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A SURVEY OP THE STATUS OP GOLF IN THE HIGH SCHOOL PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM
A Ti>©sis Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Physical Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts
by William M« Archer June 1950
UMI Number: EP62868
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
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UMI EP62868 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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P. fS p*”Fo5* ^ Ibid., p# 5o6#
2 golf on the Sabbath* Golf in the United States*
Throughout the settlement
period of America, golf was a relatively unimportant gomo and because of disuse it soon was forgotten entirely.
sport was revived late in the Nineteenth century due to the interest of wealthy Americans who had toured England and Scotland*
They returned very enthusiastic about the game.
It is only about sixty years since it was introduced*
of us can remember when the opportunity to play the game was the privilege of the wealthy alone*
Now in almost every
community there are clubs to fit the limited pocketbook# “Play on public golf links started in 1922 under the auspices of the United States Golf Association*,f3 Golf in schools and colleges*
Golf has also been
recognized as a useful activity by the majority of the nation’s colleges*
Many preparatory schools, particularly
in the Eastern states, have their own golf courses*
many of the high schools of the nation patterning their curricula from the outstanding colleges it is quite con ceivable that the secondary schools of the nation will soon be fashioning a curriculum that includes golf*
“Golf is an
ideal medium to provide enjoyable exercise with an element
3 Ibid., p. 5114-.
3 of sport and falls within the physical limitations of every normal boy or girl*M4 II•
STATEMENT OP THE PROBLEM
The purpose of the study was to determine the status of golf in the physical education curriculum and to arrive, on the basis of the findings, at constructive recommendations* The study was particularly concerned witht a*
Is golf considered a suitable activity for the
physical education program? b.
To what extent is golf taught in the physical
education program in high school? c*
What is the average yearly cost of a golf program?
If golf is not included in the physical education
program, what are the reasons: III.
LIMITATION OP THE STUDY
The study was primarily concerned with the physical education program*
Information was sought concerning inter
school golf competition as compared to the number of schools teaching golf*
Central California, the area from Bakersfield
on the South to Redding in the North, was the area from which
^ Ben Thompson, WA High School Golf Program, Scholastic Coach, IX (November, 1939)# P* 22.
k information was sought* IV.
IMPORTANCE OP THE STUDY
The physical, mental and moral development of the individual have often been stressed as among the most im portant aims of education*
In keeping with the principles
of education and according to Prank S. Staffords In the programs offered in schools, instruction should result not only in skill, strength, endurance and physical health, but also in social acceptability and an understanding and appreciation of the democratic way of life*S Golf qualified in all respects to the quote above*
of the many valuable aspects of the sport" the writer feels that its inclusion into the learning program would make the physical education program much more complete* .
VALUES OP GOLF
When one considers golf one also considers leisure and recreation*
Recreation usually means some sport or hobby
to any one individual*
These sports or hobbies are usually
acquired before or while the person is attending the second ary school; thus it seems that it becomes the duty of the
^ Prank S* Stafford, 11Organization and Administration of Physical Education and Recreation,fl Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, XVI (February, 19^ ) $ p* 63 ♦
5 to furnish the instruction and to promote these activities* The inescapable fact is that most people in their twenties are not very competent in sports and in other forms of physical recreation that require considerable exertion and skill,,and they are less interested in them as the years go by*° Through out the formative teen-age years there are many opportunities to enrich the lives of the students with proper instruction*
Among the many values that could be realized
through the medium of golf are those listed here* ^ Carry over value*
No one will deny that sports, to
be useful, should carry over and be used Golf and swimming are two sports
that serve thatpurpose*
Swimming has been accepted by most schoolsas vital for life and golf
making definite progress*
value of golf
lasting; a person
as he is able
can play the game aslong
Many leading professional golfers continually empha size the fact that the time to learn to play the game of golf is during the adolescent period*
In order for most teen- . v
agers to learn this game, the responsibility falls directly on the secondary are
school, because the majority
attending it at that time*
Z ° Martin H* Neumeyer, Leisure and Recreation (New York: A* S* Barnes and Company, 1914.9 ), p. 15^* 7 Ben Thompson, op* cit*, p. 21*
6 Recreational value♦
The recreational values of golf
could be considered to be myriad b y citing the number of participants in the g a m e A c c o r d i n g to the National Recrea tion Association Reports of 19^-2, 11there are over seven and one-half million participants •f,$
This figure seems to be a
little high in the light of the findings by Prank G. Menke who states, wThere are about three and one-half million golfers in the United States, almost one half of.these belong to clubs and must pay dues.H9 With the information furnished by these two reports it seems safe to suppose that there are roughly five million golfers in the country today.
When these people have sm
opportunity to use their leisure time, they go to the golf course to participate in one of America*s fastest growing pastimes. Health value. golf.
There are many healthful aspects of
The game is one that is played out of doors and
usually amid very pleasant surroundings.
It involves the
physical activity of walking, muscular coordination, and hand-eye coordination.
Walking is a recommended activity
for most individuals and is considered one of our universal exercises. Q
Menke, op. cit., p. 73^* 9 Ibid., p. 1
7 The majority of people dislike walking unless some recreational incentive is added# Golf gives them the incentive, and one will walk from four to seven miles in playing the average course of eighteen holes#10 The average round of eighteen holes usually consumes the better part of four hours*
Pour hours of constant
exercise weekly can and does furnish the necessary muscle stimulation to help keep fit*
"Golf is the ideal medium to
provide enjoyable exercise with an element of sport*MH Social value* as extremely high*
The social value of golf can be rated -
This game can be played with either men
or women as partners#
Golf affords one an opportunity to
make new acquaintances with men in all walks of life*
is the type of game that can be played seriously, and yet one is able to converse with either his partner or his opponent* On a golf course one might find as a partner a person from almost any business or profession*
According to J* H* Abel,
Director of Recreation for General Motors Corporation, "Both the white collar worker, and the shop employee mix freely in this activity#
10 Donald E* Shoup, "Possibilities of Adapting Golf Instruction to the Secondary-School Level," (unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1 9 3 6 ), p# 15* 11 Thompson, op* cit*, p* 27* J* H* Abel, "industrial Sports and Recreation," Athletic .Journal, XXVI (May, 194-6), p* i|.0#
8 In the majority of texts on leisure and recreation one will find that whenever sociable group sports are re ferred to, golf is included with hiking, swimming, and danc ing activities#
Both companionship and sportsmanship are
easily developed on the golf course# Another very important feature of golf for the second ary level is the possibility for co-educational participation# Too many of the boys* high school physical education programs have isolated themselves completely from the girls1 physical education programs# worth for
Goshen says, 11The game has proved its
c o - r e c r e a t i o n # ,#^ 3
Through the medium of golf
many barriers could be broken down, and both sexes would learn how to play together# Personality development#
The development of the per
sonality of an individual can be brought about by play and recreation#
Most sports or hobbies produce emotional stim
ulation and those that play golf will certainly agree. Neumeyer states that personality is: Mthose traits which characterize the person. Many leaders in the field of physical education and education agree that both the mind and body develop through
^•3 Elizabeth Goshen, ,fWe Play Golf,H Journal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, XVII (June, 19i|-6T7 P* 370# Neumeyer, ©£• cit#, p# 150#
Individuals may look upon recreation simply as a
relaxation period and fail to realize that the stimulation attained also aids in personality growth# If the education of the young consists chiefly in developing their personalities by strengthening their bodies, equipping their minds, achieving emotional poise and control, building character, and producing skills and abilities to function successfully and use fully, then play life has an enormous educational value#15 Many business men, beset by the many problems of the high speed or modern business, break down#
ally recommend to these people that they take up some type of activity to act as a balance wheel# recommended.
