Investigations at Pichao: Introduction to Studies in the Santa María Valley, North-western Argentina 9781841711874, 9781407353296

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Investigations at Pichao: Introduction to Studies in the Santa María Valley, North-western Argentina
 9781841711874, 9781407353296

Table of contents :
Front Cover
Copyright
Contents
Figures and tables
1. Introduction
2. Reutilizacion del espacio en el periodo de desarrollos regionales: El Pichao un caso de analisis
3. The Perception and Notion of Space in Relation to Architecture
4. A Comparison of the Architectural Remains at the Pichao, Tolombon and Talapazo Sites of the Santa Maria Culture in North-western Argentina
5. Unit 12
6. The investigations of 1992
7. Excavacion de la unidad 6 del sector I del sitio STucTav 5 (El Pichao)
8. Site 56
9. The excavation of the cemeteries 1991-1992
10. Restos humanos del STucTav 6 (El Pichao, Valle de Santa Maria, Tucuman)
11. Aproximacion al estudio del Arte Rupestre del Pichao
12. Clay Pots and the Potters' Work: Archaeology and Ethno-archaeology at Pichao
13. Comentario e Informe del Material Metalurgico Obtenido en dos Tumbas del Cementerio de Amancay, Sitio de Pichao, Argentina
14. Los Pichao: Aportes desde la etnohistoria
15. El Pichao: Poblacion actual - parametros biodemograficos
16. La historia regional en la escuela primaria. Un estudio de caso en la provincia de Tucuman
List of Contributors
References

Citation preview

Investigations at Pichao Introduction to Studies in the Santa Maria Valley, North-western Argentina

Edited by Lisbet Bengtsson, Per Cornell Nils Johansson, Susana Sjodin

BAR International Series 978 2001

Published in 2019 by BAR Publishing, Oxford BAR International Series 978 Investigations at Pichao © The editors and contributors severally and the Publisher 2001 The English sections have been revised by Neil Tomkinson The authors’ moral rights under the 1988 UK Copyright, Designs and Patents Act are hereby expressly asserted. All rights reserved. No part of this work may be copied, reproduced, stored, sold, distributed, scanned, saved in any form of digital format or transmitted in any form digitally, without the written permission of the Publisher. ISBN 9781841711874 paperback ISBN 9781407353296 e-book DOI https://doi.org/10.30861/9781841711874 A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library This book is available at www.barpublishing.com BAR Publishing is the trading name of British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd. British Archaeological Reports was first incorporated in 1974 to publish the BAR Series, International and British. In 1992 Hadrian Books Ltd became part of the BAR group. This volume was originally published by John and Erica Hedges in conjunction with British Archaeological Reports (Oxford) Ltd / Hadrian Books Ltd, the Series principal publisher, in 2001. This present volume is published by BAR Publishing, 2019.

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C on ten ts 1 .I n t roduc t ion

1

L i sbe tB eng t s son , P e rC or ne l l , N i l sJ ohan s son , a nd S u sana S jöd in

2 .R eu t i l izac iön d e le spac io e n e lp e r iod° d ed esa r ro l los r eg iona les : E lP i chao u nc aso d ea nä l is is

1

J o rge l ina G a r c i aA zcä ra te yE dua rdo E .R ibo t ta

3 .T he P e rcep t ion a nd N o t ion o fS pace i nR e la t ion t oA rch i tec tu re

1 9

L i sbe tB eng t s son

4 . AC ompa r ison o ft h eA rch i tec tu ra l R ema ins a tt he P i chao , T o lombön a nd T a lapazo S i tes o ft he S an ta Ma r ia C u l tu re i nN or th -wes te rn A rgen t ina

3 3

L i sbe tB eng t s son

5 .U n i t 1 2

4 7

P e rC o rne l la nd P e rS t enbo rg

6 .T he i n ves t iga t ions o f1 992

6 7

P e rS t enbo rg

7 .E xcavac iön d e l au n idad 6d e l s ec to r Id e l s i t io S TucTav 5( E l P i chao )

8 5

Ma r ta R . A . T a r tu s i yV i c to rA . N t i f iez R egue i ro

8 .S i te 5 6

1 0 1

C ec i l ia E r ic son K lynne , G ö te N i l s son S chönbo rg , a nd S u sana S jöd in

9 .T he e xcava t ion o ft he c eme te r ies 1 99 1 -1 992

19

N i l sJ ohan s son

1 0 . R es tos h umanos d e l S TucTav 6( E l P i chao , V a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia , T ucumän )

1 49

N oem iA c r eche , Ma r i aG lo r ia C o lane r i yM .V i rg in ia A lbeza

1 . A p rox imac iön a le s tud io d e lA r te R upes t re d e l P i chao

1 57

E dua rdo R ibo t t a yL i l ian P r eb i sch

1 2 . C lay P o ts a nd t h e P o t te rs ' Wo rk : A rchaeo logy a nd E thno -a rchaeo logy a t P i chao

1 65

S u sana S jöd in

1 3 . C omen ta r io e l n fo rme d e l Ma te r ia l Me ta lü rg ico O b ten ido e n d os T umbas d e l C emen te r io d e Amancay , S i t io d e P i chao , A rgen t ina

1 8 1

Ma r i aR o sa r io V äzquez

1 4 . L os P i chao : A por tes d esde l ae t noh is to r ia E s te la S .N o l i yMa r ia Ma rga r i ta A rana

1 87

1 5 . E lP i chao : P ob lac iön a c tua l— p a räme t ros b i odemog rä f icos

1 95

N oe rn iA c r eche yM .V i rg in ia A lbeza 1 6 . L a h i s to r ia r eg iona l e n l ae scue la p r ima r ia . U n e s tud io d ec aso e n l ap rov inc ia d eT ucumän

2 05

Ma r i aC l a ra M ed ina L i s to fC on t r ibu to rs

2 23

R e fe rences

2 25

v i

F igu res a nd t a b les

F igure 1 .1 .

P r inc ipa l a rchaeo log ica l s i tes i nt he S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley . D raw ing : A nde rs A nde rsson .

F igu re 1 .2 .

4

T he s i te o fP i chao w i th t he d i fe ren t s ec to rs ma rked . S ec to rs I t h rough V a re s i tua ted o n t he a luv ia l c one , a nd S ec to rs V I t h rough X I I a re s i tua ted o n t he moun ta ins ide . Map b ased o n a e rea l p i c tu re . D raw ing : S . S jöd in a nd P .S tenbo rg

F igu ra 2 . 1 .

F igura 2 .2 . F igu ra 2 .3 .

P lan ta d e l aU n idad 1 5 . T r inche ras 3 0 , 3 1 y3 7 . R e levam ien to yd i bu jo : J .A zcä ra te a nd E . R obo t ta

1 3

M o lde p a ra me ta lu rg ia . D ibu jo : J .A zcä ra te

1 4

C or te d e l aU n idad 1 5 yd e ta l le d e l e n t ie r ro . D ibu jo : J . A zcä ra te

F igure 4 . 1 .

6

1 5

P i chao . P ar ts o ft he s i te o ft he S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , s ec to rs I — I lo nt he a luv ia l f an . Mapp ing w as d one w i th at heodo l i te . A b ou lde rw as f i r s t ma rked a cco rd ing t ot he measu remen ts o f a n a l t i tude me te r , w h ich h ad b een s e ta cco rd ing t ot he h e igh t a bove s ea l e ve l ma rked a tC o la lao d e l V a l le . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson

F igure 4 . 2 .

3 4

T o lombön . P ar ts o ft he n o r th -eas te rn s ec to ro ft he s i te . Measu remen ts w e re made w i th at heodo l i te . A l though t he i n te rna l d i fe rences i nh e igh t s hown w i th in t he mapped a rea a re c o r rec t , t he i n i t ia l h e igh t ma rked o n ab ou lde rc ou ld n o t b e s e tw i th a ny a ccu racy . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson

F igure 4 .3 .

3 5

T a lapazo . P ar t o ft he s ou the rn s ec to ro ft he s i te . M easuremen ts w e re made w i th at heodo l i te . A l though t he i n te rna l d i fe rences i nh e igh t s hown w i th in t he mapped a rea a re c o r rec t , t he i n i t ia l h e igh t ma rked o n ab ou lde rc ou ld n o t b e s e tw i th a ny a ccu racy . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson

F igu re 4 .4 .

3 6

E nc losu re , w i th t e r races i n te rp re ted a s b e ing f o ra g r icu l tu ra l p u rposes , a nd a n i r iga t ion c hanne l b yt he T omäs r i ve r , C a tama rca P rov ince . Mapp ing w as d one w i th ac ompass , a m easu r ing s t ick a nd a n i n c l inome te r . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L . B eng tsson

F igu re 4 .5 .

4 2

T he n or th -wes te rnmos t p ar t o ft he e nc losu re i nF i gure 4 .4 b y t h eT omäs r i ve r . Ob l ique v i ew t owa rds t he n o r th -wes t . W i th in t h ee nc losu re , o ne o ft he t e r races , p resum ing ly a g r icu l tu ra l , i s

v i

s een . B ased o n ap ho tog raph . A pp rox ima te s ca le . P ho tog raph a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson F i gu re 4 .6 .

4 2

Mode rn e nc losu re w i th s ma l l , a g r icu l tu ra lt e r races . T he p l ace l i es i nt he h e igh ts a bove a nd a pp rox ima te ly w es to fP i chao , a t a bou t3 , 500 m a . s . l . I nt he b ack , t he S an ta Ma r ia r i ve rc an b e d i sce rned . T owa rds t h e n o r th -eas t . A pp rox ima te s ca le . B ased o n ap ho tog raph . P ho tog raph a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson

F i gure 5 . 1 .

U n i t 1 2 , S ec to r I V . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P .S tenbo rg a nd P . C o rne l l .

F i gure 5 . 2 .

4 3

4 8

U n i t 1 2 , S ec to r I V . S t ruc tu re 4 ,v e r t ica l s ec t ion o f wa l l . D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

6 0

F i gure 6 . 1 .

U n i t 1 ,S ec to rX I I , t r ench 1 .D raw ing : P .S t enbo rg

6 8

F i gu re 6 . 2 .

U n i t 1 ,t r ench 1 ,c ross -sec t ions . D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

7 0

F i gu re 6 . 3 .

S ec to rX ,C omp lex C . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

7 2

F i gu re 6 . 4 .

U n i t 1 9 , T renches 4 4a nd 4 6 . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P . S tenbo rg

7 4

F i gu re 6 . 5 .

U n i t2 0 , T rench 4 5 . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

7 5

F i gu re 6 . 6 .

S ec to rX ,C omp lex C , c r oss -sec t ions . D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

7 5

F i gure 6 . 7 .

U n i ts 1 9a nd 2 0 , c e ram ics

7 6

F i gu re 6 . 8 .

U n i ts 1 9a nd 2 0 , B r ick red t y pes

7 7

F i gu re 6 . 9 .

U n i ts 1 9a nd 2 0 , B r ick red t y pes , f i r s t0 . 2 me xc luded

7 7

F i gu re 6 . 10 .

C omp lex C , S ec to rX ,d e ta i ls o fo pen ing . D raw ing : P . S tenbo rg

7 9

F i gu re 6 . 11 .

T a lapazo , c e ram ics .

8 1

F i gu re 6 . 12 .

T a lapazo , B r ick red t y pes

8 1

F i gu ra 7 . 1 .

P lano d e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V .A . N ü r iez R egue i ro .

F i gura 7 . 2 .

8 9

S ecc iön v e r t ica l d e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V .A . N ü r lez R egue i ro .

F i gura 7 . 3 .

9 0

U rna S an tama r iana e ncon t rada e n e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V .A .N ü f iez R egue i ro

9 2

F i gu re 8 . 1 .

S i te 5 6 . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : S .A h lg ren

1 02

F i gu re 8 . 2 .

S i te 5 6 , t owa rds t he s ou th -eas t . P ho tog raph : S .A h lg ren

1 03

F i gu re 8 . 3 .

S i te 5 6 , S t ruc tu re C , t owa rds t he e as t . P ho tog raph : S . A h lg ren .

F i gu re 8 . 4 .

1 05

S i te 5 6 , S t ruc tu re C , t owa rds t he n or th -wes t . P ho tog raph : S . A h lg ren .

1 05

v i i i

F i gu re 9 . 1 .

T he l a you t o ft he c eme te r ies a tt he P i chao s i te . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

F i gu re 9 . 2 .

1 20

S ec to rX I a nd t he Amancay c eme te ry . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

F i gu re 9 . 3 .

1 22

T he e xcava ted g rave s t ruc tu res a tt he Amancay c eme te ry . D raw ing : G . E s teban

1 24

F i gu re 9 .4 .

T ombs 4a nd 4 L . D raw ing : G . E s teban

1 25

F i gu re 9 . 5 .

T omb 1 , s t one c i s tw i th ac o rbe l led v au l t a nd r e c tangu la r b ase . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

1 26

F i gu re 9 . 6 .

T omb 1 3 . D raw ing : G . E s teban

1 27

F i gu re 9 . 7 .

S ec to r I Xa nd t he A gu i la c eme te ry . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

1 30

F igu re 9 .8 .

T omb 2 .D raw ing : G . E s teban

1 3 1

F i gu re 9 . 9 .

T he c eme te ry a tt he C a r r iza l moun ta in . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

1 33

F i gure 9 . 10 .

C a r r iza l 1 : 1 . D raw ing : G . E s teban

1 34

F igu re 9 . 11 .

S e r ia t ion o fa l d a t ings f r om t he a nd c eme te r ies a tP i chao

1 37

F igu re 9 . 12a .

D i s t r ibu t ion o fS an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry i nT omb 1 , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages .

F i gu re 9 . 12b .

1 39

D is t r ibu t ion o fC asp inchango p o t tery i nT omb 1 , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages

1 40

F i gu re 9 . 13 .

D a t ings f r om t he c eme te r ies a tP i chao

1 42

F i gu re 9 . 14a .

T o ta l v a lue o fa r te fac ts i ni n d iv idua l g raves , e xp ressed i n r e la t ive p e rcen tages o ft he t o ta l n umbe ri nt he c eme tery .

F i gu re 9 . 14b .

N umbe ro fa r te fac ts i ne ach g rave , e xp ressed a s t he r e la t ive p e r cen tage o ft he t o ta l n umbe ro fa r te fac ts i nt he c eme te ry .

F i gu re 9 . 14c .

F i gu ra 1 5 .3 .

1 46

N umbe rs o fp e rsons b u r ied i ne ach g rave , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages o ft he t o ta l p opu la t ion i nt he c eme te ry .

F i gu ra 1 .1 .

1 45

V a r iab i l i ty i na r te fac t ma te r ia l b e tween i n d iv idua l g raves , e xp ressed i nr e la t ive p e rcen tages

F igu re 9 . 14d .

1 45

1 46

P e t rog l i fo C ondo rhuas i . V is ta d e p l an ta . D ibu jo : E .R ibo t ta yL . P reb isch .

1 60

N ac im ien tos p o re s tac iön e n P i chao

2 0 1

i x

T ab le 5 . 1 .

C e ram ics , r e la t ive f r equenc ies o fw e igh ts b e tween ma in t y pes , U n i t 1 2 , S t ruc tu res 1t o4

T ab le 5 . 2 .

5 4

L i th ics , a bso lu te f r equenc ies o fw e igh t , U n i t 1 2 , S t ruc tu re 4 , l e ve ls 1a nd 2

6 3

T ab la 7 . 1 .

C e räm ica , U n idad 6 .

9 4

T ab le 8 . 1 .

S ur face c o l lec t ion o f1 990 , S i te 5 6 ( SS970 19 /970820 )

10

T ab le 8 . 2 .

S ur face c o l lec t ion o f1 99 1 , S i te 5 6 .

12

T ab le 8 .3 .

S ur face c o l lec t ion 1 997 . P la t fo rm w i th r a ised s t ones .

12

T ab le 8 .4 .

C e ram ics , s i te 5 6 , s u r face c o l lec t ion o f1 997 .

13

T ab le 8 . 5 .

C e ram ics , s i te 5 6 , e xcava t ion o f1 99 1 .

14

T ab le 9 . 1 .

P resence o fv a r ious a r te fac tc l asses a tt h ed i fe ren t c eme te r ies

1 36

T ab le 9 . 2 .

1 4Ca nd

1 38

T ab le 9 . 3 .

E xamp les o ft he d i s t r ibu t ion o fs ome s e lec ted a r te fac ts i n

OSL d a t ings f r om t he Amancay c eme te ry .

T omb 1 , Amancay c eme te ry . Measu remen ts a re g i ven i n a bso lu te n umbe rs o fe ncoun te red a r te fac ts a nd p o t te ry f r agmen ts . L eve l r e fe rs t ot he l e ve l i n s ide t h et omb . T ab le 9 .4 .

T he d i s t r ibu t ion o fa r te fac ts i nt he Amancay p hase I l c eme te ry

T ab la 1 0 . 1 .

T ab le 1 2 .1 .

1 39

1 44

D e te rm inac iön d e l s exo ye dad d e l a st umbas 1 , 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 y 1 6 .

1 52

Amoun to ft i me t a ken f o rt he manu fac tu re o fp o t te ry

1 7 1

x

1 .I n t roduc t ion L isbe tB eng t s son , P er C orne l l , N i l sJ ohan s son , a nd S usana S jöd in

B ackg round T h is v o lume i sd e s igna ted t od emon s t ra te t h e w ide s cope o ft h e w o rk d one i nt h e p ro jec t e n t i t led Emergence a nd G row th o fC en tr es : AC a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , N or th -wes tern A rgen t ina b u t i sa l so t h e f i r s tj o in t e f fo r tt op re sen tr e su l t s f r om t h ep ro jec tt o aw ide ra ud ience . H oweve r , i ti s f a rf r om a ne xhau s t ive p re sen ta t ion . We h ave , i nt h i s v o lume , c ho sen t of o cu s mo re o n f i e ld d a ta a nd l e s s o n t h eo ry a nd m e thodo logy . F o r a mo re t h eo re t ica l d i scu s s ion , w e r e f e r t h e r eade r t o p rev iou s a nd f o r thcom ing p ub l ica t ion s . S eve ra l o f t h e f o rme r p ub l ica t ion s h ave h ad av e ry l im i ted c i rcu la t ion a nd h ave c ove red o n ly t h e wo rk o f i nd iv idua l s cho la r s o r p a r t icu la r a spec t s o ft h e p ro jec t . T he re i sa p ro jec t p l an ( Co rne l l a nd S jöd in , 1 989 ) a nd t wo e a r l ie r r epo r t s f r om t h e p ro jec t ( Co rne l l a nd S jöd in , 1 990 ; C o rne l l a nd S jöd in , 1 991) . O the r p ub l ica t ion s i n c lude t wo l i cen t ia te t r ea t i se s ( Beng t sson , 1 992a ; C o rne l l , 1 988 ) , t wo d oc to ra l t h e se s ( Co rne l l , 1 993 ; J ohan sson , 1 996 ) , a nd a r t ic le s a nd e xam ina t ion p ape r s ( Beng t s son , 1 992b ; C orne l l , 1 987 , 1 990a ; C o rne l l a nd J ohansson , 1 993 ; E r ic son , 1 992 , O r t iz Ma lm ie rca , 1 994 ; S jöd in , 1 990 , 1 996 , 1 998a , 1 998b ; S t enbo rg , 1 991 , 1 998 , 1 999 ) . T he re a r e a l so s t ud ie s i n sp i red b y o u r e f fo r t s a t P i chao ( Ah lg ren e t a l . , 1 998 ; Mu i ioz , 1 997 ; S tenbo rg a nd Muhoz , 1 999 ) . O the r p ub l ica t ion s a r e s t i l l i n p repa ra t ion , i nc lud ing d oc to ra l t h e se s ( b y Ma r ia C la ra Med ina , S u sana S jöd in , a nd P e r S tenbo rg ) . T he p re sen t v o lume i n c lude s a r t ic le s r e la ted t o v a r iou s t op ic s . A s e xamp le s ,t h e re a r ea r chaeo log ica lr epo r t s ,o ne s ec t ion o nb io -an th ropo logy , a r t ic le s r e la ted t ot h e w r i t ten s ou rce s , a nd ad i scu ss ion o n t h e i mpac to ft h e p ro jec to nt h ep r e sen t -day v i l lage . A l lt h ea u tho r s a r e , o fc ou r se ,r e spon s ib le f o rt h e i ro wn p ape r (s ) . T he p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr es : A C a se S tud y i n t h e S an ta Mar ia V a l ley , N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina , w a s o rgan ised a s aj o in t e f fo r tb e tween S wed i sh a nd A rgen t inean a r chaeo log is t s . At r ad i t ion e x i s ted o f Swed i sh e t hnog raphe r s d o ing f i e ldwo rk i n L a t in Ame r ica , i n c lud ing a Swed ish A rgen t ine c o l labo ra t ion i n a r chaeo logy . T he re w a s a Swed i sh

e xped i t ion t on o r the rn A rgen t ine i n1 901 , i n c lud ing a r chaeo log i s t s , a nd S t ig R y c la d id i mpo r tan t f i e ldwo rk i n t h e r eg ion i n t h e 1 930 's w h ich w a s p ub l i shed a s ad oc to ra l t h e s i s a t G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty ( Ryd6n , 1 936 ) . Swed i sh a r chaeo log ica l f i e ldwo rk i nL a t in Ame r ica w a s , h oweve r , a lmo s t n on -ex is ten t a f te r 1 960 , u n t i l i n 1 983 L i sbe t B eng t sson , w o rk ing f r om G ö tebo rg , i n i t ia ted f i e ldwo rk a t0 1 1an tay tambo i nP eru , i nvo lv ing s o me o f t h ep eop le l a te rt ob ee ngaged i nt h ep re sen tp ro jec t( Beng t sson , 1 998 ) . I n 1 987 , t h e i n te re s t s o fv a r iou s s cho la r s c o inc ided a st ot h e i mpor tance o f c a r ry ing o u t f i e ldwo rk a t P i chao . V ic to r N üf iez R egue i ro a nd Ma r ta T a r tu s i h ad r e cen t ly r e -o rgan i sed t h e I n s t i tu te o f A rchaeo logy a t t h e N a t iona l U n ive r s i ty o f T ucumän a nd h ad i n t h a t c onnec t ion c r ea ted a n a r chaeo logy p rog ramme a tt h eu n ive r s i ty . F o rt h em ,i tw a si mpo r tan tt og i ve t h e y oung s t uden t s o ppo r tun i t ie s t oc a r ry o u tf i e ldwo rk , a nd t h ey w ere a l so k een o n a t t rac t ing r e sea rche r s t ot h e r eg ion . A t a bou t t h e s ame t ime , t h ey o rgan i sed t h e i r r e sea rch u nde r a n umb re l la p ro jec t c a l led S tudy o f t h e i n c id ence a nd d ynam ic s o f i n terac t ion b e tween p eop les l i v ing i n t h e " h igh land s" a nd t h e " l ow land s" o n t h eh i s tor ica la nd c u l tura ld eve lopmen t o fN or th -wes tern A rgen t ina ( N t i i iez R egue i ro a nd T a r tu s i , 1 988 ) . A t a bou t t h e s ame t ime , P e r C o rne l l w a s t r ave l l ing i nS ou th Ame r ica l o ok ing f o r a s u i tab le r eg ion f o ra na r chaeo log ica lp ro jec t , a nd h ec on s ide red t h e Na t iona l U n ive r s i ty o f T ucumän t o b e as u i tab le i n s t i tu t ion t o c o l labo ra te w i th . F u r the rmo re , Ma r tha O r t iz , a n A rgen t in ian a r chaeo log i s t w ho h ad b een l i v ing f o rs eve ra ly ea r si nS tockho lm , w a sa l so l o ok ing f o ra no ppo r tun i ty t o o rgan i se ap ro jec t i nA rgen t ina . V ic to rN ü t iez R egue i ro , Ma r ta T a r tus i , P e r C o rne l l a nd Ma r tha O r t iz m e ti nT ucumän a nd , o n t h i s o cca s ion , t h e i dea o f t h ep re sen tp ro jec tw a sc r ea ted . I n Sweden , s eve ra l p o s t -g radua te a r chaeo logy s t uden t s e n thu s ia s t ica l ly emb raced t h e i d ea o f t h e p ro jec t . A t t h e D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , ap ro jec t g roup w a s c r ea ted , i nw h ich t h e e d i to r s o f t h i s v o lume p l ayed i n s t rumen ta l r o le s , t o ge the r w i th S ven A h lg ren a nd S ta f f an A nbe rg . S u sana S jöd in m ade a n i mpo r tan t v i s i t t o A rgen t ina i n 1 988 , a nd i n 1 989 w e c a r r ied o u t t h e f i r s t f i e ld c ampa ign . T he f i r s t f i e ld s e a son s w e re c o -o rd ina ted b y P e r C o rne l l a nd N i l s J ohan sson . O u r p ro jec t h ad a w ide s cope , a nd i n c luded s oc ia l a n th ropo log i s t s , h i s to r ians , b i o a n th ropo log i s t s , g eo log i s t s , g eog raphe r s a nd o the r s . B o th p rofe ss iona l a r chaeo log i s t s a nd a r chaeo logy s t uden t s , f r om b o th S weden a nd A rgen t ina , p a r t ic ipa ted i nt h e p ro jec t . O ne c ha rac te r i s t ic o ft h e p ro jec t w a s t h a t i tl a y o u t s ide t h e " no rma l" f r ame s . T he re w a s n o l a rge , p re -ex i s t ing p ro jec t i n Sweden f r om w h ich t h e p ro jec t c ou ld o r ig ina te , n o g ene ra l b i la te ra l a g reemen t , a nd n op ro jec tp ropo sa lf r om s en io ra r chaeo log is t si nS weden . I t w a s ap ro jec tc r ea ted a nd r un b yr e sea rch s t uden t s .

T he s t udy a rea We w e re g i ven t h e o ppo r tun i ty t o w o rk o n o ne o f t h e s i te s i n t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , P ichao . T he s i te s i n t h e V a l ley e xh ib i ted s ome p a r t icu la r

2

c ha rac te r is t ic s t h a t i n te re s ted u s a nd w e re r e la t ive ly l i t t le k nown . T he l a rge a r chaeo log ica l s i te o f P ichao i sk nown b y t h e s ame n ame a s t h e s ma l l , p re sen t -day v i l lage o f E l P i chao , l o ca ted a ta pp rox ima te ly 2 6 ° 2 2 ' S . a nd 6 6 ° 1 'W . ( F igu re 1 . 1) . T he a r chaeo log ica l s i te i ss i tua ted a ta bou t 2 , 100 m a . s . 1 . , i n as em i -de se r t e nv i ronmen t , c ove r ing al a rge , a l luv ia l c one a nd t h e moun ta in s ide a bove t h e c one . T he v ege ta t ion i sr e la t ive ly s ca rce , a nd i s d om ina ted b y d i f f e ren t s pec ie s o f c ac tae ( Cac taceae ) , l ow a l ga r robo t r ee s ( Prososp i ss p . ) , a nd b u she s . I n e a r ly S pan i sh c o lon ia l d ocumen t s , P i ch i jao —wh ich p robab ly c o r re spond s t ot h e P i chao l o ca l i ty — i s m en t ioned i n af ew i n s tance s . T he re i s al a rge r , mode rn , u rban a r ea c a l led C o la lao d e l V a l le , s ome 8 km f r om P ichao , a nd t h e t e rm C o la lao i ss omewha t mo re f r equen t i nk nown , e a r ly d ocumen t s , a l though i t s m ean ing i s f a r f r om e v iden t ( Lo rand i a nd B o ixadö s , 1 989 ) . B efo re t h i s p ro jec t , t h e re h ad b een f ew s t ud ie s o n P i chao a nd C o la lao b a sed o nw r i t ten d ocumen t s . T he p i onee r s o f t h e a r chaeo logy o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , i n c lud ing F ranc isco Mo reno , t e n K a te , a nd J uan Amb ro se t t i d o n o t m en t ion a ny a r chaeo log ica l s i te u nde r t h e n ame o fP i chao . Howeve r , t e n K a te m en t ion s s i te s c l o se t oC o la lao d e l V a l le ( 1893 ) . A no the r A rgen t in ian a r chaeo log i s t , Adän Q u i roga ( 1 896 ) , d i scu sse s as e t o f u rn s o f t h e s o -ca l led Z ava le ta C o l lec t ion , s uppo sed ly f r om C o la lao d e l V a l le . T he re a r e , f u r the rmo re , a f ew a r tef ac t s t h a t m ay v e ry w e l l h ave c ome f r om s i te s i n t h e v i c in i ty o f C o la lao d e l V a l le i no the r mu seum c o l lec t ion s , b u t t h e re i sn o c on tex tua l i n fo rma t ion l i nked t ot h em .

3

F i gu re 1 .1 .P r inc ipa l a rchaeo log ica l s i tes i nt he S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley . D raw ing : A nde rs A nde rsson .

A l though t h e c eme te r ie s a tP i chao h ave b een h eav i ly l oo ted , l a rge p a r t s o f t h e d ome s t ic a r ea s a r e r e la t ive ly w e l l p re se rved . I n t h e f i r s t h a lf o f t h e

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1 980 's , t h e a r chaeo log i s t N 6 l ida B a r raza d e F on t , f r om t h e N a t iona l U n ive r s i ty o f T ucumän , d id s ome l im i ted f i e ldwo rk a t t h e s i te , b u t u nfo r tuna te ly t h i s p ro jec t w a s d i scon t inued . F o l low ing t h is f i r s t a pp rox ima t ion , t h e e ng inee r D a r io A lbo rnoz a nd t h e h i s to r ian C r i s t ina A lbornoz ( 1985 ) m ade s ome p re l im ina ry d raw ing s o fi nd iv idua l s t ruc tu re s , w h ich t h ey d i scu s sed i n as ho r t r epo r t ( unpub l i shed ) . A pa r t f r om t h e se a t temp t s , t h e a r qu i tec t Ma rce lo Magadän m ade a s umma ry r epo r t o n t h e s t a te o f p re se rva t ion o f t h e s i te ( 1989 , u npub l i shed ) . T he f i r s t p ub l i shed r epo r t so nP ichao e me rged f r om o u rj o in tp ro jec t . T oday , t h eP i chao s i te c on ta in sl ow s t one w a l l so fb u i ld ing s a nd t e r race s , a nd s eve ra l c eme t e r ie s . T he s u r face c ove red b y p r e -H i span ic m a te r ia l a nd ma te r ia l f r om t h e e a r ly p e r iod o fS pan i sh C on tac ti sv e ry e x ten s ive a nd c an b e e s t ima ted a t5 00 h a . W i th in t h i s a r ea , t h e re a r e g r ea t d i f f e rence s i nt h e d en s i ty o f r ema in s , a nd t h e r ema in s a r e f r om d i f f e ren t p e r iod s a nd o f d i f f e ren t t ype s . D a t ing s i nd ica te t h a t t h e s i te c ove r s ag r ea t t ime s pan , b u t t h e ma jo rp a r to ft h e b u i ld ing s s e em t od a te f r om t h e 1 4 th a nd 1 5 th c en tu ry A .D . , t h a t i s , f r om t h e l a te r p a r t o ft h e P e r iod o fR eg iona l D eve lopmen t i n t h e t e rm ino logy o f t h e A rgen t in ian a r chaeo log i s t V ic to r N ür i ez R egu ie ro ( 1978 ) . O ne r e su l t o f t h e p ro jec t , h oweve r , i s t h a t t h e re i sa l so e a r l ie r ma te r ia l , n ame ly f r om t h e s o -ca l led F o rma t ive P e r iod ( 200 B .C . t o A .D . 8 00 ) . Ma te r ia l f r om t h is p e r iod w a s p rac t ica l ly u nknown i nt h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley u n t i l t h e 1 990 's ( s ee T a r ragö a nd S ca t to l in , 1 999 ) . I ti s a l so o f i mpo r tance t h a t w e h ave b een a b le t od e l im i t as e t t lemen t d a t ing f r om t h e e a r ly p e r iod o fS pan i sh C on tac t , as e t t lemen t a d jacen t t ot h e mo re a nc ien t o ne . T h is S pan i sh C on tac t P e r iod s e t t lemen t s how s c ha rac te r i s t ic s t h a t c an b e c on t ra s ted w i th t h e P re -H i span ic s e t t lemen t ( Co rne l l a nd J ohan s son , 1 993 ) . I n o rde r t o f a c i l i ta te o u r w o rk a t P i chao , t h e s i te w a s d i v ided i n to d i f f e ren t s e c to r s m a rked b y R oman n umbe r s ( F igu re 1 . 2 . ) . T he se s e c to r s w e re j u s t a r t if ic ia l , b u t h e lped u s t or e f e rt od i f f e ren t p a r t s o ft h e l a rge s i te . A s m en t ioned a bove , t h e re a r e v a r iou s t y pe s o f a r chaeo log ica l r ema in s a t t h e s i te , i n c lud ing r ema in s o f h ou se s , a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s a nd b ur ia l s . When w er e f e rt ou n i ti nt h et e x t , w er e f e rt oi n te rp re ted u n i t s , f o re xamp le , ad ome s t ic u n i t( " af a rm s tead" ) o r as pec if ic t omb . E ach u n i tm ay c on s i s to f s eve ra l s t ruc tu re s . F o r e xamp le , d ome s t ic u n i t s g ene ra l ly i n co rpo ra te d i f f e ren tb u i ld ing s( s t ruc tu re s ) .

5

3

Mou n ta in

II R iv e r 3

P r e s en t d ay v ilage

P S , S RS 1 994

F i gu re 1 .2 .T he s i te o fP i chao w i th t h ed i f fe ren ts ec to rs ma rked . S ec to rs It h rough V a re s i tua ted o nt h ea luv ia lc one , a nd S ec to rs V It h rough X I I a re s i tua ted o n t h em oun ta ins ide . M ap b ased o na e rea l p i c tu re . D raw ing : S .S j öd in a nd P .S tenbo rg .

L ook ing a tt h e p ro jec t n ow , i n r e t ro spec t , i tc an b e s e en t o h ave y i e lded i mpo r tan t a r chaeo log ica l r e su l t s a nd h e lped t of o rm t h e f i r s t g ene ra t ion o f a r chaeo log is t s f r om t h e r e cen t ly e s tab l ished , a r chaeo logy p rog ramme a tt h e U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän . C a r ry ing o u t aj o in t p ro jec t , a t af a r -away p l ace f o r t ho se o f u s w ho r e s ided i n Sweden , a nd w i th a n e x t r eme ly l im i ted b udge t , w a s a n i n te re s t ing e xpe r ience . H ad w e r e a l ised a l t h e d i f f icu l t ie s b e fo rehand , w e w ou ld p robab ly n eve rh ave i n i t ia ted t h ep ro jec t . S t i l l , w eb y n o mean s r e g re t o u r e xpe r ience s i nA rgen t ina . We h ope t oo pen t h e wo r ld o f P ichao t ot h e r e ade r t h rough t h is b ook . I fw e s ucceed i nd o ing s o , t h is b ook w i l l h ave s e rved i t sp u rpo se .

6

A cknow ledgemen ts "Mee t ing

P i chao"

i s n o t

j u s t

m ee t ing

a s em i -de se r t ,

Q ua te rna ry

e nv i ronmen t w i th P re -H i span ic a nd P o s t -Conque s tr ema in s . I ti sa l so a bou t m ee t ing t h e p eop le o f t h e v i l lage o f P i chao a nd o f t h e C o la lao d e l V a l le u rban a r ea . We c a r ry w i th u s t oday t h e m emo ry o f t h e h o sp i ta l i ty a nd f r iend sh ip e x tended t ou sb yt h e i ri n hab i tan t s . T he p eop le o fP ichao w e re o f i n va luab le h e lp t o u s a nd w e w i sh t o e x tend o u r s pec ia l t h ank s t o t h em . T ho se w ho h e lped d i rec t ly i n c onnec t ion w i th t h e f i e ldwo rk w e re i n s t rumen ta l , a mong t h em , A benama r G uanca , Manue l G uanca , S usana Maman i P a lac io s , R omän P a lac io s , R aü l P a lac io s a nd A ldo P a lac io s w i th t h e i rr e spec t ive f am i l ie s . F o rma l ly , t h e p ro jec t w a s o rgan i sed u nde r aw r i t ten a g reemen t b e tween G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty a nd t h e N a t iona l U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän . T he s t af fo f t h e se b od ie s mu s t b e t h anked f o r t h e i r h e lp . I n G ö tebo rg , J a r l N o rdb ladh a nd P e te rJ ankay s , a tt h e D epa r tmen t o fA rchaeo logy , w e re i n s t rumen ta l i n t h i s p roce s s , a nd i n T ucumän , V ic to r N ü i iez R egue i ro a nd Ma r ta T a r tu s i m ade t h e a g reemen t p o s s ib le . A f te r e ach f i e ld c ampa ign , t h e a r tefac t ma te r ia l w a s d epo s i ted a tt h e U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän . T he l im i ted f und ing c ame f r om aw ide a r ray o f s ou rce s , i n c lud ing t h e U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän ; G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , t h rough v a r iou s g ran t s ; K ung l iga o ch H v id t f e ld t ska S t ipend ie in rä t tn ingen , G ö tebo rg ; L ängman ska S t ipend iefonden , S tockho lm ; t h e Swed i sh F ounda t ion f o r t h e H uman i t ie s a nd S oc ia l S c ience s , w h ich f i nanced a n umbe r o f "C a nd l um ine scence d a t ing s ; a nd S aab -Scan ia A rgen t ina , w h ich h e lped u s i n s o lv ing s ome i n f ra s t ruc tu ra l p rob lem s . We e x tend o u rt h ank st oa l o ft h em . We h ope t h a t y ou w i l l e n joy r e ad ing a bou t P ichao a s much a s w e d i d w o rk ing t h e re , a nd w ec e r ta in ly h ope t h a tt h i s v o lume w i l l s how t h a tP ichao h a s ag rea t p o ten t ia l f o r c ompa ra t ive r e sea rch . We a l so h ope t h a t t h e c ommun i ty o fP i chao w i l l b enef i tf r om o u rw o rk . B e s tw i she s f o rt h e f u tu re t ot h ep eop le o fP i chao !

R e fe rences A h lg ren , S . , Mu i loz , A . , S jöd in , S . a nd S t enbo rg , P . ( ed s . ) 1 998 P a s t a nd P r e sen t i n A nd ean P r eh i s tor y a nd E ar ly H i s tory . P roceed ing s o f a Wo rk shop h e ld a t t h e E tnog raf iska Mu see t , G ö tebo rg , S weden , S ep tembe r 1 617 , 1 996 . E tno log iska S tud ie r 4 2 ,E tnog raf iska Mu see t , G ö tebo rg A lbo rnoz , D . a nd A lbomoz C . 1 985 R e levam ien to a rqueo l6g ico d e a lguno s r e c in to s d e l y ac im ien to d e E lP ichao , I n te rna l p ape r , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän , S an M igue ld eT ucumän

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B eng t s son , L . 1 992a A rch i t ec tura lR ema ins a sA rchaeo logy . I d ea s a nd A t t emp t s i n aS ub A ndean C on tex t , GOTARC S e r ie C , A rkeo log iska s k r if te r N o . 9 ,G ö tebo rg Un ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg B eng t s son , L . 1 992b " The P e r cep t ion a nd N o t ion o f S pace i nR e la t ion t oA rch i tec tu r e" , Med e l t id s -arkeo log i sk T id skr if t( META ) 3 / 92 , L und , 2 -21 B eng t s son , L . 1 998 P r eh i s tor ic S t onework i n t h e P eruv ian A nde s . A C ase S t ud y a t 0 1 1an tay tambo . GOTARC S e r ie s B . N o . 1 0 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg . E tno log iska S tud ie r4 4 , E thnog raph ic Mu seum , G ö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . 1 988 Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s i n t h e A nde s . S ome T heor e t ica l C ons id era t ions , GOTARC S e r ie C , A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r N o . 6 ,G ö tebo rg Un ive r s i ty , D epar tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg C or ne l l , P . 1 990a " Bop la t sunde r sökn inga r iS an ta Ma r i a -f loden s d a lgäng" , F ornvännen , 8 5 ,293-302 C o rne l l , P .1 993 E ar ly C en t r e sa nd t h eH ou seho ld . At h eor e t ica la nd m e thodo log ica ls t ud y o n L a t in Amer ican c ase s , GOTARC , S e r ie s B , N o . 3 , G o thenbu rg A rchaeo log ica l T he se s , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö t ebo rg C o rne l l , P .a nd J ohans son N . 1 993 " De sa r ro l lo d e l a s en tam ien to ST uc T av 5( E l P i chao ) , P rov inc ia d e T ucumän ) . C omen ta r io s s ob re d a tac ione s d e 1 4C y l um ine scenc ia" , P ub l icac iones , 2 ,I n s t i tu to d e a r queo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , T ucumän 3 1-43 C o rne l l , P . a nd J ohan s son N . 1 998 " The S an ta Ma r ia C u l tu re —My th o r R ea l i ty?" i nS . A h lg ren , A . Mu i ioz , S .S jöd in a nd P .S t enbo rg ( e d s . ) 1 998 ,9110 1 C o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S . 1 989 U ppkom s to ch u t veck l ing a vc en tra il äng t id sper spek t iv . E n f a l l s tud ie iS an ta Mar i al lod en s d a lgäng , N ordvä s t ra A rgen t ina . PM f or p ro jek tp lan , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar yR epor tf rom t h ep ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S tud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , s e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C orne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E l P ichao 1 990 . S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S tudy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , s e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg E r ic son , C . 1 992 T er race s y s t em s a tt h e s i te o fE l P ichao , NWA rgen t ina , E xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty ,G ö t ebo rg J ohans son , N . 1 996 B ur ia l sa nd S oc ie ty . AS t ud y o fS oc ia lD if f er en t ia t ion a tt h e S i t e o fE l P ichao , N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina , a nd i nC eme ter ie sd a t ed t ot h eS pan i sh N a t ive P er iod , GOTARC , S e r ie s B , G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l T he se s N o . 5 , Gö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg J ohan s son , N . 1 999 " G rave sa nd d epo s i t iona l p roce sse s : A n e xamp le f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia v a l ley , N o r th -we s ter n A rgen t ina" , R ev i s ta d e A rqueo log i a Amer icana , 1 4 . I n s t i tu to P aname r icano d eG eog ra f ia eH i s to r ia , Mex ico DF L o rand i , A . M . a nd B o ixado s , R . , 1 989 " E tnoh is to r ia d e l o s v a l le s C a lchaqu ie s e n l o s s i g lo s XV I yXV I I" ,R una XV I I—XV I I I ( Bueno s A i re s ) , 2 63-4 19 Magadän , M .L . 1 989 I nf orme s obr el ar e con s t rucc iön d e Q u i lme s ye le s tado d e c ond ic iön d e ls i t io ' E lP ichao ' , U npub l i shed r e po r t , N a t iona l U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän ,T ucumän

8

Mu t ioz , A . 1 997 Museum O b jec t sa nd t h e ir V a lue s : O b jec t sf rom N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina i n t h e E thnograph ica l Museum o f G ö t eborg , E xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg N ü t lez R egue r io , V . 1 978 " Con s ide ra t ion s o n t h e P er iod iza t ion s o fN o r thwe s t A rgen t ina" , i n B rowman , D . ( e d . ) 1 978 A d vance s i n A nd ean A rchaeo logy , T he H ague , Mou ton P ub l ishe r s ,4 53-484 N ü i lez R egue i ro , V . A . ,T a r tu s i , M . . ( e d s . ) 1 988 E s tud io d el ai n c id enc ia d el ad i näm ica d e i n teracc iön e n tre l a sp ob lac ione sq ue h ab i taron l a s " t ier ras a l ta s" y " l as t i er ras b a ja s" , s obre e ld e sar ro l lo h i s tör ico yc u l tura ld e lN oroe s te A rgen t ino , I n s t i tu to d e a r queo log ia , Un ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän , u npub l i shed m anu sc r ip t O r t iz Ma lm ie rca , M . 1 994 D e shac iendo l am ad e ja , E d ic ione sd e S a l tomo r ta l , S tockho lm Q u i roga , A . 1 893 " An t igüedade s C a lchaqu i e s : l ac o lecc iön Z ava le ta" , B o le t i n d e l I n s t i tu to G eogräf i co A rgen t ino ( Bueno sA i r e s ) , XV I I ,4 -6 R yddn , S . 1 936 A r chaeo log ica l R e sear che s i n t h e D epar tmen t o fl a C and e lar ia ( P rov . S a l ta ,A rgen t ina ) , G ö tebo rg , E thnog raph ic Mu seum , Gö tebo rg S jöd in , S . 1 990 P rob lem s a nd m e thod s i n c eram ic a na ly s i s . C eram ic a na ly s i s i n NW A rgen t ine a r chaeo logy a nd a c eram ic s amp le f rom E l P ichao e xcava t ion s 1 989 , V a l ley o fS an ta Mar i a , E xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , Gö tebo rg S jöd in , S . 1 996 " Ana ly s i s o f c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om t h e Amancay c eme te ry" , i n J ohan s son , N . 1 996 ,A ppend ix 4 S jöd in , S .1 998a " C lay P o t sa nd t h e P o t te r 's Wo rk : A rchaeo logy a nd E thno -a r chaeo logy a t P ichao i nN o r th -we s te rn A rgen t ina" , i nS .A h lg ren , A . Mu i loz , S .S jöd in a nd P .S t enbo rg ( eds . ) 1 998 3 3-52 S jöd in , S . 1 998b " F ragmen t s o f L abou r : A n A t temp t a t aS oc ia l E xp lana t ion o f t h e P roduc t ion o f C e ram ic s a tP i chao , N o r th -we s te rn A rgen t ina " , i n A .C . A nde r s son , A . G i l lbe rg , O .W . J en sen , H . K a r l s son a nd M .V . R o lö f( e d s . ) 1 998 T he K a le ido scop ic P a s t , GOTARC , S e r ie C , A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r N o . 1 6 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg ,2 53-265 S t enbo rg , P . 1 991 T wo A pproache st oR oom S t ruc tur eI n terpr e ta t ion : AC a se S t udy i n NW A rgen t ine , E xam ina t ion p ape r , Gö tebo rg

D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg u n ive r s i ty ,

S tenbo rg , P . 1 998 " The T roub le some X enogamy b e tween A r chaeo logy a nd E thnoh i s to ry : E xamp le sf r om R e sea r ch o n N o r th -we s te rn A rgen t in ian P reh is to ry a nd E a r ly H i s to ry" , i n S .A h lg ren , A . Mu f ioz , S .S jöd in a nd P .S t enbo rg ( e d s . ) 1 998 7 5-89 S tenbo rg , P . 1 999 " Re s i s tance a nd T ransfo rma t ion : C u l tu ra l a nd D emog raph ic C hange i n s ide t h e N a t ive S oc ie ty d u r ing t h e t ime s o f t h e I nca e xpan s ion a nd t h e S pan ish C onque s t i n N o r th -we s t er n A rgen t ina" , D iva T echn ica l R epor t , N o . 1 2 , C en t r e f o r R e sea rch o n t h e C u l tu ra l a nd B io log ica l D ive r s i ty o f A ndean R a info re s t s ( D IVA ) , R onde , D enma rk , i np r in t S tenbo rg , P . a nd Mu i ioz , A . 1 999 ( e d s . ) Masked H i s tor ie s . A R e -exam ina t ion o f t h e R odo lf o S chr e i ter C o l l ec t ion f rom N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina , E tno log iska S tud ie r 4 3 , E tnog raf i ska Mu see t ,G ö tebo rg T a r ragö , M . a nd S ca t to l in , C . 1 999 " La p rob lemä t ica d e l p e r iod ( ) F o rma t ivo e n e lV a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia" , " ,i nD iez Ma l in , C . 1 999 ( e d . ) X I I C ongr e so N ac iona l d e A rqueo log i a A rgen t ina , L a P la ta , A rgen t ina 2 2 -26 d e s e t iembr e d e 1 997 . A c tas , V o l 1 ,1 42153 , L a P la ta

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t e n K a te , H .C . 1 893 " Rappor t s omma i r e s u r u ne e xcu r s ion a r ch6o log ique d an s l e s P rov ince s d e C a tama rca , d e T ucumän , e td e S a l ta" , R ev i s ta d e l Museo d e L a P la ta , V , 3 21-348

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2 .R eu t i l izac iön d e l e spac io e n e lp e r iod° d e d esa r ro l los r eg iona les : E lP i chao u n c aso d e a nä l is is J orge l ina G arc i aA zcära te yE duardo E .R ibo t ta

I n t roducc iön L o s r e su l tado s q ue a qu i s e p re sen tan f o rma ron p a r te d e l ai n ve s t igac ione s q ue s e e nma rca ron d en t ro d e l P ID /CON ICET 3 037600 /88 : " E s tud io d e l a i n c idenc ia d el ad i näm ica d ei n te racc iön e n t re l a sp ob lac ione s q ue h ab i ta ron l a s t i e r ra s a l ta s yl a s t i e r ra s b a ja s s ob re e ld e sa r ro l lo h i s tö r ico yc u l tu ra l d e l NOA" , d i r ig ido p o r V ic to r A . N ü f lez R egue i ro y e n c o labo rac iön c on i nve s t igado re s d e l D epa r tamen to d e A rqueo log ia d e l a U n ive r s idad d e Go tembu rgo ( Suec ia ) , d u ran te l ac ampaf ia q ue s el ev6 ac abo d u ran te l o s mese sd e ma rzo /ab r i ld e 1 991 . E ne s te s i t io , al ol a rgo d el a s d i s t in to st r aba jo sd ec ampo , s eh an e v iden c i ado c l a ro s i n d ic io s d e r eocupac iön e spac ia l : e n e l a r ea d e c emen te r io s ( J ohan s son , 1 996 ) ; e n e la r ea h ab i tac iona l , S ec to r I I U n idad 1e s t ruc tu ra 1 ( Anbe rg , B eng t s son yC o rne l l , 1 990 ) ; e lo b je to d e lp r e sen te t r aba jo , e sd a ra c onoce r u na e s t ruc tu ra d i f e renc iada , l o s d i ve r so s m a te r ia le s r e cupe rado s e n l ae xcavac iön yo t ra r e ocupac iön e spac ia l , e ne s te c a so d e u n mu ro s ob re u n e n t ie r ro . E s ta c a ra c te r i s t ica h a s ta e l momen to n o h ab ia s i do d ada ac onoce r e n o t ra s i nve s t iga c ione s l evada s ac abo e n s i t io s d e l v a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia ( C ig l iano , e ta l . , 1 960 ; O tone l lo yL o rand i , 1 987 ; P e l i s se ro , 1 980 ; R a f f ino , 1 988 ;R af f ino yB a ld in i , 1 981-82 ;T a r ragö , 1 987 ) .

D esc r ipc iön d e l s i t io yd e l ae xcavac iön E l s i t io e s tä e mp lazado e ne lv a l le d eS an ta Ma r ia al o s 2 6 ° 2 2 ' l a t i tud S u ry 6 6 ° 0 1 ' l ong i tud O e s te , e n e l p i edemon te d e l c e r ro C ondo rhua s i , e l q ue p e r tenece a ls i s tema d e l aS i e r ra d e Q u i lme s , au na a l tu ra d e 2 200 m s nm . , t amb i6n s ob re e lc ono a l uv ia l d e l d o P i chao y e n l a z ona e n d onde s e e ncuen t ra e lp ueb lo a c tua l .

1

E n l aa c tua l idad p re sen ta a l te rac ione s d eb ida s a lc u r so d ivagan te d e l d o , q ue e n p a r te l o h a s e cc ionado c o r tando e s t ruc tu ra s c omo e s n o to r io e n e l s e c to rI .S egün l a s p ro specc ione sr e a l izada se n l ap r ime ra c ampar ia , e la r ea d eo cupac iön e sa p rox imadamen te d e5 00 h ac on e ls e c to ra g r ico la i nc lu ido . L a d enom inac iön d e l s i t io e s S TucTav 5 , ye l e mp lazam ien to d e l a e s t ruc tu ra e s tud iada e s e l s e c to r I ,s i gu iendo l a s e c to r izac iön p ropue s ta a n te r io rmen te ( Co rne l l yS jöd in , 1 989 , 1 990 ) . A rqu i tec tön icamen te r e sponde au no d e l o s t i po s c a rac te r i s t ico p a ra l o s s i t io s d ee s te p e r iodo : e lt r azado c oncen t rado ( Raf f ino , 1 988 ) . E n g ene ra l s e t r a ta d e e s t ruc tu ra s r e c tangu la re s c on r e c in to s c i rcu la re s a do sado s , c uya s p a rede ss on d ep i ed ra ,e na l guno sc a so s s eo b se rvan m u ro sd ob le sr e l leno sy e no t ro s s imp le s . E n l a s c e rcan fa s d e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l ( Ta r tu s i yN ür iez R egue i ro , 1 993 ; T a r tu s i yN ür iez R egue i ro , c ap i tu lo 7e ne s te v o lumen ) , a4 3 me t ro s y a3 26 ° N o r te c on r e spec to ad s te , s ee ncon t raba u n a r ea d e 2 0 x3 0 mc on 4 mo r te ro s c omuna le s d i spue s to s e n g rande s b loque s , p röx ima a u no d e l o s b razo s p r inc ipa le s d e l r i o e n s um a rgen d e recha , a l l fs el o ca l izaba l oq ue s e c on s ide rö e n b a se as uo rgan izac iön e spac ia l , u na e s t ruc tu ra q ue p re sen taba e ns upe r f ic ie c i e r ta sd i f e renc ia sc on r e spec to ao t ra sp ro spec tada se n e la r ea ; l a s c a rac te r i s t ica s q ue l a d i s t ingu fan e r an : p i ed ra s c l avada s f o rmando u n s em ic i r cu lo , a u senc ia d e r e c in to s c i rcu la re s , yl im i te s d i fu so s d e l e spac io r e c tangu la r c en t ra l ; p od r ia d enom ina r se a l am enc ionada e s t ruc tu ra c omo " r ec in to s a soc iado s d e s igua le s" , d enom inac iön t omada e n p a r te d e l a p ropue s ta p o rT a r ragö ( 1987 , 1 83 ) . E n b a se al o s c r i te r io s a n te s m enc ionado s s ee s cog iö l ae s t ruc tu ra , l aq ue s ee xcavö e s t ra t ig rä f icamen te s i gu iendo n i ve le s a r t if ic ia le s p o r n o h a l la r se d i f e renc ia s n a tu ra le s e n l o s s ed imen to s . L a e s t ruc tu ra e n c ue s t iön e s l a U n idad 1 5 , l aq ue s o lo f u e e xcavada p a rc ia lmen te d eb ido a l ae sca sez d e t i empo ,p o re l lo s es e lecc ionö e ls e c to r N o r te , NNE e lq ue s ed i v id iö e nt r e s t r inche ra s1 30 ,T 31 yT 37 ( F igu ra 2 . 1) . D en t ro d e l a s t d cn ica s c on s t ruc t iva s d e tec tada s e n e s ta U n idad s e h an o b se rvado : mu ro s d ob le s c on r e l leno , mu ro s s imp le s , c im ien to s r e fo rzado s c on b loque sd em ayo rt amar io eh i le ra sd ep i ed ra sc l avada s s imp le s . E n l ae xcavac iön s ed e te rm inö q ue l o s mu ro s d ob le s c on r e l leno e ran d e r o ca s m e tamö r f ica s s e lecc ionada s ys u e spe so rv a r iaba e n t re 1 , 30 y 1 , 40 m , s i endo l aa l tu ra m ayo r c on se rvada d e 1 , 20 m , a unque t e n iendo e n c uen ta q ue l o s mu ro s h ab fan c o lap sado s ep od r ia c a lcu la r u na a l tu ra q ue o sc i la r ia e n t re 1 , 50 y 1 , 70 m .

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F i gu ra 2 . 1 . P lan ta d e l aU n idad 1 5 . T r inche ras 3 0 , 3 1 y3 7 . R e levam ien to yd i bu jo : J .A zcä ra te a nd E .R obo t ta .

L o s ma te r ia le s r e cupe rado s e n l ae xcavac iön e n l o s n i ve le s s upe r io re s a l p i so n o g ua rdaban u na d i spo s ic iön h o r izon ta l n ih omog hea , ys et r a taba d e f r agmen to s d e c e räm ica d e l t i po S an ta Ma r iano B ico lo r , l a sca s d e b a sa l to y h ue so sd er oedo re s ya ye si n de te rm inado s . E l p i so s e d e tec tö p o r u n c a rnb io e n l o s s ed imen to s q ue s ib i en n o p re sen taban u na v a r iac iön e n l a c o lo rac iön s i mo s t raba u na m ayo r c on so l idac iön ; u na g ranu lome t r fa m eno r al o s n i ve le s a n te r io re s , u na d i spo s i c iön h o r izon ta l d e l o s e l emen to s c u l tu ra le s yu na c oncen t rac iön d ec en iza s ye sp fcu la sd ec a rbon f o rmando u na p equer ia e s t ruc tu ra d ec ombu s t ion . E n e lp i so d e o cupac iön — a 6 8 c m d e p rofund idad — p röx imo s al a e s t ruc tu ra d ec ombu s t ion s er e cupe ra ron s em i l la si nde te rm inada s , a s t i l la sd e h ue so s c a rbon izada s yo t ra s s i n h abe r s i do e xpue s ta s a lf uego , a mba s d e ma rn i f e ro s p equer io s a ün i n de te rm inado s . T amb i6n h ab fa d e secho s d e t a l la d e o b s id iana , l äm ina s d e mu scov i ta , f r agmen to s d e c e räm ica F amaba la s to N egro I nc i so y S an ta Mar iano B ico lor c o inc iden te s c on l or e co lec tado e n s upe r f ic ie . E nl o s s e c to re se xcavado s n os ed e tec ta ron h ue l la s d ep o s te s , l a s g rande s d imen s ione s yl a p a r t icu la r f o rma d e l a e s t ruc tu ra a demä s d e l a e s ca sa p rofund idad a l a q ue f ue d e tec tado e l p i so , i n d ica r fan q ue e lr e c in to n o h ab r ia s i do t e chado os o lo l oh ab r fa s i do e nf o rma p a rc ia l .

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F i gu ra 2 . 2 . M o lde p a ra m e ta lu rg ia . D ibu jo : J .A zcä ra te .

Un r a sgo d e s i ngu la r i n te r6 s f u e l ar e cupe rac iön d e f r agmen to s c o r re spon -

d i en te s au n mo lde p a ra e l abo rac iön d e m e ta le s d e f o rma c i rcu la r , c onf ecc ionado e n g rue sa a r c i l la r e f rac ta r ia , q ue c on s t i tuye e l ü n ico e l emen to d ee s ta sc a rac te r i s t ica se ncon t rado e ne ls i t io ( F igu ra 2 . 2 ) . U n h echo muy i n te re san te q ue a pa rece e n e s ta u n idad e s e lh a l lazgo d e u n e n t ie r ro p r ima r io a r t icu lado d e u n a du l to f emen ino q ue n o p re sen taba n i nguna p a to log ia , y d e u na e dad e s t imada e n 3 0 a f io s ( Ac reche c omun icac iön p e r sona l ) . L o q ue l ama l a a t enc iön e s q ue e l m i smo s e e ncon t raba d eba jo d e l c im ien to d e l m u ro y a ba rcando p räc t icamen te l a t o ta l idad d e l e spe so rd e l ap a red d e l r e c in to , e n u na c i s ta d e p i ed ra c i rcu la r .

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D epos i tado d o r sa lmen te d e NE aS Oc on s uc r äneo g i rado h ac ia e lS SE , c on l o s b razo s a do sado s a lc ue rpo y e lr ad io d e l o s m i smo s c ruzado s ob re e l c üb i to l o q ue i n d ica r fa q ue a mbo s b razo s e s taban g i rado s h ac ia a ba jo ( Co lane r i c omun icac iön p e r sona l ) . L a s e x t rem idade s i n f e r io re s s e e ncon t raban f l ex ionada sp e ro e nf o rma v e r t ica l yn op ud ie ron s e rd e tec tada s l a s mano s , p i e s yc ade ra . E l e n t ie r ro n o p r e sen taba n ingün e l emen to q ue c onforma ra u na j ua r( F igu ra 2 . 3 ) .

F i gu ra 2 . 3 . C o r te d e l aU n idad 1 5 yd e ta l le d e l e n t ie r ro . D ibu jo : J . A zcä ra te .

C ons ide rac iones G ene ra les E n l i nea s g ene ra le s s e p uede a d sc r ib i r a l s i t io d e l P ichao d en t ro d e l a s c a rac te r i s t ica s q ue p re sen tan l o s s i t io s d e l p e r iod° d e D e sa r ro l lo s R eg iona le s t a le s c omo : e mp lazam ien to , a r ea s d i f e renc ia le s ( c emen te r io s , s i s tema s d e r e gad fo ya g r ico la , u n idade s d e v i v ienda ) , t e cnofac tu ra s M ica s , c e räm ica s , m e ta lü rg ica s , s i s tema s d e r ep re sen tac ione s s imbö l ica s ( p e t rog l ifo s ) , c r ono log ia r e la t iva ya b so lu ta . Uno d e e s to s s i t io s , R incön C h ico , i n ve s t igado e n n ume ro sa s c ampa i la s , t i ene c a rac te r i s t ica s q ue p e rm i t ie ron e s tab lece r a r ea s d e a c t iv idade s d i f e renc iada s ( Ta r ragö , 1 987 ) . L a e s t ruc tu ra i n ve s t igada e n e l P i chao , p re sen ta c i e r to s i n d icado re s q ue h acen c on s ide ra r al am i sma c omo p a r te d e

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u n a r ea d e a c t iv idad p robab lemen te d i f e renc iada , t e n iendo e n c uen ta l a p a r t icu la r f o rma d e l a e s t ruc tu ra , l a p re senc ia d e g rande s b loque s c on mo r te ro s e n u n e spac io r educ ido , l ap rox im idad a lm on t icu lo c e remon ia l y e l mo lde p a ra m e ta lu rg ia . E l h a l lazgo d e l e n t ie r ro d i rec to d eba jo d e l mu ro , e s ta r fa i nd icando u na u t i l izac iön e spac ia l d i f e ren te y p od r ia v i ncu la r se c rono lög icamen te c on o t ro s s e c to re s d e l s i t io . E n e l c a so d e l c emen te r io Amancay , s ec to r X I , p re sen ta u na o cupac iön t emp rana e v idenc iada p o r u rna s d e p ä rvu lo s f e chado s e n t re e l 1 000 y e l 1 200 d .C . , yu na p o s te r io r e n t re 1 500 y 1 700 d .C . c omp robado s p o r h a l lazgo s d e c uen ta s d e v i d r io , m e ta le s c omo e l h i e r ro y e s t ruc tu ra s f une ra r ia s d i f e ren te s , p rop ia s d e l c on tac to h i spano i nd igena ( J ohan s son , 1 996 ) . F o r o t ra p a r te l as uperpo s ic iön d e mu ro s e n e l S ec to rI I , t amb i6n i n d ica r ia u na r e ocupac iön d e l s i t io ( Anbe rg , B eng t sson y C orne l l , 1 990 ) , e s ta s d i f e renc ia s t empo ra le s f ue ron c onf i rmada s p o r l a c rono log ia o b ten ida p o rO SL yTL ( Co rne l l yJ ohan s son , 1 993 ) . P odemo s c on s ide ra r e n tonce s q ue l a U n idad 1 5 p re sen ta u na p r ime ra o cupac iön a soc iada a le n t ier ro d eba jo d e l mu ro ; e lm i smo n or e sponde al a s i n humac ione s d e a du l to e n e li n te r io r d e l a s v i v ienda s ( i n t ramu ro s ) , oe n c emen te r io s e n a r ea s b i en s epa rada s ( e x t ramu ro s ) ( Raf f ino , 1 988 ) . P o r s u l o ca l izac iön s e i n f ie re q ue l o s o cupan te s p o s te r io re s d e sconoc ian l a p r e senc ia d el ac i s ta . U n s egundo momen to d e o cupac iön s e d educe p o r l a p re senc ia d e ma te r ia l c e räm ico a d sc r ip to a l t i po F amaba la s to N eg ro I nc i so y S an ta Ma r iano B ico lo r , l oq ue s ug ie re u na c rono log ia m ä st a rd ia . F o rc a rece rd e f e chado s a b so lu to s c on c i e r to g rado d e c onf iab i l idad p a ra e ls ec to r I( Cor ne l l yJ ohan s son , 1 993 ) yp o r e nde , p a ra l aU n idad 1 5 , s e t oman c omo b a se l o s e l emen to s a r r iba m enc ionado s p a ra e s tab lece r u na c rono log ia r e la t iva ; s e s ug ie re q ue l a p r ime ra o cupac iön p odr ia e s ta r a soc iada al af a se 1( 10001200 d .C . ) , yl as egunda yü l t ima c o r re sponde r fa al af a se 2( 12001500 d .C . ) p ropue s ta sp o rJ ohan s son ( 1996 ,132 ) .

A g radec im ien tos Q u is i6 ramo s e xp re sa r n ue s t ro r e conoc im ien to at odo s l o s q ue c o labo ra ron e n l a e xcavac iön : A naHa A lva , Ma r io C a r ia , Ma rce la B r inga s , A le jand ro L e iva , A nd rea R od r iguez ,F ab io S ru r yC on s tanza T aboada . AL i l ian P reb i sch p o r l ar e a l izac iön d e l o s d ibu jo s e n e lc ampo y e n e l g ab ine te .

R e fe renc ias A nbe rg , S . , B eng t s son , L . yC orne l l , P . 1 990 " Excava t ion s a nd m ea su remen t s i ns e c to r s I I a nd I V : U n i t 1 , 2a nd 3 " , i nP .C orne l l a nd S .S jöd in . ( e d s . ) 1 990 , 4 9-61

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C ig l iano , M . e t a l . 1 960 " I nve s t igac ione s A rqueo l6g ica s e n e l V a l le d e S an ta Ma r i a" , P ub l icac iön N ° 4 , I n s t i tu to d e A n t ropo log ia , F ac . d e F i lo sof fa y L e t ra s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld e l L i to ra l , R o sa r io C o rne l l , P . yS jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar y R epor tf rom t h ep ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C ase S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C or ne l l , P . yS jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor t f rom t h e p ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , N o . 5 , G ö t ebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg J ohansson , N . 1 996 B ur ia l s a nd S oc ie ty . AS t ud y o fS oc ia l D if f er en t ia t ion a tt h e S i t e o fE l P ichao , N or th -we s t ern A rgen t ina , a nd i nC eme t er ie sd a ted t ot h eS pan i sh N a t ive P er iod , GOTARC , S e r ie s B , G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l T he se s N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg O tone l lo M .M . yL o rand i , A . 1 987 I n t roducc iön a l aa rqueo log i a ye t no log i a a rgen t ina : 1 0 .000 a i io sd eh i s tor ia , EUDEBA , B ueno s A i r e s P e l i sse ro , N . yD if r ie r i , H . 1 981 Q u i lmes A rqueo log i a yE tnoh i s tor ia d e u na c i udad p r eh i spän ica ,

G ob ie rno d e l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e B ueno s

A ire s , F acu l tad d eF i lo sof fa yL e t ra s . S .M . d eT ucumän R af f ino , R . 1 988 P ob lac ione si n d i gena se nA rgen t ina . T EA , B ueno s A i r e s R af f ino , R . yB a ld in i , L . 1 9811982 " E l s i t io a r queo l6g ico Mo l ino s I( P rov . S a l ta ) N o ta p re l im ina r " e n A na le s d e A rqueo log i a yE tno log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e C uyo , Mendoza , N ° 3 6-37 ,10 1116 , T a r rag6 , M . 1 987 " Soc iedad ys i s tema d e a s en tam ien to e n Y ocav i l" , C uad ernos , I n s t i tu to N ac iona ld eA n t ropo log i a , B ueno sA i re s , N ° 1 2 ,179196 T ar tu s i , M . yN C l iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 993 " Excavac iön d e u n mon t i cu lo c e remon ia l t a rd io e n e ls i t io S TucTav 5 ( E l P i chao ) , p rov inc ia d e T ucumän" , P ub l icac ione s N o . 2 ,S e r ie : I nve s t igac ione s N o . 1 ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , 1 1 7

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3 .T he P e rcep t ion a nd N o t ion o f S pace i nR e la t ion t o A rch i tec tu re ' L i sbe tB eng t s son I n a no the r c on tex t , Ih ave d i scu s sed t h e p o ss ib i l i t ie s o f u s ing d a ta o n a r ch i tec tu ra l r ema in s t oi n f e r i n te r - a nd i n t ra s i te o rgan iza t ion , w i th s pec ia l r e f e rence t o t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re ( A .D . 1 0001550 /1662 ) i n n o r th w e s tern A rgen t ina a nd t h e s i te o fP i chao i np a r t icu la r ( Beng t s son , 1 992a ) . T he S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re b eg in s w i th t h e R eg iona l D eve lopmen t P e r iod a bou t A .D . 1 000 , c on t inue s t h rough t h e I mpe r ia l P e r iod ( A .D . 1 4801 536 ) —a t ime o fI n ca i n f luence i nt h e r e g ion — , s e em s t oc on t inue d u r ing t h e S pan i sh—Na t ive o rC on tac tP e r iod ( A .D . 1 5361640 ) a nd c an b e s a id t o b reak d own u l t ima te ly w i th t h e d ef ea t o f Q u i lme s i n A .D . 1 665 ( Nü f iez R egue i ro , 1 978 ; N ü t iez R egue i ro a nd T a r tu s i , 1 991) . I n t h i s a r t ic le , Is ha l l c on s ide r t h e p e r cep t ion a nd n o t ion o fs pace , a ga in w i th s pec ia l r e f e rence t o t h e a r ch i tec tu re a nd r ema in s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , n ame ly i nt h e w ay i nw h ich s pace i sc once ived o fb y h uman s a nd wh ich m ay b e r e f lec ted i nt h e f o rm ing a nd s t ruc tu r ing o fr oom s a nd s pace s b e tween r oom s . I n t h e p e rcep tua l p roce ss , b o th c o lou r , f o rm , m ean ing , emo t ion a nd r e ac t ion a r ei n c luded ( He s se lg ren , 1 975 ,7 ) . F ew e mp i r ica l s t ud ie s h ave b een c oncen t ra ted o n t h e p e rcep t ion o f a r ch i tec tu ra l s pace ( s ee S ada l la a nd O x ley , 1 984 ; d e V ega e t a t . 1 996 ) . Much r ema in s t ob e d one i nt h i s f i e ld o fr e sea rch , a nd Ic an h a rd ly d o mo re t h an p o in t t o s ome t op ic s t h a t If i nd o f v a lue a nd f r u i t fu l f o r f u r the r r e sea rch .

T he t wo a nd t h ree d imens ions I ti sk nown t h a t s pace p e rcep t ion i sc l o se ly l i nked t ot h e v i sua l d ep th , a s p e rce ived b y t h e e ye s a nd p roce s sed b y t h e b ra in . T h i s p o se s as pec ia l p rob lem f o r p h i lo sophe r s , p hy s io log i s t s a nd p sycho log i s t s , s i nce t h ree d imen s ion s c anno t b e s pec if ied b y t h e t wo -d imen s iona l a r ray o f l i gh t e n te r ing t h e e ye ( Conc i se E ncyc loped ia o f P sycho logy 1 987 , 8 15 ) . T he refo re , i tc an b e a rgued t h a t s pace p e rcep t ion i sn o t n ece s sa r i ly i n na te 'E a r l ie rv e r s ion so ft h is a r t ic le h ave b een p ub l i shed a sp a r to fB eng t s son ( 1992a ) a nd a s B eng t s son ( 1992b ) .

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b u t m ay b e al e a rned , a nd t h u s ac u l tu ra l , p henomenon . A s t udy o f t h e c h i ld ren o f t wo r emo te B u shman p opu la t ion s , ag roup o f u rban Z u lu c h i ld ren , a nd as amp le o fa du l t B u shmen r evea led i n te rg roup d i f f e rence s i n t h e i rp e rcep t ion s o fp i c to r ia l d ep th ( De rQgow sk i a nd B en t ley , 1 986 ) . A t t h e s ame t ime , a l l t h e g roup s p e rce ived d ep th . T h i s w ou ld i nd ica te , o n t h e o ne h and , t h a t t h e a b i l i ty t o p e rce ive t h ree -d imen s iona l ly i s n o t l e a rned b u t i nna te a nd n o tb ound t o We s te rn c u l tu re , f o re xamp le , b u t , o nt h e o the r , t h a t i tc an b ei n f luenced b yc u l tu ra lf a c to r s . F o r a n i n t roduc t ion t o c u r ren t r e sea rch o n s pace p e rcep t ion , e spec ia l ly f r om t h ep hys io log ica l p o in to fv i ew , s e et h ea r t ic le s ,b a sed o n ac onf e rence o n t h e s ub jec t , p ub l i shed i nA c ta P sycho log ica ( S ensor imo tor I n terac t ion s i n S pace P ercep t ions a nd A c t ion , 1 986 ) . A l so t h e p h i lo sophe r Wayne S t rombe rg ( 1989 ) h a s d i scu s sed s pace p e rcep t ion , b u t i n ah i s to r ica l s c ien t if ic c on tex t . A s m en t ioned a bove , i ti sp o s s ib le t o s t udy t h e p e rcep t ion o f t wo a nd t h ree d imen s ion s a s ah uman a c t iv i ty b a sed o n e i the r a n i n na te o r al e a rned a b i l i ty . A pa r t f r om s uch a n a pp roach , t h e p e rcep t ion o fd imen s ion s may b e u sed a sa n a na ly t ica l t oo l . I ts hou ld b e t h eo re t ica l ly p o ss ib le t ou se t h e t wo c r i te r ia o f t wo d imen s ion s , o n t h e o ne h and , a nd t h ree d imen s ions , o n t h e o the r , i n dependen t ly b y a n a r chaeo log i s t s t udy ing a r ch i tec tu ra l r ema in s . T hu s , as u r face m ay b e d i v ided i n to d i f f e ren t , t wo -d imen s iona l , a c t iv i ty a r ea s . I nt h e s ame w ay , t h e h e igh td imen s ion d oe s n o tn ece s sa r i ly f o rm p a r t o n ly o f at h ree -d imen s iona l s pec t rum . I n s tead , i tm ay b e s e en a s p a r t o fa t wo -d imen s iona l , v e r t ica l s u r f ace . S t a i rca se s , l a dde r s , a nd r amp s , a s w e l l a s t h e v a r iou s s t o r ie s i no ne b u i ld ing , may b e f r u i t fu l ly v i ewed , p re sen ted a nd a na ly sed i nt h i s m anne r . F u r the rmo re , e ach s t o ry i ns uch at wo -d imen s iona l v e r tex m ay b es t ud ied a s at wo -d imen s iona l , h o r izon ta l p l ane .

I l us ions i ns pace p e rcep t ion W i thou t e n te r ing a ny f u r the r i n to ad i scu ss ion o n h ow t h e v i sua l d ep th o f t h ree d imen s ion s i sl i nked t ot h et wo -d imen s iona l a r ray o fl i gh te n te r ing t h e e ye , t h e re a r e p henomena a nd i lu s ion s i n s pace p e rcep t ion t ha t a r e i n t r igu ing a nd m ay h ave s ome b ea r ing u pon t h e a r ch i tec tu ra l r ema ins o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re . T he re a r e r e la t ion sh ip s b e tween d e s ign f e a tu re s a nd p e rce ived s pac iou sne ss . L abo ra to ry s t ud ie s h ave d emon s t ra ted ar e la t ion sh ip b e tween t h e s hape a nd t h e p e rce ived s i ze o f av a r ie ty o f o b jec t s a nd f i gu res . F o r e xamp le , t h e g r ea te s t l i nea r d imen s ion o f ar e c tang le i s c ons is ten t ly o ve re s t ima ted . I n t h e s ame w ay , s o l id s w i th t h e g r ea te s t d i spa r i ty o fl i nea r d imen s ion s w e re o ve re s t ima ted t h e mo s t . When h uman s a r e e xposed t o r oom s o f d i f f e ren t s hape s ( s qua re t o r e c tangu la r ) a nd s i ze s , t h e re i s a s ub s tan t ia l i lu s ion p roduced b y r e c tangu la r i ty ; mo re r e c tangu la rr oom s a r e c on s is ten t ly e s t ima ted a s l a rge r t h an l e s s r e c tangu la r r oom s o f e qua l s i ze . T h is e f f ec t i si n dependen t o ft h e v i ew ing p o s i t ion o ft h e o b se rve r ( Sada l la a nd O x ley , 1 984 ) . T he se r e su l t si nt u rn i mp ly t h a tr oom sw i th n o s uch l i nea r

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d imen s ion s , t h a t i s , r ound a nd r ounded r oom s , w ou ld c on s is ten t ly b e p e rce ived a ss ma l le rt h an r e c tangu la ro ne so ft h es ame o b jec t ive s i ze . Ano the r b u t p robab ly r e la ted p henomenon i st h a t , w hen ap e r son m ove s w i th in ar oom , a l though d i f f icu l t t om ea su re o rr eg i s te r , t h e p e rcep t ion a nd e xpe r ience o ft h ea r ch i tec ton ic d ep th c hange s ( Co rne l l ,E . 1 962 ) .

S ymbo l ic m ean ing i na rch i tec tu re T he re i s a d i f f e rence b e tween s e e ing a n o b jec t ( o r b u i ld ing ) a nd e xpe r ienc ing t h e s pace b e tween t wo o r mo re o b jec t s . B o th t h e o b jec t a nd t h ep hys ica l ly d e l im i ted s pace a round u s a r ep e rce ived t h ree -d imen s iona l ly . B u tt h e re i s ac e r ta in d i f f e rence b e tween o b jec ta nd s pace , s ome th ing w h ich i so ft h e u tmo s t i mpo r tance w hen i tc ome s t ot h e c r ea t ion o ft h e m an -made e nv i ronmen tt h a tw ec a l l a r ch i tec tu re , a nd n o tt h el e a s tw hen i tc ome st ot h e s en so ry i nf luence t h a t a r ch i tec tu re may h ave u pon u s ( s ee H e s se lg ren , 1 988 ) . T he v i sua l i mpac t o f a r ch i tec tu re a nd o f s pace s c r ea ted w i th in a nd o u t s ide b u i ld ing s c hange s a cco rd ing t ot h e s i ze , f o rm , d i s tance , t e x tu re , e t c . a nd w i l li nf luence o u r emo t ion s ( Cu l len , 1 971) . I th a s b een s a id t h a ta r ch i tec tu re i st h e a e s the t ic o rgan iza t ion o fp rac t ica l r e a l i ty ( Corne l l , 1 962 , 3 8 ) . H oweve r , a r ch i tec tu re m ay c on ta in a b roade r s pec t rum t h an t h e a e s the t ic a spec t o f r e a l i ty , e ven t h ough i th a s c u r ren t ly c ome t o s t and f o r t h e a r t is t ic a spec t o f c on s t ruc t ion . S t emm ing f r om t h e G reek w o rd a rch i tek ton , t h e w o rd " a rch i tec tu ra l" h a s b een g i ven t h e m ean ing o f" . . a c t ing t h rough r hy thm ica l p l ay b e tween l i ne s , s u r f ace s a nd ma sse s , a nd a d e s ign o r g roup ing b a sed o n g eome t r ica l p r inc ip le s . . " ( Svensk U pps lag sbok 1 96 1) . U sua l ly , t h e t e rm " a rch i tec tu re" i sa n a cco lade a wa rded t oo u t s tand ing ly i mpo r tan t a nd i mp re s s ive b u i ld ing s . H e re , Ia m u s ing t h e t e rm i n a mo re o pen w ay a nd a mm a in ly c once rned w i th t h ec ommun ica t ive s i gn if icance o f b u i l tf o rm ( s ee D u ly , 1 979 , 6 -8 ) . I ts hou ld b e k ep t i nm ind h e re t h a t , i ns oc ie t ie s w he re t h e p roduc t ion o f f ood i sn o t y e t a n i n du s t r ia l p roce s s , f ood i t se lf r e ta in s as a c red d imen s ion . S to rehou se s a nd g r ana r ie s a r e o f ten mo re e l abo ra te t h an d we l l ing -hou se s ( Du ly , 1 979 , 2 0 ) . T he refo re , n o t o n ly b u i ld ing s s uch a st emp le s a nd l i v ing q ua r te r s b u t a l so o t he r b u i ld ing s a r e p o ten t ia l ly i mpo r tan t i n t h e s t udy o f b u i l tf o rm , a pa r tf r om t h e i rm e re p rac t ica l v a lue . A s f o r r e l ig iou s b u i ld ing s , t h ey m ay s ymbo l ize n o t o n ly al i nk w i th t h e h eaven s b u t a l so al i nk w i th c o sm ic ma te r ia l a nd w i th d ea th ( E l iade , 1 968 , 2 8 ) . F u r the rmo re , f o rt h er e l ig iou s p e r son , n o to ne r oom i sh omogeneou s . I t c on ta in s b reak s a nd s p l i t s , a nd i t h a s p a r t s t h a t a r e q ua l i ta t ive ly d i f f e ren t f r om t h e o the rp a r t s ( E l iade , 1 968 , 1 4 ) . F o re xamp le , i nv a r iou s c u l tu re s o f No r th Ame r ica a nd n o r the rn A s ia , t h e d we l l ing s h ave o r u sed t o h ave a c en t re p o le t h a t i sa s s igned t h e v a lue o f w o r ld -p i l la r o r w o r ld t ree , w h ich l i nk s t h e e a r th t o t h e s ky . T he c o sm ic s ymbo l i sm i st h u s e xp re s sed a nd empha s ized i nt h e mode o fc on s t ruc t ion o ft h e d we l l ing . T he s ky i st hough t o fa s ah uge t e n t , s uppo r ted b y ap o le i nt h e c en t re ; t h e t e n t p o le o rc en t re

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p o s t i nt h e h ou se i si d en t if ied a s t h e w o r ld ' s p o le a nd i sa l so c a l led b y i t s n ame ( E l iade , 1 968 , 3 6 ) . F o r t h e r e l ig iou s p e r son , t h e re mu s t b e ac en t re a s ab a s i s f o r a o r ien ta t ion , ac en t re f r om w h ich t h e c a rd ina l a xe s o r ig ina te , s i nce o n ly t h e e x i s tence o f ac en t re m ake s o r ien ta t ion p o s s ib le . T h i s , t h en , r ep resen t s a c o smogony a nd w i l l b r ing o rde r i n to c hao s . E ach d we l l ing , a s w e l l a s a w ho le v i l lage , i sb u i l t a s t h e c en t re o ft h e w o r ld . T o f i nd o ne ' s w ay t ot h e c en t re o ft h e w o r ld , w he re t h e c o smo s w a s f o rmed a nd s t a r ted t op ro jec t i n t h e f ou r c a rd ina l d i rec t ion s i st of i nd al i nk w i th t h e g od s , t h e p l ace w he re o ne i sc l o se s t t ot h e g od s ( E l iade , 1 968 , 3 7 , 4 4-45 ) . T ha t s uch n o t ion s c an b e f u l ly v i v id i n t h e A nde s t oday i sc l ea r ly d emon s t ra ted b y G a ry U r ton ( 1988 ) .

T he s oc ia l i mpo r tance o fa rch i tec tu ra l f o rms a nd l a you t A cco rd ing t ot h e s t ud ie s b y J an G eh l , i ti s ag ene ra l t r a i t t h a t p eop le a r e mo re i n te re s ted i n a nd p ay mo re a t ten t ion t o o t he rp eop le i n t h e ir m i l ieu t h an t h ey a r e a nd d o t oa ny o t he r a spec t , s uch a st h e b u i ld ing s t h em se lve s . T he p o s s ib i l i ty o f s e e ing a nd h ea r ing o t he r p eop le i n at own o r s e t t lemen t a l so m ean s a n o f f e r o fv a luab le i n fo rma t ion , b o th a bou t s oc ie ty i ng ene ra l a nd a bou t t h e p e r son s w ho l i ve n ea rby . T he v a lue o fs uch o f f e r s i s maybe b e s t i lu s t ra ted i nc onnec t ion w i th t h e s oc ia l g row th o fc h i ld ren , w h ich t oa g rea t e x ten t i sb a sed o n o b se rva t ion s o f t h e s u r round ing s oc ia l w o r ld . I n a dd i t ion t o o r ien ta t ing o ne se lf i n t h e s u r round ing s oc ia l w o r ld , t h e p o s s ib i l i ty o f s e e ing a nd h ea r ing o the r p eop le c an a l so g ive i d ea s a nd i n sp i ra t ion f o r a c t ion s . O ne i si n sp i red b y s e e ing o the r p eop le a c t . Ano the r i mpo r tan t n eed i st h e n eed t oe xpe r ience . T he e xpe r ience o f o the r p eop le r ep re sen t s as pec ia l ly c o lou r fu l o f f e r , r i ch i n s t imu l i . T he e xpe r ience o f p eop le w ho s peak a nd move a bou t a lways r ep re sen t s ar i chne ss i nv a r ia t ion a nd i ns en so ry s t imu la t ion . N o o ne momen t i sl i ke t h e o ne b efo re o r a f te r , w hen p eop le move a mong p eop le ( Geh l ,J . , 1 971 , 1 315 , 2 3 ) . F rom t h e b io log ica l v i ewpo in t , m an a s as pec ie s h a s a n e spec ia l ly d eve loped n eed t or e ce ive m any s t imu l i f r om h i s s u r round ing s . T h is n eed h a s b een o ne o ft h e mo s t e s sen t ia l p re requ is i te s i nt h e d eve lopmen t o fm an ( Mo r r i s , 1 971) . I t s hou ld b e c l ea r t h a t t h e l a you t o f s e t t lemen t s s t rong ly i n f luence s p eop le ' s i n te rac t ing , a nd t h e i r p o s s ib i l i t ie s o f d o ing s o . A l a you t w i th l im i ted p o s s ib i l i t ie s o fh uman i n te rac t ion m ean s as e t t lemen t i nw h ich s uch i n te rac t ion i su nw i shed f o r , f o rp o l i t ica l o ro the rr e a son s . I n as t udy o f p e rcep t ion a nd t h e n o t ion o f s pace , w e may a l so i n c lude s uch n o t ion s w i th in a c u l tu re a s t h e n eed o f l i kene s s t o o b ta in a w ho le , c on t ra s t s , s upe r io r i ty a nd s ubo rd ina t ion i na r ch i tec tu ra l f e a tu re s , r hy thm ica l p l ay , e t c . I n D u ly 's w o rd s ( 1979 , 2 7 ) , m ank ind 's p e rcep t ion o f s oc ia l r e la t ion sh ip s i sf a r mo re s i gn if ican t t h an e i the r c l ima te o r t e chno log ica l

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s k i l l s i nd ec id ing h ow h e s hou ld e nc lo se , a nd t h e refo re h uman ize , t h e s pace a r ound h im . R oom s i ze i s—and h a s b een — f requen t ly u sed a s as t a tu s -ma rke r , w i th h i gh s ta tu si n d iv idua l so rg roup sc ommand ing l a rge rr oom s .R oom s i ze a l so a f f ec t st h ep henomeno logy o ft h eu se r s o fr oom s : l a rge rr oom sc an g ive r i se t of e e l ing s o fe xpan s ivene s s a nd f r eedom ; s ma l l r oom s m ay l e ad t of e e l ing s o fc onf inemen ta nd c r owd ing ( Sada l la a nd O x ley , 1 984 ) . O ne a spec t t h a t m u s t h ave i nf luenced t h e b u i l t f o rm a nd l a you t i st h e i d ea s o f p e r sona l s pace a nd o r ien ta t ion i n t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re . T he l ow ly , e ve ryday i n te rac t ion s b e tween p eop le may h ave b een t h e s ou rce o f t h e i ra e s the t ic s en se o fb a lance , p ropo r t ion a nd s ca le , o ft h e i rn o t ion s o ft h e ' c o r rec t ' r e la t ion sh ip o f s t ruc tu re t o m an a nd s t ruc tu re t o e nv i ronmen t ( Du ly , 1 979 , 1 3 ) .

A rch i tec tu re a s a n a na ly t ica lt oo l f o ra rchaeo log is ts A s f o r a r ch i tec tu re , i ti sa r gued h e re t h a t s ome s t a temen t s c an b e made a nd a tl e a s th ypo the t ica l c onc lu s ion s c an b ed rawn a bou t ap a s t s oc ie ty i nt e rm s o f t h e p e rcep t ion , n o t ion a nd u se o f s pace b y t h e s oc ie ty . P a t r ic ia G i lman ( 1987 , 5 38 ) h a s p o in ted o u t t h a t a r ch i tec tu ra l f o rm s a nd c hange s i n t h o se f o rm s c an b e a n e x t reme ly p owe r fu l t o o l f o ru nde r s tand ing c u l tu ra l c hange . T ha t a r ch i tec tu re c an a l so b e as t rong t o o l i n t h e i n te rp re ta t ion o f s pa t ia l o rgan iza t ion a nd s ymbo l i sm i n as oc ie ty i sd emon s t ra ted b y L inda D on ley ( 1980 ) i nh e rs t udy o ft h e o rgan iza t ion a nd u se o fs pace i nI s lam ic , Swah i l i h ou se so nt h e K enyan c oa s to fE a s tA f r ica . I t h a s b een s t a ted b y W i l l iam I s be l l ( 1978 , 2 70 ) t h a t d ec iphe r ing s ymbo l ic s t ruc tu re s d i rec t ly f r om a na ly se s o f a r chaeo log ica l s i te l a you t s w ou ld b e i mpo s s ib le w i thou ta cce s s t ot h ee t hnoh i s to r ica l o re t hnog raph ica l i n fo rma t ion n ece s sa ry f o rt h e i ri n te rp re ta t ion . T h i s i sv a l id t ot h ee x ten tt h a t w e c an c e r ta in ly n o t k now a s much w i thou t t h e e t hnoh i s to r ica l a nd e t hnog raph ica l m a te r ia l a s w i th i t . A t t h e s ame t ime , i ti s my p o in t o f d epa r tu re i n t h i s p ape r t h a t w e c an l e a rn s ome th ing a bou t s ymbo l ic s t ruc tu re s f r om s i te l a you t s . O fc ou r se , s ugge s t ion s a bou tt h e i rm ean ing c an b e b a sed o n c ompa r i son s , a l though n o t n ece ssa r i ly c ompa r i son s w i th d a ta f r om t h es ame s i te o re ven t h e s ame c u l tu re . F o r e xamp le , w e k now t h a t a mong t h e p r esen t -day N uba i nt h e S udan , h ou se c ompound sm ay b ep a r t i t ioned i n to s e c t ion s f o rm en a nd w omen , a nd w i th as pec if ic l o ca t ion o fs howe r s , g r ana r ie s , s l eep ing q ua r te r s , e t c . w i th in t h e c ompound , a l though w i thou t t h i s n ece s sa r i ly b e ing s hown i nd i f f e ren t s i ze s o r s hape s o f r oom s ( Hodde r , 1 982 , 1 39140 ) . I n t h e s ame w ay , w e k now t h a t o ne g roup o fp eop le w i l l b u ry t h e i r d ead o u t s ide t h e v i l lage , a nd i no ne p a r t icu la ra r ea , a so ppo sed t os ome o the rg roup f r om a no the rv i l lage i n t h e s ame r e g ion ( Hodde r , 1 982 , 1 63 ) . B o th t h e se e xamp le s h ave d eep s ymbo l ic m ean ing s t h a t d o n o t n ece s sa r i ly s how t h rough i na ny d i f f e rence b e tween t h e v i l lage s i n t h e a r ch i tec tu re o f t h e h ou se s . T he k now ledge o f s uch d i f f e ren t ia t ion s , b o th s ymbo l ic a nd p rac t ica l , c an h e lp u s i no u r w o rk

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a s a r chaeo log i s t s . Wha t w e c an o b se rve i s ad i f f e ren t ia t ion i n f i nd s , s o i l c ompo s i t ion , e t c . b e tween r oom s a nd p a r t s o f r oom s a nd p a ssage s , a nd b e tween d i f f e ren t l a ye r s w i th in ar oom , a s w e l l a s t h e p re sence o f g rave s w i th in av i l lage o r t h e l o ca t ion o fb u r ia l g round s i nc e r ta in a r ea s o u t s ide a v i l lage , a nd g rave s w i th d i f f e ren t o r ien ta t ion s a nd c on s t ruc t ion s , a nd w i th d i f f e ren t f i nd s , a sc ompa red w i th t h e v i l lage i t se lf . I na dd i t ion , t h e f unc t ion o f ar oom may v e ry w e l l c hange o ve r t ime . P a t r ic ia G i lman ( 1987 ) h a s c ommen ted u pon s uch a c hange i n a l ong te rm p e r spec t ive . I n t h e p r eh i s to r ic s ou th -we s t o f t h e U n i ted S ta te s , t h e re w a s a movemen t o f a c t iv i t ie s f r om u nde rg round t o a bove g round a nd f r om t h e o u t s ide t o t h e i n s ide o f s t ruc tu re s . T he c hang ing l o c i o f a c t iv i t ie s c au sed c hange s i n a r ch i tec tu ra ln eed s ( c f . W i lshu sen , 1 989 ; a l so s e eG i lman , 1 989 ) . T he t a xonom ic s y s tem o f d i cho tom iza t ion i s t h e s imp le s t a nd mo s t f r equen t ly emp loyed , c a tego r ica l p rocedu re . A s W i l l iam I s be l l ( 1978 ) p o in t s o u t , t h e t e ndency t o b i fu rca te a l l a spec t s o f h uman e xpe r ience i s e n t renched i n' mode rn ' t h ink ing a s much a si tw a s i na n t iqu i ty . C e r ta in ly , a r ch i tec tu ra l r ema in s c an b e s t ud ied i nt e rm s o fd i cho tom ie s . T he p o s s ib le d i v i s ion s a nd o ppo s i t ion s a r e i nnume rab le a nd i n c lude s uch n o t ion s a s t h e h or i zon ta l i ty lver t ica l i ty a spec t ; i n s id e ( s t reng th a nd s o l id i ty o ff r ame s o rw a l ls ; a l so i n s ide s w i th i n v is ib le s u r round ing b o rde r s ) /ou t s ide ; f o r t h e l i v ing / fo r t h e d ead ( s uch a s as pec ia l c o rne r o f ah ou se d ed ica ted t o t h e a nce s to r s ) ; c over ed s pace ( s o l id i ty a nd s t reng th ) /uncovered s pace ( mean ing d i rec tc ommun ica t ion w i th t h eh eaven s? , i n v i s ib le c ove r s ) ; h uman b od y ( non -a rch i tec tu ra l ) /t h e e x terna l ( t he a r ch i tec tu re ) ; e ye a nd b ra in d i spo s i t ion ( s uch a s e ye s igh t a nd s pace p e rcep t ion ) / s izes , l a you t , e t c . i n a r ch i tec tu re . F u r the rmo re , v i s ib i l i ty / inv i s ib i l i ty o f u n i t s , l im i t s , t r an s i t iona l f ea tu re s ; r e la t ion b e tween t h e s pace o ft h e g od s a nd t h e s pace o fh uman s— such a s s im i la r i t ie s o r d i f f e rence s i nt h e i r s i ze , s hape , v e r t ica l i ty ; r e la t ion b e tween t h e s pace o f h umans a nd t h e s pace o f t h e d ead — such a s s im i la r i t ie s o r d i f f e rence s i n s i ze , s hape , v e r t ica l i ty , e n t rance s o r a cce ss ib i l i ty o f l i v ing q ua r te r sa nd g rave s . O the r p os s ib le c a tego r ie s t h a t m ay —o r m ay n o t— show i nt h e a r ch i tec t u re a r e f ood p repa ra t ion / food c on sump t ion ; m a le / f ema le ; f am i ly /non -fa m i ly ; s l eep ing /wak ing ; p roduc t ion /de s t ruc t ion ; f e r t i l i ty /ba r renne ss ; a nd l e f t / r igh t ( s ee I .G eh l , 1 971 , 1 8 , 1 66167 ; S hank s a nd T i l ley , 1 987 , 1 69 ) . T he re c an a l so b e ad i v i s ion i nt e rm s o fa c t iv i t ie s w i th in a nd o u t s ide c e r ta in r oom s , a cco rd ing t os ex a nd a ge . I ts hou ld b e k ep t i nm ind t h a t at a xonom ic s y s tem , w i th t h e a s s ignmen t o f f e a tu re s w i th in a s y s tem o f c a tego r ie s d i s t ingu ished b y a p r ior i c ha rac te r i s t ic s i sn o t as t r ic t ly b en ign p rocedu re . T he d r ive t o s imp l ic i ty l u re s o ne i n to t h e f a lse b e l ie f t h a t , f o r i n s tance , o ne f unc t ion o r c ha rac te r i s t ic o fo ne c a tego ry e xc lude s a l l o t he r f unc t ion s o ft h a t c a tego ry . I t may a l so b e i n co r rec t ly a s sumed t h a t ad i cho tomy i sd i scon t inuou s a nd b imoda l ly d i s t r ibu ted ( s ee C onc i se E ncyc loped ia o f P sycho logy 1 987 , 1071108 ) .

