The Traditional Arts of Japan, a Complete Illustrated Guide

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The Traditional Arts of Japan, a Complete Illustrated Guide

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MARIN COUNTY FREE LIBRARY

1 H.

3 1111 01986 5946

itttonal Arts

BAITERSON lUXJKR

A COMI'IJ/I K

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ofJapan

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iraditional Arts 3

of Japan A Complete

BATTERSON BOGER

BY

H.

Here

for the

the

Guide

Illustrated

first

time

a

is

book

compasses

that

all

and ceremonies of Japan, giving fun-

arts, crafts,

damental information and a

clear, descriptive picture

of every category for the interested layman, the expert, and the connoisseur. In 170,000

words of readable

and with

narrative,

369 black-and-white photographs, 26 color reproductions, and 40 line drawnigs. The Traditional Arts oj

Japan shows the steps by which the Japanese

and

artisans created their

works, both

artists

utilitarian

and

decorative.

Supplemented by an introduction to the cultural lientage of Japan, a chronological outline history, a tab!

and

prefectures,

'

•''-al

periods,

nipleic

ail.

indispensable guide to tu.

'

i.

of Japanese

maps of provinces '

"-he

text

is

an

-Mfication aiiu a^j^..

of Japanese works of art aiiu ^. to the thinking, symbolism, and technical processes beliuiu

ciation

'"

md

them.

Chapter by chapter, the book presents the following subjects,



among

others:

Meaning and mathematics behind

the

great

Japanese gardens •

How

swords and sword mounts were formed

and decorated •

Making of arms and armor

• Structuring

and symbolism

of

architecture,

domestic and public • Firing

and designing of pottery and porcelain

• Steps in the incense

and

tea

ceremonies



Weaving and designing of textiles



Making of dolls and

• Design • Firing

their role in Japanese life

and use of fans of enamels

{cominuvd on hack flap)

I

I

I

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00188 7!48

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The traditional arts of Japan, a complete illustrated guide,

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Boger The traditional art of Japan

8 1978

y

ȴm.

Mafin Cwinty Free Library Civic Center Administration S..n

Building

Rafael, Californis

No

23-221

The

Traditional Arts of Japan

The

Traditional

Arts ofJapan A

Complete

Illustrated

Guide

H. Batterson Boger

DOUBLEDAY

&

COMPANY,

INC.



GARDEN

Marin County Free Library Civic Center AdiT.imstration Sr.n

Building

Rafael, California

CITY, N.Y.



1964

1

O

1^

LIBRARY OF CONGRESS CATALOG CARD NOJMBER:

,"••

^

>•••'-

'-

•v-

i^ ;3 :>

64-11726.

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

BOOK IS FULLY PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT UNDER THE TEPJvlS OF THE INTERNATIONAL COPYRIGHT UNION. PERMISSION TO USE PORTIONS OF THIS BOOK MUST BE OBTAINED IN WRITING FROM THE PUBLISHER. THIS

DESIGNED BY LIBRA STUDIOS, INC.

PRODUCED BY CHANTICLEER PRESS. INC., NEW YORK. PRINTED BY BRUDER ROSENBAUM, VIENNA, AUSTRIA. DOUBLEDAY & COMPANY, INC. GARDEN CITY, NEW YORK. 1964

Acknowledgments

MUCH

OF THE SUCCESS I may have attained in comwork

piling the material for this

ance accorded

by

art

friends

due

is

to the generous assist-

various stages of my interest in Japanese

me

at

and

associates in the

United

and abroad.

States

number of photographs was selection was made to give this col-

In the course of time a great

gathered, and a careful

wish to record

me by I

my gratitude for the courtesy extended to

various staff

the Metropolitan

members of the photographic

Museum

of Art,

take pleasure in expressing

for the generous assistance

my

service at

me by

staff

Mr.

grateful to

for his helpful criticism

my many Japanese friends and

have so graciously opened to

me

their

given by Mr. Takeo Takamatsu, editor-in-chief of the Japan

eral

who has supplied such beautiful pictures.

Sev-

of the fine photographs of domestic architecture were

given to

me

through the kindness of Mr.

Jiro

Tokyo National Museum. And I am indebted

Redman of the

British

Embassy

to

make

abbot to another for the past

years.

wish to thank Mr. K. Imai of Kyoto, and Yamanaka and for their kindness in

me to use certam illustrations from their collections. the color plates, I am deeply grateful to Mr. John

allowing

As

for

of the Cleveland Museumof Art; Mr. Richard

E. FuUer, director

of the

Seattle

L. Smith, Life magazine;

New York

Art

Museum

;

Miss Dorothy

Mr. and Mrs. Shizuo Nomura,

and Kyoto; Mr. Kazuo Iwata, director of the

Japan National Tourist Association ;andMr. Charles A. Greenfield,

New York.

in

Harada of the

illustrations that selection

assistance

and guidance,

I

gratitude. His suggestions

Tokyo, who,

as a director

importance,

me

years ago. For illustrations

of those to be used has been most

And to Mr. Nagatake Asano, director of the Tokyo National Museum, who was so kind as to read the original manuscript of this work and who so generously offered his difficult.

Mr. H. Vere

use of uncommonly fine line drawings that appeared

many

is due the staff members of Tokyo National Museum, who have given such valuable material assistance and supplied me with so many choice

the

to

of the Asiatic Society of Japan, has graciously permitted

in their journal Transactions

I

down from one

hundred

Floral Art Institute at the

Kyoto, where the Ikenobo method has

My wholehearted appreciation

of special knowledge. I must mention the kind assistance

Travel Bureau,

been handed thirteen

at

;

Services at the Victoria

am most

I

Museum,

have long been indebted to

who

Rokkakudo temple

E. Lee, director

sincere appreciation

and suggested emendations.

stores

owe my deepest appreciation

most

Soame Jenyns, Deputy Keeper of the Department of Oriental

acquaintances

I

A. Pope, director of the Freer Gallery of Art Mr. Sherman

and cooperation given

and Albert Museum, in England.

I

of floral arrangement

New York.

members of the Museum Extension

Antiquities at the British

art

Mr. M. Nishikida of the Ikenobo

to

Company of Osaka and New York,

lection a true aesthetic value. I

of the

trations,

as

which

Finally,

I

was

extend

and

my

deepest expression of

criticism

his supervision

were of the utmost

of the photographic

illus-

are of immeasurable value to the text.

am grateful to Mr. Henry La Farge for his discern-

ing help in the preparation of the manuscript for pubUcation.

Prefiace

THE PURPOSE

of

book

this

promote

to

is

understanding and appreciation of the

a fuller

of Japan.

arts

was

It

developed, and most of the pertinent material was accumu-

during an estabhshed residence in Japan. The writer was

lated,

especially fortunate in having several Japanese collector friends

whose

refined taste enabled

approach and the

him

to cultivate their cultural

aesthetic appreciation necessary to

standing of the subtle beauty of their

The book

well as for the

as

general reader and enquirer seeking to gain a

more

intimate

unique culture that has developed in Japan

insight into the

throughout the centuries.

It

provides a complete introduction

from the earhest

to the arts of Japan, surveying their evolution

times through the period of their greatest development. art

is

meant not only the

every form of

arts

By

of painting and sculpture, but including such aesthetic

expression,

artistic

pastimes as the tea ceremony and flower arrangement, which the Japanese have raised to the dignity of an

given to the popular in the daily

life,

and the many

art.

Emphasis

charm of Japan

the

arts, for

is

found

is

customs, and famihar beliefs of its people,

arts

which play such an important

role in

the subject pact.

is

is

planned

as a

comprehensive guide and

broad in scope, the treatment

is

necessarily

Each chapter presents a particular Japanese

and traces the chief influences which have ment. Such

historical

an appreciation of the

and

affected

its

arts are also

Japan

is

provided. Emphasis

is

so closely connected with religion that

knowledge of the behefs which certain pertinent aspects first

chapter,

which

world. While

ing

like-

little

A

it is

without some

main has followed the

some of the more familiar The fmal chapter is devoted

since

dictates

work

true that contemporary native origin,

its

the

con-

of con-

Western

portraying

much of it, show-

known and

To go

further than the arts of

appreciated as traditionally Japa-

beyond the scope of

this

book, for a definitive

history cannot be written until sufficient time has elapsed to

allow the subject to In less

all

into

fall

proper perspective.

its

have been

their arts the Japanese

satisfied

than technical perfection, whether the

minute

scale or

of heroic proportions. In

branch of Japanese

with nothing

work was on

life

a

that respect each

art merits universal interest.

bolism wliich permeates the

The sym-

and behavior of the Japanese

has been recorded in an enduring

maimer

in their arts.

It is

not a fixed and formal symbolism but rather a fme network associations giving

Japan received the

tions

and

to absorb

this island

garded art

a unique appeal. Although

and guidance in her

art

nation through the centuries has added

own

the aesthetic ideals

created to express native tradi-

of her people. Because the Japa-

artistic sense to assimilate

and nationalize

of Japan displays a

it

initial inspiration

nese possessed the imiate

that

sufficient degree

as a national art

and

as

and adapt,

which they borrowed, the

art

of originahty to be re-

such to take

its

place with the

of other nations in the history of the world.

It is

it reflects.

work beyond

modern times,

evidence of Oriental derivation, follows the precepts

nese, seems

of the

art.

it is

design that are

brief outline of

motifs occurring in Japanese

New York

it

to extend this

of international movements.

of the cultural history is the subject of

also includes

art in the

a rich vocabulary of her

develop-

unique repository of Oriental

formists to international fashions originating in the

form

aesthetic aspects as are necessary for

impossible to obtain an understanding of

the

temporary

from China,

wise placed on the evolution of religious traditions, because art in

There has been no attempt

com-

art

a

periods of indigenous traditions into

of subtle

them. Because the book

of the Shosoin,

culture.

Japanese subjects suggests

art.

designed for the student

is

an under-

to the history

hoped arts

that

tl>is

book may not only increase knowledge

of Japan, but do much to promote an informed

understanding of the people

who

created

it

and thus gave to

the world a great art heritage.

H.

BATTERSON BOGER

Contents

PAGE

CHRONOLOGICAL OUTLINE TABLE OF PROVINCES AND PREFECTURES THE CULTURAL HERITAGE II MOTIFS IN JAPANESE ART

23

PAINTING

27

COLOR PRINTS

51

I

III

IV

V

SCULPTURE VI MASKS

METALWORK VIII ARMS AND ARMOR IX SWORD DECORATION AND MOUNTS X SHINTO AND BUDDHIST ARCHITECTURE VII

DOMESTIC ARCHITECTURE XII LANDSCAPE GARDENING XIII FLORAL ART

XI

CEREMONY XV INCENSE CEREMONY XVI POTTERY AND PORCELAIN XVII LACQUER TOBACCO POUCH AND PIPE CASE, AND HIUCHI-BUKURO XIV

XVIII

INRO, NETSUKE, YATATE,

TEA

XIX

8

lo 13

67 79 91

105

117 129 147 161 173

209 221

227 253

265

TEXTILES

277

XX COSTUME

287

XXI

DOLLS XXII FANS

299

XXIII CLOISONNE ENAMEL XXIV SHOSOIN, THE IMPERIAL REPOSITORY XXV AINU FOLK ART

311

BIBLIOGRAPHY INDEX

339

307

315 333

341

I

chronological Outline

PREHISTORY AND PROTOHISTORY c.

7000 B.C. 660 B.C.

300 B.C. first-fourth century A.D. A.D. 220 c.

Jomon

culture (Neolithic age).

Japanese Empire founded

Yayoi culture (Bronze

607 621 623

645

552-794

Empress Jingo invades kingdom of

c.

670 701

Emperor,

Silla;

beginning of Korean influence.

(552-645)

gift of gilt bronze Buddha to Japanese Emperor. Buddhism introduced. Empress Suiko reigns; affairs of state vested in Prince Shotoku. Construction of Horyuji temple, Nara. Prince Shotoku dies. Sakyaimmi Triad bronze icon by Tori. EarHest example of lacquer in Tamamushi shrine. Taika Reform edict issued to reorganize life and government on Chinese model. Gigaku dance drama introduced from continent. Incense burning introduced by Buddhist priests. First period of Chinese influence in architecture.

King Paikche of Korea sends

HAHUKO PERIOD 672-685 668-672

Jirmiiu, first

Ancient Burial Mounds; Haniwa culture.

ASUKA PERIOD 552 593 -628

by

age).

Emperor

Temmu

(673-685)

of Ise Shinto shrines every twenty Tenjo era. Invention of folding fan. Horyuji destroyed by fire. Taiho code. Guild of Needleworkers and Weavers instituted. reigns. Decrees rebuilding

NARA PERIOD

years.

(710-794)

Strong influence of Chinese T'ang dynasty culture.

710

Empress

Gemmyo

establishes

Nara

as

permanent

capital

and

court. Heijo built;

Amida

TnW bronze icon

cast.

and Chronicles of Japan,

Kojiki

724-749 742 745-752

Emperor Shomu, 701-756, reigns. Shinto and Buddhism assimilated; Konkomyo

749 752 751-52 755 756

794 894 897-1185 early eleventh century

980-101

first

sutra written.

Construction of Todaiji monastery, Nara.

Emperor Shomu

abdicates; his daughter ascends throne as

Empress Koken.

Great Buddha of Nara consecrated.

Construction of Shosoin. Empress Koken institutes festival of Weavers' star. Empress dowager Komyo (Shomu's widow) makes initial Deed of Gift of Imperial Treasures to Shosoin. Bugaku dance drama introduced from continent.

HEIAN PERIOD 794-897

8

books written in Japanese.

712, 720

(794-1185)

Jogan or Konin (Early Heian) period. Heian-kyo capital moved to Kyoto. Suspension of relations with China. Native themes make their appearance in secular painting. Introduction of esoteric Buddhist sects and painting. Fujiwara (Late Heian) period. Spread of Amida Buddha cult; raigo ceremonies.

Amida Nyorai, famous wooden icon Emperor Ichijo reigns; flowering of

statue.

brilliant aristocratic society.

C.

1020 1053

II80

794-1185 tenth-twelfth centuries

Tale ofGenji written by Lady Murasaki Shikibu. Construction of Hoodo, or Phoenix Hall of Byodo in temple; sumptuous lacquer decorations. Great age of scroll-painting; Yamato-e style of painting developed. Animal Scroll by Toba Sojo (1053-1140). Hall of the Great Buddha at Nara destroyed by fure. First

period of nationalization in architecture.

Shinden-zukuri style of domestic architecture developed.

KAMAKURA PERIOD Minamoto Yoritomo civil c. 1

191

1252 1274, 1281 1309 1

185-1573

Zen

wars. Penetration of

founded by

sect

T567

Eisai; tea planted for first time; tea ritual initiated.

Kublai

Khan

attempts conquest of Japan.

Kasuga temple. The No plays written and Second period of Chinese influence in architecture.

Scroll-paintings of

(ASHIKAGA) PERIOD

1576 1584 1573-1591

1596-1615 1598

I 624- I 644

1637 1639

(1573-1615)

Death of Hideyoshi, on expedition

to Korea.