Oft times golf is
Medical science recognizes the fact that a
physical activity which tends to keep a subject from worrying about personal problems is conducive to mental health# Individual satisfaction.
Of all the games that give
satisfaction to an individual performer golf is one of the best.
G-olf may be played singly or
with a group*
This game presents a definitechallenge to the students in as much as it serves as a self-testing ac tivity# In every round of golf the player competes with the standard course score, his previous score, or the score of his fellow players#lo There is always a definite feeling of satisfaction and elation over a well placed shot ' 15 Ibid., p. 154 -Goshen, loo. cit.
or the making of a long
10 difficult putt.
If there is no one else on the course and
one desires to play, there is always par to shoot for.
score will be a definite measure of one’s ability. Character development.
Golf affords many opportuni
ties for the development of good character.
Among the traits
that compose character are courtesy, honesty, sportsmanship, and self-control.
These traits may be fostered by a good
physical education program and particularly so, if the program includes golf.
To quote Sam Snead, P.G.A. Champion
of 194-9* l,A persons character becomes very evident by the way he behaves on the golf course. ,f17
of the other players on the course is the essence of good golf manners. Pair play is another term for being honest in golf. It would be rather easy for one to forget a missed shot, or purposely miscount the total strokes, if one is not honest with his partner or himself.
Teen-agers would soon learn
that playing the game unfairly would spoil a lot of enjoy ment and they would resent any inference of being a cheat. Sportsmanship is another desirable trait to be learned.
To be able to lose smilingly and without alibis,
^ Sam Snead, !,Pair Play on the Pairway, ftLos Angeles Times, July 3* 194-9* Magazine section.
11 or to be unaffected by winning is the mark of a real sports man# Another important characteristic to be developed is self control#
To play with a person who lacks this trait
usually results in a very disturbing round of golf for all in the match#
Some people who lack this trait are given to
profanity, throwing clubs, or making some foolish remark, all of which are things to be avoided# With the many values that may be drived from one sport it seems incredible that golf has no definite place in the physical education program of the modern high school. V. Theses#
The materials concerning golf in the second
ary school curriculum are very meager* books on technique#
There are many good
Most of these have been written b y suc
There is one unpublished Master’s
thesis on file in the University of Southern California Library#
This thesis deals with the possibilities of adapt
ing golf instruction to the secondary level in Nebraska. The bulk of the above thesis was on the cost of installation and maintenance of golf and the equipment necessary for instruction in the secondary school. Periodicals#
The current periodicals and journals
of physical education treat golf in many ways*
of the articles deal with techniques and group instruction* So far as the writer could determine there were no studies dealing directly to the status of golf in the high school physical education curriculum* VI.
After a study of the existing literature regarding golf had been made, it seemed advisable to attack this problem by means of observation, interview, and a question naire*
The schools selected for study were those located in
Northern and Central California* Questionnaire* - Golf is played rather extensively throughout California, yet one may find very few schools that include it in their daily programs*
The writer sent
a questionnaire to those schools that were not visited person ally*
Other questions asked were concerned with the length
of the periods, the number of instructors in physical educa tion, the distance from the golf course, and the reasons for the omission of golf, if such is the case* A letter was written by the investigator and accom panied each questionnaire to the schools solicited*
letters were sent either to the School Principal, Athletic Director, or the Head of the Physical Education Department,
13 whichever was appropriate*
The returns were then tabulated
and analyzed in the study* Oral interview*
The writer then contacted a number
of outstanding professional golfers, acquainted them with the problem, and recorded their suggestions or criticisms* Among these were Joe Novak, current president of the Pro fessional Golfers of America; George hake, Southern Calif ornia president of the P,G*A*; and Mark Pry, an outstanding professional in Northern California*
CHAPTER II RESULTS OP THE STUDY Questionnaires were sent to high schools in Central and Northern California,
The area included was from Bakers
field to the Oregon border#
Questions were asked concerning
enrollment, size of class, number of instructors, and the inclusion of golf in the program# I.
One hundred and eighty questionnaires were sent out and one hundred and thirty-six replies were reeeived--a return percentage of 75*5 per cent#
There are discrepancies
throughout the questionnaire due to the failure of various individuals to fill out the questionnaire in full.
be due also to the possible ambiguity of the questionnaire. Approximate current enrollment of boys in schools studied.
It was found that ninety-one schools had enroll
ments of five hundred boys or less.
Fourteen schools had
between five hundred and one and seven hundred and fifty boys.
Fourteen schools had between seven hundred and fifty-
one and one thousand boys.
Only fifteen schools In this
area had over one thousand boys.
Two schools failed to check
the number of boys enrolled in high school.
15 TABLE I CURRENT ENROLLMENT OP BOYS IN HIGH SCHOOLS OP NORTHERN AND CENTRAL CALIFORNIA Number of boys enrolled o - 250 251 - 500 501 - 750 7 5 1 — 1 ,0 0 0 Over 1,000
Number of schools
Per cent of reporting schools it-0 .2 2 7 .6 1 0 .2 1 0 .2 1 1 .2
5k 37 14 lif 15
Average size of daily physical education classes# It is common knowledge that most physical education elasses are large# fact*
The returns of this questionnaire verified this
One hundred and four schools reported groups of
thirty««*five or more boys in each class#
schools or 5k-*k- P er cent have forty or more boys per class# TABLE II AVERAGE SIZE OP PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES
Class size 0 -2 0 21 - 25 26 - 30 31 - 39 Over J4.O
Number of schools 6 11 15 30 7k
Per cent of reporting schools k»l 8.0 1 1 .0 2 2 .0 5^.1).
