The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain: A corpus of material found between 1983 and 2014 9781407313504, 9781407322940

Bronze Age metalwork has always caught the interest of archaeologists, largely due to the very large volume and variety

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The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain: A corpus of material found between 1983 and 2014
 9781407313504, 9781407322940

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Title Page
Copyright
Table of Contents
LIST OF FIGURES
ABBREVIATIONS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
INTRODUCTION
ORGANISATION OF THE CORPUS
LIST OF SITES BY O.S. GRID REFERENCE (where known)
LIST OF SITES BY OBJECT TYPE
CORPUS OF BRONZE AGE METAL WORK FROM SOUTHWESTERN BRITAIN, DISCOVERED JANUARY 1980-JULY 2014
PLATES
FIGURES
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Citation preview

l na tio ne di nli ad l o ith ria W ate m

BAR  610  2015   KNIGHT, ORMROD & PEARCE   THE BRONZE AGE METALWORK OF SOUTH WESTERN BRITAIN

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain A corpus of material found between 1983 and 2014

Matthew G. Knight Theresa Ormrod Susan Pearce

BAR British Series 610 9 781407 313504

B A R

2015

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain A corpus of material found between 1983 and 2014

Matthew G. Knight Theresa Ormrod Susan Pearce

BAR British Series 610 2015

ISBN 9781407313504 paperback ISBN 9781407322940 e-format DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9781407313504 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

BAR

PUBLISHING

CONTENTS

List of Figures Abbreviations Acknowledgements Introduction

1

Organisation of the Corpus

9

List of Sites by O.S. Grid References

12

List of Sites by Object Type

20

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork from South Western Britain, discovered January 1980-July 2014

29

Plates

74

Figures

106

Bibliography

112

The following is available for download at http://www.barpublishing.com/additional-downloads.html: Pearce, S.M. 1983. The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain. BAR 120 Part ii: The Corpus. (N.B. This is an unamended version of the original 1983 corpus to supplement the current publication)

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1: Part of mould for 4-ribbed socketed axehead from St. Keverne, Cornwall (33), with possible loop

106

Figure 2: Possible buckle from St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall (43o)

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Figure 3: The Colaton Raleigh Hoard, Devon (125)

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Figure 4: Hoard of palstave, casting jet and knife fragment from Ottery St. Mary, Devon (149)

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Figure 5: The strumento con immanicatura a cannone from Salcombe B, Devon (163c)

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Figure 6: Lower half of barbed spearhead from Thurlestone Beach, Devon (173)

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Figure 7: One of the seven palstaves recovered from Bournemouth, Dorset (206f)

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Figure 8: One piece of the lunula from Tarrant Valley, Dorset (317)

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Figure 9: Copper alloy mould for basal-looped spearhead from East Pennard, Somerset (389)

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Figure 10: The Charterhouse-on-Mendip (Priddy) hoard of gold ornaments, Somerset (419)

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Figure 11: A selection of the mould fragments from the LBA pit at Sigwells Farm, Somerset (428b)

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Figure 12: Hoard of two palstaves and a socketed hammer from Wrington, Somerset (460)

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ABBREVIATIONS

BA BAR BAR-S BM CMAE CA D DCM Dia EBA EIA Ext Fig frag IA L LBA LIA MBA MIA MBND Med PAS PDAS PDNHAS Pl PPS RAMM RB RIC ROM SCM W Wt

Bronze Age British Archaeological Reports (British Series) British Archaeological Reports International Series British Museum Cambridge University Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Cornish Archaeology Depth Dorset County Museum, Dorchester Diameter Early Bronze Age Early Iron Age External Figure Fragment Iron Age Length Late Bronze Age Late Iron Age Middle Bronze Age Middle Iron Age Museum of Barnstaple and North Devon Medieval Portable Antiquities Scheme Proceedings of the Devon Archaeological Society Proceedings of the Dorset Natural History and Archaeological Society Plate Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery, Exeter (Exeter City Museum) Romano-British Royal Institute of Cornwall, Truro Royal Ontario Museum, Canada Somerset County Museum, Taunton Width Weight

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Many people have contributed to this volume, and we thank them all for their help. Our grateful thanks go to the southwestern Portable Antiquities Service Finds Liaison Officers, and to the staff at the many south western museums, particularly those at Bristol City Museum, Dorset County Museum, Exeter’s Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery, Hampshire Museum Service, the Museum of Somerset, Plymouth City Museum, the Royal Institution of Cornwall, and at Beaminster, Barnstaple, Bournemouth, Budleigh Salterton, Christchurch, Gillingham, Ilchester, Kingsbridge, Penzance, Poole, Portland, Salcombe, Teignmouth, Tiverton, Torquay, Wareham, Wells, Weston-superMare, Weymouth, and Yeovil. We thank Neil Wilkin, Stuart Needham, and the staff of the British Museum, especially those of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, whose database is, of course, a primary source of information. Particular thanks go to Thomas Cadbury, Andy Elliott, James Gossip, Martin Green, Andy Jones, Jane Marley, Stephen Minnitt, Brendan O’Connor, Henrietta Quinnell, Fiona Pitt, Ben Roberts, Richard Tabor, Anna Tyacke, Kate Verkooijen, Peter Woodward and Danielle Wootton, all of whom supplied invaluable access to material, and to work in progress. Our warmest thanks go to Hilary Quinn for her invaluable assistance and also to Jacky Nowakowski for her significant help. We offer very grateful thanks to Alec Mcauley for advice and help relating to production. We are grateful to the Historic Environment Cornwall Council for allowing us to use details of material from Boden Vean, Higher Besore and Truro College, Tremough, and Trevalga. We are also grateful to BAR for permission to use drawings relating to Tremough and Trevalga, and for tirelessly answering our queries, offering helpful support, and for producing the digital copy of Sue’s 1983 corpus on disc. Matt would like to particularly thank Angela and Stuart Knight for their endless support over the course of this project (and Alex Knight for tallying the number of times “Bronze Age metalwork” comes up in conversation!), and, of course, Robyn Raxworthy for always being there with a cup of tea.

INTRODUCTION

Britain, as well as summarising the significant theoretical positions and finally presenting a few fundamental questions that remain unanswered. Finally, we present a research agenda for future work on the Bronze Age metalwork of the peninsula.

General Considerations Bronze Age metalwork has always caught the interest of archaeologists, largely due to the very large volume and variety of objects that is still being recovered on an almost daily basis. Regional catalogues have been repeatedly undertaken in an attempt to manage the sheer wealth of data and analyse the implications. In 1983, one of us (SP) published such a study of south western Britain, contributing a catalogue of 896 find spots. This discussion embraced the wider understanding of metalworking in the region, how this fitted with traditions across the rest of the country and the European continent, and how the metalwork was integrated into prehistoric society1.

Terms The classification of metalwork deposits, particularly deposits of multiple finds, and how they should be understood, is the source of much discussion. Categories have been drawn by various authors based upon functionality, size, condition and context. Pearce (1983) avoided the term ‘hoard’, regarding it imprecise, instead favouring the distinction between ‘associated finds’ from a variety of contexts, which included multiple finds and single pieces of metalwork from known archaeological contexts, and ‘unassociated’ isolated finds. An important consideration is the difference between single and multiple depositions. Becker (2006; 2013), in particular, has advocated that the function of an object may have played a large role in where and how it was deposited, rather than the size of the deposit. A deposit of a single sword could therefore represent similar social actions and motivations to a deposit of numerous swords. Becker describes deposition as a transformative process that was linked with individual identities and deposits of multiple items might represent a collection of individuals or a community. It is these concepts of social transformation and identity that are becoming most dominant now in the study of metalwork depositions, and indeed it adds a new perspective to our understanding.

Over thirty years later, a large volume of new finds have been recovered from the area, contributing 471 further find spots, some relating to very large metalwork collections. During this period too, Bronze Age studies have significantly advanced. Closer studies of depositional contexts, new databases, and a greater focus on the individuals involved in metalworking practices has thrown up new theoretical approaches to this topic. The extensive bibliographies of Richard Bradley and Stuart Needham are essential to any discussion on Bronze Age metalwork depositions, particularly within Britain, whilst the Prähistorische Bronzefunde (PBF) series and Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) database are enabling greater access to the wide range of material available. Regional studies, such as those from south east England (Turner 2010), Ireland (Becker 2006; 2013) and East Anglia (Pendleton 1999), are also important contributions, as are broader analyses and discussions (Barber 2003; Taylor 1993).

Richard Bradley (1987; 1988; 1998; 2005: Ch.5; 2013; Yates and Bradley 2010a; 2010b) has written extensively on the deposition of metalwork, critically analysing past classifications. Bradley (1987; 1998; 2005) has predominantly been concerned with the context of depositions, which he argues helps offers insights into the “transactions in the life-cycle of the community” (1998, 34). He (1998, 4-14) has offered a selection of classifications for a more precise assessment, which include: find contexts (distinguishing between finds that could be recovered and finds that could not); 'wet' finds and dry-land finds; single and multiple finds; and a summary of Rowlands' (1976) work into weapons, tools, ornaments and 'mixed hoards'. This focus on find context is important for all finds, single and multiple, and it is a pity that in the past more accurate recording has not been practiced. Governmental organisations, however, such as the PAS, have enhanced the public recording and

This volume is intended to bring the 1983 corpus of south western Bronze Age metalwork finds up to date by documenting finds made in the four counties between January 1980 and July 2014. The intention here is not to undertake a full re-examination of the south western metalwork and its context – such a discussion is beyond the confines of this publication – but instead to suggest some of the broad parameters within which such a discussion might take place, and to point to several key themes that have become prominent in Bronze Age studies since 1983 and to some that remain relatively underexplored. This introduction will summarise the advancing terminology in Bronze Age metalwork studies, and very briefly address chronological considerations. A succinct overview of the broader context is also provided, offering a setting in which to consider south western

1  A

digital copy of this corpus has been included on a disc as part of this publication to allow access to the complete collection of find spots in south western Britain. 

1

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain understanding of the objects being recovered. Bradley’s work has overall offered significant insights into the way Bronze Age social constructs and landscape contexts affected depositional practices.

which a study of Bronze Age metalwork in south western Britain might be set.

The introduction of the Treasure Act2 in 1996 also warrants brief consideration, as this, alongside the establishment of the Portable Antiquities Scheme, has vastly increased not only the volume of finds, but also the accessibility of data for interpretation through an online database: www.finds.org.uk. The Treasure Act insists all appropriate finds made after 24th September 1997 must be reported in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, whilst Scotland has its own system in place (Bland 2013). For our purposes of studying prehistoric material, the relevant conditions of the Treasure Act are listed below:

The theoretical understandings since the last catalogue (Pearce 1983) have undergone rapid alterations, heavily influenced by anthropological and philosophical standpoints that had previously never been applied to the archaeological record. The post-processual movement of archaeologists (e.g. Shanks and Tilley 1987a, 1987b; Hodder 1991) has greatly altered the way we can perceive not only the material culture left by past societies, but also the individuals that formed those societies and their inherent relationship with each other and the world they inhabited.

  

The Broader Context: Approaches to Interpretation

Past and present theoretical standpoints play crucial roles in how one might understand and interpret Bronze Age society, and tackle the fundamental questions we pose below (p.4-5). It is, therefore, useful to present some of the key approaches that currently influence much of our understanding:

Any prehistoric object that is all or partly composed of a precious metal (i.e. gold or silver) is automatically Treasure. Two or more prehistoric base metal objects found in the same find spot (this applies only to finds after 1st January 2003) Any object found in association with Treasure.

Marxist-informed Analyses

Although this categorisation of Treasure does not take into account the contextual or social implications of the finds, it does provide a national standard to be adhered to and offers a legal framework for the reporting and recording of prehistoric precious metal finds and hoards of metalwork.

In the past these have helped inform theories of production, accumulation and control leading to social change as a way for structuring Bronze Age Europe (e.g. Childe 1962 [1958]; Gilham 1981; Kristiansen 1984). Although traditional Marxist Archaeology has largely been criticised (McGuire 1992, 76), the Neo-Marxist (“structuralist Marxist”) approach to archaeology emphasising the significance of prehistoric ideologies alongside economic structures (Renfrew and Bahn 2008, 494) has inevitably influenced how we can think about Bronze Age societies.

Furthermore, the establishment of the Treasure Act and Portable Antiquities Scheme has massively increased the wealth of information now available for amateur archaeologists and metal-detectorists on understanding and interpreting finds. The work of Ben Roberts (n.d.) is to be commended on compiling an extensive easy to use catalogue of Bronze Age metalwork types, which will hopefully ease the identification of future finds for nonspecialists.

World Systems Theory (WST) and Network Analysis Likewise, analyses of networking and exchange, ideas of core and periphery, and the concepts of WST all play a part in understanding how the Bronze Age society of southern Britain should be understood in relation to the continent. Kristian Kristiansen (1994, 1998; Kristiansen and Larsson 2005, 2010; Rowlands et al. 1987) in particular has advocated the spread of Bronze Age social ideas and practices via WST and core-periphery models, whilst the impact of network analysis (i.e. a heavier focus on localised interactions) still requires further exploration (Brughmans 2013; Harding 2013a; Knappett 2011, 2013).

Chronology The chronology of the Bronze Age is constantly under revision. Roberts et al. (2013) have recently reviewed the ongoing research from across Western Europe, integrating over a century of relative and absolute dating methods, and thus an extensive re-examination is not necessary here. Roberts et al. (2013, 21-22), however, note the difficulties in devising integrating chronologies on regional, national and international scales. It is also worth noting that the more refined calibration which can now be applied to C14 dates is likely to have a major impact upon Bronze Age dating systems, especially as these will produce ‘real’ rather than relative chronologies. Further details of how this corpus has been related to the current chronological understanding are provided in the Organisation of the Corpus. We turn now to exploring the broader contexts in 2

Full details of the www.finds.org.uk/treasure.

Treasure

Act

can

be

found

Anthropological-style Analyses Although initially concerned with the impact of kinship systems and social obligations (e.g. Rowlands 1971), these types of studies have come to focus on broader factors, such as how to view the individual (Strathern 1988) and the impact of social memory in archaeology (e.g. Bradley 2002; Rowlands 1993; van Dyke and Alcock 2003).

at

2

Introduction and also offer indicators towards specific research projects.

Personhood, Agency, and Identity These have become dominant themes in much of the literature (such as anthropological (Fowler 2004), genderled (Robb 1994) and phenomenological (Owoc 2005) analyses) and offer important perspectives on the individuals that constituted prehistoric societies. Frameworks for applying such studies to the past (e.g. Dobres and Robb 2005) include chaîne opératoires, phenomenologies, contextual analyses and ethnographic studies. The application to the Bronze Age still has great potential, but notable contributions thus far include Barrett (1994), Becker (2013), Brück (2001), Brück and Fontijn (2013) and Owoc (2005).

Cultural dynamic and its praxis (its reality in lived life in all time and places) embraces people with their feelings, imaginations and needs. It influences their actions (human agency), human relationships, economic circumstances, the belief system, and relationships with the natural environment, which includes the creation of landscapes and the working of resources to produce material culture. All this together brings about social production, reproduction, and change, and it is all, always, in cycles of reciprocal motion. Detailed consideration of any part of this can therefore yield meaningful information about what is happening within that society. In archaeology, this is often explored as a relationship with the natural environment in an appropriate time/space span (e.g. Bradley 2000).

Landscape Phenomenology This way of conceiving the world has been especially developed by the work Christopher Tilley (1994; 2004; 2008; 2012), who focuses heavily on experiential methodologies. Owoc (2005) applied a phenomenological methodology to explore agency as part of the construction of the south western Bronze Age monumental landscape over a long sequence. Bender et al. (2007), however, have produced the most thorough study of phenomenology in south western Britain to explore the Neolithic and Bronze Age landscape on Bodmin Moor. They applied phenomenology to illumine the ways in which landscapes have been viewed (ibid.) and how aesthetic effects, in patterns of colour, for example, may have been important. A note that might be raised here is the potential for the integration of GIS mapping with this type of experiential study (e.g. Gillings 2012), which might further enhance how we consider the prehistoric landscape.

More recently, Bradley (2005) has argued that it is wrong to draw a distinction between the ritual and domestic spheres of prehistoric society and that the construction of dwellings and agricultural practices are interlinked with traditionally ritual activities such as deposition and monument-building. Owoc (2005) has argued similarly, suggesting that the landscape was embodied with meaning through these actions. This builds on the insights gained from Brück’s (1999a 1999b; 2001) various papers in which she proposed that depositions at settlements may have been linked with subsistence cycles and constituted a method for managing the world. These perspectives have altered the way in which actions of Bronze Age, and indeed prehistoric, societies should be considered and in any study, a holistic approach is now recognised as crucial. Little is known about British Early Bronze Age settlements, but by the beginning of the Middle Bronze Age, at the latest, the inhabitants of southern Britain had developed a pattern of field systems and pastoral uplands, with substantial settlements of round houses, which together sustained a developed, stable, agriculture. The works of Fleming (1988; 2007) and Yates (2007) are especially noteworthy in enhancing this topic, and their comprehensive texts have provided impressive insights into the extent field systems were integral to the social, economic and political systems of Bronze Age Britain. The extensive reave system on Dartmoor, as well as the other field systems across Devon and Cornwall represent importance aspects of Bronze Age society in the South West. Numerous Middle Bronze Age structures have recently been found in Cornwall (Jones and Quinnell 2011) and it would be interesting to see how these fitted with the economic structure and the role of the upland areas. Local considerations, including climatic deterioration (e.g. Amesbury et al. 2008) or changes in population levels, will have had effects at different times and places, and on the overall social structure.

Cultural Biographies of Objects and Material Agency The cultural biography of objects (Kopytoff 1986; Gosden and Marshall 1999) allows one to consider an object beyond a purely functionalist sense. The life- (or use-) cycle of an object and its inherent interactions with individuals brings to the foreground ideas of how an object may constitute action or contribute to social identity. Turner (2010: ch.6), for instance, has compared the usecycle of a Bronze Age object to the life-cycle of an individual, whilst York (2002) has discussed how the condition of metalwork deposited in the River Thames might link with ritual concepts and social constructs. Some authors have thus regarded objects as material agents, forming relationships with individuals (Latour 2005: ch.3; Robb 2010). The Broader Context: Our Current Understanding Following on from the theoretical positions, it seems appropriate here to briefly summarise the current understanding of the British Bronze Age as a broad context in which to set future studies, before addressing fundamental questions that still require answering. The points below seem to be particularly useful starting positions because they work with the available evidence

Late Bronze Age settlements as a collective are a field of study that appears to have gone largely unstudied (excepting Brück 2007). The rise of enclosed settlements and hillforts reflects the changing social climate in the 3

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain lead-up to the Iron Age, which, alongside the mass depositions of metalwork that define the Ewart Park phase, would prove a profitable avenue to pursue and consider. These patterns of settlement, however, were part of a much wider picture.

metallurgical signature, a process fraught with many problems. At the very end of the British Bronze Age though, foreign axes are deposited without any reworking (e.g. Viaduct Farm, Cornwall (Hencken 1932, 164)). Bronze Age southern Britain seemingly embodied this exchange system within its social fabric. If we consider the role of prestige goods (e.g. amber, faience, finished metalwork products), it is likely that for the British inhabitants the possession of such items was crucial to defining and constituting political, economic and social structures. The products were presumably distributed selectively by those who had control of the networks at any given time, but, quite significantly, they were also involved in acts of conspicuous consumption, such as destruction and deposition. Furthermore, it is conceivable that the life-history of the objects factored in to how people interacted with the objects (Barrett 2012; Brück and Fontijn 2013). This might have enhanced the material value, and, by extension, the acts of consumption. These acts were intended to further, confirm, and embody human relationships, expressed as religious belief and practice.

During the Bronze Age, southern Britain was part of a complex of continually evolving, symbiotic, exchange networks which ran across the Channel and into the continental hinterland (Harding 2013b). At first, the early exploitation of copper and gold from the numerous sources in Ireland and Wales and the presence of tin in Cornwall must have radically transformed many of the existing social and economic conventions and this is particularly evident in the emergence of the Wessex Culture. One suggestion put forward by Bradley (2007, 156) is that the richer burials in Europe are closely related to the abundant metal sources and the Wessex communities were wellplaced to control cross-continental trade. Technological innovations ran in concordance on both sides of the Channel and it is clear that several later developments in metalwork (e.g. pins, spearheads and daggers) were influenced by the Central European provinces (Darvill 2010, 193). Mapping how these systems evolved and connected is difficult, but ultimately, links were probably established with the trading systems of the developed, urbanised, societies of the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East.

The exact nature of the depositions changed from time to time in quantity, size, and content, but also depositional context and form (e.g. grave goods, simple burial, burial at already ancient monuments or broadly contemporary monuments like field boundaries, into water, closure ceremonies) (see Bradley 1998). In the same way, the types of metal goods generally changed over time, reflecting and creating social change, but the over-arching requirement for deposition did not change until the end of the British Bronze Age. All these observable changes give important historical information about the ways in which southern British society changed through the period.

These networks brought a supply of metal from further east to southern Britain and by about 1650 BC, the native societies were using less local metal and the continent material was becoming the dominant source (Bradley 2007, 157). The exchange routes will have involved an extended sequence of smaller transactions, and actual commodities may well not have moved along the whole route, but formed a component in the whole (Harding 2000, 187-8; see also Harding 2013a). The metal included copper, copper alloy, tin, and gold, in differing proportions, quantities, and forms over time. Alongside this, there must have been a spread of knowledge and cultural traditions in both directions impacting a variety of social circumstances (Kristiansen and Larsson 2005).

Eventually, the elaborate practices of deposition ceased, and around 700BC the social arrangements which constituted the British Late Bronze Age ended (although as social arrangements were re-configured, deposition of metalwork began again, and networks into the nearer continent were re-established). The nature of this change is unclear, but it is unlikely to be co-incidental that the immediately preceding few centuries saw the end of the great Bronze Age states of the eastern Mediterranean and the Middle East (Mycenaean Greece, Hittite Anatolia, the Egyptian New Kingdom, the states of the Tigris-Euphrates Valley).

What southern Britain contributed to the system is unclear. The range of metals, in various forms, and particularly Cornish tin, remains a possibility, and may have featured in certain areas at certain times. It seems very odd, though, that southern Britain in general should have negotiated continental supplies if adequate supplies from within the southern part of the island were available. Little or nothing other than metal appears in the archaeological record, suggesting that the British goods were perishable; agricultural foodstuffs, agricultural secondary products (wool, leather, linen), and people (wives or concubines, young men for fighters, and outright slaves), all come to mind, but there is no evidence for any of this.

The Broader Context: Fundamental Questions Despite the extensive and thorough research that has been undertaken since the last corpus (and it should be stressed that only a very brief synopsis is represented above!), several issues still plague our understanding of Bronze Age society and its relationship with metalwork. Below, in no particular order, we present a series of important questions and considerations that ongoing research is still resolving, and which will ultimately help shape how we can understand the south western, and indeed the broader, context in which future metalwork studies are set.

Generally speaking, metal which arrived in Britain in the form of foreign tools or weapons was melted and reworked into local types. Why this was so is not clear, but it means that continental metal can only be recognised through its 4

Introduction To what extent did lithic industries continue in the Bronze Age?

cargoes represented at Salcombe and Dover belonged on ships that were arriving or leaving the British south coast (Needham et al. 2013), and thus whether the metal was being imported or exported. Pare (2000) has attempted to map the adoption of tin-bronze across Europe, and portrays the British Isles as the earliest area in Europe to do so in the late third millennium BC, and yet by 1650 BC, Britain was predominantly using raw material from the continent (Bradley 2007, 157).

This question is particularly pertinent during the introduction of metal in the Early Bronze Age, but is also significant for studying later periods and understanding how industrial practices evolved. This is a field that is steadily gaining increased attention from archaeologists (see, for instance, the useful discussions in Eriksen 2010). Where did the metal come from?

How much metal was there in southern Britain at any given time?

Roberts (2009) provides a comprehensive discussion of metallurgical networks and sources in Europe as they can be currently understood, but further investigation is still required, for instance, into any patterning in the use of metals from different sources within the products in use in southern Britain. British smiths usually seem to have reworked foreign metal into local types, and this is a complicating factor. The complexity of the metallurgy means that such accounts are very difficult.

We still lack a certain understanding of the presence of metal in this area, nor what proportion of it was deposited, nor, indeed, what proportion we have actually discovered so far. How many types of metalwork were used on a day-to-day basis? We can only guess at how many of the types of metalwork were in circulation and the extent to which some may have been used more than others. For example, the design of palstaves and socketed axes is very poor, but they were tolerated for a long time. Why were shaft holes never adopted in Britain? Were the loops always only used for fastening attaching hafts, or were they also used to string several together on a thong? Could all this conceivably relate to some conventions of exchange (e.g. Pare 2000; 2013)?

To what extent were south western deposits of metal ores utilised? A particularly pertinent issue for the South West revolves around the use of local metal ores. Despite some indications (e.g. the possible Cornish provenance of the gold and tin in the Nebra Sky Disc (Ehser et al. 2011; Haustein et al. 2010)), there is still little that can be said with confidence about the utilisation of the copper and tin ores from Dartmoor and the Cornish granite massifs, or indeed the lead ores from Mendip, during the Bronze Age phases.

Are we missing objects? Much of what is recovered is probably the result of intentional deposition and thus it is entirely possible that entire categories of objects are missing from the archaeological record. Two possible reasons for this can be put forward here: either the objects did not warrant deposition; or they were recast or recycled when they ceased to be useful or a better version of the tool was developed.

How widely were the Welsh and Irish sources of copper ore exploited, exchanged and used? Our knowledge of Bronze Age copper mining has drastically improved in the last thirty years with over twenty British and Irish copper mines now radiocarbon dated to the Bronze Age (O’Brien 2004, 538). These mines are thus far confined to south west Ireland and north Wales, dating largely to the Early-Middle Bronze Age (O’Brien 2013); the extent to which these sources were exploited and circulated is of considerable interest. Rohl and Needham (1998) demonstrated how it is possible to trace the circulation of different metal types by analysing lead isotopes. O’Brien (2004, 538-551) has applied this to his study of the Ross Island mine and, using a combination of his results and Rohl and Needham’s (1998), O’Brien has shown the possibility of linking potential mine sources to Early Bronze Age artefacts in Ireland. Further studies along these lines will inevitably provide key answers to questions of circulation and exchange.

To what extent was metalwork recycled? Very little is known about the processes of recycling, or how heavily it featured as part of the production of metalwork, or, alternatively, to what extent fresh metal was used. Lead isotope analysis has offered some useful insights into this process though (Rohl and Needham 1998). Towards a Research Agenda In the light of what has been presented thus far, various specific research projects suggest themselves which, informed with one or more interpretive approaches, might cast light on problems in Bronze Age studies.

How should we understand continental trade and exchange links?

The Uses of the Landscape

How much metal came in from the continent (or at various points from Ireland), and how frequent this event occurred, is not known. We are still unsure, for example, if the

It is clear that there is a relationship between the places in 5

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain which bronze was deposited, and the places where other activities (farming, settlement, monumental construction etc.) took place.

2014); clearly the metalwork must not be considered in isolation. An aspect of the same problem is posed by the gold bracelet hoard from Priddy, Somerset, and perhaps by several other deposits of bracelets which have also been identified in Devon and Dorset, and further east into Gloucestershire (e.g. the Woolaston hoard (Wilkin 2014) and Wiltshire (e.g. the Wylye hoard (L. Ellis et al. 2014). Many of them have demonstrated signs of intentional manipulation prior to deposition that would have rendered them unusable (e.g. linking or twisting) and this avenue warrants further investigation in the future to better understand the social constructs underlying the actions. Holistic study of the modes in which metal finds appear within their broader contexts, linked with ideas of agency, should be interesting.

Needham (1988; 2001; 2007) emphasises ‘selective deposition’ of metalwork, suggesting that this was a “strategic plan… for dealing with the world” (i.e. by staking claims or establishing alliances) (2007, 279) (see also Fontijn 2002). Understanding these relationships is of course difficult, but an analysis of contemporary find contexts with this in mind, could be used to identify the possibilities. In south western England, and across Britain, depositions of multiple objects are frequently discovered at elevated positions or at riverine and coastal locations, which probably represents not only a socio-political relationship, but also one with the natural world. York’s (2002) study of the conditions of Bronze artefacts from the River Thames valley allowed a better understanding of how certain objects might be linked to ritual and social constructs via the process of deposition. A similar study in the South West might also produce interesting results.

Regional Variations Many significant finds have been found emphasising the importance of parts of the south western region in the Bronze Age. The huge Langton Matravers, Dorset, find of 373 socketed axes and 404 socketed axe fragments is particularly noteworthy (Roberts et al. forthcoming), as well as the palstave hoards at Bournemouth Hospital (Champion and Jarvis 1992) and Marnhull (Lawson and Farwell 1990), and the numerous large hoards recovered in Cornwall (e.g. from St. Erth, Mylor, and St. Michael’s Mount) of a type that were previously largely only recorded in antiquarian notes. The volume of material recovered from these discoveries is enough to fill a small corpus of its own. The Cornwall hoards, however, are of a more varied character than those from Dorset and thus it would be wrong to automatically assume they served similar purposes. The mass deposition of so much bronze work, all predominantly from the Late Bronze Age, surely has much to inform us about the way prehistoric societies were perceiving this material. What is noteworthy is that similarly sized dry land hoards are not recovered from Somerset and Devon. Comparative regional studies, including assessments of changes brought by climatic shifts and the effects of agriculture, would contribute understanding of the inter-linked cultural dynamic of southern British communities through time.

The longevity of use at depositional sites is also significant and Pearce (1976; 1983) identified several find spots that were occupied as Iron Age hillforts. This potential link, underlined by the new finds from Tregonning, Cornwall, still requires further investigation and may hold insights into the role of memory and significance of place in prehistory. Contemporary Bronze Age settlements and large metalwork deposits, however, largely lack any obvious connection, suggesting they were deliberately segregated practices (Knight 2012). This separation of activities is unlikely to be coincidental and a wider landscape study utilising computer models might provide insights into how places could be interconnected. All of these topics would benefit from phenomenological insights into how the creation and maintenance of memory of place might have worked. The Contexts of Deposition It has been long recognised that bronze occurs in different contexts, both at a micro (e.g. pot, pit, in a tie) and a macro (e.g. burial, monument) level, but further information will be yielded with further, careful, study, embracing the results of modern excavation.

