A survey of visual-aid materials for music education

Citation preview

A SURVEY Of VISUAD-AID MATERIALS TOR MUSIC EDUCATION

A T h esis P re se n te d to t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f Music The U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u t h e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r tia l fu lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u ir e m e n ts f o r t h e D e g re e M a s te r o f M usic

by J e a n n e t t e Mary S c o t t J u l y 1942

UMI Number: EP61774

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP61774 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 4 8106- 1346

Th is thesis, w ri t te n by ...............

under the direction of h ..§ 3 ? F a c u lt y C o m m i t t e e , a n d a p p r o v e d b y a l l its m e m b e r s , has be en pr es e n te d to a n d a c c e p t e d by the Co un ci l on G rad ua te S t u d y an d Res ea rch in p a r ti a l fulfill­ m en t of the req u ire m e n ts f o r the d e g re e of

MASTER OF MUSIC

Dean

Secretary

J u l y , ...194.2

Date...

Faculty Committee

—s

f

J

y

t

, y

Chairman

.....

[TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

I . THE P R O B L E M ......................................................................

.

1

S t a t e m e n t o f t h e p r o b l e m ...........................................

1

D e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e te r m s u s e d

1

V isu a l a id

.................................

1

Musio C u r r ic u lu m

...........................................

2

Scope o f t h e s t u d y

........................

2

S i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e p r o b le m

II•

.......................

• • • • • • • •

4

Review o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e ..................................

7

P r o c e d u r e f o r t h e s tu d y

......................................

8

O r g a n i z a t i an o f f o l l o w i n g c h a p t e r s ....................

12

MOTION P I C T U R E S ....................... * . . . ............................

13

R eview o f t h e l i t e r a t u r e

.......................................

D i s t i n c t i o n s i n p o i n t o f view

13

........................

19

P r o c e d u r e ............................................................................

20

M o tio n p i c t u r e c h a r t s ................................................

22

E x p l a n a t i o n o f s u b j e c t h e a d in g s of m o t i o n - p i c t u r e c h a r t s .....................................

22

A c o u s t i c s and m a n u f a c tu r e of in stru m e n ts

• • • • • •

........................

23

....................

23

P r e s e n ta tio n of in s tru m e n ts F e a t u r i n g a s o l o i s t or s m a l l

e n s e m b l e ........................................................

24

iii 0 HAP3?EH

PAGE f e a t u r i n g an o r c h e s t r a , b a n d , o r c h o r u s .........................................................•

24

C om p osers1 l i v e s ................................................

24

Im a g in a tiv e v is u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c o m p o s i t i o n .......................................... O peras • * • • • • • * • • • R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o l k m u sic

.................... • • • • • •

Songs f o r community s i n g i n g O r i g i n a l m ovie f e a t u r e s

• • . • .

• • • • • • •

C a r t o o n s .......................

25 25 25 25 26 26

E x p la n a tio n of o rg a n iz a tio n of c h a rts on m o tio n p i c t u r e s • • • • • • • • • •

26

S tu d y g u i d e s • • .......................

29

R e n ta l p r i c e s

• • • • • • •

...................

29

...................

30

• ..................

76

M o tio n p i c t u r e c h a r t s S u g g e s tio n s f o r k e e p in g in to u c h w ith c u r r e n t r e le a s e s

• • •

S u g g e s t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o w ith d r a w n fe a tu re film s

• • * • • • • • • • • • •

S u m m a r y ......................................................... III*

77

. . . .

73

PROJECTED STILD PIC TU R ES................................................

79

Use o f p r o j e c t e d s t i l l p i c t u r e s ..............................

79

D e f i n i t i o n o f te r m s

80

G la s s s l i d e .....................

.......................

81

iv CHAPTER

PAGE P ilm s l i d e

...........................................

82

F ilm s t r i p ........................................................................

82

S o u r c e s o f i n f o r m a t i o n ................................................

85

O rg a n isa tio n o f m a te r ia ls f o r s t i l l p ro je c tio n

• • • • •

..................................

Summary • . • • • • • • • • • « • • • • • • • IT . m m

PIC TU R ES.......................................................................

D e f i n i t i o n o f th e c h a p te r t i t l e Scope o f s u b j e c t s

97 .

• • • • • • •

i n c l u d e d .....................................

P ro ced u re f o r c o l l e c t i n g in fo rm a tio n C h a r ts o f f l a t p i c t u r e s

84

98 98 98

. . . .

99

. . • • • • • • • • •

101

S u b je c t h e a d in g of c h a r ts of p i c t u r e s

. . .

101

A rt r e p r o d u c tio n s p i c t u r i n g i n s t r u m e n t s .....................................

101

P h o to g ra p h ic re p r o d u c tio n s of in stru m e n ts

• • • • • • • • • • * • • •

P o r t r a i t s o f co m p o sers o r p e r f o r m e r s

• •

101 102

I m a g i n a t i v e s c e n e s from com posers* l i v e s M is c e lla n e o u s O rg a n isa tio n o f

• • • • • • • • . • •

m u sical p i c t u r e s

..................

102

p ic tu re c h a rts

..................

102

Summary >

146

T . C H A R T S .......................................................................................... D e f in itio n of th e

102

te r m

• • • • • ......................

147 147

V

CHAPTER

PAGE

Review o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e ..................................

148

P ro cedu re f o r c o l l e c t i n g m a te r ia l on c h a r t s

• • ••

• •

149

o f c h a r t s • • • • • • .................................•

150

E x p la n a tio n of o r g a n iz a tio n of lis ts

Summary • ................................................ • ........................... V I . MISCELLANEOUS MATERIALS . . . . . . . . . . . .

191 192

P l a s h c a r d s ................................................................................... G am es

. • • • • •

192 196

S t a m p s ....................... • • •• ............................... • • • .

197

S t a t u e t t e s ................................................................................... M in ia tu re o r c h e s tr a c u t-o u t p i c t u r e s

• • . .

193 198

N o t a t i o n s y s t e m .......................................................................... V I I . SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS, AND RECOMMENDATIONS

. . .

199 200

Summary • • • • .................................................................... C o n c lu s io n s

200

....................................................................

202

R ecom m endations

203

M o tio n p i c t u r e s ....................................... • • • • • S l i d e s and f i l m s t r i p s

203

.............................................

P l a t p i c t u r e s ....................................................• • • • C h a rts

205 205

..................................................................................

206

BIBLIOGRAPHY..............................................................................

2

APPENDIX A . . . . ............................................................................. APPENDIX B ..........................................................................................

.

211 222

LIST OF OHARTS

CHART

PAGE A* MOTION PICTURE CHARTS

I* II* III* IT* V* TI*

A c o u s t i c s and m a n u f a c tu r e o f i n s t r u m e n t s

* •

30

P r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s ............................ • • •

33

F e a t u r i n g a s o l o i s t o r s m a l l e n s e m b le • • • •

33

F e a t u r i n g an o r c h e s t r a , b a n d ,

41

Composers* l i v e s

.........................................

T ill. IX . X* XI*

45

Im a g in a tiv e v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c o m p o sitio n

T il*

or ch o ru s • • •

O p eras

• • • • • •

R e p re se n ta tiv e fo lk

.......................

50

• • • • • • • •

58

m u s i c .......................• • • • •

Songs f o r com m unity s i n g i n g ...........................

61 65

O r i g i n a l m ovie f e a t u r e s * ......................

70

C a r to o n s

74

• • • • • • • • * • •

.............................

B* CHARTS OF MATERIALS FOE STILL PROJECTION I* II* III.

Xodachrome s l i d e s o f a r t m a s t e r p i e c e s * . * .

86

F ilm s t r i p s and p i e t u r o l s * ......................

87

C lass s l i d e s A* Music h i s t o r y and a p p r e c i a t i o n • • • • • B* Song s l i d e s 0.

I*

- . - ...............................................

91 94

CHARTS OF FLAT PICTURES

A rt re p ro d u c tio n s p i c t u r i n g in s tru m e n ts • • •

104

v ii QUART II. III. IV . V.

PACE P h o to g ra p h ic r e p r o d u c tio n s o f in s tru m e n ts • •

135

P o r t r a i t s o f c o m p o se rs o r p e r f o r m e r s

150

• • • •

I m a g i n a t i v e s c e n e s from c o m p o s e r s 1 l i v e s M is c e lla n e o u s m u s ic a l p i c t u r e s

• •

• • • • • • •

143 144

P . OHARAS OP OBART MATERIALS I.

lin g e rin g c h a rts A. Woodwind i n s t r u m e n t s ............................................

153

B. B r a s s i n s t r u m e n t s ................................................

168

0 . S t r i n g e d i n s t r u m e n t s • • • • • .....................

165

P . P lu c k e d i n s t r u m e n t s

167

• • • .............................

E. S e t s f o r v a r i o u s i n s t r u m e n t s • • • • • •

170

K ey b o a rd c h a r t s ..................................................................

178

Brum i n s t r u c t i o n c h a r t s .....................................

175

IV .

T u n in g c h a r t s • • • • • • • • • • . • • • • •

176

V.

O h a r ts sh o w in g r a n g e o f i n s t r u m e n t s ...................

177

O h a r ts sh o w in g c o r r e c t p l a y i n g p o s t u r e

178

II. III.

V I. V II. V III. IX. X.

. . .

P i c tu r e c h a r t s o f m u sical in s tru m e n ts • • • •

179

S e a t i n g c h a r t s ............................................................

181

O h a r ts f o r l e a r n i n g n o t a t i o n .................................

188

C h a r t s o f s c a l e s and k e y s .................. ....

183

• • • •

X I.

T r a n s p o s i t i on c h a r t s ...................................................

185

X II.

O h a r ts o f m u s i c a l t e r m s ................................• • • •

188

X III.

S i g h t - s i n g i n g c h a r t s ...................................................

189

H i s t o r i c a l pano ram a c h a r t s

190

XIV.

