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Pseudolus of all Plautus' comedies most fully reveals its author's metapoetics. As its eponymous clever slave

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Plautus: Pseudolus
 0521766249, 9780521766241, 9781139028363, 2019059918, 9780521149716

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CAMBRIDGE

GREEK

AND

LATIN

CLASSICS

PLAUTUS PSEUDOLUS

EDITED

BY

DAVID

CHRISTENSON

CAMBRIDGE

GREEK

AND

GENERAL

LATIN

CLASSICS

EDITORS

P. E. EASTERLING

Regius Professor Emeritus of Greek, University of Cambridge

PuiLiP

HARDIE

Fellow, Trinity College, and Emeritus Honorary Professor of Latin, University of

NEIL HOPKINSON

Fellow, Trinity College, University of Cambridge

RiCHARD

HUNTER

Regius Professor of Greek, University of Cambridge

TE.

J. KENNEY

Kennedy Professor Emeritus of Latin, University of Cambridge S.

P.

OAKLEY

Kennedy Professor of Latin, University of Cambridge

PLAUTUS

PSEVDOLVS DAVID

CHRISTENSON

University of Arizona

22 CAMBRIDGE GD

UNIVERSITY PRESS

CAMBRIDGE

UNIVERSITY PRESS

University Printing House, Cambridge cB2 8Bs, United Kingdom One Liberty Plaza, 20th Floor, New York, Nv

10006, USA

477 Williamstown Road, Port Melbourne, vic 3207, Australia

314-321, grd Floor, Plot g, Splendor Forum, Jasola District Centre, New Delhi — 110025, India 79 Anson Road, #06—04/06, Singapore 079906 Cambridge University Press is part of the University of Cambridge. It furthers the University's mission by disseminating knowledge in the pursuit of education, learning, and research at the highest international levels of excellence. www.cambridge.org Information on this title: www.cambridge.org/9780521766241 DOI: 10.1017/9781139028363 Θ Cambridge University Press 2020 This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exception and to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements, no reproduction of any part may take place without the written permission of Cambridge University Press. First published 2020 Printed in the United Kingdom by TJ International Ltd, Padstow Cornwall A catalogue record for this publication is available from the British Library. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data NAMES: Plautus, Titus Maccius, author. | Christenson, David M. (David Michael), editor.

TITLE: Plautus: Pseudolus / David Christenson. OTHER TITLES: Pseudolus | Cambridge Greek and Latin classics. DESCRIPTION: New York : Cambridge University Press, 2020. | SERIES: Cambridge Greek and Latin classics | Includes bibliographical references and index. IDENTIFIERS: LCCN 2019059918 | 1sBN 9780521766241 (hardback) | ISBN 9781139028363 (epub) SUBJECTS:

LCSH: Plautus, Titus Maccius. Pseudolus.

CLASSIFICATION: LCC PA6568 .P8 2020 | ppc 872/.01-dc23 LC record available at https://LccN.loc.gov/2019059918 ISBN 978-0-521-76624-1 Hardback ISBN 978-0-521-14971-6 Paperback Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLs for external or third-party internet websites referred to in this publication and does not guarantee that any content on such websites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

CONTENTS Preface Introduction 1 Plautus the Playwright 2 The Roman Appropriation of Greek Comedy 3 Pseudolus: Plot, Characters and Poetics 4 Language 5 Music and Metre 6 Text and Transmission 4 Reception

T. MACCI PLAVTI PSEVDOLVS Commentary Bibliography Indexes

Subjects

Latin Words Index locorum

page υἱὶ

PREFACE Years ago I was dissuaded from writing a commentary on Pseudolus by the report that H. D. Jocelyn was preparing just such an edition, and instead I eventually published a Cambridge 'Green and Yellow' on another Plautine masterpiece, Amphitruo (2000). Unfortunately, Professor Jocelyn's death prevented his lengthy labours on Pseudolus from seeing the light of day. Returning to this project in recent years, I was able to benefit enormously from the insightful publications on various aspects of the play and Plautus in general that Professor Jocelyn bequeathed to us - this volume is much richer because of them. Professor Jocelyn is just one of a host of brilliant scholars who to this day have led a rediscovery and re-evaluation of Plautus' not always fully appreciated comic genius. Whereas my decision to focus on Plautus in my PhD comprehensive exams elicited some snickers and sneers in the late 1980s, the Plautine renaissance of recent decades

has forged a secure and respected place for the comedies within contemporary Classics curricula. Plautus has emerged anew, intact and fresh, if still a little scarred by his former secondary status among antiquity's comic playwrights: Plautine comedy, like Pseudolus himself, has a strong back (cf. Ps. 1325). My dependence on, and deep gratitude for, my fellow Plautinists' stimulating contributions can be readily glimpsed throughout this volume. Special thanks are owed to the friends and colleagues who over the course of this project patiently endured conversations with me about it or commented on sections of the commentary: Michael Fontaine, Boris Shoshitaishvili, Christopher Trinacty, Gonda Van

Steen, Cynthia White,

and David Wright. Walter Stockert most generously read the entire commentary with a keen eye for its metrical issues (any errors remaining there are my own). University of Arizona graduate students Elizabeth Harvey, Patrick Meusel, Collin Moat, Meaghan

Nielson, Daylin Oakes, Catherine

Shenck, and Grace Welch-Zaricor offered helpful suggestions on an early draft. A Loeb Classical Library Foundation Fellowship allowed me time away from teaching to launch this project. Series editors Philip Hardie and Stephen Oakley provided gracious, perceptive, and thoughtful guidance throughout the process. Michael Sharp at the Press kindly supplied versions of Timothy Moore's scansions of Pseudolus' cantica (from Music in Roman Comedy) for me to work from. Iveta Adams' superb editing was indispensable in the production process. Incalculable, longer-term debts of gratitude are owed to Ted Kenney, who exerted his incisive and elegant influence on my writing,

viii

PREFACE

and to Robert Renehan, who showed me the infinite value of meticulous

reading free of its too frequently concomitant myopia. This commentary aims ἴο elucidate some of Pseudolus’ deceptively simple complexity, playful provocativeness, piquancy, and enduring relevance, and, above all, to

help make Plautus accessible to new audiences.

INTRODUCTION 1 PLAUTUS

THE

PLAYWRIGHT

The historical Plautus remains elusive.' The biographical tradition depends on Varro (116-27 BCE), who lacked reliable sources. Today as in antiquity any detailed account of P.’s life is an obvious scholarly construct. For example, the tantalizingly vague claim that P. earned money ἼΠ the service of stage-personnel’ (Gel. 3.9.14 ?n operis artificium scaenicorum) plausibly supports competing notions of P. as a person of the theatre who got his start in Atellan farce or as a touring actor with the Artists of Dionysus.* The dates given for P.’s life, 254-184 BCE, may not be exactly correct (they yield a neat seventy years),3 but match a dramatic career agreed to flourish from the last years of the Second Punic War (218-201 BCE) to the mid 180s BCE. We can accept the testimony of the production notice,* preserved in the Ambrosian palimpsest, that ties Ps. to an important occasion at the Megalenses of 191 BCE.> The broader historical context for P.'s work is Rome's ascendancy to Mediterranean 'superpower' status and the social transformations accompanying this early phase of imperialism:

increased migration

of persons, customs, and ideas to the

city-state (especially from Greece), an influx of wealth and property (including a greatly expanded supply of slaves), and inevitable collisions between Roman traditions and external innovations.® Further facts of P.’s professional life are scarce: he seems to have been the first Roman playwright to specialize in one dramatic genre (after Greek practice), and he worked with the famous actor-manager T. Publius Pellio.” ' Accounts of P.’s life: Leo 1912: 63-86, Gratwick 1982: 808-9, Paratore 2005:

85—7. For the fictionalizing tendencies of ancient biographies see Fairweather

1974* Promoting scholarly views of P. as a playwright whose primary influence was either Italian or Greek: Fontaine 2014a: 533—4, 2014b: 416-18. For Atellan farce and the Artists of Dionysus 566 pp. 6, 11-12 below. 3 184 BCE, the year of Cato the Elder's censorship, is also suspiciously given as the date of Terence's birth. Cic. Sen. 14, which claims P. produced Ps. in his twilight years, broadly supports the 184 date; Cas. 979-80 refer to the senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus of 186 BCE. * Didascaliae survive for only Ps. and St. (200 BCE). If adjustments for the errant Roman

calendar are made, the debut of Ps. was in December

192, not April 191.

5 Pp. 9-10, 43-4 below. 9 For P.’s cultural-historical context see Gruen 1990 and Leigh 2004. 7 The didascalia of St. identifies Pellio as producer. A metatheatrical joke at Bac. 219—-15 (with Barsby 1986: 115-16) indicates that Pellio acted in P.’s plays and another at Men. 404 (with Gratwick 1993a: 178) makes him responsible for the stage's construction.

2

INTRODUCTION

P.’s ironic and self-abasing name hardly clarifies his historical identity. The improbable tria nomina Titus Maccius Plautus, ‘Phallus son of Clown

the Mime-Actor',? appear to be a professional pseudonym,® and we can

infer nothing certain about his social status

(Roman,

freedman,

Italian

citizen?) from them. Ancient sources give P.'s origins in Sarsina, Umbria. If accurate, this would make the Latin of Rome, along with Greek, P.’s second or third language, and place P. among 'the first practitioners of the new translation literature, who normally inhabited the interstices between three linguistic cultures’ (Feeney 2016: 66).'° While P. certainly should be counted among the semigraeci (Suet. Gram. 1 (p. 100Re)) driving early Latin literature's creation, there is no compelling reason to accept this geographic claim alone among other obviously fictional details provided

for P.’s life; it appears to be a scholarly deduction from Tranio's real-estate pun on umbra and Vmbria at Mos. 770 (quid? Sarsinatis ecqua est, st Vmbram non habes?)." Gellius (1.24.3) cites a charming epitaph (apud Varro), introduced with scepticism that it was written by Ρ.: postquam est mortem aptus Plautus, Comoedia luget, scaena est deserta, dein Risus, Ludus Iocusque et Numeri innumeri simul omnes conlacrimarunt.

Whenever these post-Plautine hexameters were composed,'* they reflect a received view of P. as a master comedian and musician, who in antiquity was as shadowy a historical figure as he is today. We may extrapolate some information about P. from his works. First, P.'s command of Greek 15 deep.'3 The extent of his familiarity with Greek literature beyond New Comedy has not always been acknowledged.'4 Ps. engages intertextually with Greek epic, archaic lyric, philosophy,

* Gratwick 1973: 83.

? Mime actors (pp. 12-13 below) wore phalli, and since they performed bare-

foot were nicknamed planipedes ('flat-foots'); cf. plaut-/ plot, ‘flat’, and the joke about P.’s 'barking name', Cas. 34 (dogs with flat, floppy ears were called plaut:: OLD plautus). For the association of Maccius with the clown of Atellan farce (and P.'s ‘cook’s identity’) see pp. 12, 50-1 below, 832n.

'* As Livius Andronicus, Naevius, Ennius. Culturally, Umbria was not subject to Greek influence, as southern Italy had been for centuries before P. For Umbrian

dialect see Adams 2007: 55, 85-8, 176. " Pace Conte 1994a: 49. For regional humour in P. see e.g. Capt. 881—4, Mil. 647-8, Trin. 545—6, 609, Truc. 262, 690-1 (with Adams 2007: 52—4, 119-23).

" Forthe collocation Ludus locusquesee 65n.; for P.’s penchant for personifying

abstracts see 292, 669, 736nn. '3 As the commentary (passim) and Fontaine 2010 amply demonstrate. '4 Parker 1996 debunks the related construct of P. as the comic darling of an

uneducated populace versus Terence, playwright of the philhellenic elite.

1 PLAUTUS

THE

PLAYWRIGHT

3

and Hellenistic poetry.'5 Moreover, it seems improbable that P. did not have access to texts of classical Greek tragedies, since his contemporaries were translating and performing these in Rome.'? Where and how P. received his literary education is unknown, but he seems to have been the first Latin poet to specialize in a single literary genre.'7 From P.’s selfrepresentations in prologues we glean a sense of his literary persona, as when he portrays himself as a translator of Greek comic texts: As. 11 Demophilus scripsit, Maccus uortit barbare, Trin. 19 Philemo scripsit, Plautus uortit barbare. The ironic barbare,'® in humorously co-opting a culturally superior, Greek perspective, promotes the legitimacy of P.'s enterprise.'?

At Cas. 32—4 Diphilus | hanc graece scripsit, postid rursum denuo | latine Plautus

cum latranti nomine, the prologist employs the rhetorically neutral latine, and in conceiving of P.'s translation programme as 'writing Diphilus' play anew all over again' suggests bold appropriation.*? Poen. 54 latine Plautus patruos pultiphagonides similarly has latine instead of barbare?' with ironic self-deprecation in the portrayal of P. as ‘uncle porridge-eater'.* The opening of Truc. depicts P. as an illusionist seeking spectators' indulgence in transforming his temporary Roman stage into Athens: '5 Homer: 12, 996nn.; Sappho: 1253, 1258, 1260nn.; the Platonic Socrates: 465, 566nn.; Callimachus: 401, 403, 810nn. '5 Paratragedy in Ps.: 469, 702—6, 702, 703, 707, 834, 835nn. From ca. 2077 BCE there was a (non-elite?) guild of writers (scribae) and actors (histriones) in Rome

(Boyle 2006: 16-17); the establishment of a collegium poetarum at the Temple of

Minerva may postdate P. (Gruen 1990: 87-9o, Manuwald 2011: 95-7). For the so-

cial, institutional, and literary conditions in which Roman tragedy based on Greek models arose see Gildenhard 2010.

"7 Livius, Naevius, and Ennius wrote tragedies, comedies, and epics.

'8 Spoken by the anonymous prologist and Luxuria, respectively, not (Greek)

characters in the plays. '9 *[P.] positively embraces the implication that he has debased his model by

stating that he has translated it into barbarian. The criticisms of the Greek-speaking snob are not deflected, they are made part of the comic experience' (Leigh 2000: 289). McElduff 2013: 69 compares the Roman acquisition of Greek art: ‘Plautus presents his work as translator as potentially equivalent to that of a general

who brings glory and art back to Rome, and humorously elevates his achievements,

even as this setting gives his use of "barbarian" a powerful sting, since the barbarians have clearly won.' Cf. Petrone 1983: 33-7. ^ (Cas. comes at the end of P.'s career and the wording here (i.e. without uortit and barbare) perhaps reflects confidence in highly creative translations. Connors 2004: 182 sees playful, programmatic irony in the etymology of P.'s name: 'the echo of latine in the sound of the word for "barking" (latranti) seems to suggest

that Latin itself might be a kind of barbarous barking’.

^ The understood verb of the lacuna following the revelation of the Greek title (53) 15 uortit. Cf. Mer. g—10, where the prologist reports Philemon's title graece and P.’s translation of it latine.

** See further Giusti 2018: 84--. For the metaphorical value of cuisine in P.’s

poetics see pp. 50-1 below.

4

INTRODUCTION

perparuam partem postulat Plautus loci de uostris magnis atque amoenis moenibus, Athenas quo sine architectis conferat. (1-g) At Men. 3—4 apporto uobis Plautum lingua, non manu, | quaeso ut benignis accipiatis auribus, the prologist makes the playwright (a metonymy for his comedy) the vehicle of a characteristically Plautine joke conflating the literal and figurative.?? The persona thus constructed in P.'s prologues is that of a playwright who brings pronounced self-awareness of poetic process and dramatic fiction to his work while reflecting on its place in literary tradition — such creative consciousness comes to the forefront in Ps. 2 THE

ROMAN

APPROPRIATION

OF

GREEK

COMEDY

Latin literature is thought to (officially) commence at the /ud? Romani of 240 BCE with the performance of at least one play based on a Greek model by Livius Andronicus, a native of Tarentum in southern Italy.** The timing is significant, as it closely follows the end of the First Punic War (261-241 BCE) and the emergence of Rome as a Mediterranean power. The creation of a national literature in Latin and a literary culture modelling the Greeks' in the wake of imperial expansion is necessarily enmeshed in issues of power and prestige, though scholarly consensus on the motivations and mechanisms behind these beginnings 15 lacking.*5 Plenty of cultural capital stood to be gained by adopting the Greeks' literary tradition and transferring it to Rome. Roman national identity could be enhanced through selective appropriation of Greek cultural goods of various types, including literature, as also social cohesion, primarily among the educated elite. The development of literary culture as an accoutrement of political hegemony might also assert superiority over both Rome's Italian

*5 Pp. 48-51 below. One leg of the joke here, the call for the audience's reception of the play with 'kindly ears', perhaps puns on P.'s name and dogs' ears (p. 2 above). ^^ Cic. Brut. 72, Cato fr. 5o, Gel. 17.21.42, Liv. 7.2.8-10, Cass. Chron. p. 128 Mommsen; cf. Bernstein 1998: 234—51. 'Literature' here refers to the co-opting of Greek literary genres in Latin; the development of a literary establishment to con-

struct aesthetic hierarchies, canons, etc. came later (see further Goldberg 2005).

*5 Overview of the issues in Gildenhard 2010: 158—60, Manuwald 2011: 30-40. Much, often polarizing, debate surrounds the role of shadowy (oral rather than lit-

erary) native traditions in the creation of the national literature: see e.g. Habinek

1998: 3-68, Wiseman 1998. For Livy's problematic account (7.2.3-193) of drama extending back to 364 BCE see Oakley 1998: 37—72, Bernstein 1998: 119-29, Feldherr 1998: 178-87.

2 THE

ROMAN

APPROPRIATION

OF

GREEK

COMEDY

5

neighbours?? and rival Mediterranean city-states. Less abstract, practical considerations figured as well. Roman armies stationed in Sicily and southern Italy during the war developed a taste for Greek-style arts and entertainment, especially drama. Ambitious magistrates envisioned occasions for sociopolitical self-promotion in presenting drama at public venues, and bilingual poets and playwrights found professional opportunities for themselves there as well. What role the state, embodied by the senate, played in the creation of a national literature, versus the efforts of these

various individuals, 15 uncertain." Regardless, the vast appropriation of Greek literary genres following the First Punic War marks an ideological and cultural achievement unparalleled among Rome's neighbours in the ancient Mediterranean. This Roman translation project also marks a significant milestone in the critical analysis of literature.*? As the European tradition's first vernacular translators (of literature) and literary critics, Latin writers transformed the 'secondariness' of their project into a creative strength, so successfully that the study of Latin literature now focuses on its extraordinarily innovative engagement with Greek intertexts.*? 2.1 From Athens to Rome

Unlike the fantastical and satirical Old Comedy of fifth-century Athens built around contemporary Athenian personages and public institutions, Greek New Comedy (floruit ca. 325-250 BCE) was cosmopolitan and accessible to audiences in other city-states.?^ More quietly centred " For the Roman figuring of Italians as barbari among the peninsula's dominant, Latin-speaking people see Dench 1995: 68—70, Feeney 2005: 236—40. "! Cf. the conclusion of Most 2003: 388, ‘The Romans recognized themselves from the beginning as latecomers in the highly competitive market-place of the Hellenistic Mediterranean, and seem to have decided early that a program of intense translation was the best strategy for catching up: given that it was the Greeks

who dominated

that market-place, it was inevitable that it was to Greek literature

that the Romans should from the very beginning have primarily oriented their translating activity. In the absence of a Ministry of Culture, the decisions involved

were individual, unsystematic and largely the work of poets.’

** "The first producers of the texts that became "Roman literature" were con-

sidered by Suetonius, at least, as grammatici, who taught Greek and Latin authors

(Gram. 1.2). The conditions in the Greek world in which these first authors of Latin literary texts trained were conducive to self-consciousness about what was

involved in codifying and organizing an institution of literature in Greek, against

which it was possible to conceive of measuring a corresponding institution in Latin' (Feeney 2005: 228—9). 9 For Latin intertextuality see Conte 1994b, Hinds 1998; Sharrock 2009: 1821, 201—19 makes the case for reading P. intertextually. ?^ Useful overviews of Greek New Comedy, as it 15 represented mostly by Menander (ca. 342—290 BCE), include Blanchard 2007, Lowe 2007: 63-80, Ire-

6

INTRODUCTION

on domestic rather than civic life, Greek New Comedy depicts the drama of everyday mistakes, misconceptions, and ignorance within or between families, especially tensions related to finances, patriarchy, citizenship,

and marriage. In contrast to the chaotic comedy of Aristophanes (d. 386

BCE), New Comedy observes unities of time and place, usually has an expository prologue delivered by a deity, is carefully organized into five acts, and features naturalistic dialogue and nuanced soliloquies in iambic trimeters. Old Comedy's musical and linguistic exuberance, including its aggressive obscenity, is muted, with the chorus relegated to non-integral performances

between

acts (marked

XOPOY,

'(song)

of the chorus', in

texts). In the comedy of manners that evolves in the fourth and third centuries in Athens an aesthetic premium is placed on plausible representation of situation and character. While the characters (household slaves, soldiers, pimps, prostitutes, young men in love, professional types such as cooks, etc.), like New Comedy's romantic plots, are stereotyped, they are

endowed with psychological nicety and their costumes and masks made them appear similar to real people.?' Apart from sporadic addresses to spectators, collectively as ἄνδρες (‘gentlemen’), dramatic illusion is care-

fully respected in Greek New Comedy. Plays move towards harmonious resolutions of everyday conflicts (‘domestic tragedies’), often secured with a marriage, and so traditional family values, as those of Athenian citizenship and the polis, ultimately prevail over personal desire and youthful irresponsibility. Such in broad outline are the dramas of Greek New Comedy that probably reached Italy by the middle of the third century BCE through 'classic' performances by itinerant, professional companies such as the 'Artists of Dionysus’.3* Although Athenian New Comedy's interest in familial relationships and familiar persons and situations accounts for its exportability, the genre's earliest adaptors felt no compulsion to scrupulously translate its forms and formats to Roman stages. Roman (literary) comedy or the fabula palliata as it came to be known?? involved a radical restructuring of its Greek models, in large part owing to the influence of native Italian (unscripted) drama. Most strikingly, New Comedy became much more land 2010; important topical studies: Wiles 1991, Rosivach 1998, Lape 2004, Traill 2008, Petrides 2014a.

3 These qualities are best exemplified by Menander. Other famous Greek play-

wrights include Diphilus of Sinope (born ca. 350 BCE), Philemon (ca. 360-265

BCE), and Apollodorus of Carystus (first play produced in 285 BCE). ?* For the diffusion of New Comedy post-Menander see Nervegna 2013, Le Guen 2014. 33 1275n. Overviews of the palliata: Gratwick 1982, Lowe 2007: 81-96, Manuwald 2011: 140-56; images in Bieber 1961: 147-66.

2 THE

ROMAN

musical in Rome:

APPROPRIATION

OF

GREEK

COMEDY

7

only about a third of lines in P. are spoken, with the

rest either in musically accompanied measures (mainly trochaics) or song (cantica) .3+ This modal transformation alone undermined Greek New Comedy's emphasis on realistic representation of its characters' words and thoughts by substituting more stylized comedy (cf. modern musicals and operas). Act divisions and the choral entr'actes of Greek New Comedy were eliminated, as Roman comedy features continuous action,35 its overarching structural principle instead consisting of repeated sequences of spoken-sung-accompanied

(‘recitative’) verses.?? There was no three-

actor rule in Rome, which allowed for more dynamic interactions among cast members. Roman playwrights seem to have introduced more physical comedy and stage business, probably under the influence of native Italian forms of drama. Certain roles, as those of the clever slave and the comic

prostitute, are amplified in Roman comedy, not only by P., where they are most farcically developed, but perhaps from the start of New Comedy in Rome.? " The Roman tradition, as it is most vigorously evidenced by P.’s corpus, shows an enlargement of various verbal effects, perhaps unsurprisingly in that linguistic self-consciousness is often a concomitant of translated literature. Finally, while Greek settings (usually Athens) are nominally preserved in the Latin plays, the palliata’s world shares many points of contact with contemporary Roman society.3® To theatregoers conversant with the norms of Greek New Comedy, Roman comedy presented a very different spectacle. It must have created interesting tensions for spectators, as they — individually rather than as the monolithic block modern scholarship too often theorizes them to be - in varying degrees saw themselves and their own social lives, in terms of both sameness and

difference, unmasked in Greek alterity. Whereas Athenian comedy was stably ensconced in annual civic festivals, funded by a combination of contributions from wealthy citizens and public monies and held in the Theatre of Dionysus - where perhaps 34 Unlike the choral interludes of Greek New Comedy, the musically accompanied cantica are fully incorporated into plays. For operatic song as the definitive transformational element of Roman comedy see Fontaine 2014b: 405-7.

35 For Roman adaptations of Greek act divisions see Barsby 1982. 39 Pp. 31-2, 52 below.

37 In his study of the fragments of early Roman comedy Wright 1974 demonstrates that many of the linguistic features and comic conventions associated with

P. were present from the beginning. Terence, in adhering more closely to the aes-

thetic and dramaturgical preferences of a Menander, may be an outlier within the palliata tradition, as the conclusions of Karakasis 2005 suggest. 3* While this is obviously the case for P., even Terence's Atticizing comedy is firmly rooted in the social and cultural milieu of Rome in the 160s BCE: Starks

2019.

8

INTRODUCTION

as many as 17,000 Athenian inhabitants and some foreigners gathered for competitions associated with the Greater Dionysia — early Roman

comedy was a more transient affair. In Rome, annual religious festivals

(ludi sollemnes) included drama among other entertainments staged in honour of the deity celebrated. Performances were also held on special occasions such as funerals for prominent aristocrats, fulfilment of a victorious general's vow to a god, or the inauguration of temples and cults.39 There thus was no fixed public venue for early performances, nor did a single god preside over Roman theatre. Festivals were state-funded, and sponsoring magistrates, usually aediles, provided additional support (the same held true for temple dedications, which were important civic occasions). The religious, political, and social character of the festivals

was immediately visible in the grand parades (pompae) of magistrates, performers, priests, and cult statues with which they began. Very few details related to the production of /udi scaenici are known: actor-managers, the actores who headed a troupe (grex), probably negotiated contracts on behalf of playwrights with the magistrates.*? A choragus was in charge of costumes and props,*! companies were small,** and acting, a respected profession in Greece, was a low-status occupation,*?? perhaps employing mostly slaves and freedmen, although there was some form of competition among individual actors and troupes.# Elite spectators perhaps found themselves complexly distanced from, yet drawn to, the actors' social otherness. It is unknown how many plays were performed at a particular event or on a single day; the number might vary owing to the practice of instauratio, the 'repetition' of a performance following some disruption of ritual.#5 Nor do we know what happened to scripts after public performances, as the Roman state did not require official copies to be made (as Lycurgus had in fourth-century Athens), nor did it keep theatrical records in P.'s day. 39 Franko 2014: 411 charts /udi featuring dramatic performances. By 200 BCE

there probably were at least eleven days of theatrical performances annually (Taylor 1937: 291). *? The actores apparently maintained ownership of the playwrights' scripts (Brown 2002). * Metatheatrically referred to at Cur. 464-86, Per. 159-60, Trin. 857—60. Cf. 1184n. Charinus serves this function in Ps.' play-within-the-play. ** P.’s plays require four to six speaking parts plus mute characters and a musician to play the tibia. At least nine actors appear onstage in Scenes 2-3 of Ps. (133-264n.). For actors' associations see Jory 1970. 33 Actors were counted among the ?nfames: Edwards 1997.

* Am. 69—74, Poen. 37—9. *5 Bernstein 1998: 282-91.

2 THE

ROMAN

APPROPRIATION

OF

GREEK

COMEDY

9

The contingent and ephemeral nature of early theatre was manifest in performance spaces themselves, which remained temporary in Rome, where they were constructed for specific occasions in the forum, circus, or before temples, until the dedication of Pompey's fabulous stone theatre on the Campus Martius in 55 BCE. The Romans could easily have built permanent theatres on the model of the Greeks',*? but avoided doing 50 for reasons still debated.*? Some scholars accept aristocratic contentions that large stone structures would provide venues for political protest (as they later did) and contribute to the corruption of public morals. Others stress that the senate and magistrates saw the construction of temporary structures as a means of reminding the populace that the institution of theatre depended on their munificence.*? Religious scruple also fuelled the resistance to building stone theatres, as these might unduly 'secularize' performances - Pompey's theatre featured a temple of Venus Victrix, prominently located among the upper tiers of seating.49 These temporary structures bore significant consequences for adaptations of New Comedy produced in Rome.5 What we glean about Rome's impromptu performance spaces comes from extant texts, as no visual evidence

or detailed

descriptions

survive.

A wooden

backdrop,

the scaena, depicted up to three houses (as in Greek New Comedy) with

individual doors through which characters access the actors' space, the

proscaenium. Characters also enter and exit from side wings, which by convention usually lead to either the forum or to the harbour/country. Early Roman theatres had no orchestra, and the spectators' space, the cauea, varied according to the space available at individual venues. Beginning in 194 BCE, senators were granted the privilege of segregated seating near the stage.5' We know from the surviving didascaliae that Ps. was performed in connection with the dedication of the Magna Mater's

4 These existed in Italy from the fourth century BCE; for theatrical traditions outside Rome see Rawson 1985. 41 Overview in Manuwald 2011: 55-63. 33 E.g. Gruen 1992: 209. 19 Cf. Goldberg 1998: 12: ‘In the case of the original Megalesia [where Ps. debuted], the temple was itself an integral part of the production space. In effect, the scaena was temporary but the cauea was a permanent fixture. A separate, freestanding theatre threatened to disrupt this connection between temple and festival.' For Roman 'theatre-temples' see Hanson 1g5gb. 5* Slater 1987 and Wiles 1991: 36—67 discuss differences between Greek and Roman theatrical spaces. 5:. This directive of the censors generated controversy: Gruen 1992: 202-5, Moore 1994, Gilula 1996. The prologue of Capt. highlights differences in seating and status among audience members (with Moore 1998: 195-6).

10

INTRODUCTION

temple in 191 BCE.5* Goldberg’s 1998 analysis of the excavated 5116 on the Palatine shows that a stage must have been erected on the plaza before Cybele's temple (above the Circus Maximus), with spectators sitting on the steps leading up to the raised podium. Even allowing for tight seating arrangements and crowd overflow into areas of the precinct affording a view, Goldberg estimates that less than 2,000 spectators attended the debut of Ps.55 These intimate accommodations, along with early Roman theatre's permeable, sociopetal space between actors and audiences,

facilitate Pseudolus'

monologues,

wherein

he commu-

nicates directly with spectators, and help foster an illusion of improvisatory performance.5* Given limited seating and the occasion of the Palatine temple's dedication, the audience that assembled for Ps. might

have included a higher percentage of the elite than usual, which perhaps influenced P.'s decision to present a play so concerned with esoteric matters of poetics. In 191 BCE Marcus Junius Brutus, the praetor urbanus et inter peregrinos tasked with the Megalenses, no doubt hoped to enhance

his social capital;5 still the audience

of Ps. represented

a

cross-section of the populace, including slaves.5° There was no curtain in early Roman theatre. A herald (As. 4 praeco) signalled the onset of a performance. Stage properties were used sparingly, but effectively: the most important props in Ps. are Calidorus' writing tablet and Harpax's letter.5? The actors wore masks and costumes according to

55 The cult of Cybele was brought to Rome in 204 BCE following a prophecy that this was a precondition for Hannibal's removal from Italy. The Magna Mater resid-

ed in the Temple of Victory on the Palatine until her temple could be built. Lud:

Megalenses were established in 194 BCE, an enhanced version of which was held for

the new temple's dedication in 191. During the festival, Cybele's eunuch priests

no doubt presented visual reminders of the strangeness (to Romans) of her Phrygian cult, although Ps. makes no allusion to this (cf. the performance of Terence's

Eunuch at the Megalenses of 161 BCE, with Christenson 2013).

55 1998: 19-14. 54 Pp. 34-5 below. The orchestra of Greek theatre promoted more definitive separation of actors' and audiences' spaces, as did the theatre's monumental scale itself. For proxemics, the study of space in theatrical communication, see Elam 1980: 56—69. 55 See further 1231n., Christenson 2020: 88.

5 The prologue of Poen. (esp. 5-935) represents a wide spectrum of society (ad-

mission to festivals was free) in attendance, i.e. rich and poor, slave and free, male

and female. Accounts of the diversity of Roman audiences: Beare 1964: 173-—5, Manuwald 2011: 98-108, Richlin 2017: 1-20. 57 93—192, 594—666, 647nn.; overview of the functionality of props in P. in Marshall 2006: 66-72.

2 THE

ROMAN

APPROPRIATION

OF

GREEK

COMEDY

11

their character type,5® so that, for example, before Pseudolus and Calidorus

speak at Ps.' opening, seasoned spectators might guess the comedy features a lovesick adulescens requiring the assistance of a clever slave. An altar stood on the froscaenium, which represented a street before the stagehouses where by convention characters meet. There perhaps was some convenient place onstage for eavesdroppers; later stage representations show enclosed porches, but we should not insist on naturalistic treatment of a conventional device in P., where characters exploit this framework of listening to, and commenting on, other characters' discourse to build rela-

tionships with spectators.5? In sum, the distinct spatial configurations, seating arrangements, sight lines, acoustics, and more fluid actor/audience dynamics of temporary Roman theatre combined to create a very different theatrical experience from watching a play in the Theatre of Dionysus. 2.2 Plautus and Italian Comic Traditions

Because P.'s name connects him with traditions of unscripted Italian drama that also figure prominently in his poetics,™ it is instructive to review the fabula Atellana and the elusive genre of mime. Atellan farce was so named

for its origins in the town of Atella in Oscan-speaking Campania.®* It survives only in its first-century BCE literary form through the fragments of Pomponius and Novius. In P.'s heyday, Atellan farce consisted of impromptu skits performed in marketplaces or wherever troupes found an audience. The masked actors worked with set situations, from which

55 Regrettably little is known about these, and in the absence of an iconographic tradition we cannot know how closely Roman masks conformed to Greek New Comedy's taxonomy. For masks in P. see Gratwick 1982: 83—4, Wiles 1991: 129-49, Marshall 2006: 126—58. Colours and styles of costumes were codified by character type (by gender, age, status) as they had been in Athens: Beare 1964: 184-91, Wiles 1991: 188-208, Duckworth 1994: 88-94, Marshall 2006: 56-66. The illustrated manuscripts of Terence provide visual evidence, albeit several centuries later: Jones and Morey 1931, Radden Keefe 2015. Conventional gestures and movements were associated with different character types: Graf 1991, Marshall 2006: 167-71, Dutsch 2007. 59 Beacham 1992: 56-85 includes the porches in his reconstruction of a temporary theatre. On eavesdropping in P. see Slater 1985: 11-12, 162—5, Moore 1998: 4-40. 6o Pg. 2 above, 37—9 below; images of Italian popular comedy in Bieber 1961: 129—46. ?' Accounts in Beare 1964: 137-48, Rieks 1978: 351-61, Duckworth 1994: 10— 19, Panayotakis 2005b; fragments in Frassinetti 1967, Ribbeck 1898. According to Livy (7.2.12), (free) actors in Atellan farce uniquely were not disenfranchised (cf. p. 8 above).

12

INTRODUCTION

they might expansively improvise. Performances were built around five stereotypical characters: Bucco (‘Fool’), Dossenus (‘Glutton’), Manducus (:Jaws'),?* Pappus (‘Grandpa’), and the crowd-favourite Maccus, who like Bucco* was a clownish figure. Maccus, who supplies P.'s pseudo-nomen, ^ seems to have specialized in impersonation, to judge by extant titles, e.g. Maccus Miles, Maccus Virgo, Maccus Copo (= Caupo, ‘Innkeeper’), Macci Gemini. The stock types, extant titles, and fragments suggest a low-status milieu featuring obscene and everyday language, burlesque (including of myth), rustic customs, slapstick, and verbal banter. Literary Atellan farce

uses many of Plautine comedy's metres, and song and dance probably were essential components. Whether or not P. performed in Atellan farce is unknowable; his adoption of the moniker Maccus indicates a desire to metonymically represent his playwriting in terms of Italian farce's improvisatory and pattering style. Mime covers a wide-range of popular dramatic forms in Italy and in its ‘low realism' defies generic characterization.95 Because its lineage and influences are complex, Panayotakis 2005b: 139 suggests it should be designated ‘Graeco-Roman mime’. It is best known to us in its first-century BCE literary form (esp. Decimus Laberius and Publilius Syrus), though non-scripted mime predates P. Mime included skits of everyday life, satirical and sexual matters (adulterous love triangles were popular subjects), politics, literary parody, mockery of the foolish and pretentious, and mythical, religious, and philosophical burlesque. Mime's recurring characters include flatterers, slaves, adulterers, and jealous spouses. Mimes typically were set in the non-elite worlds of cooks, sausage sellers, inn-

keepers, and fullers. The actors wore no masks and performed barefoot

— their nickname, planipedes, apparently inspired P.’s pseudo-cognomen.9?

Companies were itinerant, as portable performances required only a curtain and public space. Mime's largely improvisatory performances included spoken dialogue, song, and dance. Italian mime was known for its ?** Manducus was a grotesque figure with a gaping mouth, referred to by the pimp Labrax (as his teeth clatter from a chill) at Rud. 535. Like Dossenus Manducus may have been gluttonous. ?s Cf. Bac.

1088

(a list of synonyms)

stulti, stolidi, fatui, fungi, bardi, blenni, buc-

cones, Apul. Apol. 81 macci prorsus et buccones uidebuntur. 94 8g2n., p. 2 above. %

Latin

mimus

(μῖμος)

refers to the genre or a mime-actor.

The

root sense

(
erotic embraces (66). 64 amores, mores: an unusual rhyme of near-homonyms straddling the trimeter's main break in vivid asyndeton; the paronomasia suggests an equivalence ('love is our way of life").

190

COMMENTARY consuetudines

'rendezvous',

a sexual

05-7

euphemism.

The

plurals emo-

tionally heighten the letter at this critical rhetorical juncture. Cf. the triple rhyme of nouns at 695 (examples in Maurach 1995: 213-14). 65 iocus, ludus, sermo, suauisauiatio: two pairs of closely related words with homoioteleuton, three of which occupy the trimeter's first half, cul-

minating in a delightful neologism. The adulescens Pistoclerus (Bac. 116) lists these same nouns as personifications presiding in his beloved's house (along with Amor

Voluptas,

Venus,

Venustas,

Gaudium,

115).

Editors sus-

pect interpolation here (for interpolation generally see Tarrant 2016: 85-104); Bac. 15 roughly contemporary with Ps. (Barsby 1986: 1; Williams 1956: 447—55 makes a case for the relative priority of Bac., Questa 1985: 15-22 for Ps.), which could account for the repeated line. It is pedantic to reject the line here because the other nouns in Phoenicium's list are plur. (64-8): 64-6n. Ludus and locus are among various personifications said to have wept at P.'s death (in P.’s reputed epitaph: Introduction p. 2). iocus. aa (apocope). suauisauiatio ‘sweetikissation’, a neologism « suauis * root of sauior (‘to kiss’, i.e. erotically; cf. sauzum) + -tio (suffix creating an

abstract ‘action noun’).

66-8 compressiones . . . | . . . morsiunculae | . . . iunculae | .

. . oppressiunculae: the sprawling plurals vividly recalling erotic activities increase the emotional intensity (64n.).

66 compressiones artae amantum corporum: a neat alliterative abba chiasmus to suggest embracing. This is the first extant occurrence of the form compressio; its more common cognate compressus is also used as a sexual euphemism (Adams 1982: 182-3). amantum: the usual ending (not -?um) of the gen. pl. of present participles in P. (Gerschner 2002: 131). 67—8 Metonymic particulars to help Calidorus conjure vivid memories of their erotic experiences, with each line ending in an affective diminutive (-unculae) . Overall in P. women use diminutives more frequently than men (Gilleland 1979: 203-53); in coaxing, amatory speech they are used by a male to a female (Poen. 366—7), a female to a male (As. 666—7), a male representing a female (Cas. 134—-5), and by the senex amator and his slave to the supposititious bride (Cas. 837—54). For 'feminine discourse' in P. see Dutsch 2008; for P.'s extensive use of diminutives Lorenz 1876: 57—64, LHS 11.772-7. 67 teneris labellis molles morsiunculae ‘The gentle nibbles of lovely lips’; each noun/adj. combination occupies a main limb of the trimeter. labellis: diminutive of labrum (instrumental abl. with the verbal noun morstunculae). morsiunculae. coined here. For vigorous erotic biting of lips cf. Tib. 1.6.14, 1.8.38, Hor. Carm. 1.19.11—12 (Goldberg 2005: 100-2 compares Catul. 8.15-19).

COMMENTARY 67a

nostr[orjum

orgiorum

‘our

67a-71

secret

131

rites'.

orgia:

only

here

in P.

Phoenicium in her letter uses a markedly high proportion of Greek words for a female character/speaker in P. (Maltby 1995: 40); the metaphor from mystery religions expresses intimacy/exclusivity (consistent with a comic prostitute's goal of convincing each lover of his 'specialness'). The line 15 not transmitted in P, but 15 found in lacunose form in A; Lorenz's

proposal to read nostrum (the more common form in P.: LP noster) rescues the metre. «osculatiunculae:

a reasonable

conjecture

(Loewe)

to fill the line’s

gap (cf. Catul. 48.6, Cic. Cael. 49, TLL 1x.2.1105.10-19), doubly marked as diminutive (osculum - os * -culus) and yielding a three-word trimeter (as at 68). 68 papillarum horridularum oppressiunculae ‘The delicate tickle of teeny-tiny, erect little nipples', another striking trimeter of three words, with a superabundance of diminutives for sentimental effect. horridularum: diminutive of horridus (‘stiff’) to modify the doubly diminutive papillarum; there is a sharp tactile contrast with the 'soft little lips' (67). oppressiunculae. another neologism and hapax legomenon (the dash marks an anacoluthon: 6gn.). 69 harunc uoluptatum . . . omnium ‘of all these delights’ (harunc- harum * -ce, the deictic parücle as in cedo, hic, illic, etc.); the gen. disjunctively gath-

ers up the sequence of nominatives launched at 64 and left dangling (for ‘detached nominatives' see KS 11.2.586—7, LHS 11.731, Adams 2005: 92-3). uoluptatum: cc D A (iambic shortening); the line scans A B cc DA BcDaa Bc D (for iambic scansion of tibi see Questa 2007: 62—3). The word has sexual connotations (as in Alcumena's uzrtus monody, Am. 633—53). 70 distractio, discidium,

uastities uenit 'division, separation,

desola-

tion are drawing down on us'; striking alliterative asyndeton in a tricolon with (semantic) crescendo. uastities: hapax legomenon; cf. the prosaic uastitas, uastitudo (Pac. trag. 314 Ribbeck, Acc. trag. 374, 455, 615 Ribbeck). 71 quae . . . salus 'some help' (cf. 61n.). salus: the final word of a breathtaking sentence (64-73n.) that returns (‘ring composition': Blànsdorf 1967: 103—44) to the central theme foregrounded at the letter's opening (43n.). mihi in test aut tibist in me: sharp parallelism of pronouns (in cases of elision, pronunciation probably did not obliterate homoioteleuton) in a chiastic arrangement to suggest the lovers' mutual affection and interdependence. For prodelision (test, tibist) see Introduction p. 55. Auhagen 2009: 190-3 places Phoenicium in the ranks of Roman comedy's bonae meretrices (based on the description of the good Menandrian hetaira as ‘loving in return', Plut. Mor. 712c, though she also seems to act from selfinterest: 52, 226, 1911nn.).

192

COMMENTARY

72-6

72 quae | ego: b5 (prosodic hiatus).

sciui 'l've found out (« scisco). ut scires curaui ‘I've taken care that you know’; cf. the end of the letter, Per. 527 haec cura et hospes cura ut curetur (curaui (ut) * subj. . . . 15 common in Cicero’s letters, e.g. Q. fr. 2.4.2; OLD curo 6c). For the repetition of scio cf. Mos. 1156 fecit quae te scire scit, St. 301 qui potuit scire haec scire me? 73 ego te: for the juxtaposition of the lovers' pronouns cf. 16, 71, 109nn.; for the prolepsis of ἐε (‘I'll test you — what you . . .᾽) see 16n. experiar quid ames, quid simules: cf. Ballio's anaphora of quae four times in the indirect questions at 175, also introduced by experiar (174). quid ames ‘to what extent you are a lover' (quid: adverbial acc.); a split resolution 15 permissible in the case of a ‘weak’ pronoun such as quid here: Introduction p. 62. quid simules ‘to what extent you're pretending (to be a lover)'. The anaphora of quid and homoioteleuton crisply highlight the opposed clauses and contentions here. uale: the conventional sign-off in a letter, also used in taking leave of

the dead in sepulchral inscriptions; cf. Calidorus' over-the-top reaction (74) and for the lover's figurative death (9, 45nn.). 74 misere . . . miserrume: antanaclasis (Introduction p. 49). Calidorus sets up the joke for Pseudolus (cf. 32n.): while the letter evokes (self-) pity and sadness in him (4n.), the dry-eyed Pseudolus (75) puns on its ‘wretched’ quality, both in 115 overblown rhetoric (64—73n.) and sloppy handwriting (30n.). 'Pseudolus' comment. . . may also mean that the plot laid out for this letter is a piece of hack writing' (Slater 1985: 120). 45 quin: 40η. fles: fleo (as ploro) describes louder crying than /acrimo (cf. 44), usually

accompanied by gestures of wailing (Roccaro 1974). According to Roman elite male codes of behaviour, Calidorus' weeping over the prospect of losing Phoenicium casts him as effeminate (for acceptable occasions for public crying see Richlin 2001: 232—5). Cf. 96n. pumiceos oculos habeo 'I've got eyes of pumice', another incongruous equivalency. Pumice-stone is proverbially dry (Otto 1890: 290; its ancient uses included polishing the ends of papyrus rolls, e.g. Catul. 1.2). Pseudolus again shows himself to possess more ‘manly’ self-control than his master: 'fletus, the proper idiom of pain, was the prerogative of women and hopeless nincompoops' (Dutsch 2008: 101). Slater 1993: 120-1 discusses Pseudolus' simultaneous understanding of, but also detachment from, his master's belief in love as an example of the clever slave's ‘mobile sensibility’ (the term is Greenblatt's), a skill that allows him to manipulate his social betters. Cf. 23—4, 96nn., Introduction pp. 49-50. queo: probably a back-formation of nequeo (neque + eo). 76 exorare 'to prevail upon them (Ξ my eyes)'.

COMMENTARY

77-9

199

exspuant 'spit out' (onomatopoeic; only here in P.), a metaphor when used of the eyes (striking examples of the verb in Fantham 1972: 52-3), here a Plautine personification. 77 quid ita? 'How's that?', inviting further explication of the comic conundrum (= the ‘punchline’: 22n.); Marx 1959: 130-2 collects similarly structured jokes in P. genus nostrum semper Siccoculum fuit: the nonce adj. is coined here « siccus + oculus (‘Dryoculean’, a portmanteau; cf. ξηροφθαλμία, ‘dry-eye dis-

ease') and should be capitalized, as it is based on adjectives denoting geographic origin (e.g. Siculus). Pseudolus' claim 15 one of many jokes in P. turning on a Roman legal fiction that slaves lack parents and ancestry (cf. Capt. 574 quem patrem, qui seruos est?, Caecil. 245-6 Ribbeck). P.’s transgressive slaves bombastically assert otherwise, as Pseudolus does again at 581-2 maiorum meum fretus uirtute (cf. Cas. 418, Mil. 373, St. 303). There 15 also a metacomic dimension to the joke: genus nostrum here aptly describes the class of clever slaves (so Dutsch 2008: 101 n. 29; cf. Per. 582 generi lenonio, Cur. 499, Epid. 18 capreaginum hominum . . . bantherinum genus, Courtney 1993: 19, 590 n.), who remain aloof from their foolish young masters' emotional crises (e.g. Palinurus in Cur., Parmeno

in Ter. Eu.), never cry, and

instead calmly seek solutions. Cf. 23—4, 75nn. genus: cc (apocope); the line scans a bb cc D A B C D aa B c D. semper. an especially magniloquent claim, as if Pseudolus' dry-eyed lineage reached back many generations; the seruus callidus is a momentary stage creation: ‘The wily slave of Plautine comedy is a character without a past' (Leigh 2004: 57). 78 adiuuare me: pointing to the clever slave's function in P. as a selfless subordinate working for the benefit of his younger master without any hope of recompense, i.e. merely for the fun (/udus) of it, even when his efforts place him at loggerheads with his older master (4n.). audes 'want to', the verb's primary sense (cf. auidus, OLD audeo 1). faciam: deliberative subjunctive, as in classical Latin

(P. also uses the

indicative, e.g. Capt. 479, 481: cf. KS 11.1.120, LHS 11.308). 79-84 eheu! | :: eheu? . . . domo: a frequent Plautine shtick built on the repetition of a single word (eheu, ‘alas’ = 1320 heu), in this case four instances; Rud. 1212-26 has licet thirteen times, culminating with a pun on licentia; quin is repeated eleven times at Cas. 602-9. The unsentimental slave characteristically mocks his master's expression of grief. For the capstone joke see 84n. 79 eheu | :: eheu: B/ Chiatus at change of speaker (Introduction pp. 55, 575 thelinescansA BCDaBcDABcD(oraBcD...;cf.81n.on eheu) . id: P. has both the acc. and (more often) the dat. with parco (LP parco 1I.2—9). hercle: 2gn.

194

COMMENTARY

80-5

ne parsis: the subjunctive in commands and prohibitions is widespread in early Latin. In classical Latin prose it is found mainly in secondperson generalizations (NLS §126—30); for the form see 5, 14nn. This is Pseudolus' third use of an archaic sigmatic subjunctive (cf. 14, 37) in this scene to pompously affect an elevated style: de Melo 2007: 195-8. dabo ' That Tl provide' (anticipating the joke's climax in 83; 84n.),

i.e.

‘that [= an eheu] I can give you gratis' (perhaps an aside). 80 miser sum: 4, 13nn. argentum . . . mutuom: i.e. a loan that can be secured without interest from a friend (Watson 1991: 125-6); the lex Plaetoria (303n.) prohibited young men under the age of twenty-five from entering into a loan with a banker. mutuom = mutuum (Introduction p. 64). nusquam inuenio: 45n. 81 intus 'at my house' (Calidorus can't ask his father for the money). nummus 'cash' (OLD 4). eheu: the first syllable must be short here, as in [82]. [82] The line is problematic in that Harpax is expected today (59n.);

suspected of interpolation by Leo. ille: i.e. the soldier's valet (51, 57—8nn.). abducturus est . . . cras: perhaps tolerable as a temporal blunder, or a clumsy marginal comment that found its way into the text. mulierem 'the woman' 15 not what we expect from an adulescens amans. Calidorus elsewhere refers to Phoenicium as his amica (232, 344) in the romantic sense of the word (35n.). We are given no idea of Phoenicium's age in Ps., but P.'s meretrices can reasonably be assumed to be in their mid to late teens (Rosivach 1998: 77-8).

eheu: 81n.

83 istocine pacto ' That's how ...?' (istocine = isto * -ce + -ne). do id quod mihi est ‘I give what I've got.' 84 is . . . thensaurus ‘a supply of that’, i.e. of the cry eheu. As a slave Pseudolus posseses an endless store of misery in his master's house. Pseudolus pointedly contrasts his corporeal torment with his master's emotional pain; for Calidorus eheu sounds a cry of self-pity, for Pseudolus it is metonymic of torture. P. likes the metaphorical collocation 'treasury of X', where X (para prosdokian) substitutes for something worth storing, e.g. mali (Mer. 163, 641), stupri (Am. fr. 16); cf. Eur. Jon 923-4 μέγας 6ncaupós . . . kakóv. There is an implicit contrast here with 'a supply of money' uel sim. (cf. As. 277 largitur peculium, omnem in tergo thensaurum gerit, with Hurka 2010: 139). iugis 'unsünting' (nom.), only here in P. and rare until Apuleius (frequent in Christian writers: TLL v11.2.629.63—631.40). 85 actum est de me 'I'm done for' (cf. 45n.).

COMMENTARY

hodie often means 'in the play' opposed to cras, ‘after the play': 413, 225, Dunsch 2016: 130-2), as at 104, mutuam: 8on. 85—6 sed potes tu . .. | .. . dare ‘but possum in Latin, more

85-92

195

in P. (e.g. Am. g4, 480, Capt. 70; 530, 1335ann., Christenson 2000: 112, 117 (cf. 129 ?n hunc diem). you canlend...' (for directives with

often declarative statements than a question, see

Risselada 1993: 301-13; the impersonal potin + utis more abrupt: 235n.). 86 drachumam: for the relative value see 52n. (« δραχμή; for ease of pronunciation Latin inserted vowels in some Greek loanwords, e.g.

Alcumena, techina, mina: LL 231—2).

87 uix . . . si me opponam pignori ‘not even if I mortgaged myself’ (s is concessive: OLD 9). pignori ‘as collateral’, predicative dat./dat. of purpose (for pignusin Roman security transactions see Watson 1991: 131-3). Pseudolus suggests that as a bad slave he is worthless. 88 quid ea drachuma facere uis? ‘What are you planning to do with that drachma?’; a question with facio * instrumental abl. 15 a lively colloquialism, e.g. Mil. 973 quid illa faciemus concubina?, Truc. 789 quid puero factum est . . .?: LHS 11.121 (concrete noun as instrument: OLS 1.876). quid ea shares a (bb) resolution (73n.); the line scans A bb

C dd

A bbcDA BcD.

restim: rope is a proverbial device of suicide (Otto 1890: 298). 89 qui me faciam pensilem 'in order to make myself a swinger' (relative clause of purpose: 46n.). qui with which’, an old abl./instrumental form, common in early Latin: OLD qu?'. For the gallows humour cf. Aul. 77-8 ut unam faciam litteram | longam laqueo collum quando opstrinxero (Staphyla, chronically abused by Euclio, threatens to hang herself, perhaps like a long Z cf. Maclennan and Stockert 2016: 119), Poen. 312 pro uua passa pensilis, which figures a suicide victim as a bunch of drying grapes. Cf. the ubiquitous curse ('go hang yourself’): 1229n. 90 certum est mihi 'I'm resolved.’ ante tenebras tenebras persequi 'to reach the shades (of the underworld) before the evening's shadows'. The mawkish lover returns to his central preoccupation (9, 32, 45nn.), this time juxtaposing two distinct metaphorical senses of tenebrae (antanaclasis). Carrying out the threat is foreign to comedy; in Roman (elite male) cultural terms, the adulescentes who make empty threats to kill themselves over love are behaving in an effeminate manner (Dutsch 2012); cf. As. 606-15, Cist. 639—46, Epid. 148, Mer. 469-73. 91 igitur 'that being so' (OLD 2). 92—3 Pseudolus deflates any seriousness in Calidorus' pledge to commit suicide by reducing it to an economic matter (cf. 23—77, 47nn.); Chalinus at Cas. 424—7 similarly reasons that hanging himself with a rope would be a waste of money and effort. Calidorus later calls for a sword,

196

COMMENTARY

92-6

only to have his suicidal ideation again dismissed by Pseudolus' jesting (348—50). Cf. 1222--2. 92 te ea: the elision results in a monosyllable (with synizesis of ea); scan ABCDABcDABcD. sciens ‘on purpose' (cf. 5n. on /ubens). 93 defrudes - defraudes; colloquial Latin features ‘more expressive compounds' (LL 76—7) in de-. Pseudolus hammers home his charge with further alliteration and assonance (drachumam . . . dederim). drachumam . . . dederim: the fourth mention of the sum in this repetition joke, rounded off with a reprise of drachuman dare (86; cf. 87, 91). dederim: subjunctive (for a future perfect of oratio recta: cf. 91 dedero) because the protasis is subordinate to the purpose clause (ut... defrudes). 94 profecto nullo pacto possum uiuere: more thoughts of death (gon.), with pronounced alliteration and homoioteleuton. The line has a relatively heavy rhythm, with shorts only in the first and eleventh elements (cf. 111, 126nn.): cf. Gratwick and Lightley 1982. profecto ‘absolutely' (OLD 1). 95 illa a me: the inseparability of lovers motif 15 also found at Cist. 645 (Alcesimarchus' ‘staged’ suicide) sola me ut uiuam facis and Cur. 172 (the adulescens Phaedromus embraces his lover Planesium) hoc etiam est quam ob rem cupiam utuere. abalienatur: technically of transferring property (cf. alieno, Mer. 457, 41—77n.) but also more generally ‘remove’ (OLD 1b; cf. its pairing here with abducitur. the repetition of the prefix stresses emotional separation, strengthened by alliteration with atque joining the verbs), both apropos here. Cf. Cur. 174 (Planesium to Phaedromus) nec prohibebit, nisi mors meum animum aps te abalienauerit. 96 fles: in masked comedy crying can be represented through a combination

of words,

movements

of the head

and body, and

intonation,

as the actor playing Calidorus may have been doing since 74 (if not earlier). cucule ‘you fool’ (lit. ‘cuckoo’), a generic comic insult (cf. κόκκυγες, Ar.

Ach. 598) used of the adulescens amans ( Trin. 246), a senex amator (As. 923, 934), and by slaves trading insults (Per. 282). Lilja 1965: 34 suggests that Latin speakers might think of culus (‘asshole’).

uiues ‘you’ll tism to deflate quid ego ni 73n.). ni Ξ ni/

survive’, another ironic dose of the clever slave's pragmathe lover's hyperbole (92-3n.). fleam 'Why shouldn't I cry?' (quid ego 15 a split resolution: ne, the simple negative, often combined with quid in this

form of question (OLD n? 1d).

COMMENTARY

97-103

197

97 quoi . . . paratus . . . siet: subjunctive in relative clause of characteristic. For the forms quoi (= cu?) and siet (= sit) see Introduction pp. 47, 64 and 5on., respectively. nummus argenti: a silver didrachm (OLD nummus 1; cf. 81n.), a lead-in to more 'silvery humour (47, 100nn.). Cf. 299, 404, 405nn. 98 libellai: the earlier form (restored metri causa by Ritschl here for the MSS'

libellae)

of the gen.

