The Oxford Starter Japanese Dictionary 0198601972, 9780198601975

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The Oxford Starter Japanese Dictionary
 0198601972, 9780198601975

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-

Oxford

anese Dictionary FIRST EDITION -,

Makes Japanese easier to learn than ever before'

, '

^: v

y-i

The World^s Most Trusted Dictionaries

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if

^ .V

I':,;

:

"

The Oxtord Starter Japanese Dictionary Edited by

Jonathan Bunt with

Gillian Hall

OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS

Great Clarendon Street. Oxford 0x2 6dp

Oxford University Press It

is a department of the University of Oxford. farthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship,

and education by publishing worldwide Oxford

in

New York

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is

a registered trade

UK and

mark of Oxford

Published in the United States by Oxford University Press Inc..

© Jonathan The moral

University Press

in certain other countries

New York

Bunt 2000

rights of the author have

been asserted

Database rights Oxford University Press (makers) First

published 2000

All rights reserved.

No

part of this publication

may be

reproduced.

stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means.

without the prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press, or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriate reprographic rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproduction outside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department. Oxford University Press, at the address above

You must not circulate this book in any other binding or cover and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing Publication Data

Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Data available

ISBN 0-19-860197-2 10

98765432

Typeset by Graphicraft Limited, Hong Kong Printed in Spain by Book Print S. L.

Contents Contributors and acknowledgements

About

this dictionary

Japanese Script

iv

v vii

Structure of Japanese-English entries

viii

Structure of English-Japanese entries

ix

How to

use this dictionary

x

Glossary of grammatical terms

xiv

Japanese-English dictionary

1

Usage notes

171

English-Japanese dictionary

207

Chart of hiragana and katakana symbols

429

The Oxford Starter Japanese Dictionary Contributors and acknowledgements

Chief editors Jonathan Bunt with

'

Gillian Hall

Japan Centre North West

-

University of Manchester

Editors and Contributors

Miyoko Yamashita Ayako Somers Yukiko Shaw Motoi Kitamura Yumi Tozuka Nobumi Kitamura

OH BR P 679 .09

and many other family, mends and visitors to the Japan Centre who the editors would like to thank for their patience and their valiant attempts to answer impossible questions. Special thanks to

Thanks

Suzuko Anai.

also to colleagues

from the BATJ

(British Association for the

Teaching of

Japanese) for their interest and support.

Proprietary terms some words which are, or are asserted to be, proprietary names or trade marks. Their inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes a non-proprietary or general significance, nor is any other judgement implied concerning their legal status. In cases where the editor has some evidence iliat a wora is used as a proprietary name or trade mark, this is indicated by the symbol but no judgement concerning the legal status of such words is made or

This dictionary includes

implied lluTcbv.

About

this dictionary

To get the most out of the information contained

in this dictionary please see to use this Dictionary. This book is designed to help English-speaking students of all ages who are studying Japanese in schools, colleges, universities, evening classes and in a business context. It is also aimed at people living in Japan. In the Japanese to English section, we have given a wide range of Japanese words with English equivalents and suggestions as to how to understand and translate them. We have tried to be simple and straightforward and have therefore not included all possible meanings. Our guide for selection was usefulness not only to students but also to those visiting or working in Japan who will encounter a wide range of vocabulary, including culturally specific items needing explanation rather

How

than just a translation. In the English to Japanese section, the English words are followed by either translations or a suggested method of conveying English uses in Japanese. This section is mostly aimed at those studying the language formally. Such people often have to write short essays and diaries or make short presentations as part of their course and need to supplement their textbooks with other sources of Japanese. We have not tried to give all possible ways of expressing the English and our guideline for inclusion or exclusion was whether it seemed likely that students could use the word or expression in the contexts in which we as teachers at school and university think that they are likely to need it. This will not produce perfect solutions to the problem of moving between two very different languages but it is better to try something and then find out why it is not right in a particular case than to not try at all. We expect that qualified teachers will be seeing and responding to most of the material generated from our explanations. This interaction of learner and teacher will fine-tune the use of the information in this dictionary. We have (after much consideration) been consistent in giving examples in the forms to which most learners are first exposed forms. We have tried to give some indication of the various styles of Japanese speech and guidance on how to find a Japanese word that does not at first seem to be includea by breaking it down into meaningful elements or by changing its form - see How to use this Dictionary. One important feature of the JapaneseEnglish section is that we have given the and forms. These most common verbs used by beginners in their entries are cross-referenced and will provide support in learning the relations between forms which are vital for understanding the grammar of Japanese and making progress with the language. This information is further supported by the •

notes on verbs.

Another unusual feature of this dictionary

is

that

it

avoids romanized Japanese.

It

not usually the practice to teach Japanese seriously using roman script so we have given the translations and examples in syllabic scripts and an alternative using Chinese characters where this is appropriate. This helps learners to master the scripts quickly, learn Japanese word-order patterns, and avoid reliance on romanized forms which can lead to errors - especially in pronunciation. The syllabic scripts are easily learned and we have given a reference chart to help during early stages of script learning. We have kept to the government list of approved characters in the English to Japanese section examples. In the Japanese to English section we have kept some non-standard forms as they are likely to be encountered by people in Japan. Remember that kanji are not compulsory in many situations. Space prevents this dictionary including Chinese character look-up information but as many students is

About

this dictionary

vi

we have

given some information we have given as main entries in the Japanese to English section a very wide range of suffixes and prefixes which will allow careful users to find the meanings of a vastly greater number of words than are here as headword entries. For information on how to do

will also be studying the use of Chinese characters,

relating to

them throughout the main

entries

and

notes. In particular,

How

to use this Dictionary. in addition to being a supplementary reference for learners working with a textbook this dictionary will prove interesting] The value of browsing and curiosity as part of language learning is all too often forgotten and teachers and learners tend to stick to self-contained textbooks. We would like to think that any learner who is interested in Japanese can find something of interest and value by dipping into this book. Japanese is a fascinating language and it is the interest and enjoyment of our students that has led us to want to produce a much-needed resource for.them. this see

We

hope that

To teachers We hope that you can find something of value to your students and humbly suggest that the best

Japanese

is

way

for

to get

you

to

your students to use

this dictionary to

show them how. Helping

a student to

improve their the most of a

make

dictionary should be an essential element of any language course as it gives the learner a chance to fly (even if they may be unsteady for a while!). We would greatly

welcome your comments and suggestions

for

improvements.



Japanese Script

.

usually written using a combination of scripts. It can be written left to right or more traditionally, in vertical • "^' columns from right to left Vertical writing tends to be used for •

Japanese

is

horizontally from

books, newspapers, formal letters and essays.

There are two series of phonetic symbols or of 46 sounds each which can be combined to write the sounds of the language, and Chinese characters or which carry meaning and may have more than one way of being pronounced

depending on the context. See the entries on and for more about the use of Chinese characters. The characters used in books and newspapers are largely limited to those in the official list produced for schools and those which can be used for personal names. The characters for schoolchildren to be taught are called which means 'characters for everyday use. There • are 1945 of them. In a sentence such as

'I

am going to London tomorrow* the Japanese will feature

name, and the ending on the verb and as well as the stem of the verb 'to go. for the place



particles

and

T





grammatical words 'tomorrow'

for the for the



The main use of

V

V

woras or foreign origin and it is used for the By convention the names of Chinese and Korean people and places are often left in characters and a pronunciation indicated in ,5 (see below). is also used for onomatopoeia, t) U some adverbs and as a kind of italic script for emphasis. It is common for the pronunciation of (possibly) unfamiliar characters to be indicated by small script above or to the side. This is called or "^ and can be in either 7 "^ or This also appears in textbooks to help learners with new is

to write

names of non-jaoanese people and

places.



$

.

readings. for the headwords in the Japanese or and the translations in the English to Japanese section as appropriate. Where would normally be employed we have given a 'standard' script form immediately after the version. There is some flexibility about We have tried whether or not to use for a particular word or just to give something approximating standard usage and so we have some characters not in the government lists where we judge them to be in common use and we have left some words without characters even though the characters are common ir it felt

This dictionary uses either to English section

.

stylistically better in a

We advise beginners

given case.

not to attempt to copy out the more complicated kanji until they are more confident with Japanese writing. A word written in legible hiragana is much better than a badly copied kanji which will be difficult for the intended reader to understand.



-

.

®

structure of Japanese-English entries headword in Japanese syllabic

{of food) = delicious



(o/^ab/7/fy)

script

multiple clearly

part of spe;pch

adjective -'… •

=

translations

skillful

alternative script

senses the sense 'delicious' this generally only used bv men.

shown

in

notes to explain

word

for is

headword

show use

to

of

Chinese characters (kanji) where

usage

appropriate

MASU

forms of common verbs given as

verb conjugation group clearly shown

headwords and cross-referenced to the appropriate

verb



transitive or

..

1

=

dictionary form (main entry)

intransitive nature of verb shown by the appropriate

to sell

particle

the TE, NAI and

MASU '

forms of verbs are

common

given to assist beginners

adjective • •

TE forms

of

common

verbs given as

= noisy = annoying as an exclamation

it

means

headwords and

197

cross referenced to the appropriate dictionary form/s (12) and to the usage notes on verbs (13) where

the TE form is explained in detail

'shut

up' (13)

(12)

verb







=togo



form of a verb

following the

it

can add the sense of an ongoing process or direction of movement of 197 , ^204 the subject

numbers show where a word can be used as different parts of

speech and any changes in form where this happens are

shown

'

s

noun

-

bringing up

children

••'

boxed notes

to

explain functions in certain contexts as well as

meanings

explanation where no exact equivalent exists



1 noun = agreement 2 verb



agree

commonly used = to :•••••:

particles other than

from the

transitive/

intransitive

are

marker

shown

(18)

(18)

i

2

/•

structure of English-Japanese entries headword

able

adjective

part of

be able to... = use the potential form of the verb or the dictionary form of the verb + 191 to be able to swim =

cross reference to

to

information

associated with the entry

example of usage

Japanese

•••

able to read hiragana =

script (kanjikana-majiri)

..

American same form

associated

elements which are

1

present in some circumstances appear in brackets

1 adjective

speech with the

=

clarified

kana only and then repeated in standard

adjective

= different parts of

translations of example in

Japanese



ambitious

how

to translate into

:::

am

I

speech

information on

2 noun

by use of numbers

American person = issues associated

RGmember there are two words for family members

177

noun

-

'-

own older brother) = (your own younger brother) = {your

sub-divisions of

meaning

clearly

indicated and separately translated

, :.

''

'

else's older brother)

{someone

else's

feel verb •

f

(someone

••••

=

potentially

misleading translations are

=

,'

youngsr brother) =

multiple examples to clarify usage

made

translations written

Japanese

syllabic script

alternative script •'

is often best to translate with an adjective + when referring to yourself 178

senses marked

and

suggestions

in

it

clearly

/

clarified

:

Japanese is very different to English when describing feelings,

difrerent

with word use are highlighted

sets of

version of the translations to show use of

Chinese characters (kanji) where appropriate

an emotion, an impression or a physical feeling) feel lonely =

{referring to

I

it

I

it



feels cold = feel tired-

'



feels nice =

{to

touch) =

to feel

like...

information on

how

to translate into

Japanese

= use the pre

rorm yourself and

of the verb + for the pre form of the verb + 191 for others

cross references to detailed usage notes section

How to Japanese

use this dictionary

into English side

"

more words in this dictionary than it may at first appear! The following section gives advice on what to do if the word you want does not seem to be present. Japanese verbs and certain adjectives can have a variety of endings. If the form of a word in front of you does not seem to be in the dictionary try and identify what kind of word it is. Verbs are often at the end of sentences and will have some hiragana characters after the Chinese characters (if they are used) i.e. Adjectives may also be detectable by their 'tail' of hiragana characters after the The notes on verbs and adjectives Chinese character/s i.e. • give tables showing possible endings which can help you identify an unknown word. For convenience a table is given below with some of the most common inflectional endings and ideas on how to convert them back to a form that can be looked up. Also note that it is common practice in Japanese textbooks for beginners where words are spaced, any particles are added to words without a space separating them. There are a

lot

.

The same

is

true of

and and related forms eur. up a form of a word that is the word itself plus a 205 is a list of particles in the note on •



Make

sure you are not trying to look particle or one of these words! There

word you want

7

up has one of the following endings try to change it as up the new form and the ending as separate items. This is not guaranteed but should give you a very good chance of finding the word you want. If the word does not seem to have one of these endings see the note on prefixes and suffixes below. If

the

to look

indicated in the table below and look

ending

how a

to change it back to form you can look up

Example from

Example to

remove ending and add

remove ending and add

remove ending and add

remove ending and add

remove ending and add or

remove ending and add or

there

is

or only one verb

with the latter ending

remove ending and add


_

'ci)

or

i to c±

to

>

U

y

CJ

"H"

CZ CZ

L/

d~ 9

>

'-u' i.e.

\

etc.

above

as at)ove

as

*

'-u' i.e.

