Il Duomo Di Siena: Excavations and Pottery Below the Siena Cathedral [UK ed.] 1905739745, 9781905739745

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Il Duomo Di Siena: Excavations and Pottery Below the Siena Cathedral [UK ed.]
 1905739745, 9781905739745

Table of contents :
_GoBack
Foreword
The missed opportunities of a town:
Siena, excavations beneath the cathedral
Premise
The Excavation
The cathedral hill from its origins to the Roman era
Rhythms of the crisis
The contextual recession between Late Antiquity
and the Early Middle Ages
The Early Middle Ages
New forms of settlement and economic relations between the
6th and 10th centuries AD
A Second Transition
The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages
Pottery from the Excavation
Introduction
Coarse Ware
Fine ware
African Red Slip Ware (ARS)
Red engobe ware
Amphorae
Lamps
Sigillata Italica
Maiolica Arcaica
Glazed Ware
Conclusions
Appendix
Methodological notes and analysis of mixtures
Bibliography
Fig. I: Excavations and surveys in Siena
Fig. II: Topographic identification of the excavation and the surveyed rooms.
Fig. 1: GIS elaboration of the rooms investigated during the excavation.
Fig. 2: Hypothetical topography of Siena during the Roman centuries (PALLECCHI 2006).
Fig. 3: Topographic position of the well.
Fig. 4: Well with animal deposits, and (right) a detail of one.
Fig. 6: Two of the lamps (volute) found inside the well (1st century AD).
Fig. 5: GIS elaboration of the animal entombents found in primary deposition inside the well (CAUSARANO 2009).
Fig. 8: The semicircular wall, probably dating to the 4th century AD and its topographic position.
Fig. 7: The structure with two apses identified below the Santa Maria della Scala (CANTINI 2005).
Fig. 9: Pottery wares between 5th and 6th centuries AD, with the principal typologies.
Fig. 10: A burial dating to the 5th century AD.
Fig. 11: GIS elaboration of the grübenhaus and its topographic position.
Fig. 12: The grübenhaus during its excavation and its 3D reconstruction.
Fig. 13: Lamps found inside the grübenhaus (5th-6th century AD).
Fig. 14: Bronze cloak pin from one of the burials (6th-7h century AD).
Fig. 15: The two 12th-century siloi.
Fig. 16: The apse linked to the 12th-century cathedral, attested by documents since 102 AD.
Fig. 17: GIS elaboration of the documented phases of the cathedral (CAUSARANO 2005).
Fig. 18: The two identified dump pits.
Fig. 19: Pottery from the two dump pits. Drawing (below) of a jug with the emblem of the Opera del Duomo.
Fig. 20: The arrows indicate the two bases serving as foundations
Fig. 21: Fragments of mosaic found in secondary deposits, dating to 3rd-4th century AD (CHIESA 2012-2013).
Fig. 22: GIS elaboration of the 15th-century loculi.
Fig. 23: Detail of a burial inside one of the loculi, with an individual wearing a cape bearing the cross of the Order of the Knights of Malta.
Fig. 24: Graphic showing the percentage level of residual materials over the centuries (CASTIGLIA 2012).
Fig. 25:14th-century cooking vessel (olla).
Fig. 26: 13th/14th-century cooking vessels (ollae).
Fig. 27: Late 14th/15th century corse ware jug.
Fig. 28: 15th-century fine ware moneybox.
Fig. 29: 14th-century fine ware pitcher.
Fig. 30: Red engobe ware production centres in Tuscany.
Fig. 31: Circulation of amphorae directed to Siena in Late Antiquity.
Fig. 32: Lamps ‘a volute’ from inside the votive well (1st century AD).
Fig. 33: Lamps from the grübenhaus fill (5th-6th century).
Fig. 34: Maiolica arcaica jugs. The left one bears the Opera del Duomo emblem.
Fig. 35: Jug in monochrome Maiolica.
Fig. 36: On the right a Maiolica arcaica sauce boat.
Fig. 37: Glazed ware cooking pots (14th century AD).
Fig. 38: Hypothetical plan of the defensive walls in Roman times
Fig. 39: Table and coarse wares from the ‘Age of Transition’ and the Early Middle Ages.
Fig. 1a: Interface of the DBMS Carta Archeologica.
Fig. 2a: Interface of the DBMS Carta Archeologica (Reperti container).
Fig. 3a: Example of the Tabella quantificazioni (Quantification table).

Citation preview

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Gabriele Castiglia

Archaeopress Archaeology

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Gabriele Castiglia

Archaeopress Archaeology

Archaeopress Gordon House 276 Banbury Road Oxford OX2 7ED

www.archaeopress.com

ISBN 978 1 905739 74 5 ISBN 978 1 905739 77 6 ePdf

© Archaeopress and G Castiglia 2014

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the copyright owners.

This book is available direct from Archaeopress or from our website www.archaeopress.com

This book is dedicated to Donatella and Renato

Acknowledgements I would like to thank the many people who, in different ways, helped me to improve this research and made this book possible. First of all, my deepest gratitude goes to Professor Marco Valenti: to him I owe much of what I have learned in these years, both in the field and as regards the passion and approach to the research. I wish to thank Professor Philippe Pergola for his valuable teachings and his support. Special thanks go to Professor Vasco La Salvia, co-examiner of the thesis on which this book is based. My gratitude also goes to Professor Riccardo Santangeli Valenzani who has expressed his appreciation of my research and supported me in the writing of this book. My deep gratitude also goes to all the people I have met in my ten years at the University of Siena at LIAAM (Laboratorio di Informatica Applicata all’ Archeologia Medieval, directed by Professor Marco Valenti) and during the excavations of Miranduolo, Santa Cristina in Caio and Castiglioncello del Trinoro. In particular, I would like to thank Marie-Ange Causarano, Dario Ceppatelli, Vittorio Fronza, Luca Isabella, Alessandra Nardini, Mirko Peripimeno and Federico Salzotti, for their examples of competence and scientific rigour; Veronica Mariottini, for teaching me the basics of pottery studies; Stefano Bertoldi, Angelo Castrorao Barba, Manuele Putti and Gaetano Salvatore for being fantastic colleagues, and, above all, great and true friends. I would also like to thank all the professors, colleagues and staff of the Pontificium Institutum Archaeologiae Christianae in Rome. Lastly a special thought goes to all those other friends who in recent years have been close to me, and especially to Giorgia.

Contents

Foreword������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 1 The missed opportunities of a town: Siena, excavations beneath the cathedral������������������������������������������������������������ 1 Premise�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8 The Excavation��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 9 The cathedral hill from its origins to the Roman era������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 9 Rhythms of the crisis: The contextual recession between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages����������������������� 13 The Early Middle Ages: new forms of settlement and economic relations between the 6th and 10th centuries AD�� 15 A Second Transition: The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages��������������������������������������������������������������������������� 18 Pottery from the Excavation��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 26 Introduction������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 26 Coarse Ware����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27 Fine ware���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 62 African Red Slip Ware (ARS)�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 74 Red engobe ware���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 78 Amphorae��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 86 Lamps��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 96 Sigillata Italica ���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 100 Maiolica Arcaica�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 106 Glazed Ware��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 114 Conclusions���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 116 Appendix�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 123 Methodological notes and analysis of mixtures��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 123 Bibliography��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 142

i

Foreword The missed opportunities of a town: Siena, excavations beneath the cathedral by Marco Valenti Professor of Christian and Medieval Archaeology - University of Siena

Surveys in Siena (Fig. I) – Modern investigations started in the city in 1979 with the research and exhibition presented in the book Siena: le origini. Testimonianze e miti archeologici edited by Mauro Cristofani, where he reinterprets the history of the town, subjecting it to critical review by surveying all the available sources. In the early 1980s the University of Siena began investigations into

the urban context and the first studies on the medieval pottery from Siena were analyzed and typologized in an archaeological perspective (in which the known materials, the modern urban recoveries (the complex of S. MartaOratorio del Nicchio), the excavations of the monumental complexes (Fonti di Follonica and Palazzo di S. Galgano), and some general reconnaissance of the area all merge)

Fig. I: Excavations and surveys in Siena

1

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral San Giovanni in Via dei Fusari. The research highlighted the first information about the stratification of the phases of occupation, from the late Etruscan period, that affected the area of the ​​ hill on which the cathedral was built. A mass of data and important remains were accumulated but, unfortunately, these did not receive the attention they merit. Although an extraordinary discovery of a cycle of medieval frescoes (which I will mention later) has been made ​​accessible, nothing has been done for the mass of data and remains provided by the archaeological research. This desirable, but not realized, valorisation would have allowed the development of an additional popular understanding within the cultural resources of Siena, which, in conjunction with the findings of the hospital of Santa Maria della Scala (also undervalued), would have let the public directly experience the timelines of the city. For many reasons, Siena is a city in deep recession and has seen a decline in its image, manifested by the failure of the Santa Maria della Scala project (anticipated by the closure of the Palazzo delle Papesse, dedicated to modern and contemporary art).

and are being published. Future projects will include the digging of the wells in the castellare degli Ugurgeri in the Contrada della Civetta. At the end of the decade an excavation began in the area in front of the hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, giving important clues to the reality of Siena in the transition between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: the interpretation of the façade of the hospital was the opportunity for Roberto Parenti to apply the methodological principles of the archaeology of architecture – already tested in the suburban context – highlighting the multidisciplinary nature progressively taken in these years in the use of different methods and sources. Among these, the mensiochronology and the openings’ chrono-typology (the latter carried out in the following years by Fabio Gabrielli in his studies on the Siena civil buildings) are applied with interesting results. In the same period the urban context of Siena is the subject of the first important study based on the new methods and principles in the discipline and a survey on the wall facing the rear of the Maestà fresco by Simone Martini in the Sala del Mappamondo shortly followed. The emergency excavation of a pottery kiln, dated between the second half of the 15th and the early years of the 16th century in Via delle Sperandie was undertaken in the early 1980s. In the second half of the same decade the Palazzo Pubblico was the subject of the important restoration and consolidation of the façade and different teams, coordinated by Roberto Parenti, collaborated on the study of its material structures with investigations that ranged from the analysis of the walls, the chrono-typology of building materials, mortars and openings, chemical analyses of sampled materials, and new iconographical and historical researches. Since the late 1990s, during the recovery of the hospital complex of Santa Maria della Scala, urban archaeology in Siena experienced a new and exciting season of investigations with multi-disciplinary projects in a framework of cooperation between civic institutions and the soprintendenze which, from 2000, continued with excavations beneath the cathedral itself. We must add to these investigations the interventions of preventive archaeology conducted over recent years, for example the Convento del Carmine, the Fonti di Follonica, the Ala dei Nove in the Palazzo Pubblico, and the Renaissance bastion of the Fortino delle Donne senesi, coordinated with other research groups and conducted in accordance with the municipal administration.

In short, culture is not a decoration but the results of hard work and achievement. I should mention that the components of heritage (museums, parks, archaeological remains and monuments) are different and much more ‘profitable’ than a misguided mercantilist vision of culture; the advantages of a museum or park are also (and especially) to be seen in terms of cultural development, of improvement of wealth and quality of life. And, more generally, culture itself must be a driving force for the growth of any country. A society without a widespread cultural dimension is indeed a poor one, Only by learning from and developing our cultural heritage do we have the opportunity to aspire to be a great country. Money spent on culture is never wasted and is soon with interest. What is not known cannot be valued and made productive; knowledge is based on research and on its diffusion to the entire community. Behind prudent policies enforced in most parts of Italy there are steadily increasing numbers of visitors to exhibitions, museums and parks; despite the shocking crisis in this country, cultural consumption does not decrease. During the crisis, il buon governo (good governance) should therefore ensure investment in strategic sectors such as research, culture, heritage. There is still time to act. Siena deserves it, and archaeology, along with other disciplines, can be a vital, contributory factor. The excavations below the cathedral (Fig. II) - The excavation beneath the Duomo, which Gabriele Castiglia here presents, is a clear example of the potential of Siena. Exceptional data for the diachrony of the city, interpreted by the author in the light of the most recent debate and the latest contributions on the formation of the post-classical city.

The lack of a valorisation policy - Among the various interventions, in addition to the excavations carried out in the hospital of Santa Maria della Scala, the investigations beneath the choir of the Cathedral of Siena, started in August 2000 until the summer of 2003, in collaboration with the Opera Metropolitana di Siena, represent a higher level of research. In the beginning this research was aimed at the filling levels of earth and building materials identified in a compartment located beneath the choir of the cathedral, and then extended to include the walls and archaeological deposits found in the rooms adjacent to the Oratorio di

The intervention involved the excavation of the areas located below the cathedral choir (Rooms 1 and 18) and in some rooms adjacent to the oratory of San Giovanni Battista (Rooms 5, 6, 7, 17). In particular, the investigations 2

Foreword showed that the frescoed compartment underlying the

a large quantity of earth and stone of various kinds and sizes, numerous fragments of pottery with traces of painted plaster, squared blocks of travertine and parts of architectural elements were used. Near the apse of the baptistery, fill levels had a greater concentration of artifacts, including pottery fragments dating to the first half of the 15th century, iron objects and bronze coins. The anaerobic environment also allowed the preservation of remains of organic nature. The fill can be dated to the first half of the 15th century when the compartment, which had suffered the first drastic intervention phase during the second half of the 14th century with the construction of reinforcement structures for the baptistery and the new building of the cathedral choir, was finally abandoned. The construction of the apse of the baptistery, dating back to the early decades of the 15th century, is probably the last intervention conducted inside. The removal of the fill levels revealed the astonishing cycle of frescoes which covers the walls of the room, dating from around the end of the 13th century. There are scenes from the Old Testament, arranged in the upper part of the outer walls, juxtaposed with those of the New Testament, more widely exposed on the surface below. Starting from the left area of the room, there are episodes of the Earthly Paradise, the stories of the Virgin Mary and the infant Christ, then those of Cain and Abel, Isaac and Esau. Further scenes depict the public life of Christ and the drama of the Passion, represented on the back wall of the room by the three great scenes of the Crucifixion, the Deposition from the cross and the Deposition in the tomb. The final panels allude to the Resurrection and ultimate salvation. These works, still under study but relate clearly to the senese school of the generation previous to Duccio di Buoninsegna. Many of the figures of the crypt adhere to the iconographic schemes of Byzantine culture and seem attributable to artists until today known especially for small narrative scenes painted on wood, such as Guido da Siena, Dietisalvi of Speme and Guido di Graziano. The name of Duccio is instead evoked by scholars for later remakes of the fresco cycle, in particular for the preparation of one of the figures of the Saints.

Fig. II: Topographic identification of the excavation and the surveyed rooms.

choir of the cathedral (Room 1), rectangular in shape with a surface of about 160 square meters, was entirely filled by two types of deposits dating from the beginning of the 15th century and the first half of the 18th century. The first deposit, the most recent, is formed by the resulting material and it fills the upper part of the room to a thickness of about 1.70 m, but starting from the top, i.e. the existing pavement of the cathedral. The fill is functional to the construction of several niches in brick, side by side in features of three to five elements, located in the north-west and south-west corners of the of the room. The niches, built entirely of brick, were equipped with a barrel vault with a square opening to allow burials directly from the floor of the cathedral. The burials excavated contained burial remains, some of which are preserved in a state of spontaneous mummification, due to the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere. This was the case, for example, with the first tomb, found against the northern wall of the loculo: the remains of seven burials were found, of which only one has been preserved in its entirety. Other niches were instead allocated for charnel use; some of the buried still retained vestiges of clothing in the form of tissue fragments. The niches can be dated to the first half of the 18th century thanks to the discovery of a coin dated 1718, even though some new interpretations tend to date them back to the 15th century.

The interior space was marked by two large octagonal pillars of the choir, also painted, and two smaller columns, of which only the stone foundations were preserved, one of which has been reused as building material, part of the stem of a Roman column in granite. The connection to the upper cathedral was insured by a staircase located in the northwestern corner of the room, paved with bricks. The access to the room, covered with ribbed vaults, was through three entrances opened into the rear facade of the cathedral, facing east. In the 13th century the three portals were commonly called maior ianua (central), ianua Domum Guidi Traiani (southern) and ianua versus pontem (northern), probably facing the current thoroughfare of the Diacceto.

The lower part of the room’s fill was formed by a layer about 2.5 m thick, consisting predominantly of building material waste. To obliterate the room, in addition to

With the removal of the floor, a stratigraphic succession between the Hellenistic period and the first Early Middle 3

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Ages came to light. In the Hellenistic Age the north-eastern slope of the hill (on which the Duomo stands), was subject to the accumulation of sandy deposits from the top. In the area to the north-west and south-east of the room there was a concentration of Roman materials, mainly sigillata italica pottery fragments, scraps of glass and fragments of worked marble and plaster fragments decorated with paintings, probably relevant to a late republican/first imperial domus. These finds suggest a higher level of activity at the site during the imperial age. During Late Antiquity the northwestern part of the room was affected by the dumping of various materials (coal, brick fragments, remains of painted plaster), coming perhaps from the Roman buildings no longer in use. Within these levels, fragments of jars relevant to the 6th-7th centuries were found. The area was later used as a burial ground: there were four tombs found in earth graves. At a short distance from the burials, digging revealed the presence of a circular cut (3.5 m diameter and 2 m deep). The structure, probably a sunken featured building (grübenhaus) with earth and wattle elevations, was probably used at the same period when the area was taken over for burials and it is dated between the late 5th and 6th century. The floor, made ​​of wooden boards, whose housings are visible, rested on a framework top (a circular frame of about 50 cm) formed in the soil while the space below was probably used as a cellar. During the excavation of a scannafosso (Room 18) behind the western perimeter painted wall of the room, a stratigraphic deposit appeared dated between the Roman period and Late Antiquity. A semicircular structure found in the central part of the trench, formed by limestone rocks, can be attributed to the Roman age. Its functions are not yet clear. In medieval times it was reused as a foundation of an elevated masonry feature, preserved for only three rows and only partially visible, with squared blocks of limestone. In the proximity of this structure a number of burials attributable to a cemetery dating to Late Antiquity, located within the town of Roman times and now in decay, were identified. The construction of the pillars of the hexagon dome, completed in 1263 AD, and the construction of the western wall, a little later, have largely removed the deposit in this area, which still retains evidence dating from between the Roman period and Late Antiquity.

and to house the oil lamps that were arranged in pairs at regular intervals. In the first century AD, as witnessed by the pottery found in the lower level of the soil fill, the function of the water system failed and the pipe began to accumulate deposits of silt which filled 75% of the cavity. Roman activity on this side of the hill instead is indicated by the presence of a well (Room 5). The squared structure still preserves the holes for the accommodation of four corner posts designed to support a wooden roof, probably a sort of roofing. The walls, dug into the tuffa stone, were probably lined with axes. The higher levels of filling of the well, in addition to the sigillata italica and a canine mandible made of clay (perhaps a votive offer), osteological remains referable to three dogs (two of them lying on their sides and slaughtered in three parts along the trunk before deposition) and the head and chest of a horse. The findings are attributable to the rite connected to the foundation of the walls and the city gates: the work of the urban perimeter in fact was sanctified by the sacrifice of dogs and associated burial ritual. The well seems in this case connected to the constitution, in the Augustan age, of the military colony of Saena Iulia and to the existence of a circuit wall, not preserved, passing along Via dei Fusari. During the 14th century, with the enlargement of the transept of the cathedral, a pit and silo were dug in the room, with a vaulted roof made ​​of bricks: the first was filled with coarse ware and maiolica arcaica dating to the second half of the 14th century, and the second had a depth of about 6 m and was filled with layers of earth mixed with stones and bricks. Subsequently the area was used as a cemetery and occupied by a series of single burials cut into the tuffa of the hill and, in modern times, from a mass grave. The archaeological survey conducted in Room 6, preliminary to the excavation of a large trench for the accommodation of refrigeration systems, has revealed the presence of a large circular pit dug in the geological sediments of the hill, filled with layers of modern rubbles. The excavation of the pit has allowed us to detect the presence of a geological fault (south-west/north-east) that cut into parts of the layers of the hill. Inside a large room, built simultaneously with the construction of the baptistery and adjacent to it (Room 7), it has been possible to trace the diachronical phases of an area outside the 12thcentury cathedral. In particular the remains of some sort of accompanying service rooms, two silos and two cellars, dug into the tuffa, were brought to light. The silos, circular in shape, have been preserved to a depth of 4 m and were intended for the storage of grain. They can be dated to a time before the building of the cathedral in the 12th century, while the levels of use identified seem to testify to their use throughout the 13th century. In the north-eastern part of the room three graves, containing two children and an adult, partially removed in the modern era, were found, dating to a period prior to the 12th century.

