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THE BASIC PRINCIPLES AND TECHNIQUES OF GUIDANCE PROGRAMS ¥ITH A PROPOSED PLAN FOR MASON HIGH SCHOOL
A Project Presented to the Faculty of the School of Education University of Southern California
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Education
by Willie Mae O ’Connor May 1950
UMI Number: EP46000
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T h is p r o je c t repo rt, w ritten under the direction o f the candidate’s a d v ise r a n d a p p r o v e d b y h im , has been p re se n te d to an d a c ce p te d by the F a c u lty o f the S c h o o l o f E d u c a tio n in p a r tia l fu lfillm e n t of the requ irem ents f o r the d e g re e o f M a s te r o f S cien ce in E d u ca tion .
/id v ise r
FOREWORD The word guidance is frequently misconceived.
It is best
understood through the concept of self-guidance, its ultimate aim.
The idea of taking responsibility for others is often
That is not true.
Guidance is neither adjusting nor
suggesting, neither conditioning nor controlling, neither direct ing nor taking the responsibility for anybody. means guidance.
A true education
By the process of guidance, we put the respon
sibility where it belongs, on the individual being guided, as fast as it can be done without running the risk of abandoning him to crass ignorance and to the misguidance of active influ ences ready at all times to do him harm. There are three ways in which guidance may be approached. In the first place there may be a direct attack, with a curri culum of activities and guidance, designed to give children the opportunity to learn living in the laboratory of life.
there may be set up alongside the present entrenched studies of the curriculum, and in no way interfering with these studies, a system of counselors, homeroom teachers, class advisers, student deans, or other agencies to be used for the purposes of guidance. Third, with or without a system of counselors, the present studies of the curriculum may be modified in content and method so that they will bear upon life activities and presumably aid the pupils in the improvement of their living.'1' 1
J. M. Brewer, Education As Guidance (hew York: Company, 1932), p. 2
This particular proposal adopts the first method.
though specific tasks shall he assigned to particular indi viduals the philosophy is still that of a curriculum of ‘ac tivities and guidance with the teacher as the center of the guidance program. This report proposes a guidance program for Mason In dustrial and Literary School, Trinity, Mississippi, a rural secondary school of about 200 students.
designed for a specific school situation, should be applicable characteristics.
This particular school is a church
school and has an elementary school also on the campus.
plan presented here is designed with the secondary school in mind. Chapter I on "The Introduction to the Problem," is in tended to give an overview of rural education in general. It is hoped that it will present a background from which an appreciation of the following material may be gotten.
TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.
INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM.
Rural school conditions and facilities . .
Rural school buildings and equipment . .
Enrollment and attendance in rural schools. ...........................
Some special problems in rural education .
The cost of education in rural areas . .
Difficulties in providing an adequate program.
Texts and teaching aids are often un suitable
The advantages of rural schools. . . . .
Rural Guidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
COMMUNITY AND SCHOOL BACKGROUND.......
Community background ........
Location.........; . . ..............
Description of Loyola County . . . . . .
Educational characteristics. . . . . . .
Literacy characteristics ............
Economic characteristics ..............
Occupational classification. . . . . . .
Community enterprise ..................
PAGE History of the s c h o o l .......................
Origin.................................... Philosophy and aims of the school. . . . Present status.
Resume of general progress and accom-
plishment from 1927— 1946 ............... III.
SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENTS . . . .
Information from students................... The place and value of records.. . . . . .
The need of records...................
Types of records and their u s e s ........
The confidential folder ..............
The anecdotal record..................
Self-analysis chart ........
ORGANIZING A TESTING PROGRAM................ Why test?
Student-centered viewpoint.............. Standing on- each mental t r a i t ........
32 33 33 '33
His total profile ...................
Career choice . . . . .
PAGE Standards for choosing tests. . . . . . . .
Prediction of future success ..........
Consistent measurement........... ..
Length of testing period................
Ease of administration, scoring, and
profiling . . . . . .
Measures of intelligence.................
Measures of achievement..................
School program in intelligence. . . . . .
One score for intelligence............
Multiple scores for intelligence.. . .
Clerical batteries. . . . . . . . . . .
Measures of interest...................
Measures of adjustment. How to interpret anduse test results The student profile
. . . . . . .
Identifying information ................ Traits measured . .
Raw scores, on t e s t s ....................
Ranks on tests
Use of student ranks.
Interpreting the profile.................
Student profile and its u s e r s ............
Tea ch er ...............
Parent............................... . .
ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAM...............
Philosophy of the program...............
The senior counselor...................
Advisors of extra-curriculum activities .
Heads of departments...................
Home Room teachers...............
PAGE Registrar............ .....................
The n u r s e ...............
The student body.......................
Community, leisure time, higher education,
PROCEDURES IN COMPILING AND USING GUIDANCE MATERIALS.................................
Guidance conference .......................
The service and activity record . . . . . . .
Health record .............................
The confidential f o l d e r .................... VII.PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP..............
Placement . . . . .
* 70 75 75
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION TO THE PROBLEM The disadvantages faced by rural people in supporting an adequate educational program for their children are mir rored in existing rural school facilities and conditions. 1 RURAL SCHOOL CONDITIONS AND FACILITIES Every commonly employed statistical measure suggests that the quality of educational service provided by rural schools, considered as a group falls far below national norms.
School facilities and conditions clearly reveal the
difficulties faced by the rural population in trying to educate a disproportionately large share of the nation's < ■ children on a disproportionately small share of the national income.
Weaknesses abound despite a more-than-average effort
to support an adequate educational program and despite some assistance, nearly everywhere, from state school funds.
though rural people generally spend more than city people in relation to their means, they are unable to provide their children with the preparation they need to cope with their environment and to compete on equal terms with city-bred children. The inferior nature of the educational facilities and program in rural areas is suggested by comparative expenditure figures. 1
While such figures furnish only indirect and
George A. Works and Sinion 0. Lesser, Rural America Today (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1942), p. 24
imperfect yardsticks, in general there is a high correlation between the amount of money spent for education and the quality of service provided. The background and status of rural teachers— as education changes to meet the demands of a more complex society, the responsibilities of teachers become increasingly heavy and diverse.
This is particularly true under the difficult con
ditions which exist in many rural schools.
It is of the ut
most importance for these schools to attract teachers with the proper qualifications and training.
Yet then salary
scales are extremely low even if comparisons are confined to the educational field and no reference is made to other, better paying professions.
In 1935-36 the average salary of
rural teachers, supervisors, and principals was $827— nearly a thousand dollars less than the average salary of the com parable group in urban schools.
Nearly half of the teachers
with exacting responsibility of teaching in one-room schools earned less than $500, and nearly half of the teachers in two-room schools earned less than $600. Rural school buildings and equipment.
The disparity in
the status of urban and rural teachers has its counterpart in the conspicious differences in school plant and equipment between city 'and country.
The low average value of school
property per pupil enrolled in rural schools is reflected in deficiencies in physical facilities,.
A study conducted
co-operatively "by the United States Office of Education and ten participating states in 1938 showed that ’’Large numbers of children are housed in poorly constructed, unsafe, and generally inadequate buildings, often lacking even rudimen tary provisions for hygiene and sanitation.
This is parti
cularly true of the large number of one and two-room schools.” Enrollment and attendance in rural schools. Rural children spend fewer days in school than city children. School terms average nearly a month shorter in the country. ’’Nearly all the school terms in the United States of less than nine months and all of less than eight months are in rural areas.”
Furthermore, rural school attendance in
1935-36 averaged 83 per cent of-enrollment as compared with 86 per cent in city schools..
It is estimated that there
are over eight hundred thousand American children between the ages of seven and thirteen, nearly all of them living in the poorest rural areas, who are not going to school at all. SOME SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN RURAL EDUCATION While the ends of education, considered broadly, are the same in country and city, the means to their attainment must be adapted to the environment.
Conditions of life in
rural areas, notably the low population density, gives rise to distinctive problems with regard to controlling costs, making the school program effective, and reaching special groups of children and adults.
The cost of education in rural areas.
The fact that
much of the rural population is spread thin over a wide area increases the cost of providing educational facilities.
schools serve only a small area, there are likely to be only a few pupils for each teacher and, consequently, high perpupil costs; if schools serving wider areas are established, transportation must be furnished for students, .who do not live within walking distance.
In general, contrary to the common
impression, it is expensive to provide education in the rural areas. Difficulties in providing an adequate program. Rural schools face special difficulties in providing an adequate, stimulating educational program.
Because their pupils come
from homes and communities where cultural resources are often limited, it is particularly important that they offer abun dant opportunities for exploration and self-expression.
the lack of resources and exceptionally difficult teaching conditions tend to keep programs thin, stereotyped, and in flexible . Texts and teaching aids are often unsuitable.
of the dependence of many rural teachers on text-books, it is particularly unfortunate that so many texts are unsuitable for rural use.
Ideally, there should be a great deal of
teaching material which Jias been prepared with the needs of rural schools and rural children especially in mind.
of the present material neglects these needs altogether and cannot even be readily adapted for use.in rural schools; it is too completely slanted for the city. The advantages of rural schools.
The foregone sketch
of the problems of education in rural areas and the conditions, ■which prevail generally may give an erroneous impression. Rural schools have distinct advantages as well as disadvan tages.
Country life is rich in educational possibilities
which the schools are gradually learning to exploit.
life and relationships, for example, tend to be more mean ingful in the country.
The natural environment can be util
ized both as a means to many kinds of understanding and as a stimulus to aesthetic expression.
The social environment
can be capitalized educationally far more easily than in the city.