\

y

above

remove ending and add O or change the last syllable before the

ending from to

as

or

'-a'

to

V

'-u' i.e.

to

etc.

above

always follows either or so find the appropriate form of that ending in the chart initial

word

followed by

look up the initial word and then the relevant part of

in the verb

note. Note that the

1

'

3^

Li

nj

elements in front of these forms are usually nouns written with Chinese characters as for

or

/

J

/ds V



this dictionary

1

\



How to

use





this dictionary

xii

how

ending

a

to change it back to form you can look up

Example from

Example to

or

as for

remove ending and add

or other endings with -eba such as

and add remove the or remove the and change the

or

preceding

'-e'

to

l-f 1

9

'-u' i.e.

to

remove ending and add

Exercise Trv to nnd the basic forms of the following and their meaning from the chart above using only the main entries. Use the notes on verbs or adjectives only to check!

Prefixes and Suffixes word is not in the dictionary try separating the nrst one or two symbols and looking it/them up to see if it/they is/are a common prefix element. You can also try looking at the final few syllables and trying the same thing to check for suffixes. If a

Exercise Try to find the following words' meanings and the elements of which they are

composed pre/ix

suffix

A Note on Verb Forms There are two

common

use the polite

(as

styles of Japanese verbs and textbooks for beginners tend to opposed to plain) style as this is the normal way of talking to people other than friends and family. The plain style tends to be introduced at a later stage but is important for the learning of grammar and in a wide range of constructions. Because the polite style of a verb is not a basic 'word' but a form of the plain or dictionary 'word' we have followed usual dictionary practice and given verb entries in what is often called the dictionary form. The same applies in the English to Japanese section. However, as beginners tend to use the polite style we have kept

How to use

xiii

examples

in that form.

this dictionary

We have also selected some of the most common verbs

beginners' textbooks and given

them

main

in

form and conjunctive or form in the JapaneseEnglish section. This will allow you to look up a verb in these forms so even if you have not yet studied the relation of plain and polite style verbs or learned the formation of conjunctives you can find a crossreference to the dictionary form where a translation and conjugation information will be found. The verb entries have numbers referring to the conjugation patterns and symbols to show if they are transitive or intransitive and reference can be made to the notes and tables situated between the JapaneseEnglish and English-Japanese sections. The table above will also assist you to find a dictionary form of a verb. Try to find the dictionary form and meaning of the following polite style verbs as

entries in their so-called

Try to find the dictionary rorm and meaning of the verbs from the following conjunctive forms

For further information see the notes on plain

and

polite style and

verbs

English into Japanese side The English into Japanese side of the dictionary attempts to give full guidance on how to write and speak correctly in Japanese. Plenty of examples are given to demonstrate not only the translation of words into Japanese but also their usage in Japanese sentences. You will find additional information on grammatical points, such as the use of words in certain contexts, in the grammatical notes that occur within the entries on certain words. These notes are designed to help you produce correct Japanese in areas where mistakes are frequently made due to Japanese usage being different from English. If you are unable to translate an English word into Japanese because you cannot find it in the wordlist, try to use another word with the same or a similar meaning, or choose another form of wording which will enable you to find what you're looking for. For instance, if you want to translate the adjective complex but cannot find it in the dictionary, you could try complicated as an alternative, which gives

()

() as the Japanese equivalent.



A very useful feature of this dictionary are the usage notes wnich cover sets of related

words based on topics such

as family, dates,

find these in the centre of the dictionaiy.

and nationalities

etc.

You will



a



.

Glossary of grammatical terms This section explains the basic terms that are used in this dictionary to help you to find the information that you need. This list does not provide a full analysis of the Japanese parts of speech.

'

Adjective An

adjective is used to add extra information to or describe a noun - a difficuif job. a beautiful girl, a fat cat. In

Japanese:

• •

There are 2 main types of Japanese adjectives

20

described in a note

Adverb An

adverb is used to add extra information to or describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb - to walk slowly, extremely difficulu come quickly. In Japanese

' . •

Nounsand

and

'new'

'newly'. See the note

on

201

adjectives

Auxiliary verb An auxiliary verb is a verb, such as be, do, have, which is used to form a particular tense or grammatical function of another verb, or to form an interrogative, negative, or imperative sentence. Here are

some English examples:

it

is raining;

has

did you

don't gof. Japanese does not use auxiliary verbs in this see him?: she didn't come; he

left;

way.

Comparative The comparative, as its name indicates, is the form of the adjective or adverb which enables us to compare two or more nouns or pronouns. In English, this is usually done by putting more, less, or as before the appropriate adjective or adverb, or by changing the base form to the

comparative form ending in r. Japanese adjectives and adverbs do not have different comparative forms. The comparison is often indicated by the particle thejapanese equivalent of than.

Conditional A conditional sentence in

which the statement contained

is

in the

one

main

clause can only be fulfilled if the condition stated in the subordinate clause is also fulfilled. In the first example below going to the seaside and in the second example going to Japan are the main clauses. This condition is usually introduced by if in English. Japanese has a variety of structures with similar functions. Sec the note on verbs 191 If

it

is

fine

tomorrow,



we

'II

go

to

Japan

if

I

had lots

of money

=



Conjunction A conjunction can be either (i) a word like and or but which is used to join words or simple sentences together, or (ii) a word like when, although, if, where, which is used to form a complex sentence. Japanese conjunctions are often combinations of particles or

words plus

particles.

Determiner A determiner

is

used before a

noun in order to identify more precisely what is being referred to. Here are some

to the

the

(

book =

book= that book:

a



or

to

final

4

asin

would go

examples:



adjectives can be made into adverbs by adjectives can addition of the particle (.

become adverbs by changing the

I

seaside =



these books = =

some books



Note that the English a and the have no equivalent in Japanese and For other determiners look up the English word in the English to Japanese section.

Exclamation An exclamation

is

a

word

or

phrase conveying a reaction such as surprise, shock, disapproval, indignation, amusement, etc. In English it is usually followed by an exclamation mark. Excellent!

What nice weather!

mperative An

imperative sentence is used to indicate an order, command, prohibition, suggestion, etc. Japanese has imperative forms of verbs but usually uses request structures as imperatives are considered rude. See the note on verbs for further information.

Counter

Japanese numbers and the counting system are different from English and counters are words which attach to numbers to show the type of thing being 181 counted

Noun A noun

is

used to identify a person,

an animal, an object, an idea, or an emotion. It can also be the name of an individual. company, or an institution. student =

dog





table =

plan: happiness = Peter = America =





Glossary of grammatical terms

XV

Japanese nouns do not have plural forms and so the nouns above can mean 'students',

interrogative pronouns used in questions who, which, what; the demonstrative

'dogs', tables' etc.

pronouns this, that, these, those; the relative pronouns used in relative clauses who, which, whose; and the reflexive pronouns myself,

Object The

object of a sentence

is

the

word

or group of words which is immediately affected by the action indicated by the verb. In the following English sentence, the word child is the subject, broke is the verb and the toy is the object. Similarly, in the Japanese translation is the subject, is the verb and is the object.

/

the child broke the toy = •

may be two kinds or obiect in a sentence, a direct object and an indirect object. In the example above, the toy and are strictly direct objects. However, in the following English sentence, he is the subject, gave is the verb, the child is the indirect object and a toy is the direct object. Similarly, in the Japanese translation, is the verb, t\ is the subject, is the indirect object and is the direct object. In general terms, the indirect object indicates the person or thing which 'benefits' from the action of the verb upon the direct object. There

yourselves, themselves.

itself,

ourselves,

Japanese does not use

in the same way as English. names are preferred to words like and 'she' and there are no reflexive

pronouns People's 'he'

pronouns as in English. To find the Japanese equivalents of sentences using these pronouns, please look them up in the English-Japanese side of the dictionary. Particle These are placed after elements in a Japanese sentence to show the grammatical relationships and can be thought of as similar in function to English prepositions such as 'to', 'at', 'from' and 'by' etc.

also a group of particles which come end of sentences and which give an element of emphasis or emotional tone and distinguish male and female speech.

There

is

at the

The functions of particles are such that

it

not always possible to give a translation under the headword although we have tried to assist with possible equivalents. is

205

he gave the child a toy = •

Note that unlike English the objects and subject in Japanese sentences are marked with particles and that word order is less important. See the notes on particles

205

Subject The subject of a sentence is the word or group of words which performs the action indicated by the verb. In the sentence John laughed, John is the subject of the verb laughed. Of course, the verb doesn't necessarily express an action as such. and 7J^ to Japanese uses particles f

Phrasal verb A phrasal verb is a verb combined with a preposition or an adverb and having a particular meaning. For example, to run away, meaning to flee, and to see to something, meaning to ensure that something

is done, are phrasal verbs. If you look up to run away for example, you will see that the phrasal verbs beginning with the word run are listed after all the other meanings of the word run, in alphabetical order of the following adverb or preposition. Japanese does not have phrasal verbs as English does.

Preposition A preoosition is a word, such as under, beside, across, in, which is usually followed by a noun in English. In Japanese there is no part of speech equivalent to them. Japanese has particles which are placed after the noun which often act in a similar ways. See the note on particles for more information 205

Pronoun A pronoun

yourself, himself, herself,

used instead of a noun in order to avoid repeating it unnecessarily. There are the personal pronouns I you, he, she, it, we, you (plural), is

mark

Superlative The superlative is the form of the adjective or adverb which is used to express the highest or lowest degree. In English, the adjective or adverb is usually preceded by most or least. Some adjectives and adverbs (usually of one syllable) have their own form: best, worst, biggest, smallest, fastest, slowest, etc. In Japanese, the superlative is most commonly expressed by• putting L before the adjective or adverb.

Tense The tense of a verb expresses whether the action takes place in the

past,

present, or future. Japanese verbs have only a past and a non-past tense. The tense of a sentence is determined by the final verb. Continuous states or activities are shown with the form of a verb and the addition of but this is not a 'tense'

although sometimes it is introduced as the 'present continuous tense'. See the note on verbs 191 Japanese adjectives also show tense. See the note on adjectives

201

they;

Verb The verb

his,

telling us

the possessive pronouns mine, yours, hers, its, ours, yours (plural), theirs; the

205

subjects.

what

propels the sentence along, happening. Sometimes, of

is

Glossary of grammatical terms course, the verb doesn't describe an action, but rather a state of affairs. The verb is at the end of basic sentences and expresses politeness as well as tense. Japanese verbs do 'you', 'he' etc. and the not change form for translation is very heavily dependent on the 191 context. See the note on verbs

T

xvi

Attributive A part of speech that is used in Japanese without an exact parallel in English.

Ordinal number The sequence of numbers V\ 2"^ 3"^ etc.

Cardinal Number The sequence of numbers 1.2.3. etc.

®@

-

• •

adverb = such = that

(

'

-a

adverb = unfortunately

() adjective = vague

attributive • •

7

= that kind = like that

..

adverb •



1

= like that = in that way

-

• •

©

to love

®

e





= = =

to

fit

to be right

"



as ever

• •

noun = greetings = a brief speech

to be correct

noun = blue adjective = blue



2verb3@ =

1

= to meet = to encounter •

= •



verb •

noun = love

adverb = the same



-to iron



'

2 verb 3

1

noun = iron

refers to both the blue of the sky

and

to greet

the green of vegetation

and

traffic lights

m)"n



.

= affection



up



1

noun =

signal

2verb3® = to signal

/

• • •



noun = •

Pel

ice

cream

noun

= a space = a while = between = during

that

you are

noun = blue

noun

-

noun = red

noises

adjective = red

listening to

what

is

being .

said i/ather

like

'uh-huh' etc. in •

English) •

• •



noun



= babv

show someone

no"n =

light

noun =

rise

noun

= the other person = opponent = partner



197



noun = idea





= = = =

verb •





skies

noun



to

= to fan adjective

*

'

noun



7

= scum = dirt

= relationship

and words used

verb

®=to look



'



r

1

= pale





verb

(at)

to rise to stop (rain) to

become nervous

to enter (a house)

1

'^

®

• -

I



• •

'



2

adjective

doiy^hfi^

O

W/v^li noun = baby





1^ noun = autumn



=

-

IS? IS?



.

