Picturing America: The Golden Age of Pictorial Maps 9780226386188

Instructive, amusing, colorful—pictorial maps have been used and admired since the first medieval cartographer put pen t

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Picturing America: The Golden Age of Pictorial Maps
 9780226386188

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picturing America

picturing America the golden age of pictorial maps

Stephen J. Hornsby the university of chicago press chicago & london

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago 60637 The University of Chicago Press, Ltd., London © 2017 by Stephen J. Hornsby and The Library of Congress All rights reserved. Published 2017. Printed in China 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 19 18 17   1 2 3 4 5 isbn-­13: 978-­0-­226-­38604-­1 (cloth) isbn-­13: 978-­0-­226-­38618-­8 (e-­book) doi: 10.7208/chicago/9780226386188.001.0001 Library of Congress Cataloging-­i n-­P ublication Data Names: Hornsby, Stephen J. (Stephen John), 1956–­author. | Ehrenberg, Ralph E., 1937–­ writer of foreword. | Library of Congress. Geography and Map Division, contributor, publisher. Title: Picturing America : the golden age of pictorial maps / Stephen J. Hornsby. Description: Chicago ; London : The University of Chicago Press, in association with the Library of Congress, 2017. | Includes bibliographical references and index. | Shows maps of the United States of America and other geographical areas of the world. | “Pictorial maps are artistic renderings rather than scientific representations of places that combine cartographic elements with texts and images and feature bold and arresting graphic design, bright and cheerful colors, and lively detail. In the United States, the 1920s through about 1970 represented a golden age for the form, which this book looks at and considers as a genre”—­P rovided by publisher. Identifiers: lccn 2016012939 | isbn 9780226386041 (cloth : alk. paper) | isbn 9780226386188 (e-­book) Subjects: lcsh: United States—­Maps. | Pictorial maps. | Pictorial maps—­H istory—­20th century. | Cartography—­United States—­H istory—­20th century. | lcgft: Atlases. | Pictorial maps. Classification: lcc g1201.a5 h67 2017 | ddc 912.73—­dc23 lc record available at https://lccn. loc.gov/2016012939  

This paper meets the requirements of ansi/niso z39.48–­1992 (Permanence of Paper).

for Anne

contents Foreword by Ralph E. Ehrenberg 

ix

Pictorial Maps: An American Genre 

1

Maps to Amuse 

57

Maps to Instruct 

77

Maps of Place and Region 

117

Maps for Industry 

185

Maps for War 

225

Maps for Postwar America 

243

Acknowledgments 

267

Notes 

269

Index 

281

foreword Maps and atlases have been an important part of the collections of the Library of Congress since its establishment in 1800 when a congressional committee purchased three maps and an atlas from a London dealer. From this modest beginning, the Library’s cartographic holdings have grown during the past two centuries to more than five million maps, atlases, globes, terrain models, and geospatial digital datasets. The Library’s Geography and Map Division has custody of the bulk of these cartographic materials. Established in 1897 as the Hall of Maps to serve Congress and US government agencies, the Geography and Map Division functions as the National Map Library. Its primary responsibilities are developing and preserving the Library’s cartographic collections and making them available to Congress, government officials, scholars, and the general public through a research reference center and website. An average of forty thousand analogue and digital cartographic materials are acquired yearly through government deposits, transfers of superseded maps from US government libraries, copyright deposits, domestic and international exchanges, purchases, and donations. These range from rare maps and atlases to state-­of-­the-­art electronic geospatial datasets in 150 languages. Some four hundred thousand cartographic materials have been cataloged, and their bibliographic records are available online. As a major service to the map library community, the division also establishes,

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maintains, and disseminates national standards for classifying and cataloging cartographic materials. More than fifty thousand maps and atlases, including many pictorial maps, have been electronically scanned and are available for viewing and downloading on the Library’s online website. Sharing the Library’s rich geographic and cartographic collections with the scholarly community and the general public is another major objective of the Geography and Map Division. This is facilitated by working closely with the Library’s Publication’s Office to identify authors that provide innovative, novel, or original analysis of one or more of the division’s maps or collections. Stephen J. Hornsby is one such author. I first met Dr. Hornsby when he inquired about one of our maps for his contemplated book on pictorial maps, a relatively unknown part of Western cartography. Pictorial maps have fascinated me since we acquired Muriel H. Parry’s collection shortly after I first joined the division. As a map librarian at the Department of State, Ms. Parry often visited the Geography and Map Division. She would be delighted that her collection of pictorial maps provided one of the major sources for a renewed interest in this genre. Another librarian, Ethel M. Fair, who served as director of the Library School of the New Jersey College of Women for many years, assembled the division’s other major collection on which Dr. Hornsby relied. Each collection is extensive, numbering more than eight hundred maps. The United States contributed massively to the development of pictorial mapping, spurred by the nation’s burgeoning economy and dynamic popular culture from the 1920s to the 1950s that was characterized by unprecedented social changes, technological advances, and innovations in architecture, film, literature, music, and the visual arts. Striking and colorful, pictorial maps were widely used as a form of commercial advertising during that era and they formed a familiar part of the world in which Fair and Parry were raised and matured. Because contemporary curators and librarians generally did not consider pictorial maps “geographic” or “scientific,” most libraries did not collect them and they are quite rare today. The Geography and Map Division was an exception. Many pictorial maps in addition to those found in the Fair and Parry collections are held by the division as a result of the US copyright law that requires publishers to deposit two copies of each map they submit for copyright protection to the Library of Congress. Drawing principally upon the Fair and Parry collections, as well as other public and private collections, Dr. Hornsby’s book reveals for the first time how American pictorial mapping exploded on the early twentieth-­century scene and how it developed over time. He introduces a new generation to some of the principal cartographic artists who made pictorial maps a uniquely American art form. His categories of different kinds of pictorial maps help us to understand how diverse this genre was and how far it reached in American life.

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This book is a contribution to our understanding of the history of twentieth-­ century cartography and the special role that American popular mapping played in that history. It will also introduce to a wider public the extraordinary riches of a previously virtually unknown part of the Geography and Map Collection at the Library of Congress. ralph e. ehrenberg Chief, Geography and Map Division Library of Congress

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pictorial maps An American Genre From the 1920s to the 1960s, American popular culture and commercial mapmaking intersected to produce a remarkably creative period in the history of Western cartography. During those years, dozens of graphic artists and cartographers created thousands of pictorial maps depicting the history, geography, and culture of the United States and lands overseas. No other country produced the quantity, quality, and variety of pictorial maps that the United States did. Although now little known, pictorial maps were enormously popular during their heyday, decorating homes, schools, and clubs; appearing in books, magazines, and newspapers; and circulating as tourist guides and advertising brochures. The maps reflected American culture, capturing the dynamism of the nation’s burgeoning skyscraper cities, great industrial factories, and streamlined locomotives, airplanes, and automobiles, as well as portraying the country’s fascination with its colonial and early Republican past. Pictorial maps also displayed advances in printing technology, particularly color lithography, and showcased the talents and originality of some of the nation’s leading graphic artists. By World War II, pictorial maps had created a powerful visual image of the United States and were beginning to reimagine the look of the world for a mass consumer audience. The pictorial map genre has a long and distinguished pedigree. Medieval maps, Renaissance city views, Dutch world maps, and American bird’s-­eye views all incorporated pictorial elements. In the early twentieth century, English graphic artist MacDonald Gill, taking advantage of color lithography, created

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dazzling pictorial maps for the London Underground Railway. His maps were extremely popular and widely influential.1 But it was in the United States that pictorial mapmaking reached its zenith. In the mid-­1920s, American pictorial maps first burst into view as a significant part of the country’s burgeoning popular culture. The economy was booming, New York had supplanted London as the world’s largest and most dynamic city, and Hollywood movies spread images of America around the globe. Pictorial maps reflected this cultural vitality. Drawing on their own mapping heritage as well as new design trends from Europe, American graphic artists and cartographers pushed the boundaries of pictorial mapping in exciting directions. Hundreds of strikingly designed and richly colored pictorial maps poured off the presses during the late 1920s and 1930s. Even the Great Depression did not stem the flow. Although production inevitably slackened during World War II, several innovative pictorial maps were published during the 1940s, and many more were created during the postwar boom years. By the 1960s, however, the genre was waning. Greater use of photography in advertising, a shift away from the map as an advertising tool, and the retirement of pioneering graphic artists who first excelled in the 1920s and 1930s helped bring the golden age of American pictorial mapping to a close. A handful of graphic artists in the United States still practice the craft, but their output is much smaller and their impact far less than in the early twentieth century.2 Pictorial maps formed a distinctive cartographic genre. They were not scientific representations of the Earth’s surface, but artistic renderings of places, regions, and countries. Pictorial maps commonly depicted people, history, architecture, landscape, and terrain. They combined map, image, and text, frequently for the purposes of telling a visual story or to capture a sense of place. As a popular art form, pictorial maps appealed to a wide audience. They were often as attractive to children as to adults. The best pictorial maps were characterized by bold and arresting graphic design, bright and cheerful colors, and lively detail. Many depicted the United States with great verve and excitement. They reflected the country’s cultural confidence and optimism, helping to shape the way people looked at America and the wider world. The dominance of scientific mapping in Western culture has meant that pictorial maps have been largely ignored. In the United States, these maps have been treated as ephemera, the flotsam and jetsam of an enormous sea of popular culture. As a result, only a few libraries have collected such maps, and even fewer archives have accessioned the professional records of the graphic artists who designed them. Picturing America begins the task of sorting out the historical record of these cultural artifacts. The book examines pictorial maps that were designed, printed, and published as an individual sheet or poster or as part of a foldout brochure. At least two thousand such stand-­a lone maps are known to have survived.3 The book does not survey the thousands of pictorial maps that appeared in various publications or were printed on other media, such as handkerchiefs, scarves, and tablecloths.

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Drawing on the extensive collections in the Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, Picturing America charts the development of the genre during its golden age from the 1920s to the 1960s. The book considers the significance of American pictorial maps in the history of Western cartography, outlines the development of the genre, identifies several representative artists, studies the process of creating a pictorial map, examines pictorial map design, discusses the marketing of maps, and highlights two collectors who donated their extensive collections to the Library of Congress. Six sections of plates illustrate different categories of American pictorial maps.

Significance of Pictorial Maps “The curse of many a childhood is the study of geography—­and the curse of geography, for many people, is the dullness of maps.” So wrote American journalist Jay Mordall in 1929.4 He continued, “One remembers even now with vague discomfort the drab colors and dreary shapes of Africa, South America, Asia—­ which was just an overgrown offshoot of Europe—­w ith the names of the country’s products printed in the proper places in tiny, illegible type.” For Mordall, mapmaking had lost a “little of its interest” because it was “no longer an art.” Over the centuries, cartography had become an exact science, and “imagination and poetry” had “gone out of it.” When Mordall was writing in the late 1920s, American mapmaking was dominated by scientific and commercial interests. The federal government, through the US Geological Survey (USGS), produced topographic and geological maps. Private companies, such as Rand McNally, George F. Cram, and C. S. Hammond, issued atlases and individual map sheets. The National Geographic Society created a range of products, from the well-­k nown magazine with its map inserts to map sheets and atlases. Oil corporations, frequently working with General Drafting Company and Rand McNally, turned out road maps, popularly known as “gas maps.” 5 Towns and cities also produced their own transit and street maps. All these various maps showed the location of places for the purposes of navigation, wayfinding, and planning.6 Maps were produced with a constant scale, aligned to the grid of latitude and longitude, and oriented to north at the top of the sheet. Decorative information was eschewed in favor of a striking cover, as on gas maps, or demographic and economic information, as in atlases. Scientifically accurate and functional in use, these maps had a standard, uniform look. “With only a few producers using relatively similar techniques,” historian Susan Schulten observed, “American maps began to develop a rather homogeneous style as the industry focused increasingly on profits rather than aesthetics and tailored its products to suit the widest possible audience.” 7 Pictorial maps were quite different from these scientific maps. Unlike the federal agencies and publishing houses that produced relatively uniform maps, artists and cartographers created a great variety of pictorial output. In many cases, these mapmakers produced only one or two maps over the course of their

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careers, usually as a sideline to their bread-­and-­butter commercial work. As a result, American pictorial maps reflected an enormous range of individual artistic styles, and no one artist dominated the genre. This stood in marked contrast to other countries. MacDonald Gill was by far the leading pictorial mapper in Great Britain from the 1910s to the 1940s, and Loucien Boucher played a similar role in France in the 1940s and 1950s. Although few artists in the United States reached the level of Gill’s accomplishment, the sheer number and great variety of pictorial maps in the United States had no parallel. American pictorial maps also differed from scientific maps in their content. As mapmaker Jack Atherton observed in the 1930s, “Today’s decorative maps no longer attempt guidance of an explorer’s destiny, leaving that tremendous responsibility to topographical maps ably compiled by scientific methods. Instead, through a wealth of illustration and a reasonable degree of geographic accuracy, they reveal intimately the innermost character of a country, incorporating subtly the charm and romance of the past with a vivid picture of the present.” 8 Pictorial maps captured the “innermost character of a country” by highlighting history, landscape, architecture, and human attributes such as affection, attachment, nostalgia, and memory. Pictorial maps amused and instructed, showed the global reach of war, and reflected the prosperity of postwar America. They also enthusiastically sold places, regions, states, industries, transportation, products, and services of all kinds. The finest pictorial maps spun together maps, pictures, and text to create a visual story or representation that instantly summarized a sense of place, delighting the eye and stimulating the viewer’s imagination. Although ignored in most histories of cartography, pictorial maps were arguably the most creative and dynamic part of American cartography in the middle decades of the twentieth century.9

Cultural Influences American pictorial mapmakers drew inspiration from a rich cartographic heritage. Medieval maps with their fantastic beasts, alarming sea monsters, fabulous cities, and statuesque kings and queens offered plentiful ideas.10 Although medieval maps were not as widely reproduced in the 1920s and 1930s as they are today, black-­and-­white illustrations could be found in books and magazines, and a few manuscript maps existed in major public and university libraries. The American Geographical Society, then domiciled in New York City, received its great medieval mappa mundi, or world map, in 1906.11 Elaborately engraved sixteenth-­and seventeenth-­century maps from Italy, the Netherlands, and France were more readily available in major libraries. These maps established standard ways of presenting noncartographic material to the viewer, principally through the use of decorative borders and elaborate cartouches. American pictorial mapmakers could also draw on their own heritage of pictorial maps, particularly those produced by lithography. After the Civil War,

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numerous maps depicting humorous, satirical, commercial, and political

Jan Huygen Van Linschoten, Typus

subjects were published, either as broadsides or in newspapers and journals.

orarum maritemarum Guineae, Manicongo

Designed to attract the reader’s attention, these maps were usually bold in de-

& Angolae ultra Promentorium Bonae

sign and limited to two or three colors. Another type of popular pictorial map

spei susq., 1598. With their evocative

appeared on trade cards. The Arbuckle Coffee Company issued sets of trade cards in the mid-­1880s that showed different parts of the world.12 A typical card comprised a simple map flanked by two or three pictures of local scenes. From there it was but a short step to move pictures onto maps. Around 1890, Schaefer & Weisenbach of New York printed Rambles Through Our Country: A

vignettes, elaborate cartouches, compass roses, and fine lettering, early printed maps provided inspiration to twentieth-­century pictorial mapmakers. Image courtesy of Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps Incorporated, RareMaps.com

Geographical Game for the Young, a magnificent chromolithograph that showed American states, their principal towns, and typical landscapes. In 1915, Matthews Northrup Works of Buffalo, New York, a firm known for its high-­quality printing, produced a full-­color pictorial map of economic activity in the United States.13 In its rich color and thumbnail scenes, the map anticipated many of the pictorial maps that were published more than twenty years later. In 1919, the American meatpacking company Armour created an advertisement showing a

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Above, H. W. Hill & Co., Map of the United States, Showing the Farm Animals in Each State, 1878. Late nineteenth-­century advertisements used picture maps to sell products. Image courtesy of Boston Rare Maps Incorporated

Right, Arbuckle Coffee Company, State of Maine, 1889. To advertise its coffee, Arbuckle produced hundreds of trade cards that combined images and maps. Private collection

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Left, Schaefer & Weisenbach, Rambles through Our Country: A Geographical Game for the Young, circa 1890. Recognizing the appeal of pictorial maps for children, the American Publishing Company designed a pictorial map as a board game. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress

Below, Armour Company, Armour’s Food Source Map, 1922. The company used a pictorial map to advertise its national meat-­packing business. Image from American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­Milwaukee Libraries

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food map of the United States.14 Three years later, Armour published the map as an individual sheet. Nevertheless, these various pictorial maps were isolated examples; they did not yet form a wave of pictorial mapping. One type of pictorial cartographic image that was produced in large numbers was the bird’s-­e ye view of cities and towns. Although these views date back to 1500, when Jacobo de’ Barberi’s great View of Venice was published, they reached their greatest development in the United States in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.15 Spurred by the invention of cheap lithographic printing, artists began making bird’s-­e ye views of towns and cities in the 1830s. 16 Some views were taken from surrounding hills and mountains, but most combined on-­the-­ground depiction of buildings and their representation Charles R. Parsons, City of San Francisco. Bird’s Eye View from the Bay Looking South-­West, circa 1878. Late-­n ineteenth and early-­t wentieth century bird’s-­e ye views provided inspiration to pictorial

from an imaginary viewpoint high in the air. Three-­dimensional representation of buildings was combined with two-­dimensional map layout. Some of the most artistically accomplished views shaded into pictorial maps. A view of Fresno County, California, circa 1920, was even called a “pictorial map.” Nearly 5,000 bird’s-­eye views were eventually created, covering as many as 2,400 individual

mapmakers.

places, with some of the largest cities having more than thirty different views.

Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

Although the interest in such images began to wane by the 1890s, thousands of

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framed views decorated the walls of American homes, schools, libraries, and

Pictorial Map of Fresno County and Mid-­

offices into the twentieth century. For graphic artists, it was not a great leap of

California’s Garden of the Sun, circa 1920.

imagination to move from a bird’s-­eye view to a pictorial map.

This late example of a bird’s-­e ye view

Another important influence was American popular visual culture. Many pictorial mapmakers worked as commercial artists and were familiar with advertising, comics, cartoons, movies, and posters. Brash, colorful advertisements could be found on everything from fruit crates to billboards. Newspapers

was titled a “pictorial map,” an explicit recognition of the close affinity between the two forms. Image courtesy of David Rumsey Map Collection

dedicated pages to comics printed in full color. The first successful animated cartoon with synchronized sound made its appearance in 1928 with Walt Disney’s Steamboat Willie, starring Mickey Mouse. Brightly colored and boldly designed posters advertised the products and services of many American companies, particularly those of the travel industry. All these visual forms filtered into pictorial maps: graphic artists were quick to incorporate speech bubbles, story panels, comic strips, cinematic panoramas, and striking design into pictorial maps. In employing these visual tropes, pictorial maps soon became another part of America’s enveloping visual culture. A more diffuse cultural influence on pictorial maps was the Colonial Revival movement. The centennial of American independence in 1876 created enormous interest in the colonial and early federal periods, an interest that lasted

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through the sesquicentennial in 1926 and even into the early 1940s. Indeed, some scholars argue that the Colonial Revival is still with us in the twenty-­fi rst century, making it the “most popular, long-­lasting, and widespread expression of identity that has yet developed in the United States.” 17 Apart from national commemorations, the Colonial Revival movement provided a refuge for many Americans disturbed by the country’s rapid industrialization, influx of immigrants, rampant commercialism, and enveloping mass culture. The Colonial Revival movement touched many aspects of art and design, particularly architecture, gardening, and household furnishings. Its most spectacular creation was the preservation of colonial Williamsburg, Virginia, which began in 1926. 18 Although the movement focused on historic buildings and landscapes of the thirteen colonies, the Colonial Revival also affected French Louisiana and Spanish Florida, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and California. To commemorate the past and enliven colonial settings, Colonial Revival devotees staged historical pageants, hired costumed reenactors, and produced a variety of printed material, ranging from guidebooks to colonial facsimiles and historical maps. For pictorial mapmakers in the 1920s and 1930s, the colonial and federal periods offered a rich vein to tap, providing a variety of patriotic content as well as opportunities to recreate historical styles of cartography (plate 23). European trends in the visual arts also shaped American pictorial mapping. As the world’s leading metropolis in the early twentieth century, London had enormous cultural sway. Among many strands of influence emanating from the imperial capital was the publicity material produced for the London Underground Railway. A complex and heterogeneous network of lines in the early twentieth century, the Underground was welded into a distinct corporate identity by general manager Frank Pick.19 He introduced numerous marketing innovations, including commissioning some of the country’s leading artists to design subway posters.20 These posters, designed in a variety of eye-­catching styles, quickly gained an international reputation. Alfred Yockney, a well-­ known English art critic and editor of the Art Journal, declared that “every new design . . . has been an event in the world of art.” 21 Graphic artists in the United States soon became aware of what was called the “poster revival.” 22 Through articles in the art press, notably International Studio, the American version of the highly influential British publication The Studio, new designs disseminated across the Atlantic. On the first page of Yockney’s article “Some Recent London Posters,” published in International Studio in 1914/15, was one of Frank Pick’s most extraordinary commissions: By Paying Us Your Pennies, popularly known as the Wonderground Map of London, designed by English artist MacDonald “Max” Gill. A storybook pictorial map of central London showing the location of Underground stations, the Wonderground Map was published in 1914, becoming an immediate success and ultimately the most influential pictorial map ever published.23 It was so popular that a smaller, folded version, with its own colorful envelope,

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was produced. By the 1930s, the map was being retailed in the United States.24

MacDonald Gill, Wonderground Map, 1914.

Gill, the younger brother of sculptor and type designer Eric Gill, earned a liv-

Commissioned by London Underground,

ing as an architect, ecclesiastical decorator, and letterer.25 Like his brother, who designed the widely used Gill Sans sans-­serif typeface, Max was a close friend of typographer Edward Johnston, from whom he learned lettering and calligraphy. Max was also interested in geography, especially cartography, and began

Gill’s colorful Wonderground Map was the most influential of all twentieth-­century pictorial maps. Ethel M. Fair Collection (623), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

making maps as a school boy. An early commission came in 1909 from leading English architect Edwin Lutyens for a series of wind-­d ial maps, including one for Lindisfarne Castle. Gill’s Wonderground Map introduced themes that would be copied and developed in American pictorial maps more than a decade later. First, the map used bright primary colors, including yellow for roads. Second, it showed famous landmarks, such as St. Paul’s Cathedral, in some detail, while representing Underground stations more symbolically (a mix of temple and tea caddy). Third, the Wonderground Map, like medieval maps, was populated with people, animals (a lion, giraffe, and elephant at the London Zoo), and fantastic beasts (a mul-

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ticolored, tongue-­flicking serpent or “worm” for the Serpentine Lake). Finally, the map included a variety of texts, ranging from nursery rhymes to speech balloons rising from well-­k nown London characters. Humor peppered much of the text and allowed Gill to talk to the reader (“Observe, my dear child, how dexterously has the artist delineated his subject”). With this mix of elements, Gill created a new type of map that had enormous popular appeal. A further influence coming from London was the revival of lettering and typography inspired by Edward Johnston.26 A disciple of the Arts and Crafts movement, especially William Morris’s Kelmscott Press, Johnston devoted his life to regularizing and developing the art of calligraphy and lettering. In 1906, he published Writing & Illuminating & Lettering, a pioneering handbook that served as the standard reference book for pictorial mapmakers.27 His reputation established, he was soon commissioned by Frank Pick to design a suitable typeface for lettering on Underground stations. The resulting Johnston Sans, the first block letter type of the modern era, was used for all lettering on maps, posters, and notices. Johnston also devised the Underground’s famous red roundel. In 1959, Evelyn Waugh perceptively noted, “Every schoolboy who learns the ‘italic script,’ every townsman who reads the announcements of the Underground Railway, everyone who studies the maps attached to modern travel books is seeing in the light of Johnston.” 28 The British Empire Exhibition of 1924 and 1925 served as another influence from London. Although some visiting Americans may have been put off by the celebration of empire, they could scarcely have avoided seeing pictorial maps in Underground stations. MacDonald Gill continued to produce revised editions of the Wonderground Map, as well as new designs, such as Theatre-­land (1915), You’ve Only Got To Choose Your Bus (1920), In the Heat of Summer (1922), and Peter Pan Map of Kensington Gardens (1923).29 For the exhibition itself, Frank Pick commissioned cartographer Thomas Derrick and artist Edward Bawden to create The British Empire Exhibition (1924), a dazzling pictorial map displaying fizzing fireworks, crowds of people, exhibition buildings, buses, and trains. A much more restrained version, British Empire Exhibition 1924 . . . Its Situation Described in Relation to the Railways of London, advertised transport connections to the exhibition at Wembley Park. Created as a foldout brochure by Kennedy North in 1923, the map displayed a large blue and white striped tent (“this fine dustsheet”) being pulled back to reveal the exhibition. As on Gill maps, North colored roads yellow and included decorative cartouches, such as the elaborate royal coat of arms above the title. Unlike Gill, however, North had to work with two different scales by enclosing the central map of the exhibition with a differently scaled map of London transport. The result was a strikingly attractive pictorial map that served as the principal guide to the exhibition. Although London exerted considerable influence on American pictorial maps, a much broader artistic influence came from across the English Channel. French art, architecture, and design had long dominated European culture,

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and by the late nineteenth century had brought the United States into its thrall.

Kennedy North, British Empire Exhibition

For aspiring American artists and architects, Paris was the center of the art

1924. Produced as an exhibition map

world. French Impressionist painting especially drew American artists to Mon-

and guide, North’s elaborate pictorial

et’s Giverny, while Beaux-­A rts style had a tremendous influence on American architecture, including the design of such prominent buildings as New York’s Metropolitan Museum and Grand Central Station. Just as the Beaux-­A rts tradition was flagging in the 1920s, the French introduced a new stylistic revolution

map showed buses, automobiles, trams, trains, and subway cars all traveling to the exhibition grounds. Private collection

that was to have a major impact on American architecture and decorative art. In 1925, Paris hosted the Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, an international design fair that gave the world art deco.30 Characterized by abstract geometric forms, flat design, and bold colors, the new style affected the design of objects ranging from jewelry to skyscrapers. Although the United States was not represented at the exposition because it had “almost nothing to exhibit conceived in the modern spirit,” the US government sent the Hoover Commission to assess the exhibits.31 The delegates were so impressed that they recommended bringing “back from the Exposition and to exhibit in the principal museums of this country a representative collection of the finest examples of European decorative and industrial art.” 32 More than four hundred objects were shipped across the Atlantic for major exhibits beginning in Boston in January 1926, then moving to New York, Cleveland, Chicago,

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Coulton Waugh, The Map of Silk, reproduced in Women’s Wear, February 5, 1921. This charming black-­and-­white map, showing the history of silk production, gives an indication of the more elaborate color map that Waugh produced for the International Silk Show in New York City in 1921. F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries

Detroit, Saint Louis, Minneapolis, and Philadelphia. At the same time, the Paris exposition garnered extensive coverage in the American art press.33 Aspiring American artists thus had many opportunities to see and read about the new style. Looking back on the transformation wrought by art deco, the New Yorker opined: “Nineteen-­t wenty-­six was a propitious year for a decorative artist and industrial designer aware of ideas current in Europe and full of enthusiasm to return to America. . . . Commerce was going in for art; and a boom time was coming.” 34

A Humanized Cartography The first ripples of what became a great wave of pictorial map production in the mid-­1920s began with maps produced by graphic artists such as Charles Hamilton Owens, working for the Los Angeles Times, and Coulton Waugh, designing for trade publications and the New York World. Owens worked almost entirely in black and white for newspapers, but Waugh produced both single sheet and newspaper spreads in full color. As a struggling young artist in New York City in the late 1910s and early 1920s, Waugh found a niche in designing textiles and advertisements for the textile industry.35 He used pictorial maps for several publicity pieces. For the International Silk Show in New York in February 1921, Waugh designed The Map of Silk in a “spirit of romance and gaiety.” 36 A splendid creation in color and gold leaf, the map does not appear to have survived, except as a simplified black-­and-­white illustration in a trade publication. Waugh followed with Ye Ancient Map of Cotton for the Textile Product Show in Greenville, South Carolina, in October 1922.37 Finding that his illustrative graphic style worked

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Coulton Waugh, Ye Discovery of New York Bay and the Hudson River by Ye Great Navigator Hendrik Hudson, a.d. 1609, reproduced in The World Magazine, September 3, 1922. One of Waugh’s earliest pictorial maps, this work anticipates the style and content of his views of Cape Cod and Cape Ann (see plate 81) done in the late 1920s. F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries

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well for newspapers, he gave up designing textiles and shifted to newspaper work. In 1922, he began producing color spreads for the Sunday section of The World Magazine. These spreads included at least two pictorial maps, forerunners of several pictorial maps that he produced in Provincetown, Massachusetts, in the late 1920s (plate 81). Although Waugh later made a name for himself as a cartoonist and painter, he was proud of his pioneering contribution to the pictorial map genre. Moreover, the sale of thousands of decorative maps stocked in his Ship Model Shop of Cape Cod in Provincetown was “a happy way of making a living.” 38 Other graphic artists in New York City were also designing pictorial maps. One of the poles around which much of this artistic energy circulated was Washington Square Book Shop, at 27 West 8th Street, a popular haunt of writers and artists in the early twentieth century. “The Washington Square Shop, presided over by Egmont Arens and Josephine Bell, was during the Twenties the Greenwich Villager’s favorite shop for browsing and even for purchasing books when the price could be afforded,” recalled literary critic Gorham Munson. “In what a high-­pitched anticipatory mood we ducked into this book shop once or twice a week to see what was new on its magazine rack. Here were the publications of the new movements in American art and thought and literature. Here were the reviews that were stimulating the young.” 39 After her first marriage ended, Bell married Chase Horton in 1923, and her new husband became co-­proprietor of the shop.40 The Hortons were among the first and most significant publishers of American pictorial maps. In 1925, they published Joseph B. Platt’s A Map of New York (plate 49), a riotous swirl of orange and blue, speech bubbles, and skyscrapers. Platt was just beginning his career as an industrial and interior designer.41 In the early 1920s, he had lived in the medieval town of Senlis, just north of Paris, working as an editor, correspondent, and illustrator for Vanity Fair, Vogue, and House & Garden.42 By 1925, he was back in the United States, living in New York City and Little Compton, Rhode Island. His map of New York appears to have been his only venture into popular cartography, but it was sufficiently successful that Washington Square Book Shop published several more pictorial maps, including those by commercial artists Everett Henry (plate 32) and Ilonka Karasz (plate 73). Houghton Mifflin, in Boston, was an even more important force in launching the pictorial map genre. A long-­established publishing house with a reputation for integrity and quality, Houghton Mifflin specialized in trade and educational books.43 From its offices on Park Street overlooking Boston Common, the firm had published some of America’s most celebrated authors, including Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Henry James, and Henry Adams, but it was also a leader in the burgeoning educational market, publishing textbooks and reference works. Realizing the potential of pictorial maps for this market, the company published some of the country’s earliest examples, issuing eight between 1926 and 1934.44

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Houghton Mifflin launched their foray into pictorial mapping with maps

Detail from Joseph B. Platt, A Map of New

of Boston, Philadelphia, and Washington, DC, created and drawn by Edwin B.

