Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization

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Water Resources of Pakistan and their Utilization

Table of contents :
Foreword......Page 5
Books Published by the Author......Page 9
Remarks of a Few Eminent Persons......Page 10
DEDICATION......Page 13
CONTENTS......Page 14
1 Geographical Distribution and Current Status of Irrigated Agriculture......Page 22
2. Climate and Land Resources......Page 82
3. Pakistan Surface Water Resources......Page 156
4a. Construction of Barrages and Canals......Page 194
4. Utilization and Management of Surface Water Resources......Page 255
4b. Seepage From Irrigation Unlined and of Lined Canals......Page 369
5. Ground Water Resources and their Uses......Page 429
REFERENCES AND BIBLOGRAPHY......Page 515
Important Conversion Factors......Page 516
The Reading Generation [A note in Sindhi]......Page 522

Citation preview

WATER RESOURCES OF PAKIS'f AN ru1d

THEIR UTILIZATION

By DR. NAZIR AHMAD M.Sc. Ph. JJ. D. Sc. Vice-President Pakiatan Academy of Sciences, Former Director Phybics Irrigation Research Institute LAHORE.

61-B/2 Gulberglll,LAIIORE. PAKISTAN

WATER RESOUUCES OF PAKISTAN f

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THEIR UTILIZATION

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This book is to create interest in readers particularly. those engaged on the utilization of Water Resources of the Country. The data included are not commonly available. It is the intension of the Author to make this information widely available to Pakistani Nation. There is no restriction on its utilization in any form.

Published by: Shahzad Nazir, available at 61-8/2,Gulberg-3,Lahore(Pakistan)

Printed by Miraj Din at his press Located at Urdu Bazar, Lahore. September, 1993 Price Rs. 500 /-

Jn the name of Allah the Beneficient, and Merciful

FOREWORD Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan was published in 1988. This was the first book ever produced on our Irrigated System and its problems. Within two years all its copies had been distributed and still there was persistant demand. This book was produced a few years after the Revisea Action Plan of WAPDA of 1979. Now Pakistan is working according to the Programme of Federal Planning Cell as putforth in Water Sector Investment Planning Study issued in December, 1990. This programme is for the years 1990 to 2000. Another very serious problem for Pakistan is that it is approaching the exhaustion of its surface water resources. It was thus decided to print a new book mainly dealing with the Water Resources of Pakistan and their utilization. The portions of Irrigat ed Agriculture of Pakistan connected with the new book were revised to include the uptodate information. For instance in case of Chapter 3 on Pakistan Surface Water Resources, the discharges of the three western rivers and those of Ravi and Sutlej including flow of tributaries, losses and gains, uptodate information about silting of storage etc. is included. In case of Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan, ·Chapter-4 was started giving utilization of sources of waters. In this book a new Chapter-4A on Construction of Barrages and Canals is pre-included to Chapter-4. The development of Marginal Bunds and the present system of banks and spurs to guide and control the mighty rivers is mentioned. The early design of river structures which included wing walls, series of well foundation, long glacies slope, shutter ·weir and gated undersluices with divide wall to create pond to feed the canal are mentioned. Cre~p theory of Blight for stability of structure on sand foundation is mentioned and its replacement by modern potential theory as putforth · in a 1936 publication of Central Board of Irrigation and edited by A. N. Kholsa, N. K .Bose and E. Macke zie Taylor of Irrigation Research Institute is mentioned. Sheet piles were introduced in 1922 during construction of Sutlej Valley Projects and Sukkur Barrage. This Chapter mentions some important features of river structurs which the engineers have developed to produce the present Barrages. Fish ladder is an essential part of each barrage for the aque tic life and fishes to travel up and downstream. With the understanding of properties of a hydraulic jump, the long glacis slope was ·shortened to steep glacis and provision of energy dissipators starting with arrows and blocks, baffle wall , Reh book Cill and finally two sets of blocks as energy dissipators and deflectors to control scour depth were introduced. -i-

Sediment of river waters has always been a great source of trouble. Canals gets filled up in a short time. Different devices have been developed to reduce silting of the canals. Silt excluders were designed to reduce silt entry into canals in which were provided silt ejectors. As early as 1883, Kennedy developed a relation between the velocity of flow and depth to design a non-silting non scouring canal. This subject has been investigated by persons like Lindley, Wood, King, Lacey, Bose and Mushtaq to design a regime channel. Besides the construction of canals 1 engineers had always to provide cross drainage works like syphons, aqueduct, level crossing, superpassages and canal j alls. Different design of falls since, the early stages of rapids, notched fall, flumed falls had been developed. Brief information about the development of outlets for water distribution is also contained in this Chapter. . C~~pter-4 deals with development of irrigation canals, ~heir capacities, and areas served. A new important feature is th~ pro~lem of water distribution among the four provinces. Startmg with t~e Sutlej Valley Tripartite Agreement of 1920, And~rson Committee of 1935, Rau Commission of 1941-42, Sindh Pun1ab Draft Agreement of 1945, information on Indus Water treatJ-'.' of 1960, Akhtar Hussain report of 1968-70 Fazle-Akbar Committee of 1970-71, Chief Justice Committee of 1977 and final~y the. 16t~ March 1991 Agreement on water allocation among proV1nces is given. Some of the new projects to be undertaken on Flood Water are also mentioned. In Chapter-4, many illustration are included to show the type of new barrages. Considerable information on the big and small dams is contained in this Chapter. Complete hydraulic information can be had by refering to this part of the book. Another important new feature of this book is to give detail of seepage losses from irrigation unlined canals and some information on lined canals. Loss of water from canals was reported for the first time in 1863. This subject has been investigated by innumerable persons, and very detailed information is contained in several Publications of WAPDA and others. The Water Sector Investment Plan gives very detailed information in Volume IV. In this Chapter-4B, some useful information as coll~cted by various persons and organizations is given. The latest methods developed by IACA, Harza and Huntings to determine seepge loss are briefly mentioned. The seepage loss determined from each canal command and from the canal system is given. Yearly losses from each canal command are reproduced for the period 1977-78. The monthly losses determined for the year 1985-86 are also reproduced. The loss in cusecs per mile of distributaries and minors and main canals and branches has been worked out. The second part of this Chapteris devoted to the lined canal constructed in Pakistan. Their present -ii-

conditions , causes for the damages are discussed. suggestions for their rectification are also included.

Brief

The last Chapter number five deals with utilization of Groundwater Resources to increase water potential. It includes the sources of recharge as determined for each province. The recharge estimated by different authorities is given. It has been determined for each parameter such as main canal system, links, \V!ltercourses and irrigated fields, contribution from rivers and rainfall. Some information on the available groundwater development potential is also added. Methods to recharge into areas having deep groundwater and suggestions to conserve water in depressions are mentioned. Sav,e evaporation Joss from soil with area of high ·groundwater and utilize the groundwater potential of the flood plains. As to the Sindh province, brief information about the methods being adopted to dipose of deep located saline groundwater by tube wells of different types are mentioned. The availability of usable shallow groundwater existing at many sites is explained. Sindh has also ample - sources of fresh water received as recharge which can be developed by a system of shallow m~ltiple strainer tubewells which can give not only a dependable source of water, it is the best means of drainage of irrigated lands. In this Chapter maps of shallow groundwater showing their quality in each doab together with that of Rahim Yar Khan irrigated area and that of Bahawalpur and Bahawalnagar for Eastern Sadiqia and Fordwah Canals r!!'eincluded. Tables showing &:he extent of usable groundwater in each area of Punjab are putforth. This Chapter illustrates that large volume of usable groundwater can be recovered which can increase the surface water and cause drain~ge of irrigated lands. In this foreward no details of Chapter 1 and 2 are given. Chapter one contains the basic information about the extent of Pakistan., its mountains and land resources and the present extent of land under irrigation and crop is mentioned. Large population, shifting from rural area to urban cities is given. This is based upon the last census of 1982 as fresh censu~ has not yet been undertaken. The basic laws about L_anc! T~nure classification ,a.'1d its fragmenting trend are discussed. In fact, except mention about increasing population and production of staple food, the wheat ... no additional information has been recorded. Chapter 2, dealing with climate and Land Resources soil Salinity and its recording.,reclamation methods etc. have also been kept the same as in the Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan. -iii-

