Water Resources Management of the People’s Republic of China: Framework, Reform and Implementation 3030619303, 9783030619305

This book explores water resources management issues in China and possible solutions. It analyzes a wide range of genera

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Water Resources Management of the People’s Republic of China: Framework, Reform and Implementation
 3030619303, 9783030619305

Table of contents :
Preface
Contents
Abbreviations
1 Physical Settings and Water Challenges
1.1 Geographical Aspects
1.1.1 Topography
1.1.2 Climate
1.1.3 Rivers
1.2 Hydrology
1.2.1 Precipitation
1.2.2 Evaporation
1.2.3 Runoff
1.3 Water Resources
1.3.1 Surface Water Resources
1.3.2 Groundwater Resources
1.3.3 Water Resources
1.4 Water Resources Development and Use
1.4.1 Water Resources Development
1.4.2 Water Use
1.5 Key Water Resource Issues
1.5.1 Serious Water Supply and Demand Conflict
1.5.2 Heavy Water Pollution
1.5.3 Increasing Water Ecosystem Degradation
1.5.4 Low Water-Use Efficiency
1.6 Summary
References
2 Water Resources Management Framework
2.1 Water Resources Management Framework
2.2 Main Water Resources Management Systems
2.2.1 Medium- and Long-Term Water Supply and Demand Planning System
2.2.2 Water Resources Allocation System
2.2.3 Water Abstraction Permit System
2.2.4 Water Resources Fee System
2.2.5 Water Resources Justification System
2.2.6 Planned Water Use System
2.2.7 Water Function Zoning System
2.2.8 Total Pollutant Discharge Volume Control System
2.2.9 Management System of Discharge Outlet into Water Body
2.2.10 Total Water Volume Control System
2.2.11 Quota Management System
2.2.12 Metric Charging System
2.2.13 Overcharge for Plan/Quota-Exceeding Use
2.2.14 Water-Saving System
2.2.15 Groundwater Management System
2.3 Relationships Among Water Resources Management Systems
2.3.1 Water Resources Development and Use Process
2.3.2 Management Responsibility
2.3.3 Timing
2.3.4 Space
2.3.5 Technical Review and Administrative Management
2.3.6 Management Instruments
2.3.7 Management Level
2.4 Summary
References
3 Water Resources Management Institutions
3.1 Water Management Institutions Before 1949
3.2 MWR Between Oct. 1949–Mar. 1958: Water Resources Development and Agricultural Development
3.3 MWP Between Mar. 1958–Mar. 1988: Water Resources Development and Power Development
3.3.1 MWP During February 1958–July 1967
3.3.2 MWP During July 1967–January 1975
3.3.3 MWP During January 1975–February 1979
3.3.4 MWR Between February 1979 and March 1982
3.3.5 MWP During March 1982–March 1988
3.4 MWR During Mar. 1988–Mar. 2018: From Construction to Water Resources Management
3.4.1 MWR During March 1988–March 1993
3.4.2 MWR During March 1993–March 1998
3.4.3 MWR During March 1998–March 2003 and March 2003–March 2008
3.4.4 MWR During March 2008–March 2013 and March 2013–March 2018
3.5 MWR and Related Ministries After 2018
3.6 Summary: Transition of Water Resources Institutions in China
References
4 River Basin Management
4.1 Major River Basins and Water Resource Development
4.1.1 River Basins and Water Resource Issues in China
4.2 River Basin Management in China: Legal Framework
4.3 River Basin Management Systems in China: Implementation Design
4.3.1 River Basin Water Resource Monitoring and Assessment
4.3.2 River Basin Planning
4.3.3 River Basin Water Resource Allocation
4.3.4 River Basin Water Resource Protection
4.3.5 River Basin Flood Control
4.3.6 River Course Management
4.3.7 Interprovincial Water Dispute Mediation
4.4 RBO in China: Institutional Setting
4.4.1 RBO Development After 1949
4.4.2 Functions and Structures of RBOs
4.5 Experiences from River Basin Management in China
4.6 Summary
References
5 Water Resources Allocation and Regulation
5.1 Water Resource Allocation in China
5.1.1 River Basin and Regional Water Resources Allocation
5.1.2 Allocation of Regional Supply to Water Abstractors
5.1.3 Water Resource Allocation in Public Water Supply System
5.2 Water Resource Regulation in China
5.2.1 River Basin and Regional Water Resource Regulation
