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A STUDY OP PUPIL PARTICIPATION, IN THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL, VIA THE STUDENT COUNCIL *
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the Department of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Armand Richard Marino August 1950
UMI Number: EP46464
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46464 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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J'Aw project report, written under the direction of the candidate's adviser and approved by him, has been presented to and accepted by the Faculty of the School of Education in p a rtia l fu lfillm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree of M a s te r of Science in Education.
TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
THE NATURE. OF THE PROBLEM.......................
Statement of the problem
Questions to be answered by the study. . . .
Review of the literature used in determining the scope and importance of the problem. .
Delimitation and scope of the problem. . . .
Importance of the study..............
Definition of terms used
Organization of chapters ..................
METHOD OP PROCEDURE IN THE SOLUTION The emergence of the p r o b l e m ............
Reliability and validity
Development of the bibliography............
THE VALUE OF PUPIL PARTICIPATIONIN SCHOOL AFFAIRS.......................................
of the findings......................
THE PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER fS R O L E ...............
What is the role of the principal and faculty in a program of student government Summary of the findings....................
PROCEDURE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF A STUDENT C O U N C I L ................................
What is the procedure for the organization of a student c o u n c i l ....................
Summary of findings on criteria for student councils .
Summary of procedures for organizing a stu dent council VI. VII.
C O N C L U S I O N S ...................................
RECOMMENDATION FOR A WORKABLE PLAN OF PUPIL P A R T I C I P A T I O N ............
APPENDIX " A " ..........................
APPENDIX nB " .........................................
CHAPTER I THE NATURE OF THE PROBLEM The first chapter of this study will reveal an actual situation which prompted this problem to become a source of study, the importance of the problem as found in the literature, a statement regarding definition of terms, and information as to the contents of the remainder of the report. The situation.
The investigator is a teacher em
ployed by the Los Angeles City School System in an elemen tary school with an average daily attendance of approxi mately 650 in grades of kindergarten through the sixth. It has been the investigator’s good fortune to have had the opportunity of acting as sponsor for a "School Safety Committee."
This committee was made up of representatives
from the intermediate grades.
Meetings were held once a
week and the children assumed control of many school acti vities with emphasis on safety.
Although this plan of
student participation worked fairly well, it was far from perfect.
The investigator is anxious to effect much
improvement in this plan during the coming school year.
Thug, this study Is for the purpose of bringing about such improvement during the school year of 1950-1951• Statement of the problem.
After investigating the
literature, the statement of the problem was changed so that It now reads:
A Study of Pupil Participation in the
Elementary School, via the Student Council. Questions to be answered by the study. \ 1. What is the value of having pupils participate in the management of school affairs? 2.
What is the role of the principal and
faculty in a program of student government? 3.
What is the procedure for the organiza
tion of a student council? Review of a sampling of the literature used in de termining the scope and importance of the problem.
the last ten years, a wealth of material has become avail able on this subject, especially in the form of periodical literature. G. Nunn stated, Considerable difference of opinion exists as to the appropriateness of various types of pupil organiza tions at the elementary school level. Some maintain that elementary pupils are too immature to participate effectively in genuine self-government. Others are
equally sure that elementary pupils can and should as sume large responsibility for the planning and direc tion of school affairs. Alvah Hayes said, There are certain habits, traits, and characteris tics which it is the duty of our schools to foster in each individual. Among them are cooperation, initia tive, respect for rights of others, ability to carry out instructions, power to assume leadership,and re spect for group rules and laws. These are attributes which it is difficult, if not impossible, to learn by customary formal classroom methods. It becomes our duty, then, to develop a satisfactory means of teach ing these habits and instilling within the individual the characteristics which mark a good and worthy citi zen of the community. This end can be accomplished through the formation of a representative student council vested with authority for planning and super vision of student participation in school control.2 Egbert Hunter stated, Student government properly guided is one of the most effective methods of developing a true concept of the duties and responsibilities of citizenship in a democracy. In a dynamic society such as ours, if we would train for character and citizenship, the child must have the opportunities to exercise initiative, resourcefulness, and decision. He must have a chance to live his ideas and i d e a l s . 3
1 Grace Nunn, et al., ”Student Organizations,” National Elementary Principals, 22:457, July, 1943. 2 Alvah Hayes, f,The Student Council,11 Education, 56:101, October, 1935. 3 Egbert Hunter, flStudent Government in the Ele mentary School,” Chicago Schools Journal, 18-19:103, January, 1937.
4 Stella Andersan said, Many teachers are reluctant to give children real responsibility. If one begins gradually, however, first to let children share in planning and deciding and then to increase the range as they grow in their ability to make wise and sensible decisions, it is surprising how much responsibility they can learn to accept and how successfully they can plan and manage.4 Arthur Pursell stated, To deny students any part in governing themselves is a practice long discarded, but in every school there arises the problem of how much student participation there should be.J Delimitation and scope of the problem. is self-delimiting In its statement.
It will apply to
pupil participation in student government as it is put into practice through means of a student council.
It will deal,
in general, with the aspects of pupil participation for elementary school children, with emphasis on grades three to eight. In so far as possible, this study will present find ings that will assist a principal or a teacher to intro duce a program of pupil participation in his school, or improve a program already in existence.
4 Stella Anderson, ”A Sixth-Grade Citizenship Club,” National Elementary Principals, 22;480, July, 1943. 5 Arthur Pursell, ”A Realistic Approach to Student Government,” National Elementary Principals, 22:464, July 1943.
Importance of the study.
As pointed out by Nunn,’*'
Hayes,^ Hunter, ^ Anderson,^ and Pursell,^ no school should be conducted in a wholly traditional or autocratic manner. The importance of the problem arises from its prac tical application in a classroom teaching situation.
problem is even more important and timely at present when our entire democratic system is under attack from many sec tors,inside as well as outside, our own country.
and authorities alike are generally agreed that it is the duty of the school to develop democratic citizens and that one of the most effective ways of training for democracy Is for the schools to provide the opportunity to school child ren to actually live democracy as they learn it. Definition of terms used. Student council.
A student council refers
to a representative student body organization vested with ■ authority for planning and supervising student participa tion in school control.
Nunn, Loc. cit., p. 457. Hayes, Loc. cit., p. 101. Hunter, Loc. cit., p. 103. Anderson, Loc. cit., p. 410. Pursell, Loc. cit., p. 464.
stated that, ’’School Council has replaced
’Student Council* in many schools, especially those in which teachers as well as students are elected.” Student - - — - participation. ■- - - - -*■ - --
This term refers to
the actual management and control exercised by pupils in the activities and functions of their school.
’’student cooperation’1 is becoming increasingly more common in the literature in this field.
