Self evaluation of intelligence and realistic planning in the twelfth grade

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Evaluation of Çanakkale Kilitbahir Castle in the Context of Refunctioning
Evaluation of Çanakkale Kilitbahir Castle in the Context of Refunctioning

The Dardanelles Strait functions as a bridge between Biga and Gelibolu peninsulas, connecting the Aegean Sea and Marmara Sea. Many defenses have been built on the Dardanelles Strait, which have hosted many civilizations from the past to the present day, in line with the needs of the time. Kilitbahir Castle, which has a three-leaf clover plan and is located on a slope rising on the Gallipoli peninsula in the narrowest part of the Bosphorus after the conquest of Istanbul by Mehmet the Conqueror; manifests itself as a pioneering structure of the military architecture of the era with the developing artillery technology. The castle consists of a heart-shaped seven-storey inner tower in the core, the inner tower in the form of a three-leaf clover and the outer walls surrounding it. The architectural assembly of the castle is among the most aesthetic and unique among the Ottoman Castles. In terms of protecting the physical environment, it is observed that the defensive buildings which survived up to today are not adequately protected, losing their historical and architectural values. In this context, the restoration of Kilitbahir Castle dating back to Ottoman Period defense structures on the Dardanelles Strait was evaluated. Its phases throughout the process along with the current location and architecture were evaluated by using written and visual resources. European Archives, BNF Archives, Topkapı Palace Archives and Istanbul University Archives were utilized for reaching the castle engravings. In accordance with the information obtained in the historical research process, the exhibition arrangement and environment planning project of the structure, which serves as a museum, were prepared. JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2018), 2(3), 146-152. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2018.4729

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Self evaluation of intelligence and realistic planning in the twelfth grade

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SELF EVALUATION OF INTELLIGENCE AND REALISTIC PLANNING IN TEE TWELFTH GRADE

A P ro je e t P r e s e n te d t o t h e F a c u l t y o f t h e S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i f o r n i a

In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f t h e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r t h e D eg ree M a s te r o f S c ie n c e i n E d u c a tio n

by W a lte r L o u is L a u te r b a c h F e b r u a r y 1950

UMI Number: EP46423

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Ot&s&ftation Publishing

UMI EP46423 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106- 1346

'St

LZtfi

T h is p r o je c t repo rt, w ritte n u n der the direction o f the candidate's a d v ise r a n d a p p r o v e d by him , has been p re se n te d to a n d a c c e p te d by the F a cu lty o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n in p a r tia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirem ents f o r the d e g re e o f M a s te r of Science in E ducation.

Date

^ 1.^ . .........................1 9 ...............

A d viser

D ea n

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

THE PROBLEM AND REASONS FOR THE STUDY............................. 1 The p ro b le m

................................................................... 1

P u rp o s e o f th e s t u d y .............................................................. 1 R e aso n s f o r t h e s tu d y . . . . . . . .

...................

1

I m p o rta n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a tio n a l su c c e s s. . .

...........................................

1

The s t u d e n t * s a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l su ccess . . . . . .

II.

....................................................

2

In a d e q u a c y o f t h e r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b j e c t . .

3

O r g a n iz a tio n o f th e p r o j e c t ...........................................

3

PREVIOUS STUDIES AND RESEARCH............................

4

S e l f e v a l u a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .......................................4 C h r o n o lo g ic a l se q u e n c e o f th e r e s e a r c h . . . .

4

The a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s tu d e n t* s v o c a t i o n a l c h o ic e s

.......................

3

S p a r lin g * s s t u d y ........................................................................ 8 Wrenn* s s t u d y .......................

9

Summary an d c o n c lu s io n s .................................................... 11 E s tim a ti o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e .....................................

. 11

V o c a tio n a l c h o ic e .............................................................. 11

CHAPTER III.

PAGE

SOURCE OF DATA AND PROCEDURE................................................... 13 The s c h o o l .................................................................................... . 1 3 The s u b j e c t s .......................

13

The c o u n s e lin g p r a c t i c e s .

.......................

14

The s o c io -e c o n o m ic l o c a t i o n ...................................... 15 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e ......................................................................15 The c o n t e n t s ..................................... The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . Summary . . . . . . . . IV .

15 ......................................... 16

................................................ . 1 7

TREATMENT OF THE DATA AND FINDINGS. .

...................... 19

The s t u d e n t 's k n o w led g e a b u t h i s IQ . . . . . .

19

E s tim a te s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l s ta n d in g i n t h e c l a s s and i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n . . . . . . . .

19

The s tu d e n t* s k n o w led g e a b o u t h i s IQ . . . . . 20 The s t u d e n t 's e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s . 22 E d u c a t i o n a l p l a n s ................................

22

V o c a tio n a l p l a n s ........................................................ . . . 2 7 S t u d e n t 's a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h e e f f e c t o f IQ upon e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . . . . . . 3 1 P e r c e n t a g e s o f r a t i n g s ........................................... . . 3 1

CHAPTER V.

PAGE

SUMMARY . . . . 4 ................................................ ....

54

F i n d i n g s .......................................... ...............................................54 The s t u d e n t 1s

k n o w led g e a b o u t h i s IQ .................... 34

The s t u d e n t 1s e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s .......................

35

The s tu d e n t* s a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h e r o l e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s ..................... ....... ....................... .... ....................... 36 C o n c l u s i o n s ....................................................................................36 R e c o m m e n d a tio n s ....................................................................... 37 BIBLIO G RAPH Y...................... * ....................................................................................4 0

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I. II.

PAGE

P e r c e n t a g e s Of E d u c a tio n a l C h o ic e s ............................

25

P e r c e n t a g e s o f S t u d e n t s 1 E s tim a ti n g th e E f f e c t s o f IQ on E d u c a tio n a l and V o c a tio n a l S u c c e s s ...................... 32

LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE 1.

PAGE

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e D is c re p a n c y B etw een E s tim a te d I Q 's an d CTMM I Q 's .