In parallel with the recovery of the areas located under the choir of the cathedral, the archaeological investigation has extended to the rooms adjacent to the oratory of San Giovanni (Rooms 5, 6, 7 and 17), revealing the presence of occupation along the north-western part of the hill from the Hellenistic period. This period was also responsible for the large cutting that affects the geological layers of the north-western side of the hill, artificially increasing the slope and creating a road that went back to the upper side (Room 17). Inside the compartment, part of a bottino was identified, probably traced in ​​ the Pliocene sands of the hill in the Hellenistic age. It develops in a north-south direction and has an interior space with a width of about 1 m and a height of about 2 m. On two of the four walls there were some pedarole, small cavities carved into the tuffa walls, worked to drop inside the internal structure

The analysis of the cathedral architecture – At the same time as the excavations we also continued the study of the evolution of the cathedral. Direct analysis of the architecture and its materials has led to the identification 4

Foreword of the main construction phases in the spaces below the choir and transept of the cathedral, with a time span ranging from the 12th century to the first half of the 18th. The evolution of the cathedral complex between the 12th and 14th centuries also documents the use of medieval technical skills and artistic understanding. The building plans for cathedrals, in fact, channelled the technological, economic and political forces of the time: they were public sites for experimentation and innovation which favoured not only the cathedral itself but which had also repercussions for the surrounding urban fabric. The survey on the preserved walls allowed the identification of six major stages in the evolution of the rear of the cathedral. By recognizing the same value to all the products contributing to the process of formation of the deposit​​, the investigation started with the observation of the general morphological characteristics of masonry and mortars. The identification of walls stratigraphic units (USM) allowed on one hand the registration of their characteristics and on the other the characterization of existing building techniques (types). The studies promoted by the Kunsthisthorisches Institut in Florence have been a constant point of reference, providing, in addition to the photogrammetric survey of the cathedral, the reconstruction of the historical building, largely based on the investigation of written documentation.

followed its perimeter. As can be readily witnessed in the rooms along Via de’ Fusari, nearly all the walls have a break in their elevation at different points. The widening of the church, attested by the construction of a room (external to the 12th-century cathedral), closed the space between the choir and the northern sector of the transept. The room located under the choir (Room 1), probably since the last decades of the 12th century furnished with a façade looking east, was in part transformed in the first years of the 13th century: the stone walls of the 12th century dome were worked in order to create an homogeneous visual aspect. In this phase, the internal part of the choir’s perimeter walling differs from the external one. This can be seen in the better attention given to the building technique and for the exclusive use, both in the internal zone of the walls and the cross-shaped pillars (with two columns) located in the corners between the choir and the transept, of bricks finished with oblique etchings, made up with a bladed tool of some kind. The back façade of the cathedral, furnished with three entrances, was lined with courses of limestone blocks, perfectly squared and smoothed with a martellina dentata (a small pronged hammer), decorated with a small ribbon design worked with a chisel. Still to be studied, this kind of technique has an important parallel on the walls of the San Galgano abbey, built by the third decade of the 13th century. This is the first example of the use of the martellina dentata in Siena. This tool was in widespread use for medieval European architecture, including 14thcentury Tuscany. Documented in this region for the first time in Pisa (first half of the 11th century), it made its appearance in the regions of Pisa, Volterra and Valdelsa between the 12th and 13th centuries.

Phase I (12th century) – This phase is relevant to the structures forming the transition zone between the transept and the choir of the cathedral built in the 12th century and consecrated, according to tradition, in 1179 AD. It is characterized by walls built entirely of blocks of cavernous limestone roughly squared and levelled in the exposed face with a bladed instrument (probably a small axe), mounted on parallel horizontal rows. The discovery inside the scannafosso (a cavity) in Room 18, made behind the perimeter wall of the west room (Room 1), of a curvilinear wall, set on a semicircular structure pertinent to Roman times, which, although still with an uncertain dating, is currently the only preserved evidence of the existence of an older church’s terminating apse, quite possibly the 11th-century feature. During the 12th century, the first major expansion was realized with the new construction of the entire eastern part of the cathedral, with a transept and choir. The discovery of this apse leads us to hypothesize a possible location of the crypt attested in 1215 AD within the walls of the semicircular apse, and not in the rooms painted with frescoes from the late 13th century (Room 1). The identification of this frescoed room with the confessio recognized by Benvoglienti, punctuated by fifteen columns with three orders, and identified by him as below the ‘wheel in the middle of the floor’, remains in any case still a doubtful one.

Phase III (1263 AD– beginning of the 14th century) – After the first half of the 13th century a general arrangement of the cathedral choir began. After the construction of the columns supporting the dome in the middle of the 13th century the floor level of the room beneath the choir was lowered about 1.9 m. In particular, the northern pillars’ foundations reveal clearly, below the frescoes, the transformation that occurred: the quadrangular basement, visible after the lowering of the flooring, was chiselled out to prolong the octagonal trunk of the pillar. Similarly, the side entrance’s jambs show a cutting between the lower and the upper portions of the walls, a consequence, also, of the lowering of the floor inside the room. Divided into three naves by the octagonal pillars of the choir, the room was defined, in the western part, by a brick wall on which two half-decorated capitals were placed, in order to support the new covering of the room, which, in this way, assumed the function of a vestibule to access the eastern part of the upper cathedral: the link was augmented by internal passages; the traces of one of these have been identified in the north-western part of the ambient, made of a brick pavement built on a preparatory layer of sand and mortar. At the end of the 13th century, the perimeter walls and the two octagonal pillars were painted with frescoes: the study of the building technique (still visible where the frescoes are damaged) revealed that, under the appareil of the etched bricks related to the previous phase,

Phase II (beginning of the 13th century-1263 AD) – The interventions indicated by 13th-century’s documents, which ended with the building of the dome in 1263 AD and led to a general widening of the 12th-century ecclesia maior, are to be linked to this phase. All the western section of the church was elevated with brick walls, which, based directly on the choir and the transept of the older building, 5

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Phase V (15th century) – This phase led to the definitive filling of the room below the choir of the cathedral: in fact, during the 15th century the openings of the façade, which remained in use probably for the duration of all the works, were closed and the room filled with material deposits dating to the 15th century. By the second decade of the century the last intervention inside the room took place. This consisted of building the baptistery apse, associated with the new baptismal font and the destruction of part of the 13th-century façade. At the same time, to prevent damage to the apse vault, a new stone and brick structure buttressed to the frescoed walls was built. This action closed the area to the western side, and the remaining part (known as Cripta delle Statue) was used as a deposit for wooden building materials in the 18th century.

the perimeter walls, previously chiselled out to lower the floor, were later lined with simple bricks: all this confirms that the etching process was planned to remain visible and not simply linked to the fresco painting process. A further confirmation of this is the fact that the only perimeter wall showing bricks with no etching is the western one, contemporary to the painting of the frescoes. During the first years of the 15th century, the north-western corner of the room was transformed: the stairs leading to the cathedral were substituted by a brick wall. In this period the only entrance to the frescoed area was by the openings in the façade. Only at a later time, probably when the construction of the baptistery had already started (1317 AD), a small secondary door was opened into the northern wall of the room, creating a link to the other one. An initial widening of the northern part of the transept is connected to this phase, as can be seen in the perimeter walls of the rooms adjacent to the San Giovannino oratory. They are characterized by a building technique utilizing alternate brick and stone courses (squared limestone blocks), which can be dated between the last decades of the 13th century and the beginning of the 14th, a period a little antecedent to the extension works of the cathedral towards Vallepiatta.

Phase VI (end of the 17th century – first half of the 18th century) – By the end of the 17th century and beginning of the 18th century, part of the room fill was removed to allow for a certain number of niches (loculi): a quadrangular trapdoor, located in the final part of the vault and making it possible to use the area for burials. The atmosphere, lacking in oxygen, resulted in a natural process of mummification for these burials. In this period some new structures in bricks were built, probably to be related to the moving of Nicola Pisano’s pulpit, which was originally placed under the dome, and was only in modern times restored to its original position.

Phase IV (1317 AD to second half of the 15th century) – In 1317 AD the construction of the new baptistery and the extension towards Vallepiatta began. This prolonged the choir with two new spans and added a new span to the transept. Already, by the end of the previous century, it has been decided to demolish and replace the old baptistery, placed in front of the cathedral, by following a project which should have been realized by Giovanni Pisano, master builder of the Opera. The project to widen the choir towards Vallepiatta was a difficult one, making it necessary to raise the central part of the cathedral. This venture led to great works of excavation and stabilization, caused by the void left by the soil removed behind the cathedral choir. Construction progressed relatively quickly. In 1326 AD the vaults were closed and in 1333 it was decided to quicken the works by postponing the marble cladding of the walls. The new structure, joined to the cathedral, closed its oriental façade and the frescoed room was probably used in the following decades as a working area for the new choir and saw the progressive neglect of its structures. The façade’s entrance system was not abandoned completely: the two 13th-century doors were replaced with three similar openings which permitted the passage from the working area to the frescoed room. The works had an interruption between 1339 AD and 1355 AD, once the project to build the duomo nuovo (‘the new cathedral’) was left aside and the widening of the choir took precedence. In this period the building activities that included the erection of the new pillars for the choir took place, once the earlier 12th-century ones were demolished and the brick foundations were built in the fresco room, linking them to the older painted pillars that luckily still survive. The new buildings were, moreover, equipped with arches which gave more stability.

The sad epilogue – The results of the excavations have considerably broadened our knowledge. It was subsequently proposed to the local administration to open a larger excavation of the ‘acropolis’ of the town, in the areas of the unfinished duomo nuovo. Such a definitive understanding of the building phases of the cathedral, and also the reconstruction of the settlement dynamics of the Duomo precincts would make an extraordinary contribution to the history of the city, completing the story which had been started with the excavations already done in front of and beneath the Santa Maria della Scala and, of course, beneath the Duomo itself. In this perspective, it would have been important also to program another intervention of excavation in the square of Jacopo della Quercia square (the open space in front of the Duomo). This would not only have revealed complex archaeological deposits, but would also have uncovered traces of the building activities of the so-called duomo nuovo, the topographical position contemporary with the 14thcentury cathedral and the buildings preceding it. The finds would have enriched the cultural and monumental heritage of Siena. A long period of intervention and research was foreseen; one that would have involved archaeologists and other specialists such as numismatists, archaeozoologists, anthropologists, historians, architects and geologists. The entire operation would bring together the widespread use of new technologies that would be of huge benefit to the wider community – including infrastructural assets. These excavations were projected as being undertaken beneath a large dome with viewing areas for the public and would have created enormous interest and involvement; the 6

Foreword Francovich R., Gelichi S. 1980, Per una storia delle produzioni e del consumo delle ceramiche bassomedievali a Siena e nella Toscana meridionale, in La céramique médiévale en Méditerranée occidentale, X-XV siècles, Actes du Colloque (Valbonne, 11-14 settembre 1978), Colloques Internationaux du CNRS, 584, Paris, pp. 137-153. Francovich R., Valenti M. (ed.), 2002, “C’era una volta”. La ceramica medievale nel convento del Carmine, Catalogo della mostra (Siena-Santa Maria della Scala, 25 giugno-15 settembre 2002), Firenze. Francovich R., Valenti M., 2004, Siena ed il rapporto con l’archeologia. Tra scavo e tecnologia digitale per una nuova dimensione culturale della città, in «Accademia dei Rozzi», XII, n. 21, pp. 5-14. Francovich R., Valenti M., 2006, Il passato come risorsa, in Siena tra fedeltà e innovazione, a cura di R. Barzanti, E. Zanchi, «Il Ponte», LII/5-6 (2006), pp. 186-201.

whole project, if realized, would have been unique for the city and would have let archaeology definitively enter into the dynamics of intervention and management of the town. The project was not even considered...... Bibliography (this Foreword) Boldrini E. 1994, Una fornace da ceramica a Siena, in «Archeologia Medievale», XXI (1994), pp. 225-231. Boldrini E., Parenti R. 1991 (ed.), Santa Maria della Scala. Archeologia e edilizia sulla piazza dello Spedale, Firenze. Camporeale S., Gabbrielli F., Pais A., Parenti R. 2001, La facciata del Palazzo Pubblico di Siena. Stratigrafia e fonti documentali, in «Archeologia dell’Architettura», VI (2001), pp. 63-100. Cantini F. 2003, Lo scavo archeologico dei depositi di V-XI secolo dell’Ospedale di Santa Maria della Scala: per la storia della città di Siena nell’Altomedioevo, in III Congresso Nazionale di Archeologia Medievale (Salerno 2003), a cura di R. Fiorillo, P. Peduto, voll. 2, I, Firenze, pp. 303-308. Cantini F. 2005, Archeologia urbana a Siena. L’area dell’Ospedale di Santa Maria prima dell’ospedale. Altomedioevo, Firenze. Causarano M.A. 2007, Palazzo Pubblico di Siena, ala dei Nove: le murature degli ambienti su piazza del Mercato, in «Archeologia dell’Architettura», XII (2007), Firenze, pp. 57-68. Causarano M.A. 2009a, La cattedrale e la città: il cantiere del Duomo di Siena. Risultati delle indagini archeologiche, in «Arqueología de la Arquitectura», 6 (2009), pp. 199-224. Causarano M.A. 2009b, La cattedrale di Siena tra seconda metà XIII e XIV secolo: trasformazioni e ridefinizione dell’edificio, in V Congresso Nazionale di Archeologia Medievale (Foggia- Manfredonia 2009), a cura di G. Volpe, P. Favia, Firenze, pp. 773-778. Causarano M.A. 2010, I bastioni di Baldassarre Peruzzi ed il Fortino delle Donne Senesi, con Appendice 1 (Le analisi mensiocronologiche dei bastioni di Baldassarre Perruzzi) in Il “Fortino delle Donne Senesi”. Indagini archeologiche e storiche, Il territorio della Circoscrizione n. 5 attraverso i secoli, a cura di A. Coccia, B. Tixier, Comune di Siena, pp. 20-32. Causarano M.A., Francovich R., Valenti M. 2003, L’intervento archeologico sotto il duomo di Siena: dati e ipotesi preliminari, in Sotto il duomo di Siena. Scoperte archeologiche, architettoniche e figurative, a cura di R. Guerrini, Milano, pp. 153-168. Cristofani M. (ed.) 1979, Siena: le origini. Testimonianze e miti archeologici, Firenze. Francovich R. 1982, La ceramica medievale a Siena e nella Toscana meridionale. Secoli XIV e XV, Firenze. Francovich R. 2005, Alcune note sulle recenti ricerche di archeologia medievale a Siena, in L’Italia altomedievale tra archeologia e storia. Studi in onore di Ottone d’Assia, a cura di S. Gelichi, Padova, pp. 131150. 7

Premise The present work is the result of the processing of the excavation data and of the pottery coming from the stratigraphy underneath the cathedral of Siena. The surveys were conducted between August 2000 and May 2003 by the Department of Archaeology and History of Arts of the University of Siena, with the scientific coordination of Prof. Riccardo Francovich and Prof. Marco Valenti and the collaboration of the Opera del Duomo di Siena. The six investigated rooms (Fig. 1) are located between the building below the choir of the cathedral and the nearby baptistery (Via dei Fusari). The interventions were carried out in conjunction with the restoration work that had affected the spaces constituting the former oratory of San Giovanni and Gennaro, better known as St. Giovannino, a project that led to the discovery, in Room 1, of frescoed walls.

Fig. 1: GIS elaboration of the rooms investigated during the excavation. The ultimate goal of this work is to trace a view of the settlement types and economic framework that has affected the hill of the Cathedral from the Classical age to the late Middle Ages, combining stratigraphic data and the study of materials. The limited planimetric extension of the excavations (often affecting urban contexts) did not allow an investigation in open area, so the findings have often been compared to those coming from the deposits investigated in the immediate vicinity, both in front and below Santa Maria della Scala, in order to obtain a more complete and articulated perspective within a diachronic context. The stratigraphy developed over a time span ranging from the 7th/6th centuries BC until the 20th century AD, unearthing a very structured sequence that represents a significant view in understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the urban fabric of Siena. In this regard it is important to emphasize the fact that the chronological junction on which most attention is focused is between the Augustan Age and the end of the 14th century, since the survey revealed that the archaeological deposit is better preserved in the time period between these two phases and, as a result, the restitution of ceramics has been more complete. The settlement/economic dynamics developed over this extended period in different ways and the goal of this analysis is to develop a dialogue between stratigraphic deposits and material culture, with the aim of understanding the evolution of an urban reality, especially in those phases that led to the crisis of the ‘classical’ city and its consequent transformation and reconfiguration between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

The Excavation The cathedral hill from its origins to the Roman era The history of the origins of Siena has already been dealt with in many other works1 and it is therefore unnecessary to repeat it at length here, but I will rather highlight the aspects of the archaeological surveys carried out below the cathedral2 which contribute to the deepening of our knowledge of the human-economic dynamics that affected the town since its inception, but without neglecting the important points of reference provided by previous studies. The earliest identified layers consist of ample clay deposits and Pliocene sand which are the basis for all subsequent stratigraphy. They are characterized by very significant inclines (between 30 and 50 degrees in some places) and can probably be interpreted as traces of the virgin soil of the hill. The first signs of human activity are represented by landfills and spoil of uncertain dating, although it is essential to remember the possibility of the occurrence of an active settlement here from the 6th century BC.3 We have more reliable data for the following centuries, starting from the 1st century BC. Although actual written sources dating back to the Imperial age are scarce, they imply that it is most likely that Siena acquired Roman citizenship as a result of the Lex Iulia de Civitate and with the sanction of Lex Cornelia (87 BC) became an autonomous municipality. In 29 BC it became a military colony with the name of Sena Iulia.4 The important studies conducted by Dr. Silvia Pallecchi5 have demonstrated quite convincingly that during the 1st century BC, coinciding with the establishment of a military colony, the urban fabric was probably enlarged and regularized: the settlement, from Castelvecchio, probably stretched to the cathedral hill, characterized by foundations of alternate rectangular blocks.6 The location of the forum is, very probably, to be placed in the actual Piazza Duomo (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2: Hypothetical topography of Siena during the Roman centuries (PALLECCHI 2006). up through Via Franciosa and Via dei Fusari, under the cathedral,8 the archaeological data in this regard are very limited. The discovery of a squared well (Fig. 3), characterized by four post holes placed to delineate the angles (that suggest the presence of a covering made of perishable material), has revealed fascinating discoveries: burials of three canines and a horse, in excellent condition and no immediate evidence of slaughter (Figs. 4-5). Associated with this evidence were three oil lamps with scrolled decorations (volutes) (Fig. 6), recalling those of Attic Greece. The arrangement of the bones seems to indicate ritual practices,9 allowing us to speculate (with due caution) the existence of a non-preserved circuit wall, passing within

The archaeological survey below the cathedral has partially confirmed these hypotheses and has indeed provided more information on the articulation of the city in Roman times. It is therefore important to emphasize the difficulty of the interpretation.7 In fact, although many studies of the topography propose a fortified well system that was supposed to pass through the Fosso di Sant’ Ansano, under the Santa Maria della Scala (Piazzetta della Selva), and

PALLECCHI 2001/2003, p. 304. Evidence relating to the immolation of dogs during foundation rites is extremely rare. Written sources attest sacrifices of this kind in Latin and Etruscan-Italic ambit since Archaic times. Burial rituals such as this have been found in the Capitoline temple in Rome, in the walls of Paestum and Rimini, and in the sacred area of Pyrgi (ORTALLI 2003, Nuove fonti archeologiche per Ariminum: monumenti, opere pubbliche e assetto urbanistico tra la fondazione coloniale e il principato augusteo, in Pro popolo ariminese, atti del convegno di Rimini, a cura di CALBI, SUSUNI 1993, Faenza 1993, pp. 475-478; ROBERT 1993, Rites de protection et de défense. A propos des ossements d’un chien découverts au pied du rempart de Paestum, in «Annali di Archeologia e Storia Antica dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli», XV, 1993, pp. 325-326). 8

Within the most important contributions, see CRISTOFANI 1979; PALLECCHI 2001/2003; CANTINI 2005. 2 For a first analysis, see also GIANNINI E. 2004/2005, Lo scavo sotto il Duomo di Siena. La stratigrafia degli Ambienti 1, 2, 5, 6, 7, 17 e 18, Master thesis, Università degli Studi di Siena, 2004-2005. 3 FRANCOVICH, VALENTI, CANTINI 2006, in Le città italiane tra la Tarda Antichità e l’ Altomedioevo, p. 295, AUGENTI 2006 (ed), Firenze. 4 CRISTOFANI 1979, pp. 93-96. 5 PALLECCHI 2001-2003. 6 PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 298. 7 For a new cataloguing and reading of the Roman entities from Siena, see CHIESA C. 2012/2013. 1

9

9

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 3: Topographic position of the well.

Fig. 4: Well with animal deposits, and (right) a detail of one. the proximity of the well10 (corresponding to today’s Via dei Fusari). A partial confirmation of this hypothesis would be an imposing brick structure, identified in the vicinity of the same well, characterized by disctinctive limestone and unworked stones, probably traces of a large city gate.11

complex, or a representational space of a domus or a nymphaeum (Fig. 7).12 During the 3rd and 4th centuries AD, some structures began to lose their primary functions. A sewer duct was gradually destroyed by silt levels and the phenomenon of the introduction of burials within the urban area began to develop. Despite these early signs of the breaking up of these spaces, in reality important early construction phases are quite evident, such as a 4thcentury semicircular building structure (Fig. 8), whose precarious state of preservation, and the nearly complete absence of stratigraphy connected to it, prevent a clear and unambiguous exegesis. Two plausible interpretations arise:

Simultaneously, and just a matter of metres away, at the point where the Santa Maria della Scala would have been built, a large opposing apse structure, of difficult interpretation, was erected. This might have been a spa

CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, L’intervento archeologico sotto la cattedrale di Siena: dati e ipotesi preliminari, in GUERRINI (a cura di), Sotto il duomo di Siena. Scoperte archeologiche, architettoniche e figurative, Milano 2003, p. 158; see also CASTIGLIA 2012, p. 753. 11 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 159. 10

FRANCOVICH, VALENTI, CANTINI 2006, in AUGENTI 2006, p. 275. 12

10

The cathedral hill from its origins to the Roman era

Fig. 5: GIS elaboration of the animal entombents found in primary deposition inside the well (CAUSARANO 2009).

Fig. 6: Two of the lamps (volute) found inside the well (1st century AD).

11

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 7: The structure with two apses identified below the Santa Maria della Scala (CANTINI 2005).

Fig. 8: The semicircular wall, probably dating to the 4th century AD and its topographic position.

the first is that it could be part of a building similar to the one with two apses identified below the Santa Maria della Scala (see supra), and the second that it may be the apse of a first cult centre;13 these options are referred to in the conclusions to follow. Towards the end of the 4th century A.D. the area becomes partially covered with abundant layers of rubble that partially destroy the city gate within the surrounding area of the apse structure, where a burial ground was established.

13

The burials are in the form of single dirt pits (east/west orientation) with no elements of utensil ware and with the use of stone blocks for internal lining, or of funeral signacula. The burials are in a poor state of conservation and all were partially removed by subsequent activities, firstly by cuttings related to the making of depositional pits during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.

CANTINI 2011a, pp. 40-43.

