CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME OF CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA

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CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME OF CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA

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CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME OF CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA Craig C. Freeman R.L. McGregor Herbarium, Division of Botany Natural History Museum and Biodiversity Research Center University of Kansas Lawrence, KS 66047-3729 [email protected]

I.

Introduction

This checklist includes all of the more than 4,000 native, naturalized, and common adventive vascular plants documented to grow in the grassland biome of central North America. It is based on Flora of the Great Plains, which was published in 1986 and revised five years later (Great Plains Flora Association 1986, 1991). The checklist was compiled because our understanding of the status, distribution, and evolutionary relationships among some North American plants has changed dramatically during the past decade. At the same time, the need for current and precise information about the grassland flora has grown dramatically among researchers, conservationists, resource managers, and members of the general public. Users of Flora of the Great Plains and its earlier companion volume, Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1977) were faced with an increasingly difficult task of determining the current accepted name of taxa in these earlier works and which taxa had been documented in the grassland flora. Thus, the list was compiled in an attempt to bridge the gap between Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains and Flora of the Great Plains, and the growing body of literature concerning the status, distribution, and evolutionary relationships among North America plants of the region. My goal at the outset was to update the nomenclature and distribution data for those taxa occurring within the Great Plains region as defined in Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1986). However, Flora of the Great Plains excluded the Canadian prairie provinces – a large portion of the northern Great Plains that is dominated by grassland vegetation. Furthermore, a somewhat imprecise regional boundary was employed in Flora of the Great Plains, and this often made it difficult to determine which peripheral species should be included in the flora. Consequently, many species names are buried in family, genus, or species narratives and therefore overlooked by users of the flora. For these reasons I defined the coverage of the checklist to include those portions of Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan in which the dominant native vegetation is prairie, and where possible, to define more precisely the boundary of the entire region to make it easier to determine which peripheral species should be included in the checklist. The consequence is that the geographic Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 1

coverage of the checklist now more closely approximates the boundary of the grassland biome of central North America (Sims 1988, Barbour and Christensen 1993). This boundary can be defined with considerable precision in the west where the grasslands meet the Rocky Mountain uplift, but it is much less precise elsewhere, reflecting the broad ecotone between the grassland biome and adjacent biomes. In Canada, a 50-200 km wide band of mixedgrass aspen parkland forms a continuous transition zone between boreal forest to the north and mixedgrass prairie to the south. It extends from the Alberta foothills eastward across Alberta, Saskatchewan, and southwestern Manitoba (Ostlie et al. 1997), and it is included within the grassland biome as delimited herein. In defining the eastern and southern boundaries of the grassland biome, I have largely followed Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1977) and Flora of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1986) in spite of the incongruities that exist between the boundaries of the Great Plains, as defined in those works, and the grassland biome boundary shown on many North American vegetation maps (e.g., Sims 1988, Barbour and Christensen 1993). A strong argument can be made for extending the coverage of the checklist eastward to capture more of the flora of the Midwestern prairie peninsula. Likewise, the boundary could be pushed southward into Texas to capture the grasslands of the Western High Plains, Central Great Plains, Blackland Prairies, South Texas Plains, and Edwards Plateau. However, doing so would add a significant number of forest, scrub, and desert elements to the checklist and would obscure the vegetational identity of the core of the grassland biome of central North America, which centers on the plains extending from southern Saskatchewan southward to the Texas panhandle and western Oklahoma. For the purposes of this checklist, the following counties or parts of counties (indicated by direction [E = east, W = west, N = north, S = south; and fraction] are included in the grassland biome. All subdivisions of Canadian provinces are municipal districts except where indicated by an asterisk (* = county municipality) or a plus sign (+ = improvement district). Canada Alberta: Arcadia, Beaver*, Camrose*, Cardston (NE ½), Drumheller+, Flagstaff*, Foothills (E ½), Forty Mile*, Kneehill, Lacombe* (E ¼), Lethbridge*, Medicine Hat+, Minburn*, Newell*, Paintearth*, Ponoka* (E ¼), Provost, Red Deer* (E ½), Rocky View (E ½), Special Area 2, Special Area 3, Special Area 4, Starland, Stettler*, Taber, Two Hills*, Vermilion River*, Wainwright, Warner*, Wheatland*, Willow Creek (E ½). Manitoba: Albert, Archie, Argyle, Arthur, Birtle, Blanshard, Boulton, Brenda, Cameron, Cartier, Clanwilliam, Cornwallis, Daly, Dufferin, Edward, Ellice, Elton, Glenella, Glenwood, Grey, Hamiota, Harrison, Lakeview, Langford, Lansdowne, Lorne, Louise, Macdonald, McCreary, Miniota, Minto, Montcalm, Morris, Morton, North Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 2

Cypress, Oakland, Ochre River, Odanah, Pembina, Pipestone, Portage La Prairie, Rhineland, Riverside, Roblin, Roland, Rosedale, Rossburn, Russell, Saskatchewan, Shell River, Shellmouth, Shoal Lake, Sifton, Silver Creek, South Cypress, South Norfolk, Ste. Rose, Stanley, Strathclair, Strathcona, Thompson, Turtle Mountain, Victoria, Wallace, Wesbourne, Whitehead, Whitewater, Winchester, Woodworth. Saskatchewan: Aberdeen, Abernethy, Antelope Park, Antler, Argyle, Arlington, Arm River, Auvergne, Baildon, Battle River, Bayne, Bengough, Benson, Big Arm, Big Quill, Big Stick, Biggar, Birch Hills, Blaine Lake, Blucher, Bone Creek, Bratt’s Lake, Brittania, Brock, Brokenshell, Browning, Buchanan, Buffalo, Calder, Caledonia, Cambria, Cana, Canaan, Carmichael, Caron, Chaplin, Chester, Coalfields, Colonsay, Churchbridge, Clinworth, Cote, Coteau, Coulee, Craik, Cupar, Cut Knife, Cymri, Deer Forks, Douglas, Dufferin, Dundurn, Eagle Creek, Edenwood, Elcapo, Eldon, Elfros, Elmsthorpe, Emerald, Enniskillen, Enterprise, Estevan, Excelsior, Exel, Eybrow, Eye Hill, Fair View, Fertile Belt, Fertile Valley, Fillmore, Fish Creek, Flett’s Springs, Foam Lake, Fox Valley, Francis, Frontier, Garry, Glen Bain, Glen McPherson, Glenside, Golden West, Good Lake, Grandview, Grant, Grass Lake, Grassy Creek, Gravelbourg, Grayson, Great Bend, Griffin, Gull Lake, Happy Valley, Happyland, Hart Butte, Harris, Hazelwood, Heart’s Hill, Hillsborough, Hillsburgh, Hillsdale, Hoodoo, Huron, Indian Head, Insinger, Invergordon, Ituna Bon Accord, Kellross, Key West, Keys, Kindersley, Kingsley, King George, Kinistino (S ½), Kutawa, Lac Pelletier, Lacadena, Laird, Lajord, Lake Alma, Lake Johnston, Lake of the Rivers, Lakeside, Langenburg, Last Mountain Valley, Laurier, Lawtonia, Leroy, Lipton, Lomond, Lonetree, Longlaketon, Loreburn, Lost River, Lumsden, Manitou Lake, Mankota, Mantario, Maple Bush, Maple Creek, Mariposa, Marquis, Marriott, Martin, Maryfield, Mayfield, McCraney, McKillop, McLeod, Milden, Milton, Miry Creek, Monet, Montmartre, Montrose, Moose Creek, Moose Jaw, Moose Mountain, Moosomin, Morris, Morse, Mount Hope, Mount Pleasant, Mountain View, Newcombe, North Battleford, North Qu’Appelle, Norton, Oakdale, Orkney, Park, Paynton, Pense, Perdue, Piapot, Pinto Creek, Pittville, Pleasant Valley, Poplar Valley, Prairie, Prairie Rose, Prairiedale, Progress, Reciprocity, Redberry, Redburn, Reford, Reno, Riverside, Rocanville, Rodgers, Rosedale, Rosemount, Round Valley, Royal Canadian, Rudy, Sarnia, Saskatchewan Landing, Souris Valley, St. Andrews, St. Louis, Saltcoats, Scott, Senlac, Shamrock, Sherwood, Silverwood, Sliding Hills, Snipe Lake, South Qu’Appelle, Spy Hill, Stanley, Star City, Stonehenge, Storyhoaks, Surprise Valley, Sutton, Swift Current, Techumseh, Terrell, The Gap, Tisdale, Touchwood, Tramping Lake, Tulleymet, Usborne, Vanscoy, Vermilion Hills, Victory, Viscount, Wallace, Walpole, Warman, Waverley, Wawken, Webb, Wellington, Weyburn, Wheatlands, Whiska Creek, White Valley, Willow Bunch, Willow Creek (S ½), Willowdale, Wilton, Winslow, Wise Creek, Wolseley, Wolverine, Wood Creek, Wood River, Wreford.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 3

United States of America Colorado: Adams, Arapahoe, Baca, Bent, Cheyenne, Crowley, Denver (E ½), El Paso (E ½), Elbert, Kiowa, Kit Carson, Las Animas (E ½), Lincoln, Logan, Morgan, Otero, Phillips, Prowers, Pueblo (E ¼), Sedgwick, Washington, Weld (E ¾), Yuma. Iowa: Adams, Audubon, Adair, Buena Vista, Calhoun, Carroll, Cass, Cherokee, Clay, Crawford, Dickinson, Emmet, Fremont, Greene, Guthrie, Harrison, Ida, Lyon, Mills, Monona, Montgomery, O’Brien, Osceola, Page, Palo Alto, Plymouth, Pocahontas, Pottawattamie, Ringgold, Sac, Shelby, Sioux, Taylor, Union, Woodbury. Kansas: all counties. Minnesota: Becker (W ¾), Big Stone, Brown (W ½), Chippewa, Clay, Cottonwood, Douglas, Grant, Jackson, Kandiyohi (W ½), Kittson, Lac Qui Parle, Lincoln, Lyon, Mahnomen (west ½), Marshall (W ½), Martin (W ¼), Murray, Nobles, Norman, Otter Tail, Pennington (W ½), Pipestone, Polk (W ¾), Pope, Red Lake (W ½), Redwood, Renville (W ½), Rock, Stearns (W ¼), Stevens, Swift, Traverse, Watonwan (W ¼), Wilkin, Yellow Medicine. Missouri: Andrew, Atchison, Barton (W ½), Bates, Buchanan, Cass, Clay, Clinton, De Kalb, Gentry, Holt, Jackson, Jasper (W ½), Nodaway, Platte, Vernon (W ½), Worth. Montana: Carter, Custer, Daniels, Dawson, Fallon, Garfield, McCone, Phillips, Powder River, Prairie, Richland, Roosevelt, Rosebud, Sheridan, Treasure, Valley, Wibaux. Nebraska: all counties. New Mexico: Curry, Harding (E ½), Quay (E ¾), Roosevelt (NE ½), Union. North Dakota: all counties. Oklahoma: Alfalfa, Beaver, Beckham, Blaine, Caddo, Canadian, Cimmaron, Cleveland, Comanche, Cotton, Craig (NW ½), Creek, Custer, Dewey, Ellis, Garfield, Garvin (NW ½), Grady, Grant, Greer, Harmon, Harper, Jackson, Kay, Kingfisher, Kiowa, Lincoln, Logan, McLain, Major, Noble, Nowata, Okfuskee (NW ½), Oklahoma, Osage, Ottawa (NW ½), Pawnee, Payne, Pottawatomie, Roger Mills, Rogers (NW ¾), Seminole (NW ½), Stephens (NW ¾), Texas, Tillman, Tulsa (NW ¾), Washington, Washita, Woods, Woodward. South Dakota: all counties. Texas: Armstrong, Bailey, Briscoe, Carson, Castro, Childress, Collingsworth, Cottle, Dallam, Deaf Smith, Donley, Floyd, Foard, Gray, Hale, Hall, Hansford, Hardeman, Hartley, Hemphill, Hutchinson, Lamb, Lipscomb, Moore, Motley, Ochiltree, Oldham, Parmer, Potter, Randall, Roberts, Sherman, Swisher, Wheeler, Wichita, Wilbarger. Wyoming: Campbell (E ¾), Converse (E ½), Crook, Goshen, Laramie (E ¾), Niobrara, Platte (E ¾), Weston.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 4

II.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America.

Names in the checklist are arranged in three major groups: pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms, in that order. Within each major group, taxa are arranged alphabetically by family, genus, species, subspecies, and variety, respectively. The accepted scientific name, common name, distribution, and abbreviated synonymy are given for each taxon in the checklist. A. Accepted Name: The accepted scientific name of each taxon documented in the biome is given. Author abbreviations follow Brummitt and Powell (1992), and a complete list of author abbreviations used in this checklist is presented in Appendix A. Family and genus names conserved by the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 2000) are designated “nom. conserv.” No effort was made to account for form names that appear in the taxonomic literature. Naturally occurring hybrids for which binomials have been given are included in the main body of the checklist. The names of parent taxa of hybrids are given in brackets following the binomial. Introduced taxa are designated with an asterisk (*) preceding the taxon name. Determination of the provenance of many taxa is exceedingly difficult, especially those with a long and close association with humans. Many taxa considered to be native to some parts of the Great Plains are encountered infrequently in areas far from what is considered their historical range. The range of others has expanded greatly due to human activities, especially since the arrival of Europeans on the continent. In cases where a taxon is believed to have occurred in part of the biome prior to the arrival of Europeans but subsequently was spread to other parts of the region, an asterisk precedes the abbreviation of the state(s) or province(s) in which the taxon is not considered to be native (e.g. Panicum hillmanii Chase). B. Common Name: Each family, genus, and species is assigned a common name. Such names were drawn from many sources. Standardized Plant Names (Kelsey and Dayton 1942) was a particularly valuable reference, and numerous common names were taken from it. Structure, spelling, and application of common names generally follow the recommendations of Kartesz and Thieret (1991). True group names (sensu Kartesz and Thieret 1991) used in the checklist appear in Appendix E and are listed alphabetically by scientific name as well as alphabetically by common name. C. Distribution: Geographic distribution (by state and province) within the grassland biome is provided for each taxon. Occurrence data were checked using a wide variety of published and unpublished literature, and actual specimens deposited at KANU. However, distribution data change frequently, especially in states where there is considerable floristic activity. They therefore are difficult to verify without access to Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 5

actual voucher specimens. Users of this checklist are encouraged to report additions and corrections concerning the distribution of taxa to the author. Biome endemics (i.e. taxa restricted to the biome) or nearly endemic (roughly 95% of total range in the biome) are noted in the checklist. D. Synonymy: The synonymy provided in this checklist is not exhaustive. An attempt was made to account for all accepted names and synonyms used in Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains (1977) and Flora of the Great Plains (1986, 1991). Names accepted in either of these two publications, but which are treated as synonyms in the checklist, are designated with an “A” (following the name) if they were used in Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains and a “F” if used in Flora of the Great Plains (1986, 1991). Synonyms that have appeared in the literature since the last revision of the Flora of the Great Plains or in recently published floristic works for states or regions in the grassland biome also are included. III.

Excluded Taxa.

Numerous reports of taxa attributed to various parts of the grassland biome have later been discovered to be incorrect. Typically, erroneous attributions are based on misidentified specimens. A list of excluded taxa is given in Appendix A. IV.

Unnamed, Naturally Occurring Hybrids.

Naturally occurring hybrids that have been reported in the literature as occurring in the region are listed in Appendix B. The names of naturally occurring hybrids that have been given binomials appear in the main body of the checklist. V.

Bibliography.

References used to verify scientific names, common names, and distribution are listed in Appendix C, as are those that provide useful discussions about the taxonomy of grassland biome taxa. References are arranged in the following groups: general references, general references by state or province, and taxonomic references by family. VI.

Abbreviations for Nomenclatural Authorities.

Abbreviations for all authorities cited in the checklist appear in Appendix D. Abbreviations follow Brummitt and Powell (1992), which also served as the source of information for full author name, year of birth, and year of death. Following recommendation 46C.2 of the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Greuter et al. 2000), names published jointly by more than two authors are cited with the name of the principal author followed by et al. Names not listed in Brummit and Powell (1992) Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 6

are assigned a unique abbreviation and are noted in the appendix. VII.

Statistical Summary.

Table 1 summarizes the number of families, genera, species, infraspecific taxa, and named hybrids recognized in this checklist in each of three major plant groups: pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms. Unnamed hybrids (Appendix B) are not included in the tally. Literature Cited Barbour, M.G. & N.L. Christensen. 1993. Vegetation. Pp. 97-131. In: Flora of North America Association. Flora of North American. Vol. 1: introduction. Oxford University Press, New York. 372 p. Brummitt, R.K. & C.E. Powell (editors). 1992. Authors of plant names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 732 p. Great Plains Flora Association. 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 600 p. Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. Great Plains Flora Association. 1991 (second printing). Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 1402 p. Greuter, W., J. McNeill, F.R. Barrie, H.M. Burdet, V. Demoulin, T.S. Filgueiras, D.H. Nicolson, P.C. Silva, J.E. Scog, P. Trehane, N.J. Turland & D.L. Hawksworth. 2000. International code of botanical nomenclature (Saint Louis Code) adopted by the Sixteenth International Botanical Congress, St. Louis, MO, July-August 1999. Regnum veg. 138: 1-474. Kartesz, J.T. & J.W. Thieret. 1991. Common names for vascular plants: guidelines for use and application. Sida 14: 421-434. Kelsey, H.P. & W.A. Dayton. 1942. Standardized plant names: a revised and enlarged listing of approved scientific and common names of plants and plant products in American commerce or use. J. Horace McFarland Co., Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 676 p. Ostlie, W.R., R.E. Schneider, J.M. Aldrich, T.M. Faust, R.L.B. McKim, & S.J. Chaplin. 1997. The status of biodiversity in the Great Plains. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. 326 p. + xii. Sims, P.L. 1988. Grasslands. Pp. 265-286. In: M.G. Barbour & W.D. Billings. (eds.) North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York. 434 p.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 7

34

1

1

1

1

9

1

1

2

2

2

1

2

7

1

2

5

1

1

3

PTERIDOPHYTES

Aspleniaceae

Azollaceae

Blechnaceae

Dennstaedtiaceae

Dryopteridaceae

Equisetaceae

Isoëtaceae

Lycopodiaceae

Marsileaceae

Ophioglossaceae

Osmundaceae

Polypodiaceae

Pteridaceae

Selaginellaceae

Thelypteridaceae

GYMNOSPERMS

Cupressaceae

Ephedraceae

Pinaceae

GENERA

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

207

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

826

Native

GRAND TOTALS

FAMILY

3

1

2

6

2

1

7

2

1

2

2

2

1

1

9

1

1

1

1

34

1033

Total

8

2

8

18

2

5

20

3

1

17

3

3

2

9

25

1

1

1

6

99

2987

Native

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

609

Introduced

SPECIES

8

2

9

19

2

5

20

3

1

17

3

3

2

9

25

1

1

1

6

99

3596

Total

-

-

-

0

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

-

-

-

8

359

Native

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

5

Introduced

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

-

-

1

5

70

Native

page 8

-

-

-

0

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

2

-

-

-

8

364

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

0

5

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

Table 1. Statistical summary of the flora of the grassland biome of central North America.

-

-

-

0

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

-

-

1

5

75

Total

8

2

9

19

2

5

22

3

1

17

3

3

2

12

30

3

1

1

7

112

4035

TOTAL TAXA

1

1

2

1

3

7

2

1

28

2

1

2

2

2

4

Acoraceae

Adoxaceae

Agavaceae

Aizoaceae

Alismataceae

Amaranthaceae

Anacardiaceae

Annonaceae

Apiaceae

Apocynaceae

Aquifoliaceae

Araceae

Araliaceae

Aristolochiaceae

Asclepiadaceae

1

GENERA

-

24

1

-

2

-

1

13

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

206

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Balsaminaceae

123

1

Aceraceae

Asteraceae

4

787

Native

Acanthaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

1

147

5

2

2

4

1

3

41

1

2

7

3

2

2

1

1

1

4

993

Total

2

420

36

3

3

3

1

5

56

1

7

18

16

2

5

1

1

5

5

2870

Native

SPECIES

-

64

2

-

-

2

-

1

16

-

1

1

-

1

1

-

1

-

-

608

Introduced

2

484

38

3

3

5

1

6

72

1

8

19

16

3

6

1

2

5

5

3478

Total

-

93

1

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

6

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

351

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Introduced

-

11

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

65

Native

page 9

-

94

1

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

6

1

-

-

-

-

-

3

-

356

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

11

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

70

Total

2

589

39

3

3

5

1

7

78

1

14

20

16

3

6

1

2

8

5

3904

TOTAL TAXA

5

1

11

22

-

1

7

1

4

1

3

7

9

2

1

10

3

2

Betulaceae

Bignoniaceae

Boraginaceae

Brassicaceae

Butomiaceae

Cabombaceae

Cactaceae

Callitrichaceae

Campanulaceae

Cannabaceae

Capparaceae

Caprifoliaceae

Caryophyllaceae

Celastraceae

Ceratophyllaceae

Chenopodiaceae

Cistaceae

Clusiaceae

GENERA

-

-

6

-

-

12

-

-

1

-

-

-

1

1

26

3

2

-

-

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

3

Native

Berberidaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

2

3

16

1

2

21

7

3

2

4

1

7

2

1

48

14

3

5

3

Total

10

7

35

2

2

31

23

5

1

15

4

20

1

-

72

36

1

11

5

Native

SPECIES

1

-

24

-

1

33

5

-

2

1

-

-

1

1

51

12

3

1

2

Introduced

11

7

59

2

3

64

28

5

3

16

4

20

2

1

123

48

4

12

7

Total

-

-

3

-

-

4

-

1

2

2

-

9

-

-

20

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

Introduced

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

Native

page 10

-

-

3

-

-

4

-

1

3

2

-

9

-

-

20

6

-

-

-

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

Total

11

7

62

2

3

68

28

6

6

18

4

30

2

1

144

54

4

13

7

TOTAL TAXA

7

1

3

1

6

1

17

1

-

1

1

2

2

3

10

43

1

1

Convolvulaceae

Cornaceae

Crassulaceae

Crossosomataceae

Cucurbitaceae

Cuscutaceae

Cyperaceae

Dioscoreaceae

Dipsaceae

Droseraceae

Ebenaceae

Elaeagnaceae

Elatinaceae

Ericaceae

Euphorbiaceae

Fabaceae

Fagaceae

Frankeniaceae

GENERA

-

-

15

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

2

Native

Commelinaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

1

1

58

10

3

2

2

1

1

2

1

17

1

7

1

3

1

7

2

Total

1

22

179

50

12

4

3

1

2

-

1

241

14

6

1

7

7

16

9

Native

SPECIES

-

-

44

4

-

-

2

-

-

3

1

3

3

2

-

3

-

4

1

Introduced

1

22

223

54

12

4

5

1

2

3

2

244

17

8

1

10

7

20

10

Total

-

-

26

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

-

13

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Native

page 11

-

-

26

3

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

13

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

1

35

254

57

12

4

5

1

2

3

2

258

17

8

1

10

7

21

11

TOTAL TAXA

1

8

2

1

1

1

1

3

3

5

3

2

2

2

1

17

-

2

Garryaceae

Gentianaceae

Geraniaceae

Grossulariaceae

Haloragaceae

Hippocastanaceae

Hippuridaceae

Hydrangeaceae

Hydrocharitaceae

Hydrophyllaceae

Iridaceae

Juglandaceae

Juncaceae

Juncaginaceae

Krameriaceae

Lamiaceae

Lardizabalaceae

Lauraceae

GENERA

-

1

13

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

2

Native

Fumariaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

2

1

30

1

2

2

2

4

5

4

3

1

1

1

1

2

8

1

3

Total

2

-

53

1

3

36

10

14

17

6

3

1

1

4

13

8

20

1

7

Native

SPECIES

-

1

25

-

-

1

-

4

-

3

1

-

-

2

-

4

-

-

2

Introduced

2

1

78

1

3

37

10

18

17

9

4

1

1

6

13

12

20

1

9

Total

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

1

1

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

-

-

1

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Native

page 12

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

1

1

1

-

2

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

-

3

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

2

1

88

1

3

38

10

18

17

9

4

1

2

6

14

13

1

1

11

TOTAL TAXA

2

20

1

2

1

5

8

1

3

1

-

2

2

1

6

2

3

10

Lentibulariaceae

Liliaceae

Linaceae

Loasaceae

Loganiaceae

Lythraceae

Malvaceae

Melastomataceae

Menispermaceae

Menyanthaceae

Molluginaceae

Monotropaceae

Moraceae

Nelumbonaceae

Nyctaginaceae

Nymphaeaceae

Oleaceae

Onagraceae

GENERA

-

3

-

-

-

2

-

2

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

3

Native

Lemnaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

10

6

2

6

1

4

2

2

1

3

1

15

5

1

2

1

25

2

3

Total

65

8

3

15

1

2

3

-

1

3

2

18

8

1

14

11

45

6

14

Native

SPECIES

-

5

-

1

1

4

-

2

-

-

-

16

1

-

-

2

14

-

-

Introduced

65

13

3

16

2

6

3

2

1

3

2

34

9

1

14

13

59

6

14

Total

11

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Native

page 13

11

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

77

14

3

16

2

6

3

2

1

3

2

36

9

1

14

13

65

6

14

TOTAL TAXA

1

1

2

1

1

1

2

1

1

1

82

9

1

4

2

5

2

8

Orobanchaceae

Oxalidaceae

Papaveraceae

Parnassiaceae

Passifloraceae

Pedaliaceae

Phytolacaceae

Plantaginaceae

Platanaceae

Plumbaginaceae

Poaceae

Polemoniaceae

Polygalaceae

Polygonaceae

Pontederiaceae

Portulacaceae

Potamogetonaceae

Primulaceae

GENERA

-

-

-

1

2

-

-

27

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

4

-

-

-

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

19

Native

Orchidaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

8

2

5

3

6

1

9

109

1

1

1

2

2

1

1

6

1

1

19

Total

19

21

13

6

51

6

31

297

1

1

12

2

1

2

3

5

4

3

47

Native

SPECIES

3

1

2

1

16

-

-

90

-

-

4

-

1

-

-

8

1

-

-

Introduced

22

22

15

7

67

6

31

387

1

1

16

2

2

2

3

13

5

3

47

Total

1

2

-

-

9

-

2

44

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Native

page 14

1

2

-

-

9

-

2

45

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

4

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

12

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

Total

23

24

15

7

76

6

33

444

1

1

16

2

2

2

3

13

5

4

52

TOTAL TAXA

1

13

-

3

22

6

1

3

2

1

1

1

2

5

1

23

-

1

Rafflesiaceae

Ranunculaceae

Resedaceae

Rhamnaceae

Rosaceae

Rubiaceae

Ruppiaceae

Rutaceae

Salicaceae

Santalaceae

Sapindaceae

Sapotaceae

Saururaceae

Saxifragaceae

Scheuchzeriaceae

Scrophulariaceae

Simaroubaceae

Smilaceae

GENERA

-

1

7

-

-

-

-

2

1

-

-

-

2

2

-

1

2

-

-

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

4

Native

Pyrolaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

1

1

30

1

5

2

1

3

2

2

3

1

8

24

3

1

15

1

4

Total

5

-

84

1

14

2

1

1

1

26

4

1

25

111

8

-

67

1

8

Native

SPECIES

-

1

20

-

-

-

-

2

1

6

-

-

5

20

3

2

13

-

-

Introduced

5

1

104

1

14

2

1

3

2

32

4

1

30

131

11

2

80

1

8

Total

2

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

1

7

3

-

2

11

-

-

11

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

4

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

Native

page 15

2

-

10

-

-

-

-

-

1

7

3

-

2

11

-

-

11

-

-

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

6

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

Total

7

1

115

1

14

2

1

3

3

45

7

1

32

144

11

2

91

1

8

TOTAL TAXA

1

1

-

1

1

1

2

5

2

5

2

2

4

1

1

2

Sparganiaceae

Staphyleaceae

Tamaricaceae

Thymelaeaceae

Tiliaceae

Typhaceae

Ulmaceae

Urticaceae

Valerianaceae

Verbenaceae

Violaceae

Viscaceae

Vitaceae

Xyridaceae

Zannichelliaceae

Zygophyllaceae

GENERA

0

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

-

-

3

Introduced

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

8

Native

Solanaceae

ANGIOSPERMS

FAMILY

Table 1. Continued.

2

1

1

4

2

2

6

2

5

2

1

1

2

1

1

1

11

Total

3

1

1

10

4

22

15

6

7

8

3

1

1

-

1

5

30

Native

SPECIES

0

-

-

-

-

4

1

-

1

3

-

-

1

3

-

-

8

Introduced

3

1

1

10

4

26

16

6

8

11

3

1

2

3

1

5

38

Total

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Native

page 16

-

-

-

-

-

3

1

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

5

Total

INFRASPECIFIC TAXA Native

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Introduced

NAMED HYBRIDS

-

-

-

-

-

-

7

-

-

-

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Total

3

1

1

10

4

29

24

6

9

11

4

1

2

3

1

5

43

TOTAL TAXA

CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF THE GRASSLAND BIOME OF CENTRAL NORTH AMERICA PTERIDOPHYTES Aspleniaceae Newman, the spleenwort family Asplenium L., spleenwort A. x alternifolium Wulfen, Wulfen's spleenwort [SD] A. platyneuron (L.) Britton et al., ebony spleenwort [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK] A. resiliens Kunze, black-stem spleenwort [CO, KS, MO, OK] A. rhizophyllum L., walking fern [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Camptosorus rhizophyllum (L.) Link – A A. septentrionale (L.) Hoffm., forked spleenwort [CO, NM, OK, SD, WY] A. trichomanes L., maiden-hair spleenwort subsp. trichomanes [KS, MO, OK, SD] A. trichomanes-ramosum L., green spleenwort [SD] SYN = A. viride Huds. – A, F

Azollaceae Wettst., the mosquito fern family Azolla Lam., mosquito fern A. mexicana C. Presl, Mexican mosquito fern [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

Blechnaceae C. Presl, the chain fern family Woodwardia Sm., chain fern W. areolata (L.) T. Moore, netted chain fern [MO]

Dennstaedtiaceae Ching, the bracken family Pteridium Gled. ex. Scop., nom. conserv., bracken P. aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, bracken var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex A. Heller, eastern bracken [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, SD] var. pseudocaudatum (Clute) A. Heller, tailed bracken [KS, MO, OK] var. pubescens Underw., western bracken [MT, SD, WY]

Dryopteridaceae Herter, the wood fern family Athyrium Roth, lady fern A. filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert., lady fern var. angustum (Willd.) G. Lawson, northern lady fern [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = A. angustum (Willd.) C. Presl SYN = A. filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. subsp. angustum (Willd.) R.T. Clausen var. asplenioides (Michx.) Farw., southern lady fern [KS, MO] SYN = A. filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. subsp. asplenioides (Michx.) Hultén var. californicum Butters, southwestern lady fern [SD] var. cyclosorum Rupr., northwestern lady fern [Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. subsp. cyclosorum (Rupr.) C. Chr. SYN = A. filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. var. sitchense Rupr. Cystopteris Bernh., bladder fern, brittle fern C. bulbifera (L.) Bernh., bulblet bladder fern [IA, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Filix bulbifera (L.) Underw. C. fragilis (L.) Bernh., fragile fern [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. dickieana (R. Sim) H. Lindb. SYN = Filix fragilis (L.) Gilib. C. protrusa (Weath.) Blasdell, southern bladder fern [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. protrusa Weath. C. tennesseensis Shaver, Tennessee bladder fern [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 17

SYN = C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. simulans (Weath.) McGregor SYN = C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. tennesseensis (Shaver) McGregor C. tenuis (Michx.) Desv., Mackay’s brittle fern [IA, KS, MN, NE, OK] SYN = C. fragilis (L.) Bernh. var. mackayi G. Lawson Diplazium Sw., twin-sorus fern D. pycnocarpon (Spreng.) M. Broun, narrow-leaf glade fern [KS, MO] SYN = Asplenium pycnocarpon Spreng. SYN = Athyrium pycnocarpon (Spreng.) Tidest. – A, F Dryopteris Adans., nom. conserv., wood fern D. carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs, spinulose wood fern [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = D. austriaca (Jacq.) Woynar ex Schniz & Thell. var. spinulosa (O.F. Müll.) Fisch. SYN = D. spinulosa (O.F. Müll.) Watt D. cristata (L.) A. Gray, crested wood fern [Man, MN, ND, NE] D. filix-mas (L.) Schott, male fern [NM, OK, SD, WY] D. goldiana (Hook.) A. Gray, Goldie's wood fern [IA, MO] D. intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray, glandular wood fern, evergreen wood fern [IA] D. marginalis (L.) A. Gray, marginal wood fern [KS, MO, OK] Gymnocarpium Newman, oak fern G. dryopteris (L.) Newman, common oak fern [Alb, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Carpogymnia dryopteris (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = Phegopteris dryopteris (L.) Fée Matteuccia Tod., nom. conserv., ostrich fern M. struthiopteris (L.) Tod., ostrich fern var. pensylvanica (Willd.) C.V. Morton [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = Pteretis nodulosa (Michx.) Nieuwl. SYN = Pteretis pensylvanica (Willd.) Fernald Onoclea L., sensitive fern O. sensibilis L., sensitive fern [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = O. sensibilis L. var. obtusilobata (Schkuhr) Torr. Polystichum Roth, nom. conserv., sword fern, holly fern, Christmas fern P. acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott, Christmas fern [KS, MO, OK] P. lonchitis (L.) Roth, northern holly fern [SD, WY] P. munitum (Kaulf.) C. Presl, western sword fern [SD] Woodsia R. Br., cliff fern W. ilvensis (L.) R. Br., rusty cliff fern [MN] W. x kansana R.E. Brooks {W. obtusa subsp. obtusa x W. oregana subsp. cathcartiana}, Kansas cliff fern [KS] W. neomexicana Windham, New Mexico cliff fern [CO, OK, NM, TX] W. mexicana Fée misapplied – A, F W. obtusa (Spreng.) Torr., blunt-lobe cliff fern subsp. obtusa [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] subsp. occidentalis Windham [KS, MO, OK] W. oregana D.C. Eaton, Oregon cliff fern subsp. cathcartiana (B.L. Rob.) Windham [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] W. plummerae Lemmon, Plummer’s cliff fern [CO, NM, OK] W. scopulina D.C. Eaton, mountian cliff fern subsp. laurentiana Windham [SD, WY]

Equisetaceae Michx. ex DC., the horsetail family Equisetum L., horsetail, scouring-rush E. arvense L., field horsetail, common horsetail [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, TX, WY] E. x ferrissii Clute {E. hyemale x E. laevigata}, intermediate scouring-rush [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = E. hyemale L. var. intermedium A.A. Eaton SYN = E. intermedium (A.A. Eaton) Rydb. E. fluviatile L., river horsetail [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD]

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

page 18

E. hyemale L., common scouring-rush subsp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. affine Engelm. SYN = E. hyemale L. var. affine (Engelm.) A.A. Eaton – F SYN = E. hyemale L. var. elatum (Engelm.) C.V. Morton SYN = E. hyemale L. var. pseudohyemale (Farw.) C.V. Morton SYN = E. praealtum Raf. SYN = E. robustum A. Braun SYN = Hippochaete hyemalis (L.) Bruhin subsp. affinis (Engelm.) W.A.Weber E. laevigatum A. Braun, smooth scouring-rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. kansanum J.H. Schaffn. SYN = E. laevigatum A. Braun subsp. funstonii (A.A. Eaton) E.L. Hartm. SYN = Hippochaete laevigata (A. Braun) Farw. E. x litorale Kühlew. ex Rupr. {E. arvense x E. fluviatile}, shoreline horsetail [Alb, IA, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] E. x nelsonii (A.A. Eaton) J.H. Schaffn. {E. laevigatum x E. variegatum}, Nelson’s scouring-rush [MN, WY] E. palustre L., marsh horsetail [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas] E. pratense Ehrh., meadow horsetail [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD] E. scirpoides Michx., dwarf scouring-rush [Alb, ND, Sas, SD, WY] E. sylvaticum L., wood horsetail [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] E. variegatum Schleich. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr, variegated scouring-rush subsp. variegatum [Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Hippochaete variegata (Schleich. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr) Bruhin

Isoëtaceae Rchb., the quillwort family Isoëtes L., quillwort I. butleri Engelm., Butler's quillwort [KS, MO, OK] I. melanopoda J. Gay & Durieu, black-foot quillwort [KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD]

Lycopodiaceae Mirb., the club-moss family Lycopodium L., club-moss, ground-pine L. annotinum L., bristly club-moss [Alb, Man, Sas, SD, WY] L. dendroideum Michx., prickly-tree club-moss [MN, Sas, SD, WY] Diaphasiastrum Holub, running-pine D. complanatum (L.) Holub, northern running-pine [Alb, SD, WY] SYN = Lycopodium complanatum L. – F

Marsileaceae Mirb., the water-clover family Marsilea L., nom. conserv., water-clover, pepperwort M. quadrifolia L., four-leaf water-clover [MO] M. vestita Hook. & Grev., western water-clover, hairy water-clover subsp. vestita [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. mucronata A. Braun SYN = M. uncinata A. Braun ex A. Braun – A, F Pilularia L., pillwort P. americana A. Braun, American pillwort [KS, MO, NE, OK]

Ophioglossaceae C. Agardh, the adder's-tongue family Botrychium Sw., grape fern, moonwort B. campestre W.H. Wagner & Farrar, prairie moonwort [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] B. dissectum Spreng., lace-frond grape fern [KS, MO] SYN = B. dissectum Spreng. var. dissectum – A, F SYN = B. dissectum Spreng. var. obliquum (Muhl.) Clute – A, F SYN = B. obliquum Muhl. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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B. gallicomontanum Farrar & Johnson-Groh, Frenchman’s Bluff moonwort [endemic: MN] B. hesperium (Maxon & R.T. Clausen) W.H. Wagner & Lellinger, western moonwort [Alb, MT, Sas] B. lanceolatum (S.G. Gmel.) Ångstr. subsp. lanceolatum, triangle moonwort [Alb, Sas] B. lunaria (L.) Sw., common moonwort [MN, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = B. lunaria (L.) Sw. var. onondagense (Underw.) House B. matricariifolium (Döll) A. Braun ex W.D.J. Koch, daisy-leaf moonwort [MN, Sas, SD] B. minganense Vict., mingan moonwort [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas] SYN = B. lunaria (L.) Sw. var. minganense (Vict.) Dole B. multifidum (S.G. Gmel.) Rupr., leather grape fern [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = B. silaifolium C. Presl B. pallidum W.H. Wagner, pale moonwort [Man, Sas] B. paradoxum W.H. Wagner, two-spike moonwort [Alb, Sas] B. pedunculosum W.H. Wagner, stalked moonwort [Alb, Sas] B. pinnatum H. St. John, northwestern moonwort [Alb] SYN = B. boreale (Fr.) Milde subsp. obtusilobum (Rupr.) R.T. Clausen B. simplex E. Hitchc., least moonwort [Alb, MN, MT, Sas] B. virginianum (L.) Sw., rattlesnake fern, common grape fern [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = B. virginianum (L.) Sw. var. europaeum Ångstr. Ophioglossum L., adder's-tongue O. engelmannii Prantl, limestone adder's-tongue [KS, MO, OK, TX] O. pusillum Raf., northern adder’s-tongue [KS, NE, ND] SYN = O. vulgatum L. var. pseudopodum (S.F. Blake) Farwell – F

Osmundaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, the royal fern family Osmunda L., royal fern O. regalis L., royal fern var. spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray [KS, MO, OK]

Polypodiaceae Bercht. & J. Presl, the polypody family Pleopeltis Humb. & Bonp. ex Willd., shield-sorus fern P. polypodioides (L.) E.G. Andrews & Windham, resurrection fern var. michauxiana (Weath.) E.G. Andrews & Windham [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Polypodium polypodioides (L.) Watt var. michauxianum Weath. – A, F Polypodium L., polypody P. saximontanum Windham, Rocky Mountain polypody [SD] P. hesperium Maxon misapplied - A, F P. virginianum L., rock polypody [IA, Man, MN, SD] SYN = P. vulgare L. var. virginianum (L.) Eaton

Pteridaceae Rchb., the maiden-hair fern family Adiantum L., maidenhair fern A. capillus-veneris L., southern maiden-hair fern [CO, SD] SYN = A. modestum Underw. A. pedatum L., northern maiden-hair fern [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] Argyrochosma (Sm.) Windham, cloak fern A. fendleri (Kunze) Windham, Fendler’s cloak fern [CO, NM, WY] SYN = Cheilanthes cancellata Mickel SYN = Notholaena fendleri Kunze – A, F SYN = Pellea fendleri (Kunze) Prantl A. dealbata (Pursh) Windham, false cloak fern [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Notholaena dealbata (Pursh) Kunze – A, F SYN = Pellaea dealbata (Pursh) Prantl Astrolepis D.M. Benham & Windham, star-scale cloak fern A. cochisensis (Goodd.) D.M. Benham & Windham, Cochise’s star-scale cloak fern subsp. cochisensis [NM, TX] SYN = Cheilanthes cochisensis (Goodd.) Mickel Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN =Notholaena sinuata (Lagasca ex Sw.) Kaulf. var. cochisensis (Goodd.) Weath. – F A. integerrima (Hook.) D.M. Benham & Windham, hybrid star-scale cloak fern [CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Cheilanthes integerrima (Hook.) Mickel SYN = Notholaena sinuata (Lagasca ex Sw.) Kaulf. var. integerrima Hook. – A, F Cheilanthes Sw., nom. conserv., lip fern C. alabamensis (Buckley) Kunze, Alabama lip fern [KS, OK] C. eatonii Baker, Eaton's lip fern [CO, OK, NM] C. feei T. Moore, slender lip fern [CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. fendleri Hook., Fendler's lip fern [CO, OK, NM] C. lanosa (Michx.) D.C. Eaton, hairy lip fern [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. vestita (Spreng.) Sw. C. lindheimeri Hook., Lindheimer's lip fern [OK] C. tomentosa Link, woolly lip fern [KS, OK] C. wootonii Maxon, Wooton’s lip fern [CO, NM, OK] Cryptogramma R. Br., parsley fern C. acrostichoides R. Br., American parsley fern [SD] Notholaena R. Br., cloak fern N. standleyi Maxon, Standley’s cloak fern [CO, OK, NM, TX] SYN = Cheilanthes standleyi (Maxon) Mickel Pellaea Link, nom. conserv., cliffbrake P. atropurpurea (L.) Link, purple-stem cliffbrake [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] P. glabella Mett. ex Kuhn, smooth cliffbrake subsp. glabella [IA, KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = P. atropurpurea (L.) Link var. bushii Mack. SYN = P. atropurpurea (L.) Link var. glabella (Mett. ex Kuhn) F.C. Gates SYN = P. glabella Mett. ex Kuhn var. glabella - A, F subsp. occidentalis (E.E. Nelson) Windham [Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. glabella Mett. ex Kuhn var. nana (Richadson) Cody SYN = P. glabella Mett. ex Kuhn var. occidentalis (E.E. Nelson) Butters – A, F SYN = P. pumila Rydb. subsp. simplex (Butters) A. Löve & D. Löve [WY] P. gastonyi Windham, Gastony’s cliffbrake [SD, WY] P. wrightiana Hook., Wright's cliffbrake [CO, NM, OK, TX] P. mucronata D.C. Eaton misapplied SYN = P. ternifolia (Cav.) Link var. wrightiana (Hook.) A.F. Tryon – A

Selaginellaceae Willk., the spike-moss family Selaginella P. Beauv., nom. conserv., spike-moss S. densa Rydb., prairie spike-moss, Rocky Mountian spike-moss [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] S. engelmannii Hieron. misapplied S. mutica D.C. Eaton ex Underw., blunt-leaf spike-moss var. mutica [CO, NM] S. peruviana (Milde) Hieron., Peruvian spike-moss [NM, OK] SYN = S. sheldonii Maxon S. rupestris (L.) Spring, rock spike-moss, dwarf spike-moss [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] S. underwoodii Hieron., Underwood's spike-moss [CO, NM, OK, WY]

Thelypteridaceae Ching ex Pic. Serm., the marsh fern family Phegopteris (C. Presl) Fée, beech fern P. hexagonoptera (Michx.) Fée, broad beech fern [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Dryopteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) C. Chr. SYN = Thelypteris hexagonoptera (Michx.) Weath. – A, F Thelypteris Schmidel, nom. conserv., female fern T. palustris Schott, marsh fern var. pubescens (G. Lawson) Fernald [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) A. Gray var. pubescens (G. Lawson) A. Prince ex Weath. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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GYMNOSPERMS Cupressaceae Rich. ex Bartl., nom. conserv., the cypress family Juniperus L., juniper, cedro, sabino J. ashei J. Buchholz, Ashe juniper [OK] J. communis L., common juniper, dwarf juniper var. depressa Pursh [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] J. horizontalis Moench, creeping juniper [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Sabina horizontalis (Moench) Rydb. J. monosperma (Engelm.) Sarg., one-seed juniper [CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Sabina monosperma (Engelm.) Rydb. J. osteosperma (Torr.) Little, Utah juniper [WY] J. pinchotii Sudw., Pinchot juniper [OK, TX] J. scopulorum Sarg., Rocky Mountain juniper [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = J. scopulorum Sarg. var. columnaris Fassett SYN = Sabina scopulorum (Sarg.) Rydb. J. virginiana L., eastern red-cedar, eastern juniper var. virginiana [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Sabina virginiana (L.) Antoine Taxodium Rich., bald-cypress *T. distichum (L.) Rich. var. distichum, southern bald-cypress [KS]

Ephedraceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the ephedra family Ephedra L., joint-fir, Mexican-tea, Mormon-tea E. antisyphilitica Berland. ex C.A. Mey., vine joint-fir, clapweed [OK, TX] E. torreyana S. Watson, Torrey’s joint-fir, Mormon-tea var. torreyana [NM, TX]

Pinaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the pine family Abies Mill., fir A. concolor (Gordon & Glend.) Hildebr., Rocky Mountain white fir [NM] Picea A. Dietr., spruce P. glauca (Moench) Voss, white spruce, Black Hills spruce [Alb, MN, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. glauca (Moench) Voss subsp. glauca SYN = P. glauca (Moench) Voss var. albertiana (S. Br.) Sarg. P. pungens Engelm., Colorado blue spruce [NM] SYN = P. glauca (Moench) Voss subsp. engelmannii (Parry) T.M.C. Taylor Pinus L., pine P. contorta Douglas ex Loudon var. latifolia Engelm. ex S. Watson, lodge-pole pine [Alb, MT, Sas, SD] P. echinata Mill., short-leaf pine [MO, OK] P. edulis Engelm., pinyon pine, piñón [CO, NM, OK, WY] P. flexilis E. James, limber pine, Rocky Mountain white pine [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Apinus flexilis (E. James) Rydb. P. ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson, ponderosa pine, yellow pine var. scopulorum Engelm., Rocky Mountain ponderosa pine [CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. ponderosa Douglas ex Lawson & C. Lawson subsp. scopulorum (Engelm.) E. Murray SYN = P. scopulorum (Engelm.) Lemmon

ANGIOSPERMS Acanthaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the acanthus family Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Dicliptera Juss., nom. conserv., foldwing D. brachiata (Pursh) Spreng., branched foldwing [KS, MO, OK] Dyschoriste Nees, dyschoriste D. linearis (Torr. & A. Gray) Kuntze, narrow-leaf dyschoriste [OK, TX] Justicia L., water-willow J. americana (L.) Vahl, American water-willow, common water-willow [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Dianthera americana L. SYN = J. americana (L.) Vahl var. subcoriacea Fernald Ruellia L., wild-petunia R. humilis Nutt., fringe-leaf wild-petunia [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] R. caroliniensis (J.F. Gmel.) Steud. misapplied R. ciliosa Pursh misapplied SYN = R. humilis Nutt. var. expansa Fernald SYN = R. humilis Nutt. var. frondosa Fernald SYN = R. humilis Nutt. var. longifolia (A. Gray) Fernald R. strepens L., limestone wild-petunia [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = R. strepens L. var. cleistantha A. Gray

Aceraceae Juss., nom. conserv., the maple family Acer L., maple A. glabrum Torr., Rocky Mountain maple var. glabrum [CO, NE, NM, WY] SYN = A. glabrum Torr. var. neomexicanum (Greene) Kearney & Peebles A. negundo L., boxelder var. interius (Britton) Sarg. [CO, MO, ND, MT, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Negundo interius (Britton) Rydb. var. negundo [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Negundo aceroides (L.) Moench var. texanum Pax [KS, MO] var. violaceum (Kirchn.) Jaeger [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Negundo aceroides (L.) Moench subsp. violaceum (Kirchn.) W.A. Weber SYN = Negundo nuttallii (Nieuwl.) Rydb. A. nigrum F. Michx., black maple [IA, MN, MO] SYN = A. saccharum Marshall subsp. nigrum (F. Michx.) Desmarais SYN = A. saccharum Marshall var. nigrum (F. Michx.) Britton A. saccharinum L., silver maple, soft maple [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] A. saccharum Marshall, sugar maple subsp. saccharum [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX]

Acoraceae C. Agardh, the sweetflag family Acorus L., sweetflag A. americanus (Raf.) Raf., American sweetflag [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] *A. calamus L., European sweetflag [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD]

Adoxaceae Trautv., nom. conserv., the moschatel family Adoxa L., muskroot, moschatel A. moschatellina L., muskroot, moschatel [SD]

Agavaceae Endl., nom. conserv., the agave family Nolina Michx., nolina N. texana S. Watson, Texas nolina, sachuista [CO, NM, OK] Yucca L., soapweed, yucca Y. arkansana Trel., Arkansas soapweed [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Y. angustissima Engelm. ex Trel. var. mollis Engelm. – F Y. baccata Torr., banana yucca, datil yucca var. baccata [CO] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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*Y. filamentosa L., Adam’s-needle, Spanish bayonet [KS, MO, NE] SYN = Y. flaccida Haw. SYN = Y. smalliana Fernald – A, F Y. glauca Nutt., small soapweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Y. glauca Nutt. var. gurneyi McKelvey Y. harrimaniae Trel., Harriman’s yucca var. neomexicana (Wooton & Standl.) Reveal [CO, NM, OK] SYN = Y. neomexicana Wooton & Standl. – A

Aizoaceae F. Rudolphi, nom. conserv., the fig-marigold family Sesuvium L., sea-purslane S. maritimum (Walter) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., coast sea-purslane [KS, OK] S. verrucosum Raf., winged sea-purslane [KS, OK, TX] Trianthema L., horse-purslane *T. portulacastrum L., desert horse-purslane [CO, MO, OK, TX]

Alismataceae Vent., nom. conserv., the water-plantain family Alisma L., water-plantain A. gramineum Lej., grass-leaf water-plantain [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. geyeri Torr. A. subcordatum Raf., southern water-plantain [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = A. plantago-aquatica L. var. parviflorum (Pursh) Torr. A. triviale Pursh, northern water-plantain [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. brevipes Greene SYN = A. plantago-aquatica L. var. americanum Schult. – A SYN = A. plantago-aquatica L. var. triviale (Pursh) Farw. Echinodorus A. Rich. ex Engelm., burhead E. berteroi (Spreng.) Fassett , upright burhead [IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] E. cordifolius (L.) Griseb. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = E. rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm. ex A. Gray – A, F SYN = E. rostratus (Nutt.) Engelm. ex A. Gray var. lanceolatus Engelm. ex lanceolatus Engelm. ex S. Watson & J.M. Coult. E. cordifolius (L.) Griseb., creeping burhead subsp. cordifolius [KS, MO, OK] SYN = E. radicans (Nutt.) Engelm. E. tenellus (Mart.) Buchenau, dwarf burhead [KS] SYN = E. parvulus Engelm. – A SYN = E. tenellus (Mart.) Buchenau var. parvulus (Engelm.) Fassett SYN = Helianthium parvulum (Engelm.) Britton Sagittaria L., arrowhead S. ambigua J.G. Sm., Kansas arrowhead [KS, MO, OK] S. brevirostra Mack. & Bush, short-beak arrowhead [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. engelmanniana J.G. Sm. subsp. brevirostra (Mack. & Bush) Bogin – A S. cuneata E. Sheld., northern arrowhead, duck-potato arrowhead, wapato [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] S. cristata Engelm., crested arrowhead [MN, NE] S. graminea Michx., grass-leaf arrowhead subsp. graminea [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. graminea Michx. var. graminea – F S. latifolia Willd., broad-leaf arrowhead, common arrowhead [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. esculenta Howell S. longiloba Engelm. ex J.G. Sm., long-barb arrowhead [KS, NE, OK, TX] S. montevidensis Cham. & Schltdl., giant arrowhead subsp. calycina (Engelm.) Bogin [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Lophotocarpus calycinus (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. SYN = S. calycina Engelm. – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm., delta arrowhead [KS, OK] SYN = S. graminea Michx. var. platyphylla (Engelm.) J.G. Sm. – F S. rigida Pursh, stiff arrowhead [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, Sas]

Amaranthaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the pigweed family Alternanthera Forsskål, chaff-flower A. caracasana Kunth, mat chaff-flower [OK, TX] Amaranthus L., pigweed, amaranth A. albus L., tumbleweed amaranth [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. albus L. var. pubescens (Uline & W.L. Bray) Rydb. A. arenicola I.M. Johnst., sandhill pigweed [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. torreyi (A. Gray) Benth. misapplied - Rydberg A. blitoides S. Watson, prostrate pigweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. graecizans L. – A, F A. californicus (Moq.) S. Watson, California pigweed [Alb, KS, NE, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. microphyllus Shinners *A. caudatus L., love-lies-bleeding [MO] A. crassipes Schltdl., thick-fruit pigweed [TX] A. hybridus L., slender pigweed, green pigweed, smooth pigweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] A. palmeri S. Watson, Palmer's pigweed [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] A. powellii S. Watson, Powell's pigweed [CO, KS, NE, NM, TX, WY] A. retroflexus L., rough pigweed, red-root pigweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, *Sas, SD, TX, WY] A. spinosus L., spiny pigweed [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] A. tuberculatus (Moq.) J.D. Sauer, tall water-hemp [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Acnida altissima (Riddell) Moq. ex Standl. SYN = Acnida subnuda (S. Watson) Standl. SYN = Acnida tamariscina (Nutt.) A.W. Wood SYN = Amaranthus altissimus Riddell var. subnuda (S. Watson) Fernald SYN = Amaranthus altissimus Riddell var. prostrata (Uline & W.L. Bray) Fernald SYN = A. rudis J.D. Sauer – A, F SYN = A. tamariscinus Nutt. Froelichia Moench, snake-cotton F. floridana (Nutt.) Moq., field snake-cotton var. campestris (Small) Fernald [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = F. campestris Small F. gracilis (Hook.) Moq., slender snake-cotton [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Gossypianthus Hook., cotton-flower G. lanuginosus (Poir.) Moq., woolly cotton-flower var. lanuginosus [KS, OK] SYN = Guilleminea lanuginosa (Poir.) Hook. f. – F SYN = Guilleminea lanuginosa (Poir.) Hook. f. var. sheldonii (Uline & W.L. Bray) Mears – A var. tenuiflorus (Hook.) Henr. [OK] SYN = Guilleminea lanuginosa (Poir.) Hook. f. var. tenuiflora (Hook.) Mears – A SYN = Gossypianthus tenuiflorus Hook. Guilleminea Kunth, cotton-flower G. densa (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Moq., dense cotton-flower var. aggregata Uline & W.L. Bray [NM, OK, TX] Iresine P. Browne, nom. conserv., bloodleaf I. rhizomatosa Standl., root-stock bloodleaf [KS, MO, OK] I. celosioides L. misapplied - Rydberg Tidestromia Standl., tidestromia T. lanuginosa (Nutt.) Standl., woolly tidestromia subsp. lanuginosa [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, SD, TX]

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Anacardiaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the cashew family Rhus L., sumac R. aromatica Aiton, fragrant sumac, squawbush var. aromatica [KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. aromatica Aiton var. illinoensis (Greene) Rehder SYN = R. crenata (Mill.) Rydb. SYN = Schmaltzia crenata (Mill.) Greene var. flabelliformis Shinners [NM, OK, TX] var. pilosissima (Engelm.) Shinners [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = R. aromatica Aiton subsp. pilosissima (Engelm.) W.A. Weber SYN = R. osterhoutii Rydb. SYN = R. trilobata (Nutt.) A. Gray var. pilosissima Engelm. SYN = Schmaltzia pubescens Osterh. var. serotina (Greene) Rehder [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = R. nortonii (Greene) Rydb. SYN = Schmaltzia serotina Greene var. trilobata (Nutt.) A. Gray [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. aromatica Aiton subsp. trilobata (Nutt.) W.A. Weber SYN = R. trilobata Nutt. R. copallina L., dwarf sumac, flame-leaf sumac [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = R. copallina L. var. latifolia Engl. R. glabra L., smooth sumac [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. cismontana Greene SYN = R. hapemanii Lunell SYN = Schmaltzia glabra (L.) Small *R. typhina L., stag-horn sumac [KS] R. hirta (L.) Sudw. nom. rejic. R. microphylla Engelm. ex A. Gray, desert sumac, little-leaf sumac [NM, OK, TX] Toxicodendron Mill., poison-ivy, poison-oak T. pubescens Mill., eastern poison-oak [KS, OK] SYN = Rhus toxicodendron L. SYN = T. toxicarium (Salisb.) Gillis – A, F T. radicans (L.) Kuntze, poison-ivy subsp. negundo (Greene) Gillis [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Rhus toxicodendron L. var. negundo (Greene) F.C. Gates SYN = T. negundo Greene SYN = T. radicans (L.) Kuntze var. negundo (Greene) Reveal subsp. pubens (Engelm. ex S. Watson) Gillls [KS, MO] SYN = T. radicans (L.) Kuntze var. pubens (Engelm. ex S. Watson) Reveal subsp. verrucosum (Scheele) Gillis [OK] SYN = T. radicans (L.) Kuntze var. verrucosum (Scheele) F.A. Barkley T. rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Greene, Rydberg’s poison-ivy, western poison-ivy [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. desertorum Lunell SYN = T. fothergilloides Lunell SYN = T. radicans (L.) Kuntze var. rydbergii (Small ex Rydb.) Rehder

Annonaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the custard-apple family Asimina Adans., pawpaw A. triloba (L.) Dunal, common pawpaw [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

Apiaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the parsley family Ammi L., bishop’s-weed, ammi *A. majus L., greater bishop’s-weed [SD] Ammoselinum Torr. & A. Gray, sand-parsley A. butleri (Engelm. ex S. Watson) J.M. Coult. & Rose, Butler’s sand-parsley [KS, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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A. popei Torr. & A. Gray, plains sand-parsley [KS, NM, OK, TX] Anethum L., dill *A. graveolens L., dill [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK] Anthriscus Pers., beak-chervil *A. caucalis M. Bieb., beak-chervil [NE, WY] Berula Besser ex W.D.J. Koch, water-parsnip B. erecta (Huds.) Coville var. incisa (Torr.) Cronquist, cut-leaf water-parsnip [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = B. pusilla (Nutt.) Fernald Bupleurum L., thorowax *B. rotundifolium L., round-leaf thorowax [KS, MO] Carum L., caraway *C. carvi L., caraway [CO, IA, MN, MO, ND, SD, WY] Chaerophyllum L., chervil C. procumbens (L.) Crantz, spreading chervil, wild chervil var. procumbens [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] var. shortii Torr. & A. Gray [KS, MO] C. tainturieri Hook., southern chervil var. dasycarpum S. Watson [KS, OK, TX] var. tainturieri [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = C. reflexum Bush SYN = C. texanum J.M. Coult. & Rose Cicuta L., water-hemlock C. bulbifera L., bulb water-hemlock [IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD] C. douglasii (DC.) J.M. Coult. & Rose, Douglas’ water-hemlock [MT] C. maculata L., spotted water-hemlock, common water-hemlock var. angustifolia Hook. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] var. bolanderi (S. Watson) G.A. Mulligan [IA, KS, NE, OK, TX] var. maculata [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX] Conioselinum Hoffm., hemlock-parsley *C. chinense (L.) Britton et al., Chinese hemlock-parsley [NE] Conium L., poison-hemlock *C. maculatum L., poison-hemlock [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Coriandrum L., coriander *C. sativum L., coriander, cilantro [MO, ND, OK] Cryptotaenia DC., nom. conserv., honewort, white-chervil C. canadensis (L.) DC., honewort, white-chervil [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Cymopterus Raf., spring-parsley, wavewing, corkwing C. acaulis (Pursh) Raf., plains spring-parsley var. acaulis [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] C. macrorhizus Buckley, big-root spring-parsley [largely endemic: NM, OK, TX] C. montanus Nutt., mountain spring-parsley [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Phellopterus montanus Nutt. C. nivalis S. Watson, Elko spring-parsley [MT] SYN = C. bipinnatus S. Watson Daucus L., carrot *D. carota L., wild carrot, Queen-Anne’s-lace subsp. carota [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] D. pusillus Michx., southwestern carrot, rattlesnake-weed [KS, MO, OK, TX] Erigenia Nutt., harbinger-of-spring E. bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt., harbinger-of-spring [KS, MO, OK] Eryngium L., eryngo E. diffusum Torr., diffuse eryngo [largely endemic: OK, TX] E. hookeri Walp., Hooker’s eryngo [OK] E. leavenworthii Torr. & A. Gray, Leavenworth’s eryngo [KS, MO, OK] *E. planum L., wandering eryngo [CO, SD] E. prostratum Nutt. ex DC., creeping eryngo [KS] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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E. yuccifolium Michx., button snake-root eryngo var. yuccifolium [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] Eurytaenia Torr. & A. Gray, spreadwing E. texana Torr. & A. Gray, Texas spreadwing [OK, TX] Falcaria Fabr., nom. conserv., sickleweed *F. vulgaris Bernh., common sickleweed [IA, KS, NE, OK] SYN = F. sioides (Wibel) Asch. – A, F Foeniculum Mill., fennel *F. vulgare Mill., common fennel, sweet fennel [KS, MO, NE, SD] Harbouria J.M. Coult. & Rose, harbouria H. trachypleura (A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose, rough-rib harbouria [WY] Heracleum L., cow-parsnip, eltrot H. spondylium L., hog-weed cow-parsnip subsp montanum (Schleich.) Briq. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. lanatum Michx. SYN = H. maximum W. Bartram Hydrocotyle L., water-pennywort H. ranunculoides L.f., floating water-pennywort [KS, OK, TX] Limnosciadium Mathias & Constance, dogshade L. pinnatum (DC.) Mathias & Constance, Arkansas dogshade [KS, MO] SYN = Cynosciadium pinnatum DC. Lomatium Raf., desert-parsley L. cous (S. Watson) J.M. Coult. & Rose, mountain desert-parsley [Alb, MT, Sas] L. dissectum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance, cut-leaf desert-parsley var. multifidum (Nutt.) Mathias & Constance [MT, Sas, WY] SYN = Leptotaenia multifida Nutt. L. foeniculaceum (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. & Rose, fennel-leaf desert-parsley var. daucifolium (Nutt.) Cronquist [largely endemic: KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Cogswellia daucifolia (Nutt.) M.E. Jones var. foeniculaceum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Cogswellia foeniculacea (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. & Rose SYN = Cogswellia villosa (Raf.) Schult. SYN = L. villosum Raf. var. macdougalii (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Cronquist [WY] L. macrocarpum (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) J.M. Coult. & Rose, big-fruit desert-parsley [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = Cogswellia macrocarpa (Nutt. ex Torr. & A. Gray) M.E. Jones L. nuttallii (A. Gray) J.F. Macbr., Nuttall’s desert-parsley [CO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Cynomaranthrum nuttallii (A. Gray) J.M. Coult & Rose L. orientale J.M. Coult. & Rose, eastern desert-parsley [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Cogswellia orientalis (J.M. Coult. & Rose) M.E. Jones L. triternatum (Pursh) J.M. Coult. & Rose, nine-leaf desert-parsley subsp. platycarpum (Torr.) Cronquist [Alb, MT] SYN = L. simplex (Nutt.) J.F. Macbr. var. simplex Musineon Raf., musineon M. divaricatum (Pursh) Raf., spreading musineon, plains musineon [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = M. divaricatum (Pursh) Raf. var. divaricatum – F SYN = M. divaricatum (Pursh) Raf. var. hookeri (Torr. & A. Gray) Mathias – F SYN = M. trachysperma Nutt. M. tenuifolium (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. & Rose, narrow-leaf musineon [largely endemic: CO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Aletes tenuifolius (Nutt.) W.A. Weber SYN = Daucophyllum tenuifolium (Nutt.) Rydb. Osmorhiza Raf., nom. conserv., sweet-cicely O. chilensis Hook. & Arn., western sweet cicely, Chilean sweet-cicely [Alb, CO, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. divaricata (Britton) Suksd. O. claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke, hairy sweet-cicely [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] O. depauperata Phil., blunt-fruit sweet-cicely [Alb, CO, Man, MT, Sas, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = O. obtusa (J.M. Coult. & Rose) Fernald O. longistylis (Torr.) DC., long-style sweet-cicely [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. longistylis (Torr.) DC. var. longistylis – A SYN = O. longistylis (Torr.) DC. var. villicaulis Fernald – A SYN = O. villicaulis (Fernald) Rydb. Oxypolis Raf., cowbane O. rigidior (L.) Raf., stiff cowbane [IA, MO] Pastinaca L., parsnip *P. sativa L., garden parsnip [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Perideridia Rchb., perideridia, yampah P. americana (Nutt. ex DC.) Rchb., American perideridia [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Eulophus americanus Nutt. ex DC. P. gairdneri (Hook. & Arn.) Mathias, Gairdner’s perideridia, common yampah subsp. borealis T.I. Chuang & Constance [Alb, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. montanum (Blank.) Dorn Polytaenia DC., prairie-parsley P. nuttallii DC., Nuttall’s prairie-parsley [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Pleiotaenia nuttallii (DC.) J.M. Coult. & Rose Pteryxia (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. & Rose, rock-parsley P. terebinthina (Hook.) J.M. Coult. & Rose, aromatic rock-parsley var. albiiflora (Torr. & A. Gray) Mathias [MT] SYN = Cymopterus terebinthinus (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray var. albiflorus (Torr. & A. Gray) M.E. Jones Ptilimnium Raf., mock-bishop's-weed P. nuttallii (DC.) Britton, Nuttall’s mock-bishop’s-weed [KS, MO] Sanicula L., sanicle S. canadensis L., Canadian sanicle var. canadensis [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] S. marilandica L., black sanicle, Maryland sanicle [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] S. odorata (Raf.) Pryer & Phillippe, fragrant sanicle, cluster sanicle [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. gregaria E.P. Bicknell – A, F Scandix L., shepherd’s-needle *S. pecten-veneris L., Venus’-comb shepherd’s-needle [SD] Sium L., water-parship S. suave Walter, hemlock water-parsnip [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. cicutifolium Schrank Spermolepis Raf., scaleseed S. divaricata (Walter) Britton, forked scaleseed [KS, OK] S. echinata (Nutt. ex DC.) A. Heller, bristly scaleseed [KS, MO, OK, TX] S. inermis (Nutt. ex DC.) Mathias & Constance, spreading scaleseed, western scaleseed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = S. patens (Nutt. ex DC.) B.L. Rob. Taenidia (Torr. & A. Gray) Drude, yellow-pimpernel T. integerrima (L.) Drude, whole-leaf yellow-pimpernel [IA, KS, MO, OK, SD] Thaspium Nutt., meadow-parsnip T. barbinode (Michx.) Nutt., bearded meadow-parsnip [IA, KS, MN, MO, OK] T. trifoliatum (L.) A. Gray, smooth meadow-parsnip var. flavum S.F. Blake [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = T. trifoliatum (L.) A. Gray var. aureum (L.) Britton Torilis Adans., hedge-parsley *T. arvensis (Huds.) Link, field hedge-parsley [KS, MO, NE, OK] T. anthriscus (L.) Bernh. misapplied - Rydberg *T. nodosa (L.) Gaertn., knotted hedge-parsley [OK] Zizia W.D.J. Koch, golden-alexanders Z. aptera (A. Gray) Fernald, heart-leaf golden-alexanders [Alb, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Z. cordata W.D.J. Koch ex DC. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Z. aurea (L.) W.D.J. Koch, common golden-alexanders [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD]

Apocynaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the dogbane family Amsonia Walter, bluestar A. ciliata Walter, fringed bluestar var. texana (A. Gray) J.M. Coult., Texas amsonia [OK, TX] A. illustris Woodson, Ozark bluestar [KS, MO, OK] A. tabernaemontana Walter, willow bluestar [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. salicifolia Pursh SYN = A. tabernaemontana Walter var. gattingeri Woodson SYN = A. tabernaemontana Walter var. salicifolia (Pursh) Woodson Apocynum L., dogbane A. androsaemifolium L., spreading dogbane [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. ambigens Greene SYN = A. androsaemifolium L. var. glabrum Macoun SYN = A. androsaemifolium L. var. griseum (Greene) Beg. & Beloserky SYN = A. androsaemifolium L. var. incanum A. DC. A. cannabinum L., hemp dogbane, prairie dogbane [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. album Greene SYN = A. cannabinum L. var. glaberrimum A. DC. SYN = A. cannabinum L. var. hypericifolium (Aiton) A. Gray SYN = A. cannabinum L. var. pubescens (Mitch. ex R. Br) A. DC. SYN = A. cordigerum Greene SYN = A. pubescens Mitch. ex R. Br. SYN = A. sibiricum Jacq. – A SYN = A. sibiricum Jacq. var. cordigerum (Greene) Fernald SYN = A. sibiricum Jacq. var. salignum (Greene) Fernald SYN = A. suksdorfii Greene var. angustifolium (Wooton) Woodson – A A. x floribundum Greene {A. androsaemifolium x A. cannabinum}, many-flower dogbane [CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = A. medium Greene – A Vinca L., periwinkle *V. minor L., common periwinkle, lesser periwinkle [KS, NE]

Aquifoliaceae Bartl., nom. conserv., the holly family Ilex L., holly I. decidua Walter, deciduous holly, possum-haw [KS, MO, OK]

Araceae Juss., nom. conserv., the arum family Arisaema Mart., Jack-in-the-pulpit, greendragon A. dracontium (L.) Schott, dragonroot Jack-in-the-pulpit [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Muricauda dracontium (L.) Small A. triphyllum (L.) Schott, Indian Jack-in-the-pulpit subsp. triphyllum [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Calla L., calla, water-arum C. palustris L., wild calla [Man, MN, ND, Sas] Peltandra Raf., nom. conserv., arrow-arum *P. virginica (L.) Schott & Endl., Virginia arrow-arum, tuckahoe [IA, KS] Pistia L., water-lettuce *P. stratiotes L., water-lettuce [KS]

Araliaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the ginseng family Aralia L., sarsaparilla A. nudicaulis L., wild sarsaparilla [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] A. racemosa L., American-spikenard Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. racemosa [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] Panax L., ginseng P. quinquefolius L., American ginseng [IA, MN, MO, NE, SD]

Aristolochiaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the Dutchman’s-pipe family Aristolochia L., pipevine, Dutchman’s-pipe, birthwort A. serpentaria L., Virginia pipevine [KS, MO] A. tomentosa Sims, woolly pipevine [KS, MO, OK] Asarum L., wild-ginger A. canadense L. Canadian wild-ginger [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. acuminatum (Ashe) E.P. Bicknell SYN = A. reflexum E.P. Bicknell

Asclepiadaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the milkweed family Asclepias L., milkweed A. amplexicaulis Sm., blunt-leaf milkweed, clasping-leaf milkweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] A. arenaria Torr., sand milkweed [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. asperula (Decne.) Woodson, antelope-horn milkweed subsp. asperula [CO, NM] subsp. capricornu (Woodson) Woodson [KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = A. asperula (Decne.) Woodson var. decumbens (Nutt.) Shinners – A, F SYN = Asclepiodora decumbens (Nutt.) A. Gray A. brachystephana Engelm. ex Torr., short-crown milkweed [TX] A. engelmanniana Woodson, Engelmann's milkweed [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] A. hallii A. Gray, Hall's milkweed [CO, WY] A. hirtella (Pennell) Woodson, prairie milkweed [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Acerates hirtella Pennell SYN = A. longifolia Michx. var. hirtella (Pennell) J. Farmer & C.R. Bell A. incarnata L., swamp milkweed subsp. incarnata [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. incarnata L. var. incarnata A. involucrata Engelm. ex Torr., dwarf milkweed [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] A. lanuginosa Nutt., woolly milkweed [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Acerates lanuginosa (Nutt.) Decne. A. latifolia (Torr.) Raf., broad-leaf milkweed [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] A. macrotis Torr., long-horn milkweed [CO, NM, OK, TX] A. meadii Torr. ex A. Gray, Mead's milkweed [IA, KS, MO] A. oenotheroides Cham. & Schltdl., side-cluster milkweed [CO, OK, TX] A. ovalifolia Decne., oval-leaf milkweed [IA, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] A. pumila (A. Gray) Vail, plains milkweed [largely endemic: CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. purpurascens L., purple milkweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] A. quadrifolia Jacq., four-leaf milkweed [KS, MO, OK] A. speciosa Torr., showy milkweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] A. stenophylla A. Gray, narrow-leaf milkweed [CO, KS, MO, MT, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Acerates angustifolia (Nutt.) Decne. A. subverticillata (A. Gray) Vail, poison milkweed [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] A. galioides Kunth misapplied - Gates A. sullivantii Engelm. ex A. Gray, smooth milkweed [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] A. syriaca L., common milkweed [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. kansana Vail SYN = A. syriaca L. var. kansana (Vail) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. A. tuberosa L., butterfly milkweed subsp. interior Woodson [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = A. tuberosa L. subsp. terminalis Woodson – F SYN = A. tuberosa L. var. interior (Woodson) Shinners A. uncialis Greene, dwarf milkweed [CO, NM, OK, TX] A. verticillata L., whorled milkweed [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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A. viridiflora Raf., green milkweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Acerates viridiflora (Raf.) Pursh ex Eaton SYN = A. viridiflora Raf. var. ivesii Britton SYN = A. viridiflora Raf. var. lanceolata Torr. SYN = A. viridiflora Raf. var. linearis (A. Gray) Fernald A. viridis Walter, spider milkweed [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Asclepiodora viridis (Walter) A. Gray Cynanchum L., swallow-wort, sandvine, climbing-milkweed C. laeve (Michx.) Pers., smooth swallow-wort, smooth sandvine [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Ampelamus albidus (Nutt.) Britton SYN = Gonolobus laevis Michx. *C. louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi, black swallow-wort [KS] SYN = C. nigrum (L.) Pers. – F SYN = Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Moench Matelea Aubl., milkvine, anglepod, climbing milkweed M. baldwyniana (Sweet) Woodson, Baldwin’s milkvine [MO] SYN = Gonolobus baldwynianus Sweet M. biflora (Raf.) Woodson, two-flower milkvine [TX] SYN = Gonolobus biflorus Raf. M. cynanchoides (Engelm.) Woodson, climbing milkvine [OK] SYN = Gonolobus cynanchoides Engelm. M. decipiens (Alexander) Woodson, ten-flower milkvine [KS, MO] SYN = Gonolobus decipiens (Alexander) L.M. Perry M. gonocarpos (Walter) Shinners, southeastern milkvine [KS, MO] SYN = Gonolobus gonocarpos (Walter) L.M. Perry Gonolobus suberosus (L.) R. Br. misapplied - Fernald Periploca L., silkvine *P. graeca L., Grecian silkvine [KS] Funastrum E. Fourn., twinevine F. crispum (Benth.) Schltr., wax-leaf twinevine [CO, OK, TX] SYN = Sarcostemma crispum Benth. – F SYN = Sarcostemma lobata Waterf. – A F. cynanchoides (Decne.) Schltr., arroyo twinevine [OK, TX] SYN = Sarcostemma cynanchoides Decne. – A, F Sarcostemma R. Br. (see Funastrum)

Asteraceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the sunflower family Achillea L., yarrow A. millefolium L., western yarrow subsp. lanulosa (Nutt.) Piper [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. aspleniifolia Vent. misapplied SYN = A. lanulosa Nutt. SYN = A. millefolium L. var. occidentalis DC. SYN = A. occidentalis (DC.) Raf. ex Rydb. A. sibirica Ledeb., northern yarrow [Man, MN, ND] Acroptilon Cass., knapweed *A. repens (L.) Cass., Russian knapweed [Alb, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Centaurea picris Pall. ex Willd. SYN = Centaurea repens L. – A, F Adenocaulon Hook., adenocaulon, trailplant A. bicolor Hook., American adenocaulon [SD, WY] Ageratina Spach, snakeroot, thoroughwort A. altissima (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob., tall snakeroot [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = A. altissima (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. var. altissima SYN = A. altissima (L.) R.M. King & H. Rob. var. angustata (A. Gray) Clewell & Wooten SYN = Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. – A, F A. herbacea (A. Gray) R.M. King & H. Rob., white snakeroot, white thoroughwort [CO]