Length of periods for physical education classes#
to the length of periods, it has been found that most schools
16 have periods of fifty minutes or more. eight schools reported this fact.
One hundred and
Fourteen schools had
periods of from forty to forty-five minutes, and thirteen schools had periods of from forty-five to forty-nine minutes. TABLE III LENGTH OF PERIODS FOR PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES
Minutes per class period i,-0 k5 50 55
Number of schools
- U ~ k-9 - 54 or more
Per cent of reporting schools
34 13 k-9 59
10.2 9.5 36.0 4 3 .3
Number of full time physical education instruetors. In regard to the number of full time physical education instructors, it was found that seventy-six schools had two or fewer men to administrate the program. only one physical education instructor. reported two instructors. tors.
Fifty schools had Twenty-six schools
Sixteen schools had three instruc
Nine schools had four instructors, and thirteen
schools had five or more to handle the physical education classes• Number of part time physical education instruetors♦ In reply to the question attempting to discover the number of part time physical education instructors, forty-one
17 schools had one part time man.
Thirty-three schools reported
that they had two part time men. that they had three part time men.
Twelve schools indicated Thus eighty-six schools
of those reporting had three or less than three part time assistants*
Six schools claimed four assistants and only
four schools said that five or more were used as part time instructors in physical education. Type of course available#
Seventy-seven schools in
dicated that they had access to either a private or munici pal type of golf course# private golf course*
Thirty-one schools had access to a
Forty-six schools had access to a
municipal course* TABLE IV TYPE OF GOLF COURSE AVAILABLE
Type of course Private Municipal None
Number of schools 31 i).6 53
Percentage 22.7 33.8 38.9
Number of schools engaging in inter-school golf.
question as to whether the school had a golf team for inter school competition was answered by one hundred and thirtyfive of the one hundred and thirty-six reporting schools#
That they do have a team was indicated by thirty**three schools A negative reply was made by one hundred and two schools* Distance from golf course*
The distance in actual
miles from a golf course was considered in the questionnaire* Fifteen schools were located within two miles of a golf course*
Twenty-two schools were located between from two
to four miles*
Twenty schools were located between four to
six miles and three schools between six to eight miles away. Thirty-seven schools noted that they were located eight or more miles from a golf course* TABLE V DISTANCE OF SCHOOL FROM OOLF COURSE
Number of miles
Number of schools
0 - 2 2 - 4 4 - 6
15 22 20
6 - 8 8 or more
Number of schools teaching golf*
A question of
particular interest to the writer pertained to the teaching of golf in the regular physical education classes*
eleven schools in Northern and Central California endeavor to teach golf*
One hundred and twenty-five schools do not
19 attempt to teach golf*
Ninety~two per cent of the schools
do not include golf instruction of any kind in the physical education program* Classes receiving golf instruction*
Of the eleven
schools that teach golf it was found that in every ease all grades were taught*
The seniors predominated in the amount
of instruction received, but the other classes of freshman, sophomores, and juniors had some instruction.
golf instruction was given to a limited group in four schools. Two schools noted that they taught golf to all of the boys in the physical education classes* TABLE VI CLASSES AND GROUPS RECEIVING GOLF INSTRUCTION
Classes or groups
All grades Seniors only Limited group. All boys in school
Time allotted to golf instruetion*
Time allotted for
instruction for each class varied considerably.
that taught golf were unanimous in the practice of teaching five days per week*
Two schools taught golf for two weeks,
three schools taught golf for from three to five weeks*
FIGURE 1. COMPARATIVE FIGURE SHOWING NUMBER SCHOOLS TEACHING GOLF
21 Six schools taught golf for five or more weeks# Yearly expenditure for golf#
As to the yearly ex
penditure by the schools for golf instruction it was found that ten schools paid one hundred dollars or less per year for golf#
Two schools paid nothing, two schools paid fifty
dollars, and six schools paid out one hundred dollars.
school paid out two hundred dollars, and two schools expended two hundred and fifty or more dollars per year for the golf program# TABLE VII YEARLY EXPENDITURE FOR GOLF
Number of schools
None $ 50. 100. 200.
The person who taught golf in
the regular physical education program was in all of these cases a department instructor#
In other words, all eleven
schools that taught golf used a regular instructor from their own department#
Three schools called on the local golf
professional to supplement and aid in the instruction#
22 Teaching devices used#
A question was asked as to
the teaching devices used to aid in the instruction of golf* Seven schools used puff balls; six schools used driving nets; and two schools used putting greens, pitch and putt courses, and films# Attitude toward inclusion of golf in program.
key question concerned whether golf was considered a suitable activity for the boys physical education program#
hundred and nineteen schools or 8 7 * 5 per cent replied affirm atively to this question#
A negative answer was indicated
by only fifteen schools from all that returned the question** naire# Reason for lack of golf program#
The final item of
the questionnaire attempted to discover the reasons schools that did not have a golf program, did not include it# were many reasons advanced for the situation# were;
no facilities or equipment, reported by seventy-eight
schools; lack of interest, reported by twenty-three schools; no course available, reported by eighteen schools; no funds, reported by seventeen schools; no instructor, reported by twenty-two schools; no transportation, reported by eight schools; too expensive, reported by seven schools; classes too large, noted by six schools; poor type of student, s
indicated by six schools; administrative resistance,
FIGURE 2. COMPARATIVE FIGURE SHOWING ATTITUDE TOWARD INCLUSION OF GOLF IN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION PROGRAM
2k indicated by three schools; boys play on their own time, indicated by two schools; teacher load, reported by one school; game not active enough, stated by one school; poor physical education program, indicated by one school*
TABLE VIII REASONS FOR LACK OF GGLF PROGRAM
Number of schools
No facilities or equipment
Lack of interest
1 6 .1
No course available
Poor type of student
Boys play on own time
All grades in one period
Game not active enough
Poor Physical Education program
CHAPTER III AN INTERPRETATION OP THE DATA There are many deductions to be made on the basis of the questionnaire*
The most revealing of all the facts dis
covered was that one hundred and nineteen schools out of the one hundred and thirty-six schools.responding to the ques tionnaire stated that in their opinion golf was a suitable activity for the boys* physical education program*
eleven schools, however, made any attempt to include it as part of their physical education program* This finding alone indicates the need for a study of this type*
The very fact that something which could and
should be an enrichment of the high school physical education program is for various reasons widely neglected, makes a solution to this problem necessary.
