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English Pages 144 Year 2019
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TEXTBOOK
~ Marshall Cavendish
UA:1 Education
Original edition published under the title Primary Mathematics Textbook 2B © 1982 Curriculum Planning & Development Division, Ministry of Education, Singapore Published by Times Media Private Limited This edition © 2008 Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited © 2014 Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd
Published by Marshall Cavendish Education Times Centre, 1 New Industrial Road, Singapore 536196 Customer Service Hotline: (65) 6213 9688 US Office Tel : (1914) 332 88881 Fax: (1914) 332 8882 Email : cs@mceducation .com Website: www.mceducation .com Marshall Cavend ish Corporation 99 White Plains Road Tarrytown, NY 10591 U.S.A. Tel: (1914) 332 8888 Fax : (1 914) 332 8882 Email: mcc@marshallcavendish .com Website: www.marshallcavendish .com First published 2008 Reprinted 2009 (twice), 2010, 2011 (twice), 2012, 2015, 2018 (twice), 2019 (twice) All rights reserved . No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright owner. Any requests for permission should be addressed to the Publisher. Marshall Cavendish is a registered trademark of Times Publishing Limited. Singapore Math"' is a trademark of Singapore Math Inc."' and Marshall Cavendish Education Pte Ltd. Primary Mathematics (Standards Edition) Textbook 2B ISBN 9780761469797 Printed in Singapore Primary Mathematics (Standards Edition) is adapted from Primary Mathematics Textbook 2A (3rd Edition), originally developed by the Ministry of Education, Singapore. This edition contains new content developed by Marshall Cavendish International (Singapore) Private Limited, which is not attributable to the Ministry of Education, Singapore. We would like to acknowledge the Project Team from the Ministry of Education, Singapore, that developed the original Singapore Edition: Project Director: Dr Kho Tek Hong Team Members: Hector Chee Kum Hoong, Liang Hin Hoon, Lim Eng Tann, Ng Siew Lee, Rosalind Lim Hui Cheng, Ng Hwee Wan, Thong Chee Hing Our thanks to Richard Askey, Emeritus Professor of Mathematics (University of Wisconsin, Madison) and Madge Goldman, President (Gabriella and Paul Rosenbaum Foundation), for their help and advice in the production of Primary Mathematics (Standards Edition) . We would also like to recognize the contribution of Jennifer Kempe (Curriculum Advisor, Singapore Math Inc."') to Primary Mathematics (Standards Edition) .
THIS BOOK IS THE PROPERTY OF: STATE
Book No.
PROVINCE
Enter information
COUNTY
in spaces to the left as
PARISH
instructed.
SCHOOL DISTRICT OTHER ISSUED TO
Year Used
CONDITION ISSUED
RETURNED
Students to whom this textbook is issued must not write on any page or mark any part of it in any way, consumable textbooks excepted. 1.
Teachers sho uld see that the student's name is clearly written in ink in the spaces above in
2.
The following terms shou ld be used in recording the condition of the book: New; Good; Fair;
every book issued .
Poor; Bad .
~~
'~
.lr'CIJ(Standards Edition)
is a complete program from the publishers of Singapore's successful Primary Mathematics series. Newly adapted to align with the Mathematics Framework for California Public Schools, the program aims to equip students with sound concept development, critical thinking and efficient problemsolving skills.
Mathematical concepts are introduced in the opening pages and taught to mastery through specific learning tasks that allow for immediate assessment and consolidation.
The color patch
II is
used to invite active student participation and to facilitate lively discussion about the mathematical concepts taught.
20()
(b) "10() ..j.
10
+
= e
so
+ 8 "' •
,.
The Concrete __.. Pictorial __..Abstract approach enables students to encounter math in a meaningful way and translate mathematical skills from the concrete to the abstract.
New mathematical concepts are introduced through a spiral progression that builds on concepts already taught and mastered.
Metacognition is employed as a strategy for learners to monitor their thinking processes in problem solving. Speech and thought bubbles provide guidance through the thought processes, making even the most challenging problems accessible to students.
·(If Exercise a. page as I The pencil icon provides quick and easy reference from the Textbook to the relevant Workbook pages. The direct correlation of the Workbook to the Textbook facilitates focused review and evaluation.
Cf!ntitn@te,.
The Cf!nt/
Meaning
W~ Write :~;::: ll~it of length 00 crn = 1 rn
nttrneter.
·
~ ....... ,,.,,, .....
f:!'l
:~
~
division
To put into

equal groups.
We diVir.Je to fin ~ each group. d the number In
°"'"'"""""
Ther. °"' 6 ~~: ~ 9"oups, 12. 2
=6
~
We also divide number of to find the equo/groupt.
Regular reviews in the Textbook provide consolidation of concepts learnt.
~12c:hwrJ., ,,.,!O
12 Clt"92eqt.lal9">u~PSOf6.
..
=2
We
+ 6 Write '+ • r
,.,..
The glossary effectively combines pictorial representation with simple mathematical definitions to provide a comprehensive reference guide for students.
CO~TE~TS 7
Addition and Subtraction 1 2 3
Finding the Missing Number Practice A Methods for Mental Addition Methods for Mental Subtraction Practice B
REVIEW7
8
21
Multiplication and Division 1 2 3
4
Multiplying and Dividing by 4 Practice A Multiplying and Dividing by 5 Practice B Multiplying and Dividing by 10 Practice C Practice D Division with Remainder Practice E
REVIEWS
9
8 13 14 17 20
24 29 30 33 34 36 37 38 41
42
Money Dollars and Cents Practice A 2 Adding Money 3 Subtracting Money Practice B Practice C
44
REVIEW9
60
1
49 50 54 58 59
10
Fractions
~~
1 Halves and Quarters 2 Writing Fractions 3 Fraction of a Set REVIEW 10
, Time 1 Telling Time After the Hour 8 7 2 Telling Time Before the Hour . . . . . ._. ..__.. 3 Time Intervals 4 Other Units of Time REVIEW 11
12
Capacity
~· 1
Comparing Capacity 2 Liters 3 Gallons, Quarts, Pints and Cups REVIEW 12
Tables and Graphs
~•· 1
Picture Graphs 2 Bar Graphs REVIEW 13
Geometry ~~
1 Flat and Curved Faces 2 Making Shapes REVIEW 14 REVIEW 15
Glossary
76
78 80 84
86
0
Finding the Missing Number
part
part
whole 7 and
make 12.
.•
7 + 8

12
To find one part, we subtract.
12  7  5
1.
How many flowers do I take away?
20 
 12
9
2.
Complete the number sentences.
..
(a) () Q)
part
00 ()0 0 00 00 00 00 00 00 0 00 0 00 00 whole
part
To find one part, we subtract.
14 +
 30
(b)
whole
part
To find one part, we subtract.
21 
 5
10
part
(c)
whole
part
part
To find the whole, we add.
 6 
18
3. Find the missing number in each of the following: (a) 4 +
 13
(b) 20
(c) 9 +

(d) 47
39
 13  19  10
(e)
+ 8
 15
(f)
7
(g)
+ 14  60
(h)
16  40 iW
Exercise 1, pages 78
4. There are 68 red beads in a bottle. How many more red beads are needed to make 100?
+ 30
+2
68
70
+ 32 11
100
I
5.
What number must be added to 53 to give the answer 100?
•• •• ,.,.
9 tens and 10 ones make 100.
1 .

53 + 100
...
100
53
,, +
'
6.
5 tens tens 9 tens
3 ones ones 10 ones
Find the missing number in each of the following:
= 100
(a) 34 + (c)
7.
100
(b) 76 +
+ 82 = 100
(d)
+ 9
= 100 = 100
Find the value of (a) 100  26
(b) 100  61
(c) 100  42
(d) 100  96
(e) 100  2
(f) 100  8
12
'W
Exercise 2. pages 91 o
I
1. Find the missing number in each of the following: (a)
+ 25  40
(b) 23
 6
(c)
+ 17  56
(d) 43
 21
(e) 58 +
 72
(f)
 79
 11
(g) 46 +
 100
(h)
18
 54
(i) (~
+ 25  100
(j) 100 
 93
 100
(1) 100 
 57
63 +
2. Find the value of each of the following: (a) 100  38
(b) 100  99
(c) 100  98
(d) 100  4
(e) 100  9
(f) 100  3
3. A farmer had 215 ducks. After selling some of them, he had 36 ducks left. How many ducks did he sell? 4. Mr. Perez bought a camera for $127. He had $53 left. How much money did he have at first? 5. A cabbage weighs 324 g. A cucumber weighs 86 g less than the cabbage. ~ (a) What is the weight of the cucumber? ~ (b) Find the total weight of the cabbage~, and the cucumber. ~ 13
e
Methods for Mental Addition What number is 20 more than 356?
3 hundreds
5 tens
6 ones
356 Add 2 tens to 356.
+ 20

