A handbook for teacher-pupil use in the operation of the student store in the Excelsior Union High School District

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A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education

by John Vernon Sauers August 1950

UMI Number: EP46564

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P rt^-

T h is proje ct report, w ritte n under the direction o f the candidate’s adviser a n d a p p ro v e d by h im , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lt y o f the S chool of E d u c a tio n in p a r t i a l fu l f i l l m e n t of the

requirements f o r

the degree

o f M a s t e r of

Science in E d u c atio n .



A d v is e r





. .................

1 1

Statement of the p r o b l e m .............


Scope of the problem

• • • • • • . • • •






Definition of terms u s e d ...............


Importance of the problem Justification of the problem

Extraclass activities Pupil



• . • • • • • « » • • • • • • • •

Student store .........

4 4

. . . . . . . .


• • • . • • • •



Limitations of the problem

. . . . . . .


Background of the w r i t e r .............


Organization of the remainder of the study




. .




Administration and supervision of student body stores

• • • • • • • •



Administration and supervision of student body finances III.

REVIEW OF STORE OPERATIONS Reasons for student stores

. ...............



Faculty supervision and responsibilities



21 26


PAGE Responsibilities.................


Selection of faculty supervisor . . . . .


Duties of the faculty manager.........


Teaching load



Pay for faculty supervision........... Job description and analysis




Job needs



Student manager

. . . . . . . . . . . .


Assistant student manager

• • • • • • •


Salespeople • • • • • • • • • . . . • • •




• . • • • • • . . • • • • • • • •

Pupil responsibilities Store promotion

• • • • . • • • • •



Supervision by pupils • • • • • • . • • • •

44 46


Pay r o l l ....................


Recruitment and dismissal . . • • • • • • •


Recruitment............... Dismissal • • • •




Grievances and complaints...........


Correlation with the commercial classes . .


Accounting and finance




The handling of cash register receipts


Cashing of checks................... . Extending credit


57 56 59


PAGE Material policies • • • • • • • • • • • • •


Stock to be handled • • • .............


Stock control............ ..............


Inventories............. .............


Stock t u r n o v e r ........ ..............


Marking of merchandise

.. • ..........


• . . • • • • • • • • • • •


Cost in code Dead stock

. . . ...........


Want l i s t ............. Refunds............... Price policies Profit



• • • • • • • •

. ...

70 • 71

. . . .........................




Mark-up Markdown




Purchasing policies Requisitions Purchase order


......................... • • • • • • • • • • » • •

Consignment buying


Discounts . ...............

72 74 74 75 75

... .. .


Receiving • • . • • • • • • • • • • • • •




Public relations


Hours and service policies .




H o u r s ................................



PAGE Service.................


Advertisement........................... . .........

Educational benefits IT.

84 86


88 • • • • • • • * • . .


Faculty supervision and responsibilities


Job discription and analysis


... .. .

Pupil responsibilites................... 100 Supervision by pupils • • • • • • • • • •


Pay roll


• . .........

Recruitment and dismissal • • • • • • • •


Grievances and complaints . • • • • . • •


Selling and Merchandising................. 103 Correlation with the commercial classes • 103 Accounting and finance Material policies Price policies


* • • ...........

104 105

....................... 109

Cooperation with local merchants

. . .' . 110

Purchasing policies • • • • • • « . • • •


Responsibilities of the store . . . . . . .


Public r e l a t i o n s ......... Hours and service policies Store policies

112 .........


112 113


PAGE Advertisement • • • • • • • • •




Accidents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Educational benefits


............... .


. . 116

Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


Conclusions........................... Recommendations

............... 118

BIBLIOGRAPHY.................................... 120 APPENDIX

...................................... 123



PAGE School supplies recommended to be kept in stock at the student store East Bakersfield High School


• .



General articles sold in stores operated by twenty-nine high schools in Illinois

. .





Window display picture


Excelsior Union High School "decal”


Awarding of prise for "decal” winner


Floor plan of the student store Excelsior

........... . . .


. . . . . .




Union High School, sections Ato Z . . . . .


Manager’s daily report


Student Store pay roll .


Student Body finance pay roll form


Student Body purchase order requisition form . .



Report of injury report

• • • • • • • • • • • •



Student Store organization chart • • • • • • • •



Student Store grievance and complaint procedure chart


Stock c a r d .........




93 94

... .. .



99 107



Statement of the problem. It was the purpose of this study to prepare a handbook to be used as a teacher-pupil guide in the supervision and administra­ tion of the Student Store at Excelsior Union High School, Norwalk, California. Scope of the problem. The scope of this study, in formulating the handbook, was to (1) help the teacher in establishing good managerial policies; (2) help the pupil understand the purpose and probable outcomes of good organization; (3) give contributions, of financial and educational benefits, to the student body of the Excelsior Union High School, forming an integral part of the whole educational program; (4) provide teacherpupil opportunity to get practical experience in many of the.phases of business activity; (5) give the pupil well-defined instructions, so that he may develop initiative, co-operative attitudes with co-workers, customers, and give some assurance of success in all of these; and (6 ) help the student to formulate the right habits in conducting himself in serving the

2. public properly, as to, handling of monies, courteous service, proper displaying of merchandise, and the proper personal conduct as an agent of the store. Importance of the problem. The Student Store at Excelsior Union High School has been an established business for many years, due to the lack of a regular business district near the established plant.