12

Rhythms of the crisis The contextual recession between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages The relevant transitional stages between the Roman period and the Early Middle Ages are an extremely important timeframe for the understanding of the developmental dynamics and transformation of the context. Given the limited extent of the excavated surface, the comparisons with the deposits identified under the Santa Maria della Scala are crucial.14 The ceramic materials themselves, not only with regard to dating but to the identification of the different classes, give central clues to the understanding of the context.

will gradually be substituted with local imitations covered with red engobe [Fig. 9]. In terms of quantities, the zenith of this class will be reached in the 6th century, at least as far as the deposit below the Duomo testifies. Although this data is numerically lower if compared to the imperial phases of the site, it demonstrates a certain vitality of commercial activity during this time of recession, when the crisis had not yet fully taken hold, even though it becomes successively more evident in the later centuries, both in terms of material culture and settlement types.

On a structural-settlement level, we begin to document the first signs of recession of the ‘classic’ town: there are many depositional pits that start to affect the Roman structures across the hill and below the floor of the cathedral and below Santa Maria della Scala.15 A considerable accumulation of rubble layers is documented and there is a large pit completely covered with discarded material. In addition, there is an increase of burials spread around the apse structure, all of soil material, except for the partial remains of a wooden case, which had been preserved, lending to the idea of a privileged entombment although this hypothesis is subject to some reservation.16 On the economic level, the city still displays signs of vitality. African coarse ware (which, by the end of the 5th century,

It should also be noted that during this period, in the middle of the 5th century, a massive introduction of coarse ware (mostly cooking pots and lids, in both cases well classified) is apparent. All the vessels are very similar, being mostly characterized by wide, stretched brims with lid fittings, and with the lids having disk handles on their tops.17 Therefore, during this period we can discern a transformation phase, which is, in fact, witnessed by the seemingly incongruous coexistence of decaying Roman buildings (accompanied by the practice, begun in the 5th century, of human entombment in dirt graves [Fig. 10]) and the presence of imported pottery that begins to coexist

Fig. 9: Pottery wares between 5th and 6th centuries AD, with the principal typologies.

CANTINI 2005. CANTINI 2005, p. 34. 16 The practice of burials in urban areas and in proximity of cult structures is attested in Rome from the first half of the 6th century, becoming then a widespread occurence (FIOCCHI NICOLAI 2003, Gli spazi delle sepolture cristiane a Roma fra III e VI secolo, in MARCENARO M. 2003 (ed.), Roma e la Liguria Maritima: secoli IV-X. La capitale cristiana e una religione di confine, «Istituto Internazionale di Studi Liguri», Genova-Bordighera, 2003, pp. 38-39). 14 15

It is noteworthy that the typological characteristics of coarse ware correspond absolutely to those identified in the deposit below the Santa Maria della Scala: more references can be found in the chapters on the ceramic material. 17

13

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral with local productions, both for the refectory and the kitchen. Although these data seem contradictory, in reality, combined together, they provide significant information about the recession and subsequent metamorphosis of the urban ‘transition age’ of Siena.

Fig. 10: A burial dating to the 5th century AD.

14

The Early Middle Ages New forms of settlement and economic relations between the 6th and 10th centuries AD The 6th century represents the first moment of a clear change in the chronological sequence identified under Siena’s cathedral, both as regards the settlement types and material culture, all elements that together lead to the discernment of an evident rift. A grübenhaus hut (a sunken building) was excavated [Fig. 11], representing an example of an important passageway to a structure made ​​of perishable materials. This building, defined as a dwelling, is characterized by its circular form, fitted with wooden poles to support the roof (made of ​​ perishable material) and a simple pavement.18 It was possible to distinguish the load- and non-load-bearing poles, those for reinforcement and those for floor support [Fig. 12].

Ages, particularly as regards the number and density of the dwellings. It seems certain, however, that we can see an urban society in obvious decline, where the previous structures, more or less monumental, were abandoned to make room for modest activities in open spaces (whose presence is evidenced by the numerous layers of shattered building material), including impoverished housing. We still today contribute to the further destruction of many areas still in use during imperial times and Late Antiquity. Extensive layers of organic components, represented by dark soil levels, is a phenomenon affecting the entire cathedral hill during this period. The floor levels of the twin-apsidal structure (spa?) identified under Santa Maria della Scala are largely covered with extensive dark soils and rubble,19 and there are many depositional pits which can be identified in the Roman buildings of this phase.

Some steps allowed access to the base of the excavation below the floor, probably used as a store and where two oil lamps were found [Fig. 13]. One of these lamps is covered with red engobe and both date from the late 5th until the 6th century AD (as does all the ceramic material coming from the same layers, mainly cooking bowls and open pots covered in red engobe) and which will be discussed in detail later. In conjunction with this hut, at the north-eastern angle of the context, a wide cutting was made to regularize the inclines of the hill. Unfortunately, the sunken building is the only housing evidence relating to this period, and thus it is not possible to interpret comprehensively the extent of the settlement dynamics of the Early Middle

In the northern and south-eastern area a small graveyard was established comprising of four pits, two of them empty and probably plundered.20 Inside one of these a bronze cloak pin was found [Fig. 14], with a flattened and folded head, dated between the 6th and 7th centuries AD. The find has interesting comparisons with other pins from the Crypta Balbi.21 Also noteworthy, from the same period, is the finding of a tomb characterized by a completely different and better fabric than those previously reported. It is

Fig. 11: GIS elaboration of the grübenhaus and its topographic position. CANTINI 2005, p. 36. CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 155; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 24. 21 For a comparison with similar artifacts see ARENA, DELOGU, PAROLI, RICCI, SAGUÌ, VENDITTELLI 2001, Roma. Dall’antichità al medioevo, archeologia e storia, Roma, 2001, pp. 362-363. 19 20

CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI, 2003, p. 165, footnote n. 15; CAUSARANO 2005, Interventi archeologici sotto il duomo di Siena, in FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2005 (ed.), Archeologia dei Paesaggi Medievali. Relazione progetto (2000-2004), Siena, 2005, pp. 24-25. 18

15

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 12: The grübenhaus during its excavation and its 3D reconstruction. located outside the previously mentioned apsidal structure and is housed in a casing of rectangular shape consisting of stone blocks mortared together arranged to form two rows and covered by fragments of tile, partially sealed by a layer of earthenware, all elements which suggest, with a good degree of certainty, a privileged burial.

collapse of the covering and pavement are indicators of this, followed by the deposition of some layers of soil and the definitive obliteration of the site. Two tombs from the cemetery area were denuded and destroyed by layers of landfill material, although in the area immediately in front of the now disintegrated hut a new and smaller cemetery area was established. This also included a grave with a stone coffin that stands out clearly from the other dirt graves.

In these phases, the data deriving from pottery only partially confirm this crisis trend. In fact, contemporary with these stages of clear settlement and structural breakdown, the range of pottery still indicates substantial activity (albeit rather limited in quantity), as evidenced by the presence of imported goods (African cups and bowls, although in small quantities, still testify to the presence of contact with important trade routes), a feature also reflected in the deposit near the Santa Maria della Scala, where Keay LIIId type amphorae of oriental origin were found.22

These finds represent practically the only archaeological evidence for the period between the 7th century and the end of the 9th/beginning of 10th, and, of course, this long silence poses a number of problems. The data from the archaeological investigations carried out below the Santa Maria della Scala show the presence of an accumulation of black soils with different structures over them,23 as well as the presence of mixed ceramic ware, some quite fine, aspects that clash with what has been found (or not found) below the Duomo.24 The most plausible explanation could be related to the fact that the cathedral square (dedicated for the first time in 913 AD) may have severely disrupted

From the 7th to at least the 9th centuries, stratigraphic data and material findings become very rare. It is still evident from the earliest years of the 7th century, if not even by the end the 6th, that the grübenhaus was abandoned: the BIANCHI, BOLDRINI, CORSI, DE LUCA, GABBRIELLI, MENNUCCI 1991, in BOLDRINI, PARENTI 1991, pp. 179-246. 22

23 24

16

CANTINI 2011a, p. 48. Further reflections on this matter will be discussed in the conclusions.

The Early Middle Ages: New forms of settlement and economic relations between the 6th and 10th centuries AD

Fig. 13: Lamps found inside the grübenhaus (5th-6th century AD).

Fig. 14: Bronze cloak pin from one of the burials (6th-7h century AD). the archaeological levels, although it might also be assumed that the inhabitants of Siena selected a neglected area, perhaps linked to the implementation of the defensive walls, probably made ​​by the steward Warnefrid around 730 AD.25

CAMMAROSANO 1980, La nobiltà senese dal secolo VIII agli inizi del XII, in «Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria», LXXXVI, pp. 7-47. 25

17

A Second Transition The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages

From the beginning of the 11th, and even more during the 12th century, we witness a reversal in the economic settlement fabric that will bring the city of Siena out of the long period of recession/crisis into the late Middle Ages. Initially, in its first stages, this new transition is not revealed from the ceramic evidence but from abundant data regarding the constructive dynamics of the context.

basilica was designed to occupy part of the central nave and presumably part of the side, having its front on the west side, set back as it is today. In the area immediately south/east, a subterranean structure dug, perhaps a wine cellar and characterized by two niches. These facilities, the winery and niches, are abandoned and filled with soil by the first half of the 12th century.

Of real significance are the two large silos [Fig. 15] constructed in the 12th century.26 One of these was circular in shape, with a depth of 4 m, and directly accessible by steps hewn into the tuffa; the other, with of similar depth, was square in shape. Both clearly testify to the presence of large quantities of resource surpluses [Fig. 9], probably allocated for the feeding of those who worked on the construction of the cathedral. It is precisely the time when the construction of the cathedral begins that the final recovery of the urban fabric becomes apparent; an observation also witnessed by a new phase of stone buildings. From the 12th century onwards an extremely heterogeneous ceramic repertoire is introduced into daily use. The advent of new forms of high quality pottery (above all maiolica arcaica) is a clear sign of what can be defined as an economic revival.

During the 12th century a first significant expansion of the plan of the cathedral is documented. At the eastern part, exterior to the stone apse of the religious building of the 11th century, the transept and stone choir are built ex novo.31 During the construction of the Duomo, parts of the structures pertinent to the Roman town were most likely still visible and probably incorporated into the foundation of the perimeter wall of the northern transept, the implementation of which, however, does not involve the cemetery area (for which we can assume a continuous use). During the first half of the 13th century, the edifice was divided into three aisles by two octagonal pillars. The foundations of the first remove the south/west portion of the sunken structure described above, dating from the end of the 5th until well into the 6th century. The front section was located to the east, while three portals allowed access for worshippers.

It is important to emphasize that in the immediate proximity of the two silos a small cemetery area was initiated (partially disrupted by subsequent interventions), primarily associated with young adults. In the course of the 11th century, the semi-circular wall generally dating to Late Antiquity (probably 4th century) and possibly an apse from a hypothetical early Christian church,27 as mentioned above and which will be discussed more deeply in the conclusions, remained partially visible, despite the removal of its materials and partial landfills. By exploiting part of it, a new apse [Fig. 16], relevant to the 11th century cathedral, was built over its remains28 and partly covered by abandonment layers. It is in fact part of the religious structure mentioned in the documents from 1012 AD29 and securely located to the area over the church of S. Desiderio.30 Its orientation is east/west and the

In the middle decades of the 13th century, the supporting pillar construction (resting on large square foundations) makes way for the infrastructure of the cupola,32 whose construction will be completed with a large copper sphere.33 Between 1263 and 1268 AD Nicola Pisano completes his pulpit, immediately situated in its current position. Between 1270 and 1315 AD, after the construction of the cupola columns, the floor of the crypt was lowered by nearly 2 m34 and the space was given a new brick pavement, and, finally, in the early 14th century, was painted. consistory (during which pope Benedictus I was overthrown) took place in the cathedral. In 1076 AD a plot suptus tribuna de ecclesia Sancte Marie senensis episcopio is mentioned (PAS 1076 novembre; PRUNAI, 1966-1968, nn. 57-58, pp. 344-346; GIORGI, MOSCADELLI 2003, p. 94, footnote n. 8). 31 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 160; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 30. 32 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 32. 33 ASS, Biccherna 37, c. 48r, 1263 novembre-dicembre; GIORGI, MOSCADELLI 2003, pp. 100-101, footnote n. 88. 34 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 32. Seidel thinks that this operation may have taken place following the decision to lower the floor plan in the square in 1255 AD, see SEIDEL 2003, Tradizione e innovazione. Note sulle scoperte architettoniche nel duomo di Siena, in GUERRINI 2003 (ed), Sotto il duomo di Siena. Scoperte archeologiche, architettoniche e figurative, Milano, p. 45.

CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 159; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 28. 27 CANTINI 2011a, pp. 40-43. 28 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, pp. 156-158; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 25. 29 PAS, 1012 dicembre: via publica que pergit ad domum episcopio senense; PRUNAI 1966-1968, I regesti delle pergamene senesi del fondo diplomatico di S. Michele in Passignano, in «Bullettino Senese di Storia Patria», LXXIII-LXXV, 1966-1968, n. 8, pp. 220-221; GIORGI, MOSCADELLI 2003, p. 86. 30 In 1030 AD, Bishop Leone orders the construction of a domus pro fratribus canonicis et claustrum (BCS, Ms. E.IV.2, c. 40r; MOSCADELLI 1994, pp. 219-232; GIORGI, MOSCADELLI 2003, p. 86). In 1058 AD a 26

18

A Second Transition: The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages

Fig. 15: The two 12th-century siloi.

Fig. 16: The apse linked to the 12th-century cathedral, attested by documents since 102 AD. In 1315 AD it was decided to extend the cathedral, broadening the choir’s two spans towards Vallepiatta and resulting in significant earth moving and consolidation works.35 Between 1315 and 1317 AD the construction of the new baptistery began, even though it suffers an interruption between 1339 and 1355 AD, when the construction of the Duomo Nuovo (the New Cathedral) is begun. But after the abandonment of this project the expansion of the cathedral

choir is recommenced [Fig. 17].36 The identification of two fragmentary walls (east/west in orientation and characterized by roughly hewn limestone of medium size and bound together by soft mortar) allow us to assume the presence of a dwelling or annex directly attributable to the Opera del Duomo and subsequently acquired during the cathedral’s extension phase.37 CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 33. 37 GIORGI, MOSCADELLI 2003, p. 100, footnote n. 83. 36

CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 33. 35

19

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 17: GIS elaboration of the documented phases of the cathedral (CAUSARANO 2005). Between the late 12th and early 14th centuries, a few metres to the south (in Room 5) in the south-east alcove, two large pits were built by partially removing the layers of fill [Fig. 18]. The first of these is circular in shape, with a diameter ranging between 1.4 and 1.32 m and a depth of 2.2 m. Dug into the tuffa, the sides are not treated in any way and its two levels of fill contained numerous fragments of pottery, including whole forms [Fig. 19]. Along the outer perimeter runs a second cutting of circular shape, surmounted by a brick structure, through which waste was thrown into the pit. The shape, lack of side covering, and nature of the fill suggest that the feature had been made and used exclusively as a dump.

As with the first pit, the sides showed no signs of a lining and despite the position and distance from the walls of its associated structure, the evidence suggests that it was intended as a dump: there is no indication that it might have been a storage pit. Dumping pits are found in Siena in the Contrada of the Civetta,38 Contrada of the Nicchio39 and inside the former S. Maria della Scala hospital. The pit was laterally closed off by a brick wall placed between two pillars, which led to the final destruction of the right aisle of the nave and the crypt, ensuring the continuity of use of the left aisle to this day, known as the Cripta delle Statue. In the middle of the 13th century, in the southern and northern portions of Room 18, two bases were built [Fig. 20] that were to serve as a foundation for the columns of the cupola’s hexagonal dome. These structures are composed of a parallelepiped on top of an octagonal elevation and the northern pillar reused as a foundation what remained of an earlier structure. Their cutting removed part of the foundations of the construction site layers, consisting of

The second pit is oval with a diameter ranging from about 1.80 m to 1.40 m, and with a depth of about 6.5 m. It has two layers of fill consisting of earth with tile fragments, roofing tiles, bricks and stones. Around the entrance a circular cut was found, a brick covering, presumably a manhole, but unfortunately it is impossible to be more precise as this structure was practically completely removed by subsequent interventions.

LUNA 1996-1997, La ceramica del pozzo di butto della Civetta, Master thesis in Archaeology, the University of Siena, 1996-1997. 39 FRANCOVICH 1982. 38

20

A Second Transition: The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages

Fig. 18: The two identified dump pits. earth, rubble and marble fragment, to level out the incline of the hill.

part.42 The vacated space was closed by the construction of a temporary wall which destroyed the western perimeter of the room. The space previously occupied by the stairs was filled with layers of earth and rubble which revealed a large block of carved stone, probably used as a door post, and some marble columns. In addition, during these works, a drainage duct was laid to remove moisture from this wall, as well as two walls disposed perpendicularly.

In the south/west and north/west corners, two columns were found, still in place, with stem polylobated brick and marble sediment, substituted in the foundations by plinths of square blocks of limestone, and in support of the bases located along the northern and southern limits of the room a wall was erected, whose surface, on the side of Room 1, was painted in the final decades of the 13th century.40 Two rectangular brick pillars, used as a buttress, are positioned between the two larger pillars.

During the 15th century, in the area immediately above this room, decorative themes were painted behind the floor, on the left and right sides of the transept. In front of the altar of the Crucifixion is a depiction of ‘The Sacrifice of Iefte’, designed and executed in 1483 AD43 as part of the continuing construction work of new burial facilities (loculi).44

The cutting of the wall foundation affected the tombs of the previous phases; in their fills, in the eastern portion, in addition to pottery, fragments of mosaic were found, with black and white tiles. In a recent study, a very interesting and detailed analysis of these mosaic pieces has been conducted and which demonstrated a chronology relating to the 3rd/4th century (Fig. 21).41

CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 32. 43 HOBART CUST 2000, p. 17; CAGIORNA, GUERRINI 2004, pp. 131-139. 44 AOMS 717, 328r, 12th January 1481/2 AD“MCCCCLXXXI Pavolo di Salvestro da Santa Cholonba ricontra, die avere adì XII di gennaio £. Settanta e s. -, sonno per la montta di moggia diciennove e mezo di chalcina aviamo avuta da llui per insino a questo dì per le case ale murella in Vallepiatta e le sipulture di duomo sotto li spazi e pavimenti si fanno di nuovo, e ttutto per comandamento di misser Alberto Aringhieri nostro, e ssonno ale spese di questo ffo. 336”; AOMS 717, 341r, 12th November to 22nd December 1481 AD “MCCCCLXXXI Simone di Giovanni di Ghuccio fornaciaio di mattoni a Munistero die avere adì XXII di dicienbre £ cientosette e s. -, sonno per cinquemiliasecientovinticinque mattoni, partte per le sipulture si fanno nuovamente in duomo e partte 42

The presence of a staircase (which is backed by one of the pillars supporting the dome), which had been demolished during the first years of the 14th century, closing off the access to the upper floor, may be theorized for the northern CAUSARANO, FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2003, p. 161; CAUSARANO 2005, p. 32. 41 CHIESA A.A. 2012/2013, pp. 124-144 (Appendice). 40

21

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 19: Pottery from the two dump pits. Drawing (below) of a jug with the emblem of the Opera del Duomo. During the excavations for the construction of a drainage ditch, tombs (loculi) were discovered [Fig. 22], five of which are shown in the records as sepulchres:

per li palchi de la casa di Vallepiatta per £. XIII s. X il migliaio, e per quattrocientocinquanta fra quadrucci e pianelle [..]” (Aronow 1985, nn. 113, 109, pp. 445-446, 443). For the new burials built close to the altar, see ARONOW 1985, nn. 130, 132, pp. 454, 455. AOMS 704, 81r, 13-31 January 1482/3 AD “1482. Maestro Matteo di Simone lavorò adì 13 di giennaio ale sipulture dinanzi al Crociefisso 2di maestro e vanone e 4 manovali. E adì 14 decto 2 di maestro e vanone [e] 9 manovali. E adì 15 decto 2 di maestro e vanone e 9 manovali. E adì 16 di decto 2 di maestro e vanone e 6 manovali, cioè 6... E adì 30 di decto 2 di maestro e vanone e 4 manovali. E adì 31 di decto 2 di maestro e vanone e 4 manovali fatto conto a libro rosso di lione ne’ ffo. 21.”; AOMS 718, 21r, 1st February 1482/3 AD “MCCCCLXXXI Maestro Matteo di Simone di Val di Lughano [Lonbardo] muratore rincontro die avere adì primo di febraio £. Dugientovintotto e s. -, sonno per opere cientocinque di maestro col manovale a s. XXVIII l’una, che montano £. 147 s. -, e per opere vintotto di vannone a s. XIIII opera, che montano £. 19 s. 15, e per opere 137, cioè cientotrentasette di manovali a s. VIIII l’opera, che montano £. 61 s. 13 d. -; le quali opere àn dato in calonicha ale chamare et ciminere e ala chappella de’maestri di pietra e fondamenti d’essa, e per le sipulture dela navata de’Chalzolari, cio[è] da la porta per insino ala storia degl’Inocienti, e per le sipulture dinanzi al Crociefisso là dove s’à a porre la storia nuova; e fare portare via tutta la terra, et per resto d’ogni lavoro avese dato lui od altri per lui per insino a questo dì, d’acordo per decto di messer Alberto nostro, £. 228 s. -, come è detto; e ssono alle spese straxordinarie in questo, ffo. 26 £. CCXXVIII s.”. By following the registers, five more burials are “nel fregio da piedi della

Cinque sepolture nel fregio di sopra la storia della battaglia di rincontro al Crocifisso. La prima inverso al Crocifisso è di messer Agnolo del Testa et heredum. La seconda è di Antonino di messer Giorgio. La terza è di ser Enea prete che fu sagrestano del duomo. La quarta è di messer Bernardino di ser Sano da Torita, quale morì vicario dello [..] viscovado et anco quella de scalinata [tutta la rubrica è stata depennata]. La quinta è a pié la colonna dove era già il pergilo et delle herede di messer Pauolo di Gherardo. Nota come la quarta posta di sopra l’[..] Signor Mucio Placidi Rettore dell’Opera l’ha concessa a me [..] Ronconi per sue Heredi [..] di Novembre ibidem [..] la detta sepoltura padrone.45 battaglia di rincontro al Crocifisso”. 45 AOMS, Sepoltuarii, 1450, 3.

