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A COURSE IN HANDICRAFT FOR THE JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education The University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
fey Leonard H. Coursey August 1950
UMI Number: EP46255
All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.
UMI EP46255 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code
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T h is project report, w ritte n under the direction of the candidate’s adviser and ap p ro ved by him , has been presented to and accepted by the F a c u lty o f the School o f E d u catio n in p a r t ia l f u lf illm e n t of the requirements f o r the degree
of M a s t e r of
Science in Education.
A d v is e r
INTRODUCTION li History of Crafts.
Modern civilisation must turn from
the machine-made products; of the present day life to com pare the enduring qualities and values of articles made by the human hand*
Perhaps it is the individualistic qualities
of the person which are experienced by his effort and skill that increases the value of products to the degree that they are hand made* The historical background of craft work goes back to the time of prehistoric man.
Relics of these ages give
evidence that steps in the direction of civilization were taken when man learned how to fashion crude implements and weapons for protection.
As time progressed he learned to
fashion many useful and attractive articles out of metals, wood, bone, leather, and weaving, thus developing our modern crafts of today, which affords a splendid opportunity for relaxation, since ordinarily it is a complete change from other daily activities and offers new worlds .to conquer. Craft3 as a part of general education.
All the way
through crafts we have noted its importance in the advance of civilization.
It has been pointed out that to a great
extent it has been the means of creative instruction down through the ages.
Assuming the theory that we can judge
largely the future by what has occurred In the past, it is difficult to believe but that crafts can do much as a medium of instruction in the future educational work.
Hi Considering this fact, craft work, and industrial arts in general cannot be held apart as though they were something separate, they can b e considered only as an important part of the educational facilities being made available to youth. The pupil can find many avenues for self-expression through the manipulation of materials.
The Arts and Crafts,
with the opportunities to work in the various mediums such as plastics, cement, leather, wood, clay, and metals, open unlimited outlets for personal expression with the expansion of interests and talents. Recent recognition of the idea that formal academic studies have not met the entire needs of the individual is shown by the increasing number of schools installing craft work to supplement their program, especially in the ele mentary and junior high school levels. Crafts in the Junior High Schools.
will function in our junior high schools by enhancing the job born of freedom of action by satisfying the desires of the adolescent child to be individualistic and matured rather than shaped to the average mould.
The Crafts will
function by developing the aesthetic or artistic side of the child* s life and will provide rich and varied exper iences for worthwhile leisure experiences that will be of immediate as well as of future value to the child. They will furnish a general knowledge of industry and ma terials, and supply information concerning occupations
Iv which will contribute to vocational and economic efficiency. It is difficult to conceive of a more fundamental phase of education than this In developing an efficient citizenship in a great civilization. Grafts as a part of the curriculum.
of crafts, as a part of the curricula, in various school systems within the United States dates back many years. Since its introduction, crafts has gained great prominence as an Individual classroom subject and is the school’s answer for a practical subject, developing the students for leisure-time activities and for practical vocations. Crafts satisfies that creative desire In every youth to construct something with tools and materials.
ops basic skills in the use of the more common tools and machines, together with a knowledge of the working charac teristics and uses of Industrial materials.
the ability to do simple repair and maintenance work In the home.
It affords opportunities to discover individual
aptitudes, abilities and Interests in trade and industrial occupations.
It assists in a more Intelligent selection,
appreciation, and use of Industrial products and services. It develops an appreciation of appropriate design, sound construction, and good workmanship.
It develops the habit
of an orderly method of procedure in planning and performing any task.
It gives an appreciation of, and respect for,
the importance of work in our social enviroment.
velops an active interest in industry and industrial life as a vital part of present day living.
It offers oppor
tunity for the practical application of mathematics, science, and drawing.
And it contributes to the enrichment of all
learning activities in the school program. Objectives of the crafts program.