5.2.2 Annual Water Abstraction Plan
5.2.3 Annual/Seasonal Water Use Plan
5.3 Water Trade
5.4 Summary
References
6 Water Rights System
6.1 The Development of the Water Rights System Framework in China
6.2 Water Rights Legal Framework
6.2.1 Constitution
6.2.2 General Principles of Civil Law
6.2.3 Property Rights Law
6.2.4 Water Law
6.3 Water Rights in China
6.3.1 Ownership Rights
6.3.2 Collective Use Rights
6.3.3 Regional water rights
6.3.4 Water Abstraction Rights
6.3.5 Water Rights Certificate and Water Ticket
6.4 Challenges and Suggestions to Improve Water Rights System Development in China
6.4.1 Challenges to Implementation of a Water Rights System
6.4.2 Recommendations for Implementing Water Rights System in China
6.5 Summary
References
7 Water Pricing
7.1 Water Pricing Framework in China
7.1.1 Water Resources Fee/Tax
7.1.2 Water Supply Tariff from Hydraulic Engineering
7.1.3 Urban Water Supply Tariff
7.1.4 Wastewater Collection and Treatment Tariff
7.1.5 Pollutant Discharge Fee/Tax
7.2 Water Resources Fee/Tax
7.3 Water Supply Tariff from Hydraulic Engineering
7.4 Urban Water Supply Tariff
7.5 Wastewater Collection and Treatment Tariff
7.6 Pollutant Discharge Fee/Tax
7.7 Some Issues
7.7.1 Nature of Water and Its Services
7.7.2 Cost Recovery
7.7.3 Water Price Burden
7.8 Suggestions
7.9 Summary
References
8 Groundwater Management
8.1 Groundwater Resources and Development in China
8.1.1 Groundwater Resources
8.1.2 Groundwater Development and Use in China
8.1.3 Groundwater Development Problems
8.2 Groundwater Management System in China
8.2.1 Legislation
8.2.2 Institution
8.2.3 Main Management Instruments
8.3 Problems with Groundwater Management in China
8.4 Suggestions to Improve Groundwater Management in China
8.5 Summary
References
9 Water Quality Management
9.1 Legal Framework
9.2 Institutional Arrangements
9.3 Management Instruments
9.3.1 Standards
9.3.2 Planning
9.3.3 EIA and “Three-Simultaneous” for Construction Project
9.3.4 Function Zones
9.3.5 Total Discharge Volume Control System for Key Water Pollutants
9.3.6 Permits
9.3.7 Economic Incentives
9.3.8 River/Lake Chief System
9.3.9 Drinking Water Source Protection Zone
9.4 Key Issues in Water Quality Management in China
9.5 Suggestions and Recommendations
9.6 Summary
References
10 Recycled Water Use Management
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Recycled Water Reuse in China
10.3 Recycled Water Reuse Policy in China
10.4 Recycled Water Reuse Management in China
10.4.1 Standards
10.4.2 Institution
10.4.3 Management Instruments
10.5 Issues
10.5.1 Nature of the Recycled Water Use
10.5.2 Safety
10.5.3 Economic Feasibility
10.5.4 River Basin Management
10.6 Summary
References
11 The River and Lake Chief System
11.1 Development Process
11.2 System Framework
11.2.1 Principles
11.2.2 Institutional Setting
11.2.3 Responsibilities of the River Chiefs
11.2.4 Key Tasks
11.2.5 Supporting
11.2.6 Lake Chief System
11.2.7 Institutional Framework Related to Water
11.3 System Implementation
11.4 Discussion
11.5 Summary
References
12 The Strictest Water Resources Management Strategy and Its Three Red Lines
12.1 Water Resources and Management Challenges in 2008
12.1.1 Water Resources
12.1.2 Water Resources Management
12.2 Strategic Framework for the “Strictest Water Resources Management Strategy”
12.2.1 Objectives
12.2.2 Guiding Principles
12.3 Key Tasks: Three Red Lines
12.3.1 Strengthening Management of Water Resources Development Redline to Implement Control of Total Water Use
12.3.2 Strengthening Management of Water-Use Efficiency Redline to Promote Water-Saving Society Development
12.3.3 Strengthening Management of Water Function Zone Pollutant Assimilation Redline to Control Pollutant Discharge Into Waters
12.4 Implementation
12.4.1 Decision on Speeding Water Sector Development and Reform, 2011
12.4.2 Opinions on Implementing the Strictest Water Resources Management Strategy, 2012
12.4.3 Assessment Methods to Implement the Strictest Water Resources Management Strategy, 2013