(MHL

20-1),

the archaism

being appro-

priate for a small denomination that is passing into the proverbial (cf. 629, 1146, Capt. 947, Cas. 316, and the use of 'farthing' and ‘penny’ in English). Cf. Calidorus' verbal archaisms

(also in a financial context)

at 50 and g7. usquam gentium 'anywhere in the world’, hyperbole (as nec spes libellai). Cf. 405n. 99 ut . . . audio ‘As I catch the drift of this letter', highlighting that Pseudolus is the interpres of the letter (26n.) and that he, not the clueless

Calidorus, will mount a response to it. sermonem 'talk', i.e. what the letter says, also indirectly acknowledging Phoenicium's letter as a quasi-speaking character: 41—77n. Cf. 1008n. 100 nisi: usually pyrrhic in P., as at 61, 71, 107.

tu illi: for the juxtaposition of the pronouns see 73n. 2{{| 'for her’, dat. of advantage with fleueris (AG §376, SNLS 64). lacrumis . . . argenteis ‘with tears of silver’ (another identification joke: 29—4, 75nn.). lacrumis: Bothe's emendation for the MSS' drachmis (dacrima < δάκρυμα, an early spelling of lacrima); either of these virtual doublets yields the same joke (Fontaine 2010: 245-6). Pseudolus again cuts to the essence of things (92-3n.). 101 quod . .. te probare postulas ‘the fact that you expect to win points for yourself' (OLD probo 6). The quod clause is the subject of 102 refert. istis: Calidorus' (current) worthless tears. 102 non pluris refert ‘makes no more difference' (the impersonal -* gen. of indefinite value: AG 8417, NLS 8875 iv). imbrim in cribrum geras: proverbial in Greek and Latin (Otto 1890: 98, a locus classicus for futile activity in ancient myth being the Danaids). Cf. 369. 103 ego te amantem: the overlap with the language of lovers (16, 73nn.) underscores the selfless devotion of the clever slave to his master's happiness in idealizing terms (78n.). amantem ‘lover-boy’ (Calidorus' stock character). ne paue, non deseram: lively parataxis (reflecting Pseudolus' reassuring tone). In early Latin neis used with the imperative in negative commands (GL8270; cf. 79n.) in an inhibitive sense (‘stop being afraid’): de Melo 2011b: 330-1. deseram perhaps suggests a military idea and belongs

198

COMMENTARY

104-9

to Pseudolus' ample stock of such metaphors (574-603bn.); cf. 1027 ne deserat me (Pseudolus fears Simia has defected). 104 bona opera aut hac mea 'by honest service or the sort I'm known for'; hac mea = mala opera (the demonstrative suggests he gestures towards his body). Pseudolus again assumes spectators' familiarity with his character type (77n.).

105 inuenturum esse: for Ps.' central theme of novelty/invention see Introduction pp. 34-40. auxilium argentarium ‘help in the form of silver’ (cf. 46 salutem argenteam, 49n., Epid. 672 opes argentarias). 106—7 ἰά futurum undeunde dicam nescio, | nisi quia futurum est ‘I don't know from where (in the world) I should say it'll come, but I'm sure it will', the first of several indications that Pseudolus lacks a prefabricated plan (394-414n.), virtually repeated in his monologue at 567-8. Pseudolus' power lies in improvising in the face of new opportunities (667—93n.); improvisation carries a potential for socially subversive effects in the theatre (Slater 1993) and is a distinctive feature of Plautine comedy: Introduction pp. 37-43. 106 atque 'and yet' (OLD 9). undeunde:

the (trisyllabic) reduplication of unde (only here in P. and

rare in Latin) yields an indefinite adv.: cf. utut (268, 310), quisquis, etc. dicam: this pleonastic use of dicam (versus id futurum sit undeunde) is widespread in P., in both direct and indirect questions (LHS 11.797). 107 nisi quia futurum est 'except that it will happen' (cf. 568, 1102, Karakasis 2005: 140—-1). ita supercilium salit ‘so says my eyebrow's twitching’, i.e. 1{ is a sign that financial aid (105n.) will be found. Such a telegraphed gesture of assent (zta 15 its deictic marker) can be represented by a masked actor through the use of a mask with an asymmetrical brow and/or manipulation of light and shade. See further Wiles 1991: 166—7, Marshall 2006: 194—5, Petrides 2014a: 177. For 'kinesic signification’ in theatre see Elam 1980: 69-78. 108 utinam . . . suppetant! ‘I only hope your deeds back up the words you're saying!’; Calidorus' diffidence elicits a graduated series of boasts from Pseudolus in the rest of the scene. dicis dictis: the figura etymologica at the main break of the trimeter crisply divides the line between

(actual) words and (hypothetical) deeds.

The ancient commonplace (Plautine examples in Stockert 1983: 80) raises the question, do Pseudolus' deeds ever match his words (3-132, 37, 121nn.)? 109 quidem: emphasizing tu ('You of all people know . . .'; Solodow 1978: 94-8).

COMMENTARY

110-14

199

mea si commoui sacra 'once I've plied my instruments’, an aggrandizing metaphor from mystery rites (OLD sacrum 1a) suggesting Pseudolus' ability to stir up quasi-Bacchic chaos (110n.), and that he will conduct his own Dionysia (59n.) today. 110 soleam: when Pseudolus asserts he has a past as a seruus callidus, he is mobilizing spectators' memory of previous comic performances, not a personal history: 77, 104nn. turbellas dare ‘to raise a little rumpus’, a bathetic apodosis (the diminutive is ironic understatement and the plur. is idiomatic: OLD turba 1d). Creating havoc in a play is a characteristic ploy of the clever slave, e.g. Chrysalus in Bac. (cf. 357 quas ego hic turbas dabo!, Mil. 813, Mos. 546). For the centrality of confusion in Roman comedy see Sharrock 2009: 15-16. 111 omnes spes . . . aetati meae 'all hopes for my being’ (OLD aetas 6d), another lover's hyperbole (a rhythmically heavy line, with a short only in the obligatory eleventh position: cf. 94, 126nn.). 112-13 Pseudolus offers two options for taking possession of Phoenicium: (1) fraudulent extraction of her from the pimp's house, as eventually happens through the impersonation of Harpax by Simia (956—1051), or (2) extortion of money, most probably from the paterfamilias (120n.), to purchase her from Ballio, on the assumption that the pimp would void his agreement with the soldier if presented with 20 minae (legal under Greek law: 53n.). Pseudolus' confident promise is mere bluster, as he has no concrete plan to get Phoenicium by either method. 112 satin est ‘Will you be happy?' (satin = satis + -ne).

hanc . . . mulierem: prolepsis (16, 73nn.). Cf. [82]n.

114 satis ‘yes’ (62n.). 114-18 Pseudolus and Calidorus enter into a stipulatio, a Roman form of oral pledge (Crook 1967: 207-8, Watson 1991: 53-7; Introduction Ρ. 23), in which the words exchanged between the parties (typically, ‘Do you promise to do X?' ‘I do’) constitute a binding contract. A slave could not enter into such contracts on his own behalf and so Pseudolus again (77n.) is co-opting a citizen's rights. Danese 20139: 22 suggests that Pseudolus' words here metatheatrically bind him to carrying out the expected deceptions of a seruus callidus. Pseudolus and Callipho forge a similar oral agreement at 536-8, as do Ballio and Simo at 1076-8 (these arrangements suggest Plautine additions to his source: Lefévre 1997: 29—7). Cf. g53n. 114 roga me uiginti minas: roga 15 an invitation to propose a formal question in a stipulatio (114—18n.). For now Pseudolus concentrates on the cash option (112-13n.) of securing Phoenicium's release. roga: bb (iambic shortening); the line scans aa BcDA bb CD A B ¢ D.

140

COMMENTARY

115-22

115 promisi: as in a formal stipulatio (114—18n.). 116 The line is repeated at 1073, where Ballio and Simo also strike an oral contract: 1070-2, 107gnn. roga: sc. me (114n.).

opsecro hercle 'please, I'm begging you' (29n). gestio ‘I'm itching', a denominative verb that describes strong emotion combined with physical movement (gestus; Fordyce 1961: 221). 117-18 dabisne . . . | :: dabo: the core agreement of the stipulatio (114-18n.). 118 dabo: a way of saying 'yes' in Latin (62n.), but the precise repetition of the verb secures the oral contract. molestus nunciam ne 515 mihi ‘Now stop bothering me' (for ne * subj. see 79n.); nunciam reinforces the command (not strictly temporal and always trisyllabic in this usage: OLD 1). 119 dictum: sc. esse. 120 tuom tangam patrem ‘I’ll fleece your father' (OLD tango 6, LS II.B.1; cf. 1308a), i.e. hit him up for 20 minae

to purchase Phoenicium

legally (52, 112-19nn.). Given the tensions inhering in patriarchal Roman family structure, the young lover's assault on his father's authority, as well as finances, figures in many Roman comedies (Segal 1987: 15-41, Sutton 1993: 55-108). The prospect of conning Simo to purchase Phoenicium proves to be a smokescreen in Ps. to playfully deceive spectators (Sharrock 1996: 156). At 406—8 (cf. 418-22) Pseudolus refers to a previous attempt to obtain the 20 minae from Simo that failed. The idea of bamboozling Simo 15 briefly resurrected at 410-26 and 507-18, but abandoned for good when

Harpax

arrives. A bet, however,

is made

between

Pseudolus

and Simo that the former will successfully trick Ballio out of Phoenicium (525—-56; the wager is settled at 1312—931). Lowe 1999 argues that the prospect of intrigue against Simo was introduced by P. to his Greek source, wherein only the pimp was a target. tuom: Introduction p. 64. 121 di te mihi semper seruent! an ironic appeal to the gods in the context of flouting pietas (121, 122nn.), and an index of the fickleness of Calidorus' moods. To Romans, seruoin such formulas probably suggested Salus (Hanson 19592: 74-7), the personification of safety: cf. 43n. te mihi: 103n. on ego le amantem.

122 pietatis causa —

'as far as pietas is concerned - ' (OLD causa 18).

In the wake of his impious oath

(121n.)

Calidorus exhorts Pseudolus to

cheat his mother as well! fietas (*dutiful respect towards gods, fatherland, and parents and other kinsmen', OCD s.v.; cf. Saller 1994: 105-14) is an essential constituent of Roman

society's ideological fabric, which

erotic

infatuation/amor trumps in P.'s comic world (cf. 356n.); ‘Plautus has invoked a pious formula only to reverse it' (Segal 1987: 16).

COMMENTARY

123-6

141

uel etiam *or, if you like, even' (31n.). For the split resolution cf. 73n.;

the line scans aa BCDAbDbcDABcD. etiam . . . quoque: the pleonasm lends special emphasis to matrem (Petersmann 1974: 136). matrem quoque: sc. tange, a ludicrous addition to emphasize that Calidorus is onboard with Pseudolus' transgressive schemes (120n.), and the only indication of the former's ‘nuclear family'. There may also be a sexual pun, as tango ('feel up’) 15 ἃ common euphemism for sex: Adams 1982: 185-7. The materfamilias is never the target of the clever slave's financial schemes in Roman comedy, as theoretically might happen in the case of an uxor dotata (Christenson 2016). 123 in oculum utrumuis conquiescito: Pseudolus idiosyncratically modifies a widespread ancient proverb ('sleep on whichever ear you please’ = ‘don’t worry': Otto 1890: 46), for the sake of being innovative (124n.). conquiescito: 20n. on narrato. 124 oculum anne in aurem? 'On my eye or on my ear?' (?n governs both accs.: the ἀπὸ κοινοῦ or 'shared construction' with prepositions is less common in Latin than in Greek: LHS 11.835). Whereas the proverb corresponds with physiological reality ('sleep easily on your left or right side’), Pseudolus' estranging modification is novel nonsense. He is fast growing into his role as über-clever slave. hoc peruolgatumst minus ‘My expression is so less cliché', highlighting the need for innovation (in language), especially within a circumscribed tradition such as New Comedy (Introduction pp. 5-7), even though it strictly 15 impossible to create a ‘new’ proverbial expression. For Pseudolus' arrogance here cf. the jubilant Chrysalus’ boast (a selfstyled ouatio, 1069) to spectators, Bac. 1073-4 ne miremini | quod non triumpho: peruolgatumst, nil moror, and Epid. 350 nil moror uetera et uolgata uerba.

125—7 dico...|...|... edico 'Tsay... I hereby declare' (OLD edico

1c). Pseudolus corrects himself (31n.) via the compound, the uox propria for a Roman magistrate making a public proclamation. We can easily imagine an actor in the intimate confines of a performance before the temple of the Magna Mater (Introduction pp. g—10) loudly delivering his comic edict to spectators and the surrounding city. 125 dictum: sc. esse. dico omnibus: spectators of course included. 126 Thelinescans ABCDABcDA BcD,arelatively heavy rhythm to enhance Pseudolus' mock grandeur. pube 'to the (able-bodied) male population' (the noun's only occurrence in P.), as if he were mustering an army. For the fifth-declension dat. form see MHL 70-1.

142

COMMENTARY

127-32

in contione: a contio could only be convened by a Roman magistrate or general (Morel 1964). poplo = populo, a metrically convenient form (usually at line-end). 127 omnibus amicis notisque . . . meis 'to all my friends and all who know me’ (assuming a grandiose citizen's posture). 128 in hunc diem ‘in this play’: 85, 530nn. a me ut caueant, ne credant mihi 'that they should be on guard against me, should not trust me'. The substance of Pseudolus' self-aggrandizing (125—7n.) proclamation is revealed: in keeping with Pseudolus' insistence on novelty (123, 124nn.), forewarning all that a seruus callidus is out to cheat a senex and/or a leno will further magnify his ultimate success. Pseudolus' challenges regarding his own trustworthiness invite spectators to interrogate theatrical illusion itself (Introduction pp. 32—45); Feeney 2010 examines the play's conflation of personal, financial, and theatrical

‘credit’. 129—30 st ‘shh’, an onomatopoeic interjection, almost always used with the imperative of taceo in P. (extra metrum here). opsecro hercle: 116n.; the linescans A BcDaBcDABcD.

quid negoti est? 'What's the problem?' (OLD negotium 11b). 129-31 ostium | lenonis crepuit: a creaking door, perhaps accompanied by a sound effect, was a stage direction to signal the imminent entrance of a character from a stage-house (e.g. Aul. 665, Men. 348, Mil. 154; for the convention see Petersmann 1971, Sharrock 2008). The onomatopoeic crepo (colloquial: Karakasis 2005: 38) is intransitive in P., with the possible exception of Bac. 833, where it uniquely has a personal subject. 131 crura mauellem modo ‘I only wish his shins had cracked’ (mauellem = mallem in a past unfulfilled wish: NLS §116). Breaking shins or ankles (Rud. 1059; As. 474, Mil. 156) was a punishment for slaves and criminals; at Poen. 886 a slave fears his master will brutally refashion him as Crurifragius (‘Shankwrecked’). 132 atque 'lo and behold' (OLD 6), more often combined with ecce to announce a character's entrance (Duckworth 1940: 164). ipse ‘himself and no one else' (OLD ipse 8). penitus 'from deep inside' 15 unparalleled (Leo prints ?ntus) in stage entrances,

and

raises

sinister

connotations

(e.g.

an

inhuman

Ballio

emerges from the bowels of his /upanar). Cf. 953—5. peiuri caput 'fountainhead of perjury'. Breach of trust is the pimp's trademark, as Ballio later metacomically asserts (1079-83). The same (voc.) phrase is used at Rud. 1099 (P. often has scelerum caput, as at 446 and 1054).

COMMENTARY

133

193-264 (Scenes 2—3: canticum) In one of P.'s most spectacles, the /eno Ballio (perhaps in a richly coloured from his house carrying a whip (135n.) and probably a stick (scipio, as the leno Dordalus carries at Per. 816); (1143, 1189-9onn.), closely accompanied by a slave

143

exuberant stage garment) enters straight walking Ballio is a senex (170 puere) who

carries a wallet around his neck. He then calls out five (male) slaves, who

scamper out of the pimp's house; one carries an axe (158), another a bucket (157), and the others may hold household cleaning implements (161—4). After these slaves are given their orders and dismissed, Ballio and the puer start for the forum, but the pimp suddenly remembers that he has instructions for his female slaves as well and calls them out from the brothel (172). The meretrices are first addressed as a group and then individually until they are dismissed (229). Calidorus and Pseudolus eavesdrop until the latter addresses Ballio (243), as they constitute an internal audience to the pimp's tirades (for such scenes in P. see Slater 1985: 11—12, 162—5 and Moore 1998: 34-40). Until they engage Ballio, Calidorus and (especially) Pseudolus through their asides compete with the flamboyant pimp for rapport with spectators. The canticum requires an unusually high number of actors onstage — nine at its beginning. Four of the actors playing male slaves can quickly change costumes at 168—72 to play the females (173-229), and so we need not assume a grex of more than nine (Marshall 2006: 103-4). The occasion for the fuss onstage is Ballio's birthday (165, 179), which the pimp seizes as an opportunity not only for forced celebration, but increased productivity from his brothel slaves. Ballio probably sports the comic pimp's goat-beard, but other details

of his appearance are uncertain: Marshall 2006: 140—6. Ballio 15 P.'s über-

pimp, an extreme specimen of his type (cf. Duckworth 1994: 262-4). Rather than deploy a lorarius, Roman comedy's slave-enforcer, Ballio himself whips his slaves onstage (rare in extant comedy: Jocelyn 2000b: 342 n. 133). Brutal, sadistic, inhumanely devoted to profit, and absurdly solipsistic, Ballio is a villain destined for defeat in Ps., though he provides an engaging opponent for Pseudolus: ' [not] only his goal of control but also his very language present him as a double of Pseudolus' (Sharrock 2009: 188), at least mutatis mutandis. Like the seruus callidusintroduced in Scene 1, Ballio delivers identification jokes (136, 193), quibbles over words (248, 252—9, 262), and coins new ones (137, 153, 255). He also draws a Greek mythic comparison (199-201), grandiosely issues edicts (143, 172), and assumes a magisterial persona (148, 158). Ballio's pervasively grotesque, threatening, and macabre imagery (136, 145—7, 200-1, 212-14, 229), however, distinguishes him, and Ballio unlike Pseudolus does not shy away

144

COMMENTARY

133

from clichés (140, 260); '[Ballio's] language is a strange mixture of the grandiloquent and the inelegant’ (Jocelyn 1999: 188).

Ballio subscribes to a ‘non-benevolent’

model

of slave ownership

(Thalmann 19960). To his thinking a slave — an :nstrumenti genus uocale (Var. R. 1.17.1, after Arist. ΕΝ 1161bg-6), a talking prosthetic extension of a master — must be controlled by constant vigilance and violence. This is made obvious throughout Ballio's song by his verbal threats, as also his wielding of his whip (135, 150, 152, 155) and fascination with the scars he has left, and continues to create, on his slaves' bodies

(136—7,

145—7, 151, 153—4; for the purpose of public whipping within the familia see Saller 1994: 133-54). Reactions to Ballio's song among theatregoers might have been as diverse as P.'s audience itself, though perhaps all saw him as a theatrical villain (for the social legitimacy of tricking P.’s pimps see Konstan 1983: 30-1). While P. has drawn Ballio in outrageously broad strokes, even (some) slaveholders might have cringed at Ballio's unrelenting cruelty, greed, and commodification of his dehumanized slaves (Joshel 2010 provides an excellent overview of Roman slavery). From the scant evidence we possess of an ancient reception of Ps., Ballio's character seems to have been memorable, and was a challenging and attractive role for an actor (Brown 2002: 234). In addition to its polymetrics, the canticum is likely to have featured lively dance and pantomime movements by both its speaking and mute characters. Moore 2012: 311-26 analyses the entire canticum (with scansion, after Questa 1995: 322—35). METRICAL STRUCTURE OF 133-264 (for specific units see Intro-

duction pp. 57—62) 1337

ant

199

tr*

138

140 141 142—4

145

tr*

tr* colrei {

ι

146-52

ia*

154

iat

153

155-6

157-8 159-60 161-4 165-8

iat' iat'

ia* iat' { ant

COMMENTARY

133

169-70

171—-2

173 174-80 181 182—4 185-6 187 188-92 193 19475 195a 196 197-8

lat ia* lat 143

trsy (6 metra) tr*"

tr^

19g—200

201 202-2 209—4a 205 2052—7

tr?"

trsy (8 metra with catalexis) (extrametric) la?

208

227 228 220 290 291 292 299—8

1521 a

n

226

io

210 220 221 222 229 224 225

ER 811

218

11151

209-10 211—19 214 215 216-17

145

COMMENTARY

290 240

an* an* 1 2 iambs

2402-2 243

t* trt

2448 249 250—4 255 256—7 258 259—60 261

bat { bat { bat 2 crcol crt 2 cretics + crcol

2693 264

2 cretics * crcol cretic τ ith

262

133-4

cretic + tr*'

133—42 Following the long opening scene in spoken iambic trimeters unaccompanied by music, the tibicen suddenly plays as Ballio bursts forth in exuberant anapaests to denounce his slaves. These vary in their number of resolutions and therefore rhythm (e.g. 133 is ‘light’, while 134 is unusually *heavy' /slow), and are followed by swift trochaics (138—40n.). A colon reizianum retards Ballio’s pace at 141 and serves as a clausula to his thought about his slaves' ‘asininity’ begun at 136. A trochaic tetrameter (142) with summarizing content concludes this metrical section and effects a transition to the next (143-64n.): Moore 2012: 312-19. 133 exite, agite exite, ignaui 'Get out, come on now, get out, you slackers’ (for the aba pattern of imperatives in Latin poetry see Wills 1996: 91—5). The tyrannical pimp characteristically addresses his nameless slaves with imperatives (stage directions here) and insults in the voc. (for Ballio's possibly being booed upon entering see 1082n.). Once they are assembled onstage he refers to them in the third person (134-42) until he threatens them with corporal punishment if they fail to heed his ‘edict’ (143—7). agite. an imperatival intensifier (48n.). male | habiti et male conciliati ‘maintained at a loss and purchased at a loss’ (OLD male 77, concilio 4c); the avaricious Ballio hyperbolically views

his investment in human capital as debt. 134 Lit. 'To no one of whom does it ever occur to do anything properly.' quorum numquam quicquam quoiquam: suitably gargantuan language, with its run of qu sounds and homoioteleuton in -m, to introduce one of Roman comedy's most monstrous caricatures. quicquam: direct object of faciant.

COMMENTARY

135-6

147

uenit in mentem: with the dat. (quoiquam), as at Am. 299, etc. (OLD mens 1b).

recte faciant: the leno 15 ill-suited to expound on righteousness; as becomes increasingly obvious, the solipsistic Ballio means his slaves do nothing in a manner that benefits him. 135 quibus . . . non potest usura usurpari ‘of whom no use can be utilized’ (a strained figura etymologica: cf. 4, 13, 24nn.). quibus: abl. of the thing needed with the verbal noun usura (cf. usus est: AG §411, GL §406, OLS 1.1220); for Ballio's propensity for the passive voice see 186n. potest: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). nisi ad hoc exemplum experior 'unless I resort to this measure' (OLD experior 2 and exemplum 3); Ballio cracks his whip for the first time (hoc 20n. on hinc).

196 neque ... numquam ‘And I've absolutely never . . .' (double negative for emphasis: Lindsay 1907: 131, LHS 11.804, OLS 1.728). ego: emphatic rather than contrastive (in its expected second position: 209n.), characteristic of Ballio's speech (153, 163, 174, 182, 184, 200; cf.

145, 169, 214, 227).

homines magis asinos 'human beings more

(like) asses' (for the attrib-

utive adverb see OLS 1.1037). Ballio sees his human property as beasts of burden with hides rather than human skin (Fitzgerald 2000: 99-102) that must constantly be beaten for them to complete their labours. For the blurring of the line between man and beast in Roman humour see Beard 2014: 156—84, and for identification jokes 23—-4, 75, 100nn. asinos 15 more common as an abusive term in Terence than P., where in contrast

to here itis a mild pejorative (‘fool’): Barsby 1999: 199-200. Slaveholders in P. frequently refer to their slaves as human beings (as Ballio with homines here) rather than property — a pronounced cultural contradiction (Finley 1998: 141). ita plagis costae callent 'to such an extant are their ribs callused from blows' (2ta introduces a paratactic justification for a preceding statement: OLD 14; costa occurs only here in P.). For scar tissue from whipping cf. As. 419 qui latera conteram tua, quae occalluere plagis and 145—7n. callent is a denominative verb « callum, literally only here in P. (both literal and figurative at Poen. 578-9 uide sis calleas. | :: . . . callum aprugnum callere aeque non sinam) and rarely 50 in Latin (TLL 111.165.85—9). Fitzgerald

2000:

41

notes

further

that

callidus

(cf.

seruus

callidus)

15

derived from the verb ('to have knowledge from experience’, OLD 39): "The cleverness of the intractable slave's cunning is synonymous with the hardening of the skin, the imperviousness to punishment, that comes from continual beatings, themselves the reward of calliditas. Experience being worn by the ways of the world - and the impermeability of the hide

148

COMMENTARY

137-9

are both products of the master's anger.' Cf. 145—7, 149, 196—7, 229nn. and Introduction pp. 19-21, 36-47. 137 quom ferias . . . noceas: generalizing or 'ideal' second person sg. subjunctives (NLS 8195), here in the equivalent of a condition ('If you hit them, you'd . . .").

eo... ingenio looks forward to 138—9 (abl. of quality/description: AG 8415, OLS 1.1025). enim 'for' (31n. and OLD 4). flagritribae ‘whip-wasters’ (for the long penult see Questa 1984: 34152). Ballio coins a hybrid « flagrum * τρίβω (‘rub’), a hapax legomenon (cf. Per. 279 ulmitriba and Mos. 356 ferritribaces). He absurdly depicts his slaves as a drain on even his budget for instruments of torture (cf. 133n.). The flagrum, usually a whip of knotted cords with spikes, was especially destructive to skin: Ramsey 1869: 251-2, DS s.v. FLAGRVM. 138—40 The highly resolved trochaics and enjambments here help convey Ballio's indignation (Moore 2012: 3139). 138 haec . . . consilia ‘these plans/plots' (‘Ballio defines his slaves as exercising deliberative capacity only for crime and carnal indulgence’, Stewart 2012: 169). ubi data occasiost: in contrast, the (master's) idealized slave in P. resists

temptation even when presented with an opportunity to misbehave without his master's knowledge: cf. Harpax's 'good slave monologue' (110315) and McCarthy 2000: 26-5. 138—9 rape, clepe, tene, | harpaga, bibe, es, fuge: incapable of trusting his slaves (133—264n.), Ballio imagines voices inside their heads commanding them to steal his goods, consume his food and drink, and escape his control. At Trin. 289 the senex Philto, in a moral lecture to his son,

similarly figures the thoughts of the wicked: rape, trahe, fuge, late. A list of asyndetic imperatives occurs in Juvent. com. fr. 1 Ribbeck quod potes, sile cela occulta tege tace mussa mane, which suggests a preference for such catalogues in Roman comedy. For slaveholders' standard complaints (esp. of theft) about their slaves' work see Bradley 1994: 115-17. 138 clepe 'steal' (cf. κλέπτω), possibly demotic or 'street Greek' spoken in Rome (443, 483, 484, 485, 488nn.); the verb is used mostly in drama (TLL 111.1337.67—1338.11). 199

harpaga:

the

denominative

verb



ἁρπαγή,

'theft')

occurs

only in P. (957, Aul. 201, Bac. 656). For Harpax's (cognate) name see 654n. es « edo, 'eat'.

fuge: the slaveholder's greatest fear 15 reserved for last (cf. 365n.).

139—40 hoc est | . . . ut ‘is such that . . .’

COMMENTARY

140-5

149

140 eorum officium 'their job' (OLD officium 4a); from Ballio's jaundiced perspective, his slaves serve only to frustrate their master (138—gn.). eorum: scan as a single long (synizesis and elision). mauelis: generalizing subjunctive (‘one would prefer . . .'): 137n. lupos apud oueis: proverbial in Latin and Greek (Otto 1890: 198). Ballio does not share Pseudolus' disdain for clichés; his inability to innovate as the slave does proves to be a critical difference between them: 123,

124, 133—264, 1103-1237nn. oueis is the reading of A (Ξ ouis/es); for the acc. plur. see MHL 53-4. 142 quom aspicias . . . uidentur: equivalent to a general conditional (‘If you (merely) look at them . . .'); aspicias: 1377n. eorum: a long monosyllable (with synizesis and elision). mali: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). opera fallunt 'they disappoint you in their service' (OLD fallo 4). 143—64 To deliver his housekeeping instructions Ballio uses longer trochaic and iambic lengths, accompanied by frequent flashes of his whip (151-2, 154-5) and marked by accelerations in the (highly resolved) verse rhythm: Moore 2012: 314-15. 143 nunc adeo 'now then' (one of Ballio's characteristic phrases: 185, 855); the combination 'frequently introduces an energetic command or expression of resolve, generally in breaking off discussion, like Eng. “now I'll tell you what™ (Sonnenschein 1979: 135). hanc edictionem: an ostentatious noun (associated with Roman praetors: 1231n.) for the assignment of domestic chores (though not on a par with Pseudolus' audacious proclamation: 125-7n.). The action noun edictio (cf. edictum) occurs elsewhere only at 172 and Capt. 811, 823 (the bombastic claims of the parasite Ergasilus). Cf. edico at 855 and 903. animum aduortetis 'pay attention', one of the imperious Ballio's catchphrases: 152, 156, 187, 210 (with or without an acc. object). Its frequency invites directorial interpretation: do Ballio's slaves, through their body language and gestures, fearfully heed the pimp's orders or defiantly ignore/humorously disrespect him when he looks away? Some could pantomime actions with their props (133—264n.). 144 somnum socordiamque ex pectore oculisque: a ponderous aabb syntactic arrangement. exmouetis: this form (instead of em-) occurs only here and at Truc. 78, where the verb is similarly combined with ex pectore (TLL v.2.525.56—7). 145—7 Ballio’s conceit, in which his slaves' bloodied backs and sides are imagined to resemble elaborate and exotically hybrid (Greek, Italian, Egyptian) textiles, in its vividness (enargeia) jarringly combines aestheticism, brutal violence, and spectatorship (cf. Poen. 1289-91). For a slave's

150

COMMENTARY

145-50

defiant pride in his scarred back as grotesque art cf. Epid. 625—6 ex tuis uerbis meum futurum corium pulchrum praedicas | quem Apelles atque Zeuxis duo pingent pigmentis ulmeis. Cf. 544a—5, 1925nn. 145 uostra latera . . . faciam ut .. . sint: the prolepsis (16, 73, 112nn.) spotlights the slaves' (scarred) sides, as 4150 the alliteration of 1 and F. ualide uaria 'very variegated' (Ξ black and blue from beating). Cf. Poen. 26 (the prologist refers to slaves in the theatre) ne et hic uarientur uirgis et loris domi. ualide expresses intense degree (not strength) in colloquial Latin: OLD ualde 2, LU '75-6; uaria: cf. Mil. 216 (a threat to a slave) misi... agitare mauis uarius uirgis uigilias. 146 ne... quidem 'not even' (OLD quidem 6). 146—7 peristromata . . . Campanica | . . . Alexandrina . . . tappetia: an elaborate chiasmus mimicking intricate design. 146 peristromata: ‘throws’ for couches or beds; the Greek neut. plur. of περίστρωμα; the fourth-last syllable must be short here (Questa 1995:

323).

quidem | aeque: an unusual B/C hiatus in the ia'.

Campanica: the fertile region of Campania was long associated with

wealth, extravagance, and arrogance (OCDs.v. Campania, Otto 1890: 68).

147 Alexandrina beluata tonsilia tappetia: asyndeton, homoioteleuton, and alliteration conjure a richly disturbing (145—7n.) image. Cf. St. 378—9 (preparations for a banquet) tum Babylonica et peristroma, tonsilia et tappetia | aduexit. Alexandrina, like Campanica (146n.), suggests otherly luxuriousness (cf. Quint. Inst. 1.2.7 and Trimalchio's puer Alexandrinus, Petr. 68.3); beluata ‘animal themed' (esp. large, ferocious beasts: cf. OLD belua), hapax legomenon (Ballio ironically is the true ‘beast’: 193n.); tappetia ‘wool rugs’, an exotic-sounding Greek word (ταπήτιον). 148 edixeram: 54; for Ballio's imperious language see 127, 143nn. eas prouincias: Roman magisterial language applied to household chores

(143,

158nn.), and 50 another index of Ballio’s pretentiousness.

prouinciais often used with comic dissonance for mundane tasks in P.: Cas. 103, Capt. 156, 474, Mil. 1159, St. 698-9. 149 callenti ingenio 'thick skull’; callent;i is Leo's conjecture for the unmetrical neglegentes in Ῥ («ne»glenti in A); if correct, the slaves' minds are made to match their callused hides (Truc. 932, OLD calleo 1c; cf. 196). improbi ‘reprobates’ (cf. 1893), the reading of A (zmprobo P). 150 officium uostrum . . . commonerier ‘to be reminded of your duty’; the acc. with a verb of reminding more often is a pronoun (AG 8351N.), whether the construction is active or passive (with a retained acc.: 4901n.). Cf. St. 58 ut moneatur semper seruos homo officium suom. commonerier. for the form see [1]n., for the passive 186n.

COMMENTARY

151-5

151

malo ‘by a beating' (as often in P., e.g. Am. 27, Per. 816-17%). Ballio brandishes his whip threateningly here. 151 nempe ita animati | estis uos: uincitis duritia hoc atque me 'That's just the way you're inclined: with your toughness you get the better of this and me’ (uincitisis hyperbolic; the breach of Hermann's law (Introduction p. 63) is permissible in this position: Boldrini 1999: 79). For the parataxis cf. 196. nempe ‘without a doubt’ (they are 50 predisposed to neglectfulness

they need to be whipped). animati | estis: prosodic hiatus. duritia: a techni-

cal term for callosity (OLD 1b); cf. 136, 137nn. hoc = the whip (marking another blow). 152 hoc sis uide, ut alias res agunt! ‘Do take a look at this - the way [lit. “how”] they're not paying attention!’ (the indicative is usual in this construction, as if the ut clause were an independent exclamation: Enk 1979a: 44, Barsby 1999: 213). sis uide addressed to a representative spectator (sis is ironic: 48n.), probably with little sympathy gained (cf. the efforts of Plautine comedy's most aggressively unsuccessful seeker of audience rapport, the miser Euclio: Moore 1998: 43—7, Christenson 2014: 30-5). hoc agite ‘pay attention to £his (the whip again!). 153 huc: i.e. to the whip (as if it were addressing them). plagigera genera | hominum ‘you blow-bearing class of men’ (the pimp's intensity is emphasized by the accelerated rhythm here); Ballio's subjectivity at its extreme: his slaves’ human identity 15 defined by their beatings (hominum: 136n.). plagigera is hapax legomenon (as Cas. 262 scutigerulo, Truc. 551 damnigeruli; cf. 181n. on munerigeruli), with phonic play on genera; the form plagigeruli occurs at Mos. 875 (the 'good slave’ Phaniscus so labels his less virtuous colleagues). Cf. Epid. 17—18 qui uarie ualent, | capreaginum hominum non placet mihi nec pantherium genus and 136, 145nn. 154 edepol: in contrast to pol (25n.), used proportionately more often by men than women in P. (Adams 1984: 51). durius: 151n. on duritia. erit: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). terginum < fergum + -inus ('something made of hide' - Ballio's whip), probably coined for wordplay with tergum. Cf. Lucil. 772 Marx salue, dum saluo in tergo et tergino licet. hoc: marking another blow. 155 doletne? ‘Does it hurt?' em sic datur "There! That's what happens' (signalling yet another beating); cf.

Men. 604, 628, St. 766, Truc. 634.

seruos = seruus (Introduction p. 64). spernit can have a weakened sense, ‘pays no attention to’ (OLD 2c; cf.

152--9).

152

COMMENTARY

156-61

156 contra me 'in front of me' (contra with short ultima; Questa 2007: 81). The slaves, who filed in behind Ballio (133n.), line up before him to receive their specific orders (157-67). loquar: pyrrhic (iambic shortening of the originally long quantity of the ultima: Introduction pp. 54, 56). aduortite animum: 143n. 157—69 St. 347—97 provides a more detailed description of preparing a house for a feast. 157 I he slave who carries a bucket (urnam)

is ordered to fetch water

for the cook, and perhaps exits here (towards the forum?) to find a well. ingere: the ultima is breuis in longo (Introduction p. 53) at the main break. face. .. sit: sc. ut (face. 18n.). coco = coquo. Well-seasoned spectators may anticipate a comic cook's scene, which P. lavishly delivers (790-904n.). 158 The slave holding an axe receives Ballio's order for firewood (for heating the bronze cauldron mentioned in 157). te cum securi ‘you with the axe’

(antonomasia), versus the less collo-

quial tu qui urnam habes (157); cum is similarly used by Ballio at 174 to essentialize his female slaves as uiris cum summis. Cf. Mil. 16 illum dicis cum armis aureis, Trin. 3% amicum cum eius modi uirtutibus. caudicali praeficio prouinciae 'I name you Head of the Ministry of Firewood' (cf. 148n.). caudicali (*pertaining to trees', « caudex) is hapax legomenon. Cf. Per. 22 tribunus uapularis and 12931n. For the specialized duties of household slaves see Bradley 1994: 57-80. 159 The only slave to speak in the entire canticum — culturally designated a 'speaking tool’ (133-264n.) — is given an utterance of three words protesting the dullness of his axe, which sets up the climax of Ballio's less than sharp joke (160). The slave is not explicitly ordered to leave in 160, but might exit towards the countryside (opposite the forum wing). This is the only scene in Ps. requiring more than three speaking parts (Marshall 2006: 99). haec retunsast 'it's blunt'. sine siet 'So what?' (lit. ‘leave it be’). itidem uos [quoque estis] plagis omnes 'You're all just as blunt from my blows’ (estis is easily understood; Lindsay's deletion creates an iat" pair in 159-60). Ballio readily equates his familia with a worn and useless tool. 160 numqui minus ‘Do I (by) any the less?' (-qui 15 an old abl. of the indefinite pronoun: OLD quis', 89n.). ea gratia (abl.) 'for this reason'. omnium | opera: for the hiatus see Questa 2007: 251-2. 161 A third slave is charged with general housecleaning, and in contrast to the two previous slaves is told to go inside.

COMMENTARY

162-5

153

habes quod facias 'You've got your orders' (deliberative subjunctive in an indirect question: NLS 88135, 177, AG 8575b); habes: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 162 A fourth and a fifth slave are given specific tasks, but not explicitly ordered inside. esto . .. eluito . . . exstruito: the future imperative used precisely (20n.), as the slaves must first enter the house before performing their tasks. lectisterniator ‘couch-caretaker’,

here)

a grandiose word

(probably coined

to designate the slave in charge of preparing the pimp’s dining

couches for his birthday feast; a lectisternium is a ritual feast for gods, at

which their statues recline on couches (for the theme of Ballio’s perverse ‘divinity’ see 326—8, 327, 328, 329, 335nn.). idem ‘also’ (nom. sg. masc.): OLD 8, OLS 1.1149. 163 haec: the direct object of offendam in the ut (noun) clause, placed first for emphasis and modified by the line’s last word (parata).

a foro: we find out why he 15 headed to the forum (Rome's city-centre, corresponding to the Athenian agora) in 169. facite ut offendam 'see that I find . . .' (OLD offendo 3b). The imperative of facio * subjunctive is another of the imperious pimp's catchphrases (166, 177, 181, 190, 210).

164 uorsa sparsa, tersa strata, lautaque unctaque 'swept, sprinkled, wiped, strewn, and cleaned with lots of sheen', a lively string of rhyming trochaic participles (cf. St. 745 lauta, terta, ornata, ficta). uorsa « uerro, not uerto; sparsa indicates water 15 to be sprinkled to settle dust raised by cleaning (a nassiterna, a pot of water used for this purpose, is mentioned in cleaning scenes at Bac. fr. 1 and St. 352; cf. Titin. com. 130 Ribbeck uerrite aedis, spargite, munde facite in suo quique loco ut sita sint); with strata Ballio demands that coverlets be placed on the couches (cf. 162n.), as at St. 357. unctaque. preserved by Serv. A. 1.478 (the MSS have the nonsensical coctaque). uti: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 165—70 Ballio reverts to anapaests (165-8) to announce his birthday plans, which are followed by two iambic tetrameters that state his intent to go shopping. 165 mi hodie natalis dies est "Today 15 my birthday.' The cause for the hubbub at chez Ballio 15 finally - and bathetically — revealed. The practice of celebrating the household head's birthday with gifts and a feast is Roman (cf. Capt. 174, Per. 769), not Athenian: Jocelyn 2001: 283. The celebration of the pimp's birthday (cf. 243, 775) 15 pre-empted by Pseudolus' triumph over him: 574-603b, 1051, 1237nn. dies pyrrhic (iambic shortening). decet . . . concelebrare: more comic dissonance (148n.), given the occasion.

154

COMMENTARY

166-8

eum: his natalis dies (an elided monosyllable here). 166

pernam

callum

glandium

sumen

'ham,

pork

rind,

sweetbread,

sow's udder' (emphatically placed before their clause, where they are subjects of iaceant). Ballio lends his feast a distinctly Roman flavour: these porcine items typically appear in parasites’ banquets (Capt. 847—51, 903-4, 915, Cur. 323, 366, Men. 210—11, St. 360) and clash with the fish course central to a Greek feast (cf. 169). Fraenkel 2007: 89-90, 398-9 observes that such foodstuffs mark Plautine additions to his source. For the Plautine preference for pork see Gowers 1993: 69-71 (overview of meat and fish consumption in the ancient world in Wilkins and Hill 2006: 140—63). glandium undergoes iambic shortening in the ultima (as often for cretic words in anapaests). in aqua iaceant: apparently to soak, as the cook has not yet been hired. satin audis? 'Are you even listening?' (Duckworth 1940: 396; cf. OLD satis 10). It is unclear

(to readers)

to which of the slaves onstage this is

addressed - the one instructed to fetch water, if still present (157n.), isa likely candidate. 167 magnifice 'in grand style'. The adv. often signals pompous onstage behaviour in P., as at 702 (of Pseudolus) and 911 (of Pseudolus' understudy Simia), and demonstrates how language, as much as gesture and action, plays a critical role in stylized theatre. magnifice is the spelling of the MSS here and at 911, against magnufice in 702; for P.’s orthography see Introduction p. 64. Cf. 194a-5n. uolo me . . . accipere ‘I want to entertain' (OLD accipio 13); this construction with uolo is common in P. (examples in Lorenz 1876: 96). uolo and u?ros are pyrrhic by iambic shortening. uiros summos: Dallio's hope that his wealth will impress these elites suggests that he has visions of status-climbing (an unpromising prospect for a leno), as his speech reveals elsewhere (cf. 174 summis, 227 summatum). ut mi rem 6556 reantur 'so they think I've got money’. Rosivach 1998: 95 comments,

‘[Ballio’s]

chance

remark

reminds

us that the facade of

style and ease which the /eno provides for his clients is precisely that, nothing but a facade.' 168 abite . . . celerate: at least two slaves are still onstage (157, 158, 159, 161, 162nn.). abiteis pyrrhic (iambic shortening and elision). cito celerate: cf. 1157 maturate propera. celerate (the verb occurs only

here in P.) is transitive with haec (OLD 2); the ultima 15 breuis in longo at

the main break of the anapaestic tetrameter (Introduction pp. 53, 60-1). quae: 29n. cocus quom ueniat: Ballio's other task (cf. 169) in the forum is hiring a cook (790-809) for his birthday bash. ueniat 15 attracted into the subjunctive by ne ... sit.

COMMENTARY

169-72

155

169 ego 60 in macellum ut . . . praestinem '/'m going to the market to bargain for . . .' (praestino: a rare verb, extant only in P. and Apul.: TLL X.2.904.19—43); rather than send a slave to do his marketing, Ballio, ever the miser, will go to haggle. macellum = μάκελλον; a Roman market for provisions in general, not simply fish as in the corresponding Athenian market. pretio: abl. of price (i.e. 'at a price I like"). 170 i, puere, prae: the slave has been standing beside Ballio onstage since their entrance at 199. After calling out the individual prostitutes, Ballio will again instruct the slave to exit (241 ¢ prae, puere, for the variation in word order cf. Mer. 866—7 ilico | sta and 873 sta ilico), which Fraenkel 2007: 97—9 takes as a mark of Plautine addition (170-241). puere = puer (voc.) in classical Latin, common in P., who has both forms (puerus is conjectured at Truc. 906: TLL x.2.2510.29-36). pertundat 'drill right through’, a vivid metaphor reflecting Ballio's paranoia where money is involved (as Euclio in Au£ vividly demonstrates, monomaniacal fixation on money/wealth was assumed to produce anti-social paranoia: 193—-264, 955nn., Christenson 2014: 30—5). cruminam: a wallet with a strap worn around the neck (As. 657, Epid. 360, Truc. 652, 956). cautio est: sc. mihi ('Tm concerned’).

171—85 Turning to his female slaves, Ballio switches to iambic tetrameters catalectic (171—2), a measure closely associated with meretrices in P. He delivers the core of his general threat in anapaests (174—84), switches to

iambic

tetrameters

(185-6)

to

announce

his

plan

for

individual

harangues, and the entire section is closed with a short catalectic iambic verse (187): cf. Moore 2012: 316-175. 171 uel: 122n. opperire: imperative of opperior. est quod 'there's a matter' (relative clause of characteristic with indic-

ative, as 462 sunt quae and often in P.).

dicere: for the exception to Hermann's law (at half-line) see Questa 2007: 225—6. fui oblitus: deponents and passives variously have sum or fui, etc., in P. "The substitution of fu: gives precision to the Preterite sense' (Lindsay 1907: 62; cf. SL 228, OLS 1.473), though the form may sometimes be metrically convenient. 172—8^4 Ballio first addresses his female slaves collectively before sin-

gling out the four of them (188-229). His main themes are predictable (133-264n.): (1) the prostitutes lack industry and abuse ity (173, 182—5); (2) they must exploit their relationships clients for Ballio's gain, more so because it's his birthday 81); and (3) they are threatened with eviction from his

his generoswith wealthy (174-7, 179brothel and

156

COMMENTARY

172-5

street-prostitution if they fail to meet his productivity goals (178). Like Ballio's male slaves they are exhorted to pay close attention (185—7): 143n. For an overview of the sexual trafficking of slaves in New Comedy see Marshall 2013. 172 auditin? - audistisne (a virtual command,

as at 665). This is a cue

for the four actors (possibly costumed to highlight their characters' sexuality: 182n.) to parade onto the stage. mulieres: mulier is usually derogatory when addressed to a woman known to the speaker (Dickey 2002: 256), and the wox propria in P. for a pimp's prostitutes (Adams 1983: 345-8). hanc...edictionem: 143n. 173 in munditiis, mollitiis, deliciisque ‘in circumstances of elegance, extravagance, and indulgence'. A rhetorically strong start to Ballio's ‘edict’, with three metrically equivalent words of four syllables each, with homoioteleuton (for the use of parallelisms to enhance authority in Roman official discourse see Bettini 2019). Pseudolus and his successful 'team' eventually enjoy magnis munditiis (12593). The plur. mollitizs occurs only here and at Vell. 1.6.2 (TLL vr1.1384.41—4), and is attracted to the case of the other (regularly plur.) nouns. aetatulam 'your little life' (denigrating use of the diminutive, and probably not, pace OLD 1, in the neutral sense 'early time of life’). 174 uiris cum summis: for the use of cum see 158n. Ballio again betrays a fascination with men of high status (167n.). uiris pyrrhic (iambic shortening). inclutae amicae 'renowned lady-friends' (sardonic). ?nclutae with its IE

poetic background (cf. κλυτός, Skutsch 1985: 302, Dunkel 2001: 33640), 15 mock-heroic here. The other two instances of the adj. in P. are also ironic/antiphrastic: Mil. 1227 ut tu inclutu' s apud mulieres! (Palaestrio

strokes the soldier's egotism), Per. 251 loui opulento, incluto (a parodic prayer of thanks). amicaefocalizes the clients' attitude towards Ballio’s sex labourers: 35, 172, 180onn. ego: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). scibo: P. has futures in both -am and (less frequently) -bo for many fourth-conjugation verbs: MHL 162, de Melo 2011b: 324-5. 174—6 hodie experiar, | quae . .. |... hodie experiar: a more verbose ‘trial’ than Phoenicium's syntactically similar one of Calidorus (73n.), with ring composition. 175 quae capiti, quae uentri operam det, quae suae rei, quae somno studeat "Who is eager for freedom, who for a meal; who seeks her advance-

ment, who a nap’. Ballio, as ancient slaveholders sometimes did, dangles the prospect of manumission as motivation for continued drudgery, with monotonous parallelism (subject/indirect object/verb) in asyndeton. Cf.

COMMENTARY

176-9

157

226n. capiti . . . uentri ‘personhood’ versus ‘stomach’, i.e. personal freedom (cf. 225 pro capite) over animalistic survival; for his venal purposes, Ballio pretends to have a moral compass. operam det . . . studeat: synonymous. suae γεῖ: both long monosyllables (synizesis). re: . . . somno 'advantage' versus ‘sleep’ (a similar antithesis to capiti/uentri). 176 quam libertam fore mi credam | et quam uenalem, hodie experiar "Today I'll determine who I should believe will be my freedwoman and who's to go up for sale.' libertam: freed Roman slaves often remained with their ex-masters as liberti/ae, though there is no evidence how (in)frequently this happened in the case of pimps and brothel slaves.mz: dat. of possession with fore- futuram esse. credam | et: hiatus at the main break of an anapaestic tetrameter; the ultima of credam is breuis in longo. uenalem: with the implied threat that her new and uncertain life could be even worse. 177 hodie . . . mi munera multa: Ballio seems to mean more than his usual fees, i.e. gratuities from regulars in honour of his birthday (cf. 179). Cf. 777n.

multa | huc: hiatus at the main break. amatoribus:

customers,

amator is regularly used by prostitutes to refer to their

whether

or not

they

hold

genuine

affection

for them

(cf.

Astaphium's cynical speech on the meretrix/amator relationship at Truc. 210—55). Ballio is ironically focalizing again: 174n. 178 penus: masculine here, neuter in 228 (each is metrically convenient but not necessary ad loc.), and often feminine: on gender switching in Latin poetry see Renehan 1999 and the lively debate on penus at Gel. 4.1. P. has both second- (608 pen?) and fourth-declension forms (TLL X.1.1123.5-52). conuenit: with short ultima (iambic shortening). poplo prostituam uos ‘I’ll prostitute you to the general public', versus the elite customers of Ballio's brothel: 167, 174nn. Ballio later reveals that he is threatening to offer them (for shorter-term rental) to all comers in a public 'lean-to' (pergula: 214, 229). Cf. Cist. 330-1 (the meretrix Gymnasium speaks) intro abeo: | nam meretricem astare in uia solam prostibuli sane est; for the low status of such prostitutes see Adams 1983: 342-3. poplo: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 179 natalem scitis mi esse diem hunc: 177n. ubi isti sunt: a ‘fraternal’ call-out to men in the audience who frequent brothels to vociferously identify themselves, as more clearly at 209--98. For the ubi sunt? formula

cf. Am. 287 ubi sunt isti scortatores?, Men.

128 ubi

sunt amatores mariti? (a distinctly Plautine form of audience address). The penult of st undergoes iambic shortening. 179-80 quibus uos oculi estis | . . . mellillae: terms of endearment typically used by comic lovers and their prostitutes, delivered sarcastically.

158

COMMENTARY

179-83

Similar lists occur at As. 664—8, 691—5, Cas. 194—8 (cf. 837—54), and Poen. 365-7. See further Dickey 2002: 147-62. 179 oculi: the singular 15 often used in lovers' blandishments, e.g. Mil 1330, Per. 765, St. 764 (so too the diminutive ocellus, e.g. Mos. 167, Truc. 579). The core idea is that one's eyes are inestimably precious, e.g. Mil. 984 quae te tamquam oculos amet (Otto 1890: 249). 180 uitae: to describe someone precious, like oculi (179n.; OLD 5), usually sg. (e.g. Cas. 135, Poen. 365); cf. the proverbial uita amabilior/dulcior (Catul. 65.10, As. 614; Otto 1890: 374). deliciae 'sweethearts' (« /acio, ‘entice’), widespread in Latin in the plur.

(OLD ga), but P. also has the sg., e.g. Poen. 365, Truc. 921. sauia ‘kissums’. Cf. Cist. 247 (Alcesimarchus of his amica) quae mellillam me uocare et suauium solita est suom, Poen. 366 meum sauium. mammia

Cf. 1261n.

'boobies' (neut. plur.; cf. μαμμία, ‘mother’), extant only here.

mellillae 'honey-bunnies'; elsewhere only at Cas. 135 and Cist. 247. Cf. mellitus (Catul. 3.6, etc.) and for proverbial expressions ('sweeter than honey' et sim.) see Otto 1890: 216-17. 181 maniplatim 'in maniples’ (a manipulus consists of 200 soldiers), a colourful and hyperbolic Romanization (cf. 126n.). munerigeruli: Ballio coins an epic-sounding compound to describe the armies of customers-bearing-gifts he imagines at his brothel. 182 Ballio resents funding even the basics required for his brothel slaves to practise their sex-trade. uestem, aurum: regularly combined in lists of women's accoutrements in P. (Duckworth 1940: 240-1) and actual marriage contracts (Gratwick 1993a: 148). Here their mention may draw attention to the actors' costumes (172n.), though Pseudolus and Calidorus never comment on the prostitutes' appearance. quibus est uobis usus 'that you need' (135n.); he presumably means items that enhance their status as specularized commodities rather than basic necessities. praehibeo - (uncontracted) praebeo; the word scans as a dactyl (with iambic shortening of the ultima). 183 malum ‘trouble’ (i.e. financial loss). uostra opera: abl. of cause. hodie? | improbae: hiatus at the main break (emphasizing the normal word-break after the second metron). improbae: 149n.; the ultima is short (iambic shortening). uini modo cupidae estis: in Ballio's twisted perspective, his sex labourers demonstrate ambition only for consuming his wine. While the miser resents the expense of supplying wine and any concomitant loss of productivity, Ballio also co-opts the conservative Roman

moral tradition that

COMMENTARY

184-9

159

decried female drinking (cf. the paternal uncle's practice of ?us osculi, an ancient breathalyzer: Bettini 1991b: 21-2). 184 eo uos uostrosque adeo pantices madefactatis *you soak yourselves and your guts as well with that'. uestrosque adeo pantices is the reading of Nonius 395 (the MSS have uestros panticesque adeo). pantices: with short ultima (iambic shortening). quom . . . sim: concessive (P. usually has the indicative: Bennett 1910:

303).

siccus ‘dry’, i.e. 'sober' (OLD 7a).

185 nunc adeo: another of Ballio's ticks (143n.). hoc factu est optimum, ut . . . appellem 'the best thing for me to do is to call out. ..’ (for the supine see NLS 8153, Bennett 1910: 456-7). nomine . . . suo: unlike the anonymous male slaves (1393n.), Ballio singles out each meretrix by name (the dactylic nomine does not violate Hermann's law in this position: 151n., Questa 2007: 225—6; similarly quaepiam in 186). quemque - quamque. 186 ne...actutum... neget ‘so no one instantly claims’; Ballio charac-

teristically imagines the worst-case scenario regarding his slaves’ obedience. dictum esse: as Jocelyn 1999: 188 n. 137 observes, Ballio’s overuse of the passive voice (cf. 190, 213—15, 228, 268) reflects his desire to sound imperious and important. quaepiam: dactylic (for the scansion see 166, 185nn.), with iambic shortening. uostrarum - uosirum (archaic gen. plur. of uos): LHS 1.464-5. 185 aduortite animum: 143n. 188-195a Ballio's lengthy command to Hedylium in iambic tetrameters (188—92) 15 'pompously slow' (Moore 2012: 318) and strikingly 15 closed with an iambic

trimeter

(193), for which

the

tibicen might have

stopped playing. The asides of Calidorus and Pseudolus are marked by a switch to trochaics. 188 Hedylium: Latinized diminutive « ἡδύς (‘sweet’, ‘pleasurable’); for

the neuter ending cf. 41n. (Schmidt 1902: 191 further connects the name

with ἡδυλισμός, ‘flattering’). The names of Ballio's meretrices most probably

are P.'s invention: 170n., Fraenkel 2007: 100, Fontaine 2010: 253-6. amica: 95n. 189 montes maxumi

[acerui] frumenti sunt domi: the ever-

acquisitive and envious Ballio is fantasizing (though as Morris 1895: 121 notes,

the frumentarii were

fined for market

collusion

in

189

BCE,

Liv.

38.95.5). mons lends itself to hyperbole in P., e.g. Mos. 352 mali maeroris

montem maximum, Mil. 1065 argenti montes, non massas habet. [ acerui] scans in the tetrameter, but seems to be a gloss on montes maxumi («structi» 15

Ritschl's suggestion).

160

COMMENTARY

190-4

190 sis: ironic (48n.), here playfully juxtaposed with sit. delatum . . . frumentum . . . annum: Ballio hammers home his demand for increased productivity with homoioteleuton. 191 mi et familiae omni: an urban household of eleven (seven males, four females in Ballio's case; there is no indication that Ballio is married)

was not exceptionally large, given the abundance of slaves in Rome, especially after the Second Punic War. For the sources of slaves see Bradley

1994: 31-56.

meae, | atque: hiatus at the main break. atque connects the ut clause following it with sit delatum (190), also dependent on fac. adeo ut 'so much that' (OLD adeo' 4b). afluam 'I'm swimming in' (* abl.). 192 ciuitas . . . praedicet: as if the city-state would formally sanction the pimp's new (fantastical) moniker! Cf. 143, 148, 158nn. nomen...commutet: for change of state/change of name jokes in P. see Fraenkel 2007: 22-3. Ballio 15 dreaming large. 193 lenone ex Ballione regem Iasonem 'King Jason instead of Pimp Ballio'

(in an aabb chiasmus, with the isolated trimeter lending further

emphasis: Moore 2008: 18-19), as though the ciuitas were bestowing a formal civic title (192n.; for 'restrictive appositions' consisting of proper name/profession see OLS 1.1056—7). King Jason was tyrant of Pherae in Thessaly in the first half of the fourth century BCE; for Ballio's aspirations to power 566 167, 174nn., and for his absolute rule in his household 133264n. Fraenkel 2007: 23-4 suggests confusion with the mythical Iasion (with Demeter the parent of Plutus), though the mistake is better attrib-

uted to Ballio than P. (cf. 869-72n.). Ballione the vicious pimp's name is at last revealed. It recalls φαλλός

(‘phallus’; see further Schmidt

1902:

179-80, Garton 1972: 173; Fontaine 2010: 79 n. 84, after Gratwick 1990: 306, proposes printing the pimp's name as Phallio). The name also suggests ballaena/ q&XXowa (‘whale’; the name of the pimp of Rud., Labrax, means 'sea bass’). The etymological possibilities (‘Pimp Whale-Dick’?) further deflate Ballio's social pretensions. 194—5a Like spectators listening to Ballio's canticum — perhaps in bemused astonishment (133-264n.) — Calidorus and Pseudolus have been silent observers since 132. This is the first of their asides (cf. 201—9, 230—40, 241—12) that bring spectators back to the dramatic situation and disrupt any rapport the perversely entertaining pimp may be establishing with them. 194 audin 'can you believe?' (to get someone's attention, as at 330). furcifer: for relatively minor offences a slave wore a wooden yoke around his neck (Don. ad Ter. An. 618, Lilja 1965: 54, DS s.v. FVRCA), but the word became a term of general abuse.