Considering the fact
that crafts is one phase of general education which concerns itself with materials, tools and machines, together with a variety of life’s problems, including the discovery of occupational interests, the Intelligent selection and use of industrial products, and the development of avocational activities, it is, without a doubt, important that each student should be encouraged to satisfy that creative de sire to construct something with tools and materials, which will develop into personalized skills, enabling him to pursue some wholesome vocation or avocation, contributing to thrift, pleasure, and knowledge, and make him a better citizen for a better world. Sources of material.
The instructor may rest assured
that the projects and methods of presentation contained in this syllabus have justified themselves by analysis and experience and may be counted upon to aid and assist him in obtaining his goals. The contents are based upon suggestions offered by
Vi thirty-five class room teachers and fifty Junior High School hoys on approximately one thousand difficulty analysis slips plus extensive research in this specific field# In the event a desire is to further explore this field, valuable assistance may be found in the following books: a#
Cherry, Raymond, General Leathercraft, McKnight and McKnight, Blomington, 111., 1940.
directions for making leather articles.
drawings and designs for tooling) b.
Everybody’s Handicraft Handbook. Progress Press, Washington, D. C., 1946.
(A good general
handbook for the various hand crafts. c.
Griswold, Lester, Handicraft, Lester Griswold, Colo rado Springs, Colo., 1945.
tions for many different gifts to be made from wood, clay, paper, and metal.) d.
Groneman, Chris H., Applied Leathercraft. The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, 111., 1942.
explanations on how to work with leather.
drawings of designs.) e.
Walsh, H. H., The Make-It-Yourself Book of Handicrafts. The Blaklston Co., Philladelphia, Pa., 1946.
(Planned primarily for beginners but has many inter esting projects for the experienced craftsman. trated. )
Zoback, Harry A., Internal Carving; in Plasties, Horton Publishing Co., Inc., Hew York, H. Y., 1949.
(Entire book Is devoted to internal carving in plastics. • Fully illustrated.) Style.
Serious attempt has been made in writing this
syllabus, to follow the suggestions listed in the following bookss a.
Crawford, C. C., How to Write a Course Syllabus, C. C. Crawford, Los Angeles, Calif., 1948.
style in syllabus writing.) b.
Crawford, Estvan, Fisher, Gerlettl, Goldsmith, Gordon, Hodge, Kinsman, Lewis, Neher, Perry, Riley, Siemens, and Stoops, Guide For Curriculum Projects, C. C. Crawford, Los Angeles 8, Calif., 1949.
complete and thorough guide for writing a syllabus.) c.
Curriculum Laboratory, University of Southern Calif., Functional Outlines For the Secondary Curriculum, C. C* Crawford, Los Angeles 43, Calif., 1948.
(A usuable book for the secondary curriculum.
able suggestions that are applicable to the modern schools,) d.
Curriculum Laboratory, University of Southern Calif., Evaluation Syllabus, C. C. Crawford, Los Angeles 8, Calif., 1949.
evaluation guides. work•)
(A reliable syllabus for
Applicable to dally classroom
Crawford, C. C., Functional Education, C. C. Crawford, Los Angeles 43, Calif., 1949.
Information on how to get the most out of the edu cational processes.) Purpose of this syllabus.
Previous work in relation
to handicraft curricula in the public education is very limited.
Various hand-books on craft-in-general have been
published and various companies, handling craft materials, have prepared pamphlets of instructions but none seem to have combined the various aspects of crafts into a well balanced, comprehensive course of study. Out of these conditions has grown the need for a syllabus of this nature, organizing and combining the various aspects of the traditional industrial arts courses into one comprehensive course of study which will enable the student to better adjust himself to the practical situations of a complex world.
Ix PREFACE TO THE TEACHER Careful thought has been-directed toward the student in writing this syllabus since it is the ultimate goal to encourage and direct him to pursue some wholesome vocation or avocation which will contribute to thrift, pleasure, and knowledge. This volume is designed to be informative as well as a pilot to a comprehensive course in handicraft for the Junior High School, covering the fundamentals of the three principal crafts most adaptable to the modern day handi craft shops.
It consists of three parts.
Of these, Part I
is devoted to processing plastics into beautiful as well as useful articles, providing training in a field that has unlimited possibilities.