New Year!

phrase = Happy

= bright = cheerful

fall

= empty

prefix

verb 2 (B



no"n = disused





=



plot of land

verb



erb3@)

verb 2



= to be fed up •

• •

(



b

1 adjective

when verb verb

erb2(i)



it

is

and is

= to abandon

• •

being done

=

®

=

erb

I'll

I

someone 179 ,

7

®

to

it

for

you

erb2@



=

show you

will

look at

else

197

noun = yearning



= to be astonished = to be appalled •

for

to their benefit

fo (f

verb 2

form of a

followina the

indicates that the action of that

verb 2 = to be

tired of •

(i)



= to give = to raise

) = clear = clearly

2 adverb



open

= to dawn



j

to



yearn for

noun = morning





'





= to open = to be open

• •



1

c5

verb

noun

= bruise = birthmark

1

=



to be

empty

adjective = shallow





noun = handshake

after

2 verb 3@)

^Mik

B

noun = the day

tomorrow

=to shake •

hands

1

noun

-

noun = oversleeping

2 verb

fashion

accessories and especially jewellery



=

noun = accent (emphasis)

'

to sleep

late •

adjective



1 noun = yawn 2 verb

noun = the



to

yawn



= vivid = rresh

devil





adverb = persistently •

noun = the





next day •

noun

=leg = foot

noun = flavour

'

= to taste

of...

noun

,

= daybreak

noun = Asia

^197



noun = footprint

197



noun = footsteps

@ ®

®

1

noun



literally

area around the feet' it can be translated as 'footing' or 'around you' depending on the context vsrb







Chinese character is used weather and temperature while the second is

the

used

first

referring to the

for

warm

©

verb

verb

used when something of someone is taken to be looked after in some way such as by a cloakroom or a bank

touch

to the





charge of

else's



warm

air



to take

=

when

1

= to taste = to experience

=



adjective

'the





I

noun = tomorrow





®





• •

1

= to get warm = to get hot - see the note



verb



• •



= to entrust = to leave



= to warm = to heat - see the note

used when something is given to be looked after in some way such as



a jacket to a cloakroom o children to a nursery

O



verb

7





@=

• •

verb 3

'' •

• •



hit -

used of

a question

to

adjective



= as you would expect = natural = reasonable



= to (go and)

• •



to

(come and)

verb

verb



visit

visit



1 •



= to play = to be with (friends)





verb 2

®

= to give = to cause = to provide

noun - a version of used by some girls and young

women

is



=



to

it

'you're right'









mean

noun

@

noun = a



'being on target'

someone's answer



^

noun

= area = surrounaings

literally

=play = game verb



/



to be in a

noun = there = over there = that place "t:

aa!/ecf/Ve





hurry



noun = head



= to sweat

to

= new

noun = sweat





®

verb 2 •

fo

1

= to hit = to be right = to win

noun = that place = over there = in that direction not near either the speaker or listerwr

noun = here and there •

= hot



adjective

1

®

1



I

first Chinese character is used wsdthsr and air temperature

the

' for

while the

second

is

used

for things

I

\



hot to the touch

• •

" "

|



noun = remains noun

= a hole = a cave

adjective = thick

noun = TV or radio



noun = handling



verb

presenter

©

noun = you

= to handle = to deal with

word

is not equivalent to 'you' English as Japanese people prefer to use a person 's name or

the

in



.

{when necessary) and it can be Also used by to use women to call their husbands

title

adjective = cheeky

rude

^197 •

adjective =

overwhelming

(

(



noun



• •

sister

= collecnon = meeung verb





verb 2

refers to a person, place or thing

®

distant from

= to gather = to attract

""



1

= that = the

= to be gathered •



noun = one's own older 177

attributive •



noun = one's own older 177



brother

speaker and listsrm

or which is previously known to both of them. It must be followed suffix

by a noun.

= addressed

to

interjection

noun - Chinese characters borrowed to write a Japanese word and whose usual pronunciations (in Japanese use) or original meanings are disregarded or •

hesitation in

er

....

indicates

speaking and so can be



noun

= apartment = (small) block of apartments

erb2®

• •

verb @) = to apply to = to fulfil f

• •

• •

= to behave violently = to run riot verb

• •

• •

• •

verb 2 = to adapt = to apply

= to have a

shower verb 2

= to hit = to win = to guess

®

z$



adjective

)S

= dangerous

,:)

-



noun =

oil



noun =

fat

r}

• • •

= back : after = remainder



= to bathe





'er...

um

\ •

noL/n = address

say

I

used as 'excuse me' or just

altered •

=

interjection -



adjective = oily

noun = Africa

e

.

-







11



.^

.

5

verb 2

®

fco

'

adjective







@

erb 2 on someone's being nice or play up to someone

to

7

noun = amateur

3



verb



= to dispute = to compete

(

(



= new

1 adjective

to spoil (a child)



= once again



= again = anew





verb 2



noun = remainder 2 adverb 1



• •

197

= not very

= not much = not often 3 suffix = more than

(

_i> ft



adjective = rough

attributive

verb



1

= to be left = to be more than required



• •

©=

f



to knit

= to write

b

noun = candy



noun = America









noun



= mistake = misunderstanding

1

noun

erb2®

= to appear = to show up



= grateful = thankful

1

to apologise

phrase



used by women

interjection -

to

express surprise adjective





I

used

in

a variety of forms of the

phrase to

t

mean

'thank

much)'

= rough

verb

• • •

wash

e

adjective •

verb



=

1



= suspicious



^



= sign = expression

aa!/ecf/Ve



e

= to show = to express

noun = rain





®

= to appear

= knitwear = knitting verb

= every

verb

• L

noun •

(i)

= to change = to renew = to correct

,

{with negative)



(D

adverb



e

= too = very

H

= plot (of a

noun = shutters





=

/^otv/^

2 adverb • = anew

noun = rainwear





story)

to rely

.



I

noun = storm

to overflow

= sweet = lenient









=



®

1

®



=to

^

= a certain

attributive

you {very

full

'



®



6

I



verb





1

• •



• •



= to be = to have = to happen

= hurried = flustered

erb2®



• •

= to hurry = to be flustered

noun =



conjunction

• •

' '



= or = either

/

1

ad e b

2

adjective

1

= to do a part time job - and refers to a job which is not permanent but which can be full time such as a student holiday job

to

rote learning

©

=to

memorise noun

noun - photo album

used

noun =

2 verb 3



= questionnaire = survey

1

noun = peace of mind



interjection

express •

surprise

noun •

• •

= that = that thing =it

used

= unexpectedly

a





/\

V

= unexpectea

noun = part time job

2 verb

adjective



=towalk

1

(

= relaxed

®

erb



2

e



= to = to



'

3 feel relieved

feel safe

()

3 adjective

something distant from both speaker and listsnsr or something that is previously known Jo both of them



= reassuring = safe

1

noun =

2

adjective



to refer to

|

[ '



safety

() = safe

|

adverb =

'



• •

=

to be





• • •

verb





1

noun =

adjective • •



1

noun = information

2 verb 3 verb 2

to join together fit

= that = like that

adjeective

= pale = faint

to

in

®



• •

with

©

= to guide = to show around = to show the way

to adjust to

adverb

mix

• • •

adjective

=tobe

stable

noun

5i^H

stability

erb3@

allergy

= bubble = foam

= = = =

noun =

2





and that

rough





this

pity

noun = plan

= =

like that

in that

way

1



-

'





suffix





®

.

I

= less than = under





,

,

s



"

-apart from adjective



= unexpected

noun = stomach



adverb

11





\

suffix

^

= position



adjective =

t



good

and negative forms are from the alternative form

the past

made

= =

'

=

201

(/

how about

you interjection

like

some

coffee?

=

= no •

the

literal

meaning

the quantity of something

is

is

that

would

how is

just right

more common as an idiom meaning that something is 'inadequate' in some way and when applied to people's actions and beh3viour the translation and meaning will vary greatly depending on the context and the expectation of the

\

"


(

^ noun =

(natural) spring

erb

• •



noun = pain



)= malicious

noun = chair







noun = abnormality

hurl



7

® =to



9

• I

'

b

noun = one



'

181

2 adverb •

noun = market





b b



lAiiM noun = position

.

adverb



= in detail = one by one

'

adverb = for the time being = just in case •



Ir



186

(

——

at

the



—i^

adverb - literally one body' it is most

'{as)

common

with questions indicating

——

in

English 'what

adverb = once

one •

"

1

noun = market

noun = agreement

2 verb





=to

agree

noun = part adverb = partly noun =

first class

adverb = when •

phrase this

the

home

(o

expected

noun = family •

noun

'(/

= the day before yesterday •

is

(o

noun

other place

if

they are

to return there)

phrase - literally go and come back' this phrase used by people leaving the home will)

other place

if

they expect

to return

there)

last

IS noun = kind



phrase

(of)

a more

polite version of L •

= one week

1

noun adverb

74 •



noun



= always = anytime

= an instant = for a moment

"



advem =

before

(Ij

really noticed

noun

= together = with

1 adjective •

noun =

= crowded life



= hard workinsr

=

full

2 adverb



adjective

-

meaning 'go and come back' phrase is used to people leaving

literally

noun = someday = sometime

= the year berore



noun

= the firth day of the month 174 = five days



181

IS?

adjective = fixed

5



noL/n = five

E.'D





t)

all

meaning



adverb =

time •

adverb

— H adverb =

surprise or threat as on earth ...?.

^ noun = once



(



more

adverb

= for a while = once = one o'clock

adverb

= together = at the same time = simultaneously

noun = strawberry



M| |^

ability

——





b

= as hard as possible = to the best of one's

()

• •

= lots of = until the end of

'

®® ®



'

10

I



• • •

countsr

= a cup of = a glass or = a bowl of

noun =



181





verb

1

= to pray

= to have a drink

adverb



life

noun = prayer

= generally



1

noun = violation



noun = one side • = one end • = more and more 2 conjunction = on the other hand

1

'

1



verb



= to boast = to be proud



2 verb 3

"

®

= to break

'

~

(a rule)

= the exams get more

and more

S noun =





1

difficult

clothing

noun

= now = at the moment 2 adverb = right away •

adverb = always

• •



adverb = always = as usual

P



^197

(

J

noun =

(



acf

living

room

enb = soon



noun = transfer

2

adverb =



@

verb 3

at

any

moment

=tomove

(to) •

miii^



noun = gene

noun = thread



noun =





noun = meaning



= sense

1

2 verb

a well



= to



noun = movement

®

2 verb 3



= to move

noun = cousin

younger

sister

noun = one's own 177

177

noun





meanina

s"

= within

noun

- the

'country'

is

= someone

basic

as opposed

it

to



• •



m noun =

rice plant

depending on whether it

= to doze off

refers to a

positive or s negative statement



noun - doze

erb3@

and so can be

translated as either 'yss' or 'no'



2

177

adjective

= unpleasant = annovine = disgusting

verb 1 • = to dislike (doing something) = to be unwilling (to do something)



1

sister

interjection - contradicts a

noun = dog



younger

previous statement

=go home \

else's •

can carry connotations of backwardness and a lack of sophistication. Sometimes used of urban areas smaller than Tokyo and Osaka. Can be used to mean 'home town' especially in the phrase 'urban but '

mean

noun = image

\ •



adverb

= even more = at last

' '

1



-

11



suffix

197

= since

1 noun = request 2 verb 3

annoved

= to request

()

3® -to get

verb

'

no"n



= container e



phrase used to mean 'welcome' or 'come in and carries a nuance of 'thank you for coming'



'

to

• •

• • •

switch)





= various = all sorts or

(/



noun = rock





= to go = to come = to be

• •

honorific equivalent

and

(a

noun = colour





®



'

adjective

'welcome' or 'may I help you?' depending on the context 1

2(i)



= to put in = to let in = to turn on

phrase - used welcome customers and meaning

verb



I

o/" t \

< ^ ,

-6

^204_

noun

= celebration = a present

'^

verb



(D =to

7

celebrate

adverb = so

to

speak

= entrance •

treatment





name stamp





• • •

sister

EP $

= socalled

member noun

that functions

an official as a

noun = ink •

noun = printing 2 verb 3 (§) 1

=

younger

=

signature on documents

{of people or animals") = to be = to exist {of a place) = to live = to be {of a family member) = to have

a

suffix



verb





attributive

noun = medical



I

have

= to print

and an elder brother

A70"A?



after the form of a verb it indicates continuous action or continuing or completed states.

= impression - to give

an impression

197 •

erfa



= to retire

verb 3(q)



noun = interview



• •

= to be necessary = to want •

=

to roast

A70"n = intellectual

verb

©



\

I



noun = quotation n = gravity

@

®® 1

12



I

verb

®=

verb







=

to accept

verb







noun •





= whiskey = whisky



"

• • •

= reception

l^OX.

verb 2



@=

to accept

noun

on



above



verb 2 (f) = to catch

top



=



= receipt = receiving

over

to react

older

^



^ll^ noun



and pots

in

trees, plants

a garden

noun



= -



verb 2

(i)

verb 2

®



noun



verb

verb



verb 2 d)

• •



= to starve



noun =



1

noun = gargling

2

verb 3

fish





= to receive (of an exam) = to take (of harmful effects) = to suffer verb



=

(g)

to gargle

verb erb

7

(D







= to visit = to ask = to be told this is



191

= thin

to float



{of drinks) =

to occur



(of colours) = pale

verb



1



verb 2



= =



= to pass (an exam)

verb

®

7

©=

to

rwun





S





verb



,

move

noun = rabbit

= behind = back = rear



= to float = to show

to

lose

a humble equivalent of the





^ •

and

@=

noun - cow



verbs

7

noun = movement





1

= to move





(D

= to be in charge or

= to plant •

1

to receive

a

person or busirwss growing trees and plants for gardens





—197

noun = waitress

9

'

noun

= no

informal equivalent of



= to be told = to take an order f

interjection

= = = = =

(D

=to hear = to know



noun = wool



up

to float



^

-;!

weak



= dim

adjective

adjective

®

®®

®

1

13



verb 2



®

= to dilute •

noun = lie = to (tell

P

as an exclamation surprise

and

is

it



BB

D=

verb



() adverb =

indicates

similar to 'you

1

= to hit = to type

a) lie

must

be joking!'

'

verb







I

liar

verb



verb



7

(D =

to

§) =

to

©=

to reflect

transfer

"^

%



verb verb



1

7

=to







= =

• •

noun = suspicion



verb



IS?

