a l l e le m e n ta ry m a jo r s .

I t in ­

c l u d e s f u n d a m e n t a l s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n s m a l l and l a r g e p l a y , and te am a c t i v i t i e s . P .E . 121.

P h y s ic a l E ducation f o r E lem entary T eachers

T h is c o u r s e , r e q u i r e d o f a l l e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r s , i s a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f P . E . 120 and i n c l u d e s a c t i v i t i e s , and c l a s s r o o m g am es.

stu n ts,

Both c o u r s e s c a r r y two u n i t s e a c h o r

a t o t a l o f four u n i t s . Humboldt S t a t e C o l l e g e .5

At t h i s c o l l e g e a t o t a l of

120 u n i t s a r e r e q u i r e d f o r t h e t e a c h i n g c r e d e n t i a l .

S tu­

d e n t s who a r e e n r o l l e d i n t h e c o l l e g e f o r t w e l v e o r more u n its are re q u ire d to take a p h y sic a l education a c t i v i t y c o u rs e tw ic e w eekly d u rin g th e f i r s t f o u r se m e s te rs of atten d ance.

T h i s would be o n e - h a l f u n i t e a c h s e m e s t e r

^ Brigham Young U n i v e r s i t y C a t a l o g u e U t a h , 1949- i f f 0 7 . ------- ---------------- ----------5 Humboldt S t a t e C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e Ca l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 ) -

(Provo, (A reata,

30 u n t i l a t o t a l o f two u n i t s a r e r e a c h e d .

Two c o u r s e s o f

two u n i t s ea ch a r e r e q u i r e d f o r s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r s i n t r a i n ­ in g .

They a r e : P.E . 190.

E lem entary School P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n .

This c o u rs e i s th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n p r o g ra m i n g r a d e s one t h r o u g h e i g h t . P . E . 191*

Methods i n S i n g i n g Games and F o l k D a n c e s .

T h i s c o u r s e r e q u i r e s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n and c o n d u c t o f rhy thm s s u i t a b l e f o r c h i l d r e n o f t h e e l e m e n t a r y and j u n i o r h ig h school.

r F r e s n o S t a t e C o l l e g e .6

The same a s Humboldt S t a t e

C o l l e g e f o r t h e f i r s t two y e a r s .

Three se m e ste r u n i t s ,

i n c l u d i n g s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t e c h n i q u e s e s s e n t i a l i n t h e te a c h in g of p h y s ic a l ed u c a tio n to th e elem entary school pupils are req u ired .

A t o t a l of fiv e u n its are required

i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n out o f t h e 120 u n i t s r e q u i r e d f o r th e teach in g c r e d e n tia l. U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r i d a . ?

Four u n i t s of a c t i v i t y

a r e r e q u i r e d p l u s a t h r e e u n i t c o u r s e c a l l e d P . H .A . 373 •

6 Fresno S t a t e C ollege C atalogue C a l i f o r n i a , T 9 E 9 - I 9 )* ^ U n iv e r s ity of F l o r i d a C atalogue F l o r i d a , May', 1949 i •

(Fresno, (G ainesville,

31 This r e q u i r e d c o u rse i s the t e a c h i n g o f p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n i n t h e e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l and c o n s i s t s o f a p ro g ra m o f p h y sic al education a c t i v i t i e s fo r th e elem entary school i n c l u d i n g s m a ll group p l a y , l a r g e group p l a y , d i r e c t e d p l a y , te am game u n i t s , t o g e t h e r w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e p r o c e d u r e and m e th o d s f o r c o n d u c t i n g s u c h a p r o g r a m .

Of t h e 124 u n i t s

r e q u i r e d seven a r e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . G eorge P e p p e r d i n e C o l l e g e .

&

. A ll f i r s t y ear s tu d e n ts

m ust e n r o l l i n one o f t h e a c t i v i t y c o u r s e s and c o n t i n u e t o e n r o l l i n one ea ch t e r m u n t i l f o u r u n i t s o f a c t i v i t y hav e been com p leted .

S tu d en ts applying f o r th e te a c h in g c r e d e n t i a l

m ust t a k e P . E . 1 ? 0 , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n E l e m e n t a r y G r a d e s . T his c o u rs e i s d e s ig n e d to p r e s e n t p r a c t i c a l aim s, o b j e c t i v e s , and f u n c t i o n s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l s ; t h i s in c lu d e s th e a b i l i t y to conduct th e vario u s a c t i v i t i e s a p p lie d to elem entary s c h o o ls .

Of t h e 12$ u n i t s r e q u i r e d

fo r th e teach in g c r e d e n tia l, s ix u n i t s in p h y sic a l education are req u ired .

£> G eorge P e p p e r d i n e C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e C a l i f o r n i a ^ 1949-1 950 j .

(Los A n g e l e s ,

32 Iowa S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e >9

Four u n i t s of p h y sic a l

e d u c a t i o n o u t o f a t o t a l o f 124 u n i t s a r e r e q u i r e d .

A

s t u d e n t may r e c e i v e n o t more t h a n a t o t a l o f s i x q u a r t e r hours (four u n its )

o f c r e d i t w hich w i l l a p p l y t o w a r d m e e ti n g

t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r g r a d u a t i o n from any c u r r i c u l u m .

The

courses in p h y sical education req u ired are: P .E . 113.

P h y s ic a l E du catio n f o r E lem entary G rades.

T h is i s a t h r e e h o u r c o u r s e w i t h r e c i t a t i o n s two p e r i o d s a week and l a b o r a t o r y work t h r e e p e r i o d s a w e e k . P .E . 01.

P h y sic a l E ducation.

The s t u d e n t may s e l e c t

from t h e a c t i v i t i e s suc h a s b a d m i n t o n , b a s e b a l l , Summary.

etc.

The a n a l y s i s o f t h e m a t e r i a l s a s g i v e n i s

n o t an e x t e n d e d o n e .

I t h a s s i m p l y aimed t o p o i n t o u t t h e

amount o f b a s i c p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n c o u r s e s w hich a r e i n ­ cluded in th e f o u r- y e a r c u rric u lu m s . Two o f t h e n i n e i n s t i t u t i o n s s t u d i e d r e q u i r e d 120 u n i t s fo r the te a c h in g c r e d e n t i a l .

Four of the n in e r e ­

q u i r e d 1 2 4 ' u n i t s and t h r e e o f t h e n i n e r e q u i r e d 12S u n i t s .

9 Iowa S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e Io w a , 19 1&Z5&T.-----------------------------------------------

(Cedar F a l l s ,

33 T w o-thirds of th e i n s t i t u t i o n s considered re q u ire d an a c t i v i t y c o u r s e i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n b e t a k e n i n t h e f i r s t and se co n d y e a r o f a t t e n d a n c e . Of t h e n i n e i n s t i t u t i o n s i n v e s t i g a t e d , two r e q u i r e d two c o u r s e s ( f o u r u n i t s )

i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t e c h n i q u e s

e s s e n tia l in th e teach in g of p h y s ic a l education to e l e ­ m entary s c h o o l p u p i l s . F i v e o f t h e n i n e i n s t i t u t i o n s r e q u i r e d one c o u r s e (two u n i t s )

i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r and t e c h n i q u e s e s s e n t i a l i n

th e te a c h in g of p h y s ic a l e d u c atio n to elem entary school p u p ils. I t was found t h a t two o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r e d no c o u r s e s i n e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n . T h e r e was a r a n g e b e t w e e n 21 and 46 e l e c t i v e u n i t s allow ed a t t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . This c h a p t e r h a s endeavored t o p r e s e n t a v a i l a b l e m a t e r i a l i n d i c a t i n g t h e amount o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n ­ ing r e q u ir e d in f o u r - y e a r t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s . C hapter V p r e s e n ts a survey of p h y s ic a l ed u catio n courses o f s t u d y , s y l l a b u s e s , and p r o g ra m s made a v a i l a b l e t o t h e elem entary te a c h e r in th e f i e l d .

CHAPTER V

AVAILABLE PRINTED ELEMENTARY PHYSICAL EDUCATION MATERIALS TO ASSIST IN THE GUIDANCE OF THE TEACHER IN THE FIELD I n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r m a t e r i a l was p r e s e n t e d i n d i ­ c a t i n g t h e amount o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g r e q u i r e d in fou r-year te a c h e r-tra in in g in s titu tio n s .

In t h i s ch a p ter

an i n v e s t i g a t i o n was made t o d e t e r m i n e i f t h e r e was a v a i l ­ a b le p r i n t e d elem entary p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n m a t e r i a l s t o a s s i s t i n th e gu id an ce of th e classro o m t e a c h e r .

The f o l l o w ­

in g p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s were used in t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n . P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s f o r S o u t h D a k o ta S c h o o l s T h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d y f o r t h e S o u t h D a k o ta s c h o o l s s e e k s t o make a v a i l a b l e t o th e t e a c h e r s of t h i s

s t a t e su ggestions t h a t

may b e u s e d i n d e v e l o p i n g a p r o p e r l y c o o r d i n a t e d program o f th is n atu re.

T his b o o k l e t should have proven v e ry h e l p f u l

to th e te a c h e rs of t h i s s t a t e .

The c o n t e n t s o f t h e book

a re d iv id ed as fo llo w s: 1.

P u b lic H ealth R e g u la tio n s .

T h i s i s a s u m m ariza­

t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c h e a l t h r e g u l a t i o n s a s s e t up by t h e S o u th

^ P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s f o r S o u t h D akota S c h o o l s (The D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , S t a t e o f S o u th D a k o t a , 1941) •

35 D a k o ta B o a rd o f H e a l t h . 2.

F i r s t A id.

S i n c e t h e r e w i l l be t i m e s when

t e a c h e r s must g i v e f i r s t a i d t o p u p i l s s u c h i n s t a n c e s w i l l c h a l l e n g e t h e c o u r a g e and r e s o u r c e f u l n e s s o f t h e t e a c h e r . 3*

P osture.

P o s tu r e i n s t r u c t i o n should b e g in w ith

t h e f i r s t day o f s c h o o l and c o n t i n u e d u r i n g t h e e n t i r e y e a r . Once c o r r e c t s i t t i n g ,

s t a n d i n g , and w a l k i n g h a b i t s a r e

f o r m e d , t h e r e m a i n d e r o f t h e work i s much e a s i e r . 4*

S tu n ts for P hysical A c t i v i t i e s .