COMMENTARY

194a-5 magnificus .

1942-9

161

. | . . . maleficus ‘magnificent ... malevolent' (cf.

167n.), an example of asteismus (‘urbanity’).

194a satin: 166n. 195 pol iste: sc. est (pol: 25n.); the penult of 25{615 short (179n.). atque etiam 'and in fact he's actually' (OLD atque 4). 195a sed tace: in contrast to his outraged master, Pseudolus recognizes the strategic value in listening to the pimp. Cf. 206—7n. hanc rem gere 'stick to the matter at hand' (OLD gero 9). 196-201 Ballio delivers his threat to Aeschrodora in longer trochaics (including a striking sequence of thirteen shorts: 198n.). 196 Aeschrodora:

the name

(< αἰσχρός,

‘ugly’, ‘base’ * 8ópov,

‘gift’)

presumably is a euphemism. amicos: 35n. 196—7 lenonum aemulos | lanios: both professions peddle flesh (scortum, the common pejorative for prostitute, is cognate with corium, ‘hide’, and κείρω, ‘cut’; lanius « lanio, ‘to tear, cut’). The designation of an execu-

tioner as a carnifex (‘meat-maker’) suggests a very low status for butchers, who like pimps were usually free persons. Though Ballio aspires to the company of summi uiri (167, 174, 227nn.), he cannot escape the stigma of his profession.

197 qui, | item: prosodic hiatus.

iurando, iure malo: butchers also sold prepared food from their shops. Ballio puns on the homonyms

?us, meaning ‘broth/sauce’ and ‘justice’, as

in ?us iurandum, ‘oath’ (for the stock joke cf. Cic. Ver. 1.121). He reverses the usual order of the latter phrase to highlight the ‘bad sauce' paronomasia. For the pimp's proverbial association with oath breaking (periuro/ peiero) see 354n. male quaerunt rem ‘make their living dishonestly'. audi: for Ballio's imperiousness cf. 143n. 198 The line scans bb C Da bb c dd a bb c dd a B c dd A, with the unusually high number of resolutions reflecting Ballio's extreme anger. carnaria ‘meat hooks' (also in thoroughly Romanized contexts at Capt. 914 and Cur. 324). grauida tergoribus 'laden with animal backs'; spectators may expect a joke about whipping Aeschrodora's back to follow, but the super-sadistic Ballio surprises: cf. 199n. onere uberi ‘of copious mass' (137n. on flagitribae). 199 te: dir. obj. of distringuam, resumed by tein 200 after the mythic comparison. 199-200 quasi Dircam . . . | deuinxere ‘in the manner in which they bound Dirce' (quasi = ut/quemadmodum is an early Latin usage: Enk 19792: 142, Lindsay 1907: 107). The sons of Antiope revenged Dirce’s

162

COMMENTARY

199-201

mistreatment of their mother by tying her to a bull; Ballio deforms an already grisly myth in threatening to make it real for Aeschrodora. On the basis of the allusion here, Archellaschi 1990: 121-3 makes the case for dating Pacuvius' Antiope to just before the debut of Ps. Ballio's comparison is appropriated at Apul. 6.27 (May 2006: 259). 199 olim ‘a long time ago' (i.e. in myth), with 200 deuinxere. ut memorant

‘as they

[i.e. the

At least some of P.'s audience attempting to appear educated vivid conflation of aestheticism of P.'s use of myth see Fraenkel

tellers of traditional

stories]

relate’.

knew this Theban myth; Ballio again is (Jocelyn 1999: 188 n. 137). For Ballio’s and violence see 145—7n. For an overview 2007: 45—71 (the topic merits fresh com-

prehensive treatment). Cf. 868-72n.

duo gnati Iouis: Amphion and Zethos were Jupiter's sons from his affair with Antiope. 200 deuinxere: the older IE third person plur. inflection (LL 275, Sihler 1995 §429). item 'so' (correlative with quasz 199-200n.). ego te destringam ad carnarium ‘I'll personally stretch you out on a meat rack.' Ballio's point of comparison is the vicious binding of a human being to a bull and a meat hook, whereon each woman is to be ripped apart. Cf. 196—7n. 200-1 id | tibi profecto taurus fiet: an emphatic reiteration of the monstrous equation of bull and carnarium, on which Fraenkel 2007: 43 comments, ‘it is precisely this that 15 highly typical of Plautus’ imagination - this hugely grotesque bringing to life of the meat hook, which here becomes a kind of Farnese bull. In an orgy of images he ties together with a bold hand things that simply may not be connected.' Ballio has a perverse talent for visualization (phantasia). Cf. Introduction p. 27. 200 id - carnarium. 201 profecto ‘surely’. 201—9 The second exchange (194-5an.) of asides between Calidorus and Pseudolus. Pseudolus attempts to incite young males in the audience against pimps (204-42), but concludes that a rebellion of enslaved lovers is doomed: 205cn. The slave's feigned moral outrage at a system of pandering in which he himself is deeply enmeshed is ironic (and briefly aligns him with elite, conservative thinking: Stewart 2008: 75). 201 nimis . . . ira incendor ‘I'm really getting angry' (cf. As. 420 qui semper me ira incendit; irais a ‘cause argument' expanding the verb’s meaning: OLS 1.902). This time (cf. 195an.) Pseudolus does not hush Calidorus, but joins in his master's outrage (via asides), if only facetiously: 201—gn. Calidorus remains silent until 207 as he watches Pseudolus make his direct appeal to spectators.

COMMENTARY

202-5

163

202-8 Pseudolus delivers his aside to the young men in 'indignant trochaics' (Moore 2012: 319) punctuated by his extrametric exclamation in 205, for which the tibicen might briefly cease playing. A switch to iambics at 205a signals Pseudolus' misgivings about the revolutionary project against pimps. 202 hic ‘in Athens'. hominem: Ballio, the subject of colere (2022).

202—-2a pati | . . . iuuentutem: acc. and inf. in an exclamation (AG $462,

GL §534).

2028 colere ‘to live’, with hic (202), a rare intransitive use

(OLD

1b;

TLL 111.1672.53—69). iuuentutem Atticam: the Athenian setting is nominally preserved (often ironically in P.: As. 793, Epid. 26, Cas. 652, Mer. 945, Mos. 66, St. 449), but an appeal to Rome’s young men (?uuentus = men of military fitness) is forthcoming: 203-3an. (for Plautinopolis see Introduction p. 23). This group mostly includes leisured elites who could cobble together funds to purchase sex. The antepenult of ?uuentutem 15 short (iambic shortening). 203-3a ‘Where are they - where are the young men who get their love from a pimp hiding?', a provocation to those in the audience who patronize brothels to express their disapproval of lenones aloud. During this disruption of his song Ballio can take up a new position onstage (cf. 201—9n.) from which to harangue Xystilis (209). 203 ubi sunt: 179n. ubi latent: i.e. 'don't be shy'. Pseudolus turns carnival barker, no doubt gesturing vigorously as he invites spectators to sound off. 2038 integra 'youthful' (OLD 11). amant: with the pregnant sense ,'associate with prostitutes' (OLD 4), pyrrhic (iambic shortening). a lenone: abindicates the source of an action (OLD 1*2); cf. Poen. 1092 amat a lenone. 204 quin... quin: 40n. una omnes ‘all of them en masse’. 204-4a conueniunt . . . |. .. populum...liberant: a humorous call for a quasi-political uprising against the lenones, who have enslaved the population of young males: cf. 205c seruiant. 204a peste hac: prefiguring the stock oratorical denigration of one's adversary as a pestis, labes, et sim., esp. of the state (Fantham 1972: 133). 205 uah!: an all-purpose nonce interjection (cf. 207, 254). 205a nimium stultus 'far too stupid'. 205a-b nimium . . . | indoctus ‘far too unschooled', an elaboration of stultus (2052a), ironically suggesting a humble slave could not appreciate

164

COMMENTARY

205b-10

the ways of young elites: 202an. Pseudolus is a model of Plautine doctrina: 385n.

205b—7 illine audeant | id facere quibus ut seruiant | suos amor cogit?

"Would they have the courage to do this to those whom their passion compels them to serve?' 205b illine: brothel customers. 205c seruiant: as if they are the pimp's slaves (204-4an.); suos amor cogit suggests Amor/Cupido exerts no less power over them (cf. 15n.). 206—7 [simul . . . nolunt]: probably a confused marginal gloss on the preceding question. uah: 205n. tace: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). Calidorus, after having ceded the stage to his orating slave (201—gn.), reasserts himself as master and instructs Pseudolus to listen: cf. 195an. 208 The isolated iambic trimeter here enhances the urgency of Calidorus' request (Moore 2008: 18-19). male morigeru's [male facis] mi ‘you’re not obliging me’ (i.e. as a slave should his master) = morem gerens * dat. (OLD gero 8d). [male facis]: deleted by Ritschl (an interpolation that perhaps arose from the omission of male morigerus in A). morigeru’s = morigerus 65 (prodelision: Introduction p. 55). obsonas 'interrupt ; lit. ‘make noise in opposition to', hapax legomenon (not « obsono/dywvéw, ‘get provisions’). The indicative is usual in circumstantial quom clauses in early Latin (Bennett 1910: 302). 209-17 Ballio finishes Calidorus' and Pseudolus' trochaic tetrameter and conducts his threat against Xystilis in trochaics; the slow rhythm of 216-17 mimics the languor (216n.) he darkly promises as her punishment for low productivity: Moore 2012: 320. 209 taceas: parataxis (i.e. without u/), as often with malo (OLD 1c). tu autem emphatically marks a new addressee (OLD autem 1d, Kroon 1995: 233—8, 247), as at 225; the connective autem is in its usual second position (Wackernagel's Law: Adams 1994: 1-3); cf. 692, 1104nn. 210 Xystilis: an improbable comic name, « ξυστός, the covered practice track of the Greek gymnasium (lit. 'naked place’), where athletes oiled their nude bodies before, and scraped them after, training. P. has meretrices named

Gymnasium

(Cist.)

and Palaestra,

'Wrestling-School'

(Rud.;

cf. Adams 1982: 157—9). Etymology (cf. ξύω, ‘shave’) also suggests pubic depilation (common in the ancient world, e.g. Ar. Lys. 824-8). fac ut animum aduortas: 143n. quoius = cuius, a relative adjective found in early Latin and later archaizing authors; a single long (Questa 2007: 77-8). amatores oliui: her lovers are made to deal in olive oil because of the close association between it ( = ἐλαίον) and athletics. amatores: 177n.

COMMENTARY 211

δύναμιν:

an example

211-18

of 'intra-sentential code-switching’,

165 i.e. the

Greek falls within a clause and conforms with Latin syntax, here the object of habent: Adams 2003: 24. The meaning here, ‘(large) quantity', is a back translation of uis (OLD 8; a sense not found in extant early Latin), as this sense is not attested in Greek (cf. Adams 2003: 465-6). Ballio, in keeping with his social pretensions (167, 174, 227nn.), peppers his threat against Xystilis (212n.) with a Greek word in a rare sense and with bilingual phonic play (domi . . . maxumam). On the editorial decision to transliterate Greek words into Latin or print them with Greek letters in P. see Jocelyn 1999: 169 n. 5, Zagagi 2012: 20—1. Cf. 443, 483, 484, 488, 700nn. 212 culleis: a leather sack to carry liquids, but also used in a uniquely Roman punishment for parricide (murder of a close relative). The murderer was placed in a culleus with a dog, cock, viper, and an ape and tossed into the sea (OCD s.v. parricidium). The practice 15 also referred to at Vid. fr. 12 iube hunc in culleo insui | atque in altum deportari, si uis annonam bonam. Cf. 213, 214nn.

213-15 deportatum erit | . . . deportere . . . | . . . dabitur: for Ballio's

overuse of the passive voice see 186n. 219 oleum: P. uses both this and oliuum (210). deportatum erit: chosen - cf. OLD 1c, ‘to take out to sea (for drowning)' — for the parricidium threat (212n.). 214 te ipsam ‘as for you yourself’ (prolepsis). deportere - deporteris (219n.). in pergulam: para prosdokian for in altum, in mare vel sim. (212n.). The grim joke suggests life in a pergula (178n.) is as horrific as a death sentence for parricidium. 215 adeo ‘moreover’

(OLD 6).

216 usque ad languorem ‘to the point of utter exhaustion’ (usque ‘completely’: OLD 9). With very few exceptions Plautine comedy eschews obscenity and prefers sexual euphemisms, as here. tenes ‘you get' (OLD 23). 217 quo se haec tendant quae loquor ‘where my words are going' (reflexive: OLD tendo 9). [218-24] These lines have been suspected of being a later addition in that a new addressee is not named and they replicate the address to Xystilis (210—17), which reaches a conclusion with Ballio's brutal threat to toss her into a culleus (212, 214nn.). If addressed to Xystilis, they would

set her section out of proportion with the other three women's (188—93, 196—201, 225—9). Marshall 2006: 270 n. 83 comments, ‘[because] this passage is part of a canticum . . . it more likely represents two versions of the song, and not a record of a moment of spontaneous improvisation in performance'. Cf. Zwierlein 1991: 90-2.

166

COMMENTARY

218-26

[218] ain = aisne, awkward here, as it should express doubt about some-

thing just said ("What's that?': OLD 2). excetra ‘water-snake’, abusively applied to Pardalisca at Cas. 644. probe 'thoroughly' (OLD 2a), with onustos. [219-20] num quoipiam est... conseruorum . . . caput? ‘Does any of your co-slaves have a head . . .?' [220] nitidiusculum *a little bit shinier' (hapax legomenon). The comparative adv. + diminutive suffix is colloquial, e.g. 221 unctiusculo, Mil. 665 liquidiusculus. Cf. 7774, Catul. 10.11 cur quisquam caput unctius referret. [220—1] magis | unctiusculo: one of many examples of overdetermined comparison in P.; Gratwick 19932: 55 notes that in such cases magis alternatively can be taken as an adv. modifying the verb. For the comparative form see 220n. [221] scio: frequent in parataxis (LU 107-8); pyrrhic (iambic shortening).

tu | oleum: hiatus at the main break.

[221-2] uino | te deungis: the MSS have deuincis (*you bind yourself down with wine’: cf. the literal use of deuinxere in 200); Acidalius’ conjecture of the otherwise unattested deungis (‘you slick yourself down’) 15 an improvement. Ballio's charge of undue wine consumption is revived: 189n. [222] sine modo ‘without restraint’ or ‘never mind' (de Melo 2012), construing sine as the imperative: cf. 159n. [223] reprehendam . . . cuncta 'T'll censure all your doings' (cf. OLD reprehendo 5), but the usage is unparalleled. una opera 'in one fell swoop' (OLD opera 1d). Cf. 318—19n. [223-4] nisi . . . omnia | facis effecta haec ut loquor ‘unless you get everything done that I'm saying’ (facis effectais an inelegant figura etymologica that does conform with usual patterns: LHS 11.790-3). 225—9 Ballio's anticipated threat against Phoenicium 15 delivered in longer trochaic measures, with the exception of the iambic tetrameter at 227, at the head of which she is finally named (227n.). 225 tu autem: 209n.

pro capite: 175n. argentum: slaves (as also the children of the paterfamilias) could accumulate money and property (peculium: OCD s.v.), though in reality such ownership was provisional and easily revoked by a master (Saller 1994: 119). iam iamque semper numeras 'you're always just about to pay out' (cf. OLD iam 5). 226 ea pacisci modo scis ‘you only know how to make these sorts of arrangements', taking ea as internal object (AG 8390c, GL §333).

COMMENTARY

227-9

167

Alternatively ea could be nom. fem. sg., as the use of the demonstrative to continue the relative (225 quae) is paralled in P. (so Leo, who cites Poen. 623—4 and Trin. 1141). sed quod pacta es non scis soluere: another hint as to Ballio's ultra-authoritarian style of mastery. The prospect of manumission was used to motivate slaves (Bradley 1994: 154-65), but given the pimp's character, this suggests that Ballio habitually has reneged on agreements with Phoenicium, apparently eager to purchase her freedom (225n.). 227—9 It 15 overscrupulous to deem Ballio's charge here inconsistent with Phoenicium's imminent sale to the soldier. Ballio considers no transaction completed — and no contract binding - until he is paid in full, and so is keeping all his options open. 227 Phoenicium: in contrast to the introduction of the other meretrices (188, 196, 210), the name of Calidorus' beloved is delayed, though spectators probably have guessed that she is the last of the four women onstage to be addressed (Calidorus' gestures might alert them to her identity as well). For her name see 41n. deliciae: 180n. summatum uirum: Phoenicium's speciality, in contrast to her fellow brothel slaves, is landing aristocratic customers. The pimp is socialclimbing again: 167, 174, 211nn. summatum « summas -atis is a by-form of summus -a -um, only in P. and later archaizing writers (OLD).

228 tuorum: a single long (synizesis) after elision.

amicorum: 174n. penus 'all provisions' (i.e. from their estates; so Moore 2012: 321) rather than ‘your whole keep' (de Melo 2012). For the gender see 178n. affertur: for the passive see 186n. 229 Ballio’s brutal threats suggest that Phoenicium, like her fellow meretrices, belongs more to the world of a Roman slave-brothel than that of a Greek hetaira (41—77, 71nn.); Plautinopolis is ‘a poetic world of the imagination that was neither Greek nor Roman but an invented amalgam of both' (Williams 1983: 61). Phoenicium, poeniceo: the pun works if ph was pronounced as a mute with aspiration rather than a fricative (£): Allen 1978: 26—7. For the colour associated with bruising from slave beatings cf. Rud. 1000 fiet tibi puniceum cortum, postea atrum denuo (cf. φοινίκεος, ‘crimson’).

corio: highlighüng that to Ballio Phoenicium is no more than a 'hide": 196—7n. Cf. 136n. inuises 'visit', but given Ballio’s sadistic and highly visual imagination (145—7n.), probably with the threatening sense ‘you’ll be looking squarely at' (OLD 2). pergulam: 178, 214nn.

168

COMMENTARY

230-33

230—40 À new series of asides (194—5a, 201—9nn.) in reaction to Ballio's dressing down of Phoenicium brings us back to the dramatic problem presented in the opening scene. Calidorus reaffirms his helplessness and Pseudolus seizes control of the situation. During their colloquy Ballio perhaps occupies himself with shuffling his female slaves back into the house. Calidorus and Pseudolus deliver their asides in anapaests, to this point in the canticum used only by Ballio (133—42, 165—70, 171-87nn.), which are closed by two iambs (240). 230 In the artificial Renaissance divisions, 230 was taken to mark the beginning of Act I, scene g, because Pseudolus and Calidorus will soon

directly speak with Ballio. non audis - nonne audis (Lindsay 1907: 129). loquitur: the ultima is breuis ?n longo at the main break of the anapaestic tetrameter. audio, ere, equidem atque animum aduorto: an unusual instance of Pseudolus behaving like a 'good slave' (138n.), though he may be sarcastic. The shared resolution between audio and ere, followed by the two initial shorts of equidem (resulting in a proceleusmatic), is a rare violation of Fraenkel-Thierfelder-Skutsch's law (Boldrini 1999: 82—4, Questa 2007: 458—9). equidem ‘yes, I really am (listening)’, in response to Calidorus' question (OLD 1c).

291 65 auctor . . . ut 'do you advise that', a mostly Plautine idiom in which auctor (« augeo) has verbal force (cf. Aul. 251, Mer. 312, Mil. 1094,

Poen. 410, St. 128, 581). auctór retains its originally long ultima.

ne | amicam: prosodic hiatus. For the meaning (s) of amica see 35n. prostituat: Calidorus is reacting to Ballio's recent threat to put Phoenicium out in a pergula (229), and this need not signify he has forgotten the plan to sell her to the soldier: 227-9n. 232 nil curassis 'Don't worry at all’ (for the form of the subjunctive see 14n.). Cf. 79n. liquido es animo ‘be calm' (OLD liquidus 10). animo | ego: hiatus at the main break. ego pro me et pro te curabo ‘I'll do the worrying for both of us' (OLD curo 8; the verb is used absolutely with pro only here in P.: TLL IV.1496.65-86). 233 uolumus: with long ultima (breuis in longo at the main break). amicitia est antiqua: a grandiose designation of a casual relationship between a /eno and a regular customer's slave, in that amicitia 15 a technical term for political alliances between both states and individuals that involve mutual co-operation. Pseudolus is working up his bluster again

(77, 125—7, 126nn.).

COMMENTARY

234-8

169

234 mittam . . . malam rem magnam et maturam 'For his birthday today I'll deliver him a heap of hell’ (the alliteration of m and homoioteleuton are most striking). malam rem = malum (‘trouble’: cf. 183n.), treated as a single (substantive) idea and so modified by adjs. (examples in Duckworth 1940: 152). maturam 'fully developed/grown-up', as appropriate for an adult's birthday, but also vaguely threatening (‘full-blown’). suo: a long monosyllable (synizesis). die . . . malam: both are pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 235 quid opust "What's the use?' potin - potisne est (potisis the indeclinable adj.: cf. 1302); with uthere = ‘can’t you?' (demanding immediate action: for directives with potis see Risselada 1993: 308—13; for possum cf. 85—6n.). aliam rem . . . cures 'concern yourself with something else’ (i.e. rather than self-pity). bat! a nonce coinage to distract Calidorus; Epidicus similarly mocks his own language in a monody, Epid. 95 at enim — bat enim! Cf. Per. 212 heia! :: beia!, St. 771 babae! :: tatae! :: papae! crucior: the image of the meretrix crucifying (the verb 15 a denominative « crux; the metaphor 15 vivid for Romans)

her lover 15 widespread in

comedy, more often with excrucio (Fantham 1972: 48; cf. Catul. 85.1—2 odi et amo . . . excrucior). For marked use of the first person passive in a lover's

complaint see Cist. 206—8.

cor dura: Pseudolus launches what will be a futile effort (238n.) to exhort Calidorus to seize control of his emotions (a cliché of elegiac poetry, e.g. Catul. 8.11 sed obstinata mente prefer, obdura, Ov. Am. 9.1.*7 perfer et obdura; for connections between New Comedy and elegy see Day 1938: 85—101). The slave again 15 displaying the emotional control his lovesick master sorely lacks: 23—4n. 296 non possum :: fac possis :: quonam pacto possim? the pair are already building to the punchline (238n.) with the comic repetition of possum here (cf. 22n.). animum 'feelings' (cf. OLD g), as 237 animo. 237 in rem quod sit praeuortaris quam in re aduorsa animo auscultes ‘In a crisis you should serve your best interests rather than follow your feelings.' Pseudolus generates a quasi-aphorism to set up Calidorus' bathetic retort (238n.). in rem quod sit: lit. ‘whatever is to your advantage' (OLD res 19b). praeuortaris: lit. 'turn your attention to first' (OLD 4). auscultes ‘obey’ with the dat.; ‘listen to' * acc. at 427; the verb belongs to everyday speech (TLL 11.1534.27-63). 238 non iucundumst nisi amans facit stulte 'there's no fun if a lover doesn't behave foolishly'; what pleasure is there for spectators if the comic

170

COMMENTARY

239-41

lover doesn't live up to expectations (9, 13, 45nn.)? zucundus occurs elsewhere in P. only at Poen. 206 si uis uidere ludos iucundissumos (a metacomic context). Ballio similarly expresses awareness of the conventionality of his role (289, 1081nn.; as also Simo: 1239-40n.): Introduction p. 27. facit: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). pergin - fergisne, ‘Not letting up (with your foolishness)?' 239 Pseudole mi: the use of mi with a name in addresses is more characteristic of female than male speech in P.: Adams 1984: 68—9 (cf. Dickey 2002: 214—29). sine sim nihili ‘Let me be worthless’ (i.e. stultus: 238n.), with pronounced alliteration and assonance. The comic lover is entirely beholden to the clever slave to find a solution to his predicament. nihi gen. of value (AG 84172). 2939a mitte me sis 'please let me off’, i.e. of all responsibility to behave rationally, constructively, etc. (OLD mitto 5). mitte. a single long (apocope); sis: 48n. sino, modo ego abeam 'Okay, provided I can go off too' (a conditional wish: GL 8573). Pseudolus pretends to take Calidorus literally and starts to move away (cf. 240 mane, mane). 240 mane, mane: both are pyrrhic (iambic shortening). ut uoles me | 6556 ita ero ‘I'll be exactly how you want me to be.’ Calidorus does not mean that he will suppress his passion and act rationally, but that he will do whatever Pseudolus tells him with a view to obtaining Phoenicium. Master and slave have flipped the dynamics of power. me | esse: some editors print med to avoid hiatus (12739n.). nunc tu sapis ‘now you're being smart’, ironic in that their exchange has reaffirmed Calidorus' insipientia and subservience to Pseudolus: 23040, 239nn. 240a ego mi cesso 'I'm the one wasting my own time' (mi is dat. of disadvantage: cf. 100n.). ego: with its less usual iambic scansion (Questa 2007: 62). 240a-9 Ballio states his plan to go to the market in trochaics (240a— 1), which Calidorus and Pseudolus continue (241—3). At 244 Pseudolus employs the song's first bacchiacs in an effort 'to slow the pimp down and gain control' (Moore 2012: 324). The bacchiacs end with Pseudolus' angry outburst in 249 as the three characters together conclude this section with a playful trochaic tetrameter (249n.). 241 i prae, puere: Ballio and the slave again start for the forum (170, 230—40nn.), though the puer does not immediately respond to Ballio's command. As an index of Ballio's self-importance, he addresses the slave as puere three more times (242, 249, 252) before he stops and fully acknowledges Calidorus and Pseudolus (265). praehas its original adverbial force (SL 117).

COMMENTARY

2412-6

171

heus ‘hey’ (an interjection to attract attention; cf. 243, 296, etc.).

abit: a stage direction (Ballio starts for the forum wing). quin: 40n. 241a properas: if Ballio makes rapid movements across the stage here or elsewhere, palliata spectators might associate these with slavish behaviour (cf. the ‘running slave' routine of comedy): Fitzgerald 2000: 15. For ideological perspectives on walking see Corbeill 2004: 117-39. placide ‘easy now' (colloquial), also without a verb at 923, Bac. 833, Mer. 137, 167. at prius quam abeat: sc. reuoca. 242 [hoc]: otiose with the correction of placidis to placide is and Ritschl's

improvement quid (the MSS have quod hoc malum). malum 'damn it!', perhaps abbreviated from phrases such as Am. 721 malum habebis (colloquial: LU g2). placide: with disregard for verisimilitude, Ballio picks up placide from Pseudolus' aside (2412). For the pimp's gait see 241an. 249-64 The characters play a game of cat and mouse whose stagegeography is best appreciated in performance (analysed against other chase scenes in P. by Monda 2013); Moore 2012: 326 notes, 'the polymetrics may have ended in an elaborately choreographed "tug-of-war" dance with competing movements by Ballio, Calidorus, Pseudolus and the puer . Ballio pompously pretends not to know Calidorus and Pseudolus as he attempts to leave for the forum; ' [failure] to recognize runs into refusal to acknowledge' (Sharrock 2009: 100), a standard routine in P. and per-

haps the palliata. Cf. Caecil. 196 Ribbeck audire ignoti quom imperant soleo non auscultare (as evidence

for a widespread

convention),

Cur. 96-120,

Trin. 1059—74, Truc. 115-22. Ballio's self-important elusiveness 15 part of the build-up to 264—5, where the prospect of profit secures his attention. 243 hodie nate, heus, hodie nate . . . heus, hodie nate 'Birthday boy

.. . ; Pseudolus mockingly picks up the pimp's commands (165, 179) to celebrate his birthday. The phrase hodie nate is not found elsewhere (Pseudolus perhaps hints at the pimp's naivety; cf. Eng. ‘I wasn't born yesterday’). heus . . . heus: each 15 a single long (synizesis). 244 redi et respice ad nos: though Ballio responds to Pseudolus and Calidorus (first at 246—7), the visual fun of this scene (243-64n.) lies in the pimp's refusal to stop and his avoidance of eye contact. 245 moramur: sc. le.

em ‘here’ (originally imperative of emo, ‘take’); sc. ἐ{ sunt. Cf. Luck

1964: 55-7.

246 quid hoc est? quis est qui . . .? verbiage reflecting the pimp's self-importance. occupato 'busy as I am' (cf. 244).

172

COMMENTARY

247-54

247-8 qui tibi sospitalis | fuit 'He who's been a saviour to you' (Pseudolus responds accordingly: 246n.). 247 tibi: iambic (versus its more usual pyrrhic scansion), as in 259. sospitalis: hapax legomenon. 248 mortuost qui fuit: qui sit usust ‘A “has-been” 15 dead: I need a living saviour' (the wordplay works because sum is both copulative and existential; with usust sc. mih?). The extent of Ballio's subjectivity 15 encapsulated here: his customers exist merely to enrich him (cf. 306—7). The theme ('a

bankrupt lover is dead to me’) 15 more fully articulated by Astaphium at Truc. 162—7, 210-47. 249 nimis superbe! :: nimis molestus! :: reprehende hominem, adsequere! :: i puere: all three characters engage in lively repartee (with anaphora, rhyme, and metrical concinnity) that bathetically concludes this section of the song (240a—gn.) with Ballio's command to his slave. 7, puere. 241n. Ballio and his slave have started off towards the forum wing, and the chase becomes increasingly spirited (cf. 2493—64n.) until Pseudolus utters the magic word — /ucro (264) - that compels the pimp to stop. 250—64 Pseudolus returns to bacchiacs (250-2; cf. 240a-9n.) in the effort to catch Ballio, who responds in kind (253-4), until Calidorus’ interjection at 255 interrupts the bacchiac sequence. An exchange between Calidorus and Ballio follows in bacchiac tetrameters (256—7), at which point Calidorus introduces cretics to the canticum, which continue until the polymetric song is capped with an ithyphallic measure at 264: Moore 2012: 324—0. 250 occedamus hac obuiam 'let's go this way to get in his face’, a stage direction marking a scramble for a strategic position (the pleonasm occedo . . . obuiam also occurs at As. 404, 412, St. 672, and Trin. 1197).

250—1 Iuppiter te | perdat ‘go to hell!’

251 quisquis es: Ballio is acting nimis superbe (249), as he has dealt with Pseudolus many times before: 233, 243-64nn. te uolo - μοίο ut te Iuppiter perdat, to which Ballio responds in kind. 252 uorte hac te, puere: Ballio and the puer seek a new route towards the forum wing (249n.). 252—-3 non licet...|...nonlubet 'Is it permissible . . . it’s not pleasurable’. Ballio similarly plays with the impersonals pudet and piget at 281—2. For his linguistic dexterity see 193-264n. 253 at 'Yes (you may), but’ (OLD 5a).

sin = s; * -ne. tuamst . . . in rem: cf. 2957n. Pseudolus is not specific enough to turn

Ballio's greedy ear: cf. 264n.

254 licetne . . . an nonlicet? ‘can I or can I not?' (Ballio's impatience is increasing and he throws Pseudolus’ licet back at him: 252-3n.).

COMMENTARY

255-61

173

bitere: a rare verb (Ξ eo; TLL 11.1679.36—54), found only in early Latin (four times in P., who has various compounds); ‘it and its compounds occur sporadically in Plautine comedy as high-falutin variants of i, etc. Tragedy appears to have affected the verb rather more frequently' (Jocelyn 1967: 314). Ballio grows haughty. uah: 205n. 255 manta ‘wait!’, frequentative of maneo (a rare verb found only in comedy, but avoided by Terence: Karakasis 2005: 177-8; TLL v11.3934.13— 27). Cf. 283. omitte ‘Let go of me!’ (a stage direction). Ballio: for the name see 1g3n. surdu's

‘Are you deaf?'

(244n.);

P’s surdus sum, attributed

to Ballio,

does not scan. profecto inanilogistae: ‘Yes (I'm deaf), to a bankrupt-ista.' Ballio coins a hybrid « inanis (‘penniless’, OLD 6) * λογιστής ‘accountant’

(cf. the impe-

rial logistae). The OLD entry for this hapax legomenon gives the definition

‘babbler’ (as if connected merely with Adyos). For Ballio’s economic deaf-

ness cf. 308n. profecto: with short penult, an unusual case of iambic shortening (Lindsay 1922: 35, Questa 2007: 89-90). 256 dedi dum fuit: cf. Truc. 217 dum fuit, dedit and 248n. (with dum fuit sc. mihi res). Calidorus grasps the precise meaning of Ballio's inanilogistae: 255n. We never learn how long Calidorus was able to purchase access to Phoenicium. fuit ‘was/existed’: for play on existential sum see 248, 259-60nn. non peto quod dedisti: Ballio petulantly plays the logician (cf. 133—264n.). 257 quando erit: 256n. ducito: sc. Phoenicium domum

(ducere domum is used both of wives and

hired prostitutes: OLD duco 5); Ballio uses the future imperative with typical precision: 20n. 258 eheu: cf. 79-84n. quam: exclamatory with malis perdidi modis. 259-60 mortua | . . . re ‘since your money has perished’ (abl. abs.). Cf. 256n. 259 tibi: iambic (247n.).

260 uerba . .. facis ‘you (just) talk’.

rem actam agis 'you're wasting your time' (proverbial: Otto 1890: 9); cf. Cist. 709 actam rem ago. quod periit, periit. Ballio again uses hackneyed language: 133-264, 140nn. 261 nosce . . . hunc quis est: 16n. iam diu scio ‘for some time now I've been getting to know' (i.e. ever since Calidorus’ last payment), the progressive present: AG §466, GL §230).

174

COMMENTARY 262-8

262 qui fuit . . . qui sit: for the variable moods see 4n. (sit may be attracted into the subjunctive because of sciat). qui sit ipsus sciat: in Ballios monomaniacal world-view, self-knowledge is awareness of one's financial worth. Cf. 248n. ipsus = ipse, perhaps archaic-sounding in P. (here it enhances the s sounds). 263 ambula tu: to his slave, the last such self-important, unrealized command (cf. 170, 241, 249; when the pimp finally exits for the forum at

380 he does not address the puer). potin ut ‘can’t you?' (235n.). 264 cum lucro respicias 'look back profitably’, i.e. with a view to making money (cum lucrois abl. of manner). Pseudolus finally gets the pimp's full attention (243-64, 244nn.), and as the song concludes Ballio turns back and faces master and slave. While the literal meaning of respicias 15 primary here, Ballio 15 also being urged to 'take consideration' (OLD 7; 612n.) for his interests. 265-393 The long canticum (193-264n.) is finished, but musical accompaniment continues during the dialogue in trochaics (Introduction p. 52). Calidorus and Pseudolus unsuccessfully plead their case with Ballio, who confirms his plan to sell Phoenicium to the soldier. The leno and his slave exit at 380, and leave slave and master to contemplate their prospects. 265 respiciam: 244, 264nn. istoc pretio ‘for that reward’, i.e. the possibility of lucrum (264). si sacruficem 'even if I were performing a sacrifice' (intransitive; for concessive si cf. 87n.). 266 atque 'and what's more' (OLD 1). in manibus exta teneam, ut poriciam: offering the entrails to the deity (exta porricere) following purificatory and other rituals marked a climactic moment in sacrifice (OCD s.v. sacrifice). Ballio takes the worship of lucrum and impiety to the extreme: 267, 268, 326—8nn.

interea loci 'in the meantime’; the temporal use of loci is found in early Latin and archaizing authors: LHS 11.53—4, SL 50. 267 51 lucri quid 'some lucrative opportunity' (quid = aliquid after si). potius ‘instead (of completing the sacrifice)’: OLD 3. rem diuinam deseram ‘I’d abandon the rite’: 266n. 268 pietati . . . huic captures Ballio's perverse reverence for lucrum. The implied contrast with peetas (122n.) towards Jupiter provides early evidence of the concept regarding the gods (Hanson 1959a: 90). Cf. Ballio's irreverence towards the personified Pietas: 292n. opsisti | huic: A/B hiatus at the main break. opsisti 15 impersonal passive (186, 273nn.) and provides the subject of non potest (‘resistance . . . is out of the question’).

COMMENTARY

269-75

175

utut res sunt ceterae ‘however all else stands'; utut (106n.) (iambic shortening).

is pyrrhic

269 deos . . . quos . . . 605 minimi facit 'As for the gods whom . . . he thinks nothing at all of them!' (anacoluthon). deos: a single long syllable (synizesis),

as eos.

quos maxume aequom est metuere: Pseudolus ironically champions traditional piety. maxume forms a superlative with aequom here (Ξ aequissimum)

and balances

minimi. For this moral imperative

(aequom est) to

fear the gods cf. Am. 23, 832, 841. metuere ‘to reverence with awe' (OLD 1d).

270—3 The greeting sequence is very similar to that between an ancilla and puerat Per. 203—6. 270 salue multum 'A very good day to you.' Athenis: locative. 271 di te deaeque ament: a polite form of greeting (deaeque with synizesis (269n.)). uel huius arbitratu uel meo 'either as he wishes or I do' (OLD arbitratus 1d); ambiguous as stated (272n.). hüius: trochaic, as often; scan B CDa

BcDaBcDABcD. 272 Cf. Per. 206 sed si ut digna es [ di] faciant, odio hercle habeant et faciant male (2770—3n.). uel ‘or rather' (i.e. 'to state matters more correctly’: OLD 4), suggesting Ballio merits a different (s? dignu s alio pacto) greeting. Cf. 122n. dignu's points to the justice of the gods in rewarding/punishing humans (Hanson 1959a: 87-8) as well as the greeting Ballio deserves. neque ament nec faciant bene 'may they despise you and do you ill’; the genuine ill-wishings are emphatically stated last (possibly an aside, though Ballio 15 unfazed by insults: 357—68n.). 273 quid agitur "What's up?' (= the figurative greeting quid agis?), usually subjected to literalization in P., as at 457 (cf. Men. 138, Mos. 719). amatur atque egetur acriter 'My being deeply in love and in poverty is what's up' (Calidorus answers Ballio's phatic question with a synopsis of Ps.); acriter (OLD 5) modifies both verbs (a rare early Latin example of an

adv. in an ἀπὸ κοινοῦ or 'shared construction': LHS 11.894-6). 274 misereat . . . misericordia ‘I'd pity you if I could just feed my household on pity', a telling reflection of Ballio's values (133-264n.): compassion cannot be commodified and therefore does not exist. With misereat sc. me. The condition here (misereat, si . . . possim) is present contrary-to-fact (tense rules for this type are not established in early Latin: 3—5n., Bennett 1910: 273-4, Handford 1947: 121-2). 275 heia! 'Clever!' (= εἶα); the versatile interjection here expresses ironic approval.

176

COMMENTARY

276-82

scimus . . . te qualis sis 'We know what you're about’ (cf. 16n.). ne praedices: 79n. on ne parsis. 276 scin quid ‘do you know what we really . . .?' (OLD scio 5); cf. 538, 641, and 657, where the formulaic question has a transitionary and corrective force. uolumus: for the indicative see 4n. pol ego propemodum ‘Yes, I pretty much do.' ut male sit mihi 'for things to go badly for me' (for the adv. * sum cf. 38n.); sc. uoltis.

277 et id et hoc quod te reuocamus ‘Both that ( = your failure) and

this matter ( = Phoenicium's sale; sc. uolumus) for which we're calling you

back’. et id: a shared (bb) resolution (Introduction p. 62); quodis adverbial acc./acc. of respect (used freely by P. in the case of pronouns: SL 27). animum aduorte: Ballio's catchphrase (143n.). 278 in pauca . . . confer ‘make it short’ (sc. uerba: OLD paucus 8b). quid uelis: 4n. (cf. 276 quid ... uolumus). ut occupatus nunc sum 'since I'm currently busy' (causal ut * indicative is a feature of early Latin: Karakasis 2005: 56): 243—04, 246nn. 279 hunc pudet, quod tibi promisit quaque id promisit die ‘This guy's embarrassed about what he promised you and the date on which he promised it.' The repetition of promittere here does not necessarily indicate that Calidorus had made a formal stipulatio (114-18n.) to purchase Phoenicium, but only that he and Ballio had discussed a price and deadline for a sale. Ballio did not take their discussions seriously — his indifference to Calidorus's claim to Phoenicium amplifies his despicable character. quod: adverbial acc. die incorporated into the relative clause introduced by quaque (instead of an adverbial acc.): AG 8307b, GL 8616. 280 The line repeats 279 with greater specificity, as often in P. tibi: for the scansion see 69n. minas uiginti pro amica: Ballio in his mind voided any informal verbal agreement (279n.) once the soldier made a down-payment (52, 53nn.). Cf. 352n. pro | amica: prosodic hiatus; scan bb c

Da B

CDA bb

Cdd

etiam 'still'. 281 nimio . . . facilius ‘far easier' (nimio= multo: cf. 1280). id quod pudet ‘shame’, subject of fertur. pudet . . . piget: 252—3, 282nn. illud quod piget 'regret'.

282 istunc: Calidorus.

ABcD.

pudet . . . piget: a favourite contrast in P. (here in adversative asydeton); cf. 281, Trin. 345 pol pudere quam pigere praestat totidem litteris (‘Shame 15 five times better than regret’), Capt. 203—4, Enn. scen. 37-8 Jocelyn. The

COMMENTARY

283-9

177

pimp's moralizing in 281—2 is incongruous with what amounts to a shady business venture that failed to materialize. 283 dabit, parabit ‘he’ll pay — he'll getit’ (the thought and word order are conversational). manta: 255n.

aliquos hos dies 'these next few days' (OLD hic 3b; cf. 9n.)

modo

‘just’ (with the imperative, as often: OLD 1b).

284 id anticipates the fearing clause.

ob simultatem suam: not a specific 'quarrel' that created a divide between the two; Pseudolus euphemistically refers to Calidorus' inability to produce cash for Phoenicium. simultas occurs only here in P., but is found at Ter. Ph. 232. suam: equivalent to an objective gen. (‘your “problem" with him’); cf. Am. 1066 terrore meo, Capt. 139 tuo maerore. 285 fuit: the original long quantity of the penult (P. has both quantities of the vowel). The indicative stresses the reality of the opportunity for Calidorus to pay Ballio. 51 uellet ‘if he'd wanted to' (the imperfect subjunctive in past contrary-to-fact conditionals to stress continuous action or likelihood as in classical Latin: NLS 8199, AG 8517; cf. 274n.).

286-8 inuenires . . . | . . . deuenires, adderes . . . | surruperes ‘you

should have ...’ (past jussives: SNLS 110, SL 235; the second person (definite) jussive is used as the equivalent of the imperative in early Latin: OLS 1.498—503). Ballio's moralizing on Calidorus' responsibilities as a lover 15 bathetically undermined: 288n. 286 si amabas 'if you really loved her' (for the indicative cf. Rud. 379 s; amabat, rogas, quid faceret? :: asseruaret . . . and Men. 195 si amabas, iam oportebat . . .). mutuom: 8on. 287 danistam:

this Greek word

(δανειστής)

for ‘moneylender’

occurs

only in P. (TLL v.1.35.9-14). deuenires ‘you should have gone to see’ (OLD 1b). faenusculum *a little bit of interest’; the diminutive occurs only here.

288 surruperes patri *you should have ripped it off from your father'

(patri is dat. of disadvantage/separation: AG 8381, GL 8345 R.1). surruperet hic patri, audacissume? richly ironic in that Pseudolus proposed this very solution (120n.), but also illustrative of how for an eiron (Introduction pp. 25—6) traditional morality and the rhetoric associated with it can be contingent and self-serving. 289 ne quid recte monstres 'that you'd offer proper guidance'. That Pseudolus impotently appeals to traditional morality underscores Ballio's control. ne: affirmative after an expression of fearing (OLD periculum 2d).

178

COMMENTARY

290-6

non lenoniumst 'that's not in the Pimp's code’: cf. 238n. Cf. Bac. 41 hau meretricium est. 290 egon . . . possim ‘The very idea that I could . . .' (exclamatory question strongly rejecting a previous suggestion: Morris 1895: 132). egon: pyrrhic, as often in P. (Questa 2007: 62). tam cauto seni ‘as cautious an old man as he is'. Cf. 407-8, 421—6nn. 291 atque adeo 'and on top of that' (215n.). si...possim 'even if I could' (87n.); cf. 274n. pietas prohibet: Calidorus assumes mock filial piety, whereas he earlier assented to Pseudolus' plan to fleece Simo and suggested his mother as a co-target: 122, 288nn. audio ‘I hear you' Ξ ‘Tunderstand’, 'Yes' (OLD g; cf. Thesleff 1960: 31 n. 4). 292 Pietatem ergo istam amplexator noctu pro Phoenicio 'So go ahead and embrace that Pietas of yours at night instead of Phoenicium' (for

Ballio’s religious perversity see 268n.). A temple to Pietas was first vowed

in Rome in 191 BCE (Liv. 40.34.4), but probably after the debut of Ps. (Clark 2007: 89). The quasi-personification of the abstract concept presumably arose earlier; the prospect of enshrining fetas in state cult would have been a current topic (Slater 2011: 307 n. 30). For deified abstractions in P. see Axtell 1907: 6g—71, Feeney 1998: 87-92. Cf. 669, 679nn. amplexator. future passive imperative (20n.; MHL 170); the verb is used as a euphemism for sexual intercourse (Adams 1982: 181-2). 293 cum . . . uideo: causal (usually with the indicative in P.: Bennett 1910: 133—4). : Mueller’s correction (the pronoun was lost after pietatem by haplography). praeuortere ‘prefer’ X (acc.) to Y (dat.): OLD 4 (cf. 237n.).

294 15 Bentley's almost certainly correct addition ('Are all men your fathers?’). nullus - nemo ( OLD nullus 2a). 294-5 quem . . . | . . . argentum: double acc. with rogare, as at 1070 (OLD rogo 2b). 294 roges: potential subjunctive. 295 mutuom argentum: 8on. quin *why . ..’ (answering Ballio’s question negatively and amplifying it, i.e. 'there's no one and on top of that . . ."). nomen ‘word’ (OLD 5). quoque 'even' (emphasizing nomen). interiit: for Calidorus'

morbid

obsession

(the loss of love/money

-

death) see 45n. 296-8 Pseudolus remonstrates against moneylenders, and possibly refers to recent events that exacerbated the credit situation for young men like Calidorus (Liv. 35.41.9 reports prosecutions against faeneratores

COMMENTARY

296-301

179

in 191 BCE). Satirical references to the difficulties of banking are topical in P.: Cas. 25—8, Cur. 377—9, Per. 433—0, 442—-3. There seems to be a credit crunch, both in banking and the theatre: Introduction pp. 33-8. 296 heus tu 'Look, you' (to Ballio): LU 15-16. isti a mensa surgunt satis poti uiri: images of dining and moneylending

seem

to be conflated

here;

both

diners

(OLD

mensa

3)

and

bankers (mensari cf. 757) use tables. The unspecified men, after enjoying their fill (pot: has an active meaning (OLD poto 4b) of having had wine/made

profit (?)), make themselves unavailable to others. Cf.

Per. 442—-3 mirum ni citius iam a foro argentarii | abeunt quam in cursu rotula circumuortitur. 297 qui suom repetunt *who demand their own [sc. argentum] back’. alienum reddunt ‘but return what belongs to others' (adversative asyndeton). Cf. Cas. 28 secundum ludos reddunt autem nemini, Cur. 378 reddant nemini. nato nemini 'to no one on earth’ (cf. Cas. 294, Mos. 402, 451, Rud. 970; OLD nascor 5b). 298 postilla: the adv. imprecisely (anacoluthon) picks up fostquam (296) and further implies a specific event precipitating the credit crisis (296-8n.). cautiores sunt ne credant alteri 'are wary of lending to anyone' (a ne hindering clause on the analogy of caueo: GL 8548.3). 299 nimis miser sum 'I'm way too wretched' (OLD nimis 9). For the lover's character see 3—1932, 23—77nn. nummum nusquam reperire argenti queo 'I can't find (so much as) a silver didrachm anywhere’ (97n.). 400 A highly resolved (‘light’) line: bb cdda BcddabbcDA BcD. miser: 4, 19nn. (miser et shares a (dd) resolution). et amore pereo et inopia argentaria ‘I'm dying both from love and a shortage of cash’ (bathos): 46n. (pereo: 45n.; argentaria: 105n.). 801 Ballio proposes a dubious method of commodities speculation: purchase olive oil on credit and liquidate for cash. Feeney 2010: 294 sees here 'the germ of the idea that Pseudolus expounds shortly afterward in his famous soliloquy [404-5], of making something out of nothing'. eme...uendito 'Buy it and then sell it' (20n. on cape . . . narrato). die caeca: like oculata die not attested elsewhere, but probably ‘on credit' (Morris 1895: 133), lit. (due) ‘on a blind/uncertain date' in the future. oliuom 'olive oil', the mainstay of the Athenian economy (cf. 210n.). oculata die 'for cash'. Festus (apparently as much in the dark as we are here), p. 189, 3-6 Lindsay writes, oculatum pro praesenti posuit Plautus. P. invented the phrase to contrast with de caeca, lit. 'on a seeing/present date' and so ‘for cash right now'.

180

COMMENTARY

302 iam 'immediately VII.1.102.74-109.18).

(with

the

302-9

present

indicative:

TLL

uel 'even' (OLD 5).

ducentae . . . minae: Ballio flippantly tosses out a large sum (Ξ ten times the cost of Phoenicium). praesentes 'in cash' (OLD 7). Cf. 301n.

303 perii! 45n. annorum lex . . . quinauicenaria: a /ex Plaetoria (date unknown, referred to at Rud. 1381—2) made it illegal for men under twenty-five (considered minores) to enter into financial contracts without a guardian (curator) present. me perdit 'is killing me'. 304 metuont credere 'are afraid to loan me money' (sc. argentum mihi: OLD credo 2). Both financial and personal credibility are at issue in Roman exchanges. metuont = metuunt. lex: perhaps 'principle' (OLD 8) rather than the formal law (303n.); Ballio again (133-264n.) manipulates words. 3505 credere autem! ' (What do you mean) afraid to trust him!' autem 15 used in indignant questions and exclamations with a repeated word ( OLD 6b, 209n.), as credere here.

eho an paenitet te "What? You aren't satisfied with . . .?' (the usual meaning of paenitet in P., not 'regret': OLD 1b); for eho an see OLD eho 1b. This is the first of three indignant questions posed by Pseudolus with eho an (cf. 309, 314; for comic repetition 52, 79-84, 236nn.). an undergoes iambic shortening; scan B c Daa BcDA BCDaaBcD. quanto hic fuerit usui ‘how profitable he was (to you)’, dat. of purpose. 406 iustus . . . amator: Ballio's highly subjective world-view from another angle: the only true lover is the one who never ceases enriching a pimp (133-264, 248nn.)! Cf. Astaphium's maxim for successful prostitution, Truc. 231 nec umquam erit probus quisquam amator nisi qui rei inimicust suae. perpetuat data 'continuously gives gifts'. 307 det, det usque . . . amare desinat restates the idea of 306 (i.e. love ceases with the cessation of payment). The subjunctives are jussive and frame Ballio's depraved perspective as if law. det, det usque 'he should give, and give completely' (216n.). 308 nilne te miseret? ‘Have you no pity whatsoever?' (nilis an adv.). inanis cedis, dicta non sonant 'You're walking a penniless path, your words don't ca-ching.' The monomaniacal /eno remains deaf to all sounds save that of money: 255, 371nn. 309 atque: 106n. ego: 290n. te...uellem 'I'd prefer you' (an unfulfilled present wish: AG 8447.1N., GL 8258 N.1).

COMMENTARY

310-16

181

uellem | :: eho: C/D hiatus at change of speaker. eho an: 305n. mortuost: 248n. 410 utut est 'Whatever he is' (dead, alive, well, etc.).

mihi quidem profecto 'absolutely, as far as I'm concerned'. mihi is dat. of the person judging: AG 8378.1, NLS 65. cum istis dictis: i.e. what Calidorus said about being destitute and ‘dead’ (299-300, 303-4). 411 ilico uixit amator, ubi. .. 'Alover'sa “has been" the instanthe . . .": cf. 38, 248nn. ilico= in loco, ‘immediately’ (more often temporal than spatial in P.); uixit has the original quantity of the ultima. ub:: pyrrhic. lenoni supplicat 'begs a pimp', although the religious meaning of the verb (‘do worship to', OLD 2) is apropos: 267, 268, 327, 335nn. 312 cum argentata . . . querimonia ‘with a silver-plated complaint’ (46, 105, 300nn.). argentata: the third form of an adjective based on argentum used in the play (with argenteus and argentarius). 313 nam: explicative, as in 328 and 342 (OLD 5). istuc quod nunc lamentare 'as for the matter that you're currently bewailing', explained by non esse argentum tibi ('your not having money’). 314 apud nouercam querere: Roman stepmothers were stereotyped as cruel: Watson 1994: 92—134. Ballio's figurative analogy invites Pseudolus' literalizing joke about same-sex marriage. apud 'in the presence of’, ‘to’ (OLD 8); pyrrhic (iambic shortening). querere = quereris (Lorenz: 1876: 117 construes this as imperative, 'take it up with your stepmother' - 'I don't care', which Pseudolus then misconstrues as indicative). eho an: 305n. (a shared ccresolution).

huius nupsisti patri? 'You married his father?' (nubo, lit. ‘put on the veil for’, properly of a woman). Cas. 86 ibit nuptum signifies that the male actor who might have played the absent titular character is available for prostitution after the play. For nubere of intercourse see Cist. 43 (with Stockert 2012: 97) and Adams 1982: 159-61. huius: trochaic (Questa 2007: 70). 315 di meliora faxint! 'Heaven forbid!’ (faxint 14n. on prohibessit). Olympio similarly responds to Lysidamus' sexual innuendo at Cas. 812-19. face: 18n. 316 mea fide ‘on my credibility' (mea with synizesis), stated as if a slave could manifest fides (a fundamental concept in elite Roman social relations: Earl 1967: 33-4), let alone engage in legitimate financial transactions. Pseudolus has exhorted spectators not to trust him (128nn.). Cf. 467, 631. isti: Calidorus, of whom Pseudolus speaks as if not present. credere: 304n.

182

COMMENTARY

317-25

in hoc triduo ‘within the next three days' (28gn.). Cf. 321n. 317 aut terra | aut mari: proverbial for 'everywhere' (Otto 1890: 344); Pseudolus speaks with his trademark grandiosity. terra | aut: D/A hiatus. euoluam

*wrench

out'

(OLD ga), a bold expression

(elsewhere

in P.

only at Men. 903 quem ego hominem . . . uita euoluam sua). 318 tibi ego credam '/am to trust you?' (deliberative subjunctive): 304, 316nn. quor - cur/ qur (spelled thus in P). 318-19 qua opera . .. | una opera ‘I'dassoon ...asI'd..." (cf. opera una 'equally': OLD opera 1d), a ' should/ would potential’, rare in early Latin (Handford 1947: 104).

318 qua | opera: prosodic hiatus.

319 fugitiuam canem 'a runaway dog' (fugitiuus. usually of slaves in Ρ: 365n.).

canem | agninis: B/C hiatus.

agninis lactibus ‘with lamb-intestines'

(« lactes, 'small intestines’), also

mentioned at Titin. com. 00 Ribbeck (Ballio's expression may be proverbial, but no parallel 15 extant; it is a kind of adynaton).

320 sicin 'So that's how it is' (introducing an indignant question: OLD

11a).

aps te bene merenti ‘though I deserve better from you'. male refertur gratia 'you're doing a poor job of reciprocation’ (construing aps tewith refertur ἀπὸ κοινοῦ). The relationship between client and meretrix and/or leno easily assumed an air of reciprocal giftgiving (preferred by elites), at least prior to sale of a person: Zagagi 1980: 118-20. The contrast between bene and male is underscored by their rhyme and shared (bb) metrical position.

421 ut opperiare: sc. uolo. hos sex dies aliquos modo 'for just these next six or so days' (283n.). Calidorus comically doubles Pseudolus' suggestion of a three days reprieve (316n.). sex: a round figure, as at 323 and e.g. Trin. 166, 543, Mos. 954. 322 neu me perdas hominem amantem: for Calidorus' self-awareness of his comic role see 238n. animo bono es 'Cheer up' (cf. 232n.). $23 uel: 302n. opperibor - opperiar (174n. on scibo). sex: 321n. eugae ‘Great!’ (εὖγε); cf. St. 660 eugae, Sangarine lepidissume.

lepidissume: 27—8n.

324 immo 'Think nothing of it'. uin = uisne. ex laeto laetantem magis 'a happier man instead of just a happy one'. 325 quid iam? 'How's that?’

enim: 31n. non uenalem iam | habeo Phoenicium 'I don't have Phoenicium up for sale now.' Ballio is over-precise with his words again: 133-264, 304nn. iam

| habeo: hiatus (shared bb resolution).

326 non hercle uero: a ‘no’ response to a question is often strengthened by an oath in conversational Latin: Thesleff 1960: 54.

326-8 Calidorus' readiness to deify the pimp for fulfilling his desires

satirizes a Roman tendency to discover the divine in virtually every corner of human life (292n.). The equation of the /eno with Jupiter collapses the male hierarchy - Pseudolus will unmask this absurdity when he dubs Ballio luppiter Lenonius (335n.). 326—7 hostias, | uictumas: synonyms for (unspecified) sacrificial animals (the trisyllabic pair with homoioteleuton evokes sacral language). 327 lanios: Calidorus naively means 'butchers' to cut up sacrificial meat, but ironically identifies suitable ministers at a sacrifice for Tuppiter Lenonius: 196—7, 395nn. ut ego huic sacruficem summo Ioui 'so I can perform a sacrifice to this guy as Almighty Jupiter’; the gullible lover inverts the sacred hierarchy: 326-8n. Cf. Capt. 863 sum summus Iuppiter (the parasite orders a celebratory sacrifice in his own honour); a parasite's deification of a slave at Per. 99; and the senex amator Lysidamus' characterization of himself as Jupiter (Cas. 290-2908, 331—7; cf. 406-8). huic: for the (rare) spondee see Questa 2007: 74-5. 328 hic mihi nunc est multo potior Iuppiter quam Iuppiter ‘in my view he's a much more powerful Jupiter than Jupiter'. Human deification is a comic trope in P. (examples in Hanson 1959a: 69). mihi: 310n. 429 nolo uictumas: agninis me extis placari uolo ‘I don't want sacrificial animals; what I want is for me to be placated with the organs of a lamb.' Ballio assumes a divine persona by stating his dining preferences as a virtual command (383n.). Later evidence suggests prominent patrons might be sacrificed to as gods on their birthdays (Argetsinger 1992). placart a religious technical term (cf. Poen. 849-50). 430 i accerse agnos: in response to Ballio’s preference (329n.) Calidorus orders Pseudolus to fetch lambs (cf. 326—7n.). audin quid ait Iuppiter? Jupiter's words are inexorable (for aud?n cf. 194n.). Tuppiter. Calidorus drops the qualifying huic (327) and hic (328) and accords Ballio full Olympian status. 331—4 Pseudolus grasps Ballio's deception and instead of preparing a sacrifice for ‘Jupiter’ will leave the city (331) to arrange punishment for the pimp. 331 iam 'soon' (with the future). uerum . . . etiam 'but, actually'.