Throughout this report
the terms ’’student participation” and ’’pupil participation” have been regarded as being synonymous in meaning. Sponsor.
The term ’’sponsor” applies to the
teacher or faculty representative of the student council. Other terms used synonymously are ’’teacher-adviser” and ’’counselor.” Organization of chapters.
Chapter I will be con
cerned with the statement of the problem; the delimitation and scope of the problem; the importance of it as deter mined from a sampling of the literature; the definitions used; and the organization of the chapters. Chapter II will present the method of procedure; the type of research; the selection of the literature;
6 Harry C. McKown, The Student Council. (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.,1944), pp. 22-23.
reliability and validity of the literature used; and the specific questions to be answered by the report. Chapters III to V-will present the findings of the literature; Chapter VI presents the conclusions drawn from the findings as stated in Chapters III to V; Chapter VII presents recommendations for a workable plan to fit the particular situation mentioned in Chapter I. This chapter has discussed the nature of the prob lem, the questions to be answered by the report, the im portance of the problem, the delimitation and scope of the problem, the terms used, and the general organization of the chapters in the study.
Chapter II will present the
methods of procedure followed in the preparation of this report.
CHAPTER II METHOD OP PROCEDURE IN THE SOLUTION The preceding chapter discussed the nature, scope and importance of the problem.
This chapter will deal
with the procedure used in the solution of that problem, and the method of achieving the reliability and validity of the literature. Originally, the investigator had in mind a general study of the field of "Student Government11 but after a rather thorough sampling of the literature, it was discover ed that the problem had to be delimited to some specific phase of student government, namely, "Pupil Participation, in the Elementary School,via the Student Councilf
entire problem, then, was narrowed down to a study of three specific questions: 1.
What is the value of pupil participation in the
management of school affairs? 2.
What is the role of the principal and faculty
in a program of student government? 3.
What is the procedure for the organization of
a student council?
The emergence of the problem.
The problem emerged
from the Investigator1s own experience as a teacher, and as a sponsor for an elementary school "Safety Committee" that engaged in the planning and supervision of various school activities.
The problem emerges further from the
fact that the investigator realizes that, while a start in pupil participation was made in his school, much improve ment is desired.
It is hoped that the study will defin
itely aid in attaining this improvement during the coming school year of 1950-1951, at which time the investigator will again have the opportunity of sponsoring a form of pupil participation in the elementary school where he Is now employed. Development of the bibliography.
With the intention
of developing and selecting the best bibliography pos sible for this study, the following method was used? 1.
Selection of books: a.
A total of five books was avail able on the subject. These books dated from 1928 to 1944.
The authors were and are com petent and experienced university professors in the field.
A total of thirty periodicals was used, dating from 1926 to 1949.
The authors were elementary principals, superintendents and teachers who actually have worked in the field of student govern ment .
Reliability and validity.
Reliability of the litera
ture was obtained in the following manner. 1.
Three textbooks that met the standards set
forth were reviewed and the opinions and views of the authors were noted.
Subsequently, two additional textbooks
were reviewed, and when the opinions and views of these two authors were compared with those of the first three authors, it was found that the central tendency of results remained the same, thus establishing reliability of the five text^book authors who had met the criteria of standards mentioned in the development of the bibliography. 2.
Originally twenty selected periodicals were
reviewed, and the views and statements of the writers noted. To establish reliability of the periodical literature, an additional ten periodicals were reviewed, at which time it was observed that the central tendency of the results did not change, but remained constant, thus establishing reli ability of the periodical literature. Validity was achieved by choice of competent men and women actually working in this field, administering
11 programs of student government within their own schools. These authors consisted of superintendents, principals, and teachers who had been active as sponsors for student government organizations in their schools.
Among the com'
petent authors were men like George C. Kyte, Harry C. McKown, Harold Rugg, A. 0. Bowden and Clifford Erickson. These men are highly regarded as outstanding authorities in the field of student government.
There was a very
definite and significant degree of agreement among these authors and among the periodical writers, since the views and opinions they stated were essentially the same. This chapter dealt with the emergence of the prob lem, the development of the bibliography, the reliability and validity of the literature used, and the general pro cedure employed in dealing with the solution of the prob lem. The next chapter will present the findings of the literature regarding the first question, f,What is the value of pupil participation in the management of school affairs?”
CHAPTER III THE VALUE OF PUPIL PARTICIPATION IN SCHOOL AFFAIRS The preceding chapter dealt with the development of the problem, the specific questions to be- answered by this study, the method of achieving reliability and validity, and the general procedure to be followed in the solution of the problem. This chapter will present the findings for the first question. 1.
What is the value of pupil participation in
the management of school affairs?
Harold Rugg, in his
book, stated, The elementary council, for example, is an impor tant instrument through which social habits are de veloped on a larger scale. It is a real council performing real governing functions. Important duties and responsibilities are turned over to it. In these elementary school councils little children partici pate in open-forum discussion and debate. Thus, the new school builds up social habits by providing op portunities for practice in the forming of social habits. By developing a respect for the rights and personalities of others, it produces intelligent and effective social participation.^ Hugh Perkins, on this subject, stated, In the elementary school and particularly in'the school containing grades one to six, preparation for 1 Harold Rugg and Ann Shumaker, The Child-Centered School, (New Yorkr World Book Company, 1928) ,' "p\ 296.
13 adult citizenship is a remote objective. For such a school the purpose of pupil cooperation in school con trol should be more immediate than that of preparation for adult life, because adult life is not regarded bychildren as of great importance.2 I. K. Jurgensmeyer stated: If students are to become a part of our great demo cratic society, we cannot expect to train them in the fundamentals of autocracy and plutocracy. The school should be the nucleus, the training center, or, in other words, the laboratory of democracy. The student who has actively helped direct a small community, in the form of a student body,knows the responsibility of a governing agency. His civic pride has been challenged. His interest has been created. He is interested In citizenship, in elections. Voting in the primaries later will not be something remote from his experiences or his interests. We have been well rewarded in 'citizenship output' by the experience that we have had in the past several years with what we call 'student government.' Under this sytem we have developed a more aggressive and conscientious student bo$y, a more cooperative ■ spirit, and finally, an understanding and belief, on the part of the students, in the democracy in which they live.3 Emma Feuerstein, and others, said: In carrying out activities of the school council, the pupils have developed poise, social conscious ness and such desirable traits as responsibilities, dependability, initiative, respect for opinions of others, unselfishness and an appreciation of the help of others. In general, such participation has made them better future citizens for our country.^2 Hugh V. Perkins, "Pupil Cooperation in Control of an* Elementary School,” National Elementary Principals. 17:115* February, 1938. 3 I. K. Jurgensmeyer, “Students Run This School,” School Executive Magazine. June, 1935* PP. 31^~3154 Emma Feuerstein, et a l ., "Activities of an Ele mentary School Council," Elementary School Journal, 37: 366-37^* January, 1937.