It has

been an established policy of the Board and Administration of the school, not to allow pupils to leave the school grounds without special passes. With the change of teacher-managers and the constant change of pupil personnel in the Student Store it is only good business practice to have a written, wellorganized plan to handle the problems that arise in such an establishment throughout the years. The establishment of a new four-year high school in the district will call for the organization of a student store at Bellflower High School in 1951*


is hoped that this handbook will prove helpful in their development and construction of a similar store. Justification of the problem.

A survey, headed

by Irving R. Melbo^and Edward H. LaEranchi, both from

1 Irving R. Melbo, and Edward H. LaEranchi, nThe Report of the Survey of the Excelsior Union High School,** Norwalk, California, 1949*

3. the faculty of The University of Southern California, was presented to the Board of Trustees, January 1, 1949* Under the heading of "Business Education," Chapter IV, certain suggestions were made, such as: Though the total program of classes is quite extensive, it is suggested that in future planning, thought be given to the possibilities of expanding the program of education for the distributive occup­ ations. The increasing growth of population in Southern California and accompanying growth of retail, wholesale^ and business service establish­ ments will call for large numbers of trained workers. In the post-war period methods of conducting business and business operations and procedures can probably be expected to change considerably. Cor­ responding changes in the content of business education courses should be made. Consequently, the business education department will need to make many changes and adaptations from present practice. Therefore, it is recommended that a continous program of teacher improvement and in-service education is developed. Such a program should encourage teachers to secure business experience during summer vacations, and to provide opportunities on occasional school days and Sat­ urdays to observe first-hand improvements and changes in business methods and operations in business concerns. In planning the business education budget provisions will to be made for replacing office machinery as soon as it is out of date or obsolete even though it is not worn out. Though the Excelsior Union High School is not conveniently located from the standpoint of providing supervised work experience opportunities in business concerns, every possible effort should be made to provide such opportunities when they can be found.

2 Melbo, 02* oit.. p.

4. The student store will help to fulfill, partially, these suggestions in training pupils in the distributive occupations with work experience* II. DEFINITIONS OF TERMS USED Extraclass activities.- This is to replace the erroneous use of the term ”extracurricular* now in use. Inconsistencies and exactness found in the terminology of periodical literature; has been given by Good,



and Scates, in The Methodology of Educational Research. Extracurricular is another descriptive word which is now inaccurate. When the activities thus designated first appeared, they were quite outside the formal studies compromising the curriculum. With the broader aims now accepted, the curriculum has expanded to include all educative experiences, among which the great variety of social activities now organized and directed by the modern school are recognized as having an important place. The term extra-classroom should be used as, more accurately descriptive in designating these.^ Pupil. The use of pupil as a descriptive word for all people working in the student store will be used.

Good, Barr, and Scates, has also given this as: There is a similar, but less confusing* use

^ Carter V. Good, A. S. Barr, and Douglas E. Scates, The Methodology of Educational Research (New York: Appleton-dentury-Crofts ,"The., 1935 )’• &90 n i pp7 4 Ibid.. p. 657.

of the terms pupil and student in articles in the secondary field* The more careful writers use pupil when speaking of the high school, and student when referring to the college.^ The student, as used in Student Store and Student Body Funds* can not be changed because of the past practice and long term use of these titles and will be used in this handbook only for this purpose. Student Store.

It has been the practice of

Excelsior Union High School to call the store, located in the Social Studies building, and supplying pupils with stationery, mechanical drawing, music, and athletic articles,— the Student Store. The Student Store is set apart from other activities, such as the Candy Stores; (1) one operated by the Student Body; and (2) two operated by the School Board; which sell candy, soft-drinks, sandwiches, and ice-cream* Management. Terminology in business is far from standardized*

Organization is a function of

management, and may be considered as the structural element in business, while management is the directing, controlling, and coordinating element*

5 Ibid.. p. 657

These are broad

6. terms and William Cornell

has put the elements of

management in these words: Definition of management was adopted in 1921 by the Management Division of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers* "Management is the art and science of organizing, preparing and directing human effort applied to control the forces and to utilize the materials of nature for the benefit of man•"' Limitations of the problem* The limitations of this problem are confined to the ideas, materials, policies, and forms to be used in the Student Store, Excelsior Union High School District, Norwalk, Calif­ ornia, as a handbook for the use of the teachers and students employed* Student body finance will be limited to only that phase which is to be used within the store proper* This will exclude any financial procedures for payment of invoices and pay roll, but will include authorization of payment of same, by the store manager and faculty advisor* Food items are also to be excluded from this

6 William B* Cornell, Organization and Management in Industry and Business, (New York: *The Ronald Press Company, 1936)* 80^ pp* ? Cornell, op* cit** p. 35

study, and only those items carried by the Excelsior Union High School Student Store are included, such as; athletic, mechanical drawing, stationery, and miscel­ laneous novelties* Background of the writer* The writer of this study has been manager of the student store at Excelsior Union High School, and has held this position for the past two years*