12.4.4 Assessment Implementation Plan for Implementation of the Strictest Water Resources Management Strategy, 2014, and the 2016 Assessment Implementation Plan for Implementation of the Strict Water Resources Management Strategy for 13th Five-Year Plan
12.4.5 Assessment Results for 2014–2017
12.5 Conclusion and Outlook
References
13 Water Resource Assets Management Reform
13.1 Introduction
13.2 General Framework
13.2.1 General Reform Plan of the Eco-Civilization System
13.2.2 Natural Resources Unified Clarification and Registration Method (Trial) and 2019 Natural Resources Unified Clarification and Registration Temporary Method
13.2.3 Guidance on the System for Paying and Usage of Resources for Publicly Owned Natural Resources
13.2.4 Guidance to Comprehensively Promote the Reform of the Natural Resource Assets Property Rights System
13.3 Reforms of the Management of Water Resource Assets
13.3.1 Institutional Reform
13.3.2 Key Activities
13.4 Conclusion and Outlook
References
14 Water Resource Allocation and Regulation in Yellow River Basin
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Water Resource Allocation
14.2.1 1987 Water Resource Allocation Plan
14.2.2 Monthly Allocation in 1998
14.2.3 Yellow River Water Resources Regulation Management Regulation
14.2.4 Water Resource Allocation in the Hangjin Irrigation District
14.3 Water Resource Regulation
14.3.1 Water Resource Regulation of the Yellow River
14.3.2 Water Use in HID
14.4 Water Trade in the Yellow River
14.5 Discussions
14.6 Summary
References
15 Agricultural Water Management in Northern China
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Agricultural Water Use and Agricultural Production in Northern China
15.2.1 Agricultural Water Use and Production in China
15.2.2 Agricultural Water Use and Production in Northern China
15.3 Agricultural Water Resources Management Framework
15.3.1 Institutions
15.3.2 Legal and Policy Framework
15.4 Key Sectoral Reforms
15.4.1 Institutional Reform
15.4.2 Investment Reform
15.4.3 Pricing for Agricultural Water Use
15.4.4 Agricultural Water Rights Reform
15.4.5 Allocating Water for Agriculture and Regulating Agricultural Water Use Structures
15.5 External Factors Impacting Agricultural Water Resources Management
15.5.1 Multi-channel Financing
15.5.2 Energy Pricing
15.5.3 Grain Production Direct Subsidy Policy
15.6 Field-Level Efforts to Improve Agricultural Water Resources Management
15.6.1 Tube Well Ownership and Groundwater Trade
15.6.2 Application of Water-Saving Technologies
15.6.3 Water and Fertilizer Integrated Technology
15.7 Summary
References
16 Integrated Urban and Rural Water Affair Management Reform: Shanghai and Beijing
16.1 Introduction
16.2 Institutional Basis for Reform
16.3 Reform Progress
16.4 Shanghai
16.5 Beijing
16.6 Discussion
16.7 Summary
References
17 Environmental Flow Definition and Management: A Case Study of the Jiaojiang River, Zhejiang Province
17.1 Introduction
17.2 Environmental Flow Research and Management in China
17.3 Environmental Flow Assessment and Water Resources Planning in the Jiaojiang River, Zhejiang Province
17.3.1 Brief Introduction
17.3.2 Environmental Flow Definition
17.3.3 Development of Water Resource Management Model
17.3.4 Water Resources Allocation Plan Scenarios
17.3.5 Analyses of Modeling Results
17.3.6 Recommended Water Resources Allocation Plan
17.4 Summary
References
18 Climatic Change and Water Resources
18.1 Introduction
18.2 Activities
18.3 Precipitation
18.3.1 Observations
18.3.2 Estimates
18.4 Water Resources
18.4.1 Observations
18.4.2 Estimates
18.5 Recommendations
18.6 Summary
References
19 Review and Outlook
19.1 Water Resources Development and Use Since 1949
19.2 Water Resources Management Since 1978
19.2.1 Legislation
19.2.2 Institutions
19.2.3 Key Management Instruments and Activities
19.3 Water Resources Policy After 1980
19.3.1 1980s: Improving Benefits
19.3.2 1990–1998: Repositioning Role
19.3.3 1998–2009: Redefining the Water–Human Relationship
19.3.4 Post-2009: Market-Oriented Final Solution
19.4 Outlook
References
Index

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