Metalworking and Moulds Nowakowski (2001), for example, considered three sites (Penhale Round, Penhale Moor and Trethellan Farm) to assess the link between depositions and settlement in order to understand abandonment processes in Cornwall. Trethellan Farm is perhaps the most famous abandonment case from Cornwall, with a variety of materials found broken in post holes (Nowakowski 1991). Although rare, the appearance of metalwork at settlement sites is a tradition that it would be worth exploring further across the South West. Nowakowski’s ideas extend not only to metalwork but to other materials such as bone and ceramics (see also Brück 2001 for fragmentation associated with settlements), and recent work has drawn attention to the significance of quern fragments (Peacock

A considerable problem in the study of Bronze Age metalwork is the severe lack of material indicating the production of metal artefacts. Although aspects of the extraction and production sequence can be observed, such as mines, moulds and crucibles, the volume of this evidence does not match the quantity of Bronze Age metalwork that is recovered. In part this can be attributed to the less attractive nature of the clay and stone material that makes up much of the equipment (Needham 1981, 46), but the rise in the popularity of metal-detecting is also having a significant impact. Kuijpers (2008) produced a list of tools necessary for the chaîne opératoire of Bronze Age metalworking, though 6

Introduction the problem is that many of these tools are multi-functional and even when they are present on a site, it is not absolutely indicative that metalworking was being undertaken. The recently discovered site at Tremough, Cornwall, has evidence of more than ten moulds, found directly associated with structural evidence (Jones forthcoming). The variety of moulds suggests either a single smith of diverse skills, or several smiths, who were in operation at once. This rare evidence of metalworking at an occupation area contributes some understanding of the numerous other lowland structures that have been found in Cornwall in recent investigations, particularly of the Middle Bronze Age (Jones and Quinnell 2011). The Dainton (Needham 1980) and Norton Fitzwarren (P. Ellis 1989) collections, similarly, were deposited in evidently significant points in the landscape; the significance of these and similar finds needs more study.

2008; Needham 1981; 1990; Rowlands 1971; 1976), but the sheer lack of evidence restricts the extent to which is can be understood on a wide scale. Among other approaches, experimental archaeology would be illuminating here. Find Content and Social Change The appearance of gold or weapon hoards have long been recognised as signalling the potential growth of social elites of a warrior class, but much more could be done in analysing the differing contents of hoards against a range of other factors. Turner’s (2010) theory that the Late Bronze Age Carp’s Tongue complex finds may have a distinct ritual value, similar in style to those of the earlier Broadward complex finds, suggests a possible approach. Among other possibilities, this type of analysis can work in with concepts of type change representing social change, and the emergence of new groups or sources of power.

The discovery at Sigwells, Somerset, is the most significant to this discussion though. Situated about 2.5km south east of Cadbury Castle Hillfort, 879 clay mould fragments were recovered from an enclosure, and a further 117 from a pit 140m to the north-north west (Needham et al. 2012; Tabor 2008; Tabor and Randall forthcoming). Quite extraordinarily, despite their proximity these two find spots represent two different sites of different dates. The deposition of moulds at the Sigwells enclosure has been radiocarbon dated via emmer grain at 2ơ to 12611047 BC, though the enclosure ditch seems to predate this (Needham et al. 2012, 474). Stuart Needham, meanwhile, has preliminarily dated the mould fragments from the pit to the Wilburton-Blackmoor transition (c.11th-10th century BC) (Tabor pers. comm.). The mould fragments from the Sigwells enclosure represent an unknown number of a huge range of tools, ornaments and weapons, most of which were found within a single round structure, leading Skowranek (2012, 30) to suggest that this may have been a workshop over an extended period. The pit fragments represent a minimum of eight objects of a similar diversity (Tabor, pers. comm.). Full publication of this site is eagerly awaited as it indicates the first evidence of a major production site in the South West and could indeed alter our perception metalworking in the Middle-Late Bronze Age in this region.

Integration into the Wider Continental Scene Relatively little has been done in detail in relating southern British evidence for hoard content and context, for example, to the evidence from northern France, the Low Countries, and indeed to that further afield. More could also be done in relation to Ireland, and, given the geographical proximity, this might be a useful project with regard to the south western finds. Analysis of networking, and of broader systems (core and periphery, world system), will be relevant here. Bronze Manipulation by Individuals It is becoming clear that bronzes were a field for considerable self-expression and choice at the individual level. How this could work might be demonstrated by study of finishing, wear, cold hammering, and the adaptation of old pieces to new uses. There are also issues like choices of objects for deposition, and deliberate breaking or bending; this has been explored in other areas (e.g. York 2002) but a focus on the South West would prove interesting.

The varied use of stone, bronze, and clay moulds also needs scrutiny. We do not, for example, understand why bronze moulds sometimes had their principal decoration of their outsides. Bronze moulds have until recently been absent from this study area, though two are now known from Somerset, which warrant further investigation. An intensive study of the spread of moulds and their relevant products, such as Needham’s (1981) investigation of Stogursey axes, could allow us to view how certain industries may have been divided and the finds distributed.

The huge Langton Matravers find of nearly four hundred individually cast axes (including large numbers of identical pieces) (Roberts et al. forthcoming) suggests that perhaps single axes were acquired separately by individuals, and then assembled as a ‘community deposition’, which is certainly a stimulating concept. Ideas of personhood and identity will be pertinent here, and, again, experimental archaeology would be helpful.

Overall, although the traditional view of itinerant specialised metalsmiths (e.g. Childe 1930; 1962 [1958]) has repeatedly fallen under scrutiny, the evidence still does not wholly support sedentary specialists (Knight 2014). Many approaches have thus been undertaken to understand the process and the individual behind it (e.g. Kuijpers

In 2013, Bradley posited three questions that were left unanswered by traditional approaches to Bronze Age metalwork, which might be paraphrased as such:

Final Thoughts

 7

 

Why are the contents of hoards often confined to just metalwork?

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain  

Why were so many 'stores of valuables' concealed and never recovered? Why have relatively few bronze collections been found associated with occupation sites?

The fundamental nature of these questions, as well as our own proposed above, shows how very far we have to go in understanding the evidence we find. Only further study will help, utilising the new techniques and avenues of exploration now at our disposal, and the first step towards this is the provision of this corpus updating the existing account of Bronze Age metalwork finds of south western Britain. The contrast between the 896 individual find spots of Bronze Age metalwork listed in 1983, and the 471 find spots listed here as discovered from 1980 to 2014, makes the much increased level of discovery and of recording very clear. The great increase in find numbers is due largely to the enhanced activities of metal-detectorists, supplemented by the requirement upon developers to undertake archaeological investigation prior to development. The great increase in recording is due to the work of the PAS. There are of course problems: very many pieces make only a brief appearance in the record before they are ‘returned to finder’, and cannot be re-assessed, while important sites may be written-up in the ‘grey literature’ which can be difficult to access. Nevertheless, overall the situation seems very positive. Current arrangements have created a greater understanding among the general public of the potential significance of finds which do not look very exciting, with the result that a greater proportion than before of fragments of ingots and similar material, as well as of damaged or manipulated worked pieces, have emerged for study. It is perhaps quite significant that the majority of these find spots lie in Cornwall and Devon. Equally, some very large late hoards have been retrieved apparently more-or-less intact, where previously the survival of such finds has been poor, and expert excavation is increasingly investigating detailed contexts, and recognising material like clay moulds at a number of sites, previously only known from a few, like Dainton, Devon. Bronze Age metal studies, as a result of all this, seem likely to move into a phase of re-assessment. Typological and chronological matters will, of course, retain their crucial importance, especially, as already noted, as the implications of the refined C14 dating begin to be absorbed. The significance of clearly widespread metallurgical activity though, and of the equally clear intentional manipulation and deposition of metalwork pieces, can only be unravelled by close study illuminated by sociological and anthropological perspectives. The prospects are exciting.

8

ORGANISATION OF THE CORPUS

A perennial problem of work of this kind is the definition of county boundaries. Pearce (1983) used the boundaries which had obtained before 1974, and to which they have now again largely reverted. Accordingly, almost everywhere, these boundaries are also used here. The exception is the southern section of the Dorset/Hampshire border, where every effort has been made to include material from land that was in Hampshire and is now in Dorset, although some pieces may have escaped. Finds from the Bristol River Avon, which here is the boundary between Somerset and Gloucestershire, usually lack information about which side of the river they came from, and are omitted here.

Scope of the Corpus The corpus records gold, tin, copper, and copper alloy metalwork, together with material involved in the relevant metallurgical processes (e.g. moulds, ingots), deemed to be of Bronze Age date discovered in south west England (Cornwall, Devon, Dorset and Somerset) between January 1980 and June 2014, updating Pearce’s (1983) earlier corpus. The corpus includes details of each metal and metallurgical find. The 1983 distinction between ‘associations’, the term then used for ‘multiple finds’ or ‘hoards’, and ‘single finds’ has been abandoned, as it has become more clear that both were, or could be, deposited deliberately. Details of the finds have been taken from national and county journals, excavation reports, museum records, and information kindly given by friends, often in advance of publication (see Acknowledgements). The online database maintained by the Portable Antiquities Scheme (PAS) has been a major source of information. All credit is given to the PAS for creating records of finds which might otherwise be lost to archaeological knowledge.

Arrangement of the Corpus The four counties, with the Isles of Scilly treated as part of Cornwall, are taken in alphabetical order. Within each county, the material is arranged under parishes, also in alphabetical order, although in Cornwall the prefix ‘St’ (Saint) is ignored in the alphabetical listing. Parishes were used as the organising principle after much careful thought. Use of the same system in both the 1983 volume and this one makes it easier to use them together, and it remains true, as it was in 1983, that material tends to be recorded by parish where no more specific find spot is available. In particular, PAS records often only give the parish as a find spot in order to preserve confidentiality. To assist the finding and locating of records, a ‘List of Sites by O.S. Grid Reference’ and a ‘List of Sites by Object Type’ have been provided, ahead of the full corpus.

Areas which are being intensively studied through ongoing programmes (e.g. Gussage All Saints, Gussage St. Michael, Dorset; Salcombe Bay, Devon) offer a particular challenge because new material is appearing all the time. The lists in these cases are as complete as possible up to the cut-off date. Access to some finds (e.g. St. Michael Mount, Cornwall) has been restricted, so such entries are brief.

Within each parish, the entries follow the broad chronological sequence of the Early Bronze Age material, followed by the Middle and Late Bronze Age material, without further differentiation. Within each band, multiple finds are first, with gold first, then copper alloy, followed by single finds, again gold first then copper alloy.

The South West, as elsewhere, has material in its museums from old collections, the provenance of which is either not secure, unknown, or has now been shown to be not from the region (e.g. the socketed axehead mould said to be ‘from the Quantock Hills, Somerset’, which is probably from the Brough-on-Humber hoard, Yorkshire). It has been necessary to make judgements in these cases, based on assessment of the likelihood that the material comes from the South West. Therefore, for example, metalwork from the Warne Collection has been included under ‘Dorset: Parish Unidentified’, but the material from the Batten Collection now in Yeovil’s Community and Heritage Access Centre seems to have come from Ireland pre-1935 and has consequently been omitted.

Arrangement of Entries Each entry is given a unique number in a sequence which starts with the earliest material from first alphabetical parish in Cornwall (St. Agnes) and ends with the latest in the last alphabetical parish in Somerset (Yeovil). In multiple finds, the whole find has its number, and individual pieces are given letters of the alphabet, beginning with ‘a’.

Areas like Penwith, Cornwall, or the turbaries in Somerset have produced large numbers of finds down the years, but these often remain very confused and some problems, at least, are likely to remain impossible to resolve.

Each entry is laid out as:

9

STE

=

Site

DES

=

Description

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain CON

=

Context

LOC

=

Location

because PAS numbers can be looked up on line3. If there are no references (other than a museum location) then this heading is omitted.

REF

=

Reference

Assessment

ASS

=

Assessment.

A number of considerations have led us to the conclusion that in a work of this kind it is better not to attempt to relate material to any over-arching chronology, either relative to typology or using external dating methods. The broad chronologies of the major gold and copper alloy types have been well understood for decades now, are well recognised by all concerned, are unlikely to be upset, but there is not yet agreement over much detailed chronology. More complex relative chronologies have always run the risk of being superseded by the implications of a single significant find, something now complicated by the recognition that bronzes could be retained over a number of generations before they were finally deposited (for instance the South Cadbury Shield, Somerset). Added to this are the problems posed by the several chronological schemes currently in use, some of which take their phase names from finds, while others use sequences of numbers and sub-numbers. It can be difficult to reconcile these with the growing understanding that regional (or, indeed, local) traditions differed across the country and internationally, both in content of types and in timings (see, for example, Brandherm and Moskal-del Hoyo 2014). The recent refinement of C14 dating has brought the possibility of a secure, detailed, absolute chronology, which will presumably eventually supersede typologically-based chronological assessments, as more C14 dates are determined. Meanwhile, here chronological indications have been kept to a bare minimum.

Site If a specific find spot is available, this is given with its OS grid reference up to six figures. Otherwise the find is allocated to its parish (or occasionally to an even broader area) and the four figure grid reference relates to the parish church. Readers should note that where PAS site details are concerned, the information given here reflects only the basic access to find spot information in PAS records, so that the needs of confidentiality have been respected. Description In most multiple, and all single, finds, a brief description of each piece is given, detailing its diagnostic features (if records permit). The lists of material from very large multiple finds (e.g. Langton Matravers, Dorset; Salcombe Bay B, Devon) have, however, been rendered manageable by bringing classes of objects together into one item in the finds list, with correspondingly brief collective descriptions. All pieces are copper alloy unless otherwise stated. Measurements are given, where L equals length at the longest part, W equals width at the widest place, D equals depth at the deepest place, and Dia equals diameter at the widest extent. All measurements are in millimetres. Sometimes the record means a dimension measurement has had to be omitted.

Similar considerations apply to the typological assessment of the pieces, where again a not-completely-compatible mix of proper names and numerical schemes is in use. Roberts’ (n.d.) PAS Guide to Bronze Objects and Murgia et al’s (2014) catalogue of European Bronze Age gold in the British Museum give a useful account of current names, definitions and chronologies. In this volume, the basic elements (i.e. those generally used as diagnostic elements) are noted in the Description and the Assessment. Likewise, the ‘List of Sites by Object Type’ has been arranged broadly to allow readers to efficiently locate objects that fit within broad categories such as ‘Flat Axe’, and significant features, such as decoration, has been noted in brief. Occasionally, however, specific names are used when this seems helpful (e.g. the ‘racloir’ from St Agnes, Cornwall; ‘Ewart Park’ and ‘carp’s tongue’ generally in relation to swords; and ‘Sompting’ and ‘Armorican’ in relation to socketed axes). Readers are advised to use the drawings for comparative purposes.

Context Brief details of the find context are given, both for immediate context (e.g. evidence for a container) and wider context (e.g. barrow, settlement site, hill fort). If no context is known, this heading is omitted. Location Museum location, and accession number if possible, are given. If a piece is still in its excavation collection (i.e. in the hands of the excavators), was returned to its finder, or is in a private collection, this is noted. Occasionally a question mark is given for this heading. Reference Any bibliographical reference relating to the publication of the object is given here. Harvard Style is used, and full references will be found at the end of the corpus. The PAS and/or Treasure Number references are also provided, but further details of PAS printed publications are not given,

Arrangement of Drawings Numbered plates follow the corpus, and plate numbers are put at the end of each corpus entry. For multiple finds, all

3All PAS numbers referenced are correct as of December 2014, but are liable in some cases to change or be removed from public access.

10

Organisation of the Corpus of the available drawings have been put together, in number sequence of find. Only sample drawings are given for the large multiple finds (e.g. Langton Matravers). The drawings of single finds are arranged so that broad types are put together. A drawing of each piece has been given where desirable. If possible, the drawings have been taken from the object itself, but in a substantial number of cases, where the piece has been returned to its finder, the drawing has had to be produced from the online images made available by the PAS. This has posed a few problems: the images are digital photographs clearly often taken in difficult circumstances, so sometimes the scales are awkward, and occasionally the measured dimensions of the piece given in the text are difficult to reconcile with the scale in the image. Some of the drawings are not therefore as accurate as might be wished. Furthermore, it has not always been possible to provide cross-section drawings. Drawings of shapeless fragments, or of pieces involved in metallurgical processes (e.g. ingots) have usually not been included, since the principle types of information which such pieces can yield derive from analysis of their metallurgy, weight, and their social significance rather than their appearance. Drawings of major multiple finds, either well published relatively recently (e.g. Mount Batten, Devon) or with full publication pending (e.g. environs of Cadbury Castle, Somerset), have not been included. The plates are followed by a small selection of images of the finds. Summary Organising any volume of work such as this is prone to difficulties. The present organisation has been chosen to make it most accessible to a wide range of readers and to help make this corpus compatible with the previous one. The collection of material now known from the South West is vast and incredibly stimulating; we are eager to see what else emerges in the next thirty years.

11

LIST OF SITES BY O.S. GRID REFERENCE (where known)

Square

Grid Ref.

Parish

Corpus Number

Type of object

SS40 SS42 SS42 SS43 SS52 SS53 SS53 SS53 SS53 SS56 SS64 ST00 ST02 ST02 ST02 ST03 ST04 ST04 ST04 ST12 ST12 ST12

499016 437287 4728 4936 525265 554301 563327 563327 57203290 5730567303 622438 053029 002204 0827 0827 085335 0042 074416 074416 1122 1729 196263

Highampton Westleigh Westleigh Braunton Newton Tracy Bishop's Tawton Barnstaple Barnstaple Barnstaple Bishop's Tawton Kentisbury Plymtree Huntsham Wiveliscombe Wiveliscombe Chard Carhampton Williton Williton Langford Budville Bishop's Lydiard Norton Fitzwarren

135 182 183 116 148 111 105 106 107 112 138 160 137 456 457 370 369 450 451 402 359 410

ST14 ST20 ST20 ST22 ST23 ST23 ST24 ST24 ST24 ST24 ST24 ST25 ST25

1541 203076 245046 2427 2236 29123265 201425 2443 2443 2541 2541 2858 29565871

Holford Upottery Stockland Cheddon Fitzpaine Spaxton North Petherton Stogursey Otterhampton Otterhampton Cannington Cannington Brean Brean

392 180 166 376 433 408 435 413 414 367 368 361 360

ST25 ST27 ST27 ST30 ST31 ST31 ST32 ST33 ST33 ST33 ST34 ST36

2958 2972 2972 3703 3217 385171 3824 3435 3435 39323425 34254080 314625

Brean Charlton Musgrove Charlton Musgrove Thorncombe Ashill Stocklinch Curry Rivel Chedzoy Chedzoy Middlezoy Woolavington Weston-super-Mare

362 372 373 319 354 434 385 377 378 404 458 447

palstave axe palstave palstave tool axe axe spear head ferrule axe axe axe sword axe palstave spear palstave spear axe axe copper debris bracelets, palstaves, axe, moulds tool spears ingot sickle palstave blade gold ornament awl blade gold fragment knife gold bracelets, fragments punched sheet, wire, pin, bracelet axe palstave palstave bracelet, fragment axe spear chisel sword chape axe spear collar

12

List of Sites by O.S. Grid Reference ST36 ST36 ST40 ST40 ST41

314625 34156344 4508 465058 48201605

Weston-super-Mare Kewstoke Misterton Cheddar Stoke-sub-Hamdon

448 399 406 375 436

ST41 ST41 ST41 ST42 ST43 ST43 ST43 ST45 ST46 ST46 ST46 ST47 ST47 ST47 ST47 ST47 ST51 ST51 ST51 ST51 ST51 ST51 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST52 ST53 ST54 ST54 ST54 ST55 ST55 ST55 ST55 ST55 ST55 ST55 ST60 ST60 ST60 ST60 ST60 ST62 ST62 ST62 ST62 ST64 ST64 ST65 ST65 ST65 ST65

4316 4316 4316 4226 405371 418389 4938 402560 4662 466604 493673 435720 43507205 4774 4871 4975 5019 5412 5515 56551996 594169 598174 5126 5126 5222 5222 5222 5222 5222 522227 5937 5047 5545 5847 50155533 50155533 50155533 512557 5257 5952 5952 6504 6504 6601 6601 6601 638252 638252 638252 640230 6443 688424 6253 6253 6350 6350

South Petherton South Petherton South Petherton Langport Shapwick Shapwick Glastonbury Winscombe Wrington Churchill Backwell Tickenham Tickenham Clapton-in-Gordano Wraxall Portbury Tintinhull East Coker Yeovil Mudford Over Compton Nether Compton Kingsdon Kingsdon Ilchester Ilchester Ilchester Ilchester Ilchester Ilchester East Pennard Westbury-sub-Mendip Wells St. Cuthbert Out Priddy Priddy Priddy Charterhouse Ubley Chewton Mendip Chewton Mendip Minterne Magna Minterne Magna Cerne Abbas Cerne Abbas Cerne Abbas South Cadbury South Cadbury South Cadbury South Cadbury Doulting West Cranmore Ston Easton Ston Easton Chilcompton Chilcompton

429 430 431 403 424 423 390 452 460 383 355 441 440 384 459 415 442 388 461 407 283 281 400 401 393 394 395 396 397 398 389 445 444 386 419 420 421 374 443 379 380 279 280 217 218 219 425 426 427 428 387 446 437 438 381 382 13

 

axe palstave axe palstaves bugle shaped object, axe, blade, awl, chisel axe spear sword knife knife blade (not BA) axe sickle palstaves, hammer gold ring spear spear alloy globule axe axe sheet fragment axe blade axe gold sheet fragments axe razor chisel awl gold strip spear spear palstave palstave knife spear mould axe palstave spears, palstave gold bracelets, torc, bars palstaves axe axe sickle spear axe dirk palstave axe, palstaves spear axe various gold and alloy objects shield spear moulds palstave razor button gouge spear blade

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain ST65 ST65 ST65 ST66 ST66 ST67 ST71 ST71 ST73 ST73 ST73 ST73 ST73 ST73 ST74 ST74 ST74 ST75 ST76 ST76 ST76 ST76 ST80 ST80 ST80 ST81 ST81 ST81 ST81 ST81 ST81 ST81 ST82 ST86 ST90 ST90 ST90 ST90 ST90 ST90 ST90 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91 ST91

6850 686565 6954 6064 6366 6778 7618 788189 7136 7136 7136 7531 7531 7531 7440 7441 7441 7253 735626 7367 7464 7464 8001 871069 888082 859125 861115 8618 865170 868145 869185 869185 8622 8561 937058 937058 937058 937058 95720289 9512 952134 95401756 954174 95511757 955178 95561822 957195 97291214 983120 983120 983120 983120 983120 98351208 98531171 9914 994115 995174 995174 999148

Stratton-on-the-Fosse Camerton Norton Radstock Norton Malreward Queen Camel Bath Milborne Port Marnhull Brewham Brewham Brewham Penselwood Penselwood Penselwood Witham Friary Witham Friary Witham Friary Hemington South Stoke North Stoke Bath Bath Milton Abbas Bryanston Pimperne Iwerne Courtney (or Shroton) Iwerne Steepleton Compton Abbas Fontmell Magna Iwerne Minster Compton Abbas Compton Abbas Shaftesbury Holt Tarrant Valley Tarrant Valley Tarrant Rushton Tarrant Rushton Tarrant Rushton Tarrant Rushton Shapwick Tiverton Chettle Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Sixpenny Handley Gussage St. Michael Sixpenny Handley Sixpenny Handley Sixpenny Handley 14

439 366 412 411 422 358 405 275 363 364 365 416 417 418 454 455 453 391 432 409 356 357 278 209 286 264 266 239 244 265 240 238 289 263 317 318 313 314 315 316 290 175 223 199 200 201 202 197 203 259 255 250 252 253 256 251 254 295 261 292 294 298

axe casting jet, axe, razor, dirk palstaves axe blade sword awl palstave hoard axe palstave spear palstave palstave palstave spear casting waste blade axe axe spear palstave palstave coil blade axe axe axe mould, ingot axe gold strip palstave chisel spear knife blade gold lunula quoit-headed pin ring awl/gouge axe gouge palstave blade chisel ornaments spear, bracelet, razors, moulds spear spear uncertain axe ring tool variety of objects chisel dagger ring variety of objects pins, razor, spear, gouges, axe axe amber bead gold strip axe alloy droplets

List of Sites by O.S. Grid Reference ST91 ST91 ST92 ST92 ST92 ST92 ST92 ST93 ST93 SU00 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU01 SU02 SU58 SU60 SU60 SU60 SU68 SU80 SU90 SU90 SU90 SU90 SU90 SU90 SU91 SU91 SU91 SU91 SU91 SW04 SW09 SW19 SW25 SW26 SW32 SW32 SW32 SW42 SW42 SW42 SW43 SW43 SW52 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53 SW53

9915 99881334 94452410 95052122 965207 910201 99862194 998334 0206 000142 002148 006145 008111 (app) 008111 00991654 01421019 01461623 029128 034199 048174 043201 688053 688053 688053 660853 821076 915019 952004 952004 944088 944088 944088 9311 936112 936112 936113 942199 00054206 0890 117911 204551 254643 3726 3726 3726 408257 4635326200 4655525912 454318 476301 5139929922 5033 515307 52703115 527311 515307 551314 56033817 569323 569323

Sixpenny Handley Gussage St. Michael Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Berwick St. John Donhead St. Mary Bower Chalke Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Chalbury Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage St. Michael Gussage All Saints Gussage All Saints Sixpenny Handley Woodlands Sixpenny Handley Wimborne St. Giles Martin Cranborne Martin Weymouth Buckland Newton Buckland Newton Buckland Newton Weymouth Turnworth Spetisbury Sturminster Marshall Sturminster Marshall Tarrant Launceston Tarrant Launceston Tarrant Launceston Tarrant Hinton Tarrant Hinton Tarrant Hinton Tarrant Hinton Tollard Royal St. Goran Forrabury Boscastle Pelynt Liskeard Sennen Sennen Sennen St. Buryan Paul Paul Madron Penzance Marazion Ludgvan Marazion Marazion Marazion Marazion Marazion Phillack St. Erth St. Erth

297 257 198 196 204 243 207 258 262 220 260 249 248 247 246 293 333 296 328 277 242 276 327 210 211 212 326 322 302 304 305 310 311 312 309 306 307 308 321 27 24 3 64 36 71 72 73 7 62 63 40 65 43 37 44 46 47 45 42 67 20 21 15

 

spear gouge axe awl sword dagger awl variety of objects axe awl palstave, mould wire awls various metal detecting finds knife wire rings ring awls, strip arrow palstave razor, ring, awl axe chisel/axe palstave axe spear palstave gold ring palstave axe awl spear chisel palstave blade awl palstave spear blade mould axe knife axe rapier ingot ingot axe, blade fragment, ingots gold ornament chisel 3 gold bracelets uncertain hoard axe sword sword blade sword palstave, axes axe gold strip and fragment swords, axes, ingot, debris

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain SW53 SW54 SW61 SW63

569323 587413 687139 60143047

St. Erth Gwithian Ruan Major Breage

22 29 69 5

SW63 SW63 SW63 SW63 SW72 SW72 SW72 SW73

60393044 6036 605363 649376 709252 7921 792213 787346

Breage Gwithian or Gwinear Gwinear Camborne Mawgan-in-Meneage St. Keverne St. Keverne St. Gluvias

6 30 28 9 49 32 33 26

SW75 SW75 SW75 SW76 SW76

7351 77455358 786577 791605 79806140

St. Agnes Perranzabuloe Cubert Crantock St. Columb Minor

1 66 15 14 13

SW83 SW83 SW83 SW83 SW84 SW84 SW85 SW87 SW87 SW91 SW91 SW93 SW93 SW94 SW94 SW94 SW95 SW95 SW95 SW95 SW95 SW96 SW97 SW97 SW97 SW97 SW97 SX00 SX00 SX04 SX05 SX05 SX05 SX05 SX05 SX07 SX07 SX07 SX07 SX08 SX08

81393519 815353 82553522

Mylor Mylor Mylor St. Mawes Kenwyn St. Clement East Newlyn Padstow St. Merryn St. Martin’s St. Martin’s St. Columb Major Veryan Tregoney Tregoney St. Ewe St. Enoder St. Enoder St. Enoder St. Stephen-in-Brannel Roche St. Wenn Padstow Padstow Padstow Padstow (estuary) St. Minver Cullompton St. Tudy Mevagissey Luxulyan Luxulyan Tywardreath Tywardreath Tywardreath Wadebridge St. Kew St. Tudy Blisland Exmouth St. Teath

55 56 54 50 31 11 16 60 51 102 103 12 83 77 76 23 19 18 17 74 68 85 57 58 59 61 53 128 78 52 38 39 80 81 82 84 34 79 2 134 75

821449 8445 828563 86237126 87707452 929154 929155 903365 917396 917445 9244 971444 900569 90345714 9158 953523 9859 9664 91167737 912774 912774 914776 9574 023072 081076 0044 0556 0556 0855 0855 08625665 01957405 019741 07807695 0973 003806 0680

16

 

axe, ingots gold rod moulds for axe axes, razor, torc, ingot, fragments axe, sword, ingot fragments ingot slag pin knife, fragments palstave axe mould various moulds, pin, ring, debris razor (racloir) axe ring, buttons knife spear, blade, ferrule, rod, plate, wire, mould, hammerstone axe axe axes, casting jet ingot mould, sword, ingots chisel debris ingots, point pendant dagger armring axe fragments sword ingot gold armring axe spears awl gold rod and rings spears tin ingot gold strip axe axes, slag spear gold ingot gold ornament palstaves palstave palstave cauldron and fragment palstave axe axe palstaves palstaves ingot palstave blade dagger

List of Sites by O.S. Grid Reference SX09 SX09 SX09 SX09 SX09 SX15 SX15 SX15 SX16 SX19 SX25 SX26 SX29 SX36 SX45 SX45 SX45 SX45 SX45 SX46 SX48 SX48 SX54 SX55 SX57 SX57 SX58 SX58 SX64 SX64 SX64 SX64 SX64 SX64 SX65 SX66 SX72 SX73 SX73 SX73 SX74 SX76 SX78 SX78 SX78 SX85 SX85 SX85 SX86 SX86 SX86 SX86 SX87 SX87 SX87 SX88 SX89 SX96 SX97 SX97 SX97 SX97

0898 0898 0898 0898 0898 1054 1153 11735775 1463 117911 2652 278693 2990 3769 4854 4854 4854 485533 495564 444684 457862 457862 518485 5657 (app) 586737 586737 5084 515892 646439 6646 674421 674421 674421 6942 604595 677654 763245 756364 756364 788359 739445 7069 702876 7088 77858123 848573 8957 8957 8169467291 825679 8564 883698 8278 8373 867795 8086 8093 9366 911734 935737 966771 973745

Ottery St. Mary Ottery St. Mary Ottery St. Mary Ottery St. Mary Ottery St. Mary St. Sampson Fowey St. Winnard Braddock Lesneweth St. Martin-by-Looe St. Cleer Rousdon Callington Plymouth Plymouth Plymouth Plymouth Compton Gifford Bigbury (off shore) Lewtrenchard Lewtrenchard Wembury Plympton Lydford Lydford Lydford Bridestow Bigbury Bigbury Thurlestone Thurlestone Thurlestone Drewsteignton Cornwood Dean Prior Manaccan Salcombe Salcombe Chivelstone Kingsbridge Holne Chagford Chagford Lustleigh Stoke Gabriel Churston Ferrers Churston Ferrers Torbryan Denbury Marldon Newton Abbot Bovey Tracey Bovey Tracey Chudleigh Bridford Stokenham Torbryan Bishopsteignton Teignmouth Dawlish Powderham