He has had the following experiences:

seven years with wholesale grocery establishments; two years in the frozen food industries, and three years in Army clerical work* III* ORGANIZATION OF THE REMAINDER OF THE STUDY i

When ideas are written into a handbook, much more time on organization, judgment, and aids can make the expediting of details at a maximum of effic­ iency*

This will not be the finis, but a gathering

of materials to be added to, reorganized, and re­ evaluated from year to year* Chapter II is devoted to a review of all related materials, such as:

administration and supervision

of student body finance; administration and supervision of student body stores selling all types of materials, including food items*

Chapter III is concerned with a review of like situations that can be applied to the Student Store at Excelsior Union High School*

These will be grouped

under three major headings; Personnel Management, Sell­ ing and Merchandising, and Responsibilities of the Store* Chapter I? presents the handbook which was con­ structed in complete detail for use in organizing the teacher-pupil-management of the Excelsior Union High School*

This chapter is divided into three separate

parts. Part I, Personnel Management, has the following units:

(i) Faculty Supervision and Responsibility;

(2) Job Discriptions and Analysis; (3) Student Respons­ ibilities; (4) Supervision by Pupils; (5) Pay Roll; t6 ) Recruitment and Dismissals; and (7) Grievances and Complaints. Part II, Selling and Merchandising, covers the following units:

(1) Stock Control; (2) Correlation

with Commercial Classes; (3) Accounting and Finance; (4) Material Policies; (5) Price Policies; (6 ) Co­ operation with Local Merchants; (7) Refunds; and (8) Purchasing Policies. Part III, Responsibilities of the Store, presents the final units:

(1) Public Relations; (2) Hours and

Service Policies; (3) Advertisement; (4) Accidents; and (5) Educational Benefits. Chapter V is a summary of the study, presenting conclusions and recommendations for the Student Store at Excelsior Union High School*

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE Administrat ion and supervision of student body stores* There are eight studies directly related to the student body stores*

Several have been written

in the last ten years while two were written over fif­ teen years ago» 1*

A study by Clarence U. Butterfieldf 1929, on

"The Administration and Supervision of Student Stores in Senior High Schools of California", is still up to date* Two methods were used in making this study*


was done by personal visitations to ten high schools to determine the general type of store organization.


second method used was to send questionnaires to one hundred senior high schools of California* The schools studied ranged in size from 200 to 3,500 enrollment.

Seventy-one per cent of these schools

had an enrollment of less than 1,000*

Thirty-five schools

answered the questionnaire, while forty-six other schools reported that they did not have a student store* a

Clarence U* Butterfield, "The Administration and Supervision of Student Stores in Senior High Schools of California," Unpublished Master’s Thesis, The Univer­ sity of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1929♦ 88 pp.

11. Principals, answering the questsinnaire, gave the major reason they did not have a student store to the fact that local merchants wished to sell school supplies to the pupils, and not to have a student store in competition with them. Butterfield’s^ reasons for operating a school store (for those authorized), were: (1) A student store will save the students time and money in purchasing their school supplies. (2) School authorities are better able to regulate the kind and quality of material when it f$ sold in the student store. (3) The student store is a great aid in keeping the students on the school ground, for they do hot need to leave the grounds in order to get candy and other luxuries. (4) A student store is a necessity as a labor­ atory for commercial classes. A review of Butterfield’s conclusions on housing, equipment, management, buying, store hours, pay for student salesmen, selection of student salesman, rate of profit, amount of profit, refunds, disposal of profits, relation of student stores to local merchants, and educ­ ational values will be given in the next chapter. 2* A master’s project by Karl J. Jensen]'® 1948,

^ Butterfield, op. cit., p. 77* 10 Karl J. Jensen, ’’The Organization for a Student Store in East Bakerfield High School,” Unpublished Master’s project, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1948.

12. is one of the most recent of all studies made ox} this subject.

His study entitled, "The Organization for a

Student Store in the East Bakersfield High School," though very short, was well done. Jensen presented an untried plan to meet a very local situation and his areas of physical plant, buying, store operation, prices, internal organization, respons­ ibility, selling, accounting, financial benefits, educ­ ational benefits, public relations, and distribution of profit, will be given in the next chapter. 3.

Edward Theodore Ruenitz^made a survey in; 1933

at the college level that is very good and parts are very identical to those found in any high school.


study, "A Survey of the Methods and Policies of the College Bookstores of California," covers many things pertaining to student store activity. It was the purpose of Ruenitz*s study to find out what was being done in the cooperative bookstores in the colleges and junior colleges in the state of Calif­ ornia.

Ruenitz had had personal experience, both as

^ Edward Theodore Ruenitz, "A Survey of the . Methods and Policies of the College Bookstores of Calif­ ornia." Unpublished Master1s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1944#

13* an undergraduate student, working in the college book­ store, and later, as a teacher-faculty amnager of two junior college bookstores.