The different occupations in the community either
come within the child*s daily range of experience or are readily accessible for study.
The community agencies and
institutions, from clubs to local government, are relatively simple in their functions and organization.
Thus, if pro
perly directed, the rural child is in a better position than the city child to orient himself to his total environment and to perceive the essential nature of its component parts. He has better opportunities, too, for actual participation in the activities of home and community— in part because of the relatively simple nature of many of those activities
and in part because of the close integration in most rural areas of school and community. RURAL GUIDANCE2 The provision of guidance in rural schools.
to a recent sample survey made by the United States Office of Education, only a small number of rural high schools are doing organized work in guidance.
Beyond any question the
difficulties rural schools face in providing special guidance service are very great.
Nearly half of all rural high
schools, it will be remembered, enroll fewer than a hundred pupils.
Most rural schools are too poor to employ a special
It is possible to do excellent work
without a special guidance counselor or with one counselor serving a number of schools.
Rural high schoolsbhave certain
advantages in furnishing guidance.
Their small size per
mits teachers to become well acquainted with the individual students.
The relative simplicity of the rural social
structure makes it easier to secure the background data so essential for understanding the boys and girls they teach. Though the number of rural schools doing work in guidance is small, an increasing amount of the work being done is excellent.
Many of these schools, it is true, are unusually
large and well staffed.
Ct. A. Works and S. .0. Lesser, op. cit.
CHAPTER IT COMMUNITY AND SCHOOL BACKGROUND True guidance means more than assisting pupils to solve vocational problems or to plan school careers.
is a philosophy of education which permeates every phase of school, thought and activity. A.
Location. Mason Industrial and Literary School is located in the heart of Loyola County a half mile from the trading or business center of Trinity, Mississippi, the county seat. Geographical features.
Loyola County differs in its
physical contour from the other counties in the state be cause it is half Delta and half hill country.
small trading centers or villages, small townships, and miles of open country which is mainly unculled timber land, cotton farms, and plantations. Description of Loyola County.
In describing Loyola
County it is necessary to include population characteris tics, educational characteristics., literacy and economic characteristics according to listing and analysis of T
The background and interpretations bf^rthe data on this section is taken from an unpublished article, ’'Communi ty Life, Origin, and Development of the Mason Indus trial and Literary School of Trinity, Mississippi," by Arenia C. Mallory, president of the school.
socio-economic indices 1,104 southern counties in 1941 by Charles S. Johnson
so as to give a true picture of the
need of this type of guidance program for children in this county and community. Educational characteristics. Expenditures per pupil enrolled are 50.30 per cent per white pupil and 3.87 per cent per Negro pupil.
There are thirty-three Rosenvrald
Schools in the county, twenty per cent of which are one teacher schools.
The average value of white rural schools
as a total is $45,133; for Negro schools as a total is $16143.
This is due.to the 57 Negro schools that are
housed in Negro churches, cabins, garages, etc. Population characteristics. The geographical center of Negro population in Mississippi is near Trinity in Loyola County.
The total population in 1941 was 38,534.
mately 10,000 migrated to other sections since this census. Only 6.7 per cent of the population is.urban and 18.6 per cent rural non-farm. total.
The Negro population is 76.3 of the
Trinity is the largest town in the county.
Literacy characteristics. population is illiterate.
21.6 per cent of the total
1 0 .per cent of the native white
group and 28.3'per cent of the Negro group. 2 Charles S.' Johnson, Statistical Atlas of Southern Coun ties (North Carolina.: The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1941).,
Loyola County is classi
fied in the catagory ”one dominate crop system” and is nonindustrial.
Only 4.4 per cent of all males are gainfully
employed in trade. 91 per cent ber
While 84 per cent of Negro males and
of Negro families are in agriculture.
of farm owners by colored in thecounty, according to
the census of 1940: Number
of full and part owners, white 583
of full and part owners, colored 767
These are interesting data in that-they show there are more Negro farm owners in Loyola County than thererare" white farm owners.
Of course the Negroes do not own so much land
as the whites because most of their holdings are in small tracts.
The top heavy credit structure of the cotton coun
ties manifests itself in the fact that 51 per cent of all the farms are mortgaged. Loyola County is one of the few counties in Mississippi which has recently put a small levy-of one fourth to one mil® for the purpose of erecting and repairing school houses for Negro children. Trinity, the county seat, is twelve miles from the mouth of the great Mississippi Delta -where almost a half
3~ P. H. Eason, Status of Negro Schools -in Mississippi (Mississippi Department of Education, Division of Sta tistical Information, 1939)
million Negroes live on immense cotton plantations rich with only blace alluvial soil in the entire state (most of the soil in the state is red clay mixed with sand). The population of Trinity is approximately 8,590. Occupational classification.
As in the majority of
Mississippi rural communities .some of the farmers are owners, the majority are tenants. without tenants. tenants.
Thirty per cent are landowners
Seventy per cent are land owners with
On the basis of financial arrangement there are
two main classes, the sharecroppers and the renters.
the foot of the economic ladder are the sharecroppers, 90 per cent of whom are Negroes.
They have no resource of
their own, neither tools nor animals and no finances. Community enterprise.
There are five churches for
whites and six churches for Negroes.
Attendance to some
church is essential for leadership in both races. ' Two small theatres form the only amusement and enter tainment for the general public for fifteen miles in all directions. Five clothing stores, three drug stores, two banks, seven grocery stores, (one wholesale), three hardware stores, two insurance offices, two ten-cent stores, three restau rants (including Negro eating places) a post office, Western Union and American Railway Express office, telephone office, three shoe repair shops, six filling stations, three grain
and feed stores (owned by the same men) and offices for seven lawyers, three doctors (all white) and one dentist, comprise the business district which is built in a circle around the court house. A railroad station, a branch from the Illinois Central, (Y.M.V.) operates two freight trains weekly.
passenger service is at the next town in size in the county, Alport, a distance of twelve miles from Trinity.
pendent bus system provides transportation once a day, north, south, east and west. B.
HISTORY OF THE SCHOOL
Origin. Mason Home and Industrial School (original name) was organized in 1918 by a local Negro teacher with a ninth grade education, in a basement (of dirt walls and floor) of a Negro church.
Ten children were in attendance
the first short school term.
The purpose of the school was
to provide elementary education for a religious group of a nearby neighborhood who had created for themselves what they felt was a higher standard of Christian living than was provided by local churches.
The children of these few
families were two miles distant from the nearest school. Eventually, a school site was purchased on a county road. The site was formerly a dumping..ground and had once been a large cotton plantation. first purchase.
Forty acres were included in this
Eight years after the initial opening of the school in the basement of the church, a young woman seeking to do social missionary service for the underprivileged of her racial group, found her way to the Mason School.
offered the average salary for any type of Negro teacher in that area of if15.00 per month which she gladly accepted so as to have an opportunity to do something about the' prevail ing conditions. Four weeks after the arrival of the present President, the Founder died of a heart attack.
The church that was buy
ing the property decided to let it revert to a cotton farm a they were discouraged with the effort to have an educational program. Philosophy and aims of school.. The school aims to supply as far as possible the immediate needs of race and community as they confront us here and now.
Not merely in
high grade academic instructions but in developing conse crated men and women for efficient future service to mankind and in producing greater industrial efficiency for labor of their hands; in aiding the masses to a finer conception of home life, both in material comforts and in spititual atmos phere, in promoting public health and safety; encouraging pride of race, community and nation; in persuading a broader appreciation of intellectually for the sake of refinement and culture; in bringing members of all races together in a
spirit of good •will; in emphasizing the development of the Christian character in the individual as the only safe foun dation for our social and civic structure. Present status. In 1936 the High School of Mason Industrial and Literary School won the distinction of being one of the first schools for Negro students in Mississippi to be fully accredited by the State Department of Education. Resume of General Progress and accomplishment from 1927-1946; 1.
Ownership of 350 acre school site.
Development of 200 acre farm with paid student
labor under supervision of a successful farmer and teacher of agriculture.
Fifty acres are in corn crop, one hundred
fifty acres in vegetable plots, and cover crops for stock. 3.
Developing white face Texas cows for meat and
Jersey stock for milk and butter. 4.
Enrollment approximately four hundred from county
and state, plus one hundred fifty from thirty-nine states in the union, with sections of country evenly distributed. This cross section grouping is excellent stimuli1and contact for local and out of state students. One hundred fifty reside in dormitories; four hun dred live in community or have access to bus transportation operated by school.
The county does not provide bus trans
portation as yet for Negro children.
The Academic Department is organized under Primary,
Grammar and High School departments, also Music, in the Home Economics and Manual Arts departments, each boy and girl is taught the practical business of living, a commercial de partment was instituted last year.
This department will in
crease its development as funds are supplied for it. Basic education is the need for the majority of chil dren in this area, hence we have attempted to develop a good elementary and secondary school. The curriculum Is based on the state requirements for an accredited school.4
The inclusion of some elective sub
jects based on the need of the local community, make pos sible the selection of subjects needed for college entrance, trades, or agricultural pursuits. The faculty is organized for the study, development, and. adaptation of the curriculum for the purpose of meeting the needs of all the children. 6.
The teachers are from all sections of the country. V
All teachers are graduates of recognized four-year colleges. The supervising teachers hold M.S. or M.A. degrees. A teacher retirement plan has been accepted this year by the Board.
This plan was developed by members of the
faculty, members of the Board of Education with a specialist 4 E.. R, Jobe, Accredited High Schools and Colleges, Bul letin Ho. Ill, 1944-45. State Department of Education.
in this field as chairman of the committee. 7.
