Studies in the president’s cabinet

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STUDIES Iff THE PRSSIDEffT TS CABIffET

A T h e s is

P re s e n te d to th e F a c u l t y o f t h e D ep artm en t o f H i s t o r y U n iv e rs ity o f S o u th e rn C a lif o r n ia

In P a r t i a l F u lfillm e n t o f th e R e q u ire m e n ts f o r th e D eg ree M a ste r o f A rts

F a y M ashhurn A u g u st 1942

UMI Number: EP59522

All rights reserved INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality of this reproduction is dependent upon the quality of the copy submitted. In the unlikely event that the author did not send a complete manuscript and there are missing pages, these will be noted. Also, if material had to be removed, a note will indicate the deletion.

Dissertation Publishing

UMI EP59522 Published by ProQuest LLC (2014). Copyright in the Dissertation held by the Author. Microform Edition © ProQuest LLC. All rights reserved. This work is protected against unauthorized copying under Title 17, United States Code

ProQuest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106-1346

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Th is thesis, w rit ten by

O-

...............I’.sx-Mas.Jab.urn................................... / under the direction of h.QT. F ac u lty C o m m it te e , a n d a p p r o v e d by a l l its m e m b e r s , has been p r es e nt e d to and a c ce pte d by the C ou nc il on Gra du ate S t u d y an d Resea rch in p a r ti a l fulfill­ m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r t h e d e g r e e of

M&STEH OFA&HTS

Secretary D ate

-Augus.t^l942

F a c u lty C o m m itte e

73^

^

TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER

PAGE

INTRODUCTION................................ ....................................................... I.

SUGGESTIONS MADE IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL CON­ VENTION

.

1

J a m e s M a d i s o n .............................................................................

1

C h a rle s P in c k n e y

4

........................................................................

G e o r g e M ason II.

. . . . . . .

C re a tio n o f th e

By s t a t e s

.

12 12 30

............................................................................

30

..................................................................................

30

R easons f o r r e s ig n a tio n s

....................................................

CONTINUITY OF S E R V I C E ............................................................... N um ber o f c h a n g e s

59 59

..................................................................................

59

..............................................................

59

ABILITY OF C A B I N E T S ....................................................................

82

S h o rt te rm s

W a sh in g to n

.............................................................................

Jefferso n M o n ro e

.

31

.........................................................

Long te rm s

V.

12

C a b i n e t ....................................................

GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CABINET MEMBERS By s e c t i o n s

IV .

6

ORIGIN AND GROWTH OF THE C A B IN E T .......................... E s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s ......................... ..

III.

i

. . . . . .

..................................................................................

L i n c o l n ............................................................................ T heodore R o o s e v e lt

..............................................................

84 88 92

94 -|_Q2

CHAPTER

PAGE

V I. HARMONY AMONG CABINET M E M B E R S .............................................. H arm o n io u s C a b in e ts Jefferso n

.............................. .........................

......................................... .

.......................... . .

105 105

M o n r o e ............................................................................

106

T heodore R o o s e v e lt

108

.........................................................

F r a n k l i n B. R o o s e v e lt

....................................... .

109

W a s h i n g t o n ................................................................... . . .....................,

Jackson T y le r

108

...................................

U n h arrao n io u s C a b in e ts

.

109

........................................................

Ill

...................................

L in c o ln

J o h n Adams Johnson

114

- . .............................................................................

F eu d s b e tw e e n P r e s i d e n t

V II.

105

.

andC a b in e t

..

*

..

ISO

...................................................

ISO

........................................................

POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS OF

11 7

CABINETMEMBERS .

1SS ..

124

P a r t i s a n ........................................................................................

124

R e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e S e c o n d P a r t y ...............................

124

C o a litio n

127

C a b in e ts

...................................

W a s h i n g t o n .............................................................................

128

L in c o ln

128

...................................................................

F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t V I I I . SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY

............................................. ..........................................

.............................................................................................

128 130 134

LIST OF TABLES TABLE I* II.

PAGE C a b i n e t A p p o i n t m e n t s b y S t a t e s ........................................... C a b i n e t M em bers With, t h e L o n g e s t P e r i o d s o f S e rv ic e

III. IV .

T erm s L e s s T h an One Y e a r

V I.

73

.....................................................

74

..................................................................

H um ber o f C a b i n e t C h a n g e s U n d e r E a c h P r e s i d e n t

75 .

76

. . . . . .

77

R e s ig n a tio n s B ecause o f O p p o sitio n to P re s id e n tia l P o lic y

V II.

.

C a b i n e t M em bers S e r v i n g One A d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f F o u r Y ears

V.

58

.

.

.......................

M ore T h a n One P o s i t i o n D u r i n g a n A d m i n i s t r a t i o n

78

V I I I . Men H o l d i n g P o s i t i o n s U n d e r M ore T h a n One P re sid e n t

..............................................................

79

INTRODUCTION T h is t h e s i s

is

a stu d y o f th e P r e s i d e n t s

v iew ed fro m s e v e n d i f f e r e n t a n g l e s .

It

C a b in e t a s

encom passes th e

tim e fro m t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f g o v ern m en t u n d e r t h e

C o n sti­

t u t i o n to th e b e g in n in g o f th e p re s e n t a d m in is tr a tio n , Ja n u ary 3, 1941. T here have b een o n ly t h r e e books w r i t t e n

on t h e

C a b i n e t a n d t h e s e do n o t c o v e r t h e m a t e r i a l u s e d i n t h i s stu d y .

T he C a b i n e t i s d i s c u s s e d i n s e v e r a l s t u d i e s w h i c h

d e s c r i b e t h e E x e c u tiv e D e p artm en t b u t t h e s e d e a l a lm o s t e n t i r e l y w ith th e d i v i s i o n o f t h e E x e c u tiv e D e p artm en ts and w ith th e

C o n s titu tio n a l s ta n d in g o f th e C a b in e t.

E v e ry o t h e r b r a n c h o f o u r g o v e rn m e n t seem s t o h a v e been tr e a te d s u f f i c i e n tl y b u t th e n e g le c te d .

C a b in e t h a s b een

T h is i s p ro b a b ly b e c a u s e i t

in flu e n c e of th e B r itis h

C a b in e t.

does n o t have th e

A p p a re n tly th e r e sh o u ld

b e m o re s t u d y m ade on t h i s p h a s e o f o u r g o v e r n m e n t . th o u g h th e P r e s id e n t i s of th e

Even

f r e e to ta k e o r r e j e c t th e a d v ic e

C a b i n e t , t h e m em b ers s t i l l

e x e rc ise a g re a t d eal of

in flu e n c e . T he E x e c u t i v e D e p a r t m e n t s i n d i v i d u a l l y c a r r y o u t a l a r g e a m o u n t o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t t r a n s a c t i o n s a n d w hen t h e h e a d s o f t h e s e v a r i o u s d e p a rtm e n ts m eet t o g e t h e r th e y have a v o ic e in d e te rm in in g th e p o l ic i e s

o f th e a d m in is tra tio n .

Y In t h i s s t u d y t h e C a b in e t w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d from seven v ie w p o in ts.

F irst,

was n o t e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e

i t w i l l b e show n t h a t t h e C a b in e t C o n s titu tio n b u t th a t v a rio u s

p la n s f o r an a d v is o r y c o u n c il w ere d i s c u s s e d d u r in g th e C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n v e n tio n and r e j e c t e d .

The e s t a b l i s h m e n t

o f th e E x e c u tiv e D e p artm en ts and th e g r a d u a l f o r m a tio n o f th e

C a b in e t t o

its

second c h a p te r. to d isc u ss th e

p r e s e n t form w i l l b e d is c u s s e d i n th e

The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e s t u d y w i l l b e u t i l i z e d C a b in e t fro m a g e o g ra p h ic a n g le ,

te rm o f s e r v i c e ,

from t h e

rea so n s fo r v a c a tin g th e v a rio u s o f f ic e s ,

and f o r a b i l i t y and h arm o n y . th a t th e

C a b in e ts ,

p a rtisa n

in n a tu re .

T he f i n a l s t u d y w i l l sh o w

i n o r d e r t o b e m o re h a r m o n i o u s , m u s t b e

I t h a s been s t a t e d t h a t o n ly th r e e books have been w r i t t e n on th e U n ite d S t a t e s

C a b in e t.

One o f t h e s e i s A

H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t r s C a b i n e t b y M a ry L o u i s e H i n s d a l e w h ic h g i v e s a s h o r t s k e t c h on e a c h a d m i n i s t r a t i o n up t o a n d in c lu d in g p a rt of th e T a ft a d m in is tra tio n . b r ie f h is to r y o f th e re la tio n sh ip

It

a ls o g iv e s a

C a b in e t a s w e ll a s d is c u s s e s th e

o f t h e C a b in e t w ith th e P r e s i d e n t and w ith

C on gress. A n o th e r book i s A H i s t o r y o f t h e U n ite d S ta te s

C a b in e t o f th e

o f A m e ric a b y W illia m H e n ry S m ith .

T h is

v o lu m e g i v e s t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e v a r i o u s d e p a r t m e n t s w ith th e d u tie s

of each.

I t a ls o

c o n ta in s b r i e f

b io g ra p h ic a l sk e tc h e s o f th e T he l a s t b o o k i s

C a b i n e t m em bers*

The P r e s i d e n t fs C a b i n e t b y H e n r y

B a r r e t t L e a rn e d i n w h ic h C a b in e t g o v ern m en t i s d i s c u s s e d fro m i t s

e a r l i e s t fo rm i n E n g la n d t o

th e p re s e n t;

it

c o n t r a s t s t h e E n g l i s h an d A m e ric an fo rm s and d e s c r i b e s

th e

A m e ric a n . C a b in e t• I t i s hoped th a t t h i s c l e a r e r k n o w le d g e o f t h i s

t h e s is w ill h e lp

to g iv e a

l e a s t know n b r a n c h o f o u r

g o v e rn m e n t. My t h a n k s a r e d u e t o t h e l i b r a r i a n s

o f th e U n iv e rsi­

t y o f O k la h o m a who k i n d l y p l a c e d t h e f a c i l i t i e s l i b r a r y a t my d i s p o s a l .

of th e ir

CHAPTER I s t j c g e s t i o r s m ade lo

im

tee

c o n stitu tio n a l

g o evw tiq e

s p e c i f i c p r o v i s i o n h a v i n g b e e n m ade f o r t h e

P r e s i d e n t ’s C a b i n e t d o e s n o t m ean t h a t

th e a u th o rs o f th e

C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s w ere n o t a c q u a in t e d w i t h th e

e x e c u t i v e o r a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l i n u s e i n m any g o v e r n ­

m e n ts.

The E n g l i s h

C a b in e t h ad e x i s t e d

i n e m b ry o f o r m

s i n c e l o n g b e f o r e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f t h e A m e ric an C o l o n ie s . T h is

C a b i n e t w as Imown a s t h e P r i v y C o u n c i l .

and 1780 th e t h i r t e e n

c o lo n ie s o r s t a t e s

reco m m e n d atio n o f t h e

C o n tin e n ta l

B e tw e e n '1776

fo llo w e d th e

C o n g re ss and s e t up i n d e ­

p e n d e n t g o v e rn m e n ts f r e e fro m t h e r u l e

o f E n g la n d *

In te n

o f t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n s a d o p te d , a c o u n c i l t o a s s i s t sta te

th e

e x e c u t i v e w as p r o v i d e d . Many o p i n i o n s on t h i s

s u b ^ e e t w ere e x p re s s e d by t h e

men who c o n v e n e d i n P h i l a d e l p h i a d u r i n g t h e sum m er o f 1 7 8 7 f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f p r o v i d i n g a m o re s t a b l e

g o v ern m en t f o r

our young e o u n try . On A p r i l 8 , 1 7 8 7 Ja m e s M a d is o n h a d w r i t t e n t o Edmund R a n d o lp h t h a t h e b e l i e v e d t h e m i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c e r s a s s o c ia te d w ith th e e x e c u tiv e .1 th is

T h e re was n o m e n tio n o f

in th e V irg in ia P la n ex cep t t h a t i t

1 C a i l l a r d H u n t, M a d iso n , I I , 3 3 6 -3 4 0 .

e d ito r,

sh o u ld be

p ro v id e d t h a t th e re

The W r i t i n g s o f Ja m e s “

z sh o u ld be a c o u n c il o f r e v is io n

com posed i n p a r t o f a

c o n v e n ie n t num ber o f c a b i n e t o f f i c e r s .

S e c tio n e ig h t o f th e

V ir g in ia P la n read ; R e so lv e d t h a t t h e E x e c u tiv e and a c o n v e n ie n t num ber o f t h e R a t i o n a l J u d i c i a r y , o u g h t t o c o m p o se a C o u n c i l o f r e v i s i o n w i t h a u t h o r i t y t o e x a m in e e v e r y a c t o f t h e R a tio n a l L e g is la tu re b e fo re i t s h a ll o p e r a te .2 T h is p ro p o s e d c o u n c i l o f r e v i s i o n m ust n o t b e co n ­ s id e r e d as a r e a l e x e c u tiv e c o u n c il.

T h is p la n p ro p o se d

t h a t t h e c o u n c i l e x c l u s i v e o f t h e e x e c u t i v e , who w a s t o b e a s s i s t e d , was t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h a p a r t o f t h e R a t i o n a l J u d i c ia r y in th e r e v i s io n o f la w s. c o u n c i l w as o f a l e g i s l a t i v e

T he o n e f u n c t i o n o f t h e

c h a ra c te r.

P ro m J u n e 4 t o t h e m i d d l e o f A u g u s t J a m e s M a d i s o n , how ever a rg u e d f o r th e u n io n o f th e R a tio n a l J u d i c ia r y w ith th e

e x e c u tiv e .

P e n n sy lv a n ia ,

I n t h i s h e w as bacX ed b y Jam es W ils o n o f O liv e r E lls w o rth o f C o n n e c tic u t,

M ason o f V i r g i n i a .

and G eorge

One J u n e 4 i t w as v o t e d t h a t t h e

e x e c u t i v e a l o n e was t o h a v e r e v i s i o n a r y c o n t r o l on a l l b ills

p a s s e d u n l e s s h e w as o v e r r u l l e d b y t w o ~ t h i r d s o f e a c h

b ran ch o f th e L e g is la tu re .

I t w a s t h e n m oved b y J a m e s

W i l s o n a n d 's e c o n d e d b y M a d i s o n t h a t t h e r e s o l u t i o n b e a m e n d ed t o r e a d rft h e R a t i o n a l E x e c u t i v e a n d a c o n v e n i e n t

2 C h a r l e s C. T a n s i l l , e d i t o r , D o c u m e n ts I l l u s t r a t i v e o f t h e F o r m a t i o n o f t h e U n i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a r H S t a t e s , p . 9 54.

num ber o f th e N a tio n a l J u d i c i a r y . ”^

On t h i s

sam e d a y , i n

d is c u s s in g th e ty p e o f e x e c u tiv e to be e s ta b lis h e d , R oger Sherm an s a i d t h a t i n e v e r y s t a t e M v i e e w h ic h k e p t t h e s t a t e

t h e r e was a C o u n c il o f

e x e c u ti v e fro m a c t i n g a lo n e .

He

t h o u g h t a c o u n c i l w as n e c e s s a r y t o m ake t h e e x e c u t i v e a c c e p ta b le to th e p e o p le .

He f u r t h e r a r g u e d t h a t t h e K i n g

o f G re a t B r i t a i n h ad a c o u n c i l w h ich ev en th o u g h a p p o in te d b y h i m s e l f , w as t o g i v e h im a d v i c e .

In a rg u in g th u s ,

S herm an w as p r o p o s i n g a r e a l e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l . H ugh W i l l i a m s o n o f W o rth C a r o l i n a t h e n a s k e d J a m e s W ilso n i f h e p la n n e d t o h a v e a c o u n c i l t o a d v i s e w i t h t h e e x e c u tiv e .

To t h i s W i l s o n a n s w e r e d i n t h e n e g a t i v e a n d

e x p la in e d th a t a c o u n c il o f te n se rv e d to p rev en t m a l-p ra e tie e s .

cover r a t h e r th an

l l e x a n d e r H a m ilto n o b je c te d t o t h e

a m e n d m e n t b e i n g m ade a t t h a t t i m e s o W i l s o n a n d M a d is o n g a v e n o t i c e t h a t t h e y w o u l d make t h e sa m e m o t i o n t h e n e x t day.

On J u n e 5 ,

i n s e c o n d i n g t h i s m o tio n M ad iso n s a i d t h e

e x e c u t i v e w o u ld n e e d a C o u n c il o f R e v i s i o n to c o n t r o l and s u p p o r t h im .

He f e l t t h a t t h e J u d i c i a r y f o r m i n g t h i s

c o u n c il le sse n e d th e danger o f l e g i s l a t i v e d o u b led th e a d v a n ta g e o f th e o f an o v e rp o w erfu l e x e c u tiv e .

encro ach m en t and

o o u n e il and le s s e n e d th e d a n g e r Some d e l e g a t e s f e l t t h a t t h e

3 Jam es M a d iso n , D e b a te s i n t h e F e d e r a l C o n v e n tio n o f 1787, r e p r in te d in T a n s ill, p. 152. (H e re a fte r a l l r e f e r e n c e s t o M a d i s o n ’s D e b a t e s w i l l b e t o t h e T a n s i l l e d itio n ).

4

j u d g e s w o u ld b e c o m e b i a s e d w h i l e h e l p i n g t o f o r m t h e l a w s and t h a t t h e J u d i c i a l D e p artm en t s h o u ld b e s e p a r a t e and d i s t i n c t fro m t h e o t h e r d e p a r tm e n ts .

M a d iso n f e l t t h a t ,

w h ile th e f i r s t

th e

o b je c tio n had w e ig h t,

few c a s e s t o t r y

j u d g e s w o u ld h a v e

i n w h i c h q u e s t i o n s on w h i c h t h e y h a d b e e n

c o n s u l t e d , w o u ld a r i s e .

He f e l t

t h a t o n t h e o t h e r h a n d we

w o u l d h a v e much b e t t e r l a w s b y h a v i n g t h e s u p e r i o r k n o w l e d g e o f t h e j u d g e s t o h e l p m ake t h e m . C h a r l e s P i n c k n e y who h a d a t f i r s t b e e n i n f a v o r o f th is

i d e a h a d d e c i d e d t h a t i t w o u ld b e a b e t t e r p l a n t o

a llo w th e e x e c u tiv e to p le a se d .

c o n s u lt th e J u d i c ia r y w henever he

E l b r i d g e G e rry was i n f a v o r o f a n a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l

a s h e f e l t t h a t i t w o u ld g i v e w e ig h t a n d i n s p i r e b u t he a ls o

fe lt

c o n fid e n c e

t h a t th e e x e c u tiv e w ith o u t th e J u d ic ia r y

w o u l d b e m o re i m p a r t i a l . A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n i n h i s p la n o f g o v ern m en t w h ich h e p la c e d b e fo re th e

C o n v e n t i o n on J u n e 1 8 , s a i d i n A r t i c l e

IIT t h a t t h e e x e c u t i v e s h o u l d h a v e nt h e s o l e a p p o i n t m e n t o f th e heads or c h ie f o f f ic e rs

o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts o f F in a n c e ,

War a n d F o r e i g n A f f a i r s ; ”^ .

S u ch d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s w o u ld

n a t u r a l l y b e s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e c h i e f e x e c u t i v e , w o u ld t a k e o r d e r s fro m h im , an d b e r e s p o n s i b l e t o h im . no p r o v i s i o n , h o w ev er, f o r

^ ^ b id ., p.

224.

H a m i l t o n m ade

j o i n t m e e tin g s o f th e d e p a rtm e n t

5 heads f o r th e p u rp o se o f a d v is in g th e c h ie f e x e c u tiv e . On J u l y 3 1 , W i l s o n a g a i n m oved t h a t t h e N a t i o n a l J u d ic ia r y sh o u ld be jo in e d w ith th e e x e c u tiv e in th e r e v i s i o n a r y p ow er. M a d iso n .

I h e m o tio n was a g a i n s e c o n d e d b y

H a t h a n i e l Gorham o p p o s e d t h e m e a s u r e o n t h e

g ro u n d s t h a t th e

fu d g e s d i d n o t p o s s e s s a s p e c i a l k n o w le d g e

o f th e p o lic y o f p u b lie m easu res.

He t h o u g h t t h e e x e c u t i v e

a lo n e s h o u ld b e r e s p o n s i b l e and a t t h e m ost h e c o u ld c a l l f o r th e o p in io n s o f th e ju d g e s . O liv e r E lls w o rth f e l t t h a t th e w is d o m a n d f i r m n e s s t o t h e e x e c u t i v e , in fav o r of th is

j u d g e s w o u ld g i v e m o re M ad iso n a g a i n a r g u e d

sa y in g t h a t :

I t w o u ld b e u s e f u l t o t h e J u d i c i a r y d e p a r tm t b y g iv in g i t an a d d it i o n a l o p p o r tu n ity o f d e fe n d in g i t s e l f a g s t L e g i s l a t i v e e n c ro a c h m e n ts; I t w o u ld b e u s e f u l t o th e E x e c u tiv e , by i n s p i r in g a d d itio n a l c o n fid e n c e & f i r m n e s s i n e x e r t i n g t h e r e v i s i o n a r y pow er: I t w o u ld be u s e f u l to th e L e g is la tu r e by th e v a lu a b le a s s is ta n c e i t w o u ld g i v e i n p r e s e r v i n g a c o n s i s t e n c y , c o n c i s e n e s s , p e rs p e c u ity & te c h n ic a l p r o p r ie ty in th e law s, q u a l i t i e s p e c u l i a r l y n e c e s s a r y ; & y e t s h a m e fu lly w a n tin g i n o u r r e p u b l i c a n C odes. I t w o u ld m o re o v e r b e u s e f u l t o t h e C om m unity a t l a r g e a s a n a d d i t i o n a l c h e c k a g s t a p u r s u i t o f t h o s e u n w i s e & u n j u s t m e a s u re s w h ie h c o n s t i t u t e d so g re a t a p o rtio n o f our c a la m itie s ,5 L u th e r M a rtin d e c la r e d t h a t he c o n s id e re d th e a s s o c i a t io n o f th e ju d g es w ith th e e x e c u tiv e a s a dang erou s in n o v a tio n and t h a t i t e x p e c te d o f i t .

c o u ld n o t p ro d u c e th e a d v a n ta g e s

He s a i d t h a t t h e

ju d g e s w o u ld h a v e a r e ­

v i s i o n o f t h e law s u n d e r t h e i r p r o p e r p o s i t i o n and t h a t

5 I M i- •

p*

4 23*

if

6 u n i t e d w ith t h e e x e c u tiv e i n a C o u n c il o f R e v is io n th e y w o u ld h a v e a d o u b le n e g a t i v e . G e o r g e M ason who w a s a l s o a r g u i n g i n f a v o r o f t h e i d e a s a i d i t w o u ld p r e v e n t p e o p le fro m t r y i n g t o h a v e u n j u s t and p e r n i c io u s la w s p a s s e d .

T he m o t i o n w as r e j e c t e d a f t e r

f u r t h e r a r g u m e n t m o s t o f w h i c h w as o n w h e t h e r t h e p l a n v i o l a t e d th e id e a o f s e p a r a tio n o f p ow ers. On l u g u s t 1 8 , E l l s w o r t h o b s e r v e d t h a t a c o u n c i l h a d n o t a s y e t been p ro v id e d f o r th e P r e s id e n t.

He p r o p o s e d

t h a t a c o u n c i l s h o u l d b e p la n n e d an d s h o u l d b e com posed o f th e P r e s id e n t o f th e S e n a te , th e m in iste rs

C h ie f J u s t i c e and th e

o f th e d i f f e r e n t d e p a rtm e n ts o f f o r e i g n and

d o m e stic a f f a i r s , w a r, f in a n c e ,

and m a rin e .

a d v is e th e P r e s i d e n t b u t w ere n o t to

T hese w ere to

nc o n c l u d e ” h im .

T h is

s u g g e s t i o n b y E ll s w o r t h d i f f e r e d r a d i c a l l y fro m t h e nC o u n c il o f R e v i s i o n 1* i d e a .

He p r o p o s e d a r e a l a d v i s o r y c o u n c i l

s i m i l a r t o t h e P r e s i d e n t *s C a b i n e t o f t o d a y . on E l l s w o r t h 's th e

T he p r e s e n c e

c o u n c il o f th e P r e s i d e n t o f th e S e n a te and

C h ie f J u s t i c e w o u ld h a v e a d d e d a l e g i s l a t o r an d a Ju d g e

t o a b o d y m ade u p c h i e f l y o f a d m i n i s t r a t o r s . C h a rle s

C. P i n c k n e y s t a t e d t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t s h o u l d

be a u th o riz e d to id e a w as,

c a l l f o r a d v ic e o r n o t as he c h o se .

"G iv e h im a n a b l e

H is

C o u n c il and i t w i l l th w a r t

h im ; a w eak one and h e w i l l s h e l t e r h i m s e l f u n d e r t h e i r

7

s a n c t i o n * "6 E l b r i d g e G e rry was a g a i n s t t h e h e a d o f d e p a r t m e n t s e s p e c i a l l y t h e m i n i s t e r o f f i n a n c e h a v i n g a n y t h i n g t o do w ith l e g i s l a t i o n .

He a l s o w as s t r o n g l y o p p o s e d t o t h e

J u s t i c e b e i n g i n a n y w ay c o n n e c t e d w i t h l e g i s l a t i o n . t h o u g h t t h a t t h e y w o u ld n e g l e c t t h e i r r e a l d u t i e s i f

C h ie f He

g iv e n

c o u n c il d u tie s . Jo h n D ic k in so n f a v o r e d a c o u n c il f o r th e e x e c u tiv e but f e lt th a t i t

sh o u ld be a p p o in te d by th e l e g i s l a t u r e .

The s u b j e c t w a s t h e n d r o p p e d f o r t h a t d a y . On A u g u s t BO, a m o t i o n w as m ade b y G o u v e r n e u r M o r r i s and se c o n d e d by C h a rle s was t a k e n .

C. P i n c k n e y on w h i c h d e f i n i t e

a c tio n

T h is p r o p o s i t i o n r e a d a s f o l lo w s :

To a s s i s t t h e P r e s i d e n t i n c o n d u c t i n g t h e p u b l i c a f f a i r s t h e r e s h a l l be a c o u n c i l o f S t a t e com posed o f t h e f o l l o w i n g o f f i c e r s ______ 1, T he C h i e f J u s t i c e o f t h e S u p re m e C o u r t , who s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o t i m e rec o m m e n d s u c h a l t e r a t i o n s o r a d d i ­ t i o n s t o t h e l a w s o f t h e U. S . a s may i n h i s o p i n i o n , b e n e c e s s a r y t o th e due a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f J u s t i c e , and such a s m ay p r o m o t e u s e f u l l e a r n i n g a n d i n c u l c a t e s o u n d m o r a l i t y t h r o u g h o u t t h e U n i o n : He s h a l l b e P r e s i d e n t o f th e C o u n c il i n th e a b se n c e o f th e P r e s i d e n t . B. T he S e c r e t a r y o f D o m e s t i c A f f a i r s who s h a l l b e a p p o in te d by th e P r e s id e n t and h o ld h is o f f ic e d u rin g p le a su re . I t s h a l l be h i s d u ty to a tte n d to m a tte rs o f g e n e r a l p o l i c e , t h e S t a t e o f A g r i c u l t u r e a n d m anu­ f a c t u r e s , c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t h r o 1 t h e U. S t a t e s ; a n d h e s h a l l f r o m t i m e t o t i m e rec o m m e n d s u c h m e a s u r e s a n d e s t a b l i s h m e n t s a s may t e n d t o p r o m o t e t h o s e o b j e c t s .

6 Ib id .,

p. 567.

8

3. The S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce a n d F i n a n c e , who s h a l l a ls o be a p p o in te d by th e P r e s id e n t d u rin g p le a s u re . It s h a l l be h is d u ty to su p e rin te n d a l l m a tte rs r e l a t i n g to th e p u b lic f in a n c e s , to p re p a re & r e p o r t p la n s o f re v e n u e and f o r th e r e g u l a t i o n o f e x p e n d itu r e s , and a ls o t o rec o m m e n d i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U. S . 4. The S e c r e t a r y o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s who s h a l l a l s o be a p p o in te d by th e P r e s id e n t d u rin g p le a s u r e . I t sh a ll be h is d u ty to c o rre sp o n d w ith a l l f o r e ig n M in is te r s , p r e p a r e p l a n s o f T r e a t i e s , & c o n s i d e r s u c h a s m ay b e t r a n s m i t t e d from a b ro a d ; and g e n e r a l l y t o a t t e n d t o th e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e U. S . i n t h e i r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h f o r e i g n po w ers. 5. The S e c r e t a r y o f War who s h a l l a l s o b e a p p o i n t e d by th e P re s id e n t d u rin g p le a s u re . I t s h a l l be h i s d u ty t o s u p e r i n t e n d e v e r y t h i n g r e l a t i n g t o t h e W a r ^ D e p a r t m e n t, su c h a s th e r a i s i n g and e q u ip p in g o f t r o o p s , th e c a re o f m il i ta r y s t o r e s , p u b lic f o r t i f i c a t i o n s , a rs e n a ls & th e lik e a l s o i n t i m e o f w a r t o p r e p a r e & reco m m en d p la n s o f o ffe n c e and D efen ce. 6. The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e M a r i n e s h a l l a l s o b e a p p o i n ­ te d d u rin g p le a s u re _ I t s h a l l be h is d u ty to s u p e r i n te n d e v e r y t h in g r e l a t i n g t o t h e M a rin e -D e p a rtm e n t, t h e p u b l i c S h i p s , D ock Y a r d s , K a v a l - S t o r e s & A r s e n a l s a l s o i n t i m e o f w a r , t o p r e p a r e a n d reco m m en d p l a n s o f 'o f f e n c e and d e f e n c e . The P r e s i d e n t s h a l l a l s o a p p o i n t a S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e t o h o l d h i s o f f i c e d u r i n g p l e a s u r e ; who s h a l l b e S e c r e ­ t a r y to t h e C o u n c il o f S t a t e s , a l s o p u b l ic S e c r e t a r y to th e P re s id e n t. I t s h a l l be h is d u ty to p re p a re a l l p u b l i c d e s p a tc h e s fro m t h e P r e s i d e n t w h ic h he s h a l l c o u n te r-sig n . T he P r e s i d e n t may f r o m t i m e t o t i m e s u b m i t a n y m a t t e r t o t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e C o u n c i l o f S t a t e , a n d h e may r e q u i r e t h e w r i t t e n o p i n i o n s o f a n y o n e o r m o re o f t h e m e m b e r s : B u t h e s h a l l i n a l l c a s e s e x e r c i s e h i s own 'j u d g m e n t , a n d e i t h e r c o n f o r m t o s u c h o p i n i o n o r n o t a s h e may t h i n k p r o p e r ; a n d e v e r y o f f i c e r a b o v e m e n t i o n e d s h a l l be r e s p o n s ib le f o r h i s o p in io n r e l a t i n g to h is p a r t i c u l a r D e p artm en t. E a c h o f th e . o f f i c e r s a b o v e m e n t i o n e d s h a l l b e l i a b l e

9 t o im p e ach m en t & re m o v a l fro m o f f i c e d u ty , m a lv e rs a tio n , o r c o r r u p tio n .7 T h i s p l a n w as t h e m o s t d e f i n i t e

fo r n e g le c t o f

and c o m p re h e n s iv e

p r o p o s i t i o n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a n e x e c u t i v e c o u n c i l m ade i n th e c o n v e n tio n .

S p e c ia l a tte n tio n

c e r ta in p ro v isio n s* of S ta te ."

Its

The g r o u p w a s t o b e c a l l e d

s i x m em b ers i n c l u d e d t h e

f i v e d e p a rtm e n t h e a d s. head o f th e

s h o u l d be. draw n t o "a C o u n c il

C h ie f J u s t i c e and

T he S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , who i s now

C a b i n e t , w as n o t t o b e a m em ber o f t h e

o f S t a t e b u t w as t o s e r v e a s i t s

se c re ta ry .

It

tim e h e was t o b e a h a l f - p u b l i c , h a l f - p r i v a t e

C o u n c il

t h e sa m e

s e c r e ta r y to

th e c h ie f e x e c u tiv e . M o r r i s ' p r o p o s i t i o n was r e f e r r e d

to th e

C o m m itte e o f

D e ta il w ith o u t d e b a te . On A u g u s t 2 2 , t h e

C o m m itte e o f D e t a i l r e p o r t e d o n e

c h a n g e i n t h e m e m b e rsh ip .

T he C o u n c i l w as t o

in c lu d e th o se

m e n tio n e d b e f o r e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e S p e a k e r o f t h e H ouse o f R e p re se n ta tiv e s. On S e p t e m b e r 4 ,

th e

C o m m itte e o n U n f i n i s h e d P a r t s

recom m ended t h a t S e c t i o n f o u r s h o u l d r e a d : T he P r e s i d e n t b y a n d w i t h t h e a d v i c e a n d C o n s e n t o f t h e S e n a t e , h a v e p o w e r t o m ake T r e a t i e s ; a n d h e s h a l l n o m in a te and b y and w ith th e a d v ic e and c o n s e n t o f th e S e n a te s h a l l a p p o in t a m b a ss a d o rs, and o th e r p u b lic M i n i s t e r s , J u d g e s o f t h e Suprem e C o u r t, an d a l l o t h e r

7 I b i d . , pp. 573-574

10 O f f i c e r s o f t h e U. S . , w h o s e a p p o i n t m e n t s a r e n o t o th e rw is e h e r e i n p ro v id e d fo r.® The o n l y w ay i n w h i c h t h e s e c t i o n r e f e r s tiv e

c o u n c il is

t h a t i n t h e l a s t tw o l i n e s

to an ex ecu ­

pow er i s

g iv e n

to th e P r e s i d e n t t o a p p o in t h e ad s o f d e p a rtm e n ts* I n S e c t i o n tw o , a r t i c l e 11 ra n d may r e q u i r e

te n ,

t h e s e w ords w e re a d d e d ,

th e o p in io n i n w r i t i n g o f th e p r i n c i p a l

o f f i c e r in e ac h o f th e E x e c u tiv e D e p a rtm e n ts, upon any su b ­ je c t r e l a t i n g to th e d u tie s On S e p t e m b e r ? ,

o f t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e o f f i c e s * 1 119

G e o rg e M ason s a i d t h a t h e o b j e c t e d t o

g iv in g th e pow er o f a p p o in tin g th e c o u n c il to

t h e L eg iS r-

l a t u r e b u t t h a t i t w as d a n g e r o u s t o g i v e s o much p o w e r t o th e P re sid e n t*

He p r o p o s e d a P r i v y C o u n c i l f o r t h e P r e s i ­

d e n t , t o b e m ade u p o f s i x m e m b e r s .

T hese w ere t o be c h o se n

b y th e S e n a te and w ere t o s e r v e f o r s i x y e a r s . be fro m th e e a s t e r n s t a t e s ,

tw o f r o m t h e m i d d l e s t a t e s ,

tw o f r o m t h e s o u t h e r n s t a t e s . ro ta tio n ,

tw o e a c h s e c o n d y e a r *

K e ep t h e l e g i s l a t i v e

Two w e r e t o

T hese w ere t o r e t i r e He f e l t

and

in

t h a t t h i s w o u ld

and E x e c u tiv e D e p a rtm e n ts s e p a r a t e and

d istin c t. M r. W i l s o n s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d p r e f e r t h a t t h e a d v i c e o f s u c h a c o u n c i l s h o u l d n o t b e m ade o b l i g a t o r y on t h e P re sid e n t.

8 ^ b i d . , p. 661. 9 Loe.

e it.

11

l a t e r t h e sa m e d a y M aso n r e p e a t e d h i s

p ro p o sitio n ,

sa y in g th a t in r e j e c t i n g a c o u n c il to th e P re s id e n t th e y w ere a b o u t t o t r y a n e x p e r im e n t w h ic h no o t h e r g o v ern m en t had tr ie d *

H i s m o t i o n w as s e c o n d e d b y B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n who

f e l t t h a t t h e y w e r e s h o w i n g t o o much c o n f i d e n c e i n o n e p erso n .

G overnor M o rris o b je c te d to th e p r o p o s a l and s a i d

t h a t th e

C o m m itte e h a d c o n s i d e r e d s u c h a c o u n c i l a n d f e l t

t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t m ig h t p e r s u a d e h i s

c o u n c il to

w ro n g m e a s u re s a n d t h e n u s e th em f o r p r o t e c t i o n .

concur in A fte r

f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n t h e m o t i o n o f G e o r g e M aso n w a s r e j e c t e d . In A r tic le

II,

s e c t i o n tw o , t h e r e p o r t o f t h e

C o m m itte e o n S t y l e r e a d , w ritin g ,

" h e may r e q u i r e t h e o p i n i o n ,

in

o f th e p r in c ip a l o f f i c e r in each o f th e e x e c u tiv e

d e p a rtm e n ts, upon any s u b je c t r e l a t i n g to th e d u tie s th e i r re s p e c tiv e

of

o ffic e rs.

T he w o r d s o f t h i s

s e c t i o n w ent in to th e

C o n stitu tio n

o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s and w ere to be th e o n ly r e f e r e n c e d i r e c t o r i n d i r e c t to an E x e c u tiv e C o u n c il.

10 I b i d . . p. 709.

CHAPTER II ORGANIZATION AND GROWTH OF THE CABINET In th e o r ig in a l d r a f t o f th e

C o n stitu tio n as i t

cam e

f r o m t h e C o n v e n t i o n p r a c t i c a l l y e v e r y n o u n w as c a p i t a l i z e d . T h e re fo re th e one, in d ir e c t re fe re n c e to m en ts c o n t i n u e d t h e r e i n re a d as fo llo w s:

(A rtic le I I ,

e x e c u tiv e d e p a r t­

S e c t i o n I I ) w a s m ade t o

”h e m ay r e q u i r e t h e O p i n i o n ,

in w r itin g ,

o f th e p r in c ip a l O f f ic e r in each o f th e e x e c u tiv e D e p a rt­ m en ts, upon an y S u b je c t r e l a t i n g to th e D u tie s o f t h e i r re s p e c tiv e

O f f i c e s , ”1

F i n l e y and S a n d e rs o n i n s p e a k in g o f

th e E x e c u tiv e D e p artm en ts a s p ro v id e d b y th e

C o n stitu tio n

say, I t assum es t h a t E x e c u tiv e d e p a rtm e n ts w i l l be c re a te d , b u t i t n e i t h e r n a m e s th e m n o r c o n f e r s a u t h o r i t y u p o n them o r t h e i r p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r s ; and t h e a u t h o r i t y t o r e q u i r e t h e i r o p in io n s i n w r i t in g i s l im i te d to th e a f f a i r s o f th e d e p a rtm e n t o f e a c h , r e s p e c t i v e l y , 2 T h ree d e p a rtm e n ts w ere c r e a t e d by th e f i r s t o f C on g ress i n 1789 b u t th e

C a b i n e t w as t h e c r e a t i o n o f

P r e s i d e n t W a sh in g to n when h e b e g a n t h e p r a c t i c e a sse m b lin g th e p r i n c i p le

se ss io n

o ffic e rs

n e t h a s n e v e r becom e o f f i c i a l .

in a c o u n c il.

of The C a b i ­

E ven t h e w ord C a b in e t w as

n o t r e c o g n iz e d b y law u n t i l 1 9 0 7 ,

The f i r s t

C a b in e t was

1 C h a r l e s C. T a n s i l l , e d i t o r , D o c u m e n t s , p . 9 9 7 . 2 J o h n H, F i n l e y a n d J o h n F . S a n d e r s o n , T he A m e r i c a n E x e c u tiv e and E x e c u tiv e M e th o d s. p . 228.

13 c o m p o s e d o f t h r e e s e c r e t a r i e s who w e r e kno w n a s h e a d s o f d e p a r tm e n ts , and th e A tto r n e y - G e n e r a l. th e a d m in is tra tiv e E n g lish

o ffic e rs

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I t was s i m i l a r t o

o f E n g la n d and F r a n c e .

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c o n tro lle d by th e L e g is la tu re

w h ile t h e A m e ric an C a b in e t i s n o t .

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is

e n t i r e l y c o n n e c te d

w ith th e E x e c u tiv e D e p a rtm e n t. I n d i v id u a ll y th e d e p a rtm e n t h e a d s a r e a d m in is tr a tiv e o ffic e rs;

c o l l e c t i v e l y th e y fo rm a c o u n c i l to a d v is e th e

P re sid e n t. F o r m e r ly a C a b in e t o f f i e e r was n o t a p p o i n t e d f o r a f i x e d n u m b e r o f y e a r s a n d d i d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y go o u t o f o f f ic e a t th e e x p ir a tio n o f th e P r e s i d e n t's a c t p a sse d o v er th e P r e s i d e n t 's v e to

te r m .3

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i n 1866 i t was p r o ­

v id e d t h a t th e a p p o in tm e n t o f th e h e a d s o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts s h o u l d b e f o r t h e te r m o f t h e P r e s i d e n t m ak in g t h e a p p o i n t ­ m e n t a n d f o r o n e m o n th t h e r e a f t e r . 4

T he C a b i n e t o f f i c e r s

a re a p p o in te d by th e P r e s id e n t w ith th e a p p ro v a l o f th e S e n a te b u t th e pow er o f rem o v a l b e lo n g s to

th e P re s id e n t

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te n d e r h is

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c u sto m a ry f o r a s e c r e t a r y t o

r e s i g n a t i o n a t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n a u g u r a t i o n o f a n ew P r e s i ­ d e n t b u t h e re m a in s a t th e h ead o f h i s

d e p a rtm e n t u n t i l a

3 B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y o f t h e A m e ric an C o n g re s s , 1 7 7 4-1927, p. 1 0 . " ~ 4

W illia m H en ry S m ith , H i s t o r y o f t h e C a b in e t o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s o f A m e ric a , p . 247.

14 successor is

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a d v is o rs.

f o l l o w i n g a man o f t h e sam e o n e o r m o re o f h i s p r e d e ­

I n t h e c a s e o f J o h n Adams t h e e n t i r e

C a b in e t c h o s e n b y W a sh in g to n was r e t a i n e d . a p p o i n t e e m ay r e f u s e t o a c c e p t t h e o f f i c e ;

A C a b in e t o r a C a b in e t

m em ber m ay r e s i g n w i t h o u t f e a r o f i n j u r y t o h i s

p o litic a l

life . U nder th e n a ti o n a l C o n s titu tio n ,

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c a n n o t b e m em bers o f C o n g r e s s n o r c a n t h e y t a k e p a r t i n d e b a te s o f C ongress.

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o f C o n g r e s s w hen t h e r i g h t w a s d e n i e d t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f th e T re a su ry .