356 + 20
=
What number is 2 more than 356? What number is 200 more than 356?
14
1. Find the value of (a) 43 + 6
(b) 38 + 7
(c) S6 + S
(d) 20 + 30
(e) 40 + SO
(f) 80 + 60
(g) 24 + 30
(h) 43 +
so
(i) 87 + 60 (W
2.
Exercise 3. pages 11 12
I
Find the value of
s
(a) 1S3 + 9
(b) 278 +
(c) 60S + 7
(d) 320 + 60
(e) 23S + 70
(g) 200 + 200
(h)
soo
(j) 2S6 + 200
(~
S04 + 300 + 100
(f) 164 +
+ 300
(i) 400 + :w
so soo
Exercise 4. pages 1314
I
3. Add 43 and 26 .
•• •• ••
43 + 20
63 + 6
43 + 26
/\
20 6 Add 20 to 43 first .
69
43 + 26 4.
Find the value of (a) S 1 + 18
(b) 6S + 12
(c) 72 + 16
(d) 36 + 47
(e) S6 + 2S
(f) 29 + 3S
15
rw
Exercise 5. page 15
I
5.
Add 99 and 4. 99 + 4 = 100 + 3
/\
1
3
99 and 1 make 100.
99 + 4 = 6.
7.
Find the value of
(a) 99 + 2
(b) 99 + 9
(c) 98 + 5
(d) 99 + 46
(e) 99 + 58
(f) 98 + 36
(a) 28 + 99
(b) 54 + 99
(c) 95 + 99
(d) 57 + 98
(e) 86 + 98
(f) 99 + 98
Find the value of
'WExercise 6. page 16 I
8.
Add 237 and 99.
237 + 99
I\
236
= 236
1
99 and 1 make 100.
237 + 99 9.
+ 100
•
.
=
Find the value of
(a) 256 + 99
(b) 307 + 99
(c) 99 + 652
(d) 104 + 98
(e) 463 + 98
(f) 98 + 299
16
'WExercise 7, page 17 I
0
Methods for Mental Subtraction What number is 40 less than 578?
5 hundreds
7 tens
8 ones
578
Subtract 4 tens from 578.
40

578  40 
What number is 4 less than 578? What number is 400 less than 578?
17
1.
Find the value of (a) 38  2
(b) 24  6
(c) 70  9
so 
30
(e) 70  20
(f) 90 
(g) S1  30
(h) 78  20
(i) 9S 
(d)
·w
2.
so so
Exercise 8. pages 1819
I
Find the value of (a) 230  7
(b) 206  9
(c)411 8
(d) 780  60
(e) 4SO  70
(f) S40  80
soo 
200
(h) 700  400
(i) 900  300
(j) S42  200
(k) 7S3  400
(1) 908  300
(g)
'W
Exercise 9, pages 2021
I
3. Subtract 23 from S4. 54  23
/\
20 3
Subtract 20 from 54 first.
S4
 20
34
 3
31
S4  23 4.
Find the value of (a) S8  17
(b) 87  16
(c) 42  12
(d) 32  2S
(e) 6S  48
(f) 7S  S6
18
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Exercise 10, pages 2223
I
5. Subtract 99 from 300. 300  99 = 200 + 1
I \
200 100
•.
Subtract 99 from 100.
300  99 6.
=
Find the value of (a) 200  99
(b) 400  99
(c) 900  99
(d) 700  98
(e) 500  98
(f) 800  98 !fil
Exercise 11, page 24
I
7. Subtract 98 from 203. 203  98
I \
= 103
103 100
+ 2 •
Subtract 98 from 100.

203  98 8.
9.
Find the value of (a) 102  99
(b) 308  99
(c) 605  99
(d) 304  98
(e) 401  98
(f) 706  98
(a) 240  99
(b) 346  99
(c) 712  99
(d) 321  98
(e) 554  98
(f) 930  98
Find the value of
19
lfil
Exercise 12. page 25
I
Find the value of each of the following:
1. 234 73 2. 3. 105 4. 56 5. 325 6.
(a) + + 
8 16 7 15 99
365 62 512 74 406
(b) + + 
80 99 300 32 98
705 98 420 89 600
(c) + + 
200 304 80 27 99
(a) What number is 5 more than 299? (b) What number is 7 less than 406?
7. There are 92 students in a school cafeteria. 57 of them are boys. How many girls are there? 8. Seth had $500. He bought a washing machine and had $98 left. Find the cost of the washing machine. 9. A toaster costs $64. It costs $15 more than a kettle. What is the cost of the kettle? 10. There were 98 There were 40 (a) How many (b) How many
boys and 86 girls at a concert. more children than adults. children were there? adults were there?
20
Find the value of each of the following:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
316 185 409 751 400
(a) + + + 
70 65 98 20 198
0
1
2
1 Cm
r
(b) 287 + 40 333 + 78 176 + 54 505  so 422  63
I
153 425 399 214 600
3
6
7
r
I
'
I
I
(c) + + + 
8
9
10
tI
I
I
I
I
~ (a) Which is shorter, the stick or the pencil? (b) How much shorter? 7.
1 ft
=
in.
8.
The watermelon weighs
The pear weighs
oz.
lb. 21
57 75 99 36 98 11
' I I I I
1'
1.2
I
9.
Find the next two numbers in this regular number pattern:
99
I 98
297
396
?
10. (a) A number has 4 tens, 5 ones and 7 hundreds. What is the number? (b) Write the number in words. 11. After using 255 eggs to make cakes, Mrs. Ward had 45 eggs left. How many eggs did she have at first? 12. Mr. Hernandez made 185 chicken tortillas. He made 28 more cheese tortillas than chicken tortillas. How many cheese tortillas did he make? 13. Joshua is 135 cm tall. He is 29 cm shorter than David. Find David's height. 14. John weighs 65 lb. His sister weighs 19 lb less. What is her weight? 15. 1000 people were invited to an exhibition. Only 958 people were present at the exhibition. How many people were not present? 16. Mrs. Owens sold 105 eggs on Monday morning. She sold 95 eggs on Monday afternoon. Find the total number of eggs she sold on Monday. 22
17. Raj had a rope 18 ft long. He cut it into 3 equal pieces. Find the length of each piece. 18. Juan sold 215 copies of newspapers on Saturday. He sold 285 copies of newspapers on Sunday. (a) How many copies of newspapers did he sell on both days? (b) How many more copies of newspapers did he sell on Sunday than on Saturday? 19. Stacie had 200 kg of cherries. She sold 86 kg on the first day and 54 kg on the second day. (a) How many kilograms of cherries did she sell altogether? (b) How many kilograms of cherries did she have left? 20. The television costs $85 less than the microwave. (a) Find the cost of the television. (b) Find the total cost of the television and the microwave.
23
:m
Review
s. pages
2629
I
MUI.TIPl.ICATIO MD DIYISIO~
0
Multiplying and Dividing by 4 Count the stickers by 4's.
4
8 12 16
20
24 28
32 36 40 24
There are 4 stickers in each row. (a) How many stickers are there in 3 rows? Count by 4's: 4, 8, 12
4 x 3 
There are
stickers in 3 rows.
(b) How many stickers are there in 7 rows?
7 
Count by 4's: 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28
There are
stickers in 7 rows.
4
1.
x
(a) Multiply 4 by 4. 4
x
4
x 9 
4 
(b) Multiply 4 by 9.
25
iW
Exercise 1. pages 3032
I
2. 4
x
8 = 32
8X4= 3. What are the missing numbers?
4X5=20
4.
Complete the number sentences.
4 x 1 = 4 4 x 2 = 8 4 x 3 =• 4 x 4 =• 4 x 5 4 x 6 4 x 7 4 x 8 4 x 9
1
2
x 4=4 x 4=.
3 X4= •
4 x 4 =. 5 x 4 = .
=• =• =•
6 X4= •
=•
8 X4= •
=•
X4= • 10 x 4 =
7
9
4 x 10 
26
x 4=.
5.
0000 0000 0000 0000 0000

4 X 6 is 4 more than 20.
20 4 4
x 5 x 6 
20
;(II
6.
Exercises 2 and 3, pages 3339
(a) Divide 12 tomatoes into 4 equal groups. How many tomatoes are there in each group?
12 + 4 There are
=
tomatoes in each group.
(b) Divide 12 tomatoes into groups of 4. How many groups are there?
12 + 4 There are
l
3
groups.
x 4 = 12
. 4 
'T
27

