In-service training in physical education for the Pomona elementary school teachers

243 75 3MB

English Pages 78

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

In-service training in physical education for the Pomona elementary school teachers

Citation preview

IN-SERVICE ,TRAINING,.IN.PHYSICAL EDUCATION FOR THE POMONA ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

M. Elizabeth Green August 1950

UMI Number: EP56182

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

[email protected]*lMion Publishing

UMI EP56182 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

■£*L 'sr/ 6- 7? 7 T h is thesis , w r i t t e n u n d e r the d ir e c t io n o f the C h a ir m a n o f the c a n d id a te ’s G u id a n c e C o m m itte e a n d a p p r o v e d by d l l m em b ers o f the C o m m itte e , has been p re s e n te d to a n d accep ted by the F a c u l t y o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a t io n o f the U n iv e r s it y o f S o u th e rn C a l i f o r n i a in p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t o f the re q u ire m e n ts f o r the degree o f M a s t e r o f Science in E d u c a t io n . D ate

t £ ___

D ean G u t ance Com m ittee

nrrnan

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER . I.

PACE

The problem

1

Statement of the problem • • • • • • . « • •

1

Scope of the study • • • • • • • . • • • • .

2

Limitations of the study • • • • • • • • . .

3

Importance of the study

• • • . » • • • • •

3

Definitions of terms used

• • • • • • • • • •

7

. • • • . « • • • • • •

7

Elementary schools

7

Elementary school teachers • • • • • • • • •

7

Method of procedure

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

7

Organization of remaining chapters . . » • • •

8

RELATED LITERATURE

..........

Literature related to in-service training Indirectly related literature III.

1

• • • • • • • • • • • • » • • • •

In-service training

II.

*

INTRODUCTION.........

10 • •

10

• • • • . • « .

19

ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE R E S U L T S ............

24

Formulation of questionnaire • • • . • • • • •

25

Questionnaire results

25

• • • • • • . . • • • •

Teacher age

25

Undergraduate preparation for teaching physical education • • • • • • • • « • • •

26

iv CHAPTER

PAGE Preparation for teaching physical education since graduation . • • .................. Teacher participation in activities Program of activities

• • • .

...............

31 33

Expressed interest for in-service training • IV.

29

41

PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM, FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS.........

46

Administration of the In-service program • • •

46

Selection of personnel • • • • • • • • • • •

46

Enrollment and time a l l o t m e n t ...........

48

Physical aspects of the p r o g r a m The program



.......... • • • • • • • • • •

49

.. . . .

52

Second session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • «

53

Third session

. . . . . . .

53

• • • • • • . .

54

..............

54

First session

Fourth session

•••••

........

49

..........

Fifth session

• • • • • • •

Sixth session

• • • • • • ...........

Seventh session

54

• • • • • • . • • • • • • •

55

Eighth session • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

55

Ninth session

• • • • • • • •

........

••

55

Tenth session

• . • • • • • • • • • • • « •

56

Eleventh session . • • • • • • • • • • • • •

56

Twelfth s e s s i o n .........

56

CHAPTER V.

PAGE

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS . . . . Summary

• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Conclusions

58 59 62

Recommendations

* . • • • • • • • • • • • • .

63

BIBLIOGRAPHY.............

65

APPENDIX

70

.........

LIST OP TABLES .UJEi

Teacher Age

...........

. . .

27

Undergraduate Preparation for Teaching Physical Education

• • • » • • • • • • • • •

28

Preparation for Teaching Physical Education • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

30

Teacher Participation in Activities • • • • • •

32

Types of Activities Taught in Kindergarten

• •

35

First Grade •

36

Since Graduation

Types of Activities Taught in the

Types of Activities Taught in the Second Grade Types of Activities Taught in the

38 Third Grade •

39

Types of Activities Taught in the Fourth Grade • • • • • « » • • • • • •

............

40

Types of Activities Taught in the

Fifth Grade •

42

Types of Activities Taught in the

Sixth Grade *

43

Expressed Desire for In-Service Training

• . •

45

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

r

/ In-service training is not a new trend nor is it confined to any one field*

It has long been recognized as

a valuable procedure essential to the progress of an industry or profession*

Successful teaching, like other

professions, demands that teachers keep up to date because of the findings which are constantly being added to the already vast fund of knowledge in that field*

Adminis­

trators, supervisors and teachers should share jointly the responsibility for the in-service training of teachers* Together they may work toward the improvement of oppor­ tunities offered to boys and girls and toward raising the standards of community living* The education of teachers in service is excellent to the extent to which it contributes to the continuous growth and development of teachers as individuals, as members of the profession, and as socially sensitive participants in community l i v i n g ^7 I.

THE PROBLEM

Statement of the problem* 1

The purpose of this study

Teacher Education Workshop, In-Service Education of Elementary Teachers» (Nashville, Tennessee: Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Peabody College for Teachers), p. 7.

2 was two-folds (l) to investigate the need for in-service training in physical education for the Pomona elementary school teachers, (2) to develop a possible in-service training program to be conducted in the district, should the results of the afore mentioned investigation point to a need and desire for such a program. Scope of the study.

The investigation into the

need for in-service training of elementary school teachers was conducted in the nine elementary schools in the Pomona district.

In this district there is a teacher age range

from twenty three to fifty seven years, and the range of experience is from one to twenty five years.

All nine

schools possess adequate equipment and facilities to conduct their programs.

There is a well founded course

of study in physical education for each grade level. fjFhe lack of background on the part of the teachers prohibits this system from conducting an outstanding program of physical education. J The only form of in-service training that has been attempted was a folk dance workshop conducted by the physical education supervisor in 1942.

The development

of this phase of the total program was greatly abetted and is significant in the planning of further in-service training.

3 Limitations of the s

( fhis study of in-service

training for elementary school teachers has necessarily —*-*r’

been limited/in two respects*

First, there is very little

literature in the field of in-service education, and there is still less available literature on in-service training for physical education at the elementary level*

Second,

lis study is concerned with elementary school teachers only*

To be an effective, meaningful program it must be

met with enthusiasm.

The elementary teacher is too often

expected to be proficient in every phase of the education program and the shortcomings are criticized severely by the personnel of the secondary schools who are especially trained majors*

It is undeniable that the effect of a

comprehensive in-service training program for physical education at the elementary level would be felt in the secondary schools* Importance of the study*

In answer to the ubi ^

ous question, ”Why should there be in-service education?”, Meredith W* Darlington has summed up the following seven points*^ 1.

Teachers should keep abreast of the times

M. W* Darlington, In-Service Education of Teachers and Rural Community Building, (Stillwater, OkTahomal Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1944), p* 7.

4 2. Teachers should be concerned with the realistic problems in their own sehools. 3. Teachers should be active participants in planning educational programs. 4. Professional deficiencies of teachers should be met. 5. A reciprocal flow of assistance should be main­ tained between teachers in the field and teacher training institutions. 6* In-service education should be concerned with growth of the child through growth of his teacher. 7. Professional guidance should be provided at the time of the teachers1 need. The problem of in-service training is today; an important and vital issue., The National Conference for the Improvement of Teaching held in Oxford, Ohio, July 1947, stressed the Improvement of pre-service and inservice education of teachers as one of its goals.

Since

!!physical education is no longer considered as a trailer or addedum to education, but as an integral part of education11^, it Is the responsibility of those concerned with it to make the necessary changes so that it may keep pace with recent educational objectives.

llEducators and

directors of physical education have long felt that the

^ W. R. LaPorte, nThe Changing Concepts of College Physical Education,tf Research Quarterly, 11 (March, 1931), p. 5.