Second period of nationalization in

Tokugawa

potters start kilns in

Kyushu, making

architecture.

(1615-1867)

Edo becomes the Shogun's capital. Beginnings of Japanese porcelain. Ninsei, 1 596-1666. Kan-ei era; luxurious mode of Uving develops. Sotatsu, 1 589-1651, painter active 1630. Beginnings of Kabuki, popular drama. Christian RebelUon at Shimabara. Cessation of intercourse with outside world. Revival of Confucianism. Rise of Ukiyo-e art. Development of the woodcut print. Hishikawa Moronobu, 1618-1694; Ogata Korin, 1658-1716. leyasu,

1

542-1616, appointed Shogun.

Genroku

era; prosperity

Kambun

era; feud

1720 1716-1736

Introduction of the

textiles

and dissemination of culture. between the Machi-yakko and the banner knights of Edo. Development of kambun

with bold designs for

Nanga

dress.

Korin, 1658-1716, painter.

school of hterati painters.

Kyoho

era of affluence and extravagant living. Master printmakers: Suzuki Harunobu, 1725-1770; Kitagawa Utamaro, 1753-1806; Saito Sharaku, active 1794-95; Hokusai, 1760-1849; Ando Hiroshige,

1797-1858.

764- I 772

Meiwa

era.

1830-1844

Tempo

era;

1853

Korean knmigrant

glazed pottery.

1688-1704 1661-1673

I

(1338-1573)

Rise to power of Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Construction of castle at Azuchi. Construction of castle at Osaka. Tensho era, during which karaori (Chinese weave) textiles were introduced from Ming China. Raku pottery ware began to be produced. Kano tradition in painting continued by Kano Eitoku, 1543-1590, and Kano Sanraku, 1559-1635. Keicho era. Kirym silks for warrior banners. Puppet shows developed, to accompaniment o(jojuri chanting.

EDO (TOKUGAWA) PERIOD 1615 1616

masks perfected.

Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimasa. New dependence of Chinese models. "Higashiyama" age. Tea cult formalized by Zen monk Shuko, 1422-1502, who built the Dojinsai tearoom at Silver Pavihon. Incense ceremony founded by Shino Soshin. Lacquer by Michinaga Koami. Development of the new Suiboku (monochrome) style of painting, with Sesshu Toyo, 1420-1 506, its greatest exponent. Tosa school of painting, led by Tosa Mitsunobu (1434-1525). Kano school of painting, founded by Kano Masanobu (1434-1530). Goto Shirobei (1439-1512), master metalworker for sword mounts. Hall of Great Buddha at Nara again destroyed by fire.

first

1573-1867

No

Gingakuji, or Silver Pavilion, built by

MOMOYAMA PERIOD 1582

Kamakura. Reconstruction of monasteries damaged during

Zen Buddhism,

Great Buddha of Kamakura, bronze icon.

MUROMACHI 1479

(1185-1333)

estabhshes capital at

Arrival of

MEIJI

economic reforms.

Commodore

PERIOD

Perry.

(1868-1912)

of Provinces and Prefectures THE EARLY TRADITIONAL DIVISIONS

of the

known

as kutii,

Japanese empire were in the form of regions

or provinces, but during the Meiji period the country to be divided into prefectures designated as

Of

the 46 prefectures there are one

to

to,

do, fu,

came

and

(Tokyo-to),

ketu

one do

(Hokkaido), two/w (Kyoto-fu and Osaka-fu), and 42 ken or rural prefectures. In the following table are listed the

names

of the provinces with the names of the prefectures that approximately correspond to the same geographical regions.

Kawachi

MAP OF THE OLD PROVINCES OF JAPAN. Courtesy of Hideo Kasai, Tokyo

PREFECTURE

PROVINCE

PREFECTURE

PROVINCE

Aki

Hiroshima

Kozuke

Gumma

Awa

Chiba Tokushima

Mikawa

Aichi

Mimasaka

Okayama

Hyogo

Mino

Gifu

Hiroshima

Musashi

Tokyo, Saitama and

Awa Awaji Bingo Bitchu

Bizen

Okayama Okayama

Bungo

Oita

Buzen Chikugo Chiuzen

Fukuoka and Oita Fukuoka Fukuoka

Echigo

Niigata

Mutsu Nagato Noto Oki

Kanagawa Aomori and Iwate Yamaguchi Ishikawa

Shimane

Omi

Shiga

Kagoshima

Echizen

Fukui

Osumi Owari

Etchu

Rikuchu Rikuzen

Iwate and Ishikawa

Harima

Toy a ma Hyogo

Hida

Gifu

Sado

Niigata

Higo

Kumamoto

Sagami

Hitachi

Ibaraki

Sanuki

Kanagawa Kagawa

Aichi

Miyagi and Iwate

Hizen

Saga and Nagasaki

Satsuma

Hoki

Tottori

Settsu

Kagoshima Osaka and Hyogo

Hyuga

Miyazaki

Shima

Mie

Iga

Mie

Shimosa or

Iki

Nagasaki

Inaba

Tottori

Shimotsuke

Tochigi

Ise

Mie

Shinano

Iwaki

Suo

Nagano Yamaguchi

Iwashiro

Fukushima and Miyagi Shimane Fukushima

lyo

Ehime

Izu

Izumi

Iwami

Izumo Kaga

Shimofusa

Chiba and Ibaraki

Suruga

Shizuoka

Taj i ma

Hyogo

Tamba Tango

Kyoto and Hyogo Kyoto

Shizuoka

Tosa

Kochi

Osaka Shimane

To to mi

Shizuoka

Tsushima

Nagasaki

Ishikawa

Ugo

Akita

Uzen Wakasa

Yamagata

Kazusa

Yamanashi Osaka Chiba

Yamashiro

Ku

Wakayama and Mie

Yamato

Kyoto Nara

Kai

Kawachi or Kochi

Fukui

^ [

Ishikawi

MAP SHOWING THE PREFECTURES OF JAPAN. Courtesy of Hideo Kasai, Tokyo

11

I

I

OR OVER

centuries

thirteen

The

of recorded

Cultural Heritage

century, there existed narratives in verse and stories of past

history the arts of Japan have served to

events and the circumstances connected with them. These

transmit her customs, myths, legends, and rehgious behefs,

were carefuUy committed to memory and handed down to

.^L.

besides chronicHng the everyday hfe land. This represents

the history of

art.

and scenic beauty of the

one of the longest

aesthetic traditions in

Architecture, sculpture, and painting are

not the only manifestations of

extraordinary legacy;

this

account must also be taken of the picture prints, besides classified as

many

scrolls

and color

other categories usually rather arbitrarily

"minor" or "decorative":

virtu, such as lacquers, textiles, ceramics,

objects

of use and

metalwork, masks,

miniature carvings, sword mounts. Because of the extra-

posterity reciters,

on

these objects, the arts

regarded

Western

as art

of the

furst

Aside from their high

manship,

distinction

many of these

of subjects and

artistic

quahty and exquisite work-

arts offer

associations.

an inexhaustible repertoire

There are scenes of the daily Hfe battle scenes, episodes

the hves of Chinese sages and poets, folklore, legendary

stories,

Buddhist and Shinto gods and symbohsm, scenes from

these treasured accounts the

piled

by means of Chinese

the Japanese language. as the Kojiki,

in A.D. 712

The

partly also

of their motifs, with derivatives and to the earhest times.

fabulous

art,

records

due

to the antiquity

attributes that reach

The stream of

back

consciousness of this

appealing essentially to the taste of noble and

apphed

to

and are known

the celestial deities presented a jeweled spear to the

all

birth to a land. Standing

upon

commanding them

god

to give

the Floating Bridge of Heaven,

they stirred the cool blue waters of the sea with the spear

was named Onogoro-jima, or

until the land appeared. This

land-which-appeared-of-itself,

meaning Sun Origin. From birth to the eight islands

The

first

ancestress

was

chronicles,

now

this

called

Nihon or Nippon,

land the

which

two

gave

deities

constitute Japan,

called

great-eight-islands, as the Japanese often call

of the Imperial family, according to the Amaterasu-o-mi-kami,

Princess

literally

heaven-shining-great-deity, or the sun goddess, daughter of Izanagi and Izanami,

whose radiance was such

sent to dwell in Heaven.

moon

The next

the

was Susano-o-no-Mikoto, brought

god.

much

that she

was

There she ruled with her brother

from

PREHISTORIC CULTURE

exist

were formed from chaos,

universe. After heaven and earth

warrior patrons, resides in the hfe of its traditions descending prehistoric times.

still

and 720 respectively.

Oyashima, or

is

characters successfully

From com-

chronicles begin with the story of the creation of the

their country.

simphcity that their meanings are apt to remain veiled to the

traditions.

written chronicles were

or Record ofAncient Matters, and the Nihon-Shoki,

of such subtle and suggestive

uninitiated Westerner. This

The

first

often abbreviated to Nihongi, or Chronicles ofJapan, compiled

the theater, mythical anunals, heraldic motifs. These subjects are often treated in a style

charged by the Imperial court to keep a

Izanagi and the goddess Izanami,

order.

and occupations of the people, epic

from

between major and

does not hold in Japan, and these works must be

a class of historians called katari-be, or story-

and pure history of the nation's early

clear

ordinary craftsmanship traditionally lavished by the Japanese

minor

by

who were

child a

bom

fierce

misfortune to the

to Izanagi

and Izanami

and cruel deity

earj:h.

It

who

was because' of

of Susano-o that Amaterasu hid herself in

the

offenses

the

Cave of Heaven, throwing

the

whole world into

darkness as the sun disappeared. literature in Japan before

According to the legend, eighty myriads of deities assem-

the introduction of the Chinese characters early in the fifth

bled before the Cave of Heaven to persuade the sun goddess to

Although there was no written

13

come out and bring together

many

and

Yamato court

merry with singing and dancing

sun goddess in

until the

curiosity opened the door of the cave just a bit

going on. At

that instant

hand and flung

the door

Around

back into the world. They gathered

and recited prayers, and even made

light

offerings

one of the

wide open

to see

deities seized

to

make

what was

her by the

come

the goddess

Silla.

whose envoys were

man of

from

He was

classics.

Shinto, called shimenawa. Amaterasu then

said to

Leaving the Plains of High Heaven, he thrust

apart the many-layered clouds with his to the land of Japan.

sword and descended

Amaterasu entrusted to him three

a mirror, a sword, and a jewel or necklace,

as

objects,

tokens of his

divine mission, with her prophecy that his dynasty should flourish and rule forever.

These are the Three Sacred Treasures

understand

all

the books of

and Chinese

script

were known in Japan prior to

official

introduction of the Chinese written language.

culture, but the descendants

Not

of Wani and other scholars from

Korea and China formed a nucleus of learning, and with the

in the Imperial palace in Tokyo, the sword venerated in the

is

whose

this date,

marked the

only did this make possible a more rapid absorption of Chinese

was evolved. The

the genealogy of the Imperial line,

This event took

the arrival of Wani with his assigmnent at court

aid of the Chinese ideograms, a

early chronicles further record

classics.

sug-

who was

over

place in the year 405, and although both the Chinese language

enshrined at the Daijingu shrine of Ise, the necklace preserved

The

with

come on

at Achiki's

Wani was brought

that constitute the Imperial Regalia of Japan, the mirror being

Atsuta shrine at Nagoya.

to

petitioned to reconmiend a

court and instruct the heir apparent, and gestion a scholar' named

as its first ruler.

men

outstanding literary knowledge to remain at the

re-entering. This has since been used as the Sacred

grandson, Ninigi-no-Mikoto, to descend to the land below

skilled craftsmen

the learned

one of these missions was a Korean named Achiki, a student of the Chinese

Rope of commanded her

and

tribute

Among

each of their missions.

was banished to the Land of Darkness, and

a rope across the entrance of the cave to keep Amaterasu

constantly trying to please the Japanese

by bringing

sovereigns

out and cause the sun to shine again upon the world. Susano-o the gods stretched

the end of the fourth century a.d. the

established friendly relations with Paikche,

the Kojiki (712), although the

lost

method of writing Japanese

work

earhest surviving

written in Japanese

book

first

in Japanese

—^now

—was a chronicle compiled in 620.

prehistoric portion

concludes with the Emperor Jimmu, the great-grandson of Prince Ninigi,

660

B.C.

who founded

the

Empire of Japan

in the year

Emperor Jimmu's dynasty has continued

A

generations until the present time.

one

Archaeological evidence indicates that Japan possessed

of the most advanced Neohthic cultures in the world, espe-

making of weapons,

cially in the

tools,

creating unusually intricate designs

on

and

utensils,

and in

pottery. Prior to the

Christian era her civilization had been fairly

but gradually there developed relations and

homogeneous, traffic

between

Korea and Japan, which probably began even before the century

B.C.,

fled to

Korea because of wars

most of them were

men

first

and there appears to have been a constant flow

of immigrants. These were Koreans, and

had

of learning,

in their

Chinese

own

country, and

skilled artisans, potters,

painters, farmers,

and

who

also

weavers, scribes,

speciahsts skilled in

the raising of silkworms. EHj/gre artisans and specialists appear to have

come over

in fairly large numbers,

element of the early population of Yamato,

around Nara was

ARRIVAL OF BUDDHISM

for 124

called, consisted

and a strong as the

region

of foreigners. These

ented immigrants stimulated the cultural

tal-

development of

further impetus to learning and cultural development

was provided by the introduction of Buddhism

stated that although the rehgion

explain and

worthy and

its

conception of deliverance from

architects,

Buddha and

submit the merits of

new

two powerful

gifts

from

this

The Emperor, upon

the sutras, decided to

rehgion to

his ministers for

factions at court.

On

the one

between

hand were the

Mononobe clan, who were the leading mihtary family, and the Nakatomi

clan, the hereditary liturgists;

rival the

Soga family.

presented

When

on the

other, their

the question

was put

who had been appointed O-omi or

Chieftains, favored

him with

Chief

Buddhism; therefore the Emperor

the sacred image,

which Soga

set

up

in

own house. The opposing faction strongly objected on the

mihtary expeditions to Korea and Japan's poUtical relations

his

with the three kingdoms of the peninsula KokuH, Paikche,

ground

14

These

and nuns, besides

consideration. This decision brought about a conflict

of

:

priests

receiving the image of the

was quickly

development were the early

was most

image carvers, and men learned in medicine,

before them, Soga,

this

difficult to

it

followers a beautiful

calendar-making, music, and divination.

brought from the mainland in the form of Chinese learning

importance in

its

all desires.

Paikche were soon followed by

temple

to apprehend,

excellent, bringing to

common

Of great

of Buddhism was

meaning was hard

Japan to such a degree that the high order of civilization

assimilated.

in the year

when the King of Paikche sent an image of the Buddha, with a number of volumes of the sutras and a message recommending the adoption of this new religion. This message 552,

that the

worship of foreign gods would only bring

down

the wrath of native deities,

who had

been worshipped

progress, as

it

was caused by the anger of the native gods, ordered

thrown

the image to be

into the canal at

Naniwa,

now

in

was

who was learned in

Chinese

successfully re-established

of Soga-no-Umako,

literature, the

with the powerful

new

tire

world.