22

A Second Transition: The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages

Fig. 20: The arrows indicate the two bases serving as foundations for the hexagonal pillars supporting the dome. On the opposite side of the cupola, there is a fresco scene showing ‘The massacre of the innocents’,46 executed in 1481 and the area contained other loculi.47

bricks and limestone blocks. They are arranged in series and have a long perimeter wall in common with a brick roof, in the eastern portion, where a square trapdoor opened covered with wooden planks or with a stone. At the opening of the stairs, a ledge allowed access from above. Finds included intact skeletons, several layers containing soil, disarticulated human bones and fragments of wooden planks, probably representing a secondary burial layer. It can be hypothesized that we are dealing here with ossuaries, and it is noteworthy that one of the deceased was dressed in a cape bearing the cross of the Order of Knights of Malta [Fig. 23].48

In the northern part of Room 18, while working on the construction of the ditch, four additional niches/loculi and walls surrounding the tombs were found. These were, as was the case in Room 1, rectangular structures made of​​ HOBART CUST 2000 p. 17; CAGIORNA, GUERRINI 2004, pp. 104111. 47 AOMS 704, 52r, October 1481 AD “MCCCCLXXXI. Maestro Lonbardo....e adì VII d’ottobre opere 2 di maestro e 2 di manovali ale sipulture delo spazo in duomo da San Bastiano”; AOMS 717, 329r, 24th January 1481/2 AD “MCCCCLXXXI. Maestro Matteo di Simone Lonbardo muratore... e die acere adì XXIII di gennaio £ digientotrentadue s. -, sonno per l’infrascritte opere di maestro e manovale, cioè.... ale sipulture sotto la storia del’Inocienti, opere 18 di maestro e 24 di manovali, alo spese ffo. [lacuna] ale sipulture dal champanile ala porta opere 80 di maestro e cientotrentanove di manovale”; AOMS 1449 (Sepoltuari), 2v, 1485 AD “Sepolture in duomo fatte durante l’Operaiato di Albero Aringhieri. 1485. Ricordi delle sipolture fatte in duomo cominciato MCCCCLXXXV.....Sei sipolture di rimpetto alla chapella di Santo Sebastiano sotto al pavimento delli Innocienti” (see ARONOW 1985, nn. 107, 115, 177, pp. 442, 446, 479). More information is given by another payment registration (AOMS 717, 350r, 20th February 1481/2 AD “MCCCCLXXXI. Maestro Stefano da Franto e conpagni Lonbardi rincontro deno avere adì XX di febraio £. Quarantadue s. -, sonno per portatura dela terra si chavò dinanzi all’altare di Santo Sebastiano sotto la storia del’Inocientti dove sonno le sipulture, e quella si chavò in tutta la navata dal chanpanile, cioè dal’aqua benedetta e gi[u]so dinanzi a Sa’Iacomo Interciso, Santo Antonio, la Madona anticha, Sa’Nicholò, e San Chalisto, e portòssi nel duomo vechio e nel’orttaccio di chanonicha, d’acordo con messer Alberto nostro; ale spese in questo, ffo. 354 £. XLII” from ARONOW 1985, n. 120, p. 448. 46

The access hatches for these structures (both on the south and northern sides) were located on the outer, polychrome frames, while the other tombs were ranged immediately below. This system could have made them accessible for an extended period of time, as indicated by the discovery of a coin dated 1718 AD recovered from one of the tombs in the northern part of the excavation of Room 18, as

The presence of an insignia from this order of chivalry may be related to the presence, at the end of the 15th century, of a knight of the Order of St. Giovanni, Alberto Aringhieri, as rector of the Metropolitan Opera. In the cathedral, in the left transept, a monument dedicated to Fra’ Marc’Antonio Zondadari, Grand Master of the Order of the Hospital between 1720 and 1722, is still visible. After his death he was buried in Malta and a statue in the Duomo of Siena dedicated to him in 1726. 48

23

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 21: Fragments of mosaic found in secondary deposits, dating to 3rd-4th century AD (CHIESA 2012-2013).

Le sepolture sopra la storia de puri. La prima inverso San Sebastiano è di ser Benedicto Bigliotti e Heredum-Emilio Lamgioni. La seconda è di Colombini [depennata]. La terza è di Antonio di Stefano Tilani - a pié la colonna inverso a Santo Sebastiano incontro al pergolo di marmo. La quarta è di Matheo e Francescho Paccinelli et Heredi. La quinta è di Federigo Machabruni. La sesta è di Antonio Mancini.

described in the burial record list for the graves49 near the area:

A 15th-century register notes (c. 1r): “In questo libretto saranno scritte tutte le sipolture di Duomo partitamente e a chi sonno date per Misser Alberto degnissimo nostro Operaio o a chi per lo avenire si consegneranno o le trasmutazioni d’esse le quali sipolture si sonno fatte e numerate al tempo del detto Messer Alberto di Messer Francesco Aringhieri degnissimo Operaio della chiesa chattedrale di Siena scritte per me Giovanni d’Andrea d’Andrea d’Antonio scrittore e fattore di detta Opera per suo comandamento. Sei sipolture di faccia alla cappella di S. Sebastiano sotto al pavimento dell’Innocenti. 1a a piedi allo scalone è del canonico Domenico Biliotti. 2a alla prima è Colombini. 3a è d’Antonio di Stefano d’Antonio. 4a è di Francesco e Matteo Paccinelli. 5a è del canonico Domenico Maccabruni. 6a è di Messer Niccolò Mancini d’Arezzo” (AOMS, Sepoltuarii, 1449, spoglio). 49

24

A Second Transition: The rebirth of the context in the Middle Ages

Fig. 22: GIS elaboration of the 15th-century loculi.

Fig. 23: Detail of a burial inside one of the loculi, with an individual wearing a cape bearing the cross of the Order of the Knights of Malta. 25

Pottery from the Excavation Introduction

Fig. 24: Graphic showing the percentage level of residual materials over the centuries (CASTIGLIA 2012).

This section presents the identified ceramic materials from the stratigraphy below the Cathedral. As the amount of artifacts found is considerable, a selection of the most significant datable finds is presented. These are divided into classes to clarify the evolution of the typology and ceramic sets through the ages.

A total of 6953 fragments of pottery was found, of which 2777 were related to fine ware, 1844 to coarse ware, 917 to amphorae, 452 to sigillata italica, 171 to vernice nera, 120 to internal red painted ceramic, 118 to maiolica arcaica, 194 to red engobe pottery, 92 to thin-walled pottery, 121 to African red slip ware, 48 to monochrome maiolica arcaica, 26 to fire glazed ware, 25 to slip ware, 11 to brown glazed ware, 8 to bucchero, 8 to Renaissance maiolica, and 17 to zaffera a rilievo. It is clear that the presented materials represent the greater part of those that can provide a chronology. This means that they are recognizable from the point of view of class, as well as morphological type, and therefore traceable to a chronotypological identification.

The decision not to show the material according to stratigraphic succession, but rather by division into classes, was dictated by the high rate of residual nature [Fig. 24]50 that emerged from the process of creating the database (which would not have facilitated a more organic examination of the findings) and by the analyses of the classes and types. For problems regarding residuality see GUIDOBALDI, PAVOLINI, PERGOLA 1998(ed), I materiali residui nello scavo archeologico, Roma. 50

26

Coarse Ware

The coarse ware is represented by a total of 1844 fragments, equal to 1012 forms, calculated according to the minimum number. A total of 11 different mixtures has been identified. Most of the coarse ware containers focus between the chronological timeline of the 5th and 6th centuries AD and these are mainly cooking pots and lids. During the Roman period the recovery of containers in this class was extremely rare, probably due to the fact that the findings relevant to coarse cooking ware for this time are frequently made of small-sized walls and, consequently, hardly recognizable in their forms. Furthermore, it cannot be excluded that up to the 4th century (and part of the 5th) African products were also being used in the kitchen, although the stratigraphy of the cathedral has not revealed these finds, unlike the nearby excavation of Santa Maria della Scala, where African pottery fragments coated in grey are confirmed, although in extremely small quantities, such as the Ostia type III cooking pots (dated between the 2nd and 5th centuries AD) and lids with blackened edges (2nd century-early 5th centuries AD).51

phenomena occur in Pistoia,53 Pisa,54 Grosseto55 and other contexts in Siena.56 As at the end of the 10th and early 11th century, coarse ware (but more generally the whole range of classes and forms) begins to make a recovery in terms of quality, with the appearance of pots with ‘harpoon’ edges, never attested before, which are strewn across the entire deposit until about the 15th century. Also found are coarse ware jugs, peculiar to the stratigraphy of these phases, and, in the same way, from the 11th century to the late Middle Ages, pans and cauldrons are found, indicating an improving economic situation that will also be reflected widely in the other shapes (Figs. 25-27).

As mentioned, by the end of the 5th century AD, it is possible to witness a large proliferation of cooking pots which, along with lids, preponderantly characterizes cooking ware sets during the ‘Age of transition’ and the Early Middle Ages. Between the 5th and 6th century AD the range of cooking ware is largely characterized by forms with an almost flat, wide brim and slight curve for the lid, or by types with ribbon-shaped edges, with the lower edge on the outside and rounded rim inside, which in both cases comprise numerous comparison types in urban contexts and in the Chianti region52 all around Siena. In the same chronological time span there is also a significant presence of lids (it is not a coincidence that the cooking pots of the same chronology frequently have settings for lids), mainly characterized by distinct and raised edges with rounded or slightly pointed rims. The casserole-type posts are also present, albeit in decisively smaller quantities. These three types are therefore the ones mainly characterizing the coarse ceramics in these phases, representing signs of a dietary regimen limited to the cooking of soups and stews, sometimes supplemented by starchy foods, as demonstrated by the findings, although rare, of hand-made testi.

Fig. 25:14th-century cooking vessel (olla).

Ceramic finds between the 7th and 9th centuries AD decline in quantity and quality. Cooking ware is limited to a few pots and lids as well as some testi, closely following the same trend of many Tuscan cities. In fact, similar 53

CANTINI 2005, pp. 63-71. 52 VALENTI 1995; VALENTI 1996, in BROGIOLO, GELICHI, 1996, pp. 143-169. 51

54 55 56

27

VANNINI 1985. ALESSI et alii 1993. FRANCOVICH, GELICHI 1980. CANTINI 2005.

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 26: 13th/14th-century cooking vessels (ollae).

28

Coarse ware

Fig. 27: Late 14th/15th century corse ware jug.

29

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.4 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with a wide brim, rounded edge, hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1711 ND 679 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 169 Dimensions: ø 16.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995 TAV. XLVI, no. 6, dated 5th-6th century AD.

Catalogue Cooking bowls (Ollae) A.I.1 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rounded rim, concave neck, neck-shoulder attack indistinct. Inventory: NI 17876 ND 694 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 18, U.S. 21 Dimensions: ø edge NI Clay mixture: 1G Date: late fourth Century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FROVA 1977 TAV. 274, 10 (2504 K), dated to the 4th century AD.; OLCESE 1998 TAV. LVIII, 2, dated between the 1st and 6th centuries AD.

A.I.5 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with wide horizontal thickened rim and hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1612 ND 658 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 181 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Date: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Caporusso 1991 TAV. CIX, n. 2-7, dated dated 5th-6th century AD.; Settefinestre, p. 219, FIG. 55, n. 2, dated to the second half of the 5th century.

A.I.2 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with ribbon edge, with bottom edge inferior to the outside, rounded edge inside. Inventory: NI 1899 ND 719 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 177 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Dating: 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1996 in Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996.

A.I.6 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with a wide brim, rounded edge, hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1512 ND 650 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 294 Dimensions: ø 13 cm edge Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: OLCESE 1993 Fig. 37, 53, p. 204, dated 5th-6th century AD.

A.I.3 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with ribbon edge, with the lower edge on the outside, rounded edge. Inventory: NI 461 ND 337 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 317 Dimensions: ø 14.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Dating: 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography : VALENTI 1996 in Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996 TAV . VII, 8, p. 157 dated from the first half of the 5th century AD, with continuity of use until the 6th-7th century AD.

30

Coarse ware

31

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.7 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with a wide brim, with hallow inner lip with a triangular section. Inventory: NI 1401 ND 637 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1996, p. 160, n.11. TAV X , dated 5th-6th century AD. (in Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996)

A.I.10 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with a wide and rounded rim, hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1694 ND 674 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 169 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 3G Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005 T. 30, p. 143, n. 578, dated 6th-7th century AD.; CANTINI, Cianferoni, FRANCOVICH, SCAMPOLI 2007 TAV. IV, p. 266, 2.6.8, dated 6th century AD.

A.I.8 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with taut slightly horizontal, triangular section rim, slight vertical walls. Inventory: NI 1447 ND 643 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 306 Dimensions: NI Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995 TAV. LXVI, No. 3, dated 5th-6th century AD.; OLCESE 1993, p. 207, fig. 38 , # 60, dated 5th-6th century AD.

A.I.11 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward and slightly pointed rim. Inventory: NI 935 ND 513 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 317 Dimensions: ø 8.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 6th-7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005 T. 30, p.143, n. 578, dated 6th-7th century AD.; CANTINI, Cianferoni, FRANCOVICH, SCAMPOLI 2007 TAV. IV, p. 266, 2.6.8, dated 6th century AD.

A.I.9 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim rectangular section, with square edge, globular body. Inventory: NI 1613 ND 659 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 181 Dimensions: ø 12.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Brogiolo 2006 TAV. LXXV, No. 3, p. 591, dated between 5th-6th century AD.

A.I.12 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with indistinct outward rim, rounded edge to short neck, swollen internally. Inventory: NI 616 ND 398 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 3G Date: 6th-7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Ghiroldi, Portulano, Roffia 2001, p. 122, fig. 11, n.7, dated 6th-7th century AD.

32

Coarse ware

33

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.13 Morphological Description: cooking bowl rim with slight vertical flattened edge. Inventory: NI 206 ND 154 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 3G Dating: 6th-7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MANDOLESI 2007, p. 231, T. 5, no. 14, dated 6th-7th century AD.

A.I.16 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim quadrangular section. Inventory: NI 481 ND 347 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 364 Dimensions: ø 14 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 10th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VARALDO 2004, PATITUCCI Uggeri 2004, p. 122 , fig. 2 , n. 2 , dated 9th10th century AD.; CANTINI 2003, p. 98, FIG. 13, I.7.46 , dated 10th-11th century AD.; BRUNI 1993 HST. 30, n. 11, dated 10th-11th century AD.

A.I.14 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp outward rim and narrowing of the neck, flared walls. Inventory: NI 314 ND 243 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 6 U.S. 8 Dimensions: ø 19 cm edge Clay mixture: 4G Dating: 9th-10th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PantÓ 1996; Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996, p.100, fig. n. 5, no. 3, dated 9th-10th century AD.

A.I.17 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp outward sloping rim, pointed edge. Inventory: NI 2002 ND 747 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 285 Dimensions: ø 13 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Date: 10th-11th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: ALESSI, BONET, Spinesi 1993 p.433, # 31, dated 10th-11th century AD.

A.I.15 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp outward rim, enlarged head, slightly rounded edge, hallow internally. Inventory: NI 2001 ND 746 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 285 Dimensions: ø 11 cm edge Clay mixture: 4G Date: 9th-10th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995a, p. 128, FIG. IV, n 8, dated 9th-10th century AD.

34

Coarse ware

35

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.18 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with distinct and outward border, rounded rim, short neck, shoulder pronounced globular body. Inventory: NI 177 ND 129 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5 U.S. 131 Dimensions: ø 12.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 11th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PantÓ 1996, p. 100, fig 5b, n. 10, dated 10th-11th century AD.

A.I.21 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim, triangular head section, flattened edge. Inventory: NI 311 ND 242 Stratigraphic References: Site. 6 U.S. 8 Dimensions: ø 14 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 11th-12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: ALESSI, BONET, Spinesi 1993, p. 433, n. 31, dated 11th-12th century AD.; GRASSI, p. 1997 D-type, subtype 1, 11th-12th century AD.

A.I.19 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward tending to bend rim, pointed at the end. Inventory: NI 746 ND 439. Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Date: 10th-11th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: NEGRO PONZI MANCINI 1996, p. 139, fig. 3, # 17, dated 11th-12th century AD. (in Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996).

A.I.22 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with ample outward rim, rounded edge, short neck and globular body. Inventory: NI 2031 ND 776 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 13.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Dating: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MARIOTTINI 2007-2008, p. 294 A.XLII.0.1.5.0, dated 13th century AD.

A.I.20 Morphological Description: cooking bowl outward, thickened rim, light hallow interior. Inventory: NI 202 ND 150 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 13 cm edge Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 11th-12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: LUSUARDI SIENA, negri, VILLA 2004 (in PATITUCCI Uggeri 2004), p. 94, fig. III, no. 7, dated 11th-12th century AD.

36

Coarse ware

37

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.23 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with distinct outward edge, rounded rim, conical body tapering towards the bottom. Inventory: NI 134 ND 102 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 113 Dimensions: ø 19 cm edge, bottom ø 16 cm Clay mixture: 5G Dating: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 1996-1997, TAV.IX, G-type, subtype 2, dated 13th century AD.

A.I.25 Morphological Description: cooking bowl rim with sloping triangular cross section, sharp edges at the top and externally, globular body. Inventory: NI 101 ND 80 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 13th-15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Ciampoltrini 2007, p. 115, n. 2, 13th-15th century AD.

A.I.24 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp rim edge and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 56 ND 51 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 20 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Date: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 1999-2000, dated 13th century AD.

38

Coarse ware

39

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.26 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim, tending to bend sharply, rounded edge, short neck. Inventory: NI 2027 ND 772 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 10 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MARIOTTINI 2007-2008, p. 294 A.XLII.0.1.5.0, dated 13th-15th century AD.

A.I.28 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with thickened and outward rim. Inventory: NI 2030 ND 775 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 113 Dimensions: ø 11 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Similar to CANTINI 2003 TAV. 16, p. 103 n.I.7.69, dating 15th century AD.

A.I.27 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with distinct border and outward rim with triangular section, high neck and slightly pronounced tilted back, flat indistinct bottom. Inventory: NI 63 ND 58 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH, GELICHI 1980, p. 91, FIG. 15, n. 31, dated 14th century AD.

40

Coarse ware

41

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.29 Morphological Description: cooking bowl’s sharp edge with distinct neck. Inventory: NI 16 ND 14 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 14th-15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 1999-2000, TABLE 1, type 1.1d, dated 14th-15th century AD.; MARIOTTINI 07-08, p. 392, A.CXXIII.0.5.5.0 late 13th-15th century AD.

A.I.31 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim tending to bend sharply, distinct shoulder, sharp threads. Inventory: NI 22 ND 20 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 74, dated 15th century AD. A.I.32 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp outward rim, tilted flattened globular body edge. Inventory: NI ND 8 9 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 14 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Date: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MARIOTTINI 2007-2008, A.CII.01.5.0, p.394, dated 14th century AD.

A.I.30 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with outward rim and enlarged head, sharp edges, developed neck, globular body, developed sides. Inventory: NI 1875 ND 715. Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 16.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Dating: 14th-15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 1997 TAV. V, type B, subtype 3, dated 14th-15th century AD.

42

Coarse ware

43

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.33 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp edge rim and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 10 ND 9 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 14.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 103 I.7.68, TAV. 16, dated 15th century AD.

A.I.35 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp edge rim and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 23 ND 21 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 14 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 103 TAV. 16, I.7.67, dated 15th century AD.

A.I.34 Morphological Description: cooking bowl with sharp edge rim and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 56 ND 51 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 20 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 1999-2000, dated 15th century AD.

A.I.36 Morphological Description: cooking bowl sharp and indistinct neck edge. Inventory: NI 224 ND 172 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 26 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 13, FIG. 16 , I.7.68 , dated 15th century AD.

44

Coarse ware

45

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.I.37 Morphological Description: cooking bowl sharp edge and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 19 ND 17 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 18 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 217, fig. 199 NB 5, dated to the second half of 15th century AD.

A.I.38 Morphological Description: cooking bowl sharp edge and distinct neck. Inventory: NI 14 ND 13 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 103 I.7.68, TAV. 16, dated 15th century AD.

46

Coarse ware

47

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.II.4 Morphological Description: lid with oblique edge, hooked inside and stretched outside. Inventory: NI 926 ND 508 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 317 Dimensions: ø 26 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Dating: 4th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: OLCESE 1998 TAV. XC, No. 1, dated 4th-6th century AD.; Caporusso 1991, TAV. CV, No .15, dated 4th-6th century AD.

Lids A.II.1 Morphological Description: lid with a slight horizontal brim edge, slightly oblique and raised inside, more or less thickened and rounded. Inventory: NI 1818 ND 702 Stratigraphic References: Site. 17 U.S. 8 Dimensions: ø 14 cm edge. Clay mixture: 7G Date: 1st century BC Comparisons-Bibliography: Caporusso 1991, TAV. XCVI # 10, dated 1st century BC.

A.II.5 Morphological Description: lid with slightly thickened rim and triangular section. Inventory: NI 1273 ND 605 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 290 Dimensions: ø 35 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005 TAV. 22, 5.9, dated 5th-6th century AD.; PAROLI, SAGUÍ 1991, p. 143, n. 21, generically dated to the Late Antiquity.

A.II.2 Morphological Description: lid with detected edge on the outside, pointed at the top, hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1990 ND 735 Stratigraphic References: Site. 5, U.S. 67 Size: S Clay mixture: 11G Dating: 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FROVA, 1977 TAV. 137, n. 7, CM 4779, dated 1st century AD.; OLCESE 1993 Fig. 25, n. 179, dated 1st century AD.

A.II.6 Morphological Description: lid with a more or less developed edge and rounded profile. Inventory: NI 452 ND 331 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 21 cm rim Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BROGIOLO, LUSUARDI SIENA 1980, fig. 15, n. 3, variant A, dated 6th century AD.; OLCESE 1998, p. 413, FIG. LXXXIX, No. 2, dated 6th century AD.

A.II.3 Morphological Description: lid with thickened and slightly raised rim, with the straight edge to the outer profile. Inventory: NI 1713 ND 681 Stratigraphic References: Site. 1, U.S. 169 Dimensions: ø 21 cm edge Clay mixture: 1G Date: 4th-5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: DE MARINIS 1990, TAV. 48, n. 59, p. 393, dated 4th-5th century AD.; FROVA 1977 TAV. 137, CM 7798, p. 216, dated 4th century AD.