They s h o u l d b e

u s e d t o r e l i e v e t h e monotony o f t h e c l a s s r o o m b u t s h o u l d n o t d i s p l a c e games a n d r e g u l a r p l a y a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e p r o g r a m . 5*

S upervised P lay .

The games l i s t e d a n d e x p l a i n e d

h e r e a r e g r o u p e d u n d e r t h r e e main c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s ; i n d o o r , o u t d o o r , and t h o s e t h a t can b e p l a y e d e i t h e r i n o r o u t - o f doors.

T h e r e a r e many games n o t i n c l u d e d h e r e , b u t an

a t t e m p t h a s b e e n made t o l i s t t h e o n e s t h a t a r e most e a s i l y o r g a n i z e d , h a v e t h e w i d e s t a p p e a l , and w hich a r e most s u i t ­ a b l e t o a d i v e r s i f i e d a c t i v i t y progra m i n S o u t h D a k o t a . 6.

F i e l d Day S u g g e s t i o n s .

The c h i e f t h i n g t o c o n ­

s i d e r i n p r e p a r i n g f o r f i e l d d a y s i s t h e f a c t t h a t a s many p u p i l s as p o s s i b l e should ta k e p a r t in th e c o n t e s t s . 7*

P l a y Day.

On p l a y d ay s f r i e n d l y c o n t a c t s a r e

made among p u p i l s o f s e v e r a l s c h o o l s .

The s o c i a l i z a t i o n

36 v a l u e i s most s i g n i f i c a n t .

The r e a l s p i r i t o f t r u e

sp o rtsm a n sh ip i s developed th ro u g h t h i s yiolesom e a c t i v i t y . H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and S a f e t y : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a .2

The g e n e r a l aim s and o b j e c t i v e s o f

t h i s p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n pro g ra m may be o u t l i n e d a s f o l l o w s : 1.

To p r o v i d e a c t i v i t i e s w h ic h w i l l g i v e e x p r e s s i o n

t o t h e d e e p e s t i n s t i n c t i v e t e n d e n c i e s o f c h i l d h o o d , w h ic h a r e e x p r e s s e d i n t h e n a t u r a l movements of r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g , c l i m b i n g , s t r i k i n g , and t h r o w i n g .

They a r e t h e c h i e f means

o f d e v e l o p i n g m o t o r c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l and o f t r a i n ­ i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l c o o r d i n a t i o n and c o n t r o l , and o f t r a i n i n g t h e e m o t i o n a l and s o c i a l a d j u s t m e n t s o f t h e ch ild . 2.

To c o n t r i b u t e t o t h e g r o w t h and d e v e l o p m e n t o f

t h e p h y s i c a l c h i l d t h r o u g h a c t i v i t i e s w h ich s t i m u l a t e t h e v i t a l o r g a n s and t h e s y s t e m s g o v e r n i n g c i r c u l a t i o n , r e s p i r a ­ t i o n , e l i m i n a t i o n , and d i g e s t i o n . 3.

To p r o v i d e a sound b a c k g r o u n d o f t r a i n i n g i n

u n d e r s t a n d i n g s , a t t i t u d e s , a p p r e c i a t i o n s , and h a b i t s t h a t w i l l make t h e c h i l d c o n s c i o u s o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s o f

H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and S a f e t y ( U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a , C h a p e l H i l l , N o rth C a r o l i n a , 1939)*

37 h e a l t h f u l l i v i n g , and l i k e l y , t o obey t h e la w s o f h e a l t h t h r o ugh o u t l i f e . 4*

To p r o v i d e a d v i s o r y c o u n s e l i n s e c u r i n g r e m e d i a l

t r e a t m e n t t o w a r d t h e o v e r c o m in g o f p h y s i c a l d e f e c t s o r handicaps. 5.

To p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f

i n t e r e s t s and s k i l l s

i n a c t i v i t i e s f o r l e i s u r e t h a t h av e

carry-over v a lu e . 6«

To d e v e l o p o r g a n i c v i g o r and v i t a l i t y .

An example o f a g r a d e d p r o g ra m i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s from t h i s

co u rse o f study i s a s fo llo w s :

1 . A t h l e t i c Games. F i e l d b a l l , p i n b a s k e t b a l l . 2 . I n d i v i d u a l A t h l e t i c E v e n t s . B ro ad jump, soccer kick for d ista n c e . 3* R e l a y s . Double c i r c l e p a s s r e l a y , w e a v in g rela y . 4* S t u n t s . H ee l and t o e s p r i n g , p u s h - u p . 5* R h y t h m i c a l A c t i v i t i e s . C a p t a i n J i n k s , P o l l y W a lly D o o d l e . 6* H u n tin g Games. C r o s s t a g , duck on t h e r o c k . 7* M i r a e t i c s . Jump and c l a p , l o c o m o t i v e . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S y l l a b u s , New York S t a t e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t .3

F o r f i v e y e a r s p r i o r t o 1934 c o m m i t t e e s h a v e

b e e n b u s i l y e n g a g e d i n e x a m in i n g t h e o r y and o b j e c t i v e s , i n

^ P h y s ic a l E ducation S y llab u s (The U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S t a t e o f New Y o rk , The S t a t e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , 1 9 3 4 ) •

33 e v a l u a t i n g p r a c t i c e s and m a t e r i a l s , and i n s e a r c h i n g f o r b e t t e r c o n t e n t and m e th o d .

At v a r i o u s t i m e s more t h a n

two h u n d r e d p e r s o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g e v e r y t y p e o f s c h o o l f ro m t h e s m a l l e s t r u r a l u n i t t o t h e New York C i t y S y s te m , h a v e w orked on t h e s y l l a b u s .

I t em bodies t h e b e s t t h e y h a v e

l e a r n e d i n n e a r l y a s c o r e o f y e a r s and i t h as p o in te d th e way t o t h e f u t u r e .

The l i s t o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v ­

i t i e s in clu d ed in t h i s ex hau stive.

s y lla b u s is su g g e stiv e r a t h e r than

I t may b e s a i d t o r e p r e s e n t t h e minimum. Program o f A c t i v i t i e s

1 . M i m e t i e s . Under t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f m i m e t i c s a r e i n c l u d e d a c t i o n s t o r i e s ( d r a m a t i c and i m i t a t i v e p l a y s ) , a t h l e t i c s and game a c t i o n s . 2 . Rhythms and D a n c e s . I t s h o u ld c o n t a i n f u n d a ­ m e n t a l r h y th m s ( w a l k i n g , s k i p p i n g , r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g , and g a l l o p i n g ) , s i n g i n g g am es, f o l k d a n c i n g and t a p dancing. 3* Games. Among t h e d i f f e r e n t t y p e games i n c l u d e d in t h i s s y ll a b u s fo r th e elem entary g rad es a r e group gam es, r e l a y gam es, te am gam es, and d u a l g a m e s. 4* C a l i s t h e n i c s o r F r e e E x e r c i s e s . S im p le f r e e e x e r c i s e s i n v o l v i n g movements s u c h a s e l e v a t i n g , low ering, f le x in g , extending, tu rn in g , c i r c l i n g , s t e p p i n g , s p r i n g i n g , sw ay in g and t h e l i k e . 5. A th le tic s. T h e se a c t i v i t i e s a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d by f re e d o m from i n t e r f e r e n c e o f o t h e r p a r t i c i p a n t s ; r u n n i n g , ju m p i n g , t h r o w i n g , c l i m b i n g , and k i c k i n g a r e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t develop in d iv id u a l a b i l i t y . 6. S e lf-te stin g S tu n ts. F orw ard r o l l , bac kw ard r o l l , c a r t w h e e l , hea d s t a n d , kn ee s p r i n g , h a n d s p r i n g , ch i n n i n g , e t c . 7« M a r c h i n g . In th e s e grades t h e t e a c h e r i s m ainly c o n c e r n e d w i t h good o r d e r and s a f e t y ; l i g h t e l a s t i c s t e p and b r i s k p a c e . The movement i s c h i e f l y i n f o r m a l , w h e t h e r i n s i n g l e or d o u b l e l i n e , and t h e c h i l d r e n follow th e l e a d e r s , under d i r e c t i o n of th e t e a c h e r .

39 Course o f S t u d y , O a k la n d , C a l i f o r n i a v ie w o f t h i s

An o v e r ­

curriculum in p h y sic a l ed u catio n fo r a c h ild

( e ig h t th ro u g h n in e y e a r s of ag e, a p p ro x im a te ly a t the t h i r d through f o u r th grade l e v e l )

should have t h e s e

experi ences: Rhythmic A c t i v i t i e s 1 . F u n d a m e n ta l movements. M a s t e r y o f t h e s e move­ m e n ts and o f t h e i r s i m p l e s t c o m b i n a t i o n s . 2 . C r e a t i v e R hythm s. E x p r e s s i n g c r e a t i v e l y h i s le a r n in g ex p e rien ce s in th e f i e l d of l i t e r a t u r e , n a tu r e stu d y , m usic, s o c ia l s t u d i e s , a r t , e t c . S to r ie s of: a . A d v e n t u r o u s t y p e s u c h a s cow boys, p i r a t e s , In d ian s, e tc . b . Folk l o r e such as p i x i e s , b ro w n ie s, g i a n t s , ogres, f a i r i e s , e tc . c . N a t u r e s u c h a s f r o s t s p r i t e s , King W i n t e r , s to r m w i n d s , w i n t e r s p o r t s , e t c . d . P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n r h y t h m i c f e s t i v a l s w hich involve la rg e g ro u p s. 3* F o l k D a n c e s . F a m i l i a r i z i n g h i m s e l f w i t h c h a r ­ a c t e r i s t i c dances o f people of o th e r la n d s , l e a r n i n g t h e i r f o l k - a r t s , custom s, e t c . Tag Games and R e l a y s . P a r t i c i p a t i n g i n games which involve: 1 . C ooperating w ith p u p il l e a d e r s . 2. P l a y i n g a c c o r d i n g t o r u l e s l a i d down by t h e g r o u p . 3* Making q u i c k d e c i s i o n s . 4* O r g a n i z i n g g a m e s . 5» D a r i n g , c o o p e r a t i v e , and c o m p e t i t i v e a c t i v i t y . O r g a n iz ed Game s . 1 . P a r t i c i p a t i n g a s a member o r a s a l e a d e r o f a t e a m . 2 . P r a c t i c i n g game s k i l l s . 3 • O beying r u l e s .

