An investigation of the psychological significance of reactions to color on the Rorschach and other tests

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AM ISVESTiamOH OF THK PSYCHOLOGICAL S-JQWyiOMtCE OF REACTIONS TO COLOR ON THE RORSCHACH AMD OTHER TESTS

lay Arthur

Canter jBKuotfi

A d is s e rta tio n submitted in p a r t i a l fu lfillm e n t ©f th e require­ ments fo r the degree ©f Doctor ©f Philosophy, in the Department of Psychology in th e Graduate College of th e S ta te U niversity Of Iowa August 1950

ProQuest Number: 10598586

All rights reserv ed INFORMATION TO ALL USERS The quality o f this rep ro d u ctio n is d e p e n d e n t u p o n th e quality o f th e c o p y su b m itted. In th e unlikely e v e n t th a t th e au th o r did n o t se n d a c o m p le te m anuscript a n d th e re a re missing p a g e s , th e s e will b e n o te d . Also, if m aterial h a d to b e rem o v e d , a n o te will in d ic a te th e d eletion.

uest, P roQ uest 10598586 Published by P roQ uest LLC (2017). C opyright o f th e Dissertation is held by th e Author. All rights reserved. This work is p ro te c te d a g a in st unauthorized co p y in g u n d er Title 17, United S tates C o d e Microform Edition © P roQ uest LLC. ProQ uest LLC. 789 East Eisenhower Parkway P.O. Box 1346 Ann Arbor, Ml 48106 - 1346

; -,i^ ! a a ,r n f a a ^

c o o .3 -

The w r ite r wishes to express h is sin c e re g ra titu d e t o P ro fe sso r A rthur L. Benton under whose d ire c tio n t h i s in v e s tig a tio n was undertaken* A ppreciation i s extended t o P ro fe sso r Edward J* Shoben J r . , H r. Irv in g B o lste r and Hr* A lfred Jacobs f o r t h e i r a s s is ta n c e as judges and in o ffe rin g suggestions* The w r ite r i s e s p e c ia lly indebted to h is w ife , Miriam, f o r h er a ss is ta n c e and encouragement*

TABLE OF COJSTEHTS Chapter 1

PaS® Introduction

..........

1

Color-determined Responses on the Rorschach «••• ••• « Review o f the Literature • Color and A f f e c t i v i t y .......... Color nA ttituden as a General Trait Discussion ***«* II III

Statement o f the Problem

1 3 11 lit 20 2k

............... **• **. .

Procedure

*.

27

subjecta •«•+•»•••*••«•*•••?««»»•»* **. • « , . . * • • • Apparatus and Materials Experimental Procedure ♦ Matching Procedure «»».*»•«. »............ Main Experimental Procedure. ......... IV

R e s u lt s

2? 27 29 29 29

«•**. .................... . . . . ........... . . . . . . . . . .................

3f>

C onstriction Scale..........................................................• • • » . • Matching .................... . . . The Rorschach Performance \ E ffect upon Productivity ’E ffect upon Latencies of Responses E ffect upon Quality o f Response® The Relationship of Color Tests and C onstriction ... . In terrelation sh ip s o f Color Tests V VI

D iscussion o f R esults

• • • • • * • • . . • • • • • • « • • • ................

Surmn&ry and Conclusions References

35 35 39 39 lih ij-9 $2 $k 53

. « . . . ............................................................ 69

.**............................................................ ...

Appendix A The C onstriction Scale

.

73

». *................. » • . » • • * . . • • • • • • « •

?6

Appendix E The Modified Lindberg King Test •

*

4 . . « • » • » ...........

8$

Appendix C The Modified Linciberg Sorting Test • • * . . , « • • • • • • • » * •

88

Appendix D The itary-Completion T e s t

91

ill

«............ . . . .

.

TABLE OF FIGURES

Figure

page

1* D is trib u tio n

o f G~Scores o f 160 S u b jects . .