I
7. What are the missing numbers? 8
x
4
32 + 4
8.
= 32
=
Find the value of (a)
= 4 =
4 + 4
(d) 24 +
(b) 16 + 4
=
(e) 12 + 4 =
= 4 =
(c) 36 + 4 (f) 40 +
9. Suhua saves the same amount of money every day. (a) If she saves $32 in 4 days, how much does she save a day? $32 + 4 She saves
a day.
(b) If she saves $4 a day, how many days does she take to save $40? $40 + $4 She takes
=
days to save $40.
28
'W
Exercise 4. pages 4042
I
Find the value of each of the following: (a)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
3 4 4
x 4 . 4
x 6 8 . 4 36 . 4
(b) 7 32 4 20 12
(c)
x 4 x
..
4 10 4 4
2 x 4 16 + 4 4 x 8 40 . 4 24 + 4
6.
A taxi can carry 4 passengers. How many passengers can 5 taxis carry?
7.
Mr. Baker packs 16 kg of flour equally into 4 bags. How many kilograms of flour are there in each bag?
8.
6 children went to a library. Each child borrowed 4 books. How many books did they borrow altogether?
9.
Mr. Rogers bought 4 Tshirts for $40. How much did 1 Tshirt cost?
10. Miss Wells made 4 sets of cushion covers. She used 8 m of cloth for each set. How many meters of cloth did she use altogether? 11. There are 36 glasses packed in boxes. Each box holds 9 glasses. How many boxes are there?
29
0
Multiplyin g and Dividing by 5 Count the picture cards by S's.
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
30
1. At a sale, picture cards were sold at 5 for $1. (a) Sara bought some picture cards for $3. How many picture cards did she buy?
5
x
Count by S's: S, 10, 1S
3 
She bought
picture cards.
(b) Dani bought some picture cards for $8. How many picture cards did she buy?
5
Count by S's: S, 10, 1S, 20, 2S, 30, 3S,40
x 8 
She bought
picture cards.
2. Russell bought 9 fivecent stamps. How much did he pay? Count by S's: S, 10, 1S, 20, 2S, 30, 3S,40,4S
5
x 9
=
He paid 31
3. How much money is there in each set? (a)
(b)
'W
Exercise
s. page
43
I
4. What are the missing numbers? 5
x
4 = 20
4
x
5
=
5. Find the value of
x
(a) 7 X 5
(b) 6
(d) 5 x 5
(e) 5 X 2
5
(c)
1 X 5
(f) 10 'W
x
5
Exercise 6. pages 4445
I
6. What are the missing numbers?
15 + 5 7.
=
Find the value of (a) 30 . 5
(b)
5 . 5
(c) 25 · 5
(d) 10 . 5
(e) 50 . 5
(f) 45 . 5
32
'W
Exercise 7, pages 4648
I
Find the value of each of the following:
1. 2.
3. 4. 5.
5 15 5 20 40
(a)
(b)
x
4 x 5 25 . 5 5 x 9 30 . 5 . 5
5 . 5 x 1 . 5 . 5
so
(c) 7 5 5 45 35
6. Mrs. Larson bought 5 kg of prawns. 1 kg of prawns cost $8. How much did she pay for the prawns? 7. A baker sold 5 chocolate cakes a day. Each chocolate cake cost $7. How much money did he receive? 8.
5 people spent $45 for lunch together. They shared the cost of the lunch equally. How much did each person spend?
9. Jamie packed 25 cookies into packets of 5. How many packets of cookies did she get? 10. Carlos bought 3 kg of grapes. How much did he pay?
11. Lindsey paid $30 for 5 kg of clams. What was the cost of 1 kg of clams? 33
x
5 . 5 x 3 . 5 . 5
E) Multiplying and Dividing by 10 Count the eggs by tens.
1.
10
20
30
40
so
60
70
80
90
100
In a supermarket, eggs were sold in trays of 10 each. (a) Dakota bought 4 trays of eggs. How many eggs did she buy? 10 x 4
Count by tens:
=
She bought
10, 20, 30, 40 eggs.
(b) Michelle bought 6 trays of eggs. How many eggs did she buy? 10
x
6
Count by tens:
=
She bought
10, 20, 30,40, 50, 60 eggs. 34
2.
How much money is there in each set?
(a)
(b)
3.
What are the missing numbers?
4.
Find the value of
(a) 10 X 3
(d) 5.
2 x 10
10 X 10
(e)
1 X 10
(c) 10 X 9 (f) tm
6 X 10 Exercise B. pages 4951
I
What are the missing numbers?
so 6.
(b)
+ 10
=
Find the value of
(a) 60
10
(b)
10
(c) 10 : 10
(d) 40
10
(e) 100 · 10
(f) 90 : 10
30
35
.
(m
Exercise 9. pages 5254
I
Find the value of each of the following: 1.
2. 3.
4. 5.
(a)
(b)
x
1 x 10 . 20 . 10 10 x 5 . 10 . 10 80 . 10
10 . 10 60 10 x 6 30 . 10 100 . 10
4
(c) 7 70 10 90
x ..
x
. so ..
10 10 10 10 10
6. Mrs. Rodriguez bought 10 movie tickets. Each movie ticket cost $7. How much did she pay altogether? 7.
Emily bought 40 beads. The beads were sold in packets of 10. How many packets of beads did Emily buy?
8.
Saira made 10 jars of pineapple jam. She sold them at $3 for one jar. How much money did she receive?
9.
Maria paid $80 for 10 cans of paint. Find the cost of one can of paint.
10. Kristin bought 10 bags of sugar. Each bag weighed 5 kg. How many kilograms of sugar did she buy? 11. In a supermarket, muffins were sold in boxes of 10. Mrs. Ward bought 60 muffins. How many boxes of muffins did she buy? 36
Find the value of each of the following: (a)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6 12 4 40
x
9
x
.
4 4
x
8
. 5 5
(b)
(c)
2 x 10 40 10 5 x 5 28 . 4 10 x 3
6 x 5 20 + 5 9 x 4 35 . 5 8 x 10
6. Ashley paid $36 for 4 m of cloth. Find the cost of 1 m of cloth. 7. A tailor made 5 dresses. He used 3 m of cloth for each dress. How many meters of cloth did he use altogether? 8. A jigsaw puzzle costs $10. How many jigsaw puzzles can Matthew buy with $50? 9.
24 chairs are arranged equally in 4 rows. How many chairs are there in each row?
10. Mrs. Holt packed 40 pies into boxes of 5 each. How many boxes of pies were there? 11. Joe bought 8 boxes of greeting cards. There were 4 greeting cards in each box. How many greeting cards were there altogether?
37
0
Division with Remainder
There are 9 birds on the tree. 2 groups of 4 birds fly to the ground. How many birds are left on the tree? 9  4  4
=
When we start with 9 and make groups of 4, there is 1 left over. 1.
Divide 9 balls equally into 4 groups. How many balls are there in each group? When we divide 9 balls into 4 equal groups, 1 ball is left over.
9 + 4 balls in each group. There is
ball left over. 38
2.
3.
Felicia packed 18 tomatoes into groups of 4 each. How many groups of tomatoes were there?
There were
groups of tomatoes.
There were
tomatoes left over.
7 milk cartons are put into groups of 3. How many groups of milk cartons are there? How many milk cartons are left over?
WWW WWW W 7  3  3 
4.
left over
Cheyenne has 56 beads. She makes necklaces with 10 beads for each necklace. How many necklaces are there? How many beads are left over? 56  10  10  10  10  10 = 56 . 10 There are
left over
with necklaces with 39
beads left over.
5.
A gym teacher divided 12 children into 2 teams of 5 each. How many children were remaining? There were
6.
There are 23 cookies in a cookie jar. John shares them equally between 4 x 5 = 20 himself and 3 friends. 4 x 6 = 24 He puts the left over cookies back 20 cookies are shared. in the jar. 23  20 = How many cookies do each of them get? How many cookies does he put back in the jar?
=
23 + 4 John puts 7.
with
left over
cookies back in the jar.
2 children shared 15 baseball cards equally. How many baseball cards were left over? There were
8.
children remaining.
15 2
+
2 
?
x
15  14