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T ha tf o rm o rs i ze d o n o t i nt h em se lve s i n d ica te t h e f unc t ion o rf unc t ion s o f ac e r ta in s pace s hou ld a l so b e c l ea r . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a t man h a s s uch a t e ndency t ov a r ia t ion i nh i s p e rcep t ion o fs pace t h a t t h i s w i l l b e e xp re s sed wheneve r i ti sa l lowed f o r . I n S weden t o day , f l a t s a r e h i gh ly s t anda rd ized , a s r ega rd s t h e s i ze s a nd s hape s o f t h e d i f f e ren t r oom s . When a b lock o f t wen ty f l a t s w i th f l ex ib le w a l l s w a s b u i l t , i tw a sf ound t h a t , a f te r ap e r iod o f t e n y ea r s a nd a f te r 3 8 f am i l ie s h ad l i ved i n t h em , c hange s i n f l a t c ompo s i t ion h ad b een made b y 3 1 f am i l ie s . I ti si n te re s t ing t on o te t h a t t h e s o lu t ion s w e re n o tr a t iona li nt h ew ay i nw h ich s pace w a sp u tt ot h eb e s tu se b u ti n c luded an umbe ro fp a s sage r oom sa nd r ema rkab le c o rne r si nd i f f e ren t p a r t s o ft h ef l a t s ( O l iveg ren , 1 969 , 1 7 ) . B e low , Is ha l lg i ve s ome e xamp le so ft h ew ay i nw h ich b o th d i cho tom ie s a nd o the r c r i te r ia c an b e u sed i n s t ud ie s o f t h e m ean ing a nd u se o f a r ch i tec tu ra l s pace . If i r s t t u rn b ack t o t h e h o r izon ta l i ty a spec t , w h ich w a s t o uched u pon e a r l ie r i n t h i s a r t ic le . W i th in t h i s d imen s ion , Im ay a l so r e f e r t o s u ch f ea tu re s a s s i ze , s hape a nd t r an s i t ion s . T he s i ze w ou ld i n c lude l a rge r oom s a nd h ou se u n i t s , o nt h eo ne h and , a nd s ma l l o ne s , o nt h eo t he r . F o re xamp le , i tmay b et h ec a se t h a t s hed s f o ra n ima l s a r eo fo ne s i ze , w h i le s hed sf o rt h e h a rve s t a r e o f a no the r . E qua l ly , l i v ing q ua r te r s m ay b e o f ad i f f e ren t s i ze t h an s l eep ing q ua r te r s . T he s hape i sd e te rm ined b y t h e p r e sence o fc orne r s a nd g eome t r ica l f o rm s , a nd b y t h e a gg lome ra t ion o fr oom s . T he t r an s i t iona l f ea tu re si n c lude p a s sage s , p eep -ho le s , d oo rway s , t h re sho ld s , a nd w indow s . F o r t h e v e r t ica l i ty a spec t , w e c an c on s ide r s uch p henomena a s o ne g round s t o ry , a n u ppe r s t o ry o rs t o r ie s , a nd u nde rg round c on s t ruc t ion s , b u t a l so t h e t r an s i t iona l f e a tu re s b e tween t h e se p l ane s o rgan ized o n av e r t ica l s ca le : f i xed l a dde r s , r amp s , s t ep s . T he d i f f e ren tl e ve l s m ay i nt u rn r ep re sen t d i f fe ren tf unc t ion s , i nt h e w ay i nw h ich f ood s tuf f s w e re s t o red i nt h e u ppe r s t o r ie s o f as pec if ic t ype o f h ou se i n t h e c oun t rys ide o f N o rway i n h i s to r ica l t ime s o r i n w h ich s epa ra te ly b u i l t c e l la r s w e re u sed f o r c e r ta in o the rf ood s tuf f si nS weden . I ts hou ld m aybe b e e spec ia l ly n o ted t h a t s uch t r an s i t iona l f e a tu re s c an h ave a s t rong ly s ymbo l ic m ean ing , s i nce t h ey m ay r e p re sen t t h e p a s sage f r om ar e l ig iou s s phe re t o ap rof ane o ri r re l ig iou s s phe re , f o re xamp le , f r om t h e h ou se t o o u tdoo r s o n t h e h o r izon ta l s c a le , o r t h e l i nk b e tween o u r p resen tw o r ld a nd t h ec o smo s , o nt h ev e r t ica l s ca le ( E l iade , 1 968 ) . T he o r ien ta t ion o f d oo rway s d oe s n o t n ece s sa r i ly h ave a ny th ing t o d o w i th s ymbo l ic m ean ing ,b u tt h e re may b e as t r ic t ly p rac t ica lr e a son f o ri t ,a s among t h e F u lan i i nB u rk ina F a sso , w he re t h e t empo ra ry d we l l ing w i l l b e o r ien ted a way f r om t h e ( a n t ic ipa ted ) r a iny sea son s t o rm s . I n s tead , o t he r g roup s a mong t h eF u lan i o r ien tt h e i rd we l l ing s a cco rd ing t ot h eh i e ra rch ica l o rde r , u s ing t h e e a s t—we s t a nd n o r th— sou th a xe s t oe xp re s s t h e i r n o t ion o f s en io r i ty ( Du ly , 1 979 , 3 4-35 ) . When c ompa r ing i n s ide a nd o u t s ide , w e may c on s ide r t h e s t reng th a nd s o l id i ty o f t h e f r ame s o r w a l l s , a nd t h e e a se o r d i f f icu l ty w i th w h ich t h ey may b ep a s sed t h rough . I ti sa l so i mpo r tan tw he the rt h e re s e em t oh ave b een

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i n v i s ib le b o rde r s . We k now t h a t af oo tba l l g round m ay h ave i t s b o rde r s ma rked w i th l ime o r w h i te p a in t o n t h e g ra ss . I n t h e c oun t ry s ide a nd w i th g round c on s i s t ing o fg rave l a nd p ebb le s , t h ec orne r s m ay i n s tead b e ma rked w i th s ma l l h eap s o f s t one , a si st h e c a se i ns ome p a r t s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia v a l ley t o day . T he m a te r ia l a nd w ay o ff o rm ing t h eb o rde r s a r et h en d i f f e ren t f r om t h o se i nt h e a bove -men t ioned c a se . S t i l l , t h e s ymbo l ic m ean ing i st h e s ame : t h e p l ay s hou ld b e k ep t w i th in as pec if ic r e c tang le o f ac e r ta in s i ze . N e i the r t h e w h i te l i ne s , n o r t h e h eap s o f s t one w ou ld b e v i s ib le t o t h e e ye w hen e xcava t ing t h e s i te a f te r s ome t ime , a nd w e w ou ld n o t d i scove r t h e p l ayg round o n t h e b a s i s o f a r ch i tec tu ra l i n s ta l la t ion . I n c a se s i nw h ich t h e h eap s w e re l a rge r , t hough , w e m igh t , t oge the r w i th o t he r i nd ica t ions , s uch a s c omp re ssed s o i l a nd d e ta i l s f r om t h e p l aye r s ' g ea r— lo s t b u t tons , s hoe l a ce s —and t h e p o s tho le s f o rt h e g oa l s , d educe t h e m ean ing o f as eem ing ly o pen o re mp ty s pace w i th n oc l ea rl im i t s . T he e x i s tence o f s qua re b u i ld ing s a mong r ound o ne s m ay i nd ica te t h e i n t ru s ion o r i n t roduc t ion o f ad i f f e ren t r e l ig ion , a s a mong t h e S ongha i o f Ma l i ( Du ly , 1 979 , 1 819 ) . I na no the r c a se a mong t h e S ongha i , b ee t le l ike , m a t t e n t s o fa n o va lo id f o rm a mong s qua re b u i ld ing sr ep re sen t al i nk w i th a p a s t w i th ad i f f e ren t e conomy a nd an omad ic w ay o fl i f e ( Du ly , 1 979 , 3 63 7 ) . I ti sa r gued b y A lf H o rnbo rg t h a t , i n t h e A nde s , t h e g eome t r ica l " . . t r an s i t ion f r om a lmo s tc i rcu la r , v i ah o r se shoe - o rU shaped , t oq uad rangu la r r e p re sen ta t ion s o f s oc ia l s pace . . m ay b e c o smo log ica l ly g ea red t o t h e g row th o f h i e ra r chy a nd c i v i l iza t ion" ( quo ta t ion , i nH o rnbo rg , 1 990 , 6 6 ) . H o rnbo rg b a se s h i s a r gumen t o n e t hnog raph ica l , e t hnoh i s to r ica l , a nd a r chaeo log ica l d a ta . A cco rd ing t oh im , a' r edoub led ' d ua l ism i nt h e A nde s t e nd s t o g ene ra te a q uad r ipa r t i te s cheme b u i l t a r ound t h e c oncep t o f a n a b so lu te c en t re . I n t h e Q uechua c o smo logy , a s o ppo sed t o t h a t o f t h e B o ro ro i nc en t ra l B raz i l , s oc ia l s pace i sq uad rangu la r r a the r t h an c i rcu la r . Wh i le t h e G 6 a nd B o ro ro o f B raz i l d ef ine t h e o u te r l im i t s o f s oc ie ty a s c i rcu la r , t h e e xpan s ive A ndean c h iefdom s r e f ra ined f r om d ef in ing t h e i r o u te r l im i t s b u tp ro jec ted t h e i ru nde r ly ing , c oncen t r ic c oncep t ion o fs oc ie ty e nd le s s ly o u twa rd f r om i t sc i rcu la rc o re ( Ho rnbo rg , 1 990 , 7 1 , 7 3 ) .

T he c ase o ft he S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , w i th s pec ia l r e fe rence t ot he P i chao s i te A l though t h e re a r e r epo r t s t h a t s e t t lemen t s o f t h e R eg iona l D eve lopmen t P e r iod ( A .D . 1 0001480 ) g r ew t oc on s t i tu te t r ue , s em i -u rban c en t re s w i th s pace s i n tended f o rp l aza s o rm a rke t s ( Nüf iez R egue i ro , 1 978 , 4 76 ) , Ih ave f a i led t or e cogn ize a ny s uch s pace s a ta ny o f t h e s i te s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re t h a t Ih ave v i s i ted : E l Mo l la r , T a lapazo , T o lombön , F ue r te Q uemado , Q u i lme s , a nd P ichao . T he q ue s t ion s hou ld m aybe b e l e f t o pen u n t i l s u rvey s a nd e xcava t ion s o fa l o ft ho se s i te s h ave b een c a r r ied o u tt oa

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s a t isfac to ry d eg ree . A s r ega rd s t h e P i chao s i te , i tc an b e s t a ted w i th ah igh d eg ree o fc e r ta in ty t h a ts uch s pace s w e re n o tr epo r ted i nt h es i te l a you t . S ince m an h a s at e ndency t os t op a nd g e tt oge the r w he re a no the rp e r son o r p e r son s a r e c a r ry ing o u t a ny o ne a c t iv i ty , i ti ss ugge s ted h e re t h a t t h e mo r ta r s t one s o ft h e s i te s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re h ad a n a t t rac t ion , n o t o n ly t ot ho se p e r son s w ho w e re t oc r u sh g r a in o ro the rs e ed s o n as t one b u t a l so t o t h e p a s se r s -by , i nt h a t t h e p e r son o r p e r son s u s ing a mo r ta r s t one a l so a t t rac ted p eop le w ho d i dn o tn ece s sa r i ly h ave t ot a ke t h a tw ay , w a lk ing f r om o ne p l ace t oa no the r , b u t r a the r d e l ibe ra te ly made t h e i r w ay p a s t t h e s i te . I ti sh ypo the s ized h e re t h a t t h e a wa renes s o f t h e l o ca t ion o f s uch a s t one , a nd w ha t i tr e p re sen ted i nt e rm s o fp eop le w o rk ing t h e re , i n f luenced p eop le i n t h e w ay t h a t t h ey a c ted a nd moved a bou t . T he mo r ta r s t one s m igh th ave f unc t ioned i nt h es ame w ay a s as qua re i n av i l lage o rt own d oe s o r i nt h e w ay t h a t t h e c ommuna l w a te r p ump u sed t od o , a nd s t i l l d oe s i n s ome p a r t s o f t h e w o r ld , a s ag a the r ing -p lace f o r p eop le t o c ha t a nd e xchange e xpe r ience sa nd i d ea s . T he h uman s i de o ft h e a r ch i tec tu re o ft h e s i te s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re i n c lude st h ef a c tt h a tt h er oom sc ou ld n o ta nd w e re t h e refo re n o ti n tended t o b e e n te red b y v a r iou s p e r son s s imu l taneou s ly . T he w id th o ft h ee n t rance s i s s uch t h a t i ti sc l ea rt h a tt h ey w e re i n tended f o ro n ly o ne p e r son a t at ime . I f a n e n t rance h a s r oom f o r o n ly o ne p e r son a t at ime , t h i s h a s t h e e f f ec t t h a t e ach i n d iv idua l w ho e n te r st h er oom c an b ec l ea r ly d i s t ingu ished b yp e r son s f r om w i th in t h er oom . We d o n o tk now , w he the rt h i s w a s n ece s sa ry o re ven i n ten t iona l i n t h i s c a se . A no the r e xp lana t ion m ay b e t h a t w ide r e n t rance s w e re s imp ly n o tn eeded , o w ing t ot h el ow i n ten s i ty i nt h ec om ing a nd g o ing o fp eop le , t ot h ef a c tt h a tt h ep eop le moved o n ly al i t t le w ay i n to a nd o u to f b u i ld ing s a nd r oom s o r t ot h e f a c t t h a t t h e n umbe r o f i nd iv idua l s w a s s o s ma l l t h a t t h e r i sk o f b ump ing i n to a ny o the r p e r son w hen e n te r ing o r l e av ing a r oom w a s m in ima l . I ts hou ld b e k ep t i n m ind h e re t h a t t h e e n t rance s a r e q u i te d eep , s i nce t h e t h ickne s s o f t h e w a l ls i sr ough ly o ne me t re a nd s ome t ime se ven n ea r ly t wo m e t re s . B o th t h e a t tached , s em ic i rcu la rs t ruc tu re s a nd t h e l a rge , r e c tangu la ro ne s o n t h e a l luv ia l c one o f t h e P i chao s i te h ad o n ly o ne e n t rance . A s Ih ave men t ioned i n a no the r c on tex t ( Beng t sson , 1 992b ) , a l l a t tached s em ic i rc le s h ave a cce s s o n ly f r om ar e c tang le a nd d o n o th ave a n i ndependen t e n t rance f r om t h e o u t s ide . T h i s m ean s t h a t a cce s s t o t h e b u i ld ing s c ou ld b e e a s i ly c on t ro l led f r om t h ei n s ide o f ar e c tang le a nd f r om t h ed oo rway i t se lf . A s Im en t ioned a bove , w hen h uman s a r e e xpo sed t or oom s o fd i f f e ren t s hape s a nd s i ze s , t h e re i s as ub s tan t ia l i lu s ion p roduced b y r e c tangu la r i ty . T h i s p henomenon m ay h ave b een k nown t ot h e p eop le o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , s o t h a t t h i s i lu s ion w a s t a ken i n to a ccoun t i n r oom d e s ign . T he l a rge , r e c tangu la r r oom s o r y a rd s c on t ra s t w i th t h e s ma l l , c i rcu la r a nd s em ic i rcu la r r oom s . T he i lu s ion i n s pace p e rcep t ion empha s ize s t h e d i f f e rence . It h e re fo re i n te rp re t t h e l a rge , r e c tangu la rr oom s a sh av ing b een o f g rea te r i mpo r tance t h an t h e s ma l l a nd r ounded , a tl e a s t i n as ymbo l ic s en se .

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T he i nhab i tan t s o f P ichao w e re n o t a i ded b y ac i rcu la r l a you t o r , a s i t s e em s , b y p i l la r s i nc ou r t s i nd e te rm in ing t h e ' way ' o ft h e s un ; t h ey c ou ld n o t f o l low t h e c yc le o ft h e y ea r i nt h e i r v i l lage l a you t . A t t h e s ame t ime , i t s e em s i n ev i tab le t h a t a n a g r icu l tu ra l s oc ie ty s hou ld d eve lop me thod s o f d e te rm in ing w hen t o s ow d i f f e ren t c rop s , w hen t o h a rve s t , e t c . O ne p o ss ib i l i ty i st h a t t h ey w e re i n s tead a i ded b y t h e r i s ing a nd s e t t ing o f t h e s un , t h e moon a nd o t he rc e le s t ia l b od ie s b eh ind c e r ta in n a tu ra l p henomena , s uch a s moun ta in p eak s , V shaped g ap s b e tween p eak s , e t c . , a s i ss t i l l t h e c a se i np a r t s o f t h e A nde s . T he c e le s t ia l b od ie s s t ud ied f o r s uch p urpo se s i n c lude —apa r t f r om t h e s un a nd t h e moon — s ta r s , c on s te l la t ion s , d a rk c l oud s a nd e ven t h e w ho le M i lky Way ( U r ton , 1 988 ) . U nfo r tuna te ly , w e d o n o t h ave s uch d a ta a va i lab le f o r P i chao o ro t he rc ommun i t ie s i nt h e r eg ion . O ne d i f f icu l ty i nd e te rm in ing s uch p o in t s i nt h e t e r ra in i st h a tt h e o ld C aca , K akän o r K akana l a nguage i se x t inc t . Ad i c t iona ry w a s c ompo sed b y t h e S pan i sh J e su i tf a the rA lon so d e B a rzana ( Bä rcena ) w h i le h e w a s wo rk ing a s am is s iona ry i n T ucumän i n t h e p e r iod 1 587-93 , b u t i t i s n ow l o s t ( Be rbe r iän 1 987 , 2 47 , 2 52 ; P io s sek , 1 984 , 1 24 , 1 38 ) . A no the r d i f f icu l ty i s t h a t , a tl e a s ti nt h ec a se o fP i chao , p eop le l i v ing t h e re t oday t o ag rea te x ten t c ome f r om o r a r e d e scendan t s o f p eop le f r om o t he r r eg ion s , a l so f r om w i th in B o l iv ia , a nd t h e re i sn o c e r ta in ty o fa ny c on t inu i ty i nt h e h ab i ta t ion o ft h e s i te f r om t h e t ime o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re a nd t ot h e p re sen t d ay . T he re a r e a l so d ocumen t s s how ing t h a t t h e i n hab i tan t s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia v a l ley w e re t r an sf e r red t ot h e v a l ley o fC ho romo ro s i nt h e 1 600 's , t os e rve t h e S pan ia rd s t h e re ( No l i e ta l . , 1 992 , 6 ,1 ) . I nc on t ra s t t ot h e s i te s s t ud ied b y H ornbo rg ( 1990 ) , t h e s i te s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re v i s i ted s how n o a x i s , n o c en t re a nd n o f o ca l p o in t , a nd t h ey d on o ts how a ny c l ea rd i v is ion so fs i te s o ro fp a r t s o fs i te s . T he se s i tes s how t h a t w o rk a nd r e s idence w e re c l o se ly i n teg ra ted . A g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s a nd d ome s t ic s pace s i nt h e f o rm o fh ou se s o f ten l i e i n te rm ing led . I n f a c t , t h ey a r e s ome t ime s i n teg ra ted t os uch a n e x ten t t h a t i ti sd i f f icu l t t od e term ine w he the r t h e h ou se s s t and a mong t h e f i e ld s o rt h e f i e ld s a r e l a id o u t among t h eh ouse s . H o rnbo rg ( 1990 ) a r gue s t h a t f e a tu re s s uch a s a n a x i s , ac en t re , a nd a f o ca l p o in t a r e c ha rac te r i s t ic o ft h e s i te s o fv a r iou s Amazon ian a nd c en t ra l A ndean c u l tu re s a nd t h a t t h e se c ha rac te r is t ic s l i nk t h em t o ge the r . S ince t h e s i te s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re o ft h e s ou thern c en t ra l A nde s d o n o t s how t h o se f e a tu re s , t h i s w ou ld i nd ica te t h a t t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re p e r ta in s t oa s epa ra te t r ad i t ion , a sc ompa red t ot h a t o ft h e c en t ra l A nde s , a s w e l l a s t h a t o ft h e Amazon , w he re s uch p henomena a r ec ha rac te r i s t ic . T he g ene ra l ly a ccep ted i d ea i st h a t t h e R eg iona l D eve lopmen t P e r iod ( A .D . 1 0001480 ) , i n c lud ing t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , s hou ld n o t b e c on s ide red t h e r e su l t o f ac omp le te ly a u toch thonou s d eve lopmen t , n o r a s t o ta l ly i mpo sed f r om t h eo u t s ide ( Nür iez R egue i ro , 1 978 ) . A s f a r a s a r ch i tec tu ra l l a you t a nd i t s i mp l ica t ion s a r e c once rned , i ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re i s t o b e s e en m e re ly a s t h e r e su l t o f ar eg iona l d eve lopmen t , w i th n o s i gn if ican t r e la t ion sh ip t o a tl e a s t e i the r t h e c en t ra l

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A ndean o rt h e Amazon ian t r ad i t ion , t h e re s hou ld b e a n teceden t s w i th in t h e r eg ion . N t i l lez R egue i ro ( 1978 , 4 68 ) r epo r t s a r e la t ive d i ve r s i ty o f s e t t lemen t p a t tern s i n t h e F o rma t ive P e r iod ( 200 B .C . t o A .D . 1 000 ) , b u t u nfo r tuna te ly , k now ledge o ft h e a r ch i tec tu re o ft h a tp e r iod i nt h e Moun ta in V a l ley s ub -a rea o fn o r th -we s te rn A rgen t ina i sf a rf r om s a t i sfac to ry . S ince c l a s s if ica t ion p l ay s ac r i t ica l r o le i n t h e h uman w o r ld , t h e r oom s t ruc tu re s a nd o t he r f e a tu re s a t P i chao s hou ld n o t b e c on s ide red a s i n c iden ta l ly r ep re sen t ing d i f f e ren t f o rm s b u t r a the r a s r ep re sen t ing a man ipu la t ion o fs pace , o fs pa t ia le n t i t ie s , o fs pa t ia lr e la t ion sh ip s . I n t h e a r ch i tec tu re o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , t h e re i s at e ndency t o a b s t rac t ion i n t h e f o rm o f g eome t r ica l f i gu re s s uch a s p a ra l le lep iped s , c y l inde r s a nd s em ic i rc le s . T he c omb ina t ion s o ft h e r ound a nd t h e r ounded w i th t h e r e c tangu la r , t h e s ma l l w i th t h e l a rge , a nd t h e a g r icu l tu ra l f i e ld s w i th t h e h ou se s a nd y a rd s f o l low ap a t te rn . T he g eome t r ica l f i gu re s m ay b e s a id t oc on s t i tu te a n e l emen ta ry s phe re o f mo t if s i nt h e l a nguage o f f o rm . C e r ta in ly , i ti sa n i n t r igu ing q ue s t ion w ha t s ymbo l ic s cope o r i mpo r tance t h e se mo t if sh ad f o rt h ep eop le o ft h a tc u l tu re . T he a r ch i tec tu ra l r ema in s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re s how a s t rong e l emen t o f t r ad i t ion . T hey g ive t h e i mp re ss ion t h a t t h e re w a s s uch a n i n te rp lay b e tween t h e a r ch i tec tu ra l p a r t i t ion ing a nd f o rm ing o fr oom s a nd t h e w ay o fl i f e o ft h e i n hab i tan t s t h a t t h e a r ch i tec tu re a nd i t s c r ea to r s a nd t h e i nhab i tan t s c ame t or ep re sen t aw ay o f l i v ing t h a t w a s s t ab le t h rough g ene ra t ion s . T he s ma l l v a r ia t ion s t h a t d o o ccu r w ou ld r ep re sen t t h e v a r ia t ion o f h uman a c t ion w i th in t h a t t r ad i t ion , ar e co rd o f t h e v a r iou s d imen s ion s t h a t h uman l i f e c on ta in s . Whe re t r ad i t ion i s s t rong , i ti s a m is take f o rt h eb u i lde r s t od ev ia te f r om i t ,a nd t h o se w ho d o s oa r el i ke ly t o s uf f e r t h e s anc t ion s a l so l a id d own b y c u s tom . T he s ma l l v a r ia t ion s t h a t o ccu r may r ep re sen t ah uman t e ndency t o v a r ia t ion , w heneve r i t i s p e rm i t ted .

R e fe rences B eng t s son , L . 1 992a A r ch i tec tura lR ema in s a sA r chaeo logy . I d eas a nd A t t emp t s i n aS ub A nd ean C on tex t , GOTARC S e r ie C . A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r N o . 9 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg B eng t s son , L . 1 992b " The P e r cep t ion a nd N o t ion o f S pa ce i nR e la t ion t oA r ch i tec tu re" , Med e l t id sar keo log i sk T id sk r if t( META ) 3 / 92 , L und , 2 -21 B e rbe r iän , E . 1 987 C rön icas d e l T ucumän . S ig lo XV I , C omech ingon ia , R ev i s ta d e A n t ropo log f a eH i s to r ia ,C ö rdoba ( A rgen t ina ) C or ne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 , E l P ichao 1 990 . S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C ase S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , A rchaeo logy ,G ö t ebo rg

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C onc i se E ncyc loped ia o fP sycho logy 1 987 R aymond J .C o r s in i ( e d . ) , J ohn W i ley & S on s , N ew Y o rk

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C orne l l , E . 1 962 A rk i t ek tur en s om k uns tar t , H uman i s t i ske a r k i tek tu r s tud ie r , A rk i tek ten s F o r lag , C openhagen C u l len , G . 1 971 T he C onc i se T ownscape , T he A rch i tec tu ra l P re s s , C ha tham , 2 nd r e v . e d . ( 1 s te d . 1 961) D e rgow sk i , J . B . a nd B en t ley A .M . 1 986 " Pe r cep t ion o f P i c to r ia l S pace b y B u shmen" , I n terna t iona lJ ourna lo fP sycho logy , 2 1 , 7 43-752 , N or th H o l land D on ley , L . W . 1 980 " Hou se P owe r : Swah i l i S pace a nd S ymbo l ic C ap i ta l" , S t ruc tura l i sm a nd S ymbo l i sm i nA r chaeo logy , C onf e rence p roceed ing s , C amb r idge , 2 0p p . D u ly , C . 1 979 T he H ouse so f Mank ind ,T hame s a nd H ud son , L ondon E l iade , M . 1 968 H e l ig t o ch p rof an t ( 1 s t e d . i n G e rman i n 1 957 , D as H e i l ige u nd d a s P rof ane ) , V e rbum , S tockho lm G eh l , I .1 97 1 B o -m i / j0 , S t a tens B yggefo r skn ing s in s t i tu t , S B I -Rappo r t 7 1 , K öpenhamn . I k omm is s ion h o sT ekn i sk F o r lag ( w i th E ng l i sh s umma ry ) G eh l , J . 1 971 L ive t m e l lom h usene , A rk i tek ten s F o r lag , K öpenhamn ( w i th E ng l i sh s umma ry ) G i lman , P .A . 1 987 " A r ch i tec tu re a s A r t if ac t : P i t S t ruc tu re s a nd P ueb lo s i nt h e Ame r ican S ou thwe s t" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty 5 2 /3 , 5 38-564 G i lman , P .A . 1 989 " AR e spon se t oW i l shu sen" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty , 5 4 /4 , 8 34-836 . H e s se lg ren , S .1 975 Man 's P ercep t ion o f Man -made E nv ironmen t :A na rch i tec tura lt h eor y , S tuden t l i t te ra tu r , L und H e sse lg ren , S .1 988 F y s ik c on tra p syke : E n u ppsa t s ,D onn S cand inav ia , S ig tuna H odde r , I . 1 982 S ymbo l s i n A c t ion : E thnoarchaeo log ica l s t ud ies o f m a ter ia l c u l tur e , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge H ornbo rg , A . 1 990 " H igh land a nd L ow land C oncep t ions o f S oc ia l S pace i n S ou th Ame r ica : S ome E thnoa r chaeo log ica l A ff in i t ie s" , F o lk , 3 2 , 1 990 , 6 1-92 , R ep r in t , C openhagen I s be l l , W . 1 978 " Co smo log ica l O rde r E xp re s sed i nP reh is to r ic C e r emon ia l C en te r s" , i nB . A lbe r te ta l . , A c te sd u Xi l l e C ongrs I n terna t iona ld e s Amgr ican i s te s , V o l . 4 Mor r i s , D . 1 971 D e t m än sk l iga m enager ie t , P an /No r s ted t s . S tockho lm ( o r ig ina l ly T he H uman Z oo , L ondon 1 969 ) N o l i , E . , A rana ,M .M . , a nd C a rbone l ,A . 1 992 L os P ich i jao s . P ueb lo d e lg rupo P acc ioca a l momen to d e l c on tac to . S u a r t icu lac iön c on e l m undo c o lon ia l , MS . , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , S an M igue l d e T ucumän ( To b e p ub l . i nA nuar io , n o . 1 ,I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän ) N ü t iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 978 " Con s ide ra t ion s o n t h e P e r iod iza t ions o f No r thwe s t A rgen t ina" , i n D . L . B rowman ( e d . ) , 1 978 , A dvances i n A nd ean A rchaeo logy , T he H ague ,4 53-484 N ü i iez R egue i ro , V , a nd T a r tu s i M . 1 991 " O r igene s d e l ao cupa c iön d e l e spac io e n e ls i t io S TucTav 5( E l P i chao )" i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e ds . ) 1 99 1 O l iveg ren , J .1 969 " Bo s tad o ch Men ta lhyg ien" , KKon tur 1 969 /2 , 6 17 P io ssek P reb i sch , T . 1 984 R e lac iön h i s tör ica d e C a lchaqu i : E scr i ta p or e l m i s ionero j e su i ta P ad r e H ernando d e T or r eb lanca e n 1 696 , Moder n ized v e r s ion , n o te s a nd m ap s b yT e re sa P io s sek P reb isch ,E d ic ione sC u l tu ra le s A rgen t ina s , B ueno s A i re s

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S ada l la , E .K . a nd O x ley , D . 1 984 " The P e r cep t ion o f R oom S i ze : T he R ec tangu la r i ty I lu s ion" ,E nv ironmen ta nd B ehav ior , 1 6 /3 , May 1 984 ,394-405 S ensor imo tor I n t erac t ion s i nS pace P er cep t ion a nd A c t ion 1 986 i nD . G . B ouwhu i s e ta l . ( e d s . )A c ta P sycho log ica , I n te rna t iona lJ ourna l o fP sychonom ic s , V o l . 6 3 S hank s , M . a nd T i l ley , C . 1 987 R e -Cons t ruc t ing A rchaeo logy : T heor y a nd P rac t ice , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s ,C amb r idge S t rombe rg , W .H . 1 989 " He lmho l tz a nd Z oe l lne r : N ine teen th -Cen tu ry Emp i r ic i sm , a nd t h e T heo ry o f S pace P e r cep t ion" , J ourna l o ft h e H i s tory o ft h e B ehav iora l S c ience s 2 5 /4 ( Oc t . 1 989 ) , 3 71-383 S vensk U pp s lagsbok 1 96 1 F ö r lag shu se tN o rden , Ma lmö , 2 nd r e v . e d i t ion ( 1 s te d . 1 947-55 ) U r ton , G . 1 988 A t t h e C ro s sroad s o f t h e E ar th a nd t h e S ky : A n A nd ean C o smo logy , U n ive r s i ty o fT exa s P r e s s . A u s t in , 2 nd r e v . e d i t ion ( 1 s te d . 1 981) d e V ega , M . , I n ton s -Pe te r son , M .J . , J ohn son -La i rd , P .N . , D en is , M . a nd Ma r scha rk , M . ( e d s . ) 1 996 Mod e l so fV i suo spa t ia lC ogn i t ion ,O xfo rd U n ive r s i ty P re s s , N ew Y o rk W i lshu sen , R .H . 1 989 " A r ch i tec tu re a s A r t if ac t —Pa r t I : A C ommen t o n G i lman" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty , 5 4 /4 ,826-833

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4 . AC ompa r ison o ft he A rch i tec tu ra l R ema ins a tt he P i chao , T o lombön a nd T a lapazo S i tes o ft he S an ta Ma r ia C u l tu re i nN o r th -wes te rn A rgen t ina 2 L i sbe tB eng t s son D u r ing t h e 1 991 f i e ld s e a son , m app ing o ft h eP i chao s i te w a s c on t inued ( b y my se lf , s e eF igu re 4 . 1 h e re ;b yS u sana S jöd in a nd S ven A h lg ren ; a nd b yP e r S tenbo rg ) . F u r the rmo re , Im apped p a r t s o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia s i te s o f T o lombön a nd T a lapazo ( F igu re s 4 . 2-4 .3 ) . T h i s w a s d one s o a s t oh ave a b a s i sf o r ac ompa r i son b e tween P i chao a nd o t he rs i te so ft h es o -ca l led S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re a nd t oi n f e rt y p ica l f e a tu re s i nt h e a r ch i tec tu re o ft h a tc u l tu ra l t r ad i t ion . V a r iou s f e a tu re s a r e m en t ioned i nt h e l i t e ra tu re , b u t p ub l i shed m ap s o f who le s i te s a r e t o m y k now ledge n on -ex i s ten t . A dän Q u i roga 's ( 190 1a ) map o f t h e F ue r te Q uemado s i te d oe s n o t c o r re spond v e ry w e l l t o t h e r ema in s a tt h e s i te , a tl e a s t a s t h ey a r e p re se rved t oday ( s ee K r iscau tzky MS . ) . T he re i so ne p re l im ina ry r epo r t f r om t h e F ue r te Q uemado s i te , b a sed o n i n ve s t iga t ion s b y 1 \ 6 s to r K r i scau tzky ( MS . ) . U nfo r tuna te ly f o r m y p u rpo se s , K r i scau tzky c ho se as e c to ro n t h e ' f la t s ' b y t h e S an ta Ma r ia r i ve r a nd l y ing a pa r t f r om o the r r ema in s f o r h i s e xcava t ion s . I t w a s c ho sen b ecau se t h a ts e c to r 's b u i ld ing r ema in sa r en o tt y p ica lo fS an ta Ma r ia s i te s . I t c ou ld a l so b ep roved t h a tt h e re w a s a n I n ca i n f luence i nt h a tp a r to ft h e s i te . I nca P aya s he rd s w e re w e l lr ep re sen ted i nt h ef i nd ma te r ia l .

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e a r l ie rv e r s ion o ft h i s a r t ic le h a s a ppea r ed i nB eng t s son 1 992a .

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F i gu re 4 . 1 . P i chao . P a r ts o ft he s i te o ft he S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re , s ec to rs I l-I llo nt he a luv ia l f an . Mapp ing w as d one w i th at heodo l i te . Ab ou lde r w as f i r s t ma rked a cco rd ing t ot he measu remen ts o fa n a l t i tude me te r , w h ich h ad b een s e ta cco rd ing t ot he h e igh ta bove s ea l e ve l ma rked a t C o la lao d e l V a l le . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson .

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o r ien ta t ion o fe n t rance /ex i t f a l len -ou t b u i ld ing ma te r ia l w a l l o fs t ruc tu re ; o the rw a l l w i th t wo f aces

F i gu re 4 . 2 .T o lombön . P a r ts o ft he n o r th -eas te rn s ec to ro ft he s i te . M easu remen ts w e re made w i th at heodo l i te . A l though t he i n te rna l d i fe rences i nh e igh ts hown w i th in t he mapped a rea a re c o r rec t , t he i n i t ia l h e igh t ma rked o n ab ou lde rc ou ld n o tb es e tw i th a ny a ccu racy . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson .

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F i gu re 4 . 3 . T a lapazo . P a r to ft he s ou the rn s ec to ro ft he s i te . Measu remen ts w e re made w i th at heodo l i te . A l though t he i n te rna l d i fe rences i nh e igh ts hown w i th in t he mapped a rea a re c o r rec t , t he i n i t ia l h e igh t ma rked o n ab ou lde rc ou ld n o tb es e tw i th a ny a ccu racy . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson .

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N o tebook s b y F ranc i sco d e A pa r ic io o n T o lombön a r e a r ch ived i nT i lca ra , b u t u nfo r tuna te ly Ih ave n o t b een a b le t o c on su l t t h em t o c ompa re t h em w i th my o wn o b se rva t ion s . T he T o lombön s i te i ss i tua ted a bou t 2 0 km NNE . o fP ichao . S ome d raw ing s o fs i ng le s t ruc tu re s a tt h eP ichao s i te h ave b een m ade b y C a r lo s D a r io A lbo rnoz a tt h eU n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän b u t , o w ing t o l a ck o f t ime a nd t h e m app ing t e chn ique emp loyed , t h ey a r e a l l t o o s chema t ic t ob e o fm uch h e lp ( s ee A lbo rnoz a nd A lbo rnoz , 1 985 ; E s teban , 1 985 ) . E ven k now ing w ha t s t ruc tu re h a s b een d rawn , i ti s d i f f icu l t t o r e cogn ize i ti nt h e f i e ld . P ho tog raph s i nA lbo rnoz a nd A lbo rnoz ( 1985 ) a nd i n Magadän ( 1989 ) a r e u sefu l f o r g e t t ing a n i mp re s s ion o f t h e l o ca t ion o f t h e s i te a nd o fd e ta i l s , s uch a sw a l l c on s t ruc t ion . Mapp ing o f t h e Q u i lme s s i te w a s u nde r taken i n t h e 1 990 's b y t h e Mapp ing D epa r tmen t a tt h eM igue l L i l lo i n s t i tu te , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän . My r iam T a r ragö a nd h e r s t af f 's h i gh -qua l i ty m app ing w o rk a tR incön C h ico h a s n o t y e t b een p rope r ly p ub l i shed . T he s i te h a s b een c on s ide red t o b e I nca o r t o s how I n ca i nf luence i n i t s a r ch i tec tu re ( My r iam T a r ragö , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion , P i chao 1 989 ) . I th a s , h oweve r , f e a tu re s t h a t a r e v e ry much t h e s ame a s t h o se a t r e cogn ized S an ta Ma r ia s i te s . T he a r chaeo log ica l i n ve s t iga t ion s h ave f u r the rmo re s hown t h a t t h e s i te w a s i n u se d u r ing t h e R eg iona l D eve lopmen t P e r iod ( Ta r ragö a nd N a s t r i 1 999 , 2 62 ) . A s f o r T a lapazo , w o rk w a s i n i t ia ted i n 1 990 b y o u r c o l league s f r om t h e I n s t i tu to d eA rqueo log ia a tt h eu n ive r s i ty i nS an M igue l d eT ucumän . T h ree m ino r t r enche s w e re o pened , t wo o f w h ich w e re w i th in a r e c tangu la r b u i ld ing a nd o ne o fw h ich w a s b y as i ng le , e r ec ted s l ab l o ca ted i nt h e o pen . S ome g ood mapp ing w a s a l so d one , i n t wo d i f f e ren t a r ea s . O ne i so n a moun ta in s pu rr i gh tt ot h eS SW o ft h ea luv ia l f a no ft h e s i te ; t h eo t he ri so n t h ef an . T a lapazo i sl o ca ted a bou t2 . 5 km t ot h eS SW o fP i chao . T he m app ing a r ea s a tb o th P i chao a nd T a lapazo t h a ta r ep re sen ted i nt h i s a r t ic le ( F igu re s 4 . 1 , 4 . 3 ) w e re c ho sen s o t h a t t h ey s hou ld c omb ine w i th a l ready m apped a r ea s o f t h o se s i te s . A s f o r T o lombön , t h e m apped a r ea p re sen ted h e re i st h eo n ly o ne p ub l ished ( F igu re 4 . 2 ) .

L oca t ion A l l t h ree s i te s t h a t a r e s pec if ica l ly d ea l t w i th h e re h ave s im i la r l o ca t ion s . T he b u i ld ing s o fa l t h ree a r e c oncen t ra ted o n a l luv ia l f an s o n t h e w e s te rn s i de o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia r i ve r . T he re i s ad i f f e rence i nt h e s t eepne s s o ft h e t e r ra in , w i th T o lombön s i tua ted o n av e ry g en t le s l ope a nd T a lapazo o n a r a the r s t eep s l ope . P i chao l i e s o n a n i n te rmed ia te s l ope . Imu s t e mpha s i se h e re t h a t Is ha l l n o t i n t h i s c on tex t d ea l w i th c on s t ruc t ion s o n t h e s t eep moun ta in s ide s o r o n t h e moun ta in s pu r s t h a t e x i s t o n b o th s i de s o f t h e r e spec t ive c one s . T he r e a son i s , o n t h e o ne h and , t h a t t h ey a r e d i f f e ren t i n c ha rac te rf r om t h es t ruc tu re so nt h ef a n s a nd , o nt h eo the r , t h a t Id on o th ave

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e nough d a ta f o r t ho se a r ea s . F u r the rmo re , Ia m s o f a r n o t c e r ta in o f t h e i r r e la t ion sh ip w i th t h e s t ruc tu re s o n t h e f an s . F o r P i chao , i ti sc l ea r t h a t t h ey a r e a t l e a s t c h rono log ica l ly r e la ted , s i nce S an ta Ma r ia a nd S an ta Ma r ia r e la ted s he rd s a r e t h e c ommone s t f i nd s ( S taf f an A nbe rg , f i e ld n o te s f r om 1 990 ) . A t t h e s ame t ime , t h ey d o n o t s e em t oc on s t i tu te c en t ra l p a r t s o ft h e r e spec t ive s i te s . I n ag ene ra l s en se , o b se rva t ion s m ade o n t h e moun ta in s ide o n t h e n o r thern s i de o f t h e T o lombön f an i nd ica te ap a t te rn s im i la r t ot h e moun ta in s ide o ft h e P i chao s i te , w i th s t ra igh tt e r race w a l l s a l ong c av i t ie s o f t h e moun ta in s ide a nd w i th p o s s ib le s qua re room s t ruc tu re s o n ( s ome o f ) t h em .

Wa l ls F e rnando Mä rquez M i randa ( 1946 , 6 39 ) s t a te s t h a t t h e h ou se w a l ls o ft h e D iagu i ta i n C a lchaqu i a r e o f d ry m a son ry .3 T h i s s t a temen t d oe s n o t c o r re spond t ow ha t Ih ave b een a b le t oo b se rve a te i the r o f t h e t h ree s i te s . O n t h e c on t ra ry , t h e w a l l s a r e b u i l t w i th mo r ta r , a l though n o t i n a ny q uan t i ty . Mä rquez ' s t a temen t t h a t e ach i nd iv idua l h ou se i s c ons t ruc ted a s a c omp le te u n i ta nd t h a t , e ven w hen t wo h ou se s a d jo in e a ch o the r ,t h ey d on o t h ave ap a r ty -wa l l s e em s s omewha t e xagge ra ted ( Mä rquez 1 946 , 6 39 ) . I fa h ou se i sd ef ined a st h et yp ica l c ompound w i th o ne r e c tang le a nd o ne o rt wo s em ic irc le s , i ti st r ue t h a t s uch c ompound s o f ten f o rm s epa ra te u n i t s ( f o r e xamp le , t h e u n i t s i n t h e u ppe r p a r t o f F igu re 4 . 1) . Mä rquez ( 1946 , 6 39 ) s ay s t h a t t h e r e c tangu la r f o rm s e em s t op redom ina te i nt h e a r ch i tec tu re . I f , t h en , ah ou se i sd ef ined a st h e R ec tang le , s uch r e c tang le s d o o ccu rt oge the r , w i th ap a r ty -wa l l ( f o re xamp le , i nt h e l owe rp a r to fF igu re 4 . 1) . E ven i nt h e c a se i nw h ich t h e r e c tang le w i th a d jo in ing s ma l le r s t ruc tu re s i sc on s ide red a s t h e H ou se , t h ey o ccu r w i th ap a r ty -wa l l ( f o r e xamp le , i nt h e c en t ra l p a r t o fF igu re 4 . 2 ) .

R oo f ing T he r oof ing t e chn ique d e sc r ibed b y Mä rquez ( 1946 , 6 39 ) h a s h i the r to n o t b een c onf i rmed . I ts eem s t h a t Mä rquez w a s d raw ing u pon mode rn p ea san t d we l l ing s , w hen h e d e sc r ibe s t h em a s m ade o f af r amewo rk o f b ranche s r e s t ing o n t h e w a l l s a nd s uppo r t ing s ma l le r , t r an sve r se b ranche s , w h ich w e re c ove red w i th l e ave s o r w i th t o r ta ( mud m ixed w i th s ma l l s t one s , f r agmen t s o f p l an t s , s t raw , a nd s o o n ) . N o r oof ing ma te r ia l h a s b een i d en t if ied i n o u r e xcava t ion s , a nd i ts e em s t h a t Ma rquez ' s t a temen t r e s t s mo re o n l o g ic a nd o b se rva t ion s o f t oday 's r oof ing t e chn ique s i n t h e c oun t rys ide t h an o nf i rm e v idence f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia s i te s t h em se lve s .

T he D iagu i ta i s at e rm t h a tw a s u sed b y t h e S pan ia rd sf o rt h ep eop le t h ey e ncoun te red l i v ing i nt h er e g ion o n t h e i ra r r iva l . I tw a s a l so u sed b y t h em f o rp eop le l i v ing f u r the rt o t h e s ou th , i nw ha ti sn ow t h e C a tama rca p rov ince ( s ee m ap s i nP io s sek , 1 986 , 5 8-59 ; B e rbe r iän , 1 987 , 1 2 ) .

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F unc t ion O ne c r uc ia l p o in t a s r ega rd s f unc t ion i s t h e u se o f t h e s em ic i rcu la r s t ruc tu re s a d jo in ing t h e l a rge , r e c tangu la r o ne s . I n a f o rme r a r t ic le ( Beng t s son , 1 990 , 1 992 ) , Is ugge s ted t h a t t h ey w e re s t o rehouse s . S ince t h en , e xcava t ion s h ave b een c a r r ied o u t b y P e r C o rne l l ( i n 1 990 a nd 1 991) i nt wo s uch s t ruc tu re s . Ow ing t ot h ep re sence o fa she s a nd c ha rcoa l i nb o th o f t h em , t h ey h ave b een i n te rp re ted a s k i tchen s a nd /o r h ab i ta t ion s ( s ee C o rne l l , 1 991 , C hap te r 3 ) . T h i s m ay b e c o r rec t , b u t a tt h e s ame t ime w e mu s t s t i l l c on s ide r o t he r p o ss ib le f unc t ion s . T he re w a s i n I n ca t ime s a nd t h e re i ss t i l l t oday i nP e ru ac u s tom o fb u rn ing t h ei n te r io r so fs t o rehou se sa t t ime s , a nd c on sequen t ly t h e p re sence o f c ha rcoa l a nd a she s d oe s n o t n ece s sa r i ly i n d ica te t h e p re sence o fh ea r th s . T he w ay i nw h ich t h e c l ean ing o f as t o rehou se i sd one t oday i st h a t , f i r s t , f ood s tuf f s e t c . a r e s c raped o u to f t h e c hambe r , t h en e i the rp a lo d es angr e ( at r ee ) o ri c hu ( ag ra s s o ft h ep una h igh land s ) w i th y e l low a j i( ap eppe r f r u i t ) i sp u t i n s ide . T he i n te r io r i ss e t o n f i re , a nd t h e d oo r i sc l o sed . T he i n te r io r , a l ong w i th t h e r oof , w i l l b ur n a nd w i l l t hu s b e c l ea red o fi n sec t s , e t c . ( Ram i ro Ma to s Mend ie ta , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion , G ö tebo rg 1 992 ) .

I n te rna l o rgan iza t ion A l l t h ree s i te s h ave a r ea s o f h ab i ta t ion i n te rm ing led w i th a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s a nd a l so h ave a g r icu l tu ra lt e r race s b e low t h eh ab i ta t ion a r ea p rope r . I ts eem s t h e re fo r e t h a t t h e re w a s av e ry c l o se r e la t ion sh ip b e tween t h e p eop le a nd t h e i r a g r icu l tu re . Ia m s ugge s t ing t h a t t h e i n hab i tan t s w e re ma in ly o ccup ied w i th a g r icu l tu ra l t a sk s a nd t h a t t h e i r l i ve s w e r e c ha rac te r ized b yt h e i ra g r icu l tu ra l e conomy . I n s ta l la t ion s s uch a s h ou se s a nd t e r race s i n d ica te av e ry s t ab le l i f e s ty le , i ng eog raph ica l t e rm s . T he g round w a s p repa red r epe t i t ive ly b y c l ea r ing i t s s u rface o fb ou lde r s a nd s t one s . T he p l ann ing o ft h e s i te s s e em s t oh ave b een o pen , i nt h e s en se t h a tt h e re a r e d i f f e rence s b e tween t h e s pace s l e f t b e tween b u i ld ing s , i n t h e i r o r ien ta t ion ( a cco rd ing t o t h e d oo rway s ) , a nd i nh ow g roup s o f s t ruc tu re s v a ry i nt h e n umbe r o fr oom s , b u i ld ing s , s pace s b e tween o ne g roup a nd t h e o the r ,e t c . T he p recond i t ion s a r e v e ry s im i la r , a s r ega rd s c l ima t ic c ond i t ion s , v ege ta t ion , w a te ra va i lab i l i ty , a nd s o i l c ond i t ion s . H oweve r , T o lombön h a s ac l o se r a cce s s t oa l gar robo t r ee s . We k now f r om t h e f i r s t S pan ia rd s t h a t t h e se t r ee s w e re o fg r ea t i mpo r tance a nd t h a t t h e re w e re e ven b a t t le s a bou t t h em ( f o r e xamp le , P io s sek , 1 984 , 8 0 ) . T he i r s i l iquae w e re u sed a s f odde r , t o make b read , a nd t op repa re a loha , ab eve rage . E ven t oday t h e f r u i t s a r e u sed a sf odde r a nd , w hen t h e w ind s t a r t s t ob low i nt h e r i gh t s e a son , g oa t s w i l l s t a r t r unn ing t owa rd s t h e t r ee s t og e t t h e re f i r s t a nd t h en s nap u p t h e d e s i red f r u i t sh a i l ing d own , a sw e l la st h eo ne sj u s tf a l len d own .

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A lso t h e c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l v i s ib le o n t h e s u r f ace i ss im i la r a sb e tween t h e s i te s . T he mo s t c ommon f i nd s a r e c e ram ic s . Among t h ec e ram ic s , b y f a rt h e mo s t f r equen t ly r ep re sen ted t ype s a r e t h e S an ta Ma r ia /Be len /Qu i lme s w a re a nd t h e c oa r se w a re , a s d e sc r ibed f o r P ichao . A lso q ua r tz i n t h e f o rm o f f l ake s i sp re sen t , b u t t h e a moun t v a r ie s s omewha t a sb e tween t h e s i te s . T he r ea son f o rt h i s w e d o n o tk now ; t h e re w a s n o s ho r tage o fr aw ma te r ia l , s i nce u nu sed , n a tu ra l s t one s a nd b ou lde r s o f q ua r tz a r e p r e sen t a ta l l t h ree s i te s . S ome f l ake s w e re f ound o f o the r r ock s b u t s eem t o b e mo re c ommon a t T o lombön . T he b u i ld ing s a r e s im i la r , a l though t h e re i ss ome v a r ia t ion . T he re a r e l a rge , r e c tangu la r s t ruc tu re s w i th a t tached , m ino r s t ruc tu re s . A t T a lapazo , r e c tangu la rs t ruc tu re s a l so s t and a l one , t h a ti s ,w i thou tt h e a t tached , r ounded o ne s . W i th in t h e mapped a r ea o f P i chao s hown i n F igu re 4 . 1 , t wo , l a rge , r ec tangu la r s t ruc tu re s h ave b een b u i l t t o ge the r b u t w i th n o m ino r s t ruc tu re s a t tached . A t T o lombön , a no the r f e a tu re c an b e o b se rved . T he re , n o t o n ly r ounded s t ruc tu re s b u t a l so m ino r , s qua re o ne s a r e a t tached t ot h e l a rge , r e c tangu la r o ne s . Wha t s i gn if icance t h a t d i f f e rence h ad w e d o n o t k now , w he the r i tw a s o n ly as i gn o fl o ca l v a r ia t ion o ff o rm o rw he the r i tw a s o fa ny f unc t iona l o r o the ri mpo r tance . A t T o lombön , t h e re i s a no the r p henomenon , i n w h ich a r ounded s t ruc tu re i sb u i l t o n to aw a l l w i th t wo f a ce s , w h ich i nt u rn i s ap ro longa t ion o f at e r race w a l l . T hu s , t h a t s pec if ic s t ruc tu re i sf r ee s tand ing i nr e la t ion t o o the rr oom s t ruc tu re s a nd n o t a t tached t oo the rr oom s . I nt h e p a r t o ft h e s i te t ha t w a s f i e ld -wa lked , n o o the r s uch , s i ng le , r ounded s t ruc ture s w e re o b se rved . O ne f e a tu re t h a t i su n ique t oT a lapazo , a cco rd ing t o my o b se rva t ion s s o f a r , i s ap a s sageway w i th b u i l t -up w a l l s o n b o th s i de s . W i th in t h e mapped a rea , i ti sa bou t 1 . 21 .8 m w ide a nd 4 0 ml ong ( F igu re 4 . 3 ) . I t s t o ta l l e ng th i sa bou t d oub le . W i th in i t ,l ow , c on ta in ing w a l l s f o rm s t ep s ; t h ey a r e b u i l t u p i nt h e s ame w ay a s mo s t o f t h e w a l ls o f t h e a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s . N ine s uch s t ep s a ppea rw i th in t h e m apped a r ea . T he s ou th -ea s te rn c on t inua t ion o f t h e p a s sageway h a s b een d e s t royed b y ac a r t rack t h a t h a s b een o pened r i gh t t h rough t h e s i te . O u t s ide t h e m apped a r ea , t o t h e n o r th , i tc on t inue s p a r t ly a s at e r race , a nd f i na l ly s imp ly e nd s i nt h e o pen , o n a n a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race .

R amps A t T a lapazo , t wo r amp s c onnec ted w i th e ach o the r f o r e n te r ing ab u i ld ing w e re o b se rved ( s ee o n t h e u ppe rr i gh t i nF igu re 4 . 3 ) . T he b u i ld ing i s al a rge , r e c tangu la r s t ruc tu re . O ne o ft h e r amp s i so n t h e o u t s ide o ft h e b u i ld ing a nd i sa bou t 1 . 4 mw ide a nd 8m l o ng , r i s ing a l ong s ide t h e o u te r w a l l . T he o the r r amp i so n t h e i n s ide o f t h e s ame b u i ld ing , f i r s t l e ad ing a t ar i gh t a ng le t o t h e w a l l , a nd t h en b end ing . T h is r amp i s( pa r t ly ) c ove red w i th d eb r is f r om t h e w a l l b u tc an s t i l l b e d i sce rned . I ti so ft h e s ame w id th a st h er amp o n t h e o u t s ide b u t m ea su re s o n ly a bou t 2 . 5 m i nl e ng th . I td oe s n o t r un o n t op o f

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t h e w a l l o f t h e b u i ld ing b u t i ss l igh t ly s e t i n to i t . S tone s a r e l a id s o a s t o f o rm af a ce o nb o th s i de so ft h er amp o nt o po ft h ew a l l . I t may h ave b een t h e c a se t h a t r amp s w e re b u i l t , a nd o n ly b u i l t , w he re t wo p recond i t ion s w e re p re sen t . F i r s t ly , w he re t h e t e r ra in w a s b locky a nd h ad t ob e c l ea red i nt h e c u l t iva t ion p roce s s . T h i s c ond i t ion i sp re sen t a ta l t h ree s i te s . S econd ly , w he re t h e t e r r ra in h ad s uch a s l ope t h a t e n t rance s c ou ld n o t b e b u i l t o n t h e u ppe r s i de s o fb u i ld ing s w i thou tr emov ing q u i te a l o to fs o i l ( w i th i t ss t one s ) . F o rt h es ame r e a son ,e n t rance sc ou ld n o tb eb u i l t o n t h e l owe r s i de s o fb u i ld ing s . T h i s c ond i t ion i sp re sen t o n ly a tT a lapazo . T o b u i ld r amp s , i tw a s n o t n ece ssa ry t oe xcava te t h e g round . Mov ing s o i l w i th s t one s t o r a the r t h an a way f r om b u i ld ing s w a s p robab ly a g ood s o lu t ion , s i nce , i nt h a t w ay , t h e p eop le g o t r i d o ft h e s t one s f r om t h e f i e ld s a nd h ad s omewhe re t op u t t h em . A c tua l ly , i ts e em s t oh ave b een t h e c a se t h a t , w he re t h e r amp s w e re o b se rved a t T a lapazo , t h e re h ad b een a n e n t rance ( doo rway ) b efo re . T he r amp s w e re as o lu t ion t ot h e p rob lem o fa n e xce ss o fs t one s . I f my i n te rp re ta t ion i sc o r rec t , w e s hou ld n o te xpec tr amp s t ob e p r e sen t a ts i te s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re w i th g en t le s l ope s b u t o n ly a ts i te s w i th ac ompa rab ly s t eep t e r ra in . T hu s , Iam s ugge s t ing t h a t t h e i d ea o f r amp s f o r e n te r ing a nd l e av ing b u i ld ing s w a s k nown i n t h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re b u t w a s emp loyed o n ly when i tw a s f ound mo re c onven ien t t h an b u i ld ing d oo rway s . F o r e xamp le , when w a lk ing d own t h e s l ope t oe n te r ab u i ld ing , o ne s imp ly w a lked o ve r t h e w a l l a nd t h en w a lked d own ar amp o n t h e i n s ide . A t l e a s t , t h e r amp s I o b se rved w e re l e ad ing i n to a nd o u t o f al a rge , r e c tangu la r s t ruc tu re . T h i s f a c t s t reng then s t h e v i ew t h a t t h e l a rge , r e c tangu la r s t ruc tu re s w e re n o t r oof ed b u t w e re i n s tead o pen y a rd s . I tm ay , o f c ou r se , h ave b een t h a t a n o pen ing i n ar oo f w a s a r ranged o r b u i l t w he re o ne c ro ssed t h e w a l l , b u t I f ound n o i nd ica t ion s o f ar oof c on s t ruc t ion o r s pec ia l a r rangemen t s f o r a n o pen ing w he re t h er amp sr e ached t h ew a l l .

R oom s t ruc tu res I t may e ven h ave b een t h e c a se t h a t , a tl e a s t i n s ome p l ace s , t h e w a l l s o f r e c tangu la rs t ruc tu re s w e re b u i l tt ok eep t h el i v ing o u tr a the rt h an i n . A t P ichao , t h e r e i s ao dd f e a tu re , i nw h ich t e r race s , t o a l l a ppea rance s a g r icu l tu ra l o ne s , a r e p re sen t w i th in r e c tangu la rb u i ld ing s . B efo re t h e 1 991 f i e ld s e a son , Ih ypo the s ized t h a tt h ey m igh tb et h er ema in so f ap rev iou su se o ft h e g round f o ra g r icu l tu ra l p u rpo se s a nd w e re t h en b u i l to ve r w hen mo re o rn ew g round f o rh ab i ta t ion sw a sn eeded . Du r ing a r e conna i s sance i n t h e moun ta in s w e s t o f P i chao , Io b se rved a r rangemen t s i n r e cen t a nd m ode rn e nc lo su re s t h a t r em inded m e o f t h e c on s t ruc t ion s j u s t m en t ioned a tP i chao . T he se e nc lo su re s s ugge s t aq u i te d i f f e ren tu se o ft h er ema in sa tP i chao t h an Ih ad t hough to fb efo re .

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i s ome t r ic c u rve , 1mi n te rva l i h i r

moun ta ins ide

=

i r iga t ion c hanne l



t e r race

w a l l

0

-

1 0

C. I l e Pe len

F igure 4 .4 . E nc losure , w i th t e r races i n te rp re ted a s b e ing f o r a g r icu l tu ra l p u rposes , a nd a n i r iga t ion c hanne l b y t he T omäs r i ve r , Ca tama rca P rov ince . Mapp ing was d one w i th a c ompass , a measur ing s t ick a nd a n i n c l inome te r . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson .

F igure 4 .5 . T he n o r th -wes te rnmos t p ar t o ft he e nc losure i nF igure 4 .4 b y t he T omäs r i ve r . Ob l ique v i ew t owa rds t he n or th -wes t . W i th in t he e nc losure , o ne o ft he t e r races , p resum ing ly a g r icu l tura l , i ss een . B ased o n ap ho tog raph . A pp rox ima te s ca le . P ho tog raph a nd d raw ing : L . B eng tsson .

4 2

M

I n o ne c a se , b y t h e T omä s r i ve r , a bou t 2 0 km t ot h e n o r th -we s t o fP ichao , t h e re a r er ema in s o fp robab ly r e cen td a te , i nw h ich f ou re nc lo su re s a r eb u i l t t o ge the r ( F igu re 4 . 4 ) . Ia s sume t h a t t h ey b e long t o t h e l i t t le f a rm -hou se s n ea rby ,p a r t ly i nr u in sa nd p a r t ly i n tac t . Two o ft h e e nc lo su re s c on ta in l ow t e r race s v i s ib le a bove g round , o ne o f w h ich i ss hown f r om a n o b l ique a ng le i nF igu re 4 . 5 . I nt h i s s pec if ic c a se , i t s e em s t h a te nc lo su re s w e re b u i l tf o rc r op s , a nd n o tf o rm an . When t h e w a l l s w e re i n tac t , t h ey w ou ld h ave k ep t o u t a n ima l s s uch a s t h e l ama a nd t h e g uanaco ,b o th o fw h ich a r ec ommon i nt h ea r ea . No h ou se r ema in s a r e v i s ib le w i th in t h ee nc lo su re s . T he t e r race s a r el ow , a nd t h e t e r ra in s l igh t ly s l op ing . I ti sd i f f icu l tt oi mag ine o t he rp urpo se s t h an a g r icu l tu ra l o ne s f o r s uch t e r race s . I n a dd i t ion , a n i r iga t ion c hanne l h a s b een c on s t ruc ted t o l e ad w a te r f r om t h e T omä s r i ve r . I ti s8 0 c m b road , e x tend s f o ra bou t2 50 m a nd p a s se sr i gh ta tt h eb ack o ft h ee nc lo su re s .

F i gu re 4 . 6 . Mode rn e nc losu re w i th s ma l l , a g r icu l tu ra lt e r races . T he p l ace l i es i nt he h e igh ts a bove a nd a pp rox ima te ly w es to fP i chao , a ta bou t 3 , 500 m a . s . l . I nt he b ack ,t he S an ta Ma r ia r i ve rc an b ed i sce rned . T owa rds t he n o r th -eas t . A pp rox ima te s ca le . B ased o n ap ho tog raph . P ho tog raph a nd d raw ing : L .B eng tsson .

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I n t h e o t he r c a se , i n t h e h e igh t s a bou t 8 km w e s t o f P i chao , as qua re e nc lo su re c on ta in s t e r race s , a nd t h o se a r e d ef in i te ly a g r icu l tu ra l o nes , s i nce a tt h e t ime o fo u r v i s i t t h e re w e re c r op s g row ing o n t h em ( F igu re 4 .6 ) . J u s t b e low w a s a no the r , b u t l e ss w e l l -p re se rved , l a rge r e nc lo su re , a l so w i th t e r race s w i th in i t . T h i s p rove s t h a t e nc lo su re s c an b e u sed f o r a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s . S ome p l an t s o fb ean s a nd g ra in w e re s t i l l g row ing o n t h e l i t t le t e r race s when w e v i s i ted t h e s i te . As p r ing c ome s o u to ft h e moun ta in s ide af ew m e t re s a bove t h e e nc lo su re . A no the r e nc lo su re w a s f ound n ea rby , a l so w i th t e r race s w i th in i t .Ag roup o fs ma l lc o t tage s s t ood a bandoned c l o se b y . T he se c a se s l e ad m e t oh ypo the s ize t h a t t h e r e c tangu la r room s t ruc tu re s w i th i n te rna l t e r race s a tP i chao a nd o t he r S an ta Ma r ia s i te s w he re s im i la r r ema in s m ay e x i s t a r e e nc lo su re s b u i l t t op ro tec t c r op s f r om a n ima ls . T h i s h ypo the s i s c an b e t e s ted b y e xcava t ion . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a t w e a r e h e re d ea l ing w i th ac u l tu ra l t r ad i t ion t h a th a sp e r s i s ted f r om t h e t ime o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re a nd u pt ot h ep r e sen t .

R e fe rences A lbo rnoz , C .D . a nd d e A lbo rnoz , C .L . 1 985 R e levam ien to a rqueo lög ico d e a lguno s r e c in to s d e l y ac im ien to d e E l P ichao , I n terna l p ape r , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log i a , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän , S an M igue l d eT ucumän B eng t s son , L . 1 990 " A r ch i tec ton ica l F ea tu re s a s aWay t oS tudy S oc io -Po l i t ica lfEconom ic O rgan iza t ion" , i nC o rne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 990 E l P ichao 1 989 : P re l im inary R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o fC en tr e s , AC ase S t udy i nt h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW . A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg B eng t s son , L . 1 992a A r ch i tec tura lR ema ins a sA rchaeo logy : I d eas a nd A t temp t s i n aS ub A nd ean C on tex t , GOTARC S e r ie s C , A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r 9 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö t ebo rg C orne l l , P .1 991 " Un i t 1a s ah ou seho ld a nd t h e 1 990 e xcava t ion si ns t ruc tu re 3 " , C hap te r3 i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S j öd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E lP ichao 1 990 : S econd R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s , A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar ia V a l ley , NW . A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg E s teban , G . 1 985 T ipo s d e i n s ta lac iön p r eh i spän ica e n l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän , T e s i s d e L icenc iadu ra , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän , u npub l . K r i scau tzky , N . MS . F uer t e Q uemado ( i nfo rme d e a vance ) , C on se jo N ac iona l d e I nve s t igac ione s C ien t if ica s yT dcn ica s , CON ICET , F acu l tad d e C ienc ia s N a tu ra le s y Mu seo d eL aP la ta , L aP l a ta Magadän , M . 1 989 I n f orme s obre l ar e cons t rucc iön d e Q u i lme s ye le s tado d e c ond ic iön d e ls i t io " E lP ichao" , U npub l . p ape r , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log i a , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , S an M igue ld eT ucumän

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Mä rquez M i randa , F .1 946 , " The D iagu i ta o fA rgen t ina" , i nJ .H . S t ewa rd ( e d . ) H andbook o fS ou th Amer ican I nd ians , V o l . 2 : T he A nd ean C iv i l i za t ions , Sm i th son ian I n s t i tu t ion , B u reau o f Ame r ican E thno logy , B u l le t in 1 43 , Wa sh ing ton , 6 37-654 P io s sek P reb i sch , T . 1 984 R e lac iön h i s tör ica d e C a lchaqu i : E scr i ta p or e l m i s ionero j e su i ta P ad r e H ernando d e T or r eb lanca e n 1 696 , Mode rn ized v e r s ion , n o te s a nd m ap s b yT e re sa P io s sek P r eb i sch ,E d ic ione s C u l tu ra le s A rgen t ina s , B ueno s A i re s Q u i roga , A . 1 901a " Fue r te Q uemado" , A na le s d e l a S oc iedad C ien t if i ca A rgen t ina 5 2 , B ueno s A i r e s T a r ragö , M . a nd N a s t r i ,J .1 999 " D imen s ione s d e l ac omp le j idad s an tama r iana" , i nC r is t ina D iez Ma r in , C . 1 999 ( e d . ) X I I C ongr e so N ac iona l d e A rqueo log i a A rgen t ina , L a P la ta , A rgen t ina 2 2 -26 d es e t iembr ed e 1 997 . A c ta s . V o l . 2 . , 2 59-264 , L aP la ta

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5 .U n i t 1 2 P er C orne l la nd P er S t enborg

I n t roduc t ion a nd g ene ra l p rob lem U n i t 1 2 i ss i tua ted o n t h eE l P i chao a l luv ia l f a n i nt h e s ou th -we s te rn p a r to f s e c to r I V , o n as ma l l r i se s u r rounded b y m ino r g u l l ie s . I ti sc on s t i tu ted b y t h ree , e a s i ly d i sce rned , s t one -wa l led s t ruc tu re s , ap a s sage ( named S t ruc tu re 3 ) a nd s ome h eav i ly e roded c on s t ruc t ion s . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a t a dd i t iona l , r e la ted c on s t ruc t ion s h ave b een c omp le te ly d e s t royed b y w a te r e ro s ion e n la rg ing t h e g u l l ie s . T he h e igh t l e ve l s d i f f e r b e tween s t ruc tu re s , g i v ing a s o r t o f s t a i r -pa t te rn w i th S t ruc tu re 1a tt h e l owe s t l e ve l a nd S t ruc tu re 4 a t t h eh ighe s t . T he t o ta ld i f f e rence i nh e igh tl e ve li sa bou t 3m . U n i t 1 2 h a s m any o f t h e c ha rac te r i s t ic s o f t h e s o -ca l led " Ca sa Amb ro se t t i" t y pe , b u t a l so s ome d i ve rg ing c ha rac te r i s t ic s . T he l a rge , o pen a nd w a l led a r ea w i th r a i sed s t one s a nd t h e s ma l le r , r e la ted S t ruc tu re 2 ( s ee F igu re 5 . 1) f o l low t h e p a t te rn d e sc r ibed b y Amb ro se t t i ( 1897 , 3 7-40 ) . H oweve r , S t ruc tu re 4 ,c on s t ruc ted w i th ac omp le te ly d i f f e ren tw a l l t ype a nd w i th av e ry i r regu la ra nd d i ve rg ing s hape , d epa r t s f r om t h e c l a ss ica l p a t te rn d i scu ssed b y Amb ro se t t i . U n i t 1 2 w a sc ho sen a s as t udy o b jec tf o r as e r ie s o fr e a son s . F i r s t , i ti sa n a dd i t iona l e xamp le o ft h e " Ca sa Amb ro se t t i" t y pe , a nd d a ta f r om t h i s u n i t m ay b e c ompa red w i th U n i t 1d a ta , i ns ea rch ing f o rp o s s ib le r egu la r i t ie s i n t h e u se o fs pace i nt h i s t y pe o fu n i t ( Co rne l l 1 991 , 1 993 ) . A tt h e s ame t ime , U n i t 1 2 r a ise s q ue s t ion s a bou t t h e u n ifo rm i ty o f t h e " Ca sa Amb ro se t t i" t y pe . T he s hape o f S t ruc tu re 4 a nd i t s w a l l t y pe a r e u sua l ly n o t a s soc ia ted w i th t h ec l a ss ica l Amb ro se t t i t y pe . We w e re t h u se spec ia l ly i n te re s ted i nt h e c h rono log ica l p o s i t ion o f S t ruc tu re 4 i nr e la t ion t o t h e o the r s t ruc tu re s . I t s hou ld b e n o ted t h a t t h i s t e x t w a s w r i t ten i n 1 992 , a nd o n ly m ino r c o r rec t ion s h ave b een m ade .

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F i gu re 5 . 1 . U n i t 1 2 , S ec to rI V . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P .S tenbo rg a nd P . C o rne l l .

Me thods D u r ing t h e 1 990 f i e ld c ampa ign , U n i t 1 2 w a s m ea su red w i th a ng le p r ism a nd m ea su r ing t a pe . T he p l an w a s s l igh t ly r ev i sed d u r ing t h e 1 991 c ampa ign a nd l i nked t ot h et r iangu la t ion s y s tem . Ow ing t ot h e l a rge a r ea s c ove red b y t h e u n i t s a nd t h e l a rge q uan t i ty o f c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l , o u r s ma l l b udge t a l lowed n o th ing mo re t h an l im i ted e xcava t ion s . T ime d i d n o t a l low a n i n ten s ive e xcava t ion e i the r ; l e ve l l ing

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e a ch i n d iv idua l a r tef ac t w ou ld h ave b een a n a r duou s t a sk , c on s ide r ing t h e a moun to ff i nd m a te r ia l . Du r ing t h e 1 99 1 f i e ld c ampa ign , e xcava t ion s w e re c a r r ied o u ti nU n i t 1 2 o ve r ap e r iod o f 8w eek s f r om Ma rch t h rough A p r i l . At o ta l o f5 6 1 x 1m s qua re s w e re e xcava ted . I nS t ruc tu re 4 , at o ta l o f2 8 s qua re s w e re o pened , i n S t ruc tu re 2 t h e n umbe r o f s qua re s w a s 1 4 , w h i le 8 s qua re s w e re e xcava ted i nS t ruc tu re 1 ,a nd 3 i nS t ruc tu re 3 .F u r the rmo re , t e s t p i t s w e re e xcava ted o u t s ide S t ruc tu re s 1t h rough 4 . T he s o i l a tE l P i chao i ss andy s i l t w i th g r ave l , a nd c u l tu ra l l a ye r s a r e g ene ra l ly d i f f icu l t t o i d en t ify i n p rof i le s , e ven t hough t h e re a r e l a rge v a r ia t ion s o ve r t h e s i te o fE l P i chao i nt h i s r e spec t . I n U n i t 1 2 , t h e p rof i le s w e re v e ry d i f f icu l t t o i n te rp re t . T hu s , f e a tu re s a nd l a ye r s w e re r e co rded m a in ly i nt h ep roce s so fe xcava t ion . T he s qua re s w e re e xcava ted w i th a r t if ic ia l l e ve ls o f 1 0 c m e ach , s qua re f o r s qua re . When s pec ia l f e a tu re s o r l a ye r s w e re i d en t if ied , t h e e xcava t ion w a s i n te r rup ted f o r d ocumen ta t ion , a nd h o r izon ta l a nd v e r t ica l p o s i t ion s w e re m ea su red , u s ing a n o p t ica l i n s t rumen t . L a rge a r tef ac t f r agmen t s w e re d ocumen ted i n as im i la r m anne r . When p o s s ib le , c u l tu ra l l a ye r s w e re s epa ra ted a ss ub -numbe r su nde re ach a r t if ic ia ll e ve l . A l l e a r th w a s s i f ted i n a0 . 3 c m s i eve , s i nce m any o b jec t s , f o r e xamp le , o b s id ian s p l in te r s , a r e v e ry s ma l l a nd h a rd t of i nd w hen e xcava t ing w i th a t r owe l . A l l t h e f i nd s w e re r eg i s te red a nd a r ough c l a ss if ica t ion w a s m ade i mmed ia te ly a f te r t h e f i e ld c ampa ign , o n t h e p rem i se s o f t h e N a t iona l U n ive r s i ty o fT ucumän , w he re a l t h ef i nd sa r ed epo s i ted . A t o ta l o f t e n c e ram ic s amp le s w e re s en t f o r a na ly s i s b y l um ine scence d a t ing . S ome r a d ioca rbon s amp le s h ave a l so b een p repa red f o r a na ly s i s . A t p r e sen t , h oweve r , n o d a t ing , b y t h e u se o f n a tu ra l s c ien t if ic m e thod s , i s a va i lab le . T h i s m ean st h a to n ly s ome p re l im ina ry c onc lu s ion sc an b ed rawn . I ta l so m ean s t h a t i n te rp re ta t ion s m ay h ave t ob e a l te red o r mod if ied i nt h e l i gh to ft h ei n fo rma t ion f r om t h ed a t ing .

S t ruc tu re 1 D esc r ip t ion o ft he s t ruc tu re T h is s t ruc tu re i sr e la t ive ly l a rge , m ea su r ing a bou t 2 0 x3 0 m . T he w a l l i sa k i nd o fd oub le w a l lc on s t ruc t ion w i th a ni n ne rf i l l ing o fs o i la nd s t one s . T he w id th v a r ie s f r om 1t o 4m . R a i sed s t one s a r e p l aced i nr ow s p a ra l le l t ot h e S ou th -we s te rn a nd S ou th -ea s te rn w a l l s . T he se s t one s v a ry i nh e igh t a bove t h ep re sen t -day s u r f ace f r om l e s st h an 0 . 1 mt o0 . 5 m . T he s t ruc tu re h a s t h ree e a s i ly i d en t if ied o pen ing s , o ne t oS t ruc tu re 3 ,o ne t o S t ruc tu re 2 ,a nd o ne t o t h e S ou th -we s t . F u r the rmo re , t wo l e s s d i s t inc t o pen ing s a r e m a rked o n t h e p l an . O pen ing s a r e o f ten h a rd t o c onf i rm w i thou t e xcava t ion , s i nce t h ey a r e o f ten c ove red b y d eb r i s f r om c o l lap sed

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w a l l s . S ome o pen ing s m ay b e t h e p roduc t o f c o l lap s ing w a l l s a nd c omp le te ly u n in ten t iona l f r om t h e p o in t o f v i ew o f t h e c on s t ruc to r o f t h e b u i ld ing . I nt h ee a s tern c o rne ro ft h e s t ruc tu re , ap i l lage p i tw a s f ound . T he p i th ad o bv iou s ly b een d ug i n av e ry s pec ia lf e a tu re , s ome s o r to fn i che i nt he w a l l .

P u rpose o ft he e xcava t ion S t ruc tu re 1 , U n i t 1 2 , i s t h e l a rge s t s t ruc tu re a nd i s t hu s v i ta l f o r u nde r s tand ing o f t h e t o ta l u n i t . I n U n i t 1 , S t ruc tu re 1 , w e f ound n o i nd ica t ion o fp o s t s , a nd i ts e em s u n l ike ly t h a tt h e l a rge s pace w a s r oo f ed . I f s o me s o r to fh igh -den s i ty p o s t s y s tem h ad b een u sed ,p o s tho le s s hou ld h ave b een c ommon i n t h e e xcava t ion . O the r c on s t ruc t ion t ype s , w i th t r unk s s t re tch ing o ve r o r c ove r ing s uch a l a rge a r ea , s e em i mp robab le , ow ing t o t h e l a ck o f p reh i s to r ic r e co rd s o f t r ee s o f t h i s s i ze f r om t h e a r ea . E xcava t ion s i n S t ruc tu re 1 o f U n i t 1 2 w e re o rgan i sed i n o rde r t o d e tec t p o ss ib le p o s tho le s i n t h i s s t ruc tu re . A b sence o f p o s tho le s w ou ld i nd ica te t h a t t h e l a rge s t ruc tu re s w e re o pen s pace s , w h ich m ay b e i mpo r tan t i no u r i n te rp re ta t ion . F u r the rmo re , t h e e xcava t ion s i n S t ruc tu re 1 a imed a t p rov id ing a c ompa ra t ive m a te r ia l f o rt h e mo re e x ten s ive e xcava t ion s i nS t ruc ture s 2a nd 4 .T he f unc t ion o ft h e l a rge , p robab ly o pen s pace s o ft h e l a rge , r e c tangu la r c ompound s i s l i t t le k nown , b u t t h ey w e re p robab ly u sed f o r s eve ra l p u rpo se s . A cco rd ing t os ome A rgen t ine a r chaeo log i s t s , t h e a r chaeo log ica l ma te r ia l i n l a rge s t ruc tu re s t e nd s t o b e d en se r a l ong t h e s i de s t h an i n t h e m idd le , o w ing t o s ome p o s t -depo s i t iona l f o rma t ion p roce s se s w o rk ing o n t h e ma te r ia l . I n o rde r t o s t udy t h i s s i tua t ion i n S t ruc tu re 1 , U n i t 1 2 , w e e xcava ted s ome s qua re s c l o se t o t h e w a l l a nd s ome i n t h e m idd le o f t h e s t ruc tu re . O ne s qua re w a se xcava ted i nt h e o pen ing i n to S t ruc tu re 3 ,w h ich f o rm s a n a r row p a s sage m ea su r ing a pp rox ima te ly 4x0 . 7 m . I nU n i t 1 ,t h eo pen ing s c on ta ined l a rge a moun t s o f a r chaeo log ica l m a te r ia l s . We w an ted t o s e e w he the rt h i s w a s ar e pea ted p a t te rn o rn o t .

Me thods a nd g ene ra l d esc r ip t ion o ft he e xcava t ion I n S t ruc tu re 1a n a r ea o f 8 1x 1 ms qua re s w a s e xcava ted . I n s ide S t ruc tu re 1 , i n t h e S ou th -ea s te rn p a r t o f T rench 2 4 , s qua re s 2 4 :3 a nd 2 4 :9 w e re s i tua ted . S qua re 2 4 :13 w a s s i tua ted i nt h e w a l l s epa ra t ing S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 3 .T rench 3 6 w a s p l aced i nt h e S ou th -ea s te rn p a r t o f t h e s t ruc tu re , b y t h e r ow o f e r ec ted s t one s p a ra l le l ing t h e S ou th -ea s tern w a l l . S qua re 3 6 :3 w a s e xcava ted a s a n 1x 1 m s qua re , w h i le s qua re s 3 6 :1 a nd 3 6 :2 w e re 2 x 1 m s qua re s . T he mo t ive f o r e xcava t ing l a rge r s qua re s w a s t o i n c rea se t h e p o ss ib i l i t ie so fd e tec t ing h o r izon ta l p a t te rn s .

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N a tu ra l f o rma t ion p rocesses S qua re 2 4 :9 w a s l o ca ted c l o se t o t h e o pen ing t o S t ruc tu re 3 . T he l a ye r s w e re p a r t ly c ove red b y d eb r i s f r om t h e c o l lap sed w a l l a nd c on t inued d own t oa pp rox ima te ly 5 0 cm b e low t h e p re sen t -day s u r f ace . T he s t e r i le e a r th i s y e l low i sh a nd i ng ene ra lh a rde rt h an t h ec u l tu ra ll a ye r s . S qua re 2 4 :3 , l o ca ted i nt h e m idd le o f t h e s t ruc tu re , h ad c u l tu ra l l a ye r s d own t os ome 6 0c mb e low t h es u r face . T rench 3 6 s howed mo re s pec ia l f e a tu re s , n o tab ly f l oo r leve l s . I n s qua re 3 6 :3 , t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r s c on t inued d own t o 8 0 cm b e low t h e p re sen t -day s u r face . A t t h i s d ep th , l a rge s t one s w e re e ncoun te red . I n s qua re s 3 6 :1 a nd 3 6 :2 , t h ec u l tu ra ll a ye r se nded a t5 0-60 c m . I ti sp o s s ib le t h a tt h i sd i s t r ibu t ion m ay i np a r tb ee xp la ined b y movemen t o f t h e s o i l f r om t h e N o r th -ea s t t o t h e S ou th -ea s t , s i nce t h e re i s a( v e ry g en t le ) s l ope i n t h i s d i rec t ion i n t h e u n i t . H oweve r , t h i s a l one c anno t e xp la in w hy s pec ia l f e a tu re s ( e .g . f l oo r s ) a r e mo re c ommon i n t h e N o r th e a s te rn p a r t . A t p re sen t , w e c anno t s a y e xac t ly w he re t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r b eg in s . T he c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l o ft h e f i r s t 1 0 c m b e low t h e s u r f ace h a s af r agmen ted a nd m ixed c ha rac te r i n t h i s s t ruc tu re a nd p a r t ly c on ta in s w a te r t ran spo r ted ma te r ia l .

S pec ia l o bse rva t ions o n t he c u l tu ra l l a ye rs F l oo rs O ne , h a rd -packed , e a r th l a ye r , p robab ly af l oo r l e ve l , a ta pp rox ima te ly 4 0 cm w a s i d en t if ied i n T rench 3 6 . L a rge r f r agmen t s s e emed t o b e c oncen t ra ted a tt h i s l e ve l .

A sh p i ts I n s qua re 3 6 :3 , t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r s c on t inued d own t o8 0 c m . I n t h e l owe r p a r t s , t h ee a r th w a s m ixed w i th a she s , w h ich m ay i n d ica te ap i tu sed f o rt h e d i spo sa l o fg a rbage o ra ss ome s o r to fc ook ing p i t .

E xcava ted c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l T he c u l tu ra lm a te r ia li n c luded c e ram ic s ,l i th ic s a nd b one s .

C onc lus ions No e v idence o f p o s tho le s w a s f ound . T hu s , t h e re a r e n o i nd ica t ion s o f r oof ing . N o a ccumu la t ion o f s pec if ic -ac t iv i ty a r tef ac t s w a s f ound , s o t h e s pec if ic u se o ft h e l a rge r e c tang le r ema in s a n o pen q ue s t ion . H oweve r , o u r f i nd ing s d on o tc on t rad ic tt h ei d ea o f amu l t i -pu rpo se a r ea .

5 1

T he a c t iv i ty r e la ted t o t h e p o s s ib le a sh p i t i sd i f f icu l t t o e s tab l i sh a t p r e sen t . T he p i t m ay h ave h ad s ome th ing t od o w i th c ook ing . T he f e a tu re r e semb le s t h e p robab le c ook ing p i t s i nS t ruc tu re 2a nd i nU n i t 1 ,S t ruc tu re 3 .I ti sp o s s ib le t h a tt h ea na ly s i so ft h eb one s m ay h e lp o nt h i s m a t te r .

S t ruc tu re 2 P er C orne l l

D esc r ip t ion o ft he s t ruc tu re I fc on s ide red a s as em ic i rc le , t h ei n ne rr ad iu s o fS t ruc tu re 2m ea su re s a bou t 7m . T he w a l lc on s t ruc t ion i ss im i la rt ot h a to fS t ruc tu re 1 .T he o u te rw a l l i s p a r t ly c on s t ruc ted o f ar ow o fl ow , r a i sed s t one s . T he o n ly o pen ing l e ad s t o S t ruc tu re 1 .I n s ide t h e s t ruc tu re , at e s t t r ench h ad b een e xcava ted , p robab ly i nt h ee a r ly e i gh t ie s . T he c h rono log ica l p o s i t ion o f t h i s s t ruc tu re i n r e la t ion t o S t ruc tu re 1 c anno t b e e s tab l i shed o n t h e b a s i s o fs u r f ace o b se rva t ions a l one . T he w a l l s d o n o t j o in d i rec t ly , b u t t h i s m ay w e l l b e d ue t o t h e m e thod s o f c on s t ruc t ion . D a t ing mu s tb el a rge ly b a sed o ne xcava ted c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l s .

P u rpose o ft he e xcava t ion I nt h e 1 990 f i e ld c ampa ign a tE l P i chao , t wo th i rd s o fS t ruc tu re 3o fU n i t 1 w e re e xcava ted . T h i s e xcava t ion i nd ica ted t h a t t h i s s l igh t ly r ounded s t ruc tu re , l y ing i nd i rec t r e la t ion t o al a rge r e c tang le , h ad b een t h e a c tua l d we l l ing s pace o f t h e u n i t . T he f o rma l l a you t o f S t ruc tu re 2 o f Un i t 1 2 p a r t ia l ly r e semb le s S t ruc tu re 3 o f U n i t 1 . T he p u rpose o f e xcava t ing S t ruc tu re 2 o f U n i t 1 2 w a s t hu s t o s e e w he the r t h e p a t tern o f U n i t 1h ad b een r epea ted b e tween v a r iou su n i t s . T he s qua re s w e re d i s t r ibu ted i n o rde r t o c ove r b o th t h e c en t re o f t h e s t ruc tu re a nd a r ea s c l o se t o t h e w a l l s , i n o rde r t o s t udy t h e p a t tern s o f d i s t r ibu t ion o ft h em a te r ia l .

M e thods a nd g ene ra l d esc r ip t ion o ft he e xcava t ion At o ta l o f 1 4 1 x 1m s qua re s w e re e xcava ted i n t h i s s t ruc tu re , e qua l l ing a pp rox ima te ly 8 m3 o fe a r th . O ne o ft h e s qua re s , 3 7 :1 , w a s s i tua ted i nt h e

5 2

w a l l n o r th o ft h es t ruc tu re . T he r ema in ing s qua re s w e re a l lp l aced w i th in t h e s t ruc tu re . E igh t s qua re s , 2 6 :5B , 2 6 :6 , 2 6 :8 , 2 6 :9 , 2 6 :16 , 2 6 :17 , 2 6 :18 a nd 2 6 :19 w e re e xcava ted d own t ot h e s t e r i le l e ve l a ta pp rox ima te ly 8 0100 c m b e low t h es u r f ace . T he s t e r i le l e ve l a ppea r sa sy e l low i sh e a r th a nd s i l ty s and w i th g rave l a nd i si ng ene ra l h a rde rt h an t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r s . T he r ema in ing s qua re s ( 26 :27 , 2 6 :37 , 2 6 :46 a nd 2 6 :47 ) w e re e xcava ted d own t ot h e f i r s t f l oo rl e ve la ta pp rox ima te ly 4 0c mb e low t h ep r e sen t -day s u r f ace . Two w o rk ing d ay s w e re d evo ted t ot h e d ocumen ta t ion o ft h e S ou thwa rd p rof i le o fs qua re s 1 6 a nd 6 ,b u t w i th l i t t le s ucce s s . T he h a rd -packed l a ye r s w i th f r equen t f i nd s , e a s i ly r e cogn i sab le d u r ing e xcava t ion w e re e x t reme ly d i f f icu l t t o i d en t ify i n t h e p rof i le . O n ly s ome s ma l l p a r t s o f i tc ou ld b e r e cogn i sed i nt h es e c t ion . We c anno t , a tp r e sen t , s t a te w i th c e r ta in ty w he re t h e a c tua l c u l tu ra l l a ye r s t a r t s . S t ruc tu re 2l i e s l owe rt h an S t ruc tu re 4 ,a nd much c l o se rt o ag u l ly . I t i s t h e refo re p o ss ib le t h a t t h e n a tu ra l f o rma t ion p roce s se s i n t h e se t wo s t ruc tu re s a r eq u i t ed i f f e ren t . T he f r equenc ie s o f t h e ma in c e ram ic t y pe s a r e c on s tan t i n l a ye r s 1 t h rough 3 .T h i s m ay p e rhap s s uppo r t t h e i d ea t h a t t h e f i r s t 3 0cm l a ye r s o f m a te r ia l c on ta in w a te r t r an spo r ted m a te r ia l o r i n o t he r w ay s p o s t d epo s i t iona l t r an spo r ted m a te r ia l . H oweve r , t h i s p rob lem mu s t b e f u r the r s t ud ied . T he f r equenc ie s f o r l a ye r s 4t o 1 0 v a ry . H igh -den s i ty w a re o ccu r s i nh ighe rf r equency a tt h eb o t tom t h an a tt h et o p .

A rch i tec ton ic f e a tu res r e vea led b ye xcava t ion T he w a l l o f t h i s s t ruc tu re r i se s o n ly 1 m a bove t h e p re sen t -day s u r f ace i n s ide t h es t ruc tu r e . T he w a l lt ot h en o r th -ea s tw a sc l eaned i nt h ee xcava t ion a nd t u rned o u t t ob e a bou t 2m h i gh f r om i t s b a se . H oweve r , t h e s e cond ( l owe s t ) f l oo r l e ve l l i e s a t a pp rox ima te ly 8 0 c m b e low t h e p re sen t -day s u r face , a nd t h i s m ay i n d ica te t h a t t h e w a l l o r ig ina l ly h ad a 2 0cm b a se b e low g round . T he v i r tua l a b sence o f c o l lap sed s t one s b e low t h e w a l l s s uppo r t s t h i s a s se r t ion . O n ly i ns qua re s4 6 a nd 4 7 w e re l a rge rb l ock s f ound , w i th p o s i t ion sd i r ec t ly o nt h ef i r s t -f loo rl e ve l . T he w a l l w a s q u i te s t ab le . I ti sp o ss ib le t h a t s ome s o r t o fc l ay h ad b een i n se r ted p u rpo se ly b e tween t h e s t one s . S ome s amp le s o ft h e e a r th b e tween t h e s t one sh ave b een t a ken .