•* . »

2« D is trib u tio n and 72 Males

o f G-Scores o f 8 8 Females •* « » » . * * * * • . # * • • •

»* « «

3* Reproductions o f th e M odified Ring T est » « « « * «

37 86,

87

k+ The Modified Lindberg S o rtin g T est * • * « * * • • •

iv

90

m WM OF TA B M Table I 12

HI

page Comparison ©f Moans and S tandard D eviations o f Data used f a r Matching Groups * * » * * » • * * * • Comparison o f Means and Standard D eviations o f C o n stric tio n Scores used i n Matching G ro ^ s fey le v e ls o f C o n stric tio n .* « « » « « « « « * * « *

• «

3$

* « « * »

I4O

Means and Standard D eviations o f Musters o f Responses t o th e Rorschach (10 c a rd s) * * « . » • • • ■ • * •

111

1 ? A nalysis o f Variance o f T o tal Humber o f Responses to th e Rorschach (10 c a rd s) » » # * » » « * # * « « # •

Ijl

V Means and Standard D eviations o f Humbers ©f Responses to th e Rorschach ( 5 c a rd s) * » * • * • * « « * *

ii3

VI A nalysis o f V ariance o f Humber o f Responses to the Rorschach ( 5 cards } » * » « « « « a « a » » * * « « » « VII V III II

X

Means and Standard D eviations o f Mean Reaction Times to th e Rorschadh P la te s (10 c a rd s) « * . » * * * *

Ii3 *

li*>

A nalysis o f Variance o f Mean R eaction Times to th e Rorschach P la te s (10 cards ) * » Means and Standard D eviations o f le a n R eaction Times be th e Rorschach P la te s (5 card s) • * * * • * « * * •

1*6

A nalysis o f Variance o f Mean R eaction Times to th e Rorschach P la te s (5 c a rd s) * » * * * * * « # « * *

1*6

+ *.

£2

A nalysis o f Variance o f th e D ifferen ces between Mean R eaction Times f o r Ten Rorschach: Garris and Mean R eaction Times f o r F ir e ^Golor® Rorschach Garde ♦**■■• **' *■»■ » * ^ « ■* * ■&** #■ * * » ® * «■ » * ® *

211

A nalysis o f Covariance o f P ro d u c tiv ity and PI m Responses on th e Rorschach under two Rorschach C onditions » ® « * « « * • # • *■ ♦ # * « « ® * 2

fabl© XIXI X I? I?

page C o rre la tio n o f C olor T est Scores and C o n stric tio n Scores « * • # *. * ♦ f * , + * * f * * « * * « * * « *

« « S3

I n te r e o r r e la tio n o f C olor Responses on Three Color T ests f » V P©WW*»Wieie«fwi©i

o f co lo r responsiveness as a g en eral problem in th e area o f p e rc e p t­ u a l types 9 stemming frost E uelpe’ s work{ 18 )♦ S ch o ll{ 31 9 32 ) , a leading advocate o f th e form -color ty p o lo g ic a l p o in t o f view, did a s e r ie s o f s tu d ie s w ith a d u lts and children* using s o rtin g t e s t s , based on Deseoudres’ s work( 5 }, and a ta e h is tis e e p le method o f h is own devising*

The ta o h ls tls o p le t e s t

' was arranged so t h a t a main f ig u r e ( e*g* a green tr ia n g le ) was amposed on a screen f o r 10 seconds*

A fter m in te r v a l o f 10 seconds

more, a group o f fig u re s numbering from 8 to 16 d if f e r e n t k in d s, with th e main fig u re appearing In a d if f e r e n t c o lo r, was exposed fo r about 1 /8 second*

S ch o ll found th a t seme of h is su b je c ts were a ttra c te d by

th e fig u re s im ila r in fosm, o th e rs by a fig u re sim ila r in color*

He

considered th e re a c tio n to tak e place " re fle x iv e ly " and re fe rre d to a "form pole** and a "co lo r pole* in th e p ercep tu al fie ld *

The r e s u l ts

o f a study w ith a d u lts showed th a t of 30 s u b je c ts , 8 were a ttr a c te d t o th e form s i m i l a r i t i e s , 10 t o th e c o lo r s i m il a r it i e s , and th e remaining 12 showed mixed c o lo r and form main groups o f p ercep tu al typess

a ttra c tio n *

S choll then defined th re e

"form ty p e s " , " c o lo r types" , and

mixed "form -color" o r "c o lo r-fo m * types*

He concluded th a t th e re i s

a dominant a ttr a c tio n to e ith e r foam o r c o lo r f o r c e r ta in in d iv id u a ls , w h ile f o r o th e rs th e re was a mixed type o f a ttra c tio n *