2.

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e I Q 's o f S tu d e n ts P la n n in g F o u r Y e a rs

• 3.

............................23

o r More E d u c a tio n . . . . . . . . . . . 2 6

D i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e D is c r e p a n c i e s B etw een S t u d e n t s ' I Q 's and t h e IQ a t t h e T w e n ty - F if th P e r c e n t i l e o f T h o se E ngaged i n th e C hosen O c c u p a tio n . . . .

30

CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM AND REASONS FOR THE STUDY X.

THE PROBLEM

P u rp o s e o f t h e s t u d y . w h ic h i t hoped t p a n s w e r.

T h is s tu d y h ad t h r e e q u e s t i o n s

F i r s t , w h a t k n o w led g e d o e s t h e

s tu d e n t p o sse ss ab o u t h is in te lli g e n c e q u o tie n t?

S econd,

i

how do t h e e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d e n t com pare w i t h h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l a b i l i t y ? ,

T h i r d , how

much e f f e c t d o e s t h e s t u d e n t b e l i e v e h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e qu o ­ t i e n t to have upon th e s e a s p ir a tio n s ?

S in c e t h e s c o p e o f

t h e s tu d y d i d n o t p e r m it a l a r g e s a m p le , t h e p ro b le m w as s t u d i e d i n a t y p i c a l h ig h s c h o o l w i t h t y p i c a l c o u n s e lin g p ro ced u res. II.

REASONS FOR THE STUDY

I m p o rta n c e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a ­ tio n a l su ccess.

A lth o u g h t h e am ount o f i n f l u e n c e t h a t i n ­

t e l l i g e n c e h a s upon e d u c a t i o n a l o r v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s c a n ­ n o t b e m e a s u re d , i t c a n n o t b e d e n ie d t h a t i t i s a n im p o r ta n t

1 fa c to r.

H a r t so n fo u n d t h a t s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e f r e s h ­

men a t O h e r lin C o lle g e w hose i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t w as l e s s 2

th a n one h u n d re d J b e n f a i l e d a c a d e m ic a lly .

M a r s h a ll l i k e w i s e

d i s c o v e r e d t h a t s i x t y - f i v e p e r c e n t o f t h e fre s h m e n a t F r a n k l i n - M a r s h a l l w i t h i n t e l l i g e n c e q u o t i e n t s o f l e s s th a n 3 o ne h u n d re d t e n f a i l e d . T erm an, i n h i s s tu d y o f t h i r t e e n h u n d re d g i f t e d c h i l d r e n , d is c o v e r e d t h a t a lm o s t a l l o f them g r a d u a t e d fro m c o l l e g e and w ere s u c c e s s f u l i n t h e i r v o c a t i o n s . T h e s e i n v e s t i g a t i o n s seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e l l i g e n c e p la y s a n im p o r ta n t r o l e i n e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l a c h ie v e m e n t. The s tu d e n t* s a t t i t u d e to w a rd t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e l l i ­ g e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s .

To t h i s d a t e ,

t h e r e h a s b e e n n o p u b lis h e d s tu d y a b o u t t h e s tu d e n ts * b e l i e f s o f t h e im p o r ta n c e o f i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l i n e d u c a t i o n a l o r v o ­ c a tio n a l su c cess.

The s t u d e n t * s a t t i t u d e , com bined w i t h h i s

1 L . D . H a r ts o n , * » In flu en ce o f L e v e l o f M o tiv a tio n on t h e V a l i d i t y o f I n t e l l i g e n c e T ests,* * E d u c a tio n a l P sy c h o ­ l o g i c a l M e a su re m e n ts. 5 t2 7 3 - 8 3 , J u n e , 1945 2 M. V* M a r s h a l l , "W hat IQ i s H e c e s s a r y t o Success?** J o u r n a l o f H ig h e r E d u c a tio n . 1 4 :9 9 - 1 0 0 , 1943 3 L . M. Term an an d M. H . O den, The G i f t e d C h ild Grows Up ( P a lo A lto s S ta n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 4 8 )

k n o w led g e a b o u t M s i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l , w i l l h av e a g r e a t d e a l o f im p o r ta n c e i n t h e p la n n in g o f t h e s t u d e n t and t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f M s c h o ic e s * In a d e q u a c y o f t h e r e s e a r c h on t h i s s u b .le c t.

A1 th o u g h

t h e r e h a s b e e n r e s e a r c h o n t h e p ro b le m o f s e l f e v a l u a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e and a g r e a t d e a l m ore on t h e i n f l u e n c e o f i n t e l l i ­ g e n c e on e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s , t h e r e i s l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f s e l f k n o w led g e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t o e d u c a t i o n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e s .

S in c e t h e r e i s a n

i n c r e a s i n g e m p h a sis u p o n s t u d e n t g u id a n c e , t h i s &udy s h o u ld be o f some v a l u e i n s h e d d in g l i g h t upon t h i s f a c e t o f t h e s tu d e n t* s kn o w led g e an d a t t i t u d e s a b o u t i n t e l l i g e n c e .

The s tu d y s h o u ld

a l s o g i v e some i n d i c a t i o n o f t h e e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f t h e g u id a n c e i n t h e s c h o o l w h ic h w as i n v e s t i g a t e d . III.

ORGAHIZATIOH OF THE PROJECT

C h a p te r I I c o n t a i n s a r e v ie w o f r e s e a r c h r e l a t e d t o th e s tu d y .

C h a p te r I I I c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e

o f d a t a and th e p r o c e d u r e i n a d m i n i s t e r i n g t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e . C h a p te r IV c o n t a i n s t h e t r e a t m e n t o f t h e d a t a and t h e f i n d i n g s . The f i n a l C h a p te r c o n t a i n s a summary o f t h e r e s e a r c h .

