A COST ESTIMATE OF PROPOSED PUBLIC COMMUNITY COLLEGES IN PENNSYLVANIA WITH A PROPOSAL FOR LEGISLATIVE ACTION

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A S u r v e y o f T e a T i e r s .................................................... A S u r v e y o f P a r e n t s ....................................................... xi. kj;u r v e y o f a S e r v i c e O i f s n i n a t i o n ............ S ir. a i a r y .........................................................................................

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XI. T h e h r - i y a t j u n i o r C o l l e g e S t u d y .................... B . T il e I d a h o E d u c a t i o n S t u d y ...................................... d • T h e S t a t e o f Y / a s h i n , ; t o n S u r v e y ....................... D . I l i C ' . h s c o n s i n S u r v e y .................................................... xlj • T n e i i a r y l a n d S t u d y ......................................................... P . T h e I l l i n o i s S t u d y ........................................... .. G-* T h e C a l i f o r n i a S t u d y .................................................... H * T h e Hew T o f i r S t u d y ......................................................... **r -L • T h e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t u d y .............................................. le n d e d . b J . .

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N a m e s , D a t e s , a n d m in im u m h i g h S c h o o l E n r o l l m e n t m e n t io n e c . b y V a r i o u s t f i t e r s A s c R e q u i r e m e n t f o r L i t a b l i s h m c n t o f a P u b l i c J u n i o r C o l l e g e .......................

114

U o r r e i a t i o n s b e t w e e n E n r o l l m e n t s i n P r e s h n ia n e n d S o p h o n o re I e a r s o f P u b li c J u n io r C o lle g e s and S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 ) o f C o m m u n it ie s i n W h ic h J u n i o r c o l l e g e s h e r e L o c a t e d ................................

118

P u b l i c J u n i o r C o l l e g e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity C o l l e g e T yp e in th e U .S .A . (1 9 4 6 -1 9 4 7 )

120

R a t io s o f m eans i n P e r c e n t o f P u b lic J u n io r C o lle g e L u l l lir a e E n r o llm e n t s t o lie an s o f S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 ) o f C o m m u n it ie s i n W h ic h th e J u n io r c o lle g e s h e r e L o c a te d (A rra n g e d A c­ c o r d in g to S c h o o l P o p u la tio n ) ......................................................

120

R a t io s o f m eans i n P e x *c e n t o f P u b lic J u n io r c o l l e g e s P u l l l i n e E n r o ll m e n t s t o m eans o f S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 ) o f C o m m u n it ie s i n W h ic h t h e J u n io r c o l l e g e s W e re L o c a te d (A r r a n g e d A c ­ c o r d i n g t o C o m m u n ity P o p u l a t i o n ) .............................................

126

imSCii m ll S O X IX c EJL0 Li X il JPOX'CGil t o f P u l l T i n e P u b l i c J u n io r C o lle g e E n r o llm e n t s to S c h o o l P o p u la tio n s ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 ) o f C o m m u n it ie s i n -..h ic h t h e J u n i o r c o l l e g e s ..e r e L o c ;v c e o ( A r r a n g e d A c c o r d in g t o s c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n ) ..................................................................................

126

m e d i a n s o f R a t i o s i n p e r c e n t o f P u l l T im e P u b l i c J u n io r c o lle g e E n r o llm e n ts t o S c h o o l P o p u la tio n s ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 .) o f C o m m u n it ie s i n '..-h ic h t h e J u n i o r C o l l e g e s ‘. . e r e L o c a t e d ( A r r a n g e d A c c o r d i n g t o c o m m u n it y P o p u l a t i o n ) ..........................................................................

127

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129

A p p a r e n t A f f e c t o f C o s t t o S t u d e n t on E n r o ll m e n t I n P u b lic J u n io r C o lle g e s i n V a r io u s A re a s o f t h e U n it e c S t a t e s ( U s i n g M e a n s i n P e r c e n t o f h o t i o s b e t w e e n P u l l ‘f i n e J u n i o r c o l l e g e E n r o l l ­ m e n t s tend S c h o o l P o p u l a t i o n s i n G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 i n C o m m u n it ie s i n U h i c h t h e J u n i o r C o l l e g e s h e r e L o c a t e d ) .............................................................................................................

130

A p p a r e n t A f f e c t o f C o s t t o S t u d e n t on E n r o l l m e n t i n P u b lic J u n io r c o lle g e s i n V a r io u s A re a s o f t h e U n it e d S t a t e s ( U s in g lie d io n s i n P e r c e n t o f P a t i o s b e t w e e n P u l l T im e J u n i o r C o l l e g e E n r o l l ­ m e n ts and S c h o o l P o p u la t i o n s i n G ra d e s 1 - 1 2 i n C o m m u n it ie s i n h i l i c h t h e J u n i o r c o l l e g e s Y .'ere L o c a t e d ) .............................................................................................................

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P r o p e r t y V a l u e s - C o m p a r in g A s s e s s e d v a l u a t i o n s w it h m a r k e t V a lu e s As D e te r m in e d b y t h e S t a t e T ax E q u a liz a tio n E o a rd f o r th e S c h o o l Y e a rs 1 9 4 8 - 1 9 4 9 e n d 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 ( V a l u e s G iv e n i n M illio n s o f D o lla r s ) ...........................................................................

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e n r o llm e n t i n J u n io r u o lle ^ e s ( P u b lic end P r i v a t e ' ) a n d rJ L l P r i v a t e I n s t i t u t i o n s o f i l i ^ h e r e d u c a t i o n ( 1 9 3 1 - 1 9 3 2 t o 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 - ic J ) .......................................

171

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CHAPTER I

IN T H O D U C T IO N

A. c o s t,

S t a t e m e rit

b o th

to th e

tiie

S ta te ,

of

p u b lic

c o m m u n ity

lo c a l p u b lic

e s ta b lis h m e n t c o lle g e s

B. fin e s

it

in

of

th re e

of

in

vThat i s te rm s

of* t h e

P r o b le m

s c iio o l

d is tr ic t

p ro p o s e d

,

Y v h at i s

a. r e a s o n a b l e

and t o

th e

tu itio n -fr e e ,

P e n n s y lv a n ia ?

a C o m m u n ity

C o lle g e ?

q u a lific a tio n s ,

as

Jesse Bogue

fo llo w s :

The f i r s t q u a l i f i c a t i o n i s s e r v ic e p r i m a r i l y t o t h e p e o p l e o f t h e c o m m u n it y . The C o m m u n ity i n s t i t u t i o n g o e s t o t h e p e o p l e w ho l i v e an d w o rk w h e re i t i s l o c a t e d , m akes a c a r e f u l s tu d y o f t h e n e e d s o f t h e s e p e o p le f o r e d u c a tio n n o t b e in g o f f e r e d b y any o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n o f l e a r n i n g , a n a ly z e s th e s e n e e d s , and b u ild s i t s e d u c a tio n a l p ro g ra m i n re s p o n s e t o t h e a n a ly s e s . A second c h a r a c t e r is t ic o f th e t r u ly c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e m ay b e f o u n d i n t h e m a n n e r The fo rm o f c o n tr o l o f i t s c o n t r o l .................... s h o u ld b e d e t e r m in e d b y t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e c o m m u n it y . I f th e y p r e fe r s ta te o r u n iv e r s ity c o n t r o l t o t h a t b y p e rs o n s s e le c t e d i n p o p u la r e le c tio n s , t h a t is t h e i r r i g h t . T h e d e c is io n , h o w e v e r , s h o u ld b e m ad e b y t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e c o m m u n it y . U n d e r any c ir c u m s ta n c e s , t h e r e s h o u ld b e a d v i s o r y c o m m i t t e e s c o m p o s e d o f l o c a l c itiz e n s . T h e y s h o u ld r e p r e s e n t t h e b u s in e s s , i n d u s t r i a l , a g r i c u l t u r a l , and p r o f e s s io n a l i n t e r e s t s fro m b o th l a b o r an d m an ag em en t c i r c l e s and a ls o p e rs o n s i n t e r e s t e d p r i m a r i l y i n t h e w i d e r c i v i c a n d c u l t u r a l a s p e c t s o f c o m m u n ity life . A t h i r d c o n s id e r a tio n i s f i n a n c i a l s u p p o rt. ............... a s a t i s f a c t o r y p l a n p r o v i d e s f o r s t a t e a i d , e q u a l i z a t i o n f u n d s f o r t h e p o o r e r c o m m u n i­ t i e s , and l o c a l t a x re v e n u e s .

J e s s e P . B o g u e , T h e U o m m u n ity u o l l e g e , w ew Y o r k : H i l l B ook C om pany, I n c . , 1 9 5 0 , p p . 2 1 -2 6

M c G ra w -

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

de­

T h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s C o m m is s io n w ro te

th e

on H i g h e r E d u c a t io n

fo llo w in g :

w h a t e v e r f o r m t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e t a k e s , i t s p u rp o s e i s e d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e t o th e e n t i r e c o & m u n it y , a n d t h i s p u r p o s e r e q u i r e s o f i t a v a r i e t y o f f u n c t io n s end p ro g ra m s . It w i l l p r o v id e c o lle g e e d u c a tio n f o r t h e y o u th o f t h e c o m m u n ity c e r t a i n l y , so a s t o r e m o v e g e o g r a p h i c a n d e c o n o m ic b a r r i e r s t o e d u c a t i o n ­ a l o p p o r t u n it y an d d is c o v e r an d d e v e lo p i n d i ­ v i d u a l t a l e n t s a t lo w c o s t and e a s y a c c e s s , n u t i n a d d i t i o n , t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e w i l l s e r v e a s an a c t i v e c e n t e r o f a d u l t e d u c a t io n . I t w i l l a tte m p t to m e e t th e t o t a l p o s t - h ig h s c h o o l n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n ity .2 A c c o r d in g S chool O ffic e r s , c o lle g e

e d u c a tio n

to

th e n a t io n a l

a s ta te

p ro g ra m

s h o u ld p r o v i d e

C o u n c il of fo r

fre e th e

of

C h ie f

p u b lic

S ta te

c o m m u n ity

fo llo w in g :

1. S tu d e n ts d e s ir in g t o e n t e r v a r io u s te c h n ic a l and s e m i-p r o fe s s io n a l o c c u p a t i o n s w h ic h r e q u i r e o n e o r tw o y e a r s p r e p a r a tio n beyond h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a tio n . S. S tu d e n ts d e s ir in g p r e p a r a t io n b eyo n d a v a ila b le h ig h sc h o o l t r a in i n g in o c c u p a t io n s f o r w h ic h t h e h ig h s c h o o ls p r o ­ v i d e t h e b a s ic p r e p a r a t i o n . 3. S tu d e n ts p r e p a r i n g f o r a d m is s io n t o p r o f e s s i o n a l s c h o o l s o r t h e l a s t tw o y e a rs o f te c h n ic a l and l i b e r a l a r t s c o lle g e s . S tu d e n ts d e s i r i n g t o c o m p le te t h e i r g e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n b e f o r e e n t e r i n g em­ p l o y m e n t o r b e c o m in g hom e m a k e r s . 5. A d u lts a n d o l d e r y o u th s , m o s tly e m p l o y e d , who d e s i r e t o c o n t i n u e t h e i r e d u c a t io n d u r in g t h e i r f r e e h o u r s .^

T h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s C o m m is s io n o n n i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n f o r A m e r ic a n D e m o c r a c y , h e w l o r k : H a r p e r a n d B r o t h e r s , 1 S 4 7 , V o l. I , p p . 6 7 - 6 8 n a t i o n a l C o u n c il o f C h ie f S t a t e S y s te m o f E d u c a t io n , Y /a s h in g to n , p. 9

S chool O ff ic e r s , O ur D .C ., D e c e m b e r, 1 9 4 9 ,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

3 In s te a d , o f

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E du c a t io n e .l P o l i c i e s A s s o c ia tio n it

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w ro te : T h e t e r m C o ra m u n ity I n s t i t u t e r e f e r s t o a f r e e p u b lic e d u c a tio n a l i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r i n g tw o y e a r s o f e d u c a t io n b e y o n d t h e t w e l f t h g r a d e , in a v a r i e t y o f f i e l d s , b o th v o c a tio n a l and n o n -v o c a tio n a l. I'o r m ost s t u d e n t s , t h e c o u r s e i n t h e c o m m u n ity I n s t i t u t e i s t e r m in a l; t h a t i s , i t m a rk s t h e e n d o f f u l l - t i m e a t te n d a n c e a t an e d u c a t io n ­ a l in s titu tio n . Som e s t u d e n t s , h o w e v e r , m o v e o n f r o m t h e C o m m u n ity I n s t i t u t e t o p r o ­ f e s s i o n a l s c h o o ls o r t o t h e u p p e r tw o y e a r s o f l i b e r a l a r ts o r t e c h n ic a l c o lle g e s . The C o m m u n ity I n s t i t u t e a l s o c o n d u c t s t h e p r o ­ g ra m o f p a r t - t i m e e d u c a t io n f o r o u t o f s c h o o l y o u th and a d u l t s . 4 On e d u c a t i o n a l

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N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , E d u c a t io n a l P o l i c i e s C o m m is s io n , E d u c a t i o n f o r A l l A m e r i c a n l o u t h , W a s h i n g t o n , Jj . C . , 1 9 4 4 , p . 3 3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

4

E d u c a tio n f o r t h i s s e c o n d g ro u p c o n s is ts o f g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n and o f t r a i n i n g f o r te c h n ic ia n s and f o r th e v o c a t io n a l s k i l l s . 5 k e m p fe r

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B e c a u s e o f i t s p h ilo s o p h y , i t s o r g a n iz a t io n , an d i t s p e r s o n n e l, i t can s e r v e n o t o n l y t h o s e s t u d e n t s w ho w i s h t h e f i r s t tw o y e a r s o f c o l l e g e f o r p r o f e s s i o n ­ a l t r a i n i n g , b u t a l s o t h o s e w ho d e s i r e t o m alce u p h i g h - s c h o o l d e f i c i e n c i e s , b e f o r e e n t e r i n g c o lle g e a n d th o s e w ho a r e i n t e r ­ e s t e d i n p r e p a r i n g t h e m s e l v e s f o r e m p lo y ­ m e n t o r f o r h o m e - m a k in g w i t h i n t w o y e a r s o f c o lle g e t r a i n i n g .

R ay P . P o r t e r , "T re n d s i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l O r g a n iz a tio n f o r E d u c a tio n i n t h e 1 5 t h an d 1 4 t h Y e a r s , " C u r r e n t Is s u e s i n H i g h e r E d u c a t io n , D e p a r tm e n t o f H ig h e r E d u c a tio n o f t h e H . E . A . , W a s h in g to n , D . C . , 1 9 5 1 , p . 1 9 6 H om er K e m p fe r, H e r e a n d G r o w in g S e p te m b e r , 19 5 0 ,

" C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e s o n t h e W ay? T h e y ’ r e i n N u m b e r ," S c h o o l a n d C o ll e g e M a n a g e m e n t. p .4

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

m o s t u r g e n t am ong t h e c u r r e n t n e e d s in J u n io r c o lle g e s n a t i o n a l ly i s th e n e c e s s i t y f o r a r e a w a k e n in g o f i n t e r e s t i n g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n and i n s e r a i- p r o fe s s io n ­ a l t r a i n i n g in w h a t i s know n as t e r m in a l e d u c a tio n . T h is ty p e o f t r a i n i n g i s de­ s ig n e d t o x ^ e p a re t e r m i n a l s tu d e n ts ( th o s e w ho t e r m in a t e t h e i r c o lle g e e d u c a tio n w i t h i n t w o y e a r s o r l e s s ) f o r m a k in g a l i v i n g a n d f o r l i v i n g i n t h e c o m m u n it y a s e f f e c t i v e ’w o r k e r s , a c t i v e c i t i z e n s , v /e ll- a d ju s t e d i n d iv id u a ls , and s u c c e s s fu l m e m b e rs o f a h o m e . ' In P o te a u , m itte d

1952

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O k la h o m a .

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P o t e a u C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e w a s c o n c e i v e d t o m eet th e e d u c a tio n a l n e e d s o f th e f o llo w in g g ro u p s : (1 ) T h o s e h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s w ho s i r e c r e d i t f o r t r a n s f e r t o s e n io r c o lle g e . LI a n y s t u d e n t s h a v e n o t b e e n a t t e n d i n g a s e n i o r i n s t i t u t i o n o f h ig h e r le a r n in g b ecau se th e c o s t o f m a i n t a i n i n g t h e m s e l v e s a w a y f r o m hom e th r o u g h a f o u r - y e a r c o u rs e o f s tu d y i s p r o h i b i ­ tiv e . A t t h e C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e , t h e s e s t u d e n t s c a n p u r s u e a tw o y e a r a c a d e m ic c u r ­ r i c u l u m w h i l e t h e y r e m a i n a t hom e a n o t h e r tw o y e a r s u n d e r p a r e n t a l g u id a n c e and s u p e r ­ v is io n . T h e s a v in g r e s u l t i n g fro m t h i s

P h e b e W a r d a n d Wr. J . E c k e r t , ,fS a n F r a n c i s c o S c h o o l s S e r v e t h e C o m m u n it y , ” A R e p o r t t o t h e C o m m u n it y , S a n F r a n c is c o P u b li c S c h o o ls , San F r a n c is c o , C a l i f o r n i a ,

1947,

p p .46-49

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

de­

a r r a n g e m e n t, i n m any c a s e s , p r o v i d e s t h e o n l y raean s f o r a c h i e v i n g a d e g r e e . (2 ) Li a n y o f t h e o o ia m u n ity C o l l e g e s tu d e n ts a re n o t h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a te s . E n tra n c e r e q u ir e m e n ts f o r th e s e s tu d e n ts a r e b a s e d u p o n w h e t h e r t h e s t u d e n t c o u ld p r o f i t fro m i n s t r u c t i o n in h is ch o sen o b ­ je c tiv e . S uch a s tu d e n t r e c e iv e s h ig h s c h o o l c r e d it o n ly . T h is g ro u p c o n s is ts m a i n l y o f t h o s e s t u d e n t s w ho d r o p p e d o u t o f e l e m e n t a r y o r h i g h s c h o o l s , a n d who l a t e r fe e l a need f o r fu r th e r t r a in in g b o t h a c a d e m ic a n d v o c a t i o n a l , m any o f th e s e s tu d e n ts i n th e p a s t h a v e b een v e t e r a n s w ho s a w a g r e a t n e e d f o r m o r e t r a i n i n g v /h ile th e y w e re i n s e r v ic e . (3 ) A t h i r d g ro u p i s com posed o f t h o s e p a r t - t i m e a d u l t s t u d e n t s w ho w is h t o im p r o v e t h e i r v o c a t i o n a l c o m p e t e n c e . A l o n g w i t h t h i s g r o u p a r e t h o s e w ho t a k e c o u r s e s f o r a v o c a t i o n a l a n d c u l t u r a l im ­ p ro v e m e n t. T h e C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e c a n h e l p b r i d g e t h e g a p frc c a f u l l - t i m e s c h o o l i n g t o f u l l ­ t i m e e m p lo y m e n t; a n d c a n o f f e r i t s e d u c a t i o n a l s e r v ic e s f o r a s l o n g as n e c e .s s s r y , e i t h e r on a f u l l o r p a r t - t i m e b a s is , a f t e r t h e s tu d e n t e n te rs uoon h is v o c a tio n . Wo s c h o o l c a n c a l l i t s e l f a t r u e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e u n l e s s i t e x i s t s s o l e l y f o r t h e b e n e f i t o f i t s c o m m u n it y . The p o l i c i e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e n o l o n g e r can be d ic t a t e d by p r o f e s s io n a l e d u c a to rs u s in g t h e o r ie s e s t a b lis h e d f o r c o n v e n tio n a l c o lle g e p ro g ra m s . The p o lic ie s o f a c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e m u s t e v o l v e f r o m i n t e l l i ­ g e n t c o m m u n ity p l a n n i n g l e d b y p u b l i c s p ir it e d s ch o o l a d m in is tr a to r s . The c o lle g e s h a l l be a d m in is te r e d f o r a l l t h e p e o p le i n t h e c o m m u n ity , a n d s h o u l d b e l o o k e d u p o n a s t h e c u l t u r a l c e n t e r o f t h e c o m m u n it y . °

E l b e r t L . C o s tn e r, S u p e r in te n d e n t, P o te a u C it y S c h o o l s , P o t e a u , O k la h o m a . P o t e a u c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e , 1 9 5 1 , M e e tin g E d u c a t io n a l W e e d s . P a m p h le t. P o te a u C i t y S c h o o l s , P o t e a u , O k la h o m a , 1 S 5 1

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

j o lin U . d o lle g e , J u n io r h o u rs

Pasadena,

c o lle g e fro n

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of

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c o n tin u e s : T h e c o n c e p t o f c o m m u n ity s e r v i c e b y t h e J u n i o r C o lle g e i s b a s e d on t h e p h ilo s o p h y t h a t e d u c a tio n i s a l i f e - l o n g p r o c e s s e x ­ t e n d in g fro m b i r t h t o d e a th . T h e re can be n o c o m p le tio n o f e d u c a t io n . No m a tte r w hat d e g r e e s a p e r s o n m ay h a v e a c q u i r e d , i f h e c e a s e s h i s s tu d y on g r a d u a t io n , h e becom es h o p e l e s s l y s u b m e rg e d i n t h e o n w a rd t i d e o f p r o g r e s s , and he w i l l o n e day aw aken t o f in d t h a t he m ust be r e -e d u c a te d . O f a l l l e v e l s o f e d u c a tio n , t h e J u n io r C o lle g e o c c u p ie s t h e m o s t s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n f o r s e r v in g th e e d u c a t io n a l and c u l t u r a l n e e d s o f a l l t h e c i t i z e n s o f t h e c o r a m u n ity w i t h o u t r e g a r d t o ag e o r w a lk o f l i f e . I t m u s t e x p a n d i t s d a y i n t o h o u r s w h ic h w i l l m ake i t s o p p o r t u n it ie s a v e . i l a b le t o th e e n t ir e p u b lic . "when t h i s h a p p y d a y i s f u l l y r e a l i z e d , we s h a l l h a v e n o p r o b le m o f p u b l i c r e la tio n s . O b s t r u c t io n is t s w i l l d is a p p e a r , and t h e ta x p a y e r s w i l l becom e o u r s ta u n c h e s t f r i e n d s a n d ra o s t e n t h u s i a s t i c s u p p o r t e r s . 9

J o h n Yv. H a r b e s o n , O c to b e r,

1949,

"The

C o m m u n ity J u a ie ? C o l l e g e , ” N .E .A .

_ J o u rn a l

p p .5 0 2 -5 0 3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

L ife th e

M a g a z in e

c o m m u n ity

and in c lu d in g

c o lle g e th e

r e c e n tly in

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a c c o m p a n ie d b y

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I n a n a t i o n w h e r e e v e r y b o d y i s d e m a n d in g a h i g h e r e d u c a t io n f o r m o re a n d m o re p e o p le , t h e t r a d i t i o n a l f o u r y e a r c o lle g e i s no lo n g e r a p r a c t i c a l a n s w e r. M o s t h ig h s c h o o l g ra d u a te s c a n n o t a f f o r d fo u r y e a r s o f t u i t i o n and b o a r d aw ay fro m h o m e , n o r do th e y n eed such lo n g -te r m t r a i n i n g . And th e f o u r - y e a r c o lle g e s c a n n o t a f f o r d t h e e x ­ p a n s io n n e c e s s a r y t o e d u c a te a l l t h e a p p l i ­ c a n ts . The b r ig h t e s t s o lu tio n l i e s in th e t w o - y e a r j u n i o r o r c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e s w h ic h h a v e t r i p l e d i n n um ber a n d e n r o l l m e n t s in c e 1 9 2 0 . T h e s e s m a lle r c o lle g e s , u s u a l l y s e t u p f o r s t u d e n t s w i t h i n com­ m u tin g d i s t a n c e , d is p e n s e w it h d o r m i t o r i e s and g e a r t h e i r c o u rs e s t o th e n e e d s o f th e a re a , i'o r m ost s tu d e n ts t h i s m eans lo w c o s t e d u c a tio n s in c e th e y e a t and s le e p a t hom e. I t a ls o m eans t h e y a r e e s p e c i a l ­ l y t r a i n e d f o r t h e e c o n o m ic l i f e of th e ir ow n c o m m u n it y . L a s t m o n th i n M id d le t o w n , N ew Y o r k , t h e O r a n g e C o u n t y C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e o p e n e d . T h is s c h o o l, d e s p e r a t e ly n e e d e d i n t h i s c o lle g e -s ta r v e d s e c tio n , is th e f i r s t p r o d u c t o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y o f N ew Y o r k ’ s p ro g ra m t o e s t a b lis h in d e p e n d e n t c o l l e g e s i n a l l e c o n o m ic a r e a s o f t h e s t a t e , s u p p o rte d e q u a lly by t h e s t a t e and lo c a l a re a . I n O ra n g e C o u n ty t h e d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f a C h a m b e r o f C o m m erce s e c r e t a r y and t h e g e n e r o s ity o f a la d y w ho g a v e up h e r ^ 3 m i l l i o n e s t a t e h a v e g iv e n 160 s tu d e n ts a ch an ce a t c o lle g e e d u c a t i o n f o r o n l y .£200 t u i t i o n a y e a r . 1 0 New Y o r k e s ta b lis h e d

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I n J a m e s to v n t h e i'e w a s a d e s i r e t o t r a n s f o r m t h e A l f r e d U n i v e r s i t y E x te n s io n i n t o a C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e , a n d t o e x p a n d t h e c u r r ic u lu m t o in c lu d e a t e c h n ic a l p ro g ra m as w e ll as l i b e r a l a r t s . To a c c o m p l i s h t h i s t h e c o m m u n ity c a n v a s s e d i t s l o c a l f a c i l i t i e s a n d cam e u p w i t h t h is s o lu tio n . T h e C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e u s e s 1 0 c la s s r o o m s i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l, w h e re t h e c o u r s e s a r e s c h e d u le d b e t w e e n t h e h o u r s o f 1 : 0 0 a n d 9 : 3 0 p .m . S tu d e n ts a r e p e r m itte d t o u t i l i z e s e v e r­ a l lo c a l lib r a r ie s . L a b o r a to r ie s f o r th e s tu d e n ts h a v e b e e n m ade a v a i l a b l e by a c t i o n o f t h e J a m e s to w n m u n i c i p a l l a b o r a ­ to ry b o a rd . And n u rs e s i n t r a i n i n g a re o f f e r e d i n s t r u c t i o n i n E n g lis h , S o c io lo g y , P s y c h o lo g y , and C h e m is tr y a t a l o c a l h o s p ita l. Dw ayne L ite r a tu r e ,

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c o lle g e : N o c o n v e n t i o n a l a c a d e m ic d e f i n i t i o n f i t s t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e . Y/e m u s t t e a r dow n t h e t i m e - h o n o r e d f e n c e s o f y e a r l y g r a d a tio n s , s e m e s te r -le n g th te rra s , d iv is io n s i n t o p r im a r y , s e c o n d a ry , and h ig h e r e d u c a tio n , a c c r e d it a t io n s t r a i g h t ja c k e ts , and o th e r r e s t r i c t i v e fo rc e s o f e d u c a t io n t o u n d e r s ta n d t h e p la c e and w o rk o f t h i s i n s t i t u t i o n . T h e c o m m u n ity c o lle g e i s c o n c e rn e d w it h m e e tin g n e e d s f o r e d u c a tio n a l s e r v ic e s w h e re v e r th e y a r e fo u n d ; a t w h a te v e r age and s t a t u s o f p r e v io u s e d u c a tio n . T h e a n a to m y o f s e c o n d a ry and h ig h e r e d u c a tio n h a s b een m ade u p o f f o r m a l d i v i s i o n s o f k n o w le d g e k e p t in v io la b le by th e in flu e n c e o f G e rm a n s p e c i a l i s a t i o n e n d e n t r e n c h e d v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s o f a c a d e m ic d e p a r t m e n t s . T h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e a t t e m p t s t o a p p l y

" T h e r e ’ s M o r e Them O ne YJay t o S t a r t a U o m m u n ity C o lle g e ," S c h o o l a n d C o lle g e M a n a g e m e n t, N o v e m b e r, 195 0, p .13

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k n o w le d g e t o t h e s e r v i c e o f t h e v . i i o l e p e r s o n i n t h e c o m p le x s o c i a l s e r t i n g o f m o d e rn l i f e . r t r e c o g n iz e s t h e f a c t t h a t th e p e rs o n c a n n o t be d iv id e d in t o a b i o l o g i c a l m an, a v o c a t i o n a l m an, o r a c i v i c m an. K a th e r th a n fo c u s in g th e s t u d e n t o n k n o w le d g e i n i t s d e p e r s o n a l i z e d o r c lo is t e r e d s t a t e - a p ro p e r f u n c tio n o f s p e c ia liz e d o r p r o fe s s io n a l t r a in in g t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e f o c u s e s t h e s e a r c h ­ l i g h t o f k n o w le d g e o n t h e s t u d e n t . h o w e v e r, t h e r e i s a s u p re m e o p p o r­ t u n i t y f o r t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e t o s e r v e t h e n e e d s o f i t s p e o p le . I t can b e. t h e c e n t e r a n d s e r v i c e i n s t i t u t i o n f o r th e p e o p le ’ s e d u c a tio n a l i n t e r e s t s . A s a s u p p ly s t a t i o n , i t c a n b e t h e v i s u a l - e d u c a t i o n c e n t e r ; t h e a r t s end c r a f t s w o rk s h o p f o r h o b b y a n d c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n c a n f i n d a hom e a n d s t u d i o th e re . T h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e c a n g i v e le a d e r s h ip and la y t e a c h e r - t r a in in g s e r v ic e . Its s t a f f s h o u ld b e a b l e a n d r e a d y t o a d v i s e on p r o g r a m m a k i n g a n d o r g a n i z a t i o n t o c o i a n u n it y g r o u p s . In c o o p e r a tio n w it h t h e l i b r a r i e s , i t can d e v e l o p hom e r e a d i n g c o u r s e s a n d s t i m u ­ l a t e t h e t a s t e s o f t h e p e o p le f o r goo d lite r a tu r e . R u n n in g i n v e n t o r i e s o f p o p u ­ l a t i o n and b u s in e s s t r e n d s c a n s e r v e t h e b u s in e s s n e e d s o f t h e r e g i o n . The p r i n c i p l e o f t h e r u r a l hom e a n d f a r m d e m o n s tr a tio n s e r v ic e can b e a p p lie d t o t h e m a n i f o l d n e e d s o f t h e A m e r i c a n com­ m u n i t y b y a g e n u in e p e o p l e ’ s c o l l e g e . T h u s w i l l t h e d re a m o f u n i v e r s a l e d ­ u c a t i o n I n A m e r ic a n d e m o c r a c y com e t o r e a l i t y .1 2 h a r v a r d ’ s P r e s id e n t,

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B u t w h a t a r e t h e s e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e s ? I n t h e f i r s t p l a c e t h e e m p h a s is s h o u l d b e on w h a t I c a l l th e t e r m in a l p ro g ra m s . T h e s e i n s i t u t i o n s s h o u ld n o t b e r e g a r d e d

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’’N e w C o l l e g e s f o r a h e w A m e r i c a , ” o f L i t e r a t u r e , S e p te m b e r 9 , 1 9 5 0

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11

a s t h e f i r s t tv .o y e a r s o f a c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y , b u t t r ie w ay s h o u ld n o t be b l o c k e d r o r t n e s t u d e n t s who e n t e r t h e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s fro m m a k in g t h e t r a n s i t i o n e i t h e r t o a f o u r - y e a r u n i v e r s i t y p ro g ra m , i n t h e sam e t o w n o r c i t y o r t o a. d i s t a n t l o c a l i t y w it h in t h e s t a t e o r -w ith in t h e n a tio n . ...........................A v a r i e t y o f p r o g r a m s m u s t b e o f f e r e d , s u i t a b l e f o r e. v a r i e t y o f s k i l l s a n d m o t iv a t i o n s , and t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f t r a n s f e r r in g ir o n one p ro g ra m t o a n o th e r m ust be th e r e . I 'u r t h e r n o r e , t e s t s and c o u n s e lin g a r e p a r t o f th e p r o c e d u r e . m o st im p o r ta n t o f a l l , h o w e v e r, w i l l b e t h e g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n p ro g ra m - t h e t h o r o u g h d e v e lo p m e n t o f w h a t w a s d o n e a t t h e h i g h s c h o o l l e v e l t o m ake p e o p le b e t t e r a n d m o re e f f e c t i v e c i t i z e n s an d to . le a d a s a t i s f y i n g l i f e ..................... t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e s h o u ld b e t h e c e n t e r o f a d u l t e d ­ u c a t i o n ............................ T h r o u g h t h e m e d iu m o f a d u lt e d u c a t io n , e d u c a tio n on t h e jo b , e d u c a t io n w h il e p e o p le a r e e m p lo y e d , o p p o r t u n i t y s h o u ld b e p r o v i d e d f o r p e o p l e i n t h e i r tw e n tie s , p e rh a p s in t h e i r t h i r t i e s , e it h e r t o ro u n d o u t t h e i r g e n e r a l k n o w le d g e o r c h a n g e t h e i r s p e c ia liz e d v o c a tio n s ; in o t h e r w o rd s , a d a p t t h e i r s k i l l s to th e changes th e y f a c e a n d t h e w o r l d f a c e s a s w e l l ............... I n some c o m m u n i t ie s t h e s e c o m m u n ity c o lle g e s w i l l be p a r t o f th e p u b lic s c h o o l s y s te m ; i n o t h e r s t h e y m ay b e s e p a r a t e , b u t t a x s u p p o rte d . u o n s id e r t h e p r o b le m i n s o c i a l , p o l i t i c a l , an d e c o n o m ic t e r m s . I f y o u b e l i e v e a s I do i n t h e im p o r ta n t d o c t r in e o f e q u a l i t y o f o p p o r t u n i t y , a n d b e l i e v e as I d o t h a t t o c u t o f f e d u c a tio n a t t h e en d o f h ig h s c h o o l e x c e p t f o r t h o s e w ho c a n a f f o r d t o p a y , i s n o t c o n s is t e n t w it h o u r d e m o c r a tic p h ilo s o ­ p h y , th e n you m u st be w i l l i n g to fin a n c e e i t h e r an e x p a n s io n o f o u r f o u r - y e a r c o l l e g e s ( t o iae a n e e d l e s s l y e x p e n s i v e p la n and s o c ia lly u n d e s ir a b le ) o r e ls e becom e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e t w o - y e a r c o lle g e s . T h o s e o f u s who b e l i e v e t h e t w o y e a r c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e s a r e a s i g n i f i c a n t s t e p f o r w a r d i n t h e m a rc h to w a r d t h e g o a l o f e q u a liz in g e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r tu n it y h a v e