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SYN = Eupatorium herbaceum (A. Gray) Greene Agoseris Raf., false-dandelion A. aurantiaca (Hook.) Greene, orange false-dandelion var. aurantiaca [SD, WY] A. glauca (Pursh) Raf., pale false-dandelion var. dasycephala (Torr. & A. Gray) Jeps. [MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = A. pumila (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = A. scorzonerifolia (Schrad.) Greene var. glauca [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] var. laciniata (D.C. Eaton) Smiley [ND, SD, WY] SYN = A. parviflora (Nutt.) Greene Amblyolepis DC., huisache-daisy A. setigera DC., huisache-daisy [TX] Ambrosia L., ragweed, bur-sage A. acanthicarpa Hook., annual bur-sage [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Franseria acanthicarpa (Hook.) Coville A. artemisiifolia L., common ragweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. artemisiifolia L. var. elatior (L.) Descourt. SYN = A. elatior L. SYN = A. longistylis Nutt. SYN = A. media Rydb. A. bidentata Michx., southern ragweed, lance-leaf ragweed [KS, MO, OK] A. confertiflora DC., field ragweed [CO, KS, OK, TX] SYN = Franseria tenuifolia Harv. & A. Gray A. grayi (A. Nelson) Shinners, bur ragweed [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Franseria tomentosa A. Gray A. linearis (Rydb.) Payne, narrow-leaf ragweed [endemic: CO] A. psilostachya DC., western ragweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray SYN = A. psilostachya DC. var. coronopifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Farw. A. tomentosa Nutt., perennial bur-sage, skeleton-leaf bur-sage [CO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Franseria discolor Nutt. A. trifida L., giant ragweed [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. striata Rydb. SYN = A. trifida L. var. texana Scheele SYN = A. variabilis Rydb. Amphiachyris (DC.) Nutt., broomweed A. dracunculoides (DC.) Nutt., common broomweed [KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Gutierrezia dracunculoides (DC.) S.F. Blake – A, F SYN = Xanthocephalum dracunculoides (DC.) Shinners Anaphalis DC., pearly-everlasting A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook., common pearly-everlasting [Alb, CO, MN, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. var. angustior (Miq.) Nakai SYN = A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. var. intercedens H. Hara SYN = A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. var. occidentalis Greene SYN = A. margaritacea (L.) Benth. & Hook. var. subalpina A. Gray SYN = A. subalpina (A. Gray) Rydb. Antennaria Gaertn., nom. conserv., pussy’s-toes A. anaphaloides Rydb., anaphalis pussy’s-toes [Alb, Sas, WY] SYN = A. pulcherrima (Hook.) Greene subsp. anaphaloides (Rydb.) W.A. Weber SYN = A. pulcherrima (Hook.) Greene var. anaphaloides (Rydb.) G.W. Douglas A. corymbosa E. Nelson, corymbose pussy’s-toes [Alb, Sas] A. dimorpha (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, low pussy-toes, dwarf pussy’s-toes [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, WY] A. howellii Greene, northern pussy’s-toes subsp. howellii [MT, ND, NE, SD] SYN = A. neglecta Greene var. howellii (Greene) Cronquist – F SYN = A. neodioica Greene subsp. howellii (Greene) R.J. Bayer Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. neodioica (Greene) R.J. Bayer [Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. neglecta Greene var. attenuata (Fernald) Cronquist SYN = A. neodioica Greene subsp. Neodioica – F SYN = A. russellii B. Boivin A. microphylla Rydb., little-leaf pussy’s-toes [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] A. neglecta Greene, field pussy’s-toes [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. campestris Rydb. SYN = A. chelonica Lunell SYN = A. longifolia Greene A. parlinii Fernald, plaintain-leaf pussy’s-toes subsp. fallax (Greene) R.J. Bayer & Stebbins [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. fallax Greene SYN = A. occidentalis Greene A. plantaginifolia (L.) Richardson misapplied – A A. parvifolia Nutt., small-leaf pussy’s-toes [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. aprica Greene A. rosea Greene, pink pussy’s-toes subsp. arida (E. Nelson) R.J. Bayer [Alb, MT, ND, WY] subsp. pulvinata (Greene) R.J. Bayer [Alb, Sas, WY] subsp. rosea [MT, SD, WY] SYN = A. oxyphylla Greene A. umbrinella Rydb., shade pussy’s-toes [Alb, MT, Sas, SD, WY] Anthemis L., chamomile *A. arvensis L., field chamomile var. agrestis (Wallr.) DC. [MO, ND, NE] *A. cotula L., may-weed chamomile [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, WY] SYN = Maruta cotula (L.) DC. *A. tinctoria L., golden chamomile [ND, SD] SYN = Cota tinctoria (L.) J. Gay Aphanostephus DC., lazy daisy A. pilosus Buckley, hairy lazy daisy [OK, TX] A. ramosissimus DC., spreading lazy daisy var. ramosissimus [NM, OK, TX] A. riddellii Torr. & A. Gray, Riddell’s lazy daisy [TX] A. skirrhobasis (DC.) Trel., parasol lazy daisy var. skirrhobasis [KS, NM, OK, TX] Arctium L., burdock *A. lappa L., great burdock [ND, SD] *A. minus Bernh., common burdock [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *A. tomentosum Mill., woolly burdock [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MO, ND, Sas, SD] Arnica L., arnica A. chamissonis Less., Chamisso arnica subsp. chamissonis [Alb] subsp. foliosa (Nutt.) Maguire [Alb, Sas] A. cordifolia Hook., heart-leaf arnica var. cordifolia [Alb, Man, MT, Sas, SD, WY] A. fulgens Pursh, orange arnica, gleaming arnica [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] A. lonchophylla Greene, lance-leaf arnica subsp. arnoglossa (Greene) Maguire [SD, WY] SYN = A. lonchophylla Greene var. arnoglossa (Greene) B. Boivin – F A. mollis Hook., hairy arnica [WY] A. sororia Greene, meadow arnica [Alb, MT, WY] SYN = A. fulgens Pursh var. sororia (Greene) G.W. Douglas & G. Ruyle-Douglas Arnoglossum Raf., Indian-plantain A. atriplicifolium (L.) H. Rob., pale Indian-plantain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Cacalia atriplicifolia L. – A, F SYN = Mesadenia atriplicifolia (L.) Raf. A. plantagineum Raf., tuberous Indian-plantain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Cacalia plantaginea (Raf.) Shinners – F SYN = Cacalia tuberosa Nutt. – A SYN = Mesadenia tuberosa (Nutt.) Britton Artemisia L., sagewort, sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort *A. abrotanum L., old-man wormwood, southernwood [KS, MN] *A. absinthium L., common wormwood [Alb, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *A. annua L., sweet wormwood, sweet sagewort [KS, MO, WY] *A. biennis Willd., biennial wormwood var. biennis [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] A. bigelovii A. Gray, Bigelow’s sagewort [CO, TX] SYN = Seriphidium bigelovii (A. Gray) K. Bremer & Humphries A. campestris L., western sagewort subsp. borealis (Pall.) H.M. Hall & Clem. var. scouleriana (Besser) Cronquist [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Oligosporus borealis (Pall.) Polijak pro parte subsp. caudata (Michx.) H.M. Hall & Clem. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. bourgeauana Rydb. SYN = A. camporum Rydb. pro parte SYN = A. caudata Michx. SYN = A. caudata Michx. var. calvens Lunell SYN = A. forwoodii S. Watson SYN = A. forwoodii S. Watson var. calvens (Lunell) Lunell SYN = A. scouleriana Rydb. SYN = Oligosporus campestris (L.) Cass. subsp. caudata (Michx.) W.A. Weber SYN = Oligosporus caudatus (Michx.) Poljakov A. cana Pursh, dwarf sagebrush, silver sagebrush [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Seriphidium canum (Pursh) W.A. Weber A. carruthii A.W. Wood ex Carruth, Carruth’s sagewort [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = A. vulgaris L. var. carruthii (A.W. Wood ex Carruth) F.C. Gates A. dracunculus L., silky wormwood, tarragon [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY SYN = A. cernua Nutt. SYN = A. dracunculoides Pursh SYN = A. dracunculus L. subsp. glauca (Pall. ex Willd.) H.M. Hall & Clem. SYN = A. glauca Pall. ex Willd. SYN = Oligosporus dracunculus (Michx.) Poljakov subsp. glaucus (Pall. ex Willd.) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. filifolia Torr., sand sagewort [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Oligosporus filifolius (Torr.) Poljakov A. frigida Willd., prairie sagewort, fringed sagewort [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] A. longifolia Nutt., long-leaf sagewort [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. falcata Rydb. A. ludoviciana Nutt., Louisiana sagewort, white sagewort subsp. albula (Wooton) D.D. Keck [TX] SYN = A. albula Wooton SYN = A. ludoviciana Nutt. var. albula (Wooton) Shinners subsp. incompta (Nutt.) D.D. Keck [WY] SYN = A. ludoviciana Nutt. var. incompta (Nutt.) Cronquist subsp. ludoviciana [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. brittonnii Rydb. SYN = A. diversifolia Rydb. SYN = A. gnaphalodes Nutt. SYN = A. herriottii Rydb. SYN = A. ludoviciana Nutt. var. ludoviciana – F SYN = A. pabularis (A. Nelson) Rydb. SYN = A. purshiana Besser SYN = A. vulgaris L. subsp. ludoviciana (Nutt.) H.M. Hall & Clem. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. mexicana (Willd. ex Spreng.) D.D. Keck [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = A. lindeimeriana Scheele SYN = A. ludoviciana Nutt. var. mexicana (Willd. ex Spreng.) Fernald – F SYN = A. vulgaris L. subsp. mexicana (Willd. ex Spreng.) H.M. Hall & Clem. A. nova A. Nelson, black sagebrush [WY] SYN = Artemisia arbuscula Nutt. subsp. nova (A. Nelson) G.H. Ward SYN = Artemisia nova A. Nelson SYN = Seriphidium novum (A. Nelson) W.A. Weber A. pedatifida Nutt., bird’s-foot sagebrush [MT, WY] SYN = Oligosporus pedatifidus (Nutt.) Poljakov A. tridentata Nutt., big sagebrush var. tridentata, common big sagebrush [WY] SYN = Artemisia angusta Rydb. SYN = Artemisia tridentata Nutt. – A SYN = Seriphidium tridentatum (Nutt.) W.A. Weber var. vaseyana (Rydb.) B. Boivin, Vasey's big sagebrush [WY] SYN = Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle SYN = Artemisia vaseyana Rydb. SYN = Seriphidium tridentatum (Nutt.) W.A. Weber subsp. vaseyanum (Rydb.) W.A. Weber SYN = Seriphidium vaseyanum (Rydb.) W.A. Weber var. wyomingensis (Beetle & A. Young) S.L. Welsh, Wyoming big sagebrush [MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Artemisia tridentata Nutt. subsp. wyomingensis Beetle & A. Young SYN = Seriphidium tridentatum (Nutt.) W.A. Weber subsp. wyomingense (Beetle & A. Young) W.A. Weber SYN = Seriphidium tridentatum (Nutt.) W.A. Weber var. wyomingense (Beetle & A. Young) Y.R. Ling Aster L., aster (see also Brachyactis, Chloracantha, Ionactis) A. x amethystinus Nutt. {A. ericoides x A. novae-angliae}, amethyst aster [CO, ND, NE] SYN = Lasallea x amethystina (Nutt.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum x amethystinum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus x amethystinus (Nutt.) Reveal & Keener A. anomalus Engelm., many-ray aster, blue aster [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Symphyotrichum anomalum (Engelm.) G.L. Nesom A. ascendens Lindl., intermountain aster [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = A. adsurgens Greene SYN = A. chilensis Nees subsp. ascendens (Lindl.) Cronquist – F SYN = A. nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Symphyotrichum ascendens (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulaster ascendens (Lindl.) Semple A. borealis (Torr. & A. Gray) Prov., boreal aster [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = A. junciformis Rydb. – A SYN = Symphyotrichum boreale (Torr. & A. Gray) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. ciliolatus Lindl., Lindley’s aster var. ciliolatus [Alb, MN, ND, SD, WY] SYN = A. lindleyanus Torr. & A. Gray SYN = A. saundersii E.S. Burgess SYN = Symphyotrichum ciliolatum (Lindl.) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. conspicuus Lindl., showy aster [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Eurybia conspicua (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom A. cordifolius L., heart-leaf aster, blue wood aster var. sagittifolius (Wedem. ex Willd.) A.G. Jones [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = A. cordifolius L. subsp. sagittifolius (Wedem. ex Willd.) A.G. Jones SYN = A. sagittifolius Wedem. ex Willd. – A, F SYN = Symphyotrichum sagittifolium (Wedem. ex Willd.) G.L. Nesom A. drummondii Lindl., Drummond's aster subsp. drummondii [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = A. finkii Rydb. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Symphyotrichum drummondii (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom subsp. parviceps (Shinners) A.G. Jones [KS, NE, OK] SYN = A. drummondii Lindl. var. parviceps (Shinners) A.G. Jones SYN = A. texanus Burgess var. parviceps Shinners SYN = Symphyotrichum drummondii (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom var. parviceps (Shinners) G.L. Nesom subsp. texanus (Burgess) A.G. Jones [KS, OK] SYN = A. drummondii Lindl. var. texanus (Burgess) A.G. Jones SYN = A. texanus Burgess SYN = Symphyotrichum drummondii (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom var. texanum (Burgess) G.L. Nesom A. eatonii (A. Gray) Howell, Eaton’s aster [Alb, Sas, WY] A. oregonus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray misapplied - Harrington SYN = Symphyotrichum eatonii (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom A. ericoides L., heath aster, white aster subsp. ericoides var. ericoides [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = A. x batesii Rydb. SYN = A. ericoides L. var. batesii (Rydb.) F.C. Gates SYN = Lasallea ericoides (L.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum x batesii (Rydb.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus ericoides (L.) Reveal & Keener var. prostratus (Kuntze) S.F. Blake [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. prostratum (Kuntze) G.L. Nesom subsp. pansus (S.F. Blake) A.G. Jones var. pansus [Alb, CO, KS, MT, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = A. ericoides L. var. pansus (S.F. Blake) B. Boivin SYN = A. exiguus Rydb. SYN = A. pansus (S.F. Blake) Cronquist – A, F SYN = Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. pansum (S.F. Blake) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus ericoides (L.) Reveal & Keener var. pansus (S.F. Blake) Reveal & Keener var. stricticaulis (Torr. & A. Gray) F.C. Gates [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, NE, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Symphyotrichum ericoides (L.) G.L. Nesom var. stricticaule (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom A. falcatus Lindl., western heath aster subsp. commutatus (Torr. & A. Gray) A.G. Jones var. commutatus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. commutatus (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray – F SYN = A. falcatus Lindl. var. commutatus (Torr. & A. Gray) A.G. Jones SYN = A. polycephalus Rydb. SYN = Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom var. commutatum (Torr. & A. Gray) G.L. Nesom var. crassulus (Rydb.) Cronquist [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. crassulus Rydb. SYN = Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom var. crassulum (Rydb.) G.L. Nesom subsp. falcatus [Alb, CO, Man, ND, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Lasallea falcata (Lindl.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum falcatum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus falcatus (Lindl.) Reveal & Keener A. fendleri A. Gray, Fendler's aster [endemic: KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Symphyotrichum fendleri (A. Gray.) G.L. Nesom Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Virgulus fendleri (A. Gray) Reveal & Keener A. laevis L., smooth blue aster var. geyeri A. Gray [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. geyeri (A. Gray) Howell SYN = Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. geyeri (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom var. laevis [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = A. laeviformis Rydb. SYN = Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. lanceolatus Willd., lance-leaf aster, tall white aster, panicled aster subsp. hesperius (A. Gray) Semple & Chmiel. [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. durus Lunell SYN = A. lautus Lunell SYN = A. lautus Lunell var. prinoides Lunell SYN = A. fluvialis Osterh. SYN = A. hesperius A. Gray var. hesperius – A, F SYN = A. osterhoutii Rydb. SYN = Symphyotrichum lanceolata (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. hesperium (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom subsp. lanceolatus var. hirsuticaulis Semple & Chmiel. [Man, MN, ND] SYN = A. simplex Willd. var. interior (Wiegand) Cronquist pro parte – A SYN = A. simplex Willd. var. ramosissimus (Torr. & A. Gray) Cronquist pro parte – A, F SYN = Symphyotrichum lanceolata (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. hirsuticaule (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom var. interior (Wiegand) Semple & Chmiel. [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = A. lanceolatus Willd. subsp. interior (Wiegand) A.G. Jones SYN = A. simplex Willd. var. interior (Wiegand) Cronquist pro parte – A, F SYN = Symphyotrichum lanceolata (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. interior (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom var. lanceolatus [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = A. acutidens Smyth SYN = A. paniculatus Lam. var. polychrous Lunell SYN = A. simplex Willd. var. ramosissimus (Torr. & A. Gray) Cronquist pro parte – A, F SYN = Symphyotrichum lanceolatum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. latifolius Semple & Chmiel. [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = A. jacobaeus Lunell SYN = A. paniculatus Lam. pro parte SYN = A. simplex Willd. var. simplex – A, F SYN = A. lanceolatus Willd. subsp. simplex (Willd.) A.G. Jones SYN = A. lanceolatus Willd. var. simplex (Willd.) A.G. Jones SYN = Symphyotrichum lanceolata (Willd.) G.L. Nesom var. latifolium (Semple & Chmiel.) G.L. Nesom A. lateriflorus (L.) Britton, white woodland aster, calico aster var. lateriflorus [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. novae-angliae L., New England aster [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Lasallea novae-angliae (L.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus novae-angliae (L.) Reveal & Keener A. oblongifolius Nutt., aromatic aster [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. kumleinii Fr. ex A. Gray SYN = A. oblongifolius Nutt. var. angustatus Shinners – F SYN = A. oblongifolius Nutt. var. oblongifolius - F SYN = Lasallea oblongifolia (Nutt.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum oblongifolium (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus oblongifolius (Nutt.) Reveal & Keener Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Virgulus oblongifolius (Nutt.) Reveal & Keener var. angustatus (Shinners) Reveal & Keener A. ontarionis Wiegand, Ontario aster, Missouri aster var. ontarionis [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. missouriensis Britton SYN = Symphyotrichum ontarione (Wiegand) G.L. Nesom A. oolentangiensis Riddell, azure aster var. oolentangiensis [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. azureus Lindl. – A SYN = Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G.L. Nesom var. poaceus (Burgess) A.G. Jones [OK] SYN = Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G.L. Nesom var. poaceum (Burgess) G.L. Nesom A. paludosus Aiton, single-stem bog aster, showy aster subsp. hemisphericus (Alexander) Cronquist [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. hemisphericus Alexander SYN = A. paludosus Aiton var. hemisphericus (Alexander) Waterf. SYN = Eurybia hemispherica (Alexander) G.L. Nesom A. parviceps (Burgess) Mack. & Bush, small-head aster [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Symphyotrichum parviceps (Burgess) G.L. Nesom A. patens Aiton, sky-drop aster var. gracilis Hook. [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. tenuicaulis (C. Mohr) E.S. Burgess SYN = Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) G.L. Nesom var. gracile (Hook.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus patens (Aiton) Reveal & Keener var. gracilis (Hook.) Reveal & Keener var. patens [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Lasallea patens (Aiton) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus patens (Aiton) Reveal & Keener var. patentissimus (Lindl. ex DC.) Torr. & A. Gray [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. patentissimus Lindl. ex DC. SYN = Symphyotrichum patens (Aiton) G.L. Nesom var. patentissmum (DC.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus patens (Aiton) Reveal & Keener var. patentissimus (Lindl.) Reveal & Keener A. pauciflorus Nutt., few-flower aster [Alb, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = Almutaster pauciflorus (Nutt.) Á. Löve & D. Löve A. pilosus Willd., hairy aster, frost-weed aster var. pilosus [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. glabellus Nees SYN = Symphyotrichum pilosum (Willd.) G.L. Nesom A. praealtus Poir., willow-leaf aster var. nebraskensis (Britton) Wiegand [endemic: KS, NE] SYN = A. nebraskensis Britton SYN = Symphyotrichum praealtum (L.) G.L. Nesom var. nebraskense (Britton) G.L. Nesom var. praealtus [IA, KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = A. coerulescens DC. SYN = A. salicifolius Aiton SYN = Symphyotrichum praealtum (Poir.) G.L. Nesom A. puniceus L., swamp aster, bog aster, purple-stem aster var. firmus (Nees) Torr. & A. Gray [IA, MN, ND] SYN = A. lucidulus (A. Gray) Wiegand – A, F SYN = A. puniceus L. subsp. firmus (Nees) A.G. Jones SYN = Symphyotrichum firmum (Nees) G.L. Nesom var. puniceus [IA, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) G.L. Nesom A. sericeus Vent., silky aster [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Lasallea sericea (Vent.) Semple & Brouillet SYN = Symphyotrichum sericeum (Vent.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Virgulus sericeus (Vent.) Reveal & Keener Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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A. sibiricus L., arctic aster, Siberian aster var. meritus (A. Nelson) Raup [SD, WY] SYN = A. meritus A. Nelson SYN = Eurybia merita (A. Nelson) G.L. Nesom A. subulatus Michx., saltmarsh aster var. ligulatus Shinners [KS, NE, OK, TX] SYN = A. exilis Elliott SYN = Symphyotrichum divaricatum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Tripolium divaricatum Nutt. A. turbinellus Lindl., prairie aster [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Symphyotrichum turbinellum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom A. umbellatus Mill., northern tall flat-top white aster var. pubens A. Gray [IA, MN, ND, NE, Man] SYN = A. pubentior Cronquist - A, F SYN = Doellingeria pubens (A. Gray) Rydb. SYN = Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees var. pubens (A. Gray) Britton var. umbellatus [IA, MN] SYN = Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees A. urophyllus Lindl., arrow-leaf aster [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl.) G.L. Nesom Astranthium Nutt., western-daisy A. integrifolium (Michx.) Nutt., whole-leaf western-daisy subsp. ciliatum (Raf.) DeJong [KS, OK] Baccharis L., baccharis B. salicifolia (Ruiz & Pav.) Pers., sticky baccharis, seep-willow [TX] SYN = B. glutinosa Pers. – A, F B. salicina Torr. & A. Gray, willow baccharis [KS, NM, OK, TX] B. texana (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray, prairie baccharis, Texas baccharis [OK, TX] B. wrightii A. Gray, Wright’s baccharis [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Bahia Lag., bahia B. pedata A. Gray, blunt-scale bahia [NM, TX] Balsamorhiza Nutt., balsamroot B. incana Nutt., hoary balsamroot [MT] B. sagittata (Pursh) Nutt., arrow-leaf balsamroot [MT, SD, WY] Bellis L., daisy *B. perennis L., English daisy [ND] Berlandiera DC., berlandiera B. betonicifolia (Hook.) Small, betony-leaf berlandiera [KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = B. texana DC. – A, F B. lyrata Benth., lyre-leaf berlandiera var. lyrata [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Bidens L., beggar-ticks B. aristosus (Michx.) Britton, coreopsis beggar-ticks, bearded beggar-ticks var. retrorsus (Sherff) Wunderlin [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = B. involucratus (Nutt.) Britton SYN = B. polylepis S.F. Blake – A, F B. bigelovii A. Gray, Bigelow’s beggar-ticks [CO, OK, TX] B. bipinnatus L., Spanish needles [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] B. cernuus L., nodding beggar-ticks [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = B. ellipticus (Wiegand) Gleason SYN = B. filamentosus Rydb. SYN = B. glaucescens Rydb. SYN = B. prionophyllus Greene B. comosus (A. Gray) Wiegand, leafy-bract beggar-ticks [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = B. acutus (Wiegand) Britton B. tripartitus L. mispplied B. connatus Muhl. ex Willd., purple-stem beggar-ticks [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = B. connatus Muhl. ex Willd. var. gracilipes Fernald SYN = B. connatus Muhl. ex Willd. var. petiolatus (Nutt.) Farw. – F SYN = B. connatus Muhl. ex Willd. var. pinnatus S. Watson SYN = B. sandbergii Rydb. B. coronatus (L.) Britton, crown beggar-ticks [IA, NE, SD] B. frondosus L., devil’s beggar-ticks [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] B. vulgatus Greene, tall beggar-ticks [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = B. puberulus Wiegand SYN = B. vulgatus Greene var. puberulus (Wiegand) Greene – F Boltonia L'Her, boltonia B. asteroides (L.) L'Hér., white boltonia var. latisquama (A. Gray) Cronquist [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = B. latisquama A. Gray var. recognita (Fernald & Griscom) Cronquist [KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = B. latisquama A. Gray var. recognita Fernald & Griscom Brachyactis Ledeb., aster B. ciliata (Ledeb.) Ledeb., rayless aster, short-ray aster subsp. angusta (Lindl.) A.G. Jones [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Aster brachyactis S.F. Blake – A, F SYN = B. angusta (Lindl.) Britton SYN = Symphyotrichum ciliatum (Ledeb.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Tripolium angustum Lindl. B. frondosa (Nutt.) A.G. Jones, leafy aster [WY] SYN = A. frondosus (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Symphyotrichum frondosum (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom Bradburia Torr. & A. Gray, nom. conserv., bradburia B. pilosa (Nutt.) Semple, hairy bradburia [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = Chrysopsis pilosa Nutt. – A, F SYN = Heterotheca pilosa (Nutt.) Shinners Brickellia Elliott, nom. conserv., brickellbush, false-boneset B. brachyphylla (A. Gray) A. Gray, plume brickellbush var. brachyphylla [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] B. californica (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray, California brickellbush var. californica [CO, NM, OK, TX] B. eupatorioides (L.) Shinners, eastern brickellbush, false-boneset var. chlorolepis (Wooton & Standl.) B.L. Turner [CO, OK, TX] SYN = B. rosmarinifolia (Vent.) W.A. Weber subsp. chlorolepis (Wooton & Standl.) W.A. Weber SYN = Kuhnia chlorolepis Wooton & Standl. - A, F var. corymbulosa (Torr. & A. Gray) Shinners [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Kuhnia eupatorioides L. var. corymbulosa Torr. & A. Gray – A, F var. texana (Shinners) Shinners [KS, MO, OK] SYN = B. eupatorioides (L.) Shinners var. ozarkana (Shinners) Shinners SYN = Kuhnia eupatorioides L. var. ozarkana Shinners – F SYN = Kuhnia eupatorioides L. var. texana Shinners – A, F B. grandiflora (Hook.) Nutt., tassel-flower brickellbush [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, WY] SYN = B. umbellata (Greene) Rydb. Cacalia L. (see Arnoglossum) Carduus L., plumeless-thistle *C. acanthoides L., small-head plumeless-thistle [KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD] *C. crispus L., curly plumeless-thistle, welted plumeless-thistle [ND] *C. nutans L., musk-thistle, musk plumeless-thistle, nodding plumeless-thistle      ! "$# % &')(*&,+ "-&/.0&/123 &/154)&/12(*&/4$6)&/4)78&(9.8&8;:&06)& subsp. leiophyllus TX, WY] subsp. macrocephalus (Desf.) Nyman [MT, SD, WY] Carthamus L., safflower *C. tinctorius L., safflower [KS, NE] Centaurea L., knapweed, star-thistle (see also Acroptilon) Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. americana Nutt., American knapweed, basket-flower [KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] *C. biebersteinii DC., spotted knapweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] C. maculosa Lam. misapplied – F *C. cyanus L., bachelor's-button, cornflower, bluebottle [Alb, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] *C. diffusa Lam., diffuse knapweed, tumble knapweed [CO, NE] *C. iberica Trevir. ex Spreng., Iberian star-thistle [KS] *C. nigrescens Willd., short-fringe knapweed [NE] *C. scabiosa L., greater knapweed [ND, WY] *C. solstitialis L., yellow star-thistle [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, WY] Chaenactis DC., dusty-maiden C. douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn., Douglas’ dusty-maiden var. douglasii [MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = C. douglasii (Hook.) Hook. & Arn. var. achilleaefolia (Hook. & Arn.) A. Nelson – F Chaetopappa DC., least daisy C. asteroides (Nutt.) DC., common least daisy var. asteroides [KS, MO, OK] C. ericoides (Torr.) G.L. Nesom, heath least daisy [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Aster arenosus (A. Heller) S.F. Blake SYN = Leucelene ericoides (Torr.) Greene – A, F Chloracantha G.L. Nesom, Y.B. Suh, D.R. Morgan, S.D. Sundb. & B.B. Simpson, devilweed C. spinosa (Benth.) G.L. Nesom, Mexican devilweed var. spinosa [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Aster spinosus Benth. – A, F Chrysanthemum L. (see Leucanthemum, Tanacetum) Chrysopsis (Nutt.) Elliott, nom. conserv. (see Bradburia, Heterotheca) Chrysothamnus Nutt., rabbitbrush (see also Ericameria) C. greenei (A. Gray) Greene, Greene’s rabbitbrush [CO] C. linifolius Greene, slender-leaf rabbitbrush [MT, WY] SYN = Ericameria linifolia (Greene) L.C. Anderson C. pulchellus (A. Gray) Greene, pretty rabbitbrush subsp. baileyi (Wooton & Standl.) H.M. Hall & Clem. [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. baileyi Wooton & Standl. SYN = Ericameria pulchella (A. Gray) L.C. Anderson subsp. baileyi (Wooton & Standl.) L.C. Anderson C. viscidiflorus (Hook.) Nutt., sticky rabbitbrush subsp. lanceolatus (Nutt.) H.M. Hall & Clem. [MT, SD, WY] SYN = Ericameria viscidiflora (Hook.) L.C. Anderson subsp. lanceolata (Nutt.) L.C. Anderson subsp. viscidiflorus [MT, NE, WY] SYN = Ericameria viscidiflora (Hook.) L.C. Anderson subsp. viscidiflora Cichorium L., chicory *C. intybus L., common chicory [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Cirsium Mill., thistle C. altissimum (L.) Spreng., tall thistle, roadside thistle [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] *C. arvense (L.) Scop., Canadian thistle, creeping thistle [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Breea arvensis (L.) Less. SYN = C. arvense (L.) Scop. var. horridum Wimm. & Graebn. SYN = C. arvense (L.) Scop. var. mite Wimm. & Graebn. SYN = C. arvense (L.) Scop. var. vestitum Wimm. & Graebn. SYN = C. setosum (Willd.) Besser ex M. Bieb. C. canescens Nutt., Platte thistle [CO, IA, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. nebraskense (Britton) Lunell SYN = C. nelsonii (Pammel) Petr. SYN = C. plattense (Rydb.) Cockerell ex Daniels C. discolor (Muhl. ex Willd.) Spreng., field thistle [Man, MN, MO] C. drummondii Torr. & A. Gray, Drummond's thistle [Man, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. coccinatum Osterh. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. flodmanii (Rydb.) Arthur, Flodman's thistle [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. oblanceolatum (Rydb.) K. Schum. C. muticum Michx., swamp thistle [Man, MN, ND, Sas] C. ochrocentrum A. Gray, yellow-spine thistle subsp. ochrocentrum [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. pulcherrimum (Rydb.) K. Schum., pretty thistle [MT, WY] C. texanum Buckley, Texas thistle [OK, TX] C. undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng., wavy-leaf thistle var. undulatum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. megacephalum (A. Gray) Cockerell SYN = C. undulatum (Nutt.) Spreng. var. megacephalum (A. Gray) Fernald *C. vulgare (Savi) Ten., bull thistle, spear thistle [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Conoclinium DC., mistflower C. coelestinum (L.) DC., heavenly mistflower [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Eupatorium coelestinum L. – A, F Conyza Less., nom. conserv., horseweed C. canadensis (L.) Cronquist, tall horseweed, Canadian horseweed var. canadensis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Erigeron canadensis L. SYN = Leptilon canadense (L.) Britton var. glabrata (A. Gray) Cronquist [WY] C. ramosissima Cronquist, spreading horseweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Erigeron divaricatus Michx. SYN = Leptilon divaricatus (Michx.) Raf. Coreopsis L., coreopsis C. grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet, big-flower coreopsis var. harveyana (A. Gray) Sherff [KS, MO, OK] var. grandiflora [MO, OK] C. lanceolata L., lance-leaf coreopsis [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. crassifolia Aiton C. palmata Nutt., finger coreopsis [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] C. pubescens Elliott, hairy coreopsis var. pubescens [KS, MO] C. tinctoria Nutt., plains coreopsis var. tinctoria [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. cardaminefolia (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray C. tripteris L., tall coreopsis, Atlantic coreopsis [IA, KS, MO] Cosmos Cav., cosmos *C. bipinnatus Cav., common cosmos, garden cosmos [KS, WY] Crepis L., hawk's-beard C. acuminata Nutt., mountain hawk’s-beard, taper-tip hawk’s-beard subsp. acuminata [MT, WY] SYN = Psilochenia acuminata (Nutt.) W.A. Weber C. atribarba A. Heller, black-beard hawk’s-beard, slender hawk’s-beard subsp. atribarba [MT, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = Psilochenia atribarba (A. Heller) W.A. Weber *C. capillaris Wallr., thread hawk’s-beard, smooth hawk’s-beard [CO, ND] C. intermedia A. Gray, gray hawk’s-beard [CO, WY] SYN = Psilochenia intermedia (A. Gray) W.A. Weber C. modocensis Greene, Modoc hawk’s-beard [WY] SYN = Psilochenia modocensis (Greene) W.A. Weber C. occidentalis Nutt., western hawk’s-beard subsp. costata (A. Gray) Babc. & Stebbins [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Psilochenia occidentalis (Nutt.) Nutt. subsp. costata (A. Gray) W.A. Weber C. runcinata (E. James) Torr. & A. Gray, dandelion hawk’s-beard subsp. runcinata [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. glaucella Rydb. SYN = C. perplexans Rydb. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = C. petiolata Rydb. SYN = Psilochenia runcinata (E. James) Á. Löve & D. Löve *C. tectorum L., narrow-leaf hawk’s-beard [MN, ND, NE, Sas] Croptilon Raf., goldenweed C. hookerianum (Torr. & A. Gray) House, slender goldenweed var. validum (Rydb.) E.B. Sm. [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Haplopappus divaricatus (Nutt.) A. Gray misapplied SYN = Haplopappus validus (Rydb.) Cory – A, F SYN = Isopappus validus Rydb. Dracopis Cass., clasping-coneflower D. amplexicaulis (Vahl) Cass., clasping-coneflower [KS, MO, ND, OK] SYN = Rudbeckia amplexicaulis Vahl – A Dyssodiopsis (A. Gray) Rydb., false fetid-marigold D. tagetoides (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb., southern false fetid-marigold [OK, TX] SYN = Dyssodia tagetoides Torr. & A. Gray – A, F Dyssodia Cav., fetid-marigold (see also Dysodiopsis, Thymophylla) D. papposa (Vent.) Hitchc., prairie fetid-marigold [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Boebera papposa (Vent.) Rydb. Echinacea Moench, purple-coneflower E. angustifolia DC., black-Sampson purple-coneflower, narrow-leaf purple-coneflower var. angustifolia [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. var. angustifolia (DC.) Cronquist var. strigosa McGregor [KS, OK, TX] E. atrorubens Nutt., tall purple-coneflower [KS, OK, TX] E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt., pale purple-coneflower [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] E. purpurea (L.) Moench, common purple-coneflower [KS, MO, OK] Eclipta L., nom. conserv., yerba de tajo E. prostrata (L.) L. yerba de tajo [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = E. alba (L.) Hassk. Elephantopus L., elephant's-foot E. carolinianus Raeusch., Carolina elephant’s-foot [KS, MO, OK] Engelmannia A. Gray ex Nutt., Engelmann’s daisy E. peristena (Nutt. ex Raf.) Goodman & C.A. Lawson, Engelmann's daisy [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = E. pinnatifida Nutt. – A, F Erechtites Raf., burnweed E. hieraciifolia (L.) Raf. ex DC., American burnweed var. hieraciifolia [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] Ericameria Nutt., rabbitbrush E. nauseosa (Pall. ex Pursh) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird, rubber rabbitbrush var. glabrata (A. Gray) Reveal & Schuyler [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall. ex Pursh) Britton subsp. graveolens (Nutt.) Piper – A, F SYN = Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall. ex Pursh) Britton var. glabratus (A. Gray) Cronquist var. nauseosa [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysothamnus frigidus Greene SYN = Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Pall. ex Pursh) Britton subsp. nauseosus – A, F SYN = Chrysothamnus plattensis Greene E. parryi (A. Gray) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird, Parry’s rabbitbrush var. howardii (Parry ex A. Gray) G.L. Nesom & G.I. Baird, [NE, SD] SYN = Chrysothamnus howardii (Parry ex A. Gray) Greene SYN = Chrysothamnus parryi (A. Gray) Greene subsp. howardii (Parry ex A. Gray) H.M. Hall & Clem. Erigeron L., fleabane (see also Trimorpha) E. annuus (L.) Pers., annual fleabane [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] E. bellidiastrum Nutt., western fleabane, pretty fleabane [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. bellidiastrum Nutt. var. bellidiastrum – F SYN = E. bellidiastrum Nutt. var. robustus Cronquist – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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E. caespitosus Nutt., tufted fleabane [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = E. subcanescens Rydb. E. canus A. Gray, hoary fleabane [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] E. compositus Pursh, fern-leaf fleabane [Alb, MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = E. compositus Pursh var. compositus SYN = E. compositus Pursh var. discoideus A. Gray – F SYN = E. compositus Pursh var. glabratus Macoun E. corymbosus Nutt., mountain fleabane, purple-daisy fleabane [WY] E. divergens Torr. & A. Gray, spreading fleabane var. cinereus A. Gray [CO, KS, MT, NM, SD] SYN = E. colo-mexicanus A. Nelson var. divergens [CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] E. flagellaris A. Gray, trailing fleabane, whiplash fleabane [CO, NE, NM, SD, WY] E. formosissimus Greene, comely fleabane var. formosissimus [SD, WY] var. viscidus (Rydb.) Cronquist [SD] E. geiseri Shinners, Geiser’s fleabane var. geiseri [OK, TX] E. glabellus Nutt., smooth fleabane subsp. glabellus [Alb, Man, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. asperum Nutt. SYN = E. asperum Nutt. var. appressum Lunell SYN = E. multicolor Lunell SYN = E. subcostatus Lunell SYN = E. tardus Lunell SYN = Tessenia aspera (Nutt.) Lunell var. appressa (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia glabella (Nutt.) Lunell SYN = Tessenia multicolor (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia subcostatus (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia tarda (Lunell) Lunell subsp. pubescens (Hook.) Cronquist [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. abruptorum Lunell SYN = E. anodontus Lunell SYN = E. asperum Nutt. var. subintegra Lunell SYN = E. drummondii Greene SYN = E. oligodontus Lunell SYN = E. oligodontus Lunell var. acuminatus Lunell SYN = E. oxydontus Lunell SYN = E. procerus Lunell SYN = Tessenia abruptorum (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia anodonta (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia aspera (Nutt.) Lunell var. subintegra (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia glabella (Nutt.) Lunell var. subdiscoidea Lunell SYN = Tessenia oligodonta (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenai oligodonta (Lunell) Lunell var. acuminata (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia oligodonta (Lunell) Lunell var. roseata Lunell SYN = Tessenia oxydonta (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Tessenia procera (Lunell) Lunell E. modestus A. Gray, plains fleabane [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] E. ochroleucus Nutt., grass-leaf fleabane var. ochroleucus [Alb, SD, WY] SYN = E. laetevirens Rydb. SYN = E. montanensis Rydb. var. scribneri (Canby ex Rydb.) Cronquist [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] E. philadelphicus L., Philadelphia fleabane var. philadelphicus [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = E. purpureus Aiton SYN = Tessenia philadelphica (L.) Lunell Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Tessenia philadelphica (L.) Lunell var. acaulescens Lunell E. pulchellus Michx., Robin’s-plantain var. pulchellus [KS, MN, MO] E. pumilus Nutt., low fleabane subsp. concinnoides Cronquist [CO] SYN = E. concinnus (Hook. & Arn.) Torr. & A. Gray var. concinnus subsp. pumilis [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Tessenia pumila (Nutt.) Lunell E. radicatus Hook., northern fleabane [ND, Sas] E. speciosus (Lindl.) DC., showy fleabane, Oregon fleabane var. macranthus (Nutt.) Cronquist [Alb, SD] E. strigosus Muhl. ex Willd., daisy fleabane var. beyrichii (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) A. Gray [OK, SD, TX] var. septentrionalis (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald [OK, Sas, WY] var. strigosus [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. ramosus (Walter) Britton et al. SYN = Tessenia obscura Lunell SYN = Tessenia ramosa (Walter) Lunell E. subtrinervis Rydb. ex Porter & Britton, three-nerve fleabane var. subtrinervis [MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] E. tenuis Torr. & A. Gray, slender fleabane [KS, MO, OK] E. vetensis Rydb., early blue fleabane, La Veta fleabane [NE] Eupatorium L., joe-pye-weed (see also Ageratina, Conoclinium) E. altissimum L., tall joe-pye-weed [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] E. maculatum L., spotted joe-pye-weed subsp. maculatum var. maculatum [MN] subsp. bruneri (A. Gray) G.W. Douglas [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = E. bruneri A. Gray SYN = E. maculatum L. var. bruneri (A. Gray) Breitung E. perfoliatum L., clasping-leaf joe-pye-weed, boneset [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] E. purpureum L., sweet joe-pye-weed, blue-stem joe-pye-weed var. holzingeri (Rydb.) E. Lamont [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = E. holzingeri Rydb. var. purpureum [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = E. falcatum Michx. E. serotinum Michx., fall joe-pye-weed, late joe-pye-weed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] E. sessilifolium L., upland joe-pye-weed [KS] Euthamia Nutt. ex Cass., euthamia E. graminifolia (L.) Nutt., grass-leaf euthamia var. graminifolia [MN, ND, SD] SYN = Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. var. graminifolia – A var. major (Michx.) Moldenke [MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. var. major (Michx.) Fernald – A E. gymnospermoides Greene, sticky euthamia [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = E. camporum Greene SYN = E. glutinosa Rydb. SYN = Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. var. gymnospermoides (Greene) Croat – A SYN = Solidago graminifolia (L.) Salisb. var. media (Greene) S.K. Harris – A SYN = Solidago gymnospermoides (Greene) Fernald E. occidentalis Nutt., western euthamia [MT, NE, WY] SYN = Solidago occidentalis (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray – A Evax Gaertn., rabbit-tobacco E. prolifera Nutt. ex DC., big-head rabbit-tobacco [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Diaperia prolifera (Nutt. ex DC.) Nutt. SYN = Filago nuttallii Shinners E. verna Raf., spring rabbit-tobacco, spring evax [OK, TX] var. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Kartesz & Gandhi Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = E. multicaulis DC. – F SYN = Filago verna (Raf.) Shinners var. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Shinners Facelis Cass., facelis *F. retusa (Lam.) Sch. Bip., blunt facelis [KS, OK] Filago L., nom. conserv., fluffweed *F. arvensis L., field fluffweed [MT, NE, SD, WY] Flaveria Juss., flaveria F. campestris J.R. Johnst., alkali flaveria [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] F. trinervia (Spreng.) C. Mohr, cluster flaveria [TX] Gaillardia Foug., blanket-flower G. aestivalis (Walter) H. Rock, prairie blanket-flower, slender-leaf blanket-flower var. aestivalis [KS, OK, TX] SYN = G. fastigata Greene – A SYN = G. lanceolata Michx. SYN = G. lanceolata Michx. var. fastigiata (Greene) Waterf. var. flavovirens (C. Mohr) Cronquist [OK] SYN = G. lanceolata Michx. var. flavovirens C. Mohr G. aristata Pursh, northern blanket-flower [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] G. pinnatifida Torr., cut-leaf blanket-flower var. pinnatifida [CO, NM, OK, TX] G. pulchella Foug., Indian blanket-flower, rose-ring blanket-flower var. pulchella [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = G. drummondii (Hook.) DC. G. suavis (A. Gray & Engelm.) Britton & Rusby, rayless blanket-flower [KS, OK, TX] Galinsoga Ruiz & Pav., quickweed *G. parviflora Cav., little-flower quickweed [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE] *G. quadriradiata Ruiz & Pav., fringed quickweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = G. ciliata (Raf.) S.F. Blake – A Gamochaeta Wedd., everlasting G. purpurea (L.) Cabrera, purple everlasting [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Gnaphalium purpureum L. – A, F Gnaphalium L., cudweed (see also Gamochaeta, Pseudognaphalium) G. exilifolium A. Nelson, slender-leaf cudweed [SD] SYN = G. grayii A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr. SYN = G. strictum A. Gray G. palustre Nutt., diffuse cudweed [Alb, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] *G. uliginosum L., low cudweed [MN, MT, SD, WY] Grindelia Willd., gumweed G. acutifolia Steyerm., sharp-leaf gumweed [endemic: CO, NM] G. aphanactis Rydb., mountain gumweed [CO, NM, TX] SYN = G. nuda A.W. Wood var. aphanactis (Rydb.) G.L. Nesom G. inornata Greene, homely gumweed [CO] G. lanceolata Nutt., spiny-tooth gumweed var. lanceolata [KS, MO, OK, TX] var. texana (Scheele) Shinners [OK, TX] SYN = G. texana Scheele G. revoluta Steyerm., rolled gumweed [largely endemic: CO, NM] G. squarrosa (Pursh) Dunal, curly-cup gumweed var. nuda (A.W. Wood) A. Gray [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = G. nuda A.W. Wood var. nuda var. quasiperennis Lunell [CO, MN, MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = G. perennis A. Nelson var. serrulata (Rydb.) Steyerm. [Man, Sas, WY] SYN = G. serrulata Rydb. var. squarrosa [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Gutierrezia Lag., snakeweed G. sarothrae (Pursh) Britton & Rusby, broom snakeweed [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = G. diversifolia Greene SYN = G. filifolia Greene SYN = G. juncea Greene SYN = G. linearis Rydb. SYN = Xanthocephalum sarothrae (Pursh) Shinners G. sphaerocephala A. Gray, round-leaf snakeweed [NM, TX] SYN = Xanthocephalum sphaerocephalum (A. Gray) Shinners G. texana (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray, Texas snakeweed var. texana [OK, TX] SYN = Xanthocephalum texanum (DC.) Shinners Haploesthes A. Gray, false-broomweed H. greggii A. Gray, Gregg’s false-broomweed var. texana (J.M. Coult.) I.M. Johnst. [KS, OK, TX] Haplopappus Cass., orth. conserv. (see Croptilon, Isocoma, Machaeranthera,Oönopsis, Prionopsis, Pyrrocoma, Rayjacksonia) Helenium L., sneezeweed H. amarum (Raf.) H. Rock, bitter sneezeweed, five-leaf sneezeweed var. amarum [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = H. tenuifolium Nutt. var. badium (A. Gray ex S. Watson) Waterf. [OK, TX] SYN = H. badium (A. Gray) Greene – A, F H. autumnale L., common sneezeweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = H. altissimum Link SYN = H. latifolium Mill. SYN = H. montanum Nutt. H. flexuosum Raf., purple-head sneezeweed [KS, MO, OK] SYN = H. nudiflorum Nutt. H. microcephalum DC., small-head sneezeweed var. microcephalum [CO, OK, TX] Helianthella Torr. & A. Gray, little-sunflower H. quinquenervis (Hook.) A. Gray, five-vein little-sunflower [SD, WY] Helianthus L., sunflower H. annuus L., common sunflower [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = H. aridus Rydb. SYN = H. lenticularis Douglas ex Lindl. H. ciliaris DC., Texas sunflower, Texas-blueweed [KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] H. couplandii B. Boivin, Coupland’s sunflower [Alb] H. decapetalus L., thin-leaf sunflower [IA, MO] H. giganteus L., swamp sunflower, giant sunflower [MN] H. grosseserratus M. Martens, saw-tooth sunflower [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] H. hirsutus Raf., hairy sunflower [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = H. chartaceous E. Watson H. x intermedius R.W. Long {H. maximilianii x H. grosseserratus}, intermediate sunflower [IA, MN, MO, NE, SD] H. x kellermannii R.W. Long {H. grosseserratus x H. salicifolius}, Kellerman’s sunflower [KS] H. x laetiflorus Pers. {H. pauciflorus x H. tuberosus}, showy sunflower [IA, KS, MO, NE] H. maximilianii Schrad., Maximilian’s sunflower [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] H. mollis Lam., ashy sunflower [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] H. nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray, Nuttall's sunflower subsp. nuttallii [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] subsp. rydbergii (Britton) R.W. Long [Alb, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. nitidus Lunell SYN = H. rydbergii Britton H. x orygaloides Cockerell {H. maximilianii x H. salicifolius}, antelope sunflower [KS] H. pauciflorus Nutt., stiff sunflower var. pauciflorus [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = H. laetiflorus Pers. var. rigidus (Cass.) Fernald Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = H. rigidus (Cass.) Desf. subsp. Rigidus – A, F var. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) Cronquist [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. pauciflorus Nutt. subsp. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) O. Spring & E.E. Schill. SYN = H. rigidus (Cass.) Desf. subsp. subrhomboideus (Rydb.) Heiser – A, F SYN = H. subrhomboideus Rydb. H. petiolaris Nutt., plains sunflower subsp. petiolaris [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] H. pumilus Nutt., foothills sunflower, dwarf sunflower [CO, MT, WY] H. salicifolius A. Dietr., willow-leaf sunflower [largely endemic: KS, MO, OK] H. strumosus L., woodland sunflower [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] H. tuberosus L., Jerusalem-artichoke sunflower [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. besseyi Bates SYN = H. tuberosus L. var. subcanescens A. Gray – F Heliomeris Nutt., goldeneye H. multiflora Nutt., showy goldeneye var. multiflora [CO, NM] SYN = Viguiera multiflora (Nutt.) S.F. Blake var. multiflora Heliopsis Pers., heliopsis H. helianthoides (L.) Sweet, sunflower heliopsis var. occidentalis (T.R. Fisher) Steyerm. [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] var. scabra (Dunal) Fernald [KS, MO, OK] SYN = H. scabra Dunal Herrickia Wooton & Standl., spiny-aster H. horrida Wooton & Standl., Canadian River spiny-aster [CO, NM] SYN = Eurybia horrida (Wooton & Standl.) G.L. Nesom Heterosperma Cav., heterosperma H. pinnatum Cav., thread-leaf heterosperma [CO] Heterotheca Cass., golden-aster, camphorweed H. canescens (DC.) Shinners, gray golden-aster [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Chrysopsis berlanderi Greene SYN = Chrysopsis canescens (DC.) Torr. & A. Gray – F SYN = Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. var. canescens (DC.) A. Gray – A H. fulcrata (Greene) Shinners, Intermountain golden-aster var. fulcrata [CO, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis fulcrata Greene – F H. latifolia Buckley, broad-leaf golden-aster, camphorweed var. latifolia [KS, NM, OK, TX] var. macgregoris B. Wagenkn. [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = H. subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby var. subaxillaris SYN = H. subaxillaris (Lam.) Britton & Rusby var. procumbens B. Wagenkn. H. stenophylla (A. Gray) Shinners, narrow-leaf golden-aster var. angustifolia (Rydb.) Semple [CO, KS, NE, NM, MN, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis angustifolia Rydb. SYN = Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. var. angustifolia (Rydb.) Cronquist – A, F SYN = H. villosa (Pursh) Shinners var. angustifolia (Rydb.) V.L. Harms var. stenophylla [CO, IA, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis stenophylla (A. Gray) Shinners – A, F H. villosa (Pursh) Shinners, hairy golden-aster var. ballardii (Rydb.) Semple [IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis ballardii Rydb. var. foliosa (Nutt.) Harms [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis foliosa (Nutt.) Shinners SYN = Chrysopsis imbricata A. Nelson SYN = Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. var. foliosa (Nutt.) D.C. Eaton – A, F var. minor (Hook.) Semple [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis asprella Greene SYN = Chrysopsis bakeri Greene SYN = Chrysopsis hirsutissima Greene Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Chrysopsis hispida (Hook.) DC. SYN = Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. var. hispida (Hook.) A. Gray – A, F var. nana (A. Gray) Semple [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis horrida Rydb. – A, F var. villosa [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysopsis villosa (Pursh) Nutt. ex DC. var. villosa – A, F Hieracium L., hawkweed H. albiflorum Hook., white hawkweed [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chlorocrepis albiflora (Hook.) W.A. Weber *H. aurantiacum L., orange hawkweed [SD] H. cynoglossoides Arv.-Tour., hound-tongue hawkweed [Alb] H. fendleri Sch. Bip., Fendler’s hawkweed [WY] SYN = Chlorocrepis fendleri (Sch. Bip.) W.A. Weber SYN = Heteropleura fendleri (Sch. Bip.) Rydb. H. gronovii L., Grovovius’ hawkweed [KS, MO, OK] H. kalmii L. var. canadense (Michx.) Reveal, Canadian hawkweed [IA, MN, ND, SD] SYN = H. canadense Michx. – A, F SYN = H. columbianum Rydb. SYN = H. scabriusculum Farw. var. columbianum (Rydb.) Lepage SYN = H. umbellatum L. var. canadense (Michx.) Breitung SYN = H. umbellatum L. var. scabriusculum Farw. – F var. kalmii, Kalm’s hawkweed [MN] SYN = H. canadense L. var. kalmii (L.) Scoggan H. longipilum Torr., long-beard hawkweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] H. umbellatum L., narrow-leaf hawkweed [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = H. scabriusculum Schwein. Hymenopappus L'Hér., woolly-white H. filifolius Hook., thread-leaf woolly-white var. cinereus (Rydb.) I.M. Johnst. [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] var. polycephalus (Osterh.) B.L. Turner [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] H. flavescens A. Gray, yellow woolly-white var. flavescens [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] H. scabiosaeus L'Hér., flat-top woolly-white, old-plainsman var. corymbosus (Torr. & A. Gray) B.L. Turner [KS, NE, OK] var. scabiosaeus [KS, OK] H. tenuifolius Pursh, chalk-hill woolly-white [CO, KS, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Hymenoxys Cass., bitterweed (see also Tetraneuris) H. odorata DC., western bitterweed [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Picradenia odorata (DC.) Britton H. richardsonii (Hook.) Cockerell, pingue bitterweed, Colorado rubberplant var. richardsonii [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NM, WY] SYN = Picradenia richardsonii Hook. Ionactis Greene, aster I. linariifolius (L.) Greene, flax-leaf aster, savory-leaf aster [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Aster linariifolius L. – A, F Isocoma Nutt., goldenweed I. pluriflora (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene, many-head goldenweed [NM, TX] SYN = Haplopappus heterophyllus (A. Gray) S.F. Blake – A, F SYN = Haplopappus pluriflorus (Torr. & A. Gray) H.M. Hall SYN = I. wrightii (A. Gray) Rydb. Iva L., sumpweed, marshelder I. angustifolia Nutt., narrow-leaf sumpweed, narrow-leaf marshelder [KS, OK] I. annua L., annual sumpweed, annual marshelder var. annua [Alb, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = I. ciliata Willd. I. axillaris Pursh, poverty sumpweed [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = I. axillaris Pursh subsp. robustior (Hook.) Bassett Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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I. xanthifolia Nutt., rag sumpweed, bur-weed marshelder [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Cyclachaena xanthifolia (Nutt.) Fresen. Krigia Schreb., nom. conserv., dwarf-dandelion K. biflora (Walter) S.F. Blake, twin-flower dwarf-dandelion var. biflora [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, OK] K. cespitosa (Raf.) K.L. Chambers, weedy dwarf-dandelion, common dwarf-dandelion [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = K. oppositifolia Raf. – A SYN = Serinia oppositifolia (Raf.) Kuntze K. dandelion (L.) Nutt., tuberous dwarf-dandelion, potato dwarf-dandelion [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cynthia dandelion (L.) DC. K. occidentalis Nutt., western dwarf-dandelion [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cynthia occidentalis (Nutt.) Standl. Lactuca L., lettuce L. biennis (Moench) Fernald, blue lettuce [MN, ND, SD, WY] L. spicata (Lam.) Hitchc. misapplied - Rydberg L. canadensis L., Canadian lettuce [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = L. canadensis L. var. latifolia Kuntze SYN = L. canadensis L. var. obovata Wiegand SYN = L. sagittifolia Elliott L. floridana (L.) Gaertn., Florida lettuce [IA, KS, Man, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = L. floridana (L.) Gaertn. var. villosa (Jacq.) Cronquist SYN = L. villosa Jacq. L. ludoviciana (Nutt.) Riddell, western lettuce, Louisiana lettuce [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] L. oblongifolia Nutt., chicory lettuce [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. pulchella (Pursh) DC. SYN = L. tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. subsp. pulchella (Pursh) Stebbins SYN = L. tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. var. pulchella (Pursh) Breitung *L. saligna L., willow-leaf lettuce [KS, MO, NE, OK] *L. serriola L., prickly lettuce [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. scariola L. L. virosa L. misapplied - Rydberg Lapsana L., nipplewort *L. communis L., common nipplewort [MO, ND] Leontodon L., nom. conserv., hawkbit *L. hispidus L., hispid hawkbit subsp. hispidus [KS] SYN = L. hastilis L. var. vulgaris W.D.J. Koch – A Leucanthemum Mill., ox-eye daisy *L. vulgare Lam., common ox-eye daisy [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. – A SYN = Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. var. pinnatifidum Lecoq & Lamotte – F Liatris Gaertn. ex Schreb., nom. conserv., gayfeather L. aspera Michx., button gayfeather, rough gayfeather [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] L. scariosa Willd. misapplied - Gates L. cylindracea Michx., cylindrical gayfeather [MN] L. x fallacior (Lunell) Rydb. {L. ligulistylis x L. punctata}, deceptive gayfeather [ND] L. lancifolia (Greene) Kittell, lance-leaf gayfeather [CO, IA, KS, MN, NE, SD, TX, WY] L. ligulistylis (A. Nelson) K. Schum., Rocky Mountain gayfeather [CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. haywardii Rydb. SYN = L. herrickii Rydb. L. mucronata DC., eastern dotted gayfeather [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = L. mucronata DC. var. interrupta Gaiser L. punctata Hook., western dotted gayfeather [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. punctata Hook. var. mexicana Gaiser Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = L. punctata Hook. var. nebraskana Gaiser L. pycnostachya Michx., thick-spike gayfeather, Kansas gayfeather [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = L. bebbiana Rydb. L. x ridgwayi Standl. {L. pycnostachya x L. squarrosa}, Ridgway’s gayfeather [KS] L. squarrosa (L.) Michx., plains gayfeather var. glabrata (Rydb.) F.C. Gates [IA, KS, NE, OK, SD] SYN = L. compacta (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb. SYN = L. glabrata Rydb. – A var. hirsuta (Rydb.) F.C. Gates [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = L. hirsuta Rydb. – A L. x weaveri Shinners {L. aspera x L. punctata}, Weaver’s gayfeather [NE] Lindheimera A. Gray & Engelm., Texas-star L. texana A. Gray & Engelm., Texas-star [OK, TX] Lygodesmia D. Don, skeleton-weed L. grandiflora (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, big-flower skeleton-weed [WY] L. juncea (Pursh) D. Don ex Hook., rush skeleton-weed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] L. texana (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene ex Small, Texas skeleton-weed [OK, TX] Machaeranthera Nees (see also Xylorhiza), tansy-aster M. canescens (Pursh) A. Gray, hoary tansy-aster subsp. canescens var. canescens [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Aster canescens Pursh SYN = M. ramosa A. Nelson subsp. glabra (A. Gray) B.L. Turner var. glabra [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. linearis Greene - A, F var. nebraskana B.L. Turner [endemic: NE, SD] M. grindelioides (Nutt.) Shinners, gum-weed tansy-aster var. grindelioides [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Haplopappus nuttallii Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Sideranthus grindelioides (Nutt.) Britton M. pinnatifida (Hook.) Shinners, cut-leaf tansy-aster, cut-leaf ironplant subsp. pinnatifida var. glaberrima (Rydb.) B.L. Turner & R.L. Hartm. [CO, IA, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. subsp. glaberrimus (Rydb.) H.M. Hall – F SYN = Sideranthus glaberrimus Rydb. var. pinnatifida [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. subsp. australis (Greene) H.M. Hall –F SYN = Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. subsp. cotula (Small) H.M. Hall – F SYN = Haplopappus spinulosus (Pursh) DC. subsp. spinulosus – A, F SYN = Sideranthus spinulosus (Pursh) Sweet ex Rydb. M. tanacetifolia (Kunth) Nees, tansy-leaf tansy-aster, tahoka daisy [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Madia Molina, tarweed M. glomerata Hook., mountain tarweed [Alb, NE, SD, WY] Marshallia Schreb., nom. conserv., Barbara’s-buttons M. caespitosa Nutt. ex DC., Oklahoma Barbara’s-buttons var. caespitosa [KS, MO, OK] var. signata Beadle & F.E. Boynton [KS, OK] Matricaria L., false-chamomile (see also Tripleurospermum) *M. matricarioides (Less.) Porter, pineapple-weed [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb. SYN = M. discoidea DC. *M. recutita L., sweet false-chamomile [ND] SYN = Chamomilla recutita (L.) Rauschert Melampodium L., blackfoot Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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M. leucanthum Torr. & A. Gray, plains blackfoot [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Microseris D. Don (see also Nothocalais), microseris M. nutans (Hook.) Sch. Bip., nodding microseris [MT, WY] Nothocalais (A. Gray) Greene, false-dandelion N. cuspidata (Pursh) Greene, wavy-leaf false-dandelion [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Agoseris cuspidata (Pursh) Raf. SYN = Microseris cuspidata (Pursh) Sch. Bip. – A, F N. troximoides (A. Gray) Greene, foothills false-dandelion [WY] Onopordum L., cotton-thistle *O. acanthium L., Scotch cotton-thistle [CO, KS, NE, OK, TX, WY] *O. tauricum Willd., bull cotton-thistle [CO] Oönopsis Nutt., goldenweed O. engelmannii (A. Gray) Greene, Engelmann’s goldenweed [endemic: KS, CO] SYN = Haplopappus engelmannii (A. Gray) H.M. Hall – A, F O. foliosa (A. Gray) Greene, leafy goldenweed var. foliosa [endemic: CO] SYN = Haplopappus fremontii A. Gray – F var. monocephala (A. Nelson) Kartesz & K.N. Gandhi [endemic: CO] SYN = Haplopappus fremontii A. Gray subsp. monocephalus (A. Nelson) H.M. Hall O. multicaulis (Nutt.) Greene, many-stem goldenweed [MT, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Haplopappus multicaulis (Nutt.) A. Gray – A, F SYN = O. argillacea A. Nelson O. puebloensis G.K. Br., Pueblo goldenweed [endemic: CO] O. wardii (A. Gray) Greene, Ward’s goldenweed [CO] SYN = Haplopappus fremontii A. Gray subsp. wardii (A. Gray) H.M. Hall – F Packera Á. Löve & D. Löve, ragwort (see also Senecio) P. aurea (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, golden ragwort [MN] P. cana (Hook.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, woolly ragwort [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Senecio canus Hook. – A, F SYN = Senecio purshianus Nutt. P. fendleri (A. Gray) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, Fendler’s ragwort [WY] P. glabella (Poir.) C. Jeffrey, floodplain ragwort, butterweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Senecio glabellus Poir. – A, F P. indecora (Greene) Á. Löve & D. Löve, inelegant ragwort [Alb] SYN = Senecio indecorus Greene P. obovata (Muhl. ex Willd.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, round-leaf ragwort [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Senecio obovatus Muhl. ex Willd. – A, F SYN = Senecio rotundus (Britton) Small P. paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, balsam ragwort [Alb, IA, MN, MO, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Senecio pauperculus Michx. – A, F P. plattensis (Nutt.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, prairie ragwort [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Senecio plattensis Nutt. – A, F P. pseudaurea (Rydb.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, false golden ragwort var. semicordata (Mack & Bush) D.K. Trock & T.M. Barkley [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Senecio pseudaureus Rydb. var. semicordatus (Mack. & Bush) T.M. Barkley – A, F P. tampicana (DC.) C. Jeffrey, Tampican ragwort [KS, OK] SYN = Senecio imparipinnatus Klatt - A, F P. tridenticulata (Rydb.) W.A. Weber & Á. Löve, plains ragwort [CO, KS, ND, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Senecio densus Greene SYN = Senecio oblanceolatus Rydb. SYN = Senecio tridenticulatus Rydb. – A, F Palafoxia Lag., palafoxia P. rosea (Bush) Cory, rose palafoxia Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. macrolepis (Rydb.) B.L. Turner & M.I. Morris [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX, WY] var. rosea [OK] P. sphacelata (Nutt. ex Torr.) Cory, rayed palafoxia [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Othake sphacelata (Nutt. ex Torr.) Rydb. Parthenium L., feverfew P. alpinum (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, feverfew var. alpinum, Wyoming feverfew, alpine feverfew [endemic: CO, NM, WY] var. tetraneuris (Barneby) Rollins, Arkansas River feverfew [largely endemic: CO] SYN = Bolophyta tetraneuris (Barneby) W.A. Weber *P. hysterophorus L., ragweed feverfew [KS, MO, OK] P. incanum Kunth, mariola feverfew [NM, TX] P. integrifolium L., whole-leaf feverfew var. hispidum (Raf.) Mears [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. hispidum Raf. – A, F var. integrifolium [KS, MO] Pectis L., pectis P. angustifolia Torr., narrow-leaf pectis var. angustifolia [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] Pericome A. Gray, pericome P. caudata A. Gray, tail-leaf pericome [CO, NM, OK] SYN = P. caudata A. Gray var. glandulosa (Goodman) H.D. Harr. Petasites Mill., sweet-colt’s-foot P. frigidus (L.) Fr., arctic sweet-colt’s-foot var. palmatus (Aiton) Cronquist [Man, ND, Sas] var. sagittatus (Banks ex Pursh) Cherniawsky, arrow-leaf sweet-colt’s-foot [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = P. sagittatus (Banks ex Pursh) A. Gray – A, F var. x vitifolius (Greene) Cherniawsky {P. frigidus x P. sagittatus}, intermediate sweet-colt’s-foot [Alb, Man, MN, Sas] SYN = P. x vitifolius (Greene) Bogle Picradeniopsis Rydb. ex Britton, picradeniopsis P. oppositifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. ex Britton, opposite-leaf picradeniopsis [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Bahia oppositifolia (Nutt.) A. Gray P. woodhousei (A. Gray) Rydb., Woodhouse’s picradeniopsis [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Bahia woodhousei (A. Gray) A. Gray Picris L., oxtongue *P. echoiides L., bristly oxtongue [ND] Pinaropappus Less., rock-lettuce P. roseus (Less.) Less., white rock-lettuce [TX] Pluchea Cass., marsh-fleabane P. camphorata (L.) DC., camphor marsh-fleabane [KS, MO, OK] P. odorata (L.) Cass., purple marsh-fleabane var. odorata [KS, OK, TX] SYN = P. purpurascens (Sw.) DC. – A Polymnia L., leafcup (see also Smallanthus) P. canadensis L., Canadian leafcup [KS, MO] Prenanthes L., rattlesnake-root, white-lettuce P. alba L., white rattlesnake-root [IA, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Nabalus albus (L.) Hook. P. aspera Michx., rough rattlesnake-root [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Nabalus asperus (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray P. racemosa Michx., glaucous rattlesnake-root subsp. multiflora Cronquist [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Nabalus racemosus (Michx.) DC. Prionopsis Nutt., wax-goldenweed P. ciliata (Nutt.) Nutt., wax-goldenweed [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Grindelia papposa G.L. Nesom & Y.B. Suh Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Haplopappus ciliatus (Nutt.) DC. – A, F Pseudognaphalium Kirp., false-cudweed P. canescens (DC.) W.A. Weber, woolly false-cudweed [CO, NE, OK] SYN = Gnaphalium canescens DC. – A, F SYN = G. wrightii A. Gray – A, F *P. jaliscense (Greenm.) Anderb. Jalisco false-cudweed [NE] P. obtusifolium (L.) Hilliard & B.L. Burtt , fragrant false-cudweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. – A, F P. stramineum (Kunth) W.A. Weber, cotton-batting false-cudweed [NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = G. chilense Spreng. – A, F SYN = G. stramineum Kunth – A, F P. viscosum (Kunth) W.A. Weber, clammy false-cudweed [NE, SD, WY] SYN = G. macounii Greene SYN = G. viscosum Kunth – A, F Psilocarphus Nutt., woolly-marbles P. brevissimus Nutt., tiny woolly-marbles var. brevissimus [WY] P. elatior (A. Gray) A. Gray, tall woolly-marbles [Alb, Sas] Psilostrophe DC., paper-flower P. tagetina (Nutt.) Greene, marigold paper-flower var. cerifera (A. Nelson) B.L. Turner [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. villosa Rydb. – A, F var. tagetina [NM, TX] Pyrrhopappus DC., nom. conserv., false-dandelion P. carolinianus (Walter) DC., Carolina false-dandelion [KS, MO, NE, OK] P. grandiflorus (Nutt.) Nutt., tuberous false-dandelion [KS, OK, TX] P. pauciflorus (D. Don) DC., few-flower false-dandelion [OK, NM, TX] SYN = P. multicaulis DC. var. geiseri (Shinners) North. – A, F SYN = P. rothrockii A. Gray – A, F Pyrrocoma Hook., goldenweed P. lanceolata (Hook.) Greene, lance-leaf goldenweed [Alb, CO, ND, Sas] SYN = Haplopappus lanceolatus (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray subsp. lanceolatus – A, F SYN = Haplopappus lanceolatus (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray subsp. vaseyi (Parry) H.M. Hall – F P. uniflora (Hook.) Greene, one-head goldenweed var. uniflora [WY] Ratibida Raf., prairie-coneflower R. columnifera (Nutt.) Wooton & Standl., upright prairie-coneflower [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Lepachys columnifera (Nutt.) Rydb. R. pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart, gray-head prairie-coneflower [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Lepachys pinnata (Vent.) Torr. & A. Gray R. tagetes (E. James) Barnhart, short-ray prairie-coneflower [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Lepachys tagetes (E. James) A. Gray Rayjacksonia R.L. Hartm. & M.A. Lane, annual-goldenweed R. annua (Rydb.) R.L. Hartm. & M.A. Lane, annual-goldenweed [CO, KS, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Haplopappus annuus (Rydb.) Cory – A, F SYN = Haplopappus phyllocephalus DC. var. annuus (Rydb.) Waterf. SYN = Machaeranthera annua (Rydb.) Shinners SYN = Sideranthus annuus Rydb. Rudbeckia L., coneflower R. grandiflora (Sweet) DC., rough coneflower var. grandiflora [KS, OK] R. hirta L., black-eyed-Susan var. pulcherrima Farw. [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, MN, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. serotina Nutt. R. laciniata L., cut-leaf coneflower, goldenglow var. ampla (A. Nelson) Cronquist [CO, WY] var. laciniata [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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R. subtomentosa Pursh, sweet coneflower [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] R. triloba L., brown-eyed-Susan var. triloba [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Schkuhria Roth nom. conserv., threadleaf S. multiflora Hook. & Arn., many-flower threadleaf [CO] SYN = Bahia neomexicana A. Gray Scorzonera L., false-salsify *S. laciniata L., narrow-leaf false-salsify [CO, KS, NE, TX, WY] SYN = Podospermum laciniatum (L.) DC. Senecio L., groundsel (see also Packera) S. congestus (R. Br.) DC., swamp groundsel [Alb, IA, MN, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = S. palustris (L.) Hook. S. eremophilus Richardson, desert groundsel, hermit ragwort var. eremophilus [ND, SD] S. flaccidus Less., thread-leaf groundsel var. flaccidus [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = S. douglasii DC. var. longilobus (Benth.) L.D. Benson – A, F S. hydrophiloides Rydb., sweet-marsh groundsel [Alb] SYN = S. foetidus Howell SYN = S. foetisus Howell var. hydrophiloides (Rydb.) T.M. Barkley ex Cronquist S. hydrophilus Nutt., alkali-marsh groundsel, water groundsel [SD] S. integerrimus Nutt., whole-leaf groundsel, lamb-tongue groundsel var. exaltatus (Nutt.) Cronquist [Alb, CO, WY] var. integerrimus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] var. scribneri (Rydb.) T.M. Barkley [MT] S. multicapitatus Greenm., many-head groundsel [NM] S. rapifolius Nutt., turnip-leaf groundsel [CO, SD, WY] S. riddellii Torr. & A. Gray, Riddell’s groundsel [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] S. spartioides Torr. & A. Gray, broom groundsel [CO, NE, SD, WY] *S. vulgaris L., common groundsel [CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, OK, SD, WY] Shinnersoseris Tomb, false skeleton-weed S. rostrata (A. Gray) Tomb, false skeleton-weed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Lygodesmia rostrata A. Gray – A Silphium L., rosinweed S. integrifolium Michx., whole-leaf rosinweed var. deamii L.M. Perry, Deam’s rosinweed [IA, KS, MO] var. integrifolium, whole-leaf rosinweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] var. laeve Torr. & A. Gray, showy rosinweed [KS, MO, NE, OK, WY] SYN = S. speciosum Nutt. – A var. neglectum Settle & T.R. Fisher [IA] S. laciniatum L., compassplant [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] S. perfoliatum L., cup rosinweed, cup-plant var. perfoliatum [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] S. radula Nutt., scraper rosinweed [OK] SYN = S. asperrimum Hook. – A, Smallanthus Mack., bear’s-foot S. uvedalius (L.) Mack., yellow bear's-foot [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Polymnia uvedalia (L.) L. – A, F Solidago L., goldenrod S. altiplanities C.E.S. Taylor & R.J. Taylor, high plains goldenrod [endemic: OK, TX] S. arguta Aiton, Atlantic goldenrod var. boottii (Hook.) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. arguta Aiton subsp. boottii (Hook.) G.H. Morton S. x bernardii B. Boivin, Bernard’s goldenrod {S. ptarmicoides x S. riddellii} [MN] S. canadensis L., Canadian goldenrod var. canadensis [Alb, ND, SD] var. gilvocanescens Rydb. [Alb, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. altissima L. var. gilvocanescens (Rydb.) Semple Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = S. lunellii Rydb. var. hargeri Fernald [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = S. satanica Lunell var. salebrosa (Piper) M.E. Jones [ND, SD, WY] SYN = S. dumetorum Lunell var. scabra (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr. & A. Gray [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. altissima L. SYN = S. altissima L. var. pluricephala M.C. Johnst. S. flexicaulis L., zigzag goldenrod, broad-leaf goldenrod [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] S. gigantea Aiton, late goldenrod, November goldenrod [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. gigantea Aiton var. gigantean – F SYN = S. gigantea Aiton var. serotina (Kuntze) Cronquist – F SYN = S. serotina Aiton SYN = S. serotinoides Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = S. somesii Rydb. S. juncea Aiton, early goldenrod var. juncea [MN] S. missouriensis Nutt., Missouri goldenrod, prairie goldenrod [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. glaberrima M. Martens SYN = S. hapemaniana Rydb. SYN = S. missouriensis Nutt. var. extraria A. Gray SYN = S. missouriensis Nutt. var. fasciculata Holz. – F SYN = S. missouriensis Nutt. var. missouriensis – F SYN = S. moritura E.S. Steele S. mollis Bartl., ashy goldenrod, soft goldenrod var. angustata Shinners [endemic: OK, TX] var. mollis [CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] S. nemoralis Aiton, gray goldenrod, oldfield goldenrod subsp. decemflora (DC.) Brammall [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. longipetiolata Mack. & Bush SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton subsp. longipetiolata (Mack. & Bush) G.W. Douglas SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton var. longipetiolata (Mack. & Bush) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. – F SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton var. decemflora (DC.) Fernald SYN = S. pulcherrima A. Nelson subsp. nemoralis [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton subsp. haleana (Fernald) G.W. Douglas SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton var. haleana Fernald SYN = S. nemoralis Aiton var. nemoralis – F S. petiolaris Aiton, downy goldenrod var. angusta (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = S. angusta Torr. & A. Gray var. petiolaris [CO, KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. lindheimeriana Scheele SYN = S. petiolaris Aiton var. wardii (Britton) Fernald SYN = S. wardii Britton S. ptarmicoides (Nees) B. Boivin, sneezewort goldenrod [IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Aster ptarmicoides (Nees) Torr. & A. Gray – A SYN = Oligoneuron album (Nutt.) G.L. Nesom SYN = Unamia alba (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = Unamia lutescens (Lindl.) Rydb. S. radula Nutt., rough goldenrod var. radula [KS, MO] S. riddellii Frank ex Riddell, Riddell’s goldenrod [Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Oligoneuron riddellii (Frank ex Riddell) Rydb. S. rigida L., stiff goldenrod subsp. humilis (Porter) S.B. Heard & Semple [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Oligoneuron bombycinum Lunell SYN = Oligoneuron canescens Rydb. SYN = Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small var. humilis (Porter) G.L. Nesom SYN = S. rigida L. var. humilis Porter – F subsp. rigida [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Oligoneuron rigidum (L.) Small S. simplex Kunth, mountain goldenrod subsp. simplex var. simplex [Alb, MT, Sas, WY] SYN = S. glutinosa Nutt. SYN = S. spathulata DC. var. neomexicana (A. Gray) Cronquist S. speciosa Nutt., showy-wand goldenrod, noble goldenrod var. rigidiuscula Torr. & A. Gray [CO, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, OK, WY] SYN = S. rigidiuscula Torr. & A. Gray SYN = S. speciosa Nutt. var. angustata Torr. & A. Gray var. speciosa [MO] S. ulmifolia Muhl. ex Willd., elm-leaf goldenrod var. microphylla A. Gray [KS, OK] SYN = S. microphylla (A. Gray) Engelm. ex Small var. ulmifolia [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] S. velutina DC., velvet goldenrod [CO, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = S. howellii Wooton & Standl. SYN = S. sparsiflora A. Gray – A, F SYN = S. trinervata Greene S. wrightii A. Gray, Wright’s goldenrod var. adenophora S.F. Blake [CO] Sonchus L., sow-thistle *S. arvensis L., field sow-thistle subsp. arvensis [IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, Sas, SD] subsp. uliginosus (M. Bieb.) Nyman [MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = S. arvensis L. var. glabrescens Günther, Grab. & Wimm. SYN = S. uliginosus M. Bieb. – A *S. asper (L.) Hill, prickly sow-thistle [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] *S. oleraceus L., common sow-thistle [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] Stenotus Nutt., goldenweed S. acaulis (Nutt.) Nutt., stemless goldenweed var. acaulis [MT, WY] SYN = Haplopappus acaulis (Nutt.) A. Gray S. armerioides Nutt., thrifty goldenweed var. armerioides [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Haplopappus armerioides (Nutt.) A. Gray – A, F Stephanomeria Nutt., nom. conserv., wire-lettuce, rush-pink S. pauciflora (Torr.) A. Nelson, few-flower wire-lettuce [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Lygodesmia pauciflora (Torr.) Shinners SYN = Ptiloria pauciflora (Torr.) Raf. S. runcinata Nutt., toothed wire-lettuce, desert wire-lettuce [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = Ptiloria ramosa Rydb. S. tenuifolia (Torr.) H.M. Hall, thin-leaf wire-lettuce, narrow-leaf wire-lettuce [MT, ND] SYN = Lygodesmia tenuifolia (Torr.) Shinners Tagetes L., marigold *T. erecta L., big marigold [KS, MO] *T. patula L., French marigold [WY] Tanacetum L., tansy, costmary *T. balsamita L., costmary, mint-geranium [KS, SD] SYN = Balsamita major Desf. SYN = Chrysanthemum balsamita L. – A, F *T. vulgare L., common tansy [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Taraxacum F.H. Wigg., nom. conserv., dandelion *T. laevigatum (Willd.) DC., red-seed dandelion [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. erythrospermum Andrz. ex Besser *T. officinale F.H. Wigg., common dandelion [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Tetradymia DC., horsebrush T. canescens DC., woolly horsebrush, gray horsebrush [MT, WY] Tetraneuris Greene, tetraneuris T. acaulis (Pursh) Greene, stemless tetraneuris var. acaulis [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Hymenoxys acaulis (Pursh) K.L. Parker var. acaulis – A, F SYN = T. simplex A. Nelson T. linearifolia (Hook.) Greene, bitterweed, thread-leaf tetraneuris var. linearifolia [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Hymenoxys linearifolia Hook. – A, F T. scaposa (DC.) Greene, naked-stem tetraneuris var. scaposa [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Hymenoxys scaposa (DC.) K.L. Parker var. glabra (Nutt.) Parker – A, F SYN = Hymenoxys scaposa (DC.) K.L. Parker var. scaposa – A, F SYN = T. fastigiata Greene Thelesperma Less., greenthread T. ambiguum A. Gray, Colorado greenthread [TX] T. filifolium (Hook.) A. Gray, thread-leaf greenthread var. filifolium [KS, OK] SYN = T. intermedium Rydb. var. rubrodiscum Shinners SYN = T. trifidum (Poir.) Britton var. intermedium (Rydb.) Shinners [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] T. megapotamicum (Spreng.) Kuntze, Rio Grande greenthread var. megapotamicum [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = T. gracile (Torr.) A. Gray T. subnudum A. Gray, western greenthread var. marginatum (Rydb.) Cronquist, [Alb, MT, ND, Sas] SYN = T. marginatum Rydb. – A, F var. subnudum [CO] Thymophylla Lag., dogweed T. acerosa (DC.) Strother, prickle-leaf dogweed [TX] SYN = Dyssodia acerosa DC. – A, F T. aurea (A. Gray) Greene ex Britton, golden dogweed, thyme-leaf dogweed var. aurea [CO, KS, NM] SYN = Dyssodia aurea (A. Gray) A. Nelson – A, F Townsendia Hook., townsendia T. exscapa (Richardson) Porter, stemless townsendia, Easter daisy [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. sericea Hook. T. grandiflora Nutt., big-head townsendia [CO, NE, NM, SD, WY] T. hookeri Beaman Hooker’s townsendia [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY] T. parryi D.C. Eaton, Parry’s townsendia [Alb] T. texensis Larsen, Texas townsendia [largely endemic: OK, TX] Tragopogon L., salsify, goat's-beard *T. dubius Scop., western salsify [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. dubius Scop. subsp. major (Jacq.) Vollm. SYN = T. major Jacq. *T. porrifolius L., vegetable-oyster salsify [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] *T. pratensis L., meadow salsify [IA, MN, NE] Trimorpha Cass., fleabane T. acris (L.) G.L. Nesom, bitter fleabane [Alb, Man, Sas, SD] var. asteroides (Andrz. ex Besser) G.L. Nesom SYN = Erigeron acris L. var. asteroides (Andrz. ex Besser) DC. – A, F SYN = Erigeron droebachianus O.F. Müll. ex Retz. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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T. lonchophylla (Hook.) G.L. Nesom, long-leaf fleabane [Alb, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Erigeron lonchophyllus Hook. – A, F SYN = Erigeron minor (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = Tessenia racemosa (Nutt.) Lunell SYN = Tessenia racemosa (Nutt.) Lunell var. arcuata Lunell SYN = Tessenia racemosa (Nutt.) Lunell var. simplicissima Lunell Tripleurospermum Sch. Bip., mayweed *T. inodorum (L.) Sch. Bip., scentless mayweed [KS, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Chamomilla inodora (L.) Gilib. SYN = Matricaria chamomilla L. SYN = Matricaria inodora L. SYN = Matricaria perforata Mérat SYN = T. maritimum (L.) K. Koch subsp. inodorum (L.) Hyl. ex Vaar. SYN = T. perforatum (Mérat) Laínz *T. maritimum (L.) K. Koch, sea mayweed [MN, ND] SYN = Chamomilla maritima (L.) Rydb. SYN = Matricaria maritima L. – A, F Verbesina L., crownbeard V. alternifolia (L.) Britton ex Kearney, wing-stem crownbeard [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Actinomeris angustifolia (L.) DC. V. encelioides (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex A. Gray, golden crownbeard subsp. encelioides [KS, OK, TX] subsp. exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) J.R. Coleman [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, *NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Ximenesia encelioides Cav. var. exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) F.C. Gates SYN = Ximenesia exauriculata (B.L. Rob. & Greenm.) Cockerell V. helianthoides Michx., gravel-weed crownbeard [KS, MO, OK] V. virginica L., white crownbeard, frostweed crownbeard var. virginica [KS, MO, NE, OK] Vernonia Schreb., nom. conserv., ironweed V. arkansana DC., Arkansas ironweed [KS, MO, OK] SYN = V. crinita Raf. V. baldwinii Torr., western ironweed subsp. baldwinii [KS, MO, OK] SYN = V. baldwinii Torr. var. baldwinii – A subsp. interior (Small) W.Z. Faust [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = V. baldwinii Torr. var. interior (Small) B.G. Schub. – A V. fasciculata Michx., prairie ironweed subsp. corymbosa (Schwein. ex Keating) S.B. Jones [endemic: CO, KS, Man, ND, NE, SD] SYN = V. fasciculata Michx. var. corymbosa (Schwein. ex Keating) B.G. Schub. – A subsp. fasciculata [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. fasciculata Michx. var. fasciculata – A V. gigantea (Walter) Trel., giant ironweed subsp. gigantea [KS, NE, MO] V. marginata (Torr.) Raf., plains ironweed [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] V. missurica Raf., Missouri ironweed [KS, MO, NE, OK] Viguiera Kunth, goldeneye (see also Heliomeris) V. stenoloba S.F. Blake, skeleton-leaf goldeneye, resinbush var. stenoloba [NM] Xanthisma DC., sleepy daisy X. texanum DC., sleepy daisy subsp. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Semple [NM, OK, TX] SYN = X. texanum DC. var. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray – A Xanthium L., cocklebur *X. spinosum L., spiny cocklebur [CO, KS, NE, TX] SYN = Acanthoxanthium spinosum (L.) Fourr. X. strumarium L., common cocklebur Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A. Gray [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = X. acerosum Greene SYN = X. commune Britton SYN = X. echinatum Murray SYN = X. glanduliferum Greene SYN = X. pensylvanicum Wallr. SYN = X. speciosum Kearney var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist [KS, MO, OK] SYN = X. chinense Mill. Xylorhiza Nutt., woody-aster X. glabriuscula Nutt., smooth woody-aster var. glabriuscula [MT, SD, WY] SYN = Aster xylorhiza (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Machaeranthera glabriuscula (Nutt.) Cronquist & D.D. Keck Zinnia L., nom. conserv., zinnia Z. grandiflora Nutt., Rocky Mountain zinnia [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX]

Balsaminaceae A. Rich., nom. conserv., the touch-me-not family Impatiens L., touch-me-not, snapweed I. capensis Meerb., spotted touch-me-not [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = I. biflora Walter – A SYN = I. nortonii Rydb. I. pallida Nutt., pale touch-me-not, jewel weed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD]

Berberidaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the barberry family Berberis L., barberry, mahonia B. repens Lindl., creeping mahonia, creeping barberry, Oregon-grape [CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] B. swaseyi Buckley, Texas mahonia, Texas barberry [TX] *B. thunbergii DC., Japanese barberry [KS, MO, SD, WY] B. trifoliolata Moric., Laredo mahonia, Laredo barberry, currant-of-Texas [TX] *B. vulgaris L., European barberry [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] Caulophyllum Michx., cohosh C. thalictroides (L.) Michx., blue cohosh, squawroot [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] Podophyllum L., May-apple P. peltatum L., common May-apple [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

Betulaceae Gray, nom. conserv., the birch family Alnus Mill., alder *A. glutinosa (L.) Gaertn., black alder, European alder [IA, KS] A. incana (L.) Moench, speckled alder subsp. rugosa (Du Roi) R.T. Clausen [Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas] SYN = A. rugosa (Du Roil) Spreng. A. serrulata (Aiton) Willd., smooth alder [KS, MO, OK] Betula L., birch B. glandulosa Michx., dwarf birch, resin birch [SD] B. nigra L., river birch, red birch [KS, MO, OK] B. occidentalis Hook., mountain birch, water birch [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = B. fontinalis Sarg. B. papyrifera Marshall, paper birch, canoe birch, white birch var. papyrifera [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = B. papyrifera Marshall var. subcordata (Rydb.) Sarg. B. pumila L., bog birch, dwarf birch [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = B. glandulifera (Regal) B.T. Butler SYN = B. glandulosa Michx. var. glandulifera (Regal) Gleason – A, F B. x sandbergii Britton, Sandberg’s birch {B. papyrifera x B. pumila} [MN, ND] Carpinus L., hornbeam Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. caroliniana Walter, American hornbeam subsp. virginiana (Marshall) Furlow [MO] Corylus L., hazel C. americana Walter, American hazel [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. americana Walter var. indehiscens E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. C. cornuta Marshall, beaked hazel subsp. cornuta [Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. rostrata Aiton Ostrya Scop., nom. conserv., hop-hornbeam O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch, American hop-hornbeam, ironwood [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = O. virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch var. lasia Fernald

Bignoniaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the bignonia family Campsis Lour., nom. conserv., trumpet-creeper C. radicans (L.) Seem., common trumpet-creeper, trumpetvine [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Tecoma radicans (L.) Juss. Catalpa L., catalpa, Indian cigartree *C. bignonioides Walter, southern catalpa, common catalpa [IA, KS, MO, NE] *C. speciosa Warder, northern catalpa, hardy catalpa, Catawba-tree [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Chilopsis D. Don, desert-willow *C. linearis (Cav.) Sweet, narrow-leaf desert-willow subsp. linearis var. linearis [KS, OK, TX]

Boraginaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the borage family Amsinckia Lehm., nom. conserv., fiddleneck A. intermedia Fisch. & C.A. Mey., fireweed fiddleneck, intermediate fiddleneck [ND, NE] A. lycopsoides Lehm., tarweed fiddleneck [MO, NE, OK] SYN = A. barbata Greene SYN = A. idahoensis M.E. Jones Anchusa L., bugloss, alkanet *A. arvensis (L.) M. Bieb., small bugloss, small alkanet [MT, ND, WY] SYN = Lycopsis arvensis L. – A, F *A. officinalis L., common bugloss, common alkanet [WY] Asperugo L., madwort, catchweed *A. procumbens L., prostrate madwort, prostrate catchweed [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Cryptantha Lehm. ex G. Don, cryptantha C. affinis (A. Gray) Greene, slim-stem cryptantha [SD, WY] C. ambigua (A. Gray) Greene, doubtful cryptantha [WY] C. cana (A. Nelson) Payson, hoary cryptantha [CO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Oreocarya cana A. Nelson C. celosioides (Eastw.) Payson, northern cryptantha [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. bradburiana Payson SYN = C. confusus Rydb. SYN = C. macounii (Eastw.) Payson – A SYN = Oreocarya affinis Greene SYN = Oreocarya glomerata (Pursh) Greene SYN = Oreocarya perennis (A. Nelson) Rydb. C. cinerea (Greene) Cronquist, bow-nut cryptantha, James’ cryptantha var. cinerea [CO] var. jamesii (Torr.) Cronquist [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. jamesii (Torr.) Payson – A, F SYN = C. jamesii (Torr.) Payson var. multicaulis (Torr.) Payson SYN = Oreocarya suffruticosa (Torr.) Greene C. crassisepala (Torr. & A. Gray) Greene, thick-sepal cryptantha var. crassisepala [CO, KS, NM, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. fendleri (A. Gray) Greene, Fendler’s cryptantha, sand-dune cryptantha [Alb, CO, MT, NE, NM, SD, WY] C. kelseyana Greene, Kelsey’s cryptantha [Sas, WY] C. minima Rydb., little cryptantha [Alb, CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. nubigena (Greene) Payson, Sierra cryptantha [Alb] SYN = Oreocarya nubigena Greene C. thyrisiflora (Greene) Payson, Great Plains cryptantha [endemic: CO, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Oreocarya thyrsiflora Greene C. torreyana (A. Gray) Greene, Torrey’s cryptantha [ND, WY] SYN = C. calycosa (A. Gray) Rydb. C. watsonii (A. Gray) Greene, Watson’s cryptantha [WY] Cynoglossum L., hound's-tongue, wild-comfrey C. virginianum L. var. boreale (Fernald) Cooperr., northern wild-comfrey [ND, SD] SYN = C. boreale Fernald – A, F var. virginianum, southern wild-comfrey [OK] *C. officinale L., common hound's-tongue [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] Echium L., blueweed, viper’s-bugloss *E. vulgare L., blueweed, common viper’s-bugloss [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] Hackelia Opiz, bracted-stickseed H. deflexa (Wahlenb.) Opiz, northern bracted-stickseed var. americana (A. Gray) Fernald & I.M. Johnst. [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Lappula americana (A. Gray) Rydb. SYN = Lappula angustata Rydb. SYN = Lappula scaberrina Piper H. floribunda (Lehm.) I.M. Johnst., large-flower bracted-stickseed, biennial bracted-stickseed [Alb, CO, NE, ND, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Lappula floribunda (Lehm.) Greene H. virginiana (L.) I.M. Johnst., Virginia bracted-stickseed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Lappula virginiana (L.) Greene Heliotropium L., heliotrope H. convolvulaceum (Nutt.) A. Gray, bindweed heliotrope var. convolvulaceum [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Euploca convolvulacea Nutt. H. curassavicum L., seaside heliotrope, salt heliotrope *var. curassavicum [KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] var. obovatum DC. [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = H. spathulatum Rydb. *H. indicum L., Indian heliotrope, turnsole [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Tiaridium indicum (L.) Lehm. H. tenellum (Nutt.) Torr., pasture heliotrope [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Lithococca tenella (Nutt.) Small Lappula Moench, stickseed L. occidentalis (S. Watson) Greene, western stickseed var. cupulata (A. Gray) L.C. Higgins [CO, IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. foliosa A. Nelson SYN = L. heterosperma Greene SYN = L. texana (Scheele) Britton – A, F SYN = L. marginata (M. Bieb.) Gürke SYN = L. redowskii (Hornem.) Greene var. texana (Scheele) Brand – F var. occidentalis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. occidentalis (S. Watson) Greene SYN = L. redowskii (Hornem.) Greene – A, F *L. squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort., blue stickseed, European stickseed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. cenchrusoides A. Nelson – A, F SYN = L. echinata Gilib. – A, F SYN = L. erecta A. Nelson SYN = L. fremontii (Torr.) Greene Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = L. squarrosa (Retz.) Dumort. var. erecta (A. Nelson) Dorn Lithospermum L., gromwell, stoneseed, puccoon *L. arvense L., corn gromwell [CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Buglossoides arvensis (L.) I.M. Johnst. L. canescens (Michx.) Lehm., hoary gromwell, hoary puccoon [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] L. caroliniense (Walter ex J.F. Gmel.) MacMill., Carolina gromwell, Carolina puccoon var. croceum (Fernald) Cronquist [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = L. gmelinii (Michx.) Hitchc. L. incisum Lehm., plains gromwell, fringed puccoon [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. linearifolium Goldie SYN = L. mandanense Spreng. L. latifolium Michx., American gromwell [IA, KS, MN, MO, SD] L. multiflorum Torr. ex A. Gray, many-flower gromwell [NM, OK] L. ruderale Douglas ex Lehm., wayside gromwell [Alb, Sas, WY] Lycopsis L., nom. conserv. (see Anchusa) Mertensia Roth, nom. conserv., bluebells M. lanceolata (Pursh) DC., lance-leaf bluebells var. lanceolata [CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = M. linearis Greene M. paniculata (Aiton) G. Don, panicled bluebells var. paniculata [MN] M. virginica (L.) Pers. ex Link, Virginia bluebells [KS, MO, NE] Myosotis L., forget-me-not *M. laxa Lehm., bay forget-me-not, lesser forget-me-not [NE] M. macrosperma Engelm., big-seed forget-me-not [OK] *M. micrantha Pall. ex Lehm., blue forget-me-not [IA, NE] SYN = M. stricta Link ex Roem. & Schult. *M. scorpioides L., true forget-me-not [MO, SD, WY] *M. sylvatica Ehrh. ex Hoffm., woodland forget-me-not, garden forget-me-not [NE, SD] M. verna Nutt., spring forget-me-not [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] M. virginica (L.) Britton et al. misapplied Onosmodium Michx., marbleseed, false-gromwell O. bejariense A. DC., western marbleseed var. bejariense [OK] var. occidentale (Mack.) B.L. Turner [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = O. molle Michx. var. occidentale (Mack.) I.M. Johnst. – A SYN = O. occidentale Mack. O. molle Michx. var. hispidissimum (Mack.) Cronquist misapplied – A var. subsetosum (Mack. & Bush) B.L. Turner [MO, OK] SYN = O. molle Michx. var. subsetosum (Mack. & Bush) Cronquist Plagiobothrys Fisch. & C.A. Mey., popcorn-flower, plagiobothrys P. scouleri (Hook. & Arn.) I.M. Johnst., meadow popcorn-flower var. penicillatus (Greene) Cronquist [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Allocarya nelsonii Greene SYN = P. scopulorum (Greene) I.M. Johnst.

Brassicaceae Burnett, nom. conserv., the mustard family Aethionema R. Br., stonecress *A. saxatilis L., cliff stonecress subsp. saxatilis [CO] Alliaria Heist. ex Fabr., garlic-mustard *A. petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, common garlic-mustard [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE] SYN = A. officinalis Andrz. – A Alyssum L., alyssum *A. alyssoides (L.) L., pale alyssum [CO, KS, NE, MO, MT, SD, WY]

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*A. desertorum Stapf, desert alyssum var. desertorum [IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] *A. parviflorum Fisch. ex M. Bieb., small-flower alyssum var. micranthus (C.A. Mey.) Dorn [CO, KS, NE, WY] SYN = A. minus (L.) Rothm. var. micranthus (C.A. Mey.) T.R. Dudley – F Arabidopsis Heynh., nov. conserv., mouse’s-ear cress A. salsuginea (Pall.) N. Busch, saline mouse’s-ear cress [Sas] SYN = Thellungiella salsugnea (Pall.) O.E. Schulz *A. thaliana (L.) Heynh., common mouse’s-ear cress, thale cress [KS, MO, MT, NE, SD] Arabis L., rockcress A. boivinii G.A. Mulligan, Boivin’s rockcress [MT, Sas, SD] A. canadensis L., Canadian rockcress, sicklepod [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] A. x divaricarpa A. Nelson {A. drummondii x A. holboellii}, spreading-pod rockcress [Alb, CO, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. brachycarpa (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton A. drummondii A. Gray, Drummond’s rockcress [Alb, CO, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WT] SYN = A. confinis S. Watson SYN = A. connexa Greene A. fendleri (S. Watson) Greene, Fendler’s rockcress var. fendleri [CO, NM, TX] SYN = Boechera fendleri (S. Watson) W.A. Weber subsp. fendleri var. spatifolia (Rydb.) Rollins [CO, NM] SYN = Boechera fendleri (S. Watson) W.A. Weber subsp. spatifolia (Rydb.) W.A. Weber A. glabra (L.) Bernh., tower rockcress, tower-mustard rockcress var. glabra [Alb, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] A. hirsuta (L.) Scop., hairy rockcress var. adpressipilis (M. Hopkins) Rollins [KS, MO] var. pycnocarpa (M. Hopkins) Rollins [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. pycnocarpa M. Hopkins A. holboellii Hornem., Holboell’s rockcress var. collinsii (Fernald) Rollins [Alb, Man, ND, NE, MT, Sas, SD, WY] var. pedunculocarpa (A. Nelson) Rollins [WY] var. pinetorum (Tidestr.) Rollins [Alb, CO, ND, NE, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. pinetorum Tidestr. var. retrofracta (Graham) Rydb. [Alb, MN, Sas, WY] A. laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir., smooth rockcress var. laevigata [KS, MO, OK] A. missouriensis Greene, Missouri rockcress [KS, MO, OK] A. shortii (Fernald) Gleason, Short’s rockcress [IA, KS, MO, MN, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. dentata (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray Armoracia P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., nom. conserv., horse-radish A. lacustris (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz & V.M. Bates, lake cress [KS, MO] SYN = Nasturtium lacustre A. Gray SYN = Neobeckia aquatica (Eaton) Greene *A. rusticana P. Gaertn. et al., horse-radish [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = A. lapathifolia Gilib. SYN = Rorippa armoracia (L.) Hitchc. Barbarea W.T. Aiton, nom. conserv., wintercress *B. orthoceras Ledeb., erect-pod wintercress, northern wintercress [Alb, Sas, SD] SYN = B. americana Rydb. *B. vulgaris W.T. Aiton, bitter wintercress [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Berteroa DC., false-alyssum *B. incana (L.) DC., hoary false-alyssum [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Brassica L., mustard (see also Sinapis) *B. juncea (L.) Czern., Chinese mustard, Indian mustard [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] *B. nigra (L.) W.D.J. Koch, black mustard [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] *B. rapa L., field mustard, turnip Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. rapa [KS, MN, MT, NE, OK] SYN = B. campestris L. – A, F Camelina Crantz, false-flax *C. microcarpa Andrz. ex DC., little-pod false-flax [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] *C. rumelica Velen., white-flower false-flax [CO, KS, OK, TX] *C. sativa (L.) Crantz, gold-of-pleasure, big-seed false-flax [CO, IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD] Capsella Medik., nom. conserv., shepherd's-purse *C. bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., common shepherd's-purse [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Cardamine L., bittercress, toothwort C. bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) Britton et al., spring bittercress, bulb bittercress [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] C. concatenata (Michx.) O. Schwarz, cut-leaf toothwort [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd. – A *C. flexuosa With., wood bittercress [NE] C. parviflora L., small-flower bittercress var. arenicola (Britton) O.E. Schulz [KS, MO, OK] C. pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd., Pennsylvania bittercress [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Cardaria Desv., hoarycress, whitetop *C. chalepensis (L.) Hand.-Mazz., lens-pod hoarycress [Alb, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. draba (L.) Desv. var. chalepensis (L.) O.E. Schulz SYN = C. draba (L.) Desv. var. repens (Schrenk ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Rollins *C. draba (L.) Desv., heart-pod hoarycress [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MO, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *C. pubescens (C.A. Mey.) Jarm., globe-pod hoarycress [Alb, CO, KS, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = C. pubescens (C.A. Mey.) Jarm. var. elongata Rollins Chorispora R. Br. ex DC., nov. conserv., blue-mustard *C. tenella (Pall.) DC., blue-mustard [IA, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Conringia Heist. ex Fabr., hare's-ear *C. orientalis (L.) Dumort., treacle hare's-ear [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] Descurainia Webb & Berthel., nom. conserv., tansy-mustard D. incana (Bernh. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Dorn, gray tansy-mustard subsp. incana [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = D. richardsonii (Sweet) O.E. Schulz – A, F SYN = Sophia richardsoniana (Sweet) Rydb. subsp. procera (Greene) Kartesz & Gandhi [WY] SYN = D. incana (Bernh. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Dorn var. macrosperma (O.E. Schulz) Dorn D. incisa (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Britton, western tansy-mustard subsp. incisa [Alb, CO, MT, WY] SYN = D. incana (Bernh. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Dorn subsp. incisa (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Kartesz & Gandhi subsp. viscosa (Rydb.) Rollins [WY] SYN = D. incana (Bernh. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Dorn subsp. viscosa (Rydb.) Kartesz & Gandhi D. pinnata (Walter) Britton, pinnate tansy-mustard subsp. brachycarpa (Richardson) Detling [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = D. magna (Rydb.) F.C. Gates SYN = D. pinnata (Walter) Britton var. brachycarpa (Richardson) F.C. Gates – A SYN = Sophia brachycarpa (Richardson) Rydb. SYN = Sophia magna Rydb. subsp. filipes (A. Gray) Detling [WY] SYN = D. pinnata (Walter) Britton var. filipes A. Gray SYN = S. filipes (A. Gray) A. Heller subsp. halictorum (Cockerell) Detling [CO, KS, NM, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = D. pinnata (Walter) Britton var. osmarium (Cockerell) Shinners – A subsp. intermedia (Rydb.) Detling [MT, NE, SD, WY] SYN = D. intermedia (Rydb.) Daniels Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = D. pinnata (Walter) Britton var. intermedia (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. – A SYN = Sophia intermedia Rydb. *D. sophia (L.) Webb ex Prantl, flix-weed tansy-mustard [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Dimorphocarpa Rollins, spectacle-pod D. candicans (Raf.) Rollins, Palmer's spectacle-pod [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = D. palmeri (Payson) Rollins – F SYN = Dithyrea wislizenii Engelm. var. palmeri Payson – A Diplotaxis DC., wallrocket *D. muralis (L.) DC., stinking wallrocket subsp. muralis [KS, NE, SD] Draba L., draba, whitlow-grass, whitlow-wort D. aurea Vahl ex Hornem., golden draba [SD] SYN = D. aureiformis Rydb. SYN = D. surculifera A. Nelson D. brachycarpa Nutt., short-pod draba [KS, MO, NE, OK] D. breweri S. Watson, Brewer’s draba var. cana (Rydb.) Rollins [SD] SYN = D. lanceolata Royle – A, F D. cuneifolia Nutt., wedge-leaf draba var. cuneifolia [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] D. nemorosa L., yellow whitlow-wort [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = D. lutea Gilib. D. platycarpa Torr. & A. Gray, broad-pod draba [OK, TX] D. reptans (Lam.) Fernald, white whitlow-wort [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = D. caroliniana Walter SYN = D. coloradensis Rydb. SYN = D. micrantha Nutt. SYN = D. reptans (Lam.) Fernald var. micrantha (Nutt.) Fernald – F SYN = D. reptans (Lam.) Fernald var. reptans – F D. streptocarpa A. Gray, twisted-pod draba [WY] Eruca Mill., rocket-salad *E. vesicaria (L.) Cav. subsp. sativa (Mill.) Thell., rocket-salad [IA, KS, MO, NE, ND] SYN = E. sativa Mill. – A, F Erucastrum C. Presl, rocketweed, dog-mustard *E. gallicum (Willd.) O.E. Schulz, rocketweed, dog-mustard [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. pollichii G.W. Schimper & Spenn. Erysimum L., wallflower E. asperum (Nutt.) DC., plains wallflower [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Cheirinia aspera (Nutt.) Rydb. E. capitatum (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene, western wallflower var. argillosum (Greene) R.J. Davis [WY] SYN = Cheirinia argillosa (Greene) Rydb. SYN = Cheirinia asperrima (Greene) Rydb. var. capitatum [CO, NM] SYN = Cheirinia elata (Nutt.) Rydb. E. cheiranthoides L., worm-seed wallflower, treacle wallflower [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Cheirinia cheiranthoides (L.) Link SYN = E. cheiranthoides L. subsp. altum Ahti E. inconspicuum (S. Watson) MacMill., small-flower wallflower var. inconspicuum [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Cheirinia inconspicua (S. Watson) Rydb. SYN = Cheirinia syrticola (E. Sheld.) Rydb. SYN = E. parviflorum Nutt. *E. repandum L., bushy wallflower, spreading mustard [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Cheirinia repanda (L.) Link Euclidium W.T. Aiton, nom. conserv., snoutpod *E. syriacum (L.) W.T. Aiton, Syrian snoutpod [NE, WY] Halimolobos Tausch, halimolobos H. virgata (Nutt.) E.O. Schulz, strict halimolobos [Alb, Sas, WY] Hesperis L., rocket *H. matronalis L., dame's rocket [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Hutchinsia W.T. Aiton, slenderweed H. procumbens (L.) Desv., slenderweed [Sas] Iodanthus Torr. & A. Gray ex Steud., purple-rocket I. pinnatifidus (Michx.) Steud., eastern purple-rocket [IA, KS, MO, OK] Lepidium L., pepper-grass L. austrinum Small, southern pepper-grass [KS, OK] *L. campestre (L.) R. Br., field pepper-grass [IA, KS, MN, MT, MO, NE, NM] SYN = Neolepia campestris (L.) W.A. Weber L. densiflorum Schrad., prairie pepper-grass var. densiflorum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. neglectum Thell. var. macrocarpum [Alb, Sas, WY] *L. latifolium L., broad-leaf pepper-grass [CO, KS, NE] L. oblongum Small, oblong pepper-grass var. oblongum [KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] *L. perfoliatum L., clasping-leaf pepper-grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] L. ramosissimum A. Nelson, bushy pepper-grass var. bourgeauanum (Thell.) Rollins [Alb, Man, Sas] SYN = L. bourgeauanum Thell. SYN = L. fletcheri Rydb. var. ramosissimum [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, WY] *L. sativum L., garden-cress pepper-grass [NE, Sas, WY] L. virginicum L., Virginia pepper-grass var. virginicum [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Lesquerella S. Watson, bladderpod L. alpina (Nutt.) S. Watson, alpine bladderpod subsp. alpina [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] L. arenosa (Richardson) Rydb., sand bladderpod var. arenosa [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] var. argillosa Rollins & E.A. Shaw [CO, NE, SD, WY] L. auriculata (Engelm. & A. Gray) S. Watson, ear-leaf bladderpod [KS, OK] L. calcicola Rollins, limestone bladderpod [CO, NM] L. fendleri (A. Gray) S. Watson, Fendler’s bladder-pod [CO, KS, NM, TX] L. filiformis Rollins, Missouri bladderpod [MO] L. gordonii (A. Gray) S. Watson, Gordon’s bladderpod [KS, NM, OK, TX] L. gracilis (Hook.) S. Watson, spreading bladderpod subsp. nuttallii (Torr. & A. Gray) Rollins & E.A. Shaw [KS, MO, NE] SYN = L. repanda (Nutt.) S. Watson L. ludoviciana (Nutt.) S. Watson, Great Plains bladderpod [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. argentea (Pursh) MacMill. L. montana (A. Gray) S. Watson, Rocky Mountain bladderpod [CO, NE, NM, SD, WY] L. ovalifolia Rydb., oval-leaf bladderpod subsp. alba (Goodman) Rollins & E.A. Shaw [largely endemic: KS, OK] subsp. ovalifolia [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] Lobularia Desv., nom. conserv., sweet-alyssum *L. maritima (L.) Desv., sweet-alyssum [NE] Malcolmia W.T. Aiton, nov. conserv., malcolmia *M. africana (L.) R. Br., African malcolmia [KS, WY] Matthiola W.T. Aiton, nom. conserv., orth. conserv., stock *M. longipetala (Vent.) DC., Graecian stock, evening stock Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. bicornis (Sibth. & Sm.) P.W. Ball [KS] Microthlaspi F.K. Mey, perfoliate-pennycress *M. perfoliatum (L.) F.K. Mey., perfoliate-pennycress [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Thlaspi perfoliatum L. – A, F Nasturtium W.T. Aiton, nom. conserv., watercress *N. microphyllum Boenn. ex Rchb., small-leaf watercress [MN, NE] SYN = Rorippa microphylla (Boenn. ex Rchb.) Hyl. ex Á Löve & D. Löve, *N. officinale R. Br., common watercress [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum (L.) Hayek Neslia Desv., nom. conserv., ball-mustard *N. paniculata (L.) Desv., ball-mustard [IA, MN, ND, SD] Noccaea Moench, pennycress N. montana (L.) F.K. Mey., mountain pennycress var. montana [NM] SYN = Thlaspi montanum L. T. fendleri A. Gray misapplied – A, F Physaria (Nutt.) A. Gray, twinpod P. acutifolia Rydb., Rydberg’s twinpod var. acutifolia [WY] SYN = P. australis (Payson) Rollins P. brassicoides Rydb., Great Plains twinpod [endemic: ND, NE, SD, WY] P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray misapplied – A P. didymocarpa (Hook.) A. Gray, double twinpod var. didymocarpa [MT] var. lanata A. Nelson [MT, WY] Raphanus L., radish *R. sativus L., wild radish [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, WY] Rorippa Scop., yellowcress, watercress *R. austriaca (Crantz) Besser, Austrian yellowcress [Man, MN, ND, NE] R. calycina (Engelm.) Rydb., Hayden’s yellowcress [MT, ND] R. curvipes Greene, blunt-leaf yellowcress var. curvipes [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] var. truncata (Jeps.) Rollins [Alb, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. truncata (Jeps.) Stuckey – A, F R. curvisiliqua (Hook.) Besser ex Britton, curve-pod yellowcress var. lyrata (Nutt.) M. Peck ex C.L. Hitchc. [MT] SYN = R. lyrata (Nutt.) Greene R. palustris (L.) Besser, bog yellowcress subsp. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe) Jonsell var. glabra (O.E. Schulz) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde [ND] var. fernaldiana [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. islandica (Oeder) Borbás var. fernaldiana Butters & Abbe SYN = R. palustris (L.) Besser subsp. glabra (O.E. Schulz) Stuckey var. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe) Stuckey – F SYN = R. palustris (L.) Besser subsp. glabra (O.E. Schulz) Stuckey var. glabrata (Lunell) Stuckey – F SYN = R. palustris (L.) Besser var. fernaldiana (Butters & Abbe) Stuckey subsp. hispida (Desv.) Jonsell var. elongata Stuckey [ND, NE, SD] var. hispida [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. hispida (Desv.) Rydb. SYN = R. islandica (Oeder) Borbás var. hispida (Desv.) Butters & Abbe SYN = R. palustris (L.) Besser var. hispida (Desv.) Rydb. R. sessiliflora (Nutt.) Hitchc., stalkless yellowcress [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Radicula sessiliflora (Nutt.) Greene R. sinuata (Nutt.) Hitchc., spreading yellowcress [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Radicula sinuata (Nutt.) Greene Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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R. sphaerocarpa (A. Gray) Britton, round-fruit yellowcress [WY] *R. sylvestris (L.) Besser, creeping yellowcress [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas] R. tenerrima Greene, tender yellowcress, slender yellowcress [Alb, CO, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Schoenocrambe Greene, skeleton-mustard, plains-mustard S. linearifolia (A. Gray) Rollins, flax-leaf skeleton-mustard [CO, NM] SYN = Hesperidanthus linearifolius (A. Gray) Rydb. SYN = Sisymbrium linearifolium (A. Gray) Payson SYN = Thelypodiopsis linearifolia (A. Gray) Al-Shehbaz S. linifolia (Nutt.) Greene, slender-leaf skeleton-mustard [MT] SYN = Sisymbrium linifolium (Nutt.) Nutt. Selenia Nutt., selenia S. aurea Nutt., golden selenia [KS, MO, OK] Sibara Greene, rockcress S. virginica (L.) Rollins, Virginia rockcress [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Arabis virginica (L.) Poir. – A, F Sinapis L., mustard *S. alba L., white mustard [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Brassica hirta Moench – A, F *S. arvensis L., charlock [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Brassica arvensis Rabenh. SYN = Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler – A, F Sisymbrium L., hedge-mustard, tumble-mustard *S. altissimum L., tumble-mustard [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] *S. irio L., rocket-mustard, London-rocket [CO, TX] *S. loeselii L., tall hedge-mustard [CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] *S. officinale (L.) Scop., common hedge-mustard [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. officinale (L.) Scop. var. leiocarpum DC. – F SYN = S. officinale (L.) Scop. var. officinale – F Stanleya Nutt., prince's-plume S. pinnata (Pursh) Britton, pinnate prince's-plume var. integrifolia (E. James ex Torr.) Rollins [KS] SYN = S. integrifolia E. James ex Torr. var. pinnata [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = S. glauca Rydb. Streptanthus Nutt., twistflower S. cordatus Nutt., heart-leaf twistflower var. cordatus [NM] S. hyacinthoides Hook., smooth twistflower [KS, OK] Thelypodium Endl., thelypody T. integrifolium (Nutt.) Endl., entire-leaf thelypody subsp. integrifolium [CO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Pleurophragma lilacinum (Greene) Rydb. SYN = Thelypodium lilacinum Greene T. wrightii A. Gray, Wright’s thelypody subsp. oklahomensis Al-Shehbaz [CO, NM, OK] Thlaspi L., pennycress (see also Microthlaspi and Noccaea) *T. arvense L., field pennycress [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY]

Butomaceae Rich., nom. conserv., the flowering-rush family Butomus L., flowering-rush *B. umbellatus L., flowering-rush [KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD]

Cabombaceae A. Rich., nom. conserv., the water-shield family Brasenia Schreb., watershield B. schreberi J.F. Gmel., Schreber’s watershield [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, OK] Cabomba Aubl., fanwort *C. caroliniana A. Gray, Carolina fanwort [KS] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Cactaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the cactus family Coryphantha (Engelm.) Lem., nom. conserv., coryphantha C. missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose, Missouri River coryphantha var. caespitosa (Engelm.) L.D. Benson [KS, OK] SYN = Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R. Hunt var. similis (Engelm.) N.P. Taylor SYN = Neobesseya similis (Engelm.) Britton & Rose var. missouriensis [KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R. Hunt var. missouriensis SYN = Mammillaria missouriensis Sweet SYN = Neobesseya missouriensis (Sweet) Britton & Rose var. robustior (Engelm.) L.D. Benson [TX] SYN = C. sulcata (Engelm.) Britton & Rose var. sulcata SYN = Escobaria missouriensis (Sweet) D.R. Hunt var. robustior (Engelm.) D.R. Hunt SYN = Neobesseya wissmannii (Hildm. ex K. Schum.) Britton & Rose C. vivipara (Nutt.) Britton & Rose, pin-cushion coryphantha var. arizonica (Engelm.) W.T. Marshall [NM] SYN = Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. var. arizonica (Engelm.) D.R. Hunt SYN = Mammillaria vivipara (Nutt.) Haw. var. arizonica (Engelm.) L.D. Benson var. radiosa (Engelm.) Backeb. [OK, TX] SYN = Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. var. radiosa (Engelm.) D.R. Hunt SYN = Mammillaria vivipara (Nutt.) Haw. var. radiosa Engelm. SYN = Neomammillaria radiosa (Engelm.) Rydb. var. vivipara [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Escobaria vivipara (Nutt.) Buxb. var. vivipara SYN = Mammillaria vivipara (Nutt.) Haw. Cylindropuntia (Engelm.) F.M. Knuth, cholla C. davisii (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) F.M. Knuth, Davis’ cholla, abrojo, clavellina [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Opuntia davisii Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow – A SYN = Opuntia tunicata (Lehm.) Link & Otto var. davisii (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) L.D. Benson – F C. imbricata (Haw.) F.M. Knuth, tree cholla, walking-stick cholla var. imbricata [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Opuntia arborescens Engelm. SYN = Opuntia imbricata (Haw.) DC. – A, F C. kleiniae (DC.) F.M. Knuth, Klein’s cholla, candle cholla [NM, OK] SYN = Opuntia kleiniae DC. C. leptocaulis (DC.) F.M. Knuth, Desert Christmas cholla, pencil cholla [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Opuntia leptocaulis DC. – A, F C. spinosior (Engelm.) F.M. Knuth, cane cholla [NM] SYN = Opuntia spinosior (Engelm.) Toumey C. x viridiflora (Britton & Rose) F.M. Knuth {C. imbricata x C. whipplei}, green-flower cholla [NM] SYN = Opuntia whipplei Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow var. viridiflora (Britton & Rose) L.D. Benson Echinocactus Link & Otto, barrel cactus E. texensis Hopffer, Texas barrel cactus, horse cripppler, devil’s-head [OK, TX] Echinocereus Engelm., hedgehog cactus E. reichenbachii (Terscheck ex Walp.) F. Haage, lace hedgehog cactus var. albispinus (Lahman) L.D. Benson [endemic: OK, TX] SYN = E. baileyi Rose – A var. perbellus (Britton & Rose) L.D. Benson [largely endemic: CO, KS, NM, TX] var. reichenbachii [OK, TX] SYN = E. caespitosus (Engelm.) Engelm. E. triglochidiatus Engelm., red-flower hedgehog cactus var. melanacanthus (Engelm.) L.D. Benson [CO, NM] E. viridiflorus Engelm., green-flower hedgehog cactus var. viridiflorus [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Mammillaria Haw., nom. conserv., nipple cactus M. heyderi Muehlenpf., Heyder’s nipple cactus

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var. heyderi [NM, OK, TX] Opuntia Mill., pricklypear (see also Cylindropuntia) O. fragilis (Nutt.) Haw., fragile pricklypear, brittle pricklypear [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] O. humifusa (Raf.) Raf., eastern pricklypear var. humifusa [KS, MO, OK] SYN = O. compressa (Salisb.) J.F. Macbr. O. lindheimeri Engelm., Texas pricklypear var. lindheimeri [NM, OK] O. macrorhiza Engelm., big-root pricklypear var. macrorhiza [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] var. pottsii (Salm-Dyck) L.D. Benson [NM, TX] O. phaeacantha Engelm., New Mexico pricklypear, brown-spine pricklypear var. camanchica (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) L.D. Benson [NM, OK, TX] var. major Engelm. [CO, KS, NM, OK, SD, TX] var. phaeacantha [CO, NM] O. polyacantha Haw., plains pricklypear, salvation pricklypear var. erinacea (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) Parfitt, Mohave pricklypear, grizzly bear pricklypear [NM] SYN = O. erinacea Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow SYN = O. erinacea Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow var. utahensis (Engelm.) L.D. Benson – F var. polyacantha [Alb, CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = O. polyacantha Haw. var. juniperina (Britton & Rose) L.D. Benson – F SYN = O. polyacantha Haw. var. trichophora (Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow) J.M. Coult. – F O. tortispina Engelm. & J.M. Bigelow, southern big-root pricklypear [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] Pediocactus Britton & Rose, snowball cactus P. simpsonii (Engelm.) Britton & Rose, Simpson’s snowball cactus, mountain snowball cactus var. minor (Engelm.) Cockerell [CO] var. simpsonii [SD, WY] SYN = Echinocactus simpsonii Engelm.

Callitrichaceae Link, nom. conserv., the water-starwort family Callitriche L., water-starwort C. hermaphroditica L., autumn water-starwort [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. autumnalis L. C. heterophylla Pursh, large water-starwort var. heterophylla [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, SD, OK, TX, WY] C. palustris L., spiny water-starwort [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. verna L. - A, F C. terrestris Raf., terrestrial water-starwort [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. deflexa A. Braun var. austinii (Engelm.) Hegelm.

Campanulaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the bellflower family Campanula L., bellflower C. americana L., American bellflower, tall bellflower [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. americana L. var. illinoensis (Fresen.) Farw. SYN = Campanulastrum americanum (L.) Small C. aparinoides Pursh, eastern marsh bellflower, bedstraw bellflower [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = C. aparinoides Pursh var. grandiflora Holz. SYN = C. uliginosa Rydb. *C. rapunculoides L., rove bellflower, creeping bellflower [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] C. rotundifolia L., harebell [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. intercedens Witasek SYN = C. petiolata A. DC. Downingia Torr., nom. conserv., downingia D. laeta (Greene) Greene, shore downingia [Alb, Sas] Lobelia L., lobelia L. appendiculata A. DC., ear-flower lobelia Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. appendiculata [KS, OK] L. cardinalis L., cardinal-flower subsp. graminea (Lam.) McVaugh var. phyllostachya (Engelm.) McVaugh [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] L. inflata L., Indian-tobacco [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] L. kalmii L., Kalm's lobelia, Ontario lobelia [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = L. strictiflora (Rydb.) Lunell L. siphilitica L., great lobelia var. ludoviciana A. DC. [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] var. siphilitica [IA, KS, MO, SD] L. spicata Lam., pale-spike lobelia var. hirtella A. Gray [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = L. hirtella (A. Gray) Greene var. leptostachys (A. DC.) Mack. & Bush [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = L. leptostachys A. DC. var. spicata [ND] Triodanis Raf., Venus'-looking-glass T. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) Greene, small Venus’-looking-glass [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Specularia biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) A. Gray SYN = Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. var. biflora (Ruiz & Pav.) T.R. Bradley T. holzingeri McVaugh, Holzinger’s Venus’-looking-glass [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Specularia holzingeri (McVaugh) Fernald T. lamprosperma McVaugh, clear-seed Venus’-looking-glass [KS, MO] SYN = Specularia lamprosperma (McVaugh) Fernald T. leptocarpa (Nutt.) Nieuwl., slender-fruit Venus’-looking-glass [IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Specularia leptocarpa (Nutt.) A. Gray T. perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl., clasping-leaf Venus’-looking-glass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Specularia perfoliata (L.) A. DC.