(D

doubt

^197





(of a

noun •



"

= our dog

noun = while = during = in (of a number of items) = from

-

following the

y

@=

*

I"!

to be

noun = container

noun = arm = to practise notvn



=

watch

(wrist) •

pt^

noun

form of a verb

conveys the meaning of

verb



reflected

O

" it

1

photograph) - to come out (well) {of something in a photograph) = to be in

family etc.



verb



= house = home = family

1

= to move {of a cold etc.) = to be contagious



sometimes translatable 'we' or 'us' talking about a company o a



verb



to

when



= to sue = to complain

to suspect

"^ •



copy

2(g)

e



sing



carelessly

adjective



noun = song

\

shoot

= beautiful

noun =

7

to

X noun = rainy weather -

a kind of thick, white

noodle

'before'

erb7©



= to urge



berore

it

let's

go

home

noun =



l91

rains

verb





1

[fe

= arrangement •

verb 2

®=



to arrange

' •

• •

?

verb

1

@= ®-

to

groan

to steal

adjective 1

= delicious = skillftil



(of food)



(o/^ab/V/^y)

noun in the sense 'delicious' tnis generally only used by men.

= the universe = space •

®-to nod verb

noun = horse



verb



= to deny

eel

noun = hand-held fan



word is

noun = birth

'

®® 1







|



14

noun =

sold

noun =

sale

out

adjective

= natural

{of talent etc.)

-



-'



verb 2 (® = to be sold out •



= •

to be

-



!^ noun and



verb

1

= to give birth to = to produce

verb



1

= to









verb 2





®



as an exclamation

©=

e



means

• •

= glad = happy

noun

noun =



erb2®



sold

'

()

noun



- inside out verb



©

= to turn inside out

verb

1

noun =

3® = to loiter

affair

=to have an

affair

1

to betray

noun - clothing for upper body, especially in the sense of a coat or 'ac/cef •

noun = fortune

the

telling

noun





P

noun = rumour

= fortuneteller

"



d) =

verb



• •

interjection

noun



= ill will = grudge



= yes = ok

"

informal equivalent of

verb



1

®=

io resent





=

noun

fate

adjective • •

verb

= to exceed

to tell

someone's fortune

1S

= lucky unlucky

= envious = enviable •

sales

= tobe



2 verb 3(29 verb



'shut

adjective to

= back = behind

=

it

up'

respect



= noisy = annoying

= to bury = to make up (for) = to fill in (the gaps)

"



adjective

rwuri - salty



pickled plum



sell

noun = plum

1ft





suffix

= department

sea







born

i% noun =

©

e

= to put on sale





"^

2@

e

verb

7

(D =to

envy



1

noun = management



noun =

sales

2 verb manage

=to

1

(i>



noun = canal



=

'

to be fed

2 verb 3



e

@

=todo



'

^iia noun =

(language)

fare

©=

verb

(an animal)

noun = rotation

2 verb 3





I

'



adjective = pleasant

1

®®

n1

1

25

®

= to solve •

>

j±jai noun = streets



"J

^oun =

fij jtT



street

• •

= journey back = homecoming

light •



noun = answer paper

(for



an exam) •



1

=

noun = development

2 verb 3

©

= to •

noun = exterior







1

@

\

= to return = to go home = to come home verb



= to recover

^5

= to be returned

noun = opening

2 verb 3

=

to

noun =



open



noun = liberation

noun = scent



®

= to release



jfi

face

noun = house

'

2 verb 3

1







1

1



noun = recovery

2 verb 3 1

verb

• •



S



change

to

develop

2@©

e



(fflj

^ noun -

artist

verb 2



= to hold

(in

®

one's arms)



1

noun = shopping

2 verb • •

(



= to go shopping = to shop

.

X)

-

noun = the





noun =

cost

noun = science



noun = chemistry

^197

seas

noun = mirror



words of foreign origin used in Japanese and specifically those words predominantly from western languages and written in the sovpf

fffi



verb



• •

1

= to shine = to sparkle

t}t))



suffix

= in charge of

vii

no""



noun = outline





1

noun = conversation

.

=to

2 verb 3@) verb

• •

d)

talk

= the person in charge



with

= to buy



• •

(of...)

verb •

= to take (time or money) = to be telephoned

1

n

••

1

®e

1

• •

26 •

• •

= to hang = to be locked

adjective







verb



= definite = reliable

= to have to do with

noun = academic





• •

= key = lock

1

noun = studvmg

'

2 verb 3 = to lock to be locked

h "^

noun = registered

'

©

= to

study

verb

7

(f)

=to hide

something

post

noun = student

• •



- dictation •

1

noun = fence

i

noun = magnification

2 verb 3

'

©

=to

enlarge

U • P suffix - sometimes used as a noun meaning 'limits' but

noun = each place





often attached to verbs to give the

meaning of

'as far as'

With a negative verb

or 'as long

it

as'.

1

2

can often be

noun = extension verb 3 (D widen

translated 'unless'

7@

e





limited 1

prefix ~ nuclear



t)

' •

verb

d)

1



=towrite



erb

7

©

P





verb

1

®=

to lack

= exceptional = particularly

1 adjective

2 adverb

to scratch



noun = rank



prefix = each

verb

noun = revolution



noun = probability



noun



= academic ability

(D

to smell

enb2®



( a /ecf/





noun = shadow



noun = shade

fictional

-



1



1

noun



= readiness = resolution



2 •



noun = multiplication

2 verb 3

©

multiply

©

verb 3 = to be resigned to = to be ready for •

= to

be hidden

to sniff

noun - learning =

noun = faculty



verb





XiN

noun = furniture = =

noun = school



year

\



ti



= to

confirm

= to draw = to paint

\

noun = confirmation

2 verb 3 (D





to

noun = angle

-

=tobe

=

noun = each person

to



verb 3

= to approve

(a

>197

motion)

®

1



27





© • • • • • • •

= = = = = = =

put over

to

hang



noun = housework adjective = clever

phrase

used

sense of

'certainlv' to

acted upon

2@ = tonm verb 2® •

chipped

i^^fe noun = past



ii noun = basket

1

= to lend = to rent out

noun =



noun = condition



verb





to be lacking

k

the

not only understanding but that an order or mquest will be

e



in

show

by be wearing (glasses)



fire



to multiply

"



7

to telephone

to be

noun =



to lock

to



,



= =

,

monev)

to take (time, to

I







verb 2

• •





a blunder

>197

noun = crater

UV

"' t}'^

noun = house



for

rent



noun = descent 2 verb 3 @)



1

©

= to go

down

noun = singer suffix

= place

(



adjective = excessive



1

noun = process

2 verb 3

verb

=to process

(§)

53



tense of verbs,

in this

have usually referred 191 verb



noun

- the

dictionary

form

to the

7

• •



surround



noun =



noun

noun = gas 1

JM noun = wind



®

!^ noun =

• •



• •

pile

erb2©





noun = taxation



noun = underline



verb

noun

noun =

= decoration = ornament

to earn

(D •

noun = volcano





®=

IS? verb

= to decorate = to display



1

cassette



= to count

noun

= confectionery = snacks

verb •





a cold

to catch a cold

money





=



= to

up •



iy

= to be piled up = to happen at the same time •

@

= number = quantity

fire

verb



7

chew

= to lend = to rent

noun = umbrella



to





d) =to

®= verb



past

we

1

181



1

noun = acceleration

2

verb



= to accelerate



28



I

177

noun = family





= acceleration



= petrol = firasoline



= petrol station = gasoline station

D



when added to the form of a verb it means

it

to the

adds

pre

the

enb

suffix

=towin

= month

(

suffix -



when added

form of a verb

'difficult to

it

191

..."

^'



noun



the

used to write words of and which functions as



script primarily

foreign origin

a kind of italic



noun = vigour



noun = (musical) noun



= semester = term

tP

verb



!=

to carry

(on the shoulders)

vii

noun







instrument

noun = people





verb

= to be disappointed

pre

means

noun = acaaemic

conference

= hard = stiff

to the

174

noun = university or school department

adjective •

'tends









form of a

meaning of









to tell

191

.

191

...ing'

noun = victory



suffix -

pre 'way of



to

= style = mould •

noun = value

added

noun







verb

M noun = shoulder



©=

suffix

noun = person



(in

verb



noun •

enb favour of)





= to be prejudiced

(g)

noun •

7® = to

e



incline

noun

[]

noun = brackets



= form = shape



noun

= appearance verb



= of nice appearance

1



=



= not attractive



(of a

room

)

stylish

= not stylish

= to be

tidy

IS?



e





noun = school noun = print





= choir



= to tidy up •

noun

bits

noun = kitchen



IS?

which are

stuck together, a lump •



erb7@

=

to

harden •

(ticket)

aaverb



= without asking permission = selfishly

1

noun =



noun = one-wav



activity

e

1

29

• I

2 verb 3 work

®

= to

noun =

2 verb

serve as (both of) two things at the

activity



same time

= to

plav an active role

attached to the pre form of a verb it adds the meaning of being unable to do to a preceding verb and is thus often translated as 'cannot' and indicates a refusal of a request. Although the meaning is negative the form is positive and even native-speakers can get it wrong! The negative form

noun

= utilisation • = conjugation 2 verb 3 J) • = to make use of • = to conjugate (verbs) •

@

no"r7 = vitality



O

77^



1

suffix -

used

is

7



noun = assumption 2 verb 3 (D 1

wouldn't put

do

it

for the

meaning

past (somebody)

ad/ecf/



noun = household



noun = process



noun = curriculum

= possible

noun



= possibility =

noun = corner

it is

Japanese syllabic scripts and as opposed to Chinese characters or vii tPhj the

1

noun = cover

2 verb 3

®

\

= to cover

noun = bag



noun



= majority

noun = one's own 177

noun = mould •

adjective = sad



verb

noun = vase



be sad about •

the way of using Japanese vii

in

©=

-

7

to

noun = stocks



no n = shares





the writing of

noun = corporation

noun = hammer



erb2©= to



cover

adverb = definitely



verb



adverb {preceding a negative) = not

• •

= to put on = to be wearing

necessarily

'

adverb = considerably

noun = money noun =

0

\

from

©=

to heat

SI noun



mean verb 3

(a hat)

large pot for cooking rice

bell



(D

noun = wall





very

likelv

noun



wife

to

191

that'.

= to assume





a rich

verb 2 d) = to





1

noun =



person

actively

phrase - deriving phrase is used to

this

'it doesn't matter' and in the to question form mean 'would you mind if ...?'

1



1

30

I

verb



7

d) =to mind

• •

= design = nature



1

()

noun = endurance

2 verb 3

,

®

= to put up

(^"



with

noun = colour •

Z?)

adjective = patient

Z?



^



• •

adjective = spicy



noun = hair (on head)

noun accompaniment

noun = paper

especially at bars



noun = god



prefix

- singing to the

Tibtl

:i

^



noun = body

adjective =

noun - waste

noun = God noun



= temporarily = supposing

noun = thunder





verb

(D •

= to bite = to chew

= to borrow = to rent = to hire

1]



noun - chewing

noun =

gum sticky tape

speaker or

some

= probablv = perhaps

poems



noun =



adjective = itchy

verb





or proverbs

noun = he

noun = curry

1@

noun = boyfriend



o"n = they



verb2®



§3i





• •

H noun =

= because = from ^205

Z?^ •

noun = song shell

b

ffl

= pattern

noun

= to

wither CX

noun = calendar

particle



201

adjective = light

rreight

= to commute = to travel = to attend

t)

stem

7" noun = medical record •



to the

noun traditional • Japanese playing cards featuring

phrase



to cut

writer but refers to

other person. •



d) =

when added

= objective



t

of adjectives of emotion or ssnsdtion it indicates that the state is not that of the

noun



verb

suffix -

noun = camera •









verb 2 d)



noun = hair (on the head)

"

adverb





= shaver = razor

m



empty

IS? t



to tease

noun = glass

t)



©=

verb

'

= upper (part) = first (part)

of a backing tape

paper



adjective

= empty

noun = overwork



adverb



= only just

noun =

calorie

1

31



'

" 7?

river



I

a dictionary of

characters

with explanations in English

noun = skin noun = leather





noun =

pj





"^



fiJj

= side

suffix

*

P

it

adjective = cute

verb



= to love (grandchildren or pets

(



1 adjective

(D

etc.)

- idea

'



= way of thinking

used in

the

terrible (news)!'



e



)

= pitiful = sadly

2 adverb often

noun





sense

'oh that's

or 'what a

pity!'

• •

• •

= to thmk about = to expect •

noun

B

= opthalmologist verb



(D =to

t

tl

drv

'

hjti

^



_191





noun = stand

(a)

large (one)

countsr used for large items such as vehicles, machines and

is

noun -



prefix - indicates ordinal

title

5^ noun =



\^

or



' •



/

• •

electricity,

suffix

a

bill (Jor

gss,

water or telephone) •

noun

- this

term covers physical education and sports as school and college subjects and sports and training more generally

(the)

atmosphere

|^

third' •

post-

noun = expulsion from school/college



numbers such ds

to



181

goods

-



word

used in place of 'university' when referring graduate work and study this



(large) electrical

noun = university



noun =

'the first'

the body)

noun

it

'towards

7

^^/mlt noun

(for





or fwo peoplejteams



= thermometer

or 'are'> 187

'is'

noun = (body)



temperature (the) other/s

noun = carpenter



/



1 adjective

2

noun

= payment = amount

erb3@

(

= boring

=tobe

bored

",: •

noun - system

—-

'

87





I

A.



