The design of a conditioning cabinet used in the aging of meats

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THE DESIGN OF A CONDITIONING CABINET USED IN THE AGING OF MEATS

A Thesis Presented to The Faculty of the School of Industrial Design University of Southern California

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Science in Industrial Design

by Donald W. Reid June 1950

UMI Number: EP54692

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This thesis, w ritten by

............. DONALD_ W_.__j^ID......... under the guidance of h.%$.~ F a c u lty Co m m ittee} and approved by a ll its members, has been presented to and accepted by the C o uncil on G raduate Study and Research in p a r t ia l f u l f i l l ­ ment of the requirements f o r the degree of

MASTER OF SCIENCE INDUSTRIAL DESIGN

Faculty Committee

Chairman

ii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The author wishes to acknowledge the kind assis­ tance that was given him by the staff of the Industrial Design Department of the University of Southern California and especially the members of his faculty committee; A. B. Gallion Dean, Hunt Lewis, Salvatore Merendino and Harry Greene•

He is also indebted to the Hodges Research and Development Company, Redwood City, California, for their cooperation in making available many facts which assisted in the solution of this problem.

iii ABSTRACT The cabinet design for forth-coming meat aging equipment was selected as the subject of this thesis in answer to an existing demand for such a cabinet.

A study was made of the potential market, involv­ ing both consumer and market requirements.

A functional

analysis of the proposed cabinet with consideration toward the already completed refrigerating system established the final design.

Further refinement of the design from the

standpoint of engineering and appearance is defined in the final form.

The proposed cabinet is designed around the com­ pleted refrigerating system developed by The Hodges Re­ search And Development Company, Redwood City, California. This cabinet was designed not only to satisfy the meat conditioning requirements, but to be used for display purposes as well.

iv TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER I.

PAGE

INTRODUCTION................................ Problem

. . . . .....................

Solution II.

1 .

2 2

...................

HISTORY

5

General Background Information ........... Hotel

7 12

Restaurants

...

........

. . . . . . .

13

Butcher S h o p s .............................. IkIII.

DESIRED USE OF C A B I N E T ........................ 1? Maintenance

.....................

16

Service

17

Butcher Shop L a y - o u t ........................17 Amortization

............................

Example Case # 1 . . ..............

2b 25

Example Case # 2 ....................... 26 IV.

S U R V E Y ......................................... 28 Questionnaire

...........................

Questionnaire - Results Cabinet Style Study

29

................. •

29 32

Study # 1 .............................. 3*+ Study # 2 .............................. 36 Study # 3 .............................. 38

V

CHAPTER

PAGE Study # ) + .........................IfO Study # 5 .........................If2 Study #6 . . . .......... . . . . . Mf

^6

Study # 7 ................

......................... ^8

Display.

Exterior D e s i g n .............. Interior Design

. *+9

.................

50

...............

51

Cabinet Location

Color S t u d y .........................52 L i g h t i n g ............................. 56 V.

FINAL D E S I G N ............ Cabinet Mechanics

58 ...................

58

Loading the C a b i n e t ................ 59 Curtain Equipment

.................

60

Cabinet D o o r .........................61 Door Handle

...........

Stainless Steel Strip Cabinet Base . . . . . . Insulation

. . . . . 6 2

. . . . . .

62

............. 63

......................... . 6*+

Wall I n s u l a t i o n .................... 67 Base Insulation Construction

.............. . 6 8 ...................

. 69

C o l o r ............................... 73 Customer Stimulus

...................

73

vi CHAPTER

PAGE C o n c l u s i o n ................. 7^

BIBLIOGRAPHY

.........................................

98

vii LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PAGE FINAL DESIGN......................................

If

BUTCHER SHOP LAYOUT Type 1

.................................... 20

Type 2

............

Type 3

.................................... 22

Type

.................................... 23

21

STYLE STUDY Study # 1 .................................. 35 Study # 2 .................................. 37 Study # 3 .................................. 39 Study # > + .................................. ifl Study # 5 .................................. ^3 Study # 6 .................................. *f5 Study # 7 .................................. ^7 COLOR SAMPLES

.................................. 55

FINAL DESIGN ALTERNATE STUDY

75 ................................