Buddhism, year 587,

for

emerged

it

when

as the great

new

Yomei,

a behever in the

Shinto,

fell ill

dynasty.

The envoys and with great care

his faith in the

new religion. With

leader having a

by the Emperor,

a great impetus

was given to the progress of Buddhism. Soga-

faith

artists,

movement, and

the result

More holy images and

by

culture adopted

was

age of

numbers of missions

staffs

of these

as to their

staff

official

embassies were

rank and learning, the

of subordinate envoys including

numbering

as

many

as five

hundred

the Japanese

was

in a

new

the important aspects of the

of the

a modification

Chinese administrative system, incorporating most of its categories,

other religious articles sculptors,

whole

One of

single mission.

advancement of all forms of culture, with Buddhism

were brought from Korea, along with

buildings are

craftsmen, founders, carpenters, smiths, doctors, and

diviners, frequently

no-Umako, having reached a position of great power in Japan, placed his resources beliind the

its

this great

administrative institutions that flourished under the T'ang

selected

new

Suiko, and in

China to acquire a knowledge of the cultural and

well as in the native

of devotion to the

as the source.

sent to

as

that

in the

607 by Prince Shotoku in obedience

All through the seventh century great

were

religion in the

this expression

a rapid

most ancient wooden structure

in

time the Emperor

At

law of Buddha

and avowed

was founded

It

Buddhism.

another

the Soga family attained the most powerful

position after a brief civil war.

by the

as indicated

preserved images and other treasures of

proved the merits of

pestilence occurred. These trying times

freedom of style

its

have survived the ravages of

that

command by Empress

to a

During the following decade the fortunes of Buddhism

when

to

architecture

and the elements. The most celebrated are those of the

Japan, besides being the

assistance

who had followed his father as an ardent

the pressure of opposing factions

Temple

Horyuji, near Nara, the oldest existing teniple nucleus in

faith

behever in Buddhism.

waned under

medium was confmed

comparison to the Chinese prototypes,

few splendid monuments

called

Osaka. However, with the succession in 572 of the Emperor Bidatsu,

this

quickly showed unusual development in

of sickness spread throughout the land, and the Emperor, believing

most of the work in

the decoration of temples and images.

since the founding of Japan. Shortly thereafter, an epidemic

bronze

official

from the formation of a court hierarchy based on rank distinguished by

titles

and costumes, to

specific

reform and taxation. Travelers returning

workers, painters, temple carpenters, monks, and other learned

details as to land

men. The building of monasteries and the making of images

from China with detailed accounts ofthe splendors ofthe T'ang

advanced with great

capital at

strides, particularly

Empress Suiko to the throne in 593, when

with the advent of

vested in Prince Regent Shotoku Taishi.

Shotoku Japan.

is

At an

their

Buddhism

in

in the doctrines

of

considered the real founder of early age he

became learned

the faith and in the Chinese classics, and as

made Buddhism

Along with

teachings. tellectual asteries,

a

his propagation

were made

for learning the Chinese script

Chinese literature,

as all the

A

written in Chinese. scholars, artists,

and

continuous stream of

mon-

regulated

settled in Japan, creating the

cultural foundations.

(552-645),

named

Nara, marks the

after the seat

initial stage

by Chinese

the

was

monks,

now

art

a complete system of municipal government. it

had been the custom for the Emperor

new

palace

transferred with each

new

reign,

no

myo was

that the first

in accordance

of the Asuka

seat

established in the province

kyo, which was

the in-

permanent

later called

towns or It

cities

was not untU

new

city

was

with a plan based upon the Chinese

Gem-

laid

out

capital

of

Ch'ang-an, with palaces and mansions erected on a magnificent scale in the Imperial "inner city." itself

was metalwork. Painting showed

great

of Yamato and called Heijo-

Nara. The

apphed

there

site,

of court and government

period was principally sculpture in bronze and wood. In the arts

at the

on some new

the year 710 during the reign of the Empress-Regnant

of the Imperial court near

The

An important fea-

developed, such as had been the case in China.

of refmement and greatness of

culture.

and regulations, which

Taika Reform edict issued in the year

usually in one of the Imperial domains. Because the capital

Asuka period

Buddhism and

a code of laws

time of accession to erect a

most important nucleus of Japan's

The beginning of

Japanese art with the introduction of fluence exerted

priests,

by

Until this time

and studying

from Korea

efforts

ture of the Taika edict was the provision for a capital to be

Buddhist sutras or scriptures were

specialized craftsmen

on which

and to complete the great

645, and the Taiho code completed in 701.

of Buddhist

and religious houses of charity. Buddhism provided

new medium

to carry out reforms

finally resulted in the

of the moral and in-

advantages of Buddhism, he built temples,

scale

effected, inspired

to create even greater things for Japan.

work of compiling

Regent he not only

basis

countrymen

were

During the second quarter of the seventh century

the religion of the court, but also issued a

code and organized the government on the

Ch'ang-an and of the stupendous

the most magnificent undertakings

of state were

affairs

httle

was

also

on

a

grand

scale,

The

plan of the city

symmetrically arranged and

15

i

^ii£^

Example of the kzsumi incidents in the life

technique,

from the

of Tenjin-Sama,

to

KitAnoTemmnn-guEngi,

whose

Kitano shrine

spirit the

NARRATIVE SCROLLS

by Nobuzane Fujiwara, 1176-1268, a picture is

dedicated.

above with the roof omitted, permitting an unobstructed picture of the interior.

Scroll-painting, called e-maki, or makimono, which received its

inspiration

from

of illus-

literature, originated in the idea

trating historical accounts, stories, ratives.

A makimono

is

illustrating

scroll

Kitano shrine. Kyoto.

poems, and popular nar-

a horizontal hand-scroll having pic-

is

The term

numogatari-e, or story-picture,

given to scroll-paintings of pictures alternating with text,

thus serving as a visual realization of the literature.

most famous extant examples of this gat ari scroll

of the great

literary

style

is

One of the

the Genji

who was active

tures of successive scenes arranged in chronological sequence.

The work is

There are two kinds of makimono, one having continuous or

during the middle of the twelfth century. Actually

successive illustrations,

and the other having individual pic-

tures alternating with portions is

text.

The

rolling

to fifty

this

scrolls

famous novel written by Lady Murasaki

century.

The

it

consists

with excerpts from the fifty-four chapters of in the eleventh

story portrays the elegant and romantic atmos-

to facilitate

phere of the Heian court life and the dramatic passages through the seasons of the year of the courtship and sorrows of Prince

It is

to left like the text. to the realistic,

paintings:

affixed to a rod at

Ranging

one end

in treatment

from the

poetical

many different themes are represented in scroll-

religion,

romances, children's

events, popular customs,

great

of paper

scroll

from ten

attributed to Fujiwara Takayoshi,

and unrolling, and the pictures are viewed from right

feet in length.

A

of a

generally about twelve inches deep and

of two

Mono-

romance of the Tale ofGoiji.

number

stories,

famous views, and

historical

historic places.

of Japanese scroll-paintings are executed in a

Genji,

who

is

deeply in love with Murasaki-No-Ue. All of

these scenes are pictorial device

viewed obliquely from above o( fukinuki

In contrast to the rich gatari scroll,

which

and

in the usual

yatai.

brilliant colors

are in perfect

of the Genji Mono-

harmony with

its

delicate

peculiar perspective called fukinuki yatai, or roofless houses.

brushwork, many scroll-paintings are in black and white.

This unique style of illustration gives an oblique view from

outstanding example of the

32

latter

is

An

the Caricature of Birds and

Right:

A

painting

Zcii

hy

1420-1506:

Sesshu,

Daruma

(Dharma) and His Disciple Eka (Hui-K'o). Dhartna, an Indian Buddhist

priest,

the reputed founder

is

of

the

Zen

sect.

Sainenji

temple, Aichi prefecture.

Quail, hy Tosa Mitsuoki, i6iy-i6gi.

Tokyo National Museum.

P Beasts, or

Animals

at Play, a

nique of independent

line. It

man-priest, the abbot

Toba

+t

•^"

'«--'-

notable achievement in the techis

generally attributed to a noble-

Sojo, 1053

1

140.

I^i

this scroll are

depicted animated and spirited rabbits, foxes, monkeys, and frogs frolicking at a picnic. There are four of these

and witty

scrolls,

of human beings. the activities of

amusing

believed to represent a satire on the behavior It is

surmised to be a pictorial caricature of

members of the upper

doubtedly recognized by the

Although many of the

were

artist's

classes,

who were un-

contemporaries.

scroll-paintings

of the Heian and

religious in subject, the principal usage

was

for the illustration of literature. Creative writing in Japan

was

later periods

closely associated

produced

scroll literature

and

much of it was

solely for that purpose. Picture-scroll art reached

zenith in the

Right:

with

Kamakura period

Kakemono,

Mincho, 1352- 1 43 1

in the :

(1185-1333), which

Suihoku

style, attributed to

is

Kitsuzan

Hermitage by the Mountain Brook,

paper. Konchi-in monastery, Kyoto.

its

noted

ink on

'^.

Detail from a makimono by Sesshu, 1420-1^06: Landscape,

for a

its

great

number and variety of makimono. These portray

wide range of subjects and present

feudal

life in

medieval times.

and the

lives

A

a graphic illustration

number of

of important

priests

Shiiito

and holy men. Most

of the famous temples and shrines have preserved among treasures a

makimono which

the rehgious trate

life

records

its

stories

and

battle scenes,

beautifully embellished sutras or scriptures. living

and fashions

is

on paper. Collection of Motomichi Mori,

Yaniaguchi.

but harmonious colors, in contrast to paintings done with

weaker colors or

in ink

monochrome.

In

many of the

paintings with illustrated narratives the transitions

scroll-

from one

scene to another and the passage of time are described with characters written in a beautiful, often very expressive callig-

raphy inserted between the

which naturally contain the

pictures. shifting

Sometimes the

stories

of scenes and the passage

which

of time resort

to a device technically called kasumi,

peculiar to the

Yamato-e style of painting. The literal meaning

The mode of

a purely Japanese

manifestation called Yamato-e, as distinguished

light color

scrolls illus-

from popular literary works.

in the picture scrolls

and

and many are

in dress are colorfully depicted in these

priceless records, as are the scenes

The technique used

their

sacred beginning or

of its founder. Other Kamakura

romantic military

of

religious scrolls

famous Buddhist temples and

depict the history of shrines

i)ik

from

the var-

o( kasumi

means a

is

mist or light fog; but in scroll-painting, kasumi

a special treatment

of space between pictures to signify

change of location or passage of time.

of several long

streaks, or

it

may

It

consists

of a pattern

be a well-balanced semi-

circular form.

The kasumi

ious styles of Chinese origin.

is

design

is

taken from the natural atmospheric

formations which are so typical of Japan's moisture-laden

cli-

mate, with long horizontal sweeps of dense mist cutting across

THE "YAMATO-E" STYLE

the sky.

A beautiful example o{ kasumi in the Japanese country-

side occurs at twilight in the springtime,

Yamato-e,

literally

Japanese painting,

is

the most distinctive

Japanese style of painting, without counterpart in any other art.

The

earliest

known mention of the word

text in the fourth year

Almost

all

style, in

which human

Yamato-e

is

in a

of Chotoku, corresponding to a.d. 999.

scroll-paintings

were executed

figures, houses, trees,

in the

Yamato-e

and other objects

are outlined with hair-thin lines and filled in with bright

34

form of white Scenery of

by

this

nature

the artists of the

screens.

reflects a feeling

Occasionally the kasumi device

quillity.

when it is seen in

streaks lying heavily at the foot

Yamato-e

the

of a mountain.

of solitude and tranis

seen in other

school, such as

works

on folding

The Yamato-e painters received their inspiration from

the things closely associated with the everyday lives of the Japanese.

A n ^

«^

•t.5>

-If

11^

*

i % t

>.^

4-

•''•

*.

-T

^

-

^

,

*

.

t-

'-;:. -

••'

f-

^^« «-/..

* «

/T.^

^^ *;

•"

1

"i'

"-

>;•

i*.

fi

.'

n

*-

•>




A

o

O O'O

•-

kakemono by Kano Masanohu, 1434-1530. The

Mao-shu, a Chinese Confucian in color

scholar,

subject

is

Chou

viewing lotus flowers. Painted

on paper. Collection of Tomijiro Nakumura, Tokyo.

Kano

hy

Motonohu,

were originally mounted on fusuma

and

birds;

ink and light

Keiun-in Monastery, Kyoto.

•n-

THE ZEN INFLUENCE In the

Kamakura period

Japan, and

among

its

the

THE SUIBOKU STYLE

Zen

sect

of Buddhism arose

in

prosperity and progress was especially significant

the warrior

class.

The

Zen upon Japan

influence of

and her people has been so pervasive that

it is

actually a fun-

damental part of her culture. The word Zen means meditation,

and Zen

differs

from other Buddhist

sects in

not relying upon

Suiboku painting gives an

entirely different value to the

meaning of line. In Suiboku painting

line

is

an

essential ele-

ment, marked by great individuality. In contrast to the simple

contour

lines

of the Yamato-e

style,

which may or may not

enclose color, the line in Suiboku varies with the slow or

rapid strokes of the brush.

The

line thus

becomes the

essential

formal doctrines or the worship of icons. Instead, followers of

element of expression, with infmite variations in the tone of

Zen

are supposed to erdighten themselves

black taking the place of color.

tion

and meditation in penetrating the meaning of the universe.

by

intuitive cogni-

Suiboku

art

Because images of Buddhist divinities did not form an all-im-

harmony in

portant part of Zen teaching, their religious art consists chiefly

in accordance

of

chinso, or portraits

painting

is

of great

priests.

Another form of Zen

the doshaku-ga, or a painting illustrating the deeds

of famous Zen

priests

or portraying certain natural scenes or

subjects associated with the pursuit

of enlightenment. With

the spread of Zen in Japan there appeared a

nese paintings of the

Sung and Yuan

which was adapted by Zen outlook and

taste.

artists

demand

These painters usually

own

this

bamboo, and

the beginning of the as suiboku,

new

Suiboku did not follow any prescribed conventions of composition, the artists

were able to convey

their spiritual thoughts

and present a visual conception of the unity of the individual with

all

nature.

The inherent Japanese sensitivity

From

developed in

of the fourteenth century Suiboku

by

the

fusuma by Kano

art

to the beauty

was greatly stimulated

work of Kitsuzan Mincho, who was

the head priest of

the Tofukuji monastery in Kyoto. Landscape lar subject,

and

at

about

this

became

a

popu-

time poetic inscriptions were

beginning to make their appearance on the hanging picture scroll,

of sixteen

black,

preciation as well as spiritual enlightenment. In the latter part

some

Muromachi period (1338-15 73), known

set

by

with the teachings of Zen Buddhism. Since

the spirit that permeates everything, heightened aesthetic ap-

or black painting.

