Oxford BBC Guide To Pronunciation: The Essential Handbook Of The Spoken Word 0192807102, 9780192807106

The Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation gives guidance on the pronunciation of many potentially difficult names, words and

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Oxford BBC Guide To Pronunciation: The Essential Handbook Of The Spoken Word
 0192807102,  9780192807106

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%" Lena Olausson Catherine Sangster



Great Clarendon Street, Oxford 0x2 601' Oxford University Press is a department ofthe University ofOxford.

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and you must impose this same condition on any acquirer British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data Data available Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication Data

Data available ISBN O-19-280710-2 ISBN 978-0-19-280710-6

Typeset in Miller by Interactive Sciences Ltd, Gloucester Printed in Italy by

Legoprint S.p.A. 1357910864-2

Contents Preface Note on trademarks andproprietary terms



viz viii



Preface The Oxford BBC Guide to Pronunciation gives guidance on the pronunciation of names, words, and phrases. Despite its A-Z format it is not so much a dictionary as a collection of particular pronunciations which are tricky, much debated,

curious, or exotic. It is intended for students, teachers, actors, journalists, broadcasters, and anyone interested in ‘saying things right’. The pronunciations are given in an easy-to-read phonetic respelling and also in the system familiar to users of larger Oxford dictionaries, the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). Information panels and notes discuss particular pronunciation issues in more detail. Its compact size means that it can be accommodated on a crowded desk, or even slipped into a bag, and be referred to quickly. The book’s main source is the BBC Pronunciation Unit’s own database, and the Wide range of topics and languages covered reflects the great diversity of the BBC’s

output. Since its earliest days the BBC has taken pronunciation very seriously. Lord Reith, the first Director General, set up an

Advisory Committee on Spoken English in 1926. This committee included Robert Bridges, the then Poet Laureate, playwright George Bernard Shaw, and phonetician Daniel Jones. Their task was to advise announcers on ‘words of doubtful pronunciation’; they also turned their attention to place names in the British Isles and beyond. The committee

was disbanded with the outbreak of the Second World War. Since then the provision of pronunciation advice within the BBC has been the responsibility of the full—time staff of the Pronunciation Unit. Like our predecessors we are linguists with specific skills in phonetics and languages, and our remit is broad: to research and advise on the pronunciation of any



name, word, or phrase in any language required by anyone in the BBC. It is on our work, and our collection ofapproximately

200,000 pronunciations, that this book is based. For this reason we owe particular thanks to all our predecessors in the Unit and the Advisory Committee, on whose shoulders we stand. We are also indebted to the editors of the English pronunciation dictionaries which are always at our elbow as we work, especially John Wells, Clive Upton, Peter Roach, and Jane Setter, and to those ofpronunciation dictionaries in other languages, in particular Duden Ausspracho wiirterbuch, Larousse Dictionnaire de la Prononciation, and RAJ Dizionario d’Ortografia e di Pronunzia. Thanks are due to Angus Stevenson, James McCracken, Judy Pearsall, and Gillian Evans at OUP, and to Trish Stableford for proof-

reading. At the BBC, this book would not have got off the ground without the support of Guy Strickland, Jenny Martin, and Chris Cullen, and would not have stayed in the air without

Martha Figueroa-Clark and Nick Marcus. Lena Olausson Catherine Sangster

Note on trademarks and proprietary terms This dictionary includes some words which have, or are asserted to have, proprietary status as trademarks or otherwise. Their inclusion does not imply that they have acquired for legal purposes a nonproprietary or general significance, nor any other judgement concerning their legal status. In cases where the editorial staff have some evidence that a word has proprietary status this is indicated in the entry for that word by the label trademark, but no judgement concerning the legal status ofsuch words is made or implied thereby.

Introduction About the book Ourjob in the BBC Pronunciation Unit is to help broadcasters correctly pronounce anything they may need to say, and this book is a distillation of our advice. Compared to a standard pronunciation dictionary, therefore, its contents are more varied and the balance is shifted away from words towards proper names and other encyclopedic entries. The pronunciations we have chosen include those for famous people, capital cities, rivers and other geographical features, plants and animals, food and drink, scientific terms, drugs and diseases, musical instruments, composers and their works, and characters from literature and myth. We have selected only those words and phrases which we believe a native speaker of English might be unsure how to pronounce, rather than supplying a larger, more exhaustive set of lexical items. Any such selection process will of course be subjective, and our broad scope means that many interesting pronunciations will inevitably be missing from this small book. However, we decided it best to adopt a magpie-like approach, informed by the usual eclecticism of a day’s work in the Pronunciation Unit, where we regularly flit from news stories to music to drama to quizzes or science programmes. For each entry (with the exception ofa few family names for which multiple pronunciations are possible) we give just one correct pronunciation. VVhere more than one pronunciation would be acceptable we do not list all the possible slight variants, but where variant pronunciations are significant or noteworthy they are discussed in a note. The pronunciations