5 greatest need for better teaching in physical education is in the elementary schools.”^

Weakness of the elementary

school teacher may, in part, be due to the factors advanced by Annis.^ 1. Teachers need more knowledge of the activities to be taught, together with actual ability derived through participation* 2. Practical courses in methods of presenting materials, and integrating such material with the general program are essential if the program is to be developed further* 3. More practice teaching is needed as part of the curriculum of teacher colleges. It has been found that even when adequately trained in the activities to be taught teachers are not successful in presenting work to their own grades. 4. Opportunities for the observation of expert teaching in physical education and for the visiting of well-conducted playgrounds should be another provision. 5. The time allotment in teachers1 colleges Is not sufficient to teach the things required. 6. The credit given for physical education courses does not justify the amount of work attempted. 7. More attention is needed for the activities which develop the teacher physically and provides carry-over activities for the enrichment of her own life.

^ E. K. Annis, ”A Job Analysis of the Responsibili­ ties of the Elementary Teacher to the Physical Education Program,” (unpublished Masterfs thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934), p. 2. 5 Ibid.. p. 22

6 8* The activity program of teacher training institutions should include the elements of the program to he taught in the elementary grades. Although many teacher training institutions are requiring more physical education preparation of their elementary majors, the faet still remains that there are many, many elementary school teachers now actively engaged in the profession who have had little or no training in physical education.

As one of today*s prominent educators

points out, the need for in-service education of teachers exists, not because the college training is becoming less effective, but rather because the schools and teachers are continually facing new and challenging problems. Institutes, extension classes and summer school courses do not seem to compensate for the lack of training.

In

addition to these sessions, there is a need for a com­ prehensive in-service training program in every community, district or city system. It is not expected that the classroom teacher gain proficient skill in the activities for her grade level, but it is essential that a training program give her a general indoctrination in the philosophy of physical 6

W. S. Q-ray, **The Professional Education of College Teachers,11 national Society of College Education Yearbook, No. 27, (University of Chicago Press, 1$&9), pp. 248-268•

education, add to her knowledge of skills and activities, and supply her with usahle materials* II.

DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED

In-service training *

Throughout this study the

term ,!in-service training” shall he interpreted as meaning the training of certificated teachers already actively engaged in the profession. Elementary school.

Throughout this study the term

”elementary school” shall he interpreted as meaning that school which has in attendance the kindergarten through the sixth grade. Elementary school teachers.

Throughout this study

the term ”elementary school teachers” shall he interpreted as meaning any certificated teacher directly concerned with the educational program from the kindergarten through grade six. III.

METHOD OF PROCEDURE

The method of procedure used in organizing this study is as follows: 1.

Extensive reading was done on all phases of the

elementary school physical education program, methods of organizing in-service training programs and content of

such courses* 2.

A questionnaire to be given to the Pomona

elementary school teachers was designed. 3#

An interview was secured with the supervisor of

physical education to discuss the advisability of such a questionnaire and the channels through which it might be administered.

At her advice the questionnaire was issued

and returned through her office. 4. ulated.

The results of the questionnaires were tab­ An expressed desire for an in-service program

was indicated. 5.

A program based on authoritative materials was

formulated to meet the needs and desires indicated by the questionnaires. IV.

ORGANIZATION OF REMAINING CHAPTERS

Chapter Two will deal with investigations and literature related to this study.

Literature included

in this chapter relates to in-service training programs for elementary school teachers and pertinent investigat­ ions dealing with method, content and teacher responsibil­ ities in elementary physical education programs. Chapter Three includes the findings of the questionnaire regarding teacher age, undergraduate physical education training, training since graduation, program

9 content and desire for in-service training. Chapter Four contains the course of study for the in-service training program.

This is in the form of a

four week summer workshop to he conducted within the district and specifically designed to meet the needs of the teachers within the district. Chapter Five summarizes the findings, presents conclusions and suggests recommendations for the study.

CHAPTER IX RELATED LITERATURE Investigations related to the study of in-service training of teachers in elementary school physical educ­ ation have been classified, for the purpose of clarifica­ tion, into two groups; (1) literature related to in-service training, (2) indirectly related literature• The problem of stimulating the interest of teachers toward self-improvement is the stimulus for many studies of in-service education.

Several such studies have been

conducted for the general elementary school program but few have been devised for physical education alone.

Those

that are pertinent to this study are reviewed in the following paragraphs.

The works reviewed in the section

pertaining to indirectly related literature were selected because of their recent date of publication. I.

LITERATURE RELATED TO IN-SERVICE TRAINING

To stimulate interest on the part of his teachers, Lumley^- devised a co-operative study of the individual

**- J. M. Lumley, In-Service Education of Teachers Through Co-operative Study of Pupils,11 The Elementary School Journal, (The University of Chicago Press, November 1946), pp. 145-47.

11 characteristics of pupils, in which he utilized the efforts of as many teachers as was possible.

The purposes kept

in mind while planning this project were as follows: 1. The first purpose was to focus the attention of the teachers on the individual characteristics of their pupils. Primary consideration was given to the variety of characteristics. 2. The second purpose was to allow each teacher the freedom of discovering and defining the character­ istics in her own way. 3. The third purpose was to lead the teachers to an awareness of the fact that methods of dealing with their difficulties could be worked out by.participating in group discussions with other teachers. Following this study, teachers* meetings, group discussions and panel discussions were planned at the request of the teachers.

The professional growth which

took place as a result of these sessions was apparent. The teachers in Sullivan County, Pennsylvania are con­ tinuing this study under an extended program. Rice

reviewed the California State Law and placed

special emphasis on the program of physical education in the elementary schools and upon the teachers conducting it.

The author suggested a general sequence of activities

2 rbia«. p. 147. ® J. H. Rice, "Physical Education Needs on the Elementary Level,” The Journal of Health and Physical Education. Vol. 19, Ho. 4, (April 1946), p. 266.

to be offered and teaching techniques for the formation of good habits of conduct that will carry over into all phase of life. To have a supervisor of physical education in charge of the program in a limited number of schools is the ideal arrangement as expressed by the writer.

In

this situation the regular teacher would conduct the class and would request the assistance of the supervisor when she needed help on material that was not familiar to her.

The writer establishes the importance of physical

education at this age level in the following paragraph. Since physical education is capable of developing individuals in such important aspects, and since these life patterns are established in the primary years of one's own life, we cannot help but agree that physical education plays probably its most outstanding role with the elementary child.4 The Report of the Teacher Education Workshop^ emphasized the need of teachers to grow regardless of the amount and quality of their previous training and ex­ perience.

The study presented an exploration of the

content, experience problems and procedures involved in a

4 Ibid., p. 260. 5 Teacher Education Workshop, In-Service Education of Elementary Teachers, (Nashville, Tennessee: Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Peabody College for Teachers), pp. 114.

13 program of in-service education which would provide the opportunity for such growth*

This report was prepared by a

group of selected teachers, principals, supervisors and representatives of teacher training institutions and state departments of education from eleven southern states and Iowa.

The work was representative of the committee*s

efforts to explore the following questions. 1. What are the characteristics of an excellent program of education in service? 2. What techniques and procedures are suitable for use in an in-service education program? 3. What is the role of the teacher, the superintendent, the supervisor, the ment of education, and the staff of the education institution in the in-service teachers?

the principal, state depart­ teacher education of

4. What practices and procedures affecting the in-service program of education need to be improved?5 The account of an in-service instructional program by Darlington*^ was evidence of the work attempted by the teachers in an in-service education which involved broader than ordinary concepts, different procedures, and different subject matters.