Landscape and Flowers, four of a Tenkyu-in monastery, Kyoto.

a spiritual

colors

of

specialized,

style

all

particular

religious or secular subjects.

dependence on Chinese models, a

who saw

of nature, coupled with Zen teachings about the universe and

producing only certain kinds of flowers, others devoting themselves to trees,

artists,

black and white and described

Chi-

for

dynasties, the style

to their

The development of Japanese

was due to the Zen

or kakemono.

Eitoku, 1543-1^^0; painted in ink on paper.

The

as

where

origin in China,

its

the fourth century.

It is

a vertical scroll, often

on

kakemono, or hanging

traditional Japanese

with

edges to frame the painting.

heavy paper to over to give

narrow

stiffen

of

strips

on

The whole

and to

is

roll

it

The

its

folded

attached

two

several

has a-rod, usually tipped

A

up.

poem

shi-ga-jiku

The

fifteenth centuries.

of the painting or complimentary remarks about the it

was the custom

frequently and replace or occasion,

to change the

designed to hold

it.

that single night

of each year.

Special preparations are

mono

having pine

made

in every household,

time are hung in the tokonoma. For the

throughout the year which

symboUc

and kake-

trees or other pictures characteristic

call for a

subject, large houses

have a few hun4red hanging

many

kakemono

of this

occasions

depicting a

with numerous rooms often

scrolls stored in the

godown.

SHUBUN, SESSHU

artist

In the early part

of the

fifteenth century

painting received a great impetus

Suiboku landscape

from the work of Tensho

or

kakemono

with one appropriate to the season

it

was rolled up and placed

it

union on

was fashionable among Zen

around the fourteenth and

work. Since

a joyous

The most important occasion in Japan is the New Year Festival, which is celebrated on the first three days of the year.

or verse

written characters frequently comprise a poetical description

his

Way, have

particular kind of

on the upper part of the

inscribed in calligraphic characters

painting proper.

is

which hang down

called shi-ga-jiku, or shi-jiku, has a

kakemono

mounted

backed with

in turn

this fold are

silk called fiitai,

with ivory, which serves to

priests

records as early

or paper

of silk brocade around

The bottom of the kakemono

inches.

silk

The top of the kakemono

it.

strength,

it

strips

m

mentioned

it is

a painting

had

scroll,

The box was then

many

or store house, along with the

box

in a

especially

stored in the

other

godown,

kakemono and

household possessions.

The kakemono

is

hung

the tokonoma, where

enjoyed. are

its

in a special place in the house,

appropriate times for changing the

The

caUed

*^-,.:

beauty can be most appreciated and

on ceremonial occasions and with

kakemono

new

the advent of the

seasons of the year. Especially important occasions for the

kakemono

display of symbolic

Herb

Early

March, the

Festival in January, the

the Iris Festival in

Chrysanthemum

which has grown

Iris,

a wealth

days are the

festival

Peach-Blossom

May, the

Festival in

are the Peach-Blossom,

and

are the go-sckkii, or Five Sea-

These popular family

sons' Offerings.

Festival in

Star Festival in July,

and

September. The most popular

and

around each of

Star festivals,

of interesting

traditions, legends,

The Peach-Blossom is popularly known as Dolls', Festival, when ceremonial dolls in traditional and

stories.

or Girls',

ancient costume are displayed. Since peach blossoms

sym-

bolize happiness in marriage, pictures are chosen that are re-

presentative of feminine charms

depicting

The

young

girls

and beauty,

kakemono

especially those

in classical literature.

or Boys' Festival,

Iris Festival,

playing a

famed

is

appropriate for dis-

depicting the deeds of a traditional Chi-

nese or Japanese hero or other epic subject taken from classical literature or history. larly

known

as

night of the seventh places

where

occasions and

38

two

Star Festival,

month by

7. It is

owes

lovely

which

is

more popu-

the lunar calendar, but in

the Gregorian calendar

the night of July

that

The

Tanabata, was originally fixed for the seventh

its

is

used

it is

most

celebrated

on

the most romantic of all the annual

inception to an ancient popular behef

stars, set far

apart

on

either side

of the Milky

^fcX^..^^^|

Shubun. As a

priest in the

Shokokuji, a

Shubun studied painting under same temple. He

raised the

Zen temple

in

Kyoto,

Josetsu, another priest in the

Suiboku

highly developed form and was the

of painting to

style

its

was perfected

of this Chinese school

Yamaguchi

to be appointed as official painter to the

Shogun. Active from

his life.

about 141 5 to 1460, he

as

is

regarded

as

founder of

this school.

extant paintings are traditionally attributed to Shubun,

well as

some

large folding screens.

The

principles

Zen

painting and a graphic illustration of the

vision of the

universe are reflected in the great works of Sesshu, a pupil of Shubun. Sesshu, 1420- 1506,

was born

province,

now Okayama prefecture, and at

to Kyoto,

where he became a

He

is

priest in the

of Zen in

who was in Bitchu

an early age went

Shokokuji temple.

considered to be the greatest master of the Suiboku

school,

under whose leadership

Plum Tree and

this

black-ink type of painting

Birds, set of four

went

to

return about a year later he went to the Unkokuji temple in

first

Many

into a truly Japanese style. In 1467 he

China, where he studied landscape painting, and upon his

prefecture,

where he remained most of the

rest

of

While studying in China he achieved great proficiency

in landscape painting

and was determined to make the natural

With

scenery of China his master.

his ability to

understand

the elements of this Suiboku style in China, and with his

appreciation of nature as seen through the eyes of a

he became the foremost black line in Sesshu's

artist

work

which he interpreted both

is

Zen priest,

of the Japanese landscape. The

the expression of great talent, in

line

and color in various tone de-

The works of Sesshu include many subjects numerous extant examples which bear his sig-

grees of black.

and there are

nature or are attributed to him. His landscapes of the four

fusuma by Kano Samaku, 1559-1635;

color on paper.

Teiikyu-iii monastery,

Kyot 39

jH^**

m^

Fishing with Cormorants, one of a pair

of six-panel screens

by

Kano Tan-yu, 1602-1674;

.K

Hideyoshi

expedition to Korea in 1598. Rikei became a naturalized citizen

and took the Japanese name of Koraizayemon, under

which name the family has continued wares for eleven generations. Hagi

mostly tea

of the

utensils

produce pottery

Hagi ware, were

and have been greatly admired by devotees

who

ceremony,

tea

to

yaki, or

place

Raku

pottery

..••j^

Hagi

first,

second, and Karatsu third. Hagi tea bowls are considered to

have a most

grain pottery usually with

is

Raku

second only to

delicate feel in the hands,

The body of Hagi ware

ware.

a thick crudely

monochrome

formed fme-

The

glazes.

early

productions were generally covered with a milk-white glaze

and a transparent yellow-green glaze a later shiro hagi,

glaze.

From

this

and rather beautiful glaze

called

White Hagi, or

milk-white

Other glazes were

1640. Victoria and Albert

Museum.

done in a swift manner,

were executed

bowls.

ido

developed in imitation of Korean

later

wares, such as the brush-marked ware with

that

chocolate-colored pottery body covered

c.

developed, and also another glaze of loquat color

resembling that found on the original Korean

strokes

Tea bowl of Hagi ware with with a pale greenish glaze,

its

wide brush

drawn

also scantily

in iron oxide under the glaze,

designs

AWATA

and mishima

decoration, as well as various glazes having light-green and

gray colors.

In the Awataguchi district of Kyoto,

was noted

for

swordsmiths, are

its

ceramic wares in

much

the

same manner

did in the seventeenth century.

AWAJI

produced pottery

which

The

in ancient times

many kilns still producing as their predecessors

early Idlns at

articles for the tea

Awataguchi

ceremony. Awata

yaki,

or Awata ware, has a white clay body and the glaze is generally

The pottery wares of Awaji are synonymous with and also Mimpei ware. The picturesque island of Awaji

referred to as is

only a few miles distant from the city of Kobe

at the eastern

end of the Inland Sea and, according to Japanese mythology, was one of the first islands created by the ancestral deities of Japan.

The ware was

Mimpei, who was

furst

produced around 1831 by Kashu

greatly interested in ceramic art. This

has a smooth brownish-white

body covered with

ware

a creamy-

a deep a

cream color or occasionally

network of very fme

crackle.

An interesting

having worked influence

ceramic

at

Awataguchi

artists

such

as

by

beautiful

monochrome

Of

beautifully mottled to resemble tor-

glaze,

toise shell.

which

is

special interest

The articles made particularly for

soft

were executed in various

some Awaji relief.

is

the Awaji or

the tea

ceremony

body, while the wares for domestic use have a

dense hard body of fme texture.

238

is

the

for a short time, exerted great

latter

produced wares for the

glazes,

Mimpei

low

ware

Chinese Imperial yellow, turquoise blue, apple green,

and a blackish brown.

have a

distinction in this

of Awata are members of the Kinkozan family

Imperial family.

ductions are characterized

with

in rich

on the pottery of Awata. The most prominent

ware

Many Awaji pro-

is

use of underglaze iron-brown and imderglaze blue. Ninsei,

and the Taizan family; the

sometimes finely crackled.

decoration

enamel colors comprising red, green, and light blue, sometimes with gold.

colored glaze that varies occasionally to a light buff. Awajiglazes are

a light buff covered

The

The

designs

colors, occasionally

pieces contain a

on some

pieces

with gold, and

molded decoration done in

BANKO In the second half of the eighteenth century a wealthy

merchant and amateur ceramist named

mon began to make pottery wares after

Numanami Gozayethe

manner of Ninsei

and Kenzan. He lived at Kuwana, where travelers embarked on a boat to cross Ise risk the several

Bay

to visit the

famous shrines rather than

dangerous rivers on the way.

Kuwana was

one of the

also

of

prints

that

Most of the

title.

highway

the Tokaido

on

fifty-three stages

by Hiroshige in his famous

depicted

of wood-block

series

productions of

earliest

Gozayemon's kiln were Raku-type wares for the tea ceremony. His

work was

who

greatly adinired

him

requested

was appointed

move

to

by

potter in

official

is

said to

have found

his

to carry

on

later a potter

and

such

as

famille rose.

named Mori

of the Banko kiln from a

The Gozayemon wares

the pottery.

he

died

had not been any successor

as there

included fme

and Chinese

imitations of Delft faience of Holland verte

Gozayemon

formula for making enamel

colors. Yusetsu purchased the seal

grandson of Gozayemon,

now Tokyo, where

1785.

around 1800, and about thirty years Yusetsu

Tokugawa Shogun,

the

to Edo,

famillc

There were other Banko productions

brownish-glazed wares, underglaze blue ware, and a

soft pottery

ware having

designs executed in red.

a cream-colored crackled glaze

The Banko

Tokyo

kiln in

with

is still

in

existence.

BIZEN Okayama

Bizen ware, made in first

prefecture,

was one of the

of the early Sue wares to acquire individual characteristics.

Bizen

is

distinctive for

its

very high-fired clay body which

closely resembles bronze, both to the eye

and to the touch. The

wares which date from the thirteenth century were originally

produced for household and articles as jugs

masters,

who

and seed

them

use

ritual

jars that are

use and include such

highly prized by the tea

Some

for holding water or flowers.

Bizen wares produced for the tea ceremony are frequently called

Imbe, which

a

is

more

thin

and

delicate

ware

first

made

about the end of the sixteenth century by members of the clan or family of that

name. In addition to the unglazed

bronze-colored bizen yahi, there bizen

made from

Above:

is

an unusual type called ao

a grayish-green clay

Banko-ware

which was

candlestick with a design

in overglaze colored enamels.

Edo

greatly

of chrysanthemums

period, early nineteenth century.

Private collection, Tokyo.

Below:

Flower holder ofAwaji ware having aflat extended mouth

in a separate piece

and two small handles

in the

form of elephants'

heads. Cream-colored body with crackled glaze, painted in colors with gilding.

Made

teenth century. Victoria

by Kashin Sanpei in Awaji,

enamel

late

nine-

and Albert Museum.

239

prized during the

Edo period.

All the wares

seventeenth and eighteenth centuries are

made during

known

the

Old Bizen

as

Bizen wares have always been highly valued by the Japanese,

by the

especially

tea devotees

or ko bizen. In the seventeenth century the hidasuhi type of

effect

Bizen appeared with the beautiful

splashed with drops of water.

highly valued for use as tea

ware each piece salt

is

partly

scarlet

marks which are

in straw

furing, the

of the body touched by the wet straw develop

streaks

vessel

when

lightly

dampened with

water from the sea and placed in the kOn. In the

parts

enjoy the moist color

of hidasuki

utensils. In the firing

wrapped

so

who

produced on an unglazed Bizen

scarlet

EIRAKU AND KAIRAKU-EN ,#

and markings. In the seventeenth century the pro-

Around

the middle of the sixteenth century Nishimura

ductions of the bronze-colored Bizen ware included numerous

Soin, the son of a samurai called Zengoro,

figure subjects executed in a nTost pleasing manner, including

potter at the Kasuga shrine at Nara.

mythological personages, gods, animals, birds, and

fishes.

Old

unglazed as a

articles

used

at

was the

official

He produced the various

the shrine for ritual offerings as well

type of earthenware charcoal brazier called a/wro.

the direction of a famous tea master

Rikyu he made

who was

Under

a pupil of

a particular type oifuro having a deep black

sheen or luster which was used especially for the tea ceremony.

To

each generation of Zengoro descendants was transmitted

the secret of making this type o£furo.

of

this line

famous

One of the most noted

was Zengoro Hozen, 179 5-1855, who became

for his imitations

of Ming porcelains. In the beginning

of the second quarter of the nineteenth century, while working

Kyoto, he was invited to go to the Tokugawa

at his kiln in

castle at

Mito, the seat of the Lord of Kishu, where he

a kihi in the

famous garden known

as

Kairaku-en.

set

up

Hozen

is

celebrated for his remarkably beautiful wares in imitation of

Ming

three-color wares, underglaze blue-and-white

and kinran-de porcelain having

after Shonzui,

with gold brocade designs

after the

ware

ground

a red

Chinese manner. Hozen's

productions coinmonly referred to by the Japanese

as

Kairaku-

en ware comprise colored glazes which completely cover the

ware

in green, yellow,

and purple, and occasionally white.

Sometimes turquoise blue

ware a

colors. In this

is

used in place of one of the three

slight ridge outlines the designs

separates

one glaze from the other, and

skillfully

blended on each piece.

pieces after the style

He

all

also

and

these colors are

produced many

of Ninsei's enameled pottery. The name

is the Japanese name for the Ming Emperor Yung Lo, was given to Hozen, written on a silver seal by the Tokugawa Lord of Kishu in appreciation of his work in the style of Ming porcelain. After that aU the successive potters of this Zengoro line have used the name of Eiraku along with

Eiraku, which

their artist

son,

Bizen stoneware figure ofHotei, one of the shichifukujin or seven gods of good fortune. life.

