The Oxford Russian-English Dictionary 978-0198641117

1,419 111 147MB

English Pages 944 Year 1972

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

The Oxford Russian-English Dictionary
 978-0198641117

Citation preview

THE OXFORD

DICTIONARY By Marcus Wheeler

General Editor:

B.QUnbegaun

With the assistance of D. P. Costello and W; F. Ryan

This general dictionary is primarily for students of Russian in universities and schools whose native language Is English. It contains about 70,000 entries, and is based on collation of the best existing Russlan-Engllsh dictionaries with

fundamental dictionar-

Russian (Including the authoritative dictionaries prepared by the USSR Academy of Sciences, and pre-1917 works). Russian and Soviet literature and the Soviet Press have been drawn upon, and importance has been attached to including colloquial vocabulary and Idiom and general scientific and technological terminology. Entries include illustrative phraseology and indications of principal grammatical features. There Is an appendix of the most commonly used standard abbreviations. ies of

.

MA

02116

£5 00p net in

UK

Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2016

https://archive.org/details/oxfordrussianengOOwhee

'j!*'

.

^

I


I

« •

V*

«

I

**. ,

'•:* *

*

r*

»

ii*

t

« ^S

I

»

.



i

^*tk

I

KSbIX



'.
lt>3

^

^^ /

«ai(be>^J

^

'f4si|/rixi

2

ncJaxI^e

^00*1

«L

(«fiiiRJsdij»

.1 •'

%0^';^

{

x(b^r>l^^,Wt£b:T

'

,1«

.

f^Idr.uj^/

*>di

' ^ }£ / ^b&ra

^dJ

7>^^«'^^
^

axhlo

aJxiltfitnl

^gAugasJ

ni

-H

lo !a^^nrtu

agixi*

A

oxfJ

^^

',?^»

bfii^

aoiJwcfranoa

ycl

jA

Ikd

yliftao

oxli

BoM) lo ft^Iqaub

yd

txf

raodw

locbuA

xfiJwaiJtcq

rid

ofidj t^fdio

igoabcal

euoi;^a:f8

bsri

) . (


ziasiTI

ijsholibo

.

:

:

INTRODUCTION This work

intended as a general-purpose dictionary of Russian as

is

and spoken. It is designed primarily, though not use of those whose native language is English.

written

it is

exclusively, for the

MODE OF PRESENTATION

A separate head-word is given for each entry,

and there

is

a separate entry

each word. The entries include a substantial quantity of idiomatic and illustrative phraseology, but no literary quotations. for

The (i)

following devices are used to economise space in the dictionary:

The

of the head-word, followed by a

first letter

full point,

)

whole head-word, thus:

(ii)

The

|

tilde sign, in

(=

T.

,

represents the

conjunction with a vertical stroke, represents that part

of the head-word which

exceptions : the tilde

is

,

is

,

,

)

to the left of the vertical stroke, thus

~oe

(=

not used in indicating the genitive singular of nouns

and 2nd persons singular of the present tense of verbs with unchanged stress (for examples, see below Nouns and Verbs) and, in

or the

I

St

:

;

)

from the imperfective to the perfective verbal aspect, it may, when preceded by a prefix, represent the entire head-word, thus

cross-references

|, , ,

impf. {of co ~)

...{—

of

Pronunciation

The Russian alphabet and orthography

are to a large extent phonetically

accurate and phonetic symbols have not been employed in this dictionary. indicated for every word.

Stress,

however,

where

this sign represents

is

two or more

[, , ~

A

stress

mark above

,) )

syllables, indicates shift

the tilde,

of stress to

the syllable immediately preceding the vertical stroke dividing the head-

word, thus:

Conversely, shift

of stress

Where

stress

mark above a

,

away from

is

.

(=

syllable to the right of the tilde indicates

the syllable (s) represented by the tilde, thus: a,

pL

|, , ~

a variant stress

.

. .

.

(=

)

permissible, both variants are shown, thus: .

.

.

(=

or

:

INTRODUCTION

X Phraseology

many

Idiomatic phrases are in

cases duplicated in entries for the

com-

ponent words. Phrases consisting of adjective and noun, however, are normally entered under the adjective component. Meaning Separate meanings of a Russian word are marked off by Arabic numerals, thus: .

.

.

i.

pertaining to divination.

2.

based on conjecture, problematical

Shades of meaning, represented by translations not considered strictly synonymous, are marked off by a semi-colon translations considered synonymous by a comma, thus: :



, . .

Homonyms

ugly, repulsive; vile, nasty.

are indicated by repetition of the head-word as a separate entry,

followed by a raised Arabic numeral, thus: m. gas. a, m. gauze. a,

^,

no accepted all-embracing criterion for differentiating homonymy from polysemy (plurality of meanings of a single word) or ‘meaning’ from ‘shade of meaning’. It

should be noted that there

is

, ;,

Explanation

This dictionary presents translations, not definitions.

Where

necessary for

the avoidance of ambiguity, however, explanatory glosses are given in brackets in italic type, thus: a,

This device

is

m. interpreter {expounder),

,

not translator]

).

used in particular in the case of words denoting specifically

Russian or Soviet concepts

makes

[i.e.