14 Wickham,5 Althouse,6 PurseI,7 Hunter,8 Allen9 and Thornton10 state essentially the same thoughts regarding value of pupil participation in school control as are con tained in the aforementioned quotations. It appears quite evident from the findings in the literature that "pupil participation in the management of school affairs” is of definite value at the elementary level.
Its value lies chiefly in providing young childrm
an opportunity to actually live ’'democracy."
cipation cannot help but instill certain social and be havior traits which are conducive to the development of good citizenship.
Citizenship and all its virtues cannot
be taught effectively in the formal atmosphere and environ ment of the classroom.
One of the most effective ways
5 Ola Wickham, et al., ’'Glimpses of Democracy in Various Schools of the City,” National Elementary Princi pals, 2£;269-275, July, 1943. 6 M. Althouse, "Our Circuit Court,” School Activities, 15:202, February, 1944.' 7 Arthur Pursell, "Realistic Approach to Student Government,” National Elementary Principals, 22:264-268, 1942. 8 Egbert Hunter, "Student Government in the Ele mentary Schools,” Chicago School Journal, 18:103, January. 9 C. H. Allen, "Good Citizenship Begins in Grade School,” The Nation1a Schools, 33:32, June, 1944. 10 C. Thornton, "Student Council in an Elementary School," School Activities, 16:14-16, September, 1944.
of teaching citizenship Is through pupil participation in school control. Pupil participation in school control is by no means a new concept.
Its value, for children, was recognized
as far back as Plato!s time. McKown stated, Rugg found in 1926 that of 191 schools selected at ran dom, 90 per cent reported some form of student parti cipation. E. C. Kelly in 1941 reported that of 1,904,775 students in schools from which replies to his form were received, 91.9 per cent were under some form of student 'participation.^
SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS A study of the findings on this chapter dealing w3j?h the question, ’’What Is the value of pupil participation in the management of school affairs?’1 indicated the follow ing: Three out of five textbook authors used, or 60 per cent, agreed that the value of such participation lies in the development and promotion of desirable social and behavior traits, in the effective training for good citi zenship, and in the development of a clearer concept and 11 Harry C. McKown, The Student Council, (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1944), pp. 14-15, citing E. V. Rugg, ’’Student Participation in School Government,” Twenty-PLfth Yearbook, National Society for the Study of Education, 1926, p. 133.
16 better understanding of democracy by actually living democ racy in school*# All of the periodical writers cited were unanimously agreed in stating essentially the same opinions and views as those stated above regarding the value of pupil parti cipation. This chapter of findings has consisted of quotations and excerpts from the writings of competent authors, prin cipals, teachers and superintendents concerning the question, “What is the value of pupil participation in the manage ment of school affairs?”
The next chapter will take up
the second question tobe answered in this study--”What is the role of the principal and faculty in a program of i
student government?” __________________
#Two textbook authors did not specifically mention this phase of the problem, although essentially the same ideas as above were implied in their general philosophy on pupil participation.
CHAPTER IV THE PRINCIPAL AND TEACHER1S ROLE The last chapter presented the findings of the literature for question one.
This chapter will discuss
the findings of the literature for question two. 2.
What is the role of the principal and faculty
in a program of student government?
Educators are generally
agreed that in order for any plan of pupil participation in school control to he successful, there must be enthusiastic and wholehearted support by the principal and the entire teaching staff.
Without understanding and enthusiastic
support by the entire faculty, no plan of student govern ment can hope to achieve much success, nor will such a plan, without this backing and support, be long-lived. Since proper and wholehearted support, by the faculty, is necessary for a successful plan of student government, it then follows that the first step in this program is to educate and prepare the faculty for partici pation on their part.
Regarding this, McKown states:
In a small school the entire faculty may compose this committee. This group collects constitutions and handbooks of other schools and pertinent literature in the form of bulletins, books, and magazine articles, and makes a serious study of them. In addition, it
may arrange visits to and from other schools; hold con-^ ferences with recognized and experienced authorities, and with both leaders and followers in other schools; take university courses which reflect the participa tion idea; attend student council conferences and con ventions; and in other wavs cover the ground rather com pletely and deliberately.1 Rust, and others, said, Pre-requisite to the success of any pupil govern ment attempt is an understanding on the part of the principal and his staff that such a venture is not just another temporary enthusiasm. It is something which can be carried on year after year.^ Kyte stated, The roles, of both teacher and children are essential to school government. If it is planned and executed by the children, guided by teachers thoroughly aware of their pupils1 needs, it serves the desirable edu cational purposes. /Teacher domination will defeat the objectives because childrenfs normal learning through natural experiences in social control will be absent. Government wholly turned over to the children, how ever, will not provide desirable educative experiences because instructional assistance will be lacking. Evi dence of commendable teacher direction is indicated in the following excerpts from the class secretaryfs re port in the school newspaper:J The class was organized August 20....For a week we discussed what qualities a president and other officers should have and why. So when we elected officers we remembered about q u a l i t i e s . ^ 1 Harry C. McKown, The Student Council (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc.7~1944T, pp. 100-101. 2 Elsie D. Rust, et al., ffThe Opportunity for Teach ing Democracy Through Pupil Government, California School Principals* Association Yearbook, 14-17, 1942, p. 99. 3 George C. Kyte, The Principal At Work (New York: Ginn and Company, 1941), p. 382.
Margaret Smith said, Three things are necessary before carrying out a plan for student councils; 1* Take teachers into your confidence and obtain their cooperation in trying it out before they condemn it. 2 • Call for, as far as possible, an understanding of the parents through a presentation of this plan to the parent-teachers group. 3. Seek the enthusiasm of the pupils in putting over an activity which will enrich their lives and give them a'chance to show what they can do. Bowden in his book stated, This attitude of mind of the principal and faculty members is second in importance only to the attitude of the students themselves. Many thoughtful observers are convinced that the attitude of the principal and teachers is the key that unlocks the door to success. Full teacher cooperation, clear teacher conception of the spirit of the plan, inspiration that comes from the teacher, and wise and sympathetic guidance on the part of the teacher, are undoubtedly factors that make most quickly and most surely for success. If student government is to be in any degree a success, the prin cipal must have faith that a real product will come out of it Many so-called student governments have failed in their purpose because of the tendency of the princi pal to step in, to assume leadership in different situations, and to eliminate any possibility of the youthful citizens growing through experience in the solution of problems. 4 Margaret Smith, HA Valuable Student .Council Or ganization,H National Elementary Principal, 22:37, October, 1942. 5 A. 0. Bowden, Tomorrow1s Americans (New York: G. P. Putnam*s Sons, 1930), p. 51.