O bse rva t ions o nt h ec u l tu ra l l a ye rs G ene ra l o bse rva t ions T he c u l tu ra l l a ye r s i n S t ruc tu re 2 a r e d eepe r t h an t h e l a ye r s i n a l l o the r s t ruc tu re s , a nd t h ed ep th i st h es ame a tt h em idd le a nd c l o se t ot h ew a l l s .

5 3

T he H a r r i s m a t r ix o f t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r s i sr em in i scen t o ft h e p a t te rn i n U n i t 1 ,S t ruc tu re 3( Co rne l l 1 993 ) .

F l oo rl e ve ls Two f l oo r l e ve ls w e re i d en t if ied a s h a rdened e a r th w i th s eve ra l a r te f ac t f r agmen t s a nd b one f r agmen t s s i tua ted h o r izon ta l ly o n a nd i n t h e l a ye r . F loo rl e ve l 1l i e s a tc .4 0c mb e low t h ep re sen t -day s u r f ace a nd f l oo rl e ve l2 a tc .8 0 c m b e low t h e p re sen t -day s u r f ace . S qua re 5B w a s e n la rged t ot h e n o r th -we s t , a nd f l oo r l e ve l 1w a s r e la t ive ly e a sy t oi d en t ify i nt h e p rof i le . T he f l oo rl e ve l i nt h is s qua re w a s a pp rox ima te ly 1c mt h ick .

C oncen t ra t ions o fa shes a nd c ha rcoa l C ha rcoa l w a s f ound s c a t te red i nt h ec u l tu ra l l a ye r s . C oncen t ra t ion s o ccu r red e spec ia l ly c l o se t o t h e w a l l i n s qua re s 9a nd 1 9 a ta pp rox ima te ly 8 0 c m b e low t h es u r f ace . Al a rge c oncen t ra t ion o f a sh w a s f ound i n s qua r e 5 B a ta pp rox . 4 0 c m b e low t h e s u r face . T h i s c oncen t ra t ion c on t inued d own t oa bou t 1 20 cm a nd may b e i n te rp re ted a s ap i td ug i n to t h es t e r i le l e ve l .

E xcava ted c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l C e ram ic s , l i th ic sa nd b one s w e re c ommon i nt h el a ye r s . T he c e ram ic m a te r ia l h a s at o ta l w e igh t o f 8k g f o rt h e 8c m3 e xcava ted . O n ly 1 2 %( 223 ) o ft h ef r agmen t s w e re mo re t h an 5c ml a rge . B r ick red Wa re p redom ina te s i na moun t i nS t ruc tu re 2 ,a nd t h is p a t te rn i sr epea ted i n S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 3 .T he S an ta Ma r ia d eco ra t ion t ype , w h i te s l ipped w i th b l ack o rb l ack a nd r ed d eco ra t ion , i st h e mo s tc ommon t ype o f d eco ra t ion o n t h i s w a re . C oa r se Wa re i st h e s e cond mo s t c ommon t ype . A pa r t f r om t h ese , s ome B lack P o l i shed Wa re o ccu r s , a nd o the r t y pe s s pa r se ly . F o r t h e f r equenc ie s o ft h em a in t ype s , s e eT ab le 5 . 1 . C ompa red w i th t h e o t he r s t ruc tu re s , o b s id ian i sr e la t ive ly c ommon i n S t ruc tu re 2 .I ns qua re s 9a nd 1 9 , a t8 0c mb e low s u r f ace , ac oncen t ra t ion o f s ma l l o b s id ian s p l in te r s w a s f ound , i n d ica t ing t h a t s ome l im i ted o b s id ian p repa ra t ion h ad b een c a r r ied o u ti nt h es t ruc tu re . T ab le 5 . 1 . C e ram ics , r e la t ive f r equenc ies o fw e igh ts b e tween ma in t y pes , U n i t 1 2 , S t ruc tu res 1t o4 . U n i t 1 2 :1 1 2 :2 1 2 :3 1 2 :4

C oa rse Wa re %o fw e igh t 6 1 .1 4 4 .1 5 8 .6 5 2 .5

B r ick red Wa re %o fw e igh t 3 3 .1 4 0 .4 3 6 .7 2 6 .1

P o l ished Wa re %o fw e igh t 3 .7 5 .3 2 .5 3 .7

5 4

M ica Wa re %o fw e igh t 0 . 1 3 . 2 1 . 0 4 .3

O the r %o fw e igh t 1 . 9 7 . 1 1 . 2 1 3 .4

C onc lus ions S t ruc tu re 2 , U n i t 1 2 , r e semb le s i n m any w ay s S t ruc tu re 3 ,U n i t 1 .T he se s t ruc tu re s h ave b een p re l im ina r i ly i n te rp re ted a s s pec if ic d we l l ing s pace s w i th in t h eh ou seho ld u n i t s .

5 5

S t ruc tu re 3 P er C orne l la nd P er S t enborg

D esc r ip t ion o ft he s t ruc tu re S t ruc tu re 3 m ay b e u nde r s tood a s ap a ssage . I n o rde r t oe n te r S t ruc tu re 1 f r om t h e n o r th -we s t , o ne h ad t o p a s s t h rough S t ruc tu re 3 . T he s hape i s d ef ined b y t h e o u te r w a l l s o f S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 4 , a nd a s ma l l w a l l c on s t ruc ted o fr a i sed s t one s a nd b ou lde r s t ot h e s ou th -we s t a nd n o r th -ea s t . S t ruc tu re 3i sa bou t2 0 ml o ng i nt o ta l . T he w id th v a r ie sb e tween 5a nd 2m . T he p re sen t -day s u r f ace i sa bou t 1m h i ghe rt h an i nS t ruc tu re 1 .

P u rpose o ft he e xcava t ion T he l a rge p a ssage o f S t ruc tu re 3 i s i n te re s t ing , s i nce i tc on s t i tu ted a n i mpo r tan t c ommun ica t ion r ou te i n t h e u n i t . We w i shed t o s t udy t h e c ha rac te r o ft h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r s a nd t h e a r chaeo log ica l m a te r ia l , i no rde r t o c ompa re i tw i th o t he r s t ruc tu re s i n t h e u n i t . O ne i mpo r tan t i s sue i s t h e r e la t ion b e tween o u t s ide a nd i n s ide . Wha t w a s " ou t s ide" a nd " i ns ide" a u n i t? Wa st h ep a s sage i n s ide o ro u t s ide?

Me thods a nd g ene ra l d esc r ip t ion o ft h e e xcava t ion At o ta l o f t h ree s qua re s w e re e xcava ted , n umbe red 2 4 :16 , 2 8 :1 a nd 2 8 :7 . N o . 2 4 :1 w a s e x tended b y0 . 5m t ot h es ou th -we s t .

N a tu ra lf o rma t ion p rocesses T he 6 5cm c u l tu ra l l a ye r s a nd t h e a r te f ac tc on ten to fs qua re s 2 4 :16 a nd 2 8 :1 w e re l a rge ly s im i la r i nc ha rac te r t o t h o se i n S t ruc tu re 1 .H oweve r , i n t h e s ou th -we s te rn e x ten s ion o f s qua re 2 4 :16 , t h e d en s i ty o f t h e f i nd s d ec l ined r ap id ly . S qua re 2 8 :7 h ad mo re s ha l low l a ye r s , e nd ing a ta bou t 3 0cm b e low t h ep re sen td ay s u r f ace .

5 6

S pec ia l o bse rva t ions o n t he c u l tu ra l l a ye rs N o s pec ia l f e a tu re s w e re o b se rved , a pa r t f r om t ho se m en t ioned a bove . N o f l oo rl e ve l s w e re d e tec ted .

E xcava ted c u l tu ra l ma te r ia ls T he a r tef ac t s a nd r e la ted m a te r ia l s a r e l a rge ly s im i la r t ot ho se o fS t ruc tu re 1 .C e ram ic s , l i th ic sa nd b one s a r et h e mo s tc ommon f i nd s . Wo rked o b s id ian i ss omewha ts c a rce rt h an i nS t ruc tu re s 1a nd 2 .

C onc lus ions S t ruc tu re 3s eem s t oh ave b een mo re o f ap a ssage t h an a ny th ing e l se . A pa r t f r om c ommun ica t ion , l i t t le a c t iv i ty s e em s t o h ave t a ken p l ace t h e re . T he l a rge c oncen t ra t ion s o f m a te r ia l j u s t o u t s ide t h e o pen ing t o S t ruc tu re 1 i n d ica te t h a tt h i so pen ing w a si n ten s ive ly u sed . S t ruc tu re 3r e semb le s , i ni t sc u l tu ra lm a te r ia l , S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 2 .

S t ruc tu re 4 P er S t enborg

D esc r ip t ion o ft he s t ruc tu re S t ruc tu re 4 d i f f e r s i n s eve ra l w ay s f r om t h e r e s t o f U n i t 1 2 . Wh i le S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 2r ep re sen t ar a the r c ommon c omb ina t ion , u sua l ly t e rmed " Ca sa Amb ro se t t i" , n o o t he r e xamp le o f t h e s t ruc tu re t y pe r ep re sen ted b y 1 2 :4 h a s , t o d a te , b een f ound i nc omb ina t ion w i th t h e " Ca sa Amb ro se t t i u n i t" t ype a t P i chao ( S tenbo rg 1 991) . T he a lmo s t c i rcu la r w a l l c on s i s t s l a rge ly o fe r ec ted s t one s a nd d i f f e r s ma rked ly f r om o the r w a l l s i nU n i t 1 2 . Al ow m idd le w a l l d i v ide s t h e s t ruc tu re i n to t wo p a r t s ; b y t h i s w a l l , s ome s i x mo r ta r s a r ec u ti nb ou lde r s .

5 7

P u rpose o ft he e xcava t ion T h is e xcava t ion t ook p l ace i no rde rt oi n ve s t iga te t h er e la t ion o fS t ruc tu re 4 t ot h e r e s t o f U n i t 1 2 . Q ue s t ion s w e re r a ised a s t o w he the r t h ey h ad b een u sed c on tempo raneou s ly , w he the r t h ey b e longed t o t h e s ame p e r iod a nd w he the rt h ey h ad b een c on s t ruc ted a tt h e s ame t ime . I tw a s p o s s ib le t h a t , i f S t ruc tu re 4 w a s o r ig ina l ly c on s t ruc ted d u r ing a n e a r l ie rp e r iod t h an t h e r e s t o fU n i t 1 2 , i th ad b een r e -occup ied b y t h e i nhab i tan t s o ft h e r e s t o ft h e u n i t i nt h el a te rp e r iod ( S tenbo rg 1 991) .

M e thods a nd g ene ra l d esc r ip t ion o ft h e e xcava t ion I n t o ta l , 2 8 s qua re s w e re o pened i n s ide t h e s t ruc tu re . I n a dd i t ion , t wo t e s t s qua re s w e re e xcava ted i nt h es ou th -we s te rn p a r to ft h e s t ruc tu re . At r ench ( 24 ) w a s d ug , o r ig ina t ing i nS t ruc tu re 1a nd e x tend ing t h rough S t ruc tu re 3 t oe nd i n S t ruc tu re 4 .T he t r ench c on t inued i n s ide 1 2 :4 i nt h e NW -SE d i rec t ion . T h i s t r ench c onnec t s w i th T rench 2 7 . T rench 3 2 w a s s i tua ted b y t h e s ou th -ea s te rn s e c t ion o f t h e c i rcu la r w a l l . T renche s 3 3 a nd 3 4 w e re p l aced p a ra l le l t o t h e m idd le w a l l , s ou th a nd n o r th o f i t , r e spec t ive ly . O n ly i n T rench 3 2 w e re a l l t h e s qua re s i n s ide t h e t r ench o pened . I n s ome c a se s , s qua re s w e re o pened a tt h e s i des o f t h e t r enche s ; s uch s qua re s a r ei nd ica ted b y al e t te r" b" o r" c" .

N a tu ra l f o rma t ion p rocesses F undamen ta l f o r t h e i n te rp re ta t ion o ft h e ma te r ia l f r om t h i s e xcava t ion i sa d i scu s s ion o ft h en a tu ra lp roce s se s w o rk ing o nt h es i t ea r ea o fE lP i chao a nd o n t h e l im i ted a r ea o fU n i t 1 2 . T he m a in p a r t o ft h e s i te , i n c lud ing Un i t 1 2 , i ss i tua ted o n a n a l luv ia l f a n ( Ah lg ren 1 990 ) . H e re , o cca s iona l t o r ren t s o f r a in move ma te r ia l o ve r t h e s u r f ace . T h i s h a s l e d u s t o c onc lude t ha t t h e ma te r ia l o f t h e f i r s t 2 0 c m r ep re sen t s t h e " hodgepodge" o f w ha t h a s b een moved b y w a te ro ve rt h e s i te a r ea . T he d i s t inc t c oncen t ra t ion o fq ua r tz o n t h e f i r s t t wo l e ve l s o fo ne p a r to f 1 2 :4 c on t rad ic t s t h i s i n te rp re ta t ion . T h i s may b e e xp la ined b y t h e f a c t t h a t U n i t 1 2 , a nd p a r t icu la r ly S t ruc tu re 4 ,i ss i tua ted o n as ma l l r i se a nd t h u s may h ave b een l e s s e xpo sed t o mov ing w a te r . T he p a t te rn s hown b y t h e c e ram ic ma te r ia l i n 1 2 :4 , w he re d i f f e rence s i n t h e c ompo s i t ion a nd f r equency o f t y pe s , a s c ompa red w i th t h e o the r s t ruc tu res o f t h e u n i t , a r e v i s ib le o n l e ve l s o ne a nd t wo , s uppo r t s , r a the r t h an c on t rad ic t s , t h e p ropo s i t ion t h a t t h e f i r s t t wo l e ve l s i nt h i s c a se r ep re sen t a n , a tl e a s t p a r t ly , u nd i s tu rbed , c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l . I n s ide 1 2 :4 , t h e re w a s ac l ea r t e ndency t o d eepe r l a ye r s i nt h e s ou th -ea s te rn p a r t o ft h e s t ruc tu r e . H e re , m a te r ia l w a s f ound d own t o ad ep th o fb e tween 4 0 a nd 6 0c m . I nT renche s 3 3 a nd 3 4 , n o ma te r ia l w a sf ound b e low 3 0c m .

5 8

A rch i tec ton ic f ea tu res r e vea led b ye xcava t ion G ene ra l f ea tu res S qua re 3 2 -6b w a s o pened i n o rde r t o e xam ine t h e w a l l s u r round ing t h e s t ruc tu re . T h i s i n d ica ted t h a t al a rge n umbe r o f t h e s t one s a nd b ou lde r s v i s ib le a bove g round w e re s upe r f ic ia l . T he ma in c on s t ruc t iona l e l emen t o f t h i s w a l l , a sc ou ld b e s een i nt h i s s qua re , w a s ar ow o fe r ec ted s t one s . A s a f i l l ing , s ma l le r , f l a t s t one s w e re p i led u p h o r izon ta l ly b e tween t h e s t and ing s t one s ( F igu re 5 . 2 ) . F o r ac ompa r i son , as qua re ( 3 3 -7b ) w a s o pened n ex tt o t h e m idd le w a l l . T h i s w a l l w a s f ound t o b e v e ry s upe r f ic ia l . N o " co re c on s t ruc t ion" c ou ld b e f ound a nd n o p a r to ft h e w a l l e x tended f u r the rd own t h an 2 0c m . I ns qua re s 3 3 -4 a nd 3 3 -5 , a s semb lage so fs t one s w e re s u spec ted t ob e p a r t s o fc on s t ruc t ion s . As im i la r a s semb lage w a s f ound i ns qua re 2 4 3 1 . Howeve r , a sn oc on t inua t ion o fa ny c on s t ruc t ion sc ou ld b ec onf i rmed i n a d jacen ts qua re s , t h e se a s semb lage sa r en o ti n te rp re ted a sc on s t ruc t ion s .

E n t rances T he o pen ing t owa rd s t h e s ou th -ea s t , a l though n o tp r ima r i ly a f f ec ted b y t h i s y ea r 's e xcava t ion s , c an b e s u spec ted n o t t oh ave b een p a r t o f t h e o r ig ina l c ons t ruc t ion o f t h e w a l l . T h i s o pen ing m ay b e t h e r e su l t o f p o s t a bandonmen t a c t iv i t ie s o n t h e s i te a r ea . T h i s m ay b e i n f e r red f r om t h e a ccumu la t ion s o fs t one r e vea led i nt h e s ou th -we s te rn p a r t o f s qua re 2 4-20 a nd p o ss ib ly o r ig ina t ing f r om t h ew a l l .

5 9

F i gu re 5 . 2 . U n i t 1 2 , S ec to rI V . S t ruc tu re 4 ,v er t ica l s ec t ion o fw a l l . D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

S pec ia l o bse rva t ion o n t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye rs F l oo r leve ls N o d i s t inc tf l oo r leve l w a s f ound i n1 2 :4 . I ns ome s qua re s , p ref e ren t ia l ly i n t h e s ou th -ea s te rn p a r t o ft h e s t ruc tu re ( T renche s 2 4 a nd 3 2 ) , mo re c ompac t s o i l a ppea red a t ad ep th o f 2 0 c m . H oweve r , t h i s p o s s ib le f l oo r c ou ld b e c onf i rmed o n ly i n af ew s qua re s a nd t h e ma te r ia l o ft h e c ompac t l a ye r d i d n o td i f f e ri na ny o bv iou s w ay f r om t h a to fo the rl a ye r s . I nt h ee a s te rn p a r to f T rench 3 2 , i n d ica t ion s o f af l oo r a t ad ep th o f a pp rox ima te ly 3 5 cm w e re r e co rded . H e re , ah a rde r -packed s o i l a ppea red i nc omb ina t ion w i th c ha r coa l

6 0

a nd a c oncen t ra t ion o f c e ram ic s a nd b one m a te r ia l . A l so i n t h i s c a se t h e i nd ica t ion s w e re l im i ted t o af ew s qua re s .

H ea r ths On ly t wo h ea r th s w e re f ound i n S t ruc tu re 1 2 :4 . I n s qua re 3 2 -6b , a c oncen t ra t ion o f c ha rcoa l a nd b u rn t c l ay w a s f ound , c o r re spond ing q u i te w e l l t ot h e s u spec ted , s econd f l oo r leve l a t ad ep th o f3 5 cm . T he c ha rcoa l w a s s i tua ted c l o se t ot h e w a l l . I n s qua re 3 3 -7b , b y t h e s t ruc tu re 's m idd le w a l l , l a rge q uan t i t ie s o f c ha rcoa l w e re f ound r ema rkab ly s upe r f ic ia l ly ( l eve l s 1t o4 ) . T h i s l a rge c oncen t ra t ion o fc ha rcoa l ( s eve ra lk i log ram s )m ay h ave b een c onnec ted w i th a " co rne r shaped" c on s t ruc t ion , v i s ib le a bove g round a nd e x tend ing b u t af ew c en t ime t re s d own . T he g rea t a moun t a nd g ood c ond i t ion o f t h e c ha rcoa l , i n c omb ina t ion w i th i t s p o s i t ion , g i ve r ea son s t od oub t t h a t i to r ig ina ted f r om a c t iv i t ie s c a r r ied o u t i np reh i s to r ic t ime s . T h i s i n te rp re ta t ion n eed s c onf i rma t ion b y a1 4C a na ly s is , a s i ti s s o mewha t c on t rad ic ted b y t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c ha rcoa l c on t inue s d own t o a d ep th o f4 0c ma nd b yt h ep o s i t ion o ft h ec ha rcoa lp a r t ly b enea th t h em idd le w a l l .

E xcava ted c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l C e ram ics I ti ss i gn if ican t o ft h i s s t ruc tu re a s aw ho le t h a t , b o th i nn umbe ra nd w e igh t o ft h et o ta l c e ram ic c on ten t , t h e a moun to fc e ram ic o ft h eB r ick -Red t y pe i s l ow ( Tab le 5 . 1) . T h i s p a t te rn i s mo re p ronounced i nt h e l owe rl e ve l s t h an i n t h e f i r s t t wo ( 0-20 c m ) . I nc ompa r i son w i th t h e r e s t o ft h e u n i t , t h e re i sa n o ve r rep re sen ta t ion o f t h e R ed , p o l i shed Wa re . A l so s eve ra l p i ece s o f a c e ram ic t ype w i th t r ad i t iona l A guada c o lou r s o n ac y l ind r ica l v e s se l shape w i th a r i gh t -ang led r im w e re f ound . T h is t y pe h a s p rev iou s ly n o t b een r e co rded a tt h i s s i te . T he w a re i sf i ne , i n c lud ing l a rge a moun t s o f m ica . Wh i le t h e o u t s ide s o f t h e v e s se l s h ave b een p a in ted w i th g eome t r ica l f i gu re s , s uch a s t r i ang le s a nd d o t s , t h e i n s ide s a r e o f ten p o l i shed . T h i s c e ram ic t y pe h a s b een p re l im ina r i ly c a l led " F ine M icacaeou s Wa re , i n te r io r p o l ished" . T he p r e sence o f C i6naga , a l though n o t n ume rou s , i sa no the r d ive rg ing c ha rac te r i s t ic . " I nca P aya" , " Aguada" a nd " Aguada p o lych rome" t ypes w e re a l lp re sen t ,b u ti ns ma l ln umbe r s .

L i th ics I n s qua re 2 4 -20 , l a rge q uan t i t ie s o fq ua r tz w e re f ound i nt h ef i r s tt wo l e ve ls ( 0-20 c m ) . I n a dd i t ion ap robab ly u n f in i shed , o b s id ian p o in t w a s f ound a t 1 2 cm . F u r the r d own , t h e q uan t i t ie s o f q ua r tz w e re much s ma l le r . T h i s p a t te rn w a s r epea ted i nt h e n ea rby s qua re s o f T renche s 2 4 a nd 3 2 b u t d i d n o t o ccu r i n o the r p a r t s o f t h e s t ruc tu re ( Tab le 5 . 2 ) . T h i s i s ad i s t inc t

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c oncen t ra t ion o f q ua r tz t o o ne p a r t o f t h e s t ruc tu re , t h e w e igh t p e r c ub ic m e t re b e ing s eve ra l t ime s t h a t o fa ny o the r s t ruc tu re o r p a r t o f as t ruc tu re . T he m ean v a lue f o r 1 2 :2 i s5 0 .6 g /m 3 a nd f o r 1 2 :3 , 6 6 .7 g /m 3,w h i le f o r 1 2 :4 a s aw ho le t h ev a lue i s3 59 g /m 3,a nd f o rt h ep a r ta nd l e ve ls o f1 2 :4 s how ing t h i s s pec if ic p a t te rn t h ev a lue i s9 90 g /m 3. A l l i na l l , t h ree o b s id ian p o in t s w e re f ound i n 1 2 :4 . F lake s , s p l in te r s a nd d eb r i s o fo b s id ian w e re f ound i ns ma l l q uan t i t ie s a l l o ve rt h e s t ruc tu re , b u t n od i s t inc tp a t te rn c ou ld b ed i s t ingu i shed .

B ones T he b one m a te r ia l h a s y e t t o b e a na ly sed . S eve ra l l a rge c ame lo id b one s w e re f ound i nT rench 3 2 ( n ea r t h e c i rcu la r w a l l ) . P re l im ina r i ly , i t may b e s t a ted t h a t l a rge b one s w e re p r e sen t i nl a rge r n umbe r s i nl e ve l s 4 , 5a nd 6 ( 30-60 c m )t h an i nt h el e ve l s a bove .

C onc lus ions S t ruc tu re 1 2 :4 d i f f e r s i ns eve ra l w ays f r om t h e r e s t o fU n i t 1 2 . A s a l ready m en t ioned , a l l i n te rp re ta t ion s mu s t a tt h i s s t age b e r e ga rded a sp r e l im ina ry . T he o r ig ina l i mp re s s ion , b a sed o n t h e s hape a nd t h e v i s ib le e l emen t s o f c on s t ruc t ion , h a s b een s uppo r ted b y t h ed a ta f r om t h ee xcava t ion s . B o th t h e c e ram ic ma te r ia l a nd t h e l i th ic s f r om 1 2 :4 s how d i ve rgen t c ha rac te r is t ic s , c ompa red w i th t h e m a te r ia l f r om o the r s t ruc tu re s o f U n i t 1 2 . I ts hou ld a nyway b e n o ted t h a t t h e d i f f e rence s i nc e ram ic ma te r ia l m a in ly c on s is t i n d i f f e ren t r e la t ive f r equenc ie s o f t y pe s , n o t i n d i f f e rence s o f t ypes p er s e . A l so , t h e d i f f e rence s a r e mo re p ronounced i nt h e l owe r l a ye r s t h an i nt h e u ppe r .

6 2

T ab le 5 . 2 . L i th ics , a bso lu te f r equenc ies o fw e igh t , U n i t 1 2 , S t ruc tu re 4 ,l e ve ls 1a nd 2 . U n i t 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04 1 2 :04

T rench 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 2 4 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2

S qua re

L eve l

2 0 2 0 2 0B 2 0B 2 1 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 2 2 B 2 B 3 3 4 4 5 5

1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2

O bs id ian w e igh t ( g . ) 5 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0

Q ua r tz w e igh t ( g . ) 0 9 5 4 0 4 70 2 5 10 3 5 2 0 9 5 2 45 2 0 1 25 1 5 1 30 6 0 0 2 0 1 0 3 0 4 5

Af a r mo re d i s t inc t d i f f e rence b e tween t h e u ppe r a nd t h e l owe r l a ye r s c an b es een i nt h el i th ic ( qua r tz ) m a te r ia l . T h i s s ugge s t st h ec onc lu s ion t h a t 1 2 :4 h ave h ad t wo p e r iod s o f o ccupa t ion o r u se . T h i s , o f c ou r se , may m ean n o th ing mo re t h an t h a t as pec if ic a c t iv i ty ( r e spon s ib le f o r t h e s p read ing o f q ua r tz ) , w h ich w a s c a r r ied o u ti n as pec if ic p a r to ft h e s t ruc tu re ( s ou th -ea s t ) d u r ing t h e l a te r p e r iod , h ad n o t b een c a r r ied o u t i n t h e s ame p a r t o f t h e s t ruc tu re i n t h e e a r l ie r p e r iod . O n t h e o t he r h and , c on s ide r ing t h a t d i f fe rence s i n t h e c e ram ic m a te r ia l d o o ccu r b e tween t h e u ppe r a nd t h e l owe r l a ye r s , i tm ay m ean t h a t t h e t wo p e r iod s c o r re spond t o d i f f e ren t p ha se s ,p o ss ib ly w i th ap ha se o fa bandonmen tb e tween t h em . B o th t h e l a rge a moun t o f p r epa red q ua r tz a nd t h e p re sence o f mo r ta r s ugge s t t h a t 1 2 :4 f unc t ioned a s a n a c t iv i ty a r ea . T h is f unc t ion c an a tt h i s s t age o n ly b e a s c r ibed t o t h e l a te r p e r iod . T he m idd le w a l l s hou ld c o r re spond t o al a te s t age o fu se o ft h es t ruc tu re . I ft h i s c a irn l ike w a l l i st h e r e su l t o f ac l ea r ing o ft h e g round i n s ide 1 2 :4 f r om s t one s , t h i s m ay s ugge s t t h a t ac hange i nt h eu se o ft h es t ruc tu re t ook p l ace d u r ing t h i sl a te p e r iod .

T es t p i ts o u ts ide S t ruc tu re 1t h rough 4 Two t e s tp i t s w e re d ug o u t s ide S t ruc tu re s 1t h rough 4 .S qua re 4 1 :1 , l o ca ted o u t s ide S t ruc tu re 2 ,w a s d ug i n s ide w ha tw a s p robab ly at e r race o rp o s s ib ly as t ruc tu re . T he c u l tu ra ll a ye r s s e em t oh ave b een w a shed a way . N oc u l tu ra l ma te r ia l w a s f ound mo re t h an 3 0c mb e low t h ep re sen t -day s u r face . S qua re 4 0 w a s s i tua ted o u t s ide t h e s t ruc tu re . A t a pp rox ima te ly 4 0 c m , t h e e a r th b ecame h a rd a nd b e low t h i sl e ve ln oc u l tu ra lm a te r ia l a ppea red .

6 3

D iscuss ion a nd c ommen ts T he U n i t 1 2 e xcava t ion h a s a dded o ne mo re e xamp le o f aC a sa Amb ro se t t i t ype o f s t ruc tu re t o o u r d a taba se o n E l P i chao . T he mo s t i mpo r tan t c onc lu s ion s w i l l b e d rawn o n c ompa r ing t h is u n i t w i th o t he r s a tE l P ichao : h oweve r ,t h i sw i l lb ep re sen ted i no t he rc on tex t s . U n i t 1 2 m ay b e d i v ided i n to t wo d i s t inc t e n t i t ie s , o ne c on s t i tu ted b y S t ruc tu re s 1a nd 2a nd t h eo the rc on s t i tu ted b y S t ruc tu re 4 .T he d i f f e rence i s v i s ib le b o th i nt h em e thod s o fc on s t ruc t ion o fw a l l s , t h e s hape s o fs t ruc tu re s a nd t h ee xcava ted m a te r ia l . H oweve r , t h i s p a t te rn ing i sd i f f icu l tt oi n te rp re t , e spec ia l ly s i nce t h e n a tu ra l f o rma t ion p roce s se s a r e l i t t le k nown . We d o k now t h a tt h e re a r el a rge v a r ia t ion si nf o rma t ion p roce s se so nd i f f e ren tp a r t s o ft h e s i te o fE l P ichao , a nd i nt h e c a se o fU n i t 1 2 , t h e re may w e l l b e l a rge v a r ia t ion s w i th in t h eu n i t . Howeve r , o ne m ay s pecu la te a bou t t h e s i gn if icance o ft h e d i f f e rence s i n a r tefac t f r equenc ie s b e tween t h e s t ruc tu re s . A s u nde r s tood a bove , B r ick R ed Wa re c e ram ic s o ccu r i n l owe r f r equenc ie s i n S t ruc tu re 4 t h an i n t h e o t he r s t ruc tu re s . T he f r equency o f C oa r se Wa re i s , o n t h e o the r h and , l e s s v a r ied b e tween t h e s t ruc tu re s . I nS t ruc tu re 4 ,t h e v a r ia t ion o fc e ram ic t ype s i sg rea te rt h an i na ny o t he rs t ruc tu re i nt h eu n i t . I f B r ick -Red c e ram ic s may b e l i nked t o a s pec if ic f unc t ion , t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o f t h i s t y pe m ay b e ac l ue t o t h e u se o f d i f f e ren t i nd iv idua l s t ruc tu re s . S u sana S jöd in h a s s ugge s ted t h a t B r ick -Red Wa re w a s u sed e spec ia l ly f o rv e s se l s a s soc ia ted w i th s t o rage o ff ood a nd w a te r a nd f o rt h e s e rv ing o f m ea l s ( S jöd in 1 991a ) . T he d i s t r ibu t ion o f t h e B r ick -Red m ay t h u s i nd ica te t h a t S t ruc tu re s 1 , 2a nd 3 w e re mo re l i nked t o d ome s t ic a c t iv i t ie st h an S t ruc tu re 4 . Mo re e l abo ra te i n te rp re ta t ion s o ff unc t ion c anno tb e m ade u n t i l w e h ave ab e t te r u nde r s tand ing o f t h e c h rono logy o f t h e u n i t . S ome a r ch i tec tu ra l f e a tu re s m ay b e l i nked t o al a te r o ccupa t ion p ha se t h an t h e o r ig ina l c on s t ruc t ion p e r iod o ft h e u n i t . T h i s m ay b e t h e c a se o ft h e r a ised s t one s i n S t ruc tu re 1 ,t h ough w eh ave n oc onf i rma t ion o ft h i sf r om U n i t 1 2 . I nU n i t 1 , s uch r a i sed s t one s w e re p l aced a bove a f l oo r l e ve l , t h u s s t ra t ig raph ica l ly p rov ing t h ee x i s tence o fa tl e a s tt wo o ccupa t ion p e r iod s . F o r U n i t 1 2 , s im i la r c onc lu s ion s m ay , h oweve r , b e d rawn f r om a no the r f e a tu re . I n S t ruc tu re 4 o f U n i t 1 2 , t h e c a irn l ike , m idd le w a l l i s s t ra t i g raph ica l ly p l aced a bove al a rge p a r to ft h ec u l tu ra l m a te r ia l . T h i si s ad i rec t i nd ica t ion o fs eve ra l p e r iod s o fo ccupa t ion f o r t h i s s t ruc tu re . A s d i scu s sed a bove , t h e c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l a l so s e em s t o s ugge s t t h e e x is tence o f t wo p e r iod s o fo ccupa t ion f o rt h i s s t ruc tu re .

C onc lus ions a nd s umma ry T he e xcava t ion s a nd m app ing a tU n i t 1 2 h ave a dded i mpo r tan t i n forma t ion o n t h e E lP i chao s i te a nd e spec ia l ly o nd we l l ing s a nd r e la ted s t ruc tu re s . T he

6 4

u n i t h a s b een r e la t ive ly w e l l p re se rved , w i th t h e p o s s ib le e xcep t ion o f a c on s t ruc t ion e a s to fS t ruc tu re 1 . C ompa red w i th U n i t 1 ,U n i t 1 2 r ep l ica te s s eve ra l p a t te rn s o ft h e f o rme r w i th r e spec tt os t ruc tu ra l s hape s a nd c omb ina t ion sa nd t h eg ene ra lc ha rac te r a nd d i s t r ibu t ion o ft h ec u l tu ra ll a ye r s . S t ruc tu re 4 r e vea led a s pec if ic s e t o f c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l . T h i s q ua r tz w o rk shop i n S t ruc tu re 4 c ou ld b e i n te rp re ted a s r ep re sen t ing a n a c t iv i ty c a r r ied o u tw i th in ah ou seho ld f r amewo rk . H oweve r ,i tm ay b ep rema tu re t o l i nk t h e s pec if ic s t ruc tu ra l s hape a nd c on s t ruc t ion m e thod o fS t ruc tu re 4 t o t h i s s pec if ic a c t iv i ty , e ven t hough t h i sm ay b ea n i n te re s t ing l i ne o fe nqu i ry . T he p ronounced d i f f e rence b e tween t h e u ppe r a nd t h e l owe r l a ye r s i nt h e s t ruc tu re g i ve s r e a son s t os ugge s t t h a t i tw a s o ccup ied d u r ing t wo d i f f e ren t p e r iod s . T h i s w ou ld i mp ly t h a t t h is s t ruc tu re , w h i le o r ig ina l ly b e long ing t o a n e a r l ie r o ccupa t ion ( Fo rma t ive P e r iod ) , w a s r e -u t i l i sed d u r ing t h e o ccupa t ion o f t h e o the r s t ruc tu re s o f U n i t 1 2 ( Reg iona l D eve lopmen t P e r iod ) . T he d eg ree o f i ndependence o f t h e i n d iv idua l u n i t i n te rp re ted a s a h ou seho ld r ema in s a n o pen q ue s t ion , b u t o u r g ene ra l i mp re s s ion i st h a t U n i t s 1a nd 1 2 h ad a r e la t ive ly h i gh d eg ree o f a u tonomy a nd i n terna l i n teg ra t ion . T he r e pea ted o ccu r rence o f s im i la r a nd s i ngu la r u n i t s a t E l P i chao a nd t h e e v idence f r om e xcava t ion s i n d ica t ing a r e pea ted s e t o f a c t iv i t ie sc a r r ied o u ti ne ach u n i ts uppo r tt h i si n te rp re ta t ion .

R e fe rences A h lg r en , S . 1 990 " The n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t i nt h e a r ea o f E l P i chao" , i nC o rne l l , P . a nd S j öd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E l P ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar y R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg , 2 1-28 Amb ro se t t i , J .B . 1 897 " La a n t igua c i udad d e Q u i lme s ( Va l le C a lchaqu i )" , B o le t i n d e l I n s t i tu to G eograf i co A rgen t ino , XV I I I , B ueno sA ir e s , 3 3-70 C o rne l l , P .1 991 " Un i t 1a s ah ou seho ld a nd t h e 1 990 e xcava t ions i ns t ruc tu re " ,i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 E lP ichao 1 990 . S econd R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg , 1 9-35 C or ne l l , P . 1 993 E ar ly C en tr e s a nd t h e H ouseho ld . A T heor e t ica l a nd Me thodo log ica l S t ud y o n L a t in Amer ican C a se s , GOTARC S e r ie s N o . 3 ,G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l S tud ie s , Gö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg S jöd in , S . 1 991a " The p o t te ry o f E l P i chao : t h e p roce s s o f p roduc t ion a nd t h e l a bou r p roce s s" , i nC or ne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) E l P ichao 1 990 : S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o fC en tr e s . AC ase S t ud y i nt h eS an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg , 19134

6 5

S t enbo rg , P . 1 991 " App roach ing i n te rp re ta t ion s o f t h e c ons t ruc t ion s o f E l P i chao . Two p e r spec t ive s a pp l ied c ompa r ing s e c to r s I I , I V , a nd V I I I" , i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) E l P ichao 1 990 : S econd R epor t f rom t h e p ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . AC a se S t ud y i nt h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S er ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg , 1 35163

6 6

6 .T he i n ves t iga t ions o f1 992 P er S t enborg

T es t -excava t ions i ns ec to rs X a nd X I I : a reas o u ts ide t he c en t ra l s i te -a rea o fE lP i chao At es t t rench i ns ec to rX I I ( STucTav7 ) P u rpose a nd b ackg round S ec to rX I I c on s i s t s o f ap l a teau c i rcum sc r ibed b y t wo r i ve r s , t h eR io P ichao a nd t h e R io T ranca s . I th a s a n e l eva ted , b u t a tt h e s ame t ime r emo te a nd s he l te red p o s i t ion , n o r th -we s t o f t h e m a in s i te a r ea o n t h e a l luv ia l f a n i n s ec to r sI —V ( F igu re 1 . 2 ) . T he m a in p u rpo se o f t h e 1 992 i n ve s t iga t ion i nt h i s p a r t o ft h e s i te a r ea w a s t oe xam ine t h ec h rono log ica lr e la t ion b e tween s e c to rX I Ia nd t h er e s to f t h e s i te o fE l P i chao a nd a l so t oe xam ine t h e r e la t ion b e tween t h e r ema in s o fb u i ld ing s i ns e c to r X I I a nd t h e b u r ia l g round i ns e c to rX I . Ia l so w an ted t o i nve s t iga te w he the r t h e m a te r ia l o f s e c to r X I I h ad a ny r e levance t ot h e w r i t ten s ou r ce so nP ichao c once rn ing t h ep e r iod o fS pan i sh c on tac t . S ec to r X I I h a s b een g i ven a p rope r s i te n umbe r , S T ucT av7 ( t he o the r s ec to r so ft h eE lP ichao s e t t lemen tf o rm sp a r to fs i te n umbe rS T ucTav5 ) .

Me thods A s t h ei n ve s t iga t ion w a sp l anned t ol a s to n ly t wo w eek s , i th ad t ob el im i ted t o at e s t t r ench i no ne s t ruc tu re . Ao ne -day s u rvey o ft h e a r ea ( s ec to r X I I ) r evea led ar a the rc omp lex ,a r chaeo log ica lc on tex t .W i th in al im i ted a r ea ,t h e r u in s o f s eve ra l t ype s o fp r eh i s to r ic b u i ld ing s a r e t ob e f ound m ixed w i th a bandoned h i s to r ica lh ou se sa nd c a t t le e nc lo su re s . T he p redom inan tt ype o f

6 7

F i gu re 6 . 1 . U n i t 1 ,S ec to rX I I , t r ench 1 .D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

a nc ien t s t ruc tu re i s as ma l l , r ounded o ne w i th a s e em ing ly s imp le w a l l c on s t ruc t ion . I n t h e e a s tern p a r t o f t h e s e c to r al a rge o va lo id s t ruc tu re i s s i tua ted . A t t h e w e s te rn e nd o ft h e a r ea , a n a bandoned h ou se o fr e cen t d a te

6 8

i ss i tua ted ( t h i s h ou se , Iw a s t o ld b y Manue l G uanca , o ne o ft h e i nhab i tan t s o ft h e mode rn v i l lage , h ad b een a bandoned s ome t wen ty y ea r s e a r l ie rw hen t h e i nhab i tan t s moved t o C o la lao d e l V a l le ) . Iw a s i n fo rmed t h a t a tl e a s t s ome o f t h e e nc lo su re s , e x tend ing t o t h e e a s t a nd i n te r f e r ing w i th t h e a nc ien t s e t t lemen t r ema in s , b e longed t o t h i s l a te o ccupa t ion o f t h e a r ea . T h is l a te h i s to r ica l o ccupa t ion m ay a l so i n c lude s ome c a se s i n w h ich p r eh is to r ic c on s t ruc t ion sh ave b een r e -u sed . As t ruc tu re o ft h e s ma l l , r ounded t y pe w a s s e lec ted f o r at e s tt r ench ( 7 -11 -X -X ) . T o b eg in w i th , t wo 1x 1 -m s qua re s ( 7 -1-1-1 a nd 7 1-1-2 ) w e re o pened i n s ide t h e s t ruc tu re a s p a r t s o f at r ench r unn ing n o r th a nd s ou th . L a te r , t wo a dd i t iona l s qua re s ( 7 -1-1-3 a nd 7 1-1-3B ) w e re o pened i n a n a t temp t t o e xam ine t h e w a l l -con s t ruc t ion a nd a n e n t rance t ot h e s t ruc tu re ( F igu re 6 . 1) .

L aye rs T he f i r s t 1 0 t o1 2c mc on s is ted o f al i gh ts o i l . I ns ome s qua re s , ad a rk , s oo ty l i ne a ppea red 8t o1 0 c m b e low t h e s u r f ace . Ad a rke r l a ye r e x tended f r om a bou t 1 2 t ob e tween 2 5 a nd 3 5 c m . I ns qua re 1 ,t h i s l a ye rw a s f o l lowed b y a g rey ish , w h i te spo t ted l a ye r , w h ich c on t inued d own t ot h e s t e r i le l e ve l . I n s qua re 2 ,h oweve r , t h em a te r ia l c on t inued d own t o7 0c mb e low t h e s u r f ace o ft h eg round , i nw ha ta ppea red t ob e ad ep re s s ion ( F igu re 6 . 2 ) .

Ma te r ia l T he c e ram ic m a te r ia l f ound i nU n i t 1o fS TucTav 7d i f f e r sr ema rkab ly f r om t h a t f ound i ne xcava t ion s o fs e t t lemen tr ema in s i no the rp a r t s o fE l P ichao . T he f i r s tl e ve l s r e vea led af ew f r agmen t s o ft h e A ve r fa s t y pe o fc e ram ic s , a t ype a s soc ia ted w i th t h e S pan i sh N a t ive P e r iod . W i th t h e e xcep t ion o ft h e se a nd t wo f r agmen t s s how ing I nca i nf luence , t h e c e ram ic s o ft h i s e xcava t ion , a l though s how ing m any d i f f e ren t t y pe s o f d eco ra t ion , f i r ing , c oa r sene s s e t c . , i ng ene ra l c on ta in al a rge a moun t o fm ica . Ic anno t d ec ide w he the r i f t h i s m ica w a s b een o f t h e c l ay u sed o r w he the r i tw a s a dded d u r ing t h e p roce s s o f f ab r ica t ion a s t empe r . V a r iou s t y pe s o f c oa r se c e ram ics a r e c ommon , a s w e l l a s b l ack - a nd r e d -po l i shed t ype s . A l l c on ta in l a rge amoun t s o f m ica . T he l i th ic m a te r ia l c on s i s ted m a in ly o f q ua r tz . S ome o b s id ian a l so o ccu r red .

6 9

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r e fu se -p i t a s soc ia ted w i th i t . F u r the rmo re , i n s qua re 2 , ad ep re s s ion c on ta in ing ma te r ia lc on t inued d own t o0 . 7 m( F igu re 6 . 2 ) .

P re l im ina ry r e su l ts T he i n ve s t iga ted s t ruc tu re c an b e d a ted , o n t h e b a s i s o ft h e p re sence o ft h e c e ram ic t ype s t o t h e p e r iod o f S pan i sh c on tac t ( A .D . 1 5361660 ) o r p o ss ib ly t h e I mpe r ia l P e r iod ( A .D . 1 4801536 ) , f o l low ing t h e p e r iod i sa t ion o fN ü f iez -Regue i ro ( Nür iez -Regue i ro , 1 978 ,4 53-480 ) . T he g rave s o fs e c to r X I a r e d a ted t o t h e S pan i sh N a t ive P e r iod , a nd t h e refo re a c onnec t ion b e tween s e c to r s X I a nd X I I s e em s p l au s ib le . S ec to r X I I t hu s d i f f e r s , a s r ega rd s b o th m a te r ia l a nd s e t t lemen t p a t te rn , f r om a l l p rev iou s ly i nve s t iga ted p a r t s o f t h e s i te , d a ted t ot h e p e r iod o f r eg iona l d eve lopmen t ( A .D . 1 0001480 ) . I n a dd i t ion , t h e m a te r ia l f r om s e c to r X I I a l so o f f e r s a p o ss ib le e xp lana t ion o f t h e d e sc r ip t ion s i nS pan i sh t e x t s o fE l P i chao a s a r a the r s ma l l s i te , i nc ompa r i son w i th o the r s i te s i nt h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley ( i . e . Q u i lme s a nd T o lombön ) . I fs e c to r X I I w a s t h e o n ly p a r t o fE l P i chao s t i l l u sed f o r s e t t lemen t d u r ing t h i s p e r iod —no th ing f ound t h u s f a r c on t rad ic t s t h a t p o s s ib i l i ty — i t w a s ar a the r s ma l l s i te , w h ich h ad h ad i t s p eak o fi mpo r tance s ome h und red y ea r se a r l ie r .

A n i n ves t iga t ion i ns ec to rX P u rpose a nd b ackg round I n 1 991 , af i r s t s u rvey a nd m app ing w e re m ade o ft h e c omp lex o fs t ruc tu re s s i tua ted i n s e c to r X a nd p r e l im ina r i ly b y m e n amed " comp lex C " . T h i s a ccumu la t ion o fs t ruc tu re s i ss i tua ted o n am ino rs l ope i nt h e moun ta in c l e f t o f s e c to r X ( F igu re 6 . 3 ) . T he d i f f e rence i n a l t i tude b e tween t h e l owe s t s t ruc tu re o n t h e p l an ( S t ruc tu re 2 4 ) a nd t h e h i ghe s t ( S t ruc tu re 6 ) i sa bou t 1 9 .6 m . T he e a s te rn p a r t o ft h e a r ea g i ve s t h e g ene ra l i mp re ss ion o fb e ing c on s t ruc ted i nr ow s . I nt h i s p a r t o ft h e a r ea , ad ep re ss ion r unn ing e a s t a nd w e s ta nd c on ta in ing

7 1

F i gu re 6 . 3 . S ec to rX ,C omp lex C . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

s t ruc tu re s i so n b o th s i de s c i rcum scr ibed b y h ighe r ly ing s t ruc tu re s o n t wo r i dge s . T o t h e w e s t , t h i s d ep re s s ion c ea se s a nd t h i s p a r to ft h e a r ea l a ck s t h e r ow l ike c ha rac te r o f t h e e a s te rn p a r t . F u r the r e a s t , a mode rn h ou se w i th c a t t le e nc lo su re s —abandoned , a l though s t i l l o cca s iona l ly u sed f o ra c t iv i t ie s

7 2

c onnec ted w i th t h e k eep ing o f a n ima l s —ha s b een c on s t ruc ted , p robab ly c ove r ing s o me p a r to ft h ee a r l ie rs e t t lemen t . T he a im o f t h e 1 992 e xcava t ion w a s t wofo ld . G ene ra l ly , i tw a s t o i n c rea se t h e g ene ra l k now ledge o ft h e s i te . A mo re s pec if ic p u rpo se w a s t o e xam ine t h e r e la t ion s , f r om t h e a ng le o f t h e a r chaeo log ica l ma te r ia l , b e tween t h e c omp lex o fs t ruc tu re s i ns e c to rXa nd t h e c omp lexe s i ns e c to r s I I a nd V I I I .

Me thods I nve s t iga t ion s w e r e c onduc ted i n t h ree s t ruc tu re s i n t h e c omp lex o f s t ruc tu re s i ns e c to r X . I n S t ruc tu re 5 o fc omp lex C , as ma l l s t ruc tu re , f ou r s qua re s w e re o pened ( 5 -19 -44 -1 , 5 19 -44 -4 , 5 19 -44 -5 , 5 19 -44 -6 ) . I n t h e o the r t wo s t ruc tu re s w he re e xcava t ion s t o ok p l ace , s t ruc tu re 1a nd 7 ,o n ly o ne s qua re w a s e xcava ted i ne ach s t ruc tu re ( 5 -20 -45 -1 i nS t ruc tu re 1 ,a nd 5 1 9 -46 -1 i n S t ruc tu re 7 ) . T he l a t te r e xcava t ion s r evea led o n ly s ma l l q uan t i t ie s o fc u l tu ra l m a te r ia l ( F igu re s . 6 . 4-6 .5 ) .

L aye rs T he l a ye r se xcava ted i nt h et h ree s t ruc tu re s s how av a r ied p a t te rn . T h i s m ay p a r t ly b e d ue t o e xpo su re t o n a tu ra l p roce s se s , s uch a s e r o s ion a nd s ed imen ta t ion . I n t h e t r ench i n S t ruc tu re 5 , t h e g ene ra l p a t te rn r evea led s ome p r ima ry 4 0 c m o f s h if t ing , p robab ly s ed imen ted l a ye r s ( F igu re 6 . 6 ) . B e low t ho se , at h in c u l tu ra l l a ye r , c on ta in ing l a rge c e ram ic f r agmen t s a nd c ha rcoa l , o ccu r red . A ta bou t0 . 45 m b e low t h ep r e sen tg round s u r f ace , l a rge f r agmen t s w e re f ound s i tua ted o n as u r f ace t h a t m ay b e i n te rp re ted a s t h e o r ig ina l f l oo r leve l . S eve ra l t i l ted w a l l s tone s w e re s i tua ted d i rec t ly o n t h e s ame s u r f ace . T he s o i l o f t h i s s u spec t ed f l oo r leve l d i d n o t , h oweve r , i n c lude a ny s ma l lf r agmen t so fp o t te ry . I n S t ruc tu re 1—a l a rge , r e c tangu la r s t ruc tu re a tt h e e a s te rn l im i t o f t h e c omp lex —cu l tu ra ll a ye r sw e re c omp le te ly a b sen t . I n S t ruc tu re 7 ,s ome m a te r ia l w a s f ound i nl a ye r s r ang ing f r om 0 . 4 m d own t o0 . 9m .

7 3

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7 4

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Ma te r ia l T he d om ina t ing c e ram ic t y pe w a s f ound t ob e B r ick -Red w a re ( F igu re 6 . 7 ) . T he t o ta l ammoun t o f B r ick -Red c e ram ic s i n c luded 4 1 f r agmen t s . T h i r ty s i x o f t h o se f r agmen t s c ou ld b e i d en t if ied a s e i the r r ed s l ip , r ed p o l i shed ( Be l6n c e ram ic s ) o r w h i te s l ip ( San ta Ma r ia c e ram ics ) . O f t ho se 3 6 f r agmen t s , 4 1 .7% w e re r e d s l ip , r ed p o l ished ( Be l6n ) , w h i le 5 8 .3% w e re w h i te s l ip ( San ta Ma r ia ) ( F igu re 6 . 8 ) . T he c u l tu ra l l a ye r o f S t ruc tu re 5 c on ta ined s eve ra l l a rge , r e jo inab le f r agmen t s o f t h e r ed -po l i shed t ype o f c e ram ic s ; n o tab ly , i n t h e t h in c u l tu ra l l a ye r , t h e re w a s a d i s t inc t p redom inance o f t h e B r ick -Red , r ed -po l i shed ( Be l6n ) t ype . O f t h e 2 5 f r agmen t s f ound b e low 0 . 2 mo ft h e B r ick R ed t y pe , 2 0 c ou ld b e i d en t if ied a se i the rr ed s l ip ,r e dp o l i shed o rw h i te s l ip . H e re , t h er ed s l ip , r ed p o l i shed p r edom ina ted w i th 6 5% o f t h e t o ta l , w h i le 3 5% w e re w h i te s l ip ( F igu re 6 . 9 ) .

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O the ro bse rva t ions I n S t ruc tu re 5 ,o ne s qua re ( 5 -19 -44 -6 ) w a s e xcava ted i n a n a bove g round b u tn o tv i s ib le e n t rance t ot h es t ruc tu re t h rough t h es ou th w a l l . S urp r is ing ly , t h e e n t rance t u rned o u t t oc on ta in ah ea r th , a l ong w i th s ome b one ma te r ia l ( F igu re 6 . 10 ) . Wha t o n t h e s u r f ace l ooked l i ke a n e n t rance t h rough t h e n o r th -ea s t w a l l w a s f ound t ob e n o th ing b u t ad ep re s s ion i nt h a t w a l l , mo s t l i ke ly c au sed b yr e cen ta c t iv i ty .

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c oncen t ra ted t o o ne t h in l a ye r , w ou ld b e t h a t t h e p a t te rn o f t h e ma te r ia l f ound i n s e c to r X i s t h e r e su l t o f av e ry s ho r t o ccupa t ion . T he h i gh f r equency o f l a rge f r agmen t s m ay b e i n te rp re ted a s e v idence o f w ha t S ch if f e r c a l l s d e f ac to r e f use ( Sch if f e r , 1 987 , 8 9-97 ) . T he p l ac ing o f a h ea r th i n t h e e n t rance o f S t ruc tu re 5 i sa n i n te re s t ing d e ta i l , w h ich m ay s uppo r t t h e h ypo the s i s t h a t t h e d we l l ing s i n t h i s a r ea w e re r oof ed . A s c ompa red w i th c omp lexe s Aa nd B ,a sw e l l a sU n i t s 1a nd 1 2 ( Anbe rg e ta l . 1 990 ; C o rne l l 1 991 ; S jöd in 1 991b ; S tenbo rg 1 991 ; C o rne l l a nd S tenbo rg , t h i s v o lume ) , t h em a te r ia lf ound i nt h i se xcava t ion s how s ad i f f e ren tp a t te rn . I no t he r p a r t s o ft h e s e t t lemen t , t h e m a te r ia l s e em s t oh ave a ccumu la ted o ve r a n c on s ide rab le p er iod o fo ccupa t ion . T he l a rge , r e jo inab le s he rd s o f t h e B r ick -Red , r ed -po l i shed t ype , f o rm ing t h e m a jo r p a r t o f ab ow l , p uco , m ay b e t a ken a sa n i nd ica t ion o f ah a s ty a bandonmen t o ft h e s e t t lemen t . I t s r emo te l o ca t ion i nr e la t ion t ot h ec en t ra l a r ea o ft h eE lP ichao s i te may h ave r e su l ted i n l ow s caveng ing , c o l lec t ing a nd o the r e f f ec t s ( s uch a s s ho r t c u t t ing ) i nt h ep o s t -abandonmen tp ha se ( Dea l , 1 985 ,2 70-272 ) . A l so , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e c u l tu ra l l a ye r w a s f ound b e low t h ick , s ed imen ted l a ye r s , a lmo s tw i thou ta ny c u l tu ra l ma te r ia l , d i f f e r s f r om t h e g ene ra l p a t ter n f ound i n e xcava t ion s o n t h e a l luv ia l f an . T he c oncen t ra t ion o f c u l tu ra l m a te r ia l t oo ne t h in l a ye ri sw i thou t p a ra l le l i nt h e o t he rp a r t s o ft h e s i te s o f a r i n ve s t iga ted . T he o ccu r rence o f an ea r ly e ven f r equency o f t h e B r ick R ed , w h i te -s l ipped , a nd t h e B r ick -Red , r ed -po l i shed t y pe s o fc e ram ics a l so r un s c oun te r t ot h e c ommon p a t tern o f as t rong p r edom inance o ft h e w h i te s l ipped t y pe .

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F i gu re 6 . 10 . C omp lex C , S ec to rX ,d e ta i ls o fo pen ing . D raw ing : P .S tenbo rg .

T h i s d i f f e rence i s e ven mo re m a rked i f s u r face -co l lec ted m a te r ia l a nd ma te r ia l f r om t h ef i r s t 1 0c ma r ee xc luded a st h er ed -po l ished c e ram ic s w i l l t h en b e t h e d om ina t ing c e ram ic t y pe i nt h e t r ench e xcava ted i nS t ruc tu re 5 . T h i s m ay w e l l i n d ica te at empo ra l d i f f e rence , a sc ompa red w i th o t he rp a r t s o f t h e s e t t lemen t . T he f a c t t h a t t h e f r equency o f B r ick -Red , w h i te -s l ipped ( San ta Mar ia B ico lor a nd S an ta Mar i a P o l i cromo ) i sl owe r t h an i no t he r p a r t s , w h i le n one o f t h e t ype s a s soc ia ted w i th l a te r p e r iod s , s uch a s t h e C a sp inchango a nd Y ocav i l t y pe s , o ccu r , i n d ica te s t h a t t h e s e t t lemen t i n s e c to r X may s l igh t ly p re -da te mo s t o t he r p a r t s o ft h e s i te . N o e v idence o f c e ram ic s f r om t h e F orma t ive P er iod ( 200 B .C . t o A .D . 1 000 ) ( Nür iez R egue i ro , 1 978 , 4 53-480 ) w a s f ound , a nd t h e refo r a r e a sonab le i n te rp re ta t ion w ou ld b e t h a t t h e s e c to r w a s m a in ly o ccup ied d u r ing t h e E ar ly R eg iona lD eve lopmen tP er iod ( c . A .D . 1 0001300 ) . T h i sp ha se o ft h e r e g iona l d eve lopmen t p e r iod c ove red , a cco rd ing t o N ü t lez R egue i ro , t h e i n i t ia l p a r t o f t h e p e r iod , u n t i l t h e eme rgence o f" t rue s em i -u rban c en te r s" ( Nür i ez R egue i ro , 1 978 ,4 78 ) .

7 9

R eg is t ra t ion o fs ome p a r to ft he ma te r ia l f r om t he i n ves t i -ga t ions a tt he n e ighbou r ing s i te T a lapazo i n 1 990 B ackg round a nd mo t ives T he e xcava t ion i ns e c to r X( s ee a bove ) r a i sed q ue s t ion s a bou t t h e r e la t ions b e tween s e c to r X a nd o t he r p a r t s o f t h e E l P ichao s i te , a s w e l l a s t h e p o ss ib le c onnec t ions b e tween c omp lex C a tE l P ichao a nd t h en e ighbou r ing s i te n amed T a lapazo ( STucTav3 ) . A s t h ep a r to ft h es e t t lemen to fE l P ichao s i tua ted mo s t c l o se ly t o t h i s n e ighbou r ing s i te ( F igu re 1 . 2 ) , a nd p o s s ib ly u s ing n o t o n ly t h e ma in w a te r r e sou rce o f E l P ichao , t h e R io P i chao , b u t p o ss ib ly a l so w a te r f r om t h e g u l l ie s r unn ing d own t h e moun ta in s epa ra t ing t h e t wo s i te s , ac onnec t ion b e tween T a lapazo a nd t h i s p a r t o fE l P i chao i s n o tu n l ike ly .

Me thods A r eg is t ra t ion o f p a r t s o f a n e a r l ie r , u n reg is te red m a te r ia l f r om a 1 990 i n ve s t iga t ion a t t h e s i te o f T a lapazo w a s u nde r taken , i n t h e h ope t h a t i t w ou ld r evea l i n fo rma t ion a bou t t h e d i f f e rence s a nd s im i la r i t ie s b e tween T a lapazo a nd E l P ichao c once rn ing t h ec e ram ic ma te r ia l . As pec ia l a im w a s t oc ompa re t h e c e ram ic m a te r ia l f r om T a lapazo w i th t h a t o f s e c to r X . T he i n te re s tw a sf o cu sed o nt h eg ene ra lr e la t ion sb e tween t h et ype s o fc e ram ic s .

R esu l ts T he T a lapazo ma te r ia l s how s f ew s im i la r i t ie s t ot h e m a te r ia l f r om s e c to rX ( F igu re 6 . 7 ) . ) .I td oe s n o t i na ny d i s t inc t w ay d ive rge f r om t h a t o fs e c to r s I I , I V a nd V I I I o f E l P i chao . T he mo s t f r equen t t y pe i st h e B r ick -Red , c o r re spond ing t o5 9 %o ft h e t o ta l s amp le ( F igu re 6 . 11) . T he w h i te s l ipped c e ram ic s b y f a r o u tnumbe red t h e r ed -po l i shed . T he s amp le o f B r ick -Red p o t te ry s he rd s c on s is ted o f8 3 % w h i te -s l ipped c e ram ic s ( San ta Ma r ia ) a nd 1 7 %r ed s l ipped c e ram ic s ( Be l6n ) ( F igu re 6 . 12 ) .

8 0

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1 60 — 1 40 — t o

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6 0 — 4 0 — 2 0 — 0 B Rw h i te

B R r e d

F i gu re 6 . 12 . T a lapazo , B r ick red t y pes .

8 1

A n i n ves t iga t ion o fs choo l -ch i ld ren 's e xpe r ience o f , a nd o p in ions a bou t , p re -h is to ry , a tt he l o ca l p r ima ry -schoo ls o fE lA rbo la r , a nd C o la lao d e l V a l le Mo t ives T o c ompa re t h e r e su l t s w i th t ho se o f as im i la r i nve s t iga t ion i n a Swed i sh s choo l .

Me thods T he c h i ld ren w e re a sked t o w r i te d own t h e a nswe r s t o an umbe r o f q ue s t ion s c oncern ing d i f f e rence s a nd s im i la r i t ie s b e tween t h e p re sen t a nd t h e p a s t , a bou t t h e i r v i ew o f p e r sona l r e la t ion s i n t h e p a s t , a nd g ene ra l ly a bou t t h e l i v ing c ond i t ion s i n t h e p a s t . T he q ue s t ion s w e re i n p a r t s t r an s la t ion s o fq ue s t ion s u sed b y Ewa B e rgdah l -Bu luk in i n aSwed i sh s t udy ( Be rgdah l -Bu luk in , 1 985 ) . S ome o f t h e q ue s t ion s w i l l b e f ound i n t h e A ppend ix . I na dd i t ion , t h e c h i ld ren w e re a sked t od raw p i c tu re s o ft h e p a s t I nd ian l i f ea tt h es i te o fE lP i chao .

R esu l ts A l a rge m a te r ia l w a s c o l lec ted , a s s ome 2 00 c h i ld ren p a r t ic ipa ted i n t h e s t udy . N o e va lua t ion o ft h e ma te r ia l h a s s o f a rb een m ade , b u t Ih ope t ob e a b le t or e turn t ot h i s i n ve s t iga t ion i n af o r thcom ing r epo r t .

8 2

A ppend ix • How d id t h eI nd ian sl i ve? • Wha td id t h ey l i ke t od o? • Wha td id t h eI nd ian se a t? • Wha tw e re t h ef am i l ie so ft h eI nd ian sl i ke? • Who i st h e mo s ti n te l l igen t : a nI nd ian , ac onqu is tado ro r amoder n man? • Who i st h e l e a s t i n te l l igen t : aS wede , aS a l tanean ( Sa l ta = p rov . o f A rgen t ina ) o r aT ucumanean ( Tucumän =p rov . o fA rgen t ina )? D o w el i ve b e t te rt h an d i dt h eP reh i s to r ic I nd ian? J u s t ify y ou ra n swe r

8 3

R e fe rences A nbe rg , S . , B eng t sson , L .a nd C o rne l l, P .1 990 " Excava t ion s a nd m ea su remen t s i ns e c to r s I Ia nd I V : U n i t s 1 ,2 ,a nd 3 " , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 ,4 9-61 B e rgdah l -Bu luk in , E . 1 985 S t enä ld er s l iv : e n u nd er sökn ing a v g rund sko lee lever s u ppf a t tn ingar o m f örh i s tor ien , GOTARC , S e r ie C N o . 2 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . 1 991 " Un i t 1a s ah ou seho ld a nd t h e 1 990 e xcava t ion s i n s t ruc tu re 3 " , i n C or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 , 1 9-39 C orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inary R epor tf rom t h ep ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C orne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S tudy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina ,

GOTARC ,

S e r ie s

D ,

N o .

5 , G ö tebo rg

U n ive r s i ty ,

D epa r tmen t

o f

A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg D ea l , M . 1 985 " Hou seho ld p o t te ry d i spo sa l i n t h e Maya h i gh land s" , J ourna l o f A n thropo log ica lA r chaeo logy ,4 / 1985 , 2 43-291 N t i f iez R egue r io , V . 1 978 " Con s ide ra t ion s o n t h e P e r iod iza t ion s o fN o r thwe s t A rgen t ina" , i n D . B owman ( e d . ) 1 978 A dvance s i n A ndean A r chaeo logy , T he H ague , Mou ton P ub l i she r s , 4 53-484 S ch if f e r , M .B . 1 987 F orma t ion P roce s se s o ft h e A r chaeo log ica l R ecord , U n ive r s i ty o f Mex ico P re s s , N ew Mex ico S jöd in , S .1 991b " Sec to rV I I I" , i nC orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 , 3 7-42 S t enbo rg , P . 1 991 " App roach ing i n te rp re ta t ions o f t h e c on s t ruc t ions o f E l P i chao . Two p e r spec t ive s a pp l ied c ompa r ing s e c to r s I I , I V , a nd V I I I" , i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 , 1 35163

8 4

7 .E xcavac iön d e l au n idad 6 d e l s ec to r Id e l s i t io S TucTav 5 ( E l P i chao ) 4 Mar ta R .A . T ar tus i yV i c tor A .N i i i iez R egue iro

I n t roducc iön Af i ne s d e l s i g lo p a sado yc om ienzo s d e l p re sen te y a e x is t ia , e n t re a l guno s i nve s t igado re s d ed icado s a le s tud io d e l p a sado , i n qu ie tud p o r e lt ema d e l a f unc iön y e l s i gn if icado r e l ig io so o c e remon ia l d e a l guno s r e s to s a rqueo lög ico s ( Qu i roga , 1 896 ; B oman , 1 908 ) . E no t ro st r aba jo sd el am i sma 6 poca e ncon t ramo s d e sc r ipc ione s d e e s t ruc tu ra s c uya f unc iona l idad n o r e su l taba e v iden te , al a s c ua le s , s i n emba rgo , d ebemo s t oma r e n c uen ta s i q ue remo s i n t roduc i rno s a l e s tud io s i s temä t ico d e l a s m an if e s tac ione s s upe re s t ruc tu ra le s d e l a s s oc iedade s p r eh i spän ica s ( Amb ro se t t i , 1 897 ; B ruch , 1 904 ) . H a s ta e l momen to , e l p rob lema d e l a i d en t if icac iön d e e s t ruc tu ra s r e lac ionada sc on e lc u l to d e l p e r fodo d eD e sa r ro l lo sr eg iona le s , h as i do m ä s d i f i c i ld ea bo rda rq ue p a ra l o sp e r fodo s a n te r io re s . " La a r queo log ia d e l p e r iod° T a rd io ( p e r iod° d e D e sa r ro l lo sr e g iona le s , s egün n ue s t ro e squema ) n o h a l egado ai d en t if ica r n i nguna e s t ruc tu ra a r qu i tec tön ica q ue s ed i s t inga n e tamen t e d e l r e s to d e l o s a s en tam ien to s yq ue p o r s u s r a sgo s p ueda c l a s if ica r se c omo t emp lo . E s p o s ib le q ue e xcavac ione s c u idado sa s f u tu ra s l o g r en i d en t if ica r e s to s m ochade ro s ot emp lo s i n c ip ien te s . A qu iq ueda e s tab lec ida l an ece s idad d e s u b ü squeda a r queo lög ica . P rob lema q ue e n l ap räc t ica n o s l oh emo s p l an teado d e sde h ace mucho s a r io s . S u i d en t if ica c iön e n e l p e r iod° T a rd io r e su l ta d i f i c i l , p o rque a l p a rece r , l a d i f e renc iac iön

a r qu i tec tön ica

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n o t ab le .

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a l a

i d en t if icac iön d e l o s c en t ro s c e r emon ia le s d e l o s p e r iodo s T emp rano y Med io [ Fo rma t ivo eI n teg rac iön r e g iona l , s egün n ue s t ro e squema . E l s ub rayado e s n ue s t ro ]" ( Gonzä lez , 1 983 ) .

E ne s te t r aba jo d amo s ac onoce rl o sr e su l tado s p r e l im ina re sq ue h aa r ro jado l ae xcavac iön d e u n mon t icu lo e n e ls i t io S TucTav5 ( E l P i chao ) d u ran te l a c ampa f ia d e 1 990 . L o s t e s t imon io s r e cupe rado s n o s p e rm i ten i n f e r i r q ue s e 4

U na v e r s ion d ee s te t r aba jo f u ep ub l icada e n N ür iez R egue i ro a nd T a r tu s i ( 1993 ) .

8 5

t r a ta d e u na e s t ruc tu ra c e remon ia l ot emp lo S an tama r iano , p o s ib lemen te c o r re spond ien te a lp e r iod ( )I mpe r ia l oI n ca ico . N ue s t ro o b je t ivo e s , a demä s , e l d e c ompa ra r a t r av6 s d e l a b i b l iog ra f fa , y c on l a s r e f e renc ia s e t noh i s tö r ica s d i spon ib le s , t ema e s te ü l t imo q ue y a h a s i do e nca rado i n ten s i vamen te e ne lr e f e r ido t r aba jo d eG onzä lez .

D esc r ipc iön g ene ra l d e l s ec to r I E l s e c to r Is eh a l la s i tuado f r en te a lp ueb lo E l P ichao , s epa rado d e 6 s te p o r e lc auce d e l r i o h omön imo . H ac ia e l NE l ab a r ranca d e l a ma rgen d e recha d e l r i o e s tä p räc t icamen te u n ida a l al a de ra d e l c e r ro C ondo r Hua s i , q ue r odea a l s e c to r p o r e l 0 yq ue c on s t i tuye e l s e c to r V I . E l E s e h a l la d e l im i tado p o r l ab a r ranca m enc ionada , ye ls u r p o r u na l i nea i mag ina r ia q ue p a r te d e l a Q ueb rada d e l Z o r ro ( t o r ren te t empo ra l d e p ronunc iada y e x ten sa p end ien te ) , y mue re e n e l l e cho d e l d o , al a a l tu ra e n q ue A te c om ienza a a b r i r se e n d o s c auce s ( F igu re 1 . 2 , e n l a i n t roducc iön , e s te v o lumen ) . E l s e c to r p re sen ta u na p end ien te m ayo r e n s en t ido 0—E , os ea d e sde l a l a de ra d e l c e r ro h ac ia e ld o , yo t ra p end ien te m eno rd e NE aS E , p a ra le la a l c u r so d e a gua . L a b a r ranca e s mä s a l ta a lc om ienzo d e l s e c to r , c on a p rox i madamen te 4 m d e a l tu ra ; l u ego , d eb ido aq ue l ae ro s ion d e l d o d i sm inuye e n l a s p rox im idade s d e l t r amo f i na l d e l c ana l c o lec to r , d e sc iende a meno s d e 1m ,p a ra a s cende rl e vemen te e n l a sc e rcan fa sd e l l im i te c on e ls ec to rI . L az ona p re sen ta mucha e ro s ion , t a n to l ap roduc ida p o re ld od espu6 sd e c ada c r ec ien te , c omo l aq ue r e su l ta d e l a s l uv ia s q ue o ca s ionan mucha a r royada e n s u rco , f o rmando n ume ro sa s t o r ren te ra s . E s ta s a r ra s t ran c l a s to s a guzado s d e t ama t io m ed iano ap equer io , ya r c i l la , c ub r iendo l a s e s t ruc tu ra s c e rcana s a lc e r ro , yo r ig inando c ä rcava s q ue a umen tan d e t amar io d e spu6 s d ec ada p r ec ip i tac iön . L a s r o ca s m ä s g rande s q ue a f lo ran e n e ls e c to r s on g ne i s b andeado s y e squ i s to s m icäceo s c on m ä s d e d o s m e t ro s d e d i äme t ro , q ue s e e ncuen t ran e nl a sp rox im idade sd el ab a r ranca ( R ibo t ta , 1 991) . L a se s t ruc tu ra sh ab i tac iona le sr e c i6n c om ienzan as e rc l a ramen te v i s ib le s e n l a s p rox im idade s d e l s e c to r I , d onde l a p end ien te d i sm inuye , ys e e x t ienden h ac ia l a p a r te a us t ra l d e l s e c to r V I . ( E s p o s ib le q ue h a l len e s t ruc tu ra s h ab i tac iona le s o cu l ta s a c tua lmen te p o r c l a s to s y a r c i l la s , e spec ia lmen te e n l a s p rox im idade s d e l al a de ra d e l c e r ro , d onde l aa cumu l a c iön d e m a te r ia l e sm ayo r ) . A n te s d e l ega r ae l la s e ncon t ramo s l f nea s d e mu ro s d e c on tenc iön , av ece s t a ngenc ia le s al ap end ien te mayo r , yo t ra s p a ra le la s a l d o , d e l im i tando s upe r f ic ie s a t e r razada s , l a rga s ya ngo s ta s , e spec ia lmen te d e g rande s r oca s ye la p rovecham ien to d e b loque s r oco so s n a tu ra lmen te d epo s i tado s , p a ra c onforma r l o s mu ro s , q ue a pa recen a s i s ö l idamen te c on s t ru ido s , p e ro c a ren te s d e l i enzo p a re jo . A lguna s d e l a s r oca s p röx ima sa lr i ot i enen mo r te ro s , av ece s mü l t ip le s . D e sde u n p un to d e v i s ta f unc iona l d a l ai mp re s iön q ue t odo e l s ec to r , d e sde s u c om ienzo h a s ta l ega r al az ona d e e s t ruc tu ra s h ab i tac iona le s , h a

8 6

s i do a cond ic ionado p a ra c on t ro la r l o s p roce so s e ro s ivo s q ue p roducen l a s l uv ia s s ob re l ap end ien te , yl a s a gua s r e c ib ida s p o re lc ana l d e d e sagüe d e l r i o s ob re l a m a rgen d e recha d e l m i smo .5 S i b i en e n e s ta z ona p ud ie ron h abe r se e f ec tuado t a rea s a g r ico la s , 6 s ta s d eben h abe r se r e a l izado p redom inan temen t ee nl a s p a r te s m ä s b a ja s d e l s i t io , ap a r t i rd e l o s s e c to re s I yI I , d onde c om ienza af o rma r se e lc ono a l uv ia l s ob re e lc ua l d i vaga a l d o . E n t re l a s r oca s c on m o r te ro s q ue s ee ncuen t ran e ne ls e c to r , s ob re sa le u n g ran b loque s i tuado e n l ap a r te m ed ia d e l m i smo , e n l a s p rox im idade s d e l a b a r ranca . S e h a ha u b icado e n u n l u ga rd onde s eh ace mucho m ä s c omp le jo e l s i s tema d e m u ro s d e c on tenc iön a t e r razado s , y p o see d imen s ione s mayo re sq ue e lr e s to d el a sg rande sr oca sq ue s eh a l lan e nl az ona . J us to a n te s q ue c om iencen l a s c on s t rucc ione s h ab i tac iona le s s el o ca l izö u n mon t icu lo d e p i ed ra s , d e f o rma a p rox imadamen te c i rcu la r , q ue s eu n ia a u na g ran r oca c on p e t rog l ifo s yh oyue lo s d e e s ca sa p rofund idad yd i äme t ro v a r iab le . Med ia a p rox imadamen te 4 , 50 m d e d i äme t ro mäx imo ( E-0 ) , 3 , 50 m , d e d i äme t ro m in im° ( t o rnado d e sde l ar oca h ac ia e lN ) , y0 , 50 m d e a l tu ra . E n a l guno s s e c to re s s ep od ian i d en t if ica r se p a r te s d e mu ro s c u rvo s , n o muy b i en d e f in ido s . D e l a r ea d e l o s r e c in to s s e d ep r iende u na l i nea d e p i ed ra s q ue l egaba h a s ta e ls e c to r d onde s e h a l laba e l mon t icu lo , f o rmando a v ece s u n mu ro d ob le r e l leno . C on d i f icu l tad s e p od ian o b se rva r t amb i6n o t ra s l f nea s d e p i ed ra s , p o rl og ene ra l p a ra le la s , ym eno s f r ecuen temen te p e rpend icu la re s a l ap end ien te m ayo rd e l t e r reno , a l guna s d e l a s c ua le s l egaban h a s ta l az ona d onde s el e van taba e l mon t icu lo .

U n idad 6 E xcavac iön E l a r ea d onde s ee ncon t raban e lm on t icu lo y l ap i ed ra c on p e t rog l ifo s f ue d enom inada u n idad 6 , ye xcavada e n d o s m i tade s , s epa rada s p o r u na l i nea N—S q ue p a saba p o r l a p a r te m ä s a l ta d e l mon t icu lo . D e e s ta f o rma q ueda ron e nma racada s d o s c uad r i cu la s d e 7x 3 , 50 m , i d en t if icada s c omo 1 3 l ao cc iden ta l y1 4l ao r ien ta l . L a e xcavac iön f u e r e a l izada a p l icando t &n ica s d e d ecapado , l evändo se e l r eg i s t ro s ob re l a b a se d e n i ve le s a r t if ic ia le s , p o r n o h abe r se p od ido

5E xcavac ione s

r e a l izada se nu na z ona p röx ima al o sc om ienzo sd e l s e c to r( Un idad 6 ,

e xcavada b a jo l as upe rv i s iön d eJ o rge l ina G a r c ia A zcä ra te ) , d onde s ep er f i laban h i le ra s d ep i ed ra sp a r ada sq ue p od ian h abe rf o rmado p ar t ed et umba s od ec on s t rucc ione s h ab i tac iona le s , d i e ron r e su l tado n ega t ivo . L o s s ondeo sp rac t icado s e n e s t ruc tu ra s c i r cu la re sa i s lada s( Un idad 4 ) , q ue e nn üme ro d et r e ss eh a l lan e n e ls e c to r , c o r robo ra ron l a si n fo rma c ione sq ue n o sp ropo r c ion6 u n o b re ro , e n e ls en t ido d eq ue e r an v i e jo sc o r ra le sd ec ab ra , a bandonado s h ace d ecada s .

8 7

i d en t if ica r , e n n i gün momen to , l i nea s d e e s t ra t if ica c iön . E n l o s t r aba jo s d e e xcavac iön c o labo ra ron H o rac io B u s to s T hame s , Ma r ia G lo r ia C o lane r i , G ab r ie l R amön y Ma r ia Ma r ta S amp ie t ro V a t tuone , a l umno s d e t e rce r a r io d el ac a r re ra d ea r queo log ia d el a UNT . L a e s t ruc tu ra s e h a l laba a l te rada p o r l a e ro s ion , yl a a cc iön d e d o s mon teneg ro s ( Bu lne s ia s ch ickendan tz i i H ie ron , e x G r iseb ) q ue h und ian p rofunda ye x ten samen te s u sr a ice s ,d i f icu l tando l a st a rea s . L o s t r aba jo s e f ec tuado s p u s ie ron a ld e scub ie r to u na e s t ruc tu ra q ue p o r s u sc a rac te r i s t ica sc on s ide ramo sp uede s e rc on s ide rada c e remon ia l . ( F igu ra s 7 . 1-7 .2 ) .

D esc r ipc iön d e l ae s t ruc tu ra L a e xcavac iön p u so a l d e scub ie r to c ua t ro e l emen to s e s t ruc tu ra le s p r inc ipa le s : d o s g rande s b loque s c uya s b a se s e s taban h und ida s e n l o s s ed imen to s , yd o s c i rcu lo s i mpe r f ec to s d e p a rede s d e p i ed ra , r e l lenado s d e t i e r ra . L o sd o sb loque s f ue ron t o rnado s c omo b a se p a ra e r ig i rl ae s t ruc tu ra . U no d e e l lo s , s i tuado h ac ia e lS ,s e rv ia c omo a s ien to p a ra q ue a r ranca se l ap a red d e l c i rcu lo m ayo r , d e sc r ib iendo u n a r co h ac ia e lN . S ob re sa l ia c l a ramen te d e l c on jun to d eb ido aq ue s u a l tu ra e r a m ayo rq ue l ad e l mon t icu lo . E l o t ro b loque , u b icado h ac ia e lN , ys epa rado d e l a n te r io r p o r 0 , 50 a 1 , 00 m , e r a mä s b a jo , ys e h a l laba c ub ie r to c a s i e n s u t o ta l idad p o r l a s p i ed ra s y s ed imen to sd e l mon t icu lo .

8 8

F igura 7 . 1 . P lano d e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V . A . N ü r iez R egue i ro .

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F i gura 7 . 2 . S ecc iön v er t ica l d e l mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V .A . N ühez R egue i ro .

E l c i rcu lo mayo r e s taba c on s t ru ido c on p i ed ra s , av ece s l i ge ramen te c an teada s , c a lzada s c on o t ra s d e m eno r t ama i io , p a ra c onfo rma r u n l i enzo e x te r io rmen te b i en a cabado . L a m i tad d e l p er ime t ro d e l mu ro s e a sen taba s ob re e lb loque d e l N , f o rmando c on e lu na u n idad e s t ruc tu ra l , e n l aq ue l a p a r te e x te rna d e l mu ro e r a u na c on t inuac iön d e l ap a r ed d e l b loque s ob re l a c ua l s e a s en taba . T odo e le spac io i n te rn° d e l c i rcu lo h ab fa s i do r e l lenado c on t i er ra y p i ed ra s d e p equer io t ama t io , h a s ta c on s t i tu i r u na p la tafo rma

9 0

c i rcu la r d e s upe r f ic ie l e vemen te c onvexa . L a t i e r ra u t i l izada p a ra l a c on s t rucc iön d eb iö s e r e x t ra ida d e l o s a l rededo re s , aj uzga r p o r l o q ue s e d e sp rende d e la nä l i s i sd el o sf r agmen to sc e räm ico si n c lu ido se ne lr e l leno ,y d e s u c ompa rac iön c on l a s r e co lecc ione s d e s upe r f ic ie h echa s e n e lt e r reno c i rcundan te ( v e r" Anä l i s is d e l m a te r ia l c e räm ico" ) . L a s p i ed ra s m ä sg rande s u t i l izada sp a ra l ac on s t rucc iön d e l mu ro e r an d e c o lo r g r i s , ae xcepc iön d e c ua t ro , u b icada s e xaca tamen te a lN , q ue e r an d e c o lo r b l anco . U na d e e l la s s eh a l laba t odav ia o cupando s u l u ga r o r ig ina l , y l a s o t ra sd e sp lazada sp o rd e r rumbe . E n l a f i gu ra 7 . 1 l a p i ed ra b l anca s e h a d i f e renc iado d e l a s r e s tan te s med ian te u nr a yado d el i nea sp a ra le lea s . F ormando p a r te d e e l , a 1m a l NO d e e s te l uga r s eh a l lo u na p i ed ra d e g ran i to r o sado , d e4 8 c md el a rgo , d e s e cc ione s o va lada s , c uya s upe r f ic ie s e h a l laba p e r f ec tamen te p u l ida e nu na d e s u sc a ra s . E l c i rcu lo m eno rt e n fa 1 , 50 m d e d i äme t ro , ys ea s en taba e n s ut o ta l idad s ob re e lb loque y l ap l a ta fo rma q ue c on s t i tu fan e lc i rcu lo m ayo r . E s taba h echo c on p i ed ra s d e m ed iano t amar io , c a lzada s c on o t ra s m ä s p equer ia s , y s eh a l laba c omp le tamen te d e s t ru ido h ac ia e lE , d onde a somaba e n p a r te s l a s uper f ic ie d e l b l oque . A l SO d e l mu ro , b a jo u na d e l a s p i ed ra s m ä s s upe r f ic ia le s d e l m i smo , s e h a l lo u n a do rno d e m e ta l ( i , cob re? ) r e a l izado med ian te e le n ro l lam ien to d e u n a l amb re d e s e cc iön c uad rada , d e 1mm d e e speso r , q ue f o rma d o s v o lu ta sd e 8mm d ed i äme t ro , u n ida s s i n s o luc iön d e c on t inu idad m ed ian te u na c u rva . E l i n te r io rd e l c i rcu lo s eh a l laba r e l leno d el am i sma m ane ra e nq ue f u e ra r e l lenado e n c i r cu lo mayo r , f o rmando u n s egundo p i so d e p l a ta fo rma g ene ra lq ue a mbo si n teg raban .6 Una p i ed ra d e 5 0 c m d e l a rgo y ac ia , i n c l inada , d e sde e lc i rcu lo m eno r h a s ta t o ca rl as upe r f ic ie d e l m ayo r( F igu ra 7 . 2 , c o r te G —H ) . E sp robab le q ue o r ig ina lmen te e s tuv ie se p a rada , i n teg rando p a r te d e l ae s t ruc tu ra d e l s e c to r Nd e lc i rcu lo m eno r . A l e x t rae r e lr e l leno d e l ap l a ta fo rma , a pa rec ie ron s ob re e lb loque d o s h oyo s d e mo r te ro d e 2 0 c m d e d i äme t ro y 1 0 c m d e p rofund idad , u no d e e l los c on u na m ano c i l ind r ica d e p i ed ra , yd o s " mo r te ro s" u h oyue lo s meno re s ( F igu ra 7 . 1) . J un to a lä ngu lo S Ed e lb loque d e l Ns eh a l lö u na u rna , al aq ue l ef a l taba l ap a r te s upe r io rd e l c ue l lo , c omo c on secuenc ia d e l ae ro s ion yl aa cc iön d e l a s r a fce s d e u no d e l o s " mon teneg ro s" q ue s e h a l laba u b icado e n l a s p rox im idade s d e e sa z ona . L a b a se d e l a u rna s e h a l laba c a lzada c on p i ed ra s . Mezc lado s c on e lr e l leno s ee ncon t ra ron , e n a l guno s s e c to re s , h ue so s d e a n ima le s ,r e s to sd er ama sc a rbon izada s ye sp icu lo sd ec a rbon .

6E 1

c f rcu lo m eno rp a r ece h abe rt e n ido , e nc ima d ee l , o t ro d em eno rt ama f io ; e s to n op udo d e te rm ina r se c on s egu r idad ,d eb ido aq ue l a sp i ed ra sq ue o cupaban l ap a r te s upe r io rd e l ap l a ta fo rma s eh a l laban muy p er tu rbada s p o rl ae ro s ion .

9 1

D esc r ipc iön d e l e n t ie r ro Ap e sa r d e h a l la r se i n comp le ta , l au rna al aq ue h i c imo s r e f e renc ia ( F igu r a 7 . 3 ) p uede u b ica r se d en t ro d e l c on jun to q ue h a s i do d e sc r ip to c omo c o r re spond ien te a l a f a se I V d e l a t r ad ic iön S an ta Ma r ia (Webe r , 1 978 ; P er ro ta yP ode s tä , 1 978 ) .

F i gu ra 7 .3 . U rna S an tama r iana e ncon t rada e n e lm on t icu lo c e remon ia l , U n idad 6 .D ibu jo : V .A . N ü r iez R egue i ro .

E n l a s p rox im idade s d e l s e c to rc o r re spond ien te al ap a r te s upe r io rd e l oq ue s e c on se rva d e l c ue l lo d e l au rna s e h a l la ron r e s to s d e h ue so s d e u n n i f io , a l guna s c uen ta s d e c o l la r yu n f r agmen to c o rd ifo rme d e y e so f i b ro so , q ue d eben h abe r se d e sp lazado d e s u p o s ic iön o r ig ina l d eb ido al aa cc iön d e l o s m i smo s a gen te s n a tu ra le sq ue e l im ina ron l ap a r te s upe r io rd el au rna . E n e li n te r io rd e l ap a r te c on se rvada d e l au rna s eh a l la ron : g ran p a r te d e l o s r e s tan te s h ue so s d e l n if io , m ä s c uen ta s d e c o l la r , h ue so s a i s lado s d e a n ima le s , ya l guna s s em i l la s yf r u to sc a rbon izado s . E l a nä l i s is d el o sr e s to sh umano sh ap e rm i t ido d e te rm ina rq ue l ae dad d e l n ir io i nhumado e r a d e a p rox imadamen te 5 a f io s . E l e s tud io d e l o s r e s to s ö seo sf ue r e a l izado p o rN oem iA c reche . L a sc uen ta sd ec o l la rr e cupe rada s i n c luyen : 1 c uen ta s d i sco ida le s p l ana s d e ma laqu i ta , d e 6a9mm d e d iäm te ro yd e 2a4mm d ee spe so r . 1c uen ta d i sco ida l p l ana d e m a laqu i ta d e 1 4 mm d e d i äme t ro y 7 mm d ee spe so r .

9 2

1c uen ta t r apezo ida l d e a zu r i ta , d e 1 3 mm d e l a rgo , 7 mm d e a ncho m äx imo y4mm d ee spe so rm äx imo . 2c uen ta s c i l ind r ica s d e h ue so d e 1 2 mm d e l a rgo y 8 mm d e d i äme t ro . 1c uen ta d i sco ida l p l ana d e h ue so , d e 1 0 mm d e d i äme t ro y4 mm d e e spe so r . 1c uen ta h echa u t i l izando l am i tad d e u na c uen ta d i sco ida l d e h ue so d e 1 7 mm d ed i äme t ro y8mm d ee spe so r . 2c uen ta s a l a rgada s , d e s e cc iön o va lada , c on u no d e s u s e x t remo s c onvexo ye lo t ro a guzado , d e c e räm ica a l i sada d e c o lo rr o j izo , d e 2 6 mm y3 0 mm d el a rgo , y9mm d ed i äme t ro .

P e t rog l i fos L o s p e t rog l ifo s h a l lado s n o h an s i do d e sc r ip to s , s egün s e d e sp rende d e l r eg is t ro r ea l izado p o r R ena rd d e C roque t ( Rena rd d e C roque t , 1 988 ) . S e h a l lan muy d e s t ru ido s p o r l a e ro s ion , q ue d ebe h abe r b o r rado mucho s mo t ivo s , a l guno sd el o s c ua le sa pena s s ea l canzan ap e rc ib i r . L a m ayo r p a r te d e l o s p e t rog l ifo s s eu b ican e n l ap a red m e r id iona l d e l a r oca , yc on s i s ten e n s u rco s a l a rgado s q ue d i bu jan l i nea s c u rva s q ue av ece s s eu nen e n t re s i ,d o s d el a sc ua le s a lm eno s , r ema tan e nh oyue lo sc i rcu la re s , n o v i s ib le s e n l af i gu ra 7 . 1 . L a c a ra s upe r io r d e l ar o ca p o see t amb ia u n p e t rog l ifo a b s t rac to d e l i nea s c u rva s , c ua t ro h oyue lo s s upe r f ic ia le s d e 4 a8 cm d e d i äme t ro , yv a r io s p equer io s h oyue lo s av ece s a pena s m a rcado s , d e a p rox imadamen te 2a4c md ed i äme t ro .

A nä l is is d e l ma te r ia l c e räm ico S e a na l iza ron l o s f r agmen to s d e c e räm ica r e cupe rado s e n e lr e l leno d e l a p la tafo rma , yl ar e co lecc iön d e s upe r f ic ie n o d i sc r im inada r e a l izada e n e l t e r reno p röx imo al ae s t ruc tu ra r e f e r ida . S ed i s t ingu ie ron f r agmen to s n o d eco rado s yd eco rado s , yd en t ro d e 6 s to s l o s q ue p uedan i d en t if ica r se c omo S an tama r ia b i co lo r yt r ico lo r , yo t ro s t i po s d e l p e r iod° d e D e sa r ro l lo s r e g iona le s , y l o s q ue p ueden s e r c on s ide rado s c omo A guada yF o rma t ivo s . A p rox imadamen te e l9 0 % d e l a mue s t ra e s tä c ompue s to p o rf r agmen to s n od eco rado s yS an ta Ma r ia b i co lo r ( Tab la 7 . 1) .

9 3

T ab la 7 . 1 . C e räm ica , U n idad 6 . N o d eco rados S an ta Ma r ia B i co lo r S an ta Ma r ia T r ico lo r N eg ro s ob re r o jo o n a tu ra l F amaba las to n eg ro i n c iso A guada g rabado y p i n tado I n c isos f o rma t ivos P i n tada monoc roma r o ja P u l idos a tmös fe ra r educ to ra P u l idos a tmös fe ra o x idan te V a r ios T o ta l

R e l leno d e p l a ta fo rma 7 12 7 0 .08 % 2 02 1 9 .88 % 3 0 .29% 3 4 3 .35 %

R eco lecc iön 1 45 4 1 1

s uper f ic ia l 7 0 .05 % 1 9 .8 1 ` ) / 0 5 .3 1 %

6

0 .59 %

3

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7 6

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4

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2 1

2 .07 %

2

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1 0

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3

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1 2 07

0 .48 % 1 00 .00 %

1 2 1 0 16

1 . 18 % 1 00 .00 %

N o s eh a l la ron f r agmen to s , uo t ro s e l emen to s , q ue p ud ie ran s e r i n d icado r e s d e l p e r iod ( )H i spano Ind igena .