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12

h ig h h o p es t h a t th e y e v e r y s t a t e ....................... D r. tn e

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14

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I t w a s a l i t t l e x ao re t h a n t h r e e y e a r s ago t h a t W ilm in g to n C o lle g e e n r o l l e d i t s f i r s t s tu d e n t. S i n c e t h e n , t h e c o m m u n it y t y p e j u n i o r c o lle g e o f h ew u a n o v e r C o u n ty , h o x 't h C a r o l i n a , h a s g r o w n a n d e x p a n d e d i t s o ffe r in g s . I n 19 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 , m o r e t h a n a t h o u s a n d p e r s o n s t o o k a c a d e m ic , s e m ip r o f e s s i o n a l, t e r m i n a l , v o c a t io n .a l, and s h o r t-te r u i a d u lt c o u rs e s o f s tu d y a t th e c o lle g e . H o w e v e r, t h e p u rp o s e o f W ilm in g to n C o lle g e i s n o t m e r e ly t o m ake th e t r a ­ d i t i o n a l t y p e o f a c a d e m ic t r a i n i n g m o r e a c c e s s ib le , a lt h o t h a t i s in d e e d a p a r t o f i t s fu n c tio n . In i t s b ro a d e s t in t e r ­ p r e t a t i o n , i t s p u r p o s e m ay b e s t a t e d a s " s e r v ic e t o th e a d u lt p o p u la tio n o f th e im m e d ia t e ly s u r r o u n d in g c o m m u n ity ." Th e c u r r ic u lu m o f f e r s b ro a d ty p e s o f t r a i n i n g as f o l l o w s : (a ) Th e t r a n s f e r c o u rs e p r o v id e s t h e f i r s t tw o y e a r s o f t h e s t a n d a r d f o u r y e a r c o u rs e le a d in g t o t h e b a c c a ­ l a u r e a t e d e g r e e f o r s t u d e n t s w ho i n t e n d to tr a n s fe r to a u n iv e r s ity o r s im ila r i n s t i t u t i o n , m any t a lc in g a d d i t i o n a l p r e p a r a tio n f o r th e p r o fe s s io n s . (b ) T h e s e m i- p r o f e s s io n a l and v o c a t i o n a l c o u r s e s l a s t i n g tw o y e a r s

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

g e n e ra l

15

q u a lif y th e s tu d e n t f o r p o s it io n s in a re a s o i' e n g i n e e r i n g , " b u s in e s s , h o m e - m a k i n g , s e c r e t a r i a l , a c c o u n tin g , s e l l i n g , o r p u b lic s e r v ic e . (c ) S h o r t-te r m c o u rs e s f o r a d u lt s a r e o r g a n iz e d as n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s a r i s e in th e c o m u n ity . To e n r o l i n t h e t r a n s f e r c o u rs e , t h e s tu d e n t m u st b e a h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a te . V , e l l e d u c a t e d i n s t r u c t o r s , a l l o f whom h o l d a t le a s t a m a s te r’ s d e g re e , te a c h t h is c o u r s e .......................... In n o n -tr a n s fe r c o u rs e s , e l i g i b i l i t y f o r e n r o lm e n t d e p e n d s u p o n t h e m a t u r i t y , i n t e r e s t s , and a p t it u d e o f t h e c a n d id a t e . In s t r u c t o r s o f th e c o u rs e a r e u s u a lly c o l l e g e g r a d u a t e s w ho h a v e h a d s u c c e s s f u l , p r a c t i c a l e x p e r ie n c e i n t h e i r a r e a s o f s p e c ia liz a tio n . I t h as been fo u n d , how e v e r , t h a t a p e rs o n w it h o u t a d e g re e , b u t w ho p o s s e s s e s a s o u n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l a p p r o a c h a n d t h e k n o w -h o w o f h i s p r o ­ f e s s i o n , i s s o m e t im e s t h e b e s t i n s t r u c t o r o b ta in a b le f o r th e s e c o u rs e s . A m a s te r m ason h i g h l y r e c o g n iz e d i n h is t r a d e , and d is p la y in g q u a l i t i e s o f l e a d e r s h ip , p a t ie n c e , and u n d e r s ta n d in g p ro v e d t o be an e x c e l l e n t i n s t r u c t o r i n b r i c k l a y i n g ; an a d v e r t i s i n g m a n a g e r f o r a lo c a l in d u s tr y p ro d u c e d w o n d e rfu l r e ­ s u l t s i n h i s s h o v /- c a r d l e t t e r i n g c l a s s . T h e c o l l e g e a n d l o c a l b u s in e s s m e n c o o p e ra te t o r e n d e r i n s t r u c t i o n a l s e r v ic e s t o t h e c o m m u n it y . A re c e n t

T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y

announcem ent

re a d s :

I n S e p t e m b e r , 1 9 4 8 , t h e C o m m u n ity C o lle g e o pened as a s p e c ia l p u rp o s e , u n d e r­ g r a d u a t e , a c a d e m ic d i v i s i o n o f T e m p le U n i ­ v e r s i t y t o p r o v id e a p o s t - h ig h s c h o o l ed­ u c a tio n i n th e P h ila d e lp h ia m e t r o p o lit a n a r e a t o th o s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s new k in d o f c o lle g e t r a in in g . m any e s s e n t i a l p o s i t i o n s i n a n d i n d u s t r y do n o t r e q u i r e f o u r

b u s in e s s y e a rs o f

’’W i l m i n g t o n C o l l e g e F o u n d e d 1 9 4 7 , ” N a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n J o u r n a l, A p r i l , 1 9 5 1 , p p . 2 7 8 -2 7 9

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16

c o lle g e p r e p a r a tio n , b u t, f o r th e m ost p a r t , t h e y do r e q u i r e m o r e t h e n a h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a tio n . / o r e x a m p le , d r a f t s ­ m en, e n g in e e r in g a id e s , j u n i o r fo re m e n , ju n io r a c c o u n ta n ts , l i b r a r y a id e s , s e c r e t a r ie s , p e rs o n n e l a id e s , ju n io r i n d u s t r i a l e n g in e e r s , s a le s m e n , an d s m a ll b u s in e s s o w n e rs a r e e l l o c c u ­ p a t i o n a l g o a l s w h ic h r e q u i r e m o r e t h a n t h e n o rm a l h ig h s c h o o l p r e p a r a t io n . L iv in g i t s e l f n e c e s s ita te s " h ig h e r ed­ u c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o a p p r e c i a t e m o re f u l l y and u n d e r s ta n d m o re i n t e l l i g e n t l y th e c u l t u r a l and s c i e n t i f i c re s o u rc e s th a t a re a v a ila b le . S tu d e n ts a re a id e d i n g a in in g a b a c k g ro u n d in th e s e f i e l d s b y th e la r g e num ber o f b u s in e s s , g o v e rn ­ m e n t a l , c u l t u r a l , a n d s c i e n t i f i c com­ m u n i t y i n s t i t u t i o n s , n e a r t h e c o m m u n ity C o l l e g e , w h ic h c a n b e u s e d a s l a b o r a ­ t o r i e s f o r s tu d y and i n v e s t i g a t i o n . D e p th th r o u g h v o c a t i o n a l t r a i n i n g a n d b r e a d th i n e d u c a tio n th r o u g h g e n e r a l s tu d ie s le a v e th e s tu d e n t in n ee d o f a t h i r d d im e n s io n w h ic h g i v e s s t a t u r e t o t h e g r a d u a te a n d i s a c h ie v e d b y i n t e ­ g r a t in g th e g e n e r a l and v o c a t io n a l ed ­ u c a t i o n s i n a w h o le o f u s e f u l p a r t i c i ­ p a t i o n i n t h e c o m m u n it y . I t i s f o r th e p u rp o s e o f in t e g r a t in g t h e s e t h r e e o b j e c t i v e s t h a t T e m p le U n i ­ v e r s i t y h a s f o r m e d t h e C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e w i t h t h e a im t o h a v e i t s g r a d u a t e s b e c o m e sound v o c a t i o n a ll y , c h a lle n g e d c u l t u r ­ a l l y , c o n c e rn e d s o c i a l l y , and a c t iv e p e r s o n a lly in t o d a y ’ s w o r ld .17 A c c o r d in g ty

is

a tte m p tin g

te n d in g

its

c o m m u n ity

to to

th e

m eet th e

o ffe r in g s

c o lle g e .

above

to

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th e

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T e m p le U n i v e r s L

s t\id e n ts

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of

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T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y , T h e C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e , A n n o u n c e m e n t f o r t h e s e s s io n s 1 9 5 0 - 1 9 5 1 . B u l l e t i n , T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia , In a r c h , 1 9 5 0

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

17

by

s tu u e n ts ,

as

tiie

fo llo w in g

s ta te m e n ts

in d ic a te :

T h e c o s t o f e d u c a t i o n a t T e m p le V a r i e s , d e p e n d in g upon t h e n a t u r e o f t h e c u r r i c u ­ lu m p u r s u e d a n d t h e t h r i f t o f t h e i n d i v i d u a l s tu d e n t. T u i t i o n and fe e s a r e c o m p a r a tiv e ly lo w . i o r th e u n d e rg ra d u a te s c h o o ls , t u i t i o n and u n i v e r s i t y f e e t o t a l # 4 1 4 .0 0 e a c h y e a r , # 2 0 7 . 0 0 o f w h ic h i s p a y a b l e a t t h e b e ­ g in n in g o f each s e m e s te r. T h is f ig u r e does n o t in c lu d e m a t r ic u la t io n f e e , la b o r a t o r y f e e s , c la s s d u e s , c la s s a s s e s s m e n ts , and te x tb o o k s . L a b o r a t o r y f e e s v a r y a c c o r d in g t o t h e p a r t i c u l a r c o u rs e an d th e ty p e o f e q u ip m e n t u s e d . L i v i n g e x p e n s e s a t T e m p le v a r y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e a c c o m m o d a tio n s d e s i r e d , m en a n d w om en s t u d e n t s c a n s e c u r e ro o m s a n d b o a r d f r o m cj>350. 0 0 t o # 4 0 0 . 0 0 p e r y e a r . A con­ s e r v a t iv e e s tim a te o f th e c o s t o f th e f i r s t y e a r w o u ld r a n g e f r o m # 1 0 0 0 t o c ilg Q O .l®

0. To

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s c h o o l.

Ib id . ,

p . 56

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

18

o. tu iu io n

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The

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c h a rg e

19

8. te n t

s ta ff

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to

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v a r io u s fo r

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as t h e

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s im ila r

to

th e

tw e lv e

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a re K e m p fe r’ s i d e n t i f y i n g

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c it. ,

p .4

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20

I t can n o t h ave o n o n -r e s id e n t b o a rd . A m a j o r i t y o f I S c o r a p re h e n s iv e s t a t e s c h o o l s u rv e y s m ade s in c e W o r ld W a r I I w e re e m p h a tic on t h i s p o i n t . O n ly t h r e e re c o ra u e n d e d a n a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c o n n e c tio n w it h i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tio n . O ne s u g g e s t e d a r e a c o n t r o l . 2. I t is fr e e to th e p a r tic ip a n ts i n i t s p ro g ra m o r e s s e n t i a l l y s o , t a x s u p x ^ o r te d . le e s a re b a r r ie r s . S iz e a b le t u i t i o n fe e s b a r s i g n i f i c a n t p o r tio n s o f t h e p o p u la t io n and th e r e b y p r e v e n t s e r v i c e t o t h e e n t i r e c o m m u n it y . They a ls o l i m i t th e ty p e o f p ro g ra m o f f e r e d th e c u r r ic u lu m . I ’e e s a r e n o m o re d e ­ f e n s i b l e f o r a c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e t h a n f o r a p u b lic h ig h s c h o o l. 3. I t o f f e r s a c o m p r e h e n s iv e e d ­ u c a t i o n a l p r o g ra m s e r v in g t h e w h o le c o m m u n it y . I t i s n o t m e r e ly an i n s t i ­ t u t i o n o f f e r i n g t h e f i r s t tw o y e a r s o f c o lle g e . 4. T h e c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e p r o g r a m i s d e s ig n e d t o s e r v e t h e e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f a l l a d u lts and o ld e r y o u th p a s t th e n o rm a l h ig h s c h o o l a g e . G e n e r a l e d u c a t i o n a l p r e r e q u i s i t e s do n o t e x i s t i n t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e e x ­ c e p t f o r c e r t a in c o u rs e s o r c u r r ic u la . I l l i t e r a t e s , e le m e n ta r y s c h o o l d ro p ­ o u t s , o r c o lle g e g r a d u a te s a r e as w e l­ com e a s h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s . The e d u c a t i o n a l m en u s h o u l d b e b r o a d e n o u g h . t o a p p e a l t o an yo n e p a s t th e h ig h -s c h o o l age. T h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e w o u ld n o t g r a n t d e g r e e s a l t h o u g h i t m ay o f f e r t w o y e a rs o f c o lle g e c r e d it .* ® K e m p f e r 's a c c o r d in g h o w e v e r, nal

20

to in

p ro g ra m

Ib id . ,

th e its in

c o m m u n ity p r e v io u s

C o m m u n ity g e n e ra l

c o lle g e s

re fe re n c e . C o lle g e ,

w o u ld

g ra n t

d e g re e s ,

T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y ,

o ffe rs

and v o c a t io n a l

not

a tw o

e d u c a tio n

year

te r m i­

le a d in g

to

p p .4 -5

T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y

b u lle tin ,

ojo.

c it. ,

p .12

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

21 th e

d e c re e

o f A s s o c ia te

In

C a lifo r n ia

to

th o s e

in

in s titu tio n s

need

heed

on t h e

fo r

th is

spondence

passed

1947

lo c a l

c o m p le te

th e

to

pages

th e

show t h e

th e

o r B u s in e s s . a re

year

g ra n te d

p ro g ra m s

c o lle g e s .

w ill

be p re ­

e x is te n c e

e v id e n c e

a p p e a rs

of in

th e c o rre ­

s ta te m e n ts .

U - e n e r a l A s s e m b ly S e n a te h i l l

d is tr ic ts

to

The b i l l

o b je c tio n s

tw o

E v id e n c e

to

of

D e g re e s

c o m m u n ity

S tu d y

host

p u b lic

p ro g ra m s .

Am ong h i s

T h is

s tu d y ,

u n a n im o u s ly

p e r m itte d school

fo r

T e c h n o lo g y ,

A s s o c ia te

c o r r e s p o n d in g

fo llo w in g

o r in

In

A rts ,

and new Y o r k ,

w ho s u c c e s s f u l l y

D. s e n te d

in

ho.

o f P e n n s y lv a n ia 22

45o

a d d tw o

w as

w e re t h e

w h ic h

y e a rs

v e to e d

by

fo llo w in g

to

th e

w o u ld h a v e th e ir

p u b lic

G o v e rn o r.

s ta te m e n ts :

....................I t i s e n t i r e l y p o s s i b l e t h a t i f t h i s b i l l becam e la v / t h e s c h o o l d is ­ t r i c t s w o u ld m a k e t h e i r 1 5 t h a n d 1 4 t h y e a r s m o re a t t r a c t i v e a n d t h u s i n c r e a s e e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e s e y e a r s a l l - o f w h ic h w i l l r e s u l t in in c r e a s e d c o s t t o th e S t a t e and t h e l o c a l d i s t r i c t . We do n o t now h a v e a v a i l a b l e s u f f ic i e n t d a ta t o f o r e c a s t a c c u r a te ly t h e am ount o f th e s e in c r e a s e d c o s ts . . . . fo r p o s t-h ig h c o m in g any

anyone

school

fro m

th e

s u g g e s tin g

e d u c a tio n , G o v e rn o r,

such p ro p o s a l w ith

a

fu tu re

s ta te m e n t

s h o u ld

be

a r e a s o n a b ly

P e n n s y lv a n ia (G e n e ra l A s s e m b ly , V o l. IV , 1S 47, p .3957 ’

I b i d . , V e to

#

33,

J u ly

7,

le g is la tio n such

a -w a r n in g sound

as to

fo r th e

above,

accom pany

e s tim a te

L e g is la tiv e

p u b lic

of

th e

J o u r n a l,

1947

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

22 cost

to

b o th

th e

lo c a l

" H oy ; m u c h w i l l p o s s ib ly th e

p r o v id e s o r e

e x is tin g

c o u ld

not

s ta te m e n ts o th e r

it

a ffo rd

such

corae f r o m

c itiz e n s

P la n n in g h o a rd

an

end th e

c o s tv "

fu n d s

e d u c a tio n a l

1''. A .

s ta te d

d is tr ic t

S ta te .

"The

th a n

o re

p ro g ra m . "

cannot

n e c e s s a ry “L o c a l

e x te n s io n ."

le g is la to r s ,

S ta te

to

o p e ra te

c o m m u n i t ie s

These

end

e d u c a to rs ,

o th e r

p a re n ts ,

and

o f P e n n s y lv a n ia . P itk in , of

th e

E x e c u tiv e

D ir e c to r

P e n n s y lv a n ia

of

th e

D e p a rtm e n t

of

S ta te C o m m e rc e ,

r e c e n tly : h e h a v e b e e n v e r y m uch i n t e r e s t e d i n y o u r p ro p o s a l th a t sch o o l d is t r ic t s be p e r­ m it t e d t o e s t a b lis h ju n io r c o lle g e s o r o t h e r w i s e p f f e r tw o y e a r s o f p o s t h i g h s c h o o l e d u c a tio n . V/e c o m p l e t e l y a g r e e w i t h t h e m o t iv e b e h in d t h i s p r o p o s a l. T h a t t h e a d v a n ta g e s f o r h ig h e r e d u c a tio n s h o u l d b e a v a i l a b l e t o a l l y o u n g m en a n d w om en i r r e s p e c t i v e o f t h e e c o n o m ic p o ­ s i t i o n o f t h e i r p a r e n t s seem s h i g h l y im p o r ta n t t o a s u c c e s s fu l s o c ie t y . It i s , h o w e v e r , a p p a r e n t t h a t o n e c o n o m ic g ro u n d s , m any, i f n o t m o s t, o f o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w o u ld b e u n a b l e t o t a k e a d v a n ta g e o f t h i s p e r m is s io n . The le v e l o f fe d e r a l ta x a t io n is now so h ig h t h a t an y f u r t h e r dem an ds, e v e n f o r so w o r t h y a c a u s e , a p p e a r t o b e d a n g e ro u s t o th e econom y. We c o u l d n o t t h e r e f o r e re c o m m e n d y o u r s o l u t i o n t o t h i s p r o b le m u n t i l a s u b s t a n t i a l r e ­ d u c tio n h a s b e e n b ro u g h t a b o u t in f e d e r a l s p e n d in g . P ro m w h a t w e kn o w o f t h e t a x b a s i s i n m any o f o u r s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s we b e ­ lie v e th a t th e re is l i t t l e chance th a t a c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e on a s c h o o l d i s t r i c t b a s i s w o u ld s o l v e t h e p r o b l e m o f e q u a l e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s . 2^

P . A . P i t k i n , D i r e c t o r , S t a t e P la n n in g B o a rd , H a r r i s ­ b u rg , Penna. P e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o K . D. R e e s e , A p r i l 2 6 ,

1950

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

23

in

"the c h a p t e r o n

r e a lis tic lo c a l

p la n

d is tr ic ts

p e r m is s iv e p ro v e m r.

a b le

le g is la tio n .

The

p r o v id in g

h e ld

It

by

s ta te

le g is la tio n

p u b lic

c o m m u n ity

c o lle g e s ,

such

to

b o th

s ta te m e n ts

a n tic ip a te d fo r

s ta te

e s tim a te s If

th e

it

S ta te

th o s e

th a t

of

le a s t

at

a d v o c a te d ,

th e

how t o

In

ju n io r

P itk in ’ s le tt e r

P e n n s y lv a n ia t h e

to

c o lle g e ,

C o u n c il

c o m m u n i­ such

as

th a t, of

F u rth e r,

d e t e r m in a tio n

under

c e r ta in

tr a n s la te d le v y

of

p r o p o s a ls

in to

ta x a tio n

a d d itio n a l

ta x e s .

can

to

school

a ffo rd

e d u c a tio n

c o lle g e

seem t a n t a m o u n t

school

en­

e s tim a te

d is tr ic ts . a

d is ­

be

p u b lic

a b le

c o m m u n ity

e d u c a tio n a l

to

of

th e

s o lv in g

o p p o r tu n itie s ,

le v e l. w as m e n tio n e d

show n a b o v e .

S ta te

be

to

equal

w ill

e s ta b lis h m e n t

p o s t-h ig h

w o u ld

such

im p e r a tiv e

fo r

be

of

o p in io n s

a c o m m u n ity

a p u b lic

p r o v id e

p o s t-h ig h

The te rm , o f ih r .

it

to

a b ility

e s ta b lis h m e n t

at

s h o u ld

c o s ts

upon lo c a l

d e m o n s tra te d

of

p e r m it

d is tr ic ts

th ro u g h

p r o b le m

to

m ake i t

a

t h a t m any

th e re

fre e

th a t

need

p u b lic

th e

seen

th e

lo c a l

in s u r e

econom y w i l l

fo r

d e m o n s tra te

tu itio n -fr e e ,

h e r e in

be

one

p r o v id e

ty p e

our

lo c a l

s u p p o rt;

can b e

th a t

th e

to

sh o w n t h a t

a d v a n ta g e

and

c o s ts

based

ta k e

o ffic ia ls

p r o p o s in g

be

w h ic h w i l l

o p p o r tu n itie s

b e fo re

c o s ts

w ill

d a ta p r o v id e d

can r e a d i l y

our

it

to

P i t k i n ’ s a s s e r tio n

c o lle g e s .

th is

w ill

e a o i;te d be

d a n g e re d b y ty

can be

c o s ts

of

Id ia t

is

a

E d u c a tio n

in

th e

ju n io r d e fin e s

p o r tio n c o lle g e ? it

fo llo w s : A J u n io r C o lle g e i s an i n s t i t u t i o n o f f e r i n g tw o o r m o r e y e a r s o f -w ork w i t h c u r r i c u l u m c o v e r in g tw o y e a r s o f p o s t -

a

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

as

24

h ig h s c h o o l w o rk ( a t l e a s t 60 s e m e s te r h o u rs o r th e e q u iv a le n t in y e a r , te r m , o r q u a r t e r h o u r s ) w h ic h i s b a s e d u p o n a n d c o n t i n u e s o r s u p p le m e n t s t h e w o r k o f s e c o n d a ry i n s t r u c t i o n as g iv e n i n an y f u l l y a c c r e d it e d s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l. Is c o lle g e m ig h t

th is

and

be

ju n io r

th e re

g re a t

a c o m m u n ity

used

as

a re

of fo r

s e n io r th e

C o lle g e

p u b lic

by

c o lle g e s .

c o n s id e r e d

ju n io r

In

J u n io r

m any

w hat

a

cases th e

have been

c o lle g e s .

c o lle g e s

e n r o lle d

u e n te rs

b e tw e e n

C a lifo r n ia ,

P e n n s y lv a n ia

U n d e rg ra d u a te an d H e rs h e y

In

c o m m u n ity

s tu d e n ts

and c h a rg e t u i t i o n . a re

c o lle g e ?

e s s e n tia lly

such as P e n n s y lv a n ia , o f w o rk ta k e n

d iffe r e n c e

s y n o n y m o u s ly .

c o lle g e s

s tu d y

any

in

In

o ffe r th e

ju n io r

ju n io r th e

p u b lic d e fin e d

o th e r

C o lle g e ,

a re

th e

tw o

c o lle g e s ,

o f T h e P e n n s y lv a n ia p r iv a te ly

of

C o n c e r n in g ile r s h e y

T h e P e n n s y lv a n ia J u n io r

C o lle g e ,

S ta te

ty p e

y e a rs except

S ta .te o p e ra te d

T h e P e n n s y lv a n ia U n d e rg ra d u a te

b ra n c h e s

in

s ta te s ,

m a in ly

fir s t

te rm s

C e n te rs

C o lle g e .

H e n r y K lo n o w e r

w r ite s : Th e H e rs h e y J u n io r C o lle g e , lo c a t e d a t H e r s h e y , P e n n s y lv a n ia , i s c o n t r o l l e d and o p e r a t e d b y t h e D e r r y T o w n s h ip S c h o o l D i s ­ t r i c t b u t i s f in a n c e d e n t i r e l y fro m p r i v a t e f u n d s w h ic h h a v e b e e n m a d e a v a i l a b l e t o t h e S c h o o l B o a rd by t h e p h i la n t h r o p is t , th e l a t e D ir . I.i. S . H e r s h e y . A d m is s io n s a r e r e ­ s t r ic t e d to lo c a l r e s id e n t s , t o g ra d u a te s

c o m m o n w e a lth o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , P r o c e d u r e m id ^ s ta n d a r d s o f t h e B t a t e c o u n c i l o f E d u c a tio n i n t h e A c c r e d itm e n t o f J u n io r C o lle g e s , ( m iraeo g r a p h e d)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

m e a n in g tic e

of to

t il e lie r s h e y I n d u s t r i a l S c h o o l, c e r t a i n q u a l i f i e d v e t e r a n s . 26

To

a v o id

of

th e

th e

te rm ,

h in d

n o te

of

th a t,

C o lle g e ,

p o s s ib ility

te rm ,

th ro u g h o u t

use th e

th e

" ju n io r

th is

th e re

fo r a re

c o lle g e " ,

c o m m u n ity

in s titu tio n save

o f m is in te r p r e tin g

d is s e r ta tio n

" p u b lic

th e

h e r e in

to ,

it

w ill

th e

p ra c ­

w hen r e f e r r i n g

a d v o c a te d . e x c e p tio n

c o m m u n ity

be

th e

w h en ever p o s s ib le ,

c o lle g e " ,

p o s s ib le

no p u b lic

and

I t

is

e s s e n tia l

o f h e rs h e y

c o lle g e s

to

in

ti

J u n io r

P e n n s y l­

v a n ia . ■To show f u r t h e r e s tim a te s

of

P e n n s y lv a n ia , by i , i r .

P.

c o s ts th e

of

th a t

th e re

p ro p o s e d

fo llo w in g

is

p u b lic

p a ra g ra p h s

Raym ond S o ll e n b e r g e r

a re

need

fo r

c o m m u n ity fro m

a

s tu d y

of

c o lle g e s

a le tte r

in

w r itte n

c ite d :

As I see t h e s t a t u s a t t h e p r e s e n t tim e l i t t l e w i l l be done f o r a fe w y e a rs b e c a u s e o u r e x p a n d in g s c h o o l p ro g ra m n o r m a l ly i s c o s t i n g so m u c h m o r e t h a t i t w i l l b e v e r y d i f f i c u l t i f n o t im p o s s ib le t o e n la r g e t h e s c h o o l p ro g ra m , t o t h e e x t e n t o f J u n io r C o lle g e s i n o u r p u b lic s c h o o l p ro g ra m . T h o u g h we r e a l i z e t h a t y o u r s u g g e s t io n i s v e r y t i m e l y and t h e s c h o o ls a r e n e e d in g m u ch i n t h i s s t a t e , a s y o u s u g g e s t e d , t h a t id e a w i l l h a v e t o b e s o ld t o t h e le a d e r s o f t h e s t a t e , p o s s i b l y t o some e d u c a t o r s , a n d t o t h e m ass o f t h e p e o p le . T o s u m m a r iz e m ay I s t a t e t h a t J u n i o r c o lle g e i s n e e d e d . I t h a s b e e n d is c u s s e d w id e ly in iia r r is b u r g . Some c o l l e g e s h a v e d e c i d e d t h a t we a r e n o t r e a d y f o r i t a s y e t. We do n o t h a v e t h e m o n e y a t t h e

H e n r y H lo n o w e r , D i r e c t o r o f T e a c h e r E d u c a tio n an d C e r t i f i c a t i o n , P e n n s y lv a n ia D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b li c I n s t r u c t i o n , H a r r is b u r g , Penn a . P e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o ±1 . D . R e e s e , J a n u a ry 1 3 , 1950

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

26 p r e s e n t tim e t o i n s t i t u t e i t b u t 1 b e l i e v e , in tlie n o t to o d is t a n t f u t u r e , i t w i l l b e­ com e a r e a l i t y . 27 .P e n n s y lv a n ia h a s Uan i t

be

p o s s ib le

th a t as i t r .

e s ta b lis h E lic it m rs .

it

be

w ill

in

e d u c a tio n

in

th e

a c tu a lly

as

d iffic u lt

or

as

be

S o lle n b e r g e r

p u b lic

c o L iia u n ity

e x tra c te d

Jam es M e e h a n ,

o f p a re n ts

p io n e e r e d

fro m

s u g g e s ts ,

c o lle g e s ?

th e

p r e s id e n t

th e

im ­

f o r .P e n n s y lv a n ia P e rh a p s

fo llo w in g of

p a s t.

fe w

to

an a n s w e r

s ta te m e n ts

by

Pennsylvania C o n g r e s s

and T e a c h e rs :

I n a tim e o f w o r ld c r i s i s P e n n s y lv a n ia c a n n o t a f f o r d t o n e g le c t th e t r a i n i n g o f h e r fu tu re c itiz e n s . I f we w a n t th e m t o b e w e l l t r a i n e d we m u s t p a y t h e b i l l , v ih en c o m p a r e d t o s i s t e r s t a t e s , P e n n s y l ­ v a n i a m u s t do b e t t e r t h a n i t s p r e s e n t r a n k o f 4 3 rd p la c e in th e p e rc e n ta g e o f w e a lt h s p e n t on e d u c a t io n . The p a re n ts o f th e c h ild r e n o f P en n ­ s y lv a n ia c a l l upon y o u as a l e g i s l a t o r t o p r o v id e e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r t u n it ie s f o r o u r boys and .g ir ls e q u a l to th e b e s t in th e

nation.23 In

th e

second p a ra g ra p h

S o l l e n b e r g e r 1s l e t t e r id e a

of

p u b lic

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to

w r ite r

has

is

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e d u c a to rs , a tte m p te d

of

th e

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fro m t . r ,

m e n tio n e d

th e

need

s e llin g

c o lle g e s

and t o to

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to

th e

of

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of

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m ass o f

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th a t

c o r r e s p o n d in g

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p e o p le .

The w ith

D. R a y m o n d S o l l e n b e r g e r , C h a ir m a n o f t h e E d u c a t i o n Com­ m i t t e e , P e n n s y lv a n ia H o u se o f R e p r e s e n t a t iv e s , H a r r is b u r g , Tenna. P e r s o n a l l e t t e r t o H . i-). R e e s e , N o v e m b e r 1 7 , 1 9 4 9 M r s . J a m e s L le e h a n , “ C o n g r e s s o f P a r e n t s a n d T e a c h e r s S u p p o r t s , ” E d u c a tio n B u l l e t i n , P e n n s y lv a n ia S t a t e E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , A p r i l 1 6 , 1 9 5 1 , p . 90

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

27 and

a s k in g

m ent

i’o r

s u p p o r t fro m

a t n a r r is b u r g ,

n a ir e s

w e re

sent

P e n n s y lv a n ia .

to

m o re t h a n

te a c h e r

a s s o c ia tio n s ,

le a d e r s

of

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one h u n d re d

th ro u g h o u t

a r tic le

th e

in

o rg a n

In

e d u c a tio n and

of

A s s o c ia tio n ,

p r e s id e n ts

c o lle g e s ,

in by

o f L io n s

J a n u a ry , th e

P e n n s y lv a n ia

C o n g re s s

1951,

w r i t e r , * 59

P e n n s y lv a n ia P a r e n t - T e a c h e r ,

th e

p a re n t-

and S t a t e

E d u c a tio n

a d d itio n ,

and g o v e rn ­

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p r e s id e n ts d is tr ic t

ana f i f t y

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th e

of

s ix ty

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in

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tw e n ty

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on p u b l i c

w as p u b lis h e d o ffic ia l

about

th e P e n n s y lv a n ia

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le a d e r s

th e

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and

'r e a c h e r s .

v is e d .