WORKING D R A W I N G S ........................77 to 9*t

75

CHAPTER I

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION In selecting the subject of the thesis it was considered that the item to be designed should have certain characteristics.

In order to afford design experience and

permit a complete and satisfactory solution the item should be used by persons locally and easily contacted for research purposes.

The solution of this problem limited to the time

allowed and the facilities available.

The Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California, with whom I worked part time while attending The University of Southern California, had just such a product to be developed.

With many years spent developing the proper conditioning system for aging meats, it was important that the cabinet design reflect this study.

The cabinets now on the market afforded little in the way of a solution toward this problem.

This cabinet is expected to be mass produced by

a manufacturer having experience with refrigerating equip­ ment.

PROBLEM To redesign completely the Meat Conditioning Cabinet developed by The Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California.

In designing this cabinet consideration was given the refrigerating system which is the basis of the problem.

This system has been developed over a period of

years and a proper housing and lay-out is now required.

The design of this cabinet to satisfy all re­ quirements demanded by the manufacturer, retailer and con­ sumer .

SOLUTION The final design of the Meat Conditioning Cabi­ net was accomplished by using the existing principles of meat conditioning developed by The Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California. This cabinet although completely different in appearance does operate under the same system with consi-

deration toward the constant temperature, relative humi­ dity, air flow and light control desired.

The final design of this cabinet presents a pleasing and inviting appearance to the consumer and should definitely tend to stimulate sales by the retailer.

CHAPTER II

CHAPTER II HISTORY The history of meat aging has been very brief as no scientific processes of aging meat had been attempted until around 19*+*+ when Swift and Armour became interested in conditioning meats.

Meat purchased in the United States will be sold under one of five classifications; 1.

U. S. Choice

2.

U. S. Good

3*

U. S. Commercial

b.

U. S. Utility

5#

Canners & Cutters

The Army and Navy purchase U. S. Good while the great majority of hospitals use U. S. Choice.

Most meat

purchased over the counter in this area will be U. S. Good.

It has been the experience of all butchers that the customer will purchase tender meat regardless of pro­ tein value and classification.

This is brought out by the

fact that even in early days the slaughtered meat was hung out in the open on a stick away from animals. was called lfjerk1’ beef.

This meat

6 The next step of course was to hang themeat in large rooms to keep the insects away.

From here

next advancement was to cool the room slightly.

the

This

cooling had quite an effect on the meat as the meat re­ mained firmer, was not as slimey and did not get quite as strong in odor.

There are four different types of mold that grow on aging meat; 1.

Black mold

2.

White mold

3*

Blue-green mold

*+.

Whiskers

It is the growth of this mold along with the rather strong odor that butchers object to most in aging beef.

It must be noted here however that in early days

when aging meat the amount of mold on the beef indicated the aged condition.

This mold will begin to form about

the sixth or seventh day and from then on it will increase rapidly.

The mold it-self does not contribute to the

tenderness, only indicates the condition of the meat.

When referring to mold growth it must be re­ membered that in the past this growth was the only way

to determine the condition of aging meat.

This thesis

will explain the advanced methods of conditioning meat without this unsightly growth.

GENERAL BACKGROUND INFORMATION Purpose of meat aging According to information presented by The Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California, there are two types of enzymes in meat. of these

enzymes builds up the muscles while the

One

other

tends totear down the tissue. When the cattle is slaughtered, the enzyme that builds up the muscle dies also leaving the "protylic" enzyme to break down the muscle tissues and make the meat tender. The purpose of this conditioning cabinet is nothing more than providing this protylic enzyme with the ideal conditions

to break down these tougher tissues.

It would be well to note here that

although

fat on or in the meat (Marbeling) makes it tender origi­ nally, the fat is not affected at all in the conditioning process.

Basically the only difference between U. S.

Choice and U. S. Good grades of meat is the fat found on

8 each.

The U. S. Choice will have the most fat.

The whole system of aging meat sounded very satisfactory to the majority of butchers contacted, but all were a little hesitant to the cost.