20 G. Erickson stated. In starting a council in any school, one of the most important steps is to secure the full cooperation of each member of the faculty. The principal should see to it that a series of professional faculty meet ings is scheduled at which the matter of student par ticipation is given careful study. The faculty must think out and appreciate the value of student parti cipation in school control. McKown said, A favorable attitude on the part of the faculty is essential to the success of the plan because every teacher will have contacts with it and will be in a strategic position to encourage or discourage it. A quite proper method of beginning this program of faculty education is for the principal to appoint a committee of those teachers who, on the basis of training, experience, personality, and open-minedness, are most competent to give the subject adequate and fair consideration.” The National Association of Secondary School Princi pals, as a result of a study of the nations1 student coun cils, came to this conclusion: Teachers must be of the opinion that student par ticipation in school management is an essential part of an adequate school program. They must be sympathe tic with the idea that students can contribute to the effective functioning of school administration.
6 Clifford E. Erickson, Pupil Participation in School Life (Columbia, Missouri: Lucas Brothers, 1942), p. 51. 7 Harry C. McKown, The Student Council (New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, IncTJ 1944), p. 100. 8 Na tional Association of Secondary School Principals, 11The Student Council in the Secondary School s,fr 1944, p. 21.
21 John,9 Thornton,10 Smith,11 Kelly,12 Blankenship,13 Thompson,14 and Carothers15 expressed essentially similar views and ideas regarding the role of the principal and faculty in a program of student government.
9 D, T, John, ”A Student Government Without Adult ‘ Dictatorship,” Wisconsin Journal of Education, 64:20, May, 10 C. Thornton, ,fA Student Council in an Elemen tary School,” School Activities, 16:14, September, 1944, 11 Stella Smith, f,An Evaluation of a Student Council” School Activities, 16:43, October, 1944, 12 E, C. Kelly, ”A Study of Pupil Participation in School Management,” School and Society, 60*85, August, 1944. 13 A, H. Blankenship, ”A Student Council With Elementary Children,” national Elementary Principal, 27: 40-44, April, 1948. 14 C. T. Thompson, ”The Children’s Council Builds Character,” national Elementary Principal, 27:116-119, September,.1947. 15 Estella Carothers, ”0ur Pupil Council,” Instructor, 55;25, October, 1946.
. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS The findings on the question regarding the role of the principal and faculty in a program of student govern ment revealed the following: * 1.
Four out of five competent textbook authors
cited agreed that there should be complete and full coopera tion on the part of the principal and faculty, and two of the authors went into detail regarding actual and definite means of preparation for such a program on the part of the principal and faculty. 2.
Eight out of ten periodical writers who dis
cussed this phase of the problem were in complete agree ment with the views and opinions stated above.
the periodical writers cited merely recognized the impor tance of principal and faculty in a program of student government, but did not elaborate on it.
CHAPTER V PROCEDURE FOR THE ORGANIZATION OF A STUDENT COUNCIL The preceding chapter discussed the findings on question two.
This chapter will present the findings on
question three, which is divided into two parts:
Criteria or standards of a democratic student council; (b) Procedure for organizing a student council. cover:
Part (b) will
(l) Educating the faculty; (2) Educating the stu
dent body; (3) Drafting and adopting the constitution; (4) Election and installation of officers; (5) Activities engaged in by a beginning student council. 3.
What is the procedure for the organization of
a student council? A.
Criteria for establishing a student
council. McKown stated, Although councils may differ widely as far as type of organization is concerned, in order to be success ful they must be built upon the basic principles of (l) equitable representation, (2) a clearly defined internal division of a reasonable schedule of non professional duties, and (3) structural efficiency. A fair criticism of participation in America is that most student councils are over organized; they are too complicated. The final test is to be found in what it accomplishes, which will depend to a large extent upon
24 the sagacity that was used in building it originally and in redesigning it as need arose.^ The National Association of Secondary School Princi pals established a lengthy list of criteria for the organi zation of an effective student council;
Criterion One A good student council possesses power, authority, and responsibility. 1.
It is the voice of the student body.
2. It proposes and carries out activities for the improvement of the school. 3. Its source of power lies in the delegation to it by the principal of authority and responsibility for action within specific or general areas;'provided, that if in the judgment of the principal, a projected council activity seems detrimental to the best inter ests of the school, such activity can be vetoed by him. Criterion Two A good student council practices accepted demo cratic principles in its operations; its Constitution and By-Laws are carefully planned and democratically conceived• 1. In a properly functioning student council, race, religion, or social status do not bar a student from participation in council activities. 1 Harry "C. McKown, The Student Council (New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1944), pp. 93-94.
25 2. Membership in the council is open to any stu dent in good standing in the school duly elected by his home room or some other authorized body. 3. Student units which elect representatives must be small enough so that they can keep close contact with the activity of their representative. 4. Elections take place at regular and relatively frequent intervals. 5. Elections are carried on in a careful manner, and there is strict accounting of ballots. 6. After the minority in the council has had a fair opportunity to express itself, it accepts the decision of the majority in good spirit. 7. The council protects the rights of minorities, particularly in respect to freedom of speech. 8. All council activities must be authorized by the council although details may be left to individuals to carry out. 9. body.
The council must represent the entire student
10. The as possible them out•
council assignsits duties and tasks as far to the students most capable of carrying
11. The council accepts responsibility for its fail ures as well as its successes. 12. Students have the right to revise or rescind their previously approved actions. 13. The right of petition is permitted and under stood by students. 14. Candidates for leading offices should meet re quirements set up by the Constitution or By-Laws. 15. Every student in the school participates in the election of one or all of the officers.
26 16. Provision through generally recognized demo cratic procedures is made for the removal of officers who are grossly inefficient or unfaithful to their duties. 17. Planning in a democratic manner on the part of leaders precedes the initiation of most activities. Criterion Three . A good student council is supported on the part of the faculty and principal by a true understanding of the council*s role; in addition, the attitude of the principal and faculty is sympathetic. 1. The principal recognizes that the council can contribute to the school* s program. 2. The necessary means are taken to keep the faculty continuously informed of the role of the council. 3. The principal and faculty demonstrate their faith and confidence in the council by calling upon it for assistance. 4. Steps are taken whenever necessary to acquaint the entire student body with the council*s purposes, functions, problems, and activities. 5. The home room teacher cooperates by helping the new representative learn and practice the duties expected of him as a new member of the council. 6 . Teachers give sympathetic consideration to problems proposed by students.