= systematic

2a



= large and small = size •

adjective

/ct ^ ZA

(i-jii)

noun = kitchen noun -the

'-

®

= to compare = to contrast

noun = attitude



noun





noun = most (of) 2 adverb = generally 1



part (of)

ii'^'^t,

--…

-

noun = the greater

'





I

7^

noun =



1

88

noun = continent



(a)

representative •

noun = type 1

noun = verb

conflict



- to be

opposed

@

= to type

noun = strengtn



5l adverb



z:>



1

2 noun = typing

2 verb 3 •

(of person)

= contmuallv

erb2@



noun = typhoon





-

adverb



= considerably = mostly

= to

endure

noun = oval

• •

noun = most (of) 2 adverb = mostly 1

(D =

verb



to

knock

down •

()

1 adjective • •

noun - towel

= hard = awful

down

2 adverb • •

enb2®=to



fall

conjunction = however

= very = extremely =

used

'oh no!'

describe something which might be translated as 'ssrious' or 'difficult'. Also used to show sympathy as in 'oh no, how often

to

awful!'

' ,

adjective

ftt) ift • = high • = expensive

noun = each other



erb 2 (i)= to



'

raise



1

noun =

2 verb 3

arrest

©

= to arrest

noun = timer

noun =



= lottery

title

= timetable = diamond

/ •

noun •

(for

public transport)



conjunction

= therefore = so phrase = therefore suffix -

1

noun =

2 verb ?

dial

= to

(f)

noun = the sun



() flat



=

level

to the

'wants

to'

when

referring to

pre

meaning

people

other thdn oneself

7

=

added

of a verb to give the

dial



(D =to

noun



noun = timing



7

noun = treasure



X

verb



plough

191

() adjective



noun = waterfall



noun



• •

noun = compromise 2\/erb:3@ compromise

= representative = agent •

= agency

notvn



(nee)

verb

7

= to

(D =

to

cook

1

®

'' ®®

1

'

89

I

verb





1 .

noun • marks placed beside characters which change the

'

• •

-

= to be helped = to be rescued

the two

pronunciation from

= a

lot

to 'ga'

'ka'

verb 2



• •

= to

taxi

1

suffix

noun =



as possible (a)

blow



= the only = merely

3

conjunction = however



conjunction = however

also as a greeting phrase used when returning to the home or

adverb = perhaps

workplace having been away

() = definite

2 adjective 3 adverb

M

while.

= definitely e



= to

now

ddverb = just



1

free of charge

3 adjective

much

= as

(

noun =

2 adverb = only

- only = just

/



= to ask

noun = bamboo





verb

visit







'

of

noun =

/

e



adverb

®

= to help = to rescue

vii

etc.



1



= to hug

It

usually

is

met

and

response



translatable as either

is

Tm home!' or

noun



• •



a

'I'm back!' depending on the context

connrm

noun = large and small 2 adverb • = some

for

with the

= battle = struggle

1



= a





bit -

verb



verb

(D = to add

• • • • • •

/

(D



= to hold out = to take out (of) = to hand in = to put out = to send = to give out = to publish to the

'start to'

pre

add

the or to indicating the

direction of action as

to

outwards

( aGA/enb = atonce



noun - flooring mats that • are used inside Japanese homes and made from straw and rushes woven together

191

verb



• •

suffix -

= a large number = majority •

= majority decision

adjective

IE

= correct

noun



referring to

'child'

or 'children but

means

'

'children

©=

to fold

added to words to make them means i.e.

people

specifically plural

noun

(D

conjunction = however



(

form of verbs

1

= to hit = to beat





commonly added meaning

verb







verb • = to fight = to struggle (against)

® •



verb •

1 (j£)

= to stand up



90

mean

Ve/t/'ca

when

talking of measurements

suffix -

to stop (and stand

just {having

still)

and

to give length

= standpoint = position

the pre

in

noun



writing {of Japanese)

(formal) letters,

newspapers

adverb = swiftly verb (at/on)

verb



1

®

- vertical

as used

in

books and vii

51 B noun - what is said and done to be superficially polite and agreable as opposed to what is really thought and felt. •

'



= to drop in

and

adds the meaning of been done) to a

preceding verb 191 form

noun







thus translatable as 'long' •

=

verb

®

… •

I

1



• •

= to stand = to rise

'

erb7®



verb

1

®

= to depart





= to raise



= to reach (achieve)

'

/

.

the past of

plain equivalent

as 'was' or

o/"

adverb = even

/ which

is

a •

Translatable •

187

'were'.



conjunction =

if that's

added

= example = analogy ac^



to

nouns and

adjectives

^201

form a conditional

' "

verb 2

phrase - an informal version of which is used to mean 'even' or give a sense of 'every' when giving examples and to emphasise

used

noun =

noun = other people



noun = seed adjective

= enjoyable

to

noun



making excuses.



= pleasure

=tobe

adverb •

= =

looking forward to

fully lots

of

added

"

= to compare

valley



mean 'but' or 'because' when explaining and

negatives. Also

©

"o"n = shelf





erb = for

example

197 7

if

noun

f

the

case

to

ad/ec Ve

= aoDropnate

adverb = only

7



verb 2 (D = to build = to put up



= to cut off e





= topass

©

e



/ -

"0"= (a) building



meaning

to

nouns

'plenty

to give the

noun - the word means plane' as opposed to 'horizontal plane' and is used both

verb



of

1



=

'vertical

^ •

to

to look

forward to

91



noun =



(a)

verb

request •



• •



®

verb



= =



I

1

to trick to deceive

adverb = by chance



(

= to ask (something as a favour) = to order

adverb = occasionally

adjective



adjective = unbearable

= reliable counter - bunch

• •





auxiliary following the

it adds the meaning 'unbearably' or 'unrestrainedly' and

form of the verb

can suggest eagerness

= cigarette = tobacco

"



181

noun





(of)

as an

,

= journey = travel

v^erb7® = tobe



accumulated

notm • = every time (something happens) = occasion

erb

^

• •



• •

verb = to overlap = to be double

• •

used in

sense of something being done twice and often

the



• • •

noun • = for the sake of = for the purpose of = because of

'

() csn mean

'No!' or that forbidden or otherwise 'wrong' or not as it should be

something

adverb

= perhaps = possibly = probably

is



noun = trial 2 adverb 1

no"n = food verb

• •



= toeat

noun =

verb

ball •

in

'globular'

sense of

the it

is

also written store

noun = bullet •

noun = egg

7

®=

@©= erb 2

to try

out

to hesitate

® =to



enb2(g) =to

up •



^

amass (money)

'globe' or





= experimentally verb





used

noun = sigh



^197

7

adjective

= useless = forbidden = broken = to be ruined

thus unnecessarily



7® = tosay

noun = dam •

= many times = repeatedly

= tobe

nothing

adverb



@

e



saved up •



do

noun

noun - a kind of traditional Japanese footwsdr something like a sock with a sole •

to

something. It is translatable as 'be 197 dying to {do something)

= to maintain = to preserve

verb

1



/^

noun

-

someone and

is

, I

92



I



of from

f

"

means news

//sfene

often

correct so translatable as

translatable as letter' •

= reliable = unreliable 7

@

verb

created by adding past form of verb or adjective



b ("t

= group

noun

= unit = credit unit at university or college nour7 = stage



can indicate meanings

191

7C

suffix







and

adjective

is

= short tempered

adds

the

full

a short period

noun = a



sense of

'being covered with' or 'being with a negative

^oun =



of time

aoi suffix

is

'isn't it?',

187

= to

suffix -

'when'

being said

is

step = step



'//' and used in a number of expressions such as meaning 'how about {doina ...)?' or 'why don't you

it

what

'aren't they?', 'haven't they?', 'didn't

relv (on)

H

that

he?' etc.

noun = dependability



to the

n





short period of time

of

nuance



adjective • •

= untidy = slovenly

an



=boy

stem of a



= male

usually appearing as

suffix

ending on the pre pair of verbs {or more)



noun = word



noun

and followed

(

• it Indicates that the actions by were simultaneous, in succession or

just part of

and

all

) = simple = simply

1 adjective

2 adverb

those that took place

translatable as 'and so on' or 'and

things like

that'.

express opposites.



e



2

@=

to be

sufficient



= birthday



= Happy



e



a posting to a workplace in another city or country which entails living away from the family

m noun - who

-

rioun •

noun





noun



= to be dangling = to hang down •

= birth

Birthday!

=dull = listless •



' nou

adjective

7 •

noun = weak



point

These forms can also



= chest of drawers = wardrobe

= someone = anyone 1

phrase(w/tha



negative) = no one

noun =

plain form of translatable as 7

used

to



star (entertainer)

often

2

noun = dancing = dance

erb3®

suppose' and also

get confirmation from the

= to

dance •

water

n = fresh

a

'

"









I

noun





@



93

= man = male

'

'

• '

/ '

adjective = male

hj

1

noun = carbon



noun



abbreviation

o/"

junior colleae for

2 years

where the courses 185

noun = blood



noun -

/

V

last

means

(the)

'safety' with



/



adverb - gradually

b

Bli

noun

apartment housing ownership

in

±

noun

= position = standing;







an estate of

noun = area



public

adjective

= small •

adjective =

to

=safe = unsafe

noun = a group tour = package holiday



word

- this

reference

and order and crime





ground

noun



issues of law

noun = group





an

adjective

\

monotonous

= small ——



noun = decision 2 verb 3 (D

X

noun = cheese

1

noun = team

= to decide



1

noun



= (person) in charge = responsibility (for)



b X. • •

2 verb 3 (B



= to be in

' •

M^P

noun =

husband

177

= (someone

else's)

noun

noun 177

(

ad/e



• •

= certain = definite usually

in

means

/

the form

U

ad erb = simply

Dhrase-

'No!' or 'Wrong!' •

D

veri3

(promise) •

5S

noun = short story noun

= collection (book) of short

stories

noun = neighbourhood 2 adverb 1

noun = heater

• •

noun =

elasticity

1



paddy •



verb

= to be aifterent = to be wrong

noun











i/e

t

I

noun

= protein

rice

noun = difference

phrase



=

adjective = close

air

own)

= nothing more than •





(one's

husband



/

noun = underground



H

= person in charge

I

noun

= intelligence = sense

charge of



noun = teamwork

,

= almost = soon

"^

= to swear

®

( 1•



the translation

will

on the context but

94



I

vary depending

and

'close to' are possible renderings and if no reference point is supplied it means 'around here'.

U

noun = governor



b b

= recently

noun = knowledge



noun = geology



verb





1

= geology

= to approach = to draw near

(subject)

noun = acquaintance



verb





noun = map



= to bring nearer

bTi

noun = intelligence

1



IS?



adjective = intelligent

no"n-an



underground railway so variously

noun = zone



translatable as 'subway', 'metro',

verb







(one's

own) father

177

1® -to

noun =



(to)

verb



= DOwer = strength = ability

(one's

own)

177

father

noun





noun =



'underground' etc.

get near

(of)

noun





(of a

state or prefecture)

mxvr?



noun



= latecomer

'around', 'local'

@=

to shrink

erb2©



= to

shrink (something)

= to make an

verb 2



become curled

effort

aa!/ec



AKX7A?



= the earth

noun = nitrogen

adverb

(world)

= utterly

to

noun = order



b •

^

Ve

= powerful

®=

(hair)

{with negative)

(not)

noun

noun = global



warming •

t:>



icO

verb

@=

to

swear

acy



ec Ve

= intellectual

(promise)

verb



(D =to



noun = area



adverb = in





ffl

CAf

"b •

tear into pieces

\

=tip = gratuity

noun



= place = spot

noun = intelligence



detail

^ noun = farming

noun



= horizon

(animals) •

noun

a (somewhat) vulgar expression of annoyance and disappointment •

-

where many English speakers would probably

used

in

situations

svves •

verb 3

=

to be late





= =

noun

district

reffion

"

often used with a sense of ' a or 7oca/' to describe areas both geographically distant from a centre and for 'local' government or businesses and organisations having a regional focus.