Part II is the Leatherwork section,
including cutting and lacing projects and also leather deco rating.
Part III is devoted to Metalwork, providing train
ing in Copper Tooling, Hammered Metalwork, and Acid Etching. Each of the parts can be taken up entirely Indepen dently of the others, so you may turn to the crafts in any order which you desire. Illustrations have been provided for each chapter to serve as a visual aid to give the student a clearer Insight to the projects listed.
PREFACE TO THE STUDENT This book is designed to give you the basic knowledge of craftwork in plastics, leather, and metal, and suggests projects that you will enjoy making for yourself or as gifts for your family and friends.
It affords a splendid
opportunity for relaxation since, ordinarily, craftwork is a complete change from other daily activities and offers new worlds to conquer. You may make a hobby of one or more of these crafts, and using the basic training given here, you may proceed enthusiastically with countless projects of your own planning.
xi TABLE OP CONTENTS CHAPTER
PAGE PART I.
HOW TO DEVELOP YOUR SKILL IN A MAGIC ART 1.
THE STARTING POINT:
TWISTS AND TURNS:
How to make a simple heart.
How to make a fancy letter opener.
How to make brooches and lapel
How to shape plastic Into
bracelets ............................................ 24 5*
How to develop a piece of plastic
Into an attractive salt and pepper shaker 6*
WATCH YOUR WEIGHT: weight
How to add beauty to a paper
OUT OP THIS WORLD: jewelry
38 How to make your own costume
How to carve a swordfish in plastics. 50 PART II.
HOW TO WORK AN OLD CRAFT 9.
ONE FOR THE BOOKS:
How to make a book mark that
you won' t throw a w a y .........•••••...... 10.
PERSONALIZED TOUCH: How to make a three-way picture frame
KEEPER OP THE COIN:
How to make a two-piece
change purse ...........
PAGE PART III.
HOW TO PROCESS METAL INTO USEFUL AND BEAUTIFUL ARTICLES 12.
HCME HIGHLIGHT; plaque
How to make a copper wall
PRIDE OF THE FIRESIDE:
How, to hammer and shape
a piece of metal into an ash tray .............. 14.
THE ACID TREATMENT:
How to make an etched
bracelet .......................... BIBLIOGRAPHY
xiii LIST OF EXHIBITS EXHIBIT
A simple heart
Shark letter opener
Brooches and lapel pins ..............
Brooches and lapel pins (continued)
Combination salt and pepper shaker
Combination salt and pepper shaker (continued).
The leaf paper weight ...............................41
Swordfish paper weight
Leather book mark ......
Three-way picture frame
Two-piece coin purse ........
Two-piece coin purse (continued)
Buttonhole stitching, step by step
Buttonhole stitching, step by step (continued).
Buttonhole stitching, step by step (continued).
R. #S. T.
Copper wall plaque
Hammered ash tray
Acid etched bracelets
PART I. PLASTICS HOW TO DEVELOP YOUR SKILL IN A MAGIC ART What craftsman, working In prosaic wood or metal, has not wished that some day he might he able to work with the flashing beauty of semi-precious stones, to saw, carve and polish big slabs of ruby, garnet and emerald instead of dull and colorless pine and steel? The modern Aladdin's lamp of chemistry has made that wish come true, for today the craftsman has at his command an amazing variety of brilliant and colorful materials, as easily worked as wood or metal, and costing but little more. They are as beautiful as Nature's products, are available in sheets, rods and tubes of almost any desired size, and can be worked in many ways that the natural product can not. What the craftsmen of old would not have given for such materials I
THE STARTING POINT
HOW TO MAKE A SIMP IE HEARTA.
Rewards that are yours if* you master the
EASE OP PROCEDURES:
You need not be uneasy before
your classmates or teacher when you know exactly what you’re doing. 2.
EASE IN LATER STEPS:
There will be no dread in
starting other projects if you get the right start. 3.
INTEREST IN YOUR WORK:
A well planned and'we11
constructed project makes your work less boring. 4.
PRIDE IN WORK:
You will be eager to show your work
if the project is right. B.