• • • • • • • • •

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM " V i s u a l a i d s " a r e b e i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y e m p h a s iz e d a s p a r t o f t h e n e c e s s a r y e q u ip m e n t o f th e m odern s c h o o l* I f mu­ s i c e d u c a t o r s w o uld be a b r e a s t o f t h e t r e n d s , t h e y , t o o , s h o u l d know how t o l o c a t e and u s e t h e v i s u a l m a t e r i a l s w h ic h a r e a v a i l a b l e t o them* Ho b i b l i o g r a p h y h e r e t o f o r e h a s o f ­ f e r e d c o m p re h e n s iv e l i s t s

o f s u c h a i d s i n t h e m usic f i e l d *

I , STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM I t was t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s s t u d y ( 1 ) t o c o l l e c t , fro m th e o r i g i n a l s o u r c e s , in fo rm a tio n c o n c e rn in g v i s u a l - a i d m a t e r i a l s w h ic h c o u l d be u s e d by m u sic e d u c a t o r s t o e n r i c h t h e m usic c u r r i c u l u m i n e l e m e n t a r y and s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s , and w h ic h a r e a v a i l a b l e i n s u f f i c i e n t q u a n t i t y and a t r e a ­ so n a b le c o s t ;

( 2 ) t o o r g a n i z e t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n i n s u c h a way

t h a t i t may be t r u l y u s e f u l i n a i d i n g m u sic e d u c a t o r s t o q u ic k ly lo c a te p e r t i n e n t a id s f o r th e te a c h in g of p a r t i c u l a r p r o b le m s , o r a r e a s , o f m usic* I I * BEPIHITIOHS BF THE TERMS USED V i s u a l a i d * The te r m " v i s u a l a i d " was i n t e r p r e t e d as m e a n in g m a t e r i a l w h ic h p r o v i d e s a s e e i n g e x p e r i e n c e more o b j e c t i v e , v i v i d , and t h e r e f o r e e a s i e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a n

2 o r d i n a r y a b s t r a c t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l , i n c l u d i n g m usic n o t a ­ t i o n * A v i s u a l a i d may be an e n l a r g e m e n t o f p r i n t e d w ords o r m u sic n o t a t i o n , s u c h as a f l a s h c a r d ; a g r a p h i c p r e s e n t a ­ t i o n , a s a c h a r t o r d ia g r a m i n w h ic h t h e a r r a n g e m e n t s e r v e s t o c l a r i f y m e a n in g ; a f l a t p i c t u r e : p h o t o g r a p h , i l l u s t r a ­ t i o n , c a r t o o n , a r t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ; an e n l a r g e m e n t , by p r o ­ j e c t i o n , of p i c t u r e s , w o r d s , o r n o t a t i o n : g l a s s s l i d e , f i l m s li d e , or film s t r i p ;

o r a m o tio n p i c t u r e *

M usic c u r r i c u l u m * I n t h i s s t u d y t h e "m usio c u r r ic u lu m " w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o mean any o r a l l m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n ­ c e s w i t h i n t h e s c h o o l w h ic h d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y i n f l u e n c e t h e s t u d e n t s , as d i f f e r e n t i a t e d fro m a " c o u r s e o f s t u d y " i n w h ic h o e r t a i n s u b j e c t m a t t e r i s d e s i g n a t e d , an d d e f i n i t e t e a c h i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r e s c r i b e d * W hile m a t e r i a l s , f o r th e p u r p o s e o f o r g a n i z a t i o n , a r e l i s t e d u n d e r su c h h e a d i n g s as " b a n d " o r " c h o i r , " i t was n o t i n t e n d e d t h a t u s e o f su c h lis ts

be l i m i t e d to c o u r s e s o f s t u d y f o r b and o r c h o i r * I I I . SCOPE OP THE STUDY As t h e t i t l e

o f t h e s t u d y and t h e s t a t e m e n t o f th e

p r o b le m w ould i n d i c a t e , th e p u r p o s e o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y was t o c o l l e c t and o r g a n i z e v i s u a l - a i d m a t e r i a l s f o r m usic e d u c a t i o n * E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s was n o t c o n s i d e r e d t o be w i t h i n t h e sc o p e o f t h i s work* T h e r e f o r e , t h e w r i t e r ’ s o p i n i o n o f t h e w o r t h o f any a r t i c l e h a s n o t c o n s c i o u s l y a f -

5 f e o t e d i n c l u s i o n on t h e l i s t i n g s ,

o r w o rd in g o f t h e d e s c r i p ­

t i o n s # E v e r y e f f o r t was made t o i n c l u d e a l l o f t h e p u b l i c a ­ t io n s i n th e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s c o n s id e re d , b u t t o le a v e e v a l­ u a t i o n t o t h e r e a d e r who may be i n t e r e s t e d en o ug h t o exam ine th e m a te r ia ls , o r to fu tu re re s e a rc h s tu d ie s # U n d o u b te d ly , t h e r e a r e num erous o m is s io n s i n a l l o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s # I n o a s e s w h ere p u b l i s h e r s o r d i s t r i b u ­ t o r s d e c l i n e d o r n e g l e c t e d t o a n s w e r i n q u i r i e s , n o m e n tio n i s g i v e n t h e i r p r o d u c t s , e v e n th o u g h t h e y may be known fro m a n o t h e r b i b l i o g r a p h i c s o u r c e , f o r a c c u r a c y t h r o u g h o u t was d e s i r e d # Some d e s c r i p t i o n s a r e a l l t o o b r i e f and g e n e r a l be­ c a u s e c a t a l o g u e s do n o t d e s c r i b e a r t i c l e s i n d e t a i l ,

and

t h o s e who h a n d l e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e f o r t h e s e c o m p a n ie s , w h i l e e x tre m e ly c o o p e ra tiv e in s p i r i t , le tte rs#

are n o ta b le f o r b r e v ity in

P e r s o n a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f e v e r y i t e m w ould h av e b e e n

d e s i r a b l e , b u t was a f i n a n c i a l i m p o s s i b i l i t y # Uo a t t e m p t was made to c o n t a c t p u b l i s h e r s o r d i s t r i ­ b u t o r s o u t s i d e o f th e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Such a s t u d y a s t h e p r e s e n t one w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y be­ come q u i c k l y o u t o f d a t e # D e p l e t i o n o f s t o c k , d i s c o n t i n u a n c e o f p u b l i c a t i o n , and w i t h d r a w a l s w i l l be c o n t i n u a l l y s u b ­ t r a c t i n g fro m t h e l i s t s , w h ile new m a t e r i a l s w i l l be added# n e v e r t h e l e s s , i t seem s w o r t h w h i le t o h av e an o r g a n i z a t i o n of t h e v i s u a l a i d s f o r m u sic e d u c a t i o n w h ich a r e a v a i l a b l e a t t h e tim e o f t h i s w r i t i n g #

4 IT * SIGHIfflOJUffOB OP THE PROBLEM

I n t h e p r e f a c e to h e r b o o k , C r e a t i v e M usic i n t h e Home1. S a t i s Coleman h a s s a i d : The m odern e d u c a t o r r e a l i z e s t h a t t h o s e t h i n g s w h ic h a f f e c t th e c h i l d * s a t t i t u d e to w a rd m u sie s t u d y a r e th e m o st i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r s " i n l i i s m u s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t; t h a t t h e c h i l d * s a t t i t u d e to w a r d m usic and m u sic s t u d y i s t h e m o st p o w e r f u l p u l l i n g o r p u s h i n g f o r c e t h a t w i l l e i t h e r b u i l d o r t h w a r t h i s m u s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t* And more and more we p a r e n t s and t e a c h e r s a r e s e e k i n g ways and means o f d e v e l o p i n g and s u s t a i n i n g a t t i t u d e s t h a t r e a c h o u t f o r t h e h e a l t h y fo rm s o f m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e *1 I n t h e o p i n i o n o f t h e w r i t e r , t h e g r e a t e s im p o r ta n c e f o r v i s u a l a i d s i n m u sic i s f o r im p r o v in g and e n l a r g i n g t h e s e " a t t i t u d e s " to w a r d m u s ic , by means o f s i g h t * A p p r e c ia ­ t i o n s a r e e n r i c h e d by e x p e r i e n c i n g t h r o u g h m u l t i p l e s e n s o r y c h a n n e ls * JPor e x a m p le , h e a r i n g an oboe i s t h e b e g i n n i n g o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e i n s t r u m e n t , b u t s e e i n g t h e oboe r o u n d s o u t and g i v e s c o m p l e t e n e s s t o t h e c o n c e p t* As a n ex am p le o f t h e v a l u e o f one k i n d o f v i s u a l a i d , n am ely m o tio n p i c t u r e s , th e s t u d y made i n 1933 by T a r n e y 0* A r n s p i g e r m ig h t be c i t e d * Mr* A r n s p i g e r u s e d m u sic a s one o f two s u b j e c t f i e l d s f o r an e x p e r i m e n t i n w h ic h t h e f i r s t p u r p o s e w as: To d e t e r m i n e t h e r e l a t i v e e f f e c t i v e n e s s ( a ) o f t e a c h ­ in g w ith th e a id o f c e r t a i n e d u c a tio n a l t a l k i n g p i c t u r e s i n t h e f i e l d s o f s c i e n c e and m u sic i n G ra d e s T and T i l , r e s p e c t i v e l y , and ( b ) o f th e u s u a l m e th o d s o f c l a s s r o o m " ^ S a t i s H* C olem an, C r e a t i v e M usic i n th e Home (Hew Y o rk : Jo h n Day Company, 1939 jf,J p r e f a c e • ' '

in s tru c tio n .2 One t h o u s a n d , f o u r h u n d r e d t w e n t y - f i v e s e v e n t h g r a d e p u p i l s i n 32 c l a s s e s o f t h e s c h o o l s i n New York C i ty and S c e n e c t a d y , N .Y ., Camden and E l i s a b e t h , N . J . , and B a l t i m o r e , Md. w ere i n c l u d e d i n t h e m u sic p a r t o f t h e s t u d y . The o r i g i n a l v e r s i o n s o f t h e E r p i f i l m s , Symphony O r c h e s t r a , S t r i n g C h o i r . Woodwind C h o i r . B r a s s C h o i r , and P e r c u s s i o n G rou p, w ere p r e ­ s e n t e d t h r e e t i m e s d u r i n g t h e u n i t i n m u sic t o t h e e x p e r i ­ m e n ta l g r o u p . The c o n t r o l g ro u p was t a u g h t by u s u a l c l a s s ­ room m e th o d s w i t h o u t t h e a i d o f p i c t u r e s . Even th o u g h t h e r e s u l t s o f o b j e c t i v e t e s t s a d m in is ­ t e r e d b e f o r e t h e u n i t s w ere t a u g h t showed t h a t t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p h ad s u p e r i o r i n i t i a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n e a c h u n i t ,

a fte r

t h e u n i t s w ere c o m p l e t e d , t e s t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t "The p e r c e n ts of s u p e r i o r i t y ran g ed . . . u n i t s , t h e

fro m 18 t o 34 i n t h e m usic

e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , w i t h an a v e r a g e p e r c e n t

o f s u p e rio rity of 27. I f su c h r e s u l t s w ere g a i n e d w i t h t h e i n f e r i o r p i c ­ t u r e s o b t a i n a b l e i n 1 9 3 3 , how much more i m p o r t a n t i s c o n s i d ­ e r a t i o n o f im p ro v em ent o f t e a c h i n g by u s e o f t h e co m para­ t i v e l y p e r f e c t p r o d u c t i o n s w h ic h a r e now a v a i l a b l e . £ V a rn e y C. A r n s p i g e r , M e a s u r in g t h e E f f e c t i v e n e s s o f Sound P i c t u r e s a s T e a c h in g A id s ('Mew Y o r k * T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e . C o lu m b ia U n iV e r s T ty , 1 9 3 3 ; , p . 8 3 . 3 I b id ., p . 86.