CHAPTER I I PREVIOUS STUDIES AND RESEARCH S in c e t h e r e h a s b e e n l i t t l e

re se a rc h in th is f ie ld ,

a l l o f t h e r e s e a r c h e s fo u n d i n t h e b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l s tu d y w i l l b e i n c lu d e d i n t h e r e v ie w o f p r e v io u s r e s e a r c h .

The r e s e a r c h

I n t h i s f i e l d f e l l i n t o two c a t a g o r i e s ; t h a t o f s e l f e v a lu a ­ t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e an d th e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f s tu d e n ts * v o ­ c a tio n a l c h o ic e s , I .

SELF EVALUATION OF INTELLIGENCE 1 H o llin g w o r th ,

C h r o n o lo g ic a l se q u e n c e o f t h e r e s e a r c h ,

i n 1 9 1 5 , a tte m p te d t o m e asu re t h e a c c u r a c y o f s e l f a n a l y s i s . T h is was t h e f i r s t p u b lis h e d s tu d y o f t h i s k i n d . asked f i f t y

H o llin g w o r th

o f h i s a s s o c i a t e s t o r a t e th e m s e lv e s and o t h e r s

on s u c h t r a i t s a s n e a t n e s s , i n t e l l i g e n c e , s n o b b e ry , e t c .

He

fo u n d t h a t i n s e l f e v a l u a t i o n o f i n t e l l i g e n c e t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t u n d e r a te d th e m s e lv e s ( a c c o r d in g t o t h e g ro u p r a t i n g ) , and s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o v e r a t e d th e m s e lv e s .

I

A n a ly s is ,«

He fo u n d t h a t

H. L . H o llin g w o r th , nAn E x p e r im e n ta l S tu d y o f S e l f S c h o o l an d S o c i e t y . 1 1 * 1 7 1 -1 7 9 , 1915 ^

t h e m ore d e s i r a b l e t r a i t s w ere o v e r e s tim a te d an d t h a t t h e r a t i n g s o f o t h e r s w ere m ore a c c u r a t e th a n s e l f r a t i n g s . 2

Yoakum an d H an so n , i n 1 9 2 6 , p a t t e r n e d a r e s e a r c h i n t h e same m anner a s H o llin g w o r th an d fo u n d some c o n f l i c t i n g re s u lts .

They c o n c lu d e d t h a t p e o p le o f h ig h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e

te n d t o u n d e r e s tim a te t h e i r t r a i t s an d t h a t p e o p le o f lo w e r i n t e l l i g e n c e te n d t o o v e r e s t i m a t e th e m .

They fo u n d s e l f

r a t i n g s to be a s a c c u ra te as th e r a tin g o f o th e r s , b u t b e ­ l i e v e d t h a t t h i s was d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t a y o u n g e r g ro u p w as u s e d th a n i n H o llin g w o r th 1 s s t u d y . 3 I n t h e f o llo w in g y e a r Trow c o n d u c te d a s i m i l a r e x p e r i ­ m ent on C h in e s e s t u d e n t s i n A m eric an u n i v e r s i t i e s .

He d i s ­

c o v e re d t h a t th e y u n d e r a t e d th e m s e lv e s i n many v a r i o u s t r a i t s , o n e o f w h ic h w as i n t e l l i g e n c e .

Trow c o n c lu d e d t h a t t h i s w as

p r o b a b ly d u e t o t h e c u l t u r a l f a c t o r .

2 C. S . Yoakum and G. E . H an so n , " S e l f E a t i n g s a s a M eans o f D e te rm in in g T r a i t R e l a t i o n s h i p s an d R e l a t i v e D e s i r a ­ b i l i t y o f T r a i t s , 1* J o u r n a l o f A bnorm al an d S o c i a l P sy c h o lo g y ,2 1 * 5 2 -6 4 , 1926 3 W. C . T row , *’Se l f R a tin g s o f t h e C hinese,** a n d S o c i e t y . 2 2 * 2 1 3 -2 1 6 , 1927

S chool

6 4 I n 1921 Shaw i n v e s t i g a t e d c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s t o f i n d how a c c u r a t e t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n o f t h e num ber o f c o r r e c t r e ­ s p o n s e s was on th e T h u rs to n e P s y c h o l o g i c a l C o m p le tio n I n ­ te llig e n c e T e s t.

He fo u n d t h a t o f two h u n d re d f i f t y

s tu d e n ts ,

t w e n t y - f i v e u n d e r e s tim a te d t h e i r s c o r e s , f o u r t e e n e s tim a te d t h e i r s c o r e s c o r r e c t l y and two h u n d re d e le v e n o v e r e s tim a te d He fo u n d t h a t t h e mean d e v i a t i o n was 6 .0 9 an d t h e s ta n d a r d d e v ia tio n o f th e e s tim a te s 8 .2 9 . 5 A r s e n ia n , i n 1 9 4 2 , a s k e d one h u n d re d t w e n t y - f i v e e n t e r i n g c o l l e g e fre s h m e n ..to r a t e th e m s e lv e s on i n t e l l i g e n c e and o t h e r a b i l i t i e s b e f o r e and a f t e r t e s t i n g on t h e s e a b i l i ­ tie s .

T h e ir r a t i n g s w ere i n t h e fo rm o f a r a t i n g s c a l e . *He

fo u n d t h a t t h e e s t i m a t i o n o f a b i l i t i e s d i d n o t c o r r e s p o n d h ig h ly w i t h th e p o s s e s s i o n o f t h e s e a b i l i t i e s a s m e a su re d by o b je c tiv e t e s t s .

The e s t i m a t e s w ere m ore a c c u r a t e a f t e r t h e

t e s t th a n b e f o r e , b u t t h e r e w as s t i l l a w id e v a r i a t i o n i n t h e a c c u r a c y o f th e e s t i m a t e s .