York, 1925, showing “This is the shop

Olsen and Blake E. Clark. Olsen, a native New Yorker, graduated from Harvard

where this map was born.”

with a degree in architecture in 1923 and then went on to further training at the Beaux-­A rts Institute of Design in New York. After a short spell teaching

Image courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

architecture at the University of Idaho, he moved back to 603 Boylston Street, Boston, and advertised his services as “Architect” and “Maps.” 45 Clark, a native Bostonian, attended Bowdoin and Tufts, and then moved to Paris to study at the leading art academies. By 1925, he was back in Boston, pursuing a career in landscape and marine painting.46 Although Clark soon disappeared from the art scene, Olsen went on to a career with the leading architectural firms of John Russell Pope, Eggers & Higgins, and McKim, Mead & White, working on such commissions as the National Gallery of Art, the Smithsonian’s Museum of History and Technology (now the National Museum of American History), and Jacqueline Kennedy’s restoration of the White House. During his time in Idaho, Olsen toured the principal cities of the West and began to formulate his ideas about a “humanized cartography.” “On that trip,” he explained to a reporter, “the idea that had been buzzing in my head came to a resolution. If you visit a city and want really to taste its flavor, to feel its history and at the same time see it in its modern aspects, you have to take a few

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auto trips. . . . Then you read eight or ten books and roam a little on your own. I wondered why a map—­one map and not two or three supplemented by guidebooks and pamphlets—­could not give what I was after, you know, the spirit, the color of a city. A map could be picturesque and yet informative, could avoid the stereotyped network of dull, straight lines, and still keep the city within bounds. Well, I thought it could be done, at least that the combination of Blake and myself . . . could do it.” 47 Olsen and Clark began work on their first map, The Colour of An Old City: A Map of Boston Decorative and Historical, in September 1925, spending six months of “exhaustive study and incessant sketching,” with much of the research taking place in the Boston Athenaeum and the Boston Public Library.48 “Oh, the books we read,” they commented later, “histories, diaries, town meeting minutes, old documents, old prints, old maps—­u ntil we felt swamped and drowned. . . . The sleep we got during the six months of work on the map wouldn’t make one good nap if it was lumped together. . . . We’d research and then draw. And draw and color and work up ideas and then research.” 49 At the beginning of the project, Olsen was employed in an architect’s office and Clark in a factory, but they soon resigned their jobs to devote all their time to the map. “It’s work,” the two men said, “checking up every detail of line and date and location and then selecting and reproducing what we decide to use. But it is pleasant work.” It was also remunerative. For their Boston map, Houghton Mifflin provided an advance of $500 on royalties, a considerable sum at the time. Olsen and Blake collaborated equally on their first two maps and divided their royalties evenly, but on their last map, which portrayed Washington, DC, Olsen received 65 percent, reflecting his greater contribution.50 Published in April 1926, Olsen and Clark’s Colour of an Old City was among the first stand-­a lone, full-­color pictorial maps produced in the United States (plate 47). Strikingly colored and packed with information and incident, the map was an immediate success.51 Houghton Mifflin’s press release praised the map as a “model of excellence in this quaint and contemporaneously popular decorative art.” 52 Measuring 71.5 × 95 centimeters and issued folded in its specially designed envelope, the map used a format that became common for the genre. A central decorative panel was surrounded by a border containing smaller maps and vignettes. The central panel presented an oblique view of Boston, showing buildings in three dimensions, as on a bird’s-­e ye view, as well as a dense concentration of people, animals, ships, and airplanes. Speech balloons and text scrolls provided further information. At the base of the map, an illustrated book entitled “What It’s All About!” lay open. Here, Olsen and Clark offered an explanatory ditty: “Rather like a crazy quilt / of interesting facts and fancies built / Tis no engineering feat / of surveyed miles and buildings neat / But in some corner if you search / you’ll find out where to go to church . . . All this before your eyes / notwithstanding the small size / we offer in this ditty / T[he]

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Colour of an Old City.” The surrounding border contained six reproductions of old maps and thirty-­eight drawings of historic scenes and buildings that are no longer standing. Olsen and Clark declared that they knew “of no other maps that have been done for other cities that [were] like their map.” 53 They may have been unaware of Platt’s Map of New York published the previous year, but they must certainly have known MacDonald Gill’s Wonderground Map.54 The busy Boston map was strongly reminiscent of the London map. Olsen and Clark’s caricature depiction of houses was almost identical to Gill’s drawings in London. They also followed Gill in using yellow for roads, which made for a stunning contrast to the inky blue waters of Boston Harbor and the Charles River. Gill had used red to help pick out Underground stations; Olsen and Clark also used red for prominent buildings and pictorial highlights. Gill’s border design, a black-­and-­white chevron pattern interspersed with differently colored circles, must have inspired the two Americans to use black-­and-­white diamonds and red circles for their map borders. Moreover, Olsen and Clark relied on the same mix of humor and history that characterized the Wonderground Map. The two artists used speech balloons and nursery rhymes in much the same way as Gill. Although strongly influenced by the Wonderground Map, Olsen and Clark were correct in claiming that The Colour of An Old City was a new type of map for the United States. Coming from Houghton Mifflin, Colour of An Old City attracted attention. A perceptive review entitled “Learn of Boston With a Chuckle,” in the Boston-­ based Christian Science Monitor, recognized that “the vogue of intimate cartography, of maps that amuse and instruct as well as direct, while not altogether new, has developments from time to time such as are evidenced in ‘The Color [sic] of an Old City.’ . . . To demonstrate that this is not a new art, one has but to recall the maps of the Middle Ages which are still preserved in museum[s] and reproduction. The fantastic descriptions of winds and sea monsters and imagined cities therein contained evidence of the same whimsicalities that are popular today.” The review lauded graphic touches such as “a crier bellowing through a scarlet megaphone ‘I am two miles from City Hall,’ and what peruser of maps will not welcome this departure from the trite and formal concentric circles superimposed on so many city maps.” 55 Even before the Boston map was published, Olsen and Clark began work on a map of Philadelphia to mark the nation’s sesquicentennial. Published in June 1926, A Kite View of Philadelphia and the Sesqui-­Centennial International Exposition was not as successful as the Boston map.56 Pressed for time and less familiar with Philadelphia, the two artists spent only three months researching and drawing the map.57 In contrast to the rich tapestry effect achieved in Colour of An Old City, Olsen and Clark were content to draw the grid of Philadelphia and mark only the most prominent buildings on the map’s central panel. Instead of an open book at the base of the map, Olsen and Clark included a large-­scale map

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of the exposition. The surrounding border contained reproductions of old maps of the city, two Philadelphia seals, and various drawings of historical scenes and buildings. Soon after publication, Roger Scaife, a director at Houghton Mifflin, wrote to Olsen and Clark, explaining that the firm had received “a number of comments, and I think justly so, that the map of Philadelphia is neither as artistic nor as attractive nor as complete as the Boston map.” 58 With the pair already working on a map of Washington, DC (plate 48), Scaife advised that “for our mutual advantage Washington should excel Philadelphia in all these aspects if we are to continue the series.” He also noted, “I think that Washington lends itself much better than Philadelphia to a decorative map, and if you gentlemen will give it the same close interest which you gave to Boston and familiarize yourselves with the history, undoubtedly you can repeat the first success.” As the map of Washington would be the most prestigious in the series, Scaife was obviously concerned about its development, and at some point in the summer of 1926, the two artists met with him and Ferris Greenslet, also of Houghton Mifflin, to work out the map’s basic design.59 They decided that the White House would occupy the center of the sheet, as “this is the appropriate position for it.” They also set the map’s boundaries. As Olsen recounted, “the northern boundary shall be determined by and include Sheridan Circle because, as Mr. Greenslet mentioned, of its social interest; going East we take in everything up to the Library of Congress, beyond which there is little of interest; on the South, though we can only actually include up to L Street, I think by using a little license, as we have on the other maps, we will be able to give sufficient indication of the War College and United States Navy Yard, and by the same means we will be able to get in Arlington Cemetery, Georgetown College, and the United States Naval Observatory on the West.” The two artists then worked up a “rough sketch” and invited comments. Scaife responded immediately, suggesting that they include decoration to mark the city’s circles, “which will make focal points of attraction”; include features on cross streets; indicate historic sites, such as Ford’s Theatre; show roads leading to famous localities beyond the map, such as Fort Myers, Mount Vernon, and Richmond; and include border pictures depicting the early White House and the church at Alexandria where Washington worshipped. As the map neared completion, Scaife saw a final draft. “As I said over the telephone,” he remarked, “it is excellent, except for the lettering in the pictures around the edge of the map. This lettering would be all right if it were on the regular script style of the two open books [in the border on either side of the map], or if it were in a printed letter of the style of the street names. In its present form, it has not the finished look that appears in the rest of the map.” 60 Scaife kept a watchful eye right to the end. After working intensively on the Boston and Philadelphia maps for nearly a year, Olsen and Clark were fully conscious of the demands of pictorial mapping when it came time to design the Washington map. In “Description of the

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Washington Map,” prepared as a Houghton Mifflin press release, Olsen touched on some of the defining characteristics of pictorial mapping, particularly concerning theme, scale, and representation,61 and he was explicit about the map’s theme. “As Washington’s chief characteristic in outward aspect is an architectural one, so we felt it our duty to express that in the map. . . . For we think—­is it not the purpose of these decorative maps to interpret what we called in the map of Boston ‘the color’ of the city? This in Boston was of a picturesque tone and the city was handled so. On the Philadelphia map emphasis was laid on the curious old anecdotes, historic and humorous, to be found in the history of that city.” For Washington, the theme was the imposing architecture, and that brought up the issue of scale. In drawing the monuments, Olsen had to use “cartographer’s license.” He recognized that a constant graphic scale “would have made the buildings individually so diminutive as to be practically invisible,” and thus adopted what he called a “scale of interest.” In creating a new humanistic scale, Olsen recognized one of the major differences between scientific and artistic mapping. He observed, for example, that the White House, “probably the most interesting building in the city and one of the smallest, if drawn to the graphic scale of the map[,] would appear as a large pin prick puncturing the executive grounds.” However, given its “proper size in the ‘scale of interest’ [it] transcends in size on the map all other buildings but one—­the Capitol.” Finally, Olsen was concerned with representation. He and Clark decided on “a naive fashion of setting down only the main facade of each edifice, usually the front.” Olsen explained that “this method simplifies greatly and the result in the mind of the author is of more artistic merit than if each building had been shown in its correct perspective. In a way, it hearkens back to the maps of the cartographers of ancient times.” In shifting from the three-­d imensional bird’s-­e ye view of the Boston map to an architectural two-­ dimensional depiction, Olsen and Clark began to explore the possibilities of representation on pictorial maps. When Houghton Mifflin published the map in early December 1926, the company’s directors thought it “most attractive.” 62 Olsen and Clark considered the Washington map “most splendid” and the “best of the three.” 63 A copy was sent immediately to the White House. “It is a most interesting design,” responded Calvin Coolidge, “and a most attractive decoration.” 64 Houghton Mifflin was so pleased with the first three pictorial maps that it continued to commission artists to make maps into the early 1930s. Even as it was working with Olsen and Clark, the publishing house was negotiating with Mélanie Leonard of Sandwich, Massachusetts, to reproduce in color her black-­ and-­white pictorial map of Cape Cod, first published by the Berkeley Press in March 1926.65 The color version came out in March 1927, well in time for the summer tourist season on the Cape (plate 83), and the map sold well.66 Sadly, her next venture, a stunningly original map of New York City, was rejected. Although

21

recognizing the design as “ingenious and whimsical,” Houghton Mifflin worried that it would “not make a quick appeal to the market.” 67 Leonard responded graciously, explaining, “I’ve been doing things of this sort all my life, without much success as to general appreciation. ‘Specialized appreciation’ I’ve had lots of.” 68 The map was later published as A Map of New York in the Air with Additions Omissions and Premonitions Or Super-­Man-­Hattan, one of the most ethereal views of New York City ever created (plate 50). Houghton Mifflin published four more pictorial maps, including Charles Turzak and Henry T. Chapman’s striking art deco Illustrated Map of Chicago (plate 55) and Ernest Dudley Chase’s charming Mercator Map of the World (plate 16), both in 1931, but the maps published in 1926 made the greatest impact. Within months of the Boston map’s publication, graphic artists turned their hands to creating pictorial maps. Alva Scott Mitchell and Elizabeth Paige May, members of the 1924 class of Wellesley College, created a map of Wellesley (plate 75), an amusing depiction of undergraduate life on campus.69 It was among the first of a new subgenre of collegiate pictorial maps. Mitchell went on to produce several “Scott-­Maps,” including pictorial maps of Boston, Concord, Salem, and the White Mountains. Meanwhile, Elizabeth Shurtleff, a Boston-­t rained artist living in Concord, New Hampshire, and Helen F. McMillin, another Wellesley alum and former editor of the Granite Monthly, partnered to create a pictorial map entitled Map of the State of New Hampshire.70 In New York City, Charles Vernon Farrow had designed A Map of the Wondrous Isle of Manhattan (plate 51), published in May 1926. A month later, the National Association of Real Estate Boards published an enormous pictorial map of the United States created by young Ignatz Sahula-­Dycke, a commercial artist from Czechoslovakia (plate 131).71 The handful of pictorial maps published in 1925 and 1926 defined the principal characteristics of American pictorial maps in the prewar years. Bold blocks of vibrant color gave the maps energy and excitement, while decorative borders, compass roses, winds, scales, titles, and legends added graphic richness. Speech bubbles, cartoon figures, and historical scenes provided further interest. Capturing the dynamism and optimism of 1920s America, the maps proved enormously popular, appealing to adults and children alike and quickly becoming a significant part of American visual culture.

Notable Pictorial Mapmakers From the 1920s to the 1960s, staff cartographers at the nation’s largest map publishing houses, such as Rand McNally, General Drafting Company, and National Geographic, created many pictorial maps, but graphic artists and cartographers working on their own or for commission also produced significant numbers. While some of these artists, such as Rockwell Kent and Everett Henry, enjoyed considerable success, many labored in relative obscurity, their work hardly known today. A number of women designed pictorial maps, probably the first

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time that they had played such a significant creative role in Western cartography.72 Several of these artists were committed to public education and designed pictorial maps as a means of teaching children. Unlike staff cartographers working at the large American map publishers, graphic artists were not bound to the strict conventions of scientific mapping. Many of them did a variety of work, from commercial advertising to book illustration. As a result, they were open to the new ideas and styles swirling through graphic design in the 1920s and 1930s, and could experiment with design, content, and scale in their maps. The following biographies of five of the more prominent designers give some sense of the enormous range, stylistic variety, and talents of American pictorial mapmakers in the mid-­t wentieth century.73 charles h. owens (1881–­1958) Even before Washington Square Book Shop and Houghton Mifflin published their maps, Charles H. Owens in Los Angeles was designing some of the most original pictorial maps ever created.74 Although he never produced full-­color pictorial maps equivalent to those by Olsen and Clark or many others, Owens did perfect the bird’s-­eye view for newspapers. In the process, he created many individual black-­and-­white and color aerial perspective maps that easily stand comparison with full-­color pictorial maps. Born in San Francisco in 1881 and raised in Santa Cruz, Owens had a natural facility for sketching. He turned his back on formal schooling at an early age, graduating from third grade “with more or less honor,” and thereafter he devoted his life to sketching.75 His first break came in San Francisco, where he was taken on as errand boy at the San Francisco Call.76 His artistic talent soon recognized, Owens worked in the art department until moving to New York in 1898, where he had stints at several New York papers over the next decade. Returning to Los Angeles in 1908, he was taken on at the Los Angeles Examiner and then joined the Los Angeles Times in 1921. By then, he had already published several pieces in the Times, including “Map of Poland on the Peace Table Closing Germany’s Gateway to Russia” in 1919, a graphic illustrating a range of cartographic tropes including a globe, wall maps, and inset maps. A modest, self-­effacing man, Owens saw himself as “just a newspaper craftsman.” He stayed with the Times until retirement in 1953. He died in Los Angeles five years later. Perhaps because he had no formal training in art or cartography, Owens combined his natural talent for quick sketching with strikingly original aerial perspectives of landscapes. He was known as “an indefatigable sketcher,” always working with notebook in hand drawing people, buildings, and landscapes. In the years before photographs were published, newspapers relied on staff artists to create black-­and-­white sketches to illustrate stories, often under tight deadlines for the next day’s paper. Owens’s ability to sketch quickly, combined with his interest in depicting the landscape as if it were a map or part of the

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globe, made him especially suited for newspaper work. As a child, Owens had probably seen bird’s-­eye views of San Francisco and Los Angeles.77 As a newspaperman, he must have been aware of aerial perspective maps created during the First World War to illustrate battlefronts. Such “picture maps” included those by English artist G. F. Morrell for The Graphic, a popular and influential British magazine, which were collected and published in the United States in Book of the War (1918).78 Otto Kurth created similar maps for the Mid-­Week Pictorial section of the New York Times.79 Whatever his inspirational source, Owens seamlessly incorporated oblique perspectives into his work. Owens was also affected by the desert landscape of Southern California. After the “canyons of New York,” he was “like a kid let out of school” when he arrived back in Los Angeles in 1908. “Everything he saw intrigued him,” wrote fellow Times staffer Joe Seewerker in 1938. “He raved about the beauties of the ‘desert,’ the mountains which formed a backdrop for the sprawling, picturesque Southland.” 80 Along with several other artists in Southern California, Owens helped shape the tourist image of the Southwest.81 With the rapid increase in automobile ownership during the 1920s, he frequently published illustrated Right, Detail from Charles H. Owens, Mexico’s West Coast, circa 1936. Owens slipped in a vignette of himself sketching and fellow Los Angeles Times staffer Harry Carr typing. Private collection

Opposite, Charles H. Owens, Map of Poland on the Peace Table Closing Germany’s Gateway to Russia, Los Angeles Times, April 6, 1919. Owens’s oblique view of the conference table shows a globe and maps at different scales. He used oblique perspective and collage in many of his graphic designs. ProQuest Historical Newspapers: Los Angeles Times (1881–­1989)

24

25

Otto Kurth, Zone Maps, 1916. Kurth em-

articles in the Times on auto tourism in the greater Los Angeles area, the South-

ployed an expansive oblique perspective

west, and northern Mexico, and he even decorated a car, an “Essex flyer,” with

to show European battle fronts during

western scenes such as the Grand Canyon, the Painted Desert, and Yosemite.82

World War I. Charles H. Owens and

Many of his sketches of Los Angeles illustrated “Nuestro Pueblo,” a series of

Richard Edes Harrison used similar perspectives to show the global conflict of World War II. Private collection

newspaper columns about the city’s history that he coauthored with Seewerker during the 1930s and that were later collected and published as a book.83 Owens also published in Touring Topics, the monthly magazine of the Automobile Club of Southern California, one of the major booster organizations in the state.84 Owens was even known to sketch while driving at high speed, once explaining that “the secret of drawing in an automobile is to preserve complete nonrigidity.” 85 This fascination with speed and “rapid-­fi re” sketching soon led Owens to make sketches from the air and to create three extraordinary pictorial maps.86 His first large-­scale effort showed the enormous Colorado River basin, published as a two-­page spread in the Sunday rotogravure section of the Los Angeles Times on March 28, 1920.87 At the time, plans were being drawn up to harness the massive hydroelectric potential of the Colorado and to divert its waters to irrigate a good part of the desert Southwest as well as provide drinking water to Los Angeles. Sketching from a plane flying from Calexico, California, east over Yuma and the Gila River at an altitude of two thousand to eight thousand feet, Owens enjoyed a panoramic view of much of the Imperial Valley of California and southwestern Arizona. The finished map showed the vast extent of the Colorado drainage basin, surrounding mountainous relief, and the curvature of

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the earth. Owens also included three sketches and three inset maps, a collage format that he would use repeatedly. In the following years, Owens’s interest in flight intensified. In September 1924, he produced a pictorial map of the northern hemisphere showing the first aerial circumnavigation of the globe by American army pilots. Published on the front page of the Los Angeles Times, the map was widely reproduced; indeed, the Times claimed later that it appeared “in more newspapers of more different countries than any other newspaper drawing ever printed.” 88 The next year, Owens drew a large pictorial map of the Panama Canal (plate 97). Printed as a double-­page spread in the Sunday rotogravure section of the Los Angeles Times and also as an individual sheet measuring 68 × 106.7 centimeters, this map was one of Owens’s cartographic masterpieces. “It is literally a ‘picture map,’” announced the Times, “and shows the canal in relief as it would look to one flying across the Canal Zone in an airplane.” 89 Owens spent a month in Panama gathering information and working on the map. The War Department lent him an army plane and pilot, allowing the artist to make “sketches . . . in the cockpit . . . at an elevation which lifted the skyline to the level of the Pacific on one hand and the Atlantic on the other, with the entire length of the Canal unrolled between.” 90 In addition, Owens pored over photographic material in the archives of the Canal Administration building in Balboa and made numerous sketches on the ground. The resulting map showed “the viewpoint of one who could envisage the entire zone as it actually lies on the curving surface of the globe.” 91 Dominated by a shaded relief image of the canal cutting through mountains set diagonally across the sheet, the map included numerous inset maps at various scales, as well as pictorial vignettes of the canal and historical landmarks. Detailed drawings of the hydraulic systems of locks and reservoirs showed how the canal worked. Sketches of statues of Columbus and Balboa situated the American-­engineered canal into the longer European history of the isthmus. A swirling collage of maps and images, Owens’s Panama Canal map marked a major advance in the scale and ambition of bird’s-­eye view pictorial mapping. In 1926, Owens published the third of his great panoramas, A Pictorial Map of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District (plate 57).92 Subtitled A Complete Geographical Guide to the Fastest Growing Territory in the Entire World, the map was drawn in the midst of Los Angeles’s extraordinary economic and urban expansion. Produced for the Los Angeles Times, the major institution boosting the city, the map can be seen as a significant document in the developing iconography of Los Angeles.93 Standard nighttime photographs taken from Mt. Wilson Observatory in Pasadena or Griffiths Observatory in Los Angeles emphasized the city’s formless sprawl.94 By centering his map on downtown and drawing a twenty-­ mile radius around the central business district, Owens depicted a more structured city. Moreover, he departed from the night view looking south from the mountains by showing a “sweeping aerial view” looking north from the Pacific

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Ocean toward the mountains and cloud-­fi lled horizon. This was the cartographer’s orientation. Within the twenty-­m ile radius, Owens depicted urban centers, roads, railroads, water courses, airports, oil fields, coastlines, and natural landmarks.95 Owens devoted six months to drawing the map, including repeated flights to sketch from the air and driving five thousand miles to crisscross the region.96 The finished map was a paean of praise to Los Angeles. Owens emphasized the city’s industries, particularly the oil industry with its hundreds of derricks dotted across the landscape, the built-­up core of downtown, and the immense expanses of land across the Los Angeles Basin waiting to be developed. Ever keen to boost the city, the Times encouraged readers to buy an extra copy and “Send It to Eastern Friends. . . . Eastern skeptics, inclined to doubt the resources of the Southland,” the Times intoned, “will find Mr. Owens’s map . . . a more convincing document than volumes of printed matter.” 97 For the Times, a pictorial map was clearly worth more than a thousand words. During the depressed years of the 1930s, Owens continued illustrating news stories, creating panoramic bird’s-­e ye views such as California Official Tourist Picture Map and Mexico’s West Coast, and contributing drawings to books such as The West Is Still Wild and Nuestro Pueblo.98 “His pencil work on The Times became world-­famous,” his obituarist would later note. “It helped build the Harbor and helped build the Owens River Aqueduct and other projects by enabling persons to see compelling visualizations of the undertakings through his perspective drawings.” 99 Yet with the outbreak of World War II, Owens found fresh inspiration for yet another mode of pictorial mapping. Drawing on years of experience sketching from the air and mapping geopolitical relationships, Owens was well prepared to illustrate the global scale of the war.100 Before the United States entered the war, Owens focused on the European theater, producing dozens of maps showing the continent-­w ide conflict.101 After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, he turned his attention to the war in the Pacific. As if employing a viewpoint from near space, Owens looked down on the world, drawing salient sea and land areas, employing arrows to show movement and direction, and sketching battlefield vignettes (plate 139). So popular were his maps that the Times began a series of full-­page, full-­color war maps in September 1942 that came out every Monday.102 Variously known as “a map that talks!” “action maps,” and “global perspective” maps, Owens’s work proved not only popular but also extremely influential, as discussed later, helping shape a new American perspective on the globe.103 jo mora (1876–­1947) Another California artist, Jo Mora, working out of Carmel, created several distinctive pictorial maps from the late 1920s to the early 1940s.104 Characterized by exquisite drawing, rich color, and great charm, Mora’s maps revealed a deep

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knowledge of Western American history and culture. His maps formed the most important collection of pictorial cartography done by any artist of one particular region of the United States. Born in Uruguay in 1876, Jo moved with his parents and brother to the United States in 1877, settling first in New Jersey and then in Boston. Educated at some of the best schools in the country, he showed an early aptitude for art. By his early twenties, he was working as an artist for Boston newspapers, illustrating such stories as the sinking of the coastal steamer Portland in 1898, one of the greatest maritime disasters in New England history. Soon after, he illustrated several classic children’s stories, including The Animals of Aesop (1900), Reynard the Fox (1901), and Hans Andersen’s Fairy Tales (1902) for Dana Estes & Co. in Boston. By the age of twenty-­five, Mora’s artistic career was well under way. Although ensconced on the East Coast, Mora had a youthful passion for the romance of the West. He made a foray to Texas and Mexico in the mid-­1890s, working on cattle ranches and riding on drives before moving permanently out west in 1903. He worked on a cattle ranch near Santa Inés, California, and got to know the Spanish missions as far south as Ensenada, in northern Mexico.

Jo Mora, Jo Mora Drawing His New Histori-

Through his travels, Mora immersed himself in the history of the old Span-

cal Map of California, 1927.

ish vaqueros and the Catholic Church. The following year, he moved to Arizona

Used with permission of jomoratrust.com.

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to study and live with the Hopi and Navajo. He stayed three years, creating a considerable body of sketches, paintings, and photographs.105 Moving back to California in 1907 to marry, Mora settled in Mountain View, Santa Clara County. He helped his father, a noted sculptor, create figures for the facade of the Native Sons of the Golden West Building in San Francisco, and then, when his father died, took over the commission. By the 1910s, Mora was fully occupied as a sculptor. His last move was to Pebble Beach in 1920, where he spent the rest of his life portraying the Old West of the Indian, the Spanish, and the American cowboy. Among his many works were a series of pictorial maps that he called “cartes.” In these maps, Mora strove to present geography, history, landscape, and the contemporary world in a humorous, cartoonish style. Some of his first commissions included maps for his friend Samuel Finley Brown Morse, owner of the Hotel Del Monte and twenty thousand acres of Monterey peninsula. The hotel was one of the grandest in the country, catering to Hollywood stars, businessmen, and politicians, but it suffered a devastating fire in 1924. To help publicize its reopening in April 1926, Morse commissioned Mora to create maps entitled California’s Playground (1926) (plate 95) and The Seventeen Mile Drive (1927), the famous scenic loop road around the peninsula.106 Both maps showed the hotel set amid the magnificent coastal scenery. At the same time, San Francisco publisher and bookseller A. M. Roberston, who had done much to advertise the state, commissioned Mora to produce a map of California (1927).107 In the title cartouche, Mora declared: “This whimsical Carte of Topographic and Historic intention . . . is hereby presented by the Limner for what it may be worth—­possibly more in smiles than in cosmographic value.” With their whimsical charm and decorative appeal, Mora’s maps were an immediate success. The Marston department store in San Diego, celebrating its fiftieth anniversary in 1928, commissioned Mora to create a map of the city. The store publicized the map as “Jo Mora’s Whimsical Map of San Diego: A Humorous Presentation of the Topography, History, Development, and Diversified Activities of a California City.” 108 By the early 1930s, Mora was a well-­established pictorial mapmaker. In 1931, he did maps of Yosemite, Yellowstone, and the Grand Canyon, three of the most popular national parks in the United States. Two years later, the Grace Line shipping company commissioned a large map to advertise its new passenger service from New York to Seattle via the Panama Canal (plate 113). In formal terms, the design was not the most coherent; inset maps of Panama, Cartagena, Guatemala, and El Salvador lay awkwardly on the larger map of North America and the Pacific Ocean. But the surrounding frieze of historical figures, particularly Father Neptune welcoming the Grace Line fleet to the Spanish Main, was masterful. In the title cartouche, Mora asked that the carte’s “perusal may be accomplished rather with the smile of levity rather than the frown of research,” which summed up the humorous spirit of his maps. Mora also produced a cleverly designed and well-­i llustrated book, A Log of the Spanish Main (1933), published

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by his son.109 Grace Line was so impressed by the book that it bought the entire print run and sold copies to its cruise passengers. Nearer home, Mora displayed his enormous first-­hand knowledge of Western life in two graphic works, The Evolution of the Cowboy (1933) and Indians of North America (1936). Packed with detail, these were less pictorial maps than posters. Indeed, Indians of North America was essentially an illustrated ethnography. In his last maps, Mora revisited some of his earlier themes and created a graphic masterpiece. In 1942, he paid tribute to his local surroundings by drawing Carmel-­by-­the-­Sea Past and Present. Mora packed the map with incident and local characters, but the grid of Carmel with its red-­roofed houses was a distracting element. Three years later, he produced a revised version of his 1927 map, California, for the Del Monte Canning Company. He included small portraits of the California missions, a traditional homage to the state’s Spanish heritage, but other parts of the map looked to the present. In a vignette of “California Transportation Throughout the Ages,” he contrasted stagecoaches, wagon trains, and sailing clippers with streamlined diesels, trucks, ocean liners, and a Lockheed Constellation. Mora’s most magnificent map from this period, and perhaps his greatest cartographic creation, was Map of Los Angeles Historical and Recreational (1942) (plate 59). Framed by a border of flowers and dominated by the figure of Nuestra Señora la Reina de Los Angeles de Porciúncula, the map combined amusing detail with well-­balanced design. It served as a colorful pageant of the city’s history and contemporary life, an extraordinary contrast to Owens’s reportorial view of Los Angeles done sixteen years earlier. Immensely talented as an illustrator, cartoonist, muralist, sculptor, photographer, and writer, Jo Mora has been rightly described as the “Renaissance Man of the West.” 110 Much of his work, particularly the realist sculptures, watercolors, and paintings, appears conventional, particularly when seen in the artistic context of his times. His maps, however, are still arresting. The combination of historical personalities, usually arranged in friezes against black backgrounds, cartoon figures enlivening the topography of the map, and the considerable charm of the cartographic ensemble was unrivaled in American mapmaking. “In the final analysis,” concluded art historian Mary Murray, “Mora’s most important works may be his cartes. In these entertaining maps, Mora combined his encyclopedic knowledge of history, his writing, drawing, and cartooning skills, his fine sense of design, and his sense of playfulness to create an art form uniquely his own. Mora’s cartes are still captivating . . . and they exemplify the popular, entertaining, direct, and informative art at which Mora excelled.” 111 ernest dudley chase (1878–­1966) On the East Coast, Ernest Dudley Chase was one of the most popular and prolific pictorial mapmakers during the middle decades of the twentieth century. His maps were among the most ambitious of all American pictorial maps, and

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while many of them adhered to the Mercator projection, Chase was not afraid to experiment with new projections, which produced some of his most intriguing designs. Although nearly all his maps have a certain formality and repetitive quality, Chase was a skillful designer and meticulous mapmaker whose works retain great appeal. Born in Lowell, Massachusetts, in 1878, Chase gained his early artistic training at home from his father, a wallpaper designer, who needed sketches of interiors and asked his son to produce them. He received more formal training at the Lowell Textile School and Vesper George Art School in Boston.112 In 1900, he joined Butterfield Printing Company in Lowell; six years later, he moved to the printing firm of W. T. Sheehan in Boston. Although Chase appears to have chosen a career in printing, he also tried his hand at architectural drawing and interior design, producing a detailed, measured drawing and description of his home in Lowell for Carpentry and Building in 1909.113 Chase decorated the interior of his modest Dutch gambrel-­roof cottage in Arts and Crafts style, with pitchers, plates, bric-­a-­brac, a Dutch watercolor poster, and specially designed furniture. He clearly had artistic ambitions, but he was also a shrewd businessman. In 1908, he established his own greeting card company, Des Arts Publishers, which eventually became Ernest Dudley Chase Publishers. Working from a succession of business addresses in downtown Boston, Chase produced greeting cards for the “better-­class trade” by giving his product “the stamp of merit and style and exclusiveness.” 114 Ernest Dudley Chase Publishers quickly became one of the country’s leading greeting card companies. In 1921, it merged with another, Rust Craft Publishers of Boston, and Chase became vice president of creative design.115 Overseeing the design of several thousand greeting cards each year, Chase had an ideal viewpoint from which to survey the industry. In 1926, he published The Romance of Greeting Cards, a pioneering work on the subject.116 Chase stayed with Rust Craft until his retirement in 1958. Riding the wave of public interest, Chase began a side business turning out pictorial maps of Europe and North America.117 By the mid-­1940s, he had designed enough maps to fill his own mail-­order catalog, The Ernest Dudley Chase Decorative Pictorial Novelty Maps. A promotional flyer claimed that he was “the leading creator and publisher of pictorial or illustrated maps in this country, if not, indeed, the world.” 118 Chase crafted his maps with care, each taking from six months to a year to complete. He worked with a magnifying glass, inking in, dot by dot, the tiny scenes that covered many of his maps.119 These stamp-­ size scenes were based on his own sketches, still and motion picture collection (he reputedly shot an estimated one hundred thousand feet of cine-­fi lm), postcards, and other illustrative material. Much of this visual material came from his extensive travels in the Americas, Europe, and Asia, but he was not averse to asking for illustrations. For his map of Spain, published in 1935, he wrote to mayors of Spanish towns requesting postcards.120

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Ernest Dudley Chase, The Man Who Turns the Prose of Maps into the Poetry of Art. Image courtesy of David Rumsey Map Collection