15

In a follow -up stu d y , S c h o ll( 38 ) rep o rted h i s attem pts to c o rr e la te th e c o lo r o r fo ra a b s tra c t ion types to p e rso n a lity typos based ©a &retchmarfe c la s s ific a tio n *

Ho used paper and p e n cil

Inventory typo t e s t a to c a te g o rise h is s u b je c ts ,

th e eyelothymes

were found m ostly among th e co lo r r e a c to r s , th e sehinothymsa among th e fo ra r e a c to r s , w hile th e mixed ty p es ( i , e , showing both schinoth y aie and cyclothymic c h a r a c te r is tic s ) were found among the mixed form -color r e a c to r s .

I n h i s work w ith c h ild re n ( 31 ) , Scholl found

th a t o f 31 c h ild re n in th e age range o f 2 ,5 to 6 y e a rs , approxim ately 37

percent so rte d geometric fig u re s by f o r a , 51 percent by c o lo r , and

th e remainder by m ixtures of co lo r and f o r a .

With old er c h ild re n th e re

appeared to be g re a te r pro p o rtio n s o f " fo rm -so rte rs",

However, Scholl

does n o t provide enough d a ta about the changes o r d iffe re n c e s w ith in ­ c re asin g age to allow an exam ination o f th e suggested r e la tio n s h ip , Oeserf 2d } c a rrie d out ta c h ls tis c o p ie experiments sim ila r to those of S c h o ll, but using sh o rte r exposure tim es and more d i s t in c t forms than th o se used by S c h o ll, t o h is su b je cts ( 32 a d u lts ) ,

He also adm inistered th e Horschach from th e r e s u l t s o f the ta c h ls tis c o p ie

experiment he defined four groups of re a c to rs :

*7*, I f 71-100 percent

o f 1die responses in th e ta c h ls tis c o p ie experiment were form dominated t "F

****»**•»: *v»m*mmT

........................................................................................................................................................................................................M u w . w ii.iiiinr ■ r



7 "Sectional** c o n s tric tio n as a co n stru ct was defined by responses to s e a ls item s which bad been ra te d by c li n i c a l judges* I t was assumed tfeat tb s r e la tio n s h ip o f t h i s co n stru ct to such s e a ls responses i s a d i r e c t one, i . e . "constriction** i s defined as a lin e a r fu n ctio n o f tb s se a ls sc o re s , fo r a d e s c rip tio n o f th e c o n stru ctio n and sco rin g o f t h i s v a ria b le , see Appendix A.

(2)

To a s c e r ta in th e re la tio n s h ip between "em otional c o n stric tio n "

and performance on t e s t e designed to determ ine "color* and "non-color* a tt i tu d e s . (3)

To determ ine i f th e re i s em pirical evidence fo r the e x iste n ce

o f a s in g le , more o r le s s g e n e ra lise d , *eolor-d eminence* fa c to r which i s p re se n t i n th e performance on t e s t s o f c o lo r v ersus non-color s tim u li. I t w ill be r e c a lle d th a t th e ex iste n ce o f such a fa c to r i s a b a sic con­ te n tio n o f th e Suropean in v e s tig a to rs which have been c ite d { see Chapter X ) and th a t Thurstone was unable to support t h i s id e a . Many o f th e Rorschach scores seem to be dependent upon

th e

t o t a l p ro d u c tiv ity of the record from which th e scores a re obtained.

As Gronbaeh h as pointed o a t, an individual** * record i s obtained a t ones and h is p ro d u c tiv ity influence* a l l h i s s c o re s ," { 4 , p.409)) A b a sic q u estio n r e l a t i v e to th e e ffe c t* o f c o lo r o r oth er c o n d itio n s upon Rorschach performance concern* t h e i r in flu e n ce on p ro d u c tiv ity and la te n c y o f resp o n ses.

