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The Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases
 0198631596, 9780198631590

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OXFORD DICTIONARY OF

FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES Covers 8,000 words and phrases from over 40 languages

The World’s Most Trusted Dictionaries

i

The Oxford Dictionary of

Foreign Words and Phrases

.V *

i

The Oxford Dictionary of

Foreign Words

and Phrases EDITED BY Jennifer Speake

t

Oxford

New York

OXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS 1997

Oxford University

Press,

Great Clarendon

Oxford 0 x 2

Street,

6dp

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University Press

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York

Oxford University Press 1997

First published

1997

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Cataloguing in Publication Data

Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases cm.

/

edited by Jennifer Speake

p. 1. I.

English language— Foreign words

and phrases—Dictionaries.

Speake, Jennifer.

PE1582.A3094 1997 96-49006 422' .4' 03-dc21 CIP ISBN 0-19-863159-6 10

987654321

Data-capture by Jayvee, Trivandrum, India

Designed by Jane Stevenson Typeset in Swift and Arial by ISL, Gloucester

31143006690987 422. 403 Oxf The Oxford dictionary of foreign words and phrases

Contents

Preface

vii

Pronunciation Guide

x

Dictionary

1

Appendix

t

483

Digitized by the Internet Archive in

2017 with funding from

Kahle/Austin Foundation

https://archive.org/details/isbn_9780965016070

Preface The Oxford Dictionary of Foreign Words and Phrases records the influx of words variety of other languages into both American

from a

and British English, concentrating

especially on those introduced during the course of the twentieth century. Older

dictionaries in this field tend to have a preponderance of French

and Latin

many

of these are indeed still current and are represented in the present work by 1990s citations, but the English language is now open to new words on a worldwide basis. Many recent introductions reflect an unprecedented expressions;

cultural eclecticism, particularly in what

might be called

‘lifestyle’

words— those

dealing with areas such as fashion, cuisine, ethnic music, and recreation. There is nothing new about sources for foreign words being indicative of historical or cultural events. The influx of French military terms in the early eighteenth century, for instance, can be linked to the Continental campaigns of the Duke of Marlborough. More recently, the British Raj in India spawned a large

number

of Anglo-Indian terms for the various functionaries and institutions necessary to keep the wheels of empire turning. However, neither of these two categories

is

heavily represented in late twentieth-century speech, nouvelle cuisine

being more fashionable than fortification and karma having a higher profile than imperial administration.

The

currency that have been applied in the selection of entries mean that there is a bias in favour of words first introduced during this century. An exception to this is the large category of words, particularly from the classical languages, that are recent introductions or revivals with exclusively scientific senses; these are excluded on the grounds that they do not fulfil the other criterion of currency, namely that the word may be encountered in non-specialist literature. However, many other words have both technical and more general senses, and in such cases the technical senses are generally included or mentioned in the entry, as the evolution of the various senses once they have entered the language is often interesting in itself. For instance, fleche, which occurs in Middle English with its basic French meaning of ‘arrow’, soon became obsolete after its first introduction (most probably because it duplicated an already established word); reintroduced from Modern French with a variety of special applications, it has fared better. Terms that have been introduced purely as terms of art in particular sports or other fields of activity and have remained so (or have not had time to move beyond their restricted area) have been excluded; admitting terms for bullfighting passes or judo throws would have considerably increased the proportion of, respectively, Spanish and Japanese entries. Introduced expressions have met with varying fortunes in English, but certain patterns can be seen. On the whole, phrases tend to be more resistant to naturalization than single words. At one end of the scale of naturalization, many words, especially those from Old French and Latin, have become totally assimilated in spelling, pronunciation, and plural form, and are thus no longer thought of as foreign in any sense other than the purely etymological. Others (such as restaurant) are nearing the end of this process of assimilation, with only some slight variation in standard pronunciation as a gesture towards an alien origin. Others, particularly Latin and French phrases, have remained obstinately criteria for

‘foreign’ over several centuries.

Preface

viii

Italicization

is

a helpful but not infallible clue to the extent of assimilation, the

rule of thumb being that the

more

‘foreign’ a

word

is felt

to

be the more likely

be distinguished in this way. However, italics are generally retained in practice even for well-established words where there might be any possibility of confusion with an English word, as between pace (Latin ablative singular of pax used as a preposition) and ‘pace’ English noun and verb. Practice regarding italics however varies between British and American English and between publisher and publisher. For this reason, and to avoid the appearance of prescription, no attempt has been made to distinguish between italic and non-italic in the it is

to

headwords

in this dictionary.

Retention of accents is another indicator of awareness of the foreign origin of a word, since the native English writer has a strong tendency to drop them. In this respect the spelling detour, to take a common example, is well down the route to total assimilation, but the pronunciation still has a faint echo of the original detour.

How far spelling can move away from the original before a word can be said to be wholly Anglicized is not only a matter of the dropping or retention of accents. Various words from the Romance languages have doubled or single consonants in the original and the opposite in the usual English spelling: examples are concessionnaire in French, but ‘concessionaire’ in English, improvvisatore in Italian, but ‘improvisatore’ in English: on the other hand it is ‘commando’ in English but comando in Portuguese. Some variation in unstressed vowels also appears imprimitura in Italian, but predominantly ‘imprimatura’ in English). However, in none of these cases does the fluctuation in spelling seriously affect the perception of the word as ‘foreign’. More latitude has been allowed in the case of words transcribed from nonRoman alphabets, and significant variants have been noted. For instance, Greek kappa, formerly often transcribed as c, is now more frequently rendered k, partic(

ularly in specialist contexts. Variation

between

s

and

sh

and between

c

and

ch

occurs in transliterations from various languages of the Indian subcontinent. Attempts by users to make transliterations conform to English spelling norms have not disqualified words, since they generally do not disguise the alien origin of the word itself.

To keep the dictionary within reasonable bounds, several whole categories of words have been excluded, unless there is some strong reason to make an exception for a particular member of the class. If a word has a transferred meaning in English or is sufficiently at home to be used figuratively, it is generally included; thus, made-up words, even those with impeccable classical Greek or Latin elements such as homophobia, megalomania, are usually not admitted, but utopia is included. A very few other words such as braggadocio that are not genuine foreign words at all have been allowed in on the basis of their being so easily mistaken for a genuine borrowing. Also in are Latin phrases such as infra dig. that are seldom or never given their full form in English usage. Currencies, obsolete coins, weights and measures, and scientific units are excluded, but exceptions are made for shekel and sou on account of their metaphorical uses. Plant and animal names do not have entries unless they dre also the names of a commodity that is widely traded or used; thus jojoba and vicuna are both in. Evidence for use in the latter part of the twentieth century almost always guarantees inclusion, although some items which duplicate good English expressions and which are therefore unlikely to move beyond, an entirely literary ambience have been omitted (e.g. dialogue des sourds smacks of affectation as an alternative

Preface

IX

to ‘dialogue of the deaf’).

Sometimes

a foreign expression fulfils a valid function

euphemism: faux marbre sounds considerably more up-market than/ake (or false marble. Words that are current but used only in the context of the country of origin have been looked at individually on the basis of likelihood of applications outside the particular national context; for example, ragazza as a word for ‘girl’ is most unlikely to be encountered anywhere except in a text specifically about or set in Italy, while wagon-lit on the other hand is much less country-specific. Greetings and polite forms of address have generally been excluded on similar grounds, gnadige Frau and such expressions belonging more properly in a foreignas a

)

language phrase book.

The tables given in the Appendix break down the headwords in the Dictionary by country of origin and century of introduction. They are intended as a snapshot of the foreign expressions for which there is evidence in twentieth-century texts and are in no sense a statistical exercise. Dates are given in abbreviated form, following the scheme used for the New Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (see below). OE

Old English

ME

Middle English

LME

late

L15

late fifteenth

E16

early sixteenth century

1500-1529

M16

mid sixteenth century

1530-1569

L16

late sixteenth

century

1570-1599

E17

early seventeenth century

1600-1629

M17

mid seventeenth century

1630-1669

L17

late

seventeenth century

1670-1699

E18

early eighteenth century

1700-1729

M18

mid eighteenth century

1730-1769

L18

late

eighteenth century

1770-1799

E19

early nineteenth century

1800-1829

M19

mid nineteenth century

1830-1869

LI 9

late

nineteenth century

1870-1899

E20

early twentieth century

1900-1929

M20

mid twentieth century

1930-1969

L20

late

pre-1149

Middle English century

twentieth century

1150-1349

1350-1469 1470-1499

1970-

Pronunciation Guide Guidance on pronunciation follows the International Phonetic Alphabet system (IPA), and is based on the pronunciation associated especially with southern England (sometimes referred to as ‘Received Pronunciation’). Many foreign words and phrases, however, have widely varying pronunciations, ranging from the wholly naturalized to a conscious attempt to reproduce what the speaker believes to be the ‘foreign’ pronunciation, and it is neither feasible nor particularly helpful to

include every possibility.

Stress 1

,

on the following syllable secondary stress on the following syllable

indicates primary stress indicates

Consonants and Semivowels m, n, p, r, s, t, v, w, and z all have their usual English values. Other sounds are represented by the following symbols: b, d,f, h, k,

get

x

loch

d

this

tj

chip

q ring

I

she

0

thin

3

g

jl

(r)

l,

decision

kas

'standAi/,

'standi:/ noun phrase plural loci standi /.laosAi 'standAi/, /.Iraki: 'standi:/ E19 Latin (= place of standing). A recognized or identifiable status, especially in law; the right to be heard in a court of law. 1974 Times The power of the Department [sc. of Trade

and Industry] should

of course

be

discretionary but the Panel should be given a

L19).

locus standi with the Department.

locum noun

2 variant of lokum.

loden locus

/'laukas/, /'lDkas/

/'lausAi/, /'lDki:/ E18

A

noun plural loci

Latin

(= place).

1

E18

place, a site; a position, a point, espe-

cially in a text,

b E20 Genetics

A

position

on a chromosome at which a particular gene is located; a gene. 2 E18 Mathematics

The curve or other figure composed of all the points which satisfy a particular equation or are generated by a point, line, or surface moving in accordance with defined conditions. 3 M 18 A subject, a topic. 4 E20 LOCUS STANDI.

locus citatus locus

classicus

/,lDkas/ /.lausAi

Latin

see loc. cit.

(=

/.laukas

'klasikas/,

noun &

/'laud(a)n/

adjective

(also

Loden) E 20 German. A noun 1 E20 A heavy waterproof woollen cloth. 2 M20 A coat or cloak made of this. 3 M20 A dark green colour in which the cloth is often B adjective E20 Made of this made. cloth.

loess /'lauis/, /la:s/ noun M19 German from Swiss German losch loose, from to loosen). Geology

A

(Loss

Ibsen

fine yellowish-grey

loam composed of material transported by the wind during and after the glacial period which forms extensive deposits from north central Europe to eastern China, in the American Midwest, and elsewhere.

noun phrase plural loci classici 'klasiSAi/,

/.Iraki:

classical

place).

'klasiki:/

A

passage

M19 re-

loge

/lo 3 /

French.

1

same),

/I 0

a Mis

A booth,

a

O 3 / noun M18

(plural

stall,

b M 20 A

lucus a non lucendo

loggia

236

|

A box

2 M18 concierge’s lodge. theatre, opera-house, etc.

loggia

/'laocfea/, /'locfea/,

Italian (= lodge).

1

/'laodpa/

M 18 A

in

noun M18

gallery or ar-

cade having one or both of its sides open to the air. 2 E20 An open-sided extension to a house, a veranda.

Logos

/'logos/

relation,

noun

L 16

Greek

(=

account,

argument,

reason(ing),

ratio,

discourse, saying, speech, word, related to legein to choose, collect, gather, say). 1

L16 Philosophy

and

Christian Theology

The

Word

of God, the second person of the Trinity. 2 M17 A pervading cosmic idea or spirit of creativity or rationality.

Used in a mystic sense by Hellenistic and Neoplatonist philosophers, Logos entered Christian discourse primarily through its use in the opening passage of St John’s Gospel.

Lohan

noun M19 Chinese ludhan (Wade-Giles Lo-han)). An arhat. /'lauharn/

longueurs seem much more like inexperience in pacing a novel than an engaging, wacky academic wanting to share an odd bit of

a

(

information with the reader.

loofah

self.

loquitur

/'lDkwita/

verb

M19 lo-

Used with the speaker’s name added, as inform a reader. Ab-

a stage-direction or to

breviated as

lorgnette

loq.

/brn'jet/, foreign /lorjiet/ (plural

same) noun E19 French (from lorgner to squint, ogle), singular and in plural A pair of eyeglasses to be held in the hand, usually by a long handle. Also, a pair of opera-glasses.

meaning

‘a

single eye-

glass’ as well as the above,

is

rather less

common.

louche

/luJV, /lu:J/ adjective E19

squinting).

cross-eyed,

lokoum, loc(o)um, lakum /la'ku:m/) E20 Turkish (abbreviation of Turkish rahat lokum).

intransitive

Latin (3rd person singular present of quor to speak). Speaks.

/'lnkj\a)n/

/ln'ku:m/ noun (also

(also luffa /'Lvfa/) L19

(

Lorgnon(s) (M19),

noun plural L19 Yiddish (plural of loksh noodle). Noodles (in Jewish cookery).

lokum

noun

lufa the plant, luf the species). A coarse sponge made from the bleached vascular system of the fruit of a tropical gourd, Luffa aegyptiaca, used to cleanse and scrub the skin. Also, the gourd it-

Arabic

lokourn variant of lokum.

lokshen

/’lu:fa/

ward.

Now

French

(=

straightfor-

usually, dubious, shifty, dis-

reputable. 1996 Times Enter

Turkish delight.

Not

that figure so beloved of

late-Victorian dramatists, the siren with the

louche past.

loma

noun M19 Spanish (from lomo back, loin, ridge). In the south-western United States: a broad-topped hill or /'laoma/

loup

longeron

/'lnndsaron/ noun E 20 French.

A frame member running

Aeronautics

lengthways along a fuselage.

longo intervallo

verb phrase L17 Latin (= at a distance). At

some remove;

in spite of the gulf

be

tween. Virgil uses the phrase in the spatial sense Aeneid v.320), but other Roman writers (e.g. Cicero) also used it in the temporal sense ‘after a long time’. (

1935 J. C. Masterman Fate Cannot Harm Me remember asking him once who were his .

.

i

among the moderns. ‘Well,’ he ‘Max Beerbohm of course and then, but longo intervallo P G. Wodehouse.’

longueur

from Latin

lupus).

sea-bass, Dicentrachus

labrax,

(=

wolf,

found off the western European coast and in the Mediterranean. 2 M19 A light

mask

In sense 2

(L17)

woman's face. the word was known earlier form loo or more fully loo-

or half-mask for a in

the

mask.

loup-garou

/'lu:garu:/ noun L 16 French (from loup wolf + garou (from Old High German antecedent of Middle High German werwolf) werewolf). A werewolf. /'lu:ao/ noun M19 Hawaiian (lii’au). A Hawaiian party or feast usually accompanied by some form of entertainment.

luau

.

literary idols

said,

M 18 The

IN

/.lDrjgau inta'valao/ ad-

noun plural pronounced same.

M18 French 1

ridge.

/lu/

.

.

.

/15goer/ (plural same), /lb(q)'ga:/

noun L18 French (= length). A lengthy or tedious passage of writing, music, etc.; a tedious stretch of time. 1995 Spectator Looking back, The Name of the Rose bears up pretty well, although the

lucus a non lucendo 'kendau/,

/,l(j)u:kos

ei

/,lu:kus a:

non

lu:

nDnl(j)u:'sendao/

noun phrase E18 Latin (literally, ‘a grove from its not shining’, i.e. lucus (a grove) is derived from lucere (to shine) because there is no light there). A paradoxical or otherwise absurd derivation; something of which the qualities are the opposite of what its name suggests.

237

ludo

Also abbreviated lucus a non. The phrase is discussed by the Roman rhetorician Quintilian in his Institutio Oratoria (i.6.34).

1958

Morea Was its name Hydraea non lucendo it is singularly

R. Liddell



(watery), a lucus a

waterless today.

ludo

noun L19 Latin (= I simple board game played with

/'lu:dau/, /'lju:dao/

A

play).

lumpenproletariat

/.lAmpanprauli (from + Lumpen rag proletariat). The poorest and least cohesive section of the proletariat, making no contribution to the workers’ cause; the ignorantly contented lower orders of society uninterested in revolutionary advancement, derogatory.

noun derogatory E20

'teiriat/

Originally used by Karl

and counters.

dice

senkampfe

lues

/' lu:i:z/,

noun M17 Latin

/'lju:i:z/

plague). Syphilis (also rea /va'maria/).

more

Formerly

appears in a modern Latin phrase apparently coined by Macaulay who in 1834 wrote in the Edinburgh Review of the Lues Boswellianae or ‘disease of admiration’ that tends to afflict biographers writing uncritically about their subjects— as James Boswell did in his life of Dr Johnson. Lues

German

Marx

in Die Klas-

Frankreich (1850). is

preferable, to patronise

‘ordinary people’ with string quartets, or exploit

fully lues vene-

pestilence.

in

1995 Times Which

(=

also, a plague, a

lunula

them, treat them as a lumpenproletariat and ensure that they remain lumpen by depriving

them

of anything better?

also

lundum

/'lundam/ noun M20 Portuguese.

simple Portuguese song and dance originating from Africa, probably one of the sources from which the fado developed.

lunette luna).

French moon, from Latin

/lu:'nst/, /lju:'nst/

(diminutive of lune

luff a variant of loofah.

A

1 L16 Farriery

A

noun

L 16

semicircular horse-

soil,

1966 New Society Americans, children of the have become traders in air, advertising

shoe for the front of the hoof only. Also 2 E17 Architecture lunette-shoe. a An arched aperture in a concave ceiling for the admission of light, b E18 A crescentshaped or semicircular space in a ceiling, dome, etc., decorated with paintings or sculptures; a piece of decoration filling such a space. 3 M17 A blinker for a horse.

men, luftmenschen.

4

luftmensch mensh)

/'luftmenJV noun (also luft-

luftmens(c)hen

plural

m£nj(9)n/ E20 Yiddish

(German

luft

Mensch

)

Luft

person).

)

(

air +

An

/'luff

luftmensh from mer&h (German ,

impractical vision-

ary.

Fortification

luge

A

/lu: 3 / verb

& noun

L19 Swiss French.

Toboggan; ride or race on a luge. B noun E20 A light toboggan for one or two people usually ridden in a supine position; the sport in which intransitive verb L19

these are raced.

lulav

/'lu:la:v/,

/'lulav/

noun

(also

lulab)

plural lulavs, lulavim /'lu:la:vim/ L19 He-

branch). A palm branch traditionally carried at the Jewish festival of

brew

(lulab

Succoth.

lumbago

/lAm'beigau/ noun L17 Latin lumbago lumbagino, from lumbus loin). Rheumatic pain in the lower muscles of the back. (

,

lumen siccum

/,lu:men 'sikam/, /,lju:men

'sikam/ noun phrase E17 Latin (literally, ‘dry light’). The objective knowledge or thought. Francis

knowledge

Bacon

light of rational

characterized

then.

as lumen siccum in 1605 in his

among

rare.

consisting of two faces forming a salient angle and two flanks. 6 L 18 The figure or 7 M19 A shape of a crescent moon. Also luflattened shape. watch-glass of nette (watch-)glass. 8 M19 In the guillotine, the circular hole which receives the neck of the victim. 9 M19 Any of the flues con-

necting a glass furnace and its arch. (Earlier in the form linnet-hole.) 10 M19 A crescent-shaped ornament. 11 L19 A ring or forked plate to or by which a field-gun carriage or other vehicle for towing is attached. 1 2 L19 Roman Catholic Church A circular case, fitting into an aperture in a monstrance, for holding the consecrated 13 M20 Physical Geography A broad host. shallow mound of wind-blown material along the leeward side of a lake or dry lake basin, especially in arid parts of Australia, and typically crescent-shaped with the concave edge along the lake shore.

rational

Advancement of Learning (II.f.48), and the metaphor has been in intermittent use, especially

A work

Now

5 E18 larger than a redan,

L17 In plural Spectacles.

English philosophers, since

noun plural lunulae /'lumjoli:/ L16 Latin (diminutive of luna moon). 1 L16 Geometry A figure formed on a plane by arcs of two circles intersecting at two points, a lune. 2 E 18 Archaeology A

lunula

/'lumjula/

)

lupara

|

Lyonnais

238

gold crescent-shaped neck ornament of the early Bronze Age. 3 E19 Anatomy, Zoology, and Botany A crescent-shaped mark or spot, specifically the pale area at the base of a fingernail, a lunule. b M19 Anatomy A crescent-shaped region of thin tissue on each side of the nodule on each cusp of a valve in the heart or aorta. 4 M19 Conchology The crescent-shaped depression in front of the umbo of a shell, a lunule.

lupara ian

/lu'pmra/, /iu:'pa:ra/ noun

((slang),

from lupa

she-wolf).

M20 ItalA sawn-

off shotgun as used by the Mafia.

lustrum

noun

/'lAstram/

plural

lustra

Lvstra/, lustrums L16 Latin (originally, a purificatory sacrifice after a quinquennial census, later also, a period of five /'

ultimate origin period of five years.

years:

lusus

/'lu:s0s/, /'ljuisas/

/'lu:su:s/,

unknown).

A

noun plural same

lususes E 17 Latin

(lusus naturae

A

freak of nature, an a natural curiosity. naturae /na'tjuari:/, /na

a sport of nature).

abnormal formation, In

full

lusus

'tjuarAi/.

luthier /'lu:tia/, /'lju:tia/ noun L19 French (from luth lute). A maker of stringed instruments, specifically of the violin family.

luxe

noun Mi6 French (from Latin luxus luxury). (A) luxury. Cf. de /lAks/, /Inks/

luxe.

lycee

/lise/ (plural same), /'li:sei/

French (from Latin Lyceum). ondary school in France.

Lyceum

A

noun M19 State sec-

noun L16 Latin (from gumnasion gymnasium) neuter of Lukeios epithet of Apollo (from whose neighbouring temple the Lyceum was named)). 1 L16 The garden at Athens in which Aristotle taught his philosophy: Aristotelian philosophy and its adherents. 2 E19 A lycee. 3 E19 United States History (lyceum) An institution in which popular lectures were delivered on literary and scientific subjects. 4 L19 Theatre A theatre near the Strand in London, England. Used attributively to denote a melodramatic performance or style, formerly characteristic of this theatre. /lAi'si:am/

Greek Lukeion

Lyonnais

(sc.

/li:a'nei/,

foreign /ljane/ adjective

Lyonnalse /liia'neiz/, foreign E19 French (from Lyon the name

(feminine /ljanez/)

of a city in south-east France). Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of the city of Lyons (Lyon) or the former province of Lyonnais, in France: specifically Lyonnaise in Cookery, designating food, especially sliced potatoes, cooked with onions or (

with white wine and onion sauce.

maar

/ma:/ noun plural maars,

/'ma:ra/ E19 ally trict

German

(dialect).

1

maare

E19 (Usu-

Maar) A crater-lake in the Eifel disof Germany. 2 L19 Geology A broad

low-rimmed usually

volcanic crater of a kind exemplified by the Eifel Maars. lake-filled

macchia

/‘ma:kia/ noun E 20 Corsican Italian (from Latin macula spot). 1 E20 maquis vegetation. 2 Art In painting, a fleck or touch of paint. (See quotation.)

2 1988

Unknown Impressionists The Macchiaoli were so named because of the extensive use they made of ‘macchia’ (or, in K.

Adler

French, the ‘tachej, the patch or touch which

maas amasi

/ma:s/ noun (also in Zulu form /a'ma:si/) E19 Afrikaans (from Zulu

(plural) amasi

curdled milk). In South Af-

thick sour milk.

rica:

mabele

/ma'bi:li/

Xhosa South Africa:

Zulu,

ibele,

caffrorum

var.

from

;

France

in

the 1860s to be a

macedoine

noun

/'masidwa:n/

E19

plural

amabele).

Sorghum

(cf.

In

bicolor

meal or porridge made

reference to the diversity of peoples in the empire of Alexander the Great, King of Macedon). Mixed fruit or vegetables cut up into small pieces figurative a medley, a mixture. ;

this.

macabre

machair

/makabr/ adjective M19 French (Old French macabre adjective (modern macabre ), perhaps alteration of Macabe Maccat&eus, Maccabee, with reference to a miracle play containing the slaughter of the Maccabees). Grim, gruesome. /ma'ka:br(a)/, foreign

perhaps regarded as a proper name and introduced into English as a noun; the earliest (LME) instance of the phrase daunce of Machabree is in the title of one of Lydgate’s works, but this usage has long been obsolete. The modern adjectival sense likewise originated in the phrase dance macabre, an Anglicized version of the French danse macabre. The deaths of seven Jewish brothers and their mother, tortured to death for their religion under Hellenistic rule in the second century bc, are narrated in the Apocrypha (2 Maccabees 7); the Western Christian Church honoured them as martyrs, with a feast day celebrated on 1 August. In

in

distinguishing feature of anti-academic painting.

French (from Macedoine Macedonia, with

noun E19 Bantu

kaffir corn,

was seen

early

use

macaroni

/maka'rauni/ noun plural macaronies L16 Italian (mac(c)aroni, later maccheroni, plural of mac(c)arone, maccherone from late Greek makaria barley food). 2 Mis A 1 L16 Pasta in the form of tubes. fop, a dandy, obsolete except historical. 3 E19 History A West Indian coin worth a quarter of a dollar or (later) one shilling. 4 M19 In full macaroni penguin. A penguin, Eudyptes chrysolophus, apparently so called from its orange crest. 5 M19 An Italian. 6 E20 Nonsense, meanslang, derogatory. ingless talk, slang (chiefly Australian).

/'make/, /'maxa/ noun L 17 Gaelic.

In Scotland: a flat or low-lying coastal

of arable or grassland; land of this nature. 1996 Country Life Stand with your back to the strip

sea on South Uist, where the most spectacular machair is to be found, and look inland across the vast, fenceless expanses .

.

.

mache

/ma:J/ noun L 17 French. Lamb’s lettuce, corn-salad. Originally Anglicized (only in plural) in the now obsolete form of maches.

macher

/'maxa/ noun M20 Yiddish (from = maker, doer). A man of importance, a bigwig; a braggart. United States, frequently derogatory.

German

machete matchet

/ma'tfsti/,

/'matfit/

/ma'Jeti/ noun (also

and other

variants) L16

Spanish (from macho hammer, from Latin marcus). A broad and heavy knife or cutlass, used, especially in Central America and the West Indies, as a tool or a weapon. Machete has gained general currency in English in the twentieth century, superseding the Anglicized matchet and the other variants.

machismo

/ma'kizmau/ noun M20 Mexican Spanish (from as macho). The quality of being macho; male virility, masculine pride; a show of /ma'tfizmau/,

this.

1996 Times Spanish Man seems

to have for a remarkable pace changed as steeped in society which was once so machismo. well, at a

macho

Mademoiselle

macho

/'matfau/ noun

&

240

adjective E 20

Mex-

ican Spanish (= male animal or plant, (as adjective) masculine, vigorous). A noun plural

machos

1

E20

A man;

specifically

an assertively vigorous man.

2 M20 maadjective Ostentatiously mas-

B

chismo.

culine, virile. Originally United States.

B 1996 Times There macho

Macht-politik

German litik

is

no merit

attitude regardless of

its

in

adopting a

woman,

efficacy.

noun E20 (from Macht power, strength + Po-

policy,

/'maxtpoli,ti:k/

politics).

Power

politics;

strength as a potential factor to use in gaining a desired result.

macrame

/ma'krccmi/ noun & adjective M19 Turkish (makrama handkerchief, tablecloth, towel from Arabic mikrama bedcover, bedspread). A noun M19 A fringe, trimming, or lace of knotted thread or cord; knotted-work; the art of making B attributive or as adjective L19 Made this. of or by macrame.

macro

noun &

adjective

and sophistication, or foreign 3 L 16 -M 18 A woman usually addressed or referred to as ‘Madame’; a imply

skill

origin.

French married woman; a Frenchman’s wife.

As a

title,

usually abbreviated to Mme.

M esdames

The plural

M20 Computing A macro-instruction. 2 M20 Photography Macrophotography; a macro lens. B adjective M20 Macroscopic, large-scale; overall, comprehensive; Chem1

of macroanalysis; Photography pertaining to or used in macrophotography. istry

An independent

use of the combining form found in numerous English words derived from Greek, particularly in scientific terminology; cf. mega. Macro is frequently contrasted, either explicitly or implicitly, with MICRO.

macron

/'makron/ noun M19 Greek (makron neuter of makros long). A straight horizontal line (') written or printed over a vowel to indicate length or stress. /'makjola/ noun plural

/'makjuli:/,

maculas LME

Chiefly Science

A

maculae

Latin.

1

LME

spot, a stain; Medicine a

permanent spot or stain in the skin. 2 M19 Anatomy Any of various structures which have the appearance of a spot. The French word macule deriving from macula was also found in English in sense 1 (from L15).

Madame

/madam/, /ma'daim/,' /'madam/ noun (also madame, madam) plural Mesdames /medam/, /me'dam/, /mei'dam/ ME Old French. 1 ME Madam, my lady. II 2 a M16 Used as a title (preceding the surname) of or as a respectful form of address to a French married woman- or 1

(abbreviation Mmes)

is

also used as the plural of Mrs. The usual Anglicized version madam has also been current since the Middle Ages and is most generally used as a respectful form of address to a woman, although it has also evolved some derogatory associations (e.g. ‘a spoilt or affected woman’ (L16), ‘a female (L19)).

M20

Greek (makro- combining form of makros large, long). A noun plural macros.

macula

fortune-teller, etc., especially to

brothel-keeper’

/'makrau/

woman

of any non-British nationality (corresponding to English Mrs, Lady, etc.), or in literal renderings of French speech, b L16 French History (A title of) a female member of the French royal family, specifically the eldest daughter of the French king or the dauphin (cf. Mademoiselle 3). c Mi9 Used as a title (preceding a name) by a business-

(more widely) a married

madeleine

/'madlein/ noun M19 French

(probably from Madeleine Paulmier, nineteenth-century French pastry-cook). A (kind of) small rich cake, in French cookery baked in a fluted tin, and in English cookery usually baked in a dariole mould and decorated with coconut and jam.

Mademoiselle /madmwazel/, /.madam mademoiselle) plural Mesdemoiselles /medmwazel/, /.medm wa'zel/, /.meidamwa'zel/, Mademoiselles /madmwazel/, /.madamwa'zelz/ LME Old French. 1 LME Used as a title (preceding a name) of or as a respectful form of address to an unmarried Frenchwoman or (more widely) an unmarried woman of

wa'zel/ noun (also

any non-British nationality (corresponding to English Miss), or in literal renderings of French speech. Also used as a respectful form of address to a French governess or a female French teacher in an English-speaking school. 2 M17 A woman usually addressed or referred to as Mademoiselle ’; an unmarried Frenchwoman; a French governess. 3 L17 French History (A title of) the eldest daughter of the eldest brother (known as ‘Monsieur’) of the French king. Later, (a title of) the French king’s eldest daughter or (if he had no daughter) the unmarried princess ‘

most 2b).

closely related to

4

L19

A

soura, of the

called

croaker

him

southern United

silver perch, yellowtail.

As a

title,

(cf.

madame

(fish), Bairdiella chry-

States. Also

United States.

usually abbreviated to Mile.

maderise

241

maderise

/maderize/ adjective M20 French (past participle of maderiser). Of wine: affected with the brown discoloration that afflicts white wines that have been stored too long or under unsuitable conditions.

Madonna

/ma'dnna/ noun (also madonna) L16 Italian (from ma old unstressed form of mia my (from Latin mea) + donna lady (from Latin domina)). 1 a L16 Used as a respectful form of address to an Italian woman, or in literal renderings of Italian speech, b E17 An Italian woman, rare. 2 M17 The or the Virgin Mary; a picture or statue of the Virgin Mary. 3 M19 A hairstyle in which the hair is parted in the centre and arranged smoothly on either side of the face, as in certain Italian representations of the Virgin Mary. More fully

Madonna

braid.

madrasah

/ma'drasa/ noun (also medresseh /ms'dresei/ and other variants) M17 Arabian (madrasa, noun of place from darasa to study). A Muslim college.

maestrale

noun L16 Italian (from medieval Latin matricqlis mother: cf. medieval Latin ecclesia matrix mother /'madrig(a)l/

church). 1 L16 A short lyrical love poem. 2 L16 Music A part-song for several voices, specifically one of a sixteenth- or seven-

teenth-century Italian style, arranged in elaborate counterpoint, and sung without instrumental accompaniment. Also, a fourteenth-century Italian pastoral song of several stanzas. 3 L16 generally A song,

maestria

/mAi'strba/ noun Li9 Italian (from Latin magisterium, from magister master). Skill, mastery.

maestro

mAistrau/, foreign /ma'estro/ plural maestri /'mAistri:/, foreign

noun

/'

maestros

(from Latin magister master). 1 a E18 An expert in music: a great musical composer, teacher, or conductor, b M20 transferred A great performer or leader in any art, profession, etc. 2 E20 The maestrale. /ma'sstri/,

I.a

Italian

1996 Spectator had some I

reservations



about Bernard Haitink’s conducting unusually him (normally the most cushioning of maestros) he seemed at times to be pushing too hard for

.

Mafia

.

/'mafia/

M19 Italian

noun

(also mafia, maffia)

= bragging, specifi-

((Sicilian)

towards the law and its upholders, frequently as manifested in vindictive crimes). 1 M19 the Mafia, an organized secret society of criminals, originating in Sicily but now operating internationally, especially in the United States. 2 M20 generally Any group regarded as exerting a secret and often sincally hostility

2 1995 Private Eye Crofton himself

madrilene E20 French

/madri'lim/, /madri'len/ noun

consomme' a la) madrilene, of or pertaining to Madrid). A clear soup usually served cold. ((

maelstrom

maalstroom), from maalen to grind, whirl round + stroom

stream whence the Scandinavian forms (e.g. Swedish malstrom, Danish malstrom). 1 L17 A great whirlpool, originally one in the Arctic Ocean off the west coast of Norway, formerly supposed to suck in and destroy all vessels that ventured near it. 2 M19 figurative A state of turbulence or confusion. /mAi'staus au/ adverb, adjective, & noun E18 Italian (= majestic, from maesta from Latin majestas, majestatis majesty).

A

adverb

&

tion:) majestic(ally).

L19

A

adjective E18 (A direc-

B noun

majestic

plural

maes-

or

move-

piece

now

having accused a black colleague ... of

in

failing

these allegations.

to deal with

/mafi'ausao/ noun plural Mafiosi

Mafiosos feminine Mafiosa

/mafi'ausi/,

/mafi'ausa/ (also mafioso, maffioso) L19 Italian (from as mafia). A member or sup-

porter of the Mafia or a mafia. 1996 Times: Weekend Adams’s new is

heavily laced with

the genre

the

in

new

all

thriller

.

.

.

.

.

the paraphernalia of

world order, including

post-Soviet Russian female mafiosi, a few

generals

mad

.

Magen David phrase E20

maestoso

is

trouble with the council’s race relations mafia

Mafioso /'meilstram/ noun L17 Early

Modern Dutch ((now

tosos ment.

E18

ister influence.

a ditty.

Music

/mAi'stradei/ noun Mis Italian

(from Latin magistral is (sc. ventus wind) from magister master; cf. mistral). Any of several mainly north-westerly winds which blow in the Mediterranean, especially a summer wind in the Adriatic, and a winter wind, milder than a mistral, in the west.

.

madrigal

magi

|

/mcc.gen

Hebrew

da:'vi:d/

(literally,

noun of

‘shield

David’ (king of Israel from c.1000 bc)). The Star of David, a six-pointed figure consisting of two interlaced equilateral triangles,

used as

a

symbol.

magi

plural of magus.

Jewish and

Israeli

magma

Mahdi

|

242

magma

/'magma/ noun LME Latin (from Greek, from base of massein to knead). 1 LME-M19 The dregs remaining after a semi-liquid substance has been pressed or evaporated. 2 L17 A mixture of mineral or organic substances having the consistency of paste. Now rare. 3 M19 Geology A hot fluid or semifluid material beneath the crust of the earth or other planet, from which igneous rocks are formed by cooling and which erupts as lava.

/.magna 'ka:ta/ noun phrase (also Magna Charta) L15 Medieval Latin (literally, ‘great charter’). The charter of English personal and political liberty obtained from King John in 1215; transferred

document

similar

establishing

rights.

/,magna

kAm

'la:di:/,

kum

'laudei/ adverb & adjective Latin (literally, ‘with great praise’). With or of great distinction; specifically (of a degree, diploma, etc.) of a higher standard than the average (though not the highest).

/,magna:

phrase

L19

Chiefly North American;

SUMMA CUM

cum laude,

LAUDE.

magna mater noun

cf.

plural

phrase

magnae

matres

/.magni: 'meitruz/, /,magnAi 'mcutreiz/ E18

Latin (literally, ‘great mother’). goddess; a fertility goddess.

magna opera

see

magnum

A mother-

opus.

magnificat /mag'mfikat/ noun ME Latin (2nd person singular present indicative of magnificare to magnify. 1 ME (the Magnificat) A canticle forming part of the Christian liturgy at evensong and vespers, and comprising the hymn of the Virgin Mary in Luke 1:46-55 (in the Vulgate beginning Magnificat anima mea Dominum). Also, the music to which this is set. 2 E17 transferred A song of praise.

magnifico

/mag'mfikau/ noun plural magnifico(e)s L16 Italian ((adjective) = magnificent). A magnate (originally a Venetian one); a grandee.

magnum

/'magnam/ noun &

Latin (use as

adjective L18

noun of neuter singular of

A

noun 1 L18 A bottle for wine, spirits, etc., twice the standard size, now usually containing 1.5 litres; the quantity of liquor held by such a bottle. 2 M20 (Also Magnum A Magnum revolver or cartridge (see sense B below). 3 M 20 Zoology The section of a bird’s oviduct

magnus

large).

)

which

secretes

albumen.

B

attributively

Magnum Of a )

more powsuggests. Of a gun:

than its calibre designed to fire such cartridges.

erful

2 L20

Large, oversized.

and

In the United States, senses A.2

B.l

are proprietary names.

B.2 1996 New Scientist All this, and much more, Lord Justice Scott relates in his magnum Arms-to-lraq report published last month.

/.magnam

'aupas/, /'upas/

magnum) plural magnum opuses, magna opera / magna

noun phrase (also opus

'aopara/, /.magna 'Dpara/ L18 Latin (= great

work). art,

A

great and usually large

work of most

literature, etc.; specifically the

important work of an

artist, writer, etc.

Magus) plural ME Latin (from Greek magos from Old Persian magus). 1 ME His-

magi

/'meigas/ noun (also

/'meickAi/

A member

of an ancient Persian priestly caste; transferred a magician, a sorcerer. 2 lme the (three) Magi, the three ‘wise men’ from the East who brought gifts to the infant Jesus (Matthew 2:1), a representation of these. tory

maharaja

/.magna 'meita/, /'ma:ta/

(Also

cartridge: adapted so as to be

magus

magna cum laude

M 20

1

magnum opus

Magna Carta

any

or as adjective

/,ma:(h) 0 'ra:c^a/,

/,

maha:'ra:d;a/

noun (also maharajah, maharaj /,ma:(h)a 'raids/, Maharaja) L17 Sanskrit maharaja from maha great + raj an raja). (The title of) an Indian prince of high rank. (

maharani

,

/,ma:(h)a'ra:ni/, /,maha:'ra:ni:/

noun (also maharanee, Maharani) M19 Hindustani maharani from Sanskrit ,

(

maha great

+ rdjhni ranee). (The title of)

the wife or

widow of a maharaja.

maharishi

noun (also Maharishi) L18 Sanskrit (alteration of Sanskrit maharsi, from maha great + rsi holy man). (The title of) a Hindu sage; generally (the title of) a popular leader of spiritual thought. Cf. guru. /,ma:(h)a'riJT/

mahatma

/ma'hatma/, /ma'haitma/ noun L19 Sanskrit mahatman, from maha great + atman soul). 1 L19 In the Esoteric Buddhism of members of the Theosophical Society: any of a class of people with preternatural powers, supposed to exist in the Indian subcontinent and Tibet; transferred a sage, an adept. 2 M20 Mahatma In the Indian subcontinent: (the title of) a revered person regarded with love and (

)

respect.

Mahdi

/'ma:di/ noun E19 Arabic ((al-)mahd i,

who

from passive participle of hada to lead on the right way, guide aright). In Muslim belief: literally, ‘he

is

rightly guided’,

mah-jong

243

the restorer of religion and justice who end of the world; a claimant of this title.

will rule before the

The Mahdi best known to history was Muof Dongola in Sudan who proclaimed himself such in 1881 and launched a political and revolutionary movement which overthrew the Turco-

hammad Ahmad

Egyptian regime.

mah-jong

noun

mah-

(also

E20 Chinese (dialect ma jiang sparrows). A game (originally Chinese) for

jongg)

tiles,

with 136 or 144 pieces called

divided into

/

French

five

or six suits.

noun phrase

.

maitre title

.

A

(literally, ‘tolerated house’).

licensed brothel. 1970 K. Chesney Victorian Underworld Conditioned by her existence in a maison toleree, she was very much in the hands the bawd to whom she was consigned.

same

/mat'd^rr)/

four, played

maison toleree meza talere/ L19

femme

maitresse

|

.

of

pronounced French (literally, ‘master’). The of or form of address to a French /me:tr(a)/ noun plural

L19

lawyer.

Also with the sense of ‘instructor’ in the phrases maitre d’armes and maitre de ballet; see also cher maitre, ma!tre d’hoTEL.

maillot /majo/ noun plural pronounced

same

2 E20 A usually one-piece, swimsuit.

L19 French.

tight-fitting,

3

M 20 A jersey,

maiolica

maison

L19 Tights.

1

a top.

variant of majolica.

meza/ noun plural pronounced In France and Frenchspeaking countries; a house; now usually a business (especially a fashion) house or /

same M16 French.

See phrases below and pate maison.

French

/msz5 kloz/ nc$m phrase M20 ‘closed

(literally,

A

house’).

brothel.

1939

E.

Ambler Mask of Dimitrios Your maison The

close must have proved disappointing. inevitable Armenian girls, of course.

maison de couture

/mez5 da kutyr/ noun phrase E20 French. A fashion house. 1970 S. J. Perelman Baby, it’s Cold Inside The rigors of squiring her through a score of

maisons de couture, jewelers', and unimaginable. shops were .

.

d’ /metr(a) da/; /.meitra

millinery

.

maison de passe

/meza da pas/ noun maison-de-passe) M20 phrase (also French (literally, ‘house of passage’). A house to which prostitutes can take cli-

'da/, /'di:/

noun phrase (also maitre de, /’da/) plural maitres d’, maitres de, (pronounced same) L19 French (colloquial abbreviation of ma!tre d’hotel). The manager of a hotel dining-room or restaurant, a head waiter.

1996 Times effete

[Flowers] conducted with small,

waves

of his baton, like the maitre d’ of

an upmarket restaurant waving towards their table.

firm.

maison clos

maitre

maitre d’armes

/metr(a) darm/

phrase L19 French

A

arms’).

his clients

(literally,

noun ‘master of

fencing instructor.

maitre de ballet

noun phrase E19 French. Ballet Originally, the composer of a ballet who superintended its production and performance; now, a trainer of ballet dancers.

maitre d’hotel

/metr(a) da bale/

/metr(a) dotel/, /.meitra

noun phrase plural maitres d’hotel (pronounced same) M16 French (liter1 M16 A ‘master of house’). ally, major-domo, a steward, a butler. 2 L19 A hotel manager. Now usually the manager of a hotel dining-room or restaurant, a dao'tel/

head waiter.

ents.

1960

B.

Marshall Divided Lady The hotel

we

drew up at eventually reminded me of a maison-de-passe used to know in Barcelona. I

maison de sante

/mez5 da sate/ noun phrase M19 French (literally, ‘house of health’). A nursing home, especially one for the mentally ill. 1942 A. Bridge Frontier Passage We don’t want him shut up

in

a

maison de sante

for

spy

mania.

maitres rals

d’,

maitres d’armes,

of maitre

d’,

maitresse en phrase

(

/meiza'net/ noun L 18

French

maisonnette diminutive of maison house). 2 E20 A part of a L18 A small house.

maitre d’armes,

plu-

etc.

titre /metres d titr/ noun maitresse-en-titre, mai-

(also

tresse en titre) plural maitresses en titre pronounced same M19 French (liter)

(

ally,

‘mistress in name’).

An

official

or ac-

knowledged mistress. 1973

Chandler Marlborough Arabella combining the roles of [Churchill] was maid-of-honour to the Duchess and maitresseen-titre to the Duke, to whom she bore several D.

.

maisonette

etc.

.

.

children.

1

residential separately, floor.

building which is occupied usually on more than one

maitresse

femme

/metres fam/ noun phrase M19 French. A strong-willed or

domineering woman.

.

.

maja

malaria

244

Hyams Final Agenda The widow was a maitresse femme whose place in the hierarchy was three steps higher than that of 1973

her

.

(

maja

/'maxa/ noun M19 Spanish. In Spain countries: a Spanish-speaking and woman who dresses gaily. Best

known

/maladif/

malade

(from

Romance, from

Majlis /madflis/ noun

(also majlis) E19 Ara-

from

bic (= place of session,

An assembly

for

jalasa to be

discussion,

a

council; specifically the Parliament of any of various North African or Middle East-

ern countries, especially Iran. Also, a ception room.

re-

past participle of

/ma'jnlika/, /ma'djnlika/

majuscule

/'madsaskjud/ adjective & noun E18 French (from Latin majuscula littera diminutive of major major). A adjective 1 E18 Typography Of a letter: capital, rare. 2 M19 Palaeography Of a letter: large (whether capital or uncial); pertaining to, of, or written in large lettering; designating or pertaining to a script having every letter bounded by the same two (imaginary) lines. B noun 1 E19 Typography A capital letter, rare. 2 M19 Palaeography A large letter, whether capital or uncial; (a manuscript in) large lettering or majuscule script. (

/ma'kAi/ adverb

&

waiian (from ma toward

adjective

)

M20 Ha-

+ kai the sea). In

Hawaii: in the direction of the sea, sea-

ward.

makimono

/maki'mono/, /maki'maunau/ noun plural same, makimonos L19 Japanese (= something rolled up, a scroll). A Japanese scroll containing a narrative, usually in pictures with explanatory writing, designed to be examined progres-

from right EMAKIMONO.

sively Cf.

ill,

habere to have, hold).

Sickly.

maladresse

/maladrss/, /mala'dres/ noun E19 French (from mal- bad, ill + adresse skill, dexterity). Lack of dexterity or tact;

awkwardness.

maladroit French

/'maladroit/

to left as

malade imaginaire

it is

unrolled.

/malad ima 3 in£r/ noun phrase plural malades imaginaires (pronounced same) E19 French. A person with an imaginary illness.

L17

adjective

(from mal- bad(ly) + adroit skilful).

Lacking in adroitness or dexterity; awkward, bungling, clumsy. 1996 Spectator He has tried to introduce a sense

noun & adjective (also maiolica /ma'jnlika/) M16 Italian (from the former name of the island of Majorca). A noun M16 A fine kind of Renaissance Italian earthenware with coloured decoration on an opaque white glaze; any of various other kinds of glazed Italian ware. Also, a modern imitation of this. B attributive or as adjective M19 Made of majolica.

makai

from

Proto+ Latin male badly habitus, sick,

of fun,

though sometimes the tone

childishly maladroit

majolica

Mt9 French

adjective

in English in the titles of

two of Goya’s paintings, the Naked Maja and the Clothed Maja. The equivalent male term majo (M19) is less common.

seated).

of a play by Moliere

title

1673 ).

maladif

husband.

.

the

After

E.

mala

fide /.meila

&

.

.

is

.

'fAidi:/,

/,mala

'fi:dei/

ad-

Latin (= with bad faith (ablative of next)). (Acting or done) in bad faith; insincere(ly), not genuverb

adjective phrase E17

in e(ly).

mala fides

/.meila 'fAidi:z/, /,mala 'fi:deiz/

noun phrase L17 Latin

Low Bad

mala

in

(=

bad

faith). Chiefly

faith, intent to deceive.

se

malaise

plural of

malum

in se.

M18 French (from Old French mal bad, ill (from Latin malus) + aise ease). A condition of bodily discomfort, especially one without the develop/ma'leiz/ noun

ment of

specific

disease;

a

feeling

of

uneasiness. Frequently figurative.

1996 Country

Life In his

opening analysis of

the Grecian malaise he describes

cause

is

ruined by ‘so

malapropos tive,

& noun

many

how

factions’

.

their .

/.malapra'pau/ adverb, adjec-

(also

mal-a-propos and other

variants) M17 French (mal a propos, from mal ill + d to + propos purpose). A adverb M17 In an inopportune or awkward manner; at

an inopportune or awkward time;

inappropriately.

B

adjective E18

Inoppor-

tune, inappropriate. C noun M19 An inopportune or inappropriate thing. /ma'le:ria/ noun M 18 Italian (mal’ mala aria bad air). Originally, an unwholesome condition of the atmosphere in hot countries due to the exhalations of marshes, to which fevers were ascribed. Now (also malaria fever), any of a class of intermittent and remittent febrile diseases formerly supposed to result from this cause, but now known to be due to infection with parasitic protozoans of the genus'Plasmodium, transmitted by the bite of a mosquito of the genus Anopheles.

malaria aria =

mal de mer

/mal da mer/ noun phrase L18 French. Seasickness.

mal du siecle

/mal dy sjekl/ noun phrase E20 French. World-weariness, weariness of life, deep melancholy because of the condition of the world.

malebolge

/male

/mali'bDlc^ei/, foreign

noun M19 Italian Malebolge from male feminine plural of malo evil + bolge plural of bolgia literally ‘sack, bag’). A pool of filth; a hellish place or condi'bDld^e/

,

(

tion.

H In literary use only. Malebolge was the name given in Dante’s Inferno to the eighth of ten rock-bound concentric circular trenches (see especially circle in hell, consisting

Canto

xviii).

maleesh

/'ma:li:J7 interjection

Arabic (colloquial)

A

manana

mal de mer

245

ma

No

interjection E20

B noun M 20

(

& noun

E 20

never mind). matter! never mind! ‘ale-s

/mal el(a)ve/ adjective phrase (feminine mal elevee) L19 French (= badly up).

Bad-mannered,

mal-entendu E17

/malatady/

French (from mal

ill-bred.

adjective

& noun

+ entendu past

of entendre to hear, underadjective Mistaken, misappre-

participle

A

stand).

ill

hended. Only in pronounced same)

B noun

E17.

L18

A

(plural

misunderstand-

ing.

malerisch

man

/'ma:larij/ adjective

(= painterly,

from Maler

M20 Ger-

painter). (Of

characterized more by the merging of colours than by a formal linear style; painterly. painting)

H A term used by Heinrich Wolfflin

in his

Kunstgeschichtliche Grundbegriffe (1915).

1955 Times

This

is

... a resuscitation of the

great malerisch tradition, which

those

who

was

rejected by

thought they were following

Cezanne.

/malgre/ preposition E16 French. In spite of, notwithstanding.

noun M19 Aboriginal. Any of various low-growing eucalypts which have many slender stems rising from a large underground stock; scrub or thicket formed by such trees, typical of

some

/'mali:/

arid parts of Australia.

malpais

/,malpa:'i:s/ noun M19 Spanish (from malo bad + pais country, region). Rugged or difficult country of volcanic

origin. United States.

malum

in

mal vu

/mal vy/

‘badly seen’).

(literally,

French Held in low es-

adjective phrase E20

teem, looked down on. 1958 L. Durrell Mountolive He old-fashioned reactionary

in

is

.

.

rather an

.

his outlook,

consequently rather mal vu by

and

is

his brother

craftsmen.

mamaloi

/'mam(a)lwa:/ noun plural mamalois, same L19 Haitian (creole mamalwa, from mama mother + Iwa loa). A

voodoo

priestess. Cf. papaloi.

mama-san

/'mamasan/

noun

plural

mama-sans, same M20 Japanese (from mama mother + san). In Japan and the Far

woman

East: a

in a position of authority,

one in charge of a geisha-

specifically

house; the mistress of a bar.

/'mambau/ noun plural mambos M 20 American Spanish (probably from Haitian creole, from Yoruba, literally, ‘to talk’). 1 M20 A kind of rumba, a ballroom dance of Latin American origin; a piece of music for this dance. 2 M20 A voodoo priestess.

mamzer

/'mAmza/ noun

momzer,

/'rrmmza/)

(also

plural

momser,

mamzerlm

/'mAmzarim/, mamzers M16 Late Latin (from Hebrew mamzer ). A person conceived in a forbidden sexual union, especially as defined by rabbinical tradition. 99

In

contemporary colloquial speech often

used, like ‘bastard’, as a term of abuse or familiarity.

mana

/'mama/ noun M19 Maori. Power, authority, prestige; Anthropology an impersonal supernatural power which can be associated with people or with objects and which can be transmitted or inherited.

malgre mallee

cially in legal contexts.

mambo

Indifference, slackness.

mal eleve brought

Medieval Latin (= bad in itself). (A thing) intrinsically evil or wicked, espe/'mala/ E17

se /.malam

adjective phrase plural

in

'si:/, /'sei/

noun & in se

of noun mala

New Zealand. Lodge Therapy Actresses and production assistants and publicity girls and P

Originally

1995

D.

secretaries



successful

writer.

manana

all

susceptible to the

mana

of a

& morning, tomorrow

/ma'jiana/, /man'jama/ adverb

noun M19 Spanish

(=

sense from Old Spanish eras manana, literally, ‘tomorrow early’) ultimately from Latin mane in the morning). Tomorrow, (on) the day after today; (in) the infuture (from the supposed definite easy-going procrastination of Spain and (in this

Spanish-speaking countries). 1995 Oldie And ... of course the damage would be paid

for

.

.

.

manana.

mancala

manna

mancala

/man'kcute/

246

((colloquial) mankala,

move, take away).

A

noun Mi9 Arabic

from nakala

to re-

board game for two but now com-

players, originally Arabic

mon

throughout Africa and Asia, played on a special board with rows of holes or hollows.

mancando

/man'kando/,

adjective

&

failing).

Music

even

softer,

mandala

/man'kandau/

adverb E19 Italian (= lacking, (A

becoming

direction:)

/'mandate/, /'mAndala/ noun M19

Sanskrit mandala disc, circle). A symbolic circular figure, usually with symmetrical divisions and figures of deities, etc., in the centre, used in Buddhism and other religions as a representation of the universe; Jungian Psychology an archetype of a similar circle, held to symbolize a striving for unity of self and completeness. (

mandat

/mada/ (plural same), /'mandat/ noun M19 French (from Latin mandatum use as noun of neuter past participle of mandare to command, enjoin, entrust, from manus hand). 1 M19 History A paper money issued by the revolutionary government of France from 1796 to 1797. 2 L19 In France: a money order. 1939 E. Ambler Mask of Dimitrios received here a letter from him enclosing a mandat for I

the three thousand francs.

poncho.

manga

/'marjga/ noun 2 L20 Japanese. A Japanese comic book or strip. 1996 Independent The biggest trend, though, the continual advance of the Japanese manga, and lately, the first co-operations between Japanese publishers and western is

mange-tout

/'md 3 tu:/, /md 3 'tu:/ noun plu-

same, mange-touts (pronounced same) E19 French (literally, ‘eat-all’). A variety of pea of which the pods are eaten whole with the seeds they contain. Also ral

mange-tout pea. Also called sugar pea or sugar snap.

manicotti /mam'knti/ noun

plural

M20

Italian (plural of manicotto sleeve, muff).

Large tubular pasta shells; an Italian dish consisting largely of these and usually a sauce.

/manjere/ adjective M 18 French. Affected or characterized by mannerism,

maniere

mannered.

maniere criblee

/manjer krible/ noun phrase E20 French, crible engraving.

manifesto noun

(also

(the

usual form in sense 2) mandoline) E18 French mandoline from Italian mandolino diminutive of mandola ). 1 E18 A musical instrument of the lute kind having from four to six paired metal strings stretched on a deeply-rounded body, usually played with a plectrum. 2 M20 A kitchen utensil fitted with cutting blades and used for (

slicing vegetables.

mandorla /man'do:te/ noun L19 Italian (= almond). An almond-shaped panel or decorative space in religious art.

manege

/'maqga/ noun 1 E19 Spanish (literally, ‘sleeve’, from Latin manica). A Mexican and Spanish-American cloak or

artists.

dying away.

mandolin /'mandahn/

manga

/ma'nei 3 / noun (also

manege)

/mani'festau/ noun plural manifestos, manifestoes M17 Italian (from manifestare to show, display, from

Latin manifestus from manus hand + -festus struck). A public declaration or proclamation; especially a printed declaration or explanation of policy (past, present, or future) issued by a

monarch.

State, polit-

party or candidate, or any other individual or body of individuals of public relevance. ical

manna

/'mane/ noun oe Late Latin (from

Greek from Aramaic manna from Hebrew man corresponding to AraHellenistic

mann exudation of the tamarisk Tamarix mannifera). 1 OE The edible substance described as miraculously supplied to the Israelites in the wilderness (Exodus 16). 2 ME Spiritual nourishment, especially the Eucharist; something beneficial provided unexpectedly (frequently manna from heaven ). II 3 LME A sweet hardened flaky exudation obtained from the

bic

I

M17 French (from Italian maneggio from maneggiare from Proto-Romance from Latin manus hand). 1 M17 A riding-school. 2 L18 The movements in which a horse is trained in a riding-school; the art or practice of training and managing horses;

horsemanship.

manes Latin.

/'mameiz/, 1

lme

plural

dead ancestors 2 L17 singular The

/'meini:z/

The

noun

lme

deified souls of

beneficent spirits). spirit or shade of a dead person, considered as an object of reverence or as demanding to be propitiated. (as

manna-ash and used

as a mild laxative. similar exudation from other plants and certain insects. 4 LME-M18 (A grain of) frankincense. 5 L17-E18 Chemistry A -fine white precipitate. 6 L18 The seeds of the floating sweet-grass, Glyceria

Also,

a

mannequin

247

used

fluitans,

as

food.

In

full

Polish

manna. /'manikin/, /'mamkwm/ noun M18 French (from Dutch manneken diminutive of man man). 1 M18 A model of a human figure; an artist’s lay figure; a

dummy for the 2 E20 A woman

display of clothes etc. (or occasionally a man) employed by a dressmaker, costumier, etc., to display clothes by wearing them; a

model.

mano

/'mano/, /'ma:nau/ noun plural manos /'manos/, /'marnaoz/ E 20 Spanish (= hand). Anthropology A primitive hand-

stone

Americas

implement,

used

in

the

for grinding cereals etc.

mano a mano /,ma:nao a 'ma:nao/ foreign /,mano a 'mano/ adjective, adverb, & noun phrase (also mano-a-mano) L 20 Spanish (= hand to hand). A adjective & adverb phrase L20 Hand to hand; one to one; face to face. B noun phrase L20 A confrontation, a duel.

mantilla

/man'tila/ noun Ei8

minutive of manta mantle).