With his experience, it was

possible for him to make a very accurate and interesting collection and analysis of the subject, One-cent postal cards were sent to the principal, president, or faculty manager of junior colleges, and excluding those too small to;support a store worthy of the name.

The question on these postal cards were:

(1) Name of the college? (2 Located in what city? (3) Number of students enrolled in the institu, tion? (4 ) Do you have a bookstore in the college? (5) Number of employees in the store? (6) Do you have a faculty manager in the store? (7) Name of faculty manager? (8) Do you have, in addition to the faculty man­ ager, a. Full-time paid store manager? b. Part-time student manager? (9) Will it be possible to make an appointment to see the faculty manager or student manager any Thursday or Tuesday afternoon? State preference,1^ From the replies received from the postal cards, an eight-page questionnaire was either mailed or a personal visit was made to each student store.

From this question­

naire, twenty-eight filled out the form*

Parts of the

findings will be used in the next chapter.

12 $Md, p, 9 *

14. 4.

Another study was made by Ross Wattelet,^

"The Administration and Supervision of Student Stores in California High Schools Over 1,000*" It was the purpose of the Wattelet study to compare various procedures in the operation and maintenance of student stores in the large Califoraia high schools* .By the use of the questionnaire method, Wattelet surveyed one,hundred and ten schools, with only forty-one schools reporting student stores*

In the findings, the

operation of ,a student store may be validated by three main principles: (1) An educational program for the financing extra­ curricular activities* (2) A method of correlating good business practice with the curriculum* (3) A means of decreasing discipline problems by encouraging students to stay on the campus.1^ Wattelet’s findings pertaining to:

where does

the student store fit into the curriculum; what are the general store policies; how the personnel should be selected, and their duties; the type of housing needed,

^ Ross Wattelet, "The Administration and Super­ vision of Student Body Stores in California High Schools Over 1,000," Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1944. 78 pp. 14 Ibid.. p. 3,



and equipment; how the control of stock is handled; and how to set up an accounting system that will offer security through periodical checks, will be found in the next chapter# 5#

O.W. Funkhouserfs ^ study, "School Stores

and Selling Practices in High Schools in Illinois," was to determine: (1) The services rendered to the pupils by the high-school store or selling agency# (2) The means used by th% schools in providing these services to the pupil. The data was obtained by interviewing eighty-two high-sehool principals in Illinois by the check-list method#

Twenty-nine of these were used in the making

of the study, the rest having no stores or did not have "adequate practices" to be included. Items that were sold in these stores, management operations, physical plant, pay of pupils, hours open to the pupils, finances, and reasons for maintaining stores will be found in the next chapter# 6 # Elizabeth Flood and H. R# Laslett,




0. W. Funkhouser, "School Stores and Selling Practices in High Schools in Illinois," The School Review. 44:202-211, March, 1936# l6Ellzabeth Flood and H. R. Laslett, "A Study of High-School Stores in a City School System," The School Review. 57:490-6, November, 1949*

16. a study of high school stores in a city school system. Their findings of a check-list type of interview of one school system, in a city of 400,000, was based upon eleven schools.

Although this is not a significant

number for a thorough study, parts of this study on hours, stocks of merchandise, store advisors, physical equipment, inventories, bonding of employees, compen­ sation for worker, theft, supervision, and publicity will be used in Chapter III. 7*

"Capitalizing on Educational Values of In­

formal Work Experience," was a study made by Wilson H. 17 Ivins and Herber Wey in the realm of the informal work experiences as an integrated enrichment of the curric­ ulum.

Parts of this study will be used in(the next

chapter under educational values derived from work experience in student stores. 6.


An outstanding report by Gilbert Peart

two high schools in the New York City area, the Central Commercial High School, New York City, and the Greenwich High School, Greenwich, Connecticut.

These two schools

Wilson H. Ivins and Herbert Wey, "Capitalizing on Educational Values of Informal Work Experience," The School Review, $7:485-89, November, 1949# 18 Gilbert Peart, "Business Expedience Through School Stores." The Journal of Business Education. 16:22-4, April, 15517


17* operating a laboratory method cooperative school store, worked out excellent projects with their salesmanship classes, and with, the help of other school classes, made demonstrations of exact store practices*


classes helped in the construction of the building, and the Art classes worked with displaying of the merchandise, even delivery and telephone service has been included in their operations. The Greenwich High School put on a Merchandising Fair each year, with the help of thirty local merchants furnishing their wares, booths were conducted by students taking orders*

The Fair is held for three nights, and

additional training before the opening is given to the students working in the booths to acquaint them with the merchandise to be sold* Additional information by Peart on the selection of pupils, hours, positions, service, and merchandise, will be found in the next chapter* Admin istrat ion and supervision of student body finances* In this phase of the study, three surveys were found.

One of these dates back to 1926, but because of

the outstanding work done, and the continuance of his practices in student stores of the Los Angeles City


School System, it was included in this review. 1.