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is

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is

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50

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ago

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p e r m is s iv e

in

and te n

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1907

s ta te

th e

in

s e ll

th e

S ta te

in

th e

w hat h r .

u n ite d

J o lie t,

la te r

s u p p o rt

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p u b lic

o f P e n n s y lv a n ia .

le g is la tio n

y e a rs

fin a n c ia l

in

c o m m u n ity The

w as

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fo r

ju n io r

p u b lic

le g is la tio n

p u b lic

H a r o l d D . R e e s e , ’’L e t ’ s P a c e P a re u t-T e a c h e r, J a n u a ry , 1 9 5 1 ,

ju n io r

fir s t

e s ta b lis h e d

Illin o is .

e n a c te d fo r

S ta te s

ad­

c o lle g e s p r o v id in g

c o l l e g e s . 3^

t h e F a c t s , ” P e n n s y lv a n ia p p .1 0 -1 1

P h e b e W a r d , ’’ D e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e J u n i o r C o l l e g e M o v e ­ m e n t , ” A m e r i c a n J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a tio n . W a s h in g to n , D . C . , 1 9 4 8 , p p . 9 - 1 2

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28

A lm o s t;

0 0 ,0 0 0

1 9 4 9 -1 9 5 0 fo r n ia ; tin e

in

31

f u l l - t i m e 0-1- s t u d e n t s tu itio n -fr e e

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at

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w o u ld

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.P e n n s y lv a n ia

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36 To P . 3 .1 !. A . o f th e m le tte r s . th is

g iv e

some id e e , o f

o ffic ia ls a re

p re s e n te d

T ie

s tu d y ,

c o n ta c te d ,

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w ith o u t a re

in

th e

th in k in g

p o r tio n s

of

id e n tify in g p o s s e s s io n

of

of

som e o f

le tte r s th e th e

th e

fro m

som e

a u th o rs

of

a u th o r

of

a n d m ay h e e x a m in e d u p o n r e q u e s t .

O ne l e t t e r

s ta te s :

................. T h e r e w o u ld h e a d e f i n i t e a d ­ v a n ta g e t o o f f e r i n g t e c h n ic a l and v o c a t io n a l e d u c a t io n , p lu s an a d u lt e d u c a t io n p ro g ra m . T h e l e t t e r h e i n g o f f e r e d b y m an y p u b l i c s c h o o ls a lr e a d y . As f o r th o s e d e s ir in g t h e f i r s t tw o y e a n s o f a n a c c r e d i t e d c o l l e g e c o u r s e , I q u e s tio n t h e a d v i s a b i l i t y , on t h e g ro u n d s o f m a in ta in in g s ta n d a rd s . On t h i s l a t t e r s c o r e m ig h t i t n o t h e m o re p r a c t i c a l f r o m t h e s t a n d p o in t o f econom y r n d e f f i c i e n c y o f i n s t r u c t i o n , t o g r a n t s t a t e s c h o la r s h ip s t o th o s e d e s ir in g p r o f e s s io n a l t r a i n i n g and n o t a b le t o a f f o r d such t r a i n i n g . R a th e r t h a n s p r e a d i n g t h e i n s t r u c t i o n so w i d e l y , s u b s id iz e th e s tu d e n ts . I f e e l t h a t th e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e w o u ld e n c o u r a g e m any " n o t s u ite d " to p re p a re f o r p r o fe s s io n a l tr a in in g . I m a k e my o b s e r v a t i o n s p a r t l y 011 t h e g ro u n d s o f a c o lle g e c e n t e r e s t a b lis h e d h e r e f o r a p e r io d o f one y e a r u n d e r t h e a u s p ic e s o f T h e P e n n s y lv a n ia a t a t e C o lle g e . I t w as t o p r o v id e one y e a r o f c o lle g e tr a in in g . T h e a t te n d a n c e and dem and w as t o o lo w t o w a r r a n t i t s c o n tin u a n c e t h e second y e a r. T h is fo llo w e d b y t h e f a c t t h a t th e s tu d e n ts w e re n o t a c c e p te d by th e c o lle g e i t s e l f f o r a d v a n c e d s tu d y even t h o u g h t h e y r e c e i v e d h i g h r a t i n g i n com­ p a r is o n w ith o th e r such c e n te r s in d ic a t e d t h a t t h e i n s t r u c t i o n l e f t m u ch t o b e d e ­ s ir e d . Y e t , I t h in k I can s a f e l y say t h a t t h e f a c u l t y w o u ld r a n k w e l l w i t h a n y t h a t w o u ld b e e m p lo y e d i n t h e c o m m u n it y C o l l e g e y o u s u g g e s t. I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e som e a r e a s i n t h e s t a t e t h a t c o u ld p r o f i t fr o m s u c h e x ­ t e n s io n o f p u b lic s c h o o l s e r v ic e s as yo u s u g g e s t , b u t how t o i n t r o d u c e l e g i s l a t i o n t h a t c o u ld h e l i m i t e d t o c e r t a i n a r e a s i s q u e s tio n a b le . O ur a r e a h e re i s one t h a t

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

tn e

5? i s f a r fro m c o lle g e s e r v ic e s , y e t , s e r e , m e d em an d i s v e r y s m a l l f o r s e r v i c e s o f t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e . That m ent

o f th e

to w a rd th e

le tte r

seens

c o m m u n ity

in c lu d in g

to

be

at

c o lle g e .

a p ro g ra m

of

in s titu tio n a l

p r o b le m ;

it

e r is ts

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of

p r o v id in g

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fe e s

q u e s tio n

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th e

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a d v a n ta g e s

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to

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s u g g e s tio n m ig h t p r o fe s s io n a l p ro g ra m .

in

its

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of

c o lle g e

c h a rg e s .

U n le s s

fa il

in

to

is

th e

in c lu d e d if

le v e ls

p u b lic

fro m

e n a c te d ,

in

of

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an

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is

tr a in in g

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tr a in in g

th o s e

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c o m m u n ity

hom e

s c h o la r s h ip

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is

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fre e

e n d o rs e ­

r a is e s

s c h o la r s h ip s

o b ta in in g

L e g is la tio n ,

s ta te -w id e

m ay

a ll

sw ay

c o s ts

c o u rs e

at

of

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it

p r e -p r o fe s s io n a l

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fh e

a p a r tia l

1'h e o b j e c t i o n

c o m m u n ity

to d a y .

fh e

le a s t

even th e

a m uch th a n

a re

g e n tle m a n m e a n t g ra n ts ,

h is

whom t h e

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w o u ld m o s t

p re ­

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lik e ly

be

a p p lic a tio n . le tte r

re a d s ,

in

p a rt:

..................... u u e t o t h e l a c k o f f i n a n c e s , i am p o s i t i v e t h a t w e w i l l g e t v e r y l i t t l e s u p p o rt f o r t h i s fo rm o f e d u c a tio n a t th e p r e s e n t tim e , f h e m a jo r p r o b le m i s t o m e e t th e p r e s e n t-d a y c o s ts f o r th e o p e r­ a t i o n o f s c h o o l s , a n d we a r e n o w w o n d e r i n g ho w t h i s c a n b e a c c o m p l i s h e d . fh e re is m u c h im p r o v e m e n t t o b e m a d e i n o u r p r e s e n t e le m e n t a r y an d s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s y s te m s . i f c o lle g e s a re t o be e s t a b lis h e d , th e y s h o u ld b e u n d e r l o c a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and c o n t r o l- d e c e n t r a liz e d r a t h e r th a n c e n tr a liz e d , a e f o r e in v e s t in g fin a n c e s i n such a p la n , I w an t t o b e s u re t h a t th e p re s e n t in s t it u t io n s can n o t m eet

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38

our needs. P e rh a p s th e p r e s e n t c o lle g e s c o u l d p r o v i d e a t w o - y e a r c o u r s e , as ’. v e i l as c o u rs e s m e e tin g s ta n d a r d s f o r a b a c h e lo r s d e g re e . It p u b lic

is

c o m m u n ity

c h a p te r w i l l w ith

hoped t h a t

s ta te

c o lle g e s

d e te r m in e

a s s is ta n c e

u c a tio n a l

p ro g ra m s

c o lle g e .

o n a ll

in

P e n n s y lv a n ia

m e

c a lle d

s a tis fa c to r y ?

je c tiv e s

be

tw o

year

c o lle g e , as now ,

can

at th e

c o u rs e s th e

p re s e n te d or not

a ffo rd

to

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to

to

th e

th e

W hen i s

th e

th e of

a

of in

lo c a l

e x te n d w o rk

of th e

p ro p o s e d a subsequent

d is tr ic ts , tn e ir

or m e

c o m m u n ity e x is tin g

e x te n t

th a t

school

s y s te m

d e c is io n ?

Y/hy

it

ed­

c o m m u n ity c o lle g e s scnool can b e s a tis fa c to r y ?

c an n o t b o th

ob­

sam e t i m e ?

p re s e n t

q u e s tio n

a b a r r ie r fro m

of

e s tim a te

e s t a D iis h m e n t

.u n p r o v e d

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to

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it

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oy o fx e r i n g

s y s te m

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ty p e

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cost to

equal

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th e

fo r

th e

to

e s ta b lis h

c o m m u n ity

s t u d e n t w o u ld

e d u c a tio n a l

le tte r ,

w e re

r e m a in ,

o p p o r tu n ity ,

fo llo w in g :

I do n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t e a c h e r s i n o u r a r e a h a v e t h o u g h t v e r y m uch on t h e p r o b le m o f t h e c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e . 1 b e lie v e th e y a re d e s ir a b le i f th e a re a i s s u f f i c i e n t l y la r g e t o s u p p o rt a s a t is f a c t o r y s tu d e n t p o p u la tio n . 1 b e l i e v e t h a t t h e c o m m u n ity C o l l e g e m ovem ent h a s a r e a l c o n t r i b u t i o n t o m ake i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t o f a c o m p l e t e f r e e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m i n P e n n s y lv a n ia . T h e need i s u rg e n t f o r p r a c t i c a l c o u rs e s f o r men a n d wom en w ho do n o t h a v e t h e o p p o r tu n ity t o a tte n d c o lle g e . The p r e s t ig e o f e a r n in g e i t h e r a c e r t i f i c a t e o r a d ip lo m a f o r h a v in g c o m p le te d c e r t a i n

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

39

c o u rs e s

in

a s e le c te d

fie ld

is

d e s ir a b le .

1 an n o t c e r t a in t h a t I an re a d y t o a d v o c a te p e r m is s iv e l e g i s l a t i o n s o l e l y on a c c o u n t o f t lie p r e s e n t p r o D ie n o r s e c u r in g s u f f i c i e n t fu n d s t o s u p p o r t t r ie e d u c a tio n a l, p ro g ra m now r e q u ir e d by la v ;. L lo s t o f o u r d i s t r i c t s a re n o t a b le , f i n o n c i a l l y , to p r o v id e t h e s e r v ic e s w h ic h we o e l i e v e o u r c h i l d r e n a n d y o u n g p e o p l e s h o u ld h a v e , c o n s e q u e n t l y ± am n o t r e a d y t o e n c o u r a g e one e x t e n s i o n o f t r i e s c h o o l p r o g r a m u n t i l t h e p r e s e n t a c c e p te d p ro g ra m i s s u p p o rte d a d e qua t e l y . i t i s my b e l i e f t h a t t h e n e e d f o r m a s s en d g r o u p e d u c a t i o n d o e s n o t e n d a t th e end o f th e t w e l f t h g r a d e . T h e com­ m u n i t y , t o g e t h e r w i t h e m p l o y e r s , h a s an o b lig a t io n to t r a i n a d u lts f o r e f f i c i e n t and r e s p o n s iD le l i v i n g . H e re t im e , not

be

a g a in

h o w e v e r,

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................... . 1 f a v o r a c o m m u n it y c o l l e g e a n d w h en a . i t can b e f in a n c e d w it h o u t s a c r i ­ f i c i n g t h e a lr e a d y * e x i s t i n g s c h o o l p ro g ra m . b . i t b e an o u t g r o w th o f t h e f e l t n e e d s o f t h e c o m m u n it y r a t h e r t h a n a m a n d a te d c o l l e g e b y t h e s t a t e . In r e fe r e n c e t o th e b e n e fits o f p u b lic e d u c a tio n tn r o u g n m e e s t a b lis h m e n t o r p u D ± i c s u p p o rte d c o lle g e s , I b e l i e v e t h a t t h e b e n e f i t s s t r e s s e d s h o u ld b e on t h e b o y s and g i r l s r a t h e r th a n th e p u b lic s c h o o l s y s t e m , a n a i f a n d w h e n a c o m m u n ity f e e l s

if

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40

■fellat t h e e l i i l d r e n w i t h i n t h a t c o m m u n ity need, w h a t a c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e c a n g i v e , t h e n I am. i n f a v o r o f i t . T h o s e o f us w ho a r e w o r k i n g a c t i v e l y i n t h e f i e l d know1 t h a t o u r g r e a t d i f f i c u l t y a t p r e s e n t i s b e in g a b le t o f in a n c e an d m a in t a in t h e g a i n s a l r e a d y m ade i n t e a c h e r s * s a l a r i e s a n d a n y m o v e m e n t t h a t w o u ld t e n d t o b r e a k dow n w h a t h a s a l r e a d y b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d w o u ld b e l o o k e d u p o n w ith i l l f a v o r . A p p r o p r ia te ■ W illia m of

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fro m O ffic e

h d u c a tio n : In v i r t u a l l y e v e ry s t a t e a num ber o f c o m m u n it ie s h a v e c o n d u c t e d p r e l i m i n a r y s tu d ie s and s u rv e y s in t h e h o p e o f b e in g a b le u l t i m a t e l y t o e x te n d th e p ro g ra m o f t h e p u b li c s c h o o l s y s te m . A la n s f o r th e d e v e lo p m e n t o f c o m m u n i t y - c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n h a v e been s u b m it t e d t o t h e s u p e r in t e n d e n t s o f s c h o o ls amd t h e b o a r d s o f e d u c a t i o n . I f t h e n ew p r o j e c t s c o u ld b e f in a n c e d w ith o u t d i s s i p a t in g p r e s e n t s u p p o rt f o r e le m e n ta r y and s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls , t h e r e w o u ld b e s l i g h t h e s i t a n c y a b o u t l a u n c h i n g th e m . T h e common s e n s e a p p r o a c h h a s b e e n f o l l o w e d o f g i v i n g p r i o r i t y t o t h e m uch n e e d e d im p r o v e m e n t a n d f u r t h e r d e v e l o p ­ m ent o f p ro g ra m s and f a c i l i t i e s f o r c h i l ­ d re n in g ra d e s 1 - 1 2 . S in c e i t i s u n l i k e l y , h o w e v e r, t h a t e le m e n ta r y and s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls w i l l e v e r a t t a i n t h e p e r f e c t i o n we d e s i r e f o r t h e m , a r e we j u s t i f i e d i n d e ­ l a y i n g i n d e f i n i t e l y t h e e x p a n s io n o f h ig h e r - e d u c a tio n a l o p p o r t u n it ie s a t th e c o m m u n ity l e v e l ? C o u ld n ’ t a b e g in n in g b e m ade now? Why n o t a " P o i n t I V " p l a n f o r o u r s e lv e s ? We c a n s u p p o r t a n y t h i n g I n A m e r i c a t h a t we w a n t b a d ly e n o u g h . We c a n a f f o r d fa n c y f i l l i n g s t a t io n s an d fa n c y s u p e r m a rk e ts . T h e s u p p o r t f o r t h e m com es o u t o f p o c k e t - b o o k s o f t h e s a m e p e o p l e w ho p a y f o r o u r s c h o o ls . I s i t m o re im p o r t a n t to have a p l a s t ic - t il e d , a c o u s tic a lly t r e a t e d , f l o u r e s c e n t - l i g h t e d , c h r o m iu m p la t e d , and b e a u t i f u l l y m ir r o r e d p a la c e

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

41

i n w h ic h t o "buy a c a s e o f b e a n s t h a n i t i s t o h ave a f u l l ra n ^ e o f c o n tin u in g e d u c a t i o n a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r t h e p e o p le i n t h e c o m m u n ity ? The answ er w i l l be a p p a r e n t i n t h e d e v e lo p m e n t s o f t h e n e x t fe w y e a r s . An in v e s t m e n t i n p e o p le i s g o o d f o r b u s in e s s . A m e r i c a n s s e ld o m p a s s by such o p p o r tu n it ie s f o r v e r y lo n g . It i s n o t to o e a r ly to ta k e a h an d in f a s h io n in g t h e p a t t e r n s o f h ig h e r e d u c a tip n t h a t a r e e m e r g in g a t t h e c o m m u n it y l e v e l . 0 A p o r tio n

of

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........................I t h i n k t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t e d C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e s i n P e n n s y l v a n i a w o u ld n o t b e n e f i t o u r p u b l i c e d u c a t io n a l s y s te m . I am n o t i n f a v o r o f e s t a b l i s h i n g o t h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s w hen t h e r e a r e a v a i l a b l e v o c a t i o n a l p r o g r a m s t o w h ic h y o u th i s e n t i t l e d u n d e r th e p r e s e n t la w . I b e lie v e t h a t i f a yo u n g p e rs o n d e s ir e s a c o l l e g e e d u c a t io n s u f f i c i e n t l y , t h e y can and w i l l o b ta in o n e . ...........................I do n o t re c o m m e n d t h a t t h e r . S . E . A . p ro m o te p e r m is s iv e l e g i s l a t i o n t o add t h e 1 5 th and 1 4 th g ra d e s t o o u r s c h o o l s y s te m s . I n f a c t , as a m e m b e r o f t h e E x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l , I w o u ld a c t i v e l y o p p o s e s u c h a s u g g e s tio n . I do n o t w i s h t o b e r e g a r d e d a s h o s t i l e b u t I do b e l i e v e t h e r e i s a l i m i t b e y o n d w h ic h we s h o u l d n o t e x ­ p e c t th e p u b lic to g o . liy c h i l d r e n w i l l h a v e t o f i n d t h e i r h ig h e r e d u c a tio n a t a s a c r if ic e , b u t I b e lie v e t h a t th e y w a ll a p p r e c ia t e i t m o re i f t h i s i s t h e c a s e . C h ild r e n m ust le a r n t h a t th e y c a n n o t ex­ p e c t e v e r y t h i n g t h e y m ay d e s i r e . c o n c e r n in g in

P e n n s y lv a n ia ,

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' w i l l i a m R . V /o o d , " E m e r g in g P a t t e r n s - o f h i g h e r E d u c a t i o n a t t h e c o m m u n ity L e v e l , " a n a d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d b e f o r e - u -ro u p 20 o f t h e s i x t h a n n u a l N a t i o n a l C o n fe r e n c e on h i g h e r E d ­ u c a t i o n , (m im e o g r a p h e d ). C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , A p r i l 2 , 1 9 5 1 p. 5

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

42

S ta te is

o il a m b e r o f

in d ic a te d ,

in

C o m m e rc e p r e s e n t s tlie

r o lio v d .n ^

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D u r i n g t l i e s c h o o l y e a r 1 3 4 4 —4 5 , a p p r o x i ­ m a t e ly 1 3 0 ,0 0 0 p u p il s i n g r a d e s 3 - 1 2 i n P e n n s y lv a n ia s e c o n d a ry s c iio o ls w e re i n s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h ic h d i d n o t o f f e r a n y ty p e o f v o c a tio n a l t r a in in g . T h is g ro u p r e p r e s e n t e d 34/3 o f t h e t o t a l e n r o l l m e n t in g ra d e s 3 - 1 2 . . . . 4 L ith p e rs o n

w ho

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T h e o l d , c o m fo r ta b le i d e a t h a t " a n y b o y c a n g e t a. c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n w ho h a s i t i n h im ” s im p ly i s n o t t r u e . Low f a m ily in c o m e , t o g e t h e r w it h t h e r i s i n g c o s ts o f e d u c a t io n , c o n s t i t u t e s an a lm o s t im p a s s a b le b a r r i e r t o c o l l e g e e d u c a t io n f o r m any y o u n g p e o p le . P o r som e, i n f a c t , t h e b a r r i e r i s r a i s e d so e a r l y i n l i f e t h a t i t p r e v e n t s th e m fr o m a t t e n d i n g h ig h s c h o o l e v e n w hen f r e e p u b l i c h ig h s c h o o ls e x i s t n e a r t h e i r hom es. ^ by w ho w r o t e lim it g ra d e .

in fe r e n c e , th e

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P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C h a m b e r o f C o m m e rc e , V o c a t i o n a l E d ­ u c a t io n i n P e n n s y lv a n ia , T h e O v e r - A ll P i c t u r e . H a r r is b u r g , Penn a . O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 -6 , p . 9 E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e G o a ls , H ig h e r E d u c a t io n f o r A m e r ic a n D e m o c r a c y , A P e p o r t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s C o m m is s io n on H ig h e r E d u c a tio n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . G . , 1 9 4 7 , V o lu m e I , p . 2 3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

43

•w o u ld r e s e n t td ro u th

th e

if

p e n n s y Iv a n i e v /e r e

I4 tn

g ra d e .

K a rl E.

to

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p u b lic

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re p o rts :

I 'h e b e s t m e a s u r e o f a s t a t e Ts e f f o r t to s u p p o r t i t s p u b l i c s c h o o ls i s t h e p e r c e n t w h ic h t o t a l c u r r e n t s c h o o l e x p e n d i­ t u r e s fr o ia s t a t e an d l o c a l s o u rc e s i n any y e a r i s o f t o t a l a v e r a g e in c o m e i n t h e s t a t e d u r in g t h e p r e c e d in g f i v e - y e a r p e r io d . I f v/e m e a s u r e P e n n s y l v a n i a ’ s e f f o r t on t h i s b a s is i n t h e y e a r 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 8 , we f i n d i t r a n k in g i n t h e lo w e s t q u a r t i l e o f t h e s t a t e s w i t h an e x p e n d i t u r e f o r s c h o o l s o f l e s s t h a n 2 p e r c e n t ( 1 .9 5 > a ) o f i t s a v e r a g e in c o m e p a y m e n t s d u r i n g th e f i v e y e a r p e r io d 1 9 4 4 th ro u g h 1 9 4 8 . f h i r t y - e i g h t o f th e f o r t y - e i g h t s ta te s m ade a g r e a t e r e f f o r t t o s u p p o rt t h e i r p u b l i c s c h o o ls i n 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 3 t h a n P e n n ­ s y lv a n ia . ^ To th e

p u b lic

u c a tio n , o th e r

has

fo r

fu rth e r

re a c h e d

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s ta te s

re v e n u e s to

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th e

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lim it

r a tin g

in d iv id u a ls

fo r

s c h o o ls th e

in

th a t

w hat

a re

of

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am ong t h e s ta te

in c o m e In

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th e

and lo c a l p a y m e n ts

year

1949-

7

1950

P e n n s y lv a n ia

ra n k e d

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fo r tie th

o ffic ia l,

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6

K a r l r i. B e r n s , A s s is t a n t S e c r e t a r y f o r B u s in e s s , N a t i o n a l E d u c a t i o n A s s o c i a t i o n , f r o m a n a d d r e s s a t b a n q u e t o f 'V e s t e r n C o n v e n tio n D i s t r i c t o f P . S . E . A . , J a n u a r y 2 7 , 1 9 5 1 . E d u e a t i on B u l l e t i n . P e n n s y lv a n ia S t a t e E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n , f e b r u a r y 5 , 1951

7

U .S . O f f i c e o f E d u c a t io n , P u b li c S c h o o l F in a n c e P ro g ra m s o f th e B o r t y - e ig h t S t a t e s , C ir c u la r k o . 2 7 4 , U n ite d S ta te s G o v e rn m e n t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , U a s h in g to n , D . C . , 1 9 5 0

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

44

i n c l u d e l c t h a i u 1 4 t h g re .C e w o u l d b e b e n e fic ia l, i f th a t ex­ te n s io n w e re l e g i s l a t i v e l y r e s t r i c t e d t o d i s t r i c t s h a v in g a r e a s o n a b le m in i­ mum e n r o l l m e n t i n t h e s e n i o r h i g h s c h o o l . f n th e l i ^ h t o f th e h e a v y b u rd e n o u r l e g i s l a t i v e U orn m i'C tee m u s t c a r r y i n t h e 1 9 5 1 s e s s io n j u s t t o s e c u r e t h e i n ­ c re a s e in s t a t e a p p r o p r ia tio n t o ade­ q u a t e ly s u p p o r t th e l o c a l s a l a r y s c h e d u le , I f e e l t h a t i t w o u ld b e i n a d v i s a b l e t o p u t on an a l l - o u t e f f o r t t o s e c u r e t h e e n a c t m e n t o f e v e n p e r m i s s i v e c o m m u n it y c o lle g e le g i s la t i o n , n o w e v e r , s u c h an id e a i s one t h a t n e e d s t o b e s o ld t o a G e n e r a l A s s e m b ly o v e r a p e r i o d o f s e v e r a l s e s s io n s , j u s t as we h a d t o s t a r t s e llin g e q u a liz a tio n in 1959 and r e a l iz e i t in 1 9 4 5 . I w o u ld , t h e r e ­ f o r e , s u g g e s t t h a t i t w o u ld b e q u i t e i n o r d e r f o r o u r a s s o c ia tio n t o s p o n so r s u c h a b i l l i n t h e n e x t s e s s io n o f t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b ly w i t h a v i e w t o p o s s i b l e e n a c tm e n t in t h e 1 9 5 5 s e s s io n . 'T h e p o r t i o n s show how th e

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th e re

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45

TABL3 I R LTO R LS l-’ROi.I LiSTTISRS AND q U L 5 f I0 1 ; R A IR L 8 P A R R W T -IL A O K L R A S S O C IA T IO N S AMD L IO N S

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47

P e n n s y lv a n ia . i*‘o r t u i t i o n - f r e e , m a te r ia liz e s a ry

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48

wJUj ISTXOKR A IR E

S IL T

TO PRESxDEL .T S OP P A R E D T -T S A C U 3 R

A S S O C IA T IO N S AND L IO N S

D ir e c tio n s : re s p o n s e in

P le a s e p la c e a th e fo llo w in g :

c ir c le

CLUBS

a ro u n d

th e

a p p r o p r ia te

(1 ) h a s y o u r own l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i ­ b i l i t y o f e x t e n d in g y o u r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m t o i n c l u d e th e 1 0 th and 1 4 t h g ra d e s ? A n s w e r: Yes No (2 ) Do y o u t h i n k t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s l a t u r e s h o u l d e n a c t p e r m is s iv e l e g i s l a t i o n t o e n a b le th o s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h ic h so d e s i r e t o e x t e n d p u b l i c e d u c a t io n t h r o u g h t h e 1 4 t h g ra d e ? A n s w e r: Yes No (0 ) h o u l d y o u s a y t h a t t h e m e m b e rs o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n i ­ z a tio n a re ( g r e a t l y , m o d e r a te ly , o r n o t a t a l l ) in fa v o r o f e x t e n d in g t h e p u b li c s c h o o ls th r o u g h t h e 1 4 t h g ra d e ? (4 ) w o u ld y o u s a y t h a t t h e m e m b e rs o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n i ­ z a tio n a re ( g r e a t l y , m o d e r a te ly , o r n o t a t a l l ) in fa v o r o f h a v in g o u r s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e e n a c t th e p e r m is s iv e l e g i s ­ l a t i o n w h i c n i s m e n t i o n e d i n q u e s t i o n 2? (5 ) V/as t h i s l e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n iz a t i o n f o r t h e f i r s t tim e t h i s m a t t e r o f e x t e n d in g y o u r p u b l i c s c h o o ls t o in c lu d e t h e l d t h an a 1 4 th g ra d e s ? A n s w e r: Yes No (6 ) I f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n iz a t i o n h a s n o t d is c u s s e d th e s e p o i n t s , i . e . , e x t e n d i n g t h e x o u b lic s c h o o l s y s t e m a n d p e r ­ m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , w o u ld y o u b e w i l l i n g t o p r e s e n t t h e m a s d i s c u s s io n t o p i c s f o r s u b s e q u e n t m e e tin g s ? A n s w e r: Yes No (7 ) Do y o u d e s i r e t h a t I s e n d y o u a l i s t o f b o o k s s u b j e c t o f p u b l i c s u p p o r t e d c o m m u n it y C o l l e g e s ? A n s w e r:

Yes

on t h e

No

S ig n e d A d d re s s

P o s itio n

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49

TABLE I I B lIA IA R Y 01’ Oul-.II-JIJITY COLLEGE OjUESTlONNAlRE SENT TO P A H LuT-TE A O LLB A S S O C IA TIO N S AND L IO N S CLUBS

q u e s tio n

Type o f R e p ly

1. P r e v io u s ly Yes D is c u s s e d . No By G ro u p 2. P r e s iu e n t Y"es No i'a v o r P e r m is s iv e L e g is la tio n Cj • G ro u p f a v o r s G r e a t l y E x te n s io n o f m o d e r a te ly E d u c a tio n Not a t a ll 4* G ro u p f a v o r s G r e a t l y m o d e r a te ly P e r m is s iv e iMo t a t a l l L e g is la tio n 5. D id T h is Yes L e t t e r In tr o -Iio d u c e S u b je c t? 6. W illin g to Yes No D is c u s s L a te r 7. Yes D e s ir e Wo L is t o f

T o t a l R e p lie s N o.

P .T .A . No .

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11 70

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6 44

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61 13

82 18

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37 9

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13 70 17

6 24 8

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10 42 9

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2 17 3

9 77 14

8 25 6

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80 16

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22 7

76 24

38 9

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54 14

79 21

21 3

33 12

33 11

75 25

48 £6

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50 If in

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■tiie

q u e s tio n n a ir e s .

b u te d

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W h i l e o u r m e m o e rs l o o ] ; f a v o r a b l y on y o u r s u g g e s tio n s i t a p p e a r s t o us t h a t la o r e e r a p h a s is s h o u l d b e p l a c e d on im p r o v in g s c h o o ls t h r o u g h g r a d e s 1 - 1 2 . I n o u r c a s e a n d a s i t w o u ld seem t o b e in o th e r lo c a lit ie s o u r s iz e , p r iv a te s c h o o ls ( p a r o c h i a l and s e c u la r ) a r e r a t e d h ig h e r w ith c o lle g e s th a n th e p u b l i c s c h o o ls . A n o th e r not to .

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T h e P u b l i c S c h o o l s y s te m i n o u r to w n a t t h e p r e s e n t w o u ld b e u n a b l e t o h a n d l e any p la n o f t h i s t y p e . We do n o t h a v e th e f a c i l i t i e s f o r i t and w i l l n o t h av e f o r som e t i m e t o com e d u e t o t h e s i z e o f c la s s e s i n g r a d e s c h o o ls a t p r e s e n t t im e and t h e i r e x p e c te d e n r o lm e n t i n t h e s e c o n d a ry s y s te m . T h e r e fo r e th e c ro s s s e c tio n o f o p i n i o n am ong m e m b e rs i s i n t h e n e g a t i v e d u e t o t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h p l a n w o u ld r a is e ta x e s . W h ic h i s t h e o n l y w a y t h a t s u c h a p la n c o u ld b e p u t i n t o p r a c tic e lo c a lly . w ro te

a n o th e r:

I , p e r s o n a l l y , am a g r e a t b e l i e v e r in e d u c a tio n -q u a lity , n o t q u a n tity . T h e re i s so m uch t h a t n e e d s t o b e done i n t h e p re s e n t s e t-u p h e r e , l o c a l ly , t h a t p .g . w o r k w o u ld b e l a s t i n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e h a s n o t b e e n enough p r e r e q u is it e f o r i t .