48

Coarse ware

49

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.II.7 Morphological Description: handle Inventory: NI 1492 ND 645 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 63 Dimensions: 3 cm diameter handle Clay mixture: 3G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995, p. 150, TAV LXX, no. 9, dated 5th-6th century AD.

A.II.10 Morphological Description: upper flat apical handle, detached by rope. Inventory: NI 677 ND 424 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 3 Size: NI Clay mixture: 4G Dating: 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995, p. 150, FIG. LXX, no. 23, dated 7th century AD.

A.II.8 Morphological Description: handle Inventory: NI 940 ND 514 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 317 Dimensions: ø 3.5 cm handle Clay mixture: 3G Dating: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995, p. 150, TAV LXX, no. 9, dated 5th-6th century AD.

A.II.11 Morphological Description: lid with distinct rounded and raised edge, slightly thickened on the outer surface, and conical body. Inventory: NI 233 ND 181 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 22 cm rim Clay mixture: 8G Date: late 7th-8th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PAGANELLI 2004, p. 197, FIG. VII, n. 117, dated late 7th-8th century AD.

A.II.9 Morphological Description: lid with distinct edge, triangular section, and conical body. Inventory: NI 239 ND 187 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 12.5 cm rim Clay mixture: 2G Date: 5th-6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Brecciaroli Taborelli L. 1998 SAGUÍ 1998, p. 13, fig. 2, # 9, dated 5th-6th century AD.

A.II.12 Morphological Description: lid with distinct rounded and raised edge, slightly thickened on the outer surface and conical body. Inventory: NI 235 ND 183 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 25 cm rim Clay mixture: 8G Date: late 7th-8th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PAGANELLI 2004, p. 197, FIG. VII, n. 117, dated late 7th-8th century AD.

50

Coarse ware

51

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.II.13 Morphological Description: apical handle with a central hole. Inventory: NI 110 ND 182 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 114 Size: NI Clay mixture: 6D Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 239, fig. 215 is 24, dated 14th century AD.

A.III.3 Morphological Description: casserole with a bound brim and flattened edge. Inventory: NI 213 ND 161 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 19 cm rim Clay mixture: 5G Date: 10th - 11th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Brogiolo 2004, p. 83, FIG. IX, No. IX, dated 10th - 11th century AD.

Casseroles

A.III.4 Morphological Description: casserole with a bound brim and flattened edge. Inventory: NI 263 ND 211 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm rim Clay mixture: 5G Date: 10th - 11th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Brogiolo 2004, p. 83, FIG. IX, No. IX, dated 10th - 11th century AD.

A.III.1 Morphological Description: casserole with a triangular rim section, more or less rounded and slightly oblique sides. Inventory: NI 747 ND 440 Stratigraphic References: Site 18, U.S. 24 Dimensions: ø 36 cm rim Clay mixture: 3G Date: 4th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: OLCESE 1993 FIG. 53, 167, dated 4th- 5th century AD.; FROVA 1977 TAV. 274, 44, dated 4th century AD.; Caporusso 1991 TAV. CVII, 7, dated between the end of the 3rd century AD. and 5th century AD.

A.III.5 Morphological Description: casserole with indistinct flat edge, upper plate enlarged head, ovoid body. Inventory: NI 2006 ND 751 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 285 Dimensions: ø 19 cm rim Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 13th - 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MARIOTTINI 2007-2008, p. 395 A.XXXIX.0.26.5.0, 13th - 14th century AD.

A.III.2 Morphological Description: casserole with thickened rim both inside and outside, slight vertical sides. Inventory: NI 1696 ND 675 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 169 Dimensions: ø 35 cm rim Clay mixture: 2G Dating: 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1996, in Brogiolo, GELICHI 1996.

52

Coarse ware

53

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.IV.4 Morphological Description: Top with outward medium thick sides, indistinct and rounded rim. Inventory: NI 878 ND 489 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 186 Size: NI Clay mixture: 10G Dating: 12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH, GELICHI, MELLONI, VANNINI 1977 p.38, TAV. III, no. 51, dated 12th century AD.

Testi A.IV.1 Morphological Description: Top with rounded rim, sloping sides. Inventory: NI 1712 ND 680 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 169 Dimensions: ø 19 cm rim Clay mixture: 9g Dating: 5th - 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Giannichedda 1998 Fig. 91, n. 57, dated 5th - 6th century AD.

A.IV.5 Morphological Description: Top with outward excessive thick sides, indistinct edge, slightly recessed inside. Inventory: NI 52 ND 47 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 27 cm rim Clay mixture: 10G Date: late 12th - early 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2003, dated 12th 13th century AD.

A.IV.2 Morphological Description: Top with indistinct and outward border, laterally rounded and square upper rim, sharply inclined and crooked side. Inventory: NI 130 ND 98 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 113 Size: S Clay mixture: 10G Dating: 9th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 147, FIG. 34 n.5.123, dated 9th century AD.

A.IV.6 Morphological Description: Top with external enlarged edge, distinct and sanded bottom. Inventory: NI 27 ND 25 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 30 cm rim, bottom diameter 28.5 cm Clay mixture: 10G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, dated 15th century AD.

A.IV.3 Morphological Description: Top with outward sides of great thickness, indistinct edge Inventory: NI 226 ND 174 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 23.5 cm rim Clay mixture: 10G Date: 12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: GRASSI 2004-2005, dated the 13th century AD.

54

Coarse ware

55

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Cooking pans

Cooking cauldron

A.V.1 Morphological Description: cooking pan with outward sides, flat triangular section at the top edge, distinct base. Inventory: NI 24 ND 22 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm rim Clay mixture: 11G Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 203, fig. 188 NA 6, dated 14th century AD.

A.VI.1 Morphological Description: Cauldron handle Inventory: NI 95 ND 74 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 114 Dimensions: ø 20 cm rim Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no comparisons.

precise

Tops

A.V.2 Morphological Description: cooking pan with outward sides, flat triangular section at the top edge, distinct base. Inventory: NI 292 ND 223 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm rim Clay mixture: 11G Date: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FATS 1999-2000, dated 14th15th century AD.

A.VII.1 Morphological Description: cap with apical cylindrical handle. Inventory: NI 2011 ND 756 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 285 Dimensions: ø 5 cm rim Clay mixture: 7G Dating: 3rd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Ostia III tav. XXII, n. 7, dated 3rd century AD.

56

Coarse ware

57

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral A.VIII.4 Morphological Description: cooking pot with outward edge, rounded rim, ovoid body tapering towards the bottom, ribbon handle attached on the edge. Inventory: NI 2028 ND 773 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 18 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 239, fig. 215, FA 19, dating 14th century AD.

Cooking pots A.VIII.1 Morphological Description: cooking pot with indistinct and outward rim and upper edge slightly inclined towards the outside, short neck, slightly pronounced shoulder, hollowed handle applied immediately below the rim. Inventory: NI 136 ND 104 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 113 Dimensions: ø 18 cm rim Clay mixture: 8G Dating: 11th - 12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: STAFFA, ODOARDI 1996, p. 209, fig. 35, n. 120c, dated 11th - 12th century AD.

A.VIII.5 Morphological Description: cooking pot with distinct and pointed edge with the handle attached immediately below the rim. Inventory: NI 135 ND 103 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 113 Dimensions: ø 16 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: second half of the 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 217, fig. 215, n. 35, dated second half of the 15th century AD.

A.VIII.2 Morphological Description: cooking pot with distinct and border bending outward, short neck, slight pronounced shoulder, hallowed handle attached immediately below the rim, ovoid body. Inventory: NI 175 ND 127 Stratigraphic References: Site 5 U.S. 131 Dimensions: ø 19 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Date: second half of the 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 217, fig. 215, n. 35, dated second half of the 15th century AD. A.VIII.3 Morphological Description: cooking pot with outward edge and rounded rim, ovoid body tapering towards the bottom, ribbon handle attached on the edge. Inventory: NI 2029 ND 774 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 6G Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 239, fig. 215, FA 19, dating 14th century AD.

58

Coarse ware

59

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Jugs A.IX.1 Morphological Description: jug with tapered edge, trilobed mouth, ribbon handle attached to the edge, slightly mounted body on a superimposed truncated cone, flat bottom. Inventory: NI 185 ND 135 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø bottom 8 cm, H 14 cm Clay mixture: 5G Date: late 14th - early 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 230, fig. 209, NC 54, dated late 15th century; LUNA 19961997 K 9 1 (15th - 16th century AD.) GRASSI 1999-2000 Table. 10, type 1.2.2, dated late 14th - early 15th century AD. A.IX.2 Morphological Description: jug with tapered edge, trilobed mouth, ribbon handle attached to the rim, slightly surmounted. Inventory: NI 188 ND 138 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Size: S Clay mixture: 5G Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 234, fig. 212, NC 55c, dated late 15th century; LUNA 1996-1997 K 9 1 (15th - 16th centuries AD.) GRASSI 1999-2000 Table. 10, type 1.2.2, dated late 14th - early 15th century AD.

60

Coarse ware

61

Fine ware

Fig. 28: 15th-century fine ware moneybox.

The fine ware pottery returned 2777 fragments, constituting the most represented class in the deposit; but despite this, however, the recognizable forms and their dating are of a low percentage, compared to the total; it is the Late Medieval pottery that is especially better preserved, while for the Roman period, Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, the artifacts are in generally poor condition.

ceramics dating to the early middle ages are very rare and fragmentary (and quite often unrecognizable), while in the 12th century AD there is an enormous assemblage (and a more heterogeneous array) relating to this class: basins are widely confirmed, mainly characterized by broad brims, almost horizontal, rounded edges and often characterized by light casing and external interlacing.

During the 1st and 2nd centuries AD the fine ware seems to be mainly characterized by bowls with rounded and slightly inverted rims, which, from the 3rd century AD onwards, will be gradually substituted by products imported from North Africa. From the 6th century AD, most likely during the crisis that characterized the Tunisian origin products, fine ware bowls (with no covering) reemerge, which seem to imitate, both morphologically and functionally, the African productions, similar to those characterized by red slip. As mentioned a few lines above, the fine

From the 13th century the pottery repertoire is further enhanced with the introduction of types not previously confirmed, such as mugs and jugs with ovoid body, bottles, orci a beccaccia, moneyboxes (Fig. 28), pitchers (Fig. 29), counters and reels: this is a sign of renewed economic development to the urban reality, simultaneous to the contemporary architectural developments of the cathedral, as well as of an increase in the demands of the social order, probably a beneficiary of contemporary surpluses that could be invested and stored.

62

Fine ware

Fig. 29: 14th-century fine ware pitcher.

63

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral B.X.4 Morphological Description: basin with enlarged border, edge slightly tilted in Inventory: NI 191 ND 141 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 25 cm edge Clay mixture: 5D Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons.

Catalogue Basins B.X.1 Morphological Description: horizontal basin brimmed with geometric decoration. Inventory: NI 80 ND 66 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 27 cm edge Clay mixture: 4D Date: end of the 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BRUNI, ABELA, Berti 2000, p. 168, fig. 1 Fa8, 14th century AD.

B.X.5 Morphological Description: basin with enlarged edge, edge slightly tilted in. Inventory: NI 192 ND 142 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5D Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982 second half of the 15th century AD.

B.X.2 Morphological Description: basin with horizontal stretch, lighter outer casing and slightly thickened edge within. Inventory: NI 799 ND 454 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 15 Dimensions: ø 23.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 4D Date: second half of the 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 218, fig. 201, NB 10 A, 14th century AD. B.X.3 Morphological Description: basin with horizontal stretch, wavy geometric decoration. Inventory: NI 118 ND 90 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 114 Dimensions: ø 20 cm edge Clay mixture: 5D Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons.

64

Fine ware

65

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Bowls

Flask

B.XI.1 Morphological Description: bowl with slight vertical rim and convex sides, slightly inverted. Inventory: NI 860 ND 478 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 257 Size: 15.5 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1D Dating: 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Caporusso 1991, TAV. LIV, no. 4, dated 1st century AD.

B.XIII.1 Morphological Description: neck flask fragment with ribbon handle. Inventory: NI 707 ND 433 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 9 Size: S Clay mixture: 4D Dating: 12th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: LIGUORI 2006, p. 471, FIG. 4, # 9, dated 12th century AD.

B.XI.2 Morphological Description: bowl with rounded walls, non-distinct lip, rounded edge. Inventory: NI 1785 ND 693 Stratigraphic References: Site 18, U.S. 21 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1D Date: end of the 1st century AD. - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Caporusso 1991 TAV. XCIII , 3, dated 1st century AD.; Pavolini 2000 FIG. 43, V, dated end of the 1st century AD. - 2nd century AD.; Gasperetti 1996 form 1111b, FIG.1, dated to the 1st century AD.; CARANDINI, PANELLA, 1973 FIG. 356, dated end of the 1st century AD. - 2nd century AD.

Counters B.XIV.1 Morphological Description: circular form game counter/ playing piece. Inventory: NI 511 ND 349 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 2.8 cm Clay mixture: 42D Dating: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons. B.XIV.2 Morphological Description: circular form game counter/ playing piece Inventory: NI 512 ND 350 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 130 Dimensions: ø 2.7 cm Clay mixture: 4D Dating: 13th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons.

B.XI.3 Morphological Description: bowl with inverted rim. Inventory: NI 1730 ND 683 Stratigraphic References: Site 18, U.S. 68 Dimensions: ø 32 cm edge Clay mixture: 2D Date: end of the 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 94, FIG. 6, n. 4.1, dated first half of the 7th century AD.

Reels

B.XI.4 Morphological Description: bowl with pointed edge, inverted, marked external threads. Inventory: NI 90 ND 69 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Size: S Clay mixture: 2D Dating: 7th - 9th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons.

B.XV.1 Morphological Description: reel. Inventory: NI 1146 ND 574 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 2.5 cm Clay mixture: 1D Dating: NI (associated with 13th-century material) Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons. B.XV.2 Morphological Description: racket with decorative pattern engraved on the top. Inventory: NI 1147 ND 575 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 2.5 cm Clay mixture: 2D Dating: NI (associated with 13th-century material) Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons

Washbowl B.XII.1 Morphological Description: washbowl with contoured profile and decoration notches on the outer surface. Inventory: NI 460 ND 336 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 360 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5D Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons. 66

Fine ware

67

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Pitcher

Jug

B.XVI.1 Morphological Description: pitcher with outward rim, vertical neck, globular body and ribbon handle. Inventory: NI 2 ND 2 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 6.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2D Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2002, p. 124-125, 15th century AD.

B.IX.1 Morphological Description: jug with rim and handle attached to the edge. Inventory: NI 3 ND 3 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Size: S Clay mixture: 1D Dating: mid 14th -15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2002, mid 14th -15th century AD.

68

Fine ware

69

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral B.XVII.2 Morphological Description: moneybox. Inventory: NI 46 ND 41 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 168 Dimensions: ø 6.5 cm bottom Clay mixture: 3D Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MANACORDA 1985 vol. 3, p. 300, nn. 258-259 (second half 14th - early 15th century AD.; FRANCOVICH, GELICHI, MELLONI, VANNINI, 1978, p. 94, pl. XXVI, no. L148, dated 15th century AD.

Moneyboxes B.XVII.1 Morphological Description: moneybox. Inventory: NI 182 ND 132 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 6.5 cm base Clay mixture: 2D Date: 15th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 207, fig. 192 NA 35, second half of the 15th century AD.; FRANCOVICH, GELICHI, MELLONI, VANNINI, 1978, p. 80, pl. XXI, no. L26 and L27, second half of the 15th century AD.; BOLDRINI, DE LUCA 1988, p. 121, pl. 1, no. 5, 15th century AD.

70

Fine ware

71

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral ‘Orcio a beccaccia’ B.XVIII.1 Morphological Description: ‘Orcio a beccaccia’ with ribbon handle. Inventory: NI 308 ND 239 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 1 Size: NI Clay mixture: 2D Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BIANCHI 2003, p. 286-287, nn. 2a (second half of the 14th century AD.) and 2b (14th century AD.) FRANCOVICH, VALENTI 2002, p. 118119, n. 21, first half of the 14th century AD.; VANNINI 1985, p. 398, n . 2615, late 13th - early 14th century AD., FRANCOVICH, PARENTI 1987, pl. III, no. 1 and Table X, n. 9, second half of 14th century AD.

72

Fine ware

73

African Red Slip Ware (ARS) The African red slip ware identified in the deposits below the cathedral of Siena follows very closely, in quantity (121 pieces), the findings of the same class from the adjacent site of Santa Maria della Scala (122)57 or in other urban excavations in Tuscany such as Pistoia (Palazzo dei Vescovi/Bishops’ Palace - 177).58 In general, in all the ‘successful’ cities archaeologically investigated in Tuscany, the quantities related to production from the North African kilns oscillate around these numerical values, thus denoting a relatively small quantitative index, but still significant. The time span in which this class is better attested, in the stratigraphy of the context under consideration, is between the 4th and the 6th centuries AD, beginning of the 7th, with a preponderance between the 4th and 5th. During the 4th century, therefore, the ware assemblage is characterized by the presence of bowls such as Hayes 99C and 61 (both among the most common variants of African ware from this time span throughout Italy and beyond), which during the 5th will be joined by other variants, such as Hayes 61B, and still in the course of the 6th and 7th century it is still possible to witness the presence albeit sporadic of slat vases, all of African production (Hayes Form 91C).

Catalogue

It is important to emphasize that the African ware forms intended for cooking are completely absent from the stratigraphy of the cathedral and are in general otherwise attested in very limited quantities in other Tuscan contexts, especially in the hinterland. In addition, although ARS forms are documented also in stratigraphies from the end of the 6th-7th century, actually, in this time span most of the table ware kit is already made ​​up of local red engobe ware imitations, following the morphological aspects of Tunisian imports, which by now with difficulty reached the hinterland markets between the 6th and 7th century AD.

C.XI.3 Morphological Description: bowl with sharp edges, inverted slightly and external casing. Inventory: NI 788 ND 449 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 21 Dimensions: ø 22 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Date: 4th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: 61 HAYES, dated 4th century AD.

C.XI.1 Morphological Description: bowl with sharp edges, slightly inverted and external casing. Inventory: NI 1581 ND 655 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 269 Dimensions: ø 16.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Date: 4th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: HAYES C 99, dated 4th century AD. C.XI.2 Morphological Description: bowl with thickened rim, tilted sides. Inventory: NI 670 ND 419 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 3 Dimensions: ø 25 cm edge Clay mixture: 2SAF Date: 4th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Atlas II, FIG. XVI, no. 12, A12 variant Salomonson, dated 4th century AD.

C.XI.4 Morphological Description: bowl with sharp edges, inverted slightly and external casing. Inventory: NI 865 ND 482 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 223 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Date: end of the 4th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Atlas II, FIG. XXXIV, no. 7, end of the 4th century AD. C.XI.5 Morphological Description: cup with stretch tilted rim, slightly hallow interior. Inventory: NI 1494 ND 646 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 411 Dimensions: ø 12.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2SAF Dating: 6th-7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: HAYES 105B, dated 6th-7th century AD.

CANTINI 2005, p. 63. DEGLI INNOCENTI 1985, in VANNINI 1985 (ed), Pistoia. L’antico palazzo dei vescovi a Pistoia, Firenze. 57 58

74

African Red Slip Ware

75

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral C.XI.6 Morphological Description: bowl with triangular section thickened rim, rounded. Inventory: NI 865 ND 482 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 223 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Date: end of the 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 69, pl. I, n. 3.6 type B HAYES 61, dated end of the 5th century AD.

C.XI.8 Morphological Description: bowl with thickened rim with internal recess. Inventory: NI 865 ND 482 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 223 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Dating: 6th-7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Ciampoltrini 2011, p. 40, fig. 22, n. 1, form A. Hayes 91, dated 6th - 7th century AD.

C.XI.7 Morphological Description: bowl with rounded edge, thickened. Inventory: NI 865 ND 482 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 223 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1SAF Dating: 525-600 AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: 104 HAYES, dated 525-600 AD.

C.XIX.1 Morphological Description: slat vase with short strip and slight curvature. Inventory: NI 1863 ND 713 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 287 Dimensions: ø 25 cm edge Clay mixture: 2SAF Dating: 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 70, pl. 3, no. 3:19 HAYES 91 type C, 7th century AD.

76

African Red Slip Ware

77

Red engobe ware

Fig. 30: Red engobe ware production centres in Tuscany.

78

Red engobe ware The pottery covered in red engobe appears in the stratigraphy of the cathedral of Siena from the 4th century AD and remain present until about the 7th century. It has been possible to identify a total of 194 fragments, all characterized by a rather powdery mixture, semi-purified, with reddish or brownish coating, often semi-covering and of poor quality.

of Cecina64), and, in general, in central and northern Italy.65 However, despite this broad geographical range, it can be interpreted as a sub-regional production, characterized by the variety of pastes, coatings and quality of workmanship. This class can be considered as one of the ‘guide-fossils’ of the time period between Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages: indeed it is characterized mainly as an imitation of African red slip ware forms which, during the age of transition, no longer reached (or could not reach) the inland areas (or may have sporadically). This pottery gradually becomes the dominant class for coarse ware between the 4th and 7th centuries AD. Sometimes it is found alongside the few Tunisian products in circulation in some markets. Therefore it is mainly characterized by open forms, imitation of African archetypes, primarily Hayes 51, Hayes 61 and Hayes 91, while some closed forms such as mugs and jugs are also present.