184

COMMENTARY 332-6

extra portam 'beyond the Esquiline Gate’, similarly referred to at Mil. 359-60 credo ego istoc exemplo tibi esse bereundum extra portam, | dispessis manibus, patibulum quom habebis. The area was associated with executions and torturing slaves. 332 quid eo? ‘Why there?' Calidorus and Pseudolus are working as a comic team again (32n.), and the question gives spectators a chance to process what extra portam (331n.) means before Pseudolus makes this explicit. lanios . . . duo cum tintinnabulis: instead of fetching butchers for a sacrifice (327n.) Pseudolus employs lanios in its slang sense, 'executioners' (Ξ carnifices: 396—7n.). cum tintinnabulis probably does not describe literal bells but refers to the chains and shackles executioners carried. Cf. Truc. 482 nisi si ad tintinnaculos uoltis uos educi uiros. 333 eadem ‘at the same time’ (sc. opera; cf. 318—19n.), with synizesis of the first syllable. duo greges uirgarum . . . ulmearum 'flocks of elm rods [for beating]' instead of the requested agnos (330); Morris 1895: 136 notes, 'the rods are the victims to be sacrificed on the altar of Ballio's back' (for identification jokes see 23-4n.; cf. As. 341, 575, Rud. 636). duo: monosyllabic (with synizesis, as in 3934). Cf. 545n. adegero 'drive' (as if the elm rods were domesticated animals). The future perfect often is indistinguishable from the simple future in P. Lindsay 1907: 60-1, Bennett 1910: 54-7. 334 ut . .. satias suppetat 'so that plenty is available' (satias is nom. sg., an early Latin form; here with mock-solemnity: Karakasis 2005: 94). ad litationem 'for obtaining favourable omens' (+ dat.). huic .. . Ioui: 327, 330nn. 335 i in malam crucem! 'Go to hell’ (cf. 235n. on crucior), possibly a translation of ἐς κόρακας. I follow Petrone 1979 in attributing the curse to Calidorus rather than Ballio, as it is inconsistent with the aura of divinity the /eno has assumed (329n.). istuc: 1.6. to crucifixion/a painful death. Iuppiter Lenonius 'Jupiter of Pimps'; Pseudolus caps the motif of Ballio's divinity with a mock cult title (cf. Juppiter Capitolinus, etc.). Ballio's godhead will be short-lived. Cf. 710n. 336—9 If the lines are Plautine (Leo brackets 336—7 because of the repetition with 338—9), Ballio poses a two-pronged riddle (a double bind: cf. Poen. 159-62, Mil. 1014-15) that collectively explains why both his death and continued existence are to Pseudolus' disadvantage. 336 ex tua re 'in your best interest’ (OLD 13b; cf. 237n. on in rem). quidum? | :: ego: C/D hiatus at change of speaker. Scan B c D A bb C dd A Bcdd ABcD.

437 edepol: 154n. dum ego uiuos uiuam ‘as long as I' m alive and in the flesh’. uiuos ujuam is a lively, but less frequent, form (adj. * verb) of figura etymologica: cf. 940, Epid. 651 tacitus taceas, Poen. 906 tacitus tace, LHS 11.791. nunquam eris frugi bonae ‘you’ll never amount to anything'. frugi bonae. the dat. functions as an indeclinable adj. (originally a predicative dat.: NLS 868, OLD frux 5b), and so often 15 modified by an adj. in P. Cf. 468n. 338 sic, quia 'It's like this: because . . .' (cf. OLD sic g, 6); uariatio of 336 ego dicam tibi.

339 si | ego: B/C hiatus in the first foot.

te: abl. of comparison. nequior: the declinable comparative of the indeclinable adj. nequam, "worthless'. 340 dic mihi . . . uerum serio 'Seriously though, tell me...' Cf. As. 29 dic obsecro hercle serio quod te rogem. 341 non habes uenalem . . . Phoenicium: 325n. Fraenkel 2007: 8o-1 views such repetitions as that with 325 here as marks of Plautine addition (i.e. 326—40 was added to P.’s Greek source). amicam . . . meam: 35n. 342 non edepol habeo profecto ‘I swear I absolutely do not (currently) have her up for sale' (the pleonasm edepol . . . profectois an index of Ballio’s sardonic attitude); more hair-splitting by Ballio: 133-264, 304nn. 343 quo modo? ‘How could you?’, an indignant question (cf. Am. 556, 797, 1023, Mer. 813), which Ballio misconstrues literally. sine ornamentis,

cum intestinis omnibus

‘Minus

her accessories, but

with all her internal organs in place’, grotesquely echoing a contract detailing the specific conditions of her sale (cf. St. 172 uenalis ego sum cum ornamentis omnibus) . ornamentis refers to Phoenicium's clothes and jewelry (cf. the sales of women at Cur. 343-8, Per. 660—70). 344 meam tu amicam uendidisti? Calidorus does not want to reveal that Phoenicium has secretly written to him about her sale. Arnott 1982: 138-49 demonstrates that such expressions of feigned surprise are a feature of ancient dramatic performance, where repeated exposition is expected; P. probably is following his source here and not engaging in contaminatio or clumsy dramaturgy (Introduction pp. 13-14). ualide 'absolutely' (OLD 2b, LU 75: cf. 145, 364nn.). uiginti minis: abl. of price. 345 uiginti minis: yet another repetition of this sum (52, 344nn.) uel: 122n. quater quinis minis 'for four times five minas’; for a self-described busy man (278n.) Ballio has ample time for frivolous banter.

186

COMMENTARY 346-52

346 militi Macedonio: 51n. et iam 'and so' (in parataxis: TLL v11.1.108.32—47). quindecim . . . minas: 53n. The last syllable of quindecim 15 breuis in longo (and in hiatus), a locus Jacobsohnianus (Introduction p. 57); scan B c D a bb cDABcd+aaBcD. 447 quid ego ex te audio? For Calidorus’ continued surprise here see 344n. audio? | :: amicam: B/C hiatus at change of speaker; scan bb CDaBcD ABcDABcD. amicam tuam esse factam argenteam ‘That your girlfriend’s been cashed in’, extending the series of argent metaphors/identifications (46, 100, 105, 312, 424nn.), and a reflection of Ballio’s purely economic view of his slaves (1993—264n.), as that of Roman slaveholding culture generally (Smadja 1997). 348-50 For Calidorus' thoughts of suicide and their deflation by Pseudolus see 9o, 92-93nn. 348 lubuit 'I felt like it', a flippant rejoinder, often employed by clever slaves: Leadbeater 1986. eho, Pseudole 'Hey, Pseudolus' (OLD 1a). 349 gladium: the most common (Latin) word for 'sword' in P. (merce-

nary soldiers carry a machaera: 593n.). quid opus gladio? ‘Why do you need a sword?' (sc. tibi est; Ritschl prints opusct»).

occidam | atque: A/B hiatus (occidam atque me gon.).

qui: 89n. 350 quin tu ted occidis potius? “Why not kill just kill yourself instead?’ (40n.). For Pseudolus' characteristic lack of indulgence towards Calidorus’

romanticism see 23—77n. ted: 240n. on med; potius: 267n. iam 'soon' (hyperbolic: after Calidorus kills himself, Ballio's loss of income will lead to his death by starvation). occiderit: 333n. on adegero. 351 quid ais . . .? here a formula of surprise/amazement (OLD aio 6); cf. 479n. quantum terram tetigit ‘all (men) who have trodden upon the earth’. Cf. Rud. 706 (of the pimp Labrax) natum quantum est hominum sacrilegissume, Poen. 89—90 homini, si leno est homo, | quantum hominum terra sustinet sacerrumo. hominum: with both quantum (lit. what number of men’) and periurissume. periurissume: highlighting one of the pimp's essential characteristics: 132, 363nn. 352 iurauistin 'Didn't you swear?' (-ne often = nonne in P.: Lindsay 1907: 128—9). Cf. 279n. However solemn we imagine this ‘contract’ to be,

COMMENTARY

353-7

187

the /eno can be expected to breach it. For the fluidity of the comic pimp's oaths compare the conclusion of Rud. (1372-1423). 353 fateor 'Yes', a common function of the verb in P.: Thesleff 1960: 30-1. nempe ‘I presume'; nempe. always a single long in P., with apocope before a consonant or elision with a vowel following. conceptis uerbis ‘with formal terms' (OLD concipio 12), perhaps suggesting these took the form of a sponsio (114-18, 280, 352nn.). Dunsch 2014: 645 observes that formulaic phrases such as this are *mostly found in contexts that thematize perjury' and concludes that 'sacred acts, at least in Plautus, are generally presented only under the conditions of their failure, with their incompletion and lack of end constituting an aspect of this failure'. Cf. 540n. etiam consutis quoque 'yes, with fabricated ones too' (for etiam in affirmative responses see Thesleff 1960: 34—5). Cf. Am. 367 consutis dolis and 540n. 354 periurauisti: 351, 352nn. sceleste: the most common term of abuse in P. (Lilja 1965: 22); cf. 360. at 'Yes, but' (OLD 6), as at 436.

intro ‘in my house' (cf. 81n.). 354—5 condidi. | . . . promere: technical terms for storing and removing provisions, respectively, playing off Pseudolus' assertion that fames (350) would overtake the pimp. 355 ego scelestus 'Criminal that I am ...' (picking up Calidorus' pejorative in 354). promere: the last syllable is breuis in longo (346n.); scan bbcDaBCD ABcd+ABcD. 356 tu qui piu's: as a filius in an elite family, Calidorus is expected to manifest pietas (cf. 120, 122, 268nn.) towards his parents. istoc es genere gnatus: Calidorus’ family is aristocratic (35, 227nn.); Ballio takes satirical delight in much-bruited ancestral values being compromised by amor and its financial requirements. gnatus = natus. nummum non habes ‘you don't have a penny' (OLD nummus gc). 457-08 Calidorus and Pseudolus engage in a lively comic version of flagitatio/uagulatio (with musical accompaniment and frequent change of speakers), an ancient Italian practice demanding justice through public shaming (Usener 1901, Fraenkel 1961; as a form of mob ‘justice’: Lintott 1999: 6—10; for related forms of popular abuse see Wallochny 1992: 88-97); such a scene could easily be improvised (Barsby 1995: 65-6). Calidorus, inspired by passionate hatred of the /eno, is linguistically innovative: 361, 362, 364nn. Ballio successfully rebuffs the flagitatio through his nonchalance before stereotypical invective. Slater 1985:

188

COMMENTARY 357-60

124—5 observes that the episode's blocking (357n.) immediately favours Ballio: “The staging deliberately undercuts the two accusers: standing on either side of the /eno, they form a triangle whose apex of power is Ballio.' The pimp will escape the f/agitatio unscathed and seemingly in control of the show (cf. 133-264, 240a-9nn.), which further increases Pseudolus’ challenges. It also already is evident that Ballio by embracing his stock character has litlle chance of transcending it: in contrast to Pseudolus (562—73a, 667—93nn.), Ballio is ill-fitted for improvisation: 956—-1016, 1052—1102, 1103-1237nn. He later dismisses his interaction here as nugae theatri (1080): 1081—3n. The danista Misargyrides executes a brief flagitatio at Mos. 603—5. 357 adsiste altrim secus 'Stand on the other side of him’ (a stage direction: they launch their assault on Ballio's left and right. altrim secus 15 written as two words to avoid violation of Hermann's law (Introduction p. 63). onera hunc maledictis ‘bury him with insults’. Cf. Mer. 978 quibus est dictis dignus usque oneremus ambo, where a senex amator is given his comeuppance in a flagitatio. licet 'Okay', a colloquial reply (OLD 2). 358 ad praetorem: a magistrate presided over formal manumissions (Bradley 1994: 155-6). Cf. 1231n. aeque cursim ‘with equal speed'. The comparison suggests not only Pseudolus' contempt for Ballio, but also desire for freedom (Wright 1975: 409 overstates the situation: 'Pseudolus is weakening his position in the Plautine universe by expressing a very uncomic wish to be a free man’). Cf. Introduction pp. 44-7. cursim curram: cf. Afran. com. 294 Ribbeck curre cursim; for adv./verb in figura etymologica cf. Cas. 267 cupide cupis, Cur. 535 propere properas, LHS 1I.791. ut emittar manu: a slave 15 ‘dismissed’ from the master's power (manus). 359 ingere mala multa 'launch a full assault’ (OLD ingero 2); the line's third element is a split (dd) resolution. ego te differam ‘I’ll tear you apart' (cf. OLD differo 2, Aul. 446 hic pipulo te differam ante aedis, with Maclennan and Stockert 2016:

155-6); for P.’s

predilection for verbs of violence see Corbett 1964. $60-6 Ceccarelli 1990: 29-30 notes that, while each line has the expected word-end after the eighth element in association with change of speaker, P. avoids rhythmic monotony throughout by otherwise varying the arrangement of word-end and change of speaker. 360 impudice: like many of the insults hurled at the /eno here, appropriated by Pseudolus from the elite moral lexicon. For an overview of Latin insults see Dickey 2002: 163-85.

COMMENTARY

361-5

189

itast 'Absolutely'; in keeping with his status as a metacomic leno (357— 68, 1081-3nn.), Ballio welcomes stereotypical characterizations throughout the flagitatio. sceleste: 354, 355nn. uerbero 'worthy of flogging', one of comedy's most common insults against slaves; despite being a free person, Ballio probably would have no legal recourse - if any existed for verbal abuse (Lilja 1965: 71-- — because of his low status. 361 quippini? 'Of course', a form of ironic assent (LU 152). bustirape "Tomb-robber' (hapax legomenon), perhaps a calque of τυμβώρυχος; it points to an especially impious crime in the ancient world. furcifer: 194n., another common insult usually hurled at a slave (360n.). 362

sociofraude

‘Traitor’,

someone

who

cheats

a socius

(possibly a

calque of προδωσέταιρος), Calidorus' second consecutive hapax legomenon (361n.).

sunt mea istaec ‘That’s my area of speciality.' parricida: perhaps a calque of πατραλοίας, but the word evokes a strongly Roman context: 212n. Cf. Rud. 651 (the pimp Labrax) parricidi ... plenissumus. perge tu 'Keep it coming.' 363 sacrilege "Temple-robber' (iepócuAos 15 used as a term of abuse: Handley 1965: 244), an extremely impious criminal who burgles a god's house. Cf. Rud. 700. fateor: 353n. periure: always applied to a /enoin P. except at Mil. 1066a (of the miles); cf. 351n. periurus is a quasi-epithet of pimps in Roman comedy (cf. 975, Capt. 57 hic neque periurus leno est, Ter. Ad. 188—9 leno sum, fateor, pernicies communis adulescentium, | periurus, pestis, Rud. 126, 722). uetera uaticinamini 'You're spouting old stuff' (proverbial: Otto 1890: 369—70; cf. Ar. Ran. 821), addressed to the pair, but perhaps a provocation to Pseudolus to devise fresher invectives (357—68, 362nn.). uaticinor. only here in P. 364 legerupa 'Scofflaw', another Plautine coinage (362n.; also at 975, Per. 68, Rud. 652, all of lenones).

ualide: 344n. permities adulescentum 'Bane of young men!' (his typical brothel customers: 202an.). permities: an early Latin form of pernicies. Cf. As. 133 (of a lena) perlecebrae, permities, adulescentum exitium, Mos. 9 erilis bermities. acerrume 'So stinging!’ (deeply sarcastic). 365 babae! 'My-my!' (with mock-surprise), Ξ βαβαῖ, a similarly geminated exclamation (used by a code-switching freedman at Petr. 37.9).

190

COMMENTARY

466-74

fugitiue 'Runaway slave!' (cf. 139n. on fuge), only here in P. and at Ter. Eu. 669 and Ph. 931; cf. fugax at Per. 421. Βομβάξ! ‘Blah-blah-blah’ (cf. BóuBos, 'boom"), only here and at Ar. Thes. 45.

planissume 'Plain as day' (often ironic: LU 73). 366 leno: Pseudolus' climactic insult tags Ballio's comic essence (35768, g6onn.). Cf. Rud. 653 (of the pimp Labrax) uno uerbo absoluam, lenost. caenum ‘Filth!” The Roman moral tradition associated pimps and prostitution with uncleanliness; cf. Per. 406—7

oh, lutum lenonium, | commixtum

caeno sterculinum publicum, Poen. 15/7-8 (cf. Fantham 1972: 133). cantores probos! 'Clever singers!’, i.e. ‘this is music to my ears' (acc. of exclamation, used extensively in colloquial Latin: Lindsay 1907: 29-30, LHS 11.48—9). 367 uerberauisti patrem atque matrem: an absurd inversion of social norms. occidi: an admission that (if true) would make Ballio guilty of parricide (cf. 212n.). 468 potius quam cibum praehiberem: killing them was a cost-saving measure (consistent with Ballio's character: 199-264n.). Roman attitudes towards the elderly were complex (Dixon 1992: 149-59), but the miser Ballio characteristically is over the top. num peccaui quippiam? ‘Was that somehow wrong?' num does not always demand an answer of 'no' in P. (Lindsay 1907: 129). quippiam: internal acc. (226n.). 469 The line scans BCDA bbcDaBcdd A BcD. in pertusum ingerimus dicta dolium 'We're pouring our words into a leaky jar’ (102n.). operam ludimus ‘we’re wasting our effort’ (OLD ludo 8c). 470 numquid aliud etiam uoltis dicere? An extended version of numquid uis? (‘Anything else?’), a polite formula of leavetaking, even if the speaker is eager to depart (Hough 1945). Ballio and the puer perhaps move towards the forum wing (249n.). ecquid 'at all' (adverbial).

371 ten amatorem esse inuentum inanem ‘That you've been shown to be as empty a lover' (acc. * inf. in exclamation or me pudet is understood from 370), continuing the motif of 'the empty/penniless lover' from 255 and 308. ten = te * ne (-nein an exclamatory question: cf. 290n.). inanem: 255n. quasi cassam nucem ‘as a hollow nut', proverbial for worthlessness (Otto 189o: 248). 372 [in me]: deleted by Ritschl to save the metre (cf. mih?).

dicta dixistis: figura etymologica (cf. 107) and cognate acc. (GL §332.2, NLS 813 (1)); cf. 524n. 373 quinque . . . minas: 54n. 374 sicut 'since' (Lindsay 1907: 116).

COMMENTARY

375-81

191

haec est praestituta summa . . . dies: 59n. summa ‘last’ (OLD 5). 375 51 id non affert: repeating his protasis in 373 (nisi ... attulerit) after two intervening subordinate

clauses, as is natural in conversation

(Blànsdorf 1967: 32). facere . . . officium meum 'carry out my obligation/duty’, as if with moral rectitude (376, 377nn.), but also suggesting his comic role as a perjurious pimp 'doing his job' (140, 357—68, 363nn.). 376 quid id est?: the question delays and highlights the shocking climax. cum illo perdidero fidem ‘I’ll destroy my good-faith agreement with him’: cf. 352nn.; for cum see 12n. perdidero: 333n. on adegero; fidem: $16n. 377 hoc meum est officium: in Ballio's alternative world of pimpish values (133—264n.) ‘obligation’ is redefined as ‘not meeting one's obligation' (cf. 375n.) in the normative sense of officium, which demands moral fixity. The negotiation between a lena and an adulescens at As. 229—-31 inverts the notion Of lex: dic, quod me aequom censes pro illa tibi dare, | annum hunc ne cum quiquam alio sit? :: tene? uiginti minas; | atque ea lege: si alius ad me prius attulerit, tu uale. operae si sit ‘if I had the time’ (sc. mzhi: LS opera 11.B), predicative dat. (337n.); cf. Truc. 883 operae ubi mi erit, ad te uenero. Cf. 274n. 378 argento: with iambic shortening of the first syllable. frustra es 'you're mistaken' (OLD frustra 2b, an early Latin idiom). For adv. * sum cf. 38n. qui me tui misereri postulas 'if you're one to expect me to feel sorry for you' (relative clause as a protasis: AG 8519). tuiis monosyllabic (synizesis). 379 haec meast sententia, ut . . . consulas: Ballio speaks as if rendering a judicial decree (OLD sententia 5). Cf. 1231n. porro 'going forward' (with quid agas). quid agas ‘what you are to do' (deliberative subjunctive in an indirect question: 161n.). 380 iamne 'so soon’ (cf. OLD iam 4). negoti . . . plenus ‘I've got a full plate of things to do’; with one last self-important claim of how busy he is, Ballio at last exits for the forum

with the puer. 170, 241, 243-64, 244nn. Unmoved by the exchange with the adulescens amans and his slave, Ballio exits, confident he has control of

Phoenicium's pending sale. paulo post magis '(you'll have) more a little later’; Pseudolus means negotium in the sense of 'trouble': OLD 3. 381 illic homo meus est ‘I've got him' (as at Bac. 103, Cur. 431, Mil. 394; cf. 521n.), a favourite topos of the seruus callidus: cf. Naev. com. 70 Ribbeck wuisam. deo meo propitio meus homo est (with Wright 1974: 51-2). The claim of (figurative) ownership is especially striking when uttered of a free person by an actor costumed as a slave, and suggests Pseudolus' increasing control of the situation (Tornau 2005: 50-1). Cf. 600, 1124nn.

192

COMMENTARY

382-5

illic. ille * -ce (69n.), a single longum (syncope of the ultima), perhaps reflecting actual pronounciation: Questa 2007: 68. nisi omnes di me atque homines deserunt 'unless absolutely everyone fails me’; omnes di . . . atque homines is a polar expression (cf. Poen. 518 nec tibi nos obnoxüi istuc quid tu ames aut oderis, Am. 7 quasque incepistis res quasque inceptabitis). Cf. 399—400n. 382

exossabo:

this

vivid

verb,

lit.

'debone',

when

metaphorically

applied to a person (Am. 318, 342) means 'mutilate/destroy'. For the connection between cooking and plotting in P. see 790—-904n. ego illum: the first syllable of :l/lum undergoes iambic shortening. simulter = similier (Non. p. 170 Lindsay preserves the form; for the importance of the indirect tradition in editing P. see Timpanaro 1978: 141-2), pleonastic with itidem here. ut murenam coquos: the cook debones the lamprey (μύραινα) to suit his purposes; in Pseudolus' view Ballio needs to be cut down to size. 383 te mihi operam dare uolo ‘I need you to give me your attention’, a peremptory command (for the sociolinguistics of commands with uolo see Barrios-Lech 2016). ecquid imperas? 'Is there anything you have for me to do? (Ξ 'Tell me what to do’). Calidorus is eager to obey his slave; cf. Poen. 447-8 (the adulescens Agorastocles) iubet Amor | me oboedientem esse seruo liberum. 384 The clever slave often describes his schemes in the language of siege warfare (and triumph), as in Chrysalus' Trojan War song at Bac. 925—78. Cf. 525, 574-603b, 1310ann. hoc . . . oppidum: Pseudolus points to Ballio's house. admoenire ‘lay siege to (walls)’, grandiosely applied to the brothel. 385 astuto, docto, cauto, et callido: Pseudolus asserts that he needs a crafty individual like himself; cf. Am.

268

me malum esse oportet, callidum,

astutum admodum, where Mercury states the characteristics required for him to impersonate Sosia. Pseudolus significantly does not ask for someone endowed with malitia, since he leaves open the option for either a slave or free person. Calidorus’ selection of his friend Charinus (390, 694-766nn.) leads to the drafting of Simia (cf. goga malus cum malo stulte caut), but at this point Pseudolus is groping for a plan and seeking to assure Calidorus (and spectators) that he has one: Introduction p. 34. astuto ‘may denote a desirable mental keenness, but, like callidus, possesses

a tricky force' (Brotherton 1978: 31). docto 'is 'a regular term for the slave experienced in intrigue' (Brotherton 1978: 33), with quasi-programmatic significance in P. given the prominence of the erudite slave-trickster; the doct- root constitutes a leitmotif in Ps. (485, 527, 678, 725, 729, 765, 907a, 941, 1205, 1243; cf. 205a—bn.). cauto: not a mark of the seruus callidus (cf. 200), in contrast to the other adjs. here.

COMMENTARY

386-93

193

386 qui . . . reddat: relative clause of characteristic (97n.). non qui uigilans dormiat ‘not someone who sleeps on the job'; cf. Am. 697, Capt. 848, Otto 189o: 121. 387 cedo mihi ‘Tell me' (the imperative: OLD cedo* 2). Only the singular and the plur. imperative cette of this verb (« an IE root *do, ‘to give’: Sihler 1995: 8119.3) survive. temperi 'in good time' (adv.). faxo scies: 49n. $88 nolo bis iterari 'I don't want it repeated a second time' (pleonasm disavowing repetition!). Pseudolus has no plan whatsoever (394-414n.) and his concern for spectators is a smokescreen. Cf. Poen. 920-1 (Milphio's monologue)

ibo intro haec ut meo ero memorem, nam huc si ante aedis euocem,

quae audiuistis modo, nunc si eadem hic iterem, inscita est, Ebid. 656 cetera haec posterius faxo scibis ubi erit otium. Pseudolus draws spectators' attention to the fact that he and Calidorus are acting in a play; his concern for its pacing here indicates that he wants to seize control of the production (cf. 687n.). sat sic longae fiunt fabulae ‘as it is, plays are long enough' (fiunt perhaps casts the length of plays as a matter of festival production; ‘performing a play' 15 fabulam agerein P., e.g. 720, Capt. 52, Men. 72). Cf. Cas. 1006 hanc ex longa longiorem ne faciamus fabulam, Mer. 1007—8 eadem breuior fabula | erit, Poen. 550—1 omnia istaec scimus iam nos, si hi spectatores sciant; | horunc hic nunc causa haec agitur spectatorum fabula, 1224 in pauca confer: sitiunt qui sedent, Mer. 160 dormientis spectatores metuis ne ex somno excites? 389 optumum atque aequissumum oras ‘What you say 15 best and quite reasonable' (internal accs.: 226n.), a formula in P. (e.g. Capt. 333, Men. 1147; TLL 1x.2.1037.33-8). propera, adduc hominem cito 'Hurry along, bring the person here to me in a snap' (Pseudolus is in full control of his master). 390 amici, | homini: A/B hiatus. amici: Calidorus has decided to fetch a free person (385n.), i.e. Charinus (697-8 hominem strenuom, | beneuolentem). homini qui certi sient 'that a person can depend on’ (relative clause of characteristic: 97n.); for the dat. cf. Trin. g4 tu ex amicis certis mi es certissumus. sient: 50, 462nn. 391 ergo utrumque ‘So, as for both groups .. .' (the few and many). dilectum para 'raise a levy (of troops)'. Cf. 384n. 392 Leo's reading (see his apparatus). illinc: i.e. ex multis. qui certus siet: sc. tibi (390n.). 393 faxo aderit: 49n. potin ut abeas? ‘Could you leave?', originally a paratactic wish (utinam abeas! potin?. Bennett 1910: 237, LHS 11.644), tantamount to a command (235n.).

|

194

COMMENTARY

394-6

394—573a (Scenes 4-5, ia?) With Calidorus' exit the tibicen ceases playing; with the sudden absence of musical accompaniment Pseudolus seizes spectators' attention for his monologue (394-414n.). 394—414 (Scene 4) Pseudolus, in a set piece of clever slaves in P., contemplates his seeming powerlessness: cf. As. 249—-66, Capt. 516—-92, Epid. 81—103, Mos. 348-62, Trin. 717—28 (Greek precedent for the transition between dialogue and monologue here in Bain 1977: 155-6). Pseudolus begins with the admission (394—400) that he has lied to Calidorus, 15 planless, and is proceeding blindly, but he quickly moves towards finding a creative solution (401—5); other speakers of such monologues dwell on

their dire situation and imminent punishment. The seruus callidus typically seeks to augment his theatrical power by both drawing spectators into his confidence and also glorifying his future success through magnification of present obstacles. Pseudolus novelly announces that he will assume the role of a playwright (401, 404nn.) engaged in a search for a plausible fiction (4093n.) to create 20 minae out of nothing. At this point Pseudolus seems to be thinking primarily of scripted drama (401), as though he can rewrite the play. The plot's requirements, however, increasingly shift towards improvisation in the theatrical moment: 562—73a, 574-603sb, 667—93, 985nn. 494 illic: Calidorus; 381n. tu astas solus: the super-slave Epidicus similarly opens his monologue by drawing attention to his isolation (Epid. 81 solus nunc es; cf. Trin. 718 restas solus); 394—41 4n. Pseudole: self-address in comic monologues 15 attested in Menander (Leo 1908: 95-105, Blundell 1980: 65-71), and marks a Plautine clever slave's ‘helpless monologue': As. 249, Capt. 534, Epid. 82, Trin. 718. Pseudolus engages in dialogue with himself until he lights upon the idea of metamorphosizing into a poeta (401—4). 395 quid nunc acturu's: P. uses the present and future indicative or the subjunctive in deliberative questions. For deliberative questions in aporetic monologues of this type (394—414n.) cf. As. 258, Epid. 85a—-6, 97-8, Capt. 535—6, Trin. 718. erili: this cognate adj. and the gen. of the noun erus/era (4n.) are used indifferently for metrical convenience. 396 largitu's dictis dapsilis ‘you laid it on thick with your talk'. dapsilis (cf. 1266) is nom. (Ξ δαψιλής, ‘abundant’); for adjectives in agreement with the subject bearing adverbial force see KS 11.1.236—7, AG 820ο. For connections between playwriting, fiction, and lavish banqueting see Introduction pp. 29-30, 50-1. ubi sunt ea? the implied answer to this question, ‘nowhere’ (cf. nusquam in 402 and 405), anticipates the conceit of the creative poeta in

COMMENTARY

397-401

195

401—5. With easc. dicta (most recently Pseudolus' pledge to destroy Ballio (381—4) and the pretence of having an actual plan for this (385—8)).

397-400 neque . . . | neque . . . | neque: the polysyndetic anaphora

emphasizes Pseudolus' resourcelessness (394-414n.). 397 gutta certi consili ‘a drop of a definite plan' (proverbial: Otto 1890: 156—7). certi points to a running theme - cf. 390, 392, 400, with the ideas ‘definite’ (OLD 1, 2) and 'dependable'

(OLD 5, 8) foremost here -

that emphasizes how insecure the situation is. consili: 19n. [398] Most editors bracket the line as a marginal gloss that found its way into the text, and because of the abrupt shift from the second-person perspective of 394—400 to the first-person here (quid faciam scio). 399-400 A polar expression/universalizing doublet (381n.), i.e. ‘you have neither a beginning nor an end' - 'you've got nothing', as commonly in Greek (Barrett 1964: 239-40). The metaphor from weaving (399, 400nn.) anticipates Pseudolus' identification of himself with a poeta (401—5). Weaving is a widespread (IE: West 2007: 36-8) metaphor for poetry, as also the correlation between weaving and deceit: cf. the notion of ‘weaving (ὑφαίνω) deceit(s)’ in Homer and the identification of Pseudolus with Odysseus (1063n.). Here the *weaver' possesses the tools and raw materials, but has no prefabricated plan in mind to produce a final product, which again suggests the need for improvisation (cf. 394—414n., Bungard 2014: 92-3). Àn actor might mime motions used in weaving at a loom (textile production was a ubiquitous feature of domestic life: OEAGR 7.12—15), perhaps co-ordinating his movements with each neque/ nec (397—400n.); for non-verbal expression in Roman comedy see Panayotakis 2005a. 399 neque . . . primum unde occipias habes 'and you lack the wherewithal to begin . . .' (for pleonasm of verb and adv., here primum . . . occipias, see LHS 11.798). exordiri 'to lay the warp' (OLD 1), the technical term for starting a web on a loom. For the equation of comic plot/plotting and the web cf. As. 115 pergam quo occepi atque ibi consilia exordiar, Bac. 450 exorsa haec tela non male omnino mihi est. 400 detexundam: the technical term for completing and removing the finished cloth from the loom (TLL v.1.810.21—38). telam: properly the cloth as it 15 worked on the loom, but also the loom itself. certos: 397n.

401 quasi poeta ‘like a poet' (Ξ ποιητής; OLD quasi 4b); quasi: pyrrhic,

as usual, a resolved long. Pseudolus employs a poetic figure to signal his self-comparison to a foeta. His simile morphs into a stronger figurative assertion (404n.; see Wills 1996: 348-9 for the repetition of a word that

196

COMMENTARY

402-3

serves as the object of comparison within an epic simile), ostensibly the identification of slave and plotting poeta, though the metaphor 15 realized when Pseudolus directs Simia through the play-within-the-play (90555n.). poeta can refer to poets in general or playwrights in particular: Capt. 1039 hu?us modi paucas poetae reperiunt comoedias, Cur. 591 antiquom poetam audiui scripsisse in tragoedia, Men. 7 atque hoc poetae faciunt in comoediüs (ct. Terence's prologues passim). tabulas: 10n. While Pseudolus seems to be thinking of the scripting of a play, the wax tablet readily allows for erasure and revision and so is also conducive to improvisational modes of drama (cf. 399-400n.). Farrell 1991: 289 (cf. Fontaine 2010: 198—200) suggests that P. is ‘parodying’ Callim. Aetia fr. 1.21—4, where the speaker is given his poetic programme from

Apollo while holding a tablet (1 8&Xrov). Feeney 2010: 287-8 writes, "The

speech is not just saying, "This is really a performance"; it is also saying, “This is really a script." It is one thing to remind spectators that the people they are looking at are just actors, but to remind them that the people they are looking at are actors following a script is an extra twist: the people up there look like free agents, but they are not.' True for P. generally, though Pseudolus' ultimate script calls for quasi-magical (illusory) improvisation.

402—5 quod nusquam gentiumst, reperit tamen, | .. .| . . .| quae nusquam

nunc sunt gentium, inueniam tamen: the ring composition highlights Pseudolus' mostimportant points: (1) no plan/scriptforsecuring Phoenicium exists; (2) inuentio, in this case ex nihilo, is needed, which in Plautine theatre

often entails improvisation (394—414, 399-400, 401, 405nn.). 402 quaerit quod nusquam gentium est 'he seeks what is nowhere in the world’ (for the partitive gen. with advs. see AG §346.4, OLD nusquam 1a); gentes is a common way to designate 'the world' in early Latin (OLD 42). Pseudolus echoes the sentiment of a prologue fragment of the Middle Comedy playwright Antiphanes (189 K-A) lamenting the relative difficulty of writing comedy versus tragedy; whereas narratives and characters in the latter are well known to spectators, comedy demands inventiveness regarding names, circumstances, outcomes, etc. (Antiph. 189.18 K-A εὑρεῖν, ὀνόματα katvá . . .). Pseudolus' assertion overlooks the existence of

his Greek source and New Comedy in general. reperit tamen 'he nevertheless discovers it' (cf. 405n., Epid. 100 aliquid aliqua reberiundum est) . 403 facit illud ueri simile quod mendacium est 'he makes fiction seem like truth'. The idea that poetry, as rhetoric, creates plausible sounding fictions 15 at least as old as Hesiod's Muses, who boast, ‘we know how to

say many false things similar to the truth' (Th. 27 ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν

ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα; cf. Od. 19.203). Closer to P. (401n.) is Callim. Hymn 1.65 ψευδοίμην &tovros & κεν πεπίθοιεν ἀκουήν (‘may I lie in a way that persuades

COMMENTARY

404-6

197

a listener’), where the verb contains the root of Pseudolus' name (cf. Fontaine 2010: 199 and 401n.). Pseudolus again (125—7, 128nn.) urges spectators to be on guard against his (un-)trustworthiness, as well as to reflect on dramatic

mimesis

itself, wherein

stage, set, actors, and script

create a world that seems believable. The ultimate fiction that Ps. turns on is Simia's veristic impersonation of Harpax (aided by improvisational acting: Introduction pp. 41-3). facit: with poeta as subject P. creates a kind of bilingual figura etymologica (ποιητής (401n.), lit. ‘maker’, < ποιέω - facio); cf. Men. 7 (cited at 401n., with Gratwick 1993a: 133). ueri simile 'seeming like, or consistent with, truth’

(OLD

uerus 7b), but distinct from

it

(so Mos. 13 nec ueri simile loquere nec uerum). Bettini 20193: 188 observes, ‘Plautus knows well that the poet's speech is powerful, capable of giving life to what exists nowhere, until it is no longer possible to distinguish truth from falsehood. The stage poet is a magician of delectatio; thanks to his art, the spectatores will be unable to separate the true and the false.' In Ps. the critical mendacia that must pass the theatrical 'truth test' are Pseudolus' impersonation of Ballio's slave (689n.) and that of Harpax by Simia (905—55, 956-1016nn.). 404 nunc ego poeta fiam: the anacoluthon here (cf. 401: 'but just as a poet . . . I'll now become a poet’) 15 marked with a dash after est (403). Pseudolus gathers his confidence to assume control of the play (cf. 401n.). No other Plautine character makes the identification of comic playwright and architect of the play-within-the-play so explicit (closest is Cas. 860—1 nec fallaciam astutiorem ullus fecit | poeta atque ut haec est fabre facta ab nobis). Largely on the basis of this passage some posit the identification of Pseudolus with his creator P.: Wright 1975, Slater 1985: 143-6, Hallet 1993. Cf. As. 748 nam tu poeta es prorsus ad eam rem unicus, where the meaning 15 more generally 'composer'. uiginti minas: 52n. The sum suggests that Pseudolus is still considering a conventional scheme (120n.) to dupe Simo. 405 nusquam nunc sunt gentium, inueniam tamen: the pronounced alliteration and assonance of » and m enhance the claim that Pseudolus will magically create 20 minae (nusquam. . . gentium: 402n.). Hunter 2006: 82 connects Pseudolus' thoughts here with the technical sense of inuentio as the search (cf. 402 quaerit) for persuasive materials in poetic or rhetorical composition (cf. Rhet. Her. 1.9 inuentio est excogitatio rerum uerarum ut ueri similium quae causam probabilem reddant). sunt gentium, inueniam tamen: the concinnity with 402 est gentium, reperit tamen (similarly occupying the last two metra) hammers home Pseudolus' claim to be a foeta one last time. 406-8 The genuineness of these lines is defended by Lefévre 1997: 56 and Lowe 1999: 5-6. We must assume that Pseudolus has aspired to swindle Simo out of the 20 minae (404n.) some time before the play, but was

198

COMMENTARY

406-10

unsuccessful because of the senex's vigilance (cf. 421—2). The detail further magnifies Pseudolus' ultimate success (394—414n.), and also keeps spectators guessing what course Pseudolus will pursue. 406 atque ‘yes (I'll find the money), and in fact. . .' (OLD 2d). ego: pyrrhic. iam pridem . . . dixeram: prior to the play Pseudolus has promised Calidorus that he would obtain the 20 minae. huic: Calidorus (cf. 394 :llic); a single long (synizesis). 407-8 uolui . . . | uerum . . . praesensit prius: Calidorus has alerted us to his father's vigilance (290), and Pseudolus confirms that because of it

he aborted at least one scheme against Simo. Cf. 421-6n. 407 inicere tragulam: a traguíais a military spear with a throwing thong; cf. Epid. 690 tragulam in te inicere adornat, nescioquam fabricam facit, Cas. 297 istam iam aliquouorsum tragulam decider. Cf. 384n. nostrum senem 'our old man' - paterfamilias in the corporate idiom of household slaves (Christenson 2000: 209). 408 nescioquo pacto praesensit prius: the homoioteleuton of o, alliteration of p(7)-, and assonance of s convey Pseudolus' frustration here.

409 comprimunda uox mihi atque oratio est 'I need to muzzle my voice and my talk’ (or ‘my talking voice’, a hendiadys?), a formula signalling the approach of a character (cf. 788, Am. 496, Cur. 486), often accompanied by the creaking of stage-house doors (Simo and Callipho enter from the forum wing: 418-20). oratio: cf. 454n. 410-14 Pseudolus prepares spectators for his forthcoming role as eavesdropper (133-264n.) in the next scene, where he briefly will interpret the exchange of Simo and Callipho through his asides until Simo hears him speaking at 445. 410 eccum 'right here' (a stage direction to announce a character's approach, with accompanying gesture), « *ec * -ce (69n.) * *hom (= hunc): LU 33-4 and Sihler 1995: 8376.4. As Moore 1998: 29-30 notes, the frequency of eccum (et sim.) in P. reflects the extent to which characters vie for spectators' attention and sympathy. uideo | huc: A/B hiatus at the main break. huc indicating a space in front of either Simo's or Callipho's house

point of Scenes 2-3). Simonem:

his name

means

'snub-nosed'

(less likely Ballio's, the focal (σιμός), but spectators

will

also think of s?mia, ‘monkey’. Simian figures in P. exhibit a propensity for deception, inventiveness, and metatheatre (cf. Simia in Ps. (905-55n.); Introduction pp. 30, 41-3, Connors 2004), though Simo's confidence that

he is a step ahead of Pseudolus (418-22, 504—6, 516) proves delusional. Cf. 422n.

410-11

una simul | cum: cf. the same abundantiaat Mos. 10977, Poen. 553-4.

COMMENTARY

410-15

199

410 simul provides word-play with Simonem. 411 cum suo uicino: this confirms that Callipho's house is represented on the stage's painted backdrop; suo: monosyllabic (synizesis). Calliphone

«

καλός

('beautiful')

* qovéo

('speak');

a well-attested

Athenian name suggesting aristocratic status (35n.), emphasized by the line's assonance of c. 412 ex hoc sepulcro uetere 'from this ancient tomb’; confidently assert-

ing his declared poet's status (404n.), Pseudolus strikes a bold metaphor. Phrases equating old men with tombs are attested in Greek drama (Ar. Lys. 372, Eur. Med. 1209, Hcld. 167), though nowhere there is the metaphor enlarged with a verb such as 413 effodiam. While nowhere else in P. is a senex equated with a sepulcrum, at As. 892 Artemona dubs her philandering husband capuli decus ('the glory of a bier’). For slaves' speaking disrespectfully of their masters (or other free persons) in P. see Richlin 2014: 187-91. Pseudolus is misleading us in suggesting he will hoodwink his master. uiginti minas: 404n. 413 effodiam 'dig out’, as appropriate for a sepulcrum (412n.; of treasure at Aul. 709, Trin. 786, 1100); while Pseudolus' metaphor 15 pejorative (412n.), an ancient tomb might contain valuables (as Pseudolus needs).

hodie 'in this play' (85n.), indicative of Pseudolus' ability to speak from outside Ps. (394—414, 562—73ann.), as if in a prologue. quas dem: relative clause of purpose (46n.). erili filio: Calidorus (4, 395nn.). 414 Cf. Epid. 103 huc concedam, orationem unde horum placide persequar. huc concedam: a stage direction (for eavesdropping formulas in P. see Barsby 1986: 131); it is impossible to identify where (cf. 410n.) Pseudolus withdraws to eavesdrop. Later representations of Roman theatres show partially enclosed porches that could be used for this purpose, but the layout of P.'s temporary theatre is unknown. Pseudolus must remain visible to spectators. unde . . . legam ‘where I can pick up' (cf. OLD lego® 5). 415—573a (Scene 5) Simo and Callipho (perhaps wearing all white and carrying curved walking sticks) enter and fail to see Pseudolus (414n.). They discuss what they have heard about Calidorus until Pseudolus is detected (445) and joins their conversation. The scene features the contrasted attitudes of two senes, both towards Calidorus' amorous

activities

and Pseudolus himself. Simo never confronts Calidorus face to face in Ps. and Pseudolus serves as an intermediary between father and son (cf. 4, 78nn.). While Simo cannot simply be characterized as durus (as e.g. Terence's Demea in Adelphi or Caecilius' notoriously harsh fathers), he like many of P.’s fathers 15 anxius (Gratwick 1982: 108) and cautus (290, 407-8nn.) where his son 15 concerned. Callipho by contrast 15 a pater mitis,

200

COMMENTARY

415-18

patient and empathetic regarding youthful indiscretion (cf. Bac. 409-10, 1076-83, Epid. 382—93, and Micio in Terence's Adelphi). As fellow slaveholders of higher status the old men contrast with Ballio, whom spectators have witnessed brutalizing his slaves in public (133-264n.). Callipho constitutes an appreciative internal audience to Pseudolus' chicanery (523, 552nn.), and Simo is not immune to his slave's charm. Fitzgerald 2000: 46 captures the fundamental tension of the scene: 'if entertaining is a slavish occupation, catering to the pleasures of others, it is one in which the entertained are in the ambiguous position of both passing judgment and suspending their authority in the throes of aesthetic fascination'. As farcical and unrealistic as Scene 5 may be, it captures some of the complex gamesmanship that governed master/slave communications, as Pseudolus exploits the ambiguities of language throughout to forge an independent, creative, and autonomous self despite his actual (non-)sta-

tus: 471, 483, 492-3, 513, 520, 544a—5, 557, 569nn. Marshall 2006: 101 conjectures that the same actors who played Ballio and the puerin Scene g play Simo and Callipho in Scene 5; the former exited for the forum in 380, and the latter pair enter via the forum wing (Pseudolus' monologue allows for a change of costume). 415-17 Simo delivers a characteristically Plautine opening with a hyperbolic comparison, more often mythic (here featuring a distinctly Roman institution: 416n.): Fraenkel 2007: 5-16. 415 si de damnosis aut si de amatoribus 'if from the squanderers or the lovesick'; Simo's parallel syntax underscores that the two groups overlap, and reveals his (expected) moral stance against his son's love affair. de | amatoribus. prosodic (dd) hiatus.

416 dictator: a supreme Roman magistrate temporarily appointed to manage an emergency: OEAGR 11.416-17 (elsewhere in P. only at Trin. 695). The image of Calidorus leading a city of profligates in crisis is ridiculously incongruous. fiat ‘were to be appointed' (OLD 6b). Athenis Atticis: Athens is often designated as located within the region of Attica in P. (e.g. Epid. 502, Truc. 497), perhaps for the verbal jingle, but never so in Greek. 417 anteueniat 'surpass' (* dat. with compounding prefix: AG 8370), the expected verb of comparison in this formulaic opening (415-17n.). Cf. Cas. 217 (Lysidamus' first appearance) omnibus rebus credo ego amorem et nitoribus nitidis anteuenire. credo 'I'm sure' (a ‘boosting’ hedge: 23n.). 418 ita 'in light of the fact that’ (136n.). sermoni omnibust 15 a topic of conversation [OLD sermo 4] among all’;

double dat. (purpose and reference, respectively: AG §382).

COMMENTARY 419-26

201

419-20 The indirect statement follows off sermoni (418). 419 amicam liberare: Phoenicium's purchase from Ballio frees her from slavery to him, but Calidorus must decide if she is to be manumitted (comic expectation suggests he will). Phoenicium aspires to become a liberta (226n.; cf. the rhetorical urgency of her letter: 64-73n.). We learn that she 15 freed at 1911. 420 alii: unspecified individuals with information apart from what Simo claims to have determined himself (421), possibly including Ballio. 421-6 Simo has long been (406-8, 407-8nn.) suspicious of Calidorus and therefore on guard against Pseudolus. With Simo's vigilance reconfirmed here, Pseudolus now perhaps 5668 the need to focus his efforts on Ballio. 421 atque 'and in fact' (OLD 2a). iam pridem sensi: Simo 15 no easy mark, as Pseudolus (407-8n.) and Calidorus (2gon.) have acknowledged. Cf. 426n. subolebat mihi ‘I caught a whiff of it' (the impersonal is found only in comedy: Cas. 266, 277, 554, Trin. 615, 698, Ter. Ph. 474, Hau. 899); mih£ dat. with compound verb (417n.). 422 dissimulabam 'I hid my suspicions’ (with paronomasia of Simo's name: 410n.): Simo has limited theatrical ability: 'Simo is monkey-ish, but not monkey-ish enough for his deception to be effective' (Connors 2004: 190). illi fetet filius ‘his son 15 giving off a stink to him'. Pseudolus plays on the figurative and literal senses of both verbs of smelling in 421—2; cf. Am. 421 olet homo quidam malo suo :: ei, numnam ego obolui? fetet (Leo) - foetet; A has fefollowed by a gap of three letters; the entire line 15 omitted in P. 423 occisa est haec res 'this project is over' (cf. Capt. 559, Men. 512). The most frequently travelled route of securing funds to acquire an amica in Roman comedy - fleecing a senex — seems blocked. Pseudolus is laying the groundwork for a novel solution: 562—73an. haeret hoc negotium 'this enterprise 15 stuck' (cf. 985, Am. 814, Thn.

904).

424 in commeatum. .. argentarium 'for a supply of cash' (uolui | argentarium. C/D hiatus); for ‘silver jests' 566 g47n. 425-6 Pseudolus enthusiastically deploys his linguistic arsenal, i.e. the alliteration of 9Ὲ and of- and the figura etymologica of cognate nouns, praedae praedatoribus. 425 proficisci: a military image (with 424 in commeatum). oppido ‘completely’ (adv.). 426 praesensit corrects (31n.) Simo's sensi in 421. nihil . . . praedae: partitive gen./gen. of the whole (AG §346, NLS 877)-

202

COMMENTARY

427-35

praedae praedatoribus 'plunder for the plunderers': a lively noun + agent noun figura etymologica. 42'7—9 Callipho picks up Simo's reference to gossip in Athens (418-19) to make an exuberantly grotesque pronouncement (429n.) that redirects Simo's paternal anxiety against rumour-mongers (415-57%an.). 427 gestant . . . auscultant ‘like to spread and listen to’. gestant. 10n.; ausculto: a compound of auris and clueo: 237, 429nn. crimina 'accusations/allegations' (OLD 1). 428 meo arbitratu: 271n. meo: an elided monosyllable (synizesis). pendeant: slaves were beaten while hanging by their hands from beams (Am. 280, Cas. 1008, Truc. 777; also possibly by the feet: Cas. 390, with MacCary and Willcock 1976: 144). The gossipers, however, would include free citizens. 429 gestores linguis, auditores auribus 'the spreaders by their tongues, the listeners by their ears'. gestores: the agent noun is probably coined here to balance

auditores, which also occurs only here in P. Callipho calls for

Old Testament style retribution with an abab chiasmus that rounds off the thought begun at 427 gestant . . . auscultant (auditores auribus etymologically glosses auscultant: 427n.). 430 istaec quae tibi renuntiatur ‘as for these reports you're getting, that...' 430-1 filium | . . . uelle amantem ‘your son's in love and wants . . .’ (participle where English prefers parallel verbs). 431 te . . . argento circumducere 'to swindle you out of your money' (OLD circumduco 2b; perhaps a military metaphor: Barsby 1986: 124). 432 fors fuat an - forsitan (not in P.), ‘perhaps’ (OLD fors 5). fuat: potential here (Handford 1947: 112), an archaic subjunctive of sum (cf. φύω; de Melo 2007: 264—99), and apt in a moralizing context (427-9n.). fuat an: metrically one word and sharing a (cc) resolution. 433 Si . . . maxume ‘even if' (OLD maxime b, KS 11.2.428). ut nunc mos est ‘by contemporary standards of morality’. 434-5 quid nouom, adulescens homo | si amat, si amicam liberat? A young man's affair with a brothel slave was perhaps unremarkable in Rome, but Callipho’s question metacomically highlights New Comedy’s most common plot: 569n. 435 si amat ‘if he’s in love’ (OLD amo 2); Callipho characteristically takes a positive view (415-5%73an.). 51 amicam liberat: 419n. lepidum senem! acc. of exclamation (366n.; for lepidum see 277—8n.). Pseudolus spotlights a familiar comic character, the 'affable old man', often unmarried (e.g. Periplectomenus in Mil.; Duckworth 1994: 2478), who actively aids young lovers. Callipho's attitude supplies a sharp

COMMENTARY

436-41

209

contrast to his anxiety over his son, and his unbounded enthusiasm for Pseudolus' trickery is surprising from a slaveholder. 436 uetus nolo faciat 'I don't want him to do an old thing' (cf. 494—5n.). On a metacomic level, Simo seconds Callipho's (and spectators’) hope for a novel plot (434—5n.). Willcock 1987: 114 construes uetus as nom. and parallel with 434 adulescens (‘As an old man I don't want him to do these things’), though we expect ego or homo to be repeated from 494 to make that clear. nequiquam neuis 'it's to no effect that you don't want it'. neuis: uncontracted second sg. of nolo (= non uis; MHL

181); here for alliteration.

497-9 The lenient comic father typically recalls his own (and his generation's) folly in youth (415-5732n.), as exemplified by Philoxenus' attitude at Bac. 409-10 minus mirandum est illaec aetas si quid illorum facit | quam si non faciat. feci ego istaec itidem in adulescentia. 437 ne faceres: for the second person past jussive see 286—8n. in adulescentia ‘as a young man’ (202a, 364nn.). 438 probum patrem 'a morally upright father'; as there is no indication that the adult Simo 15 improbus (e.g. a senex amator) , Callipho thinks of Simo's character as the sum of his entire life's acts. oportet: the moralizing impersonal balances the father/son abba chiasmus (with marked homoioteleuton of -m). gnatum - natum.

438-9 qui . . . | .. . postulet: for the relative clause see 390n. 439 esse probiorem: with split (55) resolution. ipsus: 262n. fuerit: attracted into the subjunctive by postulet. 440 nam: elliptical ('this hardly applies to you, since . . ."). quod damni et quod fecisti flagiti 'the proflicacy and disgrace you committed' (for the gens. with quod cf. 426n. on nihil * gen.); the entire clause 15 subject of 441 potuit. damni: Callipho casts Simo's moralizing damnosis (415n.) back in his teeth by accusing him of similarly expensive mistakes in his youth (Simo does not dispute the claim). flagiti: a general term for dishonourable conduct (meriting flagrum?), often sexual misdeeds (OLD 4ς), but incurring debt through (excessive) association with prostitutes is foremost in Callipho's mind; cf. the anecdote wherein Cato the Elder

first congratulates a friend exiting a brothel, but subsequently censures him: adulescens ego te laudaui tamquam hic interdum uenires, non tamquam hic habitares (apud scholiast on Hor. S. 1.2.31—5). 441 populo uiritim 'to the entire populace in individual portions'. dispertirier: in Athens distributions were made to citizens from the theoric fund (established ca. 350 BCE), but large scale public distributions of grain or cash in Rome seem to postdate P. (though cf. Aul 107-8,

204

COMMENTARY

442-8

where Euclio describes a cash distribution n uiros by his magister curiae). The meaning of Callipho's conceit is clear: Simo's prodigality could have supported the city's population (P.'s audience might imagine a public feast).

442 idne: a single long (apocope). 51 patrissat filius ‘if the son's a chip off the old block' (-isso translates verbs in -1{w — *mwaTpilw is not extant; cf. μητρίζω — and assumes spectators know basic Greek; the suffix, an example of Greek ‘interference’ in Latin

morphology, did not become pervasive: Coleman 443 ὦ Ζεῦ: Pseudolus shouts this (paratragic) be overheard. Greek invocations and oaths are parasites in P. (Shipp 1953: 104-9) and thought

1975: 1—7). exclamation in order to used only by slaves and to be 'street Latin'; the

use of such Greek 'tags', which fall at clause or sentence boundaries and are not integrated into Latin syntax, are deemed ‘inter-sentential’ and

variously represent claims to Greek identity: Adams 2003: 21—4, 356-82. Cf. 211, 483nn.

pauci | estis: A/B hiatus. commodi

‘agreeable’

(OLD 5b), which for Pseudolus means

tolerant

of his son's costly affairs. 443-4 em, | illic est pater ‘There now, that's a father . . .’ 444 illic: a long monosyllable (381n.). patrem 6556 ut aequom est filio 'as a father should be to his son’. Cf. 269n. 445 Pseudolus is identified by his master, who acknowledges his aside (quis hic loquitur) and continues speaking to Callipho. hic: with iambic shortening. hic est quidem 'why, it's . . .'; quidem undergoes iambic shortening (scan aa bb CDa

BccDA BcD).

446-8 hic . . . |hic. .. hic. .. hunc ego | cupio excruciari: the anaphora

carries Simo's thought to its brutal climax. 446 hic mihi corrumpit filium: such a charge from the erus maior is a risk the clever slave runs in helping his young master (a topos, e.g. Mos. 1138-41; used to his advantage in a fraudulent letter composed by Chrysalus at Bac. 734—48), as he bears the responsibility for collective wrongdoing: 4, 78, 415-573ann. scelerum caput: 132n. on feriuri caput. 447 dux: the metaphor is more apt than Simo realizes, as the clever slave often adopts a military persona: 574-603bn. paedagogus 'tutor', figurative here (so OLD 1b), as Calidorus is not a puer/moais (the analogy points to the virtual infantilization of Roman males: gogn.). 448 excruciari: literal (cf. 235n.).

COMMENTARY

448-55

205

iam istaec ‘now that's . . .'; istaec refers to Simo's outburst at 445-8 (glossed in 449); for iam emphasizing an anaphoric demonstrative see Roesch 2005: 357. 448-52 Callipho's call for restraint 'reflects a discourse about elite standards of behavior in punishing slaves; he only insists on its timely and calm application' (Stewart 2008: 77). Callipho urges Simo not to treat his slave in Ballio's tyrannical and abusive manner: 1933—-264, 415—-573ann. 449 iras: Bugge's emendation (of ¢ram) saves the metre (scan A B CD A bb cDA bb cD). in promptu ‘in full view’. quanto satius est 'How much better itis...' (exclamatory: OLD quan,

tus 1).