Some helpful hints on getting the right
How to begin your work properly.
Fold a piece of paper, 2” square, in the center.
Cut the shape of a half heart with scissors, beginning at the folded edge.
(See Exhibit A,
Pig. 1.) (1)
D o n ’t try to draw the whole heart and then cut it out.
(The sides are never
the same.) (2)
If your first design is not perfect, throw it away and cut another.
TRANSFER OF DESIGN:
How to apply the design to
your plastic. a.
Paste or glue the design to the protective covering of a 2 ” square piece of plastic. (1)
Use any glue or paste available.
specific kind is required.) (2)
Let the glue set before starting your operations.
Outline the design with a pencil.
insure a perfect guide in the event your pattern slips or comes.off.) OPERATION:
How to cut the project.
(See Exhibit A,
PiS. 2.) a.
Use the jig saw if one is available. (1)
Get the teachers permission before using the saw.
With the aid of the teacher, check to see that the saw is ready for use.
Be careful not to exert too much pressure on the blade as it is small and easy to break.
Keep your hands to the side of your stock, not directly in line with the saw blade.
Be sure that no other person is within the lines of the danger zone.
Leave the saw In good condition for the next person.
Use a coping saw if no jig saw is available. (1)
Clamp your stock to a V-board with a C clamp.
Adjust your stock on the V-board so you will not saw into the wood.
Loosen the clamp and adjust the stock as your sawing progresses.
Do not exert too much pressure on the saw as the blade is small and easy to break.
Watch the fingers and keep them away from the saw blade.
Do not permit spectators to assist you in your operations.
Cut around your design, leaving a reasonable margin to be worked down with file and sand paper.
How to make your project presentable.
(See Exhibit a.
A, Fig. 3.)
Work the small margin down with a file or sand paper.
Shape the edges according to specifications. (1)
This process can best be done with a file.
Hie sanding machine usually is too severe
for this delicate operation. Remove the file marks with #000 wet-or-dry sandpaper. Buff the project on the buffing wheel. (1)
Apply regular buffing compound to the wheel.
Touch the wheel lightly with your project to prevent burns.
Buff on the under side of the wheel so, in the event your project gets loose, it will not go across the room and hurt some other person.
Buff the project with a rag if a buffing wheel is not available. (1)
Apply a small amount of rotten stone or pumice stone to a dampened cloth.
Use auto body cleaner for your home buffing as it can be purchased at the auto parts stores or at the local service station.
Use regular tooth paste if other compounds are not available.
Attach the screw-eye. (1)
Drill a hole 1/8" deep, in the top recessed portion of the heart, with an 18-gauge nail or a #60 drill.
TJ O UL_
f * g .3
EXHIBIT A A SIMPLE HEART
Vr*aft the one of your choice, making
the changes you would introduce to bring out the best artistic quality, and complete the project. 3.
Create a design of your own and make the
project, keeping in mind the suggestions listed in this chapter. D.
Some ways in which to check your crafts
manship . 1.
Place an X in each space for which
you qualify. €1 •
The profile of your letter opener is smooth and pleasing in appearance.
The shape of the finished article conforms to the cross sectional view in the drawing.
The curves made from the heating process are smooth and flowing.
) Theproject is crystal clear and
holes are clean and smooth. free of
abrasive marks. f.
You could have done nothing that would have improved the finished project.
) You would buy this article if it sale.
Hsssao Hsuas shvhs a OiisiHxa
TWISTS AND TURNS
HOW TO MAKE BROOCHES AND LAPEL PINS A.
MOTIVATION: Things you can expect If .your product
Your mother, father, sister, or
brother would enjoy an attractive brooch or lapel pin. 2.
BETTER SOCIAL STANDINGS
Your classmates and friends
will be envious if you turn out good work. 3.
MONEY IN YOUR POCKET:
There is always a market
for good merchandise. 4.
RELIEF FROM DAILY ROUTINE:
will result from mental acquisitiveness. B.
DIRECTIONS: Suggestions on how to progress with your work. 1.
How to get the pattern.