149 150 151 152 153 70 25 86 4 35 48 10 162 8 155 156 157 158 126 109 140 141 181 159 144 145 143 117 108 110 172 173 174 132 127 130 41 163 164 121 139 136 119 120 142 167 123 124 178 131 146 147 114 115 122 118 168 177 113 171 129 161 17

 

palstave, knife, casting waste ingots alloy lump ingot axe sword axe sword axe axe ingot dagger gold rod spear palstave palstave palstave various copper alloy objects axe hoard ingots palstave palstave gold ingot undetermined rapier sword awl, tin bead, tin studs ingot fragment ring gouge spear spear spear axe palstave tin lump knife hoard from seabed hoard from seabed chisel axe sword knife axe palstave spear ingots ingots gouge ingots knife, ingots ingots palstave chisel axe axe rings ingots sword axe palstave axe

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain SX98 SX99 SX99 SY07 SY07 SY08 SY09 SY09 SY09 SY18 SY39 SY39 SY57 SY58 SY59 SY59 SY59 SY61 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY68 SY69 SY69 SY69 SY69 SY70 SY78 SY78 SY79 SY79 SY79 SY79 SY79 SY81 SY89 SY97 SY97 SY97 SY98 SY98 SY99 SZ09 SZ09 SZ09 SZ11 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ19

966884 925925 9694 0017578515 00187853 009873 0653398881 039919 065988 126872 325935 3493 578790 588890 571906 5293 596977 637165 603858 6289 628897 643806 643806 680898 696834 69898989 658930 677901 679926 696978 702007 753857 733876 712910 7198 758945 763996 770920 807108 82539590 957796 974775 982792 929879 / 931879 9482 94669579 0494 0494 135195 1092 121938 1280194131 131920 147922 1495 159919 1692 171928 17149092 178936

Topsham Exeter Pinhoe Langton Matravers Langton Matravers Woodbury Talaton Aylesbeare Talaton Sidmouth Uplyme Lyme Regis Colaton Raleigh Little Bredy Long Bredy Askerswell Maiden Newton Sherborne Portesham Winterbourne Steepleton Winterbourne Steepleton Chickerell Chickerell Winterbourne Monkton Bincombe Fordington Bradford Peverell Winterbourne Monkton Charminster Piddletrenthide Piddletrenthide Warmwell West Knighton Stinsford Whitelackington Puddletown Cheselbourne Tincleton Okeford Fitzpaine Bere Regis Worth Matravers Worth Matravers Langton Matravers Wareham

176 133 154 268 267 184 170 104 169 165 179 273 125 270 271 194 274 291 287 331 332 224 225 329 205 245 208 330 221 284 285 324 325 303 449 288 227 320 282 195 335 334 269 323

palstave casting waste palstaves, armrings axe hoard axe hoard axe axe, gouge, ingots palstave palstave palstave ?gold ring axe gold bracelets and ribbon palstaves sword, spear, gouge, razor axe axe/chisel neck ring awl dagger racloir gold neck rings axe daggers, awl, fragments awl knife gold torc copper strip gold tag axe hog-backed knife rapier sword axe palstave bracelet spear axes sword axe rapier, spear axe chisel bracelets, gouge, palstave

Corfe Castle Lychett Matravers Canford Magna Canford Magna Canford Magna (Poole Harbour) Christchurch Bournemouth Christchurch Southbourne Southbourne Christchurch Christchurch Christchurch Burton Christchurch Christchurch Christchurch

241 272 214 215 216 230 206 229 300 301 233 228 235 213 231 226 236

axe palstave palstave sword axe palstave palstaves palstave palstave hoard spear axe palstave spear axe palstave axe axe, gouge

18

 

List of Sites by O.S. Grid Reference SZ19 SZ19 SZ19 SZ29 SZ91

1792 1792 1792 213916 920187

Christchurch Christchurch Christchurch Southbourne Christchurch

227 232 234 299 237

19

 

axe palstave axe palstave axe

LIST OF SITES BY OBJECT TYPE

COPPER ALLOY OBJECTS (unless otherwise stated) AXES Flat Axes 3 opposite Newmill 4 Braddock Downs 25 Fowey 35 Newmills Farm 36 Braddock Downs 58 Lellizick Farm 66 Perranzabuloe 87 Cornwall 91 Cornwall 111 Lake 112 Bishop’s Tawton 118 Bridford 186 Devon 213 Burton 226 Hengistbury Head 273 Lyme Regis 374 Paywell Farm 384 Brook Farm 406 Misterton 448 Wortlebury Hill 459 Wraxall 461 Wyndham Hill Flanged Axes 59a Lellizick Farm 94 Cornwall 138 Kentisbury 171 The Yannons 194 West Henbury Farm 198 Woodlands 227 262 264 334 353 363 390 425c 429 456

Christchurch Gussage Cow Down Iwerne Courtney Worth Matravers ?Dorset Brewham Glastonbury Cadbury Castle South Petherton Wiveliscombe

Side-Looped Palstaves 38 Luxulyan 104 Aylesbeare 114 Plumley 129 Secmaten Farm 142 Yonder 149a Ottery St. Mary 163a, Salcombe B q-r 163b, p Salcombe B 165 Manston 169 Talaton 176 Exeter University Sports Field 206a Bournemouth 206d Bournemouth 206f Bournemouth 228 St. Catherine’s Hill 229 Littledown 232 Christchurch 242 Cranborne 265 Iwerne Minster 270a Little Bredy

decorated

frag broad butt butt missing

blade frag

miniature large, decorated

frag

blade

Winged Axes 22a Gurlyn Farm 216 Poole Harbour 451 ?Williton

270b 272 275 280 308 309 341a,b

Little Bredy Lychett Matravers Marnhull Minterne Magna South Farm South Farm Dorset

364 372 373 375a,b 386c

Brewham Charlton Musgrove Charlton Musgrove Nyland Hill Horringdon Hill

399 410i,j 412a,b 420a,b 449

Chestnut House garden Norton Fitzwarren Norton Radstock Priddy Whitelackington

460a-b 464 467 468

Wrington Somerset ?Somerset Somerset

Unlooped Palstaves 32 Pengarrock Farm 20

 

butt frag broken loop midrib midrib broken loop broken, midrib broken loop broken loops broken loops midrib shield pattern narrow-blade midrib narrow-blade broken loop midrib in two pieces, midrib midrib midrib 37 various broad midrib frag may fit with 308 midrib, broken loops midrib broken loop broken loop midrib trident decoration looped midrib looped looped looped looped broken-loop midrib

List of Sites by Object Type 34a,b 78a-c, e-g, i 78d 78h 84a,b 88 89 92 93 116 135 140 141 154a-b

Tregilders Tregarrick Farm Tregarrick Farm Tregarrick Farm Penpont Farm Chapel Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Braunton Land’s End Farm Lewtrenchard Valley Lewtrenchard Valley Pinhoe

154c

Pinhoe

155 156

Vauxhall Street Plymouth

164a-b 187 206c 206e 206g 214 230 231 275 290 299 300

Moor Sand Devon Bournemouth Bournemouth Bournemouth Alderney Southbourne Purewell Marnhull Shapwick Southbourne Bournemouth Hospital

322 338 339 340

Turnworth Purbeck Dorset Dorset

387 396 397 416 417 418

Doulting Ilchester Ilchester ‘Selwood’ ‘Selwood’ ‘Selwood’

457

Wiveliscombe

Uncertain Palstaves 2 Blisland 42a,b Marazion 52 Mevagissey 80 Tywardreath 127 Languse Industrial Estate 154d Pinhoe 157 Plymouth 163s Salcombe B 183 Westleigh 188 ‘nr Wheatabury Cottage’ 206b Bournemouth 211 Buckland Newton

shield pattern shield pattern

217b,c 258u,w 260a

Barton Farm Gussage St. Michael area Firtree Field

ribbed shield pattern midrib midrib

304 323c 336 342 356 357 369 433 444

Sturminster Marshall Bestwall Quarry Dorset Dorset Bath Bath Carhampton Spaxton Wells

midrib mid rib, incomplete shield pattern, incomplete

Socketed Axes 5a Tregonning Hill 5b Tregonning Hill 6a Tregonning Hill 7a St. Buryan 12 St. Columb Major 19 St. Enoder 21f Gurlyn Farm 21g Gurlyn Farm 21h Gurlyn Farm 37 Ludgvan 43a-d St. Michael’s Mount 43e St. Michael’s Mount 43f St. Michael’s Mount 54a-dd Portloe Farm 54eePortloe Farm gg 55 Portloe Farm 56 S. side of Mylor Creek 59b Lellizick Farm 67 Riviere Farm

shield pattern, side knobs slight mid-rib unlooped midrib narrow-bladed midrib 53 various midrib, narrow 10 identical, midrib

midrib, side knobs side-knobs midrib midrib shield pattern, side-knobs side-knobs butt missing midrib blade frag butt frag palstave-adze blade frag miniature palstave/chisel 21

 

81

Tywardreath

96 97 98 99 100 101 105 120 132 137 139 148 152 158a, ee-ff 158ii-ll 160 170a 182 184 192 195 203 212

Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Cornwall Barnstaple Chagford ?Whidden Valley Huntsham Kingsbridge Newton Tracey Escot House Mount Batten Mount Batten Plymtree Lashbrook Farm Pondground Quarry Woodbury Devon Roger’s Hill Farm North Lodge Buckland Newton

frags frags narrow blade frag butt frag butt frag blade frag high-flanged blade frag butt frag butt missing

frag ?faceted looped frag mouth frag blade frag 3-rib frag 1-rib 3-rib 5-rib-and-pellet 7-rib 3-rib mouth frag ribbed, mouth frag ribbed, blade frag frag 4-rib

double-rib blade 3-rib 3-rib frags miniature blade frag 2 rib and pellet blade frag blade frag mouth frag

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 217a 219 225 233 234 236a 237 239 250z

267

Barton Farm Green Hill Chickerell Tuckton Christchurch Enfield Road Bure Homage Compton Abbas Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Langton Matravers I

268

Langton Matravers II

274 283a,b 284 286 294 295 303 305 315 320a-d, f 320e 323e 327 347 350 351 352 354 362 366b 380 391 402 404 410k 411 421 432 436a 439 442 445 465b 469

Maiden Newton Over Compton Well Bottom Down Kites Farm Sixpenny Handley Sixpenny Handley Stinsford Sturminster Marshall Tarrant Rushton Tincleton

254h-i

Tincleton Bestwall Quarry Chesil Beach Dorset Dorset Dorset Dorset Ashill Brean Down Camerton Chewton Mendip Hemington Langford Budville Greylake Norton Fitzwarren Norton Malreward Deerleap Odd Down Ham Hill Stratton-on-the-Fosse Tintinhull Westbury-sub-Mendip Somerset Somerset

Uncertain Axes 42c-i Marazion 122 Kate Brook 154e Pinhoe 161 Church Fields

frag frag mouth frag

13a 18b 18c 61 68a

106 167 172a,b

Trethellan Farm Penhale Moor Penhale Moor Doom Bar Sands Loath to Depart Streamworks Loath to Depart Streamworks Tower Hill Ash Cross Thurlestone Beach

173 174a,b

Thurlestone Beach Thurlestone Beach

180a,b

Sandy’s Farm

189 190 191 200a 201 202 218 222 235 238 254e

lost axes ?axe frag

258e 258p 271e 297 301 311 321 326 335b 343 346 355 365 370 379 381 386a,b 394 395 409 425i 425j 425k 425qq 427 430 434

Devon Devon Devon South Lodge Camp Barrow Pleck Tinkley Coppice Cerne Abbas Cheselbourne Wick Compton Abbas Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael area Gussage St. Michael area Long Bredy Thorney Down Pokesdown Tarrant Launceston Berwick Down Elwell St. Upwey Kingston Dorset ?Dorset Home Farm Brewham Chard Chewton Mendip Chilcompton Horringdon hill Ilchester Ilchester The Tumps Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle South Petherton Stocklinch

?pegged

441 450 454 458 463

Tickenham Williton Witham Friary Woolavington Somerset

faceted ribbed frag faceted

68b

frags 303 in varying conditions 197 in varying conditions axe/chisel frags decorated decorated faceted 4 ribs faceted blade frag ‘bag’-shaped rib-and-pellet ribbed frag faceted blade frag blade frag blade frag mouth frag miniature socket frag 3-rib frag 3-ribs blade frag blade frag 3-ribs blade frag

WEAPONS AND ACCESSORIES Spearheads 8 Callington

22

 

side-looped blade frag side-looped basal-looped pegged pegged barbed, nonfitting frags barbed pegged, refitting frags side-looped, refitting frags pegged pegged side-looped side-looped pegged frag side-looped side-looped side-looped point frag frag tip pegged blade frag pegged side-looped tip frag socketed tip socketed side-looped side-looped basal-looped tip side-looped basal-looped blade frag blade frag tip pegged side-looped barbed frag side-looped frag basal-looped, 2 pieces pegged pegged blade frag tip frag

List of Sites by Object Type 470

Somerset

Ferrules 13c Trethellan Farm 107 Sowden Lane Daggers 10 75 102 242

Fore Barrow Down St. Teath Crowther’s Neck Charlton

253 329a 329b 331

Gussage Valley Thomas Hardye School Thomas Hardye School Cowleaze

382

Chilcompton

Knife-Dagger 14 Crantock 64 Pelynt 245 Fordington 329c Thomas Hardye School Dirk/Rapiers 27 nr Meagloins House 47 71 134 144 163ddoo

Venton Hall Sennen Cove Exeter Cut Princetown Salcombe B

209 247d 263 279 306 324 335a 366d 388 414 422

Bryanston Gussage All Saints Holt Minterne Magna Tarrant Hinton Warmwell Kingston Camerton East Coker Otterhampton Queen Camel

453 471

Witham Friary ‘Mendip’

Swords 5c 6b 6c 21a 21b 21c 21d 21e 43m 44

Tregonning Hill Tregonning Hill Tregonning Hill Gurlyn Farm Gurlyn Farm Gurlyn Farm Gurlyn Farm Gurlyn Farm St. Michael’s Mount Beaconfield

socket missing ?ferrule point socketed

Beaconfield Marazion St. Sampson Hay Barton Farm nr Tregays Farms Humber Lane Holne Princetown

163t-cc

Salcombe B

164c

Moor Sand

164d-h 193 204 215

Moor Sand ‘nr Newquay’ Higher Bridmore Farm ?Poole

250g,h h 251d 271a-c

Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Long Bredy

282 325 358 377 431

Okeford Fitzpaine West Knighton River Avon Chedzoy South Petherton

blade tip flat, riveted decorated tanged flat, riveted CamertonSnowshill blade frag

grooved 2 non-joining parts ?blade frag rapier rapier rapiers, complete & frags tanged blade rapier frag dirk dirk frag blade frag rapier blade frag rapier frag dirk tip blade frag blade frag blade frag ?rapier rapier blade frag rapier frag

Chapes 43n 250d

blade frag blade frag blade frag blade frag blade frag blade frag blade frag hilt and upper blade complete and varying blade/hilt frags hooked and tanged varying frags tip missing blade frag 2 refitting blade frags blade frags blade frag hilt frag, blade frags blade frag blade frag leaf-shaped blade frag 2 frags hilt and upper blade ‘bag’-shaped ‘bag’-shaped

378

St. Michael’s Mount Gussage St. Michael Valley Chedzoy

Shields 426

Milsom’s Corner

Yetholm

tongue-shaped

TOOLS Awls 17 143a 196 200e 205 207 220 248a-c 250h,i 251e,h 258x 276c 287 307 310 314 328a-c 329d

hilt grip shoulder frag blade frag shoulder frag hilt terminal blade and tang frag 23

 

45 46 70 77 86 113 136 145

Highgate Whitehorse Hill S. of Winklebury South Lodge Camp Rimbury Woodminton Down Chalbury Down Farm Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Gussage St. Michael area Martin Down Camp Portesham Tarrant Hinton Launceston Down Tarrant Rushton Wimborne St. Giles Thomas Hardye School

single-pointed single-pointed double-pointed single-pointed single-pointed single-pointed 2 awls single-pointed double-pointed double-pointed frags

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 401 405 413 425l-r 436e Chisels 11 63 115 121a 158nn 210 223 240 250b 252 255 258y 269 312 349 385 400 436f

Kingsdon Milborne Port Otterhampton Cadbury Castle Ham Hill St. Clement Raginnis Bovey Tracey Horseley Cove Mount Batten Buckland Newton Chettle Compton Abbas Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Gussage Valley Gussage St. Michael area Harden’s Quarry Manor Farm Dorset Curry Rivel Kingsdon Ham Hill

Socketed Gouges 21i Gurlyn Farm 110 Bigbury 158cc, Mount Batten mm 170b,c Lashbrook Farm 178 Torbryan 236b Enfield Road 251b Gussage Valley 254f-g Gussage St. Michael Valley 257a Gussage Down 271d Long Bredy 316 Preston 323d Bestwall Quarry 425g-h Cadbury Castle 438 Ston Easton Uncertain Gouges 43h St. Michael’s Mount Knives 5d 21j 41 43g 49a 95 119 146c 149c 158v 250k

Tregonning Hill Gurlyn Farm Boden Vean St. Michael’s Mount Poden Cornwall Fernworthy Marldon Ottery St. Mary Mount Batten Gussage St. Michael Valley

single-pointed single-pointed single-pointed double-pointed socketed socketed tanged socketed tanged tanged

258c,d

Gussage St. Michael area

285 289 344 345 368 398 403 408 424 425e-f 436d 462

Piddletrenthide Shaftesbury Dorset Dorset Castle Hill Quarry Ivel House grounds Langport Dyer’s Close Decoy Wood Cadbury Castle Ham Hill Somerset

Razors 1 90 200c,d 254d

tanged socketed tanged tanged tanged socketed bar tanged

frags

socketed, tanged frags ‘hog’s-back’ socketed tanged riveted tanged tanged tanged ‘hog’s-back’ tanged socketed socketed ‘hog’s-back’

271f 276a 281 332 366c 425w-x 446

St. Agnes Cornwall South Lodge Camp Gussage St. Michael Valley Long Bredy Martin Down Camp Nether Compton Winterbourne Steepleton Camerton Cadbury Castle W of Coldharbour

tanged bifid single-edged tanged

Sickles 158t,u 376 443 452

Mount Batten Nerrol’s Farm Ubley Old Quarry Farm

tanged tanged tanged socketed

bifid

Tweezers 250m Gussage St. Michael Valley 425s-v Cadbury Castle ORNAMENTS Rings 15a 26l 108 163o 247c 250xdd 250ee

frag

tanged ‘hog’s-back’

251g 256 258b 259 276b 296 333a,b

tanged tip blade frag tanged frag socketed socketed

Kelsey Head Tremough Bigbury Beach Salcombe B Gussage All Saints Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Gussage Valley Gussage St. Michael area Thickthorn Martin Down Camp nr Berendes Beorh Knowlton

Bracelets 200b South Lodge Camp 24

penannular annular double ring frag annular annular 10 beads/rings annular

ribbed

List of Sites by Object Type 288 319b 323a,b 360c 410a-h

Puddletown Hodge Ditch Bestwall Quarry Brean Down Norton Fitzwarren

Armrings 154f-n Pinhoe

Neckrings 291 Sherborne Abbey

2 joining frags ?modern penannular penannular various

158e 163xx 250f 425ll 425pp

penannular, variously corroded, incomplete and frags

Miscellaneous or uncertain objects 5e Tregonning Hill 7b St. Buryan 13b Trethellan Farm 13d Trethellan Farm 31g-j Higher Besore

Buttons 15b Kelsey Head 15c Kelsey Head

318 348 360e 425y-ii

nr Carwynnen Quoit Tremough Mount Batten Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Tarrant Valley Dorset Brean Down Cadbury Castle

Wire 13f 200f 249 293 360b

Trethellan Farm South Lodge Camp Down Farm Handley Down Brean Down

254a 254b 254c

vase-headed wheel-headed

251i 257b 258r

Trethellan Farm Gurlyn Farm St. Michael’s Mount Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Gussage Down Gussage St. Michael area

Cauldrons 39a-c Loath to Depart tin works

quoit-headed swan’s neck frags various

wire wire 4 frags, twisted 3 wire frags

frag frag frags

158b-d, i-s, x-y 158aa, bb, dd, hh 163c

Mount Batten Mount Batten

blade frags

Salcombe B

strumento con immanicatura a cannone cast metal disc rectangular objects rectangular block/weight tin frag uncertain objects blade burnt object twisted ornament frag socketed implement frag strip socket frag blade of socketed tool ?plaque

241

Corfe Castle

247b 247e 250c

Gussage All Saints Gussage All Saints Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Gussage Valley Gussage St. Michael area

250t 250ffgg 251a 251c 258f,hi

Frags

Salcombe B Salcombe B Salcombe B

250j

frag, pierced frag frag

Salcombe B Salcombe B

163tt 163uuww 175 197 199

250e

25

 

St. Michael’s Mount St. Michael’s Mount St. Michael’s Mount Tamarisk Farm Carne Beacon Horseley Cove Whitehorse Hill Whitehorse Hill

163pp 163qqrr 163ss

MISCELLANEOUS Plates 13e 21k 43p-q 250u

43i-l 43o 43r-u 60mm 83 121b 143b 143c

Picardy ring-headed

cauldron ring handle 3 refitting frags of handle ?cauldron rings rivet

socketed tool socketed blade blade frag rod frag cassiterite pebbles blade frags ?buckle frags point frag Cu alloy frags circular rod tin bead 32 tin studs in woven band sheet frags

frag, twisted

Pendants 51 Harlyn Bay

Pins 9 26k 158h 250l

Mount Batten Salcombe B Gussage St. Michael Valley Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle

Tiverton Barrow Pleck Barrow Pleck

sheet frag bar frag beads socket frag bugle-shaped socket frags

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 258g 258j-l, n-o, q t, v 258m 258s 278 319a 328d 329e 330 337 360a,d 392 415 425jj

Gussage St. Michael area Gussage St. Michael area

triangular blade various frags

Gussage St. Michael area Gussage St. Michael area Bagber Barrow Hodge Ditch Wimborne St. Giles Thomas Hardye School Middle Farm Dorchester NE Dorset Brean Down Holford Portbury Cadbury Castle

425kk 425nn 425oo 436b 436c 437 460c

Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle Cadbury Castle Ham Hill Ham Hill Ston Easton Wrington

bugle-shaped boat-shaped coil Cu alloy frag riveted strip rivet copper strip blade frag sheet frags socketed tool sheet frag socketed terminal bucket base tanged stud blade frag bugle-shaped blade frag conical button socketed hammer

Ingots (copper alloy unless otherwise stated) 5g-r Tregonning Hill plano-convex 6d-f Tregonning Hill plano-convex 6g Tregonning Hill plate-like 7c-d St. Buryan plano-convex 7e-k St. Buryan 21l-w, Gurlyn Farm z-aa 22b, d- Gurlyn Farm q 30 Gwithian or Gwinear plano-convex 31b-e Higher Besore and Truro copper College 43x-uu St. Michael’s Mount frags 48 off Looe Island ox-hide 50 off St. Mawes tin, H-shaped 60a-b Tamarisk Farm copper, planoconvex 60c-g Tamarisk Farm frags 72 Sennen frag 73 Sennen frag 76 Tregoney frag 79 Tregarrick Farm frag 85 St. Wenn tin 109a-ar Bigbury tin ingots of various shapes, sizes and condition 117 Bridestow frag 123a,b Churston Ferrers plano-convex frags 124a-c Lupton Park frags 131a-g Denbury plano-convex frags 146a,b Marldon plano-convex, frag 147a-g Newton Abbot frags 150a-l Ash Farm frags 153 Ottery St. Mary 158w Mount Batten 163yy Salcombe B 38 tin 163zz Salcombe B 282 copper 170d-k Lashbrook Farm frags 177a,b Torbryan bun-shaped 266c Everley Water Meadow copper, frag

METALLURGICAL MATERIAL Moulds (material, implement) 13g Trethellan farm 24 Trevalga 26a, d, f, g, i 26b 26c, e 26h 26j 31a

Tremough Tremough Tremough

33 69 200g

Tremough Tremough Higher Besore and Truro College St. Keverne Kynance Gate South Lodge Camp

260b

Firtree Field

266a

Everley Water Meadow

389

East Pennard

410l 428a

Norton Fitzwarren Sigwells Farm

428b

Sigwells Farm

465a

Somerset

Stone stone, racloir and chisel stone, pins stone, chisel stone, socketed tool stone, blade clay, sword clay, sword stone, axe clay clay, socketed implement stone, socketed axe stone, socketed axe copper alloy, basal-looped spearhead clay, c.70 frags clay, 879 frags for various clay, 117 for minimum 8 objects copper alloy, faceted axe

Metallurgical Waste 5s-x Tregonning Hill 16 Trevilson 21x-y Gurlyn Farm Gurlyn Farm 22c 26m Tremough 28 Realwa Farm 31f Higher Besore 43v St. Michael’s Mount 43w St. Michael’s Mount 49b Poden 54hh Portloe Farm 60h-ll Tamarisk Farm 130 Dean Moor 133 Exeter 149b Ottery St. Mary 26

 

slag slag casting jet run-off casting jet tin lump casting waste casting waste

List of Sites by Object Type 151 158x 158z 163j 166 247a 247f 250n-s 251f 298

Escot House Mount Batten Mount Batten Moor Sand Stockland Gussage All Saints Gussage All Saints Gussage St. Michael Valley Gussage Valley Home Field

329f 359 366a 425rr 440 455

Thomas Hardye School Bishop’s Lydiard Camerton Cadbury Castle Diamond Cottage Witham Friary

Cu alloy lump

GOLDWORK

metal cakes tin lump Cu alloy waste casting debris casting jet

Rings 74b

casting jet Cu alloy droplets frags Cu cake casting jet

168a,b

St. Stephen Churchtown Lower Frittiscombe

246 302 313

Gussage All Saints nr Spetisbury Rings Tarrant Rushton

383 425b

Lower Langford Cadbury Castle

Bracelets 5f Tregonning Hill 40a-c Rosemorran Farm 125a-c Colaton Raleigh Common 163d, l- Salcombe B n 163f, i Salcombe B 163j-k Salcombe B 361a,b Brean Down 419a-f Charterhouse-onMendip 419h Charterhouse-onMendip 419i-k Charterhouse-onMendip 419l-o Charterhouse-onMendip 419p-q Charterhouse-onMendip 425a Cadbury Castle

‘minute globule’ irregular lump

Torcs 163e, g-h 208 419g

penannular penannular, ringmoney penannular penannular penannular, copper core double penannular penannular, clay core frag penannular penannular penannular bars coiled ribbon twisted wire, coiled thin strip bent and twisted bars bar twisted ribbon coiled bar penannular bars frag

Moor Sand

twisted frags

Bradford Peverell Charterhouse-onMendip

frag twisted ribbon

Armrings 23 Tregilas Moor 103 St. Martin’s

penannular

Neckrings 224a,b Chickerell

solid bar

Lunulae 317 Tarrant Valley

incomplete

Ingots 53 181

St. Minver lowlands Wembury

Miscellaneous or uncertain objects 20a Gurlyn Farm strip 20b Gurlyn Farm frag 27

 

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 29 57 62 65 74a 125d 128 162 164f 179 185 221 244 258a 292 361c 367 393 407 435

Gwithian Padstow Halwyn Farm Penzance St. Stephen Churchtown Colaton Raleigh Common Cullompton Rousdon Salcombe B Uplyme Devon Charminster Fontmell Magna Gussage St. Michael area Sixpenny Handley Brean Down Cannington Ilchester Parsonage Farm Stolford

rod strip twisted rod irregular rod ribbon ornament rod 3 ribbons and 2 rods ‘golden ornament’ ‘golden dagger’ strip strip 3 refitting strip frags strip frag frag folded strip sheet frag basket ornament

28

 

CORPUS OF BRONZE AGE METAL WORK FROM SOUTH WESTERN BRITAIN, DISCOVERED JANUARY 1980-JULY 2014

CORNWALL ST AGNES 1.

STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

St. Agnes SW7351 incomplete razor or knife, semi-circular, with part of perforation. L. 47, W. 62, D. 8 RIC 2013.20 PAS CORN-28E916 racloir type Pl 29 CON:

BLISLAND 2.

STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Blisland SX0973 palstave blade, poorly cast, hammered in antiquity. L. 82, W. 59 finder PAS CORN-CA0B11 broad-bladed palstave Pl 21

LOC: REF:

BOSCASTLE 3.

STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

ASS:

opposite Newmill, S. of river, SW117911 flat axe, raindrop pattern, slight stop. L. 113, W. 52, D. 10 RIC 2005.9 PAS CORN-C53643 slender butt flat axe Pl 14

BRADDOCK 4.

STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

6.

Braddock Downs SX1463 flat axe, corroded, features uncertain. L. 175, W. 95 barrows in vicinity and BA pot found in Largin Woods RIC 1990.51 flat axe

STE: DES:

CON: BREAGE 5.

STE: DES:

Tregonning Hill, 125m NW of round, SW60143047 a. incomplete socketed axe, vertical rib on one face, slighter rib at face edge, no loop. L. 70, W. 39 b. socketed axe fragment, part of 1 side. L. 35, W. 19 c. upper blade sword fragment. L. 18, W. 35

LOC: REF: ASS:

29

 

d. fragment triangular knife blade. L. 11, W. 2 e. fragment socketed tool. L. 12 f. fragment torc/bracelet, diagonal ridges. Dia. c.7 g–r. ingot fragments, 5 plano-convex s–x. metalworking fragments, showing signs of deliberate breakage sword, knife, socketed tool and torc fragments found together within socketed axe a. Ingots and debris surrounded the axe. Fragment b. found 20m SW of group. Tregonning Hill has BA burial mounds, an? IA fort at Castle Pencair, and 2 rounds RIC 2007.20 PAS Treasure case 2004 T71, 1–24; Treasure Annual Report 2004, 35-6 No. 20, Breage 1 a. ribbed axe b. uncertain type c. Ewart Park d. ?racloir type e. type uncertain f. torc/bracelet g–r. ingot fragments s–x. metal working fragments Pl 1 Tregonning Hill, c.25m NW of farm, SW60393044 a. incomplete socketed axe, 3 rib, 1 oblique. L. 57, W. 37 b. sword upper blade fragment, hammer marks. L. 137, W. 29, D. 8 c. sword fragment. L. 52, W. 23, D. 8 d–f. ingot fragments, plano-convex g. ingot, plate-like. L. 27, W. 23, D. 7 250m NW of farm, sword and ingots found 30cm below the surface “below some rocks” and the axe directly beneath. See 5. Axe and sword show signs of deliberate breakage RIC Loan 257 PAS Treasure case 2004T262; Treasure Annual Report 2004, 36, No.21, Breage 2 a. ribbed axe b. carp’s tongue c. Ewart Park d–g. ingot fragments Pl 1

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain ASS:

socketed axe fragment Pl 24

ST BURYAN ST COLUMB MINOR 7.

STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

St. Buryan SW408257 a. socketed axe, 3 parallel ribs on each face. L. 107, W. 47 b. part of socketed blade, out-turned cutting edge. L. 107, W. 47 c–k. ingot fragments uncertain; metal accompanied by a notched flint ?retouched BM PAS CORN-37D710 a. 3-rib socketed axe b. uncertain c–d. ingots, plano-convex e–k. ingot fragment Pl 1

13. STE: DES:

CALLINGTON 8.

STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Callington SX3769 damaged socketed spearhead ?peg holes. L. 87 W. 20 finder spearhead ?pegged Pl 28

CON:

CAMBORNE 9.

STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

near Carwynnen Quoit SW649376 pin, sub-rectangular head, round-section shaft. L. 112, W. of head 6 finder RIC Enquiry 1977 pin, ?not BA Pl 26

LOC: REF: ASS:

ST CLEER 10. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Fore Barrow Down SX278693 dagger, 3 rivet holes, 2 rivets surviving. L. 109, W. 32 excavated by Croft-Andrews in 1942, almost certainly from barrow as part of central cremation with urn, flints, charcoal. RIC 1988.46 Christie 1988, 135–7 dagger Pl 1

CRANTOCK 14. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

ST CLEMENT 11. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

St. Clement SW8445 blade of socketed chisel, hammered flat. L. 86, W. 16 finder PAS CORN-42EF37 socketed chisel Pl 30

15. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

St. Columb Major SW903635 socketed axe blade fragment. L. 42, W. 50 RIC 2004.8 PAS CORN-6CB647 30

 

Crantock SW791605 knife-dagger found with ‘Cornish’ urn when building holiday camp ? RIC card index knife-dagger

CUBERT

ST COLUMB MAJOR 12. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

Trethellan Farm SW79806140 a. spearhead blade and associated socket fragment, spearhead has partially hollow tapering midrib. L. 73, W. 22, D. 18. Socket L. 12, Dia. 12 × 13. b. blade fragment, tapering, from BA land surface. L. 62, W. 17 c. point, conical, ribbed surfaces, cross rivet, Phase 3 ritual hollow. L. 28, Dia. 8 d. rod/shaft fragment, plough soil. L. 23, Dia. 4 e. plate fragment, Phase 2 house. L. 28, W. 13 f. wire, Phase 1 house. L. 62, Dia. 45 g. part of ?bivalve stone mould, D-shaped section matrix for casting thin-section object with narrow ‘waist’ linking 2 expanded areas, also used as whet-stone; from ritual hollow. L. 100, W. 55, D. 42 h. ?hammer stones, hearth structure BA farming settlement, occupied c.1200– 975 cal. BC Evidence of metal working, ?ceremonial use of copper alloy objects, and casual loss excavation collection Nowakowski 1991, 133–6, 148–51, 154–6 a. spearhead, late pegged b. blade fragment c. ?ferrule d. rod e. plate fragment f. wire g. part of stone mould h. ?hammer stones Pl 3

Kelsey Head SW786577 a. ring. Dia. 17 × 12 b. conical button, ringed form, rear flat shank. Ext. dia. 17 × 13 c. conical button, ringed form, rear flat shank. Ext. dia. 23 × 22 apparently found together RIC 1993.63 1–3 a. ring b, c. conical buttons Pl 4

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork EAST NEWLYN 16. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Trevilson, Mitchell to Newlyn East pipeline SW828563 copper alloy debris settlement site RIC 2005.19 Jones and Taylor 2004 copper working debris ?BA

ST ENODER 17. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS: 18. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS: 19. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Highgate, Fraddon SW9158 ?awl found in collared urn; a small bag holding a cremation fastened by this piece RIC ?awl

CON: LOC: REF:

Penhale Moor SW90345714 a. spearhead, side-looped, damaged before deposition. L. 90, W. 16, D. 15 b. spearhead blade fragment. L. 23, W. 15, D. 8 both found in the levelling layer of BA building, Phase 2. Spearhead thrust into ground at 45 degrees; seems to mark a threshold event in history of building excavation collection Nowakowski 1998; Nowakowski 2001, 144-7; Nowakowski and Johns 2014, 159– 161 a. side-looped spearhead b. spearhead blade Pl 1

ASS:

22. STE: DES:

St Enoder SW900569 socketed axe, broken side loop and socket, raised collar, blade edges faceted finder PAS CORN-60E6C4 socketed axe ?faceted Pl 23

CON: LOC: ASS:

c. sword blade shoulder/ fragment, joins b. L. 106 d. sword blade fragment, joins c. L. 94 e. sword grip/shoulder fragment, 2 rivet holes in shoulder, 1 in grip. L. 47 f. socketed axe, loop and mouth fragment. L. 33 g. socketed axe, flattened mouth fragment. L. 30 h. socketed axe, wall fragment. L. 39. f, g and h may belong to same axe i. socketed gouge, mouth fragment. L. 42 j. ?knife blade fragment ?sub-rectangular. L. 41 k. plate-like fragment. L. 34 l–w, z–aa. ingot fragments x–y. amorphous lumps found together in farm land RIC 2005.94, 1–27 PAS 2002 T278: Annual Treasure Report 2002, 22, No. 6 a–d. sword fragments Ewart Park e. sword Gündlingen type f–h. socketed faceted axe fragments i. socketed gouge j. ?‘hog’s-back’ knife k. ?casting debris x–y. primary smelt prills 1–w, z–aa. ingot fragments Pl 1 Gurlyn Farm, Relubbas, SW569323, known as St Erth II a. winged axe, looped. L. 131 b, d–q. ingot fragments c. spill/waste. L. 43 more or less together in farmland RIC 2005, 20 T278; Treasure Annual Report 2002, 20-22, no. 6 a. winged axe b, d–q. ingot fragments Pl 1

ST EWE ST ERTH 20. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

23. STE: DES:

Gurlyn Farm, Relubbas SW569323 a. gold strip, crescentic, now folded flat, closely set line of punched dots along medial line. L. c.145, W. 38–41, D. c.6 b. gold fragment. L. 148, W. 12, D. 0.5 found in same area as, but separate from, Numbers 21 and 22 RIC 2005.94, 1–27 PAS 2002 T278; Annual Treasure Report 2002, 20, No. 6 a, b uncertain but probably BA

CON: LOC: REF:

ASS:

Tregilas Moor SW971444 gold, 2 fragments of ?armring with elaborate terminals, damaged. Dia. 60 × 50 found in tin stream unknown listed in Pearce 1983, 426, no.17 from St Stephen in Brannel, but this appears to be a different find, see no 74 here. Information from Peter Shepherd (RIC MSS) to whom we are grateful ?BA

FORRABURY 21. STE: DES:

Gurlyn Farm, Relubbas, SW569323, known as St Erth I a. sword hilt, flanged, 2 rivet holes extant. L. 57 b. sword grip fragment, joins a. L. 32

24. STE: DES:

31

 

Trevalga SW0890 elvan stone block. Side 1 is half a bivalve mould to cast a triangular blade with central perforation; Side 2 has matrix for ?simple chisel; Side 6 has matrix for

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

uncertain object ?unfinished; much blackened. Mould L. 74, W. 60, D. 37; blade L. 40, W. 46, D. 46 roundhouse infill excavation collection Jones and Quinnell 2014 stone mould, multiple matrices: side 1, racloir; side 2, ?chisel; side 6, uncertain Pl 30

REF: ASS:

FOWEY 25. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Fowey SX1153 flat axe, plain, slender. L. 90, W. 35, D. 6 RIC PAS CORN-7ACDD7 slender flat axe Pl 14

ST GORAN 27. STE: DES:

ST GLUVIAS 26. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Tremough SW787346 a. multiple stone mould. Matrix a (i) to cast ring-section of quoit head pin Dia. 32 × 32; matrix a(ii) to cast pin shaft b. half bivalve stone mould; matrix b(i) to cast tanged and collared triangular blade L. 35, W. 20; matrix b(ii) to cast similar piece: the matrices are side by side and b(ii) fits the space very badly c. half bivalve stone mould to cast socketed tool, up to 5 irregular chevrons cut into face d. part of half a bivalve stone mould: matrix d(i) to cast d(i) part of a quoit head pin, matrix d(ii) to cast pin shaft e. half a bivalve stone mould broken into 5 pieces: matrix to cast a socketed tool with poorly cut shield-pattern on face; tool L. 92, W. 34 f. half stone bivalve mould to cast part of pin shaft. L. 83 g. half stone bivalve mould to cast part of pin shaft. L. 62 h. bivalve stone mould fragment to cast blade. L. 24 i. bivalve stone mould fragment to cast pin shaft section, L. 25. ?second matrix for pin shaft on back j. clay mould with matrix for blade tip. L. 49, W. 34 k. fragment of pin l. ring m. copper alloy droplets and metal traces a-i, k-m from infill layers associated with abandonment of hollow-set roundhouse; house structure in use c.1500–1300 cal. bc. j. from occupation area adjacent to roundhouse, with ‘cushion’ stone, and many small fragments of other clay moulds; in use 972–827 cal. BC excavation collection

near Meagloins House SW00054206 2 sections of ?rapier blade, not joining but ?from same weapon, lozenge-section. L. 25, 18, W. 21, 13, D. 6, 5 RIC 2005. 5, 2–3 PAS NARC-3BAE08, NARC-3B75B6 fragments of rapier blade Pl 26

GWINEAR 28.

STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Realwa Farm SW605363 slag BA occupation; RB round RIC Appleton-Fox 1992 slag

GWITHIAN 29. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 30. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Gwithian SW587413 gold rod, lightly twisted, unfinished ornament. L. 90, W. 23, D. 4 RIC 2013.3 PAS CORN-A99B98 gold rod Pl 26 Gwithian or Gwinear, approx. SW6036 ingot, copper alloy, plano-convex. L. 63, W. 83, D. 10 finder PAS CORN-BD3DD5 plano-convex ingot

KENWYN 31. STE: DES:

CON:

32

 

Gossip and Jones 2007; Jones forthcoming(a) a, d, f, g, i. stone moulds to cast pins b. stone mould to cast 2-tanged and collared chisels c, e. stone mould to cast socketed tools h. stone mould to cast blade j. clay mould for sword ?Ewart Park k. pin fragment l. ring m. metalworking debris Pl 2, 3

Higher Besore and Truro College, Threemilestone SW821449 a. clay mould fragment, matrix within to cast flanged hilt grip of sword. L. 95, W. 77, D. 40 b–e. ingot fragments f. slag g-j. cassiterite pebbles extensive area of LBA/IA occupation; four LBA dwellings excavated with associated metallurgical debris; mould came from 1 of 2 pits detached from other features,

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

LOC: REF: ASS:

associated with LBA pot sherds, slag and a possible whetstone, Higher Besore, Area F. Ingot fragments from topsoil, Truro College site. Cassiterite pebbles from a posthole of an earlier Bronze Age context. Crucible fragments and slag found associated with later IA occupation. Possible extended metalworking site. RIC Gossip 2005; forthcoming; Knight 2014; Needham forthcoming. a. mould to cast M-LBA sword b–e. ingot fragments f. slag g-j. cassiterite pebbles

DES: LOC: CON: ASS: LUDGVAN 37. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 33. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

LUXULYAN 38. STE: DES:

Pengarrock Farm SW7921 palstave, unlooped, high-flanged, central rib, broad blade. L. 160 found at foot of Cornish hedge revetting 2m drop finder Hartgroves 1992 high-flanged palstave Pl 19

LOC: REF: ASS: 39. STE: DES:

St Keverne SW792213 part of half a greisen stone bivalve axe mould, matrix for 4-rib socketed axe. Copper alloy fragment embedded below matrix blade edge. Part of ?looped handle projects on outside of mould. L. 96, W. 99, D. 68 Helston Museum PAS CORN-031000; Treasure Annual Report 2008 stone mould fragment, to cast ribbed socketed axe. Fig1

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

CON: LOC: ASS:

40. STE: DES: Tregilders SX019741 a. palstave, unlooped, damage to blade corner, shield pattern. L. 155, W. 50, D. 35 b. palstave, unlooped, shield pattern. L. 163, W. 51, D. 37 a. found 20cm below b RIC 2005.9 a, b. shield pattern palstaves Pl 15

CON:

LESNEWETH 35. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Luxulyan SX0556 palstave, butt only, possible remains of a loop. L. 81, W. 27, D. 24 finder PAS CORN-7CC998 palstave butt Pl 21 Loath To Depart tin works SX0556 a. cauldron; drawing suggests tapering bowl and slightly everted rim. W. 2700, Height 500 b. bowl-shaped cauldron with riveted panels c. fragment, ?of b, showing rim and loop for handle found together in 1792 lost Pearce 1983, 415, no. 86. Additional details in Penhallurick 1986, Gentleman’s Magazine 1795, Pl III a–c. copper alloy vessel fragments

MADRON

ST KEW 34. STE: DES:

Ludgvan SW5033 blade fragment from socketed axe. L. 81, W. 27, D. 8 finder PAS CORN-F29E04 socketed axe fragment

LOC: REF: ASS:

ST KEVERNE 32. STE: DES:

flat axe, slight stop. L. 170, W. 95, D. 32 RIC 1990.51. said to have been found in 1801 flat axe, slight stop Pl 14

LOC: REF:

Newmills Farm SX117911 flat axe, slender, slightly raised flanges RIC 2005.9 PAS: CORN-C53643 slender flat axe

ASS:

Rosemorran Farm SW454318 a. gold tightly curled ribbon penannular bracelet, out-turned terminals. Dia. 59, W. 11, D. c.1 b. gold penannular ribbon bracelet, expanded terminals. Dia. 58, W. 11, D. c.1 c. gold penannular bracelet, gentle Dsection, short, straight terminals. Dia. 64, W. 16, D. c.1 found in 1987, interlinked but not in their original position, having been re-deposited sometime after 1960 as a result of farm work finder was a PAS Treasure Case, but Coroner found not to be treasure a–c. gold penannular bracelets Pl 4

MANACCAN LISKEARD 36. STE:

41. STE: DES:

Braddock Downs SW254643 33

 

Boden Vean SX763245 knife, tanged. L. c.210, W. 20

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

BA roundhouse: BA pot, knife, hearth, apparently deliberately infilled on abandonment excavation collection Gossip 2004; Gossip 2009 tanged knife

LOC: REF: ASS:

MARAZION 42. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 43. STE: DES:

CON:

Marazion SW551314 a. palstave, details unknown b. palstave, details unknown c–i. fragments of ?7 further axes said to have been found in an ‘iron’ vessel during draining in 1882 lost RIC records a–i. axes, types unknown

44. STE: DES:

NW slope of St Michael’s Mount SW5139929922 ?48 objects found, unavailable to visit so details as from PAS: a. socketed axe, complete, 3 ribbed. L.109.1, Bl. W. 57.8, Sock W. 44.7 x 49.7 b. socketed axe, blade missing, faceted, 3 converging ribs. c. socketed axe, mouth missing, body “appears to have been compressed”, 3 converging ribs. Probably originally connected to d. L. 66.3, Bl. W. 51.2 d. socketed axe, blade and body fragment, “body has been compressed”. Probably originally connected to c. L. 58.3, W. 45 e. socketed axe, body and blade fragment, “body has been compressed”. L.58.4, Bl. W. 57.6 f. socketed axe head, collar fragment, single rib. L.21.9 g. ‘hog’s back’ knife fragment, part of central perforation still visible. L. 51.3, W. 39.4 h. gouge fragment, uncertain whether socketed or tanged. L.45.1, W. 14.3 i-l. blade fragments. L.87.2, 25.6, 30.4, 16.9, W. 32.5, 35.1, 23.5, 23.1 m. sword hilt terminal, L. 41.4 n. chape, ‘bag’-shaped, central perforation. L. 59, W. 49 o. buckle or horse fitting, in two pieces. L. 82, W. 56. p-q. plate fragments r-u. fragments v. casting jet, two pronged w. casting run-off x-uu. ingot fragments. Hoard found in cavity under a rock, underlying a top boulder, c.5m below ground level; some objects found in loose soil above. PAS record has conflicting accounts of number of objects found in cavity and in loose soil.

LOC: ASS: 45.

STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

46.

STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

47. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

National Trust, St Michael’s Mount PAS CORN-A8B9A0 LBA copper alloy hoard a. South Welsh b. Meldreth c-f. socketed axes g. ‘hog’s back’ knife h. gouge i-l. blade frags m. Ewart Park n. chape o. ?buckle Fig 2 p-q. plate frags r-u. fragments v-uu. metallurgical debris Beaconfield, Marazion SW515307 a, b. 2 fragments of sword blade and tang with 2 rivet holes. L. 98, W. 30, D. 6 RIC loan 257 sword fragments, ?Ewart Park Pl 4 Beaconfield, Marazion SW515307 sword blade fragment, oval-section. L. 122, W. 30, D. 5 found with 44 but not from same sword RIC loan 257 sword fragment, ?Ewart Park Pl 4 Marazion SW52703115 sword blade fragment, oval-section. L. 47, W. 38, D. 8 fragment of socketed axe said to have been found near finder PAS CORN-30BC82 sword fragment, ?Ewart Park Pl 4 Venton Hall, Marazion SW527311 blade fragment, midrib, lozenge-section. L. 56, W. 19, D. 5 finder PAS CORN-021D57 blade fragment, ?rapier Pl 26

ST MARTIN-BY-LOOE 48. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

off Looe Island SX2652 ingot, ox hide shape. L. 220, W. 160, D. 70 ? Beagrie 1985; Todd 2008 ingot, ?BA

ST MAWGAN-IN-MENEAGE 49. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS: 34

Poden SW709252 a. knife b. copper alloy fragments excavation of roundhouse RIC excavation collection, details unavailable a. knife

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork b. fragments

ASS:

ST MAWES 50. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

off St. Mawes SW83 ingot, H-shaped, plano-convex section; small stamp on one limb, 99% tin RIC Beagrie 1983 ingot, Mediterranean import/export, ?BA/RB, Med

55. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

a–dd. 3-rib socketed axes ee–gg. 5-rib-and-pellet socketed axes hh. casting jet Pl 4 Portloe Farm SW81393519 socketed axe, heavy mouth moulding, 7 ribs and pellets. L. 136, W. 41, D. 13 found on surface of recently ploughed field c.1970 ? connected with Mylor hoard, 54 RIC 2004.7 PAS CORN-648E20 socketed axe, 7-rib-and-pellet Pl 4

ST MERRYN 51. STE: DES: CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

56. STE: DES: CON:

Harlyn Bay SW87707452 ‘Pendant’, wedge-shaped flat sheet of bronze, rolled to form a tube at narrow end L. 34, W. 19 possibly used to fasten a linen bag of cremated bone representing several individuals, with Trevisker pot; C14 dates 2040–1880 cal. BC RIC loan 313 Jones et al. 2011 ?pendant Pl 4

LOC: ASS: PADSTOW 57. STE: DES: CON:

MEVAGISSEY 52. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Mevagissey SX0044 palstave blade, ending of central rib visible on both faces. L. 60, W. 51 finder PAS CORN-FD2517 ?midrib palstave Pl 14

LOC: REF: ASS: 58. STE: DES:

ST MINVER 53. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

St. Minver lowlands SW9574 gold ingot fragment, sheared off at one end, high copper content in relation to silver. L. 22, W. 10, D. 4 finder PAS CORN-2BAA91 metal composition suggests not BA Pl 14

LOC: REF: ASS: 59. STE: DES:

MYLOR 54. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC: REF:

Portloe Farm SW82553522 a–dd. 30 socketed axes from same mould or template, double mouth moulding, 3-rib, sub-square mouth ee–gg. 3 socketed axes, rectangular/hexagonal mouth, 5-rib and pellet mouldings hh. casting jet a–gg. axes in pottery vessel found along N edge of sloping field overlooking Mylor Creek to N hh. found near axes but at later date RIC 2008.12 PAS 2005 T323; Annual Treasure Report 2005/6, Item 69

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

60. STE: DES:

35

 

S. side of Mylor Creek SW815353 socketed axe, thick mouth moulding, 3 ribs found on surface in 1970 ?connected with Mylor hoard, 54 RIC 2004.7 3-rib axe Pl 4

Padstow SW91167737 gold strip, raised on both edges, sheared off at one end. L. 12, W. 8, D. 2 found 200m E of Lellizick Farm, near palstave and BA/IA pot. No palstave reported from area, but reference may be to flanged axe fragment, 59a. Range of material from the farm, but relationships unclear RIC 2007.19 PAS CORN-199400, T110 2005 gold strip ?BA Lellizick Farm SW912774 flat axe fragment, rounded butt. L. 59, W. 41, D. 11 RIC PAS CORN-C76CD4 flat axe fragment Lellizick Farm SW912774 a. flanged axe fragment, badly corroded. L. 67, W. 26, D. 14 b. socketed axe mouth fragment. L. 17, W. 28, D. 5 c. copper alloy slag found in same field over some days finder PAS CORN-27DEC1, CORN-431AF8, CORN-281757 a. flanged axe fragment b. socketed axe fragment c. slag Pl 4 Tamarisk (Macdonald’s) Farm, Porthcothan SW86237126 a–b. copper ingots, 1 plano-convex c–g. fragments of copper alloy ingots h–ll. fragments of copper alloy waste mm. fragment point

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

61. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

material distributed above ground and in pot; analysis suggests Ewart Park phase ingot metal RIC loan 256 P. Northover Metallurgical Report, RIC Records a–g. ingots, ingots fragments h–ll. waste mm. point fragment

REF: ASS: PHILLACK 67. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Doom Bar Sands, Camel estuary, SW914776 socketed spearhead, side loops, leaf shaped blade RIC RIC Newsletter 27, April 2000, 5 side-looped spear

68. STE: DES: CON:

LOC: REF: ASS: 63. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Halwyn Farm, Sennen, SW4635326200 gold, bent fragment of 3-flange twisted rod, triangular-section, expanded terminal. L. 59, Dia. 4 RIC 2008.32.2 PAS CORN-B6B241; T550 2006; Treasure Annual Report 2005/6, 17, item 4 fragment of 3-flange rod gold ornament

LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

69. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

Raginnis SW 4655525912 incomplete socketed chisel. L. 56, W. 25, D. 14 finder PAS CORN-4E8A63 socketed chisel Pl 30

LOC: REF: ASS:

Kynance Gate SW687139 part of clay mould for axe, type uncertain settlement site Helston Museum clay mould fragment

ST SAMPSON 70. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Pelynt SW204551 knife-dagger, details uncertain, 1 rivet found in barrow in Five Barrow Field when ploughing in 19c ? RIC records knife-dagger

St. Sampson SX1054 sword blade fragment. L. 30, W. 23, D. 6 finder sword fragment Pl 26

SENNEN 71. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

PENZANCE 65. STE: DES: CON:

Loath to Depart Streamworks SW 9859 a. spearhead, basal loops b. spearheads, pegged Pearce 1983, no 131 gives these as found together, but they may not have been; also her 131b and 131c are duplicates, for only 2 seem to have been found lost Jope Rogers ‘Portfolio’, RIC records a. basal-looped spearhead b. pegged spearhead

RUAN MAJOR

PELYNT 64. STE: DES: CON:

Riviere Farm SW56033817 socketed axe mouth/face fragment, ribbed L. 23, W. 19, D. 7 finder PAS CORN-C5C0B5 socketed axe fragment, ribbed

ROCHE

PAUL 62. STE: DES:

PAS CORN-E2DD57 flat axe

Penzance SW476301 ‘ancient British ornament of gold’ ‘found near circular earthwork in neighbourhood of Penzance’ ? RIC records uncertain, maybe a duplicate record

72. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Sennen Cove SW3726 rapier blade, seems to have been in sea. L. 71, W. 30, D. 5 RIC 1992.29 rapier blade Pl 125 Sennen SW3726 ingot fragment. L. 60, W. 24, D. 25 no relationship known between this and 73, found at different times finder PAS CORN-131C45 ingot fragment

PERRANZABULOE 66. STE: DES: LOC:

73. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Perranzabuloe SW77455358 flat axe, butt hammered over, ?used as chisel/ wedge. L. 72, W. 45, D. 10 at butt RIC 2007.39 36

 

Sennen SW3726 ingot fragment. L. 37, W. 30, D. 30 finder PAS CORN-CDBF61 ingot fragment

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork d. palstave, depression on face h. ribbed palstave Pl 5, 6

ST STEPHEN-IN-BRANNEL 74. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

½ mile E of St Stephen Churchtown SW953523 a. gold irregular hollow rod, ?a ring of similar rod attached at each end b. gold, small penannular ring, knob terminals, small attachment found together in tin workings lost Pearce 1983; Jope Rogers ‘Portfolio’ RIC records BA/IA

79. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

TYWARDREATH 80. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

ST TEATH 75. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

St Teath SX0680 blade tip, abraded, midrib on 1 face. L. 45, W. 27, D. 28 finder PAS CORN-55C363 blade tip ?dagger Pl 126

81. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

TREGONEY 76. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Tregoney SW9244 ingot fragment. L. 42, W. 36, D. 17 Penlee House Museum, Penzance PAS CORN-CCB7D1 ingot fragment

77. STE: DES:

Hay Barton Farm SW917445 sword blade fragment, both faces ribbed. L. 63, W. 21, D. 8 finder PAS CORN-312AA6 sword fragment ?Ewart Park

LOC: REF: ASS:

CON: LOC: ASS:

Tywardreath SX0855 socketed axe blade fragment, central rib, sub-rectangular-section. L. 83, W. 32, D. 20 finder PAS CORN-B2A682 ribbed socketed axe fragment ?Stogursey Pl 24

Penpillick SX08625665 socketed axe blade fragment, 2 ribs on face, flattened sub-rectangular section LOC: RIC 2008.25 ASS: ribbed socketed axe fragment Pl 19 NOTE: Marked as No.83 on Plate 19

VERYAN 83. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Tregarrick Farm SX081076 a. palstave, unlooped, shield pattern on faces, side-knobs, high-flanged. L. 176, W. 54, D. 36 b. as a. L. 182, W. 55, D. 26 c. as a. L. 105, W. 55, D. 28 d. palstave, unlooped, depression on both faces, long butt, straight stop. L. 188, W. 55, D. 31 e. as a. L. 168, W. 58, D. 33 f. as a. butt end broken off. L. 180, W. 58, D. 38 g. as a. bevelled, expanded cutting edge. L. 159, W. 58, D. 40 h. palstave, unlooped, ribbed, bevelled, expanded cutting edge. L. 159, W. 57, D. 42 i. as a. L. 178, W. 57, D. 42 stacked, suggesting decayed container RIC 2001.8.10 a, b, c, e, f, g, i, shield pattern palstaves

Carne Beacon SW917396 copper alloy fragments from barrows ? Jones 2005, 153 ?fragments

WADEBRIDGE 84. STE: DES: CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Penpont Farm Chapel SX01957405 a. palstave, unlooped, shield pattern. L. 162, W. 52, D. 40 b. as a. L. 156, W. 51, D. 33 find has confused record. PAS records 2 palstaves found together, a, b here, but PAS text (CORN-90A647) suggests at least 1 further palstave RIC 2011.37.1–2 PAS 2000 T630; CORN-90A647, CORN9155C2 a, b. shield pattern palstaves Pl 6

ST WENN 85. STE: DES: 37

 

Tywardreath SX0855 palstave blade fragment. L. 61, W. 53, D. 15 finder PAS CORN-4FF3A0 palstave fragment Pl 14

82. STE: DES:

ST TUDY 78. STE: DES:

Tregarrick Farm SX07807695 copper alloy ingot fragment found ½ mile from palstaves, across river RIC 2001.8.10 ingot fragment

St. Wenn SW9664 tin ingot, basin shaped

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain LOC: REF: ASS:

Birmingham City Museum Watson and Wise 1997 ?BA

93. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

ST WINNOW 86. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

near Tregays Farm SX11735775 sword blade fragment, lozenge-section, midrib, bevelled edges. L. 24, W. 33, D. 7 finder PAS CORN-AAAAB3 sword blade fragment ?Ewart Park Pl 26

94. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

CORNWALL: PARISHES UNIDENTIFIED 87. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 88. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 89. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 90. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 91. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 92. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

95. STE: DES:

Cornwall flat axe, broad butt. L. 130. W. 70 Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) Canada. This and the following three pieces are listed only as ‘Cornwall, Sturge Collection’ ROM Catalogue, no. 1, 918.33.108 broad butt flat axe Pl 13

LOC: ASS: 96. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Cornwall palstave, unlooped, slender, midrib, low flanged. L. 171, W. 46 ROM ROM Catalogue, no. 27, 918.33.129 slender palstave Pl 20

97. STE: DES:

Cornwall palstave, unlooped, small, slight, wide midrib. L. 78, W. 30 ROM ROM Catalogue, no. 33, 918.33.124 small, ribbed palstave Pl 21

98. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: ASS:

Cornwall blade, oval, central perforation, perforated tang. L. 40, W. 35 ‘from a barrow in Cornwall’ ROM ROM Catalogue, 918, 33, 6 razor Pl 24

99. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Cornwall flat axe, butt missing, bevelled blade. L. 80, W. 47, D. 12 RIC 1700.4554 flat axe Pl 14

100. STE: DES:

Cornwall palstave, unlooped, low-flanged, straight stop, bevelled blade. L. 137, W. 64, D. 36 RIC 1700.4570 low-flanged palstave Pl 17

101. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

LOC: ASS:

38

 

Cornwall palstave, unlooped, straight stop, lowflanged. L. 84, W. 40, D. 18 RIC 1700.458 low-flanged palstave Pl 17 Cornwall axe, flanged with lower section wide and in-turned, straight stop, bevelled and outturned blade. L. 101, W. 46, D. 30 RIC 1700. 4570 flanged axe Pl 21 Cornwall blade, broken tang, 1 rivet hole, central rib. L. 139, W. 21, D. 4 RIC 1700.4556 tanged knife Pl 29 Cornwall socketed axe, ‘bag’-shaped, crescent blade edge, oval-section. L. 81, W. 61, D. 34 RIC 1700.4571 socketed axe, ‘bag’-shaped Cornwall socketed axe fragment, collar. L. 12, W. 6, D. 9 ? PAS CORN-214B63 socketed axe collar fragment Cornwall socketed axe, damaged, 4 straight ribs on face, and 1 visible rib curving to edge. L. 110, W. 44, D. 13 RIC 1700.4549 socketed axe, ribbed Pl 23 Cornwall socketed axe, plain, oval-section. L. 72, W. 51, D. 29 RIC 1700.4543 socketed axe Pl 24 Cornwall socketed axe, long, rectangular-section. L. 128, W. 33, D. 29 RIC 1700.4548 socketed axe Pl 24 Cornwall socketed axe, long, rectangular-section. L. 128, W. 33, D. 29 RIC 1700.4547 socketed axe Pl 2

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

ISLES OF SCILLY ST MARTIN’S 102. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Crowther’s Neck, SW929154 dagger ?type barrows in vicinity of Crowther’s Neck ? Jones et al. 2013 dagger

103. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

foreshore, SW side of island SW929155 gold, solid penannular armring, small expanded terminals. Dia. 65 × 62 RIC 1990.88 Tyacke 1993 gold, small, penannular armring Pl 26