must reflect one particular accent, and in most respects this is the standardized accent of British English known as Received Pronunciation. However, our English pronunciations do not


reflect any systematic model of RP in terms of features such as yod coalescence (ch and j instead of ty and dy in words like Tuesday and seduce): for this level ofdetail readers should consult an English pronunciation dictionary such as the

Longman Pronunciation Dictionawjy, the Oxford Dictionmy ofPronunciationfor Current English, or the Cambridge English Pronouncing Dictionary. This topic is discussed further in the Respelling and IPA sections of this introduction and also the panel on BBC English. Gaddafi, Mu’ammer (also Qaddafi) Libyan head of state muu-um-uhr guh-dah-fi /mo,/\me(r) ga'do:fi/, Arabic [I‘1'111'AII"lI1'18(I‘) qao'Oae:fi] - Established anglicization; see ARABIC paneL

Personal names are listed surname-first for ease of location, although pronunciations of full names are given in their natural order. Significant variant spellings are given, as are unusual plural forms. If both a non-standard plural and a regular -s plural are possible, this is indicated in a note. A brief definition indicates nationality or language where appropriate, and helps confirm that you are looking at the right entry: this is not a full-scale dictionary-type definition. The pronunciation is given first in respelling, and then in IPA;

in some cases native IPA will also be given in square brackets. Cross-references and indications of established anglicizations are given in short (bulleted) notes, and longer notes (between ruled lines) discuss more complex aspects such as variant pronunciations or common mispronunciations. Abbreviations used: AM = American English BR = British English

pl. = plural sing. = singular

Pronunciation policy How does the Pronunciation Unit decide what the ‘right’ pronunciation is? Our work is mostly concerned with foreign pronunciations, and here we consult native speakers as often


as possible. The BBC World Service currently broadcasts in over thirty languages, and we work closely with the different language teams. We have a network of contacts outside the BBC, such as embassies, universities, and museums. We also hold a wide range of specialist pronunciation dictionaries and other written material that has been collected since the days of the Advisory Committee on Spoken English. All our foreign pronunciations are subject to a degree of anglicization. Our general aim is to recommend pronunciations that are as close as possible to the native language in question, but modified slightly so that they still flow naturally

in an English broadcast. The level of anglicization has altered over the years as broadcasters and audiences have become more familiar with the sounds of foreign languages and the BBC has served an increasingly global audience. There

are also what We call established anglicizations, which are foreign names that have accepted English forms, either of both spelling and pronunciation (e.g. Warsaw for Polish Warszawa), or just of pronunciation (e.g. Paris). We always recommend that established anglicizations are used wherever

they exist, as using a native pronunciation instead can confuse the listener, or even sound affected. For more on this topic, see the Anglicization panel. Personal names, foreign or English, are researched with the owner ofthe name whenever possible. For English place names our aim is to recommend a standardized version of the local pronunciation. However, the Pronunciation Unit has never issued any recommendations in regard to British dialects, so we would certainly not insist that someone with a northern accent use a long ah in Bath, even though that is the local pronunciation—and vice versa for Newcastle. VVhere more than one form is used locally it can still be useful to recommend a single pronunciation, for the

sake of consistency. VVhen deciding on recommendations for particular English words we rely heavily on other specialist English pronouncing dictionaries. Sometimes our particular experience can guide us on certain words that always seem to cause


controversy. Our advice on words like kilometre, schedule, and controversy itself, for which more than one pronunciation is listed in the many dictionaries we consult, is that both pronunciations are acceptable and can be defended if we should receive complaints. However, programme makers sometimes find it useful to know if audiences dislike one particular form, and may in certain contexts find it ‘safer’ to

go for the more traditional pronunciation. When providing this context for our users we make it very clear that it is not a judgement of right and wrong on our part, and we do our best to encourage announcers to use whichever form feels natural

in their speech. Our aim is to reflect current spoken language, not, as some people think, to set and uphold a fixed standard for all to emulate. This is no easy task. Language is in constant