The question of

how long it would take to pay for the necessary equipment will be answered in a section of this thesis under "Amortization".

The aging of meats is a very technical process and includes the control of four factors; 1.

Temperature

2.

Relative Humidity

3•

Air Flow

b.

Light Control

Lack of control in any one of these factors will hinder the efficiency of meat conditioning considerably.

There are five main obstacles in the condition­ ing of meat.

These will be solved in this thesis.

are; 1.

Mold growth

2.

Shrink

3.

Meat turning dark

They

9 *f.

Inventory bother

5*

Storage

All five of these problems are directly associated with the four factors listed above; 1.

Mold growth

all four factors

2.

Shrink ---- Relative Humidity and air flow

3.

Meat turning dark ---

b.

Inventory ---- All four factors as aging

Air Flow

time is cut 5.

Storage ---

All four factors as aging time is cut

With the control of the four basic conditioning factors the time involved in aging meat is cut from twentyeight

daysto seven.

the butcher

With this great cut in time naturally

has far less inventory to worry about and has

his storage problem reduced considerably.

All butchers have customers who insist on aged meats.

The butcher will have special custs laid aside for

these customers. 1.

He will sell the cuts two ways; The butcher will bring out the meat covered with mold and weigh it, then trim it off and wrap

10 2.

The butcher will trim the meat in the back room, bring it out, weigh it and add 10$

The consumer who wishes aged meats really prefers the former as he or she can see how much the meat has been aged by the amount of mold growth and will not have to take the butchers word for the aging time.

Most meat is now aged in walk-in coolers where the temperature is set at 3*+0F,

The temperature level is

usually around 38°F as the door of the cooler is always being opened.

The humidity in these coolers usually is

about 85% R.H., and many times is lower.

Beef it-self is

72% moisture and will gradually decline making the meat tougher. Air circulation is absolutely required for proper aging, the movement of air picks up the mold spores and will not permit them to get a firm hold in the meat and cause mold growth.

The air motion if excessively

rapid will turn the meat dark and will have a tendency to dry it out.

After extensive study it was found by The

Hodges Research and Development Company that the air flow should be very close to 30 feet per minute over the meat. As this air is designed to pick up the mold spores it is reasonable to assume that the air would become filled with

11 these spores and eventually deposit themselves on the meat. Here another provision has been made for the complete change of the circulating air once every six hours.

The air en­

tering the conditioning system is purified as before going into circulation it passes through carbon canisters which remove many impurities.

The reason the butchers are left with the pro­ blem of aging their own meats is that the packers work under a very narrow margin of profit, only about 1$ per pound.

If the packer were to age meats the problem of

storage would have to be solved along with the other losses incurred in existing aging methods.

The whole basis of this problem is brought out here.

The butcher can sell tender meat, but finds it ex­

pensive to age meat insuring tenderness.

A system for

aging meat without excessive cost to the butcher and guaranteeing tenderness would be a highly successful de­ velopment. Mr. R. Locke, of The Hodges Research And Deve­ lopment Company, conducted extensive research on the possi­ bilities of using these conditioning cabinets in hotels

12 and restaurants.

Some of the more important facts are

listed below.

HOTEL All large hotels with dining facilities age their own meats and have basically the same problems the restaurant owner faces.

With existing large walk-in

coolers being used, the size of the cooling unit necessary to keep the temperature constant will be quite large. These large units will tend to vibrate and make consider­ able noise and might be disturbing.

The use of a conditioning cabinet in a hotel would help the following situations considerably 5 1.

Reduce inventory

2.

Save at least 5% in shrinkage

3 . Save around 10$ in trim (mold) if. The hotel will be serving more tender

meat

and will be making new customers with every meal served. 5.

Will cut down the expense of handling the meat so often and will naturally aid in the sanitation problem.

6.

The profit the hotel will realize will in-

13 increase about 15% over-all as the elimina­ tion of shrink, trim and excessive labor will easily amount to that* These cabinets are easily moved about and pre­ sent a very flexible means of storing and aging meats.

RESTAURANTS Most restaurant owners buy their meats from branch houses or wholesalers.