Great importance has been given to adopt such methods which can yield shallow usable water and cause the desired depth and save the country from the present practices of pumping deep-located highly saline groundwater, loosing all the fresh groundwater recharge and the shallow thin accumulated fresh water. The pumping of this highly saline groundwater with chances for its spreading 011 irrigated land, or i.n big ponds can all be avoided if we star1 groundwter withdrawal from very shallow depths by multiple strainers We can stop the utilization of large resources of power and save electrical energy. As regards the preparation of the book I am much obliged for the help of Engr. S. N. H. Mashhadi, Managing Partner, NATIONAL Development Consultants, Gulberg, Lahore who provided full supports of his organization to complete the manuscript. My hand written matter was got typed, diagrams prepared and photostat copies made suitable for printing. But for this help of his office the manuscript could not have been got ready. I am also ever grateful to Khan Mohi-ud-Din Khan, former General Manager, Planning Division, WAPDA. He always provides me with relevant materials. This book and the Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan could only be prepared by the copies of reports and papers supplied by him. In the preparation of the last two Chapters Engr. Amirud- Din Qureshi my friend for several years and presently working with National Development Consultants provided several useful suggestions whic~ were incorporated. The whole hand written text was typed by Mr. Abdul Aziz and drawings and photocopies were prepared by S. Inayat Ali Shah Draftsman for which I am very grateful. Lastly I submit to the readers to excuse me for my type mistake which might have escaped correction. I humbly submit to benevolent Almighty WHO spared me to produce something useful for my country. - iv-

BOOKS ALREADY PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR 1-

Tubewell Construction and Maintenance, printed in 1969 on the suggestion of Malik Khuda Bukhsh Bucha then Punjab Minister for Irrigation and Agriculture.

2-

Waterlogging and Salinity Problems of Pakistan, prepared during 1970 to 1972 and printed by Pakistan Council for Irrigation Drainage and Flood Control in 197 4. The preparation of the subject matter was started on the suggestion of Dr. l\/fian Afzal Hussain to Pakistan Science Council. The preparation was entrusted to the author who prepared two volumes and eleven Appendix.

3-

Groundwater Resources of Pakistan, in the form of a book was prepared during 1972-73. It also contained information about Bangla Desh upto 1971. The book was printed in 1974.

4-

Tubewell Theory and Practice, was a book printed in 1979, as a Monographs of the Pakistan Academy of Sciences.

5-

Waterloss in Pakistan by Evaporation, printed 1982. This book was prepared during 1980-82 for the Research Council on Irrigation Drainage and Flood Control.

6-

Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan, prepared by the author and Dr. Ghulam Rasul Chaudhry in 1988. This book of about 650 pages had the uptodate information about water resources, that of rivers, groundwater and Drainage of Waterlogged Salinized lands.

7-

Summaries of Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan, by the same authors as of the Main Book. It was printed in 1991.

8-

A Manual for Operation and Maintenance of SCARP Tubewells, was prepared for WAPDA in 1991. This book has not been printed. The draft is available with the Author and WAPDA.

REMARKS OF A FEW EMINENT PERSONS ABOUT IRRIGATED AGR!CULTURE OF PAKISTAN I. GHULAM ISHAQ KHAN, PRESIDENT OF ISLAMIC REPUBLIC OF PAKISTAN

I have cursorily glanced through the book and found that the information and data provided in it woulcl be of considerable value not only to students and research workers, but also to those responsible for planning and formulating the country's agricultural policy. I hope to study it in greater detail at the earliest available opportunity, Meanwhile please accept my compliments for this accomplishment and my 'appreciation for sending the book to me.

With regards. 2. DR.M.A. KAZI, PRESIDENT PAKISTAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES AND ADVISER TO THE PRIME MINISTER ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

Dr. Nazir Ahmed, the Senior Author of· the book has done an excellent job in Producing a volume of such a high quality on an important subject like Irrigated Agriculture. With his background and long experience Dr. Nazir Ahmed is perhaps the only experienced person in the co~ntry who could have produced such a factual account of all Irrigated Agriculture in the country. The book would be a useful guide to educators, researchers and land-holders alike. Dr. Nazir Ahmed is highly respected in this field and this is yet another outstanding work from his pen. 3. Dr.N.M. AWAN, CHAIRMAN

PAKISTAN COUNCil.. FOR RESEARCH ON WATER RESOURCES, REVIEW ON IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE OF PAKISTAN PROCEEDINGS PAKISTAN ACADEMY OF SCIENCES VOL:26 N0.21989.

One important contribution that a Scientist can make after his retirement from active service is t.o present his rich experience in the form of a (vi)

book for the later generation to refer to.Dr. Nazir Ahmed has fulfilled this dire necessity. His books on Tubewells Design and Construction and Groundwater Resources of Pakistan have already made a tremendous impact on Scientific Literature and are often quoted as references. The present book has made even a deeper impression in Scientific and technological research on irrigated research in Pakistan. The Author deserves commendation for this valuable research contribution. In this effort he has tried to touch all aspects of Irrigated Agriculture. It is a good book for graduate students to familiarise themselves with the Irrigation System in Pakistan. Some of the material is taken from the Author's other books. Lastly Dr. Nazir Ahmed deserves tribute for his excellent presentation of scattered material on irrigated agriculture. This is of course a gift to the nation of his rich experience as a researcher and writer on Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan. 4. DR. ABDUR REHMAN T.I. VICE CHANCELLOR, UNIVERSITY OF AGRICULTURE,F AISALABAD A major constraint being faced by our National Colleges and Universities to the production of properly trained, educated and inspired man.power is the scarcity of standard books written by our men of letters in our own national perspective. The book entitled Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan indeed a voluminous compilation contains both basic facts and local truth which makes it useful for our students specializing particularly in the fields of Agricultural Engineering, Agronomy and Soil Science. I am sure this book of which one Author is the former Vice Chancellor of the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad can be used as a text and powerful aid in transmitting valuable information to our students about national problems and propects in tbese fields and to train them in the necessary skills and competence to take on the challenges the future holds for them. I compliment the learned authors of this book for bringing forth a remarkable publication which will go a long way to meet the needs of the times. 5. M. F AZIL JANJUHAH-T(M) VICE ADMIRAL (RTD) FEDERAL MINISTER FOR FOOD, AGRICULTURE AND COOPERATIVES (1979-85) God has blessed us with rich land and water resources and a climate which permits year round agriculture. We must continue to pursue policies and (vii)

programmes which help remove the constraints of our hardworking farmers from harv.esting the full potential of our land and water resources. For the pursuit of this objective this book on Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan has been written. It gives a comprehensive description of our land and water resources and a historical account of the studies, projects and programmes for the development of these two basic resources of Agriculture. I am sure all who are interested in irrigation and agricultural development matters, specially the faculty members and students of the Engineering and Agriculture Universities of Pakistan will find this book of enormous benefit. I would like to extend my felicitations to the eminent authors Dr. Nazir Ahmed and Dr. Ghulam Rasool Chaudhry for their joint efforts in producing the valuable book of reference. Dr. Nazir Ahmed has spent almost his life in Irrigation Research and through this book he is passing on his vast experience in irrigation matters to posterity. The other author of this book an Agriculture Scientist of rich experience and outstanding background Dr. Ghulam Rasul Chaudhry is former Vice.Chancellor of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. Irrigated Agriculture is an integrated subject the usefulness of the book is enhanced by the facts that it is.jointly authored by an irrigation expert and an Agriculture Specialist. 6. DR. A. GHAFOOR BHATTI, FORMER ADVISOR TO GOVERNOR PUNJAB ON AGRICULTURE, IRRIGATION ,COOPERATIVE AND RURAL DEVELOPMENT(1978-80) Pakistan is renowed for possessing the largest irrigated system of the world. Agriculture, the backbone of its economy is dependent mostly on the extensive canal network which is a unique bounty of nature for this land of alluvial plains. As such Pakistan Agriculture is characterised as Irrigated Agriculture having its own merits, limitations and problems. 'fhe scientific community awaited long for a book containing comprehensive information on various aspects of the development of irrigation system in Pakistan and its advantages and disadvantages for agriculture. "Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan" a compendium of exhaustive information on the subject is a happy arrival in the book shelf. It has been authored by two eminent scientists of the country, namely Dr. Nazir Ahmed, a hydrologist and Dr. Ghulam Rasul Chaudhry, an agricultural economist. The book not only describes the extensive canal irrigation network but also provides complete history and background of its development. Irrigation water resources of Pakistan, both surface as well as underground, their utilization and manage. ment have been discussed in detail. Subjects of w aterlogging and salinity, the two major maladies of irrigated agriculture, posing a serious threat to country's agricultural economy, have been dealt with at length. (viii) .