Cannabaceae Endl., nom. conserv., the hemp family Cannabis L., hemp, marijuana *C. sativa L., hemp, marijuana [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist var. indica SYN = C. sativa L. subsp. indica (Lam.) E. Small & Cronquist var. kafiristanica (Vavilov) E. Small & Cronquist SYN = C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. sativa SYN = C. sativa L. subsp. sativa var. spontanea Vavilov Humulus L., hop *H. japonicus Siebold & Zucc., Japanese hop [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] H. lupulus L., common hop var. lupuloides E. Small [IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. americanus Nutt. SYN = H. lupulus L. subsp. americanus (Nutt.) Á. Löve & D. Löve *var. lupulus [Man, MO] var. neomexicanus A. Nelson & Cockerell [CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NM, Sas, SD, WY] var. pubescens E. Small [IA, KS, MO, NE]

Capparaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the caper family Cleome L., spider-flower, beeplant C. lutea Hook., yellow spider-flower [NE] SYN = Peritoma luteum (Hook.) Raf. C. serrulata Pursh, Rocky Mountain beeplant, bee spider-flower [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Peritoma serrulatum (Pursh) DC. Cleomella DC., cleomella C. angustifolia Torr., eastern cleomella [CO, KS, NE, OK, TX] Polanisia Raf., clammyweed Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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P. dodecandra (L.) DC., rough-seed clammyweed subsp. dodecandra [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO] SYN = P. graveolens Raf. subsp. trachysperma (Torr. & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. trachysperma Torr. & A. Gray P. jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray) H.H. Iltis, James’ clammyweed, cristatella [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Cristatella jamesii Torr. & A. Gray – A

Caprifoliaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the honeysuckle family Diervilla Mill., bush-honeysuckle D. lonicera Mill., dwarf bush-honeysuckle [ND] Linnaea L., twinflower L. borealis L., northern twinflower var. longiflora Torr. [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. americana J. Forbes SYN = L. borealis L. subsp. americana (J. Forbes) Hultén SYN = L. borealis L. var. americana (J. Forbes) Rehder Lonicera L., honeysuckle L. albiflora Torr. & A. Gray, white honeysuckle, Busby honeysuckle [OK, TX] SYN = L. albiflora Torr. & A. Gray var. dumosa (A. Gray) Rehder L. dioica L., limber honeysuckle [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. dioica L. var. glaucescens (Rydb.) Butters – A SYN = L. glaucescens (Rydb.) Rydb. L. flava Sims, yellow honeysuckle [KS, MO] *L. japonica Thunb., Japanese honeysuckle [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] *L. maackii (Rupr.) Maxim., Amur honeysuckle [KS, MO, NE] L. reticulata Raf., grape honeysuckle [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = L. prolifera (Kirchn.) Booth ex Rehder – A, F SYN = L. prolifera (Kirchn.) Booth ex Rehder var. glabra Gleason *L. sempervirens L., trumpet honeysuckle [IA, KS, MO, OK] *L. tatarica L., Tatarian honeysuckle [IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Xylosteon tataricum (L.) Medik. Sambucus L., elder S. canadensis L., American elder [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. canadensis L. var. submollis Rehder S. coerulea Raf., blueberry elder var. neomexicana (Wooton) Rehder [CO] S. racemosa L., stinking elder, red elder subsp. pubens (Michx.) House [Alb, MN, MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = S. microbotrys Rydb. SYN = S. pubens Michx. Symphoricarpos Duhamel, snowberry S. albus (L.) S.F. Blake, white snowberry var. albus [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. albus (L.) S.F. Blake var. pauciflorus (J.W. Robbins) S.F. Blake SYN = S. pauciflorus (J.W. Robbins) Britton S. occidentalis Hook., western snowberry, wolfberry [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] S. orbiculatus Moench, coral-berry, buckbrush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] S. oreophilus A. Gray, mountain snowberry var. utahensis (Rydb.) A. Nelson [MT, WY] S. palmeri G.N. Jones, Palmer's snowberry [OK] Triosteum L., horse-gentian T. angustifolium L., narrow-leaf horse-gentian, yellow horse-gentian [KS] T. aurantiacum E.P. Bicknell, orange horse-gentian, wild-coffee [KS, MO] SYN = T. aurantiacum E.P. Bicknell var. illinoense (Wiegand) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. – A

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SYN = T. illinoense (Wiegand) Rydb. SYN = T. perfoliatum L. var. aurantiacum (E.P. Bicknell) Wiegand – F T. perfoliatum L., clasping horse-gentian, common horse-gentian, tinker’s-weed [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = T. perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum – F Viburnum L., viburnum V. edule (Michx.) Raf., squashberry, mooseberry [Alb, Sas, SD] SYN = V. eradiatum (Oakes) House *V. lantana L., wayfaring-tree viburnum [WY] V. lentago L., nanny-berry viburnum [IA, MN, ND,NE, Sas, SD, WY] V. opulus L., high-bush cranberry viburnum var. americanum Aiton, [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. trilobum Marshall V. prunifolium L., black-haw viburnum, sweet-haw viburnum [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = V. prunifolium L. var. bushii (Ashe) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. V. rafinesquianum Schult., Rafnesque’s viburnum, downy viburnum var. affine (Bush ex C.K. Schneid.) House [IA, MN, MO, ND, SD] V. rufidulum Raf., rusty black-haw viburnum [KS, MO, OK]

Caryophyllaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the pink family Agrostemma L., corncockle *A. githago L., common corncockle [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Arenaria L., sandwort A. congesta Nutt., ball-head sandwort var. lithophila (Rydb.) Maguire [Alb, Sas] SYN = A. lithophila Rydb. A. fendleri A. Gray, Fendler’s sandwort var. fendleri [CO, NM, WY] A. hookeri Nutt., Hooker’s sandwort var. hookeri [CO, KS, MT, NE, OK, WY] SYN = Eremogone hookeri (Nutt.) W.A. Weber var. pinetorum (A. Nelson) Maguire [CO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = A. hookeri Nutt. subsp. pinetorum (A. Nelson) W.A. Weber *A. serpyllifolia L., thyme-leaf sandwort subsp. leptoclados (Rchb.) Nyman [MO] SYN = A. serpyllifolia L. var. tenuior Mert. & W.D.J. Koch subsp. serpyllifolia [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] Cerastium L., mouse’s-ear-chickweed C. arvense L., field mouse’s-ear-chickweed subsp. arvense [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *C. brachypetalum Pers., gray mouse’s-ear-chickweed subsp. brachypetalum [KS, MO, OK] subsp. tauricum (Spreng.) Murb. [KS, MO] C. brachypodum (Engelm. ex A. Gray) B.L. Rob., short-stalk mouse’s-ear-chickweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. nutans Raf. var. brachypodum Engelm. ex A. Gray *C. fontanum Baumg., common mouse’s-ear-chickweed subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. fontanum Baumg. subsp. triviale (Spenn.) Jalas SYN = C. vulgatum L. – A, F *C. glomeratum Thuill., sticky mouse’s-ear-chickweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. nutans Raf., nodding mouse’s-ear-chickweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] *C. pumilum Curtis, dwarf mouse’s-ear-chickweed [KS, MO, NE, OK] C. semidecandrum L., little mouse’s-ear-chickweed subsp. semidecandrum [NE] Dianthus L., pink *D. armeria L., Deptford pink [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] *D. barbatus L., sweet-William

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subsp. barbatus [KS, MO, NE] *D. plumarius L., common pink [ND] Gypsophila L., gypsophila *G. elegans M. Bieb., common gypsophila [MN, Sas] *G. muralis L., cushion gypsophila [MN, SD] *G. paniculata L., baby's-breath [KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, WY] *G. scorzonerifolia Ser., adder-leaf gypsophila [NE, WY] Holosteum L., jagged-chickweed *H. umbellatum L., jagged-chickweed subsp. umbellatum [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] Loeflingia L., loeflingia L. squarrosa Nutt., spreading loeflingia subsp. texana (Hook.) Barneby & Twisselm. [KS, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = L. squarrosa Nutt. var. texana (Hook.) Dorn SYN = L. texana Hook. Lychnis L., campion *L. chalcedonica L., scarlet campion [ND] Minuartia L., sandwort M. dawsonensis (Britton) House, Dawson sandwort [MN, ND] SYN = Arenaria dawsonensis Britton SYN = Arenaria stricta Michx. subsp. dawsonensis (Britton) Maguire SYN = Sabulina dawsonensis (Britton) Rydb. SYN = Sabulina litorea (Fernald) Rydb. M. drummondii (Shinners) McNeill, Drummond’s sandwort [OK] SYN = Arenaria drummondii Shinners – A, F M. michauxii (Fenzl) Farw., rock sandwort var. texana (B.L. Rob.) Mattf. [KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Arenaria stricta Michx. subsp. texana (B.L. Rob.) Maguire – A, F SYN = Arenaria stricta Michx. var. texana B.L. Rob. SYN = Sabulina texana (B.L. Rob.) Rydb. M. patula (Michx.) Mattf., spreading sandwort var. patula [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Arenaria patula Michx. var. patula – A, F SYN = Sabulina patula (Michx.) Small M. rubella (Wahlenb.) Hiern, alpine sandwort [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Arenaria rubella (Wahlenb.) Sm. – A, F SYN = Sabulina propinqua (Richardson) Rydb. Moehringia L., moehringia M. lateriflora (L.) Fenzl, side-flower moehringia [Alb, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Arenaria lateriflora L. – A, F Myosoton Moench, chickweed *M. aquaticum (L.) Moench, water chickweed [KS, MO, NE] SYN= Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop. – A, F Paronychia Mill., nailwort P. canadensis (L.) A.W. Wood, Canadian nailwort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Anychia canadensis (L.) Britton et al. P. depressa Nutt., Great Plains nailwort [endemic: CO, KS, NE, SD, WY] SYN = P. diffusa A. Nelson P. fastigiata (Raf.) Fernald, forked nailwort var. fastigiata [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Anychia polygonoides Raf. P. jamesii Torr. & A. Gray, James’ nailwort [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. wardii Rydb. P. sessiliflora Nutt., mat nailwort [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Petrorhagia (Ser.) Link, tunic-flower *P. saxifraga (L.) Link, saxifrage tunic-flower var. saxfraga [SD] Sagina L., pearlwort Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. decumbens (Elliott) Torr. & A. Gray, trailing pearlwort var. decumbens [Alb, KS, MO, OK, Sas] Saponaria L., soapwort *S. officinalis L., common soapwort, bouncingbet [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Scleranthus L., knawel *S. annuus L., annual knawel [KS, NE, OK] Silene L., nom. conserv., catchfly S. antirrhina L., sleep catchfly [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] *S. cserei Baumg., smooth catchfly [IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] *S. dichotoma Ehrh., forked catchfly [MN, ND, NE] S. drummondii Hook., Drummond’s catchfly var. drummondii [Alb, CO, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Gastrolychnis drummondii (Hook.) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = Lychnis drummondii (Hook.) S. Watson – A SYN = Melandrium drummondii (Hook.) Hultén SYN = Wahlbergella drummondii (Hook.) Rydb. *S. latifolia Poir., cowbell catchfly, white catchfly [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet SYN = Lychnis alba Mill. – A SYN = Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke SYN = S. alba (Mill.) E.H.L. Krause SYN = S. pratensis (Rafn) Godr. & Gren. – F SYN = S. pratensis (Rafn) Godr. & Gren. subsp. pratensis S. menziesii Hook., Menzies’ catchfly subsp. menziesii [Alb, NE, Sas, WY] S. nivea (Nutt.) Muhl. ex Otth, snowy catchfly [NE, SD] *S. noctiflora L., night-flowering catchfly [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *S. pendula L., drooping catchfly [WY] S. regia Sims, royal catchfly [KS, MO] S. stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton, starry catchfly [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. stellata (L.) W.T. Aiton var. scabrella E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. S. virginica L., fire-pink catchfly [KS, MO] *S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, bladder catchfly subsp. vulgaris [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = S. cucubalus Wibel – A SYN = S. latifolia (Mill.) Britton & Rendle Spergula L., spurry *S. arvensis L., corn spurry subsp. arvensis [KS, MO, ND] SYN = S. arvensis L. var. sativa (Boenn.) Mert. & W.D.J. Koch Spergularia (Pers.) J. Presl & C. Presl, nom. conserv., sand-spurry *S. marina (L.) Griseb., saltmarsh sand-spurry [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = S. marina (L.) Griseb. var. leiosperma (Kindb.) Gürke SYN = S. salina J. Presl & K. Presl *S. rubra (L.) J. Presl & K. Presl, red sand-spurry [WY] Stellaria L., chickweed, stitchwort (see also Myosoton) S. borealis Bigelow, northern stitchwort subsp. borealis [MN, Sas] SYN = Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. var. floribunda (Fernald) Fernald SYN = Stellaria calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. var. isophylla (Fernald) Fernald S. calycantha (Ledeb.) Bong. misapplied – A, F subsp. sitchana (Steud.) Piper [SD] S. crassifolia Ehrh., fleshy stitchwort [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD] *S. graminea L., little stitchwort [KS, ND] S. longifolia Muhl. ex Willd., long-leaf stitchwort [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Alsine longifolia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britton S. longipes Goldie, long-stalk stichwort var. longipes [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = S. laeta Richardson *S. media (L.) Vill., common chickweed [IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Alsine media L. *S. pallida (Dumort.) Crép., pale chickweed, lesser chickweed [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = S. media subsp. pallida (Dumort.) Asch. & Graebn. *S. pubera Michx., star chickweed [NE] SYN = Alsine pubera (Michx.) Britton Vaccaria Medik., cowcockle, cowherb *V. hispanica (Mill.) Rauschert, cowcockle, cowherb [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Saponaria vaccaria L. SYN = V. pyramidata Medik. – F SYN = V. segetalis (Neck.) Garcke – A SYN = V. vaccaria (L.) Britton SYN = V. vulgaris Host

Celastraceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the stafftree family Celastrus L., bittersweet C. scandens L., American bittersweet [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Euonymus L., orth. conserv., spindletree, wahoo E. atropurpureus Jacq., eastern wahoo [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] *E. fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., Chinese spindle-tree, winter-creeper spindletree [KS]

Ceratophyllaceae Gray, nom. conserv., the hornwort family Ceratophyllum L., hornwort, coontail C. demersum L., common hornwort [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. echinatum A. Gray, spiny hornwort [KS, MO]

Chenopodiaceae Vent., nom. conserv., the goosefoot family Atriplex L. saltbush, orache A. argentea Nutt., silver-scale saltbush var. argentea [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] var. mohavensis M.E. Jones [KS, OK, TX] SYN = A. argentea Nutt. subsp. expansa (S. Watson) H.M. Hall. & Clem. – F A. canescens (Pursh) Nutt., four-wing saltbush var. canescens [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. confertifolia (Torr. & Frém.) S. Watson, spiny saltbush, shad-scale saltbush [MT, ND, SD, TX, WY] A. dioica Raf., spear-scale saltbush [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] A. patula L. misapplied – A SYN = A. lapathifolia Rydb. SYN = A. subspicata (Nutt.) Rydb. – F A. gardneri (Moq.) D. Dietr., mound-scale saltbush var. aptera (A. Nelson) S.L. Welsh & Crompton [MT, ND, Sas, WY] SYN = A. aptera A. Nelson var. gardneri [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. nuttallii S. Watson – A, F *A. heterosperma Bunge, two-seed orache [Alb, CO, ND, NE, SD, WY] *A. hortensis L., garden orache [Alb, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. nitens Schkuhr *A. oblongifolia Waldst. & Kit., oblong-leaf saltbush [SD] *A. patula L., fat-hen saltbush [IA, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] subsp. patula [MT, WY] A. powellii S. Watson, Powell's saltbush var. powellii [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] *A. prostrata Bouchér ex DC., halbeard-leaf orache, spreading orache [Man, MO, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = A. triangularis Willd. *A. rosea L., red orache, tumbling orache [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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A. truncata (Torr.) A. Gray, wedge orache [Alb, Sas] Axyris L., Russian-pigweed *A. amaranthoides L., Russian-pigweed [IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, Sas] Bassia All., bassia *B. hyssopifolia (Pall.) Kuntze, five-hook bassia [CO, MT, SD, WY] Chenopodium L., goosefoot C. album L., lamb's-quarters goosefoot [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] *C. ambrosioides L., worm-seed goosefoot var. ambrosioides [IA, KS, MO, OK, SD] SYN = Teloxys ambrosioides (L.) W.A. Weber C. atrovirens Rydb., purple goosefoot [Sas, WY] C. berlandieri Moq., pit-seed goosefoot var. bushianum (Aellen) Cronquist [IA, KS, MO, SD] SYN = C. bushianum Aellen – A, F C. paganum Reichard misapplied - Rydberg var. zschackii (Murray) Murray ex Asch. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. dacoticum Standl. SYN = C. ferulatum Lunell SYN = C. petiolare Kunth *C. botrys L., Jerusalem-oak goosefoot, feather-geranium [CO, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = Teloxya botrys (L.) W.A. Weber *C. capitatum (L.) Asch., blite goosefoot [Alb, Man, MN, Sas, SD, WY] C. cycloides A. Nelson, sandhill goosefoot [CO, KS, NE, NM, TX] C. desiccatum A. Nelson, western goosefoot, desert goosefoot [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. leptophyllum (Nutt. ex Moq.) S. Watson var. oblongifolium S. Watson *C. foliosum (Moench) Asch., leafy goosefoot [ND] C. fremontii S. Watson, Fremont’s goosefoot var. fremontii [Alb, CO, KS, Man, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] *C. glaucum L., oak-leaf goosefoot [CO, IA, KS, MO, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] *C. graveolens Willd., Mexican-tea [CO] SYN = Teloxys graveolens (Willd.) W.A. Weber C. hians Standl., mountain goosefoot [Sas, WY] C. incanum (S. Watson) A. Heller, hoary goosefoot var. incanum [Alb, CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] C. leptophyllum (Nutt. ex Moq.) S. Watson, narrow-leaf goosefoot [CO, MT, Sas] C. missouriense Aellen, Missouri goosefoot [KS, MO, NE, OK] C. pallescens Standl., pale goosefoot [KS, MO, NE, WY] C. pratericola Rydb., field goosefoot [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. albescens Small SYN = C. leptophyllum (Nutt. ex Moq.) S. Watson var. pratericola (Rydb.) F.C. Gates *C. pumilio R. Br., dwarf goosefoot [KS, MO] C. rubrum L., red goosefoot [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, ND, NM, Sas, SD, WY] C. salinum Standl., salt goosefoot [Alb, Man, Sas, WY] SYN = C. glaucum L. – F SYN = C. glaucum L. var. salinum (Standl.) B. Boivin C. simplex (Torr.) Raf., maple-leaf goosefoot [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. gigantospermum Aellen – F SYN = C. hybridum L. var. gigantospermum (Aellen) Rouleau C. hybridum L. misapplied – A C. standleyanum Aellen, Standley’s goosefoot [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. boscianum Moq. C. strictum Roth, upright goosefoot subsp. glaucophyllum (Aellen) Aellen & K. Just [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE, Man, Sas, SD, WY] C. subglabrum (S. Watson) A. Nelson, northern narrow-leaf goosefoot [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] *C. urbicum L., city goosefoot [NE] C. watsonii A. Nelson, Watson’s goosefoot [Alb, CO, NM, Sas, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Corispermum L., tickseed *C. hyssopifolium L., hyssop-leaf tickseed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. marginata Rydb. SYN = C. simplicissimum Lunell *C. nitidum Kit., shining tickseed [CO, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] *C. orientale Lam., Oriental tickseed [Alb, CO, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, TX, WY] SYN = C. emarginatum Rydb. SYN = C. villosum Rydb. *C. sibericum Iljin, Siberian tickseed [ND] Cycloloma Moq., ringwing C. atriplicifolium (Spreng.) J.M. Coult., tumble ringwing [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Endolepis Torr., false-saltbush E. dioica (Nutt.) Standl., rill-scale false-saltbush [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Atriplex endolepis S. Watson SYN = Atriplex suckleyi (Torr.) Rydb. SYN = Atriplex dioica (Nutt.) J.F. Macbr. – A, F SYN = Endolepis suckleyi Torr. SYN = Kochia dioica Nutt. Halogeton C.A. Mey., halogeton *H. glomeratus (Bieb.) C.A. Mey., ball halogeton [NE] Kochia Roth, kochia, summer-cypress *K. scoparia (L.) Schrad., broom kochia, Belvedere summer-cypress [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Bassia sieversiana (Pall.) W.A. Weber SYN = K. sieversiana (Pall.) C.A. Mey. Krascheninnikovia Gueldenst., winterfat, white-sage K. lanata (Pursh) A. Meeuse & A. Smit, common winterfat, white-sage [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Ceratoides lanata (Pursh) Howell – A, F SYN = Eurotia lanata (Pursh) Moq. Monolepis Schrad., poverty-weed M. nuttalliana (Schult.) Greene, Nuttall’s poverty-weed [Alb, CO, IA*, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Salicornia L., glasswort S. rubra A. Nelson, Rocky Mountain glasswort [Alb, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = S. europaea L. subsp. rubra (A. Nelson) Breitung Salsola L., Russian-thistle *S. collina Pall., slender Russian-thistle [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *S. tragus L., common Russian-thistle [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. australis R. Br. SYN = S. iberica Sennen & Pau – A, F SYN = S. kali L. var. tenuifolia Tausch SYN = S. kali L. subsp. tragus (L.) Aellen SYN = S. pestifer A. Nelson Sarcobatus Nees, greasewood S. vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr., black greasewood [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Suaeda Forssk. ex. J.F. Gmel., nom. conserv., seepweed S. calceoliformis (Hook.) Moq., broom seepweed [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. depressa (Pursh) S. Watson – A, F SYN = S. erecta (S. Watson) A. Nelson S. moquinii (Torr.) Greene, alkali seepweed, Moquin’s seepweed [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. intermedia S. Watson – A SYN = S. nigra J.F. Macbr. S. nigrescens I.M. Johnst. var. glabra I.M. Johnst. Misapplied – A SYN = S. suffrutescens S. Watson – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = S. suffrutescens S. Watson var. detonsa I.M. Johnst. SYN = S. torreyana S. Watson – A Suckleya A. Gray, suckleya S. suckleyana (Torr.) Rydb., poison suckleya [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, TX, WY]

Cistaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the rockrose family Helianthemum Mill., frostweed, sun-rose H. bicknellii Fernald, Bicknell’s frostweed [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Crocanthemum bicknellii (Fernald) Britton Hudsonia L., beach-heather H. tomentosa Nutt., woolly beach-heather var. tomentosa [Alb, MN, ND] Lechea L. pinweed L. intermedia Legg. ex Britton, intermediate pinweed var. intermedia [MN, NE, SD, WY] L. mucronata Raf., hairy pinweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = L. villosa Elliott L. stricta Legg. ex Britton, stiff pinweed [MN, ND, NE] L. tenuifolia Michx., narrow-leaf pinweed [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] L. tripetala (Sessé & Moç. ex DC.) Britton, three-petal pinweed [OK]

Clusiaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the St. John's-wort family Ascyrum L. (see Hypericum) Hypericum L., St. John's-wort H. ascyron L., giant St. John's-wort [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = H. pyramidatum Aiton – A, F H. drummondii (Grev. & Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray, nits-and-lice [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Sarothra drummondii Grev. & Hook. H. gentianoides (L.) Britton et al., pinweed St. John’s-wort [MO] SYN = Sarothra gentianoides L. H. hypericoides (L.) Crantz, St. Andrew’s-cross subsp. hypericoides [OK] SYN = Ascyrum hypericoides L. var. hypericoides subsp. multicaule (Michx. ex Willd.) N. Robson [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Ascyrum hyperidoides L. var. multicaule (Michx. ex Willd.) Fernald – A, F SYN = H. stragulum W.P. Adams & N. Robson H. majus (A. Gray) Britton, greater Canadian St. John's-wort [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] H. mutilum L., slender St. John’s-wort subsp. mutilum [KS, MO, NE, OK] *H. perforatum L., common St. John's-wort [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] H. prolificum L., shrubby St. John’s-wort [MO] H. punctatum Lam., spotted St. John's-wort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = H. subpetiolatum E.P. Bicknell ex Small H. sphaerocarpum Michx., round-fruit St. John's-wort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Triadenum Raf., marsh-St. John's-wort T. fraseri (Spach) Gleason, Fraser’s marsh-St. John’s-wort [MN, NE] T. virginicum (L.) Raf. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = T. virginicum (L.) Raf. subsp. fraseri (Spach) J.M. Gillett SYN = T. virginicum (L.) Raf. subsp. fraseri (Spach) Fernald

Commelinaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the spiderwort family Commelina L., dayflower *C. communis L., Asiatic dayflower [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. communis L. var. ludens (Miq.) C.B. Clarke C. diffusa Burm. f., creeping dayflower var. diffusa [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. longicaulis Jacq. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. erecta L., erect dayflower var. angustifolia (Michx.) Fernald [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = C. crispa Wooton var. erecta [KS, MO, OK] C. virginica L., Virginia dayflower [KS, MO, OK] Tradescantia L., spiderwort T. bracteata Small, bracted spiderwort [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] T. ernestiana E.S. Anderson & Woodson, Palmer’s spiderwort [MO, OK] T. occidentalis (Britton) Smyth & L. Smyth, western spiderwort, prairie spiderwort var. occidentalis [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. universitatis Cockerell T. ohiensis Raf., Ohio spiderwort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = T. canaliculata Raf. SYN = T. reflexa Raf. T. tharpii E.S. Anderson & Woodson, Tharp’s spiderwort [KS, MO, OK] T. virginiana L., Virginia spiderwort [MO]

Convolvulaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the morning-glory family Calystegia R. Br., nom. conserv., hedge-bindweed C. macounii (Greene) Brummitt, Macoun’s hedge-bindweed [largely endemic: CO, KS, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = Convolvulus interior House *C. pellita (Ledeb.) G. Don, arrow-leaf hedge-bindweed [KS, MO] SYN = Convolvulus pellitus Ledeb. – A C. sepium (L.) R. Br., common hedge-bindweed subsp. americana (Sims) Brummitt [WY] SYN = Convolvulus americanus (Sims) Greene SYN = Convolvulus sepium L. var. americanus Sims subsp. angulata Brummitt [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD] SYN = Convolvulus sepium L. var. repens (L.) A. Gray C. silvatica (Kit.) Griseb., woodland hedge-bindweed subsp. fraterniflora (Mack. & Bush) Brummitt [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. fraterniflora (Mack. & Bush) Brummitt SYN = C. sepium (L.) R. Br. var. fraterniflora (Mack. & Bush) Shinners SYN = Convolvulus sepium L. var. fraterniflorus Mack. & Bush C. spithamaea (L.) Pursh, upright hedge-bindweed, low hedge-bindweed [MO] SYN = Convolvulus spithamaeus L. Convolvulus L., bindweed *C. arvensis L., field bindweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. ambigens House SYN = Strophocaulos arvensis (L.) Small C. equitans Benth., gray bindweed [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. hermannioides A. Gray C. incanus Vahl misapplied - Rydberg Cressa L., alkali-weed, cressa C. truxillensis Kunth, silky alkali-weed [OK, TX] SYN = C. depressa Goodd. Dichondra J.R. & G. Forst., pony’s-foot D. argentea Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., silver pony’s-foot [NM] Evolvulus L., evolvulus E. nuttallianus Schult., Nuttall's evolvulus [CO, KS, MO, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. argenteus Pursh SYN = E. pilosus Nutt. Ipomoea L., nom. conserv., morning-glory I. coccinea L., scarlet morning-glory [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Quamoclit coccinea (L.) Moench I. cristulata Hallier f., trumpet-flower morning-glory [KS] I. hederacea Jacq., ivy-leaf morning-glory [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

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SYN = I. hederacea Jacq. var. integriuscula A. Gray I. lacunosa L., white morning-glory [IA, KS, MO, OK] I. leptophylla Torr., bush morning-glory [endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] I. pandurata (L.) G. Mey., big-root morning-glory [KS, NE, MO, OK] *I. purpurea (L.) Roth, common morning-glory, purple morning-glory [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] *I. quamoclit L., cypress-vine morning-glory [KS, TX] SYN = Quamoclit vulgaris Choisy I. shumardiana (Torr.) Shinners, narrow-leaf morning-glory, Shumard’s morning-glory [endemic: KS, OK, TX] SYN = I. carletoni Holz. Stylisma Raf., stylisma, bonamia S. pickeringii (Torr. ex M.A. Curtis) A. Gray, big-pod stylisma var. pattersonii (Fernald & B.G. Schub.) Myint [KS, OK] SYN = Breweria pickeringii (Torr. ex M.A. Curtis) A. Gray var. pattersonii Fernald & B.G. Schub.

Cornaceae (Dumort.) Dumort., nom. conserv., the dogwood family Cornus L., dogwood C. alternifolia L. f., pagoda dogwood, alternate-leaf dogwood [MN, NE] C. amomum Mill., pale dogwood, silky dogwood subsp. obliqua (Raf.) J.S. Wilson [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] C. canadensis L., bunchberry dogwood [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Chamepericlimemum canadense (L.) Asch. & Graebn. C. drummondii C.A. Mey., rough-leaf dogwood [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Swida asperifola (Michx.) Small C. florida L., flowering dogwood [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cynoxylon floridum (L.) Raf. ex B.D. Jacks. C. foemina Mill., gray dogwood, stiff-cornel dogwood subsp. racemosa (Lam.) J.S. Wilson [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = C. racemosa Lam. SYN = Swida foemina (Mill.) Rydb. C. sericea L., red-osier dogwood subsp. sericea [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. stolonifera Michx. – A, F SYN = Swida baileyi (J.M. Coult. & W.H. Evans) Rydb. SYN = Swida instolonea (A. Nelson) Rydb. SYN = Swida interior Rydb. SYN = Swida stolonifera (Michx.) Rydb.

Crassulaceae DC., nom. conserv., the stonecrop family Crassula L., pigmyweed C. aquatica (L.) Schönland, common pigmyweed [MN] SYN = Tillaea aquatica L. SYN = Tillaeastrum aquaticum (L.) Britton C. drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Fedde, Drummond’s pigmyweed [KS] SYN = Tillaea drummondii Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Tillaeastrum drummondii (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton Penthorum L. penthorum, ditch-stonecrop P. sedoides L., Virginia penthorum, ditch-stonecrop [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Sedum L., stonecrop *S. acre L., golden carpet, gold-moss stonecrop [SD] S. lanceolatum Torr., yellow stonecrop, lance-leaf stonecrop subsp. lanceolatum [Alb, CO, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY] S. nuttallianum Raf., Nuttall’s stonecrop [KS, MO, OK] S. pulchellum Michx., showy stonecrop, Texas stonecrop [KS, MO, OK] *S. sarmentosum Bunge, stringy stonecrop [KS, MO] S. stenopetalum Pursh, worm-leaf stonecrop Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. stenopetalum [MT] *S. telephium L., garden orpine, live-forever, frogfruit subsp. telephium [IA, MN, MO] SYN = S. purpureum (L.) Schult.

Crossosomataceae Engl., nom. conserv., the crossosoma family Glossopetalon A. Gray, greasebush G. planitierum (Ensign) St. John, wandering greasebush [endemic: CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Forsellesia planitierum Ensign – A

Cucurbitaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the cucumber family Citrullus Schrad., citrullus, watermelon *C. lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai var. lanatus, watermelon [KS] Cucurbita L., gourd C. foetidissima Kunth, buffalo gourd [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = C. perennis A. Gray SYN = Pepo foetidissimus (Kunth) Britton *C. pepo L. var. ovifera (L.) Alef., yellow-flower gourd, pear gourd [KS, MO] Cyclanthera Schrad., cyclanthera C. dissecta (Torr. & A. Gray) Arn., cut-leaf cyclanthera [CO, KS, NE, OK, TX] Echinocystis Torr. & A. Gray, nom. conserv., mock-cucumber E. lobata (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray, wild mock-cucumber [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Micrampelis lobata (Michx.) Greene Ibervillea Greene, globeberry I. lindheimeri (A. Gray) Greene, Lindheimer’s globe-berry [OK, TX] SYN = Maximowiczia lindheimeri (A. Gray) Cogn. SYN = Sicydium lindheimeri A. Gray Melothria L., creeping-cucumber M. pendula L., tender creeping-cucumber [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = M. chlorocarpa Engelm. SYN = M. pendula L. var. chlorocarpa (Engelm.) Cogn. Sicyos L., bur-cucumber S. angulatus L., wall bur-cucumber [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD]

Cuscutaceae (Dumort.) Dumort., nom. conserv., the dodder family Cuscuta L., dodder, lovevine *C. approximata Bab., Asian dodder var. urceolata (Kuntze) Yunck. [WY] C. attenuata Waterf., attenuate dodder [endemic: KS, OK, TX] C. cephalanthi Engelm., buttonbush dodder [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Grammica cephalanthi (Engelm.) W.A. Weber C. compacta Juss., compact dodder var. compacta [KS, NE] C. coryli Engelm., hazel dodder [KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Grammica coryli (Engelm.) W.A. Weber C. cuspidata Engelm., cusp dodder [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Grammica cuspidata (Engelm.) =!? =@9ACB-D EGFH3I *C. epithymum (L.) L., clover dodder [ND, NE, SD] C. glomerata Choisy, cluster dodder [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = C. paradoxa Raf. C. gronovii Willd. ex Schult., Gronovius' dodder var. gronovii [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] C. umbrosa Beyr. ex Hook. misapplied – A C. indecora Choisy, showy dodder, big-seed alfalfa dodder Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. indecora [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Grammica indecora (Choisy) W.A. Weber var. longisepala Yunck. [KS] C. megalocarpa Rydb., big-fruit dodder [KS, MN, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. curta (Engelm.) Rydb. – A C. pentagona Engelm., field dodder var. glabrior (Engelm.) Gandhi, R.D. Thomas & S.L. Hatch [NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. glabrior (Engelm.) Yunck. – A, F var. pentagona [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. campestris Yunck. SYN = Grammica pentagona (Engelm.) W.A. Weber C. plattensis A. Nelson, Platte dodder [endemic: WY] C. polygonorum Engelm., smartweed dodder [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, TX] C. squamata Engelm., scale-flower dodder [NM, TX] *C. suaveolens Ser., sweet dodder [SD] SYN = C. racemosa Mart. var. chiliana Engelm. C. umbellata Kunth, flat-globe dodder, big-flower dodder [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Grammica umbellata JK8L MNPOQSR>TU T!V9WXYO Z[N\ ]

Cyperaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the sedge family Amphiscirpus Oteng-Yeb., Nevada-bulrush A. nevadensis (S. Watson) Oteng-Yeb., Nevada-bulrush [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas] SYN = Scirpus nevadensis S. Watson – A, F Bolboschoenus Palla, tuberous-bulrush B. fluviatilis (Torr.) Soják, river tuberous-bulrush [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Schoenoplectus fluviatilis (Torr.) M.T. Strong SYN = Scirpus fluviatilis (Torr.) A. Gray – A, F B. maritimus (L.) Palla, saltmarsh tuberous-bulrush subsp. paludosus (A. Nelson) T. Koyama [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = B. paludosus (A. Nelson) Soó SYN = Scirpus maritimus L. var. paludosus (A. Nelson) Kük. – A, F SYN = Scirpus paludosus A. Nelson Bulbostylis Kunth, nom. conserv., hair-sedge B. capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.B. Clarke, dense-tuft hair-sedge [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = B. capillaris (L.) Kunth ex C.B. Clarke var. crebra Fernald SYN = Stenophyllus capillaris (L.) Britton Carex L., sedge C. aggregata Mack., cluster sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD] SYN = C. sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. var. aggregata (Mack.) Gleason C. albicans Willd. ex Spreng., white-tinge sedge var. albicans [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. artitecta Mack. – A, F SYN = C. nigromarginata Schwein. var. muhlenbergii (A. Gray) Gleason SYN = C. varia Muhl. ex Willd. var. australis (L.H. Bailey) Rettig [KS] SYN = C. physorhyncha Liebm. ex Steud. SYN = C. emmonsii Dewey ex Torr. var. australis (L.H. Bailey) Rettig C. albolutescens Schwein., greenish-white sedge [MO] C. albursina E. Sheld., white bear sedge [IA, MO, NE] SYN = C. laxiflora Lam. var. latifolia Boott C. alopecoidea Tuck., greater fox sedge [IA, MN, ND, Sas, WY] C. aquatilis Wahlenb., water sedge var. aquatilis [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, WY] SYN = C. aquatilis Wahl. var. altior (Rydb.) Fernald – A, F var. substricta Kük. [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = C. substricta (Kük.) Mack.

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C. arkansana (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey, Arkansas sedge [KS, MO, OK] C. assiniboinensis W. Boott, Assiniboine sedge [Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD] C. atherodes Spreng., slough sedge, awned sedge [Alb, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. athrostachya Olney, long-bract sedge, slender-beak sedge [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. aurea Nutt., golden sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. austrina Mack., southern sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd. var. australis Olney ex L.H. Bailey – A, F C. backii Boott, Back’s sedge [MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. durifolia L.H. Bailey C. bebbii (L.H. Bailey) Fernald, Bebb’s sedge [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. bella L.H. Bailey, beautiful sedge [SD] C. bicknellii Britton, Bicknell’s sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] C. blanda Dewey, woodland sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. laxiflora Lam. var. blanda (Dewey) Boott C. brachyglossa Mack., yellow-fruit sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = C. annectens (E.P. Bicknell) E.P. Bicknell var. annectens – A SYN = C. annectens (E.P. Bicknell) E.P. Bicknell var. xanthocarpa (E.P. Bicknell) Wiegand – A C. brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell, short-beak sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. brunnescens (Pers.) Poir., brownish sedge subsp. brunnescens [MN, ND] C. bushii Mack., Bush’s sedge [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. caroliniana Schwein. var. cuspidata (Dewey) Shinners C. buxbaumii Wahlenb., Buxbaum’s sedge [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, NE, ND, Sas, SD] C. canescens L., grayish sedge subsp. canescens [Sas] C. capillaris L., hair sedge [Alb, MN, ND, Sas] SYN = C. capillaris L. var. elongata Olney – A, F C. caroliniana Schwein., Carolina sedge [KS, MO, OK] C. cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey, thin-leaf sedge [IA, MN] SYN = C. sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. var. cephaloidea (Dewey) J. Carey C. cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd., oval-leaf sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. var. cephalophora – F C. chordorrhiza Ehrh. ex L. f., creeping sedge [IA, ND, Sas] C. comosa Boott, bearded sedge [IA, MN, MO, NE, SD] C. complanata Torr. & Hook., smooth-leaf hirsute sedge [MO] C. concinna R. Br., low northern sedge [Alb, Sas, SD] C. conjuncta Boott, soft fox sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] C. conoidea Schkuhr ex. Willd., field sedge [MN, MO] C. crawei Dewey, Crawe’s sedge [CO, IA, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] C. crinita Lam., fringed sedge var. brevicrinis Fernald [MO] var. crinita [Man, MO] C. cristatella Britton, crested sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, Sas] C. crus-corvi Shuttlew. ex Kunth, raven-foot sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. davisii Schwein. & Torr., Davis’ sedge [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK] C. deweyana Schwein., Dewey’s sedge var. deweyana [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. diandra Schrank, lesser panicled sedge [Alb, CO, IA, Man, ND, NE, Sas] C. disperma Dewey, soft-leaf sedge [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. douglasii Boott, Douglas’ sedge [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. eburnea Boott. ex Hook., bristle-leaf sedge [Alb, IA, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. echinata Murray, prickly sedge subsp. echinata [MN, ND] C. eleocharis L.H. Bailey, spike-rush sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. duriuscula C.A. Mey. SYN = C. stenophylla Wahlenb. subsp. eleocharis (L.H. Bailey) Hultén SYN = C. stenophylla Wahlenb. var. enervis (C.A. Mey.) Kük. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. emoryi Dewey, Emory’s sedge [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. stricta Lam. var. elongata (Boeck.) Gleason C. festucacea Schkuhr ex Willd., fescue sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO] C. filifolia Nutt., thread-leaf sedge var. filifolia [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. fissa Mack., cleft sedge var. fissa [largely endemic: KS, MO, OK] C. flaccosperma Dewey, thin-fruit sedge [KS] C. foenea Willd., hay sedge [Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. aenea Fernald – A, F C. formosa Dewey, graceful sedge [ND] C. frankii Kunth, Frank’s sedge [KS, MO, NE, OK] C. geophila Mack., earth-loving sedge [CO] C. garberi Fernald, Garber’s sedge [Alb, Man, ND, Sas] C. gracilescens Steud., slender woodland sedge [MO] C. gracillima Schwein., slender forest sedge [MN, ND] C. granularis Muhl. ex Willd., meadow sedge var. granularis [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] var. haleana (Olney) Porter [KS, MN, ND, NE, WY] SYN = C. schriveri Boott C. gravida L.H. Bailey, heavy sedge [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. gravida L.H. Bailey var. gravida – A, F SYN = C. gravida L.H. Bailey var. lunelliana (Mack.) F.J. Herm. – A, F SYN = C. lunelliana Mack. C. grayi J. Carey, Gray’s sedge [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. asa-grayi L.H. Bailey SYN = C. grayi J. Carey var. hispidula A. Gray C. grisea Wahlenb., narrow-leaf sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. amphibola Steud. var. turgida Fernald – A, F C. gynocrates Wormsk. ex Drejer, northern bog sedge [Alb, ND, Sas] C. haydenii Dewey, Hayden’s sedge [IA, MN, MO, ND, SD] C. hirsutella Mack., hairy-leaf hirsute sedge [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. complanata Torr. & Hook. var. hirsuta (Willd.) Gleason C. hirtifolia Mack., hairy-leaf sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = C. hirtiflora Mack. – A C. hitchcockiana Dewey, Hitchcock’s sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] C. hoodii Boott ex Hook., Hood’s sedge [MT, Sas, SD, WY] C. hookerana Dewey, Hooker’s sedge [Alb, Man, ND, Sas] C. hyalinolepis Steud., shoreline sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. impressa (S.H. Wright) Mack. SYN = C. lacustris Willd. var. laxiflora Dewey C. hystericina Muhl. ex Willd., bottle-brush sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. inops L.H. Bailey, sun sedge subsp. heliophila (Mack.) Crins [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. heliophila Mack. – A, F SYN = C. pensylvanica Lam. subsp. heliophila (Mack.) W.A. Weber SYN = C. pensylvanica Lam. var. digyna Boeck. C. interior L.H. Bailey, interior sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. intumescens Rudge, bladder sedge [MN, SD] C. jamesii Schwein., James’ sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. lacustris Willd., lake sedge [Alb, IA, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] C. laeviconica Dewey, smooth-cone sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = C. atherodes Spreng. var. longo-lanceolata (Dewey) Gilly C. laevivaginata (Kük.) Mack., smooth-fruit sedge [IA] SYN = C. stipata Muhl. ex Willd. var. laevivaginata Kük. C. lasiocarpa Ehrh., woolly-fruit sedge var. americana Fernald [IA, MN, NE, Sas] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. leavenworthii Dewey, Leavenworth’s sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. lenticularis Michx., lens-fruit sedge var. lenticularis [Man] C. leptalea Wahlenb., delicate sedge, flaccid sedge subsp. leptalea [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD] C. limosa L., mud sedge [IA, MN, ND, NE] C. livida (Wahlenb.) Willd., bluish sedge [Man, MN, Sas] C. lupulina Muhl. ex Willd., hop sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] C. lurida Wahlenb., pale sedge [MO] C. meadii Dewey, Mead’s sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] *C. melanostachya M. Bieb. ex Willd., black-spike sedge [KS, NE] C. mesochorea Mack. savannah sedge [KS, MO, NE] SYN = C. cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. var. mesochorea (Mack.) Gleason – F C. microptera Mack., thin-wing sedge [Alb, CO, Man, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. festivella Mack. – A C. microdonta Torr. & Hook., little-tooth sedge [KS, MO, OK] C. missouriensis P. Rothr. & Reznicek, Missouri sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] C. molesta Mack. ex Bright, pest sedge [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = C. brevior (Dewey) Mack. ex Lunell var. molesta (Mack. ex Bright) F.C. Gates C. muehlenbergii Schkuhr ex Willd., Muhlenberg’s sedge var. enervis Boott [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. plana Mack. var. muhlenbergii [KS, MO, OK] C. muskingumensis Schwein., Muskingum sedge [KS, MO, OK] C. nebrascencis Dewey, Nebraska sedge [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. normalis Mack., large straw sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, OK, SD] C. obtusata Lilj., blunt sedge [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. occidentalis L.H. Bailey, western sedge [CO, NM, SD, WY] C. oklahomensis Mack., Oklahoma sedge [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. stipata Muhl. var. oklahomensis (Mack.) Gleason C. oligocarpa Schkuhr ex Willd., straight-fruit sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] C. opaca (F.J. Herm.) P. Rothr. & Reznicek, dull sedge [ SYN = C. bicknellii Britton var. opaca F.J. Herm. [KS, MO, OK] C. pachystachya Cham. ex Steud., thick-stem sedge [Alb, Sas] C. parryana Dewey, Parry’s sedge subsp. hallii (Olney) D.F. Murray, deer sedge [Man, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = C. hallii Olney – A, F subsp. parryana [Alb, Man, Sas, WY] C. peckii Howe, Peck’s sedge [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. nigromarginata Schwein. var. elliptica (Boott) Gleason C. pellita Muhl. ex Willd., woolly sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. lanuginosa Michx. misapplied – A, F SYN = C. lasiocarpa Ehrh. var. latifolia (Boeck.) Gilly C. pendunculata Willd., little-foot sedge [MN, ND] C. pensylvanica Lam., Pennsylvania sedge [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, SD] C. perdentata S.D. Jones, toothed sedge [OK] C. petasata Dewey, Liddon’s sedge [Alb, MT, Sas, WY] C. praegracilis W. Boott, plains meadow sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, WY] C. prairea Dewey ex A.W. Wood, prairie sedge [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] C. praticola Rydb., northern meadow sedge [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, WY] C. pseudo-cyperus L., false nut-grass sedge [Man, MN, ND] C. radiata (Wahlenb.) Small, radiate sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] C. raynoldsii Dewey, Raynold’s sedge [Alb, MT, Sas] C. retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd., reflexed sedge [KS, MO, OK] C. retrorsa Schwein., knot-sheath sedge [IA, Man, MN, ND, SD, WY] C. richardsonii R. Br., Richardson’s sedge [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. rosea Schkuhr ex Willd., rosy sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = C. convoluta Mack. – A, F C. rossii Boott, Ross’ sedge [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. rupestris All., rock sedge, curly sedge var. rupestris [SD] C. sartwellii Dewey, Sartwell’s sedge [Alb, IA, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] C. saximontana Mack., Rocky Mountain sedge [MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. backii Boott var. saximontana (Mack.) B. Boivin SYN = C. backii Boott var. subrostrata (Bates) Dorn C. scirpiformis Mack., bulrush sedge [MN, ND, Sas] SYN = C. scirppoidea Michx. var. scirpiformis (Mack.) O’Neill & Duman C. scoparia Schkuhr ex Willd., broom sedge [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] C. shinnersii P.E. Rothr. & Reznicek, Shinner’s sedge [KS, OK] C. shortiana Dewey, Short’s sedge [KS, MO] C. siccata Dewey, dry-spike sedge [Alb, SD, WY] C. foenea Willd. misapplied – A, F C. simulata Mack., short-beak sedge [Alb, ND, Sas] C. sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd., bur-reed sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] C. sprengelii Dewey ex Spreng., Sprengel’s sedge [Alb, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. squarrosa L., squarrose sedge [IA, KS, MO, NE] C. sterilis Willd., sterile sedge [Man, MN, ND, Sas] SYN = C. muricata L. var. sterilis (Mack.) Gleason C. stipata Muhl. ex Willd., stalk-grain sedge, prickly sedge var. stipata [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. stricta Lam., upright sedge [CO, IA, Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = C. strictior Dewey C. suberecta (Olney) Britton, suberect sedge [IA, MO] C. x subimpressa Clokey {C. hyalinolepis x C. pellita}, impressed sedge [KS, MO] C. sychnocephala J. Carey, many-head sedge [IA, MN, MO, Sas] C. tenera Dewey, slender sedge var. echinodes (Fernald) Wiegand [MN, NE, SD] var. tenera [IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. tetanica Schkuhr, rigid sedge [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] C. tetrastachya Scheele, four-spike sedge [OK] SYN = C. brittoniana L.H. Bailey – A, F C. texensis (G.S. Torr. ex L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey, Texas sedge [KS, MO, NE] SYN = C. retroflexa Muhl. ex Willd. var. texensis (G.S. Torr. ex L.H. Bailey) Fernald C. torreyi Tuck., Torrey’s sedge [MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. abbreviata Prescott C. triangularis Boeck., triangular sedge [KS, OK] C. tribuloides Wahlenb., festival sedge var. sangamonensis Clokey [KS] var. tribuloides [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD] C. trichocarpa Muhl. ex Willd., hair-fruit sedge [IA, MN, MO] C. typhina Michx., cat-tail sedge [MO] C. umbellata Schkuhr ex Willd., low sedge [KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. abdita E.P. Bicknell SYN = C. microrhyncha Mack. – A, F C. utriculata Boott, pouch sedge [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. rostrata Stokes misapplied – A C. vallicola Dewey, valley sedge [SD, WY] C. vesicaria L., blister sedge var. monile (Tuck.) Fernald [IA, MO, MT, SD] C. viridula Michx., greenish sedge subsp. viridula var. viridula [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas] C. vulpinoidea Michx., fox sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. woodii Dewey, Wood’s sedge [Man] SYN = C. tetanica Schkuhr var. woodii (Dewey) A.W. Wood Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. xerantica L.H. Bailey, dry-land sedge [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] Cyperus L., flat-sedge, umbrella-sedge, nut-grass (see also Kyllinga) C. acuminatus Torr. & Hook., tape-leaf flat-sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. bipartitus Torr., brook flat-sedge [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. niger Ruiz & Pav. var. rivularis (Kunth) V.E. Grant SYN = C. rivularis Kunth – A, F C. diandrus Torr., low flat-sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] C. echinatus (L.) A.W. Wood, globe flat-sedge, teasel flat-sedge [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. ovularis (Michx.) Torr. – A, F SYN = C. ovularis (Michx.) Torr. var. sphaericus Boeck. *C. entrerianus Boeck., South American flat-sedge [OK] C. luzulae (L.) Retz. misapplied C. erythrorhizos Muhl., red-root flat-sedge [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. esculentus L., yellow nut-sedge, chufa var. leptostachyus Boeck. [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] *C. fuscus L., brown flat-sedge, galingale, brown galingale [NE, SD] C. lancastriensis Porter, Porter’s flat-sedge, many-flower flat-sedge [MO, OK] C. lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks, slender-stem flat-sedge subsp. lupulinus [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] C. filiculmis Vahl misapplied – A subsp. macilentus (Fernald) Marcks [IA, NE, SD] SYN = C. bushii Britton SYN = C. filiculmis Vahl var. macilentus Fernald C. x mesochorus Geise {C. lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks subsp. lupulinus x C. schweinitzii Torr.}, intermediate flat-sedge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] C. odoratus L., slender flat-sedge, rusty flat-sedge [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = C. engelmannii Steud. – A, F SYN = C. ferax Rich. subsp. engelmannii (Steud.) Kük. SYN = C. ferruginescens Boeck. – A SYN = C. odoratus L. var. engelmannii (Steud.) R. Carter, S.D. Jones & Wipff SYN = C. odoratus L. var. squarrosus (Britton) S.D. Jones, Wipff & R. Carter SYN = C. speciosus Vahl var. ferruginescens (Boeck.) Britton SYN = C. speciosus Vahl var. squarrosus Britton C. pseudovegetus Steud., marsh flat-sedge [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. virens Michx. var. arenicola (Boeck.) Shinners C. retroflexus Buckley, one-flower flat-sedge var. retroflexus [OK, TX] C. uniflorus Torr. & Hook. misapplied – A, F SYN = C. uniflorus Torr. & Hook. var. retroflexus (Buckley) Kük. C. rotundus L., purple nut-sedge, coco-grass [OK] C. schweinitzii Torr., Schweinitz’s flat-sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Mariscus schweinitzii (Torr.) T. Koyama C. setigerus Torr. & Hook., bristle flat-sedge [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = C. hallii Britton C. squarrosus L., awned flat-sedge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. aristatus Rottb. – A F SYN = C. inflexus Muhl. C. strigosus L., false nut-sedge [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] C. surinamensis Rottb., tropical flat-sedge [KS, OK] Dichromena Michx. (see Rhynchospora) Dulichium Pers., three-way-sedge D. arundinaceum (L.) Britton, three-way-sedge [MO, NE] Eleocharis R. Br., spike-rush E. acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult., needle spike-rush, hair-grass, least spike-rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult. var. gracilescens Svenson E. atropurpurea (Retz.) J. Presl & C. Presl, purple spike-rush [KS, MO, NE, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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E. coloradoensis (Britton) Gilly, Colorado spike-rush [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] E. compressa Sull., flat-stem spike-rush var. acutisquamata (Buckley) S.G. Sm. [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NM, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = E. acutisquamata Buckley var. compressa [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, Sas] SYN = E. acuminata (Muhl.) Nees SYN = E. elliptica Kunth var. compressa (Sull.) Drapalik & Mohlenb. E. elliptica Kunth, elliptic spike-rush var. elliptica [Alb, IA, KS, Man, NE, MT, Sas] SYN = E. capitata (L.) R. Br. var. borealis Svenson SYN = E. compressa Sull. var. borealis (Svenson) Drapalik & Molhenb. SYN = E. tenuis (Willd.) Schult. var. borealis (Svenson) Gleason E. engelmannii Steud., Engelmann’s spike-rush [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas] SYN = E. engelmannii Steud. var. detonsa A. Gray SYN = E. monticola Fernald SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. detonsa (A. Gray) Drapalik & Mohlenbr. SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. engelmannii (Steud.) Gilly SYN = E. ovata (Roth) Roem. & Schult. var. engelmannii (Steud.) Britton E. erythropoda Steud., bald spike-rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. calva Torr. E. geniculata (L.) Roem. & Schult., clustered spike-rush [KS, NE, OK] SYN = E. caribaea (Rottb.) S.F. Blake – A, F E. intermedia Schult., intermediate spike-rush [MN] E. lanceolata Fernald, dagger-leaf spike-rush [KS, MO] SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. lanceolata (Fernald) Gilly E. macrostachya Britton, large-spike spike-rush, creeping spike-rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. xyridiformis Fernald & Brackett – A, F E. montevidensis Kunth, sand spike-rush [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = E. arenicola Torr. SYN = E. palmeri Svenson SYN = E. montana (Kunth) Roem. & Schult. var. montevidensis (Kunth) Osten E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult., blunt spike-rush [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. obtuse – F E. ovata (Roth) Roem. & Schult., ovate spike-rush [IA, Man, MN, MO] SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. jejuna Fernald SYN = E. obtusa (Willd.) Schult. var. ovata (Roth) Drapalik & Mohlenbr. – A, F E. palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult., marsh spike-rush, creeping spike-rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. smallii Britton – A, F E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff et al., small spike-rush [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff et al. var. anachaeta (Torr.) Svenson - A, F SYN = E. parvula (Roem. & Schult.) Link ex Bluff et al. var. parvula – F SYN = E. pygmaea Torr. E. quinqueflora (Hartmann) Schwartz, few-flower spike-rush [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas] SYN = E. pauciflora (Lightf.) Link – A, F SYN = E. pauciflora (Lightf.) Link var. fernaldii Svenson SYN = Scirpus pauciflorus Lightf. E. quadrangulata (Michx.) Roem. & Schult., square-stem spike-rush [KS, MO, OK, WY] SYN = E. quadrangulata (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. var. crassior Fernald – A E. rostellata (Torr.) Torr., beaked spike-rush [KS, MN, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] E. verrucosa (Svenson) L.J. Harms, slender spike-rush [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = E. tenuis (Willd.) Schult. var. verrucosa (Svenson) Svenson – A E. wolfii (A. Gray) A. Gray ex Britton, Wolf’s spike-rush [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE] Eriophorum L., cotton-grass E. angustifolium Honck., narrow-leaf cotton-grass, tall cotton-grass Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. subarcticum (V.N. Vassil.) Hultén ex Kartesz & Gandhi var. majus F.W. Schultz [Alb, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = E. polystachion L. - nom. rejic. – A, F E. chamissonis C.A. Mey., russet cotton-grass [ND] E. gracile W.D.J. Koch, slender cotton-grass [CO, IA, ND, NE, SD] E. viridicarinatum (Engelm.) Fernald, green-keel cotton-grass [MN, ND] Fimbristylis Vahl, nom. conserv., fimbry F. annua (All.) Roem. & Schult., annual fimbry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = F. baldwiniana (Schult.) Torr. F. autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult., slender fimbry, autumn fimbry [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = F. autumnalis (L.) Roem. & Schult. var. mucronulata (Michx.) Fernald SYN = F. mucronulata (Michx.) Roem. & Schult. F. puberula (Michx.) Vahl, hairy fimbry var. interior (Britton) Kral [KS, MN, NE, OK] SYN = F. interior Britton var. puberula [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = F. castanea (Michx.) Vahl var. puberula (Michx.) Britton SYN = F. drummondii (Torr. & Hook. ex Torr.) Boeck. F. vahlii (Lam.) Link, Vahl’s fimbry [KS, MO, NE, OK] Fuirena Rottb., umbrella-grass F. simplex Vahl, western umbrella-grass var. aristulata (Torr.) Kral [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] var. simplex [KS, OK, TX] Hemicarpha Nees & Arn. (see Lipocarpha) Isolepis R. Br., annual-bulrush I. carinata Hook. & Arn. ex Torr., keeled annual-bulrush [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Isolepis koilolepis Steud. SYN = Scirpus carinatus (Hook. & Arn. ex Torr.) A. Gray SYN = Scirpus koilolepis (Steud.) Gleason – A, F I. molesta (M.C. Johnst.) G.S. Sm., disturbed annual-bulrush [MO] SYN = Scirpus molestus M.C. Johnst. Kyllinga Rottb., nom. converv., greenhead-sedge K. pumila Michx., dwarf greenhead-sedge, annual greenhead-sedge [KS, MO] SYN = Cyperus tenuifolius (Steud.) Dandy – A, F Lipocarpha R. Br., nom. conserv., dwarf-bulrush L. aristulata (Coville) G.C. Tucker, awned dwarf-bulrush [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Hemicarpha aristulata (Coville) Smyth & L. Smyth SYN = Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax var. aristulata Coville L. drummondii (Nees) G.C. Tucker, Drummond’s dwarf-bulrush [KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Hemicarpha drummondii Nees – A, F SYN = Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax var. drummondii (Nees) Friedl. L. micrantha (Vahl) G.C. Tucker, small-flower dwarf-bulrush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax – A, F SYN = Hemicarpha micrantha (Vahl) Pax var. minor (Schrad.) Friedl. Rhynchospora Vahl, nom. conserv., beak-rush, bog-rush R. capillacea Torr., slender beak-rush, needle beak-rush [IA, Man, MN, Sas, SD] R. capitellata (Michx.) Vahl, brownish beak-rush, false bog-rush [KS, MO] R. harveyi W. Boott, Harvey’s beak-rush var. harveyi [KS, MO] R. macrostachya Torr. ex A. Gray, tall beak-rush [KS, MO, OK] R. nivea Boeck., white-top beak-rush [OK] SYN = Dichromena nivea (Boeck.) Boeck. ex Britton – A, F R. recognita (Gale) Kral, globe beak-rush [KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. globularis (Chapm.) Small var. recognita Gale – A, F Schoenoplectus (Rchb.) Palla, nom. conserv., twine-bulrush S. acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve, hard-stem twine-bulrush var. acutus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. lacustris (L.) Palla Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = S. lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = Scirpus acutus Muhl. ex Bigelow – A, F S. americanus (Pers.) Volkart ex Schinz & R. Keller, American twine-bulrush, Olney’s threesquare twinebulrush [IA, KS, OK] SYN = Scirpus americanus Pers. – A, F SYN = Scirpus olneyi A. Gray ex Engelm. & A. Gray – A S. californicus (C.A. Mey.) Soják, California twine-bulrush [KS, OK] SYN = Scirpus californicus (C.A. Mey.) Steud. S. deltarum (Schuyler) Soják, delta twine-bulrush [KS, MO] SYN = Scirpus deltarum Schuyler S. hallii (A. Gray) S.G. Sm., Hall’s twine-bulrush [KS, NE] SYN = Scirpus bergsonii Schuyler SYN = Scirpus hallii A. Gray – A, F SYN = Scirpus supinus L. var. hallii (A. Gray) A. Gray S. heterochaetus (Chase) Soják, slender twine-bulrush [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Scirpus heterochaetus Chase – A, F S. pungens (Vahl) Palla, common threesquare twine-bulrush, chair-maker’s-rush var. longispicatus (Britton) S.G. Sm. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Scirpus americanus Pers. var. longispicatus Britton SYN = Scirpus pungens Pers. subsp. pungens var. longispicatus (Britton) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde var. pungens [KS, MO] Scirpus americanus Pers. misapplied – A, Rydberg SYN = Scirpus pungens Vahl – F S. purshianus (Fernald) M.T. Strong, Pursh’s twine-bulrush, weak-stalk twine-bulrush [MN] SYN = Scirpus debilis Pursh SYN = Scirpus purshianus Fernald S. saximontanus (Fernald) J. Raynal, Rocky Mountain twine-bulrush [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Scirpus saximontanus Fernald – F SYN = Scirpus supinus L. var. saximontanus (Fernald) T. Koyama S. smithii (A. Gray) Soják, Smith’s twine-bulrush, blunt-scale twine-bulrush var. setosus (Fernald) S.G. Sm. [MN] var. smithii [MN] SYN = Scirpus smithii A. Gray – A, F S. subterminalis (Torr.) Soják, water twine-bulrush, swaying twine-bulrush [MN] SYN = Scirpus subterminalis Torr. S. tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla, soft-stem twine-bulrush, great twine-bulrush, tule [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. validus (Vahl) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = S. lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. creber (Fernald) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = S. lacustris (L.) Palla subsp. validus (Vahl) T. Koyama SYN = Scirpus validus Vahl – A, F SYN = Scirpus validus Vahl var. creber Fernald SYN = Scirpus tabernaemontani (C.C. Gmel.) Palla Scirpus L., nom. conserv., bulrush (see also Amphiscirpus, Bolboschoenus, Isolepis, and Schoenoplectus) S. atrocinctus Fernald, black-girdle bulrush [MN, SD, WY] S. atrovirens Willd., green bulrush [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. atrovirens Willd. var. atrovirens – A S. cespitosus L., tufted bulrush [MN] SYN = S. cespitosus L. var. callosus Bigelow S. cyperinus (L.) Kunth, wool-grass [IA, MN, MO] SYN = Eriophorum cyperinum L. SYN = S. cyperinus (L.) Kunth var. pelius Fernald SYN = S. rubricosus Fernald S. georgianus R.M. Harper, Georgia bulrush, dark-green bulrush [KS, MO, NE] SYN = S. atrovirens Willd. var. georgianus (R.M. Harper) Fernald – A S. microcarpus C. Presl, small-fruit bulrush [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = S. microcarpus C. Presl var. rubrotinctus (Fernald) M.E. Jones – A SYN = S. rubrotinctus Fernald S. pallidus (Britton) Fernald, pale bulrush, cloaked bulrush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. atrovirens Willd. var. pallidus Britton – A S. pendulus Muhl., drooping bulrush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. lineatus Michx. misapplied - Rydberg Scleria Bergius, nut-rush, razor-sedge S. ciliata Michx., hairy nut-rush var. ciliata [KS, MO] var. elliottii (Chapm.) Fernald [MO] SYN = S. elliottii Chapm. S. pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd., few-flower nut-rush var. caroliniana (Willd.) A.W. Wood [KS, MO] SYN = S. pauciflora Muhl. ex Willd. var. kansana Fernald var. pauciflora [KS, MO] S. triglomerata Michx., whip nut-rush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] S. verticillata Muhl. ex Willd., whorled nut-rush [IA, MN]

Dioscoreaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the yam family Dioscorea L., yam *D. oppositifolia L., Chinese yam [KS, OK] SYN = D. batatas Decne. – F D. quaternata J.F. Gmel., Atlantic yam [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = D. paniculata Michx. D. villosa L. misapplied – A, F

Dipsacaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the teasel family Dipsacus L., teasel *D. fullonum L., fuller’s teasel [KS MO, NE, SD, OK, WY] SYN = D. sylvestris Huds. – A *D. laciniatus L., cut-leaf teasel [IA, KS, MO, NE] Knautia L., bluebuttons *K. arvensis (L.) J.M. Coult., field bluebuttons [MN, ND, SD] SYN = Scabiosa arvensis L.

Droseraceae Salisb., nom. conserv., the sundew family Drosera L., sundew D. brevifolia Pursh., short-leaf sundew [KS] SYN = D. annua E.L. Reed D. rotundifolia L., round-leaf sundew [MN, ND]

Ebenaceae Gürke, nom. conserv., the ebony family Diospyros L., persimmon D. virginiana L., common persimmon, Virginia persimmon [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = D. virginiana L. var. platycarpa Sarg. SYN = D. virginiana L. var. pubescens (Pursh) Dippel

Elaeagnaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the oleaster family Elaeagnus L., oleaster *E. angustifolia L., Russian-olive [CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] E. commutata Bernh. ex Rydb., silver-berry [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] *E. umbellata Thunb., autumn-olive [KS, MO, NE] Shepherdia Nutt., nom. conserv., buffalo-berry S. argentea (Pursh) Nutt., silver buffalo-berry [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] S. canadensis (L.) Nutt., russet buffalo-berry, rabbit-berry [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Elatinaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the waterwort family Bergia L., bergia B. texana (Hook.) Seub. ex Walp., Texas bergia [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] Elatine L., waterwort E. americana (Pursh) Arn., American waterwort [Man] SYN = E. triandra Schkuhr var. americana (Pursh) Fassett E. brachysperma A. Gray, short-seed waterwort [NE, OK] E. triandra Schkuhr, three-stamen waterwort [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY]

Ericaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the heath family Arctostaphylos Adans., nom. conserv., bearberry, manzanita A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng., bearberry, kinnikinnick [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. adenotrichia Fernald & J.F. Macbr. – F SYN = A. uva-ursi (L.) Spreng. var. coactilis Fernald & J.F. Macbr. – F Ledum L., ledum L. groenlandicum Oeder, labrador-tea ledum [SD] Vaccinium L., blueberry, bilberry, cranberry, whortle-berry V. angustifolium Aiton, sweet low-bush blueberry [Man, MN] SYN = Cyanococcus angustifolius (Aiton) Rydb. V. arboreum Marshall, sparkle-berry, farkle-berry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Batodendron arboreum (Marsh.) Nutt. V. cespitosum Michx., dwarf bilberry, dwarf blueberry, dwarf whortle-berry [Alb, Sas, MN] V. macrocarpon Aiton, American cranberry, large cranberry [Alb, MN, Sas] V. membranaceum Douglas ex Hook., mountain huckle-berry [SD, WY] SYN = V. globulare Rydb. V. ovalifolium Sm., oval-leaf bilberry, oval-leaf blueberry [SD] V. oxycoccus L., small cranberry [MN] V. pallidum Aiton, hillside blueberry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cyanococcus vacillans (Kalm ex Torr.) Rydb. SYN = V. vacillans Torr. V. scoparium Leiberg ex Coville, grouseberry, dwarf red whortle-berry, small-leaf huckle-berry [SD, WY] SYN = V. erythrococcum Rydb. SYN = V. microphyllum (Hook.) Rydb. V. stamineum L., deerberry, southern gooseberry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Polycodium neglectum Small SYN = Polycodium stramineum (L.) Greene SYN = Vaccinium neglectum (Small) Fernald

Euphorbiaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the spurge family Acalypha L., copperleaf A. deamii (Weath.) H.E. Ahles, Deam’s copperleaf [KS] SYN = A. virginica L. var. deamii Weath. A. monococca (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Lill. W. Mill. & Gandhi, slender copperleaf [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. gracilens A. Gray var. monococca Engelm. ex A. Gray A. ostryifolia Riddell, rough-pod copperleaf, hop-hornbeam copperleaf [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] A. rhomboidea Raf., rhombic copperleaf [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK] SYN = A. virginica L. var. rhomboidea (Raf.) Cooperr. A. virginica L., Virginia copperleaf [IA, KS, MO, ND, OK, SD] Argythamnia P. Br., silverbush A. humilis (Engelm. & A. Gray) Müll. Arg., low silverbush var. humilis [KS, OK, TX] SYN = A. humilis (Engelm. & A. Gray) Müll. Arg. var. laevis (Torr.) Shinners – A, F SYN = Ditaxis humilis (Engelm. & A. Gray) Pax var. leiosperma Waterf. [OK, TX] A. mercurialina (Nutt.) Müll. Arg., wild-mercury silverbush var. mercurialina [CO, KS, OK, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Ditaxis mercurialina (Nutt.) J.M. Coult. Chamaesyce Gray, mat-spurge C. albomarginata (Torr. & A. Gray) Small, white-margin mat-spurge, rattlesnake-weed [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Euphorbia albomarginata Torr. & A. Gray – A, F C. carunculata (Waterf.) Shinners, sand-dune mat-spurge [KS, OK, TX] SYN= Euphorbia carunculata Waterf. – A, F C. fendleri (Torr. & A. Gray) Small, Fendler’s mat-spurge var. fendleri [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. greenei (Millsp.) Rydb. SYN = Euphorbia fendleri Torr. & A. Gray – A, F C. geyeri (Engelm.) Small, Geyer's mat-spurge var. geyeri [CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Euphorbia geyeri Engelm. – A, F C. glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small, ridge-seed mat-spurge [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. glyptosperma (Engelm.) Small var. integrata Lunell SYN = Euphorbia glyptosperma Engelm. – A, F C. humistrata (Engelm.) Small, spreading mat-spurge [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Euphorbia humistrata Engelm. – A, F C. lata (Engelm.) Small, hoary mat-spurge [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Euphorbia lata Engelm. – A, F C. maculata (L.) Small, spotted mat-spurge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Euphorbia maculata L. – A, F SYN = Euphorbia supina Raf. C. missurica (Raf.) Shinners, Missouri mat-spurge, prairie mat-spurge [CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. nuttallii (Engelm.) Small SYN = C. petaloidea (Engelm.) Small SYN = Euphorbia missurica Raf. – A, F SYN = Euphorbia missurica Raf. var. calcicola (Shinners) Waterf. SYN = Euphorbia missurica Raf. var. intermedia (Engelm.) L.C. Wheeler SYN = Euphorbia missurica Raf. var. petaloidea (Engelm.) Dorn C. nutans (Lag.) Small, eyebane, nodding mat-spurge [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Euphorbia nutans Lag. – A, F SYN = Euphorbia preslii Guss. C. prostrata (Aiton) Small, prostrate mat-spurge [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Euphorbia prostrata Aiton – A, F C. revoluta (Engelm.) Small, thread-stem spurge [CO] SYN = Euphorbia revoluta Engelm. – A, F C. serpens (Kunth) Small, round-leaf mat-spurge [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Euphorbia serpens Kunth – A, F C. serpyllifolia (Pers.) Small, thyme-leaf mat-spurge [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. aeguata Lunell SYN = C. albicaulis (Rydb.) Rydb. SYN = C. erecta Lunell SYN = Euphorbia serpyllifolia Pers. – A, F C. stictospora (Engelm.) Small, slim-seed mat-spurge [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Euphorbia stictospora Engelm. – A, F Cnidoscolus J. Pohl, tread-softly, bull-nettle C. texanus (Müll. Arg.) Small, Texas tread-softly, Texas bull-nettle [OK] Croton L., croton C. capitatus Michx., woolly croton var. capitatus [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] var. lindheimeri (Engelm. & A. Gray) Müll. Arg. [KS, OK] C. dioicus Cav., grassland croton [NM, TX] C. glandulosus L., tropic croton var. lindheimeri Müll. Arg. [NM, TX] var. septentrionalis Müll. Arg. [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. lindheimerianus Scheele, Lindheimer’s croton, three-seed croton var. lindheimerianus [KS, NM, OK, TX] C. monanthogynus Michx., one-seed croton [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] C. pottsii (Klotzsch) Müll. Arg., Potts’ croton, leatherweed var. pottsii [NM, TX] C. texensis (Klotzsch) Müll. Arg., Texas croton, doveweed var. texensis [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. willdenowii G.L. Webster, Willdenow’s croton, rushfoil [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Crotonopsis elliptica Willd. - A, F Euphorbia L., spurge *E. agraria Bieb., field spurge [KS, NE, WY] E. corollata L., flowering spurge [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = E. corollata L. var. mollis Millsp. SYN = Tithymalopsis corollata (L.) Klotzsch E. cyathophora Murray, painted spurge, fire-on-the-mountain [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = E. heterophylla L. var. graminifolia Engelm. SYN = Poinsettia heterophylla (L.) Klotzsch & Garcke misapplied - Rydberg *E. cyparissias L., cypress spurge [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Galarhoeus cyparissias (L.) Small ex Rydb. E. davidii Subils, western toothed spurge [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] E. dentata Michx. misapplied – A, F Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Small misapplied - Rydberg Poinsettia cuphosperma Engelm. misapplied - Rydberg E. dentata Michx., eastern toothed spurge [CO, IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Klotzsch & Garcke *E. esula L., leafy spurge [CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = E. podperae Croizat – A SYN = E. x pseudovirgata (Schur) Soó – F SYN = E. uralensis Fisch. ex Link – F SYN = Galarhoeus esula (L.) Rydb. E. exstipulata Engelm., Clark Mountain spurge var. exstipulata [WY] E. hexagona Nutt. ex Spreng., six-angle spurge [CO, IA, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Zygophyllidium hexagonum (Nutt. ex Spreng.) Small E. longicuris Scheele, wedge-leaf spurge [OK, TX] E. marginata Pursh, snow-on-the-mountain [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Agaloma marginata (Pursh) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = Lepadena marginata (Pursh) Nieuwl. *E. peplus L., petty spurge [CO, ND] E. robusta (Engelm.) Small, stout spurge [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = E. brachycera Engelm. var. robusta (Engelm.) Dorn SYN = Galarhoeus robustus (Engelm.) Rydb. E. spathulata Lam., warty spurge, prairie spurge [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. dictyosperma Fisch. & C.A. Mey. SYN = Galarhoeus arkansanus (Engelm. & A. Gray) Small ex Rydb. SYN = Galarhoeus missouriensis (Norton) Rydb. SYN = Galarhoeus obtusatus (Pursh) Small SYN = Tithymalus spathulatus (Lam.) W.A. Weber E. strictior Holz., panhandle spurge [NM, TX] Phyllanthus L., leaf-flower P. abnormis Baill., abnormal leaf-flower var. abnormis [OK, TX] P. caroliniensis Walter, Carolina leaf-flower subsp. caroliniensis [KS, MO, OK] P. polygonoides Nutt. ex Spreng., knot-weed leaf-flower [OK] Reverchonia A. Gray, reverchonia R. arenaria A. Gray, sand reverchonia, sand-ghost [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Stillingia L., stillingia Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. sylvatica L., queen's-delight stillingia subsp. sylvatica [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = S. salicifolia (Torr.) Raf. SYN = S. sylvatica Garden ex L. var. salicifolia Torr. Tragia L., noseburn T. amblyodonta (Müll. Arg.) Pax & K. Hoffm., dog-tooth noseburn [NM, TX] T. betonicifolia Nutt., betony noseburn [KS, MO, OK] T. ramosa Torr., catnip noseburn [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] T. nepetifolia Cav. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = T. stylaris Müll. Arg.

Fabaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the bean family Acacia Mill., acacia A. angustissima (Mill.) Kuntze, prairie acacia var. hirta (Nutt.) B.L. Rob. [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = Acaciela hirta (Nutt.) Britton & Rose Albizia Durazz., albizia *A. julibrissin Durazz., silk-tree albizia [KS, OK] Amorpha L., wild-indigo A. canescens Pursh, leadplant, woolly wild-indigo [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. fruticosa L., bush wild-indigo [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. fragrans Sweet SYN = A. fruticosa L. var. angustifolia Pursh SYN = A. fruticosa L. var. tennesseensis (Shuttlew. ex Kunze) E.J. Palmer A. laevigata Nutt., smooth wild-indigo [OK] A. nana Nutt., dwarf wild-indigo [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD] Amphicarpaea Elliott ex Nutt., nom. conserv., hog-peanut A. bracteata (L.) Fernald, American hog-peanut var. bracteata [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] var. comosa (L.) Fernald [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. comosa (L.) G. Don SYN = A. pitcheri Torr. & A. Gray Apios Fabr., nom. conserv., potato-bean, groundnut A. americana Medik., American potato-bean [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = A. americana Medik. var. turrigera Fernald SYN = A. tuberosa Moench Astragalus L., milk-vetch, locoweed, poison-vetch A. agrestis Douglas ex G. Don, purple milk-vetch [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. dasyglottis Fisch. ex DC. SYN = A. goniatus Nutt. A. alpinus L., alpine milk-vetch var. alpinus [SD, WY] SYN = Atelophragma alpinum (L.) Rydb. A. americanus (Hook.) M.E. Jones, American milk-vetch [Alb, MT, Sas, SD] SYN = Phaca americana (Hook.) Rydb. A. australis (L.) Lam., Indian milk-vetch, subarctic milk-vetch var. aboriginorum (Richardson) S.L. Welsh [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. aboriginorum Richardson – A, F SYN = A. australis (L.) Lam. var. glabriusculus (Hook.) Isely SYN = Atelophragma aboriginum (Richardson) Rydb. SYN = Atelophragma forwoodii (S. Watson) Rydb. SYN = Atelophragma glabriusculum (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = Atelophragma herriotii Rydb. A. barrii Barneby, Barr’s milk-vetch [endemic: MT, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Orophaca barriae (Barneby) Isely A. bisulcatus (Hook.) A. Gray, two-groove milk-vetch

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var. bisulcatus [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Diholcos bisulcatus (Hook.) Rydb. A. bodini E. Sheld., Bodin’s milk-vetch [NE] SYN = Phaca bodini (E. Sheld.) Rydb. A. canadensis L., Canadian milk-vetch var. canadensis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] A. ceramicus E. Sheld., painted milk-vetch var. filifolius (A. Gray) F.J. Herm., [largely endemic: CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = A. longifolius (Pursh) Rydb. SYN = Phaca longifolia (Pursh) Nutt. A. cibarius E. Sheld., browse milk-vetch [WY] *A. cicer L., chick-pea milk-vetch [NE, WY] A. crassicarpus Nutt., ground-plum milk-vetch var. crassicarpus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. caryocarpus Ker Gawl. SYN = Geoprumnon crassicarpum (Nutt.) Rydb. ex Small SYN = Geoprumnon succulentum (Richardson) Rydb. var. paysoni (Kelso) Barneby, mountain ground-plum milk-vetch [Alb, CO, MT, OK, WY] var. trichocalyx (Nutt.) Barneby, Ozark ground-plum milk-vetch [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. caryocarpus Ker Gawl. var. trichocalyx (Nutt.) Fernald SYN = A. trichocalyx Nutt. SYN = Geoprumnon trichocalyx (Nutt.) Rydb. A. distortus Torr. & A. Gray, Ozark milk-vetch var. distortus [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Holcophacos distortus (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb. A. drummondii Douglas ex Hook., Drummond’s milk-vetch [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Tium drummondii (Douglas ex Hook.) Rydb. A. flexuosus (Hook.) G. Don, pliant milk-vetch var. flexuosus [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Pisophaca elongatea (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = Pisophaca flexuosa (Douglas) Rydb. A. geyeri A. Gray, Geyer’s milk-vetch var. geyeri [MT] A. gilviflorus E. Sheld., plains milk-vetch var. gilviflorus [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. triphyllus Pursh SYN = Orophaca triphylla (Pursh) Britton A. gracilis Nutt., slender milk-vetch [largely endemic: CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. gracilis Nutt. var. parviflorus (Pursh) F.C. Gates SYN = Microphacos gracilis (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = Microphacos parviflora (Pursh) Rydb. A. hallii A. Gray, Hall’s milk-vetch var. hallii [CO] A. hyalinus M.E. Jones, summer milk-vetch [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, WY] SYN = Orophaca argophylla (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = Orophaca hyalina (M.E. Jones) Isely A. kentrophyta A. Gray, spur-leaf milk-vetch var. kentrophyta [Alb, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. viridis (Nutt.) E. Sheld. SYN = Kentrophyta montana Nutt. SYN = Kentrophyta viridis Nutt. var. tegetarius (S. Watson) Dorn [WY] SYN = A. kentrophyta A. Gray var. implexus (Canby ex Porter & J.M. Coult.) Barneby A. laxmannii Jacq., standing milk-vetch var. robustior (Hook.) Barneby & S.L. Welsh [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. adsurgens Pall. var. robustior Hook. – A, F SYN = A. chandonetti Greene Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = A. striatus Nutt. A. lindheimeri Engelm. ex A. Gray, Lindheimer’s milk-vetch [OK, TX] A. lonchocarpus Torr., great rusty milk-vetch [CO, NM] A. lotiflorus Hook., lotus milk-vetch [largely endemic: Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. lotiflorus Hook. var. cretaceous (Buckley) F.C. Gates SYN = A. lotiflorus Hook. var. nebraskensis Bates SYN = Batidophaca cretacea (Buckley) Rydb. SYN = Batidophaca lotiflora (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = Batidophaca nebraskensis (Bates) Rydb. A. megacarpus (Nutt.) A. Gray, big-pod milk-vetch [WY] A. miser Douglas ex Hook., weedy milk-vetch var. decumbens (Nutt.) Cronquist, reclining weedy milk-vetch [WY] var. hylophilus (Rydb.) Barneby, woodland weedy milk-vetch [SD] SYN = Homalobus hylophilus Rydb. A. missouriensis Nutt., Missouri milk-vetch var. missouriensis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Xylophacos missouriensis (Nutt.) Rydb. A. mollissimus Torr., woolly milk-vetch var. mollissimus [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. neglectus (Torr. & A. Gray) E. Sheld., Cooper milk-vetch [Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = A. cooperi A. Gray SYN = Phaca neglecta Torr. & A. Gray A. nuttallianus DC., small-flower milk-vetch var. austrinus (Small) Barneby [KS, NM, OK, TX] var. nuttallianus [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Hamosa leptocarpa (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb. var. pleianthus (Shinners) Barneby [TX] SYN = A. pleianthus (Shinners) Isely var. trichocarpus Torr. & A. Gray [TX] A. pectinatus (Hook.) Douglas ex G. Don, tine-leaf poison-vetch [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Cnemidophacos pectinatus (Hook.) Rydb. A. plattensis Nutt., Platte River milk-vetch [largely endemic: CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Geoprumnon plattense (Nutt.) Rydb. A. praelongus E. Sheld., stinking milk-vetch var. ellisiae (Rydb.) Barneby [NM, TX] A. puniceus Osterh., Trinidad milk-vetch var. puniceus [endemic: CO, OK, NM] A. purshii Douglas ex Hook., Pursh’s milk-vetch var. purshii [Alb, CO, ND, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Xylophacos purshii (Douglas ex Hook.) Rydb. A. racemosus Pursh, alkali milk-vetch var. longisetus M.E. Jones [CO, NE, SD, WY] var. racemosus [largely endemic: CO, KS, MN, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Tium racemosum (Pursh) Rydb. A. robbinsii (Oakes) A. Gray, Robbins’ milk-vetch var. minor (Hook.) Barneby [MT] A. sericoleucus A. Gray, silky milk-vetch [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, WY] SYN = Orophaca sericea (Nutt.) Britton A. shortianus Nutt., Short's milk-vetch [CO, NE, NM, WY] SYN = Xylophacos shortianus (Nutt.) Rydb. A. spatulatus E. Sheld., tufted milk-vetch [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Homalobus caespitosus Nutt. SYN = Orophaca caespitosa (Nutt.) Britton A. tenellus Pursh, pulse milk-vetch, loose-flower milk-vetch [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Homalobus dispar Nutt. SYN = Homalobus stipitatus Rydb. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Homalobus tenellus (Pursh) Rydb. A. tridactylicus A. Gray, foothill milk-vetch [endemic: CO, WY] SYN = Orophaca tridactylica (A. Gray) Rydb. A. vexilliflexus E. Sheld., bent-flower milk-vetch var. vexilliflexus [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Homalobus vexilliflexus (E. Sheld.) Rydb. A. wittmannii Barneby, Wittmann’s milk-vetch [NM] Baptisia Vent., wild-indigo B. alba (L.) Vent., white wild-indigo var. macrophylla (Larisey) Isely [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = B. lactea (Raf.) Thieret – F SYN = B. leucantha Torr. & A. Gray – A B. australis (L.) R. Br., blue wild-indgo var. minor (Lehm.) Fernald [IA, KS, NE, MO, OK, TX] SYN = B. minor Lehm. SYN = B. vespertina Small ex Rydb. B. x bicolor Greenm. & Larisey {B. australis var. minor x B. bracteata var. leucophaea}, bicolor wild-indigo [KS, MO, OK] B. bracteata Muhl. ex Elliott, plains wild-indigo var. leucophaea (Nutt.) Kartesz & Gandhi [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = B. bracteata Muhl. ex Elliott var. glabrescens (Larisey) Isely – F SYN = B. leucophaea Nutt. – A Caesalpinia L., caesalpinia (see also Pomaria) *C. gilliesii (Wall. ex Hook.) D. Dietr., poinciana, bird-of-paradise [OK] Caragana Fabr., peashrub *C. arborescens Lam., Siberian peashrub [Alb, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *C. aurantiaca Koehne, dwarf peashrub [ND] Cercis L., redbud C. canadensis L., eastern redbud, Judas tree var. canadensis [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] var. texensis (S. Watson) M. Hopkins, Texas redbud [OK, TX] Chamaecrista (Breyne) Moench, partridgepea C. fasciculata (Michx.) Greene, showy partridgepea var. fasciculata [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Cassia chamaecrista L. – F SYN = Cassia fasciculata Michx. – A SYN = Chamaecrista fasciculata (Michx.) Moench var. rostrata (Wooton & Standl.) B.L. Turner C. nictitans (L.) Moench, sensitive partridgepea subsp. nictitans var. nictitans [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cassia nictitans L. – A, F Clitoria L., butterfly-pea C. mariana L., Atlantic butterfly-pea var. mariana [KS, MO, OK] Colutea L., bladder-senna *C. arborescens L., common bladder-senna [KS, OK] Coronilla L. (see Securigera) Crotalaria L., rattlepod C. sagittalis L., arrow rattlebox [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] C. spectabilis Roth, beautiful rattlebox [OK] Dalea L., nom. conserv., prairie-clover D. aurea Nutt. ex Pursh, golden prairie-clover, silk-top prairie-clover [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Parosela aurea (Nutt. ex Pursh) Britton D. candida Michx., white prairie-clover var. candida [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = Petalostemon candidus Michx. – A var. oligophylla (Torr.) Shinners, western prairie-clover [CO, KS, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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TX, WY] SYN = D. occidentalis (Britton & Kearney) Isely SYN = Petalostemon occidentale (A. Heller) Fernald – A SYN = Petalostemon oligophyllus (Torr.) Torr. ex Smyth D. cylindriceps Barneby, massive-spike prairie-clover [CO, KS, NM, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Petalostemon compactus (Spreng.) Swezey misapplied – A D. enneandra Nutt., nine-anther prairie-clover [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = D. enneandra Nutt. var. pumila (Shinners) B.L. Turner SYN = D. laxiflora Pursh SYN = Parosela enneandra (Nutt.) Britton D. formosa Torr., feather prairie-clover [CO, NM, OK, TX] D. frutescens A. Gray, black prairie-clover [NM, OK, TX] D. jamesii (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray, James' prairie-clover [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Parosela jamesii Torr. D. lanata Spreng., woolly prairie-clover var. lanata [CO, KS, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Parosela lanata (Spreng.) Britton D. leporina (Aiton) Bullock, hare-foot prairie-clover, fox-tail dalea [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = D. alopecuroides Willd. SYN = Parosela alopecuroides (Willd.) Rydb. D. multiflora (Nutt.) Shinners, round-head prairie-clover [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Petalostemon multiflorus Nutt. – A D. nana Torr. ex A. Gray, dwarf prairie-clover var. nana [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Parosela nana (Torr. ex A. Gray) A. Heller D. purpurea Vent., purple prairie-clover var. arenicola (Wemple) Barneby [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Petalostemon arenicola Wemple – A var. purpurea [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Petalostemon mollis Rydb. SYN = Petalostemon purpureus (Vent.) Rydb. – A D. tenuifolia (A. Gray) Shinners, slim-leaf prairie-clover [largely endemic: CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Petalostemon porterianus Small SYN = Petalostemon tenuifolius A. Gray – A D. villosa (Nutt.) Spreng., silky prairie-clover var. villosa [CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Petalostemon villosus Nutt. – A Desmanthus Willd., nom. conserv., bundle-flower D. cooleyi (Eaton) Trel., Cooley’s bundle-flower [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] D. illinoensis (Michx.) MacMill. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald, Illinois bundle-flower [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX ] D. leptolobus Torr. & A. Gray, slender-lobe bundle-flower [KS, OK] D. obtusus S. Watson, blunt-pod bundle-flower [TX] Desmodium Desv., nom. conserv., tick-clover D. canadense (L.) DC., Canadian tick-clover [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Meibomia canadensis (L.) Kuntze D. canescens (L.) DC., hoary tick-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = D. canescens (L.) DC. var. hirsutum (Hook.) B.L. Rob. SYN = Meibomia canescens (L.) Kuntze D. ciliare (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC., little-leaf tick-clover [KS, MO, OK] D. cuspidatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. ex Loud., long-leaf tick-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = D. bracteosum (Michx.) DC. SYN = D. bracteosum (Michx.) DC. var. longifolium (Torr. & A. Gray) B.L. Rob. SYN = D. cuspidatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC. ex Loud. var. longifolium (Torr. & A. Gray) B.G. Schub. SYN = Meibomia bracteosa (Michx.) Kuntze SYN = Meibomia longifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Vail Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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D. glabellum (Michx.) DC., smooth tick-clover [KS, MO, OK] D. glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) A.W. Wood, large-flower tick-clover [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = D. acuminatum (Michx.) DC. SYN = Meibomia acuminata (Michx.) S.F. Blake D. illinoense A. Gray, Illinois tick-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Meibomia illinoensis (A. Gray) Kuntze D. marilandicum (L.) DC., Maryland tick-clover [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Meibomia marilandica (L.) Kuntze D. nudiflorum (L.) DC., bare-stem tick-clover [KS, MO] SYN = Meibomia nudiflora (L.) Kuntze D. obtusum (Muhl. ex Willd.) DC., blunt-lobe tick-clover [CO, KS, MO, OK] SYN = D. rigidum (Elliott) DC. – A SYN = Meibomia rigida (Elliott) Kuntze D. paniculatum (L.) DC. panicled tick-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = D. paniculatum (L.) DC. var. paniculatum – F SYN = Meibomia paniculata (L.) Kuntze SYN = Meibomia pubens (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb. D. pauciflorum (Nutt.) DC., few-flower tick-clover [KS, MO] SYN = Meibomia pauciflora (Nutt.) Kuntze D. perplexum B.G. Schub., Dillen’s tick-clover [KS, NE, MO, OK] SYN = D. dillenii J. Darl. SYN = D. glabellum (Michx.) DC. SYN = D. paniculatum (L.) DC. var. dillenii (J. Darl.) Isely – F D. rotundifolium DC., round-leaf tick-clover, dollarleaf [KS, MO] SYN = Meibomia michauxii Vail D. sessilifolium (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray, sessile-leaf tick-clover [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Meibomia sessilifolia (Torr.) Kuntze Galactia P. Br., milkpea G. volubilis (L.) Britton, shapely milkpea [KS, MO, OK] SYN = G. mississippiensis (Vail) Rydb. G. regularis (L.) Britton et al. misapplied – F SYN = G. volubilis (L.) Britton var. mississippiensis Vail – A Galega L. , goat’s-rue *G. officinalis L., common goat’s-rue [NE] Gleditsia L., honey-locust G. triacanthos L., common honey-locust [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Glycyrrhiza L., licorice G. lepidota Pursh, American licorice [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. lepidota Pursh var. glutinosa (Nutt.) S. Watson – F Gymnocladus Lam., coffeetree G. dioica (L.) K. Koch, Kentucky coffeetree [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Hedysarum L., sweet-vetch H. alpinum L., alpine sweet-vetch var. americanum Michx. [Alb, Man, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. americanum (Michx.) Britton var. philoscia (A. Nelson) Rollins [Alb, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. alpinum L. subsp. philoscia (A. Nelson) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = H. alpinum L. var. philoscia (A. Nelson) Rollins H. boreale Nutt., northern sweet-vetch subsp. boreale var. boreale [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = H. boreale Nutt. var. cinerascens (Rydb.) Rollins – F SYN = H. cinerascens Rydb. Hoffmannseggia Cav., nom. conserv., orth. conserv., rushpea H. drepanocarpa A. Gray, sickle-pod rushpea [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] H. glauca (Ortega) Eifert, Indian rushpea, pignut [CO, KS, NM, OK] SYN = H. densiflora Benth. SYN = Larrea densiflora (Benth.) Britton Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Indigofera L., indigo I. miniata Ortega, western indigo [KS, OK, TX] SYN = I. leposepala Nutt. SYN = I. miniata Ort. var. leptosepala (Nutt.) B.L. Turner – A, F Kummerowia Schindl., low bush-clover *K. stipulacea (Maxim.) Makino, Korean low bush-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim. – A, F *K. striata (Thunb.) Schindl., Japanese low-bush-clover [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Lespedeza striata (Thunb.) Hook. & Arn. – A, F Lathyrus L., peavine *L. aphaca L., yellow peavine [NE] L. eucosmus Butters & H. St. John, bush peavine [CO, NM] L. laetivirens Greene ex Rydb., plateau peavine [CO] SYN = L. lanszwertii Kellogg var. laetivirens (Greene ex Rydb.) S.L. Welsh L. lanszwertii Kellogg, Lanszwert’s peavine, thick-leaf peavine var. leucanthus (Rydb.) Dorn [CO] SYN = L. leucanthus Rydb. *L. latifolius L., perennial peavine [KS, NE, SD, WY] L. ochroleucus Hook., cream peavine [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] L. palustris L., marsh peavine [CO, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. macranthus (T.G. White) Rydb. SYN = L. palustris L. var. pilosus (Chapm.) Ledeb. L. polymorphus Nutt., hoary peavine subsp. incanus (J.G. Sm. & Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. [CO, NE, NM, TX, WY] SYN = L. incanus (J.G. Sm. & Rydb.) Rydb. SYN = L. polymorphus Nutt. var. incanus (J.G. Sm. & Rydb.) Dorn subsp. polymorphus [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = L. decaphyllus Pursh SYN = L. hapemanii A. Nelson SYN = L. stipulaceus (Pursh) Butters & H. St. John L. pusillus Elliott, singletary peavine, low peavine [KS, MO, OK] *L. tuberosus L., ground-nut peavine [MT, NE] L. venosus Muhl. ex Willd., bushy peavine, veiny peavine [IA, Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = L. venosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. intonsus Butters & H. St. John – F Lespedeza Michx., bush-clover, lespedeza (see also Kummerowia ) L. x acuticarpa Mack. & Bush {L. violacea x L. virginica}, sharp-fruit bush-clover [KS, MO] *L. bicolor Turcz., bicolor bush-clover var. bicolor [IA, KS] L. capitata Michx., round-head bush-clover [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = L. capitata Michx. var. vulgaris Torr. & A. Gray *L. cuneata (Dum. Cours.) G. Don, sericea bush-clover, sericea lespedeza, Chinese bush-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] L. hirta (L.) Hornem., hairy bush-clover subsp. hirta [KS, MO, OK] L. intermedia (S. Watson) Britton, wand bush-clover [MO] L. leptostachya Engelm., slender spike bush-clover [IA, MN] L. x manniana Mack. & Bush {L. capitata x L. violacea}, Mann’s bush-clover [KS, MO] L. x nuttallii J. Darl. {L. hirta x L. intermedia}, Nuttall’s bush-clover [MO] L. procumbens Michx., trailing bush-clover [KS, MO, OK] L. repens (L.) W.P.C. Barton, creeping bush-clover [KS, MO, OK] L. x simulata Mack. & Bush {L. capitata x L. virginica}, false round-head bush-clover [KS, MO, OK] L. stuevei Nutt., tall bush-clover, Stueve’s bush-clover [KS, MO, OK, TX] L. violacea (L.) Pers., violet bush-clover, prairie bush-clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = L. frutescens (L.) Britton SYN = L. prairea (Mack. & Bush) Britton L. virginica (L.) Britton, slender bush-clover, Virginia bush-clover [KS, MO, OK] Lotus L., trefoil *L. corniculatus L., bird-foot trefoil [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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*L. tenuis Waldst. & Kit. ex Willd., narrow-leaf trefoil, slender bird-foot trefoil [KS, NE] L. unifoliolatus (Hook.) Benth., prairie trefoil var. unifoliolatus [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Acmispon americanum (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = L. americanus (Nutt.) Bisch. SYN = L. purshianus (Benth.) Clem. & E.G. Clem. var. purshianus – A, F Lupinus L., lupine L. argenteus Pursh, silvery lupine subsp. argenteus var. argenteus [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] var. laxiflorus (Douglas ex Lindl.) Dorn [WY] subsp. rubricaulis (Greene) L.W Hess & D.B. Dunn [WY] SYN = L. argenteus Pursh var. rubricaulis (Greene) S.L. Welsh L. caudatus Kellogg, tail-cup lupine subsp. argophyllus (A. Gray) L.Ll. Phillips [CO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. aduncus Greene SYN = L. caudatus Kellogg var. argophyllus (A. Gray) S.L. Welsh L. lepidus Douglas ex Lindl., Pacific lupine var. utahensis (S. Watson) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, MT, WY] SYN = L. caespitosus Nutt. var. utahensis (S. Watson) B.J. Cox L. leucophyllus Douglas ex Lindl., velvet lupine [Alb, MT] L. parviflorus Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn., lodge-pole lupine, small-flower lupine subsp. parviflorus [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. argenteus Pursh var. parviflorus (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) C.L. Hitchc. – A, F SYN = L. argenteus Pursh subsp. parviflorus (Nutt. ex Hook. & Arn.) L.Ll. Phillips L. perennis L., perennial lupine var. perennis [MN] L. plattensis S. Watson, Platte lupine [largely endemic: CO, MT, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = L. perennis L. subsp. plattensis (S. Watson) L.Ll. Phillips L. polyphyllus Lindl., Washington lupine var. humicola (A. Nelson) Barneby [MT, WY] SYN = L. humicola A. Nelson SYN = L. wyethii S. Watson L. pusillus Pursh, rusty lupine subsp. pusillus [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] L. sericeus Pursh, satin lupine subsp. sericeus [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = L. leucopsis J. Agardh *L. texensis Hook., Texas lupine [OK] Medicago L., nom. conserv., medic *M. lupulina L., black medic [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. lupulina L. var. glandulosa Nielr. *M. minima (L.) L., little medic, prickly medic [KS, MO, OK, TX] *M. sativa L., alfalfa subsp. falcata (L.) Arcang. [KS, NE, WY] SYN = M. falcata L. – A subsp. sativa [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Melilotus Mill., sweet-clover *M. albus Medik., white sweet-clover [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] *M. officinalis (L.) Pall., yellow sweet-clover [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Mimosa L., mimosa M. aculeaticarpa Ortega, spiny-fruit mimosa var. biuncifera (Benth.) Barneby, [NM, TX] SYN = M. biuncifera Benth. – A, F M. borealis A. Gray, fragrant mimosa [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] M. quadrivalvis L., cat-claw mimosa var. nuttallii (DC.) L.S. Beard ex Barneby [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Leptoglottis nuttallii DC. SYN = Schrankia nuttallii (DC.) Standl. – A, F SYN = Schrankia uncinata Willd. misapplied - Gates var. occidentalis (Wooton & Standl.) Barneby [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Schrankia occidentalis (Wooton & Standl.) Standl. – A, F Neptunia Lour., neptunia N. lutea (Leavenw.) Benth., yellow neptunia [OK, TX] Onobrychis Mill., sainfoin *O. viciifolia Scop., vetch-leaf sainfoin [WY] Orbexilum Raf., scurf-pea O. pedunculatum (Mill.) Rydb., Bob’s-root scurf-pea, Sampson’s-snakeroot var. pedunculatum [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Psoralea psoralioides (Walter) Cory var. eglandulosa (Elliott) F.L. Freeman – A, F Oxytropis DC., nom. conserv., crazyweed, point-vetch O. deflexa (Pall.) DC., drop-pod crazyweed var. sericea Torr. & A. Gray [Alb, ND, Sas] O. lagopus Nutt., hare-foot crazyweed var. atropurpurea (Rydb.) Barneby [CO, NM, WY] O. lambertii Pursh, Lambert’s crazyweed var. articulata (Greene) Barneby [largely endemic: OK, TX] var. bigelovii A. Gray [CO] SYN = O. lambertii Pursh subsp. bigelovii (A. Gray) W.A. Weber var. lambertii [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. hookeriana Nutt. SYN = O. involuta (A. Nelson) K. Schum. SYN = O. plattensis Nutt. O. monticola A. Gray, mountain crazyweed subsp. dispar (A. Nelson) Elisens & Packer [endemic: ND] SYN = O. campestris (L.) DC. var. dispar (A. Nelson) Barneby SYN = O. dispar (A. Nelson) K. Schum. subsp. monticola [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. campestris (L.) DC. var. gracilis (A. Nelson) Barneby – A, F SYN = O. gracilis (A. Nelson) K. Schum. SYN = O. villosa (Rydb.) K. Schum. O. multiceps Nutt., many-head crazyweed, Nuttall’s crazyweed [CO, NE, WY] O. nana Nutt., dwarf point-vetch var. besseyi (Rydb.) Isely [MT, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = O. besseyi (Rydb.) Blank. – F var. nana [WY] O. sericea Nutt., silky crazyweed var. sericea [CO, KS, Man, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = O. pinetorum (A. Heller) K. Schum. var. spicata (Hook.) Barneby [Alb, Man, Sas] SYN = O. macounii (Greene) Rydb. SYN = O. spicata (Hook.) Standl. O. splendens Douglas ex Hook., showy crazyweed [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NM, Sas] SYN = O. richardsonii (Hook.) K. Schum. Pediomelum Rydb., scurf-pea P. argophyllum (Pursh) J.W. Grimes, silver-leaf scurf-pea [largely endemic: Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Psoralea argophylla Pursh – A, F SYN = Psoralea argophylla Pursh var. robustior Bates SYN = Psoralidium argophyllum (Pursh) Rydb. SYN = Psoralidium collinum (Rydb.) Rydb. P. cuspidatum (Pursh) Rydb., tall-bread scurf-pea [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Psoralea cuspidata Pursh – A, F P. digitatum (Nutt.) Isely, palm-leaf scurf-pea var. digitatum [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Psoralea digitata Nutt. var. digitata – A, F P. esculentum (Pursh) Rydb., bread-root scurf-pea, prairie-turnip [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Psoralea esculenta Pursh – A, F P. hypogaeum (Nutt.) Rydb., little bread-root scurf-pea var. hypogaeum [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Psoralea hypogaea Nutt. var. hypogaea – A, F P. linearifolium (Torr. & A. Gray) J.W. Grimes, slim-leaf scurf-pea [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Psoralea linearifolia Torr. & A. Gray – A, F P. reverchonii (S. Watson) Rydb., rock scurf-pea [OK] P. rhombifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb., round-leaf scurf-pea [OK] Pisum L., pea *P. sativum L., field pea, Austrian winter pea var. arvense (L.) Poir. [KS] Pomaria Cav., rush-pea P. jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray) Walp., James’ rush-pea [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Caesalpinia jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray) Fisher – A, F SYN = Hoffmannseggia jamesii Torr. & A. Gray SYN = Larrea jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton Prosopis L. mesquite P. glandulosa Torr., honey mesquite var. glandulosa [CO, KS, *MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Neltuma glandulosa (Torr.) Britton & Rose SYN = P. chilensis (Molina) Stuntz var. glandulosa (Torr.) Standl. Psoralidium Rydb., scurf-pea P. lanceolatum (Pursh) Rydb., lemon scurf-pea [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Psoralea lanceolata Pursh – A, F SYN = P. micranthum (A. Gray) Rydb. P. tenuiflorum (Pursh) Rydb., narrow-leaf scurf-pea, wild-alfalfa [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Psoralea floribunda Nutt. SYN = Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh var. floribunda (Nutt.) Rydb. – A, F SYN = Psoralea tenuiflora Pursh var. tenuiflora – A, F SYN = P. batesii Rydb. SYN = P. floribundum (Nutt.) Rydb. Pueraria DC., kudzuvine *P. montana (Lour.) Merr., common kudzuvine var. lobata (Willd.) Maesen & S.M. Almeida [KS, MO, NE] SYN = P. lobata (Willd.) Ohwi – F Rhynchosia Lour., nom. conserv., snoutbean R. minima (L.) DC., least snoutbean [MO] R. latifolia Nutt., broad-leaf snoutbean [MO, OK] Robinia L., locust *R. hispida L., mossy locust, bristly locust var. hispida [KS, MO, NM, OK] R. neomexicana A. Gray, New Mexico locust var. neomexicana [CO, NE, NM] R. pseudoacacia L., black locust [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] Schrankia Willd., nom. conserv. (see Mimosa) Securigera DC., nom. conserv., crown-vetch *S. varia (L.) Lassen, common crown-vetch [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Coronilla varia L. – A, F Senna (C. Bauhin) Mill., senna S. marilandica (L.) Link , Maryland senna [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Cassia marilandica L. – A, F SYN = Cassia medsgeri Shafer S. obtusifolia (L.) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, sickle senna, coffee weed [IA, KS, MO] SYN = Cassia obtusifolia L. – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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*S. occidentalis (L.) Link, coffee senna [IA, KS, MO] SYN = Cassia occidentalis L. – F S. roemeriana (Scheele) H.S. Irwin & Barneby, two-leaf senna [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Cassia roemeriana Scheele – A, F Sesbania Scop., nom. conserv., sesbania S. exaltata (Raf.) Rydb. ex A.W. Hill, hemp sesbania, bequilla [KS, OK] SYN = S. macrocarpa Muhl. – A, F Sophora L., sophora S. affinis Torr. & A. Gray, Texas sophora [OK] S. nuttalliana B.L. Turner, silky sophora [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. sericea Nutt. SYN = Vexibia nuttalliana (B.L. Turner) W.A. Weber Sphaerophysa DC., globe-pea *S. salsula (Pall.) DC., salt globe-pea [CO, KS] SYN = Swainsonia salsula (Pall.) Taub. Strophostyles Elliott, nom. conserv., wildbean S. helvolus (L.) Elliott, trailing wildbean [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. helvula (L.) Elliott var. missouriensis (S. Watson) Britton SYN = S. missouriensis (S. Watson) Small S. leiosperma (Torr. & A. Gray) Piper, slick-seed wildbean [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Stylosanthes Sw., pencil-flower S. biflora (L.) Britton et al., two-flower pencil-flower [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. biflora (L.) Britton et al. var. hispidissima (Michx.) Pollard & C.R. Ball SYN = S. riparia Kearney Tephrosia Pers., nom. conserv., hoary-pea T. virginiana (L.) Pers., Virginia hoary-pea, goat's-rue, cat’s-gut [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Cracca virginiana L. SYN = Cracca leucosericea Rydb. SYN = Tephrosia leucosericea (Rydb.) Cory Thermopsis R. Br., yellow-buckbean T. rhombifolia (Pursh) Richardson, prairie yellow-buckbean var. divaricarpa (A. Nelson) Isely [CO, MT] SYN = T. divaricarpa A. Nelson – A var. rhombifolia [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = T. arenosa A. Nelson Trifolium L., clover *T. arvense L., rabbit-foot clover [KS, MO, ND] T. beckwithii W.H. Brewer ex S. Watson, Beckwith's clover [SD] *T. campestre Schreb., low hop clover [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, OK] SYN = T. procumbens L. T. carolinianum Michx., Carolina clover, wild white clover [KS, MO, OK] *T. dubium Sibth., small hop clover, suckling clover [KS, MO, MT, ND, OK, TX] *T. fragiferum L., strawberry clover [CO, KS, ND, NE, WY] SYN = T. fragiferum L. subsp. bonannii (C. Presl) Soják – F SYN = T. fragiferum L. subsp. fragiferum – F T. gynmocarpon Nutt., holly-leaf clover var. gymnocarpon [WY] *T. hybridum L., alsike clover [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = T. hybridum L. subsp. elegans (Savi) Asch. & Graebn. – F *T. incarnatum L., crimson clover [KS, ND, NE, SD] *T. pratense L., red clover [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] T. reflexum L., buffalo clover [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = T. reflexum L. var. glabrum Lojac. *T. repens L., white clover, ladino clover, Dutch clover [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] *T. resupinatum L., Persian clover [KS, ND] T. stoloniferum Muhl. ex A. Eaton, running buffalo clover [KS, MO] *T. vesiculosum Savi, arrow-leaf clover [OK] Vicia L., vetch Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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V. americana Muhl. ex Willd., American vetch var. americana [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. oregana Nutt. var. minor Hook. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = V. dissitifolia (Nutt.) Rydb. SYN = V. linearis (Nutt.) Greene SYN = V. sparsifolia Nutt. SYN = V. trifida F.G. Dietr. V. caroliniana Walter, Carolina vetch [OK] *V. cracca L., bird vetch subsp. cracca [Man, MN, NE, Sas, SD] V. ludoviciana Nutt., Louisiana vetch subsp. ludoviciana [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = V. exigua Nutt. - A, F SYN = V. ludoviciana Nutt. var. laxiflora Shinners – F SYN = V. ludoviciana Nutt. var. texana (Torr. & A. Gray) Shinners subsp. leavenworthii (Torr. & A. Gray) Lassetter & C.R. Gunn [KS, OK, TX] SYN = V. leavenworthii Torr. & A. Gray – F V. minutiflora F.G. Dietr., pygmy-flower vetch [MO, OK] *V. sativa L., common vetch subsp. nigra (L.) Ehrh. [KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] SYN = V. angustifolia L. SYN = V. sativa L. var. angustifolia (L.) Wahlenb. – F subsp. sativa [MO] *V. villosa Roth, hairy vetch subsp. varia (Host) Corb. [KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD] SYN = V. dasycarpa Ten. - A SYN = V. villosa Roth var. glabrescens W.D.J. Koch – F subsp. villosa [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Vigna Savi, nom. conserv., cow-pea *V. unguiculata (L.) Walp., little-claw cow-pea [KS] Wisteria Nutt., wisteria *W. frutescens (L.) Poir., American wisteria [KS]

Fagaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the oak family Quercus L., oak Q. alba L., white oak [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Q. x bebbiana C.K. Schneid. {Q. alba x Q. macrocarpa}, Bebb’s oak [IA, MO] Q. bicolor Willd., swamp white oak [MN, MO] Q. buckleyi Nixon & Dorr, Buckley’s oak [OK] Q. x bushii Sarg. {Q. marilandica x Q. velutina}, Bush’s oak [KS, MO, NE] Q. x deamii Trel. {Q. macrocarpa x Q. muehlenbergii}, Deam’s oak [MO] Q. x egglestonii Trel. {Q. imbricaria x Q. shumardii}, Eggleston’s oak [MO] Q. ellipsoidalis E.J. Hill, northern pin oak, jack oak [IA, MN, ND] Q. x fallax E.J. Palmer {Q. macrocarpa x Q. muehlenbergii}, Bebb’s oak [KS, MO] Q. x faxonii Trel. {Q. alba x Q. prinoides}, Faxon’s oak [KS] Q. x fernowii Trel. {Q. alba x Q. stellata}, Fernow’s oak [KS, MO] Q. fusiformis Small, Texas live oak [OK] Q. gambelii Nutt., Gambel oak [CO, NM, OK] Q. grisea Liebm., gray oak, mountain white oak [CO] Q. havardii Rydb., shinnery oak, Havard oak [KS, NM, OK, TX] Q. x hillii Trel. {Q. bicolor x Q. macrocarpa}, Hill’s oak [MO] Q. imbricaria Michx., shingle oak [IA, KS, MO] Q. x jackiana C.K. Schneid. {Q. alba x Q. bicolor}, Jack’s oak [MO] Q. x leana Nutt. {Q. imbricaria x Q. velutina}, Lea’s oak [MO] Q. macrocarpa Michx., bur oak [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Q. macrocarpa Michx. var. depressa (Nutt.) Engelm.