After obtaining the meat the

storage problem becomes predominant and in most cases has been partially solved by a walk-in cooler. Restaurants (higher priced particularly ) strive to give the ultimate consumer the most tender meat possible. This can only be attained if the meat is aged.

At the

present time the higher class restaurants age their own meats in walk-in coolers.

These coolers are used for all

purposes and the growth of mold is excessive.

The growth

of mold as stated previously does not affect the meat but the trim expense to the owner cuts way into the profits.

If a cabinet similar to the conditioning cabi­ net was installed the expense of aging meats would be cut tremendously.

This not only from the mold growth stand­

point but refrigeration up-keep and labor involved in keep-

ing large walk-in coolers in operation.

BUTCHER SHOPS The butcher naturally works on a far greater meat volume then the restaurant or hotel owner, but he too has to put up with the same problems; shrinkage, color, mold growth, odor, storage and inventory. Conditioning cabinets for butchers would not only bring more tender meat to the customers but would eliminate all the above mentioned problems that the hotel owner, restaurant owner and butcher shop owner con­ tend with.

CHAPTER III

CHAPTER III DESIRED USE OF CABINET This cabinet is designed to be used by the butcher for aging meats and not as a cabinet from which he would sell directly. The whole principle of aging meats revolves around keeping the temperature constant at 39°F and the re­ lative humidity constant at 92.5%*

Therefore the ideal

meat aging conditions would mean that the cabinet be closed for the full aging period which is five to seven days. This unfortunately is impossible as some days the meat turn-over may be greater and the butcher may be re­ quired to enter the cabinet many times.

Each time he opens

the cabinet door the constant conditions inside the cabinet will be temporarily changed.

Many of these changes will

have a definite effect on the meat. Entrance into the cabinet should be limited to twice a day if possible; once to remove the meat for the days sales and again in the evening when returning it to the cabinet.

This cabinet is used to condition meats and should be considered as such.

The cabinet should not be

16 considered a walk-in refrigerator that will be entered many times.

It is possible though> that in a small store it may

be desirable to use this cabinet as a walk-in box.

With a

few minor adjustments to the refrigerating system this type of use can be very successful.

In a small butcher shop the butcher would ro­ tate his aging meats so that the meats to be sold next would be easily accessible in case of a sudden run.

The butcher

knows what cuts sell fastest and would set those cuts nearer the front of the cabinet in case of a special run.

MAINTENANCE The butcher has very little to do with the up-keep of his cabinet.

The only thing that is absolutely

essential is that the cabinet be cleaned thoroughly once a month with hot water.

This will eliminate mold growth on

the cabinet walls. It is not necessary to adjust the controls as they are set in the motor unit and will be adjusted by a maintenance man if the occasion should arise.

A thermometer

in the cabinet will at all times indicate to the operator the temperature.

If this temperature should vary more than

two degrees or get over *fOoF, a service man should be called.

One must realize here that when the cabinet is first loaded the temperature will naturally go up but after returning to 39*5 F a constant temperature should be maintained, as this is the desired temperature for aging meat.

SERVICE The service required for indefinite use would necessarily include the refrigerating coil cleaned after each year*s service.

Mold will grow on this coil in time

making it necessary to clean.

Every ninety days the compres­

sor should be serviced and all gauges checked for accuracy. New carbon canisters for the air intake should be changed every ninety days as this will aid greatly in keeping offen­ sive odors out of the cabinet. From these service requirements you can see that this cabinet operates similarly to the refrigerator in the home requiring only the use of carbon canisters for air filtering as an extra factor.

BUTCHER SHOP LAY-OUT As this cabinet will be sold to all butchers, its design must, cope with his general problems.

The ultimate

desire of the designer is that each butcher shop will have

18 six of these cabinets; one for each dayte sales.

These

cabinets would be placed in a "bank" along the wall of the shop.

This ideal solution can be accomplished when a new

store is being built and the necessary space has been allow ed. The big problem at hand now is providing the existing

small meat markets with this cabinet.

True, if

the butcher wants this cabinet badly enough he will find room for it.