/manwar/ noun plural pronounced same M19 Frenc^i. A French manor-house; a country house built in the style of a French manor-house.

manque

/make/, /'mnrjkei/ adjective (femi-

nine manquee) L18 French (past participial adjective of manquer to lack). 1 postpositive L18 That might have been but is not, that has missed being. 2 predicative L18 Defective, spoilt,

missing, lack-

ing.

1996 Times Magazine The subway genius probably ... a writer manque, since many of 1

chosen

is

citations deal with creating

Spanish 1

mantra

/'mantra/ noun (also (rare) mantram /'mantram/) L18 Sanskrit (literally, ‘thought’, from man to think). A sacred Hindu text or passage, especially one from the Vedas used as a prayer or incantation; in Hinduism and Buddhism, a holy name or word, for inward meditation; transferred and figurative a repeated phrase or sentence, a formula, a refrain. 1995 Spectator The Princess ‘just wants to be happy’. She wants everyone to be happy. We know this because she has said time and it

time again,

like

a mantra.

manyatta /man'jata/ noun E 20 Masai. Among certain African peoples, espea unit within a

manzanilla foreign

group of huts forming

common

fence.

/manza'mla/, /manza'ni:lja/; /mansa'ni(l)ja/

/man0a'ni(l)ja/,

noun M19 Spanish (literally, ‘camomile’). 1 M19 A kind of pale very dry sherry; a drink or glass of this. 2 E20 A variety of thindistinguished by small olive, skinned fruit.

maquereau

/makro/ noun plural maL19 French (literally, ‘mackerel’). A pimp. Colloquial, also used as a term of

quereaux /makro/

abuse.

goes 1971 D. Wallis Bad Luck Girl No girl lead you to some on ship these days. They place where her maquer[e]au can slug you. .

manso

/'manso/ noun & adjective plural Spanish. (A person is) meek, tame, or cowardly.

mansos /'mansos/ M19 who or animal which

Especially in the context of bullfighting.

manta ket).

/'manta/ noun L17 Spanish

1 L17

In Spain

(=

blan-

and Spanish-speaking

countries: a wrap, a cloak. 2 M18 A very large tropical ray of the genus Manta or

the family Mobulidae. More fully manta ray. Also called devilfish.

mantelletta mantellettas,

/manti'leta/

mantellette

noun

plural

/manti'leti/

(probably from medieval M19 Latin mantelletum from Latin mantellum mantle). Roman Catholic Church A sleeveless vestment reaching to the knees, worn by Italian

(di-

light

frequently of black lace, worn over the head and shoulders, especially by Spanish women. 2 M19 A small cape or mantle.

.

literature.

A

E 18

scarf,

cially the Masai: a

manoir

his

and other high-rank-

ing ecclesiastics.

mannequin

held

cardinals, bishops,

maquiladora

.

.

.

.

maquette

/ma'ket/ noun E20 French (from Italian macchietta speck, diminutive of macchia spot, from macchiare to spot, from Latin maculare to stain). A small preliminary sketch or wax or clay model from which a sculpture is elaborated.

maquiladora

noun L20 Mexican Spanish (from maquilar to assemble). A factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company. 1996 M. Anderson Frontiers The attributive 1965 maquiladora programme to attract US /.makila'dora/

industry into the frontier region of Mexico

northern Mexico US labour costs and lower both face firms would environmental and less exacting health explicitly stated that in

regulations.

mare clausum

maquillage

248

maquillage

/makija3/ noun L19 French (from maquiller to make up one’s face, from Old French masquiller to stain, alteration of mascurer to darken). Make-up, cosmetics; the application of this. 1959 R. Graves Collected Poems Confirming hazardous relationships By kindly maquillage of Truth’s pale

maquilie

lips.

/makije/ adjective (feminine maWearing cosmetics,

quillee) E20 French.

made

noun plural same M19 French (from as macchia). 1 M19 The dense scrub characteristic of certain Med/'ma:ki:/

iterranean coastal regions, especially in Corsica. 2 M20 History (usually Maquis) A member of the French resistance movement during the German occupation (1940-5). b M20 A member of any resistance group or army.

The maquis scrub was the traditional hiding place for fugitives, hence the connection between senses 1 and 2.

maquisard /,ma:ki:'sa:/ noun M 20 A member of the Maquis.

marabou

/'marabu:/ noun

&

French.

adjective (also

maribou marabout) /'maribu:/, E19 French (from Arabic murabit holy man (see next), the stork being regarded as holy).

A

noun

1

E19

A

tropical African

stork, Leptoptilus crumeniferus. Also mara-

bou

Corinthians B noun M17 (By a misunderstanding of 1 Corinthians 16:22:) a portentously intensified

coming of the

16:22: at the

anathema; a

1

Lord.

terrible curse.

More

fully

anathema maranatha. C interjection L19 In the early Church: expressing a deep longing for the coming of the Lord.

maraschino

/mara'skimau/, /mara noun plural maraschinos L18 Italian. A strong sweet red liqueur distilled from the marasca cherry. figurative 1995 Times God, what would those of us cursed with wen and crow’s-foot and 'fi:nao/

up.

maquis

LME In translations of

verb

stork.

2 E19

A tuft

of soft white

down

from the wings or tail of this stork, used for trimming hats etc.; collectively trimming made of this down. 3 M19 An exceptionally white kind of raw silk which can be dyed without first removing the natural gum and is used in crepe weaving. B adjective E19 Made of marabou.

marabout

/'marebu:t/ noun E17 French (from Portuguese marabuto from Arabic

murabit, from ribat frontier station, where merit could be acquired by combat against the infidel). 1 E17 A Muslim holy

man

or mystic, especially in North Africa. 2 M19 A shrine marking the burial place of a marabout.

blackhead and the maraschino mappings of bust capillaries not give for the secrets of

Douglas’s posset-pot!

marc

/ma:k/ noun E17 French (from marcher to walk (originally, to tread, trample, ultimately from late Latin marcus hammer)). 1 E17 The refuse of processed grapes etc. 2 M19 A brandy made from this. Also marc brandy.

marcato

/ma:'ka:t0u/ adverb

&

adjective

M19 Italian (past participle of marcare to mark, accent, of Germanic origin). Music (With each note) emphasized.

Marchen

/'me:rgan/ noun plural same marchen) L19 German (= fairy tale from Middle High German merechyn short verse narrative, from Middle High German maere (Old High German mart) news, famous, ultimately from Germanic). A (also

folk-tale, a fairy tale.

marcottage

/ma:kD'ta:3/,

/mm'knticfe/

noun E20 French (= layering). Horticulture A method of propagating plants in which an incision is made below a joint or node and covered with a thick layer of moss etc., into which new roots grow.

Mardi gras French

/,ma:di 'gra:/ noun phrase L17

(literally,

‘fat

Tuesday’).

Shrove

Tuesday, celebrated in some Roman Catholic countries with a carnival; the last day of a carnival etc., especially in France; Australia a carnival or fair at any time.

maraca

/ma'raka/ noun (also maracca) maraca from Tupi maraka). A Latin American percussion instrument made from a hollow gourd or gourd-shaped container filled with beans etc., and usually shaken in pairs. Usually E17

Portuguese

Marechaussee)

maranatha

/marejose/ plural

noun

(also

pronounced same

cie).

French (from Old French mareschauHistory A French military force under

the

command

L18

and

in plural.

interjection

marechaussee

(

colloquial),

of a marshal. Now {jocular the French police, the

gendarmerie. /mara'naOa/ adverb, noun,

(also

&

Maranatha) LME Greek

(from Aramaic maran ’ta our Lord has come, or maraud ta O Lord, come). A ad-

mare /,mE:ri

clausum ;

/,ma:rei

'klausum/,

kb:zam/ noun phrase plural maria

clausa /,ma:ri0

'klaosa/, /,me:ri 0 'kb:z 0 /

mare liberum

249

|

marocain

closed sea). A sea under the jurisdiction of a particular country.

marimba /ma'rimba/ noun E 18 Congolese. A kind of deep-toned xylophone, originat-

The title of a work published in 1635 by the English jurist John Selden (1584-1654), in answer to Grotius (see mare liberum). The terms mare clausum and mare liberum both originated in the struggle between the Dutch and English maritime empires in the seventeenth century.

ing in Africa and consisting of wooden keys on a frame with a tuned resonator

M17 Latin

(=

mare liberum

/,ma:rei 'li:barum/, /.mexi

'Lvibaram/ noun phrase plural maria libera /.maxia 'li:bara/, /,me:ria 'Lvibara/ M17 Latin (= free sea). A sea open to all nations. Cf.

The

MARE CLAUSUM.

title

of a treatise (1609) by

Dutch

tius (1583-1645),

Hugo

Gro-

jurist.

maremma

/ma'rema/ noun plural mar/ma'rsmi/ M19 Italian (from Latin maritima feminine of maritimus mari-

emme

low marshy unhealthy country by the seashore; an area of this. In

time).

Italy:

/mari'cutji/ noun M 20 Mexican Spanish (mariache, mariachi An itinerant Mexican folk band (also mariachi band); a member of such a band.

mariachi

).

maria clausa

manage

blanc /marja 3

bid/ noun phrase

manages blancs (pronounced

plural

same) E20 French riage’).

1975

ma£e clausum.

plural of

‘white marmarriage.

(literally,

An unconsummated

suggested a manage blanc between Natalie and Bosie that would enable Opal and Bosie to have a lasting Listener Opal

.

.

.

liaison.

manage de convenance

/marja 3 da

manages de

kavnds/ noun phrase plural

convenance

(pronounced same) marriage of convenience.

French. A 1995 Country

Life

The

following year,

Sonia Delaunay] entered a

brief

maria libera

.

.

she

[sc.

manage de

convenance with the homosexual Wilhelm Uhde

M19

art dealer

.

plural of

mare liberum.

beneath each

key.

marina

/ma'rima/ noun E19 Italian and Spanish (feminine of marino from Latin marinus marine). A harbour, usually specially designed or located, with moorings for yachts and other small craft.

marinade

noun E 18 French (from Spanish marinada, from marinar to pickle in brine (= Italian marinare, French mariner), from marino, from Latin marinus marine). A flavouring and tenderizing mixture of wine, vinegar or other acidic liquid, with oil, herbs, spices, etc., in which meat, fish, etc., may be soaked before cooking; the meat, fish, etc., thus /mari'neid/

soaked.

marinara

/maxi'naxa/, /mari'naxa/

adjec-

M20 Italian (alia marinara sailor-fashion, from feminine of marinero seafaring). Designating a sauce made from tomative

toes, onions, herbs, etc., usually served

with pasta.

marinera

/mari'nera/ noun E 20 Spanish (feminine of marinero marine, seafaring). A lively South American dance. Also called cueca.

marionette

French from Marion diminutive of Marie Mary). A puppet with jointed limbs operated by strings. /.maria'nst/ noun E17

(marionnette,

maris complaisants

plural

of mari

COMPLAISANT.

marivaudage

/marivoda 3 / noun Mis French (from P. C. de Marivaux (16881763), French novelist and dramatist). Exaggeratedly sentimental or affected style,

language, etc., vaux. 1969 Observer

It

of Mari-

characteristic

[sc.

lesbianism]

is

a tricky

subject, poised on the brink of either tiresome

maribou(t) variant of marabou.

marivaudage or tasteless

kapleza/ noun

marmite

phrase plural maris

/marmit/

nounced same)

complaisants (proFrench. A husband tol-

1

mari complaisant /mari L19

erant of his wife’s adultery. 1958 L. Durrell Justine She was reputed have had many lovers, and Nessim was

to

/'ma:mAit/, in sense (plural

same

)

1

also foreign

noun E19 French.

An earthenware

cooking-vessel.

2 E20 (also Marmite) (Proprietary name savoury extract made from fresh brewer’s yeast, used especially in sandfor) a

wiches and for flavouring.

regarded as a mari complaisant.

marijuana /mari'hwama/,

E19

filiation.

/.marjo'ccna/

noun (also marihuana) L19 American Spanish. 1 L19 Cannabis, especially in a form for smoking. 2 E20 Indian hemp, cannabis plant.

marocain

/mara'kein/ noun & adjective F.20 French (from Maroc Morocco). A noun E20 (A garment made from) a crepe fabric of silk or wool or both. B adjective L20 Made

of marocain.

Masorah

maror maror

250

noun L19 Hebrew (maror). Bitter herbs eaten at the Passover Seder service as a reminder of the bitterness of /ma:'ra:/

the Israelites’ captivity in Egypt.

/ma:k/ noun E20 French (backformation from marquer to mark or brand, alteration of Old French merchier, from mere limit, of Scandinavian origin

Old High German marc(h)a mark)). A or brand of something, especially a

make

motor

vehicle.

Life All this might give the impression that Rafael Gonzalez is an ancient and noble marque

marquise same

ral

)

marquis

.

/ma:'ki:z/, foreign /markiz/ (plu-

noun E17 French (feminine of marquess, from Old French

)

tinental Europe or (formerly) Britain. 2 E18 A variety of pear. 3a L18 A marquee.

b L19 A permanent canopy projecting over the entrance to a hotel, theatre, etc. Also called marquee. 4 L19 A finger-ring set with a pointed oval gem or cluster of gems. Also more fully rare or obsolete,

marquise ring.

marquisette

/ma:ki'zet/ noun

&

adjective

E20 French (diminutive of marquise). (Of) a plain gauze dress fabric originally made

from

silk, later

from cotton.

marron

/'marnn/, foreign /mar5/ noun L16 French. A large and particularly sweet kind of chestnut.

Now

chiefly in

marron

marron glace /,mamn

'glasei/, foreign

chestnut preserved in syrup as a sweet. /'ma:t(a)lei/

adjective,

adverb,

&

noun L19 French (past participle of marteler to

hammer). Music Martellato.

only with reference to bowed stringed instruments (cf. Martellato).

Used

martellato /madi'laitau/ adjective, adverb, & noun L19 Italian (past participle of martellare to hammer). Music A adjective & adL19 (Played) with notes heavily accented and left before their full time has expired. B noun E20 Martellato playverb

ing.

martyrion

/madsa'kntau/, /ma:za 'kDtau/ noun plural marzacottos L19 Italian. A transparent glaze used by Italian majolica workers.

noun plural same E20 Provencal. farm, house, or cottage in the south of

France. 1996 Times Magazine

/mai'tirian/ noun (also in Latin

form martyrium /ma:'tinam/) plural of both martyria /mcu'tina/ E18 Greek. A shrine, oratory, or church built in mem-

houses

... the

themselves, no longer dilapidated, but restored through lavish investment of care and understanding centuries-old village houses, abandoned mas or farmhouses, grand bastides, dressed up for today’s tastes but



retaining their nobility.

masa

/'masa/ noun E 20 Spanish. In Central and South American cuisine, a type

made from cornmeal and used

of dough to

make

masala

tortillas etc.

Urdu

/ma'sa:la/ noun L 18

(masalah from Persian and Urdu masalih from Arabic masdlilj). Any of various spice mixtures ground into a paste or powder for use in Indian cookery; a dish flavoured

with

this. Cf.

GARAM MASALA.

mascara

/ma'ska:ra/ noun & verb L19 Italian (mascara, maschera mask). A noun L19

A

cosmetic for darkening and colouring the eyelashes. B transitive verb M20 Put

mascara on.

mascaron

glace.

/mar5 glase/ noun phrase plural marrons glaces (pronounced same) L19 French. A

martele

marzacotto

A

.

marchis (later altered to marquis after Provencal marques, Spanish marques from Proto-Romance base of march border). 1 E17 (The title of) a marchioness in Con-

Now

adjective /marksizd/ (also marxisant) M20 French (from Marxiste Marxist). Having Marxist leanings.

mas /ma/

1996 Country

.

tyr’s relics.

Marxisant

marque

(cf.

ory of a martyr; a building marking the place of a martyrdom or the site of a mar-

/maskar5/

same),

(plural

/'maskar(a)n/ noun M17 French (from Italian mascherone, from maschera mask). Decorative Arts A grotesque face or mask.

mascarpone /,maskar'po:ne/ noun M20 Italian. A soft mild Italian cream cheese.

mashallah tion E19

God

/ma'Jala/, /,ma:Ja:'la:/ interjec-

Arabic (ma

sa’llah).

(This

is)

what

wills.

Used as an expression of praise or

res-

ignation.

masjid abic.

/'

mAScfeid/, /'mascfcid/

noun M19 Ar-

A mosque.

Masorah

/masa'ra:/, /ma'sa:ra/ noun (also

Massorah, Masora)

E17

Hebrew

(variant

of masoret bond (Ezekiel 20:37), from ‘asar to bind (later interpreted as ‘tradition’ as if from masar to hand down)). The body of traditional information and comment relating to the text of the Hebrew Scrip-

massage

251

compiled by Jewish scholars in the tenth century and earlier; the collection of critical notes in which this information is preserved. tures,

massage

/'masa:3/, /ma'sa 13/, /'masccds/

noun & verb L19 French (from masser to apply massage to, perhaps from Portuguese amassar to knead). A noun 1 L19 The application (usually with the hands) of pressure and strain on the muscles and joints of the body by rubbing, kneading, etc., in order to stimulate their action

and increase their suppleness; an

in-

stance or spell of such manipulation. 2 E 20 euphemistic The services of prostitutes. Chiefly in massage parlour. B transi-

H9 Apply massage

to kill).

task

to kill the bull.

is

games

in

ulate (data,

figures,

etc.),

especially in

order to give a more acceptable result.

masse /'masei/ adjective & noun H9 French (past participle of masser to play a

masse

from masse mace). Billiards etc. (Designating) a stroke made with the cue more or less vertical, so as to impart extra ? swerve to the cue-ball. stroke,

massecuite (literally,

/mas'kwi:t/ noun L19 French ‘cooked mass’). The juice of

sugar cane after concentration by

boil-

masseur seuse

/ma'sa:/ noun (feminine

mas-

French (from masser massage to). A person who provides massage (professionally).

solo);

matched

are

so as to

a total of seven; any of the dominoes which have seven spots altogether, together with the double blank.

matchet

mate

variant of machete.

/'matei/ noun Ei8

Spanish mate from (

Quechua mati). 1 E18 A gourd, calabash, etc., in which the leaves of the shrub mate are infused. Also mate-cup. 2 M 18 (An infusion of) the leaves of a South Amshrub, flex paraguariensis; the Also more fully yerba mate.

itself.

matelasse

/mat(a)'lasei/,

/matlase/ (plural same) noun

foreign

&

adjective

matelasse) L19 French (past participle of matelasser to quilt, from matelas mattress). A noun L19 A silk or wool fabB adjective L19 ric with a raised design. Having a raised design like quilting. (also

matelot

/'matlau/

sailor).

2 E20

A

A

E20

1

noun E 20 French sailor,

nautical

(=

slang.

shade of blue.

1995 Spectator When

Floyd cooks for, say, a you never know whether they really enjoyed his bouillabaisse or whether they are just doing it to please him. 1

crew

ing.

2 L17 In

make

shrub

to; treat

whose some card-

bullfighter

ombre,

(as quadrille,

which halves

erican

1

L17

1

any of the highest trumps so designated by the rules of the game. 3 M19 A domino game

by

verb

A

matar

means of massage, b L 20 Rub (lotion etc.) into by means of massage. 2 M20 Manip-

tive

materfamilias

of matelots,

/ma'sa:z/) L19

to apply

matelote

(plural same)

/'masif/, /ma'si:f/, foreign /masif/

same noun E16 French (use as noun of massif massive). 1 E16 A block of building. Passing into figurative use of sense 2. 2 L19 A large mountain-mass; a compact group of mountain heights. 3 L19 Horticulture A mass or clump of plants. plural

(

foreign

/matlat/

noun E18 French (from as pre-

A

dish of fish etc. served in a sauce of wine, onions, etc.

ceding).

massif

/’mat(a)laut/,

)

Massorah

variant of masorah.

mater

/'meita/

noun L16 Latin

The thickest plate of an

‘mother’).

1

astrolabe.

2 M19 Mother.

Sense 2 slang;

cf.

is

L16

chiefly jocular or in school

pater.

Mater Dolorosa

mastaba

(literally,

/,

meita dnla'rausa/ noun

/'mastaba/ noun (also mastabah) E17 Arabic (mistaba, mas-). 1 E17 In

phrase plural Matres

Islamic countries: a (stone) bench or seat attached to a house. 2 L19 Archaeology An ancient Egyptian flat-topped tomb, rectangular or square in plan and with sides sloping outward to the base. Also mastaba tomb.

the Virgin Mary, as having a role in the Passion of Christ; a representation, in painting or sculpture, of the Virgin Mary sorrowing; transferred a woman resembling the sorrowful Virgin in appearance, manner,

mastika

/ma'sti:ka/

Greek mastikha mastic gum. (

matador senses

).

A

noun

E 20

Modern

liquor flavoured with

/'matado:/ noun (also (especially

2, 3)

matadore)

L17

Spanish (from

dDla'raosi:/

Dolorosae E19 Medieval Latin

‘sorrowful mother’). (A

/,meitri:z (literally,

title of)

etc.

materfamilias

/.meitafa'mihas/ noun Mi8

Latin (from mater + familias old genitive of familia family). The female head of a family or household.

mauvaise langue

materia medica

medica

materia

'medika/ Latin (trans-

/ma.tiaria

noun phrase plural L17 Modern lation of Greek hule iatrike healing material). The remedial substances used in the practice of medicine; (treated as singular) the branch of medicine that deals with

and properties.

their origins

materia prima

noun

/ma.tiaria 'prAima/

phrase M16 Latin (=

first

The

matter).

pri-

mordial substance formerly considered to be the original material of the universe.

materiel

/materjel/, /ma.tiari'el/ noun E19

noun of adjective). means or resources. Also

French (use Available technique. plies, etc.,

ness.

as

ral

(=

(rare),

to personnel.

The the pigment

/matjer/ noun E20 French.

quality an artist gives to used.

matinee

E19

2 E19 The equipment, supused in an army, navy, or busi-

Opposed

matiere

1

/'matinei/, foreign

252

(M19),

Computing

matzo

/

matine/

(plu-

from matin). 1 M19 An afternoon performance at a theatre, cinema, or concert hall. 2 L19 A woman’s lingerie jacket. /'matja/

Dutch

L19

pecially

noun

salted

or

/'mAtsa/, /'matsao/ noun (also

/'mAtsa/)

/modi/ noun & adjective M 20 French from maudire to curse). A noun M20 plural pronounced same. A person who is cursed; a despicable or deeply unpleasant person. B adjective L20 Cursed; (of an artist etc.) insufficiently ap-

maudit

(literally, ‘cursed’,

preciated, forgotten.

E The

adjective

Maulana

/mau'lama/ noun M19 Arabic (mawlana our master). (A title given to) a

Muslim man revered

fully

/ma'tra:ka/ noun E 20 Spanish. In

plural of

mater do-

lorosa.

his

religious

learning or piety. variant of moulvi.

mau-mau

/'maomau/ transitive verb L20 Kikuyu (Mau Mau, a secret society dedicated to the expulsion of British settlers from Kenya in the 1950s). Terrorize, threaten.

E United

States slang.

/moisa'liam/

noun

plural

mauvais

/move/

adjective

E18

French.

Bad.

E

In English only in the following

French

phrases.

mauvais coucheur /move

kufoer/ noun

mauvais coucheurs (pronounced same) M20 French (literally, ‘bad

phrase plural /'meitriks / noun plural matrixes,

matrices

/'meitrisiiz/

LME Latin

(=

breed-

ing-female, register, (in Late Latin) womb, from mater, matr- mother). 1 LME The uterus, the womb, archaic 2 M 16 A place

medium

in

which something

is

ronment in which a particular activity or process occurs or develops; a place or point of origin and growth. '3 L16 A mould in which something is cast or shaped. 4 M17 The rock material in a fossil,

gem,

etc., is

embedded.

Matrix has also been adopted as a specialtechnical term in a whole range of dis-

ciplines including

A difficult, uncooperative, or unsociable person. 1 963 Times Literary Supplement Goddard was a man of talent but he was obviously a

bedfellow).

mauvais coucheur.

bred,

produced, or developed; a setting or envi-

Ri

for

Latin (from Greek Mausoleion, from Mausdlos Mausolos). 1 LME The magnificent tomb of Mausolus, King of Caria, erected in the 4th century bc at Halicarnassus by his queen Artemisia. 2 LME generally A large and magnificent place of burial.

Matres Dolorosae

ist

usually postpositive. Cf.

More

Spain: a mechanical wooden rattle used instead of church bells on Good Friday.

which

is

POETE MAUDIT.

pickled.

form matie, matXie or other variword was known much earlier (E18), chiefly in Scotland. The form with ‘j’ represents a reintroduction from Dutch.

or

plural

/'mAtsaot/ M19 Yiddish (matse

mausolea /mo:s 0 'lia/, mausoleums LME

In the

matrix

mat-

herring, es-

ants the

matraca

and

A young

/'

matje herring.

m

(M19),

matjas/)

(also

(maatjes).

matjes

Mathematics

(M20).

mausoleum matje

(M19),

matzos, matzoth from Hebrew massah). (A wafer of) unleavened bread for Passover.

zah

maulvi

same) noun (also matinee) M19 French morning, what occupies a morning,

Botany

Anatomy and Zoology

mauvaise

foi /movez fwa/ noun phrase M20 French. Bad faith. 1995 Spectator They accept the general futility

and take corruption and mauvaise anyone 'important' for granted.

.of life

mauvaise langue

foi in

/movez lag/ noun phrase plural mauvaises langues (pronounced same) L19 French (literally, ‘bad tongue’). A venomous tongue; a scandalmonger.

,

mauvais pas

253

1936 R. West Thinking Reed In another moment that couple of mauvaises langues would have something to wag about.

We

Himalaya

to return

.

.

.

mauvais quart d’heure /move kar doer/ noun phrase plural mauvais quarts d’heure (pronounced same) M19 French (literally, ‘bad quarter of an hour’). An unpleasant but brief period of time; an unnerving experience. 1965 Economist John Kennedy had his mauvais quart d’heure between

April

and June,

1961.

mauvais sujet /move

sy 3 e/ noun phrase plural mauvais sujets (pronounced same) L18 French (literally, ‘bad subject’). A worthless person, a scoundrel. 1975 A. Christie Curtain The mauvais sujet

—always women are attracted

maven

noun

/'meiv(9)n/

to him.

|I20

Hebrew

(mebin understanding). An expert, a connoisseur. North American. 1975 New York Times Mama, who had managed to support herself by becoming a local real estate

maven

,

negotiated the

purchase.

mavrodaphne

noun E20 Modern Greek (from late Greek mauros dark (Greek amauros) + daphne laurel). A dark-red sweet Greek wine; the grape

from which

maxixe

this

/.mavro'dafni/

is

made.

/mak'si:ks/, foreign /ma'jija/ noun

A

dance for couples, of Brazilian origin, resembling the polka and the local tango.

E 20 Portuguese.

1995 Spectator From Brazil in the 20s there came a dance called the maxixe a challenge



to

those not confident of their Portuguese followed by the samba and the

pronunciation

more

maya



primitive baiao.

(

nomenal world.

mayonnaise

French (also magnonaise, mahonnaise, perhaps feminine of mahonnais adjective, from

Mahon

ing.

mazar

/ma'za:/ noun E20 Arabic (mazar

place visited, from zara to visit). tomb revered as a shrine.

/meia'neiz/ noun E19

capital of Minorca).

A

thick sauce

A Muslim

mazel tov /'maz(9)l to:v/, /tnf/ interjection M19 Modern Hebrew mazzal tob, literally, (

‘good

from Hebrew mazzal star). Jews: good luck, congratula-

star’,

Among tions.

mazout

variant of mazut.

mazuma

/ma'zmma/ noun E 20 Yiddish (from Hebrew mezumman, from zimmen to prepare). Money, cash; especially betting money. United States and Australian slang.

mazurka French

/ma'zaika/, /ma'zuaka/ noun Ei9

(or

from German masurka from

woman of the E19 A Polish dance

Polish mazurka

province

in triple Mazovia). 1 time, usually with a slide and hop. 2 M19 A piece of music for this dance or composed in its rhythm, usually with accentuation of the second or third beat.

mazuf

/ma'zmt/ noun (also mazout) L19 Russian. A viscous liquid left as residue after the distillation of petroleum, used in Russia as a fuel oil and coarse lubricant.

mhira

/(ajm'biara/ noun L19 Bantu.

A musi-

instrument of southern Africa consisting of a set of keys or tongues attached to a resonator, which are plucked with the cal

thumb

and

forefingers.

Also

called

sansa.

mea culpa /,meia 'kulpa/, /,mi:a 'kAlpa/ in& noun phrase LME Latin

terjection

‘(through)

my own

fault’).

A

(literally,

interjection

LME Acknowledging one’s guilt or responsibility for an error. B noun phrase E19 An utterance of ‘mea culpa’’, an acknowledge-

ment of

noun L18 Sanskrit maya from ma create). In Hindu Philosophy, illusion, magic, the supernatural power wielded by gods and demons. In Hindu and Buddhist Philosophy, the power by which the universe becomes manifest, the illusion or appearance of the phe/'mcuja/

salt

used as a dressing especially for salad, eggs, cold meat, or fish; a dish (of meat etc.) having this sauce as a dressetc.,

once more to the couloir thus short-circuiting the mauvais pas we had seen in our reconnaisance. decided

and vinegar and seasoned with

oil

pa/ noun phrase plural same E19 French (literally, ‘bad step’). Mountaineering A place that is difficult or to

up with

consisting of yolk of egg beaten

mauvais pas /move

dangerous to negotiate. 1940 F. S. Chapman Helvellyn

mealie

an

one’s guilt or responsibility for

error.

a Taken from the

prayer of confession in the Latin liturgy of the Church. Also sometimes mea maxima culpa ‘(through) my own great fault’. As an interjection, now often jocular.

B 1996 Times In fact, Mr de Klerk's statement was far from the mea culpa many had hoped for and was a masterfully bland performance.

mealie kaans maize,

/'midi/ noun (also mielie) E19 Afri(

mielie

millet,

from Portuguese milho from Latin milium). In

)

mebos

megaron

254

South Africa: maize; a corn-cob (usually

noun L18 Afrikaans (probably from Japanese ume/'mi:bns/, foreign /'me:bos/

and

boshi dried

salted plums).

A South Af-

confection made from dried rican flattened apricots, preserved in salt and sugar.

mecate

noun M19 Mexican Spanish (from Nahuatl mecatl A rope made of horsehair or of maguey fibre, used especially to tether or lead a horse. /mei'kaitei/

).

Chiefly United States.

mechant

(feminine mechante /mejat/) E19 French. Malicious,

/meja/

adjective

spiteful.

medaglione,

augmentative

medal). A small, meat or fish.

The cognate

flat,

of

medaglia round or oval cut of

Targe medal’, was established in English

much

media

earlier (M17).

/'mi:dia/

medium

noun E 20 Latin (plural of

and collective singular The main means of mass commu(noun)).

E20 plural

1

nication (also mass media), especially newspapers, radio, and television; the

working for organizations engaged in such communication. 2 E20 singular A means of mass communication, a medium. reporters, journalists,

etc.,

medina

/mi'dima/ noun (also Medina) E20 Arabic (literally, ‘town’). The old Arab or non-European quarter of a North African town.

medium of

/'mi:diam/ noun

noun media

&

/'mi:dia/,

adjective plural

mediums

(see

also media) L16 Latin (literally, ‘middle,

midst’, medieval Latin ‘means’, use as

mid). A noun 1 L16 A middle quality, degree, or condition; something intermediate in nature or de-

noun of medius

gree.

2 L16

An

intervening substance

through which a force acts on objects at a distance or through which impressions are conveyed to the senses, as air, water, etc. b M19 A pervading or enveloping substance; the substance in which an organism lives or is cultured; figurative one’s environment, one’s usual social setting. 3 E17 An intermediate agency, instrument, or channel; a means; specifically a channel of mass communication, as newspapers, radio, television, etc. See also media. 4 a E19 A person acting as an

spirits

and to communicate between the living and the dead. 5 M19 A liquid substance with which a pigment is mixed for use in painting. Also, anything used as a raw material by an artist etc.; a style or variety of art, as determined by the materials or B adjective 1 L17-E19 artistic form used. Average, mean. 2 E 18 Intermediate between two or more degrees in size, character, amount, quality, etc. There also are or have been numerous technical applications of the noun medium, as in Logic (L16-E19) ‘the

middle term of a

Geometry and Arithmetic (E17mean; an average’, and Photography

syllogism’,

(L19) ‘a

varnish used in retouching’.

medresseh

medusa sense

medallion, in the sense of

with the

in contact

E19) ‘a

medaillon /medaj5/ noun plural pronounced same E20 French (from Italian

b M19 to be of the dead

rare,

mediums) A person thought

(plural

in plural).

mebos

intermediary, a mediator,

1

variant of madrasah.

/mi'dju:za/, /mi'dju:sa/

usually

Medusa)

/mi'dju:si:/,

/mi'dju:zi:/,

noun

(in

medusae medusas LME

plural

Latin (from Greek Medousa the only mortal one of the three Gorgons in Greek mythology, with snakes for hair and a gaze which turned any beholder to stone: in sense 2 originally as modern Latin genus name). 1 LME A terrifying or ugly woman, a gorgon. 2 M 18 A jellyfish; specifically in Zoology, a coelenterate in the medusoid stage of its life cycle.

mee

noun M20 Chinese mian (WadeGiles mien flour). A Chinese dish made with noodles and other ingredients, pop/mi:/

(

ular in Malaysia.

meerschaum

/'mi3ja:m/, /'miajam/ noun (from Meer sea + Schaum foam, translation of Persian kef-i-darya foam of sea, with reference to its frothiness). A tobacco-pipe with a bowl made from speiolite or hydrated magnesium silicate occurring as a soft white or yellowish claylike mineral. L 18

German

mefiance

/mefjcts/

noun L19 French. Mis-

trust.

mega

L20

Greek (mega-

combining form of megas

great) Large,

/'mega/ adjective

great. Also, brilliant, excellent.

Originating in the United States, this is an independent colloquial use of a combining form, similar to that of macro.

megaron

megar(a)n/ noun L19 Greek. In ancient Greece: the great central hall of a type of house characteristic especially of the Mycenaean period. /'

,

,

Megillah

255

Megillah /ma'gila/ noun M17 Hebrew megillah

(also

(

M17 Each of

megillah)

literally,

‘roll,

books of the Hebrew Scriptures (the Song of Solomon, Ruth, Lamentations, Ecclesiastes, and Esther) appointed to be read on certain Jewish notable days; especially the Book of Esther, read at the festival of Purim. Also, a copy of all, or any, of these books. 2 M20 A long, tedious, or complicated scroll’).

1

five

Frequently in a or the whole megillah.

story.

slang.

1970

S.

Sheldon Naked Face ‘Do you know

megillah?’ queried

Moody

struggle or skirmish, especially involving many people; a crush, turmoil; a muddle.

2 E 20 collectively Small diamonds about a carat in weight.

less

1996 Times He continued to kick and punch as he was led away after the two-

1

minute melee.

melisma

/mi'lizma/ noun plural melis-

mata, /mi'lizmata/, melismas L19 Greek ‘song’). Music Originally, a melodic tune, melodic music. Now, in singing, the prolongation of one syllable over (literally,

number of notes. 1996 Times Ray Charles is the name that comes to mind in any discussion

thoughtfully.

invariably

meiosis

/mAi'ausis/ noun plural

Mi6

/mAi'ausi:z/

Greek

meiosis,

Modern

from meioun

than

at officers

a

the most peculiar thing about this whole

memento

meioses,

Latin

(from

to lessen,

from

meion less). 1 M16 Rhetoric a A figure of speech by which something is intentionally presented as smaller, less important, etc., than it really is. Now rare, b M17 litotes. 2 E 20 Biology A particular kind of cell division.

— not simply

of

reason that they are both blind and fond of gospel melismata Feliciano

.

.

for the trite

.

/'melkte:t/ noun M 20 Afrikaans (from melk milk + tert tart, pie). In South Africa: a kind of open tart with a custard filling sprinkled with cinnamon.

melktert

melos

/'meins/, /'mi:lns/

noun Mis Greek

song, music). Music Song, melody; specifically the succession of tones considered apart from rhythm; an uninterrupted flow of melody. (=

mei ping

/,mei 'pip/ noun phrase E 20 Chi-

nese (met ping prunus vase). A kind of Chinese porcelain vase with afnarrow neck designed to hold a single spray of flow-

meltemi

ers.

meisie

(

/'meisi/

Dutch meisje). young woman.

noun L19 Afrikaans (from In South Africa: a girl, a

melamed

/mi'la:mad/ noun L19 Hebrew melammed ). A teacher of elementary Hebrew. (

melancholia

/melan'kaulia/ noun L17 late

Greek

(from

Latin

melankholia

from

melan-, melas black + khole bile). Medicine generally ),

melange

A

of depression. Also melancholy, depression.

pathological (

state

/mel& 3 /

{plural same),

noun M17 French (from meler

/

mei'ln 3 /

to

mix).

M17 A mixture; a collection of heterogeneous items or elements, a medley. 2 L19 Yarn, especially woollen yarn, to which dye has been applied unevenly so as to leave some areas undyed; a fabric of such a yarn. 3 E20 Coffee made with sugar and whipped cream; a drink of this. 1 1995 Times Davenport-Hines denounces the 1

usual biographical melange of gossip, scandal

and 'sexual

melee

tale-telling’.

noun (also melee, melee) M17 French (from Old French mellee past participial adjective of meller variant of mesler to meddle; sense 2 probably a dif/'melei/

ferent word). ters,

a

noun E20 Modern Greek meltemi Turkish meltem). A dry north wind blowing over the eastern Mediterranean region in summer; an Etesian wind. /mel'temi/

1

M 17 A battle

hand-to-hand

fight;

at close quar-

a

confused

melusine

/,mel(j)o'si:n/ noun & adjective Melusine) E 20 French (melusine, perhaps connected with Melusine, a fairy in French folklore). A noun E 20 A silky longhaired felt, used for making hats. B attributive or as adjective M 20 Made of this

(also

material.

membra

disjecta,

membra

disjecta

variants of disjecta membra.

membrillo

/mem'bri(l)jo/, /mem'brkljau/ noun E 20 Spanish (= quince). A Spanish preserve of quinces.

membrum

virile /.msmbram vi'rkli/ noun phrase M19 Latin (= male member). The penis. Archaic or euphemistic.

memento

/mi'mentao/ noun plural me-

mento(e)s LME Latin (imperative of memremember). 1 LME Christian inisse to Church Either of the two prayers (beginning with Memento in the canon of the Mass, in which the living and the dead )

are

respectively

commemorated;

commemoration of the

living or the dead 2 L16 A reminder, warnor hint as to future conduct or

in these prayers. ing,

the

.

memento mori

menhaden

Now especially an

events.

object serving as

such a reminder or warning. mori,

memento

256

vivere.

Cf.

3

memento

M18

A

re-

minder of a past event or condition, of an absent person, or something that once existed. Now especially an object kept as a memorial of some person or event, a souvenir.

memento mori

/mi.msntau 'mo:rAi/, /mi Latin (= re.msntau 'mo:ri/ noun phrase member that you have to die). A warning or reminder of death, especially a skull or other symbolical object. 1996 Country Life ... explores the theme of life among the ruins ... a powerful memento it

vivere /mi.mentau

of) life.

a Formed

the opposite of

as

memento

E.

Blunden Undertones of War

Sitting in

the headquarters dugout with ‘La Vie Parisienne’ as a

memento

abbreviation of

vivere.

memorandum.

memorabilia

/,m£m(a)r 0 'bili 0 / noun plural L18 Latin (use as noun of neuter plural of memorabilis from memorare to bring to mind). 1 L18 Memorable or noteworthy things. 2 L19 Souvenirs.

1996

museum

D.

Chambers Stonyground As

of the house, this parlour of

childhood

now

was

filled

the

my

with memorabilia: a loon,

my grandmother had

rescued from a ditch and nursed to tameness; my great-uncle Hugh’s bayonet from the First World War stuffed, that

.

.

memorandum ral

memoria technica

of’.

/mi.mDiria ’teknika/

noun phrase M18 Modern Latin ((= technical memory) represented Greek to mnemonikon tekhnema). A method of assisting the artificial

a

contrivances; a sys-

mnemonic

aid.

memsahib

/'memscub/ noun M19 AngloIndian (from mem representing a pronunciation of ‘ma’am’ + sahib). A European married woman as spoken of or to by Indians.

mori.

1

memorandum

a

'vi:vari/

noun phrase E20 Latin (= remember that you have to live). A reminder of (the pleas-

memo

)

make

tem of mnemonics,

memento

1928

record (for future reference) of something done, but this usage is now confined to legal contexts. In sense 5 memorandum is now generally abbreviated to memo, which also functions attributively (as in memo pad and as a transitive verb meaning ‘to

memory by

mori of departed grandeur.

ures

Memorandum was first introduced (LME) an adjective meaning ‘to be remembered’ and placed at the beginning of a note of something to be remembered or a as

/mema'randam/ noun plumemoranda /memoranda/, memo-

randums

L15 Latin (neuter singular of

memorandus gerundive of memorare to bring to mind, from memor mindful). 1 L15 A note to help the memory, a record of events or of observations on a particular subject, especially for future consideration or use. 2 L16 Law A writing or document summarizing or embodying the terms of a transaction, contract, agreement, establishment of a company etc. 3 E17 A record of a money transaction. 4 M17 An informal diplomatic message, especially summarizing the state of a question or justifying a decision. 5 L19 An informal written communication of a kind conventionally not requiring a signature, as within a business or organization, usually written on paper headed ‘Memorandum’ or ‘Memo’.

menage /mei'na^/, foreign /menas/ (plural same) noun (also menage) ME French (Old French menaige, manaige (modern menage) from Proto-Romance, from Latin mansio station, abiding-place, from mans- past participial

stem of manere

to

stay,

re-

ME A domestic establishment, a household. Formerly also, the members main).

1

of a household,

b M20

A

sexual relationship; an affair. 2 E19 The management of a household, housekeeping. 3 E19 A benefit society or savings club of which every member pays in a fixed sum weekly; an

arrangement

for paying for

goods by

stalments. Scottish and northern In sense 1 also occasionally

in-

dialect.

found in the

phrases menage a deux ’household of two’ and menage a quatre ‘household of four’, but by far the most frequent is menage A trois. The related French word menagerie (introduced L17) meaning ‘a collection of wild animals kept in cages’ is now completely Anglicized in pronunciation (/me 'nack( 0 )ri/).

menage

a trois /mena 3

a trwa/, /mei

,na :3 a trwa:/ (plural same) noun phrase (also

menage-a-trois) L19 French of three).

(=

household

An arrangement

or relationship in which three people live together, usually consisting of a husband and wife and the lover of one of them. 1996 Spectator He seemed saddened by some people’s view that might be having my cake and eating it’, referring to his menagea-trois with wife Rosie and mistress Morrigan. ‘I

menhaden

/men'heidfajn/ noun L18 Algonquian (perhaps from a base mean-

menhir

257

ing

‘fertilize’).

A

ily,

Brevoortia

tyrannus,

of the herring famof the Atlantic coast of North America, an important source of fish guano and oil. fish

menhir

/'msnhia/ noun M19 Breton (maenhir maen stone, hir long) = Welsh maen hir, Cornish menhere). Archaeology A single tall upright monumental stone, especially of prehistoric times. (

meniscus

/mi'mskas/ noun plural meModern Latin (from Greek meniskos crescent, diminutive of nisci /mi'mskAi/ L17

mine moon). 1 L17 A lens convex on one side and concave on the other; especially a convexo-concave lens (i.e. one thickest in the middle, with a crescent-shaped section). 2 E 18 A crescent moon. rare. 3 E19 The convex or concave upper surface of a

column of liquid

in a tube, caused by sur-

|

menus

plaisirs

1972 New Yorker What is a mensch ? ... means you’re a substantial human being.

menses

It

/'menskz/ noun plural L 16 Latin

(plural of mensis month).

The menstrual

discharge. Also, the time of menstruation.

mens Latin

rea /,menz

noun phrase M19 guilty mind). Law The state of

(=

'ri:a/

mind accompanying an makes the

which

illegal act

act a crime; criminal state of

mind. 1992 P Manning

Erving Goffman and Modern Sociology The law encourages this defense strategy by requiring prosecution lawyers to demonstrate mens rea on the part of the accused; that is, it requires proof that the accused intended to commit the crime.

mens sana

in

corpore sano /mens

,sa:na in ,ka:parei 'sa:nao/

A

sound mind

noun phrase E17

sound body,

face tension or capillarity.

Latin.

A

pecially regarded as the ideal of educa-

4 M19 Anatomy disclike fibrocartilage situated between

the articular surfaces of certain joints, as those of the wrist and knee. 5 L19 A figure in the form of a crescent.

meno

/'msnau/, /'meineo/ adverb L19 Ital-

ian. Music Less.

Used

f

in directions, as

meno mosso

‘less

menologium menology

/.msnafhj'laudpam/ noun /mi'nDlacfei/) plural meno-

logia /.msnafhj'laodpa/, menologiums E18 Modern Latin (from ecclesiastical Greek menologion, from men month + logos account).

An

ecclesiastical calendar of the

months. The English form menology was introduced earlier (E17), but the form menoloused in parallel with it, in particular with reference to the Old English metrical church calendar first published in 1705. The Greek form is also used specifically to mean a calendar of the Orthodox Church containing biographies of the saints in the order of the dates on which they are commemorated.

gium

is

menorah

es-

tion.

Also elliptical as mens sana (see quotation 1967). The quotation is from the Satires (x.356) of the Roman poet Juvenal.

1967

S.

Johnson Gold Drain ‘They’ accused

him of suffering from the effects of a publicschool education, from the mens sana approach.

rapidly’.

(also

in a

/mi'na:ra/ noun L19

norah candlestick).

A

Hebrew

/men'zu:ran/, mensurs E20 (literally, ‘measure’). Chiefly His-

German tory In

Germany;

a fencing duel

between

students fought with partially blunted

weapons. 1970 M. Hebden Mask of Violence Anarchical the older universities young men of .

.

.

.

were already shouting the old before the

commencement

‘Waffenschein!

mentor

.

.

Mensur wish

of a fight:

1

/'menta:/ noun M18

French (from

Latin Mentor from Greek Mentor the guide and adviser of Odysseus’ son Telemachus

(probably chosen as a

meaning ‘remember,

name

as

from base

think, counsel’)).

An

experienced and trusted adviser or guide; a teacher, a tutor.

holy candelabrum

/menJV noun M20 Yiddish (from German = person). A person of integrity or rectitude; a just, honest, or honourable person.

/men'zu:r/, /msn'sua/ noun plural

mensuren

(me-

with seven branches that was used in the temple in Jerusalem; a candelabrum having any number of branches, but usually eight, used in Jewish worship, especially during Hanukkah; a representation of either as a symbol of Judaism.

mensch

mensur

menudo

/mi'n(j)u:dau/ noun M20 Mexican Spanish (use as noun of adjective = small from Latin minutus very small). A spicy Mexican soup made from tripe.

menus

plaisirs / many plezir/ noun phrase plural L17 French (= small pleasures). Simple pleasures; small personal expenses or gratifications; fanciful or trifling objects bought with pocket money. 1966 M. Innes Change of Heir 'It’s in her letter. menus frais.' ‘What’s that?' The bit about .

.

.

i

meseta

mercado The same

as

menus

258

plaisirs.

Pocket-money on

the scale appropriate to an English gentleman.’

mercado

/ma:'ka:dau/, foreign /mer'kado/ noun plural mercados /ma:'ka:dauz/, foreign /mer'kados/ M19 Spanish (from Latin mercatus market). In Spain and Spanishspeaking countries: a market.

merde

merd/ noun M20 French (from Latin merda ). Excrement, dung. /

H Also

in slang use as

pressing prise, etc.

an interjection,

annoyance, exasperation, Cf. MOT DE CAMBRONNE.

exsur-

/ma:'deika/ noun M20 Malay. In Malaysia and Indonesia: freedom, independence.

/me:/ noun M19

/mer/,

/ma'rimao/ noun & adjective plural noun merinos L18 Spanish (of unknown origin). 1 L18 (Designating or perof

taining to) a breed of sheep prized for the fineness of its wool, originating in Spain; (designating) a sheep of this breed, b E19 pure merino, ( an early immigrant to Australia with no convict origins, a member of a leading family in Australian society, a person of fine breeding or good charac)

ter;

(ii)

French

(=

well-bred,

attributively first-class,

2 E19 (Of) a

excellent. Australian slang.

resembling cashmere,

soft fine material

merdeka

mere

merino

made of wool (originally merino wool) or wool and cotton, b M19 A garment, especially a dress or shawl,

made

of

this;

West

Indies a vest. 3 L19 (Of) a fine woollen yarn used in the manufacture of hosiery

and knitwear.

mother). The mother, elder.

appended to a name especially to distinguish between a mother and daughter of the same name (see quotation). 1968 J. Haythorne None of Us Cared for Kate Mere

Prentice

is

mere has been bombarding

Secretary of State with

mesa

table,

(=

itous sides.

The

occurrences are in the names of particular plateaux or hills in the United States.

the

letters.

/ma'rEggei/ noun (also meringue /ma'rar)/) M20 American Spanish (from Haitian creole meringue literally, ‘meringue’ from French). A dance of Dominican and Haitian origin, with alternating long and short stiff-legged steps; a piece of music for this dance, usually in duple and triple time. /ma'ridian(a)l/

Spanish

A high

rocky tableland or plateau; a flat- topped hill with precip-

merengue

meridional

/'meisa/ noun Mis

from Latin mensa).

mesalliance

/mezaljas/ (plural same), /me 'zalions/ noun L18 French (from mes- mis- +

alliance alliance).

A

marriage with a per-

son thought to be of inferior social position; an unsuitable union.

The English form misalliance (M18) is also current for an inappropriate marital or sexual union, but it is also used more

&

adjective

earliest

generally.

noun (also meridianal) LME Old and Mod-

ern French meridionalis,

(

meridional

irregularly

from late Latin from meridies

after septentrionalis septentrional). jective

1

A

ad-

LME Of or pertaining to the

south; situated in the south; southern, southerly, b M19 specifically Pertaining to or characteristic of the inhabitants of southern Europe. 2 LME-M19 Of or pertaining to the position of the sun at midday; pertaining to or characteristic of midday. 3 M16 Of, pertaining to, or aligned with a meridian. 4 M17 Of a marking or structure on a roundish body: lying in a plane with the axis of the body. B noun L16 A native or inhabitant of the south. Now specifically a native or inhabitant of the south of France. %

meringue

/ma'rar)/, foreign

/mareg/

and whites of eggs whipped together and baked crisp; a small cake or shell of this, filled

ami(e)s

mescal

plural of

/'meskal/,

with cream.

mon

ami(e).

/me'skal/

Spanish (mezcal from Nahuatl 1

E18

Any of

noun

E18

mexcalli).

several plants of the

genus

Agave found in Mexico and the southwestern United States, used as sources of fermented liquor, food, or fibre. 2 E19 A strong intoxicating spirit distilled from the fermented sap of the American aloe or allied species. Cf. tequila. 3 L19 A small desert cactus, Lophophora williamsii, of Mexico and Texas; a preparation of this used as a hallucinogenic drug. Cf. peyote.

Mesdames

plural of

Mesdemoiselles (plural

same) noun E18 French (of unknown origin). A confection made chiefly of sugar

usually decorated or

mes

madame.

plural

of mademoi-

selle.

meseta

/me'seta/ noun E20 Spanish

(di-

minutive of mesa). In Spain and Spanishspeaking countries: a plateau; specifically the high plateau of central Spain.

:

meshuga

259

meshuga

/mi'Juga/ adjective

me-

(also

shugga(h) and other variants) L19 Yiddish meshuge from Hebrew meshugga': cf. German meschugge crazy). Mad, crazy; (

stupid. Slang. Meshuga

chiefly

is

used predica-

contrast to meshugener.

tively, in

meshugaas

noun

mishugas and other variants) E20 Yiddish (from Hebrew meshugga' see meshuga). Madness, craziness; nonsense, foolish/mi'JTjgccs/

(also

ness. slang.

meshugener

/mi'Jugana/ attributive

ad-

& noun slang (also meshuggener, meshugenah, and other variants) E20 Yiddish (from Hebrew meshugga see me-

jective

':

shuga). (A person

who

is)

mad,

crazy, or

stupid. Slang.

It

a positional variant of me-

is

it

meshugga(h)

precedes

its

noun.

variant of meshuga.

meshuggenah, meshuggener

vari-

ants Of MESHUGENER.

meshumad

/mi'Jumad/ noun (also meshummad) plural meshuqaadim /mi 'Jumadim/ L19 Yiddish (from Hebrew meshummad, literally, ‘a person who is destroyed’, or mesu'mad baptized, from Aramaic ‘mad to be baptized). An apostate from Judaism.

meson

noun E19 Spanish (meson). In Mexico or the south-western United States: an inn or lodging-house.

messa

/mei'snn/

Scriptures; Jesus regarded as the saviour

of humankind. Also transferred ), an actual or expected liberator of an oppressed people or country etc.; a leader or saviour of a specified group, cause, etc. (

The modern form Messiah was created by the Geneva translators of the Bible of 1560 as looking more Hebraic than Messias. transferred

/.messa di ‘votfe/, /.mesa noun phrase plural messe di

/.messe/, /.mesei/ L18 Italian

(liter-

‘placing of the voice’). In singing, a gradual crescendo and diminuendo on a ally,

long-held note.

messagerie /mesa 3 ri/ nounced same

noun plural pro-

L18 French.

The transpor-

tation or delivery of goods, messages, or people; a conveyance for these. In plural also, goods,

messages, or people for trans-

portation or delivery.

.

messaline

/'mesalim/ noun & adjective E20 French. (Made of) a soft lightweight and lustrous silk or rayon fabric. di

voce

plural

of messa

di

.

.

,

/mi'sAia/

.

.

mestizo /ms'stkzau/ noun & adjective plural of noun mestizos (feminine mestiza /me'stkze/)

L 16

Spanish (from Proto-Ro-

Latin mixtus past participle

of miscere to mix). A noun L16 A Spanish or Portuguese person with parents of different races, specifically one with a Spaniard as one parent and an American Indian as the other; generally any person of mixed blood. Also, a Central or South American Indian who has adopted Euro-

pean culture. B attributive or as E17 That is a mestizo or mestiza.

mesto

adjective

&

adjective E19 Ital-

ian (from Latin maestus

sad). Music (A di-

/'mesto/ adverb

rection:) sad(ly), mournful(ly).

metairie /meteri/ noun plural pronounced same E19 French (from as metayer). A farm held on the metayage

metamorphosis

/meta'moTesis/, /.mete

maffausis/ noun plural metamorphoses M16 /.metamoffaushz/ /mete'm 0 ;fasi:z/, Latin (from Greek metamorphosis, from metamorphoun to transform, from as meta+ morphe a form). 1 M16 The action or

process of changing in form, shape, or substance; especially transformation by sub L16 A metamorpernatural means, A complete change 2 M16 phosed form. in appearance, circumstances, condition,

3 M17 Biology Normal change of form of a living organism, part, or tissue; specifically the transformation that some animals undergo in the course of becoming adult (e.g. from tadpole to character.

which there is a complete and habit. form tion of

altera-

noun (also messiah,

Messias) ME Old and Modern French (Messie from popular Latin Messias from Greek Messias from Aramaic mesifid, Hebrew mashiah anointed, from mashah (earlier)

Shoko

frog), in

voce.

Messiah

Scientist

.

or

messe

1996 New

Asahara, the self-styled messiah who convinced his followers that Armageddon was coming is accused of masterminding a nerve-gas attack in the Tokyo underground

system.

voce

di

di 'vautfi/

voce

The promised deliverer of the Jewish nation prophesied in the Hebrew to anoint).

mance from

shuga in that

metanoia

metanoia

Greek change one’s mind, re-

/meta’noia/

(from metanoein to

noun

L19

pent). Penitence; reorientation of one’s

way of

life,

spiritual conversion.

metastasis

metope

metastasis

/mi'tastasis/

260

noun plural me-

tastases /mitastasi:z/ L16 Late Latin (from Greek = removal, change, from me1 L 16 Rhetothistanai to remove, change).

A

rapid transition from one point to another. Long rare. 2 M17 Medicine The transference of a bodily function, pain, or disease, or of diseased matter, from one site to another; specifically the occurrence or development of secondary foci of disease at a distance from the primary site, as in many cancers. ric

champenoise

methode

Japanwaz/ noun phrase E20 French

noun E17 American Spanish (from Nahuatl me'tatl ). In Central America: a flat or somewhat hollowed oblong stone on which grain, cocoa, etc., are ground by means of a smaller stone. Also /ma'ta:tei/

(liter-

‘champagne method’). The method of introducing a sparkle into wine by alally,

lowing the

of fermentation to

last stage

take place in the bottle; a sparkling wine made in this way.

1995 Country

Life

And, thanks

to

Napoleon’s

and the introduction of the methode champenoise bottles of the modest, local,

sister

,

sparkling brew, Malvasia.

Methodenstreit

metate

/metod

/me'to:danJtrait/ noun

Methodenstreite /me'to:d0n M20 German (literally, ‘methods

plural Jtraita/

struggle’). (A) discussion or dispute con-

cerning the methodology of a

field

of

study.

metate-stone.

metathesis

/me'taOisis/, /mi'ta0isis/

noun

metatheses /m£'ta0isi:z/ L16 Late Latin (from Greek, from metatithenai transpose, change, from as meta- + tithenai plural

to put, place).

1

L 16 Linguistics

The

trans-

position of sounds or letters in a word; the result of such a transposition. Formerly also, the transposition of words. 2 H7-M19 Medicine Spread of a disease within the body, metastasis; movement of diseased matter to another part of the body. 3 E18 generally Change or reversal of condition. 4 L19 Chemistry (An) interchange of an atom or atoms between two different molecules; especially double de-

composition.

metayage

noun (also metayage) L19 French (from as metayer). A system of land tenure in Europe and the United States, in which the farmer pays the owner a proportion (usually half) of the produce as rent, and the owner normally provides the stock and /meteja3/ (plural same

)

seeds.

metayer

/ mi'6(j)u:z(0)l0/

noun (also

Methuselem /mi'0(j)u:z(a)l0m/) LME Hebrew metuselah a pre-Noachian patri,

(

have LME

969 years very person old 5:27)). or thing, especially as a type or representation of extreme longevity. 2 M20 (Usually methuselah) A very large wine bottle, equivalent to eight ordinary botarch,

stated

(Genesis

to

1

lived

A

tles.

metier

French

/metje/, /'meitiei/ noun Li8

(from Proto-Romance alteration of Latin ministerium service, ministry, probably influenced by mysterium mystery). One’s occupation or department of activity. Now usually, a field in which one has special skill

or ability; one’s forte.

1995 Spectator Louisa

Alcott

was

to find her

true metier as a chronicler of family

metif

/mei'ti:f/

life

noun E19 French

....