Information provided in this book is of fundamei:ital importance and is of great practical value•for students, research workers, planners and policy makers of agriculture in Pakistan who will derive immense benefit from the hard labour of two devoted scientists. 7. DR. H.M. MEMON, DIRECTOR, INSTITUTE OF IRRIGATION AND DRAINAGE ENGINEERING, MEHRAN UNIVERSITY OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, JAMSHERO (SINDH) I have read your book Irrigation Agriculture of Pakistan. The book is a monumental compendium of material and thus a very valuable reference book on Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan. The Authors especially the senior one are to be profusely complimented.

DEDICATION This book .is Dedicated to my Son Shahzad Nazir and his wife Yasmin Shahzad. Their persistant convenience and help has made possible the completion of the book at my present age.

(ix)

CONTENTS Page i)

Foreword

ii)

Books Published by the Author

iii)

Remarks of a Few Eminent Persons on the Irrigated Agriculture of Pakistan

REFERENCE NO.

i-iv

DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER-1

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION AND CURRENT STATUS OF IRRIGATED AGRICULTURE

1.1

Pakistan a Part of the Great Belt of Muslim Countries. Indus Valley, Cradle of Ancient Civilization. Geography and Physiography of Pakistan The North Western Mountains within and Adjacent to Pakistan. Inventory of Agricultural Land Resources Cropping intensity of Pakistan Hydrology of Pakistan Administrative Divisions of Pakistan Population Population and Cropped Area per CapitA Extent of Land Holdings Categories of Farms Number and Extent of Farm Area by Provinces. Size of Farms Fragmentation of Farms Agrarian Reforms Cropping Seasons and Area of Principal Crops. Some information about Growth of Wheat in Pakistan.

1.2 1.3 1.3 .1 1.3. 2 1.3.3 1.4 1.5 1.5.1 1.5. 2 1.6 1.6.1 1.6.2 1.6.3 1.6.4 1.6.5 1.6.6 1. 7

No.

REFERENCES

v ix PAGES 1-1 to 1-55

1-1

l-2a

h4 .1-4 1-10 1-10

1-12 1-17 1-30 1-30 1-34 1-34 1-35

1-37 1-40

1-42 1-45 1-52 1-55

CONTENTS (CONTINUED) REFERENCES NO.

DESCRIPTION

PAGES

CHAPTER-2

CLAIMA TE AND LAND RESOURCES 2-1 to 2-7 4

2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10

Introduction Temperature Variation Rainfall Humidity Evaporation Soils of Pakistan Mineral Nature of Soils Salts in a Soil Formation Soils of Indus Plains Earliest Soil Surveys Soil Surveys Conducted in Pakistan by Different Organizations Thur Girdawari(Annual Salinity Survey) Colombo Plan, Land Farm, Soil and Present Land Use Reconnassiance Survey of the Indus Plains. Reconnaissance Survey of Soil by Pakistan and F. A. 0. Organizations. Soil Survey of Lower Indus Surveys Conducted by Project Planning Consultants. Survey Conducted by WAPDA Planning and Investigation Units. Survey under UNDP and GOP Planning Projects (The Necessity) Summary of Results of Survey Conducted by UNDP and WAPDA for Revised Action Programme.

2.10.1 2.10.2 2.10.4 2.10.5 2.10.6 2.10.7 2.10.8 2 .11

Bibilography and References -xii-

2-1 2-4 2-4 2-9 2-9 2-14 2-20 2-22 2-23 2-23 2-24 2-24 2-28 2-44 2-45 2-48 2-51 2-51 2-61

2-74

CONTENTS (CONTINUED) REFERENCES

DESCRIPTION

CHAPTER-3PAKISTAN SURFACE WATER RESOURCES

3 .1

Average volume of Water Received Annually from Rainfall in the Indus Plains. 3 .1.1. Major Rivers of Pakistan 3 .1. 4 Elevation and other Charcteristics of Important Rivers: (a) (b) ( c) (d) (e)

The Indus The Jhelum The Chenab The Ravi The Beas (f) The Sutlej 3. 2 Water Quality of Pakistan Rivers 3. 3 Sediment Content in Water of the Rivers 3. 3. 3 Silt Deposition in the Storages 3. 3. 4 Water-shed Management 3. 4 Seasonal Inflow into Rivers of Pakistan 3. 4 .1 Inflow from Eastern Rivers 3. 5 River Gains and Losses CHAPTER-CONSTRUCTION OF BARRAGES AND CANALS

-4A 4A .1 Introduction 4A. l.1 . Control of Rivers Through Bunds and Embankment 4A.2 Weirs and Barrages of Pakistan 4A.2.3 Design of Early Weirs 4A.2.4 Divide Wall 4A.2.5 Creep and Potential Theories for Weirs Stability 4A.2 .6 Design Changes Introduced After 1922 4A.2. 7 Bird Eye View of a Few Barrages 4A.2 .8 A few Hydrological Problems of Weirs 4A.2.8.1 Fish Ladders for Protection of Aquatic Life. -xiii-

PAGES

3.1 to 3.38 3-1

3-1

3-5 3-11 3-14 3-15 3-17 3-17 3-24 3-24 3-29 3-33 3-34 3-35

3-36 4A-l to 4A-55 8-12 to 8-23 4A-1 4A-1 4A-7 4A-8 4A-11 4A-11 4A-13 4A-15 4A-15 4A-15

CONTENTS(CONTINUED) REFERENCES NO.

DESCRIPTION

Hydraulic Jump or a Standing Wave 4A.2 .8.2 .b Velocity Distribution Below a Jump Control of Scour by Energy Dissipators 4A. 2. 8. 3 Estimate of Scour Depth. 4A. 2. 8. 3a. Early Energy Dissipators Silt Problems of Irrigation Works 4A.2.9 Early Sediment Exclusion Methods 4A.2. 9 .a Model Tests· on Silt Excluders 4A. 2. 9. b Construction of Silt EjectOTs 4A.2. 9.c Construction of Canals for Irrigation 4A.4.10 Others lmportants Structures of a 4A.4.10. Cana 1 Syetem, Cross Drainage Works. 4A.4.10.2 Canal Falls 4A.4.10.3 Distributaries and Outlets 4A.5 Distributaries and Minors 8.8 The Design of a Distributary 8.9 Main Canal and Branches. 8.10 Outlets their Purpose, Type and Design 8.11 Kennedy Common Features of a 8.11.2 Suitable Type of Outlet. Common Outlets: 8 .11. 3 i) Crump Open Flume ii) Adjustable Proportional Nodule(APM) iii) Adjustable Orfice Semi-Nodule ··Tail Cluser 8 .11. 4 :SA. 2. 8. 2 .-a

PAGES 4A-24 4A-27 4A-27 4A-31 4A-35 4A-37 4A-39 4A-39 4A-41 4A-42 4A-43 4A-44 8-12 8-13 8-14 8-15 8-16

8-18 8-20 8-23 8-23

CHAPTER-4 UTILIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF SURFACE WATER RESOURCES 4.02 4.02.1 4.02.2 4.02.3 4.3 4.3.1.1 4.03 4.03.1 4.03.2 4.03.3

Ancient System of Irrigation Earliest Canals Development of Canals Started by British. Canal Constructed During 1817-1900 Irrigation Canals Serving the Indus Plains Certain Problem Encountered for Canal Construction during 1870 to 1900 Water Allocation Among Provinces of Pakistan Northern India Canal and Drainage Act 1873 and that of 1875 Choronlogical Sequences of Canal Construction Sutlej Valley Tripartite Agreement of 1920 Indus Discharge Committee -:;~iv-

4-1 4-1 4-6 4-6 4-9 4-22-1 4-22-5 4-22-5

4-22-6 4-22-6

CONTENTS (CONTINUED) REFERENCES NO.