The program was offered by Oklahoma A.

and M. College to all teachers in the district whether or

6 Ibid., p. 4. 7 M. W. Darlington, In-Service Education of Teachers and Rural Community Building, (Stillwater, Oklahoma! Oklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1944), p. 72.

14 not they were graduates of that institution.

It was

conducted on the philosophy that a good pre-training program is only the beginning to successful teaching* Teachers become good through experience that is increas­ ingly perfect.

The writer was of the opinion that the

teacher training institutions should accept the responsi­ bility of in-service training to insure the effective performance of its products* An article by Pasternak^ reviewed a workshop planned for the Seventh Annual Greenhorn Mountain Institute of the Kern County Schools, California.

As

the title indicates, an attempt was made to approach physical education as a full and Integrated experience. Emphasis in this report was given to: intelligent and creative thought, constructive social action, awareness of physical efficiency and fundamental body mechanics. Materials and specific activities were used to clarify and develop stated objectives. The results of this workshop were encouraging. Both teachers and administrators expressed a sincere desire to study further activities of this nature.

Because

® Eleanor Pasternak, wThe Creative Values of Group Activities in Physical Education,” Journal of Health and Physical Education. Vol. 18, No. 8, (October 1947), p. 565.

15 of this request the time allotment of the next institute will he increased* / Jones and Stevens,9 recognized the fact that elementary school teachers were expected to be specialists in all fields and are not always adequately trained, suggested in-service courses as a solution to the problem. The training program took the form of a workshop and served the teachers of the northeastern Ohio area* The staff members for the course included representatives from Western Reserve University, elementary school principals, supervisors and teachers.

Activities of the

workshop included: organization, demonstrations, group unit presentation, guest speakers and a visual aid excursion.

The workshop was an overwhelming success as

was noted in the article by direct comments from part­ icipating members* The investigation by Hagel^ dealt with the construction of a manual, as an in-service training device, for the elementary school teachers in the state

^ E. Jones and G. Stevens, ^Workshop Practices in Elementary School Physical Education,11 Journal of Health Physical Education and Recreation, Vol* 20, Ho* 6, tJune 1949), p. 366. ^ Charles Hagel, 11Physical Education Manual for In-Service Training of Elementary Teachers in Montana,11 (unpublished Masterfs thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1948), p* 105.

16 of Montana#

The manual consisted of six units including

"body mechanics, self-testing activities, rhythmic acti­ vities, games of low organization, athletic games and relay races.

In addition to the activities each unit

contained suggested teaching methods and organization. Foote,H in his thesis, established an in-service training program as a result of needs indicated by questionnaires sent to Santa Ana teachers and principals of the thirteen elementary schools.

The training pro­

gram was developed upon the recommendation of the school administrators and was designed to be instituted at the Santa Ana Junior College. In addition to mentioning several methods of 1 improving the teacher in service, Manley^ stressed two prerequisites in implementing any in-service program. The concern was for the individual selected to administer the program; his relationship with the teachers and his own sense of security in the group.

Other adjuncts to a

good in-service program included; definite objectives,

William W. Foote, nA Program of In-Service Training in Physical Education for the Elementary School Teachers of Santa Ana, California,” (unpublished Master^ thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1947), p. 47. ^ Helen Manley, ”In-Service Training of Physical Education Teachers,11 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreation, Vol. &b, No. WJ INovember 1^49), p. S*7b.

17 a course of study, a library of books, music and films* Suggested devices for in-service training were: (l) supervisory visits, (2) teacher conferences and meetings including faculty meeting, individual confer­ ences, teacher inter-visitations and demonstration meeting, (3) rating charts and (4) bulletins* To what extent are California school districts providing in-service education programs? administered?

How are they

Are they accomplishing their purpose?

An

attempt to answer these questions was the purpose of a survey conducted by the Research Department of the California Teachers Association.***^

Some of the sig­

nificant facts and observations revealed in the survey were: 1*

The median allocation for each school

district toward in-service education programs was approximately #1,000 per year. 2*

The superintendent in most school districts

assumed the responsibility of organizing and administering the in-service program. 3.

The majority of districts do not recognize

***^ C. T* A. Research Department, ”In-Service Education Programs in California,11 California Teachers Association Journal* (January 1950), p# 6.

18 in-service participation toward credits for salary scale advancements• 4.

Faculty unity was most commonly mentioned as

accruing from the program. 5*

.The time element was found to he the greatest

obstacle in the development of successful in-service programs • The report of the Teacher Education Commission by Prall and Cushman14 was an account of a cooperative, three year study of teacher education conducted by representatives of colleges and universities.

The members

of the Commission agreed that the quality of teaching in American schools is influenced by the experiences teachers have had since they entered the profession.

The committee

discovered, however, that teachers actively engaged in the profession should continue to grow professionally to keep pace with ever changing social and educational conditions. The sections of the work pertaining to experimental workshops and appraisal of school system workshops were particularly vital to this study.

Although they were not

specifically directed toward physical education, the organizational plans and procedures were applicable. 14 Charles Prall, and R. Cushman, Teacher Education in Service, (Washington D. C.: The American Council on Education, 1945), 503 pp.

19 II.

INDIRECTLY RELATED LITERATURE

By using nontechnical terminology O ’Keefe and Fahey*^ designed their hook for the classroom teacher, recreational leader and student.

The work provides

comprehensive materials, suggested teaching techniques and procedures and devices for evaluating the physical education program. The authors also expressed a concern for rec­ reational activities for leisure education and have provided for them in the total program.

Suggested oppor­

tunities for furthering the social and physical health status of children were also included. The hook was organized into three parts.

The

first part dealt with outdoor activities that were classified into primary and intermediate grades.

Part

two consisted of indoor activities, suggested schedules and the organization of a noon program.

Part three

included plans and suggestions for play days and aud­ itorium programs.

Pattric O ’Keefe, and H. Fahey, Education Through Physical Activities, (St. Louis5 C. V. Moshy Company, 1949), 309 pp.

20 The study by Sehon et al.,

T6

was an attempt to

organize materials and teaching procedures so that they could he of value to the elementary school teacher of physical.education*

This study was one of the most

recent of its kind and should serve as an excellent guide to students as well as elementary school classroom teachers and specialists in the field of physical education. It contained information on teaching methods with practical material for activity procedures.

The chapters pertaining

to the qualifications of teachers, planning the program and specific activities to include in a physical education curriculum were most directly related to this investigation. The work by Curtiss and Curtiss^ was particularly designed as a course of study for the elementary school classroom teacher.

The authors developed a graded program

of activities that were tested for six years in the greater Cleveland schools.

A rather detailed section

was devoted to play days and intra-murals; a part of the program so often neglected at the elementary age level.

16 E. L. Sehon, M. H. Anderson, W. W. Hodgins and G. R. Van Fossen, Physical Education Methods for Elementary Schools, (Philadelphia and London: W ♦ B. Saunders Company, 1948),485 pp. 1^ M. L. Curtiss and A. B. Curtiss, Physical Education for Elementary Schools, (Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1945), 266 pp.

21 Also of great importance was the list of folk and square dance records found in the hack of the study*

Each record

was listed hy number and company. The writers expressed a real concern for the missing link in elementary school education, physical education* Unless we change this attitude, strong minds and souls will find their bodies weak inadequate temples, and we will learn that *later* is not the time to begin physical education The Physical Education Course of Study, pre­ pared by the Long Beach City Schools, ^ was a comprehen­ sive program including activities for the kindergarten, grades one, two, three, four, five and six.