I n te rp re tac iön d e l o s h a l lazgos P a ra a p rox ima rno s a le s tud io f unc iona l d e l aU n idad 6 c on tamo s c on d o s c on jun to s d e r e s to s r e lac ionado s e n t re s i . U no e s tä c on s t i tu fdo p o r l a p l a tafo rma d ed o s ( ot r e s ) c i rcu lo s d e p a rede s d e p i ed ra r e l leno s c on t i e r ra y l o s d o s b loque s d e p i ed ra c on mo r te ro s , h oyue lo s yp e t rog l ifo s , q ue c on s t i tuye l ae s t ruc tu ra a r qu i tec tön ica . E l o t ro , e s e lq ue i n teg ran l a u rna c on l o sr e s to sd eu nn i r io , l a sc uen ta sd ec o l la r yr e s to sd eh ue so s ys em i l la s , yq ue c onfo rma e le n t ie r ro . A l e s ta r a mbo s i n dudab lemen te r e lac ionado s d e sde e lp un to d e v i s ta d e s ua soc iac iön , n o c abe d uda q ue l ae s t ruc tu ra h a s i do c on s t ru fda e n f unc iön d e l n i t io e n te r rado , oe l e n t ie r ro h a s i do r e a l izado e n f unc iön d e l a e s t ruc tu ra . E n e lp r ime r c a so , f unc iona lmen te l ae s t ruc tu ra s e r fa u na t umba c on s t ru fda e n f unc iön d e l n i l io . E n e l s egundo c a so , e l n i i io h abr ia s i do i n humado e n f unc iön d e u na e s t ruc tu ra q ue p odemo s c on s ide ra r h a t e n ido v a lo r r e l ig io so o c e remon ia l , d eb ido a q ue s u f o rma y c ompo s ic iön h acen d e shecha rl ai d ea d eq ue h ub ie se s e rv ido af i ne su t i l i ta r io s . E l e n t ie r ro d e l n i t io p uede i n te rp re ta r se a s fc omo u n s a c r if ic io e f ec tuado e nf unc iön d eu nr i to . E s muy p robab le q ue e le n t ie r ro , p o r l ot a n to , s ea c on tempo räneo c on l a c on s t rucc iön , y c omo d i j imo s a n te r iormen te , e s te s uce so d ebe h abe r o cu r r ido muy p robab lemen te d u ran te e l p e r iod° I mpe r ia l ( e n t re 1 480 y 1 536 ) , yc on s egu r idad , p e r tenece a l a t r ad ic iön S an tama r iana . L o q ue i g no ramo s e s h a s ta c uando p udo e s ta r e n u so l a e s t ruc tu ra c e remon ia l . C omo l oh emo s s e t ia lado , n o h emo s e ncon t rado e l emen to s c or re spond ien t e a lp e r iod ( ) H i spano In c l igena , p e ro d ebemo s t e ne r e n c uen ta q ue e l ma te r ia l

9 4

d e r e l leno c on q ue f u e c on s t ru ida l a p l a ta fo rma n o s e s tä m a rcando , c rono lög icamen te ,u nt e rm inu sa n te q uem . L a s c uen ta s d e c o l la r q ue h emo s d e sc r ip to a n te r io rmen te , s i n d uda n o r ep resen tan e la j ua rc omp le to , y aq ue mucha sp ueden h abe rd e sapa rec ido d e l am isma f o rma e n q ue d e sapa rec ie ron l ap a r te s upe r io r d e l a uma y g ran p a r te d e l o s h ue so s d e l c r äneo d e l n i r io . S in e mba rgo , l ag ran v a r iedad d e c uen ta s n o s e s tä i n d icando , s i n d uda s , q ue e lc o l la r , o mä s p robab lemen te l o s c o l la re s , s ean i n d icado rd ea j ua rc u idado samen te e l abo rado . L o s ü n ico s r e s to s d e s em i l la s h a l lado s e n l aU n idad 6 s e e ncon t ra ron d en t ro d e l a uma , y d eben i n te rp re ta r se t amb i6n c omo e l emen to s c on s t i tu t ivo sd e la j ua r , a li gua lq ue l o sh ue so sd ea n ima le sh a l lado sd en t ro . L o s r e s to s v ege ta le s ya n ima le s h a l lado s e n l aU n idad 6 e s tän s i endo e s tud iado s p a ra s u i d en t if icac iön . P o r e so , l a s i n f e renc ia s q ue d e e l lo s p odemo s d e r iva r s eh a l lan l im i tada s , e spec ia lmen te e n l oq ue r e spec ta al o s h ue so s d e a n ima le s h a l lado s e n e l r e l leno d e l a p l a tafo rma ; s u i d en t if icac iön , ys ud i s t r ibuc iön d en t ro d e l ae s t ruc tu ra t a l v 6z n o s p e rm i tan d ef in i r s i p ueden o n o s e r i n te rp re tado s c omo r e s to s d e s a c r if ic io s d e a n ima le s . L a u t i l izac iön d e p i ed ra s d e d i f e ren te c o lo r p a ra c on s t ru i r l ap l a ta fo rma n o e s c a sua l , s i no q ue o bedece c l a ramen te au na i n tenc iön q ue t i ene m ä s s i gn if icado s imbö l ico q ue a r qu i tec tön ico . L a s p i ed ra s b l anca s g r ande s e s tän ma rcando c l a ramen te e lN ; l ar a zön d e e l lo s en o s e s capa , p e ro n o p o r e l lo d ebemo sd e ja rd es er ia la r lo an ive l d er eg i s t ro . L o s mor te ro s , l o s h oyue lo s yl o s p e t rog l ifo s , d eben h abe r d e sempef iado t amb i6n u n p ape l d i rec tamen te r e lac ionado c on l a s p räc t ica s c e remon ia le s r ea l izada s e n l ap l a ta fo rma . L a mano d e jada e n u n mo r te ro , yl u ego t a pada c on s ed imen to s p a ra l ac on s t rucc iön d e l p r ime rp i so , p udo h abe rs i do ,j un to c on e ln i r io ,p a r te d eu nm i smo a c to d es a c r if ica to r io . L o s h oyue lo s q ue s e l o ca l izan e n l a p a r te s upe r io r d e l a r o ca c on p e t rog l ifo s n o p ueden h abe r s i do h echo s e n f unc iön d e u na a c t iv idad d e mo l ienda p räc t ica . S a lvo c ua t ro d ee l lo s , d e n o m ä sd e 1cm d ep rofund idad yd e 4 a8 c m d e d i äme t ro ( que p od r ian h abe r s i do u t i l izado s p a ra mo le r s u s tanc ia s e spec ia le s e n f unc iön c e remon ia l ) , l o s o t ro s , m ä s p equer io s y a bundan te s ,c a recen d ep o s ib i l idad d ei n te rp re tac iön c omo " mo r te ro s" . R e spec to a l o s p e t rog l ifo s d ebemo s s er ia la r q ue n o s e e ncuen t ran a qu i e l emen to sf i gu ra t ivo sq ue p ueden s e ri d en t if icado s .

L as e s t ruc tu ras c e remon ia les e n e ln o roes te a rgen t ino E n e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino e ncon t ramo s d e sde e lF o rma t ivo e s t ruc tu ra s q ue p ueden s e r c on s ide rada s c e remon ia le s , l o q ue n o s p e rm i te r e a l iza r u na r äp ida s i n te s is d e l a s c a rac te r i s t ica s p r inc ipa le s q ue p odemo s o b se rva r al o l a rgo d e lt i empo .

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E n l ac u l tu ra A lam i to -Condo rhua s i l ao rgan izac iön d e l c u l to e s tä d ada a n i ve l d e c ada a l dea ; e la r ea c e remon ia l , e n c ada s i t io , e s tä c ompues ta p o r d o s p l a ta fo rma s r e c tangu la re s d e p a rede s d e p i ed ra y u n mon t icu lo b a su re ro -ce remon ia l ( Nür iez R egue i ro , 1 970 ) . E nl ac u l tu ra T af f , s el o ca l izö ye xcavö u n g ran mon t icu lo e n l a z ona d e E l Mo l la r , q ue d ebe h abe r d e semper iado f unc ione s c e r emon ia le s ; n o o b s tan te , e lr eg i s t ro d e menh i re s d en t ro d e c i rcu lo s d e p i ed ra , l o ca l izado s e n v a r io s s i t io s T af f e n l o s v a l le s d e T af f yl aC ienaga y e n l aQ ueb rada d e l P o r tugue s ( Nür iez R egue i ro y T a r tu s i , 1 991) q ue s uman m ä s d e u n c en tena r , a pun tan t amb ien a qu i au n n i ve ld ec u l to n oc en t ra l izado .7 E ne lp e r iod ( )d eI n teg rac iön r e g iona l e x i s te u na m od if icac iön i mpo r tan t e ae s te r e spec to . E n e lv a l le d e Amba to l ao rgan izac iön r e l ig io sa p a rece e s ta r c en t rada e n r e lac iön c on d o s p l a ta fo rma s , u na e n l aR inconada y o t ra e n I g le s ia d e l o s I nd io s , l oq ue e s tä i n d icando u na mod if icac iön s i gn if ica t iva a n i ve l d e l a e s t ruc tu ra s oc ia l yr e l ig io sa d e A guada e n e sa z ona . L a s p l a ta fo rma s d e l a s q ue h acemo s r e f e renc ia , e s tän c on s t ru ida s p o r n ive le s s uperpue s to s e n l o s q ue s e u t i l izan p a rede s d e p i ed ra y r e l leno d e t i e r ra ; c omo s ucede e nA lam i to -Condo rhua s i , l a sp a rede s s on r e c ta s . E n o t ra z ona s d e l n o roe s te a r gen t ino , e n c amb io , t a l c omo s ucede e n e l V a l le d e V inch ina , e n l ap rov inc ia d e L a R io ja , ye n L a A ngo s tura , e n l a p rov inc ia d e S a l ta , l a s e s t ruc tu ra s c e remon ia le s s on p l a tafo rma s c i rcu la re s s ob re l a s c ua le s s ec on s t ruye ron f i gu ra s u t i l izando p i ed ra s g r ise s , b lanca s y r o ja s . E n L aR io ja l a s f i gu ra s s on u na e s t re l la , i n sc r ip ta e n d o s c i rcu lo s ( De L a F uen te , 1 973 ) ye n L a A ngo s tu ra , u na " e spec ie d e ` c ruz ' a s ime t r ica" ( Raf f ino e ta l . 1 982 , 1 ) . P odemo s o b se rva r q ue , d e sde e lF orma t ivo , l o s e l emen to s c ons t i tu t ivo s d e sde e lp un to d e v i s ta a r qu i tec tön ico s on l o s mon t i cu lo s yl a s p a rede s d e p i ed ra r e l lena sd et i e r ra . Mä s t a rde , e ne lp e r iod ( )d eI n teg rac iön r eg iona l , s e i n co rpo ra l as upe rpo s ic iön d e n i ve le s d e d i s t in to s t amaf io s i n teg rando l a s p l a tafo rma s . D e sde e lp un to d e v i s ta d e l o q ue p od r iamo s c on s ide ra r u n n i ve l s imbö l ico , s e d a l au t i l izac iön p remed i tada d e p i ed ra s d e d i f e ren te s c o lo re s . L o s s a c r if ic io s h umano s e n a soc iac ione s c on e la r ea c e remon ia l e s b i en c l a ra e n A lam i to -Condo rhua s i . E n e l C ampo d e l P uca rä s e h an h a l lado e n t ie r ro sd en i f io s e na soc iac iön c on p l a ta fo rma s . E nu no d el o s s i t io sd ee s a z ona s er e g i s t rö e le n t ie r ro d e l e sque le to d e u n a du l to a lc ua l l ef a l taba t o da l ap a r te s uper io rd e l c ue rpo ap a r t i rd e l at e rce ra v e r teb ra l umba r ; e n l oq ue d enom inamo s mon t icu lo -ba su re ro -ce remon ia l d e e s te s i t io s e h a l la ron l o s r e s to s c o r re spond ien te s al ap a r te s upe r io r d e l c ue rpo d e d o s a du l to s . E n A guada l a p räc t ica d e l o s s a c r if ic io s e s b i en c onoc ida a t r ave s d e l a f r ecuen te r e p re sen tac iön d el ai magen d e l " s ac r if icado r" yc r äneo s t rof eo .

'E ne l" Pa rque d e l o s Menh i re s" ,e nE l Mo l la r , s eh an r e un ido 14 m enh i re sp roceden te s d e l v a l le d eT af f .

9 6

E s ta l i nea d e d e sa r ro l lo an i ve l d e c r eenc ia e n l aq ue l o s mon t icu lo s , l a s p l a tafo rma s yl o s s a c r if ic io s s eh a l lan r e lac ionado s , s ev a ac on t inua r e n e l n o roes te a rgen t ino h a s ta p e rdu ra r , an i ve lf o lk lo r ic° , h a s ta n ue s t ro d i a s . L a s a pache ta s , omon t icu lo s d e p i ed ra q ue s e e ncuen t ran d e sde e lP e rü h a s ta e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino i n d icando c am ino s , h an s i do f o rmado s p o r l o s i n d igena s al o l a rgo d e l t i empo . E n e l la s l o s v i a je ro s d epo s i tan n ueva s p i ed ra s q ue h acen c r ece re l mon t icu lo , ys eh acen o f renda s d e d i s t in to t i po : c oca om a iz ma scado , v i no ,p l an tando u na e s taca d em ade ra c on u nt r ozo d e t e la r o ja d onde s ef i jan a l guna s p l uma s , oc ruce s d e made ra e nvue l ta s e n l a na r o ja ( Boman , 1 908 ) . E s te t i po d e o f renda s e s tä r e lac ionada c on l a " Pacha Mama" ( Mad re T ie r ra ) , ye s u na s upe rv ivenc ia d e s a c r if ic io s r e a l izado se n6 poca sp reh i spän ica s . O t ra c o s tumb re v i ncu lada c on mon t icu lo sd ep i ed ra e sl ac e remon ia d el a m a rca d e g anado e n l a P una a r gen t ina y b o l iv iana . E n e l mon t icu lo s e r e a l izan o f renda s d ec h icha , h o ja d ec oca ya domo s d e l a na r o ja , e n f unc ion d eq ue l o sa n ima le s s e mu l t ip l iquen . E n e l y a c i tado t r aba jo d e G onza lez e ncon t ramo s m enc ionada s l a s f u en te s d ocumen ta le s f undamen ta le s p a ra e l t r a tam ien to d e l t ema , e n r e lac iön c on l o sp ueb lo sp r eh i spän ico sd e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino . L o s d ocumen to s c onf inn an l ae x is tenc ia d e " ca sa s d e i do lo s" o" mocha d e ros" , y" . . u no d el o s d e ta l le se nq ue t oda s l a se v idenc ia s c o inc iden , e se n l as enc i l lez d e lc u l to yl ar e l ig ion , man if ie s ta e ne lu so ,t a n ta sv ece sr epe t ido d el a s ‘ v a r i l la s yp l uma s ' . " ( Gonza lez , 1 983 ) ,q ue c oma v imo s , p e rdu ra d e a l guna m ane ra h a s ta n ue s t ro sd i a s . L a f unc iön d e l o s " mochade ro s" o t emp lo s , yl o s e l emen to s c on e l lo s r e lac ionado s , e s l ad e p rop ic ia r l a f e r t i l idad d e l a s s emen te ra s yd e l o s a n ima le s . S ob re l a b a se d e l a s f uen te s q ue a na l iza , d i ce G onza lez q ue " O t ra c onc lu s ion i mpo r tan te e s l af a l ta d e s a ce rdoc io o rgan izado c omo g rupo o c l a se s oc ia l . L a s p räc t ica s r e l ig io sa s e s tuv ie ron , e n tonce s , e n mano s d e s hamane s , q u iene s a c tuaban c omo t i p ico s i n te rmed ia r io s e n t re l ad e idad ye l p ueb lo . S er ia lamo s d o s c a so s d e e s ta s i n te rvenc ione s , u no e n c a so d e p e s te c o lec t iva y o t ra d e i n vocac iön d e b uena s s emen te ra s" ( Gonza lez , 1 983 , 2 43 ) . R e spec to a l af o rma d e l o s " mochade ro s" s e d educ i r ia , d e u na c i ta d e L ozano , q ue l o s " . . i n c ip ien te s t emp lo s t e nd r ian f o rma c i rcu la r" ( Lozano , 1 754 ,c i tado e nG onza lez , 1 883 , 2 37 ) . L ae s t ruc tu ra c e remon ia lh a l lada e nl aU n idad 6d eE lP ichao c onf i rma l a s upo s ic iön d eG onza lez yl ad e sc r ipc iön d eL ozano . E n l ab ib l iog ra f ia a r queo lög ica e x i s ten r e f e renc ia s d e e s t ruc tu ra s q ue n o p odemo s d e ja r d e m enc iona r , p o r s u a pa ren te v i ncu lac iön f unc iona l c on l a q ue h emo sd e sc r ip to c omo U n idad 6 . D e s u v i a je e n e lv a l le d e H ua lf in , B ruch r e la ta q ue a n te s d e c ruza r l a t e r raza f r en te a lC e r ro C o lo rado , h a l lo u na s epu l tu ra c ompue s ta p o r" . . l i e s c i rcu lo s f o rmado s d e p i ed ra d e r e gu la r t amar io . E l m ayo r m ed ia e x te r io rmen te 5m , e ls egundo 3m ye li n te rn° 2m ; e s te U l t imo n o e s tä d e l

9 7

t odo s epa rado d e l s egundo" ( Bruch , 1 904 , 2 5 ) . E n e lc i rcu lo e x te r io r h a l lö t r e s e sque le to s , au no d e l o s c ua le s l ef a l taba e lc r äneo , q ue a pa rec iö f u e ra d e l l u ga r d e l e n t ie r ro , e n t re e l c i r cu lo e x te rn° y e l s egundo c i rcu lo , a compaf iado p o rd o s v a s i ja s , p o s ib lemen te d e l p e r iodo I mpe r ia l . Amb ro se t t i d e sc r ibe l o q ue l ama " mo r te ro s p üb l ico s" , q ue s on d o s c i rcu lo s d e p i ed ra , u no c i rcu la r d e 2m d e d i äme t ro c on u n mo r te ro e n s u c en t ro yo t ro , d ep a red o va lada , d e 3 , 60 x2 , 70 m , c on c ua t ro mo r te ro se n s u i n te r io r " . . n o e s d i f i c i l h ayan t e n ido u n o b je to e spec ia l , u n r i tua l r e l ig io so p o r e j emp lo , d onde s e mo l ie se a lm a iz ö l aq u inoa p a ra f a b r ica r c i e r to s p ane s , y a f u e ra p a ra l o s s a ce rdo te s , y ap a ra l a so f renda s öp a ra a l guna sc e remon ia s . . .A lgo d e6 s to , u n r e s to d e a t av ismo , e x is te e n e so s l u ga re s ; p o r e j emp lo , e n a l guno s p un to s , l a s mu je re s a co s tumb ran j r äc i e r to s mor te ro s d e e so s q ue h ay c e r ca d e l o s d o s ; e n l a s g rande s p i ed ra s , ä mo le r s u m a iz , ys 6 d e b uena f u en te q ue h acen s u i n vocac iön ä l aP acha Mama . . " ( Amb ro se t t i , 1 897 ,44 ) .

E s i ndudab le q ue t a n to l ai n fo rmac iön e t noh is tö r ica c omo f o lk lö r ica p uede s e rv i r p a ra a p rox ima rno s au na m e jo r c omp ren s iön d e l o s p er iodo s m ä s r e c ien te s d e l aa rque log ia d e l n o roe s te a r gen t ino . S in e mba rgo , l a s p rueba s t i enen q ue s u s ten ta r se e n u nt r aba jo a r que lög ico s i s temä t ico . Ae s te r e spec to q ue remo s s ef ia la r q ue d a to s c omo l o s q ue a pun tamo s a n te r iormen te , s u rg ido s d e t r aba jo s r e a l izado s c on a n te r ior idad p o r l o s p ione ro s d e l a a r que log ia p ueden a ün h oy a po r ta ri n fomac ione sv ä l ida s . I nc lu so a l guna sd e s u s c onc lu s ione s , av ece s d ema s iado e ndeb le s ei n tu i t iva s , p ueden s e r t omada s e n c uen ta , n o c omo v e rdade s c omp robada s , s i no c omo h ipö te s is a c on t ra s ta r , c omo l a d e Q u i roga , q ue l o s h oyue lo s q ue s e e ncuen t ran a soc iado s av a r io s p e t rog l ifo s p ueden h abe rs e rv ido " . . p a ra s e rl enado s d e a gua , q ue s e e vapo ra rä c on e l s o l , d emandändo se d e e s te modo , p o r s impa t ia l al uv ia q ue n ece s i tan l o sc ampo s ol o sa ndene s" ( Qu i roga , 1 931) .

R e fe renc ias Amb ro se t t i , J . B . 1 897 " La a n t igua c i udad d e Q u i lme s ( Va l le C a lchaqu i )" , B o le t i n d e l i n s t i tu to g eogräf ico a rgen t ino , 1 8 ( Bueno s A i re s ) , 3 3-70 B oman , E . 1 908 A n t iqu i te s d e l ar eg ion a nd ine d e l aR epub l ique A rgen t ine e td u d e ser t d 'A tacama , I mp r ime r ie N a t iona le ,Vo l .1 y2 ,P a r i s B ruch , C . 1 904 " De sc r ipc iön d e a l guno s s epu lc ro s C a lchaqu i e s . R e su l tado s d e l a s e xcavac ione s e f ec tuada s e n H ua lf in ( P c ia d e C a tama rca )" , R ev i s ta d e l Museo d e L a P la ta , 1 , 1-27 C orne l l , P . yS jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E l P ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar yR epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . yS jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor t f rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tre s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , Gö tebo rg

9 8

D e l aF uen te , N . R . 1 973 " I nforme a r que lOg ico s ob r e e lV a l le d e V inch ina , P rov . d e L a R io ja" ,R ev i s ta d e lI n s t i tu to d ea n t ropo log i a ,4 ,( Co rdoba ) , 9 5127 G onza lez , A .R . 1 983a " No ta s ob re r e l ig ion yc u l to e n e lN o roe s te a r gen t ino p reh i spän ico . Ap ropö s i to d e u na s f i gu ra s a n t ropomo r f a s d e l Mu seo d e B e r l in" , B c e s s ler -Arch iv , N eue F o lge , 3 1 ,219-282 L ozano , P . 1 754 H i s tor ia d e l aC ompaf i i a d e J e sü s e n l aP rov inc ia d e l P araguay : e scr i ta p or e lP .P ed ro L ozano d el am i sma C ompaf i l a , V o l . I ,Mad r id N a t iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 970 " The A lam i to c u l tu r e o fN o r thwe s te rn A rgen t ina" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty , 3 5 ,133140 N ü r iez R egue i ro , V .A . yT a r tu s i , M . 1 991 " O r igene s d e l ao cupac iön d e l e spac io" , e n C orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,512 P e r ro ta , E . yP ode s tä , C . 1 978 " Con t r ibu t ion t ot h e S an J o sé a nd S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re s , NW A rgen t ina" , e n B .L . B rowman ( e d . ) A d vance s i nA nd ean a rchaeo logy , T he H ague , 5 255 51 Q u i roga , A . 1 896 " An tgüedade s c a lchaqu i e s . L a c o lecc iön Z ava le ta" , B o le t i n d e l I n s t i tu to g eogräf i co a rgen t ino , 1 7 ( Bueno sA i r e s ) , 1 77-213 Q u i roga , A . 1 931 P e t rograf i a s yP ic tograf ia s d e C a lchaqu i , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , B ueno sA i r e s R a f f ino , R .A . , R av if la ,G . , B a ld in i ,L . , a nd I a ccona ,L . 1 982 " La e xpans ion s ep ten t r iona ld e l a c u l tu ra L a A guada e n e l NO a r gen t ino" , C uad er r zo s d e l I n s t i tu to N ac iona l d e A n tropo log i a , 9( Bueno s A i re s ) , 7 -35 R ena rd d e C oque t , S .F . 1 988 S i t io s a rqueo lög ico s c on a r t e r upe s t r e d e l a R epüb l ica A rgen t ina : R eg i s t ro /Documen tac iön ,F EC IT , B ueno s A i re s R ibo t ta , E . 1 991 " Geog raph ic d e sc r ip t ion o f S ec to r I X" e n C o rne l l , P . yS jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,89-93 T a r tu s i , M . yN ü f iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 993 " Excavac iön d e u n mon t i cu lo c e remon ia l t a rd io e n e ls i t io S TucTav 5 ( E l P i chao ) , p rov inc ia d e T ucumän" , P ub l icac ione s N o . 2 ,S e r ie : I nve s t igac ione s N o . 1 ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log i a , 1 1 7 Webe r , R . 1 978 " A s e r ia t ion o f t h e l a te p r eh i s to r ic S an ta Ma r i a c u l tu re o f N o r thwe s te rn A rgen t ina" , F ie ld iana A n thropo logy , 6 8 ( 2 )

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8 .S i te 5 6 C ec i l ia E r ic son K lynne , G ö t eN i l s son S chönborg , a nd S u sana S jöd in

S u rvey a nd t e s t p i ts a tS i te 5 6 C ec i l ia E r ic son K lynne a nd G ö te N i l s son S chönborg S i te 5 6 i sl o ca ted w i th in t h e v a l ley o ft h e f i r s tt r ibu ta ry o n t h e n o r th s i de o f R io P i chao v a l ley i nt h e moun ta in s w e s to ft h ep r e sen td ay v i l lage o fP ichao ( F igu re 8 . 1) . T he s i te i n c lude s f i ve s t ruc tu re sb u i l to fs t one s a nd b lock s , a nd as y s tem o f a tl e a s t t we lve s t one l ined t e r race s , a l l o fw h ich h ave s uf f e red s o me e r o s ion d amage . S i te 5 6 w a s s u rveyed d u r ing t h ef i e ld s e a son o f 1 990 b y S ven A h lg ren a nd C ec i l ia E r ic son . S he rd s o f t h e t y pe s T o sca , B e l6n , S an ta Ma r ia a nd Y ocav i l w e re c o l lec ted ( E r ic son , 1 991) . Ar enewed s u rvey w i th t e s t e xcava t ion s w a s m ade o ft h e s i te d u r ing t h e f i e ld s e a son o f 1 991 b yt h ep re sen ta u tho r s .

Ob jec t ive T he o b jec t ive o f t h e s u rvey o f S i te 5 6 i n 1 991 w a s t of i nd a r chaeo log ica l ma te r ia l t h a t c ou ld b e c ompa red w i th t h e f i nd s f r om t h e e xcava t ion s a tt h e s i te o f E l P ichao i t se lf . C e ram ic s o f t h e A ve r ia s t ype , f ound d u r ing t h e s u rvey o f 1 990 , i n d ica ted t h a t t h e r u in s m ay o r ig ina te f r om t h e S pan i sh C on tac tP e r iod a tt h ee nd o ft h es i x teen th c en tu ry ( S jöd in , 1 990b ) .

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2 5 I m F i gu re 8 . 1 . S i te 5 6 . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : S .A h lg ren .

N a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t T he s i te 5 6 i sc ove red b y t r ee s a nd c ac tae , a l gar robo s a nd c ardones , a nd b u she s , s t one s a nd b lock s . A s ma l l q uan t i ty o f s h e rd s o f t h e c oa r se h ou seho ld w a re , T osca , w a sc o l lec ted ( F igu re 8 . 2 ) .

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F i gu re 8 . 2 . S i te 5 6 ,t owa rds t h es ou th -eas t . P ho tog raph : S .A h lg ren .

Me thod We c o l lec ted s u r f ace f i nd s a t t h e s i te . F u r the rmo re , w e m ea su red f i ve s t ruc tu re s a nd o pened f ou rt e s tp i t s o f0 ,5 1 m2 i ns i ze a tt h e s i te . S ince n o c u l tu ra l l a ye r s c ou ld b e d i s t ingu i shed , w e c ho se t ou se 0 . 10 -me t re a r t if ic ia l l a ye r s f o rt h ee xcava t ion . T he p ro f i le s o ft h et e s tp i t s w e re d rawn . T he f i nd s w e re g i ven a n i d en t if ica t ion c ode c o r re spond ing t ot e s t p i t a nd l e ve l . T he f i nd s a r e s t o red a tt h e I n s t i tu te o fA rchaeo logy i nS an M igue l d e T ucumän . T he b one m a te r ia lf r om t h ee xcava t ion sh a sn o ty e tb een a na ly sed .

F i e ldwo rk S ur face c o l lec t ion On t h e t e r race s y s tem , s he rd s o fc e ram ic s w e re c o l lec ted f r om t h e s u r f ace ( code 6 057 ) . N o s he rd s w e re f ound o n t h e s u r f ace w i th in o rn ea r t h e h ou se r ema in s . T he t e r race s y s tem i n c lude s a tl e a s t t we lve t e r race s 2 5-30 m i n l e ng th , 1 . 80 m i nw id th , a nd 0 . 20 m i nh e igh t . I tw a sl o ca ted s ou t -ea s to ft h e s t ruc tu re sa nd w a si np a r t ly b ad ly e r oded .

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M easu remen ts o fh ouse r ema ins a nd e xcava t ions S t ruc tu re A S t ruc tu re A w a s s qua re a nd t h e s i de s m ea su red 1 4 .5 m . T he s t one w a l l s m ea su red 0 . 60-0 .80 m i n t h ickne s s a nd w e re 0 . 501 .00 m h igh a bove g round . I n t h e s ou th -ea s te rn c o rne r , t h e re w a s a n o pen ing , p robab ly a d oo rway ,t h a tw a sa bou t 2m i nw id th . T e s tp i t 1 T e s t p i t 1w a s o pened i nS t ruc tu re A m ea su red 1x 1m a nd w a s e xcava ted t o ad ep th o f0 . 50 m . L eve l 1 :0 . 00-0 .10 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 058 ) L eve l2 :0 . 10 —0 . 20 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 059 ) L eve l 3 :0 . 20-0 .30 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l4 :0 . 30-0 .40 m , s andy s i l t , r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l 5 :0 . 40-0 .50 m , y e l low i sh -b rown s i l t( v i rg in s o i l ) F ind s : —

S t ruc tu re B S t ruc tu re B m ea su red a bou t 2 x 3m i n s i ze a nd w a s r ough ly r ound i n o u t l ine . T he w a l l s w e re 0 . 60-0 .80 m t h ick a nd 0 . 501 .00 m h i gh a bove g round . T he s ou th -ea s te rn s t one w a l l h ad c o l lap sed a nd f o rmed ab l anke to f d eb r i s o u t s ide t h eb u i ld ing . T e s tp i t4 T e s t p i t 4w a s o pened i nS t ruc tu re B . I tm ea su red 0 . 50 x 0 . 50 m a nd w a s e xcava ted t o ad ep th o f0 . 30 m . L eve l 1 :0 . 00-0 .10 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l2 :0 . 10-0 .20 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l3 :0 . 20-0 .30 m , y e l low i sh -b rown s i l t( v i rg in s o i l ) F ind s : —

S t ruc tu re C S t ruc tu re C ( F igu re s 8 . 3-8 .4 ) m ea su red 5 . 5 x 7 . 5 m a nd i n c luded t h ree r oom s ( F igu re s 8 . 2-8 .3 ) .

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F igure 8 .3 . S i te 5 6 , S t ruc ture C , t owa rds t he e as t . P ho tog raph : S . A h lg ren .

F igure 8 .4 . S i te 5 6 , S t ruc tu re C , t owa rds t he n or th -wes t . P ho tog raph : S . A h lg ren .

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R oom 1w a s a bou t 2x 3m i ns i ze . T he s t one w a l l s w e re 0 . 60-0 .80 m t h ick a nd w e re 2 -2 .5 m h igh a bove g round . I nt h es ou t -ea s te rn c o rne rw a s ab ad ly e roded d oo rway . R oom 2 w a s a bou t 2 x 3m i ns i ze . T he s t one w a l l s m ea su red b e tween 0 . 60 a nd 0 . 80 m i nt h ickne s s a nd w e re 2 -2 .5 m h i gh a bove g round . I n t h e s ou th -we s te rn c o rne rw a s ab ad ly e r oded d oo rway . R oom 3 w a s 2x5 . 5 m i n s i ze . T he w a l l s m ea su red 0 . 60-0 .80 m i n t h ickne s s a nd w e re 1 . 5 m h i gh a bove g round . T he s ou th -ea s te rn w a l l w a s 0 . 50 m h i gh a bove g round . I n t h e s ou th -ea s ter n c o rne r w e re a tl e a s t t wo s l ab s o fs t one , w h ich w ei n te rp re ted a ss t ep s .

S t ruc tu re D S t ruc tu re D m ea su red 3 x 4 m . T he w a l l s a r e 0 . 60-0 .80 m t h ick a nd s t and 0 . 70 m a bove g round . I n t h e n o r th -we s te rn w a l l t h e re i s a 1m w ide d oo rway . T he i n ne r , s ou th -we s te rn c o rne r w a s r ounded . T he s ou th -ea s te rn w a l lh ad c o l lap sed a nd f o rmed ab l anke to fd eb r i s o u t s ide t h es t ruc tu re . T e s tp i t3 T e s t p i t 3w a s o pened i n S t ruc tu re D , m ea su red 0 . 50 x 0 . 50 m a nd w a s e xcava ted t o ad ep th o f0 . 40 m . L eve l 1 :0 . 00-0 .10 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 064 ) L eve l2 :0 . 10-0 .20 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s :— L eve l 3 :0 . 20-0 .30 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l4 :0 . 30-0 .40 m , y e l low i sh -b rown s i l t( v i rg in s o i l ) F ind s : —

S t ruc tu re E S t ruc tu re E w a s s qua re a nd t h e s i de s m ea su red 1 4 m . T he w a l l s m ea su red 0 . 60-0 .80 m t h ick a nd w e re 1 . 5-2 m h igh a bove g round . I n t h e s ou th e a s te rn c o rne r o ft h e s t ruc tu re w e re t wo o pen ing s , e a ch o f w h ich w a s 1m w ide . T e s tp i t2 T e s tp i t 2w a so pened i nS t ruc tu re E .I tm ea su red 1x 1m a nd w a se xcava ted t o ad ep th o f0 . 80 m . L eve l 1 :0 . 00-0 .10 m , s andy s i l t , r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 060 ) L eve l2 :0 . 10-0 .20 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 061) . L eve l 3 :0 . 20-0 .30 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s

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F ind s : c e ram ic s ,b one s ( c ode 6 062 ) . L eve l4 :0 . 30-0 .40 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : c e ram ic s ( c ode 6 063 ) . L eve l 5 :0 . 40-0 .50 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l6 :0 . 50-0 .60 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l7 :0 . 60-0 .70 m , s andy s i l t ,r i ch i nh umu s F ind s : — L eve l 8 :0 . 70-0 .80 m , y e l low i sh -b rown s i l t( v i rg in s o i l ) F ind s : —

I n te rp re ta t ion T he f o l low ing i n te rp re ta t ion s a r e p re l im ina ry a nd s hou ld r a the r b e s e en a s h ypo the se s , s i nce o u re xcava t ion s w e re v e ry s ma l l a nd w eh ave l im i ted d a ta a th and . A t mode rn P i chao , s t ruc tu re s s im i la rt oS t ruc tu re A a r eu sed f o rk eep ing a n ima l s . T h i s i sa n i nd ica t ion t h a t S t ruc tu re A w a s u sed f o r t h e s ame p u rpo se . I ti st h e refo re i n te rp re ted a s ac or ra l . I n S t ruc tu re B , t h e a b sence o f c e ram ic s w a s s t r ik ing . I f i t w a s a h ou seho ld u n i t , c e ram ic v e s se l s w ou ld mo s t p robab ly h ave f o rmed p a r t o f t h e i n ven to ry . T he s i ze o ft h er oom i sv e ry s ma l l . A l though n o tp roved , w e i n te rp re ted S t ruc tu re B a s as t o rage u n i t . R oom s 1a nd 2 i nS t ruc tu re C h ave o pen ing s t owa rd s t h e s ou th . I n t h e s ou th -ea s te rn c o rne r o f r oom 3 ,t h e re w e re t wo s l ab s i n te rp re ted a s s t ep s . U nfo r tuna te ly , i tw a s i mpo s s ib le t o o pen a ny t e s t p i t i n t h i s s t ruc tu re , b ecau se o ft h e d en se v ege ta t ion T he r oom 's s ma l l s i ze , m ake s u s s ugge s t a s t o rage f unc t ion . A l so s t ruc tu re D i si n te rp re ted a s as t o rage u n i t . S t ruc tu re E i ss im i la ri ns hape t oS t ruc tu re A . B ecau se o fi t s s im i la r i ty t o mode rn c o r ra l s ,w ei n te rp re ti ta ss uch .

D a t ing O u r i n te rp re ta t ion o f t h e a ge o f t h e r ema in s i sb a sed o n t h e t r ad i t iona l d a t ing o f c e ram ic t y pe s . We c an d i s t ingu i sh a t l e a s t t h ree p e r iod s o f o ccupa t ion a tS i te 5 6 . 1 .T he c e ram ic f i nd s i n d ica te a p re sence d u r ing t h e t ime o f t h e S an ta Ma r ia t r ad i t ion ( A .D . 1 0001480 , a cco rd ing t oN t if iez R egue i ro 1 978 ) . T h i s m ean s t h a t t h e h ou se s m igh t h ave b een o ccup ied b efo re 1 480 . O n t h e o t he r h and , t h e h ou se r ema in s a r e q u i te w e l l p r e se rved . P o s s ib ly t h e b u i ld ing s c on t inued t ob ei nu se a f te rt h a td a te .

1 07

2 .T he c e ram ic t y pe n amed T osca i su sua l ly a s soc ia ted w i th t h e S an ta Ma r ia t r ad i t ion , b u t i tw a s a l so u sed i nl a te rt ime s . T he l a te s td a te o fT osca c e ram ic s i s a c tua l ly t h e n i ne teen th c en tu ry , a cco rd ing t o t h e rmo lum ine scence d a t ing s ( Su sana S jöd in , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) . I ti s p o s s ib le t h a t t h e r u in s w e re i nu se d u r ing t h e t ime o fs t rugg le i nt h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley a f te rA .D . 1 536 b u tb efo re A .D . 1 659 ( Lo rand i a nd B o ixadö s , 1 989 ) . T he A ver i as c e ram ic s , f ound 1 990 m igh t i n d ica te ap re sence d u r ing t h es o -ca l led S pan i sh C on ta c tP e r iod ( A .D . 1 5361659 ) . 3 . Y e t a no the r i n te rp re ta t ion i st h a t S i te 5 6 w a s a bandoned w hen t h e S pan ia rd sd rove t h ei n hab i tan t so u to ft h er e g ion a bou tA .D . 1 659 ( t he e xac t y ea ri s am a t te ro fd eba te ) . T he r eg ion a r ound t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley h ad a s t ra teg ic l o ca t ion , i nt h a t i tw a s a d jacen t t ot h e r ou te u sed f o r t r an spo r t ing s i lve r b e tween P o to s i a nd B ueno s A i re s . I ti sk nown t h a t t h e p eop le w ho l i ved c l o se t o t h e t r a i l s u sed b y t h e S pan ia rd s w e re e ngaged b y t h em f o r t h e i rt r an spo r t s ( Ryd6n , 1 936 , 1 4 ) . We mu s t k eep i nm ind t h a t S i te 5 6 w a s s i tua ted f a i r ly c l o se t oe a r ly S pan i sh t own s l i ke S an M igue l d e T ucumän , I ba t in , a nd S an t iago d e l E s te ro ( Mö rne r , 1 953 ) . A f te rb e ing a bandoned , t h e s i te m ay h ave b een r e -occup ied b y S pan ia rd s a f te r t h e i r c onque s t o f t h e r eg ion a r ound A .D . 1 659 . A rch iva l s t ud ie sm ay p e rhap sb eo fv a lue t op l ace t h e s i te w i th in t h is w ide rc on tex t . T he b a s i s f o r ac ompa r i son b e tween S i te 5 6 a nd t h e e v idence f r om E l P i chao i sm eag re . T he T osca t ype o fc e ram ic s i sc ommon a tt h e P i chao s i te p rope r , a nd f ew s he rd s w e re f ound a t S i te 5 6 . F u r the r a na ly s i s o f t h e ma te r ia l c o l lec ted a tS i te 5 6 may b ef r u i tfu l . T he rmo lum ine scence d a t ing o f s he rd sf r om t h es i te w ou ld f u r the rc l a r ify i t st ime o fc on s t ruc t ion a nd u se .

S umma ry S i te 5 6 i sl o ca ted w i th in t h e v a l ley o ft h e f i r s t t r ibu ta ry o n t h e n o r th s i de o f t h e P i chao r i ve r a bove t h e p r e sen t -day v i l lage . T he s i te w a s f i r s t r eg i s te red d u r ing a s u rvey i n 1 990 . D u r ing t h e f i e ld s ea son o f 1 991 , t h e r ema ins o f h ou se s a nd o the r s t ruc tu re s w e re m ea su red a nd t e s tp i t s w e re o pened . F ind s w e re a l so c o l lec ted f r om t h e s u r f ace s o f t h e t e r race s a t t h e s i te . T he o b jec t ive w a s t o c o l lec t a r t ifac t s a nd t o c ompa re t h em w i th f i nd s f r om s u rvey sa nd e xcava t ion sc a r r ied o u ta tE lP i chao i t se lf . S i te 5 6 i n c lude s t h e r ema in s o ft h ree h ou se s a nd t wo c o r ra l s d e s igna ted A—E , a nd a s y s tem o f a tl e a s t t we lve t e r race s w i th s t one l i n ing . F ou r t e s t p i t s —one i ne ach o ft h e S t ruc tu re s A , B , D , a nd E—we re o pened . T he f i nd s w e re s ca rce b u t c on s i s ted o fc e ram ic s he rd s a nd b one s . T he s t ruc tu re s , t h e l a you t o f t h e t e r race s y s tem s a nd t h e f i nd s , t a ken t oge the r , i nd ica te t h a t i t w a s ah ou seho ld u n i tw i th f i e ld s f o rc u l t iva t ion . S i te 5 6p robab ly d a te sf r om p reh is tor ic t ime s a nd w a s o ccup ied t h roughoou t t h e t ime o f t h e S pan i sh c onque s t .

1 08

T he c e ram ics o fS i te 5 6 S usana S jöd in S i te 5 6 i ss omewha t i s o la ted f r om t h e r e s t o f t h e v i l lage o f P i chao , h igh a bove t h e p r e sen t -day v i l lage a nd , t o o u r moder n e ye s , i s o la ted f r om t h e r e s t o f a nc ien t P i chao . H oweve r , t h i s s pec if ic k ind o f s i te i sn o t au n ique p henomenon i n t h e moun tanou s r eg ion s a bove t h e S an ta Ma r ia R ive r V a l ley . T he r e la t ion t ot h er e s to ft h e s i te o fP ichao i ss omewha td i f f icu l tt o s t a te , b u t i t s a r ch i tec tu re a nd c e ram ic s s ugge s t t h a t i ti sp a r t o f t h e s ame t r ad i t ion . S i te 5 6 w a s f i r s t o b se rved a nd s u rveyed b y C ec i l ia E r ic son a nd S ven A h lg ren i n 1 990 . I n 1 991 C ec i l ia E r ic son a nd G ö te N i l s son S chönbo rg made as u rvey a nd o pened s ome t e s tp i t s a tt h e s i te . I n 1 997 , S ven A h lg ren m ade an ew s u r f ace c o l lec t ion o fc e ram ic s he rd s . A l l t h e c e ram ic f r agmen t s , b o th t h e se c o l lec ted o n t h e s u r f ace a nd t h e se f ound d u r ing e xcava t ion , h ave b een a na ly sed a nd c l a s s ied i n to d i f f e ren t g roup s a cco rd ing t ot h et e chn ique o fm anuf ac tu re , t h es u r f ace t r ea tmen t , t h e s hape a nd t h ed eco ra t ion .

C e ram ics c o l lec ted o n t he s u r face i n1 990 , 1 99 1 a nd 1 997 As ma l l s amp le o f 1 8 f r agmen t s w a s c o l lec ted o n t h e s u r f ace a tt h e s i te i n 1 990 ( Tab le 8 . 1 ) . Among t h e f r agmen t s , j u s t o ne m ay b e s an tamar iana , w i th d i s t inc t ive a t t r ibu te s , s uch a s b r ick red f ab r ic , c r eam s l ipped e x te r io r a nd b l ack -pa in ted d eco ra t ion . T h ree o t he r f r agmen t s h ave e l emen t s t h a t m ay l o ok l i ke c ha rac te r i s t ic s o ft h es an tamar iana c e ram ic s , b u to ne o ft h em i st o o f i ne -g ra ined w i th ab uf f i sh -co lou red s l ip , a nd t h e o the r t wo h ave n o t r ace s o f s l ip a t a l l , j u s t r ema in s o f b l ack p a in t o n t h e e x te r io r . I n my o p in ioon t h e se t h ree s he rd s w e re p robab ly m ade l o ca l ly b y h ou seho ld p o t te r s ,c opy ing t h es an tamar iana mode o fd eco ra t ion .

1 09

T ab le 8 . 1 . S ur face c o l lec t ion o f1 990 , S i te 5 6 ( SS970 19 /970820 ) N o G roup / type 1 B r ick red w a re 1 B r ick red w a re S an tamar iana 2 B r ick red w a re

2 B rown ish c o lou red w a re 3 C oa rse , m ica c eous , p l a in , b r ick red w a re

3 F i ne , m icaceous , p l a in , g rey a nd l i gh t b rown w a res F i ne , m icaceous , r ed -s l ipped , b rown ish w a re 1 V e ry c oa rse , g rey t ob rown ish w a re

1 V e ry f i ne b u f f w a re , r ed -s l ipped ( puco F amaba las to ) 3 V e ry f i ne b u f f w a re , w h i te -a nd r ed -s l ipped ( puco Y ocav i l ) 1 8

E x te r io rs ur face C ream t ol i gh t b u f fs l ipped C ream -s l ipped , b l ack -pa in ted

F ab r ic V e ry f i ne g ra ined F i ne g ra ined

P l a in b rushed a nd s moo thed

B lack -pa in ted

F i ne g ra ined

P l a in b rushed

B rown -s l ipped a nd s moo thed P la in b r ick red

F i ne g ra ined C oa rse g ra ined , f l akes o f m ica u pt o 3mm i n s i ze v e ry f i ne g ra ined

V esse l f o rm P uco ( s e r v ing v esse l ) O pen v esse l h ouseho ld , v esse l?

I n te r io rs ur face P l a in b rushed

O pen v esse l , h ouseho ld v esse l? S e r v ing v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l

P l a in b r ick red

S e rv ing v esse l

P l a in g rey

P la in b rown o r g rey

S e rv ing v esse l

P l a in b rown

R ed -s l ipped

V e ry f i ne g ra ined

H ouseho ld v esse l

P l a in

P la in b r ick red t o b rown

S e rv ing v esse l

R ed -s l ipped

B uf s moo thed

C oa rse g ra ined , g ra ins o f q ua r tz u pt o 3mm i n s i ze V e ry f i ne g ra ined

S e rv ing v esse l

R ed -s l ipped a nd p o l ished

Wh i te -s l ipped , r ed -pa in ted

P l a in b rushed

V e ry f i ne g ra ined

A s r ega rd s t h e f a b r ic a nd s u r f ace t r ea tmen t , e i gh t f r agmen t s a r e r e la ted t o t h e s o -ca l led C asp inchango w a re a nd t h u s b e long t o t h e l a s t p a r t o f t h e p reh i s to r ic h ab i ta t ion p e r iod o fP ichao , i . e . ap e r iod b eg inn ing i nt h em idd le o f t h e 1 6 th c en tu ry . I ts hou ld b e b o rne i nm ind t h a t t h i s k ind o f c e ram ic s h a s b een p roduced a nd i n u se w e l l i n to h i s to r ica l t ime s , i n f a c t u n t i l t h e p r e sen td ay . O ne o ft h ef r agmen t s i so f av e ry c oa r se f ab r ic , w i th g ra in so fn on -p la s t ic i n c lu s ion s , c ru shed q ua r tz a nd m ica f l ake s , u p t o 3 mm i n s i ze , c a l led c oar se m icaceous w ar e . T he o the r m icaceou s f r agmen t s c on ta in f i ne r g r a ined m ica f l ake s . T he se f r agmen t s c e r ta in ly b e longed t o h ou seho ld v e s se l s , b o th s t o rage a nd c ook ing -po t s , c a tego r ized a sf i ne m icaceous w ar e . T he r ema in ing f ou r f r agmen t s a r e a l l o f av e ry f i ne w a re , w i th ab uf f c o lou red f ab r ic a nd ar ed o r w h i te s l ip . T he w h i te s l ipped f r agmen t s a l so h ave t r ace s o f ar ed p a in t , t h u s r e semb l ing t h e f i ne w a re s o ft h e l a te p e r iod c a l led Y ocav i l o r A ver ias . T he Y ocav i l P o lychrome w a re i s av a r ie ty o f

10

A ver i a sb u ti sf ound i nt h e p rov ince s o fL aR io ja , C a tama rca a nd S a l ta , a nd a l so i n t h e n o r th -we s te rn p a r t o f T ucumän , i n s tead o f o n t h e p l a in s o f S an t iago d e l E s te ro . Wh i le A ver i a s i s manuf ac tu red o n t h e p l a in s o f S an t iago d e l E s te ro , t h e Y ocav i l d e r ive s f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , p rev iou s ly c a l led Y ocav i l ( Lo rand i , 1 984 , 3 19-320 )T he r ed -s l ipped w a re i s f ound t oge the rw i th t h e Y ocav i la nd a s c r ibed t ot h e s ame c on tex t , t h a ti s ,t h e p ro to -h i s to r ic e r a . L o rand i d ef ine s t h i s w a re a s F amaba las to ( Lo rand i , 1 984 , 3 20 ) . T he se 1 8 s he rd s r e p re sen t a tl e a s t t e n d i f f e ren t v e sse l s , f i ve o f w h ich w e re u t i l i ty v e s se l s b e long ing t ot h e h ou seho ld f o r t h e p repa ra t ion o ff ood a nd f o r s t o rage . Two s how v e s se l s , o r s e rv ing p o t s , a r e r ep re sen ted b y t h e f ou rs he rd so fv e ry f i ne -g ra ined f a b r ic ,w i th s l ipped o rs moo thed s u r f ace s . T en s he rd s w e re c o l lec ted o n t h e s u r f ace i n 1 991 i nc onnec t ion w i th t h e e xcava t ion ( Tab le 8 . 2 ) . N one o ft h e se s he rd s a r e s l ipped o rp a in ted o n t h e i r s u r f ace s . A l l t e n f r agmen t s b e long t oh ou seho ld v e s se l s w i th ac oa r se t y pe o f f a b r ic . Two a r e m ade o f am icaceou s , r i ch c l ay , a nd t h e r e s t a r e a l so r e la ted t o al a te m anuf ac tu re t r ad i t ion o f h ou seho ld c ook ing a nd s t o rage v e s se l s , a s s igned t ot h ep ro toh is to r ic t ime . D u r ing 1 997 , S ven A h lg ren m ade a n ew s u r face c o l lec t ion o f s he rd s f r om s i te 5 6 . I n a l l , 1 0 s he rd s w e re c o l lec ted f r om t h e p l a tfo rm w i th r a i sed s t one s ( Tab le 8 . 3 ) , as ma l l n umbe r c on s i s ten t w i th t h e p rev iou s ly m ade c o l lec t ion . O ne o f t h e se s he rd s i sc e r ta in ly t o b e a t t r ibu ted t o t h e s an tamar iana w a re , w i th a c r eam s l ipped s u r f ace a nd a b l ack -pa in ted , g eome t r ic d eco ra t ion . F ou r s he rd s w e re p o l i shed , o ne o ft h em r ed -po l i shed , s how ing t h ec ha rac te r i s t ic so ft h eF amaba la s to W ar e . T he se f ou rs he rd sa r ep robab ly o f al a te d a te , l i ke t h e f ou r s he rd s o fm icaceou s c l ay , a nd h ave b een d a ted b y a na logy t o t h e l a te p e r iod o f h ab i ta t ion , t h a t i s , t h e p ro toh i s to r ic t ime l e ad ing i n to t h eh i s to r ic H i span ic Ind igenou se r a .

11

T ab le 8 .2 . S ur face c o l lec t ion o f 1 991, S i te 5 6 . N o

G r .

3 5 8

E x te r io r s u r face B r ick red , p l a in b rushed

I n te r io r s u r face B r ick red , p l a in b rushed

H ouseho ld v esse l , p uco

B rown b rushed mar leado

B rown , p l a in

C oa rse w a re , p l a in , b rown

H ouseho ld v esse ls

B rown , p l a in

B rown , p l a in

6 057 -6

C oa rse w a re , p l a in , b rown

H ouseho ld v esse l , c ook ing -po t

B r ick red , p l a in

G rey , p l a in

6 057 -7 6 057 -9

C oa rse m ica w a re , p l a in b rown C oa rse w a re , p l a in b rown

H ouseho ld v esse ls , p uco

B rown , p l a in

B rown , p l a in

H ouseho ld v esse l

B rown , p l a in

B rown , p l a in

R eg . N o .

G roup / type

V esse l f o rm

6 057 1 6 057 -2 6 057 -3

C oa rse w a re , p l a in , b r ick r ed

H ouseho ld v esse l

6 057 -10

C oa rse w a re , p l a in , b rown

6 057 -4 6 057 -5

1 1 8

2 1 7

1 9

2 1 2

6 057 -8 1 4

1 0

F ab r ic Med ium c oa rse g ra ined , g ra ins o f q uar tz u p t o2 mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq uar tz u p t o 3 mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq uar tz u p t o 3 mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq uar tz u p t o 3 mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 3 mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq uar tz u p t o 3 mm i n s i ze

18

T ab le 8 .3 . Sur face c o l lec t ion 1 997 . P la t form w i th r a ised s tones . G roup / type

V esse l f o rm

I n te r io r s ur face

E x te r io r s ur face

F ab r ic

S an tama r iana

U rn?

P la in b rown

C ream -s l ipped , b l ack -pa in ted

P la in , b r ick red 1 w a re

H ouseho l dv esse l

B r ick red , p l a in

B r ick red , p l a in

M icaceous , 2 b r ick red

H ouseho l dv esse l

B r ick red , p l a in

B r ick red , p l a in

M icaceous , 2 l i gh t g rey

H ouseho l dv esse l

L i gh t b rown , p l a in B u f f , b rushed L i gh t g rey

L i gh t g rey , p l a in

C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq uar tz u p t o 3 mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq ua r tz u p t o 3 mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 3 mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 3 mm i ns i ze V ery c ompac t a nd f i ne -g ra ined V e ry c ompac t a nd f i ne -g ra ined

N o .

1

R ed , p o l ished 1 F amaba las to P o l ished , 3 b rown 1 0

P uco P uco

R ed -s l ipped , p o l ished B rown , p o l ished

12

T ab le 8 .4 . C e ram ics ,s i te 5 6 , s ur face c o l lec t ion o f1 997 . N uc leus B rown , b r ick red G rey , b rown B rown , g rey

D a rk b rown , b rushed B u f f

E x te r io rs ur face C ream -s l ipped , b l ack -pa in ted G rey , b rushed ; b rown , b rushed B lack ; b rown ; b rown , b rushed , g rey ; b rown , s moo thed ; g rey , b rushed P la in , s moo thed , b rown B u f f

B rown

G rey

G rey

B r ick red

B r ick red

B rown

H ouseho ld v esse l

B r ick red

B rown

B rown

H ouseho ld v esse l

B rown ; g rey

L i gh tg rey ; b rown ; b rown b rushed

B rown

H ouseho ld v esse l

L i gh tg rey

R ed -s l ipped , b rushed

G rey

H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l P uco

B rown ish b l ack

C ream -s l ipped

B rown

B r ick red

B r ick red , b r ushed

G rey

L i gh tg rey , p l a in

L i gh tg rey , p l a in

L i gh tg rey

B r ick red , r ed s l ipped P la in b rown ; p l a in b r ick red G rey , p o l ished

L i gh tg rey

B rown

G rey , p l a in ; b r ick r ed , p l a in R ed -po l ished

G rey ; b rown B rown

R ed -po l ished

G rey

N o

G roup / type

V esse l f o rm

4

S an tama r iana M icaceous , b r ick r ed M icaceous , b rown

U rn H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l

M icaceous , b rown

H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l H ouseho ld v esse l

8 2 1

3 2 1 1

1

6

1

1 1 2 1

M icaceous , b u f f M icaceous , c oa rse w a re M icaceous , c oa rse w a re , b r ick red M icaceous , c oa rse w a re , b r ick red /b rown M icaceous , c oa rse w a re , b rown M icaceous , c oa rse w a re , r e d s l ipped M icaceous , c ream -s l ipped M icaceous , f i ne w a re , b r ick red M icaceous , l i gh t g rey M icaceous , r e d s l ipped? V e ry c oa rse w a re

2 2 2

R ed , p o l ished F amaba las to Wh i te -s l ipped , r ed -pa in ted , A ve r ias /Y ocav i l

P uco

I n te r io rs ur face B r ick red , p l a in B r ick red , b r ushed B rown ; g rey ; b l ack -pa in ted ; b rown , p l a in

Wh i te -s l ipped , r e d -pa in ted

G rey B u f f

5 9

T he r e s t o f t h e s u r f ace c o l lec t ion c on s i s t s o f s he rd s f ound o n t h e s i te b u t o u t s ide t h e i n hab i ta ted s t ruc tu re s ( Tab le 8 . 4 ) . T h i s s amp le c on s i s t s o f 5 6 f r agmen t s . T he s ame p a t te rn i s p re sen t h e re , w i th f ou r s an tamar iana f r agmen t s , t wo F amaba la s to a nd t wo A ver i a s/Yocav i l , t h e r e s t b e ing c ook ing -po t s o rh ou seho ld v e s se l s o f t h e m icaceou s , c oa r se a nd f i ne w a re a s s igned t ot h el a te p e r iod b eg inn ing i nt h em idd le o ft h e 1 6 th c en tu ry .

13

T he e xcava t ion o f1 99 1 T he e xcava t ion o f 1 991 y i e lded ar a the r s pa r se c o l lec t ion o f s he rd s . F ou r t e s t -p i t s w e re o pened , a dd ing 1 5 mo re f r agmen t s o fc e ram ic s t ot h e s amp le ( Tab le 8 . 5 ) . T he re i sj u s t o ne f r agmen t t h a t c e r ta in ly b e long s t o t h e s an tamar iana t y pe . I tw a s f ound i nt h e u ppe rmo s t l a ye r o fs qua re 3a nd i sn o tewo r thy i n t h a t i tw a s t empe red w i th g rog , ar a the r a dvanced , t empe r ing t e chn ique . I t h ink t h a t t h i s f r agmen t b e longed t o af une ra l v e sse l . O ne v e ry c oa r se f r agmen t , f ound i n s qua re 2 , l a ye r 3 , i s s l ipped w i th a c o rn k nob , a t e chn ique c a l led m ar leado . T h i s w ay o f t r ea t ing as u r face i sr e la ted t ot h e s an tamar iana p e r iod , b u t t h i s f r agmen t i sm ade o f am icaceou s r i ch c l ay , t h u s b e ing s uppo sed ly o f al a te r d a te , r e la ted t o t h e p ro toh is to r ic a nd h i s to r ica lp e r iod s . T ab le 8 .5 . Ce ram ics , s i te 5 6 , e xcava t ion o f 1 991. G roup / type

V esse l f o rm

I n te r io r s ur face

E x te r io r s ur face

F ab r ic

C oa rse , p l a in g rey w a re

H ouse h o ld v esse l

P la in g rey ish b l ack

C oa rse -g ra ined w i th q ua r tz

1 00 112

C oa rse , m icaceous , p l a in b r ick r e dw a re

H ouse h o ld v esse l

P la in b r ick red

P la in b r ushed , g rey ish b l ack P la in b r ick red

6 059 -2

1 00 112

C oa rse , m icaceous , b rown w a re

H ouse h o ld v esse l

P la in g rey

P la in b rown

5 1 , 5 4

6 060 -4 6 060 -2 6 060 -3

1 002 -2 1

H ouse h o ld v esse l

P la in b rown ish r ed

P la in b rown ish r ed

1

2 ,5

6 060 1

1 002 -2 1

C oa rse , p l a in , b rown ish r e dw a re C oa rse , m icaceous , p l a in g rey w a re

H ouseh o l d v esse l

P la in b rown

P la in g rey

1

1 0

6 06 1( 1)

1 002 -2 2

C oa rse , g rey s l ipped , p a in ted b l ack w a re

B rown s l ipped

G rey s l ipped , p a in ted b l ack o n r i m

1

4

6 062 -2

1 002 -2 3

C oa rse , m icaceous , l i gh tb rown s l ipped w a re

P uco , c a 1 9 c m d i ame te r ;s oo t o n s ur faces P uco ( s e r v ing v esse l )

L i gh t b rown ish r ed s l ipped

L i gh t b rown ish r e d s l ipped

N o

G r .

R eg . n o .

1

3

6 058

1

2 ,5

6 059 1

1

1 4

3

T rench , s qua re , l a ye r 1 00 111

14

C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 2 mm i ns i ze a nd g ra ins o f q ua r tz 3mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 4 mm i ns i ze a nd g ra ins o f q uar tz 3mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq ua r tz a nd g ne iss u pt o 3mm i ns i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t og ra ins o f q ua r tz 4mm i n s i ze a nd 3mm i n s i ze C oa rse -g ra ined , g ra ins o fq ua r tz u pt o 3 mm i n s i ze

C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 4 mm i ns i ze a nd g ra ins o f q uar tz 3 mm i n s i ze

1

1 0

6 062 1

1 002 -2 3

C oa rse , m icaceous , l i gh tb rown s l ipped w a re

P uco ( s e r v ing v esse l )

L i gh t b rown s l ipped

L i gh t b rown , b rushed a nd s l ipped

1

1

6 062 -3

1 002 -2 3

B uf s l ipped

9

6 062 -4

1 002 -2 3

P uco ( s e rv ing v esse l ) C ook ing po t

B u f f s l ipped

1

C oa rse s l ipped mar leado

C oa rse s l ipped mar leado

2

9 1 3

6 063 1 6 063 -2

1 002 -2 4

F i ne , m icaceous , b u f fw a re V e ry c oa rse , m icaceous b r ick red w a re , s l ipped mar leado F i ne , smoo thed a nd b rown s l ipped b rown w a re

H ouseh o l d v esse l

P l a in b rown

F i ne s moo thed a nd s l ipped

1

5

6 064 1

1 003 -3 1

B r ick red w a re , s an ta mar iana

F une ra l v esse l

P l a in b rushed , b r ick red

C ream s l ipped , b l ack p a in ted

1 5

9 3 .5

C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 4mm i ns i ze a nd g ra ins o f q uar tz 3mm i n s i ze F i ne -g ra ined w i th f l akes o fb i o t i te a nd muscov i te F i ne -g ra ined b u t w i th al a rge amoun to fq ua r tz g ra ins a nd m ica f l akes

C oa rse -g ra ined , f l akes o fm ica u p t o 4 mm i ns i ze a nd g ra ins o f q ua r tz 3mm i n s i ze T empe red w i th g rog a nd g ra ins o fq ua r tz u pt o3 mm i ns i ze

O f t h e r ema in ing 1 3 f r agmen t s , n i ne b e longed t o h ou seho ld v e s se ls a nd w e re u sed a sc ook ing -po t so rs t o r ing v e s se l s . B ow l s , c a l led p uco , a r e r ep re sen ted b yj u s t f ou rf r agmen t s . T h ree o ft h e f r agmen t s a r e m ade o f am icaceou s , r i ch c l ay , a n s a r e c a refu l ly f i n i shed w i th ab rown o rb uf fs l ip . T he o n ly f r agmen t b e long ing t o ap uco made o f a no the rc l ay w i th n om ica i sb l ack -pa in ted o n ag r ey i sh s l ip .

T he c e ram ics o fS i te 5 6 T he c e ram ic s c o l lec ted f r om t h e s u r f ace o ft h e s i te a nd d u r ing e xcava t ion r e f lec tb o th c e ram ic u se a nd p roduc t ion t h a t o ccu r red w i th in t h e d oma in o f h ou seho ld a c t iv i t ie s . S uppo sed ly , mo s t o f t h em w e re l o ca l ly made , w h i le t h e f r agmen t s d e r iv ing f r om f une ra l c e ram ic s c a l led s an tamar iana m ay h ave b een i mpo r ted f r om an ea rby s pec ia l i s t w o rk shop o ft h e v a l l i ser rana r eg ion ,t h a ti s ,i nt h i sc a se ,f r om t h eS an ta Ma r ia R ive rV a l ley . C on tac t s w i th d i s tan t p l ace s a r e e v idenced b y t h e A ver fas w a re .The A ver f a sc e ram ic sw a s manuf ac tu red o nt h ep l a in so fS an t iago d e lE s te ro a nd e xpo r ted a ss t a tu s p o t te ry t o av a s tr e g ion ( Gonzä le s a nd D iaz , 1 992 ) , w h i le t he s im i la r Y ocav i lw a s a lmo s tc e r ta in ly p roduced i nt h eS an ta Ma r ia V a l ley p rope r ( Lo rand i , 1 984 , 3 19-320 ) . T he v e s se l s h ave a w h i te , p o l ished s l ip a nd a r e d eco ra ted w i th a b r i l l ian t w h i te p a in t . T he se t wo w a re s a r e v e ry s im i la r ,b u ta st h e re a r e m ino rv a r ia t ion s i nd eco ra t ion a nd mo rpho logy i ti s c onven ien t a r chaeo log ica l ly a nd o pe ra t iona l ly t om a in ta in t h e n ame s , a l be i t many a r chaeo log i s t sd on o td i f f e ren t ia te b e tween t h ew a re s .

15

T he r ed s l ipped w a re , F amaba las to , i sf ound t o ge the r w i th t h e A ver f a s a nd i sa sc r ibed t ot h e s ame c on tex t , t h a t i si tw a s p roduced i nS an t iago d e l E s te ro d u r ing t h et h ep ro toh i s to r ic e r a( Lo rand i , 1 984 , 3 20 ) . T he se t h ree w a re s a l so r e f lec t h i gh s t a tu s , a s t h ey w e re u sed i n c e remon ia l c on tex t s a nd i nf une ra l r i te s . Why t h ey a r e f ound h e re , a tS i te 5 6 , i sa lmo s ta ne n igma . A cco rd ing t oA na Ma r ia L o rand i , t h e F amaba las to , A ver ias a nd Y ocav i l w a re s a r e a lway s f ound t o ge the r w i th ma te r ia l a t t r ibu ted t o t he I nka ( Lo rand i , 1 984 , 3 19 ) . T h i s s ame o p in ion , a sr ega rd s t h e Y ocav i l P o l icromo , i se xp re ssed b y G onza lez a nd D iaz ( 1992 , 3 8 ) . H oweve r , S i te 5 6 h a s n o t r ace s w ha t soeve ro fI n ca ic p re sence , e i the ri nc e ram ic so ri na r ch i tec tu r e . Mo s t o ft h e f r agmen t s d e r ive f r om p o t te ry u sed i nh ou seho ld a c t iv i t ie s , t h a t i s , c ook ing -po t s a nd s t o r ing v e s se l s . T he re a r e n o t r ace s o f p o t te ry e a r l ie r t h an t h e s an tamar iana , w h i le t h e h i gh -s ta tu s v e s se l s , r ep re sen ted b y t h e w h i te - a nd r ed , p o l i shed w a re s F amaba las to , Y ocav i l a nd A ver i as , b e long t o t h e s ame c on tex t a s t h e c oa r se , m icaceou s w a re c a l led C asp inchango . T he m icaceou s h ouseho ld v e s se l s w e re u sed w e l l i n to h i s to r ica l t ime s , a nd i ti sd ocumen ted t h a t t h e p o t te r s o fT o lombön , a tl e a s t i nt h e 1 940 's s t i l l p ref e r red m icaceou s s and t ot empe r t h e i r h ou seho ld p o t s w i th ( Gonzä lez Z imme rman , 1 948 ) . J udg ing f r om t h e c e ram ic m a te r ia l , w e c an m ake t h e f o l low ing s t a temen t s : 1 . S i te 5 6 w a s o ccup ied d u r ing a l ong p e r iod o f t ime , f r om t h e s an tamar iana o ft h e 1 3 th c en tu ry , w e l l i n to h i s to r ica l t ime s . T he c eram ic s o f t h e H i span ic -con tac t p e r iod , t h e m icaceous , c oa r se a nd f i ne w a re s , a r e q u i te a bundan t , a nd i n d ica te t h a t t h e s i te w a s s t i l l i nu se f r om t h e m idd le o f t h e 1 6 th c en tu ry . We m ay e ven s uppo se t h a t S i te 5 6 w a s n o t a bandoned u n t i l t h e 1 9 th o r2 0 th c en tu ry . Maybe t h e re w a s a ni n te r rup t ion o fh ab i ta t ion d u r ing t h i s l ong l a p se o ft ime ,b u ti ti si mpo ss ib le t os t a te t h a tw i th c er ta in ty a tp re sen t . 2 . Mo s t o f t h e f r agmen t s i nd ica te h ouseho ld a c t iv i t ie s , s uch a s f ood p repa ra t ion a nd s t o rage . N ea r t h e s i te t h e re a r e a l so a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s . T he m a in f unc t ion o fS i te 5 6w a st h u s t h a to fh ou seho ld p roduc t ion . 3 .N o t r ace s o fI n ca ic p re sence o ri n f luence a r e e v idenced , a st h e re w e re n o I nca , I n ca -Paya o r p rov inc ia l I n ca c e ram ic s . T he a r ch i tec tu re i si n t h e l o ca l v a l l i ser rana t r ad i t ion . 4 . H oweve r , l o ng -d i s tance c on tac t s e x i s ted d ur ing t h e 1 5 th a nd 1 6 th c en tu r ie s , a s w e f i nd h e re c e ram ic s p roduced a s f a r a way a s t h e p la in s o f S an t iago d e lE s te ro . 5 .A tt h ee nd o ft h e 1 5 th o rt h eb eg inn ing o ft h e 1 6 th c en tu ry , h igh -s ta tu s c e ram ic s w e re u sed a tt h e s i te . T he se c e ram ic s w e re u sed a nd p er fo rmed d u r ing c e remon ie sa nd i n d ica ted s oc ia l s t a tu s .

16

R e fe rences C orne l l , P . 1 993 E ar ly C en t r e s a nd t h e H ouseho ld . A T heor e t ica l a nd Me thodo log ica l S tudy o n L a t in Amer ican C a se s , GOTARC S e r ie s N o . 3 ,G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l S tud ie s , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg C orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inary R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S tudy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D ,N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , Gö tebo rg C orne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S tud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , Gö tebo rg E r ic son , C . 1 991 " Sy s tem s o ft e r race s a tt h e s i te o fE l P i chao" , i nP .C o r ne l l a nd S .S jöd in ( e d s . ) 1 991 G onzä lez , A .R . a nd D iaz , P .P . 1 992 " No ta s A rqueo lög ica s s ob re l a ' Ca sa Mo rada ' , L a P aya , P c ia . d e S a l ta " , E s tud io s d eA rqueo log i a N o 5 , Mu seo A rqueo lög ico d e C ach i , 9 6 1 G onzä lez Z imme rmann , Z . 1 948 " La c e räm ica a c tua l d e T o lombön" , A c t e s d u XXV I l l e C onyi s I n t erna t iona l d e s Amgr ican i s t e s , P ar i s 1 947 , A u s i ege d e l a S oc i6 t6 d e s Am6 r ican is te s , Mu s6e d el 'Homme , P a r i s , 2 71-275 L o rand i , A -M . 1 984 " Sor iocamayoc . L o s o l le ro s d e l I nka e n l o s C en t ro s Manuf ac tu re ro s d e lT ucumän" ,R ev i s ta d e l Mu seo d eL aP la ta ( Nueva s e r ie ) , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eL a P la ta ,F acu l tad d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s yMu seo , 3 03-327 L o rand i , A .M . a nd B o ixadö s R . 1 989 " E tnoh i s to r ia d e l o s v a l le s C a lchaqu i e s e n l o s s i g lo s XV Ia nd XV I I" ,R una 1 718 ,263-419 M i l lone s L . 1 992 " The t ime o ft h e I n ca : T he C o lon ia l I nd ian s ' q ue s t" , A n t iqu i ty 6 6 ,2042 16 Mörne r , M . 1 953 T he P o l i t ica l a nd E conom ic A c t iv i t ie s o ft h e J esu i t s i n t h e L a P la ta R eg ion , S tockho lm Mö rne r , M . 1 965 L a t inamer ika sh i s tor ia , S tockho lm Nür iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 978 " Con s ide ra t ion s o n t h e P e r iod iza t ions o f N o r thwe s t A rgen t ina" , i nD . L .B rowman ( e d . )A dvance si nA nd ean A r chaeo logy ,T he H ague ,4 524 84 R yd6n , S .1 936 A rchaeo log ica lR e searches i nt h eD epar tmen to fL a C and e lar ia , G ö tebo rg S jöd in , S . 1 990b P rob lem s a nd m e thod s i n c eram ic a na ly s i s . C eram ic a na ly s i s i n NW A rgen t ine a rchaeo logy a nd a c eram ic s amp le f rom E l P ichao e xcava t ions 1 989 , V a l ley o fS an ta Mar i a , e xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , Gö tebo rg

17

9 .T he e xcava t ion o ft he c eme te r ies 1 99 11992 N i l sJ ohans son T h i s i s ad e sc r ip t ion a nd a n a na ly s i s o ft h e e xcava t ion s u nde r taken d u r ing t h e 1 991 a nd 1 992 f i e ld c ampa ign s . D u r ing t h e se c ampa ign s t h ree c eme t e r ie sw e re e xcava ted ,t h e Amancay ,A gu i la , a nd C ar r i za lc eme te r ie s .

L ayou to fc eme te r ies C eme te r ie s a r e e ncoun te red i n v a r iou s p a r t s o f t h e s i te o f P i chao . T he Amancay a nd A gu i la c eme te r ie s a r e p l aced o n s ma l l h e igh t s w i th in s e c to r s I X a nd X I , c l o se t oS i e r ra d eQ u i lme s . T he se h e igh t s a r eh eav i ly e r oded a nd c ove red b y ab u sh v ege ta t ion . B o th c eme te r ie s a r e l o ca ted a ts ome d i s tance f r om t h e h ab i ta t ion a r ea . T he C a r r iza l c eme te ry i sp l aced o n ap l a teau c l o se t o t h e C a r r iza l moun ta in , e a s t o f t h e a luv ia l f a n a nd t h e s i te a r ea ( F igu re 9 . 1) No p o t te ry f r agmen t s h ave b een e ncoun te red b e tween C a r r iza l a nd t h e r egu la r s i te a r ea , a nd i n my o p in ion t h i s c eme te ry r ep re sen t s a n i s o la ted u n i t . I nt h e Amancay a nd t h e A gu i la c eme te r ie s t omb s a r e c oncen t ra ted t o t h e h i ghe s t p a r t o ft h e s e c to r . A t C a r r iza l t h ey a r e p l aced c l o se t o an ea rby c r eek a nd at e r ra ce s y s tem . E ach c eme te ry h a s i t s s pec if ic g rave t ype t h a t d oe s n o t o ccu r i n t h e o t he r c eme te r ie s . A g ene ra l o b se rva t ion i st h a t t h e g round o n w h ich t h e c eme te r ie s a r e p l aced c anno t b e u sed f o r a g r icu l tu ra l p urpo se s ( Debenede t t i , 1 921) , b ecau se o ft h e v ege ta t ion t ype a nd t h e l a rge amoun t o f e ro s ion . I ts e em s a s i ft h e b u r ia l g round s a r e l o ca ted i n a r ea s s o mewha t o u t s ide t h e r egu la r s i te a r ea , p o s s ib ly o n g round s s u i tab le f o r c e remon ia l a c t iv i t ie s . A l l t h e c eme te r ie s h ave b eau t ifu l v i ew s o ve r t h e n ea rby s i te a r ea . U n fo r tuna te ly , t h ey a l so h ave i n d ica t ion s o fh eavy g rave l oo t ing ,p robab ly o f ar e cen to r ig in .

19

F i gu re 9 . 1 . T he l a you to ft he c eme te r ies a tt he P i chao s i te . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

1 20

F ou rd i f f e ren tt y pe so ft omb sa r ef ound w i th in t h ec eme te r ie s : 1 .S tone c i s t w i th a c o rbe l led v au l t a nd a r e c tangu la r b a se ( Amancay c eme te ry ) 2 . S tone c i s t w i th a c o rbe l led v au l t a nd a n o va lo id b a se ( Ca r r iza l ) c eme te ry 3 .R ec tangu la rs t one c i s t s ( Agu i la c eme te ry ) 4 .E a r th g rave s( Amancay c eme te ry ) G ene ra l ly , t h e t omb s t ruc tu re s g i ve t h e i mp re s s ion o f b e ing w e l l b u i l t . S tone b lock s a r e f i t ted w i th am ix tu re o fs ma l l s t one s a nd c l ay ( a rgamasa ) , a nd t h e s t one c i s t s a r e f i l led w i th s ed imen t i no rde r t os t ab i l i se t h em f r om w i th in . A t C a r r iza l , t h e t omb b u i lde r s mu s t h ave h ad s ome k now ledge o f t h el o ca lg eo logy . T he s t one c i s t si nt h i s s e c to ra l lu se an a tu ra ll a ye ro fc l ay a s ap l a t fo rm f o rt h et omb c on s t ruc t ion . O n t h e b a s i s o f t y po logy , t h e d i f f e ren t c eme te r ie s c an b e s epa ra ted i n t ime . Ag ene ra l i mp re s s ion i st h a tt h ec eme te ry a tQ uebrada d e Amancay i s c h rono log ica l ly l a te , c ompa red w i th t h e o the r c eme te r ie s . T h i s i si nd ica ted b y , a mong o the r t h ing s , t h e p r e sence o f S pan i sh i mpo r t o b jec t s i n t h e g rave s . T he c eme te ry c an b e p robab ly b e d a ted t o t h e f i r s t p a r t o f t h e S pan i sh N a t ive P er iod ( A .D . 1 5301600 ) . T he a b sence o f t h e se o b jec t s a tt h e C ar r i za l a nd Q uebrada d e A gu i la c e me te r ie s i nd ica te s t h a t t h ey a r e s omewha t o l de r . T he c e ram ic t ype s e ncoun te red , S an ta Mar i a b i co lor a nd t r ico lor , c an t ypo log ica l ly b e p l aced w i th in t h e P er iod o f R eg iona l D eve lopmen t ( A .D . 1 0001480 ) . T he c h rono logy o ft h e P i chao s i te a nd i n d iv idua l c eme te r ie s w i l l b e d eve loped i n al a te rp a r to ft h i sp ape r . Av a r ia t ion i nS an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry w a s n o ted w i th in t h e s i te o fP i chao . A c e ram ic a na ly s i s r e vea led d i f f e rence s b e tween t h e s he rd s e ncoun te red o n t h e a l luv ia l f an a nd i n t h e s i te a r ea , c ompa red w i th t h o se e ncoun te red i n c eme te r ie s . S an ta Ma r ia s he rd s i nt h es i te a r ea w e re o f ac oa r se w a re , w i th a l a rge a moun t o f a n t ip la s t ic s , w he rea s t h e s ame p o t te ry t ype i nc eme te r ie s w a s o f af i ne r w a re t h a t h a rd ly c on ta ined a ny a n t ip la s t ic s a ta l ( S jöd in , 1 996 ) . Ap o ss ib le i n te rp re ta t ion i st h a tS an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry w a sp roduced i n t wo d i f f e ren tv a r ie t ie s a tt h e s i te o fP i chao . T he t y pe e ncoun te red i nt h e s i te a r ea w ou ld h ave b een s u i tab le f o r f ood o r w a te r c on ta ine r s , b ecau se o fi t s l a rge a moun to fa n t ip la s t ic s . T he t y pe e ncoun te red i nc eme te r ie sc ou ld h ave b een p roduced f o r ag rave c on tex t .

Q ueb rada d e Amancay ( s ec to rX I ) S ec to r X I i ss i tua ted i n t h e n o r the rn p a r t o f t h e s i te , s ou th -we s t o f t h e mode rn v i l lage o fP i chao a nd t h eP i chao R ive r( F igu re 9 . 2 ) . I ti sl o ca ted o n as ma l l h e igh t , s u r rounded b y moun ta in s o nt h ree s i de s , w i th t h ef ou r th s i de a ga in s tt h eP ichao R ive r .

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F i gu re 9 . 2 . S ec to rX Ia nd t he Amancay c eme te ry . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

T he s e c to r c an b e d i v ided i n to t wo p a r t s , an o r the rn a nd as ou the rn , s epa r a ted b y ar av ine . I nt h e n o r the rn p a r to ft h e s e c to r ac eme te ry w a s e ncoun t e red d u r ing a r chaeo log ica l s u rvey s i n 1 989 . I tw i l l b e r e f e r red t o a s t h e Amancay c eme ter y . Al o ca l g rave loo te r , w ho h ad u nde r taken e xcava t ion s i ni t ,o r ig ina l ly p o in ted o u t t h e c eme te ry . T he ma te r ia l e ncoun te red d u r ing t h is l oo t ing w a s u rn s o ft h e S an ta Mar ia t ype , p robab le t r ace s o fa n e a r l ie r c h i ld c eme tery . T h i s i n te rp re ta t ion w a s b a sed o n d raw ing s a nd d e scr ip t ion s

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b y t h e g rave loo te rb u t a l so o n t h e f a c t t h a t al a rge a moun t o fS an ta Ma r ia s he rd s w a s e ncoun te red w i th in a nd o u t s ide t h e g rave s t ruc tu re s . T he S an ta Ma r ia s he rd s f ound w i th in g rave s , h oweve r , o r ig ina ted f r om s eve ra l d i f f e ren tv e s se l s , a nd t h eq uan t i ty o fs he rd s w a si nn oc a se e nough t of o rm a c omp le te S an ta Ma r ia u rn . T h i s i n d ica te s t h a t t h ey w e re d epo s i ted b y a cc iden tr a the rt h an i n ten t iona l ly w i th in t omb s t ruc tu re s . S ec to rX I m ea su re s a pp rox ima te ly 1 00 x 3 0mi nt h ee a s t—we s td i rec t ion T he Amancay c eme te ry l i e s o n as l ope f a c ing n o r th -ea s t , w i th ad i f f e rence o f a pp rox ima te ly 2 0 m i n l e ve l . N o r th o f t h e r av ine , c l o se t o t h e P i chao R ive rt h e re i s as y s tem o f3 -4 t e r race s , e ach o ne a pp rox ima te ly 1 0 ml ong . I n t h e s ou th -ea s te rn p a r t o f t h e t e r race s , l a rge s t one b lock s w e re e ncoun te red , o ne o ft h e se w i th f i ve mor ta r s , e ach o ne 2 0 cm w ide a nd 1 01 5 c m d eep . I nt h e s u r f ace , t h e re w e re c l ea r s i gn s o fe r o s ion i nt h e f o rm o f w ea the r ing a nd w a te rf l ow . T he s e c to rc on s is t s o fs ed imen t s s l op ing t owa rd s t h eP i chao R ive ri nt h e n o r th -ea s t . T he se c on s i s t ma in ly o f i gneou s a nd m e tamo rph ic m a te r ia l c om ing f r om t h e P i chao R ive r v a l ley ( Ah lg ren , 1 990 ) . A c ha rac te r i s t ic f ea tu re o ft h e se s ed imen t s i st h el a rge b ou lde r s , s ome t ime se xceed ing 4m i n l e ng th . O the r s ed imen t s i n s e c to r X I a r e o f al o ca l o r ig in f r om t h e s t eep moun ta in s ide s s u r round ing t h e s e c to r . T he l o ca l b ed rock c on s i s t s o f as of t a nd e a s i ly e rodab le m icaceou s s ch i s t ( Ah lg ren , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) . T he s ed imen t s h ave b een t r an spo r ted b o th b y g r av i ta t ion a nd b y w a te rf low a nd m igh t h ave b een d epo s i ted b efo re t h e e nd o f t h e l a s t i c e a ge . D u r ing p o s tg lac ia lt ime s ,t h ec hange sh ave b een r e la t ive ly m ino r .

F i e ld me thods A s imp le m e thodo logy w a s u sed . A t f i r s t , t e s t t r enche s w e re l a id o u t , i n o rde rt ol o ca te g r ave s t ruc tu re s . T he se w e re e xcava ted i na r t if ic ia l l e ve l s . I f g rave s t ruc tu re s w e re e ncoun te red , t h e e xcava t ing s t ra tegy w a s c hanged . T he t omb w a s e xcava ted i n a r t if ic ia l l e ve l s , a nd g rea t c a re w a s t a ken i n e xam in ing t h ec on s t ruc t ion d e ta i l so nt h eg rave . S pec ia l a t ten t ion w a s g i ven t o t h e f o rma t ion p roce s se s , w h ich h ad t h e g rave a s t h e i r f i na l r e su l t . I o r ig ina l ly a s sumed t h a t g rave c on s t ruc t ion s w e re l o ca ted i nt h e v i c in i ty o f u p r igh t , s t and ing s t one s , b u t t h i s w a s n o t c o r rec t . A f te r al a rge n umbe r o f t e s tt r enche sh ad b een d ug , Iu nde r s tood t h a tt h el oo t ing w i th in t h ec eme te ry h ad d e s t royed a ny t r ace so fg rave sa bove g round .

O bse rva t ions o fe xcava ted s t ruc tu res B e low , f ou r t omb s h ave b een c ho sen a s d i f f e ren t e xamp le s i lu s t ra t ing t h e v a r iab i l i ty o f t h e g rave s a tt h e Amancay c eme te ry ( F igu re 9 . 3 ) . T hey a r e p re sen ted i no rde rt og i ve ad e sc r ip t ion o ft h e v a r iab i l i ty o ft omb s t ruc tu re s a tt h eP ichao s i t e , a nd s ome o fm yt h ough t sd u r ing t h ee xcava t ion s .

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F i gu re 9 . 3 . T he e xcava ted g rave s t ruc tu res a tt he Amancay c eme tery . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

T omb 4 .S tone c i s t T omb 4w a s as t one c i s tw i th ac o rbe l led v au l t , s im i la rt ot ho se d e sc r ibed b y E dua rdo B e rbe r iän ( 1970 ) a tt h e s i te o f Z ä ra te , a nd S a lvado r D ebenede t t i ( 1921) a tt h e C a sp inchango c eme te ry . I tc on s is ted o f0 . 3-0 .8 m l o ng , a nd 0 . 2-0 .4 m w ide s t one s ( F igu re 9 . 4 ) . T he se f o rmed a n a lmo s t c i rcu la r , s t one c i s t . T he c i s th ad ac o rbe l led v au l ta nd w a s c l o sed b y al a rge s t one b lock i n t h eu ppe rp a r to ft h et omb . A tb a se l e ve l , t h ef o rm o ft h e g rave c hanged a nd f o rmed a na lmo s ts qua re s t one c i s t .

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F i gu re 9 . 4 . T ombs 4a nd 4 L . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

No ma rk ing o ft h e t omb w a s s e en a bove g round . T he a r tef ac t s c on s i s ted o f g l a s s b ead s a nd o b jec t s o fi r on . F ragmen t s o fc oppe r a nd t e x t i le w e re a l so e ncoun te red . A t b a se l e ve l , as i ng le p uco w a s f ound . T he h uman s ke le ton ma te r ia l w a s v e ry s pa r se ; t h e o s teo log ica l a na ly s i s r evea led f r agmen t s o f t h ree i n d iv idua l si nt h et omb , t wo a du l t sa nd o ne j uven i le .

T omb 4 L D irec t ly n o r th o fT omb 4 ,a nd p robab ly c onnec ted w i th i t ,a n e a r th g rave w a s f ound . I ti sh e re r e f e r red t o a s T omb 4 L . T he a r tef ac t s e ncoun te red w e re g l a s s b ead s , t h ree c e ram ic v e s se l s , a n u rn i n T osca w a re a nd ap uco a nd ap ie d e c ompo tera i nC a sp inchango w a re I o b se rved t h a t g l a s s b ead s w e re l o ca ted d i rec t ly a r ound t h e c r an ia l r ema in s . T he o s teo log ica l a na ly s i s r evea led t h a tt h er ema in sw e re t h o se o fa na du l t .

T omb 1 . S tone c i s t T he m e thod o f c on s t ruc t ing t h e t omb w a s t h e s ame o ne a s d e sc r ibed f o r T omb 4 w i th aq uad ra t ic b a se a nd a n o va lo id u ppe r p a r t ( F igu re 9 . 5 ) . T he u ppe r p a r t o f t h e t omb g ave a s omewha t d i s to r ted i mp re ss ion . My i mp re s s ion w a sl a te rc onf i rmed w hen amoder nc o in w a sf ound i nt h eg rave . Obv iou s ly , t h e t omb h ad b een l o o ted b efo re , b u t f o r tuna te ly o n ly i n t h e u ppe r p a r t . T he i n ten t iona l ly d epo s i ted , a r tef ac t ma te r ia l w a s t h e refo re i n tac tw i th in t h eg r ave s t ruc tu re .

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A r i ch a nd d i ve r se a r tef ac t m a te r ia l w a s e ncoun te red , f o r e xamp le a c oppe rb race le ta nd al a rge n umbe ro fg l a s s b ead s . O fs pec ia l i n te re s t w a s a p a i r o f r ock c r y s ta l s e ncoun te red d i rec t ly a bove t h e c r an ia ; t h is w a s i n te rp re ted a s ap o ss ib le s oc io techn ic o b jec t ( B info rd , 1 972 ; O 'Shea , 1 984 ) . A round t h e w a l l s o f t h e s t one c i s t , f r agmen t s o f b u rn t w ood w e r e e ncoun te red . C lo se t ot h i s w e re r e s t s o fb a ske two rk , a nd ap o s s ib le r a t t le r , c on s i s t ing o f ac a laba sh w i th s e ed si ni t . S ome c on s t ruc t ion d e ta i l s w e r e o f s pec ia l i n te re s t . Al a ye r o f s t amped c l ay w a s e ncoun te red a tb a se l e ve l , c ove r ing t h e r e c tangu la r b a se o f t h e t omb . T h i s l a ye r w a s a pp rox ima te ly 5 c m t h ick a nd w a s m an -made . I i n te rp re ted t h i s a s aw ay o fs ea l ing t h e t omb . I nt h e v e r t ica l s e c t ion , l a ye r s o f c oa r se a nd f i ne r s ed imen t s c ou ld b e s e en a bove t h e l a ye r o f c l ay . T he g ene ra l i mp re s s ion w a s t h a t t h i s h ad b een d one a s aw ay o f s t ab i l is ing t h e t omb c hambe r f r om w i th in . A l a ye r o f t h e f i ne r , s andy s ed imen t w a s e ncoun te red c l o se t o t h e u ppe r s t one b lock s w i th in t h e g rave c hambe r ; i t p robab ly s e rved a s af ounda t ion f o rt h es t one s . R ema in s o fh uman b one w e re s pa r se a nd f r agmen ta ry . A l l t h e f r agmen t s e ncoun te red c ame f r om o ne i n d iv idua l , p robab ly a n a du l t , l o ca ted i n t h e s ou the rn p a r t o f t h e g rave . D i rec t ly e a s t o f T omb 1 , ac oncen t ra t ion o f b one w a s f ound , c on ta in ing t h er ema in so ft wo i nd iv idua ls .

F i gu re 9 . 5 . T omb 1 , s t one c i s tw i th ac o rbe l led v au l ta nd r e c tangu la r b ase . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

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T omb 1 3 . S tone c i s t T omb 1 3 w a s as t one c i s t w i th a c o rbe l led v au l t a nd a r e c tangu la r b a se , s im i la r i nc on s t ruc t ion t ot ho se d e sc r ibed e a r l ie r ( F igu re 9 . 6 ) . T he m a te r ia l e ncoun te red i nt h e t omb w a s v e ry s pa r se a nd c on s i s ted mo s t ly o fc e ram ic f r agmen t so ft h eS an ta Ma r ia t y pe . O fg r ea te ri n te re s t w e re t h e h uman s ke le ton r ema in s i nt h e t omb . At o ta l o f 1 4 i n d iv idua l s w a s e ncoun te red ( 10 a du l t s a nd f ou r s ubadu l t s ) . B o th s exe s w e re r ep re sen ted . My i n te rp re ta t ion w a s t h a t t h e t omb h ad b een u sed d u r ing l o ng p e r iod o f t ime f o r h uman d epo s i t ion s ( Ac reche e ta l . , 1 996 ) . F i r s t o fa l l , t h e re w a s n o t s pace e nough t ob u ry 1 4 i n d iv idua l s a tt h e s ame t ime . S econd ly , h uman b one h ad b een r e -a l loca ted w i th in t h es ame t omb . S ome o f t h e se i n d iv idua l s w e re p r ima ry d epo s i t ion s a nd w e re e ncoun te red i nt h e i r o r ig ina l p o s i t ion s . O the r s w e re s e conda ry d epo s i t ion s , a nd a g ene ra l i mp re s s ion w a s t h a t t h e h uman b one s h ad b een p l aced a r t if ic ia l ly i nd i f f e ren t p a r t s o ft h e t omb . S ome o f t h e c r an ia h ad a r t if ic ia l d efo rma t ion s o ft h e T abu la r E rec ta t y pe , a nd i no ne c a se a n o s s if ica t ion o f t h e s p ine w a se ncoun te red . T he o s teo log ica l a na lys i s s howed i n d ica t ion s o fn u t r i t iona l d ef ic iency i n 5 0 % o ft h e a na ly sed c r an ia . P a r t s o fT omb 1 3 r e s ted o n T omb 1 4 , w h ich l e dm et oc onc lude t h a ti tw a sc on s t ruc ted s ome t ime a f te rT omb 1 4 .

c ran ium c onso l ida t ion o fs o i l

F i gu re 9 . 6 .T omb 1 3 . D raw ing : G . E s teban .