Chances are, though, his available space will

not be sufficient and the full efficiency of the cabinet will not be realized.

Regardless of the location of the

cabinet the conditioned meats will be the same, the only problem being in the lack of the presentation of the cabi­ net andconditioning system The difficulty

to the ultimate consumer. with many of the existing shops

(as can be noted in the following diagrams) is the lack of space between the wall and counter.

As this cabinet

is roughly M-* X 10.5* a good amount of space is necessary for complete operation.

My survey indicated that the cabinet designed to fit length-wise against the wall of the shop would sell 5 to 1 over a like model that had the small end against the wall.

Butcher shops as a general rule have very little

19 room between the selling counter and back wall so it is im portant that as little of this existing room as possible be used*

Of course the cabinet could be put in a back

room but the great advantages of display and advertising would be lost*

The following drawings are of typical small existing butcher shops.

Notations are made as to how the

cabinet could be best employed in each case.

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22

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23

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AMORTIZATION The main question a prospective purchaser of this cabinet will ask is, "What is the length of time It will take to amortize this equipment?"

Insofar as the Bureau of In­

ternal Revenue is concerned they will not let the owner write off a piece of commercial refrigeration in less than eight years.

Regardless, the butcher will want to know

how long it will take the equipment to pay for itself.

One

would be quite safe in advising the butcher that it will take him less than three years.

The exact length of time

will depend on many factors: i.e., the volume of beef, lamb and veal per week, the grade of meat purchased, the amount he ages in the cabinet each week, the mark up or gross profit on which he operates, the power rate, the type of community in which the store is located, the ambient temperatures, the sanitation, etc.

Two examples follow

later in this chapter in which only 1500 pounds of meat per week are used.

This is definitely on the low side of

volume as the cabinet capacity is 2l+00 pounds per week. Also it should be noted here that a butcher handling only 1500 pounds of meat per week can hardly be called a butcher shop. volume.

He could not afford to operate with such a small

25 The amortization time can and should be computed at the time each prospective customer is approached.

At

time time a complete knowledge of all the factors listed above are known to the salesman.

Knowing these facts a

good salesman would take little time to figure the indivi­ dual case.

Example Case # 1 Assuming that the butcher purchases a cabinet for $1500.00.

As a result of his ability to sell better meat;

i.e., more tender, tastier and finer appearing, he secures 10 new customers who purchase an average of $5.00 of beef, lamb and veal per week.

These 10 new customers will in­

crease his business by $50.00 per week. In the operation of his market, the butcher has his prices marked up so he will gross 30$. figure all butchers try to maintain.

This is the

On that basis he has

an increase per week of his gross profit of $15*00, or for the year, of $780.00.

Deducting an operating cost of

$100.00 per year, leaving a balance of $ 680 .00 , he will have amortized the cabinet in two years, two months and twelve days, everything else remaining constant. If he secured 20 new customers as above, he would be able to amortize the cabinet in just over a year.

Normally a piece of commercial refrigeration re­ quires three to four years to amortize.

Example Case #2 If a meat market, restaurant, hotel, etc., hangs its beef for fifteen days and has a turn-over of 1500 pounds a week, installing a cabinet will save at least 5% in trim and shrink in addition to reducing its inventory in half. If they purchase carcass beef at

per pound and

save 5% of their cost, they can amortize the cabinet in less than a year.In addition their labor

to this, they will reduce

costs as they will have practically no

(caused by aging).

trimming

If the meat is aged by the existing

methods a complete job of trimming will be necessary if he holds the meat for the desired fifteen days.

1500 lbs. x bfy

= $675.00

$675.00 x 5% = $33.75 $33.75

x 52 weeks • $1687.50

$33.75 x b6 weeks » $1^85.00 Roughly speaking, cutting their inventory in half would pay half the price of the cabinet.

If their volume

were over 3*+00 pounds per week, the reduction of inventory would pay for the cabinet.

27 Another method of amortizing the cabinet would be to add slightly to the selling price*

This has been dis­

couraged as the meat trade is highly competitive and any change in price will make a difference with public attitude* Of course, if the volume is great the price increase may be as low as 10 a pound.