95





b

noun =



(place)

b

•• ..'

name

I

attached

suffix

.



children's

adjective = fatal

noun =

and

names

to

tea



= properly adjective = proper

1

noun = brown

2

adjective "b

noun = TV channel

= brown

b



^fe



^



noun = medium



suffix

adjective

= brown

\

names.

girls'

adverb



b

to

give an informal or affectiondte form of reference. Used especially with

= in the middle

(of)

suffix

= arrival •



= suits = dresses

• •

counter

1

'(



181

1 adjective

2 adverb

• •

)

= steady



= steadily •



= care = attention

2 verb 3 •

1

noun = warning

= to take care = to warn = to tell off

noun = commencement •



2 verb commence

=to

adjective = cautious

noun =



verb 3

@=

centre



to sit

^

down •

IBS



adverb = steadily •

noun







noun =

2 verb 3

(or a plane)

=(ofa

plane) to land

^^^

noun =

living

^^

room

adjective = second-



hand

b

noun = tea





m)"A7

= second-hand car

ceremony noun



small low table used Japanese dining

-

a



noun

= second-hand item

for traditional

• ,

1 1 • •

2 verb 3

®

• •

= bowl for = (tea) cup



^^ noun

rice

©

= to

advise •

f0

=to

attempt

^

noun = advice

2 verb 3

noun = (a) challenge = try

-

noun = midway





noun

a middle school o junior high school 185 {ages 12 to 15)

landing

^

no"n-

student at a middle school or junior 185 high school

= payment on aelivery

1

(the)

noun = China

172 beware of confusion with an area of Japan called and sometimes referred to by

(

this

name



.



b

96

noun

S



= Chinese (language)

2 verb 3

'



I

17^



1

noun = excess

2 verb 3 = to be called off = to call off

®

1

noun = injection verb



=

= to inject

compounds

in

2 verb



1

noun = survey



noun = the 174



2 verb3

adjective = abstract

• •

noun = lunch





= ingood condition = working well = in poor condition = not working properly



noun = interruption

3@®

= to be interrupted = to interrupt

noun





noun = midway





= strong point = merit

noun = the





can be used even one daughter

noun = miadle



age

noun =

eldest

there

only

177

daughter

Middle East

if



noun - attention

2 verb

= summit

3®®

= to pay attention



(to)

1

noun = order (goods or

2 verb 3

b

^ noun = suffix -



butterfly

added

to

...'.or

1

noun



= adjustment = control



other

nouns describing work to denote someone in charge and so translatable as 'head

2 verb • •



= to control = to adjust

'chief

-



noun (U.K) 181

'trillion'



'billion' 5:5

names

suffix



it

area of a •

agency

-

used

(U.S) or

with place

denotes either a town or an

meaning

'(please) give

'(please)

do

...

a humble verb 'to

in

have {food and •

me' or

Also used as the form

for me'.

which means

government

used as

an informal version of

city

suffix -

toadjust



= to

(f)



-

food)

order (goods or food) ct

noun = adjustment

2 verb 3®



1

is

noun



1

to carry

= condition = manner = health

noun = centre





=

noun ) *^



®

out a survey

middle ten days of the month

1

'



noun = car-park

2 verb

*



= sculpture = carving



= to park

(

noun



noun = parking

exceed

noun and prefix • used alone to mean 'a long period of time' and translatable as 'long term



1

to

noun = director





2

®

'to

receive' or

drink)

noun = peak

@ 97



I

'

adverb •

= exactly



=just

right



angle

noun = diameter



noun = the



i77

eldest son

adverb = slightly = just a little = somewhat



can be used even one son

if

there

is

only

• •



used

often suffix -



a

requiring translation. Another common use of the word is as a way of expressing hesitation, doubt or disapproval. Depending on the context the word itself can be a

noun = cooking noun = chef

noun



clear rsfussi of a request in the Tm sorry but ..'

= cooking instructions

3



sense of

noun = chalk

'

1



®

= to save

= =



after



to be scattered to be untidy



1 • •



venb?©



adverb = directly = immediately

b • •

2 adjective •

= immediate = direct

= dust = dirt

noun = geography

= direct 2 adverb

^ .

(subject)

noun =



= directly

noun =

/

u

straight

1 •

[Mh noun and suffix

noun = dustpan •

noun = medical treatment

2 verb 3

®

=

= immediately before



e •

prefcc





( )

= through (train) = direct (dial)



= to fall (leaves = to scatter

verb 3 (f) = to face

'

literal

translation

b

noun = wages

used

-

notvn



1

t/

noun = sinking

2 verb noun

etc.)

= painkiller •

n=



to treat

1







tissue

(paper)



b

mxvn



= geography

1 adjective

= to scatter

noun





line

verb7®



no(vn

= immediately

d)

verb

= to scatter = to make a mess



noun = savings

2 verb 3

to

softer in tone

numbered area of a Japanese town used as a subdivision in addresses •

moment make expressions and not always

= please wait a

= seasoning



a small cup

= to sink •

noun =

silence

for drinking •

noun = chocolate ^5



noun = author

noun = display 2 verb 3 1

©

= to exhibit

\

1

98



I

'

noun = commuter



noun = traffic = passage

2

verb

1 •

"3

adverb



= lUSt = carelessly



=bv mistake





train

3@

=to pass

(along)

7



rioun

= no through roaa



1

2

noun = supplement verb 3

©





to

- passer-Dy

add

noun = the 174

day of the month

first



-



used

a form of

certain

in

_

expressions with the sense of

^197 •

noun



=

'through' or

''

197

erb2®

= about (concerning) = per

• • •



= whenever



it is

= to make (oneself) understood = to get through (on the telephone) = to be connected (by) = to be well informed (about)

convenient •





adverb = next

t



adverb • = on the wav = while (doing something else)



= correspondence

:

=to

2 verb 3 communicate

adverb





=



noun = communication

1



at last

verb



noun = correspondence course

©

= to spend



noun = mail order

(selling)



1

noun = (aeroplane) crash



=to crash

2 verb •

( ( ussd

counter



3

noun =

2

verb 3 school

travelling to school

@

=

to

go to



1

noun



'

= interpreting = interpreter

2 verb noun =

2 enb:?@ commute



=

=

to

noun



= interpreter •

noun - commuting time

to

interpret

work

travelling to

noun



= bank book = pass book







1

notify

noun





1

=to

verb

noun = currency



®

= (school) report card

= to pass through

tp

notification

for letters

181

and documents

noun =

2 verb 3

(aeroplane or helicopter)

"^

1

verb 3

@=



to be valia

®

1



" • •

® @

1



99

noun

used in

often

= aisle = passage

,

.it

-i

'

with', 'to

noun = walking



the rorm

mean

stick

no"n



t

"^

noun = errand



(

suffix -

adds

the

= end

meaning

'use'

@=



verb to

run into

adjective = partly used 7

e

of using

• •

enb

• •



= (being = (being

©

7



®=

= to use = to spend

erb^d)



= to catch = to arrest

• •

1 •

= to be caught = to be arrested



verb







©



= to grab = to take hold of = to grip



verb







S

"

.

,

verb

1

1

®



verb

7

(f)

= to



verb

1

tell (a lie)

verb

1

(§)

=to poke



verb

1

(§)

=to pour



verb

' .

©

= to be

next

suff/x



= with

noun = next = one

noun = desk verb

1

®=

to use

up

after

>197

another ciD

= to take

= to light = to catch fire = to come on •

noun

1

job)

= to get tired = to be tired

"3 • • = month • = moon

verb

verb





e



= to be stuck (to) = to be attached = to be included = to be with = to be stained (with/by)

(a

la?



1

= to arrive = to reach

noun = tiredness





verb

to find out



verb





;









accompaniment







in)

= to attend = to accompany

la? •

attendance





noun

in)

n = use





;



adjective = disposable

after

noun = time







adverb = one



another

noi7n = way



21



'to be going out have a relationship with'

to

,

® I



"^

noun





= to associate with



noun

= construction

= acquaintance verb

1

@

\



part of a

^ noun

the right

chsrscter

hand

®

b •



• •

100

= to make = to form = to grow

noun =



soil

suffix -

attached to the pre form of a verb it adds the

e

1

meaning

= to build = to create

'while' or 'continuing to'

191

suffix -

attempt

to show an something and so

used

to recall

translatable as 'wasn't we...?' or 'what

commonly

was

with the

it

'haven't

it •••?',

again?'

sense of

.



noun = continuation



verb

Very form of a added to the pre verb as a suffix to mean 'continuing

'{what)

to

..>191

205 continue

noun - traditional • Japanese pickled vegetables served as a side dish with a main meal •

v^erb2© =to



IS?

e

1® -to

continue

did you say?' or '[where) did you say {it was)?' etc. Related to particle

added to the pre verb as a suffix to mean

• •



=

= to attach = to install = to spread (butter etc.) - to mark

vorb







has a range of uses which





mean

noun

. said

• •

/'

the phrase to refuse requests and may translatable as 'I'm very sorry but am unable to -.. at that time'

'

verb



suffix -

= convenience = circumstances

used

self-

to

wrap

(that)

noun

= work = duties

no"n = place



be

erb2®



=

I

to

work (for)

implies long term work

v^erb2®



= to be consistent

=

=tobe



®=

of work

inconsistent

= to tell = to transmit

1

an abbreviated from of meaning '(somebody)





exercise



®

= convenient = to be convenient = to manage to



'to

control'

verb 2 (a light or mdchine) = to turn on (a fire) = to light •



© =tobe

e



= to put on = to wear •



(D

to thrust (into)

generally

verb

form of a continue

careful

(homework etc.) •

'to

_to...>191

2(1) •





7® = to

e



be transmitted



'



1

©

• •



s •

I

to try •

erb2©

hard

noun = rope •

• •

to...

= connection = context

noun

®®

1

®

101



®=

verb



noun = intention

to

be connected verb



1

added to forms of the verb to make sentences with meanings

(i)

= to connect = to join

• •

Intend

.



noun =

(

(



wave

• •

noun = wing



noun = grain



tidal

enb = always

acf

verb



(of)

©=

kill

time

noun = dew

noun the Japanese season (June-July)

noun

to shut (eyes)

verb2®



be

noun



rainy

verb

to



= to

;

®=

e



= shine = lustre

1

= to crush



like

to ...'and 'plan to

up

piled



I

I

sauce

for

dipping noodles

or soup

=

w

adjective = strong



be crushed

noun =



(one's



own) wife



verb

1

= to trip = to stumble adjective

• • •

= brave

= aggressive 2 adverb • = bravely • = aggressively •





()

1 adjective

177

become

7® = to

e



= bored = boring = worthless

strong(er)

erb2(i) =to



strengthen

used in the set expression

when and

translatable as

'it's

giving a

just a

• •

something'



other words

verb



• •



noun

= guilt = sin = offence



adds

the

^



verb

meaning



= to be balanced = to be in proportion

'

verb

= nail = claw



e



J$

©=

to

7

enb

hang

adjective

= cool =cold

adverb



pack

to catch

noun = crane





(D =

7

(a fish)

noun

O •

(in)

it

'hard to

noun





when added

form of a verb

= fishing = change

©

= to pile up = to load •

suffix









pre



• •



to the

1

= to be blocked = to be stuffed full of •



= hard = bitter

conjunction = in



adjective



gift

little

erb2(D =to

• •

= as = in accordance with

hang

(bird) 7

©=

to

'

noun = companion

particles show the grammatical functions of words and the context

IIZ •

jltlTt (a

102



I



verb

©=

to take

©=

to bring

will determine an appropriate English translation which may vary considerably for the same particle in different uses. The above are a few of the more common possibilities.

person)

6



(a

person)

(a

verb 2 person)

-

-

••



3

205 form of

the

©=

"



• •





is

...

o"n

. .

erb7@

^

= to meet = to encounter •



which

= meeting = encounter •



^ noun



/

used to join sentences together and can be translated as 'and' or 'is 187 and' among other things.

to take/bring



= hand = way (of doing)

noun = allowance

^/5tt^ noun =

toilet

used and formal speech

a version of in writing

= to take time = to reach

situations

= tobe

prefix =

helpless

= to take steps

\

(to sort

out)

=

to hold out the

=

to cut corners

hand

low



noun = proposal



no"" =

(foil)

capacity

= to begin



form

suffix - added to pre some verbs to indicate 'person

who does suffix

...'i.e.



1

2 verb 3

191 ,

• •

• • •

(retail)

,,



= season

{location of an action) = at = in = on (method or mesns) = by = with eason) = because of (cause

price ,.

= fixed period ot time =

^201

particle



= to decline notvn =



a form of the verb or

wo cte to be added and supplementary meanings

@ •

= listener

adjective allowing other

created

noun = decline

ticket for

nO"A7

bus or train

noun • day or days which a shop or restaurant is closed on a regular basis and translatable as 'closed the

on

•=by •

(describing materials used) = from



= with



(describing a limited time or space or group) = in



{describing prices or quantities of



=by

things or people") = for



1

noun although translatable as

'offer'

it

most commonly used to describe sponsors or advertisers and translatable as 'support' or

'sponsorship'

is

)

103

©

2 verb 3

= to

provide



1

noun = care



2 e •

1



I



noun = resistance

2 verb



=to oppose



= to care for = to repair

noun = data •

1 • •

noun = stop = suspension

3® @

2 e • •

noun = database 1

noun =

a date

@

2 verb 3

= to stop = to suspend

• •

= to have a date = to go out with



=

verb 3

noun = tape

to stop

noun



=



noun =

table

noun = tape

(train) stop

recorder •

noun = submission 2 verb 3 (D hand in 1

noun = theme

(of)

= to

(

noun =

^197

tissue

@

verb 2

(paper)



• •

= to go out



noun

'

\

menu

-

a set

a restaurant

in

mx7" =



letter



noun = power cut 2 e/t)3(^ 1



= to be cut

2 adverb

"

off (electric power)

noun



• •

= extent = degree



2

ac/



= politely = carefully = kindly







noun = enemy suffix -





= polite = careful = kind

= easily

tfi

added

to

some

nouns it produces an adjective o adverb {depending on the particle used) with the meaning 'being 'of the character of or '...like'. Similar

1 ady'ecf/Ve •

() = easy

1 adjective

,

to

English endings

words

-al

and

-ally in

like 'politicaljpolitically'

and

'educationaljeducationally'.

erfc)

• •

speech forms used

in

noun - polite Japanese w 187

= workmanship = finish •

= completion

noun = retirement



@=

age •

and going

noun





(in

noun = coming and out)

noun



= entrance and

be completed •

() = accurate

1 adjective

2 adverb

= precisely

exit •

• •

noun = bus stop

verb1



to



= event = happening

noun

_

'

4"



'

-

104



I

=

noun - textbook

adjective



= handy = reasonable

• •

to be suitable (for) '

'

(price)

noun = dessert



noun = designer

1 adjective

= appropriate = suitable 2 adverb C •

noun - designer

= appropriately

goods

prtrase



noun = design

X

= just made

/) adjective = digital

7"

C

(





)= suitable = suitably

1 adjective

2 adverb



sometimes used in the sense of 'not making an effort' or 'taking it

= plan = order as

7

r

easy'

noun



phrase - often translatable suppose' this is a polite form of and can be used to get

confirmation from the listener that

|

what

is

being said

translatable as •

1

-

they?', 'weren't you?', 'hasn't

noun = application = to apply

verfo2® • •

• • • • •

= to be able to = to be possible = to be completed = to be made (of/ftom) = to appear = to be formed can be used

etc.

it?'

187

2 verb 3



correct so also

is

'isn't it?', 'aren't

in the

added

to

statements which do

not have a verb

0

means

and

'am'

'is',

adjective

L

'are'.

after (» adjectives to polite.

The plain form

negative

is

either

negative form form is

.!

expression

after the

is

sound more is 7Z and the

I

The plain Past t and plain form past .

is

noun = trouble



dictionary form of a verb to mean 'can ... which is an alternative to

it

Also used

'

the potential form of the verb

191 p/7rase

• •



= = =

as

much

= however



=but



= because = since

as possible

...

conjunction

3

as well as possible as

conjunction

9 •

as possible •

prtrase =



-

if

noun =

possible ^5



tb

P

noun =

exit 1

noun = wrist noun =





• •

j



noun

= uneven = bumpy

haphazardly ) = unreliable

(



= response = effect

noun = notebook

can be used of personal organisers or diaries •



noun = nonsense

2 adverb 2 adjective

lever

test

ad/ec Ve

J



noun = iron •

noun = philosophy

® 105



noun = bridge



to

noun





/"

a combination of particles used

-

make the negative forms and so part of a structure equivalent

(for railway)



I

to 'isn't', 'aren't' or 'am not' in the present and 'wasn't' or 'we en T in the past. Also used to mark the condition under which a followina statement holds and so meaning 'if ...is the case then Very commonly the particles are being used to highlight a topic and carry or In the case a sense of 'as fo of There is sometimes a

= help = helper

verb



1

191

= to help

noun



..

= procedures

.

used of form fillina administrative work

verb 3

(

@=

to be

and

comparison (explicit or implicit) with something else. This follows from a word or phrase marked with particle being further marked as a topic



thorough

with particle

= thorough

2 ad e

be

translated as

toy

O



noun = railway



no"/i = metal plate

all

enb3®

is

it

it

could

followed

carries the

wrong' and

is

noun = department

\

night

= to stay up

all



noun = example



noun



13Z noun = tennis

• •

= time = trouble

= to play tennis

mj noun



noun = tennis court

• •

= cutting



= =

(just in) front (just)

comers

before

noun - (restaurant



noun



-

3 towel

store

noun = gloves

night

food) delivery service

wiping the hands

-

a

form followed by Also used to mark the condition under which a following statement holds and so meaning If ...is the case then Very commonly the particles are being used to highlight a topic and carry the

particle (i

.

….

or 'in the case of 'as for sometimes a comparison {explicit or implicit) with something else. When followed by o is it carries the meaning

sense of There

is

I

wrong' and

no

When

Also used at the start of sentences as a conjunct/on meaning 197. ^205 'weir, 'next' etc. f\

for

'in,.

not

n = gun

noun = staying up

some

translatable as 'must not ..'or 'should



1

Following

or

I

meaning

= thoroughly

2

.

nouns such as country names



1 adjective

'

is

translatable as 'must

or 'should not

197.

205

"0"= meeting



(somebody)





= to meet (someoody at the station etc.)

suffix - representing the form of a verb and the particle and translatable as 'even if ...

^^

^

'.

197.

anybody = everyone = anywhere = everywhere = anything = everything

•.



n 106



I

= anytime

family

meaning

'your imperiallroyal

highness'

as a suffix it is a form of above. 197 205 but more likely to be found as a combination of and trdnslatable as particles I

'even

the case that ...)' This from a word or phrase

{in

usage



noun =

electrical

goods

no"n



.

is

being marked with particle further marked as a topic with particle Also used with the meaning 'or something (else)' when making suggestions. When following words used to form questions such as 'who?', 'where?' and 'what?' it gives the meaning 'any...'.

'

= additive •

1

noun = development

2 verb 3



= to

develop

noun = weather







% xl noun = jclS noun

electricity

= biography

noun = demonstration

T



noun = desk

lieht

= demonstration



erb

P.

verb



= weather forecast

7@ = to shine





1

• •

• •

• •

= = = = = = =

noun = transfer

2 verb 3

@

=tobe

transferred





to leave refers to the system operated by a company, school board or other organisation of moving staff around

go out (of) to appear to come out to

to different

to take part (in)

branches, departments

andjor jobs

protrude to graduate (from) to

7"

noun =



1 adjective

television

= typical •

noun =

2 adverb

programme

television

7"

noun = telephone •

erb2@





= tobe

noun

= mark = point

= to mark

/5

suffix



noun = heaven

a member of the staff of a shop. Translatable as

W noun = message notvn- genius prefix = electronic

IxT suffix -

of address for the

Braille



-

title



= electronic dictionary

or 'sales assistant'. •

in

= shop

noun

'clerk'

noun = weather



etc.) •







(homework

typically

= power point = power (switch)

shy •

AX)"n





card



AKXvn



= to illuminate = to shine (a torch) •

light

bulb

er/:W©





noun =



noun = (Buddhist) temple



and form

Japanese Imperial



noun = electronic organiser

,



=

.

107



I



= exhibition

(



%gi

noun = telephone

ceiling

noun



noun = marks



=

train

noun =



0519

power

noun =



verb 3

no"A7 = electric





noun - microwave oven

test)

'

noun



noun = email

C Aj~9

'

= telephone directory

(in a



noun = telephone number



to be infectious

noun



= inrectious aisease •

noun = astronomy •

noun = battery

"Biiil

noun



= manager (of a shot) or bank)

has numerous two nouns and be translatable as '… and or follow a noun referring to a person to mean 'with …' Sometimes used in uses.

= from place to place -



as an adverb

the form

and the

it

there' but

is

marks used

to

means

used

in

'here

to

script. These are marks placed beside a kana

syllables in the

IE

common)

express the meaning the verb 'to think'

meaning

(

(

others such as

noun = tent •

link

optional (but very

vii

is

can

()

character to transform the pronunciation from 'ka' to 'ga' ifi etc. The proper term for these

marks

It

expressions of comparison and so variously translatable as '{different) from \ '{same) as' etc. It's use is compulsory with some verbs such as 'to marry' and

describe form voiced

also

this particle

particle

adverb



noun = tradition

say'

'to

in

meaning

'(/)

'to

with

speak'

to

Used

in

'with'.

think that ...'and with

the idiom '. .

.

said that

...'or 'cdllsd





The

adjective = traditional

can also show that a preceding phrase is a quotation. particle

x = natural



S



noun = (Japanese)

Sometimes used with the verb in the sense of 'become'. Also used

emperor

with certain adverbs, especially

onomatopoeic expressions.

_

noun - The Emperor's Birthday (December 23) - a Japanese

Following the dictionary o

sift

form of a verb

public holiday •

noun

-

a form of words equivalent

'His Imperial Majesty, the



Emperor

- noun

conditional.

door

noun = shops

noun = tempo noun = telegram

suffix

*





makes a

to

{of Japan)' •

it

191



= (number of) times = degrees (of angle or temperature)

noun = door •

^

noun = question

'



108

I

pA?



noun = enquiries

3@

2 e

a polite response

= to enquire

verb 2

ase = you re

welcome to

expressions

of thanks such as •

®

= to enquire •

noun = Germany

1

phrase - used following a noun or noun phrase to mean 'called ...'or 'something expression

like

… and in to

noun = unity

2verb3® adverb

the

mean

-

can be used

in

when

the sense of 'please ...'and

following a phrase ending with the

'apparently'

particle

conjunction = however conjunction = because

noun =

means

it

also

...'.It is

used

'whether or not

idiomatically with a

sense of something being not quite

...

right.

toilet

noun =

toilet

paper

phrase =

' verb 3

(§)



=to post

as if to

^ noun = tower

(a letter)

noun = pottery



say •

= to make

the same

noun = motivation no"A?



= same

class/grade •

3 counter =

large animals

181

noun



= classmate •

suffix

= grade



suffix

= island



noun = copper

no"n

' •

• •

adverb • •

= how = what

how are you? = how it

= tools = implements

1

= how was it? = what shall (I/we) do? = whats the

noun = going

2 verb

= to go to

school

= what do you ...)?



noun = movements



noun =



noun = verb



suffix

= what will

happen?

when followed by a it means

or 'no matter



of the

if

how much one

phrase = what kind of.. = how = why Ir

it

mean?

shows

set of circumstances or are

form and 'even

same group

time

that

z$

f

-

such as

'(among)

'colleagues

1 in

what way ...? = what does

noun =

2 adverb

members

with similar status

friends' or



at that

the people referred to are sharing a

the particle



statistics

to school

3@

matter? think (about

noun =

§



is

(going)?

noun = (mountain) pass

'.

(

at the

same time

= simultaneously

109





• •

= that day = the day or the

• •

...

adverb •

= =

why how

,

adverb

-

• •

= however = no matter what

adverb = please = of course

'

phrase - an abbreviated form of which is used to express the speaker's hopes for a future successful relationship of some kind and carries a sense of



noun = simultaneous interpreting •



I

'thank

you

in

advance

...

as there

to translate

also be used to give the meaning '(/) can't help ... and to emphasise

is

no



1

noun =

2 verb 3

—andlor necessity. |

arrival

@

arrive

to

adverb = utterly



noun = appearance

3@

real English

-

'

2 verb

or

equivalent.

wanting something 'no matter whst,. Has a general sense of insistence

1

••

fo

'please think well of me'. Very difficult

adverb

= to •

appear



= =

finally

after all



1 noun = boarding (ship or plane) 2 e 3 (D = to board (ship or plane)

noun



-

an

I

Japanese schools teach 'moral education'

which

a place

for the practice of martial arts like

1^ noun = morality



@

similar to social ethics

is

'



1 adjective

noun



= boarding card

(ticket) •

noun = character (in • •



= moral

2 adverb

a film or

book

etc.)

= morally A?

= theft

Japanese use covers a broad sense of 'theft' and can be translated with the most appropriate

adverb = after all = anyhow = anyway

term from the English 'robbery', 'burglary'

carries a negative or pessimistic

and

'theft'

adverb = somehow

nuance

(or

other)

:



1

noun =

2 verb 3

=(it)willbeok = do (it) somehow or

living together

@

= to

other

live

together •

mxvn



1

noun = introduction

2 verb

= homosexuality

=

to introduce (something)



noun =

a

homosexual •

1 adjective •

f

() = natural

naturally

§ noun



'turn'

duties to

be performed •

1

when

sense of = reasonable

2 adverb =

(of something)



noun

-

there

used is

a

in

list

the

of

1



• •

110

= vote = voting

2 verb

Mei§ noun



Japanese

stones for children. Translatable as 'nursery stories' or

traditional

3@

'

=to vote

'fairy tales'

noun = animal



noun



(

= zoo

®

I

(



aajective = transparent

noun = ten

• •

adverb - the basic meaning 'somehow' but It is often used as an abbreviation of polite phrases where it acts something like 'very'. This means that depending on the context the word can mean 'hello' and 'thank you' as well as 'sorry'.

= distant = far from

--



*

* ' •

'







is

181

adjective

]S



10

noun

= the tenth (day of a month) = ten days i74

10





noun = ten days

174



noun = a long way



verb

away

When used with negative statements and comments it is translatable as 'apparently' or 'somehow or



other



©

= to let pass = through (someone or someone's connections)

= thank you (very much)

used to mean naming large and famous roads. Used after other nouns {sometimes connected with and sometimes not) and the past or •

U noun

iM

'road' especially In

= I'm sorry

• •

have troubled you

to

adverb = somehow = apparently •

paraffin

homes

dictionary forms of verbs

llT/S noun

used

oil

in

'as'

kerosene or



or 'according

adjective

(( )

7

2

@=

to pass

@=

to

I

do



verb



verb

go past verb



noun

= road-works

• •



registration

©

= to



1

= to pass = to go through particles

ti



2 verb 3

= and = etc.

register

as well as when giving examples is sometimes used when trying to rsnwmtxr something and added it •

1

5

noun = debate

2 verb 3

©

debate

the

by

noun = road •

noun =

as

noun



= colleague •

(it)

= similarly ) = the same

as

1

'in

= following the explanation/instructions

= Please do

2

or

= that's (you're) right!



adverb

signifies

to'

191

= Asia = Orient

1

it

=as usual

noun •

'like'

manner of.

many Japanese

mobile room heaters

for the

or

=to

to

uncertain statements with the

meaning

'or

something

like that'

® 111

noun = large



city

= urban

so

is



I

noun

someone

'something

adverb = tend to

is

means good at, and

translatable as 'speciality' or

...