T h e y may h o w e v e r m ake p u b l i c s p e e c h e s i n

s u p p o rt o f th e p o lic y o f th e a d m in is tr a tio n and a p p e a r b e­ f o r e c o m m itte e s i n d e f e n s e o f m e a su re s t h e re c o m m e n d .5 if

A C a b i n e t o f f i c e r m ay i n i t i a t e

g ra n te d p r e s id e n tia l a p p ro v a l,

b u tio n to th e a d m in is tra tio n . c a rrie s

o u t th e id e a s

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i s know n a s h i s

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o f th e P re s id e n t.

c o n tri­ th o u g h , he

He i s a l w a y s o v e r ­

s h a d o w e d b y t h e P r e s i d e n t e v e n t h o u g h h e may b e a v e r y a b l e man a l o n g h i s l i n e .

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in f lu e n c e w ith C ongress

^ B io g ra p h ic a l D ire c to ry , o p . c i t . H a ro ld J .

la s k i,

The A m e r i c a n P r e s i d e n c y , p .

70.

15 ■ u n less h e h a s b e e n a p o p u l a r m e m b e r. n e t cannot c o n tro l th e P r e s id e n t. fro m t h e P r e s i d e n t .

E v e n a c o m b in e d C a b i ­

S e c re ta rie s

o fte n d if f e r

U n d e r som e E x e c u t i v e s t h i s w i l l n o t

m a t t e r b u t C a b in e t o f f i c e r s h a v e b e e n a sk e d t o r e s i g n b e ­ cause o f d isa g ree m e n t w ith th e P r e s i d e n t s

o p in io n .

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e x a m p le A n d re w J a c k s o n h a d t o c h o o s e tw o S e c r e t a r i e s

o f th e

T re a s u ry "before h e c o u ld e f f e c t th e rem o v a l o f t h e F e d e r a l fu n d s fro m th e U n ite d S t a t e s B ank. re s ig n a tio n s

o f tw o o f h i s

J o h n Adams r e q u e s t e d t h e

C a b i n e t m e m b e rs who w e r e l o o k i n g

to w a rd A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n f o r l e a d e r s h i p r a t h e r th a n to A d am s.

O t h e r e x a m p l e s c o u l d b e g i v e n o f P r e s i d e n t s who

asked f o r th e r e s ig n a tio n

o f C a b in e t m em b ers.

I n a l e t t e r w r i t t e n b y G eorge W ash in g to n t o

Count de

M o u s t i e r o n Hay 2 5 , 1 7 8 9 t h e f i r s t P r e s i d e n t e m p h a s i z e d t h e n eed o f an a d v is o ry g ro u p .

He w r o t e ,

The i m p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t o n e man s h o u l d b e a b l e t o p erfo rm a l l th e g r e a t b u s in e s s o f th e s t a t e I ta k e to have been th e re a so n f o r i n s t i t u t i n g th e g re a t d e p a rt­ m e n ts and a p p o i n t i n g o f f i c e r s t h e r e i n t o a s s i s t t h e suprem e m a g i s t r a t e i n d i s c h a r g i n g t h e d u t i e s o f h i s tru st.” The d e p a r t m e n t s o f W ar, F i n a n c e , F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , and th e P o st O ffic e had been e s ta b lis h e d A rtic le s

o f C o n f e d e r a t i o n , when t h e

C o n tin e n ta l C ongress

d e c id e d t h a t th e s e a d m i n i s t r a t iv e d u t ie s

^ W. C. F o r d , W a s h i n g t o n , X, 1 0 .

e d ito r,

in 1781 u n d e r th e

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o f G eorge

16 c a rrie d

out by th e

e n ti r e body o f d e le g a te s ,8

p o st o f f ic e had been e s ta b lis h e d d u rin g th e a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f W ar, F i n a n c e ,

A g en eral

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and F o re ig n A f f a ir s

w e r e d e m a n d e d b y t h e n e e d s o f t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W ar. d e p a rtm e n ts w ent th ro u g h th r e e s ta g e s o f e v o lu tio n : m itte e s

o f th e

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m en ts w i t h a s i n g l e h e a d ,

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t h i r t e e n m e m b e r s , o n e f o r e a e h s t a t e , who f o u n d i t c u lt to

The

g et to g e th e r.

d iffi­

The b o a r d s w e r e c o m p o s e d o f f i v e

m em bers. A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n who w a s a g r e a t a d m i r e r o f t h e E n g lis h and F re n c h fo rm s o f g o v ern m en t u r g e d t h a t th e B oards u se d by th e changed.

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to

C o n fe d e ra tio n sh o u ld be

Jam es D uane, i n 1 7 8 0 , h e w r o t e ,

C ongress s h o u ld i n s t a n t l y a p p o in t th e f o l lo w in g g reat o ffic e rs of S ta te : A S e c re ta ry f o r F o re ig n A f f a i r s , a P r e s i d e n t o f W a r, a P r e s i d e n t o f M a r i n e , a F in a n c ie r , a P r e s id e n t o f T rade. . . . T hese o f f i c e r s s h o u l d h a v e n e a r l y t h e sam e p o w e r s a n d f u n c t i o n s a s th o s e i n F ra n c e a n a lo g o u s to th em ; w ith s u b o r d i n a t e b o a rd s com posed o f a s s i s t a n t s , c l e r k s , e t c . , to e x e c u te h i s o r d e r s . 9 S i n c e H a m i l t o n w as o n l y t w e n t y - t h r e e y e a r s o l d w hen th is

l e t t e r w as w r i t t e n ,

it

is

im p o s s ib le to t e l l w h e th e r

o r n o t i t had any in flu e n c e . Q

° C la u d iu s 0 . S t a te s , p. 15.

Johnson,

9 H en ry Cabot lo d g e , H a m ilto n , I , 22 5 -2 2 6 .

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e d ito r,

W orks o f A l e x a n d e r

17 C ongress c r e a t e d th e

o ffic e

o f S e c re ta r y o f F o re ig n

A f f a i r s b y a r e s o l u t i o n p a s s e d J a n u a r y 1 0 , 1 7 8 1 , a n d on F eb ru ary 7,

it

c re a te d a S u p e rin te n d e n t o f F in a n c e , a

S e c r e t a r y o f W ar, a n d a S e c r e t a r y o f M a r i n e .

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m e n ts , w ith t h e e x c e p tio n o f t h e D ep artm en t o f F o r e ig n A ffa irs ,

d i d n o t im p ro v e t h e g o v e rn m e n t.

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se ss io n

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F o r e i g n A f f a i r s was l a t e r S ta te .

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The o f f i c e

T he nam e o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f

ch an g ed to t h e D ep artm en t o f

o f A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l was a l s o

c re a te d b u t

n o D e p a rtm e n t o f J u s t i c e was e s t a b l i s h e d u n t i l 1 8 7 0 .

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o f f i c e was c r e a t e d i n o r d e r t o g i v e t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a le g a l a d v is e r. The D e p a r t m e n t s o f S t a t e a n d War w e r e t h e o n l y o n e s w h ic h t h e la w s e s t a b l i s h i n g th em te r m e d E x e c u ti v e D e p a r t ­ m e n ts.

The S e c r e t a r i e s w e r e w h o l l y r e s p o n s i b l e t o t h e

P r e s i d e n t and w ere s u b o r d i n a t e t o h im . t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t m ade i t s v ery c lo s e .

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c o n n e c tio n w ith C on g ress

The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y w as t o m ake

r e p o r ts and g iv e in fo rm a tio n to e i t h e r b ran ch o f th e le g isla tu re

i n p e r s o n o r i n w r i t i n g a s h e m ig h t b e r e q u i r e d .

The S e c r e t a r y fs r e p o r t i s th e le a d e rs h ip

a lw a y s w r i t t e n ,

a s C ongress u n d e r

o f Jam es M a d iso n d e c i d e d t h a t h e w as n o t t o

appear in p erso n .

18 (Piie D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e w a s c r e a t e d b y a n a c t o f C o n g r e s s w h i c h w a s a p p r o v e d J u l y B 7, 1 7 8 9 . title d ,

The a c t w a s e n ­

11An A c t f o r e s t a b l i s h i n g a n e x e c u t i v e d e p a r t m e n t ,

b e d o m in a te d b y t h e D ep artm en t o f F o r e i g n A f f a i r s . ” th e

first

I t was

o f t h e E x e c u tiv e D e p artm en ts t o be e s t a b l i s h e d .

The p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r w as t o b e c a l l e d F o re ig n A ir s . S ta te

to

th e S e c re ta ry of

T he nam e w as c h a n g e d t o t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f

on S e p t e m b e r 1 5 , 1 7 8 9 .

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new d u t i e s w e r e a d d e d t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t w h i c h w e r e c o n ­ n e c te d w ith d o m e stic a f f a i r s

an d h a d n o t h i n g t o do w i t h

fo re ig n a f f a ir s . T he S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e

is th e c u sto d ia n o f th e a c ts

and r e s o l u t i o n s

o f C ongress and th e G re a t S e a l o f th e

U n ite d S t a t e s .

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a ll

c o m m issio n s

is s u e d to c i v i l o f f i c e r s a p p o in te d by th e P r e s id e n t. c o u n te r s ig n s and a f f i x e s

He

th e G reat S e a l to a l l th e execu­

t i v e p r o c la m a tio n s , an d c o m m issio n s, and w a r r a n t s f o r th e e x tra d itio n

o f f u g i t i v e s from j u s t i c e .

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o f t h e t r e a t i e s m ade w i t h f o r e i g n n a t i o n s ,

th e

c u sto d ia n

g r a n t s and i s s u e s

p a s s p o r t s a n d a l l e x e q .u a t u n s t o f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s a n d p r e s e n t s th em t o t h e P r e s i d e n t .

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th e o f f i c i a l th ro u g h

whom t h e P r e s i d e n t c o n d u c t s a l l o f f i c i a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w i t h th e g o v ern o rs o f th e v a rio u s s t a t e s .

R e c e n tly th e fram in g

o f r e c ip r o c a l t r e a t i e s have been a p a rt o f th e S e c re ta ry o f

19 S t a t e ’s a c t i v i t i e s . 1 0 The s e c o n d d e p a r t m e n t t o b e e s t a b l i s h e d w a s t h e War D e p a rtm e n t.

The a c t f o r c r e a t i n g t h i s d e p a r t m e n t w a s

ap p ro v ed I n g u s t 7, 1789.

T he d u t i e s

o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f War

.w e r e t o b e s u c h a s t h e P r e s i d e n t m i g h t e n j o i n u p o n h i m , a g re e a b le to

th e

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r y c o m m issio n s o r t o w a rlik e s to r e s

in m a tte rs c o n c e rn in g m i l i t a ­

th e la n d o r n a v a l f o r c e s ,

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t o p e o p l e who w e r e e n t i t l e d s e rv ic e ren d ered to

to

it

sh ip s or

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because o f m ilita r y

th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,

and h e a ls o had

ch arg e o f In d ia n A f f a ir s . T he m i l i t a r y a c a d e m y a t W est P o i n t i s s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e War D e p a r t m e n t . P h ilip p in e s,

under th e

I t a ls o s u p e rv is e s th e

a n d t h e P a n a m a C a n a l Z o n e . 11

T he T r e a s u r y D e p a r t m e n t w a s c r e a t e d o n S e p t e m b e r 2 , 1789.

The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y w as t o d i g e s t a n d

p r e p a r e p l a n s f o r t h e im p ro v e m e n t a n d m anagem ent o f t h e re v e n u e and f o r th e s u p p o r t o f p u b lic

c re d it,

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10 R o b e rt B re n t M o sh er, E x e c u tiv e R e g i s t e r o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s , pp. 2 5 -2 6 . 11 W illia m H e n ry S m ith ,

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th e n a ti o n a l c u rre n c y and

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c u sto m s d u t i e s s y s te m , an d t h e m e rc h a n t m a r in e . th e c o n s tru c tio n

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p u b lic h e a lth ,

and m a rin e h o s p i t a l .

The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t i s f o u n d i n t h e M e m o irs o f J o h n Q u i n c y Adams , The l a w s c o n s t i t u t i n g t h e D e p a r t m e n t s w e r e . . . f o u n d e d u p o n t h e sam e p r i n c i p l e s , w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t, t h e la w t o e s t a b l i s h w h ic h w as d ra w n u p b y A. H a m i l t o n , who w a s h i m s e l f t o b e S e c r e t a r y , a n d w h o s e o b j e c t w as t o e s t a b l i s h a d i r e c t i n t e r c o u r s e b e t w e e n t h e m em b ers o f t h e l e g i s l a t u r e a n d h i m s e l f f o r h i s own p u r p o s e s . 1 3 H one o f H a m i l t o n ^ it

p ro b a b ly i s n o t t r u e ,

c h i e f b io g r a p h e r s m e n tio n t h i s sin c e i t

is

so

a w e l l know n f a c t t h a t

a f t e r th e e s ta b lis h m e n t o f th e T re a s u ry D e p a rtm e n t, P r e s i ­ d e n t W ash in g to n f i r s t

a p p o in te d R o b ert M o rris a s S e c r e ta r y .

H a m i l t o n w as n o t a p p o i n t e d u n t i l a f t e r t h e d e c l i n a t i o n

12 R o b e rt B r e n t M o sh er,

ojd.

c i t .,

1 3 C h a r l e s F r a n c i s A dam s, e d i t o r , Q u i n c y A d a m s, I V , 2 1 7 .

pp.

of

S l-2 4 .

M e m o irs o f J o h n

21 M o rris. We do 3oiow t h a t H a m i l t o n o u t l i n e d d e p a rtm e n t.

He w i s h e d t o p r e s e n t h i s

C ongress d e c id e d a g a i n s t t h i s .

th e p la n f o r th e

p la n in p e rso n h u t

F o rd in h i s W ash in g to n and

H is C o l le a g u e s s a y s t h a t M ad iso n r e a l i z e d

t h a t H a m i l t o n made

a b e t t e r i m p r e s s i o n t h a n h e , s o f e a r e d t h a t h e w o u l d b e co m e th e le a d e r in h is

p la c e .

3-4

W h atev e r was t h e c a u s e ,

m e m b e rs w e r e p r e v e n t e d f r o m a p p e a r i n g b e f o r e

C a b in e t

C ongress i n

p erso n . The o f f i c e o f A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l w as c r e a t e d b y t h e J u d i c i a r y A c t o f S e p tem b er 2 4 , 1789. fe d e ra l p ro se c u to r,

He w a s t o b e t h e

th e l e g a l a d v is e r o f th e P r e s id e n t and

th e heads o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts.

He w as u n d e r e x e c u t i v e c o n ­

t r o l a n d w as a m i n i s t e r i a l o f f i c e r .

He w a s n o t ,

th o u g h ,

t h e h e a d o f a d e p a r t m e n t u n t i l 1 8 7 0.3 -5 On S e p t e m b e r 2 2 , 1 7 8 9 t h e P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r t m e n t w as e s t a b l i s h e d , b u t i t was s u b o r d i n a t e t o t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a r t ­ m en t.

The a c t p r o v i d e d t h a t a P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l w a s t o b e

a p p o i n t e d . 3-6

m a il.

He w a s t o a r r a n g e f o r t h e c a r r y i n g o f t h e

He w as n o t a p a r t o f t h e

was i n v i t e d to p a r t i c i p a t e

in

C a b in e t u n t i l 1829 when h e

C a b in e t m e e tin g s b y P r e s i d e n t

3-^ H e n r y J o n e s F o r d , W a s h i n g t o n a n d H i s C o l l e a g u e s , pp. 4 7 -4 9 . 3-5 G e o r g e B r e n t M o s h e r , o p . p i t . , 3*6 I b i d . ,

pp. 2 6 -2 7 .

p.

27.

22 Jackson.

The P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r t m e n t b e c a m e i n d e p e n d e n t o f

t h e T r e a s u r y D e p artm en t by a C o n g r e s s io n a l A ct F e b r u a r y 2 0 , 1 7 9 2 . 17 The P o s t m a t e r - G e n e r a l i s e n tire

p o s t a l sy ste m .

o ffic e rs

th e

e x e c u tiv e head o f th e

He a p p o i n t s a l l

t h e e m p lo y ee s an d

e x c e p t th e f o u r a s s i s t a n t p o s tm a s te r s - g e n e r a l and

th e p u rc h a sin g a g e n t.

He a l s o a p p o i n t s

th e fo u rth c la s s

p o s t m a s te r s and t h e o f f i c e r s and em p lo y ee s o f t h e s e r v i c e a t l a r g e . * He i s

c h a irm a n o f t h e B o ard o f T r u s te e s o f th e

P o s t a l S a v in g s S y stem . B y a n a c t a p p r o v e d A p r i l 3 0 , 1 7 9 8 i t w as p r o v i d e d t h a t a n E x e c u tiv e D e p a rtm e n t t o be c a l l e d t h e D ep artm en t o f t h e Havy b e e s t a b l i s h e d .

The p r i n c i p a l o f f i c e r , know n a s

t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y , w as t o h a v e c h a r g e o f p r o c u r i n g n a v a l s t o r e s and m a te r ia ls and th e c o n s t r u c t io n , e q u i p m e n t a n d e m p lo y m e n t o f v e s s e l s

o f w ar.

arm a m e n t,

He a l s o h a s

had ch arg e o f e x p lo rin g e x p e d i ti o n s .! 8 The D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r w as e s t a b l i s h e d b y a n a c t a p p r o v e d M a rc h 3 , 1 8 4 9 . The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r h a s m any v a r i e d d u t i e s . He h a s t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f p a t e n t s a n d t h e t a k i n g o f t h e census.

T hese w ere t r a n s f e r r e d fro m t h e S t a t e D e p a rtm e n t.

^ i d . . pp.

30 -42 .

18 I b i d - . P P . 5 9 - 6 0 .

zz F ro m t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f War h e r e c e i v e d t h e S u p e r v i s i o n o f p u b lic la n d s ,

o f m in e s,

and o th e r o f f i c e r s

o f th e a c c o u n ts o f m a rs h a ls ,

o f th e U n ite d S ta te s

c o u rts,

c le rk s,

and th e

s u p e rv is io n o f In d ia n A f f a ir s , F ro m t h e P r e s i d e n t h e r e c e i v e d a p p e l l a t e th e

C o m m issio n er o f B u i l d i n g s an d G ro u n d s .

pow er o v er

He a l s o h a s

s u p e r v i s o r y p o w ers o v e r t h e b o a rd o f i n s p e c t o r s a n d t h e w ard en o f th e p e n i t e n t i a r y o f th e D i s t r i c t o f

C o lu m b ia .^

L a t e r t h e B u re a u o f E d u c a tio n w ere a d d ed t o h i s ju ris d ic tio n . p ark s.

He w a s g i v e n t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l

He a l s o h a s t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e B u r e a u o f G e o l o g i c a l

S u r v e y an d t h e B u re a u o f M in e s. The D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e w as e s t a b l i s h e d F e b ru ary 9, 1889.

on

B e fo re t h a t i t had b een a B ureau o f

A g r i c u l t u r e i n t h e P a t e n t O f f i c e b u t w as n o t u n d e r t h e D e p artm en t o f th e

In te rio r.

f o i l o w in g b r a n c h e s ; A n im al I n d u s t r y ,

U nder t h i s

t h e W e a th e r B u r e a u ,

d e p a rtm e n t a re th e th e B ureau o f

D i v i s i o n o f G ardens and G ro u n d s, D i v i s i o n

o f V e g e ta b le P h y s io lo g y and P a th o lo g y , S e c tio n o f S eed and P la n t In tro d u c tio n , A g ro s to lo g y ,

D i v i s i o n s o f B o ta n y , o f P o m o lo g y , o f

o f C h e m istry ,

o f E n to m o lo g y ,

of F o re stry ,

19 I b i d . ,

of S o ils,

o f B io lo g ic a l S u rv ey ,

o f P u b lic R oads,

pp. 1 3 9 rI4 2 .

o f In q u irie s ,

24 o f S e e d s , a n d P u b l i c a t i o n . 20 T he D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce a n d L a b o r w a s c r e a t e d F eb ru ary 14, 1903.

I t w as t h o u g h t a t f i r s t

b u s i n e s s o f t h e s e tw o f i e l d s d e p a r tm e n t w as c r e a t e d .

t h a t th e

c o u ld b e co m b in ed so o n l y one

The d e p a r t m e n t w a s t o

fo ste r,

p r o m o te , an d d e v e l o p t h e f o r e i g n a n d d o m e s ti c com m erce, t h e m in in g , m a n u f a c tu r in g , s h ip p in g , th e la b o r i n t e r e s t s

and f i s h i n g i n d u s t r i e s ,

and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n f a c i l i t i e s

o f th e

U n ite d S t a t e s . I t a ls o

c o n t r o l l e d th e L ig h th o u s e B o ard , th e L ig h t­

house E s ta b lis h m e n ts ,

th e I n s p e c t i o n o f S team b o at S e r v i c e ,

th e B u reau o f N a v ig a tio n ,

th e U n ite d S t a t e s S h ip p in g

C o m m issio n s, t h e N a t i o n a l B u re a u o f S t a n d a r d s , and G e o d e tic S u rv e y , tio n ,

th e

th e

C oast

C o m m issio n er G e n e r a l o f Im m ig ra ­

th e B ureau o f Im m ig ra tio n ,

and th e B u reau o f

S t a t i s t i c s . 21 I t was d e c i d e d t h a t one d e p a r t m e n t c o u ld n o t h a n d le s u c h a l a r g e a m o u n t o f b u s i n e s s s o o n M a rch 4 , 1 9 1 3 i t w as d iv id e d in to o f L ab or. fo ste r,

t h e D e p a r t m e n t s o f Commerce a n d t h e D e p a r t m e n t

The D e p a r t m e n t o f L a b o r w a s e s t a b l i s h e d

to

p r o m o t e , a n d d e v e l o p t h e w e l f a r e o f t h e w age e a r n e r s

o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s ,

I b i d ., pp.

t o im p ro v e t h e i r w o r k in g c o n d i t i o n s ,

2 58-259.

21 W i l l i a m H e n r y S m i t h ,

oj>. c i t . , p p . 4 9 1 - 4 9 2 .

25 and to advance t h e i r o p p o r tu n itie s m en t*

fh e im m ig ra tio n , n a t u r a l i z a t i o n ,

b u r e a u s w ere t r a n s f e r r e d W h ile t h e th e

fo r p ro fita b le

C o n s titu tio n

e m p lo y ­

and th e l a b o r

t o t h e d e p a r t m e n t * 22

G a b in e t was n o t p u r p o s e l y e s t a b l i s h e d b y o r C o n g re ss i t was a f i x e d i n s t i t u t i o n b y

t h e e n d o f W a s h i n g t o n ' s s e c o n d te r m * to d e v e lo p a p r iv y c o u n c il* P r e s i d e n t W ash in g to n t r i e d

T h e r e w e r e tw o w a y s

One w a s t h r o u g h t h e S e n a t e . to u se th e p ro v is io n ab o u t th e

a d v i c e o f t h e S e n a t e on a p p o i n t m e n t s a n d t r e a t i e s *

One

e x a m p le w as w hen W a s h i n g t o n a n d K n o x , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f W ar, trie d

to

c e rta in to

c o n s u l t t h e S e n a t e on a p r o p o s e d t r e a t y w i t h a In d ia n trib e *

The S e n a t e , h o w e v e r , w as u n w i l l i n g

c o o p e ra te . The o t h e r w ay w as a f f o r d e d b y t h e p r o v i s i o n a l l o w i n g

th e P re s id e n t to

re q u ire

o p in io n s i n w r i t i n g fro m th e h e a d s

o f th e E x e c u tiv e d e p a rtm e n ts*

At th e b e g in n in g o f h is

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n W ash in g to n a tt e m p t e d t o c a l l upon t h e h e a d s o f th e d e p a rtm e n ts in d iv id u a lly * l e t t e r a d d re sse d to

He i s s u e s a c i r c u l a r

th e S e c r e ta r y o f F o re ig n A f f a i r s ,

th e

S e c r e t a r y o f W a r, t h e B o a r d o f t h e T r e a s u r y , a n d t h e P o s t ­ m a s t e r - G e n e r a l who h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d b y t h e o l d

22 I b i d . ,

5 0 1 -5 02 .

H enry Jo n e s F o rd ,

o p . c i t ** pp. 88-89.

C o n g ress.

26 On A u g u s t 2 7 , 1 7 9 0 b y a c i r c u l a r l e t t e r h e c a l l e d f o r w r i t t e n o p i n i o n s on c e r t a i n q u e s t i o n s .

He u s u a l l y c h o s e t o

c a l l u p o n t h e m em b ers who s e e m e d t o b e t h e m o s t c o n c e r n e d w ith th e q u e s tio n s .

Q u ite o f t e n he l e f t

G e n e r a l e x c e p t on l e g a l q u e s t i o n s . was n o t c o n s u l t e d as h i s w as n o r e a s o n t o

out th e A tto rn e y -

The P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l

d e p a r tm e n t was a b u s i n e s s a n d t h e r e

c a ll fo r h is

o p i n i o n on o t h e r m a t t e r s .

T o o , t h e P o s t O f f i c e w as s u b o r d i n a t e b y l a w t o t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t. The d e p a r t m e n t h e a d s m e t f o r t h e

first

tim e o f f i c i a l ­

l y w hen W a s h i n g t o n w as on a t o u r o f t h e S o u t h . a le tte r

to h is th re e s e c r e ta r ie s

m eet t o g e t h e r i f T hey w e re t o

s a y in g t h a t th e y sh o u ld

any b u s in e s s m a tte r o f im p o rta n c e a r o s e .

i n c l u d e t h e V ic e P r e s i d e n t b u t t h e A t t o r n e y -

G eneral and th e

G h ie f J u s t i c e w ere n o t i n c l u d e d .

S e c re ta ry o f S ta te , to

He a d d r e s s e d

Jefferso n ,

who c a l l e d t h e m e e t i n g , h o w e v e r ,

chose

i n c l u d e t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l * 24 A f t e r t h i s W ash in g to n , b e s i d e s a s k in g f o r w r i t t e n

o p in io n s , o f th e

c a l le d o c c a s io n a l m e e tin g s.

T he a c t u a l b e g i n n i n g

C a b i n e t a s a n E x e c u t i v e C o u n c i l w a s on F e b r u a r y 2 5 ,

1 7 9 3 w h e n t h e h e a d s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s m e t a t W a s h i n g t o n fs house to d is c u s s n e u t r a l i t y . In A p r il, 1792,

24 J a r e d S p a r k s , X, 1 5 7 .

th e t h r e e S e c r e t a r i e s and th e

e d i t o r , W r itin g s o f W a sh in g to n .

27 A tto r n e y - G e n e r a l w ere a s k e d t h e i r o p in io n s

on t h e

C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y o f an A ct f o r th e A p p o rtio n m e n t o f R e p r e s e n t a t i o n * 25 I n A u g u s t W a s h i n g t o n who w as a t Mt* V e r n o n w r o t e t o t h e S e c r e t a r y o f War a b o u t c e r t a i n

In d ia n d is p a tc h e s .

asked th a t th e S e c re ta r y o f th e T rea su ry a ls o

He

c o n s i d e r th em .

He s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d h a v e i n c l u d e d t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e b u t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e l a t t e r was a b s e n t fro m P h i l a ­ d e l p h i a a t t h e tim e *

F our days l a t e r h e ask ed t h a t th e

A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l b e i n c l u d e d . 26 I n S e p t e m b e r t h e r e w as a w r i t t e n

c o n s u l t a t i o n b e tw e e n

W ash in g to n and e a c h o f t h e f o u r o f f i c e r s

re g a rd in g th e

E x e c u t i v e P r o c l a m a t i o n o f t h e E x c i s e Law .

E a c h w as c a l l e d

up o n l a t e r f o r h i s v ie w s on t h e A n n u a l a d d r e s s t o

C o n gress

t o b e d e l i v e r e d on D ecem ber 8 , 1 7 9 2 . The p a n i c w h i c h w a s c a u s e d b y t h e F r e n c h M i n i s t e r G e n e t , who t r i e d

to f o r c e th e U n ite d S t a t e s

E u r o p e a n W ar, e f f e c t e d t h e a t th is

c o h e sio n o f th e

in to

C a b in e t.

I t w as

t i m e t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l b e c a m e m o re c l o s e l y

a s s o c ia te d w ith th e o th e r s ,

a l t h o u g h t h i s was p r o b a b l y b e ­

c a u s e o f R a n d o lp h h i m s e l f an d n o t b e c a u s e o f h i s th is

th e

o ffic e .

At

t i m e t h e y h e l d a l m o s t d a i l y m e e t i n g s . 27 2b

j , c.

H a m ilto n ,

Ja red S p ark s,

e d ito r,

oj>. c i t . ,

W orks o f H a m i l t o n . IV , 1 9 6 . X, 2 2 6 .

27 M a ry L o u i s e H i n s d a l e , A H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s C a b in e t, p. 14.

28 T he m e e t i n g s o f 1 7 9 2 a r e r e c o r d e d i n J e f f e r s o n ' s A nas.

In 1793 th e s e m e e tin g s a r e a t t e s t e d

H a m ilto n ,

by W a sh in g to n an d

We a l s o h a v e t h e f o r m a l s u m m o n s e s ,

M ad iso n , J e f f e r s o n , to u s e th e te rm " C a b in e t.” b u t u sed th e te rm s,

a n d R a n d o l p h w e r e am ong t h e f i r s t W a s h i n g t o n n e v e r u s e d t h i s nam e

" th e S e c r e t a r i e s and th e A tto rn e y -

G -e n e ra l," t h e c o n f i d e n t i a l o f f i c e r s , "

and " th e g e n tle m e n

w i t h whom I u s u a l l y a d v i s e o n t h e s e o c c a s i o n s . " was n o t u s e d i n

T he t e r m

C o n g r e s s u n t i l 1 8 0 6 b u t w as g e n e r a l l y u s e d .

lay 1 7 9 3 . 28 The e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f d i f f e r e n t upon d i f f e r e n t P r e s id e n ts . h a v e m ade t h e c is io n s

Some o f o u r r C h i e f E x e c u t i v e s

C a b in e t a r e a l c o n s u l t a t i v e b o d y .

The d e ­

o f s u c h a C a b i n e t h a v e b e e n m o re o r l e s s b i n d i n g o n

th e E x e c u tiv e . it

C a b in e ts h a s depended

A n d re w J a c k s o n a n d som e o f t h e o t h e r s m ade

a s o r t o f c o u n c il o f w ar, w ith th e P r e s id e n t a s th e

c o m m an d er a n d t h e S e c r e t a r i e s

as c h ie f l i e u t e n a n t s . ^

The C a b i n e t d o e s n o t t a k e p o l i t i c a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y fo r th e a c ts b le

o f th e P re s id e n t b u t th e P re s id e n t is re s p o n s i­

f o r th e a c tio n s

o f th e * v a r io u s d e p a rtm e n t h e a d s .

P r e s i d e n t m akes a m i s t a k e h e i s re s p o n sib ility is

t h e o n e u p o n whom t h e

p lac ed #

^ J , S . B a s s e t t , "The P r e s i d e n t ' s C a b i n e t , " i n P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e q u a r t e r l y . V o l . X X V II, p p . 6 9 4 - 6 9 5 .

hoc.

c it.

If a

29 There i s

no C a b in e t u n i t y .

U n lik e th e E n g lis h

n e t t h e A m e ric an C a b in e t re m a in s i n P re sid e n t is

i n p o w er.

o ffic e

The f a c t t h a t

as lo n g as th e

C o n g r e s s may b e

c o n tr o l le d by th e o p p o sin g p a r t y does n o t a f f e c t th e o ffic e rs.

B ecause o f th e s e f a c t s

in flu e n c e o f th e B r itis h

it

C a b in e t

can n e v e r have th e

C a b in e t.

The o l d i d e a i n c h o o s i n g t h e s e le c t th e c h ie f p o l i t i c a l

C a b i n e t m em b ers w as t o

c h a ra c te rs

e x i s t e d u n t i l th e tim e o f G a r f i e l d . W ilso n i n

C a b i­

o f th e day.

A c c o r d i n g t o Woodrow

C o n s t i t u t i o n a l G overnm ent i n

P r e s i d e n t now l o o k s u p o n t h e

T h is i d e a

th e U n ite d S t a te s

th e

C a b in e t a s a body o f p e r s o n a l

a d v i s e r s whom h e c h o o s e s f r o m t h o s e h e p e r s o n a l l y t r u s t s . Many o f t h e s e a r e f r i e n d s a n d f o r m e r b u s i n e s s c o l l e a g u e s . T h e s e a r e men who h a v e m ade g o o d p r i v a t e l y ,

31 i f n o t p u b lic ly ?

30

its

J a m e s T. Y o u n g , The Hew A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t a n d W o rk , p . 6 5 . 31

,fThe P r e s i d e n t a n d H i s C a b i n e t ” i n t h e I d t e r a r y D i g e s t , 6 5 : 4 8 , May 2 2 , 1 9 2 0 .

CHAPTER III GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE CABINET MEMBERS A c co rd in g to in i t s

th e L ite r a r y D ig e st1 th e P r e s id e n t- e le c t

e f f o r t to pay p o l i t i c a l d e b ts w ith

C a b in e t p o s i t i o n s

c h o o s e s s t r o n g men f r o m t h e v a r i o u s g e o g r a p h i c a l s e c t i o n s o f th e n a tio n .

S e c tio n a l lin e s

a r e n o t a lw a y s o b s e r v e d b u t

m o s t P r e s i d e n t s do m ake a n e f f o r t t o h a v e e a c h g e o g r a p h i c s e c tio n re p re se n te d . at le a st

A l l b u t n i n e s t a t e s h a v e h a d m em b ers

once i n th e f i r s t

C a b in e t o f t h e v a r i o u s a d m in is ­

tra tio n s . In o rd e r to stu d y th e g e o g ra p h ic a l d i s t r i b u t i o n th e

C a b in e t o u r h i s t o r y h a s b e e n d iv id e d i n t o

The f i r s t 1861.

tw o p e r i o d s .

p e r i o d b e g i n s i n 1 7 8 9 a n d e x t e n d s t o M a rc h 3 ,

The s e c o n d p e r i o d r u n s

3, 1941.

of

fro m l a r c h 4 , 1861 t o

A lso th e n a t i o n h a s b e e n d iv id e d i n t o

Jan u ary

th re e

s e c tio n s fo r each p e rio d . PERIOD ONE D u rin g th e f i r s t

p e rio d th e n o rth e rn s e c tio n

l o c a t e d n o r t h o f t h e M aso n a n d D ix o n l i n e . sta te s:

It

is

in c lu d e s n in e

M a i n e , New H a m p s h i r e , V e r m o n t , M a s s a c h u s e t t s ,

C o n n e c t i c u t , R h o d e I s l a n d , New Y o r k , P e n n s y l v a n i a ,

a n d New

Jersey . 1 " T h e C a b i n e t * 1 i n T he L i t e r a r y D i g e s t . V o l . L X V I I I , p . 38.

31 The s o u t h e r n s e c t i o n i s l o c a t e d s o u t h o f t h e M ason a n d D ix o n w i t h t h e O h io R i v e r c o n s i d e r e d a s a w e s t w a r d e x te n sio n o f th e l i n e .

T h is s e c t i o n i s

com posed o f t h i r t e e n

s t a t e s , i n c l u d i n g th e e le v e n s t a t e s w h ic h se c e d e d i n 1 8 6 0 -6 1 p lu s D e law a re an d M a ry la n d . M a ry lan d ,

S ta te s

in c lu d e d a r e :

D e la w a re ,

V i r g i n ia , N o rth C a r o lin a , S o u th C a r o lin a , F l o r i d a ,

T ennessee,

G e o r g ia , A lab am a, M i s s i s s i p p i , A r k a n s a s ,

L o u is ia n a , and T exas. T he w e s t e r n s e c t i o n i s c h ia n M o u n ta in s.

It

is

l o c a t e d w e st o f t h e A p p a la ­

com posed o f e le v e n s t a t e s

in c lu d in g

K e n tu c k y , and M is s o u r i, b o th o f w h ie h w ere s l a v e s t a t e s b u t d id n o t seced e.

T h is s e c t i o n d o es n o t i n c lu d e s t a t e s w e st

o f th e A p p a la c h ia n s w h ie h d id s e c e d e .

S ta te s

se c tio n a re :

Illin o is ,

K e n tu c k y , O h io , I n d i a n a ,

W isc o n sin , M in n e so ta ,

Iow a, M i s s o u r i,

c o m p o s in g t h e

C a lifo rn ia ,

M ic h ig a n , and

O reg o n . F ro m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t u n d e r t h e s titu tio n

to ab o u t 1820, s e c tio n a lis m

C onr

p la y e d a v e r y m in o r

p a r t b u t fro m t h a t tim e u n t i l 1861 th e s l a v e r y q u e s t io n an d s e ttle m e n t o f th e w est caused s e c tio n a l f e e lin g s h ig h . tia l,

to ru n

A f t e r 1861 th e S o u th h a s b e en r e l a t i v e l y u n in f lu e n p r i n c i p a l l y b e c a u se th e S o u th i s

D e m o c ra tic i n p o l i t i e s pow er i n reaso n is

a lm o st s o l i d l y

and th e R e p u b lic a n P a r ty h a s b een in

t h e F e d e r a l G overnm ent m o st o f t h e t i m e .

A n o th e r

t h a t R e p u b lic a n P r e s i d e n ts d id n o t b a se t h e i r

a p p o i n t m e n t s u p o n g e o g r a p h y b u t m ade p a r t i s a n a n d s e c t i o n a l c h o ic e s* The W est a s we know i t

to d a y is

n ew t o b e o f g r e a t i m p o r t a n c e .

s till

c o n s id e re d to o

Many o f t h e s e s t a t e s

s p a r s e l y p o p u la te d and so h a v e few e l e c t o r a l v o t e s .

are T hus,

n a t u r a l l y t h e y a r e n o t a s i m p o r t a n t t o a P r e s i d e n t a s Hew T o rk , f o r e x a m p le , w ith i t s I n c h o o sin g h i s C h a n n in g ,2 b a se d h i s c a r e f u l to

fo rty -se v e n e le c to r a l v o te s.

C a b in e t, W ash in g to n , a c c o r d in g t o

se le c tio n s

on f o u r p r i n c i p l e s :

He w a s

c h o o s e o n l y men who t h o r o u g h l y b e l i e v e d i n t h e

C o n s t i t u t i o n , h e g a v e m uch t h o u g h t t o s e l e c t i n g t h e man best f itte d

f o r each o f f i c e , he c a r e f u lly ob serv ed geo­

g ra p h ic a l d is tr ib u tio n ,

a n d h e c h o s e men who h e l d p r o m i n e n t

p l a c e s i n t h e i r home s t a t e s . W a s h i n g t o n 's

C a b in e t c o n s i s t e d o f S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ,

Thom as J e f f e r s o n o f V i r g i n i a ;

S e c re ta ry o f th e T rea su ry ,

A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n o f Hew Y o r k ; S e c r e t a r y o f W a r, H e n r y K nox o f M a ss a c h u se tts;

a n d A t t o r n e y - G - e n e r a l , Edmund R a n d o l p h o f

V irg in ia . W h ile W a s h i n g t o n m ade a n a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e P o stm a ste r-O e n e ra l, p a rt o f th e

of

t h e P o s t O f f i c e D e p a rtm e n t w as n o t a

C a b in e t u n t i l 1 8 2 9 .

B o t h o f t h e s o u t h e r n m em b ers o f t h i s

52.

o ffic e

C a b in e t w ere

2 E d w a rd C h a n n i n g , H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , '

IV .

03 f r o m W a s h i n g t o n Ts own s t a t e

o f V irg in ia ,

H is l a t e r

a p p o in tm e n ts in e lu d e d W illia m B ra d fo rd o f P e n n s y lv a n ia ; T im o t h y P i c k e r i n g o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; o f C o n n e c tic u t;

O liv e r W o lc o tt, J r .

C h a r l e s L e e o f V i r g i n i a ; a n d Ja m e s M cH enry

o f M a ry lan d . In W ash in g to n * s f i r s t

C a b i n e t t h e r e w e r e tw o m em b ers

f r o m t h e H o r t h a n d tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h .

For th e t o t a l

num ber o f a p p o in tm e n ts t h e r e w ere f i v e

fro m th e H o r th ,

and

f o u r fro m th e S o u th . T h e H a v y D e p a r t m e n t w as e s t a b l i s h e d d u r i n g J o h n Adams* a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b y a c t o f C o n g r e s s , A p r i l 3 0 , 1 7 9 8 . When Adams w as e l e c t e d t o

th e P re s id e n c y , he d e c id e d

to r e ta in

th e f i n a l

reaso n s.

T he f i r s t w a s t h e l a c k o f p r e c e d e n t .

w hat th e f u tu r e

C a b i n e t c h o s e n b y W a s h i n g t o n f o r tw o Ho o n e k new

c u s to m w o u ld b e o r w h a t t h e b e t t e r p r a c t i c e

ijyould b e ,

a n d s e c o n d men o f a b i l i t y

fe lt

lo y a ltie s

s h o u l d b e f o r t h e i r own s t a t e s .

i n c l u d e d tw o m em b ers f r o m t h e H o r t h , M a s s a c h u s e tts , and O liv e r W o lc o tt, t h r e e fro m t h e S o u th ;

The f i r s t

C a b in e t

T im o th y P i c k e r i n g fro m

Jr.

o f C o n n e c tic u t; and

C h a rle s Lee o f V i r g i n i a ;

o f M a ry la n d ; an d B e n ja m in S t o d d e r t , was t h e new S e c r e t a r y

t h a t t h e i r p rim a ry

a ls o

Ja m e s M cH enry

f r o m M a r y l a n d , who

o f t h e H avy.

L a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts w ere Jo h n M a r s h a ll o f V i r g i n i a a n d S a m u e l D e x t e r o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s w h i e h w as a l s o Adams 1 s ta te .

Adams m ade a t o t a l o f s e v e n a p p o i n t m e n t s o f w h i e h

34

t h r e e w e r e f r o m t h e H o r t h and. f o u r f r o m t h e S o u t h . Thomas J e f f e r s o n , Jam es M a d iso n , a l s o

th e second V irg in ia p r e s id e n t

o f V irg in ia ; A lb e rt G a lla tin

chose

o f P e n n sy l­

v a n ia ; H enry D e arb o rn and L ev i L in c o ln , b o th o f M assa­ c h u se tts;

and R o b e rt S m ith o f M a ry la n d .

T h i s m ade t h r e e men

f r o m t h e H o r t h a n d tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h . D u rin g J e f f e r s o n 's se n te d f o r th e

first

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h e W e st w as r e p r e ­

tim e .