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Among the first maps that Chase designed for commercial sale was Mercator Map of the World, published by Houghton Mifflin in 1931 (plate 16). This charming map’s cheerful colors and menagerie of penguins, dragons, and sea monsters made it suitable for the walls of a child’s bedroom or school classroom. Unfortunately, Chase did not pursue this attractive style. Many of his maps in the 1930s were “designed and drawn with infinite care, correct in every detail,” but lacked warmth or humor.121 His signature trait, the many small, stippled drawings that he applied to maps of Europe, quickly became repetitive.122 Nevertheless, several maps from the 1940s were more creative. Drawing on greeting card sentiment, he designed A Pictorial Map of Loveland (1943) (plate 15), as well as The United States as Viewed from California (very unofficial) (1940). More seriously, he created Mercator Map of the World United (1944) (plate 145) and The Story Map of Flying (1944) (plate 146), which drew on the “Air Age” maps of Charles H. Owens and Richard Edes Harrison. A final group of maps, designed in the 1950s, displayed postage stamps. Although stamps frequently show images of countries, conjuring up thoughts of geography and travel, Chase was perhaps the first mapmaker to explore this connection. Several of his pictorial stamp maps, including A Pictorial Stamp Map of Navigation and Exploration (plate 43), had stamp edges around the map, perforations for national boundaries, and stamps marking individual countries. While Chase’s stamp maps appeared to be a new departure, his basic style of placing small images on a map had scarcely changed. george annand (1890–­1980) If Owens, Mora, and Chase created some of the most distinctive pictorial maps of the early twentieth century, George Annand produced a body of pictorial work that was representative of many graphic designers in the United States who turned their hands to different commissions.123 Working as a freelance commercial artist for much of his long career, Annand created pictorial maps, designed dust jackets, illustrated books and magazines, and turned out advertisements. Through much of this work, Annand showed a genuine interest in cartography. Working in color as well as black and white, he designed some of the most elegant and accessible pictorial maps of the period. Born in Croswell, the “garden spot of the thumb” of Michigan, Annand came from a well-­educated family. His father was a doctor from Scotland who migrated to the upper Midwest via Canada, a common route for migrants in the late nineteenth century. Annand received his early education in a one-­room schoolhouse in rural Croswell, then moved with his family to Detroit, where he attended high school and enrolled in art school. Later, he moved to New York and took classes at the Art Students League. In 1920, he married a high school friend who had been widowed during World War I and had two young daughters. With a

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George Annand at his drafting table in his home at 15 West 51st Street, New York City, circa 1943. Image courtesy of Alice McMahon

wife and family to support and another daughter soon to be born, Annand had to make a living and commercial art was his best route. Fortunately, the economy was booming in the 1920s and Manhattan, as the center of American advertising and publishing, offered plenty of opportunities. Annand did commercial work for National Biscuit Company (NABISCO), painting, as he liked to say, “Fig Newtons in their native habitat.” Meanwhile, the publishing industry was shifting away from decorative book bindings to illustrated dust jackets. Over the course of his career, Annand designed many dust jackets, including the first with a pictorial map. In 1925, Doubleday, Page

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commissioned him to design the jacket of Charles Edward Montague’s best-­ selling satirical novel Right Off the Map.124 Annand created a map of the fictional republics of Porto and Ria. His other map covers included Joseph Hergesheimer’s Quiet Cities (1928) and Archibald D. Turnbull and Norman K. Van der Veer’s Cochrane the Unconquerable (1929).125 He also designed decorative map endpapers. “Annand’s dream is to save the children of the coming generation from the geographies that seemed so lifeless to him in his youth,” reported journalist Jay Mordall in 1929. “He believes that educators should demand geographies illustrated with ornamental maps—­maps that would stimulate children’s imagination. . . . He is using maps decoratively and they do much to make a winning first George Annand’s dust jacket for Charles Edward Montague’s Right Off the Map, 1925. Private collection

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impression on a reader, stimulating as they are to the imagination and beautiful as they are to the eye in color and design.” 126 No doubt Annand’s dream stemmed from his “passion for travel” and an early interest in antique maps. He also collected decorative maps, as well as illustrated children’s books and reference works on costume, architecture, and transportation.127 “He was kind of a packrat,” remembered his daughter Alice. “He always collected stuff, so if it was of any interest and it cost less than five dollars he would buy it.” Among his reference and inspirational treasures were Johnson’s New Illustrated Family Atlas of the World; French artist Edy-­Legrand’s colorful children’s books; and several pictorial maps, including Tony Sarg’s oblique view of the town of Nantucket (1931), Karl Smith’s map of Kentucky (1942), a Lucien Boucher Air France map of the world, German pictorial maps with prominent heraldic shields, and Miguel Covarrubias’s portfolio, Pageant of the Pacific, based on the murals he made for the Golden Gate International Exposition in San Francisco in 1939. Yet the “luxury business” of drawing decorative maps did not last. The stock market crash in October 1929 ushered in the Great Depression and tough times for Annand and many commercial artists. To make matters worse, Annand refused to work for the Works Progress Administration (WPA), although he approved of its relief efforts and all his artist friends received support. His daughter Alice put it down to his Scots background. “They were very proud [people]. He had a strong feeling about what was appropriate and what was inappropriate. . . . The idea of taking money, which I think he saw as welfare,” was not appropriate. As a consequence, Annand and his family were left in bad financial shape. In these difficult circumstances, Annand hustled for work, sending out business mailers inscribed with the motto “Good Work, Done Cheap.” With major publishers still producing decorative pictorial maps, Annand picked up several important commissions. For Doubleday, Doran he created A Map of Sinclair Lewis’ United States, as It Appears in His Novels with Notes by Carl Van Doren (1934). At the time, Sinclair Lewis was immensely popular; in 1930, he became the first American author to win the Nobel Prize for Literature. Annand created a striking design, reversing the usual figure-­ground composition by using black for ocean and pale cream for land (plate 41). For Charles Scribner, he produced another literary map, A Pictorial Record of the Principal Events and Places in the Great Novel of the Oregon Trail: The Land is Bright by Archie Binns (1939). Corporations, too, gave him work. General Foods commissioned Authorized Map of the Second Byrd Antarctic Expedition (1934), which consumers purchased with Grape-­Nuts box tops, and the Waldorf Astoria Hotel commissioned A Chart of Manhattan (1936), showing the location of the palatial hotel (plate 53). By the mid-­1930s, Annand must have been fairly well known as a cartographer because Rand McNally, the great map publishing house in Chicago, commissioned him to create two maps in its popular historical Romance series: Romance Map of the Hudson River Valley (1937) and A Romance Map of the City of Washington (1938). His other pictorial maps

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included Historical Map of the State of New York (1937) (plate 91), A Treasure Hunter’s Map of the West Indies and Spanish Main (1940), and The Islands of the Bahamas (1951). All these maps followed cartographic convention. They were planimetric rather than oblique views and had title cartouches, compass roses, and scales. The lettering was clear and well-­designed. Annand had a deep interest in calligraphy and belonged to the Italic Handwriting Society in London and the Committee for Italic Handwriting in Rochester, New York.128 Although some of his maps were complex, such as the Chart of Manhattan, Annand knew what to include and what to leave out. The result was clear, elegant cartography. “The thing about my father’s maps that’s most striking to me,” reflected his daughter Alice, “is that they are totally readable. . . . No matter how much detail there is . . . you can see exactly what’s going on.” As a person, Annand was “always very elegant . . . and a little bit formal,” even though many of his clothes came from neighborhood thrift shops, and that sense of style saturated his work. “I think a lot of people liked his work because it had this dignified quality,” Alice said. “He could make anything you were selling look good.” Annand worked continuously until cataract surgery forced him to stop in 1970 at the age of 80. In the last decades of his career, he produced maps for two prestigious publishing projects: The Rivers of America book series and Shelby Foote’s The Civil War: A Narrative. Annand created maps for twenty-­eight of the sixty-­five Rivers volumes, more than any other cartographer. He began with the first two volumes, Kennebec: Cradle of Americans and Upper Mississippi: A Wilderness Saga, published in 1937, and ended with The Susquehanna and The French Broad, published in 1955.129 The work for Foote was even more demanding. He did all the maps for the first two volumes, published in 1958 and 1963, begging off the final volume published in 1974 because of his cataracts. “This was one of the most interesting and challenging jobs he ever had,” according to his daughter Alice, “because Shelby Foote walked over the battlefields all his life and he made these little drawings and then he wanted those converted into real book illustrations so my father had to take the little drawings . . . hundreds and hundreds of them,” and turn them into maps. Over the course of half a century, Annand produced an immense body of graphic work, much of it cartographic. Of the hundreds of maps that he designed, only a handful were large, stand-­a lone pictorial maps. Nevertheless, these maps were among the most refined and dignified examples of the genre, well designed and boldly colored. They also had some of the most splendid title cartouches and compass roses of any pictorial maps produced in the middle decades of the twentieth century. In many ways, George Annand was a cartographer’s cartographer.130 ilonka karasz (1896–­1981) Ilonka Karasz was one of the few women working in American design in the early twentieth century, and she was among the best known of them that were

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creating pictorial maps. A prominent denizen of Greenwich Village in the early twentieth century, Karasz turned her hand to a variety of decorative arts, designing rugs, furniture, wallpaper, and ceramics, as well as drawing hundreds of illustrations for books, magazines, and posters. Part of this graphic output included a handful of pictorial maps designed for children. These maps still have considerable charm. Born in Hungary in 1896, Karasz received her art training at the Royal Academy of Arts and Crafts in Budapest.131 She emigrated to the United States in 1913 and soon settled in Greenwich Village, heart of the American avant-­garde. After her marriage in 1920, she moved out of the city to Brewster, New York, and there built a house and raised a family, though she continued to keep a place in Manhattan. “In the early twenties a young woman, Ilonka Karasz, was one of the Ilonka Karasz, 1921. Photo by Nickolas Muray, © Nickolas Muray Photo Archives; Ilonka Sigmund

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outstanding personalities of the Village,” remembered sculptor William Zorach. “She had great talent and great beauty of a very extraordinary kind. It was the period of the Wiener Werkstätte design in furniture, colorful and original textiles, and astonishing interior decoration from Austria. Ilonka belonged to this movement. She had such talent and ability that I think she could have done almost anything in the way of creative art but this is what she chose to do.” 132 Although her textiles attracted attention in the late 1920s, Karasz became best known for her covers for the New Yorker.133 Between 1925 and 1973, she designed 186 covers, many of them depicting panoramic views of towns and countryside.134 From creating panoramas it was but a short step to making pictorial maps.135 For the New Yorker in 1926 and 1927, she produced pictorial map covers of Florida and the Greater Antilles.136 She also designed almost all the maps, including cover and end papers, for Sarah M. Lockwood’s New York: Not So Little and Not So Old, published by Doubleday, Page in 1926, as well as three two-­page Ilonka Karasz’s cover for Sarah M. Lockwood’s New York: Not So Little and Not So Old, 1926. General collections, Library of Congress

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map spreads showing different stages of world history for Clement Wood’s The Outline of Man’s Knowledge, published by Grosset and Dunlap in 1930. Amid this flourish of cartographic creativity, she designed two notable individual pictorial maps. In collaboration with Alice York, she produced A Child’s Map of the Ancient World (1926), published by the John Day Company of New York (plate 18). The map depicted the Mediterranean Sea and had borders showing a frieze of classical gods and heroic figures. Karasz’s illustration of Hannibal crossing the Alps on elephants must have stuck in many a child’s mind. The following year, she created her masterpiece, Plan de Paris, published by the Washington Square Book Shop (plate 73). Advertised as “The most beautiful and really useful of all the Modern Decorative Maps,” the map created a splendid effect.137 Printed in six colors and gold, Karasz’s map displayed the center of Paris framed by a theater curtain and included information on the city’s leading sights and activities. A memorable touch was a vignette of the Chateau de Versailles enclosed by a bower of flowers held by a putto and Marie-­A ntoinette as shepherdess. Although Karasz designed only two stand-­a lone maps, they were among the most attractive of all American pictorial maps and must have delighted children and adults alike. For all five artists, the creation of pictorial maps was but one part of their oeuvre. Owens churned out newspaper sketches, Mora painted and sculpted, Chase designed greeting cards, Annand illustrated book jackets, and Karasz crafted everything from magazine covers to textiles. Aware of the latest commercial design and not bound by a map company’s house style, these five artists brought fresh ideas to pictorial mapping, ensuring that their maps stayed stylistically current, part of the much larger visual field of mid-­t wentieth century America. Their biographies also reveal relatively humble backgrounds and modest artistic careers. Although Owens was employed by a large city newspaper and Chase ran a successful greetings card business, the three other artists worked freelance. Needing to sell their work, they designed maps with broad appeal, creating in the process a popular American cartography.

Creating a Pictorial Map The story of another, less heralded woman involved in making pictorial maps reveals something of the process that brought such maps to the public. C. Eleanor Hall of Port Henry, New York, produced A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway in 1934, which portrayed the history of the Champlain-­Hudson Valley (plate 30). As a librarian and town historian, she kept every scrap of paper related to making the map. This record gives great insight into the creation, production, and distribution of a regional pictorial map. Born in the rural township of Orwell, Vermont, in 1901, Hall attended high school in Port Henry on the New York side of Lake Champlain.138 A bright student, she went on to Mount Holyoke College in South Hadley, Massachusetts, and then to Simmons College in Boston where she received a degree in Library

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Science. A career as a librarian was one of the few professional paths open to educated women in the early twentieth century. After spells as a school librarian in Ohio and Pennsylvania, she returned to Port Henry in 1930 to take care of her father following her mother’s death. Over the next few years, she immersed herself in local history, collaborating with Charles B. Warner to write The History of Port Henry, N.Y., published in 1931, and then working by herself to create a pictorial map of the Champlain and upper Hudson valleys. With the Colonial Revival movement in full swing during the 1920s and 1930s, there was immense interest in local history, particularly of the colonial and early republic periods. As a member of the Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR), Hall was tied into a network of like-­m inded people committed to recovering and preserving America’s past. Josephine W. Wickser, widow of a prominent Buffalo businessman and politician, was a leading light of the Colonial Revival movement in upstate New York in the early 1930s.139 Wickser C. Eleanor Hall, circa 1920s. Image courtesy of Town of Moriah Historical Society

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became known for her historical pageants, and in 1926, during the American sesquicentennial, she devised several pageants to mark the histories of Fort Ticonderoga, Fort Stanwix, and Fort Oswego. To further popularize American colonial history, she created A Romance Map of the Niagara Frontier in 1931 (plate 29). Wickser researched the historical content for the map and commissioned Buffalo artist Mildred Green to draw the illustrations and cartography. With its bright colors, border text blocks, and scenes from Indian, French, British, and American frontier history, Wickser had created a “pageant on paper.”140 It was a winning formula. Over the next seven years, eight more Romance Maps were published, including Eleanor Hall’s A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway (plate 30).141 Like Wickser’s Niagara Frontier, Hall’s map focused on the Indian, French, British, and American periods. The title cartouche displayed portraits of French explorer Samuel de Champlain and military leaders Marquis de Montcalm, General John Burgoyne, General Philip Schuyler, and Commander Thomas Macdonough. Hall was particularly concerned with defining the regional extent of her map. Faced with the narrative problem of telling a story over space, Hall used Burgoyne’s disastrous military campaign as the major historical event that defined the boundaries of her map.142 From the Richelieu River in the north to Albany in the south, Hall told the multiple, sometimes overlapping stories of the Champlain and Upper Hudson valleys during the colonial and early republic periods. Hall went to great lengths in her research. For the vignette of Deborah Powers, pioneer manufacturer of oil cloth, Hall contacted her grandson Albert Powers of Troy, New York. “In going through ‘Landmarks of Rensselaer County, N.Y.,’” Hall explained to Powers, “I came across the striking item about Deborah Powers experimenting with oil cloth and later manufacturing it, a rather unusual enterprise for a woman in pre-­Victorian days and one which I would like to include on the map.” 143 At Albert’s suggestion, Hall changed the vignette to show Deborah Powers “working at a loom instead of bending over the mixing kettle as first planned.” 144 Other vignettes of Mrs. Calvin Coolidge, Emma Willard, Hannah Lord Montague, Mrs. Philip Schuyler, Lady Harriet Acland, and Jane McCrea show that Hall was as interested in telling the stories of remarkable women as those of famous men. Like many creators of pictorial maps, Hall researched and compiled the content of her map, then hired an artist to draw the illustrations and cartography. Wickser had worked with Carlo Nisita on two maps and recommended him to Hall. An Italian immigrant, Nisita was educated at the Albright Art School, Buffalo, and the Yale School of Fine Arts.145 In 1934, he was head of the high school art department in East Aurora, New York. He visited Hall for a week that August. “We literally lived [the] map all the time he was here,” she recounted. “Then he took his rough sketch back to his studio where he finished it. Later he came up for another revision.” 146 “Very much pleased” with the final design, she paid

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him a lump sum for his work.147 Holling Press in Buffalo printed the map in five colors on a cream-­colored antique stock. Hall liked the “buff background so much. It holds the whole thing which would appear scattered on lighter background.” 148 The printing bill for ten thousand copies came to $784.75, an enormous sum for an unemployed school librarian during the Depression.149 Nevertheless, sales more than covered expenses. The map retailed at fifty cents. After paying a one-­cent royalty to Wickser for use of the “Romance Map” tag and a fifteen-­cent commission to retailers, Hall made thirty-­four cents on each map, $3,400 for the entire print run.150 In reality, she did not earn as much as this, as she had to lay out money for distribution, advertising, and postage.151 “While I haven’t gone to Florida on the proceeds of the map,” she wrote in 1936, “I have gotten a whole lot of satisfaction out of it and made a lot of new friends through it.” 152 By the following year, she had sold nearly five thousand copies, which more than covered her printing costs.153 By 1950, she had sold almost the entire print run, despite living in a “sparsely settled region.” A year later, she published a revised reprint of three thousand copies. An editorial in the Champlain Valley Review on December 20, 1934, applauded Hall for creating the Northern Gateway map. While recognizing the “remunerative returns which the sale of her maps will bring her,” the Review noted that “she has achieved a remarkable method of advertising the Champlain Valley. . . . Miss Hall’s Romance Map should go far toward building up the future popularity of this region as a vacation playground.” 154 The map circulated far and wide, helping to publicize the valley. More significantly, the map revealed the part played by educated women in preserving and popularizing American local history. Although later Romance Maps of the Hudson Valley and Washington, DC, had sufficient commercial potential that they were published by Rand McNally, Eleanor Hall was never associated with any of the large map publishing houses. She worked by herself and self-­published her map. She never created anything like it again and obviously saw it as one of the high points of her long life.

Design Challenges Since the early nineteenth century, cartographers and graphic artists have spent a good deal of time and effort devising effective means of representing quantitative data on maps.155 An array of visual symbols, ranging from dot distributions to graduated symbols, choropleth maps, and cartograms, have been used to represent statistical series on thematic maps. However, few of these visual symbols were capable of representing qualitative data. A pictorial mapmaker had to grapple with representing place, people, memory, history, activity, and architecture. This required artistic depictions of cultural landscapes and buildings, portraits and scenes, and texts explaining history and meaning. Inevitably,

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artists flouted cartographic conventions. Although pictorial maps were usually oriented with north at the top, constant scale was frequently discarded. On his pictorial map of the city of Quebec (1932), Samuel Herbert Maw included the warning, “Dimensions & proportions must not be taken seriously.” Such admissions were anathema to quantitative mappers. Nevertheless, the best pictorial maps could bring a viewer into a place or region in a way that few scientific maps could match. Unlike most topographic maps or road maps, which respected the restrictions of a two-­d imensional surface, pictorial maps aimed to create a three-­ dimensional picture. Graphic artists achieved this in several ways. Most commonly, the designer worked with a two-­d imensional base map and placed three-­d imensional pictorial elements on top. This had several advantages. First, the artist avoided drawing topography in three dimensions, a time-­consuming and expensive task, and could concentrate instead on rendering elements that were the stock-­in-­trade of graphic design. Second, the base map could be a solid color, rather than shaded as on topographic relief maps. By choosing a strong color for the base map, a graphic artist could create a bold design, which particularly suited the art deco style of the 1920s and 1930s. If the designer had time and skill, the underlying base map could be drawn in three dimensions and seamlessly integrated into the overall pictorial image. This was particularly important where mountains were an essential part of the pictorial map. Graphic artists in the western mountain states often faced this challenge. Los Angeles–­based Charles H. Owens and Gerald Eddy created numerous maps of the basin and range country (plates 57 and 109), Irvin Shope drew the mountains of Montana, and the Kroll Map Company of Seattle published a relief map of the Pacific Northwest (plate 96). Collectively, these artists produced a distinctive Western “school” of pictorial relief mapping that had few rivals elsewhere in the United States. The final design challenge was integrating text onto the map. Many pictorial maps included large amounts of text, usually providing information about the history of a place or region. The most common method was to place the map at the center of the overall design and then arrange text around it in the border. The Romance Maps series adopted this approach. Eleanor Hall reflected that “boxes” of text take “care of so much material for which there is no room on the picture part of the map.” 156 But she also realized their limitations. “The argument against boxes is that no one reads them. If they are there the one in a hundred who does read them can.” A few designers found more ingenious solutions. On their map of Panama, Clark Teegarden and John F. Herman placed “History Briefs,” as well as “Weather Comparison” and “Legend,” on the white sails of three yachts (plate 98). For his map of Ohio, the ever-­inventive Arthur Suchy created a brilliant pictorial design that wove text through a variety of images (plate 26). At the center, he superimposed a map of the state on the state

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seal, and then surrounded it with seals of Ohio educational institutions and portraits of Ohioans who had become president of the United States. A hierarchy of differently sized texts explained map, seals, and portraits. With its muted colors, varied imagery, and flowing calligraphy, Suchy’s was one of the most subtle and complex of all pictorial map designs.

Marketing Maps Pictorial maps were published by all manner of people and businesses, ranging from map compilers and graphic artists to bookshops, newspapers, publishing houses, and map publishers. Although newspapers incorporated pictorial maps into their daily broadsheets, other publishers had to advertise and market their maps. Distribution varied greatly. Large map publishing companies, such as National Geographic, Rand McNally, and Hagstrom, put out catalogs advertising their pictorial maps that reached a national market. Even a small map publishing company, such as LeBaron-­Bonney of Bradford, Massachusetts, had its own map catalog.157 Rand McNally also had a retail store in Rockefeller Center, New York, while Hagstrom had a store on Broadway near City Hall. But bookshops and self-­publishers faced more of a challenge. Washington Square Book Shop in Greenwich Village advertised its maps in the New York Times and distributed them through its bookstore and national map retailers. Associated American Artists, which commissioned and published Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias’s map of America, indulged in a handsome full-­color mailing.158 Coulton Waugh sold his maps and prints through a catalog and his Ship Model Shop of Cape Cod in Provincetown. Eleanor Hall devised a simple black-­and-­ white mailer to advertise the maps that she stocked in Port Henry and that Rand McNally also distributed. In such ways, pictorial maps reached local, regional, and national audiences, but some self-­publishers found it difficult to market their maps. At his death in 1995, Arthur Suchy still had quantities of pictorial maps, printed in the late 1920s, stacked in his studio in suburban Cleveland.159 His maps rarely appear in libraries and archives beyond Ohio, suggesting that they had only limited circulation. Marketing pitches varied. A primary motive for selling pictorial maps was their educational value. Hagstrom advertised its “Decorative and Historical Maps” as “filled with interesting and instructive geographical and historical data. . . . The Historical and State Maps are unsurpassed for the school room. Students find geography and history more stimulating when the information can be visualized and located.” 160 The Graphic History Association of New York, publisher of “Picture History Maps” designed by Elizabeth Shurtleff, advertised its maps as suitable for travel, education, and decoration. Well aware of automobile tourism, the association played up the difference between gas maps and picture history maps. “When you travel—­You’ll get there by following a good road map, but it won’t be much of a trip if you see no more than those hard, black

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Hagstrom Company, Hagstrom’s Decorative and Historical Maps, circa 1951. The cover shows Jack Atherton’s Maine and Elizabeth Shurtleff’s Map of Massachusetts (plate 24). Private collection

Coulton Waugh’s Ship Model Shop of Cape Cod, Provincetown, Massachusetts, circa 1930. Prints and a pictorial map of Cape Ann (plate 81) are shown for sale. F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries

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“Pictorial Maps Teach Young America Both Geography and Art,” 1947. Three National Geographic Society pictorial maps are shown pinned to a classroom wall. B. Anthony Stewart/National Geographic Creative

road map lines. Take a Graphic History Map with you. It will make the country come alive with all the glamor of history and legend. See history as you go.” 161 There was also the problem of interesting the kids. “When Johnny is bored with history—­Give him a Graphic History Map. He wouldn’t think of the Puritans as anemic figures from a textbook if he had with his own eyes seen the Arbella sail into Salem Harbor. Let him see history as a bright-­colored picture.” For teachers and anxious parents, the association included a history quiz game with Shurtleff’s maps of New Hampshire and Massachusetts (plate 24) to test little Johnny or Susie’s knowledge. Eleanor Hall reckoned that many of her maps had been sold to “historically minded persons, schools and libraries all over the country.” 162 “While the map makes a most attractive wall decoration,” she explained, “it is a splendid way of teaching history.” 163 Orders for her Northern Gateway map came from schools as far away as Hawaii and Kentucky. Teachers tacked pictorial maps onto classroom walls and set map exercises, and school, college, and public libraries were keen purchasers. The library at Simmons College, Hall’s alma mater, reported that her Northern Gateway map, “as an encouragement to the freshmen and faculty . . . has been displayed on the bulletin board.” 164 The Skowhegan Free Public Library in Maine ordered a complete set of Romance Maps for an exhibition. “We have needed something out of the ordinary to make our townspeople become ‘library-­conscious’ again,” the librarian explained to Hall, “and the exhibit of your maps has been of great assistance.” 165 The librarian displayed the maps “in related groups, some under glass on a table and some thumb-­tacked to a folding screen.” Through such use, pictorial maps suffered damage and were eventually discarded, which helps explain why they can be difficult to find in library collections today.

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Pictorial maps sold well to tourists. Across the country, graphic artists and cartographers developed pictorial maps for state tourist agencies, national parks, and historical sites. The Lindgren Brothers of Spokane, Washington, created a range of “hysterical maps” of western national parks that helped the company survive the Depression.166 Eleanor Hall sold the Northern Gateway maps to tourists in the Champlain and Hudson valleys, distributing them to gift shops in Albany, Glens Falls, and Westport; to tourist sites such as Saratoga Battlefield, Petrified Sea Gardens in Saratoga Springs, and Letchworth State Park in western New York; and to the Lake Placid Club, New York, and the Middlebury Inn, Middlebury, Vermont. She also supplied maps to the town of North Hero, Vermont, for Isle La Motte’s “Old Home Day.” Those copies were eventually returned. “We did not sell any,” explained the town clerk. “People seemed to think the price Hagstrom Company, “Decorative Maps for Home, Office, School, Church, and Library,” from Hagstrom’s Decorative And Historical Maps, circa 1951. Private collection

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rather high [and] a good many make use of the free maps given out and I guess money is not so plentiful in these parts and it is so hard to make sales.” 167 Not everyone could afford a pictorial map during the Depression. Pictorial maps were particularly well suited to advertising exhibitions. As organizers of the British Empire Exhibition recognized in 1924, a pictorial map served as both an advertisement for the exhibition and as a handy guide to the grounds. Other world fairs followed this approach. Don Bloodgood created a humorous, incident-­fi lled, two-­sided pictorial map for the California Pacific International Exposition held in San Diego in 1935 (plate 132). Four years later, San Francisco held its Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island. Graphic artists designed several pictorial maps, among them Ruth Taylor’s cartograph of Treasure Island (included in the official guidebook) and Walt Disney’s Mickey’s and Donald’s Race to Treasure Island (plate 2). Miguel Covarrubias produced a portfolio of pictorial maps of the Pacific based on his murals created for the exposition (plate 102). The same year, Tony Sarg designed the official pictorial map for New York’s World’s Fair. By the late 1930s, an international fair without a pictorial map was unthinkable. With their “decorative charm and interest,” pictorial maps were advertised as suitable for home decorating.168 In its catalog, LeBaron-­Bonney included photographs showing a selection of pictorial maps framed and hung over fireplaces in an old New England house.169 The company offered maps framed with an “antique map finish.” Humorous maps were “ideally suited to the carefree spirit of the playroom.” 170 The whimsical nature of pictorial maps made them perfect for hanging in children’s bedrooms. They could also be used to make lamp shades, paper baskets, and coffee table centerpieces. Eleanor Hall contracted with an interior decorator in Buffalo to make shades, waste baskets, envelope holders, and “transparencies” to be hung in windows.171 Large department stores, such as Macy’s in New York City, stocked pictorial maps to cater to these varied uses.172

Collectors and Collecting Printed on cheap acid paper, tacked to school and library bulletin boards, taped on classroom and bedroom walls, and framed and varnished to look “antique,” pictorial maps were never considered valuable. As products of twentieth-­ century American popular culture, they were also long considered beneath scholarly attention. As a result, pictorial maps have scarcely been studied and rarely collected. Fortunately, two American librarians, Ethel M. Fair and Muriel H. Parry, thought pictorial maps worth saving. Collecting the maps soon after they were published, Fair and Parry assembled remarkable—­and remarkably large—­collections kept in superb condition. Given the ephemeral nature of pictorial maps and the degradation of acid paper over time, such collections would be difficult, if not impossible, to put together today.173 Born in Carlisle, Pennsylvania, in 1884, Ethel Fair received her education at Vassar College, the Graduate Library School at the University of Chicago, and the

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Ethel M. Fair, 1959. Portrait Print Collection, University of Kentucky Special Collections Research Center

New York Public Library School (later part of Columbia University).174 She held positions at a variety of state, public, and educational libraries before serving as director of the Library School of the New Jersey College for Women, the largest public women’s college in the United States. She also served as president of the Association of American Library Schools. For her leadership, Fair received an honorary degree from Rutgers University in 1950. As a librarian, she must have seen pictorial maps on display in libraries and accessioned into library collections. Whatever her initial interest, she was certainly collecting pictorial maps as they were being published during the 1930s. By 1937, she had created such a significant collection that it formed the basis of an article on “picture maps” in the Wilson Bulletin for Librarians.175 The collection eventually grew to more than a thousand maps, covering all genres of twentieth-­century American pictorial mapping. The collection was given to the Library of Congress in 1973.176 Ethel Fair died at her home near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania, six years later.

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Born in New York City in 1922, Muriel Parry came from a comfortable Upper West Side family. Educated at the elite private Horace Mann School in New York, she received a student internship at the American Geographical Society (AGS), then located at Audubon Terrace in Washington Heights.177 After graduation, she worked at the AGS as a map room assistant from 1942 to 1944.178 At the time, John K. Wright served as director. Wright had begun his career at the AGS as a librarian and knew the society’s extensive map collections extremely well. A practicing cartographer, he had edited Charles O. Paullin’s immense Atlas of the Historical Geography of the United States, published in 1932. Wright was also starting to publish several influential essays on the role of human nature in geography that would mark him as one of the discipline’s most creative and original thinkers.179 Parry could not have arrived at the AGS at a better time. There she received her practical training in map librarianship and was also exposed to the “quizzical, tolerant, obsessively curious” mind of John K. Wright.180 It is tempting to see Wright’s influence shaping Parry’s interest in pictorial maps. In 1944, the University of Illinois hired her to develop its map collection, a position created partly because of the “interest in maps during the war.” 181 At Illinois, she completed her degree in librarianship, which she had begun at night school at Columbia, as well as her BA in geography. Three years later, she moved to Washington, DC, and took a position in the Division of Cartography and Map Intelligence in the Department of State, where she remained until her retirement in 1975.182 Several of the pictorial maps in her collection were deaccessioned from the department’s library. Always interested in geography, she became the first female graduate of George Washington University’s geography master’s program in 1952 and remained a lifelong member of the AGS.183 She died in 2004, having bequeathed more than eight hundred pictorial maps to the Library of Congress. The pictorial map collections assembled by Fair and Parry were central parts of their lives. Both women were unmarried. Collecting so many maps at a time when it was difficult to get information about pictorial map publishing would have been a challenge and taken a good deal of time. Moreover, the collections would have needed several large map cases, which would have required considerable amounts of space in their homes. Choosing to collect pictorial maps is also revealing. Although it is not known what spurred Fair to collect pictorial maps, Parry was a map librarian and close to the heart of geography’s establishment. In a discipline then overwhelmingly made up of men and known for its preoccupation with exploration and field work, Parry was one of the few women involved in geography. Not surprisingly, she was a member of the Society of Woman Geographers. At the same time, professional geography was increasingly emphasizing scientific mapping methods. For Parry, collecting pictorial maps might have seemed a cartographic oasis away from the masculine preoccupations of geography. Whatever the stimulus, Fair and Parry bequeathed two

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Muriel H. Parry in the map room at the American Geographical Society, New York City, 1940. Image from the American Geographical Society—­New York Archives, American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­Milwaukee Libraries

extraordinary collections of pictorial maps to the Library of Congress, more than sufficient to provide the great majority of maps illustrated in this book. The treasure trove of pictorial maps in the Library of Congress reveals the many ways that graphic artists and cartographers have used pictorial methods to map the experience of place, amuse and educate people, tell stories, convey information, and sell products. An enormous range of graphic styles were deployed, frequently creating maps that still have powerful graphic impact. Appealing to the eye and stimulating to the imagination, many of these classic American pictorial maps continue to hold our attention. Since the early 2000s, there has been a renaissance in mapping stories and telling cartographic narratives.184 In part, this development has been a reaction to scientific, GIS-­based

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maps produced by computer. Like their forebears in the early twentieth century, graphic artists and cartographers still want to create more expressive and imaginative maps. The extraordinary collections of pictorial maps in the Library of Congress can provide examples of the ways artists tackled graphic mapping in the past. Moreover, the Internet and online map galleries provide even greater access to pictorial maps for a global audience. Pictorial maps have never been so available. This makes it all the more important to understand them. The following six sections provide a basic categorization of American pictorial maps, highlight many of the finest produced in the United States, and show representative examples from the different genres. In organizing the maps, it must be emphasized that the categories are not rigid. Categories often overlapped. Humor, for example, appears in nearly all genres. Nevertheless, categorization provides some order. The first four sections—­Maps to Amuse, Maps to Instruct, Maps of Place and Region, and Maps for Industry—­deal with maps mostly published before the outbreak of World War II. The fifth section deals with Maps for War and the final section with Maps for Postwar America. In general, the chronology of the maps has been respected, although for the sake of thematic unity a few maps published after the war are included in the earlier sections. Overall, the selected works give a sense of the range, variety, and creativity of American pictorial maps during their golden age from the 1920s to the 1960s.