The course

of study has emphasized the progressive development of physical education activities which is based on interest and growth needs of children at the various age levels. The curriculum has been set up in chart form and is separate for each grade.

Included items are as follows:

1.

The name of the activity.

2.

Unless the activity was a new one the discrip-

tion was not given.

Instead, the reference is listed.

18 Ibid., p. vii. Department of Curriculum, Long Beach City Schools, Physical Education Course of Study for Kinderarten and Grades One, Two, Three, Pour, Five and Six, Long Beach,~Califo?Sia~95l), 249“pp7 ~

f

22 3.

The content and method of each activity was

listed and included the game, suggestions, formations and object. 4.

The outcomes were given in relation to the

objectives. The unpublished Masterfs thesis by Annis^ was a study directed toward the classroom teacher and her role as a physical education teacher.

Relevant to this study

are the following factors: 1.

The curriculum in teacher training institutions

is not adequate to the extent that teachers trained for general elementary school teaching are qualified to conduct a thorough, well-balanced program. 2.

Many teachers are not physically fit to the

#

'i

extent that they must be excused from anything as strenuous as playground duty. 3.

According to the standards, established in this

thesis, many programs fall short because of the factors cited previously. Jameson^ utilized the answers to pertinent questions

E. K. Annis, 11A Job Analysis of the Responsibili­ ties of the Elementary Teacher to the Physical Education Program,11 (unpublished Master*s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934), 131 pp. 21 Emily D. Jameson, Physical Education for the Preparation of General Elementary School Teachers, (New TorkT~Bureau ofPublications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930), 118 pp.

25 as the basis for her study#

Inquiries concerning the

personnel teaching physical education revealed that most of the teaching was done by the classroom teacher with little assistance from supervisors.

From this response

she concluded that all institutions dealing with teacher training should include professional courses in their curricula. Her second question concerning the preparation of [the teachers for their responsibility was the basis for study.

The investigation extended over a two year period

and included twenty two teacher training institutions.

CHAPTER III ANALYSIS OF QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS This study was undertaken with the cooperation of the Physical Education Supervisor of the Pomona City Schools*

It was because of this splendid cooperation that

the questionnaires were distributed and returned so promptly in such a limited period of time.

Questionnaires

have often been criticized for their unreliability, but their reliability can be greatly increased when filled out under careful supervision.^

The supervisor assumed the

responsibility for distributing the questionnaires to each school at a meeting of all elementary school principals in the district.

At that time she reviewed the questionnaire

and answered inquiries concerning interpretation of wording.

The date for returning the questionnaires was

set and responsibility for issuing them to each teacher and returning the completed forms to the office of the supervisor became that of each principal.

^ Arthur Traxler, Techniques of Guidance, (New York: Harper Brothers, Publishers, lU¥5), p . 28.

25 I.

FORMULATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE

In an attempt to eliminate ambiguity and facilitate immediate response the questionnaire was designed to require simple, short answers and checks.

The question­

naire was formulated, submitted for criticism, and revised in accordance with the suggestions.

The form was then

presented to the Supervisor of Physical Education of the Pomona City Schools and upon approval was finally dist­ ributed to the elementary school teachers of that district. Each item included in the questionnaire was con­ structed with a definite, underlying purpose.

The

objectives were suggested by a number of sources, namely, books, articles, consultations and unpublished materials. The questionnaires were sent to the following nine elementary schools: Alcott, Hamilton, Kauffman, Lincoln, Roosevelt, San Antonio, San Jose, Washington and Westmont.

The response was reasonably good considering

the fact that eight schools returned questionnaires and only one school failed to respond.

Questionnaires were

received from fifty nine teachers representing the eight schools. II. Teacher age.

QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS Of the several questions appearing in

26 the questionnaire, the one left blank most frequently was that concerning teacher age.

Forty one teachers designated

a definite age, four answered "legal”, three reported "over twenty one" and eleven failed to respond.

As

indicated in Table I the forty one teachers who reported their ages were classified into four groups, twenty to twenty nine, thirty to thirty nine, forty to forty nine and fifty to fifty nine.

There were four in the first

classification, eighteen in the second, thirteen in the third and six in the fourth.

Not indicated in the table,

but of interest, is the fact that the reported age of the teachers ranged from twenty three to fifty seven. Undergraduate preparation for teaching physical education.

For the sake of expediency and clarity the

variety of undergraduate methods courses reported by the teachers were grouped according to the following classi* ficationss Games of Low Organization, Rhythms, Methods in Physical Education, Organization and Administration, Theory of Play, Recreational Leadership, and Health Education.

Table II indicated the number of teachers

who had not had undergraduate preparation for teaching physical education, those who had preparation and the variety of courses they had taken.

Ten teachers had taken

Games of Low Organization, twelve took courses in Rhythms,

27

TABLE I TEACHER AGE

Ho* of Teachers School Teachers Reporting Ag© (20-29) (30-39) (40-49) (50-59) A

7

1

0

1

0

0

B

7

4

2

0

1

1

C

6

5

0

1

4

0

D

10

9

1

3

4

1

E

9

8

0

6

1

1

F

5

4

1

1

1

1

G

10

7

0

3

2

2

H

5

3

0

3

0

0

59

41

4

18

13

6

Total

28

TABLE II UNDERGRADUATE PREPARATION FOR TEACHING PHYSICAL EDUCATION

K No# of teachers

8

Teachers who have had no courses in Physical Education Teachers who have taken courses in Physical Education

1st

2nd

11

5

3

5

3rd

4 th

5th

6th

Total

9

9

7

7

59

8

6

6

4

2

3

5

5

6

6

2

34

1

25

Games of Low Organization'

3

1

0

2

2

1

1

10

Rhythms

3

1

0

4

4

0

0

12

Physical Education Methods

1

3

2

1

3

1

0

11

Organization and Administration

1

1

1

0

0

0

0

3

Theory of Play

1

1

0

0

0

0

0

2

Recreational Leadership

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

Health Education

0

0

0

1

3

0

0

4

29 eleven had taken Methods in Physical Education, three took Organization and Administration, two took Theory of Play, one had taken Recreational Leadership and four had taken Health Education.

It is significant to note that only

twenty five teachers had taken courses in physical educa­ tion as undergraduates and the total courses taken by them was forty two.

Also worthy of note is the fact that thirty

four teachers had taken no courses in physical education in their undergraduate preparation for teaching. Preparation for teaching physical education since graduation.

The physical education methods courses taken

by the teachers since graduation consisted mainly of a rhythms course offered by the Pomona Supervisor of Physical Education.

This course included singing games, folk

dances, square dances and creative rhythms integrated with grade units.

The rhythms course was offered in the

form of a workshop and was initiated as a step toward in-service training, the only attempt of its kind in the district. Table III showed the number of teachers who had not taken courses in physical education since graduation, those that had, and the types of courses taken.

The total

number of teachers who had taken courses since graduation was nineteen and of those, sixteen had taken courses in

50

TABLE III PREPARATION FOR TEACHING PHYSICAL EDUCATION SINCE GRADUATION

No. of teachers

K

1st

8

11

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

Total

9

7

7

59

8 * 9

Teachers who have had no courses in Physical Education

7

6

6

6

5

4

6

40

Teachers who have taken courses in Physical Education

1

5

2

3

4

3

1

19

Gaines of Low Organization

0

0

0

1

1

1

0

3

Rhythms

1

4

2

3

5

3

1

19

Physical Education Methods

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Organization and Administration

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Theory of Play

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

^Recreational Leadership Health Education

0

31 physical education methods as undergraduates.