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SYN = Q. macrocarpa Michx. var. macrocarpa SYN = Q. macrocarpa Michx. var. oliviformis (F. Michx. ) A. Gray SYN = Q. mandanensis Rydb. Q. margaretta (Ashe) Ashe, sand post oak, dwarf post oak [OK, TX] Q. marilandica Münchh., black-jack oak [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Q. mohriana Buckley, shin oak [NM, OK, TX] Q. muehlenbergii Engelm., chinquapin oak, yellow chestnut oak [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Q. prinoides Willd. var. acuminata (Michx.) Gleason Q. x mutabilis E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. {Q. palustris x Q. shumardii}, variable oak [MO] Q. palustris Münchh., pin oak [IA, KS, MO, OK] Q. prinoides Willd., dwarf chinquapin oak, scrub-chestnut [IA, KS, MO, OK] Q. rubra L., northern red oak [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Q. borealis F. Michx. var. borealis - F SYN = Q. borealis F. Michx. var. maxima (Marshall) Ashe – A, F SYN = Q. coccinea Wangenh. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = Q. maxima (Marshall) Ashe Q. shumardii Buckley, Shumard’s oak var. schneckii (Britton) Sarg. [KS, MO, OK] var. shumardii [KS, MO, NE, OK] Q. stellata Wangenh., post oak [KS, MO, OK] Q. x stelloides E.J. Palmer {Q. prinoides x Q. stellata}, false post oak [KS, MO] Q. undulata Torr., wavy-leaf oak [CO, NM, OK] Q. x vaga E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. {Q. palustris x Q. velutina}, false pin oak [MO] Q. velutina Lam., black oak [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Q. virginiana Mill., live oak var. fusiformis (Small) Sarg. [OK]

Frankeniaceae A. St.-Hill. ex Gray, nom. conserv., the frankenia family Frankenia L., frankenia F. jamesii Torr. ex A. Gray, James’ frankenia [CO]

Fumariaceae DC., nom. conserv., the fumitory family Corydalis DC., nom. conserv., fumewort C. aurea Willd., golden fumewort subsp. aurea [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. aurea Willd. var. aurea - A subsp. occidentalis (Engelm. ex A. Gray) G.B. Ownbey [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. aurea Willd. var. occidentalis Engelm. – A SYN = C. curvisiliqua Engelm. subsp. occidentalis (Engelm. ex A. Gray) W.A. Weber SYN = C. montanum Engelm. C. crystallina (Engelm.) A. Gray, mealy fumewort [KS, MO, OK] C. curvisiliqua Engelm. subsp. grandibracteata (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey, big-bract fumewort [KS, OK, TX] C. flavula (Raf.) DC., pale fumewort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. micrantha (Engelm. ex A. Gray) A. Gray, slender fumewort subsp. australis (Chapm.) G.B. Ownbey [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. campestris (Britton) J. Buchholz & E.J. Palmer subsp. micrantha [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] Dicentra Bernh., nom. conserv., bleedingheart D. canadensis (Goldie) Walp., Canadian bleedingheart, squirrel-corn [MO] D. cucullaria (L.) Bernh., Dutchman's-breeches [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Fumaria L., fumitory *F. officinalis L., drug fumitory [Alb, KS, Man, MT, NE, Sas, TX, WY] *F. vaillantii Loisel., Vaillant’s fumitory [ND, NE, SD]

Garryaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the silktassel family Garrya Douglas ex Lindl., silktassel Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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G. ovata Benth., Mexican silktassel subsp. goldmannii (Wooton & Standl.) Dahling [TX]

Gentianaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the gentian family Centaurium Hill, centaury *C. calycosum (Buckley) Fernald, Buckley’s centaury var. calycosum [MO, OK] C. exaltatum (Griseb.) W. Wight ex Piper, tall centaury [NE, SD] C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce, pretty centaury [NE, SD, WY] C. texense (Griseb.) Fernald, Texas centaury [KS, MO, OK] Eustoma Salisb., prairie-gentian, catchfly-gentian E. grandiflorum (Raf.) Shinners, showy prairie-gentian [CO, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. russellianum (L.) G. Don Frasera Walter, green-gentian F. coloradensis (C.M. Rogers) D.M. Post, Colorado green-gentian [endemic: CO] SYN = Swertia coloradensis C.M. Rogers F. speciosa Douglas ex Griseb., monument-plant [CO, SD, WY] SYN = Swertia radiata (Kellogg) Kuntze – A, F Gentiana L., gentian G. affinis Griseb., Rocky Mountain pleated gentian [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Dasystephana affinis (Griseb.) Rydb. Gentiana aquatica L. misapplied - Maher et al. (1979) G. andrewsii Griseb., bottle gentian var. andrewsii [CO, IA, Man, MN, MO, ND] SYN = Dasystephana andrewsii (Griseb.) Small SYN = Pneumonanthe andrewsii (Griseb.) W.A. Weber var. dakotica A. Nelson [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] G. flavida A. Gray, white prairie gentian [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = Dasystephana flavida (A. Gray) Britton SYN = G. alba Muhl. ex Willd. – A, F G. fremontii Torr., Fremont’s gentian [WY] G. puberulenta J.S. Pringle, downy gentian [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Dasystephana puberula (Michx.) Small misapplied Gentiana puberula Michx. misapplied Gentianella Moench, nom. conserv., little-gentian G. amarella (L.) Börner, bitter little-gentian subsp. acuta (Michx.) J.M. Gillett [Alb, CO, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Amarella acuta (Michx.) Raf. SYN = Amarella strictiflora (Rydb.) Greene SYN = Gentiana amarella L. G. quinquefolia (L.) Small, stiff little-gentian subsp. occidentalis (A. Gray) J.M. Gillett [KS, MO] SYN = Amarella occidentalis (A. Gray) Greene Gentianopsis Ma, fringed-gentian G. crinita (Froel.) Ma, eastern fringed-gentian [Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Anthopogon crinitum (Froel.) Raf. SYN = Gentiana crinita Froel. G. macounii (Holm) H.H. Iltis, Macoun’s fringed-gentian [MN, NE] SYN = Anthopogon macounii (Holm) Rydb. SYN = G. procera (Holm) Ma subsp. macounii (Holm) H.H. Iltis – A G. procera (Holm) Ma, small fringed-gentian [IA, Man, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Anthopogon procerus (Holm) Rydb. SYN = Gentiana procera Holm SYN = G. crinita (Froel.) G. Don subsp. procera (Holm) J.M. Gillett SYN = G. procera (Holm) Ma subsp. procera – A Halenia Borkh., nom. conserv., spurred-gentian H. deflexa (Sm.) Griseb., northern spurred-gentian

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subsp. deflexa [MN, ND, SD, WY] Sabatia Adans., rose-gentian S. angularis (L.) Pursh, square-stem rose-gentian, rose-pink [KS, MO, OK] S. campestris Nutt., prairie rose-gentian [KS, MO, OK, TX]

Geraniaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the geranium family Erodium L'Hér., ex Aiton, filaree *E. cicutarium (L.) L'Hér. ex Aiton, California filaree, alfileria [CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] E. texanum A. Gray, Texas filaree [OK, TX] Geranium L., crane’s-bill G. atropurpureum A. Heller, purple crane’s-bill var. cowenii (Rydb.) Dorn [CO, WY] G. bicknellii Britton, Bicknell's crane’s-bill [Alb, IA, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] G. caespitosum E. James, James’ crane’s-bill, small-leaf crane’s-bill var. fremontii (Torr. ex A. Gray) Dorn [WY] G. carolinianum L., Carolina crane’s-bill [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. carolinianum L. var. confertiflorum Fernald SYN = G. sphaerospermum Fernald *G. dissectum L., cut-leaf crane’s-bill [KS] G. maculatum L., spotted crane’s-bill [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] *G. pusillum L., small crane’s-bill [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] G. richardsonii Fisch. & Trautv., Richardson's crane’s-bill [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] *G. robertianum L., herb-Robert crane’s-bill [NE] G. viscossimum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. ex C.A. Mey., sitcky crane’s-bill var. nervosum (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. [CO, MT] SYN = G. nervosum Rydb. - A SYN = G. viscossimum Fisch. & C.A. Mey. ex C.A. Mey. subsp. nervosum (Rydb.) W.A. Weber var. viscossimum [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY]

Grossulariaceae DC., nom. conserv., the currant family Ribes L., currant, gooseberry R. americanum Mill., American black currant [IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] R. aureum Pursh, golden currant [Alb, MT, Sas, WY] R. cereum Douglas, wax currant, squaw currant, western red currant var. inebrians (Lindl.) C.L. Hitchc. [CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = R. inebrians Lindl. R. cynosbati L., pasture gooseberry [IA, MN, ND, SD] SYN = Grossularia cynosbati (L.) Mill. R. hirtellum Michx., hairy-stem gooseberry [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Grossularia hirtella (Michx.) Spach R. hudsonianum Richardson var. hudsonianum, northern black currant, wild black currant [Alb, Sas] R. inerme Rydb., white-stem gooseberry var. inerme [WY] R. lacustre (Pers.) Poir., swamp black currant, prickly swamp currant [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Limnobotrya lacustris (Pers.) Rydb. R. leptanthum A. Gray, trumpet gooseberry [CO] R. missouriense Nutt., Missouri gooseberry [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Grossularia missouriensis (Nutt.) Coville & Britton R. odoratum H. Wendl., buffalo currant, clove currant [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Chrysobotrya odorata (H. Wendl.) Rydb. SYN = R. aureum Pursh var. villosum DC. R. oxyacanthoides L., Canadian gooseberry subsp. oxyacanthoides [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Grossularia oxyacanthoides (L.) Mill. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. setosum (Lindl.) Q.P. Sinnott [MT, WY] SYN = Grossularia setosa (Lindl.) Coville & Britton SYN = R. setosum Lindl. – A, F R. triste Pall., American red currant [Alb, MN, ND, Sas]

Haloragaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the water-milfoil family Myriophyllum L., water-milfoil, parrot’s-feather *M. aquaticum (Vell.) Verdc., Brazilian water-milfoil [KS] SYN = M. brasiliense Cambess. SYN = M. proserpinacoies Gillies ex Hook. & Arn. M. heterophyllum Michx., two-leaf water-milfoil [KS, MO, ND, SD] M. pinnatum (Walter) Britton et al., cut-leaf water-milfoil, green parrot's-feather [IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD] M. sibiricum Kom., American water-milfoil [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. exalbescens Fernald - F SYN = M. spicatum L. var. exalbescens (Fernald) Jeps. – A *M. spicatum L., Eurasian water-milfoil [KS, NE, OK] M. verticillatum L., whorled water-milfoil [Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD]

Hippocastanaceae DC., nom. conserv., the buckeye family Aesculus L., buckeye A. glabra Willd., Ohio buckeye var. arguta (Buckley) B.L. Rob., western Ohio buckeye, Texas buckeye [KS, NE, OK, WY] SYN = A. arguta Buckley var. glabra, eastern Ohio buckeye [IA, KS, MO] SYN = A. glabra Willd. var. sargentii Redher

Hippuridaceae Link, nom. conserv., the mare's-tail family Hippuris L., mare's-tail H. vulgaris L., common mare’s-tail [Alb, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD]

Hydrangeaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the hydrangea family Hydrangea L., hydrangea H. arborescens L., smooth hydrangea [KS, MO, OK] Jamesia Torr. & A. Gray, nom. conserv., cliffbush, jamesia J. americana Torr. & A. Gray, American cliffbush, cliff jamesia var. americana [CO, NM, WY] Philadelphus L., mock-orange P. microphyllus A. Gray, little-leaf mock-orange, desert mock-orange var. microphyllus [CO] *P. pubescens Loisel., hoary mock-orange [KS, WY]

Hydrocharitaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the frog's-bit family (including Najadaceae) Egeria Planch., waterweed *E. densa Planch., Brazilian waterweed [KS, NE] SYN = Elodea densa (Planch.) Casp. – A, F Elodea Michx., waterweed E. bifoliata H. St. John, two-leaf waterweed [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = E. longivaginata H. St. John – F E. canadensis Michx., broad waterweed, Canadian waterweed [CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Anacharis canadensis (Michx.) Planch. SYN = Anacharis planchonii (Casp.) Rydb. E. nuttallii (Planch.) H. St. John, Nuttall’s waterweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = Anacharis nuttallii Planch. SYN = Anacharis occidentalis (Pursh) Vict. Najas L., naiad, waternymph Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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N. flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt, smooth-seed naiad [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, SD] N. guadalupensis (Spreng.) Magnus, common naiad var. guadalupensis [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] *N. marina L., prickly naiad [MN, ND, OK, SD] *N. minor All., lesser naiad [OK] Vallisneria L., eel-grass, tape-grass V. americana Michx., American eel-grass, American tape-grass [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD]

Hydrophyllaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the waterleaf family Ellisia L., nom. conserv., waterpod, Aunt Lucy E. nyctelea (L.) L., water-pod, Aunt Lucy [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Hydrophyllum L., waterleaf H. appendiculatum Michx., notch-bract waterleaf [IA, KS, MO, NE] H. virginianum L., Virginia waterleaf [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Nama L., nom. conserv., nama N. hispidum A. Gray, rough nama [OK, TX] SYN = Marilaunidium angustifolium (A. Gray) Kuntze N. stevensii C.L. Hitchc., Stevens’ nama var. stevensii [KS, NM, OK, TX] Nemophila Nutt., nom. conserv., baby-blue-eyes, nemophila N. menziesii Hook. & Arn., Menzies’ baby-blue-eyes [WY] N. phacelioides Nutt., large-flower baby-blue-eyes [OK] Phacelia Juss., scorpion-weed, phacelia P. alba Rydb., white scorpion-weed [CO] P. congesta Hook., spike scorpion-weed [OK] P. gilioides Brand, gilia scorpion-weed [KS, MO] P. hastata Douglas ex Lehm., arrow-leaf scorpion-weed subsp. hastata [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = P. hastata Douglas ex Lehm. var. leucophylla (Torr.) Cronquist – A SYN = P. leucophylla Torr. P. hirsuta Nutt., hairy scorpion-weed [KS, MO, OK, TX] P. integrifolia Torr., entire-leaf scorpion-weed [NM, TX] P. linearis (Pursh) Holz., slender-leaf scorpion-weed [Alb, MT, SD, WY] P. popei Torr. & A. Gray, Pope’s scorpion-weed [NM, TX] P. strictiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray, prairie scorpion-weed [OK, TX] SYN = P. strictiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. connexa Constance SYN = P. strictiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. lundelliana Constance SYN = P. strictiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. robbinsii Constance SYN = P. strictiflora (Engelm. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. strictiflora P. texana J.W. Voss, Texas scorpion-weed [KS, OK, TX] P. integrifolia Torr. misapplied – A SYN = P. integrifolia Torr. var. texana (J.W. Voss) N.D. Atwood P. robusta (J.F. Macbr.) I.M. Johnst. misapplied – F

Iridaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the iris family Belamcanda Adans., orth.conserv., blackberry-lily *B. chinensis (L.) DC., Chinese blackberry-lily [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD] Iris L., iris I. brevicaulis Raf., lamance iris, zig-zag iris, short-stem iris [KS, MO] *I. germanica L., German iris [KS, MO, WY] I. missouriensis Nutt., Rocky Mountian iris, western iris [Alb, CO, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] *I. pallida Lam., sweet iris [MO] *I. pseudacorus L., yellow water iris, yellow-flag iris [KS, MO, NE] I. versicolor L., northern iris, blue-flag iris [MN] I. virginica L., Virginia iris, southern iris [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = I. shrevei Small - A SYN = I. virginica L. var. shrevei (Small) E.S. Anderson – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Nemastylis Nutt., celestial-lily N. geminiflora Nutt., two-flower celestial-lily, prairie-iris [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Ixia acuta W.P.C. Barton SYN = N. acuta (W.P.C. Barton) Herb. N. nuttallii Pickering ex R.C. Foster, Nuttall’s celestial-lily [OK] Sisyrinchium L., blue-eyed-grass S. angustifolium Mill., narrow-leaf blue-eyed-grass, pointed blue-eyed-grass [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. gramininoides E.P. Bicknell S. campestre E.P. Bicknell, prairie blue-eyed-grass, white-eyed-grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD] SYN = S. campestre E.P. Bicknell var. campestre – A SYN = S. campestre E.P. Bicknell var. kansanum E.P. Bicknell – A S. ensigerum E.P. Bicknell, sword-leaf blue-eyed-grass [KS, OK, TX] S. idahoense E.P. Bicknell, Idaho blue-eyed-grass var. occidentale (E.P. Bicknell) D.M. Hend. [WY] S. montanum Greene, mountain blue-eyed-grass, strict blue-eyed-grass var. montanum [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] S. mucronatum Michx., northeastern blue-eyed-grass [Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD] S. pruinosum E.P. Bicknell, dotted blue-eyed-grass [KS, NE, OK, TX] S. septentrionale E.P. Bicknell, northern blue-eyed-grass [Alb, Sas]

Juglandaceae A. Rich. ex Kunth, nom. conserv., the walnut family Carya Nutt., nom. conserv., hickory, pecan C. cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, bitter-nut hickory [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. glabra (Mill.) Sweet, pig-nut hickory [MO] C. illinoinensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch, pecan [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = C. pecan (Marshall) Engelm. ex Graebn. C. laciniosa (F. Michx.) Loudon, king-nut hickory, shell-bark hickory [KS, MO, OK] C. ovata (Mill.) K. Koch, shag-bark hickory var. ovata [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] C. texana Buckley, black hickory [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. buckleyi Durand C. tomentosa (Poir.) Nutt., mocker-nut hickory [KS, MO, OK] Juglans L., walnut, butternut J. cinerea L., butternut [IA, MO] J. microcarpa Berland., Texas walnut, little walnut [KS, OK, TX] SYN = J. rupestris Engelm. ex Torr. J. nigra L., black walnut [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX]

Juncaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the rush family Juncus L., rush J. acuminatus Michx., taper-tip rush [IA, KS, MO, OK] J. alpinoarticulatus Chaix, alpine rush [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = J. alpinus Vill. - A, F SYN = J. richardsonianus Schult. J. anthelatus (Wiegand) R.E. Brooks, forgotten rush [KS, MO, OK] J. articulatus L., jointed rush [NE, SD] SYN = J. amblyocarpus Rydb. J. arcticus Willd., arctic rush var. balticus (Willd.) Trautv., baltic rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = J. arcticus Willd. subsp. ater (Rydb.) Hultén SYN = J. ater Rydb. SYN = J. balticus Willd. – A SYN = J. balticus Willd. var. valiicola Rydb. SYN = J. balticus Willd. var. montanus Engelm. – F SYN = J. litorum Rydb. J. brachycarpus Engelm., white-root rush [KS, MO] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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J. brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buchenau, thick-pod rush [CO, ND, OK] J. brachyphyllus Wiegand, small-head rush [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = J. kansanus F.J. Herm. J. brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fernald, narrow-panicle rush [MN] J. bufonius L., toad rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] J. canadensis J. Gay ex Laharpe, Canadian rush [IA, NE] *J. compressus Jacq., flat rush [CO, Man, MN, ND, NE, WY] J. confusus Coville, Colorado rush [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] J. diffusissimus Buckley, slim-pod rush [KS, MO, OK] J. dudleyi Wiegand, Dudley’s rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = J. tenuis Willd. var. dudleyi (Wiegand) F.J. Herm. J. effusus L., soft rush, bog rush [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = J. effusus L. var. solutus Fernald & Wiegand – A J. filipendulus Buckley, ringe-seed rush [OK] J. gerardii Loisel., salt-meadow rush, black-grass [CO, KS, Man, ND] J. interior Wiegand, inland rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] J. longistylis Torr., long-style rush [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] J. marginatus Rostk., grass-leaf rush [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = J. setosus (Coville) Small J. mertensianus Bong., Merten’s rush [MT] J. nevadensis S. Watson, Nevada rush var. badius (Suksd.) C.L. Hitchc. [Sas, WY] J. nodatus (Engelm.) Coville, stout rush [KS, MO, OK] J. x nodosiformis Fernald {J. alpoarticulatus x J. nodosus}, false knotted rush [IA] J. nodosus L., knotted rush, jointed rush var. nodosus [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] J. regelii Buchenau, Regel’s rush [MT] J. scirpoides Lam., needle-pod rush, spike-like rush [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] J. tenuis Willd., path rush, poverty rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] J. texanus (Engelm.) Coville, Texas rush [OK, TX] J. torreyi Coville, Torrey's rush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] J. tracyi Rydb., Tracy’s rush [Alb, Sas] J. validus Coville, round-head rush [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = J. crassifolius Buchenau – A J. vaseyi Engelm., Vasey’s rush [Alb, MN, ND, Sas] J. xiphoides E. Mey., iris-leaf rush var. montanus Engelm. [Alb, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = J. ensifolius Wikstr. var. montanus (Engelm.) C.L. Hitchc. – A, F SYN = J. saximontanus A. Nelson var. triandrus Engelm. [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] Luzula DC., nom. conserv., wood-rush L. bulbosa (A.W. Wood) Smyth & L. Smyth, southern wood-rush [KS, MO, OK] SYN = L. campestris (L.) DC. var. bulbosa A.W. Wood – A L. multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej., common wood-rush subsp. multiflora var. multiflora [Alb, MN, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. campestris (L.) DC. var. multiflora ^_8` a` b[cd)e!f g h!b L. parviflora (Ehrh.) Desv., small-flower wood-rush, millet wood-rush var. fastigiata (E. Mey.) Buchenau [SD]

Juncaginaceae Rich., nom. conserv., the arrow-grass family Lilaea Bonpl., flowering-quillwort L. scilloides (Poir.) Hauman, flowering-quillwort [Alb, Sas] Triglochin L., arrow-grass, pod-grass T. maritima L., shore arrow-grass, sea-side arrow-grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY]

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SYN = T. concinna Burtt Davy var. debilis (M.E. Jones) Howell – A, F SYN = T. maritima L. var. elata (Nutt.) A. Gray - F T. palustris L., marsh arrow-grass [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY]

Krameriaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the ratany family Krameria L., ratany K. lanceolata Torr., trailing ratany, lance-leaf ratany [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = K. secundiflora DC. misapplied - Rydberg

Lamiaceae Lindl., nom. conserv., the mint family Agastache J. Clayton ex Gronov., giant-hyssop A. foeniculum (Pursh) Kuntze, lavender giant-hyssop, fennel giant-hyssop [IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = A. anethiodora (Nutt.) Britton A. nepetoides (L.) Kuntze, catnip giant-hyssop [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] A. scrophulariifolia (Willd.) Kuntze, purple giant-hyssop [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] Ajuga L., bugleweed *A. reptans L., carpet bugleweed [KS] Ballota L., ballota *B. nigra L., black ballota [IA, NE] Blephilia Raf., wood-mint B. ciliata (L.) Benth., downy wood-mint [KS, MO] B. hirsuta (Pursh) Benth., hairy wood-mint [KS, MO, NE] Clinopodium L., wild-basil C. arkansanum (Nutt.) House, Arkansas wild-basil [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners SYN = Calamintha nuttallii Benth. SYN = Satureja arkansana (Nutt.) Briq. – F SYN = Satureja glabella (Michx.) Briq. var. angustifolia (Torr.) Svenson Cunila L., nom. conserv., dittany, stone-mint C. origanoides (L.) Britton, common dittany [KS, MO, OK] Dracocephalum L., nom. conserv., dragon’s-head *D. moldavica L., Moldavian dragon’s-head [NE] D. parviflorum Nutt., American dragon’s-head [Alb, MN, MT, ND, NE, *Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Moldavica parviflora (Nutt.) Britton SYN = Moldavica punctata Moench *D. thymiflorum L., thyme-flower dragon’s-head [ND, WY] SYN = Moldavica thymiflora (L.) Rydb. Galeopsis L., hemp-nettle *G. bifida Boenn., brittle-stem hemp-nettle [MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = G. tetrahit L. – A SYN = G. tetrahit L. var. bifida (Boen.) Lej. & Courtois Glechoma L., orth. conserv., gill-over-the-ground *G. hederacea L., gill-over-the-ground [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = G. hederacea L. var. micrantha Moric. SYN = Nepeta hederacea (L.) Trevis. Hedeoma Pers., false-penny-royal H. drummondii Benth., Drummond’s false-penny-royal [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = H. campora Rydb. SYN = H. longiflora Rydb. H. hispida Pursh, rough false-penny-royal [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] H. pulegeoides (L.) Pers., American false-penny-royal [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] H. reverchonii (A. Gray) A. Gray, Reverchon’s false-penny-royal var. reverchonii [OK] SYN = H. drummondii Benth. var. reverchonii A. Gray var. serpyllifolia (Small) R.S. Irving [OK, TX] Lamium L., dead-nettle *L. amplexicaule L., hen-bit dead-nettle Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. amplexicaule [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] *L. purpureum L., purple dead-nettle var. purpureum [KS, MO, MT, NE, OK] Leonurus L., motherwort *L. cardiaca L., common motherwort [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = L. cardiaca L. subsp. villosa (Desf. ex Spreng.) Hyl. *L. marrubiastrum L., horehound motherwort [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD] *L. sibiricus L., Siberian motherwort [NE] Lycopus L., water-horehound L. americanus Muhl. ex W.P.C. Barton, American water-horehound, cut-leaf water-horehound [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] L. asper Greene, rough water-horehound [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, TX, WY] L. rubellus Moench, stalked water-horehound [KS, MO] L. x sherardii E.S. Steele {L. virginicus L. x L. uniflorus Michx.}, Sherard’s water-horehound [MO] L. uniflorus Michx., northern water-horehound [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] L. virginicus L., Virginia water-horehound [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Marrubium L., horehound *M. vulgare L., common horehound [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. alternidens Rech. f. Melissa L., balm *M. officinalis L., common balm [KS, MO] Mentha L., mint M. arvensis L., field mint [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. arvensis L. var. glabrata (Benth.) Fernald SYN = M. arvensis L. var. villosa (Benth.) S.R. Stewart SYN = M. canadensis L. SYN = M. glabrior (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = M. penardi (Briq.) Rydb. *M. x gracilis Sole {M. arvensis x M. spicata}, red mint [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = M. x cardiaca (Gray) Gerarde ex Baker – A, F SYN = M. x gentilis L. – A, F *M. longifolia (L.) L., horse mint [KS, MO] *M. x piperita L. {M. aquatica x M. spicata}, pepper mint[CO, MO, NE, OK, TX] *M. spicata L., spear mint [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Monarda L., bee-balm M. bradburiana L.C. Beck, Bradbury bee-balm [KS, MO, OK] M. citriodora Cerv. ex Lag., lemon bee-balm subsp. citriodora var. citriodora [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = M. disperma Small M. clinopodioides A. Gray, basil bee-balm [KS, OK, TX] M. fistulosa L., wild bergamot bee-balm var. fistulosa [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD] var. menthifolia (Graham) Fernald [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = M. comata Rydb. SYN = M. menthifolia Graham M. pectinata Nutt., plains bee-balm, pony bee-balm [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] M. punctata L., spotted bee-balm var. occidentalis (Epling) E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = M. punctata L. subsp. occidentalis Epling – A M. russeliana Nutt. ex Sims, Russel’s beebalm [OK] Nepeta L., catnip *N. cataria L., common catnip [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] *N. grandiflora M. Bieb., big-flower catnip [WY] Perilla L., perilla *P. frutescens (L.) Britton, common perilla, beefsteakplant [KS, MO, NE, OK] Phlomis L., Jerusalem-sage Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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*P. tuberosa L., tuberous Jerusalem-sage [ND] Physostegia Benth., lion’s-heart, obedient-plant P. angustifolia Fernald, narrow-leaf lion’s-heart [KS, MO, OK] P. intermedia (Nutt.) Engelm. & A. Gray misapplied – A P. ledinghamii (B. Boivin) Cantino, Legingham’s lion’s-heart [Alb, Man, ND, Sas] P. parviflora Nutt. ex A. Gray, small-flower lion’s-heart, obedient-plant [Alb, Man, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = Dracocephalum nuttallii Britton P. virginiana (L.) Benth., Virginia lion’s-heart subsp. praemorsa (Shinners) Cantino [MO, NE] subsp. virginiana [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Dracocephalum denticulatum Aiton SYN = Dracocephalum formosius (Lunell) Rydb. SYN = Dracocephalum speciosum Sweet SYN = Dracocephalum virginianum L. SYN = Physostegia formosior Lunell SYN = Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. var. speciosa (Sweet) A. Gray Prunella L., selfheal *P. vulgaris L., common selfheall [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. vulgaris L. var. lanceolata (W. Bartram) Fernald – F SYN = P. vulgaris L. var. vulgaris – F Pycnanthemum Michx., nom. conserv., mountain-mint P. albescens Torr. & A. Gray ex A. Gray, white mountain-mint [KS, MO, OK] P. tenuifolium Schrad., narrow-leaf mountain-mint [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = P. flexuosum Britton et al. P. verticillatum (Michx.) Pers., hairy mountain-mint [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] var. pilosum (Nutt.) Cooperr. SYN = P. pilosum Nutt. – A, F P. virginianum T. Durand & B.D. Jacks. ex B.L. Rob. & Fernald, Virginia mountain-mint [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Salvia L., sage *S. aethiopis L., Ethiopian sage [CO] S. azurea Michx. ex Lam., blue sage, Pitcher’s sage var. grandiflora Benth. [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = S. pitcheri Torr. – A S. lyrata L., lyre-leaf sage [KS] *S. nemorosa L., violet sage [IA, KS, ND, NE, SD] S. x sylvestris L. misapplied – A *S. pratensis L., meadow sage [KS, SD, WY] S. reflexa Hornem., lance-leaf sage, Rocky Mountain sage [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. lanceolata Willd. Scutellaria L., skullcap S. brittonii Porter, Britton's skullcap [CO, KS, NE, WY] SYN = S. brittonii Porter var. virgulata (A. Nelson) Rydb. S. cardiophylla Engelm. & A. Gray, heart-leaf skullcap [OK] S. drummondii Benth., Drummond's skullcap var. edwardsiana B.L. Turner [OK, TX] S. galericulata L., marsh skullcap [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. epilobiifolia A. Ham. S. incana Biehler, hoary skullcap var. incana [KS, MO] SYN = S. canescens Nutt. S. lateriflora L., side-flower skullcap, mad-dog skullcap var. lateriflora [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX] S. ovata Hill, egg-leaf skullcap var. bracteata (Benth.) Blake [KS, MO, OK] var. ovata [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. ovata Hill var. versicolor (Nutt.) Fernald – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. parvula Michx., small skullcap var. australis Fassett, southern small skullcap [KS, MO, OK] var. missouriensis (Torr.) Goodman & C.A. Lawson, Leonard’s small skullcap [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. ambigua Nutt. SYN = S. leonardii Epling SYN = S. parvula Michx. var. leonardii (Epling) Fernald – A, F var. parvula [KS, MO, NE, OK] S. resinosa Torr., resinous skullcap [KS, OK, TX] S. wrightii A. Gray, Wright’s skullcap [OK, TX] Sideritis L., ironwoundwort *S. montana L., mountain ironwoundwort [MT] Stachys L., hedge-nettle *S. annua (L.) L., annual hedge-nettle [KS] S. hispida Pursh, hairy hedge-nettle [Man, ND, NE] S. pilosa Nutt., marsh hedge-nettle var. arenicola (Britton) G.A. Mulligan & D.B. Munro [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, SD] SYN = S. brevidens Rydb. SYN = S. homotricha (Fernald) Rydb. SYN = S. palustris L. subsp. arenicola (Britton) L.S. Gill SYN = S. palustris L. var. arenicola (Britton) Farw. SYN = S. palustris L. var. homotricha Fernald SYN = S. palustris L. var. phaneropoda Weath. var. pilosa [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. ampla Rydb. SYN = S. borealis Rydb. SYN = S. palustris L. subsp. pilosa (Nutt.) Epling – F SYN = S. palustris L. var. pilosa (Nutt.) Fernald - A SYN = S. puberula Rydb. SYN = S. pustulosa Rydb. SYN = S. schweinitzii Rydb. S. tenuifolia Willd., slender-leaf hedge-nettle [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] Teucrium L., germander T. canadense L., American germander var. occidentale (A. Gray) E.M. McClint. & Epling [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = T. boreale E.P. Bicknell SYN = T. canadense L. var. boreale (E.P. Bicknell) Shinners – F SYN = T. canadense L. subsp. occidentale (A. Gray) W.A. Weber SYN = T. canadense L. subsp. viscidum (Piper) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde SYN = T. occidentale A. Gray var. boreale (E.P. Bicknell) Fernald var. canadense [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = T. canadense L. var. virginicum (L.) Eaton – A T. laciniatum Torr., cut-leaf germander [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Melosmon laciniatum (Torr.) Small Trichostema L., bluecurls T. brachiatum L., flux-weed bluecurls, bracted bluecurls [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Isanthus brachiatus (L.) Britton et al. – A Warnockia M.W. Turner, warnockia W. scutellarioides (Engelm. & A. Gray) M.W. Turner, prairie warnockia [OK]

Lardizabalaceae Decne., nom. conserv., the lardizabala family Akebia Decne., akebia *A. quinata (Houtt.) Decne., five-leaf akebia, chocolate-vine [MO]

Lauraceae Juss., nom. conserv., the laurel family Lindera Thunb., nom. conserv., spicebush L. benzoin (L.) Blume, common spicebush [KS, MO, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Benzoin aestivale (L.) Nees Sassafras Nees & Eberm., sassafras S. albidum (Nutt.) Nees, white sassafras [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. variifolium (Salisb.) O. Kuntze

Lemnaceae Gray, nom. conserv., the duckweed family Lemna L., duckweed L. aequinoctialis Welw., equinox duckweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] L. gibba L., inflated duckweed [NE] L. minor L., lesser duckweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX] L. minuta Kunth, least duckweed [KS, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = L. minuscula Herter L. obscura (Austin) Daubs, obscure duckweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] L. perpusilla Torr., minute duckweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = L. perpusilla Torr. var. trinervis Austin SYN = L. trinervis (Austin) Small L. trisulca L., star duckweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] L. turionifera Landolt, turion duckweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] L. valdiviana Phil., pale duckweed [KS, NE, OK] Spirodela Schleid., duckmeat S. polyrrhiza (L.) Schleid., greater duckmeat [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] S. punctata (G. Mey.) C.H. Thomps., dotted duckmeat [MO] Wolffia Horkel ex Schleid., nom. conserv., watermeal W. borealis (Engelm. ex Hegelm.) Landolt, northern watermeal [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] W. punctata Griseb. misapplied – A W. brasiliensis Wedd., Brazilian watermeal [KS, MO, OK] SYN = W. papulifera C.H. Thomps. – A SYN = W. punctata Griseb. W. columbiana H. Karst., Columbian watermeal [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX]

Lentibulariaceae Rich., nom. conserv., the bladderwort family Pinguicula L., butterwort P. vulgaris L., common butterwort [Sas] Utricularia L., bladderwort U. cornuta Michx., horned bladderwort [Alb, Man, MN] SYN = Stomoisia cornuta (Michx.) Raf. U. gibba L., cone-spur bladderwort [KS, MO, OK] SYN = U. biflora Lam. – A, F U. intermedia Hayne, intermediate bladderwort [MN, ND] U. macrorhiza Leconte, big-root bladderpod [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] U. vulgaris L. misapplied – A, F SYN = U. vulgaris L. var. americana A. Gray U. minor L., lesser bladderwort [Alb, MN, ND, NE]

Liliaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the lily family Allium L. onion, leek, garlic *A. ampeloprasum L., leek [IA, KS] SYN = A. porrum L. – A, F A. canadense L., Canadian onion var. canadense [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] var. fraseri Ownbey [KS, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = A. lavendulare Bates var. fraseri (Ownbey) Shinners var. hyacinthoides (Bush) Ownbey [OK, TX] var. lavendulare (Bates) Ownbey & Aase [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. lavendulare Bates Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. mobilense (Regel) Ownbey [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. mutabile Michx. A. cernuum Roth, nodding onion [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. cernuum Roth var. neomexicanum (Rydb.) J.F. Macbr. SYN = A. cernuum Roth var. obtusum Cockerell ex J.F. Macbr. SYN = A. recurvatum Rydb. A. drummondii Regel, Drummond’s onion [KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. nuttallii S. Watson A. geyeri S. Watson, Geyer’s onion var. geyeri [CO, MT, NM, Sas, SD, WY] A. perdulce S.V. Fraser, fragrant pink onion var. perdulce [IA, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] *A. sativum L., garlic [KS, MO, NE] *A. schoenoprasum L., chives [Alb, KS, MO] A. stellatum Ker Gawl., summer pink onion [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] A. textile A. Nelson & J.F. Macbr., plains white onion [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] A. tricoccum Aiton, wild leek var. burdickii Hanes [IA, MN, ND, SD] SYN = A. burdickii (Hanes) A.G. Jones var. tricoccum [IA, Man, MN, MO, NE, ND, SD] SYN = Validallium tricoccum (Aiton) Small *A. tuberosum Rottler ex Spreng., garlic chives [NE] *A. vineale L., field garlic [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Androstephium Torr., funnel-lily A. coeruleum (Scheele) Greene, blue funnel-lily [KS, OK] Asparagus L., asparagus *A. officinalis L., garden asparagus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Calochortus Pursh, mariposa, sego-lily C. gunnisonii S. Watson, Gunnison’s mariposa var. gunnisonii [CO, MT, NE, NM, SD, WY] C. nuttallii Torr, Nuttall’s mariposa [MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Camassia Lindl., nom. conserv., camas, wild-hyacinth C. angusta (Engelm. & A. Gray) Blank., greater camas [KS, MO, OK] C. scilloides (Raf.) Cory, Atlantic camas [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. esculenta (Raf.) Cory Convallaria L., lily-of-the-valley *C. majalis L., lily-of-the-valley [KS, MO] Cooperia Herb. (see Zephyranthes) Disporum Salisb. ex D. Don, fairlybells D. trachycarpum (S. Watson) Benth. & Hook., wart-berry fairybells [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Erythronium L., fawn-lily, trout-lily E. albidum Nutt., white fawn-lily [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] E. mesochoreum Knerr, prairie fawn-lily [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = E. albidum Nutt. var. mesochoreum (Knerr) Rickett E. rostratum C.B. Wolf, yellow trout-lily [KS, MO] Fritillaria L., fritillary F. atropurpurea Nutt., chocolate fritillary, checker fritillary, leopard-lily [MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] F. pudica (Pursh) Spreng., bashful fritillary, yellow fritillary, yellow-bell [Alb, MT, ND] Hemerocallis L. day-lily *H. fulva (L.) L., orange day-lily, tawny day-lily [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] *H. lilio-asphodelus L., yellow day-lily [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] Hypoxis L., yellow star-grass H. hirsuta (L.) Coville, hairy yellow star-grass [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] Leucocrinum Nutt. ex A. Gray, star-lily L. montanum Nutt., mountain star-lily [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Lilium L., lily Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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L. michiganense Farw., Michigan lily, prairie lily [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, SD] SYN = L. canadense L. subsp. michiganense (Farw.) B. Boivin & Cody – A, F L. philadelphicum L., wood lily [Alb, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. philadelphicum L. var. andinum (Nutt.) Ker Gawl. – A, F SYN = L. umbellatum Pursh Maianthemum F.H. Wigg., nom. conserv., spikenard M. canadense Desf., Canadian spikenard [Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = M. canadense Desf. var. interius Fernald – A, F M. racemosum (L.) Link , racemose spikenard subsp. amplexicaule (Nutt.) LaFrankie [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Smilacina racemosa (L.) Link var. amplexicaulis (Nutt.) S. Watson subsp. racemosum [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK] SYN = Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. – A, F M. stellatum (L.) Link , starry spikenard [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. – A, F Melanthium L., bunchflower M. virginicum L., Virginia bunchflower [IA, KS, MO] M. woodii (J.W. Robbins ex A.W. Wood) Bodkin, Wood’s bunchflower [IA] SYN = Veratrum woodii J.W. Robbins ex A.W. Wood Muscari Mill., grape-hyacinth *M. botryoides (L.) Mill., common grape-hyacinth [KS, MO, OK] *M. neglectum Guss. ex Ten., starch grape-hyacinth [KS, OK, TX] Nothoscordum Kunth, nom. conserv., false-garlic N. bivalve (L.) Britton, yellow false-garlic [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Ornithogalum L., star-of-Bethlehem *O. umbellatum L., umbellate star-of-Bethlehem [KS, MO, SD] Polygonatum Mill., Solomon's-seal P. biflorum (Walter) Elliott, small Solomon’s-seal [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] P. canaliculatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Pursh misapplied – Fernald SYN = P. commutatum (Schult. & Schult. f.) A. Dietr. SYN = P. giganteum A. Dietr. Smilacina Desf., nom. conserv. (see Maianthemum) Streptopus Michx. twisted-stalk S. amplexifolius (L.) DC., clasp-leaf twisted-stalk [Alb, Sas, SD] SYN = S. amplexifolius (L.) DC. var. chalazatus Fassett Triantha (Nutt.) Baker, threeflower T. glutinosa (Michx.) Baker, sticky threeflower [MN, ND, Sas] SYN = Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. Trillium L., trillium T. cernuum L., nodding trillum [MN, ND, SD] *T. erectum L., purple trillium [NE] T. flexipes Raf., bent trillium [SD] SYN = T. gleasonii Fernald – A, F *T. grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb., big white trillium [NE] T. nivale Riddell, dwarf white trillum, snow trillium [IA, MN, MO, NE, SD] T. sessile L., toadshade trillium [KS, MO] T. viridescens Nutt., Ozark trillium [KS, MO, OK] T. viride L.C. Beck misapplied – A Uvularia L., bellwort U. grandiflora Sm., large-flower bellwort [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, OK, SD] U. sessilifolia L., small bellwort, sessile-leaf bellwort [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, SD] SYN = Oakesiella sessilifolia (L.) Sm. Zephyranthes Herb., nom. conserv., zephry-lily Z. chlorosolen (Herb.) D. Dietr. , evening-star zephyr-lily [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Cooperia drummondii Herb. – A, F SYN = Cooperia kansensis W. Stevens SYN = Z. brazosensis (Herb.) Traub Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Z. longifolia Hemsl., copper zephyr-lily [TX] Zigadenus Michx., death-camas Z. elegans Pursh, elegant death-camas, mountain death-camas subsp. glaucus (Nutt.) Hultén [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Anticlea chlorantha (Richardson) Rydb. Z. nuttallii A. Gray ex S. Watson, Nuttall’s death-camas [KS, OK] SYN = Toxicoscordion nuttallii (A. Gray ex S. Watson) Rydb. Z. paniculatus (Nutt.) S. Watson, panicled death-camas [MT] Z. venosus S. Watson, Watson’s death-camas, meadow death-camas var. gramineus (Rydb.) Walsh ex M. Peck [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Toxicoscordion acutum (Rydb.) Rydb. SYN = Toxicoscordion gramineum (Rydb.) Rydb. SYN = Zigadenus gramineus Rydb. SYN = Zigadenus intermedius Rydb.

Linaceae DC. ex Gray, nom. conserv., the flax family Linum L., flax L. aristatum Engelm., broom flax [TX] L. australe A. Heller, southern flax var. australe [CO, NM, WY] SYN = Linum aristatum Engelm. var. australe (A. Heller) Kearney & Peebles SYN = Mesynium australe (A. Heller) W.A. Weber var. australe L. berlandieri Hook., Berlandier’s flax var. berlandieri [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Cathartolinum berlandieri (Hook.) Small SYN = L. rigidum Pursh var. berlandieri (Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray – A, F SYN = Mesynium rigidum (Pursh) Á. Löve & D. Löve var. berlandieri Hook. L. compactum A. Nelson, compact flax [Alb, CO, KS, MO, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Cathartolinum compactum (A. Nelson) Small SYN = L. rigidum Pursh var. compactum (A. Nelson) C.M. Rogers – A, F *L. grandiflorum Desf., flowering flax [WY] SYN = Adenolinum grandiflorum (Desf.) W.A. Weber L. hudsonioides Planch., false-heather flax [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Mesynium hudsonioides (Planch.) W.A. Weber L. lewisii Pursh, Lewis’ blue flax var. lewisii [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Adenolinum lewisii (Pursh) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = L. lewisii Pursh SYN = L. perenne L. var. lewisii (Pursh) Eaton & Wright – A, F L. medium (Planch.) Britton, sucker flax var. texanum (Planch.) Fernald [KS, MO, OK] L. pratense (Norton) Small, Norton's blue flax [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Adenolinum pratense (Norton) W.A. Weber L. puberulum (Engelm.) A. Heller, plains flax [CO, NE, NM, WY] SYN = Cathartolinum puberulum (Engelm.) Small SYN = Mesynium puberulum (Engelm.) W.A. Weber L. rigidum Pursh, stiff-stem flax var. rigidum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Cathartolinum rigidum (Pursh) Small var. simulans C.M. Rogers [CO, ND, NE, SD] L. sulcatum Riddell, grooved flax var. sulcatum [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Cathartolinum sulcatum (Riddell) Small *L. usitatissimum L., common flax, cultivated flax [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY]

Loasaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the stickleaf family Cevallia Lag., cevallia Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. sinuata Lag., stinging cevallia [NM, OK, TX] Mentzelia L., mentzelia, sand-lily, stickleaf M. albescens (Gillies & Arn.) Griseb., whitish mentzelia [*KS, *MO, OK, TX] M. albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray, white-stem mentzelia [CO, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Acrolasia albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Rydb. SYN = M. albicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Douglas ex Torr. & A. Gray var. ctenophora (Rydb.) J. Darl. M. chrysantha Engelm. ex Brandegee, Arkansas River mentzelia [endemic: CO] M. decapetala (Pursh) Urb. & Gilg, ten-petal mentzelia [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Nuttallia decapetala (Pursh) Greene M. dispersa S. Watson, whole-leaf mentzelia [MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = Acrolasia compacta (A. Nelson) Rydb. SYN = Acrolasia dispersa (S. Watson) Davidson M. laevicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray, smooth-stem mentzelia var. laevicaulis [MT, NE, WY] SYN = Nuttallia laevicaulis (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene M. multiflora (Nutt.) A Gray, desert mentzelia var. multiflora [CO, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Nuttallia multiflora (Nutt.) Greene M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray, bractless mentzelia, sand-lily [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. nuda (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray var. stricta (Osterh.) H.D. Harr. SYN = M. stricta (Osterh.) G.W. Stevens ex Jeffs & Little SYN = Nuttallia nuda (Pursh) Greene SYN = Nuttallia stricta (Osterh.) Greene M. oligosperma Nutt. ex Sims, stick-leaf, chickenthief [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] M. pumila Nutt., little mentzelia var. pumila [ND, WY] M. reverchonii (Urb. & Gilg) H.J. Thomps. & Zavort., Reverchon’s mentzelia [CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Nuttallia reverchonii (Urb. & Gilg) W.A. Weber M. sinuata (Rydb.) R.J. Hill, wavy-leaf mentzelia [CO, WY] M. speciosa Osterh., beautiful mentzelia [CO]

Loganiaceae R. Br. ex Mart., nom. conserv., the logania family Cynoctonum J.F. Gmel., hornpod C. mitreola (L.) Britton, lax hornpod [OK]

Lythraceae J. St.-Hil., the loosestrife family Ammannia L., toothcup A. auriculata Willd., ear-leaf toothcup [KS, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = A. auriculata Willd. var. arenaria (Kunth) Koehne A. coccinea Rottb., purple toothcup [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] A. robusta Heer & Regel, stout toothcup [IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Cuphea P. Browne, waxweed C. viscosissima Jacq., blue waxweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = C. petiolata (L.) Koehne Didiplis Raf., water-purslane D. diandra (Nutt. ex DC.) A.W. Wood, common water-purslane [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Peplis diandra Nutt. ex DC. Lythrum L., loosestrife L. alatum Pursh, winged loosestrife var. alatum [CO, KS, IA, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = L. dacotanum Nieuwl. – A var. lanceolatum (Elliott) Torr. & A. Gray ex Rothr. [KS, OK, TX] SYN = L. lanceolatum Elliott L. californicum Torr. & A. Gray, California loosestrife [KS, OK, TX] *L. salicaria L., purple loosestrife [CO, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = L. salicaria L. var. tomentosum (Mill.) DC. Rotala L., lesser-toothcup R. ramosior (L.) Koehne, branched lesser-toothcup [KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = R. ramosior (L.) Koehne var. interior Fernald & Griscom – A, F

Malvaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the mallow family Abutilon Mill., velvetleaf A. incanum (Link) Sweet, hoary velvetleaf [CO, OK] A. parvulum A. Gray, small velvetleaf [TX] *A. theophrasti Medik., common velvetleaf, piemarker [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = A. abutilon (L.) Rusby Alcea L., hollyhock *A. rosea L., rose hollyhock [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Althaea rosea (L.) Cav. – A Althaea L. (see also Alcea), marsh-mallow *A. officinalis L., common marsh-mallow [ND] Anoda Cav., anoda *A. cristata (L.) Schltdl., crested anoda [IA, KS, MO] Callirhoë Nutt., poppy-mallow C. alcaeoides (Michx.) A. Gray, pale poppy-mallow, pink poppy-mallow [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] C. bushii Fernald, Bush’s poppy-mallow [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. papaver (Cav.) A. Gray var. bushii (Fernald) Waterf. – A C. digitata Nutt., finger poppy-mallow [KS, MO, OK] C. involucrata (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray var. involucrata, purple poppy-mallow [largely endemic: CO, IA, KS, MO, MN, NM, OK, TX, WY] var. lineariloba (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray, winecup, cowboy-rose [CO, OK, TX] C. leiocarpa R.F. Martin, tall poppy-mallow [KS, OK, TX] C. pedata (Nutt. ex Hook.) A. Gray, heart-leaf poppy-mallow [OK] SYN = C. digitata Nutt. var. stipulata Waterf. Gossypium L., cotton *G. hirsutum L., upland cotton [KS, OK, TX] Hibiscus L., nom. conserv., rose-mallow H. laevis All., halberd-leaf rose-mallow, scarlet rose-mallow [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = H. militaris Cav. – A H. moscheutos L., woolly rose-mallow subsp. lasiocarpos (Cav.) O.J. Blanch. [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = H. lasiocarpos Cav. – A, F subsp. moscheutos [KS] SYN = H. palustris L. *H. syriacus L., Rose-of-Sharon [KS] *H. trionum L., flower-of-an-hour, Venice-mallow [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Lavatera L., tree-mallow *L. cretica L., Cretian tree-mallow [ND] *L. thuringiaca L., Thuringian tree-mallow [WY] Malva L., mallow *M. neglecta Wallr., common mallow [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] *M. parviflora L., little mallow [KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas] *M. pusilla Sm., running mallow, round-leaf mallow [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] M. rotundifolia L. - nom. rejic. – A, F *M. sylvestris L., high mallow [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = M. sylverstris L. var. mauritiania (L.) Boiss. *M. verticillata L., clustered mallow [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, WY] M. crispa L. misapplied - Rydberg M. verticillata L. var. crispa L. misapplied - Fernald Malvastrum A. Gray, nom. conserv., false-mallow M. hispidum (Pursh) Hochr., rough false-mallow [KS, MO, OK] SYN = M. angustum A. Gray

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SYN = Sidopsis hispida (Pursh) Rydb. SYN = Sphaeralcea angusta (A. Gray) Fernald Malvella Jaub. & Spach, malvella M. leprosa (Ortega) Krapov., scaly malvella [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Disella hederacea (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene SYN = Sida hederacea (Douglas ex Hook.) Torr. ex A. Gray SYN = S. leprosa (Ortega) K. Schum. var. hederacea (Douglas ex Hook.) K. Schum. M. sagittifolia (A. Gray) Fryxell, arrow-leaf malvella [CO, NM, TX] SYN = Sida lepidota A. Gray var. sagittifolia A. Gray SYN = Sida leprosa (Ortega) K. Schum. var. sagittifolia (A. Gray) Clement Rhynchosida Fryxell, snout-sida R. physocalyx (A. Gray) Fryxell, bladder-fruit snout-sida [OK, TX] SYN = Sida physocalyx A. Gray – A, F Sida L., sida (see also Rhynchosida) *S. rhombifolia L., arrow-leaf sida [KS] *S. spinosa L., prickly sida [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK ] Sidalcea A. Gray, checker-mallow S. neomexicana A. Gray, New Mexico checker-mallow subsp. neomexicana [NE, NM, WY] Sphaeralcea A.St.-Hil., globe-mallow S. angustifolia (Cav.) G. Don, narrow-leaf globe-mallow var. cuspidata A. Gray [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = S. cuspidata (A. Gray) Britton S. coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb., scarlet globe-mallow var. coccinea [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Malvastrum coccineum (Nutt.) A. Gray S. fendleri A. Gray, Fendler’s globe-mallow [CO, *KS, NM, TX]

Melastomataceae Juss., nom. conserv., the melastome family Rhexia L., meadow-beauty R. mariana L., Maryland meadow-beauty var. interior (Pennell) Kral & Bostick [KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. interior Pennell R. virginica L., Virginia meadow-beauty [MO]

Menispermaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the moonseed family Calycocarpum Nutt. ex Spach, cupseed C. lyonii (Pursh) A. Gray, Lyon’s cupseed [KS, MO, OK] Cocculus DC., nom. conserv., snailseed C. carolinus (L.) DC., Carolina snailseed [KS, MO, OK, TX] Menispermum L., moonseed M. canadense L., Canadian moonseed [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD]

Menyanthaceae (Dumort.) Dumort., nom. conserv., the buckbean family Menyanthes L., buckbean M. trifoliata L., common buckbean [MN, NE, SD] SYN = M. trifoliata L. var. minor Raf.

Molluginaceae Hutch., nom. conserv., the carpetweed family Glinus L., glinus *G. lotoides L., glinus [KS, MO] Mollugo L., carpetweed *M. verticillata L., green carpetweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY]

Monotropaceae Nutt., nom. conserv., the Indian-pipe family Monotropa L., Indian-pipe Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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M. hypopithys L., pinesap Indian-pipe [Alb, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, Sas] SYN = Hypopithys lanuginosa (Michx.) Nutt. M. uniflora L., one-flower Indian-pipe [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK] Pterospora Nutt., pinedrops P. andromedea Nutt., woodland pinedrops [Alb, CO, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY]

Moraceae Link, nom. conserv., the mulberry family Broussonetia L'Hér. ex Vent., nom. conserv., paper-mulberry *B. papyrifera (L.) Vent., common paper-mulberry [KS, MO, NE, OK] Fatuoa Gaudin, crabweed *F. villosa (Thunb.) Nakai, hairy crabweed [OK] Maclura Nutt., nom. conserv., Osage-orange, bois d’arc, hedge-apple *M. pomifera (Raf.) C.K. Schneid., Osage-orange, bois d’arc, hedge-apple [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Toxylon pomiferum Raf. ex Sarg. Morus L., mulberry *M. alba L., white mulberry [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] M. nigra L. misapplied - Rydberg M. microphylla Buckley, Texas mulberry, mountain mulberry [OK, TX] M. rubra L., red mulberry [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX]

Najadaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the naiad family (see Hydrocharitaceae) Nelumbonaceae (DC.) Dumort., nom. conserv., the lotus family Nelumbo Adans., lotus N. lutea Willd., American lotus, yellow lotus [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = N. pentapetala Fernald *N. nucifera Gaertn., Indian lotus, sacred lotus [MO]

Nyctaginaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the four-o'clock family Abronia Juss., sand-verbena A. fragans Nutt. ex Hook., sweet sand-verbena, snowball sand-verbena [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Allionia L., nom. conserv., trailing-four-o'clock A. incarnata L., red trailing-four-o'clock var. incarnata [CO, NM, OK, TX] Boerhaavia L., spiderling B. erecta L., erect spiderling [OK] Mirabilis L., four-o'clock M. albida (Walter) Heimerl, white four-o'clock [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Allionia albida Walter SYN = Allionia bracteata Rydb. SYN = Allionia decumbens (Nutt.) Spreng. SYN = M. albida (Walter) Heimerl var. uniflora Heimerl SYN = M. decumbens (Nutt.) Daniels SYN = Oxybaphus albidus (Walter) Sweet SYN = Oxybaphus decumbens (Nutt.) Sweet M. carletonii (Heimerl ex Standl.) Standl., Carleton’s four-o'clock [largely endemic: CO, KS, OK, TX] SYN = Allionia carletonii Heimerl ex Standl. SYN = Oxybaphus carletonii (Heimerl ex Standl.) Weath. M. gausapoides (Standl.) Standl., hairy narrow-leaf four-o’clock [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Allionia guasapoides Standl. SYN = M. linearis (Pursh) Heimerl var. subhispida Heimerl SYN = Oxybaphus guasapoides Standl. SYN = Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) B.L. Rob. var. subhispidus (Heimerl) Dayton M. glabra (S. Watson) Standl., smooth four-o'clock [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Allionia glabra (S. Watson) Kuntze SYN = Allionia exaltata Standl. SYN = M. exaltata (Standl.) Standl. – A, F SYN = Oxybaphus glabrus S. Watson M. hirsuta (Pursh) MacMill., hairy four-o'clock [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Allionia hirsuta Pursh SYN = Oxybaphus hirsutus (Pursh) Sweet *M. jalapa L., garden four-o’clock var. jalapa [TX] M. linearis (Pursh) Heimerl, narrow-leaf four-o'clock var. linearis [CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Allionia diffusa A. Heller SYN = Allionia linearis Pursh SYN = M. diffusua (A. Heller) C.F. Reed SYN = Oxybaphus linearis (Pursh) B.L Rob. M. multiflora (Torr.) A. Gray, many-flower four-o’clock var. multiflora [CO, NM] M. nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill., wild four-o'clock [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Allionia nyctaginea Michx. SYN = Allionia ovata Pursh SYN = Oxybaphus nyctagineus (Michx.) Sweet M. oxybaphoides (A. Gray) A. Gray, spreading four-o'clock [CO, NM, OK] SYN = Allioniella oxybaphoides (A. Gray) Rydb. M. rotundifolia (Greene) Standl., Colorado four-o’clock [endemic: CO] SYN = Allionia rotundifolia Greene SYN = Oxybaphus rotundifolius (Greene) Standl. Selinocarpus A. Gray, moonpod S. diffusus A. Gray, spreading moonpod [OK, TX] Tripterocalyx (Torr.) Hook., sandpuffs T. micranthus (Torr.) Hook., small-flower sandpuffs [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Abronia micrantha Torr.

Nymphaeaceae Salisb., nom. conserv., the water-lily family Nuphar Sm., cow-lily N. advena (Aiton) W.T. Aiton, spatter-dock cow-lily [KS, MO, OK] SYN = N. lutea Sm. subsp. advena (Aiton) Kartesz & Gandhi SYN = N. lutea Sm. subsp. macrophylla (Small) E.O. Beal – A, F SYN = N. ovata (G.S. Mill. & Standl.) Standl. N. variegata Durand, yellow cow-lily, painted cow-lily [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = N. lutea Sm. subsp. variegata (Engelm.) E.O. Beal – A, F Nymphaea L., water-lily N. odorata Aiton, white water-lily, American water-lily subsp. odorata [CO, KS, NE, OK] subsp. tuberosa (Paine) Wiersema & Hellq. [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = N. tuberosa Paine – A, F

Oleaceae Hoffmanns. & Link, nom. conserv., the olive family Forestiera Poir., nom. conserv., forestiera F. acuminata (Michx.) Poir., Texas forestiera, swamp-privet [KS, MO] SYN = Adelia acuminata Michx. F. pubescens Nutt., downy forestiera, elbowbush var. glabrifolia Shinners [OK, TX] var. pubescens [OK, TX] Forsythia Vahl, nom. conserv., forsythia *F. viridissima Lindl., green-stem forsythia [KS] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Fraxinus L., ash F. americana L., white ash [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] F. nigra Marshall, black ash [MN, ND] F. pennsylvanica Marshall, green ash, red ash [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = F. campestris Britton SYN = F. lanceolata Borkh. SYN = F. pennsylvanica Marshall var. austinii Fernald SYN = F. pennsylvanica Marshall var. campestris (Britton) F.C. Gates SYN = F. pennsylvanica Marshall var. lanceolata (Borkh.) Sarg. SYN = F. pennsylvanica Marshall var. pennsylvanica – A, F SYN = F. pennsylvanica Marshall var. subintegerrima (Vahl) Fernald – A, F F. quadrangulata Michx., blue ash [KS, MO, OK] F. texensis (A. Gray) Sarg., Texas ash [OK] Ligustrum L., privet *L. sinense Lour., Chinese privet [KS, OK] *L. vulgare L., European privet [KS, NE] Menodora Bonpl., menodora M. scabra A. Gray, rough menodora [CO] Syringa L., lilac *S. reticulata (Blume) H. Hara, Japanese tree lilac [WY] *S. vulgaris L., common lilac [KS, Sas]

Onagraceae Juss., nom. conserv., the evening-primrose family Calyophyus Spach, evening-primrose C. berlandieri Spach, Berlandier’s evening-primrose subsp. berlandieri [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. drummondianus Spach subsp. berlanderi (Spach) Towner & P.H. Raven – A subsp. pinifolius (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Towner [OK] SYN = Meriolix melanoglottis Rydb. ex Small as C. drummondianus Spach subsp. Drummondianus – A C. hartwegii (Benth.) P.H. Raven, Hartweg’s evening-primrose subsp. fendleri (A. Gray) P.H. Raven [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Galpinsia fendleri (A. Gray) A. Heller SYN = Oenothera hartwegii Benth. var. fendleri (A. Gray) A. Gray subsp. filifolius (Eastw.) Towner & P.H. Raven [TX] subsp. pubescens (A. Gray) Towner & P.H. Raven [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Galpinsia interior Small SYN = Oenothera greggii A. Gray C. lavandulifolius (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven, lavender-leaf evening-primrose [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. hartwegii (Benth.) P.H. Raven subsp. lavandulifolius (Torr. & A. Gray) Towner & P.H. Raven – A SYN = Galpinsia lavandulifolius (Torr. & A. Gray) Small SYN = Oenothera lavandulifolius Torr. & A. Gray C. serrulatus (Nutt.) P.H. Raven, plains yellow evening-primrose [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Meriolix intermedia Rydb. ex Small SYN = Meriolix oblanceolata Rydb. SYN = Meriolix serrulata (Nutt.) Walp. SYN = Oenothera serrulata Nutt. SYN = Oenothera serrulata Nutt. var. oblanceolata (Rydb.) F.C. Gates Camissonia Link, camissonia C. andina (Nutt.) P.H. Raven, Andean camissonia [Alb, Sas] SYN = Oenothera andina Nutt. C. breviflora (Torr. & A. Gray) P.H. Raven, dandelion camissonia [Alb, Sas] SYN = Oenothera breviflora Torr. & A. Gray C. subacaulis (Pursh) P.H. Raven, meadow camissonia [MT]

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SYN = Oenothera subacaulis (Pursh) Garrett SYN = Taraxia subacaulis (Pursh) Rydb. Chamerion Raf. ex Holub, giant-willowherb C. angustifolium (L.) Holub, fireweed, narrow-leaf giant-willowherb var. canescens (A.W. Wood) N.H. Holmgren & P.K. Holmgren [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. angustifolium L. subsp. circumvagum Mosquin – A, F Circaea L., enchanter's-nightshade C. alpina L., alpine enchanter’s-nightshade subsp. alpina [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] subsp. pacifica (Asch. & Magnus) P.H. Raven [WY] C. lutetiana L., northern enchanter’s-nightshade subsp. canadensis (L.) Asch. & Magnus [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. canadensis (L.) Hill var. virginiana Fernald SYN = C. quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch. & Sav. var. canadensis (L.) H. Hara Epilobium L., willowherb, fireweed E. brachycarpum C. Presl, short-fruit willowherb [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. paniculatum Nutt. – A, F E. ciliatum Raf., hairy willowherb, northern willowherb subsp. ciliatum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, NE, ND, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. adenocaulon Hausskn. – A SYN = E. americanum Hausskn. subsp. glandulosum (Lehm.) Hoch & P.H. Raven [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. glandulosum Lehm. SYN = E. occidentale (Trel.) Rydb. E. coloratum Spreng., purple-leaf willowherb [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] E. halleanum Hausskn., glandular willowherb [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] E. hornemannii Rchb., Hornemann’s willowherb [Alb, SD, WY] E. leptophyllum Raf., American marsh willowherb, slender-fruit willowherb [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] E. palustre L., marsh willowherb [Alb, MN, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. oliganthum Michx. SYN = E. wyomingense A. Nelson E. pygmaeum (Speg.) Hoch & P.H. Raven, smooth willowherb [Alb, ND, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Boisduvalia glabella (Nutt.) Walp. – A, F E. saximontanum Hausskn., Rocky Mountain willowherb [Alb, SD] SYN = E. drummondii Hausskn. E. x wisconsinense Ugent {E. ciliatum x E. coloratum}, Wisconsin willowherb [KS] Gaura L., butterfly-weed G. brachycarpa Small, short-fruit butterfly-weed [OK] G. coccinea Pursh, scarlet butterfly-weed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. coccinea Pursh var. parviflora (Torr.) Rickett SYN = G. coccinea Pursh var. glabra (Lehm.) F.C. Gates SYN = G. glabra Lehm. SYN = G. parviflora Torr. G. longiflora Spach, large-flower butterfly-weed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = G. pitcheri (Torr. & A. Gray) Small G. neomexicana Wooton, New Mexico butterfly-weed subsp. coloradensis (Rydb.) P.H. Raven & D.P. Greg. [endemic: CO, WY] G. parviflora Douglas, velvet butterfly-weed [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. mollis E. James SYN = G. parviflora Douglas var. lachnocarpa Weath. G. sinuata Nutt. ex Ser., wavy-leaf butterfly-weed [OK, TX] G. suffulta Engelm. ex A. Gray, road-side butterfly-weed var. suffulta [OK, TX] G. triangulata Buckley, triangular-fruit butterfly-weed [OK, TX] G. villosa Torr., hairy butterfly-weed Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. villosa [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = G. villosa Torr. var. arenicola Munz Gayophytum Juss., groundsmoke G. diffusum Torr. & A. Gray, big-flower groundsmoke subsp. parviflorum F.H. Lewis & Szweyk. [SD, WY] G. ramosissimum Torr. & A. Gray, branched groundsmoke [WY] G. racemosum Torr. & A. Gray, racemose groundsmoke [SD, WY] Ludwigia L., seedbox L. alternifolia L., bushy seedbox [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = L. alternifolia L. var. pubescens E.J. Palmer & Steyerm. – A, F L. glandulosa Walter, cylindric-fruit seedbox subsp. brachycarpa (Torr. & A. Gray) C.I. Peng [OK, TX] subsp. glandulosa [KS, OK] L. palustris (L.) Elliott, marsh seedbox var. palustris [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Isnardia palustris L. SYN = L. palustris (L.) Elliott var. americana (DC.) Fernald & Griscom L. peploides (Kunth) P.H. Raven, floating seedbox subsp. glabrescens (Kuntze) P.H. Raven [KS, MO, NE, NM, OK] Jussiaea diffusa Forsskål misapplied - Rydberg SYN = Jussiaea repens L. var. glabrescens Kuntze L. polycarpa Short & R. Peter, many-fruit seedbox [IA, KS, MO, NE] L. repens J.R. Forst., creeping seedbox var. repens [KS, OK, TX] SYN = L. natans Elliott var. stipitata Fernald & Griscom Oenothera L., evening-primrose O. albicaulis Pursh, white-stem evening-primrose [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Anogra albicaulis (Pursh) Britton SYN = Anogra bradburiana Rydb. SYN = Anogra perplexa Rydb. O. biennis L., common evening-primrose [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = O. biennis L. subsp. centralis Munz – A SYN = O. muricata L. O. cespitosa Nutt., gumbo evening-primrose, tufted evening-primrose subsp. cespitosa [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. cespitosa Nutt. subsp. montana (Nutt.) Munz – A SYN = O. cespitosa Nutt. subsp. purpurea (S. Watson) Munz SYN = Pachylophus canescens Piper SYN = Pachylophus cespitosus (Nutt.) Raim. SYN = Pachylophus montanus (Nutt.) A. Nelson subsp. macroglottis (Rydb.) W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein [CO, NM, WY] O. canescens Torr. & Frém., spotted evening-primrose [endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Gaurella canescens (Torr. & Frém). A. Nelson O. clelandii W. Dietr., P.H. Raven & W.L. Wagner, Cleland’s evening-primrose [IA, MO] O. coronopifolia Torr. & A. Gray, comb-leaf evening-primrose [CO, KS, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = Anogra coronopifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton O. elata Kunth, plains evening-primrose, western evening-primrose subsp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Watson) W. Dietr. [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = O. hookeri Torr. & A. Gray subsp. hirsutissima (A. Gray ex S. Watson) Munz – A O. engelmannii (Small) Munz, Engelmann's evening-primrose [largely endemic: CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] O. flava (A. Nelson) Garrett, yellow evening-primrose subsp. flava [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Lavauxia flava A. Nelson O. grandis (Britton) Smyth, large-flower cut-leaf evening-primrose [CO, KS, MO, OK, NM, TX] SYN = O. laciniata Hill var. grandis (Britton) B.L. Rob. O. harringtonii W.L. Wagner, Stockh. & W.M. Klein, Arkansas River evening-primrose [endemic: CO] SYN = O. caespitosus Nutt. subsp. eximia (A. Nelson) Munz SYN = Pachylophus eximus (A. Gray) Wooton & Standl. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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O. howardii (A. Nelson) W.L. Wagner, Howard’s evening-primrose [CO, KS, WY] SYN = Megapterium brachycarpum (A. Gray) H. Lév. SYN = O. brachycarpa A. Gray – A O. jamesii Torr. & A. Gray, James’ evening-primrose [KS, OK, TX] O. laciniata Hill, cut-leaf evening-primrose [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] O. latifolia (Rydb.) Munz, pale evening-primrose [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Anogra cinerea Rydb. SYN = Anogra latifolia Rydb. SYN = O. pallida Lindl. subsp. latifolia (Rydb.) Munz – A SYN = O. pallida Lindl. subsp. pallida var. latifolia Rydb. O. linifolia Nutt., thread-leaf evening-primrose [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Peniophyllum linifolium (Nutt.) Pennell O. macrocarpa Nutt. subsp. fremontii (S. Watson) W.L. Wagner, Fremont’s evening-primrose [endemic: KS, NE] SYN = Megapterium fremontii (S. Watson) Britton SYN = O. fremontii S. Watson – A subsp. incana (A. Gray) W.L. Wagner, gray evening-primrose [endemic: KS, OK, TX] SYN = Megapterium argophyllum R.R. Gates SYN = O. macrocarpa Nutt. var. incana (A. Gray) Reveal – A subsp. macrocarpa, Missouri evening-primrose [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Megapterium missouriense (Sims) Spach SYN = O. macrocarpa Nutt. var. macrocarpa – A SYN = O. missouriensis Sims subsp. oklahomensis (Norton) W.L. Wagner, Oklahoma evening-primrose [endemic: KS, OK, TX] SYN = Megapterium oklahomense Norton SYN = O. macrocarpa Nutt. var. oklahomensis (Norton) Reveal – A SYN = O. missouriensis Sims var. oklahomensis (Norton) Munz O. nutans G.F. Atk. & Bartlett, nodding evening-primrose [MO] O. nuttallii Sweet, Nuttall's evening-primrose [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Anogra nuttallii (Sweet) A. Nelson O. parviflora L., few-flower evening-primrose [MN] O. perennis L., small evening-primrose [MN, NE] O. rhombipetala Nutt., four-point evening-primrose [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] O. rosea L’Hér. ex Aiton, rosy evening-primrose [NM] O. spachiana Torr. & A. Gray, Spach’s evening-primrose [OK] O. speciosa Nutt., showy white evening-primrose [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Hartmannia speciosa (Nutt.) Small O. triloba Nutt., stemless evening-primrose [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = Lauvauxia triloba (Nutt.) Spach SYN = Lauvauxia watsonii (Britton) Small SYN = O. triloba Nutt. var. watsonii (Britton) F.C. Gates O. villosa Thunb., hairy evening-primrose subsp. strigosa (Rydb.) W. Dietr. & P.H. Raven [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. biennis L. var. strigosa (Rydb.) Cronquist SYN = O. strigosa (Rydb.) Mack. & Bush var. strigosa – A SYN = O. strigosa (Rydb.) Mack. & Bush subsp. strigosa subsp. villosa [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = O. biennis L. var. canescens Torr. & A. Gray SYN = O. strigosa (Rydb.) Mack. & Bush subsp. canovirens (E.S. Steele) Munz – A Stenosiphon Spach, stenosiphon S. linifolius (Nutt.) Heynh., stenosiphon [KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = S. virgatus Spach

Orchidaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the orchid family Amerorchis Hultén, small round-leaf orchid, one-leaf orchid A. rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hultén, small round-leaf orchid, one-leaf orchid [Alb, Sas]

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SYN = Orchis rotundifolia Banks ex Pursh SYN = Orchis rotundifolia Banks ex Pursh var. lineata Mousley Aplectrum Torr., puttyroot, Adam-and-Eve A. hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr., puttyroot, Adam-and-Eve [KS, MO] SYN = A. spicatum Britton et al. Calopogon R. Br., nom. conserv., grass-pink C. oklahomensis D.H. Goldman, Oklahoma grass-pink [KS, MO, OK] C. pulchellus (Salisb.) R. Br. misapplied – A, F Calypso Salisb., nom. conserv., fairy-slipper C. bulbosa (L.) Oakes, bulbous fairy-slipper var. americana (R. Br. ex W.T. Aiton) Luer [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. bulbosa (L.) Oakes var. bulbosa – F SYN = Cytheria bulbosa (L.) House Coeloglossum Hartm., long-bract orchid, frog orchid C. viride (L.) Hartm., satyr long-bract orchid var. virescens (Muhl. ex Willd.) Luer, [Alb, IA, MN, Sas, WY] SYN = C. bracteatum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Parl. SYN = Habenaria viridis (L.) R. Br. var. bracteata (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray – A, F Corallorhiza Gagnebin, coralroot C. maculata (Raf.) Raf., spotted coralroot [Alb, Man, MN, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] C. odontorhiza (Willd.) Poir., fall coralroot, late coralroot, small-flower coralroot [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] C. striata Lindl., striped coralroot, hooded coralroot var. striata [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] var. vreelandii (Rydb.) L.O. Williams [ND, SD] SYN = C. ochroleuca Rydb. SYN = C. striata Lindl. var. ochroleuca (Rydb.) Magrath – F C. trifida Châtel., northern coralroot, pale coralroot, early coralroot [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] C. wisteriana Conrad, Wister's coralroot [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] Cypripedium L., lady's-slipper C. x andrewsii A.M. Fuller {C. candidum x C. parviflorum}, Andrews’ ladiy’s-slipper [MN, ND] C. candidum Muhl. ex Willd., small white lady's-slipper [IA, Man, MN, MO, NE, ND, Sas, SD] C. montanum Douglas ex Lindl., mountain lady’s-slipper [Sas] C. parviflorum Salisb., yellow lady’s slipper, yellow moccasin-flower var. parviflorum [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = C. calceolus L. var. parviflorum (Salisb.) Fernald – A, F var. pubescens (Willd.) O.W. Knight [MN, ND] SYN = C. calceolus L. var. planipetalum (Fernald) Vict. & J. Rousseau – A, F SYN = C. claceolus L. var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll – A, F C. passerinum Richardson, sparrow-egg lady’s-slipper [Alb, Sas] C. reginae Walter, showy lady's-slipper, Queen lady’s-slipper [IA, MN, ND] SYN = C. hirsutum Mill. Epipactis Zinn, nom. conserv., helleborine E. gigantea Douglas ex Hook., giant helleborine, chatterbox [OK, SD] Galearis Raf., orchis G. spectabilis (L.) Raf., showy orchis [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = Galeorchis spectabilis (L.) Rydb. SYN = Orchis spectabilis L. – A Goodyera R. Br., rattlesnake-plantain G. oblongifolia Raf., Menzies’ rattlesnake-plantain [Sas, SD, WY] SYN = G. decipiens (Hook.) F.T. Hubb. G. repens (L.) R. Br., lesser rattlesnake-plantain, creeping rattlesnake-plantain [MN, NE, SD] SYN = G. ophioides (Fernald) Rydb. SYN = G. repens (L.) R. Br. var. ophioides Fernald Hexalectris Raf., crested-coralroot H. spicata (Walter) Barnhart, crested-coralroot [KS, OK] Liparis Rich., nom. conserv., twayblade L. loeselii (L.) Rich., Loesel's twayblade [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, Sas] Listera R. Br., nom. conserv., listera Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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L. borealis Morong, northern listera [Alb, Sas] L. convallarioides (Sw.) Torr., broad-leaf listera [SD, WY] L. cordata (L.) R. Br., heart-leaf listera [Alb, Sas] Malaxis Sol. ex Sw., adder’s-mouth M. brachypoda (A. Gray) Fernald, white adder’s-mouth [Man, Sas] SYN = M. monophyllos (L.) Sw. var. brachypoda (A. Gray) F.J.A. Morris & A.J. Eames M. unifolia Michx., green adder’s-mouth, one-leaf adder’s-mouth [KS, MO, OK] Piperia Rydb., piperia P. unalascensis (Spreng.) Rydb., Alaska piperia, Alaska orchid [SD, WY] SYN = Habenaria unalascensis (Spreng.) S. Watson – A SYN = Platanthera unalascensis (Spreng.) Kurtz Platanthera Rich., nom. conserv., fringed orchid P. clavellata (Michx.) Luer, small green wood fringed orchid [ND] SYN = Denslovia clavellata (Michx.) Rydb. SYN = Habenaria clavellata (Michx.) Spreng. – A, F P. dilatata (Pursh) Lindl. ex L.C. Beck, white bog fringed orchid var. dilatata [Alb, Sas, SD] SYN = Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. var. dilatata – A, F SYN = Limnorchis dilatata (Pursh) Rydb. var. albiflora (Cham.) Ledeb. [SD] SYN = Habenaria dilatata (Pursh) Hook. var. albiflora (Cham.) Correll – F P. hyperborea (L.) Lindl., northern green fringed orchid, northern bog fringed orchid var. hyperborea [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Habenaria hyperborea (L.) R. Br. – A, F P. lacera (Michx.) G. Don, ragged fringed orchid var. lacera [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Blephariglottis lacera (Michx.) Farw. SYN = Habenaria lacera (Michx.) Lodd. – A, F P. obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindl., small northern bog fringed orchid, blunt-leaf fringed orchid [Alb, Sas] P. orbiculata (Pursh) Lindl., large round-leaf fringed orchid var. orbiculata [MN, SD] SYN = Habenaria orbiculata (Pursh) Torr. – A, F P. praeclara Sheviak & M.L. Bowles, western prairie fringed orchid [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Habenaria leucophaea (Nutt.) A. Gray misapplied – A P. leucophaea (Nutt.) Lindl. Misapplied – F P. psycodes (L.) Lindl., small purple fringed orchid [MN, NE] SYN = Habenaria psycodes (L.) Spreng. - A, D P. stricta Lindl., slender bog fringed orchid [SD] SYN = Habenaria saccata Greene – A, F Pogonia Juss., pogonia P. ophioglossoides (L.) Juss., rose pogonia [ND] Spiranthes Rich., nom. conserv., ladies’-tresses S. cernua (L.) Rich., nodding ladies’-tresses [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] S. diluvialis Sheviak, Ute ladies’-tresses [CO, NE] SYN = S. romanzoffiana Cham. var. diluvialis (Sheviak) S.L. Welsh S. lacera (Raf.) Raf., slender ladies’-tresses var. gracilis (Bigelow) Luer, southern slender ladies’-tresses [KS, MO, OK] var. lacera, northern slender ladies’-tresses [IA, NE] S. lucida (H.H. Eaton) Ames, shining ladies’-tresses, wide-leaf ladies’-tresses [KS, NE] SYN = S. plantaginea (Raf.) Raf. S. magnicamporum Sheviak, Great Plains ladies’-tresses [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] S. ovalis Lindl., oval ladies’-tresses, October ladies’-tresses [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. ovalis Lindl. var. erostellata Catling S. romanzoffiana Cham., hooded ladies’-tresses [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. stricta Rydb. S. tuberosa Raf., little ladies’-tresses [KS, MO, OK] S. vernalis Engelm. & A. Gray, spring ladies’-tresses, upland ladies’-tresses [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Triphora Nutt., triphora Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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T. trianthophora (Sw.) Rydb., nodding triphora subsp. trianthophora [KS, MO, NE, OK]

Orobanchaceae Vent., nom. conserv., the broomrape family Orobanche L., broomrape, cancer-root O. fasciculata Nutt., cluster broomrape [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Anoplanthus fasciculatus (Nutt.) Walp. SYN = Aphyllon fasciculatum (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray O. ludoviciana Nutt., Louisiana broomrape subsp. ludoviciana [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Myzorrhiza ludoviciana Nutt. subsp. multiflora (Nutt.) T.S. Collins ex H.L. White & W.C. Holmes [CO, KS, ND, OK, TX] SYN = Orobanche ludoviciana Nutt. var. multiflora (Nutt.) Beck SYN = O. multiflora Nutt. – A, F O. uniflora L., one-flower broomrape [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Anoplanthus uniflorus (L.) Endl.

Oxalidaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the wood-sorrel family Oxalis L., wood-sorrel *O. corniculata L., creeping wood-sorrel [KS, MO, Sas, SD] SYN = Xanthoxalis corniculata (L.) Small O. dillenii Jacq., gray-green wood-sorrel subsp. dillenii [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] subsp. filipes (Small) G. Eiten [Man, Sas] O. drummondii A. Gray, Drummond’s wood-sorrel [OK] O. stricta L., yellow wood-sorrel [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Xanthoxalis bushii Small SYN = Xanthoxalis cymosa (Small) Small SYN = Xanthoxalis rufa (Small) Small SYN = Xanthoxalis stricta (L.) Small O. violacea L., violet wood-sorrel [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Ionoxalis violacea (L.) Small

Papaveraceae Juss., nom. conserv., the poppy family Argemone L., prickly-poppy A. albiflora Hornem., white-flower prickly-poppy subsp. albiflora [MO] A. hispida A. Gray, hairy prickly-poppy [CO, *NE, NM, WY] SYN = A. platyceras Link & Otto var. hispida (A. Gray) Prain *A. mexicana L., Mexican prickly-poppy [KS, NE] A. polyanthemos (Fedde) G.B. Ownbey, plains prickly-poppy [CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. intermedia Sweet A. squarrosa Greene, hedge-hog prickly-poppy subsp. squarrosa [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Chelidonium L., celandine, rock-poppy *C. majus L., greater celandine [MO, NE] Eschscholzia Cham., gold-poppy *E. californica Cham., California-poppy subsp. californica [NE, WY] Glaucium Mill., horn-poppy *G. corniculatum (L.) Rudolph, red horn-poppy, black-spot horn-poppy [KS, MT] *G. flavum Crantz, yellow horn-poppy [OK] Papaver L., poppy *P. dubium L., long-pod poppy, long-head poppy, blindeyes [KS, MO, OK] *P. rhoeas L., field poppy, corn poppy [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, Sas] *P. somniferum L., opium poppy [Man, MO, ND, Sas] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Sanguinaria L., bloodroot S. canadensis L., bloodroot [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD]

Parnassiaceae Gray, nom. conserv., the grass-of-Parnassus family Parnassia L., grass-of-Parnassus, bog-stars P. fimbriata K.D. Koenig, Rocky Mountain grass-of-Parnassus, fringed grass-of-Parnassus [MT] P. glauca Raf., smooth grass-of-Parnassus [MN, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = P. americana Muhl. P. palustris L., small-flower grass-of-Parnassus, northern grass-of-Parnassus var. parviflora (DC.) B. Boivin [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = P. palustris L. var. neogaea Fernald – F SYN = P. parviflora DC. – A, F

Passifloraceae Juss. ex Kunth, nom. conserv., the passion-flower family Passiflora L., passion-flower P. incarnata L., May-pop passion-flower [KS, MO, OK] P. lutea L., yellow passion-flower [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. lutea L. var. glabriflora Fernald – A, F

Pedaliaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the unicorn-plant family Proboscidea Schmidel, unicorn-plant, devil’s-claw P. louisianica (Mill.) Thell., common devil's-claw [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Martynia louisianica Mill. Sesamum L., sesame *S. orientale L., oriental sesame [MO] SYN = S. indicum L.

Phytolaccaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the pokeweed family Phytolacca L., pokeweed P. americana L., American pokeweed var. americana [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = P. decandra L. Rivina L., rougeplant R. humilis L., blood-berry rougeplant [OK]

Plantaginaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the plantain family Plantago L., plantain *P. arenaria Waldst. & Kit., Indian plantain [Man, MN] SYN = P. indica L. SYN = P. psyllium L. P. aristata Michx., bottle-brush plantain [IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD] P. canescens Adams, Siberian plantain, arctic plantain [MT] P. coronopus L, crow-foot plantain, cut-leaf plantain [Man] P. elongata Pursh, slender plantain subsp. elongata [Alb, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] P. eriopoda Torr., alkali plantain, saline plantain, red-wool plantain [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] P. heterophylla Nutt., simple-spike plantain [KS, OK] *P. lanceolata L., English plantain, buck-horn plantain [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. lanceolata L. var. sphaerostachya Mert. & W.D.J. Koch *P. major L., ripple-seed plantain, broad-leaf plantain [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. asiatica L. misapplied SYN = P. major L. var. pilgeri Domin SYN = P. major L. var. scopulorum Fr. & Broberg *P. media L., dwarf plantain, hoary plantain, sweet plaintain [Man] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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P. patagonica Jacq., woolly plantain var. breviscapa (Shinners) Shinners, short-stalk plantain [KS, CO, MT, ND, NM, TX] var. patagonica [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. patagonica Jacq. var. gnaphalioides (Nutt.) A. Gray SYN = P. purshii Roem. & Schult. var. spinulosa (Decne.) A. Gray, bristle-bract plantain [Alb, CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. spinulosa Decne. P. pusilla Nutt., tiny plantain [KS, MO, OK] P. rhodosperma Decne., red-seed plantain [KS, MO, NE, OK] P. rugelii Decne., Rugel's plantain, black-seed plantain [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] P. virginica L., pale-seed plantain, hoary plantain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = P. virginica L. var. viridescens Fernald P. wrightiana Decne., Wright's plantain [KS, NM, OK, TX]

Platanaceae T. Lestib. ex Dumort., nom. conserv., the planetree family Platanus L., sycamore, planetree P. occidentalis L., common sycamore, American planetree [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = P. occdentalis L. var. glabrata (Fernald) Sarg.

Plumbaginaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the leadwort family Limonium Mill., nom. conserv., sea-lavender L. limbatum Small, bordered sea-lavender [OK, TX]

Poaceae (R. Br.) Barnhart, nom. conserv., the grass family Achnatherum P. Beauv (see Stipa) X Achnella Barkworth {Achnatherum P. Beauv. x Nassella Desv.} X A. caduca (Beal) Barkworth [ND, NE] SYN = X Stiporyzopsis caduca (Beal) B.L. Johnson & Rogler Aegilops L., goat grass *A. cylindrica Host, jointed goat grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Triticum cylindricum Ces., Pass. & Gibellii X Agrohordeum Camus ex A. Camus {Agropyron Gaertn. x Hordeum L.} (see X Elyhordeum) Agropyron Gaertn., wheat grass (see also Elymus, Elytrigia, Eremopyron, Pascopyron, Pseudoregneria, Thinopyrum) *A. cristatum (L.) Gaertn., crested wheat grass subsp. pectinatum (M. Bieb.) Tzvelev [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. desertorum Fisch. ex Link SYN = A. pectiniforme Roem. & Schult. – A Agrostis L., bent grass A. elliottiana Schult., Elliott’s bent grass [KS, MO, OK] A. exarata Trin., spike bent grass var. minor Hook. [Alb, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. exarata Trin. subsp. minor (Hook.) C.L. Hitchc. – A, F SYN = A. grandis Trin. *A. gigantea Roth, redtop [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. stolonifera L. var. major (Gaudin) Farw. – F A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton et al., winter bent grass, tickle grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton et al. var. hyemalis – A A. perennans (Walter) Tuck., autumn bent grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, OK, SD] SYN = A. oreophia Trin. A. scabra Willd., rough bent grass [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. hyemalis (Walter) Britton et al. var. tenuis (Tuck.) Gleason – A *A. semiverticillata (Forsskål) C. Chr., water bent grass [CO, NM, OK, TX] *A. stolonifera L., creeping bent grass SYN = A. alba L. misapplied – Fernald SYN = A. palustris Huds. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = A. stolonifera L. var. palustris (Huds.) Farw. – F SYN = A. stolonifera L. var. stolonifera – F Alopecurus L., foxtail A. aequalis Sobol., short-awn foxtail [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] var. aequalis SYN = A. aristulatus Michx. *A. arundinaceus Poir., creeping foxtail [CO, KS, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = A. ventricosus Pers. A. borealis Trin., northern foxtail [Alb, Sas] SYN = A. alpinus Sm. subsp. glaucus (Less.) Hultén SYN = A. occidentalis Scribn. & Tweedy A. carolinianus Walter, Carolina foxtail [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] A. geniculatus L., marsh foxtail, water foxtail [MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *A. myosuroides Huds., mouse foxtail, slim-spike foxtail [KS] *A. pratensis L., meadow foxtail [KS, MN, ND, NE, SD] Andropogon L., bluestem (see also Bothriochloa, Schizachyrium) A. x chrysocomus Nash {A. gerardii x A. hallii}, yellow-beard bluestem [KS, NE] SYN = A. gerardii Vitman subsp. x chrysocomus (Nash) Wipff A. gerardii Vitman, big bluestem [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. furcatus Muhl. ex Willd. SYN = A. provincialis Lam. A. glomeratus (Walter) Britton et al., bushy bluestem var. pumilus Vasey [OK, TX] A. hallii Hack., sand bluestem [CO, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. gerardii Vitman var. paucipilus (Nash) Fernald SYN = A. gerardii Vitman subsp. hallii (Hack.) Wipff SYN = A. paucipilus Nash A. ternarius Michx., split-beard bluestem [KS, MO, OK] A. virginicus L., broom-sedge bluestem, yellow-sedge bluestem var. virginicus [KS, MO, OK] Apera Adans., sand grass *A. interrupta (L.) P. Beauv, Italian sand grass [CO, WY] Aristida L., threeawn A. adscensionis L., six-weeks threeawn [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = A. fasciculata Torr. A. arizonica Vasey, Arizona threeawn [CO, NM, OK] A. basiramea Engelm. ex Vasey, fork-tip threeawn [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] A. desmantha Trin. & Rupr., curly threeawn [KS, NE] A. dichotoma Michx., church-mouse threeawn var. dichotoma [IA, KS, MO, OK] var. curtissii A. Gray ex S. Watson & J.M. Coult. [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = A. basiramea Engelm. ex Vasey var. curtissii (A. Gray ex S. Watson & J.M. Coult.) Shinners - F SYN = A. curtissii (A. Gray ex S. Watson & J.M. Coult.) Nash A. divaricata Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd., poverty threeawn [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] A. havardii Vasey, Havard’s threeawn [CO, KS, OK, TX] SYN = A. barbata E. Fourn. – A, F A. longespica Poir., slim-spike threeawn var. geniculata (Raf.) Fernald [IA, KS, NE, OK, TX] SYN = A. intermedia Scribn. & C.R. Ball SYN = A. necopina Shinners var. longespica [IA, KS, MO, NM, OK] SYN = A. gracilis Elliott A. oligantha Michx., old-field threeawn, prairie threeawn [IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] A. purpurascens Poir., arrow-feather threeawn var. purpurascens [KS, MO, NE, OK] A. purpurea Nutt., purple threeawn var. fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = A. fendleriana Steud. var. longiseta (Steud.) Vasey [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = A. longiseta Steud. - A SYN = A. purpurea Nutt. var. robusta (Merr.) A.H. Holmgren & N.H. Holmgren – F var. nealleyi (Vasey) Allred [CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = A. glauca (Nees) Walp. – A SYN = A. purpurea Nutt. var. glauca (Nees) A.H. Holmgren & N.H. Holmgren – F var. purpurea [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = A. roemeriana Scheele – A, F var. wrightii (Nash) Allred [OK, NM, TX] SYN = A. wrightii Nash – A A. ramosissima Engelm. ex A. Gray, slender threeawn, s-curve threeawn [KS, MO] A. tuberculosa Nutt., sea-beach threeawn [NE] Arrhenatherum P. Beauv., oat grass *A. elatius (L.) J. Presl & C. Presl, tall oat grass var. elatius [CO, IA, MO, NE, SD] Arthraxon P. Beauv., jointstalk *A. hispidus (Thunb.) Makino, creeping jointstalk var. hispidus [KS, OK] Arundinaria Michx., cane *A. gigantea (Walter) Muhl., giant cane subsp. gigantea [KS, OK] Arundo L., giant-reed *A. donax L., giant-reed [KS, MO, OK] Avena L., oat *A. fatua L., wild oat [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *A. sativa L., cultivated oat [KS, Man, MN, MO, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = A. fatua L. var. sativa (L.) Hausskn. – F Beckmannia Host, slough grass B. syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald, American slough grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = B. syzigachne (Steud.) Fernald subsp. baicalensis (V.A. Kusn.) T. Koyama & Kawano Blepharoneuron Nash, hairy-dropseed, pine-dropseed B. tricholepis (Torr.) Nash, hairy-dropseed, pine-dropseed [NM] Bothriochloa Kuntze, bluestem *B. bladhii (Retz.) S.T. Blake, Caucasian bluestem [CO, KS, NE, OK] SYN = Andropogon bladhii Retz. – F SYN = Andropogon intermedius R. Br. – A SYN = B. intermedia (R. Br.) A. Camus B. barbinodis (Lag.) Herter, cane bluestem var. barbinodis [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Andropogon barbinodis Lag. – A, F *B. ischaemum (L.) Keng, Turkestan bluestem var. songarica (Rupr. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Celarier & J.R. Harlan [CO, KS, OK, TX] SYN = Andropogon ischaemum L. var. songaricus Rupr. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey. – A, F B. laguroides (DC.) Herter, silver bluestem subsp. torreyana (Steud.) Allred & Gould [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] Andropogon saccharoides Sw. misapplied - A SYN = Andropogon saccharoides Sw. var. torreyanus (Steud.) Hack. – F SYN = B. saccharoides (Sw.) Rydb. var. torreyana (Steud.) Gould B. springfieldii (Gould) Parodi, Springfield’s bluestem [CO, NM, TX] SYN = Andropogon springfieldii Gould – A, F Bouteloua Lag., orth. conserv., grama B. barbata Lag., six-weeks grama var. barbata [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Chondrosum barbatum (Lag.) Clayton B. curtipendula (Michx.) Torr., side-oats grama Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. caespitosa Gould & Kapadia [CO, NM, OK] var. curtipendula [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] B. eriopoda (Torr.) Torr., black grama [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Chondrosum eriopodum Torr. B. gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths, blue grama [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Chondrosum gracile Willd. ex Kunth B. hirsuta Lag., hairy grama var. hirsuta [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Chondrosum hirsutum (Lag.) Sweet B. pectinata Feath., tall grama [OK, TX] SYN = B. hirsuta subsp. pectinata (Feath.) Wipff & S.D. Jones SYN = B. hirsuta var. pectinata (Feath.) Cory B. rigidiseta (Steud.) Hitchc., Texas grama [OK, TX] B. simplex Lag., mat grama [CO, KS, *NE, NM, TX, WY] SYN = B. prostrata Lag. SYN = Chondrosum prostratum (Lag.) Sweet SYN = Chondrosum simplex Kunth Brachiaria (Trin.) Griseb., signal grass B. ciliatissima (Buckley) Chase, fringed signal grass [TX] B. fasciculata (Sw.) Parodi, brown-top signal grass [OK, TX] SYN = Panicum fasciculatum Sw. – A, F B. texana (Buckley) S.T. Blake, Texas signal grass [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Panicum texanum Buckley – A, F Brachyelytrum P. Beauv., shorthusk B. erectum (Schreb.) P. Beauv., upright shorhusk subsp. erectum var. erectum [IA, KS, MO, NE] Bromus L., brome, chess, cheat *B. arvensis L., field brome [ND, OK] *B. biebersteinii Roem. & Schult., Bieberstein’s brome [NE] *B. briziformis Fisch. & C.A. Mey., rattle brome, rattlesnake chess [ND, NE, SD] *B. catharticus Vahl, rescue brome, rescue grass var. catharticus [KS, MO, NM, ND, OK, TX] SYN = B. unioloides Kunth – A, F SYN = B. willdenowii Kunth B. ciliatus L., fringed brome [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Bromopsis ciliatus (L.) Holub SYN = B. ciliatus L. var. intonsus Fernald *B. commutatus Schrad., hairy brome, hairy chess [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, OK, TX, WY] *B. hordeaceus L., soft brome, soft chess, lop grass subsp. hordeaceus [KS, MO, ND, SD] SYN = B. mollis L. – A, F *B. inermis Leyss., smooth brome, Hungarian brome [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub *B. japonicus Thunb., Japanese brome, Japanese chess [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = B. patulus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch B. kalmii A. Gray, Kalm’s brome [IA, MN, SD] SYN = Bromopsis kalmii (A. Gray) Holub B. purgans L. - nom. rejic. B. lanatipes (Shear) Rydb., woolly brome [CO, OK, TX] SYN = Bromopsis lanatipies (Shear) Holub B. latiglumis (Scribn. ex Shear) Hitchc., hairy wood brome, ear-leaf brome [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = B. altissimus Pursh SYN = Bromopsis latiglumis (Scribn. ex Shear) Holub Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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B. marginatus Nees, perennial mountain brome [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] B. carinatus Hook. & Arn. misapplied – A, F SYN = B. breviaristatus Buckley B. nottowayanus Fernald, Nottoway brome [KS, MO] SYN = Bromopsis nottowayana (Fernald) Holub B. polyanthus Scribn., Great Basin brome [CO, NM, TX] B. porteri (J.M. Coult.) Nash, nodding brome [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Bromopsis porteri (J.M. Coult.) Holub B. anomalous Rupr. ex Fourn. misapplied B. pubescens Muhl. ex Willd., Canadian brome [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Bromopsis pubescens (Muhl. ex Willd.) Holub B. pumpellianus Scribn., arctic brome subsp. pumpellianus [Alb, Man, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = B. inermis Leyss. subsp. pumpellianus (Scribn.) Wagnon – A, F SYN = Bromopsis inermis (Leyss.) Holub subsp. pumpelliana (Scribn.) W.A. Weber SYN = Bromopsis pumpelliana (Scribn.) Holub *B. racemosus L., bald brome [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK] B. richardsonii Link, Richardson’s brome [CO, WY] SYN = Bromopsis richardsonii (Link) Holub *B. rigidus Roth, rip-gut grass [CO, MO, NM, OK, TX] *B. secalinus L., rye brome, cheat, chess [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] *B. squarrosus L., one-way brome [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *B. tectorum L., downy brome, downy chess [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Anisantha tectorum (L.) Nevski Buchloë Engelm., nom. conserv., buffalo grass B. dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm., buffalo grass [CO, KS, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Calamagrostis Adans., reed grass C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv., Canadian reed grass, bluejoint [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. canadensis – F SYN = C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. langsdorfii (Link) Inman SYN = C. canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv. var. macouniana (Vasey) Stebbins – F SYN = C. langsdorfii (Link.) Trin. *C. epigejos (L.) Roth, chee reed grass, feathertop [IA, Man, ND, NE, OK, SD] C. montanensis (Scribn.) Scribn., plains reed grass [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] C. purpurascens R. Br., purple reed grass [Alb, CO, SD] C. rubescens Buckley, pine grass [Alb, Sas ] C. stricta (Timm) Koeler, northern reed grass, slim-stem reed grass [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. inexpansa A. Gray – A SYN = C. neglecta (Ehrh.) P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Schreb. Calamovilfa (A. Gray) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw., sand-reed C. gigantea (Nutt.) Scribn. & Merr., big sand-reed [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] C. longifolia (Hook.) Hack. ex Scribn. & Southw., prairie sand-reed var. longifolia [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] Catabrosa P. Beauv., brook grass C. aquatica (L.) P. Beauv., brook grass [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Cenchrus L., sandbur C. longispinus (Hack.) Fernald, field sandbur [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. spinifex Cav., coast sandbur [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. incertus M.A. Curtis – A, F SYN = C. carolinianus Walter SYN = C. parviceps Shinners SYN = C. pauciflorus Benth. Chasmanthium Link, wood-oat, wild-oat C. latifolium (Michx.) H.O. Yates, broad-leaf wood-oat [KS, MO, *NE, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Uniola latifolia Michx. – A C. sessiliflorum (Poir.) H.O. Yates, narrow-leaf wood-oat [OK] Chloris Sw., windmill grass, feather grass C. cucullata Bisch., hooded windmill grass [KS, NM, OK, TX] C. brevispica Nash misapplied - Rydberg C. verticillata Nutt., whorled windmill grass, tumble windmill grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] C. virgata Sw., showy windmill grass, feather finger grass [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. elegans Kunth Cinna L., wood-reed C. arundinacea L., eastern wood-reed, stout wood-reed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] C. latifolia (Trevir. ex Göpp.) Griseb., drooping wood-reed, northern wood-reed [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] Coelorachis Brongn., joint-tail C. cylindrica (Michx.) Nash, Carolina joint-tail [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Manisuris cylindrica (Michx.) Kuntze – A, F Crypsis Aiton, nom. conserv., prickle grass *C. alopecuroides (Piller & Mitterp.) Schrad., fox-tail prickle grass [CO, WY] Cynodon Rich., nom. conserv., bermuda grass *C. dactylon (L.) Pers., common bermuda grass, finger bermuda grass var. dactylon [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] *C. transvaalensis Burtt Davy, South African bermuda grass [NE] Dactylis L., orchard grass *D. glomerata L., common orchard grass, cock’s-foot [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Danthonia DC., nom. conserv., oat grass D. californica Bol., California oat grass [Alb, Sas] SYN = D. californica Bol. var. americana (Scribn.) Hitchc. D. intermedia Vasey, timber oat grass [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] D. spicata (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult., poverty oat grass [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = D. thermalis Scribn. D. unispicata (Thurb.) Munro ex Macoun, one-spike oat grass [Sas, SD, WY] Deschampsia P. Beauv., hair grass D. cespitosa (L.) P. Beauv., tufted hair grass var. cespitosa [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NM, Sas, SD, WY] Diarrhena P. Beauv., nom. conserv., beakgrain D. obovata (Gleason) D.M. Brandenburg, American beakgrain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = D. americana P. Beauv. var. obovata Gleason – A, F Dichanthelium (Hitchc. & Chase) Gould, dichanthelium D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark, pointed dichanthelium var. acuminatum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MO, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = D. acuminatum (Sw.) Gould & C.A. Clark var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Freckmann SYN = Panicum huachucae Ashe SYN = Panicum lanuginosum Elliott SYN = Panicum lanuginosum Elliott var. fasciculatum (Torr.) Fernald – A, SYN = Panicum scoparioides Ashe SYN = Panicum subvillosum Ashe SYN = Panicum tennesseense Ashe var. implicatum (Scribn.) Gould & C.A. Clark [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, OK] SYN = D. meridionale (Ashe) Freckmann SYN = Panicum albemarlense Ashe SYN = Panicum implicatum Scribn. SYN = Panicum lanuginosum Elliott var. implicatum (Scribn.) Fernald var. lindheimeri (Nash) Gould & C.A. Clark [IA, KS, MO, ND, OK, TX] SYN = Panicum lanuginosum Elliott var. lindheimeri (Nash) Fernald – A SYN = Panicum lindheimeri Nash var. villosum (A. Gray) Gould & C.A. Clark [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = D. villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann var. villosissimum Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = D. villosissimum (Nash) Freckmann var. praecocius (Hitchc. & Chase) Freckmann SYN = Panicum praecocius Hitchc. & Chase – A SYN = Panicum villosissimum Nash D. boscii (Poir.) Gould & C.A. Clark, Bosc’s dichanthelium [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Panicum boscii Poir. – A D. clandestinum (L.) Gould, deer-tongue dichanthelium [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Panicum clandestinum L. – A D. depauperatum (Muhl.) Gould, depauperate dichanthelium [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = Panicum depauperatum Muhl. – A D. latifolium (L.) Gould & C.A. Clark, broad-leaf dichanthelium [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = Panicum latifolium L. – A D. leibergii (Vasey) Freckmann, Leiberg’s dichanthelium [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = Panicum leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. – A D. linearifolium (Scribn. ex Nash) Gould, slim-leaf dichanthelium [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Panicum linearifolium Scribn. ex Nash – A SYN = Panicum perlongum Nash – A SYN = Panicum werneri Scribn. D. malacophyllum (Nash) Gould, soft-leaf dichanthelium [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Panicum malacophyllum Nash – A D. oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould var. oligosanthes, few-flower dichanthelium [KS, MO] SYN = Panicum oligosanthes Schult. var. oligosanthes var. scribnerianum (Nash) Gould, Scribner’s dichanthelium [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Panicum helleri Nash SYN = Panicum oligosanthes Schult. var. scribnerianum (Nash) Fernald – A SYN = Panicum scribnerianum Nash var. wilcoxianum (Vasey) Gould & C.A. Clark, Wilcox’s dichanthelium [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = D. wilcoxianum (Vasey) Freckmann – F SYN = Panicum wilcoxianum Vasey – A D. scoparium (Lam.) Gould, velvet dichanthelium [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Panicum scoparium Lam. – A D. sphaerocarpon (Elliott) Gould, round-seed dichanthelium var. sphaerocarpon [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Panicum sphaerocarpon Elliott – A Digitaria Haller, nom. conserv., crab grass, finger grass D. californica (Benth.) Henrard, Arizona cottontop [CO, OK, TX] SYN = Trichachne californica (Benth.) Chase – A, F *D. ciliaris (Retz.) Koeler, southern crab grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = D. adscendens (Kunth) Henrard – A SYN = D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop. var. ciliaris (Retz.) Parl. SYN = Syntherisma marginata (Link) Nash D. cognata (Schult.) Pilg., fall witch grass, fall finger grass subsp. cognata [IA, KS, MO, MN, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Leptoloma cognatum (Schult.) Chase – A, F subsp. pubiflora (Vasey) Wipff, western witch grass [OK, TX] D. filiformis (L.) Koeler, slender finger grass var. filiformis [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Syntherisma filiformis (L.) Nash *D. ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl., smooth crab grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = D. Ischaemum (Schreb.) Muhl. var. mississippiensis (Gatt.) Fernald SYN = Syntherisma ischaemum (Schreb.) Nash *D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop., hairy crab grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Syntherisma sanguinalis (L.) Dulac Distichlis Raf., salt grass D. spicata (L.) Greene, inland salt grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = D. spicata (L.) Greene var. stricta (Torr.) Beetle – A, F SYN = D. stricta (Torr.) Rydb. Echinochloa P. Beauv., nom. conserv., barnyard grass E. colona (L.) Link, jungle-rice [KS, MO, OK, TX] *E. crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv., common barnyard grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY SYN = E. occidentalis (Wiegand) Rydb. E. crus-pavonis (Kunth) Schult., gulf barnyard grass var. macra (Wiegand) Gould [KS, MO, OK, TX] E. zelayensis (Kunth) Schult. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = E. zelayensis (Kunth) Schult. var. macer Wiegand *E. esculenta (A. Braun) H. Scholz, Japanese millet [KS] E. muricata (P. Beauv.) Fernald, rough barnyard grass var. microstachya Wiegand [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv. var. mitis (Pursh) Peterm. SYN = E. microstachya (Wiegand) Rydb. var. muricata [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = E. pungens (Poir.) Rydb. Eleusine Gaertn., goose grass *E. indica (L.) Gaertn., Indian goose grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] X Elyhordeum Mansf. ex Tsitsin & Petrowa {Elymus x Hordeum} X E. dakotense (Bowden) Bowden {Elymus canadensis x Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum} [SD] SYN = X Elymordeum dakotense Bowden SYN = X Elytesion dakotense (Bowden) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey X E. iowense R.W. Pohl {Elymus villosus x Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum} [IA, NE] SYN = X Elytesion iowense (R.W. Pohl) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey X E. macounii (Vasey) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey {Elymus trachycaulus x Hordeum jubutum subsp. jubatum} [Alb, KS, Man, MN, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = X Agrohordeum macounii (Vasey) Lepage – A, F SYN = Elymus macounii Vasey SYN = X Elytesion macounii (Vasey) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey X E. montanense (Scribn.) Bowden {Elymus virginicus x Hordeum jubatum subsp. jubatum} [IA, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = X Elymordeum montanense (Scribn.) Bowden SYN = X Elytesion montanense (Scribn.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey SYN = Hordeum montanense Scribn. – A SYN = Hordeum pammelii Scribn. & C.R. Ball X Elymordeum Lepage {Elymus x Hordeum} (see X Elyhordeum) X Elytesion Barkworth & D.R. Dewey {Critesion x Elymus} (see X Elyhordeum) Elymus L., wild-rye (see also Leymus, Psathyrostachys) E. canadensis L., Canadian wild-rye var. canadensis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. brachystachys Scribn. & C.R. Ball SYN = E. canadensis L. var. brachystachys (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) Farw. SYN = E. canadensis L. var. hirsutus (Farw.) Dorn SYN = E. canadensis L. var. robustus (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Mack. & Bush SYN = E. philadelphicus L. SYN = E. robstus Scribn. & J.G. Sm. var. wiegandii (Fernald) Bowden [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. wiegandii Fernald SYN = E. canadensis L. subsp. wiegandii (Fernald) Á. Löve E. elymoides (Raf.) Swezey, squirrel-tail wild-rye [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. elymoides (Raf.) Swezey subsp. brevifolius (J.G. Sm.) Barkworth SYN = E. longifolius (J.G. Sm.) Gould SYN = Sitanion elymoides Raf. SYN = Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Sm. var. brevifolium (J.G. Sm.) C.L. Hitchc. – A, F SYN = Sitanion hystrix (Nutt.) J.G. Sm. var. hystrix – A, F SYN = Sitanion longifolium J.G. Sm. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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E. glabriflorus (Vasey) Scribn. & C.R. Ball, smooth-flower wild-rye var. australis (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) J.J.N. Campb. [KS, MO, OK] SYN = E. australis Scribn. & C.R. Ball SYN = E. striatus Willd. var. australis (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) Hitchc. var. glabriflorus [KS, MO, OK] SYN = E. virginicus L. var. glabriflorus (Vasey) Bush – F E. glaucus Buckley, blue wild-rye subsp. glaucus [Alb, CO, Man, MO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] E. hystrix L., bottle-brush wild-rye var. bigeloviana (Fernald) Bowden [ND] SYN = Hystrix patula Moench var. bigeloviana (Fernald) Deam var. hystrix [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK] SYN = Hystrix patula Moench – A, F E. interruptus Buckley, interrupted wild-rye [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. diversiglumis Scribn. & C.R. Ball – F E. lanceolatus (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Gould, thick-spike wild-rye subsp. albicans (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey [Alb, Sas, WY] SYN = E. albicans (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Á. Löve SYN = E. albicans (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Á. Löve var. griffithii (Scribn. & J.G. Sm. ex Piper) Dorn subsp. lanceolatus [Alb, CO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron dasystachyum (Hook.) Scribn. & J.G. Sm. – A, F SYN = Agropyron riparium Scribn. & J.G. Sm. SYN = Agropyron subvillosum (Hook.) E.E. Nelson SYN = E. lanceolatus (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Gould var. riparius (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Dorn E. x maltei Bowden {E. canadensis x E. virginicus}, Malte’s wild-rye [KS] E. x pseudorepens (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey {E. lanceolatus x E. trachycaulus}, false quack grass [Alb, WY] SYN = Agropyron pseudorepens Scribn. & J.G. Sm. – A, F E. x saundersii Vasey {E. elymoides x E. trachycaulus}, Saunders’ wild-rye [WY] E. submuticus (Hook.) Smyth & L. Smyth, short-awn wild-rye [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. curvatus Piper SYN = E. virginicus L. var. submuticus Hook. – F E. trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners, slender wild-rye, rough-stem wild-rye subsp. subsecundus (Link) Á. Löve & D. Löve [Alb, CO, IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron caninum (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. majus (Vasey) C.L. Hitchc. var. unilaterale (Cassidy) C.L. Hitchc. – F SYN = Agropyron richardsonii (Trin.) Schrad. SYN = Agropyron subsecundum (Link) Hitchc. SYN = Zeia richardsonii Lunell subsp. trachycaulus [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron biflorum (Brign.) Roem. & Schult. SYN = Agropyron caninum (L.) P. Beauv. subsp. majus (Vasey) C.L. Hitchc. var. majus – F SYN = Agropyron tenerum Vasey SYN = Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex F.H. Lewis E. villosus Muhl. ex Willd., hairy wild-rye var. arkansanus (Scribn. & C.R. Ball) J.J.N. Campb. [MO, OK, SD] SYN = E. arkansanus Scribn. & C.R. Ball var. villosus [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] E. virginicus L., Virginia wild-rye var. intermedius (Vasey) Bush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] var. jejunus (Ramaley) Bush [Alb, IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] var. minor Vasey ex L.H. Dewey [KS, ND, NE, OK] var. virginicus [KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = E. hirsutiglumis Scribn. SYN = E. striatus Willd. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Elytrigia Desv., wheat grass *E. repens (L.) Nevski, quack grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Agropyron leersianum (Wulfen) Rydb. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = Agropyron repens (L.) P. Beauv. – A, F Enneapogon Desv. ex P. Beauv., pappus grass E. desvauxii P. Beauv., feather pappus grass, spike pappus grass [NM, OK, TX] Eragrostis Wolf, love grass *E. barrelieri Daveau, Mediterranean love grass [KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] E. capillaris (L.) Nees, lace grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] *E. cilianensis (All.) Vignolo ex Janch., stink grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. megastachya (Koeler) Link E. curtipedicellata Buckley, gummy love grass [KS, NM, OK, TX] *E. curvula (Schrad.) Nees, weeping love grass var. conferta Stapf [KS, NM, OK, TX] E. frankii C.A. Mey. ex Steud., sandbar love grass [IA, KS, MO, OK] E. hirsuta (Michx.) Nees, bigtop love grass [MO, OK] E. hypnoides (Lam.) Britton et al., teal love grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] E. intermedia Hitchc., plains love grass [KS, MO, OK] E. lutescens Scribn., six-weeks love grass [CO] E. mexicana (Hornem.) Link, Mexican love grass subsp. mexicana [TX] SYN = E. neomexicana Vasey – A *E. minor Host, little love grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = E. poaeoides P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult. – A E. pectinacea (Michx.) Nees, Carolina love grass var. miserrima (E. Fourn.) Reeder [CO, MO, TX] SYN = E. arida Hitchc. SYN = E. tephrosanthes Schult. – A var. pectinacea [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. diffusa Buckley SYN = E. purshii Schrad. E. pilosa (L.) P. Beauv., Indian love grass [CO, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY, TX] SYN = E. perplexa L.H. Harv. SYN = E. pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. var. perplexa (L.H. Harv.) S.D. Koch – A, F SYN = E. pilosa (L.) P. Beauv. var. pilosa – A, F E. secundiflora C. Presl, red love grass subsp. oxylepis (Torr.) S.D. Koch [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = E. oxylepis (Torr.) Torr. – A E. sessilispica Buckley, tumble love grass [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Acamptoclados sessilispicus (Buckley) Nash E. spectabilis (Pursh) Steud., purple love grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] E. pectinacea (Michx.) Nees misapplied - Rydberg SYN = E. spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. var. sparsihirsuta Farw. E. trichodes (Nutt.) A.W. Wood, sand love grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = E. pilifera Scheele SYN = E. trichodes (Nutt.) A.W. Wood var. pilifera (Scheele) Fernald Eremopyrum (Ledeb.) Jaub. & Spach, hermit-wheat *E. triticeum (Gaertn.) Nevski, annual hermit-wheat [Alb, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = Agropyron triticeum Gaertn. Eriochloa Kunth, cup grass E. acuminata (C. Presl) Kunth, southwestern cup grass var. acuminata [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = E. gracilis (E. Fourn.) Hitchc. – A E. contracta Hitchc., prairie cup grass [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] E. punctata (L.) Desv. ex Ham. misapplied – Rydberg E. sericea (Scheele) Munro ex Vasey, Texas cup grass [KS, OK] *E. villosa (Thunb.) Kunth, hairy cup grass [CO, IA, NE] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Erioneuron Nash, tridens E. pilosum (Buckley) Nash, hairy tridens var. pilosum [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Tridens pilosus (Buckley) Hitchc. – A, F SYN = Triodia pilosa (Buckley) Merr. E. pulchellum (Kunth) Tateoka, fluff grass [NM] SYN = Tridens pulchellus (Kunth) Hitchc. Festuca L., fescue (see also Lolium, Leucopoa, Vulpia) F. campestris Rydb., mountain rough fescue, foothills rough fescue [Alb, ND, Sas] F. hallii (Vasey) Piper, plains rough fescue [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas] SYN = F. altaica Trin. subsp. hallii (Vasey) V.L. Harms SYN = F. scabrella Torr. ex Hook. subsp. hallii (Vasey) W.A. Weber F. scabrella Torr. ex Hook. misapplied – A, F F. idahoensis Elmer, Idaho fescue, blue-bunch fescue var. idahoensis [Alb, CO, MT, Sas, SD, WY] F. occidentalis Hook., western fescue [Alb, SD] F. paradoxa Desv., cluster fescue [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = F. nutans Biehler SYN = F. shortii Kunth ex A.W. Wood F. rubra L., red fescue subsp. richardsonii (Hook.) Hultén, Richardson’s red fescue [WY] F. saximontana Rydb., Rocky Mountain fescue var. saximontana [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = F. ovina L. var. rydbergii St.-Yves – A, F F. subulata Trin., bearded fescue [SD, WY] F. subverticillata (Pers.) E.B. Alexeev, nodding fescue [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = F. obtusa Biehler – A, F F. versuta Beal, Texas fescue [KS, OK] Glyceria R. Br., nom. conserv., manna grass G. borealis (Nash) Batch., northern manna grass [Alb, IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] G. elata (Nash ex Rydb.) M.E. Jones, tall manna grass [WY] G. fluitans (L.) R. Br., river manna grass, water manna grass [SD] G. grandis S. Watson, American manna grass var. grandis [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc., fowl manna grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = G. nervata (Willd.) Trin. SYN = G. rigida (Nash) Rydb. SYN = G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc. subsp. stricta (Scribn.) Hultén SYN = G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc. var. stricta (Scribn.) Fernald Gymnopogon P. Beauv., skeleton grass G. ambiguus (Michx.) Britton et al., bearded skeleton grass [KS, MO, OK] Helictotrichon Besser ex Schult. & Schult. f., spike-oat H. hookeri (Scribn.) Henrard, Hooker’s spike-oat [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = Avena hookeri Scribn. Heterostipa (Elias) Barkworth (see Stipa) Hierochloë R. Br., nom. conserv., sweet grass H. hirta (Schrank) Borbás, incense sweet grass, vanilla grass, holy grass var. arctica (C. Presl) G. Weim. [Alb, IA, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] H. odorata (L.) P. Beauv. misapplied – A, F Hilaria Kunth (see Pleuraphis) Holcus L., nom. conserv., velvet grass *H. lanatus L., common velvet grass [KS, MO] Hordeum L., barley H. brachyantherum Nevski, northern meadow barley [Alb, MT, Sas, WY] SYN = Critesion brachyantherum (Nevski) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey SYN = H. jubatum L. subsp. breviaristatum Bowden H. caespitosum Scribn., bobtail barley, intermediate barley [Alb, CO, Man, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. jubatum L. subsp. x intermedium Bowden Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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H. jubatum L., fox-tail barley, squirrel-tail grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Critesion jubatum (L.) Nevski SYN = H. jubatum L. var. caespitosum (Scribn ex Pammel) Hitchc. H. pusillum Nutt., little barley [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Critesion pusillum (Nutt.) Á. Löve *H. vulgare L., six-row barley, cultivated barley [Alb, KS, Man, MN, Sas, SD, WY] Koeleria Pers., June grass K. macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult., prairie June grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] K. cristata Pers. misapplied - Fernald SYN = K. gracilis Pers. SYN = K. latifrons (Domin) Rydb. SYN = K. nitida Nutt. SYN = K. pyramidata (Lam.) P. Beauv. – A, F Leersia Sol. ex Sw., nom. conserv., cut grass L. lenticularis Michx., catch-fly cut grass [KS, MO] L. oryzoides (L.) Sw., rice cut grass var. oryzoides [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] L. virginica Willd., white grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = L. virginica Willd. var. ovata (Poir.) Fernald Leptochloa P. Beauv., sprangletop L. dubia (Kunth) Nees, green sprangletop [CO, NM] SYN = Diplachne dubia (Kunth) Scribn. L. fusca (L.) Kunth subsp. fascicularis (Lam.) N. Snow, bearded sprangletop [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Diplachne acuminata Nash SYN = Diplachne fascicularis (Lam.) P. Beauv. SYN = L. fascicularis (Lam.) A. Gray – A, F subsp. uninervia (J. Presl) N. Snow, Mexican sprangletop [KS] SYN = Diplachne uninervia (J. Presl) Parodi SYN = L. uninervia (J. Presl) Hitchc. & Chase L. panicea (Retz.) Ohwi, red sprangletop subsp. brachiata (Steud.) N. Snow [KS, MO, OK] subsp. mucronata (Michx.) R. Nowak [KS, MO, OK] SYN = L. attenuata (Nutt.) Steud. SYN = L. filiformis (Lam.) P. Beauv. – A, F SYN = L. mucronata (Michx.) Kunth Leucopoa Griseb., spike-fescue L. kingii (S. Watson) W.A. Weber, King’s spike-fescue, spike grass [KS, NE, WY] SYN = Festuca kingii (S. Watson) Cassidy SYN = Hesperochloa kingii (S. Watson) Rydb. – A Leymus Hochst., awnless wild-rye L. cinereus (Scribn. & Merr.) Á. Löve, basin awnless wild-rye, giant awnless wild-rye [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Elymus cinereus Scribn. & Merr. – A, F E. condensatus J. Presl misapplied - Rydberg SYN = Elymus piperi Bowden L. innovatus (Beal) Pilg., fuzzy-spike awnless wild-rye [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Elymus innovatus Beal – A, F SYN = Elymus innovatus Beal subsp. innovatus var. glabratus Bowden SYN = Elymus innovatus Beal subsp. innovatus var. innovatus SYN = Elymus innovatus Beal var. velutinus (Bowden) Hultén ex Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde SYN = Elymus innovatus Beal subsp. velutinus Bowden L. simplex (Scribn. & T.A. Williams) D.R. Dewey, alkali awnless wild-rye [CO, WY] SYN = Elymus simplex Scribn. & T.A. Williams – F SYN = L. triticoides (Buckley) Pilg. subsp. simplex (Scribn. & T.A. Williams) Á. Löve Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Limnodea L.H. Dewey, Ozark grass L. arkansana (Nutt.) L.H. Dewey, Ozark grass [OK] Lolium L., rye grass, darnel *L. arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., tall rye grass, reed rye grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Festuca arundinacea Schreb. – A, F SYN = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort. *L. multiflorum Lam., Italian rye grass [IA, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = L. perenne L. var. italicum Parn. SYN = L. perenne L. subsp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husn. SYN = L. perenne L. var. multiflorum (Lam.) Parn. *L. perenne L., perennial rye grass, English rye grass var. aristatum Willd. [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, TX] var. perenne [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] *L. persicum Boiss. & Hohen. ex Boiss., Persian rye grass, Persian darnel [CO, ND, WY] *L. pratense (Huds.) Darbysh., meadow rye grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Festuca pratensis Huds. – A, F SYN = Festuca elatior L. SYN = Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv. *L. temulentum L., bearded rye grass, bearded darnel [KS, MO, ND, OK, SD] SYN = L. temulentum L. var. leptochaeton A. Braun – A, Lycurus Kunth, wolf’s-tail L. setosus (Nutt.) C. Reeder, bristly wolf’s-tail [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] L. phleoides Kunth misapplied – A, F Manisuris L. (see Coelorachis) Melica L., melic grass, onion grass *M. altissima L. tall melic grass [OK] M. bulbosa Geyer ex Porter & J.M. Coult., western melic grass, onion grass [WY] SYN = Bromelica bulbosa (Geyer ex Porter & J.M Coult.) W.A. Weber M. mutica Walter, two-flower melic grass [OK] M. nitens (Scribn.) Nutt. ex Piper, three-flower melic grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] M. subulata (Griseb.) Scribn., Alaska melic grass [SD, WY] SYN = M. subulata (Griseb.) Scribn. var. pammellii (Scribn.) C.L. Hitchc. Miscanthus Andersson, silver grass *M. sacchariflorus (Maxim.) Franch., Amur silver grass [IA, NE] Monroa Torr., false buffalo grass M. squarrosa (Nutt.) Torr., false buffalo grass [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Muhlenbergia Schreb., muhly M. arenacea (Buckley) Hitchc., ear muhly [NM] M. arenicola Buckley, sand muhly [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] M. asperifolia (Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Parodi, alkali muhly, scratch grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Sporobolus asperifolius (Nees & Meyen ex Trin.) Nees M. bushii R.W. Pohl, Bush’s muhly [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = M. brachyphylla Bush M. capillaris (Lam.) Trin., hair-awn muhly [KS, MO, OK] M. cuspidata (Torr.) Rydb., plains muhly [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] M. filiculmis Vasey, slim-stem muhly [WY] M. filiformis (Thurb. ex S. Watson) Rydb., pull-up muhly [KS, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = M. filiformis (Thurb. ex S. Watson) Rydb. var. fortis Kelso SYN = M. simplex (Scribn.) Rydb. M. frondosa (Poir.) Fernald, wire-stem muhly [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = M. commutata (Scribn.) Bush M. glabrifloris Scribn., inland muhly [MO] M. glomerata (Willd.) Trin., glomerate muhly [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] M. mexicana (L.) Trin., Mexican wire-stem muhly [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = M. foliosa (Roem. & Schult.) Trin. SYN = M. polystachya Mack. & Bush Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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M. minutissima (Steud.) Swallen, minutissima, small muhly [CO, NE, NM, SD, WY] M. montana (Nutt.) Hitchc., mountain muhly [CO, NM, WY] M. polycaulis Scribn., cliff muhly [NM] M. porteri Scribn., Porter’s muhly, bush muhly [CO, OK, TX] M. pungens Thurb., blowout grass, sand muhly [CO, NE, SD, TX, WY] M. racemosa (Michx.) Britton et al., marsh muhly, green muhly [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] M. richardsonis (Trin.) Rydb., mat muhly [Alb, CO, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] M. schreberi J.F. Gmel., nimblewill [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] M. sobolifera (Muhl. ex Willd.) Trin., rock muhly [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] M. sylvatica (Torr.) Torr., forest muhly [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = M. sylvatica (Torr.) Torr. var. robusta Fernald M. torreyi (Kunth) Hitchc. ex Bush misapplied - Rydberg SYN = M. umbrosa Scribn. M. tenuiflora (Willd.) Britton et al., slender muhly subsp. tenuiflora var. tenuiflora [IA, MO, NE, OK] M. thurberi Rydb., Thurber’s muhly [NM] M. torreyi (Kunth) Hitchc. ex Bush, ring-grass muhly [CO, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = M. gracillima Torr. M. wrightii Vasey ex J.M. Coult., Wright’s muhly [CO, NM] Nassella Desv., needle grass N. viridula (Trin.) Barkworth, green needle grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Stipa viridula Trin. – A, F Neeragrostis Nicora, creeping love grass N. reptans (Michx.) Nicora, creeping love grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Eragrostis reptans (Michx.) Nees – A, F Oryzopsis Michx., rice grass (see also Stipa) O. asperifolia Michx., rough-leaf rice grass [Alb, CO, MN, ND, SD, WY] O. contracta (B.L. Johnson) Shechter, Wyoming rice grass [WY] O. exigua Thurb., little rice grass [MT] O. micrantha (Trin. & Rupr.) Thurb., little-seed rice grass [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Piptatherum micranthum (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth O. pungens (Torr.) Hitchc., stiff rice grass [ND, SD, WY] O. racemosa (Sm.) Ricker, blackseed ricegrass [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Piptatherum racemosum (Sm.) Barkworth Panicum L., panicum, panic grass, witch grass P. anceps Michx., beaked panicum [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. rhizomatum Hitchc. & Chase P. capillare L., common witch grass var. barbipulvinatum (Nash) McGregor [CO, KS, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = P. barbipulvinatum Nash var. brevifolium Vasey ex Rydb. & Shear [CO, IA, KS, MN, MM, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] var. capillare [KS, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] P. dichotomiflorum Michx., fall panicum var. dichotomiflorum [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] P. flexile (Gatt.) Scribn., wiry witch grass [KS, MO, ND, OK] P. gattingeri Nash, Gattinger’s panicum [IA, KS, MO] *P. gymnocarpon Elliott, savannah panicum [CO] SYN = Phanopyrum gymnocarpon (Elliott) Nash P. hallii Vasey, Hall’s panicum var. hallii [CO, NM, OK, TX] P. hillmanii Chase, Hillman’s panicum [CO, *IA, KS, NM, OK, TX] *P. miliaceum L., broom-corn millet, proso millet, hog millet [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] P. obtusum Kunth, vine-mesquite [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] P. philadelphicum Bernh. ex Trin., Philadelphia witchgrass [IA, KS, MN, MO, OK, TX] P. rigidulum Bosc ex Nees, red-top panicum var. rigidulum [KS, MO, OK] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = P. agrostoides Spreng. P. virgatum L., switch grass var. virgatum [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Pascopyrum Á. Löve, pasture-wheat, wheat grass P. smithii (Rydb.) Á. Löve, western pasture-wheat, western wheat grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Agropyron palmeri (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Rydb. SYN = Agropyron smithii Rydb. – A, F Paspalum L., paspalum P. dilatatum Poir., dallis grass, water paspalum [MO, OK] P. dissectum (L.) L., mud-bank paspalum [KS, MO] P. distichum L., joint paspalum [KS, OK, TX] SYN = P. paspalodes (Michx.) Scribn. – F P. floridanum Michx., Florida paspalum var. floridanum [KS, MO, OK] var. glabratum Engelm. ex Vasey [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. glabrum (Engelm. ex Vasey) C. Mohr P. laeve Michx., field paspalum var. circulare (Nash) Fernald [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. circulare Nash var. laeve [KS, MO] var. pilosum Scribn. [KS, MO] SYN = P. longipilum Nash P. pubiflorum Rupr. ex E. Fourn., hairy-seed paspalum var. glabrum Vasey ex Scribn. [KS, MO, OK] P. repens Bergius, water paspalum, horse-tail paspalum [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. fluitans (Elliott) Kunth – A, F SYN = P. mucronatum Muhl. P. setaceum Michx., thin paspalum var. muhlenbergii (Nash) D.J. Banks [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. ciliatifolium Michx. SYN =P. ciliatifolium Michx. var. muhlenbergii (Nash) Fernald SYN = P. muhlenbergii Nash SYN = P. pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. var. stramineum (Nash) D.J. Banks [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. bushii Nash SYN = P. ciliatifolium Michx. var. stramineum (Nash) Fernald SYN = P. stramineum Nash P. urvillei Steud., Vasey’s paspalum [KS] Phalaris L., canary grass *P. arundinacea L., reed canary grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Phalaroides arundinacea (L.) Raeusch. *P. canariensis L., common canary grass [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] P. caroliniana Walter, Carolina canary grass, May grass [KS, MO, OK, TX] Phleum L., timothy P. alpinum L., mountain timothy, alpine timothy] subsp. alpinum [Alb, CO, Sas, SD SYN = P. commutatum Gaudin SYN = P. commutatum Gaudin var. americanum (E. Fourn.) Hultén *P. pratense L., common timothy, field timothy subsp. pratense [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Phragmites Adans., reed P. australis (Cav.) Trin. ex Steud., common reed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. communis Trin. SYN = P. communis Trin. var. berlandieri (E. Fourn.) Fernald SYN = P. communis Trin. subsp. berlandieri (E. Fourn.) Á. Löve & D. Löve Pleuraphis Torr., galleta P. jamesii Torr., James’ galleta [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Hilaria jamesii (Torr.) Benth. – A, F P. mutica Buckley, tobaso grass [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Hilaria mutica (Buckley) Benth. – A, F Poa L., bluegrass *P. annua L., annual blue grass, winter grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] P. arachnifera Torr., Texas blue grass [KS, OK, TX] P. arida Vasey, plains blue grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. overi Rydb. SYN = P. pratensiformis Rydb. P. bigelovii Vasey & Scribn., Bigelow’s blue grass [CO] P. bulbosa L., bulbous blue grass [KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] P. canbyi (Scribn.) Howell, Canby's blue grass [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. laevigata Scribn. SYN = P. lucida Vasey P. chapmaniana Scribn., Chapman’s blue grass [IA, KS, MO, NE] *P. compressa L., Canadian blue grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] P. cusickii Vasey, Cusick’s blue grass subsp. pallida Soreng [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, WY] P. fendleriana (Steud.) Vasey, mutton grass subsp. fendleriana [CO, Man, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. brevipaniculata Scribn. & T.A. Williams SYN = P. longiligula Scribn. & T.A. Williams P. glaucifolia Scribn. & T.A. Williams ex T.A. Williams, wax-leaf blue grass [Alb, CO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. plattensis Rydb. P. interior Rydb., inland blue grass [Alb, CO, ND, MO, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. nemoralis L. var. interior (Rydb.) Butters & Abbe P. nervosa (Hook.) Vasey, Wheeler’s blue grass var. wheeleri (Vasey) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, WY] P. nevadensis Vasey ex Scribn., Nevada blue grass [Alb, Sas] P. palustris L., fowl blue grass [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. crocata Michx. *P. pratensis L., Kentucky blue grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. agassizensis B. Boivin & D. Löve P. rupicola Nash ex Rydb., timber-line blue grass [SD] SYN = P. glauca Vahl subsp. rupicola (Nash ex Rydb.) W.A. Weber P. secunda J. Presl, side-flower blue grass [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. ampla Merr. SYN = P. buckleyana Nash SYN = P. confusa Rydb. SYN = P. juncifolia Scribn. – A, F SYN = P. juncifolia Scribn. var. ampla (Merr.) Dorn SYN = P. nevadensis Vasey ex Scribn. SYN = P. sandbergii Vasey – A, F SYN = P. secunda J. Presl subsp. juncifolia (Scribn.) Soreng SYN = P. secunda J. Presl var. elongata (Vasey) Dorn SYN = P. truncata Rydb. P. sylvestris A. Gray, woodland blue grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] *P. trivialis L., rough blue grass [KS, NE, SD, WY] Polypogon Desf., rabbit’s-foot grass *P. interruptus Kunth, ditch rabbit’s-foot grass [NE] *P. monspeliensis (L.) Desf., annual rabbit’s-foot grass [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Psathyrostachys Nevsik, brittlespike *P. juncea (Fisch.) Nevski, Russian brittlespike [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Elymus junceus Fisch. – A, F X Pseudelymus Barkworth & D.R. Dewey {Elymus elymoides x Pseudoroegneria spicata} X P. saxicola (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey [WY] SYN = Agropyron saxicola (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Piper SYN = Elymus saxicola Scribn. & J.G. Sm. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Pseudoroegneria (Nevski) Á. Löve, wheat grass P. spicata (Pursh) Á. Löve, blue-bunch wheat grass subsp. inermis (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Á. Löve [MT, Sas, WY] SYN = Agropyron inerme (Scribn. & J.G. Sm.) Rydb. subsp. spicata [MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron spicatum (Pursh) Scribn. & J.G. Sm. – A, F SYN = Roegneria spicata (Pursh) Beetle Puccinellia Parl., nom. conserv., alkali grass (see also Torreyochloa) P. cusickii Weath., Cusick’s alkali grass [Alb, MT, ND, SD, WY] *P. distans (L.) Parl., European alkali grass, weeping alkali grass [CO, MN, MT, NE, SD, WY] P. lemmonii (Vasey) Scribn., Lemmon’s alkali grass [Sas] P. nuttalliana (Schult.) Hitchc., Nuttall’s alkali grass [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. airoides (Nutt.) S. Watson & J.M. Coult. Redfieldia Vasey, blowout grass R. flexuosa (Thurb. ex A. Gray) Vasey, blowout grass [CO, KS, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Saccharum L., plume grass *S. ravennae (L.) L., Ravenna grass [KS] SYN = Erianthus ravennae (L.) P. Beauv. – F Schedonnardus Steud., tumble grass S. paniculatus (Nutt.) Trel., tumble grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] Schizachne Hack., false-melic S. purpurascens (Torr.) Swallen, purple false-melic subsp. purpurascens [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Schizachyrium Nees, bluestem S. scoparium (Michx.) Nash, little bluestem subsp. neomexicanum (Nash) Gandhi & Smeins [NM, TX] SYN = Andropogon scoparius Michx. var. neomexicanus (Nash) Hitchc. subsp. scoparium [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Andropogon scoparius Michx. – A, F SYN = Andropogon scoparius Michx. var. frequens F.T. Hubb. Sclerochloa P. Beauv., hard grass *S. dura (L.) P. Beauv., hard grass [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Scleropogon Phil., burro grass S. brevifolius Phil., burro grass [NM, OK, TX] Scolochloa Link, fluminea S. festucacea (Willd.) Link, fluminea [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = Fluminia festucacea (Willd.) Hitchc. Secale L., rye *S. cereale L., rye [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Setaria P. Beauv., nom. conserv., bristle grass *S. faberi R.A.W. Herrm., China bristle grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] *S. italica (L.) P. Beauv., foxtail bristle grass [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] S. leucopila (Scribn. & Merr.) K. Schum., plains bristle grass [CO, NM, OK, TX] S. parviflora (Poir.) Kerguélen, knot-root bristle grass [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. geniculata (Lam.) P. Beauv. – A, F *S. pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., yellow bristle grass [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = S. glauca (L.) P. Beauv. – A, F SYN = S. lutescens (Weigel) F.T. Hubb. S. reverchonii (Vasey) Pilg., Reverchon’s bristle grass [OK] SYN = Panicum reverchonii Vasey – A *S. verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., hooked bristle grass var. verticillata [IA, KS, MN, Man, MO, ND, NE, SD] *S. viridis (L.) P. Beauv., green bristle grass var. major (Gaudin) Posp. [IA, NE, SD] var. viridis [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Sorghastrum Nash, Indian grass Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. nutans (L.) Nash, yellow Indian grass [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. avenaceum (Michx.) Nash – A Sorghum Moench, nom. conserv., sorghum *S. bicolor (L.) Moench subsp. bicolor, grain sorghum [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Sorghum vulgare Pers. *S. halepense (L.) Pers., Johnson grass [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] Spartina Schreb., cord grass S. gracilis Trin., alkali cord grass [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] S. pectinata Link, prairie cord grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Sphenopholis Scribn., wedgescale S. obtusata (Michx.) Scribn. var. major (Torr.) Erdman, slender wedgescale [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = S. intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. var. obtusata, prairie wedgescale [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. robusta (Vasey) A. Heller Sporobolus R. Br., dropseed, poverty grass S. airoides (Torr.) Torr., alkali sacaton [CO, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] S. clandestinus (Biehler) Hitchc., southeastern dropseed [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. compositus (Poir.) Merr. var. var. clandestinus (Biehler) Wipff & S.D. Jones SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth var. clandestinus (Biehler) Shinners – A, F SYN = S. canovirens Nash S. compositus (Poir.) Merr., rough dropseed var. compositus, tall dropseed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth – A, F SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth var. hookeri (Trin.) Vasey – A, F SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth var. pilosus (Vasey) Hitchc. – A SYN = S. pilosus Vasey var. drummondii (Trin.) Kartesz & Gandhi, meadow dropseed [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth var. drummondii (Trin.) Vasey SYN = S. drummondii (Trin.) Vasey var. macer (Trin.) Kartesz & Gandhi, Mississippi dropseed [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. asper (P. Beauv.) Kunth var. macer (Trin.) Shinners S. cryptandrus (Torr.) A. Gray, sand dropseed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] S. flexuosus (Thurb. ex Vasey) Rydb., mesa dropseed [TX] S. giganteus Nash, giant dropseed [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] S. heterolepis (A. Gray) A. Gray, prairie dropseed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] S. neglectus Nash, puff-sheath dropseed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = S. vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A. Gray) A.W. Wood var. neglectus (Nash) Scribn. – A S. ozarkanus Fernald, Ozark dropseed [KS, MO, OK] SYN = S. neglectus Nash var. ozarkanus ijk lmn!o p qrskutvk3lw5xy{z8|}!k3l n SYN = S. vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A. Gray) A.W. Wood var. ozarkanus (Fernald) Shinners S. pyramidatus (Lam.) Hitchc., whorled dropseed [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = S. argutus (Nees) Kunth S. texanus Vasey, Texas dropseed [KS, NE, OK, TX] S. vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A. Gray) A.W. Wood, poverty dropseed, poverty grass [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD] SYN = S. vaginiflorus (Torr. ex A. Gray) A.W. Wood var. inequalis Fernald Stipa L., needle grass, feather grass, rice grass (see also Nassella) S. x bloomeri Bol. {S. oryzopsis x S. occidentalis}, Bloomer’s needle grass [WY] SYN = Achnatherum x bloomeri (Bol.) Barkworth SYN = Oryzopsis bloomeri (Bol.) Ricker SYN = X Stiporyzopsis bloomeri (Bol.) B.L. Johnson S. comata Trin. & Rupr., needle-and-thread var. comata [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Heterostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth subsp. comata var. intermedia Scribn. & Tweedy [Alb, WY] SYN = Heterostipa comata (Trin. & Rupr.) Barkworth subsp. intermedia (Scribn. & Tweedy) Barkworth S. curtiseta (Hitchc.) Barkworth, short-awn needle grass [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = Heterostipa curtiseta (Hitchc.) Barkworth SYN = S. spartea Trin. var. curtiseta Hitchc. S. hymenoides Roem. & Schult., Indian rice grass [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Achnatherum hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Barkworth SYN = Eriocoma hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Rydb. SYN = Oryzopsis hymenoides (Roem. & Schult.) Ricker – A, F S. nelsonii Scribn., Nelson’s needle grass, big subalpine needle grass subsp. dorei Barkworth & J. Maze [Alb, Sas, WY] SYN = Achnatherum nelsonii (Scribn.) Barkworth subsp. dorei (Barkworth & J. Maze) Barkworth S. columbiana Macoun misapplied subsp. nelsonii [WY] SYN = Achnatherum nelsonii (Scribn.) Barkworth subsp. nelsonii S. neomexicana (Thurb.) Scribn., New Mexico needle grass, New Mexico feather grass [CO, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Heterostipa neomexicana (Thurb.) Barkworth S. occidentalis Thurb., western needle grass var. occidentalis [SD] SYN = Achnatherum occidentale (Thurb.) Barkworth subsp. occidentale S. richardsonii Link, Richardson’s rice grass [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Achnatherum richardsonii (Link) Barkworth S. robusta (Vasey) Scribn., stout rice grass, sleepy grass [CO, KS, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth SYN = S. vaseyi Scribn. S. scribneri Vasey, Scribner’s needle grass [CO, OK] SYN = Achnatherum scribneri (Vasey) Barkworth S. spartea Trin., porcupine grass [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Heterostipa spartea (Trin.) Barkworth Themeda Forsskål, kangaroo grass *T. quadrivalvis (L.) Kuntze, four-valve kangaroo grass [KS] Thinopyrum Á. Löve, sand-wheat *T. intermedium (Host) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey, intermediate sand-wheat subsp. intermedium [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron intermedium (Host) P. Beauv. var. intermedium – A, F SYN = Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis SYN = Elymus hispidus (Opiz) Melderis var. ruthenicus (Griseb.) Dorn subsp. barbulatum (Schur) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey [NE, WY] SYN = Agropyron intermedium (Host) P. Beauv. var. trichophorum (Link) Halácsy – F *T. ponticum (Podp.) Barkworth & D.R. Dewey, tall sand-wheat [CO, IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Agropyron elongatum (Host) P. Beauv. – A, F SYN = Elytrigia elongata (Host) Nevski Torreyochloa G.L. Church, Torrey’s manna grass T. pallida (Torr.) G.L. Church, weak Torrey’s manna grass var. pauciflora (C. Presl) J.I. Davis [SD, WY] SYN = Puccinellia pauciflora (C. Presl) Munz Trichachne Nees (see Digitaria) Tridens Roem. & Schult. (see also Erioneuron), tridens T. albescens (Vasey) Wooton & Standl., white tridens [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Rhombolytrum albescens (Vasey) Nash T. flavus (L.) Hitchc., purpletop [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] var. chapmanii (Small) Shinners [KS, OK] SYN = T. chapmanii (Small) Chase SYN = Triodia chapmanii (Small) Bush Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. flavus [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = Triodia flava (L.) Smyth & L. Smyth T. muticus (Torr.) Nash, slim tridens var. elongatus (Buckley) Shinners [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = T. elongatus (Buckley) Nash SYN = Triodia elongata (Buckley) Scribn. T. x oklahomensis (Feath.) Feath. {T. flavus x T. strictus}, Oklahoma tridens [KS, OK] T. strictus (Nutt.) Nash, long-spike tridens [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Triodia stricta (Nutt.) Benth. ex Vasey Triplasis P. Beauv., sand grass T. purpurea (Walter) Chapm., purple sand grass var. purpurea [CO, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Triodia purpurea (Walter) Smyth & L. Smyth Tripsacum L., gamma grass T. dactyloides (L.) L., eastern gamma grass var. dactyloides [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Trisetum Pers., trisetum *T. flavescens (L.) P. Beauv., yellow trisetum [KS, MO] T. interruptum Buckley, prairie trisetum [OK, TX] T. spicatum (L.) K. Richt., spike trisetum [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = T. spicatum (L.) K. Richt. var. maidenii (Gand.) Fernald SYN = T. spicatum (L.) K. Richt. var. molle (Kunth) Beal SYN = T. spicatum (L.) K. Richt. var. pilosiglume Fernald SYN = T. triflorum (Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve SYN = T. triflorum (Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve subsp. molle (Hultén) Á. Löve & D. Löve T. wolfii Vasey, Wolf’s trisetum [Alb, Sas] Triticum L., wheat *T. aestivum L., bread wheat [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *T. turgidum L., durum wheat, macaroni wheat, poulard wheat [Man, Sas] Vulpia C.C. Gmel., annual-fescue *V. bromoides (L.) Gray, brome annual-fescue [MO] V. octoflora (Walter) Rydb., six-weeks annual-fescue var. glauca (Nutt.) Fernald [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] var. hirtella (Piper) Henrard [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX] var. octoflora [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Festuca octoflora Walter – A, F *V. myuros (L.) C.C. Gmel., rat-tail annual-fescue [KS, OK] SYN = Festuca myuros L. – A, F V. sciurea (Nutt.) Henrard, squirrel annual-fescue [MO, OK] SYN = Festuca sciurea Nutt. – A, F Zea L., corn *Z. mays L., Indian corn, cultivated corn subsp. mays [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] Zizania L. wild-rice Z. palustris L., wild-rice var. interior (Fassett) Dore, interior wild-rice [IA, Man, MN, NE] Z. aquatica L. misapplied – A, F SYN = Z. aquatica L. var. interior Fassett SYN = Z. interior (Fassett) Rydb. var. palustris, northern wild-rice [IA, Man, MN, ND, SD] Z. aquatica L. misapplied – A, F

Polemoniaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the polemonium family Collomia Nutt., collomia C. linearis Nutt., narrow-leaf collomia [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] Gilia Ruiz & Pav., gilia G. inconspicua (Sm.) Sweet, floccose gilia, shy gilia

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var. inconspicua [CO] SYN = G. opthalmoides Brand G. pinnatifida Nutt. ex A. Gray, sticky gilia, Maryvale gilia [CO, KS, NE, NM, WY] SYN = Aliciella pinnatifida (Nutt. ex A. Gray) J.M. Porter G. calcarea M.E. Jones misapplied – A G. rigidula Benth., stiff gilia subsp. acerosa (A. Gray) Wherry [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = G. acerosa (A. Gray) Britton SYN = Giliastrum acerosum (A. Gray) Rydb. SYN = Giliastrum rigidulum Benth. subsp. acerosa (A. Gray) W.A. Weber Ipomopsis Michx., ipomopsis I. aggregata (Pursh) V.E. Grant, scarlet ipomopsis, sky-rocket ipomopsis subsp. candida (Rydb.) V.E. Grant & A. Grant [CO, NM] subsp. collina (Greene) Wilken & Allred [CO] I. congesta (Hook.) V.E. Grant, ball-head ipomopsis subsp. congesta [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Gilia congesta Hook. SYN = Gilia iberidifolia Benth. subsp. pseudotypica (Constance & Rollins) A.G. Day [endemic: SD, WY] I. laxiflora (J.M. Coult.) V.E. Grant, nodding ipomopsis [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Gilia laxifolia (J.M. Coult.) Osterh. I. longiflora (Torr.) V.E. Grant, long-flower ipomopsis subsp. longiflora [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Gilia longiflora (Torr.) G. Don I. pumila (Nutt.) V.E. Grant, dwarf ipomopsis [NE, WY] SYN = G. pumila Nutt. I. rubra (L.) Wherry, standing-cypress, Texasplume [OK] SYN = G. coronopifolia Pers. SYN = Gilia rubra (L.) A. Heller I. spicata (Nutt.) V.E. Grant, spike ipomopsis subsp. spicata [CO, KS, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = Gilia spicata Nutt. – A Leptodactylon Hook. & Arn., leptodactylon L. caespitosum Nutt., mat leptodactylon [CO, NE, WY] L. pungens (Torr.) Nutt., spiny leptodactylon [CO, WY] L. watsonii (A. Gray) Rydb., Watson’s leptodactylon [CO] Linanthus Benth., linanthus L. septentrionalis H. Mason, northern linanthus [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] Microsteris Greene, dwarf-phlox M. gracilis (Hook.) Greene, dwarf-phlox var. humilior (Hook.) Cronquist [CO, MT, NE, SD, WY] SYN = M. gracilis (Hook.) Greene subsp. humilis (Greene) Brand SYN = M. humilior (Douglas) Greene SYN = M. micrantha (Kellogg) Greene Navarretia Ruiz & Pav., navarretia N. intertexta (Benth.) Hook., Great Basin navarretia subsp. propinqua (Suksd.) A.G. Day [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = N. intertexta (Benth.) Hook. var. propinqua (Suksd.) Brand – A, F N. leucocephala Benth., white-head navarretia subsp. minima (Nutt.) A.G. Day , least navarretia [Alb, *CO, Sas] SYN = N. minima Nutt. – F Phlox L., phlox P. alyssifolia Greene, alyssum-leaf phlox [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. alyssifolia Greene subsp. abdita (A. Nelson) Wherry – F SYN = P. alyssifolia Greene subsp. alyssifolia – F P. divaricata L., blue phlox, sweet-William phlox subsp. laphamii (A.W. Wood) Wherry [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] P. drummondii Hook., Drummond’s phlox Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. mcallisteri (Whitehouse) Wherry [OK] P. hoodii Richardson, carpet phlox, Hood’s phlox subsp. glabrata (E.E. Nelson) Wherry [Alb, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] subsp. hoodii [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] P. kelseyi Britton, Kelsey’s phlox subsp. kelseyi [WY] P. longipilosa Waterf., long-hair phlox [endemic: OK] SYN = P. pilosa L. var. longipilosa R.J. Taylor & C.E.S. Taylor P. muscoides Nutt., moss phlox [CO, MT, NE, WY] SYN = P. bryoides Nutt. SYN = P. hoodii Richardson subsp. muscoides (Nutt.) Wherry P. oklahomensis Wherry, Oklahoma phlox [largely endemic: KS, OK] P. paniculata L., summer phlox [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] P. pilosa L., prairie phlox subsp. fulgida (Wherry) Wherry [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] subsp. ozarkana (Wherry) Wherry [MO, OK] subsp. pilosa [IA, KS, MO, OK] subsp. pulcherrima Lundell [MO] P. planitiarum A. Nelson, Great Plains phlox [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = P. andicola Nutt. ex A. Gray subsp. andicola SYN = P. andicola Nutt. ex A. Gray subsp. planitiarum (A. Nelson) Wherry SYN = P. andicola Nutt. ex A. Gray subsp. parvula Wherry Polemonium L., skypilot, polemonium P. brandegei (A. Gray) Greene, pale skypilot [SD, WY] SYN = P. viscosum Nutt. subsp. mellitum (A. Gray) J.F. Davidson P. reptans L., creeping polemonium, Jacob’s-ladder [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

Polygalaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the milkwort family Polygala L., milkwort P. alba Nutt., white milkwort [CO, IA, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] P. incarnata L., slender milkwort [KS, MO, OK] P. lindheimeri A. Gray, Lindheimer’s milkwort var. parvifolia Wheelock [OK, TX] SYN = P. tweedyi Britton ex Wheelock – A, F P. sanguinea L., blood milkwort [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. viridescens L. P. senega L., Seneca snake-root milkwort [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = P. senega L. var. latifolia Torr. & A. Gray – F P. verticillata L., whorled milkwort [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. verticillata L. var. isocycla Fernald – F SYN = P. verticillata L. var. sphenostachya Pennell

Polygonaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the buckwheat family Eriogonum Michx., wild-buckwheat E. alatum Torr., winged wild-buckwheat var. alatum [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, TX, WY] SYN = Pterogonum alatum (Torr.) H. Gross var. glabriusculum Torr. [NM, OK, TX] E. annuum Nutt., annual wild-buckwheat [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] E. brevicaule Nutt., short-stem wild-buckwheat var. brevicaule [MT, WY] SYN = E. campanulatum Nutt. E. cernuum Nutt., nodding wild-buckwheat var. cernuum [Alb, CO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] E. correllii Reveal, Correll's wild-buckwheat [endemic: OK, TX] E. effusum Nutt., Great Plains wild-buckwheat var. effusum [CO, NE, SD, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = E. microthecum Nutt. var. effusum (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray SYN = E. pauciflorum Pursh var. nebraskense (Rydb.) Reveal – F var. rosmarinoides Benth. [endemic: KS] SYN = E. helichrysoides Gand. ex Rydb. E. exilifolium Reveal, slender-leaf wild-buckwheat [WY] E. flavum Nutt., yellow wild-buckwheat var. flavum [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = E. flavum Nutt. var. crassifolium (Benth.) Benth. – F E. gordonii Benth., Gordon's wild-buckwheat [ND, NE, SD, WY] E. jamesii Benth. James' wild-buckwheat var. jamesii [CO, NM, OK, TX, WY] var. simplex Gand. [endemic: KS] E. lachnogynum Torr. ex Benth., woolly-cup wild-buckwheat [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] E. lagopus Rydb., hare’s-foot wild-buckwheat [MT] SYN - E. brevicaule Nutt. var. canum (S. Stokes) Dorn SYN = E. pauciflorum Pursh var. canum (S. Stokes) Reveal – F E. lonchophyllum Torr. & A. Gray, spear-leaf wild-buckwheat var. fendlerianum (Benth.) Reveal [CO, NM] SYN = E. fendlerianum (Benth.) Small SYN = E. effusum Nutt. subsp. fendlerianum S. Stokes – F E. longifolium Nutt., lance-leaf wild-buckwheat var. longifolium [KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = E. longifolium Nutt. var. lindheimeri Gand. – A, F E. ovalifolium Nutt., cushion wild-buckweat var. ovalifolium [WY] var. purpureum (Nutt.) T. Durand [WY] E. pauciflorum Pursh, few-flower wild-buckwheat var. gnaphalodes (Benth.) Reveal [CO, NE, WY] var. pauciflorum [Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] E. tenellum Torr., matted wild-buckwheat var. tenellum [CO, NM, OK, TX] E. umbellatum Torr., sulfur wild-buckwheat var. majus Hook. [WY] var. umbellatum [WY] E. visheri A. Nelson, Visher's wild-buckwheat [endemic: ND, SD] Fagopyrum Mill., nom. conserv., buckwheat *F. esculentum Moench, common buckwheat [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] Polygonella Michx., jointweed P. americana (Fisch. & C.A. Mey.) Small, southern jointweed [TX] Polygonum L., nom. conserv., knotweed, smartweed, cornbind, tearthumb, bistort P. achoreum S.F. Blake, leathery knotweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. erectum L. subsp. achoreum (S.F. Blake) Á. Löve & D. Löve P. amphibium L. var. emersum Michx., swamp smartweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray var. emersa (Michx.) J.C. Hickman SYN = Persicaria coccinea (Muhl.) Greene SYN = Persicaria iowensis Rydb. SYN = Persicaria pratincola Greene SYN = Persicaria rigidula (E. Sheld.) Greene SYN = Persicaria vestita Greene SYN = P. coccineum Muhl. – A SYN = P. coccineum Muhl. var. pratincola (Greene) Stanford SYN = P. rigidula E. Sheld. var. stipulaceum N. Coleman, water smartweed [Alb, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Persicaria amphibia (L.) Gray var. stipulacea (N. Coleman) H. Hara SYN = Persicaria mesochora Greene SYN = Persicaria nebraskensis Greene Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Persicaria psycrophila Greene SYN = Polygnum fluitans Eaton SYN = Polygonum hartwrightii A. Gray SYN = Polygonum natans Eaton *P. arenastrum Boreau, sand knotweed, doorweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] *P. aviculare L., prostrate knotweed [Alb, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] *P. bellardii All., neglected knotweed [Alb, KS, MO, SD, WY] SYN = P. neglectum Besser – A, F P. bicorne Raf., pink smartweed [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Persicaria bicornis (Raf.) Nieuwl. SYN = Persicaria longistyla (Small) Small SYN = P. longistylum Small P. bistortoides Pursh, American bistort [Alb] SYN = Persicaria bistortoides (Pursh) H. Hinds P. buxiforme Small, box knotweed [KS, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] *P. cespitosum Blume, Asian smartweed var. longisetum (Bruijn) Steward [IA, KS, NE] P. convolvulus L., dull-seed cornbind [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Bilderdykia convolvulus (L. Dumort. SYN = Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve SYN = Reynoutria convolvulus (L.) Shinners SYN = Tiniaria convolvulus (L.) Webb & Moq. *P. cuspidatum Siebold & Zucc., Japanese knotweed, Japanese fleeceflower [KS, MO, NE] P. densiflorum Meisn., stout smartweed, dense-flower smartweed [KS] P. douglasii Greene, Douglas’ knotweed subsp. douglasii [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. douglasii Greene var. latifolium (Engelm.) Greene subsp. johnstonii (Munz) J.C. Hickman [CO, NE, NM, SD, WY] SYN = P. sawatchense Small – A, F SYN = P. triandrous Coolidge P. erectum L., erect knotweed [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] *P. hydropiper L., water-pepper smartweed, marsh-pepper smartweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Opiz P. hydropiperoides Michx., mild water-pepper smartweed [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Persicaria hydropiperoides (Michx.) Small SYN = P. hydropiperoides Michx. var. bushianum Stanford SYN = P. hydropiperoides Michx. var. persicarioides Stanford – F SYN = P. opelousanum Riddell ex Small SYN = P. persicarioides Kunth – A SYN = P. setaceum (Baldwin) Small P. lapathifolium L., pale smartweed, dock-leaf smartweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Persicaria lapathifolia (L.) Gray SYN = P. tomentosum Schrank P. leptocarpum B.L. Rob., slim-fruit knotweed [KS, MT, SD] *P. orientale L., kiss-me-over-the-garden-gate, prince’s-plume smartweed [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = Persicaria orientale (L.) Spach P. pensylvanicum L., Pennsylvania smartweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez SYN = P. omissa Greene *P. persicaria L., lady's-thumb smartweed, spotted smartweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Persicaria maculata (Raf.) Gray P. polygaloides Meisn., milkwort knotweed subsp. confertiflorum (Nutt. ex Piper) J.C. Hickman [Sas, WY] SYN = P. confertiflorum Nutt. ex Piper SYN = P. kelloggii Greene var. confertiflorum (Nutt. ex Piper) Dorn P. punctatum Elliott, dotted smartweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Persicaria punctata (Elliott) Small P. ramosissimum Michx., bushy knotweed var. prolificum Small [CO, KS, ND, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. prolificum (Small) B.L. Rob. var. ramosissimum [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = P. exsertum Small SYN = P. latum Small ex Rydb. P. sagittatum L., arrow-leaf tearthumb [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Tracaulon sagittatum (L.) Small SYN = Truellum sagittatum (L.) Soják P. scandens L., hedge cornbind [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Bilderdykia dumetorum (L.) Dumort. SYN = Bilderdykia scandens (L.) Greene SYN = P. scandens L. var. dumetorum (L.) Gleason – F SYN = P. scandens L. var. scandens – F SYN = Reynoutria scandens (L.) Shinners SYN = Reynoutria scandens (L.) Shinners var. dumetorum (L.) Shinners SYN = Tiniaria scandens (L.) Small P. tenue Michx., pleat-leaf knotweed, slim knotweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] P. virginianum L., jumpseed, Virginia smartweed [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf. SYN = Tovara virginiana (L.) Raf. var. glaberrima Fernald P. viviparum L., alpine bistort [Alb, SD, WY] SYN = Bistorta vivipara (L.) Gray Rheum L., rhubarb *R. rhaponticum L., garden rhubarb [KS, Sas, WY] R. rhabarbarum L. misapplied – F Rumex L., dock, sorrel *R. acetosella L., sheep sorrel [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Acetosella vulgaris (K. Koch) Fourr. R. altissimus A.W. Wood, pale dock [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] R. aquaticus L., western dock, pond dock var. fenestratus (Greene) Dorn [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. occidentalis S. Watson – A, F *R. crispus L., curly dock [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] *R. cristatus DC., crested dock [KS] R. hastatulus Baldwin, heart-wing sorrel [KS, MO, OK] R. hymenosepalus Torr., wild-rhubarb, canaigre [NM, OK, TX] *R. longifolius DC., long-leaf dock, yard dock [MN, ND, SD] SYN = R. domesticus Hartm. – A, F R. maritimus L., golden dock [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. maritimus L. subsp. fueginus (Phil.) Hultén SYN = R. maritimus L. var. fueginus (Phil.) Dusén – A, F SYN = R. persicarioides L. *R. obtusifolius L., bitter dock [IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK] R. orbiculatus A. Gray, great water dock var. orbiculatus [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD] *R. patientia L., patience dock [IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] R. paucifolius Nutt., few-leaf dock var. paucifolius [MT] R. salicifolius Weinm., willow dock var. denticulatus Torr. [WY] SYN = R. utahensis Rech. f. var. mexicanus (Meisn.) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. mexicanus Meisn. – A, F SYN = R. triangulivalvis (Danser) Rech. f. *R. stenophyllus Ledeb., narrow-leaf dock [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. alluvius F.C. Gates & McGregor Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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R. venosus Pursh, wild-begonia, veiny dock [Alb, CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] R. verticillatus L., water dock, swamp dock [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE]

Pontederiaceae Kunth, nom. conserv., the pickerel-weed family Eichhornia Kunth, nom. conserv., water-hyacinth *E. crassipes (Martius) Solms-Laub., water-hyacinth [KS] Heteranthera Ruiz & Pav., mud-plantain H. dubia (Jacq.) MacMill., star-grass mud-plantain, water mud-plantain [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Zosterella dubia (Jacq.) Small – F H. limosa (Sw.) Willd., blue mud-plantain [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] H. mexicana S. Watson, Mexican mud-plantain [TX] SYN = Eurystemon mexicanus (S. Watson) Alexander – A H. multiflora (Griseb.) C.N. Horn, many-flower mud-plantain [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = H. reniformis Ruiz & Pav. var. multiflora Griseb. H. peduncularis Benth. misapplied – F H. reniformis Ruiz & Pav. misapplied – A H. rotundifolia (Kunth) Griseb., round-leaf mud-plantain [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] Pontederia L., pickerel-weed P. cordata L., heart-leaf pickerel-weed, common pickerel-weed [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. cordata L. var. lancifolia (Muhl.) Torr.

Portulacaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the purslane family Claytonia L., springbeauty C. lanceolata Pursh, lance-leaf springbeauty var. lanceolata [Alb, Sas] C. rubra (Howell) Tidestr., red springbeauty subsp. rubra [WY] C. virginica L., Virginia springbeauty [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = C. robusta (Somes) Rydb. Lewisia Pursh, bitter-root, lewisia L. pygmaea (A. Gray) B.L. Rob., alpine bitter-root, dwarf lewisia [WY] L. rediviva Pursh, resurrection bitter-root var. rediviva [WY] Montia L., miner’s-lettuce M. linearis (Douglas ex Hook.) Greene, slender-leaf miner’s-lettuce [Sas] Portulaca L., purslane *P. grandiflora L., moss-rose purslane [NE] P. halimoides L., slender-leaf purslane, sinker-leaf purslane [CO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. parvula A. Gray – A, F *P. oleracea L., common purslane [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. neglecta Mack. & Bush SYN = P. retusa Engelm. – A, F P. pilosa L., hairy purslane, shaggy purslane [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. mundula I.M. Johnst. – A, F P. umbraticola Kunth, wing-pod purslane subsp. lanceolata (Engelm.) J.F. Matthews & Ketron [OK, TX] SYN = P. lanceolata Engelm. Talinum Adans., nom. conserv., fameflower T. aurantiacum Engelm., orange fameflower [TX] T. calycinum Engelm., rock-pink fameflower [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] T. parviflorum Nutt., prairie fameflower [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] T. rugospermum Holz., rough-seed fameflower [KS, NE]

Potamogetonaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the pondweed family Potamogeton L., pondweed (see also Stuckenia) P. alpinus Balb., alpine pondweed [SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = P. alpinus Balb. var. tenuifolius (Raf.) Odgen P. amplifolius Tuck., large-leaf pondweed [IA, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, OK, SD] *P. crispus L., curly pondweed, curly muckweed [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] P. diversifolius Raf., water-thread pondweed [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] P. epihydrus Raf., ribbon-leaf pondweed [IA, SD, WY] SYN = P. epihydrus Raf. var. nuttallii (Cham. & Schltdl.) Fernald P. foliosus Raf., leafy pondweed subsp. foliosus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. foliosus Raf. var. macellus Fernald P. friesii Rupr., Fries’ pondweed [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] P. gramineus L., variable pondweed, grassy pondweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. gramineus L. var. maximus Morong SYN = P. gramineus L. var. myriophyllus J.W. Robbins P. heterophyllus Schreb. misapplied - Rydberg P. illinoensis Morong, Illinois pondweed [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = P. angustifolius Bercht. & C. Presl P. lucens L. misapplied - Rydberg P. natans L., floating-leaf pondweed [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] P. nodosus Poir., long-leaf pondweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = P. americanus Cham. & Schltdl. P. obtusifolius Mert. & W.D.J. Koch, blunt-leaf pondweed [Alb, MN] P. perfoliatus L., perfoliate pondweed [SD] P. praelongus Wulfen, white-stem pondweed [IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD] P. pusillus L., baby pondweed, small pondweed subsp. pusillus [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. panormitanus Biv. SYN = P. panormitanus Biv. var. major G. Fisch. SYN = P. panormitanus Biv. var. minor Biv. SYN = P. pusillus L. var. pusillus – A, F SYN = P. pusillus L. var. minor (Biv.) Fernald & B.G. Schub. subsp. tenuissimus (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) R.R. Haynes & Hellq. [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, OK, Sas, WY] SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber subsp. tenuissimus (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) Calder & Roy L. Taylor SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber var. acuminatus Fieber SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber var. colpophilus (Fernald) Fernald SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber var. lacunatus (Hagstr.) Fernald SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber var. polyphyllus (Morong) Fernald SYN = P. berchtoldii Fieber var. tenuissimus (Mert. & W.D.J. Koch) Fernald SYN = P. pusillus L. var. colpophilus Fernald SYN = P. pusillus L. var. cuspidatus G. Fisch. SYN = P. pusillus L. var. lacunatus (Hagstr.) Fernald SYN = P. pusillus L. var. polyphyllus Morong SYN = P. pusillus L. var. tenuissimus Mert. & W.D.J. Koch – A, F P. richardsonii (A. Benn.) Rydb., clasping-leaf pondweed, Richardson’s pondweed [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] P. spirillus Tuck., northern snail-seed pondweed [ND] P. strictifolius A. Benn., narrow-leaf pondweed [IA, MN, ND, NE, Sas] P. rutilus Wolfg. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = P. strictifolius A. Benn. var. rutiloides Fernald P. zosteriformis Fernald, flat-stem pondweed [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] P. compressus L. misapplied - Rydberg Stuckenia Börner, pondweed S. filiformis (Pers.) Börner, thread-leaf pondweed, slender pondweed, fine-leaf pondweed subsp. alpinus (Blytt) R.R. Haynes, Les & M. Král [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = Coleogeton filiformis (Pers.) Les & R.R. Haynes subsp. alpinus (Blytt) Les & Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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R.R. Haynes Potamogeton filiformis Pers. pro parte – A, F SYN = Potamogeton filiformis Pers. var. borealis (Raf.) H. St. John SYN = Potamogeton filiformis Pers. var. macounii Morong subsp. occidentalis (J.W. Robbins) R.R. Haynes, Les & M. Král [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, WY] SYN = Coleogeton filiformis (Pers.) Les & R.R. Haynes subsp. occidentalis (J.W. Robbins) Les & R.R. Haynes Potamogeton filiformis Pers. pro parte – A, F SYN = P. interior Rydb. S. pectinata (L.) Börner, sago pondweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Coleogeton pectinatus (L.) Les & R.R. Haynes SYN = Potamogeton pectinatus L. – A, F S. vaginata (Turcz.) Holub, big-sheath pondweed, sheathed pondweed [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Coleogeton vaginatus (Turcz.) Les & R.R. Haynes SYN = Potamogeton interruptus Kit. SYN = Potamogeton moniliformis H. St. John SYN = Potamogeton vaginatus Turcz. – A, F

Primulaceae Vent., nom. conserv., the primrose family Anagallis L., pimpernel, poor-man's-weatherglass *A. arvensis L., scarlet pimpernel, poor-man's-weatherglass [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK] A. minima (L.) E.H.L. Krause, little pimpernel, common pimpernel, chaffweed [Alb, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Centunculus minimus L. – A, F Androsace L., rock-jasmine A. filiformis Retz., slender rock-jasmine [WY] A. occidentalis Pursh, western rock-jasmine [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = A. simplex Rydb. A. septentrionalis L., northern rock-jasmine [Alb, CO, MN, ND, NM, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. septentrionalis L. subsp. puberulenta (Rydb.) G.T. Robbins SYN = A. septentrionalis L. subsp. subulifera (A. Gray) G.T. Robbins SYN = A. puberulenta Rydb. Centunculus L. (see Anagallis) Dodecatheon L., shootingstar D. conjugens Greene, northwestern shootingstar subsp. conjugens [Alb, Sas] D. meadia L., prairie shootingstar, common shootingstar subsp. brachycarpum (Small) R. Knuth [MO, OK] SYN = D. meadia L. var. brachycarpum (Small) Fassett – F subsp. meadia [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = D. meadia L. var. meadia – F D. pulchellum (Raf.) Merr., northern shootingstar subsp. pulchellum var. pulchellum [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = D. pauciflorum Greene – A SYN = D. radicatum Greene SYN = D. salinum A. Nelson SYN = D. thornense Lunell Glaux L., sea-milkwort G. maritima L., sea-milkwort [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas] Lysimachia L., loosestrife L. ciliata L., fringed loosestrife [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Steironema ciliatum (L.) Baudo SYN = Steironema longipedicellatum (Lunell) Lunell SYN = Steironema membranaceum Greene

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SYN = Steironema pumilum Greene SYN = Steironema pumilum Greene var. longipedicellatum Lunell L. hybrida Michx., lowland loosestrife [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = Steironema hybridum (Michx.) Raf. ex B.D. Jacks. SYN = Steironema lunellii Greene SYN = Steironema verticillatum Greene SYN = Steironema verticillatum Greene var. monstrosum Lunell L. lanceolata Walter, lance-leaf loosestrife [MO, OK] *L. nummularia L., moneywort, creeping-Jennie [KS, MO, NE] *L. punctata L., garden loosestrife, spotted loosestrife [NE] L. quadriflora Sims, whorled loosestrife, smooth loosestrife [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = L. longifolia Pursh SYN = Steironema quadriflorum (Sims) Hitchc. L. thyrsiflora L., tufted loosestrife, swamp loosestrife [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = Naumburgia thyrsiflora (L.) Duby L. tonsa (A.W. Wood) A.W. Wood ex Pax & R. Knuth, Appalachian loosestrife [MO] Primula L., primrose P. incana M.E. Jones, hoary primrose [Alb, ND, MT, Sas] P. mistassinica Michx., bird’s-eye primrose [MN] Samolus L., water-pimpernel S. ebracteatus Kunth, bractless water-pimpernel [KS, OK, TX] var. cuneatus (Small) Henr. SYN = S. cuneata Small – A SYN = S. ebracteatus Kunth subsp. cuneatus (Small) R. Knuth S. parviflorus Raf., small water-pimpernel [KS, MO, OK, TX] Trientalis L., starflower T. borealis Raf., American starflower [MN]

Pyrolaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the wintergreen family Chimaphila Pursh, pipsissewa C. umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton, common pipsissewa subsp. occidentalis (Rydb.) Hultén [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. occidentalis Rydb. SYN = C. umbellata (L.) W.P.C. Barton var. occidentalis (Rydb.) S.F Blake Moneses Salisb. ex Gray, waxflower, woodnymph M. uniflora (L.) A. Gray, waxflower, woodnymph [Alb, CO, MN, Sas, SD] SYN = Pyrola uniflora L. – A, F Orthilia Raf., wintergreen O. secunda (L.) House, side-bells wintergreen, one-side wintergreen [Alb, CO, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Pyrola secunda L. – A F Pyrola L., wintergreen (see also Moneses, Orthilia) P. asarifolia Michx., round-leaf wintergreen, alpine wintergreen subsp. asarifolia [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] as P. rotundifolia L. pro parte – A, F SYN = P. uliginosa Torr. & A. Gray ex Torr. P. chlorantha Sw., green wintergreen [Alb, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. virens Schreb. – A, F P. elliptica Nutt., wax-leaf wintergreen, shinleaf [Alb, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] P. minor L., lesser wintergreen, snowline wintergreen [Alb, Sas] P. picta Sm., variegated wintergreen, white-vein wintergreen [SD, WY]

Rafflesiaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the rafflesia family Pilostyles Guill., pilostyles P. thurberi A. Gray, Thurber’s pilostyles [TX]

Ranunculaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the buttercup family Aconitum L., monkshood Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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A. columbianum Nutt., Columbia monkshood subsp. columbianum [CO, NM, SD, WY] SYN = A. porrectum Rydb. SYN = A. ramosum A. Nelson SYN = A. tenue Rydb. Actaea L., baneberry A. pachypoda Elliott, white baneberry, doll’s-eyes [IA, KS, MO, NE] SYN = A. alba (L.) Mill. - A, F SYN = A. brachypoda Elliott A. rubra (Aiton) Willd., red baneberry [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. arguta Nutt. SYN = A. rubra (Aiton) Willd. subsp. arguta (Nutt.) Hultén Anemone L., anemone, hepatica, windflower A. acutiloba (DC.) G. Lawson, sharp-lobe hepatica [IA, MN] SYN = Hepatica acutiloba DC. A. americana (DC.) H. Hara, round-lobe hepatica [Man, MN] SYN = Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl. A. berlandieri Pritz., ten-petal anemone [KS, OK, TX] A. decapetala Ard. misapplied – A SYN = A. heterophylla Nutt. – A A. canadensis L., Canadian anemone, meadow anemone [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] A. caroliniana Walter, Carolina anemone [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] A. cylindrica A. Gray, candle anemone, long-head anemone [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] A. multifida Poir., cut-leaf anemone var. multifida [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. globosa (Torr. & A. Gray) Nutt. ex Pritz. SYN = A. hudsoniana (DC.) Richardson SYN = A. multifida Poir. var. globosa Torr. & A. Gray SYN = A. multifida Poir. var. hudsoniana DC. SYN = A. multifida Poir. var. richardsoniana Fernald SYN = A. multifida Poir. var. sansonii B. Boivin var. saxicola B. Boivin [MT] SYN = A. multifida Poir. subsp. saxicola (B. Boivin) W.A. Weber A. patens L., pasqueflower var. multifida Pritz. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Pulsatilla ludoviciana (Nutt.) A. Heller SYN = Pulsatilla nuttalliana (DC.) Spreng. SYN = Pulsatilla patens (L.) Mill. subsp. multifida (Pritz.) Zämelis A. quinquefolia L., American wood anemone var. quinquefolia [IA, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD] SYN = A. quinquefolia L. var. bifolia Farw. SYN = A. quinquefolia L. var. interior Fernald A. virginiana L., tall anemone, Virginia anemone, thimbleweed var. alba (Oakes) A.W. Wood [MN] SYN = A. riparia Fernald var. cylindroidea B. Boivin [Man, Sas] var. virginiana [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Aquilegia L., columbine A. brevistyla Hook., short-style columbine, Yukon columbine [Man, Sas, SD, WY] A. canadensis L., American columbine [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = A. canadensis L. var. hybrida Hook. SYN = A. canadensis L. var. latiuscula (Greene) Munz SYN = A. latiuscula Greene *A. vulgaris L., European columbine [Man] Caltha L., marsh-marigold C. palustris L., common marsh-marigold, cowslip, kingcup [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = C. palustris L. var. flabellifolia (Pursh) Torr. & A. Gray SYN = C. palustris L. var. palustris SYN = C. palustris L. var. radicans (T.F. Forst.) Beck Cimicifuga Wernisch., bugbane C. racemosa (L.) Nutt., black bugbane [MO] Clematis L., clematis, leather-flower, virgin's-bower C. catesbyana Pursh, Catesby’s clematis [KS, MO, OK] C. columbiana (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, Rocky Mountian clematis var. tenuiloba (A. Gray) Pringle [MT, ND, SD, WY] SYN = Atragene tenuiloba (A. Gray) Britton C. pseudoalpina (Kuntze) A. Nelson misapplied – A, F SYN = C. tenuiloba A. Gray - A, F C. drummondii Torr. & A. Gray, Drummond’s clematis [OK, TX] C. fremontii S. Watson, Fremont's clematis, Fremont’s leather-flower [largely endemic: KS, MO, NE] SYN = Viorna fremontii (S. Watson) A. Heller C. hirsutissima Pursh, hairy clematis, hairy leather-flower var. hirsutissima [WY] SYN = Coriflora hirsutissima (Pursh) W.A. Weber var. scottii (Porter) R.O. Erickson, Scott’s clematis, Scott’s leather-flower [CO, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Coriflora scottii (Porter) W.A. Weber SYN = Viorna scottii (Porter) Rydb. C. ligusticifolia Nutt., western clematis, western virgin’s-bower [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] C. occidentalis (Hornem.) DC., purple clematis var. grosseserrata (Rydb.) Pringle [Alb, Sas] SYN = Atragene grosseserrata Rydb. C. verticillaris DC. var. columbiana (Nutt.) A. Gray misapplied C. pitcheri Torr. & A. Gray, Pitcher's clematis, Pitcher’s leather-flower var. pitcheri [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = C. pitcheri Torr. & A. Gray var. filifera (Benth.) B.L. Rob. ex A. Gray SYN = Coriflora pitcheri (Torr. & A. Gray) W.A. Weber SYN = Viorna pitcheri (Torr. & A. Gray) Britton *C. tangutica (Maxim.) Korsh., golden clematis var. tangutica [Alb, Man, Sas] *C. terniflora DC., sweet autumn clematis, yam-leaf clematis [KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = C. dioscoreifolia H. Lév. & Vaniot SYN = C. maximowicziana Franch. & Sav. – A C. virginiana L., Virginia clematis, Virginia virgin's-bower [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = C. missouriensis Rydb. Consolida (DC.) A. Gray, larkspur *C. ajacis (L.) Schur, rocket larkspur [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. ambiguua (L.) P.W. Ball & Heywood SYN = Delphinium ajacis L. – A, F *C. orientalis (Gay) Schrödinger, oriental larkspur [KS] *C. pubescens (DC.) Soó, hairy larkspur [ND] Delphinium L., larkspur D. bicolor Nutt., little larkspur, flat-head larkspur subsp. bicolor [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] subsp. calcicola M.J. Warnock & Vanderhorst [largely endemic: MT] D. carolinianum Walter subsp. carolinianum, Carolina larkspur [KS, MO, OK] subsp. virescens (Nutt.) R.E. Brooks, plains larkspur [largely endemic: CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = D. carolinianum Walter subsp. penardii (Huth) M.J. Warnock SYN = D. penardii Huth SYN = D. virescens Nutt. – A SYN = D. virescens Nutt. subsp. penardii (Huth) Ewan – F D. geyeri Greene, Geyer’s larkspur [CO, NE, WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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D. glaucum S. Watson, mountain larkspur, tall larkspur [Sas] D. nuttallianum Pritz. ex Walp., Nuttall’s larkspur [CO, NE, WY] SYN = D. nelsonii Greene D. tricorne Michx., dwarf larkspur, rock larkspur [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] D. wootonii Rydb., Wooton’s lakspur [CO, NM, TX] SYN = D. virescens Nutt. subsp. wootonii (Rydb.) Ewan SYN = D. virescens Nutt. var. wootonii (Rydb.) Shinners Enemion Raf., rue-anemone E. biternatum Raf., false rue-anemone [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Isopyrum biternatum (Raf.) Torr. & A. Gray – A, F Hydrastis L., goldenseal H. canadensis L., Canadian goldenseal [MO] Myosurus L., mousetail M. apetalus Gay, northern mousetail var. borealis Whittem. [Alb, Sas] var. montanus (G.R. Campb.) Whittem. [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, WY] SYN = M. aristatus Benth. ex Hook. – A, F M. minimus L., tiny mousetail [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. lepturus (A. Gray) Howell Nigella L., love-in-a-mist *N. damascena L., Damascus love-in-a-mist [KS] Ranunculus L., buttercup, crowfoot, spearwort R. abortivus L., early wood buttercup, little-leaf buttercup [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. abortivus L. var. acrolasius Fernald R. acriformis A. Gray, sharp buttercup var. acriformis [WY] *R. acris L., tall buttercup var. acris [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD] R. aquatilis L., white water crowfoot var. diffusus With. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Batrachium divaricatum (Schrank) Wimm. SYN = Batrachium longirostre (Godr.) F.W. Schultz SYN = R. aquatilis L. var. capillaceus (Thuill.) DC. – A SYN = R. circinatus Sibth. var. subrigidus (W.B. Drew) L.D. Benson SYN = R. longirostris Godr. – A F SYN = R. subrigidus W.B. Drew – A, F *R. arvensis L., field buttercup, corn buttercup [KS] *R. bulbosus L., bulb buttercup [KS, NE] R. cardiophyllus Hook., heart-leaf buttercup [Alb, ND, Sas, SD] R. cymbalaria Pursh, shore buttercup [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Halerpestes cymbalaria (Pursh) Greene SYN = Halerpestes cymbalaria (Pursh) Greene subsp. saximontana (Fernald) Moldenke SYN = R. cymbalaria Pursh var. saximontanus Fernald R. fascicularis Muhl. ex Bigelow, early buttercup, tufted buttercup [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = R. fascicularis Muhl. ex Bigelow var. apricus (Greene) Fernald R. flabellaris Raf., thread-leaf buttercup [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = R. delphiniifolius Torr. ex Eaton R. flammula L., spearwort var. ovalis (Bigelow) L. Benson [Alb, Man, ND, Sas] SYN = R. reptans L. var. ovalis (Bigelow) Torr. & A. Gray R. glaberrimus Hook., sage-brush buttercup var. ellipticus Greene [Alb, Man, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. waldronii Lunell var. glaberrimus [SD] R. gmelinii DC., small yellow buttercup [Alb, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas] SYN = R. gmelinii DC. var. hookeri (D. Don) L.D. Benson – F Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = R. gmelinii DC. var. limosa (Nutt.) H. Hara – F SYN = R. limosa Nutt. SYN = R. purshii Richardson SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. dissectus Lunell SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. geranioidess Lunell SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. polymorphus Lunell SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. prolifcus (Fernald) H. Hara SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. radicans Lunell SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. schizanthus Lunell SYN = R. purshii Richardson var. terrestris (Ledeb.) L.D. Benson R. hispidus Michx., bristly buttercup var. caricetorum (Greene) T. Duncan [IA, Man, MN, MO, ND, SD] SYN = R. caricetorum Greene SYN = R. septentrionalis Poir. var. caricetorum (Greene) Fernald var. hispidus [KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. hispidus Michx. var. falsus Fernald SYN = R. hispidus Michx. var. marilandicus (Poir.) L.D. Benson var. nitidus (Elliott) T. Duncan [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = R. septentrionalis Poir. – A SYN = R. septentrionalis Poir. var. pterocarpus L.D. Benson R. hyperboreus Rottb., arctic buttercup var. hyperboreus [WY] SYN = R. natans C.A. Mey. var. intertextus (Greene) L.D. Benson R. inamoenus Greene, graceful buttercup var. imanoenus [Alb, CO, NE, Sas, SD, WY] R. laxicaulis Darby, water-plantain spearwort [KS, MO] SYN = R. texensis Engelm. R. macounii Britton, Macoun's buttercup [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. rivularis Rydb. R. micranthus Nutt., small-flower buttercup [KS, MO, OK] R. pedatifidus Sm., bird-foot buttercup var. affinis (R. Br.) L.D. Benson [Alb, Sas] R. pensylvanicus L.f., Pennsylvania buttercup [CO, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] R. recurvatus Poir., eastern hooked buttercup var. recurvatus [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK] *R. repens L., creeping buttercup [Alb, MO, NE, SD] SYN = R. repens L. var. degeneratus Schur R. rhomboideus Goldie, prairie buttercup [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = R. ovalis Raf. *R. sardous Crantz, hairy buttercup [KS] R. sceleratus L., cursed crowfoot, blister buttercup var. multifidus Nutt. [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] var. sceleratus [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = Hecatonia scelerata (L.) Fourr. *R. testiculatus Crantz, bur buttercup, horn-seed buttercup [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Ceratocephala orthoceras DC. SYN = Ceratocephala testiculata (Crantz) Roth R. uncinatus D. Don ex G. Don, western hooked buttercup var. uncinatus [WY] Thalictrum L., meadow-rue T. dasycarpum Fisch. & Avé-Lall., purple meadow-rue [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = T. dasycarpum Fisch. & Avé-Lall. var. hypoglaucum (Rydb.) B. Boivin SYN = T. hypoglaucum Rydb. T. dioicum L., early meadow-rue, quicksilver-weed [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, SD] T. fenderli Engelm. ex A. Gray, Fendler’s meadow-rue [SD, WY] T. occidentale A. Gray, western meadow-rue [Alb, ND, Sas, WY] SYN = T. occidentale A. Gray var. palousense H. St. John Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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T. revolutum DC., skunk meadow-rue [CO, MO, OK, SD, WY] T. sparsiflorum Turcz. ex Fisch. & C.A. Mey., mountain meadow-rue [MT] T. thalictroides (L.) A.J. Eames & B. Boivin, common meadow-rue, rue-anemone [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach – A, F SYN = Syndesmon thalictroides (L.) Hoffmanns. ex Britton T. venulosum Trel., veiny meadow-rue [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = T. lunelii Greene SYN = T. nigromontanum B. Boivin

Resedaceae DC. ex Gray, the mignonette family Reseda L., mignonette *R. lutea L., yellow mignonette [NE] *R. luteola L., weld mignonette, dyer’s-rocket [IA]

Rhamnaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the buckthorn family Ceanothus L., ceanothus C. americanus L., American ceanothus New Jersey-tea [Alb, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = C. americanus L. var. pitcheri Torr. & A. Gray - A, F C. fendleri A. Gray, Fendler’s ceanothus, deer-brier [CO, SD, TX, WY] C. herbaceus Raf., inland ceanothus [CO, IA, KS, Man, MO, MT, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. herbaceus Raf. var. pubescens (Torr. & A. Gray ex S. Watson) Shinners – A, F SYN = C. ovatus Desf. misapplied SYN = C. pubescens (Torr. & A. Gray ex S. Watson) Rydb. C. velutinus Douglas ex Hook., snow-brush ceanothus, mountain-balm var. velutinus [CO, SD, WY] Rhamnus L. buckthorn R. alnifolia L'Hér., alder buckthorn, American alder buckthorn [MN, ND, SD, WY] R. caroliniana Walter, Carolina buchthorn [MO] SYN = F. caroliniana (Walter) A. Gray *R. cathartica L., common buckthorn [KS, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] *R. citrifolia (Weston) W.J. Hess & Stearn, Dahurian buckthorn [ND, NE, SD] SYN = R. davurica Pall. var. davurica – A F SYN = R. davurica Pall. var. nipponica (Makino) W.J. Hess & Stearn – F *R. frangula L., glossy buckthorn, European alder buckthorn [NE, WY] SYN = Frangula alnus Mill. R. lanceolata Pursh, lance-leaf buckthorn var. glabratus Gleason [IA, KS, MO, NE, SD] SYN = R. lanceolata Pursh subsp. glabratus (Gleason) Kartesz & Gandhi Ziziphus Mill., jujube Z. obtusifolia (Torr. & A. Gray) A. Gray, lote-wood jujube, gumdrop tree var. obtusifolia [NM, OK, TX]

Rosaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the rose family Agrimonia L., agrimony A. gryposepala Wallr., hooked agrimony [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] A. parviflora Aiton, small-flower agrimony [IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] A. pubescens Wallr., downy agrimony [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] A. rostellata Wallr., woodland agrimony [KS, MO, NE] A. striata Michx., roadside agrimony [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Amelanchier Medik., service-berry, juneberry, shadbush A. alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem., Saskatoon service-berry, western service-berry var. alnifolia [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = A. alnifolia (Nutt.) Nutt. ex M. Roem. var. dakotensis E.L. Nielsen SYN = A. carrii Rydb. SYN = A. leptodendron Lunell SYN = A. macrocarpa Lunell A. arborea (F. Michx.) Fernald, downy service-berry Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. arborea [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] A. humilis Wiegand, low service-berry [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, SD] SYN = A. humilis Wiegand var. campestris E.L. Nielsen SYN = A. humilis Wiegand var. compacta E.L. Nielsen SYN = A. humilis Wiegand var. exserrata E.L. Nielsen SYN = A. sanguinea (Pursh) DC. – A Cercocarpus Kunth, mountain-mahogany C. montanus Raf., alder-leaf mountain-mahogany, birch-leaf mountain-mahogany var. argenteus (Rydb.) F.L. Martin [CO, NM, TX] var. montanus [CO, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] Chamaerhodos Bunge, ground-rose, chamaerhodos C. erecta (L.) Bunge, little ground-rose, American chamaerhodos var. parviflora (Nutt.) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. erecta (L.) Bunge subsp. nuttallii (Pickering ex Torr. & A. Gray) Hultén SYN = C. nuttallii (Pickering ex Torr. ex A. Gray) Rydb. Crataegus L., hawthorn C. berberifolia Torr. & A. Gray, barberry-leaf hawthorn [KS, MO] C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik., pear hawthorn [KS, MN, MO] SYN = C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik. var. globosa (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik. var. hispidula (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. calpodendron (Ehrh.) Medik. var. obesa (Ashe) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. globosa Sarg. C. chrysocarpa Ashe, fire-berry hawthorn, northern hawthorn var. chrysocarpa [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. faxonii Sarg. var. faxonii SYN = C. faxonii Sarg. var. praetermissa (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. laurentiana Sarg. var. brunetiana (Sarg.) Kruschke SYN = C. rotundifolia Moench – F C. coccinioides Ashe, Kansas hawthorn [KS, MO] C. collina Chapm., sandhill hawthorn [KS, MO] C. crus-galli L., cock-spur hawthorn [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. crus-gallii L. var. barrettiana (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. crus-gallii L. var. pyracanthifolia Aiton SYN = C. hannibalensis E.J. Palmer SYN = C. munita Sarg. SYN = C. palmeri Sarg. – A, F SYN = C. regalis Beadle var. paradoxa (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. stevensiana Sarg. SYN = C. tantula Sarg. SYN = C. vallicola Sarg. C. douglasii Lindl., Douglas’ hawthorn [Alb, Sas, WY] SYN = C. columbiana Howell, Columbian hawthorn C. macracantha Lodd. ex Loud., spike hawthorn var. occidentalis (Britton) Eggl. [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = C. macrantha Lodd. ex Loud. var. colorado (Ashe) Kruschke SYN = C. succulenta Link var. occidentalis (Britton) E.J. Palmer – F C. mollis (Torr. & A. Gray) Scheele, downy hawthorn, summer haw [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = C. dasyphylla Sarg. SYN = C. lanuginosa Sarg. – A, F SYN = C. lasiantha Sarg. C. pruinosa (H.L. Wendl.) K. Koch, frost hawthorn var. pruinosa [KS, MO] SYN = C. mackenzii Sarg. var. bracteata (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer C. punctata Jacq., hillside hawthorn, dotted hawthorn [KS] SYN = C. collina Chapm. var. secta (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer C. reverchonii Sarg., Reverchon’s hawthorn [KS, MO] SYN = C. discolor E.J. Palmer SYN = C. reverchonii Sarg. var. discolor E.J. Palmer – A Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = C. reverchonii Sarg. var. stevensiana (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer – A C. succulenta Schrad. ex Link, fleshy hawthorn [IA, KS, MN, MO] SYN = C. macrantha Lodd. ex Loud. var. pertomentosa (Ashe) Kruschke SYN = C. succulenta Schrad. ex Link var. pertomentosa (Ashe) E.J. Palmer – F SYN = C. succulenta Schrad. ex Link var. succulenta – A C. viridis L., green haw [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. viridis L. var. lanceolata (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer SYN = C. viridis L. var. lutensis (Sarg.) E.J. Palmer Duchesnea Sm., Indian-strawberry, mock-strawberry *D. indica (Andr.) Focke, Indian-strawberry, Indian mock-strawberry [KS, MO] Fallugia Endl., Apache-plume F. paradoxa (D. Don) Endl., Apache-plume [CO, NM, OK] Fragaria L., strawberry F. vesca L., woodland strawberry subsp. bracteata (A.A. Heller) Staudt [IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD] F. americana (Porter) Britton misappllied - Rydberg SYN = F. bracteata A.A. Heller F. vesca L. var. americana Porter misapplied – A, F SYN = F. vesca L. var. bracteata (A.A. Heller) R.J. Davis F. virginiana Mill., wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry subsp. glauca (S. Watson) Staudt [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = F. glauca (S. Watson) Rydb. SYN = F. pauciflora Rydb. SYN = F. pumila Rydb. SYN = F. virginiana Mill. var. glauca S. Watson – A subsp. virginiana [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = F. virginiana Mill. subsp. grayana (Vilm. ex J. Gay) Staudt SYN = F. grayana Vilm. ex J. Gay SYN = F. virginiana Mill. var. illinoensis A. Gray – A Geum L., avens G. aleppicum Jacq., yellow avens, Aleppo avens [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = G. aleppicum Jacq. var. strictum (Aiton) Fernald – A SYN = G. strictum Aiton G. canadense Jacq., white avens [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. camporum Rydb. SYN = G. canadense Jacq. var. camporum (Rydb.) Fernald & Weath. G. laciniatum Murray, rough avens var. trichocarpum Fernald [IA, MO] G. macrophyllum Willd., large-leaf avens var. perincisum (Rydb.) Raup [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = G. oregonense (Scheutz) Rydb. SYN = G. perincisum Rydb. G. rivale L., water avens, purple avens [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] G. triflorum Pursh, torchflower, old-man’s-beard, prairiesmoke var. ciliatum (Pursh) Fassett [Sas] SYN = Sieversia ciliata (Pursh) G. Don var. triflorum [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Sieversia trifora (Pursh) R. Br. G. vernum (Raf.) Torr. & A. Gray, heart-leaf avens, spring avens [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] Gillenia Moench, Indian-physic, ipecac G. stipulata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Nutt., Indian-physic, American ipecac [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Porteranthus stipulatus (Muhl. ex Willd.) Britton – F Malus Mill., apple M. coronaria (L.) Mill., wild crab apple var. coronaria [KS, MO] SYN = Pyrus coronaria L. var. coronaria var. dasycalyx Rehder [MO] SYN = M. coronaria (L.) Mill. var. lancifolia (Rehder) C.F. Reed Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = Pyrus coronaria L. var. lancifolia (Rehder) Fernald *M. floribunda Siebold ex Van Houtte, Japanese flowering crab apple [KS] [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Pyrus ioensis (A.W. Wood) Carruth – A, F *M. pumila Mill, apple [CO, MN, MO, NE, WY] SYN = M. communis Poir. SYN = M. domesticus Borkh. SYN = Pyrus malus L. – F *M. sieboldii (Regel) Rehder, Toringo crab apple [KS] Pentaphylloides Duhamel, shrubby-cinquefoil P. fruticosa (L.) O. Schwarz, shrubby-cinquefoil [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb. SYN = Potentilla fruticosa L. – A Petrophyton (Nutt.) Rydb., rockmat, rock-spiraea P. caespitosum (Nutt.) Rydb., tufted rockmat, rock-spirea var. caespitosum [SD] Physocarpus (Cambess.) Raf., nom. conserv., ninebark P. monogynus (Torr.) J.M. Coult., mountain ninebark [CO, NM, OK, SD, WY] P. opulifolius (L.) Maxim., common ninebark var. intermedius (Rydb.) B.L. Rob. [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = P. intermedius (Rydb.) C.K. Schneid. Potentilla L., cinquefoil (see also Pentaphylloides, Sibbaldiopsis) P. anserina L., silver-weed cinquefoil [Alb, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb. *P. argentea L., silver cinquefoil var. argentea [IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, SD] P. arguta Pursh, tall cinquefoil var. arguta [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Drymocallis agrimonioides (Pursh) Rydb. SYN = Drymocallis arguta (Pursh) Rydb. var. convallaria (Rydb.) F.T. Wolf [NM, WY] SYN = P. arguta Pursh subsp. convallaria (Rydb.) D.D. Keck P. biennis Greene, biennial cinquefoil, Greene’s cinquefoil [Sas, SD, WY] P. bipinnatifida Douglas ex Hook., fleather-leaf cinquefoil [Alb, CO, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. pensylvanica L. var. bipinnatifida (Douglas ex Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray P. concinna Richardson, elegant cinquefoil var. concinna [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. concinna Richardson var. divisa Rydb. P. diversifolia Lehm., wedge-leaf cinquefoil, mountain meadow cinquefoil var. perdissecta (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD] P. effusa Douglas ex Lehm.Saskatchewan cinquefoil var. effusa [MN, Sas, WY] P. finitima Kohli & Packer, northern cinquefoil [Alb, Man, MN, ND, Sas] P. fissa Nutt., cleft cinquefoil, big-flower cinquefoil [CO, SD, WY] SYN = Drymocallis fissa (Nutt.) Rydb. P. glandulosa Lindl., sticky cinquefoil var. intermedia (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc. [MT, SD, WY] SYN = P. glandulosa Lindl. subsp. glabrata (Rydb.) D.D. Keck var. pseudorupestris (Rydb.) Breitung [WY] SYN = Drymocallis pseudorupestris Rydb. SYN = P. glandulosa Lindl. subsp. pseudorupestris (Rydb.) D.D. Keck P. gracilis Douglas ex Hook., slender cinquefoil, northwestern cinquefoil var. flabelliformis (Lehm.) Nutt. [Alb, Man, Sas] SYN = P. flabelliformis Lehm. var. nuttallii (Lehm.) E. Sheld. [Alb, CO, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. gracilis Douglas ex Hook. var. glabrata (Lehm.) C.L. Hitchc. – F SYN = P. gracilis Douglas ex Hook. var. rigida (Nutt.) S. Watson SYN = P. gracilis Douglas ex Hook. subsp. nuttallii (Lehm.) D.D. Keck Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. pulcherrima (Lehm.) Fernald [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. camporum Rydb. SYN = P. pulcherrima Lehm. P. hippiana Lehm., horse cinquefoil, woolly cinquefoil [Alb, CO, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. argyrea Rydb. SYN = P. propinqua Rydb. P. norvegica L., Norwegian cinquefoil, rough cinquefoil [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. monspeliensis L. SYN = P. norvegica L. subsp monspeliensis (L.) Asch. & Graebn. P. palustris L., marsh cinquefoil [Alb, MN, ND, Sas] P. paradoxa Nutt., bushy cinquefoil [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. nicolletii (S. Watson) E. Sheld. SYN = P. supina L. subsp. paradoxa (Nutt.) Soják P. pensylvanica L., Pennsylvania cinquefoil [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. lasiodonta Rydb. SYN = P. pensylvanica L. var. glabrata (Lehm.) S. Watson SYN = P. strigosa (Pall. ex Pursh) Pall. ex Tratt. P. plattensis Nutt., Platte River cinquefoil [CO, Man, ND, NE, Sas, WY] *P. recta L., sulfur cinquefoil [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. sulphurea Lam. P. rivalis Nutt., brook cinquefoil, river cinquefoil [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. millegrana Engelm. ex Lehm. SYN = P. pentandra Engelm. SYN = P. rivalis Nutt. var. millegrana (Engelm. ex Lehm.) S. Watson – F SYN = P. rivalis Nutt. var. pentandra (Engelm.) S. Watson – F SYN = P. rivalis Nutt. var. rivalis – F P. simplex Michx., old-field cinquefoil [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] SYN = P. simplex Michx. var. argyrisma Fernald – F SYN = P. simplex Michx. var. calvescens Fernald – F SYN = P. simplex Michx. var. simplex – F Prunus L., cherry, peach, plum P. americana Marshall, American plum, wild plum [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] P. angustifolia Marshall, Chickasaw plum, sandhill plum [KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. angustifolia Marshall var. varians W. Wight & Hedrick – F SYN = P. angustifolia Marshall var. watsonii (Sarg.) Waugh – F SYN = P. rugosa Rydb. SYN = P. watsonii Sarg. P. gracilis Engelm. & A. Gray, Oklahoma plum [endemic: CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] P. hortulana L.H. Bailey, Hortulan plum [KS, MO, NE, OK] *P. mahaleb L., mahaleb cherry, perfume cherry [KS, MO, OK] P. mexicana S. Watson, big-tree plum, Mexican plum [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. americana Marshall var. lanata Sudw. SYN = P. lanata (Sudw.) Mack. & Bush P. munsoniana W. Wight & Hedrick, wild goose plum [KS, MO, OK] P. nigra Aiton, Canadian plum [MN] P. pensylvanica L. f., pin cherry, bird cherry var. pennsylvanica [Alb, CO, IA, MN, ND, Sas, SD] var. saximontana Rehd. [WY] *P. persica (L.) Batsch, peach [KS, MO] P. pumila L. var. besseyi (L.H. Bailey) Gleason, sand cherry, dwarf cherry [CO, IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Cerasus pumila (L.) Michx. subsp. besseyi (L.H. Bailey) W.A. Weber SYN = P. besseyi L.H. Bailey – A P. rivularis Scheele, creek plum, hog plum var. rivularis [Alb, KS, OK, TX] P. serotina Ehrh., black cherry Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. serotina [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, OK] P. virginiana L., choke cherry var. melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Sarg., western choke cherry [Alb, CO, KS, MT, NM, Sas, WY] SYN = Padus virginiana (L.) M. Roem. subsp. melanocarpa (A. Nelson) W.A. Weber SYN = P. melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Rydb. SYN = P. virginiana L. subsp. melanocarpa (A. Nelson) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde var. virginiana, eastern choke cherry [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX] SYN = P. nana Du Roi Purshia DC. ex Poir., bitterbrush, cliffrose P. tridentata (Pursh) DC., antelope bitterbrush [WY] Pyrus L., pear *P. calleryana Decne., Bradford pear [CO, KS] *P. communis L., common pear [KS] Rosa L., rose R. acicularis Lindl., prickly rose subsp. sayi (Schwein.) W.H. Lewis [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. bourgeauiana Crép. SYN = R. engelmannii S. Watson R. arkansana Porter ex Porter & J.M. Coult., Arkansas rose [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = R. alcea Greene SYN = R. arkansana Porter ex Porter & J.M. Coult. var. suffulta (Greene) Cockerell – F SYN = R. conjuncta Greene SYN = R. lunellii Greene SYN = R. polyanthema Lunell SYN = R. subglauca Rydb. SYN = R. suffulta Greene R. blanda Aiton, smooth rose, meadow rose [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = R. subblanda Rydb. *R. canina L., dog rose [KS] R. carolina L., pasture rose var. carolina [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. carolina L. var. grandiflora (Baker ex E. Willm.) Rehder SYN = R. serrulata Raf. *R. eglanteria L., sweet-brier rose [KS, MO, NE] R. foliolosa Nutt., leafy rose, white prairie rose [KS, MO, OK, TX] R. micrantha Borrer ex Sm., small-flower rose [MO] *R. multiflora Thunb., multiflora rose, Japanese rose [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] *R. pimpinellifolia L., Scotish rose [KS] SYN = R. spinosissima L. pro parte R. x rudiuscula Greene {R. arkansana x R. carolina}, rough-stem rose[KS, MO] R. setigera Michx., prairie rose, climbing rose var. setigera [KS, OK] var. tomentosa Torr. & A. Gray [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = R. rubifolia R. Br. R. woodsii Lindl., western rose var. ultramontana (S. Watson) Jeps. [MN] SYN = R. macounii Greene var. woodsii [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. fendleri Crép. SYN = R. pyrifera Rydb. SYN = R. terrens Lunell SYN = R. woodsii Lindl. var. adenosepala (Wooton & Standl.) W.C. Martin & C.R. Hutchins SYN = R. woodsii Lindl. var. fendleri (Crép.) Rydb. SYN = R. woodsii Lindl. var. terrens (Lunell) Breitung Rubus L., blackberry, dewberry, raspberry, thimble-berry R. aboriginum Rydb., one-flower dewberry [IA, KS, MO, OK, TX] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = R. almus (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey SYN = R. bollianus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. camurus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. clairbrownii L.H. Bailey SYN = R. flagellaris Willd. var. almus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. foliaceus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. mundus L.H. Bailey R. allegheniensis Porter, Alleghany blackberry, sow-teat blackberry, Alleghany highbush blackberry [IA, KS, MO] SYN = R. nigrobaccus L.H. Bailey R. alumnus L.H. Bailey, nursling highbush blackberry [KS, MO] R. allegheniensis Porter misapplied – F SYN = R. apianus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. bellobatus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. corei L.H. Bailey SYN = R. facetus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. fernaldianus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. impos L.H. Bailey SYN = R. licitus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. miriflorus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. parcifrodifer L.H. Bailey SYN = R. pubifolius L.H. Bailey R. argutus Link, serrate-leaf highbush blackberry [KS, MO] SYN = R. ostryifolius Rydb. misapplied pro parte – F *R. bifrons Vest ex Tratt., variable-leaf blackberry [MO] R. bushii L.H. Bailey, Bush’s highbush blackberry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = R. kansanus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. oppositus L.H. Bailey R. pensilvanicus Poir. misapplied pro parte – F SYN = R. sertatus L.H. Bailey R. curtipes L.H. Bailey, short-stalk dewberry [IA, KS, MN] SYN = R. obsessus L.H. Bailey var. unilaris L.H. Bailey SYN = R. prosper L.H. Bailey var. cordifrons L.H. Bailey SYN = R. subtentus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. inobvious L.H. Bailey R. deliciosus Torr., boulder raspberry, mountain thimble-berry [CO] SYN = Oreobatus deliciosus (Torr.) E. James *R. discolor Weihe & Nees, Himalayan blackberry [KS] R. enslenii Tratt., small dewberry [MO] SYN = R. nefrens L.H. Bailey SYN = R. bonus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. serenus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. tenuicaulis L.H. Bailey R. flagellaris Willd., American dewberry [KS, MO, NE] SYN = R. frustratus L.H. Bailey R. frondosus Bigelow, leafy highbush blackberry, Yankee highbush blackberry [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = R. fandus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. folioflorus L.H. Bailey R. pensilvanicus Poir. misapplied pro parte – F SYN = R. pratensis L.H. Bailey R. hancinianus L.H. Bailey, Hancin’s dewberry [KS, MO] R. idaeus L., red raspberry *subsp. idaeus [IA] subsp. strigosus (Michx.) Focke [Alb, IA, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = R. idaeus L. subsp. sachalinensis (H. Lév.) Focke var. sachalinensis – A, F SYN = R. idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim. SYN = R. melanolasius Dieck SYN = R. strigosus Michx. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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R. invisus (L.H. Bailey) Britton, hateful dewberry [MO] R. laudatus A. Berger, praiseworthy blackberry [IA, KS, MO] SYN = R. ablatus L.H. Bailey R. missouricus L.H. Bailey, Missouri blackberry [IA, MO] SYN = R. mediocris L.H. Bailey SYN = R. schneideri L.H. Bailey R. mollior L.H. Bailey, soft blackberry [KS, MO] R. pensilvanicus Poir. misapplied pro parte – F R. neomexicanus A. Gray, New Mexico raspberry [NM] SYN = Oreobatus deliciosus (Torr.) Rydb. subsp. neomexicanus (A. Gray) W.A. Weber R. deliciosus Torr. misapplied pro parte – F SYN = R. deliciosus Torr. var. neomexicanus Kearney R. occidentalis L., black raspberry, black-cap raspberry [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] R. oklahomus L.H. Bailey, Oklahoma highbush backberry [OK, TX] SYN = R. summotus L.H. Bailey R. parviflorus Nutt., western thimble-berry, salmon-berry [Alb, MT, SD, WY] SYN = Rubacer parviflorum (Nutt.) Rydb. *R. parvifolius L., Japanese raspberry [IA] R. pubescens Raf., dwarf blackberry, creeping blackberry [Alb, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Cylactis pubescens (Raf.) W.A. Weber SYN = R. pubescens Raf. var. pilosifolius A.F. Hill R. recurvans Blanch., recurving highbush blackberry [MN] SYN = R. cauliflorus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. difformis L.H. Bailey SYN = R. heterogeneus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. weigandii L.H. Bailey R. roribaccus (L.H. Bailey) Rydb., Lucretia dewberry [IA, KS, MO] R. flagellaris Willd. misapplied pro parte – F SYN = R. flagellaris Willd. var. occidualis L.H. Bailey SYN = R. occidualis (L.H. Bailey) L.H. Bailey R. rosa L.H. Bailey, rose highbush blackberry [IA, KS, MN] R. steelei L.H. Bailey, Steele’s dewberry [MO] SYN = R. austrinus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. connixus L.H. Bailey SYN = R. coridalis L.H. Bailey SYN = R. currulis L.H. Bailey SYN = R. dives L.H. Bailey R. trivialis Michx., lesser southern dewberry [KS, MO, OK] Sanguisorba L., burnet S. annua (Nutt. ex Hook.) Torr. & A. Gray, prairie burnet [KS, OK] SYN = Porteridium annuum (Nutt. ex Hook.) Spach *S. minor Scop., small burnet [CO, NE] Sibbaldiopsis Rydb., cinquefoil S. tridentata (Aiton) Rydb., three-tooth cinquefoil, wine-leaf cinquefoil [MN, ND] SYN = Potentilla tridentata Aiton – A, F Sorbus L., mountain-ash S. scopulina Greene, Greene’s mountain-ash var. scopulina [Sas, SD, WY] Spiraea L., spiraea, meadowsweet S. alba Du Roi, narrow-leaf spiraea var. alba [IA, MN, ND, Sas, SD] S. betulifolia Pall., birch-leaf spiraea var. lucida (Douglas ex Greene) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, MT, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. betulifolia Pall. subsp. lucida (Douglas ex Greene) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde SYN = S. lucida Douglas ex Greene *S. prunifolia Siebold & Zucc., bridal-wreath spiraea [KS] *S. thunbergii Siebold ex Blume., Thunberg’s spiraea [KS] *S. x vanhouttei (Briot) Zabel {S. cantoniensis x S. trilobata}, Vanhoutte’s spiraea [KS] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Rubiaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the madder family Asperula L., nom. conserv., woodruff *A. orientalis Boiss. & Hohen., oriental woodruff [ND] SYN = Sherardia orientalis Boiss. & Hohen. – A Cephalanthus L., buttonbush C. occidentalis L., common buttonbush [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Diodia L., buttonweed D. teres Walter, rough buttonweed var. teres [KS, MO, OK] SYN = D. teres Walter var. setifera Fernald & Griscomb – F D. virginiana L., Virginia buttonweed [KS, MO] Galium L., bedstraw G. aparine L., catch-weed bedstraw [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = G. aparine L. var. echinosperma (Wallr.) Farw. SYN = G. aparine L. var. vaillantii (DC.) W.D.J. Koch SYN = G. vaillantii DC. G. arkansanum A. Gray, Arkansas bedstraw [MO, OK] G. bifolium S. Watson, twin-leaf bedstraw [WY] G. boreale L., northern bedstraw [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = G. boreale L. subsp. septentrionale (Roem. & Schult.) H. Hara SYN = G. boreale L. var. linearifolium DC. SYN = G. septentrionale Roem. & Schult. G. brevipes Fernald & Wiegand, short bedstraw [MN, ND, SD] G. circaezans Michx., forest bedstraw [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = G. circaezans Michx. var. hypomalacum Fernald – F G. concinnum Torr. & A. Gray, shining bedstraw [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] G. labradoricum (Wiegand) Wiegand, Labrador bedstraw, bog bedstraw [IA, MN, ND] G. obtusum Bigelow, blunt-leaf bedstraw subsp. obtusum [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = G. obtusum Bigelow var. ramosum Gleason *G. pedemontanum (Bellardi) All., foothill bedstraw [KS, MO, OK] G. pilosum Aiton, hairy bedstraw [KS, MO, OK] SYN = G. pilosum Aiton var. puncticulosum (Michx.) Torr. & A. Gray *G. spurium L., false catch-weed bedstraw [CO, Sas] SYN = G. aparine L. var. echinospermum (Wallr.) Farw. SYN = G. aparine L. var. vaillantii (DC.) W.D.J. Koch G. texense A. Gray, Texas bedstraw [OK] G. tinctorium L., southern three-lobe bedstraw subsp. tinctorium [MN] SYN = G. claytoni Michx. G. trifidum L., northern three-lobe bedstraw subsp. columbianum (Rydb.) Hultén [WY] SYN = G. trifidum L. var. pacificum Wieg. subsp. trifidum [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] G. triflorum Michx., sweet-scent bedstraw [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *G. verum L., yellow bedstraw [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, SD] G. virgatum Nutt., southwestern bedstraw [KS, MO, OK] SYN = G. virgatum Nutt. var. leiocarpum Torr. & A. Gray Hedyotis L., bluet (see Stenaria) Houstonia L., bluet H. humifusa (A. Gray) A. Gray, rough small bluet [NM, OK, TX] SYN = Hedyotis humifusa A. Gray – A, F H. longifolia Gaertn., slender-leaf bluet, long-leaf bluet var. longifolia [KS, MN, MO, ND, OK] SYN = Hedyotis longifolia (Gaertn.) Hook. – A, F H. pusilla Schöpf, small bluet, southern bluet [KS, MO, NE, OK]