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maps to Amuse As early as the sixteenth century, cartographers designed maps that used humor to make satirical or sly political commentary. These maps commonly depicted countries as anthropomorphic or zoomorphic shapes, which served as metaphors of political power. Monarchs and prime ministers were drawn in the shape of their particular countries. In the late eighteenth century, English cartoonist James Gillray produced several satirical cartoon maps, most famously A New Map of England & France, showing “The French Invasion; or John Bull, bombarding the Bum-­Boats.” In the late nineteenth century, English pantomime artist Lilian Lancaster drew anthropomorphic maps for William Harvey’s Geographical Fun: Being Humorous Outlines of Various Countries, and Fred Rose created several Serio-­Comic War maps showing European states personified by monarchs or beasts, most notably Russia, represented as an octopus, wrapping its arms around the countries of central and southern Europe. Cartoonists in the United States created similar maps, notably Scott’s Great Snake, which showed Union forces encircling the Confederate states during the Civil War. MacDonald Gill gave the humorous map further impetus with the publication of his Wonderground Map in 1914. Many American pictorial maps published between the 1920s and 1960s contained humor. Jo Mora’s maps were a prime example, though maps such as his typically used humor to make other content more interesting. A handful of maps, however, were simply designed to entertain. In an age when Walt Disney perfected the animated film and cartoons and comic strips were important

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newspaper features, humorous maps were a natural outgrowth of American popular culture. Indeed, Disney created at least three comic maps in the 1930s, showing Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy gamboling across the United States and around the world (plates 1 and 2). The popular stories about a giant lumberjack and Babe, his blue ox, inspired Ray Handy of Duluth, Minnesota, to create Paul Bunyan’s Pictorial Map of the United States Depicting Some of His Deeds and Exploits (1935) (plate 3). Another humorous strain emphasized cartoon-­like places. Ruth Taylor White was best known for Our USA: A Gay Geography (1935), a book of state maps done in a cartoon pictorial style, but she also created a series of cartoon “cartographs” of the Hawaiian Islands for the Hawaii Tourist Board in the 1930s (plate 5). Unlike Disney’s maps, White’s cartographs displayed no popular cartoon characters. Instead, she highlighted the extraordinary natural scenery of the islands and populated them with tiny tourist figures. Other graphic artists adopted a similar style. The Lindgren brothers of Spokane, Washington, began as printers and sign makers in the prosperous 1920s.185 As the Depression took hold, they added humorous maps of the Pacific Northwest to their product line. Designed by Jolly Lindgren and produced using silk-­screen stencils, the maps were tagged “hysterical maps.” Jolly declared at the time: “What this country needs now is something to put a smile on people’s faces.” 186 After experimenting with different colors of paper and varieties of printed colors, the Lindgrens settled on a standard design using white paper with a light blue border, light yellow ground, dark blue for titles, black for minor text, and red for roads. The Lindgrens created a recognizable brand, one of the most distinctive in the pictorial map genre. In contrast to the many historical-­themed maps that were appearing across the country, the Lindgrens focused on producing comic maps of popular tourist destinations, and the great national parks of the Western states were an obvious subject. The Lindgrens produced hysterical maps of Yellowstone (plate 6), the Grand Canyon, Glacier, Zion, Bryce Canyon, and other parks during the 1930s and early 1940s. With automobile tourism increasing rapidly, the product line did extremely well. After a hiatus during World War II, the company supplemented hysterical maps with a popular line of pictorial transfer decals. Easily affixed to glass, such as a car window, the decals depicted an extensive range of subjects, including simplified versions of hysterical maps (plate 7). In a good year, the company sold more than ten million decals and dominated the American decal market.187 In the late 1950s and early 1960s, the Lindgrens produced King Size Mapcards, which depicted further versions of their hysterical maps (plate 8). Whether as paper map, transfer decal, or large postcard, the Lindgren brothers created one of the most recognizable pictorial map brands in the country. Brag maps were another fun way of drawing attention to a city or state. Daniel K. Wallingford created two maps, A New Yorker’s Idea of the United States of

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America (1935) (plate 9) and A Bostonian’s Idea of the United States of America (1937). Both maps distorted the geography of the country: areas closest to Boston and New York were exaggerated at the expense of other parts of the country. On the New York map, Brooklyn was shown larger than Texas, while the Great Lakes were depicted as not much larger than New York Harbor. Such notions of East Coast superiority were not tolerated for long. California illustrator and cartographer E. S. Hammack drew “Greater!” Los Angeles—­And the Rest of the United States as Seen thru the Sun Kissed Glasses of a Los Angeleno in 1939 (plate 11), which was soon followed by other California views of the country (plate 12). Texas was not far behind. Western graphic artist Mark Storm produced Official Texas Brags Map of North America (1948) (plate 10), which depicted the Lone Star State occupying much of the country with the panhandle reaching into Canada. Pictorial maps displaying gentle satire were also popular. In 1926, Edward McCandlish designed the Bootlegger’s Map of the United States (plate 13) in response to Prohibition. With its “Scale of Pints” and “Pints of the Compass,” the map played on well-­k nown place names, such as “Bar Harbor,” “Brandy-­Wine,” “Boozé” (Boise), and “Chi-­keg-­o.” Hagstrom published a revised version, Bill Whiffletree’s Bootlegger’s Map of the United States, as a full-­color, linen-­backed wall map, suitable for “game rooms, fraternity houses, dormitory rooms, or private bars.” 188 The dangers of too much alcohol were displayed in H. J. Lawrence’s anthropomorphic Map Showing the Isle of Pleasure (1931) (plate 14), which imagined such locations as “Whiskey Strait,” “Gulp Stream,” and “Hang Over Hollow” in the skull-­shaped “State of Inebriation.” In contrast to the perils of addiction, Ernest Dudley Chase created A Pictorial Map of Loveland (1943) (plate 15), which included “Oceans of Joy” and “Bay of Bliss,” a testament to the card maker’s sentimental streak. His Mercator Map of the World (plate 16) also showed his playful side, a map perfect for a child’s bedroom. Whatever the subject, humor was often a central part of American pictorial maps.

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plate 1. Above, Walt Disney, Dixon’s Mickey Mouse Map of the United States, circa 1930s, 23.4 × 34.9 cm. Disney’s comedy trio of Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, and Goofy explore each of the forty-­eight states in this cartoon pictorial map designed for children. Disney characters © Disney. Private collection

plate 2. Right, Walt Disney, Standard Oil Company of California Presents Mickey’s and Donald’s Race to Treasure Island, Golden Gate International Exposition on San Francisco Bay, 1939, 50 × 68 cm. This Disney pictorial map encouraged children to learn the names of American states and Canadian provinces by collecting information cards to stick on the map’s borders. Disney characters © Disney. Ethel M. Fair Collection (392), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 3. Ray D. Handy, Paul Bunyan’s Pictorial Map of the United States Depicting Some of His Deeds and Exploits, 1935, 47.6 × 72.8 cm. Handy, a Minnesotan, designed this pictorial map of legendary hero Paul Bunyan for decorating classrooms and children’s bedrooms. Paul’s blue ox serves as the center of the compass rose. Ethel M. Fair Collection (468), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 4. Right, Frank Dier, A Cow Poke’s Map of the Black Hills and His Round-­ Up, 1937, 92.4 × 45.6 cm. Bordered by cattle brands, Dier’s large cartoon map includes a pirouetting cowboy for the compass points, a bucking bronco for the scale, and the slogan “Every state in union represented and all foreign countries including Maine and Vermont.” Ethel M. Fair Collection (473), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 5. Opposite, Ruth Taylor White, Island of Hawaii, 1941, 26.5 × 20.3 cm. Issued by the Hawaii Tourist Bureau, White’s “cartograph,” as she called it, employs a light-­hearted graphic style to depict the natural wonders of the islands and the many visiting tourists, as well as Native Hawaiians and Japanese immigrants. Ethel M. Fair Collection (246), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 6. Jolly Lindgren, A Hysterical Map of the Yellowstone Park, 1936, 40 × 40 cm. With “smileage guaranteed,” Lindgren’s “hysterical map” contains numerous jokes and contemporary references, including a bird exclaiming, “Looks like a new deal for the park.” Musical notes form the scale. Private collection

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plate 7. Above, Jolly Lindgren, Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, circa 1950s, 10 × 6.5 cm. This work is a simplified version of the original Hysterical Map of the Yellowstone Park, produced in DayGlo colors for the popular decal market. Private collection

plate 8. Right, Jolly Lindgren, A Hysterical Map of Yellowstone Park and the Jackson Hole Country Slightly Cockeyed, circa 1950s, 22 × 13.7 cm. Lindgren-­T urner Company’s King Size Mapcard, the final version of the 1936 Hysterical Map of the Yellowstone Park, includes the Jackson Hole Country and several new jokes. A bird flying over Jackson declares, “It’s the tallest hole I’ve ever seen.” Private collection

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plate 9. Daniel K. Wallingford, A New Yorker’s Idea of the United States of America, 1936, 16.8 × 23.3 cm. Wallingford’s distorted map captures the self-­centered world of New Yorkers. The familiar area of New York City and Brooklyn is expanded at the expense of the rest of the country, while New Yorkers’ geographical ignorance is shown by such absurdities as Oregon lying to the north of Washington State. Muriel H. Parry Collection (74), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 10. Mark Storm, Official Texas Brags Map of North America, 1948, 42.6 × 55.9 cm. Drawing inspiration from Wallingford’s map (plate 9) and the corny jokes of Jolly Lindgren (plate 6), Storm’s pictorial map captures the braggadocio characteristic of the Lone Star State. Muriel H. Parry Collection (77), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 11. Above, E. S. Hammack, “Greater!” Los Angeles and the Rest of the United States as Seen thru the Sun-­Kissed Glasses of a Los Angeleno, 1939, 24.6 × 46.8 cm. Hammack’s response to Wallingford’s New Yorker’s map (plate 9) shows the sun, personified as an orange, shining down on Los Angeles, which encompasses much of California and the Hawaiian islands. Angelic zephyrs blow in from the Pacific while angry hurricanes hit Florida. Canada is shown as a land of ice and snow. Private collection

plate 12. Right, Oren Arnold, Map of the United States as Californians See It, 1947, 40.5 × 50.8 cm. A “kissin sun” shines on the Golden State, which now includes the entire West Coast, while Los Angeles’s city limits reach across the continent. Florida, California’s winter rival for tourist dollars, is shown as a land of swamps and hurricanes. Ethel M. Fair Collection (275), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 13. Above, Edward Gerstell McCandlish, Bootlegger’s Map of the United States, 1926, 54.1 × 86.5 cm. A satirical response to Prohibition, McCandlish covers his pictorial map with cartoon figures and alcoholic place-­n ames, including Lake Champagne and Bar Harbor. Ethel M. Fair Collection (504), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 14. Opposite, H. J. (Heinie) Lawrence, Map Showing Isle of Pleasure, 1931, 50.5 × 43.3 cm. With a skull representing the “Isle of Pleasure,” this striking Prohibition-­era pictorial map shows the joys and evils of consuming alcohol. Drink names mark the map border. Muriel H. Parry Collection (65), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 15. Ernest Dudley Chase collaborating with Stephen York, A Pictorial Map of Loveland, 1943, 40 × 58 cm. Chase combined greeting card sentiment and cartography in this memorable pictorial map of “Loveland.” Hearts and Cupid’s arrows form the map border. American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­Milwaukee Libraries.

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plate 16. Ernest Dudley Chase, Mercator Map of the World, 1931, 77 × 107 cm. Published by Houghton Mifflin in its pictorial map series, the Mercator Map of the World shows Chase at his best. Designed for the walls of children’s bedrooms, the map is packed with informative pictures, including Napoleon sulking on St. Helena in the south Atlantic and a large green dragon astride China. Ethel M. Fair Collection (712), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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maps to Instruct Maps have long served a didactic purpose, helping to educate children and adults about peoples and lands around the world. In the West, this role began with medieval Christian mappa mundi, or world maps. It developed further with thematic maps in atlases in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and continues today with innovative cartograms showing the state of the world.189 Pictorial images on maps were particularly easy for people to grasp. Children, especially, could understand pictures more readily than abstract symbols. In the 1920s and 1930s, American pictorial mapmakers recognized the educational value of overlaying pictures and text on national and world maps. Several women produced pictorial maps for young children. Ruth Hambidge, who illustrated children’s books for the John Day Company, designed A Map of Children Everywhere in 1929 (plate 17). A critic for the Saturday Review noted, “Since small children are both ignorant and uncensorious they will doubtless be delighted with this map with its attractive coloring and profusion of small figures scattered over the face of the globe.” The reviewer concluded that supplemental educational material was essential, “otherwise it were best to regard it merely as designed for amusement and not for instruction at all.” 190 Even for the very young, images were apparently not enough. Ilonka Karasz and Alice York, who collaborated on A Child’s Map of the Ancient World (plate 18), managed to combine “history, legend, and literature” in a “pictorial condensation of ancient culture.” 191 “A surprising amount of knowledge has been packed upon a small

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space,” wrote a reviewer. “For the schoolroom, nursery, and children’s room in the library this map can be recommended.” Charitable organizations also produced easily comprehensible maps showing the various ethnicities represented in the United States. In 1940, the Council against Intolerance in America commissioned Emma Bourne to create America—­A Nation of One People from Many Countries (plate 19). The map’s red ribbons, each bearing the name of a particular ethnic group, the outsized trees and crops of various regions, and vignettes of economic activity all combined to make it one of the most striking maps of the era. Friendship Press, the publishing arm of the National Council of Churches, hired commercial artist Louise E. Jefferson in 1942 to do a variety of design work, including pictorial maps.192 In the 1940s, she produced “friendship maps” of Africa and China, as well as a map of American Indian tribes in the United States (plate 20). Given the widespread interest in the 1920s and 1930s in American history, pictorial maps narrating colonial beginnings, national expansion, and presidential lives were common. Aaron Bohrod’s America Its History (plate 21) highlighted epic events from Cortez’s conquest of Mexico to the Wright brothers’ flight in North Carolina. August Kaiser and Clara Searle Painter collaborated on The Conquest of a Continent, an extraordinary celebration of “Manifest Destiny” (plate 22). Three illustrations in the top panel summarized the map’s progressive narrative, from European immigrants getting off the boat and pioneers viewing the continent’s “virgin land” open for settlement to the steel mills and factories of industrial America. The Colonial Revival movement inspired many maps of early America. Williamsburg Restoration produced A Part of Virginia showing Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown with Historical Events from 1581 to 1781, which was drawn in an eighteenth-­century watercolor style (plate 23), and Elizabeth Shurtleff designed a history-­laden Map of Massachusetts: The Old Bay State, which had been approved by the Tercentenary Conference of City and Town Committees (plate 24). Maps celebrating the lives of presidents included Ernest Clegg’s richly colored map commemorating the life of George Washington (plate 25), published by Washington Cathedral for his bicentennial celebration in 1932, and Arthur Suchy’s multilayered tribute to presidents born in Ohio (plate 26). Chicago’s Northern Trust Company commissioned William Mark Young to make two maps celebrating the history of Illinois. One outlined the Lincoln Memorial Trail (plate 27); the other, mimicking a nineteenth-­century state map, was entitled Illinois One Hundred Years Ago (plate 28). The numerous Romance Maps (plates 29 and 30), published in the 1930s, celebrated American history in different parts of the East. The historical impulse was so great in the thirties that the Mentholatum Company, taking the opportunity to market products such as Mentholatum Lip Care to school children, hired historian and printer Robert T. Aitchison to design pictorial maps showing the history of individual states (plate 31).193 Between 1936 and 1941, Aitchison produced twenty-­

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four maps illustrating twenty-­seven states. Commercial artist Everett Henry attempted to summarize the national narrative in Our United States, published by Washington Square Book Shop in 1930 (plate 32). Bordered with stars and using mostly red, white, and blue, Henry created a patriotic celebration of American progress from the American Indian to the airplane. In the 1930s, the Great War was still fresh in people’s minds. Cartographer Ezra C. Stiles and historian Paul C. Bowman collaborated on a magnificent historical map, American Expeditionary Force, published in 1932, that depicted war fronts stretching from Belgium to Italy and included information from division badges to famous war songs (plate 33). In a more peaceful vein, the American Junior Red Cross created a map showing the varied ways that children could help at home and at school (plate 34). Pictorial maps explored various forms of education, from religious missions (plate 35) to the history of secondary education in America (plate 36). Maps could also show the role that libraries played in education, a particular interest of Ethel Fair. Her collection included a map showing the expansion of libraries from the city to the countryside (plate 37) as well as the extraordinary Dewey Decimal Map of the United States: A Guide to Library Shelves (plate 38). In the 1930s and 1940s, literary maps emerged as a distinct subgenre of pictorial maps used for instruction.194 Although these maps were popular, they rarely achieved a coherent marriage of image and text. In many cases, names of authors and titles of books were simply placed on a map, with no attempt to evoke the qualities of place in an author’s work. The most successful maps combined literary information with eye-­catching design, as in Ethel Earle Wylie and Ella Wall Van Leer’s Pictorial Chart of American Literature (plate 39) and Mark Russell’s Literary Map of Ohio (plate 40). Pictorial maps that focused on a single author or story had more scope for invention, as in George Annand’s map showing the locations in Sinclair Lewis’s novels (plate 41). Everett Henry came closest to successfully combining text and image in his series of literary maps produced for the Harris-­Seybold printing company in the 1950s. The greatest of these maps was his blood-­d renched Voyage of the Pequod from the Book Moby Dick by Herman Melville, published in 1956 (plate 42). Pictorial maps also showed American sports and pastimes. The regionalist movement of the 1930s, well represented by WPA guides to individual states, inspired an interest in folklore. In the mid-­1940s, opera singer and folklorist Dorothea Dix Lawrence collaborated with woodcut artist Harry Cimino to map an important element of American folklore in their Folklore Music Map of the United States (plate 44). American sports were also mapped, notably by F. E. Cheeseman in his series of college football maps produced for the Albert Richard clothing company from 1938 to 1941 (plate 46). All these maps, ranging from world maps for children to sports maps for fans, demonstrated the importance of pictorial mapping for education and instruction.

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plate 17. Ruth Hambidge, A Map of Children Everywhere, 1929, 53.6 × 89 cm. Pictorial maps appealed to young children and could be used as a teaching tool in the classroom. Ethel M. Fair Collection (464), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 18. Alice York and Ilonka Karasz, A Child’s Map of the Ancient World, 1926, 58.8 × 80.2 cm. Frieze-­l ike borders packed with information, vivid orange and blue colors, and charming figures and animals ranging across the ancient world make this one of the most striking pictorial maps of the era. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 19. Emma Bourne, America—­A Nation of One People From Many Countries, 1940, 87.2 × 133.3 cm. Published by the Council Against Intolerance in America, this large pictorial map designed in the realist graphic style of the 1930s aimed to teach schoolchildren about the founding peoples; leading figures in contemporary American literature, science, industry, and the arts; the main religious groups; and principal economic activities. Although prominently represented, “Negroes” are not listed as coming from Africa. Muriel H. Parry Collection (508), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 20. Left, Louise E. Jefferson, Indians of the U.S.A., 1944, 53 × 84 cm. Jefferson, a prominent African-­A merican artist and designer, served as art director of the Friendship Press in New York City. The press published several educational maps about world cultures for classrooms. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 21. Above, Aaron Bohrod, Aaron Bohrod’s America Its History, 1946, 56 × 82 cm. Bohrod’s sweeping and popular depiction of American history owes much to the murals he and other artists designed for the Treasury Department’s Section of Fine Arts during the 1930s. John Brown’s Slave Raids in Kansas set against a glowing sun create a powerful central image for the map. Ethel M. Fair Collection (735), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 22. August Kaiser and Clara Searle Painter, The Conquest of a Continent, 1933, 53 × 68.6 cm. This map is an extraordinary celebration of “manifest destiny” designed for the classroom. With its references to frontiers, free land, and independent spirit, the map owes much to the influential ideas of historian Frederick Jackson Turner’s famous frontier thesis. The few Indians depicted appear to be retreating westward. Ethel M. Fair Collection (605), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 23. Robert Ball, A Part of Virginia Showing Jamestown, Williamsburg, and Yorktown with Historical Events from 1581 to 1781, 1939, 43.5 × 60.4 cm. Published by Williamsburg Restoration, one of the leading manifestations of the Colonial Revival movement, Robert Ball’s design imitated late eighteenth-­century maps with their watercolor washes, flowing lettering, and rococo cartouches. Ethel M. Fair Collection (761), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 24. Elizabeth Shurtleff, Map of Massachusetts, the Old Bay State, 1930, 66.5 × 96.6 cm. Shurtleff packs her “picture history map” with a great deal of information, but the striking blocks of red and blue make the greatest impact. Rose petals form the compass rose. Ethel M. Fair Collection (703), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 25. Above, Ernest Clegg, A Descriptive Map of the Region within One Hundred Miles of the Capital of the United States . . . Commemorating the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington, 1932, 70.4 × 85 cm. Most likely influenced by the work of Edward Johnston in England, Clegg was a distinguished calligrapher, designing several fine historical pictorial maps. A British army officer, he moved to the United States after World War I. Ethel M. Fair Collection (708), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 26. Opposite, Arthur B. Suchy, Mother of Presidents. Ohio Buckeye State, 1939, 58.8 × 59.7 cm. Suchy, a Cleveland commercial artist, produced several maps of his native city and home state. His Ohio map is a masterpiece of design, combining different types of information arranged around a state map and seal, all depicted in subtle muted colors. Private collection

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plate 27. William Mark Young, Lincoln Memorial Trail, 1940, 53.5 × 43.8 cm. Focused on Lincoln’s early life, Young’s map shows the narrative possibilities of pictorial mapping. He combines pictures of important events, such as the Lincoln-­Douglas debates, with various trails showing Lincoln’s movements in the Old Northwest. Private collection

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plate 28. William Mark Young, Illinois One Hundred Years Ago, 1934, 54.4 × 44.4 cm. The Northern Trust Company commissioned this historical pictorial map to commemorate its forty-­five years of service to Chicago. Young arranged vignettes of significant people and events in the state’s history around a reproduction of an 1834 map. Ethel M. Fair Collection (387), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 29. Josephine Wilhelm Wickser, A Romance Map of the Niagara Frontier, 1931, 57.5 × 45.7 cm. Keen to commemorate the history of different regions of the United States, Wickser created the “Romance” series of historical pictorial maps, beginning with Niagara Frontier. Designed with bright primary colors, the map is packed with small vignettes and border text blocks describing the history of the cross-­border region. Muriel H. Parry Collection (695), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 30. C. Eleanor Hall, A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway, 1934, 58 × 45.7 cm. Inspired by Wickser’s Romance Map of the Niagara Frontier (plate 29), Hall created a similar map for the Champlain-­Hudson valley. Through images and concise text, such maps helped popularize local history, particularly for children and tourists. Ethel M. Fair Collection (405), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 31. Opposite, Robert T. Aitchison, Delaware, 1937, 53.2 × 39.2 cm. Recognizing the marketing value of American history, the Mentholatum Company commissioned Aitchison, an artist and publisher, to produce state historical maps suitable for classrooms. Those who sent in a box top from a thirty-­cent package of Mentholatum received a free copy of the map. Ethel M. Fair Collection (158), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 32. Above, Edward Everett Henry, Our United States, 1930, 80 × 88.4 cm. Henry, a commercial artist, produced several outstanding pictorial maps (see plates 42, 104, and 149), including this striking art deco–­i nspired map of economic activity in America. Ethel M. Fair Collection (647), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 33. Opposite, Ezra C. Stiles and Paul C. Bowman, Historical Map, American Expeditionary Force, 1932, 84.6 × 67.5 cm. Pittsburgh landscape architect and cartographer Stiles worked with Bowman, a historian, to create this lavishly illustrated map of American Expeditionary Force action in World War I. For all the rich detail, the map is surprisingly inaccurate in depicting the coasts of Brittany and southern England. Ethel M. Fair Collection (645), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 34. Left, H. M. Rundle, American Junior Red Cross at Work, 1932, 74.6 × 48.8 cm. Although the borders of this colorful pictorial map show the organization on the job, the map illustrates European discoveries and settlements in the Americas, a strange combination of public service and history. Ethel M. Fair Collection (600), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 35. Left, Houston, A Trip with a Mission, 1951, 66 × 78.2 cm. The Methodist Church commissioned this pictorial map to show the home mission work of the Woman’s Division of Christian Service. Red highways show the way to mission work projects. Ethel M. Fair Collection (701), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 36. Above, R. D. Matthews and Ernest W. Watson, 300 Years of Secondary Education in America, 1635–­1935, 1935, 46.4 × 61 cm. Sponsored by the Home Economics Department of the American Can Company, this pictorial map shows significant educational policies or events for each state. Ethel M. Fair Collection (397), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 37. Above, Paul M. Paine, The County Library Comes Home to the People, 1927, 14.6 × 17.8 cm. Paine, director of the Syracuse Public Library, designed several pictorial maps illustrating literature and exploration. This map, advocating “equal book privileges for the farm and the city,” shows how libraries could spread from urban areas into the countryside. Ethel M. Fair Collection (40), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 38. Right, Bertine E. Weston, Dewey Decimal Map of the United States: A Guide to Library Shelves, 1936, 51.5 × 74.2 cm. Weston designed this pictorial map for library users faced with the complexities of the Dewey decimal classification system. Ethel M. Fair Collection (597), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 39. Ethel Earle Wylie and Ella Wall Van Leer, A Pictorial Chart of American Literature, 1932, 66 × 98.8 cm. This large and attractive pictorial map shows the residences of leading American writers. Female authors are depicted prominently along the top border, while men reside along the bottom. The dense literary associations in “Boston & environs” are shown in an inset map. Ethel M. Fair Collection (704), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 40. Mark Russell, A Literary Map of Ohio, 1957, 55.8 × 87.5 cm. This boldly designed pictorial map shows the homes of Ohio writers, and open books list important authors by genre and subject. Ethel M. Fair Collection (578), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 41. Above, George Annand, A Map of Sinclair Lewis’ United States, as It Appears in His Novels, with Notes by Carl Van Doren, 1934, 41 × 56.2 cm. A shaded area, south of Michigan, shows Sinclair Lewis’s fictional state of Winnemac, while vignettes illustrate scenes from the novels. Annand’s use of black for the sea creates a dramatic visual effect. Ethel M. Fair Collection (486), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 42. Right, Edward Everett Henry, The Voyage of the Pequod from the Book Moby Dick by Herman Melville, 1956, 42.8 × 60.4. Henry combined map and images to create one of the most theatrical of all literary maps. The great sweep of the Pequod’s track gives the map a dynamic effect, while the use of red marks the bloody progress and denouement of the whaling voyage. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 43. Ernest Dudley Chase, A Pictorial Stamp Map of Navigation and Exploration, 1951, 52 × 82 cm. Chase combines the history of world navigation and exploration with commemorative stamps illustrating explorers and vessels. As befits such a map, the mariner’s compass is accurately depicted. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 44. Left, Dorothea Dix Lawrence, Folklore Music Map of the United States, 1946, 54.5 × 74.4 cm. Based on considerable research, this folklore music map shows famous songs associated with particular states. The borders illustrate various musical instruments. Ethel M. Fair Collection (746), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 45. Above, Gerard L. Alexander, Nicknames of American Cities, circa 1951, 54.6 × 73.2 cm. Although some of the nicknames shown on the map are open to question, Alexander’s use of a black background to set off the bright colors of the vignettes creates a powerful effect. Ethel M. Fair Collection (806), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 46. F. E. Cheeseman, Albert Richard Football Map, 1938, 45.4 × 65 cm. Cheeseman’s college football map, which went through several annual editions, was designed to promote men’s outdoor jackets made by Milwaukee clothing manufacturer Albert Richard. Large blocks of color, representing the major conferences, give the map an art deco look. Muriel H. Parry Collection (503), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

maps of Place and Region The most common pictorial maps attempted to portray the look and character of a place. This was not a new development. The close relations among bird’s-­eye views, landscape paintings, and topographic maps were established during the Renaissance in the sixteenth century and further developed during the Dutch Golden Age of landscape painting and cartography in the seventeenth century.195 The increasing output of American bird’s-­eye views in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries carried the art form into the realm of popular culture through lithography and mass printing. By the 1920s, American graphic artists pushed the form even further by producing lavishly colored and exceedingly complex pictorial maps of cities, regions, and countries. In the 1930s, the influence of American regionalism also played a role in encouraging this particular type of pictorial map. The regional pictorial map, in turn, helped shape the image of different parts of the United States. The earliest pictorial maps from the 1920s and 1930s celebrated major cities, such as Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Washington, Chicago, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Olsen and Clark depicted Boston (plate 47), Philadelphia, and Washington (plate 48), while Farrow produced A Map of the Wondrous Isle of Manhattan (plate 51), one of the masterpieces of the pictorial map genre. Several other artists also tackled New York (plates 49, 50, 52, and 53), Chicago (plates 55 and 56), and the burgeoning city of Los Angeles (plates 57–­61). Smaller cities were also depicted, including Seattle (plate 66), Madison, Wisconsin (plate

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67), Portland, Maine (plate 69), and Miami, Florida (plate 72). Cities overseas received much less attention, in part because of isolationist sentiment in the United States and because few mapmakers had been abroad. However, Ilonka Karasz, in the year of Lindbergh’s trans-­Atlantic flight, paid homage to Paris (plate 73), and military attaché Frank Dorn depicted Peiping (plate 74), a wondrously strange city to most Americans. Two subgenres depicted much smaller places. First, alumni were drawing their college and university campuses, an ideal way of displaying pride in one’s alma mater.196 In 1926, Alva Scott Mitchell and Elizabeth Paige May created a pictorial map of Wellesley College (plate 75), possibly the first of any campus. By the 1930s, many of the major universities, such as Harvard, Chicago, and Cornell, received similar treatment (plates 76–­78). A second subgenre featured private estates and vacation homes (plates 79 and 80). European artists had long made a career out of painting grand estates of the nobility and gentry, and American artists followed suit for wealthy patrons. On a much larger scale, pictorial maps defined and represented distinctive American regions. With the country continuing to turn inward during the 1930s, American regionalism flourished, particularly in the arts. Although scholars have paid most attention to regionalist writers and artists, pictorial mapmakers played a significant role in celebrating the country’s sectional identities.197 Numerous maps of coastal Massachusetts, particularly Cape Ann and Cape Cod (plates 81, 83, and 84), revealed the region’s popularity among New York–­based artists and writers as well as tourists. More original regional maps were created that highlighted areas beyond the East Coast. Architect Frank Kearfott produced a map of the Appalachian region centered on his hometown of Bristol, Virginia (plate 85). Kearfott’s geographical world edged into neighboring West Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and North Carolina, a cultural region far different from the well-­trodden tourist regions of coastal New England. States were proud of their history, landscape, people, and industries, and these features could all be well represented on a pictorial map. Nearly every state appears to have created one, frequently to lure tourists. Warm winter states showcased their natural charms, particularly beaches and gardens (plates 87–­ 90), while California advertised its spectacular coast (plate 95). Seattle-­based Kroll Map Company produced an aerial view of the Pacific Northwest (plate 96), boasting that “Neither Europe nor Asia nor South America has a prospect in which sea and woods and snow mountains are so united in a landscape.” Artists also depicted American territories overseas. The Panama Canal, a source of immense pride and strategic interest to the United States, inspired several pictorial maps (plates 97 and 98). At the national and continental scales, mapmakers produced pictorial maps of the United States and the Americas. In a patriotic vein, Ernest Dudley Chase drew maps entitled America the Wonderland (plate 99) and A Pictorial Map of North

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America (plate 100). He did similar maps of South America, Europe, and the world. The principal theme of the San Francisco Golden Gate Exposition in 1939 was the “Pageant of the Pacific,” which included several large murals painted by Mexican artist Miguel Covarrubias depicting the region’s flora, fauna, and cultures. These scenes were also produced as lithographs (plate 102) and widely distributed. Charles Dougherty and Edward Everett Henry created two double-­ hemisphere maps that mixed art deco design with optimism about the state of the world (plates 103 and 104).