14

baseball cards left over.
Mimi can fit 4 oranges into a bag. How many bags will she need for 14 oranges? 14  4  4  4 14 + 4
=
=
with
left over
There are
left over.
She will need an extra bag for the left over oranges. Mimi will need
bags for 14 oranges. 40
'W
Exercise 1o. pages 5556
I
1. Seth had 23 toy soldiers. He arranged them in 2 rows of 10. How many toy soldiers were left over? 2.
There were 13 dogs at a dog show. They were put in groups of 3. How many dogs were not in a group?
3. Jada bought 37 orchids and put them in vases. She put 10 orchids in 1 vase each. How many vases did she use? How many orchids were left over? 4.
Kumar had 25 almonds. He ate 7 almonds, and gave 7 to his brother. The next day he took another 7 almonds to school. (a) How many groups of 7 almonds did he make? (b) How many almonds did he have left?
5.
26 students are going on a field trip in vans. Each van can hold 10 students besides the driver. How many vans are needed?
6.
At a store, apple tarts are packed into boxes that hold 5 apple tarts each. How many boxes are needed for packing 38 apple tarts?
41
Find the value of each of the following: (a)
1. 2.
3. 4. 5. 6.
3 x 20 . 4 x 30 . 10 x
(c)
(b)
4 4 9 5 10
5 x 8 50 . 10 10 x 7 32 . 4
4 x 7
9 25
x 10 . 5
4 x 4 10 5
. x
10 3
Dani packed 50 cupcakes equally into 5 boxes. How many cupcakes were there in each box?
7. Tracy bought 6 bags of oranges. There were 10 oranges in each bag. How many oranges did she buy altogether? 8.
Pablo spent $40 on lychees. How many kilograms of lychees did he buy?
9.
Carlos and John shared $16 equally. How much money did each boy receive?
10. 39 scouts go camping. 4 campers can share a tent. How many tents do they need?
~~~
11. Emma used 24 m of material to make curtains. She used 4 m of material for each set of curtains. (a) How many sets of curtains did she make? (b) How much material did she have left over?
42
Find the value of each of the following: (a) 12. 781 + 19 13. 266  6 14. 6 x 2 15. 40 . 4
(b) 250 + 398 502  493 5 x 6 18 . 3
(c) 608 + 294 700  299 7 x 10 45 . 5
16.
(a) The pear weighs {b) The apple weighs
oz. oz.
(c) Which weighs more? How much more? 17. The total length of 2 pieces of ribbon is 9 in. One piece of ribbon is 5 in. long. Find the length of the other piece of ribbon. 18. 1 lb of grapes costs $3. Mrs. King bought 7 lb of grapes. How much did she pay? 19. Nicole used 27 yd of cloth to make dresses. She used 5 yd of cloth for each dress. (a) How many dresses did she make? (b) How much cloth did she have left over? 43
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Review 9, pages 5760
I
0
Dollars and Cents Sara paid this amount of money for a book.
10, 15, 16, 17, 18 dollars 50, 60, 65 cents
The book cost $18.65.
44
$18.65 /~ $18
''·
65¢
$18.65 Eighteen dollars and sixtyfive cents $18.65 is 18 dollars and 65 cents. The dot• separates the cents from the dollars.
1. How much money is there in each set? (a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
45
2.
Read the prices of these items.
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Exercise 1. pages 6163
I
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Exercise 2. pages 6467
I
3. Write in dollars and cents.
4.
(a) $4.75 
dollars
cents
(b) $8.00 
dollars
cents
(c) $0.35 
dollars
cents
(a) How many onecent coins can be changed for $1? (b) How many tencent coins can be changed for $1 ? (c) How many fivecent coins can be changed for $1?
5.
(a)
3 fiftycent coins
=$
(b) 6 quarters
=$ 46
6.
(a) How many quarters can be changed for a onedollar bill? (b) How many fivedollar bills can be changed for a twentydollar bill?
7.
I have 3 fivedollar bills and 8 onedollar bills.
How much money does Melissa have?
Melissa
8. Write in dollars.
(a) 65¢ (b) 165¢
$1 = 100¢
=$
9. Write in cents. (a) $0.85 
¢
(b) $1.20 
¢
(c) $2.00 
¢
(d) $2.05 
¢
47
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Exercise 3, pages 6869
I
10. Tanya bought this ruler. She gave the shopkeeper $1 . How much change did she receive? $1  45¢
=
'··
45¢ and 55¢ make $1.
She received 11 . How much more money is needed to make $1? (a)
>I I ~ >I I ~
(b)
$1
60¢
(c)
>I I 'l >I I 'l $1
85¢
(d)
$1
10¢
$1
5¢
12. Find the value of (a) $1  20¢
(b) $1  75¢ ·w
Exerme 4, page 70
I
13. How much more money is needed to make $1 O? (a)
~
$10
I $4.3o I
~
(b)
1...
J 'l $10
I $2.6s I
. I . _ __
_ _ .
14. Find the value of (a) $10  $5.40
(b) $10  $6.95 48
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Exerme
s. pages
7174
I
1. Write in dollars and cents. (a) $3.45 (b) $6.00 (c) $7.05 (d) $0.80

dollars
cents
dollars
cents

dollars
cents
dollars
cents
2. Write in cents. (a) $2.20
=
(b) $3.05 
3. Write in dollars. (a) 75¢
=$
(b) 260¢
=$
4.
(a) How many quarters can be changed for a onedollar bill? (b) How many fivedollar bills can be changed for a twentydollar bill? (c) How many twentydollar bills can be changed for a onehundreddolla r bill?
5.
Matthew bought a file for 85¢. He gave the cashier $1. How much change did he receive?
6. Amber wants to buy this teddy bear. She has only $8.60. How much more money does she need? 49
e
Adding Money Lauren bought an umbrella for $4.15 and a Tshirt for $3.50. How much did she spend altogether?
$4.15
Add the dollars.
$4 + $3 = $7
$3.50
Add the cents.
15¢ + 50¢  65¢
$4.15 + $3.50 She spent$
altogether. so
1. (a) $4.95 + $2 = $
$4.95 + $2
/\
$4
(b) $9.45 + $5 = $
95¢
Add $4 and $2.
= 45¢ = $ 45¢ = $
2. (a) 30¢ + 45¢ (b) $2.30 +
(c) $5.30 + 3.
Find the value of
(a) 60¢ + 40¢
(b) $2.60 + 40¢
(c) $3.60 + 40¢
(d) 85¢ + 15¢
(e) $1.85 + 15¢
(f) $3.85 + 15¢ ;"!II
+ 20¢
4. (a) $2.75 + $4 $
Exercise 6, page 75
I
$
$2.75 + $4.20 = $ (b) $3.65 + $ 5
$
$3.65 + $5.15 5.
=$
Find the value of
(a) $5.60 + $4.20
(b) $8.45 + $1.30
(c) $7.05 + $2.85
(d) $3.25 + $4.55
51
f!ll
Exercise 7. page 76
I
6. We can add $3.45 and $2.65 like this: 1
+
1
345
$ 3.4 5 $ 2.6 5 $ 6.1 0
+
265 6 10
'
Use this method to find the value of (a) $3.90 + $0.35
(b) $0.75 + $6.80
(c) $4.65 + $2.85
(d) $3.70 + $4.75 'ID
7. (a) Add $6.25 and $0.95.
$6.25 + $0.95
$
=$
(b) Add $2.60 and $3.99. $2.60 + $ 4
I
Add $1 to $6.25 first.
 5¢
$6.25 + $ 1 $
Exercise 8. page 77
$
Add $4 to $2.60 first.
 1¢
$
$2.60 + $3.99 
8. Find the value of (a) $3.40 + $0.95
(b) $2.65 + $4.95
(c) $4.15 + $1.99
(d) $3.99 + $2.25 52
'ID
Exercise 9, page 78
I
9. After paying for a set meal which cost $5.95, David had $1.60 left. How much money did he have at first?
$5.95 + $1.60 
He had$
at first.
10. A toy car cost $5.70. A stuffed toy cost $3.80 more than the toy car. How much did the stuffed toy cost?
$5.70 + $3.80 
The stuffed toy cost $
53
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Exercise 1o. pages 7980
I
E) Subtracting Money Nicole has $8.75. She buys a jumping rope for $3.50. How much money does she have left?
$8.75
Subtract the dollars.
$8.75  $3.50 She has$
left. 54
$
1.
Find the value of
(a) $8.1 5  $3
(b) $6.35  $2
(c) $4.80  $4
(d) 60¢  15¢
(e) $2.60  15¢
(f) $3.60  15¢
2. (a)
$1  40¢
= 60¢
$3  40¢
/\
(b)
$2
$1
Subtract 40¢ from $1.
3.
Find the value of
(a) $1  90¢
(b) $4  60¢
(c) $6  50¢
(d) $2  75¢
(e) $6  45¢
(f) $7  5¢ rw
4. (a) $5.90  $ 2
I
 50¢
$
$5.90  $2.50
Exercise 11. page 81
=$
(b) $4.65  $ 3 $
 5¢
$4.65  $3.05 = $ 5.
Find the value of
(a) $8.60  $2.40
(b) $4.85  $1.30
(c) $6.45  $6.05
(d) $8.70  $4.55 55
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Exercise 12. page 82
I
6. We can subtract $3.75 from $5.35 like this: 4
13
~'15
$ 5.3 5 $ 3.7 5 $ 1.6 0

375 1 60
''·
Use this method to find the value of (a) $5.65  $0.85
(b) $4.10  $0.45
(c) $3.00  $0.35
{d) $8.00  $3.70
(e) $6.25  $4.65
(f) $7.50  $5.85 ·w
7. (a) Subtract $0.95 from $4.60.
$4.60  $0.95
I
Subtract $1 from $4. 60 first.
$
+ 5¢
$4.60  $ 1 $
Exercise 13, page 83
=$
(b) Subtract $2.99 from $6.25. $6.25  $ 3 $
+ 1¢
Subtract $3 from $6.25 first.
$
$6.25  $2. 99 8. Find the value of (a) $3.45  $0.95
{b) $4.30  $1.95
(c) $6.20  $2.99
(d) $5.00  $3. 99 56
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Exercise 14, page 84
I
9. Ava bought a doll which cost $8.45. She gave the cashier $10. How much change did she receive?
$10  $8.45  $
She received $
change.
10. A box of cookies costs $4.75. A box of chocolates costs $8.20. How much cheaper is the box of cookies?
$8.20  $4.75  $
The box of cookies is
cheaper.
57
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Exercise 15, pages 8586
I
Find the value of each of the following:
(a) + + + + +
(b)
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
$4.40 $2.80 $5.35 $7.70 $3.60
$1.60 $3.15 $3.70 $1.75 $4.99
$0.80 $6.55 $7.05 $4.30 $8.10

$0.45 $2.50 $5.25 $2.75 $4.95
6.
Find the total cost of the shuttlecock and the racket.
7. A pair of shoes costs $10. A pair of slippers costs $6.30. How much cheaper is the pair of slippers? 8.
Eric bought a greeting card for $1.85. He gave the cashier $5. How much change did he receive?
9.
Emily has $4.25. Mitchell has $1.95 more than Emily. How much money does Mitchell have?
10. Taylor has $5.65. Her mother gives her $1.70 more. How much money does Taylor have now? 58
Find the value of each of the following:
(b)
(a) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
$3.65 $4.20 $6.75 $8.35 $7.80
+ + + + +
$6.35 $5.15 $2.80 $1.85 $1.95
$0. 90 $3.35 $8.00 $4.35 $9.05

$0.55 $1.45 $6.70 $2.70 $8.99
6. After paying $6.80 for a shirt, Ali had $2.40 left. How much money did he have at first? 7.
Devi bought the can of sardines and the can of beans. How much did she spend altogether?
8. Carlos saved $6.45 in two weeks. He saved $3.95 in the first week. How much did he save in the second week? 9.
Ryan had $8.05. After buying a belt, he had $1. 90 left. How much did the belt cost?
10. Sara had $9.20. She spent $2.80 on a Tshirt. How much money did she have left? 59
Find the value of each of the following: (a)
1. 786 + 47 2. 3. 4.
563  58 6 x 4 16 . 4
(b)
(c)
215 + 85 400  299 10 x 5 18 . 2
109 + 314 + 56 610  483 3 x 8 90 + 10
5. What is the total length around the triangle?
18 in.
25 in.
6.
Some students were asked to measure the length of their footprints. Kyle measured his footprint in inches and Shawn measured his footprint in centimeters. For which unit was the number greater, inches or centimeters?
7.
How many tens are there in 349?
8.
Eric paid $45 for 5 lb of shrimp. What was the cost of 1 lb of shrimp?
9.
1 yd of cloth costs $3. Kathy bought 9 yd of cloth. How much did she pay for the cloth? 60
10. Emily needs to decorate 4 presents of the same size with ribbon. She has 10 ft of ribbon. If she uses 2 ft for each present, how many ft of ribbon will be left over? 11. John is 132 cm tall. Peter is 119 cm tall. How much taller is John than Peter? 12. Juan had $800. After buying a television, he had $398 left. What was the cost of the television? 13. Jordan saves $3 a week. How much money does he save in 5 weeks? 14.
(/r.;ff ~ W
Mrs. Gray's house
I'
'I

Mrs. Gray walked from her house to the bank and then to the store. How far did she walk? 15. John bought a packet of nuts for $2.45. He gave the cashier $5. How much change did he receive?
61
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Review 10, pages 8791
I
FR.ACTIO~S
0
Halves and Quarters Divide a circle into 2 equal parts. Each part is a half circle. a whole
halves
Divide a circle into 4 equal parts. Each part is a quarter circle. A quarter circle is a fourth of a circle.
quarters
Which is greater, ~ or
!? 62
~ of the square is colored. ~ is 1 out of the 2 equal parts.
! of the square is colored.
! 1.
is 1 out of the 4 equal parts.
(a) Which pictures show ~?
A
B
(b) Which pictures show
p
2.
Q
!
c
D
?
R
s
(a) How many halves are there in a whole? (b) How many fourths are there in a whole? :w Exercise 1, pages 9293 I 63
E) VVriting Fractions ~ is 1 out of the 3 equal parts.
~ of the square is colored.
~ is 2 out of the 3 equal parts.
~ of the circle is colored.
! ! of the rectangle is colored. 64
is 3 out of the 4 equal parts.
1. (a)
~
of the shape is colored. out of the
equal parts.
(b) ; of the shape is colored. ±is 5
2.
out of the
equal parts.
(a) 1 out of the 6 equal parts is colored.
:
(b)
of the circle is colored.
out of the
equal parts
are colored.
:
of the circle is colored.
65
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Exercise 2. pages 9495
I
3.
(a)
:
of the shape is colored.
:
of the shape is colored.
(b)
4.
What fraction of each shape is colored?
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
~
I 66
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Exercise 3. pages 9699
I
! or ~?
5.
Which is greater,
6.
Arrange the fractions in order. Begin with the smallest.
rn rn rn ;m
7.
(a)
Exercise 4, pages 100102
I
I whole

~ and • make 1 whole.
(b)
•.
I I I I I I I I

~ and • make 1 whole.
(c)
III IIIIIII

~ and • make 1 whole. 67
(m
Exercise
s.
pages 103 104
I
E) Fraction of a Set
There are 4 kittens. 1 out of the 4 kittens is black.
! of the kittens is black.
There are 12 kittens. They are divided into 4 groups. The kittens in 1 out of the 4 groups are black.
! of the kittens is black.
What fraction of the kittens are white? 68
1. What fraction of the set of squares is blue?
ODD There are 4 equal parts in this set of squares. 1 part is a blue square. of the set of squares is blue.
!
2.
There are 3 equal parts in this set of apples. 1 part is a red apple. ~ is 1 out of the 3 equal parts.
of the apples is red. of the apples are green.
3. What fraction of the flowers are sunflowers? There are 5 flowers. 2 of the 5 flowers are sunflowers.
II II of the flowers are sunflowers.
69
4. There are 8 fruits in this set.
Q(}(J }~
of the fruit are pears.
~~~~~ }
of the fruit are bananas.
~
and :
:
of the fruit together are all the fruit in the set.
~ of the fruit is all the fruit, or 1 whole. 5.
Sam bought 5 toys. ~ of the toys were cars. The rest were planes. How many planes did he buy?
6.
Steven has 3 apples. ~ of the apples is green. How many apples are green?
7.
Sally has 4 ribbons. 3 of the ribbons are blue and 1 is red. What fraction of the ribbons are blue?
70
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Exercise 6. pages t 05 t 07
I
8.
~ of the counters is yellow.
Number of groups of yellow counters: Total number of groups of counters: 9.
II II
20 counters are divided into equal groups.
~o
o O~ CQ15 o ==o =o DCQQ o o O~ ~ oo O~ Number of groups of pink counters: Total number of groups of counters:
II II
What fraction of the counters are pink? What fraction of the counters are blue? 10. What fraction of the counters are yellow?
(#)(#)(#) (g)(g :
~ of the counters are red.
of the counters are yellow.
11. What fraction of the fruit are apples? How many apples are there? :
of the fruit are apples.
There are 71
apples altogether.
12. What fraction of the children are girls? How many girls are there?
 