The l e t t e r fa c to r i s fre q u e n tly u t i l i s e d

a s an index o f change in behavior during th e t e s t and i s c o n s is te n tly used as one o f th e im portant sig n s o f "shock" in Rorschach p r a c tic e . On th e b a s is o f th e assum ptions made in th e fterschach l i t e r a ­ tu r e about th e re la tio n s h ip o f c o lo r responsiveness and a f f e c t , under p e rt ( 1 ) o f th e problem, th e follow ing hypotheses were made: A. The p ro d u c tiv ity of responses (R) to the Rorschach p la te s v a rie s a s a fu n c tio n o f th e presence o r absence o f c o lo r and th e degree o f "em otional" c o n s tr ic tio n . B. The n a tu re o f r e la tio n s h ip in A i s such th a t th e d iffe re n c e In p ro d u c tiv ity o f responses between a c o lo r «md non-eolor s e r ie s o f Rcrsehaeh p la te s v a rie s in v e rse ly w ith th e degree o f c o n s tr ic tio n . O. The la te n c y o f i n i t i a l response* to each Rorschach p la te v a rie s ae a fu n c tio n o f th e presence o r absence o f c o lo r and th e degree o f "em otional" c o n s tr ic tio n . D» The n a tu re o f th e re la tio n s h ip under C 1* such th a t the d iffe re n c e * in la te n c ie s between a c o lo r and non-color s e r ie s o f Rorschach p la te * v a rie s d ir e c tly w ith the degree o f c o n s tric tio n . Considering th e widely held -assumption about th e r e la tio n s h ip between th e c o lo r " a ttitu d e s " g e n e ra lly and emotional resp o n siv en ess, under p a r t ( 2 ) o f th e problem ( "em otional c o n s tric tio n " and " c o lo ra ttitu d e " )» th e follow ing hypothesis was modes

1.

th e re t* a n eg ativ e re la tio n s h ip between th e number of c o lo r responses on each o f th e d i f f e r e a t c o lo r te s ta and th e deg ree o f "emotional* c o n stric tio n * fa d e r p a rt (3) o f th e problem ( th e c o lo r "dominance*

f e s t e r ) , th e assumption o f a c o n s is te n t c o lo r " a ttitu d e * "dominance* f a c to r in human su b je c ts i s examined by

or

te s tin g m e

follow ing h y p o th esis; F* She c o lo r responses on th e d if f e r e n t t e s t s of c o lo r Tarsus non-color s tim u li e re p o s itiv e ly IntcfereXatad*

a?

Cfcapter I I I PROCHJURS

m s x ii E ig h ty -th ree stu d e n ts in th e undergraduate course In

th e

Psychology o f Adjustment were used as su b je c ts f o r th e main expert* m ental procedure*

Seven o f th e se had to be elim inated from th e main

desig n o f analyses re q u irin g p a ir s o f su b jects because Of th e f a i l ­ u re o f th e o th e r mashers o f th e ir p a irs to keep subsequent app o in t­ ments*

( The performances o f th e s e seven s u b jse ts were considered in

th o se analyses which did n o t re q u ire p a irin g , ) Thus th ir ty - e ig h t p a ir s were a v a ila b le fo r a l l phases of th e experim ents,

fo u r su b je c ts

adm itted having had th e Rorschach p rev io u sly , b u t in a l l cases tim e sin c e a d m in istra tio n o f th e t e s t was over s in months.

th e

Most o f

th e su b je c ts in d icated acquaintance w ith th e Rorschach by name o r by type* because o f th e b r i e f d isc u ssio n o f psychological t e s t s in t h e i r 8 course work* S I t would be almost im possible to secure an ab so lu te ly naive group o f su b je c ts in a co lleg e population considering the p u b lic ity which th e Rorschach has received in th e movies and In popular p e rio d ica ls*

Apparatus and T est M aterials The standard Rorschach Ink Blot p la te s and photographic r e ­ productions o f a l l of th e te n p la te s p rin te d in black and w hite were used I n th e Rorschach in v e stig atio n *

m

The Color-Form s o rtin g t e s t described by Thurston® ( 38 ) was made by reproducing th e d esig n s he i ll u s t r a t e d in h i s monograph on colored sh e ets o f h l l t o n Bradley C onstruction Paper end p a stin g then to blade i l l u s t r a t i o n cardboard squares X§* diameter* sig n s averaged 3/4* in diam eter*

The do*

Twenty-six desig n s were used in

f iv e d if f e r e n t c o lo rs! see Thurstons** monograph (38)

)•

A com*

partm ent box f o r th e placement of th e cards i n t h i s t e s t was con­ s tru c te d out of cardboard, w ith th e model designs on the f ro n t su r­ fa c e o f each compartment attach ed to w hite haefcgreunda, as suggested by Thurstons*