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C onc lus ions b ased o n f i e ld o bse rva t ions T he f ou rt omb sd e sc r ibed a bove i n c lude a l lt h et y pe se ncoun te red w i th in t h e Amancay c eme te ry . T he se a r e t ype A , s t one c i s t w i th ac o rbe l led v au l t a nd ar e c tangu la r b a se , a nd t ype B , e a r th g rave . A s i n d ica ted b y t h e e xamp le s , t h e e a r th g rave s a r e p l aced d i rec t ly a bove o rb e s ide ac hambe r g rave . T hey a l so i lu s t ra te t h e d i v is ion o f t h e l a t te r g roup , a s r e ga rd s t h e n umbe r s o f p e r son sb u r ied w i th in e ach g rave . T he s t one c i s t s w e re a l l o ft h e s ame c on s t ruc t ion . O ve r ar e c tangu la rc i s t made o fs t one b lock s l a rge r s t one s w e re p l aced , u s ing t h e c i s t a s as uppo r t . T he se s t one s f o rmed a n o va lo id s hape i nt h e u ppe rp a r t o ft h e t omb . I n t h e v e r t ica l s e c t ion , t h e se s t one s f o rm a c o rbe l led v au l t , w h ich w a s f i na l ly t a pped b y a l a rge r s t one b lock . A l l s t ruc tu re s w e re e ncoun te red a pp rox ima te ly 0 . 5 mb e low g round l e ve l . E a r th g r ave s w e re mo s t ly p r ima ry d epo s i t ion s d i rec t ly i nt h e e a r th , w i thou ta ny g r ave c on s t ruc t ion . T hey w e r e o f ten p l aced i n d i rec t c onnec t ion w i th t h e c i s t s , o f ten a bove o r d i rec t ly o u t s ide t h em . D if f e rence sb e tween t h es t one c i s t s w e re s e en i nt wo d i f f e ren tr e spec t s : A . T he n umbe ro fa r tef ac t sd epo s i ted . B . T he n umbe ro fp e r son sb u r ied i ne ach g rave . T he t wo r e spec t s s eemed t oe xc lude e ach o the r . G rave s r i ch i na r tef ac t s g ene ra l ly c on ta ined f ew i n d iv idua l s , a nd v i ce v e r sa . E a r th g rave s w e r e mo s t ly u sed f o r i nd iv idua l b u r ia l s a nd mo s t ly c on ta ined f ewe r a r tefac t s i n c ompa r ison w i th t h e s t one c i s t s . W i th in t h e g rave s r ema in s o f 4 2 i nd iv idua l s w e re e ncoun te red . T he se w e re e i the r b u r ied w i th in , o u t s ide o r a bove t h e s t one c hambe r s . B o th p r ima ry a nd s e conda ry d epo s i t ion s w e re e ncoun te red a mong t h e b u r ia l s . H uman b one s w e re g ene ra l ly i n av e ry b ad s t a te o fp re se rva t ion a nd v e ry d i f f icu l tt or e cove r . T he ma jo r i ty o f b u r ied i n d iv idua l s w e re a du l t s . T hey w e re b u r ied t o ge the r w i th j uven i le s , n one o f w hom w a s y ounge r t h an 1 2 y ea r s o ld . A pp rox ima te ly 7 5 %o ft h ei n d iv idua l s w e re a du l t s , 2 5 %w e re j uven i le s . I n n i ne c a se s , i tw a s p o s s ib le t o d e te rm ine t h e s ex o f t h e d ecea sed . F ou r o f t h e se w e re w omen , f i ve w e re m en . T hey a lway s o ccu r red t oge the r i n t h e g r ave s . N o c onc lu s ion s c once rn ing s ex a nd s oc ia l d i f f e ren t ia t ion c ou ld b e m ade , h oweve r , s i nce t h e b od ie s d e sc r ibed w e re e ncoun te red i nt omb s t h a t c on ta ined v e ry f ew a r tef ac t s ( Tomb s 1 3 , 1 5 , 1 6 ) . A cco rd ing t o t h e o s teo l o g i s t , s i gn s o fn u t r i t iona l d ef ic ienc ie s w e re p re sen ti na pp rox ima te ly 5 0 % o f t h e s t ud ied c r an ia i n T omb 1 3 . T h i s m ay i n d ica te t h a t t h e re w a s a d i f f e rence i n a cce s s t o f ood . N one o f t h e s t ud ied i n d iv idua l s s howed a ny s i gn s o f av i o len t d ea th , a nd h a rd ly a ny w eapon s w e re e ncoun te red i nt h e g rave s .

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Q ueb rada d eA gu i la ( Sec to rI X ) S ec to r I X i ss i tua ted a tt h e s ou the rn e x t reme o f t h e s i te o fP ichao , o n t h e e a s te rn s i de o f t h e C ondo rhua s i moun ta in . C lo se t o t h is s e c to r a r e a r ea s d om ina ted b y h ou se s t ruc tu re s , s t one c i rc le s a nd v i l lage t e r race s i ns ec to r s I I , I Va nd V ( F igu re 9 . 7 ) . Al a rge n umbe r o f s t one b l ock s i sv i s ib le o n t h e s u r face , a nd t h e re a r e c l ea r s i gn s o fe ro s ion i nt h e f o rm o fw ea the r ing a nd w a te rf l ow . T he s ec to r i ss i tua ted o n as ma l l h i l l , s u r rounded o n t h ree s i de s b y t h e C ondo rhua s i moun ta in . Two g u l l ie s s u r round t h e s e c to r , o ne o r ien ted NW—SE , a nd t h e o the r t ot h e s ou th . T he s e c to r i sa pp rox ima te ly 1 50 m l ong a nd b e tween 5 0 ma nd 1 00 m w ide . Ag en t le s l ope g oe s i nt h e NW—SE d i rec t ion , a nd t h e re i s ad i f f e rence o fa pp rox ima te ly 2 5 m b e tween t h e h i ghe s t a nd t h e l owe s t p a r to ft h es e c to r . Wi th in s e c to r I X ac eme te ry w a s l o ca ted d u r ing a r chaeo log ica l s u rvey s a nd e xcava t ion s . I tw i l lh e re ina f te rb er e f e r red t oa st h eA gu i la c eme te ry . T he re w e re n o s i gn s o f g rave s a bove g round , b u t l a rge h o le s d g b y l oo te r s ( f o r e xamp le , T i a nd T 2 ) r e vea led r ema in s o f e a r l ie r e xcava ted , g rave s t ruc tu re s . W i th in t h e s ou ther n p a r t o f t h e s e c to r , l a rge s t one c i s t s w e re e ncoun te red , o ne o f t h em 3 . 5 m l o ng a nd 2 m w ide , c on ta in ing mo r ta r s ( R ibo t ta , 1 991) . No o t he rs t ruc tu re s w e re f ound , w i th t h ee xcep t ion o f l i ne s o f s t one s , f ound i n t h e e a s te rn p a r t o f t h e s e c to r . T he i r f unc t ion r ema in su nknown . A s u r f ace c o l lec t ion w a s c a r r ied o u t w i th in t h e c eme te ry a r ea . Mo s t ly f r agmen t s o fS an ta Mar i a b i co lor a nd t r ico lor a nd as i ng le m a lach i te b ead w e re e ncoun te red . T he e xcava t ion m e thod s w e re s im i la r t o t h o se d e sc r ibed f o r t h e Amancay c eme te ry .

T omb 2 .R ec tangu la rs t one c i s t A t r ench w a s l a id o u t i n t h e N .—S . d i rec t ion , c r o ss -cu t t ing T rench 8 , a p robab le g rave s t ruc tu re ( F igu re 9 . 8 ) . T he g rave s t ruc tu re w a s v i s ib le a t s u r f ace l e ve l a s ac i rc le o f e r ec ted s t one s , w i th f i ne s ed imen t w i th in t h e s t one c i rc le . D u r ing t h e e xcava t ion , as t one c i s t w a s e ncoun te red . T he c on s t ruc t ion o ft h i s g r ave w a s s omewha t d i f f e ren tf r om t ha te ncoun te red i n s ec to r X I . T he g r ave c on s i s ted o f ar e c tangu la r s t one c i s t o f e r ec ted s t one b lock s . D i rec t ly n o r th o f t h e g rave , as t one c i rc le w a s e ncoun te red w i th a d iame te ro fa pp rox . 1m . I n my i n te rp re ta t ion , t h er e c tangu la rs t one c i s ta nd t h es t one c i rc le w e re p a r to ft h es ame s t ruc tu re .

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F i gu re 9 .7 . S ec to r I Xa nd t h eA gu i la c eme te ry . M app ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

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F igu re 9 . 8 . T omb 2 .D raw ing : G . E s teban .

Du r ing t h e e xcava t ion , af ew c on s t ruc t ion d e ta i l s w e re d i scove red . A t a d ep th o f3 0 c m , as t one f l oo r a ppea red w i th in t h e c i s t , c on s i s t ing o fb lock s o f s t one o f t h e s ame s i ze a s t h e s t one s i nt h e s i de w a l l s . T he r ema in s o fa t a p o fs t one w e re a l so d i scove red i nt h en o r ther np a r to ft h ec i s t . I no rde rt o s t ab i l i se t h e e r ec ted s t one b l ock s t h a t c on s t i tu ted t h e w a l l s o f t h e c i s t , s ma l le rb lock s o rs t one s w e re p l aced i n s ide t h e l owe rp a r t s o ft h em . O n t h e o u t s ide o f t h e s t one b lock s , t h e s ed imen t w a s h a rdened w i th a rgamasa , a m ix tu re o fc l ay a nd w a te r .

O bse rva t ions o fe xcava ted s t ruc tu res T he a r tefac t m a te r ia l e ncoun te red i n t h e g r ave s t ruc tu re w a s r e la t ive ly s pa r se . T h i s w a s p robab ly t h e r e su l t o f a n e a r l ie r g rave l oo t ing ; a n i nd ica t ion o f t h i s w a s t h e r e la t ive ly f i ne s ed imen t t h a t w a s e ncoun te red i n

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t h e g rave d ur ing t h e e xcava t ion . T he i n te rp re ta t ion i sb a sed o n t h e f a c tt h a t t h e s ed imen t i sn o rma l ly a m ix tu re o f s and a nd s t one s . A f i ne r s ed imen t w ou ld o n ly o ccu r a s t h e r e su l t o f e x te rna l c hange , f o r e xamp le g r ave l oo t ing . T he a r tef ac t ma te r ia l w a s l im i ted t o an umbe r o f b ead s i n l o ca l ma te r ia lb e tween 3mm a nd 5mm i nd i ame te r . T oge the rw i th t h e se b ead s , a p ipe o fs t one w a se ncoun te red . D i rec t ly b e s ide t h i s , p a r to f amand ibu la w a s f ound , t o ge the r w i th t e e th f r agmen t s . W i th in t h e s t one c i rc le , o n ly c e ram ic s he rd s w e re e ncoun te red , mo s t ly o ft h e T osca t ype .

C onc lus ions b ased o n f i e ld o bse rva t ions T he t o ta l n umbe ro fg rave s i nt h ec eme te ry i sh a rd t oe s t ima te . O n t h e b a s i s o f my i mp re ss ion s f r om s u rvey s a nd t h e e xcava t ion s , i tm ay b e a r ound 1 01 5 . T he t omb s a r e a l r e c tangu lar s t one c i s t s t h a t w e re p robab ly u sed f o r s i ng le p r imary d epo s i t ions o fi n d iv idua l s . T he g rave s w e re b u i l t o fe r ec ted s t one b lock s , f o rm ing a s t one c i s t . T he se b lock s w e re r e info rced f r om t h e i n s ide a nd o u t s ide w i th s ma l le r s t one s a nd s t amped c l ay . T he c i s t s w e r e w ide r i nt h e n o r the rn p a r t t h an i nt h e s ou the rn . O ne s i ng le i nd iv idua l w a s e ncoun te red , b u r ied i nt h e N—S o r ien ta t ion . I n t h e g r ave s , t h e S an ta Ma r ia a nd T o sca p o t te ry t y pe s w e re f ound , t o ge the rw i th as t one p ipe a nd b ead so f l o ca l m a te r ia l .

T he C a r r iza l c eme te ry I n t h e s ou th -ea s t p a r t o f t h e s i te o fP i chao , t h e re a r e t wo moun ta in s , b o th n amed C a r r iza l . D u r ing s u rvey s i n 1 990 , ac eme te ry w a s e ncoun te r ed ( F igu re 9 . 9 ) . T he c eme te ry i ss i tua ted o n ap l a teau , l im i ted o n t h e s ou the rn s i de b y t h e C a r r iza l moun ta in a nd o n t h e n o r the rn s i de b y ag u l ly c a l led Managua . G rave s a r e i nd ica ted b y t h e f r equen t l oo t ing -ho le s r evea l ing t h e r ema in s o f p a r t ly o r t o ta l ly d e s t royed , g rave s t ruc tu re s . G rave s a r e o f ten p l aced i n d i rec t c onnec t ion w i th t h e g u l ly . S ome t ime s t h e s t ruc ture s a r e v i s ib le o n t h e s u r f ace , a s u p r igh t s t one s f o rm ing a c i rc le o r a n o va lo id s hape .T he re i s a5 10 ° i n c l ina t ion t owa rd st h en o r th a nd t h e Managua g u l ly ( Edua rdo R ibo t ta , p e r sona l c ommun ica t ion ) . S ign s o fe r o s ion a r et ob e s e en i n t h e s e c to r i n t h e f o rm o f w ea the r ing a nd w a te r f l ow . N o r th o f t h e c eme te ry ,t e r raced f i e ld s a r ee ncoun te red , p robab ly c onnec ted w i th i t .

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F i gu re 9 . 9 .T he c eme te ry a tt h eC a r r iza l moun ta in . Mapp ing a nd d raw ing : G . E s teban .

D u r ing 1 991 , as u rvey o ft h e b u r ia l g round w a s m ade . A t t h e s ame t ime , a c o l lec t ion o fp o t te ry w a s made o nt h es u r f ace , i nw h ich mo s t ly f r agmen t s o f S an ta Mar i a b i co lor a nd t r ico lor w e re e ncoun te red . A n i mpo r tan t a spec t w a s t h a tn oc e ram ic f r agmen t s w e re e ncoun te red b e tween t h e s i te o fP i chao a nd t h ec eme te ry a tC a r r iza l .

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T he g ene ra l i mp re s s ion w a s t h e refo re t h a t t h e C a r r iza l c eme te ry w a s a n i s o la ted o b jec t , w i thou t a ny d i rec t c onnec t ion w i th t h e s i te o f P i chao . D u r ing 1 992 , as ho r te re xcava t ion w a s u nde r taken . T he m e thod s u sed w e re t h e s ame a st h o se d e sc r ibed f o rt h e Amancay c eme te ry .

Obse rva t ions f r om e xcava ted s t ruc tu res C a r r iza l 1 : 1 . S tone c i s t C a r r iza 11 :1 w a s ap a r t ly l o o ted , s t one c i s tw i th ac o rbe l led v au l ta nd o va lo id b a se , w h ich h ad p a r to fi t s c on s t ruc t ion v i s ib le o n t h e s u r f ace ( F igu re 9 . 10 ) . T he s t ruc tu re w a sf i r s te xcava ted o nt h eo u t s ide , t h en o nt h ei n s ide .

F i gu re 9 . 10 . C a r r iza l 1 : 1 . D raw ing : G . E s teban

T he t omb s t ruc tu re m ea su red 1 . 60 x 1 . 40 m a nd w a s 0 . 5 m h igh . I t c on s is ted o f b lock s o f s t one , f o rm ing a n o va lo id s hape . T he b lock s w e re i n c l ined t owa rd s t h ec en t re o ft h et omb a nd w e re p l aced i n al a ye ro fn a tu ra l c l ay . T h i s l a ye r o fc l ay i se ncoun te red a l l o ve r t h e c eme te ry a t ad ep th o f 0 . 8-0 .9 m . A t f i r s t , i tw a s b e l ieved t h a t t h e c l ay w a s a r t if ic ia l ly p l aced a r ound t h eg rave s t ruc tu re . T he t h ickne s s o ft h ec l ay l a ye r( a tl e a s t 1m ) a nd t h e f a c t t h a ti ti se ncoun te red a l l o ve rt h e s e c to r made u sc hange o u rm ind s . T he g ene ra l i mp re s s ion i si n s tead t h a tt h ep reh i s to r ic p opu la t ion k new a bou t t h e l a ye ra nd i n ten t iona l ly p l aced t h e g rave s a tt h e d ep th o ft h e c l ay . I nt h a t w ay , t h ey g o t av e ry s t ab le b a se f o r t h e i r c on s t ruc t ion . T he c l ay o bv iou s ly s e rved a s as t ab i l i se r f o r t h e s t one b lock s . I n t h e l owe r , o u te r p a r t o f t h e

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b lock s , s ma l le r s t one b lock s w e re p l aced . T he i r f unc t ion w a s a l so t o s t ab i l i se t h e t omb s t ruc tu re . B e tween t h e s t one b lock s , a rgama sa , am ix tu re o fs ma l l s t one s a nd s t amped c l ay , w a se ncoun te red . V e ry f ew a r tef ac t s w e re e ncoun te red i nt h et omb , a mong t h em f r agmen t s o fT o sca a nd S an ta Mar i a b i co lor , t o ge the rw i th as i ng le f r agmen to ft h eQ u i lme st ype . My i n te rp re ta t ion w a s t h a t t h e t omb h ad b een l o o ted . I tc on ta ined v e ry f ew r e s t s o fa r tef a c t ma te r ia l b u th ad v i s ib le c on s t ruc t ion d e ta i l s . T he t omb w a s c on s t ruc ted i n aw ay s im i la r t o t h o se e ncoun te red i n s e c to r X I b u t d i f f e red i nt h ef o rm o ft h eb a se , w h ich w a so va lo id a nd n o tr e c tangu la r .

C onc lus ions b ased o n f i e ld o bse rva t ions T he g ene ra l a im o f t h e e xcava t ion s w a s t os ee w he the r t h e a r te fac t t ype s , d a t ing s a nd g rave c on s t ruc t ion s w e re d i f f e ren t i n t h e C a r r iza l c eme te ry , c ompa red w i th t h e o t he r c eme te r ie s . A t o ta l o f f ou r t e s t t r enche s w a s e xcava ted , b u t o n ly o ne g rave w a s l o ca ted . R ema in s o f o the r g r ave s w e re s een a s p a r t ia l ly d e s t royed , s t one s t ruc tu re s w i th in l o o t ing -ho le s . G rave s w e re g ene ra l ly s i tua ted c l o se t o an ea rby g u l ly . T he t o ta l n umbe ro fg rave s i n t h e c eme te ry w a s h a rd t o e s t ima te b u t c an h a rd ly h ave e xceeded t e n ( Edua rdo R ibo t ta ,p e r sona lc ommun ica t ion ) . N oc e ram ic f r agmen t s h ave b een f ound a ts u r f ace l e ve l b e tween C a r r iza l a nd t h e s i te o f P i chao . T h i s , t oge the r w i th t h e f a c t t h a t t e r raced f i e ld s a r e l o ca ted a r ound t h e c eme te ry , i nd ica te s t h a t t h e s e c to r h ad a n i n dependen t p o s i t ion i n r e la t ion t h e s i te o f P i chao . P e rhap s i tm ay r ep re sen t as i ng le i ndependen tf a rm s tead i nt h ev i c in i ty o ft h el a rge rv i l lage o fP i chao . T he o n ly g rave e xcava ted s o f a r h a s ac on s t ruc t ion s omewha t s im i la r t o t ho se o f t h e g rave s e ncoun te red i n s e c to r X I . I tc on s i s t s o f l a rge s t one b lock s ,f o rm ing ac o rbe l led v au l tt h a tw a sp robab ly c l o sed b y at a po fs t one . T he d i f f e rence l i e s i n t h e b a se , w h ich i s o va lo id i n s hape a nd n o t r e c tangu la r , a nd i nt h ef a c tt h a tt h eb l ock s w e re p u ti n an a tu ra ll a ye ro fc l ay i no rde r t os t ab i l i se t h em . T h i s i n d ica te s t h a t t h e u se r s o ft h e c eme te ry h ad s ome k now ledge o ft h el o ca lg eo logy .

S yn thes is C ommon t r a i t s T he c eme te r ie sa tt h eP i chao s i te a r eg ene ra l ly p l aced a ts ome d i s tance f r om t h e s i te i t se lf , mo s t ly o n as ma l l h i l l s u r rounded b y al a rge r moun ta in r ange . I nn one o ft h et h ree c eme te r ie s c an c l ea rm a rk s o ft h eg rave s b e s e en a bove g round s ; t h i s m ay , h oweve r , b e ar e su l to ft h e e xce s s ive g rave loo t ing . T he g rave s a r e g ene ra l ly p l aced a pp rox ima te ly 0 . 5 mb e low g round l e ve l , w i th t h e p o s s ib le e xcep t ion o f t h e g rave s i n t h e A gu i la c eme te ry ( s ec to r I X ) , wh ich a r ep l aced s omewha tn ea re rt h es u r f ace l e ve l .

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U nfo r tuna te ly , t h e l oo t ing o f g rave s i n c eme te r ie s i sa no the r c ommon f a c to r . I n t h e A gu i la a nd t h e C a r r iza l c eme te r ie s , o n ly l oo ted o r p a r t ly l o o ted g r ave s a r e e ncoun te red . Mo s t o f t h e l oo t ing s e em s t o h ave t a ken p l ace d u r ing t h i sc en tu ry .

A r te fac tt y pes a nd f r equenc ies Ag ene ra l i mp re s s ion w a s t h e l a ck o f a r tef ac t s i nt h e C a r r iza l a nd Agu i la c eme te r ie s , i n c ompa r i son w i th t h e Amancay c eme te ry i n s e c to r X I . T h i s d i f f e rence i na r tef ac tt y pe si sc l ea r ly i lu s t ra ted i nT ab le . 9 . 1 . G ene ra l ly s peak ing , t h e re w a s amuch w ide r r ange o f a r tef ac t t ype s a tt h e Amancay c eme te ry i nc ompa r i son w i th t h e o the r c eme te r ie s . S an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry w a s e ncoun te red i n a l l t h ree c eme te r ie s o n t h e s i te o f P ichao , w he rea s C a sp inchango p o t tery a nd a r tef ac t s d a ted t o t h e S pan ish N a t ive P e r iod o n ly w e re e ncoun te red i nt h e Amancay c eme te ry . T h i s d i f f e rence i n a r tef ac t d i s t r ibu t ion m ay p a r t ly b e e xp la ined b y t h e h eavy g r ave l o o t ing i n t h e A gu i la a nd C a r r iza l c eme te r ie s . F ur the r e xcava t ion s i n t h e se c eme te r ie s m ay c hange t h i s p a t te rn . N e i the r t h e C a r r iza l n o r t h e A gu i la c eme te ry h a s as uf f ic ien t a r tef ac t ma te r ia l f o r a f u r the r a na ly s i s o f t h e g raveya rd s . F o r t h e se c eme te r ie s , w e c an g i ve o n ly a na pp rox ima te d a t ing a nd a ne s t ima te o ft h et o ta l n umbe ro fg rave s . T ab le 9 . 1 . P resence o fv a r ious a r te fac tc l asses a tt he d i f fe ren tc eme te r ies . A r t i fac tc a tego r y

Amancay

A gu i la

C a r r iza l

P o t te ry S tone t oo ls B eads o fl o ca l p roduc t ion x Wood Q ua r tz G lass B eads C oppe ra r t i fac ts I r on a r t i fac ts T ex t i les F i gu r ines B aske t ry P endan ts A r rowheads R a t t le rs

D a t ing t he c eme te r ies Two t e ndenc ie sa r ev i s ib le a mong t h e se c eme te r ie s : A . T he re i s ac h rono log ica l d i f f e rence b e tween t h e Amancay a nd t h e o t he rc eme te r ie sa tt h es i te o fP ichao .

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B . T he Amancay c eme te ry w a s r e -u t i l i sed o r u sed d u r ing a v e ry l o ng t ime -span . I n t h e g raph , ac h rono log ica l d i f f e rence b e tween t h e A gu i la a nd Aman c ay c eme te r ie s c an b e n o ted ( F igu re 9 . 11) . T he A gu i la c eme te ry f a l l s i n to t h e t ime p e r iod A .D . 1 0601250 o r t h e f i r s t p ha se o f o ccupa t ion a t t h e P ichao s i te . T h i s i sa l so t r ue f o r t h e Amancay c eme te ry , b u t t h i s b u r ia l g round a l so c on ta in s d a t ing s o f ar e la t ive ly l a te d a te a nd c ou ld h ave b een u sed a s l a te a s A .D . 1 660 . T he d a t ing s o b ta ined i nd ica te a u se o f t h e c eme te ry d u r ing av e ry l ong p e r iod o r ar e -u t i l iza t ion o ft h e s ame c eme te ry w i th in a 5 00 -yea r i n te rva l . T he Amancay c eme te ry w a s c l ea r ly i n u se d u r ing p ha se s Ia nd I I ,b u tw a si ta l so i nu se b e tween A .D . 1 200 a nd 1 500? S o f a r , n o d a t ing s h ave b een r e ce ived f o r t h e C a r r iza l c eme te ry . O n t h e b a s is o f t ypo log ica l s im i la r i t ie s , h oweve r , i t c an b e c on s ide red a s c on tempo raneou sw i th o rs omewha tl a te rt h an t h eA gu i la c eme te ry . 1 700

T

1 600 1 500 1 400 1 300 r 1 200 100 1 000 9 00

4 4 --

Am w ay Amancay Amancay

A gu i la

A gu i la

Amancay Amancay Amancay Amancay

F i gu re 9 . 11 . S e r ia t ion o fa l d a t ings f r om t he a nd c eme te r ies a tP i chao .

D a t ings a nd d epos i t ion a tt he Amancay c eme te ry 1 4C d a t ing s a r e c a l ib ra ted a cco rd ing t o 1s t anda rd d ev ia t ion ( S tu ive r a nd P ea r son 1 993 ) ( Tab le 9 . 2 ) . T he l e ve l i st h e l e ve l w i th in t h e t omb , w he re 8 0 cm i st h eb a se l e ve l a nd 1 0c mt h eu ppe rp a r to ft h et omb .

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T ab le 9 . 2 . T omb 1 2

1 4C a nd

OSL d a t ings f r om t he Amancay c eme te ry .

L eve l w i th in t omb U ppe r

M e thod OSL

C a lenda ra ge AD 1 0 101130

S amp le C e ram ics ,San ta Ma r ia

4

U ppe r

OSL

AD 1 0 101130

C e ram ics , S an ta Ma r ia

1

U ppe r

1 4c

AD 1001200

C e ram ics , S an ta Ma r ia

1 5

B ase

1 4c

AD 1 0451175

H uman b one

1 3

B ase

1 4c

AD 1 2441384

H uman b one

4

B ase

OSL

AD 1 4901570

C asp inchango

1 2

B ase

OSL

AD 1 4601660

C asp inchango

A s e a r l ie r men t ioned t h e Amancay c eme te ry c an b e d a ted t o t h e S pan i sh N a t ive o n t h e b a s is o ft h e t ypo logy o ft h e a r tef ac t s . A s o ne b eg in s t os t udy t h er e ce ived d a t ing s ,h oweve r , ad i f f e ren tp i c tu re eme rge s . Two c l u s te r s o fd a t ing s a r e v i s ib le , o ne a r ound t h e 1 2 th c en tu ry a nd t h e o t he r a r ound t h e 1 7 th c en tu ry . As i ng le d a t ing o fT omb 1 3 i se ncoun te red b e tween t h e se p e r iod s . T h i s 1 4C s amp le w a s , h oweve r , c on s ide red i n secu re b y t h e S vedbe rg L abo ra to ry , b ecau se o ft h e l ow c on ten t o fc o l lagen i nt h e h uman b one . T omb 1 5 i sd a ted t ot h e 1 2 th c en tu ry b u t c on ta in s a r tef ac t s d a ted t ot h eS pan ish N a t ive P e r iod . S ome t omb s h ave b o th p e r iod Ia nd I I d a t ing s . T h i s i sv i s ib le i nT omb s 4a nd 1 2 , w h ich h ave d a t ing s t h a t a r e s epa ra ted b y 5 00 y ea r s b e tween t h e b a se l e ve l a nd t h e u ppe rp a r t s o ft h e s ame g r ave s t ruc tu re . I s ha l l h e re t r y t o e xp la in t h i s d i f f e rence b y a pp ly ing t h ree m e thod s e a r l ie r s ugge s ted ( J ohan s son 1 996 , 1 999 ) . 1 .S tudy ing t h ed i s t r ibu t ion o fa r tef ac t s i nt h ev e r t ica l s e c t ion . 2 .R econ s t ruc t ing w ho le v e s se ls f r om c e ram ic s he rd s 3 .D a t ing s amp le s w i th in t h eu ppe ra nd b a se l e ve l so fe ach t omb . A s a r gued e a r l ie r , t h e s epa ra t ion o f a n i n ten t iona l ly a nd a n u n in ten t i ona l ly d epo s i ted a r tef ac t m a te r ia l i sp o s s ib le b y s t udy ing t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o f a r tef ac t s i n t h e v e r t ica l s e c t ion ( Tab le 9 . 3 ) . S ince a n i n ten t iona l ly d epo s i ted , a r tef ac tm a te r ia l i sl a id d own a tt h e s ame t ime a st h ed ecea sed , i t s hou ld b e f ound n ea r t o t h e b a se l e ve l i n t h e t omb . A n a cc iden ta l ly d epo s i ted a r tefac t ma te r ia l m ay b e e ncoun te red a ta l l e ve ls , s i nce i tc ou ld h ave e n te red t h eg rave a ta ny momen td u r ing t h eb u r ia l .

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T ab le 9 . 3 . E xamp les o ft he d i s t r ibu t ion o fs ome s e lec ted a r te fac ts i nT omb 1 , Amancay c eme te ry . Measu remen ts a re g i ven i na bso lu te n umbe rs o fe ncoun te red a r te fac ts a nd p o t te ry f r agmen ts . L eve l r e fe rs t ot he l e ve l i n s ide t he t omb . L eve l ( cm ) 1 0 2 0

S an ta Ma r ia 1 0

Wood

C lay F i g .

G lass b ead

Q ua r tz

R a t t le r

C oppe r b rac .

9

3 0

1 5

4 0

3 0

5 0

C asp inch .

6

2 1

6 0

1 3

1

7 0

2 0

5

8 0

1

2

4 1 5

1

9 5

2

1

A s c an b e s e en i nF igu re 9 . 12a a nd i nF igu re 9 . 12b , S an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry i s e ncoun te red o n a l l e ve l s o ft h e t omb , w he rea s a r tef ac t s w i th al a te rd a t ing , s uch a s C a sp inchango p o t te ry a nd g l a s s b ead s , a r e e ncoun te red o n ly a t l owe r l e ve l s . I n m y o p in ion , t h i s m ean s t h a t , a l though t h e S an ta Ma r ia s he rd s a r e e ncoun te red w i th in t h e t omb , t h ey w e re d epo s i ted b y a cc iden t r a the r t h an b y i n ten t iona l a c t ion . T he o ppo s i te i s t r ue f o r a r tef ac t s e ncoun te red a tl owe rl e ve l so ft h et omb .

F i gu re 9 . 12a . D i s t r ibu t ion o fS an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry i nT omb 1 , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages .

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1

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0

0 1

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F igu re 9 . 12b . D is t r ibu t ion o f Casp inchango p o t te ry i nT omb 1 , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages .

A s af u r the r s t ep , a n a t temp t w a s m ade t or e con s t ruc t w ho le v e s se l s f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia s he rd s e ncoun te red i nt h e t omb s . A f te r a l l , i tw a s p o s s ib le t h a t t h e S an ta Ma r ia f r agmen t s m igh t r ep re sen t as ma shed v e sse l i n t h e t omb . I n n one o f t h e g rave s , h oweve r , w e re t h e re e nough S an ta Ma r ia f r agmen t s t of o rm ac omp le te v e sse l . A cco rd ing t ot h ec e ram ic a na ly s i s , t h e s he rd s d id n o t o r ig ina te f r om as i ng le v e sse l , b u t f r om s eve ra l v e s se l s w i th n ov i s ib le c onnec t ion sb e tween t h em . T h i s , t o ge the r w i th t h e d i f f e rence s i nd a t ing s i nt h e s ame t omb s s een i n T ab le 9 . 2 , m ay i n my o p in ion b ee xp la ined b yt h ef o l low ing f a c to r s . 1 .T he Amancay c eme te ry w a s u t i l i sed d u r ing t wo d i f f e ren tp ha ses . 2 . T he a r tefac t m a te r ia l i n t h e t omb s w a s d epo s i ted b o th i n ten t iona l ly a nd a cc iden ta l ly . 3 .T he m ix tu re o f a r tefac t s w i th t wo d i f f e ren t d a t ing s h ad t a ken p l ace d u r ing t h ec on s t ruc t ion o ft h et omb . I nt h e f i r s tp ha se a r ound A .D . 100 , t h e Amancay c eme te ry w a s u sed a s ac eme te ry f o r c h i ld ren a nd c on ta ined u rn s o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia t ype . T race s a nd d a t ing s o f t h i s e a r l ie r c eme te ry t h a t a r e m ixed w i th ma te r ia l f r om t h e l a te r . T he l a rge a moun t o f S an ta Ma r ia s he rd s i n t h e c eme te ry a nd t h e 5 00 y ea r -ea r l ie rd a t ing o ft h e S an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry i nt h ec hambe rt omb s i nd ica te t h i s . T he S an ta Ma r ia p o t te ry i n c eme te r ie s c on ta in s l e s s a n t ip la s t ic s , c ompa red w i th t h e p o t te ry e ncoun te red o n t h e s i te a nd t h e a l luv ia l c one . T h is m ean s t h a t i tw a s p robab ly p roduced f o r ag rave c on tex t . T h i s i sa l so s uppo r ted b y d e sc r ip t ion s a nd d raw ing s o f v e sse l s e xcava ted e a r l ie r b y g rave loo te r s a nd b y t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o f S an ta Ma r ia f r agmen t s w i th in t omb s . T he c eme te ry w a s t h en a bandoned a nd l a te r r e -u t i l ised a round A .D . 1 550 . I nt h e s e cond p ha se , t h e c eme te ry w a s ma in ly u sed f o r t h e b u r ia l o f a du l t s i ns t one c i s t s . I ti sh e re a s sumed t h a t a l l t h e s t one c i s t s b e long t ot h e

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s ame p e r iod , o nt h eb a s i so ft ypo logy a nd d a t ing s . E a r ly d a t ing si nT omb 1 5 a r ec on t rad ic ted b yt h ep re sence o fC a sp inchango w a re i nt h es ame t omb . T he b u r ia l t a ke sp a r ti ns eve ra l d i f f e ren ts t ep s , a sa r gued i ne a r l ie rw o rk s ( J ohan s son , 1 996 , 1 999 ) : 1 .C ho ice o fb u r ia lg round . 2 .D ef in i t ion o fb u i ld ing a nd c o l lec t ion o fb u i ld ing ma te r ia l . 3 .C on s t ruc t ion o ft h ef i na l s t o rage f a c i l i ty . 4 .R i tua l s s u r round ing t h ed epo s i t ion o ft h eb ody a nd t h ea r tefac t s , 5 .D epo s i t ion o ft h eb ody a nd t h ea r tef ac t st h em se lve s . 6 .C ove r ing t h eb ody . 7 .C lo s ing t h eg r ave . T he s ame b u r ia l g round i sc ho sen o nce mo re a f te r b e ing a bandoned f o r s eve ra l h und red y ea r s . A sp a r to ft h ec on s t ruc t ion o ft h eg rave , a na lmo s t2 m -deep h o le i se xcava ted i n t h e g round ( We i se r , 1 921 , 9 2 ) . D ur ing t h i s e xcava t ion , p o s s ib ly o lde r ma te r ia l ( u rn s w i th h uman b one s , e t c . ) w i l l b e c r acked a nd f r agmen ted . A tt h e b o t tom o ft h e e xcava ted h o le , ar e c tangu la r s t one c i s t i sc on s t ruc ted . T he d ecea sed i sp l aced , t o ge the r w i th t h e g rave g i f t s , i nt h et omb . Ac i rc le o fs t one i st h e reaf te rp l aced a r ound t h es t one c i s t a nd ac o rbe l led v au l t i sc on s t ruc ted . I no rde rt os t ab i l i se t h e s t one c i s tf r om w i th in , i ti sf i l led w i th s ed imen t( s tage 6 ) . I n my o p in ion , t h e m ix tu re o f a r tef ac t s f r om t h e t wo d i f f e ren t p e r iod s t a ke s p l ace d u r ing t h i s s t age . T he s ed imen t u sed t o s t ab i l i se t h e t omb i s p robab ly t a ken f r om t h e s u r round ing s a nd w i l l t h e refo re c on ta in r ema in s f r om t h e o l de r c eme te ry , mo s t ly f r agmen t s o f S an ta Ma r ia u rn s , t o ge the r w i th h uman b one s . T h i s m a te r ia l i sd epo s i ted i nt h e g rave a s a n e f f ec t o f a cc iden ta l d epo s i t ion a nd i se ncoun te red o n a l l l e ve l s o f t h e t omb . T he g rave g i f t s d epo s i ted t o ge the rw i th t h ed ecea sed a tt h et ime o fb u r ia l c an b e c on s ide red t o b e i n ten t iona l d epo s i t ion s a nd a r e mo s t ly e ncoun te red a t l owe rl e ve l s . D if f e ren t a r te f ac t m a te r ia l s a r e m ixed u n in ten t iona l ly a s a n e f f ec t o f h uman a c t ion d u r ing t h e c on s t ruc t ion o f t h e t omb , a nd n o t b y a ny n a tu ra l p roce s s . T h i s m ay e xp la in w hy w ide ly d i f f e ren t d a t ing s o fa r tefac t m a te r ia l c ou ld o ccu r w i th in t h e s ame t omb a tt h e Amancay c eme te ry . T h i s l e ad s u s t ot h ef o l low ing c h rono logy f o rt h ec eme te r ie s a tP ichao ( F igu re 9 . 13 ) :

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1 700 1 600 — 1 500 — 1 400 — 1 300 — 1 200 — 1 00 — 1 000 — 9 00 — 8 00 Amancay p hase 1

A gu i la

C a r r iza l

Amancay p hase 3

F i gu re 9 . 13 . D a t ings f r om t h ec eme te r ies a tP i chao .

F i r s tP ha se , A .D . 1 0001200 T he A gu i la c eme te ry i s t h e m a in g raveya rd d u r ing t h i s p e r iod . T he Amancay c eme te ry i nt h e n o r the rn p a r to ft h e s i te i sa l so i nu se , p o ss ib ly a s ac eme te ry f o rc h i ld ren . S econd P ha se ,A .D . 1 2001500 D u r ing t h i s p e r iod n o s pec if ic c eme te ry h a s b een e ncoun te red . T he re i sa s l igh t p o s s ib i l i ty t h a t t h e Amancay c eme te ry i ss t i l l i n u se . T he C a r r iza l c eme te ry m ay , o nt y po log ica l g round s , b ed a ted t ot h ef i r s to rs e cond p e r iod ( 10001480 ) . T h i rd P ha se , A .D . 1 5001700 T he Amancay c eme te ry i su sed a s ag raveya rd f o r a du l t s , p o s s ib ly s e rv ing t h ep opu la t ion i ns e c to rX I I ,f u r the rn o r th . I n my o p in ion , t h e d a t ing s o f t h e c eme te ry t o al a rge e x ten t f o l low t h e d a t ing s o f t h e r e s t o f t h e s i te a r ea . D u r ing t h e e a r l ie r p e r iod s , t h e A gu i la c eme te ry i sc on s ide red a pp rop r ia te , b ecau se o f i t s l o ca t ion . I ti sr e la t ive ly n ea r t h e c en t ra l s i te a r ea , b u t s t i l l s omewha t i s o la ted . T he Amancay c eme te ry f u r the rn o r th m ay h ave s e rved a s ac eme te ry f o rc h i ld ren , b ecause o f t h e d i s tance i n vo lved . T he c onnec t ion b e tween c h i ld ren a nd d ea th may h ave b een ac au se o ff e a ra nd s upe r s t i t ion . I nt h a tc a se , i tw a s c onven ien tt o l o ca te t h eg raveya rd a t ag r ea td i s tance f r om t h ec en t ra l s i te . T he r e -u t i l iza t ion o ft h e Amancay c e me te ry s eve ra l h und red y ea r s l a te r may b e e xp la ined i nt h e s ame w ay . T he h ab i ta t ion u n i t s a r e n ow l o ca ted i n t h e n o r the rn p a r t o f t h e s i te , w i th t h e c eme te ry a t ac l o se d i s tance . T he Amancay c eme te ry i sn ow t h ea pp rop r ia te l o ca t ion f o rb ur ia l s . Whe the rt h i s c eme te ry w a s i nu se d u r ing t h e w ho le p e r iod i sh a rd t os ay . E a r ly d a t ing s i nT omb s 1 3 a nd 1 5 m ay i nd ica te t h is . My o p in ion , h oweve r , i st h a t i tw a s r e -u t i l i sed a t a5 00 -yea r i n te rva l . T he d i f f e rence s i na r tef ac t

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m a ter ia l a nd t h es t ra t ig raph ic d i s t r ibu t ion o fa r tef ac t sw i th in t h es ame t omb s a l l p o in t i n t h is d i rec t ion . P e rhap s i t w a s u sed b y a n i mm ig ra t ing p opu la t ion , w i th n o c onnec t ion w i th t ho se w ho u sed t h e c eme te ry d u r ing t h ef i r s tp ha se . A tp r e sen t ,t h i si s ,h oweve r , i mpo s s ib le t ov e r ify .

S oc ia l c omp lex i ty T he o n ly g r aveya rd w i th al a rge e nough a r tef ac t m a te r ia l f o r a n a na ly s i s o f s oc ia lc omp lex i ty i st h e Amancay c eme te ry . T he c ho sen mode l f o r l ook ing a tt h i s a spec t i sd e sc r ibed b y Macdona ld ( 1990 ) a nd a s sume s t h a t t h e s ca rc i ty o r a va i lab i l i ty o f a n o b jec t i s a n i nd ica to r o f i t s v a lue a nd /o r a cqu i s i t ion c o s t i n p reh is to r ic s oc ie ty . T he a r tefac t s a r e e va lua ted a cco rd ing t o af i ve leve l s ca le b a sed o n t h e i r a va i lab i l i ty . T he se l e ve l s r ep re sen t ac r ude i ndex o ft h e i r v a lue t h a t i sl a te r u sed t o c a lcu la te t h e w ea l th o f e ach g rave . Macdona ld c on s ide r s t h a t v a r iab le s l i ke s t a tu s a r e c ompo s i te o r a n a gg rega t ion o f s eve ra l d i f f e ren t f a c to r s , s uch a st h e i n d iv idua l a cce s s t og ood s o rt h e s oc ia l a pp rop r ia tene s s o ft h e i n c lu s ion o fc e r ta in t ype s o fg rave g ood s . A s am ea su re o fv a r ie ty o r d i ve r s i ty , t h en umbe ro fa r tef ac tt y pe si sc ho sen . A s al a s t mea su re , t h et o ta l n umbe r o f a r tef ac t s i n e ach t omb i s c a lcu la ted . B y u s ing t h e se t h ree m ea su re s a t t h e s ame t ime , Iw an ted t o a vo id a c i rcu la r a r gumen t , i . e . c r ea t ing a f i xed s oc ia l s c a le b y a s s ign ing h igh v a lue s t o c e r ta in a r tefac t t ype s . A l though s imp le , Ic on s ide rt h e d i f f e ren tm e thod s r e levan tt og e t t ing a ni nd ica t ion o fs oc ia lc omp lex i ty a tt h e Amancay c eme te ry . T he a r tef ac t s a r e p l aced i n t h e f o l low ing c a tego r ie s a nd a r e g i ven t h e v a lue s e a r l ie r a s s igned b y Macdona ld . Ih ave , h oweve r , c ho sen t h e o b jec t s t h a tb e long t oe ach c a tego ry ( Tab le 9 . 3 ) : V a lue 5 .S oc io techn ic o b jec t s o r o b jec t s t h a t i n d ica te as pec ia l s t a tu s i n s oc ie ty . I n o n ly t wo c a se s w e re p o s s ib le s oc io techn ic o b jec t s i d en t if ied . I n T omb 1 , t wo r o ck c r y s ta l s w e re e ncoun te red , w h ich may b e i n te rp re ted a s as pec ia l s t a tu s s ymbo l . T he s ame i n te rp re ta t ion w a s made o f ab ag c on ta in ing ag r een p owde r ,p o s s ib ly m a lach i te , i nT omb 1 2 . V a lue 4 . T rade -de r ived o rnamen t s . T h i s g roup i n c lude s t h e d i f f e ren t v a r ie t ie s o f g l a s s b ead s f ound i n s e c to r X I . T he se r ep re sen t a n a r tefac t c a tego ry w i th av e ry l ow a va i lab i l i ty ; t h ey w e re p robab ly g i ven a s g i f t s t o m embe r so ft h el e ad ing s oc ia l s t ra ta . V a lue 3 .T rade -de r ived i mp lemen t s . T h i s g roup i n c lude s o b jec t s o fi r on e ncoun te red i nt h e g r ave s . T h i s i sa l so c on s ide red t ob e al ow -ava i lab i l i ty c a tego ry o fa r tef a c t s , s i nce a r tef ac t so fi r on w e re n o tl o ca l ly p roduced . V a lue 2 .L oca l o rnamen t s . T h i s g roup i n c lude s a r tefac t s o fc oppe r , a nd a r tefac t s o f al o ca l o r ig in w h ich c an b e c on s ide red t oh ave a n o rnamen ta l r a the rt h an ai mp lemen ta l f unc t ion , l i ke b ead s o fl o ca l o r ig in a nd p endan t s . I ti sa s sumed t h a tt h i sa r te fac tc a tego ry h ad ah igh a va i lab i l i ty . V a lue 1 . L oca l i mp lemen t s . T h i s g roup i n c lude s a r tefac t s o f al o ca l o r ig in , m a in ly p o t te ry , w h ich c an b e c on s ide red a s i mp lemen t s . I t i s a s sumed t h a tt h i sa r te f ac tc a tego ry h ad ah igh a va i lab i l i ty .

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S eve ra l d i f f e ren t p rob lem s a r e a s soc ia ted w i th t h i s t ype o fa na ly s i s . F i r s t a nd f o remo s t , e ach f r agmen t c anno t b e g i ven as pec if ic v a lue , s i nce many o ft h em t oge the r m ay f o rm a n a r tefac t . A n e xamp le o ft h i s i sg l a s s b ead s , w h ich t oge the rf o rm an eck lace . I fs eve ra l g l a s sb ead s a r ef ound i nt h e s ame t omb , Ia lways a s sume t h a tt h ey b e long t ot h e s ame n eck lace . A f te r t h i s , ac a lcu la t ion o ft h e t o ta l v a lue o fe ach g rave i s made . T h i s i s t h en c on t ra s ted w i th t h e n umbe r o fa r tef ac t t y pe s e ncoun te red i nt h e g rave ( AOT ) , a nd t h et o ta ln umbe ro fa r tef ac t se ncoun te red . T ab le 9 .4 . T he d i s t r ibu t ion o fa r te fac ts i nt h e Amancay p hase I lc eme te ry . G rave n r

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S ome g ene ra l t r end s m ay b e s e en i nT ab le 9 . 4 . O f t h e t o ta l o f 4 2 b u r ied i n d iv idua l s e ncoun te red i n t h e c eme te ry , 2 0 w e re a ccompan ied b y g rave g i f t s . T h ree g rave s w e re n o ted f o r ac ompa ra t ive r i chne s s o f a r tef ac t ma ter ia l , ( Tomb s 4 , 1 a nd 1 2 ) . T he se w e re a l s t one c i s t s w i th c o rbe l led v au l t s . T he se g rave s a l so c on ta ined S pan ish i mpo r t o b jec t s , m a in ly g l a s s b ead s a nd k n ive s a nd s c i sso r s m ade o fi r on . N one o ft h e se g rave s c on ta ined al a rge rn umbe ro fb ur ied i n d iv idua l s t h an t h ree , a nd i nn one o ft h em w a s a c omp le te o r a r t icu la ted s ke le ton m a te r ia l f ound . E a r th g rave s p l aced d i rec t ly a bove a nd b e s ide T omb s 4a nd 1 2 w e re a l so a ccompan ied b y S pan i sh i mpo r to b jec t s ,b u tn o ti ns uch q uan t i t ie s . I n c on t ra s t t o t h i s g roup o f g r ave s w e re T omb s 1 3 , 1 4 a nd 1 6 , w h ich c on ta ined n o o the r a r tefac t s t h an a s i ng le p uco . T he se g rave s w e re o f t h e s ame t ype , c i s t s o f s t one w i th c o rbe l led v au l t s . A r tef ac t s o f S pan ish o r ig in w e re h e re c omp le te ly a b sen t , a nd s eve ra li n d iv idua l s w e re d epo s i ted i ne ach t omb . Two o f t h e t h ree g rave s m en t ioned s howed s i gn s o f r e -u t i l iza t ion d u r ing a nu nknown p e r iod o ft ime . E a r th g rave s w e re p l aced a r ound t h e f i r s t g roup o f t omb s a nd w e re g ene ra l ly a ccompan ied b y s i ng le g rave g i f t s . O f at o ta l o f 8 4 " wea l th p o in t s" i n T ab le 9 . 3 , 6 5 ( 77 % ) w e re e ncoun te red i nt h e f i r s t g roup o fg r ave s . T h i s i sa l so c l ea rf r om t h e n umbe r o f a r tefac t s e ncoun te red i n g rave s , 7 5 % at o ta l o f 4 0 a r tef ac t s w e re

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E ar th

e ncoun te red w i th in t h e s ame g roup . T h i s i n d ica te s s ome k i nd o f s oc ia l i n equa l i ty v i s ib le i n t h e g rave m a te r ia l . T he r e la t ion sh ip s b e tween t h e d i f f e ren tg rave sa r ep e rhap s b e t te ri lu s t ra ted b yF igu re s9 . 14a—d .

F i gu re 9 . 14a .T o ta lv a lue o fa r te fac ts i ni n d iv idua l g raves , e xp ressed i n r e la t ive p e rcen tages o ft he t o ta l n umbe ri nt he c eme te ry .

F i gu re 9 . 14b . N umbe ro fa r te fac ts i ne ach g rave , e xp ressed a st he r e la t ive p e rcen tage o ft he t o ta l n umbe ro fa r te fac ts i nt he c eme te ry .

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F i gu re 9 . 14c . V a r iab i l i ty i na r te fac t ma te r ia l b e tween i n d iv idua l g raves , e xp ressed i nr e la t ive p e rcen tages .

F i gu re 9 . 14d . N umbe rs o fp e rsons b u r ied i ne ach g rave , e xp ressed a s r e la t ive p e rcen tages o ft he t o ta l p opu la t ion i nt he c eme te ry .

A s c an b e s e en i n T ab le 9 . 3 a nd t h e g raph s ( F igu re s 9 . 14a—d ) , t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o fw ea l th , a si n d ica ted b y t h e d i s t r ibu t ion o ft h e v a r iab le s t o ta l v a lue , AOT a nd n umber o fa r tef ac t s , i si n ve r se ly r e la ted t ot h e n umbe r o f i n d iv idua l s i ne ach t omb . A f i r s t p o s s ib le i n te rp re ta t ion o r , b e t te r , s cenar io b a sed o n t h e se d a ta a s sume s t h a t a l l t h e g r ave s i nT ab le 9 . 3 b e long t ot h e p ha se I I c eme te ry . T h is i n d ica te s t h a t d i f f e ren t ia t ion a t t h e Amancay c eme te ry i se xp re s sed a cco rd ing t o t h e t h ree v a r iab le s o f q uan t i ty , d i ver s i ty a nd a ccess ib i l i ty . F rom T ab le 9 . 3 , i ti sa l so c l ea r t h a t S pan ish i mpo r t o b jec t s a r e a lway s p re sen t i n g rave s w i th a l a rge q uan t i ty a nd d ive r s i ty o f a r tef ac t s . T he se a r tefac t s m ay t h e refo re b e c on s ide red a s h igh -p ref e rence o b jec t s o f l ow a cce s s ib i l i ty , a nd i ti sp o s s ib le t h a tt h ey f unc t ioned a ss t a tu s -ma rke r s d u r ing

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t h e S pan i sh N a t ive P e r iod . A s e cond p o s s ib le s c ena r io a s sume s t h a t my a s sump t ion a bou t t h e c h rono log ica l s im i la r i ty o f t omb s i n T ab le 9 . 3 i s i n co r rec t . T h is w ou ld m ean t h a t t h e re i s am ix tu re o fb u r ia l s f r om s eve ra l d i f f e ren t p e r iod s . T h i s w ou ld i nd ica te t h a t t h e d i f f e rence s b e tween g r ave s a r eo f ac h rono log ica lr a the rt h an as oc ia lc ha rac te r . A t p re sen t , i ti sh a rd t ov e r ify w h ich o ft h e s c ena r io s i st h e c o r rec t o ne . T he e xp lana t ion may b e ac omb ina t ion o f b o th t h e e a r l ie r s ugge s ted s c ena r io s . P e rhap s w e s e e t h e p re sence o ft wo d i f f e ren t s t ra ta d u r ing p ha se I I i nt h e g rave m a te r ia l a tt h e Amancay c eme te ry . H oweve r , t h a t d oe s n o t n ece ssa r i ly m ean t h a td i f f e ren t ia t ion i s mo re a ccen tua ted d u r ing t h i sp e r iod , i n c ompa r i son w i th t h e d i f f e ren t ia t ion o b se rved d u r ing e a r l ie r p ha se s . D if f e ren t ia t ion may , h oweve r , h ave b ecome mo re v i s ib le w i th t h e i n t roduc t ion o f S pan i sh i mpo r t o b jec t s . T he i n t roduc t ion o f an ew a r tefac t c l a s s m ay h ave g i ven t h e u ppe r s t ra ta a t t h e P i chao s i te a n ew w ay o f e xp re s s ing t h e i rs oc ia lp o s i t ion .

R e fe rences A c reche , N . , a nd C o lane r i , M -G . 1 996 " S in te s i s d e l m a te r ia l ö seo r e cupe rado d e l s i t io S T ue T av 6( P ichao ,V a l le d eS an ta Ma r ia ,T ucumän" , i nJ ohan s son , N . 1 996 , A ppend ix 2 A h lg ren , S . 1 990 " The n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t o f t h e s i te o f E l P i chao" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 ,21-28 B e rbe r iän , E .E . 1 970 " I nve s t igac iön a r queo lög ica e n e ly ac im ien to d e Z ä ra te" , R ev i s ta H uman i ta s . F acu l tad d e F i losof i ' a yL e t ra s XV I , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , S an M igue ld eT ucumän B info rd , L . 1 972 "Mo r tua ry p rac t ice s —The i rs t udy a nd t h e i rp o ten t ia l" ,A nA rchaeo log ica l P er spec t ive , S em ina rP re s s , N ew Y o rk C orne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg D ebenede t t i , S . 1 921 " La i n f luenc ia h i spän ica e n l o s y ac im ien to s a r queo lög ico s d e C a sp inchango" ,R ev i s ta d el aU n iver s idad d eB ueno sA ir e s , XLV I , 7 45-788 J ohan s son , N . 1 996 B ur ia l s a nd S oc ie ty . AS t udy o fS oc ia lD if f er en t ia t ion a tt h e S i t e o fE l P ichao , N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina , a nd i nC eme ter ie sd a t ed t ot h e S pan i sh N a t ive P er iod , GOTARC , S e r ie s B , G o thenbu rg A rchaeo log ica l T he se s N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg J ohan s son , N . 1 999 " G rave s a nd d epo s i t iona l p roce s se s : A n e xamp le f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , N o r th -we s ter n A rgen t ina" , R ev i s ta d e A rqueo log i a Amer icana , n o . 1 4 . I n s t i tu to P aname r icano d eG eog raf ia eH i s to r ia , Mex ico DF Macdona ld , W .K . 1 990 " I nve s t iga t ing S ty le : A n e xp lo ra to ry a na ly s i s o f s ome p l a ins b u r ia l s" , i nM . C onkey a nd C . H a s to r f ( e d s . ) 1 990 , T he U se s o fS t y le i nA r chaeo logy , C amb r idge O 'Shea , J .1 984 Mor tuary V ar iab i l i ty . A n A rchaeo log ica l I nve s t iga t ion , A cadem ic P re s s , N ew Y o rk

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R ibo t ta , E . 1 991 " Geog raph ic d e scr ip t ion o fS ec to rI X" i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( ed s . ) 1 991 , 8 9-93 S jöd in , S . 1 996 " Ana ly s i s o f c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om t h e Amancay c eme te ry" , i n J ohans son , N . 1 996 , A ppend ix 4 We i se r , W . 1 92 1 F ie ld B ook 1 8 , b a sed o n t h e f ou r th B a r re to e xped i t ion , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , Mu seo d eC ienc ia s N a tu ra le s ,L aP l a ta

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1 0 . R es tos h umanos d e l S TucTav 6( E l P i chao , V a l le d e S an ta M a r ia , T ucumän ) N oem iA cr eche , Mar i a -G lor ia C o laner i yM . V i rg in ia A lbeza

I n t roducc iön E l e sque le to h umano p uede p rovee r i n fo rmac iön t a n to s ob re l a h i s to r ia i n d iv idua l c omo s o c ia l . L o s d a to s e x t ra ido s d ee xcavac ione s a r queo lög ica s , t a le s c omo c a rac te r i s t ica s yt i po s d e e n t ie r ro s , n üme ro d e i n d iv iduo s , p räc t ica s d efo rma to r ia s , e dad e n e l momen to d e l am ue r te , s exo , s i gno s d e d aho s p roduc ido s p o r h e r ida s o e s tado s p a to lög ico s y c amb io s d egene ra t ivo s , r ef le jan e l t i po d e o rgan izac iön s oc ia l , f o rma d e v i da , a c t iv idade s , n u t r ic iön , e s tado s an i ta r io ys i tuac ione s d e t e n s ion s oc ia l c omo p e r fodo sd eg ue r ra . P o ro t ra p a r te , l a sc a rac te r i s t ica s mo r fom6 t r ica s omo r fo scöp ica s , p ueden c on t r ibu i r al ac omp ren s iön d e l a s r e lac ione s g en6 t ica s e n t re g rupo s ys u s d i s tanc ia s . P a ra u na i n te rp re tac iön i n equ ivoca d e e s to s c a rac te re s , e s n ece sa r io c on ta r c on u na mue s t ra r e p re sen ta t iva d e r e s to s ö seo s d e u na p ob lac iön . U no d e l o s p rob lema s m ä s d i f fc i le s e n e s te t i po d e t r aba jo e s l a c uan t if icac iön d el ar e p re sen ta t iv idad d el a s mue s t ra s . E s te p rob lema i n c ide f undamen ta lmen te e n e la nä l i s i s m 6 t r ico , r a zön p o r l a c ua l , e n e s ta e t apa e n q ue l a s mue s t ra s s on e s ca sa s ye l m a te r ia l s e e ncuen t ra muy f r agmen tado , e la po r te d ei n fo rmac iön d et i po d e sc r ip t ivo e s i mpo r tan te y a q ue u na p r ime ra a p rox imac iön i mp l ica e lc onoc im ien to d e l ma te r ia l r e cupe rado , d e s ue s tado d ec on se rvac iön yc ompo s ic iön d e l g rupo e ns exo ye dad . E s te t r aba jo e s p a r te d e u n a mp l io p royec to e n e lq ue s e i n c luyen l o s a nä l i s i s d e e s t ruc tu ra s y ma te r ia le s a r queo lög ico s ( Co rne l l yS jöd in , 1 990 ) d e l s i t io E lP i chao . L a r e cupe rac iön d e r e s to s e sque l6 t ico s h umano s c on c l a ra a soc iac iön a ma te r ia le s c u l tu ra le s , e s muy i mpo r tan te e n e ln o roe s te a rgen t ino d onde l o s h ue so s n o f u e ron e s tud iado s , av ece s p o rque s u i mpo r tanc ia n o f u e s uf ic ien temen te v a lo rada , o t ra sp o rque n of u e ron t r a tado sp o re spec ia l i s ta s . H ay a l gün m a te r ia lö seo e n l o s mu seo s ,e ng ene ra lc a ren te d er e f e renc ia s e n r e lac iön a p rocedenc ia o a soc iac ione s c u l tu ra le s . P o r e s ta r a zön e s

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t odav ia n ece sa r io c a rac te r iza r l a s p ob lac ione s p reh i s tö r ica s med ian te l a d ef in ic iön d eu na c o lecc iön d er e f e renc ia . A for tunadamen te , h ay u nn üme ro d e t r aba jo s q ue h an h echo mucho p a ra c amb ia r e s ta s i tuac iön ( C ig l iano , 1 973 ; C oc i lovo , 1 981 ; Ma rce l l ino , 1 981 ; Ma rce l l ino y C o lan ton io , 1 988 ; Ma rce l l ino yR ingue le t , 1 973 ; S a lceda , 1 988 ) .

O b je t ivo E l o b je t ivo d e e s te t r aba jo e s a po r ta r a l P royec to d e Eme rgenc ia y C rec im ien to d e C en t ro s l o s e l emen to s d e i n fo rmac iön a ce rca d e l a s p ob lac ione s h umana s c uyo s r e s to s s er e cupe ra ron e n E l P i chao , t a le s c omo n üme ro m in im ( )d ei nd iv iduo s , s exo ,e dad yc a rac te r i s t ica s mo r fo sc e ica s .

Ma te r ia les yme todos L o s r e s to s h umano s c on s ide rado s e n e s te e s tud io f ue ron r e cupe rado s e n l a c ampa t ia d e l 1 990 d e l C emen te r io Amancay , e n e ls i t io E l P i chao , s i tuado e n l a s c oo rdenada s g eog rä f ica s 6 6 0 1 ' 0 y2 6 2 2 ' S ,e n e lV a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia , a2 250 m s nm . A l e s te d e l s i t io s ee ncuen t ran l a s C umb re s C a lcha q u ie s ya lo e s te l a s S i e r ra sd eQ u i lme s yd e lC a jön ( Ah lg ren , 1 989 ) .8 E l s i t io f ue d i v id ido e n 1 3 s e c to re s e n l ap ro specc iön , e ncon t rändo se e l c emen te r io e n e ls e c to r 1 . L a t umba 1 3 , u b icada a lo e s te d e l s ec to r , f ue e xcavada e n e s t ra to s a r t if ic ia le s d e 3 9 , 5 2 , 4 8 y3 0 c m r e spec t ivamen te , h a s ta l ega r a lp i so e s ta i l . S e d ibu ja ron p l an ta s e n l a s q ue c ada f r agmen to q uedö r eg i s t rado e n s u p o s ic iön o r ig ina l . E s ta d ocumen tac iön s e c omp lemen tö c on u nr eg i s t ro f o tog räf ico d el a sd i f e ren te se t apa s . C on s i s te e nu na c äma ra d ep i ed ra c on f a l sa b öveda d e 1 , 8 md e l ong i tud , 1 , 4md ea ncho y0 , 8 md ea l tu ra , b a se r e c tangu la r yp a r te s upe r io ro va l , c on p i ed ra s u b icada s h o r izon ta lmen te . E l c on tex to c o r re sponde a lp e r iodo d e c on tac to h i spano -i nd igena ( 1 5301660 ) . F ue ron e ncon t rado s p oco s ma te r i a le s , e l9 0 % d e l o s c ua le s s ei d en t if ica c omo S an ta Ma r ia B ico lo r . G ran p a r te d el ac e räm ica e si n te rp re tada p o rJ ohan sson ( 1990 )c omo i n co rpo rada d e spu6 sd e le n t ie r ro . L ae s t imac iön d e l ae dad ye ls exo s eh i zo e nb a se a le xamen a na töm ico , s i gu iendo a H rd l icka ( 1952 ) , B a s s ( 1971) , F e rembach e t a l . ( 1979 ) y B ro thwe l l ( 1981) . L a e dad b io lög ica al a mue r te s ee s t imö , e n s ubadu l to s , c on s ide rando l a e r upc iön d en ta l , e l c i e r re d e e p i f i s i s yl a l o ng i tud r e la t iva d e l o s h ue so s l a rgo s s i n e p i f i s i s , c uando f u e p o s ib le . U n i n d iv iduo f u e i d en t if icado c omo u n a du l to s i l a s u tu ra e s f eno -occ ip i ta l e s taba c e r rada . S i e s ta p a r te d e l c r äneo e s taba r o ta o f a l taba , e lc i e r re d e o t ra s s u tu ra s ( c on s ide rada s e c to y E d i to r ia ln o te . P l ea se n o te t h a to n ly p a r to ft h e s ke le ta l m a te r ia lf r om t h e Amancay c eme te ry i si n c luded i nt h i sa na ly s i s . T he c omp le te m a te r ia l i sp re sen t ed i nJ ohans son ( 1996 ) .

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e ndoc ranea lmen te ) , l ap re senc ia d e l t e r ce r mo la r y / o e lg rado d e a t r ic iön f ue ron t e n ido s e n c uen ta . E l d e sga s te d en ta l f u e s o lo c on s ide rado s e cunda r iamen te , p o r s u s c a rac te r i s t ica s p a r t icu la re s e n c uan to av a r iac iön . L o s c amb io s d egene ra t ivo s t a le s c omo o s teoa r t r i t i s y c a r ie s d en ta le s t amb i6n f ue ron r e g i s t rado s . L a e s t imac iön d e l s exo s e b a sö e n l ac on s ide rac iön g ene ra l d e q ue l o s h omb re s s on m ä s r obus to s yp o seen i n se rc ione s mu scu la re s mä s ma rcada s q ue l a s mu je re s . S e r ea l izö s o lo p a ra a du l to s , c on s ide rando l o s s i gu ien te s c a rac te re sd i s t in t ivo s : A spec to g ene ra ld e lc r äneo R e l ieve d el a s ma rca s mu scu la re s A rco s s up rao rb i ta le s D i se l lo d el aö rb i ta L ong i tud r e la t iva d el o sd i en te s F o rma d e lm en tön G rac i l idad d el o sh ue so s P rom inenc ia o cc ip i ta l R obu s t ic idad d el o sp roce so s ( c igomä t ico , m a s to ideo ) H ue so i n nom inado E l n üme ro m in imo d ei nd iv iduo sp r e sen te se n l at umba f ue d e te rm inado p o r a nä l i s i s d e c ada f r agmen to d e h ue so c on temp lando s exo , e dad o c ua lqu ie r c a rac te r i s t ica d i s t in t iva t a le s c omo c amb io s d egene ra t ivo s e n l a s a r t icu lac ione s uo t ro s s i gno s d e p a to log ia , p a ra a g rupa r a que l lo s q ue c on a l gün g rado d ep robab i l idad p e r tenec ie ron a lm i smo i n d iv iduo .

R esu l tados yd i scus iön L a t umba 1 3 f u e e xcavada . E l m a te r ia l e s taba i n c lu ido e n u n s ed imen to d en so , muy s e co , a dhe r ido al o s h ue so s , p o r l oq ue l ar e cupe rac iön s eh i zo d i f i c i l , y aq ue l o sf r agmen to sn or e s i s t fan l am eno rp re s iön . C ada f r agmen to f ue n ume rado , i d en t if icado e n e lc ampo y c uando f u e p o s ib le , s e e s tab lec iö v i ncu lac iön c on a l gün i n d iv iduo h ipo ta ico . L a te ra l i dad , s exo y e dad f ue ron t amb i6n r eg i s t rado s . E l m a te r ia l s e e ncuen t ra i n comp le to ymuy p ob remen te p r e se rvado . E l a nä l i s i s d e l o s r e s to s ö seo s p e rm i t iö d e te rm ina re ln üme ro m in im° d e i n d iv iduo s ys exo c ada u no ( Tab la 1 0 .1) .

1 5 1

T ab la 1 0 .1 . D e te rm inac iön d e l s exo ye dad d e l a st umbas 1 , 1 3 , 1 4 , 1 5 y1 6 . T umba

S exo

20 , 30 , 40 , 50

1

1

1

1 3

1 2

F 4

1

1

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1 5 2 1 6 T o ta l

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S e e s tud ia ron o cho c r äneo s y a l rededo r d e 2 00 f r agmen to s . L a s m and ibu la s yl o s d i en te s , c ompa ra t ivamen te l a s p a r te s c on l o s m ayo re s i n d ice s d e c on se rvac iön t amb ia l s e e ncon t ra ron muy d e s t ru ido s : l a s c o rona s , e n s u m ayo r ia s epa rada s d e s u s r a ice s yf u e r temen te e ro s ionada s . A lguno s f r agmen to s s e e ncon t ra ron e n p o s ic iön a na töm ica , i nd icando u n e n t ie r ro p r ima r io . L a s d i f e renc ia s e n l ap rofund idad d e l o s e n te r ra to r io s , p uede i nd ica ru na r e u t i l izac iön d e l at umba . E n mucho s c a so s l o s f r agmen to s p a recen h abe r s i do d e sp lazado s d e s u s p o s ic ione s o r ig ina le s , d i f icu l tando l ai n te rp re tac iön d e s u e mp lazam ien to r e la t ivo . E s muy n o tab le l ad i spo s ic iön d e l o s c r äneo s e nl o sb o rde sd el at umba . E l c r äneo n üme ro 4 e s taba u b icado t a n c e rca d e l ap a red l a te ra l d e l a t umba , q ue , d e s upone r p o s ic iön a na töm ica , e le sque le to p o sc ranea l h ab r ia e s tado u b icado f ue ra d e l o s l im i te s d e l am i sma . S e p uede i n te rp re ta r q ue e s te c r äneo f u e d e sp lazado d e s u p o s ic iön o r ig ina l , p robab lemen te d e m ane ra i n tenc iona l . P o r o t ra p a r te , l o s r e s to s d e l i n d iv iduo n üme ro 3 s e e ncon t ra ron e np o s ic iön a na töm ica . E s p o s ib le i n f e r i rq ue e s ta t umba f u eu t i l izada al ol a rgo d eu ne spac io d e t i empo r e la t ivamen te l a rgo . E n a l guno s c a so s p a rece h abe r s i do u sada p a ra e n t ier ro s p r ima r io s ( i nd iv iduo # 3 ) ye n o t ro s p a ra e n t ier ro s s e cunda r io s ( i nd iv iduo # 4 ) ob i en f ue ron d e sp lazado s p a ra r eu t i l izac iön op o re l emen to s n a tu ra le s . J ohan sson ( 1989 ) , e xcavö u na t r inche ra c e rcana a l a t umba , d onde e ncon t rö l oq ue c on s ide ra u ne n t ie r ro s e cunda r io . L a t umba f u e c ompa r t ida p o r a du l to s , j övene s yn i f io s d e ambo s s exo s . E l c r äneo # 1 p r e sen ta u na d e fo rmac iön d e l t i po t a bu la re r ec ta . P e r tenec iö a u n a du l to d e s exo ma scu l ino , p robab lemen te mayo r d e 5 0 a t io s , s i s e c on s ide ra e l c i e r re d e t oda s l a s s u tu ra s , e xcep to p o r u n p eque f io s e c to r e ndoc ranea l d e l as u tu ra c o rona l . E n e s te p un to s e d ebe c on s ide ra r q ue l a

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e s t ima c iön d e l ae dad r e a l izada s ob re l ab a se d e i nd iv iduo s d e d e sa r ro l lo n o rma l ,p uede v e r se a l te rada p o rl a sp räc t ica sd efo rma to r ia s . E l c r äneo # 2 p r e sen ta p e r fo rac ione s e n l at a b la p a r ie ta l , l om i smo q ue e l # 3 , # 4 y # 5 , u na i n d icac iön q ue h a s i do v incu lada c on d ef ic ienc ia s n u t r ic iona le s . E l # 2 yt amb ien e l# 6 p re sen tan h ue so d e l I n ca , u n c a räc te r h e red i ta r io d e a l ta f r ecuenc ia e n l a s p ob lac ione s ame r icana s . E l c r äneo # 2 p re sen ta t amb ien u n p equer io h ue so s upernume ra r io , p robab lemen te c omo c on secuenc ia d el a sp räc t ica s d efo rma to r ia s . D ea cue rdo a lc i e r re d e s u tu ra s yl ae r upc iön d e l t e rce r mo la r , e s te i nd iv iduo p uede h abe rt e n ido e n t re 1 7 y 2 0a r io s e ne l momen to d e s u mue r te . S u e s tado d ec on se rvac iön n op e rm i te l ad e te rm inac iön d es us exo . E l c r äneo # 3 p e r tenec iö a u na mu je r d e e n t re 3 0 y4 0 a f io s d e e dad . P re sen ta , d e spue s d e l a r e con s t rucc iön , u na f o rma a t ip ica q ue f u e i n te rp re tada c omo p roduc to d e l a p re s iön d i agona l r e c ib ida e n l a t umba d e spue sd el a mue r te . E l c r äneo # 4 p re sen ta u n o cc ip i ta l p i ano s im i la r al o s d e l o s# 1 y# 3 . N o s on v i s ib le s l a s s u tu ra s , e xcep to p o r u na p equer ia p o rc iön d e l at empo ra l . E s te e s e lm ä s g rande d e l o s c r äneo s e s tud iado s , c on e ng ro sam ien to d e l a t a b la y u n a r co o rb i ta r io p rom inen te . E s ta s c a rac te r i s t ica s l eva ron a d e te rm ina rq ue p e r tenec iö au ni nd iv iduo d es exo ma scu l ino d ea l rededo rd e 4 0a r io s . E l c r äneo # 5 p r e sen ta c av idade s e n e l c an ino i n f e r io r ye n e l t e rce r mo la r . E n l o s s egundo s mo la re s mand ibu la re s s e e ncon t ra ron c a r ie s d e c ue l lo . P uede h abe rp e r tenec ido au na mu je rd ee n t re 3 0 y4 0a r io sd ee dad . E l c r äneo # 6 p e r tenec iö au n v a rön m ayo r d e 4 0 a r io s , r obu s to . R eg i s t ra p e rd ida d e u n s egundo mo la r e n v i da . L a s s u tu ra s s on n o tab lemen te d en tada s ,n ov i s ib le se nl ac a ra i n tema . E lc r äneo # 7 s ee ncuen t ra muy f r agmen tado ,c on s u tu ra m e töp ica v i s ib le . E n l i nea s g ene ra le s , e s muy p equer io , h ab iendo p e r tenec ido au n i n d iv iduo d ee n t re 2 0 y3 0a r io s , c uyo s exo n op udo s e rd e te rm inado . E l c r äneo # 8 e s tä r ep re sen tado s o lo p o r e s ca so s f r agmen to s d e h ue so s p a r ie ta l y o cc ip i ta l , s i n s u tu ra s v i s ib le s . D e a cue rdo a l o s c a rac te re s g ene ra le sp uede h abe rp er tenec ido au na du l to m ayo rd e5 0a r io s . L o s c a rac te r i s t ico s i n c i s ivo s e n f o rma d e p a la f ue ron r e cupe rado s d e l s ed imen to s i n q ue s e h aya p od ido e s tab lece r r e lac iön c on a l guno d e l o s c r äneo s . S e r e cupe ra ron t amb ien h ue so s l a rgo s d e e s ta t umba , l am ayo r ia e n e l s e c to r n o r te d e l am isma , yu n n üme ro d e e l emen to s q ue r ep re sen tan e l e sque le to e n s ut o ta l idad . F ue ron r eg i s t rado s f r agmen to s d e t i b ia , f i bu la , e scäpu la , h üme ro , r ad io , f a lange s , c o s t i l la s , v e r teb ra s , s a c ro , i n nom inado ye s te rnön d ep o rl om eno s s i e te i n d iv iduo s ,d o sd el o sc ua le se r an s ubadu l to s . D e a cue rdo c on l o s f r agmen to s d e f emu r ( l o s m e jo r p re se rvado s ) , e l n üme ro m in im° d e i n d iv iduo s r ep re sen tado s e n e s ta t umba e sd e t r ece , d i ez d e l o s c ua le s e r an a du l to s . L o s f r agmen to s d e u l na p o r o t ra p a r te , r e p re sen tan s i e te i n d iv iduo s , t r e s d e l o s c ua le s e r an s ubadu l to s . E l g rado d e

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d e sa r ro l lo d e l o s s ubadu l to s f ue e n tonce s c ompa rado , c onc luyendo q ue u no d e l o s f r agmen to s d e u l na n o c o r re spond ia a n inguno d e l o s d e f emu r . A p a r t i rd e e s ta o b se rvac iön s ec onc luyö q ue c a to rce i nd iv iduo s c ompa r t ie ron e s ta t umba , u nt o ta ld ed i ez a du l to s yc ua t ro s ubadu l to s . L a e v idenc ia d e c amb io s a r t r i t ico s f u e r eg is t rada e n c abeza s d e f emu r y u n f r agmen to d e c o lumna l umba r t r an sfo rmada e n u na p i eza ü n ica , ac au sa d e u na n eofo rmac iön ö sea , u n c a so d e a vanzada e spond i l i t i s d efo rman te , c uya c on secuenc ia e sl ac o lumna e nf o rma d eb a r r ibü . S i b i en e n a l guno s c a so s s e r e g i s t ran e dade s b a s tan te a vanzada s , e n t e rm ino s g ene ra le s , e ne l5 0 %d el o sc r äneo s e s tud iado s s eo b se rvan s i gno s d ed ef ic ien te n u t r ic iön r e f le jada e nl a sp e r fo rac ione sd el at a b la . E n n i ngün c a so s e p udo a l canza r u na c onc lu s iön d ef in i t iva e n l o q ue r e spec ta a l ac au sa d e l a mue r te , y a q ue n inguno d e l o s h ue so s mue s t ra s i gno s d e d a i io p roduc ido a n te s d e l a mue r te q ue p ueda s e r i n te rp re tado c omo c au sa d ee s ta . E n s i n te s i s s e r e g i s t rö u n m in imo d e c a to rce i n d iv iduo s , d i ez d e l o s c ua le se r an a du l to s . E ne lc a so d el o s a du l to s , s ep udo d e te rm ina re ls exo d e c i nco i n d iv iduo s , t r e s m a scu l ino s yd o s f emen ino s . L a e dad p romed io d e mue r te d e l o s a du l to s e s d e 3 8 ,56 a t io s s i endo l o s v a rone s s i gn if ica t ivamen te mä sl o ngevo sq ue l a s mu je re s .

R e fe renc ias A h lg ren , S . 1 990 " The n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t i nt h e a r ea o f E l P i chao" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E l P ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar y R epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar ia V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg , 2 1-28 B a s s , W . 1 971 " Human O s teo logy : Al a bo ra to ry a nd f i e ld m anua l o ft h e h uman s ke le ton" i nD .R . E van s( e d . ) , 1 971 , M i s sou r i A r chaeo log ica l S oc ie ty , C o lumb ia B ro thwe l l , D .R . 1 981 D e sen ter rando h ue so s ,F ondo d eC u l tu ra E conöm ica , Mex ico C ig l iano , E . 1 973 ( e d . ) T a s t i l , u na c i udad p r e inca ica a rgen t ina , E d . C aba rgon , B ueno s A i r e s C oc i lovo , J . 1 981 E s tud io s s obr e d i scr im inac iön y c l a s if icac iön d e p ob lac ione s p r eh i spän icas d e l n oroe s t e a rgen t ino , P ub l icac iön o ca s iona l N o . 3 6 , Mu seo N ac iona l d e H i s to r ia N a tu ra l , S an t iago d eC h i le C orne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E l P i chao 1 990 S e cond R epo r t f r om t h e p ro je c t Eme rgence a nd G row th o f C en t re s . A C a se S tudy i n t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg F e rembach , D . e t a l . 1 979 " Recommanda t ion s p ou r d e t e rm ine r l äge e t l e s exe s u r l e s que le t te" , B u l le t in e t Memo ir e sd el aS oc ig té d 'An thropo log ie d eP ar i s H rd l icka , A . 1 952 " P rac t ica l a n th ropome t ry" , i n T .D . S t ewa rd ( e d . ) 1 952 , T he W i s ta r I n s t i tu te o fA na tomy a nd B io logy ,P h i lade lph ia

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J ohansson , N . 1 99 1 " The e xcava t ion o fg r ave m a te r ia l" , i nP .C o rne l l a nd S .S jöd in ( e d s . ) 1 991 , E l P ichao 1 990 . S econd R epor t f rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . AC ase S t udy i nt h eS an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , s e r ie D , N o . 5 , Gö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg , 5 7-76 Ma rce l l ino , A . 1 981 " E l mo r fo t ipo p a leoame r icano l a gofu6gu ido e n r e s to s h umano s d e l p e r iodo d e a g r icu l tu ra i n c ip ien te d e l n o roe s t e a r gen t ino" , P ub l icac ione s d e l I n s t i tu to d e A n tropo logi a , XX IV ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eC ö rdoba Ma rce l l ino , A . yC o lan ton io , S .1 988 " Re lac ione s mo r fo lög ica sd el o sa bo r igene sp r eh i spä n i co s d e l t e r r i to r io a r gen t ino V I : L a r e g iön n o roe s te ( Be la i , V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s , S an ta R osa d eT a s t i l ,C ach i )" ,B ioan thropos ,V o l . 1 Ma rce l l ino , A . yR ingue le t , S . 1 973 " E s tud io a n t ropo f f s ico d e l o s r e s to s d e T a s t i l" , e n C ig l iano , E . 1 973 ( e d . ) T a s t i l , u na c i udad p r e inca ica a rgen t ina , E d . C aba rgon , B ueno s A ire s S a lceda , S . 1 988 " Anä l i s i s d e l av a r iab i l idad b i o l6g ica i n te rg rupa l e n l as e r ie d e c r äneo s a du l to sp roceden t e sd eP ampa G rande ( Guach ipa s -S a l ta )" ,B ioan t ropo s , N o . 1

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1 . A p rox imac iön a le s tud io d e l A r te R upes t re d e l P i chao E duardo R ibo t ta yL i l ian P r eb i sch

I n t roducc iön E s te t r aba jo s ee nma rca d en t ro d e l a s i n ve s t igac ione s l evada s ac abo e n e l s i t io d e l P i chao , d epa r tamen to T af f d e l V a l le , p rov inc ia d e T ucumän , A rgen t ina , d en t ro d e l P ID CON ICET E s tud io d e l a i n c id enc ia d e l a d inäm ica d e i n teracc iön e n tr e l a s p ob lac iones q ue h ab i taron l a s t i er ra s a l tas y l a s t i er ra s b a ja s , s obr e e ld esar ro l lo h i s tör ico y c u l tura l d e l NOA d i r ig ido p o r V ic to r N t i f iez R egue i ro y c oo rd inado p o r Ma r ta T a r tu s i , e n f o rma c on jun ta c on i n ve s t igado re s p e r tenec ien te s a l D epa r tamen to d e A rqueo log ia d e l aU n ive r s idad d e G o tembu rgo ( Suec ia ) . L a s c a rac te r i s t ica s d e l menc ionado s i t io s ee ncuen t ran d e sc r ip ta se nv a r io st r aba jo s al o sq ue s e r em i te ( Co rne l l yS jöd in , 1 990 , 1 991 ; J ohan s son , 1 996 ; T a r tu s i yN t if iez R egue i ro , 1 993 ) . E l c onoc im ien to d e l a s f o rma s d e e xp re s iön i nd igena c on s t i tu ida s p o re l d enom inado a r te r upe s t re , e sc omo s es abe d e s uma i mpo r tanc ia , a qu in o s e a na l iza rä l ai n tenc iona l idad p l ä s t ica o n o d e l o s i nd iv iduo s q ue l ed i e ron o r igen , n is ei n ten ta rä h a l la rs i gn if icado s ,n id i luc ida rf unc iona l idade s . E l o b je t ivo e s mo s t ra rl ai mpo r tanc ia e xp re s iva d ee s ta s man if e s tac ione s ; d e sde l o s c om ienzo s e l h omb re t u vo c apac idad p a ra m an if e s ta r g räf icamen te e lu n ive r so d e s u s r ep re sen tac ione s m en ta le s ye s i n negab le q ue e la r te r upe s t re r e spond i6 ae sa f i na l idad : e xp re sa r . S e h a t e o r izado l a rgamen te s ob re l au t i l idad o p rop6 s i to p e r segu ido p o r e s ta s m an if e s tac ione s , p e ro l a r e a l idad e s q ue l o s o b je t ivo s d e e s to s c omp le jo sg räf ico s og raf i smo sp e rmanecen a i mn d e sconoc ido s . L a i n ve s t igac iön e n e s te t r aba jo e s tä d i r ig ida a d o s p e t rog l ifo s q ue s e d enom inan C ondo rhua s i yL a s P un t i l la s d e a cue rdo a lc e r ro q ue s el o ca l iza mä s c e rcano a l o s m i smo s ; a mbo s e s tän u b icado s e n e l V a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia , e ne ls i t io d e l P ichao , P rov inc ia d eT ucumän , A rgen t ina ( F igu ra 1 . 1 , e n l ai n t roducc iön , e s te v o lumen ) . E l r e levam ien to ye s tud io d e l o s m i smo s s el evö ac abo d u ran te l ac ampa i la a r queo lög ica d e 1 991 .

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A n teceden tes E l p r ime r t r aba jo e n q ue e l p e t rog l ifo C ondo rhua s i a pa rece m enc ionado d a ta d e 1 877 , " Excu r s iön a r queo lög ica e n l o s v a l le s d e S an ta Ma r ia C a tama r ca" d e I nocenc io L ibe ran i yR a f ae l H e rnändez , l o s q ue r ea l iza ron u n r e levam ien to r e co r r iendo e lV a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia . E n e s ta o b ra a pa rece u na r ep roducc iön d e l m enc ionado p e t rog l ifo c on u nb reve t e x to e nd onde s e c on s igna s u u b icac iön a " 1 l e gua y 1 / a 2 lN .O . d e A n juana" ( L ibe ran i y H e rnändez , 1 950 , 16 ) . E n 1 880 Amegh ino l oc i ta b a sändo se e nl ao b ra a r r iba m enc ionada , e n s u t r aba jo L aa n t igüedad d e lh ombr ee n !L aP la ta ( Amegh ino , 1 880 E n 1 898 T o scano t amb i6n h ace r e f e renc ia ae s te p e t rog l ifo e n s u o b ra L a r eg iön c a lchaqu ina : p äg ina s d e h i s to r ia p re y p o s t -co lomb ina s y d e a rqueo log ia c a lchaqu ina ( To scano , 1 898 ) . E s A dän Q u i roga e n 1 901 q u ien c on d o s t r aba jo s L a c ruz e n Amer ica y P e trograf i 'as y p ic tograf i 'a s d e C a lchaqu i l o d e sc r ibe c on m ayo r d e ta l le , i n c luyendo u n d ibu jo d e l m i smo q ue j un to c on e ld e L ibe ran i yH e rnändez c on s t i tuyen l o s d o s ü n ico s t e s t imon io s g räf ico s c on q ue s e c on taba a l momen to d ei n ic ia re lr e levam ien to ( Qu i roga , 1 901b , 1 931) . E r ic B oman e n 1 908 e n s u o b ra A n t iqu i te s d e l a r eg ion a nd ine d e l a R epub l ique A rgen t ine e t d u d e ser t d 'A tacama s i tüa a l p e t rog l ifo C ondo rhua s i b a jo e ls ub t i tu lo A n juana p e ro s i n a d jun ta r n ingün g räf ico d e l m i smo ( Boman , 1 908 ) . E n 1 959 e l m ae s t ro S egundo F . R amo s d e l a e scue la d e E l A rbo la r , i n ic iö u n muy v a lo rab le t r aba jo d e r e levam ien to d e p i c tog raf ia s y p e t rog ra f ia s d e l az ona . E n s u s a pun te s d e sc r ibe a lp e t rog l ifo p resen tando t amb i6n u na i l u s t rac iön p re sum ib lemen te r e a l izada p o r e l i n s i tu , e l q ue r e su l ta u n e squema muy c e rcano al oq ue a ho ra s ee ncuen t ra ( Ramos , 1 959 , m .s . ) , s i endo e l m i smo m ä s p rec i so q ue l o s r e a l izado s p o r L ibe ran i y H e rnändez yp o rQ u i roga . E n e l c omp le to e s tud io l evado a c abo p o r S u sana R ena rd d e C oque t S i t io sa rqueo lög ico s c on a r te r upes tr ed el aR epüb l ica A rgen t ina : R eg i s tro / Documen tac iön d e 1 988 , e s tab lece q ue G a rdne r , S chob inge r yL o rand i s on a u to re s q ue e n s u s o b ra s t amb i6n m enc ionan l ae x i s tenc ia d ee s te p e t rog l ifo ( Rena rd d eC roque t , 1 988 ) . P o r s u p a r te , B a raza d e F on t s l o r e leva c omo p e t rog l ifo d e l A rbo l Mo rado r e a l izando u na d e sc r ipc iön y p re sen tando l a p o s ib i l idad d e q ue r ep re sen te u na m a rca t e r r i to r ia l d e l g rupo ( Ba raza d e F on t s yP la tan ia , 1 994 ) . C on r e spec to a lp e t rog l ifo d e L a s P un t i l la s , s o lo s ee ncuen t ra r eg is t rado e ne lt r aba jo d eR amo s ( 1959 ,m .s . ) ,q u ien r e a l iza l ap r ime ra d e sc r ipc iön ,u n d ibu jo i n s i tu y e s tab lece s u d enom inac iön ; c on p o s te r io r idad e s to s d a to s f ue ron u t i l izado sp a ra d a r ac onoce re lm i smo ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) .

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L os P e t rog l i fos d e l P i chao H an s i do d e tec tado s t r e s p e t rog l ifo s , l o s m enc ionado s ye lq ue s ee ncon t rö e n u n mon t icu lo c e remon ia l , s i endo e s te ü l t imo y a d e sc r ip to e n u n t r aba jo a n ter io r( Ta r tu s i yN ü i iez R egue i ro , 1 993 ) .

P e t rog l i fo C ondo rhuas i R ea l izado s ob re u na r oca m e tamö r f ica ( e squ i s to mu scov i t ico g rana t i f e ro )d e 2 , 90 m d e a ncho p o r 3m d e l a rgo , r eg i s t rändo se u n a g r ie tam ien to a p rox imadamen te e n e l c en t ro d e l a m i sma ; p re sen ta u na c a ra p r inc ipa l o b l icua a lp i ano h o r izon ta l d e l s ue lo d onde s ee ncuen t ra l a mayo r p a r te d e l o s mo t ivo s g rabado s , d i s t r ibu ido s d e t a l mane ra q ue s e p od r ia h ab la r d e h orror v acu i , r eg i s t rändo se u n v e rdade ro a p rovecham ien to d e l as upe r f ic ie d i spon ib le ( F igu ra 1 .1) . E n p r inc ip io n o s e o b se rva n i nguna e s cena , e s d ec i r u na o rgan izac iön e spac ia l r e conoc ib le y d e te rm inada , p o r l o q ue s e t i ene mo t ivo s f o rma lmen te i n depend ien te s s imp le s yc omp le jo s . S e c on tab i l iza ron 3 3 mo t ivo s s imp le s , s e d enom inan a s f a que l lo s c uya p e rcepc iön v i sua l p uede r e a l iza r se s i n m ayo r d i f icu l tad y q ue p o seen s imp l ic idad l i nea l ; y 1 mo t ivo s c omp le jo s , a que l lo s q ue p re sen tan c i e r to g rado d e c omp le j idad e n s u g raf icac iön , mo s t rando mu l t ip l ic idad l i nea l , g ene ra lmen te mo t ivo s c ompue s to sc omp l icado sp a ra l al e c tu ra v i sua l ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) . E l t r aba jo d ee s ta r o ca s ep uede d i v id i re nd o sc oncepc ione sd ea cue rdo a l au t i l izac iön d e l a s upe r f ic ie : p o r u n l a do s e l ae mp leö c omo u n s imp le s opo r te d onde s e g raba ron l o s mo t ivo s c on u na c oncepc iön n e tamen te b id imen s iona l od ibu j i s t ica , yp o r o t ro l a do s e m ane jö u na c oncepc iön t r id imen s iona l d onde l a r o ca sopo r te e s u t i l izada c omo v o lümen a p rovechando e lr e l ieve p rop io d e lm a te r ia l .

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F i gu ra 1 . 1 . P e t rog l i fo C ondo rhuas i . V i s ta d ep l an ta . D ibu jo : E .R ibo t ta y L .P reb isch .

S i s e r e a l iza u n a nä l i s i s c ua l i ta t ivo d e l o s mo t ivo s e ncon t rado s e n e s te p e t rog l ifo , s e p uede o b se rva r q ue p r edom inan e l emen to s c u rv i l ineo s al o s c ua le s s ea do san c i rcu lo s t e rm ina le s ; p o ro t ro l a do s ee ncuen t ran e l emen to s g eom6 t r ico s p u ro s c omo c i rcu lo s d e d i f e ren te s t ama l lo s . N o e s tän a u sen te s l a s r ep re sen tac ione s c on f u e r te s c a rac te r i s t ica s z oomo r f a s . U na p o s ib le t i po log ia d e l o s mo t ivo s e x i s ten te sd e a cue rdo as uc onf igu rac iön s e r fa : t i po g eoma r ico c u rv i l ineo , t i po g eom6 t r ico p u ro , t i po g eom6 t r ico c omb inado y t i po z oomo r fo . C abe d e s taca r q ue s eo b se rva u na v a r iedad d e mo t ivo s q ue d ada s u p ecu l ia r c onf igu rac iön r e su l tan p räc t icamen te i n c la s if icab le s , p e ro n op o re l lo d e jan d es e ri mpo r tan te s ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) . L at 6 cn ica d e e j ecuc iön u t i l izada e n e s te p e t rog l ifo e sl ad e l g rabado p o r p e rcu s iön y a b ra s iön , s ocavando l al i nea ( ba jo r re l ieve l i nea l ) e n l a mayo r p a r te d e l o s c a so s yl at 6 cn ica d e l b a jo r re l ieve p l ana r ( s ocavando l af i gu ra c omp le ta ) e n o t ro s p oco s c a so s . E l s u rco g rabado t i ene u na p rofund idad d e 5mm a p rox imadamen te yu ne spe so rd e 1 , 5 a2mm , f ä c i lmen te v i s ib le s ,d e c on to rno sn i t ido s .