(metif, al-

A

person with one White and one quarter Black teration of metis

:

see metis).

parent. /meteje/

nounced same

noun

plural

pro-

French (from medieval Latin medietarius, from medietas half). A farmer who holds land on the metayage L18

system.

metempsychosis noun plural

/,m8t£m(p)sAi'k0usis/

metempsychoses

/,m£t£m(from Greek metempsukhosis, from as meta- + en in + psukhe soul). Transmigration of the soul; especially the passage of the soul of a person or animal at or after death into a new body of the same or a different species. (p)sAi'k9usi;z/ L16 Late Latin

El

Methuselah

Belief in metempsychosis

was

a feature of

the ancient sect of Pythagoreans and some Eastern religions.

also a tenet in



is

metis noun

/mei'tks/ Canadian /mei'ti:/, /'meiti/

plural

/'meitiz/

same

(feminine

/mei'ti:(s)/,

metisse

/'meiti/, /mei'ti:s/,

metisses) E19 French (metis from Old French mestis from Proto-Romance, from Latin mixtus past participle of miscere to mix). A person of mixed descent; especially (in Canada) a person with one White and one American Indian parent.

Canadian

metope

also /'meiti:s/, plural

/'m£taup/,

/'mctapi/

noun

M16

Latin (metopa from Greek metope, from meta between + ope hole in a frieze for a beam-end). Architecture A square space between triglyphs in a Doric frieze.

metro

261

metro

/'metreu/, /'meitrau/ noun colloquial Metro) plural metros E20 French metro abbreviation of Chemin de Fer) Metropolitain Metropolitan (Railway)). An underground railway system in a city, (also (

(

especially

that in Paris.

metteur en scene

/metcer a sen/ noun

en scene (pronounced same) E20 French (literally, ‘a person who puts on the stage’; cf. mise en scene). A producer of a play; a director of

phrase plural metteurs

a film.

Mettwurst

A

type of

meum

/'metvurst/ noun Li9

German.

smoked German sausage.

/'mi:am/, /'meiam/ noun archaic L16

Latin (neuter of meus mine). The principle that a person has sole rights to his or her own property and no rights to another’s.

H

Chiefly in

meum and

tion between)

and what

meuniere jective

what

is

yours or another’s’.

/mafnje:/, foreign /monjer/ ad-

M19 French

manner

the

‘(in

is

tuum, ‘(the distincmine or one’s own

((a la)

meuniere, literally,

of) a miller’s Itvife’). Cook-

miasma

mezzanine

/'mezanim/ noun & adjective Italian mezzanino diminutive of mezzano middle, medium, from Latin medianus median). A noun 1 E18 A low storey between two others in a building, usually between the ground floor and the floor above, b M19 Theatre A floor beneath the stage, from which the traps are worked, c E20 The lowest gallery in a theatre or cinema; a dress circle. North American. 2 M18 A small window at the level of a mezzanine or attic. B adjective 1 M19 Designating an intermediate floor, storey, etc. 2 L20 Commerce Designating unsecured, higher-yielding loans that are subordinate to bank loans and secured loans but rank above equity. E 18

B

French (from

1996 Times Magazine Even when

1

overall area

is

the

divided into smaller units, the

tall

an opportunity for horizontal divisions such as mezzanine floors. ceilings provide

mezza voce

/.metsa

'vntfi/ adverb,

noun,

&

mezza feminine of mezzo middle, half, voce voice). Music (With) half of the possible vocal or instrumental power; restrained. adjective phrase L18 Italian

mezzo

/'metsau/

adverb

(

M 18

Italian

(=

ery Especially of fish:

cooked or served in lightly browned butter with lemon juice

middle, half, from Latin medius medium). Music (Qualifying a direction:) half, mod-

and

erately, fairly.

B)

parsley.

Usually postpositive,

as

in

trout

meu-

mezzo noun

abbreviation

of

mezzo-

soprano.

niere.

mezair

/mezer/ (plural same noun M18 French (from Italian mezzaria middle gait). Horsemanship A movement involving a series of levades with a short step between each. /mei'ze:/, foreign

mezzo-relievo

/,metsaun'li:vau/

mezzo-rilievo

(also

noun

/.metsauri'ljeivau/)

)

meze

noun (also meze) plural same, mezes E20 Turkish (= snack, appetizer,

/'meizei/

from Persian maza

to taste, relish).

of) a selection of hot and cold dishes served as an hors d’oeuvre in the Middle East and eastern Mediterranean region.

(Any

mezuza

/ma'zmza/ noun (also mezuzah) mezuzoth /ma'zmzaut/ M17 He-

plural

brew

(mezuzah,

literally

‘doorpost’).

A

piece of parchment inscribed with Pentateuchal texts enclosed in a case and attached to the doorpost of a Jewish house in fulfilment of religious law.

H The tion in

practice

is

based upon the injunc-

Deuteronomy

mezzani /mefsami/

6:9.

noun L19 Italian

mezzo-soprano

/,metsausa'pra:nau/ noun & adjective M18 Italian (mezzo middle + soprano). Music A noun M18 plural mezzo-sopranos. A female voice inter-

mediate in compass between soprano and contralto; a singer with such a voice; a part written for such a voice. B adjective pertaining tended for a mezzo-soprano. E19

B

Designating,

In

to,

or

in-

informal contexts often abbreviated

to mezzo.

mezzo termine

/.mettso 'termine/ noun

phrase plural mezzo termini /'termini/ M18 Italian (mezzo half, termine term). A middle term, measure, or period.

miasma (plu-

ral of mezzano: see next). Pasta in the form of medium-sized tubes; an Italian dish consisting largely of this and usually a

sauce.

plural mezzo-relievos L16 Italian (mezzo half + relievo relief). (A sculpture, moulding, carving, etc., in) half-relief.

/mi'azma/, /mAi'azma/ noun plural miasmas, miasmata /mi'azmata/ M17 Greek (miasma(t-) defilement, pollution, related to miainein to pollute). 1 M17 (An) infectious or noxious vapour, especially from putrescent organic matter, which

micro

262

militia

pollutes the atmosphere. 2 M19 figurative A polluting, oppressive, or foreboding at-

mosphere; a polluting or oppressive

in-

fluence.

micro

/'mAikrau/

noun &

Greek (combining form

adjective

mikr-

M19

from mikros

A noun plural micros. 1 M19 Entomology A moth belonging to the Microlepidoptera. 2 M20 A microskirt. 3 L20 A small)

microcomputer; a microprocessor. 4 L20 A microwave oven. B adjective 1 E20 Microscopic; very small; small-scale; Chem2 M20 Microistry of microanalysis.

economic.

A

independent use of the combining form found in many English words derived from Greek and other

condition characterized by such headaches. illness or

mihrab

noun E19 Arabic (mifjrab). 1 E19 A niche, chamber, or slab in a mosque, indicating the direction of Mecca. 2 E20 A niche motif on an oriental prayer rug, resembling the shape of a

mihrab

mikva

/'mi:ra:b/

in a

mosque.

/'mikva/ noun (also mikvah, mik-

veh) M19 Yiddish (mikve from Hebrew miqweh, literally, ‘collection, mass, especially of water’). A bath in which certain Jewish ritual purifications are performed; the action of talcing such a bath.

colloquial,

sources, particularly in technical terminology;

mega. Micro, particularly in

cf.

chemical sense,

is

its

often contrasted, either

explicitly or implicitly,

with macro.

miles gloriosus /,mAili:z/ /,mi:liteiz

noun

gkxri'ausi:/,

/midinet/ (plural same noun E20 French (from midi midday + dinette light dinner). A French, especially a Parisian, shop-girl; especially a /midi'net/,

foreign

)

milliner’s assistant.

gkm'ausas/,

milites gloriosi /,mAiliti;z

'ausAi/ E20 Latin (= boastful

vainglorious soldier military exploits.

who

glo:ri

soldier).

A

boasts about his

the title of a comedy by the Roman playwright Plautus (c.250-184 bc). The miles gloriosus became a stock character Renaissance comedy— of Shakespeare’s Parolles in All’s Well That Ends Well is an example— and the phrase generally occurs in literary contexts. Miles gloriosus

midinette

/,mi:leiz

plural

is

mielie variant of mealie. milieu

migma

/'migma/ noun M20 Greek (= mixture). Geology (A) magma containing solid material.

mignon same

/’mimjDn/, foreign /mijio/ (plural

&

noun

(feminine mignonne /'mirnjnn/, foreign /mijaan/) M16 French. A adjective M16 Delicately formed; prettily small or delicate. B noun E19 A pretty child or young peradjective

)

(mignonnette

/minje'nst/ noun E 18

diminutive

of

French

mignon).

1996 Spectator She sketches

in

the

milites gloriosi plural of miles gloriosus.

A

kind of light fine narrow pillowlace. Also mignonette lace. 2 L18 Any of several plants of the genus Reseda, with small greenish or whitish flowers; speciE18

/miljo/

Surrealist milieu of Twenties Paris.

mignonette 1

/mi'lja:/, foreign

noun plural milieus, milieux /'mi:lja:z/, foreign /miljo/ M19 French (from mi (from Latin medius mid) + lieu place). 1 M19 An environment; (especially social) surroundings. 2 M20 transferred A group of people with a shared (cultural) outlook; a social class or set. b L20 (also Milieu) In France: (a group or organization belonging to) the criminal underworld. 1

son.

/'mr.lja:/,

fically R.

odorata, cultivated for

its

fra-

grant flowers, b L19 A colour resembling that of the flowers of the mignonette; greyish green or greenish white, c L19 A perfume derived from or resembling that of the flowers of the mignonette.

migraine

/'mi:grein/,

/'mAigrem/ noun French (from late

LME Old and Modern Latin hemicrania from Greek hemikrania, from hemi- half + kranion skull). A recurrent throbbing headache, usually affecting one side of the head, often accompanied by nausea or disturbed vision; the

militia /mi'lija/ noun L 16 Latin (= military service, warfare, war, from miles, milit- soldier). 1 H6-L17 A system of military discipline, organization, and tactics; a manner or means of conducting warfare. 2 L16 A military force, a body of soldiers; specifically a military force raised from the civilian population, as distinguished from mercenaries or professional soldiers; an auxiliary military force drawn from the civilian population in order to supplement the regular forces in an emergency; collectively the members of such a militia. 3 L18 The body of people, usually men, legally liable to military service, without enlistment. United States.

263

millefeuiile j

millefeuille

noun plu-

/milfoej/, /'mi:lf9:j/

pronounced same L19 French (literally, ‘a thousand leaves’). A rich confection of thin layers of puff pastry and a filling of ral

jam, cream,

etc.

millefiore /.midrfi'oTi/ noun Mi9 Italian (from mille thousand + fiore flowers). A kind of ornamental glass made by fusing together a number of glass rods of different sizes and colours and cutting the mass into sections which exhibit ornamental figures of varying pattern. Also millefiore glass.

mille-fleurs

noun M19 French (literally, ‘a thousand flowers’). 1 M19 A perfume distilled from flowers of different kinds. 2 E 20 A pattern of flowers and leaves used in tapestry, on porcelain, /milfloer/

minimus

words or actions, b M20 The representation of the real world in art, poetry, etc. 2 M19 Biology Mimicry by one organism of another. Now rare. 3 M20 Sociology The deliberate imitation of the behaviour of one group of people by another as a factor in social change.

minaret

/'minaret/,

/mina'ret/

noun

Li7

French (or Spanish minarete, Italian minaretto, from Turkish mindre from Arabic manara lighthouse, minaret, from nara to

A

tower or turret connected with a mosque and surrounded by shine).

1

L17

tall

one or more projecting balconies from which a muezzin calls at hours of prayer. 2 M19 transferred An object or structure shaped like this.

minaudiere

/minodjer/ noun plural proE18 French (from minauder to simper, flirt, from mine mien). 1 E18E19 A coquettish woman. 2 M 20 A small handbag without a handle, a clutch-bag.

nounced same

etc.

Usually attributive (see quotation). 2 1996 Country Life The enclosed garden which she is sitting is chequered with tiny daisies and small birds like a mille-fleurs

in

minbar

tapestry.

millegrain

/'miligrein/

noun &

adjective

M20 French (mille thousand + grain grain). (Designating) a gem setting of beaded or crenellated metal. (also milligram)

millennium /mi'lemam/ noun

plural mil-

lenniums, millennia /mi'lenia/ M17 Modern Latin (from Latin mille thousand, after biennium). 1 M17 A period of one thousand years. Also, a thousandth anniversary. 2 M17 Christian Church The period of one thousand years during which (according to one interpretation of Revelation 20:1-5) Christ will reign in person on 3 E19

earth.

A

ness, prosperity,

millet group

/'milet/

of

and

ideal

government.

noun E20 Turkish

co-religionists,

(=

nation,

from Arabic

A part

of the population of the Ottoman Empire that owed

allegiance to a particular religious leader, especially a non-Muslim one.

M19 Mexican Spanish. America and Mexico: a small

/'milpa/ noun

In Central

cultivated

minerval

/mi'na:v(a)l/ noun E17 Latin (from Minerva (earlier Menerva) the Roman goddess of handicrafts, wisdom (cf. Sanskrit manasvin wise), and later also of war,

from earlier form related to Sanskrit manas mind, Greek menos courage, fury).

A

given in gratitude by a pupil to a

gift

teacher.

minestra Italy:

/mi'nestra/ noun L17 Italian. In

soup, especially minestrone.

minestrone /mim'strauni/ noun L19 Italian. A thick soup containing vegetables, beans, and pasta.

period of peace, happi-

milla(t) religion). History

milpa

variant of mimbar.

field,

usually

of

corn

or

mingei

/mirfgei/ noun M20 Japanese (from min people + gei arts). Japanese folk-art; traditional Japanese handicraft.

minifundium /mmi'fAndiam/ noun

plural

minifundia /mim'fAndia/ (also minifundio /mmi'fAndiau/, plural minifundios) M20 Modern Latin (or Spanish minifundio smallholding: cf. latifundium). In Latin America: a small farm or property, especially one that is too small to support a single family. Usually in plural.

maize.

mimbar

noun (also minbar /'minba:/) M19 Arabic minbar from nabara to raise). A small set of steps in a mosque from which the khutbah is delivered. /'mimba:/

(

mimesis

,

/mi'mi:sis/, /mi'mAisis/

noun M16

Greek mimesis from mimeisthai to imitate, from mimos mime). 1 M16 Chiefly Rhetoric Imitation of another person’s (

,

minimus Latin. A

/'minimas / noun & adjective L16 noun plural minimi /'minimAi/, /'minimi:/. L16 A very small or insignificant creature. B adjective L18 Designating the youngest of several pupils with the

same surname or the

last

to

enter a

school.

As an adjective appended to a surname, the usage is found especially in public

mise-en-page

Minnelied

264

and middle brothers of the three of which Smith minimus was the youngest would be known respectively as Smith major and Smith minor. Cf. schools; thus the eldest

PRIMUS.

mirador

/mira'dor/ noun L17 Spanish (from mirar to look, observe). In Spain: a watch-tower. Also, a turret or belvedere

on the top of

mirage

Minnelied

noun plural Minne-

/'minali:d/

lieder /'mmalbdafr)/ Li9 German (from Minne love + Lied song). A love-song writ-

ten by a minnesinger, or in the style of the minnesingers.

Minnesinger nesinger) E19

noun (also min(from Minne love +

/'minasirja/

German

(modern Sanger singer). A German poet or singer of the twelfth to fourteenth centuries.

Singer

)

lyric

minuetto

/minu'etto/, /minju'etau/ noun

minuetti /minu'etti/, minuettos /minju'etauz/ E18 Italian. A minuet.

plural

minuterie

noun

/mi'nju:t(a)ri/

M 20 French

clockwork, timing mechanism, from minute minute). (An electric light controlled by) a light switch incorporating a timing mechanism to turn it off automatically after a short time. 1955 W. Gaddis Recognitions Cremer opened

Spanish house.

a

noun & adjective E19 French (from se mirer to be reflected or mirrored, from Latin mirare). A noun 1 E19 An optical illusion caused by atmo/'miraiz/, /mi'raiz/

spheric conditions (usually the refraction of light in heated air); especially the false appearance of a distant sheet of water in a desert or on a hot road. Also, the appearance in the sky of a reflected image of a distant object, a wavelike appearance of warmed air just above the ground. 2 E19 figuratively An illusion, a fantasy. 3 E20 Any of various pale fashion colours; especially pale blue, grey, or turquoise. B adjective 1 E20 Resembling a mirage. 2 M20 Of a pale colour, especially blue, grey, or turquoise.

(=

the door, and the his flat

light of

shadow across

minutia

the minuterie threw

the

sill.

noun

plural minutiae /mi'njuijii:/, /mi'nju:JiAi/

M 18

Latin

(=

smallness

from minutus small or

small).

trivial

(in plural, trifles),

A

precise detail; a

matter or object.

Almost always used in the

minyan

minjan/ noun plural minyanim /'minjamm/ M18 Hebrew minyan literally, ‘count, reckoning’). The quorum of ten males over thirteen years of age required for traditional Jewish public worship. ,

(

noun

French. 1 E18 (A fruit from) a European variety of plum tree. 2 M20 (A) liqueur distilled from mirabelles, especially those grown /'mirabel/

E18

in Alsace, France.

mirabile dictu

/mi,ra:bilei 'diktu:/ inter-

M19 Latin mirabile neuter of mirabiwonderful + dictu supine of dicere to say). Wonderful to relate.

jection

(

lis

Generally used sarcastically (see quotation).

1996 New

Scientist ‘Mirabile dictu!'

one might

exclaim, though few people did. Most used an

Anglo-Saxon term: hogwash.

mirabilia

/mira'bilia/

noun

A

used in sauces

etc.

plural

or served as a separate

dish. /'ma:litDn/

noun E19 French

reed pipe, of imitative origin).

1

E19

(=

A

musical instrument resembling a kazoo; any instrument in which a sound is given a nasal quality by means of a vibrating membrane. 2 E20 A chayote. United

miscellanea

/misa'lemia/ noun L16 Latin (neuter plural of Latin miscellaneus from miscellus mixed). As plural, miscellaneous items, especially literary compositions, collected together. As singular, a miscellaneous collection, especially of literary compositions; a miscellany.

Mischsprache

M20

/'mijjprarxa/ noun plural /'mijjpraixan/ M20 Gerlanguage). A language

Mischsprachen (= mixed made up of elements of two or more

man

languages.

mise au point plural

/miz o pws/ noun phrase

mises au point (pronounced same)

M20 French. A focusing or clarification of an obscure subject or problem. 1946 Word A general mise au point of the linguistic side of

semantic problems

is

thus

overdue.

mise-en-page

Latin (use as noun of neuter plural of mirabilis wonderful). Wonders, marvels, miracles.

ery

States.

plural.

/'

mirabelle

French diplomat and general). Cookmixture of sauteed diced vegetables

1757),

mirliton

/mM'nju:Jia/

/mi'njuij'ia/,

mirepoix /mirpwa/ noun plural same Li9 French (from the Due de Mirepoix (1699-

noun plural mises-en-page (pronounced same) E20

French mise (

/mizapa3/

en pages page-setting, imposi-

tion). .The design of a printed page etc., including the layout of text and illustra-

mise en scene

265

the composition of a pic-

Also,

tions.

mistral

1968 Listener Television cannot emphasise in manner of a newspaper’s mise-en-page.

the

mise en scene

/miz a sen/ noun phrase

mise-en-scene) plural mises en scene (pronounced same) M19 French (cf. METTEUR EN SCENE). 1 M19 The Staging of a play; the scenery and properties of a 2 L19 The setting or stage production. (also

surroundings of an event or action. 1 1996 Spectator Covent Garden has really done proud, with a stupendously gorgeous staging by that genius of miseen-scene Philip Prowse 2 1995 Observer Review the way the VIPs book imports real-life and it

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

restaurants

.

.

.

mise en scene

into

its

isn’t to

/mi’ze:/,

foreign

)

E19 Cards

.

.

A

(=

/mizsr/ (plural poverty, misery).

declaration by which the

undertakes not to win any tricks. 2 L19 Misery; a miserable condition or circumstance. 1 1995 New Scientist Many games exist in a ‘misere’ version,

(-

where the aim

is

Mitbestimmung

responsibility for crime.

miserere /miza'riari/, /mizeTsiri/ noun ME Latin (imperative singular of misereri have mercy, from miser wretched). 1 a ME Psalm 51 (50 in the Vulgate), beginning Miserere mei Deus ‘Have mercy upon me, O God’, one of the penitential psalms, b L18 A musical setting of this psalm. 2 E17 transferred A cry for mercy; a prayer in which mercy is sought. 3 L18 A misericord seat. pity,

au

mises-en-page, mises en scene

plu-

of

point.

Of MISE-EN-PAGE, MISE EN SCENE.

miso /'mi:s 0 u/ noun E18 made from fermented

Japanese. Paste soya beans and barley or rice malt, used in Japanese cookery.

mistral /'mistr(a)l/, /mi'stra:l/ noun E17 French (from Provencal from Latin magis-

A

strong cold north-west wind which blows through the Rhone valley and southern France into the Mediterranean, mainly in win(sc.

ventus

wind)).

ter.

1996 Times Magazine Overtones of Africa must be cheering in mid-winter when the

adverb L19

German and

us, etc.), jocular

noun

/'mitbajtimor)/

sion-making. 1996 Independent And the other way round: no Ernest Bevin, no Mitbestimmung— the great postwar understanding between German still,

just about,

/mit'nagsd/ noun plural Mitnaggim /mifnagim/ E20 Hebrew mitnagged opponent). A religious opponent of the Hasidim; any Jew who is not a (

Hasid.

Mitsein /'mitzAin/ noun M20 German (use as noun of infinitive mitsein, from mit with + sein to be). Philosophy The concept of a person’s being in

its

relationship

with others. 1966

A.

relations

Manser Sartre The essence of between consciousnesses is not

Mitsein (being together),

it

is

conflict.

Mittelschmerz /'miteljmerts/ noun Li9 German (= middle pain). Medicine Pain in the lower abdomen regularly experienced by some women midway between successive menstrual periods and often thought to coincide with ovulation.

Mittelstand

/'mitalstand/ noun L 20 Ger-

man (= middle class). Something between extremes of size; middling size range. 1994 Guardian The problems facing smaller firms

in

growing

highlighted

mittimus mise

plural

&

M20 German (= co-determination). In Germany: the policy in industry of involving both workers and management in deci-

To lose, not

The misere version of dividing economic goods is dividing economic ‘bads’ such as unemployment, responsibility for pollution or

mises au point

With (me,

colloquial.

win.

have

/mit/ preposition

with).

Mitnagged

.

caller

tral is

Valley from

lasts.

narrative suggests the be taken as entirely

same noun E19 French

rals

Rhone

unions and the bosses which

fantastical.

misere

mit

.

.

to

the

Siberia.

ture.

1

sweeps down

mixte

.

.

into the Mittelstand are also

.

/'mitimas/ noun

&

verb

lme Latin

(literally, ‘we send’, the first word of the writ in Latin). A noun 1 Law a LME-E18 A writ to transfer records from one court to another, b L16 A warrant committing 2 L16 A dismissal a person to prison. quit. notice to from office; a

Sense 2

is

chiefly used colloquially

in dialect in get one’s mittimus, that

and ‘be

is,

dismissed’.

mitzvah

/'mitsva/ noun plural mitzvoth

Hebrew (miswah commandment). Judaism A precept; a duty, an /'

mitsvaot/

M17

obligation. Also,

a

good deed.

Cf.

bar

MITZVAH, BAT MITZVAH.

mixte

/mikst/ adjective & noun plural same L .20 French pronounced noun

of (=

mixed). (Designating) a bicycle or bicycle

.

modus

Mizpah

vivendi

266

frame having no crossbar but instead two thin tubes running from the head of the

column

steering

to either side of the rear

axle.

there seems no reason 1996 Spectator why an editor, if he has to be sacked, cannot be despatched with a modicum of courtesy. .

modiste

.

/mD'df.st /, foreign /madist/ (plural

pah place-name in ancient Palestine). Des-

same noun M19 French (from mode fashion, mode). A person who makes, designs,

ignating a ring, locket, etc., given as an expression or token of association or re-

or deals in articles of fashion; especially a fashionable milliner or dressmaker.

Mizpah

/'mizpa/ adjective L19

Hebrew (M is-

and especially one with ‘Mizpah’ inscribed on it.

membrance,

originally

The allusion

made

is

to the cairn of stones

in token of the

covenant between

Jacob and Laban (Genesis 31:43-55), which was called Mizpah ‘for he said, The Lord

watch between me and thee, when we are absent one from another’ (verse 49).

moccasin

/'nmkasm/ noun E17 Virginia

Algonquian mockasin and in other North American Indian languages). 1 a E17 A kind of soft leather shoe, worn by North American Indians, trappers, etc. b L19 A ,

(

shoe resembling this. 2 venomous North American snake.

soft informal

A

mochi anese.

L18

noun plural same E17 Japcake made from glutinous rice,

/'mDtfi/

A

steamed and pounded.

modello

/mD’delau/,

/mo'dello/

foreign

noun plural modelli /mo'delli/, modelios

M20

A

detailed sketch for a larger prepared for a patron’s ap-

Italian.

painting, proval. Also, a small

model

for a larger

sculpture.

)

1996 Spectator The

can be seen in the in which the modiste can be seen nestling behind her stock as if sheltering beneath brilliantly coloured result

glorious ‘Milliner’s Shop’ ...

tropical flowers.

modulus

mDdjulas/ noun plural moduli /' mndjoli:/, moduluses M16 Latin (diminutive of modus mode). 1 M16-M17 Architecture A unit of length by expressed. which proportions are 2 Mathematics a M18 A number by which logarithms to one base must be multiplied in order to obtain the corresponding logarithms to another base, b M19 A constant multiplier, coefficient, or parameter. c M19 A measure of a quantity which depends on two or more other quantities, d M19 A number by which another number may be divided leaving a remainder. 3 E19 Physics and Engineering A numerical quantity representing some property of a substance, and equal to the ratio of the magnitude of a (usually chanical) cause to the magnitude of its effect on the substance; specifically = modulus of elasticity. /'

/'mDdjulAi/,

me

moderato

/mnda'rcetau/ adverb E18 Italian (= moderate). Music (A direction:) at a moderate pace or tempo.

moderne jective

/ma'darn/, foreign /modern/ ad-

& noun M20 French

(=

modern).

)

Modernismus

/moder'msmus/,

'nizmas/ noun M20

Modernism

German in

(=

/mnda modern-

architecture,

art,

done; a

Frequently derogatory.

maudas/

modi A mode; es-

noun

plural

moduses L 16 Latin. way in which something mode or manner of operation.

the

modus operandi

/.maudas Dpa'randi:/, /, maudas npa'randAi/ noun phrase M17 Modern Latin (= mode of operating). 1 M17

The way in which something operates. 2 Li9 The way in which a person sets task.

2 1995 Spectator

Certainly,

as the

editor to benefit from the narks,

modi

plural of modus.

modicum

/'nmdikam/ noun L15 Latin (= little way, short time, neuter singular of modicus moderate, from modus mode). A small quantity or portion; a limited

amount. Usually followed by of in contexts in which modicum means ‘a decent or necessary minimum amount’ (see quotation).

is

Now chiefly in Latin phrases (see following entries) or used elliptically for modus OPERANDI.

about a

etc.

/'

/'maudAi/, pecially

(Designating or characterized by) a popularization of the art deco style marked by bright colours and austere geometric shapes, or (frequently derogatory any ultra-modern style.

ism).

modus

would be familiar with

their

last

NoW

Mr Morgan

modus

operandi.

modus

vivendi /.maudas vi'vendi:/, /.maudas vi'vendAi/ noun phrase L19 Modern Latin (= mode of living). A way of living or coping; especially a working arrangement between parties in dispute pending a final settlement. 1996 Times is the modus vivendi of It

Christianity

which underpins European thought.

moellon

/'mwelDn/ noun L19 French, degras sense 1.

moeurs

/maiz/,

noun plural E20

/mcer/

French (from Latin mores, plural of mos custom). The behaviour, customs, or habits of a people or a group of people. 1996 Spectator The director Stefano Vizioli his designer Susanna Rossi Just present this sharp satire of marital moeurs with a light touch

.

/mD'fst/ noun E19

French (from

Neapolitan Italian mofetta = Spanish mofeta). (An exhalation of gas from) a fumarole.

mofussil

/mao'fASil/ noun

& adjective (also Urdu mufassil

Mofussil, mofusil) L18 from Persian and Urdu mufassal from Arabic mufassal passive participle of fassala to divide, separate). A noun L18 In the Indian subcontinent: the rural localities of a district as distinguished from the chief station or the town. B attributive or as adjective Of the mofussil: remote, provin(

cial.

1996 Spectator Whether from across the sea come to

or the Indian mofusil, immigrants

these island cities to escape not dfily from poverty but also from the social constraints that held

them back

mogote

in their

of roughly circular cross-section characteristic of karst topography, especially in Cuba. Cf. hum. hill

/'m9o(h)(9)l/

A Jew who

(mohel).

noun M17 Hebrew performs the rite of

circumcision.

moi /mwa/ me). Me;

I,

personal pronoun L20

French

(=

myself.

Since the late 1970s in jocular use as a pretentious reference to oneself. Chief popularizer of the expression was the character Miss Piggy in the television series The Muppets, the children's puppet show created by Jim Henson, and it was then also taken up by adult shows. 1996 Times: Weekend But naturally. Why do anything by halves? Cynical, moi? Not at all.

moire /mwa:/ noun M17 French (later form of mouaire mohair). A watered fabric (originally mohair, now usually silk). Also moire antique.

moire

/'mwa:rei/

adjective

& noun

E19

French (past participle of moirer to give a watered appearance to, from as preced-

A

Of

watered. Also, (of metal etc.) having a clouded appearance like watered silk. 2 M20 Desiging).

moire.

moksha (moksa,

/'nmkja/

from muc

adjective

1

noun

L 18

Sanskrit

to set free, release). Hin-

duism and Jainism The final release of the soul from a cycle of incarnations; the bliss so attained. Also called mukti.

mola

Cuna. A square of brightly coloured appliqued cloth worn as a blouse by Cuna Indian women of the San Bias Islands, Panama. 1977 A. Jeffs (ed.) Creative Crafts Originally, when the Indians moved to the islands in the /'maola/ noun

M 20

mid-19th century, these molas were simple garments made from dark blue fabric with just a narrow single band of color around the bottom.

molcajete

/ma'gauti/ noun E 20 Spanish (=

steep-sided

A.1 figurative 1995 Spectator ... it is very long, at times a shade too fluid, too gorgeously

old worlds.

hillock, heap, haystack). Physical Geography

mohel

2 M19 moire.

or effect.

mofette

ornamental moire pattern

especially as an

silk,

finish applied to metal; a

.

.

nating or pertaining to a pattern of light and dark fringes observed when a pattern of lines, dots, etc., is visually superimposed on another similar pattern, or on an identical one slightly out of alignment with the first. B noun 1 E19 A variegated or clouded appearance like that of watered

and

A

molossus

moellon

267

E19

silk:

/molka'xete/,

/mDika'heitei/

noun L20 Mexican Spanish (from Spanish moler to grind + cajete pot, bowl). A mortar for grinding spices and small seeds in.

mole

/'mauli/ noun M20 Mexican /' moli/, Spanish (from Nahuatl molli sauce, stew). A highly spiced Mexican sauce made chiefly from chilli and chocolate, served with meat.

molleton

/'mnlitDn/ noun L18 French (from mollet diminutive of mol soft). Swan-

skin (flannel).

moloch

/'maolDk/ noun (in sense

1

usually

Moloch) E17 Late Latin (from Greek Molokh from Hebrew molek, a Canaanite idol to whom children were sacrificed as burnt offerings (Leviticus 18:21), held to be alteration of melek king, by substitution of the vowels of boset shame). 1 E17

An

object to which horrible sacrifices are made. 2 M19 A slow-moving spiny Australian lizard, Moloch horridus, of grotesque

appearance. Also called mountain devil, 3 L19 A forest spiny lizard, thorny devil. America, a dusky tropical monkey of titi.

molossus /ma'lnsAi/ 1 Li6

/ma'lDsas/ noun plural molossi L16

Prosody

A

Latin (= Greek M olossos). metrical foot consisting of

monocoque

molto

268

three long syllables. 2 E17 History A mastiff dog from the region of ancient Molossia, in north-western Greece. More fully molossus dog.

molto

adverb E19 Italian (from /' mDlteo/ Latin multus much). Music Very.

H Usually tives

from

in directions modifying adjec-

mondain

/mods/ noun & adjective (feminine mondaine /maden/) L19 French. A noun L19 plural pronounced same. A worldly or fashionable person. Cf. demimondaine. B adjective L19 Of the fashionable world; worldly.

monde /m5d/, /rmand/ noun world).

Italian.

M18 French

The world of fashionable or

(=

aristo-

people; such people collectively. Also, a person’s particular circle or set. cratic

momentum

/ma'mentam/

noun

plural

momenta

/ma'menta/ E17 Latin (see moment). 1 E17-M19 A turning motion. 2 a L17 Physics The quantity of motion of a moving body, equal to the product of the mass and the velocity of the body, b L18 The effect of inertia in the continuance of motion; impetus gained by movement; figuratively strength or continuity derived from an initial effort. 3 Mathematics An infinitesimal increment. Only in M18. 4 M18-E19 Force of movement. 5 E19 An element of a complex conceptual idena

tity,

moment.

mompei

/'mumpei/ noun plural (also mompe) M20 Japanese (monpe). Baggy working trousers worn in Japan.

momser, momzer

monad

variants of mamzer.

&

adjec-

sense form monas /'mDnas/, plural monades /'mnnadkz/ M16 French (monade or its source late Latin monas monad- from Greek, from monos alone). 1 M16 (Monad) The Deity, God. b E17 The number one, 1 also (earlier) in Latin

,

unity; a unit.

Now

chiefly Historical,

with

reference to ancient Greek philosophy, in which the numbers were regarded as being generated from the unitary one. 2 M18 Philosophy Especially in the philosophy of Leibniz: an indivisible unit of being (as a soul, an atom); an absolutely simple entity. 3 M19 Biology A hypothet-

simple organism, especially one assumed as the first term in the genealogy of living beings, or regarded as associated with others to form an animal or vegetaical

ble body.

mon ami

/man ami/ noun phrase (also (feminine) mon amie) plural mes amis (feminine mes amies) /mez ami/ L18 French. (As a form of address:) my friend.

monas

my

beau monde.

mondo

/'mondao/ noun plural mondos E20 Japanese (from mon asking + do answering). An instructional technique of Zen Buddhism consisting of rapid dialogue of questions and answers between teacher and pupil.

mondo

/'rrmndau/ adjective

see

adverb M20

chic

and

A

tasteless.

M Slang use of mondo derives ultimately from Mondo Cane, the title of an Italian film (1961) showing bizarre behaviour (released in 1963 in the English-speaking Life).

The film became

imitated in similar zarro (1966).

The

titles

A

and was Mondo Bi-

a cult

such

adjectival

world as

as

and adverbial

uses arose through the interpretation

of,

mondo bizarro as ‘very bizarre’. mondo became simply an intensifier in American slang. It was taken up in this way by the children’s comic-book characters the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (in Britain, the Teenage Mutant Hero Turtles) in phrases such as mondo cool to express approval, and the usage spread to Britain during the Turtlemania of 1989for instance,

In the 1980s

90.

mondongo mondongos

/mDn'dmjgau/ noun plural E17 Spanish (= tripe, black

pudding). A Latin American or West dian dish composed of tripe.

In-

monocoque

/'mnnafujkDk/ noun & adjective E20 French (from mono- mono- + coque eggshell). A noun 1 E20 An aircraft fuselage or other structure having an outer covering in the form of a rigid load-bearing shell, usually without longerons or stringers. 2 M20 A motor vehicle underas a single rigid

structure (or in racing cars as a number of boxlike sections) throughout which

monad.

form of address to a male:) dear fellow.

&

adjective 1 M20 Anar2 L20 As an intensifier: considerable, much; huge. B adverb L20 Very, extremely.

Italian (= world).

frame and body built

mon cher /m5 Jer/ noun phrase L17 French. (As a

Earlier in

Dog’s

/'rrmnad/, /'meunad/ noun

tive (in

id

my

dear,

the stresses are distributed. B attributive or as adjective E20 Designating or based on a structure of this type.

monosabio

269

monosabio

/mono'sabjo/, /rrmnau'sabiau/

noun plural monosabios /mono'sabjos/, /mDnau'sabieuz/ L19 Spanish (from mono

monkey

A

+ sabio wise, trained). Bullfighting picador’s assistant in the ring.

monsoon

/mnn'sum/ noun Li6 Early Modern Dutch monssoen (modern moesson, influenced by French forms) from Portuguese mon^ao (cf. Old Spanish monzon from Arabic mawsim season, fixed period, from wasama to brand, mark). 1 L16 A seasonal wind which blows in southern (

)

Asia, especially in the Indian Ocean, ap-

montera

blend with or into one another; the sult of such a process.

montagnard (

/mbtajiar/,

plural same) adjective

/nmnta'njcud/

& noun M19 French

(from montagne mountain). A adjective M19 Inhabiting a mountain region; of or pertaining to montagnards. B noun M 20 A native or inhabitant of a mountain region; a highlander.

montagne russe phrase

plural

/mataji

rys/

montagnes russes

nounced same) M19 French

A

proximately from the south-west from

sian mountain’).

railway, a roller coaster. Canadian.

mons

pubis

/rrmnz 'pju:bis/ noun phrase L19 Latin mount of the pubes). Anatomy The rounded mass of fatty fcssue on the lower abdomen, over the joint of the pubic bones; especially that of a female (= mons veneris sense 2). (=

monstre sacre

/mostr sakre/ noun phrase

monstres

plural

same) M20 French ster’).

sial

A

sacres (literally,

(pronounced ‘sacred

mon-

striking, eccentric, or controver-

public figure.

1995 Spectator Since Scruton was demolishing the claims of much of the

painting

and sculpture featured in the Tate, its director, Nicholas Serota, the monstre sacre of London’s

modern to

be

in

art establishment,

New

found

it

convenient

York.

mons Veneris phrase E17 Latin (=

/rrmnz

'veneris/

mount

of Venus).

noun 1

E17

The ball of the thumb. 2 L17 Anatomy The rounded mass of fatty tissue on a female’s lower abdomen, above the

Montana

noun (pro-

(literally, ‘Rus-

April to October (in full south-west, summer, wet, or rainy monsoon ), and from the

north-east from October to April (in full north-east, winter, or dry monsoon), b M18 The rainfall which accompanies the south-west or summer monsoon; the rainy season. 2 L17 Any wind which reverses its direction seasonally, as the temperature varies between two areas, especially between land and ocean.

re-

switchback, a scenic

/mon'tajia/ noun M19 Spanish (=

mountain). In Spanish-American countries: a forest of considerable extent; spethe forested eastern foothills of the Andes in Peru etc. cifically

mont de

piete /m5 da pjete/ noun phrase plural monts de piete (pronounced same) M19 French (= mount of piety). A State pawnbroking organization in France providing loans to the poor at low rates of interest.

The term ‘mount’ for a financial institution was formerly (E17-M18) current in English. Cf. Italian

monte

monte

di pietA.

/'mnnti/ noun (in branch

cially sense 2) also

mountain,

monty

I

(espe-

E19 Spanish (=

pile of cards left after deal-

A

Spanish and Spanish-American gambling game usually played with a pack of forty cards. Also (in full three-card monte), a form of three-card trick. 2 L19 A certainty; specifically a horse considered a safe bet to win a race. Australian and New Zealand colloquial. II 3 M19 In Spanish-American countries: a small wooded tract; (a region of) chaparral or ing).

I

1

E19

scrub.

Palmistry

vulva. Cf.

MONS

PUBIS.

montage French

/mDn'ta:3/, /'mnnta: 3 / noun E20 (from monter to mount). 1 E20

Cinematography and Television The selection and arrangement of separate sections of film as a consecutive whole; the blending (by superimposition) of separate shots to form a single picture; a sequence or picture resulting from such a process. 2 generally M20 The process or technique of producing a composite whole by combining several different pictures, pieces of music, or other elements, so that they

monte

pieta /.monte di phrase plural monti di pieta di

noun /.monti/ M17

pje'ta:/

of piety). A State pawnbroking organization in Italy providing loans to the poor at low rates of interest. Italian (=

Cf.

mount

French mont de piete.

montera

/mon'tera/ noun (also (now rare) plural monteros /mon'teros/) E17 Spanish (from montero from monte hunter, mountaineer, mount). A Spanish cap, originally worn for hunting, with a spherical crown and flaps able to be drawn over the ears. Now usually specifically, the black hat worn by a

montero /montero/,

bullfighter.

monti

di pieta

monti

di pieta,

rals

mores

270

monts de piete MONT DE

Of MONTE DI PIETA,

plu-

commercial whaling.

PIETE.

montuno

/mDn'tumao/ noun plural montunos M20 American Spanish (= native to mountains, wild, untamed). 1 M20 A traditional male costume worn in Panama, consisting of white cotton short trousers and an embroidered shirt. 2 M20 An improvised passage in a rumba.

mon

vieux /m5

noun phrase L19 French. (As an affectionate form of advjo/

man.

dress:) old friend, old

these days, after a decade-long moratorium on

morbidezza

/morbi'deddza/,

/ma:bi

'detsa/

noun E17 Italian (from morbido mor-

bid).

1

E17 Painting Lifelike delicacy in

2 L19 Delicacy, softness, espemusical performance; sensibilsmoothness; sickliness.

flesh tints. cially in ity,

morbilli

noun plural M16 Medieval Latin (plural of morbillus pustule, spot characteristic of measles, diminutive of Latin morbus disease). Medicine (The /ma:'bilAi/

spots characteristic

measles.

of)

mooivi(e) variant of moulvi.

morceau

moquette

/mn'ket/ noun Mt9 French (perhaps from obsolete Italian mocaiardo mohair). A heavy piled fabric used for carpets and upholstery. 1996 Times The Virgin in the Garden supplies the interior decor of a Fifties lower middle-class

home

in

such evocative

detail that

you can

Science

noun M20 Danish

Humus forming

top of the soil with

(=

humus).

Soil

mineral

on

soil

mixed with it, characteristic of coniferous forests and generally strongly acid.

moraine

/mo'rein/ noun L18 French (from Savoyard Italian morena, from southern

French mor(re muzzle, snout, from ProtoRomance word). 1 L18 An area or bank of )

debris that a glacier or ice sheet has carried down and deposited: the material forming such a deposit. 2 E20 Gardening A bed made largely of stones covered with fine chippings,

designed to produce

suit-

able conditions for alpine plants.

morale

indicate stress; cf. M18 Morality: moral teaching.

respelt 1

M 18 French

/me'ra:l/ noun to

foreign

from

sus bite,

mors- past participial

of mordere to bite). sical composition.

A short

stem

literary or

mu-

mordent

a discrete layer little

/ma:'sauz/,

/marso/ M18 French (Old French morsel, morcel diminutive of mors from Latin mor-

feel

the texture of the uncut moquette.

mor /mo:/

morceaux

plural

noun

/mo:'sau/, foreign /morso/

(moral,

locale).

Now

rare.

2 M19 The mental and emotional attitude of a group or individual with regard to confidence, willingness, hope, etc.; degree of contentment with one’s lot or

/'mo:d( 0 )nt/ noun E19 German (from Italian mordente use as noun of verbal adjective from mordere to bite, from Proto-Romance alteration of Latin mordere). Music An ornament consisting of the rapid alternation of the note written with the one immediately below it. Cf.

PRALLTRILLER.

noun M 20 Central American and Mexican Spanish. In Mexico and Central America: a bribe, an il-

mordida

/mor'dida/

legal exaction.

mordore

/mordore/ noun Lis French (from Old French More (modern Maure) Moor + dore past participle of dorer to gild). A colour between brown and red; russet.

more

noun E17 Latin (ablative of mos, mor- custom). In the fashion of, according to the custom of. /'mo:rei/

Only lowing

in Latin adverbial phrases (see folentries).

more hispanico /,mo:rei hi'spanikau/ adverb phrase M 20 Latin. In accordance with

situation.

moratorium

/niDra'toTiam/ noun plural moratoriums, moratoria /mDra'toTia/ L19 Modern Latin (use as noun of neuter sin-

gular of late Latin moratorius that delays, from morat- past participial stem of morari to delay). 1 L19 Law A legal authorization to a debtor to postpone payment for a certain time; the period of such a postponement. 2 M20 A postponement or deliberate temporary suspension of some activity etc.

2 1995 New Scientist there are plenty of grey whales migrating past Vancouver Island .

.

.

Spanish custom.

more majorum

m9'dp:rem/ admajorum genitive

/,ma:rei

verb phrase E17 Latin

(

,

plural of majores ancestors). In traditional

manner.

more meo E19 Latin. In

mores

/,mo:rei 'meiou/ adverb phrase

my own

fashion.

/'mo:reiz/, /'ma:ri:z/

noun plural L19

Latin (plural of mos manner, custom). 1 L19 The acquired customs and moral assumptions which give cohesion to a com-

Moresca

271

munity, social group, or period. Cf. o tempora, o mores. 2 E20 Zoology The habits, behaviour, etc., of a group of animals of the same kind. 1

1996 Times By posthumously according

his

official and unofficial families equal status, the former President held up a strange mirror to French mores.

Moresca

/ma'reska/ noun Mi9 Italian (feminine of Moresco from Moro Moor; cf. morisca). An Italian folk-dance related to the English morris dance.

more suo

/mo:g/ noun M19 French (proper

of a Paris mortuary).

tuary.

/ma'skcutau/ noun plural Italian.

A sweet

2a E20 In

a

future obituaries of people still living, colb E20 A repository of cuttings, loquial.

photographs, and information in a newspaper office, film studio, etc. colloquial.

wine.

moshav

/'maujaiv/ noun plural moshavim /'maujccvim/ M20 Modern Hebrew

mdsab dwelling, colony). In Israel: a group of agricultural smallholdings worked partly on a cooperative and partly on an individual basis. (

mosso

/'mDsau/ adverb L19 Italian (past participle of muovere to move). Music (A direction:) rapidly, with animation.

/mo/, /mao/, (plural same), in sense 1 /mnt/ noun L16 French (= word, saying, from Proto-Gallo-Romance alteration of popular Latin muttum related to Latin muttire to murmur; cf. motto). 1 L16 Originally, a motto. Later (now dialectal a word, an opinion. 2 E19 A witty saying. )

Cf.

BON MOT.

2 1996 Country Life If should leave my notebook open on the kitchen seat, may I

I

Morisca

/ma'riska/ noun M20 Spanish (feminine of next; cf. moresca). A Spanish folk-dance related to the English morris dance. f

Morisco

/ma'riskau/ adjective & noun Mi6 Spanish (from Moro Moor). A adjective M16 Of or pertaining to the Moors; Moorish. B noun plural Morisco(e)s. 1 M16 A Moor, especially in Spain. 2 M16 Originally, a dance with Moorish elements and sharing some features with the morris

dance.

besque

Now usually = art,

morisca.

ornament,

3 E18 Ara-

tei

salu'tcr.mas/ interjection (also morituri te

salutant and other variants) E18 Latin

Roman

(=

are about to die salute you).

The words addressed by the Roman emperor as they

History

gladiators to

entered the arena.

Quoted from Suetonius Life of Claudius xxi.6. Used allusively in English in many variant forms by people facing danger or difficulty.

moron

find

some priceless thought, some mot or maybe merely some item on a shopping list,

that

,

has been eaten

off the

page.

motard

/motar/ noun plural pronounced same M20 French (from moto- combining form of moteur). A member of the French

motor

cycle police.

1963 B. Abro July 14 Assassination Two They kicked motards were by the door their machines into life. .

.

.

mot de Cambronne /mo

.

.

.

da kambran/,

noun phrase French word’). The ‘Cambronne’s

/,mao da kam'bron/, (literally,

etc.

morituri te salutamus /mnri.turi

we who

mo-

Italian dessert

mot

1 M19 A mornewspaper office, the collection of material assembled for the

name

scatos E20

/,mD:rei 'su:au/ adverb phrase

M19 Latin. In his own fashion.

morgue

moscato

motif

French expletive merde! The reputed reply of General Pierre Cambronne (1770-1842) when called upon to surrender at the Battle of Waterloo. The official version of what he said— La garde meurt mais ne se rend pas ‘The Guard dies, but does not surrender’— seems to have been a happy journalistic invention, since the general himself denied saying

mot d’ordre /mo

dardr/,

/mao

it.

'da:dra/,

noun phrase plural mots d’ordres (pronounced same M19 French (= word of command). A political slogan; a statement of policy; an oral directive. 1930 Observer The official mot d'ordre is that )

/'mo;rnn/ noun E20

Greek moron (

neuter of moros foolish). 1 E20 Medicine An adult with a mental age of between about eight and twelve. 2 E20 A stupid or slow-witted person; a fool, colloquial.

mortadella

/moda'dela/ noun plural mor-

Mr.

Gandhi’s

with a

motif

sense

salt

of

/mao'ti:f/

campaign must be treated

humour.

noun M19 French.

1

M19

A

(sausage) seasoned with myrtle berries). A large spiced pork sausage; Bologna sau-

dominant idea Art a distinctive feature, subject, or structural principle in a composition or design; (b) in literature

sage.

or

tadellas, mortadelle /mo:ta'deli/ E17 Italian (irregular from Latin murtatum

distinctive, significant, or

or theme;

specifically (a)

folklore,

a

particular

or

recurrent

moussaka

motivi

272

event, situation, theme, character, etc.; 2 L19 An (c) Music a figure, a leitmotiv.

ornamental design or piece of decoration; specifically (a) an ornament of lace, braid, etc., sewn separately on a garment; (b) an ornament on a vehicle identifying the maker, model, etc. 3 L19 A motivation, a basis, (for an idea etc.).

motivi plural of motivo.

motiviert /moti'vkrt/ man. Motivated.

adjective

E19

Ger-

motivo 'ti:vi/

/mo'tkvo/ noun plural motivi /mo M18 Italian. Music A motif.

mot juste /mo phrase

plural

3 yst/,

/mau

'

3 u:st/

mots justes

noun

(pronounced

same E20 French (= exact word). The precisely appropriate expression.

own

volition,

on one’s own

initiative,

B noun phrase plural spontaneously. motu proprios. M19 An edict issued by the Pope personally to the Roman Catholic Church, or to a part of it.

mouche ‘a fly’,

/mu:!/ noun L17 French

from Latin

musca).

1

(literally,

L17 History

A

small patch of black plaster worn on the face as an ornament or to conceal a blem2 M19 A natural mark on the face ish. resembling such a patch; a beauty spot.

mouchette Architecture A

/mufjet/ noun E20 French. motif in curvilinear tracery shaped like a curved dagger.

moue

/mu:/ noun M19 French. expression, a pout.

A

pouting

)

moto

/'mautau/ noun M18 Italian. Music Movement, pace. In various

musical directions;

cf.

con

moto.

moto perpetuo

/.maotau

pa'petjuau/

noun phrase plural moti perpetui /.maoti: pa'pstjoi:/ L19 Italian (= perpetual motion). A rapid instrumental composition consisting mainly of notes of equal

/

mDt/ noun L19 French

(=

mound).

A large man-made earthen with a flattened top, usually surmounted by a fort, castle, etc.

Antiquities

mound motto

/'mDtao/ noun plural mottos, mottoes L16 Italian (from Proto-GalloRomance word whence also mot). 1 L16 Originally, a sentence or phrase attached to

an emblematical design

to explain its

significance. Later, a short sentence or

phrase inscribed on an object, expressing a reflection or sentiment considered appropriate to its purpose or destination. Also, a maxim adopted as a rule of conduct. b E17 Heraldry A significant word or sentence usually placed on a scroll, either below an achievement of arms or above the crest, c M19 A verse or saying in a paper cracker etc. 2 E 18 A short quotation or epigram placed at the beginning of a book, chapter, etc.; an epigraph. 3 M19 A sweet wrapped in fancy paper together with a saying or scrap, of verse. Also motto-kiss. United States. 4 L19 Music A recurrent phrase having some symbolical significance.

moulage

French (= moulding, moulded reproduction, from /'mu:la: 3 / noun E 20

mouler to mould). A cast or impression of a (part of a) person or thing; the material used for or the process of making a cast or taking an impression.

moule

noun plural pronounced same L19 French. Cookery A mussel.

/mul /

Usually in plural in

names of

dishes, as

moulin

/'mu:lm/, foreign /mule/ (plural same) noun M19 French (literally, ‘mill’). 1 M19 A deep, nearly vertical shaft in a glacier, formed by falling water. Also called glacier mill. 2 M20 A type of kitchen utensil for grinding or pureeing food.

moulvi

noun (also maulvi moolvi(e)) E17 Urdu (maulvi from Arabic mawlawi judicial (used as noun), from mawla mullah). A Muslim doctor of the law, an imam; generally (especially in the Indian subcontinent, used as a form of address to) a learned person or teacher.

proprio

/.mautu: 'prupriau/ E17 Latin.

A

/.maotu:

adverb

'praopriau/,

& noun phrase Of one’s

adverb phrase E17

/'mu:lvi/

/'maolvi/,

mousaka

variant of moussaka.

mousquetaire

noun & adjecmusketeer, from mousquet musket). A noun 1 E18 History A French musketeer. 2 L19 A glove with a tive

E18

French

/.inmska'tc:/

(=

long loose wrist. More glove.

an

B

fully mousquetaire

attributive or as adjective

M19 Of

article of clothing: in the style of that

of a French musketeer.

moussaka

/mu:‘sa:ka/, /mu:sa'ka:/ noun

mousaka) M20 Turkish (musakka, ultimately from Arabic musakka; cf. modern Greek mousakas, Romanian musaca, Albanian, Bulgarian musaka, etc.). An eastern (also

motu

variant of muzhik.

in moules marinieres.

value.

motte

moujik

mousse

273

Mediterranean dish made with minced beef or lamb, aubergine, etc., with a cheese sauce.

mousse

/mu:s/ noun M19 French

(= moss, M19 The aggregation of tiny bubbles in sparkling wine, as champagne etc. 2 L19 Cookery A sweet or savoury dish made from a puree or other base stiffened with whipped cream, gelatin, egg

froth).

mouvemente

/muvmate/

mudra

adjective

E20

French. Animated, agitated, bustling, full of variety; specifically (of music) lively. 1965 Guardian Her life has been unusually mouvemente and erratic.



1

etc., and usually served chilled. Frequently with specifying word. 3 M20 A brown emulsion of seawater and oil produced by the weathering of oil spills and resistant to dispersal; a mass of this substance. More fully chocolate mousse. 4 L20 Hairdressing A frothy preparation for applying to the hair to facilitate setting

whites,

or colouring.

moyen-age

/,mwa:jan'a: 3 / adjective (also

moyen-age and with French

capital initials) M19

the Middle Ages). Of or pertaining to the Middle Ages, medieval. (=

moyen sensuel

/mwaje sdsqel/ adjective phrase (also moyen-sensuel) E20 French.

Of an average sensual and

noun L17 French. 1 L17 French muslin; a dress of this material. Also mousseline-de-laine. 2 M19 (A wineglass of) a very thin blown glassware with ornamentation resembling muslin or lace. More fully mousseline glass. 3 E20 Cookery A rich frothy sauce of seasoned or sweetened eggs or cream, ^vlore fully mousseline sauce, b E20 Any* of various dishes with a light frothy texture and usually prepared by whipping or beating; a mousse. /'mu:sli:n/

mousseux

/muso/, /rmu'sa:/ adjective & noun E19 French (from as mousse). A adjective E19 Of wine: sparkling. B noun M20 plural same. A sparkling wine, a vin

mousseux.

moustache

/ma'sta:J7 noun (also

mus-

tache) L16 French (from Italian mostaccio, mostacchio from medieval Latin mustacia, ultimately from Greek mustax, mustakupper lip, moustache). 1 L16 A (cultivated) growth of hair above the whole or either half (frequently in plural, especially in pair of moustaches) of a

man’s

lip

homme moyen

Generally in the phrase sensuel.

1996 Spectator He is told to ‘go and sell that thou hast, and give to the poor’, but with the proviso: ‘If thou wilt be perfect and have treasure in heaven’—to which the moyen sensuel capitalist could reply: ‘who is talking about perfection, and surely any place in

plural

nounced

/mut5

ara 3 e/

noun

moutons enrages

(pro-

M20 French (literally, ‘angry sheep’). A normally placid person who has become suddenly enraged or same)

violent.

moutonne(e)

see

Heaven

.

.

.

.

treasure?’

is

mozetta

.

variant of mozzetta.

mozzarella mntsa'rda/ noun /

E20 Italian

(diminutive of mozza a kind of cheese, from mozzare to cut off). A white Italian cheese originally made in the Naples area from buffalo milk. More fully mozzarella cheese.

mozzetta (also

/mau'zeta/,

mozetta)

/mao'tseta/

L18 Italian (aphetized

noun

from

from medieval Latin almucia amice). Roman Catholic Church A short cape with a hood, worn by the Pope, cardinals, almozzetta,

and some other

mu

ecclesiastics.

1 ME The noun ME Greek. twelfth letter (M, p) of the Greek alphabet. 2 L19 Plural same. One micrometre 3 E20 (micron). Usually denoted by p. Electronics The amplification factor of a

/mju:/

valve.

or ex-

tending from this on either side of the lip; a growth of hair above a woman’s lip. Also, an artificial strip of hair worn in imitation of this. 2 E17 A growth of hairs or bristles, or a marking resembling a man’s moustache, round the mouth of certain animals or birds.

mouton enrage

materialistic

character.

.

mousseline

phrase

|

roche moutonnee.

muchacha

/mo'tfcutfa/

muchacho

/mu'tfcutfau/

noun L19 Spanish (feminine of next). In Spain and Spanishspeaking countries: a girl, a young woman; a female servant. noun plural muchachos L16 Spanish. In Spain and Spanish-speaking countries: a boy, a young

man;

a

mudra

male servant.

noun E19 Sanskrit (mudra seal, sign, token). Any of a large number of symbolic hand gestures used in Hindu religious ceremonies and in Indian dance. Also, a movement or pose in yoga. /'niAdra/, /'mu:dra/

munshi

muesli muesli

274

noun M20 Swiss

/'mu:zli/, /'mju:zli/

German. A

dish, originating in Switzerconsisting of a cereal (usually oats), land, fruit, nuts, etc., eaten with milk or cream, especially for breakfast.

muezzin

/mui'ezin/ noun L 16 Arabic (dia-

lectal variant of Arabic

mu’ addin active

participle of ’addana to call to prayer,

from

'udn ear).