Evidently a foree of
inertia is operating here to the detriment of a more func tional physical education program.
The lack of precedent
and the unwillingness to attack minor difficulties with imagination and vigor have both been factors in preventing an enriched curriculum* The most prevalent reason indicated for the neglect of a high school program was lack of facilities or equip** ment.
Seventy-eight schools advanced this reason in support
of their negative approach.
Yet it can be clearly shown
that a successful golf program is not dependent upon a large cash expenditure or upon highly developed and accessible golf facilities*
Of the eleven schools that do include golf
instruction, ten of them spent one hundred dollars or less per year for the sport* amount*
Only three schools exceeded this
One school spent two hundred dollars and two schools,
spent more than two hundred and fifty dollars per year* This is comparable to the amounts spent by the average high school on such sports as tennis, track, swimming or basket ball*
It is readily seen thus that a functional golf pro
gram may be carried out entirely within the average high school physical education budget* The lack of a nearby golf course is not a valid reason for the lack of golf instruction as evidenced by the case of Westwood High School and East Bakersfield High School, both of which teach a successful golf program without dependence upon facilities outside of the high school plant*
Hoffman of Westwood High School, Lassen County, writes as follows £ In the Spring we combine our boys and girls classes* We teach tennis, softball, and golf* Two to four weeks are spent on each sport and the group rotates to a dif ferent sport. We use the entire football field for golf and have nets that fit inside the goal posts* The second most prevalent reason for the absence of a program was reported to be lack of interest in golf on the part of the physical education students.
It seems difficult
28 to justify this assertion as a valid reason.
any sport or activity is brought about by a positive teaching approach to the subject and is maintained by constant development and practice under the supervision of a sympa thetic instructor.
A learning situation requires the devel-
opment of interest as one of its most motivating forces. One of the primary responsibilities of any teacher is to create a desirable interest where it does not exist, and to sustain its growth* The third reason most frequently advanced in support of the non-golf program was that no expert instructor was available*
This reason was submitted by twenty-two schools.
It is not necessary for an instructor of basic golf to be of the same calibre as the golf professional.
It is of much
more importance that the instructor be trained in the phil osophy of general physical education and that he have a knowledge of boys and their problems and that he be a good teacher rather than a proficient performer*
Much of the
material that he may use may be gleaned from handbooks or acquired through summer school course on golf*
it is often possible to induce the local golf professional to supplement the departmental instruction by a few meetings with the class.
Richmond High School is one school among
several that utilizes this method* Eighteen schools reported as an unsolvable problem
29 th© fact that no golf course was available.
At first sight
this may appear to be an irrefutable argument; however, the fact that a few schools are able to support a functional golf program without recourse to extensive facilities indi cates that such difficulties are not insurmountable.
later chapter the writer will more fully discuss the possi bilities of golf instruction under these circumstances. The financial aspects of the golf program advanced as a reason for its lack in seventeen schools may be refuted by the fact that ten of th© eleven schools sponsoring golf do so on one hundred dollars or less per year.
inasmuch as golf instruction would be part of the physical education curriculum district funds should be available as part of the physical education budget and should be so sought. Closely allied with the response concerning facilities was the reply indicated by eight schools that the lack of transportation to a golf course prevented development of golf in those cases.
It has already been shown by example
in several schools that the lack of access to a golf course should not be a reason to disregard the sport.
instruction that should be planned for high school groups would enable them to start playing golf correctly and make them more desirous to play and to improve their game* Furthermore, actual play on a standard course should be
30 considered a definite goal rather than a pre-requisite to learning the game. Of the remaining reasons submitted by a small number of schools for not having a golf program three of them may be dismissed as being insupportable from an educational standpoint.
These reasons were::
a poor type of student,
reported by six schools; classes too large, reported by seven schools; and, administrative resistance reported by three schools.
The first of these arguments denies categorically
the fundamental philosophies of what teaching should be. The development of skills and attitudes should be regarded as the teachers primary responsibility, and to deny or neg lect it in a difficult situation is teacher failure.
other two arguments may be classed at least in part as administrative failure, although the lack of funds in some districts may contribute to the situation.
The large classes
and teacher load reported in these cases may be regarded as a reason but hardly as a justification for a meager physical education program. The final reasons reported by only a few schools may be grouped and considered together.
Two schools stated that
the boys played golf on their own time.
One school maintained
that golf was not active enough for high school boys.
another school excused itself on the grounds that all grades were in one physical education period, and one school
31 admitted frankly to a poor physical education program* The questionnaire has revealed many interesting facts about the general status of physical education instruction in the schools of Northern and Central California*
stance, it is observed that the typical high school of this area is a small school*
Of the one hundred and thirty-six
reporting schools, fifty-four schools had less than two hundred and fifty boys; thirty-seven schools had less than five hundred boys; fourteen schools had less than seven hundred and fifty boys; fourteen schools had less than one thousand boys*
The size of the school should however in
actual practice have little bearing on the comprehensiveness of the curriculum* A situation is revealed nevertheless wherein a majority of the schools of the study are obviously understaffed*
or more boys in each physical education class was indicated by seventy-four schools*
Thirty schools reported an average
of thirty-five boys per class* average of thirty boys*
Fifteen schools reported an
Eleven schools reported an average
of twenty-five boys per class and six schools had an average of twenty boys per class*
These figures become significant
when it is pointed out that of the schools reporting forty or more boys per class, five schools indicated that they had only one full time instructor to teach physical education. Eight schools indicated that they maintain their physical
32 education program with one full time and one part time instructor*
Seventeen schools stated that they used two full
time instructors* instructors*
Three schools had only two part time
Fourteen schools noted that they used three
full time instructors; five schools used four full time men and twelve schools had five or more men in full time physical education instructors*
Ninety-six schools in these two areas
utilize the services of part time instructors in physical education. Important significance may be attached to the fact that while only eleven schools attempted basic instruction in golf, thirty-three schools stated that they maintained a golf team for inter-school competition* several things*
This points to
First, that golf must hold considerable
appeal for teen-age boys if it can survive to this extent in the face of a lack of departmental attention*
that schools who attempt to compete in golf without pre instruction are penalizing the members of their teams, and that furthermore schools continuing this practice are neg lecting an opportunity for constructive teaching that promises rich rewards to the boys under their care* Although it has been the writer*s contention that easy and immediate access to standard golf facilities is not necessary for the teaching of golf in high school, the find ings prove however that such facilities are more wide spread
33 than might be suspected.