^ P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , G r a d e s T h r e e and F o u r ( S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’ s 'B u lle tin '," C o u r s e o f S tu d y S e r i e s , Number 24, O a k l a n d , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 3 6 ) .

40 4* 5«

E x p e r i e n c i n g a c t i v i t i e s w h ich g i v e him o p p o r ­ t u n i t y f o r b u i l d i n g up a s e r i e s o f s u c c e s s e s . O ccasional p a r t i c i p a t i o n in in tra m u ra l s p o r ts days f o r young c h i l d r e n .

S tunt s . E x p e r i m e n t i n g w i t h m o to r p o w e r s , and am ple o p p o r ­ t u n i t y f o r m e a s u r i n g c o n t r o l and a g i l i t y i n h a n d l i n g the body. P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e o f S t u d y , Long Beach C i t y S c h o o l s .5

This co u rse of stu d y p r o v id e s a p r o g r e s s iv e

developm ental c o u rse i n p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n a c t i v i t i e s based on t h e i n t e r e s t s and g r o w th n e e d s o f c h i l d r e n a t t h e v a r i o u s age l e v e l s .

The a c t i v i t i e s a r e o f t h e n a t u r a l b i g - m u s c l e

t y p e a n d a r e t h o s e ^rhicH s h o u l d c o n t r i b u t e j o y and h a p p i n e s s t o l e i s u r e t i m e a t s c h o o l , a t home, and e l s e w h e r e i n t h e c om m unity.

T hrough j o y f u l d a i l y p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e s e

a c t i v i t i e s i t i s expected t h a t c h i ld r e n w ill develop th e a b i l i t y t o c h o o s e t h e r i g h t k i n d o f p l a y and t o p l a y i n t h e r i g h t way.

The p u r p o s e o f t h e c o u r s e i s t o e s t a b l i s h t h e

h a b i t o f e n g a g i n g d a i l y i n wholesome o u t d o o r a c t i v i t y . s h o u l d h e l p t h e c h i l d t o r e t a i n t h e power t o p l a y and t o en jo y p la y throughout a d u l t l i f e .

P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n Course o f Study ( Long Beach C i t y S c h o o l s ', Long B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a , 1931) •

T h is

41 U sing t h e s i x g r a d e s e c t i o n o f t h i s

course of study,

t h e f o l l o w i n g a r e a c t i v i t i e s t h e t e a c h e r may u s e : 1. 2.

3*

4*



6.

7*

H u n tin g Games; B a l l s t a n d , clu b s n a t c h , c r o s s t a g , Hindo t a g , d a r e b a s e , spoke t a g . Rhythms; W a ltz r u n , G r e e t i n g , G r o t e s q u e , F l i n g ste p ., Seven ju m p s , H i g h l a n d s c h o t t i s c h e , S a i l o r ’ s H o r n p i p e , Norw egian M o u n t a i n , a r c h , Gome L e t Us Be J o y f u l , F i s t p o l k a , F i n n i s h r e e l . R elays; Backward r u n n i n g r e l a y , b a s k e t b a l l p o i n t r e l a y , ta ndem r e l a y , o v e r t h e n e t r e l a y , p a s s and s q u a t r e l a y , s o c c e r d r i b b l e and kick r e l a y . Team Games; Corner b a l l , square s o c c e r , b ic k b a s e b a l l , pin so c c e r, P h ila d e lp h ia b a t b a l l , club c h a s e , z i g zag b a l l , keep aw ay, b e a c h h an d b all. S tu n ts; Hand w r e s t l e , t h r e a t t h e n e e d l e , p i c k me u p , jump and c l a p , t o u c h t o e jump, h an d s t a n d dip . I n d iv id u a l A th le tic E vents; L a s t man, f e a t h e r b a l l , p o s t u r e p l a y , s i d e pass r e l a y , s ta g e coach, Prince o f P a r is , h e e l g r a s p r a c e , c l a p p i n g s o n g s , f o o t g am es, • shoulder blad e e x e r c is e s . P osture; C o rre c tio n , h a b it form ing.

The a c t i v i t i e s l i s t e d a b o v e a r e n o t e x p l a i n e d i n d e t a il in t h i s

c o u r s e o f s t u d y b e c a u s e t h e s t a t e m anual o f

p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n is to be used alo n g w ith t h i s of study.

course

The c o u r s e o f s t u d y d o e s g i v e r e f e r e n c e s , c o n t e n d

and m e th o d , and o utc om es f o r e a c h a c t i v i t y .

42 A C ourse o f S t u d y i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Common­ w e a l t h o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s Fr om t h i s c o u r s e o f s t u d y t h e e l e m e n t a r y t e a c h e r may i n t e g r a t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n w i t h o t h e r s u b j e c t s , she may u s e t e s t i n g f o r a c h i e v e m e n t and t e a c h e r g u i d a n c e , she s h o u l d d e v e l o p p u p i l l e a d e r s h i p , sh e s h o u l d d e v e l o p h a b i t s o f good p o s t u r e .

She s h o u l d t e a c h

t h e f o l l o w i n g : Games f o r l a r g e g r o u p s suc h a s c a t c h b a l l and t h r e e d e e p .

R elays.

Games f o r s m a l l g r o u p s su c h a s

t h r e e - p l a y e r dodge b a l l and k n o c k o u t .

Indiv id u al a th le tic

e v e n t s s u c h a s t h e r u n n i n g b r o a d jump and s h o r t d a s h e s . A t h l e t i c games su c h a s dodge b a l l and b a t b a l l .

S elf­

t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s s u c h a s c l i m b i n g b a r s an d c h i n n i n g b a r s . And r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t i e s . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h in g G u i d e , Kern C o u n t y , C a l i f o r n i a «?

Much o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n t h i s g u i d e h a s been

a d a p t e d from t h e s t a t e p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n - t e x t . gram i s o u t l i n e d by g r a d e s .

The p r o ­

To i l l u s t r a t e , t h e program

f o r t h e s i x t h g r a d e i s sum m arized a s f o l l o w s :

C ourse o f Study i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a tio n (Common­ w e a lth of M a s s a c h u s e t ts , B u l l e t i n of t h e dep artm en t of E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 4 ) , Number 6 ^ P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h in g G u id e (Kern County S c h o o l s : The ' B a k e r s f i e l d C a l i f o r n i a n , B a k e r s f i e l d , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 3 )*

43 1. 2.

3• 4* 5*

6* 7*

S.

9* 10 .

11.

Games f o r O r g a n i z e d P l a y D o d g eb a ll, h a n d b a ll, h i t p in b a s e b a l l , keep away f i e l d b a l l , k i c k b a l l , e t c . R e l a t e d Games, F u n d a m e n ta l S k i l l s and R e l a y s (This i s n o t a s e p a r a t e l i s t b u t i t i s p u t under th e l i s t of o rg a n iz e d play of a p a r ­ t i c u l a r game. T h e r e f o r e , r e l a t e d games or fu n d am en tal s k i l l s or r e l a y s f o r D odgeball would b e c i r c l e p a s s r e l a y , h i t t h e b i g b a l l , v o l l e y b a l l throw a t t a r g e t , e t c . ) R e l a y s f o r P l a y Day F orw ard p a s s and r u n , l i n e z i g - z a g , o v e r and u n d e r , p i v o t and p a s s , e t c . Games f o r R e c r e a t i o n and P l a y g r o u n d P o t a t o r a c e , p a s s t o u c h , one g o a l b a s k e t b a l l , one bounce n e t , e t c . E v e n t s and R e l a y s S h u ttle r e l a y , sq u are r e l a y , dash-75 y a rd s , r u n n i n g b r o a d jump, r u n n i n g h i g h jump, s t a n d i n g hop s t e p and jump, e t c . Games t o P l a y a t Home A nte o v e r , b a l l s t a n d , c a r o m s , c h e c k e r s , duck on t h e r o c k , hand b a s e b a l l , h a n d b a l l , e t c . Games t o P l a y i n S m a ll A re a s Caroms, c h e c k e r s , d o d g e b a l l , m a r b l e s , number change, s h u f f le b o a rd , ta b le t e n n i s , th r e e deep, e t c . Games f o r I n c l e m e n t W eather A isle p a s s r e l a y , bean bag p a s sin g r e l a y , c a r o m s , c h e c k e r s , num bers c h a n g e , Ruth and Jacob, snatch i t , e t c . Games t o P l a y a t P a r t i e s B l a c k and w h i t e , c i r c l e c h a s e , l a s t c o u p l e o u t , number c h a n g e , w h i c k e t y -whack, e t c . S tunt s R u s s i a n d a n c e , s e a l s l a p , s i t and s t a n d , s t i f f kn ee b e n d , s t o o p and mark b e h i n d , t h r e e h o p s , wring t h e d i s h r a g , e t c . Rhythmic A c t i v i t i e s V i r g i n i a r e e l , Yankee D o o d le , L o t t i e i s Dead, L i t t l e man i n a F i x , S i c i l i a n C i r c l e , C a p t a i n J i n k s , P o l l y - w o l l y - d o o d l e , P o l k a s t e p , H ee l and Toe P o l k a , e t c .

44 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and H e a l t h , C o u r s e o f S tu d y t S t a t e o f D e l a w a r e *A

The p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n a c t i v i t i e s

in c l u d e d in t h i s manual a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s : P osture M a rc hing R e lie f P eriods N a t u r a l G y m n a s tic s F olk Plays S to ry P lays R h y th m ic s S elf-testin g A ctiv ities M im etics Game s A t h l e t i c Badge T e s t s ( G i r l s - B o y s ) In tra -m u ra l C ontests P o s t u r e , m a r c h i n g , r e l i e f p e r i o d s , and n a t u r a l gym­ n a s tic s are b r i e f l y d iscu ssed .