The identification and study of this class of ceramics, despite the progress made in ​​ recent decades, is still problematic. Unfortunately, it is quite difficult to track down a uniform definition for identifying the type, because this ceramic class is mentioned in various ways, even in recent publications.59 Red engobe ware, however, constitutes a widespread class in Tuscany (production centres have been identified [Fig. 30] in San Genesio,60 in Empoli,61 Torraccia di Chiusi,62 in the Chianti Senese area63 and probably in the lower valley In litterature red engobe ware is variously defined as verniciata di rosso, verniciata tarda, etc.; for a clear typology see VALENTI 1995, pp.73 and following. 60 CANTINI 2011, pp. 159-194. 61 CANTINI 2011, p. 165. 62 FUMO 2010 (http://www.fastionline.org/docs/FOLDER-it-2010- 178. pdf). 63 VALENTI 1995. 59

CHERUBINI, DEL RIO 1997, p. 136; PASQUINUCCI, DEL RIO, MENCHELLI 1999, pp. 59-65. 65 VALENTI 1995, p. 73. 64

79

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral D.XI.4 Morphologic description: washbowl with vertical rim and vivid angle. Inventory: NI 437 ND 322 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: imitation of Atlante I, FIG. XXXIV, no. 4, dating 6th century AD.

Catalogue Waashbowls D.XI.1 Morphological Description: washbowl with indistinct border and rounded edge. Inventory: NI 469 ND 343 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 364 Dimensions: ø 14.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2 ING Date: late 4th - early 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI, Cianferoni, FRANCOVICH , SCAMPOLI 2007, p. 275, FIG. XII, n. 11. 1. 3, late 4th - early 5th century AD.

D.XI.5 Morphological Description: washbowl with slightly inverted border, thickened rim with a triangular section. Inventory: NI 437 ND 322 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: imitation of B HAYES 61.

D.XI.2 Morphological Description: washbowl with indistinct border. Inventory: NI 440 ND 325 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 37 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI 2005, p. 176, n. 7:58, dated early 7th century AD.; imitation of Atlante II, FIG. L, n . 8-9.

D.XI.6 Morphological Description: washbowl with slightly inverted border, triangular section rim. Inventory: NI 437 ND 322 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 15 cm edge Clay mixture: 3 ING Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: imitation of HAYES 61 C; FUMI 2010, p. 8 TAV 1, n. inv 07/ 1751, dated 6th - 7th century AD.

D.XI.3 Morphologic description: washbowl with vertical rim, external groove, more or less pronounced. Inventory: NI 435 ND 320 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Dimensions: ø 21.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: imitation of Atlante I, FIG. XXXIV, no. 7, dated 6th century AD.

80

Red engobe ware

81

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Bowls

Plate

D.XII.1 Morphological Description: hemispheric washbowl with indistinct edge and rounded border. Inventory: NI 859 ND 477 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 257 Dimensions: ø 16 cm edge Clay mixture: 2 ING Date: 4th - 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI, 2007 TAV XII, n. 11.1.8, dated 4th century AD.

D.XX.1 Morphological Description: wide-brimmed plate, slightly flat, with light thickened and rounded rim. Inventory: NI 460 ND 336 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 360 Dimensions: ø 28 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FUMI 2010, p. 12 TAV 3, n. inv 07/ 1216, 6th century AD.

D.XII.2 Morphological Description: washbowl with contoured profile and decoration notches on the outer surface. Inventory: NI 460 ND 336 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 360 Dimensions: ø 18.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: there are no precise comparisons.

82

Red engobe ware

83

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Jugs

Ring bases

D.XVI.1 Morphological Description: jug, with distinct edge, outward upper rim, high straight neck and single sinusoidal decoration on the shoulder. Inventory: NI 430 ND 315 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 239 Size: NI Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 5th - 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995, p. 154, FIG. LXXIV, No. 5, dated 5th - 6th century AD.

D.XXI.1 Morphological Description: ringed bottom with folded end outside. Inventory: NI 946 ND 518 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 317 Dimensions: ø 8.5 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1 ING Date: 4th - 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995 TAV. LXXVII, no. 12, dated 4th - 5th century AD. D.XXI.2 Morphological Description: flat bottom with hint of the foot. Inventory: NI 505 ND 359 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 258 Dimensions: ø 3.6 cm bottom Clay mixture: 2 ING Date: 4th - 5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: VALENTI 1995 TAV. LXXVII, no. 4, dated 4th - 5th century AD.

D.XVI.2 Morphological Description: jug with outward rim and indistinct edge. Inventory: NI 468 ND 342 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 364 Size: S Clay mixture: 1 ING Dating: 5th - 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CANTINI, Cianferoni, FRANCOVICH, SCAMPOLI 2007, p. 277, FIG. XIV, n. 11. 4. 2, dated 5th - 6th century AD.

Slat vase D.XIX.1 Morphological Description: slat vase with short strip with curvature. Inventory: NI 505 ND 359 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 258 Dimensions: ø 29 cm edge Clay mixture: 3 ING Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: imitation HAYES 91 C, FUMI 2010, p. 10, TAV 2, n. inv 06 /45.

84

Red engobe ware

85

Amphorae

The stratigraphy revealed 917 relevant amphorae fragments, from a total of 475 identified minimal forms. Although the amount of artifacts pertaining to transport containers is large, unfortunately there are only a few recognizable ones, but nevertheless the data is still quite significant.

Between the 3rd and 5th centuries new amphorae productions appear into the Sienese market (Fig. 31) such as the Gauloise 1, produced between the 1st and 3rd centuries AD in Narbonne, Gaul, destined for the transportation of Gallic wine or Keay 39, of North African production (mainly Zeugitana, Numidia and Mauretania, between the 4th and 5th centuries AD) attesting African olive oil imports in these phases. Despite the recession and the subsequent crisis that will affect the economics of the context being examined, between the 5th and 7th centuries, however, there is still the occasional presence of overseas productions: Late Roman 1, produced between 3rd century AD and 7th AD in Cilicia and Cyprus, which is perhaps the greatest volumes of Eastern amphora production spread throughout the Mediterranean,72 for which it is assumed the transportation of both wine and olive oil, and Late Roman 7, which include production centres in north Africa (Oxyrhynchus and Antipolis ) within a broad chronological period of 4th and 7th-8th centuries AD, intended for the transportation of wine products.

Fragments of Dressel 7,66 Dressel 867 and Beltràn 2A68 (of Betic origin) testify to the supply from the geographical area corresponding to today’s Andalusia of garum and more generally of fish-related products, from the 1st century BC and until at least the 2nd century AD, probably with the intercession of Luni as a port of sorting of goods. Regarding wine, at least from the end of the 1st century AD, supply appears to be linked to Italic vinyards (from the 2nd century AD this trend is reversed, with the predominant entry of provincial products into the market),69 with transport amphorae such as Dressel 2-4 and Camulodonum176.70 In this regard it is important to remember that the Dressell 2-4 type had important production centres in the same regions of Tuscia, such as ager cosanus, ager pisanus, ager volaterranus Torrita di Siena, and it is entirely plausible, as regards the wine, to propose the existence of a regional commercial range type. However this consideration does not exclude the existence of trade networks with southern Italy, which again would have its own reference in the important port of Luni.71

66 67 68 69 70 71

For a general overview see PEACOCK-WILLIAMS 1977. For a general overview see PEACOCK 1986. BELTRÁN LLORIS, 1970. PANELLA 1993, p. 434. LAUBENHEIMER, 1985; MARTIN-KILCHER, 1994. MURIALDO et alii 1998, pp. 34-35.

72

86

PEACOCK 1986.

Amphorae

Fig. 31: Circulation of amphorae directed to Siena in Late Antiquity.

87

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral E.3 Morphological Description: Amphora Beltran 2A. Inventory: NI 708 ND 434 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 9 Dimensions: ø 10.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 6 ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BELTRÁN LLORIS, 1970, no. 2A, 1st century BC - 2nd century AD.

Catalogue Amphorae E.1 Morphological Description: Dressel 1. Inventory: NI 1741 ND 684 Stratigraphic References: Site 17, U.S. 42 Dimensions: ø 19.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 5ANF Date: 2nd century BC - 1st century BC Comparisons-Bibliography: FROVA, 1977 TAV. 142, 14 CM 1005, dated 2nd century BC - 1st century BC; CARANDINI, PANELLA, 1973 TAV XLVII, dated 2nd century BC - 1st century BC.

E.4 Morphological Description: Dressel 8. Inventory: NI 1758 ND 687 Stratigraphic References: Site 18, U.S. 37 Dimensions: ø 15.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PEACOCK 1986, PEACOCK 1974.

E.2 Morphological Description: Dressel 7. Inventory: NI 586 ND 388 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 3 Dimensions: ø 16.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 2ANF Date: 1st century BC - 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PEACOCK 1986, 1st century BC - 1st century AD.; BELTRAN LLORIS 1970, 1st century BC - 1st century AD.

88

Amphorae

89

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral E.5 Morphological Description: Dressel 7. Inventory: NI 1995 ND 740 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 112 Size: NI Clay mixture: 2 ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BELTRÁN LLORIS 1970; PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 1977; MARTIN-KILCHER, 2003.

E.7 Morphological Description: Dressel 2-4. Inventory: NI 1933 ND 731 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 23 Size: NI Clay mixture: 7ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FROVA, 1977 TAV 144, 9 CM 9973, in both cases dated 1st century BC - 2nd century AD.; ARTHUR 1983; TCHERNIA 1986.

E.6 Morphological Description: Dressel 2-4. Inventory: NI 1201 ND 590 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 195 Size: NI Clay mixture: 7ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FROVA, 1977 TAV 144, 9 CM 9973, in both cases dated 1st century BC - 2nd century AD.

90

Amphorae

91

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral E.8 Morphological Description: background with foot ring, tapering, relevant or Gauloise 6 or Camulodunum 176. Inventory: NI 1229 ND 596 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 195 Dimensions: ø 9 cm base Clay mixture: 4ANF Date: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: MARTIN-KILCHER, 1994; Laubenheimer 1985, fig. 177, n. 5, dated 1st century BC 2nd century AD.

E.10 Morphological Description: Gauloise 1. Inventory: NI 1759 ND 688 Stratigraphic References: Site 18, U.S. 37 Dimensions: ø 16 cm base Clay mixture: 8 ANF Dating: 1st century BC - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PEACOCK 1986, 1st century BC - 2nd century AD.

E.9 Morphological Description: Dressel 20. Inventory: NI 591 ND 393 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 3 Size: NI Clay mixture: 3ANF Dating: 1st century AD. - 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BELTRÁN LLORIS 1970; CARANDINI, PANELLA 1973; CARANDINI, PANELLA 1977.

92

Amphorae

93

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral E.11 Morphological Description: Amphora Keay 39 Inventory: NI 450 ND 239 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 197 Dimensions: ø 21.5 cm edge Clay mixture: 6 ANF Date: 4th-5th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: KEAY 1984, form 39.

E.13 Morphological Description: Late Roman amphora 7. Inventory: NI 1355 ND 625 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 197 Size: NI Clay mixture: 9B - ANF Dating: 6th - 7th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PEACOCK, WILLIAMS 86 form 52B; EGLOFF 1977 form 177.

E.12 Morphological Description: Late Roman A1. Inventory: NI 1742 ND 685 Stratigraphic References: Site 7, U.S. 3 Size: NI Clay mixture: 3ANF Dating: 3rd -7 th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PEACOCK, WILLIAMS, 1986.

94

Amphorae

95

Lamps

A total of 36 fragments relevant to oil lamps have been identified, for a minimum amount of 19 forms. Given the fact that many of these fragments are very small we can make safe attributions to just a small number of them, which are predominantly whole specimens, or nearly so.

because of the morphology, of which comparisons were found.74 From the layers of the sunken featured hut (grübenhaus), dating from the late 5th/6th centuries AD, two lamps were uncovered, found fully intact, one in fine ware (F.5) and the other covered with red engobe (F.6). In both cases, these are late imitations (assignable to the middle of the 6th century AD), of the firmalampen type,75 which refers to the 5c and 6 forms of the Lamboglia classification and to the X type of Loeschcke’s classification. The derivation from firmalampen, however, is not the only hypothesis about their sustainable typing category. In fact it seems possible to trace other typological models, especially Africanderived. The morphology is very reminiscent of an African red slip ware lamp, characterized by two concentric grooves, which extend to the spout,76 dating from the late 4th century AD,77 of which both our specimens seem to be accurate imitations, albeit less refined and of less precise workmanship. Another clue that allows us to assume inspiration from models of the same area is given by the

In the landfill layers of the animal entombment in the votive well, most likely attributable to a foundation ritual for the defensive walls during the phase of the military colonization, or a little later, two ‘a volute’ lamps were found (F.1 and F.2), both with decorative designs, in the upper part of the cistern (Fig. 32). The first (with triangular nozzle) has the representation of a standing individual holding a large weight, probably fish, and could thus be the representation of a fisherman or a deity; the second (with rounded nozzle, refers to the form LOSCHCKE III type, IV, V = S, I = II b PONISCH DENEAUVE V, nn. 1 and 2) is adorned with a pattern inspired from the Greek region of Attica,73 referring to a theatrical mask or to the face of a satyr. Both are dated to the first half of the 1st century AD, not only because of the iconography, but especially

Fig. 32: Lamps ‘a volute’ from inside the votive well (1st century AD).

74 75 76 73

PERZELWEIG, 1961, Plate 19 n. 872.

77

96

PERZELWEIG, 1961. MASSA 1996, p. 77. SALOMONSON 1969, p. 79, TAV. XCV, fig. 100. Atlante I, TAV. XCV, n. 3.

Lamps

Fig. 33: Lamps from the grübenhaus fill (5th-6th century).

clear similarity to other Tunisian forms,78 which are also classifiable to the 4th century AD. ARS lamps begin to spread to the Italic markets especially from the 4th century AD, particularly in southern Italy, but also in the northern areas and close to the context that we have previously examined, Luni above all,79 so the imitation of these types is entirely plausible.

Villa of Salto del Lupo at Comacchio (FE), which is described as a direct imitation of the productions of the later firmalampen, fully dating to the 6th century AD.81 Furthermore, the F.6 form is characterized by a coating of red engobe, an element which is a further confirmation for the chronology herein proposed, being the red engobe ceramics typical of Tuscany in the age of transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages.82 The fine ware lamp (F.5) is characterized, on the bottom, by a print with the letter ‘Y’, interpreted most likely as a mouldmark, or a control production stamp by the artisan, attesting to a 5thcentury AD date.83

To confirm a date to the 6th century AD for the two lamps from the grübenhaus filling (Fig. 33), however, there are two comparisons found in the Italian territory. These are two lamps from the tomb number 84 of the necropolis of Lungone (Salò), dating to the 5th and 6th centuries AD,80 and the other from a specimen which emerged from the BAILEY 1988, Vol. III, TAV. 17, n. 1736. ANSELMINO 1986, p.234, in Società romana e impero tardoanticoLe merci, gli insediamenti, Roma-Bari, 1986. 80 MASSA 1996, pp. 71-78, in BROGIOLO 1996. 78 79

81 82 83

97

CORTI 2007, fig. 10.2. VALENTI 1995; CANTINI 2005, pag. 158. BARBERA, PETRIAGGI 1993, pp. 135-158.

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral F.4 Morphological Description: lamp with stamp on the bottom of the tank, probably bearing the name ‘CLOHEL’. Inventory: NI 449 ND 328 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Size: NI Clay mixture: NI Date: 2nd century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: BONNET 1988, p. 160.

Catalogue F.1 Morphological Description: double spiral lamp with triangular spout. Inventory: NI 2022 ND 767 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 202 Dimensions: Length 8cm, width 6 cm Clay mixture: NI Date: first half of the 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PERZELWEIG, 1961 TAV. 2, 44, dated first half of the 1st century AD.

F.5 Morphological Description: lamp with a truncated cone tank, short beak, not sharply distinguished from the shoulder, with a central feeding hole; small oval hole at the beginning of the channel, wide shoulder with three small studs stamped matrix; base with a ringed foot and letter ‘Y’ embossed on the surface. Inventory: NI 2025 ND 770 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 364 Size: 7cm x 4.5 cm Clay mixture: NI Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CORTI 2007, fig. 10.2. Imitation of form Lamboglia 5c and 6/type X Loeschke; Imitation of Atlante I, TAV XCV, No. 3; like (imitation) in Salomonson 1969, p. 79 TAV XCV , fig. 100.

F.2 Morphological Description: double spiral lamp with round spout. Inventory: NI 2023 ND 768 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 195 Dimensions: Length 8cm, width 6 cm Clay mixture: NI Date: first half of the 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: J PERZELWEIG 1961 TAV 19 # 872, dated first half of the 1st century AD. F.3 Morphological Description: fragment of lamp oil tank decorated with olive leaves. Inventory: NI 456 ND 335 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 350 Size: NI Clay mixture: NI Date: between the first half of the 1st century BC and first half of the 1st century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: PERLZWEIG, 1961, Pl 3, No. 48, dated between the first half of the 1st century BC and first half of the 1st century AD.

F.6 Morphological Description: lamp reservoir with a truncated cone, slightly elongated beak is not sharply distinguished from the shoulder, with a central feeding hole, oval hole small at the beginning of the channel. Inventory: NI 2024 ND 769 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 364 Size: NI Clay mixture: NI Dating: 6th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: CORTI 2007, fig. 10.2. Imitation of form Lamboglia 5c and 6/type X Loeschke; Imitation of Atlante I, TAV XCV, No. 3; like (imitation) in Salomonson 1969, p. 79 TAV XCV, fig. 100.

98

Lamps

99

Sigillata Italica 452 fragments of sigillata italica were found, with a total of 373 identified forms. It is important to highlight that many of these fragments were not identified in their primary location, but as residue, particularly from dumping wells and accumulated levels of debris. The recognizable fragments primarily belong to the Augustan age, dealing mainly with plates with pendant pronounced rims (e.g. F.XXII.1, F.XXII.2, F.XXII.5, F.XXII.6) and hemispherical cups (F.XXIII.1) or with a body (F.XXIII.2). Also important was the discovery of two stamps (SEXTILIVS [G.1] and SEX. TITIVS [G.2]), referring to ceramists working in Arezzo during the Augustan Age, most likely from the ateiana (of Ateius) school.

Catalogue Cups F.1 Morphological Description: cup with flared walls and distinct rim. Inventory: NI 731 ND 438 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 7, US 9 Size: ø 33 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: 15-10 a.C. Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 2, p. 56, n. 2.3.2, dated 15-10 a.C.

Plates F.4 Morphological Description: plate with pendant vertical rim. Inventory: NI 1684 ND 672 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, US 223 Size: ø 30 cm rim Clay mixture: 2 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 10, p. 71, n. 11.1.1, Augustan age. F.5 Morphological Description: plate with pendant vertical rim. Inventory: NI 1684 ND 672 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 7, US 3 Size: ø 30 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 11, p. 73, n. 12.1.3, Augustan age.

F.2 Morphological Description: cup with flared walls and distinct rim. Inventory: NI 863 ND 480 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, US 223 Size: ø 20 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 8, p. 67, n. 8.1.1, Augustan age. F.3 Morphological Description: cup with flared walls and distinct rim. Inventory: NI 1764 ND 689 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 18, US 37 Size: ø 18 cm rim Clay mixture: 2 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 8, p. 67, n. 8.3.1, Augustan age.

100

Sigillata Italica

101

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral F.6 Morphological Description: plate with pendant vertical rim. Inventory: NI 1767 ND 690 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 7, US 3 Size: ø 30 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 11, p. 73, n. 12.2.2, Augustan age.

F.9 Morphological Description: plate with convex walls and distinct edge. Inventory: NI 1987 ND 732 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 31 Size: ø 34 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 11, p. 73, n. 12.4.2, Augustan age.

F.7 Morphological Description: plate with pendant vertical rim. Inventory: NI 916 ND 501 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 1, US 317 Size: ø 25 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 11, p. 73, n. 12.3.2, Augustan age.

F.10 Morphological Description: plate with vertical rim, simple band and subtle moldings. Inventory: NI 1988 ND 733 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 31 Size: ø 34 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: Augustan to Tiberian age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 18, p. 86, n. 20.4.1, Augustan to Tiberian age.

F.8 Morphological Description: plate with vertical rim, simple band and subtle moldings. Inventory: NI 1992 ND 737 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 112 Size: ø 31 cm rim Clay mixture: 2 SI Dating: Augustean age Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 11, p. 73, n. 12.4.2, Augustan age.

F.11 Morphological Description: plate with vertical rim, simple band and subtle moldings. Inventory: NI 1989 ND 734 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 31 Size: ø 36 cm rim Clay mixture: 1 SI Dating: 15 AD. - 35 AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Conspectus, TAV. 18, p. 86, n. 22.6.1, 15 AD. - 35 AD.

102

Sigillata Italica

103

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Stamps G.1 Morphological Description: SEX.TITI. Inventory: NI 2019 ND 764 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 31 Size: NI Clay mixture: 2 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Corpus Vasorum Aretinorum, pag. 455, n.2251.

G.2 Morphological Description: SEXTIL(IVS) Inventory: NI 2020 ND 765 Stratigraphic References: Amb. 5, US 31 Size: NI Clay mixture: 2 SI Dating: Augustan age Comparisons-Bibliography: Corpus Vasorum Aretinorum, pag. 408, n.1961.

104

Sigillata Italica

105

Maiolica Arcaica

118 fragments of maiolica arcaica have been found, from a minimum of 74 identified forms. They are mostly finds from dump levels, and in some cases it was possible to reconstruct the forms in their entirety. The most widespread type by far is that of the mug (Figs. 34-35), often with an ovoid body, flat bottom and slightly raised, often comparable to forms coming from Siena itself (primarily dumps from Nicchio84 and Civetta85) but also from the Pisa area (H.IX.1). Among the intact forms,

a jug with ovoid body, rounded brim, a bottom slightly ring-shaped, bearing the emblem of the Salimbeni family (H.IX.3 ) is reported, such as a jug with a pronounced bottom disc, globular body, ribbon handle, edge slightly inclined outwards, three-lobed, decorated with the coat of arms of the Opera del Duomo (H.IX.5). Also unique was the discovery of a fairly rare form of sauce boat (Fig. 36), almost entirely preserved and decorated with geometric patterns made from copper and manganese (H.XXIV.1).

Fig. 34: Maiolica arcaica jugs. The left one bears the Opera del Duomo emblem.

FRANCOVICH 1982. LUNA 1996-1997, La ceramica del pozzo di butto della Civetta, Master thesis in Archaeology, from the University of Siena, 1996-1997. 84 85

106

Maiolica Arcaica

Fig. 35: Jug in monochrome Maiolica.