He

sacred

is

gem

He is a lover ofchildren and a symbol ofa happy

seen here in his happy role with a child at his side, the in his right

hand and

children or the sacred treasures.

his bag in

About 1800.

which he puts playful British

Museum.

Zengoro

line,

their individual pieces.

succeeded to his father's

work and

a rich coral-red

fmely executed decoration in gold.

He

is

also

this rich

excelled in

ground with

famous

finely executed porcelain tea bowls, rice bowls,

having

Hozen's

in 1824 in the twelfth generation of the

making gilded porcelain having

silver,

for his

and dishes

red ground with exquisite designs in gold or

frequently combined with underglaze blue-and-white

decoration.

240

pseudonyms on

Wazen, born

The ceramic wares bearing the Eiraku seal through

howl with a design of flowering

Kairakii-cii-ware pottery tea grasses.

Edo

period, first half nineteenth century.

Tokyo National

Tea bowl wade by Niusei

Tokusawa

gold.

many

these

generations are

at the present

numerous and of

time the

artist

potter

great variety,

known

as Eiraku,

Hozen, or Nishunura Zengoro, the sixteenth generation of the line,

producing wares of the

is

traditional style style

middle of the seventeenth century.

and a design of round

fans in red and light-green overglaze enamel colors with silver and

Museum.

and

in the

Pottery body covered with a black overglaze

of his

of the faniDy

own

finest

quahty both in the

as well as in a

modern

Japanese

Collection,

utensils for use in the tea

and

delicately

beautifully

worked

ceremony, including finely shaped

tea jars, tea bowls,

and water

jars,

and

modeled incense burners in the form of birds and

sea shells. Ninsei's first

Omuro

Tokyo.

wares were

made

kHns in the

at the

of Kyoto, where he produced

district

articles similar

to those of other kiln centers, such as the primitive types so

creation.

much

in

demand.

He

learned the secret of enamel colors and

him is usually credited the creation of a school of beautifully executed overglaze pottery. The influence of Ninsei's work to

NINSEI

was firmly infused

One of the most

celebrated

ramic history of Japan active

dates

is

names

associated

with the ce-

Ninsei, a painter and potter of Kyoto

around the middle of the seventeenth century. The of his birth and death are usually given

as

but these have not been confirmed. Ninsei's significant influence

1596-1666,

work had

upon the wares of Kyoto, with

characteristic style reflecting his

achievements

as

an

a

their artist-

potter. His real name was Nonomura Seiyemon and his artist name of Ninsei was derived from the seal with which his work is impressed, bearing the characters nin and sei, the latter taken from his own name. The character nin was bestowed upon him by Prince Ninnaji, who was the traditional superior

of the Ninnaji temple in Kyoto, formerly palace, near

which Ninsei had

accomplished the Tosa

artist

who had

and Kano

schools.

set

up

known

as

a kiln. Ninsei

Omuro was an

studied under masters of both

His pieces were principally

the term

Kyo is

Ninsei's

ware

from

in the qualities

of Kyoto ware, for which

often used as a broad description.

fme and hard, and

is

said to

The body of

have been made

a paste called shigaraki clay. His glazes usually

very fme network of crackle and have a glazes preferred

by Ninsei were

soft

show

a

warm effect. The

a lustrous black, a translucent

milk-white, a pearl gray, and especially one of raven-black

produced by laying green glaze over sometimes sprinkled with tiny inspired

by

enamel

richness of effect, with

minute

detail

colors, especially in the depiction

and flowers. In Ninsei ware the teristic

flecks

which was

of gold, a technique

by Japanese gold-lacquer ware. His designs

characterized exquisite

a black glaze

are

and

of plants

traditional Japanese charac-

of balancing motifs against bare, undecorated

areas

is

beautifully exemplified. In later life Ninsei traveled through-

out Japan visiting innumerable kihis and devoting to teaching other potters.

much time

Often while visiting a kiln he would 241

practice his

own

art,

which accounts

for Ninsei

many

considered characteristic of so

ware being

locations about the

country. Because of his widespread fame during his Ufetime, his

work was

imitated

by

potters almost everywhere,

sometimes badly.

Kenzan's work. The designs most frequently found include

autumn flowers,

a

few cherry blossoms, bamboo

blossoms, a stalk or

two of rice, and water

years he retired to a small village near

where he produced some of disciple

KENZAN

his best

that

predominating

of Kyoto,

ration. Typical

is its

known

of Japanese pottery, in particular

as

is

of Ninsei continued the name of Kenzan.

the

is

work of Ogata

Ogata Kenzan,

still

being copied by

a

especially appealing

Shinsho, 1662- 1743,

KYOTO WARE

poet and potter of Kyoto.

of Japanese

civilization

worked

year 794,

picturesquely nestled

various kilns in Kyoto, where he produced articles

mostly for the tea ceremony in an entirely

new

style

of ce-

ramic decoration. His designs are applied in quick strokes of the brush directly

is

local potters.

He was a younger brother of the famous painter Ogata Korin, who was also celebrated for exquisite lacquer work. Kenzan at

called Iriya,

work. Kenzan was a

remarkable freedom of shape and deco-

of this freedom, which

to Japanese taste,

usually

trait

plants. In his later

Tokyo

of Ninsei, and because he did not have an imme-

diate successor, a son

Kenzan's free and distinctive style

A

leaves gently

touched with snow, three blades of grass, a branch with plum

on the

soft clay

body of Raku-type ware

The ancient capital city of Kyoto-, which has been the center

tains.

is

Teeming with

and culture from

historical

great center of Buddhism

of old Japan

lingers.

is

a

Though

its

founding in the

among surrounding moun-

and

religious traditions, this

unique city in which the

spirit

often the scene of fighting and

and other similar pottery. Both bold and sketchy in a most

conspiracies of powerful feudal houses, the city has always

unconventional manner, Kenzan's designs are more easily

preserved

appreciated as painting than as ceramic decoration. Sometimes

from

as

an additional touch he would include a piece of poetry

with the design. Kenzan's designs have continued to exert a strong influence

on Kyoto wares

as

well as on wares in other

parts

of the country until the present day. The color technique,

with

its

superb combinations,

is

one of the unusual features of

Kyoto-ware porcelain bowl by Dohachi, 1783-1855. Design of cherry trees and maple trees. Edo period. Tokyo National Museum.

its

It

has also played an important role

in art and literature and for a long time has been a center

famous for ceramic artists and kyoto yaki,

potters.

The terms Kyoto ware,

and kyo yaki are synonymous, and are applied

to

a great variety of wares produced in private kilns in and

aroimd the

capital. In particular

they refer to those pottery

Pottery ivriting screen depicting a mountain, pine

tree,

and house

roughly sketched with quick brush strokes by Kenzan. Metropolitan

242

ancient prestige and cultural elegance emanating

the Imperial court.

Museum of Art.

Gift of

Howard

c.

1740.

Mansfield, 1936.

wares decorated with overglaze

by Ninsei

enariiel colors as

in the seventeenth century,

and Seto-type wares. Kyoto wares are made of different kinds

and blends of clay because the

were exhausted

at

many

it

a variety

of

local deposits

had to be brought from

products bear the

name

kiyomizu yaki.

The wares

called

Old

Kiyomizu or ko kiyomizu are chiefly imitations and adaptations of Chinese enameled porcelains: the underglaze blue-andwhite, celadon, and three-color ware of Ae

Ming and Ch'ing

Kiyomizu was a pottery having a creamy-

dynasties. This early

wares of Kyoto are

white clay body and a cream-colored glaze which might or

according to the style or design of certain individual

might not be crackled. There were probably more than ten

The

distant places.

classified artists

an early date and

developed

and the glazed Raku-

Among

or potters.

characteristic

the outstanding ceramic artists of

kilns located in this area in the latter half

of the seventeenth

Kyoto, besides Ninsei and Kenzan, previously discussed, are

century,

making articles for the tea ceremony. In the eighteenth

many who flourished from the late eighteenth century through

century,

when

the

nineteenth

century,

including

Aoki-

Okuda-Eisen,

began

to

there

was

a rage for Chinese ware, these kilns

produce enameled pottery, and in the beginning of

was added. At the present

Mokubei, Takahashi-Dohachi, Nin'ami-Dohachi, Eiraku-

the nineteenth century porcelain

Hozen, Eiraku-Wazen, and Makuzu-Chozo. Several small

time Kiyomizu ware includes both pottery and porcelain.

same

private kilns have been continuously producing the

wares since the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries and are still

among

being operated by family descendants. Included

the old family potters

working

at their private kilns are

Rokubei, Chikusen, Eiraku, Kawai, and

Among the

Settsu.

Ming and Ch'ing

On

a cliff near the

of the

city

summit of Mount Otowayama,

district

many

number of Buddhist

mountain, which

is

in the

of Kyoto, stands the famous Kiyomizu

temple, and preserved in the cincts are a

still

buildings within

masterpieces.

its

Around

prethis

popularly called Kiyomizu, and in the

below known

as

Kiyomizu-zaka, are kiln

sites

whose

operating

Rokubei and

who came

to

Miura Chikusen, the fourth generation

to

is

noted for

his exquisite imitations

of

underglaze blue-and-white, which are con-

sidered the fmest of this type of work produced

the present time.

eastern part

district are

Chikusen. Rokubei, who is the fifth generation, is the descend-

operate the family kiln,

KIYOMIZU

Kiyomizu

ant of Shimizu Rokubei, 1740-1799, a potter

Kyoto from

Seifu.

outstanding artist-potters of Kyoto

private family kilns in the

The

style

anywhere

of wares produced in

at

this district

underwent changes with the passing of time, from the very earliest

tea-ceremony

utensils to

enameled pottery

as intro-

duced by Ninsei and the imitations of Chinese wares as ko kiyomizu.

The

later

Kiyomizu wares

known

reflect the artistic

ceramic traditions of Kyoto and are essentially Japanese in their color decoration.

Shonzui-style octagonal bowl with cover, in under-

glaze blue-and-white, by

Kawamoto Hansuke: Edo

period,

century.

early

nineteenth

Tokyo National

Museum. 243

SHONZUI

IMARI

is named after Gorodayu Go Shonzui, a who traveled to China in the year 15 13 to study the art of making and decorating porcelain. Upon his return to Japan

island

Shonzui ware

potter

he

settled at Arita in

Hizen province, where he produced

porcelain wares of underglaze blue-and-white.

have brought back quantities of china

known

clay.

He

is

said to

Shonzui design,

by oblique wavy bands

as kara-kusa, is characterized

of underglaze blue alternating with white bands. The designs Oil

the blue bands are in reserve and consist chiefly of brocade

and imbricated

patterns.

These bands are generally used in

combination with landscapes, and designs in the Chinese manner.

also

A

with flower and plant

favorite style

of Shonzui

decoration consists of geometrical patterns, especially in the

form of linked circles or to Shonzui

disks.

and bearing

Many extant examples ascribed

his seal are

of excellent form and

beautifully decorated with such patterns,

borrowed from

Chinese designs of the late Ming period. These Shonzui designs

with various pattern combinations are purely Japanese in feeling as rice

and have

a

unique charm

bowls and water

when appUed to such articles

Edo period,

eighteenth century.

Saga prefecture, bear the generic

The many

yaki.

Takasu Collection, Tokyo.

name of Imari ware

kilns in this area include Hirado,

now

or imari

Okochi,

Nabeshima, Kakiemon, and those located in Arita. Collectively theSe ceramics are called Arita ware, but during the

Tokugawa

Shogunate the wares produced commercially in the Arita were exported to other parts of Japan

city

of

from the port

tov\m of Imari and have been popularly called hnari ware.

The English term Old Imari, which refers to the

ware dating from the

on and does not

signify the early

quality

known in Europe,

well

early eighteenth century

when

china clay of fme

was discovered in Izumiyama, the Korean potters who

settled in first

is

ware of Arita. At the begin-

ning of the seventeenth century,

Hizen province were able

time

after the

to

make

porcelain for the

aforementioned Shonzui. These porcelain

wares have a fme hard white body decorated in underglaze blue-and-white.

The

naturally influenced

Imari

from

dish.

style

and technique of decoration was

by the blue-and-white for these potters

Design of coiiuentionalized

silk brocade patterns.

National Museum.

244

in the northern part of the

of Kyushu, principally in Hizen province, which is

Yi dynasty of Korea,

jars.

hnari dish having a design of horse-chestnuts in ovcrglaze colored enamels.

The ceramic wares produced

Edo

porcelains of the

were

skilled in

birds

and flowers copied

making

period, eighteenth century.

Tokyo

If}iari dish.

men

Design of Dutch ships and Dutch-

in eighteenth-century costume.

Kato

eighteenth century.

such porcelain in their native country. After a short time the Cliinese blue-and-white porcelain of the

to exert tions is

its

influence

Ming

and fmaUy replaced the original produc-

of the Yi-dynasty

style. In

Japanese the term sometsuke

applied to blue-and-white wares, while gosu

Ming

dynasty began

is

applied to the

blue-and-white wares of China or imitations. Most of

the blue-and-white wares

were for

daily use

and included

rice bowls, plates, sake bottles, candlesticks, shoyu oil pots,

chopstick holders, and flower holders.

numerous and included

all

The

designs

were

kinds of Chinese and Japanese

subjects such as flowers, plants, grasses, trees, birds, animals, fishes, celestial subjects, landscapes,

and seascapes

(Plate 14).

Blue-and-white wares have always appealed to the Japanese aesthetic sense

of purity and elegance, and they have always

been favored for daily

at

Arita

by Kakiemon and Tokuemon. The

wares, but

style inspired

it

by the designs and

fashion in brocade textiles. this characteristic style

The

colors

late

of the prevaUing

developed expression of

fully

became known

as imari tiishiki-de,

Tokugawa period

Imari Brocade, and aU through the

or

these

Arita wares remained in great favor and typified the Japanese taste for

merchant

enameled porcelains, particularly among the rich class,

which leaned toward elaborate designs and

richness of color.

The

designs

surface, leaving almost

on Imari ware cover the

no ground. They

pleasing and ingenious

manner upon

bowls

and well-balanced

it

in a symmetrical

was greatly admired and imitated

Worcester, Chelsea, and Delft.

ARITA PORCELAIN

early Arita

soon developed into a purely Japanese

was exported by Dutch and English

use.

Tokyo.

was influenced by

porcelain decorated in overglaze colors

Ming

Edo period,

Collection,

Its

are

entire

composed

in a

the surface of plates and pattern. Imari

traders to Europe, at

ware

where

such places as Meissen,

colored enamels include

semi-opaque purple, transparent sapphire blue, dull yellow, bluish-green, underglaze blue and, in the older pieces, a rather

In the middle of the seventeenth century the art of makmg

porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration

was developed

dull rich vermilion.

Many

pieces of early Imari

have designs

depicting the manners and customs of the times, showing

245

Imari wine

bottle

with a design in overglaze enamels of

the seven sages in a century.

Amamiya

figures of Japanese

wood-block

One of bowls

is

six large

bamboo grove. Edo

century.

similar to those in genre

prints.

the

most

bottle vase in

overglaze colored enamels with

a design of flowers and birds.

Tokyo.