D. W. Brunskill,s‘^**A Survey of ,the Status

of the Administration and Supervision of Student Body Finances in Junior Colleges,n is on the college level and again it is of only minor importance to this study. One point of Brunskill’s survey brought out the finding that all student bodies except one required the preparation of a budget of estimated income and expend­ itures, for which the student store would be a part* Of nineteen sources of income in Brunskillfs study of eight jumior colleges (two having student stores) 5.5 per cent of the total came from the student stores, or $ 4,540.00, for the year 1934.20 Additional items of educational values derived from student participation in handling student body finanee, difficulties and problems encountered in handling student body finance, responsibility for safe handling of funds, purchase order system, control of receipts, and necessity of co-operation upon the part of the 19

7 Donovan Wilbert Brunskill, "A Survey of the Status of the Administration and Supervision of Student Body Finances in Junior Colleges,** Unpublished Master’s thesis, The University of Southern California, Los Angeles, 1934. 220 pp. 20 Ibia.. p. 188.

19. administration, the student body, and the faculty will be handled in the next chapter* 2*

The investigation made by Albert E. Bullock


of the administration and supervision of student body finances in thirty-eight junior and senior high schools of Los Angeles, California, was completed in 1926*


describes efficient, business-like, and workable methods that may be used in administering and supervising student body finances in the high school*

Convenient forms

for handling the finances connected with the student body activities commonly found in junior and senior high schools in and near Los Angeles, California, are shown in the study* The lack of uniformity in the administration and supervision of student body finances in the high schools of Los Angeles, as shown by SuHoPurchase order*

In many eases the purchase

order is used for the authorization instead of the re­ quisition order.

In using either of these forms, only

the blank spaces are filled in, saving considerable time. These are made out in triplicate and are numbered for the purpose of checking the number outstanding and as a control measure for authorization, price, and merch­ andise ordered and not yet received. Wattelet gives this from his study: Of the forty-one schools reporting stores, thirtyfive stated that they used purchaser5orders to order all merchandise. The use of the purchase order form removes a good portion of the chance of ordering poor*or unsalable merchandise in that it usually must be authorized by more than one person. Usually the business manager or the principal has the final word on determining whether or not the order is to be dispatched or not.90 In cases where merchandise is ordered by tele­ phone, for a rush order, the proper signatures should be obtained, and the form marked diagonally across the face, ^Conformation Order”, so that an additional order is not sent out.

In the case of phone orders, the purt?

chase order number should be given to the supplier, along wmth the order of merchandise. 3*

Consignment buying. When merchandise is

Wattelet, op. cit., p. 64*

purchased on consignment, the title to the property is retained by the seller.

The store is then responsible

for the protection and its safe keeping.

Unsold goods

are returnable under the conditions made at the time of the agreement.

Hew goods for which the demand is

uncertain is a good reason for consignment buying.


nother reason for this type of buying is in the case of expensive items that call for a large stock of sizes. Examples of these are football shoes, sweat-shirts, and athletic sweaters.

One size is sent on consignment,

and then ordersccanbbe placed from this sample. *

4*. Discounts. The amount of discounts given student stores will vary with the amount that they buy. The type of merchandise will also carry varing amounts of discounts. In most cases items that are purchased for the store carry greater discounts than the school board can purchase the items.

The reason behind this is that

the student store is purchasing for resale, while the school purchases for consumption. The author found that the school was purchasing items for the craft classes at a ten per cent discount , while the student store could purchase from the same company, same items, at a discount of from twenty to

77. thirty-three and one third per cent* 5.


Some personsshbul&dbe responsible

to see that the merchandise is received in proper con­ dition and sign for it* do this for the store.

In some schools the custodians In any ease the merchandise

should be checked against the shipping ticket and the duplicate purchase order or the requisition.

The date

received and by whom, and if any shortages exist, they should be marked and notify the manager or faculty ad­ visor.

Some type of notification should be sent to

the shipper of the shortages existing, so that the error may be rectified as soon as possible. It is best to have a receiving desk where the merchandise can be left on delivery (when the store is closed)and is easily found when the store reopens. 6. Returns. Items that can be returned will vary, on several things. any supplier.

Pirst, the amount bought from

If you give the bulk of your business to

one supplier, it becomes very easy to return merchandise if it is in good condition.

Second, if the merchandise

has been printed with the school name or insignia it cannot be returned.

If the stock has been in the store

for some time, or the cost has declined, only partial credit will be allowed.

UBfIT III RESPONSIBILITIES OF THE STORE The student store received its entity from the recommendations of the administration and authority of the board, and to perpetuate this purpose is the responsibility of the store.

To do this, the use of

good public relations, service, and written knowledge of its services must be put before the pupils of the school. A.


Public relations starts in the store with the quality and quantity of service that it gives.

If the

customer is not satisfied, other types of public rela­ tion will be of no use*

If the store is out of certain

items all the time, pupils will fail to come into the store again.

If the clerks and salespeople are talking

to friends and not waiting on the customers, they will go elsewhere. Interesting window displays can attract many customers into the store.

Many schools use the store

window displays for their merchandising classes.


author has done this at Excelsior Union High School with very much success. teams.

The classes were divided into

Grades were given by the teacher with the aid

of the employees of the store.