A Muslim

crier

who

pro-

claims the hours of prayer from a minaret or the roof of a mosque.

mufti

/'mAfti/

noun L16 Arabic mufti active (

participle of ’afta to decide a point of law (related to fatwa)). A Muslim cleric or legal expert

empowered

on religious matters;

to give rulings

in the

Ottoman Em-

pire, a chief legal authority, especially

of

a large city (also Grand Mufti). Mufti in the sense of ‘plain or informal clothes worn by a person who has the right to

wear

a

uniform of some kind’

(E19)

be a facetious use of this word, but

may

/myge/ noun L16 French (from medieval Latin muscatum musk-scented, from muscus musk). 1 L16-M17 Any of certain fragrant plants; specifically woodruff, Galium odoratum. 2 L16 Lily of the valley, ;

a scent

made from

or

it.

mukhtar /'mokta:/

noun E 20 Turkish (muhfrom Arabic muktar passive participle of iktara to choose, elect). In Turkey and some Arab countries: the head of the local government of a town or village; a minor provincial official. tar

mukti

/'mAkti/, /'mukti/ noun L 18 Sanskrit

from muc to set free, Hinduism and Jainism moksha. (= release,

mulatta lata

/mju:'lata/

performances with the muleta were

mulga

limited.

noun M19 Aboriginal. 1 M19 Any of several small acacia, forming dense scrub in dry inland areas of Australia and sometimes used for fodder (also mulga tree); the land covered with such vegetation, colloquial the outback. 2 M19 A thing made of the wood of a mulga tree, especially a club or shield. 3 L19 A rumour, a message, a (false) report; the grapevine. In full mulga wire. Aus/'mAlga/

(

)

tralian slang.

mullah

/'mAla/, /'mula/ noun E17 Persian (Urdu mulla, Turkish molla from Arabic mawla). (A title given to) a Muslim learned in Islamic theology and sacred law.

multum

in

parvo /,mAltam

in 'pa:vau/

noun phrase M18 Latin (= much in great deal in a small compass.

mumpsimus

muguet

resembling

of the bulls

assessing

little).

A

its ori-

gins are uncertain.

Convallaria majalis

1996 Spectator Because some tired quickly, opportunities for

release).

feminine of mulato mulatto).

A

fe-

M16

pseudo-Latin (erroneously for Latin sumpsimus in the passage in the Eucharistic service that runs quod in ore sumpsimus ‘which we have taken into the mouth’). 1 M16 An obstinate adherent of old ways, in spite of clear evidence of their error; an ignorant and bigoted opponent of reform. Formerly also loosely, an old fogey. 2 M16 A traditional custom or notion obstinately adhered to although shown to be unreasonable.

The origin is Richard Pace’s anecdote in De Fructu (1517) of an illiterate English priest who garbled the passage in the Mass quoted above by substituting the nonsense

word mumpsimus.

When

corrected, he re-

will not change my old mumpsiyour new sumpsimus’. Now only in literary use. Cf. sumpsimus.

plied

mus

noun E17 Spanish (mu-

/'mAmpsimas/ noun

‘I

for

mu-mu

variant of muu-muu.

mung

/mAr)/,

male mulatto.

mulatto

/mjutlatao/ noun

&

adjective plu-

mulatto(e)s L16 Spanish and Portuguese (mulato young mule, mulatto, irregularly from mulo mule). A noun L16 A person having one White and one Black parent; a person of mixed White and Black parentage. B adjective 1 E17 Of the colour of the skin of a mulatto; tawny. 2 L17 That is a mulatto; of or pertaining to mulattos. 3 M18 Designating a kind of ral

mid-brown

muleta

fertile soil. United States.

noun M19 Spanish. Bullfighting A red cloth fixed to a stick used by a matador during the faena. /ma'leita/

/mu:p/

noun

(mung). (The seed of) either of

E19 Hindi two widely

cultivated tropical legumes.

municipio

/mju:ni'sipiau/, /mju:ni'tjipiau/

noun plural municipios L19 Spanish and Italian (from Latin municipium). A Spanish, Latin American, or Italian municipality.

munshi

/'mumfi:/ noun (also moonshee) and Urdu (munsi from Arabic munsi’ writer, author, active participle of 'ansa’a to write (a book)). In the Indian subcontinent: a secretary, an assistant; a language-teacher.

L18 Persian

murex

275

murex

mjuareks/ noun plural murices /'mjuariskz/, murexes L16 Latin (perhaps related to Greek muax sea-mussel). Any of various spiny-shelled predatory gastropod molluscs of the genus Murex and related genera, of tropical and temperate seas, from some of which the dye Tyrian purple was formerly obtained. Also murex /'

shell.

murus

gallicus /.mjuaras 'galikas/ noun phrase plural muri gallici /.mjoari: 'galiki:/ M20 Latin (from murus wall + gallicus Gallic). Archaeology A type of late Iron Age Celtic fort having stone walls bound by

muscadel

muscae

noun plural M18 Latin

/'mAsi:/

of musca

Chiefly Medicine Specks which appear to float before the eyes, frequently due to particles in the vitreous humour of the eye. In full muscae (plural

fly).

volitantes /vDli'tantirz/ (present participle

of

volitare to fly about).

muscat

/'mAskat/ noun M 16 Old ern French (from Provencal

and Mod(=

Italian

moscato), from muse musk)f M16 muscatel wine. In full muscat wine. 2 M17 Any of several varieties of grape with a musky taste or smell; a vine bearing a variety of such a grape. In full muscat grape. 3 M17M18 A kind of peach or pear with a musky 1

taste or smell.

muscatel

/niAska'tsl/

noun (also musca-

del /mAska'del/) LME Old French muscadel muscatel (= Italian moscatello) from Provencal diminutive of muscat). 1 LME (A) strong sweet wine made from the muscat or similar grape; a drink of this. (

,

2 E16

A muscat

grape. In full muscatel 3 M16-M18 A variety of pear with a musky taste or smell. 4 M17 A raisin from the muscatel grape. In full muscatel

grape.

raisin.

Usually in plural.

museau

museaux

/myzo/ E19 French (colloquial,

musee

/myze/

A (

literally,

same),

/'mju:zei/

noun M17 French (from Latin mus(a)eum

li-

from Greek mouseion seat of In France and French-speakthe Muses).

brary, study,

ing countries: a

musette

museum.

noun LME Old and Modern French (diminutive of muse bagpipe). 1 LME A kind of small bagpipe, especially a small French bagpipe of the eighteenth century with a soft tone. 2 E18 A soft pastoral air imitating the /mju:'zet/

fully musette bag.

5 1965 Sun The musette, or featherweight knapsack from the Continent, has largely replaced the saddlebag.

musica

/'mju:zika/ noun Latin (= music).

Occurring in various phrases used in English, especially with reference to early (see entries below).

/,mju:zika 'fikta/ noun phrase

E19 Latin (literally, ‘feigned music’). (Early

contrapuntal music characterized by) the introduction by a singer of conventional chromatically altered tones to avoid unacceptable intervals.

musica figurata

/,mju:zika figju'rccta/

noun phrase M18 Latin (literally, ‘figured music’). 1 Contrapuntal music in which the different melodic strands move more or less independently. 2 M 20 Plainsong with decorated melody.

musica plana phrase M20 Latin

/,mju:zika 'pla:na/ (literally, ‘plain

noun

music’).

Plainsong, canto fermo.

musica reservata /,mju:zika reza'vcuta/ nounb phrase M 20 Latin (literally, ‘reserved music’). clarity,

Early music characterized by balance, restraint, and expres-

siveness.

musicale ((soiree)

noun L19 French musicale musical evening). A musi/mju:zi'ka:l/

cal party; a concert, especially at a private

address.

United States;

musique

cf.

soiree musicale.

concrete kDn'kret/

/myzik kakrst/, noun phrase M 20

French (= concrete music). Electronic music constructed by the rearrangement of recorded natural sounds.

person’s face.

plural

More

cyclists.

/mju:,zi:k

/myzo/ noun plural

‘muzzle, snout’).

dance performed such music. 3 E19 A reed-stop in an organ producing a soft tone resembling that of the musette. 4 L19 A small and Simple variety of oboe without a reed-cap. 5 E 20 A type of lightweight knapsack used especially by the military and by racing a

to

musica ficta

variant of muscatel.

mutatis mutandis

sound of the musette;

music

horizontally placed timber frames.

|

mustache

variant of moustache.

/mAsta'fkna/ noun E19 Spanish (apparently from mustee, abbreviation of

mustafina

Spanish mestizo). A person with one parent a mestizo and the other a White.

muta

/'mju:ta/ intransitive verb L19 Italian

(imperative of mutare to change). Music (A direction:) change instrument or tuning.

mutatis

mutandis

/mju:,ta:tis

mju:

'tandis/, /mu:,ta:tis/, /mju:'tandi:s/ adverb

mutato nomine phrase L15 Latin

mythos

(literally,

276

‘things being

be changed’). Making the necessary changes; with due al-

changed that have

to

teration of details.

1962

S. E. Finer

said of the

Man on Horseback What

army here

apply, mutatis

is

to

mutandis

to

,

doctrines, a creator or disseminator of

mystical doctrines.

mysterioso

/mi.stiori'ouzau/ adjective

Italian (= mysterious). Music Executed in a

is

be taken also to the air force and the

navy.

mysterious manner.

mysterium tremendum

/mi.stiariam

tri'mendam/ noun phrase E20 Latin

mutato nomine /mu:,ta:tau

/mju:,ta:t 0 u 'naominei/,

'nominei/

adverb

phrase

E17

The name being changed, with a change of name or names, n Earliest in English as a quotation from Latin.

Horace’s Satires (I.i.69): Quid rides? mutato nomine de te / Fabula narratur ‘Laughing are you? Just change the name and the tale is told about you.’

mutuel

/'mjudjual/,

foreign

/mytqel/ (plural same) noun E20 French (abbreviation of pari-mutuel). A totalizator, a pari-mutuel. Chiefly North American.

muu-muu

/'mu:mu:/ noun (also

mu-mu)

Hawaiian (mu’u mu’u, literally, ‘cut off from the original absence of a yoke). A woman’s usually brightly coloured and E20

patterned loose-fitting dress, Hawaii.

muzhik

ing,

(as)

worn

in

(= tre-

A great or overwhelm-

especially

the

overwhelming mystery of God

great or or of exis-

tence.

mystes /'misti:/

noun plural mystae L17 Latin (from Greek mustes). A /'misti:z/

person initiated into mysteries. noun L19 French. The atmosphere of mystery and veneration in/mi'sti:k/

vesting some doctrines, arts, professions, or people; a mysterious attraction; any professional skill or technique designed or able to mystify and impress the lay person.

mythoi

plural of mythos.

mythopoeia Greek

A

noun

/,mi0a(u)'pk9/

M 20

The creation of

(muthopoiia).

a

or myths.

mythos

Russian peasant.

plural of mystes. /'mistagDg/

(Latin mystagogus

noun plural mythoi /'mAiOoi/ Mis Greek muthos myth). 1 Mis A traditional story, either wholly or partly fictitious, a myth; a body of myths. 2 M 20 A traditional or recurrent narrative theme or pattern; a standard plot in lit/'ntAiGns/

(

noun

M16

from Greek mus-

from mustes mystes + agogos leadfrom agein to lead). In ancient

tagogos

mystery,

myth

mystagogue French

ing

mystery).

/mu:'3ik/ noun (also moujik) M16

Russian. History

mystae

mendous

mystique

/'mjuitfoel/,

M20

,

Greece, a person who gave preparatory instruction to candidates for initiation into the Eleusinian or other mysteries; generally a person who introduces others to religious mysteries, a teacher of mystical

erature.

Mythos and

its

Latin derivative mythus

both now used solely in literary conwere current before the Anglicized myth (M19), which is now the form used in

(E19),

texts,

all

general contexts for sense

1.

naan

variant of nan.

naartjie

noun (also naartje and other variants) L18 Afrikaans (from Tamil narattai citrus). In South Africa: a soft loose-skinned tangerine or /'na:tfi/,

/'na:ki/

mandarin orange.

naat

noun M20 Afrikaans

seam, from Dutch naad). An irregularity in the structure of a diamond caused by a change in direction in the grain; a diamond containing such an irregularity.

nabi c

/na:t/

/'na:bi:/

noun plural

(in

(=

sense

1)

ne-

im

/ne'biim/, (in sense 2) nabis (also Nabi) L19 Hebrew (nabi prophet). 1 L19

bi

A

person inspired to speak the word of God; a prophet; specifically a prophetical writer of the Old Testament Theology

and Hebrew Scriptures. Also

(in plural )

=

2 M 20 A member of a group of late nineteenth-century I^ench postimpressionists following the artistic theories of the French painter Paul Gauguin

selage enclosing an engine etc. 3 M 20 A similarly shaped structure on or in a motor vehicle. In the core sense of ‘a small boat’, nacelle appears in Caxton’s Golden Legend (1483), but it never achieved much currency in this sense, and seems not to have been used in English between the late fifteenth century and its modern reintroduction.

naches

/'nAxas/ noun (also nachas) E20 Yiddish (nakhes from Hebrew nakat con-

A sense of pleasure or pride, especially at the achievements of one’s children; joy, gratification. United States. tentment).

Nachlass

/'na:xlas/ noun plural Nachlasse /'na:xlasa/, Nachlasse /'na:xlesa/

M19 German, singular and (rare) in plural. Unpublished material left by an author after his or her death.

the Prophets.

(1848-1903).

nabla

/'nabla/ noun L19 Greek (= a kind of harp, probably of Semitic origin). Mathematics The symbolic differential operator in the shape of the inverted Greek capital letter delta A (hence often known under the abbreviation del).

nabob

Portuguese (nabaho or Spanish nabob from Urdu nawwab, nawab deputy governor: cf. nawab). 1 E17 History (The title of) any of certain Muslim officials acting as deputy governors of /'neibnb/ noun E17

provinces or districts in the Mughal Empire; a governor of an Indian town or district. 2 M18 A person of great wealth or (formerly) high rank; specifically a European returning from India with a large fortune acquired there. /'nakarat/ noun M 18 French (perhaps from Spanish and Portuguese nacar-

nacarat

from nacar nacre). orange-red colour. 2 M19 ado,

ric

1

A

M 18 A

bright

noun E20 French (from late Latin navicella, diminutive of Latin navis ship). 1 E20 The basket or car of a balloon or airship. 2 E20 Originally, the cockpit of an aeroplane. Now, a streamlined bulge on an aircraft’s wing or fu/na'sel/

noun plural nachos M20 (Mexican) Spanish (origin uncertain: perhaps from Mexican Spanish Nacho petform of male forename Ignacio, but cf. Spanish nacho flat-nosed). A snack or appetizer consisting of fried tortilla chips covered in melted cheese, peppers, spices, /'natfau/

etc.

Perhaps the invention of a Mexican chef, Ignacio Anaya, who worked in the Piedras Niegras area in the 1940s, the dish was originally found only in the northern Mexico-Texas area and did not spread much beyond there until the 1970s. Taken up by the fast-food chains in the 1980s, it is now a popular food item in Europe too. Nacho is always used in the plural except

when

attributive (see quotation).

1983 Fortune The chain

of Mexican fast-food expanding its product line include ... a nacho side dish, and a salad.

restaurants to

busily

is

Nachschlag Nachschlage

/'na:xjla:k/

noun

/'na:xj'le:g9/

L19

plural

German

(from nach after + Schlag blow, note). Music A grace-note taking its value from that of the note preceding it.

fine linen fab-

dyed in this colour.

nacelle

nacho

Nachtmaal

variant of nagmaal.

Nacht und Nebel /,naxt unt 'ne:b(a)l/ noun phrase M20 German (literally, ‘night and fog’). A situation characterized by mystery or obscurity, especially as associated with Nazi Germany between 1941

and 1945.

nacre

narcosis

278

nacre

/'neika/ noun L 16 French (probably ultimately of oriental origin). Mother-

of-pearl.

nada

noun 1 E 20 Sanskrit (nada sound). Hinduism Inchoate or elemental sound considered as the source of all sounds and as a source of creation.

nada

/'na:da/

noun 2 M20 Spanish (= nothing, from Latin (res) nata thing born, insignificant thing). Nothing; noth/'nada/, /'nada/

ingness, non-existence.

bic nazir (as-samt) opposite (the zenith)).

LME-E 18 Astronomy A point in the heavens diametrically opposite to some other point, especially to the sun. Followed by 2 L15 Astronomy The point of the of, to. heavens diametrically opposite to the zenith; the point directly below an observer. 3 L18 The lowest point (of something); the place or time of greatest depression or degradation. 1

/'ni:vas/

noun

Sanskrit (naga serpent, snake). Indian Mythology A member of a race of semi-divine creatures, halfsnake and half-human, that are the genii of rain, rivers, etc. /'ncrga/

(nakane). etc.,

in

southern Africa, characterized by fever, lethargy, and oedema caused by trypanosomes transmitted by tsetse-flies.

Nagmaal

/'naxma:l/ noun

(also (earlier)

Nachtmaal /’naxtmad/) M19 Afrikaans (nagmaal (Dutch nachtmaal), from nag (Dutch nacht) night + maal meal). In South Africa: the usually quarterly celebration of the Eucharist in the Dutch Reformed Church (an occasion of family reunions

and celebration). noun M20 Hebrew (from inname of the organization, Nd c ar Halutzi Lohem Pioneer Military Youth). A military youth organization in Israel; an agricultural settlement manned by members of this organizaitials

/na'ha:l/

of the

tion.

naif

M17 Old and Modern French feminine of naif from Latin nativus native; cf. naif). 1 M17 Unaffected, unnaive)

(naive,

consciously artless. Also, foolishly credusimple. lous, b M20 Of art etc.: straightforward in style, eschewing sub2 M20 tlety or conventional technique.

Not having had a particular experience before, or been the subject of a particular experiment; lacking the knowledge to guess the purpose of an experiment; especially not having

and

Psychology

taken or received a particular drug. lowed by to.)

(Fol-

naivete /naivte/, /nAi'i:vtei/ noun plural pronounced same L17 French (from as preceding). 2 E18 etc.

1

L17

The

A naive

action, remark,

state or quality of

being

naive.

/.nAmas'ka:/ noun M20 Hindi (from Sanskrit namaskara, from namas

/nAi'i:f/, /na:'i:f/ adjective

& noun

plural

of noun pronounced same L16 French (see naive). A adjective 1 L16 naive sense 1.

next) + kara action).

(see

A

traditional

Hindu gesture of greeting made by bringing the palms together before the face or chest and bowing. In

L 18

nagana /na'gama/ noun L19 Zulu A disease of cattle, antelope,

nahal

(also

adjective

/na:'i;v/

/nAi'i:v/,

namaskar

noun (also nevus) plural naevi /'ni:vAi/ M19 Latin. Medicine A congenital reddish or brown mark or (usually) raised blemish on the skin, especially a haemangiona; a birthmark, a mole.

naga

naive

Biology

nadir /'neidia/ noun lme Old and Modern French ((also Spanish, Italian) from Ara-

naevus

b M20 naive sense lb. 2 M-L17 Of a diamond; without an imperfection, flawless. rare. B noun L19 A naive person.

Thailand a similar gesture

called

is

wai.

namaste

/'nAmastei / noun, interjection, & verb M20 Hindi (from Sanskrit namas bowing, obeisance + te dative of tvam you (singular)). A noun M20 A traditional Hindu greeting, a namaskar. B interjection M20 Expressing respectful (said greeting when giving a namaskar). C intransitive verb M20 Give a namaskar.

nan

/na:n/ noun (also naan) E20 Persian

and Urdu

(nan). In Indian cookery, a type of leavened bread cooked especially in a

clay oven.

naos

/'news/ noun L18 Greek (= temple). (The inner cell or sanctuary of) a temple; also Christian Church, the main part of an Orthodox church where the congregation assembles (cf. bema, narthex).

nappe

/nap/ noun L19 French (literally, 1 L19 A sheet of water falling over a weir or similar surface. 2 E20 Geology A sheet of rock which has moved horizontally over neighbouring strata, as a result of overthrusting or recumbent ‘tablecloth’).

folding.

narcosis ses

/ncr'kaosis/ noun plural

/na:'kaosi:z/ L17

Greek

narco-

(narkosis,

from

-

279

narghile

narkoun to make numb). Medicine The operation or effects of narcotics on the body; a state of insensibility or stupor, especially as induced by a drug; the production of this state. Also, therapeutic sleep artificially prolonged by the use of drugs.

+ medieval Latin naturata (past participle) created, from naturare). Philosophy Nature as created; the natural phenomena and forces in which creation is manifested. Cf. preceding.

naturelle

noun (also narghileh) M18 Persian nargU coconut, hookah, from Sanskrit narikela coconut; partly through French nargileh, narguile from Turkish nargile from Persian nargU). A /'na:gilei/ (

hookah.

narikin /'narikm/ noun E 20 Japanese. Japan: a wealthy parvenu.

narod tries

In

M20 Russian. In counof the former USSR: the people; spe/na'rod/ noun

common

people seen (in some ideologies) as the bearers of national

cifically

the

culture.

The Narodnik movement was a type of

among

the Russian intelligentsia in the nineteenth century which looked on the peasants and intelligentsia as revolutionary forces, rather than the urban working class. Supporters Nar odniki) endeavoured to give political education to a community of rural or urban poor while sharing its living conditions. socialism originating

ure!

/.natfu'rsl/, foreign /natyrsl/ ad-

& noun

French (feminine of natnatural). (Of) a pale pink or beige

jective

narghile

nawab

L19

colour; skin-colour(ed).

nature morte

/natyr mart/ noun phrase

natures

plural

mortes

(pronounced

same) E20 French. A still life. Used as a descriptive term in French

art

since the eighteenth century.

Naturphilosophie /na'tu:rfilozo,fi:/ noun E19 German (from Natur nature + Philosophic philosophy).

The theory put forward, and

especially by Schelling (1775-1854)

other

German

philosophers, that there is an eternal and unchanging law of nature, proceeding from the absolute, from which all laws governing natural phe-

nomena and

naumachia machiae

forces derive. /na:'meiki 0 / noun plural nau-

/nafmeikii:/,

naumachias

L16

(

narrischkeit /'ncmJkAit/ noun slang L19 Yiddish naarishkeit narrishkeit from German Narrischkeit, from narrisch foolish, from Narr fool). Foolishness, nonsense. ,

(

narthex

nasi /'na:si/ noun L19 Malay. In Malaysian and Indonesian cookery: cooked rice. noun & adjective (also neskhi /'neski/) Lt8 Arabic naski (plural), from nasaka to copy). (Designating) the standard Arabic script. /'naski/

(

natatorium

noun Li9 Late Latin (use as noun of natatorius of a swimmer). A swimming pool, especially an indoor swimming pool. North American. /,neit9'to:riam/

natura naturans

/na.tjoara 'natjoranz/

noun phrase E19 Latin (Latin natura nature + medieval Latin naturans (present participle) creating,

from

naturare). Philosophy

Nature as creative; the essential creative

power or

navarin

/'nav(a)rin/, foreign /navars/ (plu-

same) noun L19 French. A casserole of mutton or lamb with (especially root) vegetables. ral

/'na:0sks/ noun L17 Latin (from

Greek narthex giant fennel, stick, casket, narthex). An antechamber at the western end of some (especially early and Orthodox) churches, separate from the naos.

naskhi

Latin (from Greek naumakhia, from naus ship + makhe fight). Roman History An imitation sea battle staged for entertainment; a place, especially a building enclosing a stretch of water, specially constructed for such a battle.

act. Cf. next.

natura naturata noun phrase

F.19

/na.tjoara natju'ra:ta/

Latin (Latin natura nature

navarin printanier /navars

prstanje/

noun phrase plural navarins printaniers (pronounced same) E20 French (= spring navarin). A navarin made with spring vegetables.

navette

noun E20 French (= little from medieval Latin naveta

/na'vst/

boat, shuttle,

diminutive of Latin navis ship). 1 E20 A cut of jewel in the shape of a pointed oval; a jewel cut in such a shape. 2 L20 A railway truck designed to shuttle cars through a tunnel under the sea, specifically through the Channel Tunnel.

navicula

/

na'vikjola/ noun plural navicu-

lae /na'vikjoli;/, /na'vikjulM/, naviculas M 19 Latin (diminutive of navis ship). Ecclesiastical

An

incense-holder shaped like a

boat.

nawab /na'wcsb/, /na'wD:b/

noun (also

(as a

Nawab) M18 Urdu (nawab from title) Urdu, Persian nawwab variant of nuwwab

NB

nem. con.

280

plural (used as singular) of (Arabic) na’ib

deputy; cf. nabob). (The title of) a governor or nobleman in the Indian subcontinent historical ); (the title of) a distinguished Muslim in the Indian subcontinent. (

NB ne

,

M20 French

which a man was originally known. Much more usual in the feminine nee. noun & adjective (also nebbich) L19 Yiddish nebech poor thing). A noun L19 A nobody, a nonentity, a submissive timid person. Also as interjection, expressing commiseration, dismay, etc. B adjective M20 Of a person: innocuous, in/'nebij/

(

effectual; timid, submissive, colloquial.

nebelwerfer

/'n 8 :b( 0 )l'v£rf0 r/,

/'neb( 0 )l

,w 0 :f0 / noun M20 German (from Nebel mist, fog + Werfer thrower, mortar, from werfen

A

mortar used by the German forces in the war of to throw).

six-barrelled rocket

1939-45.

nebula

ses /ne'kraushz/ Mi7 Modern Latin (from Greek nekrosis state of death, from nekroun to kill, mortify). Medicine and Biology The death or decay of (part of) an organ or tissue due to disease, injury, or deficiency of

nee (=

born, masculine past participle of naitre to be born). Born with the name, originally called: placed before the name by

nebbish

/ne'krausis/ noun plural necro-

nutrients; mortification.

abbreviation of nota bene. /nei/ foreign /ne/ adjective

necrosis

noun plural nebulae nebulas M17 Latin (= mist, vapour). 1 a M17 A film or clouded spot on or over the cornea of the eye. Now only Medicine, b M 18 A cloud, (a) cloudlike appearance; an indistinct, insubstantial, or nebulous thing or (figurative person. 2 E18 Astronomy A hazy or indistinct luminous area in the night sky representing a /'nebjula/

nee)

/nei/, foreign /ne/ adjective (also

M18 French

(=

born, feminine past parti-

ciple of naitre be born;

cf. ne).

1

Mis Born

with the name. 2 M20 transferred Formerly called. Normally follows a woman’s married

name

to indicate

she married, as in

negligee

her family ‘Julia

/'negli 3 ei/

name

Smith

noun

before

nee Jones’.

(also

negligee,

neglige also foreign /negli 3 e/ (plural same)) M18 French (neglige past participle of negliger neglect). 1 M18 History A kind of loose gown worn by women in the eighteenth 2 M19 Informal, unceremonicentury. ous, or incomplete attire. 3 E 20 A shroud. United States. 4 M20 A woman’s light dressing-gown, especially one of flimsy semi-transparent fabric trimmed with ruffles, lace, etc. 4 1996 Times There were crocheted tops suited to a chilly English summer worn over ankle-length negliges.

/'nebjoli:/,

negociant

/negosja/

noun

plural

pro-

nounced same E20 French (= merchant (sc. des vins), from negoce, from Latin negotium business). A wine merchant. 1995 Country

Life

We

put this to the test

.

.

.

)

distant cluster of stars. Now usually specifically, a cloud of gas, dust, etc., in deep space.

nebule

nebuly M16 French nebule from medi-

/'nebjulei/

/'nebjoli/)

adjective

(also

(

eval Latin nebulatus past participle of neb-

M16 Heraldry Of a particular wavy form, used to represent clouds. 2 M19 Architecture Of a moulding: of a wavy form. ulare

to

cloud).

necessaire

.

Negritude

.

.

noun (also Negritude /negrityd/, negritude) M 20 French /'negritju:d/

from Latin nigritudo, from niger, The quality or characteristic of being a Negro (Black); affirmation of (negritude

nigr- black).

the value of Black or African culture,

1

/neseser/

noun plural pro-

nounced same E19 French. A small usually ornamental case for pencils, scissors, tweezers, etc.

necessarium

/nesa'seTiam/ noun plural necessaria /nesa'se:ria/, necessariums M19 Medieval Latin (use as noun of neuter singular of necessarius (probably after

accusative (locum) necessarium necessary (place)) from Latin necessarius). A privy, a lavatory, especially in a monastic building.

and small negociant’s champagnes compared with three non-vintage, benchmark grandes marques recently, with a tasting of growers’

identity, etc.

nekulturny

/nikulj'turnij/,

/nekol'tami/

M20 Russian (nekul'turnyi uncivilfrom ne- not + kulturny). In countries of the former USSR: not having cultured manners, uncivilized, boorish. adjective

ized,

nembutsu

/nem'butsu:/ noun M 20 Japanese (from nen thought + butsu Buddha). In Japanese Buddhism, the invocation and repetition of the name of the Buddha Amida for the purpose of salvation and spiritual unity; this invocation.

nem. con. /nem Latin cente).

'knn/ adverb phrase Li6 (abbreviation of nemine contradiWith no one contradicting.

iem.

281

diss. |

Nemine contradicente (M17) found in English.

nem.

diss. /nem

very seldom

is

is

Nemine in

its full

name,

attributed).

An

to

whom

dissentiente).

its

discovery

essential oil distilled

from the flowers of the adverb phrase Li8

'dis/

Latin (abbreviation of nemine

With no one

cess of that

ngoma

Seville

used in perfumery. Also

orange and

neroli

oil

oil,

of

neroli.

dissenting.

dissentiente

is

not used in English

neskhi

variant of naskhi.

form.

netsuke

nemesis plural

Nemesis) L16 Greek (=

/'nemisis/ noun (also

nemeses

/'nemisi:z/

righteous indignation, personified as the of retribution or vengeance, from nemein to deal out what is due, re-

goddess

lated to nomos custom, law).

An

L16

1

agent of retribution; a person who avenges or punishes, b M20 A persistent tormentor; a long-standing rival or enemy. United States. 2 L16 (An instance of) retributive justice.

I.b

1996 New

Scientist

.

.

.

Mallon’s

nemeses, Dr George Soper and S. Josephine Baker, were reasonable and humane public health officials who took the actions they and their colleagues felt were best .

nemine contradicente

.

.

see nem. con.

nemine dissentiente seetmM.

diss.

nepenthes

/m'pen0i:z/ noun L16 Latin (from Greek nepenthes neuter of nepenthes banishing pain (qualifying pharmakon drug), from ne- not + penthos grief). 1 L16

A drug mentioned

Homer’s Odyssey (iv.221) as liberating the mind from grief or trouble; any drug or potion bringing

welcome

in

plant yielding such a drug. 2 M18 Any of various frequently climbing pitcher plants of the genus Nepenthes, chiefly of South East forgetfulness.

Also,

a

Asia.

ne plus ultra

/,ni:

pIas

'Altra/, /,nei

plus

noun phrase M17 Latin (= not further beyond). 1 M17 A prohibition of further advance or action; an impassable

/'netski/, /'netsuki/ noun plural netsukes, same. L19 Japanese. A small piece of ivory, wood, or other material, carved or otherwise decorated, formerly worn by Japanese on a cord suspending

articles

from

a girdle.

Neue Sachlichkeit

/,naya

'zaxligkAit/

German (literally, ‘new obA movement in the fine arts,

noun phrase E20 jectivity’).

music, and literature, which developed in Germany during the 1920s and was characterized by realism and a deliberate rejection of romantic attitudes. Cf. SACHLICHKEIT.

neurosis

neuroLatin (from

/njua'rausis/ noun plural

ses /njua'rausi:z/ Mis Modern Greek neuron nerve). 1 M18 Psychology (A) mild mental illness, not attributable to organic disease, characterized by symptoms of stress such as anxiety, depression, obsessive behaviour, hypochondria, etc., without loss of contact with reality. 2 E20 Any more or less specific anxiety or malaise experienced by an individual, group, nation, etc.

neve

pronounced same Latin nix, nivFrench (from M19 Swiss snow). The crystalline or granular snow on the upper part of a glacier, which has not yet been compressed into ice. Also, a field or bed of this. Also called firn. /neve/ noun plural

nevus

variant of naevus.

nexus

/'neksas/ noun plural same,

'ultra;/

2 L17 The furthest limit reached or attainable; especially the point of highest attainment, the acme or highest point of a quality etc. obstacle or limitation.

The inscription imagined by the inhabMediterranean world to be on the Pillars of Hercules (Strait of Gibraltar), prohibiting further westward passage by ships. itants of the ancient

2 1996 Country

Life

... in the United States,

where Cuban cigars are not available, Davidoff cigars are regarded as the ne plus ultra.

neroli /'marali/ noun L17 French (neroli, from Italian neroli after an Italian prin-

nexes

M17 Latin (from nex- past parti1 M17 A cipial stem of nectere to bind). connection; a bond, a link, b E20 Grammar A group of words (with or without a verb) expressing a predicative relation. 2 M19 A connected group or series; a network. /'nsksiiz/

2 1996 Spectator But most of their successes were due to social control: the nexus of family life, religion and working-class self-help groups which enabled bourgeois values to permeate society.

ngoma

/(a)rfgauma/ noun E 20 Kiswahili ((also goma) drum, dance, music). In East

Africa; a dance; a night of dancing.

i

nibbana

nimbus

282

nibbana

/m'bccna/ noun E20 Pali nibbana Sanskrit nirvana nirvana). Buddhism nirvana.

niche

(

,

noun E17 Old and Modern French (from Old French nichier (modern nicher) to make a nest, nestle, from Proto-Romance from Latin nidus nest). 1 E17 An artificially constructed wall recess; specifically a shallow ornamental reb M19 A cess for a statue, urn, etc. natural hollow in a rock or hill, c E20 A mihrab motif on an oriental prayer rug. More fully prayer niche. 2 figurative a E18 A place or position suited to or intended for a person’s capabilities, occupation, or status, b E18 A place of safety or retreat, c E20 Ecology A position or role taken by a kind of organism within its community, d M20 Commerce A position from which an opening in a market etc. can be exploited; especially a specialized but profitable segment of a commercial market. /nitjy, /ni:J7

niente

B

&

/ni'ente/, /m'enti/ noun, adverb,

A

adjective E19 Italian.

&

noun E19 Nothing.

Music (A direction:) with gradual fading away of the sound or tone to nothing. adverb

adjective E20

In nineteenth-century use the

noun

ap-

parently existed in English only in the phrase (dolce) far niente.

niet /'njet/ adverb & noun (also nyet) E20 Russian (net no). A adverb E20 In Russian; no, especially expressing a blunt refusal. B noun E20 An utterance of ‘niet’. nihil

obstat

/.nAihil 'nbstat/, /.nihil/

noun

phrase M20 Latin (literally, ‘nothing hinders’ (the censor’s formula of approval)). A certificate or statement recording that

work has been approved by the Roman Catholic Church as free of doctrinal or moral error; a statement of official approval, authorization. a

nil

admirari /.nil admi’ra:ri/ noun M18 (= to wonder at nothing). An atti-

Latin

nicht

man

wahr

/m?t va:r/

(literally,

interjection E20

‘not true’).

Is it

Ger-

not true?

Isn’t that so?

Ni£ois

/niswa/, /nk'swa:/ adjective (femi-

Ni£oise /niswaz/, /ni'swaiz/) L19 French (= of Nice, a city in southern France). Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of Nice or its inhabitants; specifically in Cookery, designating food, especially garnished with tomatoes, capers, anchovies, etc., characteristic of Nice or the surnine

rounding region. Generally postpositive, as in salade

Nif-

oise.

tude of imperturbability or indifference to the distractions of the outside world. A stance advocated by the Roman poet Horace in the opening lines of one of his Epistles .

.

niello. Chiefly as nielloed participial ad-

admirari prope

nil

res

est

.

remain

so.’

noun M20 Russian. Partly refrozen ice forming a thin flexible layer on the surface of water.

nilas

nil

/'ni:las/

desperandum

terjection E17

Do not niello /m'elau/ noun plural nielli /m'eli/, niellos E19 Italian (from Latin nigellus diminutive of niger black). 1 A black composition of sulphur with silver, lead, or copper, for filling engraved designs on silver or other metals. 2 M19 (A specimen of) such ornamental work; an article decorated with niello. 3 M19 An impression on paper of a design to be filled with niello, b transitive verb M19 Inlay with

(I.vi.l):

una solaque quae possit facere et servare beatum ‘to wonder at nothing is just about the only way a man can become contented and

Latin

/,ml despa'randam/

(=

no need

in-

to despair).

despair, never despair.

From Horace

Odes

I.vii.27: nil

desperandum

need to deyour leader and Teucer

Teucro duce et auspice Teucro) ‘no

spair with Teucer as to protect you’.

nimbi

plural of nimbus.

/'nimbu;,pa:ni/ noun M 20 Hindustani (nimbu lime, lemon + pan water). A drink of the Indian subcontinent consisting of lemon juice or lime juice with sugar and ice or water.

nimbu-pani

jective.

nimbus nien hao /'men hau/ noun plural same, nien haos L19 Chinese (nianhao, literally,

A title given to (part of) the reign of a Chinese emperor, used in imperial China as a system of dating. Also, a mark (signifying the reign of a particular emperor) used on Chinese pottery or porcelain to indicate an object’s period of ‘reign year’).

manufacture.

/'mmbas/

noun

plural

nimbi

/'mmbAi/, /'nimbi:/, nimbuses E17 Latin (= cloud, rain, aureole). 1 E17 A bright or luminous cloud or cloudlike formation investing a god etc.; transferred a cloud of

matter surrounding a person or thing. 2 E18 (A representation of) a halo surrounding the head of

fine particles or other

3 E19 Meteorology Jesus, a saint, etc. rain-cloud. Now rare.

A

,

ninja

283

|

ninja /'nmcfca/ noun plural same M20 Japanese (= spy). A person, especially a Japanese samurai, expert in ninjutsu. The word was little known in the West until the rise of interest in oriental martial

then began to play a role in fantasy and computer games but it was the huge popular and commercial success of the children’s comic-book characters the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles in the United States at the end of the 1980s that brought the word into a wider circuarts in 1970s. Ninjas

/nin'c^Atsu:/

noun M20 Japanese

(from nin stealth, invisibility + jutsu art, science). The traditional Japanese technique of espionage, developed in feudal times for military purposes and subsequently used in the training of samurai.

Nino, el

ninon jective

noblesse /nau'blss/, foreign /nobles/ noun ME Old and Modern French (from Latin nobilis).

1

ME Noble birth or rank;

nobil-

nobleness. 2 L15 The nobility; a class of people of noble rank, now especially in a foreign country. ity,

The most usual occurrence in English of sense

1

(sense 2) France.

is

in noblesse oblige; petite noblesse

used of the minor nobility of

is

noblesse oblige

/nobles obli 3 /, /nau.bles

noun phrase M19 French. (The principle that) noble ancestry and privilege

D'bli: 3 /

entail responsibility.

1995 Spectator But then

I

decided they were

victims of noblesse oblige considering ,

see EL NINO.

/'nimun/, foreign /nina/ noun & adE20 French. A noun E20 A light-

nylon, etc. attributive or as adjective E20 Made of silk,

ninon.

nirvana /ma'vama/ noun Mi^Sanskrit nirvana use as noun of past participle of (

be extinguished, from nis- out + va- to blow). In Buddhism, the experience that comes to a person in life when greed, hatred, and delusion are extinguished and enlightenment gained; the release from the effects of karma and the cycle of death and rebirth that comes when an enlightened person dies. In Hinduism and Jainism, liberation of the soul from the effects of karma and from bodily existence. Also figurative a state of bliss, nirva- to

an ideal

fatal-

ism.

it

incumbent upon themselves as dukes to supply any reasonable favour requested of them.

weight dress fabric of

B

an attitude of resignation or

evo’;

lation.

ninjutsu

nogaku

state.

noceur same

E20 French. a person

ertine;

pronounced

A reveller, a rake, a libwho stays up late at

night.

nockerl

noun plural nockerln /'nakarln/ M19 Austrian German (= little dumpling). A small light Austrian and Bavarian dumpling, made with a batter including eggs, and usually semolina.

A

/'nokarl/

Salzburger nockerl

is

a

sweetened

ver-

sion eaten as a pudding.

nocturne 1

M19

noun M19 French. composition of a dreamy 2 L19 A painting of a night

/'nuktarn/

A musical

character.

scene, a night-piece.

noel

noun (also noel) E19 French Christmas carol.

/nau'sl/

(noel).

1996 New Scientist Without patents on extracted human material, investment in

/noscer/ noun plural

A

figurative

.

.

.

biotechnology will drain out of Europe and the patent nirvanas of the US and Japan

.

into .

.

nisei /'ni:sei/ noun plural same M 20 Japanese (from ni- second + sei generation). An American whose parents were immigrants from Japan.

Cf. sansei.

Generally in the phrase decree nisi ‘a provisional order for divorce that will be made absolute unless cause to the contrary can be shown within a fixed period’.

Russian

/.nktjYvau/ interjection

nichego ). (

A

/nau'kma/, /nao'eima/ noun plural noemata /nau'i:mata/ E20 Greek noema thought). Philosophy An object of perception or thought, as opposed to a process or aspect of perceiving or thinking. Cf. noesis 3. (

noesis

nisi /'nAiSAi/ postpositive adjective M19 Latin (= unless). Law That takes effect only on certain conditions, not final.

nitchevo

noema

& noun

E20

E20

In

interjection

Russian: Never mind! It does not matter! B noun M20 The use of the word ‘nitch-

noeses /nao from noein to think, perceive). 1 L19 Mental capacity or action, rare. 2 L19 An intellectual view of the moral and physical world, rare. 3 M20 'i:si:z/

/nao'ksis/ noun plural

L19

Greek

(

noesis

A process or aspect of perceiving or thinking, as opposed to an object of perception or thought. Cf. noema.

Philosophy.

nogaku

/'no:gaku/, /'naogaku:/ noun E20

Japanese (nogaku, from no Noh + gaku music). Noh as a dramatic form or genre.

.

Noh

nomenklatura

284

Noh

/nau/ noun (also No) L19 Japanese (no (also = talent, accomplishment)). The traditional Japanese masked dance and song, evolved

(Originally,

from Shinto

quishment by a

noia /'noia/ noun M20 Italian (ultimately from Latin in odio cf. ennui). Boredom, ;

weariness, ennui.

noir /nwa:/ adjective & noun LME French. 1 LME Black. 2 L18 Black as one of the two colours of divisions in rouge-et-noir and roulette. Earliest in rouge-et-noir.

Sense 1 is rare in English except in or with reference to the cinematic genre of film noir or, by extension, black humour in other media (see quotations below and roman noir). It occurs in its literal meaning in a few phrases such as pinot noir (a variety of black grape) and figuratively in

knockabout,

thriller

transport the [Dr it

noir than

than caper,

Who]

series

with the values of a

1996 Bookseller Higson

.

.

.

is

it

in

an

effort to

time and

new

television era.

says that he

United States) the relin-

plaintiff or prosecutor of of his or her suit or prosecution; (later) a procedure by which the Attorney General can terminate criminal proceedings. Also, an entry of this in a court record.

part or

EN NOIR. 1996 Times Magazine More

now

drama with

rites.

imbue

nolle prosequi /,nr)li 'prosikwAi/ noun L17 Latin (= be unwilling to pursue). Law

all

Also abbreviated to

nolle in

the United

States (L19).

nolo contendere noun L19 Latin

/.naulao kDn'tendari/

do not wish to conLaw A plea by which a

(=

I

tend). United States

defendant in a criminal prosecution

ac-

cepts conviction as in the case of a plea of guilty but does not

nom de

guerre

admit

guilt.

/n5 da gsr/, /,num da

'ge:/

noun phrase plural noms de guerre (pronounced same) L17 French (= war-name). An assumed name under which a person fights or engages in some other action or enterprise.

1995 Spectator Avraham Stern of the eponymous gang took the nom de guerre ‘Yair’ after the commander of the Sicarii garrison at .

is

more conscious of the influence of the American noir writer Jim Thompson.

.

Masada.

noisette

French (dismall round

/nwar'zet/ noun L19

minutive of noix nut). piece of meat.

noix /nwa/ noun

plural

A

same M19 French

A piece of the rump. Also noix veal cut from de veau /nwa da vo/. (literally,

‘nut’; cf. noisette).

nolens volens

/.naulenz 'vaulsnz/ adverb

nom de plume

/,num da 'plu:m/, foreign /na da plym/ noun phrase plural noms de plume (pronounced same) E19 pseudoFrench (formed from nom name, de of, plume pen, after nom de guerre). An assumed name under which a person writes, a pen-name. 1996 Times Elytis was the nom deplume he chose to use in place of his family name .

.

.

.

phrase L16 Latin (present participles of

be unwilling, and volo, velle willing). Willing or unwilling,

nolo, nolle to

to

be

whether willing or not, willy-nilly. noli /,

me tangere /.naulAi mi: 'tan(d)3ari/,

nauli

mei

'tar)g(a)ri/

noun LME Latin

(=

do

not touch me). 1 LME Medicine An ulcerous condition attacking bone and soft tissues especially of the face: specifically lupus. Now rare or obsolete. 2 LME A person who or thing which must not be touched or interfered with. 3 M 16 -M 18 Botany A balsam or impatiens the seed capsules of which burst open on a touch; touchme-not. 4 M 17 A warning or prohibition against meddling or interference. 5 L17 A painting representing the appearance of Jesus to Mary Magdalen at the sepulchre

specifically

Impatiens

noli-tangere,

(John 20:17).

The original injunction

is

the Vulgate

version of the risen Christ’s warning to

Mary Magdalen when He appears outside the sepulchre (John 20:17).

to

her

nom de

.

.

theatre

/na da teatr/, /,nom da phrase plural noms de

noun theatre (pronounced same) L19 French (= theatre-name). An assumed name under which a person performs on stage. tei’a:tra/

nomen dubium /.naoman 'dju:biam/ noun phrase

nomina dubia /.nmnina

plural

Latin (= doubtful name). Taxonomy A Latin name the correct application of which is Vague or uncertain. 'dju:bia/ E20

nomenklatura

/no ,menkla'tjuara/ noun M20 Russian (from Latin nomenclatura list of names). In the former Soviet Union: a list of influential posts in government and industry to be filled by Party appointees; collectively the holders of these posts, the Soviet elite; /na.mjsnkla'tura/,

also transferred.

1995 Spectator Naturally, the BBC’s higher nomenklatura all those Controllers and Heads of This and That will reply that the two [sc. high ratings and public service broadcasting]





are not incompatible.

nomen nudum

285

nomen nudum

/.naoman 'nju:dam/ noun

nomina nuda

/,nDmma naked name). Taxonomy A Latin name which has no standing because it was not validly published.

phrase

plural

'nju:da/ E 20 Latin (=

nominata

plural of

/nDmi'neitim/ adverb Mt9 Latin (from nomen, nomin- name). Chiefly particularly, expressly.

nominatum

/nnmi'nartam/, /norm plural nominata /norm 'naita/ M 20 Latin (neuter of nominatus). The thing named by a sign or expres-

noun

'neitam/

non placet

/,nun est 'faktam/ noun

phrase Et7 Latin (= it was not done). Law A plea that a written agreement is invalid

because the defendant was mistaken about its character when signing it. Long chiefly United States.

nominatum.

nominatim

Law By name;

non est factum

|

non nobis

/nun 'naobis/

E19

interjection

Latin (= not to us). Expressing humble gratitude or thanksgiving; disclaiming credit for a success or benefit. In the Vulgate Non nobis, Domine, non nobis

O

‘Not to us,

Lord, not to us’

is

part of a

verse of Psalm 113; in the English Bible the

words form the opening of Psalm

115.

sion.

nominis umbra /.nmnmis Ambra/ noun shadow or

phrase M19 Latin (literally, ‘the

appearance of a name’). A name without substance; a thing which is not what the

name

implies.

The phrase comes from Lucan’s

Pharsalia

magni nominis umbra ‘he stands the mere shadow of a mighty name’.

(i.

135): Stat

nomos

M 20 Greek

/'nDmns/ noun

usage, custom, law). Theology The law; the law of life.

(=

noms de guerre, noms de plume, etc. nom de

guerre,

nom de

plume,

etc.

non

/.nonnb'stanti/ noun (also

non obstante) LME Medieval Latin (non from non

obstante not being in the way,

not + obstante ablative present participle of obstare to be in the way (originally in ablative absolute, as non obstante veredicto notwithstanding the verdict)). 1 LME History

A

clause in a statute or letter patent,

beginning ‘non obstante’, and conveying a dispensation from a monarch to perform an action despite any statute to the contrary. Also, a similar clause issued

f

plurals of

non-obstante

pronounced same L20 French (= no). In France and Frenchspeaking countries: an utterance of ‘non’, an absolute refusal or veto.

by the Pope. In full clause of non-obstante. 2 E17-M18 generally A dispensation from or relaxation of a law or rule (followed by on, of, to). Also, an exception to a rule.

/n5/ noun plural

nonchalance

Old and Modern French state of

noun L17

/'nDnf(a)l(a)ns/

(see next).

The

being nonchalant; lack of enthu-

siasm or interest; casual indifference, unconcern.

nonchalant /'nnnJXajKajnt/ adjective M 18 Old and Modern French (from non + chalant present participle of chaloir to

Calm and

cerned).

be conlacking or

casual;

showing no enthusiasm or

non compos mentis

/non

'est/ adjective

adjective

& noun

equal; unrivalled, unique.

B noun

L15

1

A person

or thing having no equal; an unrivalled or unique person or thing. 2 M18 An old variety of apple. 3 a M 18 The

b M18 painted bunting, Passerina ciris. Platycercus rosella, eximius. eastern The

More

fully nonpareil parrot. Chiefly Austra-

4 M18 Any of several attractively patterned moths. lian.

Formerly also a size of type roughly

/non

shortened to non compos (also

/.nmtpa'reil/

LME French (from non- + pared like, equal, from popular Latin pariculus diminutive of Latin par). A adjective LME Having no

interest.

.knmpns 'mentis/ adjective phrase E17 Latin. Not in one’s right mind. Cf. compos mentis. Almost always predicative and often

non est

nonpareil

equivalent to

modern

kind of sweet

(L17).

B

1

1996 Spectator She’s

phrase L19 Latin

and

a

a genius, an

inspirational revolutionary, a great designer, a

nonpareil

E17).

6 point (L17)

.

.

.

non placet

/,nmi 'pleiset/ noun

&

verb

(abbreviated from non est inventus he was not found). Non-existent, absent.

phrase (as verb also non-placet) L16 Latin

name

disap-

Non

est

inventus (L15)

was the

legal

formerly given to a sheriff’s statement in returning a writ, to the effect that the defendant was not to be found within the sheriff’s jurisdiction.

does not please). A noun L16 nally, an expression of dissent or proval. Later, a negative vote university or Church assembly. B tive verb E19 Give a negative vote proposition); reject (a measure).

(= it

Origi-

in

a

transi-

on

(a

nonplus A

|

note verbale

286

formula used especially in university

and Church assemblies

in giving a negative

vote on a proposition.

nonplus

/nDn'plAs/ noun

&

verb L16 Latin

(from non plus not more, no further). A noun L16 A state in which no more can be said or done; inability to proceed in speech or action; a state of perplexity; a standstill. Chiefly in at a nonplus, bring or

B

reduce to a nonplus.

transitive verb L16 (in-

3 M20

-ss-)

Bring

Chiefly North American.

and

intransitive verb

1

B

tit-

transitive

M20 Nibble or eat

(a

snack) (chiefly North American ); eat (food), 2 M20 especially heartily or greedily. Practise fellatio (with), slang.

nostalgie de

la

boue

noun phrase L19 French for mud’).

A

/nastafri da la bu/

(literally,

‘yearning

desire for degradation and

depravity.

person

(a

make

plus; perplex;

snack eaten between meals, a

bit.

etc.) to a nonthing) ineffective or inoperative. Frequently as nonplussed

flected

A

1995 Spectator

Feinstein allows Mellors’

inherent misogyny, fascism and nostalgie de

(a

la

overwhelm him, and permits Connie to be reclaimed by her own well-heeled bohemian

boue

participial adjective.

to

class.

non plus

ultra /,m)n plAS

phrase L17 Latin (= not

noun

'Altra/

more beyond). A ne

plus ultra, the highest point or culmination

of.

non sequitur

/non 'sekwita/ noun M16 Latin (literally, ‘it does not follow’). An inference or conclusion not logically following from the premisses; a response, remark, etc., not logically following from what has gone before.

and obsolete use (only part of the collar of a shirt etc.; an

Earliest in a rare

LME) for unfastened collar. 1996 Spectator There are one or two odd slips and non sequiturs in the book, which may be attributed to inexpert editing

nori

.

.

.

noun L19 Japanese. Edible seaPorphyra, eaten espeby the Japanese either fresh or

/'no:ri/

weed of the genus cially

dried in sheets.

noria

Spanish (from Arabic nay'ura). Especially in Spain and the East; a device for raising water from a stream etc., consisting of a chain of pots or buckets, revolving round a wheel driven by the water current. /'no:ri0/

noun

L 18

norte /'norte/ noun M19 Spanish (= north). Any of the violent gales from the north prevailing in the Gulf of Mexico from September to March. Usually in plural.

norteamericano

/,norteameri'kano/ noun & adjective plural of noun norteamericanos /.norteameri'kanos/ (also

Norteamericano, feminine norteameri/.norteameri'kana/) E 20 Spanish and Portuguese (from norte north + americano

cana

nostos

noun plural nostoi Greek. A homecoming, a homeward journey, specifically of Odysseus and the other heroes from Troy Also, an account of such a homecoming or homeward journey, especially as the conclusion of a literary work, literary. /'

/'nDstDs/

nDstoi/

L19

Nost(o)i was the title of an ancient Greek poem, now lost, dealing with the homecomings of the Greek heroes after the Tro-

jan War.

nostrum

/'nnstram/ noun plural nostrums, nostra /'nDStra/ E17 Latin (neuter 1 E17 A quack singular of noster our). remedy, a patent medicine, especially one prepared by the person recommending it. 2 M18 A pet scheme, a favourite remedy, especially for bringing about social or political reform or improvement. 2 1995 Times Every age has its prevailing

them from a similar overuse of an apparently commonsense nostrum.

fallacies,

and most

of

origin: the insensitive

nota bene /,nauta 'benei/ verb phrase tranimperative E18 Latin sitive & intransitive (from nota note + bene well). Mark well, ob)

(

serve particularly (usually

drawing atten-

tion to a following qualification of

has preceded). In general use in the abbreviated

notabilia

/naota'bilia/

noun plural

note.

notes inegales

/nats inegal/ noun phrase

French (literally, ‘unequal Music In baroque music, notes per-

North American.

formed by convention in a rhythm ent from that shown in the score.

& verb

E20 Yiddish

Gernoun E20 A restaurant; a snack bar. More fully nosh bar, nosh-house. 2 M20 Food, a meal. naschen to nibble).

A

M19

Latin (neuter plural of notabilis notable, after memorabilia). Things worthy of

plural

/nnj/ noun

form

NB.

American). Especially in Latin America, (a native or inhabitant) of North America, a

nosh man

what

E20

notes’).

differ-

(cf.

1

note verbale

/not verbal/

noun phrase (pronounced

notes verbales same) M19 French (literally, ‘verbal plural

*

note’).

287

An unsigned diplomatic note, of the ture of a memorandum, written in

na-

the

third person.

notitia

noun

/nao'tija/

/nau'tijTa/,

E 18

Latin (= knowledge, (in late Latin) list, account, etc., from notus known). 1 Knowledge, detailed information, rare. Only in E18. 2 L18 An account, a list; specifically a register or list of ecclesiastical sees or districts.

nougat

/'nu:ga:/, /'nAgat/

nouille /nu:j/ noun plural pronounced same M19 French. Noodle. Usually in

noumenon

/'naumanun/, /'mumamm/ noun plural noumena /'naomana/ L 18 German (from Greek, use as noun of neuter present participle passive of noien to apprehend, conceive). An object of purely intellectual intuition, devoid of all phe^ nomenal attributes. Chiefly in the philosophy of

Kant (1724-1804);

cf.

Immanuel

ding an sich.

/nans/ noun (also nouse) L17 Greek.

L17 Greek Philosophy Intuitive

sion, intelligence;

mind,

Common

practical

sense,

apprehen2 E18

intellect.

gumption, colloquial. 2 1996 Times Taxpayers who blindly,

intelligence,

A 1995

Times Far better, for a nouveau pauvre hostess, to take advantage of the national

mood

of exhaustion

casual

.

.

.

among

thirty-to-forty

and issue instead a more

invitation.

nouveau riche

/nuvo

rij/, /,nu:v 0 u 'ri:J7

noun & adjective phrase plural nouveaux riches (pronounced same) E19 French (literally, ‘new rich’). A noun E19 A person who has recently acquired wealth, especially

one who displays the

tiously or vulgarly.

B

follow

them

without using their nous, are fools.

/nuz otr/ personal pronoun plural) M19 French (literally ‘we oth1st ers’). We as opposed to somebody or any(

else.

nouveau

/nufvau/, foreign /nuvo/ adjective & noun E20 French (= new). A adjective 1 E20 Nouveau art = art nou-

veau. 2 M20 Of a person: possessing recently acquired wealth, nouveau riche; ostentatiously displaying such wealth. Of wealth etc.: recently acquired, b L20 Nouveau poor = nouveau pauvre. 3 L20 Modern, up to date. B noun plural nouveaus, nouveaux /‘nu:vau/, /'nuwauz/, foreign /nuvo/. 1 L20 A nouveau riche. Usually in plural. 2 L20 BEAUJOLAIS NOUVEAU. Colloquial.

Nouveau seldom occurs independently in is used elliptically and colloquially for such phrases as Beaujolais nouveau etc., the context making plain the meaning intended. English, but

or as or characthat has re-

to, ;

B 1995 to

as

Spectator Throughout last week had endure the roar of nouveaux riches engines I

their hideous-looking children

gunned them

to impress.

roman

nouveau

/nuvo

romd/ noun ‘new novel’).

phrase M20 French (literally, A type of (especially French) novel characterized by precise descriptions of charac-

mental

and

absence of interpretation of or comment on them. 1974 Times Literary Supplement The sources ters’

of

states

Mr Gordon’s off-the-peg technique are

some

fairly

Kafka; the Burroughs scissors; but

mostly the nouveau roman. The novel, so

this

modish dogma asserts, is a ‘vision of things’, and the universe no more than the sum of the author’s sensations.

nouveaux

plural of nouveau.

nouveaux arrives /‘nu:vau/,

fact ostenta-

attributive

pertaining teristic of a nouveau riche cently acquired wealth.

clear:

nous autres body

/nuvo povr/, /.nuwau 'po:vra/ adjective & noun phrase plural nouveaux pauvres (pronounced same) M 20 French (literally, ‘new poor’, after nouveau riche). A adjective M20 Of a person: newly impoverished. B noun L20 A person who has recently become poor.

adjective L19 Of,

plural.

nous

nouveau pauvre

somethings

noun (also (earlier) nogat) E19 French (from Provencal nogat, from noga nut, from Latin nux). (A sweet made from) egg-white sweetened with sugar or honey and mixed with nuts and sometimes pieces of fruit.

1

nouvelle

notitia

/nuvoz arive/ noun

phrase plural L19 French

(literally,

‘new

ar-

People who have recently achigher financial and social quired standing. rivals’).

a

nouveaux pauvres, nouveaux riches plurals

of NOUVEAU

PAUVRE,

nouveau

RICHE.

nouvelle /nuvel/ noun plural pronounced same L17 French. A short fictitious narrashort novel, especially one dealing with a single situation or a single aspect of a character or characters. tive, a

nouvelle

/nu:'vel /, foreign /nuvel/ adjective

L18 French (feminine of nouveau; in sense 2 elliptical for nouvelle cuisine). 2 L20 1 L18 generally New, novel. Now rare.

nouvelle cuisine

nritta

288

|

Of, pertaining to, or characteristic of nou-

nouvelle cuisine /nuvel kqizin/, French

kwi'zi:n/ noun phrase L20

/,nu:vel

(literally,

‘new cooking’). A style of (especially French) cooking that avoids traditional rich sauces and emphasizes the freshness of the ingredients and attractive presentation. for nouvelle cuisine spread

be

yond France in the 1970s and early 1980s, and its characteristics of lightness, short cooking times, and small helpings continued to endear it to the healthy eating lobby. In the hands of pretentious practitioextremes of artistic presentation and meagreness of quantity have incurred considerable ridiners, however, the fashionable

cule (see quotation).