(e.g.

This

one-word transliterations rather than clumsy paraphrases as a substitute for a translation. Indications of style or usage are given, where appropriate, in brackets, thus:

it

possible to use

{coll.), {dial.)', {fig.), {joc.)', {agric.), {polit.), etc.

GRAMMAR This dictionary

is

the bases of Russian

not a substitute for a grammar, but users familiar with

grammar

will, it is

hoped, profit from the grammatical

indications supplied.

Nouns

The

, 6|, |6,

genitive singular ending

and gender of all nouns are shown, thus a,

hammer. ,/, lightning. m.

a, n. milk.

.

. ..

:

.:

INTRODUCTION

XI

Other case endings are shown where declension or

|, , |, , ~,

stress

in relation to

is,

generally accepted systems of classification, irregular, thus pi.

,

m. Englishman.

~e,

a.

~, ~6, -

/>/.

.)

~,/, beard.

d.

(But the inserted vowel in the genitive plural ending of numerous feminine

nouns with nominative singular ending g. pi.

not regarded as iiTegular,

is

Variant genitive case endings of certain hyphen, thus:

|,-

~OK-KOB, no

Nouns ending

sing.

.

.

.

tantum are indicated

(=

or

).

to the corresponding adjective (e.g., .

.

sharpsightedness

.

.

by a

derived from adjectives have not been included

where an appropriate English rendering can be obtained by adding .

e.g.

.

sharpsighted

.

.

.

.

-ness

.

.).

Adjectives

Only the masculine nominative

singular of the full form of the adjective

is

shown. Endings of the short forms, where these are found, are shown in brackets, thus:

The

|

neuter short form ending

is

0)

(-

omitted where

stress is as for

(~, ~)

.

the feminine,

.

Verbs

Endings are shown of the

-

(or of the

-,

I

ist

and 2nd persons singular of the present

person only of verbs with infinitive ending

St

which retain stem and

stress

-,

unchanged throughout the present

|, , ,

tense), thus:

-,

tense

00|, ,

.

. .

. .

Other endings of the present tense and endings of the past tense are shown where formation or stress are irregular, thus •

Participles

, , ,,

|, ,, |, ,

past

past

~, ~6 . .

and gerunds, and forms of the passive

.

.

voice, are not

shown

unless

having special semantic or syntactical features. Verbal aspects: the imperfective aspect is normally treated as the basic form of the simple verb, a cross-reference to the relevant perfective form being

shown

in brackets, thus:

The corresponding

|, ,

entry

|,

impf. {of npo~)

is:

, pf. of

.

.

.

:

.

INTRODUCTION

Xll

In the case, however, of compound verbs formed by means of a prefix, the perfective aspect

is

|, , -^),

treated as the basic form, thus pf. {of

Since, in a

-^-)

.

.

number of cases, a correspondence cannot,

reasons, be firmly established (e.g.

sponding aspect

is

for semantic or other

the absence of a corre-

not necessarily noted.

Meanings and phraseology are shown under the basic form

in

each case

unless peculiar to the other aspect. Prefixes

A

—verbal and other, and truncated elements of prefixes— are shown separate thus:

number of prefixes

words functioning

as

also

-

-

as



entries,

[verbal prefix]

hydro-

COB- abbr. of

Numerous compounded words, the meaning of which is judged sufficiently clear from a knowledge of the meaning of the prefix and root-word, have, to economise space, been excluded from the dictionary.

ERRATA p.

4

1.

4: for

~y

p.

18

1.

2: for

he read

p.

68

1.

p. 161

1.

I :

I

~y

read

read

for for Irak read Iraq

:

p. 168 inner

shoulder-head: for

p. 169 inner

shoulder-head ybr

p. 169 p. 171 p. 172

|

|

-. -. read

11.

4-5: for

1.

I

I

for pi. sing,

:

read

cartride

read

75 176 p. 1

read

|| | [ | | delete

{coll.)

3: for militia read militia

1.

|

p.

215 outer shoulder-head: for 1. I for pf. and read 223

p.

226

.

236

p.

237 for

p.

243 p. 286 p.

*

keyword

read

2: for

1.

read

pf.

:

full left

(not inset)

read

|:

i8: /or

1.

read

II

for pi. of 2: for

,

read

330

p. p.

573 676 for

p.

689 inner shoulder-head: for

1.

1.

,

pi.

of

bac read

P-

4: for he read read

]* |2

| | , , | ^ :

p.

735 for second

p. p.

744 758

p.

787

p.

p.

873 876 880

p.

893 for

entry

1.

1.

read

9: for

7: for

(

read

-.) spent read ( -.)

2: for

read

|| 1.

2

1.

:

1.

1.

read

read

p. 703, col. 2 for

p.

cartridge

sing.

p. 175 for p.

read

:

7: for

1.

read

1.

m.

1.

for 3. read 3. I

:

for

6~^

read

2 for intoxicaion read intoxication :

read

to

have spent

twm . •

:’"

'



' 'I

=,.-