e f h e im p o r t a n c e o f an u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f th e p o s s i b i l i ­ t i e s o f v i s u a l a i d s i s e x p l a i n e d t h u s l y by H a r o ld B e n ja m in ; **• • • e v e r y t e a c h e r n e e d s t o h av e a t h i s command a l l t h e t o o l s o f t h e t r a d e i n o r d e r to be t r u l y s u c ­ c e s s f u l w i t h an y one o f th e m . He w i l l a v o i d t h e q uack ­ e r y o f r e l y i n g upo n a s i n g l e c u r e - a l l s u p p o s e d l y f o r a l l s i t u a t i o n s * He w i l l n o t t r y t o t e a c h h i s t o r y by book and l e c t u r e a l o n e any more t h a n he w i l l f a l l i n t o t h e n o t i o n o f t e a c h i n g n a t u r a l s c i e n c e by e x c l u s i v e u s e o f m ic r o s c o p e and t e s t t u b e . He w i l l r e c o g n i z e t h e e s ­ s e n t i a l p u r p o s e s o f e a c h p h a s e o f h i s i n s t r u c t i o n . He w i l l s t u d y t h e f a c t o r s i n e a c h l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n . He w i l l know t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f h i s p u p i l s and how t h e i r a b i l i t i e s and i n t e r e s t s may be d i r e c t e d . T h e n , upon t h e s u r e f o u n d a t i o n o f a so u n d and c o m p re h e n s iv e kno w led ge o f t h e t e a c h i n g p r o b le m i n any i n s t a n c e , he w i l l s e l e c t m e th o d s , d e v i c e s , and a i d s to l e a r n i n g w h ich i n h i s b e s t ju d g m en t w i l l g iv e s u p e r i o r r e s u l t s . He w i l l s t u d y t h e o p e r a t i o n o f t h o s e f a c t o r s as he em p lo y s them , s h i f t i n g th e m , c h a n g in g th e m , r e p l a c i n g them as t h e n e e d a r i s e s . (Fhus he w i l l be a p r o f e s s i o n a l w o rk e r w i t h a f u l l com plem ent o f s k i l l s and i n s t r u m e n t s r a t h e r t h a n a r u l e - o f - t h u m b o p e r a t o r who h a s f a i t h i n o n ly two o r t h r e e p r e s c r i p t i o n s b e c a u s e t h o s e a r e a l l he k n o w s . 4 t h a t t h e i n f l u e n c e o f t h e w id e s p r e a d u s e o f v i s u a l a i d s i n o t h e r s u b j e c t a r e a s i s b e g i n n i n g t o be f e l t i n mu­ s i c e d u c a t i o n i s e v i d e n c e d by th e f a c t t h a t two s e s s i o n s a t t h e 1942 c o n v e n t i o n o f t h e M usic E d u c a t o r s N a t i o n a l C o n fe r­ e n c e i n M ilw aukee w ere d e v o t e d t o a u d i o - v i s u a l a i d s . I n 1 9 3 6 , a s u r v e y , c o n d u c te d by t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s O f f i c e o f E d u c a t i o n and t h e A m eric an C o u n c il on E d u c a t i o n , o f 8 ,8 0 6 s c h o o l s and s c h o o l s y s t e m s , showed t h a t t h e s e 4 H a r o ld B e n ja m in , E d i t o r ^ s I n t r o d u c t i o n t o H a r r y C# Me Gown and A lv in B. R o b e r t s , A u d io - V is u a l A id s t o I n s t r u c ­ t i o n (New Y o rk : M cG raw -H ill Book Company, I n e • ,""T940) , p. x iii-x iv .

s c h o o l s owned: 1 7 ,0 4 0 3 ,0 0 7 2 ,7 3 3 2 .0 7 3 2 ,7 2 0 6 .0 7 4 458 3 ,2 3 0 335

la n te rn s lid e p ro je c to rs s t i l l f i l m a tta c h m e n ts film s trip p ro je c to rs m ic ro -slid e p ro je c to rs opaque p r o j e c t o r s 16mm s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r s 16mm so u n d m o tio n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r s 35mm s i l e n t m o tio n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r s 35mm so u n d m o tio n p i c t u r e p r o j e c t o r s ^

I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t more r e c e n t f i g u r e s on s c h o o l owned e q u ip m e n t f o r u s i n g v i s u a l a i d s a r e n o t a v a i l a b l e , f o r c e r t a i n l y t h e i n c r e a s e h a s b e e n tre m e n d o u s i n t h e s i x y e a r s s i n c e t h e a f o r e - m e n t i o n e d s t u d y was c o m p le te d # H ow ever, t h e ab o v e f i g u r e s s h o u l d s u f f i c e t o p r o v e t h a t t h e u s e o f vis** u a l a i d s i s n o t m e r e ly a p a s s i n g f a d , b u t r a t h e r an e d u c a ­ t i o n a l d e v e lo p m e n t o f w id e s i g n i f i c a n c e . I l l th e fo re g o in g q u o ta tio n s s e rv e to j u s t i f y t h i s a t t e m p t t o a s s i s t t e a c h e r s i n becom ing more a c q u a i n t e d w i t h v i s u a l a i d s f o r m u s ic , w i t h economy o f tim e and e f f o r t * V* REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE One o f t h e c h i e f r e a s o n s why i t w ou ld seem w o r t h ­ w h i l e t o c o l l e c t and o r g a n i z e v i s u a l a i d s f o r m usic e d u c a ­ t i o n i s t h e p a u c i t y o f p r e v i o u s m a t e r i a l . T h e se b i b l i o g r a p h ­ i e s o r s o u r c e boohs w h ic h do i n c l u d e m u sic h a v e l i t t l e

to

o f f e r i n c o m p a ris o n w i t h t h e v a s t am ounts c o m p ile d f o r 6 C l in e M* Koon and A l l e n W# U o b le , R a t i o n a l V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n D i r e c t c r y ( W a s h in g to n , D*0*: A rnericsn C o u n c il on E d u c a t i o n , 1 9 3 6 ) , p .9 #

o th e r s u b j e c t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y th e s o c i a l s t u d i e s . A l i s t d e v o t e d e n t i r e l y t o m u sic h as b ee n c o m p ile d under

t h e d i r e c t i o n o f D r Edna M eEaehern a t th e Hew J e r s e y

S t a t e t e a c h e r s C o l l e g e . T h is b i b l i o g r a p h y i n d i c a t e s s o u r c e s o f p i c t u r e s , c h a r t s , s l i d e s , f i l m s , p u b l i c a t i o n s , r a d i o , and r e c o r d i n g s f o r t h e s e n i n e a r e a s o f m u sic s t u d y : ( l ) a c p u s t i c s and s o u n d , ( 2 ) b a n d s and o r c h e s t r a s , ( 3 ) c o m p o se rs and m u si­ c i a n s , f 4 ) c u s to m s , c o s tu m e s and f o l k - l o r e , ( 5 ) f o l k m u s ic , f $ ) m u sic and m ov in g p i c t u r e s , ( 7 ) m u sic and r e c r e a t i o n , (8 ) m u sic a l in s tr u m e n ts ,

(9 ) o p e ra .^

H ow ever, i n t e n p a g e s

t h e a u t h o r s h av e a t t e m p t e d t o c o v e r so many t y p e s o f a i d s t h a t none i s t r e a t e d a d e q u a t e l y . More s p a c e i s d e v o t e d t o p u b l i c a t i o n s , r a d i o , end r e c o r d i n g s t h a n to v i s u a l a i d s . D e s c r ip tio n s o f a l l m a te r ia ls are e x tre m e ly b r i e f . S ln o e each o f t h e o t h e r c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o th e f i e l d o f v i s u a l a i d s i n m u sic i s one

w h ich d e a l s w i t h a s i n g l e

ty p e o f a i d , i t i s more l o g i c a l to i n c l u d e a s h o r t r e v ie w o f any c l o s e l y r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e i n e a c h c h a p t e r t h a n to mass i t f o r m i d a b l y i n t h i s s e c t i o n . I n t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t , t h e r e a d e r w i l l be a b l e t o l o o a t e a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o s l i d e s , f o r e x a m p le , i n one p a r t o f t h e t h e s i s . V I . PROCEDURE FOR THE STUDY S' Edward F r e d e r i c k B u r e k a r t and I r e n e L o u is e S ch u ck l e , M u s ic . A u d i o - V i s u a l end T e a c h in g .A id s f o r Use i n J u n i o r ana. S e n i o r Higji ISo'hool ( M o n t c l a i r . Hew J e r s e y : V i s u a l A ids S e r v i o e , L i b r a r y , Hew J e r s e y S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , 1 9 4 1 ) .

I n o r d e r f o r a s t u d y o f m a t e r i a l s , o f t h e ty p e in * e l u d e d i n t h i s s t u d y , t o h ave any v a l u e , t h e d a t a p r e s e n t e d m u st be a c c u r a t e and as r e c e n t a s p o s s i b l e * n o t h i n g i s more d is a p p o in tin g th a n e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y to o rd e r a f ilm , f o r i n s t a n c e , w h ic h h a s b e e n m e n tio n e d as b e i n g s u i t e d f o r a c e r t a i n s i t u a t i o n , o n ly t o be in f o r m e d t h a t t h e p i c t u r e h a s b e e n w ith d r a w n , o r t h a t t h e p r i c e i s more t h a n was e x p e c te d * W ith t h e g o a l s o f a c c u r a c y and t i m e l i n e s s i n v ie w , t h e b e s t m etho d o f c o l l e c t i n g d a t a a p p e a r e d t o be c o r r e s p o n ­ d ence* And th e f i r s t s t e p i n c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was t o f o r m u l a t e lis ts

o f p u b l i s h e r s , p r o d u c e r s , and d i s t r i b u t o r s who w ould

be most l i k e l y to have t h e d e s i r e d m a t e r i a l s * A g a in t h e r e a d e r i s a s k e d to r e f e r t o c h a p t e r s on s p e c i f i c k i n d s o f a i d s f o r t h e names o f s o u r c e books from w h ich t h e v a r i o u s lis ts

o f f i r m s w ere c o m p i l e d . F o u r l i b r a r i e s w ere s e a r c h e d f o r d i r e c t o r i e s and b i b ­

l i o g r a p h i e s w h ic h w ou ld l i s t d i s t r i b u t o r s o f v i s u a l a i d s , as w e l l as f o r e x a m i n a t i o n o f s a m p le s o f m a t e r i a l s : t h e Doheny M e m o rial L i b r a r y o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ; t h e l i b r a r y o f th e D e p a rtm e n t o f V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n , A l l a n H ancock F o u n d a tio n o f th e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a ; t h e Los A n g e le s P u b l i c L i b r a r y ; and t h e L i b r a r y o f t h e Aca­ demy o f M o tio n P i c t u r e A r t s and S c i e n c e s i n H ollyw ood* P e r s o n a l v i s i t s w i t h v a r i o u s e x p e r t s i n Los A n g e le s w ere r e w a rd e d w i t h w o r t h w h i le s u g g e s t i o n s o f many s o r t s .