1990 Country

Living

establishment

served every dish flanked by the

ludicrously inappropriate clutter: a

frilly

we same

lettuce

pinned down by a couple of hefty spring

onions, a pallid slice of kiwi strawberry.

Oh

and a

fruit

nouvelle cuisine, what have you

spawned!

novillada

plural of nouvelle.

M20 French

(literally,

‘new wave’;

cf.

A new movement or trend; specithat in film-making originating in fically France in the late 1950s. attributive 1996 Times As a young man at the Amsterdam Film Academy in the early Sixties, Jan De Bont would make a regular .

.

.

pilgrimage to Paris to

sit

at the feet of the

nauva/ noun plural novae /'nauvi:/, novas L19 Latin (feminine singular of novus new). Astronomy Originally, a new star or nebula. Now specifically a star whose brightness suddenly increases by several magnitudes, with violent ejection of gaseous material, and then decreases more or less gradually. Formerly also, a supernova. /'

B The present astronomical term

is

a re-

introduction, as nova was originally (L17) used in the rare and obsolete sense of ‘a thick ring or roll of tobacco’.

/novi'(l)jadas/,

/nnvi

Spanish (from novillo).

L19

which

bullfight in

A

three-year-old bulls are

fought by novice matadors.

novillero

noun

/novi'(l)jero/, /nnvi'ljexau/

novilleros /novi'(l)jeros/, /novi 'ljeraoz / E20 Spanish (from novillo). An apprentice matador who has fought only in NOVILLADAS. plural

noun plural /no'vi:ljaoz/ Mi9

/no'vi(l)jo/, /nD'vi:ljau/

novillos

/no'vi(l)jos/,

Spanish

(from

Latin

novellus

young bull; specifically a fighting more than three years old.

novio

/'novjo/ noun plural

new). A bull not

novios /'novjos/

/na(u)'v£la/

B The word was

particularly applied to the

tales in Boccaccio’s

Decameron and

its Ital-

ian imitators before being transferred to a

any language midway in length full-scale novel

and

homo

/.nauvas

'hmnau/

noun

plural novi homines /.nauvAi 'hDmini:z/ L16 Latin (literally, ‘new man’).

phrase

A man who

has recently risen to a posi-

tion of importance from insignificance; an upstart. B In ancient Rome, the phrase was speciapplied to the first man in a particufamily to rise to the office of a magistrate. fically

noxa

/'imksa/ noun plural noxae /'nnksi:/ Latin (= hurt, damage). Medicine A thing harmful to the body.

L19

noyade

be-

a short story.

/nwa:'ja:d/, foreign /nwajad/

noyades

plural

/nwajad/)

/nwa:'ja:dz/,

French

E19

(from

noun

foreign noyer to

drown, from Latin necare kill without a weapon, (later) drown, from nex, necslaughter). An execution carried out by drowning, especially a mass one as in France in 1794.

noyau ral

noun E20 Italian. A short fictitious prose narrative, a short novel, a long short story.

in

noun

lar

nouvelle vague guru Jean-Luc Goddard.

tween a

novus homo.

/novi'(l)jada/, /nnvi'lja:da/

novilladas

’lja:d 0 z/

novus phrase

vague).

novella

plural of

and Spanish-speaking countries: a boyfriend, a lover.

nouvelle vague /nuvel vag/ noun

work

homines

E20 Spanish. In Spain

nouvelles

nova

novi

novillo

One

noun plural novenae M19 Medieval

novenas

Latin (from novem nine, after Latin novenarius of nine days). Roman Catholic Church A devotion consisting of special prayers or services on nine successive days.

plural

B The fashion

leaf

/na(u)'vi:na/

/n 0 (u)'vi:ni:/,

velle cuisine.

visited

novena

/nwcr'jau /, foreign /nwajo/ noun plu-

noyaux

French

/nwa:'jauz/, foreign /nwajo/ L18

(earlier noiel kernel,

Romance use

as

from Proto-

noun of neuter of

late

Latin nucalis, from mix, nuc- nut). 1 L18 A liqueur made of brandy flavoured with the kernels of certain fruits. 2 E20 A type

of sweet similar to nougat. nritta

noun E20 Sanskrit (nrtta type of Indian dance with ab-

/'(ajnrita/

dancing).

A

numnah

nritya

289

|

stract patterns of

movement and

neutral

brulant ‘burning’ rather than incandescent

facial expressions.

nonetheless usuEnglish as ‘glowing

‘glowing’, the phrase

nritya

meant

croix said that by nuee ardente he

noun Li9 Sanskrit (nrtya dance, mime). A type of Indian dance /'(ajnritja/

rendered

ally

in

is

jdoud’.

through which ideas or emotions are

rtugae

expressed.

/‘nju:d;i:/, /'nu:gAi/

noun plural E18

Latin. Trifles.

nuance

/'nju:a:ns/

noun & verb Li8 French

(from nuerto show cloudlike variations in colour, from nue cloud, from popular Latin variant of Latin nubes). A noun L18 A slight or subtle variation in or shade of

nugae

difficiles.

difficiles

/,nju:d 3 i;

Chiefly in

nugae

'difikileiz/

meaning, expression, colour, etc. B transitive verb L19 Give a nuance or nuances

noun plural phrase E18 Latin (= difficult trifles). Philosophy Matters of trifling importance occupying a disproportionate amount of time owing to their diffi-

to.

culty.

/nqase/ adjective M 20 French (from as preceding). Having or characterized by nuances.

nuance

nuit

blanche

/nqi blaj/ noun phrase plu-

nuits blanches (pronounced same) M19 French (literally, ‘white night’). A ral

sleepless night.

nucleus

/'njmklias/ noun plural

/'nju:kliAi/,

nucleuses

nuclei

E18 Latin (= nut,

kernel, inner part, variant of nuculeus, from nucula diminutive of nux, nuc- nut). 1

E18 Astronomy

head of

The dense core of the b

A

dense, usually bright, central part in a galaxy or nebula. 2 M18 The central part or thing around which others are grouped t)r collected; the centre or kernel of an aggregate or mass; an initial part or collection of things to which others may be added. a comet,

L18

its initial astronomical sense, nuhas acquired a large number of specialist senses in a variety of subject fields: Anatomy (E19), Archaeology (M19), Biology (M19), Chemistry (M19), Bee-keeping (L19),

Besides

cleus

Physics (E20),

and Linguistics

(E20).

nudnik

/'nudnik/ noun (also nudnick) M20 Yiddish (from Russian nudnyi tedious, boring + noun suffix -nik person connected with (something)). A pestering, nagging, or irritating person; a bore. United States slang.

1972 New York Too many of our dread the prospect of nudnik moviegoers sharing their pleasures with the plain folks.

bona

noun phrase E19 Latin (= no goods). The return made by a sheriff upon an execution when the party has no goods to be distrained.

nulla

nulli

/,nAla 'bauna/

secundus

phrase

(also

/,nAli si'kAndas/ adjective

secundum

nulls

/,nAli

si

'kAndam/) M19 Latin. Second to none.

numdah

/'nAmda/ noun E19 Urdu namda from Persian namad felt, carpet, rug). 1 E19 In the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East: a kind of felt or coarse woollen cloth, frequently embroidered; a rug or carpet made from this (also numdah rug). 2 L19 A NUMNAH. (

numen

/'nju:man/ noun plural numina /'nju:mma/ E17 Latin (related to nuere to nod, Greek neuein to incline the head). Divinity; a local or presiding god.

numero

/nymero/ noun plural numeros /nymero/ E20 French. A person or thing having a place in a series, a number. Also, a remarkable or strange person.

attributive

.

nuee ardente

.

.

/nqe ardat/ noun phrase

nuees

ardentes (pronounced same) E20 French (literally, ‘burning cloud’). Geology A hot dense cloud of ash and fragmented lava suspended in a mass of gas, typically ejected from the side of the dome of certain volcanoes and flowing downhill like an avalanche. The phrase was introduced into formal plural

vulcanology in 1903 by A. Lacroix, who subsequently observed (in La Montague Pelee et ses eruptions (1904)) that the expression had earlier been in use amongst the inhabitants of San Jorge in the Azores. While La-

numero uno phrase

/,nju:marau

'u:nau/

plural numero unos

and Spanish (= number most important person.

one).

noun

L20 Italian

The best or

1996 Spectator Then there is Enrique Ponce, acclaimed as numero uno and already being spoken

of as the

matador

of the century.

numerus clausus

/,nju:maras 'klausas/ (literally, ‘closed Latin noun phrase E 20 number’). A fixed maximum number of entrants admissible to an academic institution.

numina

numnah

plural of

numen.

/'nAmna/ noun M19 Urdu (namda

from Persian namad

felt,

carpet, rug; a

nunafak

|

nymphaeum

290

variant of numdah). A saddle-cloth; a pad placed under a saddle to prevent soreness.

/'nAnJies/, /'nAnJas/ noun plural nuntii /'nAnJiAi/ E17 Latin (variant of nun-

cius

nunatak

/'nAnatak/ noun L19 Eskimo ((Greenlandic) nunataq). An isolated peak of rock projecting above a surface of in-

land ice or snow in Greenland, Norway, etc.

nunc dimittis /.nApk di'mitis/ noun phrase M16 Latin (= now you let (your servant) de1 M 16 A canticle forming part of part). the Christian liturgy at evensong and compline, comprising the song of Simeon in Luke 2:29-32 (in the Vulgate beginning Nunc dimittis, Domine). 2 Li6 Permission to depart; dismissal.

nunchaku

nuntius

/nAn'tfaku:/ noun L20

Japanese Japanese martial arts weapon consisting of two hardwood sticks joined together by a strap, chain, etc. More fully nunchaku stick. Usu(from Okinawa dialect).

A

ally in plural.

messenger).

/'nAnsiao/, /'nAnJiau/ noun plural nuncios E16 Italian nuncio nuntio (now (

,

from Latin nuncius, nuntius mes1 Ei6 Roman Catholic Church A papal ambassador to a foreign court or government. 2 E17 A person bearing a nunzio)

senger).

message; a messenger. 3 L17 History member of the Polish diet.

A

nuncio.

mam

nuoc

/nwnk 'ma:m/ noun phrase E20 Vietnamese. A spicy Vietnamese fish sauce.

nuragh

noun plural nuraghi /' nuaragi/ E19 Sardinian. Archaeology A type of massive stone tower found in Sardinia, dating from the Bronze and Iron /'nuarag/

Ages. Cf. TALAYOT.

nux vomica

/,nAks 'vnmika/ noun phrase

LME Medieval Latin (literally, ‘emetic nut’, from Latin nux nut + adjective from vomere to vomit). The highly poisonous of the tree Strychnos nux-vomica, used as a major source of strychnine and in homoeopathic remedies; this tree, a native of southern Asia. seeds

nyet

variant of niet.

nymphaeum /mm'fi:am/ noun archaic plural

nuncio

A

nymphaea

pheum,

/nim'fi:a/

nymphea)

(also

nym-

L18 Latin (from Greek numphaion, -eion temple or shrine of the nymphs, neuter of numphaios, -eios sacred to the nymphs, from numphe nymph). Classical Antiquities A grotto or shrine dedicated to a nymph or nymphs; (a part of) a building built to represent this.

plural

ob. abbreviation of

obbligato

obiit.

/obli'gcoteo/ adjective

and noun

obligato) L18 Italian (= obliged, obligatory). Music A adjective L18 Indispensable; that cannot be omitted: designating a part or accompaniment forming an integral part of a composition, and the instrument on which it is played. B noun M19 plural obbligatos. An obbligato part or accompaniment, especially one of par(also

prominence

ticular

in a piece.

noun

/'nb(0)l0s/

LME Latin (= spit, critical obelus, from Greek obelos). A straight horizontal stroke (-), sometimes with a dot above and below (^-), used in ancient manuscripts to mark a word, passage, especially as spurious. Also, a dagger-

shaped reference mark (|) used in printed matter as a reference to a footnote etc., and in some dictionaries tofdenote obso-

oberek

dance

in triple time, related

mazurka but usually

/'aubi/

A

faster.

noun E19 Japanese

(= belt).

A

sash worn round the waist with Japanese clothing.

obiit /'nbut/ verb Latin. He, she, or

it

died.

Frequently on epitaphs, followed by the date of death; also abbreviated to ob.

obiit sine prole /,nbnt ,smei 'praulei/ phrase L19 Latin. He, she, or it died without offspring. Frequently in genealogies, usually abbreviated to ob.s.p. or o.s.p.

noun LME Old and Mod(from Latin obitus going

/'obit/, /'aubit/

French down, setting, death, from obit- past participial stem of obire to perish, die (from mortem obire to meet death); in sense 3 partly abbreviation of obituary).

Departure from

1

LME-

death, decease. 2 a LME-E18 A ceremony performed at the burial of a deceased person; a funeral service, b LME History A ceremony (usually a mass) commemorating, or commending to God, a deceased person, especially a founder or benefactor of an institution on the anniversary of his or L17

&

adjective L16

life,

dictum /,Dbit9 'diktam/ noun phrase plural obiter dicta /.Dbita 'dikta/ E19 Latin (from as preceding + dictum). A judge’s expression of opinion uttered in discussing a point of law or in giving

obiter

judgement, but not essential to the decision and so without binding authority; generally an incidental remark. 1996 Spectator The obiter dicta of earlier of them in their own and confident as as eminent

noun M20 Polish.

/a(o)‘bsrik/

lively Polish

obit ern

/'Dbita/ adverb, noun,

Latin (originally two words, ob itur by the way). A adverb L16 By the way, in passing, incidentally. B noun E17 A thing said, done, or occurring by the way; an incidental matter. Also, an obiter dictum. C adjective M18 Made or said by the way;

scientific materialists,

leteness. Also called obelisk.

obi

obiter

obeli

plural

/'nb(0)lAi/, /'nb(0)li:/

to the

(

incidental.

obelus

etc.,

her death; an annual or other regular memorial service. 3 LME Originally, a record or notice of (the date of) a person’s death. Later colloquial ), an obituary.

day at least Dawkins, make

all

hilarious reading today.

objet /ob38/, /'Db3ei/ noun nounced same M19 French.

plural

pro-

M19 An object displayed as an ornament. 2 M19 A person forming the object of another’s attentions or affection,

1

rare.

1 1996 Country Life Occasionally, a composition is enriched by other objets such as shells, a jewel, even a skull.

objet d’art /ob3s

noun phrase plural objets d’art (pronounced same) M19 French (literally, ‘object of art’; cf. preceding). A small decorative object. dar/, /,nb3ei 'da:/

oblietjie /o'blkki/ noun L19 Afrikaans (from French oublie (from ecclesiastical Latin oblata use as noun of feminine of past participle of offerre to offer) + diminutive suffix -tjie). In South Africa: a rolled wafer-thin teacake.

obligato variant of obbligato.

oboe da caccia phrase plural oboi

/.aubao da 'katja/ noun

da caccia

/'aoboi/ L19

Italian (literally, ‘hunting oboe’). Chiefly History

An

obsolete type of tenor oboe than the ordi-

a pitch a fifth lower

with nary oboe.

oboe d’amore phrase plural

ore

/,aobau da'mo:rei/

noun

oboes d’amore, oboi d’am-

/'aoboi/ L19 Italian (literally, ‘oboe of

,

oesophagus

oboi da caccia

292

A

type of alto oboe with a pearshaped bell and a pitch a minor third below that of the ordinary oboe, now used especially in baroque music. love’).

mas

in a chain built by Oscar Deutsch in

the 1930s; generally a luxurious cinema.

odeum

/'audiam/ noun plural odeums, odea /'audio/ E17 French odeum or Latin odeum from Greek dideion from bide Attic (

oboi da caccia, oboi d’amore plurals Of OBOE DA CACCIA, OBOE D’AMORE.

obscurum per obscurius

/ab.skjuaram par ab'skjoarias/ noun phrase L19 Late Latin (literally, ‘the obscure by the still more obscure’). An explanation that is more difficult to understand than that which it purports to explain. Cf. ignotum per igNOTIUS.

form of aoide song, singing, from aeidein to sing). A building for the performance of vocal and instrumental music, especially among the ancient Greeks and Romans.

odium from

/'audiam/ noun E17 Latin (= hatred, I hate). The fact or state of being

odi

hated; general or widespread unpopularity or opprobrium.

ob.s.p. abbreviation of obiit sine prole.

oedema ocarina

/nka'rima/ noun L19 Italian (from oca goose (with reference to its shape)). A simple wind instrument in the form of a hollow egg-shaped body with finger-holes and a hole to blow at.

occupatio

/nkjo'pa:tiau/

/nkju'peiJTau/,

noun L16 Latin. Rhetoric (The device of making) mention of a thing by pretending to

omit

to

mention

octapla

it.

octaple Greek (oktapla neuter plu-

/'nktapla/

/'nkt9p(0)l/) L17

noun

(also

of oktaplous eightfold, after hexapla). A text consisting of eight versions in parallel columns, especially of the Old or New Testament. ral

octli /'ouktli/ noun M19 Mexican Spanish. PULQUE.

/i'di:mata/, oedemas LME Late Latin (from Greek oidema, from oidein to swell). Medicine (A) local or general swelling produced by the accumulation of fluid in the

body

tissues or cavities; dropsy.

oeil-de-boeuf

noun plural oeils-de-boeuf (pronounced same) M18 French (literally, ‘ox-eye’). 1 M 18 A small round window. 2 L18 A small vestibule or antechamber in a palace specifically one in Versailles lighted by a small round window); transferred (a part of) a mon/oejdaboef/

(

arch’s court.

Sense

1

appears later (M19) in English

form as ‘bull’s-eye’. 1 1996 Country Life He added three

rooms

.

.

.

,

noun plural oculi M19 Latin (= eye). Archiround or eyelike opening or

/'

nkjulas/

/'nkjolAi/, /'nkjoli:/

A

tecture

design; specifically a circular window (especially in a church); the central boss of a volute; an opening at the apex of a

dome. phrases oculus wild clary (a plant reputed to be good for the eyes) (LMEM17), and oculus mundi (literally, ‘of the world’) a white variety of opal, hydrophane Prevously

also

in

the

Christi (literally, ‘of Christ’),

(L17-L18).

odalisque

/' 0 od(a)lisk/ noun L17 French (from Turkish odahk, from dda chamber + lik suffix expressing function). A female slave or concubine in an Eastern harem, especially in the seraglio of the Sultan of

Turkey (now

historical ); transferred

otic sexually attractive

odeon

an

ex-

woman.

/'aodian/ noun (also in sense 1 odeion; in sense 2 Odeon) M19 Greek 1 M19 An odeum. odeion see odeum). 2 M20 Any of a chain of large, lavish cine(

;

a

new range

of

with a symmetrical, Classical

fagade, the pediment containing an

oeil-

They [sc. the stables] de-bceuf window. have old-fashioned mullion and transom windows and an oeil-de-boeuf in the east .

oculus

oedemata

/I'dkma/ noun plural

.

.

fagade.

oeil-de-perdrix /cejdaperdri/ noun M19 French (literally, ‘partridge-eye’). 1 M19 In French pottery and porcelain, a design of dotted circles, usually on a coloured background, frequently used on Sevres porcelain. Also oeil-de-perdrix pattern etc.

b L19 A similar design used as a ground in lacemaking. 2 L19 Pink or pale red wine or champagne. In full oeil-de-perdrix wine, champagne.

oeils-de-boeuf plural of oeil-de-boeuf.

oenochoe choe

/k'nnkaui/ noun (also oino/ifnckaui/, /oi'nnkaui/) L19 Greek (ot-

from oeno- combining form of oinos wine + khoas, khoe pouring). Greek Antiquities A vessel used for ladling wine from a bowl into a cup. nokhoe,

oesophagus

/I'SDfagas/

noun

(also

eso-

phagus) LME Medieval Latin (ysophagus iso- from Greek oisophagos, from obscure

oestrus

293

first

element + (apparently) -phagos

ing, eater; current spelling after

eat-

modern

Anatomy and Zoology The canal leading from the back of the mouth, through which food and drink pass to the stomLatin).

ach; the gullet.

oestrus

noun (also esLatin (from Greek oistros gadfly,

/'i:stras/, /'estras/

trus) L17

breeze, sting, frenzy).

now

1 L17

A parasitic in-

of the genus Oestrus or the family Oestridae whose larvae are parasitic on various animals; a botfly. Now chiefly as modern 2 E19 figurative A Latin genus name. sharp stimulus; a passion, a frenzy. Now rare. 3 L19 Zoology and Physiology (The period of) a female animal’s readiness to mate, accompanied by certain physiological changes; the rut, heat. sect;

specifically

a biting

oeufs en cocotte

/of a

fly

kokot/ noun eggs in a co-

phrase plural E20 French (= cotte). A French dish of eggs in butter baked and served in individual cocottes

or ramekins.

oeuvre

oloroso

arranged alongside or across a continuous line or the edge of a stone (usually in plural). Also, an inscrip-

parallel strokes,

tion in this alphabet.

oinochoe ojime

variant of oenochoe.

/'audpmei/, foreign /'o:c%ime/ noun

plural same, ojlmes L19 Japanese (from o string + shime fastening, fastener). A bead

or beadlike object, often very elaborate, used in Japan as a sliding fastener on the strings of a bag, pouch, or inro.

ole /'ole/ noun M19 Spanish. A Spanish folkdance which is accompanied by castanets and singing. /o'le/, /au'lei/ interjection & noun E20 Spanish. A interjection E20 Bravo! B noun M20 A cry of ‘ole!’

ole

noun plural M20 Hebrew (‘olim plural of ‘oleh person who ascends). Jew-

olim ish

/au'lim/

immigrants

who

settle in the State of

Israel.

olim

/oevr/, /'a:vra/

noun

oeuvre)

(also

pronounced same Lip French (= work). A work of art, music, literature, etc.; the whole body of work produced by an artist, composer, etc. Cf. chef-

/'aulim/ adverb M17 Latin. At one time; formerly.

plural

d’ceuvre. that he has been able to keep 1996 Oldie both aspects of his oeuvre alive and developing .

with such elan

cevre

de

.

.

is in itself

remarkable.

vulgarisation

/cevr da da ,vulgari'zasja(r))/ noun phrase (also oeuvre de vulgarisation) M20 French (= work of popularization). A work which attempts to make an academic or esoteric subject accessible to the general public.

vylgarizasjd/,

officina

/'a:vra

/nfi'SAina/, /nfi'sima/

officinae

noun plural

/nfi'SAini:/, /nfi'SAinAi/

place of production, (frequently figurative ).

noun L19 Spanish (from Spanish-speaking Latin officina). In South America or Mexico: a factory. /nfi'sima/

ogham

/'ogam/ noun (also ogam, Ogham) E18 Old Irish (ogam, ogum (genitive oguim ), modern Irish ogham, plural oghaim, Gaelic oghum, connected with its mythical inventor Ogma). An ancient British and Irish system of writing using an alphabet of twenty or twenty-five characters; any of these characters, consisting of a line or stroke, or a group of two to five

/'Dla/

ollae

/’Dli:/,

potch, medley, or miscellany.

E19 Latin

workshop etc., contraction of opificina, from opifex workman). A workshop; a (=

oficina

noun plural ollas, (in sense 3) /'dIai/ E17 Spanish ((Portuguese olha) from Proto-Romance variant of Latin olla pot, jar; in sense 3, from Latin). 1 E17 In Spain and Spanish-speaking countries: an earthen jar or pot used for cooking etc.; a dish of (especially stewed) meat and vegetables cooked in 2 M19 In this. Cf. olla podrida sense 1. Spanish America: a large porous earthen jar for keeping drinking-water cool by evaporation from its outer surface. 3 M19 An ancient cinerary urn. Olio (M17) is an alteration of olla used in sense 1 and also figuratively for a hotch-

olla

olla

podrida

/,d1q

pa(u)'dri:da/

noun

phrase L16 Spanish from as olla noun + podrida putrid). 1 L16 A highly spiced stew of various meats and (literally ‘rotten pot’,

vegetables, of Spanish and Portuguese origin; generally any dish containing a great

2 M17 figurative Any mixture of heterogeneous things or elements; a hotchpotch, a medley.

variety of ingredients.

2 1996 Spectator ... the RSC, so careful of Shakespeare on our behalf, long ago decided to commit this olla podrida of Bardic tricks [sc. Cymbeline] to the scrapheap for scholars to pick over

oloroso L19

.

.

.

/nla'rausao/ noun plural olorosos

Spanish

(= fragrant).

medium-sweet sherry;

A

heavy, dark,

a glass of this.

onomasticon

olpe olpe

/'nlpei/

A

294

noun L19 Greek

(olpe).

om

/aum/

(om,

leather flask for

interjection

oil,

& noun

L18 Sanskrit

om, sometimes regarded

com-

as

posed of three sounds, a-u-m, symbolizing the three major Hindu deities: see also om mani padme hum). Hinduism and Tibetan Buddhism A interjection L18 Used as a mantra or auspicious formula at the beginning of prayers etc. B noun L19 An utterance of ‘om’.

ombre

/5bre/ noun

&

adjective L19

French

(past participle of ombrer to shade). (A fab-

or design) having gradual shading of colour from light to dark. ric

ombrellino

/,ombrel'li:no/,

/,

ombre

'limao/ noun plural ombrellini /.ombrel 'li:ni/,

ombrellinos /,Dmbre'li:nauz/ M19

Roman Catholic Church A small umcanopy held over the sacraments when they are moved from one Italian.

brella-like

place to another.

ombres chinoises

/5br Jinwaz/

phrase plural L18 French

The

Greek An-

wine, etc. Also, a pear-shaped jug with a handle. tiquities

noun

Chinese shadows). History A European version of Chinese shadow-puppets, used in a galanty show. (=

Italian sense of ‘humility’ originally

referred to the Mafia code

which enjoins

submission of the group to its leader. 1996 Times Pressed time and again on quarantine by baffled Members of Parliament, she preserved the ministry omerta towards the kennel owners and referred only to her ‘veterinary advisers’.

om mani padme hum

/aotn

,mAni

pAdmei 'hu:m/ noun phrase & interjection L18 Sanskrit (Om manipadme hum literally, ‘oh (goddess) Manipadma’, reinterpreted as ‘oh jewel in the lotus’, from mani jewel,

padma

lotus;

om). Tibetan Buddhism

cf.

(Used as) a mantra or auspicious formula in prayer and meditation.

omnium

/'umniam/ noun

M 18

Latin (literally, ‘of all (things, sorts)’, genitive plural of omnis all: cf. next). 1 Stock Exchange a M18 History The total value of the stock and other interests offered by the Government to each subscriber when raising a loan, b L19 Any combined stock the constituents of which can be dealt with separately. colloquial. 2 M18 The sum of what one values; one’s all. 3 M19 A piece of furniture with open shelves for orna-

ments; a whatnot.

omnium gatherum /,ummam

'gadarem/

plural omnium gatherums, omnium gathera /.nmmam 'gadara/

noun phrase

ombudsman

/'ombodzman/ noun plural M20 Swedish (from ombud commissioner, agent, representing Old Norse umbod charge, commission, umbodsmadr commissary, manager). An official appointed to investigate complaints by individuals against maladministration by

ombudsmen

public authorities: especially a British official of this kind (officially called the

Parliamentary Commissioner for Administration), first appointed in 1967.

omega

Greek (6 mega, literally, ‘great O’, opposed to o mikron omicron). 1 E 16 The last letter (Cl go) of the Greek alphabet, having originally the value of a long open o; figurative the last /'aumige/ noun E16

of a series; the last word, the final development. 2 M20 Particle Physics Either of two subatomic particles: omega meson and

omega minus.

(rare)

M16 pseudo-Latin (from Latin omnium + English gather). A gathering or collection of all sorts of persons or things; a confused medley, colloquial.

omphalos

under alpha).

mark the

tal

/omer'ta:/ noun L19 Italian (dialec-

variant of umilta humility).

silence observed by

members

A

code of

or associ-

ates of the Mafia or ( transferred ) others en-

gaged in clandestine

activities.

(lit-

1

central

2 M19 figurative

A

point of the earth.

central point, a centre.

on

dit /a di/ noun plural on dits (pronounced same) E19 French (= they say). An item of gossip; something reported on hearsay.

onnagata

/nna'ga:ta/ noun plural same woman + kata fig-

E 20 Japanese (from onna ure).

In

Japanese kabuki theatre, a plays female roles. Also called

oyama.

onomasticon

/nn 0 (u)'mastikDn/ noun E18 (sc. biblion book) of neuter of onomastikos pertaining to naming, from onoma name). A vocabulary or alphabetic list of (especially personal) proper -names. Also, a vocabulary of nouns; a general lexicon.

Greek

omerta

Greek

M19 Greek Antiquities a A boss on a shield etc. b M19 A stone, in the temple of Apollo at Delphi, reputed to erally, ‘navel’).

man who

In the figurative use of sense 1, often in the phrase ‘the alpha and the omega’ (see

/'mnfalDs/ noun M19

(use as

noun

onomatopoeia

295

onomatopoeia

noun

/,Dna(u)mata'pi:a/

(from Greek onomatopoiia making of words, from onomatopoios, from onomato- combining form of onoma L16 Late Latin

name

+ -poios

making, from poiein to make, create). 1 L16 The formation of a word by an imitation of the sound associated with the thing or action desigthe

nated;

or

principle

forming words by

practice

this process.

2 M19

of

A

word formed by this process. 3 M19 Rhetoric The use of naturally suggestive language

operas bouffe(s), operas buffa, plurals of etc.

opera seria

/,op(a)ra

'siaria/,

foreign

/.opera 'se:rja/ noun phrase plural

operas

seria,

opere serie

/.opere S£:rje/ L19 Ital-

Cf.

serious opera).

TRAGEDIE LYRIQUE.

A

friendly status ... to prove to their

plurals of

SERIA.

/'aunas/ noun M17 Latin (= load, bur-

burden, a responsibility, a duty. 1996 Times The onus will now be on the many producers who make some claim to eco-

den).

A type

of opera prevalent in the eighteenth century, with elaborate arias and usually based on mythological themes; an example of this. ian

(=

OPERA BUFFA, OPERA

onus

etc.

OPERA BOUFFE, opera buffa,

opere buffe, opere serie

for rhetorical effect.

opus

products really are

oom

/uam/

Dutch

noun

all

E19

consumers

that

that they claim.

Afrikaans

(from

oom). Uncle.

Frequently used by children or young people in South Africa as a respectful form of address to any older or elderly man.

oomiak

variant of umiak.

op. abbreviation of opus. 'sit/ noun & adverb phrase L19 Latin (abbreviation of opus citatum the work quoted, or opere citato in the work quoted). (In) the work already quoted.

op. cit. /op

opera

plural of opus.

/opera buf/, /,np(a)ra 'bu:f/ noun phrase plural operas bouffe(s) (pro-

nounced same) L19 French (from as next). opera buffa; (an example of) French comic opera. figurative

1995 Times

most

debilitating,

opera

buffa

if

Eventually their

an opera bouffe of the

/,Dp(a)ra

'bu:fa/,

foreign

operas opere buffe /'opere 'buffe/ E19 Italian (= comic opera). (Italian) comic opera, with dialogue in recitative and characters drawn from everyday life; an example of buffa,

this. Yet

much

recent introduction (L19), but operetta mains the more generally used term.

re-

opprobrium

/a'praubriam/ noun plural opprobria /a'praobria/ M17 Latin (= infamy, reproach, from ob- towards + probrum shameful deed, disgrace, use as noun of neuter of probus disgraceful). 1 M17 An occasion or cause of reproach; that something shameful conduct;

brings disgrace. 2 L17 Disgrace attached to conduct considered shameful; the expression of this disgrace; shame, reproach.

of this

power

managed

optime

to attract relentless

is

opprobrium.

M18 Latin (= best, very well, from optime disputasti you have disputed very well). In the mathematical tripos at Cambridge University, a student placed in the second or third division. /'nptimei/ noun

Also (respectively)

diverting, kind.

/.opera 'buffa/ noun phrase plural

1995 Spectator

/npa'rsta/ noun Lis Italian (diminutive of opera). A short, originally oneopera on a light or humorous act, theme. Operette, the French word derived from operetta and Anglicized as operette, is a more

2 1996 Spectator The German translation has not yet been published here, but it has already

opera bouffe

relationship turned into

operetta

senior,

junior optime.

optimum

/'nptimam/ noun & adjective L19 Latin (use as noun of neuter of optimus A noun L19 The best). Originally Biology. conditions most favourable for growth, reproduction, or other vital process; generally the best, a level, condition, etc., regarded as the best or most favourable. Opposed to pessimum. B adjective L19

most favourable,

especially

under

a

dissipated by the preceding opera buffa with

Best,

the disguises. Those who wear Armani must behave like Armani suit-wearers.

particular set of circumstances; optimal.

suits

opus

opera comique

/'aopas/, /'upas/ /'Dpasiz/,

/opera komik/, /,op(a)ra kD'mi:k/ noun phrase plural operas comi-

/'aopasiz/,

ques (pronounced same) Mis French

sition; especially a

(=

comic opera). A type of opera (originally humorous, later romantic) characterized by spoken dialogue; an example of this.

An

noun plural opuses

opera

/'np(a)ra/ E18

artistic work, a compomusical composition or set of compositions as numbered among the works of a composer in order of

Latin

(=

work).

publication.

opus Alexandrinum

ordonnance

In bibliographies and catalogues usually abbreviated to op. Cf. op. cit.

opus Alexandrinum

,alsksa:n

/.npes

'dri:nom/ noun phrase M19 Medieval Latin ‘Alexandrian work’). A pave(literally,

ment mosaic work widely used

in Byzan-

ninth century and later in Italy, consisting of coloured stone, glass, and semiprecious stones arranged in intricate geometric patterns.

tium

in the

296

or

noun LME Old and

/a:/

(ultimately

aggli'kamam/ opus Anglicanum) M19 /.upas

noun phrase (also Medieval Latin (literally, ‘English work’). Fine pictorial embroidery produced in England in the Middle Ages and used especially on ecclesiastical vestments.

opus araneum

/.Dpas

a'ramiam/ noun

phrase M19 Medieval Latin

(literally, ‘spi-

Darned netting; delicate embroidery done on a net and resembling a der’s work’).

spider’s web. Also called spider-work.

opus citatum

gold). Origi-

the tincture gold or yellow in armorial bearings. nally, gold. Later (Heraldry),

orangerie

noun (also orangery) M17 French (from French oranger orange tree). A place, especially a special protective structure, where orange trees /'Drind5 (a)ri/

are cultivated.

orans

opus anglicanum

Modern French

from Latin aurum

noun E 20 Latin orans orantem present participle of orare to pray). Art A representation of a person in a kneeling or praying position. /'a:ranz/

,

(

Often postpositive, as in Virgin orans.

obliqua

oratio

/n,ra:tiau

D'bli:kwa/,

a'bLukwa/ noun phrase M19 Latin oratio speech + obliqua feminine of /n,reij(i) 0 o (

obliquus oblique). Indirect speech.

oratio recta

/D,ra:tieu 'rekta/, /n,reiJXi)au

'rekta/ noun phrase M19 Latin (from oratio speech + recta feminine of rectus straight,

see op. cit.

direct). Direct speech.

opus consutum

/,Dpas kDn'su;tam/ noun

phrase L19 Medieval Latin (literally, ‘work

sewn

oratorio

/Dra’ta;riao/

noun plural orato-

rios E 18 Italian (from ecclesiastical Latin

together’), applique work.

1 E18 A semi-dramatic extended musical composition, usually based on a Scriptural theme, performed by a choir with soloists and a full orchestra, without costume, action, or scenery. 2 H9 The genre of musical composition or drama characterized by such a theme and such performance.

oratorium oratory).

opuscule cules

/a'pAskjud/ noun plural opus-

(also

in

/a'pAskjulam/,

opusculum

Latin form plural

opuscula

M17 Old and Modern French (from Latin opusculum diminutive /a'pAskjuda/)

of opus work). A minor (especially literary or musical) work.

opus Dei

/.Dpas 'deii:/ noun phrase L19

Me-

dieval Latin. 1 L19 Ecclesiastical The work of God; specifically liturgical worship re-

garded as man’s primary duty to God. 2 L19 Opus Dei A Roman Catholic organization of priests and lay people founded in Spain in 1928 with the aim of (

)

Originally (M17) in English in eral sense of ‘a pulpit’,

but this

its is

more rare

lit-

and

became obsolete before its reintroduction in its modern senses, which derive from the musical services in the church of the Oratory of St Philip Neri in Rome.

orchata

variant of horchata.

re-establishing Christian ideals in soci-

ordinaire

ety.

magnum

opus

variant

of

magnum

opus sectile M19 Latin

/,npas 'sektilei/

(literally, ‘cut

Roman

noun phrase

An origimade up of

work’).

floor decoration

pieces shaped individually to fit the pattern or design, as distinct from mosaic which uses regularly shaped pieces.

opus signinum phrase

Mis

Signia’).

An

/,Dpas sig'ni:n&m/ noun

Latin

(literally,

originally

Roman

material consisting of broken mixed with lime mortar.

‘work

flooring tiles

The town of Signia (now Segni) was famous for its tiles.

tral Italy

of etc.

in Cen-

of

vin

ordi-

naire.

ordonnance

opus.

nally

abbreviation

/'o:danans/,

foreign

/ordonas/ (plural same noun M17 French (alteration of Old French ordenance after Old and Modern French ordonner to arrange). 1 M17 Systematic arrangement, especially of literary material or architectural parts; a plan or method of literary or artistic composition; an architectural order. 2 M18 In various European countries, especially France, an ordinance, a decree, a law. 3 M18 French History Any of those organized companies of menat-arms who formed the beginnings of a standing army in France. In full company of ordonnance. )

)

oregano

297

oregano

/Dri'gamou/, /a'reganou/ noun L18

Spanish and American Spanish (variant of origanum). A seasoning prepared from the (usually dried) leaves of wild marjoram, Origanum vulgare, or, especially in Central and South America, of shrubs of the genus Lippia, especially Lippia graveo-

origanum

orthosis

|

noun me Latin (from Greek origanon, perhaps from oros mountain + ganos brightness, joy; cf. oregano). Any of various aromatic labiate plants of the genus Origanum, much grown as herbs; especially wild marjoram, /D'rig(a)nam/

0. vulgare.

lens.

orihon

ore rotundo

ra'tAndau/ adverb phrase E18 Latin (literally, ‘with round mouth’, from ablative of os mouth + ablative of ro/,o:ri

tundus round). speech.

orfevrerie

With round, well-turned

(from orfevre

noun me French from popular Latin aurifab-

rum worker

in gold,

/orfevrari/

goldsmith). Gold-

smiths’ work.

Formerly also the goldsmiths’ quarter in London.

organon

Greek

(= in-

1 organ). L16-E17 A bodily organ, especially as an instrument of the soul. 2 E17 An instrument of thought or knowledge; a means of reasoning; specifically a system of logical rules of investiga^ tion or demonstration.

The Organon

the collective logical treatises of Aristotle. /'o:c^iat/

is

title

foreign /or 3 a/ (plural

noun LME French (from Provencal

of the

same orjat,

barley from Latin hordeum). A made from barley (later from almonds) and orange-flower water.

from

ordi

syrup or cooling drink

orientalia /,o:risn'teilie/, /.Drien'teilia/ noun plural E20 Latin (neuter plural of orientals oriental). Things, especially books,

relating to or characteristic of the Orient.

/'Drihun/ noun E20 Japanese (from + hon book). A book formed by

folding a printed roll alternately back-

wards and forwards between the columns, and usually fastening it with cord down one side. orlo

hem,

from Latin ora edge, 1 M17 The fillet under the ovolo of a capital. 2 E18 The plinth under the base of a column. (=

border,

,

(

medieval Latin aurifiamma, from aurum gold + flamma flame). 1 LME History The sacred red or orange-red silk banner of St Denis, given to early kings of France by the abbot of St Denis on setting out for war. 2 E17 transferred and figurative a A banner, principle, ideal, etc., that serves as a rallying point in a struggle, b M19 A bright conspicuous object, colour, etc.

origami

noun M20 Japanese (from kami paper). The Japanese art of folding paper into decorative shapes and objects. Also figurative, figurative 1996 Spectator any information /nrEgccmi/

oru, -ori fold +

.

.

.

about the songs has been left to rot in the unfathomable origami of CD booklets.

etc.,

Architecture

/'o:nei/ adjective

(feminine ornee) L18

French (= ornate, past participle of orner from Latin ornare to adorn). Decorated, ornate.

Usually in English in the

and ferine

cottage orne

Despite

noun phrases

ornee (see quotations).

appearance, cottage orne (‘a rural dwelling in the form of a cottage with a decorative appearance’) is an Anglo-French hybrid, as cottage derives from Old English cot, via Anglo-Latin cotagium and AngloNorman cotage. Cottage, identified in the Encyclopedic in 1754 as a mot anglais was indeed borrowed into French in the nineteenth century, but the English phrase (L18) antedates this borrowing. A ferme ornee is ‘a farm designed for aesthetic pleasure as its

well as practical purposes’.

1995

G. Tindall Celestine

A handyman, he had

embellished the classic French exterior with a veranda and a blue-painted trellis, so that it now resembled an English cottage orne of the

Edwardian

oriflamme /'Driflam/ noun LME Old and Modern French orifiambe oriflamme, in

noun plural orlos M17 Italian

/'o:l9u/

border).

orne /'o:g(a)non/ noun Li6

strument,

orgeat

ori fold

era.

Philip 1996 D. Chambers Stonyground what came to first created Southcote be known as a ferme ornee Wooburn Farm Surrey: a modest farm around and through which went walks planted with trees and shrubs and flowers, so that one could stroll through a farm in a garden and enjoy the .

.

.

.

.

.

.

.

.



in

beauties of horticulture and agriculture together.

orterde

/'D:tE:d 0 /

German (from Soil Science A dark

noun M20

Ort place + Erde earth).

sandy layer in soil containing redeposited materials from the upper layers, but not cemented into a hardpan. Cf. ortstein.

orthosis

/o:' 00 usis/

noun plural orthoses

M20 Greek straight, from orthoun /o:'00osi:z/

Medicine

An

artificial

(

orthosis

to

set

making straight).

external device, as a

ouma

ortolan

298

brace or splint, serving to prevent or assist relative movement in the limbs or the spine.

ortolan

noun M17 French (from Provencal = gardener, from Latin hortulanus, from hortulus diminutive of hortus garden). A bunting, Emberiza hortulana, found throughout much of the western Palaearctic, formerly esteemed as a delicacy (also ortolan bunting). Also United States and West Indies, rare any of certain other birds of similar gastronomic repu/'o:t(a)lan/

(

)

impeachment of the

tor Cicero’s

1.1) in 63 bc; now a general expression of alarm, contempt, amusement, etc., about behaviour in con-

temporary society. 1996 Times ‘Even in

its

original sense

age

the

styled vampires drink blood

monogamous

of Aids,

.

.

.

self-

— but from

donors.’ Sexually responsible

O

vampires?

tempora!

O

mores!

otium

/'aujiam/ noun E 18 Latin. Leisure, ease, idleness.

cum

Chiefly in otium

Earlier (but only E16) in

ora-

conspira-

tor Catiline (In Catilinam

tation.

of ‘gardener’.

Roman

Originally quoted from the

otium

nitate

dignitate or

‘dignified

from one of Cicero’s

leisure’,

Ad

letters

cum

dig-

quoting Familiares

(I.ix.21).

noun E20 German + (from Ort place Stein stone). Soil Science A

ortstein

/'o:tstAin/

hardpan; especially an iron pan in a podzol. Cf. ORTERDE.

orzo

/'ordzo/ noun L20 Italian (= barley).

Pasta in the shape of grains of rice.

/'osja/ conjunction L19 Ital-

/D'si :a/ f

ian. Music In directions: or, alternatively.

Indicating an alternative and easier way of playing a passage.

osso bucco

M 20

/,Dsao 'bu:kau/ noun phrase

of)

/nsti'na:tao/ adjective

& noun

L19

Music A adjective L19 Recurring; frequently repeated. B noun E20 plural ostinati /nsti 'na:ti/, ostinatos. A melodic phrase repeated through all or part of a piece. Italian

obstinate,

(=

B 1996 Country short

film,

downfall,

which

was

Life

A stanza of eight lines,

/n,ta:va

11-syllabled in Ital-

ian, 10-syllabled in English,

rhyming

as

abababcc.

noun (also Ottocento) E20 Italian (= eight hundred). The nineteenth century in Italy; the style of Italian art, architecture, music, etc., of /Dtau'tfentau/

this period.

ou

Italian (= marrowbone). (An Italian

ostinato

'ri:ma/,

usually

shin of veal containing marrowbone stewed in wine with vegetables. dish

/ot,ta:va

'ri:ma/ noun L18 Italian (= eighth rhyme).

ottocento

o.s.p. abbreviation of obiit sine prole.

ossia

ottava rima

persistent).

/au/

& noun M19 Afrikaans

adjective

(from Dutch oud old). A adjective M19 Old, elder. B noun plural ouens /'auanz/, ous

M20

A man,

a fellow. Cf. outjie.

In South African colloquial speech, frequently used in terms of affection or casual

reference.

oubaas elderly

noun

/'auba:s/

(from ou + baas).

A head

Mi9

Afrikaans

of a family; an

man.

South Africa, a colloquial form of ad-

In

dress to an older

man.

Matthew Richardson’s beginning of Lulu’s

told of the

perfectly tailored to the

catastrophic progress of the central orchestral

oubliette

/u:bli'et/

oublier to forget). sible

noun L18 French (from

A

secret

dungeon

acces-

only through a trapdoor.

ostinato.

Ostpolitik

/'DstpDli,ti:k/

noun M20 Ger-

man

(from Ost east + Politik policy). History The foreign policy of a western country specifically of the Federal Republic of Germany) with reference to the Communist States. Cf. WESTPOLITIK. (

ostracon

oudstryder kaans

(=

/'autstreida/

ex-soldier). In

noun M20 AfriSouth Africa: a

veteran of the South African War (18991902) who fought on the side of the Boer republics; generally any

oued

see

war

veteran.

under wadi.

/'nstrakDn/ noun plural ostraca

ouens

plural of ou.

Dstraka/ (also ostrakon, plural ostraka) L19 Greek ostrakon hard shell, potsherd). Archaeology A potsherd used as a writing

oukha

variant of uicha.

/'

(

surface. Usually in plural.

o tempora, o mores! ,ma:reiz/ interjection

manners!).

What

/ao 'tempara au

M16 Latin

times,

(=

o times, o

what ways!

ouma

/'auma/ noun E 20 Afrikaans (= grandmother, from ou old + ma mother). A grandmother; an elderly woman. In

South Africa, chiefly as a respectful or

affectionate form of address or reference.

)

oupa

299

oupa

noun E20 Afrikaans father, from ou old + pa father). /'au pa/

(=

A

grandgrand-

an elderly man.

father;

South Africa, chiefly as a respectful or affectionate form of address or reference. In

oursin

/‘o:san/,

French.

A

noun E 20 an edible

/urse/

foreign

sea urchin, especially

one.

outjie

/'aoki/, /'autfi/

(from as ou

noun M20 Afrikaans

+ diminutive suffix

-tjie).

A

child, a little fellow.

South African colloquial speech can also be used jocularly or derogatively of an In

convex moulding.

ovum

/'

Latin

auvam/ noun plural ova /'aova/ E17 1 E17 Roman History Any of a

(= egg).

number

of egg-shaped objects used in the number of laps in a race. Usually in plural. 2 E18 Biology The female gamete or reproductive cell in animals; an egg, an egg cell, b M18 Botany Originally (rare), the ovule or seed of a plant. Now, the egg cell in the nucellus of an ovule. 3 E18 Architecture An egg-shaped ornament or carving. circus to indicate the

/oi/

interjection

(also

/utre/, /'u:trei/ adjective Ei8

French

proper; way.

eccentric,

unusual,

is

usual or

1996 Country

Life Peter

which

still

ouvert /uver/ noun plural pronounced same E 20 French (= open). Bal%t An open position of the feet. /uvrije/ noun (feminine ouvriere

plural pronounced same M19 French. In France: a manual or industrial worker; a labourer. 1996 Times Magazine Most of this non-village comprises formerly humble ouvrier dwellings of two storeys plus semi-basement for burglar

oyer

An onnagata.

noun LME Anglo-Norman (= Old see next). Law 1 LME The hearing of a case. 2 LME A criminal trial held under the commission of oyer and terminer. 3 E17 History The hearing of a document read in court, especially an instrument in writing pleaded by one party in a suit. /'oia/

French

oir:

Sense

1

exists only in the phrase oyer

‘a

commission authorizing

ouzos L19 Modan aniseedof)

u:zao/ noun plural

ern

Greek. (A glass flavoured spirit from Greece.

ova

plural of ovum.

a

judge on

cir-

cuit to hold courts’.

oyez

oir

oyes

/au'jes/)

Listen!

oiez)

imperative plural of

from Latin audire to A intransitive verb LME imperative B noun LME plural same oyesses.

(modern

hear).

A

& noun LME Anglo-Norman

/au'jes/, /au'jez/, /ao'jei/ verb

(Old French (also /'

and

terminer (formerly also oyer (and) determiner)

(also

access.

same M20

/au'jaana/ noun plural

Japanese.

/uvrijer/)

ouzo

(Yiddish vey

vay, oy vey /oi vei/

out-of-the-

York celebrates some shine forth as emblems of the British soul, be they as conservative as the Bath Oliver biscuit or as outre as a Vivienne Westwood frock.

ouvrier

Also in oy

= woe).

oyama

of the artefacts

an exclama-

as

tion of dismay, grief, etc.

(past participle of outrer to exaggerate).

Beyond the bounds of what

L19 Yiddish.

oi)

Used by Yiddish-speakers

outre

A rounded

Latin ovum egg). Architecture

oy

adult.

oyez

call or cry

ouir)

(

of

‘oyez!’.

Uttered (usually three times) by a public

ovolo

/'auvalau/ noun plural ovoli /'aoveli/

M17 Italian (diminutive of uovo, ovo from

crier or a court officer to

and attention.

command

silence

p.a. abbreviation of per annum.

pabulum

noun

/'pabjalam/

M17 Latin 1 M17 Food,

(from stem of pascere to feed). nutriment, especially for plants or animals or their tissues. 2 L17 That which feeds a fire. 3 M18 That which nourishes and sustains the mind or soul. 4 L20 Bland intellectual fare; an insipid or undemanding diet of words, entertainment, 4 1996 Spectator The dons who supply these masses with pabulum are not allowed to feel job-secure unless they are also engaged upon their

pace

own

‘work’.

(

/'pa:tfei/,

/'

peisi/ preposition L18 Latin

by your leave). With due deference to person named).

tua

Used especially as a courteous or ironical apology for a contradiction or difference of opinion (see quotation). Normally italicized to distinguish it from the English verb or

noun

‘pace’.

1996 Spectator Had he read the magnificent Turing biography by Andrew Hodges, which remains the best work on Bletchley Park to date (pace Robert Harris and his marvellous book), the hapless Volkman could have provided us with the theologically resonant

denouement.

pacha

who to

submitted without active opposition Spanish occupation.

paco

pachalic variant of

pacos

/'pcrkauz/,

Spanish

((in

noun (also parcheesi

Pachisi) Hindustani E19 /pa:'tfi:zi/, {pac(c.)isl (throw of) twenty-five (the highest in the game), ultimately from Sanskrit

sense 2 with reference to the

from Quechua

/'pAdma/ noun M19 Sanskrit (= lotus). (The flower of) the lotus-plant; an emblematic representation of this.

padmasana

/pAd'mmsena/ noun L19 San(padmasana from padma lotus +

skrit

,

asana seat, posture). Yoga A bodily position with legs crossed and feet resting on the opposite thighs, said to resemble the flower of a lotus.

padre

noun L 16 Italian Spanish, Portuguese) from Latin /'pa:dri/, /'pa:drei/

((also

pater, patr- father). In Italy, Spain, Portugal,

armed

A

padrone

services.

sense

(b))

padrona /pa'draun d/, foreign /pa padronas /pa'draunaz/,

'drona/,

plural

padrone

/pa'drone/) L17 Italian.

especially

foreign

/pa'tfuko/

noun plural pachucos /pa'tfukauz /, foreign /pa'tfukos/ M 20 Mexican Spanish (literally, ‘flashily dressed’). A juvenile delinquent of Mexican-American descent, especially in the Los Angeles area; derogatory any Mexican-American. Also the argot spoken by pachucos. 1972 J. Wambaugh Blue Knight ‘Orale, panzdn,' he said,

like a pachuco, which he put me. He spoke beautiful Spanish ... but the barrios of El Paso Texas died hard.

/pa'drone/

/pa'dreoni/, foreign

noun plural padrones /pa'dreomz/, padroni /pa'droni/ (feminine (especially in

States colloquial )

/pa'tfukeu/,

and other areas of

Latin America,

dice.

for

colour)

padma

four-handed Indian board game with six cowries for

pancavims'ati twenty-five).

on

E17

pako red, reddish yellow). 1 E17 An alpaca. 2 M19 Mineralogy An earthy brown oxide of iron, containing particles of sil-

in the

/pa'tfiqkau/

/pa'tfiizi/

pachuco

/'pakos/

foreign

(

pashalic.

noun M20 Japanese. variety of pinball popular in Japan.

pachisi

noun plural

/’pcrkau/, foreign /’pako/

Spanish influence: (a title of) a Christian clergyman, especially a Roman Catholic priest. Now chiefly colloquial ), a chaplain

variant of pasha.

pachinko

)

ver.

(ablative singular of pax peace, as in pace

A

character; specifically historical a native or inhabitant of Cuba or the Philippines

brown and white

etc.

(a

pacifico /pa'sifikau/ noun plural pacificos L19 Spanish. A person of peaceful

a master; specifically

(a)

(now

A patron,

chiefly United

an employer, a manager; an exploitative employer of unskilled immigrant workers; b the proprietor of an inn or hotel in Italy. (

paedeia

)

variant of paideia.

paella

/ pAi'sla/, /pa'e(l)ja/ noun L19 Catalan (from Old French paele (modern paele), from Latin patella pan, dish). A Spanish dish of rice, saffron, chicken, seafood, vegetables, etc., cooked and served in a large shallow pan. figurative 1996 Times He is a full 20 seats

short

[of

a parliamentary majority], compelling

pagoda

301

palaestra |

him

to rely for survival ...

on a paella of

western

regional parties.

pagoda

/pa'gauda/ noun Li6 Portuguese pagode probably ultimately from Persian ( butkada idol temple, from but idol + kada

United

a

States:

fellow-

countryman; a peasant. 2 L19 In Mexico and the south-western United States: a road-runner.

,

habitation, alteration by association with Prakrit bhagodi divine, holy). 1 A Hindu

pakapoo

pakapu and other

variants) E20 Chinese (Wade-Giles pai ko p’iao) literally, ‘white pigeon ticket’, perhaps referring to a Cantonese competition which involved releasing pigeons and predicting the distance they would fly and the numbers expected to return). A Chinese form of lottery played with slips of paper marked with columns of characters. (

or Buddhist temple or sacred building, usually in the form of a many-tiered tower with storeys of diminishing size, each with an ornamented projecting roof, in China, India, Japan, and elsewhere in the Far East. 2 L18 An ornamental structure built in imitation of such a temple.

pagri variant of puggaree.

/'pakapu:/, /paka'pu:/ noun (also

bdi ge piao

and in the phrase like meaning ‘disordered, un-

Chiefly Australian, a pakapoo

ticket,

intelligible’.

pahit /'pa:hit/ noun E20 Malay (= bitter). In South East Asia: gin and bitters. More

pahoehoe

/pa'hauihaui/ noun M19 Hawai-

Geology

ian.

corded

Smooth,

undulating

or

lava. Cf. aa.

paideia

pak-choi

/pak'tfoi/

((Cantonese) paak

fully gin pahit.

noun (also paedeia) M20 Greek. Greek History Education, upbring/pAi'dAia/

ing: the ideal result of this’ a society’s

pe-tsai).

ts'

noun Mi9 Chinese white vegetable: cf.

oi

Chinese cabbage.

pakeha

/'pa:kiha:/ noun & adjective E19 Maori. A noun E19 A White person (as opposed to a Maori). B adjective M19 Of, pertaining to, or designating a pakeha. New

Zealand.

"

pai-hua

/'pAihwa:/ noun E20 Chinese (baihua (Wade-Giles pai-hua ), from bdi white, clear, plain + hud language, speech). The standard written form of modern Chinese, based on the northern dialects, especially that of Peking (Beijing). Cf.

PUTONGHUA. paillette

/pal'jet/,

/pAi'jet/

French (diminutive of paille M19

M19

noun

straw, chaff).

A

small piece of glittering foil, shell, etc., used to decorate a garment; a spangle. 2 L19 A decorative piece of coloured foil or bright metal used in enamel 1

painting.

noun LME Old and Modern French (from Latin panis, pan-). Bread, specifically in French bakery.

pain

and deep

fried.

pa-kua

/pa:'kwa:/ noun Li9 Chinese (bagua (Wade-Giles pa-kua), from ba eight + gua divinatory symbols). 1 L19 Art Any of various decorative and religious motifs incorporating the eight trigrams of I Ching; specifically an arrangement of these trigrams in a circle round the yin-yang symbol. 2 M20 A Chinese martial art in which fighters are arranged around a circle according to the trigram sequence in positions which they must defend.

/pe/

Formerly naturalized,

now occurs

only in pain perdu (toasted stale bread, usually it

sweetened and flavoured with cinnamon) and in names of specialty breads.

pair

/pa'ka:ra/ noun M 20 Hindustani pakora dish of vegetables in gram-flour). a ( A savoury Indian dish consisting of diced or chopped vegetables coated in batter

pakora

culture.

/per/

noun &

adjective plural

of

noun

same M19 French (= equal). Roulette (Of) an even number; (of) the even numbers collectively.

paisano

/pAi'samau/, foreign /pai'sano/ noun plural paisanos /pAi'scunaoz/, foreign /pai'sanos/ M19 Spanish (= peasant, 1 M19 In Spain and Spanishspeaking areas, especially in the south-

rustic).

palacio

/pa'laBjo/,

/pa'lasjo/,

/pa'lasiau/

palacios /pa'laOjos/, plural noun Spanish (from / pa'lasjos/, /pa'lasiauz/ M19 Latin palatium). In Spain and Spanishspeaking countries: a palace, a country seat, an imposing official building.

paladin

/'paladin/ noun L16

French (from

from Latin palatinus officer of the palace). Each of the twelve bravest and most famous warriors of Charlemagne’s court. Also, a knight errant, a champion. Italian paladino,

palaestra

/pa'lbstra/,

/pa'lAistra/

noun

palestra /pa'li:stra/, /pa'lestra/) LME. Latin (from Greek palaistra, from palaiein (also

palmette

palais |

302

wrestle). Qassical History

1

LME

A place de-

voted to the public teaching and of wrestling and athletics. 2 LME Wrestpractice

ling, athletics.

palais /'palei/ noun plural same /'paleiz/ E20 French (literally, ‘palace’) Abbrevia-

3 M20 A device used by the banker in certain card-games to move cards and money. like structure.

pali /'pcr.li/ noun E19 Hawaiian. In Hawaii: a steep cliff. The Pali

tion Of PALAIS DE DANSE.

danse

phrase plural

da 'dbs/ noun /, palei

same

E20 French.