:
of the children are girls.
There are
girls altogether.
13. How many of the toys are dolls?
There are 6 toys. ~ of the toys are dolls.
of the toys are dolls. 14. How many cats are there?
There are 9 animals. ~ of the animals are cats.
of the animals are cats. 72
·m
Exercise 7. page 1OB
I
_!_ blue parts 5 equal parts
What fraction of the squares are blue? 16. Amy has 12 coins. 3 of them are pennies.
What fraction of the coins are pennies? 17. There are 10 oranges on a tree. Miguel picked 2 of them. What fraction of the oranges did he pick? What fraction of the oranges are left on the tree?
Miguel picked : He left :
of the oranges.
of the oranges on the tree. 73
Find the value of each of the following: (a) (b) 299 + 98 1. 526 + 36 236 + 300  69 2. 342  73 405 7 x 5 8 9 x 10 3. 4. 45 . 5 24 15 . 3 5.
(a) (b) (c) (d)
What What What What
number number number number
is is is is
(c) 145 + 67  386 x 4 + 4
9 more than 199? 50 more than 480? 8 less than 202? 30 less than 31 3?
6.
II of the shape is colored.
7.
3 12 and :
make 1 whole.
8. Which fraction is equal to 1 whole?
rn rn rn rn 9.
0
0 0
0
0
What fraction of the balls are footballs? 74
10. A class has 20 students. The teacher divides the students into 5 equal groups. The groups are called A, B, C, D and E. (a) How many children are there in Group A? {b) What fraction of the children are there in Group A? 11. Sarah cut 38 ft of ribbon into pieces. Each piece was 5 ft long. How much ribbon was left over? 12. There are 520 boys and 485 girls in a school. How many more boys than girls are there? 13. Peter collected 735 stamps. He collected 65 fewer stamps than Dan. How many stamps did Dan collect? 14. Mr. Eko had 27 kg of cherries. He packed the cherries into bags of 3 kg each. How many bags of cherries did he have? 15. Pablo has 6 pieces of rope. Each piece of rope is 5 m long. What is the total length of the 6 pieces of rope? 16. Matthew bought 6 packs of batteries. There were 4 batteries in each pack. How many batteries were there altogether? 75
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Review 11 • pages 11 0114
I
0
Telling Time After the Hour Mr. Lee's family has dinner at 7:05 p.m. What time do you have dinner?
1:00
7:05
7 o'clock
5 minutes past 7 ~
76
It is 9 o'clock.
9:00
I
1 11
We read 9:15 as nine fifteen . It is 15 minutes after 9 o'clock. We can also say it is 15 minutes past 9.
It is 15 minutes past 9.
9:1
s

1
.. . .
It is 20 minutes past 9.
9:20
1. (a)
1:oo
1:OS
1 o'clock
minutes past 1
(b)
2:00
2:30
2 o'clock
minutes past 2 77
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Exercise 1, pages 115118
I
0
Telling Time Before the Hour It is 10 minutes to 4. We read 3:50 as 3:50 three fifty. It is 10 minutes before ··
.
?9tP* . .
.,.._
w ·• .
..._.._
•
4 o'clock. We can also say it is 10 minutes to 4.
.id
It is 15 minutes to 10.
9:45
1. (a)
4:45
5:00
minutes to 5
5 o'clock
(b)
6:55
7:00
minutes to 7
7 o'clock
6:55 is 55 minutes after 6 o'clock. 6:55 is 5 minutes before 7 o'clock. 78
2.
What time is it?
79
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Exercise 2, pages 119121
I
E) Time Intervals START
END

,~,::~
""
,
..
'
'~..,......_
 ''
....