flux, and it can be tricky to avoid ‘holding back the tide’ by recommending pronunciations which are too old-fashioned, while at the same time not giving ‘new’ pronunciations before they have become established. We want to acknowledge language change, not instigate it ourselves. Panels Panels discussing pronunciation of specific languages, as well as some other topics, are dispersed throughout the book. We have included panels on Accents, Anglicization, Arabic, BBC English, Clicks, Czech, Dutch, French, Gaelic, German, Greek, Italian, Japanese, Latin, Polish, Portuguese, Spanish, Swedish, Tone, and Welsh, and top ten lists of mispronunciations, pronunciation complaints, and most frequently asked pronunciations. They appear in the appropriate place in the alphabet in the A—Z text. These brief discussions are based on language notes put together by past and present members of the Pronunciation Unit. Native speakers and various reference books were also

consulted. The panels are intended to provide an overview of the pronunciation of the language in question, giving some specific pronunciation tips and spelling-to-sound conversions where possible, in line with our anglicization policy. They are



not intended to give a complete account of that language. We often refer to these panels in the main text, when we feel that the context they provide can be of interest and help clarify a recommendation, for example in the many Latin entries. Respelling The BBC Pronunciation Unit uses an in-house phonetic

spelling system for all written recommendations. It is based on English spelling conventions and should be easily understood by anyone whose native language is English. We do not expect programme makers to be able to use the alphabet ofthe International Phonetic Association (IPA). The phonetic respelling used in this dictionary is based on that used in the Pocket Oaford English Dictionary, but

is similar to the BBC in-house system in many ways. As with the BBC system, it is based on the sounds of English with the

addition of some common non-English sounds such as the front rounded vowels found in French and German.

Consonants b as in bat ch or tch as in church

kh as in Scottish loch or German ich (IPA will disambiguate) I as in leg m as in man

r as in red 5 as in sit Sh as in shop

g as in get

n as in not

h as in hat

‘ll as in top th as in thin th asin this V as in van

ng as in sing

w as in will

hl as in Welsh llan

ng-g as infinger

j as lIl_]£l7n k as in king

nk as in thank p as in pen

y as in yes z asinzebra

Vowels a as in cat e as in bed

uh as in along (‘schwa’)

d as in day

f as infat

i as in pin O as in top

u as in cup uu as in book

ah as in calm aras in bar Biras in hair

zh as in vision

aw as in law ee as in meet 00 as in soon ur as infur



ay as in say eer as in beer oh as in most oor as in poor or as in corn ow as in cow oy as in boy

y as in cry

oe as in French pen or coeur (IPA will disambiguate) oey as in French fauteuil ue as in French vu or Germanfiinf (IPA will disambiguate)

(n g) after a vowel indicates that it is nasalized. a(ng) as in French

vin ah(ng) as in French blanc

o(ng) as in French bon oe(ng) as in French un

Our respellings, unlike many which appear in dictionaries, acknowledge word-final or pre-consonantal R, as in words like hair and party, which is pronounced in some varieties of English (rhotic accents) and not in others (non-rhotic accents). The BBC Pronunciation Unit’s written advice has always included R where it appears in the spelling, on the

assumption that this will be pronounced by those with rhotic accents, and not by those with non-rhotic accents. Therefore Parker is transcribed as par~kuhr, not pah-kuh.

Stress and syllables Syllables are separated by hyphens, and stressed syllables are marked in bold. Secondary stresses are not given. In unusually long names and words more than one syllable may be marked with stress, and in those cases the IPA will indicate which is primary and which is secondary stress. The way the words are broken into syllables in the respelling is not an attempt to reflect actual syllabification in a given language. Rather, it is a tool to reinforce vowel pronun-

ciations and to ensure the most intuitive transcription. Vlfhen a vowel is long (a long monophthong or a diphthong) or is schwa (uh), the consonant which follows it is placed at the start of the following syllable, if there is one: for example,

pee-tuhr for Peter and puh-tay-toh for potato. When a vowel is short, however, the consonant which follows is placed in the same syllable. The place name Reading, for example, would be transcribed red-ing, not re-ding, which might be confused with the pronunciation ree-ding. VVhen there are


two consonants we split them between the syllables zjbotball is

fuut-bawl. We double S in contexts where an English speaker might otherwise pronounce it as Z, as in ha nss for German Hans. We also double R when it is preceded by a short vowel and followed by another vowel, as in marr-i for marry, merr-i for merry, sorr-i for sorry, mirr-uhr for mirror, and hurr-i for hurry, in order to avoid confusion with, for example, ar-i-uh for aria. IPA