The r e m a i n i n g a c t i v i t i e s

a r e w e l l e x p l a i n e d i n t h e book* The s t o r y p l a y s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s manual a r e p r i m a r i l y s u g g e s t i o n s f o r p r e p a r a t i o n and i n d i c a t e t h e t y p e o f a c t i v i t y t h a t i s d e s i r e d ; su c h a s b i g - r a u s c l e a c t i v i t i e s t o d e v e l o p o r g a n i c v i g o r , r u n n i n g , j u m p i n g , and o t h e r s k i l l s . The m i m e t i c s p r e s e n t e d a r e e x e r c i s e s w hich a r e i m i t a t i v e o f more o r l e s s , f a m i l i a r a c t i v i t i e s and a r e executed w ithout equipm ent.

P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e o f S tu d y f o r E lem ent a r y G r a d e s One Through S i x ( S t a t e D epartm ent o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n , S t a t e of D elaw are, 1 9 3 2 ).

45 S e l f - t e s t i n g a c t i v i t i e s su c h a s s t u n t s w hich a r e a f o r a of s e l f - t e s t i n g a c t i v i t y as e x p la in e d i n t h i s c o u rs e of study*

S u g g e s t e d games t o p l a y a r e t y p e s such

a s c i r c l e jump, bea n b a g b o x , hop s c o t c h , m a r c h in g t o Je ru sa lem , c i r c l e s t r i d e b a l l , spud, b a t b a l l ,

etc.

R h y t h m ic a l a c t i v i t i e s w hich b r i n g i n s i n g i n g games t h a t combine s i n g i n g , p l a y i n g a game, s i m p l e s t e p p i n g , and a b i t o f d r a m a t i c a c t i o n , and t h e more co m plex s i n g i n g game o r t h e f o l k d a n c e w hich a f f o r d s ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t r a i n ­ i n g i n r h y t h m s , t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n and w hich p ro v id e s vig o ro u s e x e r c is e . Only g a n e s and a c t i v i t i e s o f lo w o r g a n i z a t i o n s h o u l d be included in th e In tra -m u ra l c o n te s ts .

Games su c h a s

s o c c e r , f i e l d h o c k e y , f o o t b a l l and o t h e r s s h o u l d n o t b e e n c o u r a g e d or d e v e l o p e d .

Games s u c h a s l i n e

s n a t c h , b a t t l e b a l l , and c i r c l e

s o c c e r , club

dodgeball a r e b e s t used in

t h e f o u r t h , f i f t h , and s i x t h g r a d e s . C o u r s e o f S tu d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s o f Los A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a .9

B e c a u s e a workbook and t h e s t a t e

t e x t f o r elem entary p h y s ic a l ed u catio n is a v a ila b le t o th e

^ Course o f S tudy f o r E lem en ta ry Schools (Los A n g e l e s C i t y S c h o o l D i s t r i c t , Los A n g e l e s , ' C a l i f o r n i a , 1942).

46 te a c h e rs of th is

sch o o l d i s t r i c t , t h i s co u rse o f study

does n o t c o n ta in d e t a i l e d e:xplanation of th e v a rio u s a c t i v i t i e s used*

I t d o e s , h o w e v e r , c o n t a i n one o f t h e

b e s t o u tli n e s a v a ila b le fo r te a c h e rs to follow in the t e a c h i n g of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n .

T h i s o u t l i n e i s so

h e l p f u l in p r e s e n tin g th e d u t i e s o f th e elem entary te a c h e r in th is field th a t i t

i s h e re quoted:

GRADE SIX What We T each: We t e a c h many and v a r i e d games t o s t i m u l a t e an d develop p u p ils 1 . O r g a n ic power a . S trength b . Endurance 2 . Body and s e n s o r y c o o r d i n a t i o n by means o f b asic s k i l l s a . W alking b . Runn in g c . Jumping d . Throwing and c a t c h i n g 1 . Indoor b a s e b a l l 2. V olley b a l l 3 * Soc c e r b a l l 4* B a s k e t b a l l e . P it c h i n g in doo r b a s e b a l l f. S erving 1 . H andball 2. V olley b a l l g . K icking s o c c e r b a l l h . B atting 1. Indoor b a s e b a l l 2. V olley b a l l i. S k i l l i n p l a y i n g a l l p o s i t i o n s i n a game 3« M e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l a l e r t n e s s t o a . S e e , t h i n k , and a c t b . P erform w ith s a f e t y fo r a l l c . P e r f o r m up t o c a p a c i t y

47 4»

D esirable s o c ia l q u a l i t i e s a . Good s p o r t s m a n s h i p b . D e v e lo p l e a d e r s h i p e . F o l l o w good l e a d e r s h i p d . D e v e lo p team work e . P a r t i c i p a t e and c o o p e r a t e i n a l l a c t i v i t i e s f . D e v e lo p v e r s a t i l i t y by p l a y i n g a l l games and p o s i t i o n s t h r o u g h r o t a t i o n o f 1 . Games 2. P layers 3» O f f i c i a l s 5- Under games we i n c l u d e a. P l a y g r o u n d games b . C l a s s r o o m and home games c . P a t i o and p o r c h games d . S im p le t r a c k e v e n t s 1 . B r o a d jump a . Running b . S tanding 2 . High jump a . Running b . S tanding 3 • D ashes We p r o v i d e a p p a r a t u s and e x e r c i s e s t o s t i m u l a t e and develop in p u p ils 1 . O r g a n ic pow er 2 . M u s c u l a r g row th 3* Body and s e n s o r y c o o r d i n a t i o n 4* M e n t a l a n d p h y s i c a l a l e r t n e s s a. To p e r f o r m w i t h s a f e t y f o r a l l 5* D e s i r a b l e - s o c i a l q u a l i t i e s a . Take t u r n s b . H e lp o t h e r s We t e a c h r h y t h m i c a c t i v i t i e s t o p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r developing in p u p ils 1 . Rhythm i n a . W alking b . R unning c . M a r c h in g d . D an c in g 2. C reative s e lf-e x p re s sio n 3• P e rs o n a l s a t i s f a c t i o n s a . P leasure in p a r tic ip a t io n b. Joy i n a c c o m p l i s h m e n t

*

1+8 4*

Group and c o o p e r a t i v e e n d e a v o r a . Team work 5« A c t i v i t i e s f o r r e c r e a t i o n and e n t e r t a i n m e n t We t e a c h b a s i c s k i l l s 1. C orrect po stu re a. S ittin g b. Standing c . W alking 2- W alking 3 * Running 4 • Jumping 5* Throwing a n d c a t c h i n g a . Indoor b a s e b a ll b . V olley b a l l c. Soccer b a l l d. Basket b a l l 6* P i t c h i n g i n d o o r b a s e b a l l 7* S e r v i n g a . H andball b . G Volley b a l l S. K icking s o c c e r b a l l 9* B a t t i n g a. Indoor b a s e b a l l b . V olley b a l l l O Summary.

The m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n t h i s c h a p t e r

co n c e rn in g th e c o n te n t o f t h e c o u r s e s of s tu d y , s y l l a b u s e s , and p ro g ra m s o f e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n o f t h e v a r i o u s s c h o o l s y s t e m s may b e sum m arized a s f o l l o w s : 1.

There i s s u f f i c i e n t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l t h a t w i l l

guide th e elem entary t e a c h e r in the te a c h i n g o f elem en tary p h y sic al education.

10 I b i d . , p p . 267-269*

49 2.

A l l o f t h e m a t e r i a l i n v e s t i g a t e d was c l e a r l y -

w r i t t e n and c o u l d e a s i l y b e f o l l o w e d b y t e a c h e r s . 3«

A l l n in e of th e m a t e r i a l s s t u d i e d m entioned

r h y t h m i c a l a c t i v i t i e s and d a n c i n g .

Seven of t h e n in e

gave com plete in f o r m a tio n t o guide t h e t e a c h e r . 4*

E ig h t o f th e n ine so u rces contained' e x c e lle n t

o b j e c t i v e s and aims o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r e l e m e n t a r y te a c h e rs to follow . 5.

E ig h t o f t h e n in e gave com plete g u id a n c e to t h e

t e a c h e r in th e te a c h in g of s u p e rv is e d p la y ( a t h l e t i c gam es). 6*

S e v e n s o u r c e s gave e x c e l l e n t s u g g e s t i o n s i n t h e

teach in g of s tu n t s . 7*

S i x s o u r c e s g av e c o m p l e t e g u i d a n c e t o t h e t e a c h e r

f o r t h e te a c h i n g o f i n d i v i d u a l a t h l e t i c games. S.

F i v e gave d e t a i l e d i n s t r u c t i o n s and s u g g e s t e d

l i s t o f r e l a y s t h a t may b e t a u g h t a t t h i s 9*

lev el.

F our s o u r c e s g a v e v a l u a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e

t e a c h i n g o f t h e f i e l d d a y , h u n t i n g g am es, and m i m e t i c s . 10.

Three s o u rc e s v e n tu re d i n t o t h e f i e l d o f p o s t u r e

and p l a y days s u f f i c i e n t l y enough t o h e l p g u i d e t h e t e a c h e r . 11.

Two s o u r c e s s t r e s s e d m a r c h i n g a s a means o f

o r g a n i z a t i o n , s a f e t y , and e x p e d i t i n g t h e movement o f c l a s s e s . 12.

Only one s o u r c e m e n t i o n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : F i r s t

a i d , c a l i s t h e n i c s or f r e e e x e r c i s e , and n a t u r a l g y m n a stic s.

50 T h is c h a p t e r h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a ­ t i o n m a t e r i a l s fo u n d i n c o u r s e s o f s t u d y , s y l l a b u s e s , and p ro g ra m s t h a t a r e now a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d * The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l s u r v e y t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a tio n fo r t e a c h e r s .

51 TABLE I I FREQUENCY OF ACTIVITIES OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOUND IN THE MATERIAL

A ctiv ity

Frequency

S u p e r v i s e d P l a y ( A t h l e t i c Games)

8

R h y t h m i c a l A c t i v i t i e s and Dance

7

S tu n ts

7

I n d i v i d u a l A t h l e t i c Games

6

R elays

5

M im etics

4

H u n t i n g Games

4

F i e l d Day

4

P osture

3

P l a y Day

3

M arching

2

F i r s t Aid

1

C a lis th e n ic s or Free E x ercise

1

N a t u r a l G ym nastics

1

To r e a d t a b l e — r e a d a c r o s s . As an e x a m p l e , t h e f i r s t a c t i v i t y m entioned i s s u p e r v is e d play o r t h e a t h l e t i c g a m e s . F o l l o w a c r o s s t h e p ag e t o t h e column u n d e r f r e q u e n c y and 8 i s p r e s e n t w hich i n d i c a t e s t h a t e i g h t o u t o f n i n e m a t e r i a l s c i t e d had s u f f i c i e n t m a t e r i a l t o g u i d e t h e t e a c h e r i n t h e t e a c h i n g o f a t h l e t i c g am es.