H is l a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts in c lu d e d

Jo h n B r e e k e n r i d g e o f K e n tu c k y an d C a e s a r A. R o dney o f D e la w a re . tra tio n

T he s e v e n a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade d u r i n g h i s a d m i n i s ­

in c lu d e d th r e e

fro m th e H o r th ,

and one fro m t h e W est.

t h r e e fro m th e S o u th ,

B e s id e s th e a p p o in tm e n t fro m th e

W est tw o s t a t e s w e r e g i v e n a p p o i n t m e n t s f o r t h e f i r s t

tim e .

T hese w ere K e n tu ck y and D e la w a re . Ja m e s M a d is o n r e t a i n e d t h r e e m em b ers o f J e f f e r s o n ' s C a b in e t.

T h ese w ere G a l l a t i n an d Rodney i n t h e i r fo r m e r

p o s i t i o n s a n d R o b e r t S m i t h who w a s p r o m o t e d f r o m t h e Mavy D e p a rtm e n t t o be S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e .

H i s tw o new a p p o i n t ­

m en ts w e re W illia m E u s t i s o f M a s s a c h u s e tt s and P a u l H a m il­ to n o f S o u th C a r o lin a .

T h i s m ade tw o m em b ers f r o m t h e H o r t h

and t h r e e fro m t h e S o u th . L a t e r a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e J a m e s M o nroe o f V i r g i n i a ; W illia m P in k n e y o f M a ry la n d ; W illia m J o n e s , R ic h a r d R a sh , and A le x a n d e r J .

D a lla s,

a ll

o f P e n n s y l v a n ia ; Jo h n A rm stro n g

o f Hew Y o r k , G e o r g e W. C a m p b e ll o f T e n n e s s e e ;

W i l l i a m H.

35 C raw fo rd o f G e o rg ia ; M a ss a c h u se tts.

a n d B e n j a m i n W. C r o w n i n s h i e l d o f

T h i s m ade a t o t a l o f f o u r t e e n a p p o i n t m e n t s

o f w h ic h s e v e n w e re fro m t h e H o r th an d s e v e n fro m t h e S o u th . T hree s t a t e s

r e c e iv e d a p p o in tm e n ts f o r th e f i r s t

i n g M a d iso n * s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

tim e d u r ­

T hese w ere S o u th C a r o li n a ,

G e o rg ia , and T en n e sse e. B e c a u s e o f s o m any V i r g i n i a P r e s i d e n t s , Hew E n g l a n d had r a is e d

t h e c r y o f “ V i r g i n i a D y n a s ty .1*

M a d i s o n a n d M o n ro e

had su c c e e d e d t o th e P r e s id e n c y fro m th e p o s i t i o n o f S e c r e ­ t a r y o f S t a t e h e n c e M onroe*s r e l u c t a n c e t o a p p o i n t a n y o n e fro m V i r g i n i a t o

th a t o ffic e .

In a l e t t e r w ritte n to

J e ffe rs o n F eb ru ary 23, 1817, he s a id : On f u l l c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f a l l c i r c u m s t a n c e s I h a v e t h o u g h t i t w o u ld p r o d u c e a b a d e f f e c t t o p l a c e a n y o n e fro m t h i s q u a r t e r o f t h e U n io n i n t h e d e p t , o f S t a t e , o r fro m t h e S o u th o r W est. You t a o w how m uch h a s b e e n s a i d t o i m p r e s s a b e l i e f on t h e c o u n t r y , n o r t h o r e a s t o r t h i s , t h a t th e c i t i z e n s fro m V irg a h o ld in g th e P r e s i d e n c y h a v e m ade a p p o i n t m e n t s t o t h a t d e p t , t o s e ­ c u re t h e s u c c e s s i o n fro m i t t o t h e P r e s i d e n c y o f t h e p e r s o n who h a p p e n s t o b e f r o m t h a t s t a t e . 3 F u r t h e r i n t h e sa m e l e t t e r h e t e l l s

th a t he is

p u r p o s e l y c h o o s i n g a man f r o m t h e E a s t t o h e a d h i s

C a b in e t.

W it h t h i s v i e w , I h a v e t h o u g h t i t a d v i s a b l e t o s e l e c t a p e r s o n f o r t h e D e p a rtm e n t o f S t a t e from t h e E a s t e r n S t a t e s , i n c o n s e q u e n c e o f w h i c h my a t t e n t i o n h a s b e e n t u r n e d t o M r. A d a m s, who b y h i s a g e , l o n g e x ­ p e r ie n c e i n o u r f o r e i g n a f f a i r s and a d o p tio n i n t o th e E e p u b l i c a n ^ p a r t y seem s t o h a v e s u p e r i o r p r e t e n s i o n s to any th e r e .^

3 G e o r g e M o r g a n , T he L i f e o f J a m e s M o n r o e , p . 4 Loc.

c it.

355.

36 B e s i d e s J o h n Q u i n c y Adams o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s , M o n ro e a p p o i n t e d W i l l i a m H. C ro w n in sh ie ld , a ls o

C r a w f o r d o f G e o r g i a ; B e n j a m i n W. o f M a ss a c h u se tts;

a n d R i c h a r d R ush o f

P e n n s y l v a n i a a l l o f whom w e r e h o l d o v e r s a n d J o h n C. C a lh o u n o f S o u th C a r o lin a .

T hus, t h r e e w e r e f r o m t h e W o rth a n d tw o

fro m th e S o u th . L a t e r M o n ro e d i d a p p o i n t a m em ber f r o m V i r g i n i a . T h is was W illia m W i r t ,

one o f h i s m ost a b l e S e c r e t a r i e s .

O t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade d u r i n g t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w e r e S m i t h T hom pson a n d S a m u e l L . S o u t h a r d o f Hew J e r s e y . b u tio n o f th e

The d i s t r i ­

e i g h t a p p o i n t m e n t s w as f i v e f o r t h e W o rth a n d

t h r e e fro m th e S o u th .

Hew J e r s e y w a s t h e o n l y n e w s t a t e

to

be re c o g n iz e d b y an a p p o in tm e n t. J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s, l i k e M a d i s o n a n d M o n ro e t o o k t h r e e of h is

a d v i s o r s fro m th e

R ush, W irt, and S o u th a rd .

C a b in e t o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r , n a m e ly H is new a p p o in t m e n t s w e re H e n ry

C la y fro m K e n tu c k y a n d Jam es B a r b o u r o f V i r g i n i a . To a v o i d c r i t i c i s m

on t h e p a r t o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ,

P r e s i d e n t M o n ro e h a d a p p o i n t e d t o h i s f i r s t fro m t h a t s t a t e

an d n o n e from V i r g i n i a .

C a b i n e t tw o men

J o h n Q u i n c y A d am s,

a P r e s i d e n t c h o se n fro m M a s s a c h u s e tts r e t u r n e d th e c o m p li­ m e n t b y a p p o i n t i n g tw o a d v i s o r s f r o m V i r g i n i a a n d n o n e f r o m M a ss a c h u se tts. It

i s n o t e w o r t h y t h a t i n P r e s i d e n t Adams ' a d m i n i s t r a ­

tio n th e h ig h e s t honor in th e

C a b in e t,

th e s e c re ta ry s h ip

of

37 S t a t e , w a s g i v e n t o a man f r o m t h e W est# fh e f i r s t

C a b i n e t c o n s i s t e d o f tw o men f r o m t h e N o r t h ,

tw o men f r o m t h e S o u t h a n d o n e f r o m t h e W est#

P re sid e n t

Adams m ade o n l y o n e c h a n g e d u r i n g h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n * n e w a p p o i n t m e n t w as P e t e r B . P o r t e r , fh e s i x

f r o m New Y o r k .

a p p o i n t m e n t s , m ade d u r i n g t h e t e r m ,

t h r e e m em b ers f r o m t h e N o r t h ,

5?he

tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h ,

in c lu d e d and one

fro m t h e W est. f h e P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l was a d m i t te d i n t o on M a rc h 9 , 1 8 E 9 , t h e r e f o r e fo r h is f i r s t

th e

C a b in e t

J a c k s o n made s i x a p p o i n t m e n t s

C a b in e t.

A n d re w J a c k s o n b e l i e v e d t h a t h e s h o u l d p a y p o l i t i c a l d e b ts by g i v i n g g o v ern m en t p o s i t i o n s ,

so h is

C a b in e t was

chosen f o r p o l i t i c a l re a so n s r a t h e r th a n f o r f a i r geo­ g ra p h ic a l rea so n s. re p re se n te d .

D e sp ite t h i s

fact a ll

t h e s e c t i o n s w ere

One s i ^ i i f i e a n t g e o g r a p h i c f a c t a b o u t h i s

C a b i n e t w as t h a t V i r g i n i a w as n o t r e p r e s e n t e d .

V ir g in ia had

a l w a y s b e e n r e p r e s e n t e d f o r m e r l y b u t now i t w a s o v e r l o o k e d . For h is f i r s t

C a b in e t, P r e s i d e n t Ja c k so n ch o se M a rtin

Van B u r e n o f New Y o r k ; S a m u e l B. I n g h a m o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; J o h n H . E a t o n f r o m J a c k s o n !s own s t a t e ,

T ennessee;

John

B e r r i e n o f G e o rg ia ; W illia m T. B a r r y o f K e n tu c k y ; and John B ran ch o f N o rth C a ro lin a . B e c a u s e C a lh o u n h a d d e s e r t e d J o h n Q u i n c y A d am s, J a c k ­ son a p p o in te d t h r e e

C a lh o u n men t o h i s

C a b in e t.

L a t e r w hen

38

C a lh o u n a n d J a c k s o n q u a r r e l e d t h e s o n a p p o i n t e d men o f h i s

C a b in e t r e s ig n e d and J a c k ­

own f o l l o w i n g .

P r e s i d e n t J a c k s o n ’s l a t e r a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e E d w a rd L i v i n g s t o n o f L o u i s i a n a ; L o u i s M eLane o f D e l a w a r e ; L e w i s C a s s f r o m O h i o ; R o g e r B . T a n e y o f M a r y l a n d ; L e v i W o o d b u ry o f Hew H a m p s h i r e ; J o h n F o r s y t h f r o m G e o r g i a ; W i l l i a m J .

D uane

o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; B e n j a m i n T , B u t l e r o f Hew Y o r k , Amos K e n ­ d a l l o f K e n t u c k y ; a n d M a h lo n D i c k e r s o n o f Hew J e r s e y , J a c k s o n m ade s i x t e e n a p p o i n t m e n t s d u r i n g h i s tw o a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s a n d e l e v e n o f t h e s e w e r e m ad e d u r i n g h i s first

te rm o f o f f i c e .

fro m t h e H o r th ,

t h r e e fro m th e S o u th ,

The d i s t r i b u t i o n H o r th was s i x ,

For th e f i r s t

C a b i n e t t h e r e w e r e tw o a n d one fro m t h e W est.

o f th e t o t a l num ber o f a p p o in tm e n ts f o r th e

f o r t h e S o u t h s e v e n , a n d f o r t h e W est t h r e e .

Hew H a m p s h i r e , O h i o , H o r t h C a r o l i n a , a n d L o u i s i a n a w ere r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t

tim e ,

M a r t i n Van B u r e n r e t a i n e d a l l b u t o n e m em ber o f J a c k s o n ’s f i n a l

C a b in e t.

T he o n e n e w m em ber w a s J o e l R.

P o i n s e t t o f S o u th C a r o lin a .

Among t h o s e r e t a i n e d b y Yan

B u r e n w e r e B e n j a m i n F , B u t l e r , who h a d b e e n h i s l a w p a r t n e r i n Hew Y o r k , a n d Amos K e n d a l l , " K i t c h e n C a b i n e t ” who s t i l l first

t h e o n l y m em ber o f J a c k s o n ’s

s u p p o r t e d Yan B u r e n .

In th e

C a b i n e t t h e r e w e r e t h r e e m en f r o m t h e H o r t h , tw o f r o m

t h e S o u th a n d one fro m t h e W est. Yan B u r e n l a t e r a p p o i n t e d J a m e s K. P a u l d i n g o f

39 Hew Y o r k ; F e l i x G r u n d y o f T e n n e s s e e ; H e n r y D. G a l p i n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; a n d J o h n M. B i l e s f r o m C o n n e c t i c u t * t e n a p p o i n t m e n t s h a d s i x men f r o m t h e H o r t h ,

Thus h i s

th r e e fro m th e

S o u t h , a n d o n e f r o m t h e W est* The H a r r i s o n - T y l e r a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l b e t r e a t e d a s one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

A l t h o u g h W i l l i a m H e n r y H a r r i s o n cam e

fro m O h io , h e was a s o u t h e r n e r h a v i n g b e e n b o r n i n V i r g i n i a . H a r r is o n a p p o in te d D a n ie l W e b ste r o f M a s s a c h u s e tts ; E w in g f r o m O h i o ; J o h n B e l l o f T e n n e s s e e ; J o h n J .

Thom as

C ritte n d e n

o f K e n t u c k y ; F r a n c i s G r a n g e r o f Hew Y o r k ; a n d G e o r g e 1 . B ad g er o f H o rth C a r o lin a . a f te r h is

P r e s i d e n t H a r r i s o n d i e d a m o n th

i n a u g u r a t i o n and was s u c c e e d e d b y t h e V ic e P r e s i ­

d e n t, John T y le r . In th e f a l l

o f 1841 th e e n t i r e

e x c e p ti o n o f W eb ste r r e s i g n e d . a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w as f i l l e d

C a b in e t w ith t h e

The r e m a i n d e r o f T y l e r f s

w i t h m any a p p o i n t m e n t s .

T hese

w e re W a l te r F o rw a rd o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; Hugh S . l e g a r e fro m S o u th C a ro lin a ;

J o h n C. S p e n c e r o f Hew Y o r k ;

C h a r l e s A*

W i e k l i f f e o f K e n t u c k y ; J a m e s M. P o r t e r o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; d b e l P . U pshur o f V i r g i n ia ; H enshaw o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ;

Jo h n H e lso n fro m M a ry la n d ;

D a v id

Thomas W* G i l m e r o f V i r g i n i a ;

W i l l i a m W i l k i n s o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; J o h n Y. M ason o f V i r g i n i a ; J o h n C. C a lh o u n o f S o u t h C a r o l i n a ; a n d G e o r g e M, B i b b o f K e n tu c k y .

The f i r s t

C a b i n e t t h a t w as a p p o i n t e d b y H a r r i s o n

h a d tw o men f r o m t h e H o r t h ,

tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m

40

t h e W est,

I n T y l e r ’s f i n a l

fro m th e H o r th ,

C a b i n e t t h e r e w e r e o n e m em ber

t h r e e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t ,

O f t h e t o t a l n i n e t e e n a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade b y E a r r i s o n a n d T y le r t h e r e w ere s e v e n f o r t h e H o r th ,

e ig h t f o r th e S o u th ,

a n d f o u r f o r t h e W est. The e l e v e n t h P r e s i d e n t , J a e k s o n m an.

He r e t a i n e d

J a m e s K* P o l k , w a s a n o t h e r

J o h n Y, M ason o f T y l e r ’s C a b i n e t

b u t c h a n g e d h i s p o s i t i o n fro m S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy t o A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l. in 1846.

M r. M ason r e t u r n e d

t o t h e Havy D e p a rtm e n t

O t h e r m em bers o f P r e s i d e n t F o l k ’s

C a b in e t w ere

Jam es B u c h an a n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; H o b e r t J . W alk er fro m M ississip p i;

W i l l i a m L . IS a re y o f Hew Y o r k ;

Cave J o h n s o n o f

T e n n e s s e e ; an d G eorge B a n c r o f t o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s .

T h i s m ade

t h r e e fro m t h e H o r th and t h r e e fro m t h e S o u th b u t n o n e fro m t h e W est.

P o l k m ade o n l y tw o o t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s l a t e r .

T hese w ere H a th a n C l i f f o r d C o n n e c tic u t.

o f M a in a n d I s a a c T o u c e y f r o m

In th e f i n a l d i s t r i b u t i o n

t h e r e w ere f i v e

f o r th e H o rth ,

n o o n e f o r t h e W e s t.

th re e

o f C a b in e t m em bers,

f o r t h e S o u th and s t i l l

P o l k , who w as a w e s t e r n man a n d a

D e m o c r a t , w a s v e r y g e n e r o u s t o t h e H o r t h w h i c h w as b i t t e r l y o p p o se d t o h im .

M i s s i s s i p p i a n d M a in e b o t h r e c e i v e d

a p p o in tm e n ts f o r th e f i r s t

tim e ,

T h e D e p a r t m e n t o f t h e I n t e r i o r w as c r e a t e d i n 1 8 4 9 w h ic h r a i s e d in th e

t h e num ber o f C a b in e t p o s i t i o n s t o s e v e n .

As

e a s e o f H a r r is o n and T y le r A d m in is tr a tio n th e T a y lo r

41 and F illm o r e .A d m in is tra tio n w i l l be t r e a t e d a s o n e .

T a y lo r

a p p o i n t e d tw o men f r o m t h e H o r t h , f o u r f r o m t h e S o u t h a n d one fro m t h e W est.

T h e s e w e r e J o h n M* C l a y t o n o f D e l a w a r e ;

W i l l i a m M. M e r e d i t h o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; G e o r g e W# C r a w f o r d o f G e o rg ia ; R e v erd y Jo h n so n o f M a ry la n d ; Ja e o h

C o lla m e r o f

V e r m o n t ; W i l l i a m B . P r e s t o n o f Y i r g i n i a , a n d Thomas E w in g o f O h io . P r e s i d e n t T a y l o r was a n o t h e r w a r h e r o .

B e in g o ld e r

t h a n m o s t P r e s i d e n t s w hen h e t o o k o f f i c e , h e s e r v e d o n l y s i x t e e n m o n th s.

He w a s s u c c e e d e d b y M i l l a r d F i l l m o r e ,

Y ic e P r e s i d e n t .

I n J u l y and A u g u st o f 1850 t h e e n t i r e

C a b in e t r e s i g n e d .

th e

T h i s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n m ade m o r e c h a n g e s

th a n any p re v io u s a d m in is tr a tio n ex eep t th a t o f H a rriso n and T y le r.

The l a t t e r m ade n i n e t e e n a p p o i n t m e n t s w h i l e T a y l o r

a n d F i l l m o r e m ade e i g h t e e n .

T hese l a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts w ere

D a n ie l W e b ste r o f M a s s a c h u s e tts ;

Thomas C o r w in o f O h i o ;

H a t h a n K . H a l l o f Hew Y orlc; W i l l i a m A . G raham o f H o r t h C a ro lin a ;

John J .

o f L o u is ia n a ;

C ritte n d e n

o f K e n tu e & y ;

C h a r l e s M.

C o n ra d

T hom as M. T . M eK ennan o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; A l e x ­

a n d e r H. H. S t u a r t o f Y i r g i n i a ;

Jo h n P . K ennedy o f M a ry lan d ;

S a m u e l B* H u b b a r d o f C o n n e c t i c u t ; a n d E d w a rd E v e r e t t o f M a ssa c h u se tts* F i l l m o r e fs. f i n a l

C a b i n e t h a d tw o men f r o m t h e H o r t h ,

t h r e e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t . a p p o in tm e n ts w ere s e v e n f o r t h e H o r th ,

T he t o t a l

e ig h t f o r th e S o u th ,

42 an d t h r e e f o r t h e W est.

V e rm o n t w as t h e

o n l y new s t a t e

to

he g iv e n an a p p o in tm e n t. A lth o u g h F r a n k l i n P i e r c e ,

th e fo u rte e n th P re s id e n t

h a d a t u r b u l e n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n h e m ade n o c h a n g e s i n h i s C a b in e t.

He a p p o i n t e d W i l l i a m Iffarey o f Hew Y o r k ; Ja m e s

G u th r ie o f K e n tu c k y ;

Jefferso n

C u sh in g fro m M a s s a c h u s e tt s ;

D a v is o f M i s s i s s i p p i ;

C a le b

J a m e s C a m p b e ll o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ;

R o b e r t M c C l e l l a n d o f M i c h i g a n ; a n d J a m e s C. D o b b i n o f H o r t h C a ro lin a .

T h e r e f o r e , h e h a d c h o s e n t h r e e m em b ers f r o m t h e

H o r t h , tw o f r o m t h e

S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e

w as r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t

W est* M i c h i g a n

t im e *

Jam es B u c h a n a n , t h e l a s t P r e s i d e n t o f t h e f i r s t p e rio d ,

c h o s e L e w is C a s s o f M i c h i g a n ; H o w e l l Cobb o f

G e o rg ia ;

Jo h n B. F lo y d o f V i r g i n i a ;

B u c h a n a n 's s t a t e T ennessee;

of

J e r e m i a h S* B l a c k o f

P e n n s y l v a n i a ; A a r o n V. B ro w n o f

I s a a c Toucey o f C o n n e c tic u t;

and

J a c o b T hom pson

of M ississip p i. H is l a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts w ere P h i l l i p

F . Thomas o f

M a r y l a n d ; E d w in M* S t a n t o n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; J o h n A . D ix o f Hew Y o r k ; H o r a t i o K i n g o f M a i n e ; a n d J o s e p h H a l t o f K e n ­ tu ck y .

H is l a s t

f o u r a p p o in tm e n ts w ere fro m t h e H o rth due

to th e b e g in n in g o f s e c e s s io n . The f i r s t

C a b i n e t c o n t a i n e d tw o n o r t h e r n m e m b e r s ,

f o u r s o u t h e r n m e m b e r s , a n d o n e w e s t e r n m e m b e r. m ade t w e l v e a p p o i n t m e n t s i n a l l ,

B uchanan

s i x o f w h ic h w ere fro m t h e

43

N o rth ,

f o u r f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t . D u rin g P e r io d I i n th e f i r s t

C a b in e ts o f th e P r e s i ­

d e n t s t h e r e w e r e t h i r t y - o n e men a p p o i n t e d f r o m t h e n o r t h e r n se c tio n ,

t h i r t y - f o u r fro m th e s o u th e r n s e c t i o n ,

fro m th e w e s te r n s e c t i o n .

and n in e

Of t h e t o t a l num ber o f a p p o i n t ­

m e n ts s i x t y - s i x w ere fro m t h e N o r t h , f i f t y - e i g h t fro m t h e S o u th ,

an d s e v e n t e e n fro m t h e W est. PERIOD TWO D u r i n g t h e s e c o n d p e r i o d t h e sam e t h r e e s e c t i o n s a r e

r e c o g n i z e d b u t w i t h n ew b o u n d a r y l i n e s . se c tio n is

The n o r t h e r n

l o c a t e d n o r t h o f t h e M ason a n d D ix o n l i n e

t h e O h io R i v e r w e s t t o t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r . fo u rte e n s ta te s M a ss a c h u se tts,

a re in c lu d e d :

and

T he f o l l o w i n g

M a i n e , New H a m p s h i r e ,

V e rm o n t,

C o n n e c t i c u t , R h o d e I s l a n d , New Y o r k , P e n n s y l ­

v a n i a , New J e r s e y ,

O h io , I n d i a n a ,

Illin o is,

M ic h ig a n , and

W is c o n s in . T he S o u t h e x t e n d s n o r t h t o a n d t h e O h io R i v e r t o

t h e M ason a n d D i x o n l i n e

t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R i v e r on t h e W e s t .

B e c a u s e o f t h e n ew b o u n d a r i e s t h e s e c t i o n l o s e s t h r e e

sta te s,

A r k a n s a s , L o u i s i a n a , a n d T e x a s b u t g a i n s K e n t u c k y a n d W est V irg in ia .

It

in c lu d e s b e sid e s th e s e

tw o s t a t e s ;

D e la w a re ,

M a ry la n d , V i r g i n i a , N o rth C a r o lin a , S o u th C a r o lin a , F l o r i d a , T ennessee,

G e o r g ia , A la b am a, a n d M i s s i s s i p p i .

The w e s t e r n s e c t i o n i n c l u d e s a l l

th e s ta te s w est of

44 th e M is s is s ip p i R iv e r.

These a r e M in n e so ta ,

Iow a, M i s s o u r i ,

A r k a n s a s , L o u is ia n a , H o rth D a k o ta, S o u th D a k o ta , N e b ra s k a , K a n s a s , O k la h o m a , T e x a s , M o n t a n a , W yom ing, C o l o r a d o , U t a h , I d a h o , N e v a d a , Hew M e x i c o , A r i z o n a , W a s h i n g t o n , O r e g o n , a n d C a lifo rn ia .

M in n e so ta and L o u is ia n a a r e l i s t e d

t h e W e st b e c a u s e t h e y l i e

as p a rt of

m o stly w est o f th e M is s is s ip p i

R iv e r. A b ra h a m L i n c o l n c h o s e h i s t h a n f o r h arm o n y b u t h e t r i e d se n te d .

C a b in e t f o r s t r e n g t h r a t h e r

to have a l l s e c tio n s r e p r e ­

He c h o s e W i l l i a m H . S e w a r d f r o m Hew Y o r k ; S a lm o n P .

C h a s e o f O h i o ; S im o n C am eron o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; E d w a rd B a t e s o f M i s s o u r i ; M o n tg o m e ry B l a i r o f M a r y l a n d ; G i d e o n W e l l e s o f C o n n e c tic u t;

a n d C a le b B. S m ith o f I n d i a n a .

L i n c o l n m ade f i v e first

te rm .

changes in h is

C a b in e t d u r in g h i s

At th e b e g in n in g o f h i s seco n d te rm he a p p o in t­

e d H ugh M c C u l lo c h o f I n d i a n a t o t h e p l a c e o f F e s s e n d e n a n d s ta rte d

t o m ake a n o t h e r c h a n g e , w h i c h h o w e v e r w a s n o t

c o m p le te d u n t i l Jo h n so n becam e P r e s i d e n t ,

The r e f e r e n c e

is

t o H a r l a n who w a s a p p o i n t e d a n d c o n f i r m e d i n M a rc h 1 8 6 5 t o t a k e t h e p l a c e o f U s h e r on May 1 6 , 1 8 6 5 . to o k p la c e u n d er Johnson i t one te rm and a l i t t l e in c lu d in g H a rla n . a l s o m ade s i x

is

c r e d i t e d t o h im .

m o re L i n c o l n m ade s i x

Johnson in h is

changes

S in c e t h i s

change

D u rin g h i s

changes n o t

te rm o f n e a r l y fo u r y e a rs

(in c lu d in g H a rla n ).

S in c e t h e e m p h a sis i n t h i s s t u d y i s

b e in g p la c e d upon

45 th e f i r s t

C a b i n e t a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade b y e a e h s e l e c t e d P r e s i ­

d e n t , A n d re w J o h n s o n w i l l n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d e x c e p t a s t h e c h a n g e s m ade b y h i m a f f e c t t h e m ade t o

th e

t o t a l num ber o f a p p o in tm e n ts

C a b in e t b y a l l th e P r e s i d e n t s .

J o h n s o n t o o k o v e r L i n c o l n fs t h e t i m e o f t h e l a t t e r fs d e a t h . J o h n s o n m ade s i x in th e

changes,

C a b in e t a s i t

e x is te d a t

A lth o u g h a s m e n tio n e d above

t h e r e w as n o w h o l e s a l e b r e a k u p a s

c a se s o f T y le r and F illm o re .

I n d e e d t h r e e m em b ers o f

L i n c o l n rs C a b i n e t s e r v e d J o h n s o n u n t i l t h e

end o f th e l a t t e r s

a d m in istra tio n . In l i s t i n g

t h e l a t e r a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade d u r i n g t h i s

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h o s e m ade b y L i n c o l n w i l l b e g i v e n f i r s t . T h e s e w e r e W i l l i a m P . F e s s e n d e n o f M a i n e ; H u g h M c C u l lo e h o f I n d i a n a ; E d w in M. S t a n t o n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; W i l l i a m D e n n i s o n o f O h io ; Jam es S p e e d o f K e n tu c k y ; and Jo h n P . U s h e r o f In d ia n a . A p p o i n t m e n t s m ade b y J o h n s o n w e r e J a m e s H a r l a n o f Io w a;

J o h n M. S c h o f i e l d o f I l l i n o i s ;

H e n ry S t a n b e r y o f O h io ;

O r v i l l e H. B r o w n i n g o f T e n n e s s e e ; W i l l i a m M. E v a r t s

o f Hew

Y o r k ; a n d A l e x a n d e r W. R a n d a l l o f W i s c o n s i n . L in c o ln 's f i r s t U o rth ,

C a b i n e t i n c l u d e d f i v e men f r o m t h e

one fro m t h e S o u th ,

and one fro m t h e W est.

J o h n s o n 's

f i n a l C a b i n e t w a s c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n men f r o m t h e W o r t h , n o n e fro m t h e S o u th o r W e st.

T h e r e w e r e n i n e t e e n c h a n g e s m ade i n

t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f w h ic h f i f t e e n a p p o in tm e n ts w ere fro m

46 t h e M o r t h , tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t . M iss o u ri,

In d ia n a ,

Iow a, I l l i n o i s ,

se n te d f o r th e f i r s t U ly sse s S . Illin o is ;

an d W isc o n sin w ere r e p r e ­

tim e i n a P r e s i d e n t i a l

C a b in e t.

G ra n t a p p o i n t e d E l i h u W ashburne o f

A d o l p h E . B o r i e o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; J a c o b D. Cox o f

O h i o ; E b e n i z e r R . H o a r o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; a n d J o h n A. J . C re sw e ll o f M a ry la n d .

He a p p o i n t e d tw o m em b ers f r o m

M a s s a c h u s e t t s a n d tw o f r o m I l l i n o i s ,

h is

w e r e m o re a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade d u r i n g t h i s in any o th e r,

own s t a t e .

T here

a d m in is tr a tio n th a n

tw e n ty -fo u r in a l l .

F u r t h e r a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e H a m i l t o n F i s h o f Mew Y o r k ; ? /illia m

T. S h e r m a n o f O h i o ; W i l l i a m W. B e l3 m a p o f I o w a ;

G e o r g e M. R o b e s o n o f Mew J e r s e y ; Amos T . A k e rm a n o f G e o r g i a ; C olu m b u s D e l a n o f r o m O h i o ; G e o r g e H* W i l l i a m s o f O r e g o n ; W i l l i a m A. R i c h a r d s o n o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; B e n j a m i n H. B r i s t o w o f K e n t u c k y ; J a m e s W. M a r s h a l l o f Y i r g i n i a ; M a r s h a l l J e w e l l o f C o n n e c t i c u t ; E d w a r d s P i e r r e p o n t o f Mew Y o r k ; A l p h o n s o T a f t o f O h i o ; J a m e s D* C am eron o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; l o t M. M o r r i l l o f M a in e ;

J a m e s M. T y n e r o f I n d i a n a ;

and Z a c h a ria h

C h a n d le r o f M ic h ig a n . In th e f i r s t M o rth ,

C a b i n e t t h e r e w e r e s i x men f r o m t h e

o n e fro m t h e S o u t h , b u t n o n e fro m t h e W est.

G rant

a p p o in t e d i n a l l e i g h t e e n fro m t h e M o rth , f o u r fro m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t . th e f i r s t

O r e g o n w as r e p r e s e n t e d

tim e i n a P r e s i d e n t ’s C a b in e t.

fo r

47 R u th e rfo rd 3 . H ayes a p p o in te d to h i s fro m t h e F o r t h ,

C a b i n e t f o u r men

o n e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t .

T h e s e w e r e W i l l i a m M. E v a r t s o f Few Y o r k ; J o h n S h e r m a n o f O h i o ; G e o r g e W. M c C r a r y o f I o w a , c h u se tts; In d ia n a ;

C h a rle s Sevens o f M assa­

D a v i d M. K ey o f T e n n e s s e e ; R i c h a r d W. T h o m p so n o f and C a rl S c h u rz o f M is s o u r i.

D u rin g h i s

t r a t i o n H a y e s m ade o n l y t h r e e new a p p o i n t m e n t s *

a d m in is­ T hese w ere

A l e x a n d e r R a m sey o f M i n n e s o t a ; H o r a c e M a y h a rd o f T e n n e s s e e ; an d N a th an G o ff,

Jr.

f r o m W e st V i r g i n i a .

Of t h e s e t e n a p p o in tm e n ts f i v e

came f r o m t h e F o r t h ,

t h r e e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t . re c e iv e d r e p re s e n ta tio n f o r th e f i r s t

W e st V i r g i n i a

tim e .

Jam es A. G a r f i e l d s e l e c t e d f o r h i s f i r s t

C a b in e t

J a m e s G. B l a i n e o f M a i n e ; W i l l i a m Windom o f M i n n e s o t a ; R o b e rt T. L in c o ln o f I l l i n o i s ; v a n ia ;

Wayne M acV eagh f r o m P e n n s y l ­

Thomas L . J o n e s o f Few Y o r k ; W i l l i a m H. H u n t o f

L o u i s i a n a ; S am u el J . K irk w o o d o f Io w a .

P re s id e n t G a rfie ld

m ade n o e h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e t i m e h e w a s i n o f f i c e .

He d i e d

on S e p te m b e r 1 9 , 1881 a f t e r a te r m o f s i x and one h a l f m o n th s.

P r e s i d e n t C h e s t e r A . A r t h u r t h e V i c e P r e s i d e n t who

s u c c e e d e d G a r f i e l d m ade n i n e e h a n g e s i n t h e

C a b in e t w h ile

h e was i n o f f i c e . T hese a p p o in tm e n ts w ere C h a rle s J .

F o l g e r o f Few

Y o r k ; F r e d e r i c k T. F r e l i n g h u y s e n o f Few J e r s e y ; B e n j a m i n H. B r e w s t e r o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; T i m o t h y 0 . Howe o f W i s c o n s i n ;

48 W i l l i a m E.

C h a n d l e r o f Hew H a m p s h i r e ; H e n r y M. f e l l e r

of

C o l o r a d o ; W a l t e r 0,. G r e s h a m o f I n d i a n a ; H ugh Me C u l l o e h o f In d ia n a ;

and F ra n k H a tto n o f Iow a.

G a r f i e l d h a d a p p o i n t e d f o u r men f r o m t h e H o r t h , n o n e fro m t h e S o u t h , an d t h r e e fro m t h e W est.

The f u l l s i x t e e n

a p p o in tm e n ts in c lu d e d e le v e n fro m t h e H o r th , n o n e fro m th e S o u th , and f i v e fo r th e f i r s t

fro m t h e W est.

tim e .

C o lo ra d o w as r e p r e s e n t e d

G ra n t and H ayes h ad r e c o g n iz e d th e

S o u th i n m ak in g C a b in e t a p p o i n t m e n t s .

H e ith e r G a rfie ld n o r

A rth u r d id so . The D e p a r t m e n t o f A g r i c u l t u r e w as c r e a t e d i n 1 8 8 9 , c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e r e w e r e now e i g h t p o s i t i o n s

in th e

C a b in e t

to be f i l l e d . G r o v e r C l e v e l a n d rs f i r s t

C a b in e t r e p r e s e n t e d

th e

H o r t h w i t h f o u r m e m b e r s , t h e S o u t h w i t h tw o m e m b e r s , a n d t h e W est w i t h two*

T h e s e men w e r e Thomas F . B a y a r d o f

D e l a w a r e ; D a n i e l M a n n in g o f Hew Y o r k ; W i l l i a m

C. E n d i e o t t

o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; A u g u s t u s H. G a r l a n d o f A r k a n s a s ; W i l l i a m F.

Y i l a s o f W i s c o n s i n ; W i l l i a m C. W h i t n e y o f Hew Y o r k ;

L u c i u s Q. M iss o u ri.

C. L a m a r o f M i s s i s s i p p i ;

a n d H o rm an *T* Golman o f

T h e r e w e r e tw o m em b ers f r o m Hew Y o r k w h i c h w as

C le v e la n d * s s t a t e . l a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts.

P re sid e n t

C l e v e l a n d m ade o n l y t h r e e

T hese w ere C h a rle s S . F a i r c h i l d

o f Hew

Y o r k ; Don M. D i c k i n s o n o f M i c h i g a n ; a n d W i l l i a m F . Y i l a s o f W isc o n sin .

49 T h i s m ade a t o t a l

o f e le v e n a p p o in tm e n ts w h ic h w e re

d iv id e d i n th e f o llo w in g m an n er:

seven f o r 't h e

f o r t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f o r t h e W e s t , r e p r e s e n ta tio n f o r th e f i r s t

H o r t h , tw o

A rkansas r e c e iv e d

tim e *

B e n ja m in H a r r i s o n a p p o i n t e d

J a m e s G, B l a i n e

o f M a in e;

W i l l i a m Windom o f M i n n e s o t a ; R e d f i e l d P r o c t o r o f Y e r m o n t ; W i l l i a m H, H . M i l l e r o f I n d i a n a ;

J o h n W anam aker o f P e n n s y l ­

v a n i a ; B e n j a m i n F . T r a c y o f Hew Y o r k ; J o h n W* H o b l e o f M is s o u ri;

a n d J e r e m i a h M, R u s k o f W i s c o n s i n .

T h i s m ade s i x

f r o m t h e H o r t h , tw o f r o m t h e W e s t , , a n d n o n e f r o m t h e S o u t h . H a r r i s o n m ade t h r e e fo u r y ears

in o f f ic e .

o th e r a p p o in tm e n ts d u r in g h i s

T h e s e w e re C h a r le s F o s t e r o f O h io ;

J o h n W* F o s t e r o f I n d i a n a ; a n d S t e p h e n B . E l k i n s Y irg in ia .

o f W est

T h e r e f o r e H a r r i s o n fs e le v e n a p p o in tm e n ts w ere

e i g h t fro m th e H o rth ,

o n e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e

W est. G ro v er C le v e la n d i s

th e

o n l y P r e s i d e n t who h a s s e r v e d

tw o t e r m s t h a t w e r e n o t c o n s e c u t i v e . s i n g l e man who h a d b e e n i n h i s a d m in istra tio n ,

He d i d n o t r e a p p o i n t a

C a b in e t d u r in g h i s f i r s t

C l e v e l a n d ’s g e o g r a p h i c d i s t r i b u t i o n w a s

m uch f a i r e r t h a n t h a t o f G a r f i e l d , A r t h u r , H a rris o n .

o r B e n ja m in

He a p p o i n t e d f o u r men f r o m t h e H o r t h ,

t h e S o u th , and one fro m t h e W est. G resham o f I l l i n o i s ;

th re e

fro m

T h ese w ere W a lte r

J o h n G. C a r l i s l e

o f K e n tu ck y ; D a n ie l S .

L a m o n t o f Hew Y o r k ; R i c h a r d G l n e y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ; W i l s o n

50 S . B i s s e l l o f Hew Y o r k ; H i l a r y A . H e r b e r t o f A l a b a m a ; H o ke S m ith o f G e o r g ia ; a n d J . S t e r l i n g M o rto n o f H e b r a s k a . P re sid e n t

C l e v e l a n d a g a i n a p p o i n t e d tw o men f r o m h i s

own

sta te , C l e v e l a n d fs l a t e r a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e W i l l i a m L . W i l s o n o f W e st V i r g i n i a ; F ran ces o f M iss o u ri. w h ic h f i v e

J u d s o n H arm o n o f O h i o ; a n d D a v i d R.

P h i s m ade e l e v e n a p p o i n t m e n t s

cam e f r o m t h e H o r t h ,

of

f o u r fro m t h e S o u th ,

a n d tw o

fro m t h e W est. A la b a m a a n d H e b r a s k a w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e f o r th e f i r s t

C a b in e t

tim e *

W il l ia m M cK in ley w as r e e l e c t e d b u t d i e d d u r i n g h i s s e c o n d t e r m , w h ic h was c o m p le te d b y T h e o d o re R o o s e v e l t . l a t t e r was e l e c t e d t o a n a d d i t i o n a l te r m o f h i s th is

own.

T he

In

s t u d y t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f M cK in ley a n d R o o s e v e l t ,

1 8 9 7 -1 9 0 5 , w i l l be t r e a t e d a s one u n i t and th e s e p a r a t e a d ­ m i n i s t r a t i o n o f R o o s e v e lt, 1905-1 9 0 9 , a s a n o th e r u n i t . M c K i n l e y m ade s i x

changes d u rin g h is

first

te rm o f

o ffic e .

T h e s e n ew a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e J o h n W* G r i g g s . o f Hew

Jersey ;

C h a r l e s E m ory S m i t h o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; W i l l i a m R . Day

o f O h i o ; J o h n H a y o f O h i o ; I t h a n A. H i t c h c o c k o f M i s s o u r i ; a n d l l i h u R o o t o f Hew Y o r k . P r e s i d e n t M cK in ley d i e d S e p te m b e r 1 4 , su c c e e d e d by T heodore R o o s e v e lt,

1 9 0 1 a n d w as

T he D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce

a n d L a b o r w a s c r e a t e d i n 1 9 0 3 w h i c h , m ade n i n e

C a b in e t

51 p o sitio n s .

T h e r e w e r e n i n e c h a n g e s m ade i n t h e

in g th e re m a in d e r o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

C a b in e t d u r ­

T he n e w C a b i n e t

m e m b e rs w e r e H e n r y C. P a y n e . o f W i s c o n s i n ; L e s l i e M. Shaw o f I o w a ; W i l l i a m H* M oody o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s ;

G eo rg e B.

o f Hew Y o r k ; W i l l i a m H o w ard T a f t o f O h i o ; R o b e r t J . P e n n s y l v a n i a ; P a u l M o rto n o f I l l i n o i s ; o f C a lifo rn ia . te rm . h is

Wynne o f

a n d V i c t o r H, M e t c a l f

T h e s e c h a n g e s w e r e a l l m ade d u r i n g t h e f i r s t

M c K i n l e y m ade o n e c h a n g e i n h i s

d e a th .

C o rte ly o u

second te rm b e fo re

T h i s w a s P h i l a n d e r C. K n o x i n p l a c e o f G r i g g s .

Of t h e t w e n t y - t h r e e a p p o in tm e n ts s e v e n t e e n w ere fro m th e H o rth ,

one fro m t h e S o u t h , a n d f i v e fro m t h e W est.

C a l i f o r n i a w as r e p r e s e n t e d i n

th e

C a b in e t f o r th e f i r s t

tim e . T h e o d o re R o o s e v e l t was t h e f i r s t to be e le c te d to

th e

o ffic e in h is

a c c id e n ta l P re sid e n t

own r i g h t *

He b e g a n h i s

own t e r m w i t h s e v e n m e m b e rs whom h e h a d a p p o i n t e d h i m s e l f a n d tw o who h a d b e e n o r i g i n a l l y a p p o i n t e d b y M c K i n l e y . T h e s e n i n e men w i l l , first

c h o ic e s f o r

th e re fo re ,

be t r e a t e d as R o o s e v e l t s

C a b in e t p o s i t i o n s .

T hese w ere K lih u R o o t,

L e s l i e M* S h a w , W i l l i a m H o w ard T a f t , W i l l i a m H . M oody, G eo rge B. p a rte ,

C o r t e l y o u , E t h a n A. H i t c h c o c k ,

C h a rle s J .