Collection,

men and women

Kakiemoti

period, seventeenth

Nakajima

Collection,

attractive designs

found on early Imari

round medaUions of a beautiful warm, duU red or

period, seventeenth

with an abundance of colors lavishly emphasized by too gold, resulting in a complete loss of

the yoraku or necklace motif. This usually consists of

Edo

Tokyo.

gance.

its

much

original refined ele-

As the domestic and export demand

increased, even

during the early part of the eighteenth century, imari nishiki-de

became

a standardized style

and potters of the Arita

district

vermilion connected with delicate conventionalized pendant

not only produced their wares in their homes and fired them

flowers or arabesque designs in enamel colors. Appearing

at a large

the inner side wall of the bowl, the design

same elaborate manner on the as

outside.

produced on the early wares with

The its

is

on

repeated in the

imari yoraku design

elegant composition

community

were

also

ceramic

by the

Many

many

pieces of this

ware were made with elaborate designs

of eighteenth-century Dutch costume.

246

The

nishiki-de

ships

and figures in Dutch

became overelaborate and gaudy.

town of color

painters,

where

draw and

who specialized only in painting common workers were employed to

artists

figure subjects, while

and

but there also sprang up in Arita

workers specialized in overglaze enamel decoration. There

and rich colors has always been greatly favored in Japan. The Dutch traders, on the other hand, were particularly attracted beautifully decorated imari nishiki-de porcelains,

kiln,

a place called Akae-machi, or

paint designs allotted to

of the

later

export market and, as such,

of the early Imari and

had appealed

them on a production basis.

Imari wares were especially

made

for the

lost the original beautiful quality

also lost the

warm rich elegance which

to the Japanese taste.

KAKIEMON

Kakiemon ware of the 1680,

The

beautifully decorated porcelain

Nangawara

kiln

known

the famous Japanese potter early history

the

at

as

called

Takahara Goroshichi,

his birth

596-1666.

to

and purity which

have been from Izumiyama, thus belonging to

prominent in the

glaze has a warmth and richness and is pleasing to the touch. The colored enamels are lustrous and exquisitely combined (Plate 13). The hues occurring most frequently arc an iron

and death are unknown but usually are

of

said to

from about 1640

Nabeshima, the feudal lord of Hizen province. The white

who was most

dates

is

earlier period,

clay of high quality

name from

its

of Arita ware, Sakaida Kizoemon. The exact

given

1

ware made

Kakienion received

as

was made from a

He was the pupil of a famous Arita potter who had retired to a Buddhist

red, a pure

and transparent blue-green,

aubergine, light blue,

monastery because of the turbulent times. They worked to-

The iron red is rather light in tone, with an unusual richness which is complemented by the

gether during the early years of the Kan-ei era (1624- 1644)

beautiful glaze

producing blue-and-white porcelain of superb quality, but

Chinese origin, such

little is

knovwi of their later

association.

Sometime during

this

grayish yellow, and black.

lion.

on the body. Many of the motifs were of phoenix, the dragon, and the fu

as the

But Kakiemon's

designs represent true Japanese elegance

same period Sakaida Kizoemon began experimenting in the

in their simplicity, with motifs delicately balanced against

technique of making colored enamel glazes, a secret that was

large areas of bare space. His designs of flowers, plants, rocks,

him by a rich Arita merchant named Tokuemon. While Tokuemon was visiting Nagasaki, the only port open

grasses,

given to

met

to foreign ships, he

purchased

Japan. Success did not failed to

whom

he

and most of the

in

was

come easily,

produce the desired

from

since the early experiments

result,

and Kizoemon was to try

many different methods before he finally perfected the proper formulas. He fmally succeeded in producing a porcelain ornament

in the

form of persimmon with such

perfect color that

He presented it to the feudal lord of the Nabeshima family, who was so amazed with its beauty it

resembled the real

that he

from

Above:

kaki,

in the

meaning persimmon.

Nakao

Collection,

Collection,

in

glaze of the

background

Kakiemon ware

traders to Europe,

that

It

was the

was taken by Dutch and English

where it was

greatly

admired and

and much copied in the eighteenth century

at

collected,

Meissen, Chel-

Bow, Worcester, and ChantiUy. The second period of Kakiemon, from 1680

sea,

represented glaze

ware

Imari style

by is

;

to 1720,

is

a complete change in style. This transparent-

characterized

but although

second period,

by

nishiki-de decoration in the

this is the principal feature

much was

still

of the

produced in the original

birds.

Edo period,

Tokyo.

Kakiemon wine ewer. Design of plum Edo period, eighteenth

overglaze enamels.

warm opaque body

enhance the exquisite composition.

left free to

early

were ingeniously drawn

shape of an open flower. Decorated

enamels with a design offlowers and

eighteenth century.

in

word

Kakiemon bowl

in overglaze

Right:

fruit.

bestowed upon Kizoemon the name of Kakiemon,

the Japanese

branches, and trees

manner with a distinctive combination of colors,

which was then unknown

a Chinese potter

this secret process,

plum

a naturahstic

trees

and bamboo

century.

Takasu

Tokyo.

247

Kakiemon

with phim

dish,

eighteenth century.

tree

and deer design. Edo period,

Nahcshinia

Tokyo National Museum.

dish.

Design of wisteria brandies

glaze hlue-and-white. Edo period,

in

eighteenth

under-

century.

Tokyo National Museum.

Kakiemon

style.

The demands of the

rich

merchant

class

and

of the feudal lord of Saga, head of the House of Nabe-

kilns

the popular taste of the time were responsible for this departure

shima, whose castle was at the

from

in the northern part

the earher charming and elegant

intricate designs

work

in favor

of the

and striking colors of Imari. The designs

included aU of the typical Imari work, with a limited use of figure subjects forming part of the decoration. feature

of this kakiemon

nishiki-de decoration

compared

textile patterns

Kyushu

to Imari, in

quality

which the

and colorful design combinations. The

the end of the

first

quarter of the eighteenth century the

Daimyo of Saga, who was interested in ceramic art, appointed his

most able potters to produce porcelain wares of the highest

quality

and elegance for

wares, which are

and for

his personal use

commonly known

as

gifts.

Kakiemon kilns have operated continuously for three himdred

made

called (Plate 12).

generation.

blue-and-white and celadons of great refmement, but iro

Okochi

kiln, or

Okawachi kiln

is

as it is

especially noted for

its

elegance. These wares

interruption until the Meiji Restoration, after

248

known

as

it is

the

of the Okochi Idln

were

produced under the patronage of the Nabeshima lords without

A distinctive porcelain included in the classification of Arita is

sometimes

The kilns of Nabeshima produced underglaze

nabeshima, or enameled Nabeshima,

that

NABESHIMA

at the

These

Nabeshima, were

years and are at present under the direction of the twelfth

ware

for

the closing years of the sixteenth century Lord Nabeshima,

whole surface of the ware was covered both inside and outside with

part of

hundred years and produced many great daimyo. In

Daimyo of Saga, returned from the expedition to Korea with a great number of potters who set up kilns in his domains. At

Kakiemon style. This is a distinguishing

nishiki-de as

Nabeshima family ruled the northern several

that the center

esque figure subjects, while the outside surface had a design

of kakiemon

town of Saga in Hizen province of Kyushu. The powerful

island

A characteristic

is

portion was usually plain, or contained beautiful and pictur-

in the original

of the

Nabeshima.

It

was produced in the private

they were

which time

made commercially. The Nabeshima wares were

made of high-quahty, pure-white

clay

and most of the

Naheshima

plate with design of a camellia in full bloom

by a bamboo fence, eighteenth century.

enamels.

in colored

Edo period mid-

Yamanaka and Company,

New

Nabeshima

York

and Osaka.

enamels.

were

articles

plates for daily use

presentation purposes.

Only

of the feudal lords and for

the fmest pieces

these uses, while those that

were not

were

carefully

drawn with an

outline of

were

high-temperature kiln. Colored enamels were applied over the glaze and fired in a low-temperature kihi. In the earlier

which can be described

plates,

very shallow bowls or

as

have a high and prominent foot rim. Nabeshima

designs possess great elegance, usually in a distinctive

asym-

metrical composition in subtle balance. These beautiful and graceful designs of flowers, plants, trees and, occasionally, birds

were most

designs

and waves of overglaze

Tokyo National Museum.

selected for

entirely perfect

The potting is remarkable for its elegance and exactness, and deep

The

eighteenth century.

underglaze blue; then the glaze was applied and fured in a

destroyed.

the plates,

dish with design oj peonies

Edo period,

were inspired by nature and depicted

Nabeshima manner. Their elegance

is

in a distinctive

due to the precision

with which the design has been adapted to the curved

of the dishes and essential to the

to the avoidance

composition.

sides

of anything not absolutely

Much of the

surface space

was

Nabeshima

pieces this technique

executed with great care and

were

on

laid

unnoticed.

A

skill

of color application was so that the

enamel colors

so exactly that the underglaze blue outline characteristic feature

of Nabeshima

plates

is

is

the

very high foot rim with a "comb" pattern, which was not kilns. The comb pattern was row of teeth being dravm in perfect

allowed to be imitated by other in underglaze blue, the

regularity with very fine brush outlines and filled in with cobalt blue.

On

the underside or outside of the deep plates appears

the characteristic

money

Nabeshima arrangement of the Chinese

or coin motif, or other traditional Chinese motifs,

left

undecorated. Occasionally landscapes were designed in

although occasionally the peach and peony designs are seen.

the

manner of the Kano school of painting, and sometimes

These carefully drawn designs in underglaze blue divide the

designs of fences

Many by

were used and executed

in a zigzag

manner.

asymmetrical but well-balanced designs were inspired

Nabeshima

is

noted for

its brilliant

enamel

to a rich iron red, a soft fresh green,

The Nabeshima wares with

their essentially Japanese designs

executed with such elegance exemplify the exquisite aristo-

the beautiful silk fabrics called yuzen.

hmited

space on the outside methodically into three equal sections.

colors, usually

and a light yellow.

cratic taste

of the Nabesliima lords and are prized for

their

richly enameled beauty.

249

HIRADO

feudal lords until the Meiji Restpration in 1868, kilns

The

small island of Hirado, located a

few

niiles off the coast

when

the

began to operate for the public market. The principal

forms of Hirado porcelains were

plates, tea

modeled small

bowls, sake cups,

of the old Hizen province, has been an active ceramic center

sake bottles, and beautifully

since the beginning of the seventeenth century. In the year

human subjects, birds, and flowers, all skillfully executed, with many examples of special elegance and elaborate work-

1598

when

the feudal lord of Hirado returned

from the

Korean expedition, he brought back many Korean

who

set

up

kilns in his island possession

of porcelain wares did not eighteenth century,

found kilns

at

when

start until

;

potters

at the

outlines

and edges are inclined

blue

is

rather

weak and

to be fuzzy. Like

made only

KUTANI

Mikawachi

and are characterized by a hard pure-white body with

ware, the Hirado pieces were

manship.

around the middle of the

Amakusa. These wares were made

The

of animals,

but the production

china clay of the finest quaUty was

underglaze-blue decoration.

figures

its

Nabeshima

for the use

of the

Near the'Yamashiro Spa not

far

from the

coast

of the Sea

of Japan in the remote mountain village of Kutani, or Nine Valleys, are the old Kutani kiln sites

which date from around

the middle of the seventeenth century.

Kutani

bottle

in

the

It

was here

that the

shape of a double gourd

decorated with design of lions and peonies in over-

glaze enamels. Edo period, seventeenth century.

Tokyo National Museum.

250

Hirado plate made

at the

Mikawachi

decoration of the Buddhist motifs,

and

period about

emblem

Underglaze-hlue

kiln.

orchids in a soft blue on white ground. i

ko kutani, or

Kutani wine ewer. Design of plum

o/ju-i

ivithin a circle

century.

tree.

Edo

period, seventeenth

Tokyo National Museum.

Edo

j^o. Author s collection.

Old Kutani, enameled

porcelain wares

were

produced. Although practically

unknown

these wares have always been

most highly prized by the

Japanese for their

outside of Japan,

magnificence of decoration, which

thoroughly Japanese (Plate

ii). In

is

comparison with the refine-

ment and elegance of the enameled porcelains of Nabeshima and Kakiemon, ko kutani ware possesses an unusual quality of of color, and vigor of design which gives

freshness, intensity

warmth of feeling. With the discovery of china

a great

this vicinity in the

Daimyo of Kaga

poor-quality ware which satisfied the local needs for daily use.

The

kilns

were

re-established in the early years

teenth century, and their later wares copied are

knovm

as shin kutani

(New

articles.

is

kutani,

making porcelain

in

This extensive production was

highly organized system and

middle of the seventeenth century, the

from the various

potters

and Chinese

artisans.

from

remarkable for an endless variety of

made

possible

a

kutani

is

and

artists

kiln sites in Japan as well as

The body of ko

by

comparable to the

efificifncy

Imperial kilns of China, and an assemblage of good clay for

kutani

Kutani) or simply as Kutani.

The relatively short period of production o{ko about 1660 to 1700,

of the nine-

from ko

Korean

coarse and the

Maeda Toshiharu, head of the feudal house of Maeda, estabhshed kibs at Kutani. The earhest

glaze impure, covering the vessel in a thick and uneven

wares being unsatisfactory, he sent Goto

dark and the green resembling the deep blue-green of sea

province,

best potters, to visit the kilns in

Kyushu

one of

Saijiro,

his

to study the technique

of making and decorating porcelain. Ten years passed before Saijiro returned to Kutani,

whether he

around 1660.

visited the Arita

It

not certain

is

kibs or traveled

China to

manner. The enamel colors are rich and

water.

The term

thick, the red

akae kutani refers to those pieces in

the red and green are supplemented

by

being

which

purple, yellow, over-

glaze blue, and occasionally gold and silver.

Ao

kutani,

or

study the Imperial kilns in Ching-te-Chen, but the knowl-

Green Kutani, which has no red enamel, has yellow, green, and purple enamels. Some of the designs were inspired by the

edge that

Chinese

Saijiro acquired, together

to

with the enthusiasm and

fmancial aid of this powerful feudal lord, resulted in the perfection Its

of the enameled porcelain ware knovwi

production continued until

1700,

Saijiro's

and the making of this original

as ko kutani.

death a few years after kutani yaki

came

to an

end. For the next hundred years or so the kihis produced a

late

Ming and

early Ch'ing enameled porcelains;

others are of purely Japanese origin.

The

Japanese examples

range in style from Imari and Kakiemon to the style of Kyoto pottery painting and the

Kano

school of painting.

designs are bold and free, executed with a quick

Ko

kutani

and sure

brush stroke. The colors are harmoniously combined and the

251

Kutani plate scape

Oj

etttieagottal

shape with land-

and flower-and-bird panels

enamels. Signed. century.

Edo

in

colored

period, late seventeenth

Yamanaka and Company,

New

York

and Osaka.

designs create an over-all effect of colorful rustic charm. typical ko kutani composition consisted

A

of dividing the plate

this

phase of ko kutani the use of cobalt blue came to an end

and the red enamel color disappeared, which seems to indicate

rim into symmetrically arranged compartments of geometric

that these materials

shapes or diaper patterns, with the principal design in the

and were

center of the plate.