The general

classification of course.s used in Table II was also used in Table ♦III.

However, the courses taken after graduation

represent only three of these categories.

The distribution

shows that one teacher took Recreational Leadership, three took Games of Low Organization and nineteen participated in Rhythmic courses.

Classes in Rhythms rated highest as

methods courses taken as undergraduates and graduates. The total in Table II was twelve and the total indicated in Table III was nineteen.

Forty of the fifty nine

teachers who returned questionnaires stated that they had taken no courses in physical education since graduation. Teacher participation in activities.

This section

of the questionnaire was designed to reveal the number of teachers who had participated in physical activities with a reasonable degree of skill, and the activities in which they had participated.

In tabulating the activities they

were classified into Individual Sports, Team Sports, Dance and no participation.

The purpose of the grouping was to

facilitate interpretation of Table IV.

There was a variety

of activities represented considering the fact that it included activities participated In by only twenty four teachers.

Softball, basketball, volley ball and dance

were deemed most popular.

Of the fifty nine teachers

32

TABLE IV TEACHER PARTICIPATION IN ACTIVITIES

Activity Participation

K

1st

2nd

3rd

4th

5th

6th

Total

0 1 1 1 0 0

0 1 0 1 2 0

0 1 0 0 1 0

1 0 0 0 1 0

0 1 0 2 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

0 0 0 1 0 0

1 4 1 5 5 1

Basketball Football Hockey Softball Volley ball

0 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 1 2

1 0 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1

2 0 1 1 2

1 1 0 1 1

2 0 0 3 0

8 1 4 9 8

Dance

0

1

0

1

3

0

1

6

No participation

3

7

6

8

5

4

2

35

Individual Archery Badminton Bowling Swimming Tennis Track Team

reporting, thirty five had never participated skillfully in any physical activity*

One teacher indicated that she

had been excused from all activities throughout her years of academic training* Program of activities*

The Course of Study for

Physical Education in the Pomona schools was composed mainly of activities and methods suggested by Neilson and Van Hagen^ and Sehon*3

The portion of the question­

naire requiring a listing of activities taught by each teacher was formulated to reveal any discrepancy between the course of study and the activities actually being taught at each grade level.

This was the only section

in the entire form that was answered by all teachers returning the questionnaire*

This portion of the question

naire was also intended to be an instrumental factor in planning the in-service training program. The types of activities taught in kindergarten were classified according to the general types in the course of study and included: Rhythmic Activities, Games,

^ N* P. Neilson and W* Van Hagen, Physical Education for the Elementary Schools, (New York: A. S* Barnes and Company, 1938), 367 pp. 3 Sehon et al.,

0£.

cit., 485 pp.

54 Stunts, and Supervised Play.

The activities taught in

kindergartens were tabulated according to schools into these classifications as shown in Table V.

Seven schools

included Rhythmic Activities, eight included Games, six included Supervised Play and two schools included Stunts. Upon this evidence it seems justifiable to conclude that the teachers were not adequately prepared in that phase of the program which included stunts and that emphasis should be in that direction when constructing the in-service training program. Rhythmic Activities, Games, Relays and Body Mechanics were the general types of activities prescribed for the first grade in the course of study.

Included

under Rhythmic Activities were the singing games, simple folk dances and creative rhythms.

The games were the

circle and chasing games with a few simple ball games. Posture exercises, games and stunts composed the Body Mechanics phase of the first grade program.

Table VI

showed these activities of the course of study and the extent to which they were being taught.

Rhythmic Acti­

vities, Games and Relays were taught in the first grades of all schools while Body Mechanics was taught at only three schools.

It seems again justifiable to conclude

that this phase of the program should be stressed in the In-service program.

35

TABLE V TYPES OF ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN KINDERGARTEN

School

Activity Types In Course of Study Supervised Rhythmic Play Activities Games Stunts

A

X

X

B

X

X

C

X

X

X

X

X X

D

X

X

E

X

X

F

X

X

G

X

X

X

H

X

X

X

Total

7

8

X

2

6

36

TABLE VI TYPES OF ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE FIRST GRADE

School

Activity Types in Course of Study Body Rhythmic lames Mechanics Relays Activities i

A

X

X

X

B

X

X

X

C

X

X

X

D

X

X

X

E

X

X

X

F

X

X

X

X

G

X

X

X

X

H

X

X

X

8

8

8

Total

X

3

37 The grouping of activities for the second grade was the same as was given in Table VI.

The response, too

was similar in that all schools taught Rhythmic Activities and Games in the second grade.

Table VII indicated,

however, that seven schools included Relays and four schools taught Body Mechanics. In addition to the activities prescribed in the first and second grades, Athletic Games made their appear­ ance in the third grade curriculum.

The Athletic Games in

the course of study for this grade level were, to the greatest extent, lead up games.

Table VIII revealed that

all schools taught Rhythmic Activities, seven had Games, five conducted Athletic Games and Relays and two included Body Mechanics in the third grade program. The activities that made up the fourth grade course of study included Rhythmic Activities, Athletic Games, Games, Relays, Track, Self-testing Activities and Body Mechanics. Table IX indicated that Rhythmic Activities were taught in all schools, Athletic Gaines in seven, Games in six, Relays in five, Track Events in three, Self-testing Activities in one and Body Mechanics in two schools.

Worthy of note is

the fact that Rhythmic Activities were taught in every school in the first, second, third and fourth grades. This, in all probability, was a result of the specialized training in rhythms given the teachers in the district

38

TABLE VII TYPES OP ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE SECOND GRADE

School

Activity Types in Course of Study Body Rhythmic Mechanics Activities Games Relays

A

X

X

X

X

B

X

X

X

X

C

X

X

X

D

X

X

X

E

X

X

X

F

X

X

X

G

X

X

X

H

X

X

8

8

Total

7

X

X

4

39

TABLE VIII TYPES OP ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE THIRD GRADE

School

Rhythmic Activities

Activity Types in Course of Study Athletic Body Games Games Relays Mechanics

A

X

X

X

X

B

X

X

X

X

C

X

X

X

D

X

X

E

X

X

P

X

X

G

X

X

H

X

X

8

7

Total

X

X

X X

X

5

5

X

2

40

TABLE IX TYPES OP ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE FOURTH GRADE

Activity Types in Course of Study Rhythmic Athletic Self Body School Activities Games Games Relays Track Testing Mechanics A

x

x

B

x

x

C

x

x

D

x

E

x

x

x

x x

x

F

x

x

x

G

x

x

x

H

x

x

8

7

Total

x

x

x x

x x

x

x

x 6

x

x 5

3

1

2

41 by the supervisor. The fifth grade course of study contained all activities listed in the fourth grade with the addition of Recreational Games.

School P only goes to the fourth

grade so will not be represented in the remainder of the tables involving types of activities taught at specific grade levels.

Table X revealed that three

schools conducted Rhythmic Activities, seven had Athletic Games, four included Games and Track Events, three had Relays, two conducted Self-testing Activities, one school taught Body Mechanics and none of the schools listed Recreational Games as part of their fifth grade curriculum. Table XI, dealt with the sixth grade activities, and made use of the same eight groups seen in the previous table.

Seven schools included Rhythmic Activities and

Athletic Games, six conducted Games, four had Relays, one school offered Self-testing Activities, Track Events, and Body Mechanics.