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plate 47. Edwin B. Olsen and Blake E. Clark, The Colour of an Old City: A Map of Boston, 1926, 71.5 × 95. The first pictorial map published by Houghton Mifflin, Olsen and Clark’s work owed much to MacDonald Gill’s Wonderground map of 1914. The Boston map, in turn, influenced several American pictorial mapmakers. The contrasting use of blue and yellow, with red for highlights, make this one of the most visually striking of all pictorial maps. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 48. Edwin B. Olsen and Blake E. Clark, Map of the City of Washington, 1926, 71.2 × 92.9 cm. Olsen, who later worked for several leading architectural firms, did much of the design work on this map, which is reflected in the numerous drawings of buildings. The map is also marked by beautiful calligraphy in addition to a finely drawn title cartouche and compass rose. Ethel M. Fair Collection (601), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 49. Joseph B. Platt, A Map of New York, 1925, 68 × 88 cm. One of the earliest pictorial maps published in America, Platt’s design captures the effervescence of New York in the Roaring Twenties. Courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

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plate 50. Mélanie Elisabeth Leonard, A Map of New York in the Air, with Additions, Omissions and Premonitions, Or Super-­Man-­Hattan, 1928, 59.6 × 87.5 cm. A late flourish of art nouveau, Leonard’s extraordinary concoction shows Manhattan through wisps of cloud, anchored to the west by Lady Liberty and to the east by a flying pterodactyl. Vignettes include a bear and a bull facing off in front of the New York Stock Exchange as dollar birds fly high above the city. Ethel M. Fair Collection (625), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 51. C. V. Farrow, A Map of the Wondrous Isle of Manhattan (The Scale Is All Askew), 1926, 57 × 94 cm. Farrow’s spectacular map demonstrates the close connection between bird’s-­e ye views and pictorial maps. The traditional bird’s-­e ye view, however, has been transformed by Farrow’s use of bright colors (blue and yellow contrast with red highlights, as on Olsen and Clark’s map of Boston, plate 47) and comic figures. The depiction of Manhattan’s architecture—­m any buildings are easily identifiable—­is a tour de force, without parallel in the pictorial map genre. Title cartouche and map borders capture the boisterous and lavish world of New York in the 1920s. American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­Milwaukee Libraries

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plate 52. C. E. Millard, Manhattan First City in America, 1933, 84.4 × 45.7 cm. Millard’s “picture map” of Manhattan shows historical vignettes, famous figures, and landmark buildings in a cheerful style. The title declares that the map shows “a modern metropolis in the making, pictorially presented for the man who learns by looking.” Ethel M. Fair Collection (458), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 53. George Annand, A Chart of Manhattan, 1936, 21.5 × 56.3 cm. This pocket-­sized, foldout map produced for the Waldorf-­A storia Hotel shows principal sights, shopping districts, churches, and clubs. Annand liked to use orange as the base color in his maps (see also plate 91), an unusual though striking choice. Ethel M. Fair Collection (490), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 54. Above, L. E. Widen, A Child’s Map of Greenwich Village, 1927, 37.5 × 47.5 cm. Despite the title, Widen’s map is a sophisticated and not-­so-­i nnocent look at the denizens of New York City’s bohemian quarter. The “Revolt of Modern Youth” in the bottom left sums up much of the map’s content. Muriel H. Parry Collection (697), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 55. Right, Charles Turzak and Henry T. Chapman, Chicago U.S.A. An Illustrated Map of Chicago, Youthful City of the Big Shoulders, Restless, Ingenious, Willful, Violent, Proud to Be Alive!, 1931, 56.2 × 94.5 cm. Published by Houghton Mifflin in its pictorial map series, Turzak and Chapman’s bird’s-­e ye view draws on art deco style and the Chicago grid to create a dynamic, geometric view of America’s second city. The large compass rose graphically summarizes Chicago’s relationship to its industrial and agricultural hinterlands. Ethel M. Fair Collection (705), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 56. Arthur Erickson, A Map of Chicago’s Gangland from Authentic Sources: Designed to Inculcate the Most Important Principles of Piety and Virtue in Young Persons and Graphically Portray the Evils and Sin of Large Cities, 1931, 56.5 × 70 cm. In this richly colored and humorous look at the underside of Chicago during Prohibition, Al Capone reigns above the title cartouche; the map scale measures one shooting, one murder, double murder, and a massacre; a vignette illustrates “machine gunners from Detroit arrive in Chicago for Post-­g raduate work”; and Canadian Specials fly in booze. Ethel M. Fair Collection (621), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 57. Charles H. Owens, A Pictorial Map of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District, from the Los Angeles Sunday Times, September 12, 1926, 58 × 84 cm. In this dramatic bird’s-­e ye view, the twenty-­m ile radius gives a sense of the enormous scale of the city, while the map contains an extraordinary amount of detail, including 271 places listed in the border legend. A note at the bottom of the map declares, “The map is unique and very valuable, being the only one of its kind ever made. Its preparation required years of research and months of drawing.” The Huntington Library, San Marino, California

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plate 58. K. M. Leuschner, Greater Los Angeles, The Wonder City of America: Where to Go and What to See, 1932, 54.5 × 85 cm. The influence of bird’s-­e ye views is clearly shown in this early color map of the city. The soft yellows, greens, and pinks capture the city at sunset as well as the warm tones of Southern California. Ethel M. Fair Collection (611), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 59. Opposite, Jo Mora, Historical and Recreational Map of Los Angeles, 1942, 77 × 58 cm. “Done in the humorous manner,” Mora’s sumptuous tribute to Los Angeles is full of color, cartoon figures, and historical legend. A panel at the bottom of the map shows women blowing up balloons to illustrate population growth. David Rumsey Map Collection

plate 60. Above, John Groth, A Slightly Cockeyed Map of that Slightly Cockeyed Community Hollywood Executed by that Slightly Cockeyed Topographer . . . John Groth, circa 1937, 33.6 × 47.8 cm. In this cartoony view of Hollywood, the indulgent life of movie stars contrasts with several Chinese laborers raking the lawn at M.G.M. and a Mexican peddler with his donkey. Ethel M. Fair Collection (198), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 61. Anita L. Weathers, The Land of Sunshine, Fruits and Flowers: The Travelure Map of Los Angeles and Vicinity Showing “Olde” and New Places of Interest . . . , 1932, 37.6 × 52.8 cm. With a border motif of California poppies and Spanish missions, this pictorial map markets the attractions of the Los Angeles area. During the Great Depression, Southern California must have seemed an exotic destination for new arrivals from the American Midwest. Ethel M. Fair Collection (445), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 62. Howard Wookey, Pasadena, 1933, 43.7 × 61 cm. In the 1920s and 1930s, Pasadena was an important winter resort for affluent Easterners. Wookey’s lush portrait of the town includes border vignettes of orange groves, the Rose Bowl, and Albert Einstein. The route of the famous Rose Parade is shown in red. The title cartouche begins: “This cartograph of Pasadena is affectionately dedicated to those fortunate souls who abide within its boundaries and to those many persons on the outside looking in with longing hearts.” Ethel M. Fair Collection (422), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 63. Harrison Godwin, Map of San Francisco Showing Principal Streets and Places of Interest, 1927, 65.5 × 82 cm. One of the most ambitious of the early pictorial maps, Godwin’s affectionate depiction of the city is a riot of cartoon characters, buildings, trains, and watercraft. Ethel M. Fair Collection (686), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 64. Above, Ethel Chun, Chinatown San Francisco, 1939, 41.5 × 54.4 cm. A well-­k nown Hawaiian-­Chinese artist, Chun created one of the most distinctive of all American pictorial maps. The map, sold to tourists, uses vibrant colors to reflect Chinese culture. Yellow is associated with prestige (the Chinese emperor’s color) and the earth, hence the map’s yellow ground, while red represents good fortune. Ethel M. Fair Collection (325), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 65. Right, Michael Baltekal-­Goodman and Eugene Neuhaus, A Map of Berkeley, Oakland & Alameda, circa 1930s, 85.7 × 106.8 cm. Baltekal-­Goodman, an artist, and Neuhaus, an art professor at the University of California, Berkeley, designed one of the most dramatic and boldly colored pictorial maps of the 1930s. The map is full of art deco motifs, including chevron waves, electric-­sparking winds, and leaping deer. The map was published by the Sather Gate Book Shop, a Berkeley institution. Ethel M. Fair Collection (633), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 66. Opposite, Clara P. Reynolds, A Seagull’s View of Seattle, 1927, 55.4 × 38.5 cm. The American Crayon Company commissioned Reynolds, director of art for Seattle public schools, to design this charming pictorial map for members of the National Education Association. Simple, stylized shapes and primary colors made this an attractive map for school classrooms. Ethel M. Fair Collection (437), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 67. Above, Laura Kremers, A Historical Map of Madison, 1932, 55 × 83.7 cm. Kremers, a University of Wisconsin graduate, designed this pictorial map featuring Madison and lakes Mendota and Monona. Art deco influences include the title lettering, the frieze of figures playing sports in the map border, and a north arrow formed of flying geese. Ethel M. Fair Collection (612), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 68. Priscilla Paine and Hester R. Hoffman (cartouche), A Map of the Town of Northampton, Mass., 1934, 58.5 × 76.5 cm. Designed by Paine, professor of art at Smith College, and published by the Hampshire Book Shop in Northampton, this pictorial map owes much to children’s book illustrations, particularly the dinosaurs, who left their tracks alongside the Connecticut River, and the frog poling down the river on a lily pad. Ethel M. Fair Collection (595), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 69. Katherine Dudley, A Map of Portland, Maine, and Some Places Thereabout, 1928, 74 × 99 cm. Published by the Portland Baby Hygiene and Child Welfare Association, Dudley’s brightly colored and naively drawn map must have delighted children and tourists to Maine’s largest city. Like other pictorial mapmakers (see plate 47), Dudley plays with the contrast of blue and yellow with red highlights. Another fine element of the design is the swirl of ribbon and text quoting John Smith’s description of the bay. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 70. Morris Davidson, This Is a Map of the Historic City of Baltimore, An American Town in the Free State of Maryland, Metropolis of the Old South, 1930, 67.2 × 81 cm. Published by the Peabody Book Shop in Baltimore, Davidson’s pictorial map reveals his training as a painter rather than as a graphic artist. The map’s painterly qualities set it apart from the thousands of other pictorial maps created in the 1920s and 1930s. Davidson later opened the Davidson School of Art in Provincetown, Massachusetts. Ethel M. Fair Collection (514), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 71. Above, Arthur B. Suchy, Cayo Hueso Key West, Florida, 1938, 54.5 × 75.7. Suchy, a Cleveland graphic artist, created several pictorial maps of his home state of Ohio (see plate 26) and the winter vacation state of Florida. His map of Key West is masterful in its well-­ balanced design and evocation of tropical waters. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 72. Opposite, Arthur B. Suchy, Miami, Florida, 1935, 57 × 48.2 cm. Published by the Miami Herald to lure tourists to “Florida’s Magic City,” Suchy’s brilliant design is dominated by an art deco–­i nspired sun shining its yellow rays onto the swampy green of the mainland. The map’s borders evoke Miami’s lushness, its popular pastimes, and the Spanish Main. Two inset maps show Miami’s location in the United States and Florida. Ethel M. Fair Collection (394), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress.

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plate 73. Above, Ilonka Karasz, Plan De Paris, 1927, 70 × 91.5 cm. Karasz’s second important pictorial map (see plate 18) was published the same year as Charles Lindbergh’s solo trans-­Atlantic flight to Paris, but there are few signs of modernity. Instead, Karasz’s richly colored map serves as a souvenir and guide to the city, providing a directory of monuments, museums, churches, railway termini, art galleries, and more. Ethel M. Fair Collection (622), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 74. Opposite, Frank Dorn, A Map and History of Peiping, 1936, 56 × 49 cm. Dorn served as a US military attaché in Beijing between 1934 and 1938, learning Chinese and studying the country’s culture. He later served with General Joseph Stilwell during World War II and retired from the army as a brigadier-­general. In this foldout map published in his history of Peiping, Dorn provides a unique view of old Beijing before modernization. Although done in a humorous cartoon style, the map is well informed about the buildings and culture of the ancient city. The cardinal directions on the compass rose are in Chinese. David Rumsey Map Collection

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plate 75. Alva Scott Mitchell and Elizabeth Paige May, Wellesley, Her Wealth of Woods and Waters, 1926, 46.4 × 60.2 cm. One of the earliest pictorial maps of any American college campus, alumnae Mitchell and May created this affectionate portrait, which includes such humorous vignettes as the commanding woman and perspiring man in a canoe. The accompanying text balloon reads, “Thoughtless youth who asked crew captain to go canoeing.” Ethel M. Fair Collection (399), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 76. Ellen Edmonson, Campus of Cornell University and Vicinity, Ithaca, New York, U.S.A., 1928, 45.4 × 60.9 cm. Edmonson, a native of Syracuse, New York, and a non-­degree student at Cornell, created this striking monochrome map to celebrate the campus. The Cornell Daily Sun advertised the map as “Decorative—­Humorous—­Helpful. First Aid for Bewildered Freshmen. Shows where you live, work, play. And much more. . . .” Ethel M. Fair Collection (402), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 77. Above, Betty Fisher, A Map of the University of Chicago, 1932, 61.5 × 94.3 cm. Designed by Fisher, a Chicago graduate, and published by the Alumnae Club, this college pictorial map is one of the finest in the genre. Done in a cheerful art deco style, the detailed and informative map includes a vignette of physicist Albert A. Michelson, the first American to win a Nobel Prize in science. Gargoyles in the map’s border reflect the campus’s Gothic architecture. Ethel M. Fair Collection (646), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 78. Opposite, Edwin Judson Schruers, A Prospect of Harvard University and of Radcliffe College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1935, 82.3 × 61 cm. Schruers, a Harvard graduate, created this architectural “prospect” or bird’s-­e ye view to celebrate the college’s tercentenary in 1936. For that reason, the map emphasizes academic tradition (note the coats of arms) and scholarly seriousness rather than the playful humor found on other college pictorial maps of the time. Ethel M. Fair Collection (620), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 79. Above, Jacob Riegel Jr., A Map of Roads to Hillside Farm Near Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania: The Residence of Walter Biddle Saul, 1940, 22 × 30 cm. With its mix of local history, architecture, and family biography (note the two dogs “Woof” and “Wumpy”), this map for a leading Philadelphia attorney was typical of the estate map genre. Riegel, a Philadelphia artist, also created two fine maps of his native city (see plates 127 and 128) and his alma mater, Princeton. Ethel M. Fair Collection (53), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 80. Opposite, A. Wolcott, A More or Less Inaccurate Map of Ellison Bay, Door County, Wisconsin, circa 1943, 45 × 36 cm. This naively drawn pictorial map captures the pleasures and charms of a summer resort typical of the northern lake country. Printed in monochrome green and white, the map mixes history with scenes of resort and cottage life and local farming. Ethel M. Fair Collection (815), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 81. Opposite, Coulton Waugh, Cape Ann and the North Shore: A Map Displaying the Hardy Maritime Development of These Historic Parts, 1927, 58.5 × 48.6 cm. With its decorative border evoking nineteenth-­century woodcuts, Waugh’s pictorial map captures the seafaring history of Boston’s North Shore. Waugh prided himself on his nautical knowledge. Advertising copy marketed the map as “charming simply as a bit of lovely decoration to be placed in distinguished surroundings.” Waugh’s maps of Cape Ann and Cape Cod were hand colored, giving rise to noticeable variation between copies. Ethel M. Fair Collection (619), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 82. Above, John W. Haley (researcher) and H. W. Hetherington (designer), Mount Hope Bridge, Bristol, Rhode Island, 1937, 43.3 × 64.7 cm. Publicizing the recently opened bridge that linked the mainland to Aquidneck Island and Newport, Haley and Hetherington’s map plays to the tourist market, emphasizing the maritime history, coastal resorts, and quaint villages of Rhode Island and eastern Massachusetts. The map is beautifully drawn and colored, making it one of the most attractive of the mass-­produced tourist maps published before World War II. Ethel M. Fair Collection (420), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 83. Left, Mélanie Elizabeth Leonard, A Map of Cape Cod, 1926, 60.9 × 87.5 cm. A resident of the historic town of Sandwich on Cape Cod, Leonard was ideally placed to design a map for the cape’s summer tourist trade. Published by Houghton Mifflin, the boldly colored map is a late example of art nouveau, especially the sinuous sea serpent and the ribbons forming the legend. The wisp of cloud in the center of the map foreshadows her misty view of New York City done two years later (see plate 50). Ethel M. Fair Collection (593), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 84. Above, Jack Atherton, Cape Cod, 1937, 54 × 70 cm. Atherton, cofounder with his brother of publishing company LeBaron-­Bonney of Bradford, Massachusetts, designed several distinctive pictorial maps during the 1930s and 1940s. The maps were marked by bold color and simple design. This map of Cape Cod was advertised as having “rich colors and the map border of typical homes, unmistakable landmarks and leisurely seagulls.” Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 85. Above, Clarence Baker Kearfott, A Map of the Appalachian Region, Showing Localities of Historic Interest, Places of Natural Beauty & Wonder, and Public Highroads Thereto, 1931, 40.3 × 60.9 cm. Kearfott, an architect and writer, designed this pictorial map to earn some extra income during the Great Depression. Printed on tan paper and hand colored by two of his daughters, Kearfott’s map illustrates well-­k nown Appalachian landmarks and historic sites as well as his personal geography centered on Bristol, Virginia, his hometown. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 86. Right, Tom Culverwell, Map of the Stony Man Region in the Shenandoah National Park, Showing the Skyline Drive and Man’s Pursuits & Pleasures in this Region from the Most Ancient Times down to the Present, 1935, 63 × 84 cm. An artist and climber, Culverwell created this map to advertise the area’s recreational attractions and Skyland resort in the newly created Shenandoah National Park. The map includes a vignette of the Appalachian Trail, which winds through the park on its way from Georgia to Maine. The picture of “Old Man Aaron Nicholson” is a reminder of the backwoodsmen who lived in the Appalachians before the national park was created. Ethel M. Fair Collection (639), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 87. Opposite, Karl Smith, Mississippi: The Magnolia State, 1938, 56 × 40.6 cm. A resident of Louisville, Kentucky, Smith was a prolific pictorial map designer. His many state maps follow a similar formula of monochrome cartography with two or three colored vignettes. Ethel M. Fair Collection (750), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 88. Above, Don J. Emery, A Map of Florida for Garden Lovers, 1934, 56.4 × 62.4 cm. Emery was a leading commercial artist in Daytona Beach in the 1920s and 1930s and founder of the Daytona Beach Art School. Published by the Garden Club of the Halifax Country, Emery’s art deco–­i nspired pictorial map captures the vibrant colors of the state’s birds and flowers and the deep blue of the Gulf of Mexico. Ethel M. Fair Collection (457), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 89. Above, W. Creasy Overcarsh Jr., A Pictorial Map of the State of North Carolina, n.d., 59 × 84.2 cm. Dominated by its title cartouche, this pictorial map publicizes North Carolina’s wildlife rather than its historic sites. The portrait of a Native American is a close copy of one of John White’s watercolors done at the English settlement at Roanoke in the 1580s. The map was printed in monochrome so that people could watercolor their own copies. Ethel M. Fair Collection (765), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 90. Right, Mabel Pugh, A Map of North Carolina for Nature Lovers, 1937, 48 × 86.3 cm. A native of Morrisville, North Carolina, Pugh received her art training at the Philadelphia Academy and Art Students League in New York City. She worked as a commercial artist in New York before joining the art department at Peace College for Women in Raleigh in 1936. Published by the North Carolina Garden Club the following year, Pugh’s colorful pictorial map has similarities to Emery’s map of Florida (see plate 88), particularly its border of birds and flowers. Ethel M. Fair Collection (469), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 91. Above, George Annand, Historical Map of the State of New York, 1937, 41.2 × 55.8 cm. In its depiction of historic and tourist sites, this map is typical of many state pictorial maps of the late 1920s and 1930s. As on plate 53, Annand uses orange to create a striking effect. Ethel M. Fair Collection (408), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 92. Right, Edwin Tunis, A Historical and Literary Map of the Old Line State of Maryland, 1931, 65 × 97.5 cm. Tunis is best known for his carefully researched and beautifully illustrated books about technology and early American history, but he also produced several pictorial maps. Published by the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore, A Historical and Literary Map was Tunis’s earliest and finest pictorial map, displaying his ability to meld geography, history, and art into a popular graphic format. Ethel M. Fair Collection (604), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 93. Above, “Hy” Richardson, A Map of the Commonwealth of Michigan, 1935, 56.5 × 47.5 cm. This is an unusual state map in that it uses orange and green, on a white background, to outline land and water. Such color choices allowed Richardson to use blue, as well as the more usual red, as a highlight. The yellow and green geometric design for the border gives the map an art deco look. Ethel M. Fair Collection (435), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 94. Opposite, Dorothy Linscott Clarke, Historical Picture Map of Vermont, “The Green Mountain State,” 1939, 74 × 50.7 cm. Clarke used a simple palette to create this colorful state pictorial map. The use of yellow fill for the neighboring states and province, but white with red highlights for Vermont, is particularly effective. Ethel M. Fair Collection (742), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 95. Opposite, Jo Mora, California’s Playground, 1927, 68.4 × 50.5 cm. Mora’s first venture into the pictorial map genre commemorated the rebuilding of the Hotel Del Monte in Monterey after a disastrous fire. The map shows his delightful touch as a cartoonist and his preference for using light color tones. As on later maps, Mora uses the map border to recount the history of California. Ethel M. Fair Collection (500), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 96. Above, Kroll Map Company, The Evergreen Playground, circa 1945 (this edition), 49 × 80.7 cm. The Seattle-­based Kroll Map Company focused its product line on the Pacific Northwest and Alaska. This spectacular bird’s-­e ye view, centered on Seattle, takes in the Cascade Mountains, Puget Sound, and the Olympic Peninsula. The geometric border design and radiant sun shining over the Pacific give the map a distinct art deco look. Private collection

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plate 97. Charles H. Owens, The Panama Canal, 1925, 68 × 106.7 cm. This large bird’s-­e ye view of the Panama Canal is one of Owens’s most masterful designs. He places the canal on a diagonal, giving him space in the two remaining corners to create a collage of text, maps, diagrams, and illustrations that explain the location and workings of the canal. A tour de force of invention, Owens’s Panama Canal is one of the great American pictorial maps of the twentieth century. Private collection

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plate 98. Clark Teegarden and John F. Herman, Pictorial Map of the Republic of Panama with the Canal Zone, 1941, 73 × 117.5 cm. During World War II, Teegarden, an architect, was designing houses in the Panama Canal Zone. With Herman, he created this large pictorial map as a souvenir for American servicemen also stationed there. The art deco lettering, many pictorial details, and flag border make this one of the most attractive pictorial maps of the era. In 1946, Teegarden joined an architectural firm in Seattle and later produced a pictorial map of Washington State. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 99. Above, Ernest Dudley Chase, America the Wonderland: A Pictorial Map of the United States, 1941, 52.5 × 70.2 cm. Chase played to patriotic feeling in this immensely detailed view of the United States. The many architectural illustrations are typical of Chase’s maps of the 1930s. Ethel M. Fair Collection (453), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 100. Opposite, Ernest Dudley Chase, A Pictorial Map of North America, 1945, 71 × 53 cm. Chase had no rival for creating pictorial maps of countries, continents, and the world. This map celebrates North America at the end of the war, and Chase leavens his many detailed drawings with humor, such as the icicles hanging off the Arctic Circle and the electric current generated by the magnetic pole. He did a similar map of South America. Ethel M. Fair Collection (744), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 101. Above, Colortext, The Story Map of the West Indies, 1936, 32 × 40 cm. Chicago-­ based Colortext produced more than a dozen pictorial maps aimed largely at the educational market between 1935 and 1940, most of them depicting individual countries. The Story Map of the West Indies is one of the most attractive in the series, showing an oblique view of the Caribbean islands and the United States beyond. The border design was adapted from “native West Indian handicraft and indigenous tropical fruits.” Muriel H. Parry Collection (434), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 102. Right, Miguel Covarrubias, Pageant of the Pacific: The Fauna and Flora of the Pacific, 1939, 53.9 × 86 cm. The renowned Mexican artist produced six Pageant of the Pacific murals for the Golden Gate International Exposition on Treasure Island in San Francisco Bay in 1939 (see plate 2), which were then reproduced as plates in a handsome loose-­leaf folio. Considered by one reviewer as “perhaps the most interesting and decorative of the prints,” The Fauna and Flora of the Pacific was the most colorful of the series and demonstrated the value of pictorial mapping of the natural world for a popular audience. Ethel M. Fair Collection (506), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 103. James Dougherty, Mercedes Clifton, Joseph de Felice, G. J. Harris, and Charles Rosner, This World of Ours, Showing the New National Boundaries, circa 1930s, 56.7 × 83.8 cm. This striking double-­hemisphere pictorial map was the work of Dougherty, an illustrator and WPA muralist, and four cartographers. Dougherty’s map border, typical of social realist art of the 1930s, is of greater interest than the featured hemisphere maps. Ethel M. Fair Collection (634), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 104. Edward Everett Henry, The New Map of the World, 1928, 80.2 × 91.6 cm. Published for the Washington Square Book Shop, Everett Henry’s spectacular double-­hemisphere map shows the influence of art deco, particularly the radiant sun and skyscraper city. The border designs show the advance of civilization from the stone age to the modern age. Ethel M. Fair Collection (635), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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maps for Industry American industry was quick to recognize the advertising potential of pictorial maps. Just as Frank Pick commissioned MacDonald Gill to create the London Underground maps, numerous American companies hired leading graphic artists to help sell their products. Those with large advertising budgets were behind some of the most striking pictorial maps ever produced. A pictorial map was particularly suitable to the transportation industry. Railroads and shipping lines had developed system and route maps in the late nineteenth century, and bus and airline companies developed similar maps in the early twentieth century.198 Although railroads appear to have been conservative in their use of the pictorial format (plate 105), a few companies that were heavily involved in tourism created pictorial maps to lure customers aboard. Union Pacific, Southern Pacific, and Great Northern all produced pictorial maps of tourist destinations in the American West (plates 106–­109). Bus industry leader Greyhound commissioned pictorial maps during the 1930s and 1940s, including one showing American equivalents of famous international tourist destinations (plates 111 and 112). Bold shipping industry posters likely inspired several spectacular pictorial maps advertising ocean liner cruises. Jo Mora created one of his more complex designs for Grace Line (plate 113), while Edward Camy designed a wonderfully cartoony map for the Alaska Steamship Company (plate 115). As regular air schedules were established in the 1930s, airlines produced their own route maps. Pan American, the first American international carrier,

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developed routes to the Caribbean, South America, and across the Pacific to Asia. Its pictorial maps played with the conceit that the company’s seaplanes were modern versions of old China trade clipper ships (plate 117). United Air Lines used its large Mainliner Vacation Map to advertise its new DC-­3 service (plate 118). Pictorial maps advertised a variety of other products and services as well. Nifty Sea Foods of Seattle advertised the sources of its seafood from the waters of the Pacific Northwest (plate 119), while Shafer’s Bakeries of Detroit, taking their cue from contemporary brag maps, trumpeted the wonders of Michigan (plate 120). Pogue Distillery Company commissioned one of the most striking industrial maps of the 1930s, which showed the distilling of “good old Kentucky bourbon” (plate 121). The Wine Advisory Board of San Francisco hired Ruth Taylor to design a large and colorful wine map (plate 122). Pictorial maps were well suited to show economic regions. Oil companies were known for their gas maps, some of which were pictorial, but they also produced pictorial maps showing oil fields, pipelines, refineries, and terminals (plates 123 and 124). The opening of Cleveland’s Union Terminal, which included the tallest skyscraper outside Manhattan, generated considerable advertising, including a pictorial map showing steamers, railroads, and truck traffic all funneling products into America’s industrial heartland (plate 125). In a similar vein, shippers Oglebay, Norton & Company produced a map of the Great Lakes region that presented a dense panorama of economic activity (plate 126). More tightly focused, commercial artist Jacob Riegel Jr. created two maps advertising Philadelphia’s insurance and electric industries (plates 127 and 128). Both maps were exemplars of how to blend cartography, art, and information. New industries also noticed the graphic potential of pictorial maps. As New Jersey was home to RCA Victor Company and Radisco factories, the state saw itself as the center of radio technology (plate 129). Like the map of Cleveland’s trade empire, Industrial New Jersey depicted the distribution of radios from factory to factory and across the country. Among the earliest, largest, and most colorful of all American pictorial maps was Ignatz Sahula’s creation for the nineteenth annual convention of the National Association of Real Estate Boards held in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in June 1926 (plate 131). Showing the whole country, with all roads leading to Tulsa, the map reveled in jokes and cartoon figures. Similarly, the Shell Oil Company commissioned commercial artist Don Bloodgood to create a double-­sided map celebrating the San Diego Pacific International Exposition in 1935 (plate 132). Like Sahula, Bloodgood crammed his map with cartoon figures and humor; he later designed several “Pic-­Tour” maps of the American West for the tourist industry. Finally, federal and state governments commissioned pictorial maps for tourists and to highlight public works programs during the Great Depression. In southern Ohio, the federal Resettlement Administration worked on restoring eroded farmlands and creating state forests and public recreation areas.199 At

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Zaleski State Forest, the Civilian Conservation Corps and the WPA built Lake Hope State Park. The Ohio Department of Natural Resources and Parks then hired Lydia M. Reeder, an artist from Columbus, to design the park’s striking pictorial map (plate 133). At the national level, the federal government produced two pictorial maps highlighting the dams, schools, houses, and other parks built by the WPA (plate 134). The federal government was just getting started in using pictorial maps to get its message across to the general public; it would expand those efforts even more during World War II.