4.03.4 4.03.5 4.03.6 4.03.7 4,03,8 4.03.9 4.03.10 4.03.11 4.03.12

4.03.13 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.3.2 4.3.3 4.3.4 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.8.3

DESCRIPTION

PAGES

4-22-6 Sutlej Valley Project Enquiry Committee of 1932. 4-22-7 Anderson Committee of 1935 Constitution of Rau Commission of 1941-42 4-22-8 4-22-10 Sindh Punjab Draft Agreement 4-22-10 Post Independence Changes Pre-Treaty (1947-1960) 4-22-11 Indus Waters Treaty 1960 4-22-11 Water Allocation and Rates Committee (1968-70) Akhtar Hussain Committee Justice Fazle-Akbar Committee, 1970-71 4-22-12 Commission of Chief Justices of Provinces 4-22-12 under the Chairmanship of the Chief Justice of Supreme Court of Pakistan, 1977. 4-22-13 Apportionment of the Waters of the Indus River System Between the Provinces. 4-22-14 Water Delta Available to Provinces 4-22-16 Utilization of Water Allocation out of Flood. Punjab Projects to be undertaken 4-22-17 on Flood Water. 4-22 Canals Constructed Between 1900-1930 Canals Constructed Between 1930-1960 4-25 4-27 Canals Constructed Between 1960-1970 Link Canals Existing in Pakistan before 4-28 the Indus Water Treaty with India. Link Canals Constructed as a Result 4-29 of Indus Basin Treaty. New Barrages Constructed under 4-34 Indus Basin Works. Existing Barrages Utilized in the Indus 4-48 Basin Works. Remodelling of Barrages and Canals 4-48 connected with Indus Basin Works. Hydraulic Data of Barrages and Weirs 4-49a to 4-49e

-xv-

CONTENTS (CONTtNUED) DESCRIPTION

REFERENCES NO.

4.9 4.9.1 4.9.2 4.9.3 4.9.4 4.9.4.1 4.10 4.10.1 4.10.2 4.10.3

Construction of Dams for Storage of Water and Generation of Power. Warsak Dam Construction of Major Dams on the Jhelum and the Indus. The Mangla Dam Tarbela Dam Silting of Tarbela Dam A few Small Dams Planned or Constructed During the last Twenty Years. Rawal Dam Tanda Dam Hub Dam

PAGES

4-50 4-50 4-51 4-51 4-54 4-57 4-60 4-60 4-63 4-63

{\

4.10.4 4.10. 5a 4.10.5b 4.10.5 4.10.6 4.11

4 .11.1

Khldrpur Dam Simly Dam Baran Dam Gomal Zam Multipurpose Project Kalabag Dam Sites on the Indus Basin where construction of Dams appear to be possible. Proposals for a few off storage Dams Fed from Tarbela. REFERENCES AND BIBLIGRAPHY

4-67 4-69a 4-69b 4-69 4-70 4-73

4-80 4-82

CHAPTHR-4B SEEPAGE FROM IRRIGATION UNLINED AND LINED CANALS

4B-1

Early Estimation of Seepage from Unlined Canal s Seepage Loss Through Watercourses and Irrigated Fields. Loss Estimate Based Upon Canal Dimension and Nature of Soil Formation Canal Deliveries and Canal Losses Engima of Seepage Loss Loss Estimate Based Upon Latest Methods Developed by WAPDA

4B-1

4B .1 4B.2 4B.3 4B .4 4B.5 4B. 5. 2

-xvi-

4B-6 4B-9 4B-15 4B-22 4B-22

CONTHNTS (CONTINUED) REFERENCES NO. DESCRIPTION

PAGES

4B-15

Lined Canals of Pakistan Purposes of Lining Early Experiments on Canal Lining Linirlg ·,of Haveli Canal Lining of Thal Canal Design of Lining of Thal Canal Lining of Mohajor Branch Lining of Thal Main Line Lower Lining of Bambanwala Ravi Bedian Link Lining of Balloki Suleimanki Link Lining of Sidhnai Mailsi Bahawal Link Lining of Chashma Right Bank Canal Lining of Minors Some Inferences of Lined Canals of Pakistan

4B-28 4B-28 4B-28 4B-29 4B-34 4B-34 4B-38 4B-40 4B-41 4B-42 4B-48 4B-49 4B-52

CHAPTER-5

GROUNDWATER RESOURCES

5-1

5.1 5 .1.1 5.2 5.2.a. 5.2. b 5.2.c

Necessity of Using Groundwater Deepest Groundwater Recharge into the Indus Formation Recharge from Irrigation Canals Recharge from Links Seepage from Watercourses and Irrigated Fields. Seepage from Rivers Percolation from Rainfall Importance of Recharge for Pakistan Groundwater Development Potential Methods to increase Water Potential. Case of Punjab

4B-6 4B. 6 .1 4B-6-2 4B. 6. 3 4B-7 4B. 7 .1 4B.8 4B.9 4B.10 4B. l l 4B-12

4B-13 4B-14

5.2.d 5.2.e

5.3 5.4

5.5 5.5.1 5.5.2 5.6 5.6.1 5.6.2

5.6.3 5.6.3a

5.6.3.1 5.6.3.2 5.6.3.3

5.6.4

Availability of Water for Recharge Conserve Water in Depressions Save Loss of Water Occuring through Evaporation Evaporation Loss from Groundwater Water Available from the Active Flood Plains of the Rivers. Extent of Usable Groundwater Overlying Saline Groundwater Conditions of Sindh Province Drainage Proposals Drainage Tubewells Scavenger Wells Alternate Suggestions for Drainage Worth Consideration -xvii-

4B-55 5.1 5-2 5-3

5-3 5-9 5-9

5-10 5-10 5-13 5-13

5-16 5-20 5-20 5-20 5-22 5-23 5-25

5-25 5-28 5-30

5-31 5-31

CONTENTS (CONTINUED) RE FERENCE NO.

DESCRIPTION

5.6.4.1

Drainage by Multi-strainer Shallow Tube wells 5.6.4.2 Proper Design of a Scavanger Tubewells 5.6.4.3 Another Suggestion to Recover Water for use in Sindh. 5.6.3 Quality of Groundwater in the Punjab 5.6.3.lb Classification of Area Containing Saline and usable groundwater Zones 5.6.3.2b Extent of Shallow Groundwater of Different Qualities in the Punjab 5.6.3.3.b Quality of Shallow Groundwater Determined by Punjab Public Health 5.6.4.4 Groundwater Quality of Deep Waters: (i) Bari Doab (ii) Quality of Deep Groundwater of Chaj Doab 5.6.4.5 Groundwater in Eastern Sadiqia Canals and Fordwah Branch 5.6.4.7 Shallow Groundwater Area of Rechna Doab 5.6.4.8 Shallow Groundwater Resources of Thal Doab 5.6.4.9 Quality of Shallow Groundwater of the Irrigated Areas of Bahawalpur 5.6.5 Investigation on Quality of Shallow Groundwater in the Punjab 5.6.6 Punjab is Losing Fresh Water Recharge and Build up Usable Fresh Water by Drainage Tubewells. t>. 6. 7 Lining of Canals Located on Saline Groundwater 5.6.7.1 Location of Saline Groundwater under the Bed of Canals 5.6.7.2 Creation of Zones of Fresh and Saline Groundwater 5.6.7.7 Volume of Water Saved and Cost of Lining. Bibilography Important Conversion Factors -xviii-

PAGES 5-35

5-42 5-47 5-48 5-48 5-49 5-53 5-54 5-54

5-£1 5-65 5-66 5-72

5-75 5-78 5-78 5-80 5-81 5-85

39-43

CIIAPTEH-l

GEOGHAPIIICAL DISTRillUTION AND CUIUlENT STATUS OF IflHIGATED AGIUCULTUHE 1.1

PAKISTAN-A COUNTRIES

PART

OF

THE

GREAT

BELT

OF MUSLIM

Pakistan came into being on 14th August, 1947. Previously it was a part of India being ruled by the British. The dwellers of the area were predominantly Muslims who were, distinctly different from Hindus, in their ways of living, culture, customs, traditions, religion and political thinking. The Muslim therefore endeavoured for a separate home land in the area in which they had the majority. Pakistan thus emerged and became a part of the great Muslim belt extending from West Africa, North Africa, to Middle East and Central Asia. This belt includes countries like Nigeria, Mauritania, Mali, Morocco, Algeria, Tunis, Niger, Chad, Libya, Uganda, Sudan, Egypt and Somalia in Africa, Saudi Arabia, Yamen, Moscat, Oman, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan in the middle east including Turkey, Iran, Af glrnnistan. The extent of the great belt of Muslim nations is shown in Fig: 1.1. There are several other Muslim Countries away from this belt such as Bangla Desh, Malaysia, Indonesia and Brunei etc. Recently a few Muslims Countries have emerged as a result of disruption of Sovit Union. In Fig: 1.1 all those countries with Majority of Muslim population are shown in green colour. Countries in which Muslim population is 21 to 50 percent and those with 11 to 20 percent are also indicated. Those countries having Muslims population less then 10 percent are also denoted.