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P e t rog l i fo d e L as P un t i I las E s te p e t rog l ifo s ed i spone s ob re d o s c ue rpo s r oco so s m e tamö r f ico s ( gne i s s b andeado ) , u no a ll a do d e l o t ro , u n c ue rpo p r inc ipa l mä s g rande d onde s e d i sponen e l 6 4 % d e l o s mo t ivo s yu n c ue rpo s e cunda r io d e m eno re s d imen s ione sd onde s ee ncuen t ra e l3 6 %r e s tan te . T odo e l c on jun to e s tä emp lazado e n l a s p rox im idade s d e u no d e l o s b razo s d e l d o P i chao , e lc ue rpo p r inc ipa l m ide 3 , 10 m x 2 , 26 m , l ac a ra p r inc ipa l s e p re sen ta e n f o rma h o r izon ta l r e spec to a l s ue lo ; e n e l la s e l o ca l iza u na d ep re s iön d e a p rox imadamen te 0 , 30 m e n s u p a r te c en t ra l , e n e s ta c a ra e sd onde s el o ca l iza e l9 0 %d el o s g rabado sd ee s te c ue rpo . E n g ene ra l l ar o ca s e e ncuen t ra e n muy m a l e s tado d e c on se rvac iön d eb ido aq ue l ae r o s ion l af ue d e te r io rando p roduc i6ndo se e lf e nömeno d e e xfo l iac iön . T odo s l o s mo t ivo s s ed i s t r ibuyen e n u na l i nea d e 0 , 20 a0 , 35 m q ue r odea l ad ep re s iön amodo d ef r an ja d eco ra t iva . L a t 6 cn ica e mp leada p a ra g raba r l a r o ca d i f ie re t o ta lmen te d e l a d e l p e t rog l ifo C ondo rhua s i , e s te g rabado r e su l ta s upe r f ic ia l ei mp rec i so ; s e p od r ia h ab la re n tonce s d e l emp leo d el at 6 cn ica p o rp e rcu s iön , l oq ue d ap o r r e su l tado u na c onf igu rac iön d el i nea sd ec on to rno sd i fu so s . P re sen ta a li g ua l q ue e l p e t rog l ifo C ondo rhua s i , mo t ivo s f o rma lmen te i ndepend ien te s , s imp le s yc omp le jo s . E n e lc ue rpo p r inc ipa l s ec uen tan 1 5 mo t ivo s s imp le s y 1 0 c omp le jo s , a mbo s c l a ramen te d i f e renc iab le s ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) . H ac ia e lo e s te d e l c ue rpo p r inc ipa l yap oco s c en t ime t ro s s ee ncuen t ra e l c ue rpo s e cunda r io , c uya s d imen s ione s s on 0 , 70 m d ea l to x 0 , 95 m d e l a rgo x0 ,60 m d e a ncho . S et r a ta d e l m i smo t i po d er o ca q ue l aa n te r io r , s uf o rma e s i r regu la r ys e e ncuen t ra f r agmen tada e n 3p a r te s , ü n icamen te s u c a ra O e s te e s tä t r aba jada . E s ta r oca n o p r e sen ta r e lac iön e s t ruc tu ra l n ii c onog rä f i ca c on e lc ue rpo p r inc ipa l . D e l a nä l i s i s c ua l i ta t ivo s e d e sp rende q ue l o s e l emen to s g räf ico s p redom inan te s s on l o s d e t i po g eom6 t r ico c u rv i l ineo , t a n to i r regu la r c omo e sp i ra lo ide . T amb i6n s e r eg i s t ran l o s t i po s g eom6 t r ico p u ro y z oomo r fo , c am6 l ido d ec ue rpo e n te ro yf r agmen tado ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) .

C ons ide rac iones g ene ra les R ea l izando u n a nä l i s i s e s t6 t ico -mo r fo lög ico d e l a spec to i c onog räf ico d e e s to sp e t rog l ifo s s ed eben r e cu r r i r al o ss i gu ien te sc oncep to s : E l g ra f ismo s imp l if icado q ue d a c omo r e su l tado f i gu ra s g eom6 t r ica s e l emen ta le s yu na s i n te s i s f i gu ra t iva b a sada e n l a t r an sfo rmac iön d e l mode lo n a tu ra l . L a m a rcada t e ndenc ia h ac ia l aa b s t racc iön , q ue l eo t o rga l a p o s ib i l idad d e u na c l a r idad p e rcep tua l i nmed ia ta y q ue e s tä h ab lando d e r ep re sen tac ione s q ue r e sponden a u n c onvenc iona l izado ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) .

s i s tema

d e

s i gno s

a l tamen te

L a e conom fa d e e l emen to s i c onog rä f ico s q ue l e o to rga g ran f u e rza e xp re s iva a l d i sef io . L a f r on ta l idad y p l an ime t r ia p redom inan te s e n l a s

1 6 1

r ep re sen tac ione s q ue l ec onf ie ren u n c a räc te rb id imen s iona l s i n r e fe renc ia s uo rgan izac ione se spac ia le sc onc re ta s . E lc a räc te rp u ramen te l i nea ld el o sg ra f ismo s , q u izä sc ond ic ionado p o re l a spec to t 6 cn ico ( l im i tac ione s t a n to d e l ma te r ia l c omo d e l i n s t rumen ta l u t i l izado p a ra l a r e a l izac iön d e l t r aba jo ) . E l c oncep to d e e spac ia l idad c onc re to y r e a l m ane jado e n a l guno s c a so s t omando l o s a cc iden te s d e l a r oca c omo p o s ib le s v o lümene so rog räf ico s ( P reb i sch , 1 994 ) . E l t ema d e lp a ra le l i smo oc o r re spondenc ia e n t re l o s mo t ivo sc e räm ico sy t e x t i le s ( e ne lc a so d ec on se rva r se e s to s ) , c on l o s h a l lado s e nl o sp e t rog l i fo s e s ma te r ia l a decuado p a ra o t ra i n ve s t igac iön l aq ue p od r ia i n ten ta r r e spon d e r ai n te r rogan te s t a le s c omo p o r e j emp lo : z Ex i s ten c o r re spondenc ia s i c o n og räf ica s e n t re e s ta s d i s t in ta s e xp re s ione s? i , Cump l fan f i na l idade s s im i la re s? i , Hab fa u na v a lo rac iön d i f e ren te e n t re l a sr e p r e sen tac iones d eu no yo t ro s opo r te? Ambo s p e t rog l ifo s p o seen g raf i smo s p a r t icu la re s , i n c lu s ive s on m uy p oco s l o s mo t ivo s q ue s er e p i ten , d e modo q ue s ep od r ia i n f e r i rq ue s et r a ta d e d o s m en sa je s yf unc iona l idade s p o s ib lemen te d i f e ren te s , i d iacrön ica s? , p e ro c on i n tenc iona l idade sb i en d ef in ida s . P o r ü l t imo c abe m enc iona r l a p a r t icu la r u b icac iön d e t odos l o s p e t rog l ifo s d e l P i chao ; u no u b icado e n u n mon t icu lo c e remon ia l ( Ta r tu s i y N ü l lez R egue i ro , 1 993 ) e n u na z ona c on mucho s mo r te ro s ; e l d e C ondo rhua s i e n t re l o s a ndene s d e c u l t ivo a li gua l q ue e ld e L a s P un t i l la s , a mbo s c on mo r te ro s e n s u s i nmed iac ione s . P re sen tan a demä s l a c a rac te r i s t ica d e e ncon t ra r se e n z ona s " r e la t ivamen te" c e rcana s al o s c emen te r io s , e l p r ime ro d e l c emen te r io Amancay , e l s egundo d e l c emen te r io d e l A gu i la ye lt e rce ro d e lC a r r iza l . S in d uda n o s ep ueden e x t rae r c onc lu s ione s d e e s to s d a to s , m a s a ün n o s ab iendo s i s e e s tä a n te l a p re senc ia d e r ep re sen ta c ione s d i ac rön ica s o s i nc rön ica s , y a s e a e n t re s i oc on e l r e s to d e l s i t io , p e ro e s i mpo r tan te d e s taca r e s ta s c a rac te r i s t ica s l a s q ue p ueden s e r o b je to d e e s tud io e n e l f u tu ro , c o r re lac ionändo la c on l o sd a to s yf e chado se x t ra ido sd et o do e ls i t io .

A g radec im ien tos At o do s l o s i n ve s t igado re s a r gen t ino s ys ueco sp o rf a c i l i ta rno s l at a rea e ne l c ampo yal o s h ab i tan te s d e l P ichao p o r a yuda rno s e n l al o ca l izac iön d e l o s p e t rog l ifo s .

R e fe renc ias Amegh ino , F .1 880 L aa n t igüedad d e lh ombr ee n e lP la ta , G . Ma s son , P a r i s B a raza d eF on t s , A . yP la tan ia , G . 1 994 " Apo r te s p a ra e lc onoc im ien to d e l a r te r upes t r ed e l P e r iodo d e D e sa r ro l lo s R eg iona le s e n e lP i chao -Tucumän" , e nA c tas yMemor ias d e lX I C ongr e so N ac iona ld eA rqueo log i aA rgen t ina , S an R a f ae l , Mendoza

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B oman , E . 1 908 A n t iqu i te s d e l ar e g ion a nd ine d e l aR epub l ique A rgen t ine e td u d e ser t d 'A tacama , I mp r ime r ie N a t iona le ,Vo l . 2 ,P a r i s C orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P re l im inary R epor tf rom t h ep ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D ,N o .4 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy , Gö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro j ec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg J ohan s son , N . 1 996 B ur ia l s a nd S oc ie ty . AS t ud y o fS oc ia l D if f er en t ia t ion a tt h e S i te o fE l P ichao , N or th -we s t ern A rgen t ina , a nd i nC eme ter ie sd a ted t ot h eS pan i sh N a t ive P er iod , GOTARC , S er ie s B , G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l T he se s N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , Gö tebo rg L ibe ran i , I . yH e rnändez , R . 1 950 E xcur s ion a rqueo lög ica e n l o s v a l le s d e S an ta Mar i a , C a tamar ca , 1 877 , I n s t i tu to d e A n t ropo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , T ucumän P reb i sch , L . 1 994 " E s tud io p re l im ina r : D o s e j emp lo s d e A r te R upe s t r e e n T ucumän" , R ev i s ta N ° 5 , I n s t i tu to d e I nve s t igac ione s E s t6 t ica s , F acu l tad d e A r te s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän ,T ucumän Qu iroga , A . 1 90 1b L ac ruz e n Amer ica , E d i to r ia l Ame r icana , B ueno s A i re s Qu i roga , A . 1 931 P e t rograf i 'a s yP ic tograf i ' a s d e C a lchaqu i , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , B ueno sA i r e s R amo s , S .F . 1 959 ( m . s . )P ic tograf ias yp e t rograf i ' a sd e ll u gar , I n 6d i to R ena rd d e C oque t , S .F . 1 988 S i t io s a rqueo lög ico s c on a r t e r upe s t r e d e l a R epüb l ica A rgen t ina : R eg i s t ro /Documen tac iön ,F EC IT , B ueno s A i re s T ar tu s i , M . yN ü t iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 993 " Excavac iön d e u n mon t icu lo c e remon ia l t a rd io e n e ls i t io S TucTav 5 ( E l P i chao ) , p rov inc ia d e T ucumän" , P ub l icac ione s N o . 2 ,S e r ie : I nve s t iga c ione s N o . 1 ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , 1 1 7 T o scano , J .1 898 L a r e g ion c a lchaqu ina : p äg ina s d e h i s to r ia p re - yp o s t c o lomb ina y d e a r queo log ia c a lchaqu ina , I mp r en ta L aV oz d el aI g le s ia , B ueno s A i re s

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1 2 . C lay P o ts a nd t he P o t te rs ' Wo rk : A rchaeo logy a nd E thno a rchaeo logy a tP i chao S usana S jöd in

B ackg round My m a in i n te re s ti nt h e a na ly s i s o fc e ram ic s c once rn s w ha tt h ey m ay r evea l a bou t p roduc t ion a nd l a bou r p roce s se s a t t h e v i l lage o f P ichao ( S jöd in , 1 990 ) . T he r e la t ion s o fp roduc t ion a r e , i nt u rn , b e l ieved t og ive s ome h i n t s o f t h e s oc ia l f o rce s , c on t rad ic t ion s a nd t e n s ion s b e tween a nd w i th in d i f f e ren tg roup s o fp eop le . I ft h eh ou seho ld w a st h eb a s ic u n i to fp roduc t ion i n a nc ien t P ichao , i ti sr e a sonab le t os uppo se t h a t t h e e ve ry -day p o t s w e re manuf ac tu red i nt h ed oma in o fh ou seho ld a c t iv i t ie s . O ne o ft h e r e a son s f o r my i n te re s t i np o t te ry m anufac tu re i st h a t t h i s i s c on s ide red aw oman 's t a sk a nd a tc e r ta in l e ve l s o fp roduc t ion i ts e em s t h a t t h is s pec if ik m anuf ac tu re w a s a lmo s te xc lu s ive ly c on t ro l led b y w omen . We a re t o ld t h a tp o t te ry m ade a nd u sed a tt h e h ou seho ld l e ve l , a nd a sp a r t t ime wo rk , i so ne o f t h e f ew t e chno log ie s c on t ro l led p redom inan t b y w omen ( S l c ibo a nd S ch if f e r , 1 991 , 8 0-84 ) . Is oon r e a l ized t h a t S ou th Ame r ica i sa n e xcep t ion t ot h is r u le . Men , a r e q u i te c ommon a sp a r t t ime p o t te r s o pe ra t ing a tt h e h ou seho ld l e ve l , t hough t he f ema le p o t te r s p redom ina te . B u tt h i s m ay b e ar e su l to fp re sen ta nd p a s t ma rke td emand s o r as u rv iva l o fI nka , a nd l a te rS pan i sh , c r af t s pec ia l isa t ion ( Ko lb , 1 976 , 5 0-52 ) . P eggy S anday h a s made a s t udy o f t h e s exua l d iv is ion o f l a bou r i n d i f f e ren t c on tex t s o r s oc ie t ie s . S he s t a te s t h a t d i f f e ren t , s pec if ic , l a bou r d iv i s ion s f o r w omen a nd m en a r e n o t g ene ra l o r u n ive r sa l p henomena b u t d epend o n t r ad i t ion , c u l tu re a nd s o c ia l f a c to r s . T he ma le o pp re ss ion , t h e ma le d om inance , i sn e i the r s ome th ing a u toma t ic , a n a l l emb rac ing , g loba l p henomenon , n o r ab ehav iou ra l r e spon se t o s t re s s f a c to r s ( Sanday , 1 981 , 1 73 , 2 10 ) . I ti s s t r ik ing t h a t t e chno log ica l c omp lex i ty s eem s t o h inde r f ema le ,p o l i t ica l ,e conom ic a nd s ymbo l ic p owe r( Sanday , 1 981 , 1 30 ) . T he re a r e a r chaeo log i s t s w ho c on s ide r t h a t t h e b ehav iou r h a s t o b e d e tec ted b efo re i tc an b e i n te rp re ted o re xp la ined . T ha ti so ne o ft h er e a son s why S k ibo a nd S ch if f e r a r e s e a rch ing f o r w omen i n t h e a r chaeo log ica l

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r e co rd ( 1995 , 8 0-91) . T hey s e em t oa s sume t h a t t h e m a in t a sk f o r ag ende r a r chaeo logy i st oi d en t ify t h e w omen ( McGu i re , 1 995 , 1 73 ) . B u te ve rybody k now s , e ven t h e mo s t a nd rocen t r ic a mong t h e I nd iana J one s a r chaeo log i s t s , t h a t w omen w e re p re sen t , e ven i nt h e p r eh i s to r ic c on tex t s . We k now t h a t t h e re w er e w omen , a nd g ende rr e la t ion s . T he a r chaeo logy o fg ende r i st h u s r a the rt oe l abo ra te t h eo r ie s a bou t h ow g ende rr e la t ion s w o rk a nd i n te r re la te a t s eve ra l d i f f e ren t l e ve l s i n t h e p reh i s to r ic s oc ie ty ( Ge ro a nd C onkey , 1 991) t h an t o s ea rch f o r t h e Woman . Who i ss ea rch ing f o r t h e Man? I t s e em s t h a t h e i sp re sen t t h e re , a l l t h e t ime . .S k ibo a nd S ch if f e r f i nd t h e i r w omen , b u t t h ey d o n o t q u i te s ucceed i np o in t ing o u th ow g ende rr e la t ion s a f f ec ted t h e s oc ia l a nd p o l i t ica l l i f e o f a nc ien t c ommun i t ie s . T hey empha s i se t h e i mpo r tance o f d a i ly t a sk s b u t d o n o t r e la te t h em t o t h e d ynam ic so fl i f e . T he d iv i s ion o fl a bou ri s as oc ia l a spec to fh uman r e la t ion s , a nd o u r t a lk a bou t t h e s exua l d i v is ion o f l a bou r , i n s tead o f l a bou r d i v i s ion b y g ende r , d epend so no u rc oncep t s , w h ich h ave o f ten b een d a rkened b yi n terp re ta t ion s o fw ha t i s" na tu ra l" a nd w ha t i s" soc ia l ly c on s t ruc ted" . Is e e t h e d iv is ion o f l a bou r a sp r ima r i ly as oc ia l r e la t ion , ap a r t o f ac l a ss r e la t ion , i nw h ich t h e e conom ic r e la t ion s a r e t h e mo s t i mpo r tan t f a c to r a nd m ay , b u t n eed n o t a lway s , a l so c o inc ide w i th t h eb io log ica lg ende r( Ha rd ing , 1 986 , 1 617 ) .

T he a rchaeo log ica l r e co rd : F ragmen ts o fl a bou r I n my s t ud ie s , Is t a r t f r om t h e c oa r se u t i l i ty w a re , t h a t i st h e c e ram ic s o f e ve ryday u se , t h ec ook ing -po t sa nd c on ta ine r so fd i f f e ren tk ind s . T he a na lys i s o ft h e c l ay p o t s f o re ve ry -day u se m ay , It h ink , r evea l al o t a bou t d i f f e ren t l e ve l s o fp roduc t ion . T he c l ay u t i l i ty p o t s w e re e s sen t ia l f o r t h e p repa ra t ion o f f ood , f o r s t o rage , f o r t r an spo r t a nd a s p a r t o f t h e a g r icu l tu ra l w o rk . E ven q ue s t ion s o f i n te r reg iona l c on tac t s , i d eo logy a nd s ymbo l ic v a lue s a r e o f i mpo r tance . H ence t h e v a r ia t ion s o f a nd b e tween d i f f e ren t k ind s o fc e ram ic s , c h rono log ica l v a r ia t ion s , l o ca l t r ad i t ion s o ft h e l o ca l p o t te r s a nd i mpo r ted t r ad i t ion s m ade l o ca l a r e a na ly sed . T o g e t a b road p i c tu re , Ic ompa re p o t te ry f r om d i f f e ren t p a r t s o f t h e s i te , i . e . f r om h ab i ta t ion u n i t s , a g r icu l tu ra l t e r race s a nd c eme te r ie s , a nd t h e i mpo r t ed w a re s . Du r ing t h e l a s t f i e ld s ea son , Ia l so m ade o b se rva t ion s o n t h e a g r icu l tu ra l s y s tem o f P ichao ( Ah lg ren a nd S jöd in , 1 996 ) . Ir e a l i sed t h a t i f Ir ea l ly w an ted t og e t ap l au s ib le p i c tu re o ft h e p roduc t ion a nd l a bou r p roce sse s , I h ad t o w eave t oge the r t h e s e a sona l i ty o f c e ram ic m anufac tu re w i th t h e a g r icu l tu ra l w o rk . T he e t hno -a rchaeo log ica l s t ud ie s o f p o t te ry -mak ing r e vea led t h a tt h ed i f f e ren ts t age so ft h ec e ram ic -manuf ac tu r ing p rocess w e r e ap a r to ft h es ea sona l i ty o ft h ea g r icu l tu ra l w o rk .

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P as to ra T ena d e G uanca , p o t te ro fP i chao T he e t hno -a rchaeo log ica l s t udy o f t r ad i t iona l p o t te ry -mak ing m ay c l a r ify , f o r e xamp le , t h e f o rma t ion p roce s se s o f r e fu se ma te r ia l a nd t h e t r ace s o f a ux i l ia ry n ece ss i t ie s , w h ich a r el e f t . I nt h i s p ape r , Ic oncen t ra te o nt h el a bou rp roce s se si nt h em anuf ac tu re o f p o t te ry ,b u t Ia l so s t udy t h ed i v i s ion o fl a bou ra nd t h eo rgan isa t ion , b o th t h e s pa t ia la nd t h et ime -dependen ta spec t s . H e re t h e s e a sona l i ty i s o f g r ea t i mpo r tance . T he d i f f e ren t l a bou r p roce s se s i n vo lved i nt h e m anufac tu re o fp o t te ry w e re , i nt h e p a s t a si nt h e p re sen t , p a r t o ft h e a g r icu l tu ra l y ea r o rc yc le . B e s ide s s k i l l a nd k now ledge , t he re i st hu s a l so ag r ea td ea l o fp l ann ing b eh ind t h ep o t . T om ake ap o ti sa u t i l i ta r ian a c t ion , b u t a tt h e s ame t ime t h e re a r e s ymbo l ic v a lue s e mbedded i nt h ep o t s . I nt h e v i l lage o fP i chao , t h e re a r et h ree p o t te r s w ho make c l ay p o t s u sed a s h ou seho ld v e s se l s , t wo w omen a nd am an . T he t h ree o ft h em m ake p o t s i n t h e t r ad i t iona l w ay a nd l a ugh a t n ewcome r s w ho j u s t m ake p o t s f o r t ou r is t s . T he f o l low ing i n te rv iew w a s h e ld i n1 991 w i th P a s to ra T ena d eG uanca . S he i st h e mo the ro f Manue l , o ne o ft h em en f r om t h ev i l lage o fP i chao w ho wo rked w i th u s d u r ing t h e f i e ld c ampa ign s . F o r many y ea r s s he h a s b een a p o t te r a nd m anuf ac tu re s c ook ing -po t s . I n t h e l a s t f ew y ea r s , s he h a s n o t b een v e ry a c t ive a s ap o t te r , a sr heuma t i sm h a s a f f ec ted h e rh and s . H e r s on i sa l so ap o t te r , b u t mo s t ly j u s tf o rf un . H e make s c l ay f i gu r ine s , p ref e r r ing c ow s , i n to c and le s t ick s , e mp loy ing a no l dS pan i sh t r ad i t ion . When Im ee t P a s to ra T ena d e G uanca , i ti sS a tu rday a nd t h e c ommon e ve ryday w o rk i si na beyance . Manue li sw a sh ing c l o the si nt h eg a rden .

T he p rocess o f manu fa fc tu r ing c e ram ics G e t t ing a nd t r anspor t ing t he c l ay T he c l ay i sf ound i nt h e moun ta in s a bove t h ev i l lage o fP i chao a bou t ah a lf d ay s ' w a lk f r om t h e h ome o f P a s to ra T ena d e G uanca . S he m en t ion s t wo s ou r ce so fr aw c l ay : If e tch t h e c l ay s f r om h i gh u p i nt h e moun ta ins . I tt a ke s ah a lf -day t og e t t h e r e a nd a h a lf -day b ack . Iw a lk a nd t a ke t h ec l ay i n as a ck , c a r ry ing i to n m y b ack . T he re a r e t wo p l ace st ot a ke c l ay f r om ( do sf uen tes d ea r c i l la ) . Ib reak t h ec l ay o u to f t h e moun ta in s ide . I ti sh a rd a ss t one , a nd Ih ave t ou se a n i r on -ba rl e ve rt ob reak o u tt h e c l ump so fc l ay . E ach t ime Ic o l lec t c l ay , It a ke a bou t f i ve k i lo s . T ha t i se nough t oc a r ry f r om s o f a r a way , a nd t h ea moun ts uff ice sf o rf i ve l i t t le p o t s ( c inco o l l i ta sp eque r ia s ) .

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P a s to ra a lway s g oe sa l one t of e tch t h ec l ay . S ome t ime s ,i fs he k nows t h a t af r iend w i th a mu le i sg o ing t h a t w ay , s he m ay a sk t h a t p e r son t o f e t ch s ome k i lo s f o r h e r . Manue l G uanca , h e r s on , i sw e l l a cqua in ted w i th t h e p l ace w he re t h e c l ay s ou rce i s . T he p o t te ry m ake r s o f t h e v i l lage d o n o t s ha re a ny i n fo rma t ion w ha t soeve r a bou t t h e r aw -c lay s ou rce s . T hey k eep t h e se p l ace s a sb ig s e c re t s t ot h em se lve s . P a s to ra a l so d oe s t h e r ema in ing w o rk o fm anuf ac tu r ing t h e c l ay v esse l s o n h e r o wn . T h i s h ou seho ld d oe s n o t h ave many m embe r s , j u s t t h ree , S e t io ra P a s to ra , D on Manue l , h e r s on , a nd A benama r , Manue l 's s on . Ic an i mag ine t h a t i n ah ou seho ld w i th c h i ld ren t h e y oung o ne s t ake p a r t i n t h e w o rk o n c e ram ic s . Manue l h ad i nt h is w ay o nce l e a rn t t h e manuf ac tur ing t e chn ique f r om h i s mo the r .

P repa ra t ion o f r aw ma te r ia ls a nd d i spos i t ion o f w o rk ing a reas T he c l ay When t h e c l ay i sb rough t t oh ome , i th a s t ob e s oaked . P a s to ra p u t s i to n a t r ay , o ro n ab ig c e ram ic f r agmen t , a nd p ou r s w a te ro ni t . T he c l ay h a s t ob e k neaded t h o rough ly t om ake i ts o f t . T hen i ti sl e f t t o s t and u n t i l t h e n ex t d ay , w hen mo re w a te r i s a dded a nd e ve ry th ing i s k neaded a ga in . T h i sp rocedu re i sr epea ted f o rt h ree d ay s . E ach t ime ,P a s to ra k nead s t h e c l ay , s he p i ck s o u t t h e s ma l l s t one s t h a t a r e n a tu ra l , n on -p la s t ic i n c lu s ion s . A f te r e ach k nead ing s e s s ion t h e c l ay i sc ove red w i th ap i ece o f c l o th t op r even ti tf r om d ry ing . T he k nead ing i sd one o u tdoo r s i n t h e g a rden j u s t b e low t h e v e randa . P a s to ra i ss i t t ing o n al i t t le s t oo l o r o n t h e g round . When t h e k nead ing i s f i n ished , t h e c l ay i sc a r r ied i nu nde r t h e v e randa r oof . P a s to re n eve r s t o re s mo re c l ay t h an i sn eeded f o rt h e p o t s w h ich s he p l an s t o make . T he c l ay a t P a s to ra 's h ome i sa lway su nde rp r epa ra t ion .

T empe r O n t h e l a s t d ay o fk nead ing , P a s to ra a dd s al i t t le s and w h i le s he w o rk s t h e c l ay . F o r f i ve k i lo s o f c l ay , s he u se s a bou t ah andfu l o f v e ry f i ne -g ra ined s and t a ken f r om t h eR io P ichao r i ve rb ank .

T o s hape p o t s When Im ake ap o t , Is t a r t b y f o rm ing al i t t le c up w i th t h e t h umb s . It a ke ap i ece o f c l ay a nd s hape as ma l l p o t w i th m y t h umb s . W i th t h e h e lp o ft h e f i nge r s , Is queeze t h e w a l l s t o t h e t h ickne s s Iw an t . T hen t h e p o t s a r e l e f t t o r e s t aw h i le , f o r a bou t f i ve m inu te s . N ow Im ake s t r ip s o f t h e c l ay . T he s t r ip s a r e a bou t 5c m b road . T hey a r e c a l led y ap i tas . It a ke t h e y ap i ta s a nd p u t t h em o n a nd al i t t le o u t s ide , o ve r lapp ing t h e l i t t le p o t . Ij o in t h e c l ay s t r ip w i th t h e p o , t k nead ing t h e c l ay . A s Im ake s ma l l p o t s , I u se o ne y ap i ta f o rt h e b ody a nd o ne f o rt h en eck . I ti se a sy t os e eo n av e s se l h ow many y ap i tas h ave b een u sed t om ake i t .

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S u r f ace t r ea tmen t When t h e v e s se l i sf i n i shed , Iu se am a t e( ac a laba sh ) t os moo th t h e s u r f ace . Ir ub t h e w ho le s ur f ace w i th t h e m a te [ P a s to ra s how s w i th ar o ta t ing movemen t ] . I ti s aq u ick p rocedu re t op o l i sh t h ep o t . T he re a r ep o t te r st h a tu se ac o rn -cob t ot r ea tt h e s u r f ace o ft h e v e sse l s . T hey s oak t h e c o rn -cob a nd b ru sh t h e s u r f ace b e fo re t h ec l ay h a sd r ied .

D ry ing t h ep o t s When t h e p o t sa r er e ady , Ip l ace t h em o n t h eg round t od ry . Ij u s tp u tt h em t h e re . I ti s i mpor tan tt h a tt h ey a r es he l te red f r om t h ew ind , a nd t h ey h ave t ob e e xpo sed t ot h es un . I ft h ey a r e s t and ing w he re i ti sw indy , t h ey c ou ld c r ack . T he p o t s a r e l e f tt od ry f o rf i ve t oe i gh td ay s . I t mu s tn o tb e w indy . I fi ts t a r t s t or a in , Ic a r ry t h em i n to ac o rne ro ft h eh ou se . T hen t h ey a r er e ady .

T he f i r ing When t h ep o t sa r eg o ing t ob eb ur ned , If i r s td i g as qua re p i ti n to t h e g round .

T he p l ace w a s b enea th t h e v e randa , n ea r t h e w a l l o f t h e h ou se . I ti s i mpo s s ib le t o d i sce rn , o n t h e g round s u r f ace , w he re P a s to ra h a s b u rned s eve ra l s e t so fc e ram ic s . T he e a r th mu s tb ed ry . T he p i ti sa bou t3 0c md eep a nd s ob i g t h a ta l t h e v e s se l s m ay b ep l aced c l o se t oe a ch o t he r . Is p read d ung o n t h e b o t tom o ft h ep i t a nd p u tt h e v e s se l s o n i t .F i r s t o ne p o t , a nd c ove r i tc a re fu l ly w i th d ung . T he o pen ing o f t h e p o t Ic ove r w i th al i d m ade o fd ung . T ha t i si mpo r tan t . T hen Ip u t t h e n ex t p o t b e s ide a nd d o t h e s ame t h ing . When a l t h e p o t s a r e s t and ing i nt h e p i t c ove red w i th d ung , Il i gh t f r om o ne s i de , a to ne p o in t .T ha ti se nough , b ecau se t h e f i re w i l le x tend r ap id ly b y i t se lf . T he d ung b ecome s af i ne s oo t , f a l l ing i n to a nd a r ound t h e p o t s . T he f i re s t a r t s i nt h e a f te r noon , a nd t h en ex t d ay i ti sr e ady . I tm u s t n o t b l ow aw ind o n t h e f i r ing d ay . T h is h a st ob e d one d u r ing t h e s umme r , o t he rw i se t h e p o t s w i l l b r eak . T he c l ay b ecome sd ry a nd h a rd d u r ing t h e s umme r . T he n ex t d ay It a ke o u t t h e p o t s . B y mo rn ing , t h ey h ave b ecome c o ld . S ome t ime s t h e v e s se l s h ave b l ack d o t s a f te r t h e f i r ing . S ome o ft h e v e s se ls b ecome b l a ck , w h i le o t he r s b ecome n i ce a nd r e d . T hen t h ey g o b l ack a tt h e f i re d u r ing f ood p r epa ra t ion .

I fP a s to ra w an t s t o u se a c l ay s he h a s n eve r u sed b efo re , s he make s s eve ra l a t temp t s t of i nd t h e p rope r p ropo r t ion s b e tween c l ay a nd t empe r . F i r s t s he make s am in ia tu re v e s se l t h a t s he f i re s . I fi tc r ack s d u r ing t h e f i r ing , s he a dd sm o re o rl e ss t empe ro rt a ke sa no the rc l ay .

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A f te r t rea tmen t T he p o tt h a t i sr e ady i sw a rmed u p a ga in b y p u t t ing i tn ea rt h e f i re -p lace . Id o t h a tt o p reven t i tf r om c r ack ing . When i ti sq u i te h o t , It a ke i to u to ft h ef i r e a nd p u ts ome s oup i ni t .T he s oup h a st or e ach u pt ot h er im , t i l l i tr un so ve r .T he s oup i si nt h ep o t aw h i le , t h en Ip ou ri to u ta nd w a sh t h ep o t . T he s oup Ig i ve t ot h ed og .

Wo rk ing a r ea s o ft h ep o t te ry -mak ing P a s to ra w o rk s f o rt mo s to ft h e t ime b enea th t h ev e randa j u s tb e s ide t h e w a l l o ft h e h ou se . T he m anuf ac tu re o fc e ram ic sd oe sn o td emand a ny l a rge s pace a nd , a s t h e f i r ing i sd one i n ap i t i n t h e g round , t h e re a r e n o d i scern ib le t r ace s l e f t a f te rwa rd s . P a s to ra s i t s a ta bou t t h e s ame p l ace a nd c a r r ie s o u t t h ef i r ing a ta lmo s tt h es ame s po tf r om t ime t ot ime .

L if e t ime a nd r e -use T he c ook ing -po t s a r e u sed f o r o ne o r t wo y ea r s . T he w a te r c on ta ine r s l a s t f o r many y ea r s , s ome t ime su pt os eve ra ld ecade s . P a s to ra l e ad s m e i n to al i t t le d a rk r oom u sed a s ak i tchen . T he re , o n a t a b le , i st h e w a te r c on ta ine r . I ti s ab i g , s phe r ica l v e s se l . We f e e l i to n t h e o u t s ide . T he s u r f ace i sc oo la nd d amp . T he w a te ri sk ep tf r e sh a nd c h i l led i n t h e v e sse l . S he t e l l s m e t h a t t h e v e s se l i sa tl e a s t 3 0 y ea r s o ld . T he w a te r c on ta ine r i ss hown w i th p r ide , a nd w hen s he s peak s a bou t i ts he d oe s s o w i th v ene ra t ion . A long t h e w ho le w a l l o f t h e v e randa a r e p o t s s t and ing w i th d i f f e ren t p l an t s i nt h em . T he se a r e b roken o rc r acked v e s se l s t h a t c anno t b e u sed f o r a ny th ing b u tp l an t ing . B ig f r agmen t s o fc e ram ic c an b e u sed a sf ounda t ion s w h i le k nead ing c l ay d u r ing t h e m anuf ac tu re o fn ew p o t s o r a s l i d s , a mong o the rt h ing s . I ti sa l so p o ss ib le t om end p o t s t h a t h ave c r acked d ur ing t h e f i r ing . T h i s d epend s o n t h e e x ten t o ft h e d amage . I fi ti sj u s t af i s su re t h a t d oe s n o t g o t h rough t h e w a l l a nd i s n o t t o o b i g , P a s to ra u se s t h e b lack c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om t h e a nc ien t v i l lage . T he f r agmen t s a r e c rushed t o af i ne p owde ra nd m ixed w i th g oa tl i ve r . T he f i ssu re i sf i l led u pw i th t h ep a s te a nd t h e v e sse li sp u tc l o se t ot h eh ea r th t oh a rden . T hen t h ep o tc an b eu sed .

T he s easona l i ty o f manu fac tu re T he c l ay m ay b e q ua r r ied a l l r ound t h e y ea r , s ave i nA ugu s t ( l a te w in te r ) ( Tab le 1 2 .1) . I nA ugu s tt h ec l ay c hange s .T ha ti sb ecau se o ft h e w ind s . I ft h e c l ay i st a ken t h en , t h e t h ing sm ade f r om i tb r eak .

T he k nead ing o ft h ec l ay c anno tb ed one d u r ing t h e mon th s o fw in te r .

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T h is w o rk h a s t ob e d one b efo re i tg e t s c o ld . When i ti sc o ld , d u r ing w in ter t ime , i ti s i mposs ib le t ok nead t h ec l ay .

T hen i ti si mpo r tan t t h a t t h e re i sn o w ind b low ing w hen t h e p o t s a r e g o ing t od ry b efo r e t h e f i r ing . D u r ing t h e a u tumn a nd w in te r mon th s , i ti s o f ten w indy . T he f i r ing o ft h ep o t sh a s t ob ed one d u r ing t h e s umme r . T h is mus t b e d one d u r ing t h e s umme r , o t he rw ise t h e p o t s w i l l b reak . T he c l ay w i l l g e th a rd a nd d ry d u r ing t h es umme r .

T ab le 1 2 .1. Amoun to ft ime t aken f o rt he manu fac ture o f p o t te ry . T ask

Amoun to ft i me

S eason

T he q ua r ry ing o fc l ay a nd t r anspo r ta t ion

1d ay ( 12 h ou rs )

Who le y ea rs ave A ugus t S p r ing , s umme ra nd a u tumn

K nead ing

D u r ing 3d ays ( 3h ou rs )

Who le y ea rs ave A ugus t S p r ing , s umme ra nd a u tumn

S hap ing a nd s u r face t r ea tmen t

S ome h ou rs ( 2h ou rs )

S ep tembe r—Ma rch S p r ing a nd s umme r

D ry ing

5 -8 d ays ( 70182 h ou rs )

S ep tembe r—Ma rch S p r ing a nd s umme r

F i r ing

1d ay a nd n i gh t ( 24 h ou rs )

D ecembe r—Ma rch S umme r

A f te r t rea tmen t

A bou ta n h ou r

S umme r

A s t h ef i r ing o ft h ep o t sh a s t ob ed one d u r ing t h es umme r , t h e w ho le ,f r om Novembe r t o Ma r ch . O ne p rob lem i st h a t t h i s c o inc ide s w i th t h e r a iny s ea son , b u t ab i gge r p rob lem d u r ing t h e m anuf ac tu re o f t h e p o t s i st h e s t ir r ing w ind s . T he w indy s e a son i sd u r ing a u tumn a nd w in te r , i . e . f r om Ap r i l t o S ep tembe r . T he p o t s h ave t o d ry r a the r s l ow ly , o t he rw i se t h ey s h r ink o rc r ack .

T he s ca le o fp roduc t ion T he n umbe ro fp o t s manuf ac tu red i ne ach b a tch o rp o r t ion i sf i ve t oe i gh t . I n P a s to ra 's h ou seho ld , s he i s t h e o n ly p o t te r w o rk ing o n t h e manufac tu re o fc ook ing -po t s a nd v e s se l s . H e r s on , Don Manue l , i sa l so a p o t te ra nd make s f i gu r ine s a nd c and le s t ick so fc l ay .

T he d i s t r ibu t ion T he p o t s a r em anuf ac tu red f o re ach h ou seho ld o rf o re ach f am i ly 's n eed s . I ts ome t ime s h appen s t h a t s omeone , a n a cqua in tance , f o ri n s tance , l o ok s i n a nd a sk s f o r ap o t —r e cen t ly m anuf ac tu red o r f r om t h e n ex t mak ing o f

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p o t s . T oday , mo s t p eop le w an t t o h ave e name l led v e s se l s , b u t t h e r e a r e s ome k i nd s o f f ood s t h a t c anno t b e p repa red i fo ne d oe s n o t h ave p rope r c l ay v e s se l s . T he w a te r c on ta ine r h a s b een i n t h e f am i ly f o r al o ng t ime , a nd i ti s h and led v e ry c a refu l ly .

A rchaeo log ica l me thods O ne o f my a im s i st oi d en t ify a nd e xp la in p reh i s to r ic -po t te ry t e chno logy o n t h e b a s i s o ft h e k now ledge a nd i n te rac t ion s r equ i red f o r m ak ing a nd u s ing c e ram ic v e s se l s . T o u nde r s tand p reh i s to r ic -po t te ry t e chno logy , i t i s n ece s sa ry t oc ove r t h ree i n te r re la ted t o p ic s : h ow t h ey w e re made , h ow t h e p o t s w e re u sed a nd h ow t h ey p e r fo rmed ( Sk ibo , 1 992 ) .

H ow t he p o ts w e re made 1 .T echno log ica l a na ly s i s . T he d i f f e ren t a t t r ibu te s c ho sen Ic on s ide r t o b e s t ipu la ted b y c onsc iou s c ho ice s m ade b y t h e p o t te r i n t h e l a bou r p roce s s . I n t h e s t udy o f t h e se d i f f e ren t a t t r ibu te s , i tm ay b e p o ss ib le t o f i nd a v a r ia t ion i n t h e ma te r ia l . T h i s v a r ia t ion , i n t u rn , w ou ld b e t h e b a s is f o r t h e c l a s s if ica t ion o f t h e c e ram ic si n to a r chaeo log ica l ly s i gn if ican tg roup s . 2 .S tudy o ft h e l a bou rp roce s se s o fc e ram ic manuf ac tu re , a sr ef lec ted i nt h e o b jec t so fl a bou ra nd t h ea ux i l ia ry f a c i l i t ie s . R aw -ma te r ia l s ou rce s , i mp lemen t s , w o rk ing a r ea s , p roduc t ion p l aces a nd d eb r i s o f c e ram ic s a r e d i f f e ren t a ppa ren t t r ace s o f l a bou r p roce sse s . A l so t h e r ema in s o f l a bou r p roce sse s o t he r t h an t h a t o f t h e d i rec t c e ram ic m anuf ac tu r ea r eo fi n te re s t .

T he manu fac tu r ing p rocess o ft he c oa rse u t i l i ty c e ram ic T he r e s idua lr aw c l ay s ( p r ima ry c l ay d epo s i t s ) w e re u sed i nt h em anufac tu re o ft h eu t i l i ty v e s se l s t h a tp r redom ina te i nt h e i nhab i ted p a r t s o ft h e s i te . T he r o ck t empe r h a s b een c r u shed a nd g round . I n c e r ta in c a se s , g rog h a s b een a dded a st empe r . T he c oa r se u t i l i ty v e s se l s h ave a c omp l ica ted m anu f ac tu r ing p roce s s i mp ly ing g r ea t s k i l l i nt h e p o t te r s . T he v e s se l s w e re g o ing t ob e u sed f o r mo re a dvanced t a sk s t h an j u s t b e ing e xh ib i t ion o b jec t s . T hey w e re i n f a c t e s sen t ia l f o rt h e m anagemen t o ft h e h ou seho ld . T he m anu f ac tu r ing p roce s s w a s c omp l ica ted a nd d emanded ag r ea te r s k i l l a nd k now ledge a nd ab igge r c on t r ibu t ion o f l a bou r f o r t h e p repa ra t ion o f t h e r aw m a te r ia ls t h an o the r c e ram ic s . F o r s hap ing t h e v e s se ls , t h e s o -ca l led N techn ique w a s u t i l ized . T h i s g roup o f f ab r ic s c on s t i tu ted a bou t t wo t h i rd s o f t h e w ho le c e ram ic s amp le f r om t h e h ou seho ld u n i t , t h e i n hab i ted t e r ra ced l e ve l s , a nd t h e a g r icu l tu ra lt e r race s .

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V e s se l sf i red i na no x id iz ing a tmo sphe re p redom ina te ,b u t , i ns p i te o ft h e v a r ia t ion o f t h e f i r ing a tmo sphe re , i tm ay n o t h ave b een d ec i s ive f o r t h e i n ten t iona l u se o ft h e v e s se l . O f ten w e f i nd f r agmen t s w h ich a r e n o t f u l ly o x id ized , a nd f r agmen t s t h a t h ave s uppo sed ly b ecome g r ey i sh -b lack a f te r c on tac tw i th t h ef i re i nf ood -p repa ra t ion a c t iv i t ie s .

T he v a r ia t ions p roduc ing s t o r ing v esse ls a nd s e rv ing v esse ls T he c ook ing v e sse l s a r eo f ten c oa r se -s l ipped i nc omb ina t ion w i th ab ru shed o r mar /eado t rea ted s u r face , w h i le v e sse l s u t i l ized a s s t o r ing v e s se l s f o r s t ap le f ood s s uch a sb ean s a nd m a ize g ra in s , may h ave al i gh te rs u r f ace , n o t a f f ec ted b y f ood p r epa ra t ion . T he v e s se l s m igh t h ave h ad ag rea t r ange o f d i f f e ren t u se s , f r om s t o r ing s t ap le f ood s a nd c on ta in ing l i qu id s t o s e rv ing p u rpo se s . T he p o ro s i ty v a r ie s , f r om c ompac t t op o rou s p a s te s . Among t h e p hys ica l p rope r t ie s t h a t c ou ld b e c on s ide red i mpo r tan t f o r t h e v e s se l 's s u i tab i l i ty a s al i qu id c on ta ine r i s p e rmeab i l i ty . T he v e s se l s u t i l ized a s l i qu id c on ta ine r s w e re s uppo sed ly mo re p o rou s a nd n o ts l ipped , a st h ew a te r i sk ep t f r e sh i f ac e r ta in c h i l l ing e vapo ra t ion i sp e rm i t ted t h rough t h e w a l l s o f t h e v e s se l . T he t h e rma l c onduc t iv i ty f u r the r a f f ec t s t h e v e s se l 's p e r fo rmance i nc ook ing ( S tepona i t i s , 1 984 , 8 1-82 ) . T he s u r f ace t r ea tmen ts hou ld h e re b e t a ken i n to c on s ide ra t ion , a sw e l l a s t h e s pa t ia ld i s t r ibu t ion w i th in t h eh ou seho ld a nd w i th in t h es i te a s aw ho le .

T he r ed -po l i shed ,f i ne -wa re g roup R ed , p o l i shed w ar e i sm ade o f t h e s ame r e s idua l r aw c l ay s a s t h e a bove men t ioned c e ram ic s . I ft empe r i sa dded , i ti sf i ne ly c r u shed r ock , a nd t h e re a r e a l so s he rd s t empe red w i th g rog . H oweve r , i n mo s t o f t h e c a se s , t h i s w a re 's n on -p la s t ic i n c lu s ion sa r e an a tu ra lp a r to ft h ec l ay .T he w a re m ay b e p o l i shed , a nd t h e f r agmen t s f ound o f ten b e long t o o pen v e s se l s , p uco s ( s phe r ica lb ow l s ) .

T he b l ack -o rg r ey -po l i shed ,f i ne -wa re g roup B lack - o rg r ey ,p o l i shed w ar e i ss t r ik ing ly d i f f e ren tf r om t h e a bove m en t io n ed . T he r aw c l ay i sf r om a s ed imen ta ry c l ay d epo s i t , p o s s ib ly a l a ke e nv i ronmen t , a nd n o f u r the r t empe r i sa dded ( S i lbo rg , 1 991 , 8 9-90 ) . T he v e sse l s h ave b een f i red i n ar educ ing a tmo sphe re a nd a r e d eco ra ted w i th g eome t r ica l i n c i s ion s m ade b efo re t h e f i r ing . T he s uppo sed u se w a s a s s e rv ing v e s se l s o r s how v e s se l s , a nd t h e s hape i sr a the r u n ifo rm , as ma l l s phe r ica lb ow lw i th as ma l lc onvex b o t tom .

T he a uxu l ia r i ty f i r ing f a c i l i t ies a nd t he c on t ro l o ff i r ing c ond i t ions T he a ux i l ia r i ty f i r ing f a c i l i t ie s f o r c e ram ic s m ay h ave b een e a sy t o c on s t ruc t , i fw er e ly o nt h ee t hno -a rchaeo log ica l s t ud ie s a nd o n t h ef a c tt h a t h i the r to n o t r ace s o f k i ln c on s t ruc t ion s h ave y e t b een f ound a tt h e s i te o f

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P i chao . O nt h e o the rh and , t h e re i se v idence o f ac on s ide rab le k now ledge o f h ow t oc on t ro l t h ef i r ing a tmo sphe re . T he g rey o r b l ack , p o l i shed a nd t h e r ed , p o l i shed f i ne w a re s , r e spec t ive ly , a r e f i red i n d i f f e r ing f i r ing a tmo sphe re s , a nd t h e d i f f e ren t w a re s a l so h ave d i f f e r ing d eco ra t ion s , t h e g r ey o rb l ack w a res o f ten h av ing i n c i s ion s m ade b efo re t h e f i r ing , w h i le t h e r ed , p o l i shed w a re i s u ndeco ra ted . A ppa ren t ly t h e manuf ac tu re r h ad c on t ro l o ve r a nd c ou ld p red ic tt h ef i r ing c ond i t ion s . T he c oa r se u t i l i ty c e ram ic s m ay b e f i red e i the ri n ar educ ing a tmo sphe re o ri na n o x id iz ing a tmo sphe re , w i th at e ndency f o rt h ef o rme rt ob e c oa r se r t empe red t h an t h el a t te r . V e sse l s f i red i na n o x id iz ing a tmo sphe re p r edom ina te , b u t , e ven i ft h e f i r ing a tmo sphe re v a r ie s , i t may n o t b e d ec i s ive f o r t h e i n tended u se o ft h e p o t s . T h i s q ue s t ion h a s n o tb een f u l ly s t ud ied y e t . O f ten t h e re a r ef r agmen t s t h a t a r e f u l ly o x id ized a nd o the r f r agmen t s a r e g r ey ish -b lack a f te r u se o ve r o pen f i re s i nf ood p r epa ra t ion .

H ow t he p o ts w e re u sed 1 .V e s se l s u sed i nt h e f ood p roduc t ion f o r t h e p rocur ing , p roduc ing a nd d i s t r ibu t ing o ff ood ,d i f f e ren tt ype so fv e sse l sf o rd i f f e ren tf unc t ion s . 2 . S to r ing v e s se l s : w a te r a nd f ood s t o red f o r s ho r t o r l ong p e r iod s , d i rec t ly r e la ted t ot h eh ou seho ld . 3 . V e s se l s u sed i n a g r icu l tu ra l a c t iv i t ie s : i r r iga t ion o f h o r t icu l tu re , s t or ing o fc rop s a nd s t o r ing o fn ex ty ea r ' s s e ed . 4 . Me ta l lu rgy a nd t e x t i le : i t em s u sed i nm e ta l lu rgy a nd t e x t i le p roduc t ion a r eo f ten made o fc e ram ic .

H ow t he p o ts p e r fo rmed U nde r s tand ing h ow p o t s p e r fo rm i s t h e k ey t o e xp lo r ing c hange a nd u nde r s tand ing t h e d ec i s ion s t h a t p o t te r s m ake a s t h ey s t rugg le t op roduce v e s se ls u nde r e ve r -chang ing , e nv i ronmen ta l a nd s oc ia l c ond i t ion s ( Sk ibo a nd S ch if f e r , 1 995 , 9 0 ) . H e re g ende r b ecome s i mpo r tan t , a s w e l l a s o the r s oc ia l a nd p o l i t ica l i mp l ica t ion s . B o th u t i l i ty v e sse l s a nd w ha t Ic a l l s how v e s se l sa nd i mpo r ted v e sse ls a r e o fi mpo r tance i nt h i s p a r to ft h e a na ly s i s . T he v e s se l s m ay b e s een a su t i l i ty v e s se l s , s t a tu si t em s , f une ra l v e sse l sa nd c e remon ia l v e s se l s .

D i f fe ren t ia t ion o f manu fac tu re w i th in t he s i te It h ink t h a t t h e re i s ad i f f e ren t ia t ion o f m anuf ac tu r e w i th in t h e s i te o f P i chao , a s r ega rd s t h e m anuf ac tu re o f l o ca l ly m ade c e ram ics . P e rhap s w e

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c ou ld t a lk o f d i f f e ren t l e ve l s o f p roduc t ion , a nd s oc ia l i mp l ica t ion s a r e embedded i nt h i s s t a temen t . Howeve r , as ma l l p a r t o f t h e c e ram ic s w a s i mpo r ted i n o ne w ay o r a no the rt oP ichao . T he re a r ef r agmen t st h a td i f f e ri n as pec if ic w ay f r om t h e o the r s i nt h e u se o f f o re ign c l ay s a nd t empe r a nd t h u s a l so b y ad i f f e ren t manuf ac tu r ing p roce s st h an t h el o ca l ly m ade c e ram ic s .

C e ram ics made o fr e s idua l c l ays T he c oa r se h ou seho ld w a re h a s ac omp l ica ted manuf ac tu r ing p roce s s t h a t d emand s ac on s ide rab le a moun t o f k now ledge . T h i s t ype o f w a re w a s d ec is ive f o rt h e s u rv iva l o ft h e h ou seho ld a nd o ft h e w ho le v i l lage . Al a rge amoun to fw o rk a nd k now ledge w a s i n ve s ted i nt h e se p o t s . I tw a s e s sen t ia l t ha t t h e p o t s c ou ld b e u sed f o r f ood -p repa r ing t a sk s a nd t os t o re d r ink a nd f ood . T h i s k i nd o f c e ram ic s c omp r i se s t wo t h i rd s o r mo re o f a l l t h e c e ram ic s f r om t h e h ou seho ld u n i t s a nd f r om t h e t e r raced a r ea s , b o th t h e i nhab i ted t e r race sa nd t h ea g r icu l tu ra lt e r race s . T he r aw c l ay u sed w a s ar e s idua l c l ay f ound i nt h e moun ta in a r ea a bove t he s i te . E ven t o day , t h e s ame k ind o fc l ay i sq ua r r ied b y t h e p o t te r s f r om t he mode rn v i l lage o fP i chao . S ome o ft h e t empe red f r agmen t s c on ta in g rog . T h is i s ar a the ra dvanced t e chn ique , a n a l ien t r ad i t ion made l o ca l a nd u sed f o r ac e r ta in k i nd o fp o t s ( S t i lbo rg , 1 991 , 8 7-91) . A s t r ik ing f e a tu re i s t h a t i ti s t h e h ou seho ld c e ram ic s , t h ec oa r se w a re , t h a t i s mo s to f ten t empe red w i th g rog . T he g rog , i n t u rn , i s m ade o f c r u shed , l o ca l ly made c e ram ic s . G rog tempe red f r agmen t sa r ef ound o na l ll e ve l so ft h es t ruc tu re sh i the r to s t ud ied . I n t h e manuf ac tu re o f g rave g ood s a nd s e rv ing p o t s , t h e s ame k i nd o f r aw c l ay h a s b een u sed , b u t as ma l le r a moun t o f t empe r h a s b een a dded . T he s u r face f i n i sh a nd d eco ra t ion a r ev e ry c a refu l ly d one , a st h ea ppea rance o ft h i sk ind o fc e ram ic sw a sv e ry i mpo r tan t .

S ed imen ta ry c l ays f o rb l ack o rg rey p o l ished w a res T he t h in -wa l led , b l ack o r g r ey , p o l i shed w a re s a r e m ade f r om ar aw c l ay d epo s i ted o nt h eb o t tom o f al a ke . N of u r the rt empe ri sa dded t ot h e n a tu ra l i n c lu s ion s p re sen t i nt h e c l ay . T he p o t s a r e f i red i n ar educed a tmo sphe re , h ence t h ec o lou ro ft h ef a b r ic . T he s he rd s a r e f ound o n a l l c u l tu ra l l e ve l s a nd i na l l p e r iod s a l ong s ide t h e c oa r se h ou seho ld c e ram ic s . H oweve r , t h e re a r e r e la t ive ly mo re f r ag m en t s o fb l ack o rg r ey ,p o l i shed w a re si nt h el owe rl a ye r s . T he f a c tt h a ti ti s f ound t h roughou t t h e s i te a nd o n a l l t h e l e ve l s may b e as i gn t h a t t h i s w a re w a sa l so l o ca l ly m ade .

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C hanges a s ac onsequence o ft h eS pan ish i n t rus ion A t al a te p ha se i n t h e l i f e o f t h e v i l lage , d u r ing t h e m idd le o f t he 1 6 th c en tu ry , t h e t e chn ique o f m anuf ac tu r ing c e ram ic s c hanged . T he p o t te r s n ow u sed av e ry c oa r se r aw c l ay c on ta in ing al a rge a moun t o fm ica . T hey a l so e mp loyed n ew s hape s , o f ten r e semb l ing m e ta l v e s se ls . T he s u rface s o f t h e v e sse l s a r e v e ry c ha rac te r i s t ic a nd g l i t te r w i th m ica i n c lu s ion s a nd q ua r tz g ra in s . T h i s k ind o fc e ram ics i sf ound i nl a rge a moun t i ns e c to r X I I . We t h ink t h a t t h i s i st h e p a r t o f t h e v i l lage t h a t t h e p eop le w i thd rew t o when t h e p opu la t ion o fP ichao d im in i shed d u r ing t h e l a te p ha se o ft h e p ro toh is to r ica l p e r iod . We a l so f i nd t h e se c e ram ic s i nt h e g rave s a t ab u r ia l f i e ld a s s igned t ot h eC on tac tP e r iod , t h a ti st h el a te 1 6 th c en tu ry t ot h ee a r ly 1 7 th c en tu ry . T he c e ram ic s m ade o f m icaceou s c l ay a r e a n i n te re s t ing p henomenon , s e en i nr e la t ion t ot h e S pan i sh i n t ru s ion i n to t h e v a l ley . T he S pan ia rds w e re n o t i n te re s ted i nt h e i n d igenou s c e ram ic s . We k now t h a t , i nt h e c onque red a r ea s o fP e ru , t h e m anuf ac tu r ing t e chn ique s w e re d ra s t ica l ly c hanged , a nd n ew s ou rce s o f r aw ma te r ia ls w e re e xp lo i ted . T he c hange s may b e e xp la ined i nt e rm s o ft h e n ew o wne r r e la t ion s t h a t t h e S pan ia rd s i mpo sed , a nd a l so o f t h e n ew i r r iga t ion s y s tem s . N ew s ou rce s o f r aw m a te r ia l a r e n eeded w hen t h e r i ve r s a nd t h e l a nd a r e n o l onge r s een a s c ommon r e sou rce s . T he l a nd a nd t h e w a te r w e re d i v ided b e tween t h e S pan i sh l a nd lo rd s , a nd t h e o r ig ina l i n hab i tan t s c ou ld n o l o nge r f r ee ly u se t h e r e sou rce so ft h ee nv i ronmen t . I n t h e c a se o f P i chao w e k now t h a t t h e p eop le w e re a wa re o f t h e S pan ia rd s a tt h e v e ry l a te s t f r om t h e e nd o f t h e 1 6 th c en tu ry . T he re w e re s po rad ic c on tac t s , a nd i n t h e g r ave s o f t h e p e r iod , w e c an f i nd S pan i sh o b jec t s a mong o the r a r tef ac t s . T he S pan ia rd s i n t ruded s po rad ica l ly i n to t h e V a l ley , b u t i tw a s n o t u n t i l t h e m idd le o ft h e 1 7 th c en tu ry t h a t t h ey f i na l ly c onque red i t a nd t h e p eop le w e re s ubo rd ina ted t o t h e S pan i sh a dm in i s t ra t ion ( Lo rand i a nd B o ixadö s , 1 989 ) . T he S pan ia rd s w e re , f i r s ta nd f o remo s t , s e ek ing f o r l a bou r f o rce , l a nd a nd f o r tune s . T hey t r an spo r ted w ho le v i l lage s , c on sc r ip ted m en a nd w omen f o r f o rced l a bou r , i mposed n ew l a bou r p roce sse s a nd n ew l a bou r o rgan i sa t ion s , a l l o f w h ich s e r ious ly a f f ec ted P ichao .

Q uan t i ta t ive c a lcu la t ions a nd t he s ca le o f p roduc t ion A n i n te re s t ing q ue s t ion c once rn ing t h e c e ram ic l a bou r p roce s s i st h e s ca le o fp roduc t ion . H ow m any c e ram ic s w e re i nf a c tp roduced a tP ichao a nd i si t p o s s ib le t oc a lcu la te h ow m any p eop le w e re i n vo lved i nt h e manuf ac tu re? H e re w e h ave t oc on s ide r t h e d if e ren t f o rma t ion p roce s se s a f f ec t ing b o th t h ec u l tu ra l a nd t h en a tu ra ld epo s i t ion s ( Sch if f e r , 1 987 ) .

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A d i f f icu l ty i n t h i s k ind o f c a lcu la t ion i st h e e r o s ion a nd t h e w a te r t r an spo r ta t ion o ft h e s he rd s . S ven A h lg ren h a s m ade s u r face c o l lec t ions o f c e ram ic s . As pec if ic a r ea o fa bou t 1 00 m2 w a sc l ea red o ff r agmen t s , a nd t h e f o l low ing y ea rw ef ound t h a tt h e s ame a r ea w a s s t rewn w i th n ew f r agmen t s o f c e ram ic s , c onveyed t h e re b y n a tu ra l p roce s se s . D u r ing e xcava t ion s , w e h ave n o t iced t h a t t h e u ppe r l a ye r s , d own t o3 0-40 c m , a r e o f ten m ixed u p a nd c on s i s t mo s t ly o ft r an spo r ted m a te r ia l . I ns p i te o fa l l t h ed i f f icu l t ie s , w eh ave t r ied t om ake s ome c a lcu la t ion s o n t h e b a s i s o f ac a t chmen t a na ly s i s . T h i s a na ly s i s i n c lude s a g r icu l tu re a nd o the r m ean s o f s ub s i s tence , s uch a s g a the r ing a nd h un t ing , i n hab i ted a nd a g r icu l tu ra l a r ea s , t h e a cce s s ib i l i ty o f w a te r , a nd a n e s t ima t ion o f t h e n umbe ro ff r agmen t s p e rc ub ic m e t re o fe a r th i nt h ec u l tu ra l l a ye r s o ve rt h e who le o f t h e s i te . A l so t h e s pan o f t ime , o r t h e p e r iod s o f h ab i ta t ion a r e i n c luded ( Ah lg ren a nd S jöd in , f o r thcom ing ) . I ft h e u t i l i ty v e s se l s w e re m ade i nt h e d oma in o ft h e h ou seho ld , w e may h ave o n o ne o r t wo o cca s ion s t h e m anufac tu re o f p o t s p e r h ou seho ld a nd y ea r . I fw e a s sume t h a tt h e re w e re a bou t 3 50 p eop le l i v ing a tt h e s ame t ime a tP ichao , c on s i s t ing o f2 5-50 h ou seho ld u n i t s , o u r c a lcu la t ion s i mp ly t h a t e ve ry h ou seho ld e ach y ea rm ade 6 16 p o t s . W i th r ough ly 1 -me t re th ick , c u l tu ra l l a ye r s , t h e re i sa n a ve rage o f 1 00 c e ram ic f r agmen t s p e r c ub ic m e t re . T he w ho le a r ea o f P ichao i sc . 7h a , wh ich g i ve s u s c . 7m i l l ion s o f s he rd s , r ep re sen t ing 5 0 ,000 p o t s m ade i n P ichao . I fw e c on s ide r t h e l i f e o f t h e v i l lage t ob e 6 40 y ea r s , t h i s i nt u rn i mp l ie s t h a t 8 0 p o t s w e re m ade e ach y ea r . W i th h i ghe r n umbe r s , p e rhap s 2 00-300 f r agmen t sp e rc ubuc m e t re o fc u l tu ra ll a ye r s , w eh ave ap roduc t ion o f 1 60 t o3 20 p o t sp e ry ea r . I na dd i t ion , t h e re w e re s ome i mpo r ted p o t s , b u t t hey c omp r i se av e ry s ma l lp o r t ion o ft h ew ho le m a te r ia l .

T he s he rd sm ea su re , o nt h ea ve rage , 4x4c m . T he p o t sa r eg ene ra l ly c y l inde r shaped o rs phe r ica l , 0 . 3 mh igh a nd 0 . 2 mi nd i ame te rw i th ap l a in b o t tom , w h ich g i ve su s 2 7 1r = 2x 3 . 14 x 0 . 1 =0 . 62 . T h i s i nt u rn g i ve s u s0 . 62 x0 . 3 =0 . 19 m2,p l u s b o t tom nr 2= 3 . 14 x0 . 1 2 =0 . 03 m2 =0 . 19 +0 .03 =0 . 22 m2.T he n umbe ro fs he rd sp e rp o t =0 . 22 m2 =22 00 c m 2,4x4c m =1 6c m 2,o ne p o t 22 00 / 16 =c .1 40 s he rd s /po t . O ne p o t 22 00 / 16 =c .1 40 s he rd sp e rp o t . T he n umbe ro fs he rd s 70 00 0 00 / 140 =5 00 00 p o t s a tP i chao . T he n umbe ro fp o t sp e ry ea r , 5 00 00 /650 = 8 0f o rt h e w ho le s i te o fP i chao . I n t h i s c a lcu la t ion , t h e t e r raced a r ea i s n o t i n c luded , b u t i fw e m ake a s im i la r c a lcu la t ion f o r t h i s a s f o r t h e i n hab i ted a r ea , a nd a dd t h e n umbe r o f p o t s f r om t h e t e r race s , w e h ave 2 20-380 b roken p o t s p e ry ea r . T he t e r race s c on ta in as ma l le ra moun t o fs he rd sp e rc ub ic m e t re t h an t h ei n hab i ted a r ea . B e s ide s t h e se a r ea s , t h e i n hab i t ed a nd t e r raced a r ea s , t h e re c e r ta in ly a r e l a rge a moun t so fa nc ien tc e ram ic s i nt h e p re sen tP i chao , b o th i nt h e v i l lage a nd i nt h e f i e ld s . A l so t h e re a r e s ma l l a moun t s o fc e ram ic s o n t h e c one a nd o n t h e moun ta ins ide s s ou th e a s t o f P i chao , a nd a l so i nt h e v a l ley s o f t h e R io P i chao a nd t h e R io T ranca s i nt h e moun ta in i nt h ew e s t . I na dd i t ion w ea l so h ave t h ec e ram ic sf r om t h eg r aveya rd s .

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I fw e m ake s im i la rc a lcu la t ion s f o rt h e t e r race a r ea s , t h e b u r ia l g round s a nd t h e c one w eh ave 2 55 ( o r4 15 w i th h i ghe rn umbe r s ) +g rave c e ram ic sp e ry ea r .

Wo rk a nd l a bou rd i f fe ren t ia t ion We s uppo se t h a t t h e h ou seho ld w a s t h e b a s ic e conom ic u n i t o fp roduc t ion i na nc ien t P i chao , as oc ie ty w h ich w a s s uppo sed ly an on -s ta te s oc ie ty . T he w omen 's l a bou r p l ayed a c en t ra l p roduc t ive r o le , a s i n a l l p re -cap i ta l i s t , a g r icu l tu ra l s oc ie t ie s . My r e su l t ss of a rs how t h a tw ea r ed ea l ing w i th s eve ra ld i f f e ren tl e ve l so f p roduc t ion a sr ega rd st h ec e ram ic m anuf ac tu re . 1 .T he h ou seho ld c e ram ic s w e re m anuf ac tu red i n t h e d oma in o f t h e h ou seho ld . H e re w e m ay h ave t wo d i f f e ren t mode l s t oo pe ra te w i th . T he mo s tp l au s ib le o ne i st h eo ne t h a ti mp l ie s t h a ta lmo s ta l t h eh ou seho ld s h ad t h e i r o wn p o t te r s . T he r aw ma te r ia l s u sed w e re o f l o ca l o r ig in . T he g r ea t v a r ia t ion o f t h e c e ram ic s , i n s hape , i n t h e p repa ra t ion o f t h e r aw ma te r ia l a nd i n t h e p ropo r t ion s o f c l ay s a nd g rog , i mp ly t h i s s uppo s i t ion . A t t h e s ame t ime w ea r ed ea l ing w i th as t rong l o ca lt r ad i t ion o fp o t te ry -mak ing . T he o t he r mode l o f f e r s ap i c tu re o f af ew h ou seho ld s m ak ing t h e p o t te ry f o r t h e w ho le v i l lage . T h i s p i c tu re Ic on s ide r a s l e s s p l au s ib le , c on s ider ing t h e q uan t i ta t ive c a lcu la t ion s made f o r t h e p o t te ry p roduc t ion d u r ing o ne y ea r . I n t h i s c a se , w e w ou ld h ave s pec ia l i s t w o rk shop s , w h ich w e h ave n o e v idence f o r a tP i chao , a sr ega rd s t h e c oa r se c e ram ic s o fe ve ryday u se , i . e . t h ec ook ing -po t sa nd t h es t o rage v e s se l s . 2 . T he g rave c e ram ic s w e re l o ca l ly m ade . T he a na lys i s o f r aw c l ay s , m anuf ac tu re a nd p roduc t ion s how s t h a tt h er aw ma te r ia l w a s t a ken f r om t h e v i c in i ty o ft h e s i te . T he s i te s i nt h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley , h oweve r , a l l l i e i n c l o se p rox im i ty t oe ach o t he r . A t ac e r ta in p e r iod , w em ay i mag ine t ha to ne s i te h ad w o rk shop s f o r p o t te r s m ak ing b u r ia l c e ram ic . P e rhap s t h i s w a s t h e c a se i n t h e p e r iod f r om a bou t 1 350 t o 1 500 , w hen t h e S an ta Ma r ia u rn s w e re u t i l i sed a s f une ra l c on ta ine r s f o r d ead c h i ld ren . T he manuf ac ture i s v e ry h omogeneou s , a s r e ga rd s b o th t h e t e chn ica l a nd t h e a e s the t ic a spec t s . H e re as t y le a na ly s i s i sa n u rgen t t a sk . Wha t may b e s a id w i th c e r ta in ty i s t h a t h e re w e h ave ac e ram ic t ype t h a t i sn o t manuf ac tu red i nt h e r ea lm o f e ve ry h ou seho ld . P e rhap s t h e re i s ak ind o f eme rg ing s pec ia l i s t l e ve l o f p roduc t ion . 3 .A tt h e s ame p e r iod o ft ime , w eh ave t h e manuf ac tu r eo f( a ) t h eC oa r se w a re a nd ( b ) t h e M icaceou s ( Ca sp inchango ) w a re , b o th o f t h em l o ca l ly m anuf ac tu red . T he M icaceou s w a re o ft h i s l a te rp e r iod a l so s how s t r ace s o f S pan i sh i nf luence , w i th s hape si m i ta t ing S pan ish i r on a nd m e ta l u t en s i ls . 4 .T he f r agmen t s o f i mpo r ted c e ram ic s a r e v e ry f ew . Mo s t o f t h em a r e f ound i ns e c to r X I I , w h ich w e t h ink w a s i nhab i ted d u r ing t h e l a s t p e r iod i n t h e l i f e o f t h e a nc ien t P i chao . T he TL d a t ing s o f s he rd s i nd ica te t h e 1 6 th

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a nd 1 7 th c en tu r ie s , a nd a p i c tu r e e me rge s o f w ide r c on tac t s a nd f o re ign g ood s , s how ing p e rhap s s t a tu s o ra l l iance s . H e re , Iw an t t op o in tt ot h e d i f f e ren tl e ve l s o fp roduc t ion : t h e h ou seho ld p roduc t ion ( t he m anuf ac tu re o fc oa r se w a re f o re ve ryday u se ) ; t h e s pec ia l i s t p roduc t ion w i th in t h e v i l lage ; t h e s pec ia l i s t p roduc t ion d e r iv ing f r om s pec ia l i s t w o rk shop s a to the r v i l lage s i nt h e V a l ley ; s pec ia l i s t p roduc t ion s f r om f a ra way ( t he i mpo r ted c e ram ic s ) ; t h ei n nova t ion s made d u r ing t h el a s t p e r iod ; a nd t h eC a sp inchango w a re t h a tw a sm ade o fn ew r aw m a te r ia l s . Du r ing t h e l i f e o f t h e v i l lage , t h e re w e re s eve ra l c hange s . We s uppo se t h a t t h e a bandonmen t o f al a rge p a r t o ft h e t e r race s y s tem t o ok p l ace i na r e la t ive ly l a te p ha se o ft h eo ccupa t ion . We c an o n ly s pecu la te a st ow hy t h i s h appened , b u t t h e re w e re s t i l l p eop le l i v ing o n t h e s i te , c u l t iva t ing a nd r e a r ing a n ima l s , m anuf ac tu r ing c e ram ic s a nd c o l lec t ing h e rb s a nd w i ld s e ed s . E ven l a te r c ame t h e c a ta s t rophe f o r t h e p eop le — the S pan i sh i n t ru s ion i n to t h e S an ta Ma r ia V a l ley . F o r ap e r iod o fo ve r ah und red y ea r s , t h e re w e re c on tac t s o f d i f f e ren t k i nd s b e tween t h e S pan ia rd s a nd t h e i n hab i tan t s . We f i nd an ew k ind o fo b jec t s i nt h e g rave s —a r te f ac t s m ade o f i r on , g l a s s b ead s —and a n ew t y pe o f c e ram ic s , w h ich i mp l ie s o the r r aw c l ays a nd p r ima ry r e sou rce s . T he r e s i s tance t o t h e n ewcome r s l a s ted f o r a bou t 1 50 y ea r s . I n t h e m idd le o ft h e 1 7 th c en tu ry , t h e S pan i sh c onque s t w a s c omp le ted , a nd t h e p opu la t ion o f t h e w ho le V a l ley w a s s ubdued t o t h e S pan i sh a dm in i s t ra t ion . T he S pan ia rd s w e re c h ief ly i n te re s ted i n t h e l a bou r f o r ce a nd i nt h e p o s se s s ion o ft h e l a nd . T hey moved w ho le p opu la t ion s b y f o rce . A t o ta l ly n ew l a bou r o rgan i sa t ion w a s s upe r impo sed , w h ich i n m any d i f f e ren t a nd c rue l w ay s a f f ec ted t h e i n hab i tan t s o ft h e V a l ley . N ow a lmo s t a l l t h e v i l lage w a s a bandoned , t o ge the r w i th t h e a gr icu l tu ra l t e r race s . T he n ew o rde r w a s i mpo sed b y e x te rna l f o rce , a nd w i th i tc ame t h e e p idem ic s , t h e ma lnu t r i t ion , t h e s l ave l a bou r , a nd t h e n ew a g r icu l tu ra l s y s tem s a dap ted t o ac a sh -c rop e conomy . B u t as ma l lg roup o fp eop le s t i l ll i ved i nt h eS an ta Ma r ia V a l ley . P e rhap s t h ey s t i l l c u l t iva ted t h e l a nd i nt h e t r ad i t iona l m anne r , o n t e r race s , n ow a t p l ace s a way f r om S pan i sh c on t ro l . T oday , t h e t e r race s o n t h e moun ta in s l ope s a r e a l l a bandoned , a sw e l l a s mo s to ft h e t e r race s o n t h e a l luv ia l f a n . T he p eop le o f t h e mode rn v i l lage o f P i chao s uppo sed ly u se p a r t s o f t h e a nc ien ta g r icu l tu ra l s y s tem . T he t r ad i t iona l A ndean a r chaeo logy i sd om ina ted b y r e g iona l s t ud ie s , d e s igned t o e l uc ida te t h e a l l -emb rac ing p roce s se s d ea l ing w i th l a rge r r eg ion s . B u t s oc ie t ie s a l so h ave t h e i r o wn , i n te rna l d eve lopmen t . T hu s , a n a r chaeo log ica l m a te r ia l i sh idden w h ich i ti sn ece s sa ry t os t udy i fw e w an t t od e tec t a no the r p e r spec t ive , ap e r spec t ive d e r iv ing f r om l o ca l c ond i t ion s a nd p o s s ib i l i t ie s . I ti so bv iou s t h a t t h e e conom ic a nd p o l i t ica l c hange s o n t h e r eg iona l l e ve l h ad i mp l ica t ion s f o r t h e p roduc t ive p a t te rn s o f t h e h ou seho ld s , c hange st h a tm ay h ave b een d ue t on ew p o l i t ica lc ond i t ion s a nd n ew c oncep t so fc on t ro lo ft h er e sou rce s .

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R e fe rences A h lg ren , S . 1 990 " The n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t i nt h e a r ea o f E l P i chao" , i nC orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 ,21-28 A h lg ren , S . , S jöd in , S .A gr icu l tur et e r race so fP ichao , f o r thcom ing . C o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar yR epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar ia V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina ,

GOTARC ,

S e r ie s

D ,

N o .

4 , G ö tebo rg

U n ive r s i ty ,

D epar tmen t

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A rchaeo logy , Gö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina ,

GOTARC ,

S e r ie s

D ,

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5 , G ö tebo rg

U n ive r s i ty ,

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A rchaeo logy , Gö tebo rg G e ro ,J .M . a nd C onkey , M .W . 1 991 " Ten s ion s , P lu ra l i t ie s , a nd E ngender ing A rchaeo logy : A n I n t roduc t ion t o Women a nd P reh is to ry" , i nG e ro , J .M . a nd C onkey , M .W . ( ed s . ) 1 991 E ngend er ing A rchaeo logy . Women a nd P r eh i s tory , B a s i l B lackwe l l , O xfo rd , 3 -30 H a rd ing , S . 1 986 T he S c ience Q ue s t ion i nF em in i sm , C o rne l l U n ive r s i ty P re s s , I t haca a nd L ondon H a s to r f , C . A . 1 993 A gr icu l ture a nd t h e O nse t o fP o l i t ica l I nequa l i ty b ef or e t h e I nka , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge K o lb , C . C . 1 976 " The Me thodo logy o f L a t in Ame r ican C e ram ic E co logy . E l D o rado : N ew s le t te r " , B u l le t in o nS ou th Amer ican A rchaeo logy 1( 3 ) , 4 4-82 L o rand i , A .M . a nd B o ixadö s R . 1 989 " E tnoh is to r ia d e l o s v a l le s C a lchaqu ie s e n l o s s i g lo s XV Ia nd XV I I" , R una 1 718 ( Bueno s A i re s ) , 2 63-419 S anday , P .R . 1 981 F ema le P ower a nd Ma le D om inance . O n t h e O r ig ins o f S exua l I nequa l i ty , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge S ch if f e r , M .B . 1 987 F orma t ion P roce s se s o f t h e A rchaeo log ica l R ecord , U n ive r s i ty o f Mex ico P re s s , N ew Mex ico S j öd in , S .1 990a " Ce ram ic s" , i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 ,105158 S k ibo , J .M . 1 992 P o t t ery F unc t ion : A U se -A l tera t ion P er spec t ive , P l enum P res s , N ew Y o rk S k ibo , J .M . a nd S ch if f e r , M .B . 1 995 " The C lay C ook ing P o t . A n E xp lo ra t ion o f Women 's T echno logy" , i n S k ibo , J .M . , Wa lke r , W .H . a nd N ie l sen , A .E . ( e d s . ) 1 995 E xpand ing A rchaeo logy , U n ive r s i ty o fU tah p r e s s , S a l tL ake C i ty , 8 0-91 S t epona i t i s , V .P . 1 984 , " Techno log ica l s t ud ie s o f p reh is to r ic p o t te ry f r om A labama : P hys ica l p rope r t ie s a nd v e s se l f unc t ion" , i n v an d e r L eeuw , S .E . a nd P r i t cha rd , A .C . ( e d s . ) 1 984 T he Many D imen s ions o f P o t t er y . C eram ic s i n A rchaeo logy a nd A n thropo logy , Am s te rdam ,9 122 S t i lbo rg , 0 . 1 991 , " Repor t o f t h in s e c t ion a na ly s i s o f s i x c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om E l P ichao" , i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,87-91

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1 3 . C omen ta r io eI n fo rme d e l Ma te r ia l M e ta lü rg ico O b ten ido e n d os T umbas d e l C emen te r io d e Amancay , S i t io d e P i chao , A rgen t ina Mar i aR osar io V äzque z

H is to r ia d e l ai n ves t igac iön E l e s tud io r i gu ro so d e l a m e ta lu rg ia d e l n o roe s te d e A rgen t ina y s u s a dyacen te s c om ienza c on Amb ro se t t i ( 1904 ) , B oman ( 1908 ) , U h le ( 1910 ) , N o rden sk iö ld ( 1921) , L a tchman ( 1938 ) , B i rd ( 1943 ) , G onzä lez ( 1979 ) , A r sandaux yR ive t( 1946 ) , Maye r( 1986 ) , yV en tu ra ( 1985 ) . T e s t imon io st emp rano s d eu na m e ta lu rg ia d ec ob re /b ronce e ne ln o roe s te d e A rgen t ina h an d e c onec ta r se c on l o s p e r iodo s t emp rano ym ed io , q ue s e r ep re sen tan a n te t odo e n l a s c u l tu ra s C i6naga y A guada . S e t r a ta d e u n b ronce c on d i f e ren te sc omponen te s ,e s ta i io , a r s6n ico yz i nc . E n e spec ia l s e e ncuen t ra u n d epo s i to e n l a p rov inc ia d e J u juy q ue c on s is te e n v a so s f a c ia le s , m a r t i l lado s , d e u na a l eac iön d e o ro y p l a ta , c o lgan te s d e p l a ta , p e r la s d e ma laqu i ta y u n b raza l r edondo d e u n b ronce c ob rek inc ( z b ronce " Aguada"? ) ( Ro land id eP e r ro t , 1 974 ) . E n e l n o roe s te d e A rgen t ina e x i s ten m ine ra le s c up r i f e ro s yd e e s tar io ( Amb ro se t t i , 1 904 ; G onza lez , 1 979 ) . S e p roduce l af und ic iön e n mo lde d e u na s o la v a lva , e n a l guno s c a so s c on l at an ica d e l a c era p erd ida , p o r e j emp lo d i sco s . S e h a c omp robado t amb i6n t r aba jo d e p unzam ien to y c i nce lado . E n e lp e r iodo t a rd io y e n e li n ca ico s ec on s ta ta u n e no rme a uge e n l a m e ta lu rg ia d e l b ronce , e n e l n o roe s te d e A rgen t ina y e n m eno r d imen s iön e n e ln o r te d e C h i le . S c u t i l iza p o r l og ene ra l b ronce c on e s ta i io s i n a d ic iön d e a r s6n ico ( Gonzä lez , 1 979 ) . S e e ncuen t ran a rma s yh e r ra m ien ta s , s ob re t odo h acha s , h acha s c on a gu je ro p a ra r e c ib i r e l mango , h acha s c e t ro , c i nce le s , p unzone s , c uch i l lo s , m anop la s yb raza le s . T amb i6n s e e ncuen t ran p inza s , d i sco s y g ong s d e b ronce ( Amb ro se t t i , 1 904 ; Gonza lez , 1 979 ) . L a m e ta lu rg ia s ub -and ina d e sde l o s c om ienzo s e mp rend iö c am ino s p rop io sc on r e spec to al a sf o rma s c omo t amb i6n al ot e cno lög ico .

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P o s ib lemen te l o s c om ienzo s e s tän r e lac ionado s c on l a i ndu s t r ia m e ta lü rg ica a ün p oco c onoc ida d el ac u l tu ra T iahuanaco . D u ran te e lp e r iod° d e c on tac to c on l o s e u ropeo s , l ai ndu s t r ia d e l b ronce p i e rde r ap idamen te v i go r . U no d el o sf a c to re sd e te rm inan te sp uede h abe rs i do l ai n te r rupc iön d e p rov i s ionam ien to d e m ine ra le s . S e c onocen a l guno s a r tef ac to s c on l a s f o rma s t r ad ic iona le s , c i nce le s , p unzone s , c uch i l lo s , a domo s y t amb i6n i m i tac ione s e n b ronce d e a r tef ac to s d e h i e r ro e u ropeo s . S in emba rgo p rog re s ivamen te s on s u sp lan tado sp o ro b je to sd eh i e r ro e u ropeo .

L i s ta d e l a s p ruebas d e d os t umbas , I l amadas T umba 4y1 2 , yd e ta l les d e l o sf r agmen tos E n t o ta l 1 5 f r agmen to s f u e ron a na l i sado s . E l p r ime r n üme ro ( 6 ) d e l c öd igo a ba jo , s i gn if ica e ls i t io d e P i chao . E l s i gu ien te n üme ro ( 1 ) e se lc emen te r io d e Amancay . D e spu6 s v i ene e ln üme ro d e l at umba ( 4 , 1 2 ) ye l n üme ro c o r r ien te e ne lr e g i s t ro . 6 1-4 -7 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro c on r e s to s d e m ade ra y r emache d e b ronce q ue h a p ene t rado e n u na b a r ra . p i nza? E n muy d e te r io rado e s tado y p a rc ia lmen te o x idado . 6 1-4 -8 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro p o s ib lemen te E scamado , f u e r te o x idac iön .

c uch i l lo

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6 1-4 -8 I . Ma sa d e v i d r io , c r is ta l izado , c o lo r t u rque sa . P o s ib lemen te e s taba j un to a u n f r agmen to d e me ta l , p o r e so s u c o lo r v e rde . V a r io s f r agmen to s , o b se rvado s a l m ic ro scop io , s e l i be ra ron d e l a s upe r f ic ie c on u n c ep i l lo d en ta l . I .F ragmen to d ep e r la d ev i d r io , c o lo rt u rque sa . I I . F ragmen to d eh i e r ro ,e s camado yo x idado . 6 1-4 -10 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro . i ya r te d e u n c uch i l lo? F ue r te f o rmac iön c o r ro s iva , q ue d e s t ruye e n p a r te l ap i eza . E l f i lo e s ta p a rc ia lmen te o x idado . E scamado e n c i nco p a r te s ymucho s f r agmen to s m eno re s . N o s ep uede c ompone rc on p egamen to . 6 1-4 -11 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro , muy o x idado , m ezc lado c on b a r ro y a r ena . i , Ho ja d e c uch i l lo ( fo rma e u ropea? )? E n t r e s p a r te s , r e s to d e m ade ra . z Re s to d e l m ango? I mpo s ib le c ompone r . F ue r temen te o x idado .

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6 1-4 -12 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro , h o ja d e c uch i l lo / z c ince l? O x idado , p u l ido yl imp ieza c on c ep i l lo d e a ce ro r o ta to r io . A pa rec iö e l h i e r ro o r ig ina l , c o lo r p l a ta . Nume ro sa sc apa sd ep roduc to sd ec o r ro s ion ,p o ro sa . 6 1-4 -13 I .F ragmen to s v a r io s d e m a sa d e v i d r io c r i s ta l izado . E s p o s ib le , q ue s e h a l la ron j un to au nm e ta l ,p o re so s uc o lo r . I .F ragmen to d eh i e r ro . 6 1-4 -1 E scama d eh i e r ro . B uen e s tado . 6 1-4 -17 P ied ra d ea f i la r , i , ye sca? D es upe r f ic ie p u l ida . P ieza f r ac tu rada . 6 1-4 -18 C hap i ta d e c ob re a l rededo r d e u n mango ( po s ib le b i sag ra p a ra c a ja , i , gozne? ) . G ua rn ic iön d e c ob re . D e lgada s c apa s d e o x idac iön d e c o lo r v e rdec la ro . Ma l e s tado . H as i do i mpo s ib le d el i be ra r yl imp ia rl ac hap i ta l d e me ta l ye l m ango p o r p e l ig ro d e d e s t ru i r l o s f r agmen to s . S e u t i l izö p egamen to P la s t ic P add ing . 6 1-4 -25 F ragmen to d e h i e r ro y e s cama s , c on o cu la r o b se rvac iön a lm ic ro scop io , s e y en r e s to s d e m ade ra . P a r te d e u n c uch i l lo . C ompue s ta c on p egamen to , P la s t ic P add ing . Muy o x idado . 6 1-12 -59 Do s f r agmen to s d e h i e r ro , e scamado , m ezc lado c on t i e r ra , a r ena yh i e rba s . R e s to d e u n mango . E n m uy ma la c ond ic iön . F ue r te o x idac iön . D e s t rucc iön f ä c i l . S ev ad e shac iendo . 6 1-12 -60 C ua t ro f r agmen to s d e m e ta l , i , b ronce /cob re? F uer te o x idac iön , v e rdeo scu ro ( ma laqu i ta -ca rbona to h i d ra tado n a tu ra l d e c ob re ) . P od r ia h abe r s i do u na p l aqu i ta? 6 1-12 -127 F ragmen to d eh i e r ro , i ‚ cuch i l lo? Ma le s tado ,f ue r te o x idac iön . 6 1-12 -129 P ieza d e h i e r ro : t i j e ra . E n o b se rvac iön o cu la r c on m ic ro scop io s e p uede o b se rva r t e j ido e n f o rma d e S . P a r te d e l t e x t i l c on c o r ro s ion . E n muy ma l e s tado . E scamado ,o x idac iön p o ro sa . S et r a ta d ec ompone r la c on p egamen to

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A ra ld i t , yf i na lmen te s e l a h a c o lo reado c on t i e r ra c o lo r . N o s e l og ra man tene r la u n ida c on e lp egamen to . E n l ab o l sa d e p l ä s t ico : n ume ro so s f r agmen to s p eque f io s , d e p a r te s o x idada s , q ue s e h an s epa rado d e l o s d i f e ren te s f r agmen to s .

I n fo rme d e c onse rvac iön L a s p rueba s s on e n s u m ayo r d e m e ta l : C on s i s ten d e h i e r ro , c ob re /b ronce , p i ed ra a r en i sca -af i lön , y e sca , m a sa d e v i d r io ( pu lve r izada y c r i s ta l izada ) y t amb i6n i mp re s ione se nt e x t i l . E n s u m ayo r fa e lm a te r ia l o b ten ido e s d e h i e r ro , s o lo u na d e l a s p i eza s s e r fa d e c ob re y s opo r te d e h i e r ro . E l ma te r ia l e s tä s umamen te d e te r io rado , l oq ue h eh echo e sc on se rva re lm a te r ia lp a ra d e tene rs ud e s t rucc iön t o ta l . N o h ay p i eza s c omp le ta s . L a mayo r fa d e l o s f r agmen to s e s taban c ub ie r to sd eu na c apa d u ra d ep roduc to s c o r ro s ivo s , a r ena g rue sa , r a fce s e t c . U n c uad ro d e e x t rema e x t ra t if icac iön y d e smenuzam ien to . C an t idad c on s ide rab le d e p a r t fcu la s d e c o r ro s ion q ue s e p u lve r izan y s e s epa ran f a c i lmen te d e l as upe r f ic ie . L a f o rma d e l o s f r agmen to s i nd ica q ue s e t r a ta d e f r agmen to s d e c uch i l lo s , u na t i j e ra yc i nce l . L a s h o ja s d e c uch i l lo s edan : c uch i l lo f o rma e u ropea ( v e r Maye r , 1 986 ,l äm ina 3 8 , f i g . 7 77 ) . D e spu6 s d e l a p r ime ra o b se rvac iön y t r a tam ien to s e p udo v e r a l m ic ro scop io r e s to so rgän ico s ,c omo m ade ra yt e x t i l .

F unc iön L a s h e r ram ien ta s e n e s te c a so , c i nce le s yc uch i l lo s d e h i e r ro , t e n fan u na f unc iön c on s ide rab le ap a r t i rd e l p e r iod ( )t a rd fo . D eben h abe rs i do u t i l izada s s ob re t odo p a ra t r aba ja r l am ade ra , t amb i6n p a ra l am a tanza y p a ra c o r ta r c a me . E n g ene ra l s on h e r ram ien ta sd ec on tac to c on e le u ropeo .

P rocesado d e l ma te r ia l E l ma te r ia l h as i do : f o tog ra f iado ,r a d iog ra f iado ,d i bu jado , yc on se rvado .

T ra tam ien to 1 .O b se rvac iön o cu la r ( m ic ro scop io ) : s e e s t ima e lt i po d e c o r ro s ion y s u e f ec to e nl ap i eza . 2 .S e i n t roduce l ap i eza e nu na s o luc iön d e EDTA d e 2 -4 % e lv a lo rd e l p H e r a 6 , 3 /6 ,5 yl at empe ra tu ra 4 0-50 ° C e l s iu s od e 7 5-90 ° p a ra a l guno s h a s ta 7 / 8 h o ra s e n l a m isma s o luc iön e n t empe ra tu ra a mb ien ta l d u ran te 1 6 /20 h o ra s .

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3 . R ep i t iendo e lt r a tam ien to d e s ona r c on 4 % EDTA y p a r te c on a gua d es t i lada c a l ien te . L ag rue sa yp o ro sa c apa d e c o r ro s ion s ep udo r e t i ra rc on l aa yuda d eu ne s ca lpe lo ( e lt r aba jo s er e a l izö c on e lm ic ro scop io ) . 4 .R ep i t iendo e lp i nce lado c on 5 -6 % EDTA , v a lo rp H yt empe ra tu ra c omo l aa n te r io r , i n te rcamb iando c on e ls ona r . 5 .L imp ieza yp u l ido c on c ep i l lo sd en ta le sr o ta to r io s ,d eg oma ya ce ro . 6 . R emo jado d u ran te 4 h o ra s e n a gua d e s t i lada , a g regando d i na t r ium h yd rogenpho spha t( 3m 1 / 1 a gua d e s t i lada ) . 7 .F ina lmen te s es e ca l ap i eza a lv ac io c on e t ano l . 8 .S ep ro te je l ap i eza d el as i gu ien te m ane ra : a ) d e spu6 s d e l s e cam ien to s e i mp regna c on E rca lene laca ( s o luc iön e n a ce tona ) b )c on l al a ca s e ca , s ei mp regna l ap i eza e np a ra f ina . A lguno s f r agmen to s s e h an t e n ido q ue p ega r c on p egamen to P la s t ic P add ing .

R esu l tado L amen tab lemen t e l a m ayo r-f a d e l o s f r agmen to s s on i mpo s ib le s d e i d en t if ica r . A lguno s d e l o s f r agmen to s , s i n e mba rgo , h an s i do t r ansfo r rnado s e n o b je to s q ue s e p ueden i d en t if ica r . D icho s f r agmen to s i nd ica r fan p a r te d ep i eza s : c uch i l lo s ,c i nce l yu na t i j e ra . Du ran te l ac on se rvac iön t u ve l ad i recc iön yc on su l to r ia d e l aa r queo loga H i lkka M . L a r s ted t y d e l a D oc to ra Ma rga re ta K lockhof f d e R ik san t ikvar ieämbe te t . E l p roce so d e c on se rvac iön s e l ev6 a cabo e n A rkeo log i ska F or skn ing s labora tor ie t d e l aU n ive r s idad d e E s toco lmo b a jo l at u to r-f ad el aP rof e so ra B i rg i tA r rhen iu sd u ran te a b r i l ymayo d e 1 991 .