450 blandis uerbis ‘with ingratiating words', a blandimenta in P. see Dutsch 2008: 49-91) for a his slave, but consistent with Callipho's character Callipho subscribes to an elite tradition of curbing in public: Harris 2001: 317-306.

surprising attitude (for master to assume with (415-5732, 497-9nn.). ?ra towards one's slaves

451 sintne . . . necne sint *whether it is, or isn't, the case' (OLD sum 8a).

renuntiant: sc. aliz (420n.). Callipho remains sceptical of the rumours:

427-9n. 452 Seemingly proverbial (Otto 1890: 208); Capt. 202 in re mala animo st bono utare, adiuuat provides the closest parallel (though animo . . . bono utare there means 'take courage"). bonus animus 'an obliging frame of mind' (OLD bonus 4): cf. 450n. dimidiumst mali: lit. 'is half of the difficulty' (i.e. 'cuts the difficulty in half’). 453 tibi auscultabo: 237n. auscultabo | :: itur: A/B hiatus at change of speaker. itur ad te 'An attack is coming your way' (for the impersonal passive see 279n.). Don. ad Ter. An. 251 cites this line (along with Verg. À. 9.423—4) with the comment, quasi ad hostem; cf. Capt. 534 eunt ad te hostes, Tyndare (also self-address). Pseudole: 394n. 454 orationem . . . para: the verb makes it clear that Pseudolus means 'a formal speech' (OLD oratio 8a) to persuade/manipulate Simo. tibi: dat. of advantage (100n.). aduorsum senem ‘against the old man' (OLD aduersus! 8). 455-6 A bombastic greeting (‘I greet my master first, and then the neighbour’: 3-12n.). 455 primum . . . postea: signposts of rhetorical organization (454n. on orationem para). ut aequomst: 444n.

206

COMMENTARY

456-60

456 si quid superfit uicinos impertio 'I present the neighbours with a portion of whatever (greeting) 15 left' (uicinos = Callipho, generalizing plur.: LHS 11.16).

457 quid agitur? 273n.

statur hic ad hunc modum 'My standing here like this 15 what's up' (the word group ad hunc modum does not violate Luchs' law: Questa 2007: 376—7). Terence has the same joke at Eu. 270-1. 458 statum uide . . . quam basilicum! 'Check out his stance — how highfalutin it is!' (statum: drawn into the main clause and in agreement with basilicum, versus quam basilicus est, continuing the verbal play of statur: 457n.). Pseudolus is puffing himself up for his pronouncement in 460-1. Cf. 911n. basilicum: the adj. (βασιλικός) and adv. (βασιλικῶς; Lat. basilice) are used in P. — clear Romanization (Fraenkel 2007: 130-3, 344 n. 106) — by slaves and parasites (usually in plays-within-the-play) assuming a blatantly ‘uppity’ manner, as when Sceparnio realizes the power he holds over Ampelisca at Rud. 431 at ego basilicus sum. Cf. Capt. 811, Per. 29, 462, 806 (with Woytek 1982: 154—5), and Poen. 577. 459-61 These lines and Capt. 664—6 constitute interesting Plautine intertexts. There Tyndarus, enslaved to Hegio but actually his freeborn son, with compelling moral authority defends his role in a scheme to dupe the senex into releasing Philocrates. Pseudolus by contrast is all bluster here, and if the Capt. scene 15 in spectators' memories, his appropriation of the virtuous Tyndarus' self-defence is ridiculous. Ps. and Capt. belong to the same period of P.’s career, but it 15 impossible to determine which was performed first. Leigh 2004: 38 n. 59 suspects that P. in each case is parodying Enn. scen. 254—7 Jocelyn. Cf. 459, 460, 461nn. 459 bene confidenterque astitisse intellego ‘I see he’s assumed an appropriately confident stance’ (Callipho tones down Simo’s description of Pseudolus in 458). Cf. the livid Hegio’s comment about Tyndarus at

Capt. 664 at«tat» ut confidenter mihi contra astitit! With astitisse Callipho

continues the wordplay on sto (458n.), perhaps in a corrective sense (‘assumed a position’ versus ‘stand’): 31n. on lege ... pellegam. 460 decet: typical vocabulary of the moralizing elite; cf. Capt. 665 decet (also at the beginning of a line) and the reading addecet at Enn. scen. 254. innocentem . . . innoxium are attracted to the case of seruom (461), but logically belong to the relative clause (qui sit); the synonyms, connected here by atque, affect a high style (as in sententiae; Haffter 1934: 42—9). Cf. Capt. 665 innocentem seruolum atque innoxium (a more apt characterization of the self-sacrificing Tyndarus than Pseudolus, who is far from guiltless in aiding Calidorus’ costly liaison), and ?nnoxium at Enn. scen. 255. Moore 1998: 212 n. 6 gives examples of characters deceptively moralizing.

COMMENTARY

461-8

207

461 seruom superbum: an ambiguous collocation, esp. as a badge of pride worn before one's master, to whom slaves should appear neither ‘proud’ nor ‘haughty’. Tyndarus (459-61n.) describes himself as justifiably confidentem (Capt. 666). apud erum potissumum 'especially in the presence of his master' (314n.); the phrase similarly closes Tyndarus' thought at Capt. 666. 462 sunt quae . . . uolumus: the subjunctive is not the rule in such clauses in P. (cf. AG 8595a, GL 8631.2; cf. 390); with the indicative Callipho emphasizes that they have some precise questions to ask (SL

340).

462-3 quasi | per nebulam: the idea is 'dimly', ‘faindy’ (OLD nebula 1C), but quasi ('as it were': OLD ga) suggests the metaphor is not dead, and that Callipho speaks playfully (427-9n.); elsewhere in P. only at Capt. 1024-5. 463 audiuimus: synesthesia (= ‘see dimly’). 463 nosmet: the enclitic -met emphasizes nos (‘what we ourselves know . . . ) or, as often, is metrically convenient. Here it enhances the prominent alliteration and assonance of m (and n).

scimus: for the theme of 'knowing' see 566n. 464 conficiet . . . te 'he'll knock you out' (OLD conficio 14). 465 Socratem: the Athenian philosopher (469-399 BCE), who in Plato's dialogues ironically dissects and defeats his opponents and their ready assumptions. Socrates was also enshrined in comic tradition (cf. Aristophanes' Clouds) as a quibbler and chopper of logic. Stehle 1984: 244 writes, ‘The Pseudolus is the play in which the slave most clearly appears as Greek,

trickster, and artist', and sees the slave as a locus of

cultural anxiety associated with the reception of Greek culture in Rome. Pseudolus in this scene fulfils Simo's expectations; the identification with Socrates also suggests Simo fears Pseudolus is his intellectual superior. 466 itast 'So that's how it is.' Pseudolus rightly sees the comparison to Socrates as an insult (465n.) and continues his strategy of presenting himselfas the unjustly wronged party (459-61n.). iam pridem tu me spernis ‘you’ve been looking down at me for some time now' (for the progressive present cf. 261n.). tu me. the juxtaposition reflects Pseudolus' posture of personal victimhood (cf. 461n.). sentio: cf. 221, 512, LU 108 for parataxis with a verb of thinking εἰ sim. 467 paruam esse apud te mihi fidem 'that I have litde credibility in your eyes' (apud te. OLD apud 12; fidem: $16, 376nn.). 468

Pseudolus

continues

his strategy of victimization

pledges to disprove his master's low expectations. cupis: pyrrhic (apocope). nequam: 339n.

(466n.)

and

208

COMMENTARY

46g-76

frugi bonae: 337n. The phrase (or frugi alone) often bears the pregnant sense of being useful to one's master, e.g. Aul. 587—8 hoc est serui facinus frugi, facere quod ego persequor, | ne morae molestiaeque imperium erile habeat sibi, Am. 959-60 atque eri seruom par uidetur frugi sese instituere: | proinde eri ut sint, ipse item sit, where each slave asserts that his own emotional state

should closely mirror his master's. Pseudolus never surrenders his subjectivity to this degree (Introduction pp. 43-7), and here merely says what he thinks Simo wants to hear. Cf. 1103-35n. 469 fac . . . uociuas . . . aedis aurium 'Make your ears' abode vacant’ (tragic-sounding). Simo matches his slave's grandiloquence; for his verbal playfulness see 1064, 1285, 1306nn. uociuas = uaciuas (uacuas) in P.; cf. Cas. 527 (Lysidamus' plans for a tryst at his neighbour's) fac habeant linguam tuae aedes. :: quid ita? :: cum ueniam, uocent (with a pun on wuocare/ uacare).

470 mea ut migrare dicta possint 'so that my words travel', continuing the paratragic tone (469n.). quo uolo: grandiloquent for ‘into your ears'. 471 age ‘come on’ (1393nn.). tam etsi tibi suscenseo 'despite my anger with you'. A slave’s feelings were trumped by his master's (cf. 468, 472nn.), but as cases of slaves rebelling against their masters are attested in P.'s time, morale among slaves was not entirely irrelevant. 472 mihin domino seruos tu suscenses? ' You — a slave — are angry with me, your master?' Simo expresses the expected outrage (471n.). 472-3 tam tibi | mirum id uidetur? A provocative question, in effect ‘Don’t you think slaves have their own feelings?' Simo does not directly respond, but senses potential hazard for himself (473—5). 473 hercle qui: the precise force of qui (the old abl.: 89n.) with the exclamation is unclear: OLD qu? 6c, Petersmann 1973: 178. 474 cauendum est mi aps te irato ‘I've got to be on guard against you in your anger.' 474-5 mi aps te. .. tu...|me... ego te: the pronouns emphatically make Simo's point about master/slave role reversal.

475 me uerberare 'to whip me' (figuratively), an apropos choice of verb vis-à-vis the usual master/slave dynamic. atque ego te soleo 'than (the way) I usually whip you' (atque is often used in comparisons: OLD 15). 476 quid censes? ‘What say you?' (a formula to solicit an opinion in the Roman senate: OLD 4c), incongruously applied to the domestic situation here. edepol: 25n.

COMMENTARY

477-83

209

merito 6556 iratum 'that he's justifiably angry'. Callipho again takes Pseudolus' side: 459n. 477 paruast . . . fides: 316, 467nn. iam sic sino 'That's just fine now' (alliterative sic sinereis frequent in P.: Lindsay 1907: 115). 478 ne quid noceat cauero 'I'll be on guard against his doing any harm’ (cauero: 339n. on adegero). 479 sed quid ais? 'But what do you say?', a colloquial formula (LU 43) that demands further questioning (cf. 482, 615, 1169, 1177), mostly used

by males: Barrios-Lech 2014. Cf. 351n. quid hoc quod te rogo? 'What about the thing I'm asking you?’, i.e. the line of questioning about Calidorus (462-3) successfully diverted by Pseudolus (466-78). siquid: pyrrhic by enclisis (Introduction p. 56) and iambic shortening. 480 quod scibo Delphis tibi responsum dicito 'You'll be forced to say my knowledge is an oracular response to you from Delphi'. scibo: future (174n.) because of dicito (cf. 566n.). Apollo's centre of prophecy at Delphi delivered what were considered the god's infallible words (proverbial: Otto 1890: 30), though pilgrims might misconstrue these (OEAGR 11.382—90). Literary oracles are expressed ambiguously, which probably is what Pseudolus has in mind as a strategy for dealing with Simo (at high risk of misinterpretation). responsum: sc. esse (quod scibois its subject). 481 aduorte . . . animum: 277n. fac sis promissi memor 'be sure you remember your promise' (to deliver the truth à la Apollo's oracle). Simo accepts his role as a pilgrim in search of information/guidance from his servile ‘oracle’. Cf. 480n. 482 quid ais? 479n. ecquam .. . tibicinam 'some flute-girl'. A prostitute might receive training on the tibia so as to provide musical entertainment at parties (thus increasing her value). scis: Simo adopts Pseudolus’ ‘oracular’ verb (480n.). 483 vai y&p 'Yes, indeed' (‘tag-switching’: 449n.). This combination of particles (Bentley's interpretation of the MSS' nae gar [ mea est]; Hausburg's (2014) proposed reading voi l'&v, 'Yes, by Earth’, 15 not attested in Attic Greek, and unlikely to come from P.’s source). voi γάρ also is used by the

senex amator Philoxenus at Bac. 1162 (cf. Zagagi 2012: 26—7). Shipp 1953: 107—8 suggests that the phrase belongs to the Greek of southern Italy, and so the demotic Greek a slave might pick up on the street. Since Pseudolus has pledged to serve as Simo's Delphic oracle (480n.), itis appropriate for him to respond to his master's inquiries in Greek (cf. 484, 488); much of the comedy here lies in how the lowly actor might parody the grandeur of the oracle. Fontaine 2010: 130-6 argues that Pseudolus bilingually puns

210

COMMENTARY

484-9

on nego and so is simultaneously saying ‘yes’ and ‘no’ to respect his loyalty to each of his masters (cf. the oracle's ambiguous responses). There is metacomedy in such code-switching in Roman comedy, as characters in these rare instances speak the language required by the Greek setting — in this case Athens' ‘worst slave' (339) employs the wrong dialect. liberare: 419n. 484

καὶ τοῦτο

vai γάρ

mock-solemnity (483n.).

‘Ditto

on

the

"Yes,

indeed"',

delivered

with

484-6 ecquas uiginti minas | . . . | paritas ut a me auferas? ‘Is it the case

that you're aiming to steal 20 minae from me?' 485 The line is also transmitted at 527 (and bracketed by some editors here), where Pseudolus hurls Simo's words back at him (527n.). per sycophantiam ‘by chicanery’ (Ξ συκοφαντία; the noun occurs only in P.); the Greek idea of 'sycophancy' as informing, slandering, etc. in P. 15 ‘limited instead to the exploitation of a person's credulity through sophisticated deception, especially imposture' (Zagagi 2012: 32; for 1 association with metatheatre see Moodie 2015: 125). The word and its cognates are found mostly in comedy, and never became fully assimilated in Latin (and connote Greek ‘otherness’).

dolos: trickery is an essential ingredient of Roman comedy, especially when clever (385n.); dolus has (wrongly) been seen as the second element of Pseudolus' name. 486 paritas: the verb occurs only in P. (cf. Mer. 649, Poen. 884), without any distinction in meaning from faro (frequentatives abound in colloquial Latin: LL 77). aps te | ego auferam? ‘I’d take it from you?’ The anaphora of Simo's words expresses mock incredulousness (with a ‘repudiating’ subjunctive: 2gon.) and so strongly denies them. Fontaine 2010: 135 suggests that in performance (minus punctuation) auferam could be (mis-)construed as a future and so the oracular Pseudolus would also be saying ‘yes’ (114,

483nn.). te| ego: D/A hiatus.

487 ita ‘yes’ (Thesleff 1960: 23—6). quas . . . des: 46n. on quam illi remittam. qui amicam liberet: a second purpose clause, subordinate to the first (quas . . . des); qui ‘in order that' (OLD qu? 4). Cf. 89n.

488 fatere 'Fess up.'

dic ‘kai ToUTo vai.’ : καὶ τοῦτο vai: Simo abbreviates vai γάρ to ναί ('yes') and Pseudolus comically construes his command (dic) literally as he answers Simo's question honestly (‘Ditto on the “Yes™): 483, 484nn. 489 fatetur: a slave's confession was exacted under torture in real life. dixin . . . tibi? 'Didn't I tell you so?' (352n.).

COMMENTARY 490-4

211

490 memini 'I haven't forgotten' (with annoyance at Simo's celebration of being right). 490-1 haec . . . | celata me sunt: in the case of verbs that take a double acc. in the active, usually the acc. of the thing, not person (as here), 15 retained in a passive construction (cf. AG §396; overview of so-called Greek accusatives in Courtney 2004). resciuisti . . . | . . . resciui: the repetition of the verb (cf. the anaphora quor ... quor) highlights the control a master assumed over his slave's knowledge, thoughts, etc. Masters took a slave's concealment of information as an act of rebellion and affront to their authority. 490 ubi . . . ilico 'the very instant' (for this vivid pleonasm cf. Am. 242—9); ubt iambic; scan aa

BCDaBCDABcD.

491 eloquar: 12n. 492-3 Pseudolus humorously seeks refuge in a moral traditionalist's defence: he did not want to establish a bad precedent (clever slaves in comedy do not betray their young masters to their fathers, Parmeno in Terence’s Eunuch being the exception that proves the rule: Christenson 2019: 260-75). While Pseudolus spews bombast, the problem of serving two masters poses a serious ethical dilemma. 492 nolebam ex me morem progigni malum ‘I didn't want a bad precedent to be engendered by me' (dissonant conservatism from Pseudolus). morenm. cf. mos maiorum (Earl 1967: go) and the centrality of precedent in Roman moral conservatism; the compound progignois more elevated than gigno (cf. nascor/prognascor). 493 erum . . . apud erum: Calidorus and Simo, respectively (4n.); apud erum: 461n. «suos»: with synizesis; Mueller's addition is an example of the reflexive referring not to the grammatical subject but to the 'actual' or logical one (AG 8301b, GL 8309.2, KS 11.1.603—7), here erum (i.e. ‘that a slave accuse his own master’).

criminaret - classical criminaretur, the act. occurs Enn. Sat. 8 criminat | apud te before reappearing in IV.1197.19-47), suggesting that it persisted in spoken 494 iuberes 'you'd order him . . .' (apodosis contrary-to-fact protasis, ‘If he were your slave and he praecipitem . . trahi ο be dragged head-foremost' chains around his neck).

only here and at later writers (TLL Latin. to a suppressed . . ."). (with shackles and

in pistrinum: a frequent threats against slaves in P. (e.g. Bac. 780) but unfulfilled during the plays (Tyndarus in Capt., who 15 sent by his father to the mine, is exceptional: cf. 459-61n.). Slaves were sold to the mill as punishment, where the labour was difficult and tedious (the horrors are

212

COMMENTARY

495-502

jestingly alluded to at As. 31—7 and most vividly described at Apul. Met. 9.11—193; Ramsay 1869: 256-7). 495 numquid peccatum est ‘Surely no wrong has been commited?' (anticipating a ‘no’: OLD numquid 1). Simo | :: immo: C/D hiatus at change of speaker. immo 'Au contraire' (a strong denial). maxume: sc. peccatum est.

496-503 An improvisatory shift in rhetorical tactic and morality (492-gn.) to an argument based on expediency. Building on Simo's mention of the mill (494) and insistence that a wrong has been perpetrated (495), the ever-resourceful Pseudolus claims that consignment to the pistrinum was inevitable and he was forced to choose the better of two bad alternatives. Simo accepts the argument without comment (504n.), perhaps because of its weakness in his eyes (slaves were assumed to possess inferior morality and reasoning capacity). That Pseudolus pursues a fresh approach to a common situation in Roman comedy is suggested by Naev.

com. g6—8 Ribbeck (a senex threatens a slave with punishment for helping

his son obtain a loan for his amours).

496 desiste . . . Callipho 'Stop (defending me), Callipho'; Pseudolus for his present purposes (496—503n.) grants that Simo's objection is reasonable and that he has done wrong. recte 'thoroughly' (colloquial: LU 74—-5, OLD 8). ego meam rem sapio ‘I understand my situation' (OLD sapio 6b). 497 animum aduorte: 277n. nunciam: 118n. 498 quapropter nati amoris te expertem habuerim ‘why I kept you in the dark about your son's love affair’ (expertem « ex * pars, here + gen.). The text printed here accepts Bothe's transposition of P's (unmetrical) te expertem amoris nati. 499 in mundo ‘was at hand' (sc. esse OLD mundus' 4); Gulick 1896 derives the phrase from mundus (‘sky’) and argues that the phrase means ‘on the horizon'. dixem - dixissem (‘If I'd told you'; Ritschl's suggestion for the MSS' s; 6 faxem) , though the form 15 uncertain

(LL 273, de Melo 2007: 320).

500 pistrinum: 494n. in mundo: 499n. 501 cum ea mussitabas ‘when you were keeping quiet about this’. The verb evokes a vignette of conspiracy within Simo's house (for slaves' dissembling and 'grumbling' in P. see Richlin 2017: 330-40). quin: 40n. dictum est mihi: cf. Ballio's pretentious overuse of the passive (186n.). 502 quia illud: the first syllable of illud undergoes iambic shortening.

COMMENTARY

503-11

219

illud malum - the punishment he'd receive for telling Simo immediately. istuc ‘yours’, - the punishment he'd receive for not telling Simo immediately; Pseudolus is chopping his logic very finely. 503 illud . . . huic 'the former . . . for the latter’. dieculae ‘a few days' reprieve' (« dies * the diminutive suffix, only here in P.).

504 quid nunc agetis? “‘What are the two of you going to do now?' Simo succumbs to the speciousness of Pseudolus' argument (496-503n.) and moves forward. nam hinc quidem: 30n. on has. quidem ‘at least' (a ‘limiting’ use with hinc: Solodow 1978: 108-9). hinc ... a me: pleonastic (Simo perhaps gestures towards himself). 505-6 Both lines have no resolved longs - the heavy rhythm reinforces Simo's resolve not to be duped. 505 qui praesertim senserim 'especially since I'm in the know' (causal relative clause with the subjunctive, as in classical Latin: NLS §156). 506 credat nummum °‘lend you a penny' (356n.; for the theme of credit see 128n.). iam edicam omnibus: Simo casts Pseudolus' earlier proclamation back at him (125—-7n.), without regard for verisimilitude (he was not present for this). Simo carries out this threat, as Ballio confirms (896n.), which only magnifies Pseudolus' success. 507 numquam . . . quoiquam supplicabo ‘I’ll never beg anyone else for help.' Cf. 1319n. quidem: limiting dum (504n.). 508-9 tu. .. tu.. . |... te: the anaphora echoes Pseudolus’ supreme confidence. 508 Pseudolus responds to Simo's pledge not to pay (505-6n.) with a heavy rhythm of his own. tu mihi

‘you

[my

master]

to me

[your

slave]'

(cf. 472n.),

further

emphasized by hercle (29n.). hercle | argentum: C/D hiatus in connection with an interjection. dabis: repeated at 510 and 518, also emphatically at line-end; Berger

2019: 281 notes that the repetitions ‘[function] as something between an assertion about the future, a threat and an order .

509 tu a me: Simo echoes Pseudolus (508n.) with disbelief. strenue 'absolutely' (colloquial: LU 74; cf. 496n. on recte). 510 excludito mi . . . oculum, si ‘Take out my eye if.. .' (proverbial: Otto 1890: 250). Cf. Men. 156—7 oculum effodito per solum | mihi, Menaechme, si ullum uerbum faxo nisi quod tusseris. excludito . . . dedero: for the tenses cf. 20n. 511 dico ut 'I'm warning you to . . .' (OLD dico* 2c).

214

COMMENTARY

511-18

a me caueas: Pseudolus individualizes his warning made to the populace (128 a me ut caueant). He thus encourages Simo and spectators to expect a hackneyed scheme (senex tricked by seruus callidus: 485, 496— 5093nn.), perhaps as a diversionary tactic (Pseudolus remains planless: 394—414n.). Cf. Chrysalus’ metacomically audacious dictation of a letter warning his master to be wary of himself, Bac. 739—-41. 511—12

Callipho, while not a facilator of Pseudolus' schemes, experi-

ences pleasure at the prospect of his fellow slaveholder being bamboozled: 552n. Some eds. (e.g. Leo) accept the attribution of these lines to Simo in the Itali. 512 mirum et magnum facinus feceris: elegant alliteration to capture Callipho’s admiration for Pseudolus' talent. mirum: 522n. facinus usually has a neutral sense in P. (as the figura etymologica with feceris here, ‘do a deed’), though Callipho hints at Pseudolus’ accomplishment of a 'crime'. 518 uirgis caedito ‘Then you must beat me with rods'. For the clever slave's composure (an act of resistance/declaration of agency?) before the prospect of torture see 1325n., Introduction p. 46. Pseudolus underscores that he has only his body to wager: 534—5, 544a-5nn. 514 do Iouem testem tibi ‘I offer Jupiter as my witness to you' (* the indirect statement in 515). 515 te aetatem impune habiturum 'that you'll have a life without punishment'. aetatem habere is not idiomatic (cf. aetatem agere). Morris 1895: 149 construes aetatem as acc. of duration and understands quod apstuleris as the object of habiturum (‘you’ll keep the money for life’). Pseudolus, however, would use any purloined funds to purchase Phoenicium; the general sense must be, ‘I'll never punish you if you rip me off’. 516 egonutcauere nequeam ' (Theidea that) /couldn'tbe on guard...?', an indignant question/exclamation rebutting the suggestion that Simo can be duped: OLD ut 44. Cf. 486n. egon is pyrrhic (iambic shortening). cui praedicitur: indicative in a relative clause of characteristic (462n.) or cause (cf. 626—7n.). 517 praedico ‘I'm forewarning you' (« praedicere, not praedicare), correcting dicoin 511 (31n. on lege ... pellegam). caueas . . . caueas. caue! arrogantly expands Simo's cauere in 516 in triplicate. dico, inquam 'I'm warning you, I say’; inquam adds further emphasis to Pseudolus' warning (OLD inquam 2a), a common feature of conversational discourse (LU 125-6). 518 em 'there', with a gesture towards Simo's hands and so closely connected with 2stis (cf. Luck 1964: 48); originally an imperative of emo

(‘take’).

istis . . . manibus: Pseudolus vividly conjures an image of the exchange that takes place at Ps.' end: 1326n.

mihi tu: 508n. argentum dabis: cf. Bac. 824 (Chrysalus to his master) atqui iam dabis (sc. aurum).

519 mortalem graphicum 'a picture of human perfection’ (acc. of exclamation; antonomasia: 587n.). Callipho cannot contain his enthusiasm for Pseudolus' trickery (512n.). mortalem: a more elevated synonym of homoin P. (Skutsch 1985: 533-4); cf. 700, 1212, 1243. graphicum = γραφικός (‘worth painting’), applied to persons whose exceptional, usually nefarious, expertise merits memorialization,

a use that 15 P.'s invention

(Fraenkel

2007:

344 n. 106). Cf. 700, Epid. 410—11 ne tu habes seruom graphicum et quantiuis preti, | non carust auro contra, St. 570 graphicum mortalem Antiphonem!, Trin. 936 graphicum . . . nugatorem, 1024 graphicum furem, 1139 pergraphicus sycophanta. Fitzgerald 2000: 46 comments, ‘[the] Greek loan-word . . . figures Pseudolus both as a precious possession plundered from Greece and an example of Greek mastery'. Cf. the thoroughly ‘Greek’ description of Palaestrio at Mil 219 euscheme hercle astitit et dulice et comoedice. seruat fidem 'keeps his word' (OLD seruo 6b). Cf. 520n. 520 seruitum tibi me abducito ‘Then drag me away to be your slave’; Pseudolus cleverly proposes a tautologous punishment. It also suggests that in his own mind Pseudolus is figuratively ‘free’: Introduction pp. 19-20, 43—7. seruitum. supine with a verb of motion to express purpose (AG 8509, NLS 8152); Pseudolus 15 punning on 519 seruat. abducito: the future imperative creates a mock-legalistic tone. 521 bene atque amice dicis 'Now that's generous and kind of you to say' (similarly ironic idioms in LU 149-52). non meu's *you're not mine’ (= ‘my property’; cf. 381n.). 522 uin . . . dicam ‘Do you want me to say . . .?' (324n.). uin . . . uos: Pseudolus initially addresses Simo, but realizes that his forecast of wonderment should include Callipho (512n.) etiam . . . magis 'even more' (with miremini). miremini: subjunctive in a characteristic relative clause. The verb picks up Callipho's sense of wonder (512n.), and as Feeney 2010: 287 notes, it also ‘[plays] on the amazement that grips the spectators of drama’. 523 Callipho explicitly characterizes himself as Pseudolus' avid fan:

41575732, 552nn.

ted is acc.; Proto-Italic had -d after long vowels (Sihler 1995: 8237.4), found extensively in inscriptions contemporary with P. (where it is used to avoid hiatus). ausculto: 237, 427nn. lubens ‘with pleasure' (5n.). [523a]

The

line is bracketed

by most editors as a lame

duplicate

of

523 (originally a marginal gloss?) and seems out of character for Simo: Zwierlein 1991: 136.

216

COMMENTARY

524-30

agedum 'come on' (OLD ago 24; -dum 15 an intensifying enclitic). 524—5 A grand appropriation of military language to describe the dual siege of Simo and Ballio, rich in alliteration, assonance, homoioteleuton,

and figura etymologica. 524 prius quam . . . prius: Ballio uses the same pleonasm at 885-6 (cf. Poen. 321—2 prius quam Venus expergiscatur, prius deproperant sedulo | sacruficare) ; the initial prius is pyrrhic (apocope); etiam prius does not violate Luchs' law (Questa 2007: 375—6). istam 'the one against you' (to Simo). pugnam pugnabo describes the plot to get money from Simo (the cognate acc./ figura etymologica affects high style: LHS 11.38, 790, SL 25); cf. Am. 258 est pugnata pugna, Lucil. 1323 Marx. The simple future with priusquam is rare in Latin: SL 9369. 525 dabo . . . pugnam: uariatio of bugnam pugnabo (524), with the additional notion of 'stir up trouble' (OLD pugna 1b); cf. Bac. 273. pugnam claram et commemorabilem ‘an illustrious battle and one worth remembering' (commemorabilis occurs only here in P. and has a gerundive force, as often for adjs. in -bilis LL 239, AG 8252), a dissonant

characterization of Pseudolus' aspiration to con the /eno in elite military and epic terms: cf. 574-603bn. 526 em 'righthere' (518n.), with a gesture towards Ballio's stage-house. ab hoc lenone: the construction shifts to the acc. with circumducam in

529.

527 per sycophantiam atque per doctos dolos: Pseudolus impudently quotes Simo, for the sheer fun of mimicry and with a metacomic dimension (485n.). 528 tibicinam illam 'As for that flute-girl’ (482n.); the syntax changes (anacoluthon) with ea (529). tuos quam gnatus: the hyperbaton of the possessive preceding its head noun is found in P. (de Melo 2010) and here sharply juxtaposes Phoenicium and Calidorus (from Simo's perspective). 528 deperit 15 madly in love with', frequent in P. (Fantham 1972: 8, 49—50); Pseudolus economically describes a standard New Comedy plot: cf. 9, 45nn. 529 ea circumducam . . . lenonem 'T'll swindle the pimp out of her' (431, 526nn.). lepide ‘in my witty way' (cf. 27—8n.); in contexts like this, lepidus/ lepide 'are almost code words' (McCarthy 2000: 147) for servile trickery. quid est? 22n. 530 effectum . . . reddam: a circuitous way of saying 'accomplish' (cf. OLD efficio 9). reddam 'Yll render' (* pred.: OLD 17%).

COMMENTARY

531-6

217

hoc . . . utrumque: the two 'battles' (524—5) against Simo and Ballio, in which Pseudolus has pledged to gain 20 minae and possession of Phoenicium (529), respectively. Because Pseudolus' specific plans are unformulated and he is merely blustering, it is not clear even to him how the two schemes relate to one another. Willcock 1987: 116-17 reasons that Pseudolus already plans to first abscond with Phoenicium from Ballio and then reimburse the /enowith money extracted from Simo, thus making one scheme conditional on the other: ‘by sleight of hand, as it were, the two tricks become one’. This 15 tidy but over-precise, and misses the mark

in that Pseudolus 15 improvising: 562—73an., Introduction pp. 37-43. ad uesperum: in effect, ‘by the end of this play' (cf. 85, 128nn.). 531 siquidem: the first syllable is short (enclisis). istaec opera 'those undertakings of yours' (530n.). ut praedicas 'as you proclaim' (cf. 517n.). 532 regi | Agathocli: ruler at Syracuse (317—289 BCE), probably better known to P.'s audience than an Athenian one (an addition to P.’s source?), invoked as an exemplum of skilled generalship/power, as at Mos. 775, Men. 410; with A/ B hiatus. antecesseris: for the hyperbole see 415-17, 417nn. The verb occurs only here in P. 533 faxis: for the archaic sigmatic subjunctive see 14n. The prefix of perfeceris (531) carries over here (Renehan 1977: 245). numquid causae ‘There’s no reason, is there . . .?' (495n.). 534 quin te . . . condam 'for me not to consign you . . .' (quin after the implied negative in numquid and idea of prevention in causae GL §555, NLS 81875 (a)). in pistrinum: 494n. 534—-5 non unum diem [modo], | uerum hercle in omnis, quantum est ‘not just for a single day, but indeed for the rest of time' (with in omnis and quantum est sc. dies and dierum, respectively; cf. 37, 351nn.). The wager of Pseudolus' body's torture in the mill can only be increased by duration of time: 513n. uerum hercleintroduces an emphatic correction after a negative (as at St. 163—4 ego non pauxillulam in utero gesto Famem, | uerum hercle multo maxumam et grauissumam). 534 : Ritschl's addition (following Bothe's deletion of modo). 535—46 Though their agreement falls short of a formal stipulatio (536, 539nn.), Simo and Pseudolus strike an oral agreement, one that leads to

the slave's final triumph over his master (1285-1335b). 535 si effecero: sc. opera (531), though as the apodosis (536—7) shows, Pseudolus 15 thinking primarily of a plot to get Phoenicium (530n.). 536 dabin - dabisne (to Simo). Pseudolus fishes for a stipulatio: 538n.

218

COMMENTARY

537-44a

quod dem lenoni 'for me to give to the pimp' (46n.), perhaps in compensation for Phoenicium’s loss (530n.). 537 ius bonum orat 'his request for fairness is reasonable' (OLD bonus 18; OLD ius 72a). Callipho views principles of equity as applying to the servile Pseudolus (cf. 450, 459, 476, 519nn.). 538 ‘dabo’ inque: Callipho urges Simo to formally stipulate (114n.) to Pseudolus' question (536—7); Simo evades a stipulatio (cf. 554—6n.), but ultimately gives Pseudolus the money: 1313n. For the verbatim command cf. Aul. 788 ‘ita di faxint' inquito. 539 Simo's suspicion of collaboration is expressed with a heavy line (505—6n.). hisce = Ài * -ce (69n.), nom. plur. 540 de compecto faciunt 'they're acting from a previous agreement (cf. 543n.). consutis dolis 'after they stitched together a scheme’

(abl. abs.),

also at

Am. 467, a twist on conceptis uerbis (353n.). 541 qui me argento interuortant 'to swindle me out of the money' (for the relative clause of purpose see 46n.). Cf. 530n. interuortant: Fleckeisen's correction of P's circumuertant. 541-2 quis me audacior | sit si . . . audeam? ‘Who’d be more daring than me if I dared . . .?’; for the figura etymologica cf. Men. 1050, Aul. 745—6, Ter. Eun. 644. 542 facinus: 512n. immo sic ‘No, it's like this.’

543—5 Pseudolus frames a parodic law ('If we've ever made a prior agreement . . . entered into a conspiracy . . . held a meeting . . . you must ) 543—4Si... seu... umquam...|autsi... umquam: typically Roman legalistic all-inclusiveness (cf. e.g. the nearly contemporary senatus consultum de Bacchanalibus, CIL 1.2.581 sacra in oquolted ne quisquam fecise uelet, neue in poplicod neue in preiuatod neue extrad urbem sacra quisquam fecise uelet, niset . . .).

543 sumus compecti < compaciscor (cf. 540), hapax legomenon. consilium ‘a scheme' (OLD 5c). 544a—5 Under the proposed law (543—5n.) Pseudolus (employing simile) sets a macabre (545n.) and thematically evocative punishment, given Pseudolus' mastery of words and recent association of himself with a poeta (401, 404nn.). Simo may treat Pseudolus' entire body — with which he as a slaveholder has the authority to do as he pleases - like a blank book (544an.). Hypothetical failure in the wager extends beyond the sacrifice of his body (513, 534—-5nn.) and requires Pseudolus to forfeit his control of language to Simo - and by extension ‘authorial’ control of Ps. (the

COMMENTARY

5442a-8

219

writer would become ‘written’). Cf. frag. incert. 53 de Melo corpus tuom uirgis ulmeis inscribam, Introduction p. 36. 5448 ‘just as when letters are written in a book with a pen’. in libro: a papyrus roll (/bro: pyrrhic by iambic shortening). calamo - κάλαμος, a reed pen for applying ink to papyrus. litterae ‘letters’ (of the alphabet). Fugitive slaves were branded, which might have involved letters (cf. Cas. 401 litteratus, Aul. 325, Ar. frg. 68 πολυγράμματος, Jones

1987); Pseudolus may conceptualize the (unlikely)

failure of his scheme as tantamount to loss of 'freedom': 544a-5n. 545 While this line repeats the basic idea of 544a, it does so with the addition of grotesque details (consonant with whipping flesh). stilis . . . ulmeis ‘with writing implements made of elm rods' (333n.). The ancient stz/us was usually made of metal and had a sharpened end for writing on (especially) wax tablets (10n.). me totum usque . . . conscribito *you must then write as much as you possibly can over my entire body'. usque: 216n. 546 indice ludos 'announce the games' (OLD indico* 1); Simo means the theatrical competitions between Pseudolus and Ballio as well as himself (524—5n.). Simo grants Pseudolus the power of an aedile presiding over his own games: '[the] slave has become a magistrate in a reversal of status reflecting typically Roman anxieties that the (slavish) entertainer may exercise a sway over the entertained' (Fitzgerald 2000: 44—-5). Cf. 554n. ludos: ‘games’ in general, but also religious festivals and the plays performed at them (OLD 3); Simo effectively announces the commencement of a play-within-the-play: 552n. nunciam: 118n. quando lubet *when you want' (sc. tibi: 348n.). 547—52 Callipho agrees to remain at Pseudolus' disposal and exits into his house (560), but subsequently disappears from Ps. Analysts have made much of this, e.g. Williams 1956: 444 posits that in P.'s source Callipho reappeared in the final act as a mediator among Ballio, Simo, and Pseudolus; Lefévre 1997: 33-6 speculates that Callipho was Phoenicium's father and so recognition and marriage concluded the play. Callipho's disappearance may simply be a 'loose end', of which there are many in P., or the planless Pseudolus experiments with possible plots (530, 56273ann., Introduction pp. 37—-43) as he keep spectators guessing, and 50 more engaged with his ‘show’. Gorler 1983: 98 n. 29, in light of Callipho's role as Pseudolus' internal audience (523, 552nn.), suggests that the actor playing him takes a seat among the spectators after 560. 547 da ... operam ‘be at my disposal' (sc. m:hz; OLD opera 2a). in hunc diem: 85, 129, 530nn. 548 quo - aliquo (after ne), ‘in some other direction’, ‘elsewhere’.

220

COMMENTARY

549-57

te ad aliud occupes negotium ‘you engage in some other task' (OLD occupo' ob). 549 quin 'but' (OLD 2c). rus ut irem: the aristocratic Callipho has a country estate in addition to his city home (any work performed there would amount to abandonment of comic festivity). iam | heri: hiatus with shared (bb) resolution. constitueram 'I'd decided' (OLD 12); for the

ante-penult see Questa 2007: 183.

(long)

quantity of the

549—50 constitueram | . . . :: statuisti: 533n.

550 disturba quas statuisti machinas 'Demolish the siege-engines you erected.' The clever slave in P. often describes his own machinations in such terms (OLD machina gb); Pseudolus demonstrates he is in full-blown character for his games (546, 552nn.) by applying martial imagery to Callipho's mundane change of plans. machinas: not « Attic μηχανή, but Doric μαχανά (the Greek dialect spoken in South Italy). 551 certum est: gon. istac gratia 'for your sake'; Callipho continues his respectfulness towards Pseudolus: 537n. 552 lubidost: the verbal noun with est = lubet (cf. 562n.). ludos tuos spectare 'to be a spectator at your games/play': 546n. For the pleasurable spectatorship of an internal audience in P. cf. Cas. 75962, Poen. 205—0.

554—6 Since Simo never stipulated (536, 538nn.) to pay Pseudolus for duping Ballio, Callipho by offering to pay himself shames Simo into making an oral agreement to do so (555n.). 554 quod dixit: sc. se daturum esse. Simo never agreed to pay after the stipulatio was interrupted by his fear that a conspiracy was afoot (538), but Simo's call for the games to begin in 546 indicates that Pseudolus has convinced him that he and Ballio have not colluded. This clause refers not to any of Simo's specific words, but rather to his implied consent to pay in the event of Pseudolus' success. 555 non demutabo ‘I won't renege' (intransitive: OLD 2, TLL V.1.520.46—60); Simo agrees to the wager with Callipho as his witness. namque ‘you most certainly won't' (OLD 1). 556 clamore magno et multum flagitabere 'You'll be loudly dunned with a big ruckus.' Pseudolus threatens his master with flagitatio (357— 68n.) in the event of his non-payment of the wager. multum is an adv. and so syntactically parallel with clamore magno (abl. of manner). 557-8 Pseudolus assumes complete control by giving the senes their orders and clearing the stage for his monologue (562-7gan.).

COMMENTARY 557-62

221

557 Come on, take yourselves away from here - inside now.' Pseudolus adopts brusqueness reminiscent of Ballio, who initiated this series of scenes (2—4) by ordering his slaves out of his house (1993n.). Cf. 559n. 558 meis. . . date locum fallaciis: confidently overstated, as Pseudolus has no tricks up his sleeve and only wants the stage cleared to gather his thoughts. date locum ‘make way' (OLD locus 12b; 'fere cum respectu praebendi, hic illic edam cedendi' (TLL vi11.2.1597.10)). fallaciis is yet another word (485n.) for the clever slave's primary tool of his trade. 559 fiat ‘is idiomatically used as a submissive reply to commands’, Thesleff 1960: 20 ( Ξ ‘I will’). geratur mos tibi: subservientsounding: 22n. 559-60 te uolo | . . . adesse: an abrupt command (g8gn.). 560 domi usque adesse 'to stay at home indefinitely’ (547-52n.); usque. OLD s. quin 'Yes, actually . . .' (OLD 2a). tibi hanc operam dico 'I devote this service to you' (OLD operam 6). Callipho goes beyond Pseudolus' request for help (547) by substituting the stronger verb dico (OLD dico* 4) for do. Cf. Bac. 995a aurium operam tibi dico. 561 Simo, in contrast to Callipho, ignores Pseudolus' command to go inside (557n.) and sets off for the forum. iam 'soon' (with the future indicative: TLL v11.1.105.19-100.21). 562-73a After giving Callipho and Simo the false impression that he has a strategy, Pseudolus delivers his second aporetic monologue (cf. 394-414n.). While remaining in character inside Ps., he speaks to spectators like an analyst outside it. He quickly disarms suspicions that he's planless by acknowledging that is so (562—5), but insists he ultimately will succeed (566-8). Pseudolus has made progress since the first monologue in that he has clarified his goal (the dual assault on Ballio and Simo), even if he lacks a script to reach it. His confidence leads to a critical digression on the need for innovation/improvisation in acting (568—70). Pseudolus then excuses himself, ostensibly to contemplate strategy inside (571-2). The tibicen is to entertain spectators in the meantime (573-32a). The stage is empty for the first time since Ps.' opening (hence the Renaissance act division) as the actor playing Pseudolus receives a break. 562 suspicio est mihi . . . uos suspicarier: a rhetorically apt beginning (‘I know what you're thinking . . .'), as Pseudolus anticipates spectators' objections to build rapport with them. suspicio est mihi = suspicor. 552n. uos. the most frequent means of addressing spectators in P. (spectatores is also common: 720, 1392); cf. 564, 573, 5732, 584, 1995b. suspicarier. [1] n. on exsurgier.

222

COMMENTARY

563-6

563 idcirco 'for this reason', a ‘purpose adjunct’ (OLS 1.909) anticipating quo (564), best omitted in translation. facinora: 512n. Pseudolus refers to the battle on two fronts (530n.); the ultima is breuis in longo (355n.). 564 quo . . . oblectem 'to amuse you' (relative clause of purpose: AG 8531.2);

the root meaning

of lacto/lacio is ‘entice’,

‘inveigle’

(cf.

180,

573ann.). Pseudolus engages in broad manipulation of spectators and playfully deceives them in forging a false opposition between entertainment and the 'serious' fulfilment of his (plot) goals (the two activities are

inextricably entwined in comedy). Feeney 2010: 287 n. 23 notes the role of pleasure (ἡδονή) in ancient literary criticism.

hanc fabulam dum transigam 'while I move this play towards closure', a topos (of controlling figures) both within (Cas. 84 post transactam fabulam, Truc. 11 dum transigimus hanc comoediam) and outside prologues (Am. 868 ne hanc incohatam transigam comoediam) . 565 neque sim facturus: the indirect statement introduced by suspicarier

(562)

should

continue

with

me facturum esse, but intervening subor-

dination (564) produces this shift to the subjunctive - an example of syntactical fluidity in conversational discourse. facturum: sc. esse. dixeram: for the pluperfect see 54n. 566-8 Pseudolus again (cf. 106—7) asserts that the play will reach its generically required outcome. 566 non demutabo 'I won't change course'. Pseudolus echoes Simo's recent pledge (555n.) in forging a kind of oral contract with spectators.

566—7 atque etiam . . . | . . . etiam scio 'And yet I still know . . .' (cf.

106n.). 566 certum: with η dico tibi.

(567). Cf. Rud. 1092 hic nisi de opinione certum nil

quod sciam ‘as far as I know', an idiom

(OLD scio 1c; the subjunctive

is originally due to a negative antecedent (cf. 1076) and became stereotyped: Handford 1947: 81). Pseudolus playfully juxtaposes verbs at lineend (cf. 567 scio) and brings the scene's theme of knowing/knowledge to a climax. The motif commenced with what the senes already knew (463 scimus) and what they hoped to learn from interrogation of Pseudolus/ Socrates (465n.), who served a brief stint as the Delphic oracle (480n.). Master and slave then debated what Pseudolus 'knew' about punishment (499-502). Pseudolus now claims he doesn't know what exactly he'll do (567), but knows it'll succeed (568). Pseudolus' epistemological status here, mutatis mutandis, is not unlike that of Socrates in the Apology. There the philosopher, intrigued by the Delphic oracle's claim that no one is wiser than himself, declares his peculiar wisdom lies in not believing that

COMMENTARY 567-72

229

‘he knows what he does not know' (21d7 ὅτι & μὴ οἶδα οὐδὲ οἴομαι εἰδέναι). For Socrates as a comic and slavish figure see Nikulin 2014: 129-31. Cf. 972-3, 974nn. 567 quo . . . pacto ‘how’. scio: 566n. 568 nisi quia futurum est: 107n. qui in scaenam prouenit: an actor (in scaenam: [2]n.). 569 nouo modo nouom aliquid inuentum 'something new devised in a new way' (inuentum has its more active sense, ‘originate’, rather than the middle, ‘come upon' (cf 50, 80), here of an actor's agency: OLD 6); cf.

Pseudolus' claim at 105 and Epid. 100 aliquid aliqua reperiundum est. nouus covers a broad range of meanings. Within a circumscribed tradition such as New Comedy (3-132n., Introduction pp. 5-7) there is little latitude for new plots, characters, and situations. An actor can still deviate from the expectations attached to his mask/character type, as Pseudolus has done

by emphasizing in his two monologues that he has no script for achieving the end spectators expect. Improvisation, or a theatrical illusion of it (Introduction pp. 37—43), has moved to the forefront of Ps.' dramaturgy. In this theatrical environment, something nouus 15 'altered from its previous state' (OLD 9), a new riff on something established (a ‘contrafact’ in

jazz terms), presented in a way that 15 pleasantly surprising ( OLD 4). modo: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). In its modification by nouo here Letessier 2019: 53—5 sees an anticipation of Pseudolus' (unusual) reappearance for his canticum (574—603bn.). addecet: a solemn moralizing term to define the actor's craft (cf. 460n.). 570 det locum: 558n. Not a simple matter of one actor giving way to another onstage, as we should remember

that Roman

actors, mostly

slaves, faced brutal consequences for unsuccessful performances (Am. 26—7, Cist. 784—5, As. 946, Trin. 989-90). illi qui queat 'to the one who can'. 571 concedere 'withdraw', a provocative move after asserting that an unsuccessful actor (570) should leave the stage, but Pseudolus reassures spectators that he'll be back shortly (573). intro: to Simo's house (currently free of both of Pseudolus' masters).

572 concenturio 'marshal', a military metaphor (a harbinger of the song to follow: 574—603bn.). While the simple form of this denominative verb (« centuria) is common, the compound 15 found elsewhere only at T?zn. 1002-3 epistula illa mihi concenturiat metum | in corde et illud mille nummum. in corde: the corsis an organ of thought (OLD g), which for Romans 15 located in the chest (Onians 1951: 40). sycophantias: 485n.

294

COMMENTARY

573-4

573 «sed mox» exibo 'But I'll return in the near future' (OLD mox 1a); is umquam abundant, As. 338). decet: mock-moralistic (460n.). 1128—9 For the pimp's topsy-turvy moralizing cf. 266, 267, 268nn. 1128 boni . . . uiri: a moral and socio-political designation (Earl 1967: 19-20). pauperant . . . augent 'impoverish . . . enrich'. pauperant: a rare verb (TLL x.1.852.18—46), in P. only here and at Mil. 729, fr. 1. improbi unprmc1pled (sc. uiri): OLD 2. Cf. 149, 18gnn. 1129 populo . . . mi . . . usui sunt: 418n. usu: usually a cretic in P. (Gerschner 2002: 143) as here strenui: often combined with bon?in this socio-political sense (1128n.), e.g. Cato orat. 21 (OLD 1b). Cf. 697n. inprobi: 1128n. 1150 malum quod tibi di dabunt: for phrases of this type (virtual wishes, more often positive with bonum/ bona) see Hanson 1959a: 73-4. quod ‘regarding this’, i.e. your profession, adverbial acc. of a connecting relative. tibi: iambic (247n.). sic scelestu's ‘you are such a criminal' (OLD sic 12, 355n.); for the parataxis see LU 112. 1132 Venus: the goddess, subject of bona dat (Ballio mockingly focalizes his customers' emotions, and speaks as if he were the goddess' favour-

ite); the noun is a synonym of coitus: OLD 4, Adams 1982: 188—9. 1133 lucrifugas ‘profit-haters’ (hapax legomenon). damnicupidos ‘loss-lovers’ (hapax legomenon). Cf. Trin. 100 turpilucricupidum. 1133-3a qui | se suamque aetatem bene curant *who tend to themselves and their age-group with a view to pleasure’, i.e. the ?uuentus (= the pimp's prey: 202a, 203-3ann.). aetatem: OLD 9. bene. OLD 9. 1134 Ballio again champions the desires of young men: cf. 179n. edunt: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). scortantur *whore around' (1125n.), a comic verb (Karakasis 2005:

39).

1194a-5 The first of two instances in the scene where Ballio without provocation lashes out against Simo and his fellow elites: 1144—6n. Simo each time ignores the pimp's 'passive-aggressive' outbursts. 1134a alio ingenio: 137n.

COMMENTARY

1135-42

321

atque: 475n.

1135 qui nec tibi bene esse patere et illis quibus est inuides 'You who deny yourself enjoyment and begrudge others theirs'. Cf. Trin. 352 nec tibi bene pote pati neque alteri. tibi bene esse ‘to enjoy yourself' (OLD bene gb). quibus est: sc. bene. 1136—9 Some editors object to the repetitions in the door-knocking scene here and propose deletions (Leo brackets 1137, Zwierlein 1991: 206-19 excises 1138—9). Marshall 2006: 269 notes that 'the scene 15 easily playable' with all four lines intact, though he also supposes this could be an example of ‘a performance variant'. The repetitions of words and actions, coupled with Harpax's growing impatience, can be exploited for comic effect onstage. The scene itself is a repeat, in that this is the third time a character in military garb approaches Ballio's house (cf. 594-604, 960-—7) - though only here someone knocks on Ballio's door. 1136 ad me recta habet rectam uiam 'He's taking a direct route directly to my house' (awkward polyptoton, as recta — recta uia). 1197 uos: addressed to the household. quid istic debetur tibi? "What business do you have there?' (cf. Mil. 421, Truc. 261). Ballio refers to his own house. istic: a short monosyllable (iambic shortening). 1138 Cf. Rud. 1316 di«ui homines respiciunt. bene ego hinc praedatus ibo. bene . . . praedatus 'nicely stocked with booty': 1124n. noui ‘I just know 1{ (the parataxis conveys Ballio’s foolish enthusiasm). bona scaeuast mihi: 'I've got a good omen' (OLD scaeua' 2, 762n.). 1139 ecquis: the first syllable 15 short by enclisis (Introduction p. 56). aperit: for the present see 874-5n. chlamydate 'you, cloak-man' (antonomosia). Ballio uses this Greekbased term to essentialize Harpax as a military outsider (735, 927-8nn.). quid istic debetur tibi? 11957n. 1140 lenonem Ballionem: 977n. quaerito: 974n. 1141 operam fac compendi quaerere 'spare yourself the trouble of searching' (OLD compendium 2, Lindsay 1907: 15; cf. 605n.). quaerere. inf. of purpose (cf. Men. 244 operam . . . sumam quaerere, 642n.) instead of a gerund. 1142 quid iam? 'How's that now?' (OLD iam 1e). tute: 20n.

ipsus ipsum praesens praesentem uides ‘you’re looking at him with your own eyes, face to face' (for adjectival pairs in polyptoton see LHS 11.708, Wills 1996: 225—32). ipsum ‘himself and no other' (132n.).

322

COMMENTARY

1143-50

1143 tune is es? The scene's second instance of mistaken identity (1103-1245n.): Harpax construes Ballio's designation of himself in the third person (1142) in reference to Simo. Simo and Ballio should be distinguishable by mask and costume, but verisimilitude is sacrificed for

comic confusion - and Harpax is a foreigner (596n.), perhaps unfamiliar with Athenian theatrical practice. chlamydate: the offended Simo parrots Ballio's contemptuous address (1139n.). caue sis tibi a 'do protect yourself against' (a conflation of two constructions of caueo: OLD 3a, 5; cf. 898—9n.). caue pyrrhic (iambic shortening). tibi a: bb (iambic shortening); scan B c D aa Bcdd A bb CD A BcD. curuo infortunio

'curved misfortune',

i.e. beating with the cane car-

ried by comedy's old men (Simo wields his scipio threateningly here: 133— 264n.). Cf. Rud. 8933 quid est quod caueam? :: em! a crasso infortunio. 1144—6 Ballio again (1194a-5n.) casts a barb at Simo and other wuiri boni, claiming they despise men of Ballio's status but hypocritically seek their financial assistance. 1144 in hunc intende digitum 'Point your finger at him'. After redirecting Harpax to Ballio, Simo seemingly withdraws and does not speak until Ballio takes him aside (1158). at hic: shared (dd) resolution.

uir bonus: 1128n. 1145 bone uir: extremely sarcastic (1128, 1144-6nn.); for ironic/ antiphrastic bonus see Lilja 1965: 15, Dickey 2002: 146. flagitare saepe clamore in foro: ‘good men’ like Simo are publicly dunned by their creditors: 357—68, 556nn. Cf. Cur. 683 clamore hominem posco.

1146 libella: 98n. quid 'somehow' (adv.). Cf. St. 399 neque. . . quicquam subuenit. leno hic: for hic cf. 1144n. subuenit tibi ‘has come to your rescue’. subuznit: the long penult 15 guaranteed by Luchs' law. 1147 quin . . . fabulare? 4on. fabulor ‘I am’

(sc. tecum).

1148 iandudum . . . porrexi manum ‘I've been holding my hand out for a long time now’: for the tense see 261n. For Ballio’s pathological

avarice 566 133—264n.

51 des: 1116-17n. 1149 accipe: Harpax hands 5 minae over to Ballio. quinque . . . minae: 54n.

lectae numeratae ‘choice, counted out’ (not counterfeit).

1150 Polymachaeroplagides: 988, 991nn.

COMMENTARY

1151-61

323

1151 quod deberet 'that he owes' (subjunctive because Harpax quotes his boss' command: 1150 zuss:t). atque ut . . . mitteres: P. has zubeo followed by a substantive clause, with or without μ (Bennett 1910: 212-19), as well as acc. -* inf. (1050). 1152-3 dico . . . loquor . . . | . . . inquam: Harpax plays the role of officious soldier. 1152 ita ‘yes’ (487n.). Macedonius: 51n. 1153 admodum 'precisely' (OLD 6, Thesleff 1960: 49-50). Polymachaeroplagides: 988, 991nn. 1154 uera memoras 'Yes' (Thesleff 1960: 47). quidem 'in fact’ (25n.). 1155 leno Ballio: 977n. mulierem: 172n. 1156 ita ‘yes’ (487n.). recte meministi: yet another way to say 'yes' (Thesleff 1960: 47). 1157 iam redeo ad te ‘I’ll get back to you shortly' (Ballio withdraws to wherever Simo is standing: 1102, 1144nn.); the future is expressed by the present of a verb of motion (778n.; cf. 1159 reuortar, Mer. g62-3). maturate propera: 168n. maturate- mature (hapax legomenon). propera . . . propero: 696n. on facere, fac. 1158 iam diem multum esse 'that it's well into the day' (OLD multus 5). uideo: 114n. aduocare 'consult'. etiam 'still' (i.e. despite the late hour). 1159-68 Ballio and Simo in their asides conclude that Harpax is Pseudolus' accomplice; this mistake of identity launches the scene's central comedy of errors (1103-1237n.). 1159 mane modo istic: for Ballio's movement onstage see 1157n. mane. iambic (iambic shortening).

quid nunc fit, Simo? "What's to be done now, Simo?' (for third-person examples of the deliberative indicative cf. Cist. 768 quid fit, Lampadio?, Christenson 2000: 148). 1160 quid agimus? deliberative indicative in the first person, as often (e.g. Men. 843, Mil. 250; Bennett 1910: 22—4). manufesto . . . teneo 'I've got him red-handed’. 1161 an nescis ‘you really don't understand . . .?' (an introduces a question with surprise: OLD 1). iuxta cum ignarissumis 'I'm in the same boat with those knowing nothing' (sc. sum); ironically true of both Simo and Ballio (1103-1237n.). Cf. Per. 249 tuxta tecum, si tu nescis, nescio, Aul. 682 iuxta mecum rem tenes (iuxta:

always coupled with cum in P.: LP 1.875).

324

COMMENTARY

1162-9

1162-3 allegauit hunc, quasi . . . | . . esset ‘has hired him, (to act) as though he were ...' Cf. Trin. 1142—3 meo allegatu uenit, quasi qui aurum mihi

| ferret aps te.

1163 haben = habesne (pyrrhic, iambic shortening). rogitas quod uides? 'You (have to) ask about what you're looking at?' Simo was not paying attention (1144n.) when Harpax handed Ballio the money (1149n.). 1164 istinc: the praeda from Harpax. de praeda - gen. (as in Romance languages: SL 46—7, OLS 1.1240-1); Simo (literally) construes Ballio's designation of Harpax as (figurative) praeda: 1124n. 1165 commune istuc esse oportet: Simo jokes about sharing praeda, after a proverb

1890: 20). malum:

242n.