Recently Standing Committee on Scientific and Technical Cooperation (COMETECH) of Muslim Countries has issued statistics of 46-Muslim Countries givmg their areas, average population, their cropped and irrigated lands. Some information about forests, pastures and Arable Crops is also given as shown in Table-1.lA. 1.1

Dr. M.A. Kazi, Chairman, COMS TECH, while introducing Food and Agriculture Profile of the Muslim World stated "the Muslim Countries today are faced with an acute shortage of food in quantity as well as quality. They are presently, the largest food receipients and commercial food buyers in the world. A large part of the food consumed in the Islamic World is imported from outside, despite the fact that it has great potential for food production. In fact 30 out of 46 Muslim States of the OIC w:1ich face serious food shortages, pay a bill of almost 30, 000 m: Ilion dollars annually for their food imports. Not only the current levels of food production are inadequate but the food gap is also increasing progressively which is evident from the fact that the population is increasing at the rate of 3% while the food production is increasing only by 2. 5% annually. The Muslirn Ummah must, therefore, strive hard to extricate itself from such a dependent situation as early as possible. 1.2

INDUS VALLEY ,CRADLE OF ANCIENT CIVILIZATION

Pakistan includes the famous valley of the Indus which has been the cradle of ancient civilization like those of the delta area of the Nile and the valley of the Tigris and Euphrates. These three areas were the contemporary regions in which great civilizations flourished, about four to five thousand years ago. Recent archaeological findings seem to point out that civilization of the Indus Valley probably antedated that of the Tigris and the Euphrates. Excavation's in the Indus Valley have revealed that the dwellers of Moen-jo-Daro, Kot Diji and Harappa had established powerful empires. A stroll through the ruins of Moen-jo-Daro and Harappa reveals that the houses in these cities were provided with all types of amenities. There were bath, lavatories, drainages, fresh water wells and tanks. There were even handsome courtyards, comfortable bed rooms, guestrooms, dining rooms and porter's lodges. The dwellings of Moen-jo-Daro period are found so well finished and highly polished that these match with that of today's rather then of prehistoric period 5000 years ago. 1.2a

TABLE-1. 1A Food and Agriculture Profile in the i\foslim Yl/orld: Total area, Arabic and Pcrm:rnenfcrop an>'.1, Permanent pasture, Forest and \Voodl:rnd, Irriga!cd area, Tola! cropped area and

:lYl.'rngc population in forty six countries. All area in (000) hectares: Population in

millions

Country

I

Total area

250581 238174 214969 190457 175954 164800 128400 126700 124019 102552 100145 92377 79610 77945 65209 63766 47544 44655 ( ' Morncco 43832 19. Iraq 33297 20.~Yemcn Dem 32975 21. Malaysia 22. Burkina Faso 27420 26767 23. Gabon 24586 24. Guinea 23588 25. Uganda 21240 26. Oman 1. Sudan 2. Algeria 3. Saudi Arabia 4. Indonesia 5. Libya 6. Iran 7. Chad 8. Niger 9.Mali 10. Mauritania 11. Egypt L2. Nigeria 13. Pakistan 14. Turkey 15. Afghanistan 16. Somalia 17. Cameroon

Ji-rigated Cropped Average l'ermancut Forest & Arable & population land land perm.crops pasture woodland 1984-B7 1986-87 1986-87 i%1 1987 1984-87 __ .__ -21.9 8125 1870 46770 56000 12478 22.5 4033 360 4099 30700 7540 12.3 932 425 1200 85000 1305 168.0 21673 7400 121494 11800 21673 3.9 936 238 670 13300 2145 48.0 11622 5740 13020 44000 14830 5.0 1590 10 12970 45000 3205 6.4 6050 32 2480 9262 6050 9.0 2206 200 8520 30000 2206 1.9 220 12 15000 39250 220 48.9 4626 2560 31 2540 100.0 18352 855 14300 20980 31335 105.0 17404 16080 3140 5000 20760 51.0 21495 2190 20199 8700 27927 14.5 3787 2660 1900 30000 8054 4.7 856 112 8800 28850 933 10.0 3658 24 24870 8300 6995 22.7 6440 1255 5200 20900 8402 16.0 3298 1750 1890 4000 5450 2.3 74 58 1530 0065 119 15.7 413L 338 19580 27 4380 8.2 3145 16 6'180 10000 3200 1.0 246 20000 4700 I 452 6.3 1139 70 9960 3000 1577 16.4 3966 9 5710 5000 5705 1.3 44 41 1000 99

I

'

Food and Agriculture Profile of the Muslim World by Dr. Sub hi Qasem, COMSTECH SECRETARIAT 3, Constiu tion Avenue, Sector G-5 I 2 ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN

1. 2b

TABLE-1.lA (Contd) Country

27. Senegal 28. Yemen A.R 29. Syria 30. Tunisia 31. Bangladesh 32. Benin 33.Jordan 34. U.A.E. 35. Sierra Leone 36. Guinea Bissa1 37. Djibouti 38. Kuwait 39. Gambia 40. Qatar 41 Lebanon 42 Brunei 43 Palcstine(W. Bank & Gaza 44. Comoros 45 Bahrain 46. Maldives

Total area

19672 19500 18518 16361 14400 11262 8921 8360 7174 3612 2320 1782 1130 1100

1040 577 575

Arable & Permanent Forest & woodland pasture perm.crops

1984-87

1987

1987

Irrigated Cropped land land

1986-87

1986-87

1984-87

175 250 654 270 2199 6 46 5 32

1373 1026 4154 3545 13049 1453 214 22 651 281 0.3 3 100 3.4 157 7 130

7.0 7.0 10.7 7.3 102.0 4.2 3.6 1.4 4.0 1.0

52 2.5 0.5

0.5 0.4 0.2

5225 5630 5630 4680 15280 1840 414 27 1801 335 0.3 4 170 4 301 7 180

5700 7000 8277 3040 600 442 791 200 2204 1080 200 134 90 50

5935 1600 534 562 2115 3620

.

-

10

6

80 255

-

-

86 1 22

98 2.5 3

15 4 1

35

-

-

1

1

-

223 68

30

71

3 2080 1070 6 2 174

Average population

-

1 12

0.4

1.8 0.8 0.4 r2.7 0.2 1.7

A. Total Islamic Countries

2658193

242272

553678

393856

48065

176872

880

B. Total World

13389055

1473699

r2M352

4068536

227108

1079648

4738

9.6

21.l

%ofNB

19.8

16.2

17.2

Source: FAO Production Yearbooks 1982-1988, FAO, ROME

Food and Agriculture Profile of the Muslim World by Dr. Sub hi Qasem, COMSTECH SECRETARIAT 3, Constitution A venue, Sector G-5 / 2 ISLAMABAD,PAKISTAN. 1.2c

16.4

18.5

1. 3

The ancient people of the valley of Indus were outstanding in the field of agriculture and industry as compared to the civilizations of contemporary period in Egypt and Mesopotamia. The textile crafts from cotton, a major raw material, no doubt, were raised in Sind. Such was the glory of the ancie11t peopl~ of Indus Valley. Perhaps they were the first sedentary farmers of the World. The richness and wealth of the Indus Valley was the greed of the foreigners. The first to enter the valley were the Aryans who passed through the western passes sometime between 1800 to 1759 B.C. They were ruthless barbarians and put every thing to fire and sword. They destroyed the magnificent Dravadian Civilization of Moen-jo-Daro and Harappa. About eight centuries later came the Scythians who conquered the whole of the Indus Valley and the northern India. They ultimately introduced Buddhism in the country. One of their kings, Ashoka ruled not only this valley but also a great part of the South Asian subcontinent in about 257 B.C. The Buddhists have left behind remarkable. ruins of Taxila and the Stupas in the Mardan and Peshawar valley including Afghanistan. These ruins are an excellent testimony of the greatness of the Budhist rulers. In 326 B.C., Alexander the Great entered the Indus Valley through the Khyber Pass and conquered a great part of the country. After the refusal of his army to go further east, Alexander thereon left the Indus Valley and his army travelled back partly through Indus River and partly through the western passes. The death of Alexander in 323 B.C. prevented the consolidation of his empire in the East. The valley of the Indus hus ulways been u cherished goal of the invaders and conquerors who fol lowed one after another from the north-western passes through the mountain ranges. The Iranians, the Graeco-Bactrians, the Parthenians, the Kushans and the white Huns plundered the rich valley of the Indus one after another. Subuktagin during 977 to 997 A.D occupied the valley of Kabul and a part of the northern portion of Pakistan. Mahmood of Ghaznavi invaded the subcontinent seventeen times during 971 to 1030 A.D. He conquered Somnath in Gujrut. The Afghan and other rulers of Delhi ruled over northern 1ndia which included the Indus Valley, for abo11l '\00 years. 'l'ul'111t1r crllssed the Indus in 1398 and Babar conquered northern Tndii.l in l.'J26. Nadir Shah from Iran passed through the Punjab and conquered Delhi iu 1739. The last conqu~ror from the north was Ahmed Shah Abda1i who ruined the Marhatas Armies in 1761. The British came from the south. They

1.4 first conquered India, annexed Sind in 1843, and Baluchistan in 1877.

the Punjab in 1849

Throughout history the valley of Indus, the present Pakistan has been trodden by one invader or another. The muslims of the sub-continental first tried to shake off a century old rule of the British in 1857 and finally succeeded to drive them away in 1947. The British, however, deliberately gave away a large chunk of Pakistan territory to India. The area of Jammu and Kashmir belonging to Muslim Pakistan was given over to India.