Assuming the cabinet cost $1500.00

it would be amortized as follows; 1500 lbs 10 per lb. 100 weeks =

=

$15*00 per week

$1500.00

2000 lbs. 10 per lb. ■ $20.00 per week 75 weeks ■ $1500.00 2*+-00 lbs. @

per lb. = $2^.00 per week

62-£ weeks = $1500.00

The above information was compiled after a discus­ sion with Mr. R. Locke of Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California.

CHAPTER

CHAPTER I V

SURVEY Before I started the design of the Conditioning Cabinet I conducted a survey in the Pasadena, Glendale, Montrose and LaCanada area.

Fifty different meat depart­

ments were contacted and where ever possible the manager was interviewed.

Two different types of questions were asked; one pertaining to the meat and conditioning requirements, the other type had to do with the actual design of the cabinet. I worded my questions so they could be answered by one or two words.

Since there were only twenty questions

the butchers did not lose interest and seemed to answer all questions thoughtfully.

It would be interesting to note here that of the different men contacted, the younger men were far more in­ terested and showed desire to own such a cabinet. *

*

*

*

*

*

29 QUESTIONNAIRE AND RESULTS

1.

Have you ever sold aged meats? a.

yes 90$

b . no c. 2.

partially aged 2$

Would you like to sell aged meats? a.

yes 90$

b . no 3.

8$

10$

If you object to selling aged meats what are your objections? a.

storage

b.

shrink

c.

trim

d.

meat turning dark

e.

bother of inventory

Would you buy a special cabinet to sell aged meat if you could sell the meat at no increase in price? a.

yes 90$

b . no c. 5.

5$

would have to see the cabinet before say 5$

What grade meat do you buy now? a.

U.S. Choice 20$

b.

U.S. Good 80$

30 6.

Would you still buy the same grade if you aged the meat? a.

7.

8.

yes 100$

Do you understand the aging of meats? a*

yes 80$

b.

no 20$

If you sold aged meats would you increase the price even though there was no increase in cost to you? a. b.

9.

no 70$ yes

30$

Where in the store would you put a meat aging cabinet? a.

depend on lay-out

b.

put it in the rear out of the way

c.

in front on one side

d.

where ever there was room

e.

so it could be seen from the center of the meat counter

10.

11.

Would the cabinet be used as a selling feature by you? a . yes

90$

b.

10$

no

Would you advertise aged meats as such? a.

yes

b . no

90$ 10$

31 CABINET DESIGN QUESTIONS ...... 1.

Would the present size of the cabinet, 110 cub. ft., be large enough for your needs?

2.

3*

a.

no

b.

yes

95$ 5$

Would a glass front be advisable? a.

yes 95$

b.

no

5$

Color...♦ Would you object to a color other than white for this cabinet? a.

80$ of those surveyed indicated white, but no definite reason other than it has always been used

*f.

Do you object to chrome trim? a.

5.

no 100$

Do you feel the cabinet should have a bumper rail around the sides and rear?

6.

a.

yes 80$

b.

would depend on the location in the store

Would you want a front and

rearentrance

a.

yes

50$

b.

no

30$

c.

20$ felt a twoentrance available

to

the cabinet?

set-up should be

32 7.

Would you want a light inside the cabinet? a.

8.

yes 100$

Would you want the light on at all times? a.

if the box was used as a selling feature.... yes

b.

100$

if the box was in the rear.... to operate with the door

9.

100$

Would you like to use this cabinet for display purposes? a.

yes 80$

b.

20$ were undecided as they felt aged meats had been a rather sore spot in the past

*

*

*

*

*

*

*

The figures gathered on this survey indicated that such a conditioning cabinet would be a success on the market not only to age meats but to provide a selling feature for the butcher and give him something more to offer to his customers.

CABINET STYLE STUDY The existing conditioning cabinet, developed by The Hodges Research And Development Company, Redwood City, California, lacks many features considered desirable by the ultimate consumer.

33 With the refrigerating system developed to such an advanced point, it is absolutely necessary to reflect this in the exterior design.

The style study of this cabinet progressed through many stages, but basically seven steps were taken in reach­ ing my final exterior design.