Bona­

J a m e s W i l s o n , a n d V i c t o r H. M e t c a l f . T h ere w ere s i x

e h a n g e s m ade i n t h e

R o o s e v e l t Ts a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

C a b in e t d u r in g

H i s n ew a p p o i n t m e n t s i n c l u d e d

O s c a r S . S t r a u s o f Hew Y o r k ; G e o r g e v o n L . M e y e r o f

52 M a ss a c h u se tts, T ennessee;

J a m e s R. G a r f i e l d o f O h i o ; L u k e F . W r i g h t o f

T rum an H . H e w b e r r y o f M i c h i g a n ; a n d R o b e r t B a c o n

o f Mew Y ork* The f i r s t

C a b i n e t i n c l u d e d f o u r men f r o m t h e M o r t h ,

one fro m t h e S o u th , and f o u r fro m t h e W est.

Of t h e f i f t e e n

a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade b y R o o s e v e l t , n i n e w e r e f r o m t h e M o r t h , tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d f o u r f r o m t h e W e s t . W i l l i a m H o w a rd T a f t r e t a i n e d R o o s e v e l t Ts M c K in ley .

t h r e e men f r o m

C a b i n e t o f whom tw o h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d b y T hese w ere K nox, W ils o n ,

an d von L. M eyer.

men a p p o i n t e d w e r e F r a n k l i n M a e Y e ig h o f I l l i n o i s ; D ic k in s o n o f T e n n e sse e ;

R ic h a rd B a ll i n g e r o f

and C h a rle s H ag el o f M is s o u r i.

men f r o m t h e M o r t h ,

J a c o b M.

G-eorge W. W ie k e r s h a m o f Mew Y o r k ;

F ra n k H. H itc h c o c k o f M a s s a c h u s e tts ; W ash in g to n ;

O th e r

T h i s m ade f i v e

one fro m t h e S o u th , and t h r e e fro m th e

Wes t . P r e s i d e n t T a f t m ade o n l y new a p p o i n t m e n t s i n h i s years.

fo u r

T h e s e w e r e H e n r y L . S t i m s o n o f Mew Y o r k a n d W a l t e r

H. F i s h e r o f I l l i n o i s .

T h i s m ade s e v e n f r o m t h e M o r t h ,

one

f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d t h r e e f r o m t h e W e st f o r t h e e n t i r e e le v e n a p p o in tm e n ts.

W ash in g to n s t a t e

re p re se n ta tio n

C a b in e t.

in th e

re c e iv e d i t s

first

U n d e r W oodrow W i l s o n t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f Commerce a n d L a b o r w a s d i v i d e d , a d d i n g a t e n t h m em b er t o t h e

C a b in e t.

Men a p p o i n t e d b y W i l s o n w e r e W i l l i a m J e n n i n g s B r y a n o f

53 N e b r a s k a ; W i l l i a m G* McAdoo o f Hew Y o r k ; B i n d l e y M. G a r r i s o n o f Hew J e r s e y ;

J#

C, M e R e y n o ld s o f T e n n e s s e e ; A l b e r t ; S .

B u rle s o n o f T exas;

Jo se p h u s D a n ie ls o f H o rth C a ro lin a ;

F r a n k l i n K n i g h t D ane o f C a l i f o r n i a ; M is s o u r i; W illia m

D a v id F . H o u s to n o f

C. R e d f i e l d o f Hew Y o r k ; a n d W i l l i a m B .

W ilso n o f P e n n s y l v a n ia . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n m ade t h r e e

changes d u rin g h is

t e r m b u t m ade n o c h a n g e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f h i s te rm .

D u rin g t h e se c o n d te rm s i x

first

second

ehanges and one t r a n s f e r

w e re m ade. T hese l a t e r

c h a n g e s w e r e Thomas E .

G regory o f T ex as;

R o b e r t D a n s i n g o f Hew Y o r k ; H e w to n D. B a k e r o f O h i o ; G l a s s o f V i r g i n i a ; A* M. P a l m e r o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; A le x a n d e r o f M is s o u ri; B a in b rid g e Payne o f V irg in ia ;

C a rte r

J o h n W.

C o lb y o f Hew Y o r k ;

John

a n d E d w a rd T. M e r e d i t h o f Io w a .

In h is f i r s t

C a b in e t P r e s i d e n t W ilso n a p p o in te d f o u r

men f r o m t h e H o r t h , tw o f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d f o u r f r o m t h e W est,

T ex a s was r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t

tim e .

The H a r d i n g a n d C o o l i d g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w i l l b e tr e a te d as a u n it and th e s e p a ra te as a n o th e r u n i t .

C o o lid g e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n

H a r d i n g ’s C a b i n e t w as p e c u l i a r .

c o n t a i n e d t h r e e s t r o n g m en,

It

C h a r l e s E . H u g h e s o f Hew Y o r k ;

A n d re w M e l l o n o f P e n n s y l v a n i a ; a n d H e r b e r t H o o v e r o f C a l i ­ fo rn ia ;

tw o a b l e m e n ,

J o h n W. W eeks o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s a n d

H e n r y C. W a l l a c e o f I o w a ; tw o r a s c a l s , H a r r y M. D a u g h e r t y o f

54 O h io a n d A l b e r t F a l l o f Mew M e x i c o ; a n d o n e n e a r r a s c a l , E d w in D en b y o f M i c h i g a n .

H i s o t h e r tw o a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e

W i l l H, H a y s o f I n d i a n a a n d J a m e s J .

D a v is o f P e n n s y l v a n ia .

H a rd in g d ie d A ugust 2 , 1923 a f t e r h a v in g b een P r e s i d e n t tw o y e a r s a n d f i v e m o n t h s . changes d u rin g t h i s tim e . th e e n tir e

He m ade o n l y tw o

A fte r h is d e a th i t

lo o k e d a s i f

C a b i n e t w o u l d r e s i g n s o C o o l i d g e r e a p p o i n t e d th em .

In fin is h in g

o u t t h e t e r m o f o n e y e a r a n d s e v e n m o n th s

C o o l i d g e m ade t h r e e n ew a p p o i n t m e n t s t o H a r d i n g ’s tw o l a t e

th e

a p p o i n t m e n t s w e r e H u b e r t W ork o f C o l o r a d o

a n d H a r r y S . Mew o f I n d i a n a *

The a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade b y

C o o l i d g e w e r e H a r l a n F . S t o n e o f Mew Y o r k , of C a lifo rn ia ,

C a b in e t.

C u r t i s D. W i l b u r

a n d H o w ard M. G o re o f W e st V i r g i n i a .

I n t h e o r i g i n a l H a rd in g C a b in e t s e v e n w ere fro m t h e M o rth , t h r e e fro m t h e W est, b u t n o n e fro m t h e S o u t h . fu ll

fifte e n

a p p o in tm e n ts n in e w ere fro m th e M o rth ,

t h e S o u th , and f i v e fro m t h e W est. se n te d f o r th e f i r s t In

h is

Of t h e one fro m

Mew M e x ic o w a s r e p r e ­

tim e .

e le c te d term asP r e s id e n t,

C o o lid g e

a p p o in te d

t h r e e n e w C a b i n e t m em b ers a n d r e t a i n e d s e v e n f r o m t h e H a rd in g -C o o lid g e

C a b in e t.

a p p o in te d by H a rd in g *

Two o f t h e s e h a d b e e n o r i g i n a l l y

T h o se r e t a i n e d w e re M e llo n , W eeks,

Mew, W i l b u r , W ork , H o o v e r , a n d D a v i s . F ra n k B. K e llo g g o f M in n e so ta ; a n d W. M,

Ja rd in e

o f K ansas.

Mew m em b ers w e r e

J o h n G* S a r g e n t o f V e r m o n t ; C o o l i d g e m ade t h r e e m o re

55 a p p o in tm e n ts d a r in g h i s D w ig h t F .

own a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .

D a v i s o f M i s s o u r i ; R oy 0 . W est o f I l l i n o i s ;

W illia m F. W h itin g o f M a s s a c h u s e tts . had s i x

T h ese w ere

The f i r s t

and .

C a b in e t

fro m th e H o r th , n o n e fro m t h e S o u th , an d f o u r fro m

t h e W est.

F or th e e n tir e

th rite e n

a p p o in tm e n ts t h e r e w ere

e i g h t fro m th e H o r th , n o n e from t h e S o u th , and f i v e t h e W est.

fro m

K an sas r e c e i v e d an a p p o in tm e n t f o r t h e f i r s t

tim e . H e r b e r t H o o v e r was t h e f i r s t P r e s i d e n t e l e c t e d fro m t h e F a r W est a n d t h e s e c o n d f r o m W est o f t h e M i s s i s s i p p i R iv e r.

(T he f i r s t w as Z a c h a r y T a y l o r who w a s e l e c t e d f r o m

L o u isia n a ).

H o o v e r a p p o i n t e d H e n r y L. S t i m s o n o f Hew Y o r k ;

J a m e s W. Good o f I o w a ; W i l l i a m D. M i t c h e l l o f M i n n e s o t a ; W a l t e r F . B ro w n o f O h i o ;

C h a rle s F r a n c i s M am s o f M assa­

c h u se tts;

R a y Lyman W i l b u r o f C a l i f o r n i a ; A r t h u r H y d e o f

M iss o u ri;

and R o b e rt P .

L am o n t o f I l l i n o i s .

A ndrew M e llo n a n d Jam es J . T he f i r s t

D a v is fro m t h e

He r e t a i n e d

C o o lid g e C a b in e t.

C a b i n e t c o n s i s t e d o f s i x men f r o m t h e H o r t h , n o n e

fro m t h e S o u t h , a n d f o u r fro m t h e W est.

L a te r a p p o in tm e n ts

w e r e P a t r i c k H u r l e y o f O k la h o m a ; W i l l i a m Iff. D oak o f F i r g i n i a , a n d O gdon M i l l s o f Hew Y o r k ; T h i s m ade a t o t a l

C h a p in o f M ic h ig a n .

o f f o u r t e e n a p p o in tm e n ts e i g h t o f w h ich

w ere fro m t h e H o rth , T /e st.

a n d R oy D.

one fro m th e S o u th , and f i v e

O k la h o m a w as r e p r e s e n t e d

fo r th e f i r s t

fro m th e

tim e .

F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t t h e p r e s e n t P r e s i d e n t c h o s e f o r

56 h is

first

C a b i n e t C o r d e l l H u l l o f T e n n e s s e e ; W i l l i a m H.

W o o d in o f Hew Y o r k ; G e o r g e H . P e r n o f U t a h ; Hom er S . m i n g s o f C o n n e e t i e u t ; J a m e s A . F a r l e y o f Hew Y o r k ; A. Sw anson o f Y i r g i n i a ; H a r o ld L. I c k e s

Cum­

C lau d e

of Illin o is;

H enry

1 . W a l l a c e o f I o w a ; D a n i e l C* R o p e r o f S o u t h C a r o l i n a ;

and

F r a n c e s P e r k i n s o f Hew Y o r k ,

T h re e o f t h e s e w ere fro m

R o o s e v e l t ' s s t a t e , Hew Y o r k .

T h i s w as m o re f r o m o n e s t a t e

th a n any o th e r P r e s id e n t a p p o in te d a t

one tim e .

L a t e r a p p o in tm e n ts w ere H en ry M o rg a n th au ,

Jr.

o f Hew

Y o r k ; H a r r y H . W o o d r in g o f K a n s a s ; H a r r y L . H o p k i n s o f I o w a ; F r a n k M u rp h y o f M i c h i g a n ;

C h a r l e s A . E d i s o n o f Hew J e r s e y ;

F r a n k W a l k e r o f M o n t a n a ; R o b e r t J a c k s o n o f Hew Y o r k ; F r a n k K nox o f I l l i n o i s ; H e n r y L . S t i m s o n o f Hew Y o r k ; W ie k a rd o f I n d i a n a ; a n d J e s s e The f i r s t H o rth ,

C l a u d e R.

Jones o f T exas.

C a b in e t c o n s i s t e d

o f f i v e m em b ers f r o m t h e

t h r e e f r o m t h e S o u t h , a n d tw o f r o m t h e W e s t .

Jan u ary ,

Up t o

1 9 4 1 P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t h a d m ade t w e n t y - o n e

a p p o in tm e n ts,

t h e l a r g e s t n u m b e r m ade s i n c e G r a n t .

tw e lv e fro m t h e H o r th , t h e W est. R o o s e v e lt 's

At th e c lo s e

Of th e s e

t h r e e fro m t h e S o u th , and s i x fro m of h is

s e c o n d t e r m F r a n k l i n D.

C a b i n e t c o n t a i n e d f o u r m em b ers f r o m Hew Y o r k .

U t a h a n d M o n ta n a w e r e r e p r e s e n t e d f o r t h e f i r s t

tim e i n t h i s

a d m in istra tio n . F or P e rio d I I th e r e have been in th e f i r s t

C a b in e ts

o f P r e s i d e n t s s e v e n t y - f i v e m e m b e rs f r o m t h e H o r t h , s i x t e e n

57 fro m th e S o u th , an d t h i r t y - s e v e n

fro m t h e W est.

t o t a l num ber o f a p p o in tm e n ts d u r in g t h i s b e e n one h u n d re d f o r t y - s i x

f o r th e H o rth ,

For th e

p e rio d th e r e have tw e n ty -n in e f o r

t h e S o u t h , a n d f i f t y - s e v e n fro m t h e W est. T h e a p p o i n t m e n t s m ade t o

first

C a b in e ts f o r b o th

p e r i o d s a r e 106 fro m t h e H o r t h ,

fifty

fro m t h e S o u th , and

f o r t y - s i x fro m t h e W est. b o th p e rio d s H o rth ,

F o r th e t o t a l a p p o in tm e n ts f o r

t h e r e h a v e b e e n BIB a p p o i n t m e n t s f r o m t h e

e ig h ty - s e v e n fro m t h e S o u th , an d s e v e n t y - f o u r f o r

t h e W est.

58 TABLE I CABINET APPOINTMENTS BY STATES S ta te Hew Y o r k P e n n sy lv a n ia M a ssa c h u se tts Ohio V irg in ia Io w a M ary lan d Illin o is K e n tu ck y In d ia n a M isso u ri T ennessee C a lifo rn ia C o n n e c tic u t G e o rg ia M ic h ig a n Hew J e r s e y M a in e S o u th C a ro lin a D e law a re M in n e so ta H o rth C a ro lin a W isc o n sin M ississip p i W est V i r g i n i a C o lo ra d o L o u is ia n a Hew H a m p s h i r e T exas V e rm o n t K ansas H ebraska A la b a m a A rk an sas M o n ta n a Hew M e x ic o O regon O k la h o m a U ta h W asht& g'kon A riz o n a F lo rid a Idaho N evada N o r th D a k o ta Rhode I s l a n d S o u th D a k o ta W yoming

F irst

C a b in e t

25 22 21 9 10 9 9 8 6 5 8 8 7 4 6 4 3 2 4 3 4 4 1 4 0 1 1 1 1 3 1 2 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 201

T o ta l 50 41 30 23 22 15 15 14 14 13 12 12 9 9 9 9 9 6 6 5 5 5 5 4 4 3 3 3 3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 373

CHAPTER IV COHTIMJITY OP SERVICE In l e n g th o f tim e th e te rm s o f th e have v a rie d

q u ite w id e ly .

C a b i n e t m em b ers

T he l o n g e s t p e r i o d o f s e r v i c e

w as t h a t o f J a m e s W i l s o n , S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , who w a s in o ffic e

fo r six te e n y e a rs.

P r e s i d e n t s M c K in ley ,

M r. W i l s o n s e r v e d u n d e r

T heodore R o o s e v e lt,

and T a f t .

T he

s h o r t e s t te r m h a s b e en t h a t o f E li h u W ashburne, S e c r e t a r y o f S ta te u n d er G ra n t.

H is te rm l a s t e d

W ashburne was a p p o i n t e d t o frie n d sh ip .

M r.

o ffic e because o f p erso n al

He w a s n o t f i t t e d

c a u s e d m any p r o t e s t s

one w eek.

fo r th e

and r e s u l t e d

o ffic e ,

a f a c t w h ic h

in h is t r a n s f e r to th e

d ip lo m a tic d e p a rtm e n t. A lb e rt G a lla tin te rm .

is

a n o t h e r who h a s s e r v e d a l o n g

He w a s S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y f o r m o re t h a n

t h i r t e e n y e a r s u n d e r J e f f e r s o n and M a d iso n .

W illia m I P ir t,

A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l u n d e r M o n ro e a n d J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s, s e r v e d a te rm o f tw e lv e y e a r s . o f th e T rea su ry , h e ld C o o lid g e , and H oover. s e r v e d b y W illia m H.

A n d re w M e l l o n , a n o t h e r S e c r e t a r y

o ffic e

f o r e le v e n y e a rs u n d e r H a rd in g ,

T e rm s o f n i n e y e a r s e a c h h a v e b e e n C raw ford, S e c r e t a r y o f th e T re a s u ry

and E th a n A. H itc h c o c k , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e

In te rio r.

C raw fo rd

w a s a p p o i n t e d b y M a d i s o n u n d e r whom h e s e r v e d o n e y e a r a n d h e l d t h e sam e p o s i t i o n t h e f u l l e i g h t y e a r s u n d e r M o n r o e .

60

H i t c h c o c k w a s a p p o i n t e d "by M c K i n l e y a n d c o n t i n u e d u n d e r T h eo d o re R o o s e v e lt, C a b in e t

T h e r e a r e t h r e e m e m b e rs o f t h e p r e s e n t

( 1 9 4 1 ) who a r e s e r v i n g t h e i r n i n t h y e a r *

These a re

C o rd e ll H u ll, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ; H a ro ld I c k e s , S e c r e ta r y o f th e I n te r io r ;

and F ra n c e s P e r M n s , S e c r e ta r y o f L ab or,

t h e o n l y woman who h a s e v e r h e l d a p o s i t i o n T here h a v e b e e n t e n

T hese a r e

C a b in e t.

C a b in e t m em bers, b e s i d e s

n i n e a l r e a d y n a m e d , who h a v e s e r v e d a f u l l y ears.

in th e

th e

te rm o f e ig h t

J a m e s M a d i s o n , J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s, W i l l i a m

H . S e w a r d , a n d H a m i l t o n F i s h , * 1* who w e r e a l l S e c r e t a r i e s S ta te ; A lb e rt B u rle so n , P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l; D a n i e l s a n d G id eo n W e l l e s , S e c r e t a r i e s D e a r b o r n a n d J o h n C,

of

Josephus

o f t h e H avy; H enry

C a lh o u n , S e c r e t a r i e s

o f W a r; a n d

W illia m B. W ilso n , S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r .2 In c o n t r a s t to t h e s e lo n g term s a r e h e l d b y f o r t y men who s e r v e d i n o f f i c e y e a r.^

th e s h o r t te rm s

fo r le ss

th a n one

H o w e v e r t h e r e h a v e b e e n f o r t y - f o u r men who h a v e

s e r v e d t h e f u l l t e r m w i t h o n e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n P r e s i d e n t s . 4^ T h e r e h a v e b e e n 1 7 2 , men who h a v e s e r v e d m o r e t h a n o n e y e a r and le s s

th a n f o u r .

1 I n th e e a s e o f H a m ilto n F i s h , t h e f a e t t h a t h i s te r m o f o f f i c e was o ne w eek l e s s t h a n e i g h t y e a r s i s ig n o re d . ^ S ee T ab le I I a t 3 See T ab le I I I

c lo s e o f t h i s

a t c lo s e o f t h i s

4 See T a b le I ? a t

c lo s e o f t h i s

c h a p te r,

p.

c h a p te r, p. c h a p te r, p.

73. 74. 75.

61 Is

t o t h e n u m b e r o f c h a n g e s m ade i n t h e

th e P r e s id e n ts ,

T heodore R o o s e v e lt h a s th e h i ^ i e s t num ber o f

ehanges.

W it h n i n e d e p a r t m e n t s t o b e f i l l e d

changes*

I n ’ c o n t r a s t t o t h i s was t h e

P i e r c e who m ade n o c h a n g e s a t a l l * c h a n g e s m ade b y W i l l i a m H a r r i s o n , 1.

C a b in e ts hy

h e m ade t w e n t y

C a b in e t o f F r a n k l i n

1 1 so t h e r e w ere no Z a c h a r y T a y l o r , o r Jam es

G -a rfie ld , b u t th e s e P r e s i d e n t s l i v e d to h o ld o f f i c e

o n ly s h o r t p e rio d s . in a u g u ra tio n ,

fo r

H a r r i s o n d i e d o n e m o n th a f t e r h i s

T a y lo r h e l d o f f i c e f o r o n ly s i x t e e n m o n th s,

a n d G a r f i e l d d i e d s i x m o n th s a f t e r h e t o o k o f f i c e . T he a c c i d e n t a l P r e s i d e n t s ^ h a d a d i s a d v a n t a g e w hen th e num ber o f ch an g es a r e l i s t e d accep t th e

sin c e

th e y w ere f o r c e d to

C a b i n e t m em b ers o f t h e i r p r e d e c e s s o r s .

In

s e v e r a l c a s e s t h e s e m em bers h a d b e e n s u c h p o o r c h o i c e s t h a t t h e n ew P r e s i d e n t w as c o n s t r a i n e d t o p o ss ib le .

In o th e r reaso n i s

to th e lo y a l su p p o rt of h is

th a t

each P re s id e n t is

M illa rd F illm o re had th e e n tire

su p p o rt.

e x p e r i e n c e o f h a v i n g Tay­

C a b in e t r e s i g n a s so o n a s h e w ent i n t o

T h is was d o n e d e s p i t e

e n title d

C a b i n e t a n d i n som e c a s e s

c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n m ade t o g a i n t h i s

lo r^

rem ove th em a s s o o n a s

o ffic e .

t h e f a c t t h a t a l l b u t C raw ford

5 A c c i d e n t a l P r e s i d e n t s a r e t h o s e who b e c a m e P r e s i ­ d e n t due to th e d e a th o f t h e i r p re d e c e s s o rs in o f f i c e . The a c c id e n ta l P r e s id e n ts a r e John T y le r, M illa r d F illm o r e , A n d re w J o h n s o n , C h e s t e r A . A r t h u r , T h e o r d p r e R o o s e v e l t , a n d C a lv in C o o lid g e .

68 p re fe rre d to

re m a in i n

such eag ern ess enough to

o ffic e ,

They seem ed t o r e s i g n w i t h

t h a t th e y had to be begged to s ta y

g i v e t h e new P r e s i d e n t tim e t o

lo n g

f i n d men t o f i l l

th e ir p o sitio n s , T y l e r ’s a c t i o n

caused a l l

th e

C a b in e t

( e x c e p t W eb ster)

w h ic h h e h a d i n h e r i t e d fro m W illia m H en ry H a r r is o n t o r e ­ s i g n w hen h e v e t o e d t h e new b a n k b i l l a f t e r t h e y h a d b e e n le d

t o b e l i e v e t h a t h e w as i n f a v o r o f t h e b i l l . C a l v i n C o o l i d g e f o u n d tw o o f h i s

in v o lv e d in

g r a f t so th e s e

C a b i n e t m em bers w e r e

e h a n g e s w e r e f o r c e d u p o n him.*?

T he r e a s o n s f o r r e s i g n a t i o n

or le a v in g th e

C a b in e t

have been

ju s t as v a rie d as th e le n g th o f

b een o n ly

fo u r o u trig h t d ism is sa ls b u t in te n o th e r eases

r e s i g n a t i o n s h av e b een dem anded.

T he f i r s t

te r m s .T here h av e

d ism is sa l ease

w as u n d e r J o h n Adams w hen h e d e m a n d e d r e s i g n a t i o n s T im o t h y P i c k e r i n g a n d J a m e s M c H e n ry .

fro m

M c H n e ry c o m p l i e d a t

o n c e b u t P i c k e r i n g o b j e c t e d a n d was p r o m p tl y d i s m i s s e d . T h e n e x t c a s e w as t h a t

o f W illia m J .

by Jackson because he re fu s e d rem oval o f d e p o s its

to

D u a n e who w a s d i s m i s s e d

c a rry out th e

so -c a lle d

from th e U n ite d S t a t e s Bank a s Ja c k s o n

dem anded. F d w in M, S t a n t o n , J o h n s o n who w i s h e d t o

th e t h ir d

e a s e w as d is m is s e d b y

t e s t th e T e n u r e -o f -O f f ic e A c t.

^ F o r t h e n u m b e r o f C a b i n e t e h a n g e s m ade u n d e r e a c h P r e s i d e n t s e e T a b le V a t th e c lo s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r , p . 76.

63 S ta n to n ,

upon b e in g a sk e d to r e s i g n ,

refu sed

t o do s o u n t i l

C on g ress m et.

U. S .

G r a n t w a s a p p o i n t e d S e c r e t a r y o f War

Ba d i n t e r i m . w

The S e n a t e a f t e r d e l i b e r a t i n g a m o n th v o t e d

n o t to s u s ta in

Jo h n so n and S ta n to n resum ed h i s

o ffic e .

A l­

m o s t a m o n th l a t e r J o h n s o n a p p o i n t e d L o r e n z o H. Thom as na d i n t e r i m 11 a n d a g a i n n o t i f i e d

S t a n t o n t h a t h e was d i s m i s s e d .

A t t h e sa m e t i m e t h e S e n a t e w a s n o t i f i e d a n d i t

a g a in v o te d

to s u s ta in S ta n to n . Thom as E w in g w as n o m i n a t e d f o r t h e p o s i t i o n b u t t h i s was n e v e r a c t e d u p o n .

A f t e r t h e t r i a l f o r im p e ac h m en t

a g a in s t Johnson, S ta n to n re s ig n e d b e c a u se , he s a i d ,

th a t

t h e S e n a t e h a d n o t s u s t a i n e d him * The f o u r t h c a s e o f d i s m i s s a l w a s t h a t o f R o b e r t L a n sin g f o r a s s e r t e d a c t i v i t i e s

d u r i n g P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n Ts

illn e s s . M o n tg o m e ry B l a i r , P o s t m a s t e r ^ G e n e r a l , w a s r e q u e s t e d to

r e s i g n b y L i n c o l n when i t

re e le c te d

in 1864.

l o o k e d a s i f h e w o u ld n o t b e

B la ir had been th e ta r g e t f o r th e r a d i ­

c a l s so i t was n e c e s s a r y t o rem o v e h im fro m o f f i c e .

He h a d

b e e n v e r y l o y a l t o t h e P r e s i d e n t who p a r t e d w i t h h i m w i t h deep r e g r e t . The o n l y c a s e o f w h o l e s a l e r e s i g n a t i o n s w a s u n d e r J a c k s o n who d e m a n d e d r e s i g n a t i o n C a b in e t f o llo w in g th o s e h is

dem and o n t h e

o f th e re m a in d e r o f h i s

o f Van B u r e n a n d E a t o n .

He b a s e d

g roun ds t h a t th e y had a l l e n te r e d

th e

64

C a b in e t t o g e t h e r and s h o u ld le a v e t o g e t h e r . h o w e v e r , a slc t h a t W i l l i a m f . re sig n .

Jaekson sa id th a t

o t h e r s d i d n o t a f f e c t h im . w ere:

Sam uel P .

d e n t.

th e P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l,

c o n d it i o n s w h ic h a f f e c t e d t h e f h o s e who w e r e f o r c e d t o r e s i g n

Ingham , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e f r e a s u r y ;

B ie rre n , A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l; H avy, a l l

B arry ,

He d i d n o t ,

John

and John B ra n c h , S e c r e t a r y o f th e

o f whom w e r e f o l l o w e r s

o f C a lh o u n , t h e T ic e P r e s i ­

A f t e r t h e b r e a k b e t w e e n J a c k s o n a n d C a lh o u n t h e

fo rm e r f e l t t h a t he c o u ld n o t depend u pon th e l o y a l s u p p o r t o f th e a d h e re n ts o f th e l a t t e r . O th e rs w hose r e s i g n a t i o n s h a v e b e e n dem anded a r e : Edmund R a n d o l p h , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e

u n d e r W a s h i n g t o n , who

had been accu sed o f g iv in g a d m in is tr a tio n s e c r e ts to

th e

F r e n c h M i n i s t e r ; H . M. D a u g h e r t y , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l u n d e r H a r d in g b u t a s k e d to r e s i g n by C o o lid g e b e c a u s e o f g r a f t ; J o h n B . F l o y d , S e c r e t a r y o f War u n d e r B u c h a n a n , who w a s im p lic a te d in fra u d in th e B u reau o f In d ia n A f f a i r s . s a i d t h a t h e w o u l d r e s i g n b u t d e l a y e d d o i n g so,. u n t i l th e rem oval o f th e U n ite d S ta te s

F lo y d

I t w as n o t

g a rriso n a t

C h a rle s­

t o n from F o r t M o u l t r ie to F o r t S u m te r t h a t h e h an d ed i n h i s re s ig n a tio n . lik e

th a t

g a tio n

R u s s e l l A. A l g e r was a n o t h e r c a s e som ew hat

o f F lo y d .

P r e s i d e n t M c K in ley o r d e r e d a n i n v e s t i ­

o f t h e War D e p a r t m e n t b u t h e d i d n o t a s k f o r t h e

re s ig n a tio n

o f S e c re ta r y A lg e r u n t i l a y e a r l a t e r ,

m uch c r i t i c i s m .

d e sp ite

65 The l a s t th e

ease is

t h a t o f A l b e r t B. F a l l , S e c r e t a r y o f

I n t e r i o r u n d e r H a rd in g *

p o t Dome S c a n d a l .

It

is

F a l l w a s c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e T ea ­

p ro b a b le th a t P re s id e n t

C o o lid g e

a s k e d E d w in D e n b y , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y t o r e s i g n ,

to o , but

C o o l i d g e s a i d t h a t 3 ) e n b y ?s h o n e s t y h a d n o t b e e n i m p u g n e d . ? S im o n C a m e ro n , S e c r e t a r y o f War u n d e r L i n c o l n w o u l d b e i n c l u d e d b u t f o r t h e f a c t t h a t h e w a s m ade M i n i s t e r t o R u ssia to s o f te n h is

re s ig n a tio n .

T h ere a r e p r o b a b ly

s e v e ra l o th e r cases lik e h i s . 8 T h e r e h a v e b e e n t h r e e m en who w e r e a p p o i n t e d w h i l e C o n g r e s s w as n o t i n s e s s i o n ,

s e rv e d in t h e i r a p p o in te d

c a p a c i t i e s an d th e n w ere n o t c o n firm e d by t h e S e n a te .

T hese

w ere R oger B. T aney, S e c r e t a r y o f th e T re a s u ry a p p o in te d by Jaekson; P o rte r,

D a v i d H e n s h a w , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y ; a n d J a m e s M. S e c r e t a r y o f War b o t h a p p o i n t e d b y T y l e r .

A n o th e r p e r s o n w hose a p p o in tm e n t t o not

th e

C a b in e t was

c o n f i r m e d b y t h e S e n a t e w a s C h a r l e s B. W a r r e n ,

of

D e t r o i t , who w a s a p p o i n t e d A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l b y C a l v i n C o o lid g e .

C o o l i d g e m ade a s e c o n d a t t e m p t b u t a g a i n t h e

a p p o i n t m e n t w as u n c o n f i r m e d s o

C o o l i d g e a p p o i n t e d J o h n G.

S a rg en t f o r th e p o s itio n .

th e

7 ^ ew Y o r k T i m e s » M a r c h I S , 1 9 2 4 . p F o r r e s i g n a t i o n s f r o m t h e C a b i n e t s e e T a b l e VI a t c lo s e o f t h i s c h a p te r , p . 77.

66

F o u rte e n

C a b i n e t m em b ers h a v e d i e d w h i l e i n o f f i e e .

T h ese a r e W illia m B r a d f o r d , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l u n d e r W ash in g ­ to n ;

John B r e e k e n r id g e , A tto r n e y - G e n e r a l u n d e r J e f f e r s o n ;

A b e l P . U p s h u r , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e a n d Thom as W. G i l m e r , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy u n d e r T y l e r ,

T h e s e tw o w e r e k i l l e d b y

t h e e x p l o s i o n o f a gun on t h e U n ite d S t a t e s v e s s e l P r i n c e t o n w h e n i t w as m a k i n g i t s

tria l

ru n .

O t h e r s h a v e b e e n A a r o n V.

B row n, P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l f o r B u c h a n a n ; S e c r e t a r y o f War u n d e r G r a n t ;

Jo h n A, R a w lin g ,

C h a rle s J .

F o lg e r, S e c re ta ry

o f t h e T r e a s u r y u n d e r A r t h u r ; W i l l i a m W indom , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y u n d e r B e n ja m in H a r r i s o n ; S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e u n d e r C le v e la n d ; S ta te

f o r T heodore R o o s e v e lt;

W a l t e r ft. G r e s h a m ,

John H ay, S e c r e ta r y o f

J a m e s W. G o o d , S e c r e t a r y o f

War f o r H o o v e r ; H e n r y C. W a l l a c e , S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e u n d e r H a rd in g ;

a n d G e o r g e H . B e r n , S e c r e t a r y o f War a n d

C h a r l e s A, S w a n s o n , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y u n d e r F r a n k l i n B. R o o se v e lt. Poor h e a lth S e c re ta ry of S ta te ;

caused th e r e s ig n a tio n

o f B a n ie l W e b ste r,

B a n i e l M a n n in g , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e

T r e a s u r y ; E th a n H itc h c o c k , S e c r e t a r y o f th e I n t e r i o r ;

John

W. W e e k s , S e c r e t a r y o f W ar; W i l l i a m H . W o o d in , S e c r e t a r y o f th e T reasu ry ;

a n d H a r r y L . H o p k i n s , S e c r e t a r y o f Com m erce.

T here h ave b e en e le v e n

C a b i n e t m e m b e rs who p r e f e r r e d

t h e d i p l o m a t i c s e r v i c e t o E x e c u tiv e b u s i n e s s o r who, a t le a st,

w ere t r a n s f e r r e d

fro m th e

C a b in e t to t h e d ip lo m a tic

67 se rv ic e .

T h e s e w e r e R o b e r t S m i t h who w as a p p o i n t e d M i n i s t e r

t o R u s s i a ; M a r t i n Van B u r e n who w a s m ade A m b a s s a d o r t o E n g l a n d b u t w a s n o t c o n f i r m e d b y t h e S e n a t e ; E d w a rd L i v i n g ­ s t o n , M i n i s t e r t o E n g la n d ; E l i h u B. W ashburne, M i n i s t e r to F r a n c e ; A l b e r t G a l l a t i n who w a s a p p o i n t e d on a c o m m i s s i o n t o n e g o t i a t e p e a c e w i t h E n g l a n d ; A n d re w M e l l o n , A m b a s s a d o r t o G r e a t B r i t a i n ; H a t h a n C l i f f o r d who w as a p p o i n t e d o n a C o m m is s io n t o R u s s i a ; la n d ;

E d w a rd F i e r r e p o i n t , M i n i s t e r t o E n g ­

J a m e s B a r b o u r , M i n i s t e r t o E n g l a n d ; a n d S im o n C a m e ro n ,

M in is te r to R u ssia . S e v e n C a b i n e t m em b ers r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e r e a p p o in te d J u s tic e s

o f t h e S uprem e C o u r t.

T hese w ere J o s e p h

M cK enn a, A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d b y M c K i n l e y ; W i l l i a m H. M oody, A t t o r n e y - G - e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d b y T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t ; J,

C. M e R e y n o l d s , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d b y W i l s o n ;

H a r l a n F* S t o n e , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d b y C o o l i d g e ; F ra n k : M u rp h y a n d R o b e r t J a c k s o n b o t h A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l a p p o i n t e d b y F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t ;

a n d L u c i u s Q.

C. L a m a r ,

S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r a p p o in te d b y C le v e la n d * It

is

i n t e r e s t i n g to n o te t h a t s i x o f th e s e v e n w ere

A tto rn e y s-G e n e ra l.

T h is

o f c o u r s e was v e r y a p p r o p r i a t e

s i n c e t h e l e g a l l e a r n i n g o f a n A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l was a v a lu a b le q u a lif ic a tio n

f o r a S uprem e C o u rt J u s t i c e .

D a v i d K e y , F o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l , a n d C a le b B . S m i t h , S e c re ta ry o f th e I n t e r i o r b o th re s ig n e d because th e y had

68

been a p p o in te d d i s t r i c t

ju d g es w h ile

C h a rle s L ee, A tto r n e y -

G - e n e r a l; W a l t e r 0,. G r e s h a m , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e

tre a su ry ;

G e o r g e W. M c C r a r y , S e c r e t a r y o f War a c c e p t e d c i r c u i t sh ip s.

ju d g es

W illia m 1 . R ic h a rd s o n a S e c r e t a r y o f th e T re a s u ry

r e s ig n e d b e c a u se o f th e S an b o rn s c a n d a l, to th e

and

C o u rt o f C la im s.

a n d was a p p o i n t e d

H arry S ta n b e ry , A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l,

r e s i g n e d t o b e c o m e c o u n s e l f o r A n d re w J o h n s o n i n h i s im peachm ent t r i a l .

F o llo w in g th e t r i a l

h im b u t t h e a p p o in tm e n t was n o t

Jo h n so n re n o m in a te d

c o n firm e d by t h e S e n a te .

F i v e men h a v e r e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o t r y P r e s i d e n t i a l n o m in a tio n .

T h e s e w e r e S a lm o n P .

fo r a C hase,

S e c r e ta r y o f th e T re a su ry u n d er L in c o ln ; M a rsh a ll J e w e ll, P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l, th e

a n d B e n j a m i n H. B r i s t o w , S e c r e t a r y o f

T r e a s u r y , b o t h u n d e r G r a n t ; W i l l i a m H o w a rd T a f t ,

S e c r e t a r y o f War u n d e r T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t ; a n d J a m e s A . F a r l e y , P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l u n d e r F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t . C hase h a d a t t e m p t e d t o r e s i g n t w i c e b e f o r e i n t a i n h i s w ay s o L i n c o l n a c c e p t e d h i s t h i r d soon a p p o in te d to

t h e S u p re m e C o u r t .

o rd er to

o ffer.

He w as

He e v i d e n t l y c h a n g e d

h i s m in d a b o u t t h e P r e s i d e n c y a s h e d i d n o t r u n . reaso n fo r h is

ob­

One

r e s i g n a t i o n w as b e e a u s e o f a p p o i n t m e n t s i n

th e T r e a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t.

B r is to w and J e w e ll w ere to o h o n e s t

f o r c e r t a i n s t r o n g e le m e n ts a ro u n d t h e g o v ern m en t d u r in g th e G ra n t a d m i n i s t r a t i o n so t h e y w ere f o r c e d o u t .

F a r le y had

n o t a g r e e d w i t h R o o s e v e l t i n som e o f h i s Hew D e a l p o l i c i e s

69 and a ls o

fe lt

P re sid e n c y .

t h a t R o o s e v e lt s h o u l d s u p p o r t h im f o r t h e T he o n l y o n e o f t h e

t h e P r e s i d e n c y was T a f t . are

f i v e who a c t u a l l y r a n f o r

Men who r e s i g n e d f o r o t h e r o f f i c e s

C h a r l e s E d i s o n , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y , who r a n f o r t h e

g o v e r n o r s h i p o f Hew J e r s e y ; a n d H e n r y A. W a l l a c e , S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , who h a d h e e n c h o s e n b y F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t t o r u n f o r V ic e P r e s i d e n t . F o u r t e e n men h a v e r e s i g n e d i n o r d e r t o p riv a te b u sin e ss.

re tu rn

T hese w ere A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n ,

G a g e , a n d W i l l i a m G* McAdoo a l l S e c r e t a r i e s W i l l i a m P i n k n e y , Thomas E .

to

Lyman J .

o f th e T reasu ry ;

G r e g o r y , a n d H om er S .

C um m ings,

A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l ; C h a rle s E. H ughes, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ; J o h n D. L o n g , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y ;

C h a r l e s E m ory S m i t h a n d

W i l l i a m H. H a y s , P o s t m a s t e r s - G e n e r a l ; R o b e r t P . L am o n t a n d D a n i e l G, R o p e r , S e c r e t a r i e s S e c re ta r y o f th e I n t e r i o r ; o f W ar.

o f Com m erce; F r a n k l i n K. L a n e ,

a n d J a c o b M. D i c k i n s o n , S e c r e t a r y

T h is i s v e r y p o s s i b l y t h e r e a s o n f o r s e v e r a l o t h e r

m e m b e rs f o r whom n o d e f i n i t e E le c tio n to s i x m en:

r e a s o n seem s t o b e g i v e n .

th e S e n a te h as caused th e r e s ig n a tio n

E li h u R o o t, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e ;

d en a n d G eorge S . B o u t w e ll , S e c r e t a r i e s

of

W illia m P . F e s s e n ­

o f th e T reasu ry ;

F e l i x G r u n d y a n d P h i l a n d e r C, K n o x , A t t o r n e y s - G e n e r a l ; a n d R e d fie ld P ro c to r,

S e c r e t a r y o f W ar.

In e ffic ie n c y has m em b ers.

These a r e

caused th e r e s ig n a tio n o f n in e

G eorge H. W il l i a m s , A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ;

70 G e o r g e W. C a m p b e l l , W a l t e r F o r w a r d , S e c r e t a r i e s tre a su ry ;

W illia m F a s t i s ,

o f th e

S im o n C a m e ro n , R u s s e l l A . A l g e r ,

a n d H a r r y H, W o o d rin g , S e c r e t a r i e s an d A d o lp h F . B o r i e , S e c r e t a r i e s

o f T /ar; P a u l H a m i l t o n ,

o f t h e H a v y ; a n d J a m e s A*

G ary, P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l , It

is

th e p o lic ie s

th e

c u s t o m f o r a C a b i n e t m em ber w h e n o p p o s e d t o

o f th e P r e s id e n t to hand in h is r e s ig n a tio n .

T h i s h a s b e e n t h e kn ow n r e a s o n f o r s e v e r a l men a n d p r o b a b l y th e h id d e n re a s o n f o r o th e r r e s i g n a t io n s .

In th e

case o f

B u c h a n a n rs a d m i n i s t r a t i o n s e v e r a l o f t h e m em b ers w e r e o f s o u t h e r n s y m p a t h i e s a n d r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f B u e h a n a n fs im p a rtia l a ttitu d e ,

W illia m J e n n in g s B ryan d id n o t a g r e e

w i t h W i l s o n Ts w a r p o l i c i e s

so h e r e s i g n e d .