DEVON AYLESBEARE 104. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Aylesbeare SY039919 palstave, straight stop, low-flanged, faint visibility of broken side-loop, damage to blade. L. 129, W. 34, D. 15 RAMM PAS DEV-105E82 low-flanged palstave

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

BARNSTAPLE

n, o, w, ad, ak. bun-shaped ingots aq, ar. H-shaped ingots recovered from sea bed in clusters amid rocks and kelp. Oxford University Archaeological Research Laboratory showed them to be 90%–98% tin c, i, l, n–r, v, w, af, ah, al, ap, ar. RAMM ad, aq. PLC Remainder Salcombe Maritime Museum Fox 1995; Fox 1996 Fox regarded the ingots as 500BC–AD500, but the Salcombe find suggests possible BA date. Full set of drawings in Fox 1995 Pl 6, 7

105. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Barnstaple SS563327 socketed axe. L. 38, W. 34, D. 16 finder PAS DEV-495644 socketed axe, type uncertain

106. STE: DES:

Tower Hill SS563327 spearhead, leaf blade, pegged, broken across peg holes. L. 100, Dia. of socket 17 × 12 finder PAS DEV-D908B5 pegged spear

BISHOP’S TAWTON

Sowden Lane SS57203290 socketed tip, oval-section, damaged. L. 101, W. 23, D. 18 Museum of Barnstaple and North Devon PAS DEV-D908BS ?socketed ferrule Pl 28

111. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Lake SS554301 flat axe, thin butt. L. 120, W. 53, D. 9 MBND 2003.24 slender flat axe Pl 14

112. STE: DES:

Bishop’s Tawton SS5730567303 flat axe, butt missing, heavy. L. 63, W. 52, D. 15 MBND 2002.28 thick butt flat axe Pl 14

LOC: REF: ASS: 107. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

110. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: ASS:

Bigbury SX6646 gouge, socketed. L. 61, W. 20, D. 4 finder PAS CORN-319CO1 socketed gouge Pl 30

BIGBURY 108. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

109. STE: DES:

Bigbury Beach SX646439 penannular ring, circular-section, terminals slope towards each other at an angle. L. 6, Dia. c.23 × 24 finder PAS DEV-A6EFC7 penannular ring, ?BA with gold surface worn away leaving copper alloy core; or not BA

BISHOPS TEIGNTON

sea bed off Bigbury c. SX444684 a–m, p–v, x–ac, ae–aj, al–ap. ingots, ingot fragments

BOVEY TRACY

113. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

114. STE: 39

 

Humber Lane, opposite football pitch SX911734 blade fragment, bevelled edges, central flat rib finder ?PAS sword blade fragment

Plumley SX8278

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 115. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

palstave, loop stumps, midrib. L. 153, W. 61, D. 30 RAMM ?same as Pearce 1983,432, no. 184; RAMM 66/1985 midrib palstave Pl 16

CON: LOC: ASS:

Bovey Tracey SX8373 chisel, rectangular-section tapering to blade. Blade L. 51, W. 10, D. 9 finder PAS DEV-6FF9E5 chisel Pl 30

CHUDLEIGH 122. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

BRAUNTON ASS: 116. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Braunton SS4936 palstave, unlooped, flanges extend slightly below the stop ridge and slightly turned in L. 141, W. 59, D. 48 finder PAS DEV-07F6B5 palstave Pl 21

123. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Bridestow SX515892 ingot fragment. L. 60, W. 59, D. 26 RAMM 97/2003 ingot fragment

124. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

BRIDFORD 118. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Bridford SX8086 flat axe, short butt, worn/damaged. L. 52, W. 50, D. 8 finder PAS DEV-987893 flat axe Pl 21

Fernworthy SX702876 knife tip. L. 45, W. 23, D. 20 unknown PCM 1898/855/1 knife

120. STE: DES:

Chagford SX7088 socketed axe, 1 double rib at face edges, 2 double ribs on each face. L. 127, W. 65, D. 26 finder PAS DEV-8101B6 ribbed socketed axe Pl 22

LOC: REF: ASS:

125. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

126. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Horseley Cove, high water mark SX788359 a. rod, rectangular-section, tapering to chisel end ?broken from another object. L. 56, W. 7, D. 7 40

 

Lupton Park SX8957 a–c. ingot fragments Torquay Museum 2001a/b/c a–c. ingot fragments, very insubstantial

Colaton Raleigh Common SY578790 a. gold penannular bracelet, coiled terminals. W. 12, Max. Dia. 59 b. gold penannular bracelet, coiled terminals. W. 11, Max. Dia. 46 c. gold penannular bracelet, folded, everted ends. W. 11, Max. Dia. 53 d. gold ribbon fragment, folded over. L. 69, W. 6 found one inside the other RAMM 168.1987.1-4 Taylor 1999 a-b. gold penannular bracelets, coiled c. gold penannular bracelet, everted terminals d. gold ribbon Pl 7, Fig 3

COMPTON GIFFORD

CHIVELSTONE 121. STE: DES:

Churston Ferrers SX8957 a. ingot, plano-convex fragment. L. 75, W. 63, D. 31 b. ingot, plano-convex fragment. L. 92, W. 63, D. 31 found 1.5m apart ? PAS DEV-D9F1E2 a, b. plano-convex ingot fragments Pl 6

COLATON RALEIGH

CHAGFORD 119. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

Kate Brook SX867795 axe, details uncertain RAMM 32/2001/1 possible duplicate of Pearce 1983, 438, no. 216 axe, type uncertain

CHURSTON FERRERS

BRIDESTOW 117. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

b. rod, circular-section tapering to 4 grooved point, striation marks longitudinally and latitudinally found 8m apart by Andy Elliot finder a. ?chisel b. ?BA but unlikely Pl 29, 30

Compton Gifford SX495564 ‘hoard of bronze celts’ ? Worth 1931, 225 axe hoard, ?recorded elsewhere under other name

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork CORNWOOD 127. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: ASS:

Langage Industrial Estate SX604595 palstave. L. 175, W. 50 finder PAS COOK-EA0E28 palstave, type uncertain

HIGHAMPTON 135. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

CULLOMPTON 128. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Cullompton SX023072 gold ornament from ?barrow lost RAMM records gold ornament

LOC: ASS:

136. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Secmaten Farm SX966771 palstave, broken loop, low-flanged, midrib. L. 146, W. 55, D. 25 RAMM 10.1980 palstave, low-flanged Pl 16

LOC: REF: ASS:

137. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Dean Moor SX677654 tin working site with cassiterite lump and tin lump from hut floor RAMM 44.1957 Pearce 1983, 440, no. 223 now believed to be medieval tin working

138. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Denbury SX825679 a–g. fragments of ingots, plano-convex finder PAS DEV-AE5C01 a–g. plano-convex ingot fragments

139. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

?Whidden Valley SX6942 axe blade fragment. L. 28, W. 38, D. 8 MBND ?socketed axe blade

ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

140. STE: DES: Exeter SX925925 casting waste, conical with 2 stumps. L. 20, W. 21 finder PAS DEV-E6A317 casting waste

LOC: REF: ASS: 141. STE: DES:

EXMOUTH 134. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Exeter Cut SX003806 blade, trapeze hilt, flat central rib. L. 225, W. 41 41

 

Kingsbridge SX739445 socketed axe, sub-rectangular section, 3 ribs converging on each face finder Abigail Grey, Devon Museums Group Advisor socketed axe, 3 rib Pl 22

LEWTRENCHARD

EXETER 133. STE: DES:

Kentisbury SS622438 flanged axe, poor condition. L. 135, W. 54, D. 28 MBND possible duplicate of Pearce 1983, no.249 flanged axe Pl 15

KINGSBRIDGE

DREWSTEIGHTON 132. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Huntsham ST002204 socketed axe, no further details RAMM 4.1993 socketed axe

KENTISBURY

DENBURY 131. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Holne SX7069 sword blade fragment, lozenge-section, midrib. L. 33, W. 19, D. 4 finder PAS DEV-A6FA73 sword blade fragment Pl 26

HUNTSHAM

DEAN PRIOR 130. STE: DES:

Land’s End Farm SS499016 palstave, unlooped, U stop, bevelled blade. finder RAMM correspondence U stop palstave

HOLNE

DAWLISH 129. STE: DES:

RAMM 283.2003 dirk/rapier Pl 25

Lewtrenchard Valley SX457862 palstave, unlooped, damaged, U stop, outturned blade. L. 153, W. 54 finder PAS DEV-670D23 U stop palstave Pl 19 Lewtrenchard Valley SX457862 palstave, unlooped, abraded, midrib. L. 113, W. 41 finder PAS DEV-6624A1 palstave Pl 19

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain LUSTLEIGH

CON:

142. STE: DES:

LOC: REF:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Yonder SX77858123 palstave, broken loop, straight stop. L. 156, W. 53, D. 38 finder enquiry to SMP palstave, straight stop Pl 17

ASS:

NEWTON TRACY

LYDFORD 143. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

148. STE: DES: Whitehorse Hill SX5084 a. awl, badly corroded, L. 42, D. c.1 b. tin bead, rolled over from a rectangle c. approx.32 tin studs in woven band, very fragmentary cist cremation, many organic finds including basketry, pelt, wooden studs, skin. Bead was found with 200 beads of shale, ceramic and amber PCM AR2011.908, AR2011.908.1, 5, 19, 26 Jones Forthcoming(b). We are very grateful to Andy Jones and Fiona Pitt for access to these finds a. awl b. tin bead c. tin studs

144. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Princetown SX586737 rapier, details uncertain PCM 3582 rapier

145. STE: DES:

Princetown SX586737 sword, hilt and upper blade, 1 rivet, 4 shoulder rivet holes and 1 hilt rivet hole. L. 139, W. 46, D. 10 PCM A00755 sword part, ?Ewart Park Pl 25

LOC: ASS:

LOC: ASS:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

149. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

150. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

Marldon SX8564 a. ingot, plano-convex. L. 99, W. 78, D. 36 b. ingot fragment. L. 49, W. 27, D. 18 c. blade fragment, lozenge-section, midrib. L. 24, W. 15, D. 5 found in same field; confused record and ?more BA material found RAMM 187.2005.27, 28 PAS DEV-677584, DEV-66E583, DEV663AF1 a, b. ingot material c. ?knife blade fragment Pl 6

NEWTON ABBOT 147. STE: DES:

Newton Abbot SX883698 a–g. ingot fragments

Ottery St. Mary SX0898 a. palstave, 2 joining fragments, looped, midrib. L. 64, W. 25, D. 36 b. casting jet. L. 412, W. 28, D. 22 c. tanged knife fragment, 2 short linear mouldings at base of tang, bevelled edge on 1 side. L. 87, W. 18, D. 3 a, b. found in area approx. 12 sq. m; c. found in adjoining field, 50m from others RAMM PAS DEV-89AC96 a. midrib palstave b. casting waste c. tanged knife Pl 17, Fig 4 Ash Farm SY0898 a–l. ingot fragments, no further details uncertain, possible relationship with other Ottery finds unclear RAMM 21.1993.13 a–l. ingot fragments

151. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Escot House SY0898 copper alloy lump. L. 33, W. 21, D. 18 finder PAS DEV-580D37 metal working debris, ?BA

152. STE: DES: LOC: CON: REF: ASS:

Escot House SY0898 socketed axe, 3 ribs. L. 95, W. 38, D. 29 finder any relationship to 151 uncertain PAS DEV-6D4737 socketed axe, 3 rib

153. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Ottery St. Mary SY0898 ingot fragment. L. 70, W. 48, D. 21 finder PAS CORN-BBA3C1 ingot

PINHOE 154. STE: 42

 

Newton Tracy SS525265 socketed axe, slender, sub-square section. L. 67, W. 30, D. 24 MBND 2000.337 socketed axe

OTTERY ST MARY

MARLDON 146. STE: DES:

found near each other, ?near Milber Camp, hill fort RAMM PAS 2008 T307; Treasure Report 2000, 49, item 35 a–g. ingot fragments

Pinhoe SY9694

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

a. palstave fragment, unlooped, midrib. L. 116, W. 30, D. 24 b. palstave, incomplete, unlooped, midrib. L. 74, W. 21, D. 23 c. palstave incomplete, unlooped, shield pattern. L. 93, W. 48 d. palstave, butt fragment. L. 44, W. 25 e. axe fragment. L. 36, W. 47 f–k. penannular armrings, variously corroded and incomplete. Ext. Dias. 59 × 50, 75 × 57, 86 × 73, 81 × 67, 64 × 63, 61 × 56 l–n. penannular armring fragments. Dias. 42, 65, 30 uncertain RAMM 2000.118.1-14 a. midrib palstave b. midrib palstave c. palstave, shield pattern d. palstave fragment e. axe fragment f–n. penannular armrings, details uncertain Pl 7

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

PLYMOUTH 155. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 156. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Vauxhall Street SX4854 palstave, unlooped, deep flanges, U stop. L. 150, W. 48, D. 22 PCM deep flanged palstave Pl 19 Plymouth SX4854 palstave, side-knobs, low stop, short shield pattern. L. 143, W. 56, D. 32 ? PCM Enquiry shield pattern palstave Pl 18

157. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Plymouth SX4854 palstave, low flanges, U stop ? Worth 1931 palstave, low-flanged

158. STE: DES:

Mount Batten SX485533 a. socketed axe. L. 77, W. 47, D. 26 b. strip with 5 round-headed rivets c, j–s. sheet fragments d. 2 strips with round-headed rivets e. strip with rivet holes f. 4 riveted fragments g. cauldron ring handle. Dia. 92 h. vase-headed pin i. 2 overlapping sheet fragments, riveted t. tanged sickle, marked heel. L. 115, W. 49, D. 5 u. tip of tanged sickle. L. 24, W. 18, D. 2 v. socketed knife. L 113, Dia. 22 × 22 w. ingot fragment, plano-convex x. metal waste drips y. fragments of sheet

159. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Hemerdon Tungsten Mine SX5657 ‘series of BA cairns, ring cairns, and barrows that have yielded artefacts such as pottery, bronze axes and a faience bead’ Hemerdon excavation collection DAS Newsletter 116, Sept. 2013. undetermined

PLYMTREE 160. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Plymtree ST053029 miniature socketed axe, further details unfortunately lacking ? PAS DEV-FFA821 miniature socketed axe

POWDERHAM 161. STE: DES: LOC:

43

 

z. 4 copper alloy cakes from crucible bottoms aa. blade fragment. L. 25, W. 23, D. 5 bb. blade tip. L. 131, W. 18, D. 4 cc. socketed gouge. L. 74, W. 25, D. 24 dd. knife blade fragment. L. 73, W. 25, D. 6 ee. socketed axe, 3 ribs. L. 100, W. 45, D. 43 ff. socketed axe, ‘back to front’ socket. L. 75, W. 27, D. 43 gg. socketed axe, ‘back to front’ socket. L. 65, W. 24, D. 21 hh. blade fragment. L. 67, W. 47, D. 20 ii. socketed axe, mouth fragment jj. socketed axe, mouth fragment kk. socketed axe fragment ll. socketed axe, mouth fragment mm. socketed gouge. L. 110, W. 15, D. 22 nn. tanged and collared chisel. L. 105, W. 40, D. 11 extensive settlement site at Mount Batten PCM AR 85.2 Northover 1988; Cunliffe et al. 1988 a. socketed axe b–d, i–s, x, y. sheet fragments e. cauldron ring h. vase-headed pin t, u. tanged sickles v. socketed knife w. ingot x. waste z. metal cakes aa, bb, dd, hh. blade fragments cc, mm. socketed gouges ee, ff. socketed axes, ‘back to front’ sockets ii–ll. socketed axe fragments nn. tanged chisel

Church Fields SX973745 axe head. L. 80, W. 55, D. 20 finder

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain CON: REF: ASS:

finder recalled finding another on Powderham Shore RAMM records uncertain

ROUSDON 162. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Rousdon SX2990 gold rod, octagonal-section, broken at both ends. L. 19, W. 9 finder PAS DEV-8A5461 gold rod, ?BA

SALCOMBE 163. STE: DES:

seabed off Salcombe, known as Salcombe B. SX756364 Explored in 2004–9, further finds recovered in subsequent years, 370 BA metal objects recorded on the BM online collection as of Dec 2014, of which only a summary given here. Full details available via British Museum online collection. a. palstave, broken loop, butt missing. L.102, W. 40 b. palstave, complete, looped. L. 177, W. 40.5 c. strumento con immanicatura a cannone. L.121.5, W. 46 d. gold penannular bracelet, round-section, unexpanded terminals. Dia. 63mm e. gold torc fragment, 4 flanged. Dia. 53.5 f. gold ribbon bracelet coiled into triple spiral. L. 171 (total), W. 14.3 (ribbon) g-h. gold flanged twisted torc fragments. L. 33.5, 32.2 i. gold ribbon bar coiled into double spiral. Dia. 24.6 j-k. gold bracelets of eight strands of twisted gold wire fused together longitudinally and coiled five times. L. 29.1, 34.2 l-n. gold penannular bar bracelets. Dia. 70, 70 o. bronze ring p. palstave, complete, looped. L. 97.2, W. 39.3 q-r. palstaves, broken loop. L.176, 110.7, W. 33, 24.5 s. palstave adze. L. 132.5, W. 16.5 t-v. swords, complete, tip of one sword broken but present. L. 496, 426.9 w. sword hilt and upper blade fragment. L. 121, W. 26 x. sword hilt fragment. L. 63, W. 28 y-cc. sword blade fragments. L. ranges: 73291 dd-ee. rapiers, complete. L. 181.7, 454.5, W. 16.7, 39.2 ff-oo. rapier blade fragments, some with hilts. L. ranges: 81.7-141.

CON:

LOC: REF:

ASS:

164. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 44

pp. cast metal disc ?copper alloy. Dia. 36 qq. copper alloy rectangular object with 3 perforations along the centre of length of the object. L. 28, W. 15 rr. copper alloy rectangular object with a straight groove running down the length of each face, with a waved groove on either side. L. 48, W. 18. ss. rectangular block/weight, possible ingot. L. 29, W. 21 tt. tin fragment. uu. uncertain object fragment, rounded at one end, possible socketed tool fragment. L. 48, W. 18 vv-ww. uncertain metal fragments xx. cauldron handle? lost. yy. 38 tin ingots, of varying forms, conditions and completeness zz. 282 copper ingots, of varying forms, conditions and completeness thought to be from BA shipwreck, but no ship elements found. The relationship between this and the Moor Sand site is not clear. Additional finds found during recovery include a hollowed stone object and an iron awl with bone handle. divided between BM, RAMM, and PCM British Museum online collection (Accessed December 2014); Needham and Giardino 2008; Needham et al 2013; Roberts and Vesey 2011. Thanks also to Andy Elliot for discussing aspects of the discovery with MGK. range of material, M-LBA. Majority of material dates to 1300-1150 BC (Penard) but two of the swords indicate a later date of 1000-800BC, suggesting the potential for two shipwrecks. a-e are illustrated following Needham et al 2013, Pl 8, Fig 5 seabed off Moor Sand, explored in 197782. SX756364 site already documented in Pearce 1983, Nos. 211 and 869 but included here briefly due to full report having been released and recent discovery of Salcombe Bay B, No.163. a-b. 2 palstaves, unlooped, slight midrib. L. 144, 126, W. 31, 30. c. sword, complete, hooked and tanged. L. 643, W. 40.5. d. sword hilt fragment and upper blade, 6 of 7 rivets in situ. L.208, W. 42. e-h. ?sword blade fragments, L. 358, 289, 420, 223. thought to be from BA shipwreck, although no ship elements found BM Needham, Parham, and Frieman 2013; Pearce 1983, 437, 552; Roberts and Vesey 2011 range of material, early Penard phase

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork DES: LOC: ASS:

SIDMOUTH 165. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Manston SY126872 palstave, broken loop, straight stop. L. 111, W. 26, D. 22 RAMM 401.1990 palstave

THURLESTONE 172. STE: DES:

STOCKLAND 166. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Stockland TA Field ST245046 ingot/scrap RAMM 6.1995 copper alloy waste

STOKE GABRIEL

LOC:

167. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

REF: ASS:

Ash Cross SX848573 spearhead, no details ? PAS DEV-1BDABS spearhead

173. STE: DES:

STOKENHAM 168. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Lower Frittiscombe SX8093 a. gold penannular ring. Dia. 15 × 15, W. 4 b. gold penannular ring. Dia. 16 × 16, W. 4 PCM PAS DEV-A6EFC7; Treasure Annual Report 1998–9, Section A, item 10 a, b. ring money Pl 8

LOC: REF: ASS: 170. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Thurlestone Beach SX674421 a. lower part of spearhead, blade bevelled and barbed, lozenge-section, peg holes. Found by Mr J. Lavalle. L. 160, W. 64, D. 25 b. upper part of lozenge-section socketed spearhead. Found 30m away from a. by Mrs T. Woods. L. 170, W. 44. The 2 fragments do not join, but may belong to same spearhead a. finder, b. Cookworthy Museum, Kingsbridge ?DEV-2D0387, DEV-FFEE44 barbed spearhead Pl 31 Thurlestone Beach SX674421 lower part of socketed spearhead, pegged, barbed, leaf-shaped blade. L. 156, W. 22, D. 31 finder PAS DEV-2B4697 barbed spearhead Pl 31, Fig 6

174. STE: DES:

Thurlestone Beach SX674421 a. socketed spearhead, peg holes, long blade, short butt. L. 292, W. 48, D. 24 b. blade and joining tip of spearhead, lozenge-section. Combined L. 171, W. 44, D. 18 CON: a. found after cliff fall LOC: PCM, PCM AOO 580 ASS: a, b. late pegged spearheads Pl 31 NOTE: The 2 spearheads in PCM do not seem to have been found together. However, all the Thurlestone spearhead finds may well come from a disturbed hoard, possibly on ground originally on the cliff-top

TALATON 169. STE: DES:

flanged axe. L. 102, W. 59, D. 13 Teignmouth Museum flanged axe Pl 15

Talaton SY065988 palstave, broken loop, crescent blade. L. 132, W. 42, D. 28 finder PAS SOMDOR-BA5606 crescent-bladed palstave Pl 16 Lashbrook Farm SY0653398881 a. socketed axe blade fragment, narrow rectangular socket. L. 35, W. 42, D. 12 b. socketed gouge fragment, tip of furrow. L. 23, W. 12, D. 9 c. socketed gouge fragment. L. 20, W. 15 d–k. ingot fragments axe and gouge ?broken deliberately RAMM 455.2007.1-12 PAS DEV-2FEED3; Annual Treasure Report, 34 Item 52 a. socketed axe b, c. socketed gouges d–k. ingot fragments Pl 8

TIVERTON 175. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Tiverton ST9512 leaf shaped blade, central rib. L. 95, W. 14, D. 4 Tiverton Museum type uncertain

TOPSHAM 176. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Exeter University Sports Field SX966884 palstave, looped, midrib, low flanges. L. 120, W. 23, D. 24 RAMM 73.2000 palstave, low flange Pl 16

TEIGNMOUTH TORBRYAN 171. STE:

The Yannons SX935737 45

 

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 177. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 178. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Torbryan c. SX9366 a. ‘bun shaped’ ingot, no details b. as a RAMM 187.2005.27-8 bun ingots Torbryan SX8169467291 a. socketed gouge. L. 90, W. 35, D. 28 finder, to whom we are grateful for details socketed gouge Pl 30

UPLYME 179. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Uplyme SY325935 ‘golden ornament… in the form of a rod… without ornament’ lost Todd 1985 ?gold, ?penannular neck ring/armring, ?BA

DEVON:

PARISHES UNIDENTIFIED

185. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Devon ‘golden dagger’ lost Todd 1985 ?

186. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

DEVON flat axe blade fragment. L. 59, W. 50. D. 5 MBND 2003.25.1 flat axe blade fragment

187. STE: DES:

Devon palstave, high flanges, midrib. L. 139, W. 53, D. 10 RAMM 402/1997 high flanged palstave. Pl 19

LOC: ASS: 188. STE:

UPOTTERY DES: 180. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

Sandy’s Farm ST203076 a. spearhead fragment, broken loop, socketed. L. 68, W. 18, D. 14 b. spearhead tip, midrib. L. 51, W. 18, D. 16 These 2 fragments fit RAMM 223.2006.1-2 side-looped spearhead Pl 27

LOC: REF: ASS: 189. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

WEMBURY 181. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

190. STE: DES:

Wembury SX518485 gold ingot, roughly D-shaped section. L. 50, W. 8, D. 7 PCM PAS DEV-5B7171, 2005 T123; Annual Treasure Report 2005–06, 24, item 34 gold ingot ?BA

CON: LOC: ASS:

‘near Wheatabury Cottage’, Chagford, West Devon palstave, no further details. L. 140, W. 53, D. 10 finder PAS DEV-EEBE37 palstave ?Devon socketed spearhead, peg holes, fluted blade with shoulders. L. 173, W. 31, D. 22 RAMM 648.1997.2 not British, circumstances unknown Pl 28 ?Devon socketed spearhead, peg holes, one peg survives. L. 218, W. 44, D. 25 this and 189 seem to have been acquired together, but circumstances unknown. Pl 28 RAMM 648.1997.2 late-pegged spear, but nature of no. 189 suggests caution

WESTLEIGH 182. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 183. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

191. STE: DES:

Pondground Quarry SS437287 socketed axe, 2 ribs and pellets on each face. L. 122, W. 57, D. 37 RAMM 10.1993 socketed axe Pl 23

LOC: ASS: 192. STE: DES:

Westleigh SS4728 palstave, no further details RAMM 402.1997 palstave

LOC: ASS: 193. STE:

WOODBURY 184. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Woodbury SY009873 socketed axe, blade fragment. L. 29, W. 51 RAMM 132.1999 socketed axe blade fragment Pl 24

DES:

LOC: 46

 

South Devon spearhead, no further details. L. 250, W. 50, D. 70 PCM AR 1991.1 spearhead, type uncertain Devon socketed axe blade fragment. L. 43, W. 40, D. 16 MBND socketed blade fragment given as ‘near Newquay, Devon’; there is no Newquay in Devon, so Newquay, Cornwall may be meant sword, blade tip missing, 4 rivet holes in shoulder, 3 in hilt; faint sets of ribs (?5) run from shoulders down each blade edge. L. 639, W. 49, D. 9 BM Franks Collection 1994.0203.1

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork ASS:

flange hilted sword Pl 25

DORSET ASKERSWELL 194. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

West Henbury Farm SY5293 axe, low, hammered flanges, slight evidence of low stop-ridge. L. 121, W. 60, D. 11 ? PAS DOR-422514 slightly flanged axe Pl 15

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

BERE REGIS 195. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Roger’s Hill Farm SY82539590 socketed axe, square mouth, out-flared blade, both faces have pendant/U-shaped decoration. L. 116, W. 26, D. 11 DCM O’Connor and Woodward 2002 slender socketed axe Pl 22

201. STE: DES: CON:

BERWICK ST JOHN 196. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

S. of Winklebury ST95052122 single-pointed awl. L. 22, W. 5, D. 5 saucer barrow G4 from causeway across ditch and bank at E. end of barrow ? O’Connor 1991 single-pointed awl

197. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Barrow Pleck ST95561822 copper alloy object, recorded as burnt primary cremation ? O’Connor 1991 uncertain

198. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Woodlands ST94452410 flanged axe private Needham and Saunders 1977-8 flanged axe

199. STE:

Barrow Pleck, bowl barrow G10 ST95401756 fragment of twisted ornament barrow ditch ? O’Connor 1991 twisted ornament fragment

DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 200. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Barrow Pleck, Barrow 10a ST95511757 spearhead tip, ?side-looped with cremation in terminal barrow ditch, 940+/- 120bc Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum O’Connor 1991 side-looped spearhead

202. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

Tinkley Coppice ST955178 hollow-bladed pegged spearhead Brighton Museum AE604 hollow-bladed pegged spearhead

203. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

North Lodge, Rushmore Park ST957195 narrow axe blade Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum O’Connor 1991 ?socketed axe

204. STE: DES:

Higher Bridmore Farm ST965207 double-edged blade end, bent, signs of burning. L. 60, W. 22, D. 7 private sword blade fragment

LOC: ASS: BINCOMBE 205. STE: DES: CON:

Rimbury SY696834 double-pointed awl. L. 23, W. 3 burial, 1 beaker, 1 small beaker, human skeletal remains LOC: DCM ASS: awl NOTE: this is no. 344 in Pearce 1983, but drawing included here Pl 29

South Lodge Camp ST954174 a. side-looped spearhead. L. 125, W. 27, D. 15 b. ribbed bracelet. L. 61, W. 15, D. 2 c. razor. L. 56, W. 28 d. notched razor. L. 108, W. 48, D. 2

BOURNEMOUTH 206. STE:

47

 

e. single-pointed awl. L. 105, W. 4, D. 3 f. wire. L. 39 g. clay mould fragment. L. 80, W. 50, D. 30 a–f. from ditch with Deverel-Rimbury pot g. From topsoil, SE corner of enclosure Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum O’Connor 1991 a. side-looped spearhead b. bracelet c–d. razors e. awl f. wire g. fragment of clay mould for casting socketed implement Pl 10

Bournemouth, no further details

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

a. palstave, broken side-loop, mid-section fragment, shield pattern. L. 33, W. 21, D. 20 b. palstave blade fragment, flared. L. 63, W. 55, D. 20 c. palstave, narrow, slightly expanded blade, faint midrib. L. 140, W. 50, D. 13 d. palstave, looped, deep stop, out-turned blade. L. 138, W. 53, D. 14 e. palstave, narrow, rib, U-shaped stop. L. 150, W. 61, D. 20 f. palstave, looped, faint midrib, wide blade. L. 162, W. 61, D. 20 g. palstave, slender, long above U-shaped stop, out-turned blade. L. 170, W. 54, D. 17 7 axes found together, confused record finder PAS LVPL-2588F5, 2599D7, 25A796, 25BFD5, 25CEB5, 25B355, 2574F4; T589 2011 a. palstave shield pattern b. palstave fragment c. palstave narrow, ribbed d. palstave deep stop e. palstave narrow f. palstave wide blade, Fig 7 g. palstave long, slender

BUCKLAND NEWTON 210. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS: 211. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 212. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

213. STE: DES:

Woodminton Down ST99862194 single-pointed awl bowl barrow G5, primary cremation with collared urn ? Annable and Simpson 1964 no.507 single-pointed awl

LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

214. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Bradford Peverell SY658930 gold fragment of one end (body and plain terminal) of 4-flange twisted torc. L. (folded) 24, W. 8, terminal W. 5 ? PAS 2003 T19, Treasure Annual Report 2003, Sec. A, item 3 torc Yeovil type

215. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 216. STE: DES:

BRYANSTON 209. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Bryanston ST871069 tanged double-edged blade, shoulders at tang/blade junction. 1 large rivet hole, smooth central rib on blade, broken at both ends. L. 73, W. 19, D. 4 finder PAS DOR-FAC625 tanged blade, possibly knife, dirk or rapier. Rivet hole added later (after damage presumably) to enable re-hafting Pl 26