.........
The television program starts at 9:10 a.m. and ends at 9:35 a.m. on Sunday. It lasts
minutes. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 minutes
80
1.
How long does each television program last?
(a)
START
Music
(b)
Cartoons
(c)
Story time
(d)
News 81
END
2.
I1 hour later)
I1 hour later)
minutes
1 hour= 3.
(a) How many minutes are there from 3:30 to 3:55?
(b) How many hours are there from 5:45 to 11 :45?
82
4. A test started at 1Q:4Q a.m. It ended at 11:10 a.m. How long did it last?
It lasted
How many minutes are there from 10:40 a.m. to 11 :10 a .m.?
minutes. fW
Exercise 3, pages 122125
I
5. A television program started at 7:35 p.m. and lasted 1 hour. What time did the program end? What time is 1 hour after 7:35 p.m.?
The program ended at
p.m.
6. John took 30 minutes to do his homework. He started at 8:15 p.m. When did he finish doing his homework? What time is 30 minutes after 8:15?
He finished at
p.m. 83
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Exercise 4, pages 126127
I
0
Other Units of Time There are 12 months in a year.
6
1
8
13 14 15 16 11 18 19
2.0 2.1 2.2. 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.1 2.8 2.9 30 31
There are
days in a week.
There are
months in a year.
Do we have the same number of days each month?
There are
days in this month. 84
There are 52 weeks in a year.
1.
Does it take hours, days, weeks, months or years to do the following? (a) Clean the house (b) Go on a vacation to the beach (c) Wait until I am old enough to drive a car (d) Wait for a tomato seedling to sprout (e) Wait for tomatoes to grow after the seedling has sprouted (f) Visit the zoo (g) Build a house
2. Which is longer? 2 days or 15 hours 2 weeks or 15 days 2 months or 15 weeks 2 years or 15 months
85
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Exercise 5. page 128
I
Find the value of each of the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
(a) 63 + 29 554  183 5 x 5 18 . 2 $6.15 + $2.85
(b) 199 + 472 463 4 x 27 . $7.05 
398 6 3 $5.55
(c) 35 + 78 + 65 500  75 10 x 9 . 10 $3.40  $2.95
so
6.
David's swimming lesson started at 9:10 a.m. and ended at 9:50 a.m. How long was the swimming lesson?
7.
Mr. Johnson left his house at 9:45 a.m. He took 25 minutes to drive to the airport. What time did he arrive at the airport?
86
8.
Does it take minutes, hours, days or months to do the following? (a) Thomas takes 25
to have his lunch.
(b) Carlos sleeps about 8
a day.
(c) Rosa takes 2
to bake a cake.
(d) Ryan takes 2
to swim 100 meters.
(e) Lilian's shop is open for 12
on Sundays.
(f) Summer break is about 2 (g) It takes about 21 to hatch.
after an egg is laid for a chick
9. Which fraction is the greatest: ~ ,
if or i ?
10. Roger cut a pizza into 8 equal pieces. He ate ~ of the pizza. What fraction of the pizza was left? 11. John divided his toy spaceships equally into fleets. Each fleet had of his spaceships. How many fleets were there altogether?
!
12. 358 adults took part in a parade. 169 of them were women. (a) How many men were there? (b) How many more men than women were there? 13. John bought the can of milk powder and the jar of jam. ....... (a) How much did he spend altogether? (b) He gave the cashier $10. How much change did he receive? :w Review 12, pages 129133 I 87 ~~
c ..
'APA&llY
0
Comparing Capacity
The jug holds more water than the bottle.
The bottle holds less water than the jug. 88
1.
How many glasses of water does each container hold?
The jug holds
The bottle holds
glasses of water.
glasses of water.
2.
A
c
B
Which container holds the most water? Which container holds the least water? 89
rw
Exercise 1, pages 134138
I
fJ Liters Get a 1liter beaker and find out how much 1 liter of water is. We write f for liter.
Get some paper cups. Find out how many paper cups you can fill with 1 liter of water.
90
1.
The bottle holds 1 liter of water.
The glass holds less than 1 liter of water.
The jug holds more than 1 liter of water.
Which container holds the most water? Which container holds the least water?
91
2.
Mrs. Brown bought a carton of milk. How much milk did she buy?
1
2
3.
These two containers are filled with dishwasher detergent.
A
B
(a) Which container can hold more dishwasher detergent? (b) How much more? 92
4.
The capacity of a container is the amount it can hold.
The basin holds 4 liters of water. The capacity of the basin is 5.
liters.
(a) Make a 1liter bottle. Get a bottle which can hold 1 Pour 1 of water into it. Mark the water level.
e
93
e of water.
{b) Use the 1liter bottle you have made to find out the capacities of some containers. Estimate the capacity of each container. Then check by measuring with the 1f bottle you made. Which container holds the most water?
My estimate
My measure
The bucket
about
about
e
The basin
about
about
e
The kettle
about
about
e
The watering can
about
about
e
94
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Exercise 2. pages 139140
I
E) Gallons, Quarts, Pints and Cups The capacity of a container can also be measured in cups, pints, quarts and gallons.
WP~ .. UJ 2 cups
1 pint
2 pints
1 quart
0 2 quarts
1 halfgallon
0 4 quarts
1 gallon 95
We We We We
1.
write write write write
c for cup. pt for pint. qt for quart. gal for gallon.
Fill a 1gal milk carton with water. Find out how many cups you can fill with 1 gal of water.
96
2.
These two cartons are filled with milk.
Which carton holds more milk? 3.
Find a measuring cup with quart and pint markings. (a) Fill the measuring cup with 1 qt of water. Find out how many paper cups you can fill with 1 qt of water. (b) Fill the measuring cup with 1 pt of water. Find out how many paper cups you can fill with 1 pt of water. You can fill more paper cups with 1 of water.
4.
Make a 1pint bottle. Get a bottle which can hold 1 pt of water. Measure 1 pt of water in a measuring cup. Pour the water into the bottle. Mark the water level.
97
Use the 1pint bottle you have made to do the following: (a) Fill the bottle to the 1pint marking. Fill a cup from the bottle. Can all the water be contained in the cup? (b) Fill the bottle to the 1pint marking again. Fill a kettle from the bottle. Can all the water be contained in the kettle?
5.
CUP
PINT
GALLON
QUART
Which of the above units of measure would you most likely use to measure: (a) the amount of water in a fish tank? (b) the amount of milk you drink daily? (c) a carton of heavy whipping cream? (d) a carton of fruit juice? 6.
Get a measuring cup that is marked in liters and quarts. Look at the mark for 1 qt on one side, and 1 e on the other side. Use a 2pint bottle to pour 1 quart into it. Which is more, 1 quart or 1 liter? 1 quart
1 liter
1 quart of water is slightly less than 1 liter of water. 98
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Exercise 3. pages 141142
I
Find the value of each of the following: (a) (b) 327 + 498 1. 135 + 465 299 600 2. 378 524 8 x 4 3. 5 x 6 12 . 2 4. 30 . 3 5. $3.75 + $2.55 $1.99 $8
(c) 209 435 10 90 $6.20
+ 591  236
x 8 . 10  $4.35
6. A magazine cost $5.80. A book cost $2. 75 more than the magazine. Find the cost of the book. 7.
David took 35 minutes to cycle from his house to the library. He left his house at 10:45 a.m. What time did he reach the library?
8.
Eric bought 20 liters of paint. After painting his house, he had 4 liters left. How much paint did he use?
9. A tank has a capacity of 30 liters. It contains 12 liters of water. How many more liters of water are needed to fill up the tank? 10. A drinksseller sold 52 liters of orange juice last week. He sold 38 liters of orange juice this week. How many liters of orange juice did he sell in the two weeks? 11. Mr. Owens uses 5 liters of gas a day. How many liters of gas does he use in a week? 99
12. Bucket A holds 12 liters of water. Bucket B holds 8 liters of water. (a) Which bucket holds more water? (b) How much more?
13. A large jug contains 14 cups of juice. The juice is poured into bottles. Each bottle has a capacity of 3 cups. What is the least number of bottles needed for all the juice? 14. 203 people took part in a singing contest. There were 128 adults. (a) How many children were there? (b) How many more adults than children were there? 15. Mrs. Perez bought a gallon of milk. She had drunk 3 quarts of it by the end of the week. What fraction of the milk did she drink? 16. The table shows the amount of milk 6 quarts Ben 3 children drank in a week. 4 quarts Emma (a) Find the total number of quarts Carlos 2 quarts of milk they drank in a week. (b) What is the total number of cups of milk that they drank in a week? (c) What is the total number of gallons of milk that they drank in a week? 100
'W Review 13, pages 143147 I
0
Picture Graphs
This tally chart shows the number of each type of fruit. Fruit
Mango Pear Apple Orange
IHf IHf 11 IHf I IHf Ill Ill/ 101
This picture graph also shows the number of each type of fruit.
0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0
Mango Each
•• •• •• ••
0
Pear
Apple
stands for 1 fruit.
There are
types of fruit.
There are
mangoes.
There are
pears.
There are
apples.
There are
oranges.
There are
fruits altogether.
102
0 0 0 0 Orange
This picture graph also shows the number of each type of fruit. Use the picture graph to answer the questions below.
Mango Each
6
Pear
Apple
Orange
stands for 2 fruits.
L, stand for? What do L, L, L, L, L, L, stand for?
(a) What does each (b)
(c) How many more pears than oranges are there? (d) How many more mangoes than apples are there? (e) Which type of fruit is the greatest in number? (f) Which type of fruit is the smallest in number?
103
1. This picture graph shows the number of stickers four boys have.
D Brian Each
D
D D
D D
Pablo
David
Carlos
stands for 4 stickers.
Use the graph to complete the following. (a) David has (b) Carlos has (c)
stickers. stickers.
has the most stickers.
(d) Brian has
more stickers than David.
(e) If Carlos gives Pablo 4 stickers, Pablo will have stickers.
104
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Exercise 1. pages 14815 1
I
2. A group of children used this table to make a picture graph showing the places they like to visit. Favorite places we like to visit Zoo
15
Zoo Each
Botanic Gardens 6
Amusement Park 12
Beach
12
•• ••
Botanic Gardens
Amusement Park
0 stands for
Beach
children.
Use the graph to complete the following. (a) 7 boys and girls like to visit the Amusement Park. (b) The (c)
is the most popular place. more children like to visit the Zoo than the
Botanic Gardens. (d) A new ride opened at the Amusement Park and some of the children changed their choices. 6 more of them now want to go to the Amusement Park instead of the Zoo. How many would be used for the Amusement Park on the new picture graph?
0
105
3. This picture graph shows the number of different types of fish sold by Justin.
Angelfish Guppy Goldfish
QQQQQ
Tiger barb
Q
Swordtail Each
Q
stands for 5 fish.
Use the graph to complete the following. Angelfish
Type of fish sold Guppy Goldfish Tiger barb Swordtail
20
(a) He sold as many {b) He sold
as guppies.
goldfish and swordtails altogether.
(c) He sold all the goldfish for $2 each. He received $ (d) He collected $30 from selling the swordtails. He sold each swordtail for 106
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Exercise 2. pages 152155
I
f.)
Bar Graphs
This picture graph shows the number of fish caught by four boys.
D D D D D D Matthew Each
Pablo
Sam
D stands for 2 fish.
How many fish did each boy catch? 107
Tyrone
This bar graph shows the same information . 12 ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