Figure I, page 79, gives

80. an example of the work done by one of these teams* The Art classes at Excelsior Union High School, held a contest, sponsored by' the Student Store, for the best drawings, to be used on the school decals.

A copy

of these decals that were accepted are shown as Figure II, page 81.

The first prize was #2.50 in merchandise

from the Student Store, while the second and third prize was the use of their work on the decals only.

A picture,

awarding of the prize, by Mr. Cleavinger, Figure III, page 82, was also used in the school paper. Flood and Laslett say that, "Little publicity is given in any of the schools to the annual reports of their stores.^0" Ivins and Wey have mentioned that the educational values of student stores should be voiced through the Parent Teacher’s Association.^ Having the employees of the store contact the teachers in the school for suggestions and informing them of items that pupils in their classes might use, will help the store make better public relations.


printed list of items should be given to all new teachers to acquaint them with the items that may be obtained at the Student Store. QO 7 Flood and Laslett, op. cit., p. 495? 91 Ivins and Wey, op. cit., p. 487.




Ge 3



83. B. 1,


Hours. The greater number of hours the store

is open, the better the service to the pupils.


this goes increased costs for employee pay, which de­ creases the, amount of profit for the store.


where in-between lies the answer, i


Some stores are open all day long, while others vary from one hour, to evening hours,

Ruenitz gives

his survey of college store hours as: College bookstores are inconsistent in the hours at whieh they are open. Two report that they are open at seven o ’clock. Six open at 7:45; seven open at eight o ’clock; one opens at 8:45; two at 8:30; one at nine and one at ten. The hours of closing are just as irregular. One closes^at 12:15, another at one, two stores close at 1:30, one closes at three, another at 3:30; eight close at four, five close at 4:30; six close at five, and one closes at the ex­ tremely late hour of seven. One store reports that it is open only between periods (probhbly^because no students are allowed in the halls during class periods). One store reported being open evenings to accomodate night school students. Another re­ ported being open two nights each week from 6:30 to 8:30.92 Flood and laslett give the hours, in their study of high schools, as. . . fUsually before school, after 93 school, and at noon. ” Butterfield’s survey gives these hours:

Ruenitz, op. cit., pp. 144-7. 93

Flood and Laslett, op. cit.. p. 490,

84. • . • Ten schools replied that they keep their store open every period. Twenty-five schools do not keep their stores open every period. Ten schools keep their store open only at noon. In twenty-two schools the store is open either before school, at noon, after school, or certain periods when students have time to go to the store. In large schools where the program gives many free periods to various students, there is a demand for the store to be open from eight o ’clock in the morning, until four in the afternoon.94 2.

Service. There seems to be no limit to the

kind or amount of service any student store offers.


extreme has been given by Beart in his study where telephone and delivery service was

o f f e r e d . 95

tells of the college stores offering these:


lost and

found service; tickets; free ink; distribution of the school paper; and fraternity pins.9&

These are in add­

ition to food and stationery items handled in most stores. C.


The handling of any type of advertising in the school hascto be justified by more than the money spent for the space.

Advertisements, even in the school paper

give rise to criticism by the local merchants who also

94 Butterfield, op. cit.. p. 28. 95 Peart, op. cit.. p. 24. 96 Ruenitz, o£. cit.. pp. 100^4#

S5 advertise, and read this paper, Window displays are one of the best types of advertising that the student store can do without the chance of criticism.

Posters may be of use when sales

are held in the store, helping to induce customers to the store, Wattelet*s study shows many schools that do some type of advertising, as: Twelve schools of the forty-one schools report­ ing stores said they advertised the store in the school paper. Twenty-six schools said they did not use the school paper as an advertising medium. The large percentage claiming a no advertising policy is probably due to the thought that most of the students are well aware of the student store and its services that any advertising would not be of much advantage. Of the twelve schools advertising in the student store, five reported that they felt that the benefits derived from such advertising did not justify the expense involved in advertising. One school reported that there was no expense in­ volved in advertising in the school paper therefore add were run from time to time.97 Jensen, has this to say about advertising: . . . A weekly ad in the school paper, attrac­ tive store displays, numerous signs and posters produced bvdthe commercial art classes can be very effective.9 D.


97 Wattelet, op. cit., p. 24. 9^ Jensen, op. cit., p. 23.

‘ 86. There are many ways that pupils can be injured in the student store.

Employees using ladders and

handling heavy packing cases, are but few of the many dangers that might cause an accident.

If the student

is taken to the school nurse or not, the principal and the faculty advisor should be notified at once of the person injured and the nature of the accident. This is in ease the parent phones the school for details they will be available to school administration. Most schools carry liability insurance, but it is unlawful to carry health and accident insurance on students.

While most policies cover other phases

of the school, they do not cover employees of the student body fund.

A blanket type of policy should

cover student body fund employees^ if possible the additional expense of. this added protection, be paid out of student body finances.

A check should be made

to see if employees are covered by the State Workman’s Compensation policy, if not, additional coverage should be made here also# E.