Mr* W arren S c o t t , f o r m e r D i r e c t o r o f t h e Cinema D e p a rtm e n t o f th e U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a a s s i s t e d i n o r ­ g a n i z i n g t h e m o t i o n - p i c t u r e c h a r t s , Mr. E*E* S w in g le o f t h e D i v i s i o n o f V i s u a l E d u c a t i o n , E x t e n s i o n S e r v i c e o f t h e U ni­ v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a p o i n t e d o u t t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r ob­ t a i n i n g 16 m i l l i m e t e r v e r s i o n s o f f e a t u r e m o tio n p i c t u r e w hich a r e no l o n g e r i n t h e a t r i c a l c i r c u l a t i o n . M r . B u s s e l l S i e v e r t , m a n a g e r o f t h e H i m l i b r a r y o f t h e H ollyw ood o f f i c e o f B e l l and H ow ell Company, gave a d v i c e f o r a r r a n g i n g t h e m o t i o n - p i c t u r e c h a r t s i n a way t h a t w o u ld f a i r l y r e p r e s e n t t h e d i s t r i b u t o r s w hose f i l m s a r e i n c l u d e d . M s s P r a n c e s O h r i s t e s o n , f o r m e r h e a d r e s e a r c h l i b r a r i a n o f t h e Doheny L i b r a r y , and now l i b r a r i a n o f t h e Academy o f M o tio n P i c t u r e A r t s and S c i e n c e s , was m ost h e l p f u l i n s u g g e s t i n g s o u r c e books* C orrespondence w ith e x p e rie n c e d p e rs o n s i n th e f i e l d o f v ie u & l e d u c a t i o n b r o u g h t i n v a l u a b l e h e l p i n l o c a t i n g s o u r c e m a t e r i a l and i n m ak in g new c o n t a c t s . Mrs* B e t t i n a Gunczy o f t h e N a t i o n a l B oard o f Be view o f M o tio n P i c t u r e s f u r n i s h e d b ac k c o p i e s o f t h e m ag azin e o f t h a t o r g a n i z a t i o n . Mr* G len n M. T i n d a l l g av e i n f o r m a t i o n w i t h r e g a r d t o h i s u n i t o f s t u d y , w h ic h i s m e n tio n e d i n C h a p t e r I I * The N a t i o n r a l B u re a u f o r t h e A dvancem ent o f M u sic , C*M* T r e m a in e , d i ­ r e c t o r , was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r l o c a t i n g t h e b i b l i o g r a p h y from th e New J e r s e y S t a t e T e a c h e r s C o lle g e *

XI Many o f t h e m a t e r i a l s l i s t e d w ere e x a m in e d i n th e l a r g e m u sic s t o r e s o f Los A n g e le s : G. S o h ir m e r , F re em a n Mathews B i s i c Company, and t h e S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a B a s i c Company# B i f f e r e n t f o r m - l e t t e r s w ere com posed f o r e a c h o f t h e s e g r o u p s : ( 1 ) m u sic p u b l i s h e r s , ( 2 ) i n s t r u m e n t m an u fac­ tu re rs,

( 3 ) a r t p r i n t p u b l i s h e r s , ( 4 ) d i s t r i b u t o r s o f ed u ­

c a t i o n a l m o tio n p i c t u r e s , film s lid e s ,

( 5 ) d i s t r i b u t o r s o f l a n t e r n and

and ( 6 ) t e x t b o o k p u b l i s h e r s . Each l e t t e r was

t y p e d s e p a r a t e l y , b e c a u s e i t was f e l t t h a t t h e r e t u r n s w o uld be more c o m p le te t h a n from m im eographed f o r m s . In th e l e t t e r to th e f i r s t

g r o u p , m u sic p u b l i s h e r s ,

b l a n k o h a r t s w ere e n c l o s e d , i n d i c a t i n g e x a c t l y t h e in f o r m a ­ t i o n d e s i r e d . I t was h o p ed t h a t t h e d a t a so o b t a i n e d c o u l d be o r g a n i z e d d i r e c t l y fro m t h e s e c h a r t s . S u c h was n o t t h e c a s e . C nly n i n e p u b l i s h e r s u s e d t h e f o r m , t h e r e f o r e , t h i s p l a n was n o t c o n t i n u e d i n w r i t i n g t o t h e o t h e r g r o u p s . Most o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n o b t a i n e d , t h e n , was i n t h e form o f c a t a l o g u e s an d a d v e r t i s i n g b r o c h u r e s , and s a m p le s o f m a t e r i a l s s e n t by p u b l i s h e r s and m a n u f a c t u r e r s . From t h e s e , w h ich w e re e x t r e m e l y v a r i e d w i t h r e g a r d t o amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n g i v e n , and o r d e r o f a r r a n g e m e n t , w ere g le a n e d t h e d e t a i l s w h ich make up t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e c h a r t s o r lis tin g s m u sic.

of th e v a rio u s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of v is u a l aid s fo r

12 7 1 1 . ORGM12AT IGU OF FOLLOWING CHAPTERS The n e x t f o u r c h a p t e r s o f t h i s t h e s i s , I I to 7 , i n ­ c l u s i v e , t r e a t w ith s p e c i f i c ty p e s o f v i s u a l a i d s . C h a p te r I I i s d e v o t e d to m o tio n p i c t u r e s w h ic h a r e s u i t a b l e t o t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h e w hole p ro g ra m o f m u sic e d u c a t i o n . C h a p t e r I I I d e a ls w ith s l i d e s , in c lu d in g la n te r n s l i d e s , film s l i d e s , and f i l m s t r i p

on m u s i c a l s u b j e c t s . C h a p te r 17 i n ­

clu d es f l a t p ic tu r e s f o r use as w a ll d e c o ra tio n , b u l l e t i n b o a r d m a t e r i a l , n o te -b o o k : p i c t u r e s ,

o r f o r opaque p r o j e c ­

t i o n . C h a p t e r 7 i s an o r g a n i z a t i o n o f n u m erou s k i n d s o f c h a r t s f o r v a r i e d p u r p o s e s i n m u sic c l a s s e s . I n e a c h o f th e s e c h a p te r s i s g iv e n th e p e r t i n e n t s p e c i f i c in fo rm a tio n n o t in c lu d e d in th e f i r s t c h a p te r w ith r e g a rd to (1 ) s o u rc e s of d a ta ,

(2) p ro ced u res f o r c o l le c tin g in fo rm a tio n ,

f i n i t i o n o f te r m s u s e d w i t h i n t h e c h a p t e r ,

( 3 ) de­

(4) scope o f th e

s u b j e c t s I n c l u d e d , ( 5 ) r e v ie w s o f r e l a t e d l i t e r a t u r e f o r t h e p a r t i c u l a r s u b j e c t s , o r (6) e x p la n a tio n s of th e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c m a t e r i a l s o f e a c h c h a p t e r . C h a p te r 71 g i v e s i n f o r m a t i o n on v a r i o u s m a t e r i a l s w h ic h do n o t f i t

in to

t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f any o f t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r s . C h a p te r 711 c o n t a i n s t h e summary, c o n c l u s i o n s , and r e c o m m e n d a tio n s .

CHAPTER I I MOTI CM PICTURES T h is q u o t a t i o n fro m a r e p o r t by Mr. G e r a ld P . Mac­ D on ald t o a j o i n t c o m m itte e on E d u c a t i o n a l M im s and L ib ­ r a r i e s e m p h a s iz e s t h e g r e a t p o t e n t i a l i t i e s f o r f i l m s i n e d u c a tio n : M im s i n t r o d u c e a w o r ld we n e v e r sa w , a l i f e we n e v e r l i v e d , and p e o p l e we n e v e r Imew. They show g lim p ­ s e s o f b e a u t y t o be t r e a s u r e d and o f u g l i n e s s w h ic h men m ust s t r i v e t o o b l i t e r a t e . They can s p e a k d i r e c t l y t o many who a r e n o t ac c u sto m e d t o o b t a i n i n g i d e a s from t h e p r i n t e d p a g e . They q u i c k l y sum m arize a s u b j e c t , r a i s e an i s s u e , o r p o s e a p r o b le m . They f u r n i s h a sp e e d y m eth o d o f c o m m u n ic a tio n t o l a r g e g r o u p s , and p r o v i d e them w i t h common e x p e r i e n c e . They p r o v i d e a v i s u a l im a g e ry t o be a p p l i e d t o t h e t h i n g s p e o p le r e a d . They c a n c l a r i f y jo b t e c h n i q u e s f o r t h e w o r k e r , p i c t u r e t h e l i v i n g p a s t f o r t h e h i s t o r i a n , and e x t e n d t h e r a n g e o f t h e eye f o r t h e s c i e n t i s t . They have i n them t h e pow er t o open s t u d y on v i t a l p r o b le m s , to p l e a d t h e c a u s e f o r n e g l e c t e d h u m a n ity , t o r e v i t a l i z e d e m o c ra c y , an d t o d e v e lo p a more r e s p o n s i b l e s o c i e t y . ” I . REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE W i th in t h e p a s t s i x y e a r s , s e v e r a l f i n e c o n t r i b u ­ t i o n s h a v e b e e n made to w a r d d i r e c t i n g t h e a t t e n t i o n o f mu­ s ic e d u c a to rs to th e f e r t i l e

f i e l d s o f m o tio n p i c t u r e s f o r

new p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n m u sic a p p r e c i a t i o n . A r e v ie w o f t h e lite ra tu re

by p i o n e e r s i n t h i s e n t e r p r i s e w i l l p r o v i d e a

7 O i t e d by Mary U. R o th r o e k , c h a ir m a n o f t h e commit­ t e e , i n t h e C om m ittee I n t r o d u c t i o n and R ecom m endations t o G e r a ld Doan M acD onald, E d u c a t i o n a l M o tio n P i c t u r e s and L ib ­ r a r i e s ( C h ic a g o : A m eric an L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n , 1 9 4 2 T ,p . v i .

14 b a c k g ro u n d f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g why i t i s c o n s i d e r e d w o r t h ­ w h i l e t o c o l l e c t and o r g a n i z e t h e m a t e r i a l s on m u s i c a l mo­ t i o n p i c t u r e s w h ic h make up t h e b u l k o f t h i s c h a p t e r * ffilBi M u s ic * A g r e a t n e e d was f i l l e d w i t h t h e p u b ­ l i c a t i o n o f t h e b o o k , f i l m M u s ic , w r i t t e n i n 1936 by K u r t London* T h is i n c l u s i v e w ork r e l a t e s t h e h i s t o r y o f m u sic i n m o tio n p i c t u r e s ; d e s c r i b e s t h e t e c h n i c a l a s p e c t s o f m u sic f o r so u n d f i l m , i n c l u d i n g a c o u s t i c a l p r o b l e m s , t y p e s o f m u s i c a l f i l m s , c o m p o s i t i o n an d o r c h e s t r a t i o n ; d i s c u s s e s E u ro p e a n f i l m c o m p o s e r s ; and o f f e r s a p r o g n o s i s o f t h e f u ­ t u r e o f t h e so u n d f ilm * I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g fro m th e p o i n t o f view o f t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y t o n o t e t h e d i s t i n c t i o n i n fo rm s o f m u s i c a l f i l m s w h ic h a r e made by Mr* London* He lis ts ,

among o t h e r s ,

w ith l i t t l e

(1) th e o p e r e t t a ,

( 2 ) " s t r a i g h t d ra m a ,

d i a l o g u e , an d m u s i c a l a c c o m p a n im e n t," ( 3 ) " o p e r ­

a t i c s o u n d - f i l m — so u n d f i l m o p e r a , " ( 4 ) c o n c e r t f i l m s , ( 5 ) so u n d c a r t o o n f i l m s * The d i s c u s s i o n o f c o n c e r t f i l m s i s m ost p e r t i n e n t t o an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f m o ti o n p i c t u r e s f o r u s e i n m u sic e d u c a t i o n * Mr* London e x p l a i n s ; The f i l m i s f i r s t an d f o r e m o s t a v i s u a l , th e c o n c e r t an a c o u s t i c a l m ethod o f p r e s e n t a t i o n . Can one i n t e l l e g e n t l y f u s e t h e s e two d i f f e r e n t fo rm s o f a r t i n t o one a n o t h e r ? S h o u ld one do i t , on p r i n c i p l e ? U n d o u b te d ly y e s . C o n c e r t f i l m s h ave many f u n c t i o n s t o f u l f i l l , w h ic h i n c r e a s e t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e f a r beyond t h e i r s c a n t l e n g t h o f f i l m s t r i p ( s o f a r t h i s ty p e h a s o n l y ru n t o s h o r t f i l m s o f a few t h o u s a n d f e e t i n l e n g t h ) * They a r e an i n s t r u m e n t o f c u l t u r e i n s o f a r as