1.3 CEOCRAPllY AND PHYSlOGRAPllY OF l'AKISTAN Pakistan lies between latitudes 24 degree and 37 degree North and longitudes 61 degree to 76 degree East. Its surroundings as exhibited in Fig. 1.2 includes Iran on the west, Afghanistan on the north-west, Gilgit Agency, Azad Kashmir and disputed territory of Jammu and Kashmir lie on the north-east and India on the east. The Arabian Sea exists on its south. Tadzhikistan of USSR is located towards north-east separated by a narrow strip of Afghanistan territory. Adjacent to Gilgit and Kashmir on the north-east side lies China. Some of the main physiographical features of Pakistan are shown in Fig. 1.3. This country of 307375 sq. miles or 196.72 million acres possesses towering mountain ranges of the llindu Kush and the Karakorum with concentration of peaks and glaciers, Suleiman ranges and low mountains of Mari-Bugti, plateau of Baluchistan and Potwar, fer.tile level plains, desert lands, marshes and the sea. Thus Pakistan possesses quite complicated and attractive physiographical features.

1.3.1

The North Western Mountains within and adjacent to Pakistan

Starting from the plateau of Pamir, the Himalayas extend ranges after ranges about 1500 miles towards east reaching upto Assam. There are very often series of parallel mountains ranges, and at places possessing deep broad valleys in-between. Geology of the area is complex. Lifting of the earth crust and tilting of old sedimentary rocks has occurred. The sedimentary rocks vary from 3and stone, shale, limestone and slate. The Himalayas have the following main ranges with well defined features.

1•

5

INTERNATIONAL 80UNOAl1Y - · · - - INOUS

BASIN

BOUNDARY----

BOUNDARY Of' !NOUS Pl..AINS - - - -

Wl!MHI

rAKISli\N

BARRAGE CITY

Fig 1·Z.

PAK1STAN

GEOGRAPHICAL

•-

1. 7

i)

The Siwaliks

Adjacent to the plains within an e1evotion of 1500 to 3000 feet exists formution consisti11g of sand-stone, grits, conglomerates, clays and silt of varying degree of consolidation. These are called the Siwaliks mountains. ii)

The Outer Himalayas

Parallel to the Siwaliks, lies the outer Himalayas extending to a width of 40 to 50 miles and with an average altitude of less than 10,000 feet. Pir Panjal is one well known range of these mountains. In this area the rain fall varies between 50 to 100 inches per year and the land surface is covered with evergreen forests within elevation of 5000 to 8000 feet. iii) The Central Himalayas These mountains lie adjacent to the outer Himalayas. Their average elevation is about 15000 feet. These are ever covered with snow. Nanga Parbat is a mountain the peak of which rises to 26660 feet and lies within these ranges. iv)

The Trans-Himalayas ranges

These are the ranges of Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Kailas. These contain some of the highest peaks of the world such as Rakaposhi 25,550 feet, Disteghil Sar '25,869 feet, and K-2 Mount Goodwin Austin, 28,250 feet. Some of the largest glaciers of the world exist in these ranges. These are important sources of water supply to Indus River. · v)

Western Mountains

These mountains are in continuation of the ranges of Hindu Kush. Tirich Mir, 25230 feet is the most famous peak of this range. The Safed Koh ranges, Sulaiman ranges, Bughti Marri Hills, Kirthar mountain averaging 7000feet, are the mountains on the north west side. vi)

The Potwar Plateau and the Salt Range

The Potwar Plateau has an average elevation of about 1500 feet. It is about 150 miles long and 60 miles wide. It is highly eroded area and very badly dissected. The salt range rises

1.8 abruptly out of the Punjab Plains. It represents a steep face bare rocks rising 2000 feet above the piedmont plains.

of

vii) The Indus Plains The vast Indus Plains stretch south of the Himalayas. These constitutes three districts zones. The first is the Peshawar vale comprising 1.399 million acres. Adjacent lo jL lies the Bannu Basin extending to 1.174 million acres followed by Sulaiman Piedmont of 4.916 million acres. The location of these can be seen in Fig, 1.2. The areas are given in Table 1.1 prepared by M/s. Harza International. Next to the Peshawar zone exists the Punjab in which 4.376 miL1ion acres are included in Potwar Plateau. The Himalayas Piedmont and Salt Range Piedmont constitute 0.674 and 2.516 million acres respectively. Below these starts the vast Plains which extend in the Punjab and Sind Regions. Indus Plains are largely made up of fertile alluvium thousand of feet thick, transported and deposited by pre-historic river system. Some deposition is still in progress by the present river system. The Indus plains are about 1000 miles in length. The breadth of these varies at different sites. In the Punjab the broadest portion of these plains is about 200 miles and the narrowest portion is about 80 miles wide with desert on one side and Sulaiman mountains on the other. This is actually the divide line of the Punjab and Sind Provinces. It is some time called the Indus corridor. The area on the upstream side is called the Northern Zone or Upper Indus Plains and below this as the Southern Zone or lower Inaus Plains. viii) Baluchistan Baluchistan plateau is mainly hilly with small dry valleys. The elevation of the area varies between 1000 to 5000 feet. It is an arid region surrounded by the mountains of low elevation and at places the drainage remains inland. South of the Bolan Pass there exist vast flat plains generally called Kachhi plains. These lie within the catchment area of the Indus. Baluchistan also possesses two distinct drainage named as the closed basin of Kharan Desert and the Coastal of Makran.

zones Basin

1. 9

TABLE: 1.1

LAND USE IN PAKISTAN (THOUSAND ACRES)

Region

Irrigated Baranj .Sub-total Unknown Unusable

Peshawar Region Peshawar Vale Bannu Basin Sulaiman Piedmont sub-total Punjab Region. Potwur Plateau Himalayan Piedmont Salt Range Piedmont Indus Flood Plain Thal(Sind Sagar)Doab Chaj Doab Rechna Doab Bari Doab Bahawalpur Plains Indus Corrider sub-total Sind Region Karachi Plain Kirthar Piedmont Upper Sind Plain Central Sind Plain Lower Sind Plain Karachi Plain Indus Delta sub-total

820 238 1730

400 479 420

1220 717 2150

2788

1299

141 62 468 1228 966 2046 5226 6347 1870 1609

2704 487 754 13 980 278 909 34 167

19963

39

Total

808

140 380 1958

1399 1174 4916

i.+087

924

2478

7489

107 45 79 2632 3602

4

2845 549 1222 1241 1946 2324 6135 6381 2037 1613

551 823 1367 1071

1424 80 1215 64 832 223 895 596 382 353

4376 674 2516 3937 6380 2824 7581 7800 3786 3037

6330

26293

10554

6064

42911

1203 255 1927 4753 857 56 166

1203 255 1927 4753 857 56 166

298 176 966

3989

2244

453 264 675

2488 342 446 473 .666 229 1680

3339 7470 1976 549 2521

9217

9217

5076

6324

20617

16554

14866

71017

77

277

773

31968

7629

39597

Swat-Chitral (2)

217

300

517

517

Baluchistan

(2)

400

400

400

TOTAL

32585

TOTAL

Source:

7929

40514

16554

14866

71934

An Appraisal of Resources

Sill

12209

11333 987

11232 9091

1797

117021 11875

77125

5122

12209

12320

20323

1797

128896

80953

5066

1260 1735 10831

3421

3047

5922

87279 14125 69300 35900 29200

47298 18062 29200

11171

Sub- total

175513

16237

13826

3421

20885

5922

235804

TOTAL AREA

252638

21359

26035

15741

41208

7719

364700

10188

13469 1735 10831

11333 4408

11232 12138

7719

(b) Country wise 158078 Pakistan India Jammu & Kashmir(2) 47298 29200 Afghanistan 18062 Tibet China TOTAL Length (Hiles)

17838

11171

17838

204300 26000 69300 .29200 35900

252638

21359

26035

15741

41208

7719

364700

2056

556

847

658

1012

278

5407

Source: A programme for water and power Pakistan 1963-1975 by Harza.

development

(1) Includes Western Tributaries. (2) Includes Gilgit and Baltistan agencies.

in West

1. 15

TABLE:l.4

EXTENT OF HYDROLOGIC UNITS WITHIN PAKISTAN

Hydrologic Unit

Physiographic Area :Principal rivers and : Area in :tributaries : sq. miles

Indus River

Catchment area of Indus River system in Pakistan, Katchi Plains, desert area of Sind, Bahawalpur and Rann of Katch.