The r e s i g n a t i o n

o f th e H a r r i s o n - T y l e r C a b in e t b e c a u s e T y le r v e to e d th e b an k b ill

is

a n o th e r i l l u s t r a t i o n . When a C a b i n e t m em ber r e s i g n s

o r v a c a te s h is o f f ic e

f o r a n y r e a s o n t h e P r e s i d e n t o f t e n p r o m o t e s a n o t h e r m em ber to

th e v a c a te d p o s itio n .

tw o o f f i c e s

A l a r g e n u m b e r o f men h a v e h e l d 9

d u rin g an a d m in is tra tio n because o f t h i s re a so n .

We e v e n h a v e tw o i n s t a n c e s w h e r e men h a v e h e l d tw o p o s i t i o n s at

one tim e ,

S a m u e l D e x t e r w a s b o t h S e c r e t a r y o f War a n d

S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y u n d e r J o h n Adams a n d J a m e s M o nro e 9

F o r a t a b l e o f m em b ers h o l d i n g m o re t h a n o n e C a b in e t p o s i t i o n i n one a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , s e e T a b le Y II a t t h e c l o s e o f t h i s c h a p t e r , p» 7 8 .

71 fille d

th e p o s itio n s

of S e c re ta ry of S ta te

and S e c r e ta r y o f

War s i m u l t a n e o u s l y u n d e r M a d i s o n , O u tsid e f o r e e s have c au sed th e r e s i g n a t i o n m em bers.

o f som e

Thomas J e f f e r s o n r e s i g n e d b e c a u s e o f d i s a g r e e m e n t s

b e tw e e n h i m s e l f an d H a m ilto n .

He h a d t r i e d

to re s ig n

e a r l i e r b u t h a d b e e n p e r s u a d e d t o r e m a i n u n t i l a f t e r W ash­ in g to n s t a r te d h is

second a d m in is tr a tio n .

P h illip

F.

T h o m a s, a S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , w a s f o r c e d t o r e s i g n b y th e b an k ers and c a p i t a l i s t s

o f Hew Y o r k .

H enry 0. P a y n e ,

a P o s tm a s te r-G e n e ra l, had tr o u b le w ith th e C o m m is s io n a n d h a d t o th e

In te rio r,

re sig n .

came i n t o

J a m e s D.

C iv il S e rv ic e

C ox, S e c r e t a r y o f

c o n f l i c t w i t h S e n a t o r C am ero n a n d

was n o t s u s t a i n e d b y G r a n t.

C olu m b u s D e l a n o who a l s o h e l d

t h e p o s i t i o n u n d e r G r a n t w as u n d e r c o n s t a n t f i r e re fo rm e rs and in d e p e n d e n ts .

o f th e

John A rm stro n g , S e c r e t a r y o f

W a r, u n d e r M a d i s o n w a s f i n a l l y f o r c e d t o r e s i ^ i d u e t o t h e c o n s t a n t q u a r r e l i h g w i t h M o n ro e . A c c u sa tio n o f fra u d D o u g h e rty , A lb e r t B. F a l l , G o o lid g e

caused th e r e s ig n a tio n

a n d E d w in B e n b y o f t h e H a r d i n g -

C a b i n e t ; W i l l i a m T . B a r r y o f J a c k s o n fs

R i c h a r d A* B a l l e n g e r o f T a f t ’s C a b i n e t e x o n e ra te d );

o f H. M.

C a b in e t;

(he was l a t e r

John B. F lo y d u n d e r B u chanan;

a n d W i l l i a m W.

B e l k n a p who w a s a p p o i n t e d b y G r a n t a n d w o u l d h a v e b e e n t r i e d f o r im p each m en t i f

G ran t h ad n o t a c c e p te d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n .

Amos K e n d a l l r e s i g n e d t o b e c o m e c a m p a i g n m a n a g e r f o r

1Z

Van B u r e n a n d G e o r g e B .

C o r te ly o u r e s ig n e d one tim e b e c a u s e

h e w as c h a ir m a n o f t h e N a t i o n a l R e p u b l i c a n C o m m itte e , It

i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t o l e a r n t h a t a l a r g e num ber o f

men h a v e h e l d o f f i c e u n d e r m o re t h a n o n e P r e s i d e n t *

T h is o f

c o u r s e i n c l u d e d t h o s e m em b ers who s e r v e d o n l y a s h o r t w h i l e under a c c id e n ta l P re sid e n ts . W h ile t h e

C a b i n e t o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s g o v e r n m e n t m ay

n o t be a s i m p o r ta n t i n t h e a c t u a l g o v ern m en t a s t h e

C a b in e t

o f E n g l a n d , we h a v e h a d a l a r g e n u m b e r o f men who h a v e s e rv e d th e n a tio n lo n g and w e ll.

73 TABLE I I GABl i r a ? MEMBERS WITH LOHGEST PERIODS OF SERVICE

Bame Jam es W ils o n A lb e rt G a lla tin W illia m W irt A n d re w M e l l o n W illia m H #C ra w fo rd E th a n A .H itc h c o c k C o rd e ll H u ll* H a ro ld Ie k e s * F ran ces P e rk in s* Jam es M a d iso n J o h n Q u i n c y Adams W i l l i a m H .S e w a r d A lb e rt B u rle so n Jo sep h u s D a n ie ls G id eo n W e lle s H en ry D e arb o rn J o h n C* C a lh o u n W illia m . B .W ils o n H a m ilto n F i s h

P o s itio n S e c re ta ry of A g ric u ltu re S e c re ta ry o f th e T rea su ry A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S e c re ta ry o f th e T rea su ry S e c re ta ry o f th e T reasu ry S e c re ta ry o f th e I n t e r i o r S e c re ta ry o f S ta te S e c re ta r y o f th e I n t e r i o r S e c r e ta r y o f Labor S e c re ta ry o f S ta te S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry of S ta te P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy S e c r e t a r y o f War S e c r e t a r y o f War S e c r e ta r y o f Labor S e c re ta ry o f S ta te

* In o f f i c e a t th e p r e s e n t tim e

(194B ).

L e n g th o f S e rv ic e S ix te e n y e ars T h irte e n y e a rs T w e lv e y e a r s E le v e n y e a r s lin e y ears B in e y e a r s B in e y e a r s B in e y e a r s B in e y e a r s E ig h t y e a rs lig h t y ears E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a r s E ig h t y e a rs E ig h t y e a rs

74 TABLE I I I TERMS LESS THAU OHE YEAR

Hame

P o s i t i o n H eld of of of of of of

S ta te War U av y T reasu ry S ta te S ta te

L en g th of T erm 11 6 6 9 4 9

mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo.

3 9 8 6 5 4 2 4 9 6 8 8 6 2 2 8 6 1 7 2 10

mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. mo • mo. mo. mo. mo. w ks mo. mo. mo. mo. mo. m o. mo.

R o b e r t B acon John B e ll G eorge 1 . B a d g e r G e o r g e M .B ib b J e re m ia h S .B la c k Jam es G .B la in e

See. See. See. See. See. See.

A d o lp h E .B o r ie S im o n C am eron G e o r g e W .C a m p b e ll John J . C r i t t e n d e n W i l l i a m R .D a y Sam uel L e x te r J o h n A . D ix W illia m J.D u a n e C h a rle s E d iso n T hom as E w in g W illia m P .F e s s e n d e n Jo h n W .F o s te r D a v id R . F r a n c i s Thom as W. G i l m e r H a th a n G o f f , J r . J a m e s f/.G o o d F r a n c is G ranger W a l t e r Q,. G r e s h a m D a v id H in sh a w Jo sep h H o lt Thom as L . J a m e s

S e e . o f Havy S e e . o f War S ee. o f T reasu ry At t o rn ey -G en eral See. o f S ta te S ee. o f T reasu ry S ee. o f T reasu ry Sec. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f Havy S ee. o f T reasu ry S ec. o f T reasu ry See. o f S ta te See. o f In te rio r S e e . o f Mavy S e e . o f Havy S e e . o f War Po s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l S ee. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f Navy S e e . o f War P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra L

H o r a t i o K in g J o s e p h McKenna T ^T » -H eK en n an Wayne M aeV eagh

P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l 1 mo. A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l 9 mo. 2--wks S e e » --e f-In te i? ie J? A11 o r n e y - G e n e r a l 1 0 m o.

Jam es W .M a rs h a ll H ug h M c C u l l o c h Jam es A . P o r t e r J o h n A, R a w lin s W i l l i a m T .S h e r m a n E d w in S t a n t o n A lp h o n so T a f t E l i h u B .W a s h b u r n e W i l l i a m Windom

P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l 2 mo. S e e . o f T reasu ry 4 mo. S e e . o f War 11 mo. S e c . o f War 6 mo. S e e . o f War 1 mo. A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l 4 m o. S e c . o f War 2 m o. See. of S ta te 1 w k. Sec. o f T reasu ry 8 mo.

P re sid e n t T. R o o s e v e lt H a r r i s o n & T y le r T y le r T y le r B uchanan G a rfie ld & A rth u r G ran t L in c o ln M a d iso n H a r r i s o n & T y le r M cK in ley J . Adams B uchanan Jackson F . R o o se v e lt H a r r i s o n & T y le r L in c o ln B, H a r r is o n C le v e la n d T y le r H ayes H oover H a r r i s o n & T y le r A rth u r T y le r B uchanan G a rfie ld & A rth u r B uchanan M cK in ley C le v e la n d G a rfie ld & A rth u r G ran t A rth u r T y le r G ran t G rant B uchanan G rant G rant G a rfie ld & A rth u r

75 TABLE IV CABINET MEMBERS SERYIHG 03fE ADMIHSTRATIOW OF FOUR YEARS

Hame C h a r l e s F . Adams Thom as F , B a y a r d W a l t e r F .B r o w n Jam es B u ch an an J a m e s C a m p b e ll C h a rle s 0*C a r l i s l e H e n ry C la y C a le b C a s h in g J e f f e r s o n D a v is C h a rle s D evens J a m e s C .D o b b i n W i l l i a m C. E n d i e o t t i f t l l i a m M. E v a r t s A u g u s t H. G a r la n d Jam es G u th r ie H ila r y A .H e rb e rt F ra n k H .H itc h c o c k A r t h u r M .H yde C ave J o h n s o n P h i l a d d e r C .K hox D a n ie l S«Lam ent R o b e rt T .L in c o ln R o b e rt M c C le lla n d F r a n k l i n M aeV eagh W i l l i a m L .M a r e y W i l l i a m L .M a r e y W illia m H .H .M ille r W illia m D .M itc h e ll J . S t e r l i n g M o rto n G e o r g e v o n L .M e y e r C h a rle s B ag el J o h n W .M oble J e r e m i a h M .R u s k R ic h a r d R ush C arl S ch u rz Jo h n S herm an H enry L .S tim s o n I s a a c Toucey B e n ja m in F .T r a c y R o b e rt J .W a lk e r J o h n W an am aker W i l l i a m C. W h i t n e y G e o r g e W ic k e r s h a m R a y Lyman W i l b u r

P o s i t i o n H e ld S e e . o f t h e Mavy See. of S ta te Po s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l See. of S ta te P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l See. o f T reasu ry See. o f S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S e e . o f War At t orne y -G e n e ra l S e e . o f t h e B avy S e e . o f War See* o f S t a t e A11 o r n e y - G e n e r a l See. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f t h e Bavy P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l See. o f A g ric u ltu re P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l See. of S ta te S e c . o f War S e e . o f War See. of In te rio r S ee. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f War See. of S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l See. of A g ric u ltu re S e e . o f t h e Bavy S e c . o f Commerce & Labor See. of In te rio r See. o f A g ric u ltu re S ee. o f T reasu ry See. o f In te rio r S ee. o f T reasu ry See. of S ta te S e e . o f t h e B avy S e e . o f t h e Bavy S ee. o f T reasu ry P o s tm a s t e r - G e n e r a l S e e . o f t h e B avy A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l See. of In te rio r

P re sid e n t H oover C le v e la n d ,1 s t te rm H oover P o lk P ie rc e C le v e la n d ,1 s t te rm J .Q .A d a m s P ie rc e P ie rc e H ayes P ie rc e C le v e la n d ,1 s t te rm H ayes C le v e la n d , 1 s t te rm P ie rc e C le v e la n d ,1 s t te rm T aft H oover P o lk T aft C l e v e l a n d ,2 n d te r m G a rfie ld & A rth u r P ie rc e T aft P o lk P ie rc e B .H a rris o n H oover C le v e la n d ,2nd te rm T aft T aft B .H a rris o n B .H a rris o n J . ^ * Adams H ayes H ayes H oover B uchanan B .H a rris o n P o lk B .H a rris o n C le v e la n d , 1 s t te rm T aft H oover

76 TABLE V NUMBER OF CHANGES UNDER EACH PRESIDENT1

P re sid e n t G eo rg e W a sh in g to n J o h n Adams T hom as J e f f e r s o n Jam es M a d iso n J a m e s M o n ro e J o h n Q u i n c y Adams A n drew Ja c k so n M a r t i n Van B u r e n W illia m H .H a rr is o n John T y le r Jam es K .P o lk Z ach ary T a y lo r M illa rd F illm o re F ra n k lin P ie rc e Jam es B uchanan A hraham L i n c o l n A n d re w J o h n s o n U ly s s e s S .G ra n t R u t h e r f o r d B .H a y e s Jam es A . G a r f i e l d C h e s te r A .A rth u r G ro v er C le v e la n d B e n ja m in H a r r i s o n G ro v er C le v e la n d W il l ia m M c K in ley T heodore R o o s e v e lt W i l l i a m H ow ard T a f t W oodrow W i l s o n W arren G .H a rd in g C a lv in C o o lid g e H e rb e rt H oover F r a n k lin R o o se v e lt

N um ber o f D e p a rtm e n ts

N um b er o f C h a n g e s m ade

4 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 10 10 10

7 3 4 IE 3 1 14 4 0 15 3 0 4 0 7 6 6 18 3 0 10 3 3 4 7 20 2 10 3 8 4 12

C h a n g e s i n c l u d e n ew a p p o i n t m e n t s a n d t r a n s f e r s one d e p a rtm e n t t o a n o th e r

fro m

77 TABLE VI RESIGBATIOMS BECAUSE' OF OPPOSITIOH TO PRESIDENTIAL POLICY

Ham© John A rm stro n g G eorge E .B a d g e r E d w a rd B a t e s John B e ll Jam es G .B la in e W illia m s J .B ry a n L e w i s C a ss H o w e l l Cobb John J .C r itte n d e n W illia m D e n n iso n F r a n c is G ran g er Jam es H a r la n L o u i s Me L a n e C a e s a r A .R o d n e y John C*Spencer J a c o b T h om pson

P o s itio n S e c r e t a r y o f War S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y o f War S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry o f T reasu ry At t orn ey -G en eral P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l S e c re ta ry of I n te r io r S e c re ta ry of S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S e c re ta ry o f T reasu ry S e c re ta ry of I n te r io r

P re sid e n t M ad iso n T y le r L in c o ln T y le r B .H a rris o n W ilso n B uchanan B uchanan T y le r J o h n s on T y le r Johnson Jackson Jefferso n T y le r B uchanan

78 TABLE ¥11 MORE THAB OHE POSITIOH DURIMG AM ADMIHISTRATIOH

F irst D e p artm en t

Second D e p artm en t

Edmund R a n d o l p h T im o t h y P i c k e r i n g Sam uel L e x te r W i l l i a m H. C r a w f o r d L e w i s Me L a n e R o g e r B .T a n e y L e v i W o o d b u ry H ug h S * L e g a r e

Ju s tic e War War War T reasu ry J u s tic e Bavy J u s tic e

A b e l P * U p sh aw Jo h n C .S p e n c e r J o h n Y .M a so n Je re m ia h S . B la c k Jo sep h H o lt A lp h o n so T a f t W a l t e r Q,* G r e s h a m R i c h a r d O ln e y W illia m F .V ila s G eorge B .C o r t e l y o u W i l l i a m H .M oody C h a rle s J* B o n a p a rte V ic to r M .M e te a lf

H avy War Ju s tic e J u s tic e P o s t O ffic e War P o st O ffic e J u s tic e P o s t O ffic e P o s t O ffic e H av y Bavy Commerce Labor A g ric u ltu re P o st O ffie e

S ta te W a s h i n g t on S ta te W ash in g to n T reasu ry J . Adams T reasu ry M ad iso n S ta te Jackson T reasu ry Jackson T reasu ry Jackson S ta te (ad i n t e r i m ) T y l e r S ta te T y le r T reasu ry T y le r Havy P o lk S ta te B uchanan B uchanan War Ju s tic e G ran t T reasu ry A rth u r S ta te C le v e la n d In te rio r C le v e la n d T reasu ry T, R o o s e v e lt Ju s tic e T. R o o s e v e l t Ju s tic e T. R o o s e v e lt

Hame

D a v id F * H o u sto n H u b e r t Work

Havy T reasu ry In t e ri or

P re sid e n t

T* R o o s e v e l t W ilso n C o o lid g e

79 TABLE VIII MEET HQLDIHG CABINET POSITIONS UHDER MORE THAI! OLE PRESIDELT Lame G eorge E .B a d g e r Jam es G * B la in e B e n ja m in F . B u t l e r Jo h n C .C a lh o u n L ew is C ass W illia m H. C raw fo rd Jo h n J . C ri 1 1 en d en H .M .D a u g h e rty Jam es J . D a v i s E d w in D enby W illia m D e n n iso n Sam uel D e x te r M a h lo n D i c k e r s o n T hom as E w in g John F o rs y th Lyman Gage A lb e rt G a lla tin F r a n c is G ranger W a l t e r Q,. G r e s h a m J o h n H ay E th a n A * H itc h e o e k H e rb e rt H oover W i l l i a m H .H u n t Thom as L . J a m e s Amos K e n d a l l Sam uel J.K irk w o o d

P o s itio n Sec* o f H avy See* o f S t a t e See. o f S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l At t o rn e y-G ene r a l S e c . o f War See. o f S ta te S e e . o f War See. o f S ta te See. o f T reasu ry See. o f T reasu ry A11 o r n e y - Gen e r a 1 A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S ec. o f Labor S e c . o f L abor S e c . o f H avy P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l Sec. o f T reasu ry See. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f Havy S e c . o f H avy Sec. o f T reasu ry See. of S ta te Sec. o f S ta te S ee. o f T reasu ry See. o f T reasu ry Sec. o f T reasu ry P o s tm a s t er* -G en eral See. o f S ta te See. o f T reasu ry See. of S ta te See. o f I n te r io r See. of I n te r io r S e e . o f Commerce S e e . o f Commerce S e e . o f H avy P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l P o stm a s t e r - G e n e r a l P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l Sec. o f I n te r io r

P re sid e n t H a rris o n & T y le r G a rfie ld & A rth u r B. H a r r i s o n Jackson Van B u r e n M o n ro e T y le r Jackson B uchanan M ad iso n M o n ro e H a rriso n & T y le r F illm o re H a rd in g & C o o lid g e H a rd in g & C o o lid g e H oover H a rd in g & C o o lid g e L in c o ln & Jo hnson J o h n Adams Jefferso n Jackson Van B u r e n H a rris o n & T y le r Jackson Van B u r e n M c K in le y & T .R o o s e ­ v e lt Jefferso n M ad iso n H a rris o n & T y le r C le v e la n d A rth u r M cK in ley & T .R o o s e v e lt M c K in ley T .R o o se v e lt H a rd in g C o o lid g e G a rfie ld & A rth u r G a rfie ld & A rth u r Jackson Van B u r e n G a rfie ld & A rth u r

TABLE VIII (Continued) Maine P h i l a n d e r C .K hox

P o s itio n A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l

R o b e rt T * L in co ln J o h n I ) .L o n g

See* o f S t a t e A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l A tto rn e y * G e n e ra l S e e . o f War S e e . o f H avy

Wayne M aeV eagh

At t orn ey -G en eral

W illia m L .M a re y

See. o f S ta te S e e . o f War ' S e e . o f H avy S e c . o f H avy A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l See. o f T reasu ry See. o f T reasu ry S e e . o f War S e e . o f War See. o f T reasu ry S ee. o f T reasu ry P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l S e c . o f Havy P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l See. of S ta te See. of S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l S e c . o f War

C h a rle s Lee

J o h n Y .M a so n H ug h Me C u l l o c h J a m e s M cH enry A n d re w M e l l o n G e o r g e T en L . M e y e r H e n r y S .H ew T im o th y P i c k e r i n g C a e s a r A .R o d n e y E lih u Root R i c h a r d R ush W i l l i a m H .S e w a r d Jo h n S herm an C h a r l e s E m ory S m i t h R o b e rt S m ith Jam es S p eed E d w in M. S t a n t o n H en ry L .S tim s o n

See. of S ta te A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l See. of S ta te See. o f T reasu ry See. o f S ta te P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l S e e . o f Havy See. of S ta te At t orn ey -G en e r a l A11 o r n e y - G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y o f War See. of S ta te S e e . o f War

P re sid e n t M cK in ley & T .R o o se v e lt T aft W ash in g to n J o h n Adams G a rfie ld & A rth u r M c K in ley & T .R o o se v e lt M c K in le y & T .R o o se v e lt F illm o re P o lk T y le r P o lk P o lk L in c o ln & Johnson A rth u r W a sh in g to n J . A dam s H a r d in g & C o o lid g e H oover T .R o o se v e lt T aft H a rd in g & C o o lid g e W a s h in g to n . J . Adams Jefferso n M ad iso n M c K in ley & T .R o o se v e lt T .R o o s e v e lt M ad iso n M o nroe L in c o ln & Johnson H ayes M cK in ley M c K in ley & T .R o o s e v e lt Jefferso n M a d iso n L in c o ln & Johnson B uchanan L in c o ln & Johnson C o o lid g e F .D .R o o s e v e lt

81 9?ABLE V I I I

P o s itio n

Hame B e n ja m in S t o d d a r t John P .U s h e r D a n ie l W e b ste r J o h n W. W eeks G id e o n W ^ llo s Jam es W ilso n W il l i a m W irt. O liv e r W o lc o tt,J r. L e v i W o o d b u ry H u b e r t Work

( C o n tin u e d )

See. See. See. See. See. See. See. See.

of of of of of of of of

H avy H avy In te rio r S ta te S ta te War H avy A g ric u ltu re

P re sid e n t

J . A dams Jefferso n L in c o ln & Johnson H a rris o n & T y le r F illm o re H a rd in g & C o o lid g e L in c o ln & Johnson M c K in ley & T .R o o s e v e lt See* o f A g r i c u l t u r e T a f t A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l M o nroe A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l J .Q ,. Adams See. of tre a su ry W ash in g to n S ee. o f T reasu ry J .A d a m s S ee. o f T reasu ry Jackson S ee. of T reasu ry Van B u r e n See. of I n te rio r H a rd in g & C o o lid g e

ABILITY OF CABINETS " E x t r y a l l A m e r i c a n C a b i n e t H e a d e d b y G. W a s h i n g t o n 11 was an a r t i c l e net a b ilitie s

in

t h e L i t e r a r y D i g e s t 1 w h ic h d i s c u s s e d

b y u s i n g t h e m eth o d e m p lo y ed b y s p o r t s w r i t e r s

when A l l A m e ric a n f o o t b a l l te a m s a r e a stro n g

C ab i­

chosen.

In th e a r t i c l e ,

C a b in e t an d a w eak C a b in e t w ere c h o s e n .

The tw o

te a m s i n c l u d e d t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d t h e V ic e P r e s i d e n t b u t f o r som e un k n o w n r e a s o n d i d n o t i n c l u d e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f L a b o r . The s t r o n g C a b in e t c o n t a i n e d t h e f o l l o w i n g m em b ers: S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry o f th e T reasu ry S e c r e t a r y o f War A11 o r n e y - G e n e r a l Po s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Navy S e c re ta ry of th e I n te r io r S e c re ta ry o f A g ric u ltu re S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce In c o n tra s t to th e s e ,

Jo h n H ay A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n E lih u Root R oger B. Taney Amos K e n d a l l W i l l i a m C. W h i t n e y F r a n k l i n K* L a n e Jam es W ilso n H e rb e rt H oover

t h e w e a k C a b i n e t t e a m w as com­

posed o f: S e c re ta ry of S ta te S e c re ta ry of th e T reasu ry S e c r e t a r y o f War A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l S e c r e t a r y o f t h e N avy S e c re ta ry o f th e I n te r io r S e c re ta ry of A g ric u ltu re S e c r e t a r y o f Commerce

to n ,"

W illia m J e n n in g s B ry an L e s t e r M. S h aw R u s s e l l A, A lg e r H a r r y M. D a u g h e r t y A lb e rt S. B u rle so n Jo sep h u s D a n ie ls A lb e rt B. F a l l J . S t e r l i n g M o rto n J d s h u a W. A l e x a n d e r

1 *fE x t r y A l l A m e r i c a n C a b i n e t H e a d e d b y G. W a s h i n g ­ T he L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , 9 6 : 5 2 , F e b r u a r y 1 1 , 1 9 2 8 .

T h e s e C a b i n e t s h a d b e e n c h o s e n b y The I n d e p e n d e n t b u t ‘k*ie L i t e r a r y D i g e s t c r i t i c i s e d

th e s e le c tio n .

T he a r t i c l e

w e n t a h e a d t o s a y t h a t J o h n Q u i n c y Adams a n d J a m e s M o n ro e w ere a s good S e c r e t a r i e s

of S ta te ,

or b e tte r,

th a n John Hay.

J a m e s G. B l a i n e ,

t o o w a s r a n k e d h i g h a s o n e o f t h e m o re

r e c e n t m em b ers.

A n d re w M e l l o n w a s t o b e r a n k e d a s h i g h a s

A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n .

T he a u t h o r c o n s i d e r e d E d w in M. S t a n t o n

t o b e t h e g r e a t e s t S e c r e t a r y o f War d u r i n g w a r a n d G i d e o n W e lle s a s t h e o u t s t a n d i n g S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy. W illia m W irt,

J e r e m i a h B l a c k , E d w in M. S t a n t o n ,

d e r C. K n o x w e r e a l l W anam aker w as s a i d

and P h ila n ­

e x c e lle n t A tto rn e y s-G e n e ra l.

John

to be th e a b le s t P o stm a ste r-G e n e ra l w ith

E th a n A. H itc h e o e k a s th e o u t s ta n d in g S e c r e t a r y In te rio r.

He t h o u g h t

o f th e

He a g r e e d t h a t H e r b e r t H o o v e r w a s t h e b e s t S e c r e ­

t a r y o f C om m erce. As f o r S e c r e t a r i e s first

o f S t a t e T hom as J e f f e r s o n , who

o r g a n iz e d t h e D e p a rtm e n t, and D a n ie l W e b ste r r a n k v e r y

h ig h .

A lb e rt G a lla tin

a u th o ritie s.

is

r a n k e d e v e n a b o v e H a m i l t o n b y m any

He c e r t a i n l y w as a n a b l e r a d m i n i s t r a t o r .

J e f f e r s o n D a v i s w as t h e a b l e s t S e c r e t a r y o f War i n p e a c e a n d J a m e s M o n ro e r a n k s h i g h a s S e c r e t a r y o f War i n w a r t i m e . In t h i s b rie fly n e ts

c h a p t e r a n a t t e m p t w i l l b e m ade t o

o f th e s tr o n g e s t

C a b in e ts i n

speak

our h is to ry .

o f W a s h in g to n , J e f f e r s o n , M onroe, L i n c o l n , an d

M c K in le y -H o o s e v e lt w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d .

T he C a b i ­

84 In c h o o sin g h i s

C a b in e t,

G eorge W a s h in g to n a s f a r a s

p o ss ib le

c h o s e men whom h e h a d I n own d u r i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n a ­

r y W ar.

He w a s d e t e r m i n e d t h a t h e w o u l d s e c u r e t h e b e s t man

h e c o u ld f o r eaeh p o s i t i o n

a n d h e w o u l d n o t h a v e a n y man who

d id n o t th o ro u g h ly b e lie v e

i n t h e new c o n s t i t u t i o n .

When h e b e g a n t h i n k i n g o f t h e a p p o i n t m e n t s h e w o u ld h a v e t o m ake, t h e r e w ere c e r t a i n nam es t h a t n a t u r a l l y t o h i s m in d .

cam e

J o h n -Adams who h a d b e e n o n e o f t h e m o s t a c t i v e

le a d e r s d u rin g th e R e v o lu tio n a ry p e rio d had been e le c te d th e V ic e P r e s i d e n t so h e c o u ld n o t be c o n s i d e r e d .

He s e e m s t o

h a v e c o n s i d e r e d t h e nam es o f Joh n J a y , A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n , H e n r y K n o x , a n d Edmund R a n d o l p h f r o m t h e f i r s t . W a sh in g to n d id o f f e r t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t t o R o b e rt M o rris f i r s t ,

b u t u p o n reco m m e n d atio n o f M o r r is , and

p ro b a b ly fo llo w in g h is p o s itio n

own i n c l i n a t i o n , h e t h e n o f f e r e d t h e

t o -A lex an d er H a m ilto n .

W ash in g to n h i m s e l f th o u g h t h e h a d a n a b l e g ro u p o f a d v is o r s f o r h e w ro te to L a f a y e t te ,

Ju n e 3 , 1 7 9 0 ,2

Many o f y o u r o l d a c q u a i n t a n c e s a n d f r i e n d s a r e c o n ­ c e r n e d w i t h me i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f t h i s g o v e r n m e n t . By h a v i n g M r. J e f f e r s o n a t t h e h e a d o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e , M r. J a y o f t h e J u d i c i a r y , H a m i l t o n o f t h e T r e a s u r y , a n d K n o x o f t h a t o f W ar, I f e e l m y s e l f s u p p o r ­ t e d b y a b l e c o a d j u t o r s , who h a r m o n i z e e x t r e m e l y w e l l to g e th e r.

2 W o r t h i n g t o n C. F o r d , W a sh in g to n , X I, 4 7 9 -8 0

e d ito r,

W ritin g s o f

85 lle x a n & e r H a m ilto n h a d p r o b a b ly b e e n c l o s e r to W a s h i n g t o n t h a n a n y o t h e r man c o n n e c t e d w i t h t h e n e w g o v e r n ­ m en t.

He h a d b e e n h i s s e c r e t a r y a n d a n a i d e o n h i s

d u r i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W ar.

He h a d b e e n i n t e r e s t e d

f in a n c ia l m a tte rs as a s tu d e n t. had w r itte n th e s ta te

to R o b ert M o rris ,

th e M in is te r o f F in a n c e ,

L a te r he a d v o c a te d a c o n tr a c tio n

The o n l y m em b er o f h i s

o f th e

cu rren cy

o rd e r to s t a r t

D u rin g th e p e r io d u n d e r t h e A r t i c l e s

he se rv ed as re c e iv e r o f ta x e s

about

and th e d a n g e r o f

a n d u r g e d t h e m ak in g o f f o r e i g n l o a n s i n bank.

in

D u r i n g t h e R e v o l u t i o n he*

o f th e n a tio n a l fin a n c e s

in fla tio n .

sta ff

a

o f C o n fe d e ra tio n

i n Hew Y o r k . 3 C a b in e t t h a t W ash in g to n d i d

n o t k n o w i n t i m a t e l y w a s Thomas J e f f e r s o n .

T hey h a d b o t h

b e e n m e m b e rs o f t h e " V i r g i n i a H o u s e o f B u r g e s s e s b u t t h e y d o n o t se e m t o h a v e b e e n m ore t h a n a c q u a i n t a n c e s . J e f f e r s o n an d W a sh in g to n e a c h had w hat t h e o t h e r la c k e d .

J e f f e r s o n w as a g r e a t s c h o l a r w h i l e W a s h in g to n was

n o t.

J e f f e r s o n was a s t u d e n t o f g o v e r n m e n t, W a s h in g to n was

n o t.

W a sh in g to n n e e d e d J e f f e r s o n an d r e a l i z e d

son in w r itin g th e D e c la ra tio n in te r n a tio n a l re p u ta tio n one.

l o n g b e f o r e W a sh in g to n a c h ie v e d and s o c i a l r e ­

V i r g i n ia t h a t w ere r e v o l u t i o n a r y i n t h e i r

3 John H ic k s,

Jeffer­

o f I n d e p e n d e n c e m ade a n

J e f f e r s o n had p ro m o te d g r e a t r e l i g i o u s

form s i n

it.

T he F e d e r a l U n i o n , p .

218.

c h a ra c te r.

86 He h a d a f o l l o w i n g a m o n g t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e A m e r i c a n p e o p l e t h a t W ash in g to n d id n o t e n jo y . When W a s h i n g t o n c h o s e J e f f e r s o n a s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e h e knew t h a t h e a p p r o v e d t h e th e lo g ic a l p erso n f o r t h i s

C o n stitu tio n . p o sitio n

s i n c e no one o u t s i d e o f

J o h n Adams a n d B e n j a m i n F r a n k l i n h a d l i v e d d ip lo m a tic f i e l d s . F r a n k l i n was t o o

o ld .

W a s h i n g t o n a p p o i n t e d J e f f e r s o n be-^

of S e c re ta ry of S ta te ,

C ongress,

in

c o u n try f o r th e

and b e ca u se h i s

q u a l i t i e s w ere c o m p le m e n ta ry t o h i s se rv ic e s in

s o m any y e a r s i n

Adams o f c o u r s e c o u l d n o t b e c h o s e n a n d

c a u s e h e w as t h e b e s t q u a l i f i e d man i n t h e p o sitio n

J e f f e r s o n was

V irg in ia ,

ow n, b e c a u s e h i s a n d i n F r a n c e e a r n e d h im

t h e r e c o g n i t i o n w h ic h t h e a p p o in tm e n t g a v e . 1 7 8 9 , J e f f e r s o n fs s e r v i c e s

g reat

At th is

to th e U n ite d S t a te s

d a te ,

f a r o u t­

w e ig h ed t h o s e o f H a m ilto n . Jefferso n

is

d e s c r i b e d a s a man m e n t a l l y a c u t e w i t h

s o c i a l c a p a c ity and c o sm o p o lita n t a s t e s . 4 H e n r y K no x a n d Edmund R a n d o l p h w e r e n e i t h e r v e r y s t r o n g m en .

They w ere b o th o f o n ly f a i r a b i l i t y ,

w ere b o th l i k e d by W a sh in g to n . War u n d e r t h e

b u t th e y

K nox h a d b e e n S e c r e t a r y o f

C o n f e d e r a t i o n a n d w as a s k e d t o

c o n tin u e .

R a n d o lp h was a good l a w y e r a n d i n f l u e n t i a l i n V i r g i n i a . had r e c e n tly been g o v ern o r o f th a t s t a t e .

^ J.

S. B a sse tt,

He h a d b e e n

The F e d e r a l i s t S y s t e m , p . 17

He

87 W a s h i n g t o n 's p e r s o n a l l a w y e r s i n c e 1781 an d was a n a i d e s e c r e t a r y t o W a s h i n g t o n i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W a r.

or

H e ith e r

man h a d a s t r o n g p e r s o n a l i t y a n d "both w e r e c o n s t a n t l y d o m in a te d by H a m ilto n and J e f f e r s o n . p ic tu re

o f K n ox a n d R a n d o l p h i s

An u n f l a t t e r i n g

g i v e n f o r u s b y Jam es T r u s -

l o w A dam s.® K n o x w h o s e b o d y w a s m uch w e i g h t i e r t h a n h i s m i n d — h e w e i g h e d n e a r l y 3 0 0 p o u n d s -* -w a s p o m p o u s , a u t o c r a t i c , m i l i t a r y , a n d w i t h o u t g o o d j u d g m e n t . He w a s ft h e g i a n t * o f th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n b u t n o t in th e u s u a l s e n s e , and p r o v e d a c o n t i n u o u s 1y e s - m a n 1 t o t h e p h y s i c a l l y d i m i n u ­ t i v e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , H a m i l t o n , who l o v e d e v e r y t h i n g c o n n e c te d w i t h t h e arm y , and even i n s i s t e d t h a t h i s own d e p a r t m e n t , a n d n o t t h a t o f w a r , s h o u l d p u rch ase m ilita r y s to r e s . R a n d o lp h , t h e A tto r n e y G -e n e ra l, c o u ld b e r e l i e d on b y no o n e . He u s u a l l y s i d e d w i t h J e f f e r s o n b u t w as s o s h i f t y t h a t h i s a i d w as o f l i t t l e w o r t h a n d m uch u n c e r t a i n t y . H a m il to n 's g r e a t e s t a c c o m p lish m e n t w h ile S e c r e t a r y o f th e T re a su ry w as,

o f co u rse, h is

e s t a b l is h i n g th e U n ite d

S t a te s upon a sound f i n a n c i a l b a s i s .

H is t h r e e - f o l d

p la n o f

p a y in g a t fa c e v a lu e a l l d o m e s tic and f o r e ig n d e b ts , a ssu m p tio n o f s t a t e

d e b ts , and e s t a b l i s h i n g a U n ite d S t a te s

b a n k w ere s u c c e s s f u l l y Jefferso n

c a rrie d

o u t a f t e r m uch o p p o s i t i o n .

d i d n o t h a v e p ro b le m s t h a t w o u ld a t t r a c t a s

m uch a t t e n t i o n a s H a m i l t o n b u t h e c a r r i e d fo re ig n n a tio n s

c re d ita b ly .

on h i s w o r k w i t h

W h ile h e d i d n o t a c c o m p l i s h h i s

g o a l h e e n d e a v o r e d t o m ake G r e a t B r i t a i n l i v e u p t o a g r e e ­ m e n t s m ade i n t h e p e a c e t r e a t y .

He o r g a n i s e d t h e S t a t e

^ J a m e s T r u s l o w A d a m s, T he h i v i n g J e f f e r s o n , p .

215.

88 D e p a rtm e n t i n an e x c e l l e n t m an n e r. w o r k b y H a m i l t o n who f e l t

He w a s h a m p e r e d i n h i s

th a t as S e c re ta ry o f th e T reasu ry

he s h o u ld be t h e P rim e M i n i s t e r . T he s e c o n d s t r o n g C a b i n e t t o b e d i s c u s s e d i s Je ffe rs o n h im se lf. a p p o in te e s

In c h o o sin g h i s

Jefferso n

th a t

of

C a b in e t an d o t h e r

c h o s e men whom h e c o u l d t r u s t .

I t was

n a t u r a l t h a t h e s h o u l d w i s h t o b e s u r r o u n d e d b y men o f t h e sam e p o l i t i c a l i d e a s a s h i s m ak in g a c l e a n sw ee p . o ffic e . to

own b u t h e d i d n o t b e l i e v e

He d i d n o t b e l i e v e i n r o t a t i o n

I n w r i t i n g t o M o n ro e h e s a i d

in of

t h a t t h e r e w o u ld h a v e

b e so m e r e m o v a l s b u t t h a t t h e y s h o u l d b e a s f e w a s

p o s s i b l e a n d m ade g r a d u a l l y w i t h g o o d r e a s o n s . 6 th a t o ffic e s fitn e ss .

s h o u l d b e o p e n t o a l l a n d a p p o i n t m e n t s b a s e d on

Jefferso n

f o r a l l h is d e m o c ra tic id e a s and b e l i e f

in th e p e o p le d id n o t choose h i s lo w e r l e v e l .

He b e l i e v e d

C a b i n e t f r o m men o f t h e

They w ere a l l fro m good f a m i ly c o n n e c tio n s

lik e h im se lf. He c h o s e J a m e s M a d i s o n f o r h i s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . M a d iso n was fro m one o f t h e b e t t e r f a m i l i e s He w a s t h e

o u t s t a n d i n g man a t t h e

of V irg in ia .

C o n s t i t u t i o n a l C o n v e n tio n

w h e r e m any o f h i s i d e a s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e

C o n stitu tio n .

He h a d b e e n t h e f l o o r l e a d e r f o r W a s h i n g t o n fs a d m i n i s t r a t i o n in

th e H ouse o f H e p r e s e n t a t i v e s , 1 7 8 9 -9 3 , and had h e lp e d t o

^ W. C. F o r d , V III, p. 10.

e d ito r,

T he W r i t i n g s o f J e f f e r s o n ,

V o l.

89 in a u g u ra te th e e a r ly p o lic ie s The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e P e n n sy lv a n ia .

o f o u r g o v e rn m e n t.

T r e a s u r y was A l b e r t G a l l a t i n

He w a s b o r n i n

G eneva, S w itz e r la n d and had

e x c e ll e n t fa m ily c o n n e c tio n s i n E u ro p e. F re n c h f o r a w h ile a t H arvard#

He h a d t a u g h t

G a l l a t i n h a d b e e n a m em ber o f

th e P e n n sy lv a n ia s t a t e

le g isla tu re

a u th o rity

He p r e p a r e d t h e r e p o r t o f t h e

m itte e

on f i n a n c e .

w here h e becam e an

o f Ways a n d M e an s d u r i n g h i s f i r s t

th e

one l a t e r

o u t by H a m ilto n f o r th e n a t i o n a l g o v e rn m e n t.

1 7 9 3 h e was e l e c t e d

to

been a c itiz e n

on t h e g r o u n d s t h a t h e h a d n o t

o f th e U n ite d S ta te s

He h a d b e e n i n

In

th e U n ite d S t a t e s S e n a te b u t h i s

e l i g i b i l i t y was c h a l l e n g e d

y ears.

Com­

te rm in o f f i c e .

T h i s p r o g r a m w a s i n m an y w a y s v e r y m uch l i k e c a rrie d

of

f o r th e re q u ire d n in e

th e U n ite d S ta te s

f o r th e th ir te e n

y e a rs b u t n in e y e a rs had n o t e la p se d s in c e he had ta k e n out h is

fin a l

c itiz e n sh ip

p ap ers.

G a l l a t i n d i d , h o w e v e r , m anage

in h i s s h o r t te rm a s S e n a to r to

c a ll fo r a d e ta ile d

m ent o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t f i n a n c e s .

A law

s ta te ­

f o r such a r e p o r t

was p a s s e d i n 1 8 0 0 . B u r i n g t h e W h is k e y R e b e l l i o n i n 1 7 9 4 , h e won m o s t o f th e r a d i c a l s to a q u ie t su b m iss io n o f th e

ta x .

He w a s

e l e c t e d t o t h e H ouse o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s i n 1794 a s a re b u k e to

th e S e n a te .

He c a u s e d t o b e c r e a t e d a s t a n d i n g c o m m i t t e e

on f i n a n c e s , w h i c h h a s b e c o m e t h e M ean s o f t h e H o u s e .

C o m m itte e o n Ways a n d

When J e f f e r s o n w a s e l e c t e d P r e s i d e n t , t h e h i g h e s t a u t h o r i t y on f i n a n c e can P a r t y so i t S e c re ta ry o f th e

was i n e v i t a b l e T reasu ry .

G a l l a t i n was

in t h e D e m o c ra tic R e p u b li­

t h a t h e w o u ld b e c h o s e n t h e

H is p o l i c y w h i l e s e c r e t a r y was

to pay o f f th e n a t i o n a l d e b t o f $ 8 0 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 .