CHAPTER VI IMPORTANCE OF IN-SERVICE PREPARATION FOR TEACHERS C h a p ter V i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n m ate­ r i a l s now a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s .

This c h a p te r w i l l survey

th e l i t e r a t u r e fo r th e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n for te ach e rs. A l th o u g h p r e - s e r v i c e o r c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r te a c h e r s i s d e f i n i t e l y r e q u i r e d , t h e r e is a type of p r e p a ra ­ t i o n w hich i s o f even g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e .

That ty p e i s

in -se rv ic e p rep aratio n . Reeder s t a t e s : The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n - s e r v i c e compared w i t h p r e - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n becomes e v i d e n t when i t i s r e a l i z e d t h a t th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l school has the p r o s p e c t i v e t e a c h e r u n d e r i t s t u t e l a g e o n l y a few y e a r s w h e r e a s t h e s c h o o l o f e x p e r i e n c e h a s him a l l h is l i f e . Upon r e f l e c t i o n i t i s r e a d i l y s e e n t h a t on ly a sm a ll p o r t i o n o f our e x p e rie n c e s has been a c q u ire d in th e i n s t i t u t i o n a l sch o o l; by f a r t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n o f them h a s b e e n g i v e n u s by t h e s c h o o l of e x p e r i e n c e . The f u n c t i o n s o f t h e i n s t i t u t i o n a l s c h o o l a r e p r i m a r i l y t o p r o v i d e t h e t o o l s o f k n ow ledge and t o d e v e l o p an a b i d i n g i n t e r e s t i n t h e u s e o f t h o s e t o o l s f o r th e a c q u i s i t i o n of know ledge.1 R e e d e r s t a t e s two r e a s o n s f o r t h e n e c e s s i t y o f p re p a ra tio n in s e rv ic e ; they are:

1 Ward G. R e e d e r , The F u n d a m e n t a l s o f P u b l i c S c h o o l A dm inistration (New York! The M a c m il la n Company, ’l9'4l') > p* 159 -

53 1 . T e a c h i n g i s one o f t h e m ost d i f f i c u l t and i m p o r t a n t p r o f e s s i o n s , and s h o u l d i n c o n s e q u e n c e b e e n g a g e d i n o n l y by p e r s o n s who a r e w e l l p r e p a r e d , o n l y a b o u t o’n e - h a l f o f t h e t e a c h e r s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s h a v e two y e a r s o f c o l l e g e p r e p a r a t i o n . P rep aratio n in se rv ic e is e s p e c ia lly necessary fo r t h i s group of in a d e q u a te ly t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s . 2. P re p a ra tio n in se rv ic e i s necessary because t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y cannot rem ain s t a t i c . Knowledge of te a c h in g , l i k e t h a t o f o th e r p r o f e s s io n s , i s p rogressing ra p id ly . A t e a c h e r once p r e p a r e d i s n o t alw ays p r e p a r e d . The b e s t e d u c a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o become o b s o l e t e t h e same a s t h e b e s t a u t o m o b i l e . 2 R e a liz in g th e im portance o f i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n , a c o n f e r e n c e on i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r e d u c a t i o n was h e l d a t W e s t e r n M ic h ig a n C o l l e g e on J a n u a r y 1 4 - 1 5 , 1943*^

At t h e

f i n a l s e s s i o n , r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s w e r e f o r m u l a t e d and a com­ m i t t e e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f b o t h f i e l d and campus was named a n d empowered t o t a k e im m e d ia te s t e p s t o w a r d p u t t i n g i n t o e f f e c t a t t h e e a r l i e s t p o s s i b l e d a t e a u n i f i e d f i e l d and i n s t i t u t i o n a l plan of in s e rv ic e ed u catio n of t e a c h e r s . The i m p o r t a n c e o f p r e p a r a t i o n i n - s e r v i c e by t e a c h ­ e r s i s a g a i n e m p h a s iz e d by Weber i n h i s a r t i c l e : I f t e a c h e r s a r e t o grow i n s e r v i c e , t h e y must make e v e r y e f f o r t t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n g r o u p t h i n k i n g , t o t a k e an a c t i v e p a r t i n d i s c u s s i o n s , and t o

2 I b i d . , pp. 160-161. ^ C o n f e r e n c e on I n - S e r v i c e T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , 5 7 : 2 6 2 , March 6 , 1943*

54 c o n t r i b u t e e n e r g e t i c a l l y t o l e a d e r s h i p by such p a r t i c i p a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n . 4 C u r r i c u l u m "workers g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t t h a t c u r r i c u l u m im prov em ent i s i m p o s s i b l e w i t h o u t t e a c h e r g r o w t h .

S aylor

states: C e r t a i n l y ev id e n c e has accum ulated r a p i d l y in r e c e n t y e a r s t o show t h a t . r e a l c u r r i c u l u m a d v a n c e e n t a i l s a t h o r o u g h g o i n g s y s t e m a t i c p r o g ra m o f i n s e rv ic e education f o r t e a c h e r s . 5 A llen s t a t e s : The p r o b le m o f t h e i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n o f c l a s s ­ room t e a c h e r s and a d m i n i s t r a t o r s i n o u r A merican s c h o o l s ' c o n t i n u e t o b e one o f v i t a l c o n c e r n .6 I n r e g a r d s t o t h e w orkshop and i n - s e r v i c e t e a c h e r t r a i n i n g , E rw in e and F o r d y c e s t a t e t h a t : The l o n g s t r u g g l e t o p l a c e t e a c h i n g on a p a r w i t h o t h e r p r o f e s s i o n s h a s begun t o b e a r f r u i t i n a t t r a c t ­ in g b e t t e r persons in to the ran k s. To m a i n t a i n t h e n e w e r and im p r o v e d s t a n d a r d f o r o u r p r o f e s s i o n i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o u t i l i z e , a s n e v e r b e f o r e , means f o r p r o ­ m o ti n g t h e c o n t i n u e d g r o w t h of i t s m em bers. The i n -

4 C. A. Weber, " P r o m i s i n g T e c h n i q u e s f o r E d u c a t i n g T e a c h e r s I n S e r v i c e , " The A m e r ic a n S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 1 0 6 : 3 2 , F e b r u a r y , 1943* 5 G ale n S a y l o r , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Good I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a tio n P rogram s," C urriculum J o u r n a l , 12:313-315, N ovember, 1941• 6 C e c i l H. A l l e n , " I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s , " Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 3 : 2 6 2 , J u n e , 1943*

55 s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g and g r o w t h o f t e a c h e r t h u s becom es one o f t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p r o b le m s o f t h e e d u c a ­ t i o n a l a d m i n i s t r a t o r .7 For s e v e r a l y e a r s , t h e s u p e r v i s o r s i n t h e D iv is i o n of M athem atics of th e C leveland P u b lic S c h o o ls , a s s i s t e d by t h e p r i n c i p a l and t e a c h e r s a t t h e A r i t h m e t i c C u r r i c u l u m C e n t e r , h a v e c a r r i e d o u t a c a r e f u l l y p l a n n e d p rog ra m o f i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g f o r t e a c h e r s i n t h e prim ary d i v is io n * G rim e, i n g i v i n g t h e o u t s t a n d i n g f e a t u r e o f t h i s p r o g r a m , sta te s th at: T e a c h e r s , p r i n c i p a l s , a n d members o f t h e s c h o o l s t a f f a r e ag reed t h a t plans f o r i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g of te a c h e r s , d is c u s s e d in t h i s p ap e r, have r e s u l t e d i n a d i s t i n c t improvem ent i n t h e a r i t h m e t i c b e i n g ta u g h t in t h e C lev elan d Schools In-service train in g it

can b e o f g r e a t e r i m p o r t a n c e i f

is not lim ite d to the b asic s k i l l s .

F ro e h lich , in h is

a r t i c l e , makes t h i s i m p o r t a n t p o i n t o u t s t a n d i n g when he s t a t e s : The t a s k o f making good t e a c h e r s i s n o t l i m i t e d t o i m p r o v i n g s k i l l s — i t i n c l u d e s h e l p i n g them t o d e v e l o p a wholesome p e r s o n a l a d j u s t m e n t and an u n d e r s t a n d i n g

7 R. W. Erw ine and W. G. F o r d y c e , ” The Workshop and I n - S e r v i c e T e a c h e r T r a i n i n g , ” E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h B u l l e t i n , 2 2 : 5 9 , M a rc h , 1943* &

H. E . G rim e , ” P l a n f o r t h e I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g o f T eachers i n th e E lem entary S c h o o l,” School S cien ce a n d M a t h e m a t i c s , 4 8 : 5 1 7 , 5 21, O c t o b e r , 1948* .

56 o f t h e n e e d s and j o y s o f c h i l d h o o d . • . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o u g h t t o m eet t h e n e e d s o f i n d i v i d u a l s .9 The i m p o r t a n c e o f t r a i n i n g o f em ergency t e a c h e r s now i n t h e f i e l d i s

e m p h a s iz e d i n an a r t i c l e by M a x e l l e

M orris u nder t h e d i r e c t i o n of E. J . L in d s tro m .