15 t h e y b r i n g g r e a t m u s i c , i n t e r p r e t e d by g r e a t c o n d u c t o r s , o r w i t h t h e a u t h e n t i c c o n c e p t i o n o f w e ll-k n o w n compo­ s e r s , t o e v e r y p l a o e w h ere p e o p l e h a v e h a d n o o p p o r tu n ­ i t y ©f a t t e n d i n g a c o n c e r t . T h e i r m u s ic may be p o t t e d b u t i t i s w o r t h w h i l e . F o r i t m ust be e m p h a s iz e d once a g a i n t h a t a l l t h e c a p a c i t i e s o f t h e gram ophone r e c o r d and w i r e l e s s a r e n o t a d e q u a te t o a r o u s e c .a r e a l l y p r o ­ fo u n d i n t e r e s t and u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r s e r i o u s m usic i n t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e i r h e a r e r s . M usic h e a r d l i k e t h i s i s an a b s t r a c t i o n , and t h e m a j o r i t y o f p e o p l e , be­ i n g u n a c c u s to m e d t o c o n s c i o u s e f f o r t s o f t h o u g h t , r e a c t m ore e a s i l y t o c o n c r e t e p r e s e n t a t i o n , t h a t i s , t o p i c ­ t u r e s o f e v e r y k i n d . Hence t h e w o r l d - w id e s u c c e s s o f t h e f i l m ; h e n c e t h e i n c r e a s e d num ber o f i l l u s t r a t i o n s i n t h e n e w s p a p e r s and many s i m i l a r phenom ena. The i n t e l l e c t u a l s alw a y s o v e r l o o k t h e f a c t t h a t t h e m a n - i n - t h e - s t r e e t , un­ a c c u sto m e d t o t h i n k i n g , p r e f e r s s o m e th in g he c a n s e e , and t h e r e f o r e g r a s p q u i c k l y , t o c o n c e p t i o n s o r so u n d s w h ic h as s u c h a r e n o t t o be a p p r e h e n d e d w i t h o u t e f f o r t . W h i ls t c o n c e r t s and t h e i r p e r f o r m e r s ca n be t r a n s ­ p l a n t e d t o e v e r y p l a o e i n t h e w o r ld t h r o u g h th e medium o f t h e s o u n d - f i l m , c o n c e r t f i l m s h a v e a l s o th e g r e a t v a l u e as a r c h i v e s , l e s s in d e e d f o r o u r s e l v e s t h a n f o r f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s . To r e a l i s e w hat a tr e m e n d o u s b l e s s ­ in g th e y sh o u ld p o s s e s s , had t h e r e been i n e a r l i e r tim e s any means o f h a n d i n g down to p o s t e r i t y t h e g r e a t m a s t e r s o f m u sic i n s o u n d - p i c t u r e s . We c o u l d w a tc h B e e th o v e n , W agner, and o t h e r fam ous m a s t e r s c o n d u c t i n g , and so come to u n d e r s t a n d t h e i r a r t i s t i c p e r s o n a l i t i e s b e t t e r t h a n in th e b e s t of b io g ra p h ie s . B a s t b u t n o t l e a s t , c o n c e r t f i l m s o f f e r an e s s e n t i a l r e s o u r c e i n th e s p h e r e o f p r e l i m i n a r y p ro g ra m m e s, w h ic h i n an y c a s e l e a v e room f o r im p ro v em en t b o th i n q u a l i t y and q u a n t i t y . T h i s k i n d o f f i l m s h o u l d n o t be l i m i t e d , a s h i t h e r t o , t o t h e u s u a l w e ll-k n o w n i t e m s u n d e r famous c o n d u c t o r s , b u t a l l g r e a t c o m p o se rs o u g ht to be s y s te m a t i c a l l y i n d u o e d t o c o n d u c t one o f t h e i r w o r k s . I n t h i s way t h e c u l t u r a l and h i s t o r i c a l v a l u e o f t h e c o n c e r t f i l m w o u ld be a u g m e n te d , and t h e w h o le i d e a o f t h e c o n ­ c e r t f i l m , w h ic h was c a r r i e d o u t f o r t h e f i r s t tim e i n 1932 i n B e r l i n , w ould be made more i n t e r e s t i n g , v a l u a b l e , t o p i c a l , and p o p u l a r .® 8 H u r t L o nd on , F ilm M usic (L o nd on : F a b e r and F aber* L t d . , 1 9 3 6 ) , p p . 1 4 3 -1 W T ~

16 2# MuslQ atid t h e M o v ie s * I n D ecem b er, 1 9 3 8 , G len n M* T i n d a l l c o n t r i b u t e d an h i s t o r i c a l a r t i c l e t o S c h o o l and Soc i e t y , d e s c r i b i n g t h u s l y t h e u s e and i n f l u e n c e o f m u sic i n t h e m o tio n p i c t u r e : Det u s libok a t a few o f t h e ways i n w h ic h m u sic h a s b e e n u s e d on t h e s c r e e n and p o i n t o u t some o f t h e f i l m * s c o n t r i b u t i o n s w h ich a r e a v a i l a b l e a s a f o r c e f u l e d u c a - . t i o n a l medium f o r s t i m u l a t i o n and g r o w th i n t h e e n j o y ­ m ent o f m usic*

The l i g h t o p e r a i s a l o n g s t e p a h e a d o f t h e m u s i c a l com edy, y e t i t p r o b a b l y owes i t s p o p u l a r i t y t o t h e l e s s a r t i s t i c p r e d e c e s s o r * Who c o u l d e x p e r i e n c e a V i c t o r Her­ b e r t p e r f o r m a n c e w i t h N e ls o n Eddy and J e a n e t t e McDonald w i t h o u t a c q u i r i n g an a d m i r a t i o n f o r t h e s e l i g h t c l a s s i c m e lo d ie s! • • • A num ber o f m u s i c a l p l a y s ( p l a y s b u i l t a r o u n d m u s ic , mu­ s i c s t u d y and t h e u s e o f m u s ic — f o l k m u s i c , com posed s o n g s , g r a n d o p e r a — as t h e b a s i s o f t h e s t o r y ) h a v e b e e n m i l e s t o n e s i n m u s i c a l d e v e lo p m e n t on t h e s c r e e n * • • • I n a l m o s t t h e same c a t a g o r y we h av e s e e n p i c t u r e s su c h as f Rose o f t h e R a n c h o 1 w i t h s p e c i a l l y com posed songs c o n t r i b u t i n g to th e s u c c e s s o f t h e s t o r y o r a t l e a s t th e e v e n i n g ^ e n te rta in m e n t* • • • S e v e r a l s c e n a r i o s h ave b e e n c o n s t r u c t e d a r o u n d t h e l i v e s o f m u s ic ia n s * U n f i n i s h e d Symphony1 and 1Harmony D ane1 w ere b u i l t upo n t h e l i v e s o f E ra n z S c h u b e r t and S te p h e n E o s t e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y * • • • M u s ic a l S h o r t s 1 h av e o f f e r e d a v a r i e d t r e a t m e n t o f a d i v e r s i t y o f m u s i c . The , M u s io a l M o o d s,1 p r o d u c e d by E l e c t r i c a l R esearch P ro d u c ts , I n c . , v a rio u s o p era s e le c ­ t i o n s , c o n c e r t e d n u m b e rs , s t o r i e s o f t h e l i v e s o f g r e a t c o m p o s e r s , and many o t h e r s h o r t m u s i c a l f i l m s h av e p r o ­ v i d e d w o r t h w h i l e e n t e r t a i n m e n t and e d u c a t i o n a l a d v a n c e ­ ment* The c a r t o o n s , fro m t h e ro u g h s i n g i n g o f f Ppp E y e 1 t o t h e sm o o th t u n e s o f f L u l l a b y L a n d , 1 h av e s t i m u l a t e d i n -

17 t e r e s t I n m u s ic * 9 M usic A p p r e c i a t i o n T h ro u g h M o tio n P i c t u r e s . W ith t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f W i llia m L ew in , O sb o u rn e MoGonathy, and R o b e rt D e a r d o r f f , Mr* T i n d a l l d e v e l o p e d a u n i t o f s t u d y f o r h i g h s c h o o l s , M usic A p p r e c i a t i o n T h ro u g h M o tio n P i c t u r e s , f o r w h ic h a c o m p le te o u t l i n e i s g i v e n i n t h e S e c o n d a ry Edu­ c a t i o n m a g a z in e o f S e p te m b e r , 1 9 3 9 . The aim s d e s c r i b e d t h e r e i n a r e p a r t i c u l a r l y w o r th y o f i n c l u s i o n h e r e * X* P r im a r y Aims A* B e t t e r a p p r e c i a t i o n o f m u s ic s 1 . E njo ym en t o f m u s i c a l e x p e r i e n c e s t h r u t h e medium o f t h e t h e a t r i c a l m o ti o n p i c t u r e * S . E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a new m e a n in g i n m u s i c , t h r u ob­ s e r v a t i o n o f u s e f u l n e s s o f m u sic i n t h e m ovies* 3* D ev e lo p m en t o f a s e t o f s t a n d a r d s f o r t h e b a s i s o f ju d g m e n t o f m u sic a s u s e d i n m o tio n p i c t u r e s * B# A p p r e c i a t i o n o f t h e a r t o f t h e p h o t o p l a y : 1 . E x te n d e d a p p r e c i a t i o n o f d r a m a t i c s i t u a t i o n s i n m o ti o n p i c t u r e s t h r u t h e a i d o f m u s i c a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g * 2 . D ev elo p m en t o f d e s i r a b l e i d e a l s and a t t i t u d e s i n a p p r e c ia tio n of th e a r t of th e p h o to p la y , w ith re g a rd f o r i t s com ponent p a r t s . 0 . Im provem ent o f g e n e r a l c u l t u r a l b a c k g ro u n d : 1. E s ta b lish m e n t of s ta n d a rd s o f t a s t e in ju d g in g th e e l e m e n t s o f a r t i s t i c b a c k g ro u n d t h r u t h e medium o f m usic an d r e l a t e d a r t s . O th e r s e c t i o n s o f Mr* T i n d a l l 1s o u t l i n e i n c l u d e t h e fo llo w in g ite m s: 9 G lenn M* T i n d a l l , " M u s i c and t h e M o v ie s ," S c h o o l a n d S o c i e t y . 4 8 ; 7 2 1 - 7 8 4 , D ecem b er 3 , 1938*