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SYN = Hedyotis crassifolia Raf. – A, F SYN = H. minima L.C. Beck H. purpurea L., purple bluet var. calycosa A. Gray [NE] var. purpurea, large bluet [MO] H. rosea (Raf.) Terrell, rosy bluet [OK] SYN = Hedyotis rosea Raf. Sherardia L., field-madder *S. arvensis L., field-madder [KS, MO, OK] Spermacoce L., buttonweed S. glabra Michx., smooth buttonweed [KS, MO, OK] Stenaria (Raf.) Terrell, bluet S. nigricans (Lam.) Terrell, narrow-leaf bluet, diamond flower var. nigricans [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Hedyotis nigricans (Lam.) Fosberg – A, F SYN = Hedyotis nigricans (Lam.) Fosberg var. papillacea B.L. Turner SYN = Houstonia angustifolia Michx. SYN = Houstonia nigricans (Lam.) Fernald

Ruppiaceae Horan. ex Hutch., the ditch-grass family Ruppia L., widgeon-grass, ditch-grass R. cirrhosa (Petagna) Grande, tawny widgeon-grass [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] R. maritima L. var. occidentalis (S. Watson) Graebn. misapplied – F R. maritima L. misapplied – A R. maritima L. var. rostrata J. Agardh misapplied – F R. occidentalis S. Watson misapplied – F

Rutaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the citrus family Ptelea L., hop tree P. trifoliata L., common hop tree, wafer-ash subsp. angustifolia (Benth.) V.L. Bailey var. persicifolia (Greene) V.L. Bailey [OK, TX] subsp. polyadenia (Greene) V.L. Bailey [CO, OK, TX] subsp. trifoliata var. mollis Torr. & A. Gray [KS, OK] var. trifoliata [NE, KS, MO, OK] Thamnosma Torr. & Frém., desert-rue T. texana (A. Gray) Torr., Texas desert-rue [NM, TX] Zanthoxylum L., prickly-ash Z. americanum Mill., common prickly-ash [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] Z. hirsutum Buckley, hairy prickly-ash [OK]

Salicaceae Mirb., nom. conserv., the willow family Populus L., aspen, cottonwood, poplar P. x acuminata Rydb.{P. angustifolia x P. deltoides}, lance-leaf cottonwood, smooth-bark cottonwood [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] *P. alba L., silver poplar [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. bolleana Lauche P. angustifolia E. James, narrow-leaf cottonwood [Alb, CO, MT, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] P. balsamifera L., balsam poplar [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. balsaminfera L. var. subcordata Hyl. SYN = P. tacamahaca Mill. P. x brayshawii B. Boivin {P. angustifolia x P. balsamifera}, hybrid balsam poplar [SD, WY] *P. x canadensis Moench {P. deltoides x P. nigra}, Carolinia poplar [KS, ND, SD] SYN = P. canadensis Moench var. eugenei (Simon-Louis) Schelle SYN = P. eugenei Simon-Louis Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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*P. x canescens (Aiton) Sm. {P. alba x P. tremula}, gray poplar [ND, NE] P. deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall, plains cottonwood subsp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenw. [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. besseyana Dode SYN = P. deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall var. deltoids – A SYN = P. deltoides W. Bartram ex Marshall var. occidentalis Rydb. – A SYN = P. sargentii Dode SYN = P. sargentii Dode var. texana (Sarg.) Correll P. grandidentata Michx., big-tooth aspen [IA, Man, MN] P. x jackii Sarg. {P. balsamifera x P. deltoides}, balm-of-gilead [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. x andrewsii Sarg. SYN = P. x gileadensis Rouleau *P. nigra L., black poplar, lombardy poplar [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE] SYN = P. nigra L. var. italica Du Roi P. tremuloides Michx., quaking aspen [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = P. tremuloides Michx. var. aurea (Tidestr.) Daniels Salix L., willow *S. alba L., white willow var. vitellina (L.) Stokes [MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] S. amygdaloides Andersson, peach-leaf willow [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. amygdaloides Andersson var. wrightii (Andersson) C.K. Schneid. *S. babylonica L., weeping willow [KS, SD] S. bebbiana Sarg., beaked willow, Bebb’s willow [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. bebbiana Sarg. var. bebbiana SYN = S. bebbiana Sarg. var. perrostrata (Rydb.) C.K. Schneid. – F SYN = S. perrostrata Rydb. S. brachycarpa Nutt., barren-ground willow subsp. brachycarpa [Sas] S. candida Flüggé ex Willd., sage willow, hoary willow [Alb, MN, ND, Sas, SD] S. caroliniana Michx., Carolina willow [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = S. longipes Shuttlew. ex Andersson var. wardii (Bebb) C.K. Schneid. SYN = S. wardii (Bebb) Bebb S. x clarkei Bebb {C. candida x C. petiolatris}, Clark’s willow [ND, Sas, SD] S. discolor Muhl., pussy willow [Alb, IA, Man, MN, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. discolor Muhl. var. overi C.R. Ball SYN = S. prinoides Pursh S. eriocephala Michx., diamond willow, Missouri willow subsp. eriocephala var. eriocephala, diamond willow, Missouri willow [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = S. cordata Muhl. SYN = S. missouriensis Bebb SYN = S. rigida Muhl. var. angustata (Pursh) Fernald SYN = S. rigida Muhl. var. vestita (Andersson) C.R. Ball as S. rigida Muhl. var. rigida – A var. famelica (C.R. Ball) Dorn, plains willow [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = S. lutea Nutt. var. famelica C.R. Ball as S. rigida Muhl. var. rigida – A subsp. mackenzieana (Hook.) Dorn var. ligulifolia (C.R. Ball) Dorn, strap-leaf willow [CO, SD, WY] SYN = S. ligulifolia (C.R. Ball) C.R. Ball ex C.K. Schneid. – F var. watsonii (Bebb) Dorn, yellow willow, Watson's willow [WY] SYN = S. lutea Nutt. – A, F SYN = S. lutea Nutt. var. platyphylla C.R. Ball SYN = S. rigida Muhl. var. watsonii (Bebb) Cronquist – A S. exigua Nutt., sandbar willow, coyote willow Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. exigua var. exigua [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] subsp. interior (Rowlee) Cronquist [Alb, CO, KS, IA, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = S. interior Rowlee SYN = S. interior Rowlee var. pedicellata (Anderss.) C.K. Schneid. SYN = S. interior Rowlee var. wheeleri Rowlee SYN = S. linearifolia Rydb. SYN = S. luteosericea Rydb. SYN = S. wheeleri (Rowlee) Rydb. *S. fragilis L., crack willow, brittle willow [IA, MO, NE, SD, WY] S. humilis Marshall var. humilis, prairie willow, upland willow [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. humilis Marshall var. hyporhysa Fernald SYN = S. humilis Marshall var. rigidiuscula (Andersson) B.L. Rob. & Fernald var. microphylla (Andersson) Fernald, dwarf upland willow, dwarf gray willow [KS, MO, NE] SYN = S. tristis Aiton S. lucida Muhl., shining willow, whiplash willow subsp. caudata (Nutt.) E. Murray [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. lasiandra Benth. var. caudata (Nutt.) Sudw. subsp. lasiandra (Benth.) E. Murray [Alb] subsp. lucida [IA, Man, MN, ND] S. maccalliana Rowlee, McCall’s willow [Alb, Sas, ND] S. monticola Bebb, service-berry willow, mountain willow [MT, WY] SYN = S. padophylla Rydb. SYN = S. pseudomonticola C.R. Ball. var. padophylla (Rydb.) C.R. Ball S. myrtillifolia Andersson, blueberry willow var. myrtillifolia [Alb, Sas] SYN = S. pseudocordata (Andersson) Rydb. S. nigra Marshall, black willow [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, TX] SYN = S. nigra Marshall var. lindheimeri C.K. Schneid. S. pedicellaris Pursh, bog willow [ND] *S. pentandra L., laurel willow, bay-leaf willow [IA, MN, ND, NE, SD] S. petiolaris Sm., meadow willow [MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] SYN = S. gracilis Andersson SYN = S. gracilis Andersson var. textoris Fernald SYN = S. petiolaris Sm. var. angustifolia Andersson S. planifolia Pursh, plane-leaf willow [Alb, MN, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. nelsonii C.R. Ball SYN = S. planifolia Pursh var. monica (Bebb) C.K. Schneid. SYN = S. planifolia Pursh var. nelsonii (C.R. Ball) C.R. Ball SYN = S. phylicifolia L. subsp. planifolia (Pursh) Hiitonen – A S. pseudomonticola C.R. Ball, false service-berry willow [Alb, Man, Sas, SD] S. pyrifolia Andersson, balsam willow [MN] S. scouleriana Barr. ex Hook., western pussy willow, Scouler’s willow [Alb, ND, Sas, SD, WY] S. serissima (L.H. Bailey) Fernald, autumn willow [Alb, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD]

Santalaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the sandlewood family Comandra Nutt., bastard toad-flax C. umbellata (L.) Nutt., umbellate bastard toad-flax subsp. pallida (A. DC.) Piehl [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = C. pallida A. DC. subsp. umbellata [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = C. richardsoniana Fernald Thesium L., thesium *T. linophyllon L., flax-leaf thesium [ND]

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Sapindaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the soapberry family Cardiospermum L., heartseed C. halicacabum L., balloon-vine heartseed [*KS, OK, TX] Koelreuteria Laxm., golden-rain tree *K. paniculata Laxm., panicled golden-rain tree, varnish tree [KS] Sapindus L., soapberry S. saponaria L., southern soapberry var. drummondii (Hook. & Arn.) L.D. Benson [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = S. drummondii Hook. & Arn. – A

Sapotaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the sapodilla family Bumelia Sw. nom. conserv. (see Sideroxylon) Sideroxylon L., jungle-plum S. lanuginosum Michx., woolly jungle-plum, chittimwood subsp. oblongifolium T.D. Penn. [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. subsp. oblongifolia (Nutt.) Cronquist SYN = Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. var. oblongifolia (Nutt.) R.B. Clark – A, F

Saururaceae Rich. ex E. Mey., nom. conserv., the lizard's-tail family Anemopsis Hook. & Arn., yerba mansa A. californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn., yerba mansa [*CO, *KS, *NE, OK, TX] Saururus L., lizard's-tail S. cernuus L., nodding lizard's-tail, common lizard’s-tail [KS, MO, OK]

Saxifragaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the saxifrage family Heuchera L., alumroot H. americana L., American alumroot var. hirsuticaulis (Wheelock) Rosend., Butters & Lakela [KS, MO, OK] SYN = H. hirsuticaulis (Wheelock) Rydb. – A, F H. parvifolia Nutt., little-leaf alumroot [Alb, CO, WY] SYN = H. flabellifolia Rydb. H. richardsonii R. Br., Richardson’s alumroot [Alb, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = H. richardsonii R. Br. var. grayana Rosend., Butters & Lakela – F SYN = H. richardsonii R. Br. var. hispidior Rosend., Butters & Lakela – F SYN = H. richardsonii R. Br. var. richardsonii – F Lithophragma (Nutt.) Torr. & A. Gray, nom. conserv., woodlandstar, prairiestar L. glabrum Nutt., smooth woodlandstar, fringecup [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = L. bulbiferum Rydb. – A, F L. parviflorum (Hook.) Nutt., small-flower woodlandstar [NE, SD, WY] Mitella L., mitrewort M. nuda L., naked mitrewort [Alb, MN, ND, Sas] M. peltandra Hook., five-stamen mitrewort [WY] SYN = Pectiantia peltandra (Hook.) Rydb. Saxifraga L., saxifrage S. cernua L., nodding saxifrage [SD] SYN = S. simulata Small S. occidentalis S. Watson, western saxifrage, Alberta saxifrage [Alb, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Micranthes occidentalis (S. Watson) Small S. palmeri Bush, Palmer’s saxifrage [OK] S. pensylvanica L., Pennsylvania saxifrage [MN] S. rhomboidea Greene, diamond-leaf saxifrage [Sas] SYN = Micranthes rhomboidea (Greene) Small S. texana Buckley, Texas saxifrage [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Micranthes texana (Buckley) Small Telesonix Raf., telesonix T. jamesii (Torr.) Raf., James' telesonix Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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var. heucheriformis (Rydb.) Bacig. [CO, MT, SD] SYN = T. heucheriformis Rydb.

Scheuchzeriaceae F. Rudolphi, nom. conserv., the scheuchzeria family Scheuchzeria L., pod-grass, schuechzeria S. palustris L., marsh pod-grass, scheuchzeria var. americana Fernald [IA, MN, ND]

Scrophulariaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the figwort family Agalinis Raf., nom. conserv., agalinis A. aspera (Douglas ex Benth.) Britton, rough agalinis [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = A. greenei Lunell SYN = Gerardia aspera Douglas ex Benth. A. fasciculata (Elliott) Raf., fascicled agalinis [KS, MO, OK] SYN = G. fasciculata Elliott A. gattingeri (Small) Small ex Britton, Gattinger’s agalinis [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Gerardia gattingeri Small A. heterophylla (Nutt.) Small, stiff purple agalinis [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Gerardia crustata Greene SYN = Gerardia heterophylla Nutt. A. paupercula (A. Gray) Britton, small-flower agalinis var. borealis Pennell [MN] SYN = Gerardia paupercula (A. Gray) Britton var. borealis (Pennell) Pennell A. purpurea (L.) Pennell, smooth purple agalinis var. purpurea [KS, MO, NE] SYN = Gerardia purpurea L. A. skinneriana (A.W. Wood) Britton, Skinner’s agalinis, Midwest agalinis [KS, MO, NE] SYN = Gerardia skinneriana A.W. Wood A. tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf., narrow-leaf agalinis var. macrophylla (Benth.) S.F. Blake [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Gerardia besseyana Britton SYN = Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. macrophylla Benth. var. parviflora (Nutt.) Pennell [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = Gerardia tenuifolia Vahl var. parviflora Nutt. A. viridis (Small) Pennell, green agalinis [MO] SYN = Gerardia viridis Small Aureolaria Raf., false-foxglove A. grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell, big-flower false-foxglove var. serrata (Torr. ex Benth.) Pennell [KS, MO, OK] SYN = A. grandiflora (Benth.) Pennell var. cinerea Pennell – A SYN = A. serrata (Torr. ex Benth.) Rydb. SYN = Gerardia grandiflora Benth. var. cinerea (Pennell) Cory Bacopa Aubl., nom. conserv., water-hyssop B. rotundifolia (Michx.) Wettst., round-leaf water-hyssop [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Bramia rotundifolia (Michx.) Britton SYN = Hydranthelium rotundifolium (Michx.) Pennell SYN = Macuillamia rotundifolia Michx. Besseya Rydb., kittentail B. bullii (Eaton) Rydb., eastern kittentail [MN] SYN = Wulfenia bullii (Eaton) Barnh. B. wyomingensis (A. Nelson) Rydb., Wyoming kittentail [Alb, MT, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Besseya cinerea (Raf.) Pennell SYN = Synthyris wyomingensis (A. Nelson) A. Heller Buchnera L., bluehearts B. americana L., American bluehearts [KS, MO, OK, TX] Castilleja Mutis ex L.f., paintbrush C. chromosa A. Nelson, common paintbrush [WY] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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C. coccinea (L.) Spreng., Indian paintbrush [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, OK] C. flava S. Watson, yellow paintbrush [WY] C. indivisa Engelm., Texas paintbrush [OK] C. integra A. Gray, whole-leaf paintbrush [CO, NM, TX] C. linariifolia Benth., Wyoming paintbrush [WY] C. miniata Douglas ex Hook., scarlet paintbrush [Alb, ND, Sas] C. purpurea (Nutt.) G. Don var. citrina (Pennell) Shinners, citron paintbrush [KS, OK, TX] SYN = C. citrina Pennell var. lindheimeri (A. Gray) Shinners, Lindheimer’s paintbrush [OK] var. purpurea, purple paintbrush [KS, OK] C. sessiliflora Pursh, downy paintbrush [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] C. sulphurea Rydb., sulfur paintbrush [MT, SD, WY] Chaenorrhinum (DC. ex Duby) Rchb., dwarf-snapdragon *C. minus (L.) Lange, lesser dwarf-snapdragon subsp. minus [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, OK, NE, Sas] Collinsia Nutt., blue-eyed-Mary C. parviflora Douglas ex Lindl., western blue-eyed-Mary, little-flower blue-eyed-Mary var. parviflora [Alb, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] C. verna Nutt., spring blue-eyed-Mary [KS, MO] C. violacea Nutt., violet blue-eyed-Mary [KS, MO, OK] Cymbalaria Hill, basket-ivy *C. muralis P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb., Kenilworth-ivy subsp. muralis [NE, SD] Dasistoma Raf., mullein-foxglove D. macrophylla (Nutt.) Raf., big-leaf mullein-foxglove [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Afzelia macrophylla (Nutt.) O. Kuntze SYN = Seymeria macrophylla Nutt. – A Digitalis L., foxglove *D. lanata Ehrh., Graecian foxglove [KS, NE] Gratiola L. hedge-hyssop G. aurea Pursh, golden hedge-hyssop, golden pert [ND] SYN = G. lutea Raf. G. neglecta Torr., common hedge-hyssop var. neglecta [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] G. virginiana L., Virginia hedge-hyssop, round-fruit hedge-hyssop [IA, KS, MO, OK] Kickxia Dumort., fluvellin *K. elatine (L.) Dumort., sharp-point fluvellin, canker-root [KS, MO] Leucospora Nutt., paleseed L. multifida (Michx.) Nutt., paleseed [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Conobea multifida (Michx.) Benth. Limosella L., mudwort L. aquatica L., northern mudwort [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MO, MT, NE, ND, Sas, SD, WY] Linaria Mill., toad-flax (see also Nuttallanthus) *L. dalmatica (L.) Mill., Dalmatian toadflax, broad-leaf toad-flax subsp. dalmatica [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *L. genistifolia (L.) Mill., broom-leaf toad-flax subsp. genistifolia [MN] *L. vulgaris Mill., butter-and-eggs, common toad-flax [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] Lindernia All., false-pimpernel L. dubia (L.) Pennell, false-pimpernel var. anagallidea (Michx.) Cooperr. [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Ilysanthes inaequalis (Walter) Pennell SYN = L. anagallidea (Michx.) Pennell – A var. dubia [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = Ilysanthes dubia (L.) Barnhart Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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SYN = L. dubia (L.) Pennell var. major (Pursh) Pennell SYN = L. dubia (L.) Pennell var. riparia (Raf.) Fernald Mazus Lour., mazus *M. pumilus (Burm. f.) Steenis, dwarf mazus [OK] SYN = M. japonicus (Thunb.) Kuntze Mecardonia Ruiz & Pav., mecardonia M. acuminata (Walter) Small, purple mecardonia var. acuminata [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Bacopa acuminata (Walter) B.L. Rob. – A SYN = Pagesia acuminata (Walter) Pennell Mimulus L., monkey-flower M. alatus Aiton, sharp-wing monkey-flower [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] M. floribundus Douglas ex Lindl., many-flower monkey-flower [SD, WY] M. glabratus Kunth var. jamesii (Torr. & A. Gray ex Benth.) A. Gray, round-leaf monkey-flower [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = M. geyeri Torr. SYN = M. glabratus Kunth var. fremontii (Benth.) A.L. Grant – A, F M. guttatus DC., common yellow monkey-flower var. guttatus [Alb, CO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] M. ringens L., Alleghany monkey-flower var. ringens [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = M. ringens L. var. minthodes (Greene) A.L. Grant Nuttallanthus D.A. Sutton, toad-flax N. canadensis (L.) D.A. Sutton, old-field toad-flax [KS, MO, OK, SD] SYN = Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort. var. canadensis – F N. texanus (Scheele) D.A. Sutton, Texas toad-flax [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Linaria canadensis (L.) Dumort. var. texana (Scheele) Pennell – A, F SYN = Linaria texana Scheele Orthocarpus Nutt., owl-clover O. luteus Nutt., yellow owl-clover [Alb, CO, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] Pedicularis L., lousewort P. bracteosa Benth., bracted lousewort var. paysoniana (Pennell) Cronquist, Payson’s bracted lousewort [MT] P. canadensis L., Canadian lousewort, early lousewort subsp. canadensis [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. canadensis L. var. dobbsii Fernald subsp. fluviatilis (A. Heller) W.A. Weber [CO, NM] SYN = P. canadensis L. subsp. fluviatilis (A. Heller) Macbr. SYN = P. fluviatilis A. Heller P. crenulata Benth., meadow lousewort, purple lousewort [NE] P. lanceolata Michx., swamp lousewort [IA, Man, MN, ND, NE, Sas, SD] P. procera A. Gray, Gray's lousewort [SD, WY] SYN = P. grayi A. Nelson – A Penstemon Schmidel, beardtongue P. albidus Nutt., white beardtongue [largely endemic: Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] P. ambiguus Torr., gilia beardtongue var. ambiguus [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Leiostemon ambiguus (Torr.) Greene P. angustifolius Nutt. ex Pursh, narrow-leaf beardtongue var. angustifolius [endemic: CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] SYN = P. angustifolius Nutt. ex Pursh subsp. angustifolius – A var. caudatus (A. Heller) Rydb. [endemic: CO, KS, NM, NE, OK] SYN = P. angustifolius Nutt. ex Pursh subsp. caudatus (A. Heller) D.D. Keck – A SYN = P. caudatus A. Heller P. auriberbis Pennell, golden-beard beardtongue [endemic: CO, NM] P. barbatus (Cav.) Roth, scarlet beardtongue Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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subsp. torreyi (Benth.) Keck [CO] P. buckleyi Pennell, Buckley's beardtongue [largely endemic: CO, KS, NE, NM, OK] P. cobaea Nutt., cobaea beardtongue var. cobaea [largely endemic: KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] P. confertus Douglas ex Lindl., yellow beardtongue [Alb] P. digitalis Nutt. ex Sims, smooth beardtongue [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] P. eriantherus Pursh, crested beardtongue var. eriantherus [CO, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] P. fendleri Torr. & A. Gray, Fendler’s beardtongue [KS, NM, OK, TX] P. glaber Pursh, mountain beardtongue var. alpinus (Torr.) A. Gray [CO, WY] var. brandegei (Porter ex Rydb.) C.C. Freeman [endemic: CO, NM] SYN = P. alpinus Torr. subsp. brandegei (Porter ex Rydb.) H.D. Harr. var. glaber [MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] P. gracilis Nutt., slender beardtongue var. gracilis [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] P. grandiflorus Nutt., large beardtongue, shell-leaf beardtongue [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. bradburii Pursh P. haydenii S. Watson, blowout beardtongue [endemic: NE] P. jamesii Benth., James’ beardtongue [CO, KS, NM, TX] P. laxiflorus Pennell, southeastern beardtongue [OK] P. nitidus Douglas ex Benth., shining beardtongue var. nitidus [Alb, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] P. oklahomensis Pennell, Oklahoma beardtongue [largely endemic: OK] P. pallidus Small, pale beardtongue [KS, MO] P. procerus Douglas ex Graham, Rocky Mountain beardtongue var. procerus [Alb, CO, Man, MT, ND, Sas] SYN = P. procerus Douglas ex Graham subsp. procerus – F P. secundiflorus Benth., Front Range beardtongue, side-flower beardtongue [CO, NM, WY] SYN = P. versicolor Pennell P. tubaeflorus Nutt., tube beardtongue [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = P. tubaeflorus Nutt. var. achoreus Fernald P. virens Pennell, green beardtongue [CO, WY] P. virgatus A. Gray, foothills beardtongue subsp. asa-grayii Crosswh. [WY] Rhinanthus L., yellow-rattle R. minor L., lesser yellow-rattle subsp. groenlandicus (Ostenf.) L. Neumann [Alb, Sas] R. crista-galli L. misapplied - Maher et al. (1979) Scrophularia L., figwort S. lanceolata Pursh, lance-leaf figwort [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = S. dakotana Lunell SYN = S. leporella E.P. Bickn. SYN = S. occidentalis (Rydb.) E.P. Bickn. S. marilandica L., Maryland figwort [IA, KS, MO, NE, *Sas, SD, OK] SYN = S. neglecta (Rydb.) E.P. Bickn. Tomanthera Raf., hairy-foxglove T. auriculata (Michx.) Raf., ear-leaf hairy-foxglove [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Gerardia auriculata Michx. SYN = Otophylla auriculata (Michx.) Small T. densiflora (Benth.) Pennell, fine-leaf hairy-foxglove [KS, OK] SYN = Gerardia densiflora Benth. SYN = Otophylla densiflora (Benth.) Small Verbascum L., mullein *V. blattaria L., moth mullein [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] *V. phlomoides L., clasping mullein [MO] *V. thapsus L., flannel mullein [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] Veronica L., speedwell Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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V. americana (Raf.) Schwein. ex Benth., American speedwell, brook-lime speedwell [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY] *V. anagallis-aquatica L., blue water speedwell [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] *V. arvensis L., corn speedwell [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, WY] *V. biloba L., two-lobe speedwell [CO, KS, NE, WY] SYN = Pocilla biloba (L.) W.A. Weber V. catenata Pennell, pink water speedwell [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. catenata Pennell var. catenata - F SYN = V. catenata Pennell var. glandulosa (Farw.) Pennell – F SYN = V. comosa K. Richt. SYN = V. comosa K. Richt. subsp. glaberrima Pennell SYN = V. comosa K. Richt. var. glaberrima (Pennell) B. Boivin SYN = V. comosa K. Richt. var. glandulosa (Farw.) B. Boivin SYN = V. connata Raf. SYN = V. connata Raf. var. glaberrima Pennell V. salina Schur misapplied *V. hederifolia L., ivy-leaf speedwell [KS, NE, SD] V. x lackschewitzii J. Keller {V. anagallis-aquatica x V. catenata}, Lackschewitz’ speedwell [NE] V. longifolia L., long-leaf speedwell [MN, ND] SYN = V. maritima L. *V. officinalis L., heath speedwell, drug speedwell var. officinalis [SD] V. peregrina L., purslane speedwell subsp. peregrina [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. peregrina L. var. peregrina – A, F subsp. xalapensis (Kunth) H. St. John & F.A. Warren [Alb, CO, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = V. peregrina L. var. xalapensis (Kunth) Pennell – A, F *V. persica Poir., bird-eye speedwell [CO, IA, KS, NE, SD, WY] SYN = Pocilla persica (Poir.) Fourr. *V. polita Fr., wayside speedwell [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Pocilla polita (Fr.) Fourr. V. agrestis L. misapplied – A, F SYN = V. didyma Ten. V. scutellata L., marsh speedwell [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas] *V. serpyllifolia L., thyme-leaf speedwell subsp. humifusa (Dickson) Syme [Alb, KS, NE, Sas, WY] SYN = V. serpyllifolia L. var. humifusa (Dickson) Vahl subsp. serpyllifolia [MO] SYN = V. serpyllifolia L. var. serpyllifolia *V. triphyllos L., finger speedwell [KS, OK] Veronicastrum Heist. ex Fabr., Culver's-root, Culver’s-physic V. virginicum (L.) Farw., Culver’s-root, Culver’s-physic [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Leptandra virginica (L.) Nutt. SYN = Veronica virginica L.

Simaroubaceae DC., nom. conserv., the quassia family Ailanthus Desf., nom. conserv., ailanthus, tree-of-heaven *A. altissima (Mill.) Swingle, tree-of-heaven [CO, IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = A. glandulosa Desf. SYN = A. peregrina (Buc’hoz) F.A. Barkley

Smilacaceae Vent., nom. conserv., the catbrier family Smilax L., greenbrier S. bona-nox L., saw greenbrier [KS, MO, OK] S. ecirrata (Engelm. ex Kunth) S. Watson, forest greenbrier [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Nemexia ecirrata (Engelm. ex Kunth) Small Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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S. herbacea L., carrion-flower greenbrier var. herbacea [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = Nemexia herbacea (L.) Small var. lasioneura (Hook.) Rydb. [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = Nemexia lasioneura (Hook.) Rydb. SYN = S. lasioneura Hook. var. pulverulenta (Michx.) A. Gray [KS, MN, MO, NE] SYN = Nemexia pulverulenta (Michx.) Small SYN = S. pulverulenta Michx. S. hispida Muhl. ex Torr., bristly greenbrier [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = S. tamnoides L. var. hispida (Muhl. ex Torr.) Fernald S. illinoensis Mangaly, Illinois greenbrier [MN]

Solanaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the nightshade family Calibrachoa La Llave & Lex., wild-petunia C. parviflora (Juss.) D’Arcy, small-flower wild-petunia, seaside-petunia [CO, KS, TX] Chamaesaracha (A. Gray) Benth., false-nightshade C. coniodes (Moric. ex Dunal) Britton, dusty false-nightshade [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] C. coronopus (Dunal) A. Gray, green false-nightshade [CO, NM, OK, TX] C. sordida (Dunal) A. Gray, hairy false-nightshade [TX] Datura L., thorn-apple, jimsonweed D. inoxia Mill., hairy thorn-apple [KS, NE, OK, WY] SYN = D. meteloides DC. – A SYN = D. wrightii Regel – A D. quercifolia Kunth, oak-leaf thorn-apple [KS, OK, TX] *D. stramonium L., jimsonweed [IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = D. stramonium L. var. tatula (L.) Torr. SYN = D. tatula L. Hyoscyamus L., henbane *H. niger L., black henbane [Alb, MT, ND, NE, SD, WY] Lycium L., wolfberry, matrimony-vine *L. barbarum L., common matrimony-vine [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = L. halimifolium Mill. – A, F L. berlandieri Dunal, slivery wolfberry [OK, TX] L. pallidum Miers, pale wolfberry var. pallidum [CO, NM, OK] Nicandra Adans., apple-of-Peru *N. physalodes (L.) Gaertn., apple-of-Peru [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK] Nicotiana L., tobacco N. trigonophylla Dunal, desert tobacco [NM, OK] Petunia Juss., nom. conserv., petunia *P. axillaris (Lam.) Britton et al., garden petunia [KS] Physalis L., ground-cherry P. angulata L., cut-leaf ground-cherry var. angulata [KS, MO, OK] var. pendula (Rydb.) Waterf. [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = P. pendula Rydb. P. cinerascens (Dunal) Hitchc., ashy ground-cherry var. cinerascens [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = P. mollis Nutt. misapplied - Rydberg SYN = P. viscosa L. subsp. mollis (Nutt.) Waterf. var. cinerascens (Dunal) Waterf. – F SYN = P. viscosa L. var. cinerascens (Dunal) Waterf. – A P. hederifolia A. Gray, heart-leaf ground-cherry var. comata (Rydb.) Waterf. [CO, KS, MT, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. comata Rydb. SYN = P. rotundifolia Rydb. var. cordifolia (A. Gray) Waterf. [CO, NM, OK, TX]

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var. hederifolia [NM, TX] P. heterophylla Nees, clammy ground-cherry [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. ambigua (A. Gray) Britton SYN = P. nyctaginea Dunal P. hispida (Waterf.) Cronquist, hispid ground-cherry [KS, NE, OK, TX, WY] SYN = P. pumila Nutt. subsp. hispida (Waterf.) Hinton – F SYN = P. longifolia Nutt. var. hispida Steyerm. SYN = P. virginiana Mill. var. hispida Waterf. – A P. longifolia Nutt., common ground-cherry, long-leaf ground-cherry var. longifolia [IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. virginiana Mill. var. sonorae (Torr.) Waterf. – A var. subglabrata (Mack. & Bush) Cronquist [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. macrophysa Rydb. SYN = P. virginiana Mill. var. subglabrata (Mack. & Bush) Waterf. – A SYN = P. subglabrata Mack. & Bush P. missouriensis Mack. & Bush, Missouri ground-cherry [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = P. pubescens L. var. missouriensis (Mack. & Bush) Waterf. – A P. pubescens L., downy ground-cherry var. griscea Waterf. [KS] SYN = P. pruinosa L. var. integrifolia (Dunal) Waterf. [IA, KS, MO, OK] P. pumila Nutt., prairie ground-cherry [KS, MO, NE, OK, SD] P. virginiana Mill., Virginia ground-cherry [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = P. virginiana Mill. var. virginiana – A Quincula Raf., purple ground-cherry, Chinese-lantern Q. lobata (Torr.) Raf., purple ground-cherry [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Physalis lobata Torr. – A Solanum L., nightshade, horse-nettle S. carolinense L., Carolina horse-nettle [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] S. citrullifolium A. Braun, water-melon nightshade var. citrullifolium [OK] SYN = Androcera citrullifolia (A. Braun) Rydb. S. dimidiatum Raf., western horse-nettle, Torrey’s horse-nettle [KS, MO, OK, TX] SYN = S. torreyi A. Gray *S. dulcamara L., climbing nightshade, bitter nightshade [KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD, WY] S. elaeagnifolium Cav., silver-leaf nightshade, white horse-nettle [CO, KS, MO, *NE, NM, OK, TX] S. heterodoxum Dunal, melon-leaf horse-nettle var. setigeroides Whalen [NM] S. interius Rydb., plains black nightshade, inland nightshade [CO, IA, KS, NE, OK, SD, TX] S. americanum Mill. misapplied - A SYN = S. nigrum L. var. interius (Rydb.) F.C. Gates S. jamesii Torr., James’ nightshade [NM] *S. physalifolium Rusby, ground-cherry nightshade var. nitidibaccatum (Bitter) Edmonds [CO, KS, MT, NE, ND] S. ptychanthum Dunal, black nightshade [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] S. americanum Mill. misapplied – A S. nigrum L. misapplied - Rydberg S. rostratum Dunal, buffalo-bur nightshade [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Androcera rostrata (Dunal) Rydb. *S. sarrachoides Sendtn., sticky nightshade, slender nightshade [KS, MO, MT, OK, WY] S. villosum Mill. misapplied – A S. triflorum Nutt., cut-leaf nightshade [Alb, CO, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX]

Sparganiaceae F. Rudolphi, the bur-reed family Sparganium L., bur-reed S. americanum Nutt., American bur-reed [IA, KS, MO] S. androcladum (Engelm.) Morong, branching bur-reed [MO]

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S. angustifolium Michx., narrow-leaf bur-reed [Alb, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. emersum Rehmann var. angustifolium (Michx.) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde SYN = S. emersum Rehmann var. multipedunculatum (Morong) Reveal – F SYN = S. multipedunculatum (Morong) Rydb. – A S. emersum Rehmann, green-fruit bur-reed [Alb, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = S. acaule (Beeby) Rydb. SYN = S. chlorocarpum Rydb. – A, F SYN = S. chlorocarpum Rydb. var. acaule (Beeby) Fernald – F S. eurycarpum Engelm., giant bur-reed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, WY]

Staphyleaceae (DC.) Lindl., nom. conserv., the bladdernut family Staphylea L. bladdernut S. trifolia L., American bladdernut [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK]

Tamaricaceae Link, nom. conserv., the tamarix family Tamarix L., tamarisk, salt-cedar *T. chinensis Lour., Chinese tamarisk [OK, WY] *T. parviflora DC., small-flower tamarisk [CO, KS, OK, TX] *T. ramosissima Ledeb., salt-cedar [CO, KS, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY]

Thymelaeaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the mezereum family Dirca L., leatherwood D. palustris L., Atlantic leatherwood [IA, KS, MN, ND] Thymelaea Mill., nom. conserv., spurge-flax *T. passerina (L.) Coss. & Germ., sparrow spurge-flax [IA, KS, NE, SD] SYN = Passerina annua Wikstr.

Tiliaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the linden family Tilia L., basswood, linden T. americana L., American basswood, American linden var. americana [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = T. palmeri F.C. Gates

Typhaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the cat-tail family Typha L., cat-tail T. angustifolia L., narrow-leaf cat-tail [CO, IA, KS, *Man, MN, MO, MT, *ND, NE, NM, OK, *Sas, SD, WY] T. domingensis Pers., southern cat-tail [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, TX] T. x glauca Godr. {T. angustifolia L. x T. latifolia L.}, hybrid cat-tail [CO, IA, KS, MO, ND, NE, *Sas, SD, WY] T. latifolia L., broad-leaf cat-tail [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY]

Ulmaceae Mirb., nom. conserv., the elm family Celtis L., hackberry C. laevigata Willd., sugar hackberry, sugarberry, southern hackberry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. laevigata Willd. var. laevigata SYN = C. laevigata Willd. var. smallii (Beadle) Sarg. SYN = C. laevigata Willd. var. texana Sarg. C. occidentalis L., common hackberry, northern hackberry [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, WY] SYN = C. canina Raf. SYN = C. crassifolia Lam. SYN = C. occidentalis L. var. canina (Raf.) Sarg. SYN = C. occidentalis L. var. occidentalis SYN = C. occidentalis L. var. pumila (Pursh) A. Gray C. reticulata Torr., net-leaf hackberry [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = C. rugosa Rydb.

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SYN = C. rugulosa Rydb. SYN = C. laevigata Willd. var. reticulata (Torr.) L.D. Benson C. tenuifolia Nutt., dwarf hackberry [KS, MO, OK] SYN = C. georgiana Small SYN = C. mississippiensis Bosc SYN = C. pumila Pursh var. georgiana (Small) Sarg. SYN = C. smallii Beadle SYN = C. tenuifolia Nutt. var. georgiana (Small) Fernald & B.G. Schub. Ulmus L., elm U. alata Michx., winged elm [KS, MO, OK] U. americana L., American elm, white elm [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] *U. parvifolia Jacq., Chinese elm, lace-bark elm [KS, OK] *U. procera Salisb., English elm [MO] *U. pumila L., Siberian elm, dwarf elm [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] U. rubra Muhl., slippery elm, red elm [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = U. fulva Michx. U. thomasii Sarg., rock elm, cork elm [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, SD] SYN = U. racemosa Thomas

Urticaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the nettle family Boehmeria Jacq., false-nettle B. cylindrica (L.) Sw., small-spike false-nettle [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = B. cylindrica (L.) Sw. var. drummondiana (Wedd.) Wedd. SYN = B. drummondiana Wedd. Laportea Gaudich., nom. conserv., wood-nettle L. canadensis (L.) Wedd., Canadian wood-nettle [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD] SYN = Urticastrum divaricatum (L.) Kuntze Parietaria L., pellitory P. pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd., Pennsylvania pellitory [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] Pilea Lindl., nom. conserv., clearweed P. fontana (Lunell) Rydb., fountain clearweed [MN, ND, NE, SD] SYN = Adicea fontana Lunell SYN = Adicea opaca Lunell SYN = P. opaca (Lunell) Rydb. P. pumila (L.) A. Gray, dwarf clearweed, Canadian clearweed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD] SYN = P. pumila (L.) A. Gray var. deamii (Lunell) Fernald Urtica L., nettle U. chamaedryoides Pursh, weak nettle [KS, OK] U. dioica L., stinging nettle *subsp. dioica, European stinging nettle [OK] subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander, American stinging nettle [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] SYN = U. dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander var. gracilis SYN = U. dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander var. procera (Muhl ex Willd.) Wedd. SYN = U. dioica L. var. procera (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wedd. SYN = U. gracilis Aiton SYN = U. procera Muhl. ex Willd. SYN = U. viridis Rydb. *U. urens L., dwarf nettle, dog nettle [IA, Man, Sas]

Valerianaceae Batsch, nom. conserv., the valerian family Valeriana L., valerian V. acutiloba Rydb., cordilleran valerian, sharp-leaf valerian var. acutiloba [SD] SYN = V. capitata Pall. ex Link subsp. acutiloba (Rydb.) F.G. Mey. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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V. dioica L., marsh valerian var. sylvatica S. Watson [SD, WY] SYN = V. septentrionalis Rydb. V. edulis Nutt., prairie valerian var. edulis [SD, WY] SYN = V. trachycarpa Rydb. V. occidentalis A. Heller, western valerian, small-flower valerian [SD, WY] Valerianella Mill., cornsalad V. amarella (Lindh. ex Engelm.) Krok, bitter cornsalad [KS, OK] V. radiata (L.) Dufr., limestone cornsalad [KS, MO, OK] SYN = V. radiata (L.) Durf. var. fernaldii Dyal SYN = V. stenocarpa (Engelm. ex A. Gray) Krok var. pauciflora Dyal

Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil., nom. conserv., the vervain family Callicarpa L., beauty-berry C. americana L., American beauty-berry [OK] Glandularia J.F. Gmel., vervain G. bipinnatifida (Nutt.) Nutt., Dakota vervain var. bipinnatifida [CO, KS, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. – A, F var. ciliata (Benth.) B.L. Turner [CO, NM, TX] SYN = G. wrightii (A. Gray) Umber SYN = Verbena ambrosifolia Rydb. ex Small – A SYN = Verbena ciliata Benth. – A SYN = Verbena wrightii A. Gray – A G. canadensis (L.) Nutt., rose vervain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton – A, F G. pumila (Rydb.) Umber, pink vervain [OK, TX] SYN = Verbena pumila Rydb. – A, F Lippia L. (see Phyla) Phryma L., lopseed P. leptostachya L., American lopseed [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] Phyla Lour., fogfruit, frogfruit P. cuneifolia (Torr.) Greene, wedge-leaf fogfruit [CO, KS, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Lippia cuneifolia (Torr.) Steud. – F P. lanceolata (Michx.) Greene, northern fogfruit, lance-leaf fogfruit [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Lippia lanceolata Michx. – F SYN = Lippia lanceolata Michx. var. recognita Fernald & Griscom P. nodiflora (L.) Greene, turkey-tangle, common fogfruit [KS, OK, TX] SYN = Phyla incisa Small – A SYN = Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. var. incisa (Small) Moldenke – F SYN = Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. var. nodiflora – F SYN = Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. var. reptans (Spreng.) Kuntze – F SYN = Lippia nodiflora (L.) Michx. var. texensis Moldenke – F Verbena L., vervain (see also Glandularia) V. x blanchardi Moldenke {V. hastata x V. simplex}, Blanchard’s vervain [OK] V. bracteata Lag. & Rodr., prostrate vervain [Alb, CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = V. bracteosa Michx. V. x deamii Moldenke {V. bracteata x V. stricta}, Deam’s vervain [KS, NE] V. x engelmannii Moldenke {V. urticifolia x V. hastata}, Engelmann’s vervain [IA, KS, OK] V. halei Small, Texas vervain [OK, TX] V. hastata L., blue vervain [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY] V. x illicita Moldenke {V. urticifolia x V. stricta}, alluring vervain [IA, KS, OK] V. x moechina Moldenke {V. simplex x V. stricta}, pasture vervain [KS, MO] V. x perriana Moldenke {V. bracteata x V. urticifolia}, Perry’s vervain [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] V. plicata Greene, fan-leaf vervain [CO, NM, OK, TX] V. x rydbergii Moldenke {V. hastata x V. stricta}, Rydberg’s vervain [IA, KS, NE, OK]

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V. simplex Lehm., narrow-leaf vervain [IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, OK] SYN = V. angustifolia Michx. V. stricta Vent., hoary vervain [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX, WY] V. urticifolia L., nettle-leaf vervain [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] Vitex L., chastetree *V. agnus-castus L., lilac chastetree [OK]

Violaceae Batsch, nom. conserv., the violet family Hybanthus Jacq., nom. conserv., green-violet H. concolor (T.F. Forst.) Spreng., eastern green-violet [KS, MO, OK] SYN = Cubelium concolor (T.F. Forst.) Raf. H. verticillatus (Ortega) Baill., nodding green-violet, whorled green-violet [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = Calceolaria verticillata (Ortega) Kuntze SYN = H. linearis (Torr.) Shinners Viola L., violet, pansy V. adunca Sm., hook-spur violet, small blue violet var. adunca [Alb, Man, MN, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. subvestita Greene var. minor (Hook.) Fernald [SD] *V. arvensis Murray, field pansy [KS, NE, Sas] V. bicolor Pursh, Johnny-jump-up [CO, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. kitaibeliana Schult. var. rafinesquii (Greene) Fernald SYN = V. rafinesquii Greene – A, F V. blanda Willd., sweet white violet var. palustriformis A. Gray [MN] SYN = V. incognita Brainerd – A V. canadensis L., tall white violet, Canadian white violet var. rugulosa (Greene) C.L. Hitchc. [Alb, CO, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. rugulosa Greene V. conspersa Rchb., American dog violet [MN, ND] V. lanceolata L., lance-leaf white violet subsp. lanceolata [NE] V. macloskeyi F.E. Lloyd, wild white violet, Macloskey’s white violet subsp. pallens (Banks ex DC.) M.S. Baker [Alb, IA, MN, SD] SYN = V. pallens (Banks ex DC.) Brainerd V. nephrophylla Greene, northern bog violet, wandering violet [Alb, IA, MN, MT, ND, NE, Sas, SD] V. nuttallii Pursh, Nuttall’s yellow violet, yellow prairie violet [CO, KS, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, SD, WY] *V. odorata L., English violet, sweet violet [NE] V. palmata L., wood violet, palmate violet [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. lovelliana Brainerd - A SYN = V. palmata L. var. triloba (Schwein.) Ging. ex DC. – F SYN = V. triloba Schwein. var. dilatata (Elliott) Brainerd – A SYN = V. viarum Pollard – A V. palustris L., northern marsh violet [Sas, SD] V. pedata L., bird-foot violet, pansy violet [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. pedata L. var. lineariloba DC. V. pedatifida G. Don, prairie violet, lark-spur violet subsp. pedatifida [IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. palmata L. var. pedatifida (G. Don) Cronquist V. pubescens Aiton, downy yellow violet, smooth yellow violet var. pubescens [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, WY] SYN = V. pensylvanica Michx. SYN = V. pubescens Aiton var. eriocarpa (Schwein.) N.H. Russell SYN = V. pubescens Aiton var. peckii House V. renifolia A. Gray, kidney-leaf white violet [Alb, SD, Sas, WY] SYN = V. renifolia A. Gray var. brainerdii (Greene) Fernald V. sagittata Aiton, arrowhead violet

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var. sagittata [IA, KS, MO, OK] SYN = V. emarginata (Nutt.) Leconte V. selkirkii Pursh ex Goldie, great-spur violet, Selkirk’s violet [SD] V. sororia Willd., downy blue violet var. affinis (LeConte) L.E. McKinney [Alb, CO, IA, Man, MN, MT, ND, NE, NM, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. affinis Leconte SYN = V. sororia Willd. subsp. affinis (Leconte) R.J. Little var. missouriensis (Greene) L.E. McKinney [IA, KS, MN, MO, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = V. missouriensis Greene – A var. sororia [CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = V. papilionacea Pursh SYN = V. pratincola Greene – A, F SYN = V. retusa Greene *V. striata Aiton, pale violet, creamy violet [NE] *V. tricolor L., wild pansy [NE, Sas, WY] V. vallicola A. Nelson, valley yellow violet var. vallicola [Alb, KS, Man, MT, ND, Sas, SD, WY] SYN = V. nuttallii Pursh var. vallicola (A. Nelson) H. St. John – F SYN = V. nuttallii Pursh subsp. vallicola (A. Nelson) Roy L. Taylor & MacBryde V. villosa Walter, hairy violet [OK]

Viscaceae Miers, the Christmas mistletoe family Arecuthobium M. Bieb., dwarf-mistletoe A. americanum Nutt. ex Engelm., American dwarf-mistletoe [Alb] A. vaginatum (Willd.) J. Presl, southwestern dwarf-mistletoe subsp. cryptopodum (Engelm.) Hawksw. & Wiens [CO] Phoradendron Nutt., mistletoe P. leucarpum (Raf.) Reveal & M.C. Johnst., American mistletoe, eastern mistletoe [KS, MO, OK] SYN = P. flavescens Nutt. ex Engelm. SYN = P. serotinum (Raf.) M.C. Johnst. – F P. tomentosum (DC.) Engelm. ex A. Gray, hairy mistletoe [OK, TX] SYN = P. serotinum (Raf.) M.C. Johnst. var. pubescens (Engelm. ex A. Gray) M.C. Johnst.

Vitaceae Juss., nom. conserv., the grape family Ampelopsis Michx., racoon-grape A. cordata Michx., heart-leaf raccoon-grape [IA, KS, MO, NE, OK, TX] Cissus L., treebind C. incisa (Nutt.) Des Moul., ivy treebind, possum-grape [KS, MO, OK, TX] Parthenocissus Planch., nom. conserv., creeper P. quinquefolia (L.) Planch., Virginia creeper var. quinquefolia [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = P. inserta (A. Kern.) Fritsch SYN = Psedera hirsuta (Donn) Greene SYN = Psedera quinquefolia (L.) Greene P. vitacea (Knerr) Hitchc., thicket creeper, woodbine [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX] SYN = Psedera vitacea (Knerr) Greene Vitis L., grape V. acerifolia Raf., bush grape [CO, KS, NM, OK, TX] SYN = V. longii W.R. Prince V. aestivalis Michx., pigeon grape, summer grape var. aestivalis [KS, MO, NE, OK] SYN = V. lincecumii Buckley var. glauca Munson V. cinerea (Engelm.) Engelm. ex Millardet, gray-bark grape, sweet winter grape var. cinerea [IA, KS, NE, MO, OK] V. riparia Michx., riverbank grape [CO, IA, KS, MN, MO, MT, NE, ND, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY] SYN = V. riparia Michx. var. syrticola (Fernald & Wiegand) Fernald SYN = V. riparia Michx. var. praecox Engelm. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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V. rupestris Scheele, sand grape [OK] V. vulpina L., winter grape, frost grape [IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, TX] SYN = V. cordifolia Michx.

Xyridaceae C. Agardh, the yellow-eyed-grass family Xyris L., yellow-eyed-grass X. torta Sm., twisted yellow-eyed-grass [MO, NE]

Zannichelliaceae Dumort., nom. conserv., the horned-pondweed family Zannichellia L., horned-pondweed Z. palustris L., horned-pondweed [Alb, CO, IA, KS, Man, MN, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, Sas, SD, TX, WY]

Zygophyllaceae R. Br., nom. conserv., the caltrop family Kallstroemia Scop., caltrop K. maxima (L.) Hook. & Arn., big caltrop [NM] K. parviflora Norton, warty caltrop [CO, KS, MO, NM, OK, TX] SYN = K. intermedia Rydb. Tribulus L., puncturevine T. terrestris L., spreading puncturevine, goat’s-head [CO, IA, KS, MO, MT, ND, NE, NM, OK, SD, TX, WY]

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Appendix A. Excluded Taxa. PTERIDOPHYTES Azollaceae Azolla caroliniana Willd., eastern mosquito fern: according to Lumpkin (1993), this species occurs in IA, KS, MN, MO, NE, OK, SD, and TX in the Great Plains; however, specimen evidence is lacking. It is possible that some specimens identified as A. mexicana C. Presl are in fact A. caroliniana. A careful examination of the Great Plains material is needed. Lycopodiaceae Lycopodiella appressa (Chapm.) Cranfill, appressed bog club-moss; reported from KS in Flora of North America (1993), but specimen evidence is lacking. Lycopodium obscurum L., club-moss: reported from MN and SD in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but specimen evidence lacking. Ophioglossaceae Ophioglossum vulgatum L., southern adder’s-tongue [SYN = O. vulgatum L. var. pycnostichum Fernald – F]; reported from KS in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but the specimen on which this report was based has since been referred to O. pusillum Raf. It should be noted that the southern limit of the range of the later species generally is considered to be well north of Kansas. The collection was made in southeast (Crawford Co.) Kansas. GYMNOPSPERMS Cupressaceae Juniperus communis L. var. montana Aiton, common juniper: reported from Alb and Sas in Breitung (1954); however, this taxon was excluded from both provinces in Flora of North America (1993). Ephedraceae Ephedra coryi E.L. Reed, Cory Mormon-tea; reported for TX in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but specimens were misidentified E. antisphyilitica Berland. ex C.A. Mey. Pinaceae Abies balsamea (L.) Mill., balsam fir:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Kock, tamarack:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Picea mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggen., black spruce:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Pinus banksiana Lamb., Jack pine:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Pinus resinosa Aiton, red pine:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Pinus strobus L., eastern white pine:occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991) Taxaceae Taxus canadensis Marshall, Canadian yew: occurs immediately to the east of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991). ANGIOSPERMS Apiaceae Cicuta douglasii (DC.) J.M. Coult. & Rose: reported from MN and MT in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but all specimens formerly identifed as this taxon are referable to C. maculata L. var. angustifolia Hook. Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf.: reported from KS in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but all specimens formerly identifed as this taxon are referable to P. nuttallii (DC.) Britton. Asteraceae Arnica rydbergii Greene, Rydberg’s arnica: reported from SD in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977) and Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but all specimens formerly identified as this taxon are referable to A. lonchophylla Greene subsp. arnoglossa (Greene) Maguire. Aster pilosus Willd. var. pringlei (A. Gray) S.F. Blake (SYN = A. pilosus Willd. var. demotus S.F. Blake: reported from KS in McGregor (1986); however, this taxon is restricted to the northeastern U.S. Crepis runcinata (E. James) Torr. & A. Gray subsp. glauca (Nutt.) Babc. & Stebbins, dandelion hawk’s-beard (SYN = C.

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glauca Nutt.): reported from the Great Plains in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Erigeron pulcherrimus A. Heller var. wyomingia (Rydb.) Cronquist, basin fleabane: reported from eastern WY in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but all records are from areas well to the west of the region. Heliomeris multiflora Nutt. var. brevifolia (Greene) H.O. Yates, showy golden-eye: reported as possibly occurring in northeast NM in Flora of the Great Plains (1991) (as Viguiera ovalis S.F. Blake), but specimen evidence is lacking. Palafoxia texana DC., Texas palafoxia: reported from OK and TX in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but all specimens formerly identified as this taxon are referred to P. rosea (Bush) Cory var. rosea (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Senecio crassulus A. Gray, thick-leaf ragwort; reported from Custer and Pennington Cos., SD in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but all specimens formerly identified as this taxon are referable to S. rapifolius Nutt. Tanacetum parthenium (L.) Sch. Bip., feverfew tansy (SYN = Chrysanthemum parthenium (L.) Bernh.): reported as escaping occasionally in the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Townsendia fendleri A. Gray, Fendler’s townsendia: occurs just to the west of the region in central Colorado (Beaman 1957). Xanthium strumarium L. var. glabratum (DC.) Cronquist, common cocklebur: reported from the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Boraginaceae Cryptantha palmeri (A. Gray) Payson, Palmer’s cryptantha: occurs immediately south of the region in northcentral Texas (Higgins 1971, Hatch et al. 1990). Mertensia ciliata (E. James ex Torr.) G. Don var. ciliata, mountain bluebells: reported from the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1977, 1991); however, reports were based on misidentified specimens of M. lanceolata. Mertensia oblongifolia (Nutt.) G. Don, sagebrush bluebells: reported from the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1977, 1991); however, reports were based on misidentified specimens of M. oblongifolia. Mertensia humilis Rydb.: occurs on the high plains east of Laramie, mostly above 7,000 ft. in Albany Co., WY (Williams 1937). Brassicaceae D. stenoloba Ledeb. var. stenoloba, narrow-lobe draba: listed for Lawrence and Pennington Cos., SD by the Great Plains Flora Association (1977, 1991); however, reports were based on misidentified specimens of D. aurea. Caryophyllaceae Paronychia virginica Spreng., Virginia nailwort: occurs immediately south of the region in Murray, Choctaw, and Johnston Cos., OK (Core 1941). Chenopodiaceae Atriplex wardii Standl., Ward’s saltbush: listed for TX by in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977); however, specimen evidence is lacking. Clusiaceae Hypericum canadense L., Canadian St. John’s-wort: listed for NE in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977); however, report was based on misidentified specimens of H. majus (A. Gray) Britton. Commelinaceae Tradescantia occidentalis (Britton) Smyth & L. Smyth var. scopulorum (Rose) E.S. Anderson & Woodson, western spiderwort, prairie spiderwort: listed for CO in Weber and Wittmann (1991); however, all materials appear to be referable to var. occidentalis. Cyperaceae Carex projecta Mack.: listed for IA and MO in Great Plains Flora Association (1991) but specimen evidence lacking. Cyperus flavescens L. var. poaeformis (Pursh) Fernald: reported for KS in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977); however, all specimens are referred to C. bipartitus Torr. (as C. rivularis Kunth) in Great Plains Flora Association (1991). Cyperus houghtonii Torr., Houghton’s flatsedge: occurs immediately northeast of the region in MN (Marcks 1974, Ownbey and Morley 1991). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Schoenoplectus torreyi (Olney) Pall. [as Scirpus torreyi Olney], Torrey’s bulrush: reported for NE in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but report is based on misidentified specimen of Schoenoplectus pungens. S. torreyi occurs in southcentral MO and eastern IA and MN. Fabaceae Astragalus wootonii E. Sheld., Wooton’s milk-vetch: reported from TX in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but specimen evidence is lacking; Barneby (1977) indicates that this taxon occurs well south of the region. Cladrastis lutea (F. Michx.) K. Koch, yellow wood: occurs immediately to the southeast of the region in Barry Co., MO (Steyermark 1963, Isely 1981) and Cherokee Co., OK (KANU) Hedysarum occidentale Greene, western sweet-vetch; reported from SD in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains, (19770, but report is based on misidentified specimens of H. alpinum L. Phaseolis polystachios (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., thicket bean: reported from MO, NE, and SD in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but reports are based on misidentified specimens of Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald. Trifolium wormskioldii Lehm.: occurs immediately to the southwest of the region in Colfax and Lincoln Cos., NM (Gillett 1980). Pediomelum digitatum (Nutt.) Isely var. parvifolia (Shinners) Gandhi & S.D. Jones: reported in Flora of the Great Plains (1991) as possibly occurring in southern KS and OK; however, plants approaching this taxon now are considered var. digitatum. Vicia caroliniana Walter, Carolina vetch: reported from KS in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977); however, specimen evidence is lacking. Juncaceae Juncus secundus P. Beauv., secund rush: reported from southern MO in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but this species occurs southeast of the region. Luzula echinata (Small) F.J. Herm., spiny woodrush: reported from Emmet Co., IA, in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but excluded based on information in Eilers and Roosa (1994). Lamiaceae Monarda didyma L., Oswego-tea: reported to escape occasionally in the southeastern Great Plains in Flora of the Great Plains (1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Physostegia intermedia (Nutt.) Engelm. ex A. Gray, intermediate lionsheart: occurs just to the southeast of the region in Johnston Co., OK (Cantino 1982). Pycnanthemum torrei Benth., Torrey’s mountain-mint: reported from KS by Grant & Epling (1943); however, McGregor et al. (1976) indicate the specimen is not identifiable. Stachys latidens Small, big-tooth hedge-nettle: reported from KS by Mulligan and Munro (1989); however, specimen evidence is lacking. Nyctaginaceae Boerhaavia spicata Choisy, spiderling: reported from TX in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but species occurs just south of the region and likely is based on misidentified specimen. Mirabilis pauciflora (Buckley) Standl., few-flower four-o’clock: reported from OK in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but specimen evidence is lacking. Onagraceae Circaea x intermedia Ehrh., intermediate enchanter’s-nightshade: reported from the Black Hills of SD (Great Plains Flora Association 1991); however, specimen evidence is lacking. Boufford (1983) cites specimens from central MN, just to the east of the region. Orobanchaceae Conopholis alpina Liebm. var. mexicana (A. Gray ex S. Wats.) R.R. Haynes: reported from western Las Animas Co., CO (Weber and Wittman 1983) Poaceae Dichanthelium xanthophysum (A. Gray) Freckmann (as Panicum xanthophysum A. Gray): reported from Custer and Pennington Cos., SD (Great Plains Flora Association 1977); however, specimens are best referred to D. leibergii (Vasey) Freckmann (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Melica porteri Scribn.: reported from Leavenworth and Montgomery Cos., KS (Great Plains Flora Association 1997); Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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however, reports are based on misidentified specimens of M. nitens (Scribn.) Nutt. ex Piper (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Melica smithii (Porter ex A. Gray) Vasey: reported from SD by Van Bruggen (1976) and provisionally included in the Great Plains Flora Association (1977, 1991); however, specimen evidence is lacking. It is likely that earlier reports of this taxon were based on misidentified specimens. Panicum hirticaule J. Presl: reported from Motley and Oldham Cos., TX (Great Plains Flora Association 1977); however, reports are based on misidentified, depauperate specimens of P. hallii Vasey (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Poa wolfii Scribn.: reported from Brown Co., NE (Great Plains Flora Association 1977); however, report is based on a misidentified specimen of P. sylvestris A. Gray (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Sporobolus contractus Hitchc.: reported from Cleveland Co., OK and Deaf Smith Co., TX (Great Plains Flora Association 1977); however, reports are based on misidentified specimen (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Ranunculaceae Ranunculus flammula L. var. reptans (L.) E. Mey., spearwort: occurs just north of the region in Man, MN, Sas, and Alb (Flora of North America 1997). Ranunculus harveyi (A. Gray) Britton var. harveyi, Harvey’s buttercup: occurs immediately southeast of the region in MO and OK (Flora of North America 1997). Rosaceae Cercocarpus montanus Raf. var. glaber (Rydb.) F.L. Martin, alder-leaf mountain-mahogany: occasional plants from NE, SD, and WY were reported in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977) as approaching this variety, but all specimens from this area are referred here to var. montanus (S. Watson) F.L. Martin. Geum macrophyllum Willd. var. macrophyllum, largeleaf avens: occasional plants from the Great Plains were reported in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977) as approaching this variety, but all specimens from this area are referred here to var. perincisum (Rydb.) Raup. Geum triflorum Pursh var. ciliatum (Pursh) Fassett, torch flower: occasional plants from the western Great Plains were reported in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977) as approaching this variety, but all specimens from this area are referred here to var. triflorum. Potentilla glandulosa Lindl. var. glandulosa, sticky cinquefoil: reported from the western edge of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Potentilla concinna Richardson var. macounii (Rydb.) C.L. Hitchc., pretty cinquefoil: reported from the western edge of the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Rubus odoratus L., flowering raspberry: reported as escaping in KS (Rydberg 1932), but specimen evidence is lacking. Sorbus aucuparia L., mountain-ash: reported as naturalized in Man, NE, ND, and SD (Jones 1939); however, all specimens appear to be from cultivated individuals. There is no specimen evidence that this species is naturalized anywhere in the Great Plains. Salicaceae Salix alba L. var. alba, white willow: reported as planted in the Great Plains and rarely if ever escaping (Great Plains Flora Association 1991); specimen evidence is lacking. Salix trichocarpa Torr. & A. Gray: reported in the Great Plains in ND in Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains (1977), but specimen evidence is lacking (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Scrophulariaceae Antirrhinum majus L., snapdragon: reported as a rare adventive in the southern Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991) but specimen evidence is lacking. Chelone glabra L., smooth turtlehead: occurs immediately to the northeast of the region in Clearwater and Roseau Cos., MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991). Gratiola pilosa Michx., hairy hedge hyssop: occurs to the southeast of the region in OK (Great Plains Flora Association 1991). Melampyrum lineare Desr. var. lineare, cow-wheat: occurs to the northeast of the region in MN (Ownbey and Morley 1991). Mimulus glabratus Kunth var. oklahomensis Fassett, common yellow monkey-flower: reported in KS (McGregor 1960) but specimen at KANU is now referred to var. fremontii (Benth.) A.L. Grant. Solanaceae

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Physalis cordata Mill. (SYN = P. pubescens L. var. glabrata (Michx.) Waterf. – F), downy ground-cherry: reported from the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991), but specimen evidence is lacking. Physalis pubescens L. var. grisea Waterf., downy ground-cherry: reported from the Great Plains (Great Plains Flora Association 1991) but specimen evidence is lacking. Violaceae Viola macloskeyi F.E. Lloyd subsp. macloskeyi (SYN = V. macloskeyi F.E. Lloyd var macloskeyi ), wild white violet: reported from SD (Great Plains Flora Association 1991); however, according to Russell (1955), this subspecies is restricted to CA and material from the Great Plains is referred to subsp. pallens (Banks ex DC.) M.S. Baker.

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Appendix B. Unnamed, Naturally Occurring Hybrids. PTERIDOPHYTES Dryopteridaceae Dryopteris cristata x D. carthusiana in Great Plains Flora Association (1991) [ND] GYMNOSPERMS Cupressaceae Juniperus horizontalis x J. scopulorum in Van Haverbeke (1968) [MT, WY] ANGIOSPERMS Amaranthaceae Amaranthus rudis x A. spinosus in herb. KANU [KS] Asclepiadaceae Asclepias pumila x A. verticillata in Woodson (1954) [ND] Asclepias speciosa x A. syriaca in herb. KANU [KS, ND, NE, SD] and Woodson (1954) [IA, MN] Asteraceae Cirsium altissimum x C. discolor in Dabydeen (1997) [NE] Cirsium flodmanii x C. undulatum in Dabydeen (1987) [NE] Hymenopappus filifolius var. polycephalus x H. tenuifolius in herb. KANU [NE] Picradeniopsis oppositifolia x P. woodhousei in Ellison (1966) [OK] Commelinaceae Tradescantia bracteata x T. tharpii in Anderson and Woodson (1935) [KS] Cornaceae Cornus amomum subsp. obliqua x C. drummondii in Wilson (1965) [MO] Cyperaceae Carex laeviconica x C. tricocarpa in Rolfsmeier and Wilson (1997) [NE] Cyperus echinatus x C. filiculmis Vahl in herb. KANU [KS] Schoenoplectus acutus x S. tabernaemontani in herb. KANU [IA, KS, MN, ND, NE, SD] Fabaceae Oxytropis lambertii x O. sericea in Clark (1996) [CO] Fagaceae Quercus alba x Q. muehlenbergii [KS, MO] Hippocastinaceae Aesculus glabra x A. octandra in Hardin (1957) [IA, MO] Onagraceae Oenothera jamesii x O. villosa subsp. villosa in Dietrich et al. (1997) [OK] Poaceae Andropogon gerardii Vitman x A. hallii Hack. in Churchill, Kaul and Sutherland (1976) [NE] Avena fatua L. x A. sativa L. in Baum (1968) [Alb, Man] Rosaceae Rosa acicularis x R. woodsii in Harms (1974) [Sas] Typhaceae T. angustifolia x T. domingensis in herb. KANU [KS, TX] T. domingensis x T. latifolia in herb. KANU [KS, NE] Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Ulmaceae Ulmus americana x U. pumila in Santamour (1970) Ulmus rubra x U. pumila in herb. KANU and in Kaul and Rolfsmeier (1987) [KS, ND, NE] Verbenaceae Glandularia bipinnatifida var. bipinnatifida x G. canadensis in Moldenke (1958) [OK]; this hybrid has been named Verbena x oklahomensis Moldenke, but the appropriate combination has not been made in the genus Glandularia.

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Appendix C. Bibliography. General Floristic, Taxonomic, and Nomenclatural References

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1990. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. II. Phytologia 68: 421-427.

Bartholomew, B., D.H. Nicolson & B. Nordenstam. 1997. Author citation of Thunberg’s new species in Murray’s Systema vegetabilium, ed. 14. Taxon 46: 311-314.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1990. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. III. Phytologia 69: 129-137.

Benson, L. 1943. Revisions of status of southwestern desert trees and shrubs. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 230-240.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1990. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. IV. Phytologia 69: 301-312.

Benson, L. 1943. Revisions of status of southwestern desert trees and shrubs. II. Amer. J. Bot. 30: 630-632. Boivin, B. 1967. Connecting vowels in epithets of Latin origin. Rhodora 69: 451-455. Breitung, A.J. 1954. A botanical survey of the Cypress Hills. Canad. Field-Naturalist 68: 55-92.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1991. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. VI. Phytologia 71: 58-65. Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1991. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. VII. Phytologia 71: 87-100.

Brummitt, R.K. & C.E. Powell (editors). 1992. Authors of plant names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 732 p.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1991. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. VIII. Phytologia 71: 269-280.

Calder, J.A. & R.L. Taylor. 1965. New taxa and nomenclatural changes with respect to the flora of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. Canad. J. Bot. 43: 1387-1400.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1992. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. IX. Phytologia 72: 17-30.

Cronquist, A. 1992. Nomenclatural innovations in Intermountain Rosidae. Great Basin Naturalist 52: 7577.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1992. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. X. Phytologia 72: 80-92.

Gillett, J.M. 1979. New combinations in Hypericum, Triadenum, and Gentianopsis. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 185186.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1992. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. XI. Phytologia 73: 124-136.

Goodman, G.J. & C.A. Lawson. 1992. Two new combinations and a name change from the Long Expedition of 1820. Rhodora 94: 381-382.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1993. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. XII. Phytologia 74: 43-55.

Great Plains Flora Association. 1977. Atlas of the flora of the Great Plains. Iowa State University Press, Ames. 600 p.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1994. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. XIII. Phytologia 76: 441-457.

Great Plains Flora Association. 1986. Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.

Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1995. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. XIV. Phytologia 78: 1-17.

Great Plains Flora Association. 1991 (second printing). Flora of the Great Plains. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence. 1402 p. Kartesz, J.T. & K.N. Gandhi. 1989. Nomenclatural notes for the North American flora. I. Phytologia 67: 461-467.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Kartesz, J.T. & J.W. Thieret. 1991. Common names for vascular plants: guidelines for use and application. Sida 14: 421-434. Larson, G.E. & J.R. Johnson. 1995. New vascular plant records for the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. Prairie Naturalist 27: 115-121.

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Little, E.L., Jr. 1945. Miscellaneous notes on nomenclature of United States trees. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 495-513. Löve, Á. 1970. Emendations in the Icelandic flora. Taxon 19: 298-302. Magrath, L.K. 1971. Vascular plants new for Oklahoma, Kansas and Nebraska. Rhodora 73: 300304. Magrath, L.K. & R.R. Weedon. 1974. New and interesting plants from the central Great Plains. Rhodora 76: 489-490. McGregor, R.L, L.K. Magrath & R.R. Weedon. 1972. New and interesting plants from the Great Plains. Rhodora 74: 378-388. Reveal, J.L., G.E. Moulton & A.E. Schuyler. 1999. The Lewis and Clark collections of vascular plants: names, types, and comments. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 149: 1-64.

55: 1-11. Weber, W.A. 1987. New names and combinations, principally in the Rocky Mountain flora - VI. Phytologia 62: 437-438. Weber, W.A. 1991. New names and combinations, principally in the Rocky Mountain flora - VIII. Phytologia 70: 231-233. Weber, W.A. 1995. New names and combinations, principally in the Rocky Mountain flora - IX. Phytologia 79: 65-67. Weedon, R.R. & L.K. Magrath. 1973. New and interesting vascular plants from the Great Plains. Southw. Naturalist 18: 341-342. Welsh, S.L. 1993. New taxa and new nomenclatural combinations in the Utah flora. Rhodora 95: 392-421. State and Provincial Floristic References Alberta

Rydberg, P.A. 1931. Taxonomic notes on the flora of the plains and prairies of central North America. Brittonia 1: 79-104. Rydberg, P.A. 1932. Flora of the plains and prairies of central North America. New York Botanical Garden, New York. 969 p. Stern, W.T. 1956. Further information about Kunth’s ‘Nova Genera et Species Plantarum’ and ‘Mimoses.’ Taxon 5: 153-156. Taylor, R.L. & B. MacBryde. 1978. New taxa and nomenclatural changes with respect to Vascular plants of British Columbia: a descriptive resource inventory. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 184-195.

Argus, G.W. & D.J. White. 1978. The rare vascular plants of Alberta. Syllogeus 17: 1-46. Kuijt, J. & J.A. Trofymow. 1975. Range extensions of two rare Alberta shrubs. Blue Jay 33: 96-98. Moss, E.H. 1983. Flora of Alberta (second edition). University of Toronto Press, Toronto. 687 p. Pinel, H.W. & C.A. Wallis. 1972. A botanical investigation in the Drumheller area, Alberta. Blue Jay 30: 169-194. Colorado

Voss, E.G. 1966. Nomenclatural notes on monocots. Rhodora 68: 435-463.

Clark, D.A. 1996. A floristic survey of the Mesa de Maya region, Las Animas county, Colorado. Nat. Hist. Invent. Colorado 17: 1-44.

Weber, W.A. 1976. New combinations in the Rocky Mountain flora. Phytologia 33: 105-106.

O’Kane, S.L., Jr., D.H. Wilken & R.L. Hartman. 1988. Noteworthy collections: Colorado. Madroño 35: 72-74.

Weber, W.A. 1982. New combinations in the Rocky Mountain flora-II. Phytologia 51: 369-376.

Weber, W.A. 1961. Additions to the flora of ColoradoIII. Univ. Colorado Stud. Ser. Biol. 7: 1-26.

Weber, W.A. 1983. New combinations in the Rocky Mountain flora-III. Phytologia 53: 187-190.

Weber, W.A. 1973. Additions to the Colorado flora, V, with nomenclatural revision. Southw. Naturalist 18: 317-329.

Weber, W.A. 1984. New names and combinations, principally in the Rocky Mountain flora - V. Phytologia 58: 382-384. Weber, W.A. 1985. New names and combinations, principally in the Rocky Mountain flora - IV. Phytologia Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Weber, W.A. 1976. New combinations in the Rocky Mountain flora. Phytologia 33: 105-106. Weber, W.A. 1989. Additions to the flora of Colorado XII. Phytologia 67: 429-437.

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Weber, W.A. 1995. Checklist of vascular plants of Boulder county, Colorado. Nat. Hist. Invent. Colorado 16: 1-66. Weber, W.A., B.C. Johnston & D. Wilken. 1979. Additions to the flora of Colorado-VI. Phytologia 41: 486-500. Weber, W.A. & R. Wittmann. 1982. Additions to the flora of Colorado-VIII. Phytologia 51: 376-380. Weber, W.A. & R. Wittmann. 1983. Additions to the flora of Colorado-IX. Phytologia 53: 191-193. Weber, W.A. & R. Wittmann. 1984. Additions to the flora of Colorado-X. Phytologia 55: 11-13. Weber, W.A. & R. Wittmann. 1985. Additions to the flora of Colorado-XI. Phytologia 58: 385-388. Iowa Beal, E.O. & P.H. Monson. 1954. Marsh and aquatic angiosperms of Iowa. State Univ. Iowa Stud. Natural Hist. 19: 1-95. Carter, J.L. 1962. The vascular flora of Cherokee county. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 69: 60-70. Eilers, L.J. & D.M. Roosa. 1994. The vascular plants of Iowa: an annotated checklist and natural history. Univ. Press of Iowa. Iowa City, IA. 304 p. Freese, E.L. & W.J. Platt. 1991. Vascular flora of Arend’s Kettle, Fred Haffner Kettlehole State Preserve, Dickinson county, Iowa. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 98: 102107. Lammers, T.G. & A.G. Van Der Valk. 1977. A checklist of the aquatic and wetland vascular plants of Iowa: I. Ferns, fern allies, and dicotyledons. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 84: 41-88. Lammers, T.G. & A.G. Van Der Valk. 1978. A checklist of the aquatic and wetland vascular plants of Iowa: II. Monocotyledons, plus a summary of the geographic and habtat distribution of all aquatic and wetland species in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 85: 121-163. Novacek, J.M., D.M. Roosa & W.P. Pusateri. 1985. The vegetation of the Loess Hills landform along the Missouri River. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 92: 199-212. Peck, J.H., B.W. Haglan, L.J. Eilers, D.M. Roosa & D. Vander Zee. 1984. Checklist of the vascular flora of Lyon and Sioux counties, Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 91: 92-97.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Roosa, D.M., L.J. Eilers & S. Zager. 1991. An annotated checklist of the vascular plant flora of Guthrie county, Iowa. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 98: 14-30. Vander Zee, D. 1979. The vascular flora of Gitchie Manitou State Preserve, Lyon county, Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 86: 66-75. Wilson, B.L. 1992. Checklist of the vascular flora of Page county, Iowa. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 99: 23-33. Wilson, B.L. 1993. Some significant Iowa plant records from the herbarium of University of Nebraska at Omaha. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 100: 87-89. Kansas Brooks, R.E. 1986. Vascular plants of Kansas: a checklist. Kansas Biological Survey, Lawrence. 129 p. Brooks, R.E. & R.L. McGregor. 1979. New records and notes on the vascular flora of Kansas for 1978. Techn. Publ. State Biol. Surv. Kansas 8: 87-92. Brooks, R.E. & G. Seiler. 1976. New and interesting plant records for Kansas. Southw. Naturalist 21: 411412. Carruth, J.H. 1877. Centennial catalogue of the plants of Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 5: 40-59. Freeman, C.C., R.L. McGregor & C.A. Morse. 1998. Vascular plants new to Kansas. Sida 18: 593-604. Gates, F.C. 1947. Kansas botanical notes, 1946, including species new to the state. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 50: 72-74. Gates, F.C. 1939. New forms and nomenclatural combinations in the Kansas flora. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 42: 135-138. Gates, F.C. 1948. Kansas botanical notes, 1947, including species new to the state. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 51: 201-202. Gates, F.C. 1952. Kansas botanical notes, 1951, including species new to Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 55: 280-281. Gates, F.C. 1953. Kansas botanical notes, 1952, including species new to Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 56: 308-309. Harms, L.J., O.A. Kolstad & R.L. McGregor. 1965. Additions to the known vascular flora of Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 68: 125-127. Horr, W.H. 1946. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 31: 183-184.

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Horr, W.H. & R.L. McGregor. 1947. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria II. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 50: 200-201. Horr, W.H. & R.L. McGregor. 1948. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria III. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 51: 212-214.

Bean Marsh Wildlife Area, Platte County, Missouri. Missouriensis 13: 27-49. Ladd, D., G. Gremaud & B. Heumann. 1991. New and noteworthy Missouri vascular plants. Missouriensis 12: 36-44. Mackenzie, K.K. & B.F. Bush. 1902. New plants from Missouri. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 12: 79-89.

Horr, W.H. & R.L. McGregor. 1949. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria IV. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 52: 346-349.

Steyermark, J.A. 1941. Notes on Missouri plants. Rhodora 43: 658-663.

Koch, R.G. 1969. Additions to the Kansas flora. Rhodora 71: 175-176.

Steyermark, J.A. 1960. New combinations and forms in the Missouri flora. Rhodora 62: 130-132.

McGregor, R.L. 1953. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria VIII. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 56: 200-202.

Steyermark, J.A. 1977. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames. 1728 p.

McGregor, R.L. 1955. Kansas plants new to Kansas herbaria IX. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 58: 169-170.

Timme, S.L. 1997. Two new and interesting records for Missouri plants. Missouriensis 18: 21-23.

McGregor, R.L. 1960. New and interesting vascular plant records from Kansas. Rhodora 62: 93-95.

Yatskievych, G. & B. Summers. 1993. Studies in the flora of Missouri, IV. Missouriensis 14: 27-42.

McGregor, R.L., J.E. Bare & S. Stephens. 1970. New records and notes on vascular plants of Kansas. Trans. Kansas. Acad. Sci. 73: 50-54.

Montana

McGregor, R.L., V.L. Harms & J.D. Poindexter. 1961. New plant records from Kansas. Rhodora 63: 146-148. Singhurst, J.R. & W.C. Holmes. 1998. Facelis retusa (Lam.) Sch. Bip. (Asteraceae) and Plantago heterophylla (Plantaginaceae): new to Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 101: 58-59.

Booth, W.E. & J.C. Wright. 1966. Flora of Montana. Part II: dicots. Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT. 305 p. Dorn, R.D. 1984. Vascular plants of Montana. Mountain West Publishing. Cheyenne, WY 276 p. Lackschewitz, K., P. Lesica & J.S. Shelly. 1988. Noteworthy collections - Montana. Madroño 35: 355358.

Smyth, B.B. & L.C. Smyth. 1913. Provisional catalogue of the flora of Kansas. Part II. - Gymnosperms and monocotyls. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 25: 63-128.

Lesica, P. & J.S. Shelly. 1994. Noteworthy collections Montana. Madroño 41: 229-231.

Manitoba

Nebraska

White, D.J. & K.L. Johnson. 1980. The rare vascular plants of Manitoba. Syllogeus 27: 1-52.

Churchill, S.P. 1975. New and verified additions to the Nebraska vascular flora. Sida 6: 116-117.

Minnesota

Churchill, S.P. 1977. A botanical survey of Cuming county: part 1, the vascular plants. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 4: 43-51.

Ownbey, G.B. & W.R. Smith. 1988. New and noteworthy plant records for Minnesota. Rhodora 90: 369-377. Ownbey, G.B. & T. Morley. 1991. Vascular plants of Minnesota: a checklist and atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 307 p. Missouri

Churchill, S.P., C.C. Freeman & G.E. Kantak. 1988. The vascular flora of the Niobrara Valley Preserve and adjacent areas in Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 16: 1-15. Churchill, S.P., R.B. Kaul & D.M. Sutherland. 1976. New and noteworthy plant records for Nebraska. Southw. Naturalist 21: 403-405.

Castaner, D. & D. LaPlante. 1992. Plants of the Little Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Churchill, S.P., R.B. Kaul & D.M. Sutherland. 1976. New records on native and introduced plants from Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 3: 32-36. Hardy, J.P. 1991. The vascular flora of Banner county, Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 18: 109-126. Kaul, R.B. & S.B. Rolfsmeier. 1987. The characteristics and phytogeographic affinities of the flora of Nine-Mile Prairie, a western tall-grass prairie in Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 15: 23-35. Lemaire, R.J. 1970. Recent plant records for Nebraska. Rhodora 72: 283-284. Rolfsmeier, S.B. 1988. The vascular flora and plant communities of Seward county, Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 16: 91-113. Rolfsmeier, S.B. 1993. The saline wetland-meadow vegetation and flora of the North Platte River valley in the Nebraska panhandle. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 20: 13-24. Rolfsmeier, S.B., R.B. Kaul & D.M. Sutherland. 1987. New and corrected records of the flora of Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 15: 49-52. Rolfsmeier, S.B., R.B. Kaul & D.M. Sutherland. 1991. New and corrected floristic records for Nebraska - 4. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 18: 141-150. Rolfsmeier, S.B., R.B. Kaul, M.M. Garabrandt & D.M. Sutherland. 1988. New and corrected floristic records for Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 16: 115-121. Rolfsmeier, S.B., R.F. Steinauer & D.M. Sutherland. 1999. New floristic records for Nebraska-5. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 25: 15-22. Spires, D.E. & W.t. Morgan. 1976. Nebraska flora: new records. Madroño 23: 456. Sutherland, D.M. & R.B. Kaul. 1986. Nebraska plant distribution. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 14: 55-59. Tolstead, W.L. 1942. A note on unusual plants in the flora of northwestern Nebraska. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 28: 475-481. Tolstead, W.L. 1942. New and noteworthy records of the flora of Nebraska. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 28: 482485. New Mexico Martins, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. Vol. 1. J. Cramer. Vaduz, Germany. pp 11276. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Martins, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins. 1980. A flora of New Mexico. Vol. 2. J. Cramer. Vaduz, Germany. pp 127712591. Sivinski, R., T. Lowrey & R. Peterson. 1994. Additions to the native and adventive flora of New Mexico. Phytologia 76: 473-479. Spellenberg, R. 1984. Noteworthy collections: New Mexico. Madroño 31: 193. Spellenberg, R., R. Worthington, P. Knight & R. Fletcher. 1986. Additions to the flora of New Mexico. Sida 11: 455-470. North Dakota Barker, W.T. 1971. Vascular plants new to North Dakota. Rhodora 73: 58-59. Disrud, D.T., W.T. Barker & R.H. Warner. 1984. New vascular plant records for North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 16: 117-118. Facey, V.L. & J.C. LaDuke. 1986. Vascular plants of the Oakville Prairie, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 18: 203-210. Heidel, B. 1990. Inventory of rare plant species in the Theodore Roosevelt National Park, Billings and McKenzie counties, North Dakota. Natural Heritage Inventory, North Dakota Parks and Recreation Dept. Bismarck, ND. 112 p. Heidel, B.L., A.J. Duxbury, W.T. Barker & J.R. Challey. 1992. New vascular plant records for North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 24: 217-224. Seiler, G.J. & W.T. Barker. 1985. Vascular flora of Ransom, Richland, and Sargent counties, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 17: 193-240. Seiler, G.J. & W.T. Barker. 1985. Vascular flora of Ransom, Richland, and Sargent counties, North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 17: 193-240. Stevens, O.A. 1961. New records for North Dakota. Rhodora 63: 39-46. Stevens, O.A. 1972. New records of North Dakota plants. Rhodora 74: 389-396. Stewart, R.E. 1973. A new orchid for North Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 5: 30. Oklahoma Fosberg, F.R. 1943. Notes on North American plants.

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IV. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 29: 785-786.

73: 552-555.

Goodman, G.J. 1936. Furthern notes on Oklahoma plants. Rhodora 38: 239-240.

Waterfall, U.T. 1971. New species of Cuscuta and Phlox from Oklahoma. Rhodora 73: 575-577.

Goodman, G.J. 1971. Notes on Oklahoma plants. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 51: 104.

Saskatchewan

Goodman, G.J. 1974. Notes on Oklahoma plants. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 54: 98-99.

Breitung, A.J. 1957. Annotated catalogue of the vascular flora of Saskatchewan. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 58: 1-72.

Hopkins, M. & U.T. Waterfall. 1943. Notes on Oklahoma plants. Rhodora 45: 113-117.

Breitung, A.J. 1959. Supplement to “Flora of Saskatchewan.” Amer. Midl. Naturalist 61: 510-512.

Hopkins, M. 1943. Notes from the Bebb Herbarium of the University of Oklahoma - II. Rhodora 45: 265-277.

Caldwell, J.R., P.S. Taylor & E.A. Driver. 1987. Plants of the Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area. Blue Jay 45: 234-245.

Nelson, E.N. & R.W. Couch. 1985. Aquatic plants of Oklahoma I: submerged, floating-leaved, and selected emergent macrophytes. Oral Roberts Univ., Tulsa. 113 p. Sherwood, R.T.B. & P.G. Risser. 1980. Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Little Sahara State Park, Oklahoma. Southw. Naturalist 25: 323-338. Taylor, R.J. & C.E. Taylor. 1967. Additions to the vascular flora of Oklahoma - II. Rhodora 69: 480-483. Taylor, R.J. & C.E. Taylor. 1969. The vascular flora of Oklahoma - additions and comments. Rhodora 71: 215-219. Taylor, R.J. & C.E. Taylor. 1978. Additions to the vascular flora of Oklahoma. Sida 7: 361-368. Taylor, R.J. & C.E.S. Taylor. 1994. An annotated list of the ferns, fern allies, gymnosperms and flowering plants of Oklahoma. Biology Department Herbarium, Southeastern Oklahoma State University. Durant, OK. 133 p. Taylor, C.E.S., L.K. Magrath, P. Folley, P. Buck & S. Carpenter. 1996. Oklahoma vascular plants: additions and distributional comments. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 76: 31-34. Waterfall, U.T. 1951. More additions to the Oklahoma flora. Rhodora 49: 130-133.

Harms, V.L. 1978. The native carnivorous plants of Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 36: 71-81. Harms, V.L. 1987. The Roche Percee-Pinto area, Souris River valley: a center of provincially rare plants. Blue Jay 45: 74-82. Hudson, J.H. 1972. 1971 botanical records for Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 30: 122-124. Hudson, J.H. 1972. Additions to the floral list of Saskatchewan - 1972. Blue Jay 31: 112-114. Hudson, J.H. 1976. 1974 plant records from Saskatchewan; rediscoveries, discoveries and other curiosities. Blue Jay 34: 9-13. Hudson, J.H. 1977. Rare and endangered native plant species in Saskatchewan south of lat. 55°. Blue Jay 35: 126-137. Hudson, J.H. 1980. Plant finds from Saskatchewan in 1978 and 1979 - mostly from the southwest. Blue Jay 38: 141-145. Hudson, J.H. 1982. Plant finds in Saskatchewan, 1980 and 1981. Blue Jay 40: 136-138. Hudson, J.H. 1984. A second evening star in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 42: 20-21.

Waterfall, U.T. 1952. Further studies of the Oklahoma flora. Rhodora 50: 125-131.

Maher, R.V., G.W. Argus, V.L. Harms & J.H. Hudson. 1979. The rare vascular plants of Saskatchewan. Syllogeus 20: 1-55.

Waterfall, U.T. 1960. Changes in status and new combinations for certain taxa in the Oklahoma flora. Rhodora 62: 319-321.

Tisdale, E.W. & A.C. Budd. 1948. Three recent additions to the check list of Saskatchewan plants. Canad. Field-Naturalist 62: 95-96.

Waterfall, U.T. 1971. New taxa, combinations and distribution records for the Oklahoma flora. Rhodora

South Dakota

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Houtcooper, W.C., D.J. Ode, J.A. Pearson & G.M. Vandel III. 1985. Rare animals and plants of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 17: 143-165.

Brooks, R.E. 1980. Additions to the pteridophyte flora of the Great Plains. Amer. Fern J. 70: 91-92.

Johnson, W.C. 1970. Trillium cernuum L. and Geranium maculatum L.: new for South Dakota. Rhodora 72: 554.

Cody, W.J. & D.M. Britton. 1989. Ferns and fern allies of Canada. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Ottawa. 430 p.

Thomasson, J.R. 1982. New and clarified plant distribution and occurrence records for South Dakota. Southw. Naturalist 27: 124.

Dittmer, H.J., E.F. Castetter & O.M. Clark. 1954. The ferns and fern allies of New Mexico. Univ. New Mexico Publ. Biol. 6: 1-139.

Texas

Dorn, R.D. & J.L. Dorn. 1972. The ferns and other pteridophytes of Montana, Wyoming, and the Black Hills of South Dakota. Univ. Wyoming Dept. of Botany, Laramie, WY. 94 p.

Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi & L.E. Brown. 1991. Checklist of the vascular plants of Texas. Texas Agric. Exp. Station, Texas A&M Univ., College Station. 158 p. Rowell, C.M., Jr. 1971. Vascular plants of the playa lakes of the Texas panhandle and south plains. Southw. Naturalist 15: 407-417. Wyoming Evert, E.F., R.D. Dorn, R.L. Hartman & R.W. Lichvar. 1986. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 33: 313-315. Hartman, R.L. & H.M. Marriott. 1980. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 27: 141. Hartman, R.L., B.E. Nelson and K.H. Dueholm. 1980. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 27: 180186. Hartman, R.L., B.E. Nelson and K.H. Dueholm. 1985. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 32: 125128. Lichvar, R.W. 1980. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 27: 139-141. Marriott, H. undated. Checklist of vascular plants of the northwestern Black Hills, Crook and Weston counties, Wyoming. Rocky Mountain Herbarium, Univ. Wyoming, Laramie, WY. 32 p. Snow, N. 1990. Noteworthy collections - Wyoming. Madroño 37: 140. Taxonomic References Pteridophytes Brooks, R.E. 1974. Additions to the fern floras of Colorado and North Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 64: 29. Brooks, R.E. 1978. A deletion from the pteridophyte flora of Nebraska. Amer. Fern J. 68: 94-95. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Farrar, D.R. 1985. Pteridophytes of Iowa’s Loess Hills adaptations to dry habitats. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 92: 196-198. Featherly, H.I. & C.S. Russell. 1939. The ferns of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Agric. Coll. Bot. Stud. 1: 1-24. Fitzpatrick, T.J. 1920. The fern flora of Nebraska. Amer. Fern J. 10: 5-15, 33-44. Freeman, C.C. & S.P. Churchill. 1983. Noteworthy pteridophyte records for Nebraska. Amer. Fern J. 73: 29-30. Greene, F.C. 1927. Notes on the pteridophytes of Oklahoma. Amer. Fern J. 17: 125-129. Hanna, L.A. 1932. Distribution of the ferns of Wyoming. Amer. Fern J. 22: 1-9. Humfeld, P.H. 1951. A checklist of Kansas pteridophytes. Amer. Fern J. 41: 53-60, 79-85. Lellinger, D.B. 1981. Notes on North American ferns. Amer. Fern J. 71: 90-94. Lyness, A.S. 1933. Notes on the fern flora of Iowa. Amer. Fern J. 23: 39-49. Palmer, E.J. 1919. Texas pteridophyta. Amer. Fern J. 9: 17-22, 50-56, 81-85. Palmer, E.J. & J.A. Steyermark. 1932. The ferns and fern allies of Missouri. Amer. J. Bot. 22: 105-122. Palmer, E.J. & J.A. Steyermark. 1935. Additional pteridophyte records from Missouri. Amer. J. Bot. 25: 1-6. Palmer, E.J. & J.A. Steyermark. 1952. New pteridophyte records for Missouri. Amer. J. Bot. 42: 6166.

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Peck, J.H. 1976. The pteridophyte flora of Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 83: 143-160.

(Aspleniaceae), in the Great Lakes area. Canad. FieldNaturalist 95: 156-166. Azollaceae

Peck, J.H. 1980. Additions to the pteridophyte flora of Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 87: 39-40. Peck, J.H. 1983. Additions to the pteridophyte flora of Iowa - II. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 90: 28-31.

Lumpkin, T.A. & D.L. Plucknett. 1980. Azolla: botany, physiology, and uses as a green manure. Econ. Bot. 34: 111-153.

Peck, J.H. 1989. Additions to the Iowa pteridophyte flora - III. J. Iowa Acad. Sci. 96: 54-56.

Saunders, R.M.K. & K. Fowler. 1993. The supraspecific taxonomy and evolution of the fern genus Azolla (Azollaceae). Pl. Syst. Evol. 184: 175-193.

Peck, J.H., J. Nekola & D.R. Farrar. 1989. Five peridophytes new to Iowa. Amer. Fern J. 79: 28-30.

Svenson, H.K. 1944. The New World species of Azolla. Amer. Fern J. 34: 69-85.

Petrik-Ott, A.J. 1975. A checklist of the ferns and fern allies of Kansas, Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota 77: 478-511.

Dennstaedtiaceae

Tryon, R. 1980. Ferns of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis. 165 p.

Page, C.N. 1976. The taxonomy and phytogeography of bracken - a review. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 73: 1-34. Tryon, R.M., Jr. 1941. A revision of the genus Pteridium. Rhodora 43: 1-31, 37-67.

Van Bruggen, T. 1967. The pteridophytes of South Dakota. Proc. South Dakota Acad. Sci. 46: 126-144.

Dryopteridaceae

Wherry, E.T. 1938. Colorado ferns. Amer. Fern J. 28: 125-140.

Anderson, G.J. 1974. Cystopteris bulbifera new to Nebraska. Amer. Fern J. 64: 30.

Windham, M.D. 1993. New taxa and nomenclatural changes in the North American fern flora. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 19: 31-61.

Anderson, W.A. 1938. Woodsia oregana in Iowa. Amer. Fern J. 28: 63-66.

Wooton, E.O. & P.C. Standley. 1915. The ferns of New Mexico. Amer. Fern J. 5: 65-78. Aspleniaceae

Blasdell, R.F. 1963. A monographic study of the fern genus Cystopteris. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 1-102. Brooks, R.E. 1968. Polystichum munitum in South Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 58: 92.

Jermy, A.C. & C.E. Jarvis. 1992. Flora Europaea: Notulae systematicae ad Floram Europaeam spectantes. Series 2. No 5. The lectotypification of Asplenium trichomanes-ramosum L., the correct name for A. viride Hudson. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 109:319321.

Brooks, R.E. 1975. Woodsia oregana new to Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 65: 62.

Marriott, H., J. Conn & H. Conn. 2000. Asplenium x alternifolium in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 90: 109-110.

Brooks, R.E. 1982. A new Woodsia hybrid from Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 72: 79-84.

Moran, R.C. 1982. The Asplenium trichomanes complex in the United States and adjacent Canada. Amer. Fern. J. 72: 5-11.

Brooks, R.E. & J.B. Roth. 1977. The discovery of Athyrium filix-femina and other interesting pteridophytes in southeastern Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 67: 51-52.

Taylor, W.C., R.H. Mohlenbrock & F.J. Burton. 1976. Variation in North American Asplenium platyneuron. Amer. Fern J. 66: 63-68.

Brown, D.F.M. 1964. A monograph of the fern genus Woodsia. Bieh. Nova Hedw. 16: 1-154.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. & D.M. Johnson. Natural history of the ebony spleenwort, Asplenium platyneuron

Butters, F.K. 1917. The genus Athyrium and the North American ferns allied to Athyrium felix-femina. Rhodora 19: 170-207.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Brooks, R.E. 1977. The discovery of Athyrium filixfemina and other interesting pteridophytes in southeastern Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 67: 51-52.

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Carlson, T.M. & W.H. Wagner, Jr. 1982. The North American distribution of the genus Dryopteris. Contr. Univ. Mich. Herb. 15: 141-162. Clausen, R.T. 1953. Woodisa oregana on Sentinel Butte, North Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 43: 66-68. Dorn, R.D. 1978. Polystichum lonchitis found in the Black Hills. Amer. Fern J. 68: 29-30. Harms, V.L. 1978. Athyrium filix-femina new to Saskatchewan. Amer. Fern J. 68: 119-120. Harms, V.L. 1983. The lady fern, Athyrium filix-femina, in Saskatchewan. Amer. Fern J. 73: 117-121. Haufler, C.H., M.D. Windham & T.A. Ranker. 1990. Biosystematic analysis of the Cystopteris tennesseensis (Dryopteridaceae) complex. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 77: 314-329. Kato, M. & D. Darnaedi. 1988. Taxonomic and phytogeographic relationships of Diplazium flavoviride, D. pycnocarpon, and Diplaziopsis. Amer. Fern J. 78: 77-85.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. 1973. Reticulation of holly ferns (Polystichum) in the western United States and adjacent Canada. Amer. Fern J. 63: 99-115. Walker, S. 1961. Cytogenetic studies in the Dryopteris spinulosa complex. II. Amer. J. Bot. 48: 607-614. Weatherby, C.A. 1935. A new variety of Cystopteris fragilis and some old ones. Rhodora 37: 373-378. Wildén, C.-J. & D.M. Britton. 1971. Chemotaxonomic investigations of the Dryopteris cristata complex in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 1141-1154. Wildén, C.-J. & D.M. Britton. 1971. A chromatographic and cytological study of Dryopteris filix-mas and related taxa in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 1589-1600. Equisetaceae Brooks, R.E. 1972. Equisetum palustre in North Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 62: 64. Fernald, M.L. 1918. The American representatives of Equisetum sylvaticum. Rhodora 20: 129-131.

Löve, Á. & D. Löve. 1967. New combinations in Carpogymnia. Taxon 16: 191-192.

Hartman, E.L. 1958. The taxonomy and ecology of the Equisetum laevigatum complex. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 61: 125-148.

McGregor, R.L. 1950. Two varieties of Cystopteris fragilis. Amer. Fern J. 40: 201-207.

Hauke, R. 1960. The smooth scouring rush and its complexities. Amer. Fern J. 50: 185-193.

Moran, R.C. 1983. Cystopteris tenuis (Michx.) Desv.: a poorly understood species. Castanea 48: 218-223.

Hauke, R. 1961. A resume of the taxonomic reorganization of Equisetum, subgenus Hippochaete, I. Amer. Fern J. 51: 131-137.

Prange, R.K. & P. von Aderkas. 1985. The biological flora of Canada. 6. Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro, ostrich fern. Canad. Field-Naturalist 99: 517532.

Hauke, R. 1962. A resume of the taxonomic reorganization of Equisetum, subgenus Hippochaete, II. Amer. Fern J. 52: 29-35.

Pryer, K.M. 1993. Isozymic and chromosomal evidence for the allotetraploid origin of Gymnocarpium dryopteris (Dryopteridaceae). Syst. Bot. 18: 150-172.

Hauke, R. 1962. A resume of the taxonomic reorganization of Equisetum, subgenus Hippochaete, III. Amer. Fern J. 52: 57-63.

Taylor, T.M.C. 1947. New species and combinations in Woodsia. Amer. Fern J. 37: 84-88.

Hauke, R. 1962. A resume of the taxonomic reorganization of Equisetum, subgenus Hippochaete, IV. Amer. Fern J. 52: 123-130.

Tryon, R. & D.M. Britton. 1966. A study of variation in the cytotypes of Dryopteris spinulosa. Rhodora 68: 5992. Wagner, D.H. 1979. Systematics of Polystichum in western North America north of Mexico. Pteridologia 1: 1-64. Wagner, W.H., Jr. 1966. New data on North American oak ferns, Gymnocarpium. Rhodora 68: 121-138.

Hauke, R. 1963. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Equisetum subgenus Hippochaete. Beih. Nova Hedwigia 8: 1-123. Rutz, L.M. & D.R. Farrar. 1984. The habitat characteristics and abundance of Equisetum x ferrissii and its parent species, Equisetum hyemale and Equisetum laevigatum, in Iowa. Fern J. 74: 65-76. Schaffner, J.H. 1921. North American species of

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Equisetum north of Mexico. Amer. Fern J. 11: 65- 75. Schaffner, J.H. 1934. Kansas species of Equisetum. Amer. Fern J. 24: 36-38. Schaffner, J.H. 1939. Equisetum pratense in the Black Hills. Amer. Fern J. 29: 37. Schaffner, J.H. 1939. The distribution of the exclusively North American species of Equisetum. Amer. Fern J. 29: 45-47.

Gupta, K.M. 1957. Some American species of Marsilea with special reference to their epidermal and soral characters. Madroño 14: 113-127. Johnson, D.M. 1985. Marsilea quadrifolia and M. vestita in the floras of Kansas and Missouri. Amer. Fern J. 75: 28-29. Johnson, D.M. 1986. Systematics of the New World species of Marsilea (Marsileaceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 11: 1-87.

Isoëtaceae Boom, B.M. 1982. Synopsis of Isoëtes in the southeastern United States. Castanea 47: 38-59.

McGregor, R.L. 1950. Pilularia americana in Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 40: 187-188. Ophioglossaceae

Hickey, R.J. 1986. Isoëtes megaspore surface morphology: nomenclature, variation, and systematic importance. Amer. Fern J. 76: 1-16.

Barker, W.T. & J. Hanson. 1976. A record of Ophioglossum vulgatum for North Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 66: 137.

Kott, L. & D.M. Britton. 1983. Spore morphology and taxonomy of Isoëtes in northeastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 3140-3163.

Butters, F.K. 1917. Botrychium virginianum and its American varieties. Rhodora 19: 207-216.

Moore, J.W. & R.M. Tryon, Jr. 1946. A new record for Isoëtes melanopoda. Amer. Fern J. 36: 89-91.

Clausen, R.T. 1938. A monograph of the Ophioglossaceae. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club. 19: 1-177.

Pfeiffer, N.E. 1922. Monograph of the Isoëtaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 9: 79-217.

Cooperrider, T.S. 1955. The Ophioglossaceae of Iowa. Amer. Fern J. 45: 156-159.

Taylor, W.C., R.H. Mohlenbrock & J.A. Murphy. 1975. The spores and taxonomy of Isoëtes butleri and I. melanopoda. Amer. Fern J. 65: 33-38.

Farrar, D.R. & C.L. Johnson-Groh. 1986. Distribution, systematics and ecology of Botrychium campestre, the prairie moonwort. Missouriensis 7: 51-58.

Lycopodiaceae

Farrar, D.R. & C.L. Johnson-Groh. 1991. A new prairie moonwort (Botrychium subgenus Botrychium) from northwestern Minnesota. Amer. Fern. J. 81: 1-6.

Dorn, R.D. 1983. Lycopodium complanatum and L. annotinum found in the Black Hills. Amer. Fern J. 73: 62. Hickey, R.J. 1977. The Lycopodium obscurum complex in North America. Amer. Fern J. 67: 45-48.

Hauk, W.D. 1995. A molecular assessment of relationships among cryptic species of Botrychium subgenus Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae). Amer. Fern J. 85: 375-394.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. 1992. Generic classification of modern North American Lycopodiaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 676-686.

Magrath, L.K. & R.R. Weedon. 1972. A report of fallfruiting plants of Ophioglossum engelmannii Prantl in eastern Kansas. Amer. Fern J. 62: 22-23.

Marsileaceae

Palmer, E.J. 1914. Ophioglossum engelmanni in Missouri. Amer. J. Bot. 4: 66-68.

Correll, H.B. 1967. Pilularia americana A. Braun in Oklahoma. Amer. Fern J. 57: 31-32. Dennis, W. M. & D.H. Webb. 1981. The distribution of Pilularia americana A. Br. (Marsileaceae) in North America north of Mexico. Sida 9: 19-24. Gier, L.J. 1955. Marsilea quadrifolia in Missouri. Amer. Fern J. 45: 64-65. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Palmer, E.J. 1932. Notes on Ophioglossum engelmanni. Amer. Fern. J. 22: 43-47. Rosson, T.C. 1970. Ophioglossum engelmanii Prantl, new to the Texas panhandle. Southw. Naturalist 15: 141-142. Underwood, L.M. & R.C. Benedict. 1909.

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Ophioglossaceae. N. Amer. Flora 16: 3-13. Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1981. New species of moonworts, Botrychium subg. Botrychium (Ophioglossaceae), from North America. Amer. Fern. J. 71: 20-30. Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1983. Two moonworts of the Rocky Mountain; Botrychium hesperium and a new species formerly confused with it. Amer. Fern. J. 73: 53-62. Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1983. Two moonworts of the Rocky Mountains; Botrychium hesperium and a new species formerly confused with it. Amer. Fern. J. 73: 53-62.. Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1986. Three new species of moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) endemic in western North America. Amer. Fern. J. 76: 33-47.

Haufler, C.H. & T.A. Ranker. 1995. RbcL sequences provide phylogenetic insights among sister species of the fern genus Polypodium. Amer. Fern J. 85: 361374. Lang, F.A. 1971. The Polypodium vulgare complex in the Pacific Northwest. Madroño 21:235-254. Lloyd, R.M. & F.A. Lang. 1964. The Polypodium vulgare complex in North America. British Fern Gaz. 9: 168-177. Pteridaceae Benham, D.M. 1992. Additional taxa in Astrolepis. Amer. Fern J. 82: 59-62. Benham, D.M. & M.D. Windham. 1992. Generic affinities of the star-scaled cloak ferns. Amer. Fern J. 82: 47-58.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1990. Moonworts (Botrychium subg. Botrychium) of the upper Great Lakes region, U.S.A. and Canada, with descriptions of two new species. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 313325.

Butters, F.K. 1917. Pellaea atropurpurea (L.) Link and Pellaea glabella Mett. ex Kuhn. Amer. Fern J. 7: 77-87.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. & F.S. Wagner. 1990. Notes on the fan-leaflet group of moonworts in North America with descriptions of two new members. Amer. Fern J. 80: 73-81.

Dorn, R.D. & R.F. Harner. 1995. Cryptogramma acrostichoides in South Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 85: 64.

Osmundaceae Li, J. & C.H. Haufler. 1994. Phylogeny, biogeography, and population biology of Osmunda species: insights from isozymes. Amer. Fern J. 84: 105-114. Benedict, R.C. 1909. Osmundaceae. N. Amer. Flora 16: 27-28. Polypodiaceae Brooks, R.E. 1975. Notes on the Polypodium vulgare complex in South Dakota. Amer. Fern J. 65: 11-12. Cooper-Driver, G. & T. Swain. 1977. Phenolic chemotaxonomy and phytogeography of Adiantum. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 74: 1-21. Cranfill, R. & D.M. Britton. 1983. Typification within the Polypodium virginianum complex (Polypodiaceae). Taxon 32: 557-560. Haufler, C.H. & W. Zhongren. 1991. Chromosomal analyses and the origin of allopolyploid Polypodium virginianum (Polypodiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78: 624629. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Butters, F.K. 1921. Pellaea glabella and its western segregates. Amer. Fern J. 11: 75-82.

Gastony, G.J. 1988. The Pellaea glabella complex: electrophoretic evidence for the derivations of the agamosporous taxa and a revised taxonomy. Amer. Fern J. 78: 44-67. Gastony, G.J., G. Yatskievych & C.K. Dixon. 1992. Chloroplast DNA restriction site variation in the fern genus Pellaea: phylogenetic relationships of the Pellaea glabella complex. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 10721080. Knobloch, I.W. 1976. Morphological characters in Cheilanthes together with a key to North and Central American species. Flora 165: 507-522. Knobloch, I.W. & D.M. Britton. 1963. The chromosome number and possible ancestry of Pellaea wrightiana. Amer. J. Bot. 50: 52-55. Maxon, W.R. 1918. The lip-ferns of the southwestern United States related to Cheilanthes myriophylla. Pro. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31: 139-152. Mickel, J.T. 1979. The fern genus Cheilanthes in continental United States. Phytologia 41: 431-437. Paris, C.A. & M.D. Windham. 1988. A biosystematic investigation of the Adiantum pedatum complex in

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eastern North America. Syst. Bot. 13: 240-255. Rigby, S.J. & D.M. Britton. 1970. The distribution of Pellaea in Canada. Canad. Field-Naturalist 84: 137144. Seigler, D.S. & E. Wollenweber. 1983. Chemical variation in Notholaena standleyi. Amer. J. Bot. 70: 790-798. Tryon, A.F. 1956. A revision of the American species of Notholaena. Contr. Gray Herb. 179: 1-106. Tryon, A.F. 1957. A revision of the fern genus Pellaea section Pellaea. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 44: 125-193.

Adams, R.P. 1977. Chemosystematics - analyses of populational differentiation and variability of ancestral and recent populations of Juniperus ashei. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64: 184-209. Adams, R.P. 1982. The effects of gases from a burning coal seam on morphological and terpenoid characters in Juniperus scopulorum (Cupressaceae). Southw. Naturalist 27(3): 279-286. Adams, R.P. 1983. Infraspecific terpenoid variation in Juniperus scopulorum: evidence for Pleistocene refugia and recolonization in western North America. Taxon 32: 30-46.

Tryon, A.F. 1972. Spores, chromosomes and relations of the fern Pellaea atropurpurea. Rhodora 74: 220241.

Adams, R.P. 1986. Geographic variation in Juniperus silicicola and J. virginiana of the southeastern United States: multivariate analyses of morphology and terpenoids. Taxon 35: 61-75.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. 1965. Pellaea wrightiana in North Carolina and the question of its origin. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 81: 95-103.

Adams, R.P. & T. Demeke. 1993. Systematic relationships in Juniperus based on random amplified polymorphic DNAs (RAPDs). Taxon 42: 553-571.

Wagner, W.H., Jr., D.R. Farrar & K.L. Chen. 1965. A new sexual form of Pellaea glabella var. glabella from Missouri. Amer. Fern J. 55: 171-178.

Adams, R.P. & B.L. Turner. 1970. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus ashei Buch. Taxon 19: 728-751.

Windham, M.D. 1987. Argyrochosma, a new genus of cheilanthoid ferns. Amer. Fern J. 77: 37-41.

Adams, R.P. & T.A. Zanoni. 1979. The distribution, synonymy, and taxonomy of three junipers of southwestern United States and northern Mexico. Southw. Naturalist 24: 323-329.

Selaginellaceae Maxon, W.R. 1918. A new Selaginella from Oklahoma and Texas. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 31: 171-172. McGregor, R.L. & W.H. Horr. 1949. Selaginella rupestris in Kansas. Amer. Fern. J. 39: 16-17. Tryon, R.M., Jr. 1955. Selaginella rupestris and its allies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 42: 1-99. Thelypteridaceae Tryon, A. & R. Tryon. 1973. Thelypteris in northeastern North America. Amer. Fern J. 63: 65-76. Tryon, A.F., R. Tryon & F. Badré. 1980. Classification, spores, and nomenclature of the marsh fern. Rhodora 82: 461-474. Taxonomic References: Gymnosperms Cupressaceae Adams, R.P. 1972. Chemosystematic and numerical studies of natural populations of Juniperus pinchotii Sudw. Taxon 21: 407-427.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Harms, V.L. & D.G. Hjertaas. 1976. First records of Rocky Mountain juniper in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 34: 140-147. Smith, W.W. & C.A. Wallis. 1976. Extra-limital occurrence of Rocky Mountain juniper in southeastern Alberta. Blue Jay 34: 67-68. Van Haverbeke, D.F. 1968. A population analysis of Juniperus in the Missouri River basin. Univ. Nebraska Stud., new series 38: 1-82. Watson, F.D. 1985. The nomenclature of pondcypress and baldcypress (Taxodiaceae). Taxon 34: 506-509. Zanoni, T.A. 1978. The American junipers of the section Sabina (Juniperus, Cupressaceae)-a century later. Phytologia 38: 433-454. Zanoni, T.A. & R.P. Adams. 1975. Southern range extension of Juniperus scopulorum Sarg. (Cupressaceae) into Mexico. Southw. Naturalist 20: 136-137. Ephedraceae

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Cross, G.L. 1936. The distribution of Ephedra in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 17: 65-67. Cutler, H.C. 1939. Monograph of the North American species of the genus Ephedra. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 26: 373-429. Wendt, T. 1993. A new variety of Ephedra torreyana (Ephedraceae) from west Texas and Chihuahua, with notes on hybridization in the E. torreyana complex. Phytologia 74: 141-150. Pinaceae Critchfield, W.B. & E.L. Little, Jr. 1966. Geographic distribution of the pines of the world. U.S.D.A. Misc. Publ. 911: 1-97.

brachiata. Rhodora 43: 287-288. Fernald, M.L. 1945. Ruellia in the eastern United States. Contr. Gray Herb. 153: 1-91. Kobuski, C.E. 1928. A monograph of the American species in the genus Dychoriste. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15: 9-90. Long, R.W. 1973. A biosystematic approach to generic delimitation in Ruellia (Acanthaceae). Taxon 22: 543555. Scotland, R.W., J.A. Sweere, P.A. Reeves & R.G. Olmstead. 1995. Higher-level systematics of Acanthaceae determined by chloroplast DNA sequences. Amer. J. Bot. 82: 266-275.

Daubenmire, R. 1974. Taxonomic and ecologic relationships between Picea glauca and Picea engelmannii. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 1545-1560.

Tharp, B.C. & F.A. Barkley. 1949. The genus Ruellia in Texas. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 42: 1-86.

Fosberg, F.R. 1959. Pinus contorta and its variations. Baileya 7: 7-10.

Turner, B.L. 1991. Texas species of Ruellia (Acanthaceae). Phytologia 71: 281-299.

Hoffman, G.R. & R.L. Timken. 1970. Ecological observations on Pinus ponderosa Laws. (Pinaceae) at its eastermost extension in South Dakota. Southw. Naturalist 14: 327-336.

Wasshausen, D.C. 1998. Acanthaceae of the southeastern United States. Castanea 63: 99-116.

Karalamangala, R.R. & D.L. Nickrent. 1989. An electrophoretic study of representatives of subgenus Diploxylon of Pinus. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 1750-1759.

Dent, T.C. & R.P. Adams. 1983. Relationships of two isolated groups of sugar maples (Acer saccharum Marshall ssp. saccharum) in west central Oklahoma to eastern and western species. Rhodora 85: 439-456.

Malusa, J. 1992. Phylogeny and biogeography of the pinyon pines (Pinus subsect. Cembroides). Syst. Bot. 17: 42-66. Milton, J.B. & R. Andalora. 1981. Genetic and morphological relationships between blue spruce, Picea pungens, and Engelmann spruce, Picea engelmannii, in the Colorado Front Range. Canad. J. Bot. 59: 2088-2094. Taylor, T.M.C. 1959. The taxonomic relationship between Picea glauca (Moench) Voss and P. engelmannii Parry. Madroño 15: 111-115. Thilenius, J.F. 1970. An isolated occurrence of limber pine (Pinus flexilis James) in the Black Hills of South Dakota. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 84: 411-417. Wheeler, N.C. & R.P. Guries. 1982. Biogeography of lodgepole pine. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1805-1814. Taxonomic References: Angiosperms Acanthaceae

Aceraceae

Desmarais, Y. 1952. Dynamics of leaf variation in the sugar maples. Brittonia 7: 347-387. Keller, A.C. 1942. Acer glabrum and its varieties. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 27: 491-500. van Gelderen, D.M., P.C. de Jong & H.J. Oterdoom. 1994. Maples of the world. Timber Press. Portland, OR. 458 p. Acoraceae Bown, D. 1987. Acorus calamus L.: a species with a history. Aroideana 10: 11-14. Buell, M.F. 1935. Acorus calamus in America. Rhodora 37: 367-369. Grayum, M.H. 1987. A summary of evidence and arguments supporting the removal of Acorus from the Araceae. Taxon 36: 723-729. Motley, T.J. 1994. The ethnobotany of sweet flat, Acorus calamus (Araceae). Econ. Bot. 48: 397-412.

Fernald, M.L. 1941. Two varieties of Dicliptera Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

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Packer, J.G. & G.S. Ringius. 1984. The distribution and status of Acorus (Araceae) in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 62: 2248-2252.

Pogan, E. 1963. Taxonomic value of Alisma triviale Pursh and Alisma subcordatum Rafin. Canad. J. Bot. 41: 1011-1013.

Adoxaceae Donoghue, M.J. 1983. A preliminary analysis of phylogenetic relationships in Viburnum (Caprifoliaceae s.l.) Syst. Bot. 8: 45-58. Egolf, D.R. 1962. A cytological study of the genus Viburnum. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 132-172. Eriksson, T. & M.J. Donoghue. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of Sambucus and Adoxa (Adoxoideae, Adoxaceae) based on nuclear ribosomal ITS sequences and preliminary morphological data. Syst. Bot. 22: 555-573. Fernald, M.L. 1941. Viburnum edule and its nomenclature. Rhodora 43: 481-483. Agavaceae McKelvey, S.D. 1938. Yuccas of the southwestern United States. Part 1. Arnold Arbor. Harvard Univ., Jamaica Plains, MA. 150 p. McKelvey, S.D. 1947. Yuccas of the southwestern United States. Part 2. Arnold Arbor. Harvard Univ., Jamaica Plains, MA. 192 p. Webber, J.M. 1953. Yuccas of the southwest. Agric. Monogr. U.S.D.A. 17: 1-97. Aizoaceae Bogle, A.L. 1970. The genera of Molluginaceae and Aizoaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 51: 431-462.

Small, J.K. 1909. Alismaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 4362. Wooten, J.W. 1971. Chromatographic studies in the Sagittaria graminea complex. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 17931797. Wooten, J.W. 1973. Taxonomy of seven species of Sagittaria from eastern North America. Brittonia 25: 6474. Amaranthaceae Fernald, M.L. 1941. Varieties of Acnida altissima. Rhodora 43: 288. Hauptli, H. & S.K. Jain. 1978. Biosystematics and agronomic potential of some weedy and cultivated amaranths. Theor. Appl. Genet. 52: 177-185. Henrickson, J. 1987. A taxonomic reevaluation of Gossypidanthus and Guilleminea (Amaranthaceae). Sida 12: 307-337. Mears, J.A. 1967. Revision of Guilleminea (Brayulinea) including Gossypianthus (Amaranthaceae). Sida 3: 137-152. Robertson, K.R. 1981. The genera of Amaranthaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 62: 267-314. Saurer, J.D. 1955. Revision of the dioecious amaranths. Madroño 13: 5-46.

Jeffrey, C. 1960. Notes on tropical African Aizoaceae. Kew Bull. 14: 235-238.

Sauer, J.D. 1967. The grain amaranths and their relatives: a revised taxonomic and geographic survey. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 54: 103-137.

McGregor, R.L. 1987. Sesuvium maritimum (Aizoaceae) in Kansas and Oklahoma. Contr. Univ. Kansas Herb. 23: 1-3.

Sauer, J.D. 1972. The dioecious amaranths: a new species name and major range extensions. Madroño 21: 426-434.

Alismataceae

Shinners, L.H. 1964. Amaranthus microphyllus Shinners, sp. nov. (Amaranthaceae). Sida 1: 248-249.

Beal, E.O., J.W. Wooten & R.B. Kaul. 1982. Review of the Sagittaria engelmanniana complex (Alismataceae) with environmental correlations. Syst. Bot. 7: 417-432.

Standley, P.C. 1917. Amaranthaceae. N. Amer. Flora 21: 95-169.

Bogin, C. 1955. Revision of the genus Sagittaria (Alismataceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 179-233. Hendricks, A.J. 1957. A revision of the genus Alisma (Dill.) L. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 58: 470-493. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Anacardiaceae Barkley, F.A. 1937. A monographic study of Rhus and its immediate allies in North and Central America, including the West Indies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24:

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265-498. Brizicky, G.K. 1963. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on the genus Rhus (Anacardiaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 44: 60-80. Brooks, R.E. 1977. Poison ivy and poison oak in Kansas. Bull. State Biol. Surv. Kansas 4: 1-38. Gillis, W.T. 1971. The systematics and ecology of poison ivy and the poison oaks (Toxicodendron, Anacardiaceae). Rhodora 73: 72-159, 161-237, 370443, 465-540. Greene, E.L. 1905. Segregates of the genus Rhus. Leafl. Bot. Observ. Crit. 1: 114-144. Lunell, J. 1913. Another Rhus glabra segregate from Nebraska. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 3: 147-148. Osterhout, G.E. 1911. Two new species from Colorado. Muhlenbergia 7: 11-12. Reveal, J.L. 1990. Minor new combinations in Toxicodendron (Anacardiaceae). Phytologia 69: 275. Shinners, L.H. 1951. Rhus aromatica Ait. var. flabelliformis Shinners, var. nov. Field & Laboratory 19: 86-87. Spellman, D.L. & D.B. Dunn. 1965. Schmaltzia serotina as a part of Rhus trilobata. Brittonia 17: 286288.

North American Umbelliferae. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 7: 1-256. Dierker, B. 1992. A new Eryngium for Missouri. Missouriensis 13: 25-26. Dorn, R.D. & R.L. Hartman. 1988. Nomenclature of Lomatium nuttallii, L. kingii, and L. megarrhizum (Apiaceae). Madroño 35: 70-71. Easterly, N.W. 1957. A morphological study of Ptilimnium. Brittonia 9: 136-145. Giannasi, D.E. & T.I. Chuang. 1976. Flavonoid systematics of the genus Perideridia (Umbelliferae). Brittonia 28: 177-194. Lowry, P.P., II & A.G. Jones. 1985. Systematics of Osmorhiza Raf. (Apiaceae: Apioideae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 1128-1171. Mathias, M.E. 1930. Studies of the Umbelliferae. III. A monograph of Cymopterus including a critical study of related genera. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 213-277. Mathias, M.E. 1938. A revision of the genus Lomatium. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 25: 225-297. Mathias, M.E. & L. Constance. 1941. Limnosciadium, a new genus of Umbelliferae. Amer. J. Bot. 28: 162-163. Mathias, M.E. & L. Constance. 1941. A synopsis of the North American species of Eryngium. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 25: 361-387.

Annonaceae Kral, R. 1960. A revision of Asimina and Deeringothamus (Annonaceae). Brittonia 12: 233-278. Apiaceae Brummitt, R.K. 1971. Relationship of Heracleum lanatum Michx. Of North America to H. sphondylium of Europe. Rhodora 73: 578-584. Buddell, G.F. & J.W. Thieret. 1985. Notes on Erigenia bulbosa (Apiaceae). Bartonia 51: 69-76. Bush, B.F. 1902. The North American species of Chaerophyllum. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 12: 57-63. Cash, H.J. 1954. The genus Lomatium (Umbelliferae) in Montana. Proc. Montana Acad. Sci. 14: 11-21. Chuang, T. & L. Constance. 1969. A systematic study of Perideridia (Umbelliferae-Apioideae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 55: 1-74. Coulter, J.M. & J.N. Rose. 1900. Monograph of the Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Mathias, M.E. & L. Constance. 1942. A synopsis of the American species of Cicuta. Madroño 6: 145-151. Mathias, M.E. & L. Constance. 1945. Umbelliferae. N. Amer. Flora 28B: 43-295. Mulligan, G.A. 1980. The genus Cicuta in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 1755-1767. Mulligan, G.A. & D.B. Munro. 1981. The biology of Canadian weeds. 48. Cicuta maculata L., C. douglasii (DC.) Coult. & Rose, and C. virosa L. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 61: 93-105. Murley, M.R. 1946. Fruit key to the Umbelliferae in Iowa, with plant distribution records. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 20: 349-364. Pimenov, M.G. & L. Constance. 1985. Nomenclature of suprageneric taxa in Umbelliferae/Apiaceae. Taxon 34: 493-528. Pimenov, M.G. & M.V. Leonov. 1993. The genera of the Umbelliferae: a nomenclator. Royal Botanic

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Gardens, Kew. 156 p. Pryer, K.M. & L.R. Phillippe. 1989. A synopsis of the genus Sanicula (Apiaceae) in eastern Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 694-707. Salamum, P.J. 1952. A Black Hills variety of Osmorhiza longistylis. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 47: 251-253.

Kelly, L.M. 1997. A cladistic analysis of Asarum (Aristolochiaceae) and implications for the evolution of herkogamy. Amer. J. Bot. 84: 1752-1765. Pfeifer, H.W. 1966. Revision of the North and Central American hexandrous species of Aristolochia (Aristolochiaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 115196.

Small, E. 1978. A numerical taxonomic analysis of the Daucus carota complex. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 248-276.

Asclepiadaceae

Theobald, W.L. 1966. The Lomatium dasycarpummohavense-foeniculaceum complex (Umbelliferae). Brittonia 18: 1-18.

Cochrane, T.S. & H.H. Iltis. 1972. Asclepias otarioides Fourn. (Asclepiaceae), the valid name for Asclepias lanuginosa HBK. Southw. Naturalist 17: 105.

Apocynaceae

Cochrane, T.S. 1972. Asclepias otarioides (Asclepiaceae), addenda. Southw. Naturalist 17: 312.

Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1930. Studies of the Apocynaceae. I. A critical study of the Apocynoideae (with special reference to the genus Apocynum). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 17: 1-213. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1928. Studies of the Apocynaceae. II. A monograph of the genu Amsonia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15: 379-434. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1938. Apocynaceae. N. Amer. Flora 29: 103-192. Araceae Blackwell, W.H., Jr. 1972. The combination Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endlicher. Rhodora 74: 516-518. Huttleston, D.G. 1949. The three subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 76: 407413. Huttleston, D.G. 1981. The four subspecies of Arisaema triphyllum. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 479481.

Farmer, J. & C.R. Bell. 1985. A new combination in Asclepias. Phytologia 57: 380. Holm, R.W. 1950. The American species of Sarcostemma R. Br. (Asclepiadaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 37: 477-560. Kaul, R.B, S.B. Rolfsmeier & J.J. Esch. 1991. The distribution and reproductive phenology of the milkweeds (Asclepiadaceae: Asclepias and Cynanchum) in Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 18: 127-140. Liede, S. 1996. Sarcostemma (Asclepiadaceae) - a controversial generic circumscription reconsidered: morphological evidence. Syst. Bot. 21: 31-44. Locklear, J.H. 1996. The biology, ecology and conservation needs of Asclepias uncialis Greene in Colorado. Unpubl. report. Nebraska Statewide Arboretum, Lincoln, NE. 53 p. + appendices. Nicholson, D. & N.H. Russell. 1955. The genus Asclepias in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 62: 211-215.

Araliaceae Graham, S.A. 1966. The genera of Araliaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 47: 126136. Reveal, J.L. 1991. Typification of Panax quinquefolium Linneaus (Araliaceae). Phytologia 71: 472-474. Smith, A.C. 1945. Araliaceae. N. Amer. Flora 28B: 341. Aristolochiaceae Gregory, M.P. 1956. A phyletic rearrangement in the Aristolochiaceae. Amer. J. Bot. 43: 110-122. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Shinners, L.H. 1950. The species of Matelea (including Gonolobus) in north central Texas (Asclepiadaceae). Field & Laboratory 18: 73-78. Shinners, L.H. 1964. Texas Asclepiadaceae other than Asclepias. Sida 1: 358-367. Sundell, E. 1980. The subfamilial, tribal, and subtribal nomenclature of the Asclepiadaceae. Taxon 29: 257265. Swarupanandan, K., J.K. Mangaly, T.K. Sonny, K. Kishorekumar & S.C. Basha. 1996. The subfamilial and tribal classification of the family Asclepiadaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 120: 327-369.

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Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1941. The North American Asclepiadaceae. I. Perspective of the genera. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 28: 193-244. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1944. Notes on some North American asclepiads. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 363-372. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1945. Notes on some North American asclepiads. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 32: 369-371. Woodson, R.E., Jr. 1954. The North American species of Asclepias L. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 41: 1-211. Asteraceae Allen, G.A. 1985. The hybrid origin of Aster ascendens (Asteraceae). Amer. J. Bot. 72: 268-277. Allen, G.A. & C.L. Eccleston. 1998. Genetic resemblance of allotetraploid Aster ascendens to its diploid progenitors Aster falcatus and Aster occidentalis. Canad. J. Bot. 76: 338-344.

Babcock, E.B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Part 1. The taxonomy, phylogeny, distribution, and evolution of Crepis. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 21: 1-198. Babcock, E.B. 1947. The genus Crepis. Part 2. Systematic treatment. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 22: 1991030. Bain, J.F. & J.L. Golden. 2000. A phylogeny of Packera (Senecioneae; Asteraceae) based on internal transcribed spacer region sequence data and a broad sampling outgroup. Molec. Phylogenetics Evol. 16: 331-338. Bain, J.F. & R.K. Jansen. 1995. A phylogenetic analysis of the aureoid Senecio (Asteraceae) complex based on ITS sequence data. Pl. Syst. Evol. 195: 209219. Baltzer, E.A. 1944. A monographic study of the genus Palafoxia and its immediate allies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 249-278. Barkley, T.M. 1960. A revision of Senecio integerrimus Nuttall and allied species. Leafl. W. Bot. 9: 97-113.

Ammerman, E. 1944. A monographic study of the genus Palafoxia and its immediate allies. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 249-278.

Barkley, T.M. 1962. A revision of Senecio aureus Linn. and allied species. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 65: 318408.

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Cannabaceae

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Capparceae

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McNeill, J. & H.C. Prentice. 1981. Silene pratensis (Rafn) Godron & Gren., the correct name for white campion or white cockel (Silene alba (Miller) E.H.L. Krause), nom. illeg. Taxon 30: 27-32.

Les, D.H. 1986. The evolution of achene morphology in Ceratophyllum (Ceratophyllaceae), I. fruti-spine variation and relationships of C. demersum, C. submersum, and C. apiculatum. Syst. Bot. 11: 549558.

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Morton, J.K. & R.K. Rabeler. 1989. Biosystematc studies on the Stellaria calycantha (Caryophyllaceae) complex. I. Cytology and cytogeography. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 121-127.

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Rabeler, R.K. 1985. Petrorhagia (Caryophyllaceae) of North America. Sida 11: 6-44.

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Chenopodiaceae

Bassett, I.J. & C.W. Crompton. 1973. The genus Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) in Canada and Alaska. III. Three hexaploid annuals: A. subspicata, A. gmelinii, and A. alaskensis. Canad. J. Bot. 51: 1715-1723. Bassett, I.J. & C.W. Crompton. 1978. The genus Suaeda in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 581-591. Bassett, I.J. & C.W. Crompton. 1982. The genus Chenopodium in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 586-610. Behnke, H.-D. 1997. Sarcobataceae – a new family of Caryophyllales. Taxon 46: 495-507. Blackwell, W.H., Jr. 1977. The subfamilies of the Chenopodiaceae. Taxon 26: 395-397. Blackwell, W.H., Jr., M.D. Baechle, & G. Williamson. 1978. Synopsis of Kochia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida 7: 248-254. Blackwell, W.H., J.D. Haacke & C.O. Hopkins. 1979. Halogeton (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida 8: 157-169. Brown, G.D. 1956. Taxonomy of American Atriplex. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 55: 199-210.

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Chu, G.L., H.C. Stutz & S.C. Sanderson. 1991. Morphology and taxonomic position of Suckleya suckleyana (Chenopodiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 78: 6368. Collins, S.I. & W.H. Blackwell, Jr. 1979. Bassia (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida 8: 57-64.

Hudson, J.H. 1978. Atriplex powellii and Cabri Lake. Blue Jay 36: 137-138. Hutchins, C.R. 1970. Suckleya suckleyana (Chenopodiaceae) new to Texas. Southw. Naturalist 15: 142-143.

Crawford, D.J. 1974. The validity of Chenopodium glabrescens (Chenopodiaceae). Southw. Naturalist 19: 249-255.

LaDuke, J. & D.J. Crawford. 1979. Character compatibility and phyletic relationships in several closely related species of Chenopodium of the western United States. Taxon 28: 307-314.

Crawford, D.J. 1975. Systematic relationships in the narrow-leaved species of Chenopodium of the western United States. Brittonia 27: 279-288.

Maihle, N.J. & W.H. Blackwell, Jr. 1978. A synopsis of North American Corispermum (Chenopodiaceae). Sida 7: 382-391.

Crawford, D.J. 1977. A study of morphological variability in Chenopodium incanum (Chenopodiaceae) and the recognition of two new varieties. Brittonia 29: 291-296.

McNeill, J., I.J. Bassett, & C.W. Crompton. 1979. Atriplex suckleyi (Torrey) Rydb., the correct name for A. dioica (Nutt.) MacBride. Taxon 28: 588-589.

Crawford, D.J. & E.A. Julian. 1976. Seed protein profiles in the narrow-leaves species of Chenopodium of the western United States: taxonomic value and comparison with distribution of flavonoid compounds. Amer. J. Bot. 63: 302-308. Crawford, D.J. & J.F. Reynolds. 1974. A numerical study of the common narrow-leaved taxa of Chenopodium occurring in the western United States. Brittonia 26: 398-410. Crawford, D.J. & H.D. Wilson. 1979. Allozyme variation in several closely related diploid species of Chenopodium of the western United States. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 237-244. Crompton, C.W. & I.J. Bassett. 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 65. Salsola pestifer A. Nels. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 65: 379-388. Dorn, R.D. 1988. Chenopodium simplex, an older name for C. gigantospermum (Chenopodiaceae). Madroño 35: 162. Frankton, C. & I.J. Bassett. 1968. The genus Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) in Canada. I. Three introduced species: A. heterosperma, A. oblongifolia, and A. hortensis. Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1309-1313. Frankton, C. & I.J. Bassett. 1970. The genus Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) in Canada. II. Four native western species: A. argentea, A. truncata, A. powellii, and A. dioica. Canad. J. Bot. 48: 981-989. Hopkins, C.O. & W.H. Blackwell, Jr. 1977. Synopsis of Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Sida 7: 147-173. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

McNeill, J., I.J. Bassett, & C.W. Crompton & P.M. Taschereau. 1983. Taxonomic and nomenclatural notes on Atriplex L. (Chenopodiaceae). Taxon 32: 549556. McNeill, J., I.J. Bassett, & C.W. Crompton. 1977. Suaeda calceoliformis, the correct name for Suaeda depressa auct. Rhodora 79: 133-138. Meeuse, A.D.J. & A. Smit. 1971. A new combination in Krascheinnikovia (Chenop.). Taxon 20: 644. Mosyakin, S.L. 1995. New combinations in Asian Krascheninnikovia Gueldenstaedt (Chenopodiaceae) Novon 5: 52-53. Mosyakin, S.L. 1996. A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 83: 387-395. Mosyakin, S.L. & S.E. Clemants. 1996. New infrageneric taxa and combinations in Chenopodium L. (Chenopodiaceae). Novon 6: 398-403. Naylor, V.J. 1989. First documented occurrence of Halogeton glomeratus in South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 21: 219-220. Pohl, R.W. & J.P. Gillespie. 1959. Distribution and cytological notes on Salsola collina. Rhodora 61: 265267. Pemberton, R.W. 1986. The distribution of Halogeton in North America. J. Range Manag. 39: 281-282. Reveal, J.L. & N.H. Holmgren. 1972. Ceratoides, an older generic name for Krascheninnikovia and Eurotia. Taxon 21: 209.

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Reynolds, J.F. & D.J. Crawford. 1980. A quantitative study of variation in the Chenopodium atrovirensdessicatum-pratericola complex. Amer. J. Bot. 67: 1380-1390. Robertson, J.H. 1983. Greasewood (Sacrobatus vermiculatus (Hook.) Torr.). Phytologia 54: 309-324. Sanderson, S.C., H.C. Stutz & E.D. McArthur. 1990. Geographic differentiantion in Atriplex confertifolia. Amer. J. Bot. 77: 490-498. Sanderson, S.C., H.C. Stutz, M. Stutz & R.C. Roos. 1999. Chromosome races in Sarcobatus (Sarcobataceae, Caryophyllales). Great Basin Naturalist 59: 301-314. Scott, A.J. 1977. Reinstatement and revision of Salicorniaceae J. Agardh (Caryophyllales). J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 75: 357-374. Standley, P.C. 1916. Chenopodiaceae. N. Amer. Flora 21: 3-93. Stutz, H.C., C.L. Pope & S.C. Sanderson. 1979. Evolutionary studies of Atriplex: adaptive products from the natural hybrid, 6n A. tridentata x 4n A. canescens. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 1181-1193. Stutz, H.C., G. Chu & S.C. Sanderson. 1993. Resurrection of the genus Endolepis and clarification of Atriplex phyllostegia (Chenopodiaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 80: 592-597. Stutz, H.C. & S.C. Sanderson. 1983. Evolutionary studies of Atriplex: chromosome races of A. confertifolia (shadscale). Amer. J. Bot. 70: 1536-1547.

and morphologic variation in the diploids Chenopodium fremontii, C. neomexicanum, C. palmeri, and C. watsonii. Amer. J. Bot. 75: 97-105. Welsh, S.L. & C. Crompton. 1995. Names and types in perennial Atriplex Linnaeus (Chenopodiaceae) in North America selectively exclusive of Mexico. Great Basin Naturalist 55: 322-334. Wolff, S.L. & R.L. Jefferies. 1987. Morphological and isozyme variation in Salicornia europaea (s.l.) (Chenopodiaceae) in northeastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 1410-1419. Wolff, S.L. & R.L. Jefferies. 1987. Taxonomic status of diploid Salicornia europaea (s.l.) (Chenopodiaceae) in northeastern North America. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 14201426. Zappettini, G. 1953. The taxonomy of Halogeton glomeratus. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 50: 238-247. Cistaceae Daoud, H.S. & R.L. Wilbur. 1965. A revision of the North American species of Helianthemum (Cistaceae). Rhodora 67: 63-82, 201-216, 255-312. Hodgdon, A.R. 1938. A taxonomic study of Lechea. Rhodora 40: 29-69, 87-131. Wilbur, R.L. & H.S. Daoud. 1964. The genus Helianthemum (Cistaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 80: 38-43. Wilbur, R.L. 1966. Notes on Rafinesque’s species of Lechea (Cistaceae). Rhodora 68: 192-208. Clusiaceae

Taschereau, P.M. 1972. Taxonomy and distribution of Atriplex species in Nova Scotia. Canad. J. Bot. 50: 1571-1594. Ungar, I.A. & J. Boucaud. 1974. Comparison of seed proteins in the genus Suaeda (Chenopodiaceae) by means of disc gel electrophoresis. Amer. J. Bot. 61: 325-330. van der Meijden, R. 1970. Biosystematic notes on Atriplex patula L., A. hastata L., and A. littoralis L. (Chenopodiaceae). Blumea 18: 53-63. Wagner, W.L. & E.F. Aldon. 1978. Manual of the saltbushes (Atriplex spp.) in New Mexico. U.S. Dept. Agric. Gen. Tech. Rept. RM-57, 50 p.

Adams, W.P. 1957. A revision of the genus Ascyrum (Hypericaceae). Rhodora 59: 73-95. Adams, W.P. & N.K.B. Robson. 1961. A re-evaluation of the generic status of Ascyrum and Crookea (Guttiferae). Rhodora 63: 10-16. Adams, P. 1962. Studies in the Guttiferae. I. A synopsis of Hypericum section Myriandra. Contr. Gray Herb. 189: 1-51. Robson, N.K.B. 1977. Studies in Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) I. Infragenerc classification. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 5: 291-355.

Wahl, H.A. 1954. A preliminary study of the genus Chenopodium in North America. Bartonia 27: 1-46.

Robson, N.K.B. 1980. The Linnean species of Ascyrum (Guttiferae). Taxon 29: 267-274.

Walters, T.W. 1988. Relationship between isozymic

Robson, N.K.B. 1981. Studies in Hypericum L.

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(Guttiferae) 2. Characters of the genus. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 8: 55-226. Robson, N.K.B. 1990. Studies in Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 8. Sections 29. Brathys (part 2) and 30. Trigynobrathys. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 20: 1151. Robson, N.K.B. 1993. Studies in Hypericum: validation of new names. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 23: 6770. Robson, N.K.B. 1996. Studies in Hypericum L. (Guttiferae) 6. Sections 20. Myriandra to 28. Elodes. Bull. Brit. Mus. Nat. Hist. (Bot.) 26: 75-217. Weatherby, C.A. 1928. A variety of Hypericum canadense. Rhodora 30: 188-191. Wood, C.E., Jr. & P. Adams. 1976. The genera of Guttiferae (Clusiaceae) in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 57: 74-90.

Convolvulaceae. Sida 14: 273-286. Austin, D.F. 1992. Rare Convolvulaceae in the southwestern United States. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 79: 8-16. Austin, D.F. 1996. A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38. Austin, D.F. & Z. Huáman. 1996. A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas. Taxon 45: 3-38. Brummitt, R.K. 1965. New combinations in North American Calystegia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52: 214-216. Brummitt, R.K. 1981. Further new names in the genus Calystegia (Convolvulaceae). Kew Bull. 35: 327-334. House, H.D. 1905. Two new species of Convolvulus from the western United States. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 32: 139-140.

Commelinaceae Anderson, E. 1941. Binary variation in Tradescantia bracteata. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 28: 147-163. Anderson, E. & R.E. Woodson. 1935. The species of Tradescantia indigenous to the United States. Contr. Arnold Arbor. 9: 1-132. Brashier, C.K. 1966. A revision of Commelina (Plum.) L. in the U.S.A. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 93: 1-19. Hunt, D.R. 1980. Sections and series in Tradescantia. American Commelinaceae: IX. Kew Bull. 35: 437-442. Tucker, G.C. 1989. The genera of Commelinaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 70: 97130. Convolvulaceae Abel, W.E. & D.F. Austin. 1981. Introgressive hybridization between Ipomoea trichocarpa and Ipomoea lacunosa (Convolvulaceae). Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 108: 231-239.

Lewis, W.H. 1971. Pollen differences between Stylisma and Bonamia (Convolvulaceae). Brittonia 23: 331-334. Lewis, W.H. & R.L. Oliver. 1965. Realignment of Calystegia and Convolvulus (Convolvulaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 52: 217-222. Myint, T. 1966. Revision of the genus Stylisma (Convolvulaceae). Brittonia 18: 97-117. Perry, L.M. 1935. Evolvulus pilosus an invalid name. Rhodora 37: 63. Shinners, L.H. 1961. Ipomoea shumardiana (Convolvulaceae), a neglected Oklahoma-north Texas endemic. Southw. Naturalist 6: 100-101. Shinners, L.H. 1962. Synopsis of United States Bonamia, including Breweria and Stylisma (Convolvulaceae). Castanea 27: 65-77. Tharp, B.C. & M.C. Johnston. 1961. Recharacterization of Dichondra (Convolvulaceae) and a revision of the North American species. Brittonia 13: 346-360.

Austin, D.F. 1979. An infrageneric classification for Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 28: 359-361.

Cornaceae

Austin, D.F. 1980. Additional comments on infrageneric taxa in Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 29: 501-502.

Ferguson, I.K. 1966. The Cornaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 47: 106116.

Austin, D.F. 1986. Nomenclature of the Ipomoea nil complex (Convolvulaceae). Taxon 35: 355-358.

Rickett, H.W. 1936. Cornus drummondii. Rhodora 38: 99-100.

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Pringle, J.S. 1967. Taxonomy of Gentiana, section Pneumonanthae, in eastern North America. Brittonia 19: 1-32.

Aiken, S.G. & J. McNeill. 1980. The discovery of Myriophyllum exalbescens Fernald (Haloragaceae) in Europe and the typification of M. spicatum and M. verticillatum L. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 80: 213-222.

Rogers, C.M. 1949. A new Swertia from Colorado. Madroño 10: 108-110. Shinners, L.H. 1957. A synopsis of the genus Eustoma (Gentianaceae). Southw. Naturalist 2: 38-43. St. John, H. 1941. Revision of the genus Swertia (Gentianaceae) of the Americas and the reduction of Frasera. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 26: 1-29. Wilbur, R.L. 1955. A revision of the North American genus Sabatia (Gentianaceae). Rhodora 57: 1-33, 4371, 78-104. Wilbur, R.L. 1988. The correct scientific name of the pale, yellow, or white gentian of the eastern United States. Sida 13: 161-165.

Aiken, S.G., P.R. Newroth & I. Wile. 1979. The biology of Canadian weeds. 34. Myriophyllum spicatum L. Can. J. Plant Sci. 59: 201-215. Ceska, A. & O. Ceska. 1986. Notes on Myriophyllum (Haloragaceae) in the far east: the identity of Myriophyllum sibiricum Komarov. Taxon 35: 95-100. Couch, R. & P. Mace. 1978. Eurasian water milfoil in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 58: 4-5. Löve, Á. 1961. Some notes on Myriophyllum spicatum. Rhodora 63: 139-145. Mathewes, R.W. 1978. Pollen morphology of some Canadian Myriophyllum species in relation to taxonomy. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 1372-1380.

Geraniaceae Aedo, C., J.J. Aldasoro & C. Navarro. 1998. Taxonomic revision of Geranium sections Batrachioidea and Divaricata (Geraniaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 85: 594-630. Hanks, L.T. & J.K. Small. 1907. Geraniaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 3-24. Jones, G.N. & F.F. Jones. 1943. A revision of the perennial species of Geranium of the United States and Canada. Rhodora 45: 5-26, 32-53. Yeo, P.F. The biology and systematics of Geranium, sections Anemonifolia Kunth and Roberta Dum. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 67: 285-346. Grossulariaceae

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Patten, B.C., Jr. 1954. The status of some American species of Myriophyllum as revealed by the discovery of intergrade material between M. exalbescens Fern. and M. spicatum L. in New Jersey. Rhodora 56: 213-225. Reed, C.F. 1977. History and distribution of Eurasian milfoil in United States and Canada. Phytologia 36: 417-436. Hippocastanaceae Forest, F., J.N. Drouin, R. Charest, L. Brouillet & A. Bruneau. 2001. A morphological phylogenetic analysis of Aesculus L. and Billia Peyr. (Sapindaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 79: 154-169. Hardin, J.W. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae. Brittonia 9: 145-171.

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Hardin, J.W. 1957. A revision of the American Hippocastanaceae - II. Brittonia 9: 173-195. Hardin, J.W. 1957. Studies in the Hippocastinaceae, IV. Hybridization in Aesculus. Rhodora 59: 186-203. Hydrangaceae Hitchcock, C.L. 1943. The xerophyllous species of Philadelphus in southwestern North America. Madroño 7: 35-56. Holmgren, N.H. & P.K. Holmgren. 1989. A taxonomic study of Jamesia (Hydrangeaceae). Brittonia 41: 335350.

St. John, H. 1962. Monograph of the genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae). Part I. The species found in the Great Plains, the Rocky Mountains, and the Pacific states and provinces of North America. Res. Stud. State Coll. Washington 30: 19-44. St. John, H. 1965. Monograph of the genus Elodea: part 4 and summary. Rhodora 67: 1-35, 155-180. Tanaka, N., H. Setoguchi & J. Murata. 1997. Phylogeny of the family Hydrocharitaceae inferred from rbcL and matK gene sequence data. J. Plant Res. 110: 329-337. Taylor, N. 1909. Naiadaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 3335.

McClintock, E. 1957. A monograph of the genus Hydrangea. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 29: 147-256.

Hydrophyllaceae

Pilatowski, R.E. 1982. A taxonomic study of the Hydrangea arborescens complex. Castanea 47: 8498.

Atwood, N.D. 1975. A revision of the Phacelia crenulata group (Hydrophyllaceae) for North America. Great Basin Naturalist 35: 127-190.

Small, J.K. & P.A. Rydberg. 1905. Hydrangeaceae. N. Amer. Flora 22: 159-178.

Bacon, J.D. 1974. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes in the genus Nama (Hydrophyllaceae). Brittonia 26: 101-105.

Hydrocharitaceae Catling, P.M. & W. Wojtas. 1986. The waterweeds (Elodea and Egeria, Hydrocharitaceae) in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 1525-1541.

Bacon, J.D. 1981. New species of Nama (Hydrophyllaceae) from the Chihuahuan desert region of México. Sida 9: 99-103.

Clausen, R.T. 1936. Studies in the genus Najas in the northern United States. Rhodora 38: 333-345.

Beckman, R.L., Jr. 1979. Biosystematics of the genus Hydrophyllum L. (Hydrophyllaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 66: 1053-1061.

Cook, C.D.K. & K. Urmi-König. 1985. A revision of the genus Elodea (Hydrocharitaceae). Aquatic Bot. 21: 111-156.

Beckman, R.L., Jr. 1980. Typification of the Linnaean species of Hydrophyllum L. (Hydrophyllaceae). Taxon 29: 275-277.

Fernald, M.L. 1923. Notes on the distribution of Najas in northeastern America. Rhodora 25: 105-109.

Chance, G.D. & J.D. Bacon. 1984. Systematic implications of seed coat morphology in Nama (Hydrophyllaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 71: 829-842.

Haynes, R.R. 1977. The Najadaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 58: 161170. Haynes, R.R. 1979. Revision of North and Central American Najas (Najadaceae). Sida 8: 34-56. Meriläinen, J. 1968. Najas minor All. in North America. Rhodora 70: 161-175.

Chuang, T.I. & L. Constance. 1992. Seeds and systematics in Hydrophyllaceae: tribe Hydrophylleae. Amer. J. Bot. 79: 257-264. Constance, L. 1940. The genus Ellisia. Rhodora 42: 33-39. Constance, L. 1942. The genus Hydrophyllum L. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 27: 710-731.

Nelson, E.N. & R.W. Couch. 1981. Occurrence of Najas minor and N. marina (Najadaceae) in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 61: 78.

Gillett, G.W. 1962. Evolutionary relationships of Phacelia linearis. Brittonia 14: 231-236.

Rydberg, P.A. 1909. Elodeaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 67-71.

Gillett, G.W. 1965. Genotypic variation in the Phacelia hirsuta complex. Rhodora 67: 42-48.

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Gillett, G.W. 1965. Genotypic variation in the Phacelia strictiflora complex. Rhodora 67: 139-145. Heckard, L.R. 1960. Taxonomic studies in the Phacelia magellanica polyploid complex, with special reference to the California members. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 32: 1126. Hitchcock, C.L. 1933. A taxonomic study of the genus Nama. Amer. J. Bot. 26: 415-430, 518-534. Howell, J.T. 1945. Studies in Phacelia - revision of species related to P. douglasii, P. linearis, and P. pringlei. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 460-494. Hsiao, Y. & T.I Chuang. 1981. Seed-coat morphology and anatomy in Collomia (Polemoniaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 68: 1155-1164.

Oliver, R.L. & W.H. Lewis. 1962. Chromosome numbers of Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae) in eastern North America. Sida 1: 43-48. Shinners, L.H. 1957. Sisyrinchium bermudiana L. instead of S. angustifolium Miller. Rhodora 59: 159160. Ward, D.B. 1968. The nomenclature of Sisyrinchium bermudiana and related North American species. Taxon 17: 270-276. Juglandaceae Little, E.L., Jr. 1943. Notes on the nomenclature of Carya Nutt. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 29: 493-508.

Voss, J.W. 1937. A revision of the Phacelia crenulata group for North America. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 64: 8196, 133-144.

Stone, D.E., G.A. Adrouny & R.H. Flake. 1969. New World Juglandaceae. II. Hickory nut oils, phenetic similarities, and evolutionary implications in the genus Carya. Amer. J. Bot. 56: 928-935.

Iridaceae

Juncaceae

Anderson, E. 1928. The problem of species in northern blue flags, Iris versicolor L. and Iris virginica L. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 15: 241-332.

Brooks, R.E. & A.T. Whittemore. 1999. Juncus anthelatus (Juncaceae, Juncus subg. Poiophylli), a new status for a North American taxon. Novon 9: 1112.

Cholewa, A.F. & D.M. Henderson. 1984. Biosystematics of Sisyrinchium section Bermudiana (Iridaceae) of the Rocky Mountains. Brittonia 36: 342363. Foster, R.C. 1945. A revision of the North American species of Nemstylis Nutt. Contr. Gray Herb. 155: 2644.

Catling, P.M. & K.W. Spicer. 1987. The perennial Juncus of section Poiophylli in the Canadian prairie provinces. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 750-760. Harms, L.J. 1970. Juncus kansanus: a synonym of J. brachyphyllus (Juncaceae). Rhodora 3: 525-528.

Goldblatt, P. 1975. Revision of the bulbous Iridaceae of North America. Brittonia 27: 373-385.

Kirschner, J. 1990. Luzula multiflora and allied species (Juncaceae): a nomenclatural study. Taxon 39: 106114.

Guédès, M. 1969. Typification of Sisyrinchium bermudiana and Sisyrinchium angustifolium (Iridaceae). Taxon 18: 542-545.

Stuckey, R.L. 1980. The migration and establishment of Juncus gerardii (Juncaceae) in the interior of North America. Sida 8: 334-347.

Henderson, D.M. 1976. A biosystematic study of Pacific Northwestern blue-eyed grasses (Sisyrinchium, Iridaceae). Brittonia 28: 149-176.

Stuckey, R.L. 1981. Distributional history of Juncus compressus (Juncaceae) in North America. Canad. Field-Naturalist 95: 167-171.

Lawrence, G.H.M. 1953. A reclassification of the genus Iris. Gentes Herb. 8: 346-371.

Juncaginaceae

McGregor, R.L. 1960. Variation in Sisyrinchium campestre Bickn. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 63: 121124. Mosquin, T. 1970. Chromosome numbers and a proposal for classification in Sisyrinchium (Iridaceae). Madroño 20: 269-275. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Britton, N.L. 1909. Scheuchzeriaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 41-42. Ford, B.A. & P.W. Ball. 1988. A reevaluation of the Triglochin maritimum complex (Juncaginaceae) in eastern and central North America and Euorpe. Rhodora 90: 313-337.

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Taylor, N. 1909. Lilaeaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 37. Krameriaceae

Henson, D.I. 1941. The genus Monarda in Oklahoma. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 25: 358-360.

Britton, N.L. 1930. Krameriaceae. N. Amer. Flora 23: 195-200.

Hermann, F.J. 1936. Diagnostic characteristics in Lycopus. Rhodora 38: 373-375.

Simpson, B.B. 1982. Krameria (Krameriaceae) flowers: orientation and elaiophore morphology. Taxon 31: 517528.

Irving, R.S. 1980. The systematics of Hedeoma (Labiatae). Sida 8: 218-295.

Lamiaceae Cantino, P.D. 1981. Changes of status for Physostegia virginiana var. ledinghamii (Labiatae) and evidence for a hybrid origin. Rhodora 83: 111-118. Cantino, P.D. 1982. A monograph of the genus Physostegia (Labiatae). Contr. Gray Herb. 211: 1-105. Cantino, P.D. & T.G. Lammers. 1983. Physostegia virginiana var. arenaria Shimek, an overlooked name. Rhodora 85: 263-264. Cantino, P.D. & S.J. Wagstaff. 1998. A reexamination of North American Satureja s.l. (Lamiaceae) in light of molecular evidence. Brittonia 50: 63-70. Castaner, D. & T. Priesendorf. 1989. Leonurus marrubiastrum L. (Lamiaceae), new to Missouri. Sida 13: 383-384. Cooperrider, T.S. & R.F. Sabo. 1969. Stachys hispida and S. tenuifolia in Ohio. Castanea 34: 432-435. Epling, C. 1942. The American species of Scutellaria. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 20: 1-145. Fosberg, F.R. & L. Artz. 1953. The varieties of Monarda fistulosa L. Castanea 18: 128-130. Gandhi, K.N. & R.D. Thomas. 1983. Stem pubescence in the Salvia azurea var. azurea and var. grandiflora complex. Phytologia 54: 283-284.

Lewis, H. 1945. A revision of the genus Trichostema. Brittonia 5: 276-303. Lint, H., & C. Epling. 1945. A revision of Agastache. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 207-230. McClintock, E. & C. Epling. 1942. A revision of the genus Monarda (Labiatae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 20: 147-194. McClintock, E. & C. Epling. 1946. A revision of Teucrium in the New World, with observations on its variation, geographical distribution and history. Brittonia 5: 491-510. Mennema, J. 1989. A taxonomic revision of Lamium (Lamiaceae). Leiden Bot. Ser. 11: 1-196. Morton, C.V. 1966. Varieties of Ballota nigra in the eastern United States. Rhodora 94-95. Mulligan, G.A. & D.B. Munro. 1989. Taxonomy of species of North American Stachys (Labiatae) found north of Mexico. Naturaliste Canad. 116: 35-51. Mulligan, G.A., D.B. Munro & J. McNeill. 1983. The status of Stachys palustris (Labiatae) in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 679-682. Nelson, J.B. 1981. Stachys (Labiatae) in southeastern United States. Sida 9: 104-123. Olmstead, R.G. 1990. Systematics of the Scutellaria angustifolia complex (Labiatae). Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 17: 223-265.

Gill, L.S. 1980. A study of the Stachys palustris L. complex (Labiatae) in northern North America. Phytologia 46: 231-245.

Scora, R.W. New taxa in the genus Monarda (Labiatae). Madroño 18: 119-122.

Gill, L.S., B.M. Lawrence & J.K. Morton. 1973. Variation in Mentha arvensis L. (Labiatae). I. The North American populations. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 67: 213-232.

Scora, R.W. 1967. Interspecifc relationships in the genus Monarda (Labiatae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 41: 171.

Grant, E. & C. Epling. 1943. A study of Pycnanthemum (Labiatae). Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 20: 195-240.

Shinners, L.H. 1951. Two new species of Physostegia (Labiatae). Field & Lab. 19: 166-168.

Henderson, N.C. 1962. A taxonomic revision of the genus Lycopus (Lamiaceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 68: 95-138.

Shinners, L.H. 1953. Nomenclature of the varieties of Monarda punctata L. (Labiatae). Field & Lab. 21: 8992.

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Shinners, L.H. 1962. Calamintha (Labiatae) in the southern United States. Sida 1: 69-75. Shinners, L.H. 1963. The varieties of Teucrium canadense (Labiatae). Sida 1: 182-183. Stewart, S.R. 1944. Mentha arvensis and some of its North American variations. Rhodora 46: 331-335. Tatina, R. 1990. Stachys tenuifolia Willd. (Lamiaceae) in South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 22: 136. Tucker, A.O., R.M. Harley & D.E. Fairbrothers. 1980. The Linnean types of Mentha (Lamiaceae). Taxon 29: 233-255.

Muir, B.J. 1982. Saskatchewan’s smallest flowering plants. Blue Jay 40: 73-78. Reveal, J.L. 1990. The neotypification of Lemna minuta Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, an earlier name for Lemna minuscula Herter (Lemnaceae). Taxon 39: 328-330. Lentibulariaceae Kondo, K. 1972. A comparison of variability in Utricularia cornuta and Utricularia juncea. Amer. J. Bot. 59: 23-37. Taylor, P. 1989. The genus Utricularia - a taxonomic monograph. Kew Bull Addit. Ser. 14: 1-724. Liliaceae

Turner, B.L. 1994. A taxonomic overview of Scutellaria, section Resinosa (Lamiaceae). Phytologia 76: 345382. Turner, B.L. 1994. Taxonomic treatment of Monarda (Lamiaceae) for Texas and Mexico. Phytologia 77: 5679. Turner, M.W. 1996. Systematic study of the genus Brazoria (Lamiaceae) and Warnockia (Lamiaceae), a new genus from Texas. Pl. Syst. Evol. 203: 65-82. Vogelmann, J.E. & G.J. Gastony. 1987. Electrophoretic enzyme analysis of North American and eastern Asian populations of Agastache sect. Agastache (Labiatae). Amer. J. Bot. 74: 385-393. Lauraceae Fernald, M.L. 1936. The nomenclature of Sassafras. Rhodora 38: 178-179. Lemnaceae Brooks, R.E. 1981. First records of Wolffia (Lemnaceae) for Colorado. Southw. Naturalist 26: 321. den Hartog, C. & F van der Plas. 1970. A synopsis of the Lemnaceae. Blumea 18: 355-368. Landolt, E. 1986. The family of Lemnaceae, a monographic study. Vol. 1: morphology, karyology, ecology, geographic distribution, systematic position, nomenclature, description. Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 4: 1-638. Landolt, E. & R. Kandeler. 1987. The family of Lemnaceae, a monographic study. Vol. 2: phytochemistry, physiology, application, bibliography. Veröff. Geobot. Inst. ETH Stiftung Rübel Zürich 4: 1638.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Adams, R.M., II & W.J. Dress. 1982. Nodding Lilium species of eastern North America (Liliaceae). Baileya 21: 165-188. Beetle, D.E. 1944. A monograph of the North American species of Fritillaria. Madroño 7: 133-159. Bodkin, N.L. 1998. A new combination in Melanthium L. (Liliaceae). Novon 8: 332. Boivin, B. & W.J. Cody. 1956. The varieties of Lilium canadense Linnaeus. Rhodora 58: 14-20. Brackett, A. 1923. Revision of the American species of Hypoxis. Rhodora 25: 120-147, 151-155. Butters, F.K. 1927. Taxonomic studies in the genus Majanthemum. Res. Publ. Univ. Minnesota, Stud. Biol. Sci. 6: 429-444. Cruden, R.W. 1991. A revision of Isidrogalvia (Liliaceae): recognition of Ruíz and Pavón's genus. Syst. Bot. 16: 270-282. De Vries, B. 1973. Noddium trilliums in eastern Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 31: 214-217. Fassett, N.C. 1935. A study of Streptopus. Rhodora 37: 88-113. Fraser, S.V. 1939. Allium perdulce: a new Allium from Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 42: 123-126. Freeman, J.D. 1975. Revision of Trillium subgenus Phyllantherum (Liliaceae). Brittonia 27: 1-62. Galway, D.H. 1945. The North American species of Smilacina. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 644-666. Gould, F.W. 1942. A systematic treatment of the genus Camassia Lindl. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 28: 712-742.

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Hitchcock, C.L. 1944. The Tofieldia glutinosa complex of western North America. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 31: 487-498. Hume. H.H. 1938. The genus Cooperia. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 65: 78-87. Jacobsen, T.D. 1979. Numerical analysis of variation between Allium cernuum and Allium stellatum (Liliaceae). Taxon 28: 517-523. Jacobsen, T.D. 1980. The neotypification of Allium cernum Roth (Liliaceae). Taxon 29: 150-151. Jones, A.G. 1979. A study of wild leek, and the recognition of Allium burdickii (Liliaceae). Syst. Bot. 4: 29-43. Jones, Q.A. 1951. A cytotaxonomic study of the genus Disporum in North America. Contr. Gray Herb. 173: 139. Kaul, R.B. 1989. The status of Erythronium albidum and E. mesochoreum (Liliaceae) in Nebraska. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 17: 71-79. Kawano, S., M. Ohara & F.H. Utech. 1986. Life history studies on the genus Trillium (Liliaceae) II. Reproductive biology and survivorship of four eastern North American species. Pl. Sci. Biol. 1: 47-58.

Ranker, T.A. & A.F. Schnabel. 1986. Allozymic and morphological evidence for a progenitor-derivative species pair in Camassia (Liliaceae). Syst. Bot. 11: 433-445. Robertson, K.R. 1966. The genus Erythronium in Kansas. M.A. thesis. Univ. of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. 40 p. Robertson, K.R. 1966. The genus Erythronium (Liliaceae) in Kansas. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 197-204. Serota, C.A. & H.B. Gryder. 1967. A morphological and karyotypic analysis of an isolated population of Trillium gleasoni Fern. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 82: 117-122. Stearn, W.T. 1978. European species of Allium and allied genera of Alliaceae: a synonymic enumeration. Ann. Mus. Gouladris 4: 83-198. Stevens, W.C. 1937. Cooperia kansensis n. sp. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 40: 95-99. Steyermark, J.A. 1961. A neglected Camassia. Brittonia 13: 206-211. Wilbur, R.L. 1963. A revision of the North American genus Uvularia (Liliaceae). Rhodora 65: 158-188. Limnanthaceae

LaFrankie, J.V., Jr. 1986. Morphology and taxonomy of the New World species of Maianthemum (Liliaceae). J. Arnold Arbor. 67: 371-439. LaFrankie, J.V., Jr. 1986. Transfer of the species of Smilacina to Maianthemum (Liliaceae). Taxon 35: 584589. Nesom, G.L. & J.C. La Duke. 1985. Biology of Trillium nivale (Liliaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 63: 7-14.

Rydberg, P.A. 1910. Limnanthaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 97-100. Linaceae Harris, B.D. 1968. Chromosome numbers and evolution in North American species of Linum. Amer. J. Bot. 55: 1197-1204.

Ownbey, M. 1940. A monograph of the genus Calochortus. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 27: 371-561.

Mosquin, T. 1971. Biosystematic studies in the North American species of Linum, section Adenolinum. Canad. J. Bot. 49: 1379-1388.

Ownbey, M. 1950. The genus Allium in Texas. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash. 18: 181-222.

Rogers, C.M. 1963. Yellow flowered species of Linum in eastern North America. Brittonia 15: 97-122.

Ownbey, M. & H.C. Aase. 1955. Cytotaxonomic studies in Allium. I. The Allium canadense alliance. Res. Stud. State Coll. Wash., Monogr. Suppl. 1: 1-106.

Rogers, C.M. 1963. Studies in Linum: L. imbricatum and L. hudsonioides. Rhodora 65: 50-55.

Ownbey, R.P. 1944. The liliaceous genus Polygonatum in North America. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 31: 373-413. Parks, C.R. & J.W. Hardin. 1963. Yellow erythroniums in the eastern United States. Brittonia 15: 245-259. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Rogers, C.M. 1968. Yellow-flowered species of Linum in Central America and western North America. Brittonia 20: 107-135. Rogers, C.M. 1979. A new combination in Linum. Phytologia 41: 447-448.

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Rogers, C.M. 1984. Linaceae. N. Amer. Flora II. 12: 158.

notes on Malvastrum A. Gray (Malvaceae). Rhodora 69: 9-28.

Small, J.K. 1907. Linaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 67-87.

Clement, I.D. 1957. Studies in Sida (Malvaceae) I. A review of the genus and monograph of sections Malacroideae, Physalodes, Pseudomalvastrum, Icanifolium, Oligandrae, Pseudonapaea, Hookeria, and Steninda. Contr. Gray Herb. 180: 1-91.

Loasaceae Darlington, J. 1934. A monograph of the genus Mentzelia. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 21: 103-227. Hill, R.J. 1976. Mentzelia sinuata (Rydb.) R.J. Hill comb. nov. and M. speciosa Osterh. (Loasaceae), a species pair from the Rocky Mountain Front Range. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 103: 212-217. Hill, R.J. 1977. Variability of soluble seed proteins in populations of Mentzelia L. (Loasaceae) from Wyoming and adjacent states. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 104: 93-101.

Dorr, L.J. 1990. A revision of the North American genus Callirhoe (Malvaceae). Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 56: 1-76. Fryxell, J.E. 1983. A revision of Abutilon sect. Oligocarpae (Malvaceae), including a new species from Mexico. Madroño 30: 84-92. Fryxell, P.A. 1974. The North American Malvellas (Malvaceae). Southw. Naturalist 19: 97-103.

Macbride, J.F. 1918. A revision of Mentzelia, section Trachyphytum. Contr. Gray Herb. 56: 24-28.

Fryxell, P.A. 1978. Neotropical segregates from Sida (Malvaceae). Brittonia 30: 447-462.

Powell, A.M., S.A. Powell & A.S. Tomb. 1977. Cytotypes in Cevallia sinuata (Loasaceae). Southw. Naturalist 21: 433-441.

Fryxell, P.A. 1985. Sidus sidarum - V. The North and Central American species of Sida. Sida 11: 62-91.

Thompson, H.J. 1963. Cytotaxonomic observations on Mentzelia sect. Bartonia (Loasaceae). Madroño 17: 1622.

Fryxell, P.A. 1987. Revision of the genus Anoda (Malvaceae). Aliso 11: 485-522. Fryxell, P.A. 1988. Malvaceae of Mexico. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 25: 1-522.

Lythraceae Graham, S.A. 1975. Taxonomy of the Lythraceae in the southeastern United States. Sida 6: 80-103. Graham, S.A. 1979. The origin of Ammannia x coccinea Rottboell. Taxon 28: 169-178. Graham, S.A. 1985. A revision of Ammannia (Lythraceae) in the Western Hemisphere. J. Arnold Arb. 66: 395-420. Graham, S.A., J.V. Crisci & P.C. Hoch. 1993. Cladistic analysis of the Lythraceae sensu lato based on morphological characters. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 113: 133. Thomas, D.Q., R.L. Stuckey, & E.B. Thompson. 1987. Spread, impact, and control of purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria) in North American wetlands. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Fish Wildl. Res. 2. 55 p.

Fryxell, P.A. 1997. The American genera of Malvaceae - II. Brittonia 49: 204-269. Hill, S.R. 1982. A monograph of the genus Malvastrum A. Gray (Malvaceae: Malveae). Rhodora 84: 1-83. Hill, S.R. 1982. A monograph of Malvastrum , II. Taxonomic treatment. Rhodora 84: 159-264. Hill, S.R. 1982. A monograph of the genus Malvastrum - III. Rhodora 84: 317-409. Kearney, T.H. 1951. The American genera of Malvaceae. Am. Midl. Naturalist 46: 93-131. La Duke, J.C. & D.K. Northington. 1978. The systematics of Sphaeralcea coccinea (Nutt.) Rydb. (Malvaceae). Southw. Naturalist 23: 651-660. Roush, E.M.F. 1931. A monograph of the genus Sidalcea. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 18: 117-244.

Malvaceae Bates, D.M. 1965. Notes on the cultivated Malvaceae. 1. Hibiscus. Baileya 13: 57-96, 97-130.

Spencer, N.R. 1984. Velvetleaf, Abutilon theophrasti (Malvaceae), history and economic impact in the United States. Econ. Bot. 38: 407-416.

Bates, D.M. 1967. A reconsideration of Sidopsis and

Waterfall, U.T. 1958. Callirhoe bushii (Malvaceae) a

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variety of C. papaver. Southw. Naturalist 3: 215-216.

Bogle, A.L. 1974. The genera of Nyctaginaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 55: 1-37.

Melastomataceae James, C.W. 1956. A revision of Rhexia (Melastomataceae). Brittonia 8: 201-230.

Galloway, L.A. 1975. Systematics of the North American desert species of Abronia and Tripterocalyx (Nyctaginaceae). Brittonia 27: 328-347.

Kral, R. & P.E. Bostick. 1969. The genus Rhexia (Melastomatcaeae). Sida 3: 387-440.

Johnson, H. & B. Hallworth. 1975. Further discoveries of sand verbena in Alberta. Blue Jay 33: 13-15.

Menispermaceae

Pilz, G.E. 1978. Systematics of Mirabilis subgenus Quamoclidion (Nyctaginaceae). Madroño 25: 113-132.

Forman, L.L. 1974. The endocarps of Cocculus (Menispermaceae). Kew Bull. 29: 477-481. Forman, L.L. 1974. The significance of the leaf epidermis for the taxonomy of Cocculus (Menispermaceae). Kew Bull. 29: 483-492.

Spellenberg, R. & S.R.R. Tijerina. 2001. Geographic variation and taxonomy of North American species of Mirabilis oxybaphoides (Nyctaginaceae). Sida 19: 539570.

Molluginaceae

Stanley, P.C. 1909. The Allioniaceae of the United States with notes on Mexican species. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 12: 303-389.

Bogle, A.L. 1970. The genera of Molluginaceae and Aizoaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 51: 431-462.

Stanley, P.C. 1918. Allioniaceae. N. Amer. Flora 21: 171-254.

Monotropaceae

Stanley, P.C. 1931. Studies of American plants. V. Publ. Field Mus. Bot. 8: 293-398.

Copeland, H.F. 1941. Further studies on Monotropoideae. Madroño 6: 97-119. Nowicke, J.W. 1966. Pollen morphology and classification of the Pyrolaceae and Monotropaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 53: 213-219.

Turner, B.L. 1994. Revisionary study of the genus Allionia (Nyctaginaceae). Phytologia 77: 45-55. Nymphaeaceae

Small, J.K. 1914. Monotropaceae. N. Amer. Flora 29: 11-18.

Beal, E.O. 1956. Taxonomic revision of the genus Nuphar Sm. of North America and Europe. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 72: 317-346.

Wallace, G.D. 1975. Studies of the Monotropoideae (Ericaceae): taxomony and distribution. Wasmann J. Biol. 33: 1-88.

Miller, Jr., G.S. & P.C. Standley. 1912. The North American species of Nymphaea. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 16: 63-108.

Moraceae

Wiersema, J.H. & C.B. Hellquist. 1994. Nomenclatural notes in Nymphaeaceae for the North American Flora. Rhodora 96: 170-178.

Rao, C.K. & C.E. Jarvis. 1986. Lectotypification, taxonomy and nomenclature of Morus alba, M. tatarica and M. indica (Moraceae). Taxon 35: 705-708.

Oleaceae

Nelumbonaceae

Johnston, M.C. 1957. Synopsis of the United States species of Forestiera (Oleaceae). Southw. Naturalist 2: 140-151.

Ward, D.B. 1977. Nelumbo lutea, the correct name for the American lotus. Taxon 26: 227-234.

Shinners, L.H. 1959. Typification of the genus Forestiera (Oleaceae). Rhodora 61: 293-294.

Sohmer, S.H. 1975. The name of the American Nelumbo. Taxon 24: 491-493.

Steyermark, J.A. 1932. A revision of the genus Menodora. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 87-176.

Nyctaginaceae

Wilbur, R.L. 1981. The typification of the genus Forestiera. Rhodora 83: 465-470.

Najadaceae (see Hydrocharitaceae)

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Wilson, K.A. 1958. Typification of the genus Forestiera. Rhodora 60: 327-328.

Moore, A.H. 1909. Status of Epilobium alpinum and Epilobium hornemanni. Rhodora 11: 141-147.

Turner, B.L. 1991. An overview of the North American species of Menodora. Phytologia 71: 340-356.

Mosquin, T. 1966. A new taxonomy for Epilobium angustifolium L. (Onagraceae). Brittonia18: 167-188.

Turner, B.L. 1993. Texas species of Mirabilis (Nyctaginaceae). Phytologia 75: 432-451.

Munz, P.A. 1949. The Oenothera hookeri group. Aliso 2: 1-47.

Wilson, K.A. & C.E. Wood, Jr. 1959. The genera of Oleaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 40: 369-384.

Munz, P.A. 1965. Onagraceae. N. Amer. Flora. II. 5: 1278.

Onagraceae Baum, D.A., K.J. Sytsma & P.C. Hoch. 1994. A phylogenetic analysis of Epilobium (Onagraceae) based on nuclear ribosomal DNA sequence. Syst. Bot. 19: 363-388. Bufford, D.E. 1983. The systematics and evolution of Circaea (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 69: 804-994. Carr, B.L., J.V. Crisci, & P.C. Hoch. 1990. A cladistic analysis of the genus Gaura (Onagraceae). Syst. Bot. 15: 454-461. Diertich, W. & P.H. Raven. 1976. An earlier name for Oenothera strigosa (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 63: 382-383. Dietrich, W. & W.L. Wagner. 1987. A new combination and new species in Oenothera elata Kunth (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74: 151-152. Dietrich, W. & W.L. Wagner. 1988. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subgenus Raimannia and subgenus Nutantigemma. Syst. Bot. Monogr. 24: 1-91. Dietrich, W. & W.L. Wagner & P.H. Raven. 1997. Systematics of Oenothera section Oenothera subsection Oenothera (Onagraceae). Syst. Bot. Monogr. 50: 1-234. Fernald, M.L. 1917. The identity of Circaea canadensis and C. intermedia. Rhodora 19: 85-88. Hoch, P.C. & P.H. Raven. 1981. Proposal to reject the name Epilobium brachycarpum Presl (1831) (Onagraceae). Taxon 30: 666.

Peng, C.I. 1986. A new combination in Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 73: 490. Peng, C.I. 1989. The systematics and evolution of Ludwigia sect. Microcarpium (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 76: 221-302. Raven, P.H. 1964. The generic subdivision of Onagraceae, tribe Onagreae. Brittonia 16: 276-288. Raven, P.H. 1969. A revision of the genus Camissonia (Onagraceae). Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 37: 161-396. Raven, P.H. & D.P. Gregory. 1972. A revision of the genus Gaura (Onagraceae). Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 23: 1-96. Raven, P.H. & D.P. Gregory. Observations of meiotic chromosomes in Gaura (Onagraceae). Brittonia 24: 7186. Raven, P.H. & D.M. Moore. 1965. A revision of Boisduvalia (Onagraceae). Brittonia 17: 238-254. Straley, G.B. 1977. Systematics of Oenothera sect. Kneiffia (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64: 381-424. Sublette, M. 1980. A record of Stenosiphon linifolius (Nutt.) Heynh. (Onagraceae) from New Mexico. Southw. Naturalist 25: 103. Towner, H.F. & P.H. Raven. 1970. A new species and some new combinations in Calylophus (Onagraceae). Madroño 20: 241-245. Towner, H.F. 1977. The biosystematics of Calylophus (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 64: 48-120.

Hoch, P.C. & P.H. Raven. 1992. Boisduvalia, a comaless Epilobium (Onagraceae). Phytologia 73: 456-459.

Trelease, W. 1891. A revision of the American species of Epilobium occurring north of Mexico. Annual Rep. Missouri Bot. Gard 2: 69-117.

Lewis, H. & J. Szweykowski. 1964. The genus Gayophytum (Onagraceae). Brittonia 16: 343-391.

Wagner, W.L. 1983. New species and combinations in the genus Oenothera (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri

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Bot. Gard. 70: 194-196. Wagner, W.L. 1984. Reconsideration of Oenothera subg. Gauropsis (Onagraceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71: 1114-1127. Wagner, W.L., R.E. Stockhouse & W.M. Klein. 1985. The systematics and evolution of the Oenothera caespitosa species complex (Onagraceae). Monogr. Syst. Bot. 12: 1-103.

Goldman, D.H. 1995. A new species of Calopogon from the midwestern United States. Lindleyana 10: 3742. Harms, V.L. 1974. The native lady’s-slipper orchids of Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 32: 69-74. Harms, V.L. 1978. Additional records for some rare or uncommon native orchids in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 36: 130-136.

Orchidaceae

Harms, V.L. 1984. Adder’s-mouth orchids in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 42: 14-20.

Ackerman, J.D. 1977. Biosystematics of the genus Piperia Rydb. (Orchidaceae). J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 75: 245-270.

Harms, V.L. 1985. Mountain lady’s-slipper in Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 43: 3-6.

Ames, O. 1909. Recent nomenclatural changes in the genus Corallorrhiza. Rhodora 11: 102-107.

Harms, V.L. 1986. The yellow lady’s-slipper varieties in Saskatchewan and western Canada. Blue Jay 44: 8795.

Arft, A.M. & T.A. Ranker. 1998. Allopolyploid origin and population genetics of the rare orchid Spiranthes diluvialis. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 110-122. Boettcher, S.E. 1995. A new population of small white lady’s-slipper (Cypripedium candidum) in South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 27: 123-124. Bray, T.E. & B.L. Wilson. 1992. Status of Platanthera praeclara Sheviak & Bowles (western prairie fringed orchid) in the Platte River valley in Nebraska from Hamilton to Garden counties. Trans. Nebraska Acad. Sci. 19: 57-62. Catling, P.M. 1982. Breeding systems of northeastern North American Spiranthes (Orchidaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 60: 3017-3039. Cormack, R.G.H. 1948. The orchids of the Cypress Hills. Canad. Field-Naturalist 62: 155-157. Correll, D.S. 1950. Native orchids of North America north of Mexico. Chronica Botanica. Waltham, MA. 399 p. Cribb, P. 1997. The genus Cypripedium. Timber Press, Portland, OR. 301 p. Freudenstein, J.V. 1986. Proposal to conserve the name Corallorhiza Gegnebin (Orchidaceae) with a conserved spelling. Taxon 45: 695-696. Freudenstein, J.V. 1987. A preliminary study of Corallorhiza maculata (Orchidaceae) in eastern North America. Contr. Univ. Michigan Herb. 16: 145-153. Freudenstein, J.V. 1997. A monograph of Corallorhiza. Harvard Papers Bot. 10: 5-51.

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Hildebrand, T. 1998. 1997 inventory for Spiranthes diluvialis Sheviak in western Nebraska. Vol 1 & 2. Final report to the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service. Nebraska Game & Parks Commission, Lincoln, NE. Johnson, K.L. 1968. Spiranthes ovalis new for Kansas. Rhodora 70: 485. Luer, C.A. 1975. The native orchids of the United States and Canada excluding Florida. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, NY. 361 p. Magrath, L.K. 1970. Spiranthes tuberosa new for Kansas. Rhodora 72: Magrath, L.K. 1984. New native orchids for Oklahoma and Kansas. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 64: 43-44. Magrath, L.K. & J.L. Norman. 1989. Nomenclatural notes on Calopogon, Corallorhiza, and Cypripedium (Orchidaceae) in the Great Plains region. Sida 13: 371372. Niemann, D. 1986. The distribution of orchids in Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 93: 24-34. Sheviak, C.J. 1973. A new Spiranthes from the grasslands of central North America. Bot. Mus. Leafl. Harvard Univ. 23: 285-297. Sheviak, C.J. 1982. Biosystematic study of the Spiranthes cernua complex. New York State Mus. Bull. 448: 1-73. Sheviak, C.J. 1984. Spiranthes diluvialis (Orchidaceae), a new species from the western United States. Brittonia 36: 8-14.

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Sheviak, C.J. & M.L. Bowles. 1986. The prairie fringed orchids: a pollinator-isolated species pair. Rhodora 88: 267-290. Szalanski, A.L., G. Steinauer, R. Bischof & J. Petterson. 2001. Origin and conservation genetics of the threatened Ute ladie's-tresses, Spiranthes diluvialis (Orchidaceae). Amer. J. Bot. 88: 177-180.

Small, J.K. 1907. Oxalidaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 2558. Turner, B.L. 1994. Regional variation in the North American elements of Oxalis corniculata (Oxalidaceae). Phytologia 77: 1-7.

Orobanchaceae

Watson, M.F. 1989. Nomenclatural aspects of Oxalis section Corniculatae in Europe. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 101: 347-362.

Achey, D.M. 1933. A revision of the section Gymnocaulis of the genus Orobanche. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60: 441-451.

Papaveraceae

Collins, T.S. 1973. Systematics of Orobanche section Myzorrhiza (Orobanchaceae) with emphasis on Orobanche ludoviciana. Unpubl. Dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison. Goodman, G.J. 1952 [1954]. The genus Orobanche in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 33: 173. Munz, P.A. 1930 [1931]. The North American species of Orobanche, section Myzorrhiza. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 57: 611-624. Tatina, R. 1994. Orobanche uniflora L. (Orobanchaceae) - new to the flora of South Dakota. Prairie Naturalist 26: 172. White, H.L. & W.C. Holmes. 2001. Validation of the name Orobanche ludoviciana subsp. multiflora (Orobanchaceae). Sida 19: 623-624. Oxalidaceae Denton, M.F. 1973. A monograph of Oxalis section Ionoxalis (Oxalidaceae) in North America. Publ. Mus. Michigan State Univ., Biol. Ser. 4: 455-615. Doust, L.L., A. MacKinnon & J.L. Doust. 1985. Biology of Canadian weeds. 71. Oxalis stricta L., O. corniculata L., O. dillenii Jacq. ssp. dillenii and O. dillenii Jacq. ssp. filipes (Small) Eiten. Canad. J. Plant Sci. 65: 691709. Eiten, G. 1963. Taxonomy and regional variation of Oxalis section Corniculatae. I. Introduction, keys, and synopsis of the species. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 69: 257309. Robertson, K.R. 1975. The Oxalidaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 56: 223239. Shinners, L.H. 1956. Yellow-flowered Oxalis (Oxalidaceae) of eastern Texas and Louisiana. Field & Laboratory 24: 39-40. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Cullen, J. 1969. The genus Papaver in cultivation 1. The wild species. Baileya 16: 73-91. Grey-Wilson, C. 1993. Poppies: a guide to the poppy family in the wild and in cultivation. B.T. Batsford Ltd. London, England. 208 p. Kiger, R.W. 1975. Papaver in North America north of Mexico. Rhodora 77: 410-422. Ownbey, G. 1958. Monograph of the genus Argemone for North America and the West Indies. Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 21: 1-159. Parnassiaceae Rydberg, P.A. 1905. Parnassiaceae. N. Amer. Flora 22: 77-80. Passifloraceae Vanderplank, J. 1991. Passion flowers and passion fruit. MIT Press. Cambridge, MA. 176 p. Pedaliaceae Hevly, R.H. 1969. Nomenclatural history and typification of Martynia and Proboscidea (Martyniaceae). Taxon 18: 527-534. Phytolaccaceae Caulkins, D.B. & R. Wyatt. 1990. Variation and taxonomy of Phytolacca americana and P. rigida in the southeastern United States. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 117: 357-367. Nowicke, J.W. 1969. Palynotaxonomic study of the Phytolaccaceae. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 55: 294-364. Sauer, J.D. 1952. A geography of pokeweed. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 39: 113-125. Plantaginaceae

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Bassett, I.J. 1965. Taxonomy of North American Plantago L., section Micropsyllium Decne. Canad. J. Bot. 44: 467-479.

Aiken, S.G. & L.P. Lefkovitch. 1993. On the separation of two species within Festuca subg. Obtusae (Poaceae). Taxon 42: 323-337.

Bassett, I.J. 1973. The plantains of Canada. Canad. Dept. Agriculture, Res. Branch Monogr. 7: 1-47.

Aiken, S.G., M.J. Dallwitz, C.L. McJannet & L.L. Consaul. 1997. Fescue grasses of North America. Interactive identification and information retrieval. Canadian Museum of Nature, Ottawa, Canada. (CDROM).

Rahn, K. 1974. Plantago section Virginica: a taxonomic revision of a group of American plantains, using experimental, taximetric and classical methods. Dansk Bot. Arkiv 30: 1-180. Rahn, K. 1996. A phylogenetic study of Plantaginaceae. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 120: 145-198.

Aiken, S.G., W.G. Dore, L.P. Lefkovitch & K.C. Armstrong. 1989. Calamagrostis epigejos (Poaceae) in North America, especially Ontario. Canad. J. Bot. 67: 3205-3218.

Rosatti, T.J. 1984. The Plantaginaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 65: 533562.

Alexeev, E.B. 1980. Festuca L. subgenera et sectiones novae ex America Boreali et Mexica. Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 17: 42-53.

Shinners, L.H. 1950. The north Texas species of Plantago (Plantaginaceae). Field & Laboratory 18: 113119.

Allred, K.W. 1984. Morphological variation and classification of the North American Aristida purpurea complex (Gramineae). Brittonia 36: 382-395.

Shinners, L.H. 1967. Stray notes on Texas Plantago (Plantaginaceae). Sida 3: 120-122.

Allred, K.W. 1984. Studies in the genus Aristida (Gramineae) of the southeastern United States. I. Spikelet variation in A. purpurascens, A. tenuispica, and A. virgata. Rhodora 86: 73-77.

Tessene, M.F. 1968. Preliminary reports on the flora of Wisconsin No. 59. Plantaginaceae - plantain family. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Arts Lett. 56: 281-313. Platanaceae Gleason, H.A. 1908. Platanaceae. N. Amer. Flora 22: 227-229. Hsiao, J.Y. 1973. A numerical taxonomic study of the genus Platanus based on morphological and phenolic characters. Amer. J. Bot. 60: 678-684. Pearce, R. 1970. Western distribution of Platanus occidentalis L. (Platanaceae) in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 50: 126.

Allred, K.W. 1985. Studies in the genus Aristida (Graminace) of the southeastern United States. II. Morphometric analysis of A. intermedia and A. longespica. Rhodora 87: 137-145. Allred, K.W. 1986. Studies in the Aristida (Gramineae) of the southeastern United States. IV. Key and conspectus. Rhodora 88: 367-387. Allred, K.W. & F.W. Gould. 1983. Systematics of the Bothriochloa saccharoides complex (Poaceae: Andropogoneae). Syst. Bot. 8: 168-184. Anderson, D.E. 1961. Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Phalaris. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci. 36: 1-96.

Plumbaginaceae Blake, S.F. 1916. Limonium in North America and Mexico. Rhodora 18: 53-66.

Armstrong, K.C. 1982. Hybrids between tetraploids of Bromus inermis and Bromus pumpellianus. Canad. J. Bot. 60: 476-482.

Luteyn, J.L. 1990. The Plumbaginaceae in the flora of the southeastern United States. Sida 14: 169-178.

Arnow, L.A. 1981. Poa secunda Presl versus P. sandbergii Vasey (Poaceae). Syst. Bot. 6: 412-421.

Poaceae

Arnow, L.A. 1994. Koeleria macrantha and K. pyrimadata (Poaceae): nomenclatural problems and biological distinctions. Syst. Bot. 19: 6-20.

Aiken, S.G. & L.L. Consaul. 1995. Leaf cross sections and phytogeography: a potent combination for identifying members of Festuca subgg. Festuca and Leucopoa (Poaceae), occurring in North America. Amer. J. Bot. 82: 1287-1299.

Babel, W.K. 1943. The variations of Brachyelytrum erectum. Rhodora 45: 260-262. Banks, D.J. 1966. Taxonomy of Paspalum setaceum

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(Gramineae). Sida 2: 269-284. Barkworth, M.E. 1978. A taxonomic study of the largeglumed species of Stipa (Gramineae) occurring in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 56: 606-625. Barkworth, M.E. 1982. Embryological characters and the taxonomy of the Stipeae (Gramineae). Taxon 31: 233-243. Barkworth, M.E. 1990. Nassella (Gramineae, Stipeae): revised interpretation and nomenclatural changes. Taxon 39: 597-614. Barkworth, M.E. 1993. North American Stipeae (Gramineae): taxonomic changes and other comments. Phytologia 74: 1-25. Barkworth, M.E. 1997. Taxonomic and nomenclatural comments on the Triticeae in North America. Phytologia 83: 302-311. Barkworth, M.E. & R.J. Atkins. 1984. Leymus Hochst. (Gramineae: Triticeae) in North America: taxonomy and distribution. Amer. J. Bot. 71: 609-625. Barkworth, M.E. & D.R. Dewey. 1985. Genomically based genera in the perennial Triticeae of North America: identification and membership. Amer. J. Bot. 72: 767-776. Barkworth, M.E. & J. Maze. 1979. Proposal to reject Stipa columbiana (Poaceae) and nomenclatural changes affecting three western North American species of Stipa (Poaceae). Taxon 28: 621-625. Barkworth, M.E., J. McNeill & J. Maze. 1979. A taxonomic study of Stipa nelsonii (Poaceae) with a key distinguishing it from related taxa in western North America. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 2539-2553. Barnes, P.W. 1986. Variation in the big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) - sand bluestem (Andropogon hallii) complex along a local dune/meadow gradient in the Nebraska sandhills. Amer. J. Bot. 73: 172-184. Baum, B.R. 1967. Kalm’s specimens of North American grasses - their evaluation for typification. Canad. J. Bot. 45: 1845-1852.

Baum, B.R. 1974. Classification of the oat species (Avena, Poaceae) using various taximetric methods and an information-theoretic model. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 2241-2262. Baum, B.R. 1979. The genus Elymus in Canada Bowden’s generic concept and key reappraised and relectotypification of E. canadensis. Canad. J. Bot. 57: 946-951. Baum, B.R. 1980. Multivariate morphometric relationships between Hordeum jubatum and Hordeum brachyantherum in Canada and Alaska. Canad. J. Bot. 58: 604-623. Baum, B.R. 1982. Cladistic analysis of Triticeae by means of Farris’s “distance Wagner procedure.” Canad. J. Bot. 60: 1194-1199. Baum, B.R. & L.G. Bailey. 1990. Key and synopsis of North American Hordeum species. Canad. J. Bot. 68: 2433-2442. Baum, B.R., J.R. Estes & P.K. Gupta. 1987. Assessment of the genomic system of classification in the Triticeae. Amer. J. Bot. 74: 1388-1395. Beetle, A.A. 1943. The North American variations of Danthonia spicata. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 70: 638-650. Beetle, A.A. 1950. A sectional treatment for the North American species of Agrostis. Univ. Wyoming Publ. 15: 29-35. Beetle, A.A. 1984. Nomenclatural changes involving Wyoming grasses. Phytologia 55: 209-213. Bough, M., J.C. Colosi & P.B. Cavers. 1986. The major weedy biotypes of proso millet (Panicum miliaceum) in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 1188-1198. Bowden, W.M. 1958. Natural and artificial X Elymordeum hybrids. Canad. J. Bot. 36: 101-123. Bowden, W.M. 1959. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes on northern grasses. I. Tribe Triticeae. Canad. J. Bot. 37: 1143-1151.

Baum, B.R. 1968. Delimitation of the genus Avena (Gramineae). Canad. J. Bot. 46: 121-132.

Bowden, W.M. 1960. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes on northern grasses. II. Tribe Festuceae. Canad. J. Bot. 38: 117-131.

Baum, B.R. 1968. On some relationships between Avena sativa and A. fatua (Gramineae) as studied from Canadian material. Canad. J. Bot. 46: 1013-1024.

Bowden, W.M. 1960. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes on northern grasses. III. Twenty-five genera. Canad. J. Bot. 38: 541-557.

Baum, B.R. 1974. Typification of Linnaean species of oats, Avena. Taxon 23: 579-583.