Most of the educational benefits have been covered in the reasons for a student store, pages twenty-one through twenty-five, and only additional benefits will

be covered here Harry Huffman, Associate.Professor of Education at the University of Oklahoma, gives this, in part, to the educational benefits from such extraclass activities as are found in a student store, as: Extraclass activities are a dynamic means for pro­ moting both the personal and the social development of youth, and, as such, should be an integral part of the program of the business d e p a r t m e n t . # # Clyde W. Humphrey, United States Office of Educ­ ation, Business Education Service, has added this, in Part: Perhaps the most important steps a community can take toward the achievement of functional educ­ ation for business pursuits are: (1) the employ­ ment of occupationally-trained teachers; (2) the organization and use of representative advisory committees for business education; and (3) the establishment of the cooperative part-time type of business education.100

99 Harry Huffman, ”The Extraclass Activities Contribute to the Student’s Total Education,” The national Business Education Quarterly. 18:71, Dec­ ember, 1949# iOO Clyde W. Humphrey, ‘’Community Relationships in Business Education,” The Journal of Business Educ­ ation. 22:13-4, February, 1947#

CH&PTER IV STUDENT STORE HANDBOOK EXCELSIOR UNION HIGH SCHOOL The right of establishing and the continuance of the Student Body Store has been given to the Board of Trustees by the School Code, of the State of Calif­ ornia.

Their action for approval of the Student Store

was to give to the pupils of Excelsior Union High School (1) a service to the pupils, (2) to reduce the costs of additional supplies that are needed by the pupils, (3) provide a means of profit for financing student body activities, and (4 ) work-experience for pupils. UNIT I PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT A.^ .FACULTY SUPERVISION AND RESPONSIBILITIES 1,

Responsibilitiesf (a) The regulation and control has been given to the Administration of the school. (b) They appoint a faculty advisor to be re­ sponsible for the operation of the Stud­ ent 1Store ae, (#) He will, in turn supervise the extraclass activities of the pupils employed by the store.


Selection of the faculty advisor. (a) He will be selected from the Commercial Department.

(b) He should have a background of business administration, and preferably with out­ side business experience. Duties of the faculty advisor. (a) To appoint a manager and an assistant, to manage the Student Store, and to dele­ gate to them such powers as are needed. (b) To employ as many salespeople and clerks that are needed, to properly opprate the store. (c) To organize the procedures that will be needed in the stores* operation. (d) To check upon the honesty and the wellbeing of the employees. (e) To supervise the policies of selling, purchasing, and the direction of personnel. (f) To increase the educational benefits avail­ able to the employees of the store. (■fe) To report to the Administration any irreg­ ularities in the operation of the store. (h) To supervise in the taking of all physical inventories. (i) Follow through on all statements of policies issued for the store. (j) To make appointments for the store manager, with administrators, in cases involving grievances and complaints. Teaching load. (a) This.is a question of school policy, and shall be dealt with by the Administrators of the school. (h) Additional pay 6r free period can handled

at the discretion of the Administration. Pay for faculty supervision. (a) Until such time as the profits from the Student Store warrant the additional ex­ penditure. (b) The rate of pay will he given in a lump sum.



Job needs.


The maximum and minimum amount of employ­ ees will be determined by the store mana­ ger and the faculty advisor.


He will be directly responsible for all actions of the employees.


His duties shall be?

(1j To schedule the hours to be worked by the salespeople and the clerks. (2) Assignment for the stock control to the employees, for the areas A through Z. As per floor plan, FIGURE 4f P§ge 91 • (3) To supervise the employees in keepthe stock straight and free from dust at all times. (4) To pick up and return the keys to the main office; before school, at the lunch period, and after school# (5) To deposit all money in the safe, either in the main office, or the bus­ iness office at the end of each day. (6) To pick up the change fund before open ing the store.


u Lobby >----


Counte: X

8 Show

K Case

Storage Desk




92. (7) To fill out tli® "managerfs daily re­ port" form at the end of each day. FIGURE 5, page 93. (8) Have all employees sign in and out on the back of the weekly "student store pay roll" form, FIGURE 6t page 94. (9) Complete, each week, the front of the weekly "student store pay roll" form, FIGURE 6, page 94. (10) Every two weeks (on Friday) complete the Student Body Finance form. FIGURE 7, page 95, and place in faculty advisor’s mailbox. (11) Make out requisition forms, when need­ ed, in duplicate (one to be retain­ ed in the store) FIGURE 8, page 96, (Green) and place in the faculty ad­ visor’s mailbox. (12) Report any irregularities in the oper­ ation of the store to the faculty ad­ visor, if not available, to one of the school’s administrators, at once. (13) In case of an accident, or injury (refer to the Accident Procedure) fill out the report, in duplicate, (one copy to the principal, and one copy to the nurse; FIGURE 9, page 97, within twenty-four hours, and with the help of the faculty advisor. (14) Appoint one, employee to be responsible, for entering all receipts of merchan­ dise into a receiving book (refer to Receiving Procedure). (15) To post in the store the "student organ­ ization chart" FIGURE 10, page 98, and the "student store grievance and com­ plaint procedure chart? FIGURE 11, r page 99.