Again no school offered Recreational

Games as part of their physical education program, although it was included in the course of study.

Figures for the

fifth and sixth grades indicated the predominance of an athletic program with equal emphasis being placed on rhythms in the sixth grade. Expressed interest for in-service training.

Speci-

42

TABLE X TYPES OF ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE FIFTH GRADE

Activity Types in Course of Study Athletic Self Body Rec. School Rhythms Games Games Relays Track Test Mechanics Games A

X

X

B

X

X X

G

X

X

D

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

X

E

X

X

F G H Total

X

3

7

4

3

X

4

2

1

0

43 *

TABLE XI TYPES OP ACTIVITIES TAUGHT IN THE SIXTH GRADE

Activity Types in Course of Study Athletic Self Body Rec. School Rhythms Games Games Relays Track Test Mechanics Games A

X

X

B

X

X

X

G

X

X

X

D

X

X

X

X

E

X

X

X

X

G

X

X

X

X

H

X

X

X

X

F

Total

7

7

6

4

1

1

1

0

44 fic areas to be emphasized in constructing an in-service training program may be clearly defined when reviewing the evidence illustrated in the tables dealing with activities taught at each grade level.

However, careful

consideration should be given to the interpretation of teacher needs as based entirely upon these figures.

Table

XII dealt with teacher interest for in-service programs and showed that thirty eight teachers desired some sort of program and would participate if it were held in their district.

The questionnaire cited three examples of such

an instructional program.

The teachers checked one, two

and in some instances all three of the suggested types of training courses.

Twenty seven preferred the workshop,

twelve state as their preference a methods course and eight felt that an institute would suffice.

45

TABLE XII EXPRESSED DESIRE FOR IN-SERVICE TRAINING

Grad©

Type of In-Service Training Teachers desiring Institute Methods Course Workshop Training

K

4

0

1

3

1st

8

3

3

5

2nd

4

0

1

3

3rd

8

1

3

5

4th

5

0

1

5

5 th

4

1

2

4

6th

5

3

1

2

38

8

12

27

Total

CHAPTER IV PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN-SERVICE TRAINING PROGRAM FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS jjjThe questionnaire returns from the Pomona teachers expressed a desire and interest for an in-service training program to be held in their district*

Their selection

of a workshop as a device for in-service training was timely when assuming the premise that nThe physical education class becomes a workshop in which democratic practices are involved which will contribute to the social-emotional and mental as well as the physical developments of the child. While formulating the instructional program primary consideration was given to the administration of such a program, the physical aspects pertinent to the planning, and the course content, I I.

ADMINISTRATION OF THE IN-SERVICE PROGRAM

Selection of personnel.

The selection of personnel

^ Edwina Jones and G. Stevens, ^Workshop Practices in Elementary School Physical Education,w Journal of Physical Education and Recreation, Vol. 20, No. 6, ?ealth. June 194$;, p. 3$6.

47 to conduct the instructional program is of primary importance.

The administrator of the course should be a

person who has the utmost respect and appreciation for the elementary school teacher, personally and professionally. The administrator would be the first to agree that the question regarding the teaching of facts or teaching children had been answered quite arbitrarily in the field of education; yet, is rather prone to conduct an in-service class in the reverse manner.

The realization that the

teacher, too, is an individual and far more important than the course content must always be foremost in his thoughts.

The following statement is an excellent

summation of the type of teacher receptiveness brought about by the wise selection of an instructor for the in-service program. If a teacher feels secure by knowing the supervisor is his friend, by realizing what is expected of him, and by being given a chance to work out some of his j own plans, he is ready for in-service help.2 jf For practical purposes, the staff of consultants for the workshop will include three representatives from Mt. San Antonio College where the program will be in­ stituted.

They are; the Director of Instruction, the

2 Helen Manley,

0£.

cit., p. 540.

48 Chairman of Women!s Physical Education and the Chairman of Men!s Physical Education.

The Supervisor of Physical

Education for Pomona City Schools, two elementary school principals and one teacher representing each grade will also serve on the steering committee. Since the workshop is designed to assist the mentary classroom teacher in meeting the practical needs of the physical education program it seems reasonable that the staff should include those persons, in the district, who have specialized training in the field. However, it is a well established fact that if physical education is to be successful in the school its philosophy must be in harmony with that of the school administration. Several school administrative officers were, therefore, *

selected to serve on the staff.

\

Enrollment and time allotment.

The enrollment for

the instructional program will be drawn from the Pomona City School District.

t will be open to all classroom

teachers and administrators of the elementary schools. This should eliminate too broad a divergence of basic essentials such as plant facilities and equipment.

It

should also insure a common grounding for introductory principles and practices in physical education.*!

A six week period is the allotted time for the

49 workshop, f~Meetings scheduled twice a week for a two and a half hour session should provide ample time for conducting a stimulating and worthwhile learning experience. The questionnaire results did not indicate that it would he necessary to plan a number restriction on the enrollment. II.

PHYSICAL ASPECTS OF THE PROGRAM

The workshop meetings are to be held in the Mt. San Antonio College gymnasium which is located in the Pomona district and within fifteen minutes driving distance of the nine elementary schools. | The gymnasium will be arranged so as to provide ample activity areas, classrooms, and library.

Books, pamphlets, magazines, catalogues,

music and records containing material relevant to the various phases of physical education will be made available to the participants of the workshop.

This information

will be accessable as reference materials for home as well as class purposes, f III.

THE PROGRAM

J^The literature in the field of education and specifically in the area of physical education reveals the repeated emphases on the tremendous importance of the elementary program as a foundation upon which all curricular activities in physical education may be based.

50 Tli© child who has been well trained in fundamental know­ ledge, skills, and body control will experience greater success and pleasure from his physical activities in the secondary and college programs.®

This basic training is

a great responsibility and in the majority of cases it falls upon the shoulders of the classroom teacher.

Without

doubt, elementary school teachers get too little preparation in physical education and in order to compensate for this deficiency it was recommended at the Seattle Conference that! 11functional, informal, and democratically admini­ stered in-service education with appropriate materials and visual aids be provided."^ Such in-service training is most effective through workshops where teachers and administrators can participate in the physical education experience in its broadest and richest sense. Only by actual participation and practice in the methods and prin­ ciples of a dynamic approach to physical education will the results of such a program be convincing.5 The probable success of the workshop will be largely determined by the participant attitude and willingness to

3 Jean Bontz, "Some Problems in Physical Education in the Elementary School,11 The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 19:406, June, 1948. ^ "Recommendations from the Seattle Convention Workshops," The Journal of Health and Physical Education, (September, l'547), p. 556. 5 Eleanor Pasternak,

0£.

clt., p. 565.

51 undertake such a project*

It will mean extra time and

effort, spent at the close of an exhausting day.

Problems

such as these are administrative in nature and should be anticipated and eliminated before the program is insti­ gated. Unwillingness of teachers to participate in an in-service training program may be attributed to a number of things.

According to Froehlick,® specialist for

training guidance personnel, teachers who have security will accept in-service education.

How to overcome

j

resistance and get teachers to expend additional time and effort is the outstanding problem and ever present obstacle facing this sort of program.

Three important

factors to be considered before the initiation of such a training program are s 1. Teachers must be secure enough in their employment to risk admitting their shortcomings. 2. Teachers must feel secure with their fellow teachers. 3. In-service training participants must feel secure enough to try out new skills or to operate on the basis of new understandings derived from the in-service program. 7

6 0. p. Froehlick, 11If Teachers Have Security They Accept In-Service Education,11 School Life, (February, 1949), p. 14. 7

Ibid.. p. 15.