The location of the school ..has heen greatly improved
by the paved state Highway no. 17 passing directly by its school boundings. 8.
Modern conveniences— domestic gas heat, electri
city, modern laundry facilities, shower rooms for boys and girls, modern school room equipment with good buildings, have been a vital part of the program for the education to higher levels and standards of living for the entire commun ity.
Pointing the way to self help and personal pride has
developed a well clothed student group, with only a few orphaned children from the Delta dependent upon the school for their entire clothing. 9.
Modern school buses operating from this school are
a constant challenge and reminder to the county leadership of their responsibility to Negro children in isolated areas. Mason School buses bring children into the public schools also. 10.
The Ida L. Jackson library contains some ten thou
sand volumes for the use of the school.
pamphlets, and more than thirty educational magazines and periodicals are received monthly and weekly. 11;
The modest science laboratory built by the boys
in the manual training department has attracted state wide attention. 12.
The first large scale health project for Negroes
had its roots on the campus of this school.
•was developed by the Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority (the largest and oldest Negro sorority in America) and took the form of mobile clinics operating on large Delta plantations and in the all-Negro town, Mound Bayou. 13.
The first free clinic for visual check-up for
Negro children in the state of Mississippi was sponsored by this school.
The doctors and nurses were from one of
the white hospitals, in Jackson, Mississippi. 14.
Extra-curricular activities including the band
and choral groups are. emphasized and are an important part of the educational program.' The value of this type of pro-, gram is in the social adjustment, ethical standards, habits and attitudes of good citizenship and health improvement in these children who never learned to really play or just be children. 15.
The P.T.A. receives honors at the teachers asso
ciation yearly, for the largest, best attended and organized in the entire state.
Thirty active members participate
with the faculty in a well-planned program for child welfare. 16.
The school lunch program has improved the health
of the children and increased their ability to absorb their lessons.
5 Langfitt, Cyr and Newsom, The Small High School at Work (New York: American Book Company, 1936)"’, p. .307
There are nine buildings used for school purpose.
With an investment of two hundred thousand dollars, a large modern barn, two smaller barns, four small dwelling houses, and a fire proof garage were built. 18.
The water system is operated by a central unit
that includes six large electric pumps (housed under ground) connected to deep wells.
Plans.for a fifty thousand dollar
tank system are under way. 19. lights.
The campus is well lighted with modern street
CHAPTER III SOURCES OF INFORMATION ABOUT STUDENTS INFORMATION FROM STUDENTS When obtaining Information about students it is logical to turn to the students themselves for part of this data. Although the information obtained from adolescent youth may not be entirely dependable, it is sometimes the only pos sible source. plans:
It is important to know their educational
their subject likes and dislikes, the curricula
they plan to enter, the type of future school for which they are preparing, and the length in years of their edu cational plans.
Data should be assembled concerning their
occupational- choices, reasons for these choices, persis tence and change in these decisions, home conditions, social background, and much other pertinent information which can be supplied in great part by the student himself.1 Much essential information is requested of the stu dent at various times in his school career.
when he applies for admission he is usually required to fill out a blank calling for certain vital statistics. At another time he may be asked to state his vocational choices and reasons for them. I
Later information regarding
D. ¥. Lefever, Terrel and Neitzel, Principles and Techniques of Guidance (New York: The Ronald Press Company, 1941), p. 240-244
the student*s extra-curricular and social interests, as •well as the degree of participation in them.
of information are collected at various times and find their way into different offices or files.
cular problem may then arise necessitating the assembling of all such, pertinent information in one place. The Personal Information form which follows on pages 20 through 23 is convenient for collecting pertinent in formation on one a
It aids in
student make a vocational choice.
the problemof helping Variations of this
form could be made, however, for other types of problems. Such a personal information blank is not presented to a number of students at one time, but is used only with the individual who has some particularly pressing problem need ing a solution. THE The need of
PLACE AND VALUE OF RECORDS records.
is used in this report
to mean data compiled for use within the school system. To attempt to counsel or to educate without an adequate record is very like attempting to pilot an ocean liner across the North Atlantic without an iceberg chart or to attempt to pilot an airplane over the Sahara Desert with out the benefit of the experience of fliers who have made 2 the flight. Humanity has progressed as the records of 2 C. M. Smith, M. M. Roos, A Guide to Guidance(New York: Prentice Hall, inc., 1942J
Date........ ....... 19..... PERSONAL INFORMATION FORM To the Student: The purpose of this blank is to assemble all essential information about you, so that our conferences can be de voted entirely to a discussion of your problems. You will be asked totakecertainpsychological tests, buttest scores alone will rarely be useful Insolving your problems. The information asked for in the following pages will be very necessary in helping us interpret test results in terms of your specific needs. This information is strictly confidential, so please feel free to answer these questions as frankly and as com pletely as possible. I.
Personal and Family History Name...................
Permanent address.................. ............. Date of Birth Yes. Father living No.
Place..................... Yes............. Mother living No...............
Divorced or Separated Yes......No.... Father’s Name (and initials)...................... Address (residence)
Occupation or business........................ II.
Why do you want this special service from the guidance staff? Check Here (one or more) 1. I need help in choosing my life vocation. 8 . I cannot decide between the following vocations: ........ .......... ........... .....5. I have decided on .......... as a vocation, but I would like a check-up on my fitness for it. 4. I would like to know if I should go to college.
5. I am not doing veil in my courses. 6 . I vant help in making out my program of
studies. Other reasons......................... I was referred here by
¥hat is your purpose in attending this school? (Check one or more, or explain below) Prepare for a vocation .... .My parents in ....,¥ithout this training sisted there is less chance My friends are of getting a job all going Everybodjr else The prestige of grad uating from here does Get more education .....Don*t knov vhy To make social contacts Can't get a job Other explanations:
Hov does your family feel about your coming here? ....Anxious for me to attend .... Opposed to my coming ....Feel further education is desirable ....¥ant me to take special vocational training.
Hov about your financial condition? ....My family pays all my expenses. ....I must vork part time. Humberof hoursveek... ....I must earn all money for my expenses.
List in the left-hand columnbelov the three subjects taken in high school or junior high vhich you liked best, and in the other column three subjects 3/ou liked least: Liked Best Liked Least
Specify belov the types of activities engaged in at this school, or previous school, and list any offices held: ........ Athletics (vhat type)............... ........ Clubs (kind) ........ ...........
22 Debate................ Dramatics............. .....Journalism.......... .....Student Body Government Others: ................... C.
What types of books or articles interest you? (Fiction, biography, science, poetry, etc.) ¥hat magazines do you read most frequently?
Work Experiences List in chronological order, all of your work or employment experiences to date including part-time and summer jobs: Kind of Work Length of Job (Give year and month) ...... From...... ...To............
Which of these jobs did you like best?, ............Why?.................... VITi.
Occupational Preferences A.
List in order of preference five occupations in which you would like to make your living. Do not consider abilities or job opportunities. Just consider whether or not you would be happy in this work. Occupation
Reason for Interest in it
2 . ................................................................................. 3...... ..................................... 4.................................. ........ 3. ................ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . What is your present vocational choice?........ When did you first make this choice(year)?..... Do you have any physical disabilities which would influence your entering certain occupations? (explain).................................. .
Occupations can be roughly classified into "families'* based on interest and abilities. In the following groupings, indicate in order of preference (l, 8, 3) the three groups in which you believe you would best fit . Business contacts with people (selling, promotional, politics, etc.) ..... Business detail work (accountant, banker, cashier, office clerk, statistician, stenographer) Social service activities (Boy Scout executive, minister, personnel director, social case work, teacher, welfare work, Y.M.C.A.) ..... Special artistic abilities (actor, artist, designer, interior decorator, musician) Executive responsibilities (director, foreman, office manager, superintendent) ..... Technical or scientific work (archi tect, chemist, engineer, inventor, mechanic, physician, physicist, re search worker, scientist, surgeon, toolmaker) ......Verbal or linguistic ability (adver tising man, author, lawyer, librarian, newspaper man, professor)
Youl* estimate of your own personality reactions Check any of the following words which describe your make-up: Anxious Ba shful Calm Capable Cheerful Conscientious Cynical Depressed Easily exhausted Excitable Friendly Impetuous Irritable Jealous
Nervous Patient Persevering Pessimistic Quick tempered Reserved Self-confident Stubborn Submissive Tactful Talented Tolerant Unhappy
past generations have "been utilized and built upon by new generations.
Even so can the adequate utilization of the
counselee’s record lead to the counselor’s progress. Record keeping is as old as civilization and it is as varied too.
In fact, civilization itself has been dependent
upon record keeping for its progress.
If we have nothing to
remind us of what has gone before, we cannot benefit by our experiences or the experience of others.^ The criteria of general kind.
Since the guidance center
is not a seperate unit, but an integral part of the secondary school.
Therefore, in establishing a system-of records for
this center, criteria that fit smoothly into the entire pattern of secondary education must be adopted. Some principles used in establishing systems of records by McAllister and Otis in Child Accounting Practice. 1.
The individual child, and not the group, is the primary unit of instruction and therefore of accounting.
Only statistics that have definite value in con tributing to the educational welfare of pupils, individually and collectively, should be kept, and there should be a minimum of duplication.
3. Forms should be organized so as to .consume a mini mum of time and energy for making entries. 3 Arthur E. Traxler, How to-.Use Cumulative Records (Chicago: Science Research Associates, 1947)
Types of records and their uses 1. Cumulative Record An adequate cumulative record makes provision for the recording about each individual, annually or more frequently, all information in a guidance program on which the school can obtain observa tions .