Bach compartment was divided by a cardboard "wall*

from th e oth er compartments* Un&berg’s Ring T est { SO ) was modified by th e a d d itio n o f n in e more p a ir s o f designs d if f e r in g in c o lo r and "non-color 11 elements*

{ A f u l l e r d e s c rip tio n w ith reproductions o f th ese designs

i s given in Appendix B* ) XAn&barg's s o rtin g t e s t was a lso m odified by including de­ s ig n s , which w hile n o t used in sc o rin g , were employed to fa rc e a " s o rtin g set* on th e p a r t o f each subject*

These a d d itio n s! designs

were constructed so th a t they could be placed n e ith e r by form nor c o lo r as simply a s th e o rig in a l designs used by U sdberg* Appendix 0 f o r reproductions o f th is t e s t .

(

gee

)

The rem aining t e s t m a te ria ls were th e S h ip le y -la rtfo rd Vocabulary and A b stractio n t e s t s ( 34 ) , and a Story-Oompletion T est (d escribed i n Appendix &)•

89

t o e r i m c a ta l Procedure Matching Procedure

*

An experim ental seal® defined as a " c o n s tric tio n " sc ale ( see Appendix A } waa adm inistered to th e undergraduate c la s s from which th e su b je c ts ware ta be dream*

These t e s te ware scored fo r

" e n c e n s trie tio a " w eight ( minus )* " c o n s tric tio n " weight ( plug ) t and th e t o t a l score ( a lg e b ra ic sum o f the w eights ) .

th e t o t a l

aeore w i l l he r e f erred to as th e C o n strictio n sco re ( 0-seore ) • A ll th e t e a t papers were paired o f f on th e b a sis o f equivalent ( o r as near equivalent as p o ssib le

)9

G-eeares and eu b -scaresl i*e* f o r

" u n e o n stric tio a " weight and "c o n stric tio n * weight ) 9 sex and age of th e su b jects*

Xu t h i s way f i f t y p a irs rep re se n tin g th e e n tir e range

o f th e d is tr ib u tio n o f G-soores were drawn as th e pool o f su b je c ts f o r th e stain experim ental procedure*

I f a s u b je c t's paired mate did

not p a r tic ip a te in th e experiment and i f an a lte rn a tiv e p a ir could not be m atched, th e su b je ct was dropped from th e experim ental design based on matched p airs*

A ll p a irs were given numbers and the members

o f each p a ir assigned a t random to e ith e r a group H * o r a group "B". Hein Experim ental Brooadore The main procedure was c a rrie d out in two se ssio n s separated by an in te r v a l o f 48*79 hours* Xu th e f i r s t se ssio n each in d iv id u a l o f Group A received th e

30 standard Rorsohaoh t e s t and each in d iv id u a l o f Group B receiv ed the achrom atic v e rsio n o f th e Rorschach.

T his was followed l>y the i n te r ­

polated ta s k which c o n sisted o f th e S hipley-H artford Vocabulary and A b stractio n te s te «

th e purpose o f th e In te rp o la te d ta s k was to break

th e "set* of eaoh su b je ct and to approach an equivalent Immediate antecedent to th e m odified Lindborg S o rtin g t e s t which followed* The in s tru c tio n s fo r th e a d m in istra tio n of e ith e r Rorschach were i d e n tic a l, as foHowes I have te a cards on which th ere are p rin te d ink b lo t p ic tu re s* X s h a ll hand you each card and I want you to t e l l me what you see in th e ink b lo ts* what they look l i k e to you* Since d if f e r e n t people see d if f * e re n t thing® , anything you can make out of them i s a l l rig h t* Whan you a re through w ith each card* you may hand i t back to me so th a t I can g ive you th e n e st one* The number o f responses expected was not indicated except in ao f a r as could be suggested by the procedure followed a f te r th e s u b je c t’s f i r s t response to th e f i r s t card* fo r a l l s u b je c ts , a t t h i s p o in t th e Experi­ menter aSked th e questions

* i s th e r e anything e ls e you can see?**

If

th e re p ly was negative* th e su b je c t was assurred th a t i t was a l l r ig h t * and th e in s tru c tio n to r e tu r n th e card when fin ish e d was rep e a te d .