52 A great deal of the classroom teacher1^ timidity may be due to the fact that physical education presents a new field of venture*

Realizing that the teacher is

constantly endeavoring to develop the whole child and that many basic teaching methods may be applied to the area of physical education, may make this phase of the program

First session.

The first class meeting will be

devoted to registration, definition of purpose and explanation of all materials available for class use. The first unit of work will involve the teaching of rhythmic activities in the form of singing games for primary grades, folk dances for intermediate grades and square dances for the upper elementary grades.

A

demonstration of these types of rhythms will be presented by members of the teaching staff.

These teaching

situations will be with children so that specific methods and techniques, that are basic to the philosophy of physical education, may be illustrated. Following the demonstration the teachers will be divided into the three grade segregations which they represent.

Each group will select a chairman who will

direct the planning for the group project and eventually serve as the teacher during the presentation.

The

53 remainder of the period will be devoted to group work. The staff will be available for assistance during the preparation periods.

The successful groups will be those

that practice as well as stress the democratic procedures in their own classrooms. Second session.

The second class meeting will be

devoted, in part, to further preparation for the group project.

The second hour will be given over to the

presentation of group rhythms.

The chairman of each group

will conduct the experience with the balance of the work­ shop members assuming the role of the children.

The

remainder of the period, following the three demonstra­ tions, will be utilized for the purpose of evaluation. Third session.

The opening portion of the third

class session will be conducted formally in the lecture room.

The purpose of this is to draw a line of continuity

from the teaching of fundamental skills, to lead up games and finally to include the athletic games.

An attempt will

be made to show the relationship of the isolated skills taught in the primary grades to the specialized games found in the upper grades. The entire group will decide on the athletic game to be presented by the teachers of the upper grades. Having done this, the group will again divide and select

54 new chairmen*

The intermediate group will plan a unit

of lead up games directly related to the athletic game while the primary teachers will present games of low organization which contain the "basic skills* Fourth session*

The fourth session will begin with

a film illustrating the skills and the game selected by the group at the preceding class meeting*

Final group

preparation will follow the film evaluation*

The balance

of the period will be spent in group presentation and evaluation. Fifth session*

The fifth class meeting will be

devoted to the teaching of games, stunts and relays* Again the group will be divided and a new chairman selected, an attempt being made to give as many teachers as possible an opportunity to present a project*

The

emphasis in this unit will be on class organization, ease of changing formation and variety of activities.

Each

group will be asked to include an original stunt, relay .or games as well as the traditional* Sixth session.

The stunts, relays and games

prepared during the last class meeting will be presented at this time*

The entire period will be devoted to the

presentation because of the additional time required in

55 tho individualized activities#

This type of activity

will probably prove exhausting for the teachers so the evaluation periods will follow each group activity# Seventh session#

The seventh session will begin

with a guest speaker who will present that phase of physical education termed !lBody Mechanics.11 The speaker will be requested to direct the information to the elementary school level, making it as practical as possible, and using demonstrations. A discussion and question period will follow; after which the groups will work on a phase of body mechanics applicable to their grade levels. Eighth session#

Film strips and other audio­

visual materials pertinent to body mechanics will be presented at the opening of the eight session#

Mew

ideas may be derived from this experience so the balance of the period will be given to group preparation. Ninth session# the group project.

Final preparation will be done on

Presentation and evaluation will

conclude the session.

More time has been delegated to

this phase of the program because of the questionnaire results which showed no previous preparation for body mechanics and in very few instances was it being taught

56 in the schools, although it was prescribed in this course of study* Tenth session*

The tenth session will begin with

a demonstration of creative rhythms.

The groups will then

divide and decide upon a unit of rhythm integrated with the classroom units of the grade level.

All necessary

materials will be available for this unit of work.

The

remainder of the period will be needed for preparation and research. Eleventh session.

At this meeting the final

projects will be presented and the usual evaluation will follow.

At the end of the project, committees will be

chosen for the purpose of compiling materials utilized and presented in class. Twelfth session.

The last class meeting will be an

informal one consisting principally of evaluation and conclusions.

Through the evaluation session an attempt

will be made to discern the extent to which the teacher really became acquainted with the field of physical education, acquired a background of information, and gleaned a revised perspective on teaching methods.

This

will be accomplished, to a degree, by encouraging each teacher to submit written comments.

The lasting values

of the workshop experience will be evident in the class rooms and on the playgrounds of the Pomona elementary schools•

Also at this time the tangible results of the

workshop, in form of mimeographed materials, references and bibliographies will be distributed*

CHAPTER V SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS "Progress depends on the realization of where we stand, desire for improvement, and definite goals toward which to strive.

Progress in physical education at the

elementary school level depends upon the afore mentioned requisites. 1Leaders in the field have presented evidence as to the relative status of physical education and it has heen because of the realization of need for improvement that in-service education has been adopted* | This study was undertaken for the purpose of furthering the progress of physical education in the elementary schools of Pomona.

A questionnaire was

distributed among the teachers to determine the present status of physical education in the district and a program of in-service training, based on authoritative sources, was planned for those teachers who had expressed a desire for improvement.

^ Emily Jameson, Physical Education for the Preparation of the Elementary Teacher's (New York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930), p. 99.

59 I.

SUMMARY

The problem was twofold in purpose: (1) to investi­ gate the need for in-service training of the Pomona elementary school teachers in physical education, (2) to develop a possible in-service training program to be conducted in the district, should the results of the afore mentioned investigation point to a need and a desire for such a program. The review of literature included work related to in-service training programs and literature related to elementary school physical education programs, teaching methods and procedures, teacher preparation and teacher responsibilities. jf In a field that has an abundance of literature related to its many aspects, there was a conspicuous absence of literature pertaining to in-service education of elementary teachers.

The available materijal

was in the form of periodical reports on workshops and pleas for more programs of that nature.

There was,

however, a wealth of literature pertaining to the related phases of the in-service program. The questionnaire was formulated and later approved by the Pomona Physical Education Supervisor and distributed to the teachers through her office.

The results of the

* questionnaires from eight of the nine schools were

60 tabulated and may be summarized by the following statements. 1.

The portion of the questionnaire dealing with

teacher age revealed that, of the fifty nine teachers responding, forty one indicated their age#

Of those,

four were in the twenty to twenty nine group, eighteen were from thirty to thirty nine, thirteen were from forty to forty nine, and six were over fifty years of age. 2.

Thirty four teachers reported that they had

taken no courses in physical education in their under­ graduate preparation for teaching.

Twenty five teachers

received undergraduate preparation for teaching physical education.

The forty courses taken by those teachers

were classified in the following groups: a.

Games of low organization

b.

Rhythms

c.

Methods in'physical education

d.

Organization and administration

e.

Theory of play

f.

Recreational leadership

g*

Health education

3.

Nineteen teachers had taken courses in physical

education since their graduation from college. of those had undergraduate preparation as well.

Sixteen Forty

teachers had not taken courses in physical education since graduation.

61 4.

The section of the questionnaire dealing with

teacher participation in activities showed that thirty five had never skillfully participated in physical activities.

Individual sports, team sports and dance

were the types of activities in which twenty four teachers had participated. 5.

Rhythmic activities, games, relays and athletic

games were widely taught in grades where they were pre­ scribed by the course of study.

Stunts, body mechanics

and recreational games were virtually ignored, although they were slated at various grade levels In the course of study. 6.