P o s t - t e s t r a t i n g s showed a to n in g

4 R . W. Shaw, "Some A s p e c ts o f S e l f I n s i g h t a s Found i n S tu d e n ts o f a Two Y e a r N orm al C o l l e g e ," ( T e a c h e r s C o lle g e , C o lu m b ia , New Y o rk , 1951) 5 S . A r s e n ia n , "Own E s tim a te an d O b je c tiv e M easir e m e n t," J o u r n a l o f E d u c a tio n a l F s v c h o lo g y . 5 5 s2 4 1 ~ 5 0 2 , A p ril, 1942.

down o f e s t i m a t e s an d th e y w ere m ore i n t h e d i r e c t i o n o f a c c u ra te s ta n d in g s .

He fo u n d t h a t s t u d e n t s who g r o s s l y o v e r

o r u n d e r e s tim a te d th e m s e lv e s w ere a s a g ro u p som ew hat l e s s w e l l a d j u s t e d and i n t e l l i g e n t , and t h i s g ro u p l a t e r d i d l e s s w e ll in c o lle g e . 6

I n 1 9 4 8 , M i t c h e l l s t u d i e d t h e e s t i m a t e s o f h ig h s c h o o l fre s h m e n on " a b i l i t y ” and com pared them w i t h a num ber o f c r i ­ te ria .

He a s k e d them t o e s t i m a t e t h e i r " a b i l i t y ” on a r a t i n g

s c a l e , r a n k th e m s e lv e s i n t h e i r c l a s s i n s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y , an d t o p r e d i c t t h e i r c l a s s s ta n d in g

a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r .

M i t c h e l l fo u n d t h a t s e l f e v a l u a t i o n

c o r r e la te d - .0 5 w ith O tis

In te llig e n c e T est r e s u lts . re la te

He fo u n d a b i l i t y r a n k in g t o c o r ­

.1 1 w i t h a c t u a l c l a s s s t a n d i n g .

P r e d i c t e d a c h ie v e m e n t

c o r r e l a t e d .1 5 w ith a c t u a l s ta n d in g a t t h e end o f t h e y e a r . 7 ■ I n t h e same y e a r , T im othy i n v e s t i g a t e d s tu d e n ts *

6

tio n s ,”

s e lf

C. M i t c h e l l , "How V a li d a r e P u p i l ’ s S e l f E v a lu a ­ C le a r in g H o u se . 1 9 :4 8 8 - 4 8 8 , A p r i l , 1945

7 R . T im o th y , " R e l a t i o n s h i p s o f S e l f R a tin g s and E x t e r n a l Ju d g e m e n ts o f R e l a t i v e l y O b je c tiv e M e a s u re m e n ts ,” (U n p u b lis h e d M a s te r s t h e s i s . T he U n i v e r s i t y o f S o u th e r n C a l i ­ f o r n i a , L os A n g e le s , 1 9 4 8 ;

8 ra tin g s of in te llig e n c e .

He a s k e d 324 s t u d e n t s t o r a t e them ­

s e l v e s i n i n t e l l i g e n c e on a g ro u p r a t i n g . . .

He th e n a s k e d 925

*

o f t h e i r a s s o c i a t e s t o r a t e them i n a g ro u p r a t i n g . r a t i n g s w ere on a f i v e p o i n t r a t i n g s c a l e fro m t L e a rn v e r y r a p i d l y w i t h l i t t l e slo w ly w i t h g r e a t e f f o r t .

The

ite m 1 )

e f f o r t , t o ite m 5)

L e a rn v e r y

He fo u n d t h a t m o st r a t i n g s w ere a t

th e g ro u p t h r e e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

T h e re w e re 5 0 .3 p e r c e n t t h a t

s a i d th e y l e a r n e d a s r a p i d l y a s m o st s t u d e n t s .

The d i s p e r s i o n

o f r a t i n g s w as v e r y u n if o r m w i t h v e ry few r a t i n g s a t ite m s one and f i v e .

The r a t i n g s o f th e a s s o c i a t e s w ere c o n c e n t r a t e d

abov e t h e m ed ian c l a s s i f i c a t i o n .

S e v e n t y - f i v e p e r c e n t p la c e d

t h e s t u d e n t s i n c l a s s e s one and tw o .

O nly s i x p e r c e n t p la c e d

them b elo w t h e m ed ian c l a s s i n f o u r and f i v e .

I n a c o m p a riso n

w ith i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e s , T im othy fo u n d t h a t t h i r t y - t w o p e r c e n t r a t e d th e m s e lv e s to o h ig h , f o r t y - s i x p e r c e n t r a t e d th e m s e lv e s c o r r e c t l y and tw e n ty -tw o p e r c e n t r a t e d th e m s e lv e s to o lo w . II.

THE APPROPRIATENESS OF STUDENT’ S VOCATIONAL CHOICES 8

S n a r l i n g 1s s t u d y .

I n 1933 S p a r lin g s t u d i e d one

E. J . S p a rlin g , ”Do C o lle g e S tu d e n ts C hoose V oca­ t i o n s W is e ly ? ” ( T e a c h e r s C o l le g e , C o lu m b ia , New Y o rk , 1933) 8

th o u s a n d c o l l e g e s t u d e n t s i n f re s h m a n , sophom ore an d j u n i o r c la s s e s .

He com pared t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l c h o ic e s w ith c r i t e r i a ,

w h ic h h e th o u g h t w ere n e c e s s a r y f o r s u c c e s s i n v o c a t i o n s , s u c h as:

i n t e l l i g e n c e , s c h o l a s t i c a b i l i t y , p e r s o n a l i t y a d j u s tm e n t,

b u s i n e s s c o n t a c t s , o u t s i d e i i n t e r e s t s and h o b b ie s . S p a r lin g fo u n d t h a t 9 4 .8 p e r c e n t o f th e s t u d e n t s c h o s e o c c u p a tio n s i n t h e f i e l d s o f m e d ic in e , d e h t i s t r y , t e a c h ­ in g an d la w .

He fo u n d t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s c h o s e a

f i e l d i n w h ich th e y h ad a n i n t e l l e c t u a l h a n d ic a p com pared w ith ' t h e i n t e l l i g e n c e o f th o s e a l r e a d y i n t h e f i e l d .