She

states th a t: I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g o f t e a c h e r s h a s always been an e s s e n t i a l p a r t o f t h e e d u c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m , b u t due t o t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p r o f e s s i o n now h a s a g r e a t e r number of em ergency t e a c h e r s t h a n e v e r b e f o r e , t h i s t r a i n i n g i s coming t o b e more w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d .10 At t h e end o f t h i s a r t i c l e b y M o r r i s , sh e i n d i c a t e s th e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t io n w ith th e fo llo w ­ ing p aragraph: Now, i n t h e e v e r - c h a n g i n g b e w i l d e r i n g w o r l d o u r c h i l d r e n f a c e , we must be a l e r t , aw ake, and f u l l y t r a i n e d t o h e l p them a c h i e v e t h e b e s t modern e d u c a ­ t i o n has to o f f e r them . I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w i l l s u p p l y t h e a n s w e r m ost o f t h e t i m e . 11 A nother a r t i c l e

on Democracy t r a i n i n g t h r o u g h

i n s t i t u t e s was e m p h a s iz e d by W i l l i a m s :

^ C. P . F r o e h l i c h , ’’I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g P rog ram s T h a t S u c c e e d , ” C l e a r i n g H o u s e , 2 3 : 2 5 9 , J a n u a r y , 1949• 10 M. M o r r i s and E . J . L i n d s t r o m , ’’I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s , ” S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News, 4 3 * 1 5 , November, 1947 « 11 l ^ i d . , p . 15 •

9 f

57

I There i s ev ery i n d i c a t i o n t h a t th e i n s t i t u t e movement h a s d e f i n i t e l y / p r o m o t e d d e m o c r a t i c c o o p e r a t i o n and p a r t i c i p a t i o n o f a l l l e v e l s o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n i n s o l v i n g p r o b le m s o f t h e h o u r . The u n i t y a c h i e v e d i n t h e i n s t i t u t e progra m i s a c o n ­ t r i b u t i o n w i t n e s s e d t o by many p e r s o n s who h a v e e x p e r i e n c e d i t i n s c o r e s o f l o c a l i t i e s .12 Summary. th is

A summary o f t h e m a t e r i a l s p r e s e n t e d i n

c h a p te r , r e g a r d in g t h e im portance o f i n - s e r v i c e

p re p a ra tio n fo r te a c h e rs , are as fo llo w s. A ll a u t h o r i t i e s a g ree d t h a t o n ly a sm all p o r t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ’ s e x p e rie n c e has been a c q u i r e d i n t h e t r a i n i n g s c h o o l , and t h a t t h e m a j o r p o r t i o n w i l l be a c q u i r e d i n t h e field .

I n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n i s im p o rtan t t o guide t h e s e

experiences gained.

Each a u t h o r i t y m e n t i o n e d u s e d a d i f f e r ­

e n t p o i n t o r p o i n t s t o e m p h a s iz e t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f i n - s e r v i c e p rep aratio n . 1.

The f o l l o w i n g i s a b r e a k d o w n o f t h e p o i n t s :

P re p a ra tio n in s e rv ic e is necessary because

t e a c h i n g e f f i c i e n c y cannot rem ain s t a t i c . 2.

P re p aratio n in se rv ic e is e s p e c ia lly necessary

f o r t h a t group of in a d e q u a te ly t r a i n e d t e a c h e r s .

12 C. 0 . W i l l i a m s , ’’T r a i n i n g f o r Democracy Thru I n s t i t u t e s on P r o f e s s i o n a l and P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , ” N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 3 8 : 2 0 7 , M arch,

1949

*

3*

C urricu lum advance r e q u i r e s a s y s te m a tic p r o ­

gram o f i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n f o r t e a c h e r s . The p r o b le m o f i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n i n A merican s c h o o l s i s one o f v i t a l 5»

concern.

To m a i n t a i n t h e n e w e r a n d im proved s t a n d a r d f o r

t h e t e a c h i n g p r o f e s s i o n , i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g becom es one o f t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t p r o b l e m s o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r . 6-

In -s e rv ic e tr a in i n g has r e s u lte d in d i s t i n c t

im provem ent i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r . 7»

I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g m eets t h e needs of th e

in d iv id u al. $.

I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g h a s been e s s e n t i a l i n t h e

e d u c a t i o n o f em ergency t e a c h e r s . 9«

I n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g w i l l h e lp g r e a t l y to keep

t h e t e a c h e r a l e r t , aw ake, and f u l l y t r a i n e d . 10.

I n s t i t u t e s h a v e d e f i n i t e l y p r o m o te d d e m o c r a t i c

coo p eratio n . T his c h a p t e r h as su rv ey e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a tio n f o r t e a c h e r s .

C hapter

V II w i l l p r e s e n t d e v ic e s used f o r i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n .

CHAPTER V I I

DEVICES USED FOR IN-SERVICE PREPARATION C h a p t e r VI s u r v e y e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e w i t h r e g a r d t o th e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n f o r te a c h e r s # T his c h a p te r h as i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e by c h e ck in g devices fo r in -s e rv ic e p re p a ra tio n . An a r t i c l e f ro m t h e A merican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , by Jackson, s t a t e s : T h e r e a r e no b e s t d e v i c e s f o r i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n of te a c h e r s . I t i s w e l l f o r t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r and s u p e rv is o r to le a r n t h a t th e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n very l a r g e l y determ ines th e b e s t device to u s e . I f the a d m i n i s t r a t o r o r s u p e r v i s o r can c o n s i d e r a n y t h i n g which h e l p s o r h i n d e r s h e r i n d e v e lo p m e n t a s an i n ­ s t r u c t o r , t h e n he w i l l s e e t h a t i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n would a t t e m p t t o combine t h e judgem en t i n s e l e c t i n g t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s w hich a r e h e l p f u l and c o n t r i b u t e t o h e r g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t .1 Jackson l i s t s

in - s e r v ic e types of p re p a ra tio n for

te a c h e rs as fo ilo w s: 1. 2. 3* 4• 5* 6* 7*

Case S t u d y . C om m ittee C h a ir m a n . C om m ittee member. C ounseling. D elegation of a u th o r ity . D em onstration te a c h i n g . D evelopment o f new t e a c h i n g d e v i c e s

1 W i l l a r d C. J a c k s o n , " D e v i c e s f o r I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n o f T e a c h e r s , " A m eric an S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , s1 0 3 :57 S e p t e m b e r , 1941*

60 8. 9* 10. 11. 12. 13.

11+•

15. 16* 17* 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26« 27. 28. 29*

D i s t r i c t Teachers C onvention. Encourage c r e a t i v e w r i t i n g . I n s p e c t i o n by S t a t e o f f i c i a l . In ter-sch o o l v is ita tio n . O b s e r v a t i o n s and c o n f e r e n c e s . O f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of p r o f e s s i o n a l c lu b . O r g a n i z a t i o n o f new c l u b s by t e a c h e r s . O riginal te a c h in g p r o je c t. Personal conference w ith su p e rv is o r. P r e p a r a t i o n o f s u p e r v i s o r y b u l l e t i n by t e a c h e r . P r e p a r a t i o n o f s c h o o l news a r t i c l e s . P ro fessio n al conference. P r o f e s s i o n a l t a l k s by t e a c h e r s . P ro fessio n al reading. , P ublic appearance of te a c h e r s . S electio n of in s tru c tio n a l m a te ria l. S elf-ra tin g scale. S tandardized t e s t s . S u p e r v i s o r y b u l l e t i n s p r e p a r e d by s u p e r v i s o r . S upervision of o th e r te a c h e r s . T e a c h e r’ s annual r e p o r t . T eacher’s m eetin g s.2

B a r r , B u r t o n , and B r u e c k n e r g i v e , from t h e i r ' b o o k on S u p e r v is io n , th e fo llo w in g a s a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f im prove­ ment d e v i c e s : I.

Group D e v i c e s A. Doing T e c h n i q u e s 1 . Workshops 2 . C o m m itte e s B. V e r b a l T e c h n i q u e s 1 . S t a f f m eetings 2 . Group c o u n s e l i n g 3 • C o u r s e work 4* D o cu m e n tary a i d s 5* D i r e c t e d r e a d i n g

2 I b i d . , p . $8.

C.

II.

O b s e r v a tio n a l T echniques 1. D irected o b serv atio n 2. F ield t r i p s 3* T r a v e l s e m i n a r s 4* A u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s I n d i v i d u a l D evices A. Doing T e c h n i q u e s 1. P a r tic ip a tio n in the t o t a l teach in g a c t 2. In d iv id u a l problem -solving B. V e r b a l T e c h n i q u e s 1. In d iv id u a l conferences 2 . Ad j u s t m e n t c ouns e l i n g G. O b s e r v a t i o n a l T e c h n i q u e s 1. D irected o b serv atio n 2. I n te r - v i s ita tio n 3

R e e d e r , i n h i s book The F u n d a m e n t a l s o f S c h o o l A d m in is tra tio n , l i s t s th e follow ing ag e n c ie s fo r prep arin g in serv ice: 1. 2. 3• 4* 6* 7• S. 9« 10.

R e a d in g D aily p r e p a r a tio n R e s e a r c h a n d c o m m itt e e work S upervision I n s t i t u t e s and m e e t i n g s School v i s i t a t i o n T ravel L eave o f a b s e n c e Summer s e s s i o n a n d e x t e n s i o n s t u d y Democracy i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ^

The f o l l o w i n g a r e t h e m o s t p r o m i s i n g t e c h n i q u e s f o r e d u c a t i n g t e a c h e r s i n s e r v i c e a s l i s t e d by Weber:

3 A. S . B a r r , W i l l i a m H. B u r t o n , and Leo J . B rueckner, S u p erv isio n (New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y C r o f ts , Inc : ; i 9 ' 4 7 ' ) pp . 709-710. Ward G. R e e d e r , The Fund a m e n t a l s o f P u b l i c S c h o o l A dm inistration (New York” The M a c m illa n Gompany, I 94I ) *

62 1 . O rg a n iz in g t e a c h e r s i n t o com m ittees t o stu d y s p e c i f i c problem s a r i s i n g i n th e s c h o o l. 2 . W ell-planned study o f s p e c i a l to p i c s s e le c te d by th e s t a f f in g e n e ra l m eetin g s o f t h e f a c u l t y . 3* P r o v i d i n g a t e a c h e r ’ s l o u n g e i n w hich t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l bo o k s and m a g a z i n e s o f t h e s c h o o l a r e made a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s . 4* H aving t h e t e a c h e r s s e l e c t members o f t h e s t a f f to r e v ie w c u r r e n t e d u c a ti o n a l m agazine a r t i c l e s o r a l l y for the s t a f f . 3* G iv i n g s p e c i a l f i n a n c i a l r e w a r d s t o t e a c h e r s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n program s o f i n - s e r v i c e e d u c a t i o n . 6* C o o p e r a t i v e l y e n g a g i n g i n a s y s t e m a t i c e v a l u a ­ t i o n of th e sch o o l using th e " C r i t e r i a o f C ooperative S tu d y ." 7* E ngaging i n an o r g a n i z e d f a c u l t y a t t a c k upon problem o f c u r r ic u lu m d ev e lo p m e n t. S. H o ld in g forums w h ic h i n c l u d e p a r e n t s , t e a c h e r s , and p u p i l s . 9* A t t e n d i n g summer w o r k s h o p s . 1 0. V i s i t i n g o t h e r t e a c h e r s a t w ork. 1 1 . H olding s m a ll group m e e tin g s t o s tu d y c o u rs e o f s t u d y r e v i s i o n .5 I n t e r v i s i t a t i o n as a device t o g et th e te a c h e rs c lo se to th e ac tu a l teach in g s i t u a t i o n .