Kano

The

school of painting

Japanese subjects taken life

executed in the manner of the

especially beautiful,

with its purely

from nature and from

of the country, including human

plants, trees, landscapes,

252

style is

and

seascapes.

the everyday

figures, birds, flowers,

Around

the middle of

now

had

originally been

exhausted.

Green Kutani, or ao

Due

kutani,

brought from China

to this shortage of pigments.

was developed with

over-all

designs in three colors, purple, green, and yellow, outlined

with black. Ko kutani and ao kutani wares, with

charm of color and rusticity.

design, have the richness

their native

of unaffected

XVII Lacquer

rHE

DEVELOPMENT of the

art

of lacquer in

Japan begins with the introduction of Bud-

a far-reaching effect

on the lacquer

art

of Japan. The Code of

Taiho, or Great Treasure, was promulgated in 701, with the

other arts was the great force that

Great Council of State as the supreme organ of govermnent,

stimulated the progress of culture. Preserved in the Treasure

and the Department of Religion holding equal rank. Various

dhism, wliich

as in all the

Kondo

Hall or

Horyuji

at

Golden Beetle Miniature of Japanese lacquer work.

is

the Tamamushi-no-zushi, or

Slirine, the earliest extant It

example

was originally a precious sanctuary

belonging to the Empress Suiko, whose son, Prince Shotoku Taishi,

from of a

was the

actual founder of

Asuka period (552-645),

the

shrine,

Buddhism in Japan. Dating it is

square and in the

form

complete with roof and doors, and mounted on a

name originated from the fact that the crossbeams,

pedestal.

Its

corners,

and edges were originally profusely

inlaid

with the

multicolored wings of the insect tainaniushi or jewel beetle,

ministries

were

and within the Ministry of the

established

among

Treasury was organized

others an Office of the Guild

of Lacquer Workers. Included in the terms of this code were the introduction of a

new

new

system of land tenure, and a

system of taxation by which

com-

or other

textiles, silk, rice,

modities locally produced were payable in fixed amounts in lieu

of labor.

The Taika Reform

declared that under the

land allotment the arable

were

fields, principally

among

to be distributed

the

new

system of

wet

rice fields,

the cultivators, with the size

an exquisite metal edging of honeysuckle design. The

determined by the number of members in a household. In

jewel-beetle wings have long since disappeared, leaving only

addition to the grants of land, each household was given a plot

set in

the metal appliques.

The

shrine

and

its

pedestal are black

lacquered and covered with Buddhist narrative scenes painted in mitsiidaso, a kind

and Nara

periods.

the paintings

of oil pigment used

The

chiefly in the

Asuka

yellow, vermilion, and green used in

were applied

as part

of ground on which

it

was mandatory

was necessary

demand due to the growing The Nara period by the pervading influence of Bud-

supply of lacquer, to meet the

popularity and prosperity of Buddhism.

of the lacquer process.

(710-794)

BEGINNINGS OF JAPANESE LACQUER

is

characterized

learned

of Japan was based upon methods

from the Chinese. The

of the Sui dynasty in China

first official

left

envoy to the court

Japan in the year 607,

and

with the accession of the T'ang dynasty in 618, Japanese missions increased in

in

number. These missions included

many fields, such as who studied the

artists,

specialists

carpenters, founders, craftsmen,

culture

and

arts as practiced

and

by the

Chinese in those times. In the year 645 the Emperor issued an edict

known

as the

all fields

of art and

stimidated the building of great temples and monasteries. interior architecture

early lacquer art

It

government to provide for an ample

for the

dhism, which caused such rapid progress in

The

to cultivate both

lacquer trees and mulberry trees (the latter for silkworms).

Taika Reform, which was based on the

land-ownership laws of the Sui and T'ang dynasties and had

The

and furnishings of these great Buddhist

buildings required large quantities of lacquer for the embellish-

ment of altars, shrines, pillars, and various religious accessories. Although the principal method for making lacquer ware from of

early times

wood

China. This was a favorite

had been

bamboo,

or

known

method

dhist images.

with hempen

a

The

for

to apply the lacquer

new as the

process

cloth, to

which

article

dry-lacquer technique and was

making various

utensils as well as

process consisted of covering a

and when the lacquer

on an

was introduced from

coats of lacquer

dried, the

Bud-

model form

were apphed,

form was removed. Another 253

technique introduced from China during the Nara period

dropper or mizu-sashi, and compartments for holding the

was

brushes and the inkstick or

called hyomon, or sheet design. This consisted

of cutting

thin sheets of gold or silver into designs and laying

them on

sunti.

Cosmetic

kits

were made

a lacquered surface, and then applying additional coats of

decorated with the most exquisite lacquer work. These

lacquer.

nificent boxes

As the Japanese

and craftsmen gained more know-

artists

articles as a

work and developed its

such a degree that

black,

of the word.

comb,

became a

actually

aesthetic quaUties to

fine art in the truest sense

were equipped with various

mirror together with

a box a

its

rouge brush, a mascara brush,

During the Heian period (794-1185) lacquer not only reached

tweezers. There also

a high level of technical proficiency and artistic

ing the Buddhist sutras or scriptures, and

skill,

but also

acquired a truly Japanese character. This development was

due both to the

taste

of the nobihty and to the continual

progress of Buddhism, which created a great articles for

demand for fine

personal use and for the adornment of reUgious

who

property.

Around

from 980

to lOii, the brUhant society at the Imperial court

the time of

included a group of talented

Murasaki Shikibu,

who

articles

kits,

reigned

women, among whom was Lady The

scroU-paintings illustrating

of Genji, with the beautiful interior furnishings

of the houses vividly portrayed, cosmetic

Ichijo,

wrote the famous novel Genji

Monogatari, or Tale of Genji. this great story

Emperor

also record the lacquer

inkstone boxes, fan boxes, and other de luxe

used by courtiers and their

objects for personal use

were

ladies.

exquisite

These lacquer

works of art, usually

of black or red lacquer, though green or gold was sometimes used.

The

tative

of the

finest artistic

stone

box or

suzuri-bako

artist

expended

designs painted with gold lacquer

his best

were represen-

accomphshment. The Japanese ink-

was one of the work.

writer's equipment, comprising

It is

articles

a flat

on which the

box

to hold the

an inkstone or suzuri, a water

mag-

articles

container, boxes for tooth

powder, boxes for incense,

for

toilet

They contained such

beautifully decorated with lacquer.

ledge of lacquer processes, they far surpassed the Chinese

it

in

various forms containing tiny drawers and compartments

a silver

bowl, a

silver scissors,

were handsome lacquer boxes

many

and

for hold-

other articles

for househ(5ld use.

Lacquer was lavishly used for the decoration of the

Buddhist temples that were being built

famous of these

edifices

at that time.

of the Heian period

the

is

Phoenix Hall, attached to the Byodoin temple

many

The most Hoodo or near

at Uji,

Kyoto, on the bank of the Uji River in the mountains. Originally

a

villa

of the Prince Minister Fujiwara-no-

Michinaga, 966-1024,

it

was converted Phoenix Hall

1052. Built in 1053, the

into a monastery in is

one of the

examples of rehgious architecture of the Fujiwara period.

It

ahghting on the ground.

of Chinese origin, in the

Its

magnificent interior

sumptuous lacquer decorations with

quer

Many

work

finest

Heian or

was designed to represent the mytho-

logical phoenix, or ho-o,

pearl.

late

inlays

is

act

of

noted for

of mother-of-

other fme examples of this great period of lac-

are extant in the

famous buildings of Kyoto, the

center of culture and the seat of the Imperial court

year 794.

from the The closing years of the Heian period, which brought

with them the decline of the Fujiwara family and

tween various

clans,

saw the

fall

and

final defeat

strife

be-

of the great

Sutra box in gold lacquer showing a design of clouds, falling rain, and vegetation. Late Heian period, eleventh century. Tokyo National

shallow water flowing through submerged wheels (detail). Late

Museum.

Heian period, eleventh or twelfth century. Tokyo National Museum.

254

Gold-lacquer cosmetic box with nacre inlay having a design of

Lacquer

sake

bottles:

of Hotel

figure

lacquered

green,

red,

a page

Kosho,

A

Right:

century.

Carved

Left:

a

in

drunken

and black; carved

of honor

in

thirteenth

wood the

wood

condition,

figure

of

house of a

daimyo, wearing ceremonial dress and holding a gourd bottle, ivith

decorated in colored lacquers

gold hiramakie

Victoria

;

late eighteenth century.

and Albert Museum.

Taira family by Minanioto Yoritomo,

who

rose to the

supreme power in 1185.

Here they began the production of black-and-red lacquer

Despite the establishment of his headquarters at Kamakura,

Kyoto remained artistic

the capital and retained

its

cultural

and

ascendency. Yoritomo showed a keen interest in religion

and respected cultivation,

cultural learning ;

and although he had limited

he spent large sums on the restoration of temples,

monasteries, and shrines.

The Kamakura period, during which

the feudal system reached great heights, produced luxurious residences

processes

and a profusion of fme works of art. The technical

of lacquer work were greatly developed,

in the inlaying pearl.

A

known as

moved to the Negoro-Dera, a monastery in the same province.

of lacquer with gold,

negoro-nuri or negoro lacquer.

domestic use, and the

name

negoro has

become

a

general term appHed to plain black-and-red lacquer utensils.

Another name connected with lacquer work of this period kamakura-bori,

in

which is

a rustic style

which rough designs were

furst

carved in high relief and

then lacquered in black and red.

The

early designs for

kamakuri-bori lacquer consisted chiefly of

peonies, diaper patterns,

and

is

of carving and lacquering

plum

blossoms,

a cloud pattern.

especially

and mother-of-

silver,

of Kamakura lacquer ware

particular variety

vessels for

It first

appeared

is

LACQUER

IN

THE MUROMACHI PERIOD

at the

from the

•Tliroughthe beginning of the Muromachi period (1338-

great Shingon-sect monastery

on Koyasan in the Kii Peninsula

1573) lacquer continued to flourish along with the other arts

Gold-lacquered sutra box with

lotus-floii>er design

end of the thirteenth century,

Heian

period, twelfth century.

at

which time

priests

(detail).

Tokyo National Museum.

Late

Cosmetic box

in gold lacquer

and mother-of-pearl inlay with a

design^of deer in an autumn field twelfth or thirteenth century.

(detail).

Kamakura

period,

Tokyo National Museum.

255

Lacquered cabinet ('kodansuj

Left:

The front

eucjosing five drawers.

maple

trees;

on one side are cherry

with fruit; on the other, cherry end, morning-glories. In silver

with a hinged door

fitted

trees in

trees in

blossom and orange trees

blossom and maple; on the

and gold lacquer on black and

inlay touched with gold lacquer; each panel

is

of conventional' ornament of gold and inlaid Sixteenth century. Victoria and Albert

shell

framed by a border

Metal

shell.

fittings.

Museum.

Inkstone box in gold lacquer showing a full

Right:

and

decorated with deer, birds,

is

moon

rising

from behind a mountain. Muromachi period, sixteenth century.

Tokyo National Museum.

despite the strife

and intrigue of the age. The Shogun Ashikaga

who was

Yoshiniasa,

addicted to a hfe of luxury, was largely

responsible for the great developments in art, and especially in lacquer.

Well versed

in literature

serious attention to the tea

and

Yoshiniasa gave

art,

and the incense ceremonies,

previously noted, and as a patron of the arts maintained artists

of

distinction.

yama Age. Among the

many

Because so

appeared in those days,

many

masterpieces of art

art historians call this era the

the foremost lacquer

as

artists

Higashi-

employed by

Shogun Yoshiniasa was Michinaga Koanii, who

distin-

guished himself in the lacquer technique called taka-makie, or relief lacquer.

According to records of the Koanii family, he

new approach

to lacquer decoration

by employing

the works of famous painters, such as Soami,

Noami, Kano

created a

Motonobu, and Tosa Mitsunobu, lacquer the

artist in

as designs.

the service of Yoshimasa in the latter part of

Muromachi period was Igarashi

other

artists

were responsible

or

silver,

of lacquer

at

nashi-ji,

The

current

256

of

and

literature

of the Sung and Yuan dynasties

Trade with China grew in

also greatly appreciated.

volume and travelers made more frequent trips, both countries being eager to exchange their products. Chinese lacquer ware

was highly prized and among the imported

articles

found

made

all

the various techniques and forms

The type of Chinese Japanese was the

lacquer are revealed guri,

which

is

lacquer

tsui-shiu, in

by

most highly favored by the

which

several layers

carving. In Japan this

the Japanese

word

for carving.

at

Murakami,

of colored

work is

It is

copies of this famous Chinese carved lacquer

made

could be

in China.

called

claimed that

ware were

first

a city at the foot of the mountains in a

magnificent section of the rock-bound coast on the Japan Sea,

and to the present day, Murakami

lacquer ware.

While

the Japanese

is

noted for

lacquer wares, they were in turn sending their articles to

carved

its

were importing Chinese

own

China, where they were highly treasured.

It

lacquer

was the

Japanese gold lacquer decoration that was most favored

Chinese, and

it is

recorded that China sent lacquer

by

the

artists to

Japan to study the various techniques. Although Japan learned

work

far

beyond the Chinese conception.

delicate nature after the style adapted

dynasties of

China

was great

in the

of Muromachi and, among the

of use in the

mode of

were

about lacquering from China, she developed magnificent

passion for things Chinese

intellectual circles

for objects

consists

pear.

from paintings of the Simg and Yuan 1 6).

of the taka-

which

used on the lacquer ware of this period were

of a most refuied and

(Plate

These and several

various depths sprinkled with gold

resembhng the skin of a

Many designs

Shinsai.

for the perfection

makie decoration and the beautiful several coats

Another famous

things, the art

tea

ceremony.

MOMOYAMA LACQUER

tea masters,

Due in part

to the then

elegance that found enjoyment in exotic

In the opening years of the

Monroyama period

(1573-1615)

the dehcate and rather complicated designs of Chinese inspira-

Lacquer writing box

in the

in

The

inside,

and

tray,

which fits

form of a koto. The cover has a dragon

gold and silver takamakie and hiramakie.

and brocade pattern

shows a landscape

the clouds, rice paddies, stream,

ivith

and maple

moon

gold takamakie on nashi-ji ground. The frame

in

in pewter,

tree in the is

wind

are

in nashi-ji

with inkstone and brass water dropper in shape of a fan. Late

Museum.

seventeenth century. Victoria and Albert

chrysanthemums

tion began to lose their appeal, the rising warrior class of this

elegant in manner. Favorite motifs included

time favoring the more simplified and striking designs purely

and paulownia leaves and flowers strewn about or incorpo-

Japanese in treatment. After the gradual collapse of Ashikaga

rated in the principal pictorial composition. Frequent use of

rule

and the short career of Nobunaga

as

the rule of the entire country was assumed

supreme war

by Hideyoshi. The

age in which Nobunaga and Hideyoshi flourished terized by,

among

lord,

charac-

is

other things, great progress in the realm

of art. Hideyoshi's residences were profusely decorated by the foremost

artists

of the time. The famous Kodaiji temple in

by Hideyoshi's widow

Kyoto was

built in 1606

of her

husband, and although

late

repeated

fures,

memory

has been ravaged

by

the mortuary chapel has survived in a splendid

of preservation with

state

it

in

its

beautiful decorations

of taka-

of the

characteristic feature

Momoyama

period,

which

named after Hideyoshi's palace, was the diminishing interest in the austere principles of Zen Buddhism. A new warrior is

appeared with the redistribution of feudal manors, and

class

practice.