T h is was

i n c r e a s e d to $ 9 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 by th e L o u is ia n a P u rc h a s e . m anaged t o r e d u c e t h i s

He

d e b t t o $ 4 5 ,0 0 0 ,0 0 0 a n d w o u ld

p ro b a b ly have a tta in e d h is

g o a l i f p e a c e h a d l a s t e d t e n m o re

y ears. H e n r y D e a r b o r n , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f War h a d b e e n a n o f f i c e r i n t h e R e v o l u t i o n a r y W ar a n d f o r p a r t w as o n W a s h i n g t o n !s s t a f f .

o f th e tim e

He h a d h a d so m e l e g i s l a t i v e

e x p e r i e n c e b u t was n o t p r o m in e n t i n

C o n g ress.

H i s m o s t im ­

p o r t a n t a c c o m p lish m e n t w h ile i n th e

C a b in e t was t o h e l p p l a n

f o r th e rem oval o f th e In d ia n s beyond th e M is s is s ip p i R iv e r. L evi L in c o ln , th e I tto r n e y - G e n e r a l, p ra c tic a lly a ll

th e e x e c u tiv e b u s in e s s o f th e

s e v e r a l w eeks a f t e r on h i s

c a rrie d

J e f f e r s o n fs i n a u g u r a t i o n .

on

C a b in e t f o r He c a r r i e d

own d u t i e s w h i c h w e r e n o t v e r y h e a v y a n d t h e d u t i e s

o f t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e u n t i l M a d iso n was a b l e t o t a k e h i s o ffic e .

L in c o ln h a d a w id e r e p u t a t i o n a s a s u c c e s s f u l t r i a l

la w y e r.

He w a s t h e l e a d e r o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c - R e p u b l i c a n

P a r ty in M a ss a c h u se tts.

One o f h i s

e a s e s becam e q u i t e

fam o u s a s i t was a t r i a l

on t h e r i g h t

s l a v e r y i n v iew o f t h e B i l l o f R i g h t s .

to h o ld a n eg ro in L i n c o l n was a g a i n s t

91 s l a v e r y in M a ss a c h u se tts* p e rie n c e .

He h a d a l s o

som e l e g i s l a t i v e

ex­

W h ile t h e r e was n o t h i n g o u t s t a n d i n g d o n e w h i l e h e

w as A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l h e f i l l e d

th e

o f f ic e w ith

c re d it*

T he S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H a v y w a s R o b e r t S m i t h , t h e b r o t h e r o f G e n e r a l S a m u e l S m i t h a n i n f l u e n t i a l m em ber o f C o n g r e s s who h a d b e e n o f f e r e d t h e p o s t f i r s t b u t h a d d e ­ c lin e d .

R o b e rt S m ith h a d s t u d i e d law and h a d t h e l a r g e s t

a d m ira lty p ra c tic e s ta te

le g isla tu re *

w as a f a i r l y

in B a ltim o re *

H e, to o , had s e rv e d i n h i s

W h ile h e w as c r i t i c i s e d b y G a l l a t i n h e

e f f i c i e n t S e c r e t a r y o f th e H avy.

W it h l i m i t e d

fu n d s he m a in ta in e d a b lo c k a d e in th e M e d ite rra n e a n Sea d u r i n g t h e T r i p o l i t a n W ar.

W h ile G a l l a t i n was n o t a g a i n s t

w a r h e w a s t r y i n g t o p a y o f f t h e p u b l i c d e b t s o h e a n d Con­ g r e s s r e f u s e d t h e H avy e n o u g h m oney t o W h ile S m ith w as o p p o se d t o e x p o rts, he tr ie d

c a r r y on e f f i c i e n t l y .

J e f f e r s o n ' s Ito b a rg o on A m e ric a n

c o n sc ie n tio u s ly to

en fo rce i t .

He w a s

c h o s e n t o b e t h e i n t e r m e d i a r y who m e t w i t h G e o r g e H e n r y R o s e , th e B r itis h

envoy, in th e d ip lo m a tic d is c u s s io n

o f im p re ss­

m ent o f A m e ric an s a i l o r s . One s i g n i f i c a n t f a c t a b o u t J e f f e r s o n ' s th a t

t h e y w ere a l l

C a b i n e t w as

c o lle g e g ra d u a te s w ith th e p o s s ib le

e x c e p t i o n o f D e a r b o r n who h a d s t u d i e d m e d i c i n e u n d e r a p h y sic ia n , W h ile J e f f e r s o n h a d a n a b l e c a rrie d

C a b in e t, th e p o l i c i e s

o u t d u r in g th e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n w ere p la n n e d by

92 J e f f e r s o n , M a d iso n , a n d G a l l a t i n . J a m e s M o n ro e w a s v e r y e a r e f u l i n o ffic e rs ,

so e a r e f u l and d e l i b e r a t e

Jfo v e m b e r t h a t h e h a d f i n a l l y one o f th e m ost b r i l l i a n t

in

c o m p le te d i t .

th a t

C a b in e t

t h a t i t was n o t u n t i l

in th e h is to r y

I t h a d o n l y o n e wealc s p o t ,

c h o o sin g h i s

H is

C a b in e t was

o f t h e g o v e rn m e n t.

o f t h e Havy^ w h ic h r e m a in e d

a n i n s i g n i f i c a n t p o s i t i o n f o r m an y y e a r s . J o h n Q u i n c y M a m s w as

S ta te

one o f t h e b e s t S e c r e t a r i e s

th e U n ite d S ta te s h as h a d .

f o r th e p o s itio n by h is

He w a s e s p e c i a l l y f i t t e d

lo n g re s id e n c e ab ro ad w ith h is

f a t h e r and by d ip lo m a tic s e r v ic e

of h is

a s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y t o D ana i n S t . but fo u rte e n y e a rs o ld . se c re ta ry .

o w n.

He h a d a c t e d

P e t e r s b u r g w hen h e w a s

He l a t e r a c t e d a s h i s f a t h e r fs

The a t t e n t i o n

by an a r t i c l e

of

o f W a s h in g to n was a t t r a c t e d b y h im

on G e n et w h ic h c a u s e d W a s h in g to n t o a p p o i n t

h im M i n i s t e r t o

th e H e th e rla n d s.

He s e r v e d l a t e r a s M i n i s ­

t e r to P r u s s i a , R u s s ia , and E n g la n d .

He s e c u r e d a t r e a t y

of

a m ity b e tw e e n P r u s s i a

andth e

of

th e

n e g o tia te d th e

c o m m i s s i o n e r s who

U n ite d

S ta te s.

He w a s o n e

T r e a t y o f G h en ta n d

o n e who s i g n e d t h e c o m m e r c i a l t r e a t y w i t h E n g l a n d . 8 W h ile h e was S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , t h e S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t was t h e m o st i m p o r t a n t d e p a r tm e n t i n t h e g o v e rn m e n t,

Some

? M a r y L o u i s e H i n s d a l e , A H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t *s C a b in e t, p . 67. 8 D a n i e l C. G i l m a n ,

Jam es M o n ro e , p p .

1 2 7 -1 2 8 .

93 im p o r ta n t and d e l i c a t e n e g o t i a t i o n s w ere c a r r i e d

th ro u g h .

One o f t h e s e w a s t h e t r e a t y w i t h t h e S p a n i s h o v e r t h e c e ssio n o f F lo r id a .

T he S p a n i s h w e r e s o t r i c k y a b o u t

b o u n d a r i e s a n d l a n d g r a n t s t h a t Adams w as n e a r l y s e v e r a l tim e s.

caught

He c a u s e d t h e p o s t p o n e m e n t o f t h e O r e g o n

q u e s t i o n by t h e a g re e m e n t w i t h E n g la n d f o r

jo in t

o c c u p a tio n .

Many o f A d a m s ’ i d e a s w e r e i n c l u d e d i n t h e M o n ro e D o c t r i n e and he i s

g i v e n e e t u a l c r e d i t w i t h M o n ro e f o r i t .

J o h n C. C a l h o u n t h e S e c r e t a r y o f War w a s t h e y o u n g ­ e s t man i n t h e p o litic a l fe lt

C a b in e t, b e in g o n ly t h i r t y ^ f i v e .

H is o n ly

e x p e r i e n c e w a s a s a m em ber o f C o n g r e s s b u t h e w a s

t o b e a p o w e r f u l m an.

p o s itio n s and h i s

He h a d b e e n g i v e n i m p o r t a n t

o p in io n s w ere su p p o sed t o h a v e a u t h o r i t y . 9

The S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y , W i l l i a m H .

C raw ford

h a d b e e n S e c r e t a r y o f War a n d M i n i s t e r t o F r a n c e a n d h a d b e e n M o n r o e ’s c h i e f o p p o n e n t f o r t h e n o m i n a t i o n f o r t h e P re sid e n c y . W il l ia m W i r t , t h e A t t o r n e y - r G e n e r a l , was a l a w y e r o f V i r g i n i a who h a d g a i n e d a n a t i o n a l r e p u t a t i o n b y t h e p a r t h e h a d t a k e n i n t h e p r o s e c u t i o n o f A aron B u r r . a ttra c te d

W ir t was

to th e A tto rn e y -G e n e ra ls h ip b eeau se o f th e p ro ­

f e s s io n a l s ta n d in g i t

gave h im .

he d id n o t c o n fin e h i s

I b i a ., p.

132.

G ilm a n s a y s t h a t

p ro fe s s io n a l la b o rs to

’’a l t h o u g h

th e s e rv ic e

of

94 t h e g o v e rn m e n t, h e e x a l t e d t h e s t a t i o n w h ic h h e h e l d b y an a ssid u o u s d is c h a rg e in g ,

of a ll

its

d u tie s w ith a b i l i t y ,

le a rn ­

a n d s u c c e s s . 11- ^ S m i t h T hom pson a n d S a m u e l 1 . S o u t h a r d s e r v e d a s

S e c re ta rie s

o f t h e Navy*

T h e f o u r s t r o n g men o f M o n r o e f s C a b i n e t , A d a m s, C raw ford, T h is i s

C a lh o u n , and W irt s e r v e d e i g h t y e a r s t o g e t h e r *

so m e th in g u n p a r a lle d i n U n ite d S t a t e s h i s t o r y . When A b r a h a m L i n c o l n b e g a n p l a n n i n g h i s

d e c i d e d t o m ake h i s P r e s i d e n t i a l r i v a l s P a rty h is

o f f i c i a l a d v is o rs*

C a b in e t he

in th e R e p u b lic a n

The s t r o n g e s t o f t h e s e w e r e

W i l l i a m H. S e w a r d who b e c a m e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , S a l m o n P . C hase, th e S e c r e t a r y o f th e

T r e a s u r y , a n d E d w a rd B a t e s ,

th e

A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l. S e w a r d rs p o l i t i c a l

e x p e r i e n c e was l o n g e r t h a n t h a t

o f t h e o t h e r m e m b e rs o f L i n c o l n 1s

C a b in e t.

He h a d b e e n a

m em ber o f t h e Hew Y o r k S e n a t e w h e r e h e b e c a m e a l e a d e r o f th e m in o rity .

He a l s o

se rv e d as g o v ern o r o f h is s t a t e .

He

w a s a n a r d e n t a n t i - s l a v e r y man a n d h a d m any c a s e s w h e r e h e d e fe n d e d ru n aw ay n e g ro e s w ays.

He w a s e l e c t e d

o p p o s itio n to

o r p e o p l e who h a d a i d e d t h e r u n a ­

t o t h e S e n a t e a n d w as p r o m i n e n t i n h i s

s l a v e r y i n new t e r r i t o r i e s .

L i n e o l n Ts i n a u g u r a t i o n a n d h i s

10 G ilm a n ,

op. e i t .

Sonn a f t e r

own c o n f i r m a t i o n h e p r e s e n t e d

95 t h e P r e s i d e n t w i t h a p a p e r i n w h ic h h e o f f e r e d t o t h e g o v e rn m e n t.

B e sid e s t h i s

ta k e

over

a u d a c io u s s u g g e s t i o n he

s u g g e s te d t h a t w ar be d e c la r e d a g a in s t F ra n c e and S p a in in o rd e r to s o l i d i f y d eserv es p ra is e c o n d u c te d h i s p u b lic to

t h e U n io n ,

In s p ite

o f t h e s e m i s t a k e s he^

f o r h i s w o rk i n t h e S t a t e D e p a r tm e n t.

He

f o r e i g n c o rre s p o n d e n c e w ith a n ey e to w a rd

o p in io n .

He h a d m uch o f h i s w o r k p u b l i s h e d i n

g e t b e fo re th e p u b lic .

H is

o rd er

c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was a t f i r s t

b l u s t e r i n g an d w o u ld h a v e c a u s e d t r o u b l e f o r h i m s e l f s e v e r a l tim e s i f L in c o ln had n o t

c h e c k e d h im .

m o re d i g n i f i e d a n d f o r c e f u l m a n n e r . e x p a n sio n ist.

In s p ite

He w a s a l w a y s a n

o f t h i s h e o b j e c t e d t o b u y i n g Cuba

because o f th e s la v e ry q u e s tio n . A l a s k a d e s p i t e m uch c r i t i c i s m . m ost im p o r ta n t i s l a n d s

He l a t e r w r o t e i n a

A f t e r th e w ar h e b o u g h t He s o u g h t t o b u y t h e tw o

o f t h e D a n i s h W est I n d i e s a n d e n ­

c o u r a g e d o v e r t u r e s fro m t h e D o m in ic a n R e p u b l i c .

He a l s o

ad­

v o c a te d t h e a n n e x a tio n o f H a w a ii. S a lm o n P .

C hase w as a l s o

a n a r d e n t a n t i r s l a v e r y m an.

H e, to o h ad been a S e n a to r and th e g o v e rn o r o f h i s

sta te .

J a m e s G. R a n d a l l s a i d , a s d i r e c t o r o f t h e c o u n t r y fs f i n a n c e s d u r i n g t h e C i v i l War i t w as h i s t a s k t o b o r r o w m o n ey f r o m r e l u c t a n t b a n k e r s a n d i n v e s t o r s ; t o l a b o r w i t h c o n g r e s s i o n a l com­ m itte e s in th e fo rm u la tio n o f f i n a n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n ; to d e v is e re m e d ia l m easu res f o r a d eran g ed c u rre n c y ; to m ake f o r e c a s t s a n d p r e p a r e e s t i m a t e s i n d a y s w h e n f i n a n c i a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y was d i f f u s e d a n d s c i e n t i f i c b u d g e ts w ere unknow n; t o t r i m th e s a i l s o f f i s c a l p o l i c y t o p o l i t i c a l w in d s ; to m a rk e t t h e huge l o a n s w h ic h

96 c o n stitu te d g o v e rn m e n t; u s u a l la w s, se iz u re of S o u th .

th e c h ie f r e l i a n c e o f an im p ro v id e n t and to s u p e r v is e th e e n fo rc e m e n t o f u n ­ s u c h a s t h a t w h ic h p r o v id e d f o r t h e c a p tu re d and abandoned p r o p e r ty in th e

S im o n C am eron w as f o r m any y e a r s i n

th e p u b lis h in g

b u s i n e s s a n d l a t e r becam e a b a n k e r b u t h e was p r i m a r i l y in te re s te d

in p o l it i e s .

he e x e rc is e d

p a p e r t h e R e p u b lic a n

c o n sid e ra b le p o l i t i c a l in flu e n c e .

real p o litic a l to s e t t l e

T hrough h i s

H is f i r s t

o f f i c e was t h e a p p o in tm e n t a s c o m m is s io n e r

c e rta in

c l a i m s o f t h e W in n e b a g o I n d i a n s .

caused c o n sid e ra b le sc a n d a l as he a d ju s te d pay m en t o f n o t e s on h i s ric h e d h im se lf

th e

T h is

c la im s by

own b a n k , a n a r r a n g e m e n t w h i c h e n ­

C am eron w a s a w e a k l i n g who s h o u l d n e v e r

have been a p p o in te d . A s S e c r e t a r y o f War h e w a s a n a b l e b u s i n e s s man b u t p o litic a l

c o n s id e r a tio n s to o o f te n g o v ern ed h is

and h i s a c t io n s in d e p a rtm e n ta l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n . n o to rio u s fo r h is tra c ts

d isp e n sa tio n

ju d g m en t He w a s

o f c i v i l and m i l i t a r y

a n d c o r r u p t i o n was ra m p a n t a l t h o u g h t h e r e

e v id e n c e t h a t he e n ric h e d h im s e lf .

con­

i s no

Many o t h e r p e o p l e d i d

p r o f i t th o u g h .

1 1

J a m e s G-. R a n d a l l , ° S a l m o n P o r t l a n d C h a s e ” i n t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f A m erican B io g r a p h y , I I I , £ 9 ^ 3 0 . IB

A. H o w a rd M e n e e l y , ” S im o n C a m e ro n ” i n t h e D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e ric an B io g r a p h y . IV , 4 3 7 .

97 G id e o n W e l l e s , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy h a d h e l d s e v e r a l m in o r p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n s ,

one o f w h ic h was C h ie f o f

t h e H a v a l B u r e a u o f P r o v i s i o n s a n d C l o t h i n g b u t h e knew little a b ility

o f th e H avy.

He d i d , h o w e v e r , d e v e l o p e x e c u t i v e

o f a h i g h o r d e r a n d w i t h t h e a s s i s t a n t s e c r e t a r y who

had been a n a v a l o f f i c e r

c o n v e rte d sh ip s

b l o e k a d e r s w h ic h w ere f e l t

by th e S o u th .

s t r o n g a n d c a p a b l e m em b er o f t h e

o f e v e ry k in d in to W e lle s w as b o t h a

C a b in e t.

T he A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , E d w a rd B a t e s h a d b e e n t h e A tto rn e y -G e n e ra l o f M iss o u ri, a s t a t e g ressm an .

se n a to r,

a n d a Con­

I t w a s a g r e e d t h a t h e w a s t h e man who c o u l d

s o f t e n s h o c k s b e tw e e n t h e d i f f e r e n t s e c t i o n s . t o l d h im t h a t h e c o u ld h a v e a n y p o s i t i o n except th a t

of S e c re ta ry of S ta te

G e n e ra ls h ip . S t.

L o u is to

in th e

C a b in e t

so he c h o se t h e A tt o r n e y -

L i n c o l n h a d w r i t t e n h i m t h a t h e w o u l d come t o s e e h im b u t B a t e s f e l t t h a t

p la c e o f th e P r e s id e n t- e le c t S p rin g fie ld

L in c o ln had

to

i t was n o t t h e

come t o h i m s o h e w e n t t o

f o r th e m e e tin g .

C a le b B . S m i t h , S e c r e t a r y o f t h e I n t e r i o r w a s t h e n e a r e s t to a p r o f e s s io n a l p o l i t i c i a n . m anager a t th e

He h a d b e e n L i n c o l n rs

C h ica g o c o n v e n t io n i n d e a l i n g w i t h t h e

P e n n s y lv a n ia and In d ia n a d e le g a t e s .

He h a d b e e n a n e w s ­

p a p e r man a n d h a d b e e n a m em b er o f C o n g r e s s . be one o f th e m o s t . e f f e c t i v e e s p e c ia lly in In d ia n a .

He p r o v e d t o

sp e a k e rs in fa v o r o f L in c o ln ,

98 The.. P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l w a s M o n tg o m e r y B l a i r who w as th e son o f F ra n c is P . B l a i r ,

th e

e d i t o r o f t h e W a sh in g to n

G lo b e a n d a m em ber o f J a c k s o n *s k i t c h e n

C a b in e t.

M o n t­

g o m e r y B l a i r h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d t o W e st P o i n t b y P r e s i d e n t Jackson.

He l a t e r r e s i g n e d f r o m t h e a r m y t o s t u d y l a w .

p r a c t i c e d la w ,

o f t e n t r y i n g c a s e s b e f o r e t h e S uprem e C o u rt

o f th e U n ite d S ta te s * first

He

P r e s i d e n t P i e r c e a p p o i n t e d h im t h e

s o l i c i t o r f o r th e

C o u rt o f C laim s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s

b u t h e w as d i s m i s s e d b y P r e s i d e n t B u c h a n a n b e c a u s e o f h i s p r o n o u n c e d v i e w s on s l a v e r y . He t h o u g h t s l a v e r y

He w a s c o u n s e l f o r D r e d S c o t t .

c o u ld be s e t t l e d

p e a c e fu lly .

He w a s a

s t a u n c h s u p p o r t e r o f L i n c o l n an d o p p o se d C h a s e 's v ie w s . In th e

C a b in e t he o r g a n iz e d a p o s t a l s y s te m f o r t h e

a rm y a n d i n t r o d u c e d sta rte d

free

c o m p u lso ry paym ent o f p o s t a g e .

d e liv e ry in

sy ste m , e s t a b l i s h e d

He

c i t i e s , im p ro v ed t h e r e g i s t r y

th e ra ilw a y p o st o f f ic e

and o rg a n iz e d

t h e p o s t a l d r a f t p l a n w h ich h i s s u c c e s s o r p u t i n A f t e r C hase r e s i g n e d a n d h i s

o p e ra tio n .

r e s i g n a t i o n was f i n a l l y

a c c e p t e d by L i n c o l n , W illia m P . F e s s e n d e n was a p p o in t e d a s S e c re ta ry o f th e T rea su ry . b e t t e r c h o ic e .

L i n c o l n c o u l d n o t h a v e m ade a

F e s s e n d e n was c h a ir m a n o f t h e

F in a n c e in th e S e n a te and had f i l l e d c o n sp ic io u s a b i l i t y . in c u m b en c y i n o f f i c e

C o m m itte e on

th e p o s itio n w ith

E v e ry o n e th o u g h t h i g h l y o f h im and h i s ju stifie d

13 J o h n T . M o r s e , J r . ,

th e f l a t t e r i n g

13

o p i n i o n o f h im .

A braham L i n c o l n , I I ,

S 5 4-S 55.

99 A t an e a r l i e r

d a te upon th e r e s ig n a tio n

o f C am eron a s

S e c r e t a r y o f War L i n c o l n h a d a p p o i n t e d F d w in M. S t a n t o n fill

th e vacancy.

to

S ta n to n had been a tto r n e y - G e n e r a l u n d e r

B uchanan an d h a d p ro v e d t o be a v e r y t r y i n g p e rs o n t o w ork w ith .

He h a d b e e n o n e o f t h e l o u d e s t

a d m in istra tio n P re sid e n t.

c ritic s

and spoke f r e e l y o f th e

o f L i n e o l n fs

im b e c ility of th e

H is l o y a l t y t o t h e U n io n w as u n q u e s t i o n e d a n d h e

had pro v ed h is

a b ility .

L i n c o l n b y a m a s t e r s t r o k e m ad e S t a n t o n S e c r e t a r y o f W a r, i n w h i c h c a p a c i t y , d e s p i t e h i s i n c o r r i g i b l y b a d m an n ers, h i s d an g ero u s h a b i t s o f i n t e r f e r i n g in s t r i c t ­ l y m i l i t a r y m a tte r s , and h is deep s e a te d p e rs o n a l p r e j u d i c e s , h e becam e a to w e r o f s t r e n g t h t o t h e n o r t h ­ e rn c a u s e .« F o r tu n a te ly S ta n to n changed h is

o p in io n o f L in c o ln

and becam e one o f h i s s t r o n g e s t s u p p o r t e r s .

T h e y h a d m any

d i s a g r e e m e n t s f o r S t a n t o n was s t u b b o r n and h a d a h a s t y te m p e r b u t L in c o ln was a b l e t o

o v e rlo o k t h i s

f o r t h e good

o f th e a d m in is tra tio n . M orse s a y s t h a t t h e s e l e c t i o n

o f S ta n to n

w as a s t r i k i n g i n s t a n c e o f t h e u t t e r a b s e n c e o f v i n d i c t i v e n e s s w h i c h s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d M r. L i n c o l n , w h o , i n f a c t , was s im p ly i n s e n s i b l e t o p e r s o n a l f e e l i n g a s an i n f l u e n c e . In c h o o s in g in c u m b e n ts f o r p u b l i c t r u s t s , h e knew n o f o e , an d p e r h a p s no f r i e n d ; b u t a s d i s ­ p a s s i o n a t e l y a s i f h e w ere m a n o e u v rin g p i e c e s on a c h e s s b o a r d , h e c o n s i d e r e d o n l y w h ic h p i e c e w o u ld s e r v e b e s t i n t h e s q u a r e w h ic h h e h a d t o f i l l . ^ - ^

J o h n 3). H i c k s ,

The F e d e r a l U n i o n , p .

Jo h n T. M orse,

J r.,

IK

op. c i t . , I,

326*

637.

100 He g o e s on t o so m e r e s p e c t b u t h i s liftin g .

sa y t h a t S ta n to n 's a b i l i t i e s

com m anded

c h a r a c te r n e v e r caused r e s p e c t o r

He w a s c a p a b l e o f m uch d u p l i c i t y b u t i n m a t t e r s

of

b u s i n e s s h e was r i g i d l y h o n e s t . * ^ I n su m m in g u p L i n c o l n ' s

first

C a b i n e t we w o u l d l i s t

tw o a s o u t s t a n d i n g m e n , S e w a r d a n d C h a s e ; B l a i i ’ , and W e lle s , w ere c o m p e te n t; w e r e w e a ft. be l i s te d

th r e e , B a te s,

a n d C am eron a n d S m i t h

A f t e r S t a n t o n t o o f t C a m e r o n 's p o s i t i o n h e w o u ld a s a n o u t s t a n d i n g m e m b e r.

T he M c K i n l e y C a b i n e t h a d som e e x t r e m e l y e f f i c i e n t m e m b e rs who h e l p e d t o d e v e l o p m any o f t h e p o l i c i e s a d m in istra tio n

f o r w h ic h t h e P r e s i d e n t i s

o f th e

g iv e n c r e d i t .

Among t h e s e w e r e J o h n H a y , E l i h u R o o t , E t h a n A . H i t c h c o c k , a n d Jam es W ils o n . J o h n H ay b e g a n h i s p o l i t i c a l l i f e p riv a te

s e c r e ta r y to L in c o ln .

serv ed as a s s is ta n t a t P a ris,

at

A m bassador to

se c re ta ry

by b e in g a s s i s t a n t

A f te r L in c o ln 's

d e a t h he

to th e U n ite d S t a t e s

V ie n n a , and a t M a d rid .

le g a tio n

M c K in ley a p p o i n t e d h im

G reat B r i t a i n and upon th e r e s i g n a t i o n

of

W i l l i a m R. B a y h e w as a p p o i n t e d S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . p o s itio n he d ire c te d

In th is

th e p eace n e g o ti a t i o n w ith S p a in

f o l l o w i n g t h e S p a n i s h - A m e r i c a n W ar, i n s i s t e d

on t h e

e n tity

o f C h in a a n d p e r s u a d e d t h e E u r o p e a n p o w e rs t o d e c l a r e

fo r

1G1

th e

tfG pen d o o r i n

C h i n a . T?

th e a b ro g a tio n o f th e in g

He w a s l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e

fo r

C la y to n -B u lw e r T r e a ty and f o r n e g o tia t­

a new t r e a t y w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n ,

m a k in g t h e Panam a

C anal p o s s i b l e . As S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e u n d e r P r e s i d e n t s M c K i n l e y a n d R o o s e v e l t h i s g u id a n c e was i n v a l u a b l e d u r i n g a c r i t i c a l p e r i o d i n f o r e i g a a f f a i r s , a n d n o man o f h i s t i m e d i d m ore t o c r e a t e c o n f i d e n c e i n t h e i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t s ta k e n by th e U n ite d S ta te s in i n t e r n a t i o n a l a f f a i r s . 1 ” E lih u R oot had b een U n ite d S t a t e s S o u th e rn d i s t r i c t

a tto rn e y fo r th e

o f Hew Y o r k a n d a d e l e g a t e t o

th e s t a t e

c o n s t i t u t i o n a l c o n v e n t i o n w h e r e h e w as c h a i r m a n o f t h e ju d ic ia ry

c o m m itte e .

A s S e c r e t a r y o f War h e r e c o g n i z e d t h e

arm y and c r e a t e d t h e g e n e r a l s t a f f .

He a d m i n i s t e r e d h i s

d e p a rtm e n t w ith g r e a t a b i l i t y d u r in g th e p e rio d o f th e B oxer u p ris in g in

C h in a , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a g o v e rn m e n t i n t h e

P h ilip p in e s and o th e r .u n u s u a l s i t u a t i o n s . S e c re ta ry of S ta te

He w a s a p p o i n t e d

a f t e r H a y fs d e a t h a n d p r o v e d t o b e a n

o u t s t a n d i n g m em ber i n t h a t p o s i t i o n ,

a ls o .

E t h a n A* H i t c h c o c k w a s a s u c c e s s f u l b u s i n e s s man o f S t.

L o u i s w h e n h e w as a p p o i n t e d m i n i s t e r t o R u s s i a a n d t h e n

S e c re ta ry o f th e

In te rio r.

W h ile i n t h i s

a f a r - r e a c h i n g sy s te m o f fra u d p u b lic la n d s th a t

o f f i c e he exposed

in th e a d m in is tra tio n

of

c o n c e r n e d h u n d r e d s o f p e o p l e a n d m any

sta te s.

He f o u g h t t o p r e s e r v e t h e o i l a n d g a s l a n d s

o f th e

e d itio n ,

rfJ o h n H a y , n i n t h e E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a . 1 4 t h X I, 881.

102 F iv e

C i v il i z e d T r ib e s fro m la n d s p e c u l a t o r s .

im p ro v e m e n ts i n t h e p r o c e d u r e o f l e a s e s , tim b e r c u t t i n g and in In d ia n a f f a i r s ♦

He i n t r o d u c e d

f o r th e lim itin g

of

He e n l a r g e d t h e

f o r e s t r e s e r v e s and w ith d re w m in e ra l la n d s

from e x p l o i t a t i o n .

Jam es W ils o n was a p r a c t i c a l f a r m e r a s w e l l a s a c o lle g e p ro fe s s o r o f a g r ic u ltu r e . o f f i c e s a n d was e l e c t e d

to

He h a d h e l d s e v e r a l l o c a l

th e s t a t e

w h ere h e was s p e a k e r d u r i n g h i s t h i r d

le g isla tu re term .

o f Iow a,

He s e r v e d

s e v e r a l te rm s i n t h e n a t i o n a l H ouse o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s w h ere h e w a s on t h e

C o m m itte e o f A g r i c u l t u r e .

a p p o in te d p r o f e s s o r o f a g r ic u ltu r e a t th e

I n 1 8 9 1 h e w as Io w a S t a t e

C o lle g e .

As S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t was e x te n d e d

i n t o m an y f i e l d s ,

s t a t i o n s w ere e s t a b l i s h e d , s ta rte d

e x p e rim e n ta l

a n d f a r m d e m o n s t r a t i o n w o r k w as

in th e S o u th . T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t n a t u r a l l y i n h e r i t e d M c K i n l e y fs

c a b i n e t s i n e e h e was an a c c i d e n t a l P r e s i d e n t . sta lle d

th e in e v ita b le

r e s i g n a t io n s by s t a t i n g t h a t he

p l a n n e d t o m ake n o c h a n g e s . n e t by th e a d d itio n

He f o r e ­

He l a t e r

s tre n g th e n e d th e

C a b i­

o f K no x a n d T a f t *

The o n l y p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n h e l d b y P h i l a n d e r C. K nox b e f o r e h e w as a p p o i n t e d t o t h e U n ite d S ta te s v a n ia .

C a b in e t was t h a t o f a s s i s t a n t

a tto r n e y f o r th e w e ste rn d i s t r i c t

o f P e n n sy l­

W h il e h e w a s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l h e i n s t i t u t e d m any

im p o rta n t s u i t s

in c lu d in g th o se a g a in s t th e b e e f t r u s t

and

103 th e n o rth e rn S e c u r itie s

C om pany.

r e p o r t upon th e r e g u la tio n

T hese p r o s e c u tio n s and h is

of tru sts

t h e m o s t c a p a b l e men who h e l d t h e

m ark ed h im a s o n e o f

o ffic e .

W i l l i a m H o w a rd T a f t , who w a s a p p o i n t e d S e c r e t a r y o f War f o l l o w i n g t h e r e s i g n a t i o n

o f H o o t, was b y p r o f e s s i o n a

la w y e r; he had s e rv e d a s U n ite d S t a te s f o r th e f i r s t

d is tric t

o f O h io .

a p p o in t e d h im s o l i c i t o r - g e n e r a l y e a r s l a t e r h e was a p p o i n t e d c irc u it.

c o lle c to r o f revenue

In 1890 P r e s id e n t H a r r is o n o f th e U n ite d S t a te s .

c irc u it

ju d g e o f t h e s i x t h

F ro m 1 8 9 6 t o 1 9 0 0 h e s e r v e d a s p r o f e s s o r a n d d e a n

o f t h e law s c h o o l a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C i n c i n n a t i . end o f t h i s

C o m m is s io n a n d h e b e c a m e

g o v e rn o r upon th e e s ta b lis h m e n t

o f c i v i l g o v e rn m e n t.

v e l t a p p o i n t e d h i m S e c r e t a r y o f War i n 1 9 0 4 . o f Cuba u p o n t h e d o w n f a l l o f t h e in g a v i s i t

R oose­

He h a d c h a r g e

C uban G o v e r n m e n t .

F o llo w ­

t o th e P h i l i p p i n e s h e w ent on to Ja p a n w h ere h e

m ade a s p e e c h w h i c h q u i e t e d

th e a p p re h e n sio n s about th e

t r e a t m e n t o f t h e i r p e o p l e on t h e P a c i f i c was s e c r e t a r y he e n t i r e l y c o n stru c tio n

C o a st.

W h ile h e

r e o r g a n i z e d t h e worfc o f c a r r y i n g

o f t h e Panam a C a n a l.

A n o t h e r a b l e man i n R o o s e v e l t s H. Moody who g a v e e f f e c t i v e s e r v i c e p e r s o n a lly a rg u ed th e B eef T ru s t f,h i s

At th e

tim e P r e s i d e n t M c K in ley a p p o i n t e d h im t o t h e

P re sid e n c y o f th e P h ilip p in e

on t h e

Two

C a b in e t was W illia m

a s A tto rn ey ? -G en e ral*

C ase.

He

I t was s a i d o f h im ,

r e c o r d a s A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l c an be com p ared w i t h o u t f e a r

104

w i t h t h e r e c o r d o f a n y o t h e r m an who e v e r h e l d

th e o f f i c e . ^

G eo rg e v o n L . M e y er, t h e F o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l was s t i l l a n o t h e r a b l e m an .

W h ile i n

p o s ta l sa v in g s b a n k s,

o ffic e ,

C o n g ress e s t a b l i s h e d

e x te n d e d th e p a r c e l p o s t sy s te m and

s t a r t e d a s p e c i a l d e l i v e r y sy ste m . It a b ility ,

is a ll

i m p o s s i b l e t o com pare t h e one c a n do i s

to

s ta te

th e

C a b in e ts a s to t h e i r q u a lific a tio n s

s e r v i c e s o f t h e b e t t e r men o f so m e o f t h e m o r e c a p a b l e n e ts .

18

O u tlo o fc , N ovem ber 5 , 1 9 1 0 , p .

532.

and C a b i­

CHAPTER VI HARMONY AMONG CABINET MEMBERS If. a C a b in e t was a h a rm o n io u s g ro u p t h e r e i s

a lm o st

n o m e n t i o n m ade o t h e r t h a n t o n a m e t h e men c h o s e n f o r t h e v a rio u s p o s itio n s q u a l i f i c a t io n s

a n d i n som e e a s e s t o g i v e t h e a b i l i t y

o f th e in c u m b e n ts.

On t h e o t h e r h a n d ,

C a b i n e t f o u g h t am on g t h e m s e l v e s o r i f

and

if

th e

th e y d id n o t a g re e

w ith th e P r e s i d e n t e v e ry s o u rc e o f in f o r m a tio n m e n tio n s th e fa c t. In t h i s

c h a p t e r a n a t t e m p t w i l l b e m ade t o sh o w why

J e f f e r s o n , M o n r o e , T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t , a n d F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e lt h ad h a rm o n io u s W ash in g to n ,

Jackson,

C a b i n e t s a n d why t h e

C a b in e ts o f

T y l e r , an d L in c o ln w ere u n h a rm o n io u s .

A l s o a n a t t e m p t w i l l b e m ade t o

p ro v e t h a t in th e

C a b in e ts

o f J o h n Adams a n d J o h n s o n t h e o f f i c e r s w e r e o p p o s e d t o

th e

P re sid e n t. We k n o w t h a t

J e f f e r s o n fs

b e c a u s e no e v id e n c e t o c a re fu l in h is

th e

se le c tio n

c o n tra ry is

o f m en f o r t h e

o n l y t h o s e whom h e c o u l d t r u s t to g e th e r*

C a b in e t a c t e d h a rm o n io u s ly

The o n l y f r i c t i o n

fo u n d .

J e f f e r s o n w as

C a b in e t and ch o se

a n d who c o u l d a l s o w o r k w e l l

b e tw e e n any o f t h e h e a d s o f t h e

d e p a r t m e n t s was t h a t b e tw e e n G a l l a t i n a n d R o b e r t S m ith . T h is ,

o f c o u r s e , was n a t u r a l s i n c e

i n a s t r o n g n a v y an d was a l s o

G a lla tin d id n o t b e lie v e

t r y in g to reduce th e n a tio n a l

10 6 d e b t. H e n r y D e a r b o r n a n d L e v i L i n c o l n w e r e b o t h a b l e men a n d L i n c o l n ’s a d v i c e w a s c a r e f u l l y l i s t e n e d

to

even i f n o t

a l w a y s ta ik e n b u t , n e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e r u l i n g f o r c e s C a b in e t w e re M a d iso n a n d G a l l a t i n . m o re b u s i n e s s

in th e

J e ffe rs o n b e lie v e d th a t

c o u ld be a c c o m p lish e d a ro u n d th e d in n e r t a b l e

so G a l l a t i n a n d M a d iso n d i n e d o f t e n w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t . fa c t,

t h e s e tw o w e r e f r e e

t o go t o

In

t h e P r e s i d e n t ’s h o u s e a t

any tim e . J e f f e r s o n b e in g a s t r i c t su re

o f th e

c o n stitu tio n a lity

h e m ade i t h i s p r a c t i c e re p o rts ev er, h is

o f C a b in e t m e e tin g ,

c a ll fo r w ritte n

th e re fo re ,

o p in io n s and

fro m th e h e a d s o f t h e E x e c u tiv e D e p a rtm e n ts .

because o f t h e i r u t i l i t y

a d v is o rs

he c a lle d

f o r t h e common d i s c u s s i o n

So g r e a t w a s t h e C a b in e t o f f i c e r s sta te

to

c o n s t r u c t i o n e s t , was n o t

in

How­

f r e q u e n t m e e tin g o f

o f im p o rta n t m a tte r s .

c o n f id e n c e o f t h e P r e s i d e n t and t h e

each o th e r th a t

Jefferso n

o fte n p rep ared

p a p e r s t h a t a n y o t h e r P r e s i d e n t w o u ld h a v e l e f t

to th e

h e a d s o f t h e d e p a r t m e n t s a n d l e f t m a t t e r s t h a t w o u ld h a v e had th e p e rs o n a l a tte n tio n S e c re ta rie s

o f th e o th e r E x e c u tiv e s to th e

and t h e A tto r n e y - G e n e r a l.

T he M o n ro e C a b i n e t w h i c h w a s o n e o f t h e a b l e s t i n t h e h i s t o r y o f o u r g o v e rn m e n t was n o t e s p e c i a l l y h a rm o n io u s am o ng t h e m s e l v e s b u t t h e y a l l a g r e e d w i t h M o n r o e . e s t p r o b le m a g a i n s t c o m p le te h arm o n y i n t h i s

T he g r e a t ­

g r o u p was t h a t

107 s e v e r a l o f t h e m e m b e rs a s p i r e d cy M a m s,

to th e P re sid e n c y .

t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e was a w a re o f h i s

as h e ir a p p a re n t to th e o f f ic e

sin c e ,

J o h n Q u in ­ p o s itio n

fo r se v e ra l y ears

a f t e r 1 8 0 0 , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e was a lm o s t a u t o m a t i c a l l y e le c te d H.

to th e h ig h e s t

C raw ford a l s o

o ffic e .

d e sire d

J o h n C* C a lh o u n a n d W i l l i a m

t o becom e t h e n e x t P r e s i d e n t .

C r a w f o r d h a d b e e n t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t o p p o n e n t t o M o n ro e w hen t h e l a t t e r was e l e c t e d t o

th a t o ffic e .

a c c e p te d th e p o l i t i c a l a m b itio n s tre a te d

M o n ro e s e e m s t o h a v e

o f h i s a s s i s t a n t s and

th em a l l w i t h i m p a r t i a l i t y .

D u r i n g t h e p e n d e n c y o f t h i s c o n t e s t , M r. M o n ro e o b ­ s e rv e d a m ost s c ru p u lo u s r e s o l v e a g a i n s t a l l i n t e r f e r ­ ence w ith th e f r e e s t e x p re s s io n o f th e p u b lic se n tim e n t in re g a rd to th e c a n d id a te s. I n t h i s h e was f u l l y s e c o n d e d a n d s u s t a i n e d b y h i s c a b i n e t — b y n o n e m o re ^ th a n b y t h o s e w hose nam es w ere i n t h e l i s t s f o r s u f f r a g e . fh is

i s w hat W illia m W ir t,

t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , who

w a s n o t a c a n d i d a t e h a d t o s a y a b o u t M o n ro e a n d t h e a p p ro a c h in g e le c t i o n a t th e end o f th e second a d m in is tr a tio n . M o n ro e a i m e d t o h a v e e a c h S e c r e t a r y a p p o in tm e n ts in h i s

c o n tro l th e

own D e p a r t m e n t a n d h e h a d a l l p r e s i ­

d e n t i a l a p p o in tm e n ts d is c u s s e d

in th e

C a b in e t m e e tin g s .^

J . P . K ennedy s a y s t h a t th e a s s o c i a t i o n

in th e

C a b i­

n e t w as d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e c o m m u n io n o f h i g h l y c u l t i v a t e d

II,

•** J# P . K e n n e d y , M e m o irs o f t h e L i f e 170.

o f W illia m W irt,

^ M a ry L o u i s e H i n s d a l e , A , H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t fs C a b in e t, p . 692.

108 m in d s t h a t w e re c o n g e n i a l i n t h e i r p u r s u i t s a n d i n f l u e n c e d by m u tu a l s e n tim e n t s o f k i n d e s t r e g a r d ,

and h a rm o n io u s

p o litic a l a c tio n ,3 As h a s b e e n m e n t i o n e d i n a n e a r l i e r R o o s e v e l t m ade m o r e c h a n g e s i n h i s o th e r P re s id e n t.