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plate 105. Stephen J. Voorhies, Serving New England, 1929, 54 × 71 cm. Map publisher Rand McNally commissioned Voorhies to design this pictorial map for New England railroad, shipping, and bus lines. Compared with pictorial maps of the time, this one was relatively conservative in color and design, but the steam locomotive blasting out of western Massachusetts gives the map considerable drama. Private collection

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plate 106. Southern Pacific Company, Southern Pacific Lines . . . , 1928, 58.5 × 81.4 cm. Few American pictorial maps are so consciously “done in the old style” as this railroad map. With its muted colors and strapwork around title cartouche and border images, Southern Pacific Lines is a modern version of sixteenth-­century maps. Even though the map promotes transcontinental railroads, it includes galleons and fabulous sea creatures. Ethel M. Fair Collection (603), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 107. J. Scheuerle, Recreational Map of Glacier National Park, Montana, Waterton Lakes National Park, Alberta, circa 1927, 45.5 × 80.3 cm. Originally from Austria, Scheuerle spent his early career painting in the American West, particularly portraits of Indians. The Great Northern Railway’s publicity department commissioned this map, which appears on the reverse side of a tourist brochure entitled “Vacations for All.” The map presents an idyllic picture of outdoor life in the Rockies, complete with snowshoeing mountain goats, hiking bears, and dancing Indians. Ethel M. Fair Collection (781), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 108. William Willmarth, Panoramic Perspective of the Area Adjacent to Sun Valley Lodge, Sun Valley, Ketchum, Idaho, Served Exclusively by Union Pacific Railroad, circa 1936, 55.7 × 79.5 cm. Willmarth produced a range of advertisements for Union Pacific, including this pictorial map of Sun Valley with its newly opened ski lodge. A stylized art deco design, the map uses simplified snow-­covered mountains to promote the area’s abundance of alpine skiing. Ethel M. Fair Collection (616), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 109. Above, Gerald A. Eddy, Panoramic Perspective of the Area Adjacent to Boulder Dam as It Will Appear When Lake Is Filled, 1936, 42.8 × 77.2 cm. Eddy, a Los Angeles–­based commercial artist, produced numerous pictorial maps for newspapers and other businesses during the 1930s and 1940s. Commissioned by Union Pacific Railroad to promote its rail link to newly built Boulder (Hoover) Dam, Eddy created a striking art deco–­i nspired design of bright blues, greens, and reds contrasting with the dun colors of the desert. Ethel M. Fair Collection (501), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 110. Opposite, Santa Fe Trails Association, The Santa Fe Trail—­The Trailway of Romance, 1944, 42.8 × 55.7 cm. Bright pink, blue, and yellow colors, as well as simplified graphics, give this automobile tourist map a distinct art deco look. Private collection

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plate 111. Opposite, Greyhound Company, You Can See All the World Right Here in America!, 1935, 54.5 × 59.5 cm. This pictorial map publicizes Greyhound bus routes to “natural wonders, historic shrines, beauty spots, crops and industries of America.” It makes the bold claim that these sites are comparable “with similar places elsewhere throughout the world.” Two cities in Canada—­Ottawa and Montreal—­a re included to allow comparison with London and Paris. David Rumsey Map Collection

plate 112. Above, Greyhound Lines, A Good-­Natured Map of the United States Setting Forth the Services of the Greyhound Lines and a Few Principal Connecting Bus Lines, 1939, 48.2 × 73.7 cm. During the 1930s, Greyhound produced a series of “good-­n atured” maps of the United States, marked by bright, art deco–­i nfluenced colors and cartoon scenes. Ethel M. Fair Collection (306), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 113. Opposite, Jo Mora, Father Neptune Presenteth ye Grace Line Fleet to ye Olde Spanish Main, 1933, 78.7 × 58.1 cm. In this typical Mora map, full of cartoon figures and charming whimsy, the artist includes his distinctive trademark, setting figures against a black background in the border. Muriel H. Parry Collection (390), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 114. Above, Harrison Godwin, Panama Mail S.S. Co. The Sea Coastes of America Shewing the Ports of Call of the Panama Mail Steamships as the Country there aboutes Is Lying and Situated, with All the Haven Therof, 1928, 66.3 × 83.3 cm. In this advertisement for the Panama Mail Steamship Company’s Spanish America cruise, Godwin’s pictorial map glows with rich color, cartoon figures, and enormous fun. The combination of size, scope, detail, humor, imagination, and artistry make this one of the greatest of all American pictorial maps. The Huntington Library, San Marino, California

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plate 115. Edward Camy, A Good-­Natured Map of Alaska Showing the Services Offered by “The Alaska Line,” 1934, 53 × 72 cm. Much like Godwin’s map for the Panama Mail Steamship Company (see plate 114), Camy’s “good-­n atured map” uses cartoon figures, vibrant colors, and humor to promote the Alaska Steamship Company. Ethel M. Fair Collection (498), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 116. Above, Mildwoff, The Chart of the Vagabond Cruises, 1933, 46.5 × 60.5 cm. This map from the American Export Lines’s brochure on Mediterranean and Black Sea cruises uses a simple but effective blue and red color scheme to highlight tourist attractions. Muriel H. Parry Collection (295), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 117. Opposite, Kenneth W. Thompson, On the Routes of the Flying Clipper Ships, circa 1939, 54 × 42 cm. Pan American Airways produced several pictorial maps advertising its various international services. This one captures the glamour of the Clipper Ship seaplanes and their exotic destinations in Latin America. Ethel M. Fair Collection (322), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 118. Pauline Proehl, United Air Lines Mainliner Vacation Map, 1940, 67 × 111.5 cm. Advertising United Air Lines’s DC-­3 transcontinental mainliner service, Proehl’s large pictorial map makes flying look fun as it promotes vacation destinations along the route. The map has a scale of flying hours. Courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

plate 119. Above, Nifty Sea Foods Inc., Nifty Sea Foods Inc., Pier A, Seattle, 1937, 24 × 33.5 cm. Probably designed as a menu cover, this pictorial map is a riot of sea creatures all making their way to the Nifty Sea Foods restaurant. As with other pictorial maps, the combination of primary colors creates a vibrant design. Private collection

plate 120. Opposite, Jack Shafer, Map of Michigan (Slightly Exaggerated), Schafer’s Bakeries Inc., 1949, 51.8 × 58 cm. Advertising Michigan’s largest bakery and the first in the United States to introduce “Hollywood Diet Bread,” this pictorial map has much in common with state brag maps produced about the same time (see plates 9 and 10). Full of fun, the map includes a serenading Mexican singing, “I gotta da gol from Kalamazoo.” This may be the only map that has loaves of sliced bread as border decoration. Private collection

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plate 121. Opposite, C. L. Hawkins, “Old Time” Map of Kentucky, the Bourbon State, 1937, 44 × 32 cm. Although published by Colortext (see plate 101), which produced maps aimed at the educational market, this map advertises Pogue Good Old Kentucky Bourbon, hardly a map for the classroom. The map consists of an oblique view of Kentucky, a viewpoint used for other Colortext maps, and a border of Bourbon whiskey-­m aking scenes. The radiant sun is a typical art deco image. Private collection plate 122. Above, Ruth Taylor [White], Wine Map of California, circa 1930s, 102 × 77 cm. Taylor, best known for her comic maps (see plate 5), depicts the Golden State as a bounteous land full of vineyards and wine-­d rinking inhabitants, much different from the barren deserts of neighboring Arizona and Nevada. Ethel M. Fair Collection (521), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 123. Opposite, G. H. Bodeen, A Pictorial Map Showing Operations–­Properties–­ Transportation Facilities–­Telegraph Communication–­& Marketing Territories of the Pure Oil Company U.S.A., circa 1926, 57.3 × 45.6 cm. Bodeen designed this pictorial map most likely to commemorate the company’s move to its new Chicago headquarters. A rival to Standard Oil, Pure Oil uses the pictorial map format to show the company’s reach over the central and eastern United States. Ethel M. Fair Collection (465), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 124. Above, Clarence P. Hornung, Where Nature Stored Pennsylvania Grade Crude Oil from which the World’s Finest Motor Oils Are Made, circa 1930s, 38.5 × 82 cm. A well-­k nown graphic designer and illustrator, Hornung creates a verdant view of the Pennsylvania oil fields. His painterly method was rarely used for pictorial maps (see plate 70). Ethel M. Fair Collection (594), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 125. Cleveland Terminal Group, The Capital of a New Trade Empire, circa 1930, 71.4 × 78.5 cm. An advertisement for the Cleveland Union Terminal opening, this stunningly designed pictorial map positions the city as the new powerhouse of the industrial Midwest. From all points of the compass, Great Lakes ships, steam trains, trucks, buses, automobiles, and airplanes head toward the gleaming new terminal. Private collection

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plate 126. Simon Greco, 100 Years in the Region of the Great Lakes, Oglebay, Norton & Company from 1854, 1954, 68.3 × 84.8 cm. In commemoration and celebration of a Great Lakes shipping company, this pictorial map displays the industries and agriculture of the American heartland. Iron ore mines, ore carriers, and steelworks are prominently shown. The border comprises historical scenes and events from the region. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 127. Jacob Riegel Jr., A Map of the City of Philadelphia Showing the Location of the Volunteer Fire Companies with Pictures of Some of Their Engines and Equipment Prior to and Contemporaneous with the Founding of the Insurance Company of North America a.d. 1792, 1938, 54.4 × 76 cm. Commissioned by the Philadelphia-­ based company, Riegel created a masterful design, combining a redrawn city map of 1794 with illustrations showing the history of fire insurance and prevention in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. The pale blue used for the Delaware River and as a panel background holds the design together. Ethel M. Fair Collection (515), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 128. Jacob Riegel Jr., A Map of the Territory Served by Philadelphia Electric Company, 1951, 59 × 86.3 cm. In a pictorial map that is a model of good design and content, Riegel shows electricity generating stations and transmission lines in southeastern Pennsylvania and uses the map border to depict important company buildings. A delightful touch is his use of color to tie traditional Pennsylvania German barn signs and distelfink to the map’s compass rose. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 129. Opposite, Radio Distributing Corporation, Industrial New Jersey, Center of Radio Progress, Home of RCA and RADISCO, circa 1930, 81 × 57.4 cm. This brightly colored art deco pictorial map of the radio industry in New Jersey features major plants and leading businessmen. The electric haloes around the presidents and chairmen are among several arresting design elements. Ethel M. Fair Collection (577), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 130. Above, Eugene Jordan, Captain Silver’s Sea Chart, 1943, 66.2 × 49.2 cm. The Blue Network, Radio City, New York, produced and distributed this colorful pictorial map to publicize its popular adventure radio show The Sea Hound. Other programs also produced pictorial maps for their listeners. Muriel H. Parry Collection (383), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 131. Ignatz Sahula, 19th Annual Convention of the National Association of Real Estate Boards at Tulsa, June 7 to June 11 in 1926, 1926, 72.7 × 101.5 cm. The vibrant colors, bold design, and large size combine to make this one of the most extraordinary pictorial maps of its era. The influence of MacDonald Gill’s Wonderground Map is shown in the map’s yellow roads and cartoon scenes, but the map is much brassier than Gill’s creation. The compass rose is centered on Tulsa, the convention city. Courtesy of the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library

plate 132. Don Bloodgood, San Diego: The California Pacific International Exposition, 1935, 53.5 × 78.8 cm. Commissioned by the Shell Oil Company to advertise the exposition, Bloodgood created a double-­sided pictorial map that shows an oblique view of San Diego on the front and a view of Balboa Park on the reverse. The map’s pale colors and cartoon figures, perhaps influenced by Jo Mora, make this an attractive tourist map. Private collection

plate 133. Lydia M. Reeder, Lake Hope, 40.8 × 51 cm. Reeder, an artist from Columbus, created this simple but effective map for the Ohio Department of Natural Resources. She uses the orientation of Lake Hope to create a diagonal across the map which is further emphasized by the bright red and yellow compass rose and brown and yellow state park sign. Vegetation colors are tied to the seasons, listed at the bottom. The lake, woodland walks, and log cabins epitomize many state parks nationwide, giving this map considerable cultural resonance. Ethel M. Fair Collection (680), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 134. Earl Purdy, PWA Rebuilds the Nation, circa 1930s, 87 × 132 cm. The Public Works Administration commissioned this cartographic monument to the New Deal. Known for his mural paintings and architectural etchings, Purdy creates a pictorial summary of PWA construction projects across the United States and a map border illustrating buildings and industrial activities. The large compass rose, depicting a muscled worker within a gear wheel and various industrial tools symbolizing points of the compass, is one of the most creative on any pictorial map. Ethel M. Fair Collection (722), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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maps for War World War II marked the emergence of the United States from its continental isolationism to its new role of global superpower. This enormous transformation was reflected in the development of radically new forms of cartography in the late 1930s and early 1940s. In particular, the “Air Age” maps of Charles H. Owens and Richard Edes Harrison, with their striking views of the globe, exerted tremendous influence and helped shape pictorial maps in new ways.200 Before the United States entered the war, American pictorial maps showed military posts, stations, and activities in a cartoony, humorous vein, as in Stephen Roby’s The Posts, Stations and Active Organizations of the United States Army (plate 135). But as war loomed, illustrations and cartography took a more serious turn (plate 136). Hammond’s Defense Map of the United States showed the principal defense industries, and the pictorial borders displayed battleships, warplanes, and tanks, as well as military insignia. Both maps focused entirely on the continental United States and gave no sense of the nation’s larger strategic position. In late 1941, Hammond published Safeguarding Our American Liberty (plate 137), one of the first pictorial war maps to position the United States on a map of the world. A paean to patriotism, the map showed an American flag and eagle presiding over a whirl of airplanes and warships defending the United States. With a protective ring of navy ships in the Pacific and North Atlantic and the nation’s borders picked out in red, white, and blue, the United States appeared militarily and geographically inviolable. The world map strengthened this illusion. Following traditional cartographic convention, Hammond’s cartographer used

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a Mercator projection, which gave the false impression that immense oceanic spaces separated North America from Europe and Asia. The surprise Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor shattered that illusion. Meanwhile, Owens, at the Los Angeles Times, and Harrison, a graphic artist at Fortune magazine, were using new map projections that showed the world as a globe rather than as a flat map. These new projections displayed geographical relations between continents more correctly and radically changed, according to Harrison, the way we “look at the world.” 201 Although Harrison created three-­d imensional pictures of the earth’s surface on his maps, he rarely included pictorial elements. In contrast, Owens included illustrations on his maps that depicted the progress of the war. These “action maps,” as the Los Angeles Times called them, showed the geography of the conflict as well as the theater of war (plate 139). The influence of Owens can be seen in the maps done by Howard Burke for the San Francisco Examiner, which also combined hemispheric maps with military illustrations (plate 140). The culmination of American wartime pictorial cartography came in 1944 with the publication of six large wall maps (plates 141 and 142) called NavWarMaps, produced by the Training Aids Division of the Bureau of Naval Personnel for the US Navy. The division’s Training Aids Development Center, based in New York City, created artwork for printed aids and designed and built pilot models of three-­d imensional aids.202 The staff recognized that to make effective training aids, they had to draw upon the popular visual culture that was familiar to the three million men and women in the navy. This visual culture included “magazine illustrations, magazine advertising, billboards, car cards, the comics, etc.” 203 To find “experts in visualization,” the center recruited commercial artists, among them, most probably, George Annand and Richard Edes Harrison.204 Madison Avenue advertising and the latest cartographic practice thus directly influenced the creation of the NavWarMaps. The six NavWarMaps provided a spectacular pictorial view of the American naval war effort. The maps showed the various theaters of conflict (the Mediterranean, the South China Sea, the North Sea, the Northwest Pacific, the Southwest Pacific) and the global war. They combined the high, hemispheric viewpoints employed by Owens and Harrison with the illustrative montages that Owens and other pictorial mapmakers commonly used. The maps also used dramatic color, particularly black for the ocean on the Southwest Pacific map (plate 142), and were printed to high standards. With their sweeping aerial views of convoys, air armadas, and naval battles, the maps provided an almost cinematic panorama of the naval war. The modernity of the NavWarMaps becomes more obvious through a comparison to MacDonald Gill’s wartime work. To commemorate the signing of the Atlantic Charter between President Roosevelt and Prime Minister Churchill in 1941, Gill created The “Time and Tide” Map of the Atlantic Charter, which was published in 1944, the same year as the NavWarMaps.205 Although it is one of Gill’s

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MacDonald Gill, The “Time and Tide” Map of the Atlantic Charter, 1944. University of California Berkeley, Bancroft Library

most arresting designs, full of art deco tropes such as the sunburst in the upper center, the muscular worker on the left, and the stylized motif forming the border, the map appears dated. Gill’s use of the Mercator projection and his emphasis on shipping, sea lanes, and colonial resources hark back to nineteenth-­ century imperial maps rather than look forward to the slick modernity of American cartographic design.206 Just as the Atlantic Charter represented the symbolic transfer of world leadership from Great Britain to the United States, the NavWarMaps represented the global sway of American military power and a new, distinctly American way of looking at the world. In a more conventional vein, military mapmakers marked the end of World War II with several colorful pictorial maps. In 1945, John G. Drury of the 214th Ordnance Battalion produced a series of “Mem-­O-­Maps” that served as cartographic mementos of places that American forces had served (plate 143). The series included Europe, Oahu, Okinawa, Japan, and the Philippine Islands. Map legends suggested servicemen mark in pen or pencil where they had “landed or docked,” “departed from,” and were “stationed or quartered.” The maps’ bright colors and cartoon figures gave little hint of the bloody conflict that many servicemen had experienced. Similarly, the Forty-­Second Infantry “Rainbow” Division produced an appropriately colored map of its campaign from landing in the south of France in December 1944 through hard-­fought battles in southern Germany to its occupation of Austria in May 1945 (plate 144). Even though the division liberated the Nazi concentration camp at Dachau, the map, like Drury’s Mem-­O-­Maps, treats the war in a light-­hearted way. Both the Mem-­O-­Maps and the Rainbow Division map captured the sheer relief and joy that Americans experienced at the end of the war.

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plate 135. Stephen Roby, The Posts, Stations and Active Organizations of the United States Army, 1937, 59 × 89.6 cm. Published by Rand McNally, Captain Roby’s humorous depiction of the US Army has much in common with the cartoon maps done by Ruth Taylor at about the same time. Roby’s emphasis on having a good time (playing polo, fishing) suggests the army was not anticipating the coming war. Ethel M. Fair Collection (596), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 136. C. S. Hammond & Company, Defense Map of United States, circa 1940, 53.6 × 78.8 cm. The Defense Map shows the mobilization of America’s military and industrial might in preparation for war. Although the map itself does not contain pictorial elements, the two borders—­one showing warships, tanks, and planes, the other military insignia—­create a powerful pictorial effect. Ethel M. Fair Collection (466), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 137. Lambert Guenther, Safeguarding Our American Liberty, 1941, 78.8 × 53.2 cm. Guenther created a bold image of American military preparedness to reassure customers of Thom McAn shoe stores. At the top, the Stars and Stripes and a bald eagle look down on the United States, whose borders are picked out in red, white, and blue, while in the lower half a whirl of warplanes and warships represents the patrol belts shown on the map. The propaganda value of this pictorial map would be sorely tested by the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Private collection

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plate 138. Ernest Dudley Chase, Japan, the Target: A Pictorial Jap Map, 1943, 55.6 × 36.8 cm. In a masterpiece of graphic design, Chase plays with Japan’s Rising Sun motif to create this powerful pictorial map of American warplanes attacking Japan from all points of the compass. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 139. Above, Charles H. Owens, Sea and Air Power Turned on Japs Guarding China Path, Los Angeles Times, February 21, 1944, 50.8 × 38.2 cm. Owens designed dozens of maps showing military campaigns in World War II. This map displays his typical mix of graphic arrows and pictorial elements laid over an oblique view of the earth. Library of Congress

plate 140. Opposite, Howard Burke, Alaska, Our Northern Rampart, San Francisco Examiner, February 23, 1941, 46.6 × 39.2 cm. Influenced by Charles H. Owens, Burke, whose work was syndicated in several American newspapers, created some of the most graphically rich maps of World War II. This map displays a typical mix of illustrations and an oblique view of the earth. Private collection

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plate 141. US Navy, Bureau of Naval Personnel, World War 2 in the North Sea Area, 1944, 97.3 × 145.4 cm. The influence of “Air Age” maps produced by graphic artists such as Charles H. Owens, Howard Burke, and Richard Edes Harrison can be seen in this enormous pictorial map. Published before D-­ Day in June 1944, NavWarMap No. 3 shows the naval and air campaigns conducted in the eastern Atlantic and northwestern Europe. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 142. US Navy, Bureau of Naval Personnel, Southwest Pacific, 1944, 97.3 × 145.4 cm. The striking use of black for the sea, the two dramatic inset maps, and the “Peoples of the Pacific” vignette (reminiscent of a National Geographic illustration) combine to make NavWarMap No. 5 an extraordinarily modern depiction of one of the major theaters of World War II. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 143. Opposite, John G. Drury, Oahu Hawaii Mem-­O-­Map, 1946, 31.8 × 23.6 cm. Shortly after World War II, Drury, a technician fourth grade in the 214 Ordnance Battalion, produced five Mem-­O-­Maps for American military personnel who had served in Oahu, Hawaii; the Philippine Islands; Okinawa; Japan and Korea; and Europe. These colorful mementos of overseas deployment give little hint of the recent conflict. Ethel M. Fair Collection (733), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 144. Above, Mackechnie, 42nd Inf. Rainbow Div., circa 1945, 42.5 × 57.3 cm. Reproduced by the 666th Engineer Topographic Company of the US Army, Mackechnie’s cartoonish map commemorates 42nd Infantry Division’s advance from the south of France through Germany and into Austria. The map’s rainbow colors mark the campaign trail and reflect the division’s nickname. Ethel M. Fair Collection (862), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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maps for Postwar America The pictorial map genre began to wane in the postwar period, a victim of the increasing use of photography in advertising and the retirement of interwar generation mapmakers. The maps that were produced in the postwar era, however, captured the booming American economy, the ascendancy of American popular culture, and the triumph of American technology. Arising out of World War II, the “Air Age” had transformed America’s position in the world and, with it, popular cartography. Ernest Dudley Chase, who continued to make pictorial maps until his death in 1966, produced Mercator Map of the World United (plate 145), which chronicled changes in transportation up to the jet age, and The Story Map of Flying (plate 146), which used the newly popular polar projection. Airlines were quick to adopt the new projection for their own publicity. Sally de Long, a graphic designer working for Western Air Lines, produced a striking global map entitled Our New Neighbors that used a polar projection and showed great circle, or shortest, routes over the North Pole (plate 147). But while Western Air Lines illustrated the possibilities of flying across water, Trans World Airlines (TWA) advertised its actual new routes across the Atlantic to Europe, Africa, and Asia (plate 148). The new Lockheed Constellation, which made these long-­d istance flights possible, was prominently shown on the map. In addition to the airlines, American industry continued to publish pictorial maps for advertising purposes. The John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company commissioned Everett Henry to make A Picture of Your Premium Dollars at

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Work (plate 149), a richly colored depiction of American modernity, including electricity pylons, oil pipelines, jet planes, and rockets. The central importance of oil to this burgeoning economy appeared in Standard Oil’s Oil in America (plate 150). The map advertised the widespread use of oil in American industry and included inset maps of oil fields, pipelines, and refineries. Oil companies encouraged automobile gas consumption, and state tourist offices urged travelers to get on the road and see the sights. New Mexico produced a series of distinctive pictorial maps in the late 1940s and 1950s showing the “Land of Enchantment” (plate 151). In an age of mass tourism, Kirtman Plummer’s pictorial map of America reduced the complexities of regions and states to readily identifiable icons (plate 152). Pictorial maps also reflected America’s vibrant popular culture. Among the most influential creators of popular culture in the 1950s and 1960s was Walt Disney. As early as the 1930s (plates 1 and 2), Disney had recognized the importance of pictorial maps in advertising his cartoon characters, and he saw an enhanced role for such maps in developing Disneyland. To woo New York City financiers to back his plans for a massive theme park in Anaheim, California, Disney used a pictorial map to help them visualize it.207 After Disneyland opened in 1955, he commissioned large foldout maps of the park (plate 153) and of individual attractions, such as Tom Sawyer Island. That same year, General Drafting Company, one of the nation’s largest producers of gas maps, published A World of Good Wishes at Christmastime (plate 154), which showed dozens of Santas working around the world. The map made the massive cultural assumption that the Western celebration of Christmas and, in particular, the American notion of Santa Claus were global phenomena. The cultural self-­confidence and buoyant optimism of the United States in the 1950s was further reflected in a celebratory map of New York City. Using bright colors, Nils Hansell’s Wonders of New York depicted sunlit skyscrapers, the new United Nations Building, great ocean liners, jet aircraft, and teeming urban life (plate 155). Yet Wonders of New York also caught a major transition in the city’s life. In 1958, more people crossed the Atlantic by airplane than by ship. Within a decade, the great ocean liners shown on the map were gone and New York Harbor’s cargo ship business went elsewhere. Moreover, the sunny urban life reflected in the map faced massive upheaval during the social and racial conflicts of the 1960s. The pictorial map that best captured America’s urban problems was the work of a Canadian. Born in Saskatchewan in 1930, Gene Holtan spent his early years in Alberta and British Columbia before moving to Southern California and enrolling in the Art Center School in Los Angeles.208 After working in New York City, Holtan moved to LA’s Manhattan Beach, where he made a living as a commercial artist. He designed the cover for the December 14, 1968, issue of the Saturday Evening Post. Entitled “Are we heading toward the day everything

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Walt Disney and Disneyland, 1954. © Disney. Private collection

stops,” the cover depicts a dystopian vision of an American city (a Golden Gate–­ like bridge suggests San Francisco) overwhelmed by vertiginous skyscrapers, automobile-­fi lled freeways, and airplane-­choked skies.209 However, his cartoon map, Los Angeles (plate 156), done the same year, more clearly locates urban dysfunction in the City of Angels. The great Southland of Charles H. Owens (plate 57) and the Southern California paradise of Jo Mora (plate 59) had been trashed. Even the sun held its nose in disgust. Yet just as Americans were becoming concerned about the environmental costs of development on earth, the United States was fulfilling humankind’s dream of reaching the moon. In October 1957, the Soviet Union launched Sputnik, the first satellite to orbit the earth and the trigger for the space race. In 1959, Time Inc. published It’s an Interesting World in an Interesting Time (plate 157), which captured the early years of the cosmic competition and depicted the era’s major political leaders and public figures. A decade later, New York bank Merrill Lynch commissioned Myths, Maps & Men to celebrate the American moon landing (plate 158). The map summarized centuries of human stories and scientific interest in the moon. With its humor and decorative charm, the map serves as an appropriate conclusion to the golden age of American pictorial mapping.

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plate 145. Ernest Dudley Chase, Mercator Map of the World United: A Pictorial History of Transport and Communications and Paths to Permanent Peace, 1945, 36.6 × 89.4 cm. One of Chase’s most ambitious cartographic creations, the Mercator Map of the World United argues, through dozens of illustrations, that increasingly rapid transport and communications will shrink the globe and produce permanent peace. The map captures the short-­l ived euphoria and optimism at the end of World War II and before the onset of the Cold War. A brilliant touch is the deep blue world map at the heart of the compass rose. This tiny map uses the polar azimuthal projection common on “Air Age” maps popular at the time. Ethel M. Fair Collection (353), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 146. Opposite, Ernest Dudley Chase, The Story Map of Flying Being a Chronicle of Man’s Conquest of the Air, 1944, 69.3 × 51.5 cm. Chase uses a polar azimuthal projection, typical of “Air Age” maps at the time, to show the possibilities of flying great circle routes to different continents. Multiple vignettes of balloons and airplanes set against stylized clouds outline the history of flying. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 147. Above, Sally De Long, Our New Neighbors: Projected Global Air Routes Showing Great Circle Mileages between Important Cities of the World, 1944, 43.4 × 59 cm. Western Air Lines commissioned De Long to create this vividly colored pictorial map, which also used the polar azimuthal projection. Yellow fish and animals hark back to the wondrous creatures shown on medieval maps. Private collection

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plate 148. Left, TWA, TWA: Trans World Airlines, U.S.A. Europe Africa Asia, 1948, 39.3 × 59.7 cm. This foldout brochure advertises TWA’s new international routes from the United States made possible by its Lockheed Constellations shown flying over the map. As on earlier cruise brochures (see plate 116), the map includes thumbnail pictures of different places and peoples. Ethel M. Fair Collection (287), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 149. Above, Edward Everett Henry, A Picture of Your Premium Dollars at Work, 1958, 54.2 × 84.7 cm. The John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company commissioned Everett Henry to create this snapshot of 1950s America. The map shows off new jet fighters and rockets, but it also includes the bounteous wealth produced by the nation’s farms, factories, and forests. Everett Henry’s realist style and color palette is similar to that of the Voyage of the Pequod done two years earlier (see plate 42). Ethel M. Fair Collection (517), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 150. Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), Oil in America: A Pictorial Story of the Petroleum Industry in the United States, 1957, 61 × 85 cm. Standard Oil commissioned General Drafting Company to produce this pictorial map advertising the many oil-­based products used in America. Inset maps show oil fields, pipelines, and refineries. The map’s spare aesthetic, common on many “gas maps” of the time, reflects the shift from art deco to modernism in American art and architecture. Ethel M. Fair Collection (790), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

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plate 151. Opposite, Webb Young, Vacation Map of New Mexico, Land of Enchantment, circa 1954, 54.5 × 43 cm. The New Mexico State Tourist Bureau commissioned a local painter to create this attractive pictorial map. Young’s map is typical of many produced by state tourist bureaus for the burgeoning automobile tourist market. The delightful vignette at the bottom right, showing a middle-­class family admiring and photographing the New Mexico landscape, encapsulates much of the modern tourist experience. Muriel H. Parry Collection (674), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 152. Above, W. Kirtman Plummer, America, 1953, 56 × 86 cm. Plummer created this boldly designed and richly colored pictorial map for Country Gentleman magazine. The map celebrates America, highlighting each state’s most remarkable natural and cultural sites and historical figures. The center of the map is dominated by a sunflower, the state flower of Kansas. Private collection

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plate 153. Sam McKim, Walt Disney’s Magic Kingdom, Disneyland U.S.A., Anaheim, California, 1958, 70 × 108 cm. Disney recognized the power of pictorial maps to advertise his cartoon creations (see plates 1 and 2) early in his career, and this continued with the opening of Disneyland in 1955. McKim, a member of Walt Disney’s Imagineering team, created sketches of park attractions as well as the park’s first pictorial map. Large in size and richly detailed (note Tinker Bell dancing on the compass rose!), the map serves as an extraordinary representation of American popular culture. McKim inscribed this particular copy in 1999. Disney characters © Disney. David Rumsey Map Collection

plate 154. General Drafting Co., Inc., A World of Good Wishes at Christmastime, 1955, 40.2 × 83.8 cm. At one level, this map is great fun. Among the hundreds of Santas shown cavorting across the world, one is walking the tightrope of the Equator while another shimmies down the Date Line. At another level, the map makes the massive cultural assumption that all people celebrate Christmas and cherish Santa. This notion reveals the cultural comfort of white, middle-­class America in the prosperous 1950s. Muriel H. Parry Collection (19), Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 155. Above, Nils Hansell, Wonders of New York, circa 1958, 63.7 × 83.7 cm. In the three decades since Vernon Farrow’s bird’s-­e ye view (plate 51), New York City was transformed from the business capital of America into the business capital of the world. This pictorial map captures that enormous change, showing the gleaming modernist skyscrapers of midtown Manhattan and the new United Nations building, trans-­ Atlantic liners, and newly introduced jet passenger planes. The map’s brilliant colors, particularly the yellow for the sun-­reflected buildings, create visual drama and suggest something of the city’s extraordinary energy. Private collection

plate 156. Opposite, Gene Holtan, Los Angeles, 1968, 89 × 47 cm. Created a decade after Nils Hansell’s Wonders of New York (plate 155), Holtan’s view of Los Angeles presents a much different picture of urban America. Pepto-­Bismol pink and smoggy brown sky set the tone. Under a sickened sun, landmarks such as City Hall, the Hollywood Bowl, LAX, and Watts Towers are interspersed among smoke-­belching factories, busy freeways, and a sinking ship. Private collection

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plate 157. R. M. Chapin Jr., and J. Donovan, It’s an Interesting World in an Interesting Time, 1959, 64 × 79 cm. Published at the start of the Space Race, Time staff cartographers Chapin and Donovan created this arresting view of the earth as viewed from outer space. The map suggests the increasing global connections of the postwar world. Spacecraft orbit the earth and the moon, while world leaders—­Eisenhower, Khrushchev, De Gaulle, Nasser, Nehru, Mao, and Chiang—­face off against each other on television. Thumbnail tourist images represent the cultures of particular countries. An atomic explosion is shown over Bikini Atoll in the Pacific. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress

plate 158. M. Ramus, Myths, Maps & Men: Merrill Lynch Salutes the Year of the Moon, 1969, 35.7 × 42 cm. New York bank Merrill Lynch commissioned Ramus, a commercial artist and cartoonist, to create a gently satirical pictorial map showing presidents Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon on the back of a bald eagle flying over a double-­hemisphere map of the moon. Ramus includes scenes from the history of manned flight, as well as star-­crossed lovers Romeo and Juliet, Galileo looking through his telescope, and an onion-­ domed Soviet spacecraft. Several delightful touches include the cow jumping over the moon and the Apollo rocket blasting off from earth to form the north arrow of the compass. With its sepia coloring and scrolled title cartouche, the map looks back to printed maps of the 1600s, but its subversive humor is typical of the late 1960s. Private collection

acknowledgments I owe my greatest debt of thanks to the Library of Congress and the University of Chicago Press. Picturing America emerged most directly from a fortuitous meeting with Ralph Ehrenberg, chief of the Geography and Map Division at the Library of Congress. As I began research there, I met Ralph and discussed the book project with him. He most generously suggested that the book could be a publication of the Library of Congress. I am honored that he agreed to write the book’s foreword. I am grateful to Margaret Wagner, managing editor, Publishing Office, Library of Congress, for so enthusiastically taking up the project and steering it toward the University of Chicago Press. Mary Laur, senior project editor at Chicago, has been immensely supportive and a pleasure to work with. The staff at the Library of Congress has been most helpful. Mike Buscher, head, Collections Maintenance Unit, Geography and Map Division, helped pull together maps, and Diane Schug-­O’Neill, digital conversion specialist, did the scanning. Susan Reyburn in the Publishing Office copyedited the manuscript. Jim Akerman, Katharine Harmon, and Susan Schulten reviewed the manuscript for the University of Chicago Press and made numerous comments and suggestions. Apart from the Library of Congress, I drew upon several other map collections and archives. I would like to thank Matthew Edney, Yolanda Theunissen, and Ian Fowler at the Osher Map Library, University of Southern Maine; Ron Grim and staff at the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library; Jim Akerman and staff at the Newberry Library, Chicago; Marcy Bidney

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and Jovanka Ristic at the American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­M ilwaukee Libraries; and Glen Creason at the Los Angeles Public Library. I was also helped by staff at Houghton Library, Harvard University; Rare Books and Special Collections, Princeton University Library; and Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University. Several individuals provided invaluable information about some of the leading pictorial mapmakers. Alice McMahon shared much about her father, George Annand, which made possible the section of the book devoted to him. Stephen Atherton provided information about his father Jack Atherton. Betty LaMoria, Joan Darby, and Archie Rosenquist, Town of Moriah Historical Society, New York, were a great help in recovering the history of Eleanor Hall and her romance map. Joss Grandeau provided scarce publications about Jo Mora, and Ashley Callahan shared her knowledge of Ilonka Karasz. Map collectors and dealers also provided information about maps and map publishing. Terry Johnson, James Utley, and P. J. Mode shared their fine collections with me. David Rumsey began collecting pictorial maps after I had finished the manuscript, but his online map collection has been a useful reference. I am grateful to be able to reproduce several maps from his collection. I have learned much from pioneering dealers in pictorial maps, particularly Elisabeth Burdon and Craig Clinton of Old Imprints, Portland, Oregon; Curtis Bird of the Old Map Gallery, Denver, Colorado; and George Glazer of the George Glazer Gallery, New York City. This book is dedicated to my wife, Anne Kelly Knowles, who provided much love, support, and assistance during the research and writing. Finally, I would to thank my mum, Joy Hornsby, whose well-­used copy of MacDonald Gill’s map of Ceylon intrigued me as a child and no doubt sowed the seed that later grew into this book.