18 II; III. IT ; T. V I.

O b je c tiv e s A c tiv itie s P ro je c ts M a te ria ls A p p r a i s a l o f R e s u l t s 10 ffilffl M usic and S c h o o l M u s ic . Dr* Bruno D a v id Us-

s h e r , i n h i s a r t i c l e , P ilm M usic and S c h o o l M u s ic , u r g e s s c h o o l m usic t e a c h e r s n o t t o i g n o r e t h e m o tio n p i c t u r e a s a c u r r e n t s o u r c e o f m u sic s t u d y and m a t e r i a l . He w r i t e s : . . . t h e t a s t e - f o r m i n g i n f l u e n c e o f an a v e r a g e o f 200 f i l m s a y e a r w h ic h l e n d t h e m s e l v e s t o m u s i c a l d i s ­ c u s s i o n i s a f o r c e t o be c o n s i d e r e d and t o be m a r s h a l l e d by t h o s e whose d u t y and p r i v i l e g e i t i s t o s h a p e t h e c o u r s e o f m u sic i n t h i s c o u n t r y . I n o t h e r w o r d s , th e s c h o o l m u sic t e a c h e r — a l i t t l e b o r e d , p e r c h a n c e , by c u r r i c u l a r s c h o o l m u sic e x a m p le s , b i n a r y fo rm s and t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f au g m en ted o r d i m i s h e d c h o r d s — i s s u d d e n l y f u r n i s h e d w i t h m usic a p p r e c i a t i o n an d m u sic a n ­ a l y s i s m a t e r i a l s b ro u g h t to s tu d e n t a t t e n t i o n i n l e i s u r e tim e . P u b lic sc h o o l te a c h e r s of h i s t o r y , l i t e r a t u r e , fin e a r t s , home d e c o r a t i o n and o t h e r s u b j e c t s h av e made u se o f t h e f i l m a s p r a c t i c a l d e m o n s t r a t i o n and s t u d y m a te r ­ i a l . U n le s s th e p u b l i c s c h o o l m u sic t e a c h e r d o e s t h e sam e, t h e p r o f e s s i o n , as s u c h , £ s p a s s i n g by an o p p o r­ t u n i t y f o r i n t e r e s t i n g t h e j u v e n i l e (a n d a d u l t } s t u d e n t p u b l i c i n m usic by way o f am u sin g t h e m s e l v e s . I n hun­ d r e d s o f c i t i e s , w h e re o r c h e s t r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s a r e l i m i t e d , t h e o r c h e s t r a so u n d from t h e s c r e e n can f i l l a g r e a t g a p . I t c a n n o t com p ete in* a c e r t a i n s e n s e w i t h t h e sym phonic o r o p e r a t i c b r o a d c a s t s from t h e g r e a t m u sic c e n t e r s , t h e s e b r o a d c a s t s b r i n g i n g m u s i c a l w o rk s i n t h e i r e n t i r e t y . H or i s t h e m ass c o n s u m p tio n o f symphon­ i c o r o p e r a t i c r a d i o m usic as l a r g e as t h e m u sic l i s t e n ­ e r 1^ t o t a l i n t h e c in e m a h o u s e s a l l o v e r t h e c o u n t r y . A boy o r g i r l m ust a l r e a d y be s u f f i c i e n t l y i n t e r e s t e d , s u f f i c i e n t l y aw are t e c h n i c a l l y o f t h e m e r i t s o f sympho­ ny. and o p e r a t o , l i s t e n . (W hich a l s o a p p l i e s t o t h e a d u l t , more o r l e s s . ) I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e jo b o f *making ' ' l 6 G lenn M. T i n d a L l ," M u s i c A p p r e c i a t i o n T h ro u g h Mo­ t i o n P i c t u r e s «" S e c o n d a ry E d u c a t i o n . 8 : 2 2 1 - 2 2 3 , S e p te m b e r , 1939.

19 m u sic l o v e r s ' h a s a l r e a d y b e e n a c c o m p l i s h e d . B a t t h e r e i s t h a t v a s t , a n n u a l l y new c r o p o f t h e mu­ s i c a l l y - n o t - y e t - a w a r e , whose a t t e n t i o n and a p p r e c i a t i o n c a n b e g u id e d and s t i m u l a t e d by t h e s c h o o l m u sic t e a c h e r who i s aw are o f t h e s e c i n e m a t i c s c h o o l e x a m p l e s . 1 1 5* M usic a s an Acoompaniment t o L i f e * A gain i n Feb­ r u a r y o f 1941 Mr. T i n d a l l w r i t e s o f M usic a s an A ccom pani­ m ent t o L i f e . The y o u n g p e o p l e I h a v e o b s e r v e d an d q u e s t i o n e d have fo u n d a new m e a n in g i n m u s ic , du e v e r y l a r g e l y t o t h e m o v ie s . They s e e t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f m u sic i n l i f e . The m ovie h as made m u sic a f u n d a m e n ta l p a r t o f e v e r y d a y l i f e as shown on t h e s c r e e n . I t h a s p r o v i d e d m u sic f o r e n t e r ­ t a i n m e n t and e n jo y m e a t r a t h e r t h a n m u sic f o r m u s i c ' s s a k e * I t i s a power? w h ic h , i f p r o p e r l y g u i d e d , c a n r e g u l a t e t h e m u s i c a l t a s t e o f t h e n a t i o n to a l a r g e e x t e n t * 12 I I * DISTINCT IONS IN POINT OF V1EW The d i s t i n c t i o n s o f p o i n t o f v iew b e tw e e n t h e l i t e r a ­ t u r e w h ic h h a s b e e n q u o te d and t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y s h o u l d be made c l e a r a t t h i s p o i n t * I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e , a l l t h e f o r e g o i n g w r i t e r s h av e b e e n m a in ly c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e f i l m s o f f e a t u r e l e n g t h , d e ­ s i g n e d m a in ly f o r t h e a t r i c a l s h o w in g s . T h i s s u r v e y , b e i n g in te n d e d to c o v e r m a t e r i a l s f o r u se w i t h i n th e s c h o o l,

11 B runo D a v id T Jssh e r, " F ilm M usic an d S c h o o l M u s i c , " M usic E d u c a t o r s J o u r n a l . 2 6 : 1 8 - 1 9 , F e b r u a r y , 1940* 12 G lenn M* T i n d a l l , "M usic a s an A ccom panim ent t o L i f e , " S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n . 1 0 : 1 6 - 1 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1941*

e m p h a s iz e s s h o r t e r f i l m s o f 16 m i l l i m e t e r w id th # S e co n d ly , th e p r e v io u s s t u d i e s , b e in g w r i t t e n f o r th e p u rpose o f a c q u a in tin g e d u c a to rs w ith th e h i s t o r i c a l a s p e c t s o f f i l m m u sic and c h a l l e n g i n g i n t e r e s t i n u s i n g i t , h a v e b e e n o f a g e n e r a l n a t u r e , a n d , e x c e p t f o r Mr# T i n d a l l 1s o u tlin e

h a r e made n o a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h s p e c i f i c f i l m s ,

mftiile a s u r v e y o f m a t e r i a l s m u s t , by i t s

very n a tu r e , d eal

w ith p a r t i c u l a r s # Mr# T i n d a l l ’ s U n i t was an e f f o r t t o show how t o u s e m o v ie s as t e a c h i n g m a t e r i a l , n o t what m o v ie s t o u s e # ! ^ F i n a l l y , an d m o st i m p o r t a n t o f d i s t i n c t i o n s , a l l p r e ­ v i o u s e x a m p le s h ave b e e n made fro m t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f s t u d y i n g m u sic f o r w h a t i t c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e f i l m s — how i t c r e a t e s a mood, e s t a b l i s h e s a t m o s p h e r e , o r h e i g h t e n s a d ra m a tic s i t u a t i o n #

I n t h i s s t u d y o f v i s u a l a i d s f o r m u sic

e d u c a tio n , th e re v e rs e a t t i t u d e w i l l p r e v a i l s p i c t u r e s a re s o u g h t f o r t h e v a l u e t h e y w i l l h av e i n i n c r e a s i n g t h e e f ­ f e c t o f m u s i c , o r c l a r i f y i n g c o n c e p t s a b o u t m u sic# I I I # PEOGEDUKE The f i r s t s t e p i n s u r v e y i n g t h e f i e l d o f m o tio n p i c ­ t u r e s , t o p i c k o u t t h o s e f o r u s e i n m u sic e d u c a t i o n , was t o G lenn M. T i n d a l l , "M usic A p p r e c i a t i o n T h ro u g h Mo­ t i o n P i c t u r e s , " ^ S e c o n d a r y E d u c a t i o n , 8 : 2 2 1 - 2 2 3 , S e p te m b e r , 1939. ^ ^ 14 I b i a .

s e e k t h e nam es o f d i s t r i b u t o r s who h a n d l e s u c h f i l m s . T h re e c a t a l o g u e s c o n t a i n i n c l u s i v e l i s t i n g s o f 16 m i l l i m e t e r p i c t u r e s : 1000 an d One, The B lue Boolr o f Hon-The a t r i o a l f i l m s : 3-5 t h e E d u c a t i o n a l F ilm Oat a l o g u e : 3»6 a i d th e V i c t o r D i r e c t o r y o f 16MM f i l m S o u r c e s #3-7 E ach o f t h e s e d i r e c t o r i e s c o n t a i n s a s e c t i o n s h e a d e d "M u sic # " The V i c t o r P i r e o t o r y l i s t s u n d e r t h e h e a d i n g t h e d i s t r i b u t o r s who c a r r y m u s i c a l f i l m s . 1000 a n d One m e n tio n s t h e p i c t u r e s by nam e, g i v e s a b f i e f d e s ­ c r i p t i v e p h r a s e , and i n d i c a t e s d i s t r i b u t o r s # The E d u c a t i o n a l F ilm C a t a l o g u e . w h i l e l i s t i n g f e w e r s o u r c e s t h a n e i t h e r o f th e o t h e r s , i s much more i n c l u s i v e i n i t s d e s c r i p t i o n s # I t g iv e s th e le n g th of th e film i n m in u te s, p r i c e s , d i s t r i b u ­ t o r s , th e p r o d u c e r , a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e f i l m , and o f t e n a q u o t a t i o n fro m a r e v ie w # fro m t h e s e t h r e e s o u r c e s was c o m p ile d a l i s t o f d i s ­ t r i b u t o r s o f m u s i c a l f i l m s . A l e t t e r was w r i t t e n t o e a c h f i r m , d e s c r i b i n g t h e p u r p o s e o f t h e s t u d y , and a s k i n g f o r c o m p le te i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t any p i c t u r e s w h ich c o u l d be o f

15 loop and One: The Blue Book of 1 o n -T h eatrio al film s . ( Seventeenth "innuail E d it! on# J OHicago: The Educa­ ti o n a l S creen, 1941# ^