C a b in e t th a n h a s a n y

T h is , h o w e v e r, d o e s n o t seem t o be due t o

any la c k o f c o n g e n ia lity . men f r o m o n e o f f i c e m en.

c h a p t e r T heodore

He m ade i t

a p ra c tic e

t o p ro m o te

to a n o th e r r a t h e r th a n to u se u n tr ie d

O scar S . S tra u s

o f Hew Y o r k w a s t h e

o n l y man d u r i n g

R o o s e v e l t fs s e c o n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n who h a d n o t h a d p r e v i o u s e x p e r i e n c e u n d e r h im , & M r. L e w i s s a y s : T h i s w a s a r e m a r k a b l e g r o u p o f men w h o s e a b i l i t y a n d c h a r a c t e r w e re a t r i b u t e t o t h e P r e s i d e n t s ju d g m en t in c h o o sin g h i s f e llo w w o rk e rs . I t i s n o w o n d e r t h a t M r. B ry c e , th e B r i t i s h A m bassador, t o l d R o o s e v e lt t h a t t h o u g h h e h a d s t u d i e d i n t i m a t e l y t h e g o v e r n m e n t s o f m any d i f f e r e n t c o u n tr ie s , he had n e v e r in any c o u n try seen a m ore e a g e r , h i g h - m i n d e d , a n d e f f i c i e n t s e t o f p u b l i c s e r v a n t s , men m o re u s e f u l a n d c r e d i t a l e t o . t h e i r c o u n t r y , t h a n t h e men d o i n g t h e w o r k o f t h e A m e r i c a n G overnm ent i n W a sh in g to n an d i n t h e f i e l d . 3 The C a b in e t u n d e r F r a n k l i n L . R o o s e v e l t seem s t o b e tu ite

h a rm o n io u s i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p

o n ly r i f t

one a n o th e r .

seem s t o h a v e b e e n t h a t b e tw e e n R o o s e v e lt and

3 K ennedy, pp.

to

oj>. o i t . ,

4 W. M. L e w i s , 2 5 6-2 58 . 5 Ib id . , p.

pp.

5 7 -5 8 .

T he L i f e o f T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t ,

258.

The

109 F a r l e y o v e r som e o f t h e l e w l e a l p o l i c i e s b u t m o s t l y o v e r th e p r e s id e n tia l su c c e ss io n ,

T h e r e h a v e b e e n a g r e a t m any

changes b u t th e s e have b een b e ca u se o f h e a l th and o th e r p erso n al reaso n s. In d e s c r i b i n g th e

in fo rm a lity o f th e

C a b in e t m e e tin g

one a u t h o r i t y s a y s : On F r i d a y s a t tw o o Tc l o c k t h e C a b i n e t a s s e m b l e s a t t h e F /h ite H o u se, I n t h e o r y i t s m e m b e rs a r e t h e P r e s i ­ d e n t s c l o s e s t a d v i s o r s , b u t s i n c e M r, R o o s e v e l t h a s b e e n P r e s i d e n t t h e C a b i n e t h a s b e e n m uch l e s s s i g ­ n ific a n t. The t r a d i t i o n a l s o l e m n i t y h a s v a n i s h e d . A te le p h o n e , f o r th e f i r s t tim e , i s in f r o n t o f th e P re sid e n t. He d o e s n o t h e s i t a t e t o t a k e i m p o r t a n t p o l i t i c a l , even s o e i a l , c a l l s . S e c r e t a r i e s M c In ty re a n d E a r l y s l i p i n and o u t o f C a b in e t s e s s i o n s when n ecessary , T he P r e s i d e n t a d d r e s s e s h i s s o c i a l f a m i l y v ery c a s u a lly .^ M r, W h a r t o n g o e s a h e a d t o s a y t h a t d iv is io n s

o f t h e E x e c u t i v e b r a n c h a r e m ore i m p o r t a n t t o

R o o se v e lt th a n th e

C a b in e t.

T he D e p a r t m e n t s o f A g r i c u l t u r e ,

th e T re a s u ry , and p o s s ib l y la b o r a r e th e have escap ed p a r t i a l

th e h a rm o n io u s

o n ly ones w h ic h

e c lip s e .7

In c o n tr a s t to th e la c k C a b in e ts,

d e t a i l a b o u t u n h a rm o n io u s

o f m a t e r i a l t o b e f o u n d on

e v e r y A m e ric an H i s t o r y g o e s i n t o C a b in e ts.

U n c o n g e n ia lity s t a r t e d tra tio n

e sta b lis h e d sub­

in

th e v e ry f i r s t

a d m in is­

w hen W a s h i n g t o n c h o s e T hom as J e f f e r s o n a n d A l e x a n d e r 6 D an W h a r t o n , 7 L oc.

c it.

The R o o s e v e l t O m n i b u s , p .

80.

110 H a m ilto n f o r im p o r ta n t p l a c e s a s h e a d s o f E x e c u tiv e D e p a r t­ m e n ts .

T he q u a r r e l b e t w e e n t h e s e tw o s t r o n g men c e n t e r e d

aro u n d th e f a c t

t h a t H a m ilto n f a v o r e d a s t r o n g c e n t r a l

g o v ern m en t w h ile J e f f e r s o n b e li e v e d t h a t t h e m ent s h o u ld n o t e n t i r e l y

c e n tr a l g o v ern ­

o v ersh ad o w th e s t a t e s .

T h e r e w e r e tw o o t h e r m e m b e rs o f t h i s

C a b in e t b u t t h e y

w e r e n e i t h e r s t r o n g men a n d do n o t n e e d t o b e c o n s i d e r e d o t h e r t h a n t o s a y t h a t Khox a lw a y s f a v o r e d H a m ilto n an d R a n d o lp h s i d e d w ith J e f f e r s o n . When J e f f e r s o n

first

w ere f r i e n d l y enough t o f e r s o n was t o

assum ed o f f i c e he an d H a m ilto n

e n te r

i n t o a b a r g a i n b y w h ic h J e f ­

se c u re s u f f i c i e n t v o te s to have th e b i l l f o r

th e a ssu m p tio n o f s t a t e to have th e N a tio n a l

d e b t s p a s s e d i f H a m ilto n w o u ld h e l p

C a p i t a l l o c a t e d on t h e P o t o m a c R i v e r .

An u n d i g n i f i e d n e w s p a p e r f i g h t was

cause o f d if f e r e n c e s

o f o p in io n s .

c a rrie d

on b e ­

H a m ilto n w ro te a r t i c l e s

a g a i n s t J e f f e r s o n u n d e r v a r i o u s pseudonym s w h ich d i d n o t h id e h is

id e n tity ,

i n T he G a z e t t e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w h i c h

w as e d i t e d b y Jo h n F e n n o , an d a r t i c l e s p rin te d

a g a i n s t H a m ilto n w ere

i n T he n a t i o n a l G a z e t t e w h i c h w a s e d i t e d b y P h i l l i p

F ren eau .

J a m e s T r u s l o w Adams s a y s $ t h a t

w rite any new spaper a r t i c l e s h a d a lw a y s b e e n h i s

c u sto m t o

J e f f e r s o n d id n o t

a g a i n s t H a m ilto n and t h a t

it

i g n o r e s u c h a t t a c k s u p o n h im ­

se lf. 8 J a m e s T r u s l o w A d a m s , T he L i v i n g J e f f e r s o n , p .

242.

Ill T h e q u a r r e l i n g b e t w e e n t h e s e tw o a b l e men b e c a m e s o b a d t h a t W a sh in g to n f i n a l l y w h ic h h e s u g g e s te d

s e n t a lo n g l e t t e r to

"m u tu a l f o r b e a r a n c e " and " te m p o r iz in g

y i e l d i n g 11 a n d f u r t h e r s t a t e d in danger because of th e ir

t h a t t h e y o u n g g o v e rn m e n t was

e n e m ity . 9

J e f f e r s o n had a tte m p te d to end o f t h e f i r s t and re m a in e d i n

r e s ig n tw ic e b e fo re th e

te r m b u t w as p e r s u a d e d t o th e

o ffic e

fo r a l i t t l e

c h a n g e h i s m in d

le ss

a f t e r th e seeond a d m in is tra tio n began.

th a n a y e a r

H a m ilto n c o n tin u e d

in o f f ic e f o r a y e a r lo n g e r and th e n re s ig n e d . a s tro n g in flu e n c e th a t

in th e

He r e m a i n e d

C a b in e t o f W ash in g to n an d l a t e r

in

o f A d a m s. T he n e x t

C a b i n e t t o b e u a h a r m o n i o u s am ong t h e m s e l v e s

w a s t h a t o f A n d re w J a c k s o n . th e

each in

Jack so n had l i t t l e

c h o o s i n g o f t h e m em b e rsh ip o f h i s

C a b in e t.

to do w ith To r e w a r d

J o h n C a l h o u n , who h a d b e e n V i c e P r e s i d e n t u n d e r J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s, f o r d e s e r t i n g Adams a n d r u n n i n g on t h e D e m o c r a t i c R e p u b lic a n t i c k e t w ith Ja c k so n he na m e t h r e e m e m b e rs o f t h e B e rrie n , E a to n ,

and B ran ch .

and B a rry .

f o r m o re o r l e s s

C a b in e t.

(C a lh o u n ) was a ll o w e d t o T h ese w ere In g h am ,

Jackson p e rs o n a lly

c h o s e Van B u r e n ,

E a t o n , h o w e v e r w a s J a c k s o n fs o n e c h o i c e , p erso n al reaso n s.

Van B u r e n w a s t h e s t r o n g e s t a n d a b l e s t m e m b e r. 9 M a ry L o u i s e H i n s d a l e , A H i s t o r y C a b in e t, p. 23.

It

o f t h e P r e s i d e n t *s

112 was s t r i c t l y C a b in e t. frie n d s

a p o litic a l

In p r a c tic e o u tsid e

know n a s h i s

of h is

" k itc h e n

C a b in e t.

I t was a lm o s t a c o a l i t i o n

Jack so n c o n su lte d s e v e r a l c lo s e o ffic ia l

C a b in e t,

c a b in e t."

T h is g ro u p becam e

M o s t o f t h e men s e l e c t e d

w e re m e d io c re an d w e re a s new t o p o l i t i e s A fte r th e s e le c tio n fo r i t

o f th e

a s Ja ck so n w as.

G a b in e t J a c k s o n h a d l i t t l e

ex cep t f o r th e u s u a l a d m in is tra tiv e

d u tie s

use

f o r w h ic h

t h e m e m b e rs w e r e l e g a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e . One o f t h e bance o f th e

f i r s t m a tte rs to

C a b in e t was t h e

kn o w n a s P e g g y G fI f e i l ,

cause a g e n e ra l d i s t u r ­

e a s e o f M rs. E a t o n , b e t t e r

th e d a u g h te r o f a ta v e rn k e e p e r o f

whom t h e r e h a d b e e n a g r e a t d e a l o f u g l y g o s s i p . first

o f f i c i a l f u n c t i o n s s h e was t r e a t e d

o f th e

o t h e r G a b in et o f f i c e r s .

At th e

c o l d l y b y t h e w iv e s

T h e s e women e v e n r e f u s e d t o

c a l l o n h e r o r t o r e c e i v e h e r i n t h e i r h o m e s .- 1*0 T an B u r e n , t h e S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e , w a s a w i d o w e r s o he show ed e v e r y p o s s i b l e

c o u r t e s y t o M rs. E a to n and a s a

c o n s e q u e n c e r o s e h i g h e r a n d h i g h e r i n J a c k s o n fs e s t i m a t i o n . T h is

"E a to n M a l a r i a " ,

a s Yan B u r e n c a l l e d

it,

a r o s e to su ch a h e ig h t t h a t Ja ck so n a lm o st th r e a te n e d d ism is s th e

C a b in e t i f

th e y and t h e i r f a m i l i e s

fin a lly to

c o n tin u e d to

r e f u s e t o r e c o g n i z e M r s . E a t o n . -*-31 0 F r e d e r i c k A u s t i n O g g , T he R e i g n o f A n d re w J a c k s o n , p.

133. H

p « 464: •

J.

S. B a sse tt,

The L i f e

o f A n d re w J a c k s o n , Y o l .

I,

113 Irs,

E a to n f i n a l l y w ith d re w fro m s o c i e t y and th e

C a b i n e t m e m b e rs w e r e a b l e t o g e t a l o n g w i t h o u t o p e n f r i c t i o n u n t i l a y e a r l a t e r w h en t h e

C a b in e t was r e o r g a n i z e d w i t h

o n l y o n e m e m b e r, t h e P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l ,

re m a in in g in

o ffic e .

T he q u a r r e l b e t w e e n J a c k s o n a n d C a lh o u n w a s a n o t h e r c au se o f th e u n h a rm o n io u sn e ss o f th e had i t s

C a b in e t.

P h is q u a r r e l

s o u r c e i n a n i n c i d e n t t h a t d a t e d b a c k t o M o n ro e fs

a d m in istra tio n .

C a l h o u n , who w a s S e c r e t a r y o f War a t t h e

t i m e , was i n f a v o r o f r e p r i m a n d i n g J a c k s o n f o r h i s p r o c e d u r e in F lo rid a a g a in s t th e S p a n ish . C a lh o u n -h a d f a v o r e d h im .

W illia m H,

S e c re ta ry o f th e T rea su ry , to ld about

C a l h o u n fs f e e l i n g s

It

C r a w f o r d , who w a s t h e

S e n a to r F o rsy th th e t r u t h

on t h e m a t t e r .

F a n B u r e n ’s p o l i t i c a l a g e n t , fro m F o r s y th .

Jack so n had b e lie v e d t h a t

Jam es A, H a m il t o n ,

i n t u r n g a in e d t h i s k n o w le d g e

i s b e l i e v e d b y m an y t h a t F a n B u r e n

p lo tte d to u se th e in fo rm a tio n f o r h is was a c c u s e d o f t h i s

own g o o d .

C a lh o u n

o p e n ly by Ja c k s o n and r e s i g n e d .

Ifte r

C a lh o u n ’s r e s i g n a t i o n a s F ic e P r e s i d e n t ,

h is

th e

sa m e t i m e t h a t

C a b in e t w ere f o r c e d t o r e s i g n a t t h e

fo llo w e rs

in Fan

B u ren a n d E a to n r e s i d e d . T he v a c a t e d p o s i t i o n s w e r e f i l l e d s tr o n g Ja ck so n f o llo w e r s and a g a in s t

w i t h men who w e r e

C a lh o u n .

Is

f a r as th e

C a b i n e t w as c o n s e r n e d m a t t e r s w e r e q u i e t f o r a w h i l e . The n e x t b i g c o n t r o v e r s y w as o c c a s i o n e d by t h e a u th o r i z i n g th e s o - c a l l e d rem ov al o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s

o rd er fu n d s

114

The n e s t b i g c o n t r o v e r s y w as o c c a s i o n e d b y t h e

o rd er

a u th o r iz in g th e s o - c a l l e d rem oval o f th e U n ite d S t a te s f r o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s Bank* t h e f u n d s rem oved t h e

fu n d s

When J a c k s o n w a s r e a d y t o h a v e

C a b in e t w as a g a i n r e o r g a n i z e d .

E d w a rd

L i v i n g s t o n was s e n t a s M i n i s t e r t o F r a n c e an d L ew is M cL ane, th e S e c re ta ry

o f th e

T r e a s u r y who w a s o p p o s e d t o

w a s m ade t h e n e w S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e . becam e t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e

W illia m J .

T reasu ry .

t h e re m o v a l, D u a n e now

D uane h a d n o t b e e n

t o l d why h e w a s a p p o i n t e d b u t h e s h o u l d h a v e k n o w n . Duane k e p t p u t t i n g o f f t h e f in a lly sa id re sig n *

th a t,

i f h e was u n a b l e t o

The m a j o r i t y o f t h e

f i g h t f o r tim e .

o rd e r o f rem o v al and issu e

it,

h e w o u ld

C a b in e t f a v o r e d Duane i n h i s

E v e n Van B u r e n who w a s now t h e V i c e P r e s i ­

d e n t was n o t i n f a v o r o f im m e d ia te r e m o v a l. Ja c k s o n w a ite d u n t i l h e r e t u r n e d fro m h i s IT o rth a n d t h e n p r e s s e d D uane f o r h i s a n s w e r . fe lt

th a t

trip

D uane s t i l l

C ongress s h o u ld be c o n s u lte d so Ja c k s o n d is m is s e d

h im a n d a p p o i n t e d R o g e r T a n e y , t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l , p la c e . w ish e d . to

to th e

in h is

T an ey o r d e r e d t h e fu n d s rem oved a t o n ce a s J a c k s o n The S e n a t e l a t e r r e f u s e d

to

c o n firm h i s a p p o in tm e n t

th e o f f i c e b u t he had a lr e a d y a c c o m p lish e d th e p u rp o se o f

h i s a p p o in tm e n t. T y l e r w as t h e

first

a c c id e n ta l P re s id e n t to h o ld

o f f i c e so h e sh o u ld be o f e s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t .

When h e t o o k

o ffic e

e n tire

as th e

C h ie f E x e c u tiv e he r e t a i n e d

th e

C a b in e t

115 but th e p e rso n n e l o f th e fo u r y ears

C a b in e t changed o f t e n d u r i n g t h e

i n w h i c h h e w as i n o f f i c e .

The f i r s t

s u b j e c t o f c o n t e n t i o n was p r e c i p i t a t e d

P r e s i d e n t H a r r i s o n w h en h e c a l l e d a s p e c i a l s e s s i o n g re s s to

c o n sid e r th e f i s c a l s i t u a t i o n .

by

o f Con­

T y l e r was a s t a t e

r i g h t s man a s f a r a s t h e b a n k q u e s t i o n w a s c o n c e r n e d b u t h e p ro m ise d t o

a g re e to any C o n s t i t u t i o n a l m easu re f o r th e

re s to ra tio n

o f a s o u n d m oney s y s t e m .

to

He r e s e r v e d t h e r i g h t

r e j e c t a n y p l a n t h a t was u n c o n s t i t u t i o n a l o r t h a t m ig h t

th re a te n

th e p r o s p e r ity o f th e

re s to ra tio n

He r e c o m m e n d e d t h e

o f a U n ite d S t a t e s Bank b u t i t m u st be so

p la n n e d t h a t a l l rem o v ed .

c o u n try .

q u e s t i o n s o f C o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y w o u ld be

In h i s S p e c i a l S e s s io n M essage o f Ju n e 1 , 1841 h e

sa id : To y o u , t h e n , who h a v e come m o r e d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e b o d y o f o u r common c o n s t i t u e n t s , I s u b m i t t h e e n t i r e q u e s tio n , as b e s t q u a lif ie d to g iv e a f u l l e x p o s itio n o f t h e i r w ish e s and o p in io n s . I s h a l l be rea d y to c o n c u r w ith you i n th e a d o p tio n o f su c h sy s te m a s you m ay p r o p o s e , r e s e r v i n g t o m y s e l f t h e u l t i m a t e p o w e r o f r e j e c t i n g a n y m e a s u r e w h i c h m a y , i n my v i e w o f i t , c o n ­ f l i c t w ith th e C o n s titu tio n o r o th e rw ise je o p a rd iz e th e p r o s p e r i t y o f t h e c o u n tr y — a pow er w h ic h I c o u ld n o t p a r t w ith even i f I w o u ld , b u t w h ic h I w i l l n o t b e l i e v e a n y a c t o f y o u r s w i l l c a l l i n t o r e q u i s i t i o n . 12 T he S e c r e t a r y o f t h e T r e a s u r y ,

Thom as S w in g p r e s e n t e d

a s p e c i a l r e p o r t w h ic h h a d b e e n p r e p a r e d b y h im a f t e r IB

Jam es B. R i c h a r d s o n , A C o m p ila tio n o f t h e M e ssa g e s and P a p e r s o f t h e P r e s i d e n t s . IV , 4 6 .

116 c o n s u lta tio n w ith T y le r. in c o rp o ra tio n

T he r e p o r t i n c l u d e d a b i l l

o f a f i s c a l bank to be l o c a te d , i n t h e D i s t r i c t

o f C o lu m b ia a n d d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e s t a t e s e sta b lis h m itte e

f o r th e

bran ch ban k s.

C la y ,

c h a irm a n o f t h e S e n a te

on F i n a n c e a n d B a n k i n g ,

t h e E w in g B i l l t h e v e to e d by Ja c k so n .

f o r p e rm iss io n to Com­

th en r e p o r te d t h a t in s te a d

of

c o m m itte e was u s i n g one s i m i l a r t o t h a t T h is b i l l was e n a c t e d i n t o

law o n ly t o

be v e to e d by T y le r. A n o t h e r b i l l was t h e n p r e p a r e d fro m w h ic h ,

it

w as

c la im e d , w e re o m itte d a l l t h e t h i n g s t o w h ic h T y le r had o b je c te d ,

b u t he a g a in v e to e d i t .

E w in g , Jo h n J .

C ritte n d e n ,

Two d a y s a f t e r t h i s

t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l ; G eo rg e E.

B a d g e r, S e c r e t a r y o f t h e Havy;

and John B e l l ,

S e c re ta ry of

W a r; r e s i g n e d a n d a s h o r t t i m e l a t e r F r a n c i s G r a n g e r , P o s tm a s te r-G e n e ra l fo llo w e d w ith h i s of S ta te , is

v e to

D a n i e l W e b s te r was t h e

re s ig n a tio n .

th e

S e c re ta ry

o n l y o n e who r e m a i n e d .

It

a w e l l kn ow n f a c t t h a t t h e r e s i g n a t i o n s w e r e i n s t i g a t e d

b y C l a y who s p o n s o r e d t h e B a n k B i l l . It a tte m p t to d e sire

is

t h o u g h t b y som e t h a t T y l e r fs a c t i o n s w e r e a n

te s t th e

C a b in e t.

I t w as n a t u r a l t h a t h e s h o u l d

a se co n d te rm and fo u n d i t n e c e s s a r y to b u i ld up a

p e rs o n a l fo llo w in g .

T h is r u p t u r e gave th e P r e s i d e n t th e

fu ll

p o s s e s s io n o f th e E x e c u tiv e d e p a rtm e n ts and th e s u p p o rt o f th e m ost im p o rta n t S e c r e t a r y . 1 3 13 H i n s d a l e ,

oj>.

e it .,

115.

117

T y le r f i l l e d

t h e v a c a n c i e s w i t h men who w e r e n o t t o o

s t r o n g l y W h ig ,

The p r o p o s e d a n n e x a t i o n o f T e x a s c a u s e d t h e

nex t d isru p tio n

in

re s ig n a tio n

th e

C a b in e t,

T h is b ro u g h t a b o u t th e

o f W e b ste r.

T he r e m a i n d e r o f T y l e r fs t e r m w ith a c o n s ta n t

i n o f f i c e was f i l l e d

change in th e p e rs o n n e l o f h i s

C a b in e t,

T y l e r h a d b e c o m e a man w i t h o u t a p a r t y . In fo rm in g h i s

o f f ic ia l a d v is o rs,

men who h a d b e e n c a n d i d a t e s T h is i n

L in c o ln chose fo u r

f o r th e R e p u b lic a n n o m in a tio n .

i t s e l f was e n o u g h t o a s s u r e on e t h a t t h e

w o u ld n o t b e h a r m o n i o u s .

C arl S an db urg g iv e s t h i s l i n e

am p ly d e s c r i b e s t h e f e e l i n g a b o u t s u c h a c h o i c e , to ld ,

rT hey w i l l e a t y o u u p r , and r e p l i e d ,

ju s t as l ik e ly to

th a t

"He w a s

rT hey w i l l b e

e a t each o th e r up, *

L in c o ln a ls o R e p u b lic a n P a r t y .

C a b in e t

c h o s e men f r o m e a c h b r a n c h o f t h e new F o u r m e m b e rs o f h i s

C a b in e t h ad b een

D e m o c ra ts a n d o n l y t h r e e h a d b e e n W h ig s.

L in c o ln s a id t h a t

h e b e i n g a f o r m e r W h ig , w o u l d g i v e t h e tw o f a c t i o n s e q u a l re p re se n ta tio n . The f i r s t

b reak in th e

C a b i n e t w a s c a u s e d b y S im o n

C am eron who p r o v e d t o b e a n i n e f f i c i e n t S e c r e t a r y o f W ar. T he D e p a r t m e n t w a s a l r e a d y i n a b a d c o n d i t i o n b e c a u s e o f i t s A

C a r l S a n d b u r g , A braham L i n c o l n , I I I ,

141.

118 a d m i n i s t r a t i o n by S e c r e t a r y F lo y d u n d e r B uchanan. o f o rg a n iz in g th e tro o p s had f a l l e n d u t i e s u p o n S ew ard b e c a u s e w o rk .

C am eron h a d a l s o

u p o n C hase a n d o t h e r

C am eron c o u l d n o t h a n d l e t h e

cau sed em b arrassm en t f o r L in c o ln by

a d v o c a t i n g t h a t t h e n e g r o s h o u ld be arm ed .

T h i s was a

p o l i c y u p o n w h ic h L i n c o l n was n o t r e a d y t o a c t . a n o th e r p o in t a g a in s t tra c ts .

Ill

h im fro m t h e

The w o rk

C a m e ro n w a s t h e g r a f t

S till

i n arm y c o n ­

th e s e th in g s to g e th e r cau sed L in c o ln to

d ism is s

C a b in e t b u t h e s o f t e n e d t h e b lo w b y s e n d i n g h im

on a m is s i o n t o R u s s i a . C hase a n d S ew a rd w e re n o t c o n g e n i a l w i t h one a n o t h e r an d C h ase was n o t a b l e t o w o rk w i t h L i n c o l n w i t h a n y h arm o n y .

I t w a s C h a s e who w a s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e o p i n i o n

t h a t t h e r e w as n o lie v in g

in h is

c o n sta n tly

C a b in e t i n th e p r o p e r s e n s e .

W h ile b e ­

own l o y a l t y a n d f r i e n d s h i p f o r L i n c o l n h e w a s

c u l t i v a t i n g g e n e r a l s a n d o t h e r s who f e l t

th e y had a g rie v a n c e a g a in s t th e A d m i n i s t r a t i o n .^ s u r e s t w ay t o h i s

th a t T he

c o n f i d e n c e was t a l k a g a i n s t L i n c o l n . ^

C hase w as l a r g e l y r e s p o n s i b l e S e n a te w ith S ew ard.

f o r th e d is c o n te n t o f th e

T he f e e l i n g o f t h e S e n a t e b e c a m e s o

s t r o n g t h a t a v o t e was t a k e n t o

a sk th e P r e s id e n t to d ism is s

^ J o h n C. H i c o l a y a n d J o h n H a y , A b r a h a m L i n c o l n A H i s t o r y , V I, £ 5 9 . 16 I b i d . , p .

260.

119 S e w a rd *

L a t e r t h a t sam e e v e n i n g i t

t h e w o rd in g o r th e r e s o l u t i o n o f th e

was d e c i d e d t o

change

and a s k f o r th e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n

C a b i n e t , b u t t h e i n t e n t i o n was j u s t t h e sam e.

le a rn e d o f th is

fro m S e n a to r P r e s t o n K in g o f h i s

and o f f e r e d h is

r e s i g n a t i o n a t once*

I f t e r h e a rin g th e re p o rt of th e c a l le d a s p e c i a l m e e tin g o f th e h e was n o t i n v i t i n g re sig n ;

S ew ard

own s t a t e

C o m m itte e , L i n c o l n

C a b in e t and t o l d

th em t h a t

o r i n t i m a t i n g t h a t h e w a n ted anyone to

t h a t he c o u ld n o t a f f o r d to

l o s e a n y o f th e m ; a n d

t h a t h e d i d n o t s e e how h e c o u l d g e t a l o n g w i t h a new C a b i ­ n e t. S e n a te

He t h e n a s k e d t h e m t o m e e t a g a i n t h a t C o m m itte e .^

H ow ever, n e i t h e r t h e

e v e n in g w ith th e

c o m m itte e n o r th e

C a b in e t knew t h a t t h e o t h e r w o u ld b e p r e s e n t . c u s s i o n f o l l o w e d on b o t h s i d e s w h i c h p l a c e d e m b a rra ssin g p o s itio n . s till

fe lt

The m a j o r i t y

C a b in e t m e e tin g .

Ifte r

of e ith e r

a n o th e r

t h e m e e ti n g was d i s m i s s e d L i n c o l n a c c e p t th e

C hase o r S e w a rd .

C hase c o n t i n u e d t o

come i n t o

and o f f e r e d h i s r e s i g n a t i o n

265.

c o n f l i c t w ith L in c o ln

tw o m o r e t i m e s b e f o r e

f i n a l l y a c c e p t e d on J u l y 1 , 1 8 6 4 .

17 I b i d . , p .

The n e x t

re s ig n a tio n a t s t i l l

w r o te n o t e s t o b o th i n w h ic h h e r e u f s e d t o re s ig n a tio n

C hase i n a v e r y

o f t h e S e n a te c o m m itte e

t h a t S ew ard s h o u ld b e d i s m i s s e d .

m o r n in g C hase h a n d e d i n h i s

A fran k d is ­

i t was

T he m a t t e r o f a p p o i n t m e n t s

la o w as t h e

c h ie f so u rc e o f tro u b le * The u n h a r m o n io u s n e s s o f t h e l a s t

caused by d isc e n s io n w ith in th e

th re e

C a b i n e t s w as

C a b in e t a l t h o u g h t h e r e was

t r o u b l e b e t w e e n t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d so m e o f t h e m e m b e rs i n

th e

c ase o f b o th Jack so n and L in c o ln .

I n t h e n e x t tw o c a s e s

it

i s w h o lly th e P r e s id e n t v e rs u s th e

C a b in e t.

J o h n Adams m ade h i s m i s t a k e a t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g . I n s t e a d o f c h o o s i n g men i n whom h e t r u s t e d a n d who t r u s t e d h im h e k e p t W a s h i n g t o n ^

C a b in e t.

T h e s e men w e r e u n d e r t h e

d o m in a tio n o f A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n a n d lo o k e d t o h im f o r d ire c tio n s

in ste a d

o f to

T h ere w ere t h r e e th e P r e s id e n t and th e a p p o in tm e n ts f o r d e sire d to

th e P r e s id e n t. p o i n t s w h ic h c a u s e d s t r i f e

C a b in e t.

b e tw e e n

The f i r s t w as o v e r t h e

C o m m issio n ers t o F r a n c e i n 1 7 9 7 .

Adams

a p p o i n t tw o F e d e r a l i s t s a n d o n e R e p u b l i c a n a n d

was m o st a n x i o u s t o a p p o i n t E l b r i d g e

G e rry a s th e R e p u b lic a n .

The C a b in e t s u g g e s t e d e i t h e r J e f f e r s o n o r M a d iso n a n d w o u ld n o t ap p ro v e G e rry . C h a rle s

Adams t h e n n o m i n a t e d t h r e e F e d e r a l i s t s ,

C o tesw o rth P in e k n e y ,

Lana r e f u s e d to

John M a rsh a ll,

and F r a n c is L ana.

s e r v e s o Adams a p p o i n t e d G e r r y a f t e r a l l .

T he m em b ers o f t h e

C a b in e t h ad n o t l i k e d

th e

id e a of

C o m m is sio n e rs a t a l l b u t when t h e y l e a r n e d t h a t H a m ilto n ap p ro v ed th e y d e c id e d t h a t th e

co m m issio n s h o u ld b e com posed

121 e n tire ly

o f F e d e ra lis ts ,-* -^

fh e f a i l u r e

of th is

cause o f th e second tin u e

c o n t r o v e r s y . • Adams w a s o b l i g e d t o

th e p re p a ra tio n s

ta k e p la c e .

C o m m is s io n w a s i n d i r e c t l y t h e

f o r a w ar w h ic h i t

w as f e a r e d w o u l d

He w a s o b l i g e d t o n o m i n a t e m i l i t a r y

o f c o u r s e G-eorge W a s h i n g t o n w as t o b e t h e

b e lo w h im an d s e l e c t e d A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n , and H enry K hox.

o ffic e rs

so

c o m m a n d e r-in -c h ie f.

W a sh in g to n w as p e r m i t t e d t o n o m in a te o f f i c e r s

P in c k n e y ,

con­

on t h e l e v e l

C h a rle s

C.

f h e men w e r e c o n f i r m e d i n t h e

o r d e r n a m e d a n d t h u s a c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r p r e c e d e n c e w as sta rte d .

Adams d i d n o t w i s h t o h a v e H a m i l t o n s e c o n d b u t

s i n c e t h a t w a s W a s h i n g t o n fs d e s i r e h e w a s f o r c e d t o s u b m i t . It

is

s a i d b y som e t h a t P i c k e r i n g a n d W o l c o t t h a d i n f l u e n c e d

W a s h i n g t o n t o p l a c e H a m i l t o n o v e r K no x a n d P i n c k n e y , who h e l d h i g h e r r a n k s d u r i n g t h e R e v o lu tio n .-* -^ fh e th ir d

c o n t r o v e r s y was t h e u n e x p e c t e d a p p o in tm e n t

o f ¥ a n s M u r r a y a s M i n i s t e r t o F r a n c e a f t e r Adams h a d s t a t e d t h a t h e w o u ld n e v e r a g a i n s e n d a M i n i s t e r t o F r a n c e u n l e s s h e was a s s u r e d t h a t h e w o u ld b e r e c e i v e d a s a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of a g re a t,

free,

and in d e p e n d e n t n a t i o n .

When a c o m m i t t e e

o f f i v e f r o m t h e S e n a t e p r o t e s t e d , Adam s s u g g e s t e d t h a t th r e e p e rso n s sh o u ld be ch o sen . 18

He h a d a l r e a d y n o m i n a t e d

J o h n f , M orse J r . , J o h n A dam s, p .

19 I b i d . , p .

290.

281.

1zz ¥ an s M urray and s u g g e s te d t h a t th e

o t h e r tw o s h o u l d h e

O liv e r E lls w o r th and P a t r i c k H en ry ,

H e n r y r e f u s e d t o go

because o f h is

a g e so W illia m R ic h a r d s o n D a v ie was a p p o i n t e d

in h is

p la c e .

A l t h o u g h t h e s e men w e r e a p p o i n t e d t h e y w e r e

n o t to

le a v e u n t i l f u r th e r a ssu ra n c e

m ade,

fh e a ssu ra n c e

cam e b u t b e f o r e t h e y c o u l d l e a v e

g o v ern m en t o f th e D i r e c t o r y f e l l , n e t se iz e d t h is

o f b e i n g r e c e i v e d w as

so H a m ilto n an d t h e

o p p o rtu n ity f o r f u r th e r d e la y .

e a r n e s t ab o u t se n d in g h is to le a v e a t once.

in th is

C a b i­

A dam s w a s i n

C o m m issio n ers an d d i r e c t e d

Adams w a s j u s t i f i e d

re c e iv e d an in tim a tio n

th e

th em

as he had

fro m f a l l y r a n d t h a t a new M i n i s t e r

fr o m t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s w o u ld b e r e c e i v e d a s h e

(A dam s)

i n s i s t e d h e sh o u ld b e . In a l l

th is

q u a rre lin g th e

c o n c e rn e d f o r B e n ja m in S t o d d a r t , and C h a rle s L ee,

e n tire

C a b in e t was n o t

t h e S e c r e t a r y o f t h e H avy,

t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l s i d e d w i t h A d a m s.

S i x m o n t h s l a t e r Adams d e m a n d e d t h e r e s i g n a t i o n s P i c k e r i n g a n d M c H e n ry . P ic k e rin g d e c lin e d ,

M cH en ry c o m p l i e d a t o n c e b u t

s o Adam s w a s f o r c e d t o d i s m i s s h i m .

W o lc o tt w as a llo w e d t o d islo y a lty ,

of

re m a in .

Adams w a s u n a w a r e o f h i s

f h e r e a s o n f o r W o l c o t t fs c o n t i n u a t i o n

was b e c a u s e o f t h e f i n a n c i a l c o n d i t i o n A ndrew J o h n s o n i n a s s u m in g t h e w h ic h was v a c a t e d b y t h e a s s a s s i n a t i o n

o f th e o ffic e

in

o ffic e

c o u n try . of P re sid e n t

o f L in c o ln t r i e d

c a r r y o u t th e p o l i c i e s p la n n e d by h i s p re d e c e s s o r ,

to

fh ese

123 p o lic ie s ,

h o w e v e r , w e r e n o t p o p u l a r w i t h som e o f t h e

C a b in e t

m e m b e rs a n d w i t h t h e r a d i c a l m em b ers o f C o n g r e s s , T he f i r s t

change in th e

C a b i n e t o c c u r r e d w hen

A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l S p eed and P o s tm a s te r - G -e n e r a l D e n n iso n r e ­ s i g n e d b e c a u s e t h e y w e re o u t o f h arm o n y w i t h t h e P r e s i d e n t . I d w i n M. S t a n t o n s h o u l d h a v e r e s i g n e d s i n c e h e d i d n o t ag re e w ith Johnson.

T he s u r p r i s i n g f a c t

P r e s i d e n t d i d n o t d i s m i s s h im b e f o r e T e n u re -o f-O ffic e l e t is

was p a s s e d .

is

th a t th e

th e p a ssa g e o f th e

T he f a c t

t h a t he d id n o t

p r o b a b l y b e c a u s e h e was n o t a w a re o f S t a n t o n fs p a r t i c i ­

p a tio n

i n t h e f r a m i n g o f som e r a d i c a l l e g i s l a t i o n . 2 0 On J u l y 1 8 a n d 1 9 , S t a n t o n i n d i s a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e

rest

o f th e

C a b in e t,

e n te re d w r itte n

p r o te s ts a g a in s t th e

o p i n i o n s o f t h e A t t o r n e y - G e n e r a l on t h e R e c o n s t r u c t i o n A c t s . It h ere,

is

u n n e c e s s a r y t o go i n t o

sin c e i t

has been d e sc rib e d

th e d is m is s a l o f S ta n to n

in an e a r l i e r

c h a p te r.

The i m p o r t a n t f a c t w as t h a t S t a n t o n r e f u s e d t o b e d i s m i s s e d . T h is f i n a l l y l e d to a c q u itta l.

th e

im p e ac h m en t o f J o h n s o n a n d t o h i s

F o llo w in g Johnson*s a c q u i t t a l S ta n to n re s ig n e d .

T here have b e en o t h e r C a b in e ts t h a t h a v e b een h a rm o n io u s and o t h e r s

t h a t w ere n o t h a rm o n io u s b u t t h e s e

w e re t h e m ost o u t s t a n d i n g c a s e s .

20

H in sd a le ,

o£.

c it .,

p.

194.

CHAPTER ¥11 POLITICAL AFFILIATIONS OF CABINET MEMBERS In t h is

c h a p te r th e need f o r p a r tis a n

o e c a sio n a l re c o g n itio n

o f th e second p a rty ,

C a b in e ts ,

th e

and c o a litio n

C a b in e ts w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . When t h e F e d e r a l g o v e r n m e n t w a s b e i n g e s t a b l i s h e d fo llo w in g th e n e c e ssa ry r a t i f i c a t i o n

of th e

t h e r e w ere no r e c o g n iz e d p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . d iv isio n

o f th e p e o p le i n to F e d e r a l i s t s

caused by th e th a t th e

issu e

of ra tific a tio n ,

C o n stitu tio n The f o r m e r

and A n t i - F e d e r a li s t s

w as d i s a p p e a r i n g now

C o n s t i t u t i o n h a d b e e n a c c e p t e d a n d a m e n d m e n ts

p l a c a t i n g t h e A n t i - F e d e r a l i s t s w ere a b o u t to be a d o p te d . W ash in g to n w ish e d t o above p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . a p p o in tiv e th e

o ffic e s

C o n stitu tio n .

s e t u p a g o v e r n m e n t w h i c h w as

He w a s c a r e f u l i n

c h o o sin g f o r a l l

o n l y men who h a d f a v o r e d r a t i f i c a t i o n He a l s o

c h o s e tw o men ¥*ho f a v o r e d a

s t r o n g c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t a n d tw o who f a v o r e d s t a t e T h is p r o v e d t o b e a g r a v e m i s t a k e w h ic h was l a t e r P o litic a l p a rtie s tra tio n th e

a s tw o o f t h e

of

sta rte d

in th is

rig h ts .

c o rre c te d .

f i r s t a d m in is­

C a b in e t o f f i c e r s becam e t h e l e a d e r s

of

tw o p a r t i e s w h i c h w e r e o r g a n i z e d d u r i n g W a s h i n g t o n ' s

a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a ro u n d 1791 to 179R.

H a m ilto n becam e t h e

l e a d e r o f t h e s e c o n d F e d e r a l i s t P a r t y a n d J e f f e r s o n was t h e fo u n d e r o f th e D e m o c ra tic -R e p u b lic a n P a r t y .

T h e tw o g r e a t

135

c a u s e s o f t h e new p o l i t i c a l a lig n m e n t w ere t h e m an n er o f in te r p r e t i n g th e

C o n s t i t u t i o n and H a m il t o n ’s f i n a n c i a l

m easu res. W a s h in g to n was g r e a t l y d i s t r e s s e d

by th e

c o n sta n t

q u a r r e l i n g w h i c h w a s c a u s e d b y t h e s e tw o c o n t r a s t i n g o p in io n s and b e c a u se he f e l t

t h e n e e d o f a s t r o n g g o v ern m en t

he le a n e d s l i g h t l y to w a rd th e F e d e r a l i s t P a r t y . R a n d o l p h fs r e s i g n a t i o n F e d e ra lis ts

to

fill

a s S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e he chose o n ly

any v a c a n c ie s.

He h a d b e g u n t o r e a l i z e

th a t to

c a l l to

w hose p o l i t i c a l b e l i e f s w ere o p p o sed t o g e n e r a l g o v e rn m e n t was s u i c i d a l .

change in D e p a rtm e n ta l h ead s i s

o f f i c e men

th e p o lic ie s

o f th e

P h is t h e o r y h a s becom e

f u n d a m e n t a l s o t h a t now w h en a P r e s i d e n t

It

A fte r

is

e le c te d

th e

ta k e n f o r g r a n te d .1

so o n becam e an e s t a b l i s h e d p r i n c i p l e

t h a t a new

P r e s i d e n t w o u l d m ake m any n e w a p p o i n t m e n t s t o

o ffic e ,

th a t

th e

i t w as e s p e c i a l l y p r o p e r f o r h im t o

fill

a n d o t h e r c h i e f p o s i t i o n s - w i t h m e m b e rs o f h i s

a ls o

C a b in e t

own p a r t y ,

f o l l o w i n g t h e p r e c e d e n t e s t a b l i s h e d b y Y Y ash in g to n i n h i s second te rm .