LOC: ASS:

Burton SZ1692 thin butted flat axe, complete, slight stop ridges. L. 158, W. 87, D. 13 finder PAS SOMDOR- C71623 flat thin butt axe Pl 14

Alderney near Poole SZ0494 palstave, unlooped, narrow-bladed, lowflanged, shallow stop. L. 134, W. 20, D. 17 BM Franks 1975 0302.1 BM004 BM narrow bladed palstave Pl 20 ? Poole SZ0494 2 conjoining pieces of sword blade, bevelled centre rib. L. 127, W. 42, D. 14 Poole Museum PMA177 sword blade Pl 25 Poole Harbour, found while diving SZ09 winged axe, narrow looped blade, 1 flange broken, copper alloy tube pushed down into 1 flange, tube apparently Bronze Age. L. 138, W. 40, D. 29 Poole Museum winged axe, complex Pl 21

CERNE ABBAS 217. STE: DES:

48

 

Buckland Newton SU688053 part of mouth of socketed axe, square corner. L. 36, W. 22, D. 6 uncertain PAS DOR-AC80C0 socketed axe, uncertain

CANFORD MAGNA

BRADFORD PEVERELL 208. STE: DES:

Buckland Newton SU688053 miniature palstave/chisel, flanged, lowstop, expanded blade. L. 52, W. 23, D. 9 finder PAS SOMDOR-7B3C43 miniature palstave/chisel Pl 21

BURTON

BOWER CHALKE 207. STE: DES: CON:

Buckland Newton SU688053 socketed chisel, square socket, slender body; curvilinear lines of decoration below socket, 3 on each broader face. L. 98, W. at socket 26, D. at socket 25 finder PAS DOR-EE8574 socketed chisel/axe decorated Pl 30

Barton Farm ST6601 a. socketed axe fragment b. palstave fragment

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 218. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 219. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

c. palstave fragment probably found together uncertain PAS DOR-35EBE4, 360023, 360553 a. socketed axe fragment, b, c. palstave fragments

ASS:

CHICKERELL 224. STE: DES:

Cerne Abbas ST6601 spearhead fragment, part of lower blade and upper socket. No side loops, existence of peg holes unclear. L. 31, W. 19, D. 13 finder PAS SOMDOR-BC0AA2 unlooped spearhead fragment Pl 26

CON:

Green Hill ST6601 fragment of socketed axe blade. L. 35, W. 22, D. 10 uncertain PAS SOM-6E7416 socketed axe blade fragment

LOC: REF: ASS: 225. STE: DES:

CHALBURY 220. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

tanged chisel

Chalbury SU0206 small awl. L. 32, W. 2, D. 2 DCM 1991.2.1 awl, BA, date uncertain Pl 29

LOC: REF: ASS:

Chickerell SY643806 a. gold neck ring, plain thick penannular hoop, crescentic-section, slightly trumpetshaped flat-ended terminals. Slight hammering. Dia. 192, W. 26 b. gold neck ring, plain thick penannular hoop, slightly concave D-section, slightly trumpet-shaped, flat-ended terminals. Dia. 172, W. 14 together in deep hillside deposit with LBA and IA pottery. Multi-period site: Neolithic-RB with occupation structures DCM Treasure Annual Report 1998–9 Sect. A item 7, Woodward 2000; 2002 a, b., solid bar neck rings Chickerell SY643806 fragment of mouth of socketed axe, rectangular mouth, part of 3 ribs on face. L. 26, W. 39, D. 10 finder PAS DOR-180244 socketed axe fragment, 3-rib

CHARMINSTER

CHRISTCHURCH

221. STE: DES:

226. STE:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Charminster SY679926 gold strip, cigar shape, thins towards subsquare ends. One end has circular piercing on obverse face which becomes irregular, with lips of metal pushed through on reverse face. Obverse burnished, reverse matt. L. 74, W. 12, D. max 0.5 DCM 2006 T 380 PAS DOR-173265, Treasure Annual Report 2005–6, 24, item 35 decorative tag, not recognised BA type but BA in character Pl 29

DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

CHESELBOURNE 222. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

227. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Christchurch SZ1792 axe, very low flanges. L. 95, W. 52, D. 7 Red House Museum low flanged axe Pl 15

228. STE: DES:

St. Catherine’s Hill SZ1495 palstave, ?looped, low-stop, narrow blade, abraded. L. 140, W. 35, D. 4 Red House Museum narrow-bladed palstave Pl 20

LOC: ASS:

Cheselbourne SY763996 spearhead, side-looped wide socket, complete but broken side-loops, short blade ?worn down. L. 68, W. 22, D. 16 finder PAS DOR-30E216 side-looped spearhead Pl 27

Hengistbury Head, Double Dykes SZ17149092 axe, very worn. L. 8, W. 34, D. 6 found in Double Dykes Red House Museum flat axe Pl 8

229. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Littledown SZ121938 palstave, looped, high-stop, expanded blade. L. 150, W. 54, D. 25 Red House Museum A2009/1/96 expanded-blade palstave Pl 16

CHETTLE 223. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

230. STE: DES:

Chettle ST952134 tanged chisel, broad, slightly turned-out blade, Narrow tang with rectangular section. L. 44, W. 18, D. 3 uncertain PAS DOR-BFD933, ?367E2

LOC: ASS: 231. STE: 49

 

Southbourne SZ135195 palstave, unlooped, U-stop, slightly expanded blade. L. 155, W. 48, D. 25 Red House Museum A2009/1/95 palstave U-stop Pl 18 Purewell SZ171928

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain DES: LOC: ASS: 232. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 233. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

palstave, unlooped, flanges raised beyond blade in profile, slight rib on face. L. 164, W. 44, D. 30 Red House Museum palstave high flanged Pl 19

239. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Christchurch SZ1792 palstave, broken side-loop, small. L. 99, W. 35, D. 25 Red House Museum A2009/1/144 palstave small Pl 17

240. STE: DES:

Tuckton SZ147922 slender socketed tool, looped. L. 72, W. 23, D. 26 Red House Museum A2009/1/145 socketed axe, tool Pl 30

LOC: REF: ASS:

Compton Abbas ST8618 socketed axe blade fragment. L. 59, W. 33, D. 15 finder PAS SOMDOR-F9B3B8 socketed axe fragment Pl 24 Compton Abbas ST8618 long, slender, rectangular-section chisel, tapering to flat, slightly curving blade, both flat sides grooved. L. 54, W. 6, D. 5 finder PAS SOMDOR-C4C660 chisel, probably BA, similar pieces at PAS NMS-9A9212, 083CF3 Pl 30

CORFE CASTLE 234. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Christchurch SZ1792 socketed axe, side-looped, square mouth, broad collar, outflared blade, both faces have pendant/U-shaped decoration. L. 122, W. 33, D. 16 BM ex Brandes Coll. In BM by 1779 O’Connor and Woodward 2003 socketed axe

241. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Corfe Castle SY9482 rectilinear socket, lipped edge, looped, fragment. L. 41, W. 33, D. 6 ? PAS SOMDOR-1609 socketed implement fragment

CRANBORNE 235. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 236. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

Wick SZ159919 spearhead, side-looped, lozenge-section, midrib. L. 170, W. 22, D. 15 Red House Museum spearhead side-looped Pl 28

242. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Enfield Road Christchurch, but said to be from Somerford SZ178936 a. socketed axe, side-looped, faceted, bad casting. L. 96, W. 50, D. 21 b. socketed gouge broad collar. L. 80, W. 20, D. 22 these 2 were thought to be part of a disturbed hoard Red House Museum A80/1959 a. faceted axe b. socketed gouge Pl 19

Cranborne SU048174 palstave, side-looped, low-flanged, narrow, thick stop. L. 161, W. 41 DCM Green and Thomas 1983 narrow-bladed palstave Pl 17

DONHEAD ST MARY 243. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Charlton ST910201 flat, riveted dagger bowl barrow G3 Devizes Museum 1154 Annable and Simpson 1964, no. 507 flat, riveted dagger

FONTMELL MAGNA 237. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

stream at Bure Homage, Mudeford SZ920187 socketed axe, double moulded collar, slightly faceted by rib mouldings. Between facets 2 further ribs, between these 3 pelleted ribs. L. 120, W. 56, D. 36 Red House Museum A83/62 ribbed socketed axe Pl 23

244. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Fontmell Magna ST865170 gold fragment of straight sided strip, 6 longitudinal grooves. L. 39, W. 10, D. 0.5 DCM PAS T30 2003; Treasure Annual Report 2003, Section A, item 1 fragment of gold strip

COMPTON ABBAS

FORDINGTON

238. STE: DES:

245. STE: DES: CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Compton Abbas ST869185 spearhead fragment, parts of blade, socket, and side-loops. L. 41, W. 15, D. 14 finder PAS SOMDOR-33F9A1 side-looped spearhead

LOC: 50

 

Fordington SY69898989 knife-dagger, bevelled blade, 2 rivets multi-phase barrow with various graves; Pit 3 had young adult cremation with cord impressed urn and the knife-dagger DCM 113.1991

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork REF: ASS:

Bellamy 1991 knife-dagger Pl 8

GUSSAGE ALL SAINTS 246. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 247. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

Gussage All Saints approx. SU008111 gold penannular ring, circular-section, vertical rib effect around exterior. Dia. 15 × 15, D. 4 private gold penannular ring Pl 19 metal detecting finds from general area of Gussage All Saints, not found together but listed here for convenience. a. casting debris, Site 3, Valley Field. L22, W. 18 b. expanded end strip, perforated twice, part of tang. L. 46, W. 15, D. 3 c. ring, Site 3, Valley Field. Dia. 40 × 38 d. upper part of rapier blade and hilt, midrib, Site 5. L. 98, W. 44, D. 4 e. socket mouth fragment, Site 6. L. 26. W. 39, D. 5 f. casting jet. L. 27, Dia. 37 × 27 private a. casting debris b. strip c. ring d. rapier fragment e. socketed mouth fragment f. casting jet

GUSSAGE ST MICHAEL 248. STE: DES:

Down Farm SU006145 a. single-pointed awl b. single-pointed awl c. single-pointed awl CON: pond barrow. a. from cremation pit F2, E part of barrow 1670+/-110bc b. from cremation F12 with 2 bone awls and collared urn, E edge of barrow c. with Deverel-Rimbury pot, N part of barrow LOC: private REF: O’Connor 1991 ASS: a–c. awls NOTE: These may be same awls as recorded elsewhere in Gussage St Michael material

249. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

Down Farm SU002148 triple coil of wire ring ditch with Deverel-Rimbury pot private wire

CON:

250. STE:

Gussage St. Michael Valley, main cluster, approx. ST983120 a. socketed axe, faceted. L. 87, W. 20, D. 18 (10)

LOC:

DES:

51

 

b. tanged chisel, rectangular-section, expanded blade. L. 95, W. 35, D. 10 (10) c. blade tip? of socketed tool; this may be part of socketed ?mortising chisel from E of cluster, no. 255, although there is not an exact fit. L. 24, W. 11, D. 18 d. ‘bag’-shaped chape part, both faces perforated, surrounded by 4 concentric circles. L. 18, W. 22, D. 11 (8) e. triangular flat plate, central perforation surrounded by 3 concentric grooves; 2 further sets of concentric grooves partly visible. L. 27, W. 18, D. 1 (1) f. i–iii. 3 joining fragments of handle straps from sheet copper alloy vessel. L. 33, W. 18, D. 1 (10–12) g. double-edged blade tip fragment, lozenge-section. L. 57, W. 16, D. 4 (14) h. single-pointed awl, sub-rectangularsection. L. 45, W. 4, D. 4 (18) i. single-pointed awl, sub-rectangularsection. L. 45, W. 3, D. 3 (19) j. trapezoidal piece of copper alloy sheet, folded over at apex to create blunt end, traces of hammer marks. L. 43, W. 26, D. 2 k. socketed knife, damaged, broad midrib. L. 77, W. 18, D. 6 l. pin, slightly expanded head. L. 110, Dia. 3 (20) m. 3 fragments of pair of tweezers. L. 74, W. 8, D. 2 (21) n. casting jet, burnt clay adhering, 2 stumps. L. 17, W. 43 × 34 (23) o. casting jet. L. 10, W. 17 ×12 (23) p. casting jet. L. 10, W. 17 ×12 (24) q. large droplet. L. 14, W. 55 ×24 (27) r. bifurcated lump. L. 28, W. 24 ×13 (28) s. casting waste. L. 43, W. 13, D. 8 (29) t. bar fragment, oval-section. L. 12, W. 18, D. 12 (30) u. plate fragment. L. 25, W. 17, D. 6 (31) v–w. annular rings, solid round-section. Dia. 27, 26, (34, 35) x. annular ring, angular section. Dia. 21 (36) y–z. annular rings. Dia. 21, 32 (37, 39) aa–dd. 4 small annular rings. Dia. 14, 14, 11, 10 (41–43) ee. double ring fragment. L. 12, W. 15, D. 3 (44) ff–gg. 2 beads, annular, 1 bun-shaped, 1 barrel Dia. 12, 9, D. 5, 6 (45, 46) hh. blade section, double-edged, central rib. L. 60, W. 22, D. 3 (15) found together in a loose cluster with c.650g of small ‘pebbled’ casting waste. With the cluster was a terminal of 2 bun shapes joined laterally by a short shaft, probably IA (22) private; nos. in brackets refer to private collection numbers

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain ASS:

251. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

252. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS: 253. STE:

a. faceted socketed axe b. tanged chisel c. blade tip d. ‘bag’-shaped chape e. plaque f. cauldron strap handle g. sword blade fragment h, i. awls j. re-used sheet fragment k. socketed knife l. pin m. tweezers n–s. casting material t. bar fragment u. ?plate x–dd. annular rings ee. double ring fragment ff–gg. beads hh. sword blade fragment ?Ewart Park

DES:

LOC: ASS: 254. STE: DES:

Gussage Valley, N of main cluster approx. 98351208 a. socketed mouth fragment. L. 30, W. 36, D. 18 (2) b. socketed gouge blade. L. 40, W. 15, D. 13 (6) c. bugle-shaped object. L. 63, W. 24 (7) d. double edged blade fragment, broad midrib, bevelled edges. L. 44, W. 36, D. 17 (13) e. single-pointed awl, flat perforated tang, upper point faceted. L. 38, W. 8, D. 3 (17) f. casting jet, remains of burnt clay. L. 10, W. 20 × 20, D. 13 (25) g. annular ring. Dia. 19, D. 3 (38) h. awl, tapered end. L. 100, W. 5, D. 4 (22) i. plate fragment, pierced. L. 28, W. 28, D. 1 (22) loose group from near main cluster, with same general composition private; nos in brackets refer to private collection numbers a. socketed axe mouth fragment b. socketed gouge c. bugle-shaped object d. sword blade fragment e, h. awl f. casting jet g. ring i. plate fragment Pl 19

LOC: ASS:

255. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 256. STE: DES: CON: LOC: ASS:

Gussage Valley, S of main cluster ST983120 tanged chisel, square-section, trapezoidal tang. L. 120, W. 42, D. 3 (3) found separately, but fits with general spread private tanged chisel

257. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

Gussage Valley, S of main cluster ST983120 52

 

dagger, lacking tip, ogival-section, bevelled edges, 4 grooves on each side between blade centre, and further pair inside bevels, pointillé decoration. L. 98, W. 38, D. 6 private dagger, Camerton-Snowshill Gussage St Michael Valley south of main cluster finds scattered but approx. ST98531171 a. wheel-headed pin, wheel fragment. L. 934, W. 30, D. 3 (47, 48) b. pin, bent, swollen shaft. L. 103, Dia. 4 × 4 (49) c. ring-headed pin, rivet through neck. L. 112, W. 16, D. 4, (50) d. leaf-shaped razor tanged. L. 100, W. 30, D. 2, (51) e. spearhead point, strong midrib, bevelled. L. 80, W. 18, D. 10, (52) f. socketed gouge. L. 82, W. 17, Dia. 22 × 21, (53) g. socketed gouge blade fragment. L. 30, W. 13, D. 11, (54) h. axe blade fragment. L. 13, W. 22, D. 5, (55) i. axe blade fragment. L. 28, W. 43, D. 5 (55) private: nos. in brackets refer to private collection a. wheel-headed pin b. Picardy pin c. ring-headed pin probably IA d. razor e. spearhead, f–g. socketed gouges h–i. socketed axe fragments Pl 9 east of main Gussage Valley cluster ST983120 socketed tool lower blade broken off, round mouth. L. 49, W. 16, D. 7 private part of socketed mortising chisel isolated from Gussage Valley cluster ST983120 annular ring. Dia. 45, D. 7 (33) fits with contents of main cluster private annular ring Gussage Down Site 4 ST99881334 a. lower part of socketed gouge clay filled. L. 58, Dia. 17 × 20 b. fragment of bronze plate vertical line moulding. L. 22, W. 25, D. 2 found together private a. socketed gouge part b. bronze plate fragment Pl 9

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork 258. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

metal-detecting finds from general area of Gussage St Michael; not found together, but listed here for convenience ST93 a. i–iii, gold strip fragments apparently found folded together. (i)L. 20, W. 30, D. 1, (ii)L. 12, W. 11, D. 1, (iii)L. 9, W. 4, D. 1 b. 10 beads/rings. Max. Dia. 46 × 46, Min. Dia. 10 × 10, (33, 53, 57) c. part of socketed knife single rivet hole. L. 33, Dia. 10 × 15 d. tang/blade fragment single rivet hole. L. 52, W. 23, D. 3 e. fragment ?spear blade. L. 19, W. 15, D. 3 f. fragment of socketed tool mouth. L. 32, W. 15, D. 3 g. triangular blade. L. 46, W. 47, D. 2 h. socket mouth fragment. L. 15, W. 13, D. 3 i. socket mouth fragment. L. 14, W. 16, D. 1 j. 2 bronze fragments (i)L. 36, W. 15, D. 1, (ii) L. 17, W. 25, D. 4 k. plate fragment angles. L. 18, W. 15, D. 3 l. curved strip from ST983120. L. 132, W. 7, D. 1 m. bugle-shaped object solid. L. 34, W. 12, D. 9 n. 4 bronze fragments. L. 26-10, W. 19-5 o. bronze strip fragment incised with opposing hatched triangles. L. 44, W. 9, D. 1 p. spearhead tip midrib round. Site 3. L. 42, W. 30, D. 5 q. tool fragment tapering below very slight collar. Site 3. L. 44, W. 11, D. 4 r. perforated plate fragment. L. 23, W. 48, D. 2 s. object bent into boat shape with central tang. Site 5. L. 46, W. 13, D. 4 t. rod fragment with conical terminal. Site 5, found near (s). L. 28, W. 12, D. 18 u. lower part of ?palstave blade. Site 6L. 40, W. 26, D. 5 v. ?blade fragment bent. Site 8. L. 86, W. 21, D. 5 w. palstave fragment above stop. Site 13. ST97891253. L. 67, W. 25, D. 22 x. 2 awls (i) central part rectangularsection. L. 24, (ii) faceted single-point. L. 67, D. 4 (20) y. tanged collared chisel expanded blade. Site 20 next to stream. L. 66, W. 29, D. 12 private a. gold strips b. rings/beads c. socketed knife d. tanged knife e. spearhead fragment f. socketed mouth fragment g. triangular blade h–i. socketed mouth fragments

j–l. fragments m. bugle-shaped object n–o. fragments p. spearhead tip q. tool fragment r. plate fragment s. boat-shaped object t. rod fragment u, w. palstave fragments v blade fragment x. awls y. tanged chisel Pl 9 NOTE: The cluster and its peripheral finds seem to be an associated group much disturbed by soil movement, as the scattered parts of the mortising chisel nos.251c and 256 suggest, and/or a central group to which extra pieces were added at varying points over time; or an area where much metalworking was carried on. The area has produced an exceptional quantity of metalwork, which does seem to reflect a real concentration, although much detailed metal detecting has taken place here. The nature of the site and the finds (e.g., the many broken pieces) would repay study Thickthorn ST97291214 ring Ext. Dia. 30 × 30 private ring Pl 9

260. STE: DES:

Firtree Field, Down Farm SU000142 a. lower part of axe blade. L. 42, W. 38, D. 14, (Firtree 1) b. lower corner of stone mould inner and outer faces and base. Matrix for triangular edge of blade visible, deep longitudinal groove on outer face. Base of matrix carries transverse groove which continues faintly on mould side. Matrix side bevelled. L. 59, W. 30, D. 37 (Firtree 2) not found directly in association private a. ? fragment of narrow-bladed palstave b. mould for socketed axe Pl 9

CON: LOC: ASS: 261. STE: DES:

CON: 53

 

259. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Gussage Cow Down ST994115 part of amber bead, longitudinally perforated with silver binding. Bead has domed end and elliptical section with a tiny step where these meet, to which silver binding originally butted up. Silver binding has 4 decorated panels separated by zigzag border motif; 2 opposing panels carry 2 pairs of hatched triangles; 1 panel has lenticular shape enclosed by hatched corner zones, 1 panel has spray of incised strokes. Binding L. 14, Dia. 10.5 × 8, bead L. 10, Dia. 8.2 × 7.5 excavation at find site by M. Correy produced only RB sherds from plough soil.

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

LOC: ASS:

262. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Ploughed out BA barrow 175m to north (Oct. 1989) private decoration style suggests EBA date and amber beads associated with tubular metal beads also occur in insular EBA, but direct parallels and especially use of silver are not known

LANGTON MATRAVERS 267. STE: DES:

Gussage Cow Down Site 3 approx. ST998334 blade of flanged axe. L. 44, W. 23, D. 13 private flanged axe Pl 9

HOLT 263. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Holt ST8561 badly corroded incomplete blade midrib ? straight-sided 2 rivet holes in hilt, one broken rivet hole and bent blade. L. 66, W. 21, D. 4 finder PAS PUBLIC-4425B2 corroded or reworked dirk blade Pl 29 CON:

IWERNE COURTNEY (or SHROTON) 264. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Iwerne Courtney ST859125 axe, low U-shaped stop, side-knobs, low flanges. L. 129, W. 53, D. 30 finder PAS DOR-5D7F46 low-flanged axe Pl 18 LOC: REF:

IWERNE MINSTER 265. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Iwerne Minster ST868145 palstave, side-looped, high stop, flanges slightly faceted, midrib on slightly outcurved blade. L. 176, W. 49, D. 39 finder PAS DOR-8D4C40 midrib palstave Pl 18 ASS:

IWERNE STEEPLETON 266. STE: DES: CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Everley Water Meadow ST861115 a. stone mould to produce socketed axe b. ?plug clay for socketed axe casting c. part of copper ingot palaeoenvironmental examination of meadow as part of Hambledon Hill Neolithic enclosure project revealed riverside LBA occupation eroded by a stream in a gully from which finds came DCM Mercer 1984 a. stone mould for South Welsh socketed axes b. plug clay c. ingot fragment

268. STE: DES:

54

Langton Matravers SY00187853 Langton Matravers Hoard I comprising 303 items (here following BM hoard numbers). Only a simple summary is given a.1–39 faceted socketed axes, socket mouths ‘back to front’ b. 40–56 incomplete faceted socketed axes, socket mouths ‘back to front’ c. 57–110 faceted socketed axe fragments d. 111–167 faceted socketed axes, socket mouths ‘back to front’ e. 168–178 fragments of faceted socketed axes f. 179 faceted socketed axes, socket mouth ‘back to front’ g. 180–224 faceted socketed axe fragments h. 225–296 faceted socketed axes socket mouths ‘back to front’ i.297 linear faceted socketed axe j. 298–303 faceted socketed axes, socket mouths ‘back to front’ The axes have a range of rib and pellet decorative motifs found in 3 separate pits with approx. 30 axes in 2 other pits and rest in larger central pit under a stone slab. Axes are high tin bronze in bivalve probably clay moulds with casting flashes mostly intact. There are many remains of clay cores implying avoidance of mass production. They are polished to a silver finish but are unsuitable for functional tasks DCM PAS Treasure Annual Report 2007, 55, item 60, PAS HAMP-2865F1 and 893364; Potential Treasure of Late Bronze Age bronze socketed axe hoard from Langton Matravers, Dorset Treasure case 2007 T629 (unpublished catalogue of this hoard available from PAS, British Museum, from which these details are taken); Roberts et al. forthcoming where enough survives to be diagnostic, most of axes are type Portland, 1 is type Rudham Pl 10 Langton Matravers SY0017578515 Langton Matravers Hoard II comprising 197 items (here following BM hoard numbers). Only a simple summary is given a.1–29 faceted socketed axes, socket ‘back to front’ b. 30–47 faceted socketed axe fragments c. 48–52 faceted socketed axes d. 53–60 faceted socketed axes, blade and sometimes body part missing e. 61–67 socketed axe fragments f. 68–154 faceted socketed axes, socket ‘back to front’

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork g. 155–196 socketed axe fragments. The axes have a range of rib and pellet decorations CON: found together with slate fragment (BM no. 197). Axes are high-tin bronze in bivalve (probably clay) moulds with casting flashes mostly intact. There are many remains of clay cores implying avoidance of mass production. They are polished to a silver finish but are unsuitable for functional tasks LOC: DCM REF: PAS Treasure Annual Report 2007, 55, item 60, PAS HAMP-2865F1 and 893364; Potential Treasure of Late Bronze Age bronze socketed axe hoard from Langton Matravers, Dorset Treasure case 2007 T629 (unpublished catalogue of this hoard available from PAS, British Museum, from which these details are taken); Roberts et al. forthcoming ASS: where enough survives to be diagnostic, the axes are Type Portland Pl 10 NOTE: Nos. 267 and 268 record the original discoveries made in Autumn 2007, which involved 3 pits and their contents (Langton Matravers Hoard I) and a fourth pit to the S (Langton Matravers Hoard II). Subsequent investigation confirmed that the material had been placed in 4 pits and has brought the overall number to 373 intact and broken axes, accompanied by 404 fragments Pl 10 269. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

b. blade fragment, broad rib. L. 86, W. 29, D. 8 c. blade fragment, faint rib. L. 83, W. 30, D. 8 d. gouge, sub-rectangular socket giving on to triangular depression forming thin, slightly rounded cutting edge. L. 90, W. 32, D. 2 e. peg hole socketed spearhead, incomplete L. 111, W. 32, D. 19 f. bifid razor, rectangular tang, incomplete. L. 75, W. 28, D. 11 found together; a and b join, c ?part of another weapon, a–c deliberately bent and broken, d. complete, e, f. damaged, circumstances unclear DCM PAS DOR-FD3CE4, FD5EF4, FD69C8, 0E48E6 T649 2009 a, b. sword fragments, Ewart Park c. sword fragment d. socketed gouge e. pegged spearhead f. bifid razor Pl 10

LYCHETT MATRAVERS 272. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Harden’s Quarry SY982792 tanged chisel, collar, expanded blade. L. 75, W. 32, D. 12 Langton Matravers Local History Museum PM.LM.8.88 Russell 1996 tanged chisel

Lychett Matravers SY94669579 palstave, side-looped, low stop, central rib. L. 129, W. 36, D. 20 finder Lawson 1986 narrow-bladed palstave Pl 17

LYME REGIS 273. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Lyme Regis SY3493 flat axe, lower blade. L. 70, W. 90, D. 9 finder PAS DEV-892904 flat axe Pl 14

LITTLE BREDY MAIDEN NEWTON 270. STE: DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Little Bredy SY588890 a. palstave, incomplete, in 2 pieces with the break just above the stop-ridge, poorly cast, out-turned blade, central rib. L. 140, W. 49, D. 25 b. palstave, side-looped, prominent midrib, square stop, out-turned blade. L. 144, W. 50, D. 25 found together finder PAS DOR-FD33F3, FD23F7, T567 2009 a. ribbed palstave b. wide-blade palstave Pl 10

274. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

MARNHULL 275. STE: DES:

LONG BREDY 271. STE: DES:

Maiden Newton SY596977 socketed axe/chisel, damaged. L. 32, W. 33, D. 9 finder PAS SOM-6D7E72 socketed axe/chisel fragment

Long Bredy SY571906 a. sword hilt, 4 rivet holes on shoulder, shallow ricasso. L. 99, W. 50, D. 9

CON:

55

Marnhull ST788189 90 palstaves, 89 intact, 1 broken, the majority have “elongated blades”. Summarised as 53 unlooped, 37 looped of which at least 25 have narrow blades and a concave outline. found packed into a small pit, some flat, some on end, 7 in rough crescent on top of

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

LOC: REF: ASS:

pit; no smithing debris and no archaeological context for pit DCM 2004 O’Connor 1980, 49, maps 4, 5; Lawson and Farwell 1990 narrow palstaves, Norman types, or Norman Influenced

DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

OVER COMPTON

MARTIN 276. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

277. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

283. STE: DES: Martin Down Camp SU043201 a. ?razor b. annular ring c. single-pointed awl Salisbury and South Wiltshire Museum O’Connor 1991 a. razor b. ring c. awl Pl 11

LOC: REF: ASS:

284. STE: DES:

Bokerley Dyke SU034199 tanged arrowhead, said to be copper alloy lost O’Connor 1991 tanged arrowhead, dubious find ?recent import

LOC: REF: ASS: 285. STE: DES:

Bagber Barrow ST8001 coil. Dia. 10 × 10 DCM 1990.44.1 coil

LOC: REF: ASS:

MINTERNE MAGNA

PIMPERNE

279. STE: DES:

286. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS: 280. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Minterne Magna ST6504 blade, upper part and tang, which has 2 rivet holes/notches finder PAS SOMDOR-1737 dirk fragment Pl 26

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

Minterne Magna ST6504 palstave, side-looped, broad midrib. L. 185, W. 44, D. 30 DCM 2005.15.4 midrib palstave Pl 16

LOC: REF: ASS:

287. STE: DES:

Nether Compton ST598174 crescent blade, 2 holes towards back corners. L. 62, W. 22, D. 3 finder PAS SOMDOR-123F91 conventionally, razor. Pl 29

LOC: REF: ASS:

288. STE: DES:

Okeford Fitzpaine SY807108 56

 

Piddletrenthide SY702007 triangular perforated blade fragment. L. 31, W. 18, D. 11 finder PAS SOMDOR-FFE225 ‘hog’s-back’ knife blade Pl 30

Kites Farm ST888082 slender looped socketed axe, subrectangular section, U- shaped and rib decoration on faces. L. 125, W. 19, D. 18 found during excavation by East Dorset Antiquarian Society on Blandford by-pass in 1984 ? O’Connor and Woodward 2002 early socketed axe Pl 22

Portesham SY603858 awl, double-pointed, rectangular-section. L. 51, W. 6, D. 5 ? PAS SOM-B251B3 awl ?BA Pl 29

PUDDLETOWN

OKEFORD FITZPAINE 282. STE:

Well Bottom Down SY696978 upper part, slender looped socketed axe, sub-rectangular section, complex U-shaped decoration on faces. L. 81, W. 18, D. 11 private O’Connor and Woodward 2002 early socketed axe Pl 22