E d u o a ti o n a l f i l m C a t a l o g u e , ( S e c o n d E d i t i o n Re­ v i s e d # ) S t a n d a r d C a ta l o g u e S e r i e s # Hew Yorks The H#W# W ils o n Company, 1939# A lso t h e Tw o-Y ear S u p p le m e n t o f sam e, 1942# V i c t o r D i r e c t o r y o f 16MM f i l m S o u r c e s , ( E i g h t h Re­ v i s e d E d i t i o n • ) D a v e n p o r t , Io w a: V i c t o r A n im a to g ra p h Oorpor-* a t i o n , 1942#

u s e i n t h e m u sic e d u c a t i o n p ro g ra m o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o ls # F o llo w -u p p o s t c a r d s w ere s e n t t o th o s e who d i d n o t r e p l y t o t h e l e t t e r i n a r e a s o n a b l e tim e * Out o f 91 c o m p a n ie s t o whom l e t t e r s w e re s e n t 1, 43 r e p l i e d e i t h e r by l e t t e r o r by s e n d in g c a t a l o g u e s , o r b o th * A l l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n co n ­ t a i n e d i n t h e c h a r t s on m o tio n p i c t u r e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f th e ite m s on s t u d y g u id e s an d on r e v i e w e r s , w as fo u n d i n t h e s e l e t t e r s , c a t a l o g u e s , an d b r o c h u r e s * R eview s w e re l o ­ c a t e d by g o in g th r o u g h t h e bound volum es o f t h e l a s t s i x y e a r s o f e a c h o f t h e m a g a z in e s in c lu d e d * Names o f a g e n c ie s o f f e r i n g s tu d y g u id e s f o r m o tio n p i c t u r e s w ere ta k e n fro m s a m p le s o f t h e s e m a t e r i a l s w h ic h a r e on f i l e

in th e l i b r a r y

o f t h e Academy o f M o tio n P i c t u r e A r ts an d S c ie n c e s * L e t t e r s t o t h e f ir m s b r o u g h t c o n f i r m a t i o n o f t h e a v a i l a b l e g u id e s * ITT. MOTION PICTURES CHARTS I n o r d e r to p e r m it th e r e a d e r to f i n d c o n c i s e i n f or* m a tio n on m o tio n p i c t u r e s f o r f i l l i n g c e r t a i n d e f i n i t e p u iv p o s e s i n m u sic e d u c a t i o n , w i t h t h e l e a s t p o s s i b l e expend!-* t u r e o f tim e and e f f o r t , i t w as deem ed b e s t to

o r g a n iz e t h i s

i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o c h a r t s * E x p la n a tio n s o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n p r e c e d e s t h e a c t u a l c h a r t s , w h ic h b e g in on p ag e 30* A* EXPLANATION OF SUBJECT HEADINGS ON MOTION-?ICTURE CHARTS S u b je c t h e a d in g s f o r th e -p u rp o se o f g r o u p in g m o tio n

33 p i c t u r e s f o r u s e i n m u sic c l a s s e s p r e s e n t e d a p ro b le m f o r w h ic h t h e r e i s l i t t l e

h e l p i n p r e c e d e n t* M ost d i s t r i b u t o r s *

c a t a l o g u e s lum p a l l t h e i r o f f e r i n g s u n d e r t h e h e a d in g s o f "M usic*1 o r "M u sic A p p r e c ia tio n * " fro m t h e p o i n t o f view o f s t a n d a r d i z a t i o n , d i v i s i o n s a c c o r d in g t o t h e Bewey d e c im a l s y s te m w ould hav e b e e n d e s i r a b l e i n t h i s s t u d y , b u t fro m th e a n g le o f t h e m e c h a n ic s o f t h e s i s o r g a n i z a t i o n , and a l s o fro m th e v ie w p o in t o f c l a r i f i c a t i o n o f s u b j e c t m a t t e r , s m a ll­ e r , m ore e q u a l d i v i s i o n s w ere n e c e s s a r y . C a r e f u l s t u d y o f t h e ty p e s o f o f f e r i n g s i n m u s ic a l m o tio n p i c t u r e s s u g g e s ­ t e d t h e s e g r o u p i n g s , w h ich a r e t h u s a r b i t r a r i l y u se d * A c o u s t ic s an d m a n u fa c tu r e o f i n s t r u m e n t s *

The

h e a d in g , " A c o u s t ic s and m a n u f a c tu r e o f i n s t r u m e n t s , ” i n ­ c l u d e s p i c t u r e s d e a l i n g w ith t h e p h y s io s o f s o u n d , and p i c ­ t u r e s w h ic h show o r d e s c r i b e t h e m a n u fa c tu r e o f m u s ic a l i n ­ s tr u m e n ts * I n a num ber o f t h e s e f i l m s , p e r f o rm a n c e on t h e i n s t r u m e n t s may be in c lu d e d a s p a r t o f th e c o n t i n u i t y , b u t th e e m p h a s is i s

on th e m a n u f a c tu r in g p r o c e s s *

2* P r e s e n t a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s * The g ro u p , " P r e s e n ­ t a t i o n o f i n s t r u m e n t s , " w i t h f o u r e x c e p t i o n s , i s made up o f f i l m s p ro d u c e d by E l e c t r i c a l R e s e a r c h P r o d u c t s , In b * to d e­ m o n s tr a te t h e i n d i v i d u a l in s t r u m e n t s and th e c h o i r s o f th e o r c h e s t r a * The f o c a l p o i n t i n t h e s e p i c t u r e s i s n o t th e c o m p o s itio n p l a y e d , o r t h e p e r f o r m e r , b u t t h e t e c h n i c a l and

84 t o n a l p o s s i b i l i t i e s o t t h e in s t r u m e n t d e m o n s tr a te d * f e a t u r i n g a s o l o i s t o r s m a ll e n s e m b le * The l i s t o f f i l m s " F e a t u r i n g a s o l o i s t o r s m a ll e n s e m b le " i n c l u d e s p i c ­ t u r e s w h ich a r e i n t e r e s t i n g c h i e f l y fro m t h e v ie w p o in t o f i n t e r e s t i n th e i n d i v i d u a l o r g ro u p w h ic h p e rfo rm s * The title s

o f m ost o f t h i s g ro u p w ould i n d i c a t e th e f o c u s . T h ese

a r e t h e f i l m s i n w h ic h te c h n iq u e may be s t u d i e d , an d p e r h a p s a g lim p s e c a u g h t o f t h e p e r s o n a l i t y o f t h e a r t i s t * F e a t u r i n g an o r c h e s t r a , b a n d , o r c h o r u s * The t i t l e , " F e a t u r i n g an o r c h e s t r a , b a n d , o r c h o r u s , p e r h a p s n e e d s some c l a r i f i c a t i o n * T h e se f i l m s do n o t hav e t i t l e s w h ic h i d e n t i f y th e p e r f o r m in g g ro u p ; i n some c a s e s t h e g ro u p i s n o t ev e n nam ed i n t h e t i t l e s *

M ost o f them b e a r t h e name o f a m u s ic a l

c o m p o s itio n * The a t t e n t i o n o f t h e a u d i e n c e , h o w e v e r, i s d i ­ r e c t e d to w a rd t h e f u n c t i o n i n g o f t h e e n s e m b le , - - c h o i r , b a n d , o r o r c h e s t r a * S h o ts o f th e g ro u p i n a c t i o n a r e p ro m i­ n e n t , a s o p p o sed t o a l a t e r c l a s s i f i c a t i o n i n w h ic h th e mu­ s i c i a n s a r e n o t show n, o r o n ly i n c i d e n t a l l y f e a t u r e d . C o m p o sers* l i v e s * "C o m p o sers1 l i v e s " s h o u ld be a s e l f - e x p l a n a t o r y h e a d in g f o r t h i s l i s t o f b i o g r a p h i c a l f ilm s * Most o f th e m , i t w i l l be s e e n , c a r r y th e t i t l e

o f t h e name

o f t h e m ain c h a r a c t e r * S in c e t h i s s tu d y m ahes no a tte m p t a t e v a l u a t i o n , i t w i l l n o t be n e c e s s a r y t o m ore th a n m e n tio n t h a t many o f th e s i t u a t i o n s shown a r e p u r e l y f i c t i t i o u s *

25 6• I m a g in a tiv e v i s u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f a c o m p o si­ t i o n * (Phis r a t h e r w o rd y e l a s s i f io a t io n i s u s e d f o r q u i t e a lo n g l i s t o f p i c t u r e s i n w h ie h an a tte m p t h a s b e e n made to i n t e r p r e t , i n te r m s o f s i g h t , a p i e c e o f m u sic w h ich i s h e a rd * W alt D is n e y 1s F a n t a s i a i s t h e m o st n o t a b l e ex am p le o f t h i s ty p e o f p i c t u r e * V is u a l i n t e r p r e t a t i o n may ta k e t h e fo rm o f p i c t o r i a l n a t u r e b a c k g ro u n d s , d a n c in g , a r c h i t e c t u r a l s e t ­ t i n g s , d r a m a tic a c t i o n , o r a b s t r a c t fo rm s o f l i g h t , s h a p e s , o r c o lo r* O p e ra s*

te r m " O p e ra s " as a h e a d in g i s u s e d ,

f o r th e s a k e o f b r e v i t y , t o c l a s s i f y a l s o o p e r e t t a s and com ic o p e ra s * (Phese a r e th e p i c t u r e s d e f i n i t e l y a d a p te d fro m o p e r a ­ tic

s o u r c e s . Of n e c e s s i t y th e y arS d r a s t i c a l l y o u t fro m

t h e o r i g i n a l s c o r e s * I n many c a s e s t h e a d a p t a t i o n may b e a r a new name* 8* R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o l k m u s ic * " R e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o l k m u s ic " I s p r e s e n t e d i n m o st o f t h i s g ro u p w ith a p p r o p r i a t e b a c k g ro u n d an d c o s tu m in g * S om etim es t h e p e r f o r m e r s a r e n a ­ t i v e s i n g e r s an d p l a y e r s , so m e tim e s p r o f e s s i o n a l m u s ic ia n s i n co stu m e* 3 o n g s f o r com m unity s i n g i n g * P i c t u r e s i n w h ic h t h e w o rd s a r e f l a s h e d on th e s c r e e n f o r a u d ie n c e p a r t i c i p a t i o n make up t h e g ro u p o f f i l m s c a l l e d "S o n g s f o r com m unity s i n g ­

26 in g * " T h ese f i l m s a r e r e c r e a t i o n a l i n n a t u r e , and w o u ld f i n d th e m ost use i n a s s e m b lie s # 3*®* O r i g i n a l m ovie f e a t u r e s * th e t i t l e *

The f i l m s l i s t e d u n d e r

" O r i g i n a l m ovie f e a t u r e s , " have n o b a c k g ro u n d

in b io g ra p h ic a l o r o p e r a tic m a te r ia l, b u t a re s t o r i e s about f i c t i t i o u s m u s i c i a n s , u s u a l l y w r i t t e n f o r th e p u r p o s e o f f e a t u r i n g a p r o m in e n t s o l o i s t * Most o f t h e f i n e m u s ic a l p i c t u r e s o f t h e l a s t d e c a d e h av e n o t b e e n made a v a i l a b l e on 16 m i l l i m e t e r f i l m , b e c a u s e o f l a c k o f demand fro m t e a c h e r s * C o n c e r te d r e q u e s t s f o r r e d u c e d v e r s i o n s w o u ld b r i n g r e s u l t s * C a rto o n s *

A n o th e r g ro u p f o r r e c r e a t i o n a l p u r ­

p o s e s w h ic h may h a v e some v a lu e i n i n c r e a s i n g d e s i r a b l e a t ­ t i t u d e s to w a rd m usio i s

a s h o r t l i s t o f " C a r to o n s * "

B* EXPLANATION OP ORGANIZATION OP CHARTS ON MOTION PICTURES Column 1 c o n t a i n s t h e name o f t h e p i c t u r e *