Fig. 36: On the right a Maiolica arcaica sauce boat. 107

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral Catalogue Jugs H.IX.1 Morphological Description: mug with ovoid body, flat bottom and slightly raised, with decorated acanthus leaves. Inventory: NI 1039 ND 542 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, US 1 Dimensions: ø 8.5 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1MA Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: Berti, 1997, p. 112, pl. 70, 2b, dated to the first half of the 14th century AD.

H.IX.2 Morphological Description: mug with ovoid body, ribbon handle set below the rim, decoration with lance-shaped leaves. Inventory: NI 2033 ND 778 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 10 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1MA Date: end of the 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 255 ND 50 bis, dated late 14th century AD.

108

Maiolica Arcaica

109

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral H.IX.3 Morphological Description: mug with ovoid body, rounded edge, slightly crocked foot disc, decorated with the Salimbeni family coat of arms. Inventory: NI 2034 ND 779 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 10 cm bottom Clay mixture: 2MA Date: end of the 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 225 ND 51 bis, dated late end of the 14th century AD.

H.IX.4 Morphological Description: mug with a flat bottom and slightly crocked foot, decorated with traces of copper. Inventory: NI 1042 ND 546 Stratigraphic References: Site 1, U.S. 1 Dimensions: ø 11 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1MA Date: end of the 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 235, fig. 213, NC 72 dated late 14th century AD.

110

Coarse ware

111

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral H.IX.5 Morphological Description: mug with disc stands, globular body, ribbon handle, edge slightly inclined outwards, three-lobed, decorated with the coat of arms of the Opera del Duomo. Inventory: NI 2032 ND 777 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 66 Dimensions: ø 10 cm bottom Clay mixture: 2MA Date: end of the 14th century AD.

Sauce-Boat H.XXIV.I Morphological Description: sauce-boat with circular tank and flat foot, decorated in manganese and copper flake. Inventory: NI 2026 ND 771 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 6 Dimensions: ø 10 cm bottom Clay mixture: 1MA Date: end of the 13th/14th century AD.

112

Maiolica Arcaica

113

Glazed Ware

Fig. 37: Glazed ware cooking pots (14th century AD).

26 fragments of glazed ware have been discovered from a total of 12 identified minimal forms. With the exception of two intact specimens, the other finds are in a poor state of preservation and are often of small size. Significant, however, is the presence of two pots preserved in their entirety, dating to the 14th century AD (I.VIII.1 and I.VIII.2), which further testifies that in the full course of the late middle ages the quality and variety of ceramic ware had reached remarkably high levels that had never occurred before then.

Catalogue Pans I.VIII.1 Morphological Description: pan with outward rim, rounded edge, ovoid body racked towards the bottom. Inventory: NI 2029 ND 774 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 17 cm edge Clay mixture: 1IF Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 239, fig. 215, FA 19, dated 14th century AD. I.VIII.2 Morphological Description: pan with outward rim, rounded edge, ovoid body racked towards the bottom. Inventory: NI 2028 ND 773 Stratigraphic References: Site 5, U.S. 14 Dimensions: ø 18 cm edge Clay mixture: 1IF Dating: 14th century AD. Comparisons-Bibliography: FRANCOVICH 1982, p. 239, fig. 215, FA 19, 14th century AD.

114

Glazed Ware

115

Conclusions

The experiences of archeology in ‘successful cities’ are characterized by a stratigraphy often compressed and distorted by human intervention through the course of centuries; therefore, the approach in studying an important context such as the one identified below the cathedral of Siena cannot be without regard to other disciplines and of the interrogation of heterogeneous sources. In fact, one of the inherent limitations of urban archeology is that it is almost always impossible to conduct surveys in open areas, an aspect which makes the understanding of the deposit often quite difficult and consequently in this work it was decided to cross refer to different data typologies: starting from the analysis of horizontal stratigraphy, fundamental key points of reference were primarily comparative analyses of ceramic artifacts and comparisons with previous topographical studies. The range of written sources is rather sparse, especially for the period between the 5th and 10th centuries AD,86 a span that was perhaps the most stimulating in the course of this research, characterized by transformation and fractures in the timeline, significant to the economy of the historical narration which I have attempted to propose. It was decided to omit the records of the history of the studies, since they have already been widely discussed and shown in previous works87 and were cited only if essential for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the site. It is important to remember, however, that the settlement before the foundation spot of the military colony of Sena Iulia (deducted in 29 BC) was probably demonstrated to be the area of Castelvecchio, between the 4th and the 2nd century BC.88 The analysis carried out by Silvia Pallecchi also speculated that the foundation of the town had been realized by a regular orthogonal block settlement system, corresponding to the hill where the cathedral would be built a few centuries later, and where the forum would have been as well.89 Even if plausible, the presence of the forum in this area should probably be re-evaluated with more caution, given the absence of archaeological data that can give confirmation to that effect, whereas the installation of a new residential centre in this position at the end of the 1st century BC finds concrete proofs in the excavations under the cathedral. Sena Iulia proved to have a significant economic vitality since its foundation, confirmed by the abundant amount of sigillata italica, mainly crafted in Arezzo. It does not seem to be a coincidence that between 30 and 20 BC, the period immediately following the Augustan assignments, CANTINI 2011a, p. 31. PALLECCHI 2001-2003, CANTINI 2005. 88 PALLECCHI, 2001-2003, p. 256. 89 PALLECCHI 2001-2003, pp. 278-284 and for a synthesis CANTINI 2005, pp. 17-18. 86 87

Arezzo’s manufacturing production saw its best results from a technical point of view, with the great expansion of the production by Ateius90 and other great ceramists, as witnessed by some of the stamps found (SEXTILIVS and SEX. TITIVS, who worked in Arezzo during the Augustan age). At an urban level, the colony developed over large artificial terraces made ​​ of virgin soil, probably begun already from the 2nd century BC, where faint traces of previous activity, such as silos and food storage, have been identified.91 One of the more interesting aspects concerns the hypothetical presence of a large city gate and a circuit wall,92 which would enclose the space established around the hill of the cathedral from the early imperial age (Fig.38); although this hypothesis has been put forward on the basis of historical and topographical studies,93 stratigraphic data seem to support it, giving important information on the major investments made in the development of the colony. The discovery of a well with animal remains, dated by the remains to the 1st century AD (especially the ‘a volute’ lamps with decorative markings of Attic origin), could be interpreted as a foundation rite for a defense system.94 Adjacent to this was also the imposing wall of cavernous limestone characterized by freshly hewn stones, defined as a probable city gate. These findings correspond to Via dei Fusari,95 i.e. where the topographical studies have supported a portion of a fortified circuit in Roman times. The vitality of the environment during the early imperial age is also confirmed by indicators related to both short and long distant trade: the transport amphorae types coming from the stratigraphy are a very clear ‘guide fossil’ to affirm the presence of extra-regional and overseas trade routes, being common to many realities in Tuscia.96 Fragments Dressel 7, 8 and Dressell Beltran 2A of Betic origin testify to supplies from Spain (mainly from the area corresponding to today’s Andalusia) of garum, and MAETZKE 1959, Notizie sulla esplorazione dello scarico della fornace di Cn. Ateius in Arezzo, in Rei Cretariae Fautorum Acta, II, pp. 25-27. 91 CANTINI 2005, pag. 239. 92 PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 304. 93 BROGINI 2003, p. 13-14. 94 Evidence relating to the immolation of dogs during foundation rites are extremely rare. Written sources attest sacrifices of this kind in Latin and Etruscan-Italic ambit since the Archaic Age. Burial rituals such as this have been found in the Capitoline temple in Rome, in the walls of Paestum and Rimini and in the sacred area of Pyrgi (ORTALLI 2003, Nuove fonti archeologiche per Ariminum: monumenti, opere pubbliche e assetto urbanistico tra la fondazione coloniale e il principato augusteo, in Pro popolo ariminese, atti del convegno di Rimini, a cura di CALBI, SUSUNI 1993, Faenza 1993, pp. 475-478; ROBERT 1993, Rites de protection et de défense. A propos des ossements d’un chien découverts au pied du rempart de Paestum, in «Annali di Archeologia e Storia Antica dell’Istituto Orientale di Napoli», XV, 1993, pp. 325-326). 95 PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 361. 96 CANTINI 2011a, p. 33. 90

116

Conclusions

Fig. 38: Hypothetical plan of the defensive walls in Roman times (re-elaboration from LUSINI 1921 and CANTINI 2005). more generally of fish related products, from at least the 2nd century AD, with the probable intercession of Luni as a port for distribution. Until at least the end of the 1st century AD the supply of wine seems to be mainly from Italian vineyards (from the 2nd century AD this trend will be reversed, with the predominant entry of provincial products in the markets),97 as testified by transport amphorae such as Dressel 2-4 and Camulodonum 176 (although in the Castelvecchio area there is evidence of African wine amphorae from the 1st century AD).98 In this regard it is important to remember that the Dressel 2-4 type had important centres of production in Tuscia, such as Cosa, the ager cosanus, the ager pisanus, the ager volaterranus and Torrita di Siena, therefore the existence of regional market places, in terms of wine circulation, cannot be ruled out. In the same way, although it might be plausible, the development of commercial networks within southern Italy, which again could have a bearing

on the important port of Luni,99 along with the Portus Pisanus – the largest seaport of the region100 and from which the main land route ran, allowing supplies to flow to the major centers of the hinterland.101 In confirmation of this hypothesis we have pottery fragments, such as Late Roman 7 amphorae and ARS ware, especially plates, bowls and cups, showing, in the latter case, the presence, from the 2nd century AD up to the ‘age of the transition’, of more refined ceramic tableware. The division of the territory, in the middle of the 4th century AD, into Tuscia Annonaria and Tuscia Urbicaria or Suburbicaria,102 seemed in fact to ensure a partial endurance, although not long lasting, of a Late Roman commercial-economic tradition system that, with specific regard to Siena and the context of the cathedral, began to show signs of recession and subsequently of a real crisis, MURIALDO et alii 1999, pp. 34-35. CANTINI 2011, p. 169. 101 DE MARINIS 1990, p. 39. 102 Highly recommended is the landmark essay by Mario Lopes Pegna of 1960, Dalle lucumonie etrusche alle diocesi paleocristiane della Tuscia annonaria (Saggio di topografia storica), in «Quaderni di studi storici toscani», Firenze. 99

100

PANELLA 1993, p. 434. PAPI 1989, Siena: anfore romane da Castelvecchio, in Amphores romaines et histoire économique: dix ans de recherche, Atti del colloquio (Siena, 22-24 maggio 1986), Roma, École française de Rome, 1989, pp. 618-619. 97 98

117

Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral

Fig. 39: Table and coarse wares from the ‘Age of Transition’ and the Early Middle Ages.

starting from the end of the 5th century AD (suffering a sharp fall mainly in the 6th-7th centuries AD). Between the 4th and 5th centuries, in fact, the presence of major seaports such as Talamone, Scoglietto, Paduline Serrata Martini on Prile, Cala del Barbiere near Punta Ala and Alma, still guarantees an integration in the Mediterranean commercial systems,103 representing significant points of access to the hinterland. In addition, at the structural/building level (also reasoning on a comparison with the adjacent stratigraphy of the Santa Maria della Scala) during the 4th century, renewed important interventions continue, as evidenced by the discovery of an apsidal wall, visible only in crosssection, and a structure with opposing apses, whose main interpretation suggests it be read as being the remains of a Late Antique domus or nymphaeum,104 or a thermal implant.105 This trend towards the realization of investments, albeit (in the early years of the 4th century) against the backdrop of a reality that begins to reveal the first signs of recession and contraction, is connected to the archaeological ‘landscape’ given by many Italian cities, where up to (and not beyond) the early 4th century, the construction of thermal plants is documented.106 The 103 104 105 106

VACCARO 2011, p. 233. PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 347-356. CANTINI 2011a, p. 38. BROGIOLO 2011, pp. 51-54; moreover, epigraphic documentation at

fact that the revenues of the city were only used for the construction and restoration of certain types of buildings (such as spas), leaving others to fall into disuse, is very likely linked to the provisions promoted in the second half of the 4th century by the emperors Valentinian and Valente, who reduced the financial autonomy of urban centres by giving them the management of only one-third of the economic revenues,107 in an effort to streamline resources, that resulted in a decline in spending on public projects.108 By the end of the 5th century, stratigraphy reveals , however, clear indications of a breakdown in the assets of the previous centuries: water disposal systems identified around the hill of the cathedral are abandoned and destroyed from the 4th century (i.e. in the Via di Città109 and Via Stalloreggi).110 The types of building structure change and we see the emergence of perishable materials such as the structure built of wooden poles walls, based in poor masonry, posts and rammed earth, that at the end of the 7th century is constructed in the area where the Santa Maria della Scala will late be built,111 and the sunken this regard is attested in WARD-PERKINS 1984, pp. 33-34. 107 MOMMSEN, MEYER 1954, Codex Theodosianus, Theodosiani Libri XV, Berlin. 108 BROGIOLO 2011, p. 78. 109 PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 328. 110 BARBAGLI 2003, Relazione preliminare sull’intervento compiuto nei fondi di proprietà dell’Accademia dei Rozzi, in «Accademia dei Rozzi», X, 18, pp. 37-42. 111 BIANCHI, BOLDRINI, CORSI, DE LUCA, GABBRIELLI, MENNUCCI, 1991, pp.179- 246.

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Conclusions featured hut identified below the pavement of the cathedral, dating from the late 5th and 6th century AD by the ceramic finds (see infra), all of which are indications of a general view of more modest investments, reducing the way of life to a generalized uniform level, also demonstrated by the absence of characteristic and distinctive buildings.112 Another appearing phenomenon is the placement of small cemeteries (already initiated by the 4th century AD, in other areas of the urban space, such as Via Tommaso Pendola, Via Tito Sarrocchi and Via San Pietro)113 in areas previously affected by the Roman city plans, as well as the accumulation of large sections of rubble and dark layers. This is certainly not the place to make comments about the general crisis of the ancient city, a theme which has a vast bibliography often characterized by vigorous debate, but the archaeological data available for the context investigated under the cathedral of Siena reveal a transformation as an obvious sign common to many urban realities of the peninsula,114 which is characterized by a ‘ruralization’ of the urban areas and by a fading of the boundaries between the centre and the suburbium.115 Also the ceramic ware reveals this trend: we witness the proliferation of a large amount of red engobe ware, a phenomenon that has a compelling analogy with the nearby area of Santa Maria della Scala.116 A careful analysis of the forms produced in this class shows a tendency for imitations of those types by now hardly detected between the ARS and still present in Italy during the ‘age of transition’. Therefore in Siena (and not exclusively), from the end of the 5th century, but especially in the 6th and part of the 7th, the production of red engobe ware constitute the reference point for the imitations of those ARS products which no longer reached inland, leading to the formation of a real ‘alternative’ ceramic assemblage (Fig. 39). In fact, although some ARS fragments are detectable in the 6th and, to a lesser extent, 7th century deposits, the local imitations are the most obvious ‘guide fossil’ for the 5th-6th centuries AD. This phenomenon occurs in a contextual way in Arezzo,117 and it is no coincidence that the Sienese Chianti, which develops immediately outside of the urban area, has unearthed numerous productions of this kind,118 which emerge as locally (or otherwise subregional) manufactured and distributed products, which guaranteed the presence of tableware at lower prices.119 The neighbouring context of Torraccia of Chiusi, in the Aiano locality (San Gimignano-SI), would also seem to be one of the likely places of production and distribution of these imitations, since comparisons with materials from this area are extremely similar.120 The fact that the places of production of these goods are localized mainly in rural 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120

VALENTI 2008. PALLECCHI 2001-2003, p. 341. See AUGENTI 2006(ed) and BROGIOLO 2011. BROGIOLO 2011, p. 146. CANTINI 2005, p. 58. CANTINI 2011, p. 170. VALENTI 1995. VACCARO 2011, p. 237. FUMO 2010.

areas, as in this case, going against the trend whereby 5th-century AD workshop production came into towns (‘le officine entrano in città’),121 could also indicate the absence of autocratic powers no longer able to exert direct control over the city economy. Regarding this period, another issue concerns the (presumed) formation of the spazio cristiano (‘the Christian space’), according to the definition of Pasquale Testini.122 The discovery of an apsidal wall below the cathedral has given different interpretational issues which seem appropriate to examine. We have to start by saying that the stratigraphy associated with this wall has not revealed any dating evidence for a defined chronology; the emergence of walls has also been highlighted only in part (in the course of the excavation it was in fact only partially visible), and the only help to its dating is provided by a chronological sequence which allows us to frame this apse in the 4th century AD. From the excavation data we also know that in the course of the 5th century, around the apse wall, two small cemeteries were set up and that the top of the structure (paved down to the foundation) was subsequently neglected. The same cemetery area was abandoned about 50 years later for the construction of the sunken featured hut (dating back to the 5th-6th century AD), located directly above. The interpretive hypothesis recently advanced by Federico Cantini123 that the apse may be part of the remains of a Late Antique episcopal church is undoubtedly suggestive and worthy of note, but it poses some problems. Written sources make mention of a bishop in the city of Siena as early as 313 AD (Bishop Florianus)124 and the presence of a bishop, Eusebius, is attested also in 465 AD.125 However it is also known, again by the written sources, that there is no mention at all of the construction of a cathedral in Late Antiquity. Given the fact that the apse wall alone cannot provide sufficient data to conclude with certainty the presence of a structure as important as an early Christian cathedral, basedonly on the stratigraphic/diachronic sequence just proposed, this hypothesis seems to require additional caution. In this case, in fact, we would be facing a church active for only about 50 years and which also had a cemetery belonging to it during the 5th century, while burial churches within cities are phenomena which are, in most cases, only attested from the 6th century onwards.126 We do not want to argue that Siena in these phases may not have had a monumental structure directly related to the episcopal cathedral, but at BROGIOLO 2011, p. 181. TESTINI 1985, “Spazio cristiano” nella tarda antichità e nell’alto medioevo, in Atti del VI Congresso Nazionale di Archeologia Cristiana (Pesaro-Ancona, 19-23 settembre 1983), Firenze, pp. 31-38. 123 CANTINI 2011a, pp. 40-44. 124 PIETRI 1985, Note sur la christianisation de la “Ligurie” in Studi lunensi e prospettive sull’occidente romano, Atti del convegno. Lerici, settembre 1985, «Centro studi lunensi. Quaderni» 10-11-12, II, p.351; more in generally, see also LANZONI 1927, Le diocesi d’Italia, dalle origini al principio del secolo VII, in «Studi e Testi 35», Faenza. 125 LOESCHER, REGENBERG 1911, Regestum Senense, pp. LXXXIIILXXXV; SCORZA BARCELLONA 2002, Vescovi e martiri alle origini della Chiesa di Siena, in MIRIZIO, NARDI 2002 (ed) Chiesa e vita religiosa a Siena dalle origini al grande giubileo, Atti del convegno di studi (Siena 25-27 ottobre 2000), p. 39. 126 BROGIOLO 2011, p. 144. 121 122

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Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral the moment, archeology has not provided confirmation of any kind in this direction and, in fact, the oldest material evidence currently identified below the actual cathedral dates back only to the 11th century (it is part of the apse of the church mentioned in the written sources in 1012 AD).127 Therefore, given the scanty information, it is deductible by the emergence of the partially visible walls, by the stratigraphic sequence, as well as by the silence of the documentation. These sources attest bishops and even a hypothetical bishopric vacation period between the second half of the 6th and the half of the 7th century,128 although this remains unproven,129 but not the building of a church in this area of the ​​ city in Late Antiquity. However the hypothesis of the construction of a building (during Late Antiquity) of such monumental importance in this area should be reassessed with some important reservations: “La presenza di un vescovo [...] non significa qui come altrove e per qualunque epoca (compresa quella contemporanea...) che si disponesse per forza di un complesso episcopale monumentale.”130 [The presence of a bishop ... does not mean here, as elsewhere, and for any period (including contemporary...) the availability of a monumental episcopal complex.] And yet “La sola attestazione di un vescovo non permette di ipotizzare un centro episcopale già architettonicamente organizzato”.131 [The proof of a bishop does not allow us to hypothesize an architecturally organized episcopal centre.] During the 6th century, corresponding to the difficult years marked by the Greek-Gothic wars, the economic landscape will suffer a further recession. The crisis has to be seen not only from the point of view of the city, but also from what can be assumed by observing also its surroundings and so using an approach that develops from the outside to the inside. A recent analysis carried out on the relationships between the roads and the settlement systems in central Tuscany has quite clearly demonstrated that the economical complexity of this area had already developed, especially during the imperial age, thanks also to the development of a road diverticulum between Siena and Chiusi, and that during the Greek-Gothic wars this system had faced a deep crisis, contributing to the contraction of the economy itself.132 The economical impact can so be easily seen in the pervasive presence of rough coarse ware that started to appear and that characterizes the deposits until the Early Middle Ages. It is possible to document a predominance of cooking bowls with horizontal rims, also widespread in the same period in the Chianti Senese,133 cooking bowls with undistinguished rims, and lids with reverted rim edges. Casseroles and testi are less evident, even if their PAS, 1012 December: via publica que pergit ad domum episcopio senense; Prunai 1966-1968, I regesti delle pergamene senesi del fondo diplomatico di S. Michele in Passignano, in Bollettino Senese di Storia Patria, LXXIII-LXXV, , n. 8, pp. 220-221; GIORGI, MOSCADELLI, 2003, p. 86. 128 Regestum Senense, par. LXXXIV. 129 CANTINI 2011a, p. 46. 130 PERGOLA 2010, in SPADEA NOVIERO, PERGOLA, ROASCIO 2010, p. 33. 131 BROGIOLO 2011, p. 110. 132 BERTOLDI 2013, p. 109. 133 VALENTI 1995. 127

presence is very meaningful as it reveals a withdrawal of the consumption of local products and the adoption of food associated with rural customs, indicating a reduction of the general standard of living. This aspect is also confirmed by the continuity of the sunken hut, which in these stages undergoes renovations with the placing of new stakes in some places, probably to replace the previous ones. However despite the evidence showing a profound crisis in the urban reality (the Roman structures continue to be buried by layers of rubble),134 it does not seem correct to speak of a true ‘end’ but rather of a transformation and probably of a transfer of the power centres.135 In other Italian cities, between the 7th and the 8th centuries AD, masonry housing begins to reappear, a phenomenon which, in Siena, is not apparent in these stages and in the 7th century. In fact structures made of perishable materials (with bases in poor masonry) are still detectable in the area below Santa Maria della Scala.136 Moreover, there is very little ceramic data for the Early Middle Ages, likely indicative of a time of advanced crisis. The period from the 7th to the early 10th centuries are, with regard to the information gleaned from the excavations in question, absolutely static, also from the point of view of the circulation/presence of goods which are almost absent in these phases, probably because Siena, like many inland cities, could not enjoy the benefits deriving from the restrictive treaty between Liutprando and the Byzantine emporia in 715 AD, which granted in other areas, especially the Adriatic coast, a good level of overseas production movement.137 However despite this the written sources speak of the presence of a circuit wall already built around 730 AD under the steward Warnefrid,138 probably reconnected to the remains of the two city walls identified beneath Santa Maria della Scala, dating from the 7th to the 8th century AD. The issues related to this ‘silence’ of the stratigraphy139 are not easily solvable, and require at least a partial comparison with other regions, as well as an interpretive effort aimed, on the one hand, to an understanding of who the acting aristocracies were and how they operated, both in the political and economic spheres, and, on the other, to to question the interactive relationships with the rural environment, a crucial aspect during these phases. One of the major problems stimulated by the study of the archaeological deposits referable to the period between FRANCOVICH, VALENTI, CANTINI, 2006 in AUGENTI 2006 (ed), p. 276. 135 BROGIOLO 2011. 136 BIANCHI G., BOLDRINI E., CORSI R., DE LUCA D., GABBRIELLI F., MENNUCCI A. 1991, in BOLDRINI, PARENTI 1991 (ed), pp. 190191. 137 BROGIOLO 2011, p. 199. 138 CAMMAROSANO 1980, pp. 7-47. 139 This ‘silence’ in the 7th and 8th century finds a suggestive synthesis in Chris Wickham’s words that take Siena as an example when describing the urbanistic assets (or ‘non-assets’) of Italy in these phases, arguing that “It has become common in Italy to argue for a temporal division inside the early middle ages, between roughly the period 550-750 and the period 750-990, the first one of urban crisis, the second one of tentative revival. It is true that the documents for cities would support this [...] One could read parts of archaeology that way too. Recent excavations in Siena, too, show good quality stone buildings beginning to be built from the ninth century onwards’. (WICKHAM 2007, p. 650) 134