Criterion Four A good student council has a sound functioning or ganization. 1. The council operates by the authority and ac cording to the provisions of a Constituion formally adopted by the student body.
27 2. It has regular planned meetings during s chool time at frequent intervals* 3. Xn size, the active body ought not to be too large * 4. It has an advisor who regularly gives adequate time and attention to its work. 5. The advisor is enthusiastic about the council activities, and is trained in the philosophy and tech niques of student council work. 6 . When necessary, the council officers and members are trained by the advisor in parliamentary procedure.
7. The advisor or sponsor of the council is its counselor. 8 . The council must be given the opportunity to ex periment, to be on its own; it has the right to fail as well as succeed.
Criterion Five 1. The student body considers the council as its agent of expression in the school. 2. The student body understands the purposes of the council. 3. Students understand and fully recognize both the extent and limitations of the council 1 s power. 4.
The average student feels that he is represented.
5. Students show readiness to submit plans or sug gestions to the council or its members. 6 . Council members are willing to learn the skill needed in prosecuting activities successfully.
7. Student council projects are worthwhile and challenging. 8 . The home room assumes responsibility for the election of the best representative.
9. Home room representatives make every effort to attend all meetings of the council. 10. The council program involves the direct parti cipation of the maximum number of students. 11. The student council promotes leadership and self-control among members of the student body. 12. The student council promotes a mutual respect of personalities. 13. The student council furthers school morale by fostering a feeling of partnership in the school en terprise . 14.
The student council encourages students to: a.
Be free to express opposition to any project which, in their opinion, is open to serious question.
Be alert to weaknesses in the school and show their concern in a cooperative way to do something about such weaknes ses.
Develop a sense of civic duty that will encourage them to carry out all assign ments.
15. All officers of the council should understand their privileges and responsibilities, and should carry them out in a responsible and faithful manner.^ Erickson stated, Thepurposes of the council must be devised in terms of each specific school. The following points indicate the setting from which a council should build its organization and activities. 2 national Association of Secondary School Principals Bulletin, The Student Council in the Secondary School, 1944, pp. 105-114.
1. A student council is not set up to run the school— it is not an administrative group; hut is a co operative means of living together* 2.
student council should be a stepping stone, not a pawn or tool of the faculty. It is not a mouth piece for the faculty. A
3. The student council is advisory, not'a supreme court. 4. ment .
The hopes of democracy rest in student govern
5. Student participation should help in the de velopment of intelligent citizenship. 6 . The student council aids in the building of school spirit, school loyalty, and respect for teachers.
good student council develops real leaders.
8 . The student council should unify the whole school — all for all— and accomplish the greatest good for the greatest number.
Smith states, Three things are necessary before carrying out a plan for student councils; 1. Take teachers into your confidence and obtain their cooperation in trying It out before they condemn it. 2. Call for, as far as possible, an understanding of the parents through a presentation of this plan to the parent-teacher group. 3. Seek the enthusiasm of the pupils in putting over an activity which will enrich their lives and give them a chance to show what they can do. Our ability to understand better the problems of the school and direct the children to make themselves 3 Clifford Erickson, Pupil Participation in School Life, (Columbia, Missouri; Lucas Brothers, 1942, pp. 8 , citing C. DeYoung, School Activities, 10;16, September, 1937.
acceptable members of the community was the result of this work.^ Perkins stated, The organization through which pupils share in school control should be simple and has an added value if it is centered in a functional program of service or activity whose value is generally recognized.5 Wickham said, Things to be careful about which may help the coun cil function more smoothly. To do; a.
Have something constructive to work on.
Have a simple procedure for conducting meetings.
Keep the meeting on the point at hand.
d. Keep the meeting orderly and dignified. journ promptly.
Not to do: a. Donft try to make school government too ideal or realistic. b.
Don!t expect too much from the pupils.
Donft let meetings become tattle-tale sessions.
Some sort of pupil organization provides an excel lent opportunity to acquaint children with one or more kinds of democratic procedures, and allows them the 4 Stella Smith, ”An Evaluation of a Student Council,” School Activities, 16;44, October, 1944. 5 Hugh Perkins, ”Small Children in School Control,” The Nationts Schools, 22:28, December, 1938.
chance to practice in participating in governing them selves .6 Rust stated, Suggestions to make school council successful: 1. Dignity is important. A formal election with registration of voters, election committee, secret bal lot will help to give the council a good start. Chil dren enjoy the formality, and rise to their best be cause of i t . 2. A long term task to work on will keep the council on important business without allowing it time to delve into petty matters. One council worked out a pupil handbook for its school. 3. Each member of the council needs to have a par ticular governmental responsibility. 4. There must be a distinct understanding as to where the authority of the council begins and ends. It must not conflict with teacher authority or custodial author!ty Hunter stated, "The development of the student coun cil in the middle and upper grades is usually the first step in student participation."8 Pursell stated, Student participation through a student council is probably the most successful method used in our schools.
6 Ola Wickham, et al., "Glimpses of Democracy in Various Schools of A City System,” National Elonentary Prin cipals, 22:269-275, July, 1943.
7 Elsie D. Rust, et al., "The Opportunity for C a c h ing Democracy Through Pupil Government," California Schools Principals 1 As soelation Yearbook, 14:99-102, 1942-45. Egbert Hunter, "Student Government in the Elementary Schools,” Chicago School Journal, 18:103, January, 1937. 8
Through it, all forms of school activity are under the direct control of the student body itself. One of the most important experiences with student council work is that of developing standards for those who are to serve as officers and the selection of pupil leaders in terms of how well they measure up to the standards they have worked out and adopted.^ Regarding principles for the establishment of stu dent government, Rugg stated: 1. ally.
Student participation should be introduced gradu
2. The machinery for its administration should be simple. 3. The students themselves must desire in a genuine way to participate in the government of the school. 4. The faculty must be sympathetic, patient, and willing in every way to make the movement a success. 5. The plan must provide for means by which all students are given opportunities to participate in the government of the school.^
9 Arthur Pursell, "Realistic Approach to Student Government," national Elementary Principals. 22:464-468,1943. 10 Earle Bugg, "Student Participation in School Government," Rational Society for the Study of Education, The Twenty-Fifth Yearbook, Part 11:12Y-140, 1926.
Thornton,11 Smith ,12 Fogler ,15 Anderson ,14 Soule ,15 and John16 expressed essentially the same thoughts as those stated above.
SUMMARY OF FINDINGS ON CRITERIA FOR STUDENT COUNCILS Ten out of the fourteen periodical writers cited, or 71 per cent, expressed views and ideas that were es sentially the same regarding certain standards for estab lishing student councils. 1.
These standards were;
Councils must be delegated sufficient power,
authority and responsibility for successful operation. 2.