It should include at least the following
(l)home and social background; (2)summary
of record in schools previously attended; (o)school history and record of class work; (4)mental abili ty or academic aptitude; (5)achievement and growth in different fields of study; (6)health and physi cal development; (7)extra-curriculum activities; (8)work and out-of-school experiences; (9)special aptitudes; (10)educational and vocational inter ests; (11')personal characteristics or behavior description; and (12)plans for the future. A cumulative record should be designed to cover at least one division of the school, such as primary grades, intermediate grades, junior high,' senior high, or college. A well-planned cumulative record form is intrinscially a growth record.
It is organized by
time sequence; that is the main categories ex tending clear across the card are first arranged
26 in order from the top to the bottom of the form.
catagories are then bisected by vertical lines marking off annual columns so that the record for an individual will progress by yearly, intervals from left to right#
record for the pupil’s first year in thse school is regarded in the left-hand column, his record for the second year in the next column to the right, and so on.
greatly simplifies the problem by obtaining a picture of the growth of the pupil.
The chief single limitation in the
cumulative records constructed by many schools is the failure to take advantage of this simple type of organization. 2.
The Confidential Folder4 A manila folder of good quality, fifth-cut, letter
size, and with the student’s name posted on the tab is recom mended'.
These folders will fit.a standard metal file which
should be provided with an individual lock. folders should go such items as:
(l)the student’s proposed
program, planned in terms of a definite curriculum for as many semesters in advance as seems wise, (2)all letters received, and carbon copies of all letters written, concern ing this student from and to parents and others, (3)agree ments or understandings affecting date or conditions of graduation, or concerning methods of meeting the particular 4 D. ¥eity Lefever, op. cit.
requirements of some curriculum or college, signed by the student or a parent, (4)communications from faculty members concerning the student’s attitude, industry, reliability, and general contribution to the class work, (5)reports from the attendance office dr deans, regarding reasons for unsat isfactory attendance and any facts in the home or personal situation which might explain the irregularity, (6)a health card from the school physician showing actual detailed findings, and a recommendation regarding physical educa tion assignments, (7)a record of any difficulties with juvenile or police authorities, (8)petitions for changes of curriculum or dropping of courses (9)information gathered from interviews regarding outside work, social and economic background, extra-curricular activities, and special plans, and (10)any confidential information, from whatever source, which would make for a more intelligent handling of the
* student’s case. 3.
The Anecdotal Record
The anecdotal record is a running account of the daily experiences of students as reported by those who are expected to know when best in given situations— their teachers. Under this plan of record keeping, each instructor is re quested to jot down, while still fresh in his memory, any anecdote which may be significant in interpreting the actions 5 D. Uelty Lefever, op. cit. p. 387
of the students.
These anecdotes may have to do with observed
interests, skills, personality traits, difficulties, special abilities, cases involving misconduct and discipline, and the like.
They are observations and descriptions of beha
vior, rather than interpretations of behavior.
gathered by teachers for their own use and are also sent periodically to the counselors who use the various items of information.
In talking with the students about these an
ecdotes (although he may not have called the student to his office- for this particular purpose) the counselor may wish to keep a further anecdotal record of the case for himself. 4.
Test Data6 The amount of test data which will be gathered and
the amount of space which must be provided for their record ing must be determined largely in the light of the need for testing in a sound guidance.
A certain amount of testing
is not only desirable, but necessary.
A testing program
should be as extensive as available funds.permit.
cases schools must be operated on somewhat limited budgets, the following suggestions are made as to a minimum testing program, the findings of which should be made matters of permanent record. (1)
The so-called '’intelligence” test, which is really
a measure of academic or scholastic aptitude.
onefs fitness to do ordinary school work as schools for the 6 D. ¥elty Lefever, op. cit. p. 245-250.
most part are organized.
Results of previous tests of this
character which the student may have taken should be secured and entered if possible. (2) A measure of personality or temperament might well be utilized.
If the student is expected to develop a better
personality as a result of his secondary school experience, he should be appraised of his present personality status.
number of these inventories, suitable for secondary school students are available,
personality trait data constitute a
powerful tool in the hand of a skilled guidance worker since in our world of work, personality traits count even more than learning and skills. (3) Mil inventory of the student*s interests is suggested. Stated interests are often not very real, perhaps being mere catch words repeated over a long period of time and repre senting only wishful thinking.
Much can be done by the skilled
counselor to separate bona fide and transitory interests, this is one source of data which seems to be indispensable in matters of curriculum selections and general guidance purposes. Even though they are subject to change with increasing maturity, interest inventory data should be obtained and care fully recorded. (4) If time and money permitted, it would be an excel lent plan to test many aptitudes.
may make it impossible to do more than test students who
apparently have greater need than their fellows for such tests.
If students are assigned to counselors on a voca
tional choice basis or are required on entrance to specify such choices; it should then be possible to select the most appropriate specific aptitude tests.
Art majors should be
examined for artistic aptitudes* music majors for musical aptitudes, clerks for clerical aptitude, etc. this kind are of two general types: performance.
Tests of all
pencil and paper, and
It is frequently possible to give group pencil
and paper tests of this character to all students in a school, and individual tests to the much smaller number whose curri cular plans warrant the additional expense. The first will yield information on abstract intelligence, the second on personality or behavior, the third about interest and the last on "talents" or specific aptitudes. 5.
Self-Analysis Chart^ The Self-Analysis Chart is used for helping the
student select an occupation by finding out his strong abili ties in various fields.
The student uses all of his past
records, report cards and the like.
With the help of their
parents, they rate themselves in each of the items listed. An interpretation of the Self-Analysis is made with the aid of the counselor. 7 phillip J. Caroselli, Guidance in Occupations (Boston: The Christopher Publishing House, 1942) p. 86-27.
The particular chart mentioned here is made up as follows.
There are two large vertical columns one of which
is Item of Qualification and the other Levels of Training. There are twenty-five items under five main headings. The directions state for the pupil to find the average for each item in terms of the scale given under Levels of Train ing.
The five main headings are (1) Grade and High School
Record, (2) Intelligence, (3) Physical, (4) Abilities and Experiences, (5)Personality. The Levels of Training are (1) Unskilled, (2) Semi-skilled, (3) Skilled Level, (4) Pro fessional Level and (5) Expert Level.
CHAPTER IV ORGANIZING A TESTING PROGRAM1
The ever-growing appreciation and recognition of guidance and of the extension of guidance services have brought new point to the use of testing.
It is increasingly
apparent that the modern guidance program must rest more firmly and accurately upon an adequate program of testing. There are various educational needs of school, youth. Although a great emphasis has been placed on occupational testing, the suitability of an individual for a particular job constitutes only one of the numerous needs.
easily realized that so much has been done in this area of occupational testing, that perhaps the most usable testing materials and test interpretations, and certainly the largest test practice, are now found in this kind of testing.
The wider concept of test usage should include
the use of tests to improve personality] study habits; reading techniques and skills; basic learning and appiicatory skills in general; educational and occupational planning analysis of career and job alternatives; of ac quiring and understanding basic social, economic, civic, and moral values; self-evaluation and group relationships. 1 Joseph E. King "Using Tests In The Modern Secondary School" The National Association of Secondary School Principals, Bulletin XXXII (December, 1948)
WHY TEST? Psychological tests are no more mysterious than any other measuring instruments— the carpenter's rule, the doctor's thermometer, the everydajr clocks and scales.
any yardstick, the psychological test is a quick and re liable method to show how much of a certain mental trait this student possesses.
He say, for example, this table
is twenty-six inches long, this person has a temperature of 98 degrees, or this student has a Stanford-Binet I.Q. of 116.
From such information, we are better able to predict
and control future events. ^
Student centered viewpoint.
Psychological tests give
valuable information about the student's mental status. give it quickly, reliably, and objectively.
facts which provide a starting point to answer such questions about the student as: 0^ 1.
Standing on each mental trait.
Where does this
student rank in the general population on each mental trait? Looking at his intelligences, interests, adjustments, and achievements, individually in what traits is he below average; in what, average; in what, above-average? 2.
His total profile.
What are this student's weak
nesses in terms of his total pattern of traits— which may .be ascertained as additional to his test profile?
are his high, average, and low points, for example, when his over-all profile is studied?
Can the student'.'become--.a
well-informed citizen in terms of his pattern of traits? What remedial work is necessary to insure this primary goal of education?
In what types of leisure activity will he
enjoy himself most? ^■4.
In terms of his profile, sup
plemented by sucto. subjectine material as may be available, where should he be placed in school? lum will be most suitable for him? will be most effective?
What type of curricu
What methods of teaching
What are the best administrative
and supervisory policies to insure proper education of each student? 5.
be for a career?
What should this student’s plans
For what occupational families is he best
fitted in terms of his pattern of traits?
What are the
school courses related to these careers or to his profile? What are the possible alternatives in his career planning? 2
Psychological tests— today or even tomorrow— do not
provide complete answers to the objectives stated above, nor are tests available to measure every aspect of the student’s total personality.
Tests are however a starting
point for objective evaluation of the student and thus the school.
They give indication of the student’s strengths
and weaknesses and may tell much about the student’s several intelligences, interests, and present achievements! a little
about his adjustments.
They afford the educator a better
understanding of the student’-s potentialities and short-' comings and offer a beginning in knowing the student and thus place the teacher in a position to assist in purpose ful planning and guidance. WHAT TESTS? The task of deciding what tests will be used in the guidance program is far from an easy one.