R e fe renc ias A r sandaux , H . yR ive t , P . 1 946 L a m g ta l lurg i e n Amgr ique p rgco lomb ienne , U n ive r s i t6 d e P a r i s , T ravaux e t Memo i re s d e l ' In s t i tu t d 'E thno log ie , V o l . XXX IX , Mu s6e d e l 'Homme , P a r i s Amb ro se t t i , J . B . 1 904 " E l b ronce e n l ar e g ion C a lchaqu i" , A na le s d e l Museo d e H i s tor ia N ac iona ld eB ueno sA ir e s ,N o . 1 ,163-314 B ird ,J .B . 1 943 " Excava t ion si nN o r the r n C h i le" , A n thropo log ica lP aper so ft h e Amer ican Mu seum o fN a tura lH i s tor y , V o l . 3 8 , P a r tI V : 1 79-316 , N ew Y o rk 1 943 B oman , E . 1 908 A n t iqu i tg s d e l ar eg ion a nd ine d e l aR gpub l ique A rgen t ine e td u d e ser t d 'A tacama ,I mp r ime r ie N a t iona le , V o l . 2 ,P a r i s Gonzä lez , A .R . 1 979 " P re -Co lumb ian Me ta l lu rgy o f N o r thwe s t A rgen t ina : H is to r ica l D eve lopmen t a nd C u l tu ra l P roce s s" , e n B en s son , E .P . ( e d . ) ,1979 P r e -Co lumb ian Me ta l lurgy o fS ou th Amer ica :133-202 ,D umbar ton O ak s , Wa sh ing ton

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Maye r , E .F . 1 986 " Vo r span ische Me ta l lwaf f en u nd we rkzeuge i nA rgen t in ien u nd C h i le . A rma s yh e r ram ien ta s d e m e ta l p reh ispän ica s e n A rgen t ina yC h i le" , AVA - Ma ter ia l i en , B and 3 8 , München N o rdensk iö ld , E . 1 921 T he C opper a nd B ronze A ge s i n S ou th Amer ica , C ompa ra t ive E thnog raph ica l S tud ie s , V o l .4 ,G ö tebo rg R o land i d e P e r ro t , D .S . 1 974 " Un h a l lazgo d e o b je to s m e t ä l ico s e n e l a r ea d e l R io D once l la s ( p rov inc ia d e J u juy )" , R e lac ione s d e l aS oc iedad A rgen t ina d eA n tropo log i a , ( Bueno s A ire s ) , N ueva S e r ie 8 ,1 53160 U h le , M . 1 910 " La s r e lac ione s p r eh i s tö r ica s e n t re e lP e rü yl aA rgen t ina" , e n A c tas d e l 1 7 C ongr eso I n ternac iona ld e Amer ican i s ta s , I :5 09 — 540 , B ueno s A i re s V en tu ra , B .N . 1 985 Me ta lurg ia : U n a spec to p oco c onoc ido e nl aa rqueo log ia d e l a ss e lva s o cc id en ta les , P rog rama d e E s tud io s P reh i s tö r ico s , I n fo rme s d e I nve s t igac iön 2 ,C on ice t , U n ive r s idad d eB ueno sA ire s , B ueno s A i re s

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1 4 . L os P i chao : A po r tes d esde l ae t noh is to r ia E s te la S .N o l i yMar i a Margar i ta A rana

I n t roducc iön E l o b je t ivo d ee s te t r aba jo e se ld ep l an tea rp o ru nl a do , l ap rob lemä t ica q ue s u rge a l rededo r d e l t ema d e l ai d en t idad 6 t n ica d e l g rupo d e l o s P ichao y p o r o t ro , e s tab lece r l a s r e lac ione s e n tab lada s p o r é s to s c on l o s d i f e ren te s g rupo s e spar io le se s tab lec ido s e nS an M igue l ap a r t i rd e l s i g lo XV I . R e spec to al ai d en t idad s ea na l iza l ap e r tenenc ia d el o sP i chao au n idade s 6 t n ica s mayo re s ys up o s ib le o r igen m i tmakuna . E n r e lac iön c on e lp rob lema d e l o s c on tac to s i n te li tn ico s , b r indamo s i n fo rmac iön s ob re l aa c tuac iön d e l o s j e su i ta s e n l ar eg iön y e li n g re so a l s i s tema d e l a e cono rn ia c o lon ia l a t r av6 s d e l a e ncom ienda y l a s p re s tac ione sl a bo ra le sq ue 6 s ta i mp l icaba . P a ra e s te t r aba jo s e h an r eun ido l o s ü l t imo s a por te s d e l ab ib l iog raf fa e t noh is tö r ica yd ocumen to s 6 d i to s ei n 6d i to s c omo c a r ta s yc r ön ica sj e su i ta s yd ocumen to s 6 d i to s ei n 6d i to s d e l A rch ivo H i s tö r ico d eT ucumän , A rch ivo N ac iona ld e S uc re yA rch ivo G ene ra ld eI nd ia s .

l d en t idad ö t n ica i , Qu iene sh ab i taban e ls i t io d e lP i chao c uando l ega ron l o se spar io le s? e ra s ui d en t idad 6 t n ica? D u ran te mucho t i empo s e c on s ide rö q ue e s te s i t io h ab ia s i do e la s ien to d e l o s C o la lao . S u s ten taba e s ta i d ea l ai mpo r tanc ia d e l g rupo e n l a sc rön ica s c o lon ia le s yl a r e levanc ia d e s u s r u ina s . I nve s t igac ione s r e c ien temen te r ea l izada s d e sde l a e t noh i s to r ia y l a a r queo log ia h an mod if icado s ub s tanc ia lmen te e lc onoc im ien to s ob re l o s p ueb lo s q ue h ab i ta ron e ls i t io e ne ls i g lo XV I . Ap a r t i r d e l a s i n ve s t igac ione s r e a l izada s p o r e le qu ipo s ueco—a rgen t ino ( Co rne l l yJ ohan son , 1 993 ) s e e s tab lec iö q ue e ls i t io h ab r ia s i do a bando n ado h ac ia e la i lo 1 500 d .C . yq ue e ls e c to rh ab i tac iona l m a s p equer io e se l q ue h ab r ia p e rmanec ido p ob lado ap a r t i rd ee n tonce s .

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L o rand i yB o ixadö s ( 1989 ) h an c omp robado s u e x i s tenc ia c omo u na p a rc ia l idad p e r tenec ien te a lg rupo P acc ioca . E l n omb re d e l o s P ichao y a e s tä p re sen te e n l a s c a r ta s a nua s yh ab ia s i do n o tado p o rC a r r izo ( 1937 , 2 9 ) q ue l o s c on s ide raba u na p a rc ia l idad i n depend ien te " . . p eque f ia yp ac i f ica ." ( No l i , e ta l . , 1 995 , 9 9104 ) . P e ro n oe s tä muy c l a ro c omo s ea r t icu la ron 6 t n icamen te l o sp ueb lo s n omb rado se nl o sd ocumen to sc omo P acc ioca ,T o lombön , C o la lao yd en t ro d ee l lo sl o sP i chao . Uno d e l o s p rob lema s mä s i mpo r tan te s e s l au t i l izac iön p o l i san ica d e e s ta s e t noca tegor ia s , ( Lo rand i y B un s te r , 1 990 ) e n l a s c rön ica s y d ocumen to s c oe täneo s , p o r e l lo L o rand i yB o ixadö s ( 1989 ) h an o p tado p o r p o s tu la r t r e s h ipö te s i s : s egün l ap r ime ra p od r ia h abe r e x is t ido u na u n idad P acc ioca c on d o s p a rc ia l idade s T o lombön y C o la la° , e n l a s egunda h i pö te s i s f o rmu lan q ue u na u n idad c on n omb re d e sconoc ido i n c lu ir ia l a s t r e s p a rc ia l idade s ; f i na lmen te l a t e rce ra h ipö te s i s p l an tea q ue p od r ia e s tab lece r se l ae x is tenc ia d e d o s u n idade s 6 t n ica s , T o lombön y P acc ioca , a r t icu lada sb a jo l ah egemon ia d eT o lombön . E n u n t r aba jo p o s te r io r , A na Ma r ia L o rand i ( 1992 )h ae nfa t izado s ob re e l o r igen 6 t n ico d e l o s P acc ioca , p a ra e l lo s eb a sa e n l at r ad ic iön o ra l d e l s i g lo XV I I I r e cog ida p o r e l c ron i s ta j e su i ta P ed ro L ozano ( 17541755 , 1 8741 875 ) , l ac ompa rac iön e t no l ingü i s t ica , u t i l izada e n t r aba jo s s ob re e l a r ea A nd ina C en t ra l ( G lave , 1 989 ) ei n formac ione s e t noh is tö r ica s d i ve r sa s q ue h an r e i te rado n o t ic ia s s ob re l ap re senc ia d e m i tmakuna i n ca ico s e n l ap una m e r id iona l ye lV a l le C a lchaqu i . D en t ro d e e s te p roce so d e c o lon izac iön , v a r io s a y l lu s y p a rc ia l idade s d e l a r eg ion d e C ana s—Canch i s h ab r ian o cupado e lt e r r i to r io C a lchaqu id u ran te l ai n va s ion i n ca ica , r ep roduc ia ido se e n l at o pon im ia n omb re s c omo l o s d e C h icoana o S i cuan i , P oma , C ach i , L u raca ta yL aP aya. E l d a to q ue s e r e f ie re d i rec tamen te a lt ema d e n ue s t ro i n te r6 s e s e ld e l a y l lu Mapac ioca o r ig ina r io d e O ru ro u O ru r i l lo . L o rand i h a a soc iado e s ta i n fo rmac iön c on l aq ue b r indan L ozano y e lc ron i s ta B la s P once s ob re l a i n s ta lac iön d e m i tmakuna e n l ar e g ion d e Q u i re -Qu i re . Q u i re -Qu i re s egün R ex G onzä lez ( 1983 ) , h ab r ia s i do l ap rov inc ia i n ca ica q ue s ee x tend ia a ls u r d eC h icoana ,d e sde e le spac io o cupado p o rl o sT o lombön yl o sP acc ioca . O t ro e l emen to q ue e sc on s ide rado p o re s ta a u to ra h as i do l ap a r t ic ipac iön a c t iva d e l c u raca P acc ioca P ivan t i e n l ai n t roducc iön d e P ed ro B oho rquez e n e lV a l le C a lchaqu i , e n v i spe ra s d e l aü l t ima g ue r ra C a lchaqu i , q ue s e d e sa r ro l lö e n t re 1 659 y 1 666 . L o rand i ( 1992 , 1 4 1142 ) e xp l ica l ar e lac iön q ue h ay e n e s ta a l ianza e n l o s s i gu ien te s em ino s : " Boho rquez e ra u n e spa f io l q ue l egö a e s ta s t i e r ra s t r ayendo u n p royec to d e r e s tau rac iön d e l i mpe r io i n ca ico y s ie f ec t ivamen te l o s p acc ioca s p roced ian d e e s ta z ona p röx ima a l C uzco s u e s t ra teg ia p a ra r e impu l sa r l a r e s i s tenc ia d e l a s p ob lac ione s d e l v a l le c a lchaqu i c on t ra e l d om in io h i spano n o p a rece d e sp rov i s ta d el ög ica . S in e mba rgo e n e ls i t io d e l P ichao l aa r queo log ia n oh ac onf irmado e s ta s h i pö te s i s d eb ido aq ue h a s ta e l momen to s e h an e ncon t rado e s ca sa s t r aza s

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q ue e v idenc ian l ap r e senc ia i n ca ica ( Co rne l l yJ ohan s son , 1 993 , 4 2 ) . E s to s a u to re sh an e specu lado c on l ai d ea d eq ue l ad e spob lac iön d e l s i t io s eh ab r ia d ado ac au sa d el ai n va s ion i n ca ica . E n e s te c a so e ls i t io d e lP ichao n o s e r ia e l mä s a p rop iado p a ra s u s ten ta r l ah i pö te s i s d e l o s m i tmakuna i n ca ico s y s edan n ece sa r ia s e xcavac ione s e n l o s a s en tam ien to s d i spe r so s e n t re P ichao yT o lombön , t e r r i to r io d enom inado e nl o s d ocumen to sc omo " e l s i t io d el o s p acc ioca s" . L oq ue p a rece r ia c l a ro e sq ue l o sü l t imo sh ab i tan te sd e l s i t io d e l P ichao , s ie r an d e scend ien te s d e m i tmakuna i n ca ico s s e h abr ian i n s ta lado l uego d e mod if ica rs uc u l tu ra m a te r ia l . A s im i smo e s tä d ocumen tado q ue l o s e spa t io le s a d sc r ib ie ron a l a p ob lac iön q ue h ab i taba e l s i t io c omo p e r tenec ien te s a l g rupo 6 t n ico P acc ioca : " . . p o r c uan to h ab iendo s i do p ac if icado yc onqu i s tado af u e rza d ea rma s ,l o si nd io sd e lp ueb lo p acc ioca y d emä s s u sa ne jo s ys u sp a rc ia l idade sc omo s on l a sp a r c ia l idade sd eC o la lao , l a p a rc ia l idad d e P i ch iao , l a p a rc ia l idad H anch iyoqqu i l l yA l lamanog i l s u je to s aD on A d re s G ua l imay p o r m ue r te d e l c ap i tan J uan d e E scoba r . . " ( ANB 1 677 /38 F6 6v ta ) ( No l i , e ta l . , 1 995 ) .

R e lac iones i n te rö tn icas C on l a e xped ic iön m i l i ta r d e l g obe rnado r R am i rez d e V e lazco e n 1 588 , l egan a la r ea v a l l i se r rana l o sJ e su i ta s . E lc onoc im ien to d el al e ngua c acana l o s c o loca e n u na s i tuac iön p r iv i leg iada f r en te a l o s d emä s e spar io le s ys e i n ic ia u n p e r iodo e ne lc ua l s um ed iac iön , q ue s ea f ianza rä e n e ls i g lo XV I I , e sl aq ue a r b i t ra l a sr e lac ione se n t re e u ropeo s ei nd igena s . H ac ia 1 600 , l o s j e su i ta s r e toman l a i n ic ia t iva d e l o q ue l ama ron l a m i s iön d e C a lchaqu i ye n 1 609 i n ic ian s u s t r aba jo s l o s p ad re s J uan D a r io y Ho rac io Mo re l l i ( Leonha r t , 1 927 ) . S u l a bo r e n e lt e r r i to r io s ea s ien ta s ob re d o s e j e s p r inc ipa le s : e lp r ime ro s e a poya r ia e n l a c onc rec iön d e a l ianza s p o l i t ica s c on l a s d i f e ren te s j e ra rqu ia s d e l a s o rgan izac ione s s oc ia le s C a lchaqu ie s ye ls egundo e s ta r ia b a sado e n e lt r aba jo p rop iamen te e vang6 l ico , q ue i n f luye d i rec tamen te e n l a s s upe re s t ruc tu ra s m en ta le s at r av6 s d e l a e x t i rpac iön d e i do la t r ia s , d oc t r ina yc e leb rac ione sr e l ig io sa s ( No l i , e ta l . , 1 995 ) . F ue ra d ee s ta p o l i t ica h ac ia l aj e ra rqu ia d e c ada o rgan izac iön l o sj e su i ta s s e s i tüan e n t re l o s d i s t in to s g rupo s d e l v a l le e n u n r o l d e c on tenc iön d e v io lenc ia i n te r t r iba l y t amb i6n d e v i o lenc ia i n te r6 tn ica d e sp legada p o r l o s e ncomende ro s e n s u s i n cu r s ione s a l v a l le e n b u sca d e mano d e o b ra , l amada s g ene ra lmen te m a loca s . U t i l izamo s e l c oncep to d e " i n te r t r iba l" p a ra l a s r e lac ione s d e g rupo s s im6 t r ico s e" i n te r6 tn ico" p a ra l a s r e lac ione s a s im6 t r ica sc on l o sc o lon izado re s ( Ca rdo so d eO l ive i ra , 1 977 ) . A unque d e a l guna m ane ra l ad i a l6c t ica j e su i ta C a lchaqu i s e e xp re sa , a v ece s e n u n a va sa l lam ien to a l o s v a lo re s q ue s u s ten taban e l mundo i nd igena : q uemamo su na c a sa om ochade ro f amo so q ue e s tä p ue s to m uy d e f i e s ta q ue n unca h e v i s to o t ro t a n b i en a de r ezado yc on e lm ochade ro q uemamo s m uch i s ima s b a r i l la s

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c on s u s p l uma s yt e ngo g ua rdado s u no s i d o l i l lo s p a ra m o s t ra r le s a ls er io r o b ispo y g obemado r( Leonha r t , 1 927 ) .

P e ro l o s J e su i ta s s ab ian l im i ta r f a c i lmen te e l r e cu r s ( ) al a v io lenc ia u t i l izando t amb ien l ap e r sua s iön m a s d e spu6 s s eh i zo c on m ä s s uav idad , p e r suad iendo al o s i nd io s q uema sen l o s i d o lo s eh i c ie sen d e l l u ga r d onde s eh ac i a s a c r if ic io a ld emon io u na i g le s ia e n q ue s e o f rec iese a lv e rdade ro d io s

( Leonha r t , 1 927 ) .

D e e s ta mane ra l o s J e su i ta s g ene raban s i tuac ione s d e a mb iguedad a e ave s d e l a s c ua le s ym ed ian te l aa cep tac iön d el ap a r te e x te r io rd e l c u l to c r is t iano s ee s cond ian l o sr i to sa u töc tono s( Wach te l , 1 976 ;G ru s in sk i , 1 991) . D u ran te l av i s i ta d e l O b ispo C o r täza r a lv a l le e n 1 622 , q ueda c l a ra l a i n f luenc ia q ue e j e rc ian s ob re l o s p ueb lo s d e l s e c to r c en t ra l C a lchaqu i ( To lombön—Pacc ioca ) . S in e mba rgo a lm ed ia r l ad ecada d e l 1 620 d eben a bandona r l a s m i s ione s p o r e l i n c remen to d e l a v i o lenc ia i n tere tn ica r e tomando s o lamen te d e spue sd e lg ran a l zam ien to ( 16301643) . R e spec to al ar e lac iön c on o t ra se s f e ra sd e l mundo c o lon ia l s abemos q ue , d e l o s p ueb lo s d e l V a l le C a lchaqu i l o s P acc ioca p a recen h abe r s i do t emp ranamen te e ncomendado s e n v ec ino s d e l aj u r i sd icc iön d e S an M igue l . E n 1 609 , l o s j e su i ta s d e S an M igue l e n s u p r ime ra m i s iön e n C a lchaqu i ( Leonha r t , 1 927 ) e s c r iben a l s upe r io r d e l c o leg io d e sde u n p ueb lo d e l c ap i tän E scoba r s i n q ue s epamo s ac ua l d e l o s g rupo s P acc ioca s e h ace r e f e renc ia . E n 1 6 13 e spec if ican q ue v i s i ta ron P i chao " . . p ueb lo d e l c ap i tän E scoba r . " . E n u n d ocumen to d e 1 608 s abemo s q ue p a ra e s a f e cha , E scoba r y a h ab r ia p o se ido l ae ncom ienda p ue so t o rga u n p ode rd ea dm in is t rac iön s ob re s up ueb lo d eC a lchaqu i( L izondo B o rda 1 938 , 2 ,1 49 ) . N oe s tä c l a ro s ie lg rupo r e a l izö a l gün t i po d ep re s tac iön e ne s te p er iod ( ) t emp rano p e ro p odemo sa f irma rq ue h ac ia 1 627 E scoba rp uede a l ega rq ue " . . t e n ia p o re ncom ienda l o si nd io sd ec a lchaqu i ,e s taban r ebe lde s yn o d aban n ingün t r ibu to ye s taba n ece s i tado yp ob re . . " (AG I , C ha rca s 1 01 , N 3 7 , F1 4 ) . E scoba r p re tend ia o b tene r p a ra s u h i jo , J uan d e E scoba r e l mozo , l a e ncom ienda d e Ampa t i l la p a ra l oc ua l a r gumen taba l af a l ta d e p re s tac ione s d e s up rop ia m e rced ( AG I , C ha r ca s 1 0 1 , N3 7 , F1 4 ) . E scoba r ys u s h e rede ro s p ueden s e r c a rac te r izado s c omo m iembro s d e u na mode s ta e l i te d e S an M igue l q ue p o se ia s o la re s r u ra le s yu rbano s y a cce so a lp ode r p o l i t ico p a r t ic ipando e n e lc ab i ldo l oq ue p o s ib i l i taba s u s r e lac ione s c on l a g obe rnac iön a t r ave s d e l a s c ua le s o b ten ia p r iv i leg io s c omo l a c i tada e ncom ienda d e Ampa t i l la q ue l e o t o rgö a s u h i jo e l g obe rnado rQ u inone s yO sor io ( AG I ,C ha rca s 1 01 , N3 7 , F1 4 ) . L o s E scoba r e s taban e mpa ren tado s c on l af am i l ia Me l iän d e L egu izamo c a rac te r izada c omo u na d e l a s f am i l ia s mä s i mpo r tan te s d e S an M igue l y e r an e l lo s m i smo s d e scend ien te s d e l o s p r ime ro s c onqu i s tado re s . J uan d e

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E scoba r e s taba c a sado c on L u i sa d e G ueva ra , n i e ta d e J uan N uf iez d e G ueva ra , u no d e l o s p r ime ro s c onqu i s tado re s ye ncomende ro s d e S an M igue l ( No l i , e ta l . , 1 995 ; AG I , C ha r ca s 1 01 , N3 7 ) . P a rece r ia q ue h ac ia 1 635 m ien t ra s e lg r an a l zam ien to s ed e sa r ro l laba e n l a r eg iön D iagu i ta l o s p ueb lo s C a lchaqu i . L a d i f e renc iac iön e n t re l o s D iagu i ta y l o s C a lchaqu i f ue p e rc ib ida p o r l o s e spaf io le s l u ego d e l l e van tam ien to d e J uan C a lchaqu i d e 1 560 . E ng loba ron b a jo l a d enom inac iön d e D iagu i ta a l o s p ueb lo s q ue h ab i taban l o s v a l le s y mon tar ia s d e l a s a c tua le s p rov inc ia s d e C a tama rca , L a R io ja , S an J uan y c omo C a lchaqu i s e n omb raba a l o s p ueb lo s q ue h ab i taban e l V a l le d e C a lchaqu i c en t ra l ys u r ( Yocav i l ) ( Lo rand i yB un s te r , 1 990 ) . E n t re l o s C a lchaqu i , l o s P a cc ioca i n g re sa ron e n u n s t a tu s q uo c on e l mundo c o lon ia l q ue h a s i do d e sc r ip to p o r e lo b i spo Ma ldonado y S aaved ra d e l as i gu ien te mane ra : " . . yh al ap az q ue h emo s g ozado d e sde e la r io d e 3 5 , q ue e s t r ibaba e n d e ja r lo s e n s u s v a l le s yq ue e nv ia sen u na m i ta v o lun ta r ia al a s c i udade s c i rcunvec ina s , yq ue s a l ie sen c uando yc omo q ue r ian aa r rea r mucha s mu la s yv aca s a lP e rü , S a l ta , P o to s i , e n e s to y ae s taban e ngo lo s inado s yt r a ian s u s emp leue lo s e n e s ta q u ie tud e s tabamo s ye l lo s j amä s d i e ron t a n to f r u to" ( AG I , C ha rca s 1 22 , F1 0 ) . E s ta i n fo rmac iön q ue b r inda e l o b i spo s ob re l a i n teg rac iön e n l a s a c t iv idade s c o lon ia le s at r avA d em i ta s od e t r aba jo s i n depend ien te s p a rece h abe r se d e sa r ro l lado e n t re l o s P acc ioca ys u s e ncomende ro s q ue c on t inuaba s i endo l af am i l ia E scoba r . E n 1 653 r e su l ta e v iden te q ue l a moda l idad d e p res tac iön d e s e rv ic io s e h ab ia l og rado e s tab lece r ye s to s e b a saba e n e l c ump l imen to d e m i ta s e n l ae s tanc ia d e C ho romo ro s d e l o s E scoba r " . . s e l oh an d i cho s u s i n d io s d e s ue ncom ienda q ue a l guno sd e e i lo s l o s t i enen e n e lv a l le d e c ho romo ro s . " (L izondo B o rda 1 938 , I V , 3 4 ) . E s te s e rv ic io s e r ea l izaba c on r egu la r idad e n 6 poca s d e p az . E n e l m i smo d ocumen to s e e xp re sa l ap reocupac iön p o ru n a l zam ien to d eb ido aq ue r e f ie re E scoba r " . . n o l e b a ja l a m i ta d e a n te s . . " . E n l a e ncom ienda d e l o s P acc ioca e l e ncomende ro h ab ia l o g rado e s tab lece r l a a u to r idad d e u n a l ca lde i nd io c omo i n te r locu to rc on e lg rupo ,q ue e n 1 653 e r aD on E s teban . A l i n ic ia r se l a s egunda g ue r ra C a lchaqu i l o s P acc ioca s , c omo h emo s v i s to , p a r t ic ipa ron a c t ivamen te e n e lc onf l ic to y f u e ron u no d e l o s a l iado s f undamen ta le sd eB oho rquez e ne lV a l le C a lchaqu i . E n 1 659 l o s T o lombön , C o la lao y P acc ioca f ue ron d e r ro tados m i l i ta r men te f r en te a le j 6 rc i to d e Me rcado y V i l laco r ta y n egoc ia ron u n n uevo s t a tu s d e " i nd io s am igo s" ( AG I , C ha rca s 1 22 , F s . 2 6-30 v t a ) . Mä s t a rde f ue ron d e sna tu ra l izado s d e l V a l le C a lchaqu i , d eambu la ron e lp r ime rt i empo p o r l a j u r id icc iön d e S a l ta y f i na lmen te s e r eub ica ron e n e l V a l le d e C ho romo ro s ,e ne lP a ra je d eL a sT una s .

A mane ra d ec onc lus ion Nue s t ra i n ve s t igac iön n o s p e rm i te s o s tene r q ue l o s ü l t imo s p ob lado re s d e l s i t io d e l P i chao i n teg raban u na u n idad 6 t n ica mayo rP acc ioca oP acc ioca-

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C o la lao , g rupo r e lac ionado e s t rechamen te c on l aj e f a tu ra T o lombön . S in e mba rgo , n o n o s e sp o s ib le a f i rma r n id e secha r l a s h i pö te s i s p ropues ta p o r L o rand i r e la t iva a q ue e s to s p ueb lo s f ue ron d e scend ien te s d e m i tmakuna i n ca ico s ,q uedando l aü l t ima p a lab ra al aa rqueo log ia . R e spec to a l a s r e lac ione s c o lon ia le s , l o s P i chao e s tab lec ie ron d o s c on tac to s f undamen ta le s : c on l o s j e su i ta s , q ue t u v ie ron s u c en t ro d e o pe rac ione s e n e la r ea C a lchaqu i , yc on l af am i l ia E scoba r , al aq ue e s taban e ncomendado s r e a l izando m i ta e n l a e s tanc ia u b icada e n e l Va l le d e C ho romo ro s . E s to s c on tac to s n o d eben c onceb i r se c omo e s tab le s yl i nea le s , a lc on t ra r io ,e s tuv ie ron c a rac te r izado sp o ri n te r rupc ione sd u ran te l a sg ue r ra s ye n l o sp e r iodo sd em ayo rt e n s ion i n te r&n ica .

A rch ivos AG I

A rch ivo G ene ra l d e l a s I nd ia s , S ev i l la

ANB

A r ch ivo N ac iona l d eS uc re , B o l iv ia

AHT

A rch ivo H is tö r ico d eT ucumän

R e fe renc ias C a rdo so d e O l ive i ra , R . 1 977 " P roce so s d e A r t icu lac iön I n te r e tn ica e n B ra s i l" , e n E . H e rm i t te y L . B a r to lome , ( c omp . ) , P roce so s d e A r t icu lac iön S oc ia l , Amo r ror tu E d i t , B ueno sA i re s C a r r izo , J .A . 1 957 C anc ionero P opu lar d e l T ucumän , T omo 1 ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , B ueno s A i re s C o rne l l , P . yJ ohans son , N . 1 993 " De sa r ro l lo d e l a s en tam ien to d e l s i t io s Tuc T av 5 ( E l P i chao ) , P rov inc ia d eTucumän . C omen ta r io s /da tac ione s d e 1 4C y l um in iscenc ia" , P ub l icac ione s ,N o .2 ,I n s t i tu to d eA rqueo log ia , I nve s t igac ione s ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld e T ucumän , N o . 1 ,3 1-43 G lave , L .M . 1 989 T ra j inan te s : c am ino s i n d igena s e n l aS oc iedad c o lon ia l S . XV I—XV I I , I n s t i tu to d e A poyo A g ra r io , L ima G onzä lez ,A .R . 1 983b " La p rov inc ia y l a p ob lac iön i n ca ica d e C h icoana h i s to r ia y a r queo log ia e n l a s o luc iön d e u n v i e jo p rob lema" , e n P r e senc ia H i spän ica e n l a a rqueo log i a a rgen t ina , V o l . I , Mu seo R eg iona l d e A n t ropo log ia eI n s t i tu to d e H is to r ia F a cu l tad d e H uman idade s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e l N o re s te G ru s insky , S . 1 991 L a C o lon i zac iön d e l o I mag inar io , F ondo d e C u l tu ra E cönom ica , F .C .E . Mex ico L eonha r t , P .C . 1 927 D ocumen to sp ara l ah i s tor ia a rgen t ina , T omo X IX , C a r ta s Anua s d e l a P rov inc ia d e l P a raguay , C h i le y T ucumän d e l a C ompa i l ia d e J e sü s , I n s t i tu to d e I nve s t igac ione sH i s tö r ica s , F acu l tad d eF i lo so f fa yL e t ra s , B ueno s A i re s L izondo B o rda , M . 1 938 D ocumen to s C o lon ia le s , S e r ie 1 ,V o l s . I — IV , J un ta C onse rvado ra d e l A rch ivo H is tö r ico d eS an M igue l d eT ucumän , T ucumän

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L o rand i , A . M . 1 992 " E l m e s t iza je i n te r6 tn ico e n e l NOA" e n H . T amoeda yJ .L .M i l lone s ( comp . ) , 5 00 a f io s d e m e s t i za je e n l o s A nd e s , N a t iona l Mu seum o f E tno loghy , S em r i E tno log ica l S tud ie s3 3 ,133166 L o rand i , A .M . yB o ixadö s , R . 1 989 " E tnoh i s to r ia d e l o s v a l le s C a lchaqu i e s e n l o s s i g lo s XV I yXV I I" ,R una 1 718 ( Bueno s A i re s ) , 2 63-419 L o rand i , A .M . yB un s te r , C . 1 990 " Ref lex ione s s ob re l a s c a tego r fa s s emän t ica s e n l a s f uen te s d e l T ucumän C o lon ia l . L o s V a l le s C a lchaqu i e s" H i s tor ica , V o l . X IV N o . 2 U n ive r s idad d eB ueno s A i re s L ozano , P . 1 7541755 H i s tor ia d e l aC ompaf i t ad eJ e süs e n l aP rov . d e P araguay , 2v o l s . Mad r id L ozano , P . 1 8741875 H is to r ia d e l aC onqu i s ta d e l P a raguay , R io d e l aP l a ta yT ucumän , T omo sI V—V , I mp r en ta p opu la r , B ueno s A i r e s No l i , E . , A rana , M .M . , C a rbone l , A . 1 995 " Lo s P i chao : p ueb lo d e l g rupo P acc ioca a l momen to d e l c on tac to . S u a r t icu lac iön c on e l mundo c o lon ia l" , C uad erno s N o . 5 , R ev i s ta d e l aF acu l tad d e H uman idade s yC ienc ia s S oc ia le s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e J u juy , A rgen t ina Wach te l , N . 1 971 L o sv enc ido s , l o s i nd ios d e lP eru f r en te al ac onqu i s ta e spaf io la , A l ianza E d i t . , Madr id

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1 5 . E lP i chao : P ob lac iön a c tua l p a räme t ros b i odemog rä f icos N oem iA creche yM .V i rg in ia A lbeza

I n t roducc iön L a c ond ic iön p anm fc t ica d e u na p ob lac iön , e s u n s upue s to b ä s ico p a ra e l c ump l im ien to d e l a s l e ye s d e l e qu i l ib r io g ene t ico , q ue i mp l ica l a c on se rvac iön d e la ce rvo d el ap ob lac iön s i n mod if icac iön e ne lt i empo . E s ta c ond ic iön , s i n e mba rgo , r a ra v ez s e c ump le e n l a s p ob lac iöne s h umana s , q uedando e s ta s s u je ta s ac amb io s m ic roevo lu t ivo s q ue e sn ece sa r io e s tud ia r ye va lua r . L o s f a c to re s q ue i n c iden e n l a s e lecc iön d e p a re ja , p o r s u d ive r s idad ( c u l tu ra le s , b io lög ico s , g eog räf ico s , e t c . ) , p onen d e m an if ie s to l a n ece s idad d e e nca ra r s u e s tud io d e sde l a c onf luenc ia d e d i f e ren te s d i sc ip l ina s . L a d emog ra f fa h a s i do t r ad ic iona lmen te l a mä s c e rcana a l a i n te rp re tac iön d e l a s p au ta s d e a pa ream ien to . P o r o t ra p a r te , l ag ene t ica d e p ob lac ione s e s c en t ra l e n l af o rmu lac iön d e l o s mode lo s i n te rp re ta t ivo s d e l a s c on secuenc ia s d e e sa s p au ta s s ob re l a e s t ruc tu ra g ene t ica d e u na p ob lac iön y s u m od if icac iön e n e lt i empo . E n l a s ü l t ima s d ecada s s e h a p ue s to e n e v idenc ia l ai mpo r tanc ia d e l o s a po r te s q ue l ad emog ra f fa y l a g ene t ica p ueden h ace r al a a n t ropo log fa . D e sde e s ta s d i sc ip l ina s s e h an p roduc ido a vance s m e todo lög ico s p a ra l am ed ic iön y e l a nä l i s i s q ue h an h echo p o s ib le l au t i l izac iön d e d a to s c uya o b tenc iön e s m eno s c o s to sa q ue l ad el o se s t r ic tamen te g ene t ico s . E n 1 922 , S ewa l l Wr igh t p ropu so u na m ed ida d e l a e ndogam ia , E l C oef ic ien te d e E ndocruzam ien to , c uyo o b je to f ue e va lua r e f ec to s t a le s c omo l ad ec l inac iön d e l v i go r h f b r ido y e la umen to d e l au n ifo rm idad o l a p e rd ida d e l a v a r iab i l idad e n l a p ob lac iön . E s te c oef ic ien te , d epende d e mane ra d i rec ta d e l t ama t io p ob lac iona l ye s a demä s p ropo rc iona l al a v a r ianza g ene t ica p e ro r equ ie re e lc onoc im ien to d e l a g enea log fa d e l o s i nd iv iduo s , q ue d e sde e l p un to d e v i s ta m e todo lög ico e s muy d i f fc i l d e o b tene r . E nl at e o r fa d el as e lecc iön n a tu ra ld e sa r ro l lada p o rD a rw in ,e lc amb io e n l a e s t ruc tu ra g ene t ica d epende f undamen ta lmen te d e l a mo r ta l idad y l a f e cund idad d i f e renc ia l . E l f nd ice d e o po r tun idad p a ra l as e lecc iön e s t ima l a

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t a sa d e s e lecc iön a l a q ue s e e ncuen t ra s u je ta u na p ob lac iön y e s te p a räme t ro d emog räf ico -pob lac iona l i n c ide a demä s e n e l g rado d e c on sangu in idad , y aq ue e nf am i l ia sc on m ayo rn üme ro d ed e scend ien te sh ay t amb idn m ayo rp robab i l idad d eu n ione sc on sangu inea s . L a s c omun idade s p eque t ia s ya i s lada s o s em ia i s lada s p re sen tan u n p a r t icu la r i n te rd s q ue a l canza a spec to s t a n to t e ö r ico s c omo p räc t ico s . S i b i en l a s c on s ide rac ione s t e ö r ica s p e rm i ten p reve r q ue h ay a l gün g rado d e c on sangu in idad e n e s ta s p ob lac ione s , s u e va luac iön y s egu im ien to e s p a r t icu la rmen te i mpo r tan te , s ob re t o do c on s ide rando l at e ndenc ia s ecu la r a l ad i so luc iön d el o sa i s lado s ( Ac reche e ta l . , 1 997 ) . E l a i s la rn ien to e n t re d o s o mä s p ob lac ione s e s d e g r an i mpor tanc ia c omo f e nömeno e vo lu t ivo y aq ue d ep ro longa r se e lm i smo ,l aa cumu lac iön d e mu ta c i one s e n c ada u na d e e la s p uede c onduc i r as u d i f e r enc iac iön , p rov i s to u n p e r iod° d e t i empo s uf ic ien temen te l a rgo ( Ac r eche , 1 994 ; F a lcone r , 1 976 ; L ewon t in , 1 984 ) . E s tud io s r e a l izado s e n p ob lac ione s p equef ia s e xp l ican l a d i ve rgenc ia g end t ica e n t re d s ta s c omo u n e f ec to d e l p roce so d i spe r s ivo ( Azof e if a y B a r ran te s , 1 991 ; B e r t ranpe t i t yC ava l l i -Sfo rza , 1 99 1 ; C ava l l i -Sfo rza , 1 969 ) q ue a lo cu r r i r i ndepend ien temen te e n d i f e ren te s s ubpob lac ione s , c onduce a l ad i f e renc iac iön g end t ica e n t re e l la s . T a l d i f e renc iac iön s ev e a f ec tada p o r e lg rado d ec on tac to q ue m an tengan l a s s ubpob lac ione s( f lu jo g dn ico ) , q ue a s u v ez p uede s e r f unc iön d e l as epa rac iön g eog rä f ica e n t re e l la s (W r igh t , 1 943 ) . L a e ndogam ia t amb idn e s tä v i ncu lada a lt amd io e f ec t ivo d e p ob lac iön (W r igh t , 1 938 ) , y aq ue l ap robab i l idad d eq ue d o si nd iv iduo sq ue s ea pa rean a la za r e s tdn empa ren tado s e s m ä s a l ta m ien t ra s e lt ama t io e f ec t ivo d e l a p ob lac iön e sm eno r . E ns i tuac ione sr e a le s ,p a ra m ed i rl o se f ec to sd el ad e r iva , e sn ece sa r io c a lcu la r e lt ama r io e f ec t ivo d e l ap ob la c iön ( Maga lhae s yA r ce G ömez , 1 987a ) . L a s m ig rac ione s j un to c on e l t amd io e f ec t ivo p ob lac iona l , p erm i ten e va lua r e li mpac to s ob re l ae s t ruc tu ra g end t ica at r avd s d e l C oef ic ien te d e A i s lam ien to R eproduc t ivo , c omo i n d icado r d e l as u jec iön a d e r iva b a jo l a q ue s ee ncuen t ra u na p ob lac iön . A s im i smo , e lt ama i io e f ec t ivo p ob lac iona l y l a m ig rac iön e f ec t iva s on u t i l izado s p a ra m ed i r e l g rado d e c onsangu in idad e nu na p ob lac iön . E n l a ü l t ima d dcada s e h an p ub l icado e s tud io s d e e s t ruc tu ra g end t ica u sando u na g ran v a r iedad d e d a to s p a ra p ob lac ione s h umana s q ue , mä s a l lä d e r e a l iza r u na b ä s ica d e scr ipc iön i n c luyen s upue s to s d e c amb io s m ic roevo lu t ivo s al ol a rgo d e l t i empo ( Ca rne se , 1 992 ; C a rne se y C a ra t in i , 1 992 ; Maga lhae s y A r ce -Gömez , 1 097a , 1 987b ; S a lzano y C a l lega r i J acque s , 1 988 ) . C on r e spec to a l ag end t ica d e l a s p ob lac ione s , d i f e ren te s a u to re s h an r e cop i lado i n formac iön s ob re l a s f r ecuenc ia s g dn ica s d e d i ve r so s l u ga re s d e l mundo . E n S udamd r ica , S ou th Amer ican I nd ians . A c ase S tudy i nE vo lu t ion e s e la n teceden te m ä s i mpo r tan te p a ra e la r ea , s i n r e f e renc ia s e spec i f ica s a ls e c to rd e l n o roe s te a r gen t ino ( Ca l lega r i -Jacque s y S a lzano , 1 988 ) . O t ro s i n c luyen d a to s d emog rä f ico s c omo a i s lam ien to ,

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u rban izac iön , c on secuenc ia s g en6 t ica s d e i n c remen to d e m ig rac iön y v a r iac iön e n e lt ama i io p ob lac iona l . L a m ayo r fa d e e l lo s c oncen t ra ron s u a t enc iön e n e li mpac to d e l am ig rac iön s ob re l ad i f e renc iac iön g en6 t ica , y a q ue p uede c amb ia r l ae s t ruc tu ra g eno t ip ica y a l te ra r l ao po r tun idad p a ra l a s e lecc iön ( Ac reche e ta l . , 1 994 ; A lbeza , 1 995 ; B a rbu jan i yS oka l , 1 990 , C ava l l i -Sfo rza , 1 969 ; R e le th fo rd , 1 99 1 , S a lzano , 1 980 ) . E s p robab le q ue , c omo l os er ia la A na Mar ia L o rand i ( 1992 ) , l af a l ta d e t r aba jo s q ue a bo rdan e s ta p rob lemä t ica e n n ue s t ra r eg iön e s u na c on secuenc ia d e l a p rofunda mod if icac iön d e s u p e r f i l c u l tu ra l p o r e l i mpac to d el ac o lon izac iön ye lm e s t iza je , a demä sd el ac a renc ia d ee s tud io s d emog rä f ico s .

P ob lac iön ya rea d e e s tud io E l a r ea d e l o s V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s , s e e ncuen t ra e n t re l o s c o rdone s d e l a C o rd i l le ra O r ien ta l d e l o s A nde s , e n e lb o rde e s te d e l aP una A rgen t ina . S e d es taca c omo c a rac te r i s t ica d e l a r ea , e lt e ne r l ar ep re sen ta t iv idad e co lög ica d e l s e c to r mä s s ep ten t r iona l d e l Mon te O cc iden ta l , f o rmac iön e xc lu s iva d e A rgen t ina , y s u s a dyacenc ia s c on l a s f o rmac ione s f i togeog rä f ica s y f aun i s t ica sd eP repuna yP una ( Cab re ra 1 976 ) . G ran p a r te d e l p a i sa je s e e ncuen t ra d o rn inado p o r l ap re senc ia d e u na c ac täcea c o lumna r c a rac te r i s t ica , e l c a rdön , T r ichocer eus p a sacana , e xp lo tada j un to a lä r bo l c hurqu i , P ro sop i sf erox , c omo f uen te s d e m ade ra ( Ac reche e ta l . , 1 989 ) . S e h a o b se rvado t amb i6n u na i n te re san te v a r iedad d e e spec ie s d e f auna , e n t re l a s q ue s ed e s tacan l o s z o r ro s c o lo rado s yg r i se s ( Dus icyon c u lpaeus y D . g r i seus ) , g a to s mon te se s ( F e l i s g eof f roy i i ) , p uma s ( F . c onco lor ) , q u i rqu incho s ( Chae tophrac tus s pp . ) , v i zcacha s s e r rana s ( Lag id ium v i scac ia ) , c a t i ta s e r rana ( Bo lborhynchus a ur if ron s ) , c abec i taneg ra a nd ino ( Cardue l i s u ropyg ia l i s ) , h a lcön p e reg r ino ( Fa lco p eregr inus ) , yc ondo r a nd ino ( Vu l tur g r yphus ) . L o s V a l le s e s tuv ie ron p ob lado s h ace p o rl om eno s 1 00 00 a r io s , c omo l o p rueban l ac an t idad d e e v idenc ia s a r queo lög ica s e ncon t rada s e n l az ona . A p r inc ip io s d e l p r e sen te s i g lo , l a r e g iön e r a a u to suf ic ien te e xpo r tando g anado , p roduc iendo t r igo y c ome rc iando p i e le s d e c ab ra , z o r ro , v i cur ia y c h inch i l la . D e spu6 s d e l a S egunda G ue r ra , l a e xpo r tac iön d e g anado d ec l in6 , yc on e l la l ae conom fa d el o sV a l le s . C omo c on secuenc ia , l ar eg iön p o see e n l aa c tua l idad s a ldo m ig ra to r io n ega t ivo . L a s a cc ione s a n t röp ica s y s u c on t inu idad e n e lt i empo , h an d e te rm inado u n p roce so d e d eg radac iön amb ien ta l , c uya c a rac te r i s t ica p r inc ipa l e sl ad e se r t if icac iön ( Ac reche e ta l . , 1 989 ) . L a p ob lac iön a c tua l , e n s u mayo r ia o cupan te s d e l a s t i e r ra s p o r v a r ia s g ene rac ione s , r e p re sen ta u na muy b a ja d en s idad y e s tä i n teg rada p o r p a s ta je ro s ob i en p eque f io s p roduc to re s q ue p rac t ican l a a g r icu l tu ra y g anade r fa d es ub s i s tenc ia ( D ib , 1 989 ) .

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E l P ichao s e e ncuen t ra e n l o s f a ldeo s d e l a S i e r ra d e Q u i lme s oE l C a jön , a6 6 ° OE y 2 6 ° S . S egün P a lac io s e ta l . ( 1996 ) , E l P i chao e s tä h ab i tado p o r 6 1 f am i l ia s , d e l a s c ua le s 4 9 s on p e rmanen te s . E l p r inc ipa l c u l t ivo e s l an uez , s i gu iendo e n i mpo r tanc ia o t ro s f r u ta le s c omo d u razno , m anzana ,p e ra , m emb r i l lo ,e t c

M e todo log f a L o s d a to s b iodemog rä f ico s f ue ron o b ten ido s m ed ian te e ncue s ta s d i rec ta s a t o do s l o s h ab i tan te s q ue s ee ncon t raban e n e lp ueb lo e n e lm e s d e e ne ro d e 1 997 , e n 3 2 v i v ienda s . E n c ada v i v ienda s ei d en t if ica ron h oga re s , d ef in ido s c omo g rupo s d e p e r sona s , empa ren tada s on o , b a jo u n m ismo t e cho y q ue c ompa r ten g a s to s d e a l imen tac iön . S e r e co lec ta ron l o s s i gu ien tes d a to s : s exo , e dad , l uga r yf e cha d en ac im ien to , l u ga rd er e s idenc ia h ab i tua l , e s tado c i v i l , l u ga r yf e cha d e ma t r imon io , r e lac iön d e p a ren te sco , e dad a l a q ue t u vo e l p r ime r h i jo , n üme ro d e h i jo s n ac ido s v i vo s ya c tua lmen te v ivo s , o cupac iön yn i ve l d e i n s t rucc iön d e c ada i n d iv iduo . P a ra c ada p ad re /mad r e , s er eg i s t ra ron : s exo , l u ga r yf e cha d e n ac im ien to , e dad , l uga r d e r e s idenc ia h ab i tua l , e s tado c i v i l , r e lac iön d e p a ren te sco c on l am ad re /pad re y l ae dad e nc a so d ef a l lec im ien to ,d ec ada u no d el o s h i jo s . Ap a r t i rd e e s ta i n fo rmac iön , s ec ompu ta ron P ropo r c iön S exua l ( nüme ro d e v a rone s c ada 1 00 mu je re s ) p a ra e l t o ta l d e l a mue s t ra y f r acc iön r e p roduc to ra , P romed io d e G ame ta s c on t r ibu ida s p o r P ad re ( p romed io d e h i jo s a c tua lmen te v i vo s p o r p ad re ) , R e lac iön n i l lo s -mu je re s ( c oc ien te e n t re e ln üme ro d e n i r io s d e 0a4 a r io s yd e mu je re s d e 1 5 a4 9 a r io s ) , P ob lac iön R ep roduc to ra ( N r) ,T ama t io E f ec t ivo P ob lac iona l ( N e) ,M ig rac iön E f ec t iva ( m e) , C oef ic ien te d e A i s lam ien to R ep roduc t ivo ( N m) , C oef ic ien te d e E ndogam ia ( F ) eI nd ice d eO po r tun idad p a ra l aS e lecc iön ( I ) . E n l ap ob lac iön r ep roduc to ra ( N r)s ec on s ide ra ron h omb re s d e 1 5 a i lo s y m ä s y mu je re s d e 1 5 a4 9 a rm s c on p o r l om eno s u n h i jo v i vo e n t re 0 y 3 0 a r io s . E lT ama r lo E f ec t ivo P ob lac iona l ( N e)f u ee s t imado s egün Maga lhae sy A rce -Gomez ( N =( 2N 2 ) /[ ( k -1) + V k

k ] , s i endo ke ln üme ro m ed io d e

g ame ta sp o rp ad re yV k s uv a r ianza ( Maga lhae s yA rce -Gomez , 1 987a ) . L a M ig rac iön E f ec t iva ( m e)f u e e s t imada ap a r t i r d e l aa p rox imac iön d e Ma l6co tc omo me =

[ rn

2 k ) [1 2, / d onde m r e p re sen ta l at a sa d em ig rac iön

d e l a rgo a l cance y k d e c o r to a l cance ( r e s iden te s e n l az ona d e l o s V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s ) ( Maga lhae s yA rce -Gomez , 1 987a ) . E l C oef ic ien te d e E ndogam ia p a ra a pa ream ien to s a la za r f u e c a lcu lado p o r l a f ö rmu la d e Wr igh t u t i l izando e l t amaf io e f ec t ivo y l a m ig rac iön e f ec t iva : F=( 1 -m e) 2 /[ 2N e-( 2N e1 ) ( 1 -m e) 21( Maga lhae s yA rce -Gömez , 1 987a ) . P o r ü l t imo , s e c ompu tö e lI nd ice d e O po r tun idad p a ra l aS e lecc iön ( I ) c on s ide rando e l n üme ro d e n ac ido s v i vo s p o r m ad re , p ropo rc iön d e

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s ob rev iv ien te s d e sde e ln ac im ien to h a s ta l ae dad r ep roduc to ra ( p) , n üme ro med io d e p rogen ie p o r m ad re ( xs) ,v a r ianza d e l n üme ro d e p rogen ie p o r mad re ( V f) y e l n üme ro d e mue r te s d e sde e l n ac im ien to h a s ta l a e dad r ep roduc to ra ( pd= 1

-

ps) : I= I m+ ( If/ps)s i endo I .= p d/p s( po tenc ia l d e

s e lecc iön p o r mo r ta l idad p rema tu ra ) eI f = Vt./xs2 ( po tenc ia l d e s e lecc iön d eb ido af e cund idad d i f e renc ia l ) ( Cava l l i -Sfo rza y B odme r , 1 981 ; Maga l h ae s yA rce -Gomez , 1 987b ) .

R esu l tados yd i scus ion L a e dad p romed io d e l o s p ob lado re s d e E l P i chao e s d e 3 0 .92 a rm s ( N = 1 33 , a=2 4 .59 ) ( F igu ra 1 5 .1) . E n l a s mu je re s , l a med ia e s d e 3 2 .68 ( a = 2 6 .49 ) ye n l o s v a rone s d e 2 9 .03 ( a =2 2 .43 ) , s i endo l a d i f e renc ia n o s i gn if ica t iva ( a =0 . 39 ) . E n c uan to al ae dad d e n ac im ien to d e l p r ime rh i jo , e lp romed io g ene ra l e s d e 2 2 .89 a f io s ( a =6 . 06 ) , s i endo 2 0 .97 ( a =4 . 43 ) p a ra l af r acc iön f emen ina y 2 5 .67 ( a =7 . 05 ) p a ra l am a scu l ina , c on u na d i f e renc ia a l tamen te s i gn if ica t iva =0 . 001) . S e h a c on s ide rado l ae dad p romed io e n l aq ue l a s m u je re s t i enen s up r ime rh i jo c omo u n i n d icado rd e l t i empo d eg ene rac iön . S e h ar eg i s t rado u n m äx imo d e 1 2 h i jo s n ac ido s v i vo s , c on u n p romed io p a ra ambo s s exo s d e 4 . 9 ( a =3 . 25 ) . E s te r eg i s t ro e sd e 5 . 1 ( a =3 . 46 ) p a ra l a s mu je re s y4 . 59 ( a =2 . 95 ) p a ra l o s v a rone s . L a d i f e renc ia e n t re e l n üme ro d e h i jo s n ac ido s v i vo s p a ra a mbo s s exo s n o e s s i gn if ica t iva . E l mäx imo d e h i jo s s ob rev iv ien te s p a ra l a p ob lac iön t o ta l e s 1 , c on u n p romed io d e 4 . 22 ( a =2 . 77 ) . L a p ropo rc iön s exua l e s d e 9 2 .74 p a ra l a p ob lac iön t o ta l y 15 p a ra l af r acc iön r e p roduc to ra . E s ta d i f e renc ia e n t re l a p ropo rc iön s exua l e n l a p ob lac iön g ene ra l yl a f r acc iön r ep roduc to ra r ep re sen ta u na s i tuac iön d i f e ren te al ad e l a s o t ra s l o ca l idade s e s tud iada s , q ue r ef le ja p a ra E l P i chao l ar e tenc iön d e v a rone s e n e dad r ep roduc to ra , l o q ue n o o cu r re e n l o s o t ro s c a so s , p robab lemen te p o r r a zone s d e o po r tun idade sl a bo ra le s .

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F i gu ra 1 5 .1 . P i räm ide p ob lac iona l d e P i chao .

D e l o s 1 33 h ab i tan te s r eg is t rado s e n e l momen to d e l a s e n t rev is ta s , e l6 4 .66 %e so r ig ina r io d eE l P ichao , e l2 7 .82 % e sm ig ran te d e sde o t ra s l o ca l idade s d e l o s V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s ye l7 . 52 % p rov iene d e l o ca l idade s mä s a l e jada s ( F igu ra 1 5 .2 ) . E n e lc a so d e .l a s m ig rac ione s , n o s eh ar eg is t rado d i f erenc ia s s i gn if ica t iva se n t re l o s s exo s .

F i gu ra 1 5 .2 . M ig ran tes e n P i chao .

L ar e lac iön n if io s mu je re s ( 565 .22 )i nd ica u na b a ja f e cund idad , muy i n f e r io r al ad e o t ra s l o ca l idade s e s tud iada s e n l ar e g iön d e l n o roe s te a r gen t ino ( La A lumb r e ra , P rov inc ia d e C a tama r ca , 1 428 .57 ; l o ca l idade s d e l aP una e n t re 9 28 .57 y 1 388 .89 ) , a ün c uando l ap ob lac iön e f ec t iva r e p re sen ta e l4 8 .6 %

2 00

d e l af r acc iön r e p roduc to ra , v a lo r muy s upe r io r a lc a lcu lado p a ra l a s o t ra s p ob lac ione se s tud iada s . L a M ig rac iön e f ec t iva e sd e 0 . 253 , v a lo r muy p röx imo al o s r eg i s t rado s e n l a s p ob lac ione s p uneha s d e l aP rov inc ia d e S a l ta a unque i n f e r io r al o s d e l a s l o ca l idade s e s tud iada s e n e lV a l le d e L e rma d e l am i sma p rov inc ia yd e L aA lumb re ra . E l C oef ic ien te d e A i s lam ien to R ep roduc t ivo e sd e 5 . 29 , v a lo rq ue i nd ica u na mode rada s u jec iön a l aD e r iva Gn ica . E n a i s lado s p ob lac iona le s d e b a ja d en s idad , p o r e j emp lo , e l g rado d e c on sangu in idad e s o bv iamen te mayo r . N o n ece sa r iamen te s e a l e jan d e l a p anm ix ia , s i no q ue c omo c onsecuenc ia d e l ap eque i la m agn i tud d e s u s e f ec t ivo s , a ün r n an ten iendo c ruzam ien to s a l a za r , l a p robab i l idad d e q ue l o s p rogen i to re s d e u n i nd iv iduo e s t6n e mpa ren tado s ,e sa l ta . L o sr e su l tado sd el ae ndogam ia yl ad e r iva s on l o s m i smo s , d e a h fq ue e l C oef ic ien te P romed io d e E ndogam ia d e u na p ob lac iön ( F ) s e a u na m ed ida d e l p roce so d i spe r s ivo ( Cava l l i -Sfo rza y B odme r , 1 981 ; F a lcone r , 1 976 ) . P a ra l a l o ca l idad d e E l P ichao , e l C oef ic ien te d e E ndogam ia h a s i do e s t imado c omo 0 . 029 , u n a l to v a lo r q ue s ee ncuen t ra d en t ro d e l oe spe rado p a ra p ob lac ione sp equef ia s ys em i -a i s lada s . E l I nd ice d e O po r tun idad p a ra l a s e lecc iön e s d e 0 . 482 , v a lo r q ue i gua lmen te s ee ncuen t ra d en t ro d e l o s c a lcu lado s p a ra o t ra s p ob lac ione s e n s im i la r s i tuac iön . E l c omponen te d eb ido amo r ta l idad e s d e 0 . 018 y e ld e f e cund idad 0 . 46 , s i endo 6 s te ü l t imo e lq ue m an if ie s ta l a mayo r i n c idenc ia d el as e lecc iön . L a d i s t r ibuc iön d e l o s n ac im ien to s a l o l a rgo d e l a t io , e s u na c a rac te r i s t ica d e u na p ob lac iön q ue v i ncu la s u s p a r t icu la r idade s b iodemog rä f ica s c on f a c to re s c l imä t ico s , s oc iocu l tu ra le s ye co lög ico s . S in emba rgo , n o s e o b se rva e n e l c a so d e l a p ob lac iön d e E l P i chao u na d i f e renc ia n o tab le e n c uan to a e s te f a c to r e n n i nguna d e l a s e s tac ione s ( F igu ra 1 5 .3 ) .

F i gu ra 1 5 .3 . N ac im ien tos p o re s tac iön e n P i chao .

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C onc lus iones L a p ob lac iön d e E l P i chao p o see u na b a ja f e cund idad ap e sa r d e s u s a l to s e f ec t ivo sp ob lac iona le s , s ee ncuen t ra mode radamen te s u je ta al o s e f ec to sd e l aD e r iva G 6n ica yal aS e lecc iön N a tu ra l , s ob re t o do e n s uc omponen te d e f e cund idad .

A g radec im ien tos S e a g radece m uy e spec ia lmen te e la poyo b r indado e n e lc ampo p o r l aL ic . Ma r ia C la ra Med ina .

R e fe renc ias A c reche , N . 1 994 " La E vo luc iön d e l H omb r e" ,N o ta sd e C ä ted ra , C .E .F . I .Sa , S a l ta A c reche , N . , A lbeza , M .V . y C a ru so , G . B . 1 997 E ndogam ia e n u na p ob lac iön s em ia i s lada : S an ta R o sa d e l o s P as to s G rand e s ( Sa l ta ) , MS , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e S a l ta A c reche , N . , C a ru so , G . yA lbeza , M .V . 1 996 " D i s tanc ia s G ene t ica s e n P ob lac ione s d e l NOA" , R ev i s ta A rgen t ina d eA n t ropo log i aB io lög ica , 1 ( 1) , 1 39152 A c reche , N . , M . d e V iana y P a lad , C . 1 989 " Lo s C a rdone s . D i s t r ibuc iön , a bundanc ia y c r ec im ien to" , S er ie C onocer p ara P r e ser var , N °7 , Mu seo d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s , S a l ta A lbeza , M .V . 1 995 D er iva G gn ica : E s t ruc tura P ob lac iona l e n P ob lac ione sA nd ina s , T e s is P rof e s iona l , UNSa ,F CN A zof e if a ,J . yB a r ran te s , R . 1 991 " Gene t ic v a r ia t ion i nt h e B r ib r i a nd C abeca r Ame r ind ians f r om T a lamanca ,C o s ta R ica" , R ev i s ta d eB io log i a T rop ica l . , 3 9( 2 ) , 2 49-253 B a rbu jan i ,G . yS oka l , R . 1 990 " Zone so fs ha rp g ene t ic c hange i nE u rope a r ea l so l i ngu is t ic b ounda r ie s" , P roceed ings o ft h eN a t iona lA cadamy o fS c ience s ,U SA , 8 7 ( 5 ) , 1 8161819 B er t ranpe t i t , J . yC ava l l i -Sfo rza , L .L . 1 991 " A g ene t ic r e cons t ruc t ion o ft h e h i s to ry o ft h e p opu la t ion o ft h e I b e r ian P en in su la" , T he Amer ican J ourna lo fH uman G ene t ic s , 5 5 ,516 7 C ab re ra , A . L . 1 976 " La s r eg ione s f i togeog räf ica s a r gen t ina s" , E nc ic loped ia A rgen t ina d e A gr icu l tura yJ ard iner i a , E d . A cme , B ueno s A i re s C a l lega r i Jacque s , S .M . yS a lzano , F . 1 988 . S ou th Amer ican I nd ians . A C a se S tudy i n E vo lu t ion , C la rendon P re s s , O xfo rd C a rne se F .R . yC a ra t in i , A . 1 992 " Demog raf fa g ene t ica d e u na p ob lac iön T oba d e V i l la I a p i ( Qu i lme s , P rov . B ueno s A i r e s )" , E TN IA 3 6 /37 ,9-28 C a rne se , F .R . 1 992 " Demog raf ia g ene t ica d e p ob lac ione s a bo r igene s d e A rgen t ina" , R ev i s ta B ra s i le ira d eG en& ica ,B raz i l ian J ourna l o fG ene t ic s , 1 5 (1) , 3 20-326 C ava l l i -Sfo rza , L .L . 1 969 Amer ican , 3 ,26-33

" De r iva g ene t ica e n

u na p ob la c iön

i t a l iana" ,

S c ien t if ic

C ava l l i -Sfo rza , L .L . yB odme r , W .F . 1 981 G enj t ica d e l a s P ob lac ione s H umanas , E d . Omega , B a r ce lona

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D ib , A . 1 989 A nä l i s i s S oc ioe s truc tura l d e l aR e ser va N a tura l L o s C ardone s , C onse jo d e I nve s t igac ione sd el aU n ive r s idad d e S a l ta , S a l ta F a lcone r , D .S . 1 976 I n t roducc iön a l a G en6 t ica C uan t i ta t iva , E d . C on t inen ta l , S .A . Mex ico , S egunda E d ic iön L ewon t in , R . 1 984 L aD iver s idad H umana , B ib l . S c ien t if ic Ame r ican . E d . L abo r L o rand i , A .M . 1 992 " E l m e s t iza je i n te re tn ico e n e l NOA" e n H . T amoeda yJ .L .M i l lone s ( c omp . ) , 1 992 5 00 a f ios d e m e s t i za j e e n l o s A nd e s N a t iona l Mu seum o f E tno loghy , O saka , S eno r i E thno log ica lS tud ie s3 3 ,133166 Maga lhae s J .C . M . yA r ce -Gömez , B . 1 987a " S tudy o n aB raz i l ian i s o la t I .P opu la t ion s t ruc tu re a nd r a ndom g ene t ic d r if t" ,H uman H er ed i ty , 3 7 ,278-284 Maga lhae s J .C . M . yA r ce -Gömez , B . 1 987b " S tudy o n aB raz i l ian i s o la te I . O ppo r tun i ty f o rs e lec t ion" ,H uman H er ed i ty , 3 7 ,381-383 P a lac io s , R . A . a nd P ob lado re s d e E l P i chao 1 996 E s tud io p r ev io d e f ac t ib i l idad d e p royec tos g enerador e s d e r e cur so s e conöm ico s yc amb ios p ara m e jorar l ac a l idad d e v i da d el o sh ab i tan t es d eu np ueb lo . E lP ichao , T ucumän , A rgen t ina .M .s . R e le thfo rd , J .H . 1 991 " E f f ec t o f c hange s i np opu la t ion s i ze o n ag ene t ic m ic rod if f e r en t i a t ion" ,H uman B io logy ,6 3 (5 ) , 6 29-64 1 Wr igh t , S . 1 938 . " S ize o f p opu la t ion a nd b r eed ing s t ruc tu re i n r e la t ion t o e vo lu t ion" . S c ience , 8 7 , ( 2263 ) Wr igh t , S .1 943 . " I so la t ion b yd i s tance" , G ene t ic s , 2 8 ,114138

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1 6 . L a h i s to r ia r eg iona l e n l a e scue la p r ima r ia . U n e s tud io d e c aso e n l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän Mar i a C lara Med ina

C omen ta r io i nc ia l E s te t r aba jo h a s i do r e a l izado e n e l m a rco d e l P royec to d e I nve s t igac iön s ueco -a rgen t ino Emergence a nd g row th o fc en tr e s . Ac a se s t udy i nt h eS an ta Mar i a v a l ley , NW A rgen t ina ( 19891994 ) e j ecu tado p o r e l I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log fa d e l a U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän ( A rgen t ina ) ys u h omön imo d el aU n ive r s idad d eG o tembu rgo ( Suec ia ) . E l m a te r ia l d idäc t ico q ue a qu i s e a na l iza f ue r e levado e n e l t r an scu r so d e d i f e ren te s v i s i ta s a e scue la sr u ra le s d e l o s V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s , n o roe s te a r gen t ino , r ea l izada s e n 1 990 , 1 991 , 1 992 y 1 993 . E ne s te a r t icu lo s ea na l iza rä e le s tud io d eu nc a so . A p e sa r d e l o s a l-1 o s t r an scu r r ido s , l o s t ema s a qu i m enc ionado s n o h an p e rd ido s u v i genc ia : p o r u na p a r te , l ad i scu s iön s ob re l an ueva L ey F ede ra l d e E ducac iön ( s anc ionada e n 1 994 p e ro n unca t o ta lmen te e f ec t iv izada ) a i m e s u no d e l o s a sun to s p end ien te s e n e lC ong re so N ac iona l d e l aR epüb l ica A rgen t ina . P o rl ao t ra , ap e sa rd el ar eo rgan izac iön d el o sn i ve le se sco la re sy d e l a p ro longac iön d e l a e ducac iön p r ima r ia e n d o s a t io s mä s , n uevo s r e levam ien to s e f ec tuado s e n 1 997 y 1 998 i n d ican q ue l ar e a l idad e duca t iva , a l meno s e n l az ona r u ra l , n o h a s i do mod if icada s u s tanc ia lmen te p o r e s te a g regado . A unque h ay q ue d e s taca r l ai n co rpo rac iön d e n uevo m a te r ia l d idäc t ico , l o s a n t iguo s m anua le s yt e x to s u t i l izado s a n te r iormen te p a ra a le n se i ianza c on t inüan e n u so . L o s n uevo s t e x to s c uen tan e n s u m ayo r ia c on u n a l to d e sa r ro l lo g rä f ico y s u a spec to e x te r io r s eh a mode rn izado , s i n emba rgo l o s c on ten ido s c on t inüan l amen tab lemen te s i endo muy s im i la re s a l o s

9

U na v e r s ion p r e l im ina rd ee s te t r aba jo f u e p r e sen tada e n l a s" Jo rnada sd eR ef lex ion s ob re e lc oncep to d eR eg ion" ,r e a l izada s e n l aU n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän ( 22-24 d e A b r i ld e 1 993 ) . S uc on ten ido h as i do r e v i sado p o rl aa u to ra p a ra l ap r e sen te e d ic iön ( v e r C omen ta r io i n ic ia l ) .

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a n te r io re s . E s ta d e sac tua l izac iön d e l o s c on ten ido s e n l o s l i b ro s d e e nser ianza s e p e rc ibe c l a ramen te n o s o lo e n t e x to s d e s t inado s a l a e s co la r izac iön p r ima r ia , s i no t amb i6n —y e spec ia lmen te —a l ae ducac iön d e a du l to s ( C r i s t ina H e red ia d e P e rea , c omun icac iön p e r sona l ) . E s ta c on t inu idad r enueva l av igenc ia d el ap re sen te c on t r ibuc iön .

I n t roducc iön ( Lo sL u te s ) F ue ron l o s i n d io s m ä s b o r racho s q ue s ec onoc ie ron e n t o do e lt e r r i to r io a rgen t ino , c omo t amb i6n g rande s l a d rone s . T en fan l ac o s tumb re d e q ue , c uando e n t raban e n l u cha c on o t ra t r ibu , t oh ac ian c omp le tamen te d esnudo s . L u jän , G rego r io R . 1 978 Manua l T ucumän p ara 4w . g rado , e d ic iön A tena s , T ucumän , 1 93 . D eu so e s co la ri n ten s ivo e n l a se s cue la s p r ima r ia sr u ra le sd el ap rov inc ia d eT ucumän .

E n l o s ü l t imo s d i ez a r io s , h an s i do n ume ro sa s l a s o po r tun idade s e n q ue p edagogo s eh i s to r iado re s h an c o inc id ido e n l an ece s idad d e l ad i fu s iön d e l ah i s to r ia n ac iona l e n l ae n ser ianza p r ima r ia s egün p a räme t ro s r e g iona le s . S in emba rgo , h an s i do e sca so s l o s r e su l tado s p o s i t ivo s a lr e spec to , ap e sa r d e l a s d ec la rac ione s r e tö r ica s yd e l o s b ueno s p e ro f a l l ido s p ropö s i to s d e a l guna s a u to r idade s e duca t iva s . V a l io so s t r aba jo s d e n ume ro so s e spec ia l i s ta s ( l amen tab lemen te , mucho s d e e l lo s a ün n o p ub l icado s ) p rocu ran a vanza r e n e l a nä l i s i s d e l o s c on ten ido s ym 6 todo s p a ra l a e n ser ianza d el ah i s to r ia e nl ae s cue la p r ima r ia ( Bra s lay sky , 1 991) . P e ro n o e se lo b je t ivo d e e s te t r aba jo d e ta l la r s u s a c ie r to s . S in emba rgo , e s i mpo s ib le c on s ide ra r l ae n ser ianza d e l ah i s to r ia r e g iona l e n e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino ( NOA ) s i n c on s ide ra r p r ime ro l a s c a rac te r i s t ica s g ene ra le s d e l a e n ser ianza d e l ah i s to r ia n ac iona l e n l a s e s cue la s p r ima r ia s d e l aA rgen t ina , yr e lac iona r la s e n u n o rden d i rec tamen te p ropo rc iona l c on l a d i fu s iön e s co la rd en ue s t ra h i s to r ia c omo r eg iön . N uevo s i n ten to s d e r e ac tua l iza rl o s c on ten ido s d e l ah i s to r ia a r gen t ina s e h an c r i s ta l izado d u ran te 1 999 e n l a s c o lecc ione s d e f a sc icu lo s p ub l icada s p o r d o s d e l o s d i a r io s d e m ayo r t i rada e n A rgen t ina : " Enc ic loped ia V i sua l d e l aH i s to r ia A rgen t ina" d e C lar i n e" H is to r ia A rgen t ina" d e P äg ina/ 12 . Amba s c uen tan c on a poyo d e c onoc ido s e spec ia l i s ta s e n l a ma te r ia p e roa unque l a p r ime ra c on t iene u na g rä f ica c onvocan te p a ra n i f io s y a do le scen te s —amba s r ep roducen t odav ia a l guno s d e l o s p reconcep to s q ue s e m enc ionan e n e s te t r aba jo , s ob re t odo l o s r e f e r ido s a l r e la to " pue r toc6n t r ico" d el ah i s to r ia yal am i rada s imp l if icado ra s ob re l as oc iedad p r eh i spän ica . E n r e a l idad , l a v i s iön d e l a h i s to r ia n ac iona l q ue s e t r an sm i te e n l a e s cue la e s f undamen ta lmen te c on t ro lada p o r e l e s tado p e ro n o h ay q ue o l v ida r q ue e s ta o r ien tac iön , t a l c omo a pa rece e n l o s t e x to s d e u so e sco la r ,

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e s s o lo u na d e l a s t a n ta s mane ra s p o s ib le s d e c omp rende r l o s h echo s d e l p a sado ( R iekenbe rg , 1 991a , 1 3 ) . L a s d i f e ren te s c ond ic ione s s oc iocu l tu ra le s e spec ia le s d e c ada r eg iön , l o s d i s t in to s p roce so s d e ma rg inac iön s oc ia l , l o s d i f e ren te s g rado s d e e s co la r idad i n s t i tuc iona l izada , l a e x i s tenc ia d e man if e s tac ione s i n te rp re ta t iva s d i ve r sa s , e t c . s on c ond ic ionan te s c uyo a nä l is i s e si mp re sc ind ib le al ah o ra d e u na p l an if icac iön d e l ae n ser ianza d e l ah i s to r ia . S in emba rgo , e sc omün e ncon t ra re n l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to u t i l izado s e n l o s n ive le s p r ima r io y m ed io d e l ae ducac iön f o rma l a rgen t ina , l at e ndenc ia a p re sen ta r u na h i s to r ia c a rac te r izada , s ob re t o do , p o r l a m i t if icac iön d e s i tuac ione s y p e r sona je s , a s i c omo p o r g ro te sca s s imp l if icac ione s i d eo lög ica s yp o r l aa u senc ia d e l ap r e sen tac iön d e p rob lemä t ica s s oc ia le s c omp le ja s ( R iekenbe rg , 1 991a ,1315 ; P uh le , 1 991 , 2 1 ; R iekenbe rg , 1 991b ,175 ; B a ta l län yD iaz , 1 990 ,4 3 ) . / . . / s e e s camo tean l o s g o lpe s d e E s tado , d e sapa recen l o s mov im ien to s s oc ia le s ys e o bv ian l a s t r an sfo rmac ione s e conöm ica s d e n ue s t ro p a l s yd e l mundo c on tempo räneo / . . /( Bra s lav sky , 1 991 , 6 9 ) .

E x is te u n c l a ro d ivo rc io e n t re l a p roducc iön h i s to r iog räf ica mode rna y c on tempo ränea d e l a A rgen t ina y s u d i fu s iön a t r ave s d e l a e ducac iön i n s t i tuc iona l izada . E s c omün o b se rva r q ue e lc onoc im ien to p roduc ido p o r l o s p rof e s iona le s c i en t i f ico s s e r e f le ja c on mucho a t ra so e n l o s l i b ro s d e e n ser ianza . Muy p oco s h i s to r iado re s s e h an p reocupado p o r e l abo ra r , p a ra le lamen te a s u p roducc iön c i en t i f ica , l o s m i smo s r e su l tado s d e s u i nve s t igac iön p e ro t r aduc ido s yp roce sado s e n u n c öd igo a cce s ib le p a ra s e r d i fund ido s e n l a e s cue la p r ima r ia . E n g ene ra l , l o s c onoc im ien to s a cadem ico s r e c ien te s q ue e n r iquecen l ap rob lemä t ica h i s tö r ica r eg iona l n o t r a sc ienden mucho m ä s a l lä d e l o s e spec ia l i s ta s d i rec tamen te i n vo luc rado s e n s u e s tud io , n it ampoco h an l og rado i mpac ta r a lp üb l ico n o c i en t i f ico , y a q ue , p o rl og ene ra l , n o s on c omune s l a s e xpe r ienc ia s d e d i vu lgac iön d e e s te ma te r ia l c on d i f e ren te s p o s ib i l idade s d i scu r s iva s , l a s c ua le s v o lve r ian e s ta i n fo rmac iön mä sa t rac t iva ya cce s ib le p a ra e ll e c to rc omün . E l mode lo p edagög ico v i gen te i mpone e l man ten im ien to d e c i e r ta s f a ls if icac ione s h i s tö r ica s . S u p ropö s i to e s a decua r l ai n fo rmac iön l ad e e s te t i po d e h i s to r ia , al aq ue L u i s G onzä lez l ama " de b ronce" p o rque , c on u na p rofunda d e sa c tua l izac iön b ib l iog räf ica yc on g rave s e r ro re sd ei n fo rmac iön ( Säba to , 1 992 , 1 ) , b u sca p ropone r mode lo s d e c onduc ta p a ra i m i ta r : l a h i s to r ia e sco la re su n p e rpe tuo r e cue rdo mo ra l ye j emp la r izan te d e l p a sado . No e sc a sua l ,e n tonce s ,d e scub r i rq ue E s l ah i s to r ia p ref e r ida d e l o s g ob ie rno s / . . / E s t amb i6n l ad i sc ip l ina q ue m e jo r l e s i en ta al o sd om inado re s . ( Gonzä lez , 1 984 , 6 7 , 7 2 ) .

Un e j emp lo d e e l lo e s l a m adu rac iön d e d i s t in to s m i to s h i s tö r ico s ( l a " r evo luc iön" e n Mex ico , B o l iva r e n V enezue la , l o s L opez , p ad re eh i jo , e n

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P a raguay , e t c . ) . E n n ue s t ro s t e x to s a pa rece l a i n ev i tab le p resen tac iön r omän t ica d e l g aucho c omo p ro to t ipo d e l " s e r n ac iona l" , s imbo lo d e l a s upe rv ivenc ia m e s t iza d e l a s m a t r ice s 6 t n ica s o r ig ina le s d e l a c tua l t e r r i to r io a r gen t ino ( pe ro l a p rob lemä t ica d e s u " de sapa r ic iön" o c ue s t ionam ien to s s ob re l o s r eg imene s d e t e nenc ia d e l at i e r ra e n e lp a l s s on i n ex i s ten te s e n l a l i t e ra tu ra h i s tö r ica e s co la r ) . T amb i6n e sf r ecuen te l am i t if icac iön d el af i gu ra d e l " caud i l lo" c omo u n p e r sona je c a r i smä t ico , d e a r ra igo p opu la r yc on i n f luenc ia r eg iona l ( p e ro l a p r e sen tac iön d e 6 s te n o s i rve p a ra r e f e r i r a l f e nömeno h i s tö r ico d e l " caud i l l i smo" y s o lo s e q ueda e n l a d esc r ipc iön p e r sona l izada d e c a rac te re s p a r t icu la re s ) ( R iekenbe rg , 1 991b ; B a ta l län y D iaz , 1 990 ) . S in e mba rgo , e s te t i po d e i n te rp re tac iön h i s tö r ica f u e c ue s t ionada d u ramen te e n l a s ü l t ima s d 6cada s , d eb ido a l f r aca so d e s u s upue s ta f unc iön c omo f a c to rd el e g i t imac iön p o l i t ica yd er egu lac iön d el o s c onf l ic to s s oc ia le s . A p e sa r d e e l lo , s u p räc t ica e n l o s t e x to s e sco la re s c on t inüa s i n mod if icac ione s r e levan te s ( R iekenbe rg 1 991a ,16 ; B ra s lay sky , 1 991 , 6 1) . L ae xa l tac iön d e f i gu ra s e j emp la re s i n im i tab le s p o rl o s p r iv i leg io s d e s uo r igen s oc ia l i mpon ia s e cuenc ia s n a r ra t iva s d e h echo s e xc lu s ivamen te p o l i t ico s ym i l i ta re s , l oq ue a s u v ez c onduc ia a u na e xce s iva p a r ce lac iön d e e ven to s e n l o s q ue e r a i mpo s ib le r e conoce ru na e s t ruc tu ra . ( Co lmena re s 1 991 , 1 32 ) .

N o e sd e e x t rar ia r , e n tonce s , q ue e x i s ta u na g ran r e s is tenc ia p o rp a r te d e l o s i n d iv iduo s e ducando s , s u je to s p a s ivo s d e l a s p räc t ica s e xpo s i t iva s d e l o s d ocen te s , ai n te r io r iza r c omo p rop ia u na h i s to r ia n ac iona l q ue s e l e s p r e sen ta l e jana , a j ena , e s te reo t ipada e n l a s uce s iön i n in te r rump ida d e h omb re s yh echo s " r e levan te s" p a ra l ac on s t rucc iön d e l p a l s c omo n ac iön i n depend ien te . L ah i s to r ia s el e s p r e sen ta , e n tonce s , c omo u n c ompend io d e n omb re s , f e cha s ya c tuac ione s p o l i t ico in s t i tuc iona le s e n l a s q ue n o p ueden r e conoce r l o s a n teceden te s d e 6 s ta , " su" r e a l idad c on tempo ränea , l a q ue v i ven d i a r iamen te yq ue , s upue s tamen te ,r e conoce a n teceden te se na qu6 1 1a . L o s l i b ro s / . . / a cumu lan i n fo rmac iön i n conexa s ob re d i ve r sa s c ue s t ione s , p e ro p r inc ipa l i s imamen te s ob re g obe rnan te s , h echo s m i l i ta re s yp o l i t ico s . E n a l guno s c a so s i n c luyen a l guna i n fo rmac iön r e co r tada d e c a räc te r s oc ia l oe conöm ico , p e ro q ue d e n i nguna m ane ra p e rm i te c omp r ende r l o s p roce so s h i s tö r ico s / . . / , n i mucho m eno s s u c u lm inac iön e n p rob lema sa c tua le s . ( Bra s laysky 1 991 , 6 3 ) .

L amen tab lemen te , l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to n or ef le jan mä s q ue e lm a rco p o l i t ico i n s t i tuc iona ld e l d e sa r ro l lo h i s tö r ico n ac iona l . L ah i s to r ia s oc ia l , ol ah i s to r ia e conöm ica , ol a " h is to r ia -p rob lema" , ol a h i s to r ia d e l a v i da c o t id iana , i n c lu so l o s r eg i s t ro s d emog räf ico s ol a n a r rac iön d e l a h i s tor ia d e l o s d i f e ren te s mov im ien to s s oc ia le s q ue s u rgen ys ed e sa r ro l lan c on e lp a so d e l t i empo , t odo A to e s i g no rado e n e lr e la to d e u na c rono log izac iön l i nea l d e d a to s , am enudo i n conexo s , c uyo " sen t ido" h i s tö r ico , a pa ren temen te , s e d educ i r ia d e s u s o la p re sen tac iön e n c on jun to ( Co lmena re s , 1 991 , 1 32 ;

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S äba to , 1 992 , 1 ; M fguez , 1 992 , 1 7 ) . E s ta s e xp re s ione s u t i l izada s e n l a d i fus iön d e l ac i enc ia h i s tö r ica e n l o s t e x to s e sco la re s n o h acen mä s q ue d emo s t ra r , at r av6 s d e l a v i genc ia d e a r ca ico s e s t i lo s d i scu r s ivo s , l a p e rmanenc ia d e l ah i s to r iog ra f fa p o s i t iv i s ta d ec imonön ica c omo r e f e ren te p a rad igmä t ico d ec onoc im ien to h i s tö r ico v ä l ido od e l d om in io l i be ra l d e l a s i n s t i tuc ione s e s co la re s ( c f . R iekenbe rg , 1 991b , 1 75176 ; M fguez , 1 992 ,16 ; B a ta l län , 1 987 ,4 2 ) . A e s ta s f a lenc ia s , m e recen a g rega r se o t ra s d o s : e n p r ime r l u ga r , l a d ef ic ien te p repa rac iön e nc i enc ia s s oc ia le s ( e ne spec ia l ,e nh i s to r ia n ac iona l ) q ue r e c iben c omünmen te l o s mae s t ro s p r ima r io s e n f o rmac iön , c uyo s l i b ro s d e t e x to c on t ienen muy p oca s d i f e renc ia s c ua l i ta t iva s c on l o s t e x to s e l abo rado s p a ra l ae scue la p r ima r ia . E n s egundo l uga r , l ac i rcun s tanc ia q ue l a mayo r fa d e l o s a u to re s d e l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to n o s on h i s to r iado re s p rof e s iona le s , s i no e n s u m ayo r fa p edagogo s , p rof e so re s d e l i t e ra tu ra , a v ece s p oe ta s , e t c . E s to c ond ic iona l ap r e senc ia d e u n f ue r te a cen to e n l o s a spec to s i n s t i tuc iona le s yl e ga le s , l o sc ua le s n or equ ie ren m ayo re se s fue rzo s i n te rp re ta t ivo s n i e xp l ica t ivo s p o r p a r te d e q u iene s e sc r iben e s te t i po d e " h is to r ia s" ( M fguez , 1 992 , 1 9 ; S äba to , 1 992 , 1) . E n e s ta t ö n ica , l ai n ve s t igac iön e n E s tud io s S oc ia le s e s tä r educ ida a u na b l i squeda b ib l iog räf ica c on l ag u fa d e u n c ue s t iona r io e l abo rado p o re ld ocen te , os ec onv ie r te e n u na t o urnie s ob re e ls abe r d i fund ido p o r m anua le s ye nc ic loped ia s . ( Ba ta l län , 1 987 , 4 3 ) .

E le s tud io d e u n c aso : l ah i s to r ia r e g iona l p reh ispän ica e n u na e scue la p r ima r ia E n e s te t r aba jo s ep re tenden a na l iza r l a s c ond ic ione s d e l ae n ser ianza d e l a h i s to r ia p reh ispän ica d e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino e nl o sd i f e ren te sc i c lo s on i ve le s d e l ae s cue la p r ima r ia N o . 2 3 d e E l A rbo la r , e n e lv a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia , a7 km a l o e s te d e C o la lao d e l V a l le ( Depa r tamen to T a f f , P rov inc ia d e T ucumän ) . E xpe r ienc ia s a n te r io re s yn ume ro sa b i b l iog ra f fa a lr e spec to h an s er ia lado l ap oca u t i l idad d e l aa p l icac iön i n d iv idua l d e l at 6 cn ica d e a nä l i s i s d e l o s d i scu r so s l i t e ra r io se nl o s manua le s yl i b ro s d el e c tu ra d el ae s cue la p r ima r ia ( Puh le , 1 991) . S e c on s ide rö c onven ien te , p o r l ot a n to , e n e s ta o po r tun idad c onf ron ta r l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to u t i l izado s c o t id ianamen te p o rl o s m ae s t ro s d e g rado ( manua le s , l i b ro s d e l e c tu ra , l i b ro s d e e f e rn6 r ide s , e t c . ) c on l o s " Con ten ido s M fn imo s d e l N ive l P r ima r io C omün" q ue r i gen p a ra l a p rov inc ia d e T ucumän , p o r u na p a r te ; y ,p o r l ao t ra , c on s ta ta r s u a p l icac iön d i rec ta o mod if icada e n l a s o p in ione s ye xpe r ienc ia s d e c ada u no d e l o s e ducado re s e n t rev i s tado s . D e e s ta m ane ra , s e p re tende c onoce r n o s o lo l o q ue o f ic ia lmen t e d ebe e n ser ia r se d e l a h i s to r ia r eg iona l , s i no l o q ue v e rdade ramen te s e e n ser ia y c ömo s e l o h ace e n l ap räc t ica d i a r ia e n l o s d i f e ren te s g rado sd eu na e s cue la r u ra ld ea l ta mon ta i ia . E sd ec i r ,

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I . . ! e f ec tua r u n a nä l is is c ompa ra t ivo d e l a s c l a se s d e h i s to r ia y l o s l i b ro s d e h i s to r ia c on e lo b je to d e b u sca rl o sf a c to re s q ue i mpu lsan yl o sq ue i n h iben e ld e sa r ro l lo ( de u na c onc ienc ia p a r t ic ipa t iva )e n l a sm en te sd el ag en te / . . /( Puh le , 1 991 , 2 3 ) .

L a h i s to r ia d e l o s t i empo s p reh i spän ico s e n n ue s t ra r eg iön , e l NOA , n o o cupa g ran e spac io e n l ap l an if icac iön c u r r icu la r d e l a s C ienc ia s S oc ia le s . C abe s e f ia la rq ue l ae ducac iön p r ima r ia e n l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän s er i ge a ün p o rl o s " Con ten ido s d e l n i ve l p r ima r io c omün" d e l a io 1 979 p a ra t odo s l o s c i c lo s ( v e r A p6nd ice 1 ) . A p e sa r d e l a r e a l izac iön d e l C ong re so P edagög ico N ac iona l , l a m ayo r ia d e l a s c onc lu s ione s r e f er ida s a l a r eg iona l izac iön d e l o s c on ten ido s n o h an p rovocado mod if icac iones e n l o s p rog rama s d e e s tud io p a ra l a e scue la p r ima r ia e n T ucumän .1 0 E s e n l a p räc t ica d ocen te d onde s e e v idenc ian l a s a decuac ione s d e f a c to q ue l o s d ocen te s d e g rado r e a l izan e spon tänea y c omünmen te d e a cue rdo a l a r e a l idad s oc ioeconöm ica , h i s tö r ica y g eog rä f ica d e l g rupo d e a l umno s q ue t i enen as uc a rgo c ada a io . C omo e xper ienc ia d e m ue s t reo , e s ta s a c t iv idade s s e r ea l iza ron c on e l o b je t ivo d e , p r ime ro , a j u s ta r l a s t 6 cn ica s i n ve s t iga t iva s d e a p rox imac iön s e lecc ionada s p rev iamen te y ,e n u n s egundo p a so , e l abo ra r u n d i agnö s t ico t e n ta t ivo d e l a r e a l idad d e l a e n se t ianza d e l a h i s to r ia r eg iona l e n l a s e s cue la sp r ima r ia sd e lN o roe s te A rgen t ino . S e c on su l ta ron t odo s l o s t e x to s d e u so c o r r ien te e n c ada u no d e l o s g rado s ,t a n to l o s l i b ro sd el e c tu ra sc omo l o sm anua le s ( v e rA p6nd ice 2 ) . S a lvo t r e se xcepc ione s (v e rA pa id ice 2 :B ravo F igue roa , 1 981 ; C o rva län yA ba lo s , 1 988 ; L u jän , 1 978 ) t odo s l o s d emä s t e x to s h an s i do e l abo rado s p o r a u to re s ye d i to r ia le s d e l aC ap i ta l F ede ra l . U n r a sgo c omün e n t odo s e l lo se sq ue l ah i s to r ia d e ln o roe s te a r gen t ino e s tä c on tada d e sde e lp uer to d e B ueno s A i re s : t oda r e f e renc ia ( c uando e x i s te a l guna ) al ar eg iön d e l NOA s e l im i ta al ac on t r ibuc iön q ue d e sde s u g eog ra f ia o at r av6 s d e s u s " g rande s h omb re s" h ap od ido h ace r al ah i s to r ia " cen t ra l" , e sd ec i r , al ah i s to r ia d e l a c onfo rmac iön n ac iona lc on tada e nl o st e x to se sco la re sd e sde e ls i g lo XV Ie n a de lan te c omo l ah i s to r ia d e l ar eg iön p ampeana y s u v i s ion d e l r e s to d e l t e r r i to r io n ac iona l . U n p rob lema p a ra e la nä l i s i s d e l o s L ib ro s d e L ec tu ra u t i l izado s e n e s ta i n s t i tuc iön e duca t iva e s q ue l o s m i smo s r e su l tan s e r , e n s u mayo r ia , r e cop i lac ione s d e t e x to s d e o t ro s a u to re s ( po l i t ico s , l i t e ra to s , d rama tu rgo s , e t c . ) , l o c ua l d a u na a pa r ienc ia d e f a l sa h e te rogene idad a l o s l i b ro s d e l e c tu ra . E n r e a l idad , l as e lecc iön h a s i do r e a l izada e n t re a u to re s c on e s t i lo s n a r ra t ivo s s im i la re s ( d e e xa l tac iön 6 p ica ) . P o r l o t a n to e ll i b ro d e l e c tu ra

i °

Ap ar t i rd el as anc iön d e l aL ey F ede ra l d e E ducac iön ( 1994 ) s ep e r c iben a l guno s i n ten to s d er e e s t ruc tu rac iön a dm in is t ra t iva p e ro l a s i n ic ia t iva se nunc iada sp a ra l ar e g iona l izac iön d e l o sc on ten ido sd e l ae n ser ianza s el im i tan ap o s tu la ru na " p rov inc ia l izac iön" d e l o s m ismo s , t oc ua l a gud iza r ia l af a lenc ia a qu ie s tud iada , y aq ue s ep o s tu la a s iu na h omogene izac iön d el a sr e a l idade sm ic ror eg iona le sd e l i n te r io rd e l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän . V e rm ä si n fo rma c iön yc omen ta r io se n A rena s , P . yM . C . Med ina , 1 994 .