Councils should demonstrate and practice demo
cratic procedures in their operation.
11 Charles Thornton, 11Student Council in an Ele mentary School ,*1 School Activities , 16:14-16, September, 12 Stella Smith, MAn Evaluation of a Student Coun cil / 1 School Activities, 16:43, October, 1944. 13 Sigmund Pbgler, "Pupils Write the Constitution for the School Council,M Elementary School Journal, April, 1948. pp. 427-431. 14 Stella Anderson, f,A Sixth-Grade Citizenship Club,rf National Elementary Principals, 22:480-85, July, 1943. 15 Howard Soule, "Students and School Affairs," Arizona Teacher Parent, 36:19, March, 1949. 16 D. T. John, "A Student Government Without Adult' Dictatorship,** Wisconsin Journal of Education, 64:20, Mey , 1931.
Councils should provide for maximum participa
tion for the greatest number of pupils, 4.
Councils should be wholeheartedly supported by
principals and faculties in order to succeed. 5.
Councils should have an efficient functioning
Councils should have prestige and should enlist
the cooperation of as many students as possible. The remaining four of the fourteen writers cited varied somev/hat in their criteria for student councils, al though their general philosophy agreed with that of the authors cited above. Sixty per cent of the textbook authors cited were essentially agreed with the views stated above.
did not make any specific reference to this phase of the problem. Procedure for organizing a student council 1.
Educating the faculty.
Erickson stated; In making plans to introduce student participation, careful provisions should be made to allow ample time for study and preliminary investigation. In starting a council, one of the most important steps is to secure the full co operation of each member of the faculty. Before starting a school council, it is the duty of the administration to have available a comprehensive library of books on extra curricular activities.^ 1 Clifford Erickson, Pupil Participation in School Life, (Columbia, Missouri: Lucas Brothers,194277 P* 49.
35 McKown stated, A favorable attitude on the part of the faculty is essential to the success of the plan. This favorable attitude must be built upon a basis of comprehensive knowledges and accurate appreciation; it can never emerge from a principal-imposed or student-group imposed sys tem. Free discussion and fair disposition of objec tions on the basis of facts and logic, instead of upon the basis of seniority, bias, or position held, should help to make for acceptable and accepted ideas and a fully matured sentiment.2 Smith said, How shall the student council be organized? If it is to be democratic, and it should not exist unless it Is, it should be so organized that all pupils will take part. The school as a whole must be represented, but the organization must not b e too involved. The most vital question is: Whab is best for our school ?3 Johnson stated: The virility of a student council is sustained by; (1 ) Administrative encouragement. The spirit of the superintendent and principal is bound to, sooner or later, flavor the work of the council.^ 2.
Educating the student body.
McKown stated, After--not before— the faculty has become thoroughly acquainted with the Ideals, materials, and procedures of the participation idea, comes the education of the students themselves. But whereas in the case of the faculty this was a dual program, with the student body it is three-headed: the education of a smaller group of student leaders, the education of representatives 2 Harry. C. McKown, The Student Council, (New York; McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1944), pp. 100. 3 Stella Smith, “An Evaluation of A Student Council,“ School Activities, 16:44, October, 1944. 4 ?i/alter Johnson, “Vitalizing the Student Counci 1,“ The Journal of Education, 124:176-177, September, 1942.
36 of the various democratic units of the school, and finally, the education of these units through their representatives.5 Erickson, on the education of pupils in student government stated: The first step in promoting pupil discussion was an assembly on student participation. This assembly was in the form of a panel discussion in which the members of the National Honor Society explained to the student body many things they had learned in their investiga tions. Anderson stated; Many teachers are reluctant to give children real responsibility. If one begins gradually, however, first to let children share in planning and deciding and then to increase the range as they grow in their ability to make wise and sensible decisions, it is surprising how much responsibility they can learn to accept and how successfully they can plan and manage. Altschul stated; The main function of any student council is to help children discover and use opportunities for service and thus provide a broader experience in active citi zenship than can be given in the ordinary classroom. The council has tried to keep its aims and procedures as simple as possible so that they will be clear to elementary school children. They are as follows: 5 Harry C. McKown, op. cit., pp. 103. 6 Clifford Erickson, op. cit., pp. 50.
7 Stella Anderson, ”A Sixth-Grade Citizenship Club,” National Elementary Principals, 22:480, July, 1943. 8 Helen Altschul, ,fCitizenship Council as Means of Character Building,” Educational Methods, 20:191, January, 1941. -
1. To help us become better citizens of our school, home, and community, 2.
To improve conditions in pur school.
3. To help us understand that government is for our protection and that we should cooperate with each other as much a s .possible.° Smith said, ”We must seek the enthusiasm of the pupils in putting over an activity which will enrich their lives and give them a chance to show what they can do.”9 Rust said: Pupil government in our elementary school's is not a universal practice. Children of elementary school age can learn how to conduct an orderly meeting, to allow each the opportunity to express his viewpoint, to stick to the business at hand, to work in commit tees and make reports and to accept responsibility.10 3.
Drafting and adopting a con
stitution. McKown stated: i
After the school has been brought to an understand ing of the basic idea of participation, inevitably there will come a demand for the adoption of the plan. Hence a sort of blueprint must be drawn, and this blue print is the constitution. The entire school will
8 Helen Altschul, “Citizenship Council as Means of Character Building / 1 Educational Methods, 20:191, January, 1941.
9 Margaret Smith, “A Valuable Student Council Organi zation / 1 National Elementary Principals, 22:37-38, October, 1942. 10 Elsie D. Rust, et al., “The Opportunity for Teach ing Democracy through Pupil Government,” California Elemen tary School PrincipalsT Association Yearbook, 14, 1942-45.
serve under this constitution and therefore the school should have the right to participate in its develop ment as well as the right to adopt it ,11 On this same point, Bowden stated: The drawing up of the charter or constitution may be.entrusted to a committee of citizens under the supervision of a teacher. This will give the pupils tangible evidence that their participation in the government has begun. Erickson stated, After several months of discussion, the homeroom groups voted to instruct a committee from the National Honor Society to prepare a constitution. The con stitution as drafted by this committee was finally adopted.3-? McKown again, When the tentative constitution appears finally to be in good shape, it is then ready for adoption by the school in a special election. This election should be an important and dignified event. Formal printed or mimeographed ballots should be used and no such voting procedure as ”say *aye,!ff ftstand,” or f,raise your hands 11 should be scheduled or per mitted ,14 4.
Election and Installation of
11 Harry C. McKown, op. cit., p. 107. 12 A. 0. Bowden, Tomorrow *s Americans (New York : 0. P. Putnam & Sons, 1930), p. 134. 13 Clifford Erickson, o£, cit., p. 50. 14 Harry C. McKown, 0£. cit., p. 109.