In c e r ta in

c a s e s , i t was fo u n d t h a t n o t a l l d i s t r i b u t o r s u se t h e same nam e f o r t h e same f i l m , p e r h a p s r e v e r s i n g th e name o f t h e p e r f o r m e r and t h e t i t l e lis te d

o f t h e c o m p o s itio n p la y e d * The name

on t h e s e c h a r t s i s t h e one m o st f r e q u e n t l y fo u n d * Column 2 d e s i g n a t e s t h e p u r p o s e f o r w h ic h th e f i l m

may be u s e d : "T " f o r th o s e sh o w in g p l a y i n g t e c h n i q u e s , "A" f o r p i c t u r e s w h ich w i l l h e l p b u i l d a p p r e c i a t i o n s , "E " f o r

27

p i c t u r e s w h ich a r e in te n d e d p r i m a r i l y f o r e n t e r t a i n m e n t , w h ich m ay, o f c o u r s e , c o n t r i b u t e to a p p r e c i a t i o n and u n d e r ­ s t a n d i n g o f t e c h n i q u e . Some f i l m s a r e m ark ed w ith more th a n one l e t t e r . . Column 5 s u g g e s t s t h e s c h o o l l e v e l s f o r w h ic h a p i c ­ t u r e may be u s e d a d v a n ta g e o u s ly . Such i n d i c a t i o n s a r e i n ­ c lu d e d o n ly w hen g iv e n i n d i s t r i b u t o r s *

c a t a l o g u e s . Where

v a r i a t i o n s b e tw e e n c a t a l o g u e s w e re m a rk e d , a l l l e v e l s su g ­ g e s t e d a re l i s t e d h e r e i n . I f c a t a l o g u e s make n o a g e - l e v e l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s , t h e colum n i s l e f t b la n k , an d th e r e a d e r a s k e d t o s e e k su c h in f o r m a t i o n i n one o f t h e r e v ie w s l i s t e d i n co lu m n 5 . F o u r l e v e l s a re i n d i c a t e d ; p r im a r y g r a d e s by " 1 - 3 , n i n t e r m e d i a t e g r a d e s by * 4 - 6 , " j u n i o r h ig h s c h o o l by *7w 9f* and h ig h s c h o o l " H .S .* Column 4 l i s t s

t h e v a r i o u s c o m m e rc ia l r e n t a l s o u r c e s

f o r th e p i c t u r e , by n u m b e rs c o r r e s p o n d in g

t o th e nam es on

t h e l i s t o f " M o tio n P i c t u r e D i s t r i b u t o r s , ” to be fo u n d on p a g e 212 o f A p p en d ix A* I t m ust be b r o u g h t t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f r e a d e r s t h a t many o f t h e s e f i l m s may be b o rro w e d , r e n t e d , o r p u r c h a s e d fro m s t a t e

s o u r c e s , museums o r u n i v e r s i t i e s

w h ic h a c t a s n o n -c o m m e rc ia l d i s t r i b u t i n g a g e n c ie s f o r e d u c a ­ t i o n a l f i l m s . S c h o o ls w is h in g t o u se any o f th e s t r i c t l y i n ­ s t r u c t i o n a l f i l m s w o u ld do w e ll to c o n t a c t a s t a t e - s u p p o r t e d f i l m l i b r a r y i n t h e i r l o c a l i t y as t h e f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y .

28

L is ts of s ta te

a g e n e ie s may be fo u n d i n t h e V i c t o r D i r e c t o r y

o f 16MM F ilm S o u r c e s ,^ 8 o r i n The A u d io - V is u a l H andbook# I t Column J> l i s t s

by n u m b er t h e m ag azin e o r b u l l e t i n i n

w h ic h a re v ie w o f t h e p i c t u r e may be found# T h is l i s t was p u r p o s e l y k e p t s h o r t , b e in g l i m i t e d to p u b l i c a t i o n s w hose r e v ie w s a r e c o n d u c te d fro m an e d u c a t i o n a l v i e w p o i n t , n o t i n c l u d i n g t r a d e r e v ie w s # So a t te m p t was made t o i n c l u d e th e d a t e o f i s s u e o r t h e name o f t h e r e v i e w e r . The l i s t t i o n P i c t u r e R e v ie w e rs * may be fo u n d on p ag e 215

o f "Mo­

o f Appen­

d i x A# Column 6

g i v e s , i n m in u t e s , th e l e n g t h o f th e f i l m ,

when s u c h i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e # Column J7 t e l l s t h e n u m b er o f r e e l s . Column 8, t e l l s

th e s i z e o f t h e f i l m . W hile n e a r l y

a l l f i l m s f o r e d u c a t i o n a l p u r p o s e s a r e i s s u e d i n 16 m i l l i ­ m e te r w i d t h , o c c a s i o n a l l y one may be l i s t e d i n 8 o r 35 m i l l i m e t e r s i z e a l s o , i n w h ic h c a s e b o th s i z e s a r e n o te d # Column j? i n d i c a t e s c o l o r e d p i c t u r e s by th e l e t t e r * 0 ” and b la c k and w h ite f i l m s by t h e l e t t e r s n BW#w *

1 8 V i c t o r D i r e c t o r y o f 16MM F ilm S o u r c e s . ( E i g h th Re­ v i s e d E d iti o n # J D a v e n p o r t, TSwa: V i c t o r A n im a to g ra p h C o rp o r­ a t i o n , 1942# E lls w o r th C. D e n t, The A u d io - V is u a l H andbook (C h i­ c a g o : S o c i e t y f o r V is u a l E d u c a tio n , I n c . 1 9 3 9 ) .

29

Column 10 d e s c r i b e s so u n d p i c t u r e s by th e a b b r e v i a ­ t i o n "Sd* and s i l e n t p i c t u r e s by " S i . 1? Column 11 g i v e s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i v e f a c t s , a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n w h ic h t h e t i t l e

d o e s n o t r e v e a l s nam es o f p e r ­

f o r m e r s , c o m p o s itio n s p l a y e d , m eth o d o f p r e s e n t a t i o n , o r o t h e r d a ta * S tu d y g u i d e s . P i c t u r e s f o r w h ich s tu d y g u id e s a r e a v a i l a b l e a r e m arked w i t h an a s t e r i s k ( * ) • " P h o to p la y G u id e s 1* may be p u r c h a s e d fro m E d u c a t i o n a l and R e c r e a t i o n a l G u id e s , I n c . , 1 ?2 R e n n e r A v e ., H ew ark , R.cX#, f o r 1 5 $ e a c h * H andbooks p r e p a r e d by ERPI C la ssro o m s F ilm s , I n c . , 1841 B roadw ay , Hew Y ork C i t y , f o r t h e f i l m s on i n s t r u m e n t s o f th e o r c h e s t r a a r e in c l u d e d w ith r e n t a l o f t h e f i l m s . R e n t a l p r i c e s . I t w as f i r s t th o u g h t d e s i r a b l e t o l i s t r e n t a l p r i c e s f o r th e f i l m s , b u t d i f f i c u l t i e s a r o s e to make i t seem u n w is e . I n th e f i r s t p l a c e , d i f f e r e n t d i s t r i b u t o r s may c h a r g e w id e ly v a r y i n g p r i c e s f o r t h e same p i c t u r e . Se­ c o n d l y , p r i c e s v a r y fro m tim e to t i m e , so t h a t p r i c e s w h ic h w ere q u o te d w hen t h i s s tu d y was b eg u n may be r a i s e d o r lo w e r ­ e d b e f o r e i t i s c o m p le te d . As an i n d i c a t i o n o f w hat one may e x p e c t t o pay?* h o w e v e r, i t was fo u n d t h a t 16 m i l l i m e t e r f i l m s ru n fro m § .5 0 t o § 5 .0 0 p e r r e e l ,

f o r one d a y l s r e n t a l ,

w i t h t h e a v e ra g e p r i c e § 1 .5 0 * 0 . MCQ?I0H PICTURE CHARTS

I . ACOUSTICS M D MMUFACTUBE OP IHSfRUMMTS*

fu n d a m e n ta ls o f A c o u s tic s

A

7-9 5

1

16

BW Sd " fh e phenomenon o f h e a r in g and th e m o d if ic a tio n o f sound betw een th e so u rc e and th e h e a r e r a r e em phasized in t h i s f i l m ” (Q uoted from A u d io -film c a t a l o g u e )•

Sound Wares and £ h e i r S o u rc es

A

5 7

1

16

BW Sd nThe c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f sound w aves, su c h a s f re q u e n c y , am­ p l i t u d e , wave l e n g t h , fu n d a­ m e n ta ls , h arm onics a re v i v i d ­ l y e x p la in e d v i s u a l l y w ith a c o u s tic acco m p an im en t.” (Q uoted from A u d io -film c a t a ­ lo g u e )#

f e le v is io n

A

17

10

1

16

BW Sd Aims a t d e v e lo p in g u n d e r s ta n d ­ i n g o f t e l e v i s i o n . An o rc h e s ­ t r a p la y s p a r t o f a B eethoven symphony; v a r io u s s e c t i o n s and c o n d u c to r a re s p o t t e d .

fh e v io lin

A 3?

7 -9 7 H.S 18

11

1

16

BW Sd O r ig in and developm ent o f s t r i n g e d in s tr u m e n ts . Y io lin m aking i n f r a n c o . Ja c q u e s f h i b a u t p la y s a s h o r t num ber.

* R e fe r 'back to page 22 f o r e x p la n a tio n s o f o h a r t s .

I . ACOUSflOS AND MfflUFAQTUKE OF INSfHUMMfS j c o n t . )

T i o l i n s and C e llo s f

7-9 7 H.S U 8 40

10

Magic S tr i n g s

A f

25 31

F i r s t C h a ir

A f

11

37

7 / .

©*

xjjyrjtujmiMTg

_____ —

/ C

,/ J

'/

/ 'v y . * / & / \ $ y o y * 7 b - / A / &

✓ A rc h a ic and U nusual A in s tr u m e n ts

W in ifre d C h r i s t i e a t th e D ouble Key­ b o a rd P ia n o

T A

K eyboard P a lk s

T A

/

H.S, 7 18 9

10

1

16

BW Sd

E v o lu tio n o f k e y b o a rd i n s t r u ­ m e n ts: s p in e t* v i r g i n a l , oc~ t a v i n a , n u a n c e , th e rm in . De­ m o n s tra te d by H e rr S ad h s, L o tta Van B u m , L e s t e r Dona­ hue.

H.S, 7 8

11

1

16

BW Sd Si

Shows p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f t h i s in s tru m e n t in v e n te d by Emanuel Moor«

1

16 35

BW Sd Si

D e m o n s tra tio n s o f p ia n o te c h ­ n iq u e *

38

F i r s t C h a ir

See on l i s t " A c o u s tic s and M an u factu re o f I n s tru m e n ts * "

The Symphony Or­ c h e s tra *

♦Handbook,

A

7-9 4 s.s* 7 22

p r e p a r e d by KEPI

11

1

16 35

BW Sd

P roduced i n C o lla b o r a tio n w ith P e te r Dykema. Howard B arlow c o n d u c ts o r c h e s tr a * Des­ c r i p t i o n o f r o l e o f com poser, c o n d u c to r , and p la y e r s * S e a t­ in g arran g em en t show n. O rches­ t r a p la y s "H ide of V a lk y r ie s " and P re lu d e t o Act 3 o f Lo- . h e n g rin •

W E

A J /* &

/& /