PORTESHAM

NETHER COMPTON 281. STE: DES:

Over Compton ST594169 a. upper part of 2 sides of socketed axe, triple mouth moulding. L. 43, W. 28, D. 5 b. fragment, not joining a. but ?part of same axe. L. 21, W. 20, D. 4 finder PAS SOM-6D0A27 socketed axe fragments

PIDDLETRENTHIDE

MILTON ABBAS 278. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

blade fragment, low midrib, tapering to edge on each side. L. 45, W. 27, D. 6 finder PAS SOMDOR-E38574 blade fragment ?sword/rapier

Puddletown SY758945 2 joining fragments of solid bar bracelet, D-section, 5 ribs on outside. L. 102, W. 30, D. 6

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork LOC: REF: ASS:

finder PAS SOMDOR-788; PAL 1213 bracelet

DES: CON:

SHAFTESBURY 289. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

?Shaftesbury ?ST8622 socketed knife, oval-section. L. 255. W. 35, D. 15 DCM 2002.4 (E4616) purchased Benhouse Brooks, 8 Nov 2001, no. 435 socketed knife Pl 29

SHAPWICK 290. STE: DES:

Shapwick ST95720289 palstave, unlooped, high-flanged, midrib, fairly narrow CON: found 400m W of Badbury Rings; rapier found ?500m NW of this in 1851 (Pearce 1983, 481, no. 441) LOC: DCM 1987.105.1 REF: Smith and Papworth 1987 ASS: midrib palstave Pl 20

socketed axe, 4 ribs on faces. L. 96, W. 30, D. 30 very probably part of the Sixpenny Handley hoard private O’Connor 1991 ribbed socketed axe Pl 11

296. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

near Berendes Beorh SU01461623 ring. Dia. 28 × 30 private ring Pl 26

297. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Thorney Down ST9915 spearhead blade fragment ST9915 DCM 1889.1.1 O’Connor 1991 spearhead blade fragment

298. STE: DES: CON:

Home Field, Down Farm ST999148 copper alloy droplets and rivet IA excavated settlement, some LBA material DCM Ellis 2012 metal working material

LOC: REF: ASS:

SHERBORNE SOUTHBOURNE 291. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Sherborne Abbey SY637165 fragments of twisted neck ring. L. 65, W. 8, D. 3 finder PAS SOM-5E0AB6; Burnett 2013 twisted neck ring Pl 26

299. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

SIXPENNY HANDLEY 292. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

300. STE:

Sixpenny Handley ST995174 irregular gold strip, tapering to 1 end, with irregular piercing. L. 39, W. 11, D. 0.5 DCM PAS SOMDOR-635644 T514 2006; Treasure Annual Report 2005-6, 25, item 36 gold strip, ?BA

DES:

CON: LOC:

293. STE: Handley Down SU00991654 DES: 4 fragments twisted wire CON: E of barrow G24, with DeverelRimbury pot REF: O’Connor 1991 ASS: wire 294. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 295. STE:

REF: ASS:

Bournemouth Hospital hoard SZ1280194131 a–e. palstaves, identical, cast in same mould, short prominent flanges, ribbed with depression below stop, unfinished and poor casting. L. 120, W. 49, D. 16 f–j. palstaves, lost, said to be as a–e ?buried in small pit, no evidence of occupation Poole Museum and Russell Coates Museum, Bournemouth Jarvis 1985; Champion and Jarvis 1992 a–e. palstaves midrib; f–j palstaves, ?as a–e Pl 10

Sixpenny Handley ST995174 socketed axe, faceted, cracked. L. 101, W. 49, D. 35 DCM 1996.56.1 faceted socketed axe

301. STE: DES:

retrieved from privy, Sixpenny Handley ST9914

SPETISBURY

LOC: ASS:

57

 

Southbourne SZ213916 palstave, unlooped, low flanges, square stop, out-turned cutting edge. L. 120, W. 63, D. 30 finder PAS SOMDOR-4D78E5 low-flanged palstave

Pokesdown SZ131920 peg hole spearhead. L. 95, W. 20, D. 18 Red House Museum SOB13 pegged spearhead

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain 302. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

near Spetisbury Rings SU915019 penannular gold ring, alternate bands of gold and ?silver, giving 79 evenly spaced stripes. Dia. 14 × 14, D. 6 DCM 2013.46 Current Archaeology no. 197, 2003, 215 penannular gold ring Pl 26

REF: ASS:

TARRANT LAUNCESTON 310. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF:

STINSFORD 303. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Stinsford SY712910 socketed axe, faceted, central rib, damaged. L. 108, W. 53, D. 35 finder PAS DOR-A1DEC8 faceted socketed axe Pl 23

ASS: 311. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

STURMINSTER MARSHALL 304. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 305. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS: 307. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 308. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 309. STE: DES: LOC:

Tarrant Launceston SU944088 spearhead, damaged, lozenge crosssection. L. 27, W. 10, D. 6 ? PAS SOMDOR-1351; PAL1270 spearhead, details uncertain

312. STE: DES:

Sturminster Marshall SU952004 cutting edge blade fragment. L. 16, W. 29, D. 4 finder PAS HAMP-3CA7C5 socketed axe blade fragment Pl 24

TARRANT RUSHTON

LOC: REF: ASS:

313. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Tarrant Hinton SU936112 blade fragment, bevelled edges. L. 43, W. 22, D. 2 finder PAS DOR-3B9600 blade fragment, ?rapier/knife Pl 26

314. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Tarrant Hinton SU936112 awl/punch, circular tang stump. L. 44, W. 8, D. 7 finder PAS HAMP-19D7F2 awl/punch Pl 30

315. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

South Farm SU936113 palstave fragment, traces of loop. L. ?100, W. 32, D. 27 finder PAS DOR-96BD897 palstave, details uncertain

316. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

South Farm SU936113 palstave fragment, may fit with 308. L. ?39 finder

Manor Farm SU944088 chisel, triangular blade, slight stop. L. 36, W. 12, D. 7 finder PAS DOR-C0AF45 tanged chisel

Tarrant Rushton ST937058 penannular ring, round-section, copper core covered in beaten gold foil. Dia. 16 × 17 ? Keen 1994 penannular ring Tarrant Rushton ST937058 awl/chisel, rectangular-section, tapering to blunt point at 1 end and flat chisel at other. L. 85, W. 6, D. 5 finder PAS DOR-6DF7F6 awl/chisel Pl 30 Tarrant Rushton ST937058 cast of ?genuine find, ‘bag’-shaped socketed axe, L. 75, W. 42, D. 76 DCM 1990.57.1 ‘bag’-shaped socketed axe Pl 23 Preston Farm ST937058 gouge, circular socket. L. 53, W. 15, D. 8 finder PAS DOR-1AEA74 socketed gouge Pl 30

TARRANT VALLEY 317. STE: 58

 

Launceston Down, South Bowl Barrow G8 SU944088 double-pointed awl primary inhumation with beaker ? Piggott and Piggott 1944, 76–7, fig. 25 double-pointed awl

Sturminster Marshall SU952004 palstave butt fragment, flange ends visible. L. 26, W. 20, D. 7 finder PAS HAMP-3D44F6 palstave butt fragment

TARRANT HINTON 306. STE: DES:

PAS DOR-96BD897 palstave, details uncertain

Tarrant Valley ST90

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork DES:

CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 318. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

gold lunula, incomplete, in 2 pieces, apparently torn and bent at break with some additional denting along edge of the larger piece. a. Larger fragment: 1 hooked terminal survives; incised with 3 lines following edge, and pattern of hatched triangles in opposed pairs of lines divided by incised lines towards the surviving terminal. Dimensions: 142x180. Max surviving W. 46.27. b. Smaller fragment: more damaged, torn and folded, but appears to join break on a. L.43.4, W.38.14. not known under consideration as Treasure at time of writing DOR-2198F8; Treasure No. 2014T257; Current Archaeology 2014, no.293, 6–7 gold lunula, Fig 8

CON: LOC: ASS:

TOLLARD ROYAL 321. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

DES:

CON: LOC: ASS:

322. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

Tarrant Valley ST90 quoit-headed pin, incomplete, incised chevrons at junction of shaft and quoit, ?and at surviving end of shaft. L. 150, W. 30, D. 24 finder PAS SOMDOR-839ED2 quoit-headed pin Pl 26

ASS:

323. STE: DES:

Hodge Ditch, Chard Junction Quarry ST3703 a. corroded fragment, copper alloy/copper b. large fragment copper alloy bracelet E of enclosure ditch MBA settlement site Taylor and Preston 2004, 39 a. copper alloy/copper fragment b. bracelet, ?modern CON:

Tincleton SY770920 a. socketed axe, blade missing, 3 ribs and pellets visible. L. 95, W. 46, D. 30 b. socketed axe, oval socket, 3 ribs and pellets on faces. L. 99, W. 46, D. 27 c. socketed axe, oval socket, 3 ribs and pellets on faces. L. 102, W. 48, D. 34 d. socket of socketed axe, evidence for 3 ribs and pellets e. socketed axe, blade fractured, 4 ribs. L. 103, W. 50, D. 33

LOC: REF: ASS:

59

 

Turnworth SU821076 palstave, complete, unlooped, very short out-turned blade U-stop. L. 86, W. 35, D. 25 ? PAS DOR-C5DF32, Trevarthen 2009, 20 palstave Pl 21

WAREHAM

TINCLETON 320. STE: DES:

Berwick Down approx. SU942199 side-looped spearhead Brighton Museum R3311 O’Connor 1991 side-looped spearhead

TURNWORTH

THORNCOMBE 319. STE:

f. socketed axe, part of socket and blade missing, 3 ribs and pellets on remaining face. L. 92, W. 36, D. 29 found together, no known context DCM 1990.64.1–6 a-d, f. rib and pellet socketed axes e. ribbed socketed axe

Bestwall Quarry SY929879/931879 a. bracelet special find 2308. 5 joining fragments making 90% of penannular bracelet ?twisted. Dia. 78 × 74, W. 5 b. bracelet special find 2277. c.20 fragments of ?ribbed penannular bracelet. W. 9 c. palstave butt fragment with flanged top, special find 1572. L. 35, W. 27, D. 12 d. socketed gouge, special find 1641 with fruit-wood handle suggesting deposition 880–850cal BC e. socketed axe fragment, special find 960. L. 29, W. 45, D. 11 multi-period Neolithic-RB site. Bracelets a and b deposited as part of sealing of MBA house involving also construction of fire pit and burnt mound across former house entrance. Socketed gouge placed at entrance of LBA building against stone, socket downwards as part of abandonment of LBA complex DCM Ladle and Woodward 2009 a, b. bracelets c. palstave fragment d. socketed gouge e. socketed axe fragment Pl 11

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain WARMWELL 324. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Warmwell SY753857 rapier blade fragment, strongly bevelled leaving flat centre section. L. 55, W. 20, D. 4 ? PAS SOMDOR-1124; PAL 1214 rapier blade fragment Pl 26

WEST KNIGHTON 325. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

West Knighton SY733876 short section of sword blade, 2 parallel grooves on each face at junction of oval-section midrib and sharply bevelled blade edges. L.52, W.34. finder PAS DOR-B4D511 ?carp’s tongue sword blade fragment Pl 26

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

WEYMOUTH 326. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 327. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Elwell St. Upwey SU660853 spearhead tip solid lozenge-section. L. 33, W. 15, D. 7 DCM 3812/3 PAS SOMDOR-197; PAL 1017 spearhead tip lozenge-section Pl 26

330. STE: DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

found just off Chesil Beach in 1879 SU58 socketed axe ?DCM Taylor 1980, 133–137 socketed axe, ?Armorican

barbed and tanged arrowheads. Beaker barrow 1004. L. 118, W. 36 b. dagger, flat-riveted, 3 rivets survive. Grave 1605. L. 60, W. 42, D. 1 c. knife-dagger, 2 grooves in each face, bevelled edges, 2 rivets survive. Grave 1139. L. 80, W. 35,D. 2 d. ? awl fragments e. 1 rivet f. 4 unidentifiable copper alloy fragments group of 8 barrows/ring ditches 5 as a linear cemetery used for burials from Beaker phase to LBA DCM Gardiner et al. 2007 a. tanged dagger b. flat riveted dagger c. knife-dagger d. awl e. rivet f. fragments Pl 11 Middle Farm Dorchester SY677901 thin copper strip in pit with LBA context. This site has E/M/LBA activity DCM Butterworth and Gibson 2004, 19 copper strip

WINTERBOURNE STEEPLETON 331. STE: DES:

Cowleaze SY6289 dagger, 3 surviving rivets, 4 grooves on each face, bevelled blade edges. L. 135, W. 40, D. 4 CON: enclosure C contained 3 central pits all with cremations. 3 also had amber and shale ornaments 5 a perforated whetstone, 4 a female burial deposit and the dagger above the cremated bone LOC: DCM REF: Jones et al. 2013 ASS: Camerton–Snowshill dagger Pl 11

WIMBORNE ST GILES 328. STE: DES:

Wimborne St. Giles approx. SU029128 a. awl. L. 44, W. 3, D. 2 b. awl, strongly tapered at one end. L. 32, W. 3, D. 3 c. awl. L. 45, W. 3, D. 3 d. riveted implement or strip upper part. Waist below domed area holding rivet hole. L. 28, W. 19, D. 1 CON: all found in approx. area, not together REF: O’Connor 1991 ASS: a–c. awls d. riveted strip Pl 11

332. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Winterbourne Steepleton SY628897 incomplete part of ?triangular blade bevelled along long cutting edge thick. L. 54, W. 25, D. 4 DCM 2008.48 racloir triangulaire Pl 11

WINTERBOURNE MONKTON WOODLANDS 329. STE: DES:

Thomas Hardye School north of Maiden Castle SY680898 a. tanged dagger from subrectangular grave (1643) of adult. Also with stone wrist guard, 3

333. STE: DES:

60

 

Knowlton SU01421019 a. ring, 5 horizontal ribs on outside. Dia. 30 × 30

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork b. ring, 5 horizontal ribs on outside. Dia. 24 × 23 CON: unknown nor if found together LOC: private ASS: a–b. rings ? BA Pl 11

341. STE: DES:

WORTH MATRAVERS 334. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Worth Matravers SY974775 axe, triangular blade, low flanges. L. 256, W. 31, D. 7 Wareham Museum low flanged axe Pl 15

CON: LOC: ASS:

335. STE: DES:

Kingston south of Corfe SY957796 a. damaged hilt and upper blade of rapier ?slight midrib 2 rivet holes visible. L. 185, W. 40, D. 5 b. fragment of spearhead lozengesection hollow. L. 54, W. 38, D. 19 CON: both purchased, circumstances unknown but possibly found together LOC: DCM 1991/34/1, 2 ASS: a, rapier fragment Pl 25 b. lozenge-section spearhead fragment Pl 11

DORSET:

PARISHES UNIDENTIFIED

336. STE: DES:

Dorset lower part of blade. L. 271, W. 50, D. 6 DCM 1987.102.1 lower part of blade ?palstave Pl 26

LOC: ASS: 337. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

north-east Dorset ?blade fragment. L. 28, W. 16, D. 4 finder PAS HAMP-4983D4 blade fragment

338. STE: DES:

Purbeck, “near Poole” palstave, complete, unlooped, crescent-shaped blade, U-stop. L. 100, W. 40, D. 25 ? PAS DOR-27AD88 palstave ?late type Pl 18

LOC: REF: ASS: 339. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 340.

STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

342. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 343. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 344. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 345. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 346. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 347. STE: DES:

Dorset palstave, unlooped, deep stop. L. 175, W. 55, D. 13 DCM 1987 100 Hall Collection palstave Pl 18

LOC: REF: ASS:

Dorset palstave, unlooped, expanded blade, side-knobs, very marked rib on face, square stop. L. 180, W. 70, D. 9 DCM 1987/101/2 Warne Collection palstave early type Pl 20

348. STE: DES:

61

 

Dorset a. palstave, straight-stop, midrib, expanded blade, broken loop. L. 165, W. 50, D. 30 b. palstave, straight-stop, midrib, expanded blade, broken loop. L. 164, W. 52, D. 30 no context but very similar corrosion and they are ?from the same mould. ?found together DCM 1987/101/3,4 Warne Collection palstaves early Pl 12 Dorset palstave, high-flanged, crescent blade. L. 148, W. 61, D. 36 ? SOMDOR-50EF71 palstave early Dorset spearhead tip, socketed. L. 30, W. 21, D. 7 ? PAS SOMDOR-CA5753 spearhead tip socketed Dorset tanged knife ?part of tang missing flat midrib bevelled blade edges. L. 141, W. 22, D. 4 finder PAS SOMDOR-A082F6 tanged knife Pl 29 ?Dorset riveted knife/short dirk one rivet survives midrib. L. 169, W. 34, D. 2 DCM 1991/34/2 purchased riveted knife/dirk Pl 29 ?Dorset socketed spearhead. L. 190, W. 23, D. 15 DCM 1991/34/1 socketed spearhead Pl 28 Dorset slender socketed axe, pendant curves on both faces, midrib. L. 122, W. 28, D. 15 BM Brander Collection O’Connor and Woodward 2002 slender socketed axe Pl 22 Dorset strip with swan’s neck curve at one end, rectangular-section and flattened area below ending in a short shaft. L. 50, W. 9, D. 2

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain LOC: ASS:

DCM 1990/59/1 some form of swan’s neck pin Pl 26

349. STE: DES:

Dorset part of socketed chisel, few details. L. 27, W. 25, D. 10 finder PAS SOMDOR–531788; PAL 1546 socketed chisel

LOC: REF: ASS: 350. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 351. STE:

DES: LOC: ASS: 352. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Dorset socketed axe, slightly faceted. L. 91, W. 50, D. 35 DCM 1987/101/1 socketed axe faceted Pl 23

353. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Dorset

socketed axe, very plain. L. 94, W. 41, D. 40 DCM 1987/100/2 socketed axe Pl 23 Dorset socketed axe blade, socket lost. L. 68, W. 40, D. 14 DCM 1987/100/1 socketed axe fragment ?Dorset flanged axe, blade waisted but lower part chipped in unknown circumstances DCM 1991/1 flanged axe ?northern European import or not local find. Pl 21

SOMERSET DES:

ASHILL 354. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Ashill ST3217 socketed axe blade fragment, plain. L. 37, W. 34, D. 13 finder PAS SOM-CA4312 socketed axe blade fragment

LOC: REF: ASS:

sword, leaf-shaped blade, central flat rib, 2 rivet holes in hilt plate, 2 on each shoulder. L. 529, W. 59, D. 5 BM 1976.0701.3 Colquhoun and Burgess 1988 sword Ewart Park type Pl 25

BISHOP’S LYDIARD BACKWELL 355. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

359. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Home Farm ST493673 spearhead, part of socket missing, narrow to leaf-shaped blade socket, side loops. L. 102, W. 16, D. 17 SCM (Weston-super-Mare 1986/312) Iles and Kidd 1987 side-looped spearhead

BREAN 360. STE: DES:

Brean Down ST29565871 a. sheet with 3 punch holes. L. 27 b. 6 wire fragments c. bracelet expanded terminal (one missing). Dia. 41 × 40 d. sheet with dot decoration. L. 18 e. 3 wire fragments CON: found during excavation of BA settlement LOC: SCM 123/1997/1-5 REF: Bell 1990, 150-151 ASS: a, d, sheet fragments b. wire fragments c. penannular bracelet e. ?pin Pl 12

BATH 356. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 357. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 358. STE:

Bishop’s Lydiard ST1729 copper cake. W. 36 × 40 finder PAS SOM-D70103 copper cake metal working debris

Bath ST7464 palstave Ashmolean Museum 1927.2595 bought ABI 89, fig.77 palstave Bath ST7464 palstave Ashmolean Museum 1927.2594 bought Trans. Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society 1904, 329 palstave

361. STE: DES:

River Avon Bathford ST6778

62

Brean Down ST2858 a. gold bracelet, thin strip, expanded terminals. Dia. 52 × 54, W. 17

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 362. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

b. gold bracelet, thin strip, slightly raised rim, expanded terminals. Dia. 49 × 55, W. 9 c. gold fragment. L. 8, W. 49, D. 1 Brean Down in site of Beaker activity, BA settlement IA hill fort and RB temple/cemetery SCM 84AA Needham 1990 a, b. expanded terminal bracelets c. gold fragment Pl 12

CANNINGTON 367. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Cannington ST2541 gold fragment 9 × 9 × 8 SCM 25/2000/4 gold fragment ? BA

368. STE: DES:

Castle Hill Quarry ST2541 tanged knife 2 rivet holes in tang midrib. L. 134, W. 20, D. 3 from cave with Neo/BA finds, IA/RB pot, RB spoon handle, human/animal bones SCM 64/1994/4 tanged knife Pl 12

CON:

Brean Down ST2958 socketed axe blade fragment SCM 3/2001 socketed axe blade fragment

LOC: ASS:

CARHAMPTON BREWHAM 363. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 364. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 365. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

369. STE: DES:

Brewham ST7136 axe low flanges apparently hammered up out-turned blade. L. 69, W. 40 finder PAS SOM-77FCF6 low-flanged axe Pl 21

LOC: REF: ASS: CHARD

Brewham ST7136 palstave, side-looped, short midrib, out-turned blade U-stop finder PAS SOM-EC8867 expanded blade palstave Pl 19

370. STE: DES:

LOC: ASS:

Brewham ST7136 incomplete socketed spearhead, side-looped, blade much abraded. L. 55, W. 13, D. 13 finder PAS SOM-A2D9D1 side-looped spearhead Pl 27

CON: LOC: REF: ASS:

371. STE:

Camerton ST686565 a. casting jet, 4 runners. L. 27 b. socketed axe mouth fragment. L. 25 c. tanged razor incomplete. L. 53, W. 32 d. blade tip. L. 84, W. 33, D. 1 batches of finds including above and IA/RB material. Find areas adjacent to Stantonbury hill fort BM 1982/0103/177-180 Needham 1990 a, casting jet b. socketed axe fragment c. tanged bifid razor d. blade tip dirk Pl 12

Charlecombe: delete Pearce 1983, p. 507, no.621, ‘hog’s-back’ knife (Duplicate of North Stoke no.692. Information from Stephen Bird, to whom we are very grateful.)

CHARLTON MUSGROVE 372. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 373. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

63

 

Chard ST085335 socketed spearhead, point of blade missing, basal loops, hollow lozenge-section, blade channelled. L. 316 SCM 34B provenance uncertain basal-looped channel-bladed spearhead Pl 27

CHARLECOMBE

CAMERTON 366. STE: DES:

Carhampton ST0042 fragment of palstave blade, outturned. L. 34, W. 35, D. 9 finder PAS SOM-163940 expanded-blade palstave fragment

Charlton Musgrove ST2972 palstave, broken loop, U-stop, slightly out-turned blade. L. 135, W. 50, D. 27 finder PAS SOM-F04C95 U-stop palstave Pl 18 Charlton Musgrove ST2972 palstave, slender, broken loop, straight stop, slightly out-turned blade. L. 129, W. 41, D. 25 finder PAS SOM-BED917 slender palstave Pl 17

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain CHARTERHOUSE 374. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Paywell Farm Charterhouse ST512557 flat axe plain. L. 66, W. 56, D. 6 finder flat axe

380. STE: DES:

CHEDDAR LOC: REF: ASS:

375. STE: DES:

Nyland Hill ST465058 a. palstave, broad blade, prominent midrib, unfinished. L. 116, W. 49 b. palstave, broad blade, prominent midrib, unfinished. L. 119, W. 47 CON: made from same mould found together, no known archaeological context LOC: ? REF: Minnett 1987 ASS: a, b. palstaves small size midrib Pl 12

LOC: REF: ASS:

381. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Nerrol’s Farm ST2427 sickle, broken tang with remains of rivet hole. L. 127, W. 26, D. 3 SCM 48/1996/1 Crown Estate Commissioners sickle tanged pegged Pl 30

382. STE: DES:

CHEDZOY 377. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS: 378. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Chewton Mendip ST5952 miniature socketed axe, crude socket filled with clay. L. 18, W. 13, D. 7 finder PAS GLO-095477 such axes may have been votives or linked to reverence in the LBA, IA and RB (see Robinson 1995 for further instances) Pl 24

CHILCOMPTON

CHEDDON FITZPAINE 376. STE: DES:

finder PAS SOM–DCCED7 spearhead tip

LOC: REF: ASS:

Chedzoy ST3435 sword blade fragment, flattened lozenge-section, 3 parallel cast lines just visible along blade on either side and both faces below central section. L. 46, W. 28, D. 5 finder PAS SOMDOR-E6A6F1 sword blade fragment Pl 26

Chilcompton ST6350 spearhead, socketed, side-looped, lozenge-section. L. 116, W. 30, D. 19 finder PAS GLO–FF6DB7 lozenge-section spearhead Pl 28 Chilcompton ST6350 knife/edged weapon blade fragment, oval-section in central part with tapering-section blade edges. Grooves on both faces at junction of central section and blade edges. L. 35, W. 26, D. 7 finder PAS GLO–FF53F7 piece of edged blade fragment Pl 26

CHURCHILL 383. STE: DES:

LOC: REF:

Chedzoy ST3435 chape, 2 conjoining parts found separately, damaged, ogival lozenge cross-section, sharp median ribs and slight facial rib wide mouth. Butt has solid oval boss, distal end contains casting debris. L. 206, W. 51, D. 19 finder PAS SOMDOR-9ADF54; Portable Antiquities Scheme Annual Report 2006, 34 chape tongue-shaped Pl 26

ASS:

Lower Langford ST466604 gold penannular ring. 2 penannular rings soldered one on top of the other gold foil over presumed base metal core. Dia. 15 × 15 Weston-super-Mare Museum Treasure Annual Report 1998–9, Section A, item5, Hill 2003 gold penannular ring double Pl 26

CLAPTON-IN-GORDANO 384. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Brook Farm ST4774 flat axe. L. 119, W. 34, D. 3 Weston-super-Mare Museum 1991/74 flat axe thin butt Pl 13

CURRY RIVEL CHEWTON MENDIP 379. STE: DES:

385. STE: DES:

Chewton Mendip ST5952 spearhead tip fragment midrib. L. 27, W. 16, D. 3

LOC: 64

 

Curry Rivel ST3824 chisel rectangular-section bar. L. 53, W. 7, D. 4 ?finder

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork REF: ASS:

PAS SOM-256407 chisel

ST CUTHBERT OUT LOC: ASS:

386. STE: DES:

Horringdon Hill ST5847 a. socket of socketed spearhead with stubs of basal loops on each side. L. 122, Ext. socket dia. 26 b. basal-looped spearhead in 2 parts forming leaf-shaped blade. L. 177, W. 59, Ext. socket dia.26 (2 parts found separately) c. palstave, side loop, trident decoration on face. L. 153, W. 57, D. 31 CON: further spearheads have been found on Horringdon Hill, Pearce 1983, no.719. They were not all found together and seem to be dispersed over the hill-top LOC: a, finder b. Wells Museum 1998/12/2, 2009/14 c. Wells Museum 1998/12/1 REF: PAS CORN–3367F7 ASS: a, b. basal-looped spearheads Pl 31 c. late palstave Pl 12

oval blade giving to strongly narrowing blade tip central roundsection rib bevelled blade edges very elegant. L. 302, W. 54 SCM 63/194 half of a bronze bivalve mould for casting basal-looped spearhead Pl 27, Fig 9

GLASTONBURY 390. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Glastonbury ST4938 flanged axe, slight stop, low flanges. L. 128, W. 68 finder PAS HAMP–111 cast low-flanged axe Pl 17

HEMINGTON 391. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Hemington ST7253 socketed axe fragment, loop and irregular part of square-section socket. L. 44, W. 26, D. 3 finder PAS WILT–71FCB7 socketed axe fragment

HOLFORD DOULTING 387. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

392. STE: DES:

Doulting ST6443 palstave, very slender, side-knobs, septum and blade nearly equallength, flanges fuse with stop. L. 123, W. 27, D. 13 finder PAS SOM-0F85D7 narrow-bladed palstave Pl 19

LOC: REF: ASS:

ILCHESTER 393. STE: DES: LOC: REF:

EAST COKER 388.

STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

East Coker ST5412 edged piece of blade fragment flattish midrib bevel to blade edge. L. 39, W. 14, D. 4 finder PAS SOM–2660B4 ?knife/rapier blade fragment

ASS: 394. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

EAST PENNARD 389. STE: DES:

East Pennard ST5937 one half of bronze bivalve mould to cast basal-looped spearhead. Face of mould carries pattern of 5 ribs converging at tip and below mouth pattern of 8 short ribs between outer long ribs converging on long midrib 57mm below mouth swelling. L. 319, W. 72, D. 37 to make a spearhead with narrow basal loops

395. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: 65

 

Holford ST1541 socketed tool, narrow oval mouth. L. 105, W. 30, D. 3 finder PAS SOM–63A847 socketed tool Pl 30

Ilchester ST5222 gold folded fragment of metal strip ? Treasure Annual Report 1998–9, Section A, item 8 gold strip Ilchester ST5222 spearhead blade fragment, transverse oval-section, bevelled blade edges. L. 42, W. 18, D. 8 finder PAS SOM–7828D5 spearhead fragment Pl 28 Ilchester ST5222 spearhead blade fragment, central round-section flanked by grooves on both sides rising to sharp ridge giving to bevelled blade edges. L. 56, W. 14, D. 10 finder PAS SOMDOR–3396D3

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain ASS: 396. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 397. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

spearhead fragment Pl 28

LANGPORT

Ilchester ST5222 palstave, unlooped, midrib, U-stop. L. 164, W. 45, D. 24 CHAC Yeovil 570/BATTEN.1 (UA 2008/23) midrib palstave Pl 20

403. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

?Ilchester ST5222. Part of Batten Collection. Recorded in Pearce 1983,514 n.657 as from Glastonbury palstave, unlooped, midrib, straight stop. L. 172, W. 44, D. 27 CHAC Yeovil 570/BATTEN.2 (UA 2008/24) midrib palstave Pl 20

MIDDLEZOY 404. STE: DES:

CON: 398. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Ivel House grounds ST522227 tanged knife, 2 rivet holes, 1 rivet survives, slight midrib. L. 111, W. 21, D. 2 Ilchester Museum Richardson 2002 tanged knife Pl 29

LOC: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

405. STE: DES:

Chestnut House garden ST34156344 palstave, looped, U-stop merged with flanges, median rib. L. 157, W. 32, D. 21 Woodspring Museum Westonsuper-Mare 1986.530 Iles and Kidd 1987 midrib palstave Pl 16

LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS: 401. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Milborne Port ST7618 awl, round-section, single-point. L. 57, Dia. 3 × 4 finder PAS SOMDOR-CE2E67 awl Pl 29

MISTERTON 406. STE: DES:

KINGSDON 400. STE: DES:

Greylake ST39323425 socketed axe blade fragment, crushed socket, faint evidence of 3rib decoration, signs of burning on one face. L. 56, W. 39 ‘Time Team’ excavation. Found with 12 fragments of LBA pottery, 2 sheep jaw bones, and 2 human bones. SHC 95/1997/1 socketed axe 3 rib

MILBORNE PORT

KEWSTOKE 399. STE: DES:

Langport ST4226 knife, much corroded, elongated oval, tanged, 1 (or 2) rivet holes evident. L. 84, W. 25, D. 3 finder PAS SOMDOR–00AC13 tanged knife Pl 29

Kingsdon ST5126 chisel, rectangular-section tang, no collar. Tang widens and flattens to expanded blade. L. 59, W. 17, D. 6 finder PAS SOM–589161 chisel Pl 30

LOC: REF: ASS:

Misterton ST4508 miniature flat axe tapering oval longitudinal section. L. 45, W. 23, D. 9 SCM 224/2007 PAS SOMDOR–8A1F53 miniature flat axe ?BA or RB Pl 14

MUDFORD 407. STE: DES:

Kingsdon ST5126 awl, single-point, round-section. L. 44, Dia. 4 × 5 finder PAS SOM–D995B1 awl Pl 29

LOC: REF: ASS:

Parsonage Farm ST56551996 gold sheet fragment perforated at one end. L. 212 SCM 111/2006 Treasure Annual Report 2005–6, 20, item 13 gold sheet fragment ?ear ornament Pl 26

LANGFORD BUDVILLE

NORTH PETHERTON

402. STE: DES:

408. STE:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Langford Budville ST1122 socketed axe, plain, 4 mouth mouldings. L. 90, W. 51, D. 39 finder PAS SOM–C03882 plain socketed axe Pl 24

DES: LOC: 66

8 Dyer’s Close North Petherton ST29123265 triangular blade, central triangular perforation. Sides 63, 61, 58 ?

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork REF: ASS:

Minnitt 1991 ‘hog’s-back’ knife Pl 29

DES:

NORTH STOKE LOC: 409. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

The Tumps. NW extremity of Lansdowne Plateau Bath ST7367 spearhead tip, oval-section, centre bevelled blades. L. 53, W. 25, D. 7 Roman Baths Museum Bath information from Stephen Bird to whom we are grateful spearhead fragment ?basal-looped Pl 27

REF: ASS:

OTTERHAMPTON 413. STE: DES:

NORTON FITZWARREN 410. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Norton Fitzwarren hill fort site and vicinity ST196263 a, b. ribbed bracelets. Max dia. c.95 c. ribbed and bossed bracelet. L. c.233 d. plain bar bracelet. Dia. 82 e–h. decorated bar bracelets. Max. L. 164 i. palstave, side-looped, highly corroded and fragmented. L. 164, W. 59, D. 41 j. palstave, side-looped, highly corroded and fragmented. L. 141, W. 43, D. 43 k. socketed axe, highly corroded and fragmented. L. 125, W. 40, D. 68 l. group of c.70 clay mould fragments including from moulds for casting sword hilts and blades 2 separate finds. a–j. copper alloy group from hill-top very poor condition found as if tied together with cord. Clay moulds deposited in single pit SCM Needham 1989 a–h. bracelets i, j. palstaves k. socketed axe l. clay mould for swords. Ewart Park and other objects

LOC: REF: ASS: 414. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

415. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Otterhampton ST2443 edged piece of blade fragment, lozenge-section ? PAS SOM-7F28E7 blade fragment from rapier/dirk/sword

Portbury ST4975 sheet copper alloy fragment. L. 33, W. 29, D. 3 finder PAS GLO–FC7DD sheet metal fragment

PENSELWOOD 416. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 417. STE: DES:

Norton Malreward ST6064 socketed axe, details uncertain. L. 90, W. 42, D. 35 finder PAS GLO-57A477 socketed axe

LOC: REF: ASS: 418. STE: DES:

NORTON RADSTOCK 412. STE:

Otterhampton ST2443 awl, one end tapers to rectangularsection point. L. 60, Dia. at centre 5 ×5 finder PAS SOMDOR–E51C44 awl Pl 29

PORTBURY

NORTON MALREWARD 411. STE: DES:

a. palstave, looped. L. 145, W. 51, D. 15 b. palstave, looped. L. 122, W. 33, D. 13 a. SCM b. Herts. County Museum St Alban’s Pearce 1983, 521, nos.696, 697 this may be a hoard rather than two separate finds as Pearce 1983, 521. Palstaves

LOC: REF: ASS:

Norton Radstock ST6954 67

‘Selwood’ ?Penselwood app.ST7531 palstave, complete, unlooped, Ubelow straight-stop. L. 142, W. 62, D. 30 finder PAS WILT–BEF273 palstave Pl 19 ‘Selwood’ ?Penselwood app. ST7531 palstave, unlooped, low flanges, Ustop. L. 95, W. 30, D. 14 finder PAS SOM–A636D3 low-flanged palstave Pl 19 ‘Selwood’ ?Penselwood app.ST7531 palstave, unlooped, shield pattern on face, side-knobs L. 97, W. 29, D. 22 finder PAS SOM–1DE687 palstave shield pattern Pl 15

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain PRIDDY

QUEEN CAMEL

419. STE: DES:

422. STE: DES:

Charterhouse-on-Mendip ST50155533 a. gold bracelet, bent and twisted bar with hooked terminals, in two parts. L.700. b. gold bracelet, heavily twisted and bent, ?sliced in two parts?, triangular cross-section. L.665. c-d. gold bracelet, heavily twisted and bent with folded terminals, circular section. L.540, 420. e. gold bracelet, twisted and bent with folded terminals, triangular section. L.720. f. gold bracelet, twisted bar, triangular section. L.180. g. gold torc, twisted ribbon and bent with hooked terminals h. gold bar bracelet, rectangular section. L.180. i-k. gold thin ribbon bracelet, doubled-over, bent and twisted with folded terminals. L.360, 400, 360. l-o. gold bracelet, bar doubled over and coiled with hooked terminals, circular section. L.420, 450, 420, 350. p-q. gold penannular bars, Dshaped, rectangular cross-section. CON: unknown found tightly folded together LOC: SCM 46/2007 REF: Minnitt 2012 ASS: gold hoard comprising 4 bracelets, 1 ribbon torc, 6 bar bracelets, 4 ribbon bracelets, 2 penannular bars, Fig 10

420. STE: DES:

CON:

LOC: REF: ASS: 421. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

Queen Camel ST6366 edged piece of blade fragment long oval cross-section. L. 22, W. 12, D. 2 finder PAS SOM–AF89B5 ?rapier Pl 25

SHAPWICK 423. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Shapwick ST418389 copper alloy mount and blade ? Gerrard and Youngs 1997 not Bronze Age, medieval

424. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Decoy Wood ST405371 knife, tanged, 1 rivet hole SCM 130/1986/2336 tanged knife

SOUTH CADBURY 425. STE: DES:

Priddy ST50155533 a. palstave, looped, midrib. L. 176, W. 54, D. 37 b. palstave, looped, strong midrib, bevelled blade. L. 147, W. 55, D. 35 these seem to have been found together or at least in the same place. Found approx. 50 yards uphill from find site of Priddy gold hoard SCM 46/2007/20-21 Minnitt 2012 a, b. midribbed palstaves Pl 13 Deerleap area above Eastern Farm ST501553 socketed axe fragment, slender rectangular socket. L. 70, W. 40, D. app.30 finder Wells Museum information socketed axe fragment Pl 24

68

Cadbury Castle hill fort ST638252 a. gold bracelet fragment, D-section, expanded flat face terminal. L. 10, Int. Dia. 55 × 40. b. penannular ring, sheet gold over clay core, round section, Dia. 19 × 19. c. flanged axe, crescent blade. L. 106, W. 62, D. 9 d. socketed terminal fragment. L. 39, Dia, 12 × 12 e–f. socketed knives, damaged. L. 80, 71, W. 20, 23 g-h. socketed gouges, damaged. L. 52, 38. i. spearhead, conical socket, 2 peg holes. L. 98, W. 24 j. spearhead fragment ?side loops. L. 18, W. 11, D. 8 k. spearhead barb fragment. L. 18, W. 11, D. 8 l-o. awls, single-pointed, complete. L.61, 66, 51, 34; max diam.5,4,4,4. p–r. awls, single-pointed, damaged. L.25, 45, 42. s. tweezers, open-loop, arms closed, 5 fragments. L.c.56. t. tweezers, open-loop, lacking one terminal. L.44. u. tweezers. L.45. v. tweezers, heavily corroded/fragmented w. razor, single-edged, part of one loop and both blade tips missing L.45. x. razor, single-edge, fragment. y. pin, decorated, complete but in two fragments. z. pin, globular-headed, decorated shaft. L.c.26.

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

CON:

aa. pin, globular-headed, point broken, shaft bent. L.49. bb. pin, disc-headed, shaft bent and broken. L.30. cc. pin, biconical-headed, complete. L.c.88. dd. pin, nail-headed, complete. L.89. ee-ff. pins, recurved necks, points broken L.c.62, c.57. gg. pin, recurved neck, complete. hh. double-spiral terminal. L.16. ii. pin, asymmetrical head, shaft bent and broken. L.118. jj. terminal fragment, type uncertain kk. bucket base-plate fragment. L. along arc of plate 29. ll. “Several annular rings” ?cauldron ring Dia.6 x 6. mm. socketed tang, complete, cup-shaped socket. L.32, socket diam. 13. nn. tanged stud, complete, concentric ribbed ornament on head. L.6. oo. double-edged blade fragment, broken at both ends. L.16, W.12. pp. rivet, ?from cauldron. L.4. qq. spearhead blade fragment, solid midrib, bevelled edge. L.18, W.11. rr. waste fragments. various within a BA farming/settlement landscape, with LBA ditch, all succeeded by IA hill fort. Many come from IA contexts suggested they were rediscovered during construction of hillfort or retained. b. from an irregular depression c. rock-cut pit with LBA pottery and loom weights e. ?clay oven f, i. rubbish layer with ceramic terminus post quem c.400-200BC j. LIA pit but with LBA pottery k. mid-1st century AD kiln m. with E/MIA pottery o, q. layer of burnt stone, soil and clay, c.400-200BC p. cobbles layer with EIA pottery r. posthole s. LIA pit t. MIA soil deposit u. post-pit v. cobbles and pottery, EIA w. M-LIA pits y. posthole z. layer of laid stones and clay ovens bb, pp. trench of the cruciform church cc. recut gully of E/MIA roundhouse dd. turf-line under ramparts ee. pit jj. pit containing LBA and EIA material mm. E/MIA pit qq-rr. pits Remaining finds are either unknown or from the topsoil

REF: ASS:

426. STE:

Milsom’s Corner Cadbury hill fort ST638252 DES: shield, domed central boss over handgrip, surrounded by 25 concentric ribs intermitted with 25 rows of 6030 tiny bosses. Composition suggests production around 12th century BC, predating typical typology. CON: stabbed deliberately three times before deposition at junction of south and east ditches of LBA enclosure. Deposited immediately above and in contact with red deer or cattle bone radiocarbon-dated to 1050-830 cal. BC. Shield and bone overlay a deep stakehole. Packed posthole 1 metre to the W which was deliberately filled with burnt stones and an EBA human lower leg bone. LOC: on loan to SCM 110.1998.1 REF: Coles et al 1999; Needham et al 2012; Tabor 2008. ASS: shield, Yetholm type

69

 

Barrett et al 2000; O’Connor 1994; 2000; Tabor 2008. a. gold bracelet b. ?ring-money c. Arreton d. ?socketed hammer e-f. Thorndon g-h. socketed gouges i. pegged spearhead j. side-looped spearhead k. barbed spearhead l-r. single-pointed awls s-v. tweezers w-x. single-edged razors y. pin, ?Penard z-aa. globular-headed pin bb. disc-headed pin cc. biconical-headed pin dd. nail-headed pin ee-gg. recurved pin hh. double-spiral-headed pin ii. pin, Wilburton composition jj. terminal, uncertain kk. bucket base ll. ?cauldron rings mm. chisel tang nn. tanged stud oo. blade frag, Penard composition pp. cauldron rivet qq. side-looped spearhead rr. metallurgical waste

427. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Cadbury Castle hill fort ST638252 spearhead fragment SANHS 1954/55, xic, 8. spearhead fragment. This may be duplicated in 425.

428. STE:

Sigwells Farm ST640230

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain DES:

CON:

LOC: REF:

ASS:

a. 879 fragments of clay moulds, weighing 1266g, used for casting swords, spearheads, chapes, ferrules, socketed axes, pins b. 117 clay mould fragments, weighing 595g, considered to represent minimum 8 objects Sigwells is 2km SE of Cadbury Hill Fort. It is a multi-period site, EBA-post RB, covering a wide area and including barrows, many hearths and debris, BA casting debris, pits, and occupation including RB ?temple and stone-based rectangular building. The moulds come from two separate sites of different phases. a. from several trenches within SE enclosure and associated round structure, dated using flora remains to 1261-1047 cal. BC 2σ. Several stone possible metalworking tools and bone tools found within enclosure but not associated with the mould fragments. Pottery occurred in a few of the same contexts as the moulds. b. from single pit on NNW site disturbed by R-B wall-trench. Stuart Needham has preliminarily placed the moulds to late 11th10th centuries BC (Tabor pers. comm.) excavation collection Leach and Tabor 1994; Leach and Tabor 1996; Tabor and Johnson 2002; Skowranek 2012; Tabor forthcoming; we would like to thank Richard Tabor for providing us with information on this site. clay moulds to cast a wide range of MLBA metalwork across two different phases of occupation within the Sigwells Farm area, Fig 11

SOUTH STOKE 432. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: SPAXTON 433. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

434. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS: 431. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

435. STE: DES:

South Petherton ST4316 flanged axe, out-turned blade. L. 79, W. 34, D. 13 finder PAS SOM–FBE8E4 flanged axe Pl 15

LOC: REF:

South Petherton ST4316 spearhead, details unclear. L. 31, W. 13, D. 8 ? PAS SOMDOR–132; SP24 spearhead

Stolford ST201425 gold basket-shaped ornament in two pieces, two rows pointillé and two rows ribbed decoration. L. c.38, W. c.29 BM Treasure Annual Report 1998–9, Section A item1 Basket ornament Pl 26

STOKE-SUB-HAMDON 436. STE: DES:

Ham Hill ST48201605 a. socketed axe blade fragment. L. 31, W. 47 b. bugle-shaped object. L. 64, W. 23, D. 11 c. blade fragment d. socketed knife, blade damaged. L. 135, W. 20 e. awl double-point. L. 25, W. 3, D. 3 f. chisel broken. L. 31, W. 7, D. 3 CON: objects found dispersed across largest Britain’s largest Iron Age

South Petherton ST4316 sword, two fragments apparently from the same weapon hilt and upper blade. L. 116, 155; W. 50, 78 finder PAS SOM–FBC596 Ewart Park sword probably unfinished Pl 25 70

 

Stocklinch ST385171 spearhead in 2 pieces, basal-looped, lozenge-section, flame-shaped blade. L. 150, W. 46, D. 18. Circular-section tapering tube ?incomplete. L. 83, W. 23 finder PAS SOM–649A51 basal-looped spearhead. Tube apparently associated, ?socket or ferrule Pl 28

STOGURSEY

ASS: 430. STE: DES:

Spaxton ST2236 palstave butt fragment, very poor condition. L. 29, W. 22, D. 10 finder PAS SOM–9810A6 palstave fragment

STOCKLINCH

SOUTH PETHERTON 429. STE: DES:

N facing terrace below Odd Down overlooking River Avon SX735626 socketed axe, sub-square socket, 3 slightly converging ribs on face. L. 112, W. 47, D. 51 Roman Baths Museum Bath BATRM 1982/2 Hanley 1990, 231 3-ribbed socketed axe Pl 22

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

LOC: REF: ASS:

hillfort. Occupation activity visible from Mesolithic and Neolithic periods, and then from about the 1st century BC onwards. a–c. SCM 104/1994/1-2 d. Cambridge Archaeology Unit Smith 1995; Lawson 1998; McKinley 1998; Slater and Brittain 2012 a. socketed axe blade fragment b. bugle-shaped object c. blade fragment d. socketed knife e. awl f. chisel ?BA/?Medieval Pl 12

TINTINHULL 442. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: UBLEY 443. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

STON EASTON 437. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 438. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Ston Easton ST6253 conical button base fitted with semicircular loop. Dia. 17 × 17 approx. ? PAS GLO–585315 button Pl 26

LOC: REF: ASS:

444. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Ston Easton ST6253 gouge damaged. L. 56, W. 15, D. 2 finder PAS GLO–5856D2 socketed gouge Pl 30

DES: CON: LOC: REF: ASS: 441. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

445. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Stratton-on-the-Fosse ST6850 socketed axe blade fragment, heavily worn and corroded. L. 25, W. 43, D. 13 finder PAS SOM–E3DB14 socketed axe

Westbury-sub-Mendip ST5047 socketed axe blade fragment. L. 50, W. 20, D. 27 finder PAS SOMDOR–04B2B7 socketed axe fragment

WEST CRANMORE 446. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Diamond Cottage Cadbury Camp Lane ST43507205 ‘minute globule of copper alloy’. Dia. 3 × 3 found by right knee of crouched inhumation in shallow unmarked grave pit with small shale bead SCM Anderson et al. 1989 copper alloy waste in EBA grave

W of Coldharbour ST688424 razor, tanged, faint engraving on one side. L. 72, W. 25 SCM 60/1990/1 Minnitt 1989 razor tanged Pl 29

WESTON-SUPER-MARE 447. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Tickenham, Cadbury ST435720 socketed pegged spearhead Weston-super-Mare Museum pegged spearhead (apparently not the same as Pearce 1983, no.757) Pl 13

448. STE: DES:

CON:

71

 

Wells ST5545 palstave, incomplete, straight stop. L. 88, W. 48, D. 30 Wells Museum palstave Pl 17

WESTBURY-SUB-MENDIP

TICKENHAM 440. STE:

Ubley ST5257 sickle, tang missing with rib above back of blade. L. 132, W. 32, D. 15 ? PAS GLO–D4D0A6 tanged sickle Pl 30

WELLS

STRATTON-ON-THE-FOSSE 439. STE: DES:

Tintinhull ST5019 socketed axe, damaged, 3 ribs on face rectangular socket. L. 101, W. 50, D. 42 finder PAS SOMDOR–AC9124 socketed axe 3 ribs Pl 22

Wortlebury Hill ST314625 penannular collar, incised decoration CMAE 35.306 Pearce 1983, 538–9, no.776 delete, now known not to be from Wortlebury Hill Wortlebury Hill ST314625 flat axe 2 horizontal bands of incised zigzag patterns on both faces and also at the butt. Slightly beaten raised flanges. L. 170, W. 32, D. 8 Wortlebury Hill has IA banks and ditches. This find has a rather

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

LOC: REF: ASS:

confused history but seems to be from here Weston-super-Mare Museum 1982.501 Thomas 1983 large developed flat axe Pl 14

LOC: REF: ASS:

WIVELISCOMBE 456. STE: DES:

WHITELACKINGTON 449. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Whitelackington SY7198 palstave, looped, U-stop midrib outturned blade, assymetrically worn. L. 116, W. 30, D. 25 finder PAS SOM–1F7EE4 midrib palstave Pl 16

LOC: REF: ASS: 457. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

WILLITON 450. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 451. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

Williton ST074416 (possibly not from Somerset) spearhead, socketed, leaf-shaped blade, peg holes. L. 190, W. 30, D. 24 Yeovil Museum 8/77/4 spearhead late pegged Pl 28

LOC: REF: ASS:

458. STE: DES: LOC: ASS:

?Williton ST074416 (possibly not from Somerset) flanged axe, side-looped, butt damaged. L. 97, W. 21, D. 23 Yeovil Museum 8/77/3 median winged axe Pl 21

LOC: REF: ASS: 454. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS: 455. STE: DES:

Wiveliscombe ST0827 palstave, complete, unlooped, sideknobs, out-turned blade, straight stop. L. 155, W. 66, D. 37 finder PAS SOM–1E8616 palstave Pl 18

Woolavington ST34254080 socketed spearhead tip fragment. L. 14 SCM 25/2000/2 tip of ?side-looped spearhead

WRAXALL 459. STE: DES: LOC: REF: ASS:

Old Quarry Farm ST402560 socketed sickle, 2 rivet holes. L. 117, W. 28, Dia. of socket 22 × 22 Woodspring Museum 1986.76.2 Iles and Kidd 1987 socketed sickle Pl 30

Wraxall ST4871 flat axe, complete but one corner of the blade has been broken recently, undecorated. L. 118, W. 56, D. 8 finder PAS WAW-5E5FB8 flat axe Pl 14

WRINGTON 460. STE: DES:

Wrington ST4662 a. palstave, looped, trident decoration, slight median rib. L. 163, W. 62, D. 32 b. palstave, looped, faint median rib. L. 162, W. 62, D. 31 c. socketed hammer with protruding side spike on one side, 4 converging ribs on both faces forming 2 triangles one inside the other. L. 171, W. 27, Dia. of socket 27 × 23 CON: found together on side of ditch LOC: Weston-super-Mare Museum 2013.6 REF: PAS PAS–9B2032 ASS: a, b. midrib palstaves c. socketed hammer Pl 13, Fig 12

WITHAM FRIARY 453. STE: DES:

Wiveliscombe ST0827 flanged axe, vestigial stop, outturned blade. L. 136, W. 57, D. 25 finder PAS SOM–5F6BB5 flanged axe Pl 21

WOOLAVINGTON

WINSCOMBE 452. STE: DES:

finder PAS WILT-C5EBD0 casting waste ?BA/Medieval

Witham Friary ST7441 ?rapier blade fragment, oval-section. L. 22, W. 16, D. 4 finder PAS WILT–117235 rapier blade fragment Witham Friary ST7440 spearhead, socketed blade fragment. L. 31, W. 309, D. 9 finder PAS WILT–8E0680 socketed spearhead fragment Witham Friary ST7441 irregular lump of copper alloy casting waste. L. 55, W. 38, D. 28

YEOVIL 461. STE: 72

Wyndham Hill ST5515 (possibly not

Corpus of Bronze Age Metalwork

DES: LOC: ASS:

Somerset) flat axe, corner of blade missing and abraded butt end, undecorated. L. 119, W.37, D.5 Yeovil Museum flat axe plain Pl 13

LOC: ASS: 463. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 464. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 465. STE: DES:

LOC: REF: ASS:

466. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 467. STE: DES: LOC: ASS: 468. STE: DES: LOC:

469. STE: DES: LOC:

PARISHES UNIDENTIFIED

ASS:

Somerset triangular knife, central perforation. L. 56, W. 58 SCM 30/112 ‘hog’s-back’ knife Pl 29

470. STE: DES:

SOMERSET: 462. STE: DES:

ASS:

LOC: REF: ASS:

South Somerset spearhead fragment, lozengesection. L. 31, W. 13, D. 8 ? spearhead fragment

471. STE: DES:

Somerset palstave, broken-loop, midrib. L. 151, W. 59, D. 9 SCM 137/2004 low-flanged palstave

LOC: REF: ASS:

Somerset ? Quantock Hills a. both pieces of a copper alloy bivalve mould for a faceted axe, external of moulds adorned with rib and pellet decoration and loop on one of the moulds. L. 140, 100; W. 45, 43 b. socketed axehead, faceted. L. 114, W. 48 fits in mould pieces BM OA116-8 Briggs et al. 1987; Pearce 1983, 545, no.823 bronze mould for faceted axe and axe which fits. The find spot of these pieces is very doubtful and is probably part of the Brough-onHumber hoard ?Somerset socketed axe, complete, side-looped, narrow blade. L. 125, W. 33, Dia. of socket 29 × 37 Yeovil Museum socketed axe narrow ?Somerset palstave, broken-loop, U-shaped stop, narrow blade. L. 151, W. 23 Yeovil Museum narrow-bladed palstave Somerset palstave, broken side-loop, midrib, hole through butt. L. 150, W. 59 SCM 137/2004 73

palstave low-flanged Somerset socketed axe, round-section. L. 113, W. 59, D. 36 Museum of Antiquities Newcastle upon Tyne 1931.50 socketed axe square body Pl 23 Somerset spearhead, very small, hollow central rib lozenge-section, socket broken. L. 30, W. 13, D. 8 ? PAS SOMDOR–132 spearhead Pl 28 ‘Mendip’ rapier fragment, midrib, 2 rivet holes, lozenge-section. Dimensions uncertain ? Burrows et al. 1984 ? rapier Pl 24

5f

5a 6a 7a

5b

21a-d

5c

6c

10

18a

6b 21e

21k 22a 21f

18b 21j

21h

21i 21g

74

26b 26c

26a

75

26d

26e

26g

26j

26h 13b

13g 13f

13d

13a

76

13e

13c

40b

40a

45

40c

44a, b 54a

54ee

55

15c

51

15a

15b 59b

56

59a

77

78b

78a

78c

78h 78d

78e

78

78g

78i

78f

123a

109aq 109w

84b

84a

123b

146c

146a 79

109f 125a

125c

154a

125b

154f 154m 154h

154n

154i

154j

149c 154g 154c

154k

149a 154e 154b 80

206c

206e

163a

163b

206a

206f

206g

163c 245 163d

226 206d

163e

168a

170a

170b 206b

168b 81

247e

260b 247f

260a

246

247a

236a

247b 247d

247c 236b 250k

254e

250a

251c

254c

250d

258a 250b 254f

258m

257a

258s 258p

258x

250e 254d

262

258t

259 254a

257b 254b

258w 82

200d 200g 200c 200e 267a

200a

200b 253

270a

270b

268a 268b 271d

267a

300a

271e

271f 83

271a-c

276c

276a 295 276b

320e

320c

320f

320d

335a

320a

320b

328a, b, c 331

329b

328d 329c

323b

329a

335b

333a, b 323e 323c 323d

323a 84

360a

361c

341b 341a

360b

375b

375a

360c

361a 366c

436b

368

366b

436a

366a

366d 85

386b 386c

441

384

420b 420a

460a

460b

87

461

460c 86

448 273 3 36

213 111

52 459 25

91

80

406

112 87

194 35

171 429

334 227

138

418

34a

34b 88

114

280

169 399

129

449

229

176

89

242 272

232

373

92

390

299

444

93

142

104 90

372

156 457

230

338

264

339

265 91

141

231

32

364

187

416

387

155

417

83

92

340

290

228

396

88 397

214

93

456

116 94

89

322 451

353

216 211 38

118

2

363 94

195

286

347

284

442

139

120 432

95

98

182

237

19 303 351

315

469

350

96

148

99

402

421

81

101

100

96

12 184

283a

380

305

239 97

471 71

431

134

335a

422

358 193

215

44

145

98

45

378

306 136

326

47

218

324

27

377

175 70

209

382 86 325 318

407

46 288

75

9 296

29

435 437

279

291

348 302

383 103

99

370

389

222 409

180

365 100

434

381

235 394

395 190

301 189

8 346 470 450 107 101

398 95

263

345

221

205 121a

344

90

446

403

220

408

462

413 1

287

289

405 281

401 102

400

110

316 11 121b

233

240

115

438

314

210

178

392

24 285 1

6 4 2 1 3 5 6

376 452

2 63

443

307

103

174b 172a

174b 172a

386a

173

104

FIGURES

Figure 1: Part of mould for 4-ribbed socketed axehead from St. Keverne, Cornwall (33), with possible loop (see right). Image on left unscaled. Photos stitched together by authors. Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

Figure 2: Possible buckle from St. Michael's Mount, Cornwall (43o). Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme. 106

Figures

 

Figure 3: The Colaton Raleigh Hoard, Devon (125). Authors’ photo, courtesy of Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery, Exeter.

 

 

Figure 4: Hoard of palstave, casting jet and knife fragment from Ottery St. Mary, Devon (149). Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

107

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

Figure 5: The strumento con immanicatura a cannone from Salcombe B, Devon (163c). Authors’ photo, courtesy of the British Museum and Plymouth City Council (Museum and Archives). .

Figure 6: Lower half of barbed spearhead from Thurlestone Beach, Devon (173). Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

108

Figures

Figure 7: One of the seven palstaves recovered from Bournemouth, Dorset (206f). Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

Figure 8: One piece of the lunula from Tarrant Valley, Dorset (317). Courtesy of the Portable Antiquities Scheme.

109

The Bronze Age Metalwork of South Western Britain

Figure 9: Copper alloy mould for basal-looped spearhead from East Pennard, Somerset (389). Authors' photo, courtesy of South West Heritage Trust (Museums Service).

Figure 10: The Charterhouse-on-Mendip (Priddy) hoard of gold ornaments, Somerset (419). Courtesy of Steven Minnitt (South West Heritage Trust (Museums Service))

110

Figures

 

Figure 11: A selection of the mould fragments from the LBA pit at Sigwells Farm, Somerset (428b). Courtesy of Richard Tabor.

     

Figure 12: Hoard of two palstaves and a socketed hammer from Wrington, Somerset (460). Authors’ photo, courtesy of South West Heritage Trust (Museums Service).

      111

 

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Amesbury, M.J., Charman, D.J., Fyfe, R.M, Langdon, P.G. and West, S. 2008. ‘Bronze Age upland settlement decline in southwest England: testing the climate change hypothesis’, Journal of Archaeological Science 35, 87-98.

English Heritage Archaeological Report 20, 291-301. Barrett, J.C., Freeman, P.W.M. and Woodward, A. 2000. Cadbury Castle Somerset: The later prehistoric and early historic archaeology. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report 20.

Annable, F.K. and Simpson, D.D.A. 1964. A Guide Catalogue of the Neolithic and Bronze Age Collections in Devizes Museum. Devizes: Wiltshire Archaeological and Natural History Society.

Beagrie, N. 1983. ‘The St. Mawes ingots’, CA 22, 10711.

Anderson, C.F., Marriott, E.M. and Dagnall, J.M.M. 1989. ‘A crouched inhumation at Tickenham, Avon’, Bristol and Avon Archaeology 8, 48-50.

Beagrie, N. 1985. ‘A bronze ox-hide ingot from Cornwall’, CA 24, 160-2. Becker, K. 2006. Hoards and Deposition in Bronze Age Ireland (Vols. 1-3) Unpublished PhD Thesis, University College Dublin.

Appleby, G. 2012. ‘Metalwork’ in Slater, A. and Brittain, M. Excavations at Ham Hill, Somerset (2011). Cambridge: Cambridge Archaeological Unit Report No. 1101, 48-56.

Becker, K. 2013. ‘Transforming identities – new approaches to Bronze Age deposition in Ireland’, PPS 78. 1-39.

Appleton-Fox, N. 1992. ‘Excavations at a RomanoBritish Round: Reawla, Gwinear, Cornwall’, CA 31, 69-123.

Bender, B., Hamilton, S. and Tilley, C. 2007. Stone Worlds: Narrative and reflexivity in landscape archaeology. California: Left Coast Press.

Barber, M. 2003. Bronze and the Bronze Age: Metalwork and Society in Britain c.2500800BC. Stroud: Tempus Publishing Ltd.

Bell, M. 1990. Brean Down Excavations1983-1987. London: English Heritage Archaeological Report No 15.

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