A

public

hall for dancing.

Palais Royal

/,

palei 'ro(a)l/, foreign /pale

rwajal/ adjective phrase L19 French Desig-

nating a type of indelicate farce said to be typical of the Palais Royal theatre, Paris.

palapa

noun L20 Mexican Spanish (= (the leaves and branches of) the palm Orbignya cohune). A traditional Mexican shelter roofed with palm leaves or branches. Also, any structure imitating /pa'lapa/

this, especially

on

palatschinken

a beach. United States.

noun plural E20 Austrian German (from HungarProto-Romance ian palacsinta from placinta from Latin placenta cake). Austrian (stuffed) pancakes.

palazzo

A

/.palat' JTrjkan/

/pa'latsao/

noun &

adjective

M17

palio

and

paliotto M20

M20 Designating a loose widelegged garment, outfit, etc. 1 1996 Spectator Of course, not everyone as adjective

could afford imitation palazzi of their own.

palestra variant of palaestra. paletot

known

/'

palatau/ noun M19

French

(of un-

A

short loose outer garcloak. Also, a fitted jacket ment, coat, or worn by women in the nineteenth cenorigin).

tury.

noun L18 French. 1 L18 A thin (oval) board or slab, usually with a hole for the thumb, on which an artist lays and mixes colours, b L19 transferred The range of colours used by a particular artist or in a particular picture.’ c M20 The range or variety of tonal or instrumental colour in a musical piece, composer’s work, etc.; the verbal range of a writer etc. d L20 Computing In computer graphics, the range of colours or shapes available to the user. 2 M19 Zoology A disc-

palette

/'palit/

noun plural

Italian.

The frontal painting on an

palladium

/pe'leidiam/ noun plural palladia /pa'leidia/ LME Latin (from Greek palladion, from Pallas, Pallad- epithet of the goddess Athene). 1 LME Classical Mythology An image of the goddess Pallas (Athene), in the citadel of Troy, on which the safety of the city was supposed to depend, later

reputed to have been taken to Rome. 2 E17 transferred and figurative A thing on which the safety of a nation, institution, etc., is believed to depend; a safeguard. 2 1989 R. Milner-Gulland Cultural Atlas of Russia The icon of the ‘Virgin of Vladimir,’ the palladium of Vladimir and Moscow Grand Principalities, is of the

as ’Tenderness’

(usually) in plural Loose wide-legged attributive or

/pali'atto/, /pah'Dtau/

altarpiece.

Latin

worn by women. B

noun L17 Italian

paliotti /pali'at(t)i/, paliottos /pali'Dtauz/

1 M17 A palatial mansion; imposing building. 2 L20 singular

trousers

/'palieu/

/'pa:lio/,

race.

azzi /pe'latsi/. a large

on the island of

(from Latin pallium covering, cover). A traditional horse-race held in Italy, especially in Siena, every July and August. Also, the cloth or banner of velvet, silk, etc., given as the prize for winning this

palatium palace). noun plural palazzos, (in sense 1) pal-

(from

Italian

a precipice

Oahu.

Frequently used attributively, as in palais glide a form of ballroom dance.

palais de

is

.

.

iconographic type known

.

pallium

noun plural pallia /'paliam/ palliums ME Latin (= covering, mantle). 1 ME Ecclesiastical A woollen vestment conferred by the Pope on an archbishop in the Latin Church, consisting of a narrow circular band placed round the shoulders with a short lappet hanging from front and back. Also transferred ), the office or dignity of an archbishop. 2 M16 Antiquities A man’s large rectangular cloak, worn especially by Greek philo/'

palia/,

(

sophical and religious teachers. 3a L19 The mantle of a mollusc or brachi-

Zoology

b L19 Anatomy and Zoology The opod. outer wall of the cerebrum.

pallone

/pal'lone/

noun L19 Italian (aug-

mentative of palia ball). An Italian game, partially resembling tennis, in which a large ball is struck with a cylindrical

wooden guard, worn over the hand and wrist.

palmette

/pal'met/ noun M19 French (diminutive of palme palm leaf). Archaeology

,

palmier

303

An ornament

with radiating petals

palm

like a

leaf.

palmier

/palmje/ noun plural pronounced same. E20 French (literally, ‘palm tree’). A small crisp cake shaped like a palm leaf, made from puff pastry and sugar.

palomino

/pala'mbnau/ noun plural palominos E20 American Spanish (from Spanish from Latin palumbinus of or resembling a dove). 1 E20 A horse with light golden-brown coat and white or pale mane and tail. Also palomino horse. 2 M20 A pale golden-brown colour. Originally United States.

paisa

noun M20 Swedish {poise from Finnish and Lappish paisa). A landform of subarctic regions, consisting of a mound or ridge of peat covered with vegetation and containing a core of frozen peat or mineral /'paisa/

pals (plural palsar)

soil in

which

are

numerous

ice lenses.

pampas

/'pampas/, /'pampaz/ noun plural, used as singular (also in singular form pampa) E18 Spanish (plural of also

pampa from Quechua =

a plain).

1

E18

The extensive treeless plains of South America south of the Amazon. Also in singular, these plains considered collectively; any one of these plains. 2 L20 plural (treated

plural (treated as singular or ptural).

as singular).

A

yellowy-green colour. Usu-

ally attributive.

pan

Hindustani {pan betel

from Sanskrit parna feather, leaf). In the Indian subcontinent: the leaf of the betel, especially as used to enclose slices of areca nut mixed with lime for chewing; the mixture for chewing so formed. leaf,

p’an /pan/ noun M20 Chinese

A

pairs class

panada

.

.

.

noun (also panade /pa'neid/) L16 Spanish ((also Portuguese) = Italian panata, represented a ProtoRomance derivation of Latin panis bread). Bread boiled in water to a pulp and flavoured. Also, a paste of flour, water, etc., used for thickening. /pa'nccda/

panatela

/pana'tela/

pancetta

/pan'(t)Xeta/, foreign /pan'tfetta/

noun M19 American Spanish (= long thin biscuit, sponge cake from Spanish from Italian panatello small loaf, diminutive of panata (as panada)). 1 M19 A long slender cigar, especially one tapering at the sealed end. Also more fully panatela cigar. 2 M20 transferred A cigarette made of Central or South American marijuana, slang.

noun M20 Italian (diminutive of pancio from Proto-Romance word (whence also ‘paunch’). Italian cured belly of

belly

pork.

panchshila

/pam'Jula/, /pan'jula/ noun

M20 Sanskrit {pahcas'ila, from pahca five + sila moral principle). The five principles of peaceful relations formulated between India and China (and, by extension, other Communist countries) and set out in the preamble of a treaty signed in April 1954.

/pa:n/ noun E17

Antiquities

panettone

2 1996 Country Life Lord Petersham drove his Cumberland cobs with considerable panache through the marathon obstacles in the horse

sculpture or painting)

(in

|

pancratium

Greek form pancration /pan'kreifian/, /pan'kreitian/) E17 Latin (from Greek pagkration, from pan- all + kratos strength). 1

Greek History

E17

kind of shallow dish-shaped

An

athletic contest

combining both wrestling and boxing. 2 M17 Botany

(pan). Chinese

/pan'kreifiam/ noun (also in

Any of various bulbous

can and Mediterranean plants; the sea daffodil, P. maritimum.

Afri-

especially

ritual vessel.

panacea

panem /pana'si:a/

noun Mi6 Latin (from

Greek panakeia, from panakes all-healing, from pan- all + base of akos remedy). A

remedy

for all diseases; a thing for solv-

ing

difficulties or

all

adopted in every

case of difficulty.

panache

the people. the hand-outs and gladiatgames provided by Roman statesmen

Originally,

/pa'naJV noun M16

Italian pennacchio

et circenses /.panem et sa: /ka:'k£nseiz/ noun phrase L18 Latin (= bread and circuses). State provision of popular entertainment and distribution of food to win popularity with 'kenzhz/,

from

French (from

late Latin pinnac-

ulum diminutive of pinna feather). 1 M16 A tuft or plume of feathers, especially as a head-dress or a decoration for a helmet. Formerly also, a decoration like a plume of feathers, e.g. a tassel. 2 L19 Flamboyantly or stylishly confident behaviour; a

manner marked by

this.

orial

and emperors in the Circus of ancient

Rome tile

to assuage the populace.

1961

notoriously vola-

Munby God and Rich Society

D. L.

Leaders

city’s

win votes by offering circenses to those they despise. .

.

.

panettone 'toni/

/pam'tauni/,

panem

foreign

et

/panet

noun (also panetone /pam'tauni/,

panforte

mache

papier

|

panettoni

plural

/pane'tone/)

foreign

304

/panet'toni/ E20 Italian (from panetto cake,

diminutive of pane bread, from Latin panis). A rich Italian bread made with bar,

and

eggs, fruit,

panforte

butter. /pan'forte/

foreign

/pan'fa:ti/,

noun L19 Italian (from pane bread + forte strong). A hard spicy Sienese cake containing nuts, candied peel, and honey.

panga

noun

/'pccrjga/

ponga) E20

(also

1

American Spanish. A flat-bottomed boat with rising stem and stern used especially in Latin

panga

America. noun 2

/'parjga/

M 20

East Africa: a large knife

Kiswahili. In

used either as a

weapon.

tool or a

panier de crabes

/panje da krab/ noun

paniers de crabes (pronounced same) M20 French (literally, ‘basket of crabs’). A competitive struggle. 1963 Economist The visitor is not able to move around in this communist panier de

phrase plural

.

.

.

panino

/pa'nkno/ noun plural panini /pa M 20 Italian. An Italian bread roll or

sandwich.

panne

/pan/ noun L18 French (of unknown A soft silk or rayon fabric with a flattened pile, resembling velvet. Also origin).

panne

velvet.

panocha, panoche

of pen-

variants

UCHE. /'pAnsala/ noun Mi9 Sinhalese (from pan leaf + sala dwelling) from Sanskrit parnasala, Pali pannasala ). A Buddhist temple or monastery; the home of a Buddhist religious teacher.

panthea

see

panzanella ian.

signum pantheum. noun L 20 Italwith olive oil and

/.pantsa'nsla/

made

Bread salad

panzer

A 1964

Spectator He [sc. Harold Macmillan] thought that three of the members of his Cabinet who were in the House of Commons, apart from Butler, were papabile and of sufficient seniority to be considered: Maudling, Heath and myself [sc. lain Macleod],

papaloi /'pap(a)lwa;/ noun plural papalois, same L19 Haitian (creole papalwa, from papa father + Iwa loa). A voodoo mamaloi.

paparazzo

/papa'ratsao/ noun plural paparazzi /papa'ratsi/ M20 Italian. A (freelance) photographer who pursues celebrities in order to take their pictures. 1995 Times Video paparazzi, who sell their film to

downmarket

television

noun &

Panzer) M20 German (= mail, coat of mail). A noun M20 (A member of) a German armoured unit. Also, a (also

German

tank.

B

attributive or as adjective

M20 Of, pertaining

or designating a panzer; transferred heavily armoured. figurative

was

comedy,

to,

1996 Times Magazine

...

.

the

also swiftly turned into a television

... the starring role being given to

‘Wanda’, a panzer

among

moms. B 1995 Spectator [The

other cheerleader

were subsequently invited to leave instantly, unless they wanted their departures assisted-

noun

/paprasri/

E20

French. Excessive official paperwork or routine; bureaucracy.

papeterie

/pap(a)tri/

/'papatri/

noun M19 French

facture,

stationer’s

(plural (=

shop,

papetier paper-maker).

same),

paper manuwriting-case,

A

(usually or-

namental) case or box for paper and other writing materials. /papje kale/ noun phrase plu-

papiers colles (pronounced same) M20 French (= glued paper). A collage made from paper; the use of paper for collage. ral

papier

dechire

/papje

dejire/

noun

papiers dechires (pronounced same) M20 French (= torn paper). Paper torn haphazardly for use in collage; a collage made of such paper.

phrase

papier

plural

mache

/.papiei

/papje mafe/ noun opposition’s informants]

shows, are

viewed as the vultures of the celebrity market, sometimes seeking to pick fights with the famous to secure pictures.

papier colle

/'panza/, foreign /'pantsar/

adjective

story

(from papa Pope). A adjective M20 (Of a prelate) worthy of or eligible to be elected Pope; generally suitable B M20 absolutely as noun for high office. plural papabili /papa'bifli/. A prelate regarded as eligible to be elected Pope; generally one regarded as suitable for high office. Usually in plural.

M 20 Italian

'bi;li/)

from

chopped vegetables.

A

papabile /papa'bifle/, /pa'pccbili/ adjective & noun (also (as adjective) papabili /papa

paperasserie

pansala

management

positively benign.

priest. Cf.

crabes.

'ni:ni/

by the steel-capped boot of a

which has proved over the past three years that it can make a panzer division look

French

&

'majei/, foreign

adjective phrase

M18

paper + mache past participle of mdcher to chew, from Latin masticare). A noun M18 Material made from (papier

305

papier poudre |

pulped paper; paper reduced to a pulp mixed with glue etc. or (for fine work) sheets of paper pasted together, used for

making moulded boxes, jars, trays, etc. B adjective M18 Made of papier mache. B 1996 Times Magazine A

visit to

Dr Who conjures up images monstrosities, nightmares

the set of

of papier-mache

par /par/, /pa:/ preposition ME Old and Modern French (from Proto-Romance combination of Latin per through + ad Through, by.

II Occurring in various phrases used in English: see par eminence, par excellence,

PAR EXEMPLE.

parador

impregnated with face-powder.

M 18

French. 1 M 18 except historical. 2 E19 A usually greased paper wrapper in which a fillet etc. of meat or fish is cooked. curl-paper,

noun

obsolete

Frequently in en papillote

wrapper. 1996 Times

Usually

it

/b/,

in a paper

comes between

the

aubergine caviar and the salmon en papillote, though sometimes it can be staved off until the

moment

meat

paradoses /'paradnsiz/, same M19 French (from para- protector of + dos back). An elevation of earth behind a defended place as a protection against attack from the rear; the mound along the back of a trench. plural

paramo

to

in

wind and thick cold

1996 Spectator Pappardelle with tender little broad beans and dark shards of rocket were good as well .

/’pa:rar)/ noun M19 Malay. A large heavy knife used in Malaysia for clearing

vegetation

etc.

.

paraphernalia paprika

/'paprika/, /pa'pri:ka/

noun & ad-

Hungarian. A noun 1 L19 A condiment made from the dried ground

jective L19

fruits of certain (especially red) varieties

of the sweet pepper, Capsicum annuum. b M20 The bright orange-red colour of this. 2 E20 Any of several European varieties of the sweet pepper bearing mildly flavoured fruits. B adjective 1 M20 Of a dish: flavoured with (especially the condiment) paprika. Often postpositive. 2 M 20 Of the colour of paprika.

papyrus

/pa'pAiras/ noun plural

papyri Latin (from

/pa'pAiri:/ lme Greek papuros paper reed, of unknown origin). 1 LME An aquatic plant of the sedge family, formerly abundant in Egypt and

/pa'pAirAi/,

the source of the writing material papyrus. 2 E18 Material in the forms of fine strips of the stem of the papyrus plant, soaked in water, pressed together, and dried, to form a writing surface, used by the ancient Egyptians, Romans, etc. 3 E19 A manuscript or document written

on

this.

fogs.

parang

sauces.

.

/'paradDs/, foreign /parado/ noun

/papa:'dsli/

nouf plural L20 wider strips than tagliatelle and served especially with Italian. Pasta

parados

made

between coffee and

tea.

pappardelle

1995 D. Lodge Therapy It’s now a five-star parador, one of the grandest hotels in Spain.

/'paramau/ noun plural paramos M18 Spanish ((also Portuguese) paramo from Spanish Latin paramus bare plain). A high plateau in the tropical parts of South America, bare of trees and exposed

of decision

camomile

noun plural paradores /'parada:rez/, paradors M19 Spanish. In Spain: a hotel owned and administered by the government. Formerly, any Span/'parada:/

ish hotel or inn.

/'papilaut/, /'papilDt/, in sense 2

usually /'papijDt/

A

to).

in latex.

papier poudre /papje pudre/ noun phrase plural papiers poudres (pronounced same) E 20 French (= powdered paper). A paper papillote

pare ferme

noun plural M17 Medieval Latin (use as noun of neuter plural of paraphernalis, from Latin parapherna from Greek, from para- beside, beyond + pherne dowry). 1 MI7 History Those articles of personal property which the law allowed a married woman to keep and deal with as her own, when most of her personal or movable property vested in her husband. 2 M18 Personal belongings, especially of dress or adornment; the miscellaneous objects that go to make up a thing or are associated with it; trappings, bits and pieces. Also treated as /.parafa'neilia/

singular.

noun M 20 Hindustani paratha ). In Indian cookery, a flat piece of ( unleavened bread fried in butter, ghee,

paratha

etc.,

/pa'ra:ta/

on a griddle.

paratonnerre

/parataner/

noun

plural

pronounced same E19 French (from paraprotection against + tonnerre thunder). lightning-conductor.

pare ferme (also

/,pa:k

pare ferme)

'f£:mei/

A

noun phrase

M 20 French

(literally,

.

parnas

parcheesi

306

‘enclosed area’). In motor sports, an enclosure or paddock used by vehicles before or after a race.

parcheesi

variant of pachisi.

2 E19 transferred A despised social class; an outcast. 3 E19 A half-wild stray dog. Also pariah-dog or pye-dog. lete

except

2 1996 Times Nothing seems to boost a ostracised. The dictator so much as to be

par eminence

/par eminas/, /pa:(r) 'sminans/ adverb phrase L19 French. Preeminently.

.

/, parenz

'patrii:/

parergon

parerga /pa'ra:ga/ E17 Latin (from Greek, from para- beyond, beside + ergon work). 1 E17E18 An ornamental accessory or addition, especially in a painting; an embellishment. 2 E17 Subsidiary work or business, apart from one’s ordinary employment. Also, a work, composition, etc., that is supplementary to or a by-product of a /pa'ra:gDn/ noun plural

—have

all

pari-mutuel /parimytqel/

pari

passu

/,pa:ri: 'pasu:/, /'pari/

1996 Country

Miss Guest

Life

pasticheur par excellence

.

.

is

an Edwards

With

step’).

‘with equal equal speed; side by side; si-

multaneously and equally. Also, on an equal footing, without preference. 1997 Spectator these blunders in public moved

the media

parka

.

.

/par agzapl/, /pa:r ag adverb phrase M19 French. For

example.

noun L19 French (literally, ‘perfect’). A rich iced pudding of whipped cream, eggs, etc. Also, a sweet consisting of layers of ice-cream, fruit, syrup, whipped cream, etc., served in a tall

parfait

/'pa:fei/

glass.

parer + fl'eche arrow). A noun E19 (A) depilated (especially buffalo’s) hide dried by stretching on a frame; an article made this.

B

attributive or as adjective

M19

Made of parfleche.

noun L18 Aleut (from RusA long hooded skin jacket worn by Eskimos; a similar garment, usually of windproof fabric, worn especially by mountaineers. /'pa:ka/

/pcr.'landao/ adverb, adjective,

noun L19 Italian. Music L19

(A

direction:)

pariah

/pa'rAia/

sells

perfume. Also, a

A adverb & adjective an expressive or

declamatory manner, as if speaking. B noun M20 plural parlandos, parlandi /pa:'landi/ An expressive or declamatory passage or piece.

parlementaire French

(from

A

/.pafiamen'ts:/

parlementer

noun E20

discuss person deputed to parley to

with an enemy. parloir /parlwar/ noun plural pronounced

same a

E18 French.

A conversation room

in

monastery or convent; a parlour. Also, a

similar

room

parmigiana

in a prison. /,pa:mi'cha:na/

adjective

L19

taining to the city and province of Parma in northern Italy). Cookery Made or served with Parmesan cheese. Chiefly used postpositively in

noun E17 Tamil (paraiyar

plural of paraiyan, literally, ‘hereditary

drummer’, from

in

&

Italian (feminine of parmigiano of or per-

parfumerie /parfymri/ noun plural pronounced same M19 French. A shop or department which perfume factory.

with the growth of

.

terms, parley).

parfleche /'pcufleJV noun & adjective E19 Canadian French (parfleche, from French

from

passu

.

exemple

'znmp( 0 )l/

.

pari

sian = skin jacket).

parlando par

adverb

phrase M16 Latin (literally,

par excellence

all.

same);

Often abbreviated to mutuel.

relations

Pre-eminently; supremely, above

(plural

/.pcm'mjmtfual/ noun L19 French (= mutual stake or wager). 1 L19 A form of betting in which those backing the first three places divide the losers’ stakes. 2 E20 A booth for placing bets under this system; a totalizator.

.

lence).

—Castro,

Hussein, the benefited from such pariah

status.

larger work.

/par ekslas/, /pa:(r) 'eks(a)lans/ adverb phrase L17 French (from Latin per excellentiam by virtue of excel-

.

Saddam

Gaddafi, Assad,

noun

Latin (literally, ‘parent The monarch, or any the country’). Law of other authority, regarded as the legal protector of citizens unable to protect themselves.

.

world’s longest established rulers

Ayatollahs

parens patriae phrase M18 Modern

historical.

member of a

parai drum).

1

E17 Origi-

nally, a member of a very extensive low caste in southern India. Later, a member

of a low caste or of no Hindu caste, obso-

names of

dishes, as in veal parmigiana.

parnas ral

/pa:'nas/ noun (also

parnassim

parnass) plu-

/pa:'nasim/ M19

Hebrew

(from Greek pronous provident). The lay leader of the congregation of a synagogue.

9

parochet

307

parochet

parocheth and other variants) plural parochot /pa 'roxnt/ L19

/pa'roxet/ noun (also

sprinkle,

Hebrew

garment, etc.: decorated with embroidered motifs, beads, etc., sprinkled over a background.

(pardket curtain;

cf.

Ak-

kadian paraku to shut off). A richly decorated curtain which hangs in front of the Ark in a synagogue.

parole

/pa'raul/, in sense 3 usually foreign

&

Old and Modern French (from Proto-Romance, from Latin parabola parable, from Greek parabole comparison, analogy, proverb, from para/parol/ noun

verb L15

put alongside, compare). A noun 1 L15 A person’s word of honour; specifically (a) a prisoner of war’s promise to abide by the specific terms of a conditional release; b a prisoner’s promise of good behaviour in return for release before the expiry of a custodial sentence. Also, the granting to or acceptance by a prisoner of a conditional release on the basis of such a promise; the system or practice of granting or accepting such a ballein to

(

)

conditional release. 2

password used by an

M 20

L 18

Military

The

officer or inspector

The actual behaviour or performance of

of the guard. 3 linguistic

Linguistics

an individual, in contrast to the linguistic system. Opposed to langue sense 3. B transitive verb M17 Put on parole; release on parole. /'prnrali/ noun E 18 French (from Italfrom paro like, from Latin par equalIn a gambling card-game (especially

paroli ian, ity).

the staking of double the viously staked. faro),

paronomasia

sum

pre-

/.parana'meizia/ noun L16

Latin (from Greek, from as para- beside, beyond + onomasia naming). A play on words, a pun; punning.

parquet

partita

/'pa:ki/, /'pa:kei/, in sense 3 foreign

/parks/ noun E19 Old and Modern French (= small marked-off space etc., diminutive of pare park). 1 E19 A flooring, especially one composed of blocks of various woods arranged in a geometric pattern. Also parquet floor. 2 M19 (The front part of) the ground floor of a theatre or auditorium. Chiefly United States. 3 L19 In France and French-speaking countries: the branch of the administration of the law that deals with the prosecution of crime.

'M

Especially of a fabric,

strew).

Usually postpositive.

pars pro toto phrase E18 Latin.

/,pa:z

A part

prao 'tautao/ noun taken as represen-

tative of the whole.

Frequently attributive.

parterre /pa:'te:/ noun E17 French (use as noun of parterre on or along the ground). 1 E17 A level space in a garden occupied by an ornamental arrangement of flowerbeds. 2 L17 A level space on which a house or village stands. 3 E18 The part of the ground-floor of the auditorium of a theatre behind the orchestra; United States the part beneath the galleries; the occu-

pants of

this.

parti /parti/ (=

noun L 18 French choice, from Old French partie part,

share,

(plural same)

side

a

in

Romance use

as

contest,

from Proto-

noun of

Latin partita

feminine past participle of partiri to part). A person (especially a man) considered in terms of eligibility for marriage on grounds of wealth, social status, etc.

partie /parti/ noun plural pronounced same L17 French (cf. parti). A match in a game; a game.

partie carree

/parti kare/ noun phrase

carrees (pronounced same) M18 French (from as parti + carree square). A party of four, especially comprising two men and two women. parties

plural

partigiano

/.parti'dqano/ noun (also Parti-

giano) plural partigiani /.parti'dqani/ M20 Italian (Tuscan). History A member of the Italian resistance during the war of 193945,

an

Italian partisan.

parti pris /parti pri/, /,pa:ti pri:/ noun & adjective phrase M19 French (literally, ‘side taken’,

from

as parti + pris past participle

of prendre to take). A noun phrase Ml plural partis pris (pronounced same). A preconceived view, a prejudice; bias. B adjective phrase E20 Prejudiced, biased; on the side of a particular party.

B 1995

Spectator He doesn’t attempt he is parti pris.

to hide

the fact that

parroco

/'parokau/ noun plural parrocos M19 Italian parroco Spanish parroco = par(

,

ish priest). In Italian-

and Spanish-speak-

ing countries: a priest, especially a parish priest.

parseme E19

/parsame/, /'pa:samei/ adjective (past participle of parsemer to

French

partita

/pa:'ti:ta/ noun plural partite /pa: partitas L19 Italian (feminine past participle of partire to divide from Latin partiri to part). Music A suite, especially one for a solo instrument or a chamber ensemble; a variation in early modern ti:tei/,

music.

.

partouse

|

partouse

pasha

308

/partuz/ noun (also partouze)

same M20

pronounced

plural

French

(from as parti party + pejorative slang suffix -ouse ). 1 M20 A party at which there is indiscriminate and collective sexual ac2 L20 A nightclub etc. noted for tivity. the licentiousness of its entertainment.

parure

/pe'rua/ noun

ME Old and Modern

French (from parer to adorn, arrange, peel (fruit), from Latin parare to prepare). 1 ME-E16 An ornament for an alb or amice. 2 LME-L16 A paring, a peeling. 3 E19 A set of jewels or other ornaments intended to be worn together.

parvenu

noun & adjective E19 French (use as noun of past participle of parvenir to arrive from Latin

from

per-

through

+ venire to

come). A noun Ei9 (feminine parvenue) A person of humble origin who has gained wealth or position and risen in society, especially one regarded as unfitted for the position achieved in this way, or as lacking the accomplishments appro-

B adjective E19 priate to it; an upstart. That has recently risen to wealth or position; resembling or characteristic of a

.

.

.

,

.

Spectator As a

rule,

/pa da fa/ noun phrase E20

(literally, ‘step of cat’). Ballet A springing step in which each foot in turn is raised to the opposite knee.

French

pas de cheval

/pa da faval/ noun phrase

E20 French (literaly, ‘step of horse’). Ballet step in which a pawing movement is

A

executed with one foot.

pas de ciseaux (also

/pa da sizo/ noun phrase

pas ciseaux)

French

L19

(literally,

‘step of scissors’). Ballet A jump in which the legs are opened wide apart in the air.

pas de deux M18

phrase

/pa/,

/

pa:/

noun

plural

same

E18

French. 1 E18 The right of going first; precedence. 2 L18 A step in dancing; a kind of dance, especially in classical balwith qualifying word

or phrase.

pas ciseaux

da

’da:/

noun

dance

for

two

do,/, /,pa

A

French.

people, especially in classical ballet. 1995 Times Stuart Cassidy and Muriel Valtat, dressed in vaporous white, swirl and float through their romantic pas de deux. .

pas de quatre /pa da L19 French. A dance for

.

.

katr/ noun phrase

four people, espe-

cially in classical ballet.

pas de trois

A

/pa da trwa/ noun phrase M18

dance

for three people, espe-

pas devant

/pa dava/ interjection M20 French (= not in front of). Of a statement, action, etc.: not appropriate or proper for Pas devant is an elliptical version of the warning expression pas devant les enfants /lsz afa/ ‘not in

appropriate, for

les

enfants.

/pa dy tu/ E19 French. Not at

all.

pasear variant of pas de ciseaux.

front of the children’.

The assumption is that the children will not understand a warning given in French. Other nouns are substituted, as

pas du tout

let.

In sense 2 chiefly

/pa da

the present company.

though, the

[Jockey] club has been happier cracking down on some flat-hatted trainer or parvenu owner who would never be allowed in.

pas

step.

cially in classical ballet.

Spectator There are also several

female whores a witch, and the famous parvenu, Trimalchio, who gives a Lucullan banquet with perverse and ingenious cookery

B 1996

/pa da bure/ noun phrase

A bourree

pas de chat

French.

parvenu.

.

E20 French.

/'pccvanu:/, /'pccvanju:/

pervenire,

A 1996

pas de bourree

M19 Spanish

(= to

take a walk;

cf.

(Take) a walk. United States slang

pas d’action

/padaksja/ noun phrase M20 French. Ballet A dance expressing a theme or narrative.

/padan/ noun L19 French (liter‘donkey’s step’). Fencing Two rings below the cross-guard of some old swords for protecting the fingers. ally,

pas de basque

/pa da bask/ noun phrase A dance step in three beats similar to a waltz step, but with a circular movement of the right leg on the second E19 French.

beat.

paseo).

and

dia-

lect.

paseo ral

pas d’ane

& noun

/pasefa:/ intransitive verb

/pa'seiau /, foreign /pa'seo/ noun plu-

paseos

/pa'seiauz /, foreign

/pa'seos/

M19 Spanish. In Spain, Spanish-speaking parts of America, and the south-western United States: a leisurely walk or stroll; a phrade or procession, especially at a bullfight; also, a road, an avenue.

pasha

/'pa:fa/

Turkish (pa$a

,

noun (also pacha) M17 from Persian pad(i)shdh,

Pahlavi.pati lord + shah). History (The title of) a

Turkish officer of high rank, as a mil-

-

309

pashalic commander,

itary

provincial

governor,

etc.

pashalic

jective (also

from

as

noun & adpachalic) L17 Turkish (pafalik,

/'pccjalik/, /pa'J'cclik/

pasha

+ suffix indicating quality

or condition -Ilk). History A noun L17 The jurisdiction of a pasha; the district governed by a pasha. B adjective M19 Of or

pertaining to a pasha.

paskha

/'pasxa/,

paska) E 20 Russian

noun

(= Easter).

A

passe

A. 2

rich Rus-

noun plural pasos /'pasos/, /'pasauz/ E20 Spanish. An image or group of images representing Passion scenes, carried in procession as part of Holy Week observances in Spain.

paso doble

noun phrase (= double step). A quick ballroom dance based on a Latin American style of marching; a plural

/,pasa(u) 'daoblei/

paso dobles E20 Spanish

1996

went

Bookseller European publishers

to Milia last

&

who

to display their latest

products with pride must have been little put out to hear American visitors saying that CD-ROMs are passe.

passecaille variant of passacaille.

passee

see passe.

passeggiata

/.passed'd^iata/

noun plural

passeggiate /.passed'c^iate/ M 20 Italian. A stroll, a promenade. H Usually referring to the evening stroll for relaxation and socializing habitually taken by citizens of many Mediterranean countries (see quotation); the equivalent of the Greek volta. 1971 N. Fisher Rise at Dawn We drove into Viareggio one evening. It was the hour of the passeggiata The pavements thronged with

verb

pasquinadata) L16 Italian (pas quinata French pasquinade, from Pasquin

week

more than a

.

/.paskwi'neid/ noun

&

CD-ROM

piece of music for this dance, usually in 2/4 time. * See quotation at cha-cha.

pasquinade

/pase/ adjective

noun (feminine passee) L 18 French (past adjective of passer to pass). A adjective 1 L18 Past one’s prime, archaic. 2 E19 No longer fashionable; out of date, behind the times. B noun M20 Ballet The transitional movement of the leg from one position to the next.

(also

/'paso/, /'pasau/

/'pasei/, foreign

participial

cheese, dried fruit, nuts, spices, etc., set in a mould and traditionally eaten at Easter.

paso

pas seul

cloth covering the numbers 19 to 36; a bet placed on this section.

made with curd

dessert

sian

/'paska/

|

.

.

strolling families.

(originally ,

the name of a statue in Rome on which abusive Latin verses were annually posted during the sixteenth century). A noun L16 A lampoon, a satire, originally one exhibited in a public place. B transitive verb L18 Satirize or libel in a pasquinade.

passacaglia

/pasa'ka:lia/

noun M17

Ital-

ian (from Spanish pasacalle, from pasar to pass + calle street (originally often played in the streets)). A slow musical composition usually with a ground bass and in triple time; an early kind of dance to this music.

passacaille

passeE18 French (from Spanish pasa-

caille) callej.

A

/pasa'kAi/ noun (also

PASSACAGLIA.

passade

/pa'seid/, in sense 2 /pa'scrd/, for-

same noun M17 French (from Italian passata or Provencal passada, from medieval Latin passare to pass). 1 M17 Horsemanship A forwards or backwards turn performed on the spot. rare. 2 E19 A transitory love affair; a passing eign /pasad/ (plural

)

romance.

passe

/pas/ noun M19

French (from passer

to pass). In roulette: the section of the

paseism/ noun M 20 French. Adherence to and regard for the traditions and values of the past, especially in the arts.

passeisme

/

passementerie

/'pasm(a)ntri/,

foreign

/pasmatri/ noun E17 French (from passement from passer to pass; the connection

with Spanish and Italian passamano

(ap-

mano parently from passare to pass hand) and the reason for this name are both obscure). Decorative trimming consisting of gold or silver lace, gimp, or +

braid.

passe-partout

/,paspa:'tu:/, /,pa:spa:'tu:/

noun L17 French (from passer to pass + part1 L17 A thing which out everywhere). goes or provides a means of going everywhere; specifically a master-key. 2 M19 A frame or border into which a picture of suitable size may be inserted for display;

frame for displaying mounted photographs etc., consisting of two sheets of transparent material (or one sheet with a a

card backing) stuck together at the edges with adhesive tape. Also, adhesive tape used in such framing.

pas seul seuls

/pa seel/ noun phrase plural pas (pronounced same) E19 French. A

passim dance

pate brisee

|

for

310

one person, especially in

clas-

sical ballet.

passim Latin

adverb

/'pasim/

&

adjective

E19

from passus

(literally, ‘scatteredly’,

past participle of pandere to spread out). Of an allusion or reference in a published work: (to be found) at various places throughout the text. Also transscattered,

and

ferred

1996 Country

— see —can and does

... a minister’s

Life

passim

pastis

life

correctness

when

comes

it

aniseed.

pastorale noun

same

plural

L16

Latin (= step, pace). A section, division, or canto of a (medieval) story or poem.

noun L19 Italian (from late

/'pasta/

Latin pasta a small square piece of medicinal preparation, from Greek paste). 1 L19 A type of dough made from durum wheat flour and water and extruded or stamped into particular shapes (and often dried if not for immediate use). Also, an Italian dish consisting largely of this and usually a sauce. 2 L20 Marijuana, slang.

pasticcio

/pa'stitfiau/

noun plural pastic-

(= pie, pasty,

Romance, from

late Latin pasta paste).

A

/pa'sti:J7 noun & verb H9 French (from as pasticcio). A noun L19 A medley of various things; specifically (a) a picture or a musical composition made up of pieces derived from or imitating various sources; (b) a literary or other work of art composed in the style of a well-known au-

pastiche

thor, artist, etc.

B

transitive

&

M20 Copy or imitate the author,

intransitive

style

of (an

etc.).

A.b transferred 1996 Times Magazine It’s a pastiche of a fashionable London restaurant the moment.

pasticheur

/.pastk'J’a:/

.

.

.

hounds in full open country.

pastiglia Italian

(=

of

noun E 20 French

(from pastiche). An artist the style of another artist. 1996 Country Life Miss Guest pasticheur

plural pastorales, pastorali /pasta'radi/ E18 Italian (use as

noun of pastorale

pas-

from Latin pastoralis from pastor shepherd, from past- past participial stem toral,

of pascere to feed, graze). Music 1 E 18 A slow instrumental composition in compound time, often with drone notes in the bass suggestive of a shepherd’s bagpipes. 2 L19 A simple musical play with a rural subject.

pastoralia

/pa:sta'reilia/

noun plural E18

Latin (neuter plural of pastoralis pastoral). Spiritual care or guidance as a subject of theological study; the duties of a pastor.

pastourelle

/pasturel/

(plural

same),

noun L19 French (feminine of pastoureau shepherd). A medieval lyric whose theme is love for a shepherdess. The Provencal or Portuguese word pastor/pasto'rsl/

PASTICHE.

artist,

/pasta'ra :1/, /pasta'ra:lei/ noun

from Proto-

cios Mis Italian

verb

a

to dealing with

foreigners.

/'pasas/

noun E 20 French. liqueur flavoured with

/'pastis/, /pa'sti:s/

(A drink of)

include a certain salty lack of political

pasta

coated with sugar and sometimes medicated; a lozenge, b E20 Medicine A small disc of barium platinocyanide whose gradual change of colour when exposed to X-rays was formerly used as an indication of the dose delivered.

figurative.

Tristan Garel-Jones

passus

paste burnt as a perfume or as a fumigator, deodorizer, or disinfectant. 2 M17 A small flat, usually round, sweet, often

who

imitates

an Edwards images of cry and horses streaming across ,

is

creating wide-screen

ela (L19) is also

pastrami

paste).

Intricately

M 20

Yiddish (from Romanian pastrama, probably of Turkish origin). Highly seasoned smoked /pa'strcmni/ noun

beef, usually, served in thin slices.

pata

M20 Sanskrit (pata Cloth, canvas; especially (an example of) an ancient form of Indian painting typically executed on a strip of cloth or scroll /'pAta/

noun

).

of canvas.

patchouli

/'patfoli/, /pa'tfu:li/ noun (also patchouly) M19 Tamil (pacculi). 1 M19 Either of two Indo-Malayan labiate shrubs, Pogostemon cablin and P. heyneanus, whose leaves yield an essential oil much used in perfumery. 2 M19 Perfume prepared

from /pa'stidja/, /pa'stidia/

used.

this plant.

noun E20

moulded

gesso used in the decoration of furniture, caskets, etc., in Renaissance Italy.

pastille /'past( 0 )l/, /'pastil/ noun (also pastil) M17 French (from Latin pastillus little loaf or roll, lozenge, diminutive of panis loaf). 1 M17 A small pellet of aromatic

pate

/pat/

noun M19 French. Paste.

Occurs in English with a defining word or phrase, usually indicating a substance or process.

pate brisee French

/pat brize/ noun phrase M19

(literally, ‘broken paste’). Cookery type of sweet shortcrust pastry.

A

/

pate de verre

311

pate de verre E20 French

noun phrase of glass’). Pow-

/pat da vsr/

(literally, ‘paste

|

pathos

b M 20 Anthropology A person’s legal as opposed to biological father. Cf. genitor.

dered glass that has been fired a second

patera

time.

pate dure French

made

/pat

(literally,

dyr/ noun phrase M19 ‘hard paste’). (Porcelain

from) hard

clay.

pate-sur-pate /patsyrpat/ noun phrase L19 French (literally, ‘paste on paste’). A method of relief decoration formed by applying layers of white slip on unfired porcelain.

pate

‘tender paste’). (Porce-

from) soft

/'patei/

M19

/pat tadr/ noun phrase

(literally,

made

lain

clay.

noun E18 French (from Old

French paste'}. 1 E18 A pie, a pasty. Now rare. 2 Li9 A rich paste or spread made from finely minced or pounded meat, fish,

In sense 2 often

with a qualifying word

or phrase indicating a particular recipe,

such as rough

pate, Strasbourg pate (see also

phrases below).

campagne

/,patei

da

knm

noun phrase M20 Fren&i (= country A coarse pork and liver pate.

'pa:nja/

pate).

pate de foie gras

/'patei da fwa: ,gra:/ noun phrase E19 French. A smooth rich pate of fatted goose liver.

Originally a pie filled with this paste, also

in bas-relief.

paterfamilias 'milias/

/.peitafa'milias/,

noun

plural

known

as a ‘Strasbourg pie’;

now

ap-

plied just to the filling served as a separate dish.

pate en croute

/,

patei a 'kru:t/

noun

phrase M20 French. Pate baked in a pastry

/.patafa

patresfamilias

/,patri:zfa'milias/

L15

Latin (from pater father + archaic genitive of familia family). 1 L15 A male head of a family or household. 2 M19 Roman Law The male head of a family or household having authority over its members. Also,

any male legally independent and free from parental control.

paternoster

herbs, etc.

pate de

ornament

/,peitri:zfa'milias/,

pate tendre French

noun plural paterae /'pat(a)ri:/ M17 Latin (from patere to be open). 1 M17 Roman Antiquities A broad shallow dish used especially for pouring libations. 2 L18 Architecture An ornament resembling a shallow dish; any flat round /'pat(a)ra/

/pafa'nosta noun OE Latin (paternoster literally, ‘our father’, the first two words of the Lord’s Prayer in Latin). 1 OE The Lord’s Prayer, especially in the Latin version, b ME A repetition or recital of this as an act of /pata'mista/,

worship, c LME transferred A form of words repeated as or like a prayer, imprecation, or charm. Also, a nonsensical or tedious recital. 2 ME Any of several special beads occurring at regular intervals in a rosary to indicate that a paternoster is to be said. Also, the whole rosary. 3 M19 A fishing line with hooks or weights attached at intervals. More fully paternoster line. 4 E20 A lift consisting of a series of doorless compartments moving continuously on an endless belt. Also

more

fully paternoster elevator, paternoster

case. lift.

pate maison M20 French

(=

/'patei

house

,mez5 :/ noun phrase pate). Pate

made

to

the recipe of a particular restaurant.

patella

noun plural patellae /pa 'teli:/ (originally Anglicized as patei) L15 Latin (diminutive of patera). 1 a generb M19 Archaeology ally A pan. Only in L15. A small pan or shallow vessel, especially a Roman one. 2 L16 Anatomy The kneecap. 3 L17 A natural structure in the form of a shallow cup or pan. 4 L17 Zoology A univalve mollusc of the genus Patella, which includes the common limpet. Chiefly as

modern

/pe'tsla/

Latin genus

name.

pater /'peita/, in sense also /'pa:ta/ noun ME Latin. 1 ME The Lord’s Prayer, the pa1

2 E17-M19 An ecclesiastical or spiritual father. 3 E18 Father. Cf. mater sense 2. Chiefly jocular and school slang.

ternoster.

patha patha

/,pata 'pato/

Xhosa (phathphatha

to

noun phrase M20 feel with the

hands). 1 M20 In South Africa: a sensuous Black African dance; music for this dance. 2 L20 Sexual intercourse. South African slang.

pathos

/'pei0Ds/

noun L16 Greek

(= suffer-

ing, feeling, related to paskhein to suffer,

penthos grief). 1 L16 A pathetic expression 2 M17 A quality in or utterance, rare. persons, etc., events, writing, speech,

which

excites pity or sadness; the

power

of stirring tender or melancholy emotion. 3 L17 Physical or mental suffering. rare.

2 1996 Country Life ... the work’s humour served deeply serious ends and was flecked with darker moments and a touchingly lyrical pathos.

patina

paupiette

|

patina

312

M 18

noun

/'patina/

Italian (from

A

Latin = shallow dish or pan).

usually green film produced by oxidation on the surface of old bronze; a similar alteration of the surface of coins, flint, etc. Also, a gloss on wooden furniture produced by age, polishing, etc; an acquired change in the appearance of a surface, especially one suggestive of age.

996 Country Life

keeping with this patina of elder statesmanship, the tone is disconcertingly formal by today’s standards transferred 1

In

.

.

.

patio /'patiau/ noun plural patios E19 Spanish (= court of a house). 1 E19 Originally, an inner court, open to the sky, in Spanish or Spanish-American house. Now also, a usually roofless paved area adjoining and belonging to a house. 2 M19 Mining A yard or floor where ores a

are cleaned, sorted, or amalgamated.

patisserie

noun (also patisserie) L16 French (patisserie from medi/pa‘ti:s(a)ri/

Latin pasticium, from pasta paste). 1 L16 singular and in plural Articles of food made by a pastry-cook, pastries collec-

eval

2 E20

tively.

A

shop which

sells

pas-

patrin /'patrm/ noun Mi9 Romany. A trail left by Gypsies, using arrangements of grass, leaves, twigs, etc., to indicate the

direction taken.

patron

patissier

noun (also patissier, feminine patissiere, pa-

tissiere

/pa'tksia/, foreign /patisje/

/pe'tiisie:/,

foreign /patisjer/) E20

French. A pastry-cook. 1995 Times Magazine If were I

noun ME Old and Modern French (from Latin patronus protector of clients, advocate, defender, from pater, patr- father). 1 LME The captain or master of a Mediterranean galley or coaster (now rare or obsolete ); in North American waters, the captain or steersman of a long-

A case for pistol cartridges; a cartridge. Now obsolete except historical. 3 E17-E18 A master or

boat, barge, etc.

owner of

think

I

2 M16

slaves in countries bordering

the eastern and southern Mediterranean. A manager or boss of a hacienda; in New Mexico, the master or head of a family. (From Spanish). 5 L19 The proprietor of an inn or restaurant, especially in France and Spain. Cf. Italian padrone.

4 M19

The above senses represent only modern

Romance

uses, as patron,

with the pronunbeen fully An-

ciation /'peitr( 0 )n/, has also

glicized (me onwards), in senses derived ecclesiastical

and

classical Latin.

/patrona/ noun M20 French. An organization of industrial employers in

patronat

France; French employers collectively.

patronne

noun plural pronounced same L18 French (feminine of patron). A woman who is the owner, or the wife of the owner, of a business, espe-

seriously rich

and had a large kitchen, sometimes would like to employ a patissier.

/patr5/, foreign

/pa'tron/

from

tries.

/pa'trnn/, foreign

I

patois /'patwa:/ noun & adjective Mi7 Old and Modern French (= rough speech, perhaps from Old French patoier to handle roughly, trample, from patte paw, of unknown origin). A noun plural same

/patron/

cially a cafe, hotel, or restaurant.

noun L18 French (of unknown 1 L18 A paw; jocularly a hand. origin). Now only in patte de velours. 2 M19 A

patte

/pat/

M17 A dialect (originally in France) of the common people in a par-

short band or strap sewn on a dress as a trimming, or used to fasten a coat, hold a

fundamentally from the literary language; any nonstandard local dialect. 2 L18 transferred A social dialect; jargon. 3 M20 The creole of

belt in place, etc.

/'patwa:z/.

ticular

1

area,

differing

English-speaking Caribbean, especially Jamaica. B attributive or as adjective L18 Of, pertaining to, or of the nature of a the

Spectator

neath apparent softness.

One needs

cially rolled

to

.

.

speak Swahili

or Urdu to be understood, although at times

patois French

will

patresfamilias patria

(= paw of velvet). A cat’s the claws retracted, as symbolic of ruthlessness of inflexibility hidden be-

paw with

to the patois of long ago.

.

B 1996

noun

noun (originally poupiets) E18 French (perhaps from Italian polpetta, from Latin pulpa pulp). Cookery A long thin slice of fish, meat, etc., espe-

A.1 1995 G. Tindall Celestine In age he had become hard of hearing and had reverted

own speech

/pat da vlur/

phrase M19 French

paupiette

patois.

in his

patte de velours

do.

and stuffed with a Usually in plural in names of

in paupiettes de veau.

plural of paterfamilias.

/'patrie/, /'peitrio/

/po:p'jet/

noun E20 Latin.

One’s native country; one’? homeland.

.

A

filling.

dishes, as

dish of this sort

is

sometimes called alouettes sans tete ‘(sky)larks without heads’. An alternative etymology perhaps connects with French poupee ‘doll’; cf. the minced-meat dish also

-

.

pavane

313

modern Greek

called in

ing

koukla, also

mean-

noun

(also

‘doll’.

peccavi

Romana

to develop their communities, build impressive synagogues, and assert a claim to

social esteem.

pavane

/pa'vcun/

/pa'van/,

pavan,

M 16 French

(probably from Italian dialect pavana feminine of pavano of Padua, from Pavo dialect name of Padua (Italian Padova)). 1 M16 History A grave and stately dance in slow duple time, performed in elaborate clothing and popular in the sixteenth century. 2 M16 A piece of music for this dance or in its

/’pav(a)n/)

rhythm.

pave

Anglicized as pave as noun of past

(earlier)

LME French (use

/peiv/)

1 LME A paved road or path. 2 L19 A setting of jewels placed close together so that no metal is

participle of paver to pave).

it

becomes

paysage

2 1996 Country Life The brooch ... is a geometric platinum-set design of baguette and

diamonds with pave - set

cut

terminals

.

/pavijo/ noun L19 L19

1

jingle.

French

(literally

fully pavilion chinois

‘Chinese

Also

pavilion’.

called jingling Johnny.

paks/ noun LME Latin (= peace). 1 LME Ecclesiastical (also Pax) The ceremonial exchange of greetings as part of a church service to signify Christian concord. 2 LME Ecclesiastical History A tablet of gold, silver, ivory, glass, etc., with a projecting handle, depicting the Crucifixion or other sacred subject, which was kissed by all participants at mass. Also called osculatory. 3 L15 Peace, tranquillity, concord; especially peace between nations. Cf. pax /

4

School slang.

quiet or

(a)

L18

A

friend;

5 M19 As

good

interjection

friends.

A call

for

truce, school slang.

pax Romana phrase L19 Latin

rao'mama/

/,paks

country). (A representation of) a rural scene or landscape. /peiza/ noun & adjective E19 French (from Old French paisant, paisent, alteration of earlier paisenc, from pais (modern pays) country, from Proto-Romance alteration of Latin pagus rural district). A noun E19 plural pronounced same. A peasant, a

(=

Roman

peace).

The

Originally from Pliny’s Natural History

pax Romana has been the model for other phrases with a Latin or modern

(xxvii.3),

Latin adjective referring to the

influence of a State, empire,

dominant

etc. (see

quota-

tion 1996). G.

They

[sc.

B

ad-

a style of art, dress, etc:

re

countryman, especially in France.

Of

sembling that of peasants.

paysanne

noun

/peizan/

plural

pro-

A

woman,

peasant-woman, a country-

especially in France.

Fowden Empire

to

peag

noun (also peak

erican Indian,

peage

/pi:k/)

M17

Am-

wampum.

/'peia: 3 /, in sense

2 also foreign / pea 3 /

plural same) noun (in sense (

1

also

payage)

LME Old and Modern French (from medieval Latin pedaticum from Latin pes, pedfoot; in sense 2 from modern French). 1 LME Toll paid for passing through a ,

place or country, obsolete in general sense. 2 L 20 Toll paid to travel on a French motorway; a gate or barrier where this is paid.

peau-de-soie

/podaswa/,

/.pauda'swa:/

noun M19 French (literally, ‘silk skin’). A close-woven heavy satin silk; an (especially rayon) imitation of this.

peau d’Espagne (also ally,

/po despaji/ noun phrase

Peau d’Espagne) M19 French (liter1 M19 Perfumed ‘skin of Spain’).

A

scent suggestive of the

leather.

2 L19

aroma of

this leather.

peccadillo

pax

/peka'dilau/ noun plural pec-

cadilloes, peccadillos L16 Spanish (peca dillo diminutive of pecado sin). A small fault, a venial sin; a trifling offence.

peccavi Latin

(=

/pe'ka:vi:/ interjection I

have sinned).

A

& noun

E16

interjection E16

Acknowledging guilt. B noun L 16 An acknowledgement or confession of guilt. As an interjection,

Commonwealth

the Jews] benefited from the

/pi:g/

noun

peace which existed between nationalities under the Roman Empire.

1993

pro-

The bell-shaped mouth

More

/pavijS Jinwa/

romana.

plural

French (from pays

E17

nounced same M18 French (feminine of

of a trumpet or similar musical instrument. 2 Li9 A percussion ^instrument similar to a Turkish crescent, consisting of a stick having transverse brass plates from which hang a number of small bells

pax

.

.

‘pavilion’).

which

.

.

noun

/peiza 3 /

paysan).

pavilion

a desert

nounced same

jective L19

visible.

brilliant

as

paysan

/’pavei/, foreign /pave/ (plural same)

noun (also

1996 Times They [sc. the Serbs] will fight, fight and fight again for this, long after the Americans lose interest in their pax Americana,

cf.

MEA CULPA.

now

usually jocular;

.

pecorino

|

pensee

314

/pska'rim ao/ noun M 20 Italian (from pecora sheep). A hard Italian cheese made from ewe’s milk.

pecorino

pedregal

/'p£drig(a)l/

/p£dri'ga:l/,

noun

M19 Spanish (from piedra stone, from Latin petra). In Mexico and the south-western United States: a rocky tract, especially in a volcanic region; an old lava-field.

peignoir

/'peinwa:/ noun M19 French (from peigner to comb). A woman’s loose dressing-gown or bathrobe.

peineta /pei'neta / noun M20 Spanish. A woman’s ornamental comb traditionally worn with a mantilla.

pelmeny

/pel'meni/ noun plural M20 Russian (pel'meni ). Small pasta cases stuffed

with seasoned meat

etc.

as

a

Russian

dish.

colour.

pemmican

noun E19 Spanish ball, augmentative of pella from Latin pila ball). 1 E19 A Basque or Spanish ball game played in a walled court using basket-like wicker rackets attached to gloves. 2 E20 The ball used in pelota. /pi'lDta/, /pi'laota/

(=

peloton

/'

pelatDn/ noun M20 French (from

from Proto-Romance diminutive of Latin pila ball). Cycling The main field,

pelote

group, or pack of cyclists in a race.

The original senses

in

which

peloton

was

introduced (both E18) are now rare or obsolete: ‘a small ball or pellet’ and (its modern French sense) ‘a platoon’. 1996 Times Riis has grown up in the peloton, the toughest school of all, and has no .

.

.

time for niceties.

pelouse

pounded dried meat mixed

pronounced same E20 French. Especially in France: an area of grass; specifically a public enclosure at a racecourse.

noun plural peltae /'pelti:/ (also Anglicized as pelt) E17 Latin (from Greek pelte a small light leather shield). 1 E17 Classical Antiquities A small light shield; a buckler. 2 M18 Botany Any of various shieldlike structures. 3 E20 An ornamental motif resembling a shield in architecture, metalwork, etc. /'pelta/

to a paste

with melted fat and berries, used originally by North American Indians, now also by explorers, hikers, etc.

penates

noun plural from penus pro-

/pi'na:ti:z/, /pi'neiti:z/

E16 Latin Penates (plural), (

vision of food, related to penes within).

Roman

The protective gods of a

History

house, especially of hold gods. Cf. LAR.

its

storeroom; house-

Often in English in the phrase

and

lares

penates.

French (use

as

noun of present participle of pencher to

in-

/'pbju/ noun Li7

An

cline, lean).

inclination, a (strong or

habitual) liking.

1996 Spectator She had younger men, on of her

money

penchee

.

whom

a penchant for she squandered much

.

/'ptmjei/

/paje/,

adjective

M20

French (feminine of penche past participle of pencher to lean, incline). Ballet Especially of an arabesque: performed while leaning forward. Usually postpositive.

pendeloque

/'pr>nd(a)lDk/,

/padlak/ (plural of noun same

)

foreign adjective

&

noun M19 French (from Old French pendeler to

dangle). (A

mond) cut

/paluz/ noun plural

noun L18 Cree

/'pemik(a)n/

(pimihkan, from pimiy grease). A lighthighly nutritious food of weight,

penchant

pelota

pelta

wines; a wine of this colour. B adjective phrase M20 (Designating a wine) of this

pendente

gem, especially a

dia-

in the shape of a drop. lite

/pen.dEnti

'lAiti/

adverb

phrase E18 Latin (literally, ‘with the lawsuit pending’).

Law During the progress of

a suit; during litigation.

penetralia

/peni'treilia/

noun plural M17

Latin (use as noun of penetralia neuter plural of penetralis innermost). The innermost parts of a building etc.; especially the sanctuary or innermost shrine of a temple; figurative secret parts, mysteries.

penne

noun plural L20 Italian (litthe form of short tubes cut diagonally at both ends. /'panel/

erally, ‘quills, pens’). Pasta in

pelure

/'peljua/

‘peeling’, Philately.

A

from

noun L19 French

(literally,

peler to peel). Especially

kind of very thin paper. Also

pelure-paper.

pelure d’oignon

/p(a)lyr dorp/ noun & adphrase M20 French (literally, ‘onion peel’). A noun phrase M20 plural pelures

jective

d’oignons (pronounced same). colour characteristic of

A tawny

some aged

red

pensee

/pase/

noun (also

(in

sense

1)

pensee) plural pronounced same LME Old French (pensee; in sense 2 reintroduced from French). 1 LME-L15 Thoughtfulness, anxiety, care; a thought, an idea. 2 L19 A poem or prose composition expressing a single thought or reflection. Also, an aphorism.

penseroso

315

penseroso

/pensa'rausau/, foreign /pense

noun & adjective L18 Italian (obsolete form of pensieroso, from (obsolete) pensiere thought, from Provencal pensier, from Proto-Romance variant of Latin pensare to weigh, ponder, consider). A noun L18 plural penserosos /pensa'raosauz/, penserosi /pense'rozi/. (A person having) a brooding or melancholy character. B adjective E19 Pensive, brooding, melancholy. 'rozo/

John Milton’s classic depiction of the melancholy character in his poem ‘II Penseroso’ (1632) was responsible for the wider use of the word in English.

layers of paint;

(a)

per

painting revealed by

such traces.

penuche

panocha panoche /pa'nDtfi/, and other variants) M19 American Spanish (panoche 1 M19 A kind of coarse brown sugar used /pe'nmtfi/ noun (also

/pa’nntfa/,

).

in Mexico. 2 Li9 A kind of sweet resembling fudge, made with brown sugar, butter, milk or cream, and often nuts. North American.

peon

/'pi: 0 n/,

branch

branch

also /pju:n/, in

I

also /pei'Dn/, foreign /pe'on/

II

plural

in

peons,

(in

sense

3

also )

noun

peones

Portuguese from Portuguese from Spanish peon

/'phaniz/, foreign /pe'ones/ E17

pensiero sieri

noun plural pen-

/pen'sjs:ro/

/pen'sjeiri/

E20

A M20 Art A

Italian.

1

thought, an idea; an anxiety.

2

E20

sketch.

pension

/pasj5/

(plural

same

)

noun M17

French (Old French pension from Latin payment, rent, from pens- past participial stem of pendere to weigh, pay). usually fixed-rate boarding-house or

(formerly) a boarding-school in France or

another European country. sion.