The IQ o f th e

s t u d e n t s on t h e O t i s was com pared w ith t h e IQ o f t h e s o l d i e r s i n W o rld War I on th e Army A lp h a , l i s t e d a c c o r d in g t o c i v i l i a n o c c u p a tio n s .

O nly t h i r t y - f o u r p e r c e n t o f th e s t u d e n t s c h o se

o c c u p a tio n s i n w h ic h t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e was h ig h e r th a n t h a t o f t h e a v e ra g e p e r s o n en g ag ed i n t h a t o c c u p a ti o n .

S p a r lin g

f e e l s t h a t t h i s i s p o s s i b l y d u e t o th e f a c t t h a t n i n e t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e p a r e n t s o f t h e s t u d e n t s w ere f o r e i g n b o r n . W renn’ s s t u d y .

W renn i n a s tu d y o f t e n th o u s a n d J u n i o r

9 C. G. W renn, ’'I n t e l l i g e n c e and th e V o c a tio n a l C h o ic e s o f S t u d e n t s , ” E d u c a tio n a l R e c o rd s 1 6 :2 1 7 - 2 1 9 , 1955

10 C o lle g e s t u d e n t s i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e j b i g h e s t f i v e p e r c e n t and t h e lo w e s t f i f t e e n p e r c e n t t o d e te r m in e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r v o c a tio n a l c h o ic e s .

On t h e A m erican C o u n c il o f E d u ca­

t i o n P s y c h o lo g i c a l E x a m in a tio n , 1 9 2 8 , t h e h i g h e s t g r o u p o f s t u d e n t s (1 9 5 ) p la c e d a t t h e n in e ty - s e v e n th p e r c e n t i l e . i s e q u i v a l e n t t o a n IQ o f 1 4 0 .

T h is

The lo w e s t g ro u p o f s t u d e n t s

(1 5 7 ) p la c e d a t t h e e i g h t h p e r c e n t i l e .

T h is i s e q u i v a l e n t t o

an IQ o f fro m 90 t o 1 0 0 . W renn d is c o v e r e d t h a t f i f t y - o n e p e r c e n t o f t h e low g ru u p and s i x t y - e i g h t p e r c e n t o f t h e h ig h g ro u p c h o o s e p r o ­ f e s s io n s as v o c a tio n s .

W renn a s k e d th e o c c u p a t i o n a l c h o ic e

o f t h e s t u d e n t s i n 1929 an d a g a in i n 1 9 3 1 . f o r t y - t w o p e r cent*

He fo u n d t h a t

o f t h e low g r o u p an d s i x t y - t w o p e r c e n t

o f t h e h ig h g ro u p c h o s e t h e same o c c u p a tio n s a s b e f o r e . W renn c o n c lu d e s ,

^ I n t e l l i g e n c e i s se e m in g ly r e l a t e d t o p e r ­

m anence o f v o c a t i o n a l c h o i c e . »

He com pared s c o r e s on t h e

S tro n g I n t e r e s t I n v e n to r y and fo u n d t h a t w h ile o n ly tw e n ty two p e r cent
o f t h e h ig h g ro u p s c o r e d a n A on t h e c h o s e n v o c a t i o n .

W h ile tw e n ty p e r c e n t o f

t h e low g ro u p s c o r e d a C on t h e c h o s e n v o c a t i o n , o n ly t h r e e p e r c e n t o f t h e h ig h g r o u p r e c e i v e d G s c o r e s .

u 11

W renn c o n c lu d e s s "T he c o u n s e lo r s h o u ld exam ine t h e v o c a t i o n a l c h o ic e o f a g iv e n s t u d e n t i n t h e l i g h t o f h i s g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e t e s t s c o r e . T h is d o e s n o t mean t h a t th e c h o i c e s o f s t u d e n t s h ig h i n i n t e l l i • g e n d e s h o u ld b e a c c e p te d w i t h o u t q u e s t i o n , b u t c o n v e r s e ly t h a t t h e c h o ic e o f s t u d e n t s low i n i n t e l l i g e n c e m u st b e exam ined w i t h t h e g r e a t e s t o f care.** III.

SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS

E s tim a tio n o f . I n t e l l i g e n c e .

M ost o f t h e p r e v io u s

s t u d i e s show t h a t p e o p le do n o t e s t i m a t e t h e i r i n t e l l i g e n c e w i t h an y g r e a t d e g r e e o f a c c u r a c y .

T h o se o f h ig h i n t e l l i g e n c e

seem t o b e m ore a c c u r a t e an d m ore c o n s e r v a t i v e i n t h e i r e s t i ­ m a te s .

E s tim a te s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e by o t h e r s i s n o t a s a c c u r a t e

as s e lf ra tin g s . f in d in g s .)

( H o llin g w o r th 1s s tu d y c o n t r o v e r t s t h e s e

I n a l a t e r s tu d y by T im o th y t h e r a t i n g s o f o t h e r s

w e re fo u n d t o b e h ig h e r th a n s e l f r a t i n g s .

I n t h i s same s tu d y

a b o u t h a l f o f t h e g ro u p r a t e d th e m s e lv e s i n t h e c o r r e c t g e n e r a l c la s s o f in te llig e n c e . i n th e r a tin g

s c a le .

T h e re w e re f i v e c l a s s e s o f i n t e l l i g e n c e T h is w ould seem t o s u p p o r t H o llin g w o r th * s

fin d in g s . V o c a tio n a l c h o i c e .

11

Ib id ,

p . 819

S p a r lin g d is c o v e r e d t h a t s t u d e n t s

( i n a h ig h ly s e l e c t p o p u l a t i o n ) d i d n o t a d e q u a te ly a n a ly z e t h e i r a b i l i t i e s in s e le c tin g a v o c a tio n .