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r e su l tan te e s , e n c on jun to , u na t o ta l idad i d eo lög ica q ue r e f le ja l ap o s ic iön d e l a u to r /comp i lado ra n te l o sh echo sh i s tö r ico st r a tado se ne lm ismo . E s o bv io q ue n oe x is te r e f lex iön , a demä s , e n c uan to a lp ape l q ue j uga ron l o s mov im ien to s s oc ia le s e n e lp roce so d e c amb io d e l ar eg iön . E s d ec i r , n o s on u t i l izado s c omo mue s t ra s d e f o rma s d e o r ien tac iön e i n te rp re tac iön c u l tu ra l yp o l i t ica d el ad inäm ica h i s tö r ica r eg iona l ( R iekenbe rg , 1 991a , 1 5 ) . Un e j emp lo d ee l lo e sq ue l o s h echo s h i s tö r ico s s e lecc ionado s p a ra r eg i s t ra r l ah i s to r ia p reh ispän ica s er educen al a s l e c tu ra s a l u s iva s al ap a r t ic ipac iön e spar io la e nl ah i s to r ia n ac iona l . S eh ace h incap ie e n l e c tu ra s r e f e r ida s a" E l d e scub r im ien to d e Ame r ica" , " La s c o r r ien te s c o lon izado ra s" o " E l c onqu i s tado r e spar io l d e l s i g lo XV I" . E s l af undac iön d e B ueno s A i re s e l p un to d ep a r t ida d el ah i s to r ia n ac iona l . H ay u ne v iden te o cu l tam ien to d el a s c a rac te r i s t ica s d e l aa p rop iac iön , d i s t r ibuc iön y e xp lo rac iön d e l a s t i e r ra s ame r icana s , p roduc to d e l a c onqu i s ta p o r p a r te d e u na E spar ia e s t ruc tu ra lmen te f e uda l . E s te o cu l tam ien to c on t inua rä e n o t ro s c ap i tu lo s d e l o s t e x to s c on l a f a l ta d e e xp l icac iön d e l a r e lac iön e n t re l a e s t ruc tu ra a g ra r ia , l ae s t ruc tu ra s oc ia l yl ad i näm ica p o l i t ica q ue e x i s te e n n ue s t ro p a l s , l o c ua l i mp ide a l o s a l umno s c omp rende r e lp roce so d e i ndu s t r ia l izac iön i n conc lu so y l a i n e s t ib i l idad i n s t i tuc iona l d e l o s p roce so s d emoc rä t ico s ( Bra s lay sky , 1 991 , 6 5 ) , a s i c omo t ampoco b r inda l o s c onoc im ien to s n ece sa r io s p a ra c omp rende r e ld e sa r ro l lo d e l ae conom ia r eg iona l , n i l o s p roce so s d e c on s t i tuc iön s oc ia l d e l N o roe s te . D e e s ta m ane ra , n o h ay u na v e rdade ra a p rop iac iön d e l ai n fo rmac iön p o r p a r te d e l o s a l umno s , s i no t a n s o lo u na r epe t ic iön m emo r i s t ica d ed a to si n conexo s . A lgo p a ra d e s taca r e s q ue l a s r e f e renc ia s al a r eg iön d e l N o roe s te mue s t ran u na a s im i lac iön a b so lu ta d e e s ta al o s e l emen to s c a rac te r i s t ico s d e l aP una j u jer ia : l e c tu ra s t a le s c omo " La q uena" , " E l y a rav i" , " Lo s p una s" , " La s l ama s" s on l a s ü n ica s o po r tun idade s e n q ue e l NOA a pa rece e n e s to s t e x to s c omo r e g iön d i f e renc iada ( v e r A pend ice 2 : F uen tes d e v i da 7mo . ; P anoramas d e Amer ica 6 to . ;P anoramas d e lm undo 7mo . ) . E s mä s i n te re san te e la nä l i s i s d e l o s Manua le s d e g rado r ev i sado s e ne s ta o por tun idad , y a q ue t o do s e l lo s c uen tan c on u na s e cc iön d ed icada a l a s c i enc ia s s oc ia le s . L amen tab lemen te , c omo s er ia la G e rman C o lmena re s ( 1991 , 1 32 ) . E l a nä l i s is d e a l guno s t e x to s e s co la re s e n u so / . . / r e ve laba n o s o lo l ap ob reza d e c oncepc ione s

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E n c uan to a l t ema q ue a qu i i n te re sa , h ay e sca sa m enc iön a l ap re senc ia a bo r igen e n e l t e r r i to r io a n te s d e l a i nva s iön e u ropea . I nc lu so , s a lvo l a i n ev i tab le s i n te s i s a nac rön ica y e s tä t ica d e l a s c a rac te r i s t ica s e s te reo t ipada s d e " maya s , a z teca s ei n ca s" , n o h ay e spec if icac iön d e ta l lada d e l o s p r im i t ivo sh ab i tan te sd e Ame r ica . E np r ime rl u ga r ,l a mayo r ia d el o s t e x to sr e conoce q ue e la c tua lt e r r i to r io a rgen t ino e s taba p ob lado d e sde h ace a p rox imadamen te 1 0 0 00 a r io s . S in

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emba rgo , n i nguno d e l o s t e x to s m enc iona l a s c a rac te r f s t ica s d e e s to s p r ime ro s p ob lado re s , n i s e d i f e renc ian p e r fodo s e n e l d e sa r ro l lo d e l a s s oc iedade s a me r icana s a u töc tona s . L a i n fo rmac iön s ep r e sen ta e n u n b loque c ompac to c on c a rac te r f s t ica s e s tanda r izada s d e l o s d i f e ren tes g rupo s d e sc r ip to s , c omo s ie n t o do s e so s s i g lo s n o s eh ub ie ran p roduc ido c amb io s s oc iocu l tu ra le s , p ob lac iona le s ot e cno -econöm ico s e n l o s m ismo s ( s i tuac io n e s q ue , p o r o t ra p a r te , h an s i do y s on p rofu samen te e s tud iada s p o r l o s a r queö logo s p rof e s iona le s ) ( v e r A p6nd ice 2 : Manua l E s trada t e rcer g rado , 1 987 ; Manua l d e lA lumno [ 3 ] , 1 978 ; . Manua l E s trada 4w , 1 986 ; K ape lu sz 6 to . ; Manua lE s trada 6 to , 1 987 ) . O t ra c a rac te r f s t ica e ne s to s m anua le s e sq ue , s ib i en h ay c i e r ta menc iön a l o s g rupo s i nd fgena s q ue h ab i taban e lt e r r i tor io a n te s d e l al egada d e l o s e u ropeo s , n o h ay n i nguna r e f e renc ia al o s c amb io s e n e s ta s s oc iedade s p o r e lc on tac to e n t re a mbo s . E s c omo s i ap a r t i rd e l momen to d e l ac o lon izac iön ye vange l izac iön e spa i lo la l o s i nd fgena s a me r icano s h ub ie ran p e rd ido s u i d en t idad c omo t a le s ys eh ub ie ran m ezc lado , m ime t izado , ob i en d e sapa re c i do e n l a n ueva c on s t i tuc iön s oc ia l d e l c on t inen te . I n c lu so , u no d e l o s manua le s p ropone u n e j e r c ic io al o s a l umno s e n l o s q ue s o l ic i ta l ad e sc r ip c i ön d e l a s c a rac te r f s t ica s d e l a " soc iedad c o lon ia l" y m enc iona c omo e l emen to s c on s t i tu t ivo s d e l a m i sma a : " c r io l lo s , e spaho le s a me r icano s , m e s t izo s , mu la to s yz ambo s" ( Apa id ice 2 : Manua l E s trada 6w , 1 987 ; c f . B onf i l B a ta l la , 1 984 , 2 32 ) . A s f s e i nd ica l a d e sapa r ic iön h i s tö r ica d e l a ma t r iz i n d ia e n l a s oc iedad a me r icana , y a q ue s u p r e senc ia s o lo p uede s o specha r se e n e ls e c to rm e s t izo d e l am isma . Y6 s to r e ve la q ue l ae sc r i tu ra d e l a h i s to r ia e s co la r m an t iene i n a l te rab le e l d i scu r so n a r ra t ivo d e l c onqu is tado r , o cu l tando o t ra s v oce s yo t ro s p ro tagon i s ta s d e l a m i sma h i s to r ia . E sp o re so q ue l o st e x to se sco la re s a sumen a c r f t icamen te q ue Al o so j o sd e lc onqu is tado rl ah i s to r ia i n d ia e su na s o la , p o rque l o si nd io s , f i na lmen te , t i enen u n s o lo d e s t ino : s e r ol ega r as e rc o lon izado s ( Bonf i l B a ta 1 1a , 1 984 , 2 31) .

E s ta n egac iön p e r s i s te h a s ta l a d e sc r ipc iön d e l a a c tua l p ob lac iön d e l a R epüb l ica A rgen t ina y a q ue e n n inguno d e l o s t e x to s c on su l tado s ( v e r A p6nd ice 2 )s em enc iona l ap re sen te e x i s tenc ia d ea bo r fgene se ne lt e r r i to r io n ac iona l . T odo s l o s t e x to s y s u s c o r re spond ien t e s g rä f ico s ( mapa s , i l u s t rac ione s yc uad ro s ) h ab lan d e s oc iedade s e x t ingu ida s . A lguno s d e l o s p ro tagon i s ta s d e l a h i s to r ia a r gen t ina a c tua l n o e x i s ten e n e l i mag ina r io n ac iona l d e l p re sen te . E nc amb io , p a rec ie ra q ue s fe x i s ten e nl o s o r fgene sd e l an ac iona l idad , s egün l om an if e s tado p o rl am ayo r fa d el o st e x to s . [ En l o s t e x to s e s co la re s ] L o s " i nd io s" d e h oy , v i v ien te s e xponen te s d e l as i tuac iön c o lon ia l , n o e x i s t fan , n o p od fan e x is t i r e n l a c on tempo rane idad / . . / E x is ten e n " l a h i s to r ia" , e n l o s r e cue rdo s d e l o s p r ime ro s c ap i tu lo s d e l o s m anua le s e s co la re s ( F ind j i , 1 991 , 1 56 ) .

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P e ro , z qu6 p a sa c on e lc onf l ic to n or e sue l to d es ue x i s tenc ia e nn ue s t ro p a l s? E n l o s t e x to s d e u so e sco la r e s ta p rob lemä t ica e s i n ex i s ten te , y a q ue e l s u je to q ue l ap adece e su n i nd iv iduo a u sen te e n l ac on s t i tuc iön p ob lac iona l d e l a A rgen t ina . Q u izä s s e a c onven ien te r e co rda r a qu i , c omo e j emp lo c on tempo räneo , q ue c uando e n 1 99 1 s e d ec la rö l ae p idem ia d e c ö le ra e n n ue s t ro p a l s , l a s p r ime ra s v i c t ima s f u e ron i nd igena s d e l C haco a r gen t ino . Y f ue e n tonce s e n q ue n ume ro so s c omen ta r io s r ef le jaban l a s o rp re sa d e c i udadano s ( e , i n c lu so , d e f unc iona r io s n ac iona le s ) p o rque " t odav ia" h ab ia i nd igena s e n a l guna p a r te d e l p a l s ( c f . L a G ace ta , T ucumän , e ne ro yf e b re ro d e 1 991) . Q u izä s e s te h echo d emue s t re e l i ndudab le " 6x i to" d e e s te o cu l tam ien to e n l ad i fu s iön e sco la r , y aq ue e se v iden te q ue , h a s ta e n tonce s , mucho sa r gen t ino sh ab ian i n te r io r izado l ac r eenc ia d eq ue L a h i s to r ia i n d ia t e rm ina c on l ai n va s ion e u ropea . E s u n c ap i tu lo d e f in i t ivamen t e c e r rado . C om ienza u na n ueva h i s to r ia , o t ra h i s to r ia ( Bonf i l B a ta l la , 1 984 , 2 32 ) .

L ac l a s if icac iön r e g iona l d e l o s g rupo s a bo r igene s q ue h ab i taban e l NOA s e c a rac te r iza p o r s er ia la r q ue l o s g rupo s a qu i a s en tado s e r an " l o s m ä s d e sa r ro l lado s" d e t odo e le spac io c o lon izado . L a r eg iön e s d enom inada , l a mayo r ia d e l a s v ece s , s egün u n c r i te r io g eog räf ico . P e ro l o s g rupo s i nd igena s s on d i s t r ibu ido s s egün l o s l im i te s p o l i t ico s d e l a s a c tua le s p rov inc ia s a r gen t ina s , p o re j emp lo : " l o s i n d io s d e S a l ta" o" l o s i n d igena sd e C ö rdoba" , e t c .T ampoco h ay menc iön ad e sp lazam ien to s n im ig rac ione sq ue e s to s g rupo s p ud ie ron h abe r p ro tagon izado . S ig lo s d e p e rmanenc ia y d e sa r ro l lo d e n ume ro so s g rupo s i n d iv idua l izab le s s on r e sum ido s e n p oco s p ä r ra fo s yl a v i da c u l tu ra l d e e s ta s s o c iedade s s e p re sen ta e n i mägene s a t empo ra le s , e s tä t ica s ys i n mod if icac ione s d u ran te mucho s s i g lo s ye n e l m i smo e spac io g eog räf ico . D e e s ta m ane ra , l o s c on tac to s e n t re l o s p ueb lo s i nd io s s e e nunc ian c omo ü n icamen te b e ico s . A c t iv idade s c omo e l i n te rcamb io c ome rc ia l ol o s mov im ien to s d e e xpan s iön s on c on s ide rado s i nd icado re s d e u n d e sa r ro l lo p o s te r io r ys i rven p a ra c a rac te r iza r " a l ta s c u l tu ra s" c omo e l I mpe r io I nca ico p e ro n o s e u t i l izan a l r e f e r i r se a l o s i nd igena sd el ar e g iön d e lN o roe s te . E s muy f ä c i l o b se rva r l a s d i f icu l tade s q ue t i enen l o s a u to re s p a ra e s tab lece r l o s l i rn i te s d e l a m i sma e n e s te momen to h i s tö r ico : a l guno s h ab lan d e " r eg ion d e l o s p ueb lo s a nd ino s" , q ue c omp rende r ia , s egün e l t e x to , d e sde J u juy h a s ta l a s s i e r ra s d e C ö rdoba ( Ap6nd ice 2 : Manua l E s trada 6 t o , 1 987 ) . O t ro s l aman " r eg ione s mon ta i io sa s d e l n o r te y d e l o e s te" a" l a z ona q ue h ab i taban l o s s e r rano s" l ac ua l c omp rende r ia " de sde Mendoza yC ö rdoba h a s ta J u juy" ( Ap6nd ice 2 : Manua lE s trada 6 t o , 1 987 . ) . F ina lmen te , h ay a l guno s q ue s e l im i tan a l ama r la " nor te a rgen t ino" ( Ap6nd ice 2 : Manua lE s trada T ercer g rado , 1 987 ) c omp rend iendo 6 s te u na v a s ta s upe r f ic ie : " l o s a c tua le s t e r r i to r io s d e l a s p rov inc ia s d e S a l ta , T ucumän , S an t iago d e l E s te ro , C a tama r ca , L a R io ja y p a r te d e C ö rdoba y F o rmo sa y C haco [ s ic ! ] ( Ap6nd ice 2 : L u jän , 1 978 , 1 99 ; t e rcer g rado , 1 987 ) .

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E s i mpo r tan te d e s taca r q ue , ap e sa r d e q ue l a mayo r fa d e l a s e d i to r ia le s mue s t ran u n g ran i n te r& e n " ac tua l iza r" l o s t e x to s e s co la re s a f io aa f io , e s ta a c tua l izac iön s el im i ta a la gr egado a c r f t ico y l i nea l d e n uevo s d a to s a ce r ca d e l ae vo luc iön i n s t i tuc iona l d e l p a l s . A s f s o lamen te s e a no tan a lf i na l d e l t e x to a n te r io r , s i n c omen ta r io s n ii n te rp re tac ione s p o r p a r te d e l o s a u to r e s , l o s n omb re s d e n uevo s g ober nan te s , e ll i s tado d e a l guna s m ed ida s d e s u g ob ie rno yl am enc iön al as anc iön d en ueva sl e ye s f undamen ta le so cur r ida s e n t re l a se d ic ione sc o r re spond ien te s . E s p o r e so q ue , a unque l a s n ueva s e d ic ione s d e l o s m anua le s mue s t ran u na mayo r p reocupac iön p o r modern iza r l ad i ag ramac iön y c o lo r ido d e l a s p äg ina s , l o s t e x to s ymapa sr e ve lan u na c a s ii n ex is ten te i n co rpo rac iön d el a s n ovedade s q ue s e p roducen e n e l c ampo d e l a h i s to r iog ra f fa c i en t f f ica a r gen t ina . E s a s f c omo p e rdu ran v i e ja s a f i rmac ione s e n l o s t e x to s q ue r ep roducen , p o r e j emp lo , u n d e l ibe rado o cu l tam ien to d e l o s p roce so s e conöm ico s y p o l i t ico s d e m ed iana y l a rga d u rac iön a soc iado s a l d e scub r im ien to y c onqu i s ta d e Ame r ica , t a n to e n l av i s ion d e l a E u ropa c onqu i s tado ra ( c omo l al e c tu ra " I sabe l d e C a s t i l la , l ar e ina d emöc ra ta" , d e l l i b ro P anoramas d e Amer ica 6 t o . , 1 967 , A pend ice 2 ,p o re j emp lo ) c omo e n l a i magen d e l a Ame r ica c onqu i s tada ( Lo s I nd io s L u le s : " no e ran t a n p ac f f ico s c omo l o s C a lchaqu fe s [ ! ] p e ro s fg rande s g uer re ro s yh ub ie sen e x te rm inado al a s o t ra s t r ibu s , d e n o h abe r l egado l o s e spa r lo le s" . C on e s ta a f irmac iön e la u to r n o s o lo s e p e rm i te f an ta sea r a ce rca d e l o s p ropö s i to s e xpan s ion i s ta s d e " l o s l u le s" s i no q ue t amb ien n i ega l a p o s te r io r y l a rgu f s ima r e s i s tenc ia a n t ih i spän ica d e " l o s c a lchaqu fe s" . ( Apend ice 2 : L u jän , 1 978 ) . T amb ien e s h egemön ica l a p re sen tac iön d e l a c u l tu ra o cc iden ta l y c r i s t iana ( r ep re sen tada p o r l aI g le s ia C a tö l ica ) c omo s upe r io r ( "Aunque n o s i emp re s e a l canza ron l o s r e su l tado s d e seado s , s e t r a tö d e a caba r c on e l n omad i smo d e l o s i nd io s , r e un i r lo s e n p ob lac ione s ya co s tumb ra r lo s a e nv ia r as u s h i jo s al o s l u ga re sd onde s el o s e vange l iza se ys el e se n sef ia se a l e e r ye s c r ib i r" ( Apend ice 2 : Manua lE s t rada 4 to , 1 986 ) . Ye si n negab le e ld e sp rec io p o r l ac u l tu ra i n d fgena , q ue s ee xp resa e n l a s imp l f s ima a soc iac iön d e t e rm ino s , s ubyacen te e n t odo s l o s t e x to s c on su l tado s : " i nd io ( nömade +p agano + s a lva je ) = rebe ld fa=be l ico s idad=ba rba r ie=pa sado=a t ra so" , d e l oq ue s ed ebe i n f e r i r l an ece s idad d e s u e x t inc iön p a ra l as upe rv ivenc ia d e l as oc iedad n ac iona l . L a c i ta q ue s i rve c omo a cäp i te d e e s te t r aba jo d a p l ena c uen ta d el aa c tua l idad yv i genc ia d ee s to sp re ju ic io s . U na man if e s tac iön d e e l lo s p uede s e r t amb ien e ld e s in te re s o f ic ia l e n l a mod if icac iön r e a l d e e s to s t e x to s . H ay q ue r e co rda r , u na v ez m ä s q ue l o s " Con ten ido s M fn imo s d e l N ive l P r ima r io C omün" q ue r i gen p a ra l a p rov inc ia d e T ucumän f ue ron e l abo rado s e n 1 979 ( v e r A pend ice 1 ) . O b je t ivo s n ece sa r io s e n e s to s t i empo s t a le s c omo e l f o r ta lec im ien to d e v a lo re s d emoc rä t ico s ol ad i scu s iön d e p rob lemä t ica s s oc ia le s n of i gu ran e n l o s m i smo s , l o c ua l v ac fa d e s i gn if icac iön s u a p l icac iön h oy e n d fa s i n

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mod if icac ione s n ia c tua l izac ione s . " He te rogene idad" e" h ipoc re s ia" s on l a s d os c a rac te r i s t ica sq ue B ra s lay sky e nunc ia p a ra l o sp l ane sd ee s tud io d ee s te p e r iodo ,y aq ue l o s s upue s to so b je t ivo sb a sado se nl a" t rad ic iön h uman is ta y c r is t iana" n o e ncon t raban s u c o r re la to s oc ia l e n l a r e a l idad n ac iona l d e e n tonce s ( Bra s lay sky ,1991 ,67 ) . P o ro t ra p a r te , e l mode lo a u to r i ta r io d ee n ser ianza d em ed iado s d el o s ' 7 0 i mpon ia e n l aA rgen t ina e le j emp lo d eu n d ocen te t ran sm i so rd e c on ten ido s yv a lo re s e s tab lec ido s d e sde l o s g ob iemo s d e t umo . S in d uda e lp lan teo d e o t ro t i po d ec ompo r tam ien to d ocen te / . . /e x ig i r ia d e l a l umno u na a c t iv idad i n te rp re ta t iva q ue e xcede l ac oncepc iön d e e s te mode lo ( M iguez , 1 992 , 1 8 ) .

C on l ar e s tau rac iön d e l ad emoc rac ia e n 1 983 l a s a u to r idade s e duca t iva s a rgen t ina s o p ta ron p o rd e lega rl ar e spon sab i l idad p o re lm e jo ram ien to d e l a e ducac iön e n l aa cc iön e spon tänea yp a r t icu la r d e l o s d ocen te s , s i n i n ten ta r r eo r ien ta r l aa cc iön d e sde l ae s f e ra p o l i t ica . C omo l o s d ocen te s n o t e n ian e xpe r ienc ia s p rev ia s d e e s ta p räc t ica , 6 s to p rovocö d e so r ien tac iön , c onfu s iön y a t om izac iön d e l a s p räc t ica s d ocen te s , d e a cue rdo a c r i te r io s p a r t icu la re s d e l a s a u to r idade s d e c ada e s tab lec im ien to e duca t ivo ( Bra s lay sky , 1 991 ,70-72 ) . E s to s ee v idenc ia e n l ai n fo rmac iön o b ten ida e n l a s e n t rev i s ta s r e a l izada s al o s d ocen te s p a ra e le s tud io d ee s te c a so . E s g ene ra l izada l ao p in iön a ce rca d e l o i n adecuado y a nac rön ico d e l o s " Con ten ido s M in imo s" , al o s c ua le s a l guno s m ae s t ro s c a l if ica ron c omo " dema s iado m in imo s" o " muy r educ i d o s" . T odo s l o s e n t rev i s tado s h an d e sa r ro l lado e s t ra teg ia s d e a decuac iön d e e s to s r equ i s i to s al a s p a r t icu la r idade s c o t id iana s d e c ada u no d e s u s g rado s . E s ta a dap tac iön e si n d i spen sab le ,p o rl o meno se nl o sd o sp r ime ro sc i c lo sd e l ae scue la p r ima r ia ( l ro . a5 to . g rado ) y aq ue , e n t re l o s c on ten ido s m in imo s e x ig ido s , n o s ec on temp lan l a sc a rac te r i s t ica s d el av ida r u ra l t u cumana . P o r e l c on t ra r io , e s l ao rgan izac iön u rbana e l mode lo d e s oc ia l izac iön q ue s e p ropone d e sde e s to sp l ane so f ic ia le s ( v e rA p6nd ice 1 ) . C abe a c la ra rq ue ,e ne s ta z ona ,e lv a l le d eS an ta Mar ia , s ey ux taponen l o s l fm i te s d e l a s a c tua le s p rov inc ia s d e S a l ta , C a tama rca yT ucumän . D e 6 s ta s , s ö lo T ucumän n o h a mod if icado h a s ta e l momen to l o s c on ten ido s d e l a e nser ianza p r ima r ia . P o r l o t a n to n o e s e x t rar io e scucha r q ue l o s mae s t ro s " conf ie sen" u t i l iza r b a s tan te a m enudo l o s l i neam ien to s c u r r icu la re s d e l a p rov inc ia d e C a tama rca od e S a l ta ( l o s c ua le s h an s i do mod if icado s d u ran te l ad 6cada d e 1 980 ) , p o rc on s ide ra r lo s m ä s a decuado s al ar e a l idad p a r t icu la r d e l a s e s cue la s r u ra le s d e a l ta mon taf ia . C omp lemen tan 6 s to s , s egün l a s e n t rev i s ta s , c on l a u t i l izac iön e n s u s c l a se s d e l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to y a menc ionado s ( v e rA p6nd ice 2 )c omo g u ia s p a ra l ap l an if icac iön s emana l d e a c t iv idade s .

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C onc lus iones L a i n s t i tuc iön e s co la r p r ima r ia d e n ue s t ra p rov inc ia u t i l iza e sca s i s imo s ma te r ia le s h i s tö r ico s a c tua l izado s p a ra l ad i fu s iön d e l ah i s to r ia r eg iona l d e l N o roe s te . A p e sa r d e l o s b ueno s p ropö s i to s , l a s a cc ione s i nd iv idua le s y a i s lada s d e a l guno s d ocen te s p a ra s ub sana rl o s e r ro re s , f a l ta d e i n fo rmac iön yd e a c tua l izac iön d e l o s t e x to s as u d i spo s ic iön , e n l ao b se rvac iön d e l a s c l a se s s e p ueden h a l la r mucho s e j emp lo s d e l o s e l emen to s c a rac te r izado s a n te r io rmen te . S in emba rgo , a n te s d e p ropone r l a" r eg iona l izac iön" d e l o s c on ten ido s c ur r icu la re s d e l a p rov inc ia , d ebe e s tab lece r se a ün o t ro d eba te . Hay q ue r e co rda r , s i gu iendo aL eon i P in to , q ue n o e sl om i smo e s cr ib i r u na h i s tor ia d e u na r eg iön q ue e s c r ib i ru na h i s tor ia r eg iona l . U na h i s to r ia d e u na r eg iön e s tud ia l ah i s to r ia d e l a s p rov inc ia s i n teg ran te s d e u na r eg iön e n c on jun to y p a ra le lamen te . E nc amb io , l ah i s to r ia r eg iona l i mp l ica u na h omo logac iön d e l a s t e or ia s , m6 todo s yc a tego r ia s d e t r aba jo p a ra e nfoca rh i s tö r icamen te u na r eg ion , e n tend ida 6 s ta c omo u na t o ta l idad s i s tbn ica . D e e s ta mane ra , l a r eg iön e s u n mode lo e xp l ica t ivo d e l ah i s to r ia , u n m a rco c on tex tua l p a ra e l p roce so h i s tö r ico e s tud iado ( Leon iP in to , 1 987 , 1 618 ) . E n n inguno d e l o s t e x to s c on su l tado s n i e n l o s o b je t ivo s c ur r icu la re s r e v i sado s s e e v idenc ia l a i n tenc iön d e a decua r l ai n fo rmac iön b r indada a n i nguna d e e s ta s d o s mane ra s d e h ace r h i s to r ia d e sde u na r eg iön , yn o h ay n ada q ue man if ie s te l ae x i s tenc ia d e d eba te s op o lan ica s e n e lc ampo d e l a h i s to r iog raf ia a r gen t ina . N o s o lo l a h i s to r ia p reh i spän ica d e l n o roe s te p adece e s te t r a tam ien to : t amb i6n l ah i s to r ia d e l ac o lon ia , d e l a s g ue r ra s p o r l ai ndependenc ia y d e s u s c on secuenc ia s e n e ls i g lo X IX y XX c a recen d e u na " r eg iona l izac iön" d el a sc au sa s yd e ld e senvo lv im ien to d el o sc onf l ic to s , n o s o lo p o l i t ico s s i no t ampoco s oc ia le s . S e h a d emo s t rado e n e s to s p ä r ra fo s q ue l ah i s to r ia a r gen t ina s e p re sen ta e n l a e scue la p r ima r ia r u ra l d e l a p rov inc ia d e T ucumän d e sde u na p e r spec t iva p o s i t iv i s ta , t a n to e n l o s t e x to s c omo e n l a s c u r r icu la y d e sde p räc t ica s d idäc t ica s q ue e v i tan e l s u rg im ien to d e i n qu ie tude s e n t re l o s a l umno s ( c f . B a ta l län , 1 987 , 5 3 ) . E l lo p rovoca u na s en s ib le p 6 rd ida d e i n te r6 s e n e le s tud io d e l a s c i enc ia s s oc ia le s y aq ue l o s a l umno s n o p e rc iben l ar e lac iön e n t re l o s h echo s d e l p a sado q ue m emo r izan y l ar e a l idad s oc ia l q ue v iven d ia r iamen te . E s i nü t i l p ropone r a qu i u na s o luc iön a i s lada , p edagög ica , p o l i t ica o d e c ua lqu ie r o t ro t i po . U na r enovac iön d e l o s c on ten ido s m in imo s d e l o s E s tud io s S oc ia le s e x ig ido s e n n ue s t ra p rov inc ia e si nd i spen sab le ( yu rgen te ) p e ro d ebe c omp lemen ta r se s imu l täneamen te c on e lp e r f ecc ionam ien to y l a a c tua l izac iön h i s tö r ico -pedagög ico s d e l o s d ocen te s q ue d eban i mp lemen t a r lo s . A demä s , p a ra le lamen te , d eben s e r a decuado s ae l lo l o s t e x to s s e lecc ionado s p a ra l a e scue la p r ima r ia , c on temp lando s u a u t6n t ica a c tua l izac iön s egün l a s n ece s idade s yl a s r e a l idade s s oc ia le s , u rbana s o r u ra le s , d el a sr eg ione sd onde h an d eu t i l iza r se .

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Qu izä s e n tonce s e l a p rend iza je d e l a h i s to r ia c om ience a s e r meno s " i n sopo r tab le" e" i nü t i l" al o s o jo s d e l o s a l umno s yl o s l i b ro s d e t e x to s e t r an sfo rmen e n p romo to re s d e i n qu ie tude s . Y q u izä s e n tonce s m ae s t ro s y a l umno s p uedan d e sa r ro l la r l o s m in imo s i mpu l so s i n ve s t iga t ivo s p a ra s a t isf ace r s u s i n te r rogan te s ya c ica tea r s u c u r io s idad m ä s y mä s h a s ta t r an sfo rma r se e l lo s m i smo s e n l o s e s c r i to re s d e s u p rop ia h i s to r ia , d e l ad e s u f am i l ia , d e l ad e s ue s cue la , d e l ad e l a s f uen te s d e t r aba jo d e s u s p ad re s , d e s u s a bue lo s ,d es ul o ca l idad y ,p o rq u6 n o , d es up rop ia r eg iön .

A g redec im ien tos Ag radezco l a a mab le c o labo rac iön d e l p e r sona l d i rec t ivo , d ocen te , n o d ocen te y a l umno s d e l ae scue la p r ima r ia N o . 2 3 d e E l A rbo la r , e n e lv a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia , s i n c uyo v a l io so a po r te e s te t r aba jo h ub ie ra s i do i mpo s ib le d er ea l iza r .

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A pönd ice 1 :C on ten idos M i r-l i mos d e l N ive l P r ima r io P rov inc ia d eT ucumän ( 19791993 ) A rea : E s tud io s S oc ia le s

P r ime rC ic lo ( l ro . , 2 do . y3 e r . g rado ) 1 .L aF am i l ia 2 .L aE scue la 3 .E lb a r r io ol uga rd ea s ien to d el ae scue la 4 .Z ona al aq ue p e r tenece l ae s cue la : • E lp a i sa je ( u rbano yr u ra l ) • L a sa c t iv idade sd el o sp ob lado re s ( e nl ac i udad ye ne lc ampo ) • H i s to r ia l o ca l ( e vo luc iön d e lp ueb lo oc i udad ) 5 .E f eme r ide sp a t r ia s

S egundo C ic lo ( 4 to . , 5 to . ) 1 .L ap rov inc ia ys up a i sa je 2 .E l p ob lam ien to ( p r im i t ivo sh ab i tan te s ) 3 .E l g ob ie rno p rov inc ia l 4 .L aR epüb l ica A rgen t ina 5 .S in te s i sh i s tö r ica h a s ta 1 853

T e rce rC ic lo ( 6 to . , 7mo . ) 1 . Ame r ica . E lp a isa je : • E l d e scub r im ien to , l a c o lon izac iön y l a e vange l izac iön d e l a Ame r ica h i spana • L ae manc ipac iön a me r icana 2 .A rgen t ina moderna 3 .L ac r eac iön

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A pänd ice 2 :T ex tos d e U so E sco la r C onsu l tados e n l aI n s t i tuc iön ( S in A u to r ) . 0 * Manua l P eu ser d e l a n ueva e scue la . 7 mo . g rado . E d . D idäc t ica sP eu se r . B ueno sA i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 971 Manua l P euser d e l a n ueva e s cue la . 6 t o . g rado . E d . D idäc t ica sP eu se r . B ueno s A i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 978 Manua ld e lA lumno ( 3 ) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno sA i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 986 Manua lE s t rada 4 to . g rado . E d . E s t rada . B ueno sA i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 986 Manua lE s t rada 5 to . g rado . E d . E s t rada . B ueno sA i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 987 Manua lE s t rada 6 t o . g rado . E d . E s t rada . B ueno sA i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 987 Manua lE s trada 7 mo . g rado . E d . E s t rada . B ueno s A i re s ( S in A u to r ) . 1 987 Manua lE s trada t e r cer g rado . E d . E s t rada . B ueno sA i re s B rana d e I a cobucc i , B . yI a cobucc i , G . 1 967 F uen tes d e v i da ( L ibro d e l e c tura p ara 7 mo .) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno sA i re s B ravo F igue roa , G . 1 981 A conqu i ja ( L ibro d e l e c tura p ara 4 to .) . E d . A tena s . T ucumän C a so d e S edano A co s ta , J .1 967 P anoramas d e Amer ica ( L ibro d e l e c tura p ara 6 to .) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno s A i re s C o rva län , 0 . yA ba lo s , J .W . 1 988 L apachos ( L ibro d e l e c tura p ara 4 to . ) . E d . A tena s .T ucumän L u jän ,G . R . 1 978 T ucumän , m anua lp ara 4w . g rado . E d . A tena s . T ucumän P a ssado r i , J . , A s to lf i , J .e ta l . 1 978 Manua l d e l A lumno ( 6 ) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno sA i re s P a ssado r i , J .A s to lf i , J .e ta l . 1 978 Manua l d e l A lumno ( 7 ) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno s A i re s S ch iaf f ino , J .A . yS ch iaf f ino , E . R . 1 967 P anoramas d e l m undo ( L ibro d e l e c tura p ara 7 mo .) . E d . K ape lu sz . B ueno sA i re s S ec re ta r fa d e E s tado d eE ducac iön yC u l tu ra , 1 979 C on ten ido s m in imo s d e l n ive l p r ima r io c omün . P r ime r C ic lo . G rado s l r o . , 2 do . y3 e ro . S er ie D idäc t ica N o .65 . C en t ro d e D ocumen tac iön e I n fo rmac iön E duca t iva . T ucumän S ec re ta r fa d e E s tado d e E ducac iön yC u l tu ra , 1 979 C on ten ido s m in imo s d e l n ive l p r ima r io c omün . S egundo C ic lo . G rado s 4 to . , 5 to . S er ie D idäc t ica No .65 . C en t ro d eD ocumen tac iön eI n fo rmac iön E duca t iva .T ucumän S ec re ta r ia d eE s tado d eE ducac iön yC u l tu ra , 1 979 C on ten ido s m in imo s d e l n i ve l p r ima r io c omün . T e rce r C ic lo . G rado s 6 t o . , 7mo . S er ie D idäc t ica No .65 . C en t ro d eD ocumen tac iön eI n fo rmac iön E duca t iva . T ucumän

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R e fe renc ias A rena s , P . yMed ina , M .C . 1 994 A cer ca d e u nd ocumen to s obr ee l VC en tenar io d i r ig ido a m ae s tro s yp rof esore s d e T ucumän , I V C ong re so A rgen t ino d e A n t ropo log ia S oc ia l , O lava r r ia , M .s . B a ta l län , G . [ 1 985 ] 1 987 " E ln i r io ye lc onoc im ien to d e l ar e a l idad s oc ia l e n l ae scue la" ,e n N .E l ich iry ( c omp . ) [ 1985 ] 1 987 ,E ln i l io yl ae scue la . R e f lex ione ss obr el oo bv io , B ueno s A i re s , N ueva V i s ion , 3 9-65 B a ta l län , G . yD iaz , R . 1 990 " Sa lva je s , B ä rba ro s yn i r io s . L ad ef in ic iön d e p a t r imon io e n l a e s cue la p r ima r ia" , C uad erno s d e A n t ropo log i a S oc ia l . I CA , U n ive r s idad d e B ueno s A i re s , V o l .2 ,( 2 )4 1-45 B onf i l B a ta I la , G . [ 1 980 ] 1 984 " H i s to r ia s q ue n o s on t o dav ia h i s tor ia" , e n AA VV : H i s tor ia ,p ara q ug1 ,B ueno sA i re s , S ig lo XX I , 2 27-245 B ra s lay sky , C . [ 1 990 ] 1 99 1 " Lo s l i b ro s d e t e x to e n s uc on tex to : A rgen t ina 1 9751989" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( comp . ) L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ian za d e l a h i s tor ia , l i bros d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno sA i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 6 0-76 C o lmena re s , G . [ 1990 ] 1 99 1 " La b a ta l la d e l o s m anua le s e n C o lomb ia" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) [ 1 990 ] 1 991 , L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ianza d e l a h i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i r e s , A l ianza E d / F LACSO / G eo rg E cke r t I n s t i tu t s , 1 221 34 F ind j i , M .T . [ 1 990 ] 1 991 "Mov im ien to i n d igena y ` r ecupe rac iön ' d e l ah i s to r ia" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) , L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ian za d e l a h i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d / F LACSO / G eo rg E cker t I n s t i tu t s , 1 551 71 G onzä lez , L . [ 1 980 ] , 1 984 " De l a mü l t ip le u t i l izac iön d e l ah i s to r ia" , e n AA VV : H i s tor ia , p ara q td? , B ueno sA i re s , S ig lo XX I , 5 3-74 K ön ig , H J . 1 992 " Lo s f a c to re s d e d e sa r ro l lo e conöm ico y s o c ia l e n A rgen t ina y s u p r e sen tac iön e n l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to" , P ropue s ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A r io 4 ,( 7 ) , 5 1 0 L eon i P in to , R . 1 987 " A spec to st e ö r ico s ym e todo lög ico s , v i ncu lado s al ah i s to r io -g raf i ad e T ucumän" , C ur so d e A poyo I n t erd i sc ip l inar io a l aI nves t igac iön H i s tör ica , C en t ro d e I nve s t igac ione sH is tö r ica s , " Ca sa H is tö r ica d e l aI ndependenc ia " ,T ucumän , 7 -23 M iguez , E . J . 1 992 " Ref lex ione s s ob re l ae n ser ianza d e l aH i s to r ia ye lu so d e f u en te s e n l a e s cue la m ed ia a rgen t ina" ,P ropue s ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A t io 4 ,( 7 ) , 1 5-20 P uh le , H .J . [ 1 990 ] 1 991 " Po l i t ica d e d e sa r ro l lo y n ac iona l i smo e n Ame r ica L a t ina e n e l s i g lo X IX" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) , L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ianza d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d / F LACSO / G eo rg E cke r t I n s t i tu te s , 1 8-35 R iekenbe rg , M . [ 1990 ] 1 991a " I n t roducc iön" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) [ 1 990 ] 1 991a L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ianza d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bros d e t e x to yc onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cke r tI n s t i tu te s , 1 217 R iekenbe rg , M [ 1990 ] 1 991b " Caud i l lo s yc aud i l l ismo . L a p re sen tac iön d e l t ema e n l o s l i b ro s e s co la re s d e h i s to r ia l a t inoame r icana" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) [ 1 990 ] 1 991b, L a t ino -amgr ica : E nse l ianza d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bro sd e t e x to yc onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 1 72193

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S äba to , H . 1 992 " De l s i n sen t ido a l ai n te rp re tac i6n : n o ta s s ob re l ap r e sen tac iön d e l a H is to r ia e conöm ica e n l o s t e x to se s co la r e s" , P ropue s ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A rk )4 , ( 7 ) , 114

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Med ina , Ma r ia C la ra

R ibo t ta , E dua rdo

H is to ry D epa r tmen t

I n s t i tu to d eA rqueo log ia yMu seo

Gö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty

F acu l tad d eC ienc ia s N a tu ra les

B ox 2 00

M igue l L i l lo

S E4 05 3 0G ö tebo rg ,

U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän

Sweden

S an M igue ld eT ucumän

m a r ia .med ina@h i s to ry .gu .se

A rgen t ina

m c_med ina@ho tma i l .com S jöd in ,S u sana N i ls son S chönbo rg ,G ö te

D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy

D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy

G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty

G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty

B ox 2 00

B ox 2 00

S E4 05 3 0G ö tebo rg

S E4 05 3 0G ö tebo rg

Sweden

Sweden

s ana sven . roe se t@sw ipne t .se

N o l i , E s te la S .

S t enbo rg , P e r

I n s t i tu to d eA rqueo log i a yMu seo

D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy

F acu l tad d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s

G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty

M igue lL i l lo

B ox 2 00

U n ive r s idad N a c iona l d eT ucumän

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Sweden

A rgen t ina

p . s tenbo rg@a r chaeo logy .gu .se

N t i f iez R egue i ro , V i c to r

T ar tu s i , Ma r ta R .A .

I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log i a

I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log i a

F acu l tad d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s

F acu l tad d eC ienc ia s N a tu ra le s

M igue lL i l lo

M igue lL i l lo

U n ive r s idad N a c iona ld eT ucumän

U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d eT ucumän

S an M igue l d eT ucumän

S an M igue l d eT ucumän

A rgen t ina

A rgen t ina

P reb isch , L i l ian

V äzquez , Ma r ia R o sa r io

I n s td e A r te Ame r icano yR eg iona l

G revga tan 3 1 , 1t r .

F acu l tad d e A r t e s

S E 14 5 3 S tockho lm

U n ive r s idad N a c iona ld eT ucumän

S weden

S an M igue l d eT ucumän A rgen t ina

2 24

R e fe rences A A c reche ,N . 1 994 " La E vo luc iön d e l H omb re" ,N o ta sd e C ä t ed ra ,C .E .F . I .Sa , S a l ta , A c reche , N . , A lbeza , M .V . a nd C a ru so , G . B . 1 997 E ndogam ia e n u na p ob lac iön s em ia i s lada : S an ta R o sa d e l o s P a s to s G rand e s ( Sa l ta ) , MS , U n ive r s idad N a c iona l d e S a l ta A c reche , N . , a nd C o lane r i , M -G . 1 996 " S in t e s i s d e l m a te r ia l ö seo r e cupe rado d e l s i t io S T uc T av 6( P ichao , V a l le d eS an ta Ma r ia ,T ucumän" , i nJ ohan s son , N . 1 996 , A ppend ix 2 A c reche , N . , C a ru so , G . a nd A lbeza , M .V . 1 996 " D i s tanc ia s G en6 t ica s e n P ob lac ione s d e l NOA" , R ev i s ta A rgen t ina d eA n t ropo log i aB io lög ica , 1 ( 1) , 1 39152 A c reche , N . , M . d e V iana a nd P a lac f , C . 1 989 " Lo s C a rdone s . D i s t r ibuc iön , a bundanc ia y c r ec im ien to" ,S er i eC onocer p ara P r e ser var , N °7 , Mu seo d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s , S a l ta A h lg ren , S . 1 990 " The n a tu ra l e nv i ronmen t i nt h e a r ea o f E l P i chao" , i nC orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 , 2 1-28 A h lg r en , S . , Mur ioz , A . , S jöd in , S . a nd S t enbo rg , P . ( e d s . ) 1 998 P a s t a nd P r e sen t i n A nd ean P r eh i s tor y a nd E ar ly H i s tor y .

P roceed ing s o f a Wo rk shop h e ld a t t h e

E tnog raf iska Mu see t , G ö tebo rg , S weden , S ep tembe r 1 617 , 1 996 , E tno log i ska S tud ie r 4 2 ,E tnog raf i ska Mu see t ,G ö tebo rg A h lg ren , S . , S jöd in , S .A gr icu l tur et e r race so fP ichao ,f o r thcom ing A lbeza , M .V . 1 995 D er iva G gn ica : E s truc tura P ob lac iona le n P ob lac ione sA nd ina s ,T e s i s P rof e s iona l , UNSa ,F CN A lbo rnoz , C .D . a nd d e A lbo rnoz , C .L . 1 985 R e levam ien to a rqueo lög ico d e a l guno s r ec in to s d e l y ac im ien to d e E l P ichao , I n te rna l p ape r , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log fa , U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän , S an M igue l d eT ucumän Amb ro se t t i , J . B . 1 897 " La a n t igua c i udad d e Q u i lme s ( Va l le C a lchaqu i )" , B o le t i n d e l I n s t i tu to G eograf i co A rgen t ino , XV I I I , B ueno s A i re s , 3 7-40 Amegh ino , F . 1 880 L aa n t igüedad d e lh ombr ee ne lP la ta , G . Ma s son , P a r i s A nbe rg , S , . B eng t s son , L .a nd C or ne l l , P . 1 990 " Excava t ion s a nd m ea su remen t s i ns e c to r s I Ia nd I V : U n i t s 1 ,2 ,a nd 3 " ,i nC o rne l l ,P .a nd S jöd in , S .1 990 , ( e d s . )4 9-61 A rena s , P . a nd Med ina , M -C . 1 994 A cer ca d e u n d ocumen to s obr e e l VC en t enar io d i r ig ido a m ae s tro s yp rof e sor e s d e T ucumän , I V C ong re so A rgen t ino d e A n t ropo log fa S oc ia l , O lava r r ia ,M s A r sandaux , H . a nd R ive t , P . 1 946 L a m i la l lurg i e n Amgr ique p rgco lomb ienne , U n ive r s i t6 d e P a r is , T ravaux e t Memo i re s d e l ' In s t i tu t d 'E thno log ie , V o l . XXX IX , Mu se 'e d e l 'Homme , P a r i s

2 25

A zo f e if a , J . a nd B a r ran te s , R . 1 991 " Gene t ic v a r ia t ion i n t h e B r ib r i a nd C abeca r Ame r ind ian s f r om T a lamanca , C o s ta R ica" , R ev i s ta d e B io log i a T rop ica l . , 3 9 ( 2 ) , 2 492 53

B a raza d e F on t s , A . a nd P la tan ia , G . 1 994 " Apo r te s p a ra e lc onoc im ien to d e l a r te r upe s t r e d e l P e r iod ( )d e D e sa r ro l lo s R eg iona le s e n e lP i chao -Tucumän" , e nA c tas yMemor ias d e l X IC ongr e so N ac iona ld eA rqueo log i aA rgen t ina , S an R a f ae l , Mendoza B a rbu jan i , G . a nd S oka l , R . 1 990 " Zone s o f s ha rp g ene t ic c hange i n E u rope a r e a l so l i ngu i s t ic b ounda r ie s" , P roceed ings o ft h e N a t iona lA cadamy o fS c ience s , USA , 8 7 ( 5 ) , 1 8 161819 B a s s , W . 1 971 " Human O s teo logy : Al a bo ra to ry a nd f i e ld m anua l o ft h e h uman s ke le ton" i nD .R .Evan s( e d . ) , 1 971 , M i s sou r i A r chaeo log ica l S oc ie ty , C o lumb ia B a ta l län , G . [ 1985 ] 1 987 " E l n i f io ye lc onoc im ien to d e l ar e a l idad s oc ia l e n l ae scue la" , e n N . E l ich i ry ( c omp . ) [ 1985 ] 1 987 E ln i i io yl ae s cue la . R ef l ex ione ss obr el oo bv io , B ueno s A i re s , N ueva V is iön , 3 9-65 B a ta l län , G . a nd D iaz ,R . 1 990 " Sa lva je s , B ä rba ro s yn i f io s . L ad e f in ic iön d e p a t r imon io e n l ae s cue la p r ima r ia" , C uad erno s d e A n t ropo log i a S oc ia l . I CA , U n ive r s idad d e B ueno s A i re s , V o l . 2 ,( 2 )4 1-45 B eng t s son , L . 1 990 " A rch i tec ton ica l F ea tu r e s a s aWay t oS tudy S oc io -Po l i t ica l /Econom ic O rgan iza t ion" , i n C o rne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s .) 1 990 E l P ichao 1 989 : P re l im inar y R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o fC en t r e s , AC a se S t udy i nt h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW . A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie D , N o . 4 , G ö tebo rg Un ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg B eng t s son , L . 1 992a A rch i tec tura lR ema in sa sA r chaeo logy : I d ea s a nd A t temp t s i n aS ub . A nd ean C on t ex t , GOTARC S e r ie C , A rkeo log iska s k r if te r N o . 9 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg B eng t s son , L . 1 992b " The P e r cep t ion a nd N o t ion o f S pa ce i nR e la t ion t o A rch i tec tu r e" , Mede l t id sarkeo log i sk T id skr if t( META )3 / 92 , L und , 2 -21 B eng t s son , L . 1 998 P reh i s tor ic S t onewor k i n t h e P eruv ian A nd e s . A C ase S tud y a t 0 1 1an tay tambo , GOTARC S e r ie s B . N o . 1 0 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg . E tno log iska S tud ie r4 4 , E thnog raph ic Mu seum , Gö tebo rg B e rbe r iän , E . 1 970 " I nve s t igac iön a r queo lög ica e n e l y ac im ien to d e Z ä ra te" , R ev i s ta H uman i ta s . F acu l tad d e F i lo sof l a yL e t ras XV I , U n ive r s idad N acac iona l d e T ucumän , S an M igue ld eT ucumän B e rbe r iän , E . 1 987 C rön ica s d e l T ucumän . S i g lo XV I , C omech ingon ia , R ev is ta d e A n t ropo log ia eH i s to r ia , C ö rdoba ( A rgen t ina ) B e rgdah l -Bu luk in , E . 1 985 S t enä ld er s l iv : e n u nd er sökn ing a v g rund sko lee lever s u ppf a t t n i ngar o mf örh i s tor ien , GOTARC , S e r ie C N o . 2 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epar tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg B e r t ranpe t i t , J .a nd C ava l l i -Sfo rza , L . L . 1 99 1 " A g ene t ic r e con s t ruc t ion o ft h e h i s to ry o f t h e p opu la t ion o ft h e I b e r ian P en in su la" , T he Amer ican J ourna l o fH uman G ene t ic s , 5 , 5 1-67 B info rd , L . 1 972 "Mor tua ry p r ac t ice s —The i rs t udy a nd t h e i rp o ten t ia l" ,A nA rchaeo log ica l P er spec t ive , S em ina rP re s s , N ew Y o rk

2 26

B i rd ,J .B . 1 943 " Excava t ion si nN o r the rn C h i le" , A n thropo log ica lP aper so ft h e Amer ican Museum o fN a tura lH i s tor y ,V o l . 3 8 , P a r tI V : 1 79-316 ,N ew Y o rk 1 943 B oman , E . 1 908 A n t iqu i te s d e l ar e g ion a nd ine d e l aR epub l ique A rgen t ine e td u d e ser t d 'A tacama , I mp r ime r ie N a t iona le ,Vo l .1 a nd 2 ,P a r i s B onf i l B a ta l la , G . [ 1 980 ] 1 984 " H i s to r ia s q ue n o s on t o dav ia h i s to r ia" , e n AA VV : H i s tor ia ,p ara q ui? , B ueno sA i re s , S ig lo XX I , 2 27-245 B ra s lay sky , C . [ 1990 ] 1 991 " Lo sl i b ro s d et e x to e n s uc on tex to : A rgen t ina 1 9751989" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) 1 990 L a t inoamer ica : E n se l lanza d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bros d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica ,B ueno sA i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 6 0-76 B ro thwe l l ,D .R . 1 981 D e sen ter rando h ue so s ,F ondo d eC u l tu ra E conöm ica , Mex ico B ruch , C . 1 904 " De sc r ipc iön d e a l guno s s epu lc ro s C a lchaqu ie s . R e su l tado s d e l a s e xcavac ione s e f ec tuada s e n H ua lf in ( Pc ia d e C a tama rca )" , R ev i s ta d e l Museo d e L a P la ta , 1 , 1-27

C ab re ra , A . L . 1 976 " La s r e g ione s f i togeog r ä f ica s a r gen t ina s" , E nc ic loped ia A rgen t ina d e A gr icu l tura yJ ard iner i a , E d . A cme , B ueno sA i re s C a l lega r i Jacque s , S .M . a nd S a lzano , F . 1 988 . S ou th Amer ican I nd ians . AC ase S tud y i n E vo lu t ion , C la rendon P re s s , O xfo rd C a rdo so d e O l ive i r a , R . 1 977 " P roce so s d e A r t icu lac iön I n te re tn ica e n B ra s i l" , i n E . H e rm i t t e a nd L . B a r to lome , ( c omp . ) , P roce sos d e A r t icu lac iön S oc ia l , Amo r ro r tu E d i t , B ueno sA i re s C arne se F .R . a nd C a ra t in i , A . 1 992 " Demog ra f fa g ene t ica d e u na p ob lac iön T oba d e V i l la I ap i ( Qu i lme s , P rov . B ueno sA i re s )" , ETN IA 3 6 /37 ,9-28 C a rne se , F .R . 1 992 " Demog ra f f a g ene t ica d e p ob lac ione s a bo r igene s d e A rgen t ina" , R ev i s ta B ras i le ira d eG ene t ica , B raz i l ian J our na l o fG ene t ic s , 1 5 (1) , 3 20-326 C a r r izo , J .A . 1 957 C anc ionero P opu lar d e l T ucumän , T omo 1 ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , B ueno sA i re s C ava l l i -Sfo rza , L . L . 1 969 " De r iva g ene t ica e n u na p ob lac iön i t a l iana" , S c ien t if ic Amer ican , 3 ,26-33 C ava l l i -Sfo rza , L .L . a nd B odme r , W .F . 1 981 G ene t ica d e l a s P ob lac ione s H umanas , E d . Omega ,B a rce lona C ig l iano , E . 1 973 ( e d . ) T a s t i l , u na c i udad p r e inca ica a rgen t ina , E d . C aba rgon , B ueno s A i re s C ig l iano , M . e ta l . 1 960 " I nve s t igac ione s A rqueo läg ica s e n e l V a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia" , P ub l icac iön N ° 4 , I n s t i tu to d e A n t ropo log ia , F ac . d e F i lo sof fa y L e t ra s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e l L i to ra l , R o sa r io C oc i lovo , J . 1 981 E s tud io s s obr e d i scr im inac iön y c l as if icac idn d e p ob lac ione s p r eh i spän ica s d e ln oroe s t ea rgen t ino , P ub l icac iön o ca s iona l N o . 3 6 , Mu seo N ac iona l d e H i s to r ia N a tu ra l , S an t iago d eC h i le C o lmena re s , G . [ 1 990 ] 1 991 " La b a ta l la d e l o s m anua le s e n C o lomb ia" , e n ,M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) , L a t inoamer ica : E n se f ianza d e l a h i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO / G eo rg E cker t I n s t i tu t s , 1 221 34

2 27

C onc i se E ncyc loped ia o fP sycho logy 1 987 R aymond J .C o r s in i ( e d . ) , J ohn W i ley & S ons , N ew Y o rk C orne l l , E . 1 962 A rk i tek tur en s om k un s tar t , H uman i s t iske a r k i tek tu r s tud ie r , A rk i tek ten s F o r lag , C openhagen C o rne l l , P . 1 988 Emergence a nd G row th o f C en t r e s i n t h e A nd e s . S ome T heore t ica l C on s id era t ions , GOTARC S e r ie C , A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r N o . 6 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C orne l l , P . 1 991 " Un i t 1a s ah ou seho ld a nd t h e 1 990 e xcava t ions i n s t ruc tu re 3 " , i n C or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,19-35 C or ne l l , P . 1 993 E ar ly C en tr e s a nd t h e Househo ld . A T heor e t ica l a nd Me thodo log ica l S tud y o n L a t in Amer ican C ases , GOTARC S e r ie s N o . 3 ,G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l S tud ie s , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G ö t ebo rg C o rne l l , P .a nd J ohan s son , N . 1 993 " De sa r ro l lo d e l a s en tam ien to ST uc T av 5( E l P ichao ) , P rov inc ia d e T ucumän ) . C omen ta r io s s ob re d a tac ione s d e 1 4C y l um ine scenc ia" , P ub l icac iones , 2 ,I n s t i tu to d e a r queo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , T ucumän 3 1-43 C or ne l l , P .a nd J ohan s son N . 1 998 " The S an ta Ma r i a C u l tu re —My th o r R ea l i ty?" P a s t & P r e sen t i nA nd ean P r eh i s tor y a nd E ar ly H i s tor y , E tno log iska S tud ie r 4 2 , E thnog raph ic Mu seum ,G ö tebo rg , 9 110 1 C o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .1 989 U ppkoms to ch u t veck l ing a vc en t ra il ä ng t id sper spek t iv . E n f a l l s tud ie iS an ta Mar i a -f lod en s d a lgäng , N ordvä s tra A rgen t ina , PM f ö r p ro jek tp lan , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty ,D epa r tmen to fA rchaeo logy ,G ö tebo rg C or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 E lP ichao 1 989 . P r e l im inar yR epor tf rom t h ep ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t udy i n t h e S an ta Mar i a V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , No . 4 , G ö t ebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C o rne l l , P . a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 E l P ichao 1 990 S econd R epor tf rom t h e p ro jec t Emergence a nd G row th o f C en tr e s . A C a se S t ud y i n t h e S an ta Mar ia V a l ley , NW A rgen t ina , GOTARC , S e r ie s D , N o . 5 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A rchaeo logy , G ö tebo rg C u l len , G . [ 1 961 ] 1 971 T he C onc i se T ownscape , T he A r ch i tec tu ra l P re s s , C ha tham , ( 2nd r e v .e d )

D e l aF uen te , N . R . 1 973 " I nfo rme a r que lög ico s ob r e e lV a l le d e V inch ina , P rov . d e L a R io ja" ,R ev i s ta d e lI n s t i tu to d ea n tropo log i a ,4 ,( Cö rdoba ) , 9 5127 D ea l , M .

1 985

" Hou seho ld p o t te ry d i spo sa l i n t h e Maya h i gh land s" ,

J ourna l o f

A n thropo log ica lA rchaeo logy ,4 / 1985 ,243-291 D ebenede t t i , S . 1 921 " La i n f luenc ia h i spän ica e n l o s y ac im ien to s a r queo lög ico s d e C a sp inchango" , R ev i s ta d el aU n iver s idad d eB ueno sA ir es , XLV I , 7 45-788 D e rgow sk i , J . B . a nd B en t ley A .M . 1 986 " Pe rcep t ion o f P i c to r ia l S pace b y B ushmen" , I n terna t iona lJ ourna lo fP sycho logy , 2 1 ,743-752 , N o r th H o l land D ib , A . 1 989 A nä l i s i s S oc ioe s t ruc tura l d e l aR e ser va N a tura l L o s C ardone s , C on se jo d e I nve s t igac ione sd e l aU n ive r s idad d e S a l ta , S a l ta

2 28

Don ley , L . W . 1 980 " Hou se P owe r : Swah i l i S pace a nd S ymbo l ic C ap i ta l" , S t ruc tura l i sm a nd S ymbo l i sm i nA r chaeo logy , C onf e r ence p roceed ing s , C amb r idge , 2 0p p . D u ly , C . 1 979 T he H ou se so f Mank ind ,T hame sa nd H ud son ,L ondon

E l iade , M . [ 1957 ] 1 968 H e l ig t o ch p rof an t , ( 1 s t e d . i nG e rman i n 1 957 , D a s H e i l ige u nd d a sP rof ane ) , V e rbum , S tockho lm E r ic son ,C . 1 991 " Sy s tem so ft e r race s a tt h e s i t eo fE lP i chao" , i nC or ne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S . ( ed s . ) 1 991 E r ic son , C . 1 992 T er race s y s tems a tt h e s i te o fE l P ichao , NWA rgen t ina , E xam ina t ion p ape r ,D epa r tmen to fA r chaeo logy , G o tebo rg u n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg E s teban , G . 1 985 T i po sd e i n s ta lac iön p r eh i spän ica e n l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän , T e s i s d e L icenc iadu ra ,U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän , u npub l .

F a lcone r , D . S . 1 976 I n t roducc iön a l a G enj t ica C uan t i ta t iva , E d . C on t inen ta l , S .A . Mex ico , S egunda E d ic iOn F e rembach , D . e ta l . 1 979 " Recommanda t ion s p ou r d e te rm ine r l äge e t l e s exe s u r l e s que le t te" , B u l le t in e t Memo ir e sd el aS oc ij tj d 'An thropo log ie d eP ar i s F ind j i , M .T . [ 1 990 ] 1 991 "Mov im ien to i n d igena y ` r ecupe rac ion ' d e l ah i s to r ia" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) , L a t inoam & ica : E n se i ian za d e l a h i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d / F LACSO /G eo rg E cke r t I n s t i tu t s , 1 551 71

G eh l , I .1 971 B o -m i / j0 , S t a ten s B yggefo r skn ing s in s t i tu t , S B I -Rappo r t 7 1 , K öpenhamn . I k omm i s s ion h o sT ekn i sk F o r lag ( w i th E ng l ish s umma ry ) G eh l , J . 1 971 L ive t m e l lom h usene , A rk i tek ten s F o r lag , K öpenhamn , ( w i th E ng l ish s umma ry ) G e ro ,J .M . a nd C onkey , M .W . 1 991 " Ten s ion s , P lu ra l i t ie s , a nd E ngende r ing A r chaeo logy : A n I n t roduc t ion t o Women a nd P reh is to ry" , i nG e ro ,J .M . a nd C onkey , M .W . ( e d s . ) 1 99 1 E ngend er ing A r chaeo logy . Women a nd P r eh i s tor y ,B a s i l B lackwe l l , O xfo rd , 3 -30 G i lman , P . .A . 1 987 " A rch i tec tu re a s A r t if ac t : P i t S t ruc tu re s a nd P ueb lo s i nt h e Ame r ican S ou thwe s t" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty 5 2 /3 ,538-564 G i lman , P .A . 1 989 " AR e sponse t oW i l shu sen" , Amer ican A n t iqu i t y , 5 4 /4 ,834-836 . G lave , L .M . 1 989 T ra j inan te s : c am ino s i n d igena s e n l aS oc iedad c o lon ia l S . XV I—XV I I , I n s t i tu to d eA poyo A g ra r io , L ima Gonzä lez , A .R . 1 979 " P re -Co lumb ian Me ta l lu rgy o f N o r thwe s t A rgen t ina : H i s to r ica l D eve lopmen t a nd C u l tu ra l P roce s s" , e n B en s son , E .P . ( e d . ) ,1979 P r e -Co lumb ian Me ta l lurgy o fS ou th Amer ica :133-202 ,D umba r ton O ak s , Wa sh ing ton Gonzä lez , A .R . 1 983a " No ta s ob re r e l ig ion yc u l to e n e lN o roe s t e a r gen t ino p r eh i spän ico . Ap ropö s i to d e u na s f i gu ra s a n t ropomo r f a s d e l Mu seo d e B e r l in" , B c e s s ler -Ar ch iv , N eue F o lge ,3 1 ,219-282

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G onzä lez , A .R . 1 983b " La p rov inc ia y l a p ob lac iön i n ca ica d e C h icoana h i s to r ia y a r queo log i a e n l a s o luc iön d e u n v i e jo p rob lema" , i n P r esenc ia H i spän ica e n l a a rqueo log i a a rgen t ina , V o l . I , Mu seo R eg iona l d e A n t ropo log ia eI n s t i tu to d e H is to r ia F acu l tad d e H uman idade s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e l N o r es te G onzä lez , A .R . a nd D iaz , P .P 1 992 " No ta s A rqueo lög ica s s ob r e l a ' Ca sa Mo rada ` , L a P aya , P c ia . d e S a l ta" , E s tud ios d eA rqueo log i a N o 5 , Mu seo A rqueo l6g ico d e C ach i , 9 6 1 G onzä lez , L . [ 1980 ] , 1 984 " De l a mü l t ip le u t i l izac iön d e l ah i s to r ia" , i n AA VV : H i s tor ia , p ara q ui? , B ueno sA i re s ,S ig lo XX I , 5 3-74 G onza lez Z imme rmann , Z . 1 948 " La c e räm ica a c tua l d e T o lombön" , A c tes d u XXV I l l e C ongr i s I n terna t iona l d e s Amir ican i s te s , P ar i s 1 947 , A u s i ege d e l a S oc ie te d e s Ame r ican i s te s , Mu see d el 'Homme , P a r is , 2 71-275 G ru s in sky , S . 1 99 1 L a C o lon i zac iön d e l o I mag inar io , F ondo d e C u l tu ra E c6nom ica , F .C .E . Mex ico

H a rd ing , S . 1 986 T he S c ience Q ues t ion i nF em in i sm , C orne l l U n ive r s i ty P re s s , I t haca a nd L ondon H a s to r f , C . A . 1 993 A gr icu l tur e a nd t h e O nse t o fP o l i t ica l I n equa l i ty b ef or e t h e I nka , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge H e s se lg ren , S .1 975 Man 's P er cep t ion o f Man -mad eE nv ironmen t :A na rch i tec tura lt h eor y , S t uden t l i t te ra tu r , L und H e s se lg ren , S .1 988 F y s ik c on t ra p syke : E nu ppsa t s ,D onn S cand inav ia , S ig tuna H odde r , I . 1 982 S ymbo l s i n A c t ion : E thnoarchaeo log ica l s t ud ie s o f ma ter ia l c u l tur e , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge H o rnbo rg , A . 1 990 " H igh land a nd L ow land C oncep t ions o f S oc ia l S pace i n S ou th Ame r ica : S ome E thnoa r chaeo log ica l A ff in i t ie s" , F o lk , 3 2 , 1 990 , 6 1-92 , R epr in t , C openhagen H rd l icka , A . 1 952 " P rac t ica l a n th ropome t ry" , i n T .D . S t ewa rd ( e d . ) 1 952 T he W is t a r I n s t i tu te o fA na tomy a nd B io logy , P h i lade lph ia

I s be l l , W . 1 978 " Co smo log ica l O rde r E xp re s sed i nP reh is to r ic C e remon ia l C en te r s" , i nB . A lbe r te ta l . ,A c t e sd uX L I l e C ongr i sI n terna t iona ld e s Amir ican i s te s , V o l . 4

J ohan s son , N . 1 991 " The e xcava t ion o fg r ave ma te r ia l" , i nP .C or ne l l a nd S .S jöd in ( e d s . ) 1 991 , 5 7-76 J ohan s son , N . 1 996 B ur ia l s a nd S oc ie ty . AS tudy o fS oc ia l D if f er en t ia t ion a tt h e S i te o fE l P ichao , N or th -we s t ern A rgen t ina , a nd i nC eme ter ie sd a ted t ot h eS pan i sh N a t ive P er iod , GOTARC , S e r ie s B , G o thenbu rg A r chaeo log ica l T he se s N o . 5 ,G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö t ebo rg

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J ohans son , N . 1 999 " G rave sa nd d epo s i t iona lp roce s se s : A n e xamp le f r om t h e S an ta Ma r ia v a l ley , N o r th -we s te rn A rgen t ina" , R ev i s ta d e A rqueo log i a Amer icana , n o . 1 4 . I n s t i tu to P aname r icano d eG eog ra f ia eH i s to r ia , Mex ico DF

K o lb , C . C . 1 976 " The Me thodo logy o f L a t in Amer ican C e ram ic E co logy . E l D o rado : N ews le t te r " ,B u l le t in o nS ou th Amer ican A r chaeo logy 1( 3 ) ,4 4-82 K r iscau tzky , N . MS . F uer t e Q uemado ( i nfo rme d e a vance ) , C onse jo N ac iona l d e I nve s t igac ione s C ien t i f ica s yT ecn ica s , CON ICET , F acu l tad d e C ienc ia s N a tu ra le s y Mu seo d eL aP l a ta , L aP la ta K ön ig , H J . 1 992 " Lo s f a c to re s d e d e sa r ro l lo e conöm ico y s oc ia l e n A rgen t ina y s u p re sen tac iön e n l o s l i b ro s d e t e x to" , P ropues ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A t io 4 ,( 7 ) , 5 1 0

L eonha r t , P .C . 1 927 D ocumen to sp ara l ah i s tor ia a rgen t ina ,T omo X IX , C a r ta s A nua s d e l a P rov inc ia d e l P a raguay , C h i le y T ucumän d e l a C ompa i i ia d e J e sü s , I n s t i tu to d e I nve s t igac ione sH i s tö r ica s ,F acu l tad d eF i lo sof fa yL e t ra s , B ueno s A ire s L eon iP in to ,R . 1 987 " Aspec to st e ö r ico s ym e todo lög ico s , v i ncu lado s al ah i s to r io -g ra f fa d e T ucumän" , C ur so d e A poyo I n t erd i sc ip l inar io a l aI nve s t igac iön H i s tör ica , C en t ro d e I nve s t igac ione sH i s tö r ica s ," Ca sa H is tö r ica d e l aI ndependenc ia" ,T ucumän , 7 -23 L ewon t in , R . 1 984 L aD iver s idad H umana , B ib l . S c ien t if ic Ame r ican . E d . L abo r L ibe ran i , I .a nd H er nändez , R . 1 950 E xcur s iön a rqueo le ica e n l o sv a l les d e S an ta Mar i a , C a tamar ca , 1 877 , I n s t i tu to d e A n t ropo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , T ucumän L izondo B o rda , M . 1 938 D ocumen tos C o lon ia le s , S e r ie 1 ,V o ls . I — IV , J un ta C on se rvado ra d e l A rch ivo H i s tö r ico d eS an M igue l d eT ucumän , T ucumän L o rand i , A .M . 1 984 " So i locamayoc . L o s o l le ro s d e l I nka e n l o s C en t ro s Manuf ac tu re ro s d e lT ucumän" ,R ev i s ta d e l Museo d eL aP la ta ( Nueva s e r ie ) , U n ive r s idad N a c iona ld eL a P la ta , F a cu l tad d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s yMu seo , 3 03-327 L o rand i , A .M . 1 992 " E l m e s t iza je i n te re tn ico e n e l NOA" i n H . T amoeda a nd J .L . M i l lone s ( e d s . ) , 1 992 5 00 a r ias d e m e s t i za je e n l o s A nd e s N a t iona l Mu seum o f E tno loghy , O saka , S eno r i E thno log ica l S tud ie s 3 3 ,133166 L o rand i , A .M . a nd B o ixad6 s , R . 1 989 " E tnoh i s to r ia d e l o s v a l le s C a lchaqu ies e n l o s s i g lo s XV I yXV I I" ,R una 1 718 ( Bueno sA i re s ) , 2 63-4 19 L o rand i , A .M . a nd B uns te r , C . 1 990 " Ref lex ione s s ob re l a s c a tego r fa s s emän t ica s e n l a s f uen te s d e l T ucumän C o lon ia l . L o s V a l le s C a lchaqu ie s" H i s tor ica , Vo l . 1 4 , N o . 2 , U n ive r s idad d eB ueno s A i re s L ozano , P . 1 7541755 H i s tor ia d e l aC ampan i a d e J e süs e n l aP rov inc ia d e l P araguay : e scr i ta p or e lP .P ed ro L o zano d el am i sma C ampan ia ,V o l . I — I I , Mad r id L ozano , P .1 8741875 H i s tor ia d e l aC onqu i s ta d e lP araguay , R i od e l aP la ta yT ucumän , T omo sI V—V , I mp ren ta p opu la r , B ueno s A i re s

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Macdona ld , W .K . 1 990 " I nve s t iga t ing S t y le : A n e xp lo r a to ry a na ly s i s o f s ome p l a in s b ur ia l s" , i n M . C onkey a nd C . H a s tor f ( e d s . ) 1 990 T he U se s o fS t y le i nA rchaeo logy , C amb r idge Magadän , M . 1 989 I nf o rme s obr e l ar e cons trucc iön d e Q u i lme s ye le s tado d e c ond ic iön d e ls i t io " E lP ichao" , U npub l . p ape r , I n s t i tu to d e A rqueo log ia , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , S an M igue ld eT ucumän Maga lhae s J .C .M . a nd A r ce -Gömez , B . 1 987a " S tudy o n aB raz i l ian i s o la t I .P opu la t ion s t ruc tu re a nd r a ndom g ene t ic d r if t" ,H uman H er ed i ty , 3 7 ,278-284 Maga lhae sJ .C .M . a nd A r ce -Gömez ,B . 1 987b " S tudy o n aB raz i l ian i s o la te I .O ppor tun i ty f o rs e lec t ion" ,H uman H ered i ty , 3 7 ,381-383 Ma r ce l l ino , A . 1 981 " E l mo r fo t ipo p a leoame r icano l a gof u6gu ido e n r e s to s h umano s d e l p er iodo d e a g r icu l tu ra i n c ip ien te d e l n o roe s te a r gen t ino" , P ub l icac ione s d e l I n s t i tu to d e A n tropo log i a , XX IV , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e C ö rdoba Ma r ce l l ino , A . a nd C o lan ton io , S . 1 988 " Re lac ione s mo r fo lög ica s d e l o s a bo r igene s p r eh i spän ico s d e l t e r r i to r io a r gen t ino V I : L a r e g iön n o roe s te ( Be l6n , V a l le s C a lchaqu i e s , S an ta R o sa d eT a s t i l , C ach i )" ,B ioan thropos , V o l . 1 Ma r ce l l ino , A . a nd R ingue le t , S . 1 973 " E s tud io a n t ropof f s ico d e l o s r e s to s d e T a s t i l" , e n C ig l iano , E . 1 973 ( e d . ) , T as t i l , u na c i udad p r e inca ica a rgen t ina , E d . C aba rgon , B ueno s A i re s Mä rquez M i randa , F . 1 946 , " The D iagu i ta o fA rgen t ina" , i nJ .H . S t ewa rd ( e d . ) Handbook o fS ou th Amer ican I nd ians , V o l . 2 : T he A nd ean C iv i l i za t ion s , Sm i thson ian I n s t i tu t ion , B u reau o f Ame r ican E thno logy , B u l le t in 1 43 , Wa sh ing ton , 6 37-654 Maye r , E .F . 1 986 " Vo r span ische Me ta l lwa f f en u nd we rkzeuge i nA rgen t in ien u nd C h i le . A rma s yh e r ram ien ta s d e m e ta l p r eh ispän ica s e n A rgen t ina yC h i le" , AVA - Ma ter ia l ien , B and 3 8 , München M iguez , E . J . 1 992 " Ref lex ione s s ob re l ae nse t ianza d e l aH i s to r ia ye lu so d e f u en te s e n l a e s cue la m ed ia a r gen t ina" ,P ropue s ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A t io 4 ,( 7 ) , 1 5-20 M i l lone s L . 1 992 " The t ime o ft h e I n ca : T he C o lon ia l I nd ian s ' q ue s t" , A n t iqu i ty 6 6 ,2042 16 Mo r r is , D . 1 971 D e t m änsk l iga m enager ie t , P an /No r s ted t s . S tockho lm , ( o r ig ina l ly T he H uman Z oo , L ondon 1 969 ) Mu f ioz , A . 1 997 Mu seum O b jec t sa nd t h e ir V a lue s : O b jec t sf rom N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina i n t h e E thnograph ica l Museum o f G ö teborg , E xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , G ö tebo rg Mö rne r , M . 1 953 T he P o l i t ica l a nd E conom ic A c t iv i t ie s o ft h e J e su i t s i n t h e L a P la ta R eg ion , S tockho lm Mö rne r , M . 1 965 L a t inamer ika sh i s tor ia , S t ockho lm

N o l i , E . , A rana , M .M . , a nd C a rbone l , A . 1 995 " Lo s P i chao : p ueb lo d e l g rupo P acc ioca a l momen to d e l c on tac to . S u a r t icu lac iön c on e l mundo c o lon ia l" , C uad er r zos N o . 5 , R ev is ta d e l aF acu l tad d e H uman idade s yC ienc ia s S oc ia le s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e J u juy , A rgen t ina

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N o rden sk iö ld , E . 1 92 1 T he C opper a nd B ron ze A ge s i n S ou th Amer ica , C ompa ra t ive E thnog raph ica l S tud ie s ,V o l .4 ,G ö tebo rg N ü t iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 970 " The A lam i to c u l tu re o fN o r thwe s te rn A rgen t ina" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty , 3 5 ,133140 N ür iez R egue r io , V .A . , 1 978 " Con s ide ra t ion s o n t h e P e r iod iza t ion s o f N or thwe s t A rgen t ina" , i nD . B owman ( e d . ) , 1 978 , A d vance s i nA nd ean A r chaeo logy , T he H ague , Mou ton P ub l i she r s ,4 53-484 N ür iez R egue i ro , V .A . , T a r tu s i , M . ( e d s . ) 1 988 E s tud io d e l ai n c idenc ia d e l ad i näm ica d e i n te racc iön e n t re l a s p ob lac ione s q ue h ab i ta ron l a s " t ie r ra s a l ta s" y " l a s t i e r ra s b a ja s" , s ob re e ld e sa r ro l lo h i s tö r ico yc u l tu r a l d e l N o roe s te A rgen t ino , I n s t i tu to d e a r queo log ia , Un ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän ,u npub l i shed m anu sc r ip t N ür iez R egue i ro , V .A . a nd T a r tu s i , M . 1 991 " O r igene s d e l ao cupac iön d e l e spac io" , i n C orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 99 1 ,512

O 'Shea , J .1 984 Mor tuar y V ar iab i l i ty . A n A r chaeo log ica l I nve s t iga t ion , A cadem ic P re s s , N ew Y o rk O l iveg ren ,J .1 969 " Bo s tad o ch Men ta lhyg ien" , KKon tur 1 969 /2 ,617 O r t iz Ma lm ie r ca , Ma r tha ,

1 994 D e shac iendo l a m ad e ja , E d ic ione s d e S a l tomor ta l ,

S tockho lm O tone l lo M .M . a nd L o rand i , A . 1 987 I n t roducc iön al aa rqueo log i a ye t no log ia a rgen t ina : 1 0 .000 a i io sd eh i s tor ia , EUDEBA , B ueno sA i re s

P a lac io s , R . A . a nd P ob lado re s d e E l P i chao 1 996 E s tud io p r ev io d e f ac t ib i l idad d e p royec to s g enerador e s d e r e cur so s e conöm ico s yc amb io s p ara m e jorar l ac a l idad d e v ida d el o sh ab i tan te sd eu np ueb lo . E lP ichao , T ucumän , A rgen t ina , MS . P e l is se ro , N . a nd D if r ie r i , H . 1 981 Q u i lme s A rqueo logi a yE tnoh i s tor ia d e u na c i udad p r eh i spän ica , G ob ie rno d e l ap rov inc ia d e T ucumän , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e B ueno s A i re s , F acu l tad d eF i lo so f i a yL e t ra s . S .M . d eT ucumän P e r ro ta , E . a nd P ode s tä , C . 1 978 " Con t r ibu t ion t ot h e S an J o sé a nd S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re s , NW A rgen t ina" , e n B .L . B rowman ( e d . ) A d vance s i nA nd ean a rchaeo logy , T he H ague , 5 25-551 P io s sek P r eb i sch , T . 1 984 R e lac iön h i s tör ica d e C a lchaqu i . E scr i ta p or e l m i s ionero j esu i ta P ad re H ernando d e T or r eb lanca e n 1 696 , Mode rn ized v e r s ion , n o te s a nd m ap s b yT e r e sa P io s sek P reb i sch , E d ic ione sC u l tu ra le sA rgen t ina s , B ueno s A i re s P reb i sch , L . 1 994 " E s tud io p r e l im ina r : D o s e j emp lo s d e A r te R upe s t r e e n T ucumän" , R ev i s ta N ° 5 , I n s t i tu to d e I nve s t igac ione s E s t6 t ica s , F acu l tad d e A r te s , U n ive r s idad N ac iona ld eT ucumän ,T ucumän P uh le , H .J . [ 1 990 1 1 991 " Po lf t ica d e d e sa r ro l lo y n ac iona l i smo e n Ame r ica L a t ina e n e l s i g lo X IX" , e n M . R iekenbe rg ( c omp . ) 1 99 1 , L a t inoamgr ica : E nse l ianza d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bros d e t e x to y c onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d / F LACSO / G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 1 8-35

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Q u i roga , A . 1 893 " An t igüedade s C a lchaqu i e s : l ac o lecc iön Z ava le ta" , B o lean d e lI n s t i tu to G eogräf i co A rgen t ino ( Bueno s A i re s ) , XV I I ,4 -6 Q u i roga , A . 1 896 " An tgüedade s C a lchaqu ie s . L a c o lecc iön Z ava le ta" , B o le t i n d e l I n s t i tu to G eogräf i co A rgen t ino , ( Bueno sA i re s ) , XV I I ,177-213 Q u i roga , A . 1 90 1a " Fue r te Q uemado" , A na le s d e l a S oc iedad C ien t if ica A rgen t ina 5 2 , B ueno sA i re s Q u i roga , A . 1 90 1b L ac ruz e n Amb ica , E d i to r ia l Ame r icana , B ueno s A i re s Q u i roga , A . 1 931 P e trograf i a s yP ic tograf i ' a s d e C a lchaqu i , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e T ucumän , B ueno sA i re s

R a f f ino , R . 1 988 P ob lac ione si nd i genas e nA rgen t ina . TEA , B ueno s A i re s R a f f ino , R . , a nd B a ld in i , L . 1 9811982 " E l s i t io a r queo lög ico Mo l ino s I( P rov . S a l ta ) N o ta p r e l im ina r" i n A na le s d e A rqueo log i a yE tno log i a , U n ive r s idad N ac iona l d e C uyo , Mendoza ,N °3 6-37 ,10 1116 R a f f ino , R .A . , R av i f ia , G . , B a ld in i , L .a nd I a ccona , L . 1 982 " La e xpan s iön s ep ten t r iona l d e l a c u l tu ra L a A guada e n e l NO a r gen t ino" , C uad ernos d e l I n s t i tu to N ac iona l d e A n tropo log i a , 9( Bueno sA i r e s ) , 7 -35 R amo s , S .F . 1 959 ( m .s . )P ic tograf ia s yp e t rograf i ' a sd e ll u gar , I n 6d i to R e le thfo rd , J . H . 1 99 1 " Ef f ec t o f c hange s i n p opu la t ion s i ze o n ag ene t ic m ic ro d i f f e ren t ia t ion" , Human B io logy , 6 3 (5 ) , 6 29-64 1 R ena rd d e C oque t , S .F . 1 988 S i t io s a rqueo lög ico s c on a r t e r upe s tr e d e l a R epüb l ica A rgen t ina :R eg i s tro/Documen tac iön , F EC IT , B ueno s A i re s R ibo t ta , E . 1 99 1 " Geog raph ic d e sc r ip t ion o fS ec to r I X" i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,89-93 R iekenbe rg , M . [ 1990 ] 1 991a " I n t roducc iön" , i n M . R iekenbe rg ( e d . ) [ 1 990 ] 1 99 1a L a t inoamgr ica : E nsef ian za d e l ah i s tor ia , l i bro s d e t e x to yc onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 1 217 R iekenbe rg , M . [ 1990 ] 1 991b " Caud i l lo s yc aud i l l i smo . L a p r e sen tac iön d e l t ema e n l o s l i b ro s e s co la re s d e h i s to r ia l a t inoame r icana" , i n M . R iekenbe rg ( e d . ) [ 1 990 ] 1 991b , L a t ino -amb ica : E nse i tanza d el ah i s tor ia , l i bro sd et e x t° yc onc ienc ia h i s tör ica , . B ueno s A i re s , A l ianza E d /F LACSO /G eo rg E cker tI n s t i tu t s , 1 72193 R o land i d e P er ro t , D .S . 1 974 " Un h a l lazgo d e o b je to s m e tä l ico s e n e l a r ea d e l R io D once l la s ( p rov inc ia d e J u juy )" , R e lac ione s d e l aS oc iedad A rgen t ina d eA n t ropo log i a , ( Bueno sA i re s ) , N ueva S e r ie 8 ,153160 R yd6n , S . 1 936 A rchaeo log ica l R esearches i n t h e D epar tmen t o f l a C ande lar ia ( Prov . S a l ta , A rgen t ina ) , G ö tebo rg ,E thnog raph ic Mu seum , Gö tebo rg

S äba to , H . 1 992 " De l s i n sen t ido a l ai n te rp r e tac iön : n o ta s s ob re l ap re sen tac iön d e l a H i s to r ia e conöm ica e n l o s t e x to s e s co la re s" , P ropues ta E duca t iva , B ueno s A i re s , A f io 4 , ( 7 ) , 114

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S ada l la , E . K . a nd O x ley , D . 1 984 " The P e rcep t ion o f R oom S i ze : T he R ec tangu la r i ty I lu s ion" ,E nv ironmen ta nd B ehav ior , 1 6 /3 , May 1 984 ,394-405 S a lceda , S . 1 988 " Anä l i s i s d e l av a r iab i l idad b i o lög ica i n te rg rupa l e n l as e r ie d e c r äneo s a du l to sp roceden t e sd eP ampa G rande ( Guach ipa s -S a l ta )" ,B ioan tropo s ,N o . 1 S anday , P .R . 1 981 F ema le P ower a nd Ma le D om inance . O n t h e O r ig in s o f S exua l I nequa l i ty , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P re s s , C amb r idge S ch if f e r , M .B . 1 987 F orma t ion P roce s se s o ft h e A rchaeo log ica l R ecord , U n ive r s i ty o f Mex ico P re s s , N ew Mex ico S ensor imo tor I n terac t ions i nS pace P ercep t ion a nd A c t ion 1 986 i nD . G . B ouwhu i s e ta l . ( ed s . )A c ta P sycho log ica ,I n te rna t iona lJ ou rna l o fP sychonom ic s , V o l . 6 3 S hank s , M . a nd T i l ley , C . 1 987 R e -Con s t ruc t ing A r chaeo logy . T heo ry a nd P rac t ice , C amb r idge U n ive r s i ty P r e ss , C amb r idge S jöd in , S .1 990a " Ce ram ic s" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 990 ,105158 S jöd in , S . 1 990b P rob lems a nd m e thod s i n c eram ic a na ly s i s . C eram ic a na ly s i s i n NW A rgen t ine a rchaeo logy a nd a c eram ic s amp le f rom E l P ichao e xcava t ions 1 989 , V a l ley o fS an ta Mar i a , e xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , Gö tebo rg S jöd in , S . 1 991a " The p o t te ry o f E l P i chao : t h e p roce s s o f p roduc t ion a nd t h e l a bou r p roce s s" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . )1990 ,119134 S jöd in , S .1 991b " Sec to rV I I I" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,37-42 S jöd in , S . 1 996 " Ana ly s i s o f c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om t h e Amancay c eme te ry" , i n J ohans son , N . 1 996 , A ppend ix 4 S jöd in , S .1 998a " C lay P o t sa nd t h eP o t te r 's Wo rk : A rchaeo logy a nd E thno -a r chaeo logy a t P i chao i n N o r th -we s tern A rgen t ina" , P a s t & P r e sen t i nA nd ean P r eh i s to ry a nd E ar ly H i s tor y , E tno log i ska S tud ie r4 2 , E thnog raph ic Mu seum , G ö tebo rg , 3 3-52 S jöd in , S . 1 998b " F ragmen t s o f L abou r : A n A t temp t a t aS oc ia l E xp lana t ion o f t h e P roduc t ion o f C e ram ic s a tP i chao , N o r th -we s te rn A rgen t ina" , i n A .C . A nde r s son , A . G i l lbe rg , O .W . J en sen , H . K a r ls son a nd M .V . R o löf ( e d s . ) 1 998 T he K a le ido scop ic P a s t , GOTARC , S e r ie C , A rkeo log i ska s k r if te r N o . 1 6 , G ö tebo rg U n ive r s i ty , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy ,G ö t ebo rg ,2 53-265 S k ibo , J .M . 1 992 P o t t er y F unc t ion : A U se -A l t era t ion P er spec t ive , P l enum P re s s , N ew Y o rk S k ibo ,J .M . a nd S ch if f e r , M .B . 1 995 " The C lay C ook ing P o t . A n E xp lo ra t ion o f Women 's T echno logy" , i n S k ibo , J .M . , Wa lke r , W .H . a nd N ie l sen , A .E . ( e d s . ) 1 995 E xpand ing A r chaeo logy ,U n ive r s i ty o fU tah P re s s , S a l tL ake C i ty , 8 0-91 S tenbo rg , P . 1 991 " App roach ing i n te rp re ta t ion s o f t h e c ons t ruc t ion s o f E l P i chao . Two p e r spec t ive s a pp l ied c ompa r ing s e c to r s I I , I V , a nd V I I I" , i nC o rne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S . ( e d s . ) 1 991 ,135163 S tenbo rg , P .1 991 , T wo A pproache st oR oom S t ruc tur eI n terpr e ta t ion : AC a se S t ud yi n NW A rgen t ine , E xam ina t ion p ape r , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , G ö t ebo rg u n ive r s i ty , Gö tebo rg S tenbo rg , P . 1 998 " The T roub le some X enogamy b e tween A rchaeo logy a nd E thnoh i s to ry : E xamp le s f r om R e sea r ch o n N or th -we s ter n A rgen t in ian P reh i s to ry a nd E a r ly H i s to ry" , P a s t & P re sen t i n A nd ean P r eh i s tor y a nd E ar ly H i s tor y , E tno log i ska S tud ie r 4 2 , E thnog raph ic Mu seum ,G ö tebo rg ,7 5-89

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S t enbo rg , P . 1 999 " Re s is tance a nd T ran sfo rma t ion : C u l tu ra l a nd D emog raph ic C hange i n s ide t h e N a t ive S oc ie ty d u r ing t h e t ime s o f t h e I n ca e xpan s ion a nd t h e S pan i sh C onque s t i n N o r th -we s ter n A rgen t ina" , D iva T echn ica l R epor t , N o . 1 2 , C en t re f o r R e sea r ch o n t h e C u l tu ra l a nd B io log ica l D ive r s i ty o f A ndean R a info re s t s ( D IVA ) , R onde , D enma rk , i np r in t S t enbo rg , P . a nd Muf loz , A . 1 999 ( e d s . ) Ma sked H i s tor ie s . A R e -exam ina t ion o f t h e R odo lf o S chr e i ter C o l lec t ion f rom N or th -we s tern A rgen t ina , E tno log i ska S tud ie r 4 3 , E tnog raf i ska Mu see t , G ö tebo rg S t epona i t is , V .P . 1 984 , " Techno log ica l s t ud ie s o f p reh i s to r ic p o t te ry f r om A labama : P hy s ica l p rope r t ie s a nd v e s se l f unc t ion" , i n v an d e r L eeuw , S .E . a nd P r i tcha rd , A .C . ( e d s . ) 1 984 T he Many D imens ion s o f P o t ter y . C eram ic s i n A rchaeo logy a nd A n thropo logy , Am s te rdam ,9 122 S t i lbo rg , 0 . 1 991 , " Repo r t o f t h in s e c t ion a na ly s i s o f s i x c e ram ic f r agmen t s f r om E l P i chao" , i ni nC orne l l , P .a nd S jöd in , S .( e d s . ) 1 991 ,87-9 1 S t rombe rg ,W . H . 1 989 " He lmho l tz a nd Z oe l lne r : N ine teen th -Cen tu ry Emp i r ic ism , a nd t h e T heo ry o f S pace P e r cep t ion" , J ourna l o ft h e H i s to ry o ft h e B ehav iora l S c iences 2 5 /4 ( Oc t . 1 989 ) , 3 71-383 S vensk U pp s lagsbok 1 96 1 F ö r lag shu se tN o rden , Ma lmö , 2 nd r e v .e d i t ion ( 1 s te d . 1 947-55 ) T a r ragö , M . 1 987 " Soc iedad ys i s tema d e a sen tam ien to e n Y ocav i l" , C uad er r zo s , I n s t i tu to N ac iona ld e A n t ropo log ia , B ueno s A i re s , N ° 1 2 ,179196

T a r ragö , M . a nd S ca t to l in , C . 1 999 " La p rob lemä t ica d e l p e r iod° F o rma t ivo e n e lV a l le d e S an ta Ma r ia" , " ,i nD iez Ma r in , C . 1 999 ( e d . ) X l 1 C ongr e so N ac iona l d e A rqueo log i a A rgen t ina , L a P la ta , A rgen t ina 2 2 -26 d e s e t iembr ed e 1 997 . A c ta s , Vo l 1 ,142-153 , L a P l a ta T a r rag6 , M . a nd N a s t r i , J .1 999 " D imen s ione s d e l ac omp le j idad s an tama r iana" , i nC r is t ina D iez Ma l in , C . 1 999 ( e d . ) X I I C ongr e so N ac iona l d eA rqueo logi a A rgen t ina , L a P la ta , A rgen t ina 2 2 -26 d es e t iembr ed e 1 997 . A c ta s .V o l . 2 ,259-264 , L aP la ta T a r tu s i M . a nd N t i f iez R egue i ro , V .A . 1 993 " Excavac iön d e u n mon t i cu lo c e remon ia l t a rd io e n e ls i t io S TucTav 5( E l P i chao ) , p rov inc ia d e T ucumän" , P ub l icac iones N o . 2 , S e r ie : I nve s t igac ione s A rqueo log ia , 1 17

N o .

1 , U n ive r s idad

N ac iona l

d e

T ucumän ,

I n s t i tu to

d e

t e n K a te , H .C . 1 893 " Rappo r t s omma i r e s u r u ne e xcu r s ion a r ch6o log ique d ans l e s P rov ince s d e C a tama r ca , d e T ucumän , e td e S a l ta" , R ev i s ta d e l Museo d e L a P la ta , V , 3 21-348 T o scano , J .1 898 L a r e g iön c a lchaqu ina : p äg ina s d e h i s tor ia p r e - yp os t c o lomb ina yd e a rqueo log i ac a lchaqu ina ,I mp ren ta L aV oz d e l aI g le s ia , B ueno s A i re s

U h le , M . 1 9 10 " La s r e lac ione s p reh i s tö r ica s e n t r e e lP e rü yl aA rgen t ina" , e nA c tas d e l 1 7 C ongr e so I n ternac iona ld e Amer ican i s tas , I :5 09 — 540 , B ueno s A i re s U r ton , G . [ 1981] 1 988 A t t h e C ro s sroad s o ft h e E ar th a nd t h e S ky . A n A nd ean C o sm o l ogy , U n ive r s i ty o fT exa sP re s s . A u s t in , 2 nd r e v . e d i t ion ( 1 s te d . 1 981)

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d e V ega , M . , I n ton s -Pe te r son , M .J . , J ohn son -La i rd , P .N . , D en i s , M . a nd Ma r scha rk , M . ( e d s . ) 1 996 Mod e l so fV i suo spa t ia lC ogn i t ion , O xfo rd U n ive r s i ty P re s s , N ew Y o rk V en tu ra ,B .N . 1 985 M e ta lurg ia : U na spec to p oco c onoc ido e nl aa rqueo log ia d e l a ss e lva s o cc id en ta les , P rog rama d e E s tud io s P reh i s tö r ico s , I n fo rme s d e I nve s t igac iön 2 ,C on ice t , U n ive r s idad d eB ueno sA i re s ,B ueno s A i re s

Wach te l ,N . 1 971 L o sv enc ido s , l o si nd io sd e lP eru f r en t e al ac onqu i s ta e spa i io la , A l ianza E d i t . , Mad r id Webe r , R . 1 978 " A s e r ia t ion o f t h e l a te p reh i s to r ic S an ta Ma r ia c u l tu re o f N or thwe s te rn A rgen t ina" , F ie ld iana A n thropo logy ,6 8 ( 2 ) We i se r , W . 1 92 1 F i e ld b ook 1 8 , b a sed o n t h e f our th B a r re to e xped i t ion , D epa r tmen t o f A r chaeo logy , Mu seo d eC ienc ia sN a tu ra le s ,L aP l a ta W i l shu sen , R . H . 1 989 " A r ch i tec tu re a s A r t if ac t —Pa r t I : A C ommen t o n G i lman" , Amer ican A n t iqu i ty , 5 4 /4 ,826-833 Wr igh t , S . 1 938 . " S ize o f p opu la t ion a nd b r eed ing s t ruc tu r e i n r e la t ion t o e vo lu t ion" . S c ience , 8 7 , ( 2 263 ) Wr igh t , S .1 943 . " I so la t ion b yd i s tance" , G ene t ic s , 2 8 ,114138

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