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I do b e l i e v e , h o w e v e r , t h a t e v e r y e f f o r t s h o u l d b e m a d e t o b e t t e r o u r ’’ s m a l l t o w n ” s c h o o ls f i r s t . T h e n , w hen e v e r y e f f o r t h a s b e e n exp en d ed t o t h e b e s t p o s s ib le a d v a n t a g e , t h e n e n d o n l y t h e n w o u ld I b e i n f a v o r o f f u r t h e r e d u c a t io n as p u t f o r th in y o u r l e t t e r . T h is i s p u r e ly a p e rs o n a l o p in io n . O ne L io n s

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e s te d

o n e J -.io n s

q u e s te d has

p r e s id e n t

a n o th e r m em ber o f

a D o c to r o f P h ilo s o p h y

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th e L io n s

p a rt):

We s t r o n g l y o p p o s e y o u r s u g g e s t i o n f o r m any r e a s o n s , t h e p r i n c i p a l o n e s b e in g t h e f o llo w in g : (1) The p re s e n t school f a c i l i t i e s c a n n o t a c c o m m o d a te a n e x t e n s i o n o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l te r m fro m f o u r t o s ix y e a r s . The p re s e n t p u b lic sc h o o l p la n t is h e a v ily o v e r lo a d e d . T h e re a re 1 ,4 0 0 ,0 0 0 m o re s t u d e n ts i n p u b l i c and p r i v a t e s c h o o l s i n P e n n s y l v a n i a i n 1 9 50 t h a n i n 1 9 4 0 and i t i s e s tim a te d t h a t th e i n ­ c re a s e in th e n e x t decade w i l l be even la r g e r . I n s p it e o f t h is g r e a t in c r e a s e i n h ig h s c h o o l a tte n d a n c e , t h e r e h a s b e e n no a p p r e c ia b le P u b lic S c h o o l B u ild in g c o n s t r u c t io n i n P e n n s y lv a n ia s in c e 19 3 0 . (2 ) The P e n n s y lv a n ia s t a t e t a x s t r u c t u r e c a n n o t f in a n c e th e b u ild in g p ro g ra m w h ic h t h e a d o p t io n o f y o u r s u g g e s t i o n w o u ld r e q u i r e . The school t a x e s a r e now a t o r n e a r t h e l e g a l l i m i t and a d d it io n a l s o u rc e s o f re v e n u e a re n o t in s ig h t. (3 ) S c h o o l c o s ts h a v e s k y r o c k e te d in re c e n t y e a rs . I n o n e c o u n ty i n V i/e s te r n P e n n s y l v a n i a t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l e x p e n d i t u r e s i n 1 9 4 9 - 1 9 5 0 w e r e 1255V o v e r th o s e in 1 9 4 1 . The a v e ra g e p u b lic s c h o o l e x p e n d itu r e p e r p u p il i n t h e U .S . h a s g o n e u p f r o m ^ 4 8 i n 1 9 20 t o ^ 1 3 2 i n 1 9 4 7 , a n i n c r e a s e o f 1 7 5 56. I n P e n n s y l­ v a n i a s t a t e s u b s i d i e s a r e as l a r g e a s 5 0 70 i n m a n y c a s e s . I t i s q u e s tio n a b le t h a t t h e r e h a s b e e n a c o m m e n s u r a te im ­ p ro v e m e n t i n t h e q u a li t y o f i n s t r u c t i o n . (4 ) R e a l i s t i c r e c o n s id e r a tio n s o f t h e h ig h s c h o o l c u r r ic u lu m s and t h e i r

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C>4r

" t e a c h in g s e e n "to u s h o b e s o r e f r u i t f u l f i e l d s f o r im p r o v e m e n t. T h e r e m ay b e s o re m e r it t o th e f a i r l y c o m o n th o u g h t m a r s h e s a b je c u n a t t e r now c o v e re d i n I o a r y e a r s c o u lc . De n a u g h t m as l i t t l e a s t'.vo y e a r s i f s h e t e a c h e r s e n d s h e p u p i l s r e a l l y a p p lie d , t h e m s e lv e s . It h a s b e e n d o n e b y i n d i v i d u a l s i n as lit t le as e i g h t e e n n o r t h s . (5 ) The p re s e n t d ta te T e a c h e rs C o lle g e s o re e s s e n t i a l l y a s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l e x te n s io n a t t a x p a y e r s e x p e n s e . T h e s t u d e n t s ’ p a y m e n ts c o v e r r o u g h ly o n l y ro o m a n d b o a r d . ( 6) I f a n y e x te n s io n o f s h e s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s y s te m , s h o u l d b e d e d i r a b l e (w h ic h i s a t l e a s t d e b a t a b le ) i t i s o u r o p in io n t h a t a s e le c t iv e s c h o l a r s h i p s y s t e m , b a s e d o n dem on­ s t r a t e d a b i l i t y and r e a l f in a n c i a l n e e d w o u ld b e p r e f e r a b l e an d a d e q u a t e f o r th e p u rp o s e . If b u ild in g it

P e n n s y lv a n ia

fa c ilitie s

fo r

not

in

o rd e r to

s h o u ld

be

c o n s tru c te d ?

w h ic h

is

w o u ld ,

fo r

over

th e

th e

la g g e d

in

its

p u b lic

s c h o o ls

suggest

and

tw o

in

p o s itio n

a m o re

fa v o r a b le

d e m o c r a tiz in g

h ig h e r

C h a p te r V I , as w e l l

as

fu rth e r

e x a m in e s

a re

a b le

e d u c a tio n

to

fin a n c e

u p w a rd

to

at

th e

school

any

p la n

g ra d e s ?

am ong s t a t e s

b u ild in g s

school to

is

d is tr ic t

in c lu d e

Such f o r e s ig h t

save th e

sam e t i m e

19 2 0 ,

ta x p a y e rs

p la c e

of

P e n n s y lv a n ia

w h ic h

a re

fu rth e r

e d u c a tio n . w h ic h

in s tr u c tio n th e

to d a y ,

decades,

and

not

s u ffic ie n t

s in c e

p u b lic

s h o u ld

1 4 th

P e n n s y lv a n ia m oney,

p r o v id in g

m o re

b u ild in g

1 3 th

next

th a t

Then,

c o n te m u la tin g

fa c ilitie s

has

e s tim a te s

p e r ta in in g

is s u e s b u ild in g in c lu d e

as

to

c o s ts th e

c o s ts

to

of

c o n s tr u c tio n

c o m m u n ity

c o lle g e s ,

w h e th e r l o c a l to

1 3 th

e x te n d and 1 4 th

d is tr ic ts

th e ir

p u b lic

g ra d e s .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

55 m an y o f

th e

e x is tin g

p u b lic

U n ite d

S ta te s

a re

p u b lic

school

fa c ilitie s

in

P e n n s y lv a n ia

b u ild in g s th o s e

in

th e

o v e rh e a d

to

is

tru e

re c e n t y e a rs

to

th e ir

p r o v id e

to

in

th e

p re s e n t

Som e d i s t r i c t s a d d itio n a l

c o m m u n ity

d e s ir e cost

of

d is tr ic t.

e s ta b lis h

th a t

as w as

under

th e

sam e k i n d

th e ir

w ay

c le a r

to

d is tr ic ts

w h ic h

have

c o m m u n ity

c o lle g e s .

If

in c r e a s e s

c o lle g e s .

e s ta b lis h

If

c o m m u n ity

w o u ld b e m a i n l y

ju s tifie d ;

fo r

have

in

th a t

fo r

fin a n c ia l

p u b lic

fo u rth

c e r ta in

H o w e v e r,

re a s o n

in

as

s c h o o ls

m ost p r o fe s s io n a l le s s

th e y

a re

h e lp

s tu d e n ts

le m s

in

liv in g

is

an

e d u c a to rs

or

th e

of

above

a tim e th a n

of

tra d e rs a

e d u c a tio n

now r e g a r d

as

poor

th e y

le a r n

con­ w h ic n

in d e e d ,

le a r n in g s end

is

as

in fo r m a tio n ,

o th e r

or

o b je c tiv e

c a p a b le

m o re

seen

o f th e ir

of

fa c ts

e a r n in g

a re

s ta te s ,

c o lle g e s

th e

g iv e n

s h o rt a re

th o s e

is

How­

have

o u tc o m e

a c c o m p a n ie d b y m any a p p ly

to

m a tte r

To becom e a s t o r e h o u s e d a ta ,

O th e r

ju n io r

in d iv id u a ls

s u b je c t m a t t e r

fa c tu a l

w id e .

a id

g r e a tly

o b je c tio n .

as P e n n s y lv a n ia ,

s u b je c t

th e

in c r e a s e d

th ir d

n a tio n

in tr o d u c e d

of

have

th e

been

p r o v id e

p e rh a p s

m o n th s .

fa c ts .

s ta te d

c o s ts

o f h a n d ic a p

p e rh a p s

l e a r n i n g ” th e e ig h te e n

school

a c q u is itio n

e d u c a tio n ,

ta in e r

th e

have

a d d itio n a l

th o s e

of

in

have th e

e v e r,

of

or p a rt

c o lle g e s

and i n s t r u c t i o n . It

in

a ll

w o u ld n o t

o rd e r

d is tr ic ts

c o lle g e s ,

u s in g

c o m m u n ity

s o lv e

un­

w h ic h p ro b ­

a liv in g .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

56

w ith of

re fe re n c e

s c h o la r s h ip s

e ith e r fo r

p r e fe r a b le

a 1 5 th

and

n e c e s s a r ily w ith

under

tn e

or

m e m b e rs

s c h o la r s h ip

The

of

th re e

d is tr ic ts school

of

of

th e

of

h ig h

w o rk

p u rp o s e .

u s u a lly

not

oe

The need

e d u c a tio n

c o m p le te d

a re

and

a n a ly z e d

d e p a rtm e n ts S ta te

is

not

a s s o c ia te d

and in

re tu rn e d th is

an d

cy

c h a p te r.

d is tr ic t

re p ­

E d u c a tio n A s s o c ia t io n ,

P a r e n t- T e a c h e r A s s o c ia tio n s

s c h o o ls

P e n n s y lv a n ia

P r e s id e n ts

school

s tu d y

c o s ts

in

a fe w

It

of

r e p lie s

second fro m

c la s s

th ir d

school

c la s s

w ho h a v e

and 1 4 th

of

on t h e

e v id e n c e

p u b lic

g iv e s

in

second

end

o f P e n n s y lv a n ia .

a c c o m p a n ie d m an y

p ro p o s e d

a ls o

u lu b s

in d ic a te d

show s f u r t h e r

p o s s ib ility

1 3 th

o f L io n s

d is tr ic ts

w h ic h

of

P e n n s y lv a n ia n s th e

th e

P e n n s y lv a n ia

s e n io r

le tte r s

s y lv a n ia .

to

th e

P r e s id e n ts

q u e s tio n n a ir e s m a tin g

o r g a n iz a tio n s

P r e s id e n ts

and

g r a n tin g

c o n c e p t.

1.

c la s s

of

a c a d e m ic

th e

P e n n s y lv a n ia m ig h t

p u b lic

a re :

of

s ta te n e n t,

d is tr ic ts .

A and

of

a u rv e y e d

5. th ir d

year

in fo r

g ro u p s

2. ju n io r

p la n

Q u e s tio n n a ir e s

th re e

r e s e n ta tiv e s

of

s ix th

a d e q u a te

p r o v id e

S u m m a ry

th e

any

a 1 4 th

to

to

of

th e

re tu rn e d

of

th e

need fo r

c o m m u n ity

som e i n d i c a t i o n a lr e a d y

e x te n d in g

g iv e n p u b lic

q u e s tio n n a ir e s

c o lle g e s of

th e

Penn­

num ber o f

c o n s id e r a b le e d u c a tio n

in

e s ti­

to

g ra d e s .

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

th o u g h t in c lu d e

CHAPTER I I I A SURVEY OE T H E L IT E R A T U R E

A num ber o f have

been

d u r in g a ll

c o m p le te d

th e

past

phases

o th e rs

s u rv e y s

of

w ith

in

te n

th e

o n ly

fe lt The

th e y

p r o b le m lim ite d

1 3 th

m a in ly

g e n e ra l

of

w ith

v id in g fro m

of

th e

th e in

p u b lic

a p a tte rn a lr e a d y

w as p r i m a r i l y

w ith

e d u c a tio n ; S tu d ie s

because

s tu d ie s

th is

S ta te s

d e a lt

p r o b le m .

in

it

th e

c h a p te r

and l e g i s la t i o n

p r o v id in g

e d u c a tio n

U n ite d

school

in c lu s io n

of

s tu d ie s

th e

th e m h a v e

T h e W r ig h t . J u n io r

u h ic a g o B o a rd

th a t

fo r

school

w as fie ld .

c o n c e rn s

as th e y

r e la te

e d u c a tio n

in

to

th e

g ra d e s .

A. 19 34 th e

of

of

p o s t-h ig h

a s p e c ts

c o s ts

p r o b le m

and 1 4 th

of

chosen

th e

p a rts

Some o f

r e p r e s e n ta tiv e

p r e s e n ta tio n

its e lf th e

w e re

p o s t-h ig h

v a r io u s

y e a rs .

s u m m a r iz e d h e r e w e r e

of

of

of

E d u c a tio n

p > o s t - h ig h

b e in g

saw t h e

school

p r o v id e d .

Mp r e - p r o f e s s i o n a l ” i n

C o lle g e

S tu d y

need

e d u c a tio n

The

e x is tin g

fo r

As p ro ­

d iffe r e n t p ro g ra m

c h a ra c te r.

T h e e c o n o m ic a n d s o c i a l c o n d i t i o n s o f t h e e a r l y y e a r s o f t h e l a s t d e c a d e m ade i t c l e a r t h a t a p ro g ra m o f p u b li c e d u c a tio n e x te n d in g u p w a rd b e y o n d t h e h ig h s c h o o l l e v e l f o r a l l w h o w is h e d t o c o n t i n u e i n s c h o o l w as a s o c i a l n e c e s s it y . T h e la b o r m a r k e t, a t te m p tin g t o a b s o rb m i l l i o n s o f u n e m p lo y e d , c o u l d n o t h a n d l e t h e y o u t h g r a d u a t in g fro m h ig h s c h o o ls . T h e u p w a rd e x t e n s io n o f p u b l i c e d u c a t io n , w h ic h h a d b e e n l o o k e d u p o n as d e s i r a b l e f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v ie w o f t h e e d u c a to r , becam e n e c e s s a ry . The p u b lic ju n io r c o lle g e w as one o f th e ty p e s o f i n s t i t u t i o n s

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

e a r ly

a

" tila t e x p a n d e d r a p i d l y t h r o u g h o u t c o u n try to m eet t h i s n e e d . 1

B. act

of

d u c te d

th e by

T he Id a h o 1945 th e

G e o rg e P e a b o d y th is e ig h t

s tu d y

to

D iv is io n C o lle g e

w as m ade

s ta te s .

c o m p e te n c e

s e s s io n

in

s c h o o l la w

of of

s ta ff

in

v a r io u s

of

.L e g is la tu r e

tw e lv e

of

th e

A u th o riz e d and

S e r v ic e s

.N a s h v ille ,

s e le c te d

phases

S u rv e y ^

and F ie ld

T e a c h e rs ,

T h e s e m en w e r e th e

Id a h o

S u rv e y s

fo r

by a

th e

E d u c a tio n

th e

th e ir

s u rv e y .

of

Tennessee,

e d u c a to rs

fo r

con­

fro m

s p e c ia l A c c o r d in g

Id a h o :

J u n i o r c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s m ay b e o r g a n iz e d fro m t h e t e r r i t o r y c o m p r is in g o n e o r m o re s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o r one o r m o re c o u n tie s t h a t h a v e an a g g re g a te h ig h s c h o o l e n r o llm e n t o f n o t le s s th a n BOO s t u d e n t s a n d p r o p e r t y v a l u a t i o n o f n o t l e s s t h a n -plO , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 .................... I n a d d itio n to a t u i t i o n c h a rg e , ju n io r c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s m ay l e v y a t a x n o t t o e x c e e d 2 m i l l s on t h e a s s e s s e d v a l u ­ a t io n f o r c u r r e n t s u p p o rt and £ m i l l f o r c a r e a n d m a i n t e n a n c e o f g y m n a s iu m and s c h o o l g ro u n d s . T h ey r e c e iv e h a l f o f th e liq u o r re v e n u e t h a t i s a llo c a t e d t o t h e c o u n ty i n w h ic h t h e y a r e l o c a t e d . Th ey a r e g o v e rn e d by a b o a rd o f t r u s ­ t e e s o f f i v e m e m b e rs e l e c t e d b y t h e p e o p le o f t h e d i s t r i c t f o r a t h r e e - y e a r t e r m ..........................

M a x . D . jin g le d .a r t, T h e W r ig h t J u n io r c o lle g e S tu d y o f T e r m in a l G e n e r a l E d u c a t io n , b y t h e E v a l u a t i o n c o m m itte e W r ig h t J u n i o r C o ll e g e , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , 1 9 4 4 , p . l

of

J o h n E . B r e w to n , D i r e c t o r o f S u r v e y , P u b lic E d u c a tio n in I d a h o , A R e p o r t o f t h e Id a h o E d u c a t io n S u r v e y c o m m is s io n . D i v i s i o n o f F i e l d S e r v ic e s , G e o rg e P e a b o d y C o lle g e f o r T e a c h e rs , N a s h v ille , T en n esse e, 1945

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

59 A lth o u g h t h e j u n io r c o lle g e i s c o n ­ s id e r e d as an e x t e n s io n o f t h e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o l, t h e f a c t t h a t i t i s g o v e rn e d by a s e p a r a te o o a rd an d i s a s e p a r a te d i s t r i c t o fte n p re v e n ts th e m ost e f f e c t iv e a r t ic u ­ l a t i o n w it h t h e s e c o n d a ry s c h o o ls . A h e re e v e r m o re th a n o n e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i s i n ­ c l u d e d i n t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t , an o v e r la p p in g t a x d i s t r i c t r e s u l t s , an d e x ­ c e s s i v e t a x b u r d e n s m ay b e im p o s e d o n t h e p ro p e rty s itu a te d t h e r e in .3 An fo r m a tio n e le c to r s h ig h

of in

th a t

th e

w o u ld 'b e lo c a l

school

so

lo c a l th a t

e le m e n ta r y to

le g is la tu r e

m ake t h e

d is tr ic ts

d is tr ic t

"O n e

p re s e n t

s e p a ra te

lo c a l

Id a h o

d is tr ic ts .

m in is tr a tio n , th e

th e

ju n io r -c o lle g e

"of

,4

of

a h ig h

school

s ta te s is

act

a rra n g e m e n t

d is tr ic ts th e s e

ju n io r

school

s y s te m ,

o r g a n iz a tio n

as th e

o th e r lo c a l

la w

ju n io r

c o lle g e

an i n t e g r a l

s y s te m

in To

w h ic h

a re

fo r

c re a te d

s c h o o ls .

of

J u n io r fo r

a re The

so

th e

a u a lir ie a

s u rv e y

of

s ta fr

C o lle g e s th e ir

ad­

in d e p e n d e n t best

a r e c o g n iz e d

changed

p a rt

th e

of

th ro u g h

tn e

of

a rra n g e m e n t p a rt th e

of

tn e

sam e

The p re s e n t as t o

lo c a l

m ake p u b lic

each school

d is tr ic t." b a c k g ro u n d f o r

p re s e n te d

c o n c e r n in g

a c o m b in a tio n

a d m in is te r e d

s h o u ld b e

p r o v id e

le g is la tio n

in

s c h o o ls .

c o lle g e

p e r m itte d

a v o te

in s titu tio n s

and h ig h

ju n io r -c o lle g e

a re

1 9 39

by

c r itic is m ,"

p u b lic

th e

or

in

and c o s t ju n io r

by t h is

d is s e r ta tio n

e s tim a te s ,

c o lle g e s

Ib id . ,

p . 54

Ib id . ,

p p .3 3 0 -3 3 1

som e o f t h e

som e o f

p re s e n te d

in th e

by th e

s u g g e s tio n s

th e

w ay

of

r e c o m m e n d a t io n s s u rv e y

s ta ffs

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60 w ill

be re p o rte d

s tu d y '-'

h e re .

added th e

fo r

e x a m p le ,

th e

s ta ff

fo r

th e

I^ s h o

fo llo w in g ,:

T h e j u n i o r - c o l l e g e l a w s h o u ld b e a m e n d e d t o xm’o v i d e t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n t o p l a c e on t h e D a l l o t t h e i s s u e o f j o i n i n g a j u n i o r - c o l l e g e d i s t r i c t s h o u ld c o n t a i n e i t h e r t h e n araes o f 1 0 0 q u a l i f i e d v o t e r s , o r 30 p e r c e n t o f t h e q u a l i f i e d v o t e r s i n c a s e t h e r e a re fe w e r th a n 353 v o te r s in th e n ig h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t . T h e j u n i o r - c o l l e g e l a w s h o u ld b e am ended t o p e r m it t h e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f t h e f o u r - y e a r t y p e o f i n s t i t u t i o n , m a in ­ t a i n i n g a p ro g ra m f o r g ra d e s 1 1 , 1 2 , 1 3 , and 1 4 , and in t e g r a t in g i n t o a u n i f ie d c u r r i c u l u m t h e l a s t tw o y e a r s o f h ig h s c h o o l w i t h t h e tw o y e a r s o f c o l l e g e l e v e l s tu d y . C e r t i f i c a t i o n r e q u ir e m e n t s s h o u ld b e e n a c te d f o r te a c h e r s in ju n io r c o lle g e s i n th e s t a t e o f Id a h o . S u p e r v is o r y r e ­ l a t i o n s h i p s s h o u ld b e m a i n t a in e d fr o m t h e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t o f E d u c a tio n o v e r th e ju n io r c o lle g e p ro g ra m s , in o r d e r t o a s s u r e t h e i r q u a l i t y , i n som ew hat t h e sam e m a n n e r a s t h e h i g h s c h o o l s a r e a t p r e s e n t s u p e r v is e d . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s h o u l d b e g i v e n t o an e x te n s io n o f t h e num ber o f c e n te r s i n th e s t a t e w h e re p u b lic j u n i o r c o lle g e s a r e m a in t a in e d ; t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f a new j u n i o r c o l l e g e s h o u ld b e c a r e f u l l y s u p e r ­ v is e d by th e c e n t r a l s ta te o f f i c e . A n ■a d d e d th e

tu itio n

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p o r tio n

th e of

c o lle g e s . have

tw o

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in

th e

m a tte r

of

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th e

liq u o r

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p u b lic

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fo r

d e s e rv e s

w h ic h

ju n io r

in v o lv e d

re v e n u e

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in s titu tio n s

Ib id . , h o rth

r e c o m m e n d a t io n m i g h t h a v e

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been to

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of

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p .501 Id a h o

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a n d B o is e

J u n io r C o lle g e

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I

51

good

c o m m u n it y

c o lle g e

as

d e s c r ib e d

in

c h a p te r

I

of

th is

s tu d y .

0. o tra y e r iz e d .

th e

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w as t h e

by

th e

fu tu re

d ir e c to r

L e g is la tu r e needs,

fa c ilitie s

As

in

th e

th is

s u rv e y ,

o f W a s h in g to n

im p ro v e m e n ts ,

u c a tio n a l s ta te d

of

ty

o f ’. / a s h i n g t o n

a n d m e th o d s

s u rv e y

S u rv e y

w h ic h

in

1945

w as to

and b e tte r m e n ts in

th e

S ta te

D r.

G e o rg e

a u th o r­

d e te r m in e of

th e

ed­

o f W a s h in g to n .

re p o rt:

...........................t h e S t a t e o f W a s h i n g t o n c o m m itte d i t s e l f t o t h e s u p p o r t o f e d ­ u c a t io n e x t e n d in g f o r tw o y e a r s b e y o n d th e t r a d i t i o n a l h ig h s c h o o l as p a r t o f t h e p r o g r a m o f t h e S t a t e Ts common s c h o o l s y s te m . I m p l i c i t in such l e g i s l a t i o n i s t h e p e o p le 's b e l i e f i n tw o t h in g s : t h e r i g h t o f a l l i t s y o u th t o a d v a n c e d ed­ u c a t io n i n t h e p u b li c s c h o o ls , an d t h e w o rth t o th e in d iv id u a l and th e S t a t e o f t h e o u tc o m e s o f s u c h s c h o o l i n g . A m e r ic a h a s lo n g r e c o g n iz e d t h a t e d ­ u c a t io n i s a b a s is o f n a t i o n a l p ro g r e s s and a fo rm o f n a t io n a l w e a lth . ............................. I t i s g e n e r a l l y a c c e p t e d t h a t a l l y o u th s h o u ld r e m a in w i t h t h e i r s t u d i e s as l o n g a s t h e i r i n t e r e s t a a d p r o g r e s s m ake i t l i k e l y t h a t t h e y an d s o c ie t y w i l l b e n e f i t fro m t h e i r co n ­ t in u e d e d u c a tio n . A lth o u g h s in c e

1925,

A tte m p ts

p r io r

ju n io r to

w e r e m ade i n

c o lle g e s

1941, 1929

th e y

have

e x is te d

r e c e iv e d

and 1 9 3 7

to

no

pass

in

s ta te

W a s h in g to n a id .

le g is la tio n

G e o rg e D . S t r a y e r , D i r e c t o r o f t h e S u rv e y , P u b lic ^ E d ­ u c a t i o n i n W a s h in g to n , A R e p o r t o f a S u rv e y o f P u b l i c E d ­ u c a t i o n i n t h e S t a t e o f W a s h in g to n . S t a t e o f D e s h in g to n , 1946 8

Ib id . ,

p . 293

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

D

w h ic h

w o u ld h a v e m a d e

school

s y s te m .

th e m s e lv e s

U n til

la r g e ly

J u n io r 1941,

c o lle g e s th e

by t u i t i o n

a p a rt

ju n io r

of

th e

c o lle g e s

c h a rg e s .

p u b lic

f in a n c e d

Then:

L e g i s l a t i o n e n a c te d and t a k in g e f f e c t A p r i l 1 , 1 9 -jrl, a u t h o r i z e d t h e e s t a b lis h m e n t o f p u b lic j u n io r c o lle g e s as p a r t o f th e ed­ u c a t i o n a l s y s te m o f t h e S t a t e . T h is i s th e f i r s t W a s h in g to n la w d e a l i n g w i t h j u n i o r c o lle g e s . I t d e fin e d j u n io r c o lle g e s as i n s t i t u t i o n s o f f e r i n g c o u rs e s o f s tu d y ab o ve h ig h s c h o o l g r a d e , o r g a n iz e d i n t o a c a a e m ic a n d v o c a t i o n a l c u r r i c u l a o f n o t m o re t h a n tw o y e a r s i n l e n g t h . T h e l e g i s l a t i o n p r o v id e d s t a t e s u p p o rt a t tn e r a te o f s e v e n ty -fiv e d o lla r s p e r s tu d e n t p e r y e a r f o r g e n e r a l e d u c a tio n a n d one h u n d re d d o lla r s p e r s tu d e n t p e r y e a r f o r v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a t i o n , u p t o a m axim u m o f te n th o u s a n d d o l l a r s The r e s p o n s i­ b i l i t y o f p r o v id in g b u ild in g s and e q u ip ­ m e n t w as m ade t h e o b l i g a t i o n o f t h e l o c a l r e s i d e n t s o f t h e a r e a s e r v e d by t h e j u n i o r c o lle g e . 9 The le g is la tu r e in te r e s t le v e l th e

in

v o c a tio n a l

s in c e

it

p r o v id e d

s u p p o rt

of

g e n e ra l

s e s s io n each

of

ju n io r

S ta te

B o a rd

th e

e d u c a tio n

have at

one t h ir d e d u c a tio n .

le g is la tu r e

c o lle g e of

s e e m s 't o

a llo w e d

o p e r a tin g

ta k e n

th e

a g a in

a s p e c ia l

ju n io r

as m uch a i d

An A c t

of

a m in im u m

under th e

c o lle g e

th e of

as

1943 $ 1 0 ,0 0 0

a p p ro v a l

o f th e

E d u c a tio n .

C o n c e r n in g

le g is la tio n

passed

in

1945

th e

re p o rt

s ta te s : By th e 1 9 4 5 la w e x te n d e d s e c o n d a ry an d j u n io r c o lle g e p ro g ra m s a r e re c o g ­ n i z e d a s a p a r t o f t h e common s c h o o l

Ib id .,

fo r

p . 300

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

to

s y s te m , o f t h e S t a t e ................. T h e A c t s p e c i f i c a l l y s t a t e s t h a t i t s T ju r p o s e i s " t o a u t h o r iz e an d e n c o u ra g e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o e s t a b l i s h and m a in t a in e d u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m s d e s ig n e d t o m e e t t h e n e e d s and i n t e r e s t s o f h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s f o r ■whom e d u c a t i o n a l a n d v o c a tio n a l p r e p a r a tio n o p p o r tu n itie s ■would n o t o t h e r w i s e b e a v a i l a b l e a n d f o r w a r v e te r a n s and o th e r s in n e e d o f e d u c a t io n a l and v o c a t io n a l p r e p a r a t io n ana a d ju s tm e n t” . B o th v o c a t io n a l and g e n e r a l e d ­ u c a t i o n a l p ro g ra m s w e re a u t h o r iz e d by th e 1 9 4 5 A c t i n t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r ­ t e e n t h g ra d e s o f h ig h s c h o o l. S ta te a id f o r t h e p ro g ra m s i s a p p o r tio n e d a t tw o t im e s t h e a c t u a l d a y ’ s a t t e n d a n c e . T h in k in g

of

th e

fu tu re ,

th e

s u rv e y

10

c o m m itte e

re c o m ­

m ended: T h e p ro g ra m Ari ':l fiPiT. i fin

must,

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of

e x te n d e d

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/ 1^

s e c o n d a ry t-.Viot-

-it

a

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

54 e x p e n d itu r e s fo rty -o n e

per

s tu d e n t

C a lifo r n ia

p u b lic

E d is o n V o c a t i o n a l S c h o o l, fo r

th e

th o s e

j e a rs

ta b le s

p r io r

in

to

an d fro m

a v e ra g e ju n io r

S e a ttle ,

W o r ld b a r o th e r

d a ta

d a ily

a tte n d a n c e

c o lle g e s

and

W a s h in g to n .

I I. th e

i'r o m

an

fo r

fo r th e

D a ta w as a n a ly s is

c o m m itte e w r o t e :

S t r i k i n g an a v e r a g e b e tw e e n t h e c o s ts in C a lif o r n ia , ju n io r c o lle g e s and i n t h e j u n i o r c o l l e g e m e m b e rs o f t h e rJ o rth C e n t r a l A s s o c ia t io n o f C o lle g e s an d S e c o n d a ry S c h o o ls , one m ay e s t i m a t e #200 p e r s t u d e n t i n a v e ra g e d a ily a t te n d a n c e as an o p e r a t in g c o s t . If t h e c u r r ic u lu m o f t h e j u n io r c o lle g e e m b r a c e s m uch v o c a t i o n a l a n d t e c h n i c a l i n s t i t u t e e d u c a t io n , c o s ts w i l l h a v e t o b e s c a le d u p w a rd s in c e t h i s t y p e o f p r o g r a m i s m o r e c o s t l y t o t e a c h .................... O f th e f o r t y - o n e p u b lic ju n io r c o l l e g e s .............. a l l b u t s e v e n h a d a n a v e ra g e d a ily a tte n d a n c e in e x c e s s o f 200. T h e c u r r e n t e x p e n d itu re s i n th e j u n i o r c o l l e g e s w i t h ADA l o w e r t h a n 200 ra n g e d fro m # 2 0 9 .3 5 t o # 3 4 7 .2 0 p e r u n i t o f ADA, a r a n g e o f c o s ts a l l r u n n in g a b o v e 'one s t a t e ’ s a v e r a g e . ' m o r e o v e r , i n m ost c a s e s , t h e e d u c a tio n a l p ro g ra m s o f o n ese s m a lle r s c h o o ls la c k e d th e b r e a d t h o f e d u c a tio n a l o f f e r in g s o f th e l a r g e r s c h o o ls e x c e p t w h e re c lo s e a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e h i g h s c h o o l m ade som e o p p o r ­ t u n i t i e s a v a ila b le t o s tu d e n ts th ro u g h in t e g r a t e d s e c o n d a ry and u p p e r s e c o n d a ry c o u rs e s . T h e a v e r a g e ADA f o r a l l 4 1 C a l i f o r n i a p u b l i c j u n i o r c o l l e g e s w h ic h p ro a need t h e a v e ra g e c u r r e n t e x p e n d itu r e p e r ' u n i t o f g i l d . 55 w a s 9 5 4 . 0 2 . The a v e ra g e e n r o llm e n t in ju n io r c o lle g e s o f t h e n o r t h C e n t r a l A s s o c i a t i o n w h ic h p ro d u c e d th e ^ e r c a p it a e x p e n d itu r e s o f ’ v f i l i n 19 5 9 - 1 9 4 0 w a s 6 0 5 . 4 I t does n o t s e e n l i w e l y t h a t an a d e q u a te an d s u i t a b l e and e n r ic h e d p ro g ra m o f j u n i o r c o lle g e e u u c a tio n can b e p r o v id e d e c o n o m ic a lly f o r an e n r o l l m e n t w h ic h w i l l y i e l d an a v e ra g e d a ily a tte n d a n c e o f le s s th a n 500 i n th e t h i r t e e n t h and f o u r t e e n t h g ra d e s e x c e p t i n p ro g ra m s c l o s e l y i n t e -

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

of

OO

g r a te d w ith g r a d e s . 12 .Among t h e n ir te e

v;as t h e

th e

e le v e n th ,

and t v .'e lf t h

m any r e c o m m e n d a t io n s

of

th e

s u rv e y

con-

fo llo w in g :

S in c e t h e p u b li c j u n i o r c o lle g e in a s h in g t o n i s now t o be r e c o g n iz e d as p a r t o f t h e common s c h o o l s y s t e m , i t i s r e c o n n e n ^ e u t h a t t h e p h ilo s o p h y o f f r e e p u b lic e d u c a tio n a p p ly e q u a lly t o i t as t o o t h e r u n i t s o f t h e common s c h o o l s y s t e m . I t is re c o m m e n c e d t h a t n o t u i t i o n c h a r g e s b e a u t h o r i z e d a n d t h a t s u c h o t h e r f e e s as n a y b e a u t h o r i z e d f o r s u c h p u r p o s e s as s t u d e n t b o d y a c t i v i t i e s be k e p t n o m in a l. 13 'h it h . r e f e r e n c e

to

c o s ts

to

s tu d e n ts ,

th e

c o m m itte e

re p o rte d : T a r n a tio n h a s b e e n t h e m a jo r s o u r c e o f s u p p o rt. T h i s i s t r u e i n ’. / a s h i n g t o n , as i t i s e ls e w h e r e . I n '/a s h in g t o n t h e f e e s a r e g e n e r a lly lo w , r a n g in g i n th e v a r io u s i n ­ s t i t u t i o n s and in a c c o rd a n c e w it h th e v a r i o u s p r o g r a m s t a k e n , fro m , an a n n u a l c h a r g e o f a p p r o x i m a t e l y /5 4 2 .0 0 t o o n e o f g 9 £ .G 0 S tu d e n t R e e s , h o w e v e r, a re n o t th e m a jo r f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s upon s tu d e n t a tte n d a n c e a t th e p u b lic h ig h e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f th e S ta te . T h e c o s t o f l i v i n g a w ay f r o m h om e i s a m u c h l a r g e r f a c t o r . S tu d e n ts h a v e e s tim a te d t h a t t h e a v e ra g e d if f e r e n c e o f s t u c e n t c o s t i n l i v i n g a t hom e a n d a w ay f r o m hom e a m o u n ts t o an a n n u a l c h a r g e o f a b o u t .p 5 5 0 . 0 0 . . . . ^

D. R e g e n ts

12

15 14 15

of

W is c o n s in th e

S ta te

S u rv e y 15 of

W is c o n s in

in

1945

th e B o a rd

re q u e s te d

th e

of

U n iv e r s ity

Ib id , I'd

i d,

Ib id J o h n G uy i f o w l k e s , J u n i o r B u lle t in o f th e U n iv e r s ity * ~ -p r il, 1S 47

u o lle g e h e e d s o f W is c o n s in ,

in '/is c o n s in , iu a o is o n , W is c o n s in ,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

56 o f '..is c o n s in

to

fo r

e d u c a tio n a l

th e

tit a te

i'o w lk e s ,

m ake

a

s tu d y

o p p /o r t u n i t i e s

o f ‘. / i s c o n s i n . D ean

at

of

th e

A

th e

needs

and f a c i l i t i e s

b e y o n d h ig h ,

c < x u .iit t e e

U n iv e r s ity ,

school le v e l

in

h e a d e d b y J o h n G uy

c o m p le te d

th e

s tu d y

in

1946. A lth o u g h m itte e

to

no

e s tim a te

c o lle g e

tr a in in g

v is a b le

to

lis t

a t t e m p t w as m a d e b y c o s ts

of

a d v o c a te d a fe w

of

th e by

th e

p ro p o s e d

th e

th e

p ro g ra m

c o m m itte e ,

c o n c lu s io n s

s u rv e y

it

of

com­ ju n io r

seem s

re a c h e d by

th e

c o m m itte e : T h e b asic educational n e e d o f high school g r a d u a t e s in Wisconsin i s f o r a l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n e x t e n d i n g two y e a r s b e y o n d h i g h school. T e r m i n a l l i b e r a l e d u c a t i o n c o m b in e d w it h v o c a t io n a l w o rk t o b e o f f e r e d in t h e tw o y e a r s im m e d ia t e ly f o l l o w i n g h ig h s c h o o l g r a d u a t i o n s h o u ld b e o f f e r e d b y p r o p e r l y q u a l i f i e d v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o ls t o b e d e s ig n a te d by th e B t a t e B o a rd o f V o c a t i o n a l a n d A d u lt E d u c a tio n a n d f o r m a ll y d e s ig n a te d t e r m in a l j u n i o r c o lle g e s . I t seam s c l e a r t h a t '..- i s c o n s in h a s n e e d o f som e J u n i o r C o l l e g e s w h ic h w i l l o f f e r t h e f r e s h m e n a n d s o p h o m o re y e a r s o f w o rk o f a f o u r - y e a r l e t t e r s and s c ie n c e c o lle g e . A m in im u m e n r o l l m e n t o f 1 5 0 i s a c c e p te d i n t h i s s tu d y as t h e b a s ic c r i ­ t e r i o n f o r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f a j u n io r c o lle g e . I n g e n e r a l, a ju n io r c o lle g e s h o u ld b e e s t a b l i s h e d o n ly w h e re t h e r e i s no o th e r i n s t i t u t i o n o f c o l l e g ia t e l e v e l t h a t c a n b e m ade t o s e r v e t h e e x i s t i n g e d u c a t i o n a l n e e d s o f t h e a r e a . 16

16

Ib id .,

ad­

p p .5 5 -5 6

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

57

^ e ^ - ^ r y l c j ic . o t u c l y '1'^ C o m m is s io n o n h i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , e n a c tm e n t,

c o n tra c te d . w it h

to

a

conduct

G -e o rg e 1 .