Bowden, W.M. 1961. Chromosome numbers and taxonomic notes on northern grasses. IV. Tribe

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Brooks, R.E. 1976. A new Veronica (Scrophulariaceae) hybrid from Nebraska. Rhodora 78: 773-775. Caha, C.A., D.J. Lee & J. Stubbendieck. 1998. Organellar genetic diversity in Penstemon haydenii (Scrophulariaceae): an endangered plant species. Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1704-1709. Campbell, G.R. 1950. Mimulus guttatus and related species. Aliso 2: 319-335. Canne, J.M. 1981. Chromosome counts in Agalinis and related taxa (Scrophulariaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 59: 1111-1116. Canne, J.M. 1984. Chromosome numbers and the taxonomy of North American Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae). Canad. J. Bot. 62: 454-456. Canne-Hilliker, J.M. 1987. Status report on Skinner’s purple false foxglove, Agalinis skinneriana (Wood) Britton: an endangered species in Canada. Unpublished report to Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife of Canada, Natural Mus. Nat. Sci., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. 21 p. Canne-Hilliker, J.M. & C. M. Kampny. 1991. Taxonomic significance of leaf and stem anatomy of Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae) from the U.S.A. and Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 69: 1935-1950. Chuang, T.I. & L.R. Heckard. 1983. Systematic significance of seed-surface features in Orthocarpus (Scrophulariaceae-subtribe Castillejinae). Amer. J. Bot. 70: 877-890. Chuang, T.I. & L.R. Heckard. 1992. A taxonomic revision of Orthocarpus (Scrophulariaceae-tribe Pediculareae). Syst. Bot. 17: 560-582. Cooperrider, T.S. 1976. Notes on Ohio Scrophulariaceae. Castanea 41: 223-226. Cooperrider, T.S. & G.A. McCready. 1975. On separating Ohio specimens of Lindernia dubia and L. anagallidea (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 40: 191197. Crosswhite, F.S. 1965. Concerning Penstemon unilateralis and Penstemon secundiflorus. Southw. Naturalist 10: 318. Crosswhite, F.S. 1965. Subdivisions of Penstemon section Penstemon. Sida 2: 160-162. Crosswhite, F.S. 1967. Revision of Penstemon section Habroanthus (Scrophulariaceae) I: conspectus. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 77: 1-11.

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Crosswhite, F.S. 1967. Against proliferation of superfluous names by giving formal status to spelling variants. Taxon 16: 109-112. Freeman, C.C. 1983. Chromosome numbers in Great Plains species of Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae). Brittonia 35: 232-238.

polyphyly of the Scrophulariaceae based on chloroplast rbcL and ndhF sequences. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 82: 176-193. Payson, E.B. 1924. The species of Penstemon native to Wyoming. Univ. Wyoming Pub. Bot. 1: 88-103. Pennell, F.W. 1921. “Veronica” in North and South America. Rhodora 23: 1-22, 29-41.

Freeman, C.C. 1982. A biosystematic study of the genus Penstemon (Scrophulariaceae) in the Great Plains. M.S. thesis, Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS. 221 p.

Pennell, F.W. 1928. Agalinis and allies in North America - I. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 80: 339449.

Ganders, F.R. & G.R. Krause. 1986. Systematics of Collinsia parviflora and C. grandiflora (Scrophulariaceae). Madroño 33: 63-70.

Pennell, F.W. 1929. Agalinis and allies in North America - II. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 80: 111249.

Goodman, G.J. 1965. Veronica triphyllos in Oklahoma. Leafl. W. Bot. 10: 155.

Pennell, F.W. 1935. The Scrophulariaceae of eastern temperate North America. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Monogr. 1: 1-650.

Hays, J.F. 1998. Agalinis (Scrophulariaceae) in the Ozark Highlands. Sida 18: 555-577. Heckard, L. & P. Rubtzoff. 1977. Additional notes on Veronica anagallis-aquatica x catenata (Scrophulariaceae). Rhodora 79: 579-582. Holmgren, N.H. 1979. New penstemons (Scrophulariaceae) from the Intermountain region. Brittonia 31: 217-242. Keck, D.D. 1945. Studies in Penstemon VIII. A cytotaxonomic account of the section Spermunculus. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 33: 128-206. Keck, D.D. & A. Cronquist. 1957. Studies in Penstemon - IX. Notes on northwestern American species. Brittonia 8: 247-250. Lemaire, R.J. 1964. Conobea multifida; a new record for Nebraska. Rhodora 66: 280.

Sutton, D.A. 1988. A revision of the tribe Antirrhineae. Oxford University Press, London. 575 p. van Hulst, R., A. Thériault & B. Shipley. 1986. The systematic position of the genus Rhinanthus (Scrophulariaceae) in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 64: 1443-1449. Widrlechner, M.P. 1983. Historical and phenological observations on the spread of Chaenorrhinum minus across North America. Canad. J. Bot. 61: 179-187. Simaroubaceae Barkley, F.A. 1937. Studies in the Anacardiaceae. I. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24: 263-264. Barkley, F.A. 1937. Studies in the Anacardiaceae. II. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 24: 499-500.

Lewis, D.Q. 2000. A revision of the New World species of Lindernia (Scrophulariaceae). Castanea 65: 93-122.

Brizicky, G.K. 1962. The genera of Simaroubaceae and Burseraceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 43: 173-186.

Newsom, V.M. 1929. A revision of the genus Collinsia (Scrophulariaceae). Bot. Gaz. 87: 260-301.

Cronquist, A. 1944. Studies in the Simaroubaceae - IV. Resume of the American genera. Brittonia 5: 128-147.

Nesom, G.L. 1992. A new species of Castilleja (Scrophulariaceae) from southcentral Texas with comments on other Texas taxa. Phytologia 72: 209230.

Fernando, E.S., P.A. Gadek & C.J. Quinn. 1995. Simaroubaceae, an artificial construct: evidence from rbcL sequence variation. Amer. J. Bot. 82: 92-103.

Nisbet, G.T. & R.C. Jackson. 1960. The genus Penstemon in New Mexico. Univ. Kansas Sci. Bull. 41: 691-759. Olmstead, R.G. & P.A. Reeves. 1992. Evidence for the Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Small, J.K. 1911. Simaroubaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 227-239. Smilacaceae Clausen, R.T. 1951. Smilax hispida versus S.

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tamnoides. Rhodora 53: 109-111. Judd, W.S. 1998. The Smilacaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 3: 147169. Mangaly, J.K. 1968. A cytotaxonomic study of the herbaceous species of Smilax: section Corposmanthus. Rhodora 70: 55-82, 247-273. Solanaceae Averett, J.E. 1973. Biosystematic study of Chamaesaracha (Solanaceae). Rhodora 75: 325-365. Averett, J.E. 1974. Typification of Chamaesaracha coronopus. Rhodora 76: 311. Avery, A.G., S. Satina & J. Rietsema. 1959. Blakeslee: the genus Datura. Ronald Press Co. New York, NY. 289 p. Edmonds, J.M. 1979. Nomenclatural notes on some species of Solanum L. found in Europe. J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 78: 213-233. Edmonds, J.M. 1986. Biosystematics of Solanum sarrachoides Sendtner and S. physalifolium Rusby (S. nitidibaccatum Bitter). J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 92: 1-38. Heiser, C.B., Jr., J. Soria & D.L. Burton. 1965. A numerical taxonomic study of Solanum species and hybrids. Amer. Naturalist 99: 471-488. Hinton, W.F. 1976. The systematics of Physalis pumila ssp. hispida (Solanaceae). Syst. Bot. 1: 188-193. Hitchcock, C.L. 1932. A monographic study of the genus Lycium of the Western Hemisphere. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 19: 179-374. Lemke, D.E. 1991. The genus Solanum in Texas. Phytologia 71: 362-378.

Soria, J. & C.B. Heiser, Jr. 1961. A statistical study of relationships of certain species of the Solanum nigrum complex. Econ. Bot. 15: 245-255. Strober, S.S. 1985. Chromosomal studies of Physalis virginiana var. subglabrata and Physalis heterophylla. Bartonia 51: 65-68. Sullivan, J.R. 1985. Systematics of the Physalis viscosa complex (Solanaceae). Syst. Bot. 10: 426-444. Symon, D.E. & L.A.R. Haegi. 1991. Datura (Solanaceae) is a New World genus. Pp. 197-210. In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester, M. Nee & N. Estrada (editors). Solanaceae III: taxonomy, chemistry, evolution. Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and Linnean Society of London, Kew. Waterfall, U.T. 1958. A taxonomic study of the genus Physalis in North America north of Mexico. Rhodora 60: 107-114, 128-142, 152-173. Waterfall, U.T. 1968. Emendations in United States Physalis. Rhodora 70: 574-576. Whalen, M.D. 1979. Taxonomy of Solanum section Androceras. Gentes Herb. 11: 359-426. Whalen, M.D. 1979. Speciation in Solanum, section Androceras. Pp 581-596. In: Hawkes, J.G., R.N. Lester & A.D. Skelding (editors). The biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae. Linnean Society Symposium Series No. 7. Academic Press Inc., New York. Sparganiaceae Beal, E.O. 1960. Sparganium (Sparganiaceae) in the southeastern United States. Brittonia 12: 176-181. Reveal, J.L. 1970. Sparganium simplex Huds., a superfluous name. Taxon 19: 796-797. Rydberg, P.A. 1909. Sparganiaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 5-10.

Menzel, M.Y. 1951. The cytotaxonomy and genetics of Physalis. Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc. 95: 132-183.

Tamaricaceae

Schilling, E.E., Jr. & C.B. Heiser, Jr. 1976. Reexamination of a numerical taxonomic study of Solanum species and hybrids. Taxon 25: 451-462.

Baum, B.R. 1967. Introduced and naturalized tamarisks in the United States and Canada. Baileya 15: 19-25.

Schilling, E.E., Jr. & C.B. Heiser, Jr. 1979. Crossing relationships among diploid species of the Solanum nigrum complex in North America. Amer. J. Bot. 66: 709-716.

Baum, B.R. 1978. The genus Tamarix. Publ. Israel Acad. Sci. & Humanities. Jerusalem, Israel. 209 p.

Schilling, E.E. 1981. Systematics of Solanum sect. Solanum (Solanaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 6: 172-185. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Gorschkova, S.G. 1957. Salt cedars (Tamarix, Tamaricaceae) of the Soviet Union. Southw. Naturalist 2: 48-73. Thymelaeaceae

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McGregor, R.L. 1969. Thymelaea passarina (L.) Coss. and Germ. (Thymelaeaceae) in western Nebraska. Southw. Naturalist 14: 128.

Santamour, F.S., Jr. 1970. A natural hybrid between American and Siberian elms. Forest Science 16: 149153.

Pohl, R.W. 1955. Thymelaea passerina, a new weed in the United States. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 62: 152154.

Wagner, W.H., Jr. 1974. Dwarf hackberry (Ulmaceae: Celtis tenuifolia) in the Great Lakes region. Mich. Botanist 13: 73-99.

Vincent, M.A. & J.W. Thieret. 1987. Thymelaea passerina (Thymelaeaceae) in Ohio. Sida 12: 75-78.

Urticaceae

Tiliaceae Hardin, J.W. 1990. Variation patterns and recognition of varieties of Tilia americana s.l. Syst. Bot. 15: 33-48. Hickok, L.G. & J.C. Anway. 1972. A morphological and chemical analysis of geographic variation in Tilia L. of eastern North America. Brittonia 24: 2-8. Jones, G.N. 1968. Taxonomy of the American species of linden (Tilia). Illinois Biol. Monogr. 39: 1-156. Lawson, C.A. 1970. The genus Tilia in Oklahoma. Proc. Oklahoma Acad. Sci. 50: 104-105. Typhaceae Harms, V.L. & G.F. Ledingham. 1986. The narrowleaved cat-tail, Typha angustifolia, and the hybrid cattail, T. x glauca, newly reported from Saskatchewan. Canad. Field-Naturalist 100: 107-110. Hotchkiss, N. & H.L. Dozier. 1949. Taxonomy and distribution of North American cat-tails. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 41: 237-254.

Bassett, I.J., C.W. Crompton & D.W. Woodland. 1974. The family Urticaceae in Canada. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 503-516. Fernald, M.L. 1938. Pilea in eastern North America. Rhodora 38: 169-170. Hermann, F.J. 1946. The perennial species of Urtica in the United States east of the Rocky Mountains. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 35: 773-778. Woodland, D.W. 1982. Biosystematics of the perennial North American taxa of Urtica. II. Taxonomy. Syst. Bot. 7: 282-290. Woodland, D.W., I.J. Bassett & C.W. Crompton. 1976. The annual species of stinging nettle (Hesperocnide and Urtica) in North America. Canad. J. Bot. 54: 374383. Woodland, D.W., I.J. Bassett, C. Crompton & S. Forget. 1982. Biosystematics of the perennial North American taxa of Urtica. I. Chromosome number, hybridization, and palynology. Syst. Bot. 7: 269-281. Valerianaceae

Lee, D.W. 1975. Population variation and introgression in North American Typha. Taxon 24: 633-641.

Dyal, S.C. 1938. Valerianella in North America. Rhodora 40: 185-212.

Smith, S.G. 1967. Experimental and natural hybrids in North American Typha (Typhaceae). Amer. Midl. Naturalist 78: 257-287.

Eggers, D.M. 1969. A revision of Valerianella in North America. Ph.D. dissertation. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN. 249 p.

Thieret, J.W. & J.O. Luken. 1996. The Typhaceae in the southeastern United States. Harvard Pap. Bot. 8: 27-56.

Eggers Ware, D.M. 1983. Genetic fruit polymorphism in North American Valerianella (Valerianaceae) and its taxonomic implications. Syst. Bot. 8: 33-44.

Wilson, P. 1909. Typhaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 3-4.

Ferguson, I.K. 1965. The genera of Valerianaceae and Dipsacaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arb. 46: 218-231.

Ulmaceae Elias, T.S. 1970. The genera of Ulmaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 51: 18-40.

Meyer, F.G. 1951. Valeriana in North America and the West Indies (Valerianaceae). Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 38: 377-503.

Giannasi, D.E. 1978. Generic relationships in the Ulmaceae based on flavonoid chemistry. Taxon 27: 331-344.

Verbenaceae

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Barber, S.C. 1982. Taxonomic studies in the Verbena stricta complex (Verbenaceae). Syst. Bot. 7: 433-456.

Greene, E.L. 1903. The genus Viola in Minnesota. Pittonia 5: 115-133.

Lewis, W.H. & R.L. Oliver. 1961. Cytogeography and phylogeny of the North American species of Verbena. Amer. J. Bot. 48: 638-643.

Harms, V.L. 1973. Violets of Saskatchewan. Blue Jay 31: 105-112.

Moldenke, H.N. 1958. Hybridity in the Verbenaceae. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 59: 333-370.

Jones, G.N. 1959. Viola eriocarpa vs. V. pensylvanica. Rhodora 61: 219-220.

Perry, L.M. 1933. A revision of the North American species of Verbena. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 20: 239362.

Little, R.J. 1992. Nomenclatural changes in Viola (Violaceae). Phytologia 72: 77-78.

Poindexter, J.D. 1962. Natural hybridization among Verbena stricta, V. hastata, and V. urticifolia in Kansas. Trans. Kansas Acad. Sci. 65: 409-419. Turner, B.L. 1998. The Texas species of Glandularia (Verbenaceae). Lundellia 1: 3-16.

Little, R.J. 1996. Nomenclatural correction in Viola (Violaceae). Phytologia 80: 295. McKinney, L.E. 1993. A taxonomic revision of the acaulescent blue violets (Viola) of North America. Sida, Bot. Misc. 7: 1-60.

Umber, R.E. 1979. The genus Glandularia (Verbenaceae) in North America. Syst. Bot. 4: 72-102.

McPherson, G.D. & J.G. Packer. 1974. A contribution to the taxonomy of Viola adunca. Canad. J. Bot. 52: 895-902.

Umber, R.E. 1980. The flavonoid chemistry of Glandularia bipinnatifida (Verbenaceae) and allied species. Amer. J. Bot. 67: 935-941.

Morton, C.V. 1944. The genus Hybanthus in continental North America. Contr. U.S. Nat. Herb. 29: 74-82.

Violaceae

Russell, N.H. 1953. A resurvey of the violets of Iowa. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 60: 217-227.

Baker, M.S. 1953. A correction in the status of Viola macloskeyi. Madroño 12: 60. Baker, M.S. 1957. Studies in western violets - VII. The Nuttalianae continued. Brittonia 9: 217-230. Ballard, H.E., Jr. 1990. Hybrids among three caulescent violets, with special reference to Michigan. Mich. Bot. 29: 43-54. Brainerd, E. 1911. Viola palmata and its allies. Bull. Torrey Bot. Gard. 37: 581-590. Brainerd, E. 1924. Some natural violet hybrids of North America. Vermont Agric. Exp. Sta. Bull. 239: 1-205. Clausen, J., R.B. Channell & U. Nur. 1964. Viola rafinesquii, the only Melanium violet native to North America. Rhodora 66: 32-46. Fabijan, D.M., J.G. Packer & K.E. Denford. 1987. The taxonomy of the Viola nuttallii complex. Canad. J. Bot. 65: 2562-2580. Gil-Ad, N.L. 1998. The micromorphologies of seed coats and petal trichomes of the taxa of Viola subsect. Boreali-Americanae (Violaceae) and their utility in discerning orthospecies from hybrids. Brittonia 50: 91121. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Russell, N.H. 1955. The taxonomy of the North American acaulescent white violets. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 54: 481-494. Russell, N.H. 1956. Regional variation patterns in the stemless white violets. Amer. Midl. Naturalist 56: 491503. Russell, N.H. 1958. The nature of Viola missouriensis Greene. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 65: 96-101. Russell, N.H. 1963. An analysis of variation in Viola nephrophylla. Madroño 17: 56-65. Russell, N.H. 1965. Violets (Viola) of central and eastern United States: an introductory survey. Sida 2: 1-113. Russell, N.H. & J. Graham. 1958. Midwestern population studies of Viola papilionacea Nutt. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci. 65: 102-109. Shinners, L.H. 1961. Viola rafinesquii: nomenclature and native status. Rhodora 63: 327-335. Uttal, L.J. 1967. Stoloniferous Canada violets: Appalachian status and revised nomenclature. Castanea 32: 108-111.

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Viscaceae Hawksworth, F.G. & D. Wiens. 1972. Biology and classification of the dwarf mistletoes (Arceuthobium). U.S.D.A. Forest Service Agriculture Handbook 401. 234 p. Johnston, M.C. 1957. Phoradendron serotinum for P. flavescens (Loranthaceae): nomenclatural corrections. Southw. Naturalist 2: 45-47. Reveal, J.L. & M.C. Johnston. 1989. A new combination in Phoradendron (Viscaceae). Taxon 38: 107-108. Wiens, D. 1964. Revision of the acataphyllous species of Phoradendron. Brittonia 16: 11-54.

Moore, M.O. 1991. Classification and systematics of eastern North American Vitis L. (Vitaceae) north of Mexico. Sida 14: 339-367. Zannichelliaceae Taylor, N. 1909. Zannichelliaceae. N. Amer. Flora 17: 13-27. Tomlinson, P.B. & U. Posluszny. 1976. Generic limits in the Zannichelliaceae (sensu Dumortier). Taxon 25: 273-279. Zygophyllaceae Porter, D.M. 1969. The genus Kallstroemia (Zygophyllaceae). Contr. Gray Herb. Harvard Univ. 198: 41-153.

Vitaceae Brizicky, G.K. 1965. The genera of Vitaceae in the southeastern United States. J. Arnold Arbor. 46: 48-67. Gandhi, K.N. 1989. A nomenclatural note on Vitis cinerea and V. berlandieri (Vitaceae). Sida 13: 506508. Moore, M.O. 1987. A study of selected taxa of Vitis (Vitaceae) in the southeastern United States. Rhodora 89: 75-91.

Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Porter, D.M. 1969. Kallstroemia (Zygophyllaceae). In Missouri. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 56: 290-291. Sheahan, M.C. & M.W. Chase. 1996. A phylogenetic analysis of Zygopyllaceae R. Br. based on morphological, anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Bot. J. Linnean Soc. 122: 279-300. Vail, A.M. & P.A. Rydberg. 1910. Zygophyllaceae. N. Amer. Flora 25: 103-116..

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Appendix D. Abbreviations for Nomenclatural Authorities. Aase Abbe Adams W.P. Adams Adans. Aellen C. Agardh J. Agardh H.E. Ahles Ahti Aiton W.T. Aiton Al-Shehbaz Alexander E.B. Alexeev All. Allred S.M. Almeida Ames Anderb. E.S. Anderson L.C. Anderson Andersson E.G. Andrews Andrews Andrz. Ångstr. Antoine Archang. Ard. Argus Arn. Arthur Arv.-Tour. Asch. Ashe G.F. Atk. N.D. Atwood Aubl. Austin Avé-Lall.

Aase, Hannah Caroline (1883- ) Abbe, Ernst Cleveland (1905- ) Adams, Johannes Michael Friedrich (1780-1838) Adams, William Preston (1930- ) Adanson, Michel (1727-1806) Aellen, Paul (1896-1973) Agardh, Carl Adolf (1785-1859) Agardh, Jakob Georg (1813-1901) Ahles, Harry E. (1924-1981) Ahti, Teuvo Tapio (1934- ) Aiton, William (1731-1793) Aiton, William Townsend (1766-1849) Al-Shehbaz, Ihsan Ali (1939- ) Alexander, Edward Johnson (1901-1985) Alexeev, E.B. (1946-1976) Allioni, Carlo (1728-1804) Allred, Kelly W. (1949- ) Almeida, Sarah M. (1940- ) Ames, Oakes (1874-1950) Anderberg, Arne A. (1954- ) Anderson, Edgar Shannon (1897-1969) Anderson, Loran Crittendon (1936- ) Andersson, Nils Johan (1821-1880) Andrews, Elisabeth G. (1960- ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Andrews, Henry Charles (1794-1830) Andrzejowski, Antoni Lukianowicz (1785-1868) Ångström, Johan (1813-1879) Antoine, Franz (1815-1886) Archangeli, Giovanni (1840-1921) Arduino, Pietro (1728-1805) Argus, George William (1929- ) Arnott, George Arnott Walter (1799-1868) Arthur, Joseph Charles (1850-1942) Arvet-Tourvet, Jean Maurice Casimir (1841-1913) Ascherson, Paul Friedrich August (1843-1913) Ashe, William Willard (1872-1932) Atkinson, George Francis (1854-1918) Atwood, N. Duane (1938- ) Aublet, Jean Baptiste Christophore Fusée (1720-1778) Austin, Coe Finch (1831-1880) Avé-Lallemant, Julius Léopold Edouard (1803-1867)

Babc. Bab. Bacig. Backeb. L.H. Bailey V.L. Bailey Baill. G.I. Baird Baker M.S. Baker Balb. Baldwin C.R. Ball P.W. Ball Banks

Babcock, Ernest Brown (1877-1954) Babington, Charles Cardale (1808-1895) Bacigalupi, Rimo Carlo Felice (1901-1996) Backeberg, Curt (1894-1966) Bailey, Liberty Hyde (1858-1954) Bailey, Virginia (Edith) Long (1908- ) Baillon, Henri Ernest (1827-1895) Baird, Gary I. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Baker, John Gilbert (1834-1920) Baker, Milo Samuel (1868-1961) Balbis, Gioanni (Giovanni) Battista (1765-1831) Baldwin, William (1779-1819) Ball, Carleton Roy (1873-1958) Ball, Peter William (1932- ) Banks, Joseph (1743-1820)

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D.J. Banks F.A. Barkley T.M. Barkley Barkworth Barneby Barnhart Bartal. Bartlett Bartl. W.P.C. Barton W. Bartram Bassett Batch. Bates V.M. Bates Batsch Baudo C. Bauhin Baumg. R.J. Bayer Beadle E.O. Beal Beal Beaman L.S. Beard Bebb Beck L.C. Beck Beeby Beetle Bég. C.R. Bell Bellardi Beloserky D.M. Benham A. Benn. L.D. Benson Benth. Bercht. A. Berger Bergius Berland. Bernh. Berthel. Besser Beyr. E.P. Bicknell M. Bieb. Biehler Bigelow J.M. Bigelow Bisch. Bitter Biv. S.F. Blake S.T. Blake O.J. Blanch. Blanch. Blank.

Banks, Donald Jack (1930- ) Barkley, Fred Alexander (1908-1989) Barkley, Theodore Mitchell (1934- ) Barkworth, Mary Elizabeth (1941- ) Barneby, Rupert Charles (1911-2000) Barnhart, John Hendley (1871-1949) Bartalini, Biagio (1746-1822) Bartlett, Harley Harris (1886-1960) Bartling, Friedrich Gottlieb (1798-1875) Barton, William Paul Crillon (1786-1856) Bartram, William (1739-1823) Bassett, Ivan John (1929- ) Batchelder, Frederick William (1838-1911) Bates, John Mallory (1846-1930) Bates, Vernon M. ( - ) Batsch, August Johann Georg Karl (1761-1802) Baudo, Firmin ( - ) Bauhin, Casper (Gaspard) (1560-1624) Baumgarten, Johann Christian Gottlob (1765-1843) Bayer, Randall J. (1955- ) Beadle, Chauncey Delos (1966-1950) Beal, Ernest Oscar (1928-1980) Beal, William James (1833-1924) Beaman, John Homer (1929- ) Beard, Luther Stanford (1929- ) Bebb, Michael Schuck (1833-1895) Beck, Günther von Mannagetta und Lërchenau (1856-1931) Beck, Lewis Caleb (1798-1853) Beeby, William Haddon (1849-1910) Beetle, Alan Ackerman (1913- ) Béguinot, Augusto (1875-1940) Bell, Clyde Ritchie (1921- ) Bellardi, Carlo Antonio Lodovico (1741-1826) Beloserky, R. Nicola ( - ) Benham, Dale Maurice (1957- ) Bennett, Arthur (1843-1929) Benson, Lyman David (1909-1993) Bentham,   George    (1800-1884) !" #$&%'%()+*,".-0/!12,3'453 -1876) Berger, Alwin (1871-1931) Bergius, Bengt (Benedictus) (1723-1784) Berlandier, Jean Louis (1805-1851) Bernhardi, Johann Jakob (1774-1850) Berthelot, Sabin (1794-1880) Besser, Wilibald Swibert Joseph Gottlieb von (1784-1842) Beyrich, Heinrich Karl (1796-1834) Bicknell, Eugene Pintard (1859-1925) Bieberstein, Friedrich August Marschall von (1768-1826) Biehler, Johann Friedrich Theodor (c. 1785-18??) Bigelow, Jacob (1787-1879) Bigelow, John Milton (1804-1878) Bischoff, Gottlieb Wilhelm T.G. (1797-1854) Bitter, Friedrich August Georg (1873-1927) Bivona-Bernardi, Antonius de (1774-1837) Blake, Sidney Fay (1892-1959) Blake, Stanley Thatcher (1910-1973) Blanchard, O.J. ( - ) Blanchard, William Henry (1850-1922) Blankinship, Joseph William (1862-1938)

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Blasdell Bluff Blume Blytt Bodkin Boeck. Boenn. Bogin Bogle Boiss. B. Boivin Bol. Bong. Bonpl. Booth Boott W. Boott Borbás Boreau Borkh. Börner Borrer Bosc Bostick Bowden M.L. Bowles F.E. Boynton Brackett T.R. Bradley Brainerd Brammall Brand Brandegee D.M. Brandenburg Branner J.C. Branner A. Braun W.L. Bray Breitung K. Bremer W.H. Brewer Breyne Brign. Briot Bright Briq. Britton Broberg Brongn. R.E. Brooks Brouillet M. Broun G.K. Br. L.E. Br. R. Br. S. Br. P. Browne Bruhin Bruijn

Blasdell, Robert Ferris (1929- ) Bluff, Mathias Joseph (1805-1837) Blume, Carl (Karl) Ludwig von (1796-1862) Blytt, Mathias Numsen (1789-1862) Bodkin, Norlyn L. (1937- ) Boeckeler (Böckeler, Böckler), Johann Otto (1803-1899) Boenninghausen, Clemens Maria Griedrich von (1785-1864) Bogin, Clifford (1920- ) Bogle, A. Linn (1931- ) Boisseier, Pierre Edmond (1810-1885) Boivin, Joseph Robert Bernard (1916-1985) Bolander, Henry Nicholas (1832-1897) Bongard, August (Gustav) Heinrich von (1786-1839) Bonpland, Aimé Jacques Alexandre (1773-1858) Booth, William Beattie (1804-1874) Boott, Francis M.B. (1792-1863) Boott, William (1805-1887) Borbás, Vinczé (Vincent, Vince) von (1844-1905) Boreau, Alexandre (1803-1875) Borkhausen, Moritz (Moriz) Balthasar (1760-1806) Börner, Carl (Karl) Julius Bernhard (1880-1953) Borrer, William J. (1781-1862) Bosc, Louis Augustine Guillaume (1759-1828) Bostick, P.E. ( - ) Bowden, Wray Merrill (1914- ) Bowles, Marlin L. ( - ) Boynton, Frank Ellis (1859-post 1917) Brackett, Amelia Ellen (1896-1926) Bradley, Ted Ray (1940- ) Brainerd, Ezra (1844-1924) Brammall, Ronald A. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Brand, August (1863-1930) Brandegee, Townshend Stith (1843-1925) Brandenburg, David M. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Branner, G.C.; not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Branner, Joseph Casper (1850-1922); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Braun, Alexander Karl (Carl) Heinrich (1805-1877) Bray, William L. (1865-1953) Breitung, August Johann Julius (1913-1987) Bremer, Kåre (Kaare) (1948- ) Brewer, William Henry (1828-1910) Breyne, Jacob (1637-1697) Brignoli de Brunnhoff, Giovanni de (1774-1857) Briot, Pierre Louis (1804-1888) Bright, John (1872-1952) Briquet, John Isaac (1870-1931) Britton, Nathaniel Lord (1859-1934) Broberg, Hans ( - ) Brongniart, Adolphe Théodore (de) (1801-1876) Brooks, Ralph Edward (1950- ) Brouillet, Luc (1954- ) Broun, Maurice (1906- ) Brown, Gregory K. (1951- ) Brown, Larry E. (1937- ) Brown, Robert (1773-1858) Brown, Stewardson (1867-1921) Browne, Patrick (1720-1790) Bruhin, Peter Thomas van Aquinas (1835-1896) de Bruijn, Ary Johannes (1811-1896)

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Brummitt Buc’hoz Buchenau J. Buchholz Buckley Bullock Bunge Burdet E.S. Burgess Burm. f. Burnett B.L. Burtt Burtt Davy N. Busch Bush B.T. Butler Butters Buxb.

Brummitt, Richard Kenneth (1937- ) Buc’hoz, Pierre Joseph (1731-1807) Buchenau, Franz Georg Philipp (1831-1906) Buchholz, John Theodore (1888-1951) Buckley, Samuel Botsford (1809-1884) Bullock, Arthur Allman (1906-1980) Bunge, Alexander Andrejewitsch (Aleksandr Andreevic, Aleksandrovic) von (1803-1890) Burdet, Hervé Maurice (1939- ) Burgess, Edward Sanford (1855-1928) Burman, Nicolaas Laurens (Nicolaus Laurent) (1734-1793) Burnett, Gilbert Thomas (1800-1835) Burtt, Brian Laurence (1913- ) Burtt Davy, Joseph (1870-1940) Busch, Nicola_ Adolfowitsch (Nikolaj Adolfovich) (1869-1941) Bush, Benjamin Franklin (1858-1937) Butler, Bertram Theodore (1872- ) Butters, Frederick King (1878-1945) Buxbaum, Franz (1900-1979)

Cabrera Calder Cambess. G.R. Campb. J.J.N. Campb. A. Camus Camus Canby A. DC. DC. Cantino J. Carey Carruth R. Carter Casp. Cassidy Cass. Catling Cav. Cavara 6879 :;0
? @ACBDCEAGFHI@JK E0? @ DMLBE(> NPORQ(STU -1902) Celarier, Robert P. (1921-1959) Cervantes, Vicente (Vincente) de (1755-1829) Cesati, Vincenzo de (1806-1883) Chaix, Dominique (1730-1799) Chambers, Kenton Lee (1929- ) Chamisso, Ludolf Karl Adelbert von (1781-1838) Chapman, Alvan (Alvin) Wentworth (1809-1899) Chase, Mary Agnes (1869-1963) Châtelain, Jean Jacques (1736-1822) Cherniawsky, Donna M. ( - ) Ching, Ren Chang (1898-1986) Chmielewski, Jerry G. ( - ) Choisy, Jacques Denys (Denis) (1799-1859) Christensen, Carl Frederik Albert (1872-1942) Chrtek, Ji VJ W X YZ2[,\(]^_ - ) Chuang, Tsan Iang (1933- ) Church, George Lyle (1903- ) Clark, Carolyn A. ( - ) Clark, Robert Brown (1914- )

Celarier Cerv. Ces. Chaix K.L. Chambers Cham. Chapm. Chase Châtel. Cherniawsky Ching Chmiel. Choisy C. Chr. Chrtek T.I. Chuang G.L. Church C.A. Clark R.B. Clark

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C.B. Clarke R.T. Clausen J. Clayton Clayton Clement E.G. Clem. Clem. Clewell Clokey Clute Cockerell Cody Cogn. J.R. Coleman N. Coleman T.S. Collins Conrad Constance Coolidge Cooperr. Corb. Correll Cory Coss. J.M. Coult. Courtois Coville B.J. Cox Cranfill Crantz Crép. Croat Croizat Crompton Cronquist Crosswh. M.A. Curtis Curtis Czern. D’Arcy Dahling Dandy Daniels Danser Darby Darbysh. J. Darl. Daubs Daveau Davidson J.F. Davidson J.I. Davis R.J. Davis A.G. Day Dayton Deam Decne. DeJong

Clarke, Charles Baron (1832-1906) Clausen, Robert Theodore (1911-1981) Clayton, John (1686-1773) Clayton, William Derek (1926- ) Clement, Ian Duncan (1917- ) Clements, Edith Gertrude (Schwartz) (1877-1971) Clements, Frederick Edward (1874-1945) Clewell, Andre Francis (1934- ) Clokey, Ira Waddell (1878-1950) Clute, Willard Nelson (1869-1950) Cockerell, Theodore Dru Alison (1866-1948) Cody, William James (1922- ) Cogniaux, Célestin Alfred (1841-1916) Coleman, James Robert (1934- ) Coleman, Nathan (1825-1887) Collins, T.S. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992); authority for Orobanche Conrad, Solomon White (1779-1831) Constance, Lincoln (1909- ) Coolidge, Jerrold ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Cooperrider, Tom Smith (1927- ) Corbière, François Marie Louis (1850-1941) Correll, Donovan Stewart (1908-1983) Cory, Victor Louis (1880-1964) Cosson, Ernest Saint-Charles (1819-1889) Coulter, John Merle (1851-1928) Courtois, Richard Joseph (1806-1835) Coville, Frederick Vernon (1867-1937) Cox, Billy Joe (1941- ) Cranfill, Raimond ( - ) Crantz, Heinrich Johann Nepomuk von (1722-1799) Crépin, François (1830-1903) Croat, Thomas Bernard (1938- ) Croizat, Léon Camille Marius (1894-1982) Crompton, Clifford William ( - ) Cronquist, Arthur John (1919-1992) Crosswhite, Frank Samuel (1940- ) Curtis, Moses Ashley (1808-1872) Curtis, William (1746-1799) Czernajew, Vassili_ Matveievitch (1796-1871) D’Arcy, William Gerald (1931- ) Dahling, Gerald D. ( - ) Dandy, James Edgar (1903-1976) Daniels, Francis Potter (1869-1947) Danser, Benedictus Hubertus (1891-1943) Darby, John (1804-1877) Darbyshire, S.J. (1953- ) Darlington, Josephine (1905- ) Daubs, Edwin Horace ( - ) Daveau, Jules Alexandre (1852-1929) Davidson, Anstruther (1860-1932) Davidson, John Fraser (1911- ) Davis, Jerrold I. ( - ) Davis, Ray Joseph (1895-1984) Day, Alva George (later Grant, A.D.) (1920- ) Dayton, William Adams (1885-1958) Deam, Charles Clemon (1865-1953) Decaisne, Joseph (1807-1882) DeJong, Diederik Cornelius Dignus (1931-

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)

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Des Moul. Descourt. Desf. Desmarais Desv. Detling Dewey D.R. Dewey L.H. Dewey Dicks. Dieck A. Dietr. D. Dietr. F.G. Dietr. W. Dietr. Dipple Dode Dole Döll Domin D. Don G. Don Donn Dore Dorn Dorr Douglas G.W. Douglas Drapalik Drejer W.B. Drew Druce Drude Du Roi Duby Duchesne T.R. Dudley Dufr. Duhamel Dulac Duman Dum. Cours. Dumort. Dunal T. Duncan D.B. Dunn Durand T. Durand Durazz. Durieu Dusén Dyal A.J. Eames Eastw. A.A. Eaton Eaton D.C. Eaton H.H. Eaton

Des Moulins, Charles Robert Alexandre (1798-1875) Descourtilz, Michel Étienne (1775-1836) Desfontaines, René Louiche (1750-1833) Desmarais, Yves (1918- ) Desvaux, Nicaise Auguste (1784-1856) Detling, LeRoy Ellsworth (1909-1967) Dewey, Chester (1784-1867) Dewey, Douglas R. (1929- ) Dewey, Lyster Hoxie (1865-1944) Dickson, James (Jacobus) J. (1738-1822) Dieck, Georg (1847-1925) Dietrich, Albert Gottfried (1795-1856) Dietrich, David Nathaniel Friedrich (1799-1888) Dietrich, Friedrich Gottlieb (1768-1850) Dietrich, Werner (1938- ) Dipple, Leopold (1827-1914) Dode, Louis-Albert (1875-1943) Dole, Eleazer Johnson (1888- ) Döll, Johann(es) Christoph (Christian) (1808-1885) Domin, Karel (1882-1953) Don, David (1799-1841) Don, George (1798-1856) Donn, James (1758-1813) Dore, William George (1912- ) Dorn, Robert D. ( - ) Dorr, Laurence J. (1953- ) Douglas, David (1798-1834) Douglas, George W. ( - ) Drapalik, Donald Joseph (1934- ) Drejer, Solomon (Salomon) Thomas Nicolai (1813-1842) Drew, William Brooks (1908- ) Druce, George Claridge (1850-1932) Drude, Carl Georg Oscar (1852-1933) Du Roi, Johann Philipp (1741-1785) Duby, Jean Étienne Simon (1811-1894) Duchesne, Antoine Nicolas (1747-1827) Dudley, Theodore Robert (1936-1994) Dufresne, Pierre (1786-1836) Duhamel du Monceau, Henri Louis (1700-1782) Dulac, Joseph (1827-1897) Duman, Maximilian George (1906-1990) Dumont de Courset, George(s) Louis Marie (1746-1824) Dumortier, Barthélemy Charles Joseph (1797-1878) Dunal, Michel Félix (1789-1856) Duncan, Thomas (1948- ) Dunn, David Baxter (1917-1994) Durand, Elias (Elie) Magloire (1794-1873) Durand, Théophile Alexis (1855-1912) Durazzini, Antonio ( - ) Durieu de Maisonneuve, Michel Charles (1796-1878) Dusén, Per Karl Hjalmar (1855-1926) Dyal, Sarah Creecie (1907- ) Eames, Arthur Johnson (1881-1969) Eastwood, Alice (1859-1953) Eaton, Alvah Augustus (1865-1908) Eaton, Amos (1776-1842) Eaton, Daniel Cady (1834-1895) Eaton, Hezekiah Hulbert (1809-1832)

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Eberm. Eckenw. Edmonds Eggl. Ehrh. Eifert G. Eiten Elias Elisens Elliott Elmer Endl. Engelm. Engl. Ensign Epling Erdman R.O. Erickson W.H. Evans Ewan Fabr. J. Farmer Farrar Farw. Fassett W.Z. Faust Feath. Fedde Fée Fenzl Fernald Fieber Fisch. G. Fisch. Fisher T.R. Fisher Flüggé Focke J. Forbes G. Forst. J.R. Forst. T.F. Forst. Forsskål Fosberg R.C. Foster Foug. E. Fourn. Fourr. Franch. Frank Franklin S.V. Fraser Freckmann C.C. Freeman F.L. Freeman Frém. Fresen. Friedl.

Ebermaier, Johann Erdwin Christopher (1769-1825) Eckenwalder, James E. (1949- ) Edmonds, Jennifer M. ( - ) Eggleston, Willard Webster (1863-1935) Ehrhart, Jakob Friedrich (1742-1795) Eifert, Imre János (1934- ) Eiten, George (1923- ) Elias, H. ( - ) Elisens, Wayne J. (1948- ) Elliott, Stephen (1771-1830) Elmer, Adolph Daniel Edward (1870-1942) Endlicher, Stephan Friedrich Landislaus (1804-1849) Engelmann, Georg (George) (1808-1884) Engler, Heinrich Gustav Adolf (1844-1930) Ensign, Margaret Ruth (later Lewis, M.R.E.) (1919- ) Epling, Carl Clawson (1894-1968) Erdman, Kimball Stewart (1937- ) Erickson, Ralph Orlando (1914- ) Evans, Walter Harrison (1863-1941) Ewan, Joseph Andorfer (1909- ) Fabricius, Philipp Conrad (1714-1774) Farmer, J. ( - ) Farrar, Donald R. (1941- ) Farwell, Oliver Atkins (1867-1944) Fassett, Norman Carter (1900-1954) Faust, W. Zack (1939- ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Featherly, Henry Ira (1893- ) Fedde, Friedrich Karl Georg (1873-1942) Fée, Antoine Laurent Apollinaire (1789-1874) Fenzl, Eduard (1808-1879) Fernald, Merritt Lyndon (1873-1950) Fieber, Franz Xaver (1807-1872) Fischer, Friedrich Ernst Ludwig von (Fedor Bogdanovic) (1782-1854) Fischer, Georg ( -1941) Fisher, Elmon McLean (1861-1938) Fisher, Tharl Richard (1921- ) Flüggé, Johannes (1775-1816) Focke, Wilhelm Olbers (1834-1922) Forbes, James (1773-1861) Forster, Johann Georg Adam (1754-1794) Forster, Johann Reinhold (1729-1789) Forster, Thomas Furley (1761-1825) Forsskål, Pehr (Peter) (1732-1763) Fosberg, Francis Raymond (1908-1993) Foster, Robert Crichton (1904-1986) Fougeroux de Bondaroy, Auguste Denis (1732-1789) Fournier, Eugéne Pierre Nicolas (1834-1884) Fourreau, Jules Pierre (1844-1871) Franchet, Adrien René (1834-1900) Frank, Joseph C. (1782-1835) Franklin, John (1786-1847) Fraser, Samuel Victorian (1890-1972) Freckmann, Robert W. (1939- ) Freeman, Craig Carl (1955- ) Freeman, Florence Lucinda (later Jones, F.L.) (1912- ) Frémont, John Charles (1813-1890) Fresenius, Johann Baptist Georg (George) Wolfgang (1808-1866) Friedland, Solomon (1912- )

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Fr. Fritsch Froel. Fryxell H.P. Fuchs A.M. Fuller Furlow Gaertn. P. Gaertn. Gagnebin Gaiser Gale Gandhi Gand. Garcke Garden Garrett F.C. Gates R.R. Gates Gatt. Gaudich. Gaudin Gay J. Gay Geise Germ. Geyer Gibelli Gilg Gilib. L.S. Gill J.M. Gillett Gillies Gillis Gilly Ging. Gleason Gled. Glend. C.C. Gmel. J.F. Gmel. S.G. Gmel. Godr. Goldie D.H. Goldman M. Gómez Goodd. Goodman Göpp. Gordon Gould Grab. Graebn. Graham Grande A.L. Grant V.E. Grant A. Gray

Fries, Elias Magnus (1794-1878) Fritsch, Karl F. (1864-1934) Froelich, Joseph Aloys von (1766-1841) Fryxell, Paul Arnold (1927- ) Fuchs, Hans Peter (1928- ) Fuller, Albert Morse (1899-1981) Furlow, John J. (1942- ) Gaertner, Joseph (1732-1791) Gaertner, Philipp Gottfried (1754-1825) Gagnebin, Abraham (1707-1800) Gaiser, Lulu Odell (1896-1965) Gale, Shirley (1915- ) Gandhi, Kancheepuram N. (1948- ) Gandoger, Michel (1850-1926) Garcke, Christian August Friedrich (1819-1904) Garden, Alexander (1730-1792) Garrett, Albert Osbun (1870-1948) Gates, Frank Caleb (1887-1955) Gates, Reginald Ruggles (1882-1962) Gattinger, Augustine (1825-1903) Gaudichaud-Beaupré, Charles (1789-1854) Gaudin, Jean François Aimée Gottlieb Philippe (1766-1833) Gay, Claude (1800-1873) Gay, Jacques Étienne (1786-1864) Geise, M.J. ( - ) Germain de Saint-Pierre, Jacques Nicolas Ernest (1815-1882) Geyer, Carl (Charles) Andreas (1809-1859) Gibelli, Giuseppe (1831-1898) Gilg, Ernest Friedrich (1867-1933) Gilibert, Jean-Emmanuel (1741-1814) Gill, Lake Shore (1900- ) Gillett, John Montague (1918- ) Gillies, John (1792-1834) Gillis, William Thomas (1933-1979) Gilly, Charles Louis (1890-1966) Gingins de la Sarraz, Frédéric, Charles Jean (1790-1863) Gleason, Henry Allen (1882-1975) Gleditsch, Johann Gottlieb (1714-1786) Glendinning, Robert (1805-1862) Gmelin, Carl (Karl) Christian (1762-1837) Gmelin, Johann Friedrich (1748-1804) Gmelin, Samuel Gottlieb (1743/45-1774) Godron, Dominique Alexandre (1807-1880) Goldie, John (1793-1886) Goldman, Douglas H. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Gómez de la Maza y Jiménez, Manuel (1867-1916) Goodding, Leslie Newton (1880-1967) Goodman, George Jones (1904-1999) Göppert, Johann Heinrich Robert (1800-1884) Gordon, George (1806-1879) Gould, Frank Walton (1913-1981) Grabowski, Heinrich Emanuel (1792-1842) Graebner, Karl Otto Robert Peter Paul (1871-1933) Graham, Robert C. (1786-1845) Grande, Loreto (1878-1965) Grant, Adele Gerard (Lewis) (1881-1969) Grant, Verne Edwin (1917- ) Gray, Asa (1810-1888)

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Gray D.P. Greg. Greene Greenm. Gren. Greuter Grev. J.W. Grimes Griscom Griseb. Gronov. H. Gross Gueldenst. Guill. C.R. Gunn Günther Gürke Guss.

Gray, Samuel Frederick (1766-1828) Gregory, David Palache (1930- ) Greene, Edward Lee (1843-1915) Greenman, Jesse More (1867-1951) Grenier, Jean Charles Marie (1808-1875) Greuter, Werner Rodolfo (1938- ) Greville, Robert Kaye (1794-1866) Grimes, James Walter (1953- ) Griscom, Ludlow (1890-1959) Grisebach, August Heinrich Rudolf (1814-1879) Gronovius, Johan Frederik (Jan Fredrik) (1682-1762) Gross, Hugo (1888- ) Gueldenstaedt, Anton Johann von (1745-1781) Guillemin, Jean Baptiste Antoine (1796-1842) Gunn, Charles R. (1927- ) Günther, Johann Christian Carl (1769-1833) Gürke, Robert Louis August Maximilian (1854-1911) Gussone, Giovanni (1787-1866)

F. Haage Hack. `+abac

Haage, Ferdinand (1859-1930) Hackel, Eduard (1850-1926)

Hagstr. Halácsy H.M. Hall Haller Hallier f. A. Ham. Ham. Hand.-Mazz. Hanes H. Hara S.L. Hatch J.R. Harlan L.J. Harms V.L. Harms R.M. Harper H.D. Harr. S.K. Harris Hartm. E.L. Hartm. R.L. Hartm. Hartmann L.H. Harv. Harv. Hauman Hassk. Haussk. Hawksw. Haw. Hayek Hayne R.R. Haynes S.B. Heard Hedrick Heer Hegelm. Heimerl Heiser

d+efeghikj2l m noep'ql rs't(uve qpwx,y0z{y'| - ) Hagström, Johan Oskar (1860-1922) Halácsy, Eugen von (Eugène de) (1842-1913) Hall, Harvey Monroe (1874-1932) Haller, Victor Albrecht von (1708-1777) Hallier, Hans (Johannes) Gottfried (1868-1932) Hamilton, Arthur ( - ) Hamilton, William (1783-1856) Handel-Mazzetti, Heinrich R.E. (1882-1940) Hanes, Clarence Robert (1876- ) Hara, Hiroshi (1911-1986) Hatch, Stephen LaVor (1945- ) Harlan, Jack Rodney (1917- ) Harms, Lawrence J. ( - ) Harms, Vernon Lee (1930- ) Harper, Roland McMillan (1878-1966) Harrington, Harold David (1903-1981) Harris, Stuart Kimball (1906- ) Hartman, Carl Johan(n) (1790-1849) Hartman, Emily Lou ( - ) Hartman, Ronald Lee (1945- ) Hartmann, Franz Xaver von (1737-1791) Harvey, LeRoy Hatfield (1911-1998) Harvey, William Henry (1811-1866) Hauman, Lucien Leon (1880-1965) Hasskarl, Justus Carl (1811-1894) Haussknecht, Heinrich Carl (1838-1903) Hawksworth, Frank Goode (1926- ) Haworth, Adrian Hardy (1768-1833) Hayek, August von (1871-1928) Hayne, Friedrich Gottlob (1763-1832) Haynes, Robert Ralph (1945- ) Heard, Stephen B. ( - ) Hedrick, Ulysses Prentiss (1870-1951) Heer, Oswald von (1809-1883) Hegelmaier, Christoph Friedrich (1833-1906) Heimerl, Anton (1857-1942) Heiser, Charles Bixler (1920- )

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Heist. A. Heller Hellq. Hemsl. D.M. Hend. Henrard Henr. Herb. Herder F.J. Herm. R.A.W. Herrm. Herter L.W. Hess W.J. Hess Heynh. Heywood J.C. Hickman Hiern Hieron. L.C.Higgins Hiitonen Hildeb. Hildm. A.F. Hill A.W. Hill E.J. Hill Hill R.J. Hill Hilliard H. Hinds Hinton Hitchc. C.L. Hitchc. E. Hitchc. Hoch Hochr. Hochst. Hoffm. K. Hoffm. Hoffmanns. Hogg Hohen. Holl Holm W.C. Holmes A.H. Holmgren N.H. Holmgren P.K. Holmgren Holub Holz. Honck. Hook. f. Hook. Hopffer M. Hopkins Horan. Horkel C.N. Horn Hornem.

Heister, Lorenz (1683-1758) Heller, Amos Arthur (1867-1944) Hellquist, C. Baare (1940- ) Hemsley, William Botting (1843-1924) Henderson, Douglass Mackay (1927- ) Henrard, Johannes (Jan) Theodoor (1881-1974) Henrickson, James Solberg (1940- ) Herbert, William (1778-1847) Herder, Ferdinand Gottfried Theobald Maximilian von (1828-1896) Hermann, Frederick Joseph (1906-1987) Herrmann, Rudolf Albert Wolfgang (1885- ) Herter, Wilhelm (Guillermo) Gustav(o) Franz (Francis) (1884-1958) Hess, L.W. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Hess, William John (1934- ) Heynhold, Gustav (1800-1860) Heywood, Vernon Hilton (1927- ) Hickman, James Craig (1941-1993) Hiern, William Philip (1839-1925) Hieronymus, Georg Hans Emmo (Emo) Wolfgang (1846-1921) Higgins, Larry C. (1936- ) Hiitonen, Henrik Ilmari Augustus (1898- ) Hildebrand, Friedrich Hermann Gustav (1835-1915) Hildmann, H. ( -1895) Hill, Albert Frederick (1889-1977) Hill, Arthur William (1875-1941) Hill, Ellsworth Jerome (1833-1917) Hill, John (1716-1775) Hill, Robert J. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Hilliard, Olive Mary (1926- ) Hinds, Harold ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Hinton, W. Frederick ( - ) Hitchcock, Albert Spear (1865-1935) Hitchcock, Charles Leo (1902-1986) Hitchcock, Edward (1793-1864) Hoch, Peter C. (1950- ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Hochreutiner, Bénédict Pierre Georges (1873-1959) Hochstetter, Christian Ferdinand Friedrich (1787-1860) Hoffmann, George Franz (1761-1826) Hoffmann, Käthe (Kaethe) (1833-c.1931) Hoffmannsegg, Johann Centurius von (1766-1849) Hogg, Thomas (1777-1855) Hohenacker, Rudolph Friedrich (1798-1874) Holl, Friedrich (1820-1850) Holm, Theodor (1880-1943) Holmes, Walter C. (1944- ) Holmgren, Arthur Hermann (1912-1992) Holmgren, Noel Herman (1937- ) Holmgren, Patricia K. (1940- ) Holub, Josef Ludwig (1930- ) Holzinger, John Michael (1853-1929) Honckney, Gerhard August (1724-1805) Hooker, Joseph Dalton (1817-1911) Hooker, William Jackson (1785-1865) Hopffer, Carl (1810- ) Hopkins, Milton (1906- ) Horaninow, Paul (Paulus) Fedorowitsch (1796-1865) Horkel, Johann (1769-1846) Horn, C.N ( - ) Hornemann, Jes Wilken (1770-1841)

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Host House Howe Howell F.T. Hubb. Huds. Hultén Humb. Humphries D.R. Hunt Husn. C.R. Hutchins Hutch. Huth Hyl.

Host, Nicolaus Thomas (1761-1834) House, Homer Doliver (1878-1949) Howe, Elliot Calvin (1828-1899) Howell, Thomas Jefferson (1842-1912) Hubbard, Fredric Tracy (1875-1962) Hudson, William (1730-1793) Hultén, Oskar Eric Gunnar (1894-1981) Humboldt, Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von (1769-1859) Humphries, Christopher John (1947- ) Hunt, David Richard (1938- ) Husnot, Pierre Tranquille (1840-1929) Hutchins, Charles Robert (1928- ) Hutchinson, John (1884-1972) Huth, Ernst (1845-1897) Hylander, Nils (1904-1970)

Iljin H.H. Iltis R.S. Irving H.S. Irwin Isely

Iljin, Modest Mikha} ~ €  ‚ƒ2„,…0††‡ -1967) Iltis, Hugh Hellmut (1925- ) Irving, Robert Stewart (1942- ) Irwin, Howard Samuel (1928- ) Isely, Duane (1918-2000)

B.D. Jacks. Jacq. Jaeger Jalas E. James Janch. Jarm. Jaub. C. Jeffrey Jeffs Jeps. B.L. Johnson Johnson-Groh I.M. Johnst. J.R. Johnst. M.C. Johnst. A.G. Jones G.N. Jones M.E. Jones S.B. Jones S.D. Jones Jonsell Juss. K. Just

Jackson, Benjamin Daydon (1846-1927) Jacquin, Nicolaus (Nicolaas) Joseph von (1727-1817) Jaeger, Georg Friedrich (von) (1785-1866) Jalas, Arvo Jaakko Juhanni (1920- ) James, Edwin (1797-1861) Janchen, Erwin Emil Alfred (1882-1970) Jarmolenko, A.V. (1905-1944) Jaubert, Hippolyte François (1798-1874) Jeffrey, Charles (1934- ) Jeffs, Royal Edgar (1879-1933) Jepson, Willis Linn (1867-1946) Johnson, Bertil Lennart (1909- ) Johnson-Groh, Cindy L. ( - ) Johnston, Ivan Murray (1898-1960) Johnston, John Robert (1880-1953) Johnston, Marshall Conring (1930- ) Jones, Almut Gitter (1923- ) Jones, George Neville (1903-1970) Jones, Marcus Eugene (1852-1934) Jones, Samuel Boscom (1933- ) Jones, Stanley D. (1948- ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Jonsell, Bengt Edvard (1936- ) Jussieu, Antoine Laurent de (1748-1836) Just, Theodor Karl (1904-1960)

Kalm Kapadia H. Karst. Kartesz Kaulf. Kawano Kearney Keating D.D. Keck Keener J. Keller R. Keller

Kalm, Pehr (1716-1779) Kapadia, Zarir Jamasji (1935- ) Karsten, Gustav Karl Wilhelm Hermann (1817-1908) Kartesz, John T. ( - ) Kaulfuss, Georg Friedrich (1786-1830) Kawano, Shoichi (1936- ) Kearney, Thomas Henry (1874-1956) Keating, William Hippolitus (Hypolitus) (1799-1840) Keck, David Daniels ((1903-1995) Keener, Carl Samuel (1931- ) Keller, J. (1917-1945) Keller, Robert (1854-1939)

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Kellogg Kelso Keng Ker Gawl. Kerguélen A. Kern. Ketron Kindb. R.M. King Kirchn. Kirp. Kit. Kittell Klatt W.M. Klein Klotzsch Knerr O.W. Knight F.M. Knuth R. Knuth K. Koch S.D. Koch W.D.J. Koch Koehne Koeler K.D. Koenig Kohli Kom. Korsh. T. Koyama M. Král Kral Krapov. E.H.L. Krause Krok Kruschke ˆk‰Š(‹Œ Kühlew. Kuhn Kük. Kunth Kuntze Kunze Kurtz V.A. Kuzn.

Kellogg, Albert (1813-1887) Kelso, Leon Hugh (1907- ) Keng, Yi Li (1897-1975) Ker Gawler, John Bellenden (1764-1842) Kerguélen, Michel François-Jacques (1928- ) Kerner, Anton Joseph (1831-1898) Ketron, Donna W. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Kindberg, Nils Conrad (1832-1910) King, Robert Merrill (1930- ) Kirchner, Emil Otto Oskar von (1851-1925) Kirpicznikov, Moisey Elevich (1913- ) Kitaibel, Pál (Paul) (1757-1817) Kittell, Mary Teresita (1892- ) Klatt, Friedrich Wilhelm (1825-1897) Klein, William McKinley (1933- ) Klotzsch, Johann Friedrich (1805-1860) Knerr, Ellsworth Brownell (1861-1942) Knight, Ora Willis (1874-1913) Knuth, Frederik Marcus (1904-1970) Knuth, Reinhard Gustav Paul (1874-1957) Koch, Karl (Carl) Heinrich Emil (Ludwig) (1809-1879) Koch, Stephen D. (1940- ) Koch, Wilhelm Daniel Joseph (1771-1849) Koehne, Bernard Adalbert Emil (1848-1918) Koeler, Georg Ludwig (1765-1807) Koenig, Karl Dietrich Eberhard (1774-1851) Kohli, B. (1940- ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Komarov, Vladimir Leontjevich (Leontevich) (1869-1945) Korshinksy, Sergei Ivanovitsch (1861-1900) Koyama, Tetsuo Michael (1933- ) Král, Miloš (1932- ) Kral, Robert (1926- ) Krapovickas, Antonio (1921- ) Krause, Ernst Hans Ludwig (1859-1942) Krok, Thorgny Ossian Bolivar Napoleon (1834-1921) Kruschke, Paul (1907-1976) ˆk‰Š(‹ŒŽ'0Emil ‘ - ) Kühlewein, Paul Eduard (1798-1870) Kuhn, Friedrich Adalbert Maximilian (‘Max’) (1842-1894) Kükenthal, Georg (1864-1955) Kunth, Carl (Karl) Sigismund (1788-1850) Kuntze, Carl (Karl) Ernst (Eduard) Otto (1843-1907) Kunze, Gustav (1793-1851) Kurtz, Fritz (Frederico) (1854-1920) Kusnezow, Vladimir Alexandrovich (1887-1840)

L’Hér. LaFrankie Laharpe Lag. La Llave Lahman Laínz Lakela Lam. Lamb. Lamotte Landolt M.A. Lane

L’Héritier de Brutelle, Charles Louis (1746-1800) LaFrankie, James V., Jr. ( - ) Laharpe, Jean Jacques Charles de (1802-1877) Lagasca y Segura, Mariano (1776-1839) La Llave, Pablo de (1773-1833) Lahman, Bertha Marion (1872- ) Laínz, J.M. (1900- ) Lakela, Olga Korhoven (1890-1980) Lamarck, Jean Baptiste Antoine Pierre de Monnet de (1744-1829) Lambert, Aylmer Bourke (1761-1842) Lamotte, Martial (1820-1883) Landolt, Elias (1926- ) Lane, Meredith A. (1951- )

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Lange Larisey Larsen Lassen Lassetter Lauche Lawson C. Lawson C.A. Lawson G. Lawson Laxm. Leavenw. Leconte Lecoq Ledeb. Legg. Lehm. Leiberg Lej. Lellinger Lem. Lemmon Lepage Les Less. T. Lestib. H. Lév. F.H. Lewis W.H. Lewis Lex. Leyss. Liebm. Lightf. Lilj. H. Lindb. Lindh. Lindl. Y.R. Ling Link L. L.f. Little F.E. Lloyd Loisel. Lojac. R.W. Long Loudon Lour. Á. Löve D. Löve Luer Lundell Lunell Ma J.F. Macbr. MacBryde Mack. MacMill.

Lange, Johan Martin Christian (1818-1898) Larisey, Mary Maxine (1909- ) Larsen, Esther Louise (1901- ) Lassen, Per (1942- ) Lassetter, J. Stuart ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Lauche, (Friedrich) Wilhelm (Georg) (1827-1883) Lawson, Peter ( -1820) Lawson, Charles (1794-1873) Lawson, Cheryl A. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Lawson, George (1827-1895) Laxmann, Erich (Erik) G. (1737-1796) Leavenworth, Melines Conklin (1796-1862) Leconte, John Eatton (1784-1860) Lecoq, Henri (1802-1871) Ledebour, Carl (Karl) Friedrich von (1785-1851) Leggett, William Henry (1816-1882) Lehmann, Johann Georg Christian (1792-1860) Leiberg, John Bernhard (1853-1913) Lejeune, Alexandre Louis (Alexander Ludwig) Simon (1779-1858) Lellinger, David Bruce (1937- ) Lemaire, (Antoine) Charles (1801-1871) Lemmon, John Gill (1832-1908) Lepage, Ernest (1905-1981) Les, Donald H. (1954- ) Lessing, Christian Friedrich (1809-1862) Lestiboudois, Thémistocle Gaspard (1797-1876) Léveillé, Augustine Abel Hector (1863-1918) Lewis, Frank Harlan (1919- ) Lewis, Walter Hempworth (1930- ) Lexarza, Juan José Martinez de (1785-1824) Leysser, Friedrich Wilhelm von (1731-1815) Liebmann, Frederik Michael (1813-1856) Lightfoot, John (1735-1788) Liljebald, Samuel (1761-1815) Lindberg, Harald (1871-1963) Lindheimer, Ferdinand Jacob (1801-1879) Lindley, John (1799-1865) Ling, Yeou-Ruenn (1937- ) Link, Johann Heinrich Friedrich (1767-1851) Linnaeus, Carl von (1707-1778) Linnaeus, Carl von (1741-1783) Little, Elbert Luther (1907- ) Lloyd, Francis Ernest (1868-1947) Loiseleur-Deslongchamps, Jean Louis August(e) (1774-1849) Lojacono, Michele (1853-1919) Long, Robert William (1927-1976) Loudon, John Claudius (1783-1843) Loureiro, João de (1717-1791) Löve, Áskell (1916-1994) Löve, Doris Benta Maria (1918- ) Luer, Carlyle A. (1922- ) Lundell, Cyrus Longworth (1907-1994) Lunell, Joël (1851-1920) Ma, Yu Chuan (1916- ) Macbride, James Francis (1892-1976) MacBryde, Bruce (1941- ) Mackenzie, Kenneth Kent (1877-1934) MacMillan, Conway (1867-1929)

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Macoun Maesen Magnus Magrath Maguire Makino Malte Mangaly Mansf. Marcks M. Martens W.C. Martin Mart. Marshall W.T. Marshall F.L. Martin R.F. Martin Mart. H. Mason Mathias Matsum. Mattf. J.F. Matthews Maxim. Maxon J. Maze E.M. McClint. McGregor McKelvey L.E. McKinney McNeill McVaugh Mears Medik. A. Meeuse Meisn. Melderis Mérat Merr. Mert. Mett. Meyen B. Mey. C.A. Mey. E. Mey. F.G. Mey. F.K. Mey. G. Mey. Michx. F. Michx. Mickel Miers Milde G.S. Mill. Lill. W. Mill. Mill. Millardet Millsp. Miq.

Macoun, John (1831-1920) Maesen, L.J.G. van der (1944- ) Magnus, Paul Wilhelm (1844-1914) Magrath, Lawrence K. (1943- ) Maguire, Bassett (1904-1991) Makino, Tomitariô (1862-1957) Malte, Malte Oscar (1880-1933) Mangaly, Jose K. ( - ) Mansfeld, Rudolf (1901-1960) Marcks, Brian G. ( - ) Martens, Martin (1797-1863) Martin, William C. ( - ) Martius, Carl (Karl) Friedrich Philipp von (1794-1868) Marshall, Humphrey (1722-1801) Marshall, W. Taylor ( - ) Martin, Floyd Leonard (1909- ) Martin, Robert Franklin (1910- ) Martius, Carl (Karl) Friedrich Phillip von (1794-1868) Mason, Herbert Louis (1896-1994) Mathias, Mildred Esther (1906-1995) Matsumura, Jinzô (1856-1928) Mattfeld, Johannes (1895-1951) Matthews, James F. (1935- ) Maximowicz, Carl Johann (Ivanovi’(“”,•0–—˜ -1891) Maxon, William Ralph (1877-1948) Maze, Jack ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) McClintock, Elizabeth May (1912- ) McGregor, Ronald Leighton (1919- ) McKelvey, Susan Adams (1888-1964) McKinney, Landon E. ( - ) McNeill, John (1933- ) McVaugh, Rogers (1909- ) Mears, James Austin (1944- ) Medikus, Friedrich Kasimir (1736-1808) Meeuse, Adrianus Dirk Jacob (1914- ) Meisner, Carl Daniel Friedrich (1800-1874) Melderis, Aleksandre (1909-1986) Mérat de Vaumartoise, François Victor (1780-1851) Merrill, Elmer Drew (1876-1956) Mertens, Franz Karl (Carl) (1764-1831) Mettenius, Georg Heinrich (1823-1866) Meyen, Franz Julius Ferdinand (1804-1840) Meyer, Bernhard (1767-1836) ™2š ›0šœž0Ÿ8 œ¡£¢¥¤ ¦ §¤¨©¢¥¤ªœšš «0¬ ­0®«0§¤¨R¯ °P±² -1855) Meyer, Ernst Heinrich Friedrich (1791-1858) Meyer, Frederick Gustav (1917- ) Meyer, Friedrich Karl (1926- ) Meyer, Georg Friedrich Wilhelm (1782-1856) Michaux, André (1746-1803) Michaux, François André (1770-1855) Mickel, John Thomas (1934- ) Miers, John (1789-1879) Milde, Carl August Julius (1824-1871) Miller, Gerrit Smith (1869-1956) Miller, Lillian Wood (1937- ) Miller, Philip (1691-1771) Millardet, Pierre Marie Alexis (1832-1902) Millspaugh, Charles Frederick (1854-1923) Miquel, Friedrich Anton Wilhelm (1811-1871)

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Mirb. Mitch. Mitterp. Moç. Moench Mohlenbr. C. Mohr D. Mohr Moldenke Molina T. Moore Moq. D.R. Morgan Moric. Morong F.J.A. Morris M.I. Morris C.V. Morton G.H. Morton Mosher Mosquin Mousley Muehlenpf. Müll. Arg. O.F. Müll. Muhl. G.A. Mulligan Münchh. D.B. Munro Munro Munson Munz Murb. D.F. Murray E. Murray Murray Mutis Myint Nakai Nash Neck. Nees Neilr. A. Nelson L. Neumann E.E. Nelson G.L. Nesom Nevski Newman Nicora E.L. Nielsen Nieuwl. Nixon North. Norton R. Nowak Nutt. Nyman

Mirbel, Charles François Brisseau de (1776-1854) Mitchell, John (1711-1768) Mitterpacher von Mitterburg, Ludwig (1734-1818) Moçiño, José Mariano (1757-1820) Moench, Conrad (1744-1805) Mohlenbrock, Robert H. (1931- ) Mohr, Charles Theodore (Karl Theodor) (1824-1901) Mohr, Daniel Matthias Heinrich (1780-1808) Moldenke, Harold Norman (1909- ) Molina, Giovanni Ignazio (Juan Ignacio) (1737-1829) Moore, Thomas (1821-1887) Moquin-Tandon, Christian Horace Bénédict Alfred (1804-1863) Morgan, David R. ( - ) Moricand, Moïse Étienne (Stefano) (1779-1854) Morong, Thomas (1827-1894) Morris, F. John A. (1869- ) Morris, Michael I. ( - ) Morton, Conrad Vernon (1905-1972) Morton, Gary H. ( - ) Mosher, Edna (1878-1972) Mosquin, Theodore (1932- ) Mousley, William Henry (1865-1949); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Muehlenpfordt, F. (1849-1891) Müller Argoviensis, Johannes (Jean) (1828-1896) Müller, Otto Friedrich (Friderich, Fridrich, Frederik) (1730-1784) Muhlenberg, Gotthilf Heinrich Ernest (1753-1815) Mulligan, Gerald Alfred (1928- ) Münchhausen, Otto von (1716-1774) Munro, Derek B. ( - ) Munro, William (1818-1889) Munson, Thomas Volney (1843-1913) Munz, Philip Alexander (1892-1974) Murbeck, Svante Samuel (1859-1946) Murray, David F. ( - ) Murray, Edward ( - ) Murray, Johan Andreas (1740-1791) Mutis, José Celestino Bruno (1732-1808) Myint, Tin (1936- ) Nakai, Takenoshin (Takenosin) (1882-1952) Nash, George Valentine (1864-1921) Necker, Noel Martin Joseph de (1730-1793) Nees von Esenbeck, Christian Gottfried Daniel (1776-1858) Neilreich, August (1803-1871) Nelson, Aven (1859-1952) Neumann, Louis (1827-1903) Nelson, Elias Emanuel (1876-1949) Nesom, Guy L. (1945- ) Nevski, Sergei Arsenjevic (1908-1938) Newman, Edward (1801-1876) Nicora, Elisa G. (1912- ) Nielsen, Etlar Lester (1905- ) Nieuwland, Julius (Aloysius) Arthur (1878-1936) Nixon, Kevin C. (1953- ) Northington, David K. (1944- ) Norton, John Bitting Smith (1872-1966) Nowak, R. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Nuttall, Thomas (1786-1859) Nyman, Carl Frederik (1820-1893)

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Oakes Oeder Ogden Ohwi O’Neill Olney Opiz Ortega Osten Ostenf. Osterh. Oteng-Yeb. Otth Otto Ownbey G.B. Ownbey

Oakes, William (1799-1848) Oeder, George Christian Edler von Oldenburg (1728-1791) Ogden, Eugene Cecil (1905- ) Ohwi, Jisaburo (1905-1977) O’Neill, Hugh Thomas (1894-1969); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Olney, Stephen Thayer (1812-1878) Opiz, Philipp (Filip) Maximilan (1787-1858) Ortega, Casimiro Gómez de (1740-1818) Osten, Cornelius (1863-1936) Ostenfeld, Carl Emil Hansen (1873-1931) Osterhout, George Everett (1858-1937) Oteng-Yeboah, A.A. ( - ) Otth, Carl (Karl) Adolph (1803-1839) Otto, Christoph Friedrich (1783-1856) Ownbey, Francis Marion (1910-1974) Ownbey, Gerald Bruce (1916- )

Packer Paine P. Beauv. Palla Pall. E.J. Palmer Pammel K.L. Parker Parl. Parn. Parodi Parry Pass. Pau Pav. W.W. Payne Pax Payson M. Peck Peebles C.I. Peng Pennell T.D. Penn. L.M. Perry Pers. Petagna R. Peter Peterm. Petr. ³k´µ ¶·´¸(¹0º »

Packer, John G. (1929- ) Paine, John Alsop (1840-1912) Palisot de Beauvois, Ambroise Marie François Joseph (1752-1820) Palla, Eduard (1864-1922) Pallas, Peter (Pyotr) Simon von (1741-1811) Palmer, Ernest Jesse (1875-1962) Pammel, Louis Hermann (1862-1931) Parker, Kittie Lucille (née Fenley, K.L.) (1910-1994) Parlatore, Filippo (1816-1877) Parnell, Richard (1810-1882) Parodi, Lorenzo Raimundo (1895-1966) Parry, Charles Christopher (1823-1890) Passerini, Giovanni (1816-1893) Pau, Carlos (1857-1937) Pavón, José Antonio (1754-1844) Payne, Willard William (1937- ) Pax, Ferdinand Albin (1858-1942) Payson, Edwin Blake (1893-1927) Peck, Morton Eaton (1871-1959) Peebles, Robert Hibbs (1900-1955) Peng, Ching I. ( - ) Pennell, Francis Whittier (1886-1952) Pennington, Terence Dale (1938- ) Perry, Lily May (1895-1992) Persoon, Christiaan Hendrik (1761-1836) Petagna, Vincenzo (1734-1810) Peter, Robert (1805-1894) Petermann, Wilhelm Ludwig (1806-1855) Petrak, Franz (1886-1973) ¼½ ¾·¿À(Á0Â ÃÄ0ÅkÆ Á0ÆÇ,È0ÉÊË -1889) Philippi, Rudolph Amandus (Rodolfo (Rudolf) Amando) (1808-1904) Phillippe, Loy R. Phillips, Lyle Llewellyn (1923- ) Pichi Sermolli, Rodolfo Emilio Giuseppe (1912- ) Pickering, Charles (1805-1878) Piehl, Martin Abraham (1932- ) Pilger, Robert Knud Friedrich (1876-1953) Piller, Mathias (1733-1788) Piper, Charles Vancouver (1867-1926) Piré, Louis Alexandre Henri Joseph (1827-1887) Planchon, Jules Émile (1823-1888)

Phil. Phillippe L.Ll. Phillips Pic. Serm. Pickering Piehl Pilg. Piller Piper Piré Planch.

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Plum. Podp. Poggenb. R.W. Pohl Poir. Poljakov Pollard J.M. Porter Porter Posp. D.M. Post Prain Prantl Prescott C. Presl J. Presl A. Prince W.R. Prince Pringle Pritz. Prov. Pryer Rabenh. Raeusch. Raf. Rafn Raim. Ramaley Raup Rauschert P.H. Raven J. Raynal Rech. f. C.F. Reed E.L. Reed C. Reeder Reeder Rees Regel Rehder Rehmann Reichard Rchb. Rendle Rettig Retz. Reveal Rchb. Rich. A. Rich. Richardson K. Richt. Ricker Rickett Riddell G.T. Robbins J.W. Robbins B.L. Rob.

Plumier, Charles 1646-1704) Podp ÌÍÎÏ'ÐÑÒ0Ó ÔPÕ,Ö0×ØP× -1954) Poggenburg, Justus Ferdinand (1840-1893) Pohl, Richard Walter (1916-1993) Poiret, Jean Louis Marie (1755-1834) Poljakov, Petr Petrovich (1902-1974) Pollard, Charles Louis (1872-1945) Porter, J.M. Porter, Thomas Conrad (1822-1901) Pospichal, Eduard (1838-1905) Post, Douglas Manners (1920- ) Prain, David (1857-1944) Prantl, Karl Anton Eugen (1849-1893) Prescott, John D. ( -1837) Presl, Carl (Karl, Carel, Carolus) Bo Ù Ú Û0ÜÞÝßàÜáÚ âÜãäàÜ!áÚ âåãæPß,ç èPéê -1852) Presl, Jan Svatopluk (Swatopluk) (1791-1849) Prince, Arthur Reginald (1900-1969) Prince, William Robert (1795-1869) Pringle, James S. (1937- ) Pritzel, George August (1815-1874) Provancher, Léon (1820-1892) Pryer, Kathleen M. ( - ) Rabenhorst, Gottlob (Gottlieb) Ludwig (1806-1881) Raeuschel, Ernst Adolf (1772-1797) Rafinesque, Constantine Samuel (1783-1840) Rafn, Carl Gottlob (1769-1808) Raimann, Rudolf (1863-1896) Ramaley, Francis (1870-1942) Raup, Hugh Miller (1901- ) Rauschert, Stephan (1931-1986) Raven, Peter Hamilton (1936- ) Raynal, Jean (1933-1979) Rechinger, Karl Heinz (1906-1999) Reed, Clyde Franklin (1918-1999) Reed, Edward Looman (1878-1946) Reeder, Charlotte Olive (1916- ) Reeder, John Raymond (1914- ) Rees, Abraham (1743-1825) Regel, Eduard August von (1815-1892) Rehder, Alfred (1863-1949) Rehmann, Anton (1840-1917) Reichard, Johann Jacob (Jakob) (1743-1782) Reichenbach, (Heinrich Gottlieb) Ludwig (1793-1879) Rendle, Alfred Barton (1865-1938) Rettig, J.H. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Retzius, Anders Jahan (1742-1821) Reveal, James Lauritz (1941- ) Reichenbach, (Heinrich Gottlieb) Ludwig (1793-1879) Richard, Louis Claude Marie (1754-1821) Richard, Achille (1794-1852) Richardson, John (1787-1865) Richter, Karl (Carl) (1855-1891) Ricker, Percy Leroy (1878-1973) Rickett, Harold William (1896-1989) Riddell, John Leonard (1807-1865) Robbins, Guy Thomas (1916-1960) Robbins, James Watson (1801-1879) Robinson, Benjamin Lincoln (1864-1935)

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H. Rob. N. Robson H. Rock Rodr. Roem. M. Roem. C.M. Rogers Rogler Röhl. Rollins Rose Rosend. Rostk. Roth Rothm. Rothr. Rottb. Rottler Rouleau J. Rousseau Rowlee Roxb. Royle Rudge Rudolph F. Rudolphi Ruiz Rupr. Rusby N.H. Russell G. Ruyle-Douglas Rydb.

Robinson, Harold Ernest (1932- ) Robson, Norman Keith Bonner (1928- ) Rock, Howard Francis Leonard (1925-1964) Rodríguez, José Demetrio (1780-1846) Roemer, Johann Jakob (1763-1819) Roemer, Max Joseph (1791-1849) Rogers, Claude Marvin (1919- ) Rogler, George Albert (1913- ) Röhling, Johann Christoph (1757-1813) Rollins, Reed Clark (1911- 1998) Rose, Joseph Nelson (1862-1928) Rosendahl, Carl Otto (1875-1956) Rostkovius, Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlieb Theophil (1770-1848) Roth, Albrecht Wilhelm (1757-1834) Rothmaler, Werner Hugo Paul (1908-1962) Rothrock, Joseph Trimble (1839-1922) Rottbøll, Christen Friis (1727-1797) Rottler, Johan Peter (1749-1836) Rouleau, (Joseph Albert) Ernest (1916-1991) Rousseau, (Joseph Jules Jean) Jacques (1905-1970) Rowlee, Willard Winfield (1861-1923) Roxburgh, William (1751-1815) Royle, John Forbes (1798-1858) Rudge, Edward (1763-1846) Rudolph, Johann Heinrich (1744-1809) Rudolphi, Friedrich Karl Ludwig (1801-1849) Ruiz López, Hipólito (1754-1815) Ruprecht, Franz Josef (Ivanovich) (1841-1870) Rusby, Henry Hurd (1855-1940) Russell, Norman Hudson (1921- ) Ruyle-Douglas, Gloria ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Rydberg, Per Axel (1860-1931)

A. St.-Hil. L. St.-Hil. St.-Yves Salisb. Salm-Dyck Sarg. J.D. Sauer Sav. Savi J.H. Schaffn. Schauer Scheele Schelle Scherb. Scheutz E.E. Schill. G.W. Schimper Schindl. Schinz Schkuhr Schltdl. Schltr. Schleich. Schleid. Schmidel F.W. Schmidt

Saint-Hilaire, Auguste François César Prouvençal de (1779-1853) Saint-Hilaire, Jean Henri Jaume (1772-1845) Saint-Yves, Alfred (Marie Augustine) (1855-1933) Salisbury, Richard Anthony (1761-1829) Salm-Reifferscheid-Dyck, Joseph Franz Maria Anton Hubert Ignatz Fürst zu (1773-1861) Sargent, Charles Sprague (1841-1927) Sauer, Jonathan Deininger (1918- ) Savatier, Paul Amedée Ludovic (1830-1891) Savi, Gaetano (1769-1844) Schaffner, John Henry (1866-1939) Schauer, Johannes Conrad (1813-1848) Scheele, George Heinrich Adolph (1808-1864) Schelle, Ernst (1864-1945) Scherbius, Johannes (1769-1813) Scheutz, Nils Johan Wilhelm (1836-1889) Schilling, Edward E. (1953- ) Schimper, Georg (Heinrich) Wilhelm (1804-1878) Schindler, Anton Karl (1879-1964) Schinz, Hans (1858-1941) Schkuhr, Christian (1741-1811) Schlechtendal, Diederich Franz Leonhard von (1794-1866) Schlechter, Friedrich Richard Rudolf (1872-1925) Schleicher, Johann Christoph (1768-1834) Schleiden, Matthias Jacob (1804-1881) Schmidel, Casimir Christoph (1718-1792) Schmidt, Franz Wilbald (1764-1796)

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C.K. Schneid. H. Scholz Schönland Schöpf Schott Schrad. Schrank Schreb. Schrenk Schrödinger B.G. Schub. Schult. Schult. f. Sch. Bip. F.W. Schultz O.E. Schulz K. Schum. Schur Schuyler Schwartz O. Schwarz Schwein. Scoggan Scop. Scribn. Seem. Selander Semple Sendtn. Sennen Ser. Sessé Settle Seub. Shafer Shaver E.A. Shaw Shear Shechter E. Sheld. Sherff Sheviak Shinners Short Shuttlew. Sibth. Siebold R. Sim Simon-Louis B.B. Simpson Sims Q.P. Sinnott E. Small Small Smeins Smiley A. Smit E.B. Sm. Sm.

Schneider, Camillo Karl (1876-1951) Scholz, Hildemar Wolfgang (1928- ) Schönland, Selmar (1860-1940) Schöpf, Johann David (1752-1800) Schott, Heinrich Wilhelm (1794-1865) Schrader, Heinrich Adolph (1767-1836) Schrank, Franz von Paula von (1747-1835) Schreber, Johann Christian Daniel von (1739-1810) Schrenk, Alexander Gustav von (1816-1876) Schrödinger, Rudolf (1857-1919) Schubert, Bernice Giduz (1913- ) Schultes, Josef (Joseph) August (1773-1831) Schultes, Julius Hermann (1804-1840) Schultz, Carl (Karl) Henirich ‘Bipontinus’ (1805-1867) Schultz, Friedrich Wilhelm (1804-1876) Schulz, Otto Eugen (1874-1936) Schumann, Karl Moritz (1851-1904) Schur, Philipp Johann Ferdinand (1799-1878) Schuyler, Alfred Ernest (1935- ) Schwartz, Ernest Justus (1869-1939) Schwarz, Otto Karl Anton (1900-1983) Schweinitz, Lewis (Ludwig) David von (1780-1834) Scoggan, Homer John (1911-1986) Scopoli, Joannes Antonius (Giovanni Antonio) (1723-1788) Scribner, Frank Lamson (1851-1938) Seemann, Berthold Carl (1825-1871) Selander, Nils Sten Edvard (1891-1957) Semple, John Cameron (1947- ) Sendtner, Otto (1813-1859) Sennen, Frère (1861-1937) Seringe, Nicolae Charles (1776-1858) Sessé y Lacasta, Martín (1751-1808) Settle, Wilbur J. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Seubert, Moritz August (1818-1878) Shafer, John Adolph (1863-1918) Shaver, Jesse Milton (1888-1961) Shaw, Elizabeth Anne (1938- ) Shear, Cornelius Lott (1865-1956) Shechter, Yaakov ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Sheldon, Edmund Perry (1869-1947) Sherff, Earl Edward (1886-1966) Sheviak, Charles J. (1947- ) Shinners, Lloyd Herbert (1918-1971) Short, Charles Wilkins (1794-1863) Shuttleworth, Robert James (1810-1874) Sibthorp, John (1758-1796) Siebold, Philipp Franz (Balthasar) von (1796-1866) Sim, Robert (1791-1878) Simon-Louis, Léon L. (1834-1913) Simpson, Beryl Britnall (1942- ) Sims, John (1749-1831) Sinnott, Quinn P. (1954- ) Small, Ernest (1940- ) Small, John Kunkel (1869-1938) Smeins, Fred E. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Smiley, Frank Jason (1880-1969) Smit, A. ( - ) Smith, Edwin Burnell (1936- ) Smith, James Edward (1759-1828)

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J.G. Sm. S.G. Sm. Smyth L. Smyth N. Snow Sobol. Soják Sol. Sole Somes Soó Soreng Southw. Spach Speg. Spenn. Spreng. Spring O. Spring H. St. John Standl. Stanford Stapf Staudt Stearn Stebbins E.S. Steele Stefani Steenis Sterns Steud. G.W. Stevens W. Stevens Steward S.R. Stewart Steyerm. Stockh. Stoj. Stokes S. Stokes M.T. Strong Strother Stuckey Stuntz Subils Sudw. Y.B. Suh Suksd. Sull. S.D. Sundb. D.A. Sutton Svenson Swallen Sw. Sweet Swezey Swingle Syme Szweyk.

Smith, Jared Gage (1866-1925) Smith, S. Galen ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Smyth, Bernard Bryan (1843-1913) Smyth, Lumina C. Riddle (1872-1939) Snow, Neil ( - ) Sobolewski, Gregor Fedorovitch (Grigoriy Fedorowich) (1741-1807) Soják, Jirí (1936- ) Solander, Daniel Carl (1733-1782) Sole, William (1741-1802) Somes, Melvin Philip ( -1928) Soó von Bere, Károly Rezsö (1903-1980) Soreng, Robert J. ( - ) Southworth, Effie Almira (1860-1947) Spach, Édouard (1801-1879) Spegazzini, Carlo Luigi (Carlos Luis) (1858-1926) Spenner, Fridolin Carl Leopold (1789-1841) Sprengel, Curt (Kurt, Curtius) Polycarp Joachim (1766-1833) Spring, Antoine Frédéric (1814-1872) Spring, O. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) St. John, Harold (1892-1991) Standley, Paul Carpenter (1884-1963) Stanford, Ernest Elwood (1888- ) Stapf, Otto (1857-1933) Staudt, Günther ( - ) Stearn, William Thomas (1911- ) Stebbins, George Ledyard (1906-2000) Steele, Edward Strieby (1850-1942) Stefani, Carlo de (1851-1924) Steenis, Cornelis Gijsbert Gerrit Jan van (1901-1986) Sterns, Emerson Ellick (1846-1926) Steudel, Ernst Gottlieb von (1783-1856) Stevens, George Walter (1868- ) Stevens, William Chase (1861-1955) Steward, Albert Newton (1897-1959) Stewart, Sara R. (1913- ) Steyermark, Julian Alfred (1909-1988) Stockhouse, Robert E. ( - ) Stojanov, Nikolai Andreev (1833-1968) Stokes, Jonathan S. (1755-1831) Stokes, Susan Gabriella (1868-1954) Strong, Mark T. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Strother, John Lance (1941- ) Stuckey, Ronald Lewis (1938- ) Stuntz, Stephen Conrad (1875-1918) Subils, Rosa (1929- ) Sudworth, George Bishop (1864-1927) Suh, Young Bae ( - ) Suksdorf, Wilhelm Nikolaus (1850-1932) Sullivant, William Starling (1803-1873) Sundberg, Scott D. ( - ) Sutton, David A. (1952- ) Svenson, Henry Knute (Knut) (1897-1986) Swallen, Jason Richard (1903-1991) Swartz, Olof (Peter) (1760-1818) Sweet, Robert (1783-1835) Swezey, Goodwin Deloss (1851-1934) Swingle, Walter Tennyson (1871-1952) Syme, John Thomas Irvine Boswell (1822-1888) Szweykowski, Jerzy (1925- )

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Tateoka Taub. Tausch C.E.S. Taylor N.P. Taylor R.J. Taylor Roy L. Taylor T.M.C. Taylor Ten. Terrell Terscheck Thell. Thieret Thomas R.D. Thomas C.H. Thomps. H.J. Thomps. Thuill. Thunb. Thurb. Tidestr. Timm Tod. Tomb G.S. Torr. Torr. Toumey Towner Tratt. Traub Trautv. Trel. Trevir. Trevis. Trin. D.K. Trock A.F. Tryon Tsitsin G.C. Tucker Tuck. Turcz. B.L. Turner M.W. Turner Tweedy Twisselm. Tzvelev

Tateoka, Tsuguo (1931- ) Taubert, Paul Hermann Wilhelm (1862-1897) Tausch, Ignaz Friedrich (1793-1848) Taylor, Constance E.S. ( - ) Taylor, Nigel Paul (1956- ) Taylor, Ronald John (1932- ) Taylor, Roy L. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Taylor, Thomas Mayne Cunninghame (1904-1983) Tenore, Michele (1780-1861) Terrell, Edward E. (1923- ) Terscheck, Adolph (1843?- ) Thellung, Albert (1881-1928) Thieret, John William (1926- ) Thomas, Abraham Louis Emmanuel (Emanuel) 1788-1859) Thomas, R. Dale (1936- ) Thompson, Charles Henry (1870-1931) Thompson, Henry Joseph (1921- ) Thuillier, Jean Louis (1757-1822) Thunberg, Carl Peter (1743-1828) Thurber, George (1821-1890) Tidestrom, Ivar (Frederick) (1864-1956) Timm, Joachim Christian (1734-1805) Todaro, Agostino (1818-1892) Tomb, Andrew Spencer (1943- ) Torrey, George Safford (1891- ) Torrey, John (1796-1873) Toumey, James William (1865-1932) Towner, Howard Frost (1943- ) Trattinnick, Leopold (1764-1849) Traub, Hamilton Paul (1890-1983) Trautvetter, Ernst Rudolf von (1809-1889) Trelease, William (1857-1945) Treviranus, Ludolf, Christian (1779-1864) Trevisan de Saint-Léon, Vittore Benedetto Antiono (1818-1897) Trinius, Carl Bernhard von (1778-1844) Trock, Debra K. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Tryon, Alice Faber (1920- ) Tsitsin, Nikolai Vasiljevich (1898-1980) Tucker, Gordon C. (1957- ) Tuckerman, Edward (1817-1886) Turczaninow, Porphir Kiril Nicolai Stepanowitsch (1796-1863) Turner, Billie Lee (1925- ) Turner, Matt W. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Tweedy, Frank (1854-1937) Twisselmann, Ernest C. (1917-1972) Tzvelev, Nikolai Nikolaievich (1925- )

Ugent Uline Umber Underw. Urb.

Ugent, Donald (1933- ) Uline, Edwin Burton (1867-1933) Umber, Ray E. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) Underwood, Lucien Marcus (1853-1907) Urban, Ignatz (1848-1931)

Vaar. Vahl Vail Van Houtte Vanderhorst

Vaarama, (Otto) Antero (1912-1975) Vahl, Martin (Henrichsen) (1749-1804) Vail, Anna Murray (1863-1955) Van Houtte, Louis Benoît (1810-1876) Vanderhorst, ? ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992), see Warnock (1995)

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Vaniot Vasey V.N. Vassil. Vavilov Velen. Vell. Vent. Verdc. Vest Vict. Vignolo Vill. Vilm. Vitman Volkart Vollm. Voss J.W. Voss

Vaniot, Eugène ( -1913) Vasey, George (1822-1893) Vassiljev, Viktor Nikolayevich (1890-1987) Vavilov, Nikolai Ivanovich (1887-1943) Velenovský, Josef (Joseph) (1859-1949) Vellozo, José Mariano da Conceição (1742-1811) Ventenat, Étienne Pierre (1757-1808) Verdcourt, Bernard (1925- ) Vest, Lorenz Chrysantha von (1776-1840) Victorin, Joseph Louis Conrad Marie- (1885-1944) Vignolo-Lutati, Ferdinando (1878-1965) Villars, Domínique (1745-1814) Vilmorin, (Pierre) Louis (François Lévêque) de (1816-1860) Vitman, Fulgenzio (1728-1806) Volkart, Albert (1873-1951) Vollmann, Franz (1859-1917) Voss, Andreas (1857-1924) Voss, John William (1907- )

B. Wagenkn. W.H. Wagner W.L. Wagner Wagnon Wahlenb. Waldst. Wall. Wallr. Walp. Walsh Walter Wangenh. G.H. Ward Warder M.J. Warnock F.A. Warren Waterf. E. Watson S. Watson Watt Waugh Weath. Webb F. Weber Weber W.A. Weber Wedd. Weigel Weihe G. Weim. Weinm. S.L. Welsh Welw. Wemple H.L. Wendl. H. Wendl. Wernisch. Weston Wettst. Whalen

Wagenknecht, Burdette Lewis (1925- ) Wagner, Warren Herbert (1920-2000) Wagner, Warren L. (1950- ) Wagnon, Harvey Keith (1916- ) Wahlenberg, Georg (Göran) (1780-1851) Waldstein, Franz de Paula Adam von (1759-1823) Wallich, Nathaniel (1786-1854) Wallroth, Carl (Karl) Friedrich, Wilhelm (1792-1857) Walpers, Wilhelm Gerhard (1816-1853) Walsh, Robert (1772-1852) Walter, Thomas (1740-1789) Wangenheim, Friedrich Adam Julius von (1749-1800) Ward, George Henry (1916- ) Warder, John Aston (1812-1883) Warnock, Michael J. (1956- ) Warren, Fred Adelbert (1902- ) Waterfall, Umaldy Theodore (1910-1971) Watson, Elba Emanuel (1871-1936) Watson, Sereno (1826-1892) Watt, David Allan Poe (1830-1917) Waugh, Frank Alfred (1875-1949) Weatherby, Charles Alfred (1857-1949) Webb, Philip Barker (1793-1854) Weber, Friedrich (1781-1823) Weber, George Heinrich (1752-1828) Weber, William Alfred (1918- ) Weddell, Hugh Algernon (1819-1877) Weigel, Christian Ehrenfried (von) (1748-1831) Weihe, Carl Ernst August (1779-1834) Weimarck, Karl Gunnar Henning (1936- ) Weinmamm, Johann Anton (1782-1858) Welsh, Stanley Larson (1928- ) Welwitsch, Friedrich Martin Josef (1806-1872) Wemple, Don Kimberley (1929- ) Wendland, Heinrich Lundolph (1792-1869) Wendland, Hermann (1825-1903) Wernischeck, Johann Jacob (Jakob) (1743-1804) Weston, Richard (1733-1806) Wettstein, Richard (Friedrich) (1863-1931) Whalen, Michael Dennis (1950-1985)

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L.C. Wheeler Wheelock Wherry H.L. White T.G. White Whitehouse Whittem. Wibel Wiegand Wiens Wiersema F.H. Wigg. W. Wight Wikstr. Wilken Willd. T.A. Williams Willk. E. Willm. J.S. Wilson Wimm. Windham Wipff Witasek With. C.B. Wolf F.T. Wolf Wolf Wolfg. A.W. Wood Woodson Wooten Wooton Wormsk. Woynar Wright S.H. Wright Wulfen Wunderlin

Wheeler, Louis Cutter (1910-1980) Wheelock, William Efner (1852-1926) Wherry, Edgar Theodore (1885-1924) White, Heather L. ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992) White, Theodore Greely (1872-1901) Whitehouse, Eula (1892-1974) Whittemore, Alan T. ( - ) Wibel, August Wilhelm Eberhard Christoph (1775-1814) Wiegand, Karl McKay (1873-1942) Wiens, Delbert (1932- ) Wiersema, John H. (1950- ) Wiggers, Friedrich Heinrich (Fridrich Hindrich) (1746-1811) Wight, William Franklin (1874-1954) Wikström, Johan Emanuel (1789-1856) Wilken, Dieter H. (1944- ) Willdenow, Carl Ludwig von (1765-1812) Williams, Thomas Albert (1865-1900) Willkomm, Heinrich Moritz (1821-1895) Willmott, Ellen Ann (1860-1934) Wilson, James Stewart (1932-1985) Wimmer, Christian Friedrich Heinrich (1803-1868) Windham, Michael D. (1954- ) Wipff, Joseph K. (1962- ) Witasek, Johanna A. (1865-1910) Withering, William (1741-1799) Wolf, Carl Brandt (1905-1974) Wolf, Frederick Taylor (1915- ) Wolf, Nathanael Matthaeus von (1724-1784) Wolfgang, Johann Friedrich (1776-1859) Wood, Alphonso W. (1810-1881) Woodson, Robert Everard (1904-1963) Wooten, Jean W. ( - ) Wooton, Elmer Ottis (1865-1945) Wormskjöld, Martin (1783-1845) Woynar, Heinrich Karl (1865-1917) Wright, John (1811-1846) Wright, Samuel Hart (1825-1905) Wulfen, Franz Xavier von (1728-1805) Wunderlin, Richard P. (1939- )

H.O. Yates A. Young Yunck.

Yates, Harris Oliver (1934- ) Young, Alvin ( - ); not listed in Brummitt & Powell (1992); see Beetle & Young (1965) Yuncker, Truman George (1891-1964)

Zabel Zämelis Zavort. Zinn Zucc.

Zabel, Hermann (1832-1912) Zämelis, Aleksander (1897-1943) Zavortink, Joyce Roberts (or E. in Brummitt) (1930Zinn, Johann Gottfried (1727-1759) Zuccarini, Joseph Gerhard (1797-1848)

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Appendix E. True Groups Names. I. Alphabetical list by scientific name Abies - fir Abutilon - velvetleaf Acacia - acacia Acer - maple Achillea - yarrow Acorus - sweetflag Acroptilon - knapweed Actaea - baneberry Adenocaulon - adenocaulon Adoxa - muskroot, moschatel Aesculus - buckeye Aethionema - stonecress Agalinis - agalinis Ageratina - snakeroot Agrimonia - agrimony Agrostemma - corncockle Ailanthus - ailanthus Ajuga - bugleweed Albizia - albizia Alcea - hollyhock Allium - onion, leek, garlic Alnus - alder Alopecurus - foxtail Alternanthera - chaff-flower Alyssum - alyssum Amaranthus - pigweed, tumbleweed, amaranth Amblyolepis - huisache-daisy Ambrosia - ragweed Amelanchier - service-berry, juneberry, shadbush Ammannia - toothcup Ammi - bishop’s-weed, ammi Amphiachyris - broomweed Amsinckia - fiddleneck Amsonia - bluestar Anagallis - pimpernel, poor-man’s-weatherglass Anaphalis - pearly-everlasting Andropogon - bluestem Anemone - anemone, windflower Anethum - dill Anchusa - bugloss Anemopsis - yerba mansa Anoda - anoda Antennaria - pussy’s-toes Anthemis - chamomile Antirrhinum - snapdragon Aphanostephus - lazy daisy Apios - potato-bean, groundnut Aplectrum - puttyroot, Adam-and-Eve Apocynum - dogbane Aquilegia - columbine Arabis - rockcress Arachis - peanut Aralia - sarsaparilla Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Arctium - burdock Arctostaphylos -bearberry, manzanita Arenaria - sandwort Arisaema - Jack-in-the-pulpit Aristida - threeawn Aristolochia - pipevine, Dutchman’s-pipe, birthwort Arnica - arnica Artemisia - sagewort, sagebrush, wormwood, mugwort Arum - arum Arundinaria - cane Asclepias - milkweed Asimina - pawpaw Asparagus - asparagus Aspergo - madwort Asperula - woodruff Asphodelus - asphodel Asplenium - spleenwort Aster - aster Astragalus - locoweed Astranthium - western-daisy Atriplex - saltbush, orache Avena - oat Baccharis - baccharis Bahia - bahia Ballota - ballota Balsamorhiza - balsamroot Barbarea - wintercress Bassia - bassia Begonia - begonia Berberis - barberry, mahonia Bergia - bergia Berlandiera - berlandiera Besseya - kittentail Betula - birch Bidens - beggar-ticks Boerhaavia - spiderling Boltonia - boltonia Bothriochloa - bluestem Botrychium - moonwort Bouteloua - grama Brachyactis - aster Brachyelytrum - shorthusk Bradburia - bradburia Brasenia - watershield Brassica - mustard Brickellia - brickellbush Bromus - brome Buchnera - bluehearts Sideroxylon - buckthorn, jungle-plum, bumelia Bupleurum - thorowax Cabomba - fanwort Caesalpinia - caesalpinia Callicarpa - beauty-berry Calochortus - mariposa Calycocarpum - cupseed

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Calypso - fairy-slipper Camassia - camas Camissonia - camissonia Campanula - bellflower Cannabis - hemp, marijuana Caragana - peashrub Cardamine - bittercress, toothwort Cardaria - hoarycress, whitetop Cardiospermum - heartseed Carex - sedge Carpinus - hophornbeam Carum - caraway Carya - hickory, pecan Castilleja - paintbrush Caulophyllum - cohosh Cedrus - cedar Celastrus - bittersweet Celtis - hackberry Cenchrus - sandbur Centaurea - knapweed Centaurium - centaury Cephalanthus - buttonbush Ceratophyllum - hornwort, coontail Cercis - redbud Cevallia - cevallia Chaenactis - dusty-maiden Chaerophyllum - chervil Chaetopappa - least daisy Chamaecrista - partridgepea Chamaerhodos - chamaerhodos Chelidonium - celandine Chenopodium - goosefoot Chimaphila - pipsissewa Chloracantha - devilweed Chrysothamnus - rabbitbrush Cichorium - chicory Cimicifuga - bugbane Cirsium - thistle Cissus - treebind Citrullus - citrullus Citrus - orange Claytonia - springbeauty Clematis - clematis Cleome - spider-flower, beeplant Cleomella - cleomella Cnidoscolus - tread-softly Cocculus - snailseed Coelorachis - joint-tail Coffea - coffee Coleogeton - pondweed Collinsia - blue-eyed-Mary Collomia - collomia Commelina - dayflower Conoclinium - mistflower Conringia - hare's-ear Consolida - larkspur Convallaria - lily-of-the-valley Convolvulus - bindweed Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Grassland Biome of Central North America

Conyza - horseweed Corallorhiza - coralroot Coreopsis - coreopsis Coriandrum - coriander Corispermum - tickseed Corydalis - fumewort Corylus - hazel Coryphantha - coryphantha Cosmos - cosmos Crassula - pigmyweed Crataegus - hawthorn Crepis - hawk’s-beard Cressa - alkali-weed Croptilon - goldenweed Crotalaria - rattlepod Cryptantha - cryptantha Cryptotaenia - honewort Cucurbita - gourd Cunila - dittany Cuphea - waxweed Cupressus - cypress Cuscuta - dodder Cyclanthera - cyclanthera Cycloloma - ringwing Cylindropuntia - cholla Cymbalaria - basket-ivy Cynanchum - swallow-wort, sandvine Cynoctonum - hornpod Cynoglossum - hound’s-tongue Cypripedium - lady's-slipper Daucus - carrot Delphinium - larkspur Desmanthus - bundle-flower Dianthus - pink Diarrhena - beakgrain Dicentra - bleedingheart Dichanthelium - dichanthelium Dichondra - pony’s-foot Dicliptera - foldwing Digitalis - foxglove Dimorphocarpa - spectacle-pod Diodia - buttonweed Dioscorea - yam Diospyros - persimmon Diplotaxis - wallrocket Dipsacus - teasel Dirca - leatherwood Disporum - fairlybells Dodecatheon - shootingstar Downingia - downingia Draba - draba, whitlow-g