If

a t any tim e a su b je c t asked how many responses he should g iv e , h e was to ld th a t i t was up to him and th a t m s p e c ific number o f responses was expected*

T his procedure was followed in order to in su re th a t each

su b je c t would be aware th a t mere then one response was as welcome as much as one response* sin c e in th e experience o f th e experim enter, co llag e

stu d en t su b je c ts o fte n approach th e Rorschach w ith the im pression th a t only one resp o n se, end a t t h a t , th e h o st one, I s th e "co rrect* wear o f tak in g th e te s t*

Ho f a rth e r e f f o r t wee made a t any oth er

p o in t in th e a d m in istra tio n to urge o r d e te r a subject** respons­ iveness* th e re a c tio n tim e f o r th e f i r s t response to each card was noted by stop-w atch read in g s and recorded in the process o f adminis­ t r a t io n of th e Rorschach* The inq u iry method was sim ila r to th at suggested by Beck i I ) except t h a t in m case was th e su b je ct ashed a question involv­ ing a lte rn a tiv e # w ith th e u se o f words suggestive o f a determ inant. ( The common in q u iry may make use o f such questions a s ; * I f t h is were in g ra y , would you s t i l l say

? » } Shore th e su b ject him­

s e l f used th e word "color* (®.g*nth© co lo r helped m th in k o f th a t." } o r "shading*, e t c . .

he was ashed what he m eant.

Thus, except fo r th e

d ir e c tn e s s involved in determ ining th e exact lo c a tio n o r a re a o f th e b lo t used f o r each percept* th e in q u iry was l e f t as non-suggestlve as p o s s ib le .

l i b e r a l u se was made o f such statem ents ass * T e ll me what

you mean" 5 " ib a t i s th e re about t h i s th a t made you say you d e sc rib e

? *2

* Gan

f or me a l i t t l e more, m th a t I can be su re I know

what you mean?* The determ in atio n o f a c o lo r response f o r su b je c ts receiv in g th e standard t e s t ( group

a

) was then on th e b a sis o f spontaneous

statem en ts by th e su b je ct to th e e ffe c t th a t c o lo r played a ro le

in

32

determ ining th e resp o n se.

I f th e re were no such spontaneous In al*

c a tio n s , th e response was not score* a s a co lo r response even

if

s im ila r responses from other su b je c ts In th e eapsrience o f th e ©*asdner genre every in d ic a tio n th a t c o lo r could have bean used. Immediately follo w ing the com pletion o f th e Rorschach each su b je c t wee handed a copy o f th e S hipley-fiariford Toeabulsry te s t*

t h i s was follow s* by th e A b stractio n s te s t*

Both t e s t s were

*elf« a*m tnistsrad w ith th e In s tru c tio n s p rin te d on th e t e s t blanks. M i m inutes was th e maximum tim e allows* f o r each t e s t .

I f th e sub-

J e s t he* not fin ish e d w ith in the time lim it he was asks* to sto p . At th e com pletion o f th e Sfcipley-Hartfcr* S e a le , th e car* co n tain in g th e model d esig n s o f th e Lindberg s o rtin g f a s t was p laced, fa c e u p , on th e ta b le b efo re th e subject*

Be was in stru c te d as

fo llo w s: 1 am going t o hen* you some cards one a t a tim e. Ton are to p la c e each one on th e sp o t on t h i s model car* where you th in k th e car* belongs, f u s t p lac e i t on th e spot you th in k i t goes w ith , f o r say reason* Thera i s no c o rre c t method o f doing th is * A fter you p lac e th e c a rd , remove i t an* 1 w i l l hen* yea th e next one* q u estio n s about th e method were turned a sid e by i a d i c a t i ^ th a t i t was up to th e su b je c t to p lac e th e cards a s he w ished, so long * a s thcy*heloskge** w ith th e model on th e "placement" c a rd . t

th e words "match" o r "resem ble" wore avoided sin c e more o fte n th an n o t th e s e m ight oonnote form elem ents. The concept of "belongingness" as used by Weigl was considered more a p p ro p ria te . ..