This fact does insure among other
things an opportunity for a definite carry-over beyond the high school career. of a golf course,
Fifteen schools were within two miles
twenty-two schools were within four miles,
twenty schools were within six miles,
three schools were
within eight miles and thirty-seven schools reported that they were eight or more miles away from a golf course. in the light of these findings that we begin our final chapter#
CHAPTER IV SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS I*
GENERAL STATEMENT OP FINDINGS
The teaching of golf in physical education programs of the high schools of Northern and Central California hasVv*cu-c not yet been developed to a^Vbate commensurate with its actual and potential value*
This is at variance with the
general attitude and the belief stated by the majority of people in the field that golf is a worthwhile activity for high school students*
The writer feels that this discovery
is the keynote of his investigation and that it deserves special comment and attention in his recommendations* Other findings may be stated more brieflyi a.
The majority of high schools in Northern and Central California have less than five hundred boys*
The size of the daily physical education class es is generally large*
Period length in the majority of high schools affords ample time for group instruction*
The average high school in the area studied is understaffed in physical education*
More schools have inter-scholastic competition in golf than teach it*
Over one-half of the schools in this area have access to a golf course*
Schools who teach golf used departmental instruction*
The cost of a golf program is small* II*
The reasons advanced for the neglect of golf in high school physical education are various and have been discussed in chapter III*
It has been the w r i t e r ^ contention in the
study that all or nearly all of the fourteen basic reasons given for the exclusion of high school golf instruction are educationally insupportable; that these difficulties could be solved by forthright teaching; and that the need for such action is strong*
When one considers the fact that there
are over five million golfers in the United States, practical ly all of whom found it necessary to acquire their instruc tion after their formal schooling had been completed,
conclusion is inescapable that high schools are neglecting an opportunity for service* ! / It may also be re-emphasized in the light of the findings that such service is not prohibitive in the matter of cost, personnel, or facilities*
Recommended methods of organ!zatjon.
will attempt to explain precisely how golf instruction could and should be organized in a modern high school*
of facilities which has loomed large for so many teachers of physical education is in reality not insurmountable*
school golf instruction does not depend upon extensive facilities or a large play area, but may be conducted success fully entirely within the prescribed bounds of the average high school plant*
It is advisable to limit the basic in
struction to a comparatively small space for better super vision and control.
The utilization of a portion of the
football practice field is ideal for this purpose.
fundamental things as grip, stance and swing may be taught to groups without the use of a regular golf ball.
instruction in putting can be taught in the gymnasium or the tumbling room, utilizing close napped or level material such as cocoa matting to simulate the putting green* Recommended materials*
Many schools have availed
themselves of the opportunity to purchase war surplus material at nominal cost*
These purchases have in most cases
been in fields other than physical education*
the teacher of golf will find an abundance of materials to satisfy his own needs*
The fabric materials are especially
Such things as tarpaulins, canvas, sidewall tents,
navy hammocks, and rope, cheaply purchased by any school, comprise the bulk of items that could be considered costly* In addition, used but serviceable golf clubs, golf balls, practice balls and tees may be acquired with the aid of the local equipment man*
Basic instruction does not require the
use of complete sets of golf clubs*
Instruction should be
given on the use of a wood, a long iron, short iron, and putter.
These four clubs are all that are necessary to
establish the fundamentals of golf*
It is recommended that
the instructor persist in teaching only the basic funda mentals rather than encumbering his program with elements and techniques of concern only to the player of long standing* Recommended ins true ti onal aids*
As a general rule
outdoor work under simulated playing conditions is more desirable than indoor work, although gymnasiums could easily be used.
Indoor work requires however the use of portable
equipment because of the numerous uses of the gymnasium floor. Driving nets or cages might be constructed between the goal posts of the football practice field or set up as permanent equipment in some other part of the play area.
canvas provides an ideal driving net at little cost.
sidewall tents cut In half bolstered by the use of Navy ham mocks laced together are recommended for the school with a
38 small budget*
These are serviceable, durable and safe.
A putting green made of oiled sand may be constructed in any locality.
Mr. Ray Hall, formerly of Washington State
College suggests a practice putting green made of cotton hulls or even saw dust, although these materials require some treatment to make them pack firm}Teachers are well aware of the value of visual-aids to instruction.
The use of motion pictures and illustrations
is recommended to provide simple yet clear explanations. Films dealing with golf are available at little cost. Recommended administrative policy.
selection of physical education personnel has long been essential to good teaching which has not always been recog nized.
The erroneous idea that 11anyone can teach physical
education*1 has been all too prevalent in many communities. Careful selection of men specifically trained in the phi losophies underlying physical education in the modern high school is a definite administrative responsibility.
fact that a candidate has earned wide recognition on the gridiron, cinderpath, or the baseball diamond is no guarantee that he is qualified to instruct growing boys in high school.
Ray Hall, 11A Golf Plan for Schools,** National Golf Foundation, (Instructional Aids Division, Chicago Illinois, 1 p . 3#
39 In addition, there has been a tendency for administrators to give preference to candidates who have specialized in the major sports.
The writer feels that this has been a mistake
and it is recommended that more teachers trained in the so called minor sports be given more serious consideration in the interests of more functional teaching. Many schools are compelled to finance the major por tion of their athletic programs through student body funds. This situation in itself contributes substantially to the emphasis on the sports for the public rather than for the participant.
That physical education is in actual fact
education rather than amusement alone should demonstrate the logic of seeking district funds for more adequate sup port. This study has shown that the majority of schools are understaffed in physical education.
Although it is undeni**
ably true that this situation cannot in every case be laid to administrative failure, the lack of funds in any specific district should never justify administrative action which penalizes the department of physical education .before other departments. Recommended teacher responsibility.