(Ter. Ad. 804 communia esse amicorum inter se omnia, Otto (lighthearted here, ‘damn!’).

id totum tuom est: Ballio assumes Pseudolus has somehow purloined 5 minae from Simo. 1166 quam mox mi operam das? 'How soon will you give me your attention?' (for the tense see 874—5n., As. 449). equidem: 620n. quid . . . es auctor *what do you advise?': 231n. 1167 exploratorem 'spy', only here in P. suppositicium - subditiuom (752n.), only here in P. faciamus ludos 'let's mock' (* acc.) = ludificemur (OLD ludus 4a; for the phrase's thematic connections with festival and farce see Chiarini 1983: 214-16). Simo inaptly suggests he and Ballio collaboratively render Harpax the butt of their comedy; such language belongs to the seruus callidus, e.g. Mil. 1161—2 militem lepide et facete laute ludificarier | uolo, Most. 1149-51 si amicus Diphilo aut Philemoni es, | dicito is quo pacto tuos te seruos ludificauerit: | optumas frustrationes dederis in comoediis (with McElduff 2019: 71—2). Spectators know (1103-1237n.) the flawed premise of the proposed comedy is the assumption that Harpax is an impostor. 1168 adeo ‘up to the point' (OLD adeo' 2). donicum - donec. 5656 ludos fieri 'that he's being mocked' (passive of ludos facere/ ludificari, as at Bac. 1090a: 1167n.). ludos: retained acc. of the active construction (490-1n.). Simo foolishly asserts they are in theatrical control, unaware that he and Ballio, not Harpax, will become the target of spectators' ridicule. senserit: future perfect. 1169 sequere ‘Follow me' (Ballio and Simo move towards Harpax). nempe: 353n.

COMMENTARY

1170-9

325

planissume: 365n. 1170 quanti: gen. of indefinite value (102n.). suarum . . . uirium 'of his military might’ (OLD uis 24). uictoria ‘[he bought me] at the price of victory' (877n.). 1171 nam | ego: hiatus in the first metron. domi . . . in patria mea: pompously pleonastic. imperator summus: if the cacula is not merely a braggadocio (655n.), he realistically describes the vicissitudes of enslavement in the ancient world. That Harpax was an elite, slaveholding person perhaps explains his ready acceptance of the institution, though this also clashes with his incompetent service (1109—935n.). Stewart 2012: 179-80 comments, ‘The detail [Harpax' free birth] underscores his status as a more noble slave in

the eyes of the slave society ... because he had experienced freedom and the opportunity for volitional action.' 1172 an: 1161n. carcerem: implying that Harpax was a criminal or slave in a chain-gang (kept in ergastula on Italian estates). Cf. 1176n. patriam *your (actual) country', in apposition to carcerem. 1173 contumeliam si dices, audies 'if you use insulting language, you'll hear 1{ (proverbial: Otto 1890: 45-6). quotumo - quoto (962n.). 1174 peruenisti | :: altero: A/ B hiatus at change of speaker. altero ad meridiem 'on the second day at noon' (OLD ad 21a): 995n. 1175 quam uelis pernix 'as nimble as can be'. 1176 scias: pyrrhic with iambic shortening (scan bb C D aa B cc D A bb cDABcD). gerere crassas compedes: para prosdokian for an expected compliment about his speed/strength (some slaves were shackled, such as the compediti on Cato's estate: Cato, Agr. 56).

1177 cubitare: a sexual euphemism (Adams 1982: 177), though probably not here (de Melo 2012: 369 n. 52 sees a ‘[v]eiled reference to masturbation’). For what seems a simple scatological joke cf. 1178n. in cunis 'in a cradle'. 1178 scilicet :: etiamne: shared (dd) resolution between speakers; scan B c dd a B c dd a bb c D A B c D, scilicet 'of course' (sc. solitus est) , an affirmative particle (OLD 2); ironic here.

solitus es — : 780n.; for aposiopesis (deliberate breaking off for effect) see LU 53-5. scin quid loquar? Ballio implies Harpax soiled himself (1177n.); cf. cunio, ‘defecate’ (with Adams 1982: 239-40). 1179 solitum esse: scilicet (= scire licet) functions as an impersonal verb (* acc. and inf.: OLD scilicet 1); sc. eum. Cf. 1178n.

496

COMMENTARY

1180-6

quid hoc quod te rogo? 'What about this question I've got for you?' (hoc. adv. acc.); quid hoc. dd (iambic shortening).

1180 noctu: suggesting erotic activity, made explicit in 1181, where Ballio suggests the miles and Harpax enjoy an eromenos/ erastés relationship (773n.), although Harpax seems beyond the ‘bloom of youth’ idealized in Greek pederasty. For a Roman tendency to view homoerotic relationships through a less sharply dichotomized young/old lens see Williams 2010: 84-90. in uigiliam ‘on watch' (usually plur.). 1181 conueniebatne in . . . machaera 'would his sword fit into . . .?' (OLD conuenio 5).

uaginam .. . machaera: neither is elsewhere used in its obviously sexual sense here (Adams 1982: 20); for ξίφος ('sword') and xoAsóv ('sheath") of male and female pudenda in Greek comedy see Henderson 1991: 58, 198. The Greek loanword (versus gíadius 949n.) perhaps ‘foreignizes’ the homosexual act between adult males. For homoerotic jesting in P. cf. Cas. 460-6, Cur. 400-3 (for sexual euphemism 767-89n.). 1182 i in malam crucem! 355n. ire licebit: the shared cc resolution violates Ritschl's law (Introduction p. 62); editors take zrein apocope (cf. ilicet): Questa 2007: 207-9, Lindsay 1922: 101-9. San BcDA BcDA Becdd ABcD. tamen ‘all the same’ (despite your cursing me: OLD 1a). temperi: 387n. 1183 quin . . . emittis, aut redde: 40, 1016nn. (Harpax is irritated). 1184 quid maneam? 'Why should I wait?' (deliberative). chlamydem hanc commemora quanti conductast 'about this cloak - tell me how much it was rented for' (for the prolepsis cf. 16n.). conductast: OLD 4 (cf. 799n.). A choragus provided costumes and props (Introduction p. 8) forafee. The situation is represented in theatrical terms; Ballio erroneously thinks he has disrupted a play-within-the-play. quid est? 22n. 1185 quid meret machaera? ‘What’s the sword earning?' (sc. domino. 1 186n.).

elleborum hisce hominibus opus est ‘These men need hellebore’ (EAMBopos, a cure for madness: cf. Men. 950o, Otto 1890o: 124). Bianco 2009: 29—30 examines the frequent association of senes (cf. 1189-90n.) with insanity in P. elleborum: acc. with opus est, as Truc. 002 (OLD οριμδ' 12e). eho! ‘Hey!’ (Ballio clutches Harpax: 1065, 1186nn.). 1186 mitte ‘Let go of me!' (255n.). quid mercedis petasus . . . domino demeret? 'What price is the hat earning its owner?' (608n.), i.e. in the alleged performance (1184n.).

petasus. 735n.

COMMENTARY 1187-96

327

1187 quid *domino'? ‘What do you mean “for its owner"?' (OLD quis' 9, Enk 1979b: 69-70). quid somniatis? ‘What are you dreaming up?' (OLD somnio 9; quid: 1066n.). quidem: emphasizing mea (109n.).

1185-8 haec habeo omnia | . . . empta: 6o2an.

1188 meo peculio: Harpax means he purchased the items with his private funds (225n.), but peculium also bore an obscene sense ('private parts’): Adams 1982: 43-4. nempe ‘why, clearly' (in elaborations: OLD 4): g53n. quod femina summa sustinent 'that your upper thighs support'. The senes' tired sexual jokes continue. femina: nom. plur. of femur (genitals are metonymically signified by bodily parts adjoining them: Adams 1982: 47-51). 1189-90 uncti . . . sunt 'have been oiled up' (as for massage/vigorous beating). senes: the pimp Labrax is so described at Rud. $17—18 recaluom ad Silanum senem, statutum, uentriosum, | tortis superciliis, contracta fronte . . . (Marshall 2006: 144-6 suggests that Ballio wears the mask of Pappus in Atellan farce: Introduction p. 12). fricari ‘to be rubbed down' (‘masturbate’ in slang: Adams 1982: 184). ex antiquo: perhaps 'in an old-fashioned style' (sc. more), but the phrase is un-idiomatic (cf. 596n.). 1191 opsecro hercle: 29n. uero serio ‘in all seriousness now'

(cf. Poen.

Truc. 302, 921, all similarly in asyndeton).

160, 435, 438, Rud. 468,

1192-5 Pseudolus | . . . Pseudolust . . . fallaciam | . . . fallaciis. . |...

Pseudolum . . . fallacias: the repetitions suggest etymological play (fallacia is a synonym of dolus) on Pseudolus' name (Mendelsohn 1907: 22): cf. 485n., Introduction pp. 25-6, 32-3. 1192 quid meres? 1185n. quantillo argento 'for what paltry sum?' conduxit: 799n. 1193 istic 'that you mention'

(istic iambic, 699n.).

praeceptor ‘your instructor' (764, gggnn.). hanc fallaciam 'this trickery'; already played out (765n.). 1194 fallaciis: 558n. 1195 praedicas: 531n. 1196 quem ego hominem nulli[us] coloris noui whom I know as a man of no colour' Ξ ‘whom I don't know at all' (cf. Catul. 99.2 nec scire utrum sis albus an ater homo, Otto 189o: 11). null£ a rare gen. form (cf. coloris ulli at Truc. 293, Questa 2007: 72 n. 5; the MSS have nullius, whose penult would have to be short for the line to scan).

328

COMMENTARY

1197-1207

non tu istinc abis? Why don't you come off it?' (Willcock 1987: 144; cf. St. 603 non tu hinc abis?, Men. 516, Mer. 757), quasi-imperatival. abis: OLD 14 ('cease from a course of action’). 1197 nihil est . . . sycophantis quaestus 'there's no gain for tricksters'. sycophantis. tricksters who impersonate others (as Simia): 485n. 1197-8 proin tu Pseudolo | nunties ‘so you should inform Pseudolus 1198 praedam: 1029n. occurrit 'showed up' (OLD 2).

1199 Harpax: 925an. (attracted into the relative clause). is . . . Harpax ego sum: 925-a, 929-30nn. immo . . . 6556 uis 'Correction: you want to be Harpax.’ 1200 purus putus hic sycophanta est: cf. Trin. 1139 nimis pergraphicus sycobhanta. purus putus: 989n.; sycobhanta: 1197n. tibi argentum dedi: 1 149n. 1201 dudum adueniens extemplo 'a while back, immediately upon arriving'. symbolum: 648n.

1202 eri | imagine opsignatam epistulam: 647n. eri | imagine prosodic

hiatus. hic ante ostium: 604n. 1203 Syro: 636n. 1204 non confidit sycophanta hic [nequam est] nugis 'This trickster doesn't rely on

utter nonsense'

([nequam

est]: otiose

and

Ballio is impressed the 'impostor' knows his slave's name.

unmetrical);

meditate malust 'he's wicked in a studied way' (1103n.); the reading is Skutsch's (A has meditatum malest, P meditatur male). Ballio again

mistakenly assumes he's exposed a rehearsed scheme: 941, 1103-1237, 1184nn.

[1205—7] The lines are found in both A and P, but don't fit the context. Ballio should have asserted this earlier in this scene, not when the truth is

imminent; Leo brackets these verses as an actor's interpolation. [1205] hominem uerberonem Pseudolum ‘what a creep of a person Pseudolus is!' (acc. of exclamation: 366n.). uerberonem: 360, g11nn. Pseudolum . . . dolum: 485, 1192-5nn. [1205—6] ut docte dolum | commentust! ‘How shrewdly he devised his stratagem!’ [1205] docte: 765n. [1206] commentust « comminiscor.

[1207] exornauit: 751n. mulierem qui abduceret ‘to lead the woman off' (relative clause of purpose: 46n.).

COMMENTARY

1208-18

329

1208 illam epistulam . . . ad me attulit: g83n. ipsus 'in person' (755n.); cf. 989n. uerus Harpax: in reality = subditiuos Harpax (752, 1167nn.), a ueri similis (cf. 403) Harpax. 1209-11 ego...ego...|ego: Harpax's impatience escalates. 1209-10 uocor: with the originally long ultima. 1211 nec sycophantiose quicquam ago nec malefice ‘I'm not engaged in anything either deceitful or wicked' (sycophantiose < συκοφαντία * -osus). Harpax responds to 1204 sycophanta . . . malust with appropriate Greek and Latin words, respectively (both advs. are hapax legomena). 1212 neque . . . mortalis qui sit noui nec scio 'I neither know nor

understand who the person is’ (cf. Aul 765—6 neque ego aurum neque istaec aula quae siet | scio nec noui). mortalis: 519n. istum Pseudolum *as for that Pseudolus of yours' (16n.). 1213 nisi mirumst

'barring a miracle’

(OLD

mirus 2b). Simo realizes

the true situation. perdidisti: this word sounds Ballio's death knell as a character in Ps.: 1220n. 1214 ne istuc: 769n. magis magisque metuo: Ballio's arrogance is fast disappearing. uerba ‘what he's saying’. 1215 iandudum . . . cor perfrigefacit 'for some time now has been striking a chill in my heart' (261n. on iam). cor. as a seat of emotions (OLD 5); cf. Andr. Od. 18 Warmington Vlixi cor frixit prae pauore. perfrigefacit: hapax legomenon (cf. 21n. on contabefacit); the OLD incorrectly has short -e. Similar Plautine coinages include Mos. 143 permadefecit, St. 85 perpauefaciam

ille Syrus: 636n. (Syrus: pyrrhic).

1216 mira sunt ni 'it's a wonder if it's not' (OLD mirus ge), i.e. ‘I'm afraid it’s . . .’; the plur. 15 idiomatic in P. (Karakasis 2005: 140, Lófstedt 1956: 1.63). 1217 eho tu: 1185n. qua facie fuit "What'd the guy look like . . .?' (137n. on eo. . . ingenio). fuat: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 1218-20 Harpax provides one of the fullest descriptions of a comic slave in P. as Pseudolus - in a kind of recognition scene (cf. Castellani 1988: 65) - is identified by his costume. The particulars of this extended instance of antonomasia provide metonyms for Pseudolus' ethos (bloated, hyperbolic, otherly, etc.). Cf. As. 400-1 (a slave impersonated by another slave) macilentis malis, rufulus aliquantum, uentriosus, | truculentis oculis, commoda statura, tristi fronte, Mer. 639-40 (description of a senex) canum, uarum, uentriosum, bucculentum, breuiculum, | subnigris oculis, oblongis malis,

4390

COMMENTARY

1218-23

pansam aliquantulum. For grotesque representation of comic slaves in Greek art see Wrenhaven 2013. 1218 rufus 'tawny/red haired’. Cf. As. 400 (cited at 1218-20n.), Capt. 647 subrufus aliquantum (of the free Philocrates pretending to be a slave). Poll. Onom. 4.149 suggests that red hair is a mark of slaves in New Comedy (the hair colour 15 associated with Thracians: Marshall 2001: 16). Cf. 638n. uentriosus ‘pot-bellied’, as at As. 400, Rud. 417 (of a pimp), Mer. 639 (cited at 1218—20n.). For the likelihood that certain New Comedy types wore padded costumes see Marshall 2006: 64—6; swollen bellies are associated with ‘grotesque realism' (1246-1335bn.). crassis suris: perhaps suggesting calves that have supported shackles (1176n.). subniger 'slightly dark' (sub- compounded with adjectives can denote a reduced degree; contrast Poen. 1113 ore atque oculis pernigris, ‘with very dark complexion and eyes’). 1219 acutis oculis ‘bug-eyed’ (cf. As. 401 truculentis oculis), as depicted on a slave's mask from Lipari (Figure 25 in David 2014: 89).

1219-20 admodum | magnis pedibus ‘with very large feet’ (cf. Mer. 640

pansam aliquantulum; normal comic footwear was the soccus (Cist. 697)). admodum: OLD 2. Cf. 1220n., plautus (‘flat-footed’), Introduction p. 8. For Pseudolus’ infamous feet see 1246n. 1220 perdidisti, postquam dixisti ‘pedes’ 'You killed me when you said "feet" (postquam: 1053n.). Ballio regards Pseudolus' feet as his definitive feature

(1219-20n.); the stress on Pseudolus' feet (metapoetically?)

anticipates his dancing in the finale (1246-1335bn., Petrone 1995: 177). perdidisti: sc. me (3093n.); Ballio's first of four assertions that he's ‘dead’ (cf. 1221, 1228, 12937). Pseudolus has won their war over Phoenicium:

1064,

1244, 1310ann. 1221 Pseudolus: Riemer 1996: 75-8 traces the series of contested names (Syrus, Harpax, Polymachaeroplagides) critical to Ballio's deception, culminating here with that of the trick's architect. ipsus: 132n. actumst de me: 85n. iam morior 'I'm dying right now' (1220n.). Ballio's arrogant projection about the ‘death’ of bankrupt lovers comes full circle: 248n. 1222—3 For the death/debt joke see 92-3n. 1222 emoriri: P. has both third- and fourth-conjugation forms of morior and its compounds. 1223 uiginti minae - the 15 minae downpayment for Phoenicium + the 5 minae Harpax gave Ballio (1149n.). Cf. 52n. 1223 aliae uiginti minae: 1070-2n. (sc. redduntur).

COMMENTARY

1224-31

331

1224 auferen - auferesne, effectively, ‘do you intend to carry off?' ('steal': OLD 5): Risselada 1993: 195. praemium 'as booty' (OLD g), in apposition to id . . . quod promisi per tocum. quod promisi: 1070-2n. per iocum: 1058n. 1225 de improbis uiris: with flippant moralizing (decet) Simo hurls Ballio’s words about uiri ?mprobi (1128n.) back at him, as he now correctly

counts the /eno among the plundered (cf. 1124, 1138nn.). praemium et praedam 'booty and plunder' (synonyms: 1224n.; Sharrock 1996: 163 suggests a ‘veiled reference to the money and the girl’). 1226 saltem Pseudolum mihi dedas ‘at least hand over Pseudolus to me’ (jussive subjunctive). 1227 quid deliquit? 'What's he done wrong?’ dixin...tibi... centiens ‘Didn’t I tell you a hundred times . . .?' caueres: 898-9n. 1228 perdidit me: 1220n. at 'yes, and . ..’ (in riposte: OLD 7).

me uiginti . . . multauit minis ‘he’s cost me 20 minae' (mznis: abl. of penalty/price). modicis ‘a mere' (sarcastic). 1229 si . . . dederis . . . suspendito: 20n. on cape ... narrato. te suspendito ‘go hang yourself’, a common curse (e.g. Bac. gog, Poen. 309-11; OLD suspendo 3). 1230 di te perdant! 250-1n. sis: 48n. ad forum: to find a banker (757n.). forum, ut shares a (dd) resolution; scan B CD A bbc D A BCdd ABcD. ut soluam 'to settle up' (OLD soluo 18b; cf. 630n.). sequor 'Yes' (114n.). 1231 peregrinos absoluam, cras agam cum ciuibus: ‘I'll settle with foreigners; tomorrow I'll deal with citizens' (OLD absoluo 5; OLD ago 7). The angry, roundly defeated Ballio attempts to save face by appropriating a magistrate's persona (cf. 143, 379nn.), praetor peregrinus (created 244 BCE) and praetor urbanus, respectively, perhaps with a playful nod to Marcus Junius Brutus, the magistrate (praetor urbanus et inter peregrinos, 191 BCE) overseeing the festival and probably sitting near Ps.' stage (Brutus' negotiations with P. before the festival may also be glimpsed in the exchange between the cook and Ballio: 810—-50n.). Cf. 1232n. The rhyme of absoluam and agam and alliteration of c echo the parallelisms employed in official Roman pronouncements (cf. Bettini 2013). peregrinos: 51n. Ballio

332

COMMENTARY

1232-6

is Ps.' 'tomorrow man', both in his vain threats to his slaves (199, 214, 220, 778, 782) and now that his birthday party has been cancelled; given his stereotypical character (133-264n.), we may doubt his earnestness to settle with his fellow citizens (Simo), as cras may simply mean 'never' (Dunsch 2016: 130—-9). More significantly he is Ps.' loser ‘today’ (413n.). P., whatever stood in his Greek source, is uninterested in informing spectators precisely how Ballio will settle with Simo: 1328n. 1232 Pseudolus mihi centuriata habuit capitis comitia ‘Pseudolus has conducted capital proceedings against me.' In a striking instance of Romanization (cf. 1231n.), Ballio incongruously depicts Pseudolus as directing a deliberative body to banish the /eno from Ps. centuriata . . . comitia: this assembly decided capital trials in P.'s time (cf. Aul 700, Truc.

819; OCD s.v. comitia) . capitis ‘for my life' (gen. of charge/penalty: 746n.); OLD 5. 1233 qui illum ad me . . . adlegauit 'since he sent him as his proxy to me' (OLD allego' 1); causal relative clause with indicative (626—7n.). Cf. 505n.

me | hodie: D/ A hiatus.

mulierem qui abduceret: 1207n. 1294 ne expectetis dum . . . redeam 'don't wait for me to return .. .. (signalling his exit from Ps.). Ballio appeals for sympathy, which he most probably fails to win from spectators. ne expectetis: a formula of audience address ( Cas. 64, Cist. 782, Trin. 16, Truc. 482), often combined with

spectatores. Sharrock 2009: 280—1 argues that this and other signs suggest imminent closure (the dénouement now achieved), and P. is teasing spectators about Ps.' (deferred) ending. dum ... redeam expresses purpose (AG

8553, NLS 8224).

hac . . . uia: the street on which Ps. takes place, previously called an angiportum (961n.). 1235 ita res gestast ‘my business has been conducted 50 badly’ (OLD gero 9a). angiporta haec 'these back streets', perhaps vaguely pointing towards the forum wing (Ballio is a comic counterpart of Pindar's defeated athletes returning home

in shame

κατὰ λαύρας, P. 8.86). Comedy's

overall

tendency is to forge an illusion of harmonious society extending beyond a play (Frye 1957: 167—71, Charney 1987: 92-4), but characters as vicious as Ballio usually cannot be included (Labrax exceptionally is invited to a post-play party, Rud. 1417). Ballio 15 defeated/dismissed in a zero-sum game between adversaries. certum est: gon. consectarier 'seek out' (OLD 1, [1]n.).

1236 si graderere . . . esses: 640n. (graderere = gradereris).

COMMENTARY

1237-40o

333

loquere - /oqueris. 1297 certumst mi: gon.; the anaphora of Ballio's phrase (1235) reflects his futile effort to garner sympathy (1234n.). hunc emortualem facere ex natali die 'to make this my deathday instead of birthday', the capstone to Ballio's ‘death sequence' (1220n.). The /eno realizes his birthday plans have perished; Ps. ends for Ballio and we hear nothing more of him, including the much ballyhooed (133-264, 165nn.) celebrations. Cf. Epid. 606 exitabilem ego illis faciam hunc ut fiat diem. emortualem: hapax legomenon, invented for the joke with natalis dies (Lorenz 1876: 226 gives examples of similar coinages). 1238-45 (Scene 19: tr*) Simo's exit monologue following Ballio's departure (for the unnecessary scene division see 1103-1237n.). Simo, who suffers less damage than Ballio in the encounter with Harpax, is left alone onstage to ponder his meeting with Pseudolus. Reflecting one of Ps.' central themes, he promises a novel ending (1239-40n.) and by ring composition reasserts that Pseudolus is a comic Odysseus (1063, 1064nn.); cf. 1244n. 1238 bene...illum tetigi, bene autem... 'T've stung him nicely, as also .. .. (the anaphora links Simo and Pseudolus in common cause against Ballio (2/lum), and hints that Simo will be magnanimous towards his slave: 1239—4o0n. tetigi: OLD * (a gladiatorial combat image: Barsby 1999: 163). Cf. 120n. inimicum: 584n., 1235n. on angiporta haec, 12'70an. 1239 certum est: gon. The humbled Simo resolves to regain some control of the play (1239-40n.), as far as final resolution with Pseudolus 15 concerned. 1239—40 alio pacto . . . | quam in aliis comoediis fit ‘differently from the way it's done in other comedies' (he'll repay/reward rather than punish his slave). Simo is no unremittingly harsh senex, but ‘an unusually ludic father' (Leigh 2004: 52): 546, 1064, 1306nn., Introduction p. 28. Simo

highlights a general comic tendency (1081n.) in staking a claim for Ps.’ novelty (562—73an;

Christenson

2020), which further aligns him with

Pseudolus (1238n.). For similar metacomic formulas claiming novelty cf.

Am. 987 quam seruolo in comoediis, As. 256 caue tu idem faxis alii quod serui solent, Capt. 55 non pertractate facta est neque item ut ceterae (sc. fabulae) , Mer. 3 non ego item facio ut alios in comoediis. Cf. Cas. 860—1. 1239 insidias dare: Ps.' last figurative ambush (cf. 593, 959, 1046; for Plautine ambushes in their Hannibalic context see Leigh 2004: 24—56). 1240—1 cum stimulis aut flagris | insidiantur: masters threaten conniving slaves with corporal punishment (e.g. Epid. 666—733, Most. 10641181), but this is carried out (during a play) only in the exceptional case

COMMENTARY

334

1240-4

of Tyndarus in Capt. (459-61n.). aut ‘and/or’ (aut need not be exclusive or corrective: Weston 1999: 49). insidiantur = 1239 insidias dare (uariatio). 1240 stimulis: sharpened sticks or iron-spiked poles, used as prods and instruments of torture on animals and slaves: Ramsay 1869: 255, DS s.v. STIMVLVS. flagris: 137n. 1241 insidiantur ‘they [masters] lie in wait’ (1239n.). intus: 604n. uiginti minas: the amount wagered by Simo: 554-6, 1069nn. 1242 quas promisi 51 effecisset 'that I promised if he succeeded’ (535n.). promisi sc. me daturum esse. The pluperfect subjunctive (in indirect discourse after promis?)) represents a future perfect (777n.); cf. Pseudolus' direct statement 535-—6 si effecero | dabin . . . obuiam ei . . . deferam ‘I'll deliver it to him directly’. ultro: 1120n. 1243 nimis illic mortalis doctus, nimis uorsutus, nimis malus ‘This person's far too clever, far too shifty, far too bad.' Simo summarizes the essential talents of his clever slave with admiration, not unlike that expressed

by Pseudolus for Simia (1017n.). nimis: 299n. (for the triple anaphora see 695n.). mortalis . . . uorsutus: cf. Hom. Od. 1.1 &v6pa . . . πολύτροπον, which Livius Andronicus renders uirum . . . uersutum (metapoetically reflective of the early Roman translation project: Introduction pp. 4-5, Hinds 1998: 61-2). uorsutus captures Pseudolus' various dramaturgical skills; cf. 1017n. doctus: 385, 678—9, 724-5nn. malus: 385, 581—2nn. 1244 superauit dolum Troianum: Pseudolus' scheme tops Ulysses' successful deployment of the Trojan horse. The hyperbole reflects Simo's sincere admiration for his slave's deeds (1243n.) and caps Ps.' running metaphor of comic deceit as siege warfare: 384, 525, 574-603b, 766nn. If Bac., a play in which Chrysalus and Ulysses are intricately linked, predates Ps. (65n.), Simo's assertion may intertextually suggest that P. has created a more formidable comic hero in Pseudolus (Slater 1985: 142; Chrysalus explicitly alludes to a previous performance of Epid., Bac. 214— 15). Sharrock 1996: 170-1 comments: 'What was needed at Troy was to get a woman from the clutches of the enemy. Pseudolus achieves in one day what took Ulysses ten years. The comparison is not just there for the sake of military imagery . . . but also, with the further erotic link, to define the play as a comedy by opposition to epic, but as comedy in epic mode, and comically to bring the epic down - or is it up? - to the level of the play.' Cf. 1310an, Introduction pp. 43-7. superauit: Zagagi 1980: 63—4 argues that the hyperbole is suggested by the (probably proverbial) expression

Ὀδυσσέως

συνετώτερος

dolum: 485, [1205-6]nn.

('more

intelligent

than

Odysseus).

COMMENTARY

1245-6

335

Troianum | atque: A/ B hiatus.

Vlixem Pseudolus: the juxtaposition underscores the heroes' equivalence: 1063n. 1245 argentum promam: 354—5n. Pseudolo insidias dabo: Simo finally (and paratactically) reveals his plan of attack (1239-40, 1240-1nn.): he will oxymoronically 'ambush' Pseudolus with the cash owed him (1241n.). The idea is highlighted by ring composition (1239 Pseudolo insidias dare, also at line-end). 1246-1335b (Scenes 20-1: canticum) Ps. ends with an elaborate song (‘arguably the most complex musical tour de force in Roman comedy’, Moore 2012: 340), divided into two parts: Pseudolus’ drunken monody (1246-84) and a lively duet between slave and master (1285-1335b). P.'s plays usually end in tr* (Introduction p. 52); the richly musical komos-cum-reconciliation 15 remarkable in various respects. The ending of Per. (753-858) features a banquet onstage (in polymetrics) and that of St. (683—775) includes dancing, but no other Plautine finale rivals Pseudolus' virtuoso performance, in which he brings the party outside to spectators by marshalling his skills as an actor, dancer, storyteller, and mime artist (for elements of Roman mime see Petrone 1995). In Scene 20 - critics (e.g. Lefévre 1997: 36—7, 86-92, Lowe 1999: 12) are generally agreed that this section of the canticum, because of its content, origi-

nates with P. - Pseudolus becomes the virtual embodiment of festivity. The potbellied and red-haired slave (1218n.) stumbles onto the stage, thoroughly drunk and imploring his oversized feet to support him through his number (1246n.). This they do magnificently as Pseudolus both relates (the song is a loosely structured messenger's speech) and re-enacts (in dance/mime) the events at the party offstage (1254n.), whose guests include Calidorus and his now free amica (1311n.). The general picture

is that of a Greco-Roman symposium (see Wilkins and Hill 2006: 16684), with communal drinking, feasting, and relaxation, a male-centred event that only non-elite women, usually sex workers, attend. Pseudolus' performance celebrates excess, liberation, and concord: he describes an

idealized banqueting scene (1255-8), with refreshments, flowers, and fragrances in abundance (1253-4, 1265—7), sexual pleasures and play (1259-62, 1271-22), and marked by absence of social conflict (1263—4) and by relaxation of hierarchy. Pseudolus is a guest (1254), but becomes the main entertainment: his fellow symposiasts take special delight (1280) in the intoxicated and misshapen slave's lewd and poorly executed dancing (1274-82), which concludes with his collapse and soiling himself (1279). This in turn wins him a fresh drink and clean clothing (1280a-1); for broad elements of carnival and 'grotesque realism' here see Bakhtin 1984: 1—58, 303—-67 (for their application to Am. see Christenson 2001).

336

COMMENTARY

A still unabashedly drunk Pseudolus

(1287)

1245-6 confronts his master, belch-

ing in Simo's face (1294—1300). Pseudolus gets the best of their encounter, vaunting his success and taking advantage of his position of financial superiority to humiliate his master (1912—19). Simo 15 refreshingly acquiescent in defeat, especially after Pseudolus agrees to share the 20 minae (1328n.), and even agrees to accompany his slave to further celebrations after the play (1330-1). References to torture and future revenge (1320203, 1924, 1925nn.) confirm that Pseudolus' domination of his master 15 only temporary. At the same time, while we are reminded that Simo owns his slave's body, Pseudolus' jubilant success suggests his will and creativity can never be controlled absolutely, as his succinctly defiant words to Simo’s final threat indicate: habeo tergum (1325n., Introduction pp. 43-7). A playful exchange about inviting spectators to the party leads to a final call for applause: 1331-2, 1333-5bnn. The long and rich canticum supplies an appropriately festive ending to a most festive play, both befitting this special occasion at the Lud? Megalenses. METRICAL STRUCTURE OF 1246-1335b (for specific units see Introduction pp. 57—62, Questa 1995: 350—9, Moore 2012: 340—51) 1246—7 1248-9 1250 1251-2

bat 2 cretics + ith ith bat

1254 1255 1256—7

versreiz 2 colrei ia*

1258 1259—-60 1261-2 1263 1264 1265-6 1267 1268 1268a 1269 1270 1270a 1271-2a

2 iambs + 2 iambs trt ant bat 2 bacol ba* 2 bacol 2 crcol cretic + ith crcol " ith bat

1258

1257a

an*

ia*

COMMENTARY

1273 1274 1274a—5a 1276

1277 1277a

1278 1278a

1279

1280-80a 1281-2 1283—4 1285 1286 1287-8 1289-00

1201 1291a 1292-3 1204 1295 1296

1297

1298-9

1300 1301 1302 130374 1305

1906-7 1908-8a

1309 1310-10a 1311 1312 1319 1314 1915-16

1917-20 1920a 1921 1922—9

g bacchiacs ion4' ionsy (10 metra) bacol + 2 bacchiacs crt

g cretics crt

an?" tr^

2 crcol bat tr*

2 cretics + crcol

2 cretics * thymelicus 2 cretics + crcol crt

la* 2 cretics + crcol crcol 2 cretics + crcol ant crsy (5 metra) colrei crt

2 cretics + crcol

2 cretics + thymelicus 2 crcol crt la* crt crcol 2 cretics + crcol crcol 2 cretics + crcol

2 cretics + thymelicus

tr^

g cretics * 2 trochees ant an2 A

la* an4 an4

A

1245-6

337

338

COMMENTARY 1246-8 ^

1924—7

ant

1929-30

basy (8 metra)

1991—3

cr*

1994

ia*

1328

1335-5a 1995b

ant

.

crsy (7 metra) 2 trochees

1246-52 Pseudolus describes and acts out the effects of excessive drinking (cf. Mos. 319—47): '[t]he ponderous bacchiac quaternarii with which the song begins reflect not solemnity, but Pseudolus' struggle to stay on his feet' (Moore 2012: 341). Less steady cretics and ithyphallics follow (1248-50); Pseudolus' feet stabilize sufficiently for him to deliver ἃ sententia about wine's power and an account of his current state (in bacchiac tetrameters, 1251—-2). Stewart 2012: 188-9 thinks Pseudolus' drunken display supplies slaveholders with a palliative by contraposing the slave's lack of self-control with his master's sobriety; this overreaches in that Simo will join his son's party (1328n.), and disregards the provocative ambiguities and programmatic elements of Ps.' ending (1246—-1335b, 1260, 1269, 1274-80nn., Introduction pp.

43-).

1246

sicine hoc fit, pedes?

'So this's how

it's gonna

be, feet?'

(the

actor enters stumbling). Pseudolus' address is especially humorous in performance if he's equipped with oversized and splayed 'clowns' feet’ (1219-20n.). As he embarks on an unusually complex song, Pseudolus perhaps metapoetically puns on pedes as metrical feet: 1220, 1246—1335b, 1246-52nn., Introduction p. 43. statin = statisne, probably with future force (874-5n.). 1247 id anticipates the uf (substantive) clause. uoltis: Pseudolus again addresses his feet (1246n.) — here granting them volition. ut me hinc iacentem aliquis tollat 'that someone (have to) pick me up from here when I'm collapsed'. hinc indicates that the actor mimics a (near) fall. Cf. Most. 330

(a drunken scene)

iacentis tollet postea nos ambos

aliquis. 1248 nam hercle ‘yes, by god . ..” (OLD nam 1); Pseudolus’ cretic stumbling commences (1246-52n.). cecidero: the first of three instances of cado in the canticum (probably accompanied by a mimed fall: 1278, 1296nn.). uostrum . . . flagitium ‘your disgrace’ (Pseudolus continues to address his feet as a personified/separate entity: 1247n.).

COMMENTARY

1249-53

339

1249 pergitin pergere? 'Proceedin' to proceed, are you?' (fergitin = pergitisne). The repeated verb represents drunken blather (at Poen. 493 pergin pergere?, the speaker by contrast criticizes tedious speech). seruiendum mi . . . est 'I'm forced to be your slave' (1247, 1248nn.), Hermann's correction of seuiendum

(P), which might = saeuiendum (‘I'll

have to get rough with you’), read by Lindsay and Willcock. 1251 pedes captat primum: wine (personified) grasps at one's legs, a common move in ancient wrestling to bring an opponent to the ground (Poliakoff 1987: 23-53). luctator dolosust ‘it’s a sly wrestler' (as it can lay out a person prone), an identification joke (29—-4n.; cf. Trin. 1016 gurgulio est exercitor. is hunc hominem cursuram docet). 1252 profecto edepol ego nunc probe: distended and drunken preparation for a simple declaration at line's end. edepol with long ultima (Ξ edepoll; Questa 2007: 20 n. 6). frobe. [218]n. habeo madulsam 'I've got a buzz'. madulsam: hapax legomenon (ct. μαδάω, ‘be moist'). 1253-67 Switching to anapaests (1253), Pseudolus begins reporting on the party, but before providing any particulars he generalizes about banquets, first in iambics (1256-8) and then elaborating in longer trochaic and anapaestic measures (1259-62); 'in his excitement, as he moves from kissing to more erotic imagery, he begins to sing in almost all anapests' (Moore 2012: 342). Pseudolus grandly describes the ambience and accoutrements of such festivity in 'serious' bacchiacs (1263—7; for bacchiacs as a metre of dignitas see Tobias 1979). There is an unusually high proportion of Greek words in this section (1261, 1262, 1264, 1265,

1266nn.); a symposiastic scene of Sappho is parodically evoked (1258n.). 1253—4 Pseudolus delivers his message's essence (to be elaborated): the guests enjoyed a sumptuous banquet. For the tradition of messenger speeches in P.'s canticasee Fraenkel 1912: 5-53, 2007: 236-8, Christenson 2000: 174, $04~5. ita . . . ita . .. | itaque: the anaphora (each a resolved pyrrhic in an anapaestic sequence) both explains why Pseudolus has a madulsa (1252) and looks forward to the banquet's particular delights (enumerated in 1255-66). 1253 uictu excurato 'with a well-prepared feast' (promised to Simia at 9047). excurois only here and at Cas. 726 before the fifth century CE (TLL v.2.1291.51-8). magnis munditiis dis dignis ‘with the utmost elegance, worthy of gods’; the combination of nasals and d- expresses Pseudolus' awe at the banquet's pleasures. munditiis ‘cleanliness’ (LS 1.B), to create elegant

940

COMMENTARY

1254-8

ambience, as essential to a symposium as couches (Men. 355, St. 678): 173n. : Studemund's addition yields an anapaestic tetrameter catalectic. dis dignis: Pseudolus' first reminiscence of Sappho 31 L-P: 1258n. Cf. Poen. 1177 digna diua uenustissuma Venere, 45%7b deam [ Venerem| esse indignam credidi. 1254 in loco: the location of the offstage banquet is left unsaid; we perhaps are to imagine Pseudolus celebrating with Calidorus, Phoenicium, and Simia (and scorta: 1272n.) at Charinus' house. loco: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). festiuo . . . festiue 'excellent ... excellently’ (OLD festiuus 2; on the figura etymologica see 13n.), here suggesting the comic festival: cf. dies festus at Cas. 759—60 nec pol ego Nemeae credo neque ego Olympiae | neque usquam ludos tam festiuos fieri, Introduction pp. 43—4. festiue. only here in P. (though not a rare word: TLL v1.1.625.38-59). sumus .. . accepti: 167n. The first person plural intimates the absence of normal class distinctions at the conuiuium (cf. 1268a). 1255 multas agere ambages ‘to beat around the bush’ (OLD ambages 2).

1255-7 hoc | . . . | hic . . . hoc: festivity; the anaphora expresses Pseudolus' eagerness to elevate its enjoyment to a universal principle (1246-1335b, 1258nn.). 1255-6 hoc | est homini quam ob rem 'this is why a person . . .’ 1256 homini: lit. 'for a person' (‘from a human perspective’): dat. of judging (310n.). amet 'enjoys' (OLD 9). 1256-81 The page of the Ambrosian palimpsest containing these lines is lost and we rely solely on P here. 1257 uoluptates recalls Phoenicium's letter (69n.); cf. 704-5n.; with short antepenult (iambic shortening). Cf. the plural in the description of a conuiuium at St.

657—9 quot ego uoluptates fero, | quot risiones, quot iocos, quot

sauia, | saltationes, blanditias, prothymias! 1257a uenustates ‘delights’, esp. erotic ones (cf. Venus). Cf. Poen. 1178 (description of the Aphrodisia) tanta ibi copia uenustatum aderat. 1258 This line recasts Sappho 31 L-P (φαίνεταί po1. . .; translated by Catullus); for the lengthy tradition of modifying lyric poems at ancient symposia 566 Cameron 1995: 84—5; for P.'s familiarity with this poem 38n. Through imitation/difference, Pseudolus transforms a Sapphic symposiastic scene in which a lover can in close proximity only observe, and listen to, his beloved into a fleshy sex romp. In the popular carnivalesque tradition (1246—-1335bn.) the emotional tensions and physiological symptoms of love (Sappho 31.5-16, Catul. 51.5-12) are supplanted by the enjoyment of physical pleasure (1259-61). Pseudolus 'depersonalizes'

COMMENTARY

1259-60

341

Sappho's opening frame ('To me he seems .. .' > ‘I think it's closest . . .") to diminish its emotional subjectivity and instead portray love as a psychologically unencumbered commingling of bodies (1259-62). Cf. 1260, 12693nn. deis proxumum | esse 'that this is nearest to the gods' (sc. hoc 12557n.), elaborated by the festivity described in 1259-67. Pseudolus thus avoids any impiety (cf. Catul. 51.2 s? fas est, Andr. Od. 13 Warmington uir summus adprimus Patroclus, translating Homer's ‘godlike in counsel’) that might be felt in a literal Latin translation of Sappho's "That man to me seems equal to the gods' (1-2 κῆνος ἴσος θέοισιν | ἔμμεν᾽ ὥνερ). Apart from mention of the gods as a point of comparison (human sex is godlike), Pseudolus' symposium is secular, with no libations offered to the gods or other ritual. deis: monosyllabic (synizesis). proximum | esse hiatus between cola. arbitror 'it's my opinion .. .' (OLD 4a); Sappho's impassioned speaker 15 replaced by the drunk and sated (1271-22)

Pseudolus.

1259 nam ‘yes’ (affirming the blunt assertion of 1258): 1248n.

1259-61 ubi...ubi...|ubi...|ubi: the anaphora (echoed by 1263

[ibi] . . . ibi) entices spectators to imagine the festive scene's details. 1259 amans complexust amantem: the verb of embracing couples the two lovers, designated by repetition of the (substantive) participle; for 'amorous polyptoton' 566 Wills 1996: 202—4. This is the first of a series of linguistic pairs describing entwined bodies/body parts: cf. labra labella,

1260 alter alterum, 1261 mamma mammicula . . . corbora conduplicant, 1262

amicissuma amico.

amantem | ubi: hiatus at the middle of the tr!.

ubi | ad labra labella adiungit *when a lover brings (little) lips to lips’. Cf. As. 668 compara labella cum labellis. 1260 ubi alter alterum . . . prehendunt ‘when each lover grasps the other' (constructio ad sensum: 5'74n.). Over-concern for sexual impropriety apparently led to the reading altera in B (printed by Lindsay); Latin idiom prefers the masculines (LHS 11.178). alter: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). bilingui: Lorenz 1876: 228 takes this as an adj. and understands osculo (better sauio: 948n.), accepted by TLL 11.1986.46; the OLD suggests the adj. is nom. plur. (bilinguis occurs elsewhere only at Per. 299, Trin. 781, in the figurative sense ‘deceitful’). In either case the general sense is clear: for ‘French’ kissing cf. As. 695 fac prosperpentem bestiam me, duplicem ut habeam linguam, Poen. 1235, Var. Men. 309 meas lubidines ad tibias bilinguos (with Corbeill 2015: 101-3). The tongue of Sappho's tormented speaker by contrast is rendered inactive (Sappho 31.9 L-P - Catul. 51.9 lingua sed torpet). Christopher Trinacty suggests (per litteras) that bilingui may signal

342

COMMENTARY

1261-3

that P. is engaged in intertextuality/translation (in Ennius the adj. is used in the sense 'bilingual' at Ann. 477 Skutsch; cf. OLD 2, Skutsch 1985: 637). At Poen. 1034—5 migdilix, | bisulci lingua refers both to Hanno's bilingualism and alleged (Carthaginian)

treachery.

manifesto 'openly' (adv. emphasizing that the lovers feel no shame: 1263-4n.); alternatively, an adj. in asyndeton with bilingui (in either case the clandestine situation of Sappho 31 L-P is drastically altered). inter se

‘mutually’

(OLD

inter 14);

emphasizes the lovers' shared passion. 1261

ubi mamma

mammicula

the

pleonasm

opprimitur

‘when

with

alter alterum

(tender)

breast

15

pressed against breast'. mammicula: the diminutive is hapax legomenon (for the gender and Greek base see 180n.). opprimitur. with long ultima (5reuis in longo at the tetrameter's main break). 51 lubet ‘if they like' (sc. eis). lubet: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). corpora conduplicant 'they double their bodies together' (less risqué than Iago’s *making the beast with two backs', Othello 1.1.121). Cf. 1259n. 1262 manu candida ‘with white hand' or *white in her hand’; the ultima of the abl. can scan short (iambic shortening). candidus often describes

idealized female beauty (e.g. Catul. 86.1), though only here in P. cantharum: 957, 1051nn. (the ultima undergoes iambic shortening). dulciferum 'containing sweetness', elsewhere only at Enn. Ann. 448 Skutsch (the combination of adj. + -feris rare: Skutsch 1985: 605-6). propinat = προπίνω, one of the recurring Greek words in P.’s symposiastic scenes that colour the event as 'otherly'/non-Roman in its morality: Zagagi 2012: 28. For an example of such a toast between lovers at a ban-

quet where a meretrix is freed see Per. 772—6a (cf. St. 708—75). propinat. the

antepenult of Leo's suggestion for the MSS' propinare must irregularly be short here (Questa daggers this and the rest of the line). amicissuma amico 'most beloved to her beloved' (figura etymologica:

882n.), Leo's reading for the MSS' micissimam amicitiam.

1263-6 The accs. * infs. loosely depend on 1258 arbitror, though the structure 15 complicated by 1259 nam and the lengthy ubi clauses intervening (1259—62), a slight anacoluthon. The general sequence of thought 15 clear: ‘it’s godlike (1258) when lovers enjoy each other (125962), no one spoils their pleasure (1263-4), and various delights abound (1265-6)'. 1263—4 In addition to its sexual liberties, the banquet is marked by the absence of tediously censorious figures (cf. the curiosi and the envious person in the erotic contexts at Catul. 6.12 and 7.11, respectively). 1263 neque [ibi] esse alium alii odio | ibi nec molestum 'And no one is spiteful or annoying to anyone else there' ([ib;]: dittography; odio | ibi:

COMMENTARY

1264-8

343

hiatus at mid-line); the highly resolved line (deemed corrupt by Questa) suggests a general freedom of speech. ali? odio: double dat. (418n.). nec molestum: cf. the self-censoring coda at Catul. 51.13 otium, Catulle, tibi molestum est. For Calidorus, Pseudolus describes the ideal world of an elite

Roman adulescens liberated from negotium and other ‘adult’ responsibilities, dedicated solely to amor (cf. Rosivach 1986). 1264 sermonibus morologis uti 'engages in inane conversations'. morologis = ucpoAóyos, 'foolishly speaking' (= Lat. stuitiloquus, Per. 513). Elsewhere in Latin only at Per. 49 Amoris uitio, non meo, nunc tibi morologus fto. 1265-6 ‘Perfumed oils and aromatics, ribbons and garlands are provided abundantly, and certainly not dispersed ungenerously.' 1265 unguenta: 947n.

odores: OLD g (cf. Poen. 1179-9a omnis odor | complebat).

lemniscos,

corolla (cf.

1266

corollas:

markedly

Greek-sounding

1299) is a diminutive of corona (1287).

dapsilis:

acc. plur.

(396n.);

(λημνίσκος,

κορώνη).

the relatively rare word

(TLL

V.1.38.55—73) triumphantly recalls Pseudolus' ‘poet’s monologue'. non enim parce promi: amplifying daps:lis by antithesis. parce ‘sparingly’ (cf. the traditional Roman virtue of parsimonia), spondaic (the following mute of promi closes the ultima here: Introduction p. 54). 1267 uictum ceterum ne quis me roget 'so no one needs to ask me about the rest of the spread'. In the wake of the extended narrative (1259-67), we are abruptly reminded of Pseudolus' presence there (‘autopsy’) and his current role as narrator. uictum: 1259n. 1268—78a Beginning with cretics (1268—9) and eventually returning to bacchiacs (1271-3), Pseudolus provides details of the party offstage, leading up to — marked by an emphatic sequence of longa (1272a-3 -quentes. sed postquam | exurrexi, orant med ut saltem) — the revelation that he danced there. With a switch to ionics, Pseudolus demonstrates his lewd dancing for spectators (1274, 1275, 1275ann.). He performs an encore in bacchiacs and then (mostly) cretics, culminating in his fall (1276-8a). The performance's end is punctuated by a catalectic anapaestic dimeter: see further Moore 2012: 342—4. The scene again (1253—-67n.) has a strongly Greek ambience (1268a, 1274a—5, 1275nn.).

1268 ego: iambic.

modo | atque: hiatus between cretic cola. erus minor: 4n. Pseudolus reminds us that he still must settle with erus maior. Neither here nor in Pseudolus' meeting with Simo in Scene 21 is any moralizing distancing provided vis-a-vis the ‘decadent’ (from conservative Roman perspective) celebrations enjoyed by slave and master together, apart from Simo's half-hearted disapproval of Pseudolus'

344

COMMENTARY

12682-74

drunkenness. Cf. the lead slave’s metatheatrical address to spectators at St. 446-8 atque id ne uos miremini, homines seruolos | potare, amare atque ad cenam lectere: | licet haec Athenis nobis. 1268a hunc diem sumpsimus ‘spent today' (OLD sumo 9). sumpsimus: for the plural see 1254n. prothyme 'gladly' (προθύμως), hapax legomenon; cf. prothymias at St. 659 (quoted at 1257n.).

1269 opus meum: 91on. Pseudolus perhaps also means the play (‘my masterpiece’); the plur. opera is the equivalent of fabulae at Cas. 7 (the prologue's slightly post-Plautine section), and refers to a jeweller's craftwork at Men. 42*; (cf. OLD opus 9). Cf. Mos. 828 non enim haec pultiphagus opifex opera fecit barbarus (description of home renovations in metapoetic language: Introduction p. 3). 1270a hostibus fugatis: a celebratory abl. abs. (1029n.) marking Pseudolus' triumph in militaristic/bureaucratic language. 1271 illos: presumably Simia, Calidorus, and Charinus (1254n.). accubantis: 891-2n. 1272 scortis: 1125n. For modern readers, the presence of sex workers (quite likely slaves) tempers Pseudolus' enthusiastic narrative (1246-1335b, 1258nn.). scortis Romanizes the banquet in that it evokes a different type of prostitution from that of a Greek New Comedy hetaira (41-'77n.); here it includes Phoenicium, whom Pseudolus (in deference to Calidorus' romanticism)

refers to as an amica in his master's

presence (35n.). reliqui: Pseudolus does not explain his cause for departing, but it leads guests to ask him to dance (12722-3).

meum scortum: presumably hired at Calidorus' or Charinus' expense, as also the mulier lepida promised to Simia (948). 1272a suo cordi atque animo opsequentes 'indulging their feelings and desires’ (OLD animus 8c; cor 5). 1273 orant med ut saltem 'they beg me to dance'. med: the older acc. (LL 258, MHL 101), archaic (to P.) and to avoid hiatus. orant: Pseudolus mixes the vivid ('historical': AG 8469, GL 8229) present with (mostly)

perfects in his dance-narrative: cf. 1276 plaudunt . . . clamitant, 12778 cado, 1280a datur, 1281

commuto.

1274-80 Sharrock 1996: 172-4 analyses Pseudolus' performance as programmatic of Roman comedy: he dances in a pallium (1275n.; cf. palliata) , describes himself as ludibundus (1275a; cf. 1278a ludo), and crowns

this meta-performance with his audience's applause and an encore (1276); his ‘messing up' (1279) ironically highlights P.'s (mis-)appropriation of his Greek sources: Introduction p. 44.

COMMENTARY

1274 ad hunc . . . modum

1274-5a

345

‘like this' (the demonstrative shows that

Pseudolus re-enacts his dance moves). me...intuli illis 'I sashayed in for them'

(911n.).

satis facete ‘quite expertly' (1056n.). facete: a favourite adv. of P.'s tricksters, e.g. Mil. 1161 militem lepide et facete laute ludificarier (cf. 539, 907), Cas. 685 ludo ego hunc facete. 1274a nimis ex discipulina 'very much according to protocol' (as with 1274 facete, Pseudolus ironically aggrandizes his dance skills). 1274a-5 quippe ego qui | probe Ionica perdidici 'inasmuch as I've acquired exquisite expertise in Ionic dance’; facetious, as his dance shows little evidence of formal training, but part of the Greek colouring here: 1275n. quippe ego qui: OLD quippe 2 (P. usually has the indicative). probe. 969-70n. Ionica: neut. plur. (substantive), a lascivious dance-style associated with Greek Ionia and stereotyped as a mark of decadence by Roman moralists (Otto 1890: 177); cf. St. 769 qui Ionicus aut cinaedicust, qui hoc tale facere possiet?, Hor. Carm. 3.6.21—92 (for evidence of enthusiasm for dancing among aristocrats see Horsfall 2003: 34—-6). Pseudolus probably gesticulates lewdly here to suggest the dance of a cinaedus (the transgressive cultural anti-type of a young elite male: Habinek 2005: 177—93). Fraenkel 2007: 249—50 speculates on P.’s exposure to Hellenistic forms of dance and their possible influence on cantica. Pseudolus may again programmatically nod to Roman comedy: 1274-80n. 1275 sed 'but actually’ (resuming his account after the digression about his Ionic training); sed (the reading of BCD) is suspected by some editors (e.g. Ernout; Ritschl reads postid to mark a clearer transition). palliolatim ‘with a pallium’ (only here in P.). The pallium was a characteristically Greek garment, visually similar to the /oga but often freighted with negative moralizing (e.g. base character, erudition, effeminacy), though not a Greek word (cf. in&riov). Cf. the tirade against isti Graeci palliati at Cur. 288—94, Bac. 71 (an adulescens fears being coaxed into a brothel) pro lorica malacum capiam pallium: 610, 1274-80nn., Dench 2005: 274-—9, Olson 2015. The first extant assertion that early Roman comedy was named after the garment 15 Var. gram. 306 Graecas fabulas ab habitu aeque palliatas Varro ait nominari. Pseudolus describes himself as 'Greeking it up' (cf. pergraecor. 773n.) at the banquet. amictus 'dressed'

(« amicio).

1275a The heavy rhythm lends 'asense of deliberateness to [Pseudolus'] demonstration' (Moore 2012: 343). sic haec incessi ‘I swaggered just so' (1274n.). haec = Ionica (internal acc.: 226n.), with the deictic indicating sexually suggestive gestures (12742a—5n.). ?ncedo denotes a style of walking (OLD 2; cf. OLD incessus

446

COMMENTARY 1276-8a

1b), here defined by /udibundus, perhaps similar to that of Curculio's 'cloaked Greeks'

(1275n.; cf. his repetition of incedunt describing their

movements at Cur. 288, 291, 294). ludibundus 'merrily' (only here in P., perhaps coined for the context: Introduction p. 44; cf. Inc. pall. 34 Ribbeck tum ad te ludibunda docte et delicate detulit) , i.e. full of playfulness (« /udo, adjs. formed with the gerundive ending -bundus have active force, similarly to the present participle: Risch 1984: 81-92); nom. adj. where English prefers an adv. (KS 11.1.296-7, GL 8325 R.6). The word suggests vigorous movement (perhaps programmatically; cf. Slater 1985: 146: 'Roman comedy, especially the slave parts Plautus wrote so well, was an acrobatic form of theatre").

1276 plaudunt: the report of applause at Pseudolus' show foreshadows Ps.' closure: 1935-5an. ‘parum’ clamitant mi ‘they shout *encore" at me' (cf. the spontaneous congratulations at Tnn. 705—6 non enim possum quin exclamem: eugae, eugae, Lysisteles, wéw! | facile palmam habes: hic uictus, uicit tua comoedia) . barum ‘too little’ (implying ‘more!’), in encores (OLD 1b.). 1277-8a The paratactic, staccato-like clauses vividly capture the various stages of Pseudolus’ final dance. 1277 occepi denuo ‘I started all over again'. denuo | hoc: hiatus at the cretic tetrameter's mid-point (cf. Questa 2007: 421). hoc modo signals another re-enactment (1274-80, 1275ann.). nolui 'I was reluctant' (Pseudolus realized he was too drunk and dizzy to dance).

1277a idem 'at the same time' (OLD 8); pyrrhic (iambic shortening). amicae dabam me meae 'I kept presenting myself to my girlfriend', perhaps sidling up to her to show off his dance moves, with erotic overtones (cf. Ter. Eu. 515-16 ipsa accumbere | mecum, mihi sese dare, sermonem quaerere) . amicae ... meae. cf. 35, 1272nn. dabam me. OLD do 21, Karakasis 2005: 193; dabam: the 5016 imperfect in the dance-narrative (1268-82; cf. 127gn.), perhaps suggesting that Pseudolus' amorous intentions failed (conative: AG 8471c). 1278 ubi circumuortor, cado: Pseudolus' drunken attempt at a pirouette plants him on the ground, ending his dance for good: 1296n. ubi circumuortor: historical present (127gn.). 1278a id fuit naenia ludo ‘that was my performance's death-knell'. Given

the close connection

between

Pseudolus and his creator P., and

this passage's programmatic character (1274-80n.), this line may reverberate beyond the immediate context, with reference to a ‘last dance' in P.’s career: Slater 1985: 145-6. füit: for the longum see Questa 2007: 183. naenia:

a Roman

funeral dirge

(for its ritual context see North

2015),

used figuratively in P. for finis (Poen. 231a, Truc. 219). It also signifies 'end

COMMENTARY

1279-83

347

of the intestine' (Paul. Fest. p. 163 Müller), i.e. 'anus' (cf. Bac. 888—9 te faciam . . . | confossiorem soricina nenia, ‘I'll make you more full of holes than a shrew-mouse's arsehole’). Pseudolus may be prepping us for his imminent evacuation: 1279, 1281nn. 1279-82 Pseudolus describes his return to verticality - marred by an ‘accident’

(1279,

1281nn.)