©=

verb



'



'strong point'

to

noun = reader

(



dissolve (something)

verb 7 (f) =to move (something out of the way)





adjective =

noun = time



often used following another noun or following the plain linked with forms of verbs or adjectives to mean 'when' or 'while'

noun = reading

2 verb (as

3@

( ( ( (

adverb adverb

()

basic meaning

verb 3

verb

is to

context,



'



adverb



1

noun

verb

7

verb

1

(D =




(

adverb

= unexpectedly

(

noun = (photographic) film

^ •

• •

noun = pink •

pq

M noun = quality



noun:

sort



noun =

(letter)



I suffix

j

= style = appearance

z5



noun = scenery



noun = balloon

noun = boots

^ •

writing paper

)

z:>

noun •

anxious



flight

adjective = sensitive



to feel

noun = fan

noun •

= per cent



up •

negates the following

prefix -



word or element in a way similar to English prefixes such as 'an-' and 'in-



J

' noun = envelope noun = (married)

couple

= hint = clue

noun = boom •

= frequently

noun = poverty

2

adjective

1

,

(

• )

= poor



"

t\j

zS



1

noun = swimming) pool

adverb

no"n = bad luck



= whistle = flute

noun







138



I

erb2® = to



^

J ,

noun = fork

pPT





, of very ...'or 'heavily involved z$

^



in

..."

noun = depth



(

= indispensable •

adjective = impossible

verb

adjective •

noun



• \ A'^:^xX noun = poor economic conditions

meaning

the

= unclean = dirtv

()

5n 'S

(

jtts^S

( (



mood



adjective = irregular

z$





'

= to spread

about' but it can also mean 'to talk nonsense'. Often used in a form such to mean 'stop as zS messing around and behave yourself

"

noun - cloth 1 (i)

x5

= to blow = to play (a wind instrument

S noun =



(

prefix







(

= to arrive safely •

1 adjective

2 adverb

L^ 3

= to

review

'

included

) = safe = safely

2 adverb

^^ih noun and suffix



(



noun = revision

2 verb

noun = tune

1 adjective

- welfare

1

fin

etc.)

= deputy



adjective



= appropriate

clothing

adjective - complicated

U

properly'

= to wipe

verb1®®





noun - plural



noun = clothing

f

) = mysterious = mysteriously

(7

'



pPs

noun

erb

7

® (D =

to be

the 'radical' of

chdfdctsr which can be look it up or to help explain

used to the meaning •

1 adjective

S

Mr and Mrs

- the basic verb meaning is 'to play around', 'to mess

noun = economic

verb



=

2@

(

:)

noun = neighbourhood

zS

suffix



@ 1J

fail

etc.)

adjective = unreasonable





an exam or interview

noun = spread



Ve

adjective = unfair

recession



noun =



(in



2 verb 3

aa!/ec

noun = symbol



adjective = in a bad

1

()



= unhaDDV

to

noun = weapon

= to

late

deepen •

erb2@



grow

@=

7

to

noun = bag



adds

suffix -

@=

7

swell

work

noun = deep

t)

verb



noL/n = staff (who

for/under someone)

,S

enb2©=to



include

increase

= inconvenient 2 verb short of



'

() =

to be

®

' / . '

used as a euphemism for when describing people

'disabled'

(

adjective •



®

(|

139



noun - two people



noun

181





= insufhcient = unsatisfactory



= burden = cost

()

()



noun and

adjective = everyday



@

• •

b

verb 3 = to be wounded = to be iniured

noun = edge





1

noun



2

noun = carelessness

adjective

(

"b

)

= careless

= injured person

noun = carelessness

1

noun =

1 verb 3

insult

verb

@

'

= to insult prefix



= women's

1

®=

suffix

to hit

= item



zS

names

added

suffix -



with a

meaning

but merely a polite to marriage status

"

noun

title

to

similar to 'Mrs'

and not

related

• •

= ordinary = usual

2 adverb _ the

paper

covered sliding doors inside a Japanese house which divide the space into rooms

()

1 adyecf/Ve

• •

'

()

= usually

noun = the second aay of the month = two days 181 174.

2



noun =



prices

= Japan





1

noun = dishonesty

2

adjective

= dishonest

' •

prevent

verb1



= to



as a

=

suffix

to be lacking

meaning

'short

of



= to = to

®

'

hit

bump into

noun = substance



adjective

=lid

=

noun

verb 2 •

in'

/'



1

noun





verb = to bang into = to clash with •

also appears as in the form or 'Iscking

expensive

= Buddhism

noun = shortage 2 verb 3 @) 1

is

(bottle)



top

^197

noun = pig





,

'

verb

noun = stage •

noun = twin/s



= =

to

grumble

to

mumble

adverb = once

again

1

noun



= physics

noun = two





second

= dangerous

n =

181 (the)

-

brush {used

for

calligraphy)

adverb = unexpectedly

181 •

noun



Japanese

noun = pork



adjective = thick

n





5

z5 • •



= estate agent = realtor

^

/

weight

'

used in

means

the form

'fat'

to

put on

noun = plus noun =

1

noun = sea mail









IJ

adds

the

meaning of 'pretending

,

suffix - Following time U • expressions it means 'for the first time since 'for the first time in Following nouns and verb stems it means 'way of ...

noun =

"

noun

noun = complaint

() adjective



'

5f

verb



= inconvenient Ti^ noun = parents

s" x =



=

177

to turn

(



1 adjective

noun = dissatisfaction

i

noun =



level

e



1



= derective

• =bad 2 noun = juvenile delinquent

(D

noun



= deiective item

= to tread on

noun =



noun = print

foot (of a

mountain)

—— noun = blue

noun =

field (of

@

verb



etc.)

=to



"

1

around

illegal

crossing

,S

- the

characters used ovsr or characters to indicate beside vii the pronunciation

^5^noi/A7 = part



expertise

.

free



small

noun = blizzard



()



to

191

or Ta/c/na

no"n



z$

'

3@-

= component = spare part

ho

noun

verb followina the form of a verb or a noun and particle 197

be mistaken



e

= to mistake

no"



• •



!^

• •



= street corner = (in the) street

noun =





= = = =

particle

as far as

until to

even

=tobe



@) =

unnecessary to

e



festival

^205

to wait impatiently I

particle

•=by •

1 adjective

2 adverb

" b "b (

)

'

= various

= before •

noun = window

= variously

verb1®® •

• •

= (ticket) window = enquiry point

,

-

®

@

149



\/erb

1@



= to be gathered together = to be sorted out

• •



= fully = whole

At

©

verb 2 = to gather together = to put into shape

• •

• •

= utterly = as if

,:>

!=

verb

to learn



noun =



'.

e



= to = to

• •

invitation



(a letter) (a

phone

call)

noun



invite

brine:



e

= to turn = to forward = to transfer

(D

)= rare

rarely •

• •

3

(

1 adjective

2 adverb ,5



adjective = round

(not)

noun •

^

adverb

= manners = behaviour





I



about



= area around = circulation

erfoP® =to

noun = detour

imitate

,:A

e



^

adjective



= dazzling

noun = (warm) scarf

= to turn = to go around

'



counter = ten thousand



181

noun = mother



and 'as

and

adjectives to

mean

noun





'without

(you were told

(of emergency etc.)

etc.)'.

noun =

-



(

1 adjective

' ' '



• )

= hardworking



= to be



•=

verb

1



(§)

noun = verb

noun =

2 prefix

(illegal)

manga

circle

= apartment = apartment block

drugs

= having

n

all



1 1

noun =

satisfaction

2verb3@

lost



1

comic books animations



know what

= to be



noun

seats filled

to be at a loss to

noun = marathon = long race



train

noun •



' •

cartoons

carefully

= to protect = to defend



= = = =

'

crowded



2 adverb



a

female proprietor of

a noun = beans

noivn = being fall



to capacity

change' and

a ba •

phrase = in case



noun - the basic meaning is 'as it is' 'in an unchanged condition \ It can be used after the plain forms of verbs

lost

to

do

'

= to be

satisfied

= to fill the tank up with petrol/gasoline

.

• •

= middle = centre

noun =

foil

nouA? :'

car's

marks

® •

150



I



()

1 adjective

2 adverb

=

noun





• •

^





suffix

noun = error

= flavour



verb

noun =



= to look up

verb



adverb





to



= on one's own = in person



initiative

noun = swimming

-



costume

= to be visible = to seem



noun =



(a)

whiskeyjwhisky or other

send

with ivsfG

off

verb





water

(cold)

noun = lake



noun - an \ • arranged meeting with a view marriage



= miserable = miserably

noun = sewiner machine

= incomplete





()

1 adjective

2 adverb prefix



adjective = short



= fruit = nut •

= prospect = expectation

to acquire

noun





noun = body = to wear =

= wonderful

skilfully

= to see someone off

noun-



someone who

nouri



erb



• •

7

©

= to polish = to brush (the teeth) = to practice

(

verb



=





noun

forms of verbs and adjectives it means 'looks like', 'is similar to' or '{it) seems {that)'. It can also be

noun = point of

noun =

'

> • •

right



side •

IJ

187

translated as 'such as

right

noun = the



hand

© =to

suffix - following the plain

noun = mandarin orange •

in

noun = ditch



view Z?"^

twenty

noun - a paste made • from fermented soy beans and which forms the basis of miso soup

=ally = supporter •

is

erb 2



to catch sight or •



under the legal age

show

o"n = appearance

M



is

of adulthood (which Japan)

= recollection

diluted

noun = shop



1

spirit

t6a

noun = right

no n = headline

noun



= street = road = way (to somewhere)

'

'

1 adjective

handed person

= close • = familiar 2 adverb

'



noun = mixer

r



noun = right hand

_

= close at hand





,

151

(

noun = route





noun = sample



erfc)2@ = tobe





I



©

.

verb 7 =to not well)



ac/





noun

3







erb = densely

= the third aay of the month = three days i /4 verb

=

to be

"



visit

• •

found verb 2



(someone



3



®

*

O noun = three

(

noun = ear

181 • •

adjective

= disgraceful



= to stare

noun = prospect









'

-(

1 adjective

2 adverb

= strange

)

strangely

noun = surname noun

= tomorrow

.

= to admit = to approve

noun





= cauital = large city •

e



(



^ noun



IS?



suffix

= less than = under

= to find

3

who is

noun = ruture

noun = millimetres

= green = greenery

noun



= attractiveness {April 29) - a

'"

Japanese



adjective = attractive

public holiday

noun



• •

(

noun-



Greenery Day

e



= everyone = everything

• •

e

7@=to



= to see = to watch = to look at

2(1)

V

look at again







noun







= position = status

meaning

'have a

go

at (doing)'

noun

'try

...

and

see',

197

prefix = civil



prefix

= democratic

^ noun = south



noun = democracy

adjective = ugly



erb

7® -tobear \

fruit



the

noun = milk

= harbour = port

'(



adds

it

= everyone = ladies and gentlemen •

form of a verb

following the



noun

• •

V-

noun and prefix



= people = tribe •

la^

noun =

folk songs



152



I

often

used to refer to a foreigner's and translatable as 'your

country

country'

noun



• •

and similar to



• •

English prefix

'un-'

= =

[^

noun = opposite

' •

verb



1

fi

verb



=

a time • •

1



= =

©

verb su/fcc

=

= to peel

little bit

adjective = complicated

/ •

noun

O

= exchange

T)

T



evening verb



1

70 n = (early)

noun = bravery



= to redo "V*

I

to

do t_



adjective = easy to do

verb



• •

noun = validity = valid until

adjective = difficult

I

= =

to

mxv

= amusement park

and annoying

(S)

'

noun = friendship

(

adjective = excellent

do

.

to give

A more In the

informal version of 'to give it is used friends or by older people to

meaning

among

younger. the

1

noun = victory

and

carries

skong

f^oun



When used after a verb in form it means 'do for you

(as a favour)'

=to win

2 verb 3(g)

'

verb 3

©=



to

send bv post

overtones of social superiority or •

seniority

=

(cost of)

postage

(

= friend



'

noun =

' . •

shower

160



I

a brief



(

(of rain)

adjective = capable

1

2 verb 3

noun = evening

noun





1

noun = carelessness



2

enb3®

^

() adverb =

young

1®=to

verb

boil suffix





adjective =



m noun and

argue



^



() adjective •

noun

= Japanese-English dictionary

sixty

181

^Aj

dictionary



noun = dispute



noun

1



= to understana often used in situations where the most natural English would be 'to know'

= paper = thesis = dissertation

noun = parting





e



= logical

1 adjective

2 adverb

selfish

=



to separate

logically





= to diviae • •

noun • = under the arm = side A7o"n



= armpit

^\

WA particle t0

or

^ noun = frame



note that the topic particle is character written with 'ha'



( e^y occasionally) chdmcter /\

boil

(

with the

(

vii



• •

= reason = meaning



e

7@) =

to





168

I

= circumstances

adjective = our

=itisnt

verb



that

=

...

it

doesn't

mean

that

...

=cannot =

= to hand

erb7®®



can't be the case

it

(f)

over

=to

cross over

the expression translatable as 'must' (following negatives) and 'must not'

til Ms

(following positives)

• •

"5

noun =

elastic

band





adverb = deliberately



M noun = Japanese



noun = Japanese

• •

2

adjective



= slight = a few



noun

verb





= to laugh = to smile



U noun



adverb = merely

as a



suffix with

= ratio

numbers

indicates multiples of

IS?

style)

- traditional

= a laugh = laughter





Japanese

Western

to

style clothing



room

1

^

style

food

noun

S noun

Japanese



2©=to

opposed



= to divide = to distribute