The first question
to consider is the number of areas to be measured.
tests of intelligence, interest, adjustment and achievement be used, or will-only one or two of these general areas be sampled?
Then, what specific tests will be used and how
many will be administered? Psychological tests fall roughly into four large groupings— tests of intelligence, interest, emotional ad justment, and achievement.
Tests of intelligences include
the well-known scholastic ability tests and tests of specific aptitudes.
Interest inventories measure the student’s likes
and dislikes for activities in various, fields. Measures of emotional adjustment indicate the student’s reactions to life and personal problems.
And tests of achievement measures
educational and occupational skills. The problem arises in choosing the specific tests to use.
The reason for this difficulty is some publishing
companies plus scores of schools and private individuals have made available more than five thousand tests. of text publishers is given in Chart 1.
The educator cannot
hope to keep up with this literature and thus must rely on the judgment of test specialists to evaluate these materials for him and to aid him in selecting a program of tests. standards for choosing tests
When more than one device is available for a certain purpose, it is necessary to*evaluate these in some way.
in deciding what tests will be used, the educator should judge the available measures against a series of standards. Trait measured.
It is most important that the trait
which is measured by the test be defined.
The present trend
is to use tests which measure a series of single traits— these traits being basic to mental behavior, significant, and in dependent of one another.
In this way, the student’s test
profile becomes most meaningful and useful for education and guidance. Prediction of future success.
The next standard of im
portance in selecting a program of tests is the predictability of the test.
To say that a student is high, average, or low
in terms of his test score means little— if we do not know what can be expected in terms of his standing.
To be of use
to the educator, the relationship between the trait measured and the later success in life situations must be known.
Is the predictability of the score that makes the test value to the educator
and to the student.
Consistent measurement. the trait must be consistent.
The student*s standing on He cannot be strong in the
trait in January and weak in March. . The- test should sample an adequate amount of the behavior to be reliable from administration to administration.
To insure this reliability,
the test should, be given under controlledconditions; and the scoring should be
Calibration. The student’s standing in the trait must be expressed as a numerical score which can be located on a scale.
In terms of his position on the scale, the
student’s score can be interpreted as high, above average, average, below average, or low.• Standardization.
The score made by a student should
locate him in a certain population.
He is strong or weak,
high or low, or at some point in-between in the trait only as compared to a typical cross-section of a population similar to him in grade, age, sex, or other characteristics. Length of testing period.
Since the meaning of the
student’s profile or the predicting value of the tests results increases as more traitsare added, each test should be as short as reliability will allow.
are most appropriate since all of the pupils are occupied at the same time.
Ease of administration. scoring, and profiling. Psychological tests are not basically too complicated as measuring instruments.
They can be designed for ease of
administration, scoring, and profiling so that adults "with training in education and psychology may learn to administer them -without too much difficulty. MEASURES OF INTELLIGENCE During the early period of psychological testing, one score (such as the I.Q.) was used to express the student’s intelligence or learning ability.
They set out to replace
the single-score test of general intelligence by measures which provided a series of scores.
These early multiple-
score tests of intelligence, however, often measured abili ties which overlapped one another. The trend in intelligence testing today is toward the multiple-score tests measuring these basic or primary abili ties.
The American Council on Education Psychological
Examination (l), California Test of Mental Maturity (5), Guilford-Zimmerman Aptitude Survey (15) and Thurstone Tests of Primary Mental Abilities, (l, IS, 14,) are some of the tests that indicate the current trend in the measurement of intelligence. Verbal. Verbal intelligence is the ability to under stand words and the ideas that lie behind them.
vocabulary, general information, and reading comprehension,
are the purest measures of Verbal ability. Verbal is important in such school courses as English, foreign language, business method, history, science, and particularly in courses in an academic curriculum and at the college level.
It is needed for success in careers,
such as secretary, teacher, editor, scientist, librarian, office clerk, and executive, where the workers must compre hend language and deal with ideas and words. Verbal is the most prominent ability measured by tests of general intelligence.
For example, the I.Q. obtained
from the Revised Standford-Binet Scales (9) is heavily loaded in Verbal intelligence.
The single scores of the
Army Alpha (12) and the Army General Classification Test, and Otis (19) intelligence tests are principally measures of Verbal ability, though they also include other intelli gences.
Intelligence tests which give part scores usually
afford a verbal score. Practically speaking, it is desirioLis that verbal ability be indicated as a separate trait on the student’s profile.
If the verbal score is to be pure— that is, indi
cate only the student’s understanding of common words— the test from which this score is obtained must be one of word or sentence comprehension.
Over-all scores from tests of
general intelligence cannot be used since they Intermix other abilities with verbal.
The best approach is to use a
test which gives a single Verbal score or in which verbal ability is measured in pure form by one of the part scores. Reasoning.
Of all the intelligences, Reasoning is
probably the most significant in our society.
explains to good extent why certain students are outstanding in school and certain men are leaders in their profession. They have the ability to attack problems, to figure them out correctly, and to solve them with accuracy and dispatch. Foresight and planning mark a man with high Reasoning in telligence . Typical test items include number and letter series, grouping of words, objects, analogies, and common sense prob lems . Numerical. Numerical is the ability to work with figures— to manipulate systems similar to the number system. Numerical ability is apparently broader than just dealing with the number system.
It involves the manipulation of any
type of memorized system according to a set of rules.
would include alphabet symbols, file systems, codes, and rules of procedure or method. Numerical ability is important in such school courses as business arithmetic, accounting, bookkeeping, office procedures, and statistics.
It is an aid to success in any occupation
which involves skill in handling a memorized system, such as cashier, sales clerk, accountant, file clerk, bank teller, bookkeeper, and inventory clerk.
CHART 1 TEST PUBLISHERS*
American Council on Education, 744 Jackson Place, Washington, Zone 6, D. C.
Bureau of Educational Measurements, Kansas State Teachers College, Emporia, Kansas.
Bureau of Educational Research and Service, State Uni versity of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
Bureau of Publications, Teachers College, Columbia Uni versity, Hew York 27.
California Test Bureau, 5917 Hollywood Blvd., Los Angeles.
Center For Psychological Service, George Washington Uni versity, Washington 6, D. C.
Co-operative Test Service, 15 Amsterdam Avenue, New York,
Educational Test Bureau, 720 Washington Avenue, Minneapolis 14.
Houghton Mifflin Company, 2500 Prairie Avenue, Chicago 16.
• E .,
Industrial Psychology, 105 West Adams Street, Chicago 3.
McKnight and McKnight, 109-11 ¥. Market Street, Blooming ton, Illinois.
Psychological Corporation, 522 Fifth Avenue, New York 18.
Public School Publishing Company, Bloomington, Illinois.
Science Research Associates, 228 So. Wabash Avenue, Chicago.
Sheridan Supply Company, P.O. Box 837, Beverly Hills, Calif.
Stanford University Press, Stanford University, California.
17. .Stoelting Company, 425 North Homan Avenue, Chicago 24. 18.
University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis 14.
World Book Company, 2126 Prairie A.venue, Chicago 16.
Dr. Karl Holzinger, University of Chicago, Chicago. *
Reference' to publishers throughout the chapter is made by the index number as given in this chart.
The best measure of Numerical intelligence is a test of simple arithmetical operations— addition, subtraction, mul tiplication, and division.
Word problems in arithmetic have
been shown statistically to include the Verbal and Reasoning factors along with Numerical ability.
Thus an arithmetic
word problem score is a complex score, and one never knows whether the student scores high or low because 'Of Numerical, Verbal, or Reasoning ability.
Such a complex score is of
limited value in guidance, for the student’s strengths and weaknesses must be known in the basic components of behavior before prediction can be meaningful. If the educator desires the profile to reflect pure Numerical ability, he must obtain the scores from a test of simple operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division). A test of Numerical ability is usually contained in batteries of intelligence, clerical, mechaniaal, and even achievement tests. Fluency.
Fluency is related to Verbal intelligence in
that both* require the student to deal with ■'words.
involves the. understanding of language, Fluency requires the use of words with ease.
The student who is high in Fluency
is able to write and talk without searching for the right word to use.
Individuals low in Fluency intelligence ex
hibit much blocking and grouping for words in their use of language.
Fluency is obviously an important ability in composition classes, public speaking, debate, speech and journalism.
is an ability needed by the writer, salesman, comedian, re porter, public relations man, and in other occupations where words must flow readily and smoothly.
Fluency appears to be
an ability counterpart of sales interest. Tests of Fluency or flow were first used by Dr. Charles Spearman, the British psychologist and one of the early re searchers in the method of factor analysis.
Dr. L. L. Thur-
stone of the University of Chicago has further developed the measure of Fluency ability. Memory. Memory is the ability to recognize and recall associations— factual information,, procedures or methods, names and faces, and other types of material.
This type of
intelligence is important in school courses where students are required to make associations.
Good examples are
foreign language courses and memorization of formulae in physical sciences.
Many occupations require memory for
varied types of material. Memory ability is measured by tests of paired associates such as word— number’or picture— word relationships, memor izing nonsense syllables, or recalling details about a pic ture or story.
The Stanford Revision of the Binet Test (9)
contains■seperate tests of Memory, but since it affords only a single score, it does not"differentiate this ability from the other components of intelligence.
Moss includes a test
for memory of names and faces in his Social Intelligence Test (6).
Memory scores are available from the California
Test of Mental Maturity (5), Thurstone Primary Mental Abilities (1, IS, 14), and Factored Aptitude Series (10). Visualization. The sixth basic component of intel ligence is Visualization.
Visualization is the ability to
perceive the sizes, shapes, and relations of objects in space.