MANAGER'S DAILY REPORT Previous Cash Register Reading Todays Cash Register Reading Total Sales For Today Date Month Day Total Cash on Hand Cash Fund i * i i Checks: .

Currency: $20 Bills $10 Bills $5 Bills $1 Bills Silver: Ones Halves Quarters Dimes Nickels Pennies Refunds Other $ 10 00


Over or Under (Cross out one) * These two items must agree


Daily Casfi Sales $ i




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Head Commercial Dept. Mr. Cleavlnger

Line of Authority

Faculty Advisor Mr. Sauers I

Student Store Line of Manager


Asst. Mgr.











(Level One)

January 11, 1949®


Monthly Nutrition Report Instructions (Elementary Non-Cafeteria) Food Services Section Memorandum Bulletin, September 14 » 1949.

- 3 -

126. 8.

P.T.A. Lunch and Milk Food Services Section Memorandum Bulletin, November 8, 194-9.

Change in Adult Meal Price Food Services Section Memorandum Bulletin, February 27, 1950, Re; Coffee Price.

10« H.

General Instructional Bulletin No. 5« September 2, 194.9

Publications: 1*

Education Code; Sections 19301 - 19313

1641S - 16421 18007 2« I*

Cafeteria Manual (Revised copies to be available about September 1, 1950)

Food Services Council; The Food Services Council is a group of persons representing all Divisions concerned with the operation of our school lunch program. 1.


Elementary Principals1 Representative; Elementary School.

Mr, Carl A* Carter, Bandini

Conclusions; Both experience and research verify that, 11The expensive machinery of education may be wasted if it operates on a mind listless from hunger or befogged by indigestible food.” Hungry and malnourished children do not learn well. Therefore, to ensure an optimum of desired learnings, they need a. nutritious lunch. (The lunch program includes school lunch facilities, bag lunch and home lunch as well.) The philosophy of today?s education in which the whole child is considered on the basis of his present and future needs and interests, inevitably demands that health in its broadest sense receives primary consideration. Accepting this point of view, the school lunch program becomes a signifi­ cant part of the teaching day. The school lunch is a phase of the broad health program of the schools, and should be recognized as a vital teaching device and be provided for in the curriculum as a part of a long-term integrated plan for developing a way of life.


127. STUDENT HELPERS Recruitment Recruitment of student help can be done most effectively by or in cooperation with the Commercial Department of the school. Commercial Department should recognize that the Student Body Office affords an excellent laboratory experience if established on a valid educational basis. This will give students a wider contact with a variety of good business office functions. It will also furnish to the Student Body Office those students whose interests and training are in the commercial and clerical field. Assignment Student workers should be assigned to duties in the bus­ iness office* student store and cafeteria in cooperation with Commercial* Department. It should be kept in mind that the business office should serve as a laboratory class for the students, giving them good instruction in a maximum variety of operations in the time of their assignment. All students assigned to the business office should be given sufficient work or responsibility t$ keep them busy. No more students should be instructed on that basis, than can be efficiently absorbed into the bus­ iness office function. Too many people in the office, or poorly assigned personnel will result in the students acquiring poor work habits and an improper attitude later commercial employment. Instruction and Supervision Considerable thought should be given to the proper instruction and supervision of student help. Each position should be analyzed in detail and should be instructed on that basis. Recognize the steps in the operation and then go over them with the students, specifying each point. After the student has been assigned to a position or job and has received instructions for i£, the Financial Manager should follow through and see that the job is done properly and is understood by the student. The Financial Manager should give rather close supervision to each assignment, to see that students understand their job, and are doing it properly, and when they will be ready to go to the next step. Student Body Finance Section Subject: Student Helpers, Page 1 9-13-48

128. Remuneration Remuneration to students may be on one of several basis, as determined by the school administrator. 1.

Service club may be organized to serve the student body. Recognition may be given in the form of service credits or special awards.


Class credits may be given under the supervision of a certificated teacher.

3. r?

Free lunch, cnady or other commodity may be given, a. All cafeteria student helpers will receive lunch as compensation, b. Student helpers assigned to Student Body functions may receive a lunch or candy, as compensation. Payment must be made to the cafeteria from student body funds to cover such meals. Proper adjustments should be made for candy given to helpers.


Cash remuneration may be made with approval on Form34.EH-8 for special services, such as, after school hours, noon candy sales, etc.

Student Body Finance Section Subject: Student Helpers, Page 2 9-13-48

LOS ANGELES CITY SCHOOL DISTRICTS December 23, 1948 Auxiliary Services Division Bulletin No. 55 To:

All Secondary School Principals


Student Body Finance Section, Student Body Services Branch





9|c afc

In many instances outside groups using school facilities on Civic Center basis arrange for stud­ ents to operate public address systems, stage equipment, etc. In all such instances the out­ side organization should be required to reimburse the student body of the school for sueh services, and the student .body in turn reimburse the students for their services. By so doing the students who work are employes of the student body and as such are covered by liability insurance and Workman’s Compensation Insurance carried by the Board of Education and the student bodies.

Student Body Finance Section Subject: Student Helpers, Page 3

12- 23-48