- in a tr^ (*Roman comedy's silliest trochaic

septenarius false start’, Moore 2012: 344), followed by cretics relating the grant of a consolatory drink (1280-0a). Returning to the bacchiac tetrameters with which the song began (1246-52n.), Pseudolus concludes with his change of clothes and an explanation why he has reappeared onstage (1281-2). 1279 dum enitor: historical present (1273n., AG 8556, GL 8229 R). prox: onomatopoeic for farting (hapax legomenon). paene 'sort of' (TLL xX.1.41.49-52: 'usurpatur oratio irrealis de re facta, ut mitigetur dictio spurcior'). Pseudolus defecates on his pallium at this point: 1281n., Kruschwitz 2012: 36—7. Celebration of the body's lower strata characterizes grotesque realism: 1246-1335bn. pallium: 1274-80, 1275nn. (pressing the possible metatheatricality here, the new pallium could point to future performances: 1278an.). 1280 nimiae . . . uoluptati . . . fui! ‘I pleased them a lot’ (sc. illis): for the double dat. see 418n.; nimiae - multae (281n.). 1280a ob casum ‘as a reward for the fall' (OLD ob 3d); cf. 1278an. datur: Pseudolus' audience, in the banquet's carnivalesque spirit, takes no offence at his mess (1279n.). cantharus: 957, 1051nn. 1281 ilico: 311n. posiui 'took off' (Ξ deposui); he in fact defecated as he struggled to get up (1279n.). The decorum of Greek New Comedy excluded stage-acts such as defecation, which had been normalized in Old Comedy. 1282 crapulam dum amouerem ‘until I might be rid of my headache’ (1234n. on dum . . . redeam). crapulam: a loanword (κραϊιπάλη) casting a Greek shade on Pseudolus' behaviour (1253-67, 1268-78ann.);

elsewhere in P. only at Mos. 1122, Rud. 586 (of a hangover requiring

sleep). 1283-1304 Pseudolus turns to his business with Simo, effecting the transition to the final scene in tr* (1283-4). Simo responds to Pseudolus' knocking, entering in cretics ('the first musical sign that his final interview with the slave will be lighthearted', Moore

2012:

345), which con-

tinue through 1290. Simo mentions the money he's carrying and briefly switches to iambics (1291); the pair's greetings follow in more cretics (1291a-4). With Simo's angry reaction to Pseudolus' belch in his face (1294n.) comes a switch to anapaests (1295), followed by a return to

348

COMMENTARY

1283-90

cretics in which Pseudolus insolently (and repeatedly) disregards his master's protests about his drunkenness (1296-1304). 1283 nunc: i.e. ‘now that I'm out here . . .' (a casual transition to the finale with Simo).

ab ero ad erum meum maiorem: 4, 1268nn. foedus ‘our compact’ (OLD 2): 535-45, 554-6nn. commemoratum:

supine (520n.).

1284 aperite, aperite! 11.809-10.

for geminated

imperatives

see LU 59, LHS

me | adesse: prosodic hiatus.

aliquis nuntiate: for the constructio ad sensum see 574n. ('the inconcinnity of sg. and plur. is usual in orders to staff', Gratwick 19932: 202). 1285—1335b (Scene 21: canticum, cont.) Simo exits his house carrying a wallet with the money he owes Pseudolus because of their wager (5546n.). The scene consists of three sections:

(1) confrontation of drunken

slave and sober master, who eventually receives a report about the party (1285-1312); (2) settlement of the 20 minae (1313-30); and (3) Ps.’ closure (1331—5b). For detailed accounts of the musical/sense sections see 1289-1904, 1305-12, 1313-21, 1322-8, 1329-35bnn. 1285 uox uiri pessumi me exciet ‘a most wicked man's words summon me' (702n.), an elevated opening of Simo's song; cf. Rud. 260 uox me precantum huc foras excitauit. For Simo's linguistic playfulness see 1064, 1906nn. pessumi 1249n. on malus. exciet: second conjugation present here. 1286 sed quid hoc? A formula expressing surprise at something seen onstage

(e.g.

Am.

1072,

Epid.

346,

Poen.

1296),

followed

by

further

questions. 1287 corona: cf. corolla (1265, 1299), emblematic of banqueting, esp. drinking after a meal (Men. 463). ebrium Pseudolum tuom: sc. uides (tuom ‘your slave’: cf. 1921n.). 1288 libere . . . hoc ‘you say this boldly' (sc. dicis; OLD libere g), as if he weren't Simo's slave. statum: 458n. (the sober Pseudolus appeared no less bold to Simo in their first meeting). 1289 num mea gratia pertimescit magis? 'He isn't any more fearful because of me, is he?' num sometimes expects a negative answer in P. (Lindsay 1907: 129). med gratia: OLD gratia 7e. 1290 saeuiter blanditerne adloquar 'if I should speak to him cruelly or coaxingly' (-ne introduces an alternative in a question: OLD 2); adloquar. deliberative subjunctive (379n.). Simo contemplates whether to behave as a vicious master (e.g. Ballio: 133—264n.) or a self-controlled one (e.g. Callipho: 450n.): 1291-12, 1291nn.

COMMENTARY

1291-6

349

1291-1a hoc . . . | quod fero: Simo points to his money, probably in a crumina (170n.); his primary motivation for unusually approaching Pseudolus blanditer (1290n., Dutsch 2008: 77 n. 70) appears to be greed. 1291 uotat - uetat.

uim facere 'to assault him', a military phrase (OLD uis 5): 1290n. 1291a si qua . . . spes sitast mihi 'if any hope remains for me’ (of not losing the money); Simo begins to cast himself in a subordinate position to his slave. in hoc: masc. (Pseudolus).

1292—-3 Pseudolus riffs on Simo's salutation (1285). 1292 uir malus: the triumphant Pseudolus proudly designates himself thus (385, 581-2, gogann.). 1293 obuiam it 'is coming face to face with'. 1294 di te ament: Simo's attempt to approach Pseudolus politely (271n.) and congenially (1290, 1291-1ann.)

is rudely received.

hae! the reading of A, a shortened version of ha(ha) hae (946n.), accompanied by a belch here (1295n.). hae! | :: i: hiatus between cola (after the two cretics) and at change of speaker (punctuated by Pseudolus' belch). iin malam crucem: 335n. (Simo strikes Pseudolus: 1295n.); Pseudolus' insolent behaviour makes it difficult for Simo to stay calm, as he'd pledged (1291-1an.). 1295 qur ego adflictor? 'Why am I being beaten?' (the verb describes violent action: cf. Aul. 632 quid me adflictas? quid me raptas? qua me causa uerberas?). adflictor. the first syllable undergoes iambic shortening (in its word group). malum: 242n. igitur: elliptical, ‘if you don't like being hit, then why . . .?' inructas: onomatopoeic (the compound is hapax legomenon); cf. 1300n. 1296 molliter 515 tene me, caue ne cadam ‘Please hold me gently, keep me from falling' (876n. on seruem ne) . A swooning Pseudolus melodramatically pleads for his master's *manly' aid, much as the ancilla Pardalisca does

in her staged messenger's speech at Cas. 634a ne cadam, amabo, tene me and Acroteleutium (feigning passion for the miles) at Mil. 1260 tene me obsecro. :: quor? :: ne cadam (a comic appropriation of Sappho 31 L-P: 1258n., Traill 2005: 524). Cf. the drunken stumbling of the adulescens propped up by his amica at Mos. 319—47, and the rowdy finales of Pers. and St. Such routines were well established: Naev. com. 82 Ribbeck caue cadas amabo! caue caps Ps.’ ‘cautionary motif’; multiple warnings are issued about Pseudolus' trickery/credibility

(Feeney

2010:

291-3),

by Pseudolus

himself

(128,

511,

517) and by Simo (898; cf. 1227), each of which proves ineffectual. Simo is reduced to physically protecting his slave from a drunken fall.

350

COMMENTARY

1296-1306

1296—7 non uides | me ut: for the prolepsis see 16n. 1297 me ut madide madeam ‘how sloshingly I'm sloshed' (for the figura etymologica see $58n.); the alliteration of m mimics drunken speech (cf. 1296 molliter . . . me . . . cadam, Mos. 331 madet homo :: tun me ais mammamadere?).

1298 istaec 'that you display', anticipating the infinitival clause phoric' demonstrative: OLS 1.1098—9).

('cata-

interdius 'in the middle of the day' (= interdiu).

1299 corolla: 1287n.

ebrium | ingrediri: hiatus at mid-line.

lubet: 348n. Pseudolus' impertinent reply 15 punctuated with another belch: 1300n. 1300 quid, lubet? "What do you mean, you feel like it?' (348n.). pergin ructare in os mihi? 'Still burping in my face?' ructare — ?rructare (40, 1295nn.). A character is upbraided for alcohol-induced halitosis at Men. fr. 170 K-A. 1901 ructus: only here in P. (1295n.). mihi: dat. of possession (‘My burp's lovely’). sic sine ‘let things be' (477n., OLD sino 2), i.e. ‘calm down’. 1302—4 Cf. Euclio's similar (Greek rather than Italian) hyperbole at

Aul. 557—9 tibicinam | quae mi interbibere sola, si uino scatat, | Corinthiensem

fontem Pirenam potest. 1902 equidem: 620n. potis 6556 = posse (235n.). scelus ‘you walking crime' (OLD g, 817n.). 1303 Massici montis: in Campania, famous for fine wines. 1303-4 uberrumos quattuor | fructus ‘four extremely abundant harvests'. quattuor. trisyllabic/cretic.

1304 ‘hiberna’ addito: Pseudolus trumps Simo's hyperbole (1303-4n.) by emending it to in hora una hiberna. Romans divided the day into twelve equal hours - an hour during the winter could be as short as forty-five minutes (OEAGR v11.73—5). 1905-12 Simo breaks the run of (mostly) cretics to inquire about Pseudolus' activities leading to his drunkenness in iambics (1305). Their exchange reverts to cretics that are closed with the angry Simo's thymelicus (1312). Within the cretic group Moore 2012: 347 notes, '[master and slave] produce some elegant responsion: the sequence beginning pessumu. s homo repeats the meter of that beginning sed Simo exactly except for the one resolution in the key word mulier. 1305 hau male mones 'You correctly remind me’ (“Touché!’). 1906 unde . . . agere te praedicem? ‘From where should I say you're leading ...?' (966n.). agere with ships as object (OLD 2b), but also of ‘driving booty' (OLD 1).

COMMENTARY

1307-13

351

onustam ‘fully loaded’, with wine, but with the additional suggestion of ‘booty’ in Pseudolus' triumph: cf. 588, Bac. 1069 (Chrysalus' self-celebration) ouans praeda onustus cederem. celocem ‘your swift boat’, = κέλης (cf. uelox), ἃ metaphor for fast-striking

deception (figuratively of tricksters at As. 258, Mil. 986). Cf. 1064n. on arce Ballionia. 1307 cum tuo filio perpotaui: 1268n. on erus minor. modo: 689n. 1308 ut probe ‘how exquisitely' (969—70n.). probe frequently in declarations of trickery, e.g. Am. 424 ego hunc decipiam probe (cf. 997, 1005), Bac. 701 emungam hercle hominem probe hodie, Epid. 491 senex, tibi os est sublinum plane et probe. 1308a tactus . . . est: 120n. 1309 quae tibi dixi ut effecta reddidi! ‘How I've accomplished what I told you!' Pseudolus reprises his bold prediction to Simo (530) in boasting he's brought Ps. to 1 conclusion. ἐἶδὲ: iambic (247n.). effecta reddidi: 530n. 1910 pessumu's: admiringly ironic (for Simo's appreciation of Pseudolus' cleverness see 1243n.); the ultima is long (Questa 2007: 40). 1910a mulier haec facit ‘a/the woman's

the cause of all this' (Latin's

lack of articles allows for such ambiguities, e.g. Verg. A. 1.1 wirumque). Pseudolus diverts culpability from himself by blaming all on Calidorus'

passion for Phoenicium, cleverly alluding to Helen, for whose sake Troy

was besieged: 1063, 1064, 1244nn. In his ‘Troy song' Chrysalus similarly identifies the meretrix Bacchis with Helen, Bac. 948 is Helenam auexit, quoia causa nunc facio opsidium Ilio. 1311 libera 'as a free person' (419n.). We learn that Phoenicium has been freed by Calidorus, in keeping with the expected outcome (4345n.), Ballio's earlier insistence that she would never achieve this (225, 226nn.) notwithstanding. Because Phoenicium has been a meretrix, comic

norms prevent her from marrying Calidorus, though *mixed' marriages between libertae and ingenui might have been legal in P.’s time (Treggiari 1969: 84-6). While freed slaves in Roman society enjoyed (most) citizens' rights (OEAGR 11.227—30), the lived experience of a low-status liberta/ libertina might differ little from her servile existence. accubat: 891-2n. 1312 omnia, ut quicque egisti . . . scio ‘I know it all, how you did each

thing' (574n.).

ordine ‘in detail', 'completely' (cf. OLD 12a). Cf. Men. 679 uxor resciuit ut factum est ordine. 1319-21 The metre switches to a single tr* as Pseudolus asks Simo to pay him; Pseudolus presses Simo further in a line beginning with

352

COMMENTARY

1313-16

anapaests, but rendered a tr^ — the usual metre of closure in P. — by Simo's response (1313). Pseudolus ('singing one of Roman comedy's most effective metrical jokes', Moore 2012: 349) counters in cretics (1914), making it clear Ps. is not yet over. The pair continue mostly in anapaestic lengths as Pseudolus exults in victory, his superior position metrically highlighted by his abrupt clipping (through catalexis) of an anapaestic tetrameter in his response to Simo's final plea for financial clemency (1321).

1913 ergo: with iambic shortening of the penult after quid (Questa 2007: 107). ius petis: Simo acknowledges their oral agreement (537, 554-6, 555nn.). fateor: g1gn. tene: Simo extends the money to Pseudolus, who rejects it (1315-19n.). 1914 Pseudolus refers to Simo's initial claims that he could not be hoodwinked (504—-5, 510) to rub his triumph in Simo's face (since Pseudolus never conducts a scheme against Simo, the apparent contradiction has occupied analyst critics, though it probably troubled few spectators in live performance). daturum esse . . . das: cf. 510 dedero :: dabis. 1915-19 Ps. money-loading scene has a more expansive complement at As. 646—745. There two slaves, laden with a crumina containing 20 minae for erus minor, playfully (646 deludi) extort respect and favours from the adulescens and his amica before handing the money over, thus temporarily flipping slave/master relationships (cf. Segal 1987: 104-9). 1315 onera hunc hominem ac me consequere: Pseudolus, in control and giving orders, demands servile behaviour from Simo. Cf. Pers. 691—2 huc in collum, nisi piget, | impone uero (a slave similarly commands a hoodwinked pimp). hunc hominem: Pseudolus refers to himself. hac: it 15 unclear where Pseudolus wants to lead him (1328, 1331nn.), but much lively movement occurs onstage during the duet. egone istum onerem? ‘I'm supposed to load that (person)?' Simo probably directs this indignant question to spectators (or is thinking aloud in disgust). onerem | :: onerabis: hiatus at change of speaker (the ultima of onerem is long). onerabis, scio ‘Yes, I know for a fact you will.' In the related As. scene

(1315-19n.) the cash-starved Agyrippus must beg his slave to down with the moneybag, As. 661 quin tradis huc cruminam umerum? 1316 quid ego huic homini faciam? Simo turns to spectators (1915n.). satin ‘really’ (166n.). ultro ‘besides’ ('in addition to all else that's happened', with on me irridet: OLD 9).

load him pressatum

in despair emphasis

COMMENTARY

1317-21

353

argentum: the first syllable undergoes iambic shortening in its word group. 19175 uae uictis! said to be uttered by the Gallic chieftain Brennus (Liv. 5.48.9, 387 BCE) upon his defeat of the Romans, perhaps proverbial in P.’s time (Otto 1890: 360; extant only here apart from Livy). Capping Ps.’ running military motifs (574-603bn.), Pseudolus scurrilously appropriates language of boastful triumph (a most ‘un-Roman’ one) in showing his embarrassed master (1316n.) no mercy. The reference is particularly fitting if P.'s audience knew the account (cf. Liv. 5.48.8—9) whereby Brennus utters these words during the financial settlement with the Romans, when they discover the scales are weighted in the Gauls' favour. uorte ergo umerum: Simo grudgingly begins loading the crumina onto his slave's shoulder (the transfer is not completed until 1326). 1318 em ‘right there' (Pseudolus revels in his superior position). em! | :: hoc: hiatus after the exclamation at change of speaker. hoc with forein anticipation of the uf clause (of substantive result: AG 8569.3a, NLS §168), 1319. 1919 fore me 'that it was in store for me' (= futurum esse me). me. abl. in this idiom (cf. Poen. 1085 si quid me fuat, OLD sum 5d). ut tibi fierem supplex 'to become your suppliant’ (as one defeated in battle, continuing the Brennus conceit: 1317n.), which would result in Simo's enslavement to Pseudolus. Agyrippus at As. 705-16 (19315-19n.) gives Libanus a piggyback ride onstage (while being threatened with servile punishments) and must worship the pair of slaves as Salus and Fortuna. In compelling Simo to become his supplex, Pseudolus exceeds even his own expectations (507n.). 1320 heu! | heu! 79-84n. (hiatus between interjections). The conquered Simo here embraces 'the part of the lamenting captive' (Jeppesen 2016: 128): 1319n.; Simo again is linguistically playful at a potentially tense moment: 1285n. desine 'Stop that!’ Pseudolus shows the same imperviousness to sentimentality that characterized his attitude in Ps.’ opening, where the excamation eheu similarly bore sharply different meanings for slave and master: 3-132, 79-84nn. 1320—o0a ni | doleres tu, ego dolerem ‘I'd be hurting if you weren’t’, in response to Simo's 1320 doleo (the conditional follows classical rules: 274n.). Pseudolus undercores the potentially gruesome consequences for himself in this zero-sum game with his master: 534—5, 544a—-5nn. doleres.. . dolerem: doleo describes both physical and mental pain (OLD 1, 2). 1321 hoc: Simo points to the money (argentum) still in his possession (with iambic shortening). auferen - auferesne (with iambic shortening).

954

COMMENTARY

1322-5

Pseudole mi: delivery of the voc. in performance could stress either the threatening sense (‘my possession': OLD meus 1) or convey affection (‘my dear’: 239n., OLD 2), however disingenuously. tuo ero: a threatening reminder of the true power structure. lubentissumo corde atque animo ‘Yes, with absolute joy' (sc. auferam). lubentissumo. both the fourth-last and last syllables undergo iambic shortening. 1922-8 Simo negotiates for partial relief of his debt with an anapaestic tetrameter, to which Pseudolus responds negatively in his own tetrameter (1922-3). Pseudolus then clips four consecutive lines (1924—7) with defiant responses to Simo - i.e. he prevents them from being tetrameters via catalexis — before they share a tetrameter (1928), in which Pseudolus' pledge to return at least half of the money 'marks the final movement of the plot, the reconciliation between master and slave' (Moore 2012: 350). 1322 nonne audes, quaeso 'please, you do want . . . don’tyou?’ (audes 78n.); quaeso in combination with the question ‘[stresses] the urgent requestive value of the directive’ (Risselada 1993: 199-4): 866n. This 15 the only instance of the interrogative particle nonne in Ps. (cf. 166, 230, 352nn.; relatively rare in P.: Lindsay 1907: 129). aliquam partem mi gratiam facere . . . de argento 'to let me off the hook for some part of the money’: 712n. gratiam: dactylic (iambic shortening). de argento. 1164n. on de praeda. hinc: 1321n. on oc. 1929 non: 1067n. auidum . . . hominem ‘a person of want' (paronomasia of audes: 78, 1922nn.), i.e. ‘greedy’. hinc - a me. nummo ‘by a penny' (356n.). 1924 te mei tergi misereret ‘you wouldn't take pity on my back’ (AG $354b): 1246-1335b, 1920-oann. met a single long (synizesis). si hoc non . . . effecissem 'if I hadn't accomplished this' (3—5n.). 1925 Simo's threat against Pseudolus has some effect in that the slave shortly offers his master half the money back (1428n.), though Pseudolus’ wilfulness dominates the finale. Tranio, spared punishment by his master at the end of Mos., provides a gloss on Pseudolus' defiant attitude before slavery's harsh realities: 1178—9 quid grauaris? quasi non cras iam commeream

aliam noxiam: | ibi utrumque, et hoc et illud, poteris ulcisci probe.

erit ubi te ulciscar ‘There’ll be a way for me to exact vengeance from you'. ubi indicates means (‘wherewithal’): OLD 8b. si uiuo ‘as sure as I'm breathing' (in oaths: OLD 1d; cf. gg7n.). minitare: sc. mihi (the threat against the wilful Pseudolus fails: 1926n.).

COMMENTARY

1326-8

355

habeo tergum ‘I've got a back.' Pseudolus speaks of his blow-bearing backside as though it were a separate entity: 544a—5, 545nn. Slaves in P. morbidly jest about their backs as a locus of torture, sometimes in their wilfulness dissociating themselves from their traumatized flesh altogether. Cf. Bac. 305 si illi sunt uirgae ruri, at mihi tergum domi est, Capt. 650 uae illis uirgis, quae hodie in tergo morientur meo, Men. 2775 uae tergo meo, Mos. 991-2 libertas baenula est tergo tuo: | mihi, nisi ut erum metuam et curem, nihil est qui tergum tegam, Poen. 198—9 heri in tergo meo | tris facile corios contriuisti bubulos (cf. 398 quasi ostreatum tergum ulceribus gestito). While the slave conventionally evades such tortures within the (fictive) play, the 'gallows humour' is striking and constitutes bold defiance of masterly control: cf. McCarthy 2000: 27: "The clever slave may not relish the actual pain involved in whipping but refuses to see this physical act as depriving him of honor. In fact, the most consistent attitude expressed towards whipping by clever slaves is to talk about their scars as a mark of honor.' 1326 age sane igitur ‘By all means go ahead then' (‘take the money at your own/your back’s risk’); sane OLD 6. Simo at last (1317n.) loads the

money onto Pseudolus and begins to walk away. redi. .. redi: both are pyrrhic (iambic shortening). redi modo: 283n. non eris deceptus: Simo should be wary of such an assertion from Pseudolus, but his acquiescence (1328 redeo) signals the start of Ps.' close. eris deceptus: 389n. on adegero. 1927 simul mecum potatum 'Join me for a drink' (where Calidorus and the others are partying: 1246-1335b, 1271nn.). simul: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). 7: only in W (fifteenth century). As an index of his power, Pseudolus extends his master an invitation to the symposium. potatum | :: egone: hiatus at change of speaker (fotatum: the ultima is breuis in longo at the main break; for the supine see 520n.). egone eam? '/ should go do that?' (sc. ‘go drinking with you'); Simo respects propriety by expressing distaste for partying with his slave. fac quod te iubeo: Pseudolus speaks in absolute terms, as if he were Simo's master. 1928 dimidium aut plus etiam: i.e. at least 10 minae. The senex Nicobulus is similarly seduced into joining his son's celebratory banquet at the end of Bac. by the promise of the return of half the money Chrysalus has swindled (1184a-1211). Pseudolus and Calidorus still owe Ballio 15 minae, and Charinus 5 minae (732—-4). Pseudolus does not know Ballio has included Phoenicium gratis in his wager with Simo. Simo presumably will pay his son's/slave's debts related to the scheme, and so there is no net gain for him. P. shows little interest in detailing these financial particulars. Arnott 1982: 146-8 speculates that in P.'s Greek source Ballio held

456

COMMENTARY

1329-30

his birthday party (offstage), to which Simo was invited, and a messenger informed spectators of the final settlement. faxo . .. feres: 49n. feres: pyrrhic (iambic shortening). hinc: i.e. from the purse that Pseudolus holds (1326n.). eo, duc me quo uis ‘I'm going - take me where you want.' Simo yields to the will of Pseudolus (for the 'Saturnalian' reversal see Lefévre 1988: 38—-9). Slater 1985: 143 observes, ‘Theatre is Pseudolus' own game, and he cannot be beaten at it. Simo tries to leave, but Pseudolus will not let

him. He is moving Simo about in this last scene, manipulating Simo like an actor in a play.' 1929-35b Ps. 15 finally concluded with a bacchiac system marking the pair's rapprochement (1329-30), which gives way to cretics that '[look] back to the opening of the polymetric section and the several occurrences of this pattern since then' (Moore 2012: 350). After Pseudolus rejects Simo's request to invite spectators to the party with a catalectic iambic dimeter (1334), the play ends with another ‘metrical joke' when he relents (1335—5b): ‘he completes what appears to be a pair of cretic quaternarii then adds a syllable’ (Moore 2012: 351; cf. Questa 1984: 371-9). The endings of P.’s plays are transacted with limited variations. Some include formal epilogues, delivered by the grex (As. 942—7, Bac. 1207-11, Capt. 1029-36, Cist. 782—7, Epid. 732—3) or the last character speaking (there is uncertainty in some attributions: Sharrock 2009: 251-8, Christenson 2016), but more often characters somehow signal that the play is over, usually in tr*' (Ps. and St. are notable exceptions: Moore 2012: 265-6). In addition to a call for applause, spectators may be directly addressed (1332n.) and flattered (1335n.), and the play is referred to as a completed performance (1335an.). We do not know if actors removed their masks at the ends of plays (Marshall 2006: 196), but if so and Pseudolus was played by P., the close of Ps., in connection with the dedication of the Magna Mater's temple, was a remarkable spectacle. 1929 numquid: 495n. es: long (Ξ es(s)). 1330 nil profecto 'Absolutely not' (94n.). Simo proves to be a lenient father (1239-40n.), as his behaviour as a young man perhaps suggested he should be (440, 441, 442nn.). Pseudolus has successfully mended the father/son relationship (4, 415-5732ann.), as well as that with his master (even the most irate of P.'s senes typically grant amnesty to their serui callid:: Segal 1987: 155-62). Williams 1956: 443-4 speculates that Simo's swift acquiescence here supplants a reconciliation scene in P.'s Greek source, in which Callipho returned as mediator. i hac: Pseudolus leads Simo to the banquet offstage (1327n.).

COMMENTARY

1331-5

357

1931-2 The direct invitation to spectators (1332n.) signals Ps.' end by shattering, one last time, any illusion of a divide between

the audience

and Ps.' fictional world. Rud. ends with a similar invitation to spectators: 1418-22 spectatores, uos quoque ad cenam uocem . . . si uoletis plausum fabulae huic clarum dare, | comissatum uentitote ad me annos sedecim. At the end of St. spectators are urged to enjoy their own revelry: 775 plaudite atque ite ad uos comissatum. 1331 te sequor: 1268n. on erus minor, 1328n. uocas ‘invite’ (OLD 9).

1932 spectatores: 562n. The audience is addressed as such at the end in eleven other Plautine comedies (Am. 1146, Bac. 1210, Caft. 1029, Cas. 1012, Cist. 782, Men. 1162, Mos. 1181, Pers. 858, Rud. 1418, St. 775, Truc. 968). simul 'to join us' (iambic). 1933—5b Pseudolus' promise of an invitation is his last confidence trick, disingenuously expressed as a quid pro quo, i.e. applause now for a party at some undisclosed future time and location. Moore 1998: 19-20 locates the invitation within a Plautine tradition of 'bogus promises', whereby spectators are knowingly manipulated by actors to applaud. 1333-4 me isti hau solent | uocare: Pseudolus raises the question, "what do audiences do for actors?’, answered by his request for approval/ applause (1335-52). There 15 a class component to the slave-actor's joke if he gestures to elites sitting nearest the stage. 1334 uocare: 1332n. ergo: a single short (iambic shortening) after elision. 1935 uerum si uoltis adplaudere atque adproba-: the conventional call for applause 15 playfully expressed with a final alliterative flourish of v and at- (as the initial syllables of adplaudere and adprobare probably were pronounced: Allen 1978: 22). The actors remain solicitous (Moore 1998: 8—239) to the end, with formulas such as s? uoltis (cf. Rud. 1421) addressed to spectators in connection with a call for applause: cf. Bac. 1211 wos ualere uolumus, Capt. 1034—5 si uobis placet | et si placuimus neque odio fuimus, and (bene) ualete at Epid. 723, Men. 1162, Mer. 1025, Pers. 858, Truc. 968 (Mer. 1026 appends a call-out to young males: atque, adulescentes, haec si uobis lex placet). The stronger compound adplaudo occurs only here and at Bac. 1211 clare applauditein the context of audience applause (P. elsewhere has plaudite or plausum date). 1335-5a adproba-|re: spectators are asked to endorse the play only here in P.'s endings, subtle rhetorical slippage in that, while the convention of applauding the lowly actors' pleasing performance is one thing (cf. 546n.), 'approving' a play (its view of society, morality, representation of social relationships, etc.?) 15 another. Cf. the epilogue (1029-36) of

458

COMMENTARY

1335a-b

Capt., which ironically ties the call for applause to the play's moral edification. adprobo occurs elsewhere in P. only at Am. 13, Poen. 1255 (of divine approval of human affairs). 1995a hunc gregem: the demonstrative suggests the entire troupe appears onstage for a 'curtain call', but we lack definitive evidence for this practice being universal (1929-35bn.). fabulam 'this play' (388n.). Cf. Capt. 1029 ad pudicos mores facta haec fabula, Mos. 1181 fabula haec est acta, Rud. 1421 plausum fabulae huic clarum dare, Truc. 967 eius [Veneris] haec in tutela est fabula. in crastinum 'for tomorrow’, i.e. after Ps. (yet another sign of closure), in this sense sharply opposed to Aodie (85, 419, 1231nn.). Slater 1985: 143 interprets the temporal reference broadly: '[our] reward is that the play shall go on, that comedy in perpetual renewal shall begin again tomorrow'. 1995b uos uocabo: according to the conceit here, the invitation is to a post-play banquet (1391-2n.), but critics have also supposed that Pseudolus is inviting spectators to a repeat performance of Fs. during the same festival (Marshall 2006: 80-1; cf. Introduction p. 8). In the moment of closure the invitation primarily serves as an incentive for applause (1383-5b, 1993—4nn.). uos: 562n. uocabo: 1992n.

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INDEXES Numbers in Italics refer to pages of the Introduction, non-italic to line numbers of the commentary.

1 SUBJECTS ablative: absolute 259-60, 539, 762, 854, 1029, 1047, 12704a; fore * 1319; instrumental gerund 1045; facio * instrumental 88;

615, 720, 1333-5b, 13334, 1335, 1935—52; silent see mute characters; speaking roles & n.

42, 133-264; status 8, 381, 570,

697-8, 720, 728, 1333—4; threeactor rule 7; see also costumes,

instrumental with verbal noun 67; opus est * 601; qui 89, 160; usura

* 195; usus est * perfect participle 50 accent (of words) 53—4, 56 accusative: adverbial 13, 73, 277,

improvisation, masks

acts (Greek comedy) 6-7, 13, 17,

573a, 767-89

279, 738, 755, 904, 1130, 1179,

adaptation/appropriation (of Greek literature) 3-23, 26, 41, 678-87,

750; exclamation 202-2a, 9366,

1258 Adelphi 415-573a; see also Index locorum adulescens 11, 20—1, 24, 26—6, 32,

[1205]; cognate 372, 524; ausculto * 237, 427; -d (med, ted) 523, 1273; -eis 140; double with uolo

371, 435, 519, 653, 754; gerund/ gerundive + 6; ‘Greek’/retained 150, 490-1, 1168; internal 226, 12752; opus est * 1185; parco * 79;

proximus * 59; verb of reminding * 150 acrostic 65, Argumenta (p. 111), Arg. I. actor (troupe manager) r, ó actors: Atellan farce 11-- 12;

competition among 6, 570;

delivery 52, 4, 36, 41—77, 125-7, 483; distribution/doubling of roles 30, 164, 415-573a, 608,

766, 767-89, 790—904, 892-904, 894-902, 905-55; gestures 11

n. 58, 34 n. 189, 10, 64-73, 75,

96, 104, 107, 116, 143, 167, 227,

399—400, 410, 504, 518, 526, 630, 716, 721, 1096, 1088, 1045, 1113, 1246-1335b, 1246, 1247, 12754,

1333-4; guild 3 n. 16; Mime 2, 12--13; movement

11 n. 58, 18,

43 n. 235, 116, 133-264, 239a,

707, 850-65, 868—72, go5-55,

Αηξῖἱε͵3τι33,4,9ἴξἓ,95, 434-5; 449, 615, 695-6, 695, 712, 868-72,

adynaton 319

aedile 8, 36, 546

rapport with audience 10-11, 34,

m

Aelius Stilo 48 n. 268, 63 aemulatio 18,

A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum 66 Agathocles 532 agent noun 426, 429, 608, 873,

979-80, 992 agora 163, 790-904

alazon 42 n. 231 Alfie 66 alliteration 48, Argumenta (p. 111), 3, 10, 21, 23-8, 36, 64—73, 93, 94> 95, 145, 147, 234, 239, 405,

425-6, 436, 463, 524-5, 572, 591, 606, 614, 683, 703, 741, 769,

241a, 243-64, 357-68, 370, 414,

592-9, 955, 1019, 1157, 1160, 1246-1335b, 1274, 12752, 1315;

1263; see also Calidorus

adverb: -abiliter (instrumental) 950; adjective (nom.) equivalent 5, 92, 12752; ἀπὸ κοινοῦ construction with 273; habeo * 935a; pleonastic 399; sum * 38, 276, 378

771-2, 784, 815, 822, 989, 994, 1231, 1297

Ambrosian palimpsest 1, 18, 64,

1256-81

35 n. 107, 37, 401, 403, 547-52,

380

INDEXES amor 26-8,

15, 63, 64, 122, 205¢, 356,

695, 1263; see also Venus Amphitruo 42 n. 226; see also Index locorum

anacoluthon 68, 269, 298, 404, 528,

649-50, 881-2, 1263-6 analyst criticism 74 n. 72, 25, 547—52, 870, 1314; see also source (5)

anaphora 48, 39, 73, 397-400, 4468, 486, 5089, 583, 672-3, 703, 760, 775, 983, 1011-12, 1237, 1238, 1243, 12534, 1255-7, 1259-61

antanaclasis 49, 74, 00, 1029

381

asyndeton 48, 10, 64—73, 64, 69, 147, 175, 580, 590, 1011-12, 1091, 1260

Atellan farce 1, 2 n. g, 11-12, 967,

1189-00, ‘attenuating hedge' 909 audience/spectators: directly addressed 6, 36—7, 40, 46, [Prologus] (p

114), [1]

125—7,

152, 203-32, 562, 573, 5732.

585, 942, 1315, 1316, 1331-2, 1332, 133553, 1335, 1335b; composition 7—ó6, 10, 15n. 79,

18-19, 23, 40, 38, 133—264, 199,

anthropomorphism 606, 841, 951, 953

309; internal 28, 36, 44, 41—77,

antiphrastic 174 antithesis 48, Arg. II.15, 6, 8, 175, 685,

1274—80,

Antiphanes 402; see also Index locorum

940, 995, 1266



.

antonomasia 48, 158, 519, 587, 593,

700, 911, 1040, 1218-20 Antonius, Marcus (Marc Antony)

65

&rró κοινοῦ construction 124, 273, 320 Apollo 21 n. 106, 480, 972-3 Apollodorus of Carystus 6 n. 31 Apology (Plato) 566 aporia 36, 562—73a aposiopesis 1178

applause 820, 1274-80, 1276, 1329-

35b, 1333-5b, 1333-4, 1335-5ᾶ, 1335, 1385b

apposition: 6, 193, 580, 654, 793, 1109,

1107,

1172,

1224

Apuleius 65; 84, 812; see also Index locorum

archaism 47, 64, [1], 6, 14, 50, 79,

186, 432, 533, 583, 587, 767,

936, 1022, 1030, 1273 archetype (MSS) 64 Aristophanes 5-6, 465; 566 also Index locorum Artists of Dionysus1, 6 aside(s) 133-264, 188—1g5a, 194—52, 201—9, 202-8, 230—-40, 242, 410— 14, 445, 594—666, 600-3b, 615,

702, 770, 908a, 974, 1159-68

Asinaria [Prologus]

(p. 114); 566 also

Index locorum assonance 48, Argumenta (p. 111),

23-8, 36, 63, 93, 239, 405, 408,

411, 463, 524-5, 686, 741, 822, 994 asteismus 194a-5, 607

133-264, 415-5733, 547-52, 552,

790—904,

866-72, g56-1016,

1280a; reception

(of

performance) 4 n. 23, 20-1, 23, 25n. 125, 32-5, 45 . 251,

4, 41-77, 194-53, 241a, 388, 394—414, 511, 562, 564, 569, 584, 585, 678-87, 735, 767-89, 783,

790—904, 888, 988, 1103-1237, 1103-35, 1234, 1259—61; role (in performance) 3—4, 10-11, 179, 203732, 410, 547-52, 720, 721, 1331-2, 13334, 1335; seating/space 9--11; 566 also asides, monologues Aulularia Argumenta (p. 111), 152, 170; see also Index locorum

Aulus Gellius 1—2, 14 n. 73,

Argumenta (p. 111); see also Index locorum autograph (MSS) 63

Bacchides 13—19, 33, 37 n. 204, 65, 1244, 1328; see also Index locorum backdrop (of stage) 9, 24, [2], 411,

604, 730, 952

Bakhtin, Mikhail 1246-1335b

Ballio: birthday 27, 165, 168, 177,

775, 790—-904, 892, 1220, 1237; catchphrases 135, 136, 143, 163, 185, 186, 260, 277; character type 27,192,

197, 241a, 248, 266, 268,

274, 292, 306, 347, 353, 357-68,

368, 377, 955. 1148; costume 133-204, 135, 967, 979-80, 981, 1189-990; ‘divinity’ of 326-8, 327, 328, 329, 330, 335; failed comedian 140, 357—68, 795-7, 855-65, 868—72, 1081-3, 1081,

INDEXES

11093-1237, 1124, 1167, 1184, 1204, 1231, 1234; familia of 27,

133-264, 159, 617, 767, 776,

777; name 193, 977; reception (post-Plautine) 65; self-awareness 27, 39n. 217, 42 n. 231, 167,

193, 238, 262, 289, 360, 377,

975,

1052—62,

1063-1102,

1070-

2, 1081-3, 1081, 1084, 1095, 1103-1237; vicious slaveholder

415—5732; house 410, 411, 952; name 411; spectatorship 28, 36,

415-5733, 511-12, 512, 519, 523, 54752, 552; status 35, 411, 549; see also paterfamilias, senex Campania 11, 146, 1303 canon 4 n. 24, 63—4 cantica7, 23, 31—2, 43, 52, 56—62,

133-264, 574-603b, go5-55, 1103-35,

1246-1335b

133-264, 133, 136, 137, 138-9, 145—7, 147, 153, 175, 178, 182,

capital (cultural) 4, 10

226, 229, 415-5733, 448-52,

Captiui 9 n. 51, 30 n. 170, 42 n. 226, 459-61, 494; 566 also Index locorum carnival 1246-1335b, 1258, 1280a Carystus 730 Casina 31 [Prologus] (p. 114); see also Index locorum catachresis 15 catalogue 64-73, 138—9 Cato the Elder 1 n. g, 50, 440; see also Index locorum Catullus 1258; see also Index locorum

183, 199-200, 199, [218-24],

76';—89, 7778; villain of Ps. 28 n.

155, 37, 133—264, 584, 586a,

767-89, 1082, 1238; see 4150 leno banking 80, 296-8, 296, 757

barbarian 3, 5 n. 26, 15, 790—904, 810,

815

bilingualism5, 15, 22, 25, 40, 43, 403,

483, 655, 700, 742, 810, 831-6, .

1063, 1260; 566 also hybridism, translation Blazing Saddles 66 ‘boosting hedge’ 23, 417 Brennus 1317, 1319 Broderick, Matthew 66

Brooks, Mel 66 brothel /brothel-slave(ry) 24, 29, 133-264, 172-87, 176, 178, 179, 182, 209—3a, 227, 229, 364,

434-5, 780, 951, 1106,

Brutus see Iunius Brutus, Marcus

Caecilius 14 n. 73, 415-573a; 566 also Index locorum Caine, Michael 66

Calidorus: character type 16, 20-1,

26—7, 33, 3-132, 4, 10, 13, 15, 237, 23—4, 34, 356, 38-9,

41-77, 51, 63, 74, 75, 92-3, 96,

122, 235, 357—68, 447; costume: 3-1932; name 35, 41; relationship with father 26, 4, 415-5732, 1330; self-awareness 26, 248, 322, 695; self-enslavement 20, 44, 15, 240,

383; status 40, 35, 227, 356, 411, 700 Callimachus 3 n. 15, 34 n. 191, 401, 403, 810; see also adulescens, Index locorum Callipho: character type 28, 415-573a,

434-5. 435, 448-52, 450; costume

captatio beneuolentiae | Prologus]

114)

(p.

cauea 2, 1081

censor

1n.3, 9. 51,

Cervantes 66

Charinus: character type 29; family

home of 1038-51, 1254; function (in plot) $ n. 41, 24, 29, 40, 385,

694—766; name 22, 29, 712,713,

746; skill (linguistic) 696, 702, 707, 710, 742, 743; status 29, 390,

697-8, 712, 730

chiasmus Argumenta (p. 111), Arg. IL1, Arg. II.15, 8, 43, 64—73, 66, 71, 146—7, 193, 429, 685, 1015, 1029, 1125 choragus 8, 1184

chorus 6,

573a

Cistellaria [Prologus, p. 114], 41, 210;

see also Index locorum clever slave see seruus callidus Clouds 465 code-switching 211, 365, 443, 483; 566 also Greek codex Turnebi 64 coinage (word) see neologism collegium poetarum 3 n. 16 colloquialism 47-6, 4, 12, 29, 33, 93,

129-31, 145, [220], 241a, 242,

357, 366, 479, 496, 509, 622, 661, 719, 767, 926, 950, 969-70, 1017

INDEXES colonization 1099-1 100, 1100 commands: fio following 559; maxume

following 661; quin * indicative 40, 891; subjunctive in 79; uolo in 389

compound/simplex

(of verbs) 31,

63, 125-7, 426, 459, 533, 859,

40,

863, 988 conceit (extended metaphor) 20,

23-4. 35-ῦ, 145-7, 570-80, 740, 795-7, 840-6, 1033-6,

1036, 1125, 1319, 1335b; see also imagery, metaphor conditions: contrary-to-fact, mixed 3—5; contrary-to-fact, past 285, 792—3; contrary-to-fact, present 274, 640, 1920—02a; future

imperative in apodosis 858; legal

inclusiveness in 543-4, 1071-2; paratactic 863; past unreal 285; protasis suppressed 494 constructio ad sensum 5,74, 1260, 1284 constructivism 17, 33, 49—51, 573603b, 678-87, 870, 884 contaminatio 14, 16 n. 91, 344 continuous action 7, 13 n. 68

Cook: character type 6, 12, 29--30,

383

dance 12, 23, 43—4, 52, 133264,

249—04, 1246-1335b, 1268-78a, 1273, 1274—80, 1274, 12742-5, 1277-8a, 12772, 1278a date (Ps.) 1 dative: agent 941; ausculto * 237; congredior * 580; double 418, 1075, 1263, 1280; -e (fifth declension) 126; ethic(al) 811;

morem gerere/morigerus + 22, 208; parco * 79; person judging 310, 1256; possession 18, 176, 744, 1068, 1301; purpose/predicative 87, 305, 377; separation 288; ‘sympathetic’ 17 Decimus Laberius 12 defamiliarization 26, 33 deification 326—-8, 327, 328, 335, 669,

669-70, 709

Della Porta, Giambattista 66 Delphi (oracle) 21 n. 106, 36, 42, 480,

481, 483, 566, 972-3

demonstratives 55, 20, 104, 226, 448, 1274, 1298, 13352 desis 32 dialogue 6, 12, 18, 32, 52, 3—-132,

790-904, 791, 794, 850-65, 873;

265-393, 394—414, 394 didascalia 1—2, 52 n. 303

function

diminutive 67-8, 67, 67a, 68, 173,

costume 789, 790-904, 892-904; (in plot) 41, 157, 168,

790-904, 868—72, 894—902, 904,

956; imagination 50-1, 812, 820, 821, 822, 829-30, 831-6, 834, 835, 8406, 841, 842, 8434,

843, 844, 852, 868—72, 869, 884; (meta) poetics 30, 48 n. 270, 50—1, 608, 790-904, 810, 831-6 840-6, 888, 005-55, 1231; status

809; see also polemics costumes 6, 8, 10-11, 22, 29, 32,

44, 3-132, 133-264, 172, 182,

415-5732, 610, 751, 892-904, 905-55, 935, 964, 1143, 1184, 1218-20, 1218

crying 30 n. 169, 46, 49, 10, 75, 77, 84, 96,1038. cuisine 3, 30, 50—1, 790—904, 797,

815, 826; see also Cook Curculio 66, [Prologus] (p. 114); see

also Index locorum curse 37, 89, 250-1, 335, 1229 Cybele see Magna Mater

Diderich Menschen-Skrik 66

179, 188, [220], 287, 503, 675, 706, 783, 871, 1261, 1265

Dionysia $, 22, 59, 109

Diphilus 3, 6 n. 31 Dirce 23, 65, 199—200 directives 85-6, 235, 1322

discourse: formal/informal

23, 6, 14,

37, 79, 114-18, 517, 565, 702,

889, 999; legalistic 14, 114-18, 520, 5435, 543—4> 5443, 792, 1071-2; militaristic 524-5, 574603b, 761, 762, 992, 1029, 1048, 12702; official 23, 27, 125-7, 133-264, 143, 148, 158, 172,

173, 574-603b, 855, 903, 1231

Dis Exapaton 13—19, 988; 566 also Index locorum dissonance 148, 165, 492, 525, 583, 702, 708 domestication 20--3 door(s) 9, 129-31, 409, 604, 606,

1124—5, 1196-9

384

INDEXES

double(s) 30, 39 n. 217, 42, 44, 133-264, 911, 924, 925-5a double bind 596-0 double-speak 485, 738

drunkenness 43 n. 235, 45-6, 59, 1246-1335b, 1252,

1258,

1246-52, 1249,

1268,

1277,

1278,

1283-19304, 1296, 1297, 1305-12

early Latin 47 n. 264, 46, 53, 55, Argumenta

(p. 111), 3—5, 17,

27-8, 50, 79, 89, 103, 199-200, 208, 210, 254, 266, 273, 274, 278,

286-8, 318-19, 334, 364, 378,

402, 573a, 642, 696, 702, 778,

783, 795-6, 833, 859, 863, 874—5,

882, 919, 938, 1014, 1045, 1085 eavesdropping 11, 42, 133264, 410-14, 414, 594—666, 600,

619, 649-50, 694-766, 767, 974, 1017-37, 1124735

1102-35, 1102,

eiron 26, 30, 288

ellipse 440, 969-79, 1295 empty stage 562—732, 767—89, 1052—62 enargeia 145—7 enclitic 62, 25, [523a], 877 encore 44, 1268—78a, 1274-80, 1276 Ennius 2 n. 10, 3 n. 17, 703, 868-72;

see also Index locorum

entrance(s) 9, I3, 17, 129-31, 132, 199—-2064, 133, 162, 409,

415-5732. 5733, 594-666, 693,

905-55, 905712, 905772, 951, 956-1016, 960-2, 1037, 1038-51, 1052-62, 1082, 1103-935, 1246, 1283-1304 epanorthosis 711, 849—4 epexegetic infinitive 1104 epic (Greek) 2, 5 n. 15, 399—400, 988, 996, 1063, 1258 epic (Latin) 3 n. 17, 870, 889

Epidicus 35 n. 195, 37 n. 204, 47 0. 261,

[Prologus]

(p. 114), 1244;

see also Index locorum ethopoeia 28 n. 154 Eunuchus 10 n. 52, 492—3; 566 also Index locorum euphemism

(sexual)

29, 24, 64, 66,

122, 216, 292, 767-89, 780, 782, 1177, 1181

Euripides 41—77; 566 also Index locorum

exit(s) 9, 157, 159, 265-393, 380, 3945733, 41575732. 547-52, 5733, 574—603b, 666, 667—93, 6g4—766, 766, 767, 789, 1028-9, 1030-1, 1234, 1238-45, 1285-1335b exordium 41—7' extemporization 566 improvisation

fabula palliata 6—7, 14 . 72, 35 n. 195, 65, 3—132, 241a, 243-64, 1275 familia see Ballio farce/farcicality 7, 17 n. 84, 20 n. 101,

47, 60, 415-573a, 590 1167

Ferris Bueller’s Day Off66 festivals (Roman) ὅ--10, 45, 388, 546,

574—603b, 664, 810-50, 1231,

1335b

festivity (comic) 36, 43—4, 1167, 1246-1335b, 1254 fiction/metafiction 33, 35, 38, 47, 51,

66, 394—414, 403, 628, 790904,

831-6, 838, 869, 877, 888, 905-55, 1103-1237, 1331-2; 566 also mimesis

figura etymologica 48, 4, 13, 24, 108,

135, 337 353, 372, 403, 426,

512, 524, 541—2, 585, 606, 669-

70, 709, 739, 745, 748, 7567,

820, 821, 830, 882, 940, 1037, 1058-9, 1062, 1254, 1262, 1297

First Punic War 4—5, 709

flagitatio/uagulatio 65, 357—68, 360,

556, 975, 1081 -

Ν

Fleabag 66 Fortuna 20 n. 97, 36—9, 574-603b,

577-8, 667-93, 671, 678-87,

678—-8o, 678-9, 678, 679, 921 forum 9, 133-264, 157, 159, 163,

168, 241, 249, 252, 370, 380,

409, 415-5734, 561, 597, 679,

693, 694766, 766, 767-89, 780, 788, 790, 791, 807, 896, 1028-9,

1060, 1063-1102, 1089, 1235

Fraenkel, Eduard 14

future: future perfect = simple future 333, 573a; gnomic 680; indicative in deliberative questions 395;

present verb of motion expressing 778, 1157; priusquam * 524; sciam/scibo 174, 480; sigmatic 49; ‘threatening’ 508

INDEXES Gelbart, Larry 66 genitive: adj. - objective 284, 767, 1037; -αἱ 47, 98; agent noun * 970—80; charge 746, 1232; de * abl. = 1164; erilis/eri 395;

expers + 498; hostilis/hostis 1047; appositional/definition 1107; i/it 11; -tum/um 66; indefinite value 102; nulli 1196; uostrarum 186; partitive/whole 402, 426, 440,

608, 936 m gerund/gerundive 6, 525, 1045, 1141, 1275a gloss (textual) 189, 206—7, [398], [523a], 627a, 833 *good slave’ see slavery Greek: attitudes/mores, etc. 3—5, 22, 44, 5%, 112—19, 773, 841, 1180, 12742-5, 1275; dialect (in P.) 22,

138, 211, 443, 483, 550, 700,

712; loanwords r5 n. 78, 19 n. 95, 22, 26 n. 127, 67a, 147, 86, 287,

443 485, 519, 591, 593, 603, 659, 672, 702, 703, 735, 743,

757, 1051, 1139, 1181, 1211, 1253-67, 1262, 1264, 1265, 1282; names

22, 25-6,

13, 196,

210, 977, 988; verbs in -isso 442,

808; words in Ps. 22, 211, 365,

443 483, 484, 488, 654, 700,

712, 742, 1010; wordplay 29, 40, 42, 653, 654, 700, 712, 742; 566 also bilingualism, code-switching, translation

grex 8, 133-204, 1320-35b

grotesquerie r2 n. 62, 32, 36, 42,

3-132, 133-264, 145-7, 200-1,

343, 427-9, 545, 782, 820, 884,

911, 1017-97, 1218-20, 1218, 1246-1335b, 1279 Hannibal 10 n. 52, 636, 1239 hapax legomenon 15 n. 78, 23, Arg.

II.13, 21, 68, 70, 137, 147, 153, 158, 208, [220], 247, 255, 361,

362, 543, 585, 608, 631, 707, 743,

790, 791, 893, 1048, 1096, 1107, 1133, 1157, 1211, 1215, 1237, 1252, 1261, 1268a, 1279, 1295 harbour 9, 594666, 658

Harpax: character type 26—9, 51, 596, 603, 638, 1103-35, 1152-3;

385 costume 593, 735, 905-55, 1101, 1199; foreignness of 28, 596, 603, 610, 927-8, 964, 1110,

1143; function (in plot) 28, 38-9, 112—13, 403, 574—603b, 594-666,

600, 614, 678-87,

1063-1102,

11093-1237; name 29, 139, 653, 654, 655, 9252, 1010; status 594—5,

611, 1171, 1180; 566 also slavery

Hellenistic poetry 3, 34 n. 191, 47 hendiadys 21, 42, 409, 870, 958 heroism 26, 33, 35, 581—2, 1063, 1244

hetaira 14—17, 31, 41-77, 64-73, 71,

220 heteroglossia 48—9 *hidden transcript’ 767—89 hierarchy 45, 326—8, 609, 855—-65, 1246-1335b history (personal) 27 n. 142, 30, 45, 49, 77,110 histrio 3 n. 16

Holberg, Ludvig 66

Homer see epic (Greek) homograph 663, 709 homoioteleuton 77 n. 84, 48,

Argumenta (p. 111), 64—-73, 65, 71,73, 94: 134, 147, 173, 190,

234, 326-7, 408, 438, 524-5, 659,

703,

769, 791, 815,

homonym 64, 197, 853

822,

1015

homophone 581-2, 698

homosexuality 609, 767-89, 782, 1181 Horse Feathers 66 Hughes, John 66 hybridism (linguistic) 25, 26 n. 127,

50, 137, 255, 832, 1096 hyperbaton 528, 884 hyperbole 48, 51,9, 96,98, 111, 133,

151, 181, 189, 350, 415-17, 532,

704-53, 705, 776, 790-904, 821, 831-6, 891-2, 893, 931, 936, 937, 1218-20, 1244, 1302—4, 1304

identity: loss of 40—2, 752, 924, 924a, 925—5a; mistaken 18, 11093-1237, 1124, 1143, 1159-68; national 425, 44 n. 240, 443, 7907904; Plautus' 1-3, 47 Ignoramus 66 illusion (theatrical) 3—4, 6, 10, 17, 22,

33-5, 37, 39 n. 215, 41—5, 128, 720-1, 1235, 1331-2

386

INDEXES

imagery: 48; erotic 35-6, 35, 36, 67-8, 1253-67; funereal g, 38—-9, 38, 39, 45, 1220, 1237, 1278a;

gladiatorial 1238; grotesque

36, 42, 133-264, 136, 145-7,

147, 199-200, 200-1, 212, 343,

429, 5448-5, 545, 782, 820, 843, 884, 911, 1246-1335b; martial 26, 41, Arg. I1.9-10, 384, 425,

525, 530, 550, 574-603b, 585,

759-66, 761, 762, 776, 1021, 1033-6, 1047, 1048, 1239, 1244, 13102; religious 67a, 109, 311; torture 3-1932, 15, 84, 235; weaving 399—400, 399, 400; 566

also metaphor — .

——

imitatio 18, 41 n. 225 imitation 566 mimesis imperatives: aba patterning of 133; asyndetic list 198-0; future 20, 32, 162, 257, 520, 858; future passive 292, 859, 1127; geminated 1284; jussive (second person) equivalent 286-8; ne * 103; quin * 1016

imperfect: conative 719; narrative 799 impersonal passive 273, 268, 453, 457, 685, 1113, 1179 imposture 24, 29, 65, 485; 566 also ldentlty improvisation 10, 12, 30, 32, 38-43, 63 n. 349, 66, [Prolog'us] (p. 114), 106—7, [218-24], 357-68, 394—414, 3997400, 401, 402^5,

403, 496-503, 530, 562-73a, 569, 573a, 574-603b, 594-666,

601-1a, 601a, 605, 607, 616-19,

678-875, 689, 700, 726, 750, 815, 940, 956-1016, 985, 1103-1237 incongruity seejokes/humour indicative: cum/ quom * 184, 208, 293; in deliberative questions 722, 395, 1159, 1160; in indirect question -

4. 18, 21, 262, 276; in causal

relative clause 626—7, 1233; in characteristic relative clause 171, 402, 516; ut (causal) * 278 infamia 8 n. 43, 728

infinitive of purpose 642

instauratio 8 instrumenti genus uocale 133-264, 159 interjection 29, 129-30, 205, 241, 275, 508, 743, 873, 1051, 1320 interlude 7, 32, 37, 52 n. 302, 573a

interpolation (textual)

63, 65, 82, 208,

767-89, [1205-7]

intertextuality 2—3, 5, 13—14, 40 n. 220,



47.19,38, 459-61, 772, 1260

intratextuality 37, 974, 1070-3

inversion (comic) 20, 44—5, 327, 367, 371

Ionia/Ionic 44, 62, 12742-5

Iphigenia at Aulis 19 n. 93; 566 also Index locorum "

Italian theatre/literature : n. 2, 2, 4—7,

11-13, 37, 815

Iunius Brutus, Marcus

1291

10, 810-50,

Jason of Pherae 25, 193

jokes/humour: conundrum

22,

23—-4, 75, 77; double entendre 38-9, 607, 864, 1177, 1181; identification 23—-4, 100, 136,

193. 333, 347, 614, 736, 747,

791, 820, 821, 1251; incongruity

15, 37, 48, 51 n. 299, 23—4, 30, 41-77, 75, 282, 416, 476, 492-3, 574-603b, 583, 707, 873, 1232; irony 2-3, 17—16,

26, 29, g6, 121,

174, 177, 201—9, 205a-b, 269,

288, 327, 361, 367, 521, 662, 664, 678-87, 866, go8a, 1010,

1070, 1124, 1145, 12744, 1310; literal/figurative 4, 35-6, 48, 32,

35-0, 47, 273, 314, 422, 457, 488,

710, 798, 874—5, 884, 1125, 1164; metrical 1913-21, 1329-35b; para

prosdokian 16, 84, 214, 874—5,

1176; repetition 46—9, 52, 79-84,

93, 236, 305, 347, 632-5, 9232,

977, 991, 1136-—9; torture r5, 36, 46, 84, 132 5; see also dissonance,

paronomasia

Jupiter 20, 51, 14, 268, 326-8, 327,

328, 330, 331-4, 335, 514, 574

628, 842, 846, 923a, 997 Justin 66

La entretenida 66

La sérénade 66 Latin literature (beginnings) 4—5 La trappolaria 66 legal fiction 45, 49, 581-2 leno 27, 34, 51, 128, 133-264, 167, 193, 1967, 203-3a, 204—4a,

233, 289, 311, 320, 326-8, 327,

387

INDEXES

335, 352, 357-68, 360, 363, 364, 366, 766, 767-89, 767, 951, 977,

998—9, 1081—3, 1232, 1235, 566 also Ballio

Leo, Friedrich

18

Lessing, Gotthold Ephraim 66 Lester, Richard 66 letters (in Ps.) 21, 29—31, 38—40, 43, 49, 52, [Prologus] (p. 114), 3-132,

10, 23—77, 26, 35-6,

41-77, 41, 42, 51, 52, 55, 64-73, 67a, 72,73, 74> 99 616-19, 647,

667—93, 706, 982, 985, 998-1014, 1004-6, 1008, 1097, 1257 lex Plaetoria 80, 303 litotes 1078 Little, Cleavon 66 Livius Andronicus 2 n. 10, 4, 1063; 566

also Index logical subject ‘loose end(s)’ ludi 4, 8, 10n.

locorum 493 547-52, 1075 52, 44 n. 238, 59,

1246-1335b; 566 also Latin words

lusis 32 Lycurgus 4

lyric poetry (Greek)

2, 49, 1258; 566

also Sappho

"

Maccus 12, 832 Macedonia

22, 51, 809

Magna Mater 9—10, 125-7, 1329-35b Manducus 12 marriage 6, 24, 27, 31, 23, 04—73, 182, 314, 547-52, 1038-51, 1311

Martinii, Bohuslav 66

Marx, Groucho 66

masks 6, 10—12, 32, 3-132, 96, 107,

569, 610, 615, 638, 659, 735, 768, 790904, 905-55, 964, 1143, 1189-90, 1219, 1329-35b

materfamilias/matrona 122, 889

Medea 23, 51, 868-72, 869, 872 Megalenses 1, 10, 19, 43, 1246-1335b Menaechmi 42 n. 226, [Prologus] (p.