The factor of
motivation in learning has long been recognized by educators. It is th© teachers responsibility to provide this motivation
lj.0 in order that a learning situation may prevail.
methods vary but their objectives should be the same in this regard*
Vigor and imagination are essential to overcoming
That the problems facing the teacher of golf in
high school can be overcome has been demonstrated in this paper* In conclusion it may be stated that, all theory aside, nothing may finally take the place of hard work in teaching school*
The teacher must work at his job constantly and
In this way only will we have functional
education of any kind In our high schools*
Campbell, William G., A Form Book for Thesis Writing* New Yorks Houghton Mifflin Company, 1S|5^. 121pp. A book of vital necessity to a person attempting to write a lengthy paper. It was an invaluable aid. Fitzgerald, Gerald B., Community Organization for Recreation. New York: A* S. Barnes and Company, I9I4B T 3jp2 pp. A text dealing mainly with recreation and its problems. It has information on the early concepts of recreation and the use of leisure time. Hogan, Ben, Power Golf# New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 19i|-8 . 1 bb pp. This current book on golf deals in the main with the techniques of golf. LaPorte, William R., Theme Writing in Physical Education. Los Angeles: The University of Southern California, 1935* 18 pp. A very valuable aid for one who needs technical assistance in writing. Menke, Frank G., The New Encyclopedia of Sports. New York?: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1947* 1007 pp. A very complete source of information concerning all sports and games. Meyer, Harold D. and Brightbill, Charles K., Community Recreation. Boston:; D. C. Heath and Company, 19lp• TOi^. pp. An. excellent text concerning leisure and recreation. It cites the National Education Association, objectives for recreation. Morrison, Alex. J., Better Golf Without Practice. New York: Simon and Schuster, 19^1-0• l£8 pp. For a neophyte golfer this book is of decided value. It deals mainly on the technique of golf but it has some very interesting comments.
4-3 _____ , A New Way to Better Golf* New York: Simon and Schuster, 1932* 187 PP* This old but interesting book deals only with the technique of golf* Nelson, Byron, Winning Golf* New York: A* S. Barnes and Company, Inc*,' 1934-• 190 PP* Another current book on the technique of golf, written by a master of the game* It will be of value and interest only to the player of long standing. Neumeyer, Martin H*, Leisure and Recreation* Revised edition; New York: A* S. Barnes and Company, 194-9*
405 pp. This 194-9 revised edition has some very good material on leisure and recreation* It has a very good philosophy concerning the value of games and sports* Schleman, Helen B*, Group Golf Instruct!on* New York: A* S* Barnes and Company, Inc*, 1934-* 80 PP* This text was written primarily for girls group instruc tion in golf* It can be used to good advantage by any instructor of high school golf# Snead, Sam, A Quick Way to Better Golf* Garden City, New York: The Sun Dial Press, 1938* 79 PP* Another excellent text on technique. It has many photographs to supplement the material. It is a book for the better golfers* Wind, Herbert W*, The Story of American Golf* New York: Parrar and Company, 194-8• 5>02 pp* A new and interesting history of the rise of golf in the United States. It cites the achievements of most of the famous golfers of America. B.
Abel, J. H*, MIndustrial Sports and Recreation,u Athletic Journal, XXVI (May, 194-8), 4-°* Cook, Katherine M*, ^Recreation in Public Schools,11 Journal Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, XVII "[November, 194-6), 562# Goshen, Elizabeth, ,fWe Play Golf,11 J ournal of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation, XVII (June, 194-6), 370.
14 Hall, Ray, *fA Golf Plan for Schools,** National Golf Founda tion, Instructional Aids Division, Chicago, Illinois, 1 9 ® , P* 3* Moulton, Gertrude, ffRelationship of Physical Education to Health Education and to Recreation,*1 J ournal of He al th. Physical Education, and Recreation, XVIII fOc tobe r, 19 n 7)»
570=5717 Thompson, Ben, **A High School Golf Program,11 Scholastic Coach, IX (November, 1939)> 21-22, 27* Stafford, Frank S*, ^Organization and Administration of Physical Education and Recreation, ** J ournal of He al th, Physical Education, and Recreation, XVI (February, 1 9 ^ ) . t>3. C.
Shoup, Donald E*, Possibilities of Adapting Golf Instruc tion to the Secondary School Level•** Unpublished Master*s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1937* 78 PP* D.
Snead, Sam, ,fFair Play on the Fairway,*1 Los Angeles Times, July 3* 19^9* Magazine section*
I* The following questionnaire was sent to the high schools of the area and the response was used as a basis for the study: Name__________________________
Would you like a summary of the results of this study? GOLF IN THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM 1. What is the approximate current enrollment of boys in your school?__________ 2• What is the average size of your daily classes? 20 25 30 35 i|.0 55 or more 3* What
is the length of periods for I4.Q—44 4.5**14-9 50-54
Physical Education? 55 or more
4« What is the number of instructors that teach Physical Education? a* ___________ full time instructors b* ________ part timeinstructors Does your school have a golf team for inter-school competition?^ Yes ( ) No ( ) 6* To what type of golf course do you have access? Private ( ) Municipal ( ) None ( ) 7* How far from school is the golf course? ______ miles* The following questions relate to the regular Physical Education Program exclusive of the golf team* 8* Is golf included in your Physical Education Program? Yes ( ) No ( ) If the answer is yes, answer questions 9-13• If the answer is now, answer questions l4-l5« 9* What classes receive golf instruction? Freshmen ( ) Juniors ( ) Sophomores ( ) Seniors ( )
k7 10* How much time is given to golf instruction per class? Periods per week ________ Weeks per year ______ 11* Who teaches golf at your school? Dept* instructor ( ) Non-staff instructor
12* What is your yearly expenditure for golf equipment? 0 $50* $>100* $200* $>250* or more 13• What teaching devices do you use to aid instruction in your classes? Puff balls () Pitch & putt course ( ) Putting greens () Swing perfectors ( ) Driving nets () Others (remarks)
lij.* Do you consider golf a suitable activity in the Boys1 Physical Education Program? Yes ( ) No ( ) 15* If you do not have a golf program, what, in your opinion, is the reason?