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Conclusions the 7th and 9th centuries in the city of Siena is linked to a failure to identify those residential structures with clear and distinctive characters and therefore what follows is an ‘impalpability’ of the archaeological elites, a recurrent phenomenon in different urban realities of early medieval Tuscany (unlike what happens, for example, in northern Italy).140 In many cases related to today’s regional territory, archaeological evidence relating to the Early Medieval phases is very fragmented and gives very little information about the traceability of the aristocracies, particularly from the point of view of residential buildings. For examples Lucca is an extraordinary case from the point of view of written documentation, in primis by considering the impressive work by Belli Barsali,141 which clearly shows how, during the Lombard era, the urban setting was weakened but was still characterized by densely populated areas, albeit interspersed with gardens.142 Sources clearly inform about the presence of a curtis regia dating to the 8th century (at Piazza San Giusto ) and of a curtis regina related to it. However, the presence of a Palatium143 is mentioned only by the 11th century AD and it is not to be underestimated that the Lombard elite in these phases favoured the building of churches (at least 14 foundations) outside the city walls, leading to the assumption of a preferred strategy for representational sites (though not residential) in the suburban areas.144 In Fiesole, with an Early Medieval deposit mainly characterized by the discovery of burials, the Via Garibaldi excavations carried out in the early 1990s led to the identification, on the abandonment of the Roman plans, of layers with ceramic material dating from the 9th century, on which the excavators believe that foundation slabs of square shape, perhaps related to the presence of large wooden buildings, may have been imposed (“…platee di fondazione di forma quadrangolare legate forse alla presenza di edifici lignei di grandi dimensioni”),145 but this indication is too general and limited to affirm the presence of distinctive buildings in the Carolingian period. In Volterra the only relevant data for an Early Medieval presence is the outer walled necropolis, continuously used until the time of the Lombards.146 The only certain archaeological element attributable to the presence of an elite is the famous epigraph of steward Alchis, who in 726 took part, along with the Duke of Lucca Valpertus, in a placitum in Lucca.147 For Arezzo, Claudio Negrelli speaks of a Lombard age conspicuously in the shadows (‘vistosamente in ombra’) and tells of a total lack of archaeological and topographical indicators linked to the sites and residences of power.148 Florence documents royal palaces outside of the walls149 and recent excavations in Via de Castellani speak (for the 8th century, according to the archaeological interpretation) of the absence of 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149

BROGIOLO 1999 (ed). BELLI BARSALI 1973. BELLI BARSALI 1959. BELLI BARSALI 1973, pp. 506-511. ABELA 1999, p. 40, in GELICHI 1999 (ed). DE MARCO 1995, pp. 12-36. ALBERTI 1999, in GELICHI 1999 (ed). p. 83. AUGENTI, MUNZI 1997, p. 27, pp. 44-46. NEGRELLI 1999, in GELICHI 1999 (ed) p. 102. DAVIDSOHN 1956, p. 95.

information on construction, and of urban invisibility of the secular aristocracy.150 To conclude this brief overview I should go back to Siena, where the investigations carried out under Santa Maria della Scala have highlighted, in poorly preserved conditions, a wall made of square blocks of limestone and sandstone, bound together by mortar, and associated with three quadrangular pits relevant to the pillars.151 This evidence certainly could refer to a residential facility, but its poor condition prevents a comprehensive and reliable exegesis. Facing these archaeological data (or perhaps ‘non-data’ is better) it therefore seems appropriate to make some observations, which do not imply any definitive conclusions, but an hypothesis of reasoning. In fact, the current state of research certainly cannot exhaustively answer these questions, but it is possible to propose lines of interpretation, since even the ‘absences’ can often be a strong demarcation. In the first place it is evident, from what the written documentation proposes, that a different framework exists from that which can be inferred by the stratigraphy, highlighting an almost deafening divergence between ‘presence’ and ‘absence’ of elites. Probably, however, the observation point must be modified and it seems appropriate not to insist so much on this aspect in the strict sense, but rather on the fact that the uniformity in the way of living152 is no longer valid for consideration during the early middle ages, as a discriminating indicator, and, therefore, aristocracies signify their presence through investments carried out in different forms. The fact that the Tuscan cities were, in the Lombard period, in most cases organized with the presence of a ruling duke (Lucca and Chiusi) or a steward (Siena) is an established fact presented by the written documentation.153 Compared to a non-representation of these elites (from a material point of view) in urban areas, it is natural to lean towards the rural areas, or at least suburban, and to wonder about the possible relationships with them. The steward Warnefrid of Siena, at the beginning of the 8th century, was the possessor of lands in the rural areas around the city and beyond, up to the Val di Merse and the Val di Chiana,154 and therefore it appears plausible to support the hypothesis that, in these phases the elites had strong economic roots outside the urban areas.155 The countryside plays a central role, reducing the city’s economic importance, while the production centres seem now to be located in rural sites. It is no coincidence that in Tuscany, especially in the 7th and 8th centuries, numerous monasteries are founded,156 in a FRANCOVICH, CANTINI, SCAMPOLI, BRUTTINI 2007, in «Annali di Storia di Firenze» 2, p.13. 151 CANTINI 2005, pp. 57-58. 152 VALENTI 2007, in BROGIOLO, CHAVARRIA 2007 (ed.), p.221. 153 VALENTI 2008, in GASPARRI 2008 (ed). 154 TABACCO 1974, pp. 115-117. 155 See VALENTI 2013, Conclusioni, in VALENTI, WICKHAM 2013 (ed.). 156 In the Populonia diocese, San Pietro in Monteverdi (Walfredo in 754); in the Pistoia diocese, San Bartolomeo (Gaidoaldo in 767) and San Salvatore in Agna (or Alina, monastery founded before 772) and a feminine cenobe in Pistoia (Ratperto in 748); in the Pisa diocese San Michele a Pugnano (the brothers Ansfredo e Ratchis in 727/728) and San Savino (780, by the brothers Gumperto, Ildeperto, Gumprando); in the Lucca diocesi San Pietro Somaldi (maybe a church, founded in the 150

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Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral shift from the city’s economic power centres to rural areas. The lack of relevant residential aristocratic structures can therefore be read as an indication of a general deterioration of housing forms, where the latter are no longer the main symbol of power and wealth. A further witness to this fact, at least in Tuscany, is that dwellings constructed of poor masonry and walls with perishable supports do not appear to constitute a distinctive social status, being inhabited (even in the country) by the more affluent and poor alike.157 It is possible to talk of a ‘city made up of islands’,158 which, however, was not a novelty between the 7th and 9th centuries, but rather a consolidation of symptoms started partially during Late Antiquity. The ‘ruralization’ of urban centres in these phases is to be read as a material phenomenon, and also as a prerogative linked to new economic developments promoted by the aristocracy; the foundation of numerous monasteries can be partially read in this sense, and it is conceivable that a real will (perhaps directly from the regent authority, at least at Liutprando) to let coincide, as much as possible, the religious and political constituencies.159 It is clear that the largest capital investments within the walls are to be identified in most cases with the establishment or restoration of churches.160 This desire for synergy between ecclesiastical and secular elites, as well as from the point of view of directing capital towards churches and monasteries, seems to be clear also from the political point of view and written sources seem to lead us in this direction. An example of this is the wellknown dispute between the bishops of Siena and Arezzo (starting in 650 AD),161 which had its highest tension period in the years 714-715. From the papers we know how the residents of the county had, at least from the official point of view, as a political reference the steward of Siena, Warnefrid. But from the same papers we can infer how they obstructed him once he had tried to make the populous itself dependent, upon the clerical administration, by the bishop of Siena, Deodatus162 (then trying to disadvantage the Arezzo component), illustrating an episode in which first twenty years of the 8th century, probably on a private plot, by a certain Somualdo); in the Chiusi diocese San Salvatore al Monte Amiata (attested from 762); in the Siena diocese Sant’Eugenio di Pilosiano (by Warnefrido in 730); in the Arezzo diocese San Benedetto (by the bishop Cunimondo in 770); in the Firenze diocese San Bartolomeo (in 791 by Adovaldo); in the Lucca diocese San Ponziano (southern suburbium of Lucca; church founded before 790 and already a monastery in 806), San Salvatore (Lucca; between 775 and 785 by Allone), San Frediano (in Lucca in 685) and San Salvatore in Sesto (documented from 796), from VALENTI 2008 in GASPARRI 2008 (ed.) 774: ipotesi su una transizione, Atti del seminario di Poggibonsi, 16-18 febbraio 2006. 157 See VALENTI 2013, Conclusioni, in VALENTI, WICKHAM 2013 (ed.). 158 VALENTI 2007, in BROGIOLO, CHAVARRIA 2007 (ed), p. 221. 159 VALENTI 2007, in BROGIOLO, CHAVARRIA 2007 (ed), p. 213. 160 The attested cases are numerous: the already cited gastaldus Alchis from Volterra, who, in the first half of the 8th century, encouraged the building and restoration of new and old churches (AUGENTI, MUNZI 1997, p. 27, pp. 44-46); the restoration of the SS. Giovanni and Reparata church in Lucca (PIANCASTELLI, POLITI, NENCINI 1992) or, in Cosa, the reconstruction, by the magister Iohannes, between the end of the 8th and the beginning of the 9th, of the basilica founded during the 5th century (CELUZZA, FENTRESS 1994, in FRANCOVICH, NOYE’ 1994 (ed). pp. 601-613). 161 The documents regarding the dispute can be found in the Codice Diplomatico Longobardo, edited by Schiapparelli (SCHIAPPARELLI L. 1929-1933, Codice diplomatico longobardo, Roma). 162 SCHIAPPARELLI 1929-1933, pp. 74-76.

the attempt to match lay and ecclesiastic interests emerges quite well. To conclude this diversion by giving an answer to the ‘silence’ of the deposit identified under the cathedral of Siena between the 7th and 9th-10th centuries, an approach linked to a ‘fragmented city’163 may represent an interpretative position that appears more apt to the reading of the stratigraphy identified beneath the Siena cathedral. The extensive growth of ‘empty’/‘ruralized’ spaces within the walls seems plausible when the aristocracy no longer invests, as in Roman times, in elaborate dwelling forms (highlighting how social distinctions can change so radically that they become almost unrecognizable),164 even if the elites still continue to represent the core of political, administrative and religious power. The city is configured as a trade centre, where lay and clerical landowners contributed in different ways,165 in a network where the reference points are now also represented by monastic authorities and lay landowners rooted in the countryside, a process that, starting from the 11th century, will lead to a reaffirmation of the urban area as the centre of economic and territorial development. It is no coincidence then that the archaeological deposit reveals from the 11th century AD (although 913 AD is attested as being the dedication date of the cathedral), a true ‘renaissance’ of the context which could be described as a ‘second transition’. This can also easily be seen in the expansion of the ceramic repertoire, with its increase in the classes and types of pottery found, a clear indicator of the economic renewal in this period; a renewal which will culminate in the plans for the construction of the Nuovo Duomo (the ‘New Cathedral’) between 1339 and 1355, a project which, as well known, will be doomed to fail.

CIAMPOLTRINI 1994, in FRANCOVICH, NOYE’ 1994 (ed.). GALINIÉ 2007. 165 See VALENTI 2013, Conclusioni, in VALENTI, WICKHAM 2013 (ed.). 163 164

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Appendix Methodological notes and analysis of mixtures The intention of this Appendix is not to propose methodological innovations, because the approach to the study of the materials has followed a ‘classic’ model, but rather to briefly trace the research steps and propose all the tables concerning the analyses of mixtures. Starting from the processing carried out for my researches, where the pottery was sub​divided into different periods (the finds were then presented on the basis of stratigraphy, without distinction of classes and chronological timeframe), here I have opted for a presentation of the material subdivided by classes, in order to propose a more immediate and rational use of the artifacts. The cataloguing provides the indication of the number of fragments, weight, technological indicators (e.g. techniques, surface treatments, decorative systems, etc.) and, for the rims and bottoms, the diameter and the calculation of the E.V.E. (Evaluated Vessel Equivalent), which allows the determination of the percentages of conserved fragment in relation to the total diameter of the shape.166 All these data were stored in the DBMS (database management system) Carta Archeologica (Archaeological Map) (Fig. 1a), which we will discussed briefly later. With regard to the selection of the fragments to be drawn, a brief consideration is appropriate. It was decided to draw practically all the rims and bottoms (even those which were not diametrically measurable by E.V.E.), in order to make the amount of data as complete as possible and to understand the evolutionary dynamics of the site; this also allowed for inferences of the characteristics of the ware present in the different periods. Moreover, a larger amount of dating pieces is useful to identify, if any, elements of ‘residually’ or ‘intrusion’ into the stratigraphic sequence, an aspect of no less importance, especially in an urban environment, such as that under consideration. The Carta Archeologica DBMS The records of the materials of the cathedral involved the use of a computer database designed by LIAAM167 (Laboratory of Applied Computer Science of Medieval Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and History of Arts, University of Siena), contained within the wider archaeological data storage system referred to as DBMS Carta Archeologica.168 ORTON, TYERS, VINCE 1993, pp.152-165. See also MANDOLESI 2004-2005, Progettazione e implementazione di un DBMS relazionale per la gestione e l’analisi di contesti archeologici. Dal deposito alla sintesi storica: il caso della ceramica di Poggio Imperiale a Poggibonsi (SI). Master thesis, 2004-2005. 168 FRONZA 2001; FRONZA 2003; FRONZA 2005, IV 1, p. 399; FRONZA, NARDINI, VALENTI 2009, pp. 29- 43. 166 167

This is not the place for a specific analysis of the architecture and use of the database, since the subject has been covered extensively (for more details refer to the texts cited in the footnotes and bibliography). However, some observations and reflections which emerged during the writing processing of the data are appropriate for the clarification of the methodology followed, and, if necessary, to propose some suggestions to render this information medium more versatile in the future. The Reperti (findings) container (Fig. 2a) used for the indexing of materials (implemented by the Impasti container) turned out to be extremely thorough, allowing the running of a full and comprehensive investigation. But it was also perhaps slightly redundant, undermining both the speed and process of storing the data (vital when faced with a considerable amount of quantitative findings. In fact, a greater facility of the container would facilitate a real-time archiving, or nearly, of the findings in the inventory) and the immediacy of the use of information. For example, each record consists of a number of formats (Riferimenti, Indice, Altri ID, Dati descrittivi, Impasto, Dati Specifici, Dati quantitativi, Misure, Tecnologie, Riferimenti tipologia, Documentazione) all of which, together, allow for a great descriptive accuracy, but sometimes this accuracy is excessive. It was decided not to fill every Dati descrittivi format (the only one that does not have data inserted from thesauri to the drop-down menu interface), because too often the items necessary for the completion of the archiving were already present in the other formats. Therefore, it was preferred to use the Dati descrittivi only in those cases where there was a need to write down information that could not otherwise be introduced (for example, specific comments on surface treatments, decorating, cooking, alterations, etc). In addition, for an easier and faster database, both in terms of storage and the consultation phase, we could attempt to reduce the number of formats in the file, incorporating those that are sometimes unnecessary. For example we could unify specific data entries with quantitative data in a single format that would allow us to display a single layout with both the number and type of artifact present in a record with the maximum and minimum number of forms identified, and any measures of borders and bottoms in order to make the database less dispersive and cumbersome. Fundamental to this research was also the Tabella quantificazioni (Quantification table) (Fig. 3a). Without dwelling on its structure and functioning (see the publications of Luca Mandolesi cited in the footnotes and bibliography), I will emphasize the basic importance that 123

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Fig. 1a: Interface of the DBMS Carta Archeologica.

Fig. 2a: Interface of the DBMS Carta Archeologica (Reperti container). 124

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Fig. 3a: Example of the Tabella quantificazioni (Quantification table). such an instrument plays, particularly when it must deduce information and hypotheses from a large mass of data. The table in question, in fact, allows us to set several different search criteria, such as computations, i.e. the number of jars in a given period or in a given structure, or as the calculation of the minimum or maximum numbers of forms of each ceramics class in context, or quantifications on weight or even the technological characteristics of a given period, etc. Typological Criteria The realization of a pottery typology, a successive step to classification is an extremely delicate operation: a work can be accurate and reasoned, but there will nevertheless also be an element of ‘subjectivity’ in the scholar’s analysis of the data. (It is useful to remember that typology and classification represent two different aspects despite the fact that the two terms are often used interchangeably: ‘…type relates to the shape of the individual forms, while classification is the ordering of individual forms into classes’. Typology still represents a tool which is functional for the archaeologist, and as such it cannot be completely objective. Archeology analyzes formalized objects of a given past, previously included into a classification system (and presumably no longer traceable in its entirety) functional to producers and users of certain communities,

where ‘types are the creations of individuals who have been approved, adopted and implemented by a company ... the concrete expression of a concept’. The main purpose of fulfilling a typology should be directed toward the understanding of the articulation of the ceramic ware found within a context and of the historical background, but the intent is primarily to create a tool that is as nimble as possible. The ‘classic’ typology involves assigning numerals to identify the different classes, capital letters to differentiate the shapes within the same classes and sequential numbers for individual types (an example would be II.A.1). In recent times, drafted typology anticipated the assignment of numbers and letters to every single identifier: while acknowledging the great accuracy of this methodology, here the choice has been to provide a more streamlined approach. In fact, the deciphering of a long serial number, however precise, does not facilitate, in terms of speed and immediacy, the understanding of ceramic data. Therefore, it has been preferred to follow a more ‘classic’ approach, directing to the catalogue for more detailed information. This choice is based on the fact that, by comparing classical typology (which in fact refers to the catalogue), with more elaborate typology (which, however, cannot overlook the consultation of typological arrangements), the differences in terms of speed and agility were striking. Consequently, each class of ceramic

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Il Duomo di Siena: Excavations and Pottery below Siena Cathedral has been assigned capital letters and each form a numeral, while for all other characteristics it is suggested to redirect to the catalogue. Clearly, this choice could be open to criticism, since it may be dated and not very detailed, but in practice it is arguably more immediate and direct. The analysis of mixtures In the material study of the Duomo of Siena an important aspect was represented by the binocular microscope analysis of clays that make up the bodies of the various pottery classes. Within each class numerous mixtures were identified and differentiated as a result of an examination of the macroscopic characteristics (in fact, a microscopic investigation would have been possible only with the realization of thin sections), which have been noted in the appropriate tables.169 11 mixtures were identified for the ceramic coarse ware, 6 for the fine ware, 10 for the amphorae, 3 for the sigillata italica, 2 for the African red slip ware, 3 for the red engobe ware, 2 for the maiolica arcaica and 1 for the fire-glazed pottery. The first section of the table shows those aspects visible to the naked eye: colour, rigidity, fracture type, the surface, the firing and texture (analyzed more specifically by the binocular microscope). Concerning the texture, they may be of two types: serial, when inclusions (although of different sizes) have gradual size variations; or hiatal, when they have obvious differences with a hiatus between them. In the second part we analyze the aspects of both the temper and the colouring used, starting from the mineralogical component, presented also in terms of its sorting, of their abundance, and the rounding average size.170 Finally, a last observation concerning the compilation of the records, under the colour link and to achieve the greatest possible degree of objectivity, it was decided to use the colour classification system proposed by Munsell,171 which allows a scientific classification of different chromatic tones. The following tables are then presented, relating to each class of mixtures analyzed.

These tables have been partially inspired by those used by Veronica Mariottini, elaborated to a certain degree. 170 ORTON, TYERS, VINCE 1993, pp. 231-242 171 MUNSELL 1921; MANNONI, GIANNICHEDDA 1996, p.137;, ORTON, TYERS, VINCE 1993, pp.137-139. 169

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AMPHORAE

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SIGILLATA ITALICA

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MAIOLICA ARCAICA

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