Bowden stated, The installation of the officials elected may "be conducted with ceremony. It has often been found help ful to invite prominent citizens and officials of the community to be present at the inauguration to give the beginning of the undertaking what inspiration formal exercises and brief addresses to the pupils may afford .^5 Regarding this same point, Erickson stated, Advocates of student participation rather generally agree that one of the early responsibilities of each council is to plan a public ceremony for the council at which time the members and officers are installed with formality and dignity. McKown stated, Shortly after being elected the council should be appropriately installed in a special program to which, if desired, parents and patrons are invited. This ceremony should be formal and dignified so as to make an impressive appeal to the student body. Nothing should be allowed to cheapen it in any w a y . ^ 5.
Activities engaged in by
councils• McKown stated, The first fewtasks of the newly organized council should be small, very definite, and easily recognized and appreciated by the school. Fretwell says in this
15 A. 0. Bowden, op. ci t., pp. 124-125. 16 Clifford Erickson, 0 £. cit., p. 53. 17 Harry C. McKown, 0£. cit., p. 111.
40 connection, 'The council should begin with concrete activities where definite success is possible. More difficult problems may be taken up as the pupils and teachers, working through the council, gain ability to handle them.'18 Erickson stated, In the construction of any program it is well to begin in a small way; expansion should be a gradual process. Success in a few activities, carefully chosen and well executed, will serve as a basis for the gradual but definite expansion of the school council program. As a result of this gradual growth, a variety of activities and powers related to general school and pupil problems will be included in the program.19 Soule stated, The student government has done much to help build school morale. It has given the pupils a feeling of importance through giving them a chance to participate in running the school. It should be realized that students are not adults and perfection should not be expected, but students can contribute to building the school and then participate in student affairs can contribute to making citizens out of boys and girls. 0 Carlson,^1 Johnston,^2 van Pool,^3 and Moore^^ ex pressed essentially the same philosophy as those authors already cited, regarding the procedure for the organiza tion of a student council. 18 Harry C. McKown, op. cit., pp. 114-115, citing E. K. Fretwell, Extra-Curricular Activities in Secondary Schools (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1931), p. 193. 19 Clifford Erickson, op., cit., p. 6 l . 20 Howard Soule, "Students and School Affairs," Arizona - Teacher Parent, 3 6 :6 9 , March, 1949. 21 Ruth L. Carlson, "Putting It Up to the Student Council," Clearing House, 2 2 :9 6 -9 8 , October, 1947. 22 Edgar G. Johnston, "Democracy and the Student Council," School Activities. September, 1947, PP* 3~4. 23 G. Van Pool, "Publicity for the Student Council," School Activities. September, 1947, PP. 6-10. 24 Leslie W. Moore, "Student Council Elections," School Activities, September, 1947* PP. 18 a^d 3 8 .
r 1 /
SUMMARY OP PROCEDURES FOR ORGANIZING A-STUDENT COUNCIL Three out of five of the competent textbook authors stated essentially similar views regarding complete proce dure and steps for organizing a student council.
generally agreed on by these authors were as follows* 1.
Begin by educating the faculty on student parti-
Follow this by educating the student body regard
ing student participation, 3.
Allow the student government idea to grow from .
within the student body, 4,
Start the drafting of a constitution by student
Arrange for election and installation of officers
in a formal, dignified way. 6.
Select suitable and purposeful activities which
council can engage in successfully at the start of the councilTs work. Two textbook authors did not write on this question. Eight out of eleven writers who discussed this question were in essential agreement with the views and opinions of the authors stated above.
It was observed that three out of
eleven writers discussed only one phase of council organi zation, such as ^installation of officers,” ^drafting the
42 constitution,” or “procedure at meetings” rather than dis cussing the entire organizational procedure* This' chapter has presented the findings and summaries for question three*
The next chapter will discuss the con
clusions regarding the whole problem.
CHAPTER VI CONCLUSIONS The preceding chapter presented the findings for question three.
This chapter will present the conclusions
of the findings contained in chapters III to V
report regarding the three specific questions under the problem. Student participation in the management of school affairs is of definite and significant value, for the students so participating in that it trains them to be cooperative, democratic and better citizens in general, A prcgram of student government must, in order to be successful, have the wholehearted and earnest coopera tion and support of principal and faculty. An effective and democratic student council organi zation should develop as a result of the felt needs of the student body.
Xt should have authority, prestige,
support, cooperation, and a knowledge and application of democratic principles in its operation. This chapter has presented the conclusions of the findings of the competent authors and writers in the field of student government.
The next chapter will present a
44 workable plan for a practical solution of the problem as applied to a local elementary school in Los Angeles City* The particular situation was referred to in Chapter I of this report*
CHAPTER VII RECOMMENDATION FOR A WORKABLE PLAN OF PUPIL PARTICIPATION The preceding chapter reviewed the conclusions de rived from the findings of competent authors and writers. This chapter will present a plan to improve the situation referred to In Chapter I, at which time the writer had at tempted to experiment in pupil participation in school control. In accordance with the findings in the literature, the first step is to attain the support of the principal and faculty regarding student participation.
should then plan and “educate0 itself in the field of stu dent government• Sufficient interest and motivation will be aroused so as to have the pupils make the request for student par ticipation.
The whole matter of election and installation
of officers and duties will be discussed at the first school assembly. Each room will then elect one boy and one girl to the School Safety Committee.
The principal will then ap
point members to the Safety Patrol which functions as a subcommittee of the School Safety Committee.
46 are appointed by the principal because of their fitness for the important work assigned to their group. At the next school assembly, the principal will call forth his appointees to the Safety Patrol and before the entire school, present them with the Safety Patrol Arm Badge.
He will also call forth the School Safety Committee
men elected from each room.
To them he will present the
School Safety Committee Badge.
The entire installation pro
ceedings should be formal and impressive before an assembly of pupils and even parents.
The installation should include
the flag salute followed by the repeating of the Safety Committee Pledge in unison by the entire committee.
pledge is as follows; 1 . X wi 11 work for the safety of others as X would want them to work for my safety.
I will be careful, all the time, everywhere.
3. I will take no unnecessary chances of hurting myself or others. 4. X will in no way, by my own acts, do anything that might result in injury to others. 5. All this I will do for the sake of humanity and the honor of my school. 6 . I will always remember, even after my term of office is over that as a member of the Safety Committee, I took this pledge and will always practice safety.
Soon after the pal or sponsor
installation of officers, the princi
of the committee will call a meeting
47 committeemen for the purpose of electing from their mem bers a president, vice-president, and secretary.
will be held once a week, if possible, on school time.
meetings will be conducted in a simple and orderly parlia mentary procedure.