The following schools are those to whom the
questionnaires were sent*
Asterisks indicate those schools
that replied to the questionnaire*
The names of the persons
to whom the questionnaires were sent and their position in the school system follows immediately after the name of the school: 1* Alameda High School#, Lewis G* Jolley, Dept* head*
2. Albany High School#, Len Callan, Coach. 3. Modoc High School#, Alturas, W. Griswold, Dept. head, ij.. Anderson High School#, R. G. Bailey, Dept. head. 5. Bret Harte High School, Angels Camp#, R. Taylor, Dept. head. 6. Antioch-Live Oak High School#, J. Danilovich, Dept. head. 7. Areata High School#, F. S. Moore, Dept. head. 8. Arroyo Grande High School#, J. Falsarella, Dept. head. 9* Atascadero High School#, R. H. Ewing, Dept. head. 10. Sierra High School, Auberry#, Russ Perry, Coach. 11. Placer High School#, Auburn, Howard Woodside, Dept. head. 12* Lemoore High School, Avenal#, J. G. Cervell, Dept. head. 13* Bakersfield High School#, J. B. Haralson, Dept. head, lij.* Benicia High School#, Phil Goettel, Dept. head. 15. Berkeley High School#, H. W. Jennings, Athletic Director. 16. Burlingame High School#, Lee Lancaster, Coach. 17# Calistoga High School#, Bill Jameson, Coach. 18♦ Campbell Union High School#, Mr. Drummond, Dept. head. 19. Carmel High School. 20. Washington High School, Centerville#, R. Hird, Dept. head. 21.
School#, Dick Davey, Dept. head.
School#, Lloyd Madsen, Coach.
Chowchilla High School#, Carl Lueder, Dept,
2ij.. Clarksburg High School#, Glenn Dufour, Coach. 25. Clovis High School#, Everard Jones, Coach. 26. Coalinga High School#, R. J. White, Coach.
i+9 27• Courtland High Schools, J. Desalernos, Coach* 28* Del Norte High School, Crescent City#, C* Deautremont* 29« John Swett High School, Crockett#, B. Stevens, Coach* 30* Jefferson High School, Daly City#, G. South, Dept* head* 31* San Ramon Valley High School, Danville* 32* Davis High School#, Dewey Holden, Coach* 33* Delano Joint High School* 3if* Grant High School, Del Paso Heights#, Wes Scott,,Coach. 35* Dinuba High School#, Ralph Allen, Dept, head* 3 6 *. Dos Palos High School* 37* Dunsmuir High School* 38* East Bakersfield High School#, Gil Bishop, Dept, head* 39* Elk Grove High School#, Walter Robertson, Coach* ij.0* Emery High School, Emeryville* IpL* Escalon High School#, Lloyd Engel, Coach. ij.2. Eureka High School* 14-3* Exeter High School* iji^.* Armijo High School, Fairfield#, Ed* Hopkins, Dept* head.
i+5. San Juan High School, Fair Oaks. If.6 * Ferndale High School#, Francis Givins, Dept, head* Ip7• Folsom High School#, Robert E. Sutter, Coach* ij.8 * Fort Bragg High School. 49# Fortuna High School#, R. E. Damon, Dept, head* 50* Central High School, Fresno#, M. Kaufman, „Dept* head* 51• Thomas A. Edison High School, Fresno*
50 52. Fresno High School#, E. C. Ginsburg, Dept. head. 53* Roosevelt High School, Fresno#, Ho name, Coach. 5l|-« Washington High School, Fresno#, H. Gower, Dept. head. 55* Galt High School#, W. Wolcott, Dept. head. 56. Gilroy High School#, Art Baxter, Dept. head. 57* Gonzales High School. 58. Grass Valley High School#, Art Hooper, Dept. head. 59* Greenville High School#, Chet Phillips, Dept. head. 60. Gustine High School#, J. Ridley, Dept. head. 61. Half Moon Bay High School. 62. Hamilton High School#,, Fred Kronsbein, Coach. 63* Hanford High School#, E. J. Simonich, Dept. head. 614.. Hayward High School#, A. D. Laws, Dept. head. 65* Healdsburg High School#, Art McCaffrey, Coach. 66. Hilmar High School#, J • W. Hailstone, Coach. 6 7 * San Benito High School, Hollister#, D. Edwards, Dept. head. 68. Jackson High School#, Brooks Golden, Coach. 6 9 # Kerman High School. 70. King City High School. 71* Kingsburg High School#, L. Langley, Dept. head. 72. Acalanes High School, LaFayette#, C. Eaton, Dept. head. 73* Laton High School#, Ray Halle, Coach. 7i+«- Lemoore High School. 75* Lindsay High School. 7 6 . Livermore High School#, Herm Mettler, Coach*
51 77• Livingston High Schools, Barney Swartzell, Coaeh. 78* West Side High School, Los Banos#, C. G. Loftin, Coach. 79• Lodi High Schools, J. E. Conklin, Athletic Director. 80. Los Gatos High Schools, Fred Canrinus, Dept. head. 81. Madera High Schools, Joe Keeble, Coach. 82. Manteca High School. 83* Alhambra High School, Martinez*::*, H. Boschetti, Dept. head. 8If. Marysville High School#, Harold Hawley, Coach. 85• McFarland High School#, Richard Moordale, Coach. 86# Merced High School. 87* Tamalpais High School, Mill Valley#, G.Corson, Ath. Dir. 88. Modesto High School#, Jim Francis, Dept. head. 89* Monterey High School#, Doug McNeil, Coach. 90. Live Oak High School, Morgan Hill#, D. Seaver, Dept.head. 91. Mountain View High School#, S. Anderson, Athletic Dir. 92. Nevada City High School#, D. H. Watt, Coach. 93* Oakdale High School#, Howard Riddle, Dept. head. 9lf. Castlemont High School, Oakland. 95. Fremont High School, Oakland. 9 6 . McClymonds High School, Oakland#, T.Fitzpatrick,Dept.head. 97* Oakland High School#, E. Allison, Athletic Director. 9 8 . San Leandro High School#, 0. Higgins, Athletic Director. 99* Technical High School, Oakland#, L* Sharpe, Ath. Dir. 100. Orland High School#, Jack Sims, Coach. 101. Orosi High School#, T. A. Jury, Dept. head.