Cf.

en pen-

f

introduced in the LME period and, with the pronunciation wholly Anglicized in its /'penj( 0 )n/, is now numerous senses deriving from Old French and Latin, almost all of which contain the idea of ‘a fixed regular payment’. The sense above was also formerly Anglicized. Pension

was

Latin pensionarius).

1

L16

A

person receiv-

ing a pension; a pensioner, a paid retainer. rare. 2 L18 A person who boards in a French lodging-house or institution, or

with a French family.

pentathlon

/pen'taGlan/ /pen'taGhm/, noun (also formerly in Latin form pentathlum) E17 Greek (from penta- five + athcontest).

1

E17

Qassical

History

An

athletic contest in which competitors engaged in five different events (leaping, running, discus-throwing, spear-throwing, and wrestling). 2 E20 An athletic or sporting contest in which competitors engage in five different events (especially (in full modern pentathlon fencing, shooting, swimming, riding, and cross-country running). )

pentimento

/penti'mentao/ noun plural

pentimenti /penti'menti/ E 20 Italian ally,

sense

1

peao in senses 2 and 3 peasant, from medieval Latin pedo(n -) foot-soldier). 1 E17 In the Indian subcontinent and South East Asia: a person of low rank; specifically (a) a foot-soldier; II 2 E19 A (b) an orderly; (c) an office boy. Spanish-American day labourer or farm worker, especially one in poor circumstances. Also historical ), a debtor held in servitude by a creditor, especially in the southern United States and Mexico. 3 M20 A BANDERILLERO. ;

‘repentance’). Art

(an) earlier

(

first

pensionnaire /pdsjonsr/ noun plural pronounced same L16 French (from medieval

lon

(in

I

pensio(n-)

A

and Spanish

A

(liter-

visible trace of

painting beneath a layer or

peperoni

peplos tiquities

variant of pepperoni.

peplos/ noun L 18 Greek. Greek AnA (usually rich) outer robe or

/'

shawl worn by

women

in ancient Greece,

hanging in loose folds and sometimes drawn over the head; specifically the one woven for the statue of the goddess Athene at Athens, and carried in procession to her temple at the greater Pana-

thenaea.

peplum

/'peplam/ noun L17 Latin (from Greek peplos). 1 L17 A peplos. 2 M19 Formerly, a kind of overskirt, in supposed

imitation of the ancient peplum. Now also, a usually short flounce on a jacket, blouse, or tunic, hanging from the waist over a skirt; a jacket etc. incorporating this.

pepperoni

/pepa'raoni/ noun (also peperM20 Italian (peperone chilli, from peper-, pepe pepper, from Latin piper + augmentative suffix -one). Beef and pork sausage seasoned with pepper. oni)

LME Latin (whence Old French and Italian per, French par through). 1 I.ME Through, by; by means of: (a) in Latin and modern Latin (also medieval Latin and Italian) phrases, as per se; (b) in Old French phrases and words

per

/pa:/ preposition

derived therefrom.

2

M 16

Heraldry In the

9

per accidens direction of

(a

|

perestroika

316

specified ordinary).

3 L16

By means of, by the instrumentality of; in accordance with (usually as per); Law as laid down by (a judge) in a specified case. 4 L16 For each, for every, as per cent, per mil, etc. b L19 With ellipsis of following noun; per hour, per cent, etc. Chiefly United States.

per accidens /pa:(r) 'aksidenz/ adverb phrase E16 Modern Latin (from as per + Latin accidens, accident- present participial

stem of

accidere to happen). 1 E16 By virtue of some non-essential circumstance; contingently, indirectly. Opposed to per 2 L16 Logic By which the quantity of se. the proposition is changed from universal to particular in a conversion. Opposed

to simply.

Abbreviated to

/'dAism/

B 1996 at

phrase E16

per capita /pa 'kapita/ adverb & adjective phrase L17 Modern Latin (from as per + accusative plural of Latin caput head). A ad1 L17 Law (Divided, shared, verb phrase etc.) equally among or by individuals, on

Opposed

per stirpes. 2 E20 For each person or head of B adjective phrase M 20 Pospopulation. sessed, performed, etc., by each person when averaged over a population etc. to

A.2 1996 Times Government expenditure

Hollywood doesn’t help and he goes crackers con brio with

all

Spectator

.

.

.

vanishing agents, certifiable producers, grotty hotels, stingy

per diems and lurking rewrite

men. /pa:'dju:/, foreign

/perdy/ adjective

perdue) L16 Old and Modern French

(also

A

perdere).

adjective

in,

almost inevitable. Only in sentinel perdue, perdue sentinel, b E-M17 Placed in a very hazardous situation; (of a case) desperate. 2 E17 Hidden and on the watch; lying in

ambush. Chiefly perdu.

in

lie,

set,

stand,

3 E18 Concealed, hidden; out of

sight; disguised.

Also formerly a

noun

(E17-M18),

ardous situation’, but

nominal

pere

now

obsolete in

noun E17 French (= father). 1 E17 Father: used in France and Frenchspeaking countries as a title preceding the name of a priest. 2 E19 The father, /per/, /ps:/

senior.

appended

to a

name

to

same name

(see quotations). Cf. fils;

and

son’.





1995 Spectator And yet another irony Forte pdre remained, well beyond normal retirement age, a fiercely combative entrepreneur .

.

pere de famille

perceptum

/pa'septam/ noun plural percepta /pa'sspta/ L19 Latin (neuter of per-

An

all

senses.

.

Frequently in legal contexts.

perceive).

meaning

principally ‘soldier(s) posted in a very haz-

the

Per cent.

participle

etc.,

distinguish between a father and son of

per centum /pa 'ssntam/ adverb phrase M17 Modern Latin (Latinized form of per

past

L16-L17

1

also in phrase pere etfils ‘father

ceptus

from

(past participle of perdre to lose,

Pere in sense 2 is in

Scotland is nearly one-third higher per capita than that for England.

cent).

adverb,

Modern

or designating, a sentinel’s position that is so dangerous that death is

noun E17 French (in modern use, but origin unknown (= Spanish percal, Italian percalle )). Originally, a fabric imported from India in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Later, a light fine cotton fabric without gloss.

basis.

'di:em/,

Latin (from as per + accusative of Latin dies day). A adverb phrase E16 For or in each day. B noun phrase E19 An amount or allowance of so much each day. Chiefly North American. C adjective phrase El Daily. Chiefly North American.

Posted

p.a.

/pa'keil /, foreign /perkal/

individual

too respectable.

per diem /pa: noun, & adjective

Latin

Latin annus year). For or in each year.

an

become

perdu

per annum /pa(r) 'anam/ adverb phrase E17 Modern Latin (from as per + accusative of

percale

1996 Times ... a mass exit by the City herd would make AIM shares even more volatile than they are by nature. Per contra, AIM could

of percipere

to

object of perception, a per-

/pe do famij/, /,pe: da fa noun phrase E19 French. A father of a family, a family man. 'mi:/

perestroika

/peri'straika/

noun

L 20

Rus-

& noun

sian (perestroika restructuring). The reform of the economic and political system of the former USSR, first proposed

A adverb phrase M16 On

by Leonid Brezhnev in 1979 and actively

the opposite side (of an account, assessment, etc.); on the other hand. B noun phrase E19 The opposite side.

promoted under the leadership of Mikhail Gorbachev from 1985; transferred any programme of fundamental reform.

cept.

per contra

/pa: 'kDntra/

phrase M16 Italian.

adverb

)

perfecta

317

|

1996 Spectator Ostensibly, it's to pay for digital technology in radio and television, ... but don’t accept that this is the main reason for such perestroika. I

perfecta

noun L20 American

/pa'fskta/

Spanish (shortened from

quiniela perfecta

A

bet in which the first and second finishers of a race must be predicted in the correct order. perfect quinella). Betting

perfecto

/pa'fektau/ noun plural perfectos L19 Spanish (= perfect). A large thick cigar tapered at each end.

perfide Albion /perfid albj5/ noun phrase M19 French (= perfidious Albion). England (with reference to

its alleged habitual treachery towards other nations); an (untrustworthy) Englishman.

pergola

noun L17 Italian (from Latin pergula projecting roof, vine arbour, from pergere to come or go forward). An arbour or covered walk, formed of growing plants trained over trellis-work. /'pa:gala/

Used by Aristotle in his Poetics as a techterm for the sequence of events in the

nical

the sense of ‘an elevated stand or balcony’, but this never passed into general currency. t peri /'piari/ noun Lis Persian (pen). In Iranian mythology, one of a race of superhuman beings, originally represented as evil

but subsequently as good and graceful; graceful or beautiful per-

a

transferred

son.

peridot /'peridot/ noun me Old French peritot (modern peridot = medieval Latin

drama which,

plot of a

in the case of a the protagonist from happiness to misfortune.

hero,

tragic

1984

takes

Lehmann European Heritage The

A.G.

insidious flatteries of the ‘mirror’ stage

—the

symmetrical throne-room scenes, the hero revolving great dilemmas, the god descending, the wonderful peripeteia become lessons in style to haunt the prince’s dream and shape



his acts.

periphrasis /pa'rifrasis/ noun plural periphrases /pa'rifrasbz/ M16 Latin (from Greek, from periphrazein, from peri- + phrazein to declare). The figure of speech which consists in expressing a meaning by many or several words instead of by few or one; a roundabout way of speaking or writing;

(a)

circumlocution.

periplus /'periplAs/ noun L18 Latin (from Greek periplous, from peri- around + pious voyage). (A) circumnavigation; a voyage (or

First (M17 only) in

per se

journey) round a coastline such a voyage.

etc.;

a nar-

rative of

peristyle /'peristAil/ noun E17 French (peristyle from Latin peristylum from Greek

noun of neuter of peristuhaving pillars all round, from peri- + stulos column). Architecture 1 E17 A row of columns surrounding a building, court, cloister, etc.; the court etc. surrounded by the columns. 2 L17 The columned porch of a church or other large building; a pillared verandah.

peristulon use as los

(

peridotus, of

unknown

origin; in sense 2

readopted from French). 1 A green gemstone. Only in ME. 2 E18 Olivine (chrysolite), especially as used as gem.

periegesis

noun

/.pern'cfeksis/

plural

periegeses /,pern'c%i:si:z/ E17 Greek (periegesis from peri- around + hegesis, from hegeisthai to lead, guide).

A

description of a

place or region.

permis de sejour

/permi da sa 3 ur/ noun phrase plural same L19 French. Permission to stay in a country; a residence permit.

perpetuum

per impossibile

/,pe:(r) impo'sibili/ ad-

M19 Latin. As is impossible. 1995 Spectator Una Woodruff will go to

verb phrase

.

.

'maubili/,

mobile

/pa:,petjuam

/pa:,petjoom/, /'maubilei/ noun

phrase L17 Latin (from perpetuus perpetual + mobilis movable, mobile, after primum

.

choose brushes for a particular task, and then soak them in warm water so that she can identify and pull out any slightly loose single hair which might, per impossibile, threaten a perfectly smooth wash. infinite

mensem /pa: 'mensem/ adverb phrase M17 Modern Latin (from as per + accusative singular of Latin mensis month). For or in each month.

per

trouble to

mobile).

1 L17

ever; specifically

Motion that continues

for-

that of a hypothetical ma-

chine that runs forever; such a machine. 2 L19 Music A MOTO PERPETUO.

perruquier peripeteia

/.psripi'tAia/, /,psripi'ti:a/

(also peripetia /,peripi'ti:a/) L16

timately from piptein to

fall).

peri-

around

Greek

(ul-

/pe'ru:kiei/ noun mis French (from perruque peruke). A person who makes, dresses, or sells wigs.

+ stem pet- of

A sudden change

of

tune or reverse of circumstances tional or real).

noun

for(fic-

per se

/pa: sei/ adverb phrase L16 Latin.

or in itself; intrinsically.

ACCIDENS

1.

Opposed

By

to per

persiennes

|

petit

318

—beyond a small variety —are not ‘offensive

1996 Times

1995 Times Knives such as flick-knives weapons’ per se.

persiennes

(from

/pa:si'£nz/

/'pa:sifla:3/

persifler to

fler to whistle).

banter,

from

2 M20

sif-

Light banter or raillery;

perso-

[sc. Aliki

Vouyouklaki]

combined two apparently contradictory types

in

her screen persona, the unspoiled girl-nextdoor and the sex bomb, wrapped up in one alluring

package.

2 1996 Times Magazine He has finally moved into a new flat, which was decorated by someone else, and he has been totally sucked in by the persona imposed on him by the soft

designata

/pa.sauna

dezig

'na:ta/

noun phrase plural personae desig-

natae

/pa.sauni: dezig'ncrti:/ L19

Law

Latin (from as persona + Latin designata feminine of designatus past participle of designare to mark out, elect). A person individually specified in a legal action, as

opposed

an organization etc. concerned with the appointment, welfare, records, etc., of employees. Also more fully personnel department.

per stirpes /pa: 'steipiiz/ adverb phrase Li7 Modern Latin (from as per + accusative plural of Latin stirps family, stem). Law (Divided, shared, etc.) equally among the

branches of a family (and then each share among the members of one branch). Opposed to per capita sense A.l.

pervenche

/ps:'va:nJ7

noun L19 French

(=

periwinkle). A shade of light blue resembling the colour of the flowers of the peri-

winkle. More fully pervenche

peshmerga

/pepmaiga/

blue.

noun

plural

peshmergas, same M 20 Kurdish (pesh merge from pesh before, in front of + merg

-

furnishings.

persona

Opposed to materiel. The members of an orchestra or band. 3 M20 The department specifically

in

/pa'sauna/ noun plural

1996 Times She

with materiel). 1 E19 The body of people employed in an organization etc. or engaged in a service or undertaking, especially a military one.

as per- +

nas, personae /pa'sauni:/ E20 Latin (originally = the mask worn by actors in ancient Greek and Roman drama). 1 E20 A character assumed by an author, performer, etc., in his or her writing, work, etc. 2 E20 An aspect of the personality as displayed to others. Cf. anima. 1

personnel /paisa'nel/ noun E19 French (use as noun of adjective, as contrasted

noun Mis French

frivolous talk.

persona

had been expelled

from London as four British ‘spies’ had been declared personae non gratae.

noun plural M19 French (use as noun of feminine plural of persien Persian). Window-shutters or outside blinds made of light movable slats fastened horizontally in a frame.

persiflage

... in a tit-for-tat expulsion

four Russian ‘diplomats’

one included in a category.

to

A member

death). ist

of a Kurdish national-

guerrilla organization.

pessimum

/'pssimam/ noun M 20 Latin (neuter singular of pessimus worst). The most unfavourable condition (original especially, in the habitat of an animal or plant). Frequently attributive. Opposed to

OPTIMUM.

personae gratae, personae non gratae plurals of PERSONA GRATA, PERSONA NON GRATA.

persona grata phrase plural 'gra:ti:/ L19

/pa.saona 'grccta/

personae gratae

noun

/pa.sauni:

Late Latin (from as persona +

Latin grata feminine of gratus pleasing). A person, especially a diplomat, acceptable to certain others.

personalia

pesto

noun plural E20

Latin

(neuter plural of personalis personal). Personal matters; personal me-

noun

M 20

Italian (contrac-

tion of pestato past participle of pestare to pound, crush). A sauce of crushed basil,

nuts (especially pine nuts), cheese, garlic, and olive oil, served with pasta and other foods. Cf. PISTOU.

petanque /petak/, /pa'tarjk/ noun M20 French. A game similar to boule noun 2 sense

/pa:sa'neilia/

/'pestau/

2.

petillant /petija/, French. Sparkling,

/'peitijb/ lively.

adjective

Of wine:

L19

slightly

sparkling.

mentoes.

petit

persona

non

grata

/pa, sauna

non

/naun/ noun phrase plural personae non gratae /pa.sauni:/, /'gra:ti:/ E20 Late Latin (from as persona grata + Latin non not). An unacceptable or unwelcome person. 'gra:ta/,

collocations adjective

same in plural LME French (cf. femi-

nine petite).

small.

/pati/, /pa'ti:/, /'peti/;

Little,

Occurs in various phrases used in English, and until the seventeenth century was in common use alongside the English form petty.

319

battement

petit

battement

petit

batma/ noun battements (pro-

/pati

phrase

plural petits nounced same E20 French. Ballet A battement executed with the moving leg bent.

poussin

petit

|

1995 Spectator Lack of a belief in the social explanation of crime is thought to be a failing of the petite bourgeoisie.

)

petit beurre /pati boer/ noun phrase plural petits beurres (pronounced same E20 French. A sweet butter biscuit. )

petit

bourgeois

/,psti 'bua 3 wa:/, /pa,ti:/;

bur 3 wa/

foreign

/pati

phrase

plural

&

noun

petites amies,

marmites,

petites

of petite amie, petite mar-

etc. plurals

mite, etc.

adjective

bourgeois

petits

noblesse /patit nobles/ noun phrase L19 French. The lesser nobility in France. Cf. haute noblesse.

petite

(pro-

petit four

nounced same); (feminine petite bourgeoise /pa,ti:t 'boa 3 wa:z/, foreign /patit bur 3 waz/, plural petites bourgeoises (pronounced same)) M19 French (literally, ‘little citizen’). A noun phrase M19 A member of the lower middle classes; derogatory a person judged to have conventional or

eign /pati fur/ L19

conservative attitudes. B adjective phrase L19 Pertaining to or characteristic of the petite bourgeoisie; lower middle class; conventional.

noun

/,peti 'fx/ , foreign /pati fur/

phrase plural petits fours

French

/,peti 'fo:z/, for-

(literally, Tittle

A

small cake or biscuit usually served with the coffee after a meal. oven’).

petitio

principii /pi.tiJTau prin'sipiAi/, noun phrase M16 Latin (= as-

/prirfkipiAi/

suming

from

a principle,

laying

petitio

claim to + genitive of principium). Logic A fallacy in which a conclusion is taken for granted in a premiss; begging the question.

Also partially Anglicized (L19 onwards)

petit-maltre /patimetr/ noun phrase

as petty bourgeois.

B 1996

Spectator Mr Volkman

rails

cultures

in his

operation

petite

French

.

.

.

foreign /petit/ adjective

French (feminine of

&

petit).

a M16-L17 Of a small size or importance, b L 18 Of small stature. Now chiefly of a woman or girl, c E20 Designating a small size in women’s clothing. 2 EI8 The French (feminine) for Tittle, small’, occurring in various phrases used in English. 3 M20 Microbiology Designating mutant strains of yeast that are characterized by defective mitochondrial DNA and tend to form small colonies. B noun 1 M20 A petite woman or girl. 2 M20 A petite size in women’s clothing. 3 M 20 A petite strain of yeast. adjective

1

A.b 1996 Country charming as she

amie

petite

is

Life

She

petite

/petit

is

and

as bright and beautiful.

ami/ noun phrase plural

amies M20 French (= little male) friend). A young mistress. amie

.

.

petite

.

Trip

bourgeoise

(fe-

His petite

had raised the subject

of marriage.

see

petit

petite bourgeoisie /pa,ti:t bu93wa:z:i/, foreign /patit bur 3 wazi/ noun phrase E20 French. The lower middle classes collecpartially

Anglicized

20) as petty bourgeoisie.

(M19,

A

artist, writer, etc.,

sometimes translated

as

little

masters with reference to practitioners of

the minor

such as the engravers of late medieval Germany. 1996 Spectator These are the pictures that arts,

have earned him title

[sc.

William Nicholson] the

of petit maftre, a French expression for a

rather English virtue of recognising one’s limits

and

sticking within them.

mal

petit

/,peti

'mal/,

phrase L19 French ness’).

/pati

(literally,

mal/ noun Tittle

sick-

Mild epilepsy, with only momenof consciousness. Cf. grand

tary loss MAL.

petit

marmite

/patit

marmit/ noun phrase

marmites (pronounced same) E20 French. Soup served in the (individual serving sized) marmite in which it has been cooked. petit pain /pati pe/ noun phrase plural petits pains (pronounced same M18 French. A small bread roll. )

petit point /pati pwe/, /,peti 'paint/ noun phrase L19 French. 1 L19 Embroidery on canvas using small stitches. 2 L19 Tentstitch.

petit poussin

tively.

Also

E18

)

E 18

bour-

geois.

mainly

In sense 2

1

plural petits

petites

1978 W. Garner Mobius

(literally, Tittle master’).

dandy, a fop. 2 M19 An of minor importance.

account of a di^strous

Cuba

/pa'ti:t/,

M16

noun

A

in

petits-maTtres (pronounced same

ral

about the

CIA’s petit bourgeois ignorance of foreign

plu-

but

ral petits

French.

/pati puss/

noun phrase plu-

poussins (pronounced same E20

A young

)

chicken for eating.

battements

petits

|

phenomenon

Now rare, being almost entirely superseded by poussin. petits battements, petits beurres, etc. plurals of petit battement, petit BEURRE,

etc.

chevaux

petits

plural L19

French

/peti Jevo/

noun phrase

(literally, ‘little horses’).

A gambling game

in

which bets are

placed on mechanical horses made to spin round a flag at the centre of a special table.

petits fours, petits pains plurals of PETIT FOUR, PETIT PAIN.

petits pois

/,peti

'pwa :/, foreign /poti pwa/

noun phrase plural E19 French (literally, ‘small peas’). Small young green peas.

petits poussins plural of petit poussin.

petits soins /peti sws/ noun phrase plural E19 French. Small attentions or services. petit suisse /pati sqis/, /.peti 'swi:s/ noun phrase E20 French. A small round cream cheese. Cf.

fromage

tranchet

petit

frais. traje/,

/pati

/,peti

noun phrase M20 French (= little knife). Archaeology A small stone artefact of mesolithic and neolithic cultures with the end made into a broad cutting edge.

320

in Greek (phaethon shining), mythology the son of Helios and Clymene, who was allowed to drive the sun’s chariot for a day, with disastrous results). thon

1 L16-M18 A rash or adventurous charioteer like Phaethon; any charioteer; a thing that, like Phaethon, sets the world on fire. 2 M18 Chiefly History A light fourwheeled open carriage, usually drawn by a pair of horses, and with one or two forward-facing seats. 3 E20 A touring car. United States.

phallus

noun plural phalli /'falAi/, /'fali:/, phalluses E17 Late Latin (from Greek phallos). 1 E17 An image of the erect penis, symbolizing the generative /Tales/

power in nature; specifically that carried in solemn procession in the Dionysiac festivals in ancient Greece. 2 E20 The penis, especially as an organ of symbolic significance; an erect penis.

phantasma

noun

/fan'tazma/

plural

phantasmas, phantasmata /fan'tazmete/ L16 Italian (fantasma from Latin phantasma from Greek, from phantazein to make visible). An illusion, a vision, a dream; an apparition, a ghost.

'tramjit/

petit verre /pati ver/ noun phrase plural petits verres (pronounced same M19 French. A glass of liqueur. 1995 Spectator Instead of some monumental goddess at the dawn of time, you see only )

.

.

noun L19 French

(from petrir petriss- to knead). process used in massage. ,

petroleur roleuse

plural

French (from

who

arsonist

A kneading

pronounced

petrole petrol).

An

uses petrol.

/pei'tsAi/

noun Lis Chinese

((Pe-

kingese) baicai (Wade-Giles pe ts’ai), literally, ‘white vegetable’: cf. paiun phrase

Italian (literally, ‘black wine’).

wine.



lyra viol.

da braccio

/vi'aola

arm’).

da

(literally,

Any member of the

noun of the

.bratfa/ ‘viol

violin family,

opposed to a viola da gamba; specifically a viol corresponding to the modern as

viola da

gamba

/vi.aula

phrase (also (earlier) viol

use.

Also referred to elliptically as ordinaire (M19).

/.vino 'rosso/

noun phrase M20

Red wine.

/.VAial

sembling this instrument in tone.

d’amore

viola

phrase E18 Italian

/vfaula da,ma:re/ (literally, ‘viol

noun

of love’).

A

kind of tenor viol usually having sympathetic strings

and no

violetta

/vio'letta /

violette

de Parme

frets.

noun plural violette /vio'lette/ M18 Italian (diminutive of viola viola). Music A small viol. da parm/ noun de Parme (pro-

/vjolet

nounced same) E20 French. Any of various cultivated violets with double, scented, usually light purple flowers, used for perfume or crystallized for food decoration, a

Parma

violon

vino rosso

da 'gamba/ noun

da gamba

da ’gamba/) L16 Italian (literally, ‘leg viol’). 1 L16 A viol held between the player’s legs, especially one corresponding to the modern cello. 2 M19 An organ-stop re-

phrase plural violettes

vin ordinaire /ve ordiner/ noun phrase E19 French (literally, ‘ordinary wine’). Simple (usually red) table wine for everyday

Italian.

A bass viol tuned and

played according to a system of tablature. Also called Music

viola.

vino de pasto wine’).

noun viol’).

phrase M19 Italian

M19 Spanish. A rich sweet wine, used in the blending of sherry and other fortified

phrase

/vi.aula ba'stmda/

phrase E 18 Italian (literally, ‘bastard

viola

1673).

virage

violet.

noun M16 French. 1 M16E17 A violin. Also, a violinist. 2 M19 A kind of organ-stop resembling a double /'vAialan/

bass in tone.

vino santo

/.vino 'santo/ noun phrase L17

violoncello

Italian (literally, ‘holy wine’), vinsanto.

vino secco /.vino Italian. Dry wine. vino tierno

/.vino 'tjerno/ noun phrase E20

/.vino 'tinto/ noun phrase

U7

Spanish. Red wine.

rouge

/ve

ru 3 /

E20

French.

Red

violon d’lngres

/vjol5 degr/

noun phrase

plural violons d’lngres (pronounced same) M20 French (literally, ‘Ingres’ violin’). An interest or activity other than that for which a person is best known; an

The allusion

is

to

the French painter

Ingres (1780-1867), who was a keen amateur violinist and said to have been more proud of his violin-playing than of

J.-A.-D.

his highly acclaimed pictures.

wine.

vinsanto

noun E18 Italian (diminutive of violEisAcello. lone). b M19 A cellist. 2 L19 An organ-stop similar in tone to a cello.

occasional pastime.

vin rose /ve roze/, /'raozei/ noun phrase M20 French. Rose wine. vin

/,vi:alan

'tfelau/

'sekko/ noun phrase E20

Spanish (literally, ‘tender’). Wine made from partially dried grapes, used especially for fortifying malaga.

vino tinto

/.VAialan'tfelau/,

/vin'santo/,

/vin'santau/

noun

M20 Italian (from vino santo holy wine). sweet white Italian dessert wine.

A

virage /vira 3 / noun plural pronounced same M20 French. A hairpin bend; a sharp turn

made

in negotiating

such a bend.

virago

vis-a-vis

virago

464

/vi'rccgau/, /vi'reigau/

noun &

adjec-

tive LME Latin (from vir man). A noun plu1 ral viragos. LME A woman of masculine strength or spirit; a female warrior, an amazon, archaic. 2 LME A domineering woman; a fierce or abusive woman. B adjective L16 That is a virago; of or pertaining to a virago or viragos.

Earlier (OE-L16)

meaning ‘woman’, but

only in biblical allusions with reference to the name given by Adam to Eve.

vires plural of vis.

virga

noun plural virgae /'va:gi :/ E20 Latin (= rod). 1 E20 Music (A symbol designating) a note used in plainsong. 2 M20 Meteorology, singular and in plural Streaks of precipitation that appear to hang from the undersurface of a cloud and usually evaporate before reaching the ground.

intacta

/,va:gau

phrase E18 Latin

(literally,

noun ‘untouched virin'takta/

Chiefly Law A girl or woman has never had sexual intercourse.

gin’).

virgule

who

noun M19 French (= comma, from Latin virgula diminutive of 1 M19 A slanting or upright virga rod). line used especially in medieval manuscripts to mark a caesura, or as a punctuation mark equivalent to a comma. Now also a solidus sense 2. 2 L19 Watchmaking A type of escapement in which the teeth of the wheel have the shape of a comma.

More virtu

/'va:gju:l/

fully virgule escapement. /v0:'tu:/

noun

form

vertu altered

from French). 1 E18 A love of or inworks of art; a knowledge of or

terest in

expertise in the fine arts; the fine arts as a subject of study or interest. 2 M18 collective Objects of art; curios. 3 M20 The strength or worth inherent in a person or thing; especially inherent moral

worth or

virtue.

virtuoso /vadju'ausau/, /va:tju'auzau/ noun & adjective E17 Italian (= learned, skilful, from late Latin virtuosus). A noun

B

attribu-

or as adjective M17 Of or pertaining to a virtuoso; displaying the skills of a virtuoso; characterized by virtuosity. tive

A. 3

1996 Times The

skills is

virtuoso

interpersonal

in

the corporate future.

virtute officii

/va:,tju;ti

phrase E19 Latin.

adverb

D'fijn:/

Law By virtue of

(one’s)

office.

noun plural vires

/vis/

Latin.

1

/'VAiri:z/

E17

E17 Strength, force, energy, vig-

2 L20 Law In plural Legal validity; legal authority or power. our.

now

Chiefly legal

sense

in various phrases; in the

vires

occurs earlier in intra

vires and ultra vires.

noun M19 French (from Latin = things seen, neuter plural of past participle of videre to see). An endorsement on a passport etc. indicating that it has been

visa

/'vi:za/

examined and found

correct, especially

as permitting the holder to enter or leave a country.

vis a fronte E19 Latin.

/,vis a: 'frantei/

noun phrase

A force operating from

in front,

as in attraction or suction. Opposite of vis

a tergo.

visagiste /'vizadqst/)

noun (also visagist M20 French. A make-up artist.

/,vi:za:'3i;st/

vis a tergo

(also vertu, virtu) E18

Italian (virtu virtue; the as if

technical skill in any sphere.

vis

/'va:ga/

virgo

music. Also, a person with outstanding

noun phrase E19 Latin. A force operating from behind; a propulsive force. Opposite of vis a fronte. /,vis a: 'ta:gau/

vis-a-vis /,vi:za:'vi:/ noun, preposition & adverb M18 Old and Modern French (literally, ‘face to face’, from Old French vis visage + a to + vis). A noun plural same. 1 M18 A light horse-drawn carriage for two people sitting face to face, obsolete except historical. 2 M 18 A person or thing facing or situated opposite to another, especially in certain dances, b E20 A counterpart, an opposite number. Also United States), a social partner. 3 M19 A faceto-face meeting. B preposition M18 Regarding, in relation to. Also, opposite to, (

plural 1

virtuosi

E17-L18

A

virtuosos has a general in-

/va:tjo'ausi:/,

person

who

and sciences, or who pursues special investigations in one or more of these; a learned person. 2 Ml? A person who has a special knowledge of or interest in the fine arts; a connoisseur, especially a person pursuing these interterest in arts

manner. 3 M 18 A perwho has special knowledge or skill in

ests in a dilettante

son

the technique of a fine art, especially

face to face with.

C

adverb E19 Opposite;

facing one another.

B 1996 Times But the Foreign Office must accept that its own obsessive secrecy has ensured a climate of deep suspicion about anything involving its own role vis-a-vis the Jews and their treatment at the hands of the .

Nazis.

.

.

465

vis

vis

comica

'knmika/ noun phrase Mis Latin. Humorous energy; comic force or /,vis

effect.

visibilia /vizi'biha/ noun plural M 20 Latin (neuter plural of visibilis visible). Visible things; visual images.

vis inertiae

noun phrase E18 Latin. Mechanics The resistance offered by matter to any force tending to alter its state of rest or motion; transferred a tendency to remain inactive or unprogres/,vis I'na^iAi/

sive.

visit,

L16

to

or Latin visitant- present participial

A

noun 1 L16 A person who visits a place, another person, etc.; a visitor, now especially a supernatural one. 2 M 18 A thing which affects or comes to a person, especially for a temporary period. 3 L18 A migratory bird or animal that frequents a certain locality only at particular times of year. B adjective M17 Of the nature of a visitant.

stem of

visitare).

visite de digestion /vizit do di3estj5/ noun phrase E20 French (literally, ‘visit of digestion’). A formal call paid in return for hospitality received, especially after a

dinner party. vis

major

Latin.

/,vis 'meic^o/

noun phrase E17

Law Overpowering

force, especially

of nature (used as a reason for

done vis

to,

or loss

of,

medicatrix

damage

property).

naturae

/,vis

msdi

noun phrase E19 Latin. The healing power of nature. .keitriks 'natfarAi/

vista /'v istd/ noun M17 Italian (= view). 1 M17 A view, a prospect, especially one seen through an avenue of trees or other long narrow opening. 2 L17 A long narrow opening, especially one created deliberately in a wood etc., through which a view may be obtained, or in itself affording a pleasant prospect, b E18 An open corridor or long passage in or through a large building; an interior portion of a building affording a continuous view. 3 L17 figurative A broad prospect or vision presented to the imagination; a mental view, in prospect or retrospect, of an extensive period of time or series of events, experiences,

etc.

vivat

/'vi:ta/ noun M20 Latin (= life). 1 M20 A biography, a life history, especially a short Latin biography of a saint. 2 M20 A cur-

vita

riculum vitae. vita nuova M20 Italian

new

/,vi:ta (=

direction

'nwauva/

new

life).

in

life,

noun phrase

A

fresh start or especially after

some powerful emotional experience. With

allusion to the title of a work by Dante describing his love for Beatrice.

1975 R Organ House on Cheyne Walk Not way to begin la vita nuova with

very good

more

visitant /'vizit(a)nt/ noun & adjective French (present participle of visiter

comica

a

,

lies.

tonnato /vi'tello ton'ncrto/ noun phrase M20 Italian (from vitello veal + tonno tuna). An Italian dish consisting of roast or poached veal served cold in a tuna and

vitello

anchovy mayonnaise.

viva

noun 1 & interjection M17 Italian (= live!, 3rd person singular present subjunctive of vivere to live, from Latin). (A cry or cheer) wishing long life and prosperity to or expressing approval of an admired person or thing; hurrah! long /'vi:v9/

live! Cf. vivat,

vive (interjection).

viva

/'VAiva/ noun 2 & verb L19 Latin (abbreviation of viva voce). A noun Lt9 A viva voce examination. B transitive verb L19 past tense vivaed, viva’d /'vAivad/. Subject to a viva voce examination, examine orally.

A 1996

Spectator The candidate in search of a doctorate was not alone in being taken aback by the honesty of Richard at their viva when he stated that he had not read all of the thesis.

vivandier /vivddja/ noun (feminine vivandiere /vivadjer/j plural pronounced same French. History In the French and other Continental European armies, a supplier of provisions to troops in the L16

field.

vivarium

/vAi'vsTiam/, /vi'vs:riam/ noun plural vivaria /vAi've:ria/, vivariums E17 Latin (= warren, fish-pond, use as noun of

vivarius

from

vivus alive,

from

vivere

to

1 E17 A place for keeping living anilive). mals, especially fish, for food; a fish-pond. obsolete except historical. 2 L17 A structure used for keeping animals under conditions approximating to the natural conditions, for observation or study.

vivat

/'VAivat/, /'vi: vat/ interjection

may he

b noun

Mechanics

The operative force of a moving or acting body, equal to the mass of the body multiplied by the square of its ve-

or she live, 3rd person singular present subjunctive of vivere to live). (A cry or cheer) wishing long life and prosperity to or expressing approval of an admired person or thing: hurrah!

locity.

long

vis viva

/,vis 'vi:va/

L16 Latin (=

noun phrase L18 Latin.

live! Cf. viva, vive.

— viva voce viva voce

& noun

voir dire

466

/.vaivo 'vautfi/ adverb, adjective,

phrase M16 Medieval Latin

(liter-

with the living voice’). A adphrase M16 Orally rather than in writing. B adjective phrase 1 E17 Expressed in speech rather than writing, ‘by or

ally,

verb

2 E19 Of an examination: conof a supplementary oral examination following a written one. C noun phrase M19 A viva voce examination. spoken.

ducted

orally: specifically

nominal sense frequently abbreviviva (noun 2).

In the

ated to

French (= may he, she, or it live, from vivre from Latin vivere live). Wishing long life and prosperity to or expressing approval of an admired person or thing; long live! Cf. viva (interjec-

vive

/viv/ interjection L16

tion), VIVAT.

vive la bagatelle /viv la bagatel/ interjection M18 French (literally, ‘success to frivolity or nonsense’). Expressing a carefree

attitude to

life.

vive la difference /viv la diferas/ interjection M20 French. Expressing approval of the difference between the sexes. jocular quotation). In

also

use;

transferred

1995 Times Three compatriots argued was little scope for significant tax

there

(see

that

cuts

—two others argued

But vive la difference higher public spending.

.

.

.

voce di petto M18 Italian

The chest

voce

di

testa

M18 Italian (literally, ‘head The head register; formerly

vodka

A

utive of voda water).

colourless alco-

made

especially in Russia by distillation of grain etc.; a glass or drink

of

this.

voetganger

noun

/'fut.xapa/

Ei9

Afri-

kaans (from Dutch = pedestrian, from voet foot + ganger goer).

E19

1

A locust

in

immature wingless stage. 2 E20 A pedestrian. Also colloquial ), an infantryman. South African. its

(

voetsek

/'futsek/ interjection

&

verb

(also

voetsak /’futsak/) M19 Afrikaans (voe(r)tfrom Dutch voort zeg ik be off I say). A interjection M19 Especially to a dog: go away!, off you go! B verb 1 transitive verb L19 Chase (a dog) away. 2 intransitive verb M20 Leave, go away. South African. sek,

voeu

/vo/, /va:/ noun plural voeux (pronounced same) E20 French (= vow, wish). A non-mandatory recommendation made

by an international conference.

vogue

la

galere

/vog la galsr/ interjection

(literally,

rowed’). Let’s get

‘let

on with

the galley be Let’s give it a

it!

go!

voila /vwala/, verb

(

/vwa:'la:/ transitive

&

imperative

&

impersonal

intran-

(also

)

M18 French (from imperative of voir + see la there). There is, are, etc.; see voila)

there.

Also as an interjection: ‘there

you are!’ 1996 New Scientist

it

is!’,

‘there

Afrikaans (from Dutch). In South Africa: an extent of flat open country; a plain. Frequently in plu/'flakta/

noun

L 18

ral.

Afrikaans (from South Africa: a shallow pool of water; a piece of lowlying ground covered with water during the rainy season. 2 L19 A swamp. United /flei/, /vIai/

noun

L 18

1 L18 In

vallei valley).

States local. *

wobla) M 20 Russian. Dried and smoked roach eaten in /'vnbla/

noun

(also

Russia as a delicacy. di

gola

/,vntfe di 'go:la/

H9 Italian (literally, ‘throat A throaty or guttural voice.

noun phrase

voice’).

Music

Just as there

north of the North Pole, so there

We

before the Big Bang. Voila! to

voce

also,

/'vodka/ noun E19 Russian (dimin-

holic spirit

viz. abbreviation of videlicet.

vobla

Music the fal-

voice’).

setto voice.

sitive

vivier /vivje/ noun plural pronounced same. LME Old and Modern French. A fish-pond; a tank for storing live fish etc.

Dutch

noun phrase

/.vDtfe di 'testa/

for

viveur /vivoer/ noun plural pronounced same M19 French (= a living person). A person who lives a fashionable and social life. Cf. BON VIVEUR.

vlei

Music

register.

M18 French

vlakte

noun phrase

/.vntfe di 'petto/

(literally, ‘chest voice’).

be convinced by .that

.

.

is

nothing

was

nothing

are supposed

.

voila tout /tu/, /tu:/ French. That’s all! That’s ing more to do or say.

interjection it!

There

is

E19

noth-

voile /vail/, /vwal/ noun & adjective L19 French (= veil). A noun L19 A lightweight open-texture material of cotton, wool, silk, or acetate, used especially for blouses and dresses. B attributive or as adjective L19 Made of voile.

voir dire /'vwa: ,dia/ noun (also voire dire) L17 Law French (from Old French voir true, truth + dire to say). Law A prelimi-

voix celeste

467

1996 T Alexander Unravelling Global was access to global markets

nary examination by a judge or counsel

1

of the competence of a witness or (occasionally) a juror; an oath taken by such a witness. Also, an investigation into the truth or admissibility of evidence, held

Apartheid

during a

amd

.

.

.

finance ultimately more important than

self-determination and local

/'fadka.vamdaruq/

voix celeste /vwa

salest/, /,vwa: si'lest/

noun phrase plural voix celestes (pronounced same) L19 French (= heavenly voice). An organ-stop having an 8-ft pitch, with 2 pipes to each note, tuned slightly apart, producing an undulating tone traditionally regarded as reminiscent of celestial voices. Also called vox angelica.

volage /vo'la: 3 / adjective lme Old and Modern French (from Latin volaticus winged,

Giddy,

inconstant).

foolish;

inconstant.

fickle,

Formerly fully naturalized; now in lituse, reintroduced from modern

erary

French.

volante

/va'lanti/

noun

1

L18

Spanish

(from present participle of volar to fly, from Latin volare to fly). A horse-drawn carriage or wagon, especially of a twowheeled covered type, psed in Cuba and formerly in other Spanish-speaking countries.

volante ing).

noun 2 L19 Italian (= flyMusic The rapid execution of a series /va'lanti/

supremacy

for the

Afrikaner volkP

Volkerwanderung

trial.

volte-face

/'foilkar.vandarur)/,

noun

plural

Volker-

wanderungen /'fodkar.vandarurjan/ M20 German (from Volker nations + Wanderung migration). A migration of peoples; specifically that of Germanic and Slavonic peoples into and across Europe from the second to the eleventh centuries.

volkisch

fodkiJV adjective M20 Populist, nationalist, racialist. /'

volksgeist

German.

noun (also Volksgeist) M20 German. The spirit or genius that marks the thought or feeling of a nation or people. 1995 Spectator first read Herder in a seminar /'fnlksgAist/

I

organised by Nazi students at Freiburg in 1938, and it soon became clear to me that Herder’s volksgeist the spirit of a nation could be stretched to cover a dangerous doctrine of racial supremacy.





volkslied

noun plural volkslieder /'fnlkslbda/ (also Volkslied) M19 German (or Afrikaans (from Dutch)). 1 M19 A German folk-song; a song or other piece of music in the style of German folk-songs. 2 L19 A national anthem; specifically historical that of the nineteenth-century Transvaal Republic. Also, a South African folk-song. /'fnlkslud/, /'fnlkslht/

(

)

of notes in singing or playing; especially in violin-playing, a bowing technique in which the bow bounces from the string in a slurred staccato.

volta

/'vnlta/

volte).

vol-au-vent

/'vDla(o),vb/

noun E19 French

the wind’). A (usually small and round) flat-bottomed case of puff pastry filled with chopped meat, (literally, ‘flight in

fish, egg, etc., in

volens

sauce.

/'vaolenz/ adjective L19 Latin (pre-

/'vDlei/, foreign

/vole/

(=

turn;

(

plural

noun M19 Old and Modern French

same

)

(liter-

from voler from Latin volare Each of the wings or side-compart-

cf.

noun L16 French (from noun of feminine past participle of volgere to turn,

volte

/volt/, /vault/

Italian volta turn, use as

from Latin

volvere to roll).

1

L16-E17

The

2 L17 Fencing (now historical A sudden jump or other movement to avoid 3 E18 Horsemanship A small a thrust. circle of determined size (proposed with a radius equal to the length of a horse); a movement by a horse sideways around the point of such a circle. 4 E20 (A) complete change, rare. lavolta.

sent participle of velle to be willing). Law Consenting to the risk of injury. Cf. nolens volens.

volet

noun L16 Italian

The lavolta.

)

ally, ‘shutter’,

to

fly).

ments of

a triptych. Also called volant.

noun (also (German) Volk) H9 Afrikaans (from Dutch or German = nation, people). 1 L19 The Afrikaner people. Also (frequently derogatory ), the Coloured employees of a White (especially Afrikaner) master collectively. South African. 2 M20 The German people (especially with reference to Nazi ideology).

volk

/folk/

volte-face /vDlt'fa:s/, /vult'fas/ noun E19 French (from Italian voltafaccia, from voltare to turn (ultimately from frequentaof Latin volvere to roll) + faccia (ultimately from Latin facies) face). The act or an instance of turning so as to face in the opposite direction. Chiefly figurative, a complete change of attitude, opinion, or tive

position in an argument. 1995 Times This volte-face confirms the suspicion that the earlier limits were set

.

voyage

volupte

low by the health education

artificially

industry

468

.

.

volupte

/volypte/

noun E 18 French. Vo-

luptuousness.

volute

noun (also (earlier) in Latin form voluta, plural volutae) M16 French (Latin voluta use as noun of feminine of volutus past participle of volvere to roll, to wrap). 1 M16 Architecture A spiral scroll characteristic of Ionic capitals and also used in Corinthian and composite capitals. 2 M18 A spiral part or object; a convolution. 3 M18 (A shell of) any of numerous gastropod molluscs of the family /v9'l(j)u:t/

Volutidae.

Cartesian theory: any of the rapidly revolving collections of fine particles supposed to fill all space. Usually in plural. b M19 Physics A rapid motion of particles round an axis: a whirl of atoms, fluid, or vapour. 2 M17 A violent eddy of the air; a cyclone. Also, an eddying mass of fire. 3 E18 A swirling mass of water; a whirlpool. 4 figurative a M18 A whirl or constant round of frenetic activity, rapid change, etc. b L 18 A place or state into which people or things are irresistibly drawn. 5 E20 The Vortex A group of modernist British artists (c.1914-15).

voulu

/vuly / adjective L19 French (past parof vouloir to wish). Lacking in spontaneity; contrived. ticiple

vomitorium

/vnmi'totriam/ noun plural vomitoria /vnmi'toTia/ M18 Late Latin (use as noun of neuter of Latin vomitorius vomitory). Roman Antiquities 1 Mis A pas-

sage or opening in an amphitheatre or theatre, leading to or from the seats. Usually in plural. 2 E20 A room allegedly for vomiting deliberately during feasts, to

make way

for other food.

voorloper

M19 Afrikaans + (from voor- before loop to run). In South Africa: the leader of a span of oxen, usually a young African or Coloured boy. /'fualuapa/ noun

Voortrekker kaans (from

/'fuatrska/

noun Li9 Afri-

before + trekken to trek). South African History A Boer pioneer, especially one who took part in the Great Trek voor-

from Cape Colony

vorlage

/'fa:la:ga/

noun plural vorlages,

/'fa:la:gan/

vorlaufer (

Vorldufer

skier

/'fa:laufa/

from

,

who

noun M20

vorlaufen

German A

run on ahead).

travels a course before a race to

establish that

it is

within the capacity of

the competitors.

Vorspiel

/'fo:rfpi:la/

noun plural Vorspiele L19 German (from vor before +

Spiel play).

Music

/'fo:rjpi:l/

Vorstellung stellung E19

idea, a

vortex

prelude.

noun (also vorVorstellen /'foirjtslan/

/'fo:rftelur)/

plural

German.

A

Philosophy

and

(vausoir,

Psychology

An

mental picture.

/'va:teks/ noun plural vortexes vortices /'va:tisi:z/ M17 Latin ((variant of vertex) an eddy of water, wind, or flame, from vortere, vertere to turn). 1 a M17 In

/'v u:swa:/

vaussoir,

me Old French (modern voussoir

noun

etc.

)

from popular Latin volsorium ultimately from Latin vols- past participial stem of volvere to roll, to turn). Each of the wedgeshaped or tapered stones, bricks, etc., forming an arch or vaulting.

vox angelica

/,vr>ks

an'c^slika/

A

phrase M19 Latin (= angelic voice). CELESTE.

vox Humana phrase

E18

/,vDks

Latin

hjo'mama/

human

(=

noun voix

noun

voice).

An

organ reed-stop, having an 8-ft pitch, producing a tone supposedly resembling the

human vox

c.1835.

M20 German. 1 M20 Skiing A position in which the skier leans forward without lifting the heels from the skis, b M20 In plural Skiing trousers. 2 M20 An original version of a manuscript from which a copy is produced. vorlagen

voussoir

voice.

nihili

/,vDks

'nAi(h)ilAi/,

/,vDks

noun phrase L19 Latin (literally, ‘voice of nothing’). A worthless or meaningless word, especially one produced by a 'nAi(h)ili:/

scribal or printer’s error.

vox

populi

/,vnks

'pDpjulAi/,

/,vnks

'pDpjuli:/ noun phrase M19 Latin (= voice of the people). Expressed general opinion; common talk or rumour.

In colloquial use abbreviated to vox pop

not always— see quotawith derogatory tion) connotations of ‘uninformed opinion, as expressed in the media by members of the public’. The Latin tag from which the phrase derives, vox populi, vox Dei ‘the voice of the people is the voice of God’ has been cited or alluded to in English from the fifteenth century. 1996 Times Vox pop is not, after all, baying for (M20), usually (but

blood; on the contrary,

it

calls justly for

guns

to

be taken out of our hands.

voyage of

/vwaja 3 e/ noun &

adjective plural

noun pronounced same M20 French

(past participle of voyager to travel). Ballet

(Designating) a

pose

is

movement

in

which the

held during progression.

voyant

469

voyant

/vwaja/ noun plural pronounced

same M20 French (from

A vision-

as next).

ary; a seer.

/vwaja/ adjective E 20 French (present participial adjective of voir to see). Showy, gaudy, flashy.

noun E 20 French (from voir to see). A person who obtains sexual satisfaction from covert observation of the sexual organs or actions of others. Also transferred a powerless or passive /vwa:'ja:/

)

(

spectator.

,

.

of

/vwaju/ noun plural pronounced same E20 French. A street urchin; a lout, a hooligan. /vao 3 d/ noun

M 20 Russian

leader, a person in specifically

vrai

true + semblance likeness). 1 E19 Verisimilitude. 2 M19 A representation of a person or thing.

vrais reseaux plural of vrai reseau.

vrouw

/vrau/ noun (also vrow) Ei7

German

Frau).

A woman,

one of Dutch

Dutch

a wife; espe-

origin. Chiefly South

African.

.

voyou

vozhd

/vresdblas/ noun plural E19 French (from vrai

pronounced same

cially

I

.

/vresablabl/ adjective M19

vrai true + semblable like).

vraisemblance

(=

1996 Spectator So there sit like James Stewart in Rear Window a voyeur in spite myself

French (from

vulgarisation

Believable, plausible.

voyant

voyeur

vraisemblable

|

(

vozhd '). A authority;

supreme

/vy dasabl/ noun phrase

vues d’ensemble (pronounced same) M19 French. A general view of matters; an overview.

plural

(

historical ) Stalin.

reseau

vue d’ensemble

vulgarisateur /vylgarizatoer/ noun plural pronounced same M20 French (from vulgariser to popularize, vulgarize).

/vre rezo/ noun phrase plural

vrais reseaux (pronounced same) M19 French (= true net). A fine net ground

used in making Brussels) lace. Cf.

handmade

(especially

reseau slnse

1.

A

pop-

ularizes a vulgarizes

vulgarisation isation.

noun M20 haute vulgar-

/vylgarizasja/

French. Vulgarization.

Cf.

Wabenzi

/wa'benzi/ noun plural (also Wa-Benzi) M20 African languages (invented to resemble the name of an African people: from human plural prefix wa+ Mercedes-Benz). In Africa: Black politi-

cians, civil servants, entrepreneurs, etc.,

whose

status

is

marked by

their owner-

ship or use of a Mercedes-Benz or similar

luxury

wabi

car.

M20 Japanese (literally, Japanese art, a quality of simple and serene beauty of a slightly austere or melancholy kind expressing a mood of spiritual solitude recognized in Zen Buddhist philosophy. Cf. sabi. /'wabi/ noun

‘solitude’). In

wadi

/'wndi/ noun (also

/'wa:di/,

plural wadis,

wadies

wady)

E17 Arabic (wadi

valley, river-bed). In certain Arabic-speak-

ing countries, a rocky watercourse which is dry except during the rainy season: the stream running through such a watercourse.

territories.

/vagb'li:/

/vagb'li:z/,

A

/'wakamei/ noun L20 Japanese.

edible Japanese seaweed.

wakf

M 19

/wa:kf/ noun (also waqf)

Arabic

(waqf stoppage, immobilization (sc. of ownership of property), from waqafa to stop, come to a standstill). In Islamic countries, endowment or settlement of property under which the proceeds are to be devoted to a religious or charitable purpose; land or property endowed in this way. /'valthom/ noun M 19 German. A French horn. Also, a natural valveless

waldhorn horn.

Waldsterben

man

/'valtjtsrban/ noun L20 Ger(from Wald wood, forest + Sterben

dying, death). Ecology Disease and death in forest trees and vegetation as a result of atmospheric pollution.

The term has been current

in English

through environmental causes affecting Germany’s forest trees, but now to dieback

applied to the

sleeping-car

on

a train in Conti-

nental Europe.

wagon-restaurant

/vaga restord/ noun

wagons-restaurants (pronounced same) E20 French (from wagon railway coach + restaurant). A dining-car on a train plural

else-

(-vala

noun (also walla) Li8 Hindi suffix expressing relation, from San/'wDla/

skrit palaka keeper).

1

L18

A

person,

for-

merly usually a servant, concerned with or in charge of a usually specified thing, task, etc. Chiefly as second element of combination. 2 M19 An Indian Civil servant appointed by competitive examination. More fully competition-wallah. 3 M20 Any functionary doing a routine administrative job;

in Continental Europe.

same phenomenon

where.

wallah

noun plural wagonwagons-lits /vagb'li:/ L19 French (from wagon railway coach + lit

wagon-lit

bed).

An

since about 1983, originally with reference

French oued, a later (M19) introduction, represents the same Arabic word. Oued now mainly occurs in English with reference to placenames in Francophone North African

lits

wakame

a civil servant, a bureau-

crat.

wahala ria:

trouble, inconvenience; fuss, bother.

wahine L18

/wo'hala/ noun L20 Hausa. In Nige-

noun

/wa:'hi:ni/, foreign /wa'hine/

Maori

(cf.

vahine).

1 L18

New

In

Zea-

land: a Maori woman or wife. 2 M19 In Polynesia: a vahine. 3 M20 A girl surfer. surfing slang.

wai

see

under namaskar.

%

waka

New

/'waka/ noun 1 E19 Maori. In Zealand: a Maori canoe.

waka

/'waka/ noun 2 M20 Japanese.

A form

M20 poetry 1

of classic Japanese lyrical developed from ancient traditional lads. 2 M20 A TANKA.

bal-

The Hindi suffix was commonly apprehended by Europeans as a noun with the sense ‘man, fellow’; in Anglo-Indian speech it was used chiefly as the second element in

combinations such as box-wallah

(‘an itin-

erant Indian pedlar’). Wallah is now only used colloquially with a derogatory suggestion of ‘an office-bound functionary’ (see quotation 1974) and generally (harking back to the Anglo-Indian usage) with a defining word (see quotation 1996). 3 1974 Courier-Mail (Brisbane) Some wallahs in Canberra are sitting in air-conditioned offices telling us what has been flooded and what hasn’t:

3 1996 Times As the heritage wallahs

lord

it

in

Walpurgisnacht

471

|

the media during the

summer

tourist

1996 Times But what America

season,

they would do well to reflect upon how shallowly rooted and fragile is their present

suit

is

Wandervogel

Walpurgisnacht /val'purgis.naxt/ noun E19 German (genitive of Walpurga (name) + Nacht night). The eve of May Day, marked (according to German folklore and especially Goethe’s Faust by a witches’ sabbath or a feast of the powers of darkness; transferred an orgiastic celebration or party. )

Walpurga

(or

was

Walburga)

an

eighth-century Anglo-Saxon nun who became abbess of Heidenheim in Germany. May Day marks the occasion of the translation of her bodily remains to Eichstatt, where her shrine became a pilgrimage centre. The connection with the powers of darkness is nothing to do with the saintly abbess but is a fortuitous association with pagan festivities formerly celebrated on that date.

1996 Spectator

... the

new freedom she

mirrored by the licentiousness of her lover’s half-mad identical twin, who turns up at her house to burn her books and caper in a

finds

is

demonic

spirit of

Walpurgisnatfht.

wampum

/'wnmpem/ noun Mi7 Algonquwampumpeag (from wap white + umpe string + plural suffix -ag) abbreviated on the erroneous analysis of the word as ian

(

wampum + peag). 1 M17 Chiefly History. Beads made from the ends of shells rubbed down, polished, and threaded on strings, worn by North American Indians as decoration or (formerly) used as money

mnemonic or symbolic purposes. 2 L19 generally Money, slang. or for

really

seems

to

her wanderlust, her sparkle.

Wandervogel

high status.

St

Wehrwirtschaft

/'vandarf0 ;gal/ noun plural /'vandarf0 ;gal/ E 20 German

of passage’). A member of a German youth organization founded at the end of the nineteenth century for the promotion of outdoor activities (espe(literally, ‘bird

and

cially hiking)

folk culture; transferred a rambler, a hiker.

waqf variant wasabi

of wakf.

A

/wa'sccbi/ noun E 20 Japanese.

cruciferous plant, Eutrema wasabi, whose thick green root is used in Japanese cookery, usually ground as an accompani-

ment

washi

raw

to

fish.

waji/ noun L 20 Japanese. Japanese paper; specifically a thin handmade variety used to make lantern shades, kites, etc. /'

wat

/wat/ noun M19 Thai (from Sanskrit vdta enclosure). In Thailand or Cambodia

(Kampuchea): a Buddhist monastery or temple.

wayang

noun E19 Javanese (wajang, wayang). In Indonesia and Malaysia: a theatrical performance employing pup/'wa:jar)/

human

dancers; specifically a Javanese and Balinese shadow puppet play (also wayang kulit /'kuflit/ (Javanese = skin, pets or

leather)).

wazir

noun E18 Arabic (wazir helper). History A high state official, especially in the Ottoman empire; a vizier. /wa'zia/

wedeln

/'veid(a)ln/

/’veid(a)l/)

noun

M 20 German

(also

wedel

(see next). Skiing

A

technique using a swaying movement of the hips to make a series of short parallel

Chiefly North America.

wamus

/'wamas/ noun E19 Dutch (probwammes contraction of wambuis from Old French wambois gambeson, tunic). In southern and western United States; a warm knitted jacket re-

turns.

ably from Dutch

sembling a cardigan.

Wanderjahr

/'vandarja:r/

noun

plural

Wanderjahre /'vandarja:ra/ L19 German wander wander + Jahr year). A year of wandering or travel, especially one undertaken by a young person.

wedeln

/'veid(a)ln/ intransitive verb (also

M20 German (literally, Use the wedeln technique. Also, perform a similar movement on a skateboard.

wedel

/'veid( 0 )l/)

‘wag (the

tail)’).

Skiing

Wehmut /'ve:mu:t/ noun E 20 German.

Sad-

ness, melancholy, wistfulness, nostalgia.

(

Formerly a period of travel by an apprentice to improve his skill and broaden his experience;

lehrjahr. Also occurs in English form wanderyear (L19).

Wehrmacht man

/'ve:rmaxt/

noun M20 Ger-

‘defence force’). History The forces, especially the army, between 1921 and 1945. (literally,

German armed

cf.

wanderlust /'WDndalASt/ noun man. An eagerness or fondness dering or travelling.