The sketches presented on

the following pages with notes will indicate my thoughts in each succeeding study.

STUDY #1. Existing Model My objection to this cabinet is that it shows little, if any, exterior study.

The cabinet gives me the

impression of being designed ten years ago.

The very prominent door hinges although chrome plated provide a very distracting and disturbing appearance. The "stay tight" fasteners on the left side of the door impress me the same way.

Even though both fasteners and

hinges do a satisfactory job of swinging the door and hold­ ing it tight when closed, they absolutely do not enhance the appearance of the cabinet.

The motor housing on the top of the cabinet gives a top-heavy appearance and looks "stuck on".

As the motor

in the existing model in on top, this housing presents a definite problem.

Eliminating the hood completely and

finishing the motor in white has even been tried.

The following studies will show how the design advancement was made from the existing model to my final solution.

36 STUDY #2. The design of this cabinet was not very different from that of the original, although many important features were added.

A full length hinge was designed to replace the two existing hinges.

This not only made the cabinet look

much neater but also aided in keeping the door square with the door opening. The "stay tight" fasteners were eliminated from the outside design and a new locking system was employed. The bumper rail along the outside panel section was retained but moved much higher on the side. The whole superstructure was built higher giving the hood a much lower appearance.

This design although satisfactory as a supple­ mentary design to the original was not considered outstand­ ing and a different approach was taken on the next study.

37

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38 STUDY #3. The same basic shape of the existing cabinet was retained but the end door was moved to the side and another added.

This feature facilitates ease in removing the meat

carts but it was felt that the two door set-up was too ex­ pensive.

The large glass areas employed were excellent for display purposes but provided a difficult problem in con­ trolling undesirable light rays.

As was noted earlier in

this thesis, certain light rays will change the color of the meat.

The bumper rail was still retained as surveys in­ dicated it was desirable to afford the side panels protec­ tion.

All in all, this cabinet did not stimulate the consumer enough and it was felt that even a fresher ap­ proach should be made.

39

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STUDY #*+ The greatest change was made in this cabinet study. The most drastic change of course was the moving of the motor from the top to the floor.

This change brought about

a complete new look in the cabinet design.

A third window

was added over the motor unit to facilitate ease in load­ ing and unloading the three shelves.

This design although satisfying all the require­ ments for ease in operation would be far too expensive to construct.

Considering the hardware used, the amount

of very expensive Libby Owen Thermopane Glass coupled with the possibility of having poor fits between door and cabi­ net this design seemed unsatisfactory.

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STUDY #5. This cabinet style moves the motor to the opposite end of the cabinet and returns to the one end door set-up.

It is felt that for the cost involved in construct­ ing a small window-door to load and unload the shelves over the motor would be far in excess of its value.

Although the large glass area in this cabinet presents a wonderful display unit, here again the problem of controlling the light on the meat presents its self*

From the design stand point the cabinet did not appear at all balanced and therefore further refinement was desired.

43

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Mf STUDY #6. This cabinet eliminates the single end door.

all side doors and uses

This was done as

the cost of produc­

ing a

cabinet with the required amount of hardware and

extra

construction would be out of the question.

This cabinet is quite satisfactory in all design elements but two points definitely need improvement. 1.

Window Area

2.

Light Control

The general appearance of the cabinet seems to be quite inviting and stimulating to the consumer.

With

proper solutions to the above two points in question this design would offer one solution to the problem.

*9

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STUDY #7 The window area has been cut down considerably which in turn will cut the construction cost a great deal. A window shade or curtain has been designed to permit the complete sealing off of the meat from all light rays*

This

curtain could be electrically or manually operated.

Naturally a frame is necessary to house this cur­ tain so one has been designed to completely hide the cur­ tain when in the retracted position.

This curtain frame

also has the tendency to set off the window display area.

The door is at the end of the cabinet.

All door

parts are finished smoothly to facilitate ease in cleaning.

The cabinet proper rests on a base that is slightly set in from the cabinet walls.

This is done to provide a

splash board that will not show the dirt when a swab is used around the cabinet base.

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