W ren n , i n a s tu d y

o f h ig h an d low i n t e l l i g e n c e g r o u p s i n j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , d i s ­ c o v e re d t h a t t h e h i g h g ro u p h ad m ore p e rm a n e n t c h o i c e s , and t h a t th e y r e c e i v e d m ore A s c o r e s and l e s s C s c o r e s on t h e ' S tro n g I n t e r e s t I n v e n to r y th a n t h e lo w g r o u p .

B o th H o llin g w o rth *

s tu d y and t h a t o f W renn seem t o i n d i c a t e t h a t th e p e o p le w i t h h i g h e r i n t e l l i g e n c e a r e m ore a d e q u a te i n s e l f a p p r a i s a l .

CHAPTER I I I SOURCE OF DATA AND PROCEDURE T h is c h a p t e r c o n t a i n s a d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l and g r a d u a t in g c l a s s fro m w h ic h t h e d a t a was t a k e n .

A d e s c rip ­

t i o n o f t h e s c h o o l , t e s t i n g , c o u n s e lin g p r o c e d u r e s , and r e c o r d in g o f d a t a f o l l o w s .

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e i s d e s c r i b e d

and a d e s c r i p t i o n i s g iv e n o f t h e m ethod o f a d m i n i s t e r i n g i t . I. The s u b j e c t s .

THE SCHOOL

The s u b j e c t s w e re i n t h e g r a d u a t in g

c l a s s o f In g le w o o d U n io n H ig h S c h o o l, C a l i f o r n i a , and w e re e n r o l l e d I n s e n i o r p ro b le m s c l a s s e s an d o t h e r s u b s t i t u t e c la s s e s .

The t o t a l num ber o f s t u d e n t s who f i l l e d o u t q u e s ­

t i o n n a i r e s w as 2 8 3 . g irls .

Of t h e s e 109 w e re b o y s an d 174 w e re

I t w as n o t n e c e s s a r y t o e l i m i n a t e t h e n o n - C a u c a s ia n s

fro m t h e s a m p le , s i n c e th e y c o m p ris e d l e s s th a n one p e r c e n t o f th e t o t a l .

An e f f o r t w as made t o I n c l u d e th e e n t i r e g r a d ­

u a t i n g c l a s s i n t h e sa m p le , b u t many o f t h e s t u d e n t s w ere n o t e n r o l l e d i n c l a s s e s i n w h ic h t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o u ld b e adm in­ is te re d .

The w r i t e r d i d n o t f e e l t h a t any s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r

w as o p e r a t i v e i n t h e s e l e c t i o n o r e x c l u s i o n o f t h e p u p i l s i n

14 t h e s e n i o r c l a s s fro m t h e e x p e r im e n t. The c o u n s e l i n g - p r a c t i c e s .

The c o u n s e lin g i s a d m in is ­

t e r e d "by f o u r p a r t - t i m e c o u n s e l o r s .

E ach c o u n s e lo r h a s c h a rg e

o f o n e c l a s s and c o u n s e ls t h a i c l a s s f o r i t s f o u r y e a r c u r r i ­ cu lu m .

The s t u d e n t s w e re g iv e n p r o g r e s s i v e a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s

i n t h e fre s h m a n an d j u n i o r y e a r s .

I n t h e fre s h m a n y e a r th e y 1

to o k t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l M a t u r i t y .

T h is in f o rm a ­

t i o n , t o g e t h e r w i t h a d d i t i o n a l b a c k g ro u n d d a t a ta k e n fro m th e e le m e n ta r y sc h o o l, w as c o m p ile d i n t o a r e c o r d i n a c l a s s b o o k . T h is b o o k c o n t a i n s a l l o f t h e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t e a c h s t u d e n t i n th e c la s s t

h i s I*Q, m e n ta l a g e , m e n ta l ag e g r a d e p la c e m e n t,

a c h ie v e m e n t s c o r e s , h ig h and lo w a b i l i t i e s and s p e c i a l ed u c a­ t i o n a l p ro b le m s .

The b o o k w as u t i l i z e d by t h e c l a s s c o u n s e lo r

i n a l l o f h is c o u n s e lin g . I n th e sophom ore an d s e n i o r y e a r s th e s t u d e n t s w ere g iv e n v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g .

They w ere g iv e n th e

2

K uder P r e f e r e n c e R e c o rd an d o t h e r t e s t s w h ic h t h e t e a e h e r s

1 E . T . S u l l i v a n , I f . I f . C l a r k an d E . W. T i e g s , C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l M a t u r i t y . (L os A n g e le s t C a l i f o r n i a T e s t B u r e a u , 1946) 2 G . F . K u d e r, K u d er P r e f e r e n c e R e c o rd . S c ie n c e R e s e a rc h A s s o c i a t e s , 1 942)

(C h ic a g o

15 f e l t w e re n e c e s s a r y .

T h e re was v o c a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n i n th e

l i b r a r y a v a i l a b l e t o t e a c h e r s , c o u n s e l o r s and s t u d e n t s . The IQ s c o r e s w e re g iv e n t o t h e s t u d e n t s i n b ro a d te rm s such a ss

a v e r a g e , ab o v e a v e r a g e , s u p e r i o r , e t c .

I n e d u c a tio n a l

and v o c a t i o n a l c o u n s e lin g m ore e m p h a s is was p la c e d upon p a s t p e rfo rm a n c e th a n u p o n IQ s c o r e s . T he s o c io -e c o n o m ic l o c a t i o n .

The s c h o o l d raw s s t u d e n t s

fro m a l a r g e a r e a w h ic h i n c l u d e s b o t h a g r i c u l t u r a l an d manu­ fa c tu rin g d i s t r i c t s .

The s o c io -e c o n o m ic l o c a t i o n i s a v e r a g e ,

w i t h t h e s ta n d a r d o f l i v i n g an d in co m e a b o u t a v e r a g e .

The

d i s t r i c t c o n t a i n s a g r e a t many s m a ll i n d u s t r i e s i n a d d i t i o n t o a few l a r g e a i r c r a f t and a u to m o tiv e f a c t o r i e s i n w h ic h a g r e a t many o f t h e p a r e n t s w ere em p lo y ed . II. The c o n t e n t s .