In

C in c in n a ti,^

"Teacher

may h a v e two days e a c h y e a r w i t h pay f o r v i s i t i n g o t h e r c l a s s r o o m s t o o b s e r v e a u n i t o f work.'y^ One o f t h e most e f f e c t i v e d e v i c e s i s t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f im p ro v e d t e a c h i n g m e t h o d s .

Jackson s t a t e s :

5 C. A. Weber, " P r o m i s i n g T e c h n iq u e f o r E d u c a t i n g T e a c h e r s I n S e r v i c e , " A merican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 1 0 6 : 3 2 , F e b r u a r y , 1943“ ^ M. S h erm an , "S choo l-M a de F i l m f o r P u r p o s e s o f S u p e r v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l S c r e e n , 23:157> J u l y , 1944*

63 Every a m b i t i o u s t e a c h e r i s s e e k i n g t o im p ro v e h e r s k i l l and im m e d i a t e e f f i c i e n c y a s an i n s t r u c t o r . To do n o t h i n g more t h a n t o e n c o u r a g e h e r t o t r y out a new d e v i c e o r a new a p p r o a c h t o a s u b j e c t can be t h e means o f making h e r work seem a l m o s t l i k e a new p o sitio n .? A nother e f f e c t i v e i n - s e r v i c e t r a i n i n g d e v i c e , a s p o i n t e d out by J a c k s o n , i s t h e com m ittee m e e tin g .

He s t a t e s :

I t i s a t t h i s p o i n t t h a t t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r assume r e s p o n s i b i l i t y a n d s e e t o i t t h a t a n a t u r a l means i s p r o v i d e d so t h a t e v e r y t e a c h e r h a s t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f becoming t h o r o u g h l y a c q u a i n t e d p r o f e s s i o n a l l y w i t h h i s c o - w o r k e r s and w i t h t h e i r w o r k . To do t h i s , a very e f f e c t i v e i n - s e r v i c e e d u c atio n device i s th e c o m m i t t e e . T h e r e i s s c a r c e l y any l i m i t t o t h e v a r i e t y o f p r o b l e m s w h ic h t e a c h e r ’ s c o m m i t t e e s can s t u d y . 6 Summary.

S i n c e t h e b e s t d e v i c e s t o be u s e d f o r

i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s would d e p e n d upon t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n , l i s t s of d e v i c e s have been p r e s e n te d f rom t h e l i t e r a t u r e s u r v e y e d .

F our l i s t s o f d e v i c e s w ere

p r e s e n t e d from f o u r d i f f e r e n t s o u r c e s .

A ll fo u r sources

a g r e e d on t h e f o l l o w i n g d e v i c e s . 1.

C om m ittee w o r k .

2.

F acu lty, s t a f f ,

3*

P rofessional reading.

or t e a c h e r m e e t i n g s .

? J a c k s o n , ojo. c i t . , p . 57* * I b i d * , P* 5 6 .



C u r r i culum d e v e l o p m e n t .

5*

In te rv isita tio n .

6.

A d d iti o n a l u n i v e r s i t y w ork.

7.

Democracy i n s c h o o l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

8.

O bserving d e m o n s tr a ti o n s •

9-

P re sen tin g dem onstrations.

10 V S u p e r v i s o r ' s c o n f e r e n c e . T his c h a p t e r h a s p r e s e n te d an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e fo r d ev ices used in se rv ic e p r e p a r a tio n o f teach ers.

The n e x t c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t c o n c l u s i o n s b a s e d

on t h e f i n d i n g s .

CHAPTER V I I I CONCLUSIONS C h a p t e r I I I h a s p r e s e n t e d f i n d i n g s on t h e l a c k o f t r a i n e d elem entary te a c h e r s in p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

C hapter

IV h a s p r e s e n t e d r e q u i r e d c o u r s e s o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n f o r s tu d e n ts ta k in g th e f o u r- y e a r elem entary t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g course.

C h a p t e r V h a s p r e s e n t e d a summary o f t h e c o n t e n t s

o f a v a ila b le p r in te d elem entary p h y s ic a l ed u catio n m a te r ia ls t h a t a r e produced to a s s i s t i n th e g u id an ce of t h e t e a c h e r in the f i e l d .

C h a p t e r VI h a s s u r v e y e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e f o r

t h e im portance of i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a t i o n fo r th e t e a c h e r . C h a p t e r V II h a s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e l i t e r a t u r e l i s t i n g d e v i c e s fo r in -se rv ic e p rep aratio n .

T his c h a p te r w i l l p r e s e n t a

g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e sum m aries c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h a p t e r s on f i n d i n g s . B a sed upon t h e f i n d i n g s , t h e f o l l o w i n g su m m aries a r e made: 1.

A lt h o u g h t h e c l a s s r o o m t e a c h e r i s n o t a d e q u a t e l y

t r a i n e d to t e a c h a w orthw hile p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program , she is in th e b e s t p o s i t i o n t o t e a c h p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n b e c a u s e sh e c a n b e t t e r i n t e g r a t e t h e s c h o o l program w i t h th e p h y s i c a l e d u c a tio n program .

66 2.

E lem entary t e a c h e r s a r e handicapped i n th e

t e a c h i n g o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n due t o l a c k o f i n t e r e s t , l a c k o f t e c h n i c a l k n o w le d g e , i n a b i l i t y t o t a k e p a r t , u s i n g u n t r a i n e d m e th o d s o f t e a c h i n g , and do n o t h a v e t h e a b i l i t y to c o r r e l a t e classw ork in o th e r s u b je c ts w ith p h y sical education. 3*

That t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s a r e r e q u i r i n g

a minimum o f f o u r u n i t s o f work i n e l e m e n t a r y p h y s i c a l ed u catio n . 4*

That t e a c h e r - t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s

do o f f e r

t h e s t u d e n t - t e a c h e r t h e o p p o r t u n i t y f o r more t r a i n i n g i n p h y s ic a l ed u c atio n through th e 5.

That t h e r e i s

electiv e u n its a v a ila b le.

s u ffic ie n t w ritte n m aterial a v a il­

a b le i n th e f i e l d to guide th e elem e n tary t e a c h e r i n t o th e te a ch in g of p h y sical ed u catio n . 6.

That th e w r i tte n m a te r ia l c o n ta in s c l e a r l y s ta te d

d i r e c t i o n s fo r th e m a jo rity of th e a c t i v i t i e s to be used in t h e e le m e n t a r y g r a d e s . 7«

That i n - s e r v i c e p r e p a r a tio n i s im portant because

a m ajor p o r t i o n o f t h e t e a c h e r ’ s t r a i n i n g w i l l be a c q u i r e d i n th e f i e l d , because te a c h in g e ffic ie n c y - cannot rem ain s t a t i c , b e c a u s e many t e a c h e r s a r e i n a d e q u a t e l y t r a i n e d , b e c a u s e t h e r e a r e many em erg en cy t e a c h e r s i n t h e f i e l d , and b e c a u s e i t w i l l p r o m o te d e m o c r a t i c c o o p e r a t i o n .

$.

The b e s t d e v i c e s t o b e u s e d f o r i n - s e r v i c e

p r e p a r a t i o n o f t e a c h e r s would depend on t h e l o c a l s i t u a t i o n . T h is c h a p t e r on c o n c l u s i o n s h a s p r e s e n t e d a g e n e r a l ­ i z a t i o n o f t h e su m m aries c o n t a i n e d i n t h e c h a p t e r s on fin d in g s.

The l a s t c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s

d e r i v e d from a s u r v e y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g f o r th e classroom t e a c h e r .

CHAPTER IX

RECOMMENDATIONS C hapter V III p re s e n te d a g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f th e sum m aries.

T h is c h a p t e r w i l l p r e s e n t r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s

d e r i v e d from a s u r v e y o f p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n t r a i n i n g f o r classroom te a c h e rs * I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of th e f i n d i n g s and c o n c lu s io n s of the p resen t in v e s tig a tio n , i t 1.

i s recommended:

T h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s make known t o t e a c h e r -

t r a i n i n g i n s t i t u t i o n s th e need f o r a d d i t i o n a l c o u rse s in elem entary p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n .

These a d d i t i o n a l u n i t s

can b e a b s o r b e d i n t h e e l e c t i v e u n i t s t h e r e b y n o t l e n g t h e n ­ in g th e com plete f o u r - y e a r c o u r s e . 2.

T h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s m u st b e a l e r t t o means i n

i n t e r e s t i n g t e a c h e r s in th e v a lu e s of p h y s ic a l e d u c a tio n . They s h o u l d u s e i n - s e r v i c e t e c h n i q u e s a s o f t e n a s t h e s itu a tio n w arran ts. 3*

That a d m i n i s t r a t o r s should em phasize t h a t

c a n d id a te s fo r the te a c h in g c r e d e n t i a l be p h y s ic a lly f i t to teach physical ed u catio n . 4*

T h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d f o l l o w up t h e c o u r s e

o f study put in to th e hands of t e a c h e r s .

The t e a c h e r s

69

should b e r e q u i r e d t o a t t e n d c l a s s e s t h a t w i l l i n t e r p r e t th e c o u rse of s tu d y . 5.

T h a t a d m i n i s t r a t o r s s h o u l d h a v e more s u p e r ­

v is io n in p h y s ic a l education a v a ila b le t o the t e a c h e r . 6.

T hat a d m i n i s t r a t o r s c o o p e r a t e w i t h h i g h e r

i n s t i t u t i o n s of le a r n i n g , in a rra n g in g adequate s u i t a b l e ex te n sio n courses of p h y sic a l ed u catio n fo r the b e n e fit of t h e i r te a c h e rs. 7»

That i n t e r v i s i t a t i o n be p e r m i t t e d by t h e t e a c h e r

w ith o u t lo s s of pay.