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notes 1.

Elisabeth Burdon, “MacDonald Gill: The Wonderground Map of 1913 and Its Influence,” International Map Collectors’ Society Journal 116 (Spring 2009): 7–­16. Gill has been the subject of two exhibitions in the United Kingdom: “MacDonald Gill: Decorative Map Posters,” Brighton University Gallery, 2011; and “Out of the Shadows: MacDonald Gill,” PM Gallery & House, London, 2013.

2. For example, the work of Tom Lamb (owner of Tom Lamb Maps) and the late Robert Waldmire, especially his maps of Route 66. 3. This study draws principally on the Ethel M. Fair Collection and the Muriel H. Parry Collection in the Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. These are among the finest collections of pictorial maps in the United States. Other collections consulted include the American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­ Milwaukee; the Osher Map Library, University of Southern Maine; the Newberry Library, Chicago; the Los Angeles Public Library; the Norman B. Leventhal Map Center at the Boston Public Library; and the David Rumsey Map Collection at http://www.davidrumsey.com/. 4.

Jay Mordall, “George Annand, Cartographer,” Publishers’ Weekly, March 2, 1929, 1009.

5.

Susan Schulten, The Geographical Imagination in America, 1880–­1950 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2001); Walter W. Ristow, “American Road Maps and Guides,” Scientific Monthly 62, no. 5 (May 1946): 397–­406; Ristow, “A Half Century of Oil-­Company Road Maps,” Surveying and Mapping 24 (1964): 617–­637; and James R. Akerman, “Selling Maps, Selling Highways: Rand McNally’s ‘Blazed Trails’ Program,” Imago Mundi 45 (1993): 77–­89.

6. James R. Akerman and Robert W. Karrow Jr., eds., Maps: Finding Our Place in the World (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007).

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7. Schulten, Geographical Imagination, 6. 8.

LeBaron-­Bonney Co., Decorative Picture Maps of the LeBaron-­Bonney Co. Designers–­ Publishers, Bradford, Massachusetts (Bradford, MA: LeBaron-­Bonney Co., n.d.), 1. Jack Atherton wrote the catalog copy. I am grateful to Stephen Atherton for this information about his father. The undated catalog was most likely published in the 1930s.

9. The literature on American pictorial maps is slight. Nigel Holmes, Pictorial Maps (New York: Watson-­Guptill Publications, 1991), discusses Jo Mora but none of the other classic American pictorial mapmakers. Dori Griffin, Mapping Wonderlands: Illustrated Cartography of Arizona, 1912–­1962 (Tucson, AZ: University of Arizona Press, 2013), provides a useful examination of pictorial maps of Arizona. Literary maps, a subgenre of pictorial maps, are well treated in Martha Hopkins and Michael Buscher, Language of the Land: The Library of Congress Book of Literary Maps (Washington, DC: Library of Congress, 1999). Glen Creason, “A Smile of Understanding: A Map Librarian’s Tale of Overlooked Treasure,” Mercator’s World 4, no. 5 (September/October 1999): 12–­17, and information at www.garbell.com/creas/creason-smile-und-Sp99.html provide a brief introduction to American pictorial maps held at the Los Angeles Public Library. 10. Heather Child, Decorative Maps (London: Studio, 1956). 11. John Kirtland Wright, The Leardo Map of the World, 1452 or 1453 (New York: American Geographical Society, 1928). 12. Francis L. Fugate, Arbuckles: The Coffee that Won the West (El Paso: Texas Western Press, 1994), 117–­137. 13. Matthews Northrup, The Art of All Arts Trades Annual, 1887 (Buffalo, NY: Matthews Northrup, 1887). 14. The advertisement is in a private collection. 15. Juergen Schulz, “Jacobo de’ Barberi’s View of Venice: Map Making, City Views, and Moralized Geography before the Year 1500,” Art Bulletin 60, no. 31 (1978): 425–­474. 16. John W. Reps, Bird’s Eye Views: Historic Lithographs of North American Cities (New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1998). See also Reps, Views and Viewmakers of Urban America: Lithographs of Towns and Cities in the United States and Canada, Notes on the Artists and Publishers, and a Union Catalog of Their Work (Columbia, MO: University of Missouri Press, 1984). 17. Richard Guy Wilson, Shaun Eyring, and Kenny Marotta, eds., Re-­Creating the American Past: Essays on the Colonial Revival (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2006), 3. See also Alan Axelrod, ed., The Colonial Revival in America (New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 1985); and Donald Albrecht and Thomas Mellins, The American Style: Colonial Revival and the Modern Metropolis (New York: Monacelli Press, 2011). 18. Charles B. Hosmer Jr., Preservation Comes of Age—­From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926–­1949, vol. 1 (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981). 19. Oliver Green, Frank Pick’s London: Art, Design and the Modern City (London: V&A Publishing, 2013). 20. Oliver Green, Art for the London Underground (London: London Transport Museum, 1990); London Transport Museum, Poster Art 150: London Underground’s Greatest Designs (London: London Transport Museum, 2013). 21. Alfred Yockney, “Some Recent London Posters,” International Studio 54, nos. 213–­216 (Nov.–­Dec. 1914—­Jan.–­Feb. 1915): 281–­292.

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22. Horace Taylor, “The Poster Revival I: Mr. E. McKnight Kauffer,” International Studio 71, nos. 280–­283 (July–­Oct. 1920): 140–­147. See also Taylor, “The Poster Revival II: Mr. F. Gregory Brown,” International Studio 72, nos. 284–­287 (Nov.–­Dec. 1920—­Jan.–­Feb. 1921): 147–­150; and Earnest Elmo Calkins, “The Art of the Poster,” International Studio 76, no. 307 (Dec. 1922): 215–­220. 23. Burdon, “MacDonald Gill”; and Claire Dobbin, London Underground Maps: Art, Design and Cartography (Farnham: Lund Humphries in association with the London Transport Museum, 2012). 24. LeBaron-­Bonney Co., Decorative Picture Maps. 25. Caroline M. Walker, “MacDonald Gill, 1884–­1947,” in The Wonder Ground Map of London Town, 1914 (Moretonhampstead, Devon: Old House Books, 2011), 5–­8 ; MacDonald Gill, “Decorative Maps,” The Studio 128, no. 621 (December 1944): 161–­169. 26. Priscilla Johnston, Edward Johnston (London: Faber, 1959); Ewan Clayton, Edward Johnston: Lettering and Life (Ditchling: Ditchling Museum, 2007); and David Woodward, “The Manuscript, Engraved, and Typographic Traditions of Map Lettering,” in Art and Cartography: Six Historical Essays, edited by David Woodward (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987), 174–­212, especially 181. 27. Edward Johnston, Writing & Illuminating & Lettering (London: John Hogg, 1906); and Child, Decorative Maps, especially 50–­55. 28. Evelyn Waugh, “The Hand of the Master,” Spectator, July 23, 1959, 20. 29. Dobbin, London Underground Maps, 28–­36. The Wonderground Map went through several editions, the latest of which appears to have been published in 1927. 30. For general introductions to art deco, see Bevis Hillier, Art Deco Style (London: Phaidon, 1997); and Charlotte Benton, Tim Benton, and Ghislaine Wood, eds., Art Deco, 1910–­1939 (London: V&A Publications, 2003). For specific connections between the United States and France, see Donald Albrecht, ed., Paris/New York: Design, Fashion, Culture, 1925–­1940 (New York: Monacelli Press, 2008). 31. Hoover Commission Report cited in Marilyn F. Friedman, “The United States and the 1925 Paris Exposition: Opportunity Lost and Found,” Studies in the Decorative Arts 13, no. 1 (Fall–­Winter 2005–­2006): 94–­119, quote from 102. 32. Friedman, “United States and the 1925 Paris Exposition,” 105. 33. Helen Appleton Read, “The Exposition in Paris,” International Studio 82, no. 342 (November 1925): 93–­97; and Read, “The Exposition in Paris: Part II,” International Studio 82, no. 434 (December 1925): 160–­165. 34. Wendy Kaplan, “‘The Filter of American Taste’: Design in the USA in the 1920s,” in Art Deco, 1910–­1939, edited by Benton, Benton, and Wood, 335–­343, quote from 335. 35. Coulton Waugh, “Notes Regarding Items Representing First New York Period, 1915–­1921,” Biographical Data, F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries. 36. M. D. C. Crawford, “New Fabrics for Old Textures: The Machine in the Field of Textile Design,” Arts & Decoration: A Magazine of the Fine and Industrial Arts 14 (April 1921): 458–­ 459, 487; and Crawford, “Silk’s Romantic Reality Vies with Ancient Mapmaker’s Weird Imagery,” Women’s Wear, February 5, 1921, 11, clipping in F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries. 37. Coulton Waugh, “Ye Ancient Map of Cotton,” Women’s Wear, circa 1922, clipping in F.

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Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries. 38. Coulton Waugh, “MAPS, how they began,” F. Coulton Waugh Papers, Special Collections Research Center, Syracuse University Libraries. 39. Gorham Munson, The Awakening Twenties: A Memoir-­History of a Literary Period (Baton Rouge, LA: Louisiana State University, 1985), 87–­88. 40. Obituary, “Mrs. Horton, 79, Co-­O wner of Bookshop in ‘Village,’” New York Times, October 1, 1967, 84. For brief discussion of Chase Horton and Josephine Bell, see Brian Kannard, Steinbeck: Citizen Spy (Nashville, TN: Grave Distractions Publications, 2013), 183–­186. 41. Carroll M. Gantz, “Joseph B. Platt,” Industrial Designers Society of America—­IDSA, accessed October 8, 2013, http://www-old.idsa.org/joseph-b-platt; and “Industrial Designers,” Fortune, February 1934, 98. 42. Gantz, “Joseph B. Platt,” and “Industrial Designers,” 98. 43. Ellen B. Ballou, The Building of the House: Houghton Mifflin’s Formative Years (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1970). 44. Blake Clark and Edwin Olsen, The Colour of an Old City: A Map of Boston Decorative and Historical (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1926); Blake Clark and Edwin Olsen, A Kite View of Philadelphia and the Sesqui-­Centennial International Exposition (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1926); Edwin Olsen and Blake Clark, Map of the City of Washington in the District of Columbia Shewing the Architecture and History from the Most Ancient Times Down to the Present (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1926); Mélanie Elizabeth Leonard, A Map of Cape Cod (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1926); Helen Bodley, A Map of Concord: The Old Musketaquid Plantation (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1928); Ernest Dudley Chase, A Mercator Map of the World (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931); Charles Turzak and Henry T. Chapman, An Illustrated Map of Chicago: Youthful City of the Big Shoulders, Restless, Ingenious, Wilful, Violent, Proud to Be Alive (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1931); and Errol W. Goff, A Picture Map of Cape Ann and the North Shore, Essex County Massachusetts (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1934). 45. “Edwin Birger Olsen, Architect, Dies at 94,” New York Times, March 17, 1996; The Colour of an Old City (a pictorial map of Boston), MS Am 1925 (378) #2, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University; and letterhead on Olsen to Scaife, June 29, 1926, MS Am 1925 (1335) #3, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 46. Clark and Olsen, The Colour of an Old City. 47. H. B. Armitage, “Two Young Men Paint Boston to Make Jacob’s Coat Look Drab,” Boston Evening Transcript, April 21, 1926, 2. 48. “Learn of Boston with a Chuckle Seems Mission of New Color Map,” Christian Science Monitor, May 24, 1926, 4B. 49. Armitage, “Two Young Men Paint Boston.” 50. MS Am 2346 (579), Houghton Mifflin Company Contracts, Houghton Library, Harvard University; and Olsen to Scaife, June 16, 1926, MS Am 1925 (1335) #2, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 51. Copyright file #19732, US Copyright Office, Library of Congress. 52. Clark and Olsen, The Colour of an Old City. MS Am 1925 (378) #2, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University.

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53. Armitage, “Two Young Men Paint Boston.” 54. Burdon, “MacDonald Gill.” 55. “Learn of Boston with a Chuckle,” Christian Science Monitor, May 24, 1926. 56. Copyright file #27641, US Copyright Office, Library of Congress. 57. Note in the margin of Clark and Olsen, The Colour of an Old City. 58. Scaife to Clark and Olsen, July 13, 1926, MS Am 1925 (378) #10, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 59. Olsen to Scaife, July 12, 1926, MS Am 1925 (1335) #4, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 60. Scaife to Clark, October 13, 1926, MS Am 1925 (378) #11, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 61. Edwin Olsen, “Description of the Washington Map,” typescript enclosed in Olsen to Kent, November 20, 1926, MS Am 1925 (1335) #7, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 62. Scaife to Clark, November 30, 1926, MS Am 1925 (378) #14, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. See also “A Capital Map,” Washington Post, December 12, 1926. 63. Olsen to Scaife, July 12, 1926, MS Am 1925 (1335) #4; and Olsen to Scaife, September 9, 1926, MA Am 1925 (1335) #5, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­ 1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 64. Quoted in Scaife to Clark, December 22, 1926, MS Am 1925 (378) #15, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 65. Houghton Mifflin to Leonard, January 10, 1927, MS Am 1925 (1085) #1, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University; and copyright file #50969, US Copyright Office, Library of Congress. 66. Kent to Leonard, June 21, 1927, MS Am 1925 (1085) #10, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 67. Ibid. 68. Leonard to Kent, June 27, 1927, MS Am 1925 (1085) #8, Houghton Mifflin Company Correspondence and Records, 1832–­1944, Houghton Library, Harvard University. 69. Anne Kelly Knowles, “Alma Mater: Cartographic Portraits of Wellesley College,” Mercator’s World (November/December 2000): 41–­45. 70. “Here’s the Only Map of Its Kind,” Boston Daily Globe, June 27, 1926, B37. 71. C. V. Farrow, A Map of the Wondrous Isle of Manhattan (The Scale Is All Askew), copyright file #77496, US Copyright Office, Library of Congress. 72. Will C. Van den Hoonaard, Map Worlds: A History of Women in Cartography (Waterloo, Ontario: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2013). Relatively few women worked in cartography before the early twentieth century. Unfortunately, Van den Hoonaard does not consider women who created pictorial maps. 73. This selection has inevitably been shaped by surviving records. As many pictorial mapmakers were not well known, their papers have not been preserved in public collections. 74. Denis E. Cosgrove and Veronica della Dora, “Mapping Global War: Los Angeles, the Pacific, and Charles Owens’s Pictorial Cartography,” Annals of the Association of American Geographers 95, no. 2 (June 2005): 373–­390. 75. “Owens, Master of Perspective” and “Charles Owens, Retired Artist of Times, Dies,” Los Angeles Times, March 4, 1958, B1 and B4. For his movements to and from New York City,

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see Joe Seewerker and Owens, “Nuestro Pueblo: The New Yorker and the Outdoor Kitchen,” Los Angeles Times, September 28, 1938, A2. 76. Owens had been “thirty-­five years a newspaper artist,” which places his entry into the profession in 1894, when he was only thirteen years old. See “Owens Is Tireless Sketcher,” Los Angeles Times, November 10, 1929, 18. 77. For example, B. W. Pierce, Los Angeles, California, 1894, reproduced in Reps, Bird’s Eye Views, 110, shows Los Angeles from the south and includes mountains and clouds, much like Owens’s bird’s-­e ye view of the city published in 1926. 78. Henry W. Ruoff, ed., Book of the War: A Concise View of Its Causes, Countries Involved, Theaters of Action, Leaders and Chief Events Shown in Parallel Columns and Striking Picture Maps (Boston: Standard Publication Company, 1918). 79. Twenty-­four maps by Otto Kurth were reproduced in The War of the Nations: A Pictorial Portfolio of World War I: Compiled from The Mid-­Week Pictorial Published by the New York Times (New York: New York Times, 1919; reprinted by Arno Press, 1977). 80. Seewerker and Owens, “Nuestro Pueblo.” 81. John Ott, “Landscapes of Consumption: Auto Tourism and Visual Culture in California, 1920–­1940,” in Reading California: Art, Image, and Identity, 1900–­2000, edited by Stephanie Barron, Sheri Bernstein, and Ilene Susan Fort (Berkeley: Los Angeles County Museum of Art and University of California Press, 2000), 51–­67. 82. “How to See as Much as Possible in a One-­Day Automobile Voyage,” Los Angeles Times, March 30, 1919, VI 1; “A Pictorial Travelogue,” Los Angeles Times, May 4, 1919, VI 10; “The Southwest,” Los Angeles Times, January 1, 1925, H16; and “Wonders of Nature in Southwestern Utah Now Available to Motorists,” Los Angeles Times, May 24, 1925, H1. 83. Charles H. Owens and Joseph Seewerker, Nuestro Pueblo: Los Angeles, City of Romance (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1940). 84. Cosgrove and Dora, “Mapping Global War,” 378; and Ott, “Landscapes of Consumption.” 85. Arthur Millier, “Brush Strokes,” Los Angeles Times, March 27, 1932, B20. For a brilliant representation of automotive speed, see Owens’s bird’s-­e ye map accompanying Ralph De Palma, “Speediest Roads, Here: World’s Fastest Automobile Pilot. What 150 Miles an Hour Means,” Los Angeles Times, March 17, 1919, II5. 86. “Through Mexico with Charles H. Owens,” Los Angeles Times, October 13, 1935, H9. 87. “The Colorado Basin, Where the Controlled River Will Water Millions of Acres and Generate Enormous Horsepower,” Los Angeles Times, March 28, 1920, VIII 2. 88. “How U.S. Army Aviators, Led by a Los Angeles Officer, Circumnavigated the Globe by Air: A Pen Picture by Charles H. Owens,” Los Angeles Times, September 14, 1924, 1. 89. “Wonderful Map of Panama Canal in Tomorrow’s ‘Times,’” Los Angeles Times, July 4, 1925, A1; “‘Times’ Artist Shows Just How Canal Works,” Los Angeles Times, July 5, 1925, B3. 90. “‘Times’ Artist Shows Just How Canal Works,” Lost Angeles Times, July 5, 1925. 91. Ibid. 92. “A Pictorial Map of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District,” Los Angeles Times, September 12, 1926, 4–­5. 93. Wim de Wit and Christopher James Alexander, eds., Overdrive: L.A. Constructs the Future, 1940–­1990 (Los Angeles: Getty Museum, 2013), 8–­9. The map was also the opening exhibit in the Overdrive exhibition. For the Times and Los Angeles in the 1920s, see Carey McWilliams, The Education of Carey McWilliams (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1978), 43–­4 4.

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94. For night views of Los Angeles, see Arthur Krim, “Los Angeles and the Anti-­Tradition of the Suburban City,” Journal of Historical Geography 18, no. 1 (1992): 121–­138. 95. “Coming Next Sunday!” Los Angeles Times, September 5, 1926, 1. 96. Ibid.; “25 Hours in the Air 5000 Miles by Automobile,” Los Angeles Times, September 10, 1926, 3. 97. “Announcement,” Los Angeles Times, September 12, 1926, 4. 98. “Map to Bring Tourists Here: All-­Year Club Sends Out Many Thousands of New Picture of the State,” Los Angeles Times, September 7, 1936, A3; Harry Carr and Charles H. Owens, The West Is Still Wild: Romance of the Present and the Past (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1932); and Owens and Seewerker, Nuestro Pueblo. 99. “Charles Owens, Retired Artist,” Los Angeles Times, March 4, 1958, B1. 100. Cosgrove and Dora, “Mapping Global War.” 101. “Save This Map! It Shows the Theater of War,” Los Angeles Times, September 10, 1939, G1. 102. “New Series of War Maps in Color Starts Tomorrow,” Los Angeles Times, September 13, 1942, 1; and “Pacific War Arena Largest Single Field of Strategy in History,” Los Angeles Times, September 14, 1942, 16. 103. “A New War Map,” Los Angeles Times, September 24, 1942, A18; “a map that talks!” Los Angeles Times, January 30, 1944, D7. 104. The following is based on Stephen Mitchell, Jo Mora: Renaissance Man of the West (Ketchum, ID: Dober Hill, 1994); Mary Murray, Jo Mora: Artist and Writer (Monterey, CA: Monterey Museum of Art, 1998); and Jo Mora: The Wide World of Jo Mora (Monterey, CA: Carpe Diem Fine Books, n.d.). 105. Smithsonian Institution, The Year of the Hopi: Paintings and Photographs by Joseph Mora, 1904–­06 (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1979). 106. In the sparse literature on Mora, the dating of California’s Playground has varied. The copy in the Fair Collection, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress, reads in the margin: “Copyrighted 1927: by Del Monte Properties Co.” 107. “San Francisco Booksellers Meet,” Publishers’ Weekly 98, no. 2 (November 27, 1920): 1710. 108. Legend on cover of envelope containing Jo Mora’s map of San Diego. 109. Jo Mora, A Log of the Spanish Main (San Francisco: Jo Mora Jr., 1933). 110. Mitchell, Jo Mora: Renaissance Man of the West. 111. Murray, Jo Mora: Artist and Writer, 56–­61, quote from 61. 112. Biographical details drawn from Theodore N. Cook, “‘Romance of Greeting Cards’ Told by Winchester Artist: Map Business Grew From Favors,” Christian Science Monitor (December 29, 1947): 5; and Guide to the Ernest Dudley Chase Papers, NMAH.AC.0886, Archives Center, National Museum of American History, Washington, DC. 113. “A Cottage of Artistic Interior,” Carpentry and Building 31 (January 1909): 8–­9. 114. Harold Whitehead, “Giving the ‘Common Product’ an Attractive Setting and Selling That,” Printers’ Ink: A Journal for Advertisers 100, no. 12 (September 20, 1917): 17–­20, quote from 17. 115. “Ernest Dudley Chase Sells Out to Rust Craft” and “Greeting Card Houses Merged,” Bookseller, Newsdealer and Stationer 53, no. 11 (December 1, 1920): 701–­703. 116. Ernest Dudley Chase, The Romance of Greeting Cards (Boston: E. D. Chase, 1926). 117. Tim Thrift, A Meticulous Maker of Maps (1944), pamphlet, David Rumsey Map Collection. 118. Ernest Dudley Chase, The Ernest Dudley Chase Decorative Pictorial Novelty Maps (Boston: Ernest Dudley Chase, n.d.); and Thrift, Meticulous Maker of Maps, 5–­8.

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119. Thrift, Meticulous Maker of Maps, 4. 120. Cook, “‘Romance of Greeting Cards’”; and “Ask the Globe,” Boston Globe, April 21, 1985, 36. 121. Chase, Ernest Dudley Chase Decorative. 122. For example, A Pictorial Map of Germany (1935); A Pictorial Map of the British Isles (1935); A Pictorial Map of Spain and Portugal (1935); France (1935); A Pictorial Map of Switzerland (1936); Norway, Sweden, Denmark (1937); and Europe: A Pictorial Map (1938). 123. Unless otherwise noted, the following discussion is based on interviews with Alice McMahon, youngest daughter of George Annand, conducted on February 24 and September 13, 2013. 124. Mordall, “George Annand, Cartographer,” 1009. 125. Joseph Hergesheimer, Quiet Cities (New York: Knopf, 1928); and Archibald D. Turnbull and Norman R. Van der Veer, Cochrane the Unconquerable (New York: London, Century, 1929). 126. Mordall, “George Annand, Cartographer,” 1011. 127. Ibid., 1010. 128. Alice McMahon to Stephen J. Hornsby, October 15, 2013. 129. Carol Fitzgerald, The Rivers of America: A Descriptive Bibliography, 2 vols. (New Castle, DE, and Washington, DC: Oak Knoll Press and The Center for the Book in the Library of Congress, 2001). See particularly “The Map-­Makers,” lxxi–­l xxii. The entry on Annand was based largely on information supplied by Alice McMahon. 130. For a poem commemorating George Annand’s life, see Jennifer Rose, “George Annand, 1890–­,” Ploughshares: A Literary Magazine 8, no. 1 (1982): 154–­156. 131. Ashley Callahan, Enchanting Modern: Ilonka Karasz (1896–­1981) (Athens, GA: Georgia Museum of Arts, University of Georgia, 2003). 132. William Zorach, Art Is My Life: The Autobiography of William Zorach (Cleveland: World Publishing Company, 1967), 78. 133. Walter Rendell Storey, “Rugs Aid the Decorator in His Task,” New York Times, March 17, 1929, SM8; “Table Linen Shows the Modern Touch,” New York Times, September 29, 1929, SM8; and “Fire Screens in New Decorative Modes,” New York Times, October 6, 1929, SM8. 134. John Updike, The Complete Book of Covers from The New Yorker, 1925–­1989 (New York: Knopf, 1989). 135. Ariel S. Winter, “We Too Were Children, Mr. Barrie: Ilonka Karasz: Cartographer,” accessed August 26, 2012, http://wetoowerechildren.blogspot.com/2010/06/ilonka-karasz-cartographer.html. 136. New Yorker, February 13, 1926, and March 5, 1927. 137. Advertisement for Plan de Paris, New York Times, April 24, 1927, BR28. 138. Biographical details from obituary, “Miss Clara Eleanor Hall: Noted Historian,” Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 139. “Husband of Author of Sesqui Pageant Dies in Buffalo,” Daily Sentinel, Rome, NY, July 2, 1928, 11. 140. Romance Maps: Originated by and Edited under the Direction of Josephine W. Wickser, brochure in Fair Collection 663, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 141. Sidney E. Ayres and Mrs. Walter A. Henricks, Romance Map of Finger Lakes Region (1934); C. Eleanor Hall, A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway (1934); James G. Riggs, A Romance Map of the North Country (1935); Leeta E. Alward and Elizabeth A. Kilbourne, A Romance Map of New Jersey (1935); Alice E. Fowler and Grace F. Dodge, A Romance Map of the State

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of Maine (1936); Marguerite Hess Parrish, Romance Map of the Hudson River Valley (1937); Susan Baker and Roberta Tull, A Romance Map of the City of Washington (1938); and Martha Haislip, A Romance Map of West Virginia (1938). Lucy S. Murphy, Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania, was proposed but never published. 142. Hall to Devereux, June 12, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 143. Hall to Powers, August 10, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 144. Hall to Powers, November 16, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 145. “Carlo Antonia Nisita,” accessed November 1, 2013, http://www.meibohmfinearts.com/ artists.aspx?ID=59. 146. Hall to Dapson, February 28, 1936, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 147. Hall to Menagh, August 29, 1934, and Hall to Dapson, February 28, 1936, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 148. Hall to Menagh, December 8, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 149. Hall to Menagh, December 18, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 150. Hall to Grice, March 12, 1936, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 151. Hall to Reese, August 9, 1937, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 152. Hall to Dapson, February 28, 1936, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 153. Hall to Reese, August 9, 1937, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 154. “The Romance Map,” Champlain Valley Review, December 20, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 155. Michael Friendly and Gilles Palsky, “Visualizing Nature and Society,” in Maps: Finding Our Place in the World, edited by James R. Akerman and Robert W. Karrow Jr. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), 207–­253; and Isabel Meirelles, Design for Information (Beverly, MA: Rockport Publishers, 2013). 156. Hall to Dapson, February 28, 1936, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 157. LeBaron-­Bonney Co., Decorative Picture Maps. 158. “The Covarrubias America: Proudly Offered to You for the First Time by the Associated American Artists,” advertising mailer, Muriel H. Parry Collection 518, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 159. Personal communication from Mike Franc to Stephen Hornsby, April 2012. 160. Hagstrom’s Decorative and Historical Maps (New York: Hagstrom Company, n.d.), 3. 161. Picture History Maps (New York: Graphic History Association, n.d.). 162. Hall to Crane, April 16, 1951, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 163. Hall to Watson, November 30, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 164. Hopkins to Hall, September 20, 1938, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 165. Marston to Hall, June 3, 1943, and August 31, 1943, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 166. Craig Clinton, “Hysterical Maps: The ‘Cock-­e yed’ Maps of the Lindgren Brothers,” International Map Collectors Journal 125 (Summer 2011): 27–­39. 167. O’Neil to Hall, October 6, 1935, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 168. Hagstrom’s Decorative and Historical Maps. 169. LeBaron-­Bonney Co., Decorative Picture Maps. 170. Hagstrom’s Decorative and Historical Maps. 171. Hall to Corney, November 20, 1934, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society. 172. Invoice, R. H. Macy & Co., February 19, 1937, Hall Papers, Town of Moriah Historical Society.