10++~++~+~~++~+~ ~
Number of fish

 
~
  






  
   

 
6++~t1r1~++~+t~~
4++~~~tt~~~
2++~~~~~~
0
.____._~....___..~_._~_.____._~'~"
Matthew
Pablo
Sam
Tyrone
(a) Who caught the greatest number of fish? (b) How many did he catch? (c) Who caught the least number of fish? (d) How many did he catch? (e) How many more fish did Tyrone catch than Sam? (f) How many fish did each of the other two boys catch? (g) How many fish did the four boys catch altogether? (h) How many fewer fish did Matthew catch than Pablo?
108
1. The bar graph and table below show Miguel's examination results for four subjects. 100.,.~r,,r~~~.

Points
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

English
Math Science
Social Studies
Miguel's results English
Math
Science
Social Studies
75
80
90
80
Use either the table or the graph to complete the following. (a) Which score on the table appears the most number of times? and (b) Miguel had the same score in (c) He scored more points in Math than in English. (d) He scored 10 more points in than in Math. (e) Did you use the table or the graph to answer (c) and (d)? (f) What was his highest score? (g) What was his lowest score? (h) Did you use the table or the graph to answer (f) and (g)? 109
2.
This bar graph shows Sally's savings for four months.
May
June
July
August
0
10 20 30 40
so
60 70
Amount in dollars
Use the graph to answer the following questions. (a) How much did Sally save in May? (b) How much more did she save in June than in May? (c) In which month did she save $15? (d) In which month did she save the most? (e) In which month did she save twice as much as in August? (f) How much did she save altogether during the four months? (g) In which months did she save the same amount? (h) How much did she save altogether in the months where she saved the same amount? 110
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Exercise 3. pages 156158
I
3.
This table shows the number of books read by five children in a year . ..
Number of books read Selena
60
David
75
Maria
40
Meiling
so
Baljit
45
Use the table to answer the following questions. (a) How many books did Selena read? (b) How many books did David read? (c) How many more books did David read than Meiling? (d) Who read 5 fewer books than Meiling? (e) Who read the most books? (f) Who read the fewest books?
111
4.
David did situps every day for ten days . ..
Day
1
2
Number of situps
20
15 20
3
4
5
6
10 20 . 25
7
8
9
15 20 20 25
(a) How many days did he do 10 situps? (b) How many days did he do 15 situps? (c) How many days did he do 20 situps? (d) How many days did he do 25 situps? (e) How many situps did he do on most days? (f) What is the least number of situps he did in one day? (g) What is the most number of situps he did in one day? (h) What is the difference between the most and the least number of situps?
112
10
5.
This bar graph shows the number of people who visited a book fair from Monday to Friday. 500.~~~~~~~~~~
450 400r~~~~~~~~1
350 300~j
250
Number of visitors 200
150 100 50 0 .____..____.__.____.____.__ .____.____.__.____.____. Mon
Tue
Wed
Thu
Fri
Use the graph to answer the following questions. (a) How many people visited the book fair on Tuesday? (b) How many more people visited the book fair on Friday than on Thursday? (c) On which day was the number of visitors the smallest? (d) On which day were there as many visitors as on Monday? (e) On which day were there twice as many visitors as on Wednesday? (f) If there were 200 adults on Tuesday, how many children were there? 113
:m
Exercise 4, pages 159161
I
Find the value of each of the following: (a) (b) 1. 105 + 99 311 + 689 2. 527  418 306  98
3.
9
4.
16
x
2
3
. 4
12
x
(c) 285 + 225 700  652
4
8
3
70
x
5
: 10
5. Jason cut 28 m of wire into pieces. Each piece was 4 m long. How many pieces of wire did he get? 6. A water tank can hold 250 liters of water. It has 185 liters of water in it now. How many more liters of water are needed to fill up the tank? 7.
Mark bought 30 mangoes. He gave 14 of them to his friends. How many mangoes did he have left?
8.
Mary went to the library at 4:45 p.m. She left the library 35 minutes later. What time did she leave the library?
9. Tash a went to a bookshop with $9. After buying a book, she had $3.80 left. What was the cost of the book? 10. David eats 2 oranges a day. (a) How many oranges does he eat in 5 days? (b) How many oranges does he eat in a week? 114
11.
(a) What fraction of an hour is 15 minutes? (b) What fraction of an hour is 30 minutes? (c) How many minutes are there in of an hour?
!
12. How many days are there in 2 weeks? 13. How many months are there in 2 years? 14. Marie is going on a vacation to visit her grandparents. She will be gone for 1 month. (a) Will she be gone for more or less than 6 weeks? (b) Will she be gone for more or less than 20 days? 15. This graph shows the number of vehicles in a parking lot.
so ~  
40 I
Number of 30 vehicles
I
20