114); see also Index locorum

Menander 5-7, 13-21, 39, 42, 44, 46—

7: 64-73, 71, 394, 659, 667-93,

669—70; 566 also Index locorum

Mercator [Prologus]

(p. 114); 566 also

Index locorum meretrix 26, 30—1, 30, 44, 47, 71, [82], 199-264, 171-87, 177, 188, 235, 320, 1911; see also Phoenicium

messenger's speech 43, 1246-1335b, 1253-4 metabasis 32 metacomedy 15, 66, 77, 238, 360,

434—5; 436, 483, 511, 527, 636, 637, 840-6, 894-902, 1239-40

metalepsis 49 metaphor 23, 37, 41, 48, 51, 4, 16,

23-4. 42, 73, 84, 90, 170, 235,

382, 399-400, 412, 413, 447,

402-3, 572, 574-603b, 593, 643,

742, 760, 790—904, 807, 811, 820,

844, 850-65, 933, 1004, 1244, 1300; see also conceit, imagery

metatheatre : n. 7, §n. 41, 34 . 188, [2], 114-18, 388, 410, 485, 608, 720, 789, 812, 822, 884, 940, 941, 1081, 1279; 566 also metacomedy, play-within-the-play metonymy 4, 12, 21, 40, 48, 50, 3-12, 64—73, 67-8, 84, 1218-20

metre: ABCD notation 56—7; anapaests

53, 60—1, 63, 133—42, 165-70, 166, 168, 171-87,

176, 230—40,

230, 574-83, 580, 584-91, 592-9,

θοο--40, 601-1a, 005--55, 905-12,

9052, 908a, 913-19, 936-51,

1103-15, 1253-67, 1253-4, 1268-73a, 1283-1304, 1313-21;

apocope 55, 53, 65, 77, 239a,

353, 442, 468, 524, 588, 598,

912, 1074, 1182; bacchiacs 53,

59-60, 24029, 250-64, 574-83,

1103-15, 1105, 1124-35, 1246— 52, 1253—67, 1268—78a, 1279-82, 1329—35b; breuis breuians 56; breuis in longo: 53, 56 n. 325, 57-60,

157, 169, 176, 230, 233, 346, 355, 503, 810, 948, 964, 1003,

1261, 1327; catalexis 53, 56—9,

61-3, 171-87, 592-9, 936-51, 1268-78a, 1313-21, 1322-8, 1929-35b; colon reizianum

62, 133-42, 920-352, 936-51,

11093-15; cretics 53, 57-8, 60, 62, 166, 250-64, 905—-55, 920-35a, 954, 1129, 1246-52, 1248, 1268—78a, 1268, 1277, 1279-82, 1283-1304, 1294, 13034, 1905-12, 1319-21, 1929-35b; diacriticals 55; elision 54—5, 71,

92—3,

140, 142, 165, 168, 228,

353, 482, 584, 723, 899, 913,

388

INDEXES

1334; enclisis 56, 479, 531, 1139; feet/podic analysis 53, 56—6, 580; glyconic 61; heavy rhythm g4, 111, 126, 133-42, 505-6, 508, 539, 686, 1275a; Hermann's law 63, 151, 171, 185, 357; hiatus 55, 57, 59—60, and commentary passim; iambic shortening 54-6,

59—60, and commentary passim;

iambo-trochaic verse 53, 56—9; ionics 62, 1268—78a, 12742-5;

ithyphallicus 61, 250—64; locus

Jacobsohnianus 57, 346, 616, 645, 660; Luchs' law 62-3, 524, 585,

700, 800, 810, 814, 839, 877, 1060, 1146; measures/lengths 53;

metron 53, 56, 59—63; Meyer's law 63; prodelision 55, [1], 71, 208,

623, 952—-3; prosodic hiatus 55—6, 62, 72, 151, 197, 231, 280, 318, . 415, 699, 800, 943, 1028, 1102, 1103,

1202,

1284; recitative 7, 52;

resolution 53, 56—7, 59—60, 62-3, 88, g6, 122, 133—42, 138-40,

143-64, 198, 230, 277, 300, 314, 325, 359, 401, 432, 439, 505—6,

549, 584-91, 609, 648, 650, 810, 905-12, 1099, 1144, 1178, 1182, 1230, 1253-4, 1263, 1905-12; Ritschl's law 62, 1182; spoken

7 16, 31-2, 48, 52, 57, 41-77,

998-1104; syncopation 53, 59—60;

synizesis 55—6, 5,6, 11, 37, 55, 92, 140, 142, 175, 228, 234, 243,

269, 316, 332, 333, 378, 406, 411, 428, 493, 583, 588, 593, 783,913, 944, 1124, 1258, 1324; system 53, 59—62, 905-12, 908a, 1116-23a, 1124-35, 1329-35b;

versus reizianus 62, 589; wilamowitzianus 61; 566 also music Miles Gloriosus 66, [Prologus] (p. 114);

see also Index locorum

Mime 2, 11—15, 940, 1246-1335b

mimesis 12 n. 65, 16, 30, 41—2, 44n. 242, 146—7, 209-17, 399-400, 493, 527, 626, 744, 811, 812-13,

817-18, 855-65, 905-55, 925-5a,

040, 1038, 1071-2, 1247, 1248, 1297 mise en abime 42 n. 230

mock-epic 26, 12, 174, 181, 525, 1064

monkey(s) 30, 41 n. 225, 410, 422, 744; see also mimesis, Simia monologue 10, 13 n. 68, r6—17, 34,

38-42, 52, 394—414, 394, 562733, 574-603b, 66793, 759-66, 767-89, 767, 892-904, 1017-37, 1052-62, 1103-35, 1238—45,

1246-13935b Mostel, Zero 66 Mostellaria 33, 37 n. 204, [Prologus] (p. 114); see also Index locorum motifs 566 themes music: ABC sequence 31-2, 52; accompaniment 7, 15—16, 23,

34, 40, 48, 52, 57-8, 133-42, 265-393. 357-68, 394-573a,

594-—666; arcs 52; cantica 7, 22—3, 31—2, 43, 52, 58-62, 133-264,

574-603b, 594-666, go5-55,

1103-95, 1246-1335b; 566 also

metre, tibia/tibicen

mute characters Ó n. 42, 29—30,

133-264, 767-89, 790-904, 865 myth(ology) 12, 23, 51, 102, 133-204, 193, 199-200, 199, 842, 790—904, 868-72, 869, 870

Naevius 2 n. 10, 3 n. 17, 574—6035b; 566 also Index locorum narrative 25, 34n. 188, 41-77, 402, 768, 1267, 1272, 1273, 1277a national literature (Roman) 4—5

naturalism 6, 11, 14n. 72, 20, 34 n.

188, 42, 47, 5733, 720-1 767-89, 961, 1017-37; see also illusion, verisimilitude neologism 16, 22 n. 110, 23, 43, 44 n. 238, 48, 50, 64-73, 65, 67, 68, 77, 183-264, 137, 154, 162, 181,

235, 255, 364, 429, 585, 608,

627, 707, 791, 831-6, 846, 852, 887, 893, 988, 1064, 1215, 1237, 1275a

New Comedy (Greek) see Menander

*no' (Latin) 326, 607, 657, 1067, 1330 nominative ‘detached’ 69, 855 nonce words 50, 77, 205, 235, 790—Q04, 810-50, 831—6, 832 Novius 11 obscenity 6, 12-13, 216, 1188 Ocean's I2 6_6

389

INDEXES

Odysseus 23, 26, 399-400, 1017,

1063-1102, 1063, 1064, 1244 Old Comedy see Aristophanes

onomatopoeia 76, 12g-30, 129-31, 889, 1279, 1295 Orcus 795, 842 orthography 22, 26 n. 127, 64, 5—6,

100, 167, 318, 702, 814 oxymoron 950-1, 1245

Pacuvius 199-200, 772; see also Index locorum Palatine Hill ro

Palatine recension 64 Palladium 1064 Pappus 12, 1189-90 papyrus: 75, 544a, 647, 706; Freiburg papyrus (P.12) 19-21; Oxyrnchus 4407 (Dis Exapaton) 13—19; 566 also Index locorum parallelism (linguistic) 77 n. 84, 48,

71, 173, 175, 415, 556, 575,

10046, 1291 parataxis 46, 49, 103, 136, 151, 209,

[221], 346,

39, 466, 590, 700,

747, 760, 775, 808, 913, 941, 945,

961, 983, 1138, 1245, 1277-8a

paratragedy 3 n. 16, 23, 40, 50-1, 443,

470, 702, 702—6, 703, 707-8, 707,

790-904, 834, 835

parody 12, 26, 37, 45, 38, 401,

45961, 483, 5435, 574-603b,

702—6, 702, 707, 1038-51, 1048, 1063, 1253-67; 566 also paratragedy paronomasia 2, 4 n. 23, 15, 22, 26n.

127, 48, 24, 43, 46, 57-8, 64,74,

122, 154, 197, 229, 248, 252-3, 410, 422, 459, 483, 520, 581-2, 585, 588, 607, 608, 630,

698,

709, 710, 712, 713, 736—48, 736, 743, 748, 893, 9253, 933, 960,

1012, 1192—5, 1246, 1323 parricide 212, 362, 367 participle: ab urbe condita go6—-6a; perfect with habeo 602a, 676—7;

-ium/-um (gen. plur.) 66

particle(s) 69, 483, 769, 1178, 1322 paterfamilias 28, 33, 112-13, [225], 407 patriarchy 6, 28, 120 peculium 19, 225,

1107,

1188

pederasty 773, 780, 786, 1180 perfect: ‘funereal’ (first person) 48--0; overdetermined 171,

689; passive with usus est 50;

pluperfect equivalent of 54,

565, 961

peroratio 41-77 personification 38n. 211, 4ὅ-0, 65, 76, 292, 669—70, 709, 884, 905a, 1008, 1251 Persa [Prologus]

(p. 114); 566 also Index

locorum Persius 772; see also Index locorum

phallus 2 n. g, 13,193

phantasia 200-1 Philemon 3, 6 n. 31; see also Index locorum

philosophy 2, 12, 15, 3ὅ-9, 49, 465,

566, 667—93, 678-87, 6779, 687,

Phoenicium: character type 44, 52, 71; function (in plot)

21, 24--5,

33—¢, [Prologus] (p. 114), 41-77,

51, 99, 120, 402-5, 530, 667--93,

1063-1102, 1075, 1103-12397, 1220; handwriting 23-4, 30; letter 30, 49, 3-132, 26, 35—6,

41-77, 42, 43, 55, θ4-73, 674, 74» 99, 616-19, 649-50, 704-5,

1257; manumission 226, 419, 1311; mute character 30-1, 1038—51, 1038; name 3o, 41, 227, 229; reception (post-Plautine) Argumenta

(p. 111), Arg. II.3;

status 30--1, 41—77, 64—73, [82],

227, 048, 1272, 19102, 1311; 566 also meretrix pimp see leno Plautinopolis 23, 44, 202a, 229, 597, 742 Plautus: career 1, 3, 45, 45901, 1278a; epitaph 2, 65; name 2, 3 n.

20, 4 n. 23, 11—13, 832, 1219-20;

persona 3—4 play-within-the-play 8 n. 41, 25, 35, 40,

401, 404, 458, 546, 697-8, 724-5, 751, 905—55, 935, 1184; 566 also metatheatre

pleonasm

12, 33, 106, 122, 250, 342,

382, 388, 399, 410-11, 490, 504,

524, 687, go8a, 921-2, 932, 966, 1012, 1123a, 1171, 1260

400

INDEXES

pluperfect: perfect equivalent of 54, 565, 961; subjunctive in indirect discourse 777, 1242 Poenulus 10 n. 56, [Prologus] (p. 114);

see also Index locorum

poetics/metapoetics (Plautine) ; n. 22, IO-I1I, 14 T. 72, 21, 34—5, 47, 50—1, 810—50, 810, 850-65, 869, 905-55, 944, 947, 1220, 1243, 1246,1269 polar expressnon /universalizing

doublet 3_67 399-400, 608,

77172, 77 polemics (literary) 40 n. 220, 50, 790—904, 801, 810 Polymachaeroplagides 23, 45, 52, 56, 988, 991, 998-9, 1013, 1221; 566 also soldier polyptoton 77 n. 84, 48, 27-8, 669-70, 705, 812-13, 1029, 1065, 1136, 1142, 1259 polysyndeton 48, 19, 397-400, 832 pompa 8 Pomponius 11 portmanteau 77

proscaenium 9, 11 prostitution 6—7, 24, 31, 66 n. 367, Arg. 11.15, 27-8, 41, 52, 67a, 172-87, 172, 177, 178, 179-80, 182, 196-7, 203a, 257, 440, 482, 610, 675, 780, 782, 784-7, 786, 948,

1272; see also brothel, leno,

meretrix proverb 77 n. 85, 23, 47, 75, 88, g8, 102, 123, 124, 140, 260, 317,

363, 371, 397, 452, 510, 631,

692, 739, 844, 936, 955, 973,

984, 1021, 1063, 1165, 1173, 1244 Pseudolus: character type 24-6, 324, 19, 26, 87, 104, 110, 120, 128,

385, 394-414, 485, 570-80,

724—5, 1292; comic heroism 574-603b, 1063, 1064, 1243, 1244, 1310a; costume 11, 32, 3—1932, 1218-20, 1218, 1219-20; creativity 21, 33—5, 46—51, 394-414, 3997400, 402, 403,

405, 678-87, 700; credibility 566 themes; cynicism 49, 23—77, 23—4,

35-6, 74, 75, 84, 92-3; feet 1219-

praeco 10 praetor 10, 23, 27, 358, 1231

present: cras * 60; future equivalent

of 778, 853, 874-5, 1139, 1157;

progressive 261, 466, 1148; vivid/

historical 1273 procatalepsis 36 programmatic features 3 n. 20, 30,

43-4. 48, 385, 1246-52, 1274-8o, 1278a

prolepsis 16, 72, 112, 145, 214, 1061,

1099, 1184, 1296-7

20, 1220,

1246-1335b,

1246-52,

1246, 1247, 1248; freedom (sense of his own) 44-7, 114-18, 358, 520, 5442, 586a, 1325; history (personal) 77, 110, 574-603b, 581-2; improvisation 37—9,

106—7, 394-414, 402—5, 511, 530, 569, 594-666, 678-87, 689;

linguistic dexterity 33, 40, 46—51, 3=-12, 12, 31, 123, 124, 125-7,

574-603b, 702, 702-6, 703, 707,

prologue 3—4, 6, 14 n. 14, 52,

711, 1096, 1246-1335b, 1258; metatheatricality 34—5, 43—4, 41—

pronominatio see antonomasia

name 25-6, 485,

[Prologus] (p. 114), [2], 3-132,

51, 413

.

pronouns: as final monosyllable 714; juxtaposition of personal 16, 71,79, 100, 466, 474-5, 808,

945; med, ted 47, 240, 350, 523,

1273, 'mimicking' 626; replies (strengthening), synizesis of 55; tis 47, 6; audience address 36 n. 573a

ne * 769; in 723; uosin 202, 562,

props &, 10, 29, 40, 143, 593, 694-766, 735, 751, 759-66, 789, 790-904, 935, 1184

77> 388, 401, 404, 636, go5-55; 1192-5, 1260,

1274-80, 1275, 1275a; physical vulnerability 20, 36, 39, 513, 534—

5, 544a-5, 1279-82, 1320-0a,

1925; rapport with audience 10,

394-7414, 562-733, 562, 564, 573, 574—603b, 759-66; textuality 50, 5442-5, 5443, 545; 566 also jokes/

humour,

seruus callidus

Publius Pellio, Titus 1 Publius Syrus 12

Puer: costume 768; function

(in plot)

29, 769-87, 767, 775; pathos of

INDEXES

767-89, 770, 771, 772; sexual

vulnerability 769-87, 768, 773, puns

780, 782, 783, 786, 787

rape/sexual violence 24 n. 123, 773, 783 reading (in Ps.) 28 n. 155, 49, 52, 24,

25, 26, 30, 31, 32, 41-77, 49, 61,

64-73, 982, 998-1004, 1007 realism see verisimilitude recension (MSS) 65—4, reception 7 3 n. 70, 32, 65—6, Argumenta (p. 111), 133-264 Regnard, Jean-Francois 66 relative clause: causal 505, 626—7, 1233; characteristic 97, 171, 386,

390, 438-9, 462, 516, 522, 575, 725—6, 1066; concessive 933;

conditional (protasis) 378; inverse attraction 592, 718-19; purpose

45-6, 413, 541, 564, 703-5, 774,

[1207]; result 611, 1022 religion (Roman) 8-10, 48, 292, 311,

326-7, 329, 546, 574

rhetoric see individual figures rhyme 64, 249, 320, 583, 676—7, 683, 686, 695, 9052, 946, 1231 ring composition 17, 71, 174-6,

402-4, 5733, 872, 1238-5, 1245

ritual (Roman) 6, 162, 266, 702, 1258, 1278a; see also sacrifice

Romance languages 602a, 874-5, 1164 Romanization 25, 33, 44, 14, 166, 181,

198, 416, 458, 492, 546, 795-7,

1232, 1272 Roscius Gallus, Quintus 65 Rudens 47 n. 261; see also Index locorum

Ruggle, George 66

Sappho 3 n. 15, 38, 1253-67, 1253,

1260, 1296; 566 also Index

Schleiermacher, Friedrich 2 : n. 108

seating (theatre) 9—10

"

secondariness (literary) 5, 51 n. 297; see also theft Second Punic War 1, 191, 574—603b,

790-904, 988

*second sophistic’ 65, Argumenta (p.

111)

self-address 43, 394, 453, 1246, 1247,

1248

m

429, 438, 511, 574-603b, 868-72, 1239740

sententia 460, 825, 1246-52

seruus callidus 7, 11, 15, 17, 20, 26, 29, 34, 37739, 41 n. 225, 45 n. 251,

46-7, 49, 19, 23-77, 75, 11 103,

110, 114-18, 128, 136, 239, 348,

381, 384, 385, 394—414, 394, 445, 492-3, 511, 513, 558, 574-003b,

578-80, 580, 581-2, 724-5, 905-55, 938, 1029, 1167, 1243, 1925; see also Pseudolus, Simia setting (of Roman comedy) 7, 11, 22, 2022, 483, 961, 1234 sex/sexuality 12, 36, 69, 122, 440,

607, 608, 738, 767-89, 773,

780, 782, 784-5, 786, 947, 1188, 1246-1335b, 1260, 1263-4,

12752; see also euphemism

Shevelove, Burt 66 Sibyl 25, 26

Sicily 5

Sicyon 995

Simia: character type 29—30, 40-1,

485, 742, 746, 913, 945, 1197;

costume 905—-55, 935; double of Pseudolus 30, 39 n. 217, 40-4,

750, 905-55, 908a, 932-3, 944, 945, 950-1, 9561016, 972-3, 974, 985, 1017, 1046; function (in plot)

112-13, 385, 401, 403,

905—55; independence 41-3,

905-55, 9133, 915, 920, 938a, 940, 944, 1017-37, 1038-51,

sacrifice (Roman) 265, 327, 329, 842 1258,

semigraeci 2 senatus consultum de Bacchananibus 1 n. 3> 54374 senex 28, 128, 199—-264, 406-8, 412,

s5ee paronomasia

locorum

391

1046-8; mimetic figure r2 n. 65,

30, 41, 408, 905-55, 918, 925-5a, 935, 940, 960-2, 968, 992, 997,

1004-6; name 57-8, 410, 944, 1012 simile 48, 401, 403 Simo: character type 27 n. 136, 28,

35-6, 4, 120, 406-8, 415-573a,

421—6; costume 415—5732, 1143; function (in plot) 24—5, 26, 26, 404, 1063-1102, 1075, 1089, 1103-1237, 1159—68, 1167, 1168; house 37, 410, 510, 571,

574-903b, 5852, 587, 766, 952;

name 410, 422, 588; playfulness

392

INDEXES

28, 36, 44-7, 415-5733, 415-17,

422, 436, 469, 546, 1063, 1064, 1100, 1165, 1238—45, 1238, 1239—40, 1243, 1244, 1245, 1246-1335b, 1268, 1285, 1290, 1291-1a, 1306, 1310, 1320, 1328,

1330; youth of 437-9, 438, 440,

441; see also paterfamilias, senex simplex (verbs) see complex/simplex slang (Latin) 40, 35, 332, 641, 707, 782, 1189—90 slavery: agency in 20, 33 n. 181, 39, 46—7, 138, 513, 678-87, 689, 920, 1105; contradictions of 44--5, 136,

381, 415-5732. 435, 448-52, 450,

465, 511-12, 610, 700, 1105; creative resistance within 20,

source(s) /model(s) (Greek comic) 3 Ὦ. 19, 4, 6, 13-23, 25, 27-6, 31,

35, 38-9, 44, 47, 51, 63, 3-192, 39, 114-18, 166, 341, 344, 402, 483, 532, 547-52, 574-603b, 597,

636, 703, 767-89, 1103-35, 1231, 1274-80, 1328, 1330

South Italy 2 n. 10, 4—5, 483, 550, 757

space (theatrical) 9--10, 12 Spallici, Aldo 66 speaker attribution 255, 335, 511-12 spectators 566 audience ‘speech within speech’ r6—1:7 spelling 566 orthography St Jerome 65 stereotypes (comic) 6, 21, 25—7, 50,

790-904, 852, 1064

35-6, 41—2, 44—51, 11418, 401,

Stichus 1 n. 4, 1. n. 7, 52n. 305,

49, 77, 570-603b, 581-2; 'good

(p. 114), 1296, 1329-35b; 566 also Index locorum stipulatio 23, 114-18, 114, 115, 117-

412, 41575732, 513, 520, 5448, 905-55, 913a, 920, 944, 12461995b, 1325; deracination in 37, slave' 29, 3, 138, 230, 960, 110335, 1103, 1105—6, 1105, 1114-15; human commodification 23—77,

52, 87, 133-264, 137, 347; lived

experience (of slaves) 45 n. 251,

489, 494, 501, 544a, 570, 741, 745, 773, 783, 784-7, 1015, 1100, 1171,

1172,

1176,

1240,

1311,

1171,

1263,

1311; master's view

138—9,

140, 182, 183, 745,

1925; manumission 52, 175, 176, 226, 358, 419, 544a, 610, 1107, of 33 n. 181, 45 n. 251, 103, 133264,

1103-35, 1105—6, 1105, 1246-52; names (of slaves) 14—15, 41, 133, 185, 636; non-benevolent model 133—264; slave’s perspective 20,

45 n. 251, 23-77, 79-84, 84, 234, 471, 472-3, 745, 767-809,

767, 911; specialized labor (of

slaves)

158, 161, 162, 609, 809;

subjectivity (master’s) 45, 134,

153, 175, 468, 471, 472-3, 490-1,

1103, 1105—5; see also brothel, Ballio, Pseudolus, seruus callidus Socrates 3 n. 15, 26, 465, 466, 566 soldier 6, 28, 33—4, 3-132, 51,

655, 735, 918, 935, 964, 968, 988, 997, 998-1014,

10046,

1152—3; see also Harpax,

Polymachaeroplagides

Argumenta (p. 111), [Prologus]

18, 279, 535—46, 536, 538, 554,

734, 1069, 1070-3, 1076, 1078 structure (of Ps.) 24—5, 31—2, 52 stylization 7, 48, 43, 167 subcode (theatrical) 34 n. 189

subjunctive: archaic sigmatic 14, 37,

79, 232, 533; causal relative clause 505; characteristic relative clause: 97, 462, 522, 1066, 1085-6; commands/prohibition

79;

fuam, etc. (-α subjunctive) 432, 1029, 1030; generalizing (second

person) 57, 137, 140, 578, 759; pleonastic deliberative 966; quod sciam 566; relative clause

of purpose 45—6; ‘repudiating’

290, 486; siem, etc. 50; tenses in

contrary-to-fact conditions 3—5, 285, 640, 792-3

Suetonius 2 n. 28; see also Index locorum

suicide 88, 89, 92-3, 348-50, 350 Sulpicius Apollonaris, Gaius Argumenta (p. 111) superlative 64, 269, 739, 897, 952a supine 185, 520, 665, 804, 824, 845, 846, 853, 1086, 1283, 1327 syllables: open/closed 54; division of 54 quantity of 54

symposium 22, Arg. II.15, 1246-

1335b, 1253-67, 1253, 1258,

1262, 1327

INDEXES

synecdoche 723 synesthesia 463 synonym 12 n. 63, 22, 326—7, 460,

519, 672, 958, 1132, 1192-5, 1225

tag-switching 443, 483; see also codeswitching Terence 1 n. g, 2n. 14, 7n. 37, 7n.

38, ron. 52, 11 n. 58, 14 n. 72,

136, 255, 401, 415-5733, 492-3;

see also Index locorum theatre (early Roman) 6-11 Theatre of Dionysus 7—5, 11 Theatre of Pompey 9 The Bernie Mac Show 66 theft/plagiarism 51 n. 297, 850—65; 566 also secondariness themes/motifs: chance 566 Fortuna; conviviality 43—6, 36, 790—904, 812, 821,

393 494> 513, 5345, 784-7, 950-1, 1063-1102, 1240, 1246-1335b, 1925; 566 also violence

tragedy 3, 40, 42 n. 226, 3-132, 10,

24, 38, 23-77, 254, 402, 469, 679,

702, 703, 707, 772, 870; 566 also paratragedy translation: as ‘adaptation’ 3 n. 20, I3—14, 26, 41 n. 225; back (of

Greek) 22, 211, 712; calque 361,

362, 873, 979-80 domesticating 20-3, 335; ‘fidelity’/closeness in 73 n. 70, 14 n. 72, 15, 63, 26, 56; foreignizing 21-3, 59, 442, 1181; (in)visibility (of translator) 23, 669—70; metapoetics of 21—2, 1260; Odyssey (Livius Andronicus’) 1063, 1243, 1258; Plautus (as translator) 2-3, 13—23, 51, 26, 1258; Roman

1254; cuisine 3, 30, 50-1,

790-904, 795, 797, 815, 829-30, 840-6; credibility 33—40, 128,

296-8, 301, 304, 316, 403, 467,

511, 517, 631, 877, 888, 1296; finance/money 23-5, 33, 44-6, 65, 120, 122, 128, 262, 303,

304, 316, 356, 759-66, 849-50, 1070-2, 1144-6, 1246-1335b, 1317, 1328; invention 35-7,

translation

project 4—5, 7, 1243; see also Dis

947, 1246-1335b,

Exapaton, contaminatio, Greek,

intertextuality transmission (MSS) 63--2 Trapulon 66 trauma 36, 46, 784-7, 1325 tricolon 16, 48, 19, 44, 64-73, 70, 581-2, 608, 695 Trinummus 30 n. 170; see also Index locorum

triumph (Roman) 37-8, 384, 574-

603b, 1051, 12702, 1306, 1317

50—1, 45, 128, 402—5, 402, 405, 434-5, 569, 678-87, 700, 944,

Troy/ Trojan War 23, 26, 1063,

14, 26, 33—5, 42—4, 50-1, 401,

Truculentus [Prologus]

1239—40; magic/transformation

403, 405, 820, 835, 852, 868-72; pietas 23, 121, 122, 268, 290, 356; self-knowledge 36, 39, 42—3, 262,

566, 683-6, 972-3, 973, 1103-

1297; silver 35, 46, 47, 100, 105, 300, 312, 347, 424, 673; 566 also improvisation, mimesis The Office 66 The Soldier and the Dancer 66 30 Rock 66 Thriasian Gate 597 tibia/tibicen 8 n. 42, 37, 52, 58, 133— 42, 188-1g5a, 202-8, 394-5734,

482, 562-73a, 5732, 574-603b timing (of plays) 34, 40, 388, 573, 687, 720-1, 720 torture (physical) 15, 36, 46 n. 84,

137, 259, 333, 428, 429, 488,

1244, 1910a

also Index locorum Tyche 678—9, 679

1064,

(p. 114), 41; 566

uariatio 338, 525, 1240-1 ubi sunt formula 179, 202-8, 203-3a, 209 Umbria 2 uxor dotata 122 Varro

1, 63—4; see also Index locorum

Venus g, 20, 15, 1132, 12572 verisimilitude 2, 34-5, 242, 403, 415-5732, 506, 1148, 1171; 566 also naturalism Vidularia [Prologus]

(p. 114); see also

Index locorum violence 29, 46, 133-264, 145-7, 199, 359, 773, 1295; 566 also torture

INDEXES

394 walking (style) 241a, 920, 955, 1275a Waller-Bridge, Phoebe 66

whip(ping) 42, 133-264, 135, 136,

137, 143-64, 150, 151, 152, 153,

198, 475, 545, 911, 1325

wine 41, 46, Arg. I.15,

183, [221-2],

296, 741, 947, 1246-52, 1251, 1303, 1906 wishes (Latin) 14, 131, 2392, 272, 309,

393, 714, 9232, 934, 936, 943,

976, 997, 1130

women: in comic plots 24;

representation of 30 n. 170, 27-8,

2 LATIN amica 28, 95, 174, 673, 1272 animus 18, 32, 34, 44, 236, 452, 866, 1272a argentarius, argentatus, argenteus,

argentum 38, 46, 47, 100, 105,

300, 312, 347, 673

astutus 41, 385

atque 106, 132, 195, 266, 406, 421,

460, 475, 739

41-77, 75, 182, 183, 954, 1038; speech 25, 29, 67-8, 67a, 154,

239,944

writing (in Ps.) 21, 49-50, 30, 41—77, 74, 402, 5442, 545, 1003; 566 also letters writing tablet 10, 21, 32-3, 3-132, 10,

22, 23—4, 33, 34, 355, 42, 47,

401, 545; 566 also letters

‘yes’ (Latin) 62, 230, 291, 353, 354, 483, 487, 560, 626, 671, 739, 1248 1156,, 9791154, -80

WORDS

deludo 691 docte, doctus 41, 205a-b, 385, 527,

678-9, 724-5, 765, 1243

doleo 1320—0a dolose, dolus Arg. 11.g-10, 485, 527,

580, 614, 959

dynamis/dUvawms 22, 211

autem 209, 305, 682, 692, 1028

ecce, eccum 96, 410 (ede)pol 25, 154, 342, 1252 eheu/heu 46, 49—50,

basilicus beluatus bilinguis bito 254,

epistula 38, 647, 690, 1000-1, 1002, 1008, 1097 (e)quidem 56, 25, 109, 146, 230, 504, 620, 723, 85065, 877, 1078—

ausculto 237, 4277, 429 458 147 1260 778

cacula 28, Arg. L4, Arg. IL14 calator Arg. IL.9, 1009 callidus 136, 385, 724—5

carnufex/carnifex 40, 196—7, 707, 950—1 clueo 174, 591, 918 comitia 23, 1232 comoedia 1081 concoquo 869

condimentum, condio 810, 811, 820,

825, 837-8 consilium 19—20, 37-8, 11, 17, 19, 138,

543, 575, 66793, 678

contabefacio 21

conuiua, conuiuium 43—4, 46, 812, 821,

947 credo 128, 304, 305, 417, 877, 888 cum/quom 12, 158, 593, 615, go8a,

909a, 1161

eloquor 12, 801

erus, erilis Arg. L6, 4, 395, 1268

fabula [2], 388, 564, 720, 754, 13352 fallacia 26n_ 127, 36, 38, 558, 7053,

765, 1192-5

faxo 49 festiue, festiuus

43, 1254

fides 35, 316, 467, 580, 631, 899 flagritriba 137

frugi bonae 337, 468 fullonius 782 graphicus 40, 519 gratia 22, 160, 320, 551, 712, 713, 1289

hercle 29, 326, 473, 534—5, 626 hodie 85, 165, 243, 413, 995, 13352

homo 136, 381, 434-5, 600, 697-8,

749, 9072, 942, 1124, 1196, 1256

INDEXES inanilogista 255, 256 inquam 517

395

philosophor 39, 687, 974 Plautinus [2]

interpres, interpretor 21, 26, 42

inuenio 34—5, 37, 45, 402-5, 405, 569, 631, 700 10 702—3, '702, 703

lanius 196—7, 327, 332 lectisterniator 162

lego 25, 31, 40, 63, 414 lepide, lepidus 23-8, 27-8, 435, 529, .946-9

ludibundus 44 n. 238, 1274-80, 1275a ludus/ludi 2, 8, 28, 36, 44, 24, 65,

369, 546, 552, 743, 1167, 1168, 1278a

maccis/maccides 50, 832

magister 42, 905-55, 933

magnifice/magnifuce, magnificus 42, 167,

194-53, 911

malitia 37, 385, 581-2, 705a malus, male 42, 133, 150, 183, 234,

242, 276, 7245, 770, 784, 9092,

poeta 34—5, 399—400, 401, 403, 404, 54425 Polymachaeroplagides 23, 43, 988, 989 praefulcior 772 prouincia 148, 158 purus putus 23, 989, 1200 quaeso 22, 866

quin 40, 295, 534, 549, 560, 854, 1016 recito 49

salus 22, 43, 45-6, 46, 47, 64-73, 71, 121, 708, 709, 982, 1004-6, 1019

scaena 37, [2], 568 scortor, scortum 65, Arg. IL5, 196—7,

1125, 1135, 1272

sedulo 960 Siccoculus 45, 49—50, 77 similis, simulter 34—5, 41, 57, 57-8, 382,

403

m

miser, misere, miseria 21, 49, 4, 13, 21, 74, 7712, 784

sino 61, 62, 477, 1301 sis (= si uis) 48, 152, 663 stratioticus 603 strenue, strenuus 509, 697-8, 697, 1129 subditiuus 752, 1167, 1208

mulier Arg. 11.3, [82], 172, 617, 948,

sycophanta, sycophantia, sycophantiose 26,

naenia 23, 44, 1278a nouus 28, 37, 494—5, 569, 601-1a, 700

tabella/tabula 21, 33, 10, 401

officium 140, 375, 377, 913, 1104 Opportunitas 38, 557-93, 669, 669-70 opsecro 29 opus 50, 601, 713, 910, 1185, 1269

terginum, tergum, tergus 46, 154, 198, 1246-13935b, 1325 thensaurus 84, 628

956, 1103, 1130, 1292 mendacium 34—5, 41, 403, 689,

. 790-904, 838

morem gerere, morigerus 22, 208 mortalis 40, 519, 700, 1212, 1243

1012, 13102

paenitet 305

pallium, palliolatim 44, 610,

1274-80,

1275, 1279 pantopolion/ navronoov 742, 743 paratragoedo 23, 40, 707 pellego 25, 31, 40 perduellis 580, 589

perfidia 37-8, 580, 944 peru 45

peruolgatus 124

sumbolus/symbolus 19, Arg. L2, Arg. L4,

55

30, 38, 485, 527, 1197, 1121

tango 120, 122 larpezita 757

m

tis O

uae uictis 23, 46n. 258, 1917 uapulo 20, 15

uel 31, 122, 902

uerbereus, uerbero (noun, verb) 42, 360,

. 867. 369, 475, 911

Vlixes 23, 1063 uociuus 469 uoluptas 2, 64—73, 69, 1257, 1280 uorsute, uorsutus 26, 1017, 1249 usus est 50, 195

INDEXES

396 3

INDEX

LOCORUM

Hymns

Accius poet.

1.65: 34 n. 191, 403

12 (7F): 738

trag.

474 Ribbeck: 70 420 Ribbeck:

10

455 Ribbeck: 70 543 Ribbeck: 683 551 Ribbeck: 702 578 Ribbeck: 10 615 Ribbeck: 7o Afranius com. 294 Ribbeck: 358

56: 1176 116: 816 156: 815

orat.

21:1129 Catullus 1.1: 27-8

Antiphanes

189 K-A: 402 201 K-A: 790

Apuleius

Apol. 32: 079-80:

81: 12n. 63

Met.

1.7: 950

2.2: 852 4.27: Arg. 1.6 6.27: 65, 199-200 . 9.11-13: 494

Aristophanes

Eccl. 412-19;:46

Eq.

406: 892 Lys. 372: 412 Thes. -

"

45: 365

Athenaeus 14.659a: 809 Aulus Gellius |'~t\3\

μ

, μ

Ι..ΕΙι-ι

|c_>onoo 100 (

1243 2

Caecilius 196 Ribbeck: 243-64 245—0 Ribbeck: 77 252 Ribbeck: 1062 Callimachus Aet.

1.21—4: 401

1.25-8: 810

51.5-12: 1258 51.9: 1260 51.13: 1263

65.10: 180 65.16: 56 68.16: 63

85.1-2: 235

86.1: 1262 93.2: 1196 Cicero Att. 2.24.4: 41 Cael.

49: 67a

Phil.

2.15: 65

Q. Rosc. 20 65

84868—72 1.121: 197 Columella

1.8.7: 47 n. 262

comic fragments (Roman) com. inc. Ribbeck 75: 679

INDEXES Corpus inscriptionum Latinarum

1.724: 757

1.2.581: 549—4 Donatus Ter. An. 251: 453

Ter. Hec. 753: 27-8

| Ennius Ann. 104: Skutsch 703

18 Warmington: 1215

trag. —

. BRibbeck: 894 Livy 5.48.8-0: 1317 7.2.9-13: 4 n. 25

7.2.12: 11 n. 61

8.9.7: 589 38.35.5: 189 39.6.9: 790-904 40.94.4: 292

107 Skutsch: 907 206—7 Skutsch: 810

Lucilius 772 Marx: 154

448 Skutsch: 1262

Lucretius

8: 493 59-62: 940

Menander

455 Skutsch: 702 392 Skutsch: 889

477 Skutsch: 1260 Sat. scen.

37—8 Jocelyn: 282 87 Jocelyn: 702-6 139 Jocelyn: 10

254—7 Jocelyn: 459-61

254 Jocelyn: 460

255 Jocelyn: 460 . 259 Jocelyn: 683 Euripides

Hcld.

2.949: 834 4-1177-9: 35-6

ASþ.

411: 678-9 Dis Ex. 11-17: 15-16 15-17: 15

18-30: 16

22-3: 16 24-5: 16 25-6: 17

84-9: 17 n. 86

lA 34-48: 10

91-102: 17 92: 17

107(32 φ 4:84

102: 15 n. 80

4

103-5: 17—16

Med. 1209: 412

108-10: 18 Epit.

.

1093-7: 679

Hesiod

fab. incert. 4 Arnott (P.Freib. 12)

H Th. 27: 403 orace Carm.

1.13.11-12: 67

scholiast ad 1.2.31—5: 440 Juventius ͵ com.

1034 Marx: 1107 1923 Marx: 524

28-9: 17 n. 85

167: 412

S

397

l_RlbbeCk:

138—9

Livius Od. Andronicus 1 Warmington: 1243

19 Warmington: 1258

1-8: 19-21 -ἐ ξἓ "9 20

5-8: 20 7-8: 20 frr.

170 K-A: 1300 321.3—4 K-A: 681-2

681

monost.

K-A: 678—9,

18: . 685

Naevius

com.

678

INDEXES

398 13 Ribbeck: 950-1 40 Ribbeck: 381 72 Ribbeck: 1081 76 Ribbeck: 695 82 Ribbeck: 1296 96-8 Ribbeck: 496-503 113 Ribbeck: 59 Pacuvius trag.

144 314 408 Persius 5.165:

268: 385

278: 669-70 280: 428 287: 179

318: 321: 325: 332:

382 422 702 710

342: 385 Ribbeck: 702 Ribbeck : 70 Ribbeck : 894 659

5.176: 945

Petronius

343: 610 365: 581-2

367: 353, 540 377: 689

398: 925-5a

440: 592

448: 662

37-9: 365

458-9: 735 463: 574

68.9: 147

496: 409

66.2: 832 Philemon

56 K-A: 679

82.24—6 K-A: 829-30 114.1-2 K-A: 791

114.3—4 K-A: 831-6

Pindar P.

3.60: 685

Plato Ap.

8.86: 1235

21d7: 566 Plautus Am.

4: 626

7: 381

13- 133575a 29: 269 26-7: 569 33-7: 940

69—74: 8 n. 44

480: 85

497: 752

501: 860 506: 30 n. 166

556: 343 562: 933 597-8: 929-30 633-50:69 642: 583 697: 386

137* 343

814: 423 8g2: 269

841: 269

868: 564 920: 1058 958-61: 1103-35

959-60: 468

960: 56, 1105-6 966: 664 987: 1081, 1239-40

94:85

105: 19 135: 933 197: 820 159: 614 186: 586a 191: 586 197: 941 212: 581—2 242—9: 490 251: 589 253: 524

115: 399 119-20: 1017 133: 36

175: g 178-86:

1126

INDEXES

399

904: 583

446: 359

249—66: 394-414

555-6: 870

511: 738

229—31:311

240: 394 256: 1239-40 258: 395, 1306 269: 1051 277: 84 298: 1100 305: 1109 338: 1127 941: 333 400-1: 1218-20, 401: 1219 404: 250

410: 996 419: 136 420: 201 449: 1166 474* 131 512: 695 554—5: 586 563: 979-80

575: 333

606-15:00 614: 180

646—745: 1315-19 661: 1315

664-8: 179-80 666—7: 67-8 666: 30 668: 1250

691—5:

695:

179-80

1260

705-16: 1319 747: 41 748: 404 793: 202a 892: 412 923* 96

942-7: 1329-35b

946: 579 Aul.

77-8: 89

79: 760 107--7: 441

201: 139 251: 291

309-10: 809 316-19: 852 325: 5448 367-8: 846 406: 928

557-9: 1302—4

587—607: 1103-35 587-8: 468 588-90: 1103

591: 1105 599: 1105-6

1218

626—7: 1045 632: 1295 682: 1161

700: 1292 799: 413

754-9: 541—2 755-9: 1212

785:37

788: 538 819: 24 fr. 2: 1125

Bac.

37: 1007

41: 289

71:1275

109: 381 115-16:15

116:65 121—9:15 129: 15 194—5:34 2193-5: In.'j 214—15: 1244 226: 580 22Q: I5 n. 77 294: 606

240: 15 254: 29 273: 525

349-67: 1017-37 350: 399 357: 110

362: 15

395:1325

371: 791 405: 739 409710: 41575732, 437—9 433: 25 465-6: 628 474* 591

494-562: 1319 494* I5

497-8:15

5093-8:16

INDEXES

400

509-10: 17

510:17n. 8

511-200 17 512-14:17

520-25: 113n. 68, 16 521-6:17

526-9: 113 n. 68, 17

528: 15n. 80 530-3:17 531: 1

534-8:18

538-58:18 540-51:18 637: Arg. 1.6

640-70: 1103-35 640-66: 574-603b

642: 574

649—-50: 15, 636

651-3: 575 653: 740 656: 139

687: 15

703415

709: 585 711: 587

714-15:10 730: 25

734-48: 446 739741: 511

1027: 31

1068: 590

1069: 588, 1306 1070: 705a 1072—-9: 574-603b

1073—4:12 ιοροα:ιἷὃἓ᾽ 1162: 483 1181: 947 1189a:15

1184-1211: 1328 1207-11:

1210: 1992 1211: 1335

fr. 1: 164 Capt.

44-75: 683—4

55: 1239—40

57: 363

60: [2]

116-24: 611

199: 284 137: 666

156: 148

174 165 202: 452

203-4: 282

244: 703

255-6: 940 284: 687, 974

801: 1008 824: 518 89393: 129-31, 241a 888-9: 1278a

425: 1007

925-78: 384, 574-603b, 1063

479: 722

923: 31

933: 702-6 -

945-6: 868—72 948: 1310a

949: 581-2 952: 580

956-6a: 704-5 958: 1064

1929-35b

285: 988

392: 696

474: 148

516-32: 3947414 534* 394: 453

535-6: 395 539: 423

569-70: 631

574 77 647: 1218

979: 702

650: 1325 653: 1029 664-6: 459-61

988: 31 992: 32

665: 460 666: 461

969: 585 977: 586 986:31

9952: 560

997-1035: 41-77

997: 998-1014 1000: 1108 1005: 91

664: 459

774: 669-70

806: 996 811: 143, 458, 996

823: 143 836: 37

INDEXES 838: 1065

401 401: 5448

847-51: 166

418: 77, 581-2

859: 1065

443: 955

867: 780

462: 609

848: 386 863: 327

888-9: 23

903-4: 166

914: 198

915: 166 947: 98

424-7: 92-3 460-6: 1181 510: 1029

511-12: 810

525: 748

527: 469, 951 554: 421

951: 42 n. 228, 911

602-9: 79-84

1026: 602

644: [218]

1024—5: 462-3

1029-36: 1329-35b, 1995—-5a 1029: 1332, 1935a

1033: 401

1034-5: 1335

Cas.

5-20: 65 7: 1269

12: [2]

25-8: 296-8

28: 297

32-—4: 3 34: 2 1. Q

50: 586

64: 1294

634a: 1296 652: 202a

671-4: 711 685: 1274

700-9: 711

726: 1253 7472a: 815

752: 954 759-62: 552

759-80: 1254 769: 751

798-9: 573a 812-13: 31 821--2: 589

837-54: 67-8, 179-80 860—1: 404, 1239—40

84: 564

923: 1021

103: 148 128-9: 669-70 194-8: 179-80 194—5: 67-8

1003: 1006: 1008: 1012:

86: 314

135: 180

217: 417

221—9: 63

979-80: 1 n. 3

428 [2], 388 27-8, 808-9 1332

1027: 1026

Cist.

43: 314

225: 669 290—02: 327

52: 29 59: 4

245: 1107

71: 724

240: 947

249—50: 889

202: 153

68-9:63 149-202:

149: 794

266: 421

201: 589

297: 407

247:180 —

267: 358 277: 421 204: 297 316: g8 -

338: 9352

365-8: 711 390: 428

206-8: 235 207:9 211—12:34 252: 738

330-1: 178

457: 6

534: 592

0058

INDEXES

402 θ99-46:90

645:95

81-103: 394-414, 394,

653: 950

657: 864 697: 1219-20

698:13

403: 260

727: 954

100: 402, 569

782-7: 1329-35b

104-5: 695-6 148:go 163: 586

768: 1159

782: 1234, 1332

784-5: 570

Cur.

12: 966

32: 608

96-120: 243-64

172: 95 174: 95

202: 688 290: 690 288-94: 1275 288: 1275a

291: 12752 292: 742 294: 1275a

109: 414

18g—4: 762 199: 742 204: 952-3 350: 124

382-93: 415-5732

410—1

1: 519

435: 592 452:

841

492: 092

297: 664

606: 1237 625—-6: 145—7

324: 198

656: 388

424: 166

343-8: 343 466: 166

377-9: 296-8 378: 297

384-461: 10 400-3: 1181

429-36: 41-77 431: 381

464-86: 8 n. 41 470-82: 780 486: 409

409: 77

520: 1038 524: 982

535: 358

553: 992 591: 401 614:ἓἷἷ 683: 1145

Epid.

12: 887

14: 1048

18:71 26: 202a

52a: 52

651: 337

672: 105 690: 407

695: 859 696:

935a

723: 1335

732-3: 1329-35b 732:

581-2

739: [1]

Men.

374 4 9: 711 7:

401,

403, 1081

ἷ2ἓἷἷἤἓ-3

198: 273 144: 757 156--7: 510 170: 791

189:52

195: 286

208-13: 852

210—11: 166 225: 892 244: 1141 275: 1825 355: 1253

INDEXES

403

37!: 944

962-3: 1157

404: In.'] 410: 532

1007-8: [2], 388

387: 713

427: 1269

436: 659 457: 830

463: 1287

512: 429

516: 1196

554: 707

604: 155

679: 1312

714-18: 872 790: 662 804: 583 902: 1063

903: 317

950: 1185 966-89: 1103-35 968-9: 1105-6

983b: 1114-15 1050: 541—2 1162: 1332, 1335

Mer.

3: 1239—40 9-16: 3 n. 21 31: 794 37: 794 137: 241a 147: 687 160: 388 167: 241a

298-9: 749

312: 231 42'7: 724 457: 95

469-73:90

639—40: 1218-20 639: 1218 640: 1219-20 649: 486

978: 357

1025: 1995

1026: 1995 Mil.

14: 22 n. 110, 988

16: 158 142: 979-80

156: 131

160: 616 208: 874—5

211—12: 574—603b 219: 519 216: 1

222:5%%

229—90: 763 260: 950

334: 381 359-60: 331

373-4: 581-2

373:77 421: 1197

565-7: 950-1

612-13: 941 616:4 658: 688 729: 1128 784: 727-8 819: 110

846: 628

902-39: 764 959: 882 986: 1306

1012—19:17

1014-15: 336-9

1033: 6

1048: 583 1066a: 363

1079: 829 1094: 231

1194: 669

1159: 148

1161-2: 1167 1161: 1274 1183: 751 1216—83:38

1227: 174

1260: 1296

1359: 603 882-3: 707-8 945: 202a

1387: Arg. 1.6

Mos.

3: 364

INDEXES

404

226: 887

238: 954

39: 814

249: 1161

251: 174

66: 202a

149: 1215

267: 1125

158: 760

400: 52

319—47:

279: 137

1246—52,

319-29: 38-9

1296

282:96 299: 1260 390: 581-2

330: 1247 331: 1297

406-11: 975 406—7: 366

356: 137

421: 365 433-6: 296-8 442—-9: 296-8, 296

348-62: 3947414 402: 297 412—15:

451: 297

678-9

546: 110 603—05: 357-68

702--7: 771 719: 273 734: 574 770: 2 775: 532 777: 59071

899-900:

606

1122: 1282 1151: 1081 1156:72

1158:24 1178—9: 1325

1181: 1332, 1335a

Per.

1103-735

22: 158

29: 49:

458 1264

68:

364

463: 935 464: 458

499: 1008

1041—59: 574—603b

12: 772

453—4: 681-2

497: 31

991-2: 1325 10937: 410-11

7-12:

451-2: 577-8 466-7: 941

828: 1269 858-84: 1103-35 858-9: 1114-15

875: 153

408: 975

52: 87475

500: 31 501-27: 41—77 519: 1264 527: 72

535: 984 582:77

607: 762 648: 808-9 660—70: 343 665:52 753-858:

1246-1335b

753-62: 574-603b 759: 586a

755-6: 574

757: 588

469: 165 47 2—0a: 1262 806: 458 816: 199-264 817: 770

Poen.

5-35: 10 n. 56 14: 686 16-35: 1082

99: 327 159-60: 8 n. 41 167: 688

183-99: 932-3

209—6: 270-9 206: 272 212:

295

54: 3, 790-904 89-90: 351

92: 608

126: 42 n. 226, 752 198-9: 1325

157-8: 366

159-62: 336—9 160: 1191

194-5: 765

905-ῦ: 552 206: 238 2g1a: 1278a 278: 585

296: 743

312:89 321—2: 524

12093-4: 852

1314: 814

1970-1: 820 Ps. (passages discussed in the Introduction)

17393:52 1—19: 19--21 37132: 3273 4: 21 Q: 21 10: 2I 20—77:21 26: 21

365-7: 179-80

42: 21

410: 291

77 45, 49 79: 49—50 105—-7: 25 n. 126

366-7: 67-8 366: 180

426: 751

433: 37, 1249

447-8: 383

518: 381388, 720 550—-1:

553—4- 410711

573: 1058

577: 458 578-9: 136 580-1:

582: 749

941

597-8: 812 623-4: 226 660: 1124 728: 664

818: 4

846: 669-70

849-50: 329 884: 486

886: 131

906: 337

914: 1127

920-1: 388

972-3: 679

1031: 928 1034—5: 1260 1085: 1319

1092: 2038 1119: 1218 1177:1259

1179-9a: 1265

1181: 585

1235: 1260

1255: 1335-5a 1270: 1013-14 1289-91: 145-7

74: 21, 49

75-84: 49-50 125-8:33

133-264: 8 n. 42, 34

225—9: 30--1 211: 22 298:26 357—68:92

388:34 394—706:52

394—-414- 34—5 40175: 34—5 415-5732: 35-7

434-5:28 483-7:22

542—5:50

5442-5: 36 546:36 552: 36 562-73a:

36-7

574-93: 37-8

594—666: 32, 38 667—93: 38-40

694-758:40 695: 27

702—52:40 707: 23, 40 712: 22, 29

759-66: 40—1 767-997:52 790—-904: 29-30, 41, 48 n. 270,

50—I 810:50 8g2:50 905755: 41—2 9072: 4I

INDEXES

911: 42 938: 41

1124: 852

998-1335b:52

1242: 1029

1103-23a:29 1218-20: 32 n. 179 1291: 27 1237: 27 n. 142

1372-1423: 352

1981-2: 309 1381: 1069

1260: 22

1418: 1332

956-1016: 32, 42-3 1063: 23, 28

1246-1335b: 22, 43-47, 52 1275: 44

1278a: 23, 44 1279-81:44 1917: 23, 46 n. 258 1325:46

ud.

124: 18 126:

363

227: 5945 22Q: 702 260: 1285 264—5: 966

305: 585

317-18: 1189-90 317: 1218 332—9: 702 335: Arg. 11.0 379: 286

431: 458

468: 1191

495: 778 529: 742

586: 1282

593-6: 771

630:

816

651:

362

636: 333 651-3: 975 652: 364, 975 653: 366

706-891: 1081 706: 351, 363 722: 363 833: 1143 906-37: 1103-35 942a: 834

970: 297 1000: 229 1015: 780

1059: 131 1092: 566 1099: 132

1182: 1062 1212—26:

79-84

1289-90: 1045 1916: 1138

1417: 1235

1421: 1335, 13352

44: 868-9

58: 150 85: 950, 1215

100: 577 101: 944 124: 972-3

163-4: 534-5

172: 348 301: 72

309: 77, 581-

347-97: 157-69 352: 164

357: 164

360: 166

399: 1146

446-8: 1268 448: 202a

472: 520: 579: 603: 659: 660: 672: 678:

718 577 519 1196

1268a 323 250 1253

683—775: 1246-1335b 698—9: 148 708-—75: 1262

745: 164 758-61:

573a

758-9: 5738

g66: 769:

155 12742-5

771: 235 775: 1331-2, 1332

Trin.

16: 1234

19: 3 45: 702 61: 686

INDEXES

407 150: 780 160: 612

190: 45

197: 859

210—55: 177

210—47: 248 219: 1278a 217: 256 291: 306

257: 710 261: 1137

2693: 1058 286: 1048 299: 1196

302: 1191

698: 421 705-6: 1276

315-16: 817

717-28: 3947414 718: 394, 395

345-6:63

350-1: 951 357: 15 409: 954

721: Αγρ6.1.4 767: 751

768: 725 781: 1260

426:52

461: Arg. II.9-10 482:1294 .

786: 413 817: 941

483: 1005

524: 583 551—630: 790-904

827: 1007 840: 592

842a: 593

568-9: 1127 612-17: 248 629: 992

843-997: 30 n. 166 857—60: 6 n. 41

904: 423, 985

634: 155

905-18: 985

931: 59475

652: 170 697: 658

942-7: 840-6

482: 392

936: 519

777 428

974: 686

819: 1232 854: 815

989-90: 570 1002-9: 572 1019: 742

883: 377

902: 1185

1016: 1251

906: 170

921: 1191 932: 149

1059-74: 243-64 1100: 1197: 1199: 1141:

419 250 1200 226

956: 170

967: 1335a

968: [1], 1332, 1335

1142-9: 1162-3

1143: 735

Truc.

115-22: 249—64 124: 707—-8 148-57: 786

frr.

fr. 12: 212 1: 1128

Quintilian

INDEXES

408 10.1.99: 48 n. 268

270-1: 457 338-9:60

11.9.91: 41—77

Rhetorica ad Herennium 1.9: 405 9.28: 35 n. 194 4.19: 38 4-42: 587 Sappho 31.1-2 L-P: 1258

31.5—16: 1258 31.9 L-P: 1260

31.14-16 L-P: 38 47 L-P: 63

Scipionic elogia

5.2—7 Warmington: 581-2

10.4-6 Warmington: 581-2

Suetonius Gram. 1 (p. 100Re): 2, 5 n. 28 Terence Ad. 11:56 19: 51 n. 297 188-9: 363 804: 1165 An. 9-21: 14 n. 72 264: 681 Eu. 19-24: 14 n. 72 28: 51 n. 297 83—4: 38

515-16: 1277a

669: 465 Hau. 16-21: 14 n. 72 24: 809 86: 1 Ph. 209: 679 292: 284 474* 421

931: 365

Tibullus 1.6.14:67 Titinius com. Ribbeck: 164 Trabea 5 Ribbeck: 669-70 Varro

gram. 306: 1275 L 7.81: 955 Men.

R

369:1260 1.17.1: 133-264

Vergil Α. 1.1: 1310a 9-423-4: 453

Pseudolus of all Plautus’ author's metapoetics.

comedies

most

fully reveals its

As its eponymous

clever slave tel-

egraphs his every move to spectators, Pseudolus highlights the aesthetic, social, and performative priorities of Plautine comedy: brilliant linguistic play, creative appropriation of comic

tradition,

interrogation

of convention

and

social

norms, the projection of an air of improvisation and a fresh comic universe, and exploration of dramatic mimesis

it-

self. The extensive Introduction analyses Plautus' delightful comedy as a stage-performance, the comic play wright's translation and adaptation practices, his innovative deployment of language and metrical and musical virtuosity, as well as the play's transmission and reception. In addition to detailed elucidation of the Latin text, the Commentary examines Pseudolus as a lens into Roman slave society at the time of its debut at the Megalensian festival of 191 BCE. The edition engages throughout with current criticism and issues of interestto both students and scholars.

CAMBRIDGE

UNIVERSITY PRESS www.cambridge.org

ISBNI 978-0-521-14971-6

9 77?80521149716