The order of business will be as fol
lows : 1.
Meeting called to order by president.
Salute to flag.
Minutes of last meeting read by secretary,
4. Report of all subcommittees, for example; Committee, Yard Committee, Health Committee.
5. Report have seen, heard, low each accident clude suggestions an accident.
they fol in such
from committee members on accidents or read about. A discussion should so reported. The discussion should for prevention of the recurrence of
6 . Report of patrol chairman on safety violations by pupils of the school.
Disposal of cases.
8 . Two f,two-minute,f talks on some phase of safety by committee members appointed by the president at a pre ceding meeting.
9. Appointment of two members to talk at the next meeting and the assignment of their subjects. 10.
Discussion of old and new business.
11. Once each month, arising and repeating the pledge in unison. 12.
Ad journmen t .
The term of office for each member will b e one semester, unless otherwise designated#
A certificate of
service, as per sample (see Appendix), will be presented to each committee member who has completed a satisfactory term of office.
A distinguished service pin will be pur
chased and presented to each committeeman who has performed outstanding service.
Also presented to each member will
be two booklets (see Appendix), one of which is entitled, 11Your Bicycle and Mine.1*
Some of the activities which the Safety Committee will be concerned with will be: 1.
Accident prevention on playground.
Health and safety condition in lavoratories.
Help in the operation of the cafeteria.
Hosts and hostesses on lunch benches.
Care of ball and equipment box.
Establishing bicycle rules.
It is realized, especially in,the light of the find ings, that the ultimate success of this plan will depend on the cooperation and support of the principal and faculty. Much emphasis will be placed upon the fact that this com mittee is a democratic organization, composed of boys and girls selected by majority vote of their classmates. is felt that this will result in a better start toward
greater pupil participation in school affairs, and that the School Safety Committee Plan will provide many oppor tunities for training in democracy and self-government that will carry over into adult life* Xn this chapter, the procedure for the organization of a School Safety Committee in an elementary school was presented to improve the situation referred to in Chapter I of this study.
BIBLIOGRAPHY TEXTBOOKS McKown, Harry C., The Student Council. Hew York: Hill Book Company, Inc., 1944. 352 pp. Rugg, Harold, The ChiId-Centered School. ’ Book Company, 1928. 359 pp. Kyte, George C., The Principal At Work. and Company, 1941. 496 pp. Bowden, A. 0., Tomorrow!s Americans. n amfs Sons, 1930. 200 pp.
New York: New York:
G. P. Put
Erickson, Clifford E . , Pupil Participation in School Life. Columbia, Missouri: Lucas Brothers, 1942. 199 pp.
PERIODICALS Nunn, Grace, et al., ”Student Organizations,” National Elementary Principals, 22:457, July, 1943. Hayes, Alvah, ”The Student Council,” Education, 56:101, October, 1935. Hunter, Egbert, "Student Government in the Elementary School,” Chic ago Schools Journal, 18:103, January, 1937. Anderson, Stella, ”A Sixth-Grade Citizenship Club,” National Elementary Principals, 22:480, July, 1943. Pursell, Arthur, ”A Realistic Approach to Student Govern ment,” National Elementary Principals, 22;464, July, 1943. ^Perkins, Hugh V., ”Pupil Cooperation in Control of an Ele mentary School,” National Elementary Principals, 17: 115, February, 1938.
^Rust, Elsie P., et al., f,The Opportunity for Teaching Democracy through Pupil Government," California School Principals1 As so clat ion Yearbook^ 14:99, 1942 . Jurgensmeyer, I. K., "Students Rim This School,,f School Exe cu t ive Mag a zin e, June, 1935, p. 314. Feuerstein, Emma, et al., "Activities of an Elementary School Council," Elementary School Journal, 37:366, January, 1937. ^Wickham, Ola, et al., "Glimpses of Democracy in Various ' Schools of the City," National Elementary Principals, 22:269, July, 1943. Althouse, M., 11Our Circuit Court," School Activities, 15: 202, February, 1944. Allen, C. H., "Good Citizenship Begins in Grade School," The Nat ion* s Schools, 33:32, June,. 1944. Thornton, C., "Student Council in an Elementary School," School Activities, 16:14, September, 1944. Smith, Margaret, "A Valuable Student Council Organization," National Elementary Principals, 22:37, October, 1942. "The Student Council in the Secondary Schools," National Association of Secondary School Principals, October, 1944, p. 105. John, D. T., "A Student Government without Adult Dictator ship," Wisconsin Journal of Education, 64:20, May, 1931. Smith, Stella, "An Evaluation of a Student Council," School Activities, 16:43, October, 1944. Kelly, E. C., "A Study of Pupil Participation in School Management," School and Society, 60r85, August, 1944. Blankenship, A. H., "A Student Council with Elementary Children," National Elementary Principals, 27:40, April, 1948. Thompson, C. T., "The ChildrenTs Council Builds Character," National Elementary Principals, 27:116, September, 1947.
Carothers, Estella, ”Our Pupil Council,,f Instructor, 55:25, October," 1946. Rugg, Earle, ”Student Participation in School Government,11 National Society for the Study of Education, Twenty- . Fifth Yearbook, 11:127, 1926. Fbgler, Sigmund, ”Pupils Write the Constitution for the School Counci1,” Elementary School Journal, April, 1948, p. 427. Soule, Howard, f,Students and School Affairs ,11 Arizona Teacher Parent, 36:19, March, 1949. Johnson, Walter, r,Vitalizing the Student Council,” The Journal of Education, 124:176, September, 1942. Altschul, Helen, ffCitizen ship Council As Means of Character Building,” Educational Methods, 20:191, January, 1941. Carlson, Ruth L., 11Put ting It Up To the Student Council,” Clearing House, 22 596, October, 1947. Johnston, Edgar, ”Democracy and the Student Council,” School Activities, September, 1947, p. 3. Van Pool, G. M., ”Publicity for the Student Council,” School Activities, September, 1947, p. 6 . Moore, Leslie W., ”Student Council Elections,” School Activities, September, 1947, p. 18.
Certificate of Jflerit l&prequest of ttie principal anb Safety Sponsor of_ NAME
tfno atoarb i£ preoenteb to
in recognition of personal oerbiceo renbereb ao a member of tfie ^ctjool Safety Committee, anb for acbiebement in
Clmcatton for public S a fe ty Co-Z-£ l ^ 3 ' £ = L & j
Automobile Club of Jfeoutljent California
SAFETY C O M M I T T E E M E M B E R S H I P BOOK SCHOOt.
P ro p e rty of: