Plautus: Aulularia 1910572373, 9781910572375

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Plautus: Aulularia
 1910572373, 9781910572375

Table of contents :
CONTENTS......Page 3
PREFACE......Page 4
INTRODUCTION......Page 5
AVLVLARIA / THE POT OF GOLD (I)......Page 26
COMMENTARY......Page 60
THE POT OF GOLD (II)......Page 107
METRICAL APPENDIX......Page 122
BIBLIOGRAPHY......Page 126
INDICES......Page 130

Citation preview

A ris

and

P h illips C lassica l T exts

PLAUTUS

Aulularia

E dited with an introduction, translation an d com m entary by

Keith Maclennan and Walter Stockert

LIVERPOOL UNIVERSITY PRESS

First published 2016 by Liverpool University Press 4 Cambridge Street Liverpool L69 7ZU www. liverpooluniversitypress.co.uk Copyright © 2016 Keith Maclennan and Walter Stockert The right of K. Maclennan and W. Stockert to be identified as the authors of this book has been asserted by them in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing-in-Publication data A British Library CIP record is available ISBN 978-1-910572-37-5 cased ISBN 978-1-910572-38-2 paperback Typeset by Tara Evans Printed and bound by CPI Group (UK) Ltd, Croydon CRO 4YY Cover image: Bronze statuette of a Lar, lst-2nd century AD. Image courtesy The Metropolitan Museum of Art, www.metmuseum.org, Rogers Fund, 1919.

in memoriam m agistri doctissim i Cesare Questa

CONTENTS Preface

vii

Introduction 1. Plautus in his Context 2. The Action of the Aulularia 3. The Lost Ending 4. The Characters 5. Stage Business 6. The Date of the Play 7. Reception 8. The Greek Aulularia 9. The Transmission of the Text

1 7 12 13 20 23 24 32 38

Plautus: Aulularia

43

Commentary 1. The Argumenta 2. The Prologue 3. The Euclio-Staphyla Scenes (1/1-1/2) 4. Eunomia-Megadorus (II/1) 5. Euclio Megadorus (II/2) 6. Euclio and Staphyla (II/3) 7. The Cook Scenes (II/4-II/7) 8. Euclio and the Cooks (II/8-TII/4) 9. Megadoms and Euclio (III/5-III/6) 10. Euclio and the Slave (IV/l-IV/6) 11. Lyconides and his Mother (IV/7) 12. The Treasure gets lost (IV/8-IV/9) 13. Lyconides-Euclio (IV/10) 14. The Exodos (V/l; Fragments)

110 111 115 123 128 137 138 147 160 172 184 187 192 200

The Pot o f Gold (II)

204

Metrical Appendix 1. Introduction 2. How to Read Latin Verse

235 235 236

Contents

VI

3. 4. 5. 6.

Common Verse-Forms in the Aulularia Prosody Basic Terms A Synopsis of the Verses of the Aulularia

Bibliography Indices

237 238 239 241 243 251

PREFACE In the last 140 years there have been just two complete commentaries on the Aulularia published in English, Wagner’s o f 18762 and Thomas’ of 1913. Stace’s doctoral thesis on lines 1-586 (1971) was sadly never carried through to the end of the play. Nor indeed did the text itself attract a great deal more attention overseas. There has been, as our Bibliography will indicate, a good deal of scholarly discussion on issues raised by the play, but there was nothing in the way of a lull commentary until Walter Stockert’s well-received work of 1983. This has unfortunately gone out of print. It has seemed to us both a very great shame that this brilliant play should suffer neglect. We met more or less by accident at Urbino, attending the Giornate Plautine presented by the Istituto di Civiltà Antiche under its now much missed Director Cesare Questa. Keith had at the time a loose commission from Malcolm Willcock to work on Aulularia, while Walter’s work seemed to have gone for nothing. It seemed common sense to combine the two situations, and happily we have been encouraged by Oxbow to offer a version of Aulularia in the Aris and Phillips Series. Work on it has progressed in Urbino, Vienna and Cumbria. While there have been several very useful general works published on Roman comedy in recent decades (Beare 1950, Duckworth 19942, Manuwald 2011), and an excellent translation (de Melo 2011-13), there has been a shortage o f works in English on the technical aspects of the subject; hence our Bibliography is rather more weighted towards German and Italian scholarship than is perhaps customary in this series. We have presumed to offer the reader two separate translations. The first, appearing opposite the text, is intended to offer reasonably close guidance to the translation. The second, appearing as an Appendix, aspires to offer just a hint of the metrical variety and excitement which Plautus provides. For the Latin metrics, we have chosen the traditional presentation, while acknowledging the usefulness in some circumstances o f Professor Gratwick’s approach. For beginners we include a Glossary of metrical terms (indicated in the Commentary by *). To make the text easy to read even for beginners in this field, we have added the sign ' on the principal syllables of the verse. We hasten however to stress that this does not mean we accept the notion o f metrical ictus.

Preface

We have had a lot o f help from a lot of people. The late David West was a huge support to Keith. We have both enjoyed the generous help of the folk at Urbino, especially Cesare Questa, Alba Tontini, Settimio Lanciotti and Renato Raffaelli. We have taken much advantage of Wolfgang de Melo’s splendid Loeb Plautus, also of his expertise in early Latin syntax. And we would have been nowhere without the sterling (and very patient) efforts of the people at Oxbow, Clare Litt, Julie Gardiner, Tara Evans and above all Chris Collard. Keith Maclennan Brampton, Cumbria

Walter Stockert Vienna April 2016

INTRODUCTION 1. Plautus in his Context Theatrical performances at Rome took place as part of state-sponsored religious festivals - ludi - ‘games’. According to tradition, the early ludi were held in the Circus - ludi circenses - and consisted of horse races and boxing.1 Staged presentations were made at ludi scaenici, held for the first time, according to Livy,2in 364 BCE. But proper plays (i.e., as inherited from the Greeks, tragedy and comedy) were not offered until 240 BCE,3no more than a generation before Plautus began his career, when Livius Andronicus ‘first ventured to string together a story with a connected plot’4. What then happened at these early ludi scaenici, and what did Romans expect of them? Romans of a later period do not seem to have had a very clear answer to these questions. Around the end of the 2nd century BCE the tragic poet Accius wrote a lengthy work on the history of the Greek and Roman theatre;5 his most influential follower was the scholar Varro, contemporary o f Cicero and Julius Caesar. We probably have traces of this research in the brief excursuses of Livy and Valerius Maximus, and in Horace’s remarks on early theatrical work.6 Though they differ in detail,7 they suggest that to begin with there was dancing and singing accompanied by pipe music, that young men later joined in with informal dancing and ribaldry which later became formalised into pieces called saturae. They agree that the professional actor was an import from Etruria - plausible in that the words for ‘actor’, ‘stage’ and ‘character’ (histrio, scaena, persona - ‘a mask’) have come into Latin from Etruscan. Evidence from Etruscan pottery and painting indicates that by the 5th century BCE there was already a tradition in which masked figures, sometimes 1 Livy 1.35.9. 2 Livy 7.2.1-3. 3 Cicero, Brutus 72. 4 Livy 7.2.8 ausus est primus argumento fabulam serere. 5 It received the name Didascalica. 6 Livy 7.2, Val. Max. 2.4.4, Hor. Epist. II 1, 156-76. 7 Oddly, given that the general shape and tone o f both passages suggest that Valerius is derived from Livy or both from a common origin; an easy explanation is that Valerius was careless in the use o f his source.

2

Introduction

dressed to represent mythological characters, danced to the accompaniment of a piper.8 During the late 4th and 3rd centuries theatrical masks became common in Etruria,9 perhaps suggesting that theatre proper was taking root there just before it did in Rome. There were other influences also available to Romans as they extended their control and acquaintance over the south of Italy. Theatrical performance in various forms had for a long time been popular in the Greek cities of the South and of Sicily, whether in the form of tragedy or of the various forms of comedy associated with the names of Epicharmus (5th century, from Sicily), Sophron (also a 5th-century Sicilian; creator of literary ‘mimes’, a form which subsequently became very popular in Rome), and Rhinthon (early 3rd century BCE, probably from Tarentum), author o f burlesques which went under different names: hilarotragoediae (‘merry tragedies’), or phlyakes. Apart from Greeks and Etruscans, there was a flourishing culture o f the Oscan people of Campania who about this time developed their own style o f comedy, the fabula Atellana. This was a form of farce, probably involving a great deal of improvisation, based around the antics o f four stock characters. Maccus the clown, Dossennus the glutton, Pappus the old man and Bucco the braggart. The form acquired its own status in Rome, such that its actors did not forfeit certain citizen rights, as other actors did. It seems quite likely that, when ‘plays with plots’ arrived in Rome in 240, staged performances already contained music, dance, some dialogue and some story elements, so that Livius Andronicus’ innovation was not completely radical. Indeed it is not so presented by Livy, from whose account it might seem that Livius’ performances (he was an actor as well as a writer) were to a considerable extent a vehicle for his own appearances as a dancer.10 Other writers, looking back to the time, understood that a revolution was taking place,11 consisting in a wide-ranging adoption of Greek literary culture by Romans. Livius translated the Odyssey into Latin; his probably younger contemporaiy Naevius composed an epic on the war with Carthage - both in the traditional Latin ‘Saturnian’ metre rather than in hexameters, later on the standard metre for epic. But so far as we can, on 8 Manuwald (2011) 22-26. 9 Manuwald (2011) 24. 10 7.2.9. This Livy is the Augustan historian T. Livius, here given his Anglicised name, distinguishing him from the unrelated Livius Andronicus, 3rd century BCE dramatist. 11 The poet and scholar Porcius Licinus wrote before 100 BCE: Punico bello secundo Musa pinnato gradu / intulit se bellicosam in Romuli gentem feram. ‘During the 2nd Punic war’ (218-202 BCE) ‘the Muse made her way on winged step into the savage warlike nation o f Romulus’ (Courtney pp. 83-86; fr. 1FPLBL), words later echoed by Horace, Epist. 2.1.156-57.

Introduction

a

limited information, judge, it was in the field o f drama that the new style caught on. We can trace the development of interest in the theatre by the steadily increasing number of festival days devoted to drama. In Livius’ day there was one regular festival with provision for ludi scaenici lasting less than four days;12 by the end of Plautus’ life there were at least four festivals with at least eleven days.13 (During the Empire the number went up to 49.) To this number we should add performances associated with occasional ludi staged for special occasions, such as triumphs and the funeral celebrations of great men,14 and also repetitions caused by instauratio. This is the name for the ritual repetition of part or the whole of a festival when some part of it has been wrongly performed.15 The huge number of recorded occasions of instauratio in the last years of the 3rd century have even been attributed to deliberate wrecking of the ceremony by people determined to secure a repeated performance of a Plautine play.16 Plautus himself is said to have died in 184 BCE1718and to have been ‘an old man’ already in 191 at the time of the production o f P s e u d o lu s Apart from this, virtually nothing can be said about him for certain. His birthplace Sarsina, in the hills o f northern Umbria - is confirmed by, or invented out of, a pun in Mostellaria 770. His name, Titus Maccius Plautus, looks like a genuine Roman citizen name with praenomen, nomen and cognomen, but it has been argued that each separate element could be a nickname deriving from some role played in his theatrical career.19Aulus Gellius devotes an essay to him20 with some engaging but dubious biographical details: ‘(three of his plays) are said by Varro and others to have been written by him in a flourmill when he had lost on trading deals all the money he had made “in actors’ business”;21 he returned to Rome destitute and to make a living had himself paid by a miller to turn his millstones. ’ One hundred and thirty plays were attributed to Plautus; of these 21, according to Varro, were judged as genuine by all relevant 12 The number was raised to four in 214: Livy 24.43.7. 13 See the table in Franko (2014) 411. 14 For what these might be, see Franko (2014) 412. The funeral, for example, o f L. Aemilius Paullus in 160 BCE: two o f Terence’s plays were presented at it. 15 Duckworth (1994) 76-78, Manuwald (2011) 47. 16 Manuwald (2011) 47, Dunsch (2014) 635. 17 Cicero Brutus 60; Blansdorf (2002) 186 suggests about 180. 18 Cicero Sen. 50; Didctscalia (= introductory notes) to Pseudolus. 19 Gratwick, Classical Quarterly 23 (1973) 78ff. 20 Gellius 3.3. 21 in operis artificum scaenicorum : not a straightforwardly intelligible phrase.

Introduction

Introduction

scholars. Several others were accepted by Varro on grounds of style, but it seems certain that the 21 plays contained by the manuscripts which have come down to us are those ‘Varronian’ plays.22Interestingly, in spite of the evident enthusiasm for attributing plays to Plautus, he was not universally held to be the best Roman comic poet: that title was awarded by at least one critic to his younger contemporary Caecilius.23 The explosion of dramatic activity after 240 BCE involved several different types of scripted play: tragedy based on Greek originals {tragoedia, fabula crepidata), serious plays based on Roman history or legend (fabula praetexta), comedy based on Greek originals {fabula palliata), lighter drama in a Roman setting (fabula togata).2*Plautus’ predecessors Livius and Naevius wrote both tragedy and comedy; Plautus apparently limited himself to adaptations for the Roman stage (i.e. palliata) of the largely domestic comedy which became the fashion towards the end of the 4th century - Greek ‘New Comedy’ - whose best known exponent was Menander. Plautus’ version of the relationship between his plays and the Greek could be apparently simple: Demophilus scripsit, Maccus uortit barbare.25 Until the beginning of the 20th century, because of the lack of any substantial surviving New Comedy texts, it was impossible to evaluate this sort of assertion in detail.26 But the rediscovery of Menander from 1900 on has shed great light on the subject.27Menander’s

language is restrained; Plautus’ is ebullient and extravagant.28Menander uses a severely limited range of metres and there appears to be little music in his plays except in the performances of the chorus at act intervals. Plautus uses the senarius29 for unadorned speech Cdiuerbium'); other metres are used for accompanied speech or recitative, still others in highly complex combinations {mutatis modis cantica) for the actors to sing to accompaniment. Menander’s plots are concerned with the stresses and strains of affluent bourgeois family life: relations o f children with their parents, o f husbands with their wives, inheritance, love, marriage. His plays fall into five well defined acts and normally end with the issues resolved. Plautus makes use of this scheme, but the result is very different. The five-act pattern is abandoned for more or less continuous action. Character traits are exaggerated to the point of absurdity.30Most Plautine of all is the development of the role of the slave as super-trickster at the centre o f a web of intrigue, and intending, either in his own interests or in those of his master’s young son, to do his master down. This distortion appears occasionally to subvert the plot of the original. Thus in the Casina the plot (from a Greek play of Diphilus) appears to be working towards the union of the young man with the attractive young slave girl. In the play’s prologue31the speaker asserts that Plautus has scrapped that ending and substituted his own,32 where the slave’s intrigue triumphs in the humiliation of his master. Plays took place at ludi) ludi were presided over by annual magistrates or by the great men who were presenting them as celebrations. Authors therefore had to succeed in getting their play commissioned by the relevant magistrates or statesmen. Terence is said to have recited his first play to Caecilius before the magistrates accepted it. Responsibility for the actual production of a play rested with an impresario who in the instances we know of seems also to have been the leading actor.33 He headed a company {grex)

4

22 In alphabetical order, as they appear in modern collected editions, these are the plays:

Amphitruo, Asinaria, Aulularia, Baechides, Captivi, Casina, Cistellaria, Curculio, Epidicus, Menaechmi, Mercator, Miles Gloriosus, Mostellaria, Persa, Poenulus, Pseudolus (191), Rudens, Stichus (200), Trinummus, Truculentus and the fragmentary Vidularia. For a suggested chronological order o f the plays and their (possible) Greek originals see Fontaine (2014a) 517. 23 Volcacius Sedigitus in Gellius 15.24: Sedigitus put Plautus second. 24 Types o f play are traditionally distinguished by the dress worn by the actor: the crepis is the kothornos, worn on the Athenian tragic stage; the {toga) praetexta is the embroidered toga o f the Roman magistrate; the pallium is the himation o f everyday wear in Greece as the toga is for Rome. Performances corresponding to mimes and fabula Atellana are assumed to have existed in Rome before 240. 25 Plautus, Asin. 11: ‘Demophilus wrote it, Maccus turned it into barbarian (language)’. 26 Though Gellius comments very' interestingly on Caecilius’ translation o f a passage o f Menander’s Plokion (2.23). 27 Until 1968 no passage o f Plautus could be attached to a known Greek passage as original. Eric Handley then identified major fragments o f papyrus from Oxyrhynchus as coming from Menander’s Dis Exapaton (The Double Deceiver) and constituting the original version of Plautus’ Baechides 494—562 ( Menander and Plautus: A Study in Comparison, 1968). See also Barsby (1986) 139^45, and Manuwald (2011) 229-30; Primmer (1984).

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28 The groundbreaking work on this was done by Eduard Fraenkel, even before direct comparison with Menander was possible, in his book Plautinisches im Plautus (1922), reissued 2007 as Plautine Elements in Plautus. 29 The six-foot iambic line corresponding to the Greek iambic trimeter. 30 This extends to the names o f characters: Menander’s are quite plain and often repeated from play to play; Plautus’ are polysyllabic and imaginative. E.g. in Baechides Menander’s Syrus becomes Chrysalus (with this name the joke o f 240 becomes possible; see also 362). 31 Casina 64-66. 32 The prologue to the Casina was rewritten for a revival, see Cas. 13. 33 Ambivius Turpio, speaking the prologue o f Terence’s Hecyra, implies that he is responsible for the production. From Donatus’ story o f Terence catching Ambivius drunk in rehearsal (on Phorm. 315) it follows that he was also the leading actor.

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Introduction

Introduction

of all-male actors.34 There seems to have been no fixed number of actors in a company. Marshall35 has had a go at establishing the minimum number of actors required for each play. At least some actors seem to have been slaves: Asinaria 2-3 refers to domini - owners - and Cistellaria 785 suggests that bad actors may be beaten after the performance. In any case, acting was not a profession for the higher orders: to appear on stage was to forfeit citizen rights.36Music, required for the accompaniment of the recitative and cantica, was composed37 and played by a tibicen, a flute player, who was always a slave.38 His instrument is always tibiae (a pair of double reed instruments). To provide the actors with costumes and properties was the function of the choragus, also engaged by the magistrates39 perhaps for more than one grex and more than one play. There was also a praeco - ‘announcer’ - to secure silence at the start of a play,4041and a dissignator41 - ‘usher’ - to show the audience to their seat. Costume for the palliata is suggested by the description itself: the standard dress for both men and women was the pallium?2 the Greek himation, a substantial cloak: it serves to identify the setting as Greek. Footwear was normally the low slipper called soccus.43 A soldier can be indicated by his tunica, chlamys (a short cloak suitable, e.g., for riding), sword and a traveller’s hat.44Appropriate variations are possible. The upper-class young man Pleusicles is embarrassed to appear dressed as a sailor in Miles 1284, and when Sagaristio and Saturio’s daughter enter dressed as visitors from far Persia in Persa 462, he is wearing among other things a tiara and the girl the cothurnus, the high boot. Masks were worn.45

Where were these plays presented? There was no purpose-built theatre in Rome until 5 5 BCE,46when Pompeius Magnus constructed the huge complex in the Campus Martius. Until then all theatrical shows were produced on temporary stages.47These need by no means have been simple or economical constructions. The lst-century patrician Scaurus used four huge marble columns for his stage set: they ended up as part o f the (permanent) Theatre of Marcellus;48 and by 187 the staging of shows had become so competitive a business that the senate adjudicated on the maximum sum to be spent.49 As to where these stages were, we have good evidence for the festival o f the Megalesia, celebrated annually in April: the audience sat on the steps o f the temple of the Great Mother on the Palatine, and the stage was constructed at the edge o f the piazza overlooking the Circus Maximus.50The association between god and theatre is confirmed by Tertullian’s account of Pompeius’s theatre: Pompeius had a temple o f Venus constructed at the summit o f the cavea?' and said that he had constructed not a theatre but a temple with steps below to serve as audience seating.52 This would suggest that plays at the ludi Apollinares were staged next to the ancient temple o f Apollo Medicus, roughly where the Theatre o f Marcellus was later built, and at the Cerealia in front of the temple of Ceres on the northern comer of the Aventine hill. At the ludi Romani and the ludi plebeii it is believed that plays were presented in the Forum. Attempts have been made to fit the text of the plays as we have them to the context of their supposed venue.53

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34 Donatus on Terence, Andria 716: ‘The character is female, whether played by a man with a mask {personatus), as in former times, or by a woman, as now.’ There were actresses in earlier Roman drama but only, it seems, in mimes (Val. Max. 2.10.8). 35 Marshall (2006) 94-114. 36 Livy 7.2.12; except for actors of Atellanae-, for the fate o f Laberius see Beare (1950) 154 f. 37 Cicero de Orat. 3.102, see Marshall (2006) 234-44. 38 To judge by all the available didascaliae: those on Plautus Stichus and all six Terence plays. 39 Plautus Cure. 462-64; Pers. 159-60. 40 Plautus Asin. 4. 41 Plautus Poen. 19-20. 42 A nurse, i.e. a woman and a slave, is imagined as wearing this in Plautus Bacchides 434; a man in Mil. 687. 43 Plautus Cist. 697. 44 Plautus Mil. 1423, Pseud. 735. 45 There has been controversy about this in the past, but it now seems resolved. See Manuwald (2011) 79-80.

2. The Action o f the Aulularia 1-39 {senarii) Prologue. The Guardian Spirit (Lar Familiaris) of Euclio’s household introduces himself. He has looked after the household for three generations now. Euclio’s grandfather, he tells us, found a hoard of gold, hid it and placed it under the Lar’s protection. Euclio’s father showed no respect for the Lar, so was not permitted to find the gold. But Euclio himself has a 46 On the fact and the reasons for it, Manuwald (2011) 55-61; Beacham (1991) 56-62. 47 Tacitus Annals 14.20: Subitariis gradibus et scaena in tempus structa. ‘On makeshift seating and a stage put together for the occasion.’ 48 Asconius in Scaurianam 23-24. 49 Livy 39.5.9-11. 50 Cicero, Har. Resp. 22 and 24; Augustine Civ. 2.4 and 26; Goldberg 1998. 51 The semi-circular seating area characteristic o f Roman theatres. 52 Tertullian On Spectacles 10.5; compare also Virgil Georg. 3.22-25. 53 Marshall (2006) 31-48, see especially Plautus Cure. 462-84.

Introduction

Introduction

daughter Phaedrium, who is most attentive to the Lar. In consequence, Euclio has been allowed to find the hoard so that Phaedrium, having a dowry, may make a good marriage. She needs to. She has been raped and made pregnant by an unknown young man of a very high class, and the child is about to be bom. The Lar will arrange for the rich old neighbour Megadorus to ask Euclio for his daughter’s hand: this, says the Lar (mysteriously), will make it easier for her to be married to the young man, who is, as it turns out, Megadorus’ nephew. Euclio is unaware of his daughter’s condition and she does not know who is the father of her child. But the young man knows the girl he has raped, and is longing to marry her. Noise is now heard within: Euclio shouting at his old slave Staphyla. The Lar leaves the scene as these two come on. 40-119 (senarii) Euclio forces Staphyla to stand well away from the house so that he can go and check the gold. Staphyla has no idea what is going on, even though Euclio does this ‘ten times a day’. While he is indoors, she reveals that she is terrified for her master’s daughter, whose pregnancy can no longer be concealed. Euclio comes back, satisfied for the time being - but he must now go out. Staphyla must guard the house, allowing absolutely noone and nothing to enter. Euclio is to attend a local meeting where money is to be distributed. He has to be there, or people will think he is rich anyway. He is anxious as it is: everyone seems to have become much more polite since he found the gold: do they know? 120-160 (song) Eunomia and Megadoms meet for a private conversation out of doors.54 The words in which she expresses her sisterly responsibility are old-fashioned and formal, and she is slow getting to the point. Before she does, there is some misogynistic banter in which Eunomia resolutely takes the man’s side. Then it becomes clear that she wants Megadorus to marry. He is horrified, and more misogyny follows: the only good wife is a dead wife. Eunomia persists: her candidate is not young, and she is bringing in a huge dowry... 161-177 (recitative) ...but Megadorus now takes control. Rich wives are impossibly demanding, dominating and extravagant. All the same, Eunomia has understood him: he does intend to marry, but whom? He tells her: the daughter of poor but honest Euclio. Eunomia departs, astonished but acquiescent, leaving Megadorus to make his approach to Euclio. 178-279 (recitative) Euclio returns. There was no meeting, and he is desperate to get home and Check the Gold. As he meets Megadorus, routine

greetings are undermined by Euclio’s belief that rich man being polite to poor man must have an ulterior motive. Euclio moans about his poverty: Phaedrium is unmarriable without a dowry. When Megadorus picks up this point and begins the formalities of a proposal, Euclio is overwhelmed with suspicion. After a brief soliloquy he runs indoors to Check the Gold, leaving Megadorus confused. When he comes back, Megadorus slowly establishes his credentials, each point being greeted with suspicion by Euclio. When he finally makes the proposal, Euclio’s first reaction is that he is being made fun of. Then he points out the social difficulties for poor families when connected to rich ones. In lordly fashion, Megadorus brushes over these. Nor does he need a dowry. Euclio is on the point o f agreeing when an offstage noise prompts him to run off and Check the Gold. Even Megadorus is a little offended, but Euclio makes a sort of apology and the engagement is, still with much suspicion on his part, settled. Megadorus goes to town to do the shopping for the feast. Euclio tells Staphyla, who is appalled, to get the house ready.

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54 On out-of-doors privacy, and on the question o f where Eunomia lives, see overall on 120 ff.

9

280-370 (senarii) Megadorus’ slave Strobilus brings the staff and the equipment for the feast. It is to be prepared in both Euclio’s and Megadorus’ houses, so there are two of everything: cooks, flute girls, sheep, assistant slaves. After some banter Anthrax, one o f the cooks, wonders why Euclio isn’t doing the right thing by managing the feast on his own. Strobilus gives him a colourful account o f Euclio’s stingy character. The cooking party is now divided. Strobilus arranges for Megadorus’ household to get the best of everything - to the fury of the other cook Congrio. Strobilus airily assures him that he’ll be better off at Euclio’s: nothing to cook with, nothing to steal, so no risk of arrest for theft. Staphyla is summoned to accommodate the cooking party at Euclio’s. She grumbles: no wine here, and no wood for the cooking fire. The wine will come later, says Strobilus, and Congrio offers the rafters as fuel. Now that this is all settled, Strobilus reflects ruefully on the difficulties of supervising a party of rapacious cooks. 371-405 (senarii) Euclio has been unable to bring himself to spend money on anything more expensive than some incense and flowers for the Lar. As he comes home, the cook Congrio appears for a second at the door of his house, sending a servant to borrow a bigger cooking pot from next door. ‘A pot?! ’ The Gold is in danger. With a prayer to Apollo Euclio bustles furiously indoors. His brief absence from the stage is covered by Anthrax. He has come to borrow a baking pan from Euclio’s, and as he leaves Megadorus’ house he calls out instructions to those indoors on how to prepare the fish.

Introduction

Introduction

But he gets no further: there is a fearful noise in Euclio’s house; Anthrax goes back where he came from, to get out of trouble. 406^148 (song) The noise was Congrio and his team being thrashed by Euclio. They come rushing out of the house to escape this; Congrio complains at what has happened. Euclio follows him out, threatening him. He had, evidently, no idea that Megadorus was hiring cooks to work at his house. There is a dispute, Congrio claiming that he has only been doing his job and Euclio that he has been thieving everywhere. Congrio says he will be content if he can recover his own property. For the moment, he cannot: he is left to complain outside as Euclio runs in to Check the Gold. 449-474 (recitative) But Euclio is out again almost immediately, and this time he has the pot of gold with him. Now he can send a very resentful Congrio back indoors. Alone again on stage, Euclio congratulates himself on seeing through Megadorus’ plan to get the cooks to steal the gold. Even the house rooster had been part of the plan, giving the location of the gold away by scratching and scraping around it. But Euclio was too quick: he decapitated the bird. 475-586 (senarii) Megadorus returns from town. He has been congratulated by his friends on the wisdom of marrying a poor wife. It would, he thinks, be a useful way to preserve social harmony if everyone did as he is doing. What about rich spinsters: who are they to marry? Anyone they like - so long as they don’t provide a dowry. As it is, the demands of rich wives with dowries are intolerable. Megadorus lists an army o f tradesmen who are constantly demanding payment, until the poor husband finds he has nothing left to give the one person who has a proper claim on him: the soldier. Euclio eavesdrops on this long speech, making occasional comments of approval. Finally he goes to Megadorus and congratulates him. Megadorus is a little disconcerted at having been overheard, and finds fault with Euclio for looking ill-dressed on his daughter’s wedding day. Euclio retorts that one should present oneself as one is; it never does poor people any good to put on a show. ‘May the gods preserve what you do have’, says Megadorus - a phrase which renews Euclio’s alarm, and prompts a renewed protest at the behaviour of the cooks. Megadorus tries to cheer Euclio up with the promise to give him a drink too many, and goes home to prepare a sacrifice. Euclio, suspicion only increased, decides to deposit his treasure in the temple of Fides. 587-660 (recitative) Enter a slave, sent by Lyconides, the father of Phaedrium’s unborn child. He tells us at great length how absolute obedience is the sign

of a good slave. He is doing as he is told: in coming to see how things are going at Euclio’s. At this point Euclio comes out o f the temple. He turns to the goddess with a prayer to her to look after his pot o f gold. The slave overhears. Euclio goes home, and the slave hurries into the temple to see what he can find. But Euclio’s sixth sense has warned him: he comes back to Check on the Gold. He chases the slave out o f the temple, walloping him as he does so. He then inspects the slave for stolen goods, closely and repeatedly. ‘What stolen goods?’ says the slave.’ ‘I’m not telling you’ says Euclio. Then it occurs to him that there may be an accomplice lurking in the temple. Reluctantly he lets the slave go and goes back to the temple to search.

10

11

661-681 {senarii) The slave, furious at Euclio’s treatment of him, creeps back on and hides in a doorway. He is not disappointed. Euclio brings the gold from the temple, reproaching Fides for her infidelity, and tells us he is taking it to the grove of Silvanus outside the city. The slave, o f course, overhears him and hurries off in pursuit. 682-700 {senarii) Lyconides pleads with his mother Eunomia to persuade Megadorus not to go ahead with his plan to marry Euclio’s Phaedrium, but to allow him to marry her himself. His plea is made more forceful when we hear Phaedrium from indoors: the child is being bom. Eunomia agrees. Lyconides follows her into the house, wondering, as he goes, what has happened to his slave. 701-712 {senarii) Lyconides’ slave has found the gold. He makes a triumphant speech and hurries home to hide it before Euclio, whom he sees approaching, can catch him. 713-730 {song) Euclio went back to Check the Gold - now to find it gone. He is distraught. In his misery, he begs the audience for their help; they laugh and confirm him in his belief that the world is against him. Lyconides enters and sees Euclio. He assumes that Euclio knows about the birth o f the child. He is completely at a loss for what to do. 731-804 {recitative) Euclio overhears Lyconides. Lyconides confesses to Euclio that he is responsible for (what he believes to be) Euclio’s misfortune. His excuse is that he was drunk when he did it. This creates a misunderstanding which continues for some thirty lines, until Euclio demands outright that Lyconides return his stolen property (760). Lyconides sees that he must explain in more detail. It takes him some time to convince Euclio that he is not the thief, until in 777 he begins the same process as Megadoms had started in 212: establishing his credentials as a suitable son-

Introduction

Introduction

in-law. But he does so very clumsily. He establishes his connexion with Megadorus - and then immediately tells Euclio that Megadorus wishes formally to reject his daughter. This does not make Euclio well-disposed to receiving the next piece of news, that Phaedrium has just had a baby by the inept young man standing in front of him. Gold lost, daughter ruined, he goes home to see what is really happening. 806-832 (recitative and song) Lyconides is still puzzled at the absence of his slave. Not for long. The slave appears, congratulating himself. Lyconides overhears him. They approach each other step by step and word by word in a piece of characteristically Plautine ritual, the slave making up his mind to tell his master about the gold and use it to buy his freedom. As soon as Lyconides hears about the gold, he furiously demands that it be returned. The slave pretends that he was only teasing his master. The play breaks off with the pair in angry argument.

are uncertain, and there are other possibilities as well: the slave could make his liberation (which he has demanded in v. 823 nunc volo me emitti manu ‘now I wish to be set free’) a condition for the surrender of the gold and he could demand further support (see ff. V).58 And we cannot be certain whether he only promised to bring the gold or had actually to go and fetch it, a detail that would unnecessarily interrupt the action.59 Certainly, in Euclio’s dialogue with Lyconides we have to reckon with a major rhesis of the protagonist similar to Knemon’s speech in Menander’s Dyscolus (708 ff.). Euclio declares that the gold did not make him happy but more and more anxious (frr. Ill and IV). It seems that the old miser is ‘healed’of his mistrust (cuttaxla) when Lyconides, contrary to Euclio’s suspicions, returns the gold to him. And he decides (‘with joy’, laetus, according to the first argumentum) to give the treasure (hardly part of it as some have thought)60 as a dowry to his daughter: illic (= Lyconides) Euclioni rem refert. / ab eo donatur auro, uxore et filio. ‘He (Lyconides) returns the gold to Euclio, who gives him gold, wife and son’ (argum. II 8 f.; see also the hints in the Prologue, 26 f.).61After the betrothal of Phaedrium to Lyconides by the girl’s father we have also to reckon with a final invitation to the wedding breakfast which certainly takes place inside the two houses.62Three spurious endings, found in Renaissance manuscripts, have been edited by L. Braun, Scenae suppositiciae. Hypomnemata 64, Gottingen (1980) 144 ff.63

12

3. The Lost Ending Since the text of the play ends abruptly with v. 832, we can only try to reconstruct the ending with the help of the two argumenta (see p. 46) and the fragments transmitted by Gellius and Nonius. Lopez-Pocina (2007) remind us that last acts are usually rather short (50-150 verses). The scene heading in the manuscripts before v. 80855 is a relic of a more complete text; it shows us that Euclio (at least partly) overheard the discussion between Lyconides and his slave (Fr. II: ut admemordit hominem! “How he has stung the fellow!” seems to belong to that scene).56 From the quarrel between master and slave Euclio will have already realized the unselfishness of Lyconides. When he appears on stage, the young master promises him to return the gold which the slave has to bring from home.57 Primmer (1992) 111, had the brilliant idea that Plautus’ changes led to a ‘superior slave’ who finally, after Lyconides had been unsuccessful in his investigation, agreed of his own accord to hand over the gold; and the comedy could come to a good end with a double spondeo (T promise’), one of Lyconides to return the gold, and one by Euclio who promises daughter and dowry. Clearly details 55 The scene headings go back to the early 2nd century CE (Bader 1970, 150 ff.). 56 See Webster (1960) 127; Primmer (1992) 111, n. 101; for admemordit in this sense see comm, on fr. II (p. 203). 57 In the Greek original the slave presumably arrives with the gold which he has hidden under his garments (see p. 34).

13

4. The Characters Euclio64 is the central character and one unlike any other in Plautus, deserving careful analysis and developing in an intelligible way. He is given 58 For the ‘triumphant slave’ see also Lefevre (2001) 152, who refers to Sherberg (2000) 402ff. 59 But such a violation o f ‘Webster’s law’ which in Greek comedy would demand a choral break is not impossible in Plautus (see e.g. Cist. 630). 60 See e.g. Gaiser (1977) 305 f. and note 385. 61 Possibly fr. I (pro illis corcotis etc.) also was part o f such a rhesis, if it really belongs to the Aulularia. Or does it belong to Megadorus (see 475 ff,) whose appearance at the end o f the play is not impossible? On this ‘happy ending’ see also Konstantakos (2016) 154 f. 62 Otherwise the work o f the cooks would not make sense. Again the analogy o f the Dyscolus is relevant. 63 See p. 30 n. 162. 64 e)5 and kTeioj we explain by ‘closing/locking w ell’ like Lefevre (2001) 143 ('der gut Schlieflende’) after Paratore (1992) 253 ‘tienichiuso’; see also Lopez Lopez (1991) 92 f. who also considers the sense ‘honrar’, ‘o f good fame’ (from eu and k/xo u is a m Ritschl post 205 lacunam statuit Wagner 207 sa lu a re e s t B D V : corn J 178 e x ib a m

61

(Re-enter Euclio) 11/2 HUC.

MEG. HUC. MEG. HUC. MEG. HUC. MEG. HUC. MEG. HUC. MEG. EUC.

MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC.

I had a feeling when I went out: my journey would be wasted. I simply didn’t want to go. There wasn’t a single ward member (180) present, not even the director whose business it was to share out the money. Now it’s ‘Hurry, hurry home’. I may be here, but my heart’s at home. Good health, Euclio, and happiness to you, now and always. And good morning to you, Megadorus. Now then! Are you well? Are you in good health and as you wish? {Aside) It’s no accident, when a rich man pays compliments to a poor one. (185) That fellow knows I’ve got some gold: that’s why he’s coming out with all these compliments. Was that‘I’m well, thank you’? Oh no, not at all well in money matters. Never mind: if you have patience, you have enough to live on. (Aside) The old woman has let him know about the gold, it’s perfectly plain. I’ll cut out her tongue and gouge out her eyes, back home. (190) What are you talking about, all on your own? I’m complaining about being poor. I have a grown-up daughter. She has no dowry and she can’t be married: I can’t offer her to anyone. Hush now, cheer up, Euclio. You’ll get some, there’ll be help from me. If you need anything, tell me, instruct me. (Aside) Now he’s after something, just when he’s making a promise. He’s gaping over the gold to gobble it up. (195) He has a stone in one hand and bread on show in the other. I don’t trust a rich man who’s generous in flattering a poor one. When he offers a kindly hand, he’s giving you a load of losses with it. I know those octopuses: they stick fast to anything they touch. (200) Listen to me a moment. I want a brief word with you, Euclio, on a joint matter, one which concerns us both. (Aside) Oh poor me! He’s got his hooks indoors on my gold. He wants to make a deal about it. I’ll just go home and check. Where are you off to? I’ll be right back with you. I’ve something I must go home and check.

(Exit into his house) MEG. Heavens, when I start talking about his daughter (205) and him letting me marry her, he’ll surely think I’m making fun of him. There’s not a man alive whom poverty has made more parsimonious. EUC. (Aside) The gods are with me. It’s all safe. Whatever’s not lost is safe. I was

Plautus

62

nimis male timui, priusquam intro redii, exanimatus fui. redeo ad te, Megadore, si quid me uis. MEG. habeo gratiam. quaeso, quod te percontabor, ne id te pigeat proloqui. EVC. dum quidem ne quid perconteris, quod [mihi] non lubeat proloqui. MEG. dic mi: quali me arbitrare genere prognatum? EVC. bono. MEG. quid fide? EVC. bond. MEG. quid factis? EVC. neque malis neque improbis. MEG. aetatem meam scis? EVC. scio esse grandem, item ut pecuniam. MEG. certe edepol equidem te ciuem sine mala omni mdlitia semper sum arbitratus et nunc arbitror. EVC. aurum huic olet, quid nunc me uis? MEG. quoniam tu me et 6 g o te qualis sis scio, quae res recte uertat mihique tibique tuaeque filiae, filiam tuam mi uxdrem posco, promitte hoc fore. EVC. heia, Megadore, haud decorum facinus tuis factis facis, ut inopem atque innoxium abs te atque dbs tuis inrideas. nam de te neque re neque uerbis merui ut faceres quod facis. MEG. neque edepol ego te derisum uenio neque derideo neque dignum arbitror. EVC. cur igitur poscis meam gnatam tibi? MEG. ut propter me tibi sit melius mihique propter te et tuos. EVC. uenit hoc mi, Megadore, in mentem te | esse hominem dfuitem, factiosum, me autem esse hominem pauperum pauperrimum, nunc si filiam locassim meam tibi, in mentem uenit te bouem esse et me esse asellum; ubi tecum coniunctus siem, ubi onus nequeam ferre pariter, iaceam ego asinus in luto, tu me bos magis haud respicias, gnatus quasi numquam siem. et te utar iniquiore | et meus me ordo irrideat, neutrubi habeam stabile stabulum, siquid diuorti fuat: asini me mordicibus scindant, boues incursent comibus. hoc magnum est periclum [me] ab asinis ad boues transcendere. MEG. quam ad probos propinquitate proxime te adiunxeris, tam optimum est. tu condicionem hanc accipe, ausculta mihi, atque eam desponde mi. EVC. at nihil est dotis quod dem. MEG. ne duas.

210

215

220

225

230

235

208 red i

Aulularia

MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC.

MEG. EUC. MEG. I:UC.

BDV' : corn JV2

dei. G u ietu s B rix : ite m P in su sp icio n em v o c a v it L eo m o r d ic ib u s N on. 2 0 3 L. : m o r d ic u s P [m e ] C a m era riu s

211 m ih i

227 a u te m 232 234 235

MEG. EUC.

63

so horribly frightened. I was half dead before I got inside. (To Meg.) Here I am, Megadorus, back again with you, if you want me for anything. Thank you. (210) Please now: I’m going to ask you something. Don’t be embarrassed to answer. So long as you don’t ask me a question I don’t like answering. Tell me: what sort of family do you think I come from? A good one. Principles? High. Accomplishments? Not bad, not disgraceful at all. You know my age? Substantial, I know, like your property. (215) There’s no doubt in my mind that I’ve always thought of you as a fellow citizen without a trace of wickedness or vice. I think so now too. (Aside) He’s got a whiff of gold. (7b Meg.) What do you want me for? Seeing that I know your quality and you know mine, in the best interests as I hope - of you, me and your daughter, I am requesting your daughter’s hand in marriage. Promise me it’ll happen. (220) Look here, Megadorus. What you’re doing is not up to the standards you’ve set. To make fun of a poor man like me who has never done you or your family any harm! Never by word or deed have I deserved that you treat me as you are doing. I haven’t come here to make fun of you, I’m not making fun of you, and I wouldn’t think it right to do so. So why are you asking for my daughter? (225) To make things better: thanks to me better for you, and for me thanks to you and your people. It occurs to me, Megadorus, that you are a rich man with powerful friends, while I am the poorest of the poor. If I offer my daughter to you, it occurs to me that you are the ox and I am the ass. (230) When we’re yoked together and I can’t manage the load as you can, there I’ll be, the donkey, lying in the mud, while you, the ox, pay me no more attention than if I had never been bom. I’ll find you treating me unfairly and my own class laughing at me. If there’s a separation, I won’t have a safe place to stand on either side. The donkeys will shred me with their teeth and the oxen will be at me with their horns. (235) That’s why it’s dangerous to try to cross over from the asses to the oxen. Get yourself together most closely with good folk, and that’s the best. Agree to the settlement: do as I say and engage her to me. But I have no dowry to give.

P la u tu s

Aulularia

dum modo morata recte ueniat, dotata est satis. EVC. eo dico, ne me thesauros repperisse censeas. MEG. noui, ne doceas, desponde. EVC. fiat, sed, pro Iuppiter! num ego disperii? MEG. quid tibi est? EVC. quid crepuit quasi ferrum modo? 243/44 MEG. hic apud me hortum confodere iussi. sed ubi hic est homo? 245 abiit neque me certiorem fecit, fastidit mei, quia uidet me suam amicitiam uelle: more hominum facit, nam si opulentus it petitum pauperioris gratiam, pauper metuit congrediri, per metum male rem gerit, idem, quando occasio illaec periit, post sero cupit. 250 EVC. si hercle ego te non elinguandam dedero usque ab radicibus, impero auctorque sum | ut tu me cuiuis castrandum loces. MEG. uideo hercle ego te me arbitrari, | Euclio, hominem idoneum, qu6m senecta aetate ludos facias, haud merito meo. EVC. neque edepol, Megadore, facio neque, si cupiam, copia est. 255 MEG. quid nunc? etiam mi despondes filiam? EVC. illis legibus, cum illa d6te quam tibi dixi. MEG. sponden ergo? EVC. spondeo. [istuc] di bene uertant! EVC. ita di faxint! [EVC.] illud facito ut memineris conuenisse ut ne quid dotis mea ad te afferret filia. MEG. memini. EVC. at scio quo uos soleatis pacto perplexarier: 260 pactum non pactum est, non pactum pactum est, quod uobis lubet. MEG. nulla controuersia mihi tecum erit, sed nuptias num quae causa est quin faciamus hodie? EVC. immo edepol optuma. MEG. ibo igitur, parabo, numquid me uis? EVC. istuc, ei, [et] uale. MEG. heus, Strobile, sequere propere me ad macellum strenue. 265 EVC. illic hinc abiit, di immortales, obsecro, aurum quid ualet! [credo ego illum iam inaudiuisse mi esse thesaurum domi,] id inhiat, ea affinitatem hanc obstinauit gratia.

MEG. Don’t give any. So long as she comes with a good character she has dowry enough. EUC. (240) I’m saying this in case you may think I’ve come across some treasure. MEG. I do know, no need to tell me. Make the engagement. EUC. Very well. But - by Jupiter - am I ruined? MEG. What is it? EUC. What was that noise just then? Like iron? (Exit running into his house.) MEG. Here. In my garden. I told a man to dig it up. Now where’s the fellow? (245) He’s gone off without telling me. He thinks the less of me because he can see I want his friendship. It’s human nature. If one has plenty, and pursues a poor man for his favour, the poor man is afraid to form the association, and because of his fear he fails. Then when he’s lost that chance, he wants it back again afterwards, but too late. EUC. (250) (Re-entering; at his door, talking to Staphyla inside.) By heaven if I don’t have your tongue cut out right at the root, I’m giving you my own personal order: you are to find someone - anyone - to castrate me. MEG. (Stiffly.) Euclio, I see you think me a suitable person to make a mockery of, at my time of life. I don’t deserve it. EUC. That’s not what I’m doing at all, Megadorus, and if I wanted to, I couldn’t. MEG. (255) What now? Are you really engaging your daughter to me? EUC. On the conditions and with the dowry I’ve stated. MEG. Your word then? EUC. My word. • MEG.> The gods prosper it! EUC. May the gods do so! Make sure you remember that this was agreed: that my daughter was not to bring you any dowry. MEG. Yes, I remember. EUC. But I know you people, how you twist things round. (260) Settled is unsettled, unsettled is settled - just as you please. MEG. There are going to be no grounds for dispute between you and me. Now the wedding: is there any reason why we shouldn’t hold it today? EUC. Every reason why we should. MEG. I’m off then, and I’ll get things ready. Anything else? EUC. As you say. Go then, fand] goodbye. MEG. ( C a llin g in to h is h o u s e .) Here, Strobilus. Follow me down to the meat market. Look sharp!

64 240

243,44 hic BuG : hinc P 248 congredi Acidalius 249 occasio illaec Hare : i. o .P 251 sum Guietus ut tu B1 : ut B'DVJ 237 Angelius, qui ita etc. Euclioni dedit illud Niedermann 262 sic Brix : hodie quin fac. numquae c. est P 263 ei Le Breton : fiet P

266 dei. Leo

istuc dei. Pylades faxint dei. Stockert Ussing 285 CON. Bothe : STR. P 287 STR. Camerarius : COC. P 288 q u o Bothe : q u o d P 290 < s e n is > Camerarius 291 h ic iu s s it d im . Geli. 3 .1 4 .1 5 : h in c d im . iu s s . P h u c Guietus : h u ic fere P d o m u m Acidalius : d o m i P

271 e g o h o d ie

274 o c c lu d e a e d is

67

11/3 {He goes to his house door.) Where are you? You’re the one who’s blathered out to the whole neighbourhood that I’m going to give my daughter a dowry. Hey, Staphyla, I’m calling you. (270) Are you listening? {Enter Staphyla.) The pans in there: hurry and get them washed out clean. I’ve made an engagement for my daughter: I’m going to give her to Megadorus to be married today. STA. The gods prosper it! But that’s quite impossible. It’s far too sudden. EUC. Silence! Offwith you! Make sure it’s all seen to when I get back home from the forum. And close the doors. I’ll be right back here. {Exit to town.) STA. What am I going to do now? (275) It’ll soon be the end for me and my master’s daughter. Now the time is on us when our bad name and the child’s birth will be bandied about. What’s been carefully kept concealed till now can no longer remain so. I’ll go in and see that things are done as the master ordered when he gets back. I’m very much afraid I’m going to be drinking a mixture of misfortune and misery. (Exit into Euclio s house.) II/4 (Enter, from town, Strobilus with the cooks Anthrax and Congrio, twoflute girls Eleusium and Phrygia, two sheep and various attendants with miscellaneous cooking gear.) STR.

(280) When the master had finished the shopping and hired the cooks and these flute girls in the forum, he directed me to come here and split the purchases two ways. ANT. As for me, by heaven, I’ll tell straight, you’ll not split me. Anywhere you want me to go whole, I’ll do my bit. CON. (285) A charming innocent common whore indeed! From behind, now, if someone wanted, you’d not be at all reluctant to get split. STR. No, Anthrax, I meant something different, not on the lines you’re suggesting. Now, my master is is going to celebrate his wedding today. ANT. Whose daughter is he marrying? STR. (290) Euclio’s, the neighbour from next door here. In fact he told me to give Euclio half this lot of shopping along with one of the cooks and likewise one of the flute girls. ANT. You mean to say half over here and half to his house? STR. I mean just as you say.

68

295

senex obsonari filiai nuptiis? STR. uah! ANT. quid negoti est? STR. quid negoti sit rogas? pumex non aeque est ardus atque hic est senex. ANT. ain tandem? STR. ita esse ut dixi, tute existima:

300

305

310

315

suam rem perisse seque eradicarier. quin diuum atque hominum clamat continuo fidem, de sud tigillo fumus si qua exit foras, quin cum it dormitum, follem obstringit ob gulam. ANT. cur? STR. ne quid animae forte amittat dormiens. ANT. etiamne obturat inferiorem gutturem, ne quid animai forte amittat dormiens? STR. haec mihi te ut tibi me | aequum est, crddo, credere. ANT. immo equidem credo. | STR. dt scin etiam quomodo? aquam hercle plorat, cum lauat, profundere. ANT. censen talentum magnum exorari pote[st] ab istoc sene, ut det qui fiamus liberi? STR. famem hercle utendam si roges numquam dabit, quin ipsi pridem tonsor unguis dempserat: collegit, omnia abstulit praesegmina. ANT. edepol mortalem parce parcum praedicas. STR. censen uero adeo ess(e) parcum et misere uiuere? pulmentum pridem | di eripuit miluus: homo ad praetorem plorabiindus deuenit; infit ibi postulare plorans, eiulans, ut sibi liceret miluum uadarier.

295 filia e in n u p tiis fere

P : corr. Scaliger Seyffert : a r id u s P 298 s t r ita . . . d ix i Wagner : STR. ita . . . d ic is ( d ic a s D) BDV1 (ANT.) ita .. d ic is Vs'J post 298 lacunam indicavit Havet 299f transposuit Gulielmius 303 e m itta t Non. 348 L. 305 a n im a i Gruterus : a n im a e P a n im a Prise. V 21 < u t> n e q u id a n im a e O. Skutsch 306 vel m e d c r e d e r e c r e d o fere P, corr. Pylades 297 a rd u s

308 p lo r a t h e r c le

315 316 317

B

Kampmann : p o te s t P ip si fere P : ip s e Non. 222 et 419 L. a d e o dei. Leo er ip u it e i Reiz p lo r a b u n d u s d e u e n it P : u e n it d e p lo r a b u n d u s Non. 818 L.

309 p o te 312

Aulularia

Plautus

ANT. STR. ANT. STR. ANT. STR.

ANT. STR. ANT. STR. ANT. STR. ANT. STR. ANT. STR.

69

What? Couldn’t the old fellow do the shopping (295) at his daughter’s wedding on his own account? Cor! What’s the problem? The problem, you ask? A pumice stone’s not as dry as this old man. You don’t say! ...that he’s like that? I do. Think about it yourself. his money’s gone and he’s being wiped out himself. (300) Why, he appeals to the honour of gods and men the moment any smoke gets out of his roof beams. Why, when he goes to sleep, he ties a bag over his mouth. Why? So as not to lose any life-breath by accident in his sleep. Does he block up the lower air passage too, (305) so as not to lose any lifebreath by accident in his sleep? I reckon it’s only fair you believe me as I believe you. No, of course I believe you. And do you know another thing? When he washes, he weeps to throw the water away. Do you reckon one could beg a whole talent (310) from that old man so he could pay for us to be freed? Ask him for the loan of a famine and he’ll never give it you. Why, the barber recently took off his nails. He collected all the clippings and took them away. Heavens, the man you mention’s mean as mean. (315) Do you now believe he’s that mean and lives that miserably? A kite recently whipped the meat off his bread. Off went the fellow moanful to the magistrate, started insisting, moaning, shrieking that he should be allowed

70

Plautus

Aulularia

320

sescenta sunt quae memorem, si sit otium. sed utdr uestrorum est celerior? memora mihi. ANT. ego, ut multo melior. STR. cocum ego, non furem rogo. ANT. cocum ergo dico. STR. quid tu ais? CON. sic sum ut uides. ANT. cocus ille nundinalest, in nonum diem solet ire coctum. CON. tun, trium litterarum homo, me uituperas? fur! ANT. etiam fur, trifurcifer!

an injunction against the kite. (320) There are a thousand things I could mention if we had time. Now: which of you two is the faster? Speak up! ANT. Me, and that much better too. STR. It’s a cook I want, not a thief. ANT. And a cook’s what I mean. STR. What do you say? CON. I am as you see. ANT. He’s a weekend cook. (325) It usually takes him a week to get the cooking done. CON. You three-letter man, are you insulting me? Thief! ANT. Thief, you too! Triple gallows-bird!

325 II/5

330

335

340

345

323 324 328 329 330 332 336

STROBILUS COQUI STR. tace nunciam tu, atque agnum hinc uter est pinguior ANT. licet. STR. tu, Congrio, hunc sume atque abi intro illo, et uos illum sequimini. uos ceteri ite huc ad nos. CON. hercle iniuria dispertiuisti: pinguiorem agnum isti habent. STR. at nunc tibi dabitur pinguior tibicini i sane cum illo, Phrugia. tu autem, Eleusium, huc intro abi ad nos. CON. 6 Strobile subdole, huccine detrusti me ad senem parcissimum? ubi si quid poscam, usque ad rauim poscam prius quam quicquam detur. STR. stultu’s, et sine gratia est ibi recte facere, quando quod facias perit. CON. qui u6ro? STR. rogitas? iam principio in aedibus turba istic nulla tibi erit: siquid uti uoles, domo abs te adferto, ne operam perdas poscere, hic autem apud nos magna turba ac familia est, supellex, aurum, uestis, uasa argentea, ibi si perierit quippiam (quod te scio facile abstinere pdsse, si nihil obuiam est), dicant: coqui abstulerunt, comprehendite.

ergo Acidalius : ego P nundinale est Fest. 176 L. : nundinalis est fere P

suppi. Leo hunc Le Breton : eum P illo Goetz : illuc P illum BDV: eum J ite huc Koch : illuc P dabitur tibi B poscam usque Non. 241 L. : poscamus qu(a)e/ere P ad rauim Non. 241, 596 L .: adarauin fere P poscam Festus 340 L. Nonius (bis) : poscamus P 337 stultus et sine gratia es P, corn Gulielmius 338 ibi Lindsay : tibi P 340 istic Taubmann : istuc P

11/5 STR. ANT. STR. CON. STR. CON. STR. CON. STR.

71

Quiet now, you. the fatter lamb from this lot, Very well. You, Congrio, take this one and go in over there. You lot follow him. (330) The rest of you, come over here to us. (Exit Anthrax into Megadorus’house with some o f the attendants and one o f the sheep.) Hey, you haven’t shared things fairly. That lot have got the fatter lamb. Well now, you shall be given the fatter flute girl. Off you go with him, Phrygia. Eleusium, you come in over here to us. (Exit Eleusium into Megadorus ’house.) Strobilus you slyboots! (335) Have you just bundled me off here to the stingiest old man, where whatever I ask for, I’ll be hoarse with asking before I get anything. You are a fool. There’s no credit in acting properly in a place where what you do goes for nothing. How do you mean? You want to know? First of all there won’t be a crowd (340) in the house over there. If you want to have the use of something - bring it from your own place, so you don’t waste the effort asking. But here in our place there’s a whole crowd of slaves, kitchenware, gold, drapery, silver vessels. If anything gets lost there (and I do know (345) that you can keep your hands off when there’s nothing in their way), they’d say ‘The cooks have

uincite, uerberate, in puteum condite. horum tibi istic nihil eueniet: quippe qui ubi quid subripias nihil est. sequere hac me. CON. sequor. 11/6 350

STROBILUS CONGRIO STAPHYLA STR. Heus, Staphyla, prodi atque ostium aperi. STA. qui uocat? STR. Strobilus. STA. quid uis? STR. hos ut accipias coquos tibicinamque obsoniumque in nuptias. Megadorus iussit Euclioni haec mittere. STA. Cererin, Strobile, has sunt facturi nuptias? 355 STR. qui? STA. quia temeti nil allatum intellego. STR. at iam afferetur, si a foro ipsus redierit. STA. ligna hic apud nos nulla sunt. CON. sunt asseres? STA. sunt pol. CON. sunt igitur ligna, ne quaeras foris. STA. quid, impurate? quamquam Volcano studes, 360 cenaene causa aut tuae mercedis gratia nos nostras aedis postulas comburere? CON. haud postulo. STR. duc istos intro. STA. sequimini. II/7 365

370

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72

STROBILVS STR. curate, ego interuisam quid faciant coqui, quos pol ut ego hodie seruem, cura maxima est. nisi unum hoc faciam, ut in puteo cenam coquant. ind(e) coctam sursum subducemus corbulis, si | autem deorsum comedent, si quid coxerint, superi incenati sunt et cenati inferi, sed uerba hic facio, quasi negoti nil siet, rapacidarum ubi tantum siet in aedibus.

73

gone off with it, get hold of them, tie them up, beat them, put them down the well!’ Over there none of this will happen to you. Naturally: you’re in a place where there’s nothing for you to steal. This way. Follow me. CON. (R e s ig n e d ly :) I’m following. II/6

STR.

(350) (K n o c k in g o n E u c l io ’s d o o r .) Hey, Staphyla! Come out and open the door. STA. Who’s calling? STR. Strobilus. STA. What do you want? STR. For you to take in these cooks and the flute girl and the shopping for the wedding feast. Megadorus said to send them for Euclio. (S ta p h y la is p r o w l i n g s u s p ic io u s ly a r o u n d th e p r o v is io n s .) STA. This wedding feast, Strobilus: are they going to have it for Ceres? STR. Why? STA. (355) I don’t think there’s been any strong drink brought. STR. It will be, when the boss gets back from the forum. STA. We haven’t got any firewood here. CON. Got any rafters? STA. Of course. CON. Right, you’ve got firewood. No need to go looking outside. STA. What, you filth! You may be a fan of Vulcan, but are you asking us to bum our house down (360) just to cook the dinner or provide your pay? CON. ( G iv in g in .) No I’m not. STR. Take this lot inside. STA. Follow me. 11/7 (E x e u n t in to E u c lio ’s h o u s e S ta p h y la , C o n g r io , P h r y g ia , a tte n d a n ts a n d o n e s h e e p .)

STR.

349 subripias Lambinus : subripiat P 354 has sunt Fest. 500 L. (cod. U) : has P 3571 et362 personas corr. Acidalius 360 cenaene Pius : cenaeue P 363 intus uisam Leo 11/7 FITODICVS SERVVS BVJ 369 sed Gruterus : si P

hi sunt Macrob. 3.11.2

Get it done. I’ll make a check on what the cooks are up to. It’s a major worry for me to look after them today. (365) Except that this is one thing I could do: make thgm cook the dinner down the well. Then when it’s cooked we’ll haul it up in baskets. But then if they eat it up down there, whatever they’ve cooked, the powers above will be unfed and those below will be fed. But I’m talking nonsense here, as if there were no problem, (370) when there’s such a load of grabsters in the house. ( E x it in to M e g a d o r u s ’h o u s e .)

Plautus

74 11/8

375

380

385

390

395

II/9

EVCLIO EVC. Volui animum tandem confirmare hodie meum, ut bene me haberem filiai nuptiis, uenio ad macellum, rogito pisces: indicant cards; agninam caram, cdram bubulam, uitulinam, cetum, porcinam: cara omnia, atque eo fuerunt cariora: aes non erat, t abeo iratus illinc, quoniam t nihil est qui emam, ita illis impuris omnibus adii manum, deinde egomet mecum cogitare interuias occepi: festo die si quid prodegeris, profesto egere liceat, nisi peperceris, postquam hanc rationem uentri cordique edidi, accessit hnimus ad meam sententiam, quam minimo siimptu filiam ut nuptum darem. nunc tusculum dmi et hasc(e) coronas floreas: haec imponentur in focum nostro Lari, ut fortunatas faciat gnatae nuptias, sed quid ego apertas aedis nostras conspicor? et strdpitust intus, numnam ego compilor miser? CON. aulam maiorem, si potest, uicinia pete: haec est phrua, capere non quit. EVC. ei mihi! perii hdrcle. j aurum rapitur, aula quaeritur. [nimirum occidor, nisi ego intro huc propere propero currere.] Apollo, quaeso, subueni mi atque adiuua, confige sagittis fures thesaurarios, cui in re tali iam subuenisti antidhac, sed cesso prius quam prorsus perii currere. ANTHRAX ANT. Dromo, desquama piscis, tu, Machaerio,

Scaliger : h a b e r e m B'DVJ h a b e r e m m e £ 3 filia i Scaliger : f ilia e P 377 a b e o illim ir a tu s Bothe < m ih i> n il Wagner 385 e t h a s c e co r. P : h o c e t co r. Prise. I I 104,1 K. 386 im p o n e n tu r W J : im p o n e u n tu r B(D) V1 fo c u m H avet : f o c o P 390 p o te s t Heckmann : p o t e s P p o te e x Lambinus 391 p a ru a e s t P, corr. Pylades 393 secl. Langen 396 < s i > c u i Ussing: q u i Koch ta li i a m Camerarius : t a lia /T D U ta li WJ su b u e n is ti BuMSG : su b u e n it P 398 d e sq u a m a p is c is Non. 135 L. : d e s q u a m a s p ic is P

372 m e h a b e r e m

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II/8

(Enter Euclio from town with his purchases.) EUC.

In the end I wanted to boost my courage today, to look after myself well at my daughter’s wedding. I go to the meat market; I ask for fish. They name a price: dear. Lamb - dear. Beef- dear. (375) Dear too: veal, sea fish, pork: all of them. And to make them even dearer, I hadn’t any money, t l came away from there in a rage, having nothingt to buy with. That way I got one over all those dirty dogs. Then on the way I began (380) to think to myself. ‘If you’ve lashed out on a holiday, you can starve on a workday, unless you’ve economised.’ When I’d presented this account to my stomach and my heart, my mind came over to my way of thinking: to give my daughter away at the least possible expense. (385) So now I’ve bought a sniff of incense and these flower garlands. These shall be laid on the hearth for our Lar, for him to give his blessing to my daughter’s wedding.

(He turns towards his house.) But look! Our house doors are open. Why? And that noise indoors! What? Am I really being robbed? (Congrio is heard speakingfrom indoors.) CON. (390) A bigger pot, if possible: ask for one next door. This one’s too small, it won’t take it. EUC. Aarghh! I’m done for. Gold’s stolen; pot’s wanted. [I’m obviously being murdered - if I don’t speed up and run speedily indoors.] Apollo, I beg thee, come to my help and aid me: (395) with thy arrows smite the treasure thieves, if in such case thou hast granted to any thy help aforetimes. But I’m being slow to get running before I’m totally done for. (Exit running into his house.) 11/9 (Enter Anthrax; he speaks back into Megadorus’house) ANT.

Dromo, de-scale the fish. You, Machaerio: fillet the eel and the lamprey,

76

400

405 III/l

410 411 412 413

III/2 415

420

A u lu la r ia

P la u tu s

congrum, murenam exdorsua quantum potest. ego hinc artoptam ex proximo utendam peto a Congrione. tu istum gallum, si sapis, glabriorem reddes mi quam uolsus ludiust. sed quid hoc clamoris oritur hinc ex proximo? coqui hercle, credo, faciunt officium suum. fugiam intro, ne quid turbae | hic itidem fuat. CONGRIO CON. Attatae, dues, populares, incolae, adcolae, aduenae omnes! date uiam qua fugere liceat, facite totae plateae pateant, neque ego umquam nisi hodie ad Bacchas ueni in Bacchanal coquinatum; ita me miserum et meos discipulos fustibus male contuderunt. totus doleo atque oppido perii; | ita me iste habuit senex gymnasium. attat! perii hercle 6go miser! aperit Bacchanal, adest, sdquitur. scio quam rem geram: hoc ipsus magister me docuit. neque ligna ego usquam gentium praeberi uidi pulchrius itaque omnis exegit foras, me atque hds, onustos fustibus. EVCLIO CONGRIO EVC. Redi! quo fugis nunc? tene, tene! CON. quid, stolide, clamas? EVC. quia ad tris uiros iam ego deferam nomen tuum. CON. quam 6b rem? EVC. quia cultrum habes, - CON. cocum decet. EVC - qui comminatu’s mihi. CON. istud male factum arbitror, quia non latus fodi. EVC. homo nullust te scelestior qui uiuat h6die neque quoi ego de industria amplius male plus libens faxim. CON. pol etsi taceas, palam id quidem est: res ipsa testist.

399 gongrum Non. exdorsua quantum potest (potes 135) Non. 26 L. et 135 L. : exossata fac sient P 402 glabriorem Non.851 L. : glabrionem vel clabrionem P reddes P : reddis Non. 405 fugiam P : redeo Non. 843 L. turbae hic itidem P : hic turbae Non. fuat Hare : fiat congrio (=siglum) P fiat Non. 406 attatae ciues Lindsay : optati uires (vel uiues) fere P 408 coquinatum P : coquitatum Paul.-Fest. 54,6 413 sq. post 410pos. Acidalius, post 409 Braun (413 iam Ussing qui delevit 414) 414 exegit P : exigit Non. 449 L. 417 qui Ussing : quid P quia Bothe

77

quick as you can. (400) I’ll ask for the loan of a baking pan from Congrio here next door. You ( to a th ird , u n n a m e d , s l a v e ) , if you’ve got any sense, will make me that chicken smoother than a plucked artiste. But what’s this shouting started up here next door? Oh my, the cooks are at their exercise, of course. (405) I’ll get away indoors, in case any trouble starts here to o . (E x its in to M e g a d o r u s ’h o u s e .) III/l

( C o n g r io e n te r s in a p a n i c f r o m E u c lio s h o u se , a c c o m p a n ie d b y h is f e l l o w s l a v e s a n d P h r y g ia )

CON. Ooowww! Citizens, townsmen, residents, neighbours, immigrants - all of you! Make me a way to escape! Have all the streets cleared! Till today I haven’t ever come to cook for Bacchants in a Bacchus shrine. Look how they’ve beaten me up, me and my followers, with clubs. (410) I’m aching all over, I’m totally done for. This is the way that old man has used me for physical training. (E u c lio s d o o r c r e a k s o p e n .) Uh-huh! It’s the end of me, poor creature. The temple’s opening! Here he is! He’s after me. I know what to do. The master himself taught me this. I haven’t seen a finer wood supply anywhere in the world, seeing how he’s pushed us all out, me and these fellows, loaded with clubs. III/2 (E n te r E u c lio c a r r y in g a c u d g e l. C o n g r io c o w e r s a w a y a c r o s s th e s ta g e .)

EUC. CON. EUC. CON. EUC. CON. EUC. CON. EUC.

(415) Come back! Where are you running to now? Stop! Stop! Why are you yelling, you blockhead? Because I’m going to take your name to the police right now. What’s your reason? Because you’ve got a knife... As a cook should. ...with which you threatened me. I reckon I made a mistake that I didn’t stick it in your ribs. There’s no worse villain alive today than you, (420) and no-one I’d prefer doing something deliberately bad to. CON. Just say nothing and that’s still quite clear. The facts speak for themselves.

78

425

430

435

440

445

Plautus ita fustibus sum mollior magis quam ullus cinaedus. sed quid tibi, mendice homo, nos tactio est? quae res? etiam rogitas? an quia minus, quam | aequom erat, feci? CON. sine! at hercle cum magno malo tuo, si hoc caput sentit. EVC. pol ego haud scio quid post fuat. tuum nunc caput sentit, sed in aedibus quid tibi meis nam erat negoti me absente, nisi ego iusseram? uolo scire. CON. tace ergo, quia uenimus coctum ad nuptias. EVC. quid tu, malum, curas, utrum crudum &n coctum ego | edim, nisi tu mi es tutor? CON. uolo scire, sinas an non sinas nos coquere hic cenam. EVC. uolo scire ego item, meae domi mean salua futura. CON. utinam mea mi modo auferam quae | adtuli, salua. me haud paenitet, tua ne expetam. EVC. scio, ne doce, noui. CON. quid est qua prohibes nunc gratia nos coquere hic cenam? quid fecimus, quid diximus tibi secus quam uelles? EVC. etiam rogitas, sceleste homo, qui | angulos omnis mearum aedium et conclauium mi peruium facitis? ibi ubi tibi erat negotium, ad focum si adesses, non fissile auferres caput, merito id tibi factum est. adeo ut tu meam sententiam iam noscere possis: si ad ianuam huc accesseris, nisi iussero, propius, ego te faciam miserrimus mortalis uti sis. scis idm meam sententiam. quo abis? redi rursum. ita md bene amet Lauema, te iam, nisi reddi mihi uasa iubes, pipulo te hic differam ante addis.

422 sum mollior P : submollior Non. 9 L. magis Non. : miser magis fere P 423 nos mendice homo tactio est (est om. D) P : corr. Reiz nos t. est mend. h. Hermann Seyffert: om. P (habet initio 424) 424 aequom erat B3 : aequo mereat B'DV‘ aequum erat V*Jaequom me erat Seyffert 425 magno malo tuo Hare : malo tuo magno P 426 fuat Hare : fiat P 432 mean Camerarius : mea P 433 adtuli (at- VJ) P : adtulimus Brix ad te tuli Studemund 437 angulos Sedgwick 439 ibi Guietus : id P 440 auferres Goetz : haberes P 444 Bothe 445 te iamiam Hare : te iamPNon. 222 uti te iam Ussing reddi B3Non. 222 L. : redi B'DV redis U J 446 iubes mihi uasa Christ pipulo te hic Non. 222 L. : pipulo te Varro Ling. 7. 103 Non. 439 L. populo (-os D) hic P hic pipulo te Reiz

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Your cudgels have made me pinker than any queen. But why are you laying hands on us, you beggarman? What’s that? Are you even asking? Is it because I did less than I reasonably could have? CON. (425) Don’t touch me! It’ll be a lot worse for you, if this head has any sense. EUC. Well I don’t know what’s going to happen later. Your head must sense something now. But what, just what was your business in my house, in my absence, without my orders? I want to know. CON. Be quiet then. Because we came to provide a cooked meal for a wedding. EUC. Why the devil does it concern you (430) whether I eat cooked or uncooked food - unless you’re my guardian. CON. I’d like to know, are you or are you not letting us cook the dinner here? EUC. And I’d like to know, is my property going to be safe in my house? CON. All I want is to get back undamaged the things of mine which I brought along. I’m quite content not to want yours. EUC. (Sarcastically) I know, don’t tell me, I’m well aware. CON. (435) What’s the reason why you are now stopping us cooking the dinner here? What have we done or said to you apart from what you’d want? EUC. Are you seriously asking, you scoundrel, when you’ve turned every comer of my house and my private rooms into a through-route? If you’d been at the fire, in the place where it was your business to be, (440) you’d not be coming away with a split head. You’ve got what you deserved. Now listen to me, so that you can know my present decision. If you take a step nearer the door here without my permission, I’ll make sure you are the Most Miserable Mortal. Now you know my decision. (Exit into his house.) Where are you off to? Come back here! (445) As I long for Lavema’s favour, if you don’t order my equipment to be given straight back to me, I’ll

P la u tu s

80

A u lu la r ia

quid ego nunc agam? ne ego edepol ueni huc auspicio malo, nummo sum conductus: plus iam medico mercedist opus. III/3 450

455

III/4 460

465

470

EVCLIO CONGRIO EVC. hoc quidem hercle, quoquo | ibo, mecum erit, mecum feram, neque isti id in tantis periclis umquam committam ut siet. ite sane nunc[iam] intro omnes, et coqui et tibicinae, etiam intro duce, si uis, uel gregem uenalium. coquite, facite, festinate nunciam quantum libet. CON. temperi, postquam impleuisti fusti fissorum caput! EVC. intro abi! | opera huc conducta est uostra, non oratio. CON. heus, senex! pro uapulando hercle ego abs te mercedem petam, coctum ego, non uapulatum dudum conductus fili. EVC. lege agito mecum. molestus ne sis. ei, cenam coque aut abi in malum cruciatum ab aedibus. abi tu modo. EVCLIO EVC. Illic hinc abiit, di immortales! facinus audax incipit qui cum opulento pauper homine rem | habet aut negotium, ueluti Megadorus temptat me | omnibus miserum modis, qui simulauit mei | honoris mittere huc causa coquos, is ea causa misit, hoc qui surriperent misero mihi. condigne riiam meus med intus gallus gallinarius, qui erat anu peculiaris, pdrdidit paenissume. ubi erat haec defossa, occepit ibi scalpurrire ungulis circumcirca, quid opust uerbis? ita mi pectus peracuit: capio fustem, obtrunco gallum, furem manufestarium. credo edepol ego illi mercedem gallo pollicitos coquos, si id palam fecisset, exemi ex manu manubrium.

448 mercede opus est P, corn Bothe 449 quoquo Wagner 450 isti id Seyffert : istud P 451 ite SG : ita P nunc Linge : nunciam P 452 etiam Sedgwick', nunciam Stace 4544 postquam ... intro om. B'DVJ: in mg. add. B3 456 heus Bentley : eu BDV‘ heu V2J 455 i vel ei Brix : i et B et DVJ 459 BuSG : om. P sine spatio 461 rem habet Goetz : c(a)epit rem habere P coepit rem Brix

465 meP 466 anu Bentley : anui P 471 exemi Bach

81

scream you to pieces in front of the house. What shall I do now? Heavens, the gods were against me when I came here. I was employed for one denarius. I need more to pay the doctor. III/3 (R

e - e n te r E u c lio c a r r y in g h is p o t o f g o l d ‘h id d e n ’ u n d e r h is p a l li u m . )

EUC.

This at least’ll definitely be with me wherever I go: I’ll bring it along. (450) I’ll never allow it to be in th e r e in such peril. All right now, be off indoors, all of you, cooks and flute girls too. Take a whole crowd of slaves off the market with you if you want. Cook, perform, scurry about now as much as you want.

(T h e a tte n d a n ts s t a r t d r if tin g b a c k in to th e h o u s e .)

CON. About time too, now that you’ve used your cudgel to fill my head with splits. EUC. (455) Off with you inside. You were employed to cook here, not to chatter. CON. Hey, old man! I’m going to demand a wage from you for getting walloped. I was contracted just now to cook, not to get beaten. EUC. Take out an injunction. Stop being a nuisance. Go and cook the dinner, or get to hell away from the house. Just you go away. (E x it in to E u c l i o ’s h o u s e .) III/4 EUC.

(460) He’s gone. Heavens above! One’s undertaking a bold action if one’s poor and has any serious business with a wealthy man. Megadorus now: he’s testing me every way he can, poor me. He pretended that it was in my honour that he was sending the cooks. In fact he sent them precisely to get this off me - poor me. (465) My rooster in there, the old woman’s property, it very nearly ruined me. Typical! The rooster started scratching around with its claws just where this was buried. What’s to say? It made my blood boil. I took a club and slaughtered that rooster, a thief, caught in the act. (470) I reckon the cooks promised that rooster a reward for making it known. I got the weapon out of their hands. What’s to say? It was the

Plautus

82

quid opust uerbis? facta est pugna in gallo gallinario. sed Megadorus meus affinis eccum incedit a foro. iam hunc non ausim praeterire, quin consistam et conloquar. III/5 475

480

485

490

495

500

472 477 482 485 502

MEGADORVS (EVCLIO) MEG. Narraui amicis multis consilium meum de condicione hac. Euclionis filiam laudant; sapienter factum et consilio bond, nam mdo quidem animo si | idem faciant ceteri opulentiores, pauperiorum filids ut indotatas ducant uxores domum, et multo fiat duitas concordior et inuidia nos minore utamur quam utimur et illae malrin rem metuant quam metuunt magis et nos minore sumptu simus quam sumus. in maximam illuc populi partem est optimum; in pauciores auidos altercatio est, quorum animis auidis atque insatietatibus neque lex neque sutor capere est qui possit modum, namque hoc qui dicat: ‘quo illae nubent diuites dotdtae, si istud ius pauperibus ponitur?’ quo lubeant nubant, dum dos ne fiat comes, hoc si | ita fiat, mores meliores sibi parent, pro dote quos ferant quam nunc ferunt, ego faxim muli, pretio qui superant equos sient uiliores Gdllicis cantheriis. EVC. ita me di amabunt, ut ego hunc ausculto lubens. nimis lepide fecit uerba ad parsimoniam. MEG. nulla igitur dicat: ‘equidem dotem ad te adtuli maiorem multo quam tibi erat pecunia. enim mi quidem aequum est purpuram dtque aurum dari, ancillas, mulos, muliones, pedisequos, salutigerulos pueros, uehicla qui uehar’. EVC. ut matron&rum hic facta pemouit probe! moribus praefectum mulierum hunc factum uelim.

dei. Guyet lacunam post laudant Leo, app. erit. minore nos P : corn Pylades illuc B : illec DVJ optimam P : corr. Camerarius uehicula P

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Battle of the Rooster. (Enter Megadorus from town.) But here’s my in­ law Megadorus coming from the forum. I haven’t the face to go past him without stopping to talk. ni/5 MEG. (475) (Soliloquising) I explained my thoughts about this wedding plan to several of my friends. They approve of Euclio’s daughter: ‘Sensibly done; good idea.’ Actually, in my opinion, if the rest of the affluent classes did the same - (480) bringing home the daughters of the poor without dowry to be their wives - first, the community would be much more harmonious; second, we would be less subject to envy than we are; third, women would be more afraid of catching it than they are; fourth, we would be put to less expense than we are. (485) For the greatest part of the population that’s best; there’s a dispute to be had with a smallish group of greedy people, to whose insatiable greed neither law nor shoemaker can offer a measure. If anyone were to say ‘Who will those rich women (490) with dowries marry, if this rule is established for the poor?’ ... well, they can marry wherever they want, so long as no dowry comes with the wedding. If this were to happen, they’d learn better behaviour to bring with them instead of the dowry they bring as it is. I guarantee that mules, which are now more expensive than horses, (495) would be cheaper than Gallic hacks. I-:UC. (Aside) Bless me, how glad I am to hear him. He’s made a super-attractive speech for parsimony. MEG. Then no woman could say ‘I’m the one who brought you a dowry - much bigger than the money you had. (500) Yes! It’s right that I be given purple and gold, maidservants, mules, mule-drivers, attendants, pages to bear greetings, carriages to ride in.’ HUC. How very well he knows what women do! I’d like him to be appointed Supervisor of Women’s Morals.

84

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MEG. nunc quoquo uenias, plus plaustr6rum in aedibus uideas quam ruri, quando ad uillam ueneris. sed hoc etiam pulchrum est praequam ubi sumptus petunt, stat fullo, phyrgio, aurifex, lanarius, caupones patagiarii, indusiarii flammarii, uiolarii, carinarii; aut manulearii | aut malobathrarii, propolae linteones, calceolarii, sedentarii sutores diabathrarii, soli&rii astant, astant molocinarii; [petunt fullones, sarcinatores petunt] strophiarii astant, astant semul sonarii. iam hosce absolutos censeas: cedunt, petunt treceni, cum stant thylacistae in atriis textores limbularii, arcularii. ducuntur, datur aes. iam [hosce] absolutos censeas, cum incedunt infectores corcotarii, aut aliqua mala crux semper est, quae aliquid petat. EVC. compellarem ego illum, ni metuam ne desinat memorare mores mulierum; nunc sic sinam. MEG. ubi nugiuendis res soluta est omnibus, ibi ad postremum cedit miles, aes petit, itur, putatur ratio cum argentario: miles inpransus astat, a6s censet dari, ubi disputata est ratio cum argentario, etiam [plus] ipsus ultro debet drgentdrio. spes prorogatur militi in alium diem, haec sunt atque aliae multae in magnis dotibus incommoditates sumptusque intolerabiles, nam quae indotata est, 6a in potestate est uiri; dotatae mactant et malo et damno uiros. sed eccum adfinem ante aedis, quid agis, Euclio?

: q u o q u e B'DVJ P : su m p tu s u b i Guietus q u a e in sum ptus Francken la n a r iu s B3D V J : lin a r iu s B ‘ (la m m a r i(i) P Non. 869 L. : fla m m e a r ii Hermolaus a u t . . . a u t P : s t a n t . . . sta n t Leo m a lo ba th ra rii Lambinus : m u r o b a th a r ii P s u to r e s B1 ut vid. : su ta r e s B'D su ta te s VJ secl. Francken s e m u l so n a r ii Leo : s e m is o n a r ii P thylacistae Wilamomtz : phylacistae (vel phif) P n u g iu e n d is Non. 211 L : nugigerulus B‘D ‘JK nugigerulis B2D2V [plusl Lambinus

505 q u o q u o

B2G

507 u b i su m p tu s 508 510 511 5,3

515 516

318 525 530

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85

MEG. (505) As it is, wherever you go, you can see more wagons at a city house than you do in the country when you get out to your estate. But this is altogether fine compared with when they ask for spending money. They all stand waiting: fuller, embroiderer, goldsmith, wool-worker; dealers in borders, in tunics, (510) in red, brown and violet dyes; traders in sleeved shirts and Indian bay, linen salesmen, makers of fine shoes, sedentary cobblers, slipper-makers. The sandal-makers are there, there too are the mallow-workers. (515) [The fullers and the repairers are insisting.] There are the makers of breast-bands, there with them are the makers of girdles. Now you may think these men have been paid off. In come three hundred more to ask, while, standing in the hall, purse in hand, are the makers of fringes and little boxes. (520) They are brought in and paid. You may think they have been paid off, when in come the saffron dyers, or there’s always some pest there to demand something. EUC. I’d speak to him, if I weren’t afraid that he’d stop talking about women’s ways. As it is. I’ll leave him alone. MEG. (525) When all the rubbish-sellers have been paid, last of all comes the soldier, asking for his money. Off you go and calculate the balance with your banker. The soldier stands there without a meal inside him. He expects to be given his money. When the balance has been fully calculated with the banker, (530) the master himself is in debt to the banker. The soldier’s hopes are put off to another day. These and many others are the inconveniences and intolerable expenses which come with large-size dowries. One who has no dowry is under her husband’s authority. (535) Wives with dowries make their husbands martyrs to misery and financial loss. But look, there’s my father-in-law in front of the house. How are you, Euclio?

86

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Aulularia

Plautus EVCLIO MEGADORVS EVC. Nimium libenter edi sermonem tuum. MEG. an audiuisti? | EVC. usque a principio omnia. MEG. tamen [e] meo quidem animo aliquanto facias rectius, si nitidior sis filiai nuptiis. EVC. pro re nitorem et gloriam pro copia qui habent, meminerunt sese unde oriundi sient. neque pol, Megadore, mi neque quoiquam pauperi opinione melius res structa est domi. MEG. immo est , et di faciant ut siet plus plusque istuc sospitent, quod nunc habes. EVC. illud mi uerbum non placet 'quod nunc habes’; tam hoc scit me habere quam egomet; anus fecit palam. MEG. quid tu te solus e senatu seuocas? EVC. pol ego ut te accusem merito meditabar. MEG. quid est? EVC. quid sit me rogitas? qui mihi omnis angulos furum inpleuisti in aedibus misero mihi; qui mi intro misti in aedis quingentos coquos cum s^nis manibus, g&iere Geryonaceo. quos si Argus seruet, qui oculeus totus fuit, quem quondam I6ni luno custodem addidit, is numquam struet, praeterea tibicinam, quae mi interbibere sola, si uino scatat, Corinthiensem fontem Pirenam potest. tum obsonium autem - MEG. p61 uel legioni sat est; etiam agnum misi. EVC. quo quidem agno sat scio magis curiosam nusquam esse ullam beluam.

537 edi B3 Non. 728 L. : di audiui B’V di D audiui VJK 539 e dei. Gulielmius 543 cuiquam JV3 : quicquam BDV' 545 suppi. Ussing 546 Leo 530 te ut P : corr. Acidalius 553 aedibus P : corr. Pylades 358 scatat Donatus ad Ter. Eun. 80 : scatet P 359 Pirenam Valla : et perineum (vel pire-) P 560 obsonium B3: obsequium B'DVJ V3JK legioni B3: leoni B'DVJ sat est BCV3J : sata est B‘DV' ■m curiosam P Non. 729 L. : curionem Gulielmius nusquam P : numquam Non.

II1/6 EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG.

EUC.

MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC. MEG. EUC.

MEG. EUC.

87

I’ve digested your words with great pleasure. Did you hear them? All of them. Right from the start. (Taken aback) All the same, to my way of thinking, you’d be behaving rather better (540) if you looked more respectable at your daughter’s wedding. Those who suit their finery to their means and their ostentation to their wealth - they are the ones who remember where they came from. No poor man, Megadorus, I or anyone, has his financial situation improved by what other people think. (545) No, but you have

LYC. EUC. LYC. LUC. LYC. EUC.

103

(735) The truth. What harm have I , young man, that you should act like this and set about ruining me and my children? A god prompted me; he drew me on to the... How? I admit I was wrong, and I know I deserve to be blamed. That is just the point I’ve come to ask you: that you should not be upset, but forgive me. (740) Why did you dare to do it, to lay hands on what wasn’t yours? What do you want to happen? It’s been done. It can’t be undone. I believe it was the will of the gods. If they hadn’t wanted it, it wouldn’t have happened, I know. But I believe it was the gods’ will that I should take you to my house and crush you in the stocks. Don’t say that. Without my authority what right did you have to lay hand on my... ? (745) It was wine and love which were to blame for what I did. You unprincipled rascal! The very idea that you should dare to approach me with a speech like that! The shamelessness! If that is the law, that you can escape the blame for what you did, let’s snatch the gold off respectable ladies in broad daylight, openly, and then, if we get caught, make the excuse that we were drunk (750) and did it out of love. ‘Wine and love’ is a pretty cheap idea, if the drunken lover can get away with acting just as he pleases. But I’ve come to you by myself to beg your pardon for my stupidity. I don’t like people who make excuses after they’ve done wrong. You should have kept your hands off. You knew that you had no rights over... (755) So then, since I didn’t keep my hands off, I make no objection to becoming the legal possessor of... You? Against my will? Have my... I am not insisting. But I do think I can rightly use the word ‘mine’. You will certainly soon find out that ‘mine’ is appropriate, Euclio. If you don’t bring me back... What am I to bring you back? ...what you’ve stolen of mine, (760) I’ll take you straightaway to the praetor, I will, and write out a summons against you. Me? Stealing something of yours? Where from? Or, what is it? Jupiter’s going to love you like you don’t know. Not if you don’t tell me what you’re looking for. (Finally driven to state thefacts.) A POT OF GOLD, I TELL YOU. I WANT IT BACK. THE ONE YOU’VE ADMITTED TO ME THAT YOU STOLE! I didn’t say it and I haven’t done it. You deny it?

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Plautus LYC. pernego immo. nam neque id aurum neque istaec aula quae siet scio nec noui. EVC. illam ex Siluani luco, quam abstuleris, cedo! i, refer, dimidiam tecum potius partem diuidam. tametsi fur mihi es, molestus non ero. i uero, refer. LYC. sanus tu non es, qui furem me uoces. ego te, Euclid, de | alia re resciuisse censui, quod ad me attinet. magna est [res], quam ego tecum otiose, si otium est, cupio loqui. EVC. dic bona fide: tu id aurum non surripuisti? LYC. bona. neque scis qui abstulerit? LYC. istuc quoque bona. EVC. atque id si scies qui abstulerit, mihi indicabis? LYC. faciam. EVC. neque partem tibi ab eo quisque est indipisces neque furem excipies? LYC. ita. EVC. quid fallis? LYC. tum me faciat quod uult magnus Iuppiter. EVC. sat habeo, age nunc loquere quid uis. LYC. si me nouisti mimis, genere qu6 sim gnatus: hic mihi est Megadorus aunculus, meus pater fuit Antimachus, ego uoc6r Lyconides, mater est Eunomia. EVC. noui genus, nunc quid uis? id uol6 noscere. filiam ex te tu | habes. EVC. immo | eccillam domi. EVC. eam tu despondisti, opinor, meo aunculo. EVC. omnem rem tends. LYC. is me nunc renuntiare repudium iussit tibi. EVC. repudium rebus paratis, exornatis nuptiis? ut illum di immortales 6mnes deaeque quantum est perduint, quem propter hodie auri tantum perdidi infelix, miser. LYC. bono animo es, [et] bene dice, nunc quae res tibi et gnatae tuae bene feliciterque uortat... ita di faxint, inquito. EVC. ita di faciant. LYC. et mihi ita di faciant, audi nunciam. qui | homo culpam admisit in se, millust tam parui preti.

771 est Hare : est res BDVE res est J 773f turbati in P (verba neque scis qui abstulerit post qui abstulerit [774]), corr. Camerarius 773 Camerarius Stockert scis Langen 775 quisque est Langen : cuiquam est P cui sit (uis) Non. 187 (454) L. cuiumst Goetz indipisces Non. 187 (-is 454) : inde posces P 776 quid Camerarius : id B?EJ it B'D id Valla 779 pater fuit Leo : fuit pater P 781 Camerarius (780 ante id in P) 784 paratis Non. 150 L. : paratis atque P 787 [et] Pylades

Aulularia I YC.

105

(765) Most definitely I do. That gold, that pot, I have not the faintest idea what they are. LUC. The one from the grove of Silvanus, the one which you stole: give it me! {Wheedling.) Go on: bring it back. I’d rather share it half and half with you. You’re a thief in my eyes, but I won’t make trouble. Go on I say, bring it back. IYC. You’re not talking sense in calling me a thief. (Assuming an attitude o f grown-up dignity.) Myself, Euclio, I was of the opinion (770) that you had found out about a different matter, something which concerns me. It is a serious matter, which I am anxious to discuss with you at leisure, if you have the leisure. LUC. Tell me truthfully: you didn’t steal that gold? IYC. Truly. EUC.> And you don’t know who took ? IYC. That also truly. I UC. And if you do get to know who took it, you’ll pass the information to me? LYC. I will. LUC. And you won’t accept a share for yourself (775) from the thief, whoever he is, nor harbour him? LYC. No. I IJC. What you’re lying? LYC. Then let Jupiter act with me as he pleases. EUC. That’ll do. Come on now, tell me what you want. LYC. In case you are not fully aware of my family background, Megadorus here is my uncle, my father was Antimachus and my name is Lyconides. (780) My mother is Eunomia. LUC. I know the family. Now what do you want? I want to know that. LYC.> You have a daughter of your own. 1'UC. Yes - she’s there (gestures) at home. LYC. You’ve engaged her, I believe, to my uncle. LUC. You have the whole story. LYC. He has now told me to declare the engagement terminated. LUC. Terminated?! When everything’s provided? When the marriage feast is completely ready? (785) May the immortal gods and goddesses, every one of them, destroy him, when it’s thanks to him that I’ve lost so much gold today, poor miserable me. LYC. Cheer up. Don’t curse. Now as to a matter which I pray may result in blessing and happiness for you and your daughter... (pause. Euclio is sunk in dejection, not listening.) Say ‘May the gods bring it about’. EUC. (reluctantly) May the gods bring it about. LYC. And may the gods bring it about for me also. Listen now. (790) When a

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quin pudeat, quin purget sEse. nunc te obtestor, Euclio, ut, si quid ego erga te inprudens peccaui aut gnatam tuam, ut mi ignoscas eamque uxorem mi des, ut leges iubent. ego me iniuriam fecisse filiae fateor tuae, Cereris uigiliis per uinum atque impulsu adulescentiae. EVC. ei mihi! quod ego facinus ex te | audio? LYC. cur eiulas, quem | ego auom feci iam ut esses filici nuptiis? nam tua gnata peperit, decumo mense post: numerum cape, ea re repudium remisit aunculus causa mea. i intro, exquaere, sitne ita ut ego praedicd. EVC. perii 6ppido; ita mihi ad malum malae res plurimae se adglutinant. ibo intro, ut quid huius uerum sit sciam. LYC. iam te sequor, haec propemodum iam esse in uado salutis res uidetur. nunc seruum esse ubi dicam meum t Strobilum t non reperio. nisi etiam hic opperiar tamen paulisper; postea intro hunc subsequar, nunc interim spatium ei dabo Exquirendi meum fictum ex gnatae pedisequa nutrice anu: Ea rem nouit.

V/l

LYCONIDES LYCONIDIS SERVVS (EVCLIO) L.S. di immortales, quibus et quantis mE donatis gaudiis! quadrilibrem aulam | auro onustam | habeo, quis me est ditior? 810 quis me AthEnis nunc magis quisquam est homo cui di sint pr6pitii? LYC. cErto enim Ego uocem hic loquEntis modo me audire uisus sum. L.S. hEm. Erumne ego aspicio meum? LYC. uideone ego hunc [Strobilum] seruum meum? L.S. ipsus Est. LYC. haud alius Est. L.S. congrEdiar. LYC. contollam gradum. 814-15 crEdo ego illum, ut iussi, eampse anum adiisse, huius nutricem uirginis. L.S. quin ego illi me inuenisse dico hanc praEdam atque Eloquor? igitur orabo ut manu me emittat, ibo atque Eloquar. rEpperi... LYC. quid rEpperisti? L.S. non quod pueri clamitant 794 796 8oo 802 804 811 812 813 816

Aulularia

Plautus

filiae fecisse P : corr. Camerarius facinus ex te ego P : corr. Guietus B W G Prise. I I 38, 1 K. uerum Bothe : ueri BD uesi VJE sequar Sjogren strolum B‘El V ' : strobolum B3 strobilum cett. me P : mi Wagner uideo P : corr. S2G Strobilus dei. Brix alius Pylades : aliud P eloquor Pylades : eloquar P

107

man has brought guilt upon himself, there’s no one who is so worthless that he isn’t ashamed, that he won’t apologise. Now, Euclio, I beg you. If I have inadvertently committed an offence against you or your daughter, forgive me and give me her as my wife - as the laws command. I admit that I assaulted your daughter (795) on the night before Ceres’ feast, under the influence of wine and youth. liUC. Oh no! What’s this I hear you’ve done? IYC. Why are you wailing, when I’ve made you be a grandfather at your daughter’s wedding feast? Your daughter has had a child, it’s nine months since. Just work it out. That is why my uncle has declared a termination of the engagement: for my sake. (800) Go indoors and find out if it is as I am saying. LUC. I’m utterly ruined. It’s one bad thing sticking onto another and never stopping. I’ll go indoors to find out what’s the truth of this. {Exit into his house.) LYC. I’m following you in a moment. This business seems now to be pretty well in the shallow waters of success. But now I can’t work out where I can say my slave fStrobilust is. (805) Unless I go on waiting for him here for a bit. Then I’ll follow Euclio indoors. But for the meantime now I’ll give him a moment to find out what I did from the old nurse, his daughter’s attendant. She knows it all. (Enter Lyconides’Slavefrom town.) V /l

L.S.

{speaking to the audience, not noticing Lyconides) Immortal gods, what joy you’re giving me, what tremendous joy! A four-pound jar, stuffed with gold: I’ve got it. Who’s richer than me? (810) Who in Athens, who at all is there to whom the gods are kinder? LYC. I’m sure I think I heard the sound of someone speaking here just now. L.S. Hmm. Is this my master I see? LYC. Do I see my slave here? L.S. It’s the boss. LYC. It’s not anyone else. L.S. I’ll join him. LYC. I’ll step over to him. (814) I think he has actually approached the old woman as I told him, the nurse of the girl here. L.S. Why don’t I tell him I’ve found this loot and explain? Then I’ll ask him to set me free. I’ll go and explain. {To Lyconides) I’ve found... LYC. What have you found? L.S. Not the sort of thing children shout out that they’ve found in a bean.

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m faba se repperisse. LYC. iamne autem ut soles deludis? L.S. ere, mane, eloquar iam, ausculta. LYC. age ergo loquere. L.S. repperi hodie, ere, diuitias nimias. LYC. ubinam? L.S. quadrilibrem, inquam, aulam auri plenam LYC. quod ego facinus audio ex te? | L.S. Euclioni huic seni subripui. LYC. ubi id est aurum? L.S. in arca apud me. nunc uolo me emitti manu. LYC. egone te emittam manu, scelerum cumulatissime? L.S. abi, ere, scio quam rem geras, lepide hercle animum tuum temptaui. iam | ut eriperes apparabas, quid faceres, si repperissem? LYC. non potes probasse nugas, i, redde aurum. L.S. reddam ego aurum? LYC. redde, inquam, ut huic reddatur. L.S. unde? LYC. quod modo fassu’s esse in arca. L.S. sdleo hercle ego garrire nugas. ******************* L.S. ita loquor. LYC. at scin quomodo? ******************* L.S. uel hercle enica numquam hinc feres a me

FRAGMENTA I (EVC.?) II (EVC.?) III (EVC.) IV (EVC.) V (L.S.) DUB. (I) (LYC.?)

822 831f fr IV: v

Aulularia

Plautus

pro illis corcotis, strophiis, sumptu uxorio. ........ut admemordit hominem! ego ecfodiebam | in die denos scrobes nec noctu nec diu quietus umquam eram, nunc dormiam. qui mi holera cruda ponunt, hallec adduint. quin mi caperratam tuam frontem, Strobile, omittis?

quod B3E3 : quo cett. hic seni subripuit Leo, fortasse recte vide commentarium eram Bothe : eam codd. adduint Quickerant: duint codd.

109

LYC. Now then - are you playing games with me as usual? L.S. (820) Hold on, master, I’ll explain, listen. LYC. Go on then, speak. L.S. Today, master, I’ve found big money. LYC. Where? L.S. A four-pound jar, I tell you, full of gold. LYC. What are you telling me you’ve done? L.S. I took it off Euclio the old man here. LYC. Where is the gold? L.S. In a chest at my place. Now I want to be set free. LYC. Me set you free, (825) you heap of villainy? L.S. Come off it, master: I know what you’re up to. That was a clever test I set you: you were just getting ready to take it off me. What would you have done if I had really found it? LYC. You can’t convince me you were joking. Off with you; hand over the gold. L.S. Me? Hand over the gold? LYC. Hand it over, I tell you, so that it can be given back to Euclio. L.S. Where from? LYC. (830) The gold you just admitted was in a chest. L.S. Talking nonsense. It’s just what I usually do. L.S. ********** That’s what I’m saying. LYC. Do you know how? L.S. ********** Go ahead and murder me, you’ll never get it off me. FRAGMENTS (EUC?) I (EUC?) II III (EUC) IV (EUC) V (L.S.) DVB. I (LYC.?)

Instead of those saffron tunics, breast-bands, wives’ expenses. How well he got his teeth into the fellow! I used to dig ten pits a day. I was never at rest by day or by night. Now I shall sleep. Those who offer me raw greens should add some fish sauce. Why don’t you give up that frowning expression, Strobilus?

C o m m e n ta r y

111

//.

COMMENTARY * directs the reader to Section 5 of the Metrical Appendix. 1. The Argumenta There are two metrical summaries of the A u lu la r ia , a non-acrostic ( I . ) and an acrostic ( I I ) . The non-acrostic a r g u m e n tu m stems from an author of the 2nd century CE (the time of Sulpicius Apollinaris, who wrote the Terence a r g u m e n ta ) . The acrostic versions presumably came later; the authors tried to imitate Plautus, without total success; see Deufert (2002) 224 ff. /.

1 Euclio, a miserly old man: Euclio is less a u a r u s than p a r c u s (see p. 16). scarcely believing his eyes: lit. ‘barely trusting himself’ as A m p h . 416 e g o m e t m ih i n o n c r e d o (T don’t believe myself’). 4 mad with terror: lit. ‘pale (and) out of his mind’: e x ( s ) a n g u is a m e n s is a typical vivid Plautine asyndeton, though the precise words do not appear in Plautus (but in Caec. 132 R. and later on). 5 u itia r e for rape we find only in the a r g u m e n ta of the A u l. (three times) and of the T ru e:, but see Terence (Lopez Gregoris 2002, 294 ff.); 36 we have s tu p r a r e , elsewhere c o m p r im e r e (see on 28). 6 persuaded by his sister to marry: For Megadorus’ motivation see p. 34. s u a d e o in the passive + infin. is not found elsewhere (normally with u t/n e ); but see Petron. 81.5a m a tr e p e r s u a s u s e st; its construction is similar to iu b e o . I asks for: d e p o s c e r e only here has the sense of ‘to ask for the hand’. 8 harsh: For d u r u s see A s in. 944 in g e n io d u r o ; A u l. 297 we have a r ( i) d u s (‘desiccated’) instead. For the dative a u l a e : G-L §346 note 2. 9 hides: We have to supply (a u la m ) s u b la ta m from 8. a b s tr u d e r e (‘put away’) is a keyword of the A u l. (577, 583, 663 e tc .) . 10 The slave ... set a trap (for him): Understand E u c lio n i\ II begs: o b s e c r a t has the infinitive here as s u a s u s in 6. 12 to himself: - m e t is an emphasising suffix. 14 finds: in u e n it must refer to the restitution of the treasure to Euclio (not to the slave ‘finding’ it in 816 ff.). 15 and happily settles his daughter with Lyconides: The verse is (together with A r g . 2.8 f.) of the highest importance for the reconstruction of the lost ending of the A u l. (see p. 12 f.). This sense of c o llo c a r e (‘settle’) is not found before Cicero (e .g . In v . 1.91).

1 The hiatus* before the final E u c lio is hardly compatible with Plautine usage. 2 miserably worn down is an excellent characterization of Euclio’s obsession. 3 his daughter: is tiu s instead of e iu s is against Plautus’ usage (Stace 1971 a d l o c .) . 5 so that he shall do that gladly: We have to understand ‘Euclio’. 6 Euclio is afraid for the gold: See A r g . 1, 8 a u la e tim e n s . 1 seeing the whole affair is very vague; anyone who knows the play will understand the reference to the scenes of ‘Act IV’. c o m p r e s s o r (‘rapist’) reappears only late (ThlL 3, 2157, 39 ff.). 8 steals: s u r p it, the syncopated* form of s u r r ip it, is typical for Plautus (C a p t . 8, 760 e tc .) . 9 This verse, if taken literally, is of central importance for the reconstruction of the ending: Euclio gives away not only his daughter with the baby, but also his treasure (see p. 12 f.). 2. The Prologue The speaker of the prologue gives the main outline of the play (a r g u m e n tu m ) and other important hints. In our case he stands outside the action proper, while sometimes pretending to hold its threads in his hands (as does Pan in the D y s c o lu s ) . A prologue-speech is the usual form in Menander (who sometimes places one or more scenes before the prologue). Plautus introduces his plays in different ways: No prologue-speech: e .g . C u r c u lio , E p id ic u s , P e r s a , S tic h u s Prologues without direct reference to the play (similar to the Terentian prologues): A s in a r ia , T rin u m m u s Expository prologue: e .g . A u lu la r ia , C is te lla r ia , P o e n u lu s , R u d e n s In the A u lu la r ia we need an expository prologue spoken by a god, since the characters of the play cannot provide all the necessary information for the audience: only Euclio knows about the treasure, only Lyconides (who appears very late) knows the circumstances of the rape. Thanks to the superior knowledge given by the Lar in the two announcements 25 ff. and 31 ff., the audience has an insight into Luclio’s ridiculous behaviour throughout the play; and there is suspense as to how Ihe comedy’s end will be achieved. The Lar who speaks the prologue is a typical Roman god; he is worshipped at the fireplace (7 in m e d io f o c o ) , and he receives his sacrifices on the important occasions of everyday life (385 ff). The extraordinary sacrifices he has received from Euclio’s daughter (24 f.) have prompted him to help her in her difficult situation (see note at 23 If.), while he has punished her greedy ancestors. As for the Lar’s dress, see the L e x ic o n Ic o n o g r a p h ic u m M y th o lo g ia e C la s s ic a e VI, 205-212. The type with a longer tunic and a pad hanging over the girdle seems to be more appropriate for the Lar Familiaris Ilian a ‘dancing Lar’ with short tunic. We cannot tell whether the actor carried one of the typical attributes of the Lar (the dish for libations and the c o r n u c o p ia ).

C o m m e n ta r y

C o m m e n ta r y

For the Lar as a 'person of more than human insight’ we may point to other prologue-speakers, e .g . Auxilium in the C is te lla r ia , Arcturus in the R u d e n s or Agnoia in Menander’s P e r ik e ir o m e n e (all plays with a recognition plot), but also to Pan in the D y s c o lu s . Martin (2008) 99 ff. tries to show that the Lar’s involvement in his household’s fortune is much deeper than even Pan’s in the D y s c o lu s . According to him, Plautus has changed the whole structure of the prologue, laying emphasis on Euclio’s family and the Lar’s actions in favour of his daughter.

advantage (personal interest: G-L §350)-instead ofp a tr is a u iq u e ... g r a t i a ; for the hiatus* after p a t r i see v. 7. 7 a hoard of gold: th e s a u r u m \ a u r i: in both verses the hiatus* is located after important words to which it gives emphasis. who lives here: h a b e t instead of h a b ita t (21). 8 begging me: u e n e r a n s m e is a shorthand expression for ‘making a prayer and offering worship to me’ (OLD lb). 9 When dying: q u o n ia m here has its original temporal meaning as often in Plautus (G-L §538 n.3). greedy as he was: a u id o in g e n io (Abl. of Quality, G-L §400) is important for the characterization of Euclio; here in the prologue the sense a u a r u s (greedy; (puupyopoq) - even without the actual word (see Intro, p. 16) - prevails over p a r c u s (‘thrifty’; piKpoAoyoq), Euclio’s characterization by the other figures of the play (see v. 206, 314 f. e tc .) ; some scholars think that Plautus has introduced this different nuance, others (Lefevre) see here a relic of Euclio’s characterization in the Greek original (see Introduction, p. 38). 12 rather than show him: q u a m instead of q u a m u t as usual in Plautus: see 51; G-L §298 n.2; Bennett (1910-14) I 322 f. 13 some land: the separation a g r i ... n o n m a g n u m m o d u m (‘hyperbaton’) gives intensity to this important point: Euclio is rather poor. 14 for him to work...: lit. ‘on which he could live with great effort’. Subj. after relative pronoun here suggests purpose (G-L §630). 15 ff. Here we are told that the man who buried the gold did not really honour the god (which is a bit of a surprise after u e n e r a n s m e ) nor did his son, who had not been informed by his father. Therefore he was punished by the god: he died without having found the gold. And Euclio’s character is no different. The bad treatment of the Lar by the owner of his house has a parallel in Menander’s D y s c o lu s with Knemon’s behaviour towards Pan, who is worshipped in the shrine close to his house; and here we find a striking parallel for the influence of a god on the action of a play (see Introduction, p. 34). 16 any more: e c q u i ‘whether in any way’ ( q u i is a ‘modal ablative’ in the sense of ‘how’); e c q u is has the sense of n u m q u is . 18 f. he took less and less trouble to care for me: im p e n d io c u r a r e comes close to ‘to look after one with much effort’ (for im p e n d io ‘with much effort’ see Ter. E u n . 587; Cic. A tt. 10,4,9); the infinitives c u r a r e and im p e r tir e are ‘historical’ (with the sense of an Historical Perfect); see Bennett (1910) 421; G-L §647. 20 and so he died: lit. ‘he died in the same way (i.e . without finding the gold)’; ite m x 2 is a little surprising and has even raised doubts about the text as transmitted. 21 f. Euclio is here characterized by his father and grandfather ( p a r ite r m o r a tu m , ‘of the same character’); as usual in prologues, even traits important to the action are only briefly announced. 23 ff. Euclio’s daughter breaks the cycle of greediness: she honours the god as

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S tr u c tu r e o f th e p r o lo g u e :

a) b) c) d)

presentation of the speaker (1-5); the treasure; Euclio and his ancestors (6-22); Euclio’s daughter; the ‘love story’ (23-36); announcement of the first scene (37-39).

In the subsequent scenes between Euclio and Staphyla Euclio’s character is presented (~ b); then the action on behalf of his daughter begins (~ c). We find a similar arrangement of the main topics of the action in Menander’s D y s c o lu s and A s p is , as N. Holzberg, M e n a n d e r . U n te r s u c h u n g e n z u r d r a m a tis c h e n T ech n ik , Erlangen 1974, 44 f. has shown. L ite r a tu r e : Duckworth (1994) 211-16 and index; K. Abel, D i e P la u tu s p r o lo g e ,

Diss. Frankfurt 1955, generally about Plautus’ prologues; Ludwig (1961) on the prologue of the A u lu la r ia . See also Questa and Raffaelli (1984) 10-65 andRaffaelli (2009) 13-125 about special features of the prologues; Martin (2008) about Plautine changes; see also the interpretations of Sharrock (2009) 35 f. and Dunsch (2014a). 1 wonder ... in a word: typical form of address to the audience (see Ter. H a u t. 1 n e q u o i s i t u o s tr u m m iru m , ‘in case it should be surprising to any of you’; Donatus, on Ter. A n d r . 7 5 0 ) . ‘Wonder’ { m ir u m ) can amount to simple ignorance: ‘Who is this?’, or astonishment: ‘How odd he looks! ’ The Lar is resolving both: he looks odd because he is a god, and he answers the implied question about his identity p a u c i s (u e r b is ) ‘in a few (words)’. 2 ff. from this household: h a c ... h a n c ... h u iu s ... h ic e tc . are ‘deictic’ (i.e . the Lar points to the house he is referring to); a very regular usage esp. in prologues. f a m il i a (here in the sense of ‘house, household’) anticipates the family history (which is central in Plautus’ prologue). 4 since: c u m +Pres. Indie, ‘since’; see G-L §580 Remarks 3: the standard m u lti a n n i s u n t has got drawn into the acc. m u lto s a n n o s by the idea of ‘time how long’ (G-L §336). I’ve been occupying it: p o s s id e r e is a term for the actual power ( p o s s e s s io ) e .g . over a house or a field; see P o e n . 1081, ThlL X 2, 119,16 ff. 5 for the father and grandfather: p a t h a u o q u e is an audacious dative of

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much as does Knemon’s daughter in the D y s c o lu s , and the god decides to help her. Euclio is allowed to find the treasure, which has to become the dowry of the girl. In the D y s c o lu s Pan causes a rich young man to fall in love with his protegee. 25 she gives me garlands: The gods’ statues were very often honoured by garlands put around their head; see also 385 f.: even Euclio brings garlands, c o r o n a s f lo r e a s , on the occasion of his daughter’s marriage; in D y s c . 50 f. Knemon’s daughter honours Pan and the Nymphs with garlands. 26 Euclio here: h ie E u c lio is deictic (the god points to the house): ‘Euclio who lives here’; see v. 31 h ic s e n e x d e p r o x im o (the god points towards the house of Megadorus); see v. 2 f. and note. 27 for him to have her married if he wanted: Like v. 33 this is a sort of ‘auxiliary motif’; with s i u e lle t ‘if he wanted’ the Lar points to the difficulties which will arise from Euclio’s personality: the audience will wonder how his ‘greediness’ (as it is named in the prologue; see note to a u id o in g e n io , v. 9) will be overcome; for the supine n u p tu m d a r e see 271, 384 e tc . 28 ff. In New Comedy and in the f a b u l a p a l l i a t a the rape or seduction of virgins is a common background motif of the action, especially in plays with recognition of children. See Menander’s E p itr e p o n te s and Plautus’ C is te lla r ia (whose Greek original is Menander’s S y n a r is to s a i) . We find the motif in tragedy as well (e .g . in Eur. Io n ). Here the young man knows the person he raped and wants to marry her; Euclio’s ignorance of the girl’s rape and pregnancy has a parallel in Terence’s H e c y r a (original by Apollodorus). Of the three words c o m p r im e r e , u itia r e and s tu p r a r e , c o m p r im e r e ‘violate’ (OLD2) is the least loaded with disapproval of a moral or legal nature. The repetition of c o m p r im e r e (and s tu p r a r e ) serves to underline an important point of the plot. 31 ff. This old man from next door: Through the proposal of the rich neighbour ( h ic s e n e x d e p r o x u m o = Megadorus; see 171) the Lar will bring the ‘love story’ between the girl Phaedrium (Phaedria, as most scholars call her, is a man’s name in Latin) and Lyconides (Megadorus’ nephew) to a happy end; see p. 17 f. d e p r o x im o corresponds to Greek ev yevrovcov: ‘in the neighbours’ (house). 36 who raped her: s tu p r a r e for violence against a virgin as in T ru e. 821; the verb (as the substantive s tu p r u m ) usually stands for a sexual relation with a married woman. on the night before Ceres’ feast: In Rome nocturnal celebrations by women were not allowed (Cic. L e g . 2.9.21 n o c tu r n a m u lie r u m s a c r if ic ia n e s u n to ‘women’s festivals should not take place during the night’). This seems to be a relic of the Greek original, where the Eleusinian mysteries or the Tauropolia (cf. Men. E p itr . 451 ff.) may have been the occasion of the rape. But in Greek drama such incidents occurred at other occasions too, for instance at the Dionysia (Plaut. C is t. 156 ff.), or the Adonia (Men. S a m . 39 ff.); see Stockert (1983) a d lo c . 37-39 The prologue-speaker now announces the personnel of the first scene: Euclio and his old servant Staphyla. Such an announcement is often found in ancient

drama: Eur. H ip p . 51 ff; Men. D y s c . 47 ff.; Plaut. R u d . 79 ff. It is a signal for the audience that the drama proper is beginning. check the gold, in case it’s been stolen: The words n e s u r r u p tu m s i e t (a verb of lear has to be supplied) underline Euclio’s mood; the usual construction would have been the indirect question s u r r u p tu m n e s i e t (s u b r u p tu m or s u r - in archaic Latin is the participle of surripere; later s u r r e p tu m ); for the archaic s i e t ( = s it) see on 229 f.

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3. The Euclio-Staphyla Scenes (1/1 and 1/2) Euclio, as announced by the Lar, drives his slave woman Staphyla out of the house, since he wants to check on the treasure. Euclio’s strange behaviour is understandable for the audience because of the information given by the Lar. There is a problem with the movements of the actors: the Lar has to return into the house from which the two people come on stage (see Hunter 1981, 39); in the Greek original we may assume Tyche as the prologue speaker who would return into her temple in the centre of the stage. For the chaotic opening of this scene and the drama proper see M o s t. 1 ff., where two slaves enter in a heated altercation (Wright 1974, 6 ft). For the ‘repeat performance’ in the A u lu la r ia and Euclio’s characterization see Sharrock (2009) 194 ff. 40 The poet seems to underline Euclio’s hysterical voice by metrical abnormality. The mss version demands synizesis* of le u l in e x e u n d u m and the split element* h e r c le tib i (see 185 n.). It would be less harsh if we deleted e x f , but the triple command is typical (see 55; C u r e . 276); for h e r c le see note on 67. 41 you gazer-rounder with the spying eyes: c ir c u m s p e c ta tr ix and o c u li e m is s ic ii are typical Plautine creations, imitated only by late authors (Apuleius and Tertullian respectively). The comic sound corresponds to a comic sense: Staphyla’s eyes are sent out (e m itte r e ) like spies against an enemy; Jocelyn (1985) 272 n.4 however understands s e r u u m e m itte re . For the word form see P o e n . 1303 d e m is s ic iu s (‘flowing’ of a long tu n ic a ). 42 Why, why: n a m intensifies the question, hence the repeated ‘why’. to make you miserable: Euclio maliciously uses Staphyla’s m is e r a m , turning the idea against her, and repeats the idea (with other words) in 43. 43 to make you live ... as vile a life: m a la m a e ta te m (i.e . u ita m ) seems to oscillate between ‘a wretched life’ and ‘unpleasant old age’ (R u d . 337 a e ta s h a u d m a la stands for ‘youth’); see Accius 85 R. a n m a la a e ta te m a u is m a le m u lc a r i? ‘Or would you like to be badly beaten in your bad old age?’ Here m a la stands in a predicative position (‘bad as you are’); the ‘polyptoton’ (‘two or more different forms of the same word occurring together for effect’) m a la m a la m is a typical figure of Plautine style: see 107, 801; A m p h . 34 iu s ta e a b iu s tis iu s tu s s u m o r a to r d a tu s ‘I was appointed as a just pleader pleading with the just for a just cause’; C o s . 826 m a la m a la e m a le m o n s tr a t ‘The bad woman is showing her bad ways to a bad girl’ (both de Melo); Duckworth (1994) 343 f.

Commentary

Commentary

45 Am I to explain myself to you, goad-heap?: The hyperbolic stimulorum seges has the function of indicating the number of blows the old woman has to suffer; they are ‘sown’ upon her (but see also Jocelyn 1985, 272 n.5); we may compare Asin. 297 gymnasium flagri ‘exercise ground of the lash’ or Cas. 447 stimulorum loculi ‘treasure chest of goads’ (MacCary). Euclio is a peasant fanner (see 13 f.) and often uses metaphors taken from agriculture (see 49, 79, 194,229 ff; Stockert 1982,4 ff.; see also on 178 ff.). For the deliberative subjunctive without interrogative particle, expressing surprise, see 829; Merc. 749; the scansion tibi ego with lengthened o expresses indignation as well. 46 look at her there, how she moves!: i.e. how slowly. Impatience because of slow movement is typical for comedy: see Merc. 670 ff.; Ter. Eun. 918 f. uirum bonum eccum Parmenonem incedere uideo. uide ut otiosus it T see the ‘good man’ P. coming; look how slowly he walks! ’ Euclio’s commands imply stage instructions, see further 55f. Illuc1is adverb, illuc2 is the older form for illud (illic, illaec, illuc), sis (= si uis ‘if you please’) is a formulaic expression of colloquial Latin, very often (as here) used in an ironical sense. 47 D’you know how it is for you?: These words contain a real threat. At 831 we have the ‘short form’ at scin quomodo? scin? = scisne? 49 I’ll make that tortoise-pace of yours expand a bit: This audacious metaphor is imitated only by late writers (Tertull., Hieron.); see Men. 888 moueformicinum gradum (‘move your antlike step’), iste is the pronoun of the 2nd person (‘your’) as hie for the first (‘my’, ‘our’). For the alliterative wordplay grandibo gradum see Epid. 13 ut tu es gradibus grandibus. The future ending in -ibo is formed on analogy to the imperfect -ibam (which is the older formation; see 178 praesagibat); it is rare outside scibo. 50 Better the gods drove me to hang myself: Staphyla speaks these words aside, as we learn from Euclio’s 52. adaxint ad suspendium is a circumlocution for suspendant; see Cas. I ll f. me suspendio quam tu eius potiorfias satiust mortuum (T would rather die by hanging than let you get hold of her’). Hanging is a way of death often hinted at in comedy: see 77 f.; Men. Dysc. 169 f. diui is a rare form for di/dei. adaxint is a subjunctive (originally optative, a verb-form used to express a wish) of the -s aorist (an older form, whose indicative has been supplanted by the perfect). This ‘sigmatic form’ in a principal clause is also used in 149 (ita difaxint) or in a prohibition 744 (ne istuc dixis); for these forms see G-L §131.4, de Melo (2007) 191 ff.; in a dependent sentence: respexis (58), coordinated with the future perfect excesseris; locassim (228); ausim (414),faxim (494). 51 quam for quam ut; see on 12. 52 Just listen: Euclio addresses himself in a quasi-aside, while 53 is directed at Staphyla; this may be underlined by the alliteration of /s/ and the onomatopoeic word murmurat: see Bain (1977) 158. 53 I’ll dig out those eyes of yours: Such terrible threats are found here and there in comedy, but never executed (though they are in tragedy): see Rud. 659, 731.

54 me is simultaneously the object of obseruare and the anticipated subject of the quid sentence; for this so-called ‘prolepsis’ (i.e. anticipation) see 443 ego te faciam miserrumus mortalis uti sis; 542 meminerunt sese unde oriundi sient (possibly also 61 fi), 670, 797; G-L §468; Hofmann-Szantyr (1965) 471 f. 55 Go off further now: The text implies that Staphyla in obedience to Euclio’s commands goes away from the house until she reaches the edge of the stage, and Euclio shouts ‘Whoa!’ (for ohe see OLD and Hofmann 1951, 17 [1985, 120];Greek tbrj). For the triple repetition of the command see 40 and n. For the ‘stage direction’ see Men. 158 f. concede huc a foribus! —fiat. - etiam concede hue! - licet etc. (‘Come over here from the door. / Yes. / Come over here a bit more. / All right’); Ter. Eun. 706. For istic ‘there’, the ‘adverb of the 2nd person’, see 49 and note; Merc. 912 istic sta ilico ‘stand where you are’. 56 ff. Euclio now threatens Staphyla with a special punishment: crucifixion is an extreme Roman and Oriental (not Greek) penalty for slaves, in comedy only used as a threat. Euclio’s hysteria is also indicated by verbal means: the strong hercle (see note on 67) is even repeated in the main sentence. The use of donicum (= dum, donee ‘until’) is slightly discontinuous: we expect priusquam ‘before’ (or nisi ‘if not’). Such ‘contaminations of thought’ are typical of colloquial language; see also Capt. 339 ego me amitti, donicum ille huc redierit, non postulo (T do not demand to be sent away until your son is returned’, with the same slight inconsistency in English). After the short command in 55 f., the long sentence (56-59) underlines the seriousness of the threat. 57 a finger’s breadth or the width of a toenail is proverbial as German ‘einen Fingerbreit’; see Bacch. 423; Cic. Att. 13.20.4 a recta conscientia transuersum unguem non oportet discedere ‘one shouldn’t step a fingernail’s width from what one knows is right’; Otto (1890) 356. 58 respexis: (in the sense of respexeris) see note on 50. 59 I’ll hand you over as a pupil to Master Cross: i.e. the cross shall teach you to shut your eyes forever, if you cannot keep them shut for a few moments (Wagner 1876); see Mil. 184 omnis crucibus contubernalis dari ‘to be given as bedfellows to crosses’; the d-alliteration increases the strength of the threat. For ‘animating the inanimate’ see 152; Fraenkel (2007) ch. 4 esp. p.75. 60 Verses 60-66 are spoken aside (hoc secum loquitur in mss BD); see Bain (1977) 18 (n. 2); Duckworth (1994) 109 ff. For similar monologue-openings in Greek and Roman comedy see Cist. 653 f. nullam ego me uidisse credo magis anum excruciabilem / quam illaec est (‘I do not think I’ve seen an old woman deserving torture more than that one does’); Rud. 406; Fraenkel (2007) 110. hac anu is ablative of comparison (G-L §296). 61 I’m seriously afraid: male in this alliterative phrase with metuo has rather weakened significance, coming close to ualde ‘very much’ (Hofmann 1951, 74 [1985, 201]); see 208 nimis male timui, hanc seems to stand in ‘prolepsis’ (see note on 54).

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62 I’m ... afraid she’ll set me a trap and play me an unexpected trick: (ne with the ‘positive sense’ after verbs of fearing (G-L §550.2)). uerba dare ‘to deceive’ (lit. ‘to give words [not deeds]’); see Most. 925 quicquam ... uerborum dedi? ‘have I ever played a trick on you?’; duit is an archaic form (‘optative’) for the subjunctive det; see 672 duim; 785 perduint; 585 concreduo; 430 edim; de Melo (2007) 240 ff. imprudenti is used predicatively (‘when I am not expecting it’). See G-L §325. 63 For the indicative est absconditum see note on 65. 64 The horrible woman has eyes in the back of her head: This seems to be proverbial (Otto 1890,249), but without real parallels in Latin (see Stockert (1983), ad loc.y, for the relative causal clause with the indicative see 732, G-L §626, Bennett (1910) 1137 f.pessima stands as an ‘exclamatory afterthought’ (‘Nachtragstellung’) according to Hofmann (1951), 119 f. [1985, 269 ff.]; see 551 f. 65 The indicative (estne) in indirect polar (‘yes or no’) questions is extremely rare in early Latin (Bennett (1910) 1122 f.); see Rud. 948 uidenum quispiam consequitur ‘See if anyone’s following us’; there is no necessity to change the transmitted text to sitne (avoiding the hiatus*); in pronominal questions the indicative is frequent: see 63; 174 scio quid dictura es; 111 nunc loquere quid uis. See G-L §467. 66 it has got me, poor man, worried: Euclio has realized that the gold has not made him happy; in ft. III/IV he draws the right conclusion and gives it to his daughter (see p. 12). The end of Euclio’s aside is marked by alliteration (miserum modis) and rhyme (plurumis ... modis). 67 ff. Staphyla has no idea what has happened to her master; and she has a second problem: her mistress is close to her time of birth. noenum (= ne oinom [unum]) is a high-level archaic (tragic?) negation with the sense of non; see Bacch. 34. (me)castor (‘by Castor’) is a shorthand formula for ita me Castor iuuet ‘as Castor may aid me’, an oath which is only used by women; (me) hercle on the contrary (‘by Hercules’) is spoken only by men (see e.g. 48,53, 56 f.), (ede)pol (‘by Pollux’; see e.g. 71) by both sexes. See Gellius 11.6; Hofmann (1951) 29 f. [1985, 136 ff.]. For the ‘redundant’ dieam (lit. ‘What madness I am to say has come upon my master’) see 804; quid... malae rei (partitive genitive) ‘What misfortune’; queo ‘I am able’ is a false back-formation taken from nequeo (neque + eo). I can’t work out: comminisci literally has the sense of ‘to think out’; the old woman is as much characterized by stereotypic language (see the repetition in 76) as her master (see on 89 iam ego hie ero). 69 f. Staphyla in this situation is as unhappy as her master (me miseram and ad hunc modum both refer to his words in 66, which she has not heard), ita (left untranslated, but it is like an exclamation ‘so much!’) has the function of a ‘supplementary explanation’; see 84 and 609 ita probe in latebris situm est; 801. ten times a day: See fr. Ill in die denos scrobes', ‘ten pits a day’. 71 I really do not know: nescio pol quae here oscillates between the sense of an indefinite pronoun (nescio quae = aliqua ‘some’) and the indirect question ‘I do not

know which... ’; the latter sense seems to prevail (see the parallel question in 74 ff.). illunc = etymologically ilium + ce (-ce a deictic suffix as in ecce). madness: intemperiae (literally intemperies = stormy weather) is used in a metaphorical sense as at 642; Epid. 475 quae te intemperiae tenent? ‘What madness has a grip on you?’ 72 in the daytime: interdius; see diu in this sense in fr. IV; for the compound see 379 interuias ‘on the way’. 73 like a crippled cobbler: The ‘sedentary crafts’ were despised in antiquity: see Aristoph. Eccl. 385; for sutor ‘cobbler’ see 513 sedentarii sutores. 74 ff. For the construction (queo comminisci, quo pacto ‘I cannot work out, how’) and the repetition of comminisci see 67 ff.; note the strong /(-alliteration in v. 75 (Staphyla mumbling?), partitudo (see also 276) is an archaic (paratragic?) word for partus (‘birth’) which is not found again before late authors, propinqua appetit is pleonastic (propinqua is used as predicative ‘coming close’; appetit is intransitive ‘to approach’). 76 ff. The best thing will be to hang herself, Staphyla concludes. The text here is uncertain: the transmitted longum could point towards longum Tong I’ (Goetz), which implies a simple haplography (majuscule I was very similar to L). But the version unam litteram / longam has the advantage that the ‘riddle’ inherent in these words is ‘solved’ as late as possible: the hanging person is compared to a long letter (not necessarily to an I). The passage comes close to the so called ‘Ratselwitz’, ‘Riddle-joke’ - (see on 152). meliust = melius est (a special form of prodelision* which often occurs after a short syllable + s; see e.g. 421 testis est > testist). 79 ff. Having found the treasure intact, Euclio returns and tells Staphyla to go into the house. His words in 79 f. are spoken to the audience, 81 to the servant woman. 79 At last I’ve cleared the bother from my mind: lit. ‘I return with a mind that is made clear of dregs’. Euclio’s mind has been ‘cleared’ as wine which has been filtered (faex means the dregs in wine or other liquids); for the metaphor see Pseud. 760 nunc defaecatumst cor mihi (‘my heart is freed from dregs now’). 81 f. Back in with you now: nunciam ‘now’ refers to the immediate future. Why ever not? Me look after things indoors?: quippini (quippe + ne) ‘why ever not?’ comes close to an ironically spoken ‘certainly’ (‘of course’ de Melo; see Hofmann 1951, 152 [1985, 314]), similar to (ironical) temperi in 454. quippini and ego servem, both colloquial features, are only loosely connected, as if she began twice to underline her reluctance. We often find questions without e.g. -ne or num in Plautus (see on 214; 772; rogas? is very frequent), nam in 83 (not translated) is also slightly incongruous: ‘I say this, because...’. 83 any good: quaesti (partitive genitive after nihil aliud, G-L §369) is archaic for the later quaestus. 84 For ita see 69 and note. Cobwebs and emptiness! That’s all it’s full of: lit. ‘it’s so completely full of emptiness and cobwebs’ (de Melo); for the ‘oxymoron’ (‘subtle foolishness’)

118

119

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inaniis oppletae see e.g. Capt. 466fame ecfertus ‘stuffed with starvation’, araneae ‘cobwebs’ is proverbial for neglect and poverty; see Afran. 410 R3arcula tua plena est aranearum ‘Your moneybox is full of cobwebs’; Catull. 13.8; Otto (1890) 34. 85 How odd that Jupiter isn’t...: This phrase always implies irony (quin qui-ne ‘why not’); see Pers. 339 f. mirum quin regis Philippi causa ... te uendam ‘Strange that I’m not selling you for the sake of king Philip.’ 86 King Philip or Darius: The Macedonian king Philip II and the much earlier Persian Darius were proverbial for their wealth, and they have given their names to gold coins, which were in use over a long period in the Hellenic world (see Fraenkel 2007, 12). triple witch: triuenefica is a typical Plautine formation to intensify an insult: see 326 trifurcifer (‘triple felon’); 633 trifur, Stockert (1983) 52. 87 f. Euclio presents himself as proud in his (alleged) poverty; similar is Men. Dysc. 280 ff.; parody in Ter. Ad. 188 leno sum, fateor (T run a brothel and proud of it.’). The parataxis of sentences is typical in such a confession (see Pseud. 1313). I can take what the gods inflict: quod di dant, fero is proverbial (Otto 1890, 134); seeRud. 1229 habeas quod di danunt ‘may you keep what the gods are giving’. Euclio presents himself as a pious man (with the Greek virtue of ooxppoonvr| ‘self-control’; see Webster 1960, 201 ff). Roman spectators for these words may have thought of the virtue of constantia. 89 I’ll be right back: iam ego hie ero is a stereotype formula of Euclio (see 104, 274). It was not common to bar the door during the day; but Knemon (in the Dyscolus) and Euclio feel forced to do it because of their circumstances (an old woman together with the young daughter alone at home) and from their mistrust of others. 90-100 These verses form an ‘emotional ring composition’ (Blansdorf 1967, 110 f.); the prohibitions are rounded off by (98) profecto (‘in fact’) and (99 f.) the fantastic reference to Bona Fortuna, a remark which prompts the next riposte by Staphyla. Euclio’s commands in 91 ff. are typical for the man who is piKpoXoyoq (‘stingy’) or dmaroq (‘suspicious’): seeTheophr. Char. 10,13 and 18,7 respectively. For this attitude see Dysc. 470 ff and 505 ff. 90 Make sure you don’t let...: caue ... miseris has the sense of the ‘prohibition’ ne miseris', see 618 caue ...fueris; see G-L §271.2 and Bennett (1910-14) 1232 f. 91 ff. Fire is the particular concern of the Lar who spoke the prologue. Euclio hid the treasure right in the fireplace (7) (see Martin 2008, 108 £); to put it out would be an offence against him; by this and his point about ‘water’ Euclio sets himself outside the social order (see Konstan 1983, 36 and note). 91 As for anyone wanting a light for a fire, I want ours put out: This quod has the sense of quodsi (‘if’), lit. ‘as regards the case that’, with the subjunctive; see G-L §525, 2 n.3; Lindsay (1907) 112. quispiam has the sense of quisquam; one has to supply exstingui. 92 so there’s no reason for...: ne (ali)quid causae sit, quod; this quod has explanatory sense (G-L §525 n.2); (see Hofmann-Szantyr 1965, 574).

Commentary

121

93 you’ll be put out instantly: exstinguere (= -eris) here is used in a metaphorical meaning, as e.g. Pseud. 906 lenonem exstinctum (‘the pimp exterminated’); the (easily understandable) metaphoric sense of this verse seems to be unique. cxtempulo is the expanded form of extemplo (‘immediately’). 94 In Greece you were supposed not to deny water even to an enemy; see Rud. 434 and Marx (1928) 124 f. Rome, as far as we know, had no equivalent to that humanitarian rule, but many detailed prescriptions instead; see Robinson (1992) 95-104; see on 91 ff; RE II 1 (1895) 293 f. (aquam is given emotional force by being placed at the start of the sentence; see 95 ff). 95 ff. Knife, axe...: The objects are again set at the beginning; this is a linguistic signal of emotional speech as is the extraordinary construction of 97, the so called constructio did peaov (cultrum etc. depend on abstulisse); see 270 uascula intus pure propera atque elue ‘the vessels indoors: hurry and wash them out clean’; Ter. Ad. 917; Hofmann-Szantyr 784. For the list of anticipated objects see Mil. 1302 f. aurum, ornamenta, uestem, pretiosa omnia / duc adiutores tecum ad nauim qui ferant; ‘gold, jewellery, clothes, everything valuable - take helpers with you to bring them to the ship’. For the list of ‘kitchen utensils’ see Men. Dysc. 506 ff. (with Handley’s note), pistillus (pestle) and mortarium (mortar) are rare (prosaic) words; uasa here has the general sense of ‘utensils’, stuff which neighbours are always asking of each other. For the gerundive in utendum rogare see 311 famem ... utendam si roges; 250 elinguandam dedero (G-L §430). 100 Good Fortune: Bona Fortuna was worshipped by Romans and Greeks (there as AyaOf) Tu^q). For Fortuna walking through the streets and demanding admittance by those she wished to favour, see Suet. Galb. 4, 3 and Cassius Dio 64, 1,2 (Leo 1895, ad loc.); see nevia in Gorgias’ house in Men. Dysc. 208 ff; to accept Bona or Mala Fortuna became proverbial (Rud. 501 Malam Fortunam in aedis te adduxi meas T brought you into my house as Bad Luck’). For Tnxq as (possible) prologue speaker in the Greek original see p. 34 101 Good Lord: this translates credo, used here parenthetically; construe cauet, ne intro mittatur; see on 90. 102 Close as she is, she never visits our house: Here we are confronted with a textual problem: If Tu^r) really was the prologue speaker of the ‘Greek Aulularia’ (see p. 34), the transmitted words quamquam prope est contain a relic of the original. If not, we may prefer Pylades’ conjecture quaquam prope (‘She’s never come anywhere near our house’; compare haud quaquam), nusquam, if correct, here has temporal sense; but we may choose numquam (ms. D); and nusquam could also be an intensified non; see Pers. 73 with Woytek’s note; Cist. 686. 103 f. Bar the door. Both bolts: pessuli are vertical bolts which fix a door at the lop and the bottom of the door frame (lintel and threshold); in Cure. 147 and 153 the bolts are addressed by the young lover; sometimes repagula are added (possibly horizontal bars): Cist. 649 and Stockert (2012) 241; sis see 46 n. 105-19 This is Euclio’s exit monologue; he explains where he is about to go

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and why: the head of his ward (curia) has allegedly announced the distribution of money to the inhabitants, and Euclio cannot miss the occasion, since otherwise he may be suspected of being not so poor. In his anxiety he also interprets the friendly behaviour of his fellow citizens with the deepest suspicion (see later his encounter with Megadorus, 178-267). 105 mental: animi is a ‘genitive of relation’ as in Trim 454 sanus mentis aut animi; G-L §374 note 6. 106 ff. Euclio utters his ideas in a series of sentences, each introduced by nam: nam gives the reason for his departure (107), for the ‘obvious’ suspicion that he owns a treasure (111), and for this belief (113). 107 Our director, the one in charge of our ward: The magister curiae in Plautus seems to include a mixture of ideas: the distribution of money is an Athenian feature; the curiae clearly are Roman departments: by Plautus’ time they had already been reduced to religious corporations under a curio maximus (magistri were the heads of corporations: we hear, for instance, of magistri uicorum ‘district directors’). The audience will think here of some Greek office; possibly the demarchos (‘mayor’?) was there in the Greek original (see Stockert 1983, 56): he had to distribute amounts of money to the demotai (villagers) from a special fund (e.g. the theorikon, an allowance for theatre visitors), noster ... qui est magister = magister noster; for the ‘polyptoton’ noster nostrae see note on 43. The construction noster nostrae ... magister curiae is deliberate ‘parallelism’ (a b A B; see Rud. 839 meamne ille amicam leno... and Marx (1928) adloc.). 108 (He) said he was going to distribute money: Present infinitive is used here instead of the regular future (G-L §531 n.4: esp. if there is an idea of ‘promising’) see also 528 aes censet dari, nummus in different contexts has different senses: here it may be a didrachm or the Roman sesterce (note argenti: it is going to be silver); in Aul. 448 it actually does seem to correspond to the Attic didrachm; in Bacch. 706 and 873 it may even refer to golden coins; see Stockert (1983) 129 f. on Aul. 448. 109 If I pass that up and don’t go and ask: id (loosely) refers to the distribution; ilico ‘immediately’, suspicentur is a subjunctive with future reference (close to the ‘potential subjunctive’); see 570 non potem ego quidem hercle; Merc. 352 existumet; see Sjogren (1906) 124 f„ G-L §257. 112 a little money: nummum, the old gen. pi., here is partitive, paruifacere quin ‘to think little (of seeking)’ (parui is genitive of value, ‘to estimate at a low value’ G-L §380, 1); for quin after negative expressions see G-L §556. 113 f. Even now that: concessive cum ‘although’ usually takes the indicative in Plautus (Lindsay 1907, 123); sedulo (se [‘apart from’] + dolo) ‘without deception’,‘eagerly’. 116 f. The triple expressions in both verses are remarkable, the main emphasis being laid upon the third member; the verbs in 116 are connected by ‘rhyme’ (atfeunt, conswftmt) and alliteration (consistunt; copulantur). In 117 the three members (all with similar sense) are connected by rhyme; see Leo (1960) 163 ff.

118 f. I’ll get myself back home: Euclio announces his quick return (preparing for 178 ff.); postidea is a longer form of postea; quantum potero tantum = quam celerrime (‘as quick as I can’; see 399 quantum potest).

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4. Eunomia-Megadorus (II/l)

In this scene, which consists of a major lyric passage (Canticum*, 120-160) and a recitative (161-177) between Euclio’s rich neighbour Megadorus and his sister Eunomia, the second announcement of the Lar (31 ff.) is set into motion: Megadorus decides to marry Euclio’s daughter. In inserting this song-passage Plautus subjects Megadorus’ decision to a major delay (in Menander’s play this topic presumably will have been developed in a more coherent way). Brother and sister firstly have a dispute about family business, the character of women and the advantages/problems of a marriage; then, suddenly, we hear of Megadorus’ decision. Train o f thought: 1. aria: a) Eunomia is uncertain. (She obeys the rules of rhetoric: (i) secure your audience’s goodwill - captatio beneuolentiae ( 120-122); (ii) defend yourself in advance -praemunitio:the typical loquacitas (‘chattering ’)ofwomen (123-126); brother and sister should always help one another with good advice (127-132)). 2. duet: a) Megadorus teases his sister by calling herfemina optuma (135-141) and by agreeing that there is no good woman at all; b) Eunomia takes the lead and cautiously begins with her marriage project (142-146); when she comes to the point, Megadorus first reacts with joy (ironically) (147-150) but with horror when he ‘realizes’ that he would actually have to many (150-154); c) at the most he would like to marry and immediately to bury his wife (155— 157), while she tells him that she knows a middle-aged woman with a huge dowry (158-160). 3. recitative: a) Megadorus shows that such a union would not make sense (161164); b) and now we see that he has already made up his mind: he would not need a rich woman, who would demand every luxury (165-169); c) he has already decided to marry the daughter of his poor neighbour Euclio (170-175), whom he wants to meet (176 fi). For the metre see p. 241; Eunomia in her aria (120 ff.) uses solemn bacchiacs which show her seriousness and grandiloquence. The lighthearted first part of the duet is mainly given in iambics, while the rest of the Canticum with all its twists and turns is sung in different metres; for its structure see now Moore (2012) 282-287; its position after iambic senarii and before trochaic septenarii is typical (Moore 253 If; see Primmer 1984, passim).

Commentary

Commentary

Stage setting: Eunomia and Megadorus together come out of Megadorus’ house to speak of their private business. Such arrangements are a necessary feature of the ancient stage which did not dispose of indoor scenes; and changes of scenery seem to have been very rare (Duckworth (1994) 121 ff.); furthermore in well-todo households it might even have been difficult to find a securely private place. The whole scene, where a rich man discusses a marriage-project with his sister, is in a way unique in Plautus as Ricottilli (2000) has shown; see also Dutsch (2008) 24-28. It has been discussed whether Eunomia (who is a widow: see v. 779) lives (with her son Lyconides?) in the house of her brother; but v. 145 I come here to admonish you (ted id monitum advento) and her farewell at v. 175 shows that she lives elsewhere (presumably in the direction ‘town’, i.e. to the right of the spectator; see p. 20 f.). If Lyconides lived with Megadorus, the whole action of the second part would be impossible (Euclio does not even know him). When Lyconides in v. 727 says ‘before our house’ (ante aedis nostras), he is referring only to the house of his uncle. If Menander had the same arrangement, Eunomia should have arrived in an earlier scene (see p. 35); or was there a common household of brother and sister in the Greek original?

128 The Latin pronouns, which are set in an artificial (parallel) position (tibi ... me-, m ihi... te), underline the impression of the mutual responsibility of sister and brother. This parallelism is repeated in v. 130. 129 each other: parallels in Roman comedy (Ter. Hec. 102 in rem est Bacchidis ‘it’s for Bacchis’ good’) suggest that utrique (‘both of us’) is an archaic genitive; see Stockert (1983) 60. 131 be too scared to speak of it: lit. ‘to be concealed because of fear’. The alliteration per metum mussari effectively underlines the thought; mussare (uuCeiv in Greek) occurs only here in the sense ‘to conceal’; normally ‘to mutter, speak indistinctly’. 132 I ought to...: quin has consecutive sense (close to ut non)-, see 474; Bennett (1910) 301; G-L §556. 133 f. The need to come out-of-doors to discuss private things is a feature of ancient drama (on the scene see p. 124). The important word familiarem is set effectively at the end of the aria, resfamiliaris here has the sense ‘private business’; the phrase may carry the additional implication ‘property’. 135 ff. Misogyny in Plautine comedy is as common as is the quarrelsome matron: Artemona in the Asinaria, Cleustrata in the Casina, Dorippa in the Mercator and other women as well. For a generally negative attitude of the Greeks towards women see Lacey (1968) 151 ff.; Pomeroy (1975), esp. 48-56, 103-114; for the Romans, e.g. Plaut. Pers. 365 ff; Metellus in Gellius, Nodes Atticae 1.6. 135-165 are challenged by Zwierlein 11(1991)231, who thinks of an interpolation in the style of the fabula togata (see p. 4); but see Primmer (1992) 89 f. 142 f. Please give me your attention: operam dare here has this special sense (the use in v. 699 is different); amabo, usually in parenthetic position, is a colloquial expression typical for women, literally T will love you (for it)’; see Hofmann (1951) 127 [1985,281]; Dutsch (2008) 50-53. 144 ff. It is very unusual for a sister to arrange a marriage for her brother (see Ricottilli 2000, 35 ff); and in the end he makes his own decision even here. 148 f. in order to bring children into the world: When he hears liberis procreandis (= ad liberos procreandos) Megadorus reacts with propriety rather than enthusiasm, using the solemn formula ‘May the gods grant it’ (ita di faxint). The formula is typical in a context of betrothal: see 257 (Megadorus/Euclio) and 788 f. (Lyconides/Euclio). In Greek comedy the betrothal formula contains the expression yvr|(Tio)v 7iendow f,7Taporep ‘with a view to the sowing of legitimate children ’.faxint is an archaic optative, the ‘wishing mood’, in the sense of the subjunctive faciant (see on 50). 150 That’ll be the death of me: In this comical reaction of Megadorus to the words ‘I want you to marry’ we have chosen Weise’s conjecture occidis (‘you are killing me’) instead of the transmitted occidi (T am lost’); it seems to go better with the following words; see also 720 occidisti.

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120 ff. Brother ... sister: The two constantly address each other by these words which point to their close relationship, never by their proper names. For an interesting interpretation of the interaction brother-sister see Ricottilli (2000) 31-48. 121 what’s right ... best for you: lit. ‘For the sake of my honour and your interest’.fides (‘honour’) is one of the main concepts of Roman thought (see Heinze 1960, 59ffi; see also Christenson 2014, 16 f.); at its centre is the idea of faith as a two-way commitment; the goddess regards (and protects) personal and political relations. Fides (see Introduction p. 20) has a special role in our play: her temple is part of the set (presumably central on the stage), she is called on for help both by Euclio (608 ff.) and by the thief of the treasure (618 f.). In the Greek original another goddess must have spoken the prologue (Tyche? - see p. 34). The archaic forms m eat... turn (instead of meae ... tuae) with their trisyllabic rhythm give the sentence a solemn touch as does the bacchiac metre (p. 241; see above); germana soror ‘true sister’ has a solemn touch too. 123 ff. The ‘loquacity of women’ is a topos (= a conventional subject) which we often find in comedy and elsewhere; see Plaut. Cist. 120 ff. (again a woman speaking); Rud. 1114 and Marx, ad loc. 123 I’m in no doubt: falsa sum is the (rare) perfect participle offallere-, note the litotes (understatement, G-L §700) ‘I am not deceived’ = T am well aware’, which intensifies the expression. 126 not... nor: has been omitted twice in the manuscripts; Leo’s conjecture has been accepted by most editors because of the unusual metrical form of the tradition and its unintelligibility: without aut, hodie (‘today’) contradicts ullo in saeclo (‘in any age’).

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152 the words you speak are stones: This is another instance of the ‘riddlejoke’: a dialogue-partner utters an enigmatic word or expression and, after a short question, gives a witty explanation; see 302 f., 324 ff., 560 ff.; short form (without question): 76 ff., Marx 1928, note to Rud. 522. Here it is an extreme and isolated example of the expressive language which our poet uses sometimes; it does not fit well with Megadorus’ noble character; but Plautus often does not take care of ‘ethopoeia’ (precise depiction of character, which includes appropriate language). Raffaelli (1982) 89 f. has suggested that this unusual expression may have been modelled upon the commoner phrase lepide loqui (‘to speak nicely’) which would fit Megadorus (as he may have been in Menander); here it is underlined by the alliteration (see also mihi misero and cerebrum excutiunt). For the personification see Fraenkel (2007) 74; this metaphorical use of lapis is isolated (Otto 1890, 185 f.; ThlL VII 2, 952, 21 ff.). Compare Shakespeare, Hamlet III 4 ‘These words like daggers enter in mine ears’ (see also Wagner 1876, 95). We may compare Aesch. Cho. 380 and 452, where the ‘attack’ hurts the ears instead (C. Collard,per litt.). 153 If I wanted to, I would: si lubeat, faciam is ambivalent in sense; it can have potential or (in archaic Latin) unreal sense: Megadorus may remain intentionally unclear. 154 May I drop dead: for exclamatory ut, see G-L §558. 155 ff. Megadorus uses the topos ‘death of the wife’ which should not be taken too seriously; but see Cas. 227 sed uxor me excruciat quia uiuit (‘but my wife is torturing me by living’); 354 ille edepol (uelit) uidere te extra portam mortuam (‘he would like to see you being carried to your grave’); for an extreme see Choliambica Adespota III 139 Diehl (‘Of the days spent with a woman two are the sweetest: when one marries her and when one brings her to the grave’); Eur.fr .\\\2 Kn. (C. Collard, per litt.) 157 You want to offer someone on these terms? Give me her: cedo (plural cette) is a colloquial expression (ce + old Imperative do) ‘Give her!’; see also 635, 766. The rhythmic sequence legibus is usually avoided, but here, in the versus reizianus (see p. 238), less objectionable (see 429; Questa 1995, 80 fi), quam (here = aliquam), however, or dare could have crept in from 155 (Havet deleted dare, Leo quam); either cancellation would create ‘correct metre’. 158 ff. In the manuscripts these three lines belong to Eunomia. In using the slightly negative expression ‘but she is a bit on the old side’ she would be making a mistake and correcting herself immediately with ‘(in fact) she is middle-aged’. By assigning sed est grandior natu (‘but is she a bit on the old side?’) to her brother we have overcome this improbable sequence. 161-165 Plautus has presumably put the long lyric section 120-160 in the place of a much shorter scene in his original; it seems that his modifications are the reason why Megadorus’ decision comes so abruptly (see p. 34). For mm non uis (‘Have you any objection?’) see Most. 336; Poen. 1079. 163 old lady ... old fellow: the juxtaposition of senex anum creates comic

associations. Girls usually married very early (even before puberty; the usual age will have been before 20: TNP VIII 389, s.v. Marriage); grandior natu and anus may even refer to a relatively young woman. 164 that the name waiting for the child is Postumus: Postumus etymologically refers to a child bom in its father’s old age (Tate bom’ or simply ‘last’; see Virg. Aen. 6, 763 tua postuma proles); but in a false etymology it was also connected with humus (‘earth, ground’, i.e. ‘burial’) and used for children who are bom after their father’s death: Varro, Ling. 9,60 ut (is)..., qui post paths mortem (natus esset), Postumus (nominaretur) (‘that a boy bom after his father’s death should be named Postumus’); see also Servius, the ancient commentator on Virgil, on Aen. 6.763. 165 I shall relieve you of that anxiety altogether: demam et deminuam (lit. T shall remove and diminish’) are set as a hysteron proteron (where the earlier item is expressed later); the important point is further intensified by the alliteration and other sound effects; we prefer the mss reading demam (degam, ‘expel’ Non., accepted by Stockert 1983 and de Melo 2011). 167-169 First invective against the luxury of (rich) women. Here we see a short picture of women who flaunt their wealth in public (the long alliterative series in 167 f. underlines this point), while in the tirade against women in Megadorus’ speech, 475 ff., what interests us is husbands being forced to pay up. By their dowry (dos 167) these Roman women often had much influence on their husbands (as, for instance, in Asinaria or Casina). The single word factiones (‘social connections’ 167) refers to the relationship between rich families which implies many obligations for the husband. For the importance of the lex Oppia, promulgated against the luxury of women, for dating the Aulularia see p. 23. 170 ff. Here again the focus of discussion changes: Eunomia has realized that Megadorus has already decided to marry somebody; this turn comes so suddenly that Primmer (1992,90) thinks that Plautus has left something out. We had a similar turn at v. 165 (and already in 161 a sudden change of metre). 171 f. These verses are important for the characterization of Euclio by his neighbours: he is pauperculus, but respectable (haudmalum mecastor ‘by no means a bad man’). For his character see pp. 13-17. For (me)castor see note on 67. 175 nothing more you want me for?: numquid me vis? is a typical formula of farewell and means no more than ‘anything else?’; for the text-problem see Stockert (1983)70. 176 f. With these words Megadorus (who lives on the right-hand side of the stage) turns to the house of Euclio which is at audience left (see p. 20 f.) and sees Euclio arriving (for Took!’ (eccum) see 473, 536). Primmer (1992, 103), against the majority of scholars, has insisted that Euclio comes from the left, i.e. the countryside, where he went to get some money from the officials of his tribe (see v. 107 ff.); and we think he is right. That the person who is needed enters at the right moment is a common feature of comedy, indeed of all theatre; for indications of characters’ entrances see Duckworth (1994) 114 ff.

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5. Euclio-Megadorus (II/2-II/3) Euclio wants only to get quickly back into his house (178-181), but he is addressed, to his surprise, by Megadorus. Their dialogue can be divided into three parts:

two adjectives, the archaic sies [= s/s] and the metre, a pure uersus quadratus [= a regular septenarius], are all striking. 183 And good morning to you, Megadorus: With the conventional di te ament, Megadore Euclio hopes to get away, while Megadorus shows that he does not want to finish the conversation. For the elliptical quid tu (sc. agis)? see 648 quam benigne (sc.facis). Are you in good health and as you wish? These words are extremely polite, and it must seem very strange to Megadorus that Euclio does not react to them, but begins speaking aside. 184 f. It’s no accident: More usual than temerarium in this formula is non temere est (see 624; Bacch. 670). For the antithesis between rich and poor people see 196 diues pauperi. For Euclio’s idea that others by their friendly words just want to have access to his treasure see 114 f.; benignius omnes salutant etc. ‘they all say “Good morning” in a friendlier tone... ’ 185 illic = ille. Tllic homo has a split (2nd) element*, tolerable at the beginning of a verse; alternatively we might read illic monosyllabic by syncope* (ill’c); see 204, 208, 215; de Melo (2011) xcif. 186 Megadorus did not overhear Euclio’s aside and wonders what he said, ain = ais-ne ‘do you say?’. For a pecunia (lit. ‘with regard to money’) see True. 47 bis perit amator: ab re atque animo simul (‘the lover is doubly lost: in his fortune and in his heart’); see also 221 innoxium abs te atque ab tuis (‘unoffending as concerns you and your family’). (G-L §397 n.l.) 187 enough to live on: qui (‘wherewith?’) is a modal ablative (which can relate to both sexes and even to a plural as in 502), here introducing a final clause (see also 596). 188 f. Euclio again utters his suspicion in an aside, threatening Staphyla who has allegedly informed the neighbour. His rage and anxiety are underlined by the asyndetic and paratactic sentence structure and by the rich alliterative expression perspicue palam (and for the redundancy see Most. 495 inepte stultus ‘incredibly stupid’). For Euclio’s excessive threats see 53 f. oculos ... eefodiam; 59 dedam discipulam cruci; 251 f.; Amph. 556 f., Mil. 318; Men. Epitr. 574 ff. 190 What are you talking about: Megadorus pulls Euclio up for his impolite aside (see 549; Bain 1977, 156 fi); Euclio’s answer is evasive, but it is consistent with Megadorus’ intentions, loquere = loqueris. 191 I have a grown-up daughter. She has no dowry and she can’t be married: For cassam (from careo ‘lack’; dote is a separative ablative) see Lucr. 3.562 cassum anima corpus (‘a body without soul’), inlocabilis is a hapax legomenon (= a word appearing only once in recorded literature) from locare ‘give in marriage’: the tautology with locare in 192 underlines the important point (see 223, 771; Cist. 122). 192 f. You’ll get some, there’ll be help from me: Megadorus, by using such general words in his promise (dabitur; adiuvabere a me), rouses Euclio’s suspicion even further (already heightened, see 188f. note); impera, ‘instruct me’, underlines Megadorus’ willingness to help (see 142/43).

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a) Megadorus, taking a more general line to begin with, finally arrives at his marriage project. Euclio expresses his mistrust in asides (184 f., 188f., 194 ff.); the climax is his rush into the house (202 ff.). In 190 f. Euclio unwittingly opens the theme Megadorus wants to talk about. b) The following dialogue is characterized by Megadorus’ proposal and Euclio’s refusal to accept; finally he gets round to saying he will take no dowry (209-241); horrified by a sudden noise Euclio runs into his house again (242 ff.). In this section note the striking contrast of linguistic style between Euclio and Megadorus, esp. 194 ff; see Stockert (1982) 8ff. c) Engagement without dowry (252-263). The three parts are separated by Megadorus’ reflections and Euclio’s exits and entrances. Sander-Pieper (2007) 59 identifies Euclio’s extraordinary behaviour, clearly understandable to the audience, as the comic centre of the scene; it gives rise also to his hyperbolic language and the failure of communication with Megadorus. 178 ff. contain a typical prophecy after the event with clear reference to Euclio’s exit in 106 T absolutely do not want to go’; we have a similar motivation for re­ entry at Men. Dysc. 259 ff. 178 I had a feeling: Cicero quotes this line in Div. 1.31.65 and explains the verb: is, qui ante sagit quam res oblata est, dicitur praesagire (‘someone who feels a thing before it happens, is said praesagire, to foretell’); see Ter. Haut. 236 nescioquid profecto mi animus praesagit mali (‘my mind foretells me some evil’). For exibam (mss of Plautus) Cicero has exirem: he cited the verse (presumably from memory) with the subjunctive, normal in his time after cum (see also de Melo, 2011, 330). 179 ward member: curialis (member of a curia) will be a translation of Greek bripoTrn; (member of a demos - ‘village’); see on 107 magister curiae. 181 now it’s ‘Hurry, hurry home’: lit.: ‘now I am in a hurry to hurry home’; for the pleonastic properare propero see Poen. 433 pergin pergere (‘are you continuing to go on?’; Capt. 248 meminisse ut memineris, a colloquialism, see Hofmann (1951) 94 f. [1985, 231]. my heart’s at home: see Merc. 589 si domi sum, foris est animus, sinforis sum, animus domi est ‘If I’m at home, my heart’s out; if I am out, my heart’s at home’; Cist. 211 (and Stockert 2012, 153). 182 Good health, Euclio, and happiness to you, now and always: The line is very solemn: It comes as a surprise (and a shock) to Euclio. For saluus atque fortunatus see Naev. com. 86 R. salui et fortunati sitis; bonus atque fortunatus: Cas. 382, 402; for the ritual language see Cic. Div. 1.102 (and Pease’s note). The

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194 ff. Euclio (not overheard) expresses his suspicion in a longer aside. The metaphors (a wolf who gobbles gold; a man enticing and attacking a dog; an octopus clinging onto his prey) form a quite discontinuous series surrounding the central point, the suspicion of the poor man towards the rich one; the metaphors apply perfectly to Euclio’s special situation, as he sees it; for the ‘linguistic contrast’ between Euclio and Megadorus see on 178 ff. 194 Now he’s after something: lit. ‘Now when he is promising something, he’s pursuing it’. The strength of the expression (note the alliteration of the verbs!) nunc ... pollicetur is increased by the ellipse of the objects (this is very unusual in the case of petit). He’s gaping over the gold to gobble it up: see 267 id inhiat; we have taken aurum as object of inhiat (see Stich. 605 hereditatem inhiat, ‘he’s gaping over the inheritance’), but it could also be the anticipated object of deuoret (see Trin. 169 inhiauit... lupus ‘the wolf opened its mouth’; the identical Greek proverb is fcuicoq e%avev). 195 He has a stone...: Euclio compares his neighbour to a deceitful man who entices a dog with bread simply in order to throw a stone at it; see Stockert (1983) 74. 196 The motif of a natural mistrust between poor and rich is given even stronger expression here than in 184 (see the juxtaposition diues pauperi, which enforces the antithesis). 197 When he offers a kindly hand: manum inicere in a friendly sense (with reference to 116 copulantur dexteras) is unusual; the phrase is at home in the forensic sphere (per manus iniectionem in ius trahere ‘to summon to court by laying on the hand’); possibly the expression already anticipates zamiam (for the antithesis see also 195). he’s giving you a load of losses: zamia (Toss, damage’), a form of Doric Greek (Attic £r|p(a) which, like choragus or dica, presumably comes into Roman legal/commercial language from South Italy (see Epich. fr. 148 Kaibel). For the (exceptional) construction of onerare (‘to burden’) with the accusative see Stockert (1983) 74; Plautus usually has the ablative: Pseud. 588 meos ... praeda onerabo ‘I’ll load my (troops) with loot’; therefore Guyet wrote aliqua zamia. 198 I know those octopuses: polypus (Attic TtouAmtoix;) is another Doric form; the expression is proverbial (see Otto 1890,283; ThlL X 1,2585,43 ff.; Ovid. Met. 4. 366); the Greeks in similar contexts prefer the limpet (XeTtaq): Aristoph. Plut. 1096; LSJ s.v. 'kenaq. In our text quidquid (or quicquid) has the sense of quidque (‘everything’) as Trin. 881, Most. 831 (Lindsay 1907, 50). Alternatively, the corrupt ms. reading (qui iubi or quin ibi) could be corrected by dispensing with ubi and reading, as Havet suggested, qui on its own. 199 f. I want a brief word with you... on a joint matter: lit: ‘there is something which I wish to address you (about) in a few (words), paucis (uerbis) as in 1, and cf. Trin. 963 te tribus uerbis uolo (T want (to address you) in three words’); for est quod te uolo see Asin. 232; for the indicative Hofmann-Szantyr 1965, 558 f.

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i/i' communi re ... mea et tua (mea et tua in their position after the caesura have si rong emphasis) sounds an alarm for Euclio who after a short aside rushes into his house. Nonius’ alternative text is discussed by Stockert (1983) 75. 2(11 f. Oh, poor me! He’s got his hooks indoors on my gold: lit. ‘My gold inside has been hooked’ (de Melo), harpagare seems to be formed after Greek dpTtdyr] hook’ (see Emout-Meillet); we find it almost exclusively in Plautus (Bacch. 656; Pseud. 139, 957); Moliere gave the main figure of his L 'Avare the name Harpagon (see p. 28). He wants to make a deal about it: The expression adire ad pactionem governs die accusative like the verb pacisci (‘to agree [on]’); see also 253 quern ... ludos facias; 423 quidtibi nos tactiost?; 744; Stockert (1983) 211; G-L §330 n.3. 202 ff. The device of rushing in and out (see also 243 ff.) has comic potential; see Men. Sam. 535 ff. (Frost 1988, 110 ff). While Euclio is indoors checking his hiding place (three verses are enough for it; for the treatment of stage time see Duckworth (1994), 131 fi), Megadorus reflects on the difficulties of the proposal. Ile is psychologically correct in foreseeing that the proposal will be felt as an insult. Ile does not speak yet of the dowry, which will be relevant only later (238); and he is acting altogether honestly since a marriage without any dowry brings shame to a bride and her family (see Trin. 688 ff.; Gomme-Sandbach 1973, 28 ff). 203 Where are you off to?: The transmission of this verse is corrupt; we have chosen Lindsay’s text; nam est quod (inuisam) is a relative sentence with consecutive sense (see G-L §631.1). 204 Heavens, when I...: For edepol (‘by Pollux’) see note on 67. A split element* like edepol ubi is avoided in Plautus. But it occurs sometimes at the beginning of a verse (see on v. 185). 205 he’ll surely think I’m making fun of him: Megadorus is right, as we will see in 220 ff. and 232 (the laughter of his own class). Comedy aims at laughter by the audience; but its characters fear the scorn of others much as in real life. We find the same idea in Men.^-. 11 K-A (~Ter. Ad. 605 f.); see also the first confrontation of the rich Sostratos with Gorgias in the Dyscolus, 271 ff. mutatis mutandis we may compare Euripides’ Medea (e.g. v. 383, 404 f.) whose main concern is to prevent the laughter of her enemies. 206 There’s not a man alive...: lit. ‘Nor is there any other (man) today more thrifty as-a-result-of poverty than he’. The sequence of thought in 205 f. is very free; Wagner (1876) thought of a lacuna after 205; but the words may simply allude to the impending dowry-discussion. There are many passages in Plautus where neque/nec connect sentences only loosely (see 408; Rud. 359, 406). On parcus / parsimonia see p. 16 f. 207 f. The gods are with me: These two verses are presumably not overheard by Megadorus; but the wording, because of Euclio’s suspicion, is kept very general. For the near-tautology ‘whatever’s not lost, is safe’ see Epid. 526 si quid est homini miseriarum, quod miserescat, miser ex animo est (‘if humans are in misery that

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deserves commiseration, they are truly miserable’ de Melo); Cist. 67; Leo (1895) ad loc. 208 I was so horribly frightened: For male see the note on 61 (nimis male comes close to pessime). Metre: the 2nd element of the 2nd foot is divided between two words. This is relatively rare; perhaps here reflecting Euclio’s agitation. See on 185 and 204 (edepol ego). 209 Thank you: There is no ironical overtone: Megadorus does not yet take account of Euclio’s behaviour. 210 Please now: quaeso, a sigmatic form of quaero, usually paratactic, here introduces a subordinate clause {ne) as in Asin. 450 quaeso ne uitio uortas (‘please, do not take any offence’). 211 so long as you don’t ask: Euclio in a provocative form restricts Megadorus’ request (or should we take this verse as an aside?). The strong assonances with 210 might justify either view, dum ... ne quid perconteris comes close to a conditional sentence (see 491; G-L §573 {dum quidem = dummodo)', Lindsay 1907, 127). 212 ff. Meg. now leads the conversation, while Euclio gives only brusque answers. 212 what sort of family...: For quali ... genere prognatum see Capt. 170 prognatum genere summo ‘descended from a top family’; arbitrare = arbitraris. 213 Principles: quid fide (lit. ‘What [do you think I am] in (reputation-for-) trustworthiness?’). For the importance of fides see on 121. The sentence is an unusual form of the elliptical quid-sentence (usually only nominative or accusative as Capt. 281 quid diuitiae? ‘how about his wealth?’ de Melo). 214 Substantial... like your property: The pun, created by connecting disparate things, shows Euclio’s dry humour (see Stocked 1982, passim); the sentence without introductory particle is a feature of vulgar Latin; see note on 82. 215 without a trace of wickedness or vice: omni ‘all’ is used here instead of ulla ‘any’ (see Trin. 338); for the pleonasm see Epid. 120 pretio pretioso, and the note in Duckworth (1950); Hofmann (1951) 94 f. [1985, 229 f.]. For the split element* edepol equidem see on 204 and 208. 216 He’s got a whiff of gold, clearly spoken aside, is possibly a metaphor taken from a rapacious beast as in 194; for the wording see Amph. 321 olet homo quidam lit. ‘some man is giving off a scent’; more frequent is subolet {Cas. 277 subolet hoc iam uxori ‘my wife has already got wind of it’ de Melo). 217 Seeing that I know your quality and you know mine: After the brusque quid nunc me uis?, the polite words and solemn formula, with which Meg. begins his courtship, must come as a total surprise for Euclio. The ellipse quoniam tu me (scis qualis sim) is easily understood from its context; Megadorus refers to 212 ff.; the long-winded words remind us of juridical language; for the (archaic) arrangement of the subordinate sentences see Blansdorf (1967) 9 ff, and think of English legal documents which begin ‘Whereas...’ (as an example, the Australian accession proclamation of Queen Elizabth II: ‘Whereas it hath pleased Almighty God...’ and so on for 17 lines before we reach the end of a sentence!).

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218 in the best interests ... of you, me and your daughter: For quae res recte uertat... (lit. ‘and may this turn out well...’ de Melo) see 787 f. (Lyconides) quae res tibi et gnatae tuae benefeliciterque uortat; Capt. 361. For the triple form of the expression see Ter. Ad. 301 quod mihique eraequefiliaeque erili est (‘the (trouble) which is (facing) me and my mistress and my master’s daughter’) ; Leo (i960) 163 ff. Triple -que is an epic-type expression, adding solemnity (Fraenkel 2007, 142). 219 I am requesting: For posco (Greek outevv) in courtship see 32,34 and 160. 220 Look here, Megadorus: heia expresses a reproach or a request to say or to do something in a different way; decorus (‘appropriate’) here has the ablative, analogous to dignus (‘worthy o f... ’). tuisfactis, inserted into thefigura etymologica (juxtaposition of words derived from the same root) facinus ... facis, extends the effect {quodfacis, 222, resumes these words: ring-composition!). 221 To make fun of a poor man: Euclio reacts as Megadorus has foreseen (204 f f ); for innoxium abs te see 186 a pecunia. 222 Never by word or deed: neque re neque uerbis (lit. ‘neither by word nor deeds’) is a special form of the Greek antithesis spya - koyoi, frequent in Euripides, whence it came into Greek comedy (Men .fr. 691, 827 K-A). In the f a b u la palliata we have to reckon with imitation of the Greek original {Epid. 112 f., Rud. 682 f.). In our verse we have a parallel expression instead of antithesis, as Most. 923 dicto aut facto\ see 693 and Stockert (1983) 80. 223 f. I haven’t come here to make fun of you: deridere was an important point in Euclio’s words, and the point is also made twice by Megadorus, possibly a sign of his embarrassment. See the ‘doublet’ Trin. 448 neque te derisum aduenio neque dignum puto T am not here to mock you and I don’t think it proper’; for the supine see 247 etc.', G-L §435. 225 To make things better: lit. ‘so that it can be better for me’; the final clause is directly attached to Euclio’s words o f224. For Megadorus’ long-windedness and rich use of pronouns see 217 f. propter (‘because of”) according to ThlL. X 2,2125 comes close here to per (‘through’) (OLD 6). 226 ff. The different elements of Euclio’s speech are not subsumed under one syntactical structure, and he has to make three separate starts at expressing his ideas (Blansdorf 1967, 156): Megadorus is rich and he is poor (226 f.); with nunc he applies the actual situation to his general reflection (228 f.); he comes to the core of his scruples with a simile (229 ff). For the social problem see on 205,475 ff; Men. Dysc., passim; Ter. Ad. 501 ff; Webster (1960) 212; Duckworth (1994) 273 ff; elsewhere we find ideas of compensation between social groups, brought forward by young people who want to change things: Sostratos in the Dyscolus, Lysiteles in the Trinummus. 227 while I am the poorest of the poor: For pauperum pauperrimum (‘poorest of the poor’) see Naev. com. 118 R. pessimorum pessime (‘blackest of blackguards’ (Warmington)) and the material in Stockert (1983) 82. autem is Brix’ certain conjecture for the item of the manuscripts (which in Plautus would not connect

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expressions of contrasting meaning).factios us (see 167factiones) elsewhere is only found in Bacch. 542. 228 f. you are the ox and I am the ass: The rich Megadorus is compared to the stronger animal, Euclio to the ass; this is a motif of fable (see Babrios 76; Gow on Theocr. 14.43). For identification instead of explicit comparison see Fraenkel (2007) 41; Mil. 193 fi; Cure. 35 f.; compare also ‘riddle-joke’ (see 150 ff.). For locassim see 50; for the ‘mixed form’ of the conditional sentence see 254. 229 f. When we’re yoked together and I can’t manage etc.: coniungere is used of joining animals under a yoke and joining people in marriage (possibly Euclio wants to hint at the second meaning too). This is the only instance of ubi ... ubi being paired (Blansdorf 1967, 14); but see Amph. 203 ut ... ubi; such a series is more frequent with si sentences (Blansdorf 16 ff.). stem is the archaic form for sim (here in its privileged position in the verse end); see 39,231; duim (on 62), edim (on 430); Leumann (1977) 523. 231 quasi here has the sense of quam si (‘as if’). 232 ff. I’ll find you treating me unfairly: Class, ordo, is a distinctly Roman term of social classification for which it is hard to find an equivalent which might have been used in the Greek original, but the sort of social divisions to which Euclio is referring are universal. Leo (1895) raises suspicion against this verse (because of the interrupted simile?), but irrideat continues the topic of 221 ff., and both ‘parties’ should be mentioned before 233 (neutrubi ‘on neither side’). 234 (in chiastic order) resumes the thematic of this verse. For the ‘double ablative’ te utar iniquiore (lit: ‘I shall experience you as more unfair’) see Asin. 66, Trin. 827; iniquus in Plautus often has the meaning ‘maliuolus, inimicus 233 If there’s a separation, I won’t have a safe place... on either side: diuortium is the dissolution of a marriage after mutual agreement (see Watson 1971,23 f.); quid diuorti, however, rather seems to indicate here the general meaning ‘separation’,fuat is an old subjunctive (see 405,426; duos 238; de Melo (2007) 271 f.). 234 with their teeth: The mss read me mordicus which is unmetrical (mordicus adv.: ‘by biting’). It could be adjusted to mordicus me. But Nonius’ mordicibus (from an unattested mordix ‘bite’) is an unfamiliar word: it is more likely to have been subject to scribal change than the simple mordicus. 235 to cross over from the asses to the oxen: ab asinis adboues (with an obvious modification) renders the Greek proverb an' 6vcov ef| uPpecoq (a writ for a wanton aggression) will have been possible, in Rome an actio iniuriae (Scafuro 242, n.18); see also TNP XII 393 ff. s. v. ‘Rape’. A private settlement of such actions, if the circumstances allowed it, was evidently desirable in both legal systems. 795 on the night before Ceres’ feast: For Cereris vigiliis see 36. under the influence of wine and youth: See note on v. 745. For impulsu see 737; Pers. 597 impulsu meo. 796 Oh no!... Why are you wailing? Ei (an inteijection typical for men: Hofmann 1951, 13, [1985, 111]) is carried on by eiulas (wailing); similar is Copt. 201 Oh! Oh! Oh! - eiulatione baud opus est (‘No need for wailing’). 797 when I’ve made you be a grandfather: The ‘grandfather’does not have a role

Commentary

199

anywhere else in thefabula palliata', but see the action of Menander’s Epitrepontes, where the grandfather of the child has an important role in the action of the play (the play is based on a tragic action in Euripides’Alope). For the concessive relative clause with the indicative see on 438. Rather than a proleptic accusative auom (see on 54) we have here a ‘contamination’ of the phrases quern ego auom feci and feci ut auos esses. 798 it’s nine months since: lit. ‘in the tenth month after’. The traditional ten months of gestation in Rome referred to lunar months (see Ter. Ad. 475; Hec. 393 f.; Virg. Eel. 4, 61). Just work it out: numerum cape. See Ter. Haul. 964 cepi rationem (T have calculated it’); Pseud. 596. 799 declared a termination: For repudium remisit see on 783. 800 I’m utterly ruined: For oppido ‘utterly’ which generally occurs in affective contexts, see Amph. 299 etc. oppido interii ‘I’m utterly ruined’; Hofmann (1951) 72 f. [1985, 198], 801 It’s one bad thing sticking onto another: For ita (‘to such an extent’) see on 69; untranslated both here and there; for the polyptoton malum malae on 43; for the sense see Bacch. 426 hoc etiam ad malum accersebatur malum (‘this trouble was combined with the other trouble’). We find the word adglutinare (from gluten, glue) in its metaphorical meaning only in Plautus before Late Latin; see also Cist. 648 (with Stockert 2012,240), Men. 342; for the metaphor see Fantham (1972) 47. 802 Such partitive genitives as huius or eius are only found after pronouns like nihil, quid etc. (see G-L §369). For sequor see on 696 (we rather expect the future). 803-7 Iambic septenarii (see Willcock 1987, 153). Lyconides makes an optimistic assessment of the situation before (as in 696 ff.) referring once again to his slave’s failure to turn up. His assumption that a quick chat between Euclio and Staphyla will clear things up is inconsistent with the plot as we have it: there has been nothing to suggest that Staphyla knows who the child’s father is. But it seems certain from Lyconides’remarks that in the Greek original she will have done. 803 in the shallow waters of success: For the metaphor in uado salutis see Donatus on Andr. 845; Fantham (1972) 19 ff. 804 I can’t work out...: For the circumlocution ubi eum dicam esse for ubi est? (‘Where shall I say he is?’ for ‘Where is he?’) see on 67; for Lyconides’ slave p. 19; for the wording see 696 f. 805 Unless: For the ‘adverbially used’ nisi (coming close to sect) see Cist. 41 f.; Lindsay (1907) 103 f. A little different is 365 nisi unum hoc faciam: (‘Except that this is one thing I could do’). 807 For pedisequa nutrice anu see 501 pedisequos. For Staphyla’s role in the Greek original see 814-15; p. 35.

Commentary

Commentary

14. The Exodos (V71 and Fragments) 808 ff. Enter Lyconides’ slave, at first not noticing the presence of his master. He is enthusiastic about his new riches. Having hidden the gold in his chest at home (see 823), he comes to meet his master (who has already in 696 ff. and 804 f. told the audience to expect his arrival). In the Greek original this seems to have been the first appearance of the slave after the theft (see p. 34). 808 ff. are trochaic septenarii (the preferred metre of recitative); the change in 819 to lyric (trochaic) octonarii marks (see Willcock 1987, 154) the rise in dramatic tension as the confrontation between the slave and his master begins. For the lyrics see Questa (1995) 88 f.

812 f. In these verses the parts of the regularly structured septenarii (in this form called ‘uersus quadrati') are intensified by ‘figures of sound’: 812 meum ... meum (rhyme); 813 assonance of congrediar-contollam gradum. 814 f. I think he has actually approached: This is certainly a relic of the Greek original. Nothing is said in Plautus’ play about the slave being sent to meet Staphyla. The same contradiction between Lyconides’ expectation and the (theatrical) reality occurs in 696 ff. compared with 701 ff. 816 Why don’t I tell him I’ve found this loot?: Much weight has been laid on inuenisse for a reconstruction of the Greek original. For Lefevre (with Sherberg 2000, 401 f.: see also 818, 820, 828) the slave ‘found’ the gold; see p. 38. We, however, see here the slave’s self-justifying euphemism (seepraedam ‘loot’ which seems to imply that the treasure has been stolen, not found), hanc praedam could give the impression that the slave has the gold hidden right here under his garment; but the use of hie is not as strict as Lindsay (1900) 129 has postulated: 655 (?); Marx (1928) 85 f. In the mss both lines end with eloquar. In fact such repetitions are found everywhere in Plautus (123f., 527-30). The idea of eloqui is important for the positive outcome of the play: the confession of the thief is an essential condition for it. But the small alteration in 816 to eloquor is necessary after dico (suggested by Pylades). And quin = ‘why don’t I...?’ is almost invariably followed by the pres, indic. (OLD1). 817 I’ll ask him to set me free: A slave could be set free with his master’s consent; savings made by him certainly made things easier (on details of manumission see Watson, 1971, 47 ff). In reality such a ‘find’ belonged to the master, as can be seen from the problems at the end of the Rudens, where the slave got his freedom, while his master took possession of the treasure; see Harrison (1968) 178 ff. 818 f. Not the sort of thing children shout out that they’ve found in a bean: What children find, could be a worm (Lambinus, comm., ad loc.)\ or Plautus could be referring to a game as Otto (1890) 128 thought (‘Bohnenspiel’, i.e. bean game), whatever this involved. An obscene joke of unclear meaning has even been suggested (E. Riess, Classical Weekly 35, 1941, 196); see Stockert (1983) 202 f.; de Melo (2011) 349. 819 are you playing games with me as usual: The parallels point rather towards two separate sentences, as preferred e.g. by de Melo (iamne autem ut soles? deludis, ‘Your usual jokes? You’re making fun of me’; see Poen. 1410; True. 695). We choose the ‘compact’ form, since in the other version the coherence with deludis (whether statement or question) is not satisfactory. 821 Where? The ‘logic’ of the dialogue allows that this question {ubinam?) does not get an answer. A four-pound jar, I tell you: For quadrilibrem see 809; inquam (T say’) seems to refer to ‘big money’. 822 What are you telling me you’ve done?: Now the young man understands what has happened. Does the slave admit it? According to the transmitted order

200

808-10 The slave opens his short monologue with a prayer; this form seems closer to the Greek originals than the long-winded Plautine prayers (Fraenkel 2007, 124 f.): see Aristoph. Nub. 1; Men. fr. 106 K-A.; Plaut. Men. 957. It is typical for slaves to attribute their successes to the help of the gods (see on 677). 809 Afour-pound jar...: There is hiatus* after aulam and after onustam, ofwhich the former is irregular; it could, however, be explained as affective, indicating the slave’s breathlessness. To remedy this Wagner inserted after aulam. This need not suggest (see 816) that the slave is carrying the aula concealed, which (in Plautus) he certainly isn’t (see 823). quadrilibris (‘four-pound’) is found only here and 821; 4 librae according to the OLD (s.v. libra) would come to about 3 lb (1.3 kg); TNP VII497 s. v. Libra. 809 f. Who in Athens: The line begins in a way which encourages us to expect quis me ... magis beatus est? ‘Who is more fortunate than me?’ But the slave’s emotion gets the better of his syntax. We discover (but not until the end of the line) that magis in fact goes with propitii, making the line mean ‘what man is there at Athens now to whom the gods are more favourable than to me’, so that me has lost its justification as an abl. and should in strict syntax be mihi. quis ... quisquam is a striking combination of pronouns, quis asking an open question and quisquam, which normally appears in negative contexts, suggesting already the answer: ‘noone’ (cf. Most. 256 quid ... quidquam). One effect of this breathless sentence is to emphasise the words ‘me’, ‘Athens’, ‘now’. 811 ff. For the elaborate presentation of a meeting between two characters see e.g. Rud. 334 ff. (Marx 1928, 310 f.); Pers. 13 ff.; Stick. 316 ff.; Fraenkel (2007) 151-158. 811 I heard the sound of somebody speaking here: In the transmitted text with me audire uisus sum we have a ‘contamination’ of a nominative with infinitive {audire uisus sum: ‘I seemed to hear’) and an illogical accusative + infinitive {me audire visus sum: ‘I seemed that I heard’) as in Epid. 537 nam uideor nescio ubi me uidisseprius (T seem to have seen [her] somewhere before’); Wagner’s emendation to mi, however, would be a very easy one, giving ‘I seemed to myself to hear’, and it is accepted by most editors. For hem see on 720.

201

Commentary

Commentary

of speakers, yes: he makes an open confession in 822 (‘I took it off Euclio the old man here’). Some scholars have held that the slave cannot have said this, either because he is too canny to give himself away (the word he elsewhere uses - reperio, ‘find’ - will be a careful euphemism), or because it is believed that in the Greek original, which Plautus will here be reflecting, the slave did come across the gold by accident. With this in mind, Leo attributed the whole of 822 to Lyconides: it thus ends Euclioni hic seni subripuit (‘this fellow stole it off Euclio’), the young man talking to himself or the audience. But 818-823 are characterised by rapid changes of speaker in mid-line which Leo’s version would interrupt. It also involves a substantial change from the mss reading. It is better to leave things as they are. 823 In a chest at my place: The slave seems to have his own room and even his own area, where he could store up his belongings. Lyconides seems to be a generous master. 824-26 These verses are catalectic* trochaic quaternarii (see on 727-30), shorter lines perhaps also supporting a rise in dramatic tension, (see Willcock 1987, 155). 825 you heap of villainy: For scelerum cumulatissime see Caec. 61 R3 homo ineptitudinis cumulatus (‘a heap of foolishness’); for the comic superlative see 633 uerberabilissime, lit. ‘you most beatworthy fellow’. 828 What would you have done if I had really found it: In the protasis of an unreal conditional sentence the pluperfect subjunctive is only used if it refers to an earlier time than the apodosis; see e.g. Men. 241 nam inuenissemus iam diu, si uiueret (‘if he were alive, we’d found him long ago’); see Lindsay 1907, 124); the later ‘assimilation of time’ is still rare in Plautus. For the infinitive perfect probasse instead of the present see on 754. You can’t convince me you were joking: For nugas probare see Rud. 1017 non probare pernegando ... potes (‘You can’t gain your point... by obstinate refusal’ de Melo); Pseud. 101. 829 Off with you, hand over the gold: The parts of the octonarius are marked by exact repetition of reddam in the first half, and by assonance {redde ... reddatur) in the second half {reddere is the keyword of the passage). For unde (‘where from’) see 761; Asin. 258 unde (argentum) sumam? (Where do I get it from?’). 830 Lyconides refers to the slave’s private chest (823); garrire nugas picks up 828 probasse nugas. 831 The rest of the transmitted text cannot belong to a single verse; we have accepted Questa’s version (1995, 88). ita loquor (‘So I say’) always gives an answer to an interlocutor; therefore a lacuna before it seems certain. At scin quomodo? implies a threat ‘But do you know how (you’ll suffer if...)? (for the ellipse see 307). For uel see on 452; after uel hercle enica (‘Yes, kill (me), by God’) one has to supply an object (scil. me).

The Fragments For the lost end of the Aulularia and a (possible) arrangement of the fragments see p. 12 f.

202

203

I It seems that we have to assume another allusion to female luxury (as in the long tirade in 475 ff.); we do not know who is the speaker (Euclio? Megadorus??). For corcotis (saffron tunics) see 521 corcotarii; for strophiis (breast-bands) see 516. II got his teeth into: For admemordit, the old form of the perfect, see Gell. 6.9; for the metaphor ‘bite’ meaning ‘to address angrily’ see Pseud. 1125. Euclio may be the speaker (Kunst 1923, 45; see p. 12). Others (like de Melo) have referred the word to the theft of the gold (‘how he fleeced the chap’). III I used to dig: This fragment (presumably part of a septenarius, like IV) seems to belong to Euclio’s speech which will have been central in the exodos (p. 13); for denos see Staphyla’s remark in 70. In a different context scrobes appears in Amph. fr. XII (Leo) ibi scrobes ecfodito tuplus sexagenos in die (‘Then you shall dig more than sixty ditches a day’ de Melo). IV by day or night: For diu (‘by day’) see Cas. 823 noctuque et diu; Merc. 862; Titinius 27 nec noctu nec diu; see also 72 interdius. The verse could also be an iambic octonarius (with caesura* after the 9th element; see Willcock 1987, 152 f.). V Those who offer me: This verse may be spoken by the slave of Lyconides, who in addition to his liberty (‘raw greens’) would want a livelihood for himself (‘fish sauce’), so Kunst (1923) 45. The theme of a slave making demands in addition to simple liberty appears (without metaphor) in Epid. 726 f. For (h)allec/(h)allex see Pers. 107 ecquid hallecis (‘(got) any bailee?') and Woytek (1982) 199. hallec, according to Plin. NH. 31, 95, is a fish soup/fish sauce. For the form adduint see on 62 {duint). Fr. dub. I (an iambic septenarius) has been connected with the Aulularia because of the name Strobilus (for the problem of the slaves see p. 19), and in a way, it would fit into the exodos of the play. For the ‘frowning expression’ see Epid. 609 quid illuc est quod illi caperrat frons seueritudine? (‘What’s the reason that his forehead is wrinkled from grave thoughts?’ de Melo). We findfrons caperrata also in Naev. apud Varro, Ling. 7.107 {com.fr. 49 R.) with the explanation 'a caprae fronte' (‘from a nanny-goat’s brow’).

The Pot of Gold (II)

205

PROLOGUE

THE POT OF GOLD (II)

Enter the Lar Familiaris from Euclio’s house. LAR

This translation represents an attempt to achieve just a little of Plautus’ linguistic style. Passages of ‘Diverbium’ are presented in the English conversational metre, the 5-stress iambic. Everywhere else, in ‘Recitative’ and ‘Mutatis modis canticum' we have used Plautus’ own metrical scheme. Given that English lacks the rhythmic precision which is so important a part of Plautus’ Latin, we have used rhyme as well to help with the structure. indicates an accent, appearing on main stresses of all lines, except for pentameters, where it appears only on the first line of a section. ARGUMENTI Old Euclio the miser finds a pot Buried at home - he can’t believe his luck Stuffed full of treasure. He reburies it; In terror he keeps it. But Lyconides 5 Had raped his daughter. And meanwhile old man Megadorus, urged to marry by his sister, Requests the miser’s daughter as his wife. ‘Yes’ Oust), says grim old man, and, scared for Pot, Unburies it and hides it here and there. 10 The slave of the young man who’d raped the girl Now fools the miser. Youth himself appeals To Uncle Megadorus: ‘Let me wed The girl: I love her’. Euclio, who’d been tricked Out of his gold, finds it (surprise!), and weds His daughter gladly to Lyconides. ARGUMENT II A gold-filled pot the old man Euclio Unearthed and kept, with many anxious cares. Lyconides had raped the old man’s child. Undowered Megadorus sought to wed her. 5 Luncheon and cooks he gave. Old man agreed. Anxious about his gold, he hid it elsewhere. Reviewing this, the rapist’s slave removed It all; rapist restored it to Euclio And from him got the gold, a wife, a son.

If you want to know who I am, it won’t take long. You see this house I’ve just come out of? I’m It’s guardian spirit. It’s a long time now I’ve called it mine and taken care of it For this man’s father and his grandpapa. Now this one’s grandad had a secret hoard Of gold. ‘O spirit,’ he said, ‘take care of it.’ He put it in a hole right in the fireplace, And prayed to me to keep it safe for him. Then when he died - he was a Scrooge, I’ll say He wouldn’t tell his son he’d got the gold. He’d rather leave him skint than let him know. Some land he left him: just a field or two To live on, if work plus poverty equals life. When grandad died - the one who had the gold I started wondering: would this one’s father Treat me with more respect than grandpapa? Not on your life. He just spent less and less On tending me, showed me much less respect. I got my own back: he turned up his toes. He had one son, the present proprietor, The image of his pa and grandpapa. But he’s got a daughter. She’s the one who gives me Wine, incense, a little something, every day. That’s why I’ve got a wreath. So, it’s for her I’ve made her father Euclio find the gold. So he can have her married, if he wants. But she’s been raped. A top class youngster did it. The rapist knows her; she does not know him, And father doesn’t even know it’s happened. I’ll set it up that old man neighbour here (points to Megadorus’house) Offers to marry her. Thus I’ll ensure The young man weds her who’s responsible. And this old man who’ll make the marriage offer, He’s uncle to the upper class young fellow Who had the girl that night at Carnival.

Shouting is heardfrom inside Euclio’s house.

5

10

15

20

25

30

35

The Pot o f Gold (II)

The Pot o f Gold (II)

206

That’s Euclio there, losing his rag as usual. He’s pushing the old girl out, to stop her knowing. He wants to check the gold: has it been stolen?

STA

St Patrick save me. What’ll I say’s amiss With master? What are the leprechauns have got him? I cannot tell. Poor Staphyla! This is the way He shoves me out, does it ten times a day. It’s galloping distemper ... could it be? He stays awake all night, then in the daytime, Like a lame cobbler, there he sits at home. How can I keep his daughter’s shameful state Concealed, when she’s expecting any day? I’ve no idea. There’s nothing better for me Than take a line, hitch my neck up to it, And wring myself clean out of history.

I.ii.

EUCLIO

Exit into house. ACT I Li EUCLIO

STAPHYLA

Enter Euclio from his own house, chasing Staphyla. EUC STA EUC STA EUC

STA EUC

Out with you, out, I say. You must get out, You female periscope with X-ray eyes. Poor me! Why beat me? So as to make you poorer. To be nasty as your nastiness deserves. Why push me out? Must I explain, or make you A hedgehog with the spikes I fill your back with? Go there! Not near the door! Just look at her! The way she walks! D’you know what state you’re Just let me lay hands on a spike or cudgel I’ll lengthen up that tortoise-step of yours. God make me hang myself. That would be better Than being a slave to you the way I am. Look how the villain’s mumbling to herself. Those eyes of yours, you scum, I’ll gouge them out To stop you spying on the things I do. Away now! More! Still more! Stop! That’ll do. Stay there! Just where you are now. If you move One fingerbreadth, the thickness of a nail, Or look round till I say, you’ll find you’ll be MA in Crucifixionology. A wickeder old bat I’ve never seen, For sure, than her - and now I’m scared to death She’ll lay a trap and make a fool of me. Or get a hint of where the gold is hidden. The horrid thing has eyes behind her head. I’m off to check - is the gold where I put it? That gold! It’s nothing but worry, worry, worry.

Exit Euclio into his house.

STAPHYLA

Re-enter Euclio. EUC

Right then, I’m back. That’s one load off my mind. I’ve checked and seen it’s all quite safe in there. In, you. Keep watch inside.

Staphyla shuffles to Euclio’s house door. STA

EUC

Whatever for? Keep watch inside? Will they half-inch the house? We’ve nothing else to serve as swag for thieves. Cobwebs and emptiness - that’s all it’s full of. You witch! I s’pose you think the gods’ll make me A Croesus or an oil sheikh, just for you. Those cobwebs - you take care of them. I’m poor, Confessed. Accepted. What god gives, I take. Go in now. Shut the door. I’ll be right back. Make sure you don’t let any strangers in. They might ask for a light. Put out the fire. So then they’ll have no cause for asking you. If the fire’s in, you’re out, no questions asked. The water’s all run off, if anyone wants it. Knives, axes, pestles, mortars, all the stuff The next-door neighbours always want to borrow, Tell them the thieves have been and nicked the lot. Remember: into my house, while I’m away, No-one’s to enter. Let me tell you this: If Fairy Godmother comes, don’t let her in.

The Pot o f Gold (II)

208 STA EUC STA EUC

Good Lord! She takes good care to keep away. Close as she is, she never visits us. Be quiet! Go in. I’m mum. I’m off. Now shut That door please. Both the bolts. I’ll be right back. It’s hell to have to leave the house like this. I just don’t want to. But I know my business. Our councillor’s just made a proclamation: They’re allocating treasury surplus funds. If I’m not there, if I don’t claim my bit, They’ll all suspect I’ve got the gold at home. It looks peculiar if a man who’s poor Misses the chance of getting a penny or two. I’m working hard right now to keep it secret. But still they seem to know. They come and greet me Much friendlier than ever they did before. They come to me, they stop, they clasp my hand. ‘How are you?’ ‘How are things?’ ‘What are your plans?’ I’m off now, where I said. Straight afterwards I’ll get myself back home here, quick as I can.

Exit Euclio left to the country. ACT II Li EUNOMIA MEGADORUS Enter Eunomia and Megadorus from Megadorus’house. EUN

Now please think your sister’s proposed conversation Consistent with your gain and her obligation. Just as you’d expect from your nearest relation. On females, men’s judgement is well short of gracious: We’re all rightly thought of as far too loquacious A lady that’s so built that no-one could hear her Is something unthought of in any human era. But hear how your sister demands your attention: I’m yours, and to me you’re my nearest connection. It’s right, then, that where one can work for the other, You must warn your sister and I warn my brother. There’ll be no concealment, no leaving things unstated. No act which between us is not reciprocated.

The Pot of Gold (II)

209

And that’s why I’ve called you to have some words outside here, To talk family business while helping you decide, dear. ME 0 best of women, give me your hand. 135 EUN Where’s she? What woman can go in that band? You. ME EUN Yoii said it? ME N6t if it isn’t your view. EUN But you above k\\ should be saying what’s true It isn’t ‘the best’ that comes first in the queue; It’s simply ‘last is worst’. ME That’s my view too. 140 Here’s a point where I’ve decided never to be at odds with you. EUN Give your thoughts, please, to me. ME Here they are. Take them now. Use them! Give directions. EUN 1 believe I know what’s best for you. That’s why I’m here to make suggestions. 145 ME You are acting your p&rt. EUN And it comes from the heart. ME What’s that, sister mine? EUN For your full confirmation In health, wealth and joy and for child-procreation, ME May the gods have it so! EUN I would like you to go Get a wife. ME But I’ll die if I do! EUN Heavens! Why? 150 ME When you speak as you do, my head’s bursting in two. And I’m hearing your tones like a hail of sharp stones. EUN Come, do what sister tells you. ME Yes, if I wanted, I’d do it. EUN It’s best for you. ME No, better perish now, and not to go to it. On these terms if you have a deal, I’ll pursue it: 155 We marry on Saturday, sister, and she can be buried on Sunday. Well, have you a bride on these terms? Good: book the vicar this Monday. EUN Right now I can produce a wife with a wealthy position. ME I guess she’s a crone then? EUN No, middle aged: in mint condition. If you suggest I ask for her, I’ll make your petition. 160 ME Would you care to let me ask a point or two?

210 EUN ME

EUN MEG EUN MEG

EUN MEG EUN MEG EUN

The Pot of Gold (II) Go on. I’ve time. When a man in later life acquires a wife who’s in her prime, If the old chap has the luck to make the lady bear a son, Dad, you can be sure, will croak before the little lad is one. Anyway, to save you worry, sister, so that you don’t lfet: 165 Thanks to heaven and our fathers, I’ve got all I need to get. All those great connections, all that pride, those mega-settlements. All the noise, the bossiness, the coaches, dresses, clothes-expense, I can take or leave it, since we end as lackeys, not as gents. Tell me, if you’d care to, who’s the girl you’d like to marry? Sure. 170 Do you know this Euclio, the little poor old man next door? Yes - an honest man for certain. He’s a daughter n6t yet wed. She’s the one I’d choose as bride. Now, sister, leave those words unsaid. Sh£’s a poor girl. Yes, I know it. Well, that poor girl’s opportune. God go with it. Y6s, I hope so. Is that all then? See you soon. 175 You too, brother.

Exit Eunomia to town. MEG

N6w I’ll go and visit Euclio, if he’s in. Oh, but look, he’s coming back now from wherever he has been.

II.il

EUCLIO MEGADORUS

Enter Euclio left. EUC

ME EUC ME EUC ME EUC ME

Heart foretold a wasted journey when I started from my house No. I wasn’t keen. And not a single member of the class Came, nor did the councillor who should have given us the share. 180 Now I’ll rush to run back home. I’m out but Heart’s got back in there. Fortune pour her blessings on you, now and ever, Euclio. Morning, Megadorus. How are you? Just fine? Please let me know. When a rich man butters up a pauper, it’s no accident. He’s polite. The gold’s back home. It plainly means he’s on the scent. 185 Did you say you’re well? Not well at all, I tell you, money-wise. Just relax. Yes, relaxation all your money needs supplies.

The Pot o f Gold (II) EUC

211

That old bag has told him all about the gold, there’s not a doubt. Now I’ll go indoors and rip her tongue off, gouge her eyes right out. ME What are you soliloquising? EUC Mourning at my poverty. 190 I’ve a grown-up daughter, and I’ve not a shred of property. She’s no dowry; she can’t marry. ME Hush, don’t worry, Euclio. You’ll receive some; you’ll get help from me. Just ask. You’ll see it’s so. EUC Now he’s grasping, when he’s giving. G6b’s agape to gulp the gold. Stone in right hand, bread held out in tefit, so I’ll be in his hold. 195 Never trust a rich man when he’s kind and generous t6 the poor: When he holds his hands out wide, it’s just some complicated lure, I know squids: just let them touch you, then they’ve got you, that’s for sure. ME Euclio, please be good enough to hear me. I’ve a point which might Interest us both quite closely. EUC 6 my god! Another fright! 200 Look, he’s got his sights on gold. I kn6w about his big idea. Now he’ll say ‘Let’s make a deal.’ I’ll go and check in you-know-where. ME Where are you off to? EUC I’ll be back. I need to check a thing in there. ME I’ve a feeling, when I raise the subject of his girl to him. Asking ‘May I marry her?’, he’ll think I’m making fun of him. 205 Who on earth lets poverty be quite so all-in-all to him? EUC Heaven be praised, it’s safe and sound. Whatever isn’t lost, is found. What a panic, when I went inside! I’ve just about come round. Megadorus, here I am again. What can I do for you? ME Thank you. Please don’t be ashamed to answer what I ask of you. 210 EU W ell... if what you ask is something I’m content to say to you. ME Tell me now, what’s your opinion of my family? EUC It’s good. ME Moral standards? EUC Fine. ME Achievements? EUC Seem exactly as they should. ME Do you know my age? EUC Substantial, not unlike your property. ME You’re a fellow-citizen of blemishless propriety; 215 So I’ve held, and so I hold now. EUC Gold! He’s got the gold in view. What d’you want then? ME Seeing that you know me just as I know you,

212

EUC ME EUC ME EUC

ME EUC ME EUC ME EUC ME EUC ME

The Pot of Gold (II)

The Pot of Gold (II) Praying for God’s blessing on us - on your daughter, you and me May I humbly dsk your daughter’s hand in marriage? Please agree. Look now, Megadorus, what you’re doing isn’t comme ilfaut, 220 Mocking me, a man who’s poor and never done you harm, you know. Have I yet, by word or deed, deserved that I be treated so? Mock you? That’s not what I’ve come for. That’s not what I want to do. That would not be proper. Why then ask me for my girl for you? So that I and mine can do you good, as you and yours do me. 225 Megadorus, think of this: you come from a rich family, One of the elite, while I am in the depths of poverty. If I let my daughter marry you, here’s something must be said: You’re an ox and I’m a donkey. Once we’re working head to head, I won’t carry weight like you, and I’ll be fallen in the mud. 230 Then the ox - that’s you —will recollect my quite inferior blood. You’ll be hostile, my whole class will show me their contempt and hate; I’ll have lost all ground to stand on, should we need to separate. Donkeys biting, oxen goring: these are just the minor shocks When you take the risk and change from being ass to being ox. 235 Make yourself the partner of a decent proper prudent class, Then you’ll prosper. Take my offer. Don’t let what I’m saying pass. And engage the girl to me. But I’ve no dowry. You’ve no need. Manners makyth maid and matron. That’s a dowry fine indeed. All I’m saying is, don’t think I’ve happened on a treasure trove. 240 Yes. I know. Don’t tell me. Promise. Very well then. But, by Jove, Am I ruined? What’s the matter? That was a metallic sound. Yes, I told the man to dig the garden. (Exit Euclio into his house.) Where’s he gone to ground? Well, he’s off and left me with no answer. He despises me, 245 Now he sees I want his friendship. That’s the way most men will be. If a rich man tries to get the goodwill of a poorer one, Poor man’s frightened, won’t do business. Leaves what’s needed all undone. Then, when opportunity is past, regrets it - but it’s gone.

Re-enter Euclio. He speaks back into the house.

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213

If I fail to have you disentongued from teeth to uvula, 250 You can get in someone to cut off my organs tubular. Euclio, I sed for sure what estimate you have of me: One old man for you to make a fool of, undeservedly. Megadorus, wrong. I couldn’t, even if I wanted to Well, your daughter then: you’ll let me wed her? 255 As we planned to do. With the dowry I suggested. Do you promise? Yes, I do. God be kind to... God be with us. Just make sure you bear in mind We agreed there wouldn’t be a dowry for the girl to find. I remember. Yes, but I know all the tricks your sort can play. Disagreed becomes agreed. Agreed? All greed - and that’s your way. 260 We’ll have no dispute at all between us. Now, the wedding feast: Shall it be today? Do you object? No, not at all. That’s best. I’ll be off then; get things ready. Just so. On your way. Goodbye. Hey, Strobilus. Come along. Look sharp. We’ll see what we can buy.

Enter Strobilus from Megadorus’house. He and Megadorus now leavefor town. EUC

Hd’s away now. Lord above us. That’s what gold can do for you. 265 Someone’s said I’ve got a fortune. That’s what he’s been listening to. That is what he’s after, why he’s got this marriage thing in view.

Il.iii

EUCLIO STAPHYLA

Euclio calls Staphyla out o f his house. EUC

STA EUC

You there Staphyla, where are you, blathering all down the street How I’d give my girl a dowry? Staphyla? Just move your feet. Are you listening? Hurry! Go and polish up the house, I say. Phaedrium is going to many Megadorus here today. God be with them. What? Impossible. It can’t be done so soon. Silence! Go. I’m out now. Have it done when I get back from town. Shut the door. I won’t be long away now.

Exit Euclio to town.

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The Pot of Gold (II)

The Pot o f Gold (II) What am I to do? We’re within an ace of ruin, me and master’s daughter too, 275 Soon they’ll know whatever we’ve kept hidden and concealed somehow. Doom, delivery of child, disgrace, are on our doorstep now. Still, I’ll go and get the master’s orders done before he’s back. Misery’s the medicine they’re mixing me: it’s looking black.

Exit Staphyla into Euclio’s house. Il.iv

STR AN STR

STROBILUS ANTHRAX CONGRIO

Anthrax and Congrio, two cooks, enter with Megadorus’ servant Strobilus from town. With them are two flute-girls, two sheep, and some other slaves carrying a vast collection o f groceries for the weddingfeast. STR AN CO STR AN STR AN STR AN STR AN STR AN CO STR

When master did the shopping and hired the cooks And these two she-musicians in the forum, He told me to divide the goods in two. I’m talking straight: you’ll not split me in two. You want me whole some place? I’ll do my best. A charming innocent common whore indeed. Ask him again; he’ll gladly split in two. Anthrax, I meant it rather differently. Not quite what you suggest. My master here Is marrying today. Whose girl’s he got? Our next-door neighbour’s here, one Euclio. He also told me to divide the shopping; One cook each way and one flute-player too. Half over here, you mean, and half at home? Just as you say. What? Couldn’t the old chap here Spend his own money on his daughter’s wedding? Wah! What’s your problem? Problem, did you say? The desert’s damp compared with this old man. Well, what d’you know? No fooling? See yourself.

His property’s destroyed and he’s a goner.

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He’ll slap subpoenas onto gods and men If he sees a wisp of smoke escape his roof. At bedtime on his mouth he ties a bag. A bag? He might lose air while he’s asleep. Does he block up his underneath as well, In case he loses air while he’s asleep? Let’s just believe each other and call it quits. Oh, I believe you. And another thing. He weeps to throw his washing water out. D’you think we might extract a thousand pounds From this old git, and pay the cost of freedom? Ask him to lend a famine - and he won’t. The barber cut his nails some time ago. He gathered the clippings, took them home with him. A mortal mean as mean, I get your meaning. You think he’s mean? You think he lives it down? A buzzard once flew down and nicked his lunch. The fellow ran all moansome to the judge. He begged him there, all tears and lamentation, To issue an injunction on the buzzard. I’d keep this up till breakfast, if we’d time. Now let me know, which one of you’s the quicker? Me. Better, too. It’s cooks, not crooks I want. And I meant ‘cook’. And you? I’m as you see. Him? He’s a weekend cook. He takes a week To get the dinner. What, you four-letter man, You dissing me? Thief! Triple thief yourself! STROBILUS ANTHRAX CONGRIO Enough now. Quiet. Choose the plumper lamb And take it to our place. Yes. Congrio, Take this one there. And you lot, follow him.

The Pot of Gold (II)

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The Pot of Gold (II)

Exeunt Anthrax, Eleusium etc. into Megadorus’house. The rest of you, this way. CO

CO

It isn’t fair, Your distribution. They’ve the plumper lamb. All right then, you can have the plumper girl. You with him, Phrygia; you, Eleusium, Come here. You subterfuginous Strobilus, You’ve dumped me on a foolish mean old man. If I want anything. I’ll go hoarse before I get it. Don’t be silly. There’s no thanks In doing right where goodness goes for nothing. What’s that? You ask? For starters, in the house You’re in, you’ll be alone. If you want something, Bring it from home, and don’t waste time in asking. In our place there’s a crowd of noisy servants. There’s kitchenware, cloth, gold and silver dishes. If something’s lost (now then, I know you’re good At holding back - if nothing’s there to take), They’ll say ‘The cooks have gone off with it. Grab them, Arrest them, beat them, chuck them down the well. Nothing like that will happen there. Why not? Nothing to pinch. Now follow me. I’ll follow.

II.vi STR

STROBILUS STAPHYLA CONGRIO Hey, Staphyla, listen. Open the door.

AN CO

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STR STA CO STA CO STA CO STR STA

We’ll have some shortly, when the boss comes home. We’ve got no wood here. Have you any rafters? Yes. There’s your wood then. Why go buying more? You filthy rotten worshipper of fire! To make our meal or earn some pay for you, You say ‘Just send the whole house up in flames’? Just joking. Take these in. You follow me.

Exeunt Congrio, Phrygia, Staphyla etc. into Euclio’s house. ILvii STR

STROBILUS You do it. I’d better check up on the cooks. Keeping an eye on them’s no joke at all. But let them do their cooking down the well! What’s baked we’ll bring in baskets to the brim. Uh-uh... if they scoff what they’ve cooked down there, Undined will be those on high, dined those below. But this is just fooling. I’ve got work to do, With these piratical plunderers in the house.

Exit Strobilus to Euclio’s house. Il.viii EUCLIO CONGRIO Enter Euclio from town. EUC

Enter Staphyla from Euclio’s house. STA STR STA STR

STA STR STA

Who’s calling? Strobilus. What d’you want? Please take these cooks, The flute girl and the shopping for the wedding. Megadorus had them sent for Euclio. Strobilus, is it a Salvation Army do? What? Looking round, I see we’re short of booze.

Decision: make myself feel good today And have a fine time at my daughter’s wedding. I go to the fish-market, see the price. Too dear. Lamb’s dear. Dear also: beef and veal, Pork, tuna, ham and bacon. It’s all dear. And just to make things dearer, I’d no cash. I went off furious, having nothing to buy with. That’s one in the eye for all those rascals there. Then, walking home, I thought it out inside Like this: you splash out on a holiday; Next day you starve - unless you’ve watched the pennies. I put this line to to Heart and Stomach too, Then Mind came round - voted for my idea:

The Pot o f Gold (II)

The Pot o f Gold (II)

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To marry my daughter at a knock-down price. So now I’ve bought this incense and these flowers. I’ll set them on the hearthstone for the Lar, And ask his blessing on my daughter’s wedding. But look! The house! The front door’s open. Why? That noise inside! Hell! - am I being robbed?

385

ACT III IILi CONGRIO Enter Congrio, Phrygia, assistant cooks from Euclio’s house. CO

Enter Congrio -with a slave from Euclio s house. CO

A larger pot. If they’ve got one next door, Get it. This one’s too small for everything.

390

The Slave goes to Megadorus’house; exit Congrio into Euclio’s. EUC

Aaaargh! I’m done for. Gold’s being stolen, pots requested. Obviously f am done for if I don’t run straight inside. O L6rd Apollo, aid and succour me, If thou hast holpen any such ere now, Smite with thine arrows yonder treasure-thieves. But why am I hanging around, not hurrying in?

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Exit Euclio into his own house. Il.ix

ANTHRAX

Enter Anthrax from Megadorus’ house. He speaks back into the house with instructions. AN

Dromo, de-scale these fish. Machaerio, The eel, the moray: get them filleted. I’ll go next door and borrow a baking-pan From Congrio. You, use your wits: that bird, Pluck it as smooth as a transgender queen. But hark! A horrid tumult here within. The cooks, no doubt, are at their exercise. I’ll nip in and evade the wrath to come.

Exit to Megadorus’.

219

Aaah, friends, Romans, countrymen, citizens, immigrants, occupants, residents, strangers Open a road to let me escape him, clear the whole street so I get out of danger. Never till now have I taken employment cooking for Bacchic ecstatic festivity, Now they’re all murdering mis’rable me and my mates with the wickedest welter of whipping; we All are a bundle of bruises and breaks and he’s made us a stage for athletic activity. I’m all of an ache; you could leave me for dead; the old codger has made me his exercise bed. Now, by the gods, I’m done for, I fear. 411 Bedlam: he’s op’ning it. Look now, he’s here, Chasing me. How I respond it is clear: Its the master himself who has taught me. I’ve never witnessed wood supplied so wonderfully anywhere He’s pushed us all outside as you can see with loads of sticks to bear.

IILiii EUCLIO CONGRIO Enter Euclio armed with cudgelsfrom his house.

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Here! Where are you bolting? Hold him!! 415 Dolt! Just why are you wailing? I’m passing your card to the Civil Guard. And what was my failing? You’ve come with a knife. I’m a cook, that’s my life. Then why did I hear you Expressing a threat? I have one regret, that I didn’t skewer you. There’s no-one who is more evil than you who’s alive and surviving. And no-one in sight I’d take more delight in driving a knife in. 420 No need to speak. It’s plain as Greek: the facts can reveal it. That beating I bore has softened me more more than a Charollais fillet. But why lay a hand on me, foul beggar-man?

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The Pot o f Gold (II)

The Pot o f Gold (II)

Did I catch your words rightly? Are you asking again? Or can you be saying I let you off lightly? Let it be: but you’ll know the meaning of woe if I feel your shillelagh,425 I haven’t a clue what’s next, but you know I’m your assailer. But there in the house, I mean my house, why on earth were you there then? When I wasn’t present, you had no assent; just answer. Well hear then. We came to prepare for the feast. Why d’you care? Why’ve you come to inspect here Is it raw what I eat or prepared over heat? You aren’t my protector. 430 Letmeknow: d’you agree for these fellows and me to cook for your daughter? Let me know just for me: will my property be safe where it ought to? To have this I mean: my batterie de cuisine. I’ll find and remove it. My 6wn is enough: I don’t need your stuff. Don’t instruct me, I know that. 434 Explain, at the le&st, why to cook for your feast our permission has ended. What can we have done, in act or by tongue, which has 16ft you offended? D’you have the brass, you rogue, to ask, when there’s hardly a byway In rooms, in doors, in ceiling, in floors which you’ve not made a highway. If you’d been at the fire, as you were required, and abandoned your thieving, You wouldn’t have fled with a split to your head: what you’ve earned, you’re receiving. That’s thdt. Now so that you can know where I stand in the issue, 441 Just move one pace to the door, in the case that I fail to permit you, I’ll soon make you see what it is to be Least Fortunate Human. So there, you have heard what is my last word.

CO EUC CO EUC CO

Are you off? Come here you, man! Now by the lord high Thief-God in the sky, I am strictly requiring 445 you to give back my kit, or be shouted to bits by a mob I’ll be hiring. What’ll I do now? What a disaster, coming to cook for this fellow at all. Pennies I’m paid, it’s pounds I’ll be charged even if there’s a doctor who’ll come out on call.

IILiii EUCLIO CONGRIO Enter Euclio with his pot. EUC

This at least will stay with me, I’ll take it everywhere I go. Never will I leave it there, deserting it in danger so. Now you gang of cooks and flautists, back again inside with you.

450

Go and buy a knock-down lot of slaves to go along with you. Cook and muddle, toil and trouble just as it amuses you. None too soon, old fellow, now you’ve left me with more cuts than head. In you go. You’re paid for what you’ve cooked and not for what you’ve said. Yes - and for those blows you gave you’ll have to compensate in cash. 456 I’m employed to get the cooking done and not for you to thrash. Go away now, cook. Don’t be a nuisance. If you want to, sue. Otherwise get off and hang yourself. I’ll g o -b u t you go too.

Exeunt Congrio etc. into Euclio’s house. IH.iv EUC

Exit Euclio to his house. CO

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III.v

EUCLIO Phew, he’s gone. By heaven above, you’ve got to have a heart of brass, If you’re poor and find yourself in business with the upper class. Megadorus now. He’s working on me every way he can. Sending cooks in compliment to me, he said. I see his plan. All he wanted them to do was get this off me - clever man. What about the Poultry Plot? I had a little chicken there, Staphyla’s possession. It has just destroyed me, near as near. In the room where this was buried, it began to scratch and scrape: All around. I almost had a seizure, I can tell you straight. With a bludgeon I decapitated it, the bare-faced thief. Sure the cooks had promised it some mortgage interest relief, If it gave them information. I disarmed it at a blow, I can tell you: it has come to be my Chicken Marengo. Here’s my in-law Megadorus been to town and coming back. I can hardly let him past without a greeting and a crack.

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MEGADORUS EUCLIO

Enter Megadorus right. ME

I told a number of my friends my plan About this marriage contract. Euclio’s girl They liked. ‘Good plan,’ they said, ‘you canny fellow.’ Indeed I think if all the affluent Did so, and chose the daughters of the poor To marry without dowry, we would have A more harmonious society, With far less envy than we have today.

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EUC

The Pot o f Gold (II) Our wives would be more firmly kept in order, And we’d have fewer heavy bills to settle. This principle would work out well for most; I quarrel only with those greedy few, Whose avarice and boundless appetite Bursts measured waistline and the law alike. Someone will ask me ‘Where will heiresses Get bridegrooms, if the poor have such a right?’ Wherever they like, so long as it’s dowry-free. With this arrangement, they’d have better manners To show, not just the dowry offered now. These days, mules outprice horses. I’ll make sure They sell for less than broken-winded nags. Dear Lord, it’s good to hear him so. He’s made A witty sermon for austerity. Noone would say: ‘Hey, I brought a dowry Greater in value than all your estate. Keep me in gold and purple: it’s my right; Give me attendants, maids, mules, muleteers, Slaves to bear greetings, carriages to ride.’ How well he understands the Married Woman! He should be Chief of Female Thought Police. Just now, you’ll see more wheels in private houses Than ever on the farm out in the country. But this is nothing beside their need for cash. The fuller, braider, goldsmith, woolman come; Sellers of lingerie, embroiderers, Dyers in red and violet and brown, Perfumiers, cosmeticists, sleeve-makers. Purveyors of patent-leather, sandal-merchants, Cobblers who sit all day designing shoes. Makers of slippers, mallow-dyers too. The fullers and the patchers make their claims. Then there are band- and belt-artificers too. You think you’ve paid them. Off they go. Then look, A hundred more: now pursers throng the hall. Now fringers, manufacturers of safes. On they all come. They’re paid. You think you’ve finished? Enter the Guild of Saffron-Dyeing Craftsmen Always there’s some damn nuisance wanting cash. I’d speak to him, but I’m afraid he’d stop

The Pot o f Gold (II) ME 485

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His talk on female ethics. Let him be. When all the footling pedlars’ bills are settled, Last comes the soldier, wants his pension paid. You go to the bank. You calculate your balance. The starving soldier waits; expects his pension. When you and the banker get the figures straight, The master’s own account is in the red. ‘Come back some other day,’ you tell the soldier. With heiresses, this is one tiny part Of all the outrageous trouble and expense. Wife without dowry’s under husband’s thumb. Downed, they plague and pauperise their men. But look - my in-law. How do, Euclio? EUCLIO MEGADORUS I’ve got fat on the flavour of your words. Oh. Did you hear? Yes. Right from the start. The lot. Still, I’ve the feeling that you’d best improve Your own appearance at your daughter’s wedding. High style, high savings. Cut your cloth to your cash. Think about these, and know your place in life. We poor, Megadorus, are no better off For anything the public says about us. But still, you have enough. God keep it so, And add his blessing to what you have now. I don’t like that remark: ‘What I have now.’ He knows as well as I do. Staphyla’s told him. Why have you gone off into private session? Rehearsing my strong case against you. Case? What sort of question’s that? You’ve filled my house From loft to cellar with a horde of thieves. You’ve sent me here a company of cooks Six handed each, like so many Indian gods. If Argus watched them (he was eyes all over), Who Juno found for Io’s chaperone, He’d never manage. Then that music girl Whose notes-per-gallon would have her drinking dry The Trevi fountain if it ran with wine. Then all that shopping...

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The Pot of Gold (II)

The Pot of Gold (II)

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fit to feed an army.

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I sent a sheep too. EUC

Yes; a sheep than which There’s not a more hard-wearing beast alive. ME Please tell me, how on earth can sheep be hardware? EUC Why, it’s just skin and bone: it’s all worn out. Innards to see by daylight, still alive. It’s see-through like a Punic lantern-case. ME I got it to be killed. EUC Then you’re the man To arrange the funeral. I think it’s dead. ME I’ll drink at your place, Euclio, today. EUC What, me? I’m off the drink. ME I’ll order in A vintage magnum from the store at home. EUC No, no! Not me! I’m on a water-diet. ME Today I’ll have you legless if it kills me. A water diet! EUC I know what he’s up to. He wants to get me drunk and pull a fast one, And make what I’ve here change its domicile. I’ll see he can’t. I’ll hide it out of doors. I’ll make him waste them both: his time and wine. ME By your leave, I’ll go to bathe and sacrifice.

Dear pot, what many enemies you have, You and the gold you’ve got sealed up inside. Now what’s the best plan? Take you off, good pot, And hide you away in Honour’s temple here. My Lady Honour: we know each other. See You don’t change name, if I pass this to you. I’ll go now, confident in your discretion.

Exit Euclio into the temple.

ACT IV IV.i LYCONIDES’ SLAVE Enter the slave from town, right. L.S.

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This is what an honest slave does: does what I am doing now, Doesn’t think his master’s orders should be got around somehow. Slaves who want to serve their masters 4s their masters want to be, They must put their masters first and leave themselves till latterly. If they sleep, they need to say ‘Slave is my status, not above,’ 591 [If you’ve got a master who’s like mine is, crazily in love, If you see him going under, here’s your duty, so I think: Hold him back, preserve him, don’t just shove him further in the drink. Children, when they learn to swim, put on a lifebelt made of reeds. 595 It’s less bother; they swim well; they learn the strokes a swimmer needs. So a slave should be a lifebelt, here’s the task he should be set: Hold him up, prevent him going under like a fishing net.] He should learn his master’s orders, know the changes of his face, Do his wishes quicker than a four-horse chariot in a race. 600 If he does this, he won’t find he’s sentenced to the Whipping Fine, Nor put all his efforts into making chaingang fetters shine. Well, my master’s now in love with poor man neighbour Euclio’s lass. He’s just heard she’ll marry Megadorus and move up a class. Now he’s sent me here to keep a look out, let him know of things. 605 I’ll sit on this altar. No one notices those sort of things. I can see both here and there and form a reasoned view of things.

Slave establishes himself on the altar. IV. ii

EUCLIO LYCONIDES’ SLAVE

Enter Euclio, potless, from the shrine. 585

EUC

Honour, watch out. Don’t pass the news on that I’ve left my gold inside. N6t a chance of finding it. It’s got a perfect place to hide. Anyone who finds it, heavens, hd’ll have landed luscious loot: 610 Gold in gallons. Goddess, give to him the order of the boot. Now I’ll wash for sacrifice and not waste Megadorus’ day. When he wants to, he must take my daughter home without delay. Look now, Honour, once again. That gold. Just keep it safe for me. Your good name’s in question. I have 16ft it in your sanctuary. 615

Exit Euclio into his own house.

The Pot o f Gold (II)

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Ooh, you gods and goddesses, were those the words they seemed to be? Gold in gallons he’s deposited in Honour’s sanctuary? Honour, now, are you with him or do you wanna honour me? This is the man whose girl my master tells me he’s got on his mind. I’ll go in and search around the temple. Then perhaps I’ll find 620 Gold, while old man’s occupied. And if I find it, Honour dear, I’ll be offering you to quaff the Widow Clicquot: choose your year. Yes, I’ll offer. What I’ve proffered, I’ll knock off myself, d’you hear?

Exit Slave into the shrine. IV.iii

EUCLIO

Enter Euclio from his house. EUC

Hark, the raven’s voice upon the left. It was no accident. Once alone it scratched the earth and croaked out an admonishment. 625 Straightaway my heart began to do a hectic hornpipe hop. Jumping up and down in here. But this is not the place to stop.

Exit Euclio into shrine. IV.iv

EUCLIO LYCONIDES’ SLAVE

Enter Slave pursued by Euclio, from shrine. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S.

Out you come now, worm! You’ve just appeared from underneath your stone. One hour since, you weren’t existing. Now you do exist, you’re done. 1 have ways to make you suffer, and I’ll use them on you, cheat. 630 What’s got into you, old grandad? Have we any cause to meet? Why attack me? Why assail me? Why am I a man to beat? Why d’you ask? You’re worth a whacking, thief-no, thief, thief, thief again. What have I taken? Give it back? Give what back? Why should I explain? How’ve I done for you? 635 You haven’t. Give back what you’ve done for you! WMt are you up to? Up to? You won’t get away. What must I do? Give it me back. Old man, that’s where you get it frequently, no doubt.

The Pot o f Gold (II) EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC L.S. EUC

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Give it back! Don’t try to trick me. Now’s no time to play about. What’ll I give back? Tell me then just what I took, if it exists. I’ve not touched or taken anything. No? Right then. Show your fists. 640 There you are, they’re open. So I see. Now you can show the third. Vampires, furies, barking madness. What’s got into this old bird? Hey! My rights! Your rights consist in being strung up on a tree. And I’ll do it if you don’t confess. To what must I agree? What have you taken? I’ll be damned if I took something you possess. 645 (Aside) Or if I didn’t want to. Very well then. Now shake out your dress. As you wish. Ah y6s, but what about your underwear? Feel free. How polite, the rascal! Just so I won’t know he’s robbing me. I know all your little games. Your hands again now. Let me see. Right one first. There. Left now. Please inspect them simultaneously. 650 OK. I’ll stop searching. Give it back. Give what back? Get away, Certainly you’ve got it. Got what? You just want to make me say. What you’ve got of mine, return it. This is simply moithering. I’ve been searched from top to bottom and you haven’t found a thing. Just a moment. In the temple with you. Who’s the other one? 655 That’s it. He’s at work inside. If! go after him, he’ll run. After all. I’ve checked him out and he’s got nothing. On your way. Go to hell. Now was that ‘Thanks’? He could have found worse things to say. I’ll be off to find your little friend and then I’ll strangle him. You can go. D’you hear? I’m going. Let that be the last of him. 660

The Pot o f Gold (II)

The Pot of Gold (II)

228

EUN

Exit Euclio into shrine. Slave pretends to go off left, but lurks in the wings. IV.v L.S.

LYCONIDES’ SLAVE Better be killed outright, better horribly dead, Than fail to lay a trap for that old man. He won’t dare hide the gold in there again. I guess he’ll take it, find a different place. Aha, the door. He’s bringing out the gold. One second. I’ll stand here beside the door.

LY

EUCLIO LYCONIDES’ SLAVE I trusted Honour to have some sense of honour. Did she? She almost did me in the eye. Without the raven’s help, I’d have been ruined. I’d very much like that bird to come to me, The one that grassed, and I’ll find something nice To say, not give it. Better it’s dead than fed. Now this. I want a lonely place to hide it. Outside the walls there is a lonely shrine: Silvanus’s, all wooded. I’ll find a place. I’m set to trust Silvanus more than Honour.

665

Good, good; the gods do bless and prosper me. I’ll run ahead and find some tree to climb, And there see where the old man hides the gold. Though master told me to expect him here, I’ll make a buck and take a beating for it.

EUN

But I wonder My slave tStrobilust. Where is he? I told him To wait just here. But think this way: if he Is for me, I should not be cross. In, then: They’re voting life or death for me in there.

670

675

695

700

Exit into Megadorus ’house. IV.viii LYCONIDES’ SLAVE Enter Slave from left, with pot, L.S.

680

IV.vii LYCONIDES EUNOMIA (PHAEDRIUM) Enter Lyconides and Eunomia from town, right. I’ve told you, mother; - you know as well as I -, It’s Euclio’s daughter. Now I beg you, mother, (I take back what I begged you long ago): Please, mother, discuss this matter with my uncle.

LY

Nurse, nurse! The pain! Please help, it’s hurting, here! Juno Lucina, help me! Mother, listen. It’s not just words, it’s real. Our child’s being bom. Come in with me, my boy. We’ll see my brother, And he’ll agree to what I ask of him. You go ahead, I’ll follow.

Exit Eunomia into Megadorus’house.

Exit Slave in pursuit o f Euclio.

LY

PH

LY

Exit Euclio to the country, left. L.S.

690

Phaedrium is heardfrom inside Euclio’s house.

Enter Euclio with pot from shrine. Slave hides behind one o f the pillars of Megadorus’house. IV.vi EUC

You know that what you want, I want it too. I’m sure I’ll get my brother to agree. It’s only right, if things are as you say: That in your cups you compromised the girl. Mother, you don’t think I would lie to you?

229

685

Dragons, who dwell on the golden mountains, I’m Your master now, in wealth. Those other kings, They won’t get wordspace from me, beggars all. I am the great king Philip! Lovely day! When I went off, I got there first with ease And climbed a tree before the old man came. I watched from up to see him hide the gold. Then off he goes. I hop down from the tree. I dig up a gallon of gold. Then right from there I see the old man coming back. He misses me: I’ve slipped aside a little off the road. Uh-uh, the man. I’ll hide this back at home.

Exit Slave, right.

705

710

230

IV.ix

EUCLIO LYCONIDES

Enter Euclio, left. During his song Lyconides enters from Megadorus’house. EUC

LY

IV.x EUC LY EUC

The Pot of Gold (II)

The P o t o f G o ld (II)

Done and doomed, dead. Where can I run, where not run. Stop him! Stop! Stop whom? Stop who? Don’t know, can’t see, gone blind. Who I am, where I’m going, what I am, what I’m doing, what to do With my mind I can’t see any course that’s for certain. Now let me ask of you, come to my aid, 715 I beg you, beseech you: where is the man? please point to him, tell me by whom I’m betrayed. What do you say? You’re just the man to believe. I can see from the way that you look that you’re good. 718 What’s that? you are laughing. Why, yes I’ve seen through you all, and I know you’re a bandit brood. 719 You hide in your smart clean well-pressed suits, sitting there just as if you were all true blue. 717 Look, has nobody here got it? Oh, that’s the end. Well who has it? You’ve not a clue then? 720 Poor poor little me, woe, woe, death and doom, Lost, ldst as I go my shroud to assume, Such mourning and grief, lamentation and glodm, I have known on this day, destitution and dearth, Cast down and destroyed, none so much on the earth, Why now stay alive, when I’ve lost so much worth In gold which I held under guard, in my hearth With such care? It’s myself that I’ve cheated, I find, My heart and my soul and my strength and my mind. And the victim, the loser is ME, while the mirth 725 Is a stranger’s. It’s past my endurance. Who’s the man before our house whose moans and shrieks and cries surround me? Lord, I do believe it’s Euclio. It’s the end. It’s out he’s found me. He must know about his daughter’s child, and terror n6w confounds me. I’m uncertain: run, approach him, stay or simply g6 to ground? 730 EUCLIO LYCONIDES Who’s that? Me, unhappy me. No, I’m the real unhappy one. I’m the one who’s hdd the great misfortune.

LY EUC LY

231

Oh now, don’t be glum. Tell me, how on earth can I avoid it?

That appalling deed Which you’ve suffered, I performed it, I admit. EUC What’s that you said? LY Just the truth. EUC Young man, how have I done you anything unkind 735 Leading you to have my children’s ruin and my own in mind? LY God provoked me to it. God enticed my victim to me. EUC How? LY Yes, I know I’ve acted wrongly. I confess I’m guilty. Now This is what I’m here to ask you. Please accept it. Pardon me. EUC Arrogance! To lay your hands on what was not your property! 740 LY What d’you want? It’s happened now. Things won’t unhappen on the nod. Nor, I’m sure, would it have happened If it weren’t the will of God. EUC Will of God? That means my keeping you in chains until you’re dead. LY Don’t say that! EUC How dare you touch my golden one unless I’ve said? LY Love ensnared me and the wine I’d drunk. EUC Love? Wine? What brazen cheek! 745 Can you stand before me thinking that’s a decent way to speak? If we had a law which let you make that simple, shameless plea, In broad daylight we could strip the gold from ladies openly. When arrested, say ‘We acted passionately, drunkenly.’ Wine and love! Good heavens! each of them’s a cheap commodity. 750 If they both entitle us to absolute impunity. LY Look, I’ve come, unforced, for pardon. Here I am, before your eyes. EUC I’ve no time for people who do wrdng and just apologise. That which wasn’t yours, you knew, you should have strictly left alone. LY Well, I couldn’t keep my hands off, but I think I can atone 755 If I take possession. EUC You possess what’s mine, without my leave? LY Not without your leave. But I’ve the right and duty, I conceive. Euclio, it’s my right and duty, as I’m sure you too will find. EUC Give it back, or... LY Give what back? That stolen property of mine. EUC N6w I’m off to see the judge. You’ll find you’re paying such a fine... 760 Stolen? Me? Your property? Where? What d’you mean? LY In heaven’s name, EUC Now he doesn’t know!

232 LY EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY

EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY

EUC LY EUC LY EUC LY EUC

The Pot o f Gold (II)

The Pot o f Gold (II) How can I know if you will not explain? Gold! A gallon-jar! I want it back. I heard you just admit Stealing it. Not said, not done. Not done? Are you denying it? 765 Totally. That gold, that gallon-jar of yours, I’ve n6 idea What they are. You took it from Silvanus’ shrine. Now give it here. Go on, bring it back. I’ll let you share it half and half with me, Though you’ve stolen it, I’ll make no trouble. Go and get it me. Look, this makes no sense, your calling me a thief. No, Euclio, I supposed you’d heard of something else, which I should let you 770 know. Serious business needing time, if you’ve the time to have it so. Tell me true: was it not you who took the gold? I told you true. And you haven’t heard who took it? True as well. And if you do, You’ll not hesitate to tell me? Not at all. And not expect Any share from him who owns it, nor receive the thief. Correct. 775 If you fail me? What God wills for me, I pray he may effect. I’m content. Now what’s your business? Do you know my origin? Uncle Megadorus here, your neighbour, is my next of kin. Father was Antimachus, and me he called Lyconides. Mother’s Eunomia. 780 We’re acquainted. Tell me now your business, please. This I need to hear. You have a daughter. She’s at home, I know. You’ve engaged her to my uncle, so I think. Precisely so. He instructs me to announce his own rejection of the bride. What? Rejection? When the folk are ready? When the feast’s supplied? May all gods and goddesses with plagues and curses manifold 785 Blast him. Thanks to him today I’ve been deprived of hll my gold.

LY EUC LY

EUC LY

EUC

233

Cheer up still. Speak fairly. In the name of God I here do pray Blessing on your daughter and on you yourself- ‘Amen’, you say. Amen. And ‘Arnen’ I also say. Now listen cdrefully. One who has a conscience can’t be fashioned quite contemptibly. 790 He’ll feel shame; he’ll seek to clear his name. Now hear me, Euclio. I’ve offended you, offended to6 your daughter. Even so I’d no ill intent. I ask your pardon, claim her for my wife. Law requires it. I confess that I assailed her, made her mine In the dark, at Ceres’ feast, impelled by youthfulness and wine. 795 Spare me! What’s this story you are telling? Why d’you howl away When I’ve given you a grandchild on your daughter’s wedding day? Phaedrium has had a baby. It’s nine months now. Work it out. That’s why uncle’s sent you his rejection, just to help me out. Go indoors and see if things are as I say. I’m done, no doubt. 800 Horror’s piled upon disaster by the thousand to my doom. I’ll go in, establish what’s the truth of this.

Exit Euclio into his own house. LY

I’ll follow soon. It seems to me my ship must be inshore and almost landed. But where’s that knave of mine? A slave should be where I commanded. I’ll wait around, and if he’s found a plan, he can propose it. 805 Then I’ll proceed. This tale will need some time till he's exposed it And heard my claim from that old dame his daughter’s nurse. She knows it.

ACT V V.i LYCONIDES’ SLAVE LYCONIDES Enter Slave, right. L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S.

Gods above, what kind you’re giving me, what size of affluence! Gold! a four quart gallon jar. It’s superhuman opulence! Where’s the man in Athens now enjoying heaven’s blessing more? Didn’t I just catch the sound nearby of someone talking? Ah. Do I spy my master? Do I really see my servant here? Yes, it’s him.

810

234 LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S.

LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S. LY L.S.

The Pot o f Gold (II) It’s n6-one else. I’ll go to him. I’ll go up near. Has he seen the girl’s old nurse and done as I commanded him? Shall I tell him I have found this treasure and explain to him? 815 Th&i I’ll ask him for my freedom. Yes, that’s what I’ll say to him. I have found What have you found? Well, it’s not quite the sdrt of toy If you pulled a Christmas cracker... Now you’re at your usual ploy. Master, wait. I’ll t611 you... Tell me. ...if you’re ready to be told. 820 I’ve found loads of money. Where? A four-quart gallon jar of gold. What have you been up to? Euclio. It was his property. Where’s the gold? I’ve got it in a box at home. Now set me free. Give you freedom, you? What, me? Scoundrel! Master, 16t it be, 825 What you’re after, I can see. What a delightful trick I have played you. You were all ready to take it and steal it. If I had found some, what’d you do? You can lie, but you won’t ever make me believe it. C6me now, give up the gold. Me, give it up? Yes. What he owns, let the owner receive. What? You have agreed you’ve got it in hiding. What I agree is nothing but stuff. See, 830 That’s it. I’ve got a lesson for you. You can kill if you will, but you won’t get it off me. The Latin text breaks off here.

METRICAL APPENDIX /. Introduction The manifold rhythms of Plautine verse are among the most attractive features of his writing. Some of his lines were evidently spoken, without musical accompaniment: certainly the iambic senarii (‘sixers’, i.e. of six feet). Some were chanted to accompaniment: the longer iambic, trochaic and partly anapaestic lines. The remainder reveal an amazing variety and combination of metres and were, it is generally agreed, sung; these lyrics were arranged in structures which are often complex. The current terms for these three modes of delivery are diuerbium (lit. ‘dialogue’, spoken), recitative (chanted,) and canticum (sung). But the metres of ancient comedy are technically complex and difficult for beginners; some aspects of prosody and structure are even uncertain and subject to disagreement among experts. The most recent, clear and accessible treatment in English is W. de Melo, Plautus I (Loeb Classical Library: Cambridge MA and London 2011) lxxxv-xcvii. Among earlier works M. M. Willcock, Plautus, Pseudolus (Bristol 1987) 141-61 and J. Barsby, Terence, The Eunuch (Cambridge 1999) 290—304 stand out; Barsby offered a shorter treatment in his Plautus, Bacchides (also in this Aris and Phillips Series: Warminster 1986) 13-16; one may consult also S. Goldberg’s Hecyra, Cambridge 2013,32—40. A. Gratwick, Terence, The Brothers (also in this Series: Warminster 1987) 268-83 differs from our treatment in his presentation of spoken and recitative metres. A synopsis of the metres in Aulularia is to be found in de Melo 619; we give a modified one at the end of this Appendix. The standard and fullest work on all this is by C. Questa, La metrica di Plauto e di Terenzio (Urbino 2007). For Aulularia in particular see Stockert (1983) 226-242. Our treatment below is brief and incomplete, but it is meant to be simple and helpful for beginners. It identifies and names a few principles of prosody and verse-forms; and it ends with a synopsis of all the verses used in the play. For convenience we have added a glossary of the most important terms; they are indicated in the Commentary and in this Appendix (for cross-reference) by *. Readers who seek greater detail should consult the works cited above.

236

Metrical Appendix

2. How to read Latin Verse (i) Representing rhythm in English: Know then thyself, presume not God to scan; The proper study of mankind is man. Alexander Pope, Essay on Man. We can represent the rhythm (a little crudely) like this: Know then The pro-

thyself, per stu-

presume dy of

not God mankind

to scan; is man.

Each line is divided into feet (shown by the spaces); there are five in each line. Each foot consists of two syllables, the first unstressed, the second stressed (as shown by the accent). This pattern is called iambic, and, having five feet, the line is often called an iambic pentameter. (ii) Representing rhythm in Latin: Consider Aulularia 1-4:

The rhythm o f English verse depends on the pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables (‘dynamic’ rhythm). The rhythm of Latin verse depends on the pattern of long and short syllables (‘quantitative’ rhythm). But it is not difficult to move from one to the other, as can be seen if one reads the above lines according to the scheme below. The rhythm is still iambic; the verse contains not five but six feet.

()

miresum firnlednt5s In-

tur quf 113tern m(e) 3snos est

3. Common Verse-Forms in the Aulularia a) The iambic senarius The commonest verse (nearly half the play) in the Aulularia is an iambic line with six feet, as in lines 1-4 above. It is called the senarius. Each foot consists of two elements *; each of these consists either of one long syllable (-), one short (u), or a double short pyrrhic), equivalent to one long. The possibilities for each of feet 1-5 are thus ^ - (an iambus), — (a spondee), u u - (an anapaest), - ^ w (a dactyl), or even v, w w ^ (a proceleusmatic). The sixth foot is always iambic (with an indifferent end). There is normally a word-break after the first element* of the third or the fourth foot {caesura*). Scheme: x — x — x / — x / — x — « fl x / IT

ne quis miretur qui sim, paucis eloquar, ego Lar sum familiaris ex hac familia unde exeuntem me aspexistis, hanc domum iam multos annos est cum possideo et colo.

ne quis eg6 L3r und(e) ex iam mul-

slm, paurls lx pexlscum pos-

237

Metrical Appendix

els 1h3c faml tls. hlnc slde(o) It

loquar. Ii3 domdm coll.

over a vowel marks its syllable as long. over a vowel marks its syllable as short (half the length of a long). There are three occasions in our sample where two short syllables occupy the place of one long: familiaris and familia (line 2), and possideo (line 4). vowels in brackets are not pronounced (or barely so). They are elided*. marks the principal syllables.

can be long (—), short (u), or pyrrhic (w«), the term is syllaba anceps ‘ambiguous syllable’. regular caesura*. one long (-) or one short (u); the term is syllaba indifferens. marks the principal syllables.

b) The trochaic septenarius This is the verse of recitative*, used for a little over a third of the play. Its name suggests that it has seven feet. In fact it has eight; but the last foot has lost one element*, making the line catalectic*. In trochaic verse, the principal syllable is the first of each foot, and there is normally a word-break {diaeresis*, marked by ||) after the end of the fourth foot. hie est nl mo-

semi facinus frdgl, f&cSrS quod ego ral mo- lest!alqu(e) Tm- perl(um) e- rile habe-

Scheme:— x — x — x — D ||— x —x

perse- qu6r, St si- bi. (587)

D

c) Versus reizianus The third most represented metre in Aulularia is the versus reizianus-. no other known Latin play has such a concentration of this lyric verse. The line consists of 4 iambic feet followed by the colon reizianum, which appears in a number of forms (see p. 241), but is here represented by - - v

238

sëd quid tïbi nos täc- tio (e)st, mendic(e) hömö? Quae res? ëtïâm rögitäs? ân quîâ mïnüs quäm | aequ(om) ërât, fecl?(423f.) You might expect the -am of quam in line 2 to be elided* against aequom. Occasionally (it isn’t always possible to see why) there is no elision*; there is said to be hiatus* between the two vowel sounds; this is indicated by | in our text edition. Scheme: x — x — x — w fl // x — x — fl d) For the many other forms, see the Commentary as they occur, also 5 b) and 6 below. 4. Prosody* a) Identifying long syllables: A syllable is long, if a) b)

M e tr ic a l A p p e n d ix

M e tr ic a l A p p e n d ix

it is long by ‘nature’, since it contains a long vowel (indicated in dictionaries/ vocabularies) or a diphthong, it is long by ‘position’: i.e. it is a ‘closed’ syllable (see below).

Think of a syllable as consisting either of a vowel or a consonant followed by a vowel: a or da. A consonant following either syllable will attach itself to the next vowel: a-la, da-bo. This will be true even if we have a word ending in a consonant: dabit onera is to be read as da-bi-to-ne-ra. All these syllables end in vowels; they are ‘open’. If a syllable is followed by more than one consonant, the first consonant usually attaches itself to the preceding vowel: dabunt omnia is read da-bun-tom-ni-a. The syllables marked in bold end in consonants: they are ‘closed’: these syllables are long. The last syllable of a (stichic*) verse is indifferens* (see under 3a). b) Iambic shortening We restrict ourselves here to this most distinctive feature of old Latin prosody. R ule

of

I am bic

s h o r t e n in g :

An iambic sequence (w -) can become pyrrhic fy ^) (a) if the accent of the word / word-group is on the short syllable («—). e.g. 81 rëdî reads rëdî; 76 quëô reads quëo. (b) if an accent falls on the syllable following the iambic sequence f y - - ) . e.g. 47 ut ïncédit.

239

Additional note: A long penultimate must not be shortened (natura is excluded). ‘Exceptions’ are explained by special accents: Philippus; sàgïtta. Some examples: 81 redr, mihi and tibï regularly have iambic shortening (bene and male in Plautus’ time are already pyrrhic by nature); iuuëntütem. Word-groups: 639 quid ergo; 483 ét illae; 645 quid abstulisti; 53 ég(o) istos; 645 s in (e) ömni. With prosodic hiatus*: 800 i intro. For many other features you can find a note in the Glossary; for the rest we referto Willcock (1987) 141-148; de Melo (2011) lxxxv-lxxxix; Questa (2007)17-196.

5. Basic Terms a) A glossary apocope

‘striking-off’. The last vowel of words such as nempe, ille is sometimes ‘struck off’ even before a following consonant; i.e. nemp(e), ill(e). caesura, diaeresis major word-divisions within a verse, dividing it into two. caesura is a division falling within a metrical foot (below), diaeresis a division falling at the end of a foot. canticum a ‘song’ in ‘mixed metres’ (mutatis modis canticum, MMC), performed to a musical accompaniment (e.g. 120-60) catalectic used of a colon* or verse which is cut short of its last element*, or in which the element preceding the last is omitted (indicated by the sign a = Agiterai ‘it is left out’) closed, open syllables see above, p. 238 colon a short metrical phrase in a canticum* diaeresis see caesura. diuerbium used of spoken verses which repeat a single metre (‘stichic’ verses) element the single prosodic (prosody below) syllable or position out of which bigger metrical forms are constructed, feet* or cola* or verses (see section 6). A word-break between the two short syllables of a pyrrhic* element (‘split element’) is usually avoided. A final vowel is normally left unpronounced (elided) when elision, elide the following word begins with a vowel or h. This also occurs with final vowel + m. Where, occasionally, elision does not take place, there is said to be hiatus *. (In the case of a long vowel or diphthong the phenomenon is usually called synaloephe*.)

Metrical Appendix

240

a short metrical form of more than one element*, which is the basic structural unit of individual verses see elision. It is relatively rare within a verse (in our text hiatus it is indicated by a stroke: thesaurum \ auri {!)). When it occurs, it can be explained by metrical licence (e.g. at the diaeresis*) or by linguistic/semantic reasons as indicated in the Commentary, e.g. the so-called 1prosodic hiatus', where a following vowel shortens a preceding long (qui amat; f intro). iambic shortening a situation where a short syllable shortens an immediately following long syllable; see under section 4 ‘Prosody’. es or est after a vowel or syllable ending in -m become s /’st prodelision (e.g. palamst = palam est) prosodic hiatus see hiatus the principles determining the quantitative nature (see prosody Section 4) of elements*, and their composition in metrical forms like cola* and verses (stichic*) verses chanted (not sung) to a musical recitative accompaniment series of verses with the same length and metre stichic verses see element above syllable see elision synaloephe in some words the original form has been shortened by syncope syncope (‘knocking together’), e.g. surripui becomes surpui (‘sitting together’): two vowels are ‘blurred’, e.g. suorum, synizesis fuere, which thus become 2-syllable words. a series of verse-feet/co/a* without break by syllaba system indifferens (see below) or hiatus *.

foot

b) Metrical elements, verse-feet, varieties o f line a) E lements: This list adapts the terms in Willcock (1987) 149-50.

short anceps biceps long indifferens pyrrhic

u

x (short or long, sometimes two shorts) tttj (two shorts or one long) D (long or short, never two shorts)

Metrical Appendix

241

b) Abbreviations of the different verse-feet and some verses: an. ba. cr. ia. ith. proc. reiz. sp. tr.

anapaestic foot bacchiac foot cretic foot iambic foot ithyphallicus proceleusmatic colon reizianum spondee trochaic foot

u

u

---— \ j

u

\j

-x-x-H U

U

V

u

x- x--

n

c) Single lines o f stichic* verse are almost all made up of defined numbers of the feet described above. Thus iambic lines are usually senarii (six feet), but can also be septenarii (seven feet) or octonarii (eight feet). Trochaic lines are usually septenarii (see above, 3b), but can be quaternarii (four feet) or octonarii. For units of two feet, the Greek word dimeter is used. 6. A Synopsis o f the Verses o f the Aulularia 1-119 iambic senarii Diuerbium 120-160 Mutatis Modis Canticum 120 bacchiac dimeter + bacchiac colon 121-124 bacchiac quaternarii 125 see 120 126-130 bacchiac quaternarii 131-134 bacchiac dimeter + catalectic iambic quaternarius 135-139 iambic quaternarii 140 iambic senarius 141 trochaic septenarius 142 f. cretic colon + cretic dimeter + ithyphallicus 144 f. cretic quaternarius + ithyphallicus 146 anapaestic quaternarius 147 f. bacchiac quaternarii 149-152 anapaestic quaternarii 153 versus reizianus 154 catalectic anapaestic quaternarius + colon reizianum 155 two bacchiacs + colon reizianum 156-158 versus reiziani 159 three bacchiacs + colon reizianum 160 versus reizianus

242

Metrical Appendix Canticum

161-279

trochaic septenarii

280-405

iambic senarii

406-414 406-409 410 411-412 412a 413 f.

trochaic octonarii anapaestic octonarius catalectic trochaic quaternarii catalectic anapaestic quaternarius iambic octonarii

415-446

versus reiziani

Canticum

447-474

trochaic septenarii

Canticum

475-586

iambic senarii

587-660

trochaic septenarii

661-712

iambic senarii

713-730 713-719 720 721-726 727-730

Mutatis Modis Canticum anapaestic octonarii anapaestic septenarius anapaestic system trochaic octonarii + trochaic septenarius (or trochaic system)

731-802 803-807 808-818

trochaic septenarii iambic septenarii trochaic septenarii

819-830 819-822 823 824-826 827-830 831 ff.

trochaic octonarii trochaic septenarius trochaic quaternarii trochaic octonarii ???

Fr.I Fr. II Fr. III Fr. IV Fr. V Fr. DUB.

iambic senarius ? iambic senarius ? iambic senarius iambic septenarii

Diuerbium Mutatis Modis Canticum

Diuerbium Canticum Diuerbium

Canticum

Mutatis Modis Canticum

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INDICES For metrical notes we refer the reader to the Metrical Appendix. The references in this index are to line-numbers except where a page-number is indicated. Stylistic features abundance see pleonasm alliteration e.g. 49, 66, 116f., 151 f., 167 ff., 194,276,279,365 ff., 458,586 anacoluthon 360 f., 809 f. anastrophe 654 anaphora e.g. 632 apocope e.g. 315,366,385 aprosdoketon 671 f. assonance see paronomasia asyndeton eg. 87 f., 188 f., 264,318,453, 713 trimembre 453,713, 727 attractio inversa 574,595 chiasmus 374 ff. code-switching 569 ff. comparison e.g. 228 ff., 553 ff, 626 f., 701 ff. constructio ôtù psoou 95 ff, 270 contamination of thought 56 ff. of construction 716,797, 811 ellipse 307, 590,605,652,713 elliptical gw/V-sentence 183,213 enjambment475 ff. epanalepsis 365 ff, 446 epexegesis 724 f. figura etymologica e.g. 215,220, 592 hendiadys 717 hiatus e.g. 5,316,391 ff, 569 f., 730; see p. 240 homoioteleuton see rhyme homonym 391

hyperbaton 13 hyperbolic expression 41,45,311 hysteron-proteron 350 inversion (relative) 589 litotes 123,286 metaphorseg. 45,79,194 ff, 216,537,803 metonymy 359 nominal paraphrase 50,201 f., 744 optative (archaic) 148 f., etc. oratio obliqua All, 617 oxymoron 84,454 parallelism 107 parataxis eg. 88,309 (?) paronomasia eg. 236 f., 391 ff, 614,622 patronymic 370 pleonasm eg. 181, 215, 264, 279, 314, 393,600,809 f. polyptoton 43,107,162,801 prodelision eg. 76,337 f., 344 ff. prolepsis eg. 54,95 ff, 443,670 repetition ofwords eg. 113 f, 123 f.,374 ff, 527 ff, 551 f„ 574,618 ff, 767 f., 816 ring composition 90-100,120 ff, 220 ff, 441 ff, 597,608 ff. rhyme e g 66, 116 f., 121, 128, 138 f., 406, 453, 623, 632 sentence structure: double onset 71 ff, 226 ff, 435 ff. interrupted 417, 759 see also ring composition

252

General Index

sigmatic verb-forms 50,58 etc. synizesis 40, 367,510,708,785 tautology 191 f., 207 f.,223,337 f„ 541 f. tmesis 427 General Index Accius p. 1 act divisions p. 36 actors p. 6 number of pp. 21 f. ad spectatores 715 ff. altar 394 ff., 606 Amor 737 animating the inanimate 59,152 Anthrax p. 20 Apollo 394 ff. apostrophe 580 ff. argumenta pp. 46,110 f. Argus 555 aside see stage business Atellana p. 2 augury 565,624 f. Aulularia: action pp. 7-12 datep. 23 ending, lost: p. 12; Arg. 115, II9 Greek original pp. 32-38 interpolations p. 39; 135 ff.(?), 266, 285 £(?), 399,472 (?), 515,592 ff. prologus p. 111 scenes/acts p. 22 slaves in p. 19 staging pp. 20 f. structure, weaknesses pp. 33 f. Bacchides p. 33 Bacchae/Bacchanalia p. 23; 408 banker 527 barber 312 f. Burmeister pp. 31 f. Caecilius p. 4 Camus (Les Esprits) p. 27

triadic structure e.g. 632,713,715,724 triple expression 40,55,116 f., 218,434 wordplay e.g. 260,605,622 zeugma 487 f. cantica 120 ff., 406 ff., 713 ff., 819 ff. catalogue 90 ff, 508 ff. Ceres 36,354 f. Chappuzeau p. 27 Choricius p. 32 codices p. 40 Congrio p. 20 cooks p. 20; 280 ff. costume p. 6 court of law 458 cross 59 death by hanging 50 f., 74 ff. demarchos 107 dialogue, beginning 182 ff, 337 f. entrance for 120 ff. entrance at the end of 682 Dis exapaton p. 33 doctors 448 door creaking 665 bolts of 103 f. dowry 202 ff, 238,255 f., 480 uxor dotata 475 ff., 532 ff. Dromo 398 Drzic (Ship) p. 26 Dyscolus e.g. pp. 32 ff. eavesdropping see stage business editors, ancient p. 39 Eleusium p. 20 Epicharmus p. 2 Etruscans pp. 1 f. Eucliopp. 13 ff. character pp. 15-17; 9, 13 f., 21 f., 66, 88,90 ff, 171 ff,206,280 ff.,371 ff. family pp. 15 ff humour 214

General Index language e.g. 40 ff, 89, 178 ff, 188 f., 194 ff, 273 f., 391 ff, 415, 444, 449 ff, 468,628 Eunomiap. 17; 120 ff her house 120 ff. festivals pp. 1-3 with representations p. 3 Fides 120,583 ff Fielding (Miser) p. 28 fire 91 ff. flute player p. 6; 332 f. Fortuna Bona 100 friends 475 ff. Galli p. 23; 472 garlands 25,385 Gelli (Sporta) p. 26 glosses 556 Greek institutions 107,504,760 Greek theatre p. 2 gynaikonomos 504 Harmonius Marsus p. 25 Hooft ( Warenar) p. 26 identification 228 ff. impresario pp. 5 f. instauratio p. 13 institutions see Roman inst. irony eg. 81,285,296,339 ff.,344 ff.,454 joke e.g. 560 ff, 623,641 obscene 283 ff, 637 see riddle-joke Jonson (The Case) p. 27 Krieger p. 33 lantema 566 Larpp. Ill f.;385 ff Larivey (Esprits) p. 27 Lauema 445 laughter 205,221 ff,719 Lefèvre p. 38 Livius Andr. pp. 1 f.

253

love-theme p. 33; 603 Lucina 691 ludi pp. 1-3,5 f. Ludwig pp. 33 f. luxury 167 ff, 475 ff, ff. I Lyconidesp. 18 Machaerio 398 magister curiae 107 magistrates 416 (tresuiri); 504 (moribus praefectus) manuscripts pp. 40 f. marketplace 373 masks p. 6 (de) Medici (Aridosio) p. 26 Megadorus pp. 17 f. language of225,236 f. Megalesia p. 7 Menander pp. 32 ff. act divisions pp. 35 f. author of the original p. 32 stage setting pp. 20 f. misunderstanding 635,731 ff. misogyny 135 ff, 156 Molière p. 28 money 108,309 f.; 527 ff monologue: beginning of60,67,79,207, 701f f , 808ff inner m. 382 ff link mon. 398 ff, 460 ff series ofm. 580 ff. myth (error) 701 ff Naevius pp. 2 f. New Comedy p. 4 obscenities 283 ff, 637,740 (Greek) originals p. 4 see Plautus Oppia lexp. 23; 167 ff, 475 ff Palatina recensio p. 40 Palliatafabula p. 4 paratragic 279,359,394 ff, 425,449

254

pathos e.g. 406 ff. Peirene 559 Peppino de Filippo p. 31 Phaedrium p. 18; v. 23 ff. Philippus 86,704 Phrygia p. 20 mOavov e.g. 415 ff Plautus: changes of structure pp. 33 ff. characteristic pp. 4 f. death p. 3 life pp. 3 f. name p. 3 plays p. 4 n.22 Plautine in PI. e.g. pp. 4 f.; 560 ff., 680 f„ 701 ff. reception of: see reception revival e.g. pp. 38 f. transmission pp. 38-41 political institutions 382 ff, 549,700 Postumus 164 pot of gold: passinr, 449 prayer394 ff, 614 f., 618 ff, 788 f., 808 ff Primmer pp. 33-37 Probus p. 39 prologue pp. Ill ff. structure of p. 112 proverb 57, 64, 84, 181, 194, 198, 235, 279,430,578,599,745 Querolus p. 24 reception pp. 24-32 responsibility 732,792 revivals p. 39 Rhinthon p. 2 riddle-joke 76 ff, 150 ff., 302, 325 f., 354 f., 361 ff, 560 ff. Roman institutions 549,683 f., 700,760 sacrifice 270,579,612 seduction/rape 28 ff. sheep, wretched 560 ff. Shadwell {Miser) p. 28 shoes 512 f.

Word Index

General Index Silvanus 674 slaves 325 f. peculium of 466 penalties of40 ff, 59,601 f. seruus currens 406 ff seruusfrugi 587 ff. seruus Lyconidis p. 19 hyperbolic speech 677,701 ff, 808 soccus p. 6 social problems e.g. 196 ff, 205 ff, 226 ff, 246 ff., 475 ff. soldier 526 sports (swimming) 595 stage business, problems of e.g. 39, 398 f f ,449 ff.,459 announcement 37 ff, 176 f. asides 50 ff, 60 ff, 184 f., 188 f., 194 ff, 475 ff. eavesdropping 475 ff, 608 ff, 661 fi, 705 ff. encounter-scene 727 ff, 808 ff. entrance for discussion 133 f. at the end of dialogue 682 without warning 608 ff. extras 330 inconsistency of comic stage 350,356 noise offstage 241 ff. noise of the door 665 rushing in/out 202 ff, 243 ff scenes-acts pp. 35 f. setting pp. 20 f.; 120 ff, 176 f. speaking back 250 f., 398 stage instructions 46,55 voice behind stage 390,403, 691 Staphylapp. 19 f. language of67 ff, 274 ff. stipulatio 255 f. Strobilus p. 19 309 f. theatre (temporary) p. 7 threats 53, 56 ff, 188 f., 250 fi, 831 tibicen p. 6 talentum

Tomkis (Albumazar) p. 30 tragic situation 274 ff transmission pp. 38-41 Tyche p. 34; 583 Urceus Codrus p. 30 uxor dotata 158 ff, 475 ff. uagulatio 446 Word Index apecunia 186 (legis) actiones 458 adglutinare 801 adire manum 378 aes (militare) 526 aetas mala 43 amabo 142 f. animus 382 ff. argentarius 527 ff ars ludicra 626 f. artopta 400 auarus/auaritia pp. 16 f. auidus 9 aurei montes 701 f. censere 528 censio 601 certum est 676 cinaedus 422 circumspectatrix 41 colonia p. 23 comitia 700 commercium 631 congialis 622 consuetus 637 cor 382 ff. crepare 665 creta 717 curialis 179 curio 561-64 datare 637 dica 760

Varro p. 39 fabulae Varronianae p. 39 Vitalis of Blois pp. 24 f. water 94 Wilson {Projectors) p. 30 women, loquacity 123 ff. luxury 167 ff, 475 ff, ff. I(?) differre 446 dispertire 282 diuidere 283 diuortium 233 duim 62 edepol 67 edere 537 edicere 281 ex(s)tinguere 93 faba 818 f. facere 623,f. ludos 253 factio 167 ff. familial, 133 fi, 342 faxim 50,148 fi, 494 f. faxo 578 fidelia 622 fides 692 fuam 233 gallus p. 23; 465 genius 724 f. Geryonaceus 553 f. glaber 402 gymnasium 410 harpagare 201 f. hic (deictic) 2,293 etc. immo 262, 781 impuratus 359 indipiscere 775 indotata 480 iniuria 643

255

256 inuenire Arg. 1 14; 816 ipsus (boss) 357, 530 wie Arg. II 3,702 ita 69 f., 445 (ita ... ut) lapides loqui 152 laruae 642 laterna 566 lege agere 458 ludii 402 lumbricus 628 macellum 373 mactare 535 magister 107,412 manubrium 197 manufestarius 469 manum inicere 197, (760) mecastor 67 ff. mehercle 67 ff. mendicabulum 703 merces 448,456,470 ff. mollis 422 mulsum 622 nec/neque 206,408 neruus 743 «Is/ 805 nummus 108,112,448 nundinalis 324 f. obtruncare 469 oculeus 555 officium 404 o/ere 216 operam dare 142 f., 284 ostendere 640 /wcwspp. 16 f.; 206 pessuli 103 f. /J/cas' 701 pipulus 446 polypus 198 /? o /7 e 637 possidere 4

Word Index post 286 praefectus moribus 504 praesagire 178 praesegmina 312 f. prorogare 531 pumex 291 purigare 753 puteus 344 ff., 365 quadriga 600