Thirty eight teachers expressed a desire for

in-service education.

Twenty seven of which designated

the workshop as their preference of the form in which this program should take effect. A physical education in-service training program for elementary school teachers was established.

The

administrative set-up, the physical aspects of the program and the program content constituted the major considerat­ ions of the in-service proposal.

An outline of the

workshop was presented in twelve portions representing the twelve group meetings.

62 II. CONCLUSIONS The following conclusions are based upon the significant findings revealed as a result of this investigation*

r

l.

The pre-service training of the majority of

Pomona teachers was not directly related to the ultimate

responsibilities of the elementary school classroom teacher toward the physical education program. 2*

Although the need for in-service training has

been recognized by members of the physical education profession, it is not generally accepted by teachers and administrators*

However, the questionnaire results

indicate a need for such an instructional program in Pomona and the proposal of in-service education was met with enthusiasm by teachers and administrators. 3.

As a device for in-service education, the

workshop was deemed desirable from the standpoint of'both teacher request and already existant successful ex­ periences.

This was evidenced by the fact that the

greatest satisfactions are derived from one1s own planning and creations. 4.

The workshop, to be of greatest benefit, should

stress the.selection of activities, organization, and presentation of materials applicable to the various

63 elementary school grade levels. III.

RECOMMENDATIONS

On the basis of the fore-going investigation into the need for in-service training in physical education for the Pomona elementary school teachers and the proposal of a workshop to satisfy that need, it is hereby recommended that: 1.

The proposed workshop, as a device for in-service

training, for the Pomona elementary school teachers be put into effect at the earliest possible date. f

2.

gmtiigSS*-

That,/be cause of the widely recognized need

for such programs of in-service edueation71 similar [studies ft

J

■'■Tigs—

be "made in order to compensate for the lack of pre­ service training which exists throughout the elementary schools .1

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

Curtiss, Mary Louise, and Adelaide B. Curtiss, Physical Education for Elementary Schools* Milwaukee: The Bruce Publishing Company, 1545* 286 pp. v/Darlington, M. W., In-Service Education of Teachers and Rural Community““T?ullding. Oklahoma :”TJklahoma Agricultural and Mechanical College, 1947. 72 pp. Davis, El wood C., and John D. Lawther, Successful Teaching *n Physical Education. New York: Prentice-Hall, Inc.7 1941. 6 6 5 pp. Irwin, Leslie W., The Curriculum in Health and Physical Education. St. Louis, Mo.: The C. V. Mosby Company, IS44. T 5 1 pp. Jameson, Emily D., Physical Education for the Preparation of the Elementary School teacher. $ew York: Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1930. 118 pp.

\/Jones, Edwina, Edna Morgan, and Gladys Stevens, Methods and Materials in Elementary Physical Education. New York: World Book Company, 1956. 258 pp. %yLaPorte, Wm. Ralph, The Physical Education Curriculum. Los Angeles: The University of Southern (California Press, 1942. 61 pp. LaSalle, Dorothy, Guidance of Children Through Physical Education. New York: A.« S. Barnes and Company, 1946• 292 pp. LaSalle, Dorothy, Physical Education for the Classroom Teacher. New York: A. S. Barnes and Company, 1^37• 209 pp. Neilson, Nils P., and Winifred Van Hagen, Physical Education for Elementary Schools. New York: A. S. Barnes and Comp any, 193b. 36 b pp.

66 Mixon, Eugene and Fredrick Cozens, An Introduction to Physical Education, Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company, 1942. SF8 pp. O fKeefe, Pattric, and Helen Fahey, Education Through Physical Activities, St, Louis: 6* V, Mosby Company, 1949, 309 pp. Prall, Charles, and R. Cushman, Teacher Education in Service. Washington D. C.: Lhe American Council on Education, 1945, 503 pp. ,Sehon, Elizabeth, et al,, Physical Education Methods for Elementary Schools. Phi 1adeIphia: W. B. Saunders Comp any, ±948♦ ¥H5 pp, Smalley, Jeannette, Organization of Physical Education in the Elementary School. Los Angeles: 'fhe University of Southern California Press, 1946. 92 pp. Teacher Education Workshop, In-Service Education of Elementary Teachers. Hashville, Tennessee: Division of Surveys and Field Studies, George Peabody College for Teachers, 114 pp. Traxler, Arthur, Techniques of Guidance. Mew York: Harper Brothers Publishing Company, 1945, 394 pp. Williams, Jesse Feiring, John Dambach, and Norma Schwendener, Methods in Physical Education. Phila­ delphia: W. B. Saunders and Company, 1932* 322 pp. B.

PERIODICALS

Bontz, Jean, !fSome problems In physical education in the elementary school.” Journal of Health and Physical Education, 19:406, June, 1948• C. T. A. Research Department, !tIn-service education program in California.” California Teachers Association Journal. January, 1950. pTT FI Department of Curriculum, ”Physical education course of study for kindergarten and grades one, two, three, four, five and six,” Long Beach Course of Study, 1931. 249 pp. ■ *

67 Froehlick, C. P., "If teachers have security they accept in-service education*11 School Life, February, 1949. P# 14 Gray, W. S., "The professional education of college teachers.11 National Society of College Education Yearbook. 1939. pp. 248-26§. Jones, E., and G. Stevens, "Workshop practices in elementary school physical education.11 Journal of Health, Physical Education and Recreatlon, 20T566, June, 1949• LaPorte, W. R.. "The changing concepts of college physical education. The Research Quarterly, 11:5-8, March, 1931. Lumley, J. M., "in-service education of teachers through co-operative study of pupils." The Elementary School Journal, November, 1946. pp. 145-14TI Hanley, Helen, .1 In-service training of physical education teachers.1 Journal of Health, Physical Education and. Recreation, 26:579, November, 1949• vPasternak, Eleanor, "The creative values of group activities in physical education." Journal of Health and Physical Education, 18:565, October, 194^. _______, "Recommendations from the Seattle convention workshop." The Journal of Health and Physical Education, 18:55^ September, 1947♦ Rice, J. H., "Physical education needs on the elementary level." The Journal of Health and Physical Education 19:260, AprTl"ri94BV C.

UNPUBLISHED MATERIALS

mis, Elsie K., A Job Analysis of the Responsibilities of . the Elementary Teacher to the Physical kducation Frogram" Unpublished Master’s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1934. 131 pp.

Foote, William W., A Program of In-Service Training in Physical Education for~he Elementary School Teachers of Santa Ana, California* Unpublished Master1s thesi University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1947. 47 pp. Nagel, Charles, Physical Education Manual for In-Service Training of Elementary Teachers in Montana* Un­ publ i shed Master1s the sis, Univer sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, 1947* 60 pp. Randall, Harry, A Study of Elementary Physical Education Organization and Supervision inSmall Rural Schools of Tulare County, California* Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern California, Los Angele California, 1948. 50 pp. Saterburg, Walter, The In-Service Training of Fresno County Elementary Teachers. Unpublished Master1s thesis, University of Southern California. Los Angeles, California, 1940. 78 pp.

APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHERS Ag©_________ Sex F

M___

Name of school___________________________________ Teacher of _ _ _ _ grade. From what college or university did you graduate?

Date of graduation List of physical education methods courses taken by you as an undergraduate*

List physical education methods courses and workshops taken since graduation.

71 List physical education activities in which you have skillfully participated•

List types of activities that you teach in your physical education program. Please check those that are taught co-educationally«

Please check if you would be interested in attending a physical education institute 9 methods course 9 workshop held in your district*