It involves thinking about objects in two and three
dimensions, of manipulating them in various positions men tally . Visualization is important for classes in geometry, mechanical drawing, art, manual training, enterior decora tion, engineering and geography.
The artist, designer,
electrician, pilot, engineer, and carpenter are typical of the workers who need ability to visualize objects in space. Visualization is probably the most important component in mechanical drawing,:
Many tests are available which tap Visualization intelligence— so many, in fact, that the unwary educator may be measuring Visualization in more than one form in his testing program..
Duplicate measurements of the same trait,
of course-, are of little value.
In addition to being time
consuming and expensive, they give little additional in formation of value for guidance.
Tests of Visualization are generally pictoral.
Stanford-Binet contain the tasks of coping a diamond and paper folding.
The specific types of tests are Group tests,
Individual Tests, Nonlanguage Tests of General Intelligence and Part Score in Mechanical Batteries which will be found in Chart 8. The fallacy of an individual test (given to one student at a time) for measuring Visualization ability is obvious. Individuals’ tests are notorious for their time consumption, both of administrator and student.
When a group test is
available to measure the same ability, use of an individual test should not be considered. Perceptual.
Perceptual intelligence is the ability to
locate details quickly— to recognize likenesses and dif ferences very rapidly.
Recent research indicated this in
telligence as important in many situations.
apparently an essential for success in both clerical and mechanical occupations.
Any activity which is usually em
bedded in irrelevant materials.
Seperate answer sheets used
with speed tests oftentimes introduce Perceptual intelligence into the measurement, and thus may bias the test score. Co-ordination.
Co-ordination is the ability for fine
and large muscle control.
It involves control of the eye and
hand— -dexterity with the fingers, hands, arms, and whole body.
Co-ordination is important in school courses, leisure
activities, and careers which require skill in handling tools, operating machines, or otherwise controlling the muscles. Co-ordination is the one ability that must be measured by a test involving apparatus and usually administered to one student at a time.
It is measured by such tests as
the Bennet Hand-Tool Dexterity Test (12), Minnesota Rate of Manipulation (8), O ’Connor Finger and Tweezer Dexterity (17), and Purdue Pegboard (14). SCHOOL PROGRAM IN INTELLIGENCE These eight basic components of intelligence account fairly well for what is measured by tests labeled mental ability, clerical aptitude, mechanical adaptability, and other phases of aptitude and ability.
In their present
form, the scores of these tests are often difficult to translate into a profile of the eight basic intelligences. Since the school test program must contain a measure of intelligence, let us look at intelligence from a practical view. One score for intelligence. While it is recommended that the student’s profile show his standing on the eight basic intelligences, this program will not enter into test ing this extensively. to develop.
Although the program will continue
The minimum program for testing intelligence would be one test which affords one score.
Such.a test would be the
familiar test of general intelligence, usually requiring about a half hour to administer. are available.
Many tests of this type
One will be chosen from the more well-known
ones as the Otis Group Intelligence Tests (19), KuhlmanAnderson Intelligence Tests (8), Termanr-McNemor Tests of Mental Ability (19) and Henman-Nelson Test of Mental Ability. This will only be considered a beginning.
will consist of achievement and interests. The verbal test of intelligence tends to discriminate against students with a reading disability or foreign language background.
To take care of this problem in World
War I, psychologists developed the Army Beta (12.)— a non verbal test in which the testee was not required to com prehend language.
To obtain valid results with students
having reading deficiencies, a similar approach should be used.
Tests such as the Beta or its Revisions (12), Chicago
non-Verbal Examination (12), the Nonlanguage section of the California Test of Mental Maturity (5) or the SRA Non verbal form (14) afford scores of general intelligence un affected by language weaknesses.
The single score obtained
from these tests is usually a complex one, made up of Visualization, Perceptual, and Reasoning intelligences.
Multiple scores for intelligence. Batteries of tests have been developed which yield from two to six sub-scores, in addition to a total score.
As yet, no single battery of
tests is available to measure all eight of the basic in telligences. A new approach to the use of tests for counseling is seen in the Factored Aptitude Series of Business and Indus trial Tests (10).
This series measures eight basic factors
by means of fourteen five-minute tests— fourteen tests being required to tap the various types of comprehension and the verbal and nonverbal aspects of certain abilities as reason ing and perception.
The Series was developed and validated
for business and industrial problems of personnel selection, placement and promotion.
It has particular significance
for course work and occupational guidance. Clerical batteries. While the same basic abilities are involved in intelligence, clerical and mechanical test batteries, there has been a tendency on the part of the authors to group a series of tests together and label them aptitude. The majority of clerical batteries draw their tests from the three areas of Perceptual, Verbal, and Numerical. MEASURES OF INTEREST The second major area to be investigated in the test ing program is that of interest.
An interest inventory
measures the student’s likes, dislikes or preferences, dis tastes for certain types of activities.
While tests of in
telligence sample the ability aspects of the student’s po tential, measures of interest disclose his motivations. For full success?in meeting life’s problems, the student must have both intelligence and interest. The content of interest inventories varies.
ventories list actual job or school subjects in the questions some give descriptions of the work procedures; and others present situations related to the jobs or courses which are in the student’s scope of experience. The usual time required for the student to take the inventory is thirty to forty minutes, and from six to ten scores are obtained.
They are very difficult to score.
This testing time, as compared to the score information received, it more than meets the desired standards.. Score information.
Two types of score information are
given by current interest inventories.
There are scores for
specific occupations as in the Strong Vocational Interest Blank (16) and scores for interest areas, as in the Kuder Preference Record.
Some also indicate academic preference.
If the school program is to include
other than intelligence tests, an interest inventory provides worthwhile information for guidance purposes.
are measured by one inventory in a short period of time.’
MEASURES OF ADJUSTMENT Though measurement of adjustment dates back to Wood worth’s studies in World War I with the Personal Data Sheet (16) psychologists have not as yet isolated the basic components of emotional adjustment. There are numerous approaches to the study of emotional behavior.
These include physiological measurement, free
associations and projective techniques, rating scales, questionnaires, interviewing and others. It is not recommended that measures of adjustment be included unless the school becomes research minded and is staffed to study the results of emotional measures. MEASURES OF ACHIEVEMENT Achievement or skill is a counterpart of intelligence. While tests of intelligence measure the student’s potential, tests of achievement assess his actual performance or skill. The achievement test is usually a complex measure in that performance or skill is complex in fact, the more aspects of achievement which can be tapped by the tester, the better.
The achievement test should measure how well
students measure up to the desired outcomes of the courses of study.
Because of this complexity, achievement test
selection has a dual implication:
First, the content of
the achievement measures must be evaluated to see that they are measuring the desired objectives of educationj in so doing, the school may find it necessary to supplement published tests by other self-developed measures to provide a complete coverage.
Second, by such an evaluation of
current methods, the educator can increase his insight, about course objectives, the outcomes of which should be measurable- and in accord with the aims of secondary education. HOW TO INTERPRET AND USE TEST RESULTS It is this phase which translates the test results into practical application and gives meaning to the entire program. Faeh student’s test scores are charted on his profile. Profile sheets are not necessary forms, but they are one means of making, test results -graphic. Identifying information. At the top of the profile sheet in a location convenient for filing, is given the student’s name, his group, age, the date of testing, and other information needed to identify the profile and. the information it contains. Traits measured.
The.diagonal lines in the upper part
of the profile provide spaces for listing the test areas, traits measured, and specific tests used for the student. Raw scores on tests.
In the column under each trait
are listed the Raw Scores which can be made on that test by
a particular group of students.
The placement of the raw
scores values -within the column is determined by the norms for the test. Ranks on tests. A rank is merely a convenient scale to which the raw score on each test is converted, since raw scores have little meaning in themselves.
The rank indi
cates where a student stands among other students in his group and also his standing on the various types of traits to be compared at a glance. of ranks.
There are many different types
Percentile ranks, standard scores, and quotients
are the three most widely used. The percentile ranks indicates the student’s standing in a sample of 100 of his group.
Thus, if he has a percen
tile rank of 30, he exceeds 30 out of every 100 individuals in that trait, but is surpassed by 70 out of 100 students. The percentile scale is often criticized for the fact that it bunches the students in the center and spreads them out at the extremes.
For example, two students with scores of
80 and 90 are actually much farther seperated tSaan two students with scores of 40 and 50, but the percentile scale does not reflect this difference. To avoid this criticism of the percentile scale, psy chologists devised the standard score.
This rank also
takes into consideration the bell-shaped or normal curve into which scores on most mental traits fall and propor tions the scores at the standard deviation points along
the scale. The third type of rank is the quotient.
Most used with
tests of intelligence, the quotient scale has an average rank of 100, indicating that the mental age and chronological age of the student are the same.
When mental age is higher
than chronological age, quotient scores, or ranks, are above 100; when mental age is lower, quotients are below 100. After the age of 15, quotient ranks are no longer applicable. Use of student ranks.
By means of the profile the edu
cator can see at a glance the studentTs standing or rank on each of the traits measured; and more important, the student’s over-all pattern of strengths and weaknesses. Composite profiles may be drawn for groups of students (based on an average of their scores on each trait) to in dicate the standing of a given room, section, class, school, or district in the traits measured. INTERPRETING THE PROFILE Interpretation and use of test results often stop at a discussion of the student’s standing on the various traits measured.
At this point, little of practical significance
has been said; and the administrator, teacher, student or parent has little information to aid in specific planning of future activities.