Zook

e d u c a tio n . of

th e

m itte d

s u rv e y

h ig h e r

w as P r e s i d e n t

D r.

John D a le

s u rv e y .

The re p o rt

e a r ly

1947.

in

A s e c tio n 19 45

of

re a d s

as

th e

of

in

194o,

c re s te d A m e r ic a n

e d u c a tio n . of

th e

by

th e u a r y le n d

le g is la tiv e

C o u n c il At

th a t

A m e r ic a n

t im e

C o u n c il

R u s s e l l v;p.s c h o s e n of

on E d u c a tio n

as

D r.

on

d ir e c to r

th e

s u rv e y

c o m m itte e

t h e M a r y la n d

school

la w s

w as

a p p ro v e d

sub­

in

fo llo w s :

i ’h e C o u n ty b o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n , i n a c c o r d a n c e w it h t h e r u l e s end r e g u l a t i o n s o f t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f E d u c a t i o n , m ay e s t a b l i s h and m a i n t a i n d a y a n d e v e n i n g s c h o o l s f o r a d u l t s , t h e p u r p o s e s o f w h ic h s h a l l b e t o p r o v id e a g e n e r a l p ro g ra m o f c o n t in u in g e d u c a tio n i n a l l i t s a s p e c ts f o r t h e im p r o v e m e n t o f t h e c i v i c , v o ­ c a t i o n a l , and g e n e r a l i n t e l l i g e n c e o f a d u l t s , e n d t o e n a b l e th e m t o m a k e a w is e u s e o f t h e i r l e i s u r e t im e . ® A lth o u g h s ta te th e

th a t

p a rt,

p re te d

by

th e

ju n io r

above

c o lle g e s

"p ro g ra m

of

s e c tio n m ay b e

c o n tin u in g

Maryland o f f i c i a l s

and m a in ta in

th e

ju n io r

to

c o lle g e

does

not

s p e c ific a lly

e s ta b lis h e d e d u c a tio n ,

g iv e le v e l

and m a in ta in e d ,

e tc .,"

a u th o r ity

to

w as i n t e r ­ e s ta b lis h

o f w o rk .

Jo h n D a le R u s s e ll, D i r e c t o r o f t h e S u rv e y , H ig h e r E d ­ u c a t i o n i n M a r y l a n d , A R e p o r t o f a S u r v e y b y t h e Ame r i c a , n C o u n c i l o n E d u c a t i o n , A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , a s liin g to n , B .C ., 194 7 Ib id . ,

p .315

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

63 A lth o u g h 1947

n o t p a s s in g

tn e u a r jle iiQ

b u u g e t $ 6 0 ,0 0 0 y e a rs

of

th e

any

le g is la tu r e

fo r

ju n io r

D i e n n iu m .

s p e c ific

in c lu d e d

c o lle g e s

't h e n ,

in

le g is la tio n ,

in

fo r

th e

each

1949,

p u b lic

o f th e

a g a in

in

school

tw o

w ith o u t

le g is -

■JO

la tiv e

°

a c tio n ,

a p p r o p r ia tio n

to

per f u ll

($ 1 0 0

In fig u r e

t h e m a x y la n d ju n io r

tim e

th e

to o k

in to

school

p u p il

in

s e v e ra l

c o u n tie s ,

of

ju n io r

c o s ts n ig h

in

ennpal

ra n g e d

1 9 - x 5 ,"

These

fro m

g ro u n d s ,

and W ith

per

year

fig u r e

and

at

to

expense

c o s ts

o f h ig h

to

h ig h

as t o

in c lu d e

" in

w ith

th e

c o s ts .

d is tr i­ in r a tio

"P er

tw e n ty -tw o w e re

a m e d ia n

d e p r e c ia tio n

com­

j_^er h i g h

s ta te ,

'w h ic h f i g u r e s

$ 1 3 0 .4 9 ,

th e

a p p r o x im a te

school

a

per

s ch o o l te a c h e rs

s ta te s , fo r

th e

at

cost

c u rre n t

of

$ 1 1 6 ,0 0 0

a r r iv e

e d u c a tio n a l

its

p er y e a r).

le v e l,

re p o rt

do n o t

to

e q u iv a le n t

s tu d y

e x p e r ie n c e

to

$ 6 0 ,0 0 0

c o lle g e

m a r y la n d ,

.,/7 6 .5 9

in c r e a s e d

ju n io r

c o u n tie s

c o s ts

th e

in

fig u r e s

th e

s a la r ie s

c o lle g e

s c h o o ls

at

v a r io u s

of

o r th e

p r o b a b le

account

b u tio n s

fro m

t h e m a r y le n d

p r o je c te d

s t u d e n t p e r y e a r ^0 m itte e

c o lle g e s

s tu d e n t,

o rd e r- f o r

fo r

le g is la tu r e

of

p u p il

la r g e at

hand,

about

$ 1 0 7 ."

o f b u ild in g s ,

e q u ip m e n t . th e th e

in c lu d e s

tr a n s p o r ta tio n

e x c e p tio n ju n io r

of

c o lle g e

r e p la c e m e n t at

th e

one

ju n io r

in

th e

l e v e l w as

fa c ilitie s , c o lle g e

" L e g is la tio n A ffe c tin g ju n io r J o u r n a l , J a n u a r y , 1 3 5 0 , p . 251 h i g h e r Seine a t i o n

case,

1.1a r y l a n d ,

cost p er

set

at

added

le v e l,

C o lle g e s ,"

op.

c it. ,

$200.

cost

and

s tu d e n t That

fo r

a som ew hat

J u n io r

C o lle g e

p p . 5 0 7 -3 1 1

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

69 s m a lle r

s tu d e n t-te a c h e r

r a tio

th a n

w as u s e d

fo r

th e

h ig h

school 1 s t ii.:s te school

to

ia id w e s te r n e x is te d

ju n io r

a tte n d

school

c o lle g e s

s m a lle r

th e

s tu d e n ts 400

and

s u rv e y fe ic t

by

gave

th a t

s tu d e iits

to

in

w as

c o u n tie s

T h is

1 9 4 -0 ,

in

c o lle g e

r a tio

e n r o llm e n ts

The

c o m m itte e

fe lt

to

some

a o n e —t o —t h r e e

w h e re

re p o rt and

u n its

15 w h e re by

as t h e

c o lle g e

liid v /e s t e r n

in

end

th e th a t

th e

m a r y le n d

s ta te s

th e

as

c o n s id e r e d

per

num ber o f th e

fo r

tiiis

c o lle g e s

a b ility

th e to

th e

th e

as

ju s tir ie d

of

lo c a l

a b a s ic

num ber

s tu d e n ts is

is

not

as

u n it.

s u p p o rt

te a c h e rs

p r o s p e c tiv e th a n

over 400.

The

in

a b le

la r g e r

C ost

of

fe w e r

d iffe r e n c e a re

s ta te

a n n u a lly .

num ber o f

num ber

e ffic ie n tly

as

p u p il

e s tim a te

d iv id in g

20 w h e r e

ju n io r

r e c o m .ie n d e d

320

To

re a s o n

c la s s e s

had le s s

In

h ig n

s tu d e n ts

d is tr ic ts

g o in g

L o c a l D i s t r i c t ’ s S h a re c o u n ty

to ta l

th e

and th e

re c o m m e n d e d

s m a lle r

ju n io r

th e

num ber o f

C a lifo r n ia /^

y o u th

te a c h e r

d iv is io n

th e

of

r a tio ..

A id

tf'iOO p e r

c o m m itte e

of

as

c o lle g e .

lo c a te d .

C a lifo r n ia

T e a c h in g th e

and

e n r o llm e n ts

s m a lle r

S ta te of

ju n io r

fr e e -tu itio n

p r o p o r tio n

c o m p a re d w i t h

a id

th e

w e re

A fifth

e s tim a te d

c o -im u n itie s

b e tv ;e e n

h ig h

u s in g

e n r o llm e n t

e n r o llm e n t w as

e x p e c te d

th e

of

to

r a tio s

d is tr io u te

ju n io r

c o lle g e s .

In

th is

To

sho w t h a t

ju n io r

th e

s tu d y

c o lle g e s

tn e some

th a n

L e o n a r d V . E o o s , "H o w t o D e m o c r a t i z e t h e d u n i o r - C o l l e g e L e v e l , " S o h o o l R e v i e w , V o lu m e L I I , H a y , 1 9 4 4 , p . 2 3 1

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

70 o th e rs ,

th re e

s e ts

of

c a lc u la tio n s

in

th e

s tu d y

m ay b e

e x a m in e d : (1 ) lo c a l

s h a re

v iu e d

th e

ta x a b le

A d d itio n a l

of

c o s t,

lo c a l

in

To

fin d

of

th e

s h a re

194o.

ta x

The

ra te s

th is cost

a d d itio n a l

n e c e s s a ry

fig u r e by

th e

ra te s

th e

to

m eet

c o m m itte e

a s s e s s a b le

ra n g e d

fro m

d i—

b a s is to

45

175 m ills . (

2)

P e rc e n ta g e s

w h ic h

w o u ld b e

th e

c o lle g e

p u rp o s e s

of ra te

in c r e m e n ts (3 )

c o lle g e

th e

s h o u ld b e

th a t

need it

of

w as

0

h e re

w as

fo r

ra te s .

ju n io r A ra n g e

fo u n d . per fro m

d e m o n s tra te d

some k i n d

of

re c o m m e n d e d t h a t w ith in

e d u c a tio n fo r

used t o The

fig u r e s

fo r

in c lu d e d

u n its is

2

1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 5

v a lu a tio n

The ra n g e

above

th e re fo re ,

lo c a l

to

a d d itio n

p r o s p e c tiv e # 1 1 1 ,0 0 0

ju n io r

to

pex s tu d e n t. The

p ro g ra m

fro m

A s s e s s a b le

s tu d e n t.

# 3 5 4 ,0 0 0

m itte e

of

th e

s u p p o rt

th e

c o m m itte e

th e

ju n io r of

fu n d s b e

c o lle g e

th e

e q u a liz a tio n

scope

and t h a t

ju n io r

s u rv e y

th e

to

s u p p o rt

e x is tin g

s u rv e y

fo r m u la ;

c o lle g e

th e

com­

p ro g ra m

s t a t e ’ s m in im u m

d is tr ib u te d u s in g

p u b lic

th e

to

th e

sam e b a s i s

s c h o o ls .

s ta te d :

A f t e r a l l , t h e a m o u n ts o f b a s i c s t a t e a i d f o r a l l c o u n tie s in th e t a b l e t o t a l o n l y a b o u t # 5 0 0 , 0 0 0 , w h ic h seem s a r a t h e r m o d e s t sum w h e r e m o r e t h a n s e v e n t h o u s a n d j u n i o r c o lle g e s tu d e n ts a r e b e in g con­ s id e r e d . T h is i s o n ly a l i t t l e o v e r #40 o f b a s ic a id p e r s tu d e n t p e r y e a r , o f a t o t a l a v e ra g e p e r s tu d e n t c o s t t h a t w o u ld e x c e e d # 2 0 0 . 2 2

22

H ig h e r E d u c a tio n

in

Id a r y l a n d ,

op.

c it. ,

p . 311

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

71

The I llin o is P r e s id e n t of

o i' t h e

In s titu tio n a l

c o lle g e

th e

u n iv e r s ity

h ig h e r

e d u c a tio n a l

in

to w n s h ip m o re

th e

h ig h

th a n

p u b lic

ju n io r In

a of

ju n io r

s e v e ra l

u la tio n

th e

in

a re

fir s t

th e

1902.

p u b lic in

At

e n r o lle d

G e n e rn l

to

s u rv e y

in

ju n io r

th e

th e th e

p e r m is s iv e

c o lle g e

(p u b lic )

in

c ity

is

p e r m itte d

o u ts id e w hen

th e

one

O iiic a g o

fu tu re

ju n io r th e

w as

ju n io r

J o lie t

p re s e n t

tim e

s ta te ’ s 14

w e re

and

used f o r

A m ong i t s

o th e r

mi nmum o f

1 0 ,0 0 0

le g is la tio n

C h ic a g o .

c o lle g e , O th e r

w ith o u t

c o lle g e s

p u b lic

le g a l

nay

s u p p o rte d

th e ir

be

c ity

it

nas

ju n io r

s a n c tio n fo r

th e

le g a liz in g

c o n s id e r e d

in a s m u c h

ro r

to

th e nave

as h i g h

s u p p o rt.

p r o v is io n s p e rs o n s

end

The

a lth o u g h

p assed p r o v id in g

These in s titu tio n s c o n tr o lle d

of

c ity .

e x is te d

le g is la tio n

of

ones.

fu n d s

ju n io r

s ta te ..

e s ta b lis h e d

d is tr ic t

th e

a c o m m is s io n

o f th e

th e

th e b u re a u

year

passed

p u b lic ly

school

S ta te s ,

th a t

Illin o is

1937

e x is tin g

of

of

1 9 -0 3 ,

c o lle g e s .

e s ta b lis h m e n t

oeen

hom e o f

s tu d e n ts

s u rv e y

E a r lie r

fa c ilitie s

cam puses th ro u g h o u t

c o lle g e s

a

20,

d ir e c te d

1931,

u h ic a g o

u n til

school

2 5 ,0 0 0

m ahe

c r e a tio n

w as t h e

U n ite d

on D e c e m b e r Illin o is

Illin o is .

a p p ro v e d t h e

Illin o is c o lle g e

of

R e s e a rc h , t o

m o v e ;.ie n t i n

A s s e m -D ly h a d

S tu d y ^

on

th e

1 9 57

la w

a d is tr ic t

p la c e d w h ic h

a pop­

d e s ir e d

C o le m a n R . G r i f f i t h a n d n o r t e n s e B l a c l c s t o n e , T h e J u n i o r C o lle g e i n I l l i n o i s , U n iv e r s it y o f I l l i n o i s P r e s s , I l l i n o i s , 1945

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

to

s ta rt

a ju n r o r

p a s s e d w h ic h assessed and

4O .1

c o lle g e .

a llo w e d

v a lu a tio n 5

fo r

lo c a l

fo r

per

of

ta e

cost

of

p 20 Q

th is

am ount w as a lo w

e x p e r ie n c e and

C h ic a g o per

of

la r g e

of

p 0 .5 5

c o lle g e

oer year

ju n io r

s tu d e n t

an

1945 le g is la tio n per

v;as

p lO O

e d u c a tio n a l

of

p u rp o s e s

p u rp o s e s .

s tu d e n t

ence

in

ta x a tio n

ju n io r

b u ild in g

Post

!r h e n

B ased

c o lle g e ,

th is

p er y e a r.

e s tim a te

in s titu tio n

The

s in c e

w h ic h

th e

re p o rt s tu d y

it

had

upon

e x p e r i­

p r o je c ts

s

d id

say t h a t

w as b a s e d

upon tn e

a la r g e

e n r o llm e n t

c la s s e s .

m in im u m

e n r o llm e n t

T h e w r i t e r s m a i n t a i n t h a t an e n r o l l ­ m e n t o f 200 s t u d e n t s a n d an a n n u a l b u d g e t o f s?30>0 0 0 t o ^ 4 0 , 0 0 0 f o r o p e r a t i o n s h o u ld b e m a i n t a i n e d . E s tim a te 50; o f of

th e

h ig h

p r o je c tin g

500

s tu a e n ts

fo r

any

in

4 4 0 ,0 0 0

in

cases

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per of

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d is tr ic t

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school

th e

S ta te s ta te

of

of

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The

d is tr ic ts

s c h o o l w as

p r o s p e c tiv e v a lu a tio n

of

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s tu d e n t

c o n te m p la tin g

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of

T h is

body.

a xaeans of

c o lle g e .

of

s tu d e n t;

450

per

4 4 0 ,0 0 0

and

above

le s s

s tu d e n t

per

s tu d e n t

th a n s ta te

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p e r p r o s p e c tiv e

s tu d e n t.

24 Ib id . ,

to o h

e s s e n tia l

re c o m m e n d e d 4 7 5

a v a lu a tio n

as

A m in im u m

c o n s id e r e d

ju n io r

s tu d y

p . 201

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

• R e g a r d in g s tu d y

c o s ts ,

th e

g e n e ra l

c o n c lu s io n s

of

th e

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The C a lifo r n ia th e

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Ib id ., 26

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S t u d y 26 1947

h ig h e r 55

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of

74

y e a r v o c a tio n a l r u ll

tim e

fa r

le g is la tio n c o lle g ia te 1917,

ta c k

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179

75 o i‘ an O d e r

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c o u n t i e s w h ic h o p e r a t e n o j u n i o r c o l l e g e m ay l e v y a t a x o n t i l e c o u n t y p r o p e r t y o u t ­ s id e o r j u n io r c o lle g e d i s t r i c t s t o p ay th e tu itio n p l u s .^100 f o r s c h o o l p l a n t f o r e a c h s tu d e n t v/ho a t t e n d s a j u n i o r c o l l e g e ......... 'fh e m a x im u m l e v y f o r s c h o o l p u r p o s e s w h ic h m ay b e m ade w it h o u t a v o t e o f t h e p e o p le is . . . . 3 . 5 m i l l s f o r ju n io r c o lle g e d is tr ic ts . P > a te le v e l a id

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p

. 10 2

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76 r n a j o r i t e : a s o r e x p e n s e , w n ic h u s e d 7 6 p e rc e n t o f tr .e fu u a s , v e r e t e a c h e r s ’ s a la r i e s and o th e r exp enses o f i n ­ s t r u c t i o n . 30 m in im u m . s i z e th e

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The p o t e n t ia l ju n io r c o lle g e p o p u la t io n o f t h e f u t u r e c a n b e r o u g h ly c a lc u la te d by r e la t in g i t to th e p re s e n t r a t i o b e tw e e n j u n i o r c o lle g e a t te n d a n c e a n d a t te n d a n c e i n t h e h ig h s c h o o l. If th e lit a te a tte n d a n c e o f O c to b e r, 1 9 4 7 , i n t h e 1 6 t h and 1 4 t h g r a d e s i s c o m p a re d w it h th e a tte n d a n c e in th e 1 1 th and 1 2 th g r a d e s , i t w i l l b e fo u n d t h a t t h e r e w as one s tu d e n t in th e ju n io r c o lle g e g ra d e s f o r e v e r y 2 .5 5 s tu d e n ts in t h e 1 1 t h and 1 2 t h g ra d e s o f h ig h s c h o o l.31 E s tim a te s th e

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S t a t e o f h e w Y o r k : R e p o r t o f t h e T e m p o r a r y C o m m is s io n on t h e h e e d f o r a S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y , L e g i s l a t i v e D ocum ent No. 30. Y / i ll ia i a s P r e s s , I n c . , A lb a n y , N .Y . , 1 9 4 3

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78

c a tio n ,

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1948

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it if o r fe e bear

c a p i t a l c o s t s a s w e l l a s t h e i r ow n f e e s . . . . . . . T n e fe e s ch a rg e s p a r t - t i m e s tu d e n ts a n d o u t o f s t a t e s t u d e n t s s h o u ld h e f i x e d by t h e c o m m u n i t y c o l l e g e b o a r d , s u b j e c t t o uhe a p p r o v a l o f th e B p ard o f T r u s te e s o f t h e S t a t e U n i v e r s i t y . 07 -E s tim a te d .y e a r. o th e r its

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th e

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C o m m itt e e on S ta te P rin tin g

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C o s i. a e te

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m e n ts ry

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O re g o n .

CHAPTER

IV

L E G I S L A T I O N AND PROPOSALS POR P O S T - H I G H SCHOOL E D U C A TIO N BY T H E P A .n o E L V A i .. IA GENERAL A3SEL.IBLY

T h is b ills

p ro p o sed

A s s e m b ly c o lle g e gram s

c h a p te r p re s e n ts or

s in c e

th e

s tu c e n ts

fo r

tn e

by

e x te n d in g

It

was

th a t

e n a c te d

fre e ,

s c h o la rs h ip s . crease

in

e q u a liz e

th e

T h is

th e

le g is la tu r e ,

th a t

by

a w a rd in g

tim e

th e re

of

fo r

h ig h e r

S c h o la rs h ip s

la w

o rig in a te d

29,

1919.

th re e

s e c tio n s :

P u rd o n

to

a s s is t im p ro v e and

th e

th e

fir s t

a num ber o f has been

tim e

to

in

p ro ­

c o rn p e te tiv e

a g rad u al

le g is la tu r e

e d u c a tio n

g rad e .

s in c e ,

a s s is ta n c e

th e

a d u lts

1 4 th

1919

p ro ­

in ­

to

P e n n s y lv a n ia .

1919

1.

A p ril

in

of

of

G en eral

y o u th

fo r

fo x * f i n a n c i a l

h is to ry

and

th ro u g h

s e s s io n

num ber o f p ro p o s a ls

S e s s io n

1919,

fa c ilitie s

e d u c a tio n

s tu d e n ts

S in c e

of

o u t-o f-s c h o o l

w ith

th e

o p p o rtu n itie s

A.

1919.

s ta rt

P e n n s y lv a n ia

s e s s io n

of

p ro v id in g

c o lle g e

th e

expand

p u b lic

s e s s io n ,

a b ill

s p e c tiv e

and t o

to

by

re g u la r

e d u c a tio n

a e c id e d

d u rin g

e n a c te d

a c h ro n o lo g ic a l

P u b lic

L a w fr 1 0 4 4 ,

as n o u s e B i l l

reco rd s

th e

jf 1 4 1 0 ,

la v ; i n

th e

1

J u ly d a te d

fo llo w in g

S e c tio n 2451 G ra d u a te s o f seco n d ary s c h o o ls t o r e c e iv e F o r t h e p u rp o se o f a s s is t in g w o rth y y o u n g m en a n d women g r a d u a t e s o f t h e

P e n n s y lv a n ia G e n e r a l A s s e m b ly , V o lu m e I I , 1919, p .1493

L e g is la tiv e

jo u rn a l.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

13,

35 seco n d ary s c h o o ls o f t h e S t a t e t o o b t a i n h i g h e r e d u c a t io n , t h e S t a t e w i l l aw ard c o m p e titiv e s c h o la rs h ip s o f th e v a lu e o f one h u n d red d o lla r s p e r y e a r f o r f o u r y e a r s t o e n a b le s e le c t e d s tu o e n ts t o a tte n d any i n s t i t u t i o n i n t h e S t a t e o f P e n n s y lv a n ia a p p ro v e d by t h e C o lle g e and U n iv e r s it y C o u n c il. S e c tio n 2452 A p p o in tm e n ts t o ; e x e n i n a t i ons A p p o in tm e n ts t o such s c h o la r s h ip s s h a l l b e m ade by t h e S t a t e B o a rd o f E d­ u c a t i o n , and t h e p e r s o n s e n t i t l e d t o s u c h a p p o i n t m e n t s s h a l l b e d e t e r m i n e d b y com­ p e t i t i v e e x a m in a tio n s t o be c o n d u c te d under th e s u p e r v is io n o f th e S ta te B o ard o f E d u c a tio n . Due n o t i c e o f any e x a m i­ n a tio n s to be h e ld und er th e p ro v is io n s o f t h i s a c t s h a l l be g iv e n i n such m an n e r a s t h e S t a t e B o a r d o f E d u c a t i o n m ay p r e ­ s c rib e . 1. Now s t y l e d t h e " S t a t e C o u n c il o f B d u c a.t i o n . ” S e c tio n 245 3 D is trib u tio n o f One s c h o l a r s h i p s h a l l b e a w a r d e d t o each c o u n ty . I n any c o u n ty w h e re t h e r e i s m o re th a n one e n t i r e S e n a t o r i a l D i s ­ t r i c t , one s c h o la r s h ip s h a l l be aw ard ed f o r each e n t i r e S e n a t o r ia l D i s t r i c t . ^

B.

S e s s io n 1•

jf 1 0 3 9 ,

of

19 21

jA. :J ,031*O 0 T 1 cit i o n

in tro d u c e d

on ila r c h

fo r

15,

S c h o la rs h ip s

House B i l l

w as:

An A c t m a k i n g an a p p r o p r i a t i o n t o c a r r y o u t t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f an a c t a p p r o v e d t h e e i g h t e e n t h day o f J u l y , one th o u s a n d n in e h u n d red n in e te e n (P . L . 1 0 4 4 ), e n t i t l e d " A n A c t t o a s s i s t w o r t h y y o u n g t i e n m id women g r a d u a t e s o f s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s o f t h e s t a t e t o o b t a i n a h i g h e r e d u c a t i o n , and m a k in g an a p p r o p r i a t i o n . " 0

P u r d o n 's T itle

24,

P e n n s y lv a n ia . S t a t u t e s ,

Com pact

E d itio n ,

1956,

p .1125

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e P u rd o n ’ s, on. c i t . , p . 1100

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e

I,

19 2 1 ,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

p.

6

33;

T h e a m o u n t o f m o n ey - a p p r o v e d b y t h i s s h ip s w as $ 2 8 , 0 0 0

fo r

C. p o s t-h ig h

th is

1925.

i ’e b r u a r y

in

th e

s c h o la r '

b i e n n iu m .

o r p r o p o s a ls

th e le g i s la t iv e

s e s s io n .

S e s s io n 1.

of

No b i l l s

s c h o o l e d u c a tio n w e re l i s t e d

1).

7,

tw o y e a r s

S e s s io n o f 1 9 2 5

J o u rn a l fo r

A p r il

each o f th e

act fo r

F re e

o f 1 9 25 l i v e n i n g S c h o o ls

T h is w as in t r o d u c e d

1 0 b y M is s B e n t l e y .

P u b lic Law 1 5 9 , a s M o u se B i l l

The b i l l

p r o v id e d

# 670

on

th a t:

T h e b o a rd o f s c h o o l d i r e c t o r s o f any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t i n t h i s c o m m o n w e a lth , u p o n t h e w r i t t e n a p p l i c a t i o n o f t w e n t y o r m o re p e rs o n s above t h e age o f s ix t e e n y e a r s , r e s i d e n t s o f t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t , and n o t i n f u l l t i m e a t t e n d a n c e o f an y p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l d u r i n g t h e d a y , s h a l l o p en a f r e e e v e n in g s c h o o l f o r t h e i r i n s t r u c t i o n i n any c o u rs e o f s tu d y t a u g h t i n th e p u b lic s c h o o ls o f t h e d i s t r i c t ; e t c . 4 2. M ay 2 , th is

1925.

E x t e n s io n E d u c a tio n In tr o d u c e d

as S e n a t e B i l l

P u b l i c L a w if 4 9 2 ,

if 4 1 3 b y M r .

B a rr,

w as: An A c t t o p r o v i d e f o r t h e e q u a l i z a t i o n o f o p p o r t u n i t y an d t h e e n c o u r a g e m e n t o f t h e s t u d y o f c i t i z e n s h i p b y r e c o g n i t i o n o f ex­ t e n s i o n e d u c a t i o n f o r b o y s and g i r l s who a r e e m p lo y e d , a n d f o r a d u l t s as a f u n c t i o n o f t h e p u b l i c s c h o o ls o f t h i s C o m m o n w e a lth an d t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e p r o p e r o r g a n i z a t i o n and

4 P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s l a t i v e J o u r n a l . V o lu m e I V , p . 5 5 9 0 ; P u r d o n * s .o p . c i t . , p p .1 0 9 9 -1 1 0 0

1925,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

on

8i i a

a d m in is tra tio n e d u c a tio n . •3.

A p ril

Id ,

jr 1 6 5 2

in tro d u c e d

on i.ia r c ii

1911

"by

in

e x te n s io n

E. J o o rn a l

e d u c a tio n

50,

s c h o o ls

S e s s io n s

1. c u ltu ra l jb ill

S c h o o ls

jfl5 7 5 ,

end

of

th e s e

S e s s io n

by i^ r.

was

e x te n s io n

of

P u b lic Edmonds

& b ill

p a y m e n ts

no b i l l s

d u rin g

*

th is

in c lu d in g

lis te d

such

E x t en s i on E d n c a t ! o n

19 25.

of

of

fo r

to

Lav; y

as House i i i . l l

em end t h e

c e rta in

school

p a rt-tim e

code

te a c n e rs

c la s s e s .

1917

a n d 1 9 29

or

p ro p o s a ls

tw o

s e s s io n s .

The L e g is la t iv e fo r

p o s t-h ig h

school

19 51

E v e n i n g V o c a t i o n a l Kome E c o n o m ic s P u b lic

in tro d u c e d

5-17,

Lav ; fj= 1 7 6 ,

by i.Ir.

V ils o n ,

1.1ay th is

25,

and A g r i ­

1951

As H o use

was:

An A c t t o a m e n d s e c t i o n s o n e , f o u r , a n d n in e o f t h e A c t , a p p ro v e d t h e f i r s t day o f m a y , o n e th o u s a n d n i n e h u n d r e d and t h r i t e e n ( P . L . 1 5 3 ) , e n t i t l e d "A n A c t d e f i n i n g v o - • c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n ; p r o v id in g f o r s t a t e a id i n t h e m a in te n a n c e t h e r e o f ; and f o r t h e p a y ­ m ent o f t u i t i o n by c e r t a in sch o o l d i s t r i c t s , '■nd r e i m b u r s e m e n t t h e r e o f b y t h e S t a t e , " as am ended, by p r o v id in g f o r t h e a c c e p ta n c e o f d o n a tio n s f o r such s c h o o ls ; f u r t h e r d e f in in g p a r t - t i m e c o - o p e r a t i v e v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a tio n ; p r o v i d i n g f o r p a y m e n t s b y t h e C o m m o n w e a lt h f o r t h e m a in te n a n c e o f e v e n in g v o c a t i o n a l ho m e e c o n o m i c s a n d e v e n i n g v o c a t i o n a l a g r i ­ c u l t u r a l s c h o o l s a n d d e p a r t m e n t s , and a u th o r iz in g th e re q u ire m e n t o f d e p o s it fe e s f o r e n tra n c e th e i-e to .

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e P a r d o n ' s , o jj . c i t . , p . 1 0 7 5

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e

I,

1925,

p . 551

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e

J o u rn a l,

V o lu m e

aI

,

1925,

p . 2335

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e

J o u rn a l,

V o lu m e

IV ,

1951,

p . 5-47-'

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

O. h ig h

S e s s io n

school

s e s s io n 1.

of

S p o n so red in

m ent

of

of

Ko b i l l s

in tro d u c e d

th e

very

P u b lic

Law y

House by H r . m uch l i k e

an e d u c a t i o n a l

c o m m u n ity

19 5 5

S o e c ia l V o c a tio n a l,

C o m m e rc ia l S c h o o ls

lo o k s

1953

e d u c a tio n .

ii.

b ill

of

on

R u th

1 1 1 )4 ,

on A p r i l

s im ila r

S e c tio n

1

In d u s tria l

u u ly

a u th o riz a tio n

p ro g ram

c o lle g e s .