Secure a book and trace the design of your choice.
Create your own design, keeping in mind that it has to be small and
C and D, Figs. 7-17.) 2.
How to prepare your material for the Job.
Measure and cut twopieces of plastic about 1/8” larger, on all (1)
sides, than your drawing.
Use the Jig saw to make the cut.
Always observe the safety measures listed in Chapter 1 when you’re operating a machine*
Be sure to get the teacher’s permission before turning on a machine*
Leave your machine in good shape for the next fellow*
ORDER OP PROCEDURE: a.
How to put your work together.
Scratch the surface of one side of each of the two pieces.
Apply a thick coat of laminating fluid to the scratched surfaces of both pieces.
Place the two pieces
the air pockets
Use your fingers and thumbs to work the pockets out.
Never use a vise for thispurpose.
Allow your job to set for twenty
Glue your design to your laminated job. (1)
Use rubberized glue.
Be sure that none of your outline is hanging over the edges.
Work off the surplus edges. (1)
Do as much as you can with the sander and grinder, always keeping in mind the dangers
envolved with these machines. (2)
Work the surplus from the pockets, ovals, crevices with round and half-round files.
Use needle files to work out the smaller places •
Eliminate the deep abrasive marks with #0 sandpaper.
Drill the eyes with a #50 drill*. (1)
Drill on both sides.
Drill approximately l/64n deep.
How to complete the job.
Rub the rough edges down with #00 steel wool,
Buff to a crystal clear brilliance.
Attach a pin to the back. (1)
Back pins of various sizes c a n b e bought at the craft stores.
Safety pins may be attached to the backs if regular back pins aren’t available.
SOURCES FOR THIS CHAPTER;
Where to get further
Everybody’s Handicraft Handbook, Progress Press, Washington, D. C., 1946.
Griswold, Lester, Handicraft. Lester Griswold, Colorado Springs, Colo., 1945.
Ickis, Marguerite, Working in Plastics,
F Y j • ? ftu rro t* F\cj, ^
F^ „ i o ^ecx.
Sujo'rd. EXHIBIT C BROOCHES AND LAPEL PINS
Pv3. S i t ,
V a yrvxyxd ta sA
F i g a.3
EXHIBIT H THE LEAF PAPER WEIGHT
OUT OP THIS WORLD
HOW TO MAKE YOUR OWN COSTUME JEWELRY A.
Rewards that are yours by turning out
professional work. 1,
Many advantages result from
setting a definite pattern for your life’s work, 2.
ZEST IN YOUR WORK:
With a definite and interesting
vocation in mind, you can put more enthusiasm into your work, 3.
Even tho little effort is demanded of you
In craftwork, it is still the basis for an inter— . esting trade, 4,
You need not be afraid of the future
if you can turn out a good product. B.
Some essentials for developing this type
of project. 1,
How to proceed with your project.
Select a piece of Ir” Lucite or Plexiglas about 2" x 2".
Polish all surfaces so you may observe the carving from all sides.
Work with a short, 1/811 tapered drill.
Insert the drill perpendicularly Into the bottom side of the plastic. (1)
See side view In Exhibit I, Pig. 37.
Observe the cutting action through the top surface.
When the drill has penetrated threequarters of the depth of the plastic, make a small cone shape to form the bud.
All petals now revolve around the cavity made by the carving of the bud.
Starting at a new point of entry,
(See Exhibit I,
Pig. 38), inclrcle the cone with three petals (See Exhibit I, Fig 39), each petal overlaplng the last. (1)
Each cut begins approximately l/l6" from the previous cut.
The next layer of four petals will be cut at gradually decreasing angles.
Exhibit I, Pig. 40.) f.
Start each petal l/l6" from the previous petal. (1)
By allowing 1/16” space between petals you utilize the full depth of the plastic and achieve the best effects.
Do not cut into another petal.
Each petal is a seperate and individual cut.
Greater manoeuverability is gained by coordinating the movement of both the
drill hand and the plastic hand. (5)
When carving a larger rose, another outer layer of five petals may be added.