Thus it is necessary to bridge the gap
between the student’s status as reflected by his profile and what this status means for solving subsequent problems which he will face in society, education, and occupation. The guiding principle for discussing the student’s pro file is expressed by three principles: 1.
Every problem which the student meets in life re quires a certain pattern of intelligence, interests, achievements, adjustments, physical health, and personal history.
2 . Each student has his own individual pattern of these traits. 3.
This pattern is charted on his profile.
The student is best educated and guided by making him aware of his strengths and weaknesses, aiding him to remedy deficiencies in skills required for living in society, informing him of traits, re quired success in his planned activities and letting him prepare himself for those situations in which he has the greatest potential for success and per sonal satisfaction. STUDENT PROFILE AND ITS USERS *
Copies of the student profile may be distributed to five individuals:
the school administrator, the teacher,
the student himself, his parents, and community planners. What implications and uses can each make of the profile?
The school administrator needs
objective facts about the student personnel for his policy making decisions.
Knowing the statusoof his school as a
whole and of sub-groups within the school, he is in a better position to translate educational philosophy into admini strative action.
Composite profiles furnish him invaluable
information for planning and revising curricula, methods, and materials of instruction! for developing procedures of student admission, placement, grouping, and transfer, for setting standards for hiring, training, supervision, and evaluation of teaching personnel] and for comparing his student population with that of other schools and regions— in brief, data provide the administrator another factual base for making decisions which will be far-reaching in their execution. Teacher.
The teacher is the person who must translate
education and guidance into specific actions.
She must know
her students and their potentials as early as possible and as completely as possible.
She is one who by daily contact
with the student sees the effects of curriculum, methods and materials of instruction on his progress; and the one who must make slight modifications in these procedures to fit each individual in her class.
It is to his teacher that
the student looks for advice and guidance, and she is in the position to lead him wisely— providing she knows the
For all of these day-in day-out activities, the
student profile has a contribution in that it provides the teacher objective information on which to base her asso ciations with each student.
The profile tells where the
student is and offers indications of how far he may go. Having found his starting point, the teacher is readier to develop his instructional plan. Student.
The student is the person around whom all
this discussion centers.
How much should he know about his
profile— really about himself?
The Socratic dictum of
"Know thyself" is as applicable to education and guidance as to living.
The old view-point, that the less the student
knew of his potential and progress, the better, is gradually being replaced by the self-appraisal philosophy.
the school can aid the student to realize his strengths and weaknesses and to make his decisions on objective facts about himself, the better he can cooperate in his education and guidance and the sooner will he be able to take his place in adult life.
Thus the student should receive a
copy of his profile and its interpretations and use it as one basis for decisions about his future. Parent.
The parent of today wants to know about his
child and looks to the school for facts concerning him. The student profile may be shown to the parent and' explained to him to give a better understanding of his child’s strengths
The family is still very much a major
element in our society; the better the parent understands the child as the school sees him, the less chance there is for conflict between educational and parental guidance. Community. Lastly, the community, the aggregate of persons and families, should be aware of the potentialities and weaknesses of its rising generation.
school profile is of concern to the community as a whole, although averages on scores for a school- or sub-group do not interpret easily on a basis of student profiles.
student’s interests and personality are subject to the modifications and influences of subject data which may not lend itself to the mechanics of charting.
the profiles are the most objective means which can be available for indicating the status of individuals, and a composite can be significant as a means of opening up approaches to community problems.
For over-all planning,
the community leaders may well look to the strengths and weaknesses of the school population for its direction.
CHAPTER V ORGANIZATION OF THE PROGRAM A good program of guidance services must be based upon a sound philosophy, and designed to meet the needs and possibilities of a given situation.
In a rural coimunity
•where all available mechanisms should be used to the. great est advantage there should be a flexible program with a core of strong elements— the flexibility of the program being for the purpose of adjusting the services to the children’s needs and the core of strong elements standing as a haven into which the pupils can find answers to their problems. Philosphy of the program. A. The program should be adopted to the needs of pupils lacking definite guidance before entering. B. All teachers should take part in a well-rounded guidance program. C. Every student in Mason High School should be so well understood by some of his teachers that they can help the student solve his problems. D. All teachers should have easily available information which will enable them to deal intelligently with differences among their students.
E. Teachers who have continuous association with students have better opportunities for observing them than administrators or counselors have. Organization. complicated. effective.
The organization of the program is not
It is intended to be simple, direct, and Most rural schools have very little or no money
to devote to any elaborate and highly specialized program. Therefore, the guidance program must be carried on by those employed with complete realization of the community and county resources.
This chapter will try to emphasize the
basic needs and the aids which are basic in helping to meet these needs. Some of the following services already exist at the school.
The activities are more or less organization of
present ones and addition of others.
The program shall
consist of the following:’" A. Principal B. The Senior Counselor C. Class Counselors (freshman, sophomore, and junior) D. Advisors of Extra-Curriculum Activities E. Librarian F. Heads of Departments G. Home-room Teachers H. Other subject teachers I. Registrar Most of these persons will have regular classes but specific time designated to the technical points of the guidance' program.
J. The Nurse K. The Student Body L. Community, Leisure Time, Higher Education, Occu pations The duties of the personnel will be as follows:' A. The principal is the executive head of the guidance program. 1. She will see to the executing of the guidance functions delegated to the various staff members. 2. She will be responsible for the supervision of guidance activities, which are carried on in the school. 3. She is responsible for building up the spirit of the -school in order that the guidance program may function properly. 4. She delegates the guidance functions listed in the rest of the- outline. 5. She has the' final voice in the disposition of the more serious cases.^ B. The place of the Senior Counselor in the program: 1. The counselor must keep or supervise the keeping up-to-date of the permanent record cards. 2. He will act as coordinator between the employ ment services of the community and the school, 1 In the case ofdiscipline problems, refer to counselor and teacher concerned.
making available employment to those students who do not continue their education.
In this capacity,
the possession of latest job analyses and tech niques of employment make his service assume the nature of vocational guidance. •3.
The counselor should have information about the local conditions and the rural occupations favored for boys and those favored for girls.
He will have personal interviews with the seniors and special cases.
He will teach the Senior Problems classes.
He should carry on follow-up studies.
He will administer and interpret the results of the 2 tests.
He will plan assembly programs which are of a distinctly guidance nature.
He will furnish guidance information concerning each pupil and consult with the teacher or other counselor when asked.
He will note on the records individual differences which are of extreme importance to all connected with the guidance program.
This questionnaire will be designed to find out special abilities and talents, hobbies, favorite radio program, movies, books and subjects, responsibilities at home, type of breakfast, time of going to bed, etc.
11. Home visits, and conferences with parents. C.
The Class Counselors and their duties: 1. They will teach the social studies of their particular grade level and a_part orientation class. 2. Keep the records for their individual class or see that the needed information is.passed on to the senior counselor. 3. Carry on interviews with those under their charge. 4. They will in large respect duplicate the work as outlined for the senior counselor. 5. Not as much specialization is expected of them as the senior counselor. 6. Checking unwise choice of electives. 7. Home visits with and conferences with parents.
Advisors of Extra-Curriculum Activities and their relation to the guidance program. 1, Each teacher will be at the head of one cul tural, hobby, play or athletic activity, aside from their regular class work. 2. Here is an opportunity to really learn to know «
the student, study his adjustments, learn his interests, help in building on his special aptitudes.
63 E. The Librarian lias a real part in the guidance program: 1. Informing teachers and counselers of up-to-date publications on guidance. 8. Lists of suggestive readings for the students. 3. Ordering material as suggested by the personnel of the guidance group. 4. Attractive posters to create interest among the pupils and aid in guidance. F. Heads of Departments and their relation to the guidance program. 1. Through department meetings make recommendations to the counselor or principal. 8. Through department meetings discuss guidance problems. 3. They will see to the coordination of the guidance •within their departments. 4. They will suggest and discuss with the teachers various methods and occupations related to their subject. 5. The causes of subject failure will be studied. 6. With the aid of permanent record cards, they will make recommendations for students to enroll for or drop their subjects.
G. The Home-Room Teacher in the guidance program: 1. Gather information through observation and conference. 2. Record information on record cards. 3. Record students' grades on cards. 4. Maintain own information through a guidance questionnaire. 5. Encourage self-evaluation. 6. Check extra-curricular activities. 7. Approve permanent record. H. Classroom Teacher as part of the guidance organi zation. 1. Arouse interest of the pupils in the subject and develop right attitudes toward the subject and the school. 2. Stress the occupational information that is related to the subject. 3. Arrange tryout projects in the subject. 4. Encourage and develop special skills discovered. 5. Provide for remedial instruction when needed (especially where deficiencies may result later in serious vocational or educational handicaps). 6. Sponsor one club or activity whose membership is on a voluntary basis; probably the best way to develop special abilities and interests and bring about a closer teacher-pupil relationship.
To cooperate with other members of the school organization.
To aid in the development of personality.
Fill out records for the files of the permanent records.
Study cases of failure.
Group guidance activities:
study, budget time,
use of library, why and how to choose electives. 12.
Individualization of instruction.
I. Registrar 1.
The registrar will be in charge of attendance.
Reports for school aid will be made by the registrar.
Reports to administration on truancy, etc.
Visits homes to secure information.
Operates registration filing system.
6. Arranges transfers. 7. Sends transcripts.» 8. Is sue s work permi t s . 9. Is in charge of lost and found. J. The Nurse and Health Department in guidance. 1.
The nurse will make house calls where absence is caused by sickness.
She will make provision for and supervise health examinations.
It will "be a duty of the nurse to furnish health reports for the permanent record files.