THE QUESTIONNAIRE The q u e s t i o n n a i r e w h ic h w as com posed

an d a d m in is t e r e d f o r t h e p u r p o s e s o f t h i s s tu d y , w as d iv id e d i n t o th r e e g ro u p s o f q u e s tio n s .

The f i r s t g ro u p o f q u e s t i o n s

d e a l t w i t h e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s o f t h e s t u d e n t s . T he q u e s t i o n s w e re d e s ig n e d t o g a t h e r I n f o r m a t io n and t o c a u se th e p u p il to th in k o b je c tiv e ly ab o u t h is f u tu r e p la n s .

16 The se c o n d g r o u p o f q u e s t i o n s s o u g h t t o c a u s e t h e s t u d e n t t o e v a l u a t e h im s e lf i n b o th h i s c l a s s an d i n t h e g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n i n te rm s o f c o m p a r a tiv e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l .

In

t h i s same g ro u p o f q u e s t i o n s t h e s t u d e n t w as a s k e d t o s t a t e h i s known IQ s c o r e o r t o e s t i m a t e i t n u m e r i c a l l y .

I n th e

e v e n t t h a t t h e s t u d e n t l e f t th e q u e s t i o n b l a n k , th e e s t i m a t ­ ed s ta n d in g i n t h e p o p u l a t i o n w as t a k e n a s a n i n d i c a t i o n o f e s t i m a t e d !Q by c o n v e r t in g t h e p e r c e n t i l e r a n k o f t h e e s tim a ­ t i o n t o a c o m p a ra b le IQ on t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l M a tu rity .

The t h i r d ty p e q u e s t i o n a s k e d t h e s t u d e n t s t o

e v a l u a t e t h e am ount o f i n f l u e n c e t h a t t h e i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l h a s u p o n t h e am ount o f e d u c a t i o n a l o r v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . T h is q u e s t i o n w as p la c e d l a s t i n o r d e r t h a t i t m ig h t h av e little

i n f l u e n c e upon t h e i n t e r a c t i o n o f t h e f i r s t and s e c ­

ond g ro u p o f q u e s t i o n s .

The few e r a s u r e s on t h e f i r s t and

se c o n d g r o u p s i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t d id n o t h a v e a g r e a t d e a l o f , 3

re tro a c tiv e e f f e c t. The a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

The Head C o u n s e lo r d i s t r i b u t e d

th e q u e s tio n n a ir e s to th e te a c h e rs f o r th e w r i t e r .

d ix .

3

The

A copy o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a p p e a r s i n t h e a p p e n

17 q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d by t h e t e a c h e r s i n S e n io r P ro b ­ le m s an d o t h e r c l a s s e s .

B e fo r e a d m i n i s t e r i n g th e q u e s t i o n ­

n a i r e , th e te a c h e rs gave a b r i e f e x p la n a tio n of i t s p u rp o se . The t e a c h e r s c o l l e c t e d th e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and p a s s e d them t o t h e c o u n s e lin g o f f i c e and fro m t h e r e b a c k t o t h e w r i t e r . III.

SUMMARY

The q u e s t i o n n a i r e was d i s t r i b u t e d t o th e s e n i o r s i n S e n io r P ro b le m s and o t h e r c l a s s e s a t In g le w o o d U n io n H ig h S c h o o l.

T h is h ig h s c h o o l i s i n an a v e ra g e s o c io -e c o n o m ic

l o c a l i t y w i t h a lm o s t a l l s t u d e n t s o f w h ite C a u c a s ia n d e s c e n t . The C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l M a tu r i ty was a d m in is t e r e d t o th e s t u d e n t s i n t h e i r fre s h m a n y e a r ( i n t h i s g r o u p , i n 1 9 4 6 ) , i n a d d i t i o n t o a c h ie v e m e n t t e s t s a t b o t h th e fre s h m a n and j u n i o r y e a rs.

T h is i n f o r m a t i o n t o g e t h e r w ith a d d i t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n

i s c o m p ile d i n t o a c l a s s r e c o r d book w h ich c o n t a i n s a l l o f th e members o f e a c h c l a s s . c la s s c o u n s e lo r.

T h is i n f o r m a t i o n i s a v a i l a b l e t o e a c h

I n t h e sophom ore and s e n i o r y e a r s t h e s t u ­

d e n t s a r e g iv e n v o c a t i o n a l t e s t i n g and c o u n s e l i n g .

The IQ

t e s t r e s u l t s a re r e l a t e d to th e s tu d e n ts i n d iv i d u a ll y , b u t o n ly i n b ro a d te r m s .

I n c o u n s e l i n g , m ore e m p h a sis i s p la c e d

on p a s t p e rfo rm a n c e th a n upon IQ s c o r e s .

18 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a s t h r e e t y p e s o f q u e s t i o n s . F i r s t , q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e d u c a t i o n a l an d v o c a t i o n a l p l a n s .

Second,

q u e s t i o n s a b o u t e s t i m a t e d o r know n i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l . q u e s tio n s about e stim a te d in f lu e n c e o f th e

T h ir d ,

upon e d u c a tio n a l

and v o c a t i o n a l s u c c e s s . The q u e s t ! p n n a i r e w as d i s t r i b u t e d

t h r o u g h t h e H ead

C o u n se lo r * s o f f i c e

to th e te a c h e r s.

I t w as th en d is t r ib u te d

by th e t e a c h e r s i n

t h e S e n io r P r o b le m s c l a s s e s ,

a c c o m p a n ie d

w i t h a s t a t e m e n t o f t h e p u r p o s e and u s e o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , and l a t e r

c o lle c te d .

CHAPTER IV TREATMENT OF THE DATA AND FINDINGS I n C h ap ter I i t

was s t a t e d t h a t t h i s

answ er t h r e e q u e s t i o n s .

stu d y hoped t o

The t h r e e q u e s t i o n s co n cern ed ?