F.20

for

Ger-

wan-

Wehrwirtschaft /’ve;rvirtfaft/ noun M 20 German (from Wehr defence + Wirtschaft economy). The principle or policy of

di-

recting a nation’s economic activity towards preparation for or support of a war

wei

wiederkom

ch’i

effort, especially as

472

applied in

Germany

in the 1930s.

wei

ch’i /wei

'tfi:/

noun L19 Chinese (we iqi

wei-ch'i), from wei to surround + qi (ch’i) chess). A traditional Chinese board game of territorial possession and capture. Cf. go.

(Wade-Giles

weiner

weinkraut

/'vAinkraut/ noun M20 German (from Wein wine + Kraut cabbage). Pickled cabbage cooked with white wine and

apples. /'vainstuiba/

/'vainftuiba/,

noun plural Weinstuben /'vainftmben/, Weinstubes L19 German (from Wein, wine + Stube room). A small German wine bar or tavern. Cf. bierstube.

Wein, Weib, und Gesang / vain vaip ont ga'zar)/ noun phrase L19 German. Wine, woman, and song.

Weisswurst /'vAisva:st/, /'VAisvoast/ noun M20 German (from weiss white + Wurst sausage). sage

German

whitish chiefly of veal.

made

/'veltftat/ noun plural Weltstadte /'vsltfteda/ L19 German (from Welt world + Stadt town). A city of international importance or cosmopolitan character; a cosmopolis.

wendigo

variant of windigo.

wen jen

variant of wiener.

Weinstube

Weltstadt

(A)

sau-

/'wen 3 en/ noun phrase plural M20 Chinese (wenren man of letters, from wen writing + ren (Wade-Giles jen man). Chi)

nese

men

wen-yen

of

letters.

noun (also wenyen, wenyan) M20 Chinese (wenyan, from wen writing + ydn speech, words). The traditional literary language or style of China, now superseded by pai-hua.

wertfrei

/'wenjen/

/'ve:rtfrai/ adjective E20

(from Wert worth + frei free). Free of value judgements; morally neutral. In sociological contexts often in English

translation as value-free

Wertfreiheit

German

plural Jauurian/,

noun

Weltanschauungen /.veltan Weltanschauungs M19 Ger-

man

(from Welt world + Anschauung perception). A particular philosophy or view of life; the world-view of an individual or group. 1996 Spectator In my case, of course, this

nihilistic

my Weltanschauung



despair

Weltbild

that

/'veltbilt/

is

to say,

noun

I

one

is

am

a

M20

of

Weltlitteratur)

world + of

all

E20

German

Literatur literature).

frequently in English

Max Weber (1864-1920)

which

sociologists should as-

pire in that they should not allow their

own

values to influence their judgements

on the people and

Westpolitik

institutions they study.

/'vestpDli.tkk/

noun L20 Ger-

(from West west + Politik policy:

European

cf.

politics, a

policy of establishing or developing diplo-

German

matic and trading relations with Western nations, especially formerly on the part of Communist States.

noun (also (from Welt

A

-hood).

realist.

schauung. /'veltlitera,tu:r/

to

-heit

was recommended by the

sociologist

an ideal

M20

noun

wertfrei.

ostpolitik). History In

(from Welt world + Bild picture). Weltan-

Weltliteratur

as

man

shattering event would have to be something

pleasant, since

‘value-freedom’),

German

wertfreiheit.

cf.

(from as preceding +

The quality of being

/.veltan'j'auug/

;

/'ve:rtfraihait/

Wertfreiheit (also

Weltanschauung

German

literature

nations and peoples; universal

lit-

whare /‘wvri/

noun E19 Maori. In

New Zea-

land: a (Maori) house or hut; generally a

hut, a shed, tion,

specifically

one on a sheep

where the hands sleep or

sta-

eat.

erature.

wickiup Weltpolitik

/'veltpoli,ti:k/

noun E20 Ger-

man

(from Welt world + Politik politics). International politics; a particular country’s policy towards the world at large.

Weltschmerz /'veltfinerts/ noun man (from Welt world + Schmerz

Li9 Gerpain).

weary or pessimistic feeling about

life;

A

an

apathetic or vaguely yearning attitude. 1996 Times The music does not have to drip

wickyup) M19 Algonquian ((Menominee wikiop), perhaps a variant of wikiwam wigwam). A rough hut consisting of a frame covered with brushwood, used by nomadic peoples in the west and south-west of the United States; colloquial any small hut or /'wikiAp/

noun

(also

shanty.

wiederkom

/'vkdaknm/ noun

(also

wie-

with emotion, but surely a love-song can be

derkomm, Wiederkomm)

allowed to exude Weltschmerz as well as passion.

drecome goblet, ultimately from German wiederkommen to return, come again). A

L19

French

(vt-

wiener

473

German

cylindrical

tall

made

drinking-vessel

of (usually coloured or painted)

glass.

wiener

/'vi:na/ noun (in sense 2 also weiner /'wi:na/) L19 German (adjective from Wien Vienna). attributive 1 L19 Used atI

wunderkind

witblits /'vitblits/ noun (also witblitz) M20 Afrikaans (from wit white + blits lightning). In South Africa: home-brewed brandy, a strong and colourless raw spirit.

witdoek

/'vitduk/ noun

witdoeks

plural

witdoeke

L20 Afrikaans (from

tributively to

/'vitdoka/,

sociated with Vienna.

wit white + doek). In South Africa: a member of a largely Black conservative vigilante movement operating in the townships around Cape Town, identifiable by the wearing of a white cloth or scarf about the head. Usually in plural.

designate things from or asII 2 E 20 Elliptically for Wienerwurst. North American.

weiner schnitzel

Wienerwurst

under schnitzel.

see

/'vi:na,va:st/, /'wi:na,wa:st/

noun L19 German. Viennese sausage.

witloof noun (also willi) M20 German or French (from Serbo-Croat Vila nymph,

wili

/'vili/

Mythology In Slavonic and eastern German legends, a spirit of a betrothed girl who has died from grief at being jilted by her lover (used especially with reference to the ballet Giselle). fairy).

wiliwili

/'wi:liwi:li/

noun L19 Hawaiian.

A

coral tree, Erythrina tahitensis, of Hawaii

and

Tahiti,

which bears

flowers; the

wood of

clusters of orange

this tree,

used to

/'

witlu:f/

A

noun L19 Dutch

(literally,

grown blanching, with broad leaves and

‘white for

leaf’).

variety of chicory

midribs.

wobla

variant of vobla.

wok

/wnk/ noun M20 Chinese (Cantonese). A large bowl-shaped frying-pan used in especially Chinese cookery.

The wok, introduced into Western kitchens in the 1970s, rapidly became a standard item of kitchen equipment. 1988 D. Lodge Nice Work thought we could A put the electric wok away. We never use microwave would be more useful.’ ‘I

make

surfboards.

f

it.

willi variant of will

willy-willy /'wih.wili/ noun L19 Aboriginal. In North West Australia: a cyclone or

/'windigau/ noun (also

wendigo

windigo(e)s E18 Ojibwa (wintiko). In the folklore of the northern Algonquian Indians, a cannibalistic giant, the transformation of a person who has eaten human flesh. /’wendigeu/)

/'wnrjgi/

plural

keeping.

A

talk, a chat; a speech. Australian slang.

/wDn'tun/ noun (also won ton) M20 Chinese ((Cantonese) wan t’an). In Chinese cookery, (a dish consisting of) a small round dumpling or roll with a savoury filling (especially of minced pork), usually eaten boiled in soup.

woonerf

/'vu:na:f/

woonerven noun M19 German (in sense 2 abbreviation of Gastwirtschaft hotel). 1 Mi9 (Domestic) economy, house-

Wirtschaft

noun E 20 Aboriginal.

wonton

dust-storm.

windigo

wongi

/'virtfaft/

2 E20

A

/'vu:na:v(a)n/

L20

Dutch

(from woon- residential (from wonen to live) + erf ground, premises). A road in a residential area, in which a number of de-

employed to create a safer environment by reducing and slowing the

vices are

hostelry, inn.

Wirtschaftswunder

noun plural woonerfs,

/'virtfafts.vundar/

flow of

traffic.

noun (also Wirtschaftwunder) M20 Ger-

man

economy

Wunder miracle). The economic recovery of West Germany after the war of 1939-45. Also (

Wirtschaft

+

transferred.

1996 Times But this ominous comparison makes no impression on the self-confidence German public and political opinion, still mesmerised by the myth Wirtschaftswunder of the

of

of the 1

Wunderkammer L20

German

ties.

wunderkind

/‘visanjaft/

/'vundakint/

noun

(also

Wunderkind) plural wunderkinds, wun-

950s.

noun M19 Ger-

man. (The systematic pursuit

(from Wunder wonder

noun + Kam-

mer chamber). A chamber or cabinet of wonders; historical a place exhibiting the collection of a connoisseur of curiosi-

/'vundakindar/ L19 German (from Wunder wonder + Kind child). 1 L19 A highly talented child; a child prodigy, especially in music. 2 M20 A person who

derkinder

Wissenschaft

/'vundarkamar/

of)

know-

ledge, science; learning, scholarship.

.

wu

wurst

achieves remarkable success at an early age. colloquial. 2 1996 Times Marion’s lyricist, the 20-year-old wunderkind Jaime Harding, wails hard and long

.

wurst

474

ts’ai

.

noun M19 German. Sausage, especially of the German or Austrian type; a German or Austrian sausage. /veist/, /wa:st/; foreign /vurst/

wushu

/wu:'Ju:/ noun L 20

from wu military + The Chinese martial

shii

Chinese (wushu, technique,

art).

arts.

wu

ts’ai /wu:'tsAi/ noun E20 Chinese (wucai (Wade-Giles wu ts’ai), from wit five + cat colour). Polychrome; polychrome

decoration in enamels applied to porcelain; porcelain with polychrome decoration.

>*

xenodochium xenodochia chion)

from

M 16

/zsna'dukiam/ noun plural

/zsna'dDkia/

(also

xenodo-

Late Latin (from Late Greek

as xeno- stranger + deskhesthai to

ceive). History

strangers

A house

re

of reception for

and pilgrims, especially in a

monastery.

xoanon /'zaoana/

xystus (also

/'zistas/

noun plural xysti

Anglicized as xyst)

Greek

xustos

smooth,

M 17

Latin (from

from

scrape). Classical Antiquities

A

/'zistAi/

xuein

to

long covered

portico or court used by ancient Greek

/'zauanun/ E 18

of wood, and often said to have fallen from heaven.

Greek

noun plural xoana (related

carve). Chiefly Greek Antiquities

simply carved image of a

xein

to

A primitive

deity, originally

f

/

to

open colonnade or terrace walk planted with trees and used by the Romans for recreation and conversation. athletes for exercises. Also, an

yabba

noun L19 Twi ayawd earthen Jamaica: a large wooden or earthenware vessel used for cookery or /'jaba/

(

vessel, dish). In

storage.

ing forces of the universe. Cf. yin. B attributive or as adjective L17 That represents yang; masculine.

yang

yacca, yacker

variants of yakka.

ch’in /jar) 'tfin/ noun phrase L19 Chinese yangqin from yang high-sounding, foreign + q in (Wade-Giles ch’in) musical instrument, zither). A Chinese dulcimer. 1996 Times But from the moment Lisa Gerrard ,

(

yad

/ja:d/

noun E20

Hebrew

(yad, literally,

‘hand’). Judaism A pointer used by a reader of the Torah in a synagogue to follow the text, usually in the form of a rod terminating in a hand with an outstretched index finger.

yager

see

yagna

variant of yajna.

under jager.

dulcimer to you),

es-

pecially a parent.

noun (also yagna) E19 SanHinduism, a sacrificial rite with a specific objective, often involving the burning of /'jAC^nja/

.

.

and gracefully glided

I

knew

this

was going

to

be

something special.

/jag'gauna/ noun (also

M19 Fijian (yaqona

anniversary of the death of a person,

.

swan-like over to her yang-ch’in (that’s Chinese

yanggona

yahrzeit /'ja:tSAit/ noun M19 Yiddish (from Middle High German jarzit anniversary, from Old High German jar (German Jahr) year + zit (German Zeit) time). Judaism The

yajna

appeared on stage,

yantra

).

yaqona)

kava.

noun L19 Sanskrit (= device or mechanism for holding or fasten/'jantra/

from yam to hold, geometrical diagram used ing,

support).

A

an aid

to

as

meditation in tantric worship: any object used similarly.

yaourt

see

under yoghurt.

skrit (yajna worship, sacrifice). In

yaqona

variant of yanggona.

yarmulke

substantial offerings.

/'jcrmulka/

noun

(also

yar-

mulka) E20 Yiddish (yarmolke from Polish jarmulka cap, probably from Turkish yogmurluk raincoat, cape, from yagmur rain). A skullcap worn by male Jews. ,

yakitori

/jaki'to:ri/

noun M20 Japanese

(from yaki toasting, grilling + tori bird). A Japanese dish consisting of pieces of chicken grilled on a skewer.

yakka

noun (also yacca, yacker) L19 Aboriginal. Work, toil. /'jaka/

Australian slang, especially in the phrase hard yakka.

yaksha

/'jAkJa/

noun plural same M 20 Japanese (from ya eight + ku nine + za three, with reference to the worst kind of hand in a gambling game). A Japanese gangster or racketeer. Usually plural meaning such gangsters etc. collectively. attributive 1995 Spectator Yakuza gangsters, /ja'ku:za/

were dress and

with extreme right-wing connections, instantly recognisable by their

demeanour

yang

.

.

.

noun &

adjective L17

A

yataghan /'

noun (also ataghan

/'jatagan/

atagan/) E19 Turkish (yatagan ). Chiefly

Muslim

countries, a sword or long dagger having a handle without a guard and often a double-curved blade.

History In

yenta

/'jenta/ noun (also yente) E 20 Yiddish (originally a personal name; see quotation). A gossip, a busybody: a noisy, vulgar person; a scolding woman, a shrew. North American colloquial. 1968 Encounter Yenta am told, was a perfectly acceptable name for a lady, derived from the Italian gentile until some ungracious ,

I



it

a bad name.

Chinese

yang sun, positive, male genitals). noun L17 In Chinese philosophy, the male or active principle of the two oppos-

(

(yas-

in public.

yenta gave /jar)/

/'jajmak/ noun M19 Arabic

mak from Turkish ya$mak use as noun of ya$mak to hide oneself). A veil concealing the face below the eyes, worn by Muslim

women

noun L18 Sanskrit (yaksa ). Indian Mythology (A statue or carving of) any of a class of demigods or nature spirits often serving as tutelary guardians.

yakuza

yashmak

/jents/ transitive verb M 20 Yiddish (from yentzen to copulate). Cheat, swindle.

yentz

United States slang.

,

yuga

yerba

477

yerba

noun E19 Spanish

/'ja:ba/

mate sense

yeshiva

More

2.

(= herb).

fully yerba mate.

noun plural yeshivas, yeshivot(h) M19 /ja'JLvDt/ Hebrew yesibah from yashab to sit). An Orthodox Jewish college or seminary; a Talmudic academy. /ja'Jbva/

(

yeso

yesso) M16 Spanish (from Latin gypsum: cf. gesso). Gypsum, plaster of Paris; especially gypsum-rich dust used to control acidity durnoun

/‘jesau/

ing the

the self with the supreme being; a system of ascetic practice, meditation, etc., designed to achieve this.

making of

(also

Frequently specifically hatha yoga.

yoghurt

/'jngat/

Turkish

(yogurt ).

sour foodstuff,

yogurt) E17

(also

A semi-solid, somewhat now often fruit-flavoured,

made from milk

curdled by the addition of certain bacteria; a carton of this substance.

The spelling yaourt /'jauat/ (E19) as a represention of the pronunciation of yogurt is

sherry.

now noun M20 Tibetan (yeh-teh little manlike animal). A creature said to resemble a large ape, whose tracks have supposedly been found in snow on the Himalayan mountains. Also called Abomin-

yeti

noun

rare or obsolete.

/'jeti/

able

Snowman.

ye-ye

adjective

/je'je/

& noun M20 French

(representing yeah-yeah reduplication of yeah, common in popular songs of the A adjective M20 Designating or 1960s). pertaining to a style of popular music, dress, etc., typical of the 1960s, especially in France; associated with or enthusiastic about this or subsequent tbrms of popular optimistic youth culture. B noun M20 A person associated with the ye-ye style. Also, rock or pop music.

yichus

/'jikas/,

/'jixas/

(from

Hebrew

yihus

noun E20 Yiddish pedigree).

Social

status, prestige. Chiefly United States

col-

yogi /'

/'

jaogi/ noun (in sense 1 also

jaogin/) E17 Sanskrit (yogin

singular yogi, from yoga). 1 practising, or proficient in, YOGA.

,

yogin nominative E17 A person yoga. 2 E20

yogini

/'jaogini:/ noun L18 Sanskrit (yogini feminine yogin yogi). 1 L18 Hindu Mythology A female demon, especially one of a group attendant on Durga or Siva. 2 M20 A female yogi.

yokozuna

/jauka'zuma/ noun M20 Japanese (from yoko crosswise + tsuna rope (originally a kind of belt presented to the champion)). A grand champion sumo

wrestler.

yom

tov

f'jmn tvv/ noun phrase M19 Yiddish (from Hebrew yom day + fob good). A

Jewish holiday or holy day.

loquial.

yoni noun & adjective L17 Chinese (yin shade, feminine, the moon). A noun L17 In Chinese philosophy, the female or negative principle of the two opposing forces of the universe. Cf. yang. B attributive or as adjective M20 That represents yin; fem-

yin

/jin/

inine.

ying ch’ing

/jir)

'tfir)/

adjective

& noun

phrase E20 Chinese (yingqing (Wade-Giles

ying ch’ing) literally, ‘shadowy blue’). (Designating) a type of Chinese porcelain with a bluish-white glaze produced in Jiangxi and other provinces, chiefly during the Song dynasty.

/'jaoni/

duism

A

noun

L18 Sanskrit. Chiefly Hin-

figure or representation of the

female genitals as a sacred symbol or object.

noun plural L20 Hebrew (plural of yored person who descends). Emigrants from the State of Israel.

yordim

yorgan

/ja:'dim/

noun E20 Turkish.

/ja:'gAn/

A Turk-

ish quilt.

yourt variant of yurt.

yuan

/ju'a:n/

noun

(also

Yuan) plural same

E20 Chinese (yuan courtyard). In China:

any of several government departments.

ylang-ylang

/i:lar)'i:lar)/

noun

(also ilang-

Tagalog ilang-ilang A tree of tropical Asia, Cananga odorata, with fragrant greenish-yellow flowers from which ilang) L19

(

).

perfume is distilled; the perfume tained from this tree. a

yoga

/'jauga/

‘union’). In

noun L18 Sanskrit

ob-

(literally,

Hindu philosophy, union of

yiieh ch’in /'jua tfin/, /kin/ noun M19 Chinese (yueqin (Wade-Giles yiieh-ch’in literally, ‘moon guitar’). A Chinese lute with )

four strings and a

yuga

flat

circular body.

noun (also yug /jog/) 1.18 Sanan age of the world). In Hindu cosmology, each of four periods, /'juga/

skrit (yuga yoke,

yugen

yurt

478

each shorter than and inferior to its pre decessor, together totalling 4,320,000

mono). A light cotton kimono, frequently with stencil designs, worn after a bath, or

years. Cf. kalpa.

as a housecoat.

yugen

/'ju:g(0)n/

noun E 20 Japanese (from

ju faint, distant + gen dark, unfathomable). In traditional Japanese court cul-

ture and Noh plays, a hidden quality of graceful beauty or mystery; profound aestheticism.

yukata

/ju'kata/ noun E19 Japanese (from yu hot water, bath + kata(bira) light ki-

yurt

L 18

Russian

yurta (through French yourte or (

German

/juat/

noun (also yourt)

from Turkic jurt). A circular tent of felt, skins, etc., on a collapsible frame work, used by nomads in Mongolia and

Jurte )

Siberia. Also, a semi-subterranean hut, usually of timber covered with earth or turf.

zabaglione

/zaba'ljauni/ noun L19 Italian

(perhaps ultimately from late Latin sabaia an Illyrian drink). A dessert consisting of egg-yolks, sugar, and (usually Marsala) wine, whipped to a frothy texture over a gentle heat and served either hot or cold. Cf. SABAYON.

zabuton

noun L19 Japanese (from za sitting, seat + buton variant of futon). A flat floor cushion for sitting or kneeling on.

zaftig

/za'bu:tDn/

/'zaftig/

(also

adjective

zoftig

M20 Yiddish (from German saftig juicy). Of a woman: plump, having a full rounded figure. North American colloquial. /'

ZDftig/)

zaguan

/za'gwan/, /sa'gwan/ noun M19 Spanish zaguan = vestibule, hall, from Ar-

zamarra

/0a'marra/, /sa'marra/ noun M19 Spanish. In Spain: a kind of sheepskin jacket.

zampogna

/zam'pDnja/,

foreign

/tsam

'pojijia/ noun Mis Italian (from (late) Latin symphonia). Music A traditional mouth-

blown bagpipe of southern Italy having two chanters and two drones. Also, any of various other

zapateado

woodwind instruments.

/za.pati'crdau/, foreign /0a,pate

'ado/, /sa.pate'ado/

dos

noun plural zapatea-

/za,pati'a:d9uz/,

/sa,pati'a:dos/,

M19 Spanish (from zapato shoe). 1 M19 A flamenco dance involving complex syncopated stamping of the heels and toes in imitation of castanets. 2 M20 Dancing or foot/0a,pate'ados/, /sa.pate'ados/

work of

this kind.

(

abic ’ustuwan, perhaps ultimately

from

Greek stoa porch). In Soutl| and Central America and in the south-western United States: a passage running from the front door to the central patio of houses. noun plural same M20 Japanese (from zai wealth + batsu clique). Commerce Originally, a Japanese capitalist organization usually based on a single family having controlling interests in a variety of companies. Now, (the members of) a Japanese business cartel or conglomerate.

zaibatsu

/zAi'batsu:/

zaikai /'ZAikAi/ noun M20 Japanese (from zai wealth + kai world). In Japan: (the elite who control) the world of business and high finance.

zarape zarda

variant of serape.

/'za:da/

noun L19 Persian and Urdu

zardah from Persian zard yellow). A Persian and Indian sweet dish consisting of rice cooked with saffron and often almonds and raisins or sultanas.

(

,

zareba

/za'rkba/ noun (also zereba, zar-

M19 Arabic (zariba pen or en1 M19 In Sudan and closure neighbouring countries: (a camp fortified by) a fence, usually made of thorn trees, for defence against enemies or wild animals. 2 L19 transferred and figurative A deiba, zeriba)

for cattle).

fensive force or barrier.

zari /zari/ noun M20 Persian and Urdu zari from Persian zar gold). Indian gold (

and

,

silver

brocade; colloquial a sari deco-

rated with this.

zaitech

noun L20 Japanese (= financial engineering). Playing the money and stock markets as a business practice to

/'ZAitek/

enhance a company’s

zakat

profitability.

noun E19 Persian and Urdu Turkish zekat, from Arabic zaka(t)

/z9’ka:t/

(zaka(t),

payment obligatory made annually under Islamic law on certain kinds of property and used for charialmsgiving).

table

An

and religious

objects.

zariba variant of zareba. /0ar'0wela/, /sar'swela/ noun L19 Spanish. 1 L19 A traditional form of op-

zarzuela

eretta in Spain, with spoken dialogue, songs, and dances. 2 M20 A Spanish dish

consisting of various kinds of seafood cooked in a rich sauce.

zastruga

noun (also zawiyeh) M19 Arabic (zawiya corner, prayer room). In

zawiya

zakuska

/za'kuska/ noun (also zakouska) plural zakuskas, zakuski /za'kuski/ L19

Russian (usually as plural zakuski hors d’oeuvre.

).

An

variant of sastruga.

/'za:wia/

North Africa: a Sufi religious community’s mosque, especially when containing the shrine of a holy person.

zazen

zollverein

zazen

480

noun E18 Japanese (from za a seat + zen Zen). Zen medita-

/za:'zen/

sitting,

tion.

zearat variant of

/'tsaitgeibar/, /'zAitgeiba/ noun same, zeitgebers M20 German (from Zeit time + Geber giver). Physiology A rhythmically occurring event, especially in the environment, which acts as a cue in the regulation of certain biological rhythms in an organism. /'tsaitgaist/,

noun

/'ZAitgAist/

German

(from Zeit time + Geist spirit). The spirit of the age; the trend of thought or feeling in a period, especially as reflected in

its

1995 Times

by which a single word is made two or more words in a sentence, especially when applying to them to refer to

plural

M19

/'zju:gma/ noun LME Latin (from Greek, literally, ‘yoking’, from zeugnunai to yoke, related to zugon a yoke). A rhetorical figure

ziarat.

zeitgeber

Zeitgeist

zeugma

literature, art, etc.

seasoned politician he [sc. M. Mitterand] is, he has once again identified the Zeitgeist in France, where dying Like the

in different senses.

ziarat

noun (also zearat) L18 Persian ziyarat from Arabic ziyara(t) visit, pilgrimage). A Muslim pil-

grimage

/zek/ noun M20 Russian (representing pronunciation of zfk, abbreviation of zaklyuchennyi prisoner). In countries of the former USSR: a person held in a prison or forced labour camp.

zemstvo

/'zemstvau/, foreign plural zemstvos,

/'zemstvo/

zemstva /'zemstvo/ M19 Russian (from zem' (now zemlya land). History Any of the elected district or provincial councils set up in noun

)

Russia by Alexander his reforms.

Zen

II

in 1864 as part of

/zen/ noun E18 Japanese (from Chinese

awareness.

more

fully Zen Buddhism. Influential

from the thirteenth century onwards, Zen became significantly fashionable in the West during the 1960s. in Japanese life

zenana

/za'nceno/ noun

M 18

Persian and

Urdu zananah from zan woman). ,

(

1

M 18

In the Indian subcontinent: the part of a

house in which high-caste women are or were secluded. 2 E 20 A light quilted thin fabric used for women’s dresses.

zendo

zendos M20 from zen + do hall). A Zen Buddhist meditation and

/'zendau/ noun plural

Japanese place for

/'ziboli :n/,

/'zibolAin/

/'zibib/,

noun M19 Arabic

/za'bi:b/

zabib (Egyptian Arabic zibib) dried grapes,

raisins).

A

strong colourless spirit

from

in Egypt

made

raisins.

Zigeuner

/tsi'gaina/ noun plural same (feminine Zigeunerin /tsi'goinarin/, plural

Zigeunerinnen

/tsi'gainarinan/)

M19

German. A Gypsy.

zingana

/'ziqgana/, /zirfgama/, /'tsirjgana/

noun E18 Italian.

1

A Gypsy

E18 ( Zingana )

2 M20 Striped wood furnished by various African trees; zeb-

girl

woman,

or

rare.

rano.

chan quietude, from Sanskrit dhyana meditation). A school of Mahayana Buddhism emphasizing meditation and personal Also

/'zibalin/,

noun L16 French (of Slavonic origin). 1 L16 The sable. Now rare or obsolete, b M19 The fur of this animal. 2 L19 A soft smooth woollen material with a long nap pressed flat, used especially for women’s coats. Also zibeline cloth.

(

zek

to a shrine.

zibeline

zibib

has become the subject of some debate.

/zi:'a:rot/

Urdu (from

(zendo,

Zingaro

/'tsirjgarau/ noun & zingaro) E17 Italian. A noun E17 plural zingari /'zirjgori/ (feminine zin-

/'ziqgarao/,

adjective (also

gara

plural zingare /'ziggerei/).

/'zirjgara/,

A Gypsy. B

Of

attributive or as adjective L18

or pertaining to Gypsies.

zita

/'zi:ta/

noun plural zite

/'zi:tei/,

ziti

M19 Italian. Pasta in the form of tubes resembling large macaroni. /'zi:ti/

zocalo

/'zDkalao/ noun plural

Spanish

(zocalo).

In

zocalos

Mexico:

a

Li9

public

square, a plaza.

zoco

/'znkou/ noun plural

zocos

Li9 Span-

ish (from Arabic suk souk). In Spain and North Africa: a souk; a market-place.

zoftig variant of zaftig.

study.

zeppole

noun plural zeppoli /' zepnli/ M 20 Italian. A kind of doughnut. /'zepnlei/

United States.

zollverein (from

Zoll

M19

German

+ Verein union). History

A

union of States with a uniform rate of customs duties from other countries and free trade within the union; specifically 0

zereba, zeriba variants of zareba.

/'tsolfaram/ noun toll

zombie

481

that between States of the German pire in the nineteenth century.

zombie

Em-

B

fruit juice.

&

verb E19

Bantu

(cf.

zoppa

transitive verb

M20 zom-

Exhaust; disorientate.

bie out.

zouk

/zu:k/ noun L20 French (apparently from Antillean creole zouk to party, possi-

bly influenced by United States slang juke

/'zombi/ noun

jumby). A noun 1 E19 Originally, a snakedeity in voodoo cults of or deriving from West Africa and Haiti. Now (especially in the West Indies and southern United States), a soulless corpse said to have been revived by witchcraft. 2 M20 A dull, apathetic, unresponsive, or unthinkingly acquiescent person, colloquial. 3 M20 In the war of 1939-45, a man conscripted for home defence. Canadian military slang (derogatory). 4 M20 A long mixed drink consisting of several kinds of rum, liqueur,

and

zurla

/'tsoppa/ adjective

&

adverb

have a good time). An exuberant style of popular music originating in Guadeloupe in the Lesser Antilles. (or jook) to

Developed in Paris as a style of Antillean popular music intended to hold its own against Western pop and disco music, zouk was popularized in France during the 1980s by the group called Kassav, and began to feature on the British and American music scene at the end of the decade (see quotation).

1987 Guardian

Tonight, the

programme

International arts

especially Kassav,

M 18

Camden .

.

.

Festival

Zouk,

the pulse of Paris streets

is

and the soundtrack

ever zouk on

first

British soil kicks off this year’s

for

her nightclubs.

Ital-

ian (feminine of zoppo limping). Music In a

rhythm, especially one in which the second quaver of a 2/4 bar is syncopated

zucchetto chettos

/tsu'ketau/ noun plural zuc-

zucchetta /tsu'keta/) M19 Italian zucchetta diminutive of zucca gourd, head). The skullcap worn by (also

(

accented. Frequently in the phrase

alia zoppa.

noun plural zoris, same E19 Japanese (zori, from so grass, (fice) straw + ri footwear, sole). A Japanese sandal, having a simple thong between the toes and a flat sole originally of straw but now often of rubber, felt, etc.

zori

/'

zo:ri/

Zouave

/zwa:v/ noun M19 French (from Kabyle Zouaoua name of a tribe). 1 M19 A member of a body of light infantry in the French army, originally formed of Algerian Kabyles, and long retaining the original oriental uniform, b M19 History More fully Papal or Pontifical Zouave. A member of a corps of French soldiers /zu:'a:v/,

formed in Rome for the defence of the pope between 1860 and 1871. c M19 History A member of any of several volunteer regiments of Union troops in the American Civil War which adopted the name and in part the uniform of the French Zouaves. 2 M19 A garment resembling part of the Zouave uniform; specifically a History (in full Zouave jacket, bodice a )

wom-

an’s short embroidered jacket or bodice, with or without sleeves; b in plural, pegtop trousers, as worn by men in the late nineteenth century and women in the late twentieth century (also Zouave trousers, pants); c a wide loose skirt with a looped or tucked up hemline (also Zouave

Catholic ecclesiastics, black for priests, purple for bishops, red for cardinals, and white for the Pope.

zucchini

/zu'kimi/ noun plural (also zuc-

E20 Italian (plural of zucchino small marrow, courgette, diminutive of zucca gourd). Courgettes.

chinis)

Chiefly in North America in Britain courgettes

zufolo

/‘tsu:f0 lau/,

2.b 1981 Washington Post

First

ankle-length Zouaves, looking a

gone beserk like

.

.

.

Then came

came bit like

the

baggies

the shorter

knee-length bloomers.

is

A

ian. Music

and

Australia;

the usual word.

/'zu.-falau/

zuffolo) plural zufoli

noun (also

/'tsu:fali/

E18 Ital-

flageolet, a small flute or

whistle.

/'tsmk.unrma/ noun M 20 German. Ornithology Migratory restlessness; the migratory drive in birds.

Zugunruhe

zugzwang

/'ZAgzwarj/ noun E20

German

(from Zug move + Zwang compulsion, gation). Chess

A

obli-

position in which a player

must move but cannot do so without disadvantage; the obligation to make a move even when disadvantageous. Frequently in

zuppa

di

in

pesce

zugzwang. /.tsuppa di ’peje/ noun

phrase M20 Italian. Fish soup.

zuppa inglese phrase M20 Italian Italian dessert

skirt).

Zouaves,

Roman

noun

/.tsuppa irfglese/ (=

English soup).

resembling

A

rich

trifle.

zurla /’ zoala/ noun plural zurle /' zualei/ M20 Serbo-Croat surla from (as) next). (

Music

A

kind of

shawm

,

introduced to the

zurna

|

zwischenzug

482

the dirty dancer, a quixotic French

Balkans from the Middle East by Gyp-

hair

sies.

cameraman

lip,

—zut

alors!

—and a group

of

troglodyte descendants of lost Vikings with a

zurna

Turkish (from Perpipe). Music A kind of

/'zuana/ noun L19

sian surna festival shawm found in Turkey, Arabic-speaking countries,

and various neighbouring

re-

gions.

zut

French. Expressing irritation, contempt, impatience, etc. /zyt/ interjection E20

Also zut

alors!,

in

which

alors acts as

an

intensifier.

1996 Times: Weekend So end

just

that brings together the

what

woman

is

it

in

the

with the

liking for

high technology?

zwieback

noun L19 German (= twice-bake). A (sweet) rusk or biscuit made by baking a small loaf, and then toasting slices until they are dry and /'tsvi:bak/

crisp.

zwischenzug German (from

/'tsvifan,tsu:k/

noun M20

zwischen intermediate +

Zug move). Chess A move interposed in a sequence of play in such a way as to alter the outcome.

Appendix

Aboriginal

kalimba

remskoen

languages

kente

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

kwashiorkor kya lappa manyatta

rondavel rooinek schlenter

boomerang cooee corroboree gibber koradji

NINETEENTH CENTURY alcheringa billabong binghi

bunyip gilgai

goondie

sosatie

kiva piki

tameletiie togt trek

wickiup

piri-piri

soukous tsotsi

Wabenzi wahala

Afrikaans/Dutch

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

yakka

kachina

patha patha

tjurunga willy-willy

hogan

skepsel

takhaar

mulga

mallee

cheechako

mau-mau

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY dagga jong

gunyah

NINETEENTH CENTURY cassareep

doek hanepoot

Uitlander veldskoen voetganger voetsek volk voorloper Voortrekker

TWENTIETH CENTURY apartheid baasskap boerewors

TWENTIETH CENTURY

mola

Anglo-Indian SEVENTEENTH CENTURY brinjal

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY chi-chi

serang NINETEENTH CENTURY chota

memsahib

braai braaivleis

topi

dominee

Arabic

didgeridoo

karats kraal krans

wongi

mebos

klonkie

naartjie

koeksister

SIXTEENTH CENTURY cadi

African

sjambok

languages

skoff

kragdadig kwela

TWENTIETH CENTURY

bombora

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

harmattan juju

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

buckra kierie

marimba NINETEENTH CENTURY accra

donga impi indaba

induna

springbok stoep veld vlakte vlei

NINETEENTH CENTURY berg biltong

bond dop hamel inspan jukskei

kappie

inkosi

katel

intombi inyanga

kerel

jumby

konfyt

lobola

kop koppie

mabele mbira nagana

sangoma tokoloshe

klompie

laager

lammervanger maas

umfaan

mealie meisie

umfundisi yabba zombie

oblietjie

TWENTIETH CENTURY alhaji

balafon dashiki

Nagmaal

cafila

faki

hashish

lekker melktert naat

jubba kebaya

oudstryder

muezzin

ouma

mufti

oupa

reis

outjie

sharif

platteland

swart gevaar tot siens vaaljapie

sheikh

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY arak eid

verkrampte

fakir

verligte

fatwa

witblits

hakim haram

witdoek

imam

American Indian languages

kebab

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY moccasin peag pocosin

kiblah

khamsin laban

madrasah mastaba

powwow

sakia

wampum

salaam

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY coontie

sayyid sura

ulema wadi

oom

menhaden pemmican

ou oubaas

quipu shaganappi

pondok

tepee

bismillah

rand

windigo

dhow

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY afreet

Arabic

Eskimo languages

484 1 .*#».

fellah

urs

pe-tsai

Czech

galabiya ghazi

wakf yashmak

souchong

TWENTIETH CENTURY

T’ai

Hadith hajj

zareba zawiya

hanif

zibib

id ul-fitr

ihram

TWENTIETH CENTURY

Chi

NINETEENTH CENTURY

hacek kolach

chopsuey

chow mein shu

k’ai

Danish TWENTIETH CENTURY

Bedu burghul

kowtow kung fu

kohl naskhi rebab

landrace

falafel

kylin

mor

harka

Lohan nien hao

smorrebrod

simoom

hummus

talak

imshi

tarboosh

intifada

tekbir

ishan

pak-choi pa-kua san-hsien taipan

wazir

maleesh

t’ing

khalifa

NINETEENTH CENTURY aba abaya

hijab

mazar medina reg

agal

seif

alfa

sharifa

askari

shufti

azan

shura tabbouleh

bint fana fedai

gandoura ghibli

gimbri halal

hammada hamza

Aramaic SEVENTEENTH CENTURY Kaddish tefillin

NINETEENTH CENTURY

kiddushin Kol Nidre

inshallah izar

jebel jellaba

jihad jinnee kaid

kameez keffiyeh

khat

Bantu languages see under African languages

loofah

Mahdi

Bengali

masjid

Maulana mihrab

mimbar sabkha santir

serdab

shadoof shahada shahid

surbahar TWENTIETH CENTURY esraj

kermis

monsoon SEVENTEENTH CENTURY

te

ti-tzu

tong wei ch’i

yang ch’in yiieh ch’in

TWENTIETH CENTURY an-hua

cheongsam dazibao

dim sum erh hu fu yung ganbei

maelstrom polder soya

vendue

vrouw EIGHTEENTH CENTURY baas kloof poort

snoek stoop

NINETEENTH CENTURY Boer

ganbu

matje

gung-ho

poffertje

hoisin

ko kuei

riem riempie rijsttafel

kwai-lo

roemer

lei

stelling

ling chih

mah-jong

mee mei ping pai-hua

Breton

pakapoo

NINETEENTH CENTURY korrigan

p’an

menhir

taal

wamus witloof

TWENTIETH CENTURY kraak porselein

woonerf

putonghua

Egyptian

qinghaosu samfu

(Ancient) NINETEENTH CENTURY

Catalan

san

NINETEENTH CENTURY

subgum

shabti

tou

ushabti

paella

ts’ai

ts’ai

talayot

tu-mo

taula

ve-tsin

TWENTIETH CENTURY sardana

Chinese SEVENTEENTH CENTURY ginseng

sheikha

li

shott

sampan

souk sudd

yang

tazia

SIXTEENTH CENTURY

li

NINETEENTH CENTURY

Majlis

mancala mashallah

Dutch

spruit

khutbah kief Kitab

landnam

yin

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

wen

ankh

TWENTIETH CENTURY shawabti

jen

wen-yen

Eskimo

wok

languages

wonton

wushu

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

ying ch’ing

angekok kabloona kayak

yuan

parka

wu

ts’ai

umiak

Corsican TWENTIETH CENTURY

NINETEENTH CENTURY igloo

umma

feng-shui

macchia

nunatak

umrah

hong

tafone

tupik

Eskimo languages

485

French |

TWENTIETH CENTURY

bourg

cafard caloyer

cameo

puissance rebec regardant

carte

reinette

canaille

anorak pingo

bruit

qiviut

catechumen Fijian NINETEENTH CENTURY sulu

yanggona

ceinture cenacle

^ reprise

camaieu canton

rouge

cap-a-pie

capriole

chaperon

sanglier tendresse tisane

cartel

cham

capuche

chasse

toile

cestui

Finnish

chaussure

triste

chamois

NINETEENTH CENTURY

chevalier

tristesse

champignon

chevauchee

tuile

chevelure

vigneron

chancre chaton

chevron

vignette vinaigrette

clientele

cicatrice

cohabitation

vivier

commissar

volage

concierge confiture

sauna TWENTIETH CENTURY kantele

French OLD ENGLISH philosophe

confrere

amour

conge couchant couleur de rose coup

avoirdupois

crise

bourdon

dariole

chemise

dauphin

corvee

difficile

douce

distrait

fleche

douceur

fleur-de-lis

droit

godet haras hydria impayable jupe langue

envoi

fleuron gabelle

largesse

gourmand

lieu

Madame

haut-pas helas

menage

hydra

Messiah

introit

noblesse

jaune

orfevrerie

jour jujube

MIDDLE ENGLISH accidie

par parure patron peridot potage reverie

richesse sans sec soustablier

tache trebuchet

venue voussoir LATE MIDDLE ENGLISH

absinth adieu aigre-doux antipodes avant-garde ballade

equivoque fete

finesse

FIFTEENTH CENTURY

blond brochette

commis

cordelle

corps corps de garde

chanson

courante

cheval

croissant

convenance entremet faubourg jumelle parole portail recueil

regime replique sachet serviette

dementi demoiselle diable

divan

doge

dolman eloge

emir escritoire

esplanade esprit faille

sou

tambour tapis

tranche tourbillion valet

vignoble SIXTEENTH CENTURY

feme covert feme sole feuillemorte

framboise fricassee

fugue fusee

gabion

abbe adage

gendarme

lardon legerdemain

a la

gigot

lese-majeste

aliquot antes

gnomon

armoire auberge banderole

gout guidon

jupon

lierne

Mademoiselle meridional migraine muscatel musette

a la

mode

gendarmerie girasol

gonfalonier

haut-gout

bastide

hippodrome jacquerie

nadir noir nonpareil

baton bayadere bibliotheque bocage

obit

bon

lima^on

or orgeat

bonjour

loup-garou

bonne bonze

lunette luxe

bourgeois bourse

maison

oriflamme oyer oyez pain

Bedouin beguine

pave peage pensee

bergerette

petit

blancmange

plage

kermes kumis lien

maitre d’hotel

bricole

malgre

brocard brunet

marron

burnous cabochon cachou

mignon

massif

monad mot

French moustache

muguet muscat mystagogue

486

banquette baragouin

cortege

globule

corvette

goitre

bascule

couchee coup d’etat coup de grace

gondolier

grand monarque grand seigneur

nacre

beau beau monde

naif

bel esprit

nebule paladin

belle

courbette court bouillon

gratin grillade

belles-lettres

couscous

gueux

panache

berceau

creole

haricot

patisserie

bidet

cresson

pavane

bienseance bigarreau

critique croisette

hauteur honnete

bijou billet-doux

croupade

impromptu

culet

bisque

cure

intendant intime

bizarre bon vivant

cuvette

pensionnaire

perdu petite

phaeton piquant pique

degage de haut en bas

portmanteau

bon voyage boucan

puisne

bouilli

demarche

qui vive

bouillon

ravelin

reglement rendezvous

bourgade bourree boutade

dernier dernier ressort deshabille

reseau

brouillon

rondeau

brusque bureau burin

pomade

santon seigneur sequin serin

sorbet sultan taille

tarot tercet

terreplein tilleul

toque villanelle

violon visitant

vivandier vive

volte

volute zibeline

SEVENTEENTH CENTURY aide-de-camp allemande allumette amende honorable

ampoule

burlesque cabaret cachet cadet caique

calumet capot caprice caracole carousel carte blanche

je

ne

sais

jet d’eau

knout kremlin lansquenet levee

domino douane

liaison

double entendre doyen dragee

maladroit

eclaircissement

manege

eclat

marabout marc

enceinte en deshabille en passant en prince entre nous environs

epode

mache malapropos mal-entendu

Mardi gras marionette marquise mascaron melange melee

menus

plaisirs

minaret

ergot

mistral

espalier

moire

mouche

catafalque

estacade estrade etourdi

cervelat

etui

musee

chaconne

exergue

chagrin

faience faineant faineantise

naive naivete

cartouche casque cassolette

chaise

chandelier chanterelle

fanfaronade

charivari chassis chef-d’oeuvre

quoi

legume

dey

embonpoint

calotte

jalap jargonelle

delicatesse

embarras

caisson

homme

hotel-Dieu

mon

cher

mousseline

neroli

niche nom de guerre

nonchalance

farceur faux pas feu d’artifice

nouvelle odalisque

andouille andouillette

chevaux de

feu de joie

odeum

a outrance

chicane

flageolet

opuscule

apropos arabesque

flambeau

orangerie

forte

ordonnance

arret

ciboule cirque clairvoyant

fronton

assegai

coiffure

gala

atelier

colon

gar^on

ortolan par excellence parterre

attentat

commissionaire

compote comte

au revoir

console

baccalaureate

contretemps coquet

gare gavotte gazette genie gens de la robe gigue girandole

partie

aubade au reste

glacis

penchant

badinage bagatelle ballet

frise

coquette cotps de logis

passade passementerie passe-partout pastille

patois

paysage

487

French

pension

tribade

percale

tric-trac

pere

tutoyer

peristyle

vade-mecum

picot

valet-de-chambre

pignon

valise

piquet pirogue pirouette

vedette vin voir dire

pis aller

plafond point poivrade politique porte-cochere

potager pot-pourri pour passer le

temps pratique proces-verbal

ragout rapport rasant ratafia ratelier

ravissant

rebus recherche religieuse

religieux

renversement reveille

rigadoon

rodomontade rouleau routier sabot

sagamite sainfoin salon sans ceremonie sans fa^on

sarabande

abatis

accouchement accoucheur acharnement agiotage

agrement aigrette aiguille

daube

allee

amateur a merveille

amour propre ancien regime

aplomb applique propos de bottes assemble assemblee a

assiette

a toft et a travers

aubergine au contraire au courant au fait au fond au pied de la avalanche badigeon baguette bain-marie balance ballonne bal

sottise

barbette barcarole bas bleu

banco bandeau

cotillion

coup d’oeil coup de foudre coup de main coup de theatre coupe coureur creche

boutique bouts rimes bravo

crepe

brise

cromorne

brochure

croquette croupier cuisine

buffet cabriole cabriolet

cretin

critique

cul-de-sac

cache

curette

cadastre

cyme

cadeau cafe au lait cannelure cantaloup caoutchouc

dalles

carafe

debris

carillon

debut dehors dejeuner

carmagnole carriole carte du pays casserole cassette

dame de compagnie daube debouche

demi-caractere

demilune demi-saison

catalogue raisonne cause celebre celadon centrifuge

denouement

chalumeau chambranle

detour de trop devot

chanterelle lettre

masque

saucisson seigneurie sobriquet

sou markee

bourgeoisie

EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

a la

boudoir bougie boulevard bouleversement bouquet bouquetier bourgeoise

de nouveau depot derriere

chapeau-bras charade charge d’affaires

diablerie Directoire

charlotte

dormeuse

chasse chasseur

douanier

chateau chatoyant

duchesse duvet

chenille

eau-de-vie

chere amie chez

echelon

divertissement

douche

ebauche

chiffon chiffonier

ecrevisse

batardeau bateau

chignon chou

elegante

batterie

embarras de

batterie de cuisine

ci-devant cipolin

bechamel

civet

embouchure

bergere bigarade

clique

terre-verte

bistre

comme

tete-a-tete

bivouac blanc blanquette bon-bon

compagnon de

embrasure emeute emigre empressement en attendant

spirituel

suede suite

tableau table d’hote tabouret taille-douce talus

toison d’or

tombac topinambour tourniquet tourte tracasserie traineau

bonhomie bon mot bonne bouche bon ton

egalite elite

richesse

colporteur il

faut

voyage

compere

enceinte

compotier comptoir connoisseur

encore en face en famille

conservatoire

enfilade en gros

tremblement

borne bosquet

contrecoup cordon bleu corps diplomatique

trente-et-quarante

bossage

coterie

treillage

en l’air en masse ennui

French

488

ennuyant ennuye enrage en route

ensemble en suite en train entrechat entree entrepot

jeu de paume jeunesse jongleur julienne kaolin

kasbah

paroli

salep

parti

salle

partie carree

salle-a-manger salmi salpicon sang-froid sans pareil sansculotte savant savante savoir vivre savonette

pas pas de deux pas de trois

lande langue d’oc langue d’oil

passe pate

lavage

patronne

passacaille

patte paupiette

entresol

lettre

en ventre sa mere

lettre

epaulette

levee

epigramme

liqueur

paysanne perruquier

epris

locale

persiflage

sejour seve

esprit de corps

loge

petit-maitre

siffleur

esprit fort

longueur loup maisonette majuscule malaise mal de mer

petit pain

silhouette

piaffe

sissonne

picotee piece de resistance pierrot

socle

pise

solitaire

piste

farce

mandolin maniere

Soubise soubrette

farouche faute de mieux

mannequin

plat

manque

plateau

marechaussee marinade marivaudage

polonaise

souterrain souvenir

pompadour

tafia

matelote

pompon

mauvais mauvais sujet mentor meringue

port-crayon port de voix

tant bien que tant mieux tant pis

pose

terre-a-terre

poste restante postiche pot-au-feu pot de chambre

terrine tiers etat

poudre poupee

tonneau

mezzanine mignonette minaudiere

pourparler

to uj ours gai

praline

to uj ours perdrix

precieux

mirabelle

precis

toupet tournee tournure

esquisse

etamine etiquette

etourderie exigeant extrados

fauteuil

femme fete

de chambre

champetre

fichu figurant fille

de joie

fourchette foyer fracas

fricandeau frisson

fronde frondeur gage d’amour gaiete de coeur galere galette galipot

de cachet

mesalliance messagerie

metayer metier mezair

place d’armes

politesse

secretaire

soi-disant

soiree

soup^on soupe

mal

tirailleur

ton tontine

molleton

preux chevalier

gauche

mon ami

prie-dieu

gaucherie

monde

protege

gite

grisette

moraine morale morceau mordore mousquetaire

gros

nacarat

quatorze radeau raisonne rapporteur

guillotine

nee

recolte

tout tout au contraire tout compris tout court tout de suite tout ensemble tout le monde tout seul traiteur

ha-ha haute noblesse

negligee

redingote

trajet

nonchalant

regie

triage

homme

nouvelle

restaurateur

tricorne

noyau nuance

reticule

tricot

ricochet

tripotage

oeil-de-boeuf ombres chinoises

rinceau

trottoir

riposte

troubadour

opera comique orne

rissole

oubliette

roti

trouvere tuyere tzigane

outre

rotisseur rouge-et-noir

uhlan

palette

jalousie

panne

roulade

valse

jeu jeu d’esprit jeu de mots

papier

roulette

vaudeville velours

grande dame grand monde grippe

d’affaires

hors d ’oeuvre hors de combat hotel de ville hotel garni houri illumine insouciance intrados intriguant

mache

papillote parloir

puree quadrille

robe de chambre

ruse saccade

usine

vendange

489

French

verd-antique vers de societe

barege barre

veuve vin blanc

basse-taille

vin du pays

batiste

vingt-et-un

battement

bassinet

mousseux

vin

vis-a-vis

vive la bagatelle

vogue

la

galere

voila

volupte NINETEENTH CENTURY a bas abattoir

abonne abonnement abri a cheval a contrecoeur a

deux

affaire

affiche

a fond

agent provocateur

aide-memoire a la brochette a la carte

a la fourchette a la lanterne a la russe

ame damnee amour courtois amourette anis

battue batture bavaroise bearnaise

beau ideal beau role beau sabreur beaute du diable beaux arts beaux yeux beignet berceuse beret bertillonage bete noire

aperqu aperitif le

arrondissement

clairvoyance claque

calembour

claqueur

camaraderie camisole canape canard cancan capable de tout capitonne

clavecin cliche

cloche cloisonne clou cocasse coco-de-mer cocotte coiffeur col

biberon bidon bien entendu

carton-pierre casse

colportage

cohue

cassis

comble comedie humaine comedie

bien-etre

causerie

bijouterie

causeuse

blague blaapeur blancbec blanc de chine blanc de perle blanc fixe

celeste

comedienne

cep

communard communique

bombe bonbonniere

bordereau

bouchee

a trois

boucle bouffant

au grand serieux au gratin au mieux

cagnotte

cartonnage

artiste

attache

clair-de-lune

cafetiere

bibelot

bon enfant bon gre mal gre bonheur du jour bonne femme bonne fortune

arriere-pensee

cafe noir

cafe

carte-de-visite

aquarelle

arme blanche

cafe chantant

chose jugee choucroute chouette chronique scandaleuse chypre cire perdue

beurre noir

bon appetit

argot

chipolata chocolatier

capote carnet

deluge apres coup arete

>

caba cabane cabotage cache-peigne cache-pot cadre

betise

blase bleu-du-roi bois brule boiserie

anonym

apres nous

butte

bouillabaisse

aumoniere

boulevardier bouleverse bouquet garni

au naturel au pair au serieux

bouton boutonniere brandade

Av[o]u[e]

brasserie

baba

breloque

larmoyante

cerise

chacun

a

son gout

chaise longue

champleve changement chanson de geste chansonette chansonnier chantage chanteuse chapelle ardente charabanc

compte rendu concessionaire conferencier confrerie consigne

consomme conte conteur contredanse coque

charge

coquillage coquille cor anglais

charlotte russe

corbeau

chartreuse chasse chasse croise

cordon sanitaire

charcuterie

Chateaubriand chatelaine chaud-froid

chaussee chechia chef chef d’ecole chef d’orchestre chemin de fer chemisette cheval de bataille

corbeille

corniche corps a corps corps d’elite corps de ballet corsetiere

coryphee costumier coteau

couac coude coulee coulisse couloir

baccarat bagarre bagasse

bretelle

bahut

briquette

chibouk

baignoire

broche

chic

broderie anglaise

chiffonnade

brouhaha

chiffonnier

brut burette

chine

couvre-pied cracovienne cremaillere

chinoiserie

creme

bal

costume

ballon ballon d’essai barbotine

bric-a-brac

chevalet chevet

brioche

cheville

coup de coupe

fors

courge couvade

French

490

creme brulee creme de la creme creme de noyau crepe de Chine

eau-de-Cologne eau de Javel eau-d e-Nil eau sucree

crepeline crepinette

eboulement ecarte

estouffade etagere

gare garigue gateau

etang etrenne etude

gene gene genre

estaminet

crepon cretonne

eclair

exalte

gilet

ecorche

expose

crevasse criard

ecossaise

fabliau

ecru

crible

ecuelle

crochet croquis croustade

eglomise

fa^on de parler fa^onne fait accompli famille de robe

girouette glace glissade

crouton cru culotte

cupidon curettage

cuvee

dame d'honneur danse du ventre danse macabre danseur danseuse debacle debat

debutant debutante declasse decolletage decollete

elan

email ombrant embarras de choix

empiecement emplacement employe

famille famille famille famille

jaune noire rose verte

farandole

empresse en avant en beau en bloc en cabochon

faux-bourdon femme de menage

enchainement

fer-d e-lance

en

ferronniere feu feu follet

clair

enclave

encoignure en echelon en evidence enfant gate

femme du monde femme incomprise femme savante

feuilleton

gloire gloriette

gouache goujon gourmet grand battement grand coup grande horizontale grande passion grand mal Grand Prix grand siecle graticule

grecque grenadine gres

grimoire griot

fiance

grisaille

ficelle

gros bleu grosgrain gros point

enfantillage

file

enfant terrible

filet filet

de rigueur dernier cri dernier mot detenu diable au corps dinanderie

en fete engage en gar^on engobe en grande tenue en grand seigneur en noir en pension en permanence en place en plein en plein air en prise en rapport en regie en retraite en revanche

diorama

ensilage

diseuse distingue divorcee doctrinaire

entente entente cordiale entourage

dolmen donnee

entrain entr’acte

fouette foulard foule

dos-a-dos

entrecote

fourreau

dot

entredeux entrepreneur

franc tireur frappe.

insouciant intriguante introuvable jabot

epaulement

ffise

jacquard

epee

frotteur frou-frou fusain

japonaiserie jardiniere jaspe

decor degras degringolade delassement de luxe

demenagement demi-mondaine demi-monde demitasse

demode denigrement

double double entente doublure

doyenne

en tout cas

de boeuf

fillette

guilloche

fils

fin

gueridon guichet

de

siecle

champagne

guimpe

flaneur

guipure habitue hachure haute bourgeoisie haute ecole haut monde

fleur-d e-coin

haut-relief

flic

haut ton

flicflac

hollandaise horizontale hors concours houp-la

fine

fines herbes

flacon flageolet

flambe

foie gras folie

de grandeur folie du doute fondant fondue force majeure foudroyant folie

idee fixe

immortelle impair impasse

imprevu inconnu ingenue

dramaturge

erg escargot esclandre

fusillade

j’adoube

droit de seigneur

espacement

galop

jete

du reste du tout

espadrille

jeu de societe

duxelles

espagnole espagnolette

gamin gamine gangue

eau

espieglerie

garde champetre

drageoir



jeune jeune

fille

fille

elevee

bien

French

491

jeune premier jeunesse doree joie de vivre

mauvais quart

mayonnaise

opera bouffe

pipette

jolie laide

mazurka mechant

ouvrier

pique

paillette

piton

mefiance

pair

placement

Palais Royal

kermesse

menage mere

paletot

planchette plastique

La

metairie

palmette

plein-air

lacet

metayage

papeterie

plein-airiste

laissez-aller

metif metis

plein jeu

juge destruction juste milieu kepi

d’heure

a trois

ombre

pince-nez

on

piolet

dit

langouste langue de chat

meuniere milieu

parados paratonnerre par eminence par exemple

larmoyant

millefeuille

parfait

plombiere

lavaliere

mille-fleurs

plumeau

layette lectrice

mirage mirepoix

parfumerie pari-mutuel parquet

legionnaire

mirliton

parseme

levee en masse lever de rideau lingerie

mise en scene misere modiste moellon

lisse

mofette

litterateur

moire

livraison

mondain montagnard montagne russe mont de piete

laissez-faire

lie

lorgnette

louche luthier lycee

Lyonnais

macabre macedoine madeleine maillot

maison de sante maison toleree maitre maitre d’ maitre d’armes maitre de ballet maitresse en titre maitresse femme malade imaginaire maladif maladresse

mon

vieux moq^iette

morgue mot d’ordre motif motte

moue moule moulin mousse mousseux moyen-age

museau musicale mystique

parti pris

parvenu pas d’ane pas de basque pas de ciseaux pas de quatre passe pas seul pastiche pastourelle pate pate brisee pate de foie gras pate dure pate-sue-pate pate tendre patte de velours pavilion

plie

plique a jour plisse

pochade pochette poelee point d’appui point d’orgue point de repere pointe polisson pomme de terre

pompier pontil

porte-bouquet portee porte-monnaie portiere pose plastique

poseur potiche

poudre pouf poule au pot

paysan peau d’Espagne

poulet poulette

peau-de-soie

poult-de-soie

peignoir pelure

pourboire pour encourager

pendeloque

les

autres

pour

necessaire

pere de famille perfide Albion permis de sejour persiennes personnel

Ni