T hrough a g u i d e d p ro g ra m b e t t e r t e a c h ­

e r s s h o u l d be v i s i t e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s u p e r v i s o r y s t i m u ­ l a t i o n , d i r e c t i o n , and a s s i s t a n c e . S.

That t e a c h e r s , i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s

and m e r i t p r o m o t i o n s , s h o u l d be r e q u i r e d t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g by a t t e n d i n g summer w o rk s h o p s a t l e a s t on ce e v e r y t h r e e y e a r s .

Such p r o v i s i o n s t o b e a w r i t t e n

requ irem en t• 9.

That p r i n c i p a l s a r e provided w ith s u f f i c i e n t

funds for' th e p u rch ase of s u b s c r i p t i o n s t o

a d e q u a t e and

s u it a b le p ro fe s s io n a l p h y sic a l education jo u r n a ls .

The

f o l l o w i n g a r e recommended: The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , A m eric an A s s o c i a t i o n o f H e a l t h P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n and R e c r e a t i o n , and H y g e i a .

70 10.

That th e u p -g ra d in g of th e e d u c a tio n o f t e a c h e r s

i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f e v e r y member of th e p r o fe s s io n .

The q u a l i t y o f l e a d e r s h i p i n t h e p r o ­

f e s s i o n p ro fo u n d ly a f f e c t s d i r e c t l y or i n d i r e c t l y th e q u a l i t y o f t h e program d e v e l o p e d a s w e l l a s t h e p o s i t i o n s and s a l a r i e s of everyone. T h i s p r o j e c t h o p e s t o l e a d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t o r s and c la s s ro o m t e a c h e r s t o a g r e a t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n of p h y s i c a l e d u c a t i o n and t h e n e e d o f a d d i t i o n a l t r a i n i n g o f e l e ­ m en tary t e a c h e r s i n p h y s i c a l e d u c a ti o n tow ard t h e im prove­ m ent o f a pro g ra m t h a t w i l l e n r i c h t h e l i v e s o f b o y s and g i r l s under t h e i r su p e rv isio n .

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY

A.

BOOKS

J B arr,

A. S . , W i l l i a m H. B u r t o n , and Leo J . B r u e c k n e r , S u p e r v i s i o n . New York: A p p l e t o n - C e n t u r y - C r o f t s , ' I n c o r p o r a t e d , 1947 • $79 pp *

^ E d u c a t i o n a l Code, S t a t e of C a l i f o r n i a , S acram eftto, C a l i f o r n i a , ' 194$ • $23 p p . La S a l l e , D o r o t h y , P h y s i c a l Bduc a t i o n f o r t h e C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r . New Y ork: A. S . B a r n e s and Company, 193V * 209 pp * N N e i l s o n , N. P . , and W i n f r e d Yan H agen, P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . New Y ork: A. S . B a r n e s and Company, 1936* 365 P P • ■^Reeder, Ward G . , The F u n d a m e n t a l s o f P u b l i c S c h o o l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . New Y ork: The M a c m illa n Company, 1941• 79$ ppV R ice, Robert C ., P h y s ic a l E d u catio n o f th e Elem entary S c h o o l . M i n n e a p o l i s : B u r g e s s P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1 9 3 4 * 31 PP* S a l t , E . B . , G. I . F o x , E . M. D o u t h e t , and B . K. S t e v e n s , Teaching P h y s ic a l E d u c a tio n i n t h e E lem entary S c h o o l. New Y o r k : A. "S". Ba r n e s and Company, 1 9 4 2 * 340 p p . T each er P e rs o n n e l S tu d y , C o n n e c tic u t S t a t e D epartm ent of E d u c a t i o n and C o n n e c t i c u t S t a t e T e a c h e r s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1941• $0 p p . 4 W i l l i a m s , J e s s e F e i r i n g , a n d C l i f f o r d Lee B r o w n e l l , The A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . P h i l a d e l p h i a : W. B. S a u n d e r s Company, 1946 . 5^$ P P »

B.

PERIODICALS

A lle n , C e c il H ., ”I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a tio n o f T e a c h e r s , ” Review o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 1 3 : 2 6 2 , J u n e , 1943*

72 B o n i t z , J e a n , "Some P ro b le m s i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , " The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , Volume 1 9 , Number 6 , J u n e , 194$* C o n f e r e n c e on I n - S e r v i c e T e a c h e r E d u c a t i o n , S c h o o l and S o c i e t y , Volume 5 7 , March 6 , 1943* ^ C u r t i s s , Mary L o u i s e , a n d A d e l a i d e B. C u r t i s s , "The C l a s s r o o m T e a c h e r ’ s D ilem m a," The J o u r n a l o f H e a l t h and P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , 17:335*1 J u l y , 19*46 • E r w i n e , R. ¥ . , and ¥ . G. F o r d y c e , "The Workshop and I n S e rv ic e Teacher T ra in in g ," E d u catio n al Research B u l l e t i n , 2 2 : 5 9 , M a rc h , 1943* F r o e h l i c h , C. P . , " I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g P rogram s T h a t S u c c e e d , " C l e a r i n g H o u s e , 2 3 : 2 5 9 , J a n u a r y , 1949* G rim e , H. E . , " P l a n f o r t h e I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s i n t h e E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l , " S c h o o l S c i e n c e and M a t h e m a t i c s , 4 $ : 5 17, 5 2 1, O c t o b e r , ‘l'94$ • Ja c k s o n , W illa r d C ., "D evices f o r I n - S e r v i c e E d u ca tio n of T e a c h e r s , " A merican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 1 0 3 : 5 7 , Septem ber, l 9 4 l • M o r r i s , M ., and E. J-. L i n d s t r o m , " I n - S e r v i c e T r a i n i n g o f T e a c h e r s , " S i e r r a E d u c a t i o n a l News, 4 3 : 1 5 , November, 1947* S a y l o r , G a l e n , " C h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f Good I n - S e r v i c e E d u c a t i o n P r o g r a m s , " C u r r i c u l u m J o u r n a l , Volume 1 2 , November, 1941* S h e rm a n , M ., " S c h o o l-M a d e F i l m f o r P u r p o s e s o f S u p e r v i s i o n o f I n s t r u c t i o n , " E d u c a t i o n a l S c r e e n , 2 3 : 1 5 7 , J u l y , 1944* W eber, C. A . , " P r o m i s i n g T e c h n i q u e f o r E d u c a t i n g T e a c h e r s I n S e r v i c e , " A m erican S c h o o l B o a rd J o u r n a l , 1 0 6 : 3 2 , F e b r u a r y , 1943* W i l l i a m s , C. 0 . , " T r a i n i n g f o r Democracy T h ru I n s t i t u t e s on P r o f e s s i o n a l a n d P u b l i c R e l a t i o n s , " N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n J o u r n a l , 3 $ : 2 0 7 , M a rc h , 1949•

73 C.

INSTITUTION CATALOGUES

A bilene C h r i s t i a n C o lleg e C a ta lo g u e .

A bilene. Texas.

------------------

Alabama S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e . ' L i v i n g s t o n , A la b a m a , 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 ^ 9 • Boston C o lle g e C a ta l o g u e . U n i v e r s i t y H e ig h ts , C h estn u t HTI jL, M a s s a c h u s e t t s , D ecem ber, 1949* B r i g h a m Young U n i v e r s i t y C a t a l o g u e . F lo r i d a , U n iv e rsity o f, C atalogue. — T i y , 1949Fresno S ta te C ollege C a talo g u e. 1949-1950. Humboldt S t a t e C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e . 1949-1950.

Provo, U tah, 1949-1950. G ain esv ille, F lo rid a,

Fresno, C a lif o rn ia , A reata, C a lifo rn ia ,

Iow a S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e C a t a l o g u e . 19 4 9- 195^

C e d ar F a l l s , Io w a ,

P e p p e r d in e , George, C o lleg e C a ta lo g u e . -------------c iT fT B rn ia'V

Los A n g e l e s ,

D.

COURSES OF STUDY

C o u r s e o f S t u d y f o r E l e m e n t a r y S c h o o l s . Los A n g e l e s C i t y ETchool D i s t r i c t / ' T o s ' A n g e l e s , C a l i f o r n i a , 1 9 4 2 . C o u r s e o f S t u d y i n P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n . Commonwealth o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , B u l l e t i n o f t h e Departm ent of E d u c a tio n , 1 9 3 4 , Number 6 . H e a l t h , P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , and S a f e t y . U n i v e r s i t y o f N o rth C a r o l i n a , C h a p el H iTI", N o rt h C a r o l i n a , 1939* P h y s i c a l A c t i v i t i e s f o r S o u t h D a k o ta S c h o o l s . The D e p a r tm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , S t a t e o f S o u t h D a k o t a , 1941*

74 P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e o f S t u d y . Long B e a c h C i t y S c h o o l s , Long B e a c h , C a l i f o r n i a , 1931* P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n , G ra d e s T h re e and F o u r . S u p e r i n t e n d e n t ’ s B u l l e t i n , C o u r s e o f S t u d y S e r i e s , Number 2 4 , O a k la n d , C a l i f o r n i a , 1936 . P h y s i c a l and H e a l t h E d u c a t i o n C o u r s e o f S t u d y f o r Elem ent a r y G r a d e s One Through 5'ixL S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , S t a t e o f De l a w a r e , 193 2 . P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n S y l l a b u s . The U n i v e r s i t y o f t h e S t a t e o f Mew Y o r k , The S t a t e E d u c a t i o n D e p a r t m e n t , 1934* P h y s i c a l E d u c a t i o n T e a c h i n g G u i d e . K ern C ounty S c h o o l s , T he~B akersfield C a lif o r n ia n , B a k e r s f ie ld , C a lif o r n i a , 1943*

E.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL

M c C r e a r y , A a r o n , ’’The Minimum E s s e n t i a l s i n H e a l t h and P h y s ic a l E ducation f o r a l l Teacher T ra in in g I n s t i t u t i o n s ? ” U n p u b l i s h e d M a s t e r ’ s t h e s i s , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a , Los A n g e l e s , 1 9 3 0 . 133 PP •

MNTVjSRSITY OF O

rTALrFORNTA LIBRA!,}!?