T rad e ,

of

in

th e

19,

13, fo r

1935

1935, ^ th is th e

e s ta b lis

fu n c tio n la w

and.

to

th a t

read s :

The S u p e rin te n d e n t o f P u b lic I n s t r u c ­ t io n s h n .ll h ave p o w er t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e need f o r , e s t a b lis h , s u p e r v is e , end con duct s i J e c i a l v o c a t i o n a l , t r a d e , i n d u s t r i a l , and c o m m e rc ia l s c h o o ls and c la s s e s i n c o o p e r ­ a t i o n w i t h s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s and i n c o o p e r ­ a t i o n w i t h e m p lo y m e n t , r e - e m p l o v m e n t , and a d ju s tm e n t o f f i c e s f o r th e t r a i n i n g , r e ­ t r a i n i n g , i n s t r u c t i o n , and a d ju s tm e n t o f p e r s o n s o v e r s i x t e e n y e a r s o f a g e w ho h a v e l e f t s c h o o l and who, due t o c h a n g in g con­ d itio n s , a re in need o f t r a in in g , r e ­ t r a i n i n g , end i n s t r u c t i o n i n o r d e r t o e n t e r o r r e - e n t e r e m p lo y m e n t o r t o c o n ­ t i n u e i n e m p lo y m e n t, a n d f o r such p u r p o s e s , s h a l l h a v e p o w e r t o e m p lo y t h e n e c e s s a r y t e a c h e r s , s u p e r v is o r s , and c o o r d in a t o r s t o co n d u ct such s p e c ia l s c h o o ls and c la s s e s i n an e f f e c t i v e m a n n e r , and t o p a y , fr o m t h e a p p r o p r i a t i o n m ade by t h i s a c t , and fro m o th e r a v a ila b le S t a t e fu n d s , a p p ro p ria te d to a id sch o o l d i s t r i c t s in th e e s ta b lis h m e n t and m a in te n a n c e o f v o c a t i o n a l s c h o o ls o r d e p a r tm e n ts , and fro m F e d e r a l fu n d s p r o ­ v id e d f o r t n e d e v e lo p m e n t and f u r t h e r de­ v e lo p m e n t o f v o c a t i o n a l e d u c a tio n , t h e s a la r ie s o f s a id R e a d e r s , s u p e r v is o r s , and c o o r d in a t o r s .

° 3

P e m -s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p . £431 P u rd o n ’ s,

ojd.

c it. ,

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e

±1,

1935,

p p .1 0 9 3 -1 0 9 9

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

fo r

uos

JO X.

S e s s io n

of

19:57

1. th e

fir s t

tim e

c o u u tte e B ill

N u rs e ry a b ill

w hen M r .

jf 1 3 1

p ro p o s in g

R o b e rts ,

S c h o o ls

ju n io r

on F e b r u a r y

and J u n io r

c o lle g e s 3,

cane

C o lle g e s

out

of

in tro d u c e d . S e n a te

os:

A n .A c t a m e n d i n g t h e S c h o o l O o d e o f 1911, a u th o riz in g d i s t r i c t s to e s ta b lis h n u r s e r y s c h o o ls an d j u n i o r c o l l e g e s , and a u th o riz in g S ta te te a c h e rs c o lle g e s to .a d m it o t h e r s t u d e n t s t h a n t h o s e p r e p a r i n g to te a c h . On n a y

35,

re a d in g

h r.

R u th

p o s tp o n e d ,

in c lu d in g

th e

c a lle d

up S e n a te

and m oved t o

fo llo w in g

B ill

d e le te

jrl'^ lj

on

second

p o rtio n s

of

th e

b ill,

s e c tio n :

The b o a rd o f s c h o o l d ir e c t o r s in a n y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t m ay w i t h t h e a p p r o v a l o f th e S t a t e C o u n c il o f E d u c a tio n e s t a b lis h j u n io r c o lle g e s and p r o v id e f o r th e s u p p o rt and m a in te n a n c e t h e r e o f by t a x a t i o n o r t u it io n o r b o th . No j u n i o r c o l l e g e s h a ll be e s t a b lis h e d i n any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t un­ l e s s t h e need t h e r e f o r i s c e r t i f i e d by th e S t a t e C o u n c il o f E d u c a tio n . A ll j u n i o r c o l l e g e s when e s t a b l i s h e d s h a l l m eet a l l re q u ire m e n ts p r e s c r ib e d by th e S t a t e C o u n c il o f E d u c a tio n . The D e p a rt­ m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n m ay o u t o f any s t a t e a p p r o T > r ia tio n a v a i l a b l e f o r such p u r p o s e m ake an a l l o t m e n t t o any s c h o o l d i s t r i c t m a i n t a i n i n g a j u n i o r c o l l e g e on a c c o u n t o f s a l a r i e s o f i n s t r u c t o r s i n such ju n io r c o lle g e s . Then h r . J u n io r

R u th m oved t o

C o lle g e s ."

It

am end t h e vras

title

by

seconded by M r.

s tr ik in g Lav; a n d

out

"and

fo llo w in g

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e

J o u rn a l,

V o lu m e V I I I ,

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s i a t iv e n o .5 6 3 2 -5 6 5 3

J o n m si ,

V o lu m e V ,

1937

19 3 7 ,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

s u b s e q u e n t S e n a te a p p r o v a l, th e H o u s e , w h e re

th e r e v is e d

as H ouse B i l l

£ 2503,

b ill it

-was s e n t t o

w as h e l d

in

th e

C o m m itte e on E d u c a t i o n . 2. 1'ro m i t s

s ta rt

m o ved q u i c k l y M r.

E x t e n s io n E d u c a tio n on M a r c h to

fin a l

2 as H o u s e B i l l s ig n a tu r e by

S h u g a rts p ro p o s e d t h i s

e d u c a tio n

act

passed

f o r E m p lo y e d P e r s o n s

in

th e

a s an a c t t o

1 9 25

£ 1125

th is

b ill

G o v e r n o r on M a y 1 0 . amend t h e

( P u b lic Law 49 2)

e x te n s io n

by:

p r o v id in g e d u c a t io n a l, r e c r e a t io n a l an d s o c i a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r o u t o f s c h o o l y o u t h who a r e e m p lo y e d ; b y r e d u c i n g t h e num ber o f p e t i t i o n e r s r e q u ir e d f o r a p p l i ­ c a t io n s f o r e x t e n s io n c la s s e s ; and by r e ­ q u ir in g c e r ta in q u a lif ic a t io n s f o r te a c h e r s and le a d e r s i n e d u c a t i o n . ^ 3. 1937. th e

V o c a t io n a l E d u c a tio n

R e p r e s e n ta tiv e B e c k e r ,

H ouse h is

e s ta b lis h in g la r g in g

th e

re p re s e n ts

th e

a n o th e r s te p

am o u n t o f On t h e

H ouse B i l l

fo r

fo r

s ta te

fo rw a rd

in

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a id

fo r

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1,

a m e n d in g t h e d e fin in g

s u b s id ie s ." 13 it

o u t - o f - s c h o o l y o u th

same d a y M r .

£1569

"An A c t

1913 by f u r t h e r

s ta te

J u ly

p la c e d b e f o r e

scope o f v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n ,

p r o v is io n s

scope o f t r a i n in g th e

on M a r c h 1 6 ,

B i l l £ 1504 e n title d ,

V o c a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n Lav/ o f

A ct £ 477,

and

and e n ­ T h is

act

e x te n d e d t h e and in c r e a s e d

such t r a i n i n g . H a r k in s "A n A c t

c a t i o n a l E d u c a tio n Law o f 1 9 1 3 b y

and M r .

B o le s

a m e n d in g t h e fu rth e r

p ro p o s e d

Vo­

d e fin in g

and

12 P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p •3 8 5 0

J o u r n a l,

v o lu m e I V ,

1937,

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p . 1427

J o u r n a l . V o lu m e I I ,

1937,

13

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

e x te n d in g

xae

recorm aended

ocope

" te c h n ic a l

m e rc ia l

e d u c a tio n ."

a id

get

c ity

1911

by

4.

fre e

c o m m itte e

cam e

c ity

in

fo r

e d u c a tio n . "

co v ered

in

e d u c a tio n " th e in

" b ill

th e

e s ta b lis h m e n t

of

o f th e

fir s t

c la s s

, " 15

to

C o m m itte e

on E d u c a t i o n

w h ere

it

d u c ed May th e

T rad e

te n th

c re a tio n

of

by m r.

L cU reesh ,

a tra d e

and m a k in g

an

S e n a te

w as t h e n

but

S c h o o ls

school t

a p p ro p ria tio n , fin a lly

in g

b ill w o rk t o

" v o c a tio n a l th e

house,

m e n tio n

com­ it

of

fre e

p r e s e n t e e . on t i r r c n

a i.ie n c .in g t h e

d is tric ts

5.

and

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school th e

v o c a tio n a l

passed

ff 1 9 3 9

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T h is

14

b e n rte .

u o lle ^ e s

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A lth o u g h

of

n o lm e s .

th e

in d u s tria l

out

c o lle g e s

□y n r .

v o c a tio n a l

e x te n d in g

in c lu d e

not

or

S c h o o l Code

S3 01

fre e

c ity

c o lle g e s

in

th e

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was r e f e r r e a

re m a in e d .

S e n a te B i l l

§

was

p ro v id in g

"A n A .c t

c itie s

reached

re c o m m itte d

of

1230,

th e

in tro ­

fir s t

fo r c la s s

second

re a d in g

to

c o m m itte e

th e

in

th e on

ap p r o p r i a t i o n s .

9.

S e s s io n

of

19 39

1. in tro d u c e d

th e

T rad e same k i n d

of

b ill

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e p .1434 Ib id . ,

S c h o o ls in

th is

Jo u rn a l,

R e p r e s e n t a t i v e m cC ree s e s s io n

as

in

V o lu m e I I ,

1937,

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I V ,

1957,

p .1738

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p . 3850

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

th e

93 19o7 th e

s e s s io n .

± :iis

same t i t l e

s e s s io n ,

as S e n a te

never

d id

2. house n i l l school

Code,

c is tric ts on

ho.

u ity 679

th e

e d u c a tio n

s id e ,

h ill

out

in tr o d u c e d m arch

y

of

1830

o f th e

c la s s

th e

c o m m itte e U r.

23.

p ro v id in g

it

b ill^

C o lle g e s

firs t:

F.

”-5 -3

c ity

on

re g u la r

a p p ro p r ia tio n s .

F s lk e n s te in

A b ill

fre e

o re v io u s

1 w ith

in tro a a u e u

’♦ a m e n d in g P u b l i c c o lle g e s

was r e f e r r e d

in

to

school

th e

c o m m itte e

s ta y e d .

V o c a tio n a l

In tro d u c e d it

th e

on k s r c h

w h ere 3.

1939.

get

1911,

of

tin e ,

S c h o o ls

as H o u s e h i l l V

A ct No. 1170

389,

on A p r i l

June

4 by fir .

86,

W ood-

was: An A c t p r o v i d i n g f o r p r a c t i c a l a n t s a n s v o c a t i o n a l a g r i c u l t u r e , hom e e c o n o m i c s , i n d u s ­ t r i a l an d c o m m e r c ia l s c h o o ls and c l a s s e s , th ro u g h p u b lic s ch o o l d i s t r i c t s and in c o o p e r­ a t i o n w i t h e m p lo y m e n t o f f i c e s f o r t h e t r a i n i n g , r e - t r a i n i n g , i n st r u c t i o n , an d a d j u s t m e n t o f o u t - o f - s c h o o l, u n a d ju s te d , in d iv id u a ls in o rd e r t o e n a b le th em t o e n t e r , r e - e n t e r , o r c o n t i n u e e m p lo y m e n t u n d e r c h a n g in g c o n d i t i o n s ; c o n ­ f e r r i n g p ow ers end im p o s in g d u t i e s upon t h e 2> u p e r i i x t e n d e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n , and. m a k i n g an a p p r o p r i a t i o n . ” 55-^ 4.

duced

c o m p a n io n ho.

of 1911,

17 18

659

E x te n s io n

E d u c a tio n

S e n a te h i l l s was

a u th o r iz in g

a b ill, school

n u m b e re d

p .342

Ib id .,

p . 1167

659

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to

and 660 P u b lic e n te r

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p . 474

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ho m sh er:

A c c o rd in g t o th e p r o v is io n s o f t h i s b i l l , th e id e a is to p e rm it v o c a tio n a l t r a i n i n g in c e r t a i n d i s t r i c t s w h ere t h e r e a re n o t l a r g e enough c la s s e s o r a s u f f i c i e n t am ount o f w o rk , t o m a i n t a i n a t e a c h e r p e r m a n e n t ly ; so t h a t a t e a c h e r fro m 8 t a t e c o lle g e i n e x te n s io n w o rk , c a n go i n t h e r e o n e o r tw o d a y s a w e e k and i n s t r u c t t h o s e p u p i l s , ana u n e i r t u i t i o n

20

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j o u r n a l . V o lu m e l u x ,

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e p . 3708

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I V ,

1939,

13 3 9 ,

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£2,

w o u l d oe p a i d t h e s a n e a s t h e s a l a r i e s of" t h e i r r e g u l a r l y e m p lo y e d t e a c h e r s i s p a i d , t h a t i s , p a r t oy t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t and a p r o p o r t i o n a t e a m o u n t oy t h e S t a t e , i n t h e s a n e p r o p o r t i o n as o t h e r t e a c h e r s i n t h a t d i s t r i c t e r e p a i d . :' 2 ‘i h e j; o l l o v . i i i o in

b ill

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. . . . a s i l l e m e n d in g t h e V o c a t i o n a l E d ­ u c a tio n A c t o f 1 3 1 3 , g iv in g school d i s t r i c t s power t o e n t e r i n t o c o n tr a c ts w it h j ^ b H c i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h i g h e r l e a r n i n g f o r t h e con­ d u c t o f c la s s e s t o c o m p e n s a te su c h i n s t i t u t i o n t h e r e f o r , and p r o v i d i n g f o r a p a r t i a l r e im ­ b u r s e m e n t o f s u c h m o n e y s f r o m S t a t e and. f e d e r ­ a l f u n d s . 23 T h is of

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Ib id . P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I I ,

1939,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

p .1654

96 t h e am ount p r e v i o u s ly p a id t o t h e p u b l i c i n s t i t u t i o n o f h ig h e r l e a r n i n g i t e m i s e d as t o s a l a r i e s , t r a v e l , end. s u c h o t h e r c o s t s and e x p e n d itu r e s as a p p e a re d in t h e a p p ro v e d c o n tra c t. On t h e b a s i s o f s u c h s t a t e m e n t th e b t a t e S u p e rin te n d e n t o f P u b lic I n s t r u c ­ t i o n as t h e e x e c u t i v e o f f i c e r o f t h e b t a t e B o erd f o r V o c a t io n a l E d u c a tio n s h a ll by r e ­ q u i s i t i o n upon t h e b t a t e T r e a s u r e r r e im b u r s e th e s a iu sc n o o l d is t x 'ic t f o r th o s e ite m s in th e s ta te m e n t t h a t a re r e im b u r s a b le fro m S t a t e and f e d e r a l fu n d s i n a c c o rd a n c e w i t h r u le s ana r e g u la t io n s p ro v id e d in th e S t a t e and I 'e a e r a l V o c a t i o n a l B d u c a tio n A c t s . ^ .

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M r . l-.o r a s h e r : M r . P r e s i d e n t , I do n o t k n o w a n y t h i n ^ a b o u t an o b j e c t i o n o f t h a t h i n d . T h is b i l l does n o t a p p ly s p e c i f i c a l l y t o S ta te C o lle g e , i t a p p lie s to a l l c o lle g e s t h a t do e x t e n s i o n w o r k ; a n d t h e p u r p o s e o f t h i s b i l l i s t o p r o v i e e some o f t h o s e d i s ­ t r i c t s t h a t have n o t s u f f i c i e n t c la s s e s f o r v o c a tio n a l t r a in i n g , p ro v id e t u i t i o n f o r t h o s e w ho w a n t t o t e a c h a t a l e s s e r c o s t t h a n t h o s e who w o r k a s f u l l t i m e te a c h e rs . M r . W oodw ard: T h e n , L lr . P r e s i d e n t ,

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37 ■ th a t p e r s o n w ho s a i d i t w i l l b e n e c e s s a r y t o s t e a l an e n g i n e e r t o do t h i s e x t e n s i o n w o rk m ust be h a n d lin g t h e t r u t h i n a v e r y c a re le s s m a ru e r i.ir. Edm onds; U r . x ' r e s i o e n t , m ay I c a l l t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f t h e Lien a t o r f r o m P h i l a d e l p h i a , *,.r. b 'o o d w a rd , t h a t t h e f i r s t s e n te n c e re a e s : " i n t e r i n t o c o n tr a c t sub­ j e c t t o 'che a p p r o v a l o f m e S t a t e d u o e r i n oenc e n t o f P u d I I c I n s t r u c t i o n . n fh e B t e t e S u p e r in te n d e r .t i s ^ iv e n f u l l a u t h o r i t y i n t h e m a t t e r , a n d t h e r e :>.t s e e m s t o b e a m is u n d e rs ta n d in g h e r e . I e^ ree w it h th e s e n a to r fro m L a n c a s te r , i t i s e diood t h i n ^ f o r t h e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s t o h a v e p o w e r t o m ake such c o n t r a c t s w h e re n e e c e d , p a r t i c u l a r l y w h ere th e c h ild r e n n e e d p e r ­ sonal in s tru e tio n . A f a c t o r y m ay com e i n t o a c o m m u n ity w h e r e t h e r e i s n e e d f o r s p e c i a l in s t r u c t io n , p erh ap s s c i e n t i f i c in s t r u c t io n , a l o n 0 some l i n e , and i f t h e y can o b t a in th a t in s tru c tio n f r o m a c o l l e y e on a c h e a p b a s i s , end w i t h a c o n t r a c t t h e o t a c e S u p e r ­ i n t e n d e n t m u s t a p p r o v e , i t s e e m s t o me i t m ust be a pood t i l i n g f o r e d u c a t i o n . 2^

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1940,

34 I'd ia . ,

p . 733

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p . 644

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p . 735

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jf 1 0 7 6 ,

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p .1 3 7 7

40

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p .1375

R e p re s e n ta tiv e

v o lu m e

II,

1945,

41 Ib id .,

p . 1374

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

L ic lu illa n

±0 A n ii.c t r e l a t i n g 'to s c n o l c r s h i ' D l o a n s i or ec.ucc t i o n ; m a k i n g l o - r . o a v e i l a b l e by t n e t o : . u i o r u . e c l t h ; _ ; r e s c r i ’o i n tc c e r t a i n t e r n s a n d c o : . u i t i o ; ; s u n d e r w n ic ia l o o n s s l i o u l d be m e t e ; i u . j 0 2 i n b u n t i e s end c o n f e r r i n g t o w e r s U ijo u t n e n e p a r t i . i e n t o f P u b l i c i n s t r u c t i o n ana o t s t e 'J o u n c il o f R d u c c tio n ; e r e c t i n g t n e o t a t e J c h o i a . r s h i p lio o n s F u n d ; en d m a ltin g an a p p r o p r i a t i o n . ' - 2 In tro d u c e d sent

to

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by R e p r e s e n ta tiv e s

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1947,

fre e

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end

b ill

w as

th e

school

in

in

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d is tric ts

c o m m itte e . Act No.

565,

title :

An A c t c r e a t i n g a c o m m is s io n t o s tu d y th e e d u c a t io n a l f a c i l i t i e s and n e e d s o f th e c it iz e n s in c e r t a in e d u c a tio n a l f i e l d s ; th e f i n a n c i n g , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and o t h e r f e a t u r e s o f c o lle g ia te in s t it u t io n s ; p re s c rib in g th e p o w e rs and d u t i e s ; and m a k in g an a p p r o p r i ­ a t i o n . 45 ■ fliis

42 43 44

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is

th e

act

v d iic h

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th e

d is s e r-

p .1164

.P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e Reims,.. I v a n i a L e g i s l a t i v e p . 2468

J o u rn a l,

V o lu m e I ,

1947

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I I I ,

p . 247

1947,

45 .P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e

J o u rn a l,

in

in tro d u c e d ,

h d u c e tio n

s h o rt

one

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n o tli b i l l s

C o m m is s io n th is

th is

19-17

[,f 7 2 9 ) -k- h y w r .

b e u a te ,

i.m i.Iillc n ,

on E d u c a t io n .

of

d ree

{,/- 1 5 3 ) ^

house,

by r e p r e s e n t a t i v e

V o lu m e I ,

1947,

p . 294

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

XU ■ c a tio n

c a lle d ,

" lie

c e c in j

c la tte r. 3.

U o lle u e

s e n a to r

^

245

Pe. A s y l v s n i s

on m a r c h

n s lu e r 3,

s tu d y ,"

C o u rses

c is i

Act no.

in tro d u c e d

th is

;d i n

7 -A ,

act

th e

o re-

1947

as S e n a te S i l l

e n title d :

An A c t m a k i n g c e r t a i n a p p r o p r i a t i o n s t o t r ie D e p a r t m e n t o f x -h ib lic I n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e p aym en t o f t h e c o s t o f c o n d u c tin g c e r t a i n c o l l e g e c o u r s e s and c l a s s e s f o r t h e f i s c a l b ie n n iu m e n d in g u a y t h i r t y - f i r s t , one th o u s a n d n in e h u n d red f o r t y - s e v e n . S p e c ific a lly ,

th e

a p p ro p ria tio n

was t o

be

. . . f o r th e paym ent o f th e co s t o f s u p p l i e s , r e n t , e q u ip m e n t , and o t h e r e x ­ penses o f every u e s c r ip t io n n e c e s s a ry in th e o r p a n in a t io n and co n d u c t by th e u o m u o n w e n l t h o f c o l i e p e c o u r s e s an d c l a s s e s f o r v e t e r a n s and o t h e r a p p l i c a n t s f o r c o l l e j e t r a i n i n g w ho c a n n o t b e a d m i t t e d t o e s t a b l i s h e d c o l l e g e s and u n i v s r s i t i e s in P e n n s y lv a n ia b ecau se o f lo d k o f ca­ p a c it y o f th e s e i n s t i t u t i o n s . 4.

A r e a .0 o l l e c e s

A e n o .to r b a l i c e r ,

/r

1,44

on m a r c h

3,

in

Act ho.

in tro d u c in g

56, th is

iie y

5,

as S e n a t e

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title

An A c t

46 47

Ib id . ,

p . 511

Ib id . ,

p .863

ib id . ,

p . 520

h ill

s ta te d :

I n J u n e , 1 9 4 6 a s u r v e y showed t h a t a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 4 , 0 0 0 y o u t h s - v e t e r a n s and n o n - v e t e r a n s - c o u l d n o t b e acco m m o d ated i n P e n n s y l v a n i a c o l l e g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . fh e

1947

of

th is

p ro v id in g

b ill fo r

_

read: th e

e s ta b lis h m e n t

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

105 o f t s ^ o r r j y c o l l e g e c e n t e r s in . c o o p e r a t i o n w i t h c e r t a i n a c c r e d i t e d c o l l e g e s and u n i ­ v e r s i t i e s to m eet c e r t a in e d u c a tio n a l needs o f v e te r a n s ena o th e r s ; c r e a t in g th e A re a 0o l l e 0 e o e n t e r J o m i s s i o n , a te m p o ra ry de­ p a r t m e n t a l aend n i s t r e t i v e c o m m is s io n i n t h e ■ d e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n and d e ­ f i n i n g i t s pow ers and d u t i e s ; p r o v i d i n g f o r t n e c r e a t i o n o f c e r t a i n l o c a l c o m m itte e s e n d d e f i n i n g t h e i r ..o i v e r s e n d d u t i e s ; raid :a r a c in g c e r t a i n a p p r o p r i a t i o n s . Among t h e

p ro v is io n s

of

th is

v:es o n e w h i c h r e a c .:

b ill

O n l y f i r s t y e a r o r f r e s h inn a n d s e c o n d y e a r o r sophom ore c o l l e g e c o u rs e s s h a l l b e e s t a b l i s h e d i n a r e a c o l l e g e c e n t e r s . 50 5.

if 4 5 d , ashed v ic in g

A rte n d e d n ig h

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iV p ril 1 ,

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fo r

an

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la v ; 309

e x te n d e d h ig h

The b i l l

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Upon a p p ro v a l o f t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n o f th e c o u n ty s u p e r in te n d e n t o r d i s t r i c t s u p e rin te n d e n t o f th e d i s t r i c t in w h ic h a n y h i g h s c h o o l i s l o c a t e d e x t e n d e d h ig h s c h o o l w o rk o f one o r tw o y e a r s b e y o n d t h a t p r o v id e d by a s i x y e a r o r f o u r y e a r o r t h r e e y e a r h i g h s c h o o l m ay b e g i v e n i n a n y s c h o o l d i s t r i c t o f t h e u o n ia o n w e a lth . Such w o rk s h a l l be o f l e s s th a n c o lle g e g ra d e and g i v e n f o r n o t l e s s t h a n one h u n d re d e i g h t y d a y s i n e a c h y e a r and s h e l l c o n fo r m

50 51

Ib id . ,

by

pro-

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P u b 1 i c L aw 50 9 :

49

S e n a te B

p . 5 21

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p p .1 7 6 1 -1 7 6 3

J o u r n a l . V o lu m e I I ,

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g is l a t iv e p . 105 2

J o u rn a l,

V o lu m e I ,

1947, 1947,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

to

10 3 "go t i i e i ' e g u l q ' g i o n s e s t a . u l i 3n e & b y t h e p a rtm e n t o f P u b li c I n s t r u c t i o n . b2 ..e re in

tn e

it

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be

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S e n a te b i l l

G o vern o r

De­

c o lle g e le g is ­

c o lle g e s

458

passed

o f P e n n s y lv a n ia

v e to e d

s ta te d :

•'file p u b l i c s c h o o l s o f t h e C o m r a o n w e a lt h n ow p r o v i d e 1 2 y e a r s o f p r e - c o l l e g e e d u c a t i o n . I f t h i s b i l l b ec o m es l a w , i t w o u ld be p o s s i b l e t o e x t e n d t h i s t r a i n i n g t o t h e 1 3 t h and 1 4 t h y ears. T h i s w o u ld e f f e c t i n p o r t e n t ch a n g e s in our p re s e n t e d u c a tio n a l o r g a n iz a tio n . A num ber o f S t a t e s h a v e t a k e n t h i s s t e p , and i t nay w e ll be t h a t P e n n s y lv a n ia w i l l u l t i m a t e ly w i l l do l i k e w i s e . f o r m a n y y e a r s some o f o u r s c h o o l s h a v e in c lu d e d in t h e i r a tte n d a n c e p o s t-g r a d u a te s tu d e n ts . F r a c t i c a l l y a l l o f th e s e w ere t a k i n g c o m m e rc ia l w o rk , i n d u s t r i a l e d u c a t io n , o r some o t h e r t y p e o f w o r k v / h i c h h e l p e d t o f i t th e m f o r g a i n f u l e m p lo y m e n t; o t h e r s t o m eet c o lle g e e n tra n c e re q u ir e m e n ts . I n some s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s o f t h e f i r s t and s e c o n d c l a s s p o s t - h i g h s c h o o l s t u d e n t s a re e n r o lle d in a d u lt v o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n c la s s e s . D u rin g th e p re s e n t b ie n n iu m th e s e d i s t r i c t s w e r e r e i m b u r s e d lOOyy o f t h e m i n i ­ mum s a l a r i e s o f t n e t e a c h e r s who c o n d u c t e d th e c la s s e s and d u r in g t h e n e x t b ie n n iu m th e d i s t r i c t s w i l l be re im b u rs e d a t th e r a t e o f p 2 .0 0 p e r h o u r . The e n ro llm e n t o f th e s e p o s t-g r a d u a te s t u d e n t s h a s v a r i e d fro m 5 , 5 9 5 i n 19 3 5 - 1 9 34 to 424 in 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 . I t is e v id e n t th a t t h is e n ro llm e n t in c re a s e s d u rin g th e p e rio d s o f u n e m p lo y m e n t. I t is e n t i r e ly p o s s ib le t h a t i f t h i s b i l l becam e la v ; t h e s c h o o l d i s -

52

P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e p . 3957

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e

1 /,

in

1947,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

10 7 t r a c t s v/o alct m a k e t h e i r 1 5 t h a n a 1 4 t h y e a r s m o re a t t r a c t i v e and t h u s in c r e a s e e n r o l l ­ m e n t i n t h e s e y e a r s a l l o r w h ic h w i l l r e ­ s u l t i n in c r e a s e d c o s t to th e S t a t e and th e lo c a l d is t r ic t . h e do n o t n o w h a v e a v a i l a b l e s u f f i c i e n t d a ta t o f o r e c a s t a c c u r a t e ly t h e amount o f th e s e in c re a s e d c o s ts . ho p r o v is io n s have b e e n m a d e t o s u s t a i n t h e S t a t e s s h a r e i n my b u d g e t. f u r t h e r m o r e , we do n o t y e t k n o w w h a t c u r r i c u l a s h o u ld be o f f e r e d d u r in g t h e s e years. Th e a n s w e r t o t u i s Q u e s tio n n a y be d e te r m in e d m ore i n t e l l i g e n t l y by t h e r e s u l t s o f th e s tu d y o f h ig h e r e d u c a t io n a l f a c i l i ­ t i e s t o b e m ade b y t h e J o i n t S t a t e u -o v e rn n e n t U 'o n m is s io n u n d e r t h e a u t h o r i t y o f H o u s e H i l l H o . 2 1 6 , P r i n t e r s H o . 4 2 5 , and. t h e s t u d i e s m ade i n c o n n e c t io n w i t h t h e r e v i s i o n o f p u b l i c s c h o o l c u r r i c u l a t o b e made b y t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n u n d e r t h e A u tn o r ity o f S e n a te H i l l h o . 5 5 4 , P r in t e r s HO. 5 6 b . I'o r th e s e re a s o n s , th e b i l l is n o t a p p r o v e d . 53,5

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School

G o v e r n o r Jam es I I . D u f f , V e t o I . o . 5 5 , P e n n s y lv a n ia L e g i s l a t i v e J o u r n a l, 1947

T h ree

7,

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on

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1947,

D iS ilv e s tro , 1 9 4 9 , p. 195

re p re s e n ta tiv e

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in

t

10 8

d ir e c tin g of

tn e

tiie

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fir s t

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in

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e s ta b lis h

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o f P u b lic

a c ity

in

c itie s

C o l l e g e . !,5b

school of

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th e

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rr 2 £ o b y i . , r .

J u n io r C o lle g e

Johnson

on J a n u a r y

51,

1S42,

In tro d u c e d it

as h o u

v/as l a b e l e d :

An A c t e s t a b l i s u i n g t h e u c K e a n C o u n t y J u n i o r C o lle g e as a S t a t e j u n i o r c o l l e g e i n o r n e a r th e c i t y o f B ra d fo rd ; p r o v id in g f o r t h e m a n a g e r ,le n t t h e r e o f b y r? d e p a r t m e n t a l a d ­ m i n i s t r a t i v e b o a rd w i t h i n th e D e p a rtm e n t o f P u b lic I n s t r u c t i o n and d e f i n i n g th e p o w e rs and d u t i e s o f s u c h b o a r d ; p r o v i d i n g f o r ad­ m i s s i o n t o s a i d j u n i o r c o l l e g e , ana m a k in g an a p p r o p r i a t i o n t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f P r o p e r ty and S u p p lie s f o r tn e paym ent o f th e c o s ts o f th e a c q u i s i t i o n o f la n d and t h e con­ s t r u c t i o n and e q u i p p i n g o f b u i l d i n g s and f a c i l i t i e s and m a in te n a n c e c o s t s . 5 ® file

b ill

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1949, Act

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1947,

re a d in g

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m r.

by

th e House b u t

S e n a te ,

c a le n d a r ;

h r.

w a lk e r

seconded by

v o te .

J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I ,

1949,

p . 849

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l

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m ill

A d u l t D d u c a n io n

?/- 70 6 o n h e r d i

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re im b u rs e m e n ts on

e x te n s io n

account

by

th e

o f v o c a tio n a l

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e d u c a tio n .

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on m a rc h

Pechan in tro d u c e d

e n title d ,

1911 by in c r e a s in g

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tim e

21,

h r.

21 ,

e d u c a tio n

by h r .

S e n a te B i l l

n o lln n d ,

if 7 1 2 ,

was:

An A c t t o am end t h e a c t a p p r o v e d t h e t e n t h day o f I" a rc h one th o u s a n d n in e h u n ­ d r e d f o r t y n in e ( A c t H o. 14) e n t i t l e d : "A n A c t r e l a t i n g t o t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m i n c l u d i n g c e r t a i n p r o v is io n s a p p lic a b le as w e l l t o p r i v a t e and p a r o c h i a l s c h o o ls , a m e n d in g , r e v i s i n g , c o n s o l i d a t i n g , and c h a n g in g th e la w s r e l a t i n g t h e r e t o , " by f u r t h e r i n s u l a t i n g t h e c o m p e n s a tio n o f p a r t- tim e te a c h e rs d e fin in g " d ir e c te d s tu d y " n r d h u r t h e r r e g u l a t i n g e x te n s io n e d u c a tio n . ° lin e n 13,

h r.