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173. David Rumsey has put together an online collection of pictorial maps accessible at www.davidrumsey.com. 174. Biographical information drawn from obituary, “Ethel M. Fair; Librarian-­Educator,” Evening News, Harrisburg, PA, December 31, 1979; and “Ethel M. Fair: Curriculum Vitae,” Ethel M. Fair file, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 175. Betty J. Brown, “Picture Maps,” Wilson Bulletin for Librarians 11, no. 6 (February 1937): 385–­388, 415, 426. 176. Wise to Fair, March 2, 1973, Ethel M. Fair file, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 177. Biographical information from Craig Andersen, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 178. John Kirtland Wright, Geography in the Making: The American Geographical Society, 1851–­ 1951 (New York: American Geographical Society, 1952), 405. See also Harvey K. Flad, “Audubon Terrace, the American Geographical Society, and the Sense of Place,” Geographical Review 94, no. 4 (October 2004): 519–­529. 179. J. K. Wright, Human Nature in Geography (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1966); and David Lowenthal and Martyn J. Bowden, eds., Geographies of the Mind: Essays in Historical Geosophy in Honor of John Kirtland Wright (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976). 180. Lowenthal and Bowden, Geographies of the Mind, 5. 181. “New U.I. Map Librarian,” Evening Courier, March 21, 1944, newspaper clipping in Muriel H. Parry file, Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 182. Correspondence related to this move is in the American Geographical Society–­N Y Archives in the American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin–­ Milwaukee; see Parry to Wright, July 2, 1946, and Charles B. Hitchcock to Parry, July 8, 1946. 183. Obituary, “Muriel H. Parry,” Ubique—­Notes from the American Geographical Society 25, no. 2 (September 2005): 13–­14. 184. For surveys of the literature, see Sébastien Caquard and William Wainwright, “Narrative Cartography: From Mapping Stories to the Narrative of Maps and Mapping,” Cartographic Journal 52, no. 2 (May 2014): 101–­106; and Caquard, “Cartography 1: Mapping Narrative Cartography,” Progress in Human Geography 37, no. 1 (February 2013): 135–­144. 185. Clinton, “Hysterical Maps,” 27–­39. 186. Ibid., 31–­32. 187. Fenton S. Roskelley, “Souvenir Decal Manufacture Becoming Big Business Here,” Spokane Daily Chronicle, October 25, 1948, 10. 188. Hagstrom’s Decorative and Historical Maps, 33. 189. Danny Dorling, Mark Newman, and Anna Barford, The Atlas of the Real World: Mapping the Way We Live (London: Thames & Hudson, 2010). 190. Review, “A Map of Children Everywhere,” Saturday Review of Literature VI, no. 23 (December 28, 1929): 608. 191. Review, “A Child’s Map of the Ancient World,” Saturday Review of Literature III, no. 19 (December 4, 1926): 403. 192. “Louise E. Jefferson,” in Notable Black American Women, Book II, edited by Jessie Carney Smith (Detroit: Gale Research, 1996), 328. 193. “Robert Aitchison Papers” and “Historical Maps by Robert T. Aitchison from the Col-

278

lection of James Yarnell,” Wichita State University Libraries: Special Collections and University Archives, http://specialcollections.wichita.edu/collections/ms/98–05/98– 5-a.html and http://specialcollections.wichita.edu/collections/ms/2006–03/2006–3-a. html, accessed April 14, 2012. See also Mentholatum maps at Huntington Digital Library, http://hdl.huntington.org/cdm/search/collection/p15150coll4/searchterm/mentholatum/orde, accessed September 6, 2012. 194. Hopkins and Buscher, Language of the Land. 195. Svetlana Alpers, The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1983), particularly her now famous chapter “The Mapping Impulse in Dutch Art.” See also Mariët Westermann, “Art History Reviewed XIV: Svetlana Alpers’s ‘The Art of Describing: Dutch Art in the Seventeenth Century,’ 1983,” Burlington Magazine 63 (August 2011): 532–­536. 196. Knowles, “Alma Mater: Cartographic Portraits of Wellesley College,” 41–­45. See also E. Lisa Panayotidis and Paul Stortz, “Intellectual Space, Image, and Identities in the Historical Campus: Helen Kemp’s Map of the University of Toronto, 1932,” Journal of the Canadian Historical Association New Series, 15 (2004): 123–­152; and “The Mythic Campus and the Professorial Life: A. Scott Carter’s Pictorial Map of the University of Toronto, 1937,” History of Education Review 40, no. 1 (2011): 9–­29. 197. Robert L. Dorman, Revolt of the Provinces: The Regionalist Movement in America, 1920–­1945 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1993). 198. Andrew M. Modelski, Railroad Maps of North America: The First Hundred Years (New York: Bonanza Books, 1987). 199. Zaleski State Forest (Columbus, OH: Division of Forestry, n.d.). 200. “Air Age” cartography is particularly associated with Richard Edes Harrison; see Harrison, Look at the World: The Fortune Atlas for World Strategy (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1944); Harrison, “The Face of One World: Five Perspectives for an Understanding of the Air Age,” Saturday Review of Literature 27, no. 27 (July 1, 1944): 5–­6 ; and Harrison and Hans W. Weigert, “World View and Strategy,” in Compass of the World: A Symposium on Political Geography, edited by Hans W. Weigert and Vilhjalmur Stefansson (New York: Macmillan, 1944), 74–­88. For critical commentary, see Walter W. Ristow, “Air Age Geography: A Critical Appraisal and Bibliography,” Journal of Geography 43 (December 1944): 331–­343; Alan K. Henrikson, “The Map as an ‘Idea’: The Role of Cartographic Imagery during the Second World War,” American Cartographer 2, no. 1 (1975): 19–­53; and Susan Schulten, “Richard Edes Harrison and the Challenge to American Cartography,” Imago Mundi 50 (1998): 174–­188. 201. Harrison, Look at the World. 202. Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Activity Vol. III (Washington, DC: Navy Department Bureau of Naval Personnel, 1946), 31, typescript in Rare Book Room, Navy Department Library, Washington, DC. 203. Bureau of Naval Personnel, Training Activity Vol III, 32. 204. According to Alice McMahon, George Annand worked for the US government in New York City producing maps. Richard Edes Harrison, who also lived in New York City, supplied maps for the government’s Newsmaps and could easily have been involved in the design of the NavWarMaps. 205. Gill dated the map 1942, but the copyright date is 1944, which suggests that was the year the map was published.

279

206. Felix Driver, “In Search of the Imperial Map: Walter Crane and the Image of Empire,” History Workshop Journal 69 (Spring 2010): 146–­157. 207. Karal Ann Marling, “Imagineering the Disney Theme Parks,” in Designing Disney’s Theme Parks: The Architecture of Reassurance, edited by Marling (Montreal: Canadian Centre for Architecture, 1997), 29–­176, especially 69–­79. 208. Fridolf Johnson, “Gene Holtan, Draughtsman,” American Artist 32, no. 8, issue 318 (October 1968): 40–­45, 84. 209. “Gene Holtan Saturday Evening Post Cover Art December, 1968,” Legendary Auctions “americana, fall 2002,” accessed September 9, 2014, www.legendaryauctions.com/ lot26060.aspx.

280

index Page numbers in italic indicate maps. advertising commercial, x, 243–­4 4

America the Wonderland (Chase), 118, 178 Annand, George

for exhibitions, 50

biography of, 34–­38

for industry, 185–­86

A Chart of Manhattan, 37, 128–­29

“Air Age” maps, 34, 225, 226

at drafting table, 35

Aitchison, Robert T., 78–­79, 98

dust jacket for Right Off the Map, 36

Alaska, Our Northern Rampart (Burke), 226,

Historical Map of the State of New York,

235 Alaska Steamship Company, 185, 198–­99 Albert Richard Football Map (Cheeseman), 79, 114–­15

38, 170 A Map of Sinclair Lewis’ United States . . . , 37, 79, 108 NavWarMaps and, 226

Alexander, Gerard L., 113

Arbuckle Coffee Company, 5, 6

America (Plummer), 244, 255

Arens, Egmont, 16

America—­A Nation of One People from Many Countries (Bourne), 78, 84–­85

Armour’s Food Source Map, 5, 7, 8 Arnold, Oren, 70–­71

America Its History (Bohrod), 78, 87

art deco, 13–­14

American Expeditionary Force (Stiles & Bow-

Associated American Artists, 46

man), 79, 100

Atherton, Jack, 4, 163

American Geographical Society, 4, 52

auto tourism, 24, 26, 46, 48, 58, 244

American Junior Red Cross at Work (Rundle),

Ball, Robert, 89

79, 101

Baltekal-­Goodman, Michael, 142–­43

281

Barberi, Jacobo de’, 8

A Pictorial Map of Loveland, 34, 59, 74

Bawden, Edward, 12

A Pictorial Map of North America, 118–­19,

Beaux-­A rts style, 13 Bell, Josephine, 16 bird’s-­e ye views of cities and towns, 8, 8–­9, 23, 117

A Pictorial Stamp Map of Navigation and Exploration, 34, 110–­11 The Story Map of Flying, 34, 243, 248

Bloodgood, Don, 50, 186, 220–­21

Cheeseman, F. E., 79, 114–­15

Bodeen, G. H., 208

Chicago U.S.A. (Turzak & Chapman), 117,

Bohrod, Aaron, 78, 87 Bootlegger’s Map of the United States (McCandlish), 59, 72 Boucher, Loucien, 4 Bourne, Emma, 78, 84–­85

130–­31 A Child’s Map of Greenwich Village (Widen), 130 A Child’s Map of the Ancient World (Karasz & York), 41, 77–­78, 82–­83

Bowman, Paul C., 79, 100

Chinatown San Francisco (Chun), 142

brag maps, 58–­59

Chun, Ethel, 142

British Empire Exhibition 1924 (North), 12, 13

Cimino, Harry, 79, 112–­13

Burke, Howard, 226, 235

City of San Francisco (Parsons), 8

California’s Playground (Mora), 30, 118, 174

The Civil War: A Narrative (Foote), 38

Campus of Cornell University and Vicinity,

Clark, Blake E.

Ithaca, New York, U.S.A. (Edmonson),

biography of, 17, 18–­21

118, 155

The Colour of an Old City: A Map of Boston,

Camy, Edward, 185, 198–­99 Cape Ann and the North Shore (Waugh), 16, 118, 160

120–­21 Map of the City of Washington, 122–­23 Clarke, Dorothy Linscott, 173

Cape Cod (Atherton), 118, 163

classrooms, pictorial maps in, 48, 48

The Capital of a New Trade Empire (Cleveland

Clegg, Ernest, 78, 92

Terminal Group), 210

Cleveland Terminal Group, 210

Captain Silver’s Sea Chart (Jordan), 217

Clifton, Mercedes, 182

cartographic convention, 38

collections of pictorial maps, 50–­54

cartoons, 9

collegiate pictorial maps, 22, 118

categories of pictorial maps, x, 54

Colonial Revival movement, 9–­10, 42–­43, 78

Cayo Hueso Key West Florida (Suchy), 150

color lithography, 1

Chapin, R. M., Jr., 262–­63

Colortext, 180, 206

Chapman, Henry T., 22, 130–­31

The Colour of an Old City: A Map of Boston

A Chart of Manhattan (Annand), 37, 117, 128–­29 The Chart of the Vagabond Cruises (Mildwoff), 200 Chase, Ernest Dudley America the Wonderland, 118, 178 article on, 22 biography of, 31–­32, 34 Japan, the Target, 233 Mercator Map of the World, 22, 34, 59, 75 Mercator Map of the World United, 34, 243, 246–­47

282

179

(Owen & Clark), 18, 117, 120–­21 The Conquest of a Continent (Kaiser & Painter), 78, 88 Coolidge, Calvin, 21 Council against Intolerance in America, 78, 84–­85 The County Library Comes Home to the People (Paine), 104 Covarrubias, Miguel Associated American Artists and, 46 Pageant of the Pacific, 50, 119, 180–­81 A Cow Poke’s Map of the Black Hills and His

Round-­Up (Dier), 64 C. S. Hammond & Company, 3, 230–­31 cultural influences on pictorial maps, 4–­5, 8–­14, 244 Culverwell, Tom, 164–­65 Dana Estes & Co., 29 Davidson, Morris, 149

Exposition Internationale des Arts Décoratifs et Industriels Modernes, 13–­14 Fair, Ethel M., x, 50, 51, 51–­52, 79 Farrow, Charles Vernon, 22, 117, 126 Father Neptune Presenteth ye Grace Line Fleet . . . (Mora), 30, 185, 196 Fisher, Betty, 156

decals, pictorial transfer, 58

folklore, 79

de Felice, Joseph, 182

Folklore Music Map of the United States (Law-

Defense Map of the United States (C. S. Hammond & Company), 225, 230–­31 Delaware (Aitchison), 78–­79, 98

rence & Cimino), 79, 112–­13 Foote, Shelby, 38 42nd Inf. Rainbow Div. (Mackechnie), 227, 241

Del Monte Canning Company, 31

France, influence of, 12–­14

de Long, Sally, 243, 249

friendship maps, 78

Derrick, Thomas, 12

gas maps, 3, 46, 48, 244

Des Arts Publishers, 32

General Drafting Company, 244, 258–­59

A Descriptive Map of the Region within One

Geographical Fun: Being Humorous Outlines of

Hundred Miles of the Capital of the United States (Clegg), 78, 92 Dewey Decimal Map of the United States (Weston), 79, 104–­5 didactic purpose of maps, 77–­79 Dier, Frank, 64

Various Countries, 57 George F. Cram, 3 Gill, Eric, 11 Gill, MacDonald London Underground Railway maps of, 1–­2

Disney, Walt, 244, 245. See also Walt Disney

as pictorial mapper, 4

Dixon’s Mickey Mouse Map of the United States,

The “Time and Tide” Map of the Atlantic

60, 244 Donovan, Jeremiah, 262–­63 Dorn, Frank, 118, 153

Charter, 226–­27, 227 Wonderground Map of London, 10–­12, 11, 19, 57

Dougherty, Charles, 119

Gillray, James, 57

Dougherty, James, 182

Godwin, Harrison

Drury, John G., 227, 240 Dudley, Katherine, 148 dust jackets, 35–­36, 36 Eddy, Gerald, 45, 192 Edmonson, Ellen, 155 educational market, 16–­17, 77–­79

Map of San Francisco . . . , 141 Panama Mail S. S. Co., 197 A Good-­Natured Map of Alaska . . . (Camy), 198–­99 A Good-­Natured Map of the United States . . . , 195

Emery, Don J., 167

Grace Line ships, 185, 196

Erickson, Arthur, 132–­33

Graphic History Association of New York,

The Ernest Dudley Chase Decorative Pictorial Novelty Maps (catalog), 32 Ernest Dudley Chase Publishers, 32 European trends, 10–­14 The Evergreen Playground (Kroll Map Company), 45, 118, 175 exhibitions, pictorial maps for advertising, 50

46, 48 Greater Los Angeles, The Wonder City of America (Leuschner), 117, 135 “Greater!” Los Angeles and the Rest of the United States . . . (Hammack), 59, 70 Great Northern Railway, 185, 190 Greco, Simon, 211 Green, Mildred, 43

283

Greenslet, Ferris, 20

Horton, Chase, 16

Greyhound Company, 185, 194, 195

Hotel Del Monte, 30

Groth, John, 137

Houghton Mifflin, 16–­22

Guenther, Lambert, 232

humanized cartography, 14, 16–­22

Hagstrom Company, 46, 47, 49, 59

humor in map design, 57–­59

Haley, John W., 161

H. W. Hill & Co., 6

Hall, C. Eleanor

A Hysterical Map of the Yellowstone Park

on boxes of text, 45 marketing by, 46, 49–­50 photograph of, 42 A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway, 41–­4 4, 97

Jackson Hole Country . . . (Lindgren), 67 “hysterical maps” of Lindgren Brothers, 49, 58

Hambidge, Ruth, 77, 80–­81

Illinois One Hundred Years Ago (Young), 78, 95

Hammack, E. S., 59, 70

Illustrated Map of Chicago (Turzak & Chap-

Handy, Ray, 58, 62–­63 Hansell, Nils, 244, 260

man), 22 Indians of North America (Mora), 31

Harris, G. J., 182

Indians of the U.S.A. (Jefferson), 86–­87

Harrison, Richard Edes

Industrial New Jersey (Radio Distributing

“Air Age” maps of, 34, 225, 226 NavWarMaps and, 226 Hawaii (White), 65

Corporation), 186, 216 It’s an Interesting World in an Interesting Time (Chapin & Donovan), 245, 262–­63

Hawkins, C. L., 207

Japan, the Target (Chase), 233

Henry, Edward Everett

Jefferson, Louise E., 78, 86–­87

The New Map of the World, 119, 183 Our United States, 16, 79, 99 A Picture of Your Premium Dollars at Work, 243–­4 4, 251

John Hancock Mutual Life Insurance Company, 243, 251 Johnston, Edward, 11, 12 Jo Mora Drawing a Carte (Josselyn), 29

success of, 22

Jordan, Eugene, 217

Voyage of the Pequod from the Book Moby

Josselyn, Lewis, 29

Dick by Herman Melville, 79, 108–­9 Herman, John F., 45, 177

Kaiser, August, 78, 88 Karasz, Ilonka

Hetherington, H. W., 161

biography of, 38–­41

A Historical and Literary Map of the Old Line

A Child’s Map of the Ancient World, 41, 77–­

State of Maryland (Tunis), 170–­71 Historical and Recreational Map of Los Angeles (Mora), 117, 136–­37, 245 A Historical Map of Madison (Kremers), 117, 145 Historical Map of the State of New York (Annand), 38, 170 Historical Picture Map of Vermont (Clarke), 173

284

(Lindgren), 58, 66 A Hysterical Map of Yellowstone Park and the

78, 82–­83 cover for New York: Not So Little and Not So Old, 40, 40 photograph of, 39 Plan de Paris, 16, 41, 118, 152 Kearfott, Frank, 118, 164 Kelmscott Press, 12 Kent, Rockwell, 22 King Size Mapcards, 58, 67

Hoffman, Hester R., 146–­47

A Kite View of Philadelphia . . . , 19–­20

Holling Press, 44

Kremers, Laura, 145

Holtan, Gene, 244–­45, 261

Kroll Map Company, 45, 118, 175

Hornung, Clarence P., 209

Kurth, Otto, 24, 26

Lake Hope (Reeder), 187, 222 Lancaster, Lilian, 57 The Land of Sunshine, Fruits, and Flowers (Weathers), 117, 138–­39 Lawrence, Dorothea Dix, 79, 112–­13

(Mora), 31 Map of Massachusetts (Shurtleff), 48, 78, 90–­91 Map of Michigan (Slightly Exaggerated) (Shafer), 205

Lawrence, H. J., 59, 73

A Map of New York (Platt), 16, 17, 19, 117, 124

LeBaron-­Bonney, 46, 50

A Map of New York in the Air . . . (Leonard), 22,

Leonard, Mélanie Elizabeth A Map of Cape Cod, 21–­22, 162–­63 A Map of New York in the Air . . . , 22, 125 Leuschner, K. M., 135

117, 125 A Map of North Carolina for Nature Lovers (Pugh), 168–­69 “Map of Poland on the Peace Table Closing

libraries, pictorial maps in, 48–­49

German’s Gateway to Russia” (Owens),

Library of Congress

25

Fair collection and, 51

A Map of Portland Maine . . . (Dudley), 118, 148

Geography and Map Division, ix–­x

A Map of Roads to Hillside Farm Near

Parry collection and, 52

Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania

Publications Office, x

(Riegel), 158

Lincoln Memorial Trail (Young), 78, 94

Map of San Francisco . . . (Godwin), 141

Lindgren Brothers

The Map of Silk (Waugh), 14, 14

A Hysterical Map of the Yellowstone Park, 58, 66 A Hysterical Map of Yellowstone Park and the Jackson Hole Country . . . , 67 “hysterical maps” of, 49, 58 Yellowstone Park, Wyoming, 67 Literary Map of Ohio (Russell), 79, 107 literary maps, 79 A Log of the Spanish Main (Mora), 30–­31 London, cultural influence of, 10–­12 Los Angeles (Holtan), 245, 261 Los Angeles, iconography of, 27 Mainliner Vacation Map (Proehl), 186, 202–­3 Manhattan First City in America (Millard), 117, 127 A Map and History of Peiping (Dorn), 118, 153 Map of Berkeley, Oakland & Alameda (Baltekal-­Goodman & Neuhaus), 142–­43 A Map of Cape Cod (Leonard), 118, 162–­63 A Map of Chicago’s Gangland from Authentic Sources (Erickson), 117, 132–­33 A Map of Children Everywhere (Hambidge), 77, 80–­81 A Map of Florida for Garden Lovers (Emery), 167 Map of Los Angeles Historical and Recreational

A Map of Sinclair Lewis’ United States . . . (Annand), 37, 79, 108 A Map of the Appalachian Region (Kearfott), 118, 164 A Map of the City of Philadelphia . . . (Riegel), 212–­13 Map of the City of Washington (Owen & Clark), 20–­21, 117, 122–­23 A Map of the Commonwealth of Michigan (Richardson), 172 Map of the State of New Hampshire (Shurtleff & McMillin), 22 Map of the Stony Man Region in the Shenandoah National Park (Culverwell), 164–­65 A Map of the Territory Served by Philadelphia Electric Company (Riegel), 214–­15 Map of the Town of Northampton, Mass. (Paine & Hoffman), 146–­47 Map of the United States, Showing the Farm Animals in Each State, 6 Map of the United States as Californians See It (Oren), 70–­71 A Map of the University of Chicago (Fisher), 118, 156 A Map of the Wondrous Isle of Manhattan (Farrow), 22, 117, 126 Map Showing the Isle of Pleasure (Lawrence),

285

59, 73 marketing of maps, 46, 48–­50

22, 186, 218–­19

Matthews, R. D., 103

National Geographic Society, 3, 46

Matthews Northrup Works, 5

National Map Library, ix

Maw, Samuel Herbert, 45

Native Sons of the Golden West Building,

May, Elizabeth Paige, 22, 118, 154 McCandlish, Edward, 59, 72 McKim, Sam, 256–­57

San Francisco, 30 NavWarMaps (US Navy), 226–­27, 236–­37, 238–­39

McMillin, Helen F., 22

Neuhaus, Eugene, 142–­43

medieval mappa mundi, 4, 5, 77

The New Map of the World (Henry), 119, 183

“Mem-­O-­Maps,” 227 Mentholatum Company, 78 Mercator Map of the World (Chase), 22, 34, 59, 75 Mercator Map of the World United (Chase), 34, 243, 246–­47 Mercator projection, 32, 225–­26, 227

New York (Lockwood), cover and end papers of, 40, 40 A New Yorker’s Idea of the United States of America (Wallingford), 58–­59, 68 Nicknames of American Cities (Alexander), 113 Nifty Sea Foods, 186

Merrill Lynch, 245, 264–­65

Nifty Sea Foods Inc., Pier A, Seattle, 204

Mexico’s West Coast (Owens), 24

19th Annual Convention of the National

Miami, Florida (Suchy), 118, 151 Mickey’s and Donald’s Race to Treasure Island (Disney), 50, 60–­61, 244 Millard, C. E., 127

Association of Real Estate Boards at Tulsa (Sahula), 22, 186, 218–­19 Nisita, Carlo, 43–­4 4 North, Kennedy, 12, 13

Mississippi (Smith), 166

Northern Trust Company, 78

Mitchell, Alva Scott, 22, 118, 154

Oahu Hawaii Mem-­O-­Map, 240

Mora, Jo

Official Texas Brags Map of North America

biography of, 28–­31

(Storm), 59, 69

California’s Playground, 30, 174

Oglebay, Norton & Company, 186, 211

Father Neptune Presenteth ye Grace Line

Ohio. Mother of Presidents . . . (Suchy), 45–­46,

Fleet . . . , 30, 185, 196 Historical and Recreational Map of Los Angeles, 136–­37 humor in maps of, 57 Map of Los Angeles Historical and Recreational, 31 Mordall, Jay, 3 A More or Less Inaccurate Map of Ellison Bay . . . (Wolcott), 159 Morrell, G. F., 24 Morris, William, 12 Morse, Samuel Finley Brown, 30 Mount Hope Bridge, Bristol, Rhode Island (Haley & Hetherington), 161

286

National Association of Real Estate Boards,

78, 93 oil companies, 3, 186, 244 Oil in America (Standard Oil Company), 244, 252–­53 “Old Time” Map of Kentucky, the Bourbon State (Hawkins), 206 Olsen, Edwin B. biography of, 17–­21 The Colour of an Old City, 120–­21 Map of the City of Washington, 122–­23 100 Years in the Region of the Great Lakes . . . (Greco), 211 On the Routes of the Flying Clipper Ships (Thompson), 186, 201

Munson, Gorham, 16

orientation of maps, 45

Murray, Mary, 31

Our New Neighbors (de Long), 243, 249

Myths, Maps & Men (Ramus), 245, 264–­65

Our United States (Henry), 16, 79, 99

Overcarsh, W. Creasy, Jr., 168

the Canal Zone (Teegarden & Herman),

Owens, Charles Hamilton

45, 118, 177

“Air Age” maps of, 34, 225, 226 biography of, 23–­24, 26–­28 Los Angeles Times and, 14 “Map of Poland on the Peace Table Closing German’s Gateway to Russia,” 25

A Pictorial Map of the State of North Carolina (Overcarsh), 168 pictorial maps as cartographic genre, 2 cultural influences on, 4–­5, 8–­14

Mexico’s West Coast, 24

design challenges, 44–­46

The Panama Canal, 176

golden age of, 3

A Pictorial Map of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District, 27–­28, 45, 134 Sea and Air Power Turned on Japs Guarding China Path, 28, 234 Pageant of the Pacific (Covarrubias), 50, 119, 180–­81 Paine, Paul M., 104

marketing of, 46, 48–­50 popularity of, 1 representation on, 21 significance of, 3–­4 themes of, 11–­12 in US, 2 A Pictorial Map Showing Operations-­

Paine, Priscilla, 146–­47

Properties-­Transportation Facilities-­

Painter, Clara Searle, 78, 88

Telegraph Communication-­& Marketing

The Panama Canal (Owens), 27, 118, 176

Territories of the Pure Oil Company

Panama Mail S. S. Co. (Godwin), 197 Panama Mail Steamship Company, 197 Pan American, 185–­86, 201 Panoramic Perspective of the Area Adjacent to Boulder Dam . . . (Eddy), 45, 192 Panoramic Perspective of the Area Adjacent to Sun Valley Lodge . . . (Willmarth), 191

U.S.A. (Bodeen), 208 A Pictorial Stamp Map of Navigation and Exploration (Chase), 34, 110–­11 pictorial stamp maps, 34 pictorial transfer decals, 58 A Picture of Your Premium Dollars at Work (Henry), 243–­4 4, 251

Parry, Muriel H., x, 50, 52–­53, 53

Plan de Paris (Karasz), 16, 41, 118, 152

Parsons, Charles R., 8

Platt, Joseph B., 16, 17, 19, 124

Part of Virginia showing Jamestown, Wil-

Plummer, W. Kirtman, 244, 255

liamsburg, and Yorktown . . . (Ball), 10,

Pogue Distillery Company, 186, 206

78, 89

polar projection, 243

Pasadena (Wookey), 140

posters, 9, 10

Paul Bunyan’s Pictorial Map of the United

The Posts, Stations and Active Organizations

States . . . (Handy), 58, 62–­63 Pick, Frank, 10, 12 Pictorial Chart of American Literature (Wylie & Van Leer), 79, 106 Pictorial Map of Fresno County and Mid-­ California’s Garden of the Sun, 8, 9

of the United States Army (Roby), 225, 228–­29 Powers, Deborah and Albert, 43 Proehl, Pauline, 202–­3 A Prospect of Harvard University and of Radcliffe College . . . (Schruers), 118, 157

A Pictorial Map of Loveland (Chase), 34, 59, 74

Pugh, Mabel, 168–­69

A Pictorial Map of North America (Chase),

Purdy, Earl, 223

118–­19, 179 A Pictorial Map of the Los Angeles Metropolitan District (Owens), 27–­28, 45, 117, 134, 245 Pictorial Map of the Republic of Panama with

Pure Oil Company, 208 PWA Rebuilds the Nation (Purdy), 223 quantitative data, representing on maps, 44–­45 Radio Distributing Corporation, 216

287

Rambles through Our Country: A Geographical Game for the Young, 5, 7

Schaefer & Weisenbach, 5, 7

Ramus, M., 264–­65

Scheuerle, J., 190

Rand McNally, 3, 46

Schruers, Edwin Judson, 157

Recreational Map of Glacier National Park,

Schulten, Susan, 3

Montana, Waterton Lakes National Park,

scientific mapping, 2, 3

Alberta (Scheuerle), 190

Scott’s Great Snake, 57

Reeder, Lydia M., 187, 222 regionalist movement, 79, 117, 118

Sea and Air Power Turned on Japs Guarding China Path (Owens), 28, 234

representation on pictorial maps, 21

A Seagull’s View of Seattle (Reynolds), 117, 144

Resettlement Administration, 186–­87

Seewerker, Joe, 24

Reynolds, Clara P., 144

Serving New England (Voorhies), 185, 188

Richardson, “Hy,” 172

Shafer’s Bakeries of Detroit, 186, 205

Riegel, Jacob, Jr.

Shell Oil Company, 186

A Map of Roads to Hillside Farm Near Newtown, Bucks County, Pennsylvania, 158 A Map of the City of Philadelphia . . . , 186, 212–­13 A Map of the Territory Served by Philadelphia Electric Company, 214–­15 Right Off the Map (Montague), dust jacket for, 36 The Rivers of America (book series), 38

Shurtleff, Elizabeth, 22, 46, 48, 78, 90–­91 Slightly Cockeyed Map of that Slightly Cockeyed Community Hollywood . . . (Groth), 117, 137 Smith, Karl, 166 Southern Pacific Company, 185, 189 Southern Pacific Lines, 189 Southwest Pacific (US Navy), 238–­39 sports, 79

Robertson, A. M., 30

Standard Oil Company, 244, 252–­53

Roby, Stephen, 225, 228–­29

state maps, 118

A Romance Map of the Niagara Frontier (Wick-

Stiles, Ezra C., 79, 100

ser), 43, 96

Storm, Mark, 59, 69

A Romance Map of the Northern Gateway

The Story Map of Flying (Chase), 34, 243, 248

(Hall), 41–­4 4, 48, 49–­50, 97

The Story Map of the West Indies (Colortext),

Romance Maps series, 37, 42–­43, 45, 48, 78 The Romance of Greeting Cards (Chase), 32

180 Suchy, Arthur B.

Rose, Fred, Serio-­Comic War maps, 57

Cayo Hueso Key West Florida, 150

Rosner, Charles, 182

Miami, Florida, 151

Rundle, H. M., 101

Ohio. Mother of Presidents . . . , 45–­46, 78, 93

Russell, Mark, 79, 107

Taylor, Ruth. See White, Ruth Taylor

Rust Craft Publishers, 32

Teegarden, Clark, 45, 177

Safeguarding Our American Liberty (Guen-

text, integrating onto maps, 45–­46

ther), 225–­26, 232 Sahula-­Dycke, Ignatz, 22, 186, 218–­19 San Diego: The California Pacific International Exposition (Bloodgood), 50, 186, 220–­21 San Francisco Golden Gate Exposition of 1939, 119. See also Pageant of the Pacific The Santa Fe Trail (Santa Fe Trails Association), 193

288

scale of maps, 45

themes of pictorial maps, 11–­12 This Is a Map of the Historic City of Baltimore . . . (Davidson), 149 This World of Ours . . . (Dougherty, Clifton, de Felice, Harris & Rosner), 182 Thompson, Kenneth W., 201 300 Years of Secondary Education in America (Matthews & Watson), 79, 103

Sarg, Tony, 50

three-­d imensional picture, creation of, 45

Scaife, Roger, 20

Time, Inc., 245, 262–­63

trade cards, 5, 6

Weston, Bertine, 104–­5

transportation maps, 10–­12, 11, 185–­86

Where Nature Stored Pennsylvania Grade

A Trip with a Mission, 79, 102–­3 Tunis, Edwin, 170–­71 Turzak, Charles, 22, 130–­31

Crude Oil . . . (Hornung), 209 White, Ruth Taylor cartograph of Treasure Island, 50

TWA: Trans World Airlines, U.S.A., 243, 250–­51

Hawaii, 65

Typus orarum maritemarum Guineae, Mani-

Our USA: A Gay Geography, 58

congo & Angolae . . . (Van Linschoten), 5

Wine Map of California, 186, 207

Union Pacific Railroad, 185, 191, 192

Wickser, Josephine W., 42–­43, 96

United Air Lines, 186, 202–­3

Widen, L. E., 130

urban problems, 244–­45

Williamsburg, Virginia, 10, 78

US copyright law, x

Willmarth, William, 191

US Geological Survey, 3

Wine Advisory Board of San Francisco, 186

Vacation Map of New Mexico, Land of Enchant-

Wine Map of California (Taylor), 207

ment, 244, 254

Wolcott, A., 159

Van Leer, Ella Wall, 79, 106

women designers, 22–­23, 77–­78

Van Linschoten, Jan Huygen, 5

Wonderground Map of London (Gill), 10–­12,

View of Venice (Barberi), 8

11, 19, 57

visual culture, 9

Wonders of New York (Hansell), 244, 260

Voorhies, Stephen J., 188

Wookey, Howard, 140

Voyage of the Pequod from the Book Moby Dick

Works Progress Administration (WPA),

by Herman Melville (Henry), 79, 108–­9 Waldorf Astoria Hotel, 37

37, 187 A World of Good Wishes at Christmastime

Wallingford, Daniel K., 58–­59, 68

(General Drafting Company), 244,

Walt Disney

258–­59

comic maps of, 58 Dixon’s Mickey Mouse Map of the United States, 60, 244 Mickey’s and Donald’s Race to Treasure Island, 50, 60–­61, 244

World War 2 in the North Sea Area (US Navy), 236–­37 Wright, John K., 52 Writing & Illuminating & Lettering (Johnston), 12

Steamboat Willie, 9

Wylie, Ethel Earle, 79, 106

Walt Disney’s Magic Kingdom, Disneyland

Ye Discovery of New York Bay and the Hudson

U.S.A., 244, 256–­57 Washington Square Book Shop, 16, 41, 46, 79

River . . . (Waugh), 15 Yellowstone Park, Wyoming (Lindgren), 67 Yockney, Alfred, 10

Watson, Ernest W., 103

York, Alice, 41, 77–­78, 82–­83

Waugh, Coulton

You Can See All the World Right Here in Amer-

Cape Ann and the North Shore, 160

ica!, 194

The Map of Silk, 14, 14

Young, Webb, 254

Ship Model Shop of Cape Cod, 46, 47

Young, William Mark

Ye Discovery of New York Bay and the Hudson River . . . , 15

Illinois One Hundred Years Ago, 78, 95 Lincoln Memorial Trail, 78, 94

Waugh, Evelyn, 12

Zone Maps (Kurth), 26

Weathers, Anita L., 138–­39

Zorach, William, 40

Wellesley, Her Wealth of Woods and Waters (Mitchell & May), 22, 118, 154 Western Air Lines, 243

289