The application of the concepts of multiple operation measurement to the response patterns on psychological tests

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The Identification of The City on The Legibility and Wayfinding Concepts: A Case of Trabzon
The Identification of The City on The Legibility and Wayfinding Concepts: A Case of Trabzon

The concept of wayfinding includes understanding the space and finding direction within the space. But as cities and architectural spaces grow and become more complex, visitors and locals of the sapce can find it difficult to find direction. For these reasons, for visitors who speak different languages, along with these elements, there is a need for well-designed information and direction-finding graphics and landmarks that have a universal quality. The aim of the study is to explain the concepts of wayfinding and way-finding, defined as “direction-finding” in the literature and to create awareness. Furthermore, to analyze the concept of wayfinding and the direction designs that aim to transform the cities that have become complex into more understandable spaces, through the city of Trabzon and to examine the problems of the city in this context and to make suggestions. In this study, Trabzon will be evaluated with the concepts of legibility and directability and the direction and information designs over the focal point, regions, edges, nodes, roads with which Kevin Lynch have defined the imageable, readable city. A survey was conducted to investigate the spatial information elements and legibility of Trabzon city. Furthermore, to create awareness for other cities with similar problems. JOURNAL OF CONTEMPORARY URBAN AFFAIRS (2020), 4(2), 1-12. https://doi.org/10.25034/ijcua.2020.v4n2-1

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The application of the concepts of multiple operation measurement to the response patterns on psychological tests

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TIE APFUCATXCM OF TIE CCSCOTS OF MUXTXPLB operation im m m m m to th e response PATTJSBRS 0$3 PSYGHOlDGIC/iX TESTS

BI SOBERS GLAS®

S u te itte d to th e Faculty of the Graduate School in p a r t i a l fu lfillm e n t of the requircsjimts fo r the degree, Doctor of Philosophy, in th e Department of Psychology Indiana U niversity, October, 19k9 1>\

ProQuest Number: 10295212

All rights reserv ed INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this rep rod u ction is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e quality o f th e c o p y su b m itted . In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e author did n o t s e n d a c o m p le t e m anuscript a n d th er e a re missing p a g e s , t h e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e r e m o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te th e d e le tio n .

uest. P roQ uest 10295212 Published b y P roQ uest LLC (2016). C opyright o f th e Dissertation is h eld by th e Author. All rights reserved . This work is p r o te c te d a g a in st u nauthorized c o p y in g under Title 17, U nited S ta tes C o d e Microform Edition © P roQ uest LLC. P roQ uest LLC. 789 East E isenhow er Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

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George K. B ennett H arold G. Seashore A lexander G. Wesman

SPACE RELATIONS FORM B

" D o not open this booklet until you are told to do so. O n your SEPARATE A N SW ER SHEET, print your name, address, and other requested inform ation in the proper spaces. In the space after Form , print a B. Then w ait for further instructions.

D O N O T M A K E A N Y M A R K S IN T H IS B O O K L E T

C opyright 1947 T he Psychological C orporation 522 Fifth Avenue N ew Y ork 18, N . Y .

Printed in U.S.A.

47-I39TB

M ark you r answers on th e separate A nsw er Sheet

D o not m ake any m arks in this book let

SPACE RELATIONS DIRECTIONS This test consists o f forty patterns which can be folded into figures. For each pattern, five figures are shown. You are to decide which of these figures can be m ade from the p attern shown. T h e p attern always shows the outside o f the figure. H ere is an example: E x a m p le

X

W hich o f these five figures — A, B, C, D , E — can be m ade from th e p attern in Exam ple X ? A and B certainly cannot be m ade; they are n o t the right shape. C and D a re correct both in shape and size. You cannot m ake E from this pattern. — In the test there will always be a row of five figures for each pattern. — In every row there is at least one correct figure. Usually m ore than one is correct. In fact, in some cases, all five may be correct. N ow look at the pattern for Exam ple Y and the five choices for it. N o te th a t w hen the pattern is folded, the figure m ust have two gray surfaces. O ne of these is a large surface w hich could be e ith er the top or bottom of a box. T he other is a small surface which w ould be one end o f the box.

Ex a m p l e Y

Notice — all the "boxes" m ade from this pattern are correct in shape, but the sides which you see are different. Some of these figures can be m ade from this pattern while others cannot. Let us look at them. — Figure A is correct. If the large gray surface is shown as the top, then the end surface of gray can be shown facing towards you. — Figure

Bis wrong.

The long, n arro w side is not gray in the pattern.

— Figure Cis correct. T he two gray surfaces can both be hidden by placing the large gray surface at the bottom and the gray end to the back. — Figure

D is wrong.

T he gray end is all right, but there is no long gray side in the pattern.

— Figure Eis correct. O ne can show the box so that the large gray surface is at the bottom (as it was in C ) , but w ith the gray end showing at the front. So, you see, there are three figures (A, C and E) which can be m ade from the pattern in Example Y, and two figures (B and D ) which cannot be m ade from this pattern. Remember that the surface you see in the pattern m ust always be the OUTSID E surface of the completed figure. Now let’s see how we m ark our answers on the separate Answer Sheet. A sample is shown here. For Example X we found th at only figures C and D could be made,

Sa m p l e

so the spaces under C and D opposite X have been blackened. For

X

Example Y, A is a correct figure, C is correct, and E is correct, so opposite Y we have blackened in the spaces under A, C and E.

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In taking the test: — Study each pattern. — Decide which of the figures can be made from the pattern. Show your choices on the Answer Sheet by blackening in the little space under the letter which is the same as that of the figure you have chosen in the booklet. If you decide a certain figure cannot be m ade from the Pattern, make no m ark on the Answer Sheet. D o N o t W rite A n y th in g in T h is B ooklet U se Separate A nsw er Sheet Y o u W ill Be T o ld W h e n to B egin

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