When a P r e s i d e n t s u c c e e d e d a n o t h e r P r e s i d e n t

o f t h e sam e p a r t y h e m i g h t , m e m b e rs o f h i s p r e d e c e s s o r ’ s

in d ee d

c o n tin u e

C a b in e t i n h i s

o n e o r m o re own o f f i c i a l

1 M a ry L o u i s e H i n s d a l e , ” P h e P r e s i d e n t s ’ C a b i n e t , ” C y c lo p e d ia o f A m e ric an G o v e rn m e n t, I , 1 9 9 .

126

fa m ily b u t g ra d u a lly even t h i s

p ra e tie e

came t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e p r i n c i p l e t h a t e n title d

to

a p p o in t a d v is o rs

own p o l i c i e s .

e n tire ly

e v e r y P r e s i d e n t was i n sy m p a th y w i t h h i s

Out o f t h i s g rew t h e p r a e t i e e

m em b ers r e s i g n i n g w hen a n e w P r e s i d e n t p ra c tic e

p a sse d o u t and a l l

put in to

o f C a b in e t

to o l: o f f i c e ,

a

o p e r a t i o n a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f J a c k s o n Ts

te rm . I t was n o t u n t i l t h e b e g i n n i n g o f P o l k ' s a d m i n i s t r a ­ tio n

t h a t t h e p o l i c y o f a p p o i n t i n g a C a b in e t i n sy m p a th y

w ith th e P r e s id e n t began to be h e a rd .

P ro m S o u t h

C a ro lin a

cam e t h e s t a t e m e n t t h a t a C a b i n e t w a s w a n t e d w h i c h h a d b e e n chosen by P o lk . o th e r s t a te s .

P h i s w as f o l l o w e d b y a l i k e

e x p re ss io n

from

I t h a d b e e n u n d e r s t o o d t h a t w h en a P r e s i d e n t

fo llo w e d a n o th e r P r e s id e n t o f a d i f f e r e n t p o l i t i c a l p a r ty he had a r i g h t

t o a p p o in t an e n t i r e l y new C a b in e t.

H e n r y H a r r i s o n t h e f i r s t W h ig P r e s i d e n t d i d t h i s I n 1845 a t t h e tim e o f P o l k 's

e le c tio n

th is

W illia m

in 1841.

t h e o r y w as

v o ic e d by t h e D e m o c ra tic P a r t y . fo d ay i t choose th e

is

e x p e c te d t h a t

each P r e s id e n t- e le c t w ill

C a b i n e t o f f i c e r s whom h e t h i n k s w i l l w o r k b e s t

w i t h h im i n c a r r y i n g o u t h i s

p o lic ie s ,

o f c o u r s e w h e n t h e sa m e p a r t y i s a d m in istra tio n but th is

is

fh e re a re h o ld o v e rs

i n p o w e r f o r m ore t h a n

one

because th e P r e s id e n t- e le c t f e e ls

t h a t t h e h o l d o v e r s a r e t h e b e s t men f o r t h e p o s i t i o n s a n d n o t because o f th e

o ld id e a o f re m a in in g in

o ffic e m th

th e

127 p a rty . S in c e th e

C i v i l War t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y w h i c h h a s

been i n pow er th e l a r g e r p a r t p o lic y to

o f t h e t i m e h a s m ade i t

a

o c c a s i o n a l l y a p p o i n t men f r o m t h e S o u t h who a r e

n o t in p o l i t i c a l ag reem en t w ith th e p a r ty .

Luke E. W r ig h t,

S e c r e t a r y o f War u n d e r T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t a n d J a c o b H . D ic k in so n u n d e r T a ft a r e c am p aig n o f 19E0 t h a t ,

e x a m p le s.

i f he

H a r d in g p ro m ise d i n h i s

c a rrie d any so u th e rn s t a t e ,

w o u l d r e w a r d t h a t s e c t i o n w i t h a C a b i n e t m e m b e r. T ennessee b u t f a i l e d

he

He c a r r i e d

t o k e e p h i s w ord.

O c c a s i o n a l l y t h e P r e s i d e n t may a p p o i n t men who h a v e n o t been a c t iv e l y i d e n t i f i e d w ith h i s

own p a r t y a n d who h a v e

o c c a s io n a lly v o te d f o r th e o p p o sin g p a r t y . We h a v e n e v e r h a d a r e a l c o a l i t i o n p ro b a b ly n e v e r w i l l .

A c o a litio n

C a b in e t and

C a b in e t i s

one i n w h ic h a

c o - o p e r a t i v e a r r a n g e m e n t i s m ad e u n d e r w h i c h d i s t i n c t p o litic a l p a rtie s to

o r a t l e a s t m e m b e rs o f s u c h a p a r t y u n i t e

fo rm a g o v e rn m e n t.

w h ic h a r e r e s p o n s i b l e

T here a r e t h r e e

ty p e s o f s i t u a t i o n

f o r such a c o a l i t i o n .

The f i r s t

w h en a n y s i n g l e p a r t y i n a m u l t i p l e p a r t y s y s t e m i s to

fo rm a m a j o r i t y .

The s e c o n d s i t u a t i o n

e v e n b a l a n c e i n a tw o p a r t y s y s t e m . w i t h a m in o r p a r t y i n

is

T he t h i r d

o r d e r t o k eep t h e p ow er.

situ a tio n

u n a b le

cases of an

One p a r t y w i l l u n i t e

t o P a r l ia m e n t a r y g o v ern m en t o n ly and n o t to S ta te s.

in

is

ta k e s p la c e

T h is a p p l i e s

th e U n ite d

in tim e s

of a

128

n a tio n a l c r is is strife .

w h ic h m akes i t n e c e s s a r y t o

C o a litio n

is

ta k e n as a m a tte r o f co u rse in a l l b u t

E n g lish sp e a k in g c o u n tr i e s .2 c o a litio n

is

In th e U n ite d S ta te s a tr u e

a lm o st im p o s s ib le .

When t h e s e c o n d p a r t y i s S ta te s

C a b in e t i t

re c o g n iz e d in th e U n ite d

i s n o t t h e p a r t y b u t t h e men who a r e r e c o g ­

n i z e d and t h e y a r e n o t a lw a y s l e a d e r s T here have been t h r e e w hat l i k e

suspend p a rty

c o a litio n

o f th e

o p p o sin g p a r t y .

c a s e s t h a t m ig h t b e c o n s i d e r e d som e­

C a b in e ts .

b y W a sh in g to n , L in c o ln ,

T hese s i t u a t i o n s w ere c r e a te d

a n d F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t .

I n W a s h i n g t o n 1s c a s e t h e r e w e r e n o p a r t i e s w h e n h e a p p o in te d h is f i r s t p a rtie s

a d v is e rs.

d e v e lo p e d w ith in

th e

I t was o n l y l a t e r C a b in e t.

It

is

th a t th e

t r u e t h e r e w ere

tw o o p p o s i n g o p i n i o n s b u t t h a t d o e s n o t c r e a t e a s i t u a t i o n c a llin g

fo r a c o a litio n L in c o ln

c a b i n e t o r g o v e rn m e n t.

c h o s e f o u r men f r o m t h e

and t h r e e fro m th e

o ld D em ocrat P a r t y

o l d W hig P a r t y b u t t h e s e w e r e a t t h e t i m e

o f t h e i r a p p o i n t m e n t a l l m e m b e rs o f t h e n e w R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y . T h e r e w e r e a l l men who h a d v o t e d f o r L i n c o l n . S ta n to n 's

case i t

L a te r in

w as a s o m e w h a t d i f f e r e n t s i t u a t i o n b u t

e v e n h e r e S t a n t o n b e c a m e a m em ber o f t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y . W it h P r e s i d e n t F r a n k l i n D. R o o s e v e l t i t th a t

th e t h ir d Q

situ a tio n

is

m ig h t b e s a i d

p r e s e n t an d m akes a c o a l i t i o n

F r e d e r i c A u s t i n O gg, n C o a l i t i o n , fT E n c y c l o p e d i a o f th e S o c ia l S c ie n c e s , I I I , 600.

129 C a b in e t n e c e s s a r y .

In h is

c am p aig n o f 1952 P r e s i d e n t

R o o s e v e l t m ade a n e s p e c i a l p l e a f o r P r o g r e s s i v e R e p u b l i c a n v o te s. fa c tio n .

He won a l a r g e n u m b e r o f v o t e s f r o m t h e R e p u b l i c a n As a r e s u l t h e a p p o i n t e d t h r e e r e c o g n i z e d R e p u b l i ­

cans to h is

first

H e n ry A. I f a l l a c e ,

C a b in e t.

2?hese w e r e H a r o l d H. l a k e s ,

and F ra n c e s P e rk in s*

a r e now R e p u b l i c a n s .

H one o f t h e t h r e e

B ecau se o f th e w o rld c r i s i s

an d K nox b o t h R e p u b li c a n s w e re a p p o i n t e d ,

S tim so n

The R e p u b lic a n

P a r t y h a s r e p u d i a t e d b o th o f th em .

W it h t h e s e

f i v e we h a v e

th e n e a r e s t a p p ro ach to a c o a l i t i o n

C a b in e t i n o u r h i s t o r y .

CHAPTER VIII SUMMARY D u rin g th e

C o n stitu tio n a l

C o n v e n tio n w h ic h m et i n

P h i l a d e l p h i a i n 1 7 8 7 , m any p l a n s w e r e m ade f o r a n a d v i s o r y c o u n c il f o r th e P re s id e n t b u t in C o n stitu tio n

t h e s e p la n s w ere a l l

th e

o m itte d .

t u t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n w h ic h to u c h e s t h e II,

S e c t i o n tw o , w h ic h s t a t e s

q u ire

th e o p in io n ,

in w ritin g ,

f i n a l fo rm o f th e T he o n l y C o n s t i ­

C a b in e t was i n A r t i c l e

t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t may f,r e o f th e p r in c ip a l o f f ic e r in

each o f th e e x e c u tiv e d e p a rtm e n ts, upon any s u b je c t r e l a t i n g to

th e d u tie s

of th e ir re s p e c tiv e

o ffic e s .* 1

T h re e d e p a r t m e n t s w ere c r e a t e d b y t h e

first

C o ng ress.

T h ese w ere t h e D e p a rtm e n ts o f S t a t e ,

T r e a s u r y , a n d War e a c h

o f w h ich was h e a d e d b y a S e c r e t a r y .

The o f f i c e

G e n e r a l w as a l s o

o f A tto rn e y -

c r e a te d b u t he d id n o t have a d e p a rtm e n t

u n t i l 1870. T he P o s t O f f i c e D e p a r t m e n t w h i c h a t su b o rd in a te d to in 1792.

had been

t h e T r e a s u r y D e p a rtm e n t becam e in d e p e n d e n t

T he P o s t m a s t e r - G e n e r a l , h o w e v e r ,

m em ber o f t h e

first

d i d n o t becom e a

C a b in e t u n t i l 1 82 9 .

The D e p a r t m e n t o f B a v y w a s e s t a b l i s h e d

in 1798, th e

I n t e r i o r D e p a rtm e n t i n 1 8 4 9 , t h e A g r i c u l t u r e D e p artm en t i n 1 8 8 9 , a n d Commerce a n d L a b o r i n 1 9 0 4 . was d i v i d e d

in 1913.

It

is

T h is l a s t D e p artm en t

t h o u g h t b y so m e t h a t a

131 D e p artm en t o f A v ia ti o n s h o u ld be c r e a t e d . W h ile t h e D e p a r tm e n ts w e re p r o v i d e d f o r by t h e stitu tio n ,

th e

Con­

C a b in e t was c r e a t e d b y P r e s i d e n t W a s h in g to n .

I t was e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e h e a d s o f t h e D e p a r tm e n ts a n d t h e A t t o r n e y - d e n e r a l m e e tin g w i t h W a sh in g to n t o d i s e u s s g o v ern m en t p ro b le m s .

I t b e g a n t o be r e c o g a iz e d a s a C a b in e t

in 1793 b u t h a s n e v e r b een re c o g n iz e d l e g a l l y . When a man who i s S ta te s

chooses h is

c o n sid e r.

o f th e U n ite d

C a b i n e t m e m b e r s , h e h a s m any a n g l e s t o

One o f t h e s e

S e c tio n a lism

e le c te d P re sid e n t

is

g e o g ra p h ic a l d iv is io n s .

p la y e d a s m a ll p a r t u n t i l 1820 b u t a l l s e c t i o n s

had been re p re s e n te d . re p re se n te d a t l e a s t

A ll b u t seven of th e s t a te s have been once and th e s e

s ta te s

are

f o r t h e m ost

p a r t s p a r s e ly p o p u la te d and o f s m a ll in f lu e n c e .

S in c e th e

C i v i l War t h e S o u t h h a s n o t h a d m an y C a b i n e t m e m b e rs a n d t h e W est i s

g r a d u a lly ta lc in g i t s

p la c e .

The l e n g t h o f t e r m s s e r v e d r a n g e s to

o n e w eek *

fro m s i x t e e n y e a r s

Jam es W ils o n , S e c r e t a r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e h e l d

t h e l o n g te rm w h ile E l i h u W ashburne, S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e serv ed th e s h o rte s t

te rm .

t o h o l d t h e sam e p o s i t i o n y ears,

T h e r e h a v e b e e n s e v e n o t h e r men in th e

C a b i n e t f o r m o re t h a n e i g h t

T h e r e h a v e b e e n o n l y t e n men b e s i d e s t h e o n e s

m e n t i o n e d who h a v e s e r v e d f o r e i g h t y e a r s .

In c o n tr a s t

t h e l o n g t e r m s a r e t h e f o r t y men who s e r v e d l e s s y ear.

to

th a n one

T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t m ade t h e m o s t c h a n g e s i n h i s

132 C a b i n e t w h i l e F r a n k l i n P i e r c e m ade n o c h a n g e s i n h i s . A b ility s ta te d

of th e s e v e r a l

C a b in e ts

b u t som e o f t h e o u t s t a n d i n g

W a sh in g to n ,

can n o t be d e f i n i t e l y

C a b in e ts a r e th o s e

J e f f e r s o n , M o n ro e, L i n c o l n ,

of

an d M c K in ley -

H o o s e v e lt. Jo h n Q u in c y M a m s , Jam es M onroe, D a n i e l W e b s te r, J o h n Hay w e re o u t s t a n d i n g S e c r e t a r i e s H a m ilto n and A l b e r t G a l l a t i n a r e b est S e c re ta rie s

o f th e

and J e f f e r s o n

W a r.

One s o u r c e s a y s t h a t

o f S t a t e ; A le x a n d e r

c o n sid e re d to have been th e

tre a su ry .

H o o t,

and

E d w in M. S t a n t o n , E l i h u

D a v is a r e t h e c h o ic e f o r S e c r e t a r y o f G id eo n W e lle s was t h e g r e a t e s t

S e c r e t a r y o f th e l a v y w h ile a n o th e r s u g g e s t s W illia m

C.

W h itn e y .

W illia m W ir t,

J e r e m i a h B l a d e , E d w in M. S t a n t o n ,

P h ila n d e r

C. K n o x , a n d R o g e r T a n e y a r e t h o u g h t t o h a v e b e e n

th e b e s t A tto rn e y -G e n e ra ls.

M o n tg o m e ry B l a i r a n d J o h n

W a n a m a k e r a r e a c c o u n t e d tw o o f t h e m o s t e f f i c i e n t P o s t m a s t e r G e n e ra ls .

E th a n H itc h c o c k and F r a n k l i n K n ig h t Lane a r e

c h o ic e f o r t h e I n t e r i o r D e p a rtm e n t. th e

t o p am ong s e c r e t a r i e s

p o s s ib le to

Jam es W ilso n r a n k s a t

of A g ric u ltu re .

p ro b a b ly th e b e s t S e c re ta r y

th e

o f C om m erce.

H e rb e rt H oover i s It

is h a rd ly

s e l e c t a S e c r e t a r y o f L ab o r a s t h e D e p artm en t

has been in e x is te n c e M ost o f t h e

su ch a s h o r t tim e .

C a b in e ts have been g u i t e

T hose o f W a sh in g to n ,

Jackson,

h a rm o n io u s.

T y le r, L in c o ln ,

J o h n Adams a r e w e l l k n o w n a s u n h a r m o n i o u s

Jo h n so n , and

C a b in e ts.

T he

133 tro u b le

in W ash in g to n ls

C a b in e t was b e tw e e n J e f f e r s o n and

H a m ilto n o v e r i n t e r p r e t a t i o n

o f th e

pow ers o f th e

c e n t r a l g o v e rn m e n t.

le a d e r of h is

C a b in e t a s i t

Ja c k so n d id n o t p e r s o n a lly

C o n s titu tio n and th e J o h n Adams w a s n e v e r t h e

was c o n t r o l l e d b y H a m il t o n . choose h is

first

C a b in e t and m ost

o f t h e p o s i t i o n s w ere g iv e n t o p a y p o l i t i c a l d e b t s . and Jo h n so n had u n h a rm o n io u s

C a b in e ts b e c a u s e t h e y w ere w eak

men a n d w e r e o n l y a c c i d e n t a l P r e s i d e n t s . who w e r e h i s r i v a l s

T y le r

L i n c o l n c h o s e men

f o r th e P re sid e n c y .

T h e r e h a v e b e e n o n l y s i x P r e s i d e n t s who h a v e s e r v e d in th e

C a b in e t.

T h e s e a r e T hom as J e f f e r s o n ,

Jam es H a d is o n ,

J a m e s M o n r o e , J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s, M a r t i n ? a n B u r e n , a n d W i l l i a m H o w ard T a f t .

B I B L I O G R A P H Y

BIBLIOGRAPHY A.

BOOKS

A d a m s, C h a r l e s F r a n c i s , e d i t o r , M e m o irs o f J o h n Q u i n c y A d a m s. P h ila d e lp h ia : J . B . L i p p i n c o t t a n d dom pany, 1 8 7 4 7 IB v o l s . A d a m s, H e n r y , H i s t o r y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . C h a rle s S e r T E n e r ^ s ^ o n s , 1891. 9 V o ls.

Hew Y o r k :

A d a m s, J a m e s T r u s l o w , f h e L i v i n g J e f f e r s o n . C h a r l e s S c r i b n e r 1s S o n s , 1 9 3 6 . 403 pp.

Hew Y o r k :

A l e x a n d e r , H o lm es, f h e A m e ric a n f a l l y r a n d . p e r and B r o th e r s , 1935. 424 pp.

Hew Y o r k :

A s h le y , R o sco e L e w is , f h e A m e ric an F e d e r a l S t a t e . f h e M a c m i l l a n C o m pany, 1 9 1 4 . "769 p p .

H ar­

Hew Y o rk

B a s s e t t , J a m e s S p e n c e r , T he L i f e o f A n d re w J a c k s o n , Hew Y ork: f h e M a c m i l l a n 'C o m p a n y ,’3 9 1 6 7 2 V o l s . "In o n e . B e a r d , C h a r le s A is to m . A m e ric an G o v e rn m e n t, M a c m i l l a n C om pany , 1 9 1 4 . ?69 pp.

Hew Y o r k :

fh e

__________ , nH a t i o n a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n " i n A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t and P o l i t i e s . Hew Y o r k : f h e M a c m ilia n dom pany, 19247 W g pp. B e m is, S am u el F l a g g , f h e A m e ric a n B e e r e t a r i e s o f S t a t e and f h e l r D i p l o m a c y . Hew Y o r k : A ,""'K n opf," 192*77 1 0 v o T s 7 B r o g a n , D e n is W il l ia m , G overnm ent o f t h e P e o p l e . H a rp er and B r o th e r s , 1933. 415 p p . B r y c e , J a m e s , " C a b i n e t , ” A m e r i c a n C o m m o n w e a lth . f h e M a c m i l l a n C om pany, Y § 1 0 . g v o ls. C h a n n in g , E d w ard , A H i s t o r y o f t h e U n ite d S t a t e s . f h e M a c m i l l a n "Company, 1 ^ X 7 . 6 v o ls.

Hew Y o r k : Hew Y o r k : Hew Y o r k

F a y , B e r n a r d , G eorge W a s h in g to n , R e p u b lic a n A r i s t o c r a t . B o sto n : Houghvon t o . f f l i n an d dom pany, 1 9 3 1 . 297 p p .

135 F i n l e y , J o h n H . a n d J o h n F . S a n d e r s o n , T he A m e r i c a n E x e c u ­ t i v e a n d E x e c u t i v e M e t h o d s . Hew Y o r k : f h e C e n tu ry C om pany , 1 9 0 8 . 3^2 p p . F o r d , P a u l L e i e h e s t e r , T he T r u e G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n . P h i l a ­ d e lp h ia : J . B . L i p p i n c o ’tt" " C o m p a n y , 1 9 0 3 . 319 p p . F o r d , W. C . , T h e W r i t i n g s o f G e o r g e W a s h i n g t o n . G. P . P u t n a m fs S o n s , 1 8 8 9 - 9 3 . 14 v o l s .

Hew Y o r k :

G a r n e r , Jam es W i l f o r d , G o vernm ent i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . Y ork: A m e ric an Book dom pany, 1 9 1 1 . 4 1 6 .pp.

Hew

G u g g e n h e i m e r , J . G . , f,T he L e v e l p p m e n t o f t h e E x e c u t i v e D e­ p a rtm e n ts ,” E ssays in th e C o n s titu tio n H is to ry of th e U n ite d S ta te s ^ J* F r a n k l i n J a m i s o n , e d i t o r ; BosTTon: H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n C om pany, 1 8 8 9 . 321 p p . H a m ilto n , Jo h n C hurch, B o sto n ; H o u g h to n ,

The L i f e o f A le x a n d e r H a m i l t o n . O sgood and~C om pany, 1 8 7 9 . 7 v o ls.

H a r t , A l b e r t B u s h n e l l , A c t u a l G o v e r n m e n t . Hew Y o r k : L o n g m a n s , G r e e n , a n d 'C om pany, 1 9 1 9 . 599 p p . H i c k s , J o h n P . . T he A m e r i c a n H a t i o n . M i f f l i n C om pany, 1 9 3 7 . 689 p p . » T he F e d e r a l U n i o n . C o m p an y , 6 8 9 p p .

B o sto n :

B o sto n :

H ig h , S t a n l e y , R o o s e v e l t a n d T hen ? B ro th e rs , 1937. 326 p p .

H o u g h to n

H o u g h to n M i f f l i n Hew Y o r k :

H i n s d a l e , B . A . , T he A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t . W e r n e r Com pany, 1 9 1 7 . 4 8 8 pp..

H a rp e r and

C h ica g o :

H i n s d a l e , M a ry L o u i s e , A H i s t o r y o f t h e P r e s i d e n t * s A nn A r b o r : G e o r g e W a h r , 1 9 1 1 . 355 p p . H u g h e s , R u p e r t , G eorge W a s h in g to n . C om pany, 1 9 2 6 . 3 v o ls.

Hew Y o r k ;

T he C a b in e t.

W. M o rro w a n d

H u n t , G a i l l a r d , e d i t o r , T he ¥ i r i t i n g s o f J a m e s M a d i s o n . Y ork: G. P . P u t n a m 1s “H o n s , 1 9 0 1 . 9 v o ls. K e n n e d y , J . P . M e m o irs o f t h e L i f e o f W i l l i a m W i r t . d e lp h ia : L U a ' ^ i r ^ B T a h cE a r d T T e ^ U .— IT ToT s~— ~

Hew

P h ila ­

136 L a s k i , J . H a r o ld , f h e A m e ric an P r e s i d e n c y , an I n t e r p r e t a ­ t i o n , Mew Y o r k : H a r p e r and” B r o t h e r s , 1 9 4 0 . 27 8 p p . L e a r n e d , H e n r y B a r r e t t , f h e P r e s i d e n t rs C a b i n e t . Y a le U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 1 2 . 471 p p .

Mew H a v e n :

L e w is, W illia m D ra p e r, f h e L if e o f f h e o d o r e R o o s e v e lt . P h ila d e lp h ia : J o h n 0.' W i n s t o n ‘Com pany^ T9T9”. ¥80 pp. L o d g e , H e n r y C a b o t , f h e W orks o f A l e x a n d e r H a m i l t o n . Y o rk ; 0 . P . P u t n a m fs S o n s , 1 9 0 4 . 12 v o l s .

Mew

L y o n , W a l t e r H a s t i n g s , f h e C o n s t i t u t I o n a n d t h e Men Who Made I t . B o s t o n : H o u g h t o n , M i f f l i n "Com pany, 1 9 3 6 . $14 p p . M o rgan , G e o rg e , f h e L i f e o f Jam es M onro e. M aynard, an d G o m p an y , 1 9 2 1 . 484 p p .

B o sto n :

M i e o l a y , J o h n G. And J o h n H a y , A b r a h a m L i n c o l n . f h e C e n t u r y C om pany, 1 8 9 0 . 10 v o ls*

S m a ll

Mew Y o r k :

R i c h a r d s o n , Jam es D . , c o m p i l e r , A C o m p ila tio n o f t h e M essages and P a p e rs o f th e P r e s i d e n t s . W a sh in g to n : G o vernm ent P r i n t i n g T F f f i c e , 1 8 9 7 . 10 v o l s . S a n d b u r g , C a r l , A b r a h a m L i n c o l n , t h e War Y e a r s . C h a rle s S e r i b n e r fs S o n s , 1 9 4 0 . 4 v o ls. S e a r s , L o u is M o rto n , G eorge W a s h in g to n . Y* C r o w e l l C o m p an y , 1 9 3 2 . 560 p p .

Mew Y o r k :

S m ith , A b b o tt E m e rso n , Jam es M a d is o n : B u i l d e r . W ilso n E r i c k s o n , 1 9 3 7 . 3 66 p p . S p a r k s , J a r e d , W r itin g s o f W ash in g to n . 1 9 39-40. 12 v o ls T

Mew Y o r k :

B o sto n :

fh o m a s

Mew Y o r k : F . A ndrew s,

P a n s i l l , C h a r l e s C . , e d i t o r , D o c u m e n ts L e a d i n g t o t h e F o r m a tio n o f a F e d e r a l U n io n . "W ash in g to n : "G o v ern m en t P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 7 . "1115 p p . W h a rto n , D on, f h e R o o s e v e l t O m n ib u s. K n o p f, 1934. 174 p p .

Mew Y o r k :

A l f r e d A.

W ilso n, Woodrow, C o n s t itu ti o n a l Government i n th e U n ited S t a t e s . Mew Y ork: ColumbTa l l n i v e r s i 'b y G r e s s , 1907.

^Tpp.

137 W i l s o n , W ood ro w , G e o r g e Wash i n g t o n . B ro th e rs , 1896. 3 3 3 pp.;

Hew Y o r k :

H arp er

Y o u n g , J a m e s f . , f h e Hew A m e r i c a n G o v e r n m e n t a n d i t s W ork. Hew Y o r k : fh e T a c m ilT a n n Jo ^ a H y 7 T ^ 2 4 . 675 p p .

B.

PERIODICAL ARTICLES

A l g e r , G e o r g e W. , " E x e c u t i v e A g g r e s s i o n , ” A t l a n t i c M o n t h l y , 1 0 2 :5 7 7 - 5 8 9 , H ovem ber, 1 9 0 8 . " B a c k sta g e i n W a s h in g to n ,” 1929. TfB e s t W i l l S e r v e , ”

O u tlo o k , 1 5 1 :6 1 9 , A p r il 1 7 ,

C o l l i e r ^ s , 9 0 :5 0 ,

D ecem ber 1 0 , 1 9 3 2 .

B u c h a n a n , J a m e s , " A d v i c e t o a P r e s i d e n t on C h o o s i n g a C a b in e t,” G o ld en B o o k , 9 : 5 6 , M a rc h , 1 9 2 9 . " C a b in e t,”

S u rv e y , 4 2 :4 0 8 -9 ,

" C a b in e t,”

L it e r a r y D ig e s t. 6 8 :3 8 , F e b ru a ry 12, 1921.

" C a b in e t,"

W o r l d T o m o r r o w , 1 6 : 2 2 0 , M a rc h 8 , 1 9 3 3 .

" C a b in e t and

C a b in e ts ,"

" C a b in e t Jig sa w P u z z le ," 11, 1933. " C a b in e t P u d d in g ,”

June 7,

1919.

H a tio n , 1 3 5 :3 2 2 , L ite r a r y D ig e st,

O c to b e r 1 2 , 1932. 1 1 5 :7 , F e b ru a ry

C o l l i e r Ts , 8 6 : 3 0 , S e p t e m b e r 6 , 1 9 3 0 .

" C h o o s i n g t h e Hew C a b i n e t , " M arch 1 9 2 9 . " C o u n c il s o f D e m o c ra c y ,"

R e v ie w o f R e v i e w s , 7 9 : 3 9 - 4 2 ,

O u t l o o k , 1 4 0 : 1 3 3 - 4 , May 2 7 ,

" C r a w f o r d , W. H . , " C a b i n e t , " 1921.

O u t l o o k , 1 2 8 : 6 4 - 7 , May 1 1 ,

" E x t r y J A l l - A m e r i e a n C a b i n e t H e a d e d b y G. W a s h i n g t o n , " L it e r a r y D ig e s t, 9 6 :5 2 -4 , F e b ru a ry 11, 1928. "G ood C a b i n e t , ”

1925.

H a t i o n , 1 3 6 :2 5 1 , M arch 8 , 1 9 3 3 .

138

H a r d , W i l l i a m , " S i d e l i g h t s o n t h e Hew C a b i n e t , " R e v ie w o f R e v ie w s, 7 9 :5 3 - 8 , A p r i l , 1 9 2 9 . H a y d e n , R . , " C a b i n e t , 11 R e v i e w , 4 : 1 5 3 - 4 , F e b r u a r y 1 6 , 1 9 2 1 . H e r b e r t , H. A . , " C l e v e l a n d a n d H i s C a b i n e t a t W o r k ," C e n tu r y , 8 5 : 7 4 0 - 4 , M arch, 1 9 1 3 . H o r w i l l , H . W ., " S c r a p p i n g o f t h e 4 , Ja n u ary , 1911.

C a b in e t," R a ti o n , 1 1 0 :7 3 -

R i p l i n g e r , W. M . . " C a p i t o l J f e n , " Hew O u t l o o k , 1 6 2 : 2 0 - 2 , O c to b e r, 1933. H i n d s a v . S a m u e l M. . "Mew C a b i n e t a n d I t s o f R e v ie w s, 6 3 :3 8 1 -9 3 , A p r i l , 192 1 .

P r o b l e m s , " R e v ie w

Low, M a u r i c e A . , " A m e r i c a n C a b i n e t , " H a r p e r f s W e e k l y , 5 6 : 2 0 A ugust 1 7 , 1912. Low . S i r S i d n e y , " C a b i n e t R e v o l u t i o n , " L i v i n g A g e , 2 9 2 : 5 8 7 9 7 , M arch 1 0 , 1 9 1 7 . " M r. R o o s e v e l t fs 15, 1933. "Mew C a b i n e t , "

C a b in e t,"

C h ristia n

C e n tu ry ,

5 0 : 3 4 8 , M arch

O u t l o o k , 1 5 1 : 4 1 5 , M a rc h 1 3 , 1 9 2 9 .

Owen, J o h n W. , " G r e a t C a b i n e t , " Mew R e p u b l i c , 3 2 : 2 7 2 - 5 , M o vem ber 8 , 1 9 2 2 . P e a r s o n , D. a n d R* S . A l l e n , "Men A r o u n d t h e P r e s i d e n t , " H a rp e r* s M a g a z in e , 1 6 8 :2 6 7 -7 7 , F e b r u a r y , 1934. " P r e s i d e n t a n d H is 1920.

C a b in e t," L ite r a r y D ig e s t,

6 5 : 4 8 , May 2 2 ,

" P r e s i d e n t - e l e c t W i l s o n fs C a b i n e t M a k i n g , " O u t l o o k , 1 0 3 : 6 5 - 8 Jan u ary 11, 1913. " P r e s i d e n t R o o s e v e l t fs A p p o i n t m e n t s , " R a t i o n , 5 , 1933. “ " P r e s i d e n t s 1 A d v is o r s F i n a l l y G et I n t o W eek, 6 : 7 - 9 , S e p t e m b e r 2 8 , 1 9 3 5 .

1 3 7 :4 -6 ,

Ju ly

t h e S p o t l i g h t , " Mews

" P r e s i d e n t s C a b i n e t , " A m e ric a n H i s t o r i c a l R e v ie w , 1 7 : 8 4 4 - 7 , J u ly , 1912. ; “

139 R o g e r s , L . , " P u t t i n g t h e C a b i n e t t o W o r k ," New R e p u b l i c , 7 3 :3 4 3 -6 , F e b ru a ry 8 , 1933. "S e rv ic ia b le

C a b i n e t , ” B u s i n e s s W ee k , p .

"S h eep and G o a ts i n t h e 1934.

7 - 8 , M arch 8 , 1 9 3 3 .

C a b i n e t , ” C o l l i e r ’s 9 3 : 6 6 , A p r i l 2 8 ,

" S t r e n g t h and W eakness o f th e 6 8 : 7 - 9 , M arch I B , 1 9 2 1 .

C a b in e t,” l i t e r a r y D ig e st,

" S t r e n g t h and W eakness i n t h e H o o v e r C a b i n e t , ” L i t e r a r y D i g e s t , M arch 1 6 , 1 9 2 9 . " S tr o n g C a b in e t,” S a tu r d a y E v e n in g P o s t , 10, 1936. S u l l i v a n , M a r k , "Men o f t h e 9 4 , M ay, 1 9 2 1 .

2 0 9 :2 6 , O c to b e r

C a b i n e t , ” W o r l d ’s W eek, 4 3 : 8 1 ~ ~ *

"W h at H a p p e n s t o t h e C a b i n e t , ” B u s i n e s s W eek, p . D ecem ber 2 8 , 19 3 5 . "W ho’ s Who i n t h e 15, 1913.

8 -9 ,

C a b i n e t 1 9 1 3 , " O u t l o o k , 1 0 3 : 5 5 6 - 6 3 , M a rc h

"Why Do We N o t W ant a C o a l i t i o n 3 5 :4 7 6 - 7 , M arch, 1 9 1 8 . W i l l i a m , T . , W ho’s Who i n t h e 2 6 3 - 4 , M arch 1 2 , 1 9 2 1 .

C a b i n e t , " W o r l d ’ s W o rk ,

C a b in e t,"

In d e p e n d e n t, 105:

W i l l s i e , H , , "How t h e C a b i n e t w a s S e l e c t e d , " H a r p e r ’s Week l y , S e p tem b er 2 7 , 1 9 1 3 . W i l s o n , W oodrow , " C o m m i t t e e o r C a b i n e t G o v e r n m e n t , " Ifhe O v e r ­ l a n d M o n t h l y , 2d s e r . v o l . 3 , J a n u a r y , 1 8 8 4 .

140 0.

PARTS OF SERIES

B a s s e t t , * J a m e s S p e n c e r , T he F e d e r a l i s t S y s t e m , V o l . X I , 327 p p . 1 9 0 6 . A l b e r t B u s h n e l l H a r t , e d i t o r , A m e ric an H a t i o n S e r i e s , 27 v o l s . Hew Y o r k : H a rp e r and I S r o t h e r s . F e r r a n d , M ax, T he F a t h e r s o f t h e C o n s t i t u t i o n , V o l . X I I I , 242 p p . A l i e n J o h n s o n , e d i t o r . T h e " C h r 'o n i c l e s o f A m e ric a S e r i e s , 50 v o l s . Hew H a v e n : Y a le Y f n iv e r s ity F o r d , H e n r y J o n e s , W a s h i n g t o n a n d H i s C o l l e a g u e s , V o l . X IV , 235 p p . A l l e n J o h n s o n , e d i t o ’r T h ~ C h ro n ic le s o f A m e ric a S e r i e s , 50 v o l s . Hew H a v e n : Y a le U n i v e r s i t y i r e s s , i'9 '1 '8 -1 9 2 1 . G-ay, S i d n e y , J a m e s M a d i s o n , 1 9 0 0 , V o l . X I I , 3 4 2 p p . John T . M or s e , e d i t o r , A 'm eri c a n S t a t e s m e n S e r i e s , 3 1 v o l s . B o sto n : H o u g h t on M i f f l i n a n d d o m p a n y . O ilm a n , D a n ie l C . * Jam es M o n ro e , 1 8 8 3 , 312 p p . J o h n T. M o r s e , e d i t o r , A m e r i c a n S t a t e s m e n S e r i e s , 31 v o l s . B o s t o n : Ho u g h t o n M i f f l i n a n d d o m p a n y . H o w l a n d , H a r o l d G-., T h e o d o r e R o o s e v e l t a n d H i s T i m e s , V o l . X L V II . 289 p p . T he ' C h r o n i c l e s o f A m e r i c a S e r i e s , 50 v o l s . 1 9 1 8 -1 9 2 1 . J o h n s o n , A l l e n , J e f f e r s o n an d H is C o lle a g u e s . V o l . XV. 329 p p . A l l e n J o h n s o n , e d i t o r , The C h r o n i c l e s o f A m e ric a S e r i e s , 50 v o l s . 1 9 1 8 -rl9 2 1 . D odge, H e n ry C a b o t, A le x a n d e r H a m ilto n . 306 p p . , 1 8 9 8 , V o l. V II. J o h n T . M o rs e , e d i t o r The A m e ric a n S t a t e s ­ men S e r i e s , 3 1 v o l s . M o rs e , J o h n T . , J o h n A dam s, 1 8 8 4 . 337 p p . e d ito r. B osT on: H o u g h to n M i f f l i n and The A m e ric a n S ta te s m e n S e r i e s .

John T, M o rse, C om pany, 31 v o l s .

___________, A b r a h a m L i n c o l n , 1 8 9 3 . 2 v o ls. John T. M o rse , e d i t o r , ^ h e 'A m e r i c a n S t a t e s m e n S e r i e s . 3 1 v o l s . B o sto n : H o u g h t o n M i f f l i n a n d Com pany. O g g , F r e d e r i c A u s t i n , R e i g n o f A n d re w J a c k s o n , V o l . XX, 249 p p . C h r o n i c l e s o f A m e r i c a S e r i e s , 50 v o l s . 1 9 1 8 1921. ' ~ ~ ' ’

141

S e y m o u r , C h a r l e s , W oodrow W i l s o n a n d t h e W o r l d W a r, V o l . X L V III. 3 8 3 PiT T lT e n J o h n s o n , U E r o n i e l e s . o f A m e r i c a S e r i e s , 1 9 1 8 -1 9 2 1 . 50 v o ls , S h e p a r d , E d w a rd M. , M a r t i n Van B u r e n , V o l X V I I I , 1 9 1 6 , 404 p p . Jo h n 1 . M o rs e , " e d i t o r A m e ric a n S ta te s m e n S e r i e s , 31 v o l s . S t e v e n s , Jo h n A u s t i n , A l b e r t G a l l a t i n . V o l. X I I I , 1 8 8 3 , 419 p p . J o h n T. M o rs e , e d i t o r 7 " A m e ric a n S ta te s m e n S e r i e s , 31 v o l s . Van H o l s t , H e r m a n , J o h n C. C a l h o u n , V o l . X X I I , 1 8 9 9 . 374 p p . J o h n T» M o r s e , e d i t o r , A m e r i c a n S t a t e s m e n S e r i e s , 31 v o l s .

D.

PUBLICATION OF LEARNED ORGANIZATIONS

B a s s e t t , Jam es S p e n c e r , S c ie n c e Q u a r te r ly .

" P r e s i d e n t s T C a b in e t," P o l i t i c a l 2 7 :6 9 4 -6 . D e c e m b e r, 1 9 1 ^ T

B r a d f o r d , G a m a lie l, " C o n g re s s and t h e C a b i n e t , " A m erican Academ y o f P o l i t i c a l a n d S o c i a l S c i e n c e . A n n a l s , V o l . I T . F h i T a d e l 'p h i a , 1 8’9’iY F a i r l i e , J . A ., " P r e s i d e n t s * C a b i n e t s ," A m e ric an P o l i t i c a l S c ie n c e R e v ie w , 7 : 2 8 - 4 4 , F e b r u a r y , 1 9 1 3 . S h a w , A l b e r t , " P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n Ts C a b i n e t , " A m e r i c a n P o l i t i c a l S c ie n c e R e v ie w . 7 : 1 8 1 - 9 6 , M ay, 1 9 1 3 . W i l s o n , Thom as W. , " C a b i n e t G o v e r n m e n t i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " I n t e r n a t i o n a l R e la tio n s , 7 :1 4 6 -6 3 .

E.

ENCYCLOPEDIA ARTICLES AND DIRECTORIES

B i o g r a p h i c a l D i r e c t o r y o f t h e A m e ric an C o n g r e s s , 1 7 7 4 - 1 9 2 7 . W ash in g to n ! U n i'te d ”3 t a F e s P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 2 8 , 1740 p p. " G a l l a t i n , A l b e r t , 11 E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , X, 9 8 2 - 3 .

1 4 th e d i t i o n ,

142 " H a y , J o h n , 11 E n c y c l o p e d i a B r i t a n n i c a , 1 4 t h e d i t i o n ,

X I,

281.

H i n s d a l e , M a ry L o u i s e , " C a b i n e t o f t h e P r e s i d e n t , tl C y c l o p e d i a o f A m e r i c a n G - o v e rn m e n t. I , 198 -2 02 . M e n e e l y , A . H o w a r d , " S im o n C a m e r o n , " D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e r i c a n B i o g r a p h y , 1 9 0 0 .. I l l , 4 3 7 - 9 . M e r e n e s s , U e w to n D . , " C a l e b B l o o d S m i t h , ” D i c t i o n a r y o f A m e ric a n B io g r a p h y . X V II, 224^5* M osher, R o b e rt B r e n t, c o m p ile r, E x e c u tiv e R e g i s t e r o f th e U n ite d S t a t e s . B a ltim o re ; F r i e d en w a1 d C om pany, l W 3 . 3 '5 l p p . Ogg, F r e d e r i c A u s t i n , " C o a l i t i o n , " E n c y c lo p e d i a o f S o c i a l S c ie n c e s. I l l , 6 0 0 -60 1. “ ' ~ P e r k i n s , D e x te r , " W illia m H enry S e w a rd ," D i c ti o n a r y o f A m e r i c a n B i o g r a p h y , X V I, 6 1 5 - 2 1 . R a n d a l l , J a m e s G-* , " S a l m o n P o r t l a n d A m e ric an B io g r a p h y . IV , 2 7 - 3 4 .

C h a s e ," D i c t i o n a r y o f

"R o o t, E l i h u ," E n c y c lo p e d ia B r i t a n n i c a , 542 -3 . "

1 4 th e d i t i o n ,

S m i t h , T h e o d o r e C . , " M o n tg o m e r y B l a i r , " A m e ric an B io g r a p h y . I I , 339 -4 0 .

D ic tio n a ry o f

W o rld A l m a n a c .

Hew Y o r k :

Hew Y o r k H a r o l d T e l e g r a m ,

1941.