Indus, Siran, Kabul Kunar (Chitrnl), Swat, Pangkora, Haro Soan,Kohat,Kurrum, Gomal,Zhob,Panjnad, Jhelum,Chenab,Ravi, Sutlej,Nari Bolan and Streams of Katchi plains.

Kharan Desert (Closed) Basin

Dry area of Kharan Desert Basin tributaries (Harrununi-Maskhel and others, mountain basins of the Quetta area etc.

Pashin-Lora,Baddo, Rakshan, Ma shka I , and many small streams

46400

Makran .coastal Basins

Numerous indicate coastal basin stream some extending 200 miles into the interior

Malir, Hub, Porali, Kud, Hingol, Nal Maskhai, Dasht, Nihing, Kech.

47300

Total

213674

307354

Each hydrological unit constitutes mountains and plains. The proportion of each can be seen in Table 1.5.

1. 16

TABLE:l.5

EXTENT OF MOUNTAINS AND PLAINS IN EACH HYDROLOGICAL UNIT.

Mountains Sq. 1000 miles acres

Indus Basin

% of total area

93,300

59,712

43

Kharan Desert 33,800

21,632

'ldkr an Coast 33,000

Zl,120

160,100 102,464

Plains Sq. 1000 miles acres

120,375

77040

73.5

12,600

8064

70

14,300

147,275

52.8

% of total area

57

Total Sq. 1000 miles acres

213675

136752

26.5

46408

29696

9152

30

47300

30272

94256

48

307375

196720

1. 17

dwellers on either side. The Indus plains have always been invaded by peoples from the north west who crossed the mountains from well known passes existing in those ranges. Majority of the invaders passed through the famous Khyber Pass. Other less famous passes in the Sulaiman Ranges are the Gomal near Kohat, Khojak and Bolan near Quetta. A less important pass is Gonsher in Sinjara Ranges of Baluchistan opening into the closed Basins of Kharan Desert. There are a few other passes in the Himalayas at comparatively high elevation near about 10,000 feet or higher. Banihal pass 10,000 feet high is located in Pir Panjal. It joins the Kashmir valley with Jammu Province. Uabusar is another pass in the Great Himalayas ranges. It is a means of passage to the northern areas. Some other less famous passes which exist at very high elevations in the Karakoram Ranges of Himalayas are Shundur Pass in Hindu Kush and Dadareli Pass in Chitral area, Darkot Pass in the Karakoram Ranges. The famous passes through which northern invaders entered the Indus Plains were the Khyber, Gomal and Bolan. 1.5

ADMINISTRATIVE DIVISIONS OF PAKISTAN

For the purpose of administration, Pakistan is qivided into four provinces. These are North West Frontier Province, the Punjab, Sind and Baluchistan. The extent of each province is as under: Province N.W.F.P. Punjab Sind Baluchistan Total Pakistan

Area (Million Acres) 25.14 50.95 34.82 85.79 196. 70

Each province is divided into divisions, districts and tehsils. A tehsil is further divided into Thanas, Kahogo, Villages Patwar etc. Here the divisions and districts of the four provinces according to 1981 data are considered. i)

North West Frontier Province

This province has four divisions and Federally Administered Tribal areas generally called agencies. The location

1. 18

of this province is shown in Fig. 1.5 where both the provincially and federally administered area are shown. The districts of Malakand division and Tribal areas are better illustrated in Fig. 1.6. The total area of each division and that of the districts together with population according to 1981 census is given in Tables 1.6 a.b.c & d.

NWFP is the smallest of the four provinces. Its four divisions, Malakand, Hazara, Peshawar and D.I.Khan have 12 districts and constitutes 18,412 m.ac. Adjacent to the provincial divisions, there are seven Tribal Agencies such as Bajaur, Mohammend, Khyber, Kurram, Aurakzai, North Waziristan and South Waziristan. There are four Tribal areas located in the settled districts of Peshawar, Kohat, Bannu and D.I.Khan. Tribal area constitutes 6.730 m.ac.the rest18.412 m.ac. constitute the four divisions. In Table 1.6.a information about areas and population of NWFP during 1981 is given. ii) The Punjab Uptill 1981,. the Punjab had five divisions. These were Rawalpindi, Sargodha, Lahore, Multan and Bahawalpur. It had twenty one districts. The names of these divisions and districts together with their areas and population are given in Table 1.6.b. Their location can be seen in Fig. 1.7. In 1982 it was decided to split the old five divisions into seven divisions. Six tehsils were also raised to the level of districts. These new districts were Okara, Toba Tek Singh, Bhakkar, Khushab, Leiah and Rajanpur. The present new divisions and their districts are given in Table 1.7. A small portion of Rawalpindi district was carved out to be administered federally. The federal Capital area constitutes 0.224 m.ac. iii)

Sind

Adjacent to the Punjab lies Sind Province. It is divided into three divisions. Sukkur and Hyderabad are the main divisions each contains six districts. Their location is shown in Fig. 1.8. Karachi Division is very small. It has three districts cal led Karachi East, Karachi West and Karachi South. Further splitting of a district is called a Taluka which in the Punjab anJ NWFP' is named as Tehsil. The details of the areas and 1981 population are

1.20

JAMMU &

< ( "'1:

)

I

1--

UJ I .._, I

.:r: \

$

(.) l

~

::J (

I

-J

«::(

J

\!)

Q

QJ I

,1

!'-,. .

I I

I1.,

I

.

1 ·~../

cs in Kharif and 7696 cusecs in Rabi to irrigate 812228 a· res in Kharif and 1244321 acres in Rabi. It was filrthe: r(·visrd in 1915 when the capacity was fixed at 10214 .-us~cs ln Kharif and 9805 cusecs in Rabi. In Chaj UnP.b irrigation was practiced on narrow strips n •H1g· the rivers. Upto 1860, there were 26 small cannls with 11 totoi length of about 240 miles. A Jhelum canal latPr on c1-1I "11 Lower Jhelnm was started to be constructed in 1885 and cn1"pidPd in 1900. The canal was opened in 1901. In the NWFP, Kabul Canal which existed since the l\loghal pP1hd was improved in 1890. Construction of a canal cRlled the Lower Swqt Canal was undertaken in 1872 at Munda site on the Swat. It was opened in 1891. Due to the strong opposition of the local tribes thP headwork~ was completecl with m:Utary protection by 1917. The Sindh has been irr1gnted by canals fr•m1 Vf>ry early times. These canals carried flood water. In 1948 Plrahim gave a list of 84 canals passing a discharge of J3'.?51:9 • '~'h'S. The British conquered Sindh in 1843. The eondition of

canals

J. G. Fife, Royal

had

deteriorated

considerably.