3$

The second *e**ten( 48~?8 hour® l a t e r } conflietad ©f th e a d m in istra tio n o f th e m odified U adberg Blag t e s t , the stery ^ cm * p le tio n t e s t ( ae am in te rp o la te d taste J and m e Celor-form S e rtin g t e s t , l a th e o rd er named*

The M eg t e a t waa introduced h r

me

follow ing in s tru c tio n s s X h a re a s e r i e s o f te n cards* th e r e a re p a ir* of designs on each card* i want you to t e l l me how the p a ir# o f design* on each card d i f f e r . lach design i« id e n tifie d tor Baaaa m ineral X o r XX* 1 m mm to t e l l me how designs I and XX d iffe r* Too mar met th ie mm m p o in te rf su b je c t handed a em ail wooden pointer}* Begin w ith t h i s card ( handed card A o f th e s e r ie s }• Mm do d e s i g n s ! and XX d if f e r ? Q uestions about th e h in d s o f d iffe re n c e s o r m e number o f d iffe re n c e s expected were answered w ith statem ents to th e e ffe c t th a t i t did n o t m atter*

Any d iffe re n c e s were acceptable*

The

d iffe re n c e s were recorded on a s p e c ia l sh e et by use of abbreviation* o r ended symbols worfced oat m ead o f time( e*g* *QP f o r c o lo r, *Ahs« f o r arrowhead epaeimg, wXw* fo r w idth o f l i n e , etc* ) The order of d iffe re n c e s and th e t o t a l time spent on each d e sig a -p a ir were a lso noted* At m e com pletion o f t h i s t e s t , th e su b je c t was handed th e sh eet fo r th e sto ry t e s t and a card ( se e Appendix D )

At th e end o f the

w ith in s tru c tio n s typed on i t , tim e lim it ( te n m inutes )

th e su b je ct was stopped and th e papers withdrawn* The g o lo r-y o m s o rtin g t e s t was adm inistered w ith

th e

follow ing in s tru c tio n a l th e box o f compartment* each having a model

u

card in f f o a t o f id woo placed a t arm* rea ch b efo re th e su b je ct ) : I s» going to band you a sta c k o f card®. Too a re ba p le a s eaoh Sard im th e emeed become# t h i s tra n a form ation ten d s to y ie ld a mo?# normal d is tr ib u tio n o f the tim e sear## a s w e ll as to man# tb e v a ria n ce s nor# homogeneous. See im #ller(S 3) and M warda( 6 ) f o r tb e ra tio n a le *

th e neens and standard d e v ia tio n s o f tbe o rig in a l scores a re given i n f a b le V II.

f a b le V III blows tb e d a ta f o r tb e a n a ly sis o f v a r i­

ance o f tb e transform ed sc o re s. Aft i n tb e case w ith tb e a n a ly sis of p ro d u c tiv ity , th e re a re no s ig n if ic a n t

d iffe re n c e s in tb e mean re a c tio n tim es on tbe

te n card s between tb e d if f e r e n t Rorschach groups.

S im ilarly tb ere

was no s ig n if ic a n t in te r a c tio n between tb e c o n s tric tio n le v e ls and tb e Rorschach c o n d itio n s to a f f e c t re a c tio n tim es. fb# means and standard d ev ia tio n s o f tb e re a c tio n tim es f o r tb e flvS*eolor* card s

are presented In fa b le IX.

fb e a n aly sis

o f v aria n ce o f tb e transform ed sco res on tb ese fiv e cards ( presented i n fa b le X ) a ls o yielded neg ativ e r e s u l ts . fb e d iffe re n c e s between tb e mean re a c tio n tim e on a l l te n card s and tb e mean re a c tio n tim e f o r tbe fiv e "c o lo r" cards was ana­ ly se d .

fb e d iffe re n c e was talcm so tb a t a p o s itiv e score in d ic ate d

T a b le V II M e a n s a n d S ta n d a r d O e v i a t i o n s o f M ean R e a c t i o n T im e s * to th e R o rsc h a c h P la te s ( 10 c a rd s )

C o n stric tio n Levels

Achromatic Rorschach

Standard Rorschach

M**

Mean

S .0 .

Mean

S,B*

I

15*06

4,36

17.9

8.48

11

IX

15.79

7.36

15*46

11,74

14

III

15,06

10.81

80,97

15.18

13

* Mean Reaction Times in seconds* ** The Mumben of su b je c ts in each Rorschach group* Table V III Analysis of Variance* of Mean Reaction Times to the Rorschach { 10 cards )

Source

Sum of Squares

d.f.

Rorschach Conditions

0.0346

1

0.0346

0.033 ( n

C o n stric tio n Levels .