10 I
0
Motorcycle
Bus
Car
Van
(a) How many more vans than buses were there? (b) If there were 90 spaces for cars and vans, how many of them were not occupied? (c) What is the difference between the greatest number of one type of vehicle and the smallest number of another type of vehicle? 115
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Review 14, pages 162167
Jj
0
Flat and Curved Faces Pair up objects of the same shape. This is a flat face.
This is a curved face.
116
117
1. Which object am I?
A
B
c
D
(a) I have a curved face. I have 2 flat faces.
I am (b) I do not have curved faces. I have 6 flat faces.
I am (c) I have a curved face. I have only 1 flat face.
I am (d) I do not have curved faces.
I have 5 flat faces. I am 118
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Exercise 1. pages 168 171
I
2.
Look at a cu be.
This is a vertex.
This is an edge.
A cube has 3.
vertices,
flat faces and
edges.
Look at a prism.
A prism has 2 flat faces on opposite sides that are the same. Is a cube also a prism? 4.
Look at a rectangular prism.
In what way is a rectangular prism different from a cube? 119
5.
Look at these pyramids.
In what way is a pyramid different from a prism? 6.
Look at a cylinder.
A cylinder has surfaces and vertices. In what way is a cylinder different from a prism? 7.
Look at a cone. This is a vertex.
In what way is a cone different from a cylinder? 8.
Look at a sphere.
A sphere has
surfaces and 120
edges.
9.
A
c
B
E
F
H G
(a) Which objects have a sphere shape? (b) Which objects have a vertex? (c) Which object has flat and curved surfaces? (d) If you see any cubes, name them.
121
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Exercise 2. pages 172173
I
0
Making Shapes Kara fitted a square and two half squares together to make this shape.
Melissa made a different shape. She fitted a square and two half squares together like this:
Use a square and two half squares to make another shape. Compare it with the shapes your friends have made.
122
1. These 4 triangles are of the same size.
Trace the triangles on a piece of paper and cut them out. Fit the 4 triangles together to form a shape like this:
Find out how each of these shapes is formed by the 4 triangles. (a) (b)
Use the 4 triangles to make another shape. Compare it with the shapes your friends have made.
123
lW Exercise 3, pages 174175 I
2.
(a) Draw and cut out a circle. Fold it into halves and cut out the 2 half circles.
(b) Draw and cut out another circle of the same size. Fold it into quarters and cut out the 4 quarter circles.
(c) Make this shape with a half circle and 2 quarter circles.
124
3.
Use only two of these pieces to form a shape.
A
D D
B
c
E
F
Here are some examples:
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Name the two pieces used for each shape.
125
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Exercise 4. pages 176178
I
4.
How many of these
D
of the following figures? (a)
5.
will cover the inside of each
(b)
This figure is formed by two straight lines and a curve.
Here are some more figures formed by two straight lines and a curve.
Draw another figure with two straight lines and a curve. Compare it with the shapes your friends have made.
126
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Exercise
s.
pages 179180
I
6. These are regular patterns of shapes. Find the pattern. What comes next in each pattern? (a)
(b)
(c)
D (d)
(e)
127
7. Continue the regular pattern. What comes next? (a)
EEEEEEEEEEEE (b)
D[>V (c)
[2J
[SJ
[2J
[2J
[SJ
[SJ
(d)
DV D
1
1
VD
(e)
128
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Exercise 6. pages 181 182
I
Find the value of each of the following: (b) (a) 1. 780 + 4S 20S + 9S 2. 42S  26S 632  473 3. 2 x 8 7 x 10 4. 32 . 4 60 . 10
(c) 386 + 1SS soo  197
x 7 so . s 4
s.
$3.9S + $6.0S
6.
Find the missing number in each of the following:
$S.08 
$3.99
$8.2S 
(a)
+ 3S  S3
(b) 100 
(c)
+ 68  70
(d) 72 
(e) 28 +
~)
 100
= 8S  41
 46  37
7. What fraction of the shape is shaded?
8. • • • • stand for a total of 32 grapes. stand for? (a) How many grapes does each • (b) What fraction of the total grapes does each •
stand for?
9. A concert started at 7:30 p.m. It lasted SO minutes. What time did the concert end? 129
$6.7S
10. How many quarters can be changed for a $5 bill? 11. What is the weight of the box?
12. There were 275 passengers on a train. 206 of them were adults. How many children were there? 13. Alice paid $6.50 for a skirt and $8.25 for a shirt. How much more did the shirt cost? 14. 1 kg of crabs costs $8. What is the cost of 5 kg of crabs? 15. Jeff bought a table and 3 chairs for $120. He paid $30 for the 3 chairs. (a) Find the cost of one chair. (b) Find the cost of the table. 16. 168 men, 287 women and 113 children took part in a parade. (a) How many adults took part in the parade? (b) How many more adults than children took part in the parade?
130
17. Suzy asked her classmates which season they liked best. 6 students chose winter, 4 students chose spring, 14 students chose summer and 5 students chose fall. Make a tally chart to show the results. 18. A store sold 302 qt of milk last month. It sold 29 qt more milk this month. How much milk did the store sell this month? 19. A tank can hold 115 gal of water. It contains 38 gal of water. How many more gallons of water can be poured into this tank? 20. There are
cups in a quart.
21. (a) Use your ruler to draw a line 9 in. long. (b) Would a line 9 cm long be shorter, longer or the same length as the 9 in. line? 22. Melissa had 28 strawberries. She gave 5 strawberries to each of her 5 friends. How many strawberries was she left with? 23. Sonya learned to ride a bike in 2 weeks. How many days did it take her to learn how to ride a bike? 24. (a) How many vertices does a rectangular prism have? (b) How many edges does it have?
' '(:":o
~::~
I
25. (a) This pyramid has faces. (b) How many more faces does a cube have than this pyramid? 131
'_, '
Find the value of each of the following: 1. 2. 3.
(a) 395 + 105 555  75 3 x 9
(b) 466 + 384 800  197 9 x 10 40 . 4
14 . 2 4. 5. $4.55 + $5.45 What What What What
$6.95 + $2.25
number number number number
is is is is
(c) 702 + 199 645  386 5 x 6 10 . 10 $7.25  $5.85
6.
(a) (b) (c) (d)
10 more than 292? 10 less than 111? 100 more than 466? 100 less than 325?
7.
Find the missing number in each of the following:
= 270 = 402
(a) 200 + (c) 452 
(b) 632 +
 832
(d)
 900
 9
8. Arrange the following in order. Begin with the smallest. (a) 275
(b) 9.
752
257 t
6
Meiling has 4 fiftycent coins and 3 fivecent coins. Write the total amount of money she has in dollars and cents. 132
10. David is running in a 100meter race. He is 48 m from the starting point. How many meters is he from the finishing point? 100 m
.
1
48 m
11. A supermarket opens from 11 :OO a.m. to 9:00 p.m. every day. How many hours is the supermarket open every day?
12. This graph shows the heights of the students in Mrs. Lee's class. 10    
8 Number 6 of students
4
2 0
148 149 150 151 cm
cm
cm
cm
152 cm
Study the graph and answer these questions. (a) How many students are 150 cm tall? (b) How many students are taller than 150 cm? (c) How many students are in the tallest group? 133
13. Lindsey takes 2 hours to sew a dress. How long does she take to sew 5 dresses? 14. Mrs. Wells bought some cans of sardines for $16. Each can of sardines cost $2. How many cans of sardines did she buy? 15. Carla wants to buy a doll which costs $8.60. She has only $6.80. How much more money does she need? 16. There were 305 boys in a school hall. There were 46 fewer girls than boys. How many girls were there? 17. Peter used 128 liters of gas last month. He used 25 liters more gas this month. How much gas did he use this month? 18. The total cost of 4 plates is $24. Find the cost of one plate. 19. A refrigerator costs $960. An oven is $425 cheaper than the refrigerator. (a) How much does the oven cost? (b) Find the total cost of the oven and the refrigerator. 20. Ryan reads 10 pages of a storybook a day. After reading the storybook for 6 days, he still had 24 pages to read. (a) How many pages did he read in 6 days? (b) How many pages were there in the storybook? 134
21. There are 6 teams in Smalltown's soccer league. The picture graph below shows the number of goals each team scored during the soccer season.
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @
@ @ @ @ @ @ @
@ @ @
TeamA Team B TeamC Team D
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @
@ @ @ @ @ @ @ @ @
Team E Team F
Each @ stands for 2 goals.
(a) Which two teams scored the same number of goals? (b) How many goals did those two teams score altogether? (c) What was the greatest number of goals scored? (d) What was the least number of goals scored? (e) What is the difference between the greatest number of goals scored and the least number of goals scored? 135
Godfrey the Gorilla ate 15 bananas. What fraction of the total bananas did he eat? 23. This is a regular pattern. What comes next?
24. Show how this shape can be made from two triangles and a halfcircle.
25. What fraction of the larger shape is the triangle?
136
26. (a) (b) (c) (d)
How many quarters are the same as one dollar? What fraction of a dollar is 1 quarter? How many dimes are the same as one dollar? What fraction of a dollar is 3 dimes?
27. Yvonne ran for 1 hour. How many minutes did she run? 28. How many quarts of water can be poured into a 1gal container? 29. Tom told his sister he would build a treehouse in less than a month. It took him 3 weeks. Did it take longer than he said to build the tree house? 30. A bag of carrots weighs 14 oz. A bag of lettuce weighs 3 oz less than the bag of carrots. (a) What is the weight of the bag of lettuce? (b) What is the total weight of the two bags? 31. One bag of sugar weighs 2 lb. How much do 10 bags of sugar weigh? 32. Emma weighs 59 lb. Her mother is 78 lb heavier than she. (a) Find Emma's mother's weight. (b) What is Emma and her mother's total weight? 33. 28 qt of water is poured equally into 4 containers. How much water is there in each container?
137
34. Scott uses 2 c of milk to make one pudding. He wants to make 7 puddings. How many cups of milk does he need? 35. Ryan walked 470 yd to a gift shop. He then walked another 250 yd to the post office. How far did he walk? 36. David weighs 65 lb. John weighs 127 lb. Amy weighs 88 lb. (a) What is their total weight? (b) How much lighter is David than John? 37. A box of 10 glasses cost $9. Mrs. Garcia bought 50 glasses. (a) How many boxes of glasses did she buy? (b) How much did she pay?
138
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Review 15, pages 183192
I
VVord
Meaning 500        
bar graph Number of visitors
capacity
450      400 >        l 350 300 250  200 150  100 50 0
The capacity of a container is the greatest amount it can hold. We usually use the following to measure capacity: Unit
s
mbol
liter
e
cu int uart half allon
c
al
cone
139
Word
Meaning ~a.Ollfl1ICllll!.C~MIC.IO.. . . .
cube
cylinder
edge This is an edge.
face
This is a vertex.
This is a flat face. This is a curved face.
140
VVord fraction
Meaning A fraction is a part of a whole.
~ is 1 out of the 3 equal parts.
~ of the square is colored. A fraction is also a part of a set.
.! of the kittens is black. • prism
This is a triangular prism .
This is a rectangular prism.
141
Meaning
VVord pyramid
This is a square pyramid.
This is a triangular pyramid.
quarter
a whole
quarters or fourths
When we divide 1 whole into 4 equal parts, we get 4 quarters.
remainder
When we divide 9 tomatoes into 2 equal groups, there is 1 tomato left over.
We can say there is a remainder of 1 tomato. 142
Word
Meaning
sphere
table
Tables give us information. Number of books read Selena
60
David
75
Maria
40
Mei ling
50
Baljit
45
vertex
This is a vertex. This is an edge.
143
Index addition • mental addition, 1416 • money, 5053 • partwhole relationship, 812 capacity • comparing units of measurement, 9798 • holds more, holds the most, 8889 • holds less, holds the least, 8889 • measuring capacity, 9098 • units of measurement, 90, 9596 counting whole numbers • by 4's, 2428 • by 5's, 3032 • by 1O's, 3435 • in tens and ones, 12, 1415, 1718 division • by 4, 24, 2728 • by 5, 30, 32 • by 10, 35 • remainder, 3840 fractions • fraction of a set, 6873 • greater, smaller, 67 • halves, 6263 • quarters, or fourths, 6263 • simplification, 7173 • whole, 6263 • writing fractions, 6467 geometry • flat and curved surfaces , 116117 • making shapes, 122126 • threedimensional solids, 118121 • patterns of shapes, 127128 • parts of a solid, 118120
grouping objects • flat and curved surfaces , 116117 • identifying fraction of a set, 6873 interpreting graphs and tables • bar graphs, 107110, 113 • picture graphs, 101106 • tables, 111112 mental math • addition, 1416, 5152 • subtraction, 1719, 5556 money • cents, 4447 • adding money, 5053 • change, 48 • dollars, 4447 • quarters, 4647 • reading prices, 4546 • subtracting money, 48, 5457 multiplication • by 4 , 2428 • by 5, 3032 • by 10, 3435 patterns • repeating patterns, 127128 subtraction • mental subtraction, 1719 • money, 48, 5457 • partwhole relationship, 912 time • • • • • 144
duration and intervals, 8083 hours and minutes, 8283 months, days, weeks, years, 8485 telling time after the hour, 7677 telling time before the hour, 7879