A

great exponent of the gold lacquer

dynamic quality of Momoyama

so forcefully expressed the art

was Hon-ami Koetsu, 1558-1637, the foremost

this era.

common

work which artist

His simple yet forceful designs in taka-makie

of

reflect

his great ability as a painter, lacquer artist, ceramic designer,

and

skilled calligrapher.

tributed a great

many

Koetsu and pieces

his

contemporaries con-

of lacquer which compare

favorably with the fmest aesthetic accomplishments in any field

of

art.

During

the time of Hideyoshi, Japan reached a

high level of prosperity which created a favorable climate for

makie or raised lacquer.

A

both gold and silver lacquer in the same work was a

the temper of the Japanese

was such

that they enjoyed gran-

flourishing activity in the

world of

art.

Upon

the death of

Hideyoshi in 1598 the country was again thrown into a

of warfare, which

Tokugawa

state

lasted for the next several years, imtil

leyasu succeeded in subduing the rival famihes

and became supreme

ruler

of Japan.

deur and splendor. Both in the fme and applied arts the delicate

forms and rich colors reflected a feeling of vigor. Skilled artisans

and

artists

were retained by the new daimyo

as part

of their households, for the decoration of their great residences

and

castles

Even lines

with works of

art in this

sensitive

its

The precise and complicated designs

of the Muromachi became

clear

The

fme

brush strokes was replaced by brilliance of

color and striking designs.

IN THE

EDO

age of gold and color.

the lacquer art of the preceding period with

and

DEVELOPMENT OF LACQUER PERIOD

and simplified and extremely

as

siege

and

fall

of Osaka

castle in the

year 161 5, wliich

we have seen marks the beginning of the Edo or Tokugawa

period, brought

no

cessation

of artistic

creativity.

The domi-

nance of the Tokugawa family over Japan, which lasted

until

257

1

867,

is

the period in

which the feudal system reached

its full

A

form.

particular lacquer technique called togidashi

maturity. As a result of the so-called Christian Rebellion of

the distinguishing features of the

Shimabara in 1637, the cessation of intercourse with the outworld closed the ports to foreign ships. A few Dutch and

who

side

Chinese were

allowed to

remain in Nagasaki and a limited

number of trading ships amiuaUy called at the port to exchange goods. From a cultural standpoint the stoppage of overseas travel

and trade was a

serious handicap, but as the country

progressed under the pohcy of isolation, the Japanese raised their artistic resources to

greater heights.

still

patronized Chinese learning.

promoted

and

with

its

practical

The study of this philosophy

wisdom, and the

teacliings

demand

ware. There was a large style,

is

a dehcate inlay

the early part of the eighteenth century the deco-

work in lacquer began to assume an indigenous style. The painter Ogata Kor in, 1658-1716, a follower of Hon-ami Koetsu, produced some of the most original lacquer work of Tokugawa

period, typically Japanese in design, color, and

He

expression.

rose to

fame in the Genroku era (1688-1704),

most prosperous time under the Tokugawa rule, when luxury and extravagance reached a climax. Korin was one of the

Japan's greatest painters,

them on a smooth polished surface. This magnificent

to reveal

work was developed

to

finished quality of ex-

its

and the name of Masanari

cellence in the eighteenth century,

was inherited by many generations of distinguished

The development of the

art

by the devotees of the

noted in previous chapters,

followers.

of lacquer was greatly stimu-

tea

and incense ceremonies. As

many

utensils for use in these

Tokugawa work. The

elegance of the

designs, executed

and in his lacquer work he combined

bamboo, folding

blades of grass,

fans, sheaves is

charming small lacquer medicine boxes

the

of grain, and

work on

called uiro,

were popular among the samurai and merchant

class

When

the Meiji period

lacquer in

its

but with the

traditional

was ushered

form went

are well

distinguished (Plates 17

and

known, such

Hanzan, Ritsuo, Kyui, and the

as

members of the famihes of Koma and Koami 18). Of great importance to the art of Japan was

the estabhshment, in the beginning of the

of a famous school of lacquer for

more than

three

generation and this

school at

hundred

Koma

its

in Edo,

artists

years.

Tokugawa which

period,

flourished

The Koami of the

eighth

new govermnent

firmly estabhshed and an up-

surge of prosperity, the art was revived standing lacquerists.

by

Among them may

Shosai, Ikeda Taishin,

a

number of out-

be cited Shirayama

Ogawa Shomin, Kawanobe

Itcho,

was apprenticed

One of the most Yamamoto

period was

latter part

Shunsho,

who was

its

Their

members work was

with a

258

seal

Tokugawa

active in

Kyoto

of the seventeenth century, and whose

famed is

known and most widely collected article of work. The decorative lacquer work on inro

Japanese lacquer

reached

its

height in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries

with the great demand by the merchants for ornaments which

would

vie with the ornamental sword-guards or tsuha of the

daimyo and samurai.

THE USES OF LACQUER

tionally

distinctive Japanese articles

made

in lacquer. Typical

soup bowl with

its

cover,

which is

is

and

said to

the soup, and the lacquered sake cups.

utensils

were

tradi-

the Japanese lacquered

improve the

taste

of

Used at weddings, these

of three, and are in the form

on by

selected descendants for ten genera-

sake cups or sakazuki were in

famed Kagikawa school founded by

of extremely shallow bowls graduating in diameter from two

Kagikawa Kujiro, who inaugurated

by

is

of inro lacquer. The inro

also the

carried

There was

greatest masters

Koma

probably the best

Many celebrated lacquer artists of the

tions.

one of the

and

to

of the

eleven generations.

work was

as

of

Kito-ye were the respective heads of

inception. In 1636 lemitsu, the third

Tokugawa Shoguns, appointed Koma as Court Lacquerer, a post which was held by the Koma family of lacquerers for

during the

this

in, the ancient art

Kwansei when he was only eleven years of age, and

names

of

into a temporary decline,

sober effects quite in keeping with his style of painting. There

of the Edo period whose

the

which

period of feudal rule.

Sliibata Zeshin. Zeshin, 1807- 1891,

artists

with

beautifid colors in a purely Japanese manner, include wistaria,

a sculptural treatment and a sparing use of gold to produce

were many great lacquer

down

then fmaUy rubbed

is

chrysanthemums. Especially beautiful

rative

the

which

mastery of the various lacquer techniques stamp the fmished

of shell in black lacquer.

Around

colors,

on lacquer

for lacquer in the Chinese

and the somada technique, which

and

ceremonies were of lacquer. The exquisite workmanship and

sages,

in particular the carved red-and-black lacquer called

chinhinbori,

coats of lacquer in

silver

was

of the

responsible for the Chinese influence in the designs

to 1736. Togidashi

gold or

lated

one of

many

of building up a design with

lacquer

is

Masanari,

Kyoto from about 1716

consists

There was a

strong revival of Confucianism, and the ruling class

flourished at

work of Shiomi

continuously for signed with the

traditions

handed down

over two hundred

name of the

years.

school together

of jar-shaped contour, which varied widely in

its

to three inches

They

from

are placed one

sets

the smallest one to the largest of the

on top of the other upon

set.

a square lac-

quered stand specially made to hold them. At a wedding the bride and bridegroom observe the ceremony o( san-san-kudo,

A

set

of lacquer boxes having a cover showing a river landscape with

trees,

takamakie enriched with kirikane on a ground o/nashi-ji. The Victoria and Albert Museum.

etc.,

in

mountains, a mill, a country house, boats, a cottage, temples,

three

Tokugawa

crests are inlaid in gold.

Lacquer century.

of

writing

Early eighteenth century.

box.

The cover on

rocks,

rushes,

Early

eighteenth

the right has a design

and a stream

in

gold

takamakie, enriched with kirikane

tfith

two mandarin ducks of various

on a

black ground.

The frame on

colors

the

left

is

decorated with a motif of waves and clouds in gold togidashi, containing

an oval ink-

stone and silver crane-shaped water dropper

enriched with gold.

Victoria

and Albert

Museum.

259

meaning three

threes are nine,

when

they sip three times out

by which they pledge their marriage vows. According to Japanese behef three means different sake cups,

of three

good

kick,

and san-san-kudo therefore

An

happy union.

wish for a

attractive article for personal use

name given

kodansu, the

signifies the

the

is

to a lacquered rectangular cabinet

with two small cupboard doors enclosing a nest of drawers. average height

Its

fifteen inches,

with

and

about thirteen inches,

is its

but also serves

width about

depth about twelve inches. The kodansu,

fmely lacquered interior portions and

its

hasps and lock plate,

is

its

chased brass

not only a beautiful decorative object

as a dressing case for jewelry, handkerchiefs,

and other small

of personal

articles

reserved for feminine use It is

its

is

the

use.

kimono

Another object

tray or midaro kago.

very large lacquered tray characterized by deep

a

the fmest quahty black lacquer with the

made of

generally

sides,

family crest or mon executed in gold in the center.

kimono

tray

is

placed

two-panel screen

was

is

on

The

the tatami or matted floor, and a

generally placed in front of

it.

The

a dressing-room accessory for a Japanese lady to

tall

tray

drop her

of various types are important household

living, lacquer trays accessories. Kasaiic,

given to a

meaning one over the

upon the other

stacked

The

arrangement.

to

tr^ Qt ozen.

form

is

furnished with a

This custom

made is

sits

on the

inns.

The

about one square foot in

and cake and and

is

trays are either flat

tatami floor, Japanese fashion.

Ozen

the different courses, the ozen size.

observed in some

made in various sizes for most commonly used being are

A

very small ozen

is

also for sake. Essentially the ozen

used for is

a very

generally lacquered black, deep red, or dull

orange monochrome. At a regular Japanese dinner, a guest frequently provided with

When

a

short straight legs, at a convenient height

'of individual trays is still

homes and

plain tray

is

Traditionally the Japanese used individual dining

for the diner as he

tea

lid. It is

and serves many purposes, one of which

mounted on very

Japanese

name one

that

a block-like or box-like

trays rather than a large dining table.

or

the

is

generally comprises three and

kasane

occasionally five trays and in various sizes

other,

of lacquered trays so designed

tier

two

side trays besides the

these lacquer trays are placed

upon the

is

main one.

tatami floor

kimono and other clothing into, which could then be removed

before each guest with the various small porcelain dishes and

by

bowls, they present an attractive and colorful

a servant.

An important article for use in the home and in the tea and incense ceremonies

was the lacquered incense box

called a

kobako or kogu, which was one of the choice pieces on which the artist lavished his fmest work.

Lacquered cabinet consisting of one large and six small drawers within

two folding

carved

wood,

green, red,

In

doors.

lacquered

black,

and yellow. Details

finished in guri (carv.ed lacquer).

The

front

dragons,

is

birds,

with

decorated

and clouds

in

panels with borders of peaches; the lower drawer, with peaches

on geometric ground, framed by key-pattern inside

black

border.

of doors carved

The

in intaglio

with flowers in vases and other motifs on

black ground; gourd

plants on fronts of drawers. Gilt

metal

fittings.

century.

Museum. 260

Late eighteenth

Victoria

and

Albert

Due

to the Japanese

way of

effect in the

elegant simplicity of the Japanese room.

Among

the

quer were the paper called

many

other articles traditionally

shikishi bako, a

shikishi,

box

made

in lac-

for small square pieces

which were used

for writing

of

poems; the

Tray for smoking

Left: in

trees in the distance.

Edo

Black-lacquer ground with a design

set.

gold hiraniakie depicting

men towing

a boat upstream and pine

Tokyo

period, early nineteenth century.

National Museum.

Below: of its

Lacquer document box showing the exquisite work of one

sides

of pavilions with court nobles, a lake and garden,

Border of conventional flowers and

scrolls

etc.

gold and silver

in

hiraniakie enriched with gold and silver foil on black ground. Mideighteenth century. Victoria

box in which

bento bako, a picnic

tabako bon or

tebako or large deep

box or

to carry food

and drink; the

smoking box for the ash tray and charcoal; the

dispatch

box for holding paper;

box used

for the delivery

the hasami bako, a lacquered traveling

the fubako, a letter

of letters by hand

box or

chest for clothes,

which was carried at the end of a pole resting over the shoulder of a

carrier; the cha bako or

natsume or lacquer

box

box for tea-ceremony

for holding

powdered

utensils; the

the cha-ire

tea,

carriages

and Albert Museum.

was embeUished with

work of superb

quality,

and the

rich

and elaborate lacquer

draft animal,

some proportions, was covered with highly ornate vehicles,

as

they were for the special use of the

Emperor, the Shogun, and

their

immediate

made of fme

lacquer work.

It

projected sufficiently at either end to allow

the exception

of some of the

interior appointments

in the palaces

and great mansions of the nobles and feudal lords in early times, almost

all articles

However, some of the

of lacquer ware were small in

vehicles

employed from ancient times

until the Meiji Restoration are magnificent art

size.

examples of the

of lacquer. These conveyances were ox-drawn carriages

used only by people of the highest rank, and the norimono (palanquin)

which served

to carry aristocrats

high position. The ox-carriages were of great

and

officers

size

of

with two

huge wooden wheels; they were adorned with curtains of the fmest

bamboo

cords and

craftsmanship suspended in front, and thick

tassels

of plaited

silk.

The whole of these

great ox-

The

resembled a miniature Japanese

or five swords.

were decorated with red-and-black lacquer

families.

palanquin or norimono was usually very ornate, often being

house slung by

With

of brilhantly

colored sUks. Great care and expense was lavished upon these

or tea jar; and the katana kake, or rack for holding either three

that

an ox of hand-

a caparison

its

shoulders of carriers.

roof-ridge

The only

from

a massive pole it

to rest

which

on the

other form of conveyance was

the kago, an open palanquin, of V-shaped construction in cross-section,

shoulders of

which was slung from

two

porters.

The

kago,

a pole that rested

on the

which was the humblest

of the vehicles considered appropriate for the upper

classes, is

occasionally depicted in Japanese color prints. These three vehicles represented the

when

manner of travel

until the year 1870,

a Japanese invented the jinrikisha, the use

of which

eventually spread through the whole of the Far East. Nevertheless, the still

magnificence of the lacquered ox-carriages can

be appreciated

when these pieces are

used to represent the

Shogun's retinue in the procession of the Jidai Matsuri, the aimual festival of the Heian shrine at Kyoto. During the Edo

261

jjy

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