52 102, Oroville High School#, Hugh Harrison, Dept. head. 103* Pacific Grove High School#, Marty Baskin, Coach* lOlj.* Palo Alto High School#, Coach. 105« Petaluma High School. 106* Piedmont High School#, Glen Johnson, Dept, head* 107• Pittsburg High School. 108* El Dorado High School, Placerville#, L. Brown,Dept*head* 109i Amador High School, Pleasanton#, L. Holden, Dept, head* 110. Porterville High School#, Carl Elder, Athletic Director* 111* Red Bluff High School#, M. Krpan, Dept, head* 112* Shasta High School, Redding#, Carl Gilmore, Coach.113 © Reedley High School. lllj.* El Cerrito High School, Richmond#, Gene Corr, Coach* 115 • Richmond High School#, R. Christensen, Coach. 116• Rio Vista High School#, J. Ferguson, Dept, head* 117* Ripon High School. 118* Riverdale High School#, George Bogdanoff, Coach. 119* Roseville High School#, Rolf Moeller, Dept.head* 120* C.K. McClatchy High School, Sacramento#, C.Wilson,Dept.head. 121* Sacramento High School#, Jim Flynn, Dept, head* 122* St. Helena High School#, Ralph Ingols, Coach* 123* Salinas High School#, Bill Kearney, Coach. I2I4.* Calaveras High School, San Andreas#, J. Brown, Coach. 125. Balboa High School, San Francisco#, R. M. Scott, Coach. 1 2 6 * Commerce High School, San Francisco#, W*C* Lester, head*
53 127. Galileo High School, San Francisco. 128. Lowell High School, San Francisco#, Ben Neff, Dept.head. 129* Lincoln High School, San Francisco. 130. Mission High School, San Francisco#, A. Jones, Dir. Ath. 131* Polytechnic High School, San Francisco. 132. Washington High School, San Francisco#, S. Madfes, Dir. 133* Sanger High School#, H* Dayton, Dept. head. 13if* Edison High School, San Jose#, E. R. Hill, Dept. head. 135* Lincoln High School, San Jose. 136. San Jose High School. 137* Technical High School, San Jose#, C. Kaiser, Dept. head. 138. San Luis Obispo High School. 139. San Mateo High School#, Frank Collin, Coach. ll^O. San Rafael High School#, Paul Miller, Coach, lip.. Santa Barbara High School. llj.2. Santa Clara High School#, E. Johnson, Dept. head. 1 lj.3* Santa Cruz High School#, F. A. Lindeburg, Dept. head. 144* Santa Maria High School#, J. M. Marelich, Coach. li^5* Santa Rosa High School#, 0. Fortier* Athletic Director. 114-6 . Analy High School, Sebastopol#, W. E. Foster, Coach. lip7• Selma High School#, Al Nichelini, Dept. head. ll|8. Shafter High School#, Lowell Todd, Dept. head. ll4-9* Sequoia High School#, Frank Griffin, Dept. head. 150* Sonoma Valley High School. 151* Sonora High School#, Art McGrath, Dept. head.
5^4152* South San Francisco High Schools, D* Guthrie, Dept. head* 153. Edison High School, Stocktons, G. Taggert, Dept* head* 15b-* Stockton High School#, Wallace McKay, Dept* head* 155• Lassen High School, Susanville* 1^6* Sutter High School. 157* Sutter Creek High School#, Don Wrinkle, Coach* 158• Fremont High School, Sunnyvale* 159* Taft High School#, Vern Mullen, Director of Athletics. l60. Tracy High School#, Andy Korba, Dept* head* l6l• Tulare High School#, Al Elliott, Coach* 162* Turlock High School#, Joe Debely, Dept* head* 1 6 3 * Ukiah High School* 1614.* Vacaville High School* l65♦ Vallejo High School#, Glenn Odale, Coach* 166* Victor Valley High School, Victorville. l67* Visalia High School#, C* N* Marshall, Coach. 1 6 8 * Watsonville High School#, Emmett Geiser, Coach* 1 6 9 * Westwood High School, Westwood#, Orrin Hoffman, Coach. 170* Wheatland High School. 171* Williams High School#, Robert Gein, Coach# 172* Willits High School. 173» Glenn High School, Willows#, Carl Hoberg, Dept. head. 17^4-* Winters High School#, Jack Mermod, Coach. 175* Woodland High School#, Palmer Muhl, Dept* head* 178* Mount Shasta High School*
55 177* Tule Lake High School# 178« Weed High Schools, Neal Wade, Coach* 179* Yreka High School* l80* Yuba City High Schools, j* Weiss, Dept, head*
III* The following is a break-down of the question naire showing the response to the various questions:: 1* Current enrollment of boys in your school? Number of boys 0 -2 5 0 2 5 1 -5 0 0 5 0 1 -7 5 0
Number of schools
54 37 l4
39.7 2 7 .2 1 0 .2
2* What is the average size of your daily classes? Class size 20 25 30 “35 q.0 or more
Number of schools 6 11 15 30 74
fco 11. 2 2 *0 5 4 *4
What is the length of periods for Physical Education? Minutes
55 or more
Number of schools
Percentage 10*2 9.3 3 6 .0 4 3 *3
56 Ij.. Number of full time instructors? Instructors
3 4r 5 or more
l6 9 13
Percentage 36.7 19.1 11.7
5« Number of part time instructors? Instructors
Number of schools kl 33 12 6 k
1 2 3 k 5 or more
Percentage 3 0 .1 2k.2 8.8 lj.*l 2?.9
Does your school have a golf team for inter-, competition? Number of schools
Response Yes No
Percent age 2^.2 75*0
To what type of golf course do you have aece Type of course Private Municipal None
Number of schools k6 53
Percentage 22.7 33.8 3 8.9
How far from school is the golf course? *
Number of schools
15 22 20 3 37
k-o o-8 8 or more
57 9* Is golf included in your Physical Education Program? Response
Number of schools
10# What classes receive golf instruction? Classes
Number of schools
All grades Seniors Limited group
3 6 Ij.
11# How much time is given to golf instruction per class? Time allotted
Number of schools
2 periods per, week 3-5 weeks 5 or more weeks
2 3 6
12# Who teaches golf at your school? Dept, instructor Non-staff instructor
11 schools 3 schools
13* What is your yearly expenditure for golf? Amount spent 0
Number of s chools 2 2
200 250 or more
li|.. What teaching devices do you use to aid instruction in your classes? Teaching devices Puff balls Putting greens Driving nets Pitch & Putt course Swing perfectors Films
Number of schools 7 2 6 2 0 2
58 15* Do you consider golf a suitable activity in the Boys Physical Education Program? Response Yes No
Number of schools
16. If you do not have a golf program, whal^ in your opinion, is the reason? Reasons stated
Number of schools
No facilities or equipment No instructor No funds Lack of interest Poor type of student No course available Teacher load All grades in one period Administrative resistance Too expensive Boys play on own time No transportation Game not active enough Poor Physical Education Program
78 22 17 23 6 18 7 1 3 7 2 8 1 1
16.1 12.5 16.9
13.2 5.1 .7 2.2 5.1 I . I
5*8 .7 .7