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it

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c o m m itte e b e c a u s e th e fu rth e r."

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th a t

above

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re s x fL te d

in

th e

d is c u s s io n :

h r . H o lla n d : h r . P r e s id e n t , I h a p p e n t o be on t h a t c o m m itte e , and t h e y g a ve th e b i l l v e r y c a r e f u l s t u d y , and t h e y had p e r s o n s i n t e r e s t e d a p p e a r b e f o r e t l i e C o m m itte e . I t w a s t h e u n a n i m o u s o p i n i o n o f t h e Com­ m itte e to have th e b i l l re p o rte d o u t. I t h i n k p ro p e r s tu d y ha s been g iv e n t h i s b i l l , b u t I do n o t k n o w w h a t t h e D e p a r t ­ m e n t o f P u b l i c I n s t r u c t i o n h a s done on

P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s l a t i v e J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I f , '0.11533 o9 “ P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s i a t i v e J o u r n a l , V o lu m e I V , o. 3260

00

1349, 1949,

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

1 1 0

t h i s , said :.ia y b e t h e y s t e p p e d i n e n d u i c t e t e d t o t h e s a u c p ui o n U o . i. . . . it t e e l i k e th e y h sve been d i c t a t i n g t o th e E d u c a tio n ^Ol-Uili l# u 8 0» i - i r . P r e s i d e n t , I e.sk t h a t t h e b i l l go o v e r u n t i l we h a v e t h e i n t e r e s t e d p a r t i e s i n t h e d i s c u s s i o n b e f o r e i t g o e s b e er, t o t h e C o m m itte e t o be k i l l e a . ^ . t l e a s t we c a n n o l d i t f o r a n o t h e r d a y o r so b e f o r e v;e f i n a l l y k i l l i t . I r u s t c o n fe s s , you h a v e t n e v o t e s t o k i l l i t when y o u w a n t t o k i l l i t , b u t i s i t n i c e t o b u r y i t on ta s te r hond&y. i h e r e a re s o re p e o p le w ho acre v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s b i l l . i„ r . W a l k e r : n r . P r e s i d e n t , no.y I s u g g e s t t o t h e g e n t l e m a n f r o m A l l e g h e n y , b e n at o r i i o l l c n d , t h a t th e r e s sou f o r s e n d in g th e b i l l back is f o r f u r t h e r s tu d y . i..r . i i o l l a i a : H r . P re s id e n t, tn e b i l l r.ru s t b e p a s s e d i n o r d e r t o h a v e " d i r e c t e d s tu d y ". 'fh a t i s i n th e b i l l . A v o ic e

v e to

a p p ro v e d

th e n o t io n .

6.

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to

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s c h o o l v o c a tio n a l

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^ 5 0 0 ,0 0 0 ,

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6

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u e n e ra l fu n d p ro m o te

on A p r i l

g c h o o l V o c a t io n a l E d u c a tio n

b ill

out

jf 8 5 7

of

th e

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to

e d u c a tio n .

v /o u ld h a v e u t i l i z e d

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p a s s in g

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in

tn e

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in

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on E d u c a t io n . P.

S e s s io n !•

00

61

C ity

of

1951

C o lle g e s

th e

s e s s io n

-Lbid. , p . 0 £ 0 0 Ibid.,

p.^rObl

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on

ill

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1j

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re c o w m e n d i n g ta b li3 n in g

a

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to

each

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w r itin g . th e

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a p p r o p r ia te

N o te :

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natc i n t r o d u c e d n o u s e B i l l

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be

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s e s s io n

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th a t

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s till

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s e s s io n s in c e

is

tim e , S ta te

02

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°° 64

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J o u rn a l, 1951,

to

p . 107

Ib id .

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th e

112

r e . aisylvfinia lav; ..icicers, tcA ;xon

_i_n d Icvc-ai* ch.vyter,

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C x x A P ijlA

V

D E V _ ^ u u x i . ± Ui*

- ii± i; U - - _ T ..G P O T E .. T IA L

x1uLL x‘Ii.— j

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r e la tio n s h ip

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in

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is

im p o r ta n c e cost

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it

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c o lle g e ,

a f Y CGLLxAtdS

lia s

s tu c e n t

to

cost

d e te r m in e d b y ain o n s t h e s e

end. n u m b e r o f sh o w n t l i a t c o s ts

o p o r^ te of

nny

r. n u m b e r

b e in ^

th e

s tu d e n ts

d i­

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TABLE I I I A IK IllJ i.; JU N IO R COLLEGE L .K O L L m E H io AEGOIG .EUDED BY VA RIO U S ABTTiO R IT I E S a nam e o f n u tn o rity

D a te

Zook .b ro o m h o ly Joyal S u m m it A lle n A d cu.xs G r iffith S tra y e r E o w lk e s a n d A lir n s b r s k

1 9 23 1 9 23 1 3 29 1932 13 ob 1336 1940 1345

iZOS

S t a x r a le a n d hushes

llin ira u m 75

no. o f r e g u la r s tu d e n ts 100 150 200

recom m enced

x X

* “ UVt~ }k

X x 250

1947

X

1947 1943

17 5 - 2 0 0 1 7 5 -2 U U

a. A. B. P a t r i c k , Q r i t e r i a f o r th e L o c a tio n o f P u b lic J u n io r C o lle g e s i n P e n n s y lv a n ia , U n p u b lis h e d D o c to r o f E d u c a tio n D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 3 4 9 , p . 35

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

114 x‘T o ;a r s c o r . u u e n d e t i o n s w e ll

os

fro m

im p re s s io n s

g a th e re d

on t i e

s u b je c t

p u b lic

c o m u u i oy c o l l e g e s ,

c. d e s i r a b l e

of

e n ro llm e n ts

m in im u m

p u b lic

o o i.m u n ity

tra to r

to

o ffe r

lis te d

s iz e

in

tiie

ir o n

o rd e r Such

p ro g ra m

s u ite d

and

seems t o

e c o n o m ic a lly

e n a b le s to

es

c o lle g e s

s tu d e n ts

o p e ra te

a s iz e

ta b le

end d is c u s s io n

ju n io r

tim e

to

above

re a d in g

p u b lic

fu ll

200

c o lle g e . c v a r ie d

in

in

th e

th e

oe a

a d m in is ­

needs

of

th e

s tu d e n ts . A s s u m in g s tu d e n ts p u b lic d ic t

re p a ire d

th e

b e fo re

num ber o f

c o lle g e V

th e

num ber

th e

d is tr ic t

lo c a te d . th o s e

of

it

s tu d e n ts in

w h ic h

a u th o ritie s c r ite r io n .

s tu d e n ts

in

in

w o u ld

fe a s ib le

to

e s ta b lis h ,

c r i t e r i a , m ig h t

be

used to

th e

(se e on

in

be

fu ll

tim e

e n ro lle e s

m ost w id e ly

used

th e

h ig h

(g ra d e s

p u b lic

fa b le

ju n io r

school

c o m m u n ity

IY )

s u m m a riz e d

c o lle g e

u s in g

th is

th e re

h ig h

school

to

th e

p u b lic

ju n io r

tim e

in

th e

f o r P e n n s y lv a n ia

s tu d e n ts

fu ll

whet

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th e

m in im u m . n u m b e r - o f

p o te n tia l

P ro b a b ly

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posed th a t

tim e

as t h e

c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e ,

m u n ity

th is

200

p re ­

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a

is

is of

to

be

th in k in g

of

d e v e lo p m e n t who u se same c r i t e r i o n ,

s h o u ld be

p r o v id e

at

le a s t

a m in im u m

of

p ro ­ 800 200

fu ll

c o lle g e .

•TABLE I Y N AidES, D A TE S , AND U I< Ilv :U jn H lG ii SOxiOOL Bi-4K0LIAj.Ei.fi1 IQ &ITIO W ED BY V AR IO U S V h llY B B S AS A RBQ>. IR E .IB N T ^ BOR BSTiu3LISHvIBi.-4 T OB A P u B L IO JU N IO R OOnLEG-E a Name o f h r i t e r iio r r is H o ly u -re e n n e lls

D a te 1 9 29 1 9 29 1 9 29 1931

m in im u m h i g h

school

e n ro llm e n t

900 375 875 400

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

115 TAELE I V i.c j.ie o f h r i t e r

D a te

u oy a l

1932

Uui.i:.ii t A lle n i*U O-Jlo G r iffith lo o s

1953 19 56 1940 1945 19 4 5

ivo o s

1947

( OGMTII.UHb) M in im u m h i g h 3 .7 5

school

e n ro llm e n t

h ig h s c h o o l s tu d e n ts to 1 ju n io r c o lle g e s tu d e n t

9 00 1100

1500 500 3 tin e s

d e s ir e d ju n io r c o lle g e e n ro llm e n t

5 0 0 -6 0 0

a. it. n . P a t r i c k , C r i t e r i a T o r th e L o c a t io n o f P u b lic J u n io r C o lle g e s i n P e n n s y lv a n ia , U n p u b lis h e d D o c to r o f E d u c a tio n D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y , 1 9 4 9 , p . 50 An a b le

v a r ia tio n

school fo r

e x a m in a tio n in

e n ro llm e n ts

p u b lic

ju n io r

by H o l y

w o u ld

c o lle g e

s tu d e n t;

a ra tio

of

J tlo o s ,

tn e

3 :1

6

o f T a b le s r a tio s

to

a p p ro x im a te

fo r

1;

A lle n ,

C a lifo r n ia

T h e ra

is

m o re

no f o r m u la e n ro llm e n ts

m u n ity

c o lle g e s .

P r e s id e n t

u c a tio n

( h is

o ffe re d

in

s ta te d te rm

th e

th a t

fo r

k in d

of

th e

if

school of

th a n

in

about

3 .7 5

1;

c o n s id e r ­

of

ju n io r of

th e

p ro g ra m p o s t- h ig h

c o m m u n ity

re com m ended re co m m e n d e d

to

1

to

1;

G r iffith ,

ju n io r S u m m it, 2 .5

to

1;

and P e n n s y lv a n ia .

ca n be u s e d t o

p u b lic

a fu ll

ra tio

s tu d e n ts

7 to

S to d d a rd " ^ "

p u b lic

th e

f o r M a r y la n d

w h ic h

ty p e

in d ic a te s

e n ro llm e n ts

e x a m p le ,

and 4 :1

p o te n tia l

has

tim e

a r a tio

ra te ly

Illin o is

fu ll

h ig h

6

and I V

r e c o m m e n d e d m in im u m h i g h

fo r

b y < J o y a l,

to

of

m in im u m

C o lle tte s .

I I I

p re d ic t

c o lle g e s u n iv e r s ity

o f te rtia ry school

c o lle g e

accu­

or

com­

of ed­

e d u c a tio n

a d v o c a te d b y

G e o rg e D. S t o d d a r d , T e r t i a r y E d u c a t i o n , C a m b rid g e , M a s s a ­ c h u s e tts , H a rv a rd U n iv e r s it y ' P re s s , 1 9 4 4 , 36pp. ( i h e I n &l i s L e c tu r e , 1944)

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

11

th is

d is s e r ta tio n )

a r tis u ic , a te s

w o u ld

fin is h duce

w e re

e s ta b lis h e d

and v o c a t io n a l e n te r

and a v e r y

a c o m p le te a d u lts

lin e s ,

a lo n g m e n ta l,

30p o f

s u b s ta n tia l

tw o y e a r p r o g ra m .

a tte n d in g

our

e v e n in g

h ig h

school

p ro p o rtio n

(N o te :

c la s s e s ,

r e c r e a tio n a l

ana

g ra d u ­

w o u ld

th is

does

e a rt

tin e

not

in ­

s tu d e n ts ). S t a r r ale a n d h u g h e s h a v e p r o p o s e d m e tn o d o f

a p p r o x im a tin g

p o te n tia l

ju n io r

th e

fo llo w in g

c o lle g e

e n ro llm e n t:

T h e m a x im u m t o t a l c o l l e g e e n r o l l m e n t , a t l e a s t i o r some y e a r s t o c o m e , w i l l o r o b a — b l y n o t a m o u n t t o m o r e t h a n 27)o o f y o u t h 1 3 t o 21 y e a r s o f a g e ( o n l y o n e s t a t e , U t a h , h a s a p p r o a c h e d t h i s ) ; 36?„ o f t h e t o t a l c o lle g e e n r o llm e n t i s i n th e fre s h m a n y e a r; 6 0 /j o f t h e f r e s h m e n w i l l c o n t i n u e i n t h e s o p h o m o r e y e a r * ; a b o u t 33;i? o f t h e t o t a l c o lle g e e n r o llm e n t w i l l be i n th e f i r s t and se co n d y e a r s o f th e j u n i o r c o lle g e s , a n d 57)3 w i l l b e i n t h e f o u r y e a r c o l l e g e s . i'h e p r o c e d u r e u s e d b y th e m io r ta s k

e n tire th a n

cases.

in

e s tim a tin g

s ta te s . to

w ro te

s u g g e s te d

th e th e

I t

jo b tw o

p u b lic

p ro b a b ly

of

by

ju n io r

w o u ld

p r e d ic tin g

a u th o rs

of

S ta rra k

and h u g h e s w as

c o lle g e

be m o re

e n ro llm e n ts

th e

e n ro llm e n ts

s u ite d fo r

to

th a t

in d iv id u a l

a b o v e m e th o d :

O t h e r s e x p e c t t h e m a x im u m e n r o l l m e n t i n ju n io r c o lle g e s t o e q u a l one t h i r d o f t h e c u r r e n t h i g h s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t .............. I t is o u r o p in io n t h a t th e s e e s tim a te s a re based upon th e m ost fa v o r a b le con­ d i t i o n s im a g in a b le end a re m uch h ig h e r t h a n may r e a s o n a b l y b e e x p e c t e d . ^

J a m e s A . S t a r r a k a n d R a y m o n d I I . H u g h e s , I 'h e i l e w J u n i o r C o lle g e , t h e n e x t S te p i n f r e e P u b l i c E d u c a t io n , The Io w a S t a t e C o l l e g e P r e s s , A m e s , I o w a , 1 9 4 8 , p . 57 I b i d . , p . 57

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission

117

In .. t i n d

t i i >3 a b o v e

B to d o .a r d ’ s m e th o d

m e n ts

h itp i

school

■ue0 e r d l e s s one ca n

o n ly

ta tio n ,

d e v e lo p in g

as

A m e r ic a n

of

th e m e th o d , th e

c o llo - je

ts h in .- ; one

fo r m u la ,

p o te n tia l

c o lle g e s .

d e c id e d

s im ila r

th e

C o lle c tin g

to

or

fu tu re

The

in

e n ro ll-

th ird

of

p ro c e d u re

e n ro llm e n ts

a u th o r

in v e s tig a te

of

th e

to

th e

th is

used, in

of

p ro ­

d is s e r ­

p o s s ib ility

e tp o r ie n c e

a s x. o o s i b l c

th e

D a ta

U s in ^

J u n i o r C o l l e g e s ;" a l i s t

U n ite d

B ta te s ,

of

e x is tin g

in s titu tio n s

p ro ­

h a v in g

th e

of

th e

a ll

1348 e d it io n

p u b lic

fo llo w in g

ju n io r

of

c o lle g e s

c h a ra c te ris tic s ,

c o m p ile d : (1 )

T u itio n

( g)

C o e d u c a tio n a l

( o)

Tan

(4 )

C u r r ic u lu m in c lu d e s b o th p r e - p r o f e s s io n a l and s e n i - p r o f e s s i o n n l c o u r s e s

( b)

ho

(

gOO o r n o r e

6)

fifty - fiv e th o s e

4

had

f o r B e m n s y lv tn ia . B.

in

and i.u r h e s

ju n io r

a d v o c a te

a la e tn o a b a s e d u p o n t h e

in s titu tio n s

was

e s tim a tin g

w h ic h

c o m m u n ity

th e re fo re ,

b to rra k

e n ro ll:,le n t.

e s tim a te

posed p u b lic

posed

of

as v .-o ll as t n o s e

c u rre n t

in

e u o ts tio n ,

th e

s u p p o rte d ;

d o rm ito ry

fo r

s tu d e n ts

lo c a lly

fu ll

tim e

fro m

fo r

c o rr e s p o n d in g in

d is tr ic t

s tu d e n ts

e n ro lle e s

w e re n o te d

a n d so p h o m o re y e a r s

w ith in

c o n tr o lle d

fa c ilitie s

in s titu tio n s

c h a ra c te ris tic s . fre s h m a n

fre e to

th e

as h a v in g y e a rs , uu

a ll

e n ro llm e n ts

ju n io r

c o lle g e s

J e s s e B o g u e , B d i t o r , A m e r ic a n J u n i o r u o l l e g e s , A m e r ic a n C o u n c il on e d u c a t io n , b 'e s h in g t o n , B . C . , 1S 48

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

11 8 w e re

c o ., e e . r e d w i t h

i l l w i n c l. t h e

th e

ju n io r

fo llo w in g

c o lle g e s

i.u m b e r o f

h ig h

( b)

Num ber o f

s tio e n ts

{. 4 )

S c h o o l e n r o l I n e n t , f3r a d . e s 1 - l h

c o lle g e s

g ra d e s

1

in

th ro u g h w ere

o f 'th e

c lo s e



c o m m u n ity

school

ir i g ra d e s

and

th e

lo c a te d .

I t

c o rre la tio n s

b e tw e e n t h e

c lo s e ly

w e re

d is tr ic ts was,

tw o

was o b s e rv e d

school in

of

b e tw e e n

o f th e

e n ro llm e n ts

w h ic h

th e re fo re ,

s e ts

t —I E

so p h o m o re y e a r s

c o r r e s p o n d in g

of

g ra d u a te s

r e la tio n s h ip

th e fre s h m a n

and th e

d is tr ic ts

w e re lo c a t e d :

( e)

ju n io r

th e y

th e

- t'o p u la tio n

e n ro llm e n ts

c o lle g e s

fo r

( li

Ac o n s id e r a b ly th e

c r ite r ia

th e

to

ill

ju n io r

d e c id e d

v a r ia b le s

55

to

r un

se e how

r e la te d . TA B LE V

CORRe e A w I U w S BETLEEN SijiiOLXii.iEi\iTS I N P R 3 S IiliA Ii AND SOPKOHORE YEANS OP P U B L I C J U N IO R COLLEGES AND SCHOOL P O P U L A T IO N

(GRADES 1 - 1 2 )

OP C O LLL TN ITIE S I N

’•V’H I C H

JU1TI0R COLLEGES UERE LOCATED

Year

Num ber o f

19 5 7 -1 9 38 IS b 9 -1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6

Cases

C a r r e la t io n s

46 50 54

The n u m be rs cause

fo r

some o f

y e a rs

th e

r e q u ire d

of

th e

cases

0 .6 3 0 .8 8 0 .7 5

in

T a b le

in s titu tio n s

d a ta w e re n o t

v d iffe r

and d i s t r i c t s r o v id e d

by

in fo r m a tio n .

E n r o llm e n t f ig u r e s

fo r

o b ta in e d

th e

D ir e c to r ie s

fro m

J u n io r

C o lle g e

fro m

ju n io r

th e

55

fo r

be­

c e rta in

s o u rce s

c o lle g e s in c lu d e d

of

w e re in

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

th e

119 J u n io r

C o lle g e

J o u rn a ls

s c h o o l p o p u la tio n s U n ite c

s ta te s

c lu u e d

w e re th e

to

P e te rs

th e

c o rr e la tio n s

h ig h

to

w a rra n t o f th e

c o lle g e s .

g ro u p e d a c c o rd in g

tlie

of

th e

ru n n in g

c o r r e la tio n s S in c e

to rs

duce th e

and

when t h e

sone o tn o r

w ith in was

it

th e

sub

fu ll

th is

case

in

th e

tw o

a p r e d ic tio n

o f th e

p o te n tia l

fu ll

U s in g Hogue®as

th a t

th e

of

sh o o e d up

of

fe a s ib le

and

th e to

c o n s id e r

th e

b e tw e e n

school

ju n io r

c o lle g e s

fa c to r

v a r ia b le s ,

a n u m b e r was of

in

p o p u la tio n s

th e re

Because

d e te rm in e

p o p u la tio n

c o lle g e

in

re p re s e n ta tiv e

p u b lic

school

ju n io r

g ra d e s

g ro u p s .

tin e

one o f

in

school

r e la tio n s h ip

to

s u f­

sch o o l p o p u la tio n

was n o t

th e

p u b lic

by

In

it

a d ir e c t

on

th e

th e

con-

e n ro l In ent

each g ro u p

e n ro llm e n t.

re m a in e d

o p e ra tin g

tim e

of

v.as

v w e re

fa c to r

b e tw e e n

s tu d ie d

e n ro llm e n t

o th e r.

m u ltip lie d duce

th e re

c o m m u n ity ,

w h ic h ,

cases

it

s c h o o l p o p u la tio n

m o re o v e r,

c o lle 0e f u ll- t im e

n u ia b e r o f

T a b le

fu ll

r e la tio n s h ip

lim ite d

p o p u la tio n

snown i n

w ith in

D is tr ic t

B ie n n ia l S u rve ys

p o te n tia l

to

y e a rs .

and van V o o r h is ^

u s in g

c o m m u n ity ,

d e fin ite

ju n io r

any

tu e

By r e f e r r i n g

ju n io r

a n o re

in

fo u n d , i n

e d u c a tio n .

tn a t

s in e

a p p r o p r ia te

of

as a m e a s u r e

p u b lic

re re

th e

O ffic e

fic ie n tly 1 -1 2

fo r

any

or

fa c ­

w o u ld p r o ­

s o u g h t w h ic h when c o n m u n ity

tim e

w o u ld

e n ro llm e n t

in

p ro ­ th e

d is tr ic t.

so u rce

of

in fo r m a tio n ,

a lis t

of

0. 0 . P e t e r s a n d 11. R . V a n V o o r h i s , S t a t i s t i c a l P r o c e d u r e s a n d f h e i r m a t h e m a t i c a l B a s e s , 1 9 4 0 , T a b l e L I , p . 510 Bogue,

A m e ric a n j u n i o r

C o lle g e s ,

op.

c it.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

120 o il

jju .D lic

i 'J 4 7

w u ic h .

p a re d . tim e to

ju n io r m ig h t

e n ro llm e n t

th e

oe

i.'To:.i t h a t

c a tio n a l,

c a lle d p u b lic

lis t 2,-jO

01

s tu c e iits .

T i- o s e

p u b lic ly

p ro fe s s io n a l

end

n o n - b o a r c in g

ty p e .

t h e I n i t ec. S t a t e s

e o lj.e g e s i n

th o s e

and w h ic h

in s titu tio n s

o p e ra te d ,

ta x

was p r e ­

c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e s

-./ere s e l e c t e d

o r m o re

as o f 1 9 4 6 -

w ere

s e le c te d

s u p p o rte d ,

s e m i-p ro fe s s io n a l

c o u rs e s ,

a fu ll

w h ic h h ad

n o m in a lly w e re

fre e

coedu­

o ffe re d

b o th

and w e re

of

p re-

th e

TA B L E V I P U B L IC

1u n io r

JU N IO R COLLEGES c l TYPE I N THE U . S .

C o lle g e

CATEGORY I

L o c a tio n

T u itio n u lu s fe e s

L a n c a s t e r , G a l. 1 9 29 B a k e r s f ie ld , C a l. 1915 G le n d o rs , c a l. 1915 C o a lin g a , C a l. 1932 C o m p to n , C a l. • 1927 Dodge C it y , N an. 1935 E . L o s A n g e le s , C a l. 1945 i'r e s n o , C a l. 1910 I ' U l l e r t o n , G a l. 1313 G le n d a le , C a l. 1 9 27 D e lP a s o H e i g h t s , 1942 c a 1. J e rs e y C ity , N .J . 19 46 P a sa d e n a , C a l. 1946 1 9 27 L o n g B e a c h , G a l. C e l.

1 3 29

0 0 0 0 06 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

o

L o s A n g e le s ,

0

Q

IS .' J e rs e y C ity 14. John n u ir C o ll. 1 5 . L o n g Beach C ity C o ll. 1 6 . L o s A n g e le s C ity C o ll.

k"

O rg a n iz e d

(NO CHARGES EOR STUDENTS EROn D IS T R IC T )

1 . A n te lo p e V a lle y 2. B a k e rs fie ld . 5. C itr u s Azusa*±. C o a l i n g a b . Cornu t o n 6. Dodge C i t y 7 . E. L o s A n g e le s 3 . E re sn o 9. fu lle r to n 1 0 . G le n d a le c o l l . 1 1 . G ra n t Tech. c o l l .

a.

Ti'-E CO..1101 .T T Y COLLEGE A . (1 3 4 6 -1 9 4 7 )

J e s s e B o g u e , E d i t o r , A m e r ic a n J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , A m e r ic a n C o u n c il on E d u c a t io n , V /a s h in g to n , D . C ., 1 9 4 8 D e n o te s

N o te :

a d d itio n a l

fe e s

fo r

s p e c ia l

s u b je c ts

U n d e rs c o re d j u n i o r c o lle g e s in d ic a t e th o s e used in oot a i n i n g t h e r a t i o b e tw e e n s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t end j u n i o r c o lle g e e n r o llm e n t

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

121

TABLE V I oj-inl o r I 1/ . lo . 19. .

20

L I. 2L .

tUo • • •

t^ 6

27.

y Q iie » , f c

L o c a tio n

i-a x -in h i t . C an i O C o ll. l - i i' jJcl 0GG Ihi t G— C a rls b a d x'i.'.lo .u cr Lasadena C ity C o ll. P la c e r C o ll. San S e n it o C an D i e g o Can i 'r a n c i s c o 9 i t j C o ll. Sen L u i s O b is p o

«")'0

Cant M a t e o 3 a n t a b a rb a ra Cent a t . ix ia T a ft Va l i e j o O o • V is e lia

29 . 30 . 31. 32.

LyjATEGORY I I

A rka n sa s C it y C e n tra l c e n t r a l i a T v/p . c h a n u te E l D o ra d o 3 9 . E n g le w o o d n r . C h ic a g o C i t y C o l l . 40. P o rt S c o tt 41. ca rd e n C ity 42. n a r r i s T e a c h e rs C o ll. (J i',O o ll.D iv .) 1 2 . i i e r s h ey 4 3 . H ig h la n d P a rk 4 4 . H u tc h in s o n

O rg a n is e d

T u itio n u lu s fe e s

K e n t l ' i e l a , C r.l. Pom ona, o i l .

1 9 26 1 9 43

0

i • c\p a , c r. i . O c e a n s id e ,

1942 1 9 34

0

V is ta ., C a l. P e .s a c e n a , ce. 1 .

I S 46 19 2*±

0

A u b u rn , C r l. H o llis t e r , c e l. 3en D ie g o , C u l. S o n i ' r a n c i s c o , 0-^1.

1914 1919 1916 1933

0

3 an L u i s O b i s p o , C c'.l . o a n u a c e o , op. 1 . 3 a n ta b c r o a r a , C a l. S a n ta iv ip r ia , c a l . T a f t , C a l. V a l l e j o , C a l. V i s a l i a , C a l.

1936

0

1922 1946

0

(110 T U I I I 0 K ;

S-i • OD • r6 ij . 37.

a.

( COPTIC. JED)

cp. 1 .

0

0

0

0b

0 0

0 0

1 9 22 1945 192S

0 0 0

r r.?•b

l l b 1

13b 6 .5 0 ° 20

16 10b

3

J e s s e b o g u e , E d i t o r , A m e r ic a n J u n i o r L io lle , ; e s , A m e ric a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , W a s h in g t o n , D . G . , 1 9 4 3

b' N o te :

D e n o te s

a d d itio n a l

fe e s

fo r

s p e c ia l

s u b je c ts

U n d e rs c o re d j u n i o r c o l l e g e s in d ic a t e th o s e used in ob­ t a i n i n g - t h e r a t i o b e t w e e n s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t and j u n i o r c o lle g e e n ro llm e n t

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

' /I

J u n io r

c jp i i s . : e

L o c a tio n

O• I n u e e n d e n c e 46. N o rto n -A/A P a r s o ii s 4o. P h o e n ix 43. r r a i t oC • i i v e r s i a e C o l l . 51. a c l i n as b l . o cm ___________ c e An a. C o i r . O • S c u ts A o n ic a C it y c o ll.( Ir .C o ll.L iv On-. S a n t a A o s a bb . S c ivu rz. L r a n c h o f C h ic a g o C i t y J r . C o ll. DO. S t e r l i n g b 7 . T exarkan a 53. T r in id a d 5 9 . N o o d r o w A i l s on 6 0 . " A rig h t CAT'ACCAT I r I 61.

( CO.. T i l . u E D ) O rg a n iz e d

I ti d ep e n d eu c e , A n n , C ic e r o , 1 1 1. P cr s o n s , A a n . P h o e n ix , A r iz . P r a tt, Kan. n iv e r s id e , c a l. S e lin a s , C e l. o m ci. ■ ^iii ic1 ,>

C e l.

S m ta C o A o n ic a , C r l, .) S a n t a a o s b ' 50 3 7 .7 5 °

s u b je c ts

c o n c e rn in g

c o lle g e s

a c c o rd in g ; fe e ”

fe e

im p o s e d b y

or

is

not

d is tric t

a ll

gjet fe e ,"

may h a v e

can go t o

J u n io r

fe e

in

tu itio n

to

s tu d e n t.

cost

to

C a lifo rn ia any of

school th e

and

s till

C o lle g e s ,

th e s e

on.

be

a u th o rity ,

th e

so

c o l­

s tu d e n t

tic k e ts ,

C a lifo rn ia a fu ll

lis te d

ju n io r

fu n d s

season f o o t b a ll of

may

are

im p o s e d b y

one

and

C a lifo rn ia

a ll

any

in obju n io r

An i n c o n s i s t e n c y

in

a ’’ s p e c i a l

pay th e

A m e ric a n

VI

B o g u e .7

a ” s tu d e n t-b o d y

h o w eve r,

7

fo r

c a te g o rie s

school is

in

as l i s t e d

th re e

A c tu a lly

nor

fe e s

T o t a l Cost to S tu d e n t

U n d ersco red ju n io r c o lle g e s in d ic a t e th o s e used t a i n i n i g t h e r a t i o b e t w e e n s c h o o l e n r o l l m e n t and c o lle g e e n ro llm e n t

The fe e s

O rg a n iz e d

B v e le th , k in n . P la t F iv e r, ko. A th e n s , T e r . h i'o b in p , id n n . C o le ra in e , k in n . J o lie t, 111. Kansas C it y , k o . C oeur d ’A le n e , Id a h o P or t Ku ro n , d c h . R o c h e s te r, k in n . S e m in o le , O k la . T re n to n , k o . V ic to r ia , Tex. V i r g i n i a , m in n . U o rth in p t on, ih n n .

fla t

31 3t...

(C O d lk U k b )

tim e

e tc .

ju n io r s tu d e n t.

c it.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

O th e r T a b le

VI

re c tu re s

of

iiu i:ib e re d

5,

11

14, 19, 02,

end

12

w ere A ll

la r

v o te

o9,

60,

61,

69,

d u rin g

c o lle g e s

in c lu d e d

in

ave rag e

b u ild in g s

64,

fo u r

fo r

S c h o o ls fu ll

year

in s titu tio n s

and

y e rr

67,

th o se

in c lu d in g

o rg a n iz a tio n s .

ju n io r-

w ere

c o lle g e s

e le c te d

n u m b e re d

by

13,

popu­ 25,

39

a p p o in te d .

n u m b e re d 1 0 ,

tild e

w h ic h ,

o f D ire c to rs

w ere

except

p ro g ram s

25,

in

39,

th e

53,

54,

e v e n in g s

5b,

53,

as w e l l

as

day. 4.

an

47,

and 7 9 , w h ic h

o ffe re d th e

tw o

B o ard s

e x c e p t h io s e

3. anu

ju n io r

w ere: A l l w ere

pru d es

th e

of

50'~/j o f

About about

th e

one t h i r d

and f a c i l i t i e s

of

ju n io r

of

th e

th e

c o lle g e s

e x is tin g

d is tric t

in

w ere

h ig h

w h ic h

u s in g

school th e y

w ere

lo c s te d .

d. P o te n tia l W ar I I

P ro c ed u re Bor A r r iv in g C o ia m u n ity O o l l e g e

yea rs

a n d tw o

fre s h m a n

and

c o lle g e s

u n d ersco red

1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 , son w i t h fo r

w h ic h

p o s t-w a r

sophom ore, y e a r s in

th e

y ea rs

th e

1 9 5 7 -1 9 3 S

d a t a was

About

30

of

some t h e

e n ro llm e n ts

yea rs, w ere

th e

The

tw o

tw o

and 1 9 3 9 -1 -9 4 0

c o lle g e s

w e re b e lo v ;

in

th e

fo r

th e

and f o r

used

th e

ju n io r

p o s t-w a r

(th e

in

years,

fo r

c o m p a ri­

tw o

years

d e v e lo p m e n t

w ere n o t

2 00

p re -b o rld

e n ro llm e n ts

c o n s id e re d m e r e ly

c o n s id e re d

th e

fo r

o b ta in e d

T a b le V I .

and 1 9 4 7 - 1 9 4 6 w e re

m e th o d .)

not

E n ro llm e n t

A t M e th o d ffo r E s t im a t in g

o f th e

s in c e

o th e rs

fo r

d a ta

w ere

a v a ila b le .