0*0380

8

0.0190

0,061 ( a,

( Gx L )

0,0899

$

0.0449

0.079 ( n,

Within C e lls

3,9918

70

0,5703

4.1543

78

In te r a c tio n

T o ta l

V lo g arith m ic tran sfo rm atio n of scores

Mean Square

¥

k6

T a b le IX M e a n s a n d S t a n d a r d D e v i a t i o n s o f M ean R e a c t i o n T im e s t o tfe© R o r s c h a c h P l a t e s ( 5 c a r d s )

C o n stric tio n Levels

Standard Rorschach Mss®

Achromatic Rorschach

s .o

Mean

H

8.B .

I

u as

5.3$

17.49

10.SO

11

11

15.91

7.64

17.84

18.19

14

m

15.S3

13.80

19.46

18.81

13

* Rorschach p la te s II * XII* T ill* I I and X Table X A nalysis of Variance* of Mean R eaction Times to th e Rorschach P la te s ( 5 cards )

Sum of Squares

« .f .

Mean Square*;

Rorschach G oaditions 3.0468

1

•0468

0 .7 E 6 (n .s.)

O o a strie tio a Levels

0.0168

8

•0081

0 .0 jU8(r *s .)

In t« ra c tio n ( O i l )

0.G878

8

•0439

0 .6 8 1 th .s .)

W ithin C e lls

4.6086

70

.0644

T o tal

4.7594

78

Source

*

Logarithm ic traasf© xm aiioa o f score®

P

hi

a d e la y m th e "color* cards* i.e * # mean R.T. fo r "color* c ard s minus mean &•$« f o r a l l t e a e a rls# f o r each Individual#

A c o n stan t equal

to m e la r g e s t n e g a tiv e v alu et Sd.d ) was added to a l l sc o res to ©llminat® m e minus sign# m e sa data#

Aa a n a ly sis o f v a ria n ce was applied

Table JX g iv e s th e r e s u l ts o f m e analysis#

to

There were

no sig & lfie a n t d lffe re n o e a in th e d e la y o f re a c tio n tim es to

th e

"color® cards between th e standard Rorschach group mid th e achromatic fioraehach group# As in th e ease o f p ro d u ctiv ity # th e d iffe re n c e in r e a c tio n tim e o f th e matched p a irs a s a fu n c tio n o f c o n s tric tio n was examined by tak in g a d iffe re n c e se c re t

0$

) in mean re a c tio n tim es f o r

th e

p a ir s and c o rr e la tin g th ese sc o res w ith th e (M e tre s rep re se n tin g each, p a ir ,

th u s f o r each p a ir o f Uroup A and B# Bfm- ®T^ d e fin e s % • The

range' o f th e

0 $*$

th u s obtained ran from -36#$ to +57*0* To e lim in ate

th e n e g a tiv e values# io n from 0 to 73.3# o r mean

56.3 was added to a l l sc o res giving a d i s t r i b u t ­ These

sc o re s were c o rre la te d w ith th e common

S-aeor© rep re se n tin g each o f th e 38 p a irs*

The r e s u ltin g

product mhmcrnt c o rre la tio n c o e f fic ie n tt £ ! «a« *®44# which f o r an » o f 58 i s n o a -e ig n ifle a n t.

1*8

fa b le XX

Analysis of Variance of the M fferences between Mean Reaction Times for Tea Rorschach. Cards end lean Reaction Times fo r Vive "Color" Rorschach Cards

source

Rorschach Conditions

Sum of Squares

d .f 9

Mean square

F

9,521

1

9.501

07.671

2

13*©35

0.535 C n . s . }

31 190

0

13*596:

0.335 ( n .s . }

Within Cells

17X7.59©

70

049 537

Total

1705.074

73

Constriction lev els

0.388

{

n .s . J

in teractio n ( C x i )

9

h9

Bff set Upon Quality o f Responses Although no s p e c ific hypotheses have hem made about th e o f fo o t o f e d o r on tb e q u a lity o f responses 9 an a n a ly sis o f th is area was considered o f i n t e r e s t , sin c e tb e fo o te r of q u a lity o fte n e n te rs l a t e d isc u ssio n s o f "shook* and b eh av io ral a lte r a tio n s during th e Earschaeh perform ance,

Bach Horseha