Pupils absent because of sickness must have the nurse’s OK before returning to classes.
The nurse is responsible for the coordinated activities between the home, the school and the doctor’s office.
K. Religious Director 1.
She will be the leader of the prayer band.
The boarding students shall be taken to Sunday School and Church services by the religious director.
The superintendent of the Model Sunday School shall be the religious director.
The religious director shall be adviser to the Y.W.C.A.
It will be the responsibility of the religious director to plan and supervise the religious services during the school days and night *
services on the campus. L. The Student Body— the desirable outcomes it is hoped they will achieve. 1.
To help the individual needs of all pupils.
Make them more able to cope with the conflicts of life.
6? 3. To improve the present progress and adjustment of the pupils. 4. Fewer maladjustments or misfits in their later educational and vocational life. 5. Build real citizens who will build a real com munity . H. Community, Leisure Time, Higher Education, Occu pations . 1. As the guidance program functions, either poorly or well, it will be reflected and measured by the participation of the students who have received guidance as they take their part in comjnunity activities, the way they use their leisure time, the degree of success attained through advanced education; and their personal satisfaction in occupational employment as well * as gainful success.
PROCEDURES IN COMPILING AND USING GUIDANCE MATERIALS .Guidance questionnaire.
questionnaire is found at the end of the chapter.
to be observed concerning it are as follows: 1. Two copies of the guidance questionnaire should be filled out by the student in his first semester and re vised in the eleventh and twelfth grades. 2. The guidance teacher should study the student’s questionnaire before having a conference with him. 3. Problems revealed In the questionnaire should be part of the guidance interview. Guidance conference.
Some procedures that should be
considered concerning the guidance conference should be: 1. Of the vital statistical records, only the guidance questionnaire should be in evidence during the'conference. 2. Conferences should be free from interruption. 3. Only one student should be interviewed at a time. 4. Other students should not be listening in on the conference;. 5. Conferences may be held during the lunch period, during periods assigned for interviews, during certain assemblies, before or after school. 6. Evidences of growth and change can be noted during the conference.
7..All points listed in the guide sheets that follow need not he necessarily covered, though most of them probably can be covered by the time the student has been in class ten weeks. 8.
After the conference, the teacher will indicate
results by code letters with subscript numbers on the indi vidual guidance record. 9.. As changes develop they should be recorded for additional help to succeeding teachers and administrators. 10.
points thus recorded will be available for the class
room teachers and for the next guidance teacher. The service and activity record.
The service and acti
vity record will also he found at the end of the project. It will be form 3.
Principles underlying this record are as
follows: 1. The student, under the direction of the guidance ' teacher, records all his high school service and activities in school and out. 2. The outstanding talents and accomplishments are re corded on this card. 3. This information supplements that in the guidance questionnaire and the guidance folder so that together they give a fairly complete picture of the student. 4. This record is especially useful when letters of recommendation are written.
The material shall be recorded on Sample Form 4
and signed by guidance teacher. Health record.
The health record is to be filled out
by the doctor in the community and returned to the school to be placed in the Confidential Folder.
See sample form 1.
The confidential folder. The confidential folders for every student in the school shall be kept in a guidance file in the principal’s office.
It is to be kept up to date.
Data are cumulative and include the following:
service and activity record, guidance questionnaire, sam ples of work, past history, personal data, test.and inven tory data, comments and reactions of.others, scholastic record and auto-biographical materials.
SAMPLE FORM 2
Birthplace.... Name..... Father 's Name .............. Father’s Occupation. . Mother's Name................ .-Mother's Occupation.. Brothers' ages in years...... Sisters’ ages in years With -whom do you live?............................. How many elementary schools have you attended?..... What was the name of the last high school?.........
What would you like your life work to he?;-............. What are your special talents or abilities?............ What skills do you have?............................... What do you do with your spare time?................... What is your favorite type of book?.................... What is your favorite subject in school?.......... ..... What school subject do you like least?................. Howr much time do you spend daily on your homework?..... In what school activities have you participated?....... What kind of work do you do?........................... How much did you earn last year?..... ................. What kind of lessons do you take outside of school?.... How much time do you- spend on these outside lessons?.... Are you taking part in after-school sports?............ What responsibilities do you have at home?............. What time do you go to bed?.......... ................. What time do you arise?.,................ ............. Do you eat breakfast?....... ......... ................ What are your plans after iiigh school— work, University, Junior college, trade school, business college?.... What are your hobbies?.......... -............ What are your favorite sports?........ ■................ What is your favorite type of movie?................... What is your favorite type of radio program?......... . To what out-of-school organizations do you belong?..... Are you working now? Week-ends, vacations, after school?
SERVICE AND ACTIVITY RECORD
SAMPLE FORM 3
Mason High. School Trinity, Mississippi
.... 195. ... Experience Value 0, outstanding; V, valuable; N, nominal
Suggested Activities and Services I . STUDENT GOVERNMENT ELECTIVE OF FICES: Commissioners Boys* League Girls» League Asst. Yell Leaders ACTIVITIES CARRIED ON BY STUDENT GOVT. Assemblies
Safety Committe Cafeteria League Boards Hall or Grounds Supervision Publicity Nominations and Elections Public Relation Student Store Recreational Program Social Affairs II. CLASS OFFICERS III. CLASSROOM OF FICERS IV. STUDENT ACTIVITIES GROWING OUT OF CLASS PROJECT 1. MUSIC Band or Or chestra
Suggested Activities ..My Participation _________ A Cappella or Glee Club. Instruments Solo Work 2. PUBLIC SPEAKv
Broadcaster Community Chest Contests Commencement. Social 0ccasions Assembly Pro-; grams 3. STAGE— DRAM ATICS Stage Plays May Day Assemblies Skits Directing 4. STAGE ARTS Stage Crew Costume or Stage Design. Motion Pic- . ture Opera-. tor 5. ATHLETICS Captain Letterman 6. OFFICE ASSI STAFF'S Laboratory Library' Office 7. PUBLICATIONS. Position SERVICE ORGANIZATIOHS:____ Hi-Y Tri-Y Lettergirl Tutoring OUTSIDE of SCHOOL ACTIVITIES Church & Clubs Work £ Respons. TRAVEL TALENTS
SAMPLE FORM 1
HEALTH RECORD Name Eyes Hearing Tonsils Teeth Heart Nervous Condition Nutrition Miscellaneous Phys.- Ed.
Mason High School
CHAPTER VII PLACEMENT AND FOLLOW-UP Placement.
In the high schools today there are tiro
types of placement.
One is the in-school placement of the
student, and the other is job placement.
ment is a function of the entire school staff.
and administrators should be cognizant of this point at all times.
Anytime a teacher is in doubt about the present
status of a student, that student should be referred to the director of guidance. Job placement is in some of the larger high schools a function of the guidance bureau.
This is not quite so true
in smaller schools because of each of facilities and per sonnel.
Job placement -will not be done through Mason High
School but the senior counselor will interview each gradu ating senior prior to graduation and inquire as to plans, etc. Follow-up.
The follow-up of students is generally
thought of as being of two types.
One is the follow-up of
in-school placements and the other is the follow-up of graduates and drop-outs.
The school principal is respon
sible for the follow-up of in-school placements, she is assisted, of course, by her staff.
The follow-up of graduates
and drop-outs will be the responsibility of the senior counselor.
This type of program need not be a great expense
76 to the school, nor should it take too much of the senior counselor's time.
A simple questionnaire, asking the
desired information, can be mimeographed and distributed to groups concerned in the follow-up study.
is an excellent tool to both the school administrator and the guidance personnel in evaluating their respective programs.
Brewer, J. M. Education As Guidance. The MacMillan Com pany, Hew York: 1938. Carosell.i, Phillip J. Guidance in Occupations. topher Publishing House, Boston: 1942. Erickson, Clifford E. selors .
_A Practical Handbook for School Coun
Hatcher, Orie L. Guiding Rural Boys, and Girls. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York: 1930. Johnson, Charles S. Statistical Atlas of Southern Counties. The University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill: 1941. Koos, L. V. and Grayson, N. Kefauver.' Guidance In Secondary Schools. The. Macmillan Company, New York: 1934. Lefever, D. ¥., Terrell and Neitzel. Principles and Techni ques of Guidance. The Ronald Press Company, New York: 1941. McAllister and Otis. Child Accounting Practice. Press Company, New York: 1947.
Smith, C. M. and M. M. Roos. A Guide to Guidance. Hall, Inc., New York: 1942. Suerken, Ernst. A Guidance Primer. New York: 1945.
The Hobson Book Press,
Traxler, Arthur E. How To Use Cumulative Records. Research Associates, Chicago: 1947. Traxler, Arthur E. Techniques of Guidance. New York: 1945.
Harper & Brothers,
Works, George A. and 0. Sinion, Rural America Today. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 1942.
PAMPHLETS AND BULLETINS
"Biennial Report and Recommendations of the State Superin tendent of Public Education." Mississippi, 1942-43. Dunn, Fannie ¥. Guidance in Rural Schools. Yearbook of The"Department of Rural Education, National Education Association of the United States, February 1942. Eason, P. H. "Status of Negro Schools in Mississippi." Department of Education Division Jobe, E. R., Accredited High Schools and Colleges, Bulletin no. iii, Jackson, Mississippi The Bulletin of The Association of Secondary School Princi pals, December 1948.
C . UNPUBLISHED MATERIAL Mallory, Arenia C., "Community Life, Origin, and Develop ment of the Mason Industrial and Literary School of Trinity, Mississippi.
UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LIBRARY