■0

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

125 io r to ta l —2 )

e a c ii c o l l e g e

e x . r o l l i . i e r n : '..as ol

th e re fro m

c e n ta g e s

w ere

v a rio u s

u iv id u d

"the c o m m u n i t y

q u o tie n t

used,

in

b e in g

a n a ly z e d

th e

fre s im a n

oy

m e

school

w h ic h

"the

c o lle g e

c o n v e rte d

and th e

to

re s u lts

;-jic

sop honore

p o p u la tio n './as

( grad es

lo c a te d ;

"the

v .e rc e n tf.^ e .

Those

p er­

ta b u la te d

a c c o rd in g

to

g ro u p in g s .

TABLL V I I

R A T I0 3 01 L I U . 3 , Ii>I P iP 0 A L ? f, 01' P U F L IC JU N IO R OOLLLGL FU LL T Ix .il L lh tU L u iL IJ iS ^ fO x.JiAi'13 OF 3U P 00L POPULATIONS (G R A Di.3 1 - 1 2 ) 01‘ 0 0 i 1. xU.-jI T I 1 3 IK UixIUI-i T i i l J U K I Oh GOLLFGFS PEPA LOGA T I® (APRAKGAD AGCoRUIKG TO SCiiOOL POPULATION)

Year 1 9 5 7 -1 9 5 3 1 3 5 9 —1 9 4 0 1 9 - - 5 - 1 9 46 1 9 4 7 -1 9 4 3

S chool P o p u la tio n (G rad e s 1 -1 2 ) L e s s th a n 5000 5 0 0 0 - 2 9 ,9 9 9 3 0 , 0 0 0 - 9 9 ,9 3 9 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r P a tio ix o . xt;a t i o 1:0 X.O P a tio Ko P a tio ',x O ases O ases ;i C ase: O e s e s A 12.. 9 1o. 0 6. o 1 1 .9

2 25 24 11

6 .1 7 .3 6 .3 9 .3

13 19 22 20

1 .9 3 .1 2. 6 7 .3

3 4 5 7

0 .9 1 .3 0 .3 4 .1

2 2 3 2

a. E x c lu d in g c a s e s 9 and 2 3 , t h i s p e r c e n ta g e w o u ld be 1 2 . 3 . N u m b er 9 was F u l l e r t o n , o a l i f o r n i a , w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e o f 1 2 7 . 1 , w h i l e n u m b e r 2 3 v/cs S a n L . e t e o , O a l i f o r n i a w i t h a p e r c e n t a g e o f 7 4 .4 . The a u th o r s e n t l e t t e r s t o t h e p r e s id e n ts o f b o th s c h o o l s r e q u e s t i n g an e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e u n u s u a l n e s s o f t h e r a t i o s f o r t h e i r s c h o o ls . In e r e p ly d a te d A p r i l 5 , 1 9 5 1 , U r . o h a r l e s 3 . N o r r i s , P r e s i d e n t o f S o n x .la te o J u n i o r O o l l e g e S‘G ©tit i t has a lv x y s been tr u e t h a t a la r g e p r o p o rtio n o f th e s tu d e n ts e n r o lle d in th e S a n P a t e o J u n i o r O o l l e g e come f r o m o u t s i d e o f th e school d i s t r i c t . A s o f iv ia rc h 1 , 1 9 5 1 , o f th e 1225 r e g u la r s tu d e n ts a tte n d in g th e ju n io r c o lle g e , 750 l i v e w it h in t h e d i s t r i c t , 250 w i t h i n t h e c o u n ty b u t n o t w i t h i n t h e d i s ­ t r i c t , 2 4 4 come f r o m o t h e r c o u n t i e s o f t h e S ta te of O a lifo rn ia . T h i s , 730 n i g h t b e c a l l e d ’‘n a t i v e ” s t u d e n t s a n d 4 9 9 t1f 6 r e i g n ” o r o u t - o f - d i s t r i c t s tu d e n ts . A l t h o u g h no r e p l y h a s c o n e f r o m F u l l e r t o n J u n i o r O o l l e g e , i t i s u n d e rs to o d t h a t a som ewhat s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n e x i s t s t h e r e .

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126 TABLE VIII R A T IO S Uj M EA N S, I N P E R C E N T , OP P U B L I C J U N IO R COLLEGE F U L L T IL -E XNRULJXDiNTS TO MEANS Ox' SCHOOL P O P U L A T IO N S (GRADES 1 - 1 2 ) OF G G i.M UN uYIES ±11 N H IG H TH E J U N IO R COLLEGES WERE LOCATED (ARRANGED AC CO RD IN G TO C O M .U N I T Y P O P U L A T IO N )

Year

C o m m u n it y P o p u l a t i o n 1 0 ,0 0 0 --2 9 ,9 9 9 3 0 ,0 0 0 -9 9 ,9 9 9 R a tio No R a tio No Cases Cases p

1 9 3 7 -1 9 3 8 1 9 3 9 -1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 -1 9 4 8

1 0 .7 1 4 .0 s 6 .0 1 1 .0

27 29 51 15

a. E x c lu d in g cases n o t e a o f 'T a b le V I I

9

6 .8 7 .9 7 .2 1 1 .0

end

28,

1 0 0 ,0 0 0 R a tio 7o

12 14 14 16

th is

w o u ld

and o v e r No Cases 7 7 9 9

1. 2 2 .0 1 .3 5 .1 be

1 0 . 3H

( See

TABLE I X M E D IA N S OF R A T I O S , I N P E R C E N T , OF P U B L I C J U N IO R COLLEGE F U L L T I M E U U O L L i. M U T S TO SCHOOL P O P U L A T IO N S (GRADES 1 - 1 2 ) OF COM­ M U N I T I E S I N W H IC H THE J U N IO R COLLEGES WERE LO CA TED (ARRANGED ACCORDING TO SCHOOL P O P U L A T IO N )

Less

S c h o o l" P o p u l a t i o n ( G r a d e s 1 - 1 2 ) th a n 5000 5 0 0 0 -2 9 ,9 9 9 5 0 ,0 0 0 -9 9 ,9 9 9 R a tio

~/o

No. Cases

9 .4 9 .3 4 .8 1 1 .0

22 25 24 11

5 .1 6 .7 4 .8 8 .4

R a tio Y e lr 1 9 5 7 -1 9 3 8 1 9 5 9 -1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 -1 9 4 8

P

- No. R a tio Cases c /o 19 2 .5 19 3 .0 22 1 .6 20 1 0 . 8

1 0 0 ,0 0 0 and o v e r No. R a tio No. Case Cases C /0 3 4 5 7

1 .0 1 .8 0 .3 4 .3

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

2 2 3 2

Y A : ) _i_iHj a i

Ujl1 R . i i . f j - 5 , I-« ; f , O jj j UJ_ii_. H a a .j^ j R d i H o J tJ R IO R X ^ R O L L h iH llS TO SCHOOL R O F U L A Y IG H S ( GRADHS 1 - 1 2 ) O'Jp C O ^ J j H I Y I r S X I: X h l J i i Y h L J i n 11 OR COLLLG-23 I L IR E LUGATED (AaRAHUXD ACCORDING TO 0 O i . l i U I . I T Y P O P U L A T IO N )

j

C o m m u n it y P o p u l a t i o n 1 0 ,0 0 0 -2 9 ,9 9 9 3 0 ,0 0 0 -9 9 ,0 0 0 R a tio Ho R a tio Ho Year 1 9 3 7 - 1 9 3d 1 9 5 9 -1 9 4 0 1 9 4 5 -1 9 4 6 1 9 4 7 -1 9 4 8

y

Cases

y

Cases

/a

over Ho Oases

9 .0 8 .S 4 .9 1 1 .0

27 29 31 15

5. 3 7 .0 4 .6 8 .8

12 14 14 16

1 .9 2 .2 1 .1 5 .3

7 7 9 9

The p r e c e d in g m anner

in

w h ic h

and. s c h o o l

th e

a c c o rd in g

school

p o p u la tio n

of

fo u r

s id e re d . s tu d y

tw o

p o p u la tio n ,

v a rie d

a ll

fo u r

to

ta b le s

h o w eve r,

w ere

g rad es

cases

c o lle g e

d is p la y

of

e n ro llm e n t

e ith e r The

num ber o f

e x is tin g

th e

a re la tio n s h ip

p o p u la tio n .

th e

c le a rly

cases

at

th e

tim e

be

a m o re

of

th e

accu racy con­ th e '

e x a m in e d .

tiv e

fig u re

th a t

t h e m eth o d s

th a n

th e

w e ig h t

T a b le s X I fo r

m ean.

fin a lly

g o v e r n e d m o re by

ta b le s

by

and

q u ite

c a te g o rie s

c o m m u n ity

T h e m e d ia n m e a s u re

fo u r

9 -1 2 )

lim ite d

a ll

( ju n io r

d iffe re n t

th e

is

in d ic a te

v a ria b le s

th e

or

ta b le s

1 0 0 ,0 0 0 R a tio

of

to

Subsequent

d e v e lo p e d

and X I I

th e

ap p ears

th e

d e m o n s tra te

in

th is

c h a p te r w ere

m e d ia n

th a n

of

s u m m a riz e

tw o p r e - w a r

ta b le s

re p re s e n ta ­

th e

d a ta

th e of

m ean.

th e

p re v io u s

yea rs.

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

TABLG A 3u±._ A A l Z A T I G i . ' OP DATA PGA TAB ‘lT.'O P R A -T O R L D *.,AH I I •iiiiri-AS A S j! UUi-.D j-I; f'iiBLmS VIjC j-J-.D JLX Ai-i!-(j-..:. r .-L AGGCAi-'Ii.G TO SGhOoL P O P U L A T IO N ( GRADES 1 - 1 ? )

S c h o o l P o p u la tio n (G ra d e s 1 -1 ? ) B e lo v . 5 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 - 2 0 , 9 9 9 5 0 , 0 0 0 - 9 0 , 9 3 3 ___________________________________________________ P e r i o d 3(1 ) ( £) (i) (g ) "(1 ) (2 ) h e u i ans it at, i os

1 0 0 , 0 0 0 rn fi o v e r __________ (1 ) ( 2)

o l‘ 9 .4

R a tio s o f A e a n a ________1 2 . 9 Oases^ 22 a

9 .0

5 .1

5 .7

2 .5

5 .0

1 .0

1 .3

1 2 .3 ° 5 .1 7 .5 1 .9 5 .1 0 .9 1 .3 25_______1 3 _____ 1 9 _______ 5_______ 4 _______ 2________ 2 _

P e rio a 1 r e f e r s to 1 9 5 7 -1 3 5 3 P e r i o d 2 r e f e r s t o 13 3 9 - 1 9 4 0 T o t a l Q ts e s : 13 3 7 - 1 9 5 3 , 46 1 3 3 3 - 1 3 4-0 , 50 S e e n o t e a t b o tto m o f T a b le " V II

b c

TABL2 X I I A S 01— . i R I ZA'TION 0 1 DATA POP TAX TV/0 PR X-bO R LD WAR I I Ti..:.i3 V I I I i3__ C a s e s L Oases . 7 /■3 > Oases ________‘,'o . 6 .3 46 7. 2 A ll 30 4 .4 54 3 .0 40 23 E x c lu d in g C a l. 3 .0 3.3 4 .0 8. 3 31 34 26 10.0 C a l. o n ly S .l 19 13 20 5 .3 1 2 .4 14 C a te g o ry I a 6. 0 13 8. 2 .4 . 2 14 1 2 .4 12 12 C a te g o ry I I 0 16 3. 9 9 .4 19 4 .8 10.6 21 15 C a te g o ry 1 1 1 ° 4 .8 6 7 6.1 4 .1 8 5 3 .5 C a te g o ry IV h 3 3. 3 4. 4 4 .0 11 3 7 .2 12 a b c d

No t u i t i o n ; n o c o s t to s tu d e n t Not u i t i o n b u t w i t h s p e c i a l f e e s b e lo w p25 No tu itio n but w ith s p e c ia l fe e s b e t w e e n 4 2 ba n d $ 1 0 0 T u i t i o n c h a rg e d , b u tt o t a l c o s t o f t u i t i o n and fe e s not a b o v e ^100

T a b le s as

th e

cost

t h o s e who d e c re a s e s . u c a tio n

to

can

X IV

a n d uJT se e m t o

th e

s tu d e n t

a ffo rd

As t h e

to

v e rify

in c re a s e s ,

ta k e

a d v a n ta g e

th e of

P r e s i d e n t ’ s C o m m is s io n

th e

a s s e rtio n ,

p e rc e n ta g e h ig h e r

of

e d u c a tio n

on h i g h e r

Ed­

w ro te : . . . . a t l e a s t as m any y o u n g p e o p l e w ho h a v e t h e same ox 1 g r e a t e r i n t e l l e c t u ­ a l a b i l i t y t h a n t h o s e n o w i n c o l l e g e do n o t (;'Ii X*o i l b e c a u s e o f l o w f a m i l y i n c o m e .

Z o o k , C h a ir m a n , T h e P r e s i d e n t ’ s C o m m is s io n G eo rg e e d u c a tio n , h i g h e r E d u c a t io n f o r A m e ric a n on n ig h e : D e m o c r a c y , V o lu m e I I , E q u a l i z i n g a n d E x p b n d i n g I n d i ­ v i d u a l O p p o r t u n i t y , New l o r l c , H a r p e r and .b r o th e r s , 1947, p . 6

Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission.

-APT _1< Vj. t j X j j .^s.f A x)

G O of

oav P -n O x -O n —iP

f u " l J l G i i —I ' r i n A

(X L j.r tfh T l’Y COLL AC-AS I L A.

P ro c ed u re

i-u c ii iic s about

th e

posed

in

of

e s tim a te s tric ts ,

th e

of

p u b lic

of

In

in s titu tio n

c o s t,

b o th

e s ta b lis h in g

c o lle c tio n

s a id

d is s e rta tio n .

th e

fo r

been

c h e ro o te ris tic s th is

fe a tu re s

rL reaa i

in

p re v io u s

C h a p te r I

th e

D n ta c h a p te rs

c o rn u n ity

h e ro in

to

P U L x .! 0

PL.:; .SYLVA.i-.TA

c o lle g e s

are

lis te d

tw e lv e

T h is

c h a p te r

a d v o c a te d .

S ta te

0x 10'.

end o p e r--tin g

to

p ro ­

th e

lo c a l

d is ­

such i n s t i t u t i o n s

in

P e 2n 1s y lv .- 3. n i a . T h irty as

p o s s ib le

tric e s

of

fiv e

c o m m u n itie s

lo c a tio n s

th e

much a s t h e y

fir s t v /ill

in s titu tio n s ,

o f p u b lic

end

th is

be

P e n n s y lv a n ia

c o m m u n ity

second

p r o b a b ly

por

in

c la s s e s th e

used

c o lle g e s .

w ere

lo c a tio n s

a s s u m p tio n

w ere

several

A ll

in c iu o e u , of

m ost

in a s ­

of

reaso n s

o is

th o s e

m ay b e

i.\ Q .V C .ii C *3 Cit

(1 ) to

s a tis fy

fo rth

th e

by th e

p ro v id e

and

The

to

o c c u p a tio n s (1 )

la rg e r

of

of

T ra n s p o rta tio n

is

s u ffic ie n t

re q u ire m e n t

lo c e l

u s u a lly

set

th e

enough

g re a te r

and

e x p e rie n c e p u b lic

h ig h

revenue.

b u s in e s s ,

D o th w o r k

g ra d u a te s

is

c o m m u n ity ,

in d u s tria l,

p ro v id e fo r

of

tn e

each

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oi' u r ; : G u ; i i o u 1'roi.i h i 0 u s c h o o l h- v s n o t y e t " f o u n d s h e n s e l v e s " U i U h a v e t h e r e f o r e n o t y e t d e e i c o b o y o n s. t r a c e o r v o c a t i o n i o r t h e i r f u t u r e *vorh. . - . I s o , t i e bo. s - . u n i t y J o l l e ^ e ' . . o u l c bouo: .e one c e . i t o r o f a c u l t e c u o r t i o n . Y o u r c o o o e r n t i o n w i l l n e r n a l o t n o t o n l y t o :ie i n : iy r e s e a r c h b u t a l s o t o a . m y t h o u s a n d s o f o u r b o y s ' ue jir lo . I t u a n k you v e ry u u c h f o r yo ir k i n d n e s s .

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APxm..bI__ _ ohuT ‘i’U jl'HJISILiA'I'I’S OP A A:v «'.'ri ‘—T1~/V>1;-i Mh1 n o S O d m rlb x v S

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(1 ) h a s y o u r own l o c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n d i s c u s s e d t h e p o s s i ­ b i l i t y o i e x t e n d in g y o u r p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m t o i n c l u d e t h e l o t h and 1 4 t h g ra d e s ? A n sw e r: Yes No (2 ) Do y o u t h i n k t h e P e n n s y l v a n i a L e g i s l a t u r e s h o u l d e n a c t p e r m is s iv e l e g i s l a t i o n t o e n a b le th o s e s c h o o l d i s t r i c t s w h i c h so d e s i r e t o e x t e n d p u b l i c e d u c a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e 1 4 t h grad e? A n s w e r: Yes No ( 6) W o u ld y o u s a y t h a t t h e M em bers o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n i ­ z a tio n a re ( g r e a t ly , m o d e ra te ly , o r n o t a t a l l ) in fa v o r o f e x t e n d in g t h e p u b li c s c h o o ls th ro u g h th e 1 4 th g rade? (4 ) W o u ld y o u s a y t h a t t h e m em bers o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n i ­ z a tio n a re ( g r e a t ly , m o d e ra te ly , o r n o t a t a l l ) in fa v o r o f h a v in g o u r s t a t e l e g i s l a t u r e e n a c t th e p e rm is s iv e l e g i s ­ l a t i o n w h i c h i s m e n t i o n e d i n q u e s t i o n 2? (5 ) W as t h i s l e t t e r i n s t r u m e n t a l i n b r i n g i n g t o t h e a t t e n t i o n o f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n iz a t io n f o r th e f i r s t tim e t h i s m a t t e r o f e x te n d in g y o u r p u b l i c s c h o o ls t o in c lu d e t h e l o t h an d 1 4 t h br a d e s ? A n sw e r: Yes No (b ) I f y o u r l o c a l o r g a n iz a t io n h as n o t d is c u s s e d th e s e p o i n t s , i . e . , e x t e n d i n g t h e p u b l i c s c h o o l s y s te m and p e r ­ m i s s i v e l e g i s l a t i o n , w o u ld y o u be w i l l i n g t o p r e s e n t them as d i s c u s s i o n t o p i c s f o r s u b s e q u e n t m e e tin g s ? A n sw e r: Yes No (7 ) D o y o u d e s i r e t h a t I send, y o u a l i s t o f b o o k s on t h e s u b je c t o f p u b l i c s u p p o r te d O o iin u n ity C o lle g e s ? An s v / e r :

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A P P E N D IX

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BODY OF LETTER ACCOMPANYING QUESTIONNAIRE SENT TO PR ESID EN TS OF P R IV A T E COLLEGES AND U N IV E R S IT IE S I N THE V I C I N I T Y OF P U B L IC JUN IO R COLLEGES M r . H a r o l d D . R e e s e , a u t h o r o f t h e e n c lo s e d q u e s t i o n ­ n a i r e , i s a g r a d u a t e a s s i s t a n t i n t h e D e p a r tm e n t o f E d u c a t io n h e r e a t Penn S t a t e , iv ir. R e e s e h a s h a d m ore t h a n f i f t e e n y e a r s o f t e a c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e i n v a r i o u s p u b l i c an d p r i v a t e h i g h s c h o o ls and c o l l e g e s . H is p re s e n t p o s itio n i s A s s is ta n t P r o f e s s o r o f M a t h e m a t ic s a t D r e x e l I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o lo g y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia . A le a v e o f a b sen ee fro m D r e x e l h a s b r o u g h t h im t o P e n n S t a t e w h e re h e i s c o m p le t in g t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e D o c t o r o f E d u c a t io n d e g r e e . M r. R e e s e ’ s d o c t o r a l d i s s e r t a t i o n i s c o n c e rn e d w it h s t u d y i n g t h e e f f e c t on c o l l e g e e n r o l l m e n t s o f t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t u i t i o n - f r e e , p u b lic J u n io r C o lle g e s in t h e v i c i n i t y o f e x i s t i n g c o lle g e s and u n i v e r s i t i e s . The J u n io r c o lle g e s (C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e s ) r e f e r r e d t o i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e h a v e , among o t h e r s , t h e f o l l o w i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s : (a )

A re c o n t r o lle d l o c a l l y b y a b o a rd o f d i r e c t o r s e l e c t e d b y t h e p e o p le o f t h e d i s t r i c t ( i n seme o f t h e - l a r g e r c i t i e s t h e b o a r d m em bers may b e a p p o in t e d b y t h e m a y o r ) .

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i io o d a n d i i . K e m p f e r , " C o m m u n it y c o l l e g e L d u c a t i o n a f i c t i o n a l t e e d , 11 S c h o o l L i f e , IT o v e m b e r , 1 9 5 0

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A m e r ic a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f J u n io r C o ll e g e s (T h e C o m m itte e on L e g i s l a t i o n ) , S u g g e s t e d P r o c e d u r e s and f e c l x n ic u e s f o r I n i t i a t i n g and D e v e lo p in g L e g i s l a t i o n f o r a S t a t e P l a n f o r C o m m u n it y C o l l e g e s , A m e r i c a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f J’u n i o r C o l l e g e s , V. a s h i n g t o n , D . C .

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C o m m o n w e a lt h o f P e n n s y l v a n i a , D e p a r t m e n t o f P u b l i c ^ I n ­ s t r u c t i o n , P r o c e d u r e and S t a n d a r d s o f t h e S t a t e C o u n c il o f E d u c a tio n i n th e A c c re d itra e n t o f J u n i o r C o l l e g e s ( m ir a e o g ra p n e tT ]

B re w to n , D i r e c t o r o f S u rv e y , P u b lic e d u c a tio n in Id a h o , A ile n o r t o f t h e Id a h o E d u c a tio n S u rv e y C o m m is s io n , D i v i s i o n o f S u r v e y s and f i e l d S e r ­ v ic e s , C eo rg e Peabody u o lle g e f o r T e a c h e rs , L o s h v ille , Tennessee, 1945

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R e p o r t s oT t n e J p . i . i t t e e s A p p o i n t e d b y t h e • ^ o s ^ - w o r I*^ -a n n in ,r; C o m m i t t e e o f t h e 6 t s t e C o u n c i l o l E d u c a t io n . x iu ile 'c in I I , H a r r i s b u r g , P e n n s y l­ v a n i a , 1 9 4 4 , I -.:-1 p a g e s , M i n e o g r n p h e d

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C o m m o n w e a lt h o i' P e n n s y l v a n i a : P i n a i n , ; s a n d R e c o .o n e n d o t i o n s o f t h e Com i i t t e e on P o s t - h i g h S c h o o l E d u c a t i o n , A R e p o r t t o t h e G o v e r n o r and t h e G e n e r a l A s s e m b l y o f t h e C o m m o n w e a lth o f P e n n ­ s y l v a n i a fro m t h e J o i n t S t a t e G o vern m en t C onr .iis s io n , H a r r i s b u r g , P e n n s y lv a n ia , i.o v e n b e r, 1950

S.

A l b e r t L . C o s tn e r, S u p e r in te n d e n t, P o te a u C it y S c h o o ls , P o t e a u , O k la h o m a . P o te a u C o :n u iiity c o l l e g e , 1 9 5 1 , K e e t in g E d u c a t io n a l h e e d s , P a m p h le t, P o t e a u C i t y S c h o o l s , B o t e a u , O k la h o m a , 1 9 5 1

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E d w a rd s a n d K e rm a n C. R i c h e y , f h e P o p u l a t i o n of P e n n s y lv a n ia ; T re n d s i n G ro w th , D i s t r i b u t i o n , and E d u c a t io n a l A t t a i n m e n t , R e p o r t C , t o t h e C o m m i t t e e on P o s t - H i g h S c h o o l e d u c a t i o n ( m i m e o ­ g r a p h e d ) , J o i n t S t a t e G o v e rn m e n t C o m m is s io n , H a r r is b u r g , P e n n s y lv a n ia , 1943 E n ^ le h a r t , f h e B r ig h t J u n io r C o lle g e S tu d y o f t e r m i n a l G e n e r a l E d u c a t i o n , E v a l u a t i o n C o m m itte e o f th e B r i g h t J u n io r C o lle g e , P a m p h le t, 149 pages. C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , 194 4

John Guly 1 ‘o n l k e s , J u n i o r C o l l e g e J e e d s i n E ' i s c o n s i n , B u lle t in of th e U n iv e r s ity h 'is c o n s in , A p r i l , 1 9 4 7

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x a g g e r t y , P r e s i d e n t o f Rev/ P a l t z 1’e a c h e r s C o l l e g e , Nev; P a l t z , Rev; Y o r k , W h a t H a p p e n e d t o E n r o l l ­ m e n ts i n P r i v a t e c o l l e g e s end u n i v e r s i t i e s w here 'E n r o llm e n ts i n P u b l i c I n s t i t u t i o n s h a v e In c r e a s e d R a p i d l y ? P a r t o f an i n v e s t i g a t i o n f o r t h e I lev; Y o r k S t a t e P l a n , 3 p p . , m im e o g ra p h e d

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217

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J a r v i e , A c d r e s s d e l'o re P e n n s y lv a n ia A s s o c i a t i o n o f a u x iio r C o lle g e s , ,:r :r r is b u r o , P e n n s y lv a n ia , O c to b e r n l , 1 9 5 0 . (P ro ra n o t e s o f t h e r c c r e s s r o c o r a e t b y A . D . h o o ne)

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i . o o s a n d o . 7”. M e r t o r a n c . , A C o m u n i t y d o l l e d , e P i r n f o r Pexu; s y l v a n ! ;•, R e p o r t 3 , t o t h e C o m m i t t e e on P o s t - i i i j i i S c h o o l Dei a c t t i o n , ( m i m e o g r a p h e d ) , J o i n t s t a t e h o v o -rx tie .it C o : l i s s i o n , h r . r r i c b ' i r g , P e n u s „ r v a n i a , l 9 4o

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C o u n c il o f C h ie f d t r t e S chool O f f i c e r s , Our d y u u e o f E u a c a n io n , P a m p h le t. W a s h in g to n , D. 0 . , D ecem b er, 1940

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P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C h a m b e r o f Comm erce D e p o r t s : h o . 1 , V o c a t io n a l E d u c a tio n in P e .x n s y lv a n io , The O v e r - a l l P i c t u r e , O c t o b e r , 1 9 4 6 ; h o . 2 , P e r.n s y 1 v a n i a * s h e e d f o r V o c a t io n a l E d u c a tio n , i'e b r u a r y , 1 9 4 9 ; n o . 5 , V o c a t io n a l e d u c a tio n i n P e n n s y lv a n ia , D ecem b er, 1 9 4 9 , H a r r is b u r g , P e n n s y lv a n ia

iy

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m. P a t r i c k , O r i t e r i a f o r t n e j - . o c r . t i o n o f P u b l i c J u n i o r C o lle g e s i n P e n n s y lv a n ia , U n p u b lis h e d d o c t o r o f E d u c a t i o n D i s s e r t a t i o n , C o lu m b ia u n i v e r s i t y , 1949

P o r t e r , " 'Ir e n a s i n I n s t i t u t i o n a l O r g a n i z a t i o n f o r h i g h e r E d u c a t i o n i n t h e 1 3 t h and 1 4 t h Y e a r s , " C u r r e n t Is s u e s i n h ig h e r E d u c a tio n , D e p a rtm e n t o f H i g h e r E d u c a tio n o f t h e n a t i o n a l E d u c a t io n A s s o c ia t io n , b r-s h in g to n , D .G ., 1951

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1936

D . R e e s e , "An I n v e s t i g a t i o n t o D e ter:.x ix xe S e n t i xaent a b o u t P u b l i c C o m m u n ity C o l l e g e s i n J P e n n s y l v a n i a , " U n p u b l is h e d m a n u s c r i p t , I'h e P e n n s y l ­ v a n ia S ta te c o lle g e , S p rin g , 1950 " C o s t E s t i m a t e o f P r o p o s e d C o m m u n ity C o lle g e s i n P e n n s y lv a n ia (S eco n d C la s s D i s ­ t r i c t s ) , " P e n n S t a t e R e v ie w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , V o lu m e I I , h o . 2 , T h e P e n n s y l v a n i a S t a t e C o lle g e , S t a t e C o lle g e , P e n n s y lv a n ia , E eb r un r y , 1 9 5 1

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John D a le R u s s e l l, D i r e c t o r o f th e S u rv e y , H ig h e r Ed­ u c a tio n in m a ry la n a , A R e p o rt o f a S u rv ey by t h e A x n c r ic e n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , A m e r i c o n C o u i i c i l on E d u c a t i o n , W a s h i n g t o n , D . C . , 1 9 4 7

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218 J a m e s j-i.

S t array;: a n d r i i . y n o n d I.*. I . u g h o s , f h e 1rew J u n i o r C o lle g e , th e h e n t S te o I n r r e e P u b li c D d u c a tio n , T h e I own a t a t e u o l l e ^ e P r e s s , A m o s , I o w a , 1 9 4 6 , o3

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O r e g o n : H e p o r t o f t h e .i n t e r i m o o w n t t e e on P o s t x iijli S c h o o l B d u c e tio n s l f a c i l i t i e s , S ta te p r i n t i n g D e p a r tm e n t, a a l e u , O re g o n , 1S50

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G e o rg e D. S t o d d a r d , T e r t i a r y i a u c p t i o n , C a m b rid g e , o c ix u s e tts , ix rv f.T G U n iv e r s it y P re s s , 1 9 4 4 , (T h e I n y l i s L e s t u r e , 1 9 4 4 )

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l>.

S t r a y e r , D i r e c t o r o f th e S u rv e y , P u b lic Ed­ u c a t i o n i n W a s h i n g t o n , A h a s o r t o f a. S u r v e y o f P u b li c e d u c a tio n in th e S t a t e o f W a s h in g to n , S t a t e o f W a s h in g to n , 1 9 4 1 and o t h e r s , A H a p o r t o f a S u r v e y o f t h e Needs o f C a l i f o r n i a in H ig h e r E d u c a tio n , S ta te p r i n t iiig u f f i c e , S a c ra m e n to , o a l i f o r n i a , m arcn , 1948

S u m m a ry K e p o r t o f t h e f i r s t J u n i o r c o l l e g e w o r k C o n f e r ­ e n c e , A R e p o rt o f D is c u s s io n cro u p v l , P o r tio n o f a 4 8 p a ^ e , M im e o g ra p h e d p a m p h le t, u n i v e r s i t y o f N o rth C a ro lin a , u h a p e l i i i l l , N o rth C a ro lin a , J u ly , 1949 T e m p l e u n i v e r s i t y , " T h e C o m m u n it y c o l l e g e , " A n n o u n c e n e .n o r o r th e s e s s io n s 1 9 3 0 -1 9 5 1 . B u l l e t i n , T e m p le U n i v e r s i t y , P h i l a d e l p h i a , P e n n s y lv a n ia , M e rc h ,1 9 5 0 U n ite d

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s t a t e s u f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n , P u b lic S chool f in a n c e P ro g ra m o f th e f o r t y - e i g h t s t a t e s , C i r u l a r w o. 2 7 4 , U n it e d S t a t e s G overnm ent P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , W a s h in g to n , D . O . , 1950 S t a t i s t i c s o f H ig h e r e d u c a tio n , 1 9 4 7 -4 8 , B i e n n ia l S u rv e y o f E d u c a tio n in th e U n ite d S ta te s , 1 9 4 6 -1 9 4 8 . united s t a t e s G o v e r n m e n t p r i n t i n g u f f i c e , 'Washington, D . C ^ , 1 9 5 0

Phebe

/< a rd , “D e v e lo p m e n t o f t h e J u n i o r C o l l e g e M o v e m e n t," A m e r i c a n J u n i o r c o l l e g e s , A m e r i c a n C o u n c i l on E d u c a t i o n , v d a s h i n g t o n , jj . C . , 1 9 4 8 a n d W. J . E c k e r t , s a n f r a n c i s c o S c h o o l s S e r v e t h e c o m m u n ity . P a m p h le t, 9 2pp. B o a rd o f E d u c a tio n , San f r a n c i s c o , C a l i f o r n i a , 1947

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_________________ , S p e c i a l i s t o n J u n i o r C o l l e g e s , U . S . , O f f i c e o f E d u c a tio n . F ro m a s p e e c h d e l i v e r e d a t a c o m m u n ity c o l l e g e g r o u p m e e t i n g a t t h e c o n v e n ­ t i o n o f t h e A m e r ic a n A s s o c i a t i o n o f S c h o o l A d­ m i n i s t r a t o r s , A t l a n t i c u i t y , H ew J e r s e y , F e b ru a ry , 1951

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R . W o o d , " E m e r g in g P a t t e r n s o f H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n a t t h e c o m m u n it y L e v e l , " A d d r e s s p r e s e n t e d D e f o r e G r o u p 20 o i t h e S i x t h A n n u a l N a t i o n a l C o n ­ f e r e n c e o n H i g h e r E d u c a t i o n , ( m im e o g r a p h e d ) , C h ic a g o , I l l i n o i s , A p r i l 2 , 1 9 5 1

AnA n a l y s i s a n d E v a l u a t i o n o f u e n e r a l L e g i s l a t i o n p e r t a in in g t o r u b l i c J u n io r c o lle g e s , Un­ p u b lis h e d d o c t o r ' s t h e s i s , Th e U n iv e r s i t y o f C o lo r a d o , H o u ld e r , (C o lo r a d o , I S 5 0 , 5 4 7 p p .

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