Remember that this is only one conception of a rose design and one way of carving such a rose.
Designs and methods are flexible and you will enjoy creating your own methods and techniques•
Be extremely careful with the tapered drill as it is very sharp and could cause severe wounds.
How to add beauty to your project.
Clean the chips out of the cavities.
may be done by running the drill in the second time or by probing the chips out with a sharp instrument such as a scriber or needle.) b.
Place the carving face down on the work table.
Apply red, pink, or yellow to the internal carving with an eye dropper or hypodermic syringe.
(Use an accepted commercial dye.)
Pill the cavity with plaster of Paris and leave to set.
Remove rough surface from the back and laminate the backing on.
(Use a white back for a red or
pink rose and a black back for a yellow rose.)
o \ o r
- Q\ VA^
l~ eg e,n d
F \ C^t
EXHIBIT K LEATHER BOOK MARK
Color the tree trunks brown.
Color the ocean blue.
Apply a light green to the ground at the base of the trees.
Color the lettering with black India
Rub with saddle soap to clean the leather.
Shine with waxed cloth and sheepskin polisher.
SOURCES OR MATERIAL FOR THIS CHAPTER:
Where you can
get more help. a.
E v e r y b o d y ^ Handicraft Handbook. Progress Press, Washington, D. C., 1946.
Groneman, Chris H., Applied Leathercraft, The Manual Arts Press, Peoria, 111., 1942.
Griswold, Lester, Handicraft, Lester Griswold, Colorado Springs, Colo., 1945.
Some suggestions that will help
you to advance in your work. 1.
If possible, have a professional
leather craftsman visit your class and demonstrate the techniques of leather tooling, then apply what you learned to a project of your own. 2.
Check out materials from the library
related to leather craft and trace the designs that are feasible to reproduce in class, then make the one of your choice.
Create your own design, apply it to
a piece of leather and develop a book mark, D.
Some helpful hints in checking your work.
Place an X in the space for yes or no.
YES-NO: YES )
NO ( )
You have completed all the steps in your project.
Your lines are smooth and pleasing in appearance.
Your coloring is neat and smooth with out any runs.
Your project is soft and pliable.
Your coloring is of such quality that the design looks like the real thing.
You would not be afraid to exhibit your work with that of a professional’s.
You are proud of the job and ready to show it.
If you had the job to do over, you would make some changes.
63 CHAPTER 10.
HOW TO MAKE A THREE-WAY PICTURE FRAME A.
MOTIVATION: Some rewards that are yours by making an effective gift. 1*.
ADMIRATION OF THE GIRL FRIEND:
You need not be
afraid of the other fellows if you can produce lovely gifts. 2.
If the project is made right you
will not hesitate to start another one. 3.
A GOOD IMPRESSION:
If the design and work are
good it will he noticed by others. 4. B.
People will buy good merchandise.
DIRECTIONS: Some suggestions on making your project attractive. 1.
How to prepare your pattern.
Plot the picture frame on graph paper. (1)
Use paper with
Construct your straight lines with the aid of a straightedge.
Make your ovals with the use of a French curve.
Follow the design on the exhibit page. (See Exhibit L, Figs. 46-49.)
Draw the design on regular scratch paper if graph is not available.
How to get the design on the leather*
Transfer the pattern to the leather with a tracing tool. (1)
Dampen the unfinished side of the leather.
Attach the pattern to the leather with paper clips,
(3) . Place leather on a smooth hard surface. b.
Lay a steel square along straight edges and cut with a sharp knife. (1)
A crooked line will spoil everything.
Make one clean cut to avoid ragged edges.
Cut carefully along curved edges.
How to make the project.
(See Exhibit L,
Fig. 46.) a.
Re-dampen the unfinished side of the leather.
Re-trace your design with a modeling tool.
Make deep Impressions where the leather is to fold.
Indent a line with the edging tool l/8” from the sides.
Go over border line with marking wheel.
Cut a second piece of leather, 3” x 6”, for the lining.
Cut a window in the lining 2" x 2” .
Attach the lining to your cover.