In

1855,

Engineer, started improving the canal system. 4.7

4.1

IRRIGATION CANALS SERVING THE INDUS PLAINS

Information about the canals constructed at different periods in the Provinces of NWFP, Punjab and Sind is given in Table 4.1. The year when a particular canal started operation, name of the headworks constructed on a river together with the capacity of the canal is given. At some headworks more than one canal is taken out. This is very common for the head regulators located in Sind. In Fig.4.1 the location of main Barrages and headworks is indicated. The area served by each canal is now called the canal commands. There are 44 canal commands. There are 24 canal commands in the Punjab, 5 in NWFP and 15 in Sind/Baluchistan. The name of these canal commands, gross area and culturable commanded area served by them are given in Table 4.2. The location of each canal command is shown in Fig. 4.2 for the Punjab and NWFP and in Fig. 4.3 for Sind ahd Baluchistan. Due to insufficiency of water in rivers during winter months, the total culturable commanded area (CCA) could not be served. Thus some portion of the area was planned to be served by ever flowing canals called perennial, and another portion was served only during summer (Kharif) season, called nonperennial. In the selection of perennial and nonperennial areas besides the insufficiency of river water many other factors particularly the nature of soil formation, depth of groundwater, surface salinity etc. were kept in view. The perennial and non-perennial area served by each canal is given in Table 4.1. In NWFP the full CCA is perennial. In the Punjab out of 20.322 m.ac of CCA, 12.486 m.ac. are perennial and 7.827 m.ac receive non-perennial supplies. Similar information for Sind/Baluchistan with total CCA 13.555 m.ac only 7.626 m.ac get perennial and 5.929 m.ac nonperennial supplies. The location of perennial and non-perennial areas are shown in Figs 4.4a and 4.5b. Some other useful information for the Irrigated area pertaining to the total canal capacity of each province, length of canals, gross commanded area, culturable commanded area, number of outlets and the maximum canal water diversion of 107.40 maf in the year 1980-81 is given in Table 4.3.

4.9

4.15 Tab.:.e -4- 0 2 AREAS OF USABLE AND SAL INI: GROUNDWA'TE:E ZONES BY CANATJ COMM.ANDS

C.C.A.

Sr.

No.

Canal Cc,mmand

PAKISTAN

(A) PUNJAB 1. 2. 3.

4. 5. 6. 7.

8.

Upper Dipalpur Ravi Syphon/CBDC Raya Branch Upper Chenab Int. M.R. Link Sadiqia Fordwah

?akpattan

G. A.

Total

( M..;)

Usab.i,_e_ _ _S_a_l_,i_n_e_

Zone

Zone

34.631

40.734

24.872

15.862

20.269

'.24. 319

20.190

4.129

0. 3c:I 0. 6lf9

0.

0. 421+ 1. 017

0. '+'+ 2

0.158 o. 969 0.426 1. 049 0. 615

L;

'.'.1

0.794 1.114 0.167 1.163 0.55? l .1'..23

0.723 1.'393 1.730 2.097 0.688

0.421 0.646 0.442 1.114 C.167 0.108 0.446 1.088 0.723

9. 10.

L.B.D.C.

11.

,Jhang

12.

Gu.gera U • Ji-,c, l um l..,. Jhelnn

1.865 0.544

:.soo

: . 78[,

Baha·wal

0.605

0.814

0.591

Mailsi Sidhanai

1. 081 0. 8fi•j c .179

(). 845 0.850

0.416 1.490 0.1S4 2.752

23.

Panjnad Abbasia Thal Muzaffargarh

0. 996 0.869 0.179 0.344 1. 348 0.154 1. 641 0.809

24.

D.G. J >I

MAINLY FRES!i MAINtY SALINE

AREA Cf' HIGH WATERTA8LE

TANOO BAGO

5.L.6

FIG-5.3

LBOD STAGE 1 COMPONENT PROJECTS - - Project boundary ~ Drainage tubewells

E!.:!J L=i L=i

Scavenger tubewells Tile drainage Surface drainage only

OUTFALL DRAIN

•• •••• Stage 1 construction

5.27

The groundwater in this province has always remained near the surface. It was stated in the beginning of this Chapter that the deepest position of groundwater in 1932 was at 40 feet in Nawabshah. The area to be drained by LBOD had groundwater at a depth of 12 feet. Since then it continued to rise. Figures-5. 5. a and b show the position of groundwater in April, 1964 and 1983. The groundwater in 75 percent of the area existed at less than 5 feet. The extent of areas with groundwater of different depths is given in Table below: -

TABLE-5.12 DEPTH OF GROUNDWATER IN APRIL,1983 IN THE DISTRICTS TO BE DRAINED BY LPDD Districts

Areas in 1000 acres of CCA with depth in feet Less than 5

beb..;een 5 to 8

at 8

Total

~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Nclwabshah

189

227

139

555

Sanghar

196

102

65

363

Mirpurkhas

192

102

65

359

TOTAL

517

431

269

1277

5. 6. 3. 1

Drainage Proposals

There are four types of drainage measures to be undertaken ss depicted in Fig-5. 3. Vast areas in Nawabshah, Mirpurkhas and partly in Sanghar are proposed to be drained by deep tubewells withdrawing highly saline groundwater. Scavanger type of tubewells are to be installed in Sanghar and Nawabshah. Small area in Mirpurkhas is to be provided with tile drains. Surface drains are also to be provided in some areas of Nawabshah and Mirpurkhas. The length of the outfall drain completed and under construction is also shown.

5.28

FIG-5 .4

D

Inundation canal command _ _ canal

lllW'i Barrage controlled 1L.:J command ·

perennial/non-perennial

I

APRIL

1964 a0::

FIG.S-5. 5 a&b

DEPTH TO WATERTABLE IN COMPONENT PROJECT AREAS

!:mm c=:J

c=J

0- 5 ft

5-8 ft :>

811

In Aprrl 1932 all watertables were below 8 feet

5.29

5. 6. 3. 2

Drainage Tubewells

Drainage by tiles or tube wells was studied. It was found that drainage by tiles will cost four times that by tubewells which will take nearly one third the time to construct tiles on an equivalent area. Tubewells can lower the groundwater to any desired depth. The hydraulic characteristics of the Nawabshah and Sanghar area are favourable. The permeability for Nawabshah and Sanghar is of the order of 0. 0013 ft per second. Its order for Mirpurkhas is however low equal to 0. 00041 ft per second. It is proposed to install 1397 tubewells in the three districts. The depth of tube wens will vary between 150 to 26.0 ft. and their capacity will be between 0. 5 to 2. 0 cusecs. The order of salinity of pumped water is expected to be ·between 2000 to 40, 000 parts per million. The output of each well will be delivered to a collecting drain which will joint to a sub-drain and finally to the main drain. The details following Table:

of these

tubewells

are

given in

the

TABLE-5.13

DRAINAGE

'IUBEWELI.S 'ro

Nawal:shah

Sanghar

Mirp.irkhas

386

296

715

Nunber of Well capacity(cu.ft/sec) Depth (ft) Purrping

Head(ft)

1.5-2

2

150-185

150-24()

40

capital cost of each tubewell(Rs.Millicn)

'IUI'AL CDST Rs.Min. GAANJ 'IUI'AL

BE CDNsrRUCI'ED IN DISI'RICTS OF

RS. 5. 30

0.5-1.5 185-260

47

47

o.597

0.567

0.628

230.04

167.8

449.0

847. 22 million

5. 6. 3. 3

Scavenger Wells

In the northern part of the Sanghar components there is extensive area where a layer of fresh groundwater overlies deeper saline water. This area also extends to a part of Nawabshah. The number of such tubewells to be installed is given in Table: TABIE-5. 13 (a) SCAVElG!:R WELLS 'IO BE IN:>TALLED IN'

SANGHAR N-umber

94

capacity(cusecs) Depth (ft) Pul1?ing head ft. ccst estimate per well (Rs .lv'i !lion) Total cc:st

~.Millien)

Grand Cbs t Rs.

5.8.4

758

1.5 150

1.5-3.0

40

40

0.689

0.599

140-240

454.04

64. 77

51 8 • 8 rnillicn

Alternate Suggestions Consideration

for

Drainage

Worth

The area proposed to be drained has groundwater within 5 to 8 feet. It has been under irrigation since ancient times of Mohin-jo-Daro Before the construction of three barrages it was extensively irrigated by innundation canals. The construction of barrages assured the water supply for irrigation. All through these ages fresh irrigation water has been applied. Naturally this fresh water head had chances to push away the saline groundwater: No doubt the land slope is very flat and large soil formation is of medium type, still there is a possibility to build up some small depth of fresh water. There may exist a few pockets of saline groundwater but due to hydrological conditions fresh groundwater within a depth of 50 to 100 feet exists at many sites. Hunting map of groundwater quality of Sindh is shown in Fig-5 .. 66 It was found that fresh water existed in large area in a depth of 100 feet. This figure like Fig-3. 3 shows that all groundwater in the area served by Kotri Barrage is saline. It is however not a fact. Huntings has given results of few bores as shown in Table-5. 49. This shows water quality of 22 different sites.· 5. 31

o\{:i \~ SINO AREA

1tM~"PU1.

GROUNDWATER QUALi TY