The

a c c u r a c y o f t h e s t u d e n t * s k n o w led g e a b o u t h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l le v e l,

t h e a p p r o p r i a t e n e s s o f t h e s tu d e n t * s e d u c a t i o n a l and

v o c a t i o n a l p la n s com pared w i t h h i s i n t e l l e c t u a l l e v e l ,

an d

t h e a m o u n t o f e m p h a s i s w h i c h t h e s t u d e n t p l a c e d u p o n IQ i n c h o o sin g

a v o c a tio n .

T h is c h a p te r a t te m p ts t o answ er t h e s e

q u e stio n s. I.

THE STUDENT*S KNOWLEDGE ABOUT H IS TQ

E s tim a te s o f i n t e l l e c t u a l in

th e p o p u la tio n .

p o p u la tio n ,

In th e e stim a te s

th e resp o n ses j u s t if ie d

stu d e n ts d id n o t r e a liz e

do n o t c o n t r ib u t e d i r e c t l y

t h e a ssu m p tio n t h a t t h e an i n t e l l e c t u a l l y

W h ile t h e s e r a t in g

t o th e an sw ers so u g h t i n

t h e y w e r e i n c l u d e d f o r tw o r e a s o n s .

a s an e s t im a t e o f i n t e l l i g e n c e i n

and

o f r a n k i n t h e c l a s s and

th a t th ey w ere in

h ig h e r segm ent o f th e p o p u la tio n .

p ro ject,

sta n d in g i n th e c l a s s

F ir st,

th e ev en t th a t th e

s c a le s

th is to a ct stu d en t

go c o u ld n o t ,

o r w o u ld n o t ,

to h e lp th e

e stim a te h is i n t e l l i g e n c e .

stu d e n t to th in k o b j e c t iv e ly

t u a l l e v e l b e f o r e a n sw e r in g

Second,

about h is i n t e l l e c ­

t h e m ore d i f f i c u l t

q u e stio n s

a b o u t h i s Kg. Of 1 0 5 b o y s who r e s p o n d e d t o t h i s i t e m 3 1 . 4 p e r c e n t ranked th e m s e lv e s h ig h e r i n s e lv e s in

th e p o p u la tio n ,

th e ir c la s s

t h a n t h e y r a n k e d th e m ­

5 3 .4 p er c e n t ranked th e m se lv e s a t

t h e sam e p l a c e f i n b o t h a n d 1 5 . 2 p e r c e n t r a n k e d t h e m s e l v e s lo w e r i n g ir ls

th e ir

c l a s s th an i n

re sp o n d in g

h ig h er in

th e ir

to t h is c la ss

ranked th e m se lv e s i n

th e p o p u la tio n .

ite m 42 per c e n t ranked th e m se lv e s

th a n i n

th e p o p u la tio n , 3 7 .7 per cen t

t h e sam e p o s i t i o n i n b o t h a n d 2 0 . 3 p e r

c e n t ranked th e m s e lv e s h ig h e r i n c la ss.

th e p o p u la tio n th a n i n

A g r e a t e r p r o p o r tio n o f g i r l s

t h e r e was a s e l e c t i v e f a c t o r . 1 8 .3

Of t h e 1 6 2

th e

th a n b o y s r e c o g n iz e d t h a t

In th e t o t a l group o f 267,

p e r c e n t r e c o g n iz e d t h a t t h i s f a c t o r was p r e s e n t .

The

l a r g e s t . g r o u p - l o f . s t u d e n t s ( 4 4 . 3 p e r c e n t ) .r a n k e d t h e m s e l v e s th e

sam e i n b o t h s c a l e s .

E v id e n tly 3 7 .4 per c e n t o f th e

s t u d e n t s t h o u g h t t h a t t h e m em b ers o f t h e c l a s s w e r e b e l o w average in t e llig e n c e . The s t u d e n t s k n o w le d g e ab ou t;, h i s I ® .

on^r

In th e t o t a l

21 group o f s t u d e n t s t h a t answ ered th e q u e s t io n n a ir e , n in e b o y s (9 .5 per cen t)

and t w e lv e g i r l s

t h e y k n ew t h e i r I Q * s . th e a ccu ra te

(8 .0 5 per c e n t)

th ou gh t th a t

N ot one o f th e s e s tu d e n ts p o sse sse d

s c o r e a c c o r d in g

was u n d o u b te d ly due t o

to

th e

sch ool reco rd s.

th e sc h o o l p r a c t ic e

T h is

o f n o t r e v e a lin g

sc o res to th e stu d e n ts. To m easu re th e a c c u r a c y o f t h e stu d e n t* s s e l f tio n of in t e llig e n c e , h is

e v a lu a ­

t h e s t u d e n t * s e s t i m a t e was com pared w i t h

s c o r e on t h e C a l i f o r n i a T e s t o f M e n ta l M a t u r ity and t h e

d isc r e p a n c y c a lc u la t e d .

I n th e e v e n t t h a t a stu d e n t d id n o t

know o r e s t i m a t e h i s I Q , h i s e s t i m a t e o n t h e s c a l e r a t i n g sta n d in g

in

th e p o p u la tio n i n

h is

term s o f p e r c e n t i l e ra n k , w as

c o n v e r t e d t o a n e q u i v a l e n t IQ s c o r e o n t h e CTMM. u s e d a s an e s t i m a t e o f h i s n u m e r ic a l IQ . G u e s s e d IQ - CTMM IQ = D i s c r e p a n c y .

T h is was

The f o r m u la w a s:

T hus, i f

th e d isc r e p a n c y

w as n e g a t iv e th e s tu d e n t had u n d e r e s tim a te d h i s i n t e l l i g e n c e . The s c h o o l p r a c t i c e w as t o r e c o r d t h e

s t u d e n t * s IQ i n

t h e n u m b er o f p o i n t s a b o v e or*, b e l o w o n e h u n d r e d .

T hus,

&n