The pronunciation of each entry is also represented using the alphabet of the International Phonetic Association (IPA). These phonemic transcriptions are enclosed by slashes: / /. The IPA transcription represents exactly the same pronunciation that is given in the respelling. However, because a slightly larger range of symbols is used, some sounds can be expressed more precisely in the IPA. For instance, the sound represented as kh in the respelling could either be as in Scottish loch or as in German ich. The IPA uses two different symbols (X and Q) for these two sounds, and so it serves to disambiguate the pronunciation. As with the respelling, the set of sounds used in the IPA transcriptions consists ofthe basic Sounds of English with the addition of a small number of other sounds. The IPA transcriptions also acknowledge Word—final or pre-consonantal R. Because this sound is pronounced in some accents of English and not in others, it appears in brackets in the IPA transcription. Our IPA transcription is a little more basic than some others which appear in larger pronouncing dictionaries. We do not indicate any other optional sounds by bracketing, italicization, or superscription, and we do not allow for syllabic consonants. In other respects the model of transcription we have applied in this book is that used in all current larger Oxford dictionaries. When the pronunciation given is an established anglicization a second IPA transcription is often included. This gives a native pronunciation for the benefit of those familiar with



the IPA. These pronunciations are enclosed by square brackets: [ ]. In these transcriptions the symbol r is used to denote all r sounds, including the French uvular and the Spanish alveolar trill.

The set ofsymbols used for the main IPA transcriptions are: Consonants b as in bat d as in day fas infilt g as in get

h as in hat j as inyes k as in king las in leg m as in man I1 as in not

Vowels a as in cat 8 as in bed I as in pin i as in cosy D as in top A as in cup

p as in pen

6 as in this

I‘ as in red S as in sit t as in top V as in van W as in will Z as in zebra

I as in shop 3 as in vision if as in church

I] as in sing B as in thin

0: as in law 111 as in soon

(13 as injam

i as in Welsh llan X as in Scottish loch c as in German ich

y as in French vu Y as in German

fiinf AI as in my ao as in cow el as in say

B as in French pen G3 as in French coeur

U as in book

GU as in most

11'->1 as in French

0 as in along

01 as in boy Ia as in beer

(1! as in calm

U9 as in poor

E: as in hair 9: as infin it as in meet

AI8 as infire 309 as in hour


E as in French vin 51 as in French blanc 5 as in French bon G3 as in French un

The symbol I after avowel indicates that the vowel is long. The symbol "' above a vowel indicates that it is nasalized.

Stress Primary stress is marked with ' preceding the stressed syllable. If there is also a secondary stress this is marked with a preceding,.


A 83 basaltic lava

ah-ah /'u:u:l Aachen city, Germany

ah-khuhn /'o:xan/ Aallln, €l- city, Western Sahara

uhl y-oon /el A1'l.1ZI1/ Aalborg see Alborg Aaliyah American singer

ah-lee-yuh /o:'li:ja/ Aalsmeer village, Netherlands ahlss-meer /o:ls'm1a(r)/ Aalst city, Belgium ahlst fuzlstl This is the Flemish name. The French name is Alost, pronounced al-ost. Aalto, Alvar Finnish architect and

designer al-var ahl-toh /,alvu:(r) 'u:ltao/ Aarhus see Arhus Aaron biblical name

air-uhn ]'e:ren/ Abaco island, Bahamas

ab-uh-koh /'abakau/ Abadan port, Iran

ab-uh-dahn /aba'du:n/ Ahagnale Jr, Frank American conman ab-uhg-nayl /'abegne11/ Abakan city, Russia

ab-uh-kahn /,aba'ka:n/ abalone edible mollusc ab-uh-loh-ni /,aba'laoni/

Abancay city, Peru

Abbeville town, France ab-veel /ab'vi:l/ Abbeville city, US ab-i-vil /'abiv1l/ abducens nerve cranial nerve

ab-dyoo-suhnz /ab'dju:sanz/ Abdnllah II King ofJordan ab-dul-uh /ab'dAlo/ Abdul Rahman, Thnku Malayan statesman

tuunk-oo ab-duul rah-muhn /,tonku: ,abdo1 ‘ruzmenf Abednego biblical name ab—ed-nee—g0h /absd‘ni:gao/ Commonly 5155 uh-bed-nuh-goh. Abel, Karl Fl'ie(ll'iCl'l German


karl freed-rikh ah-buhl /,ka:(r)l _fri:clric 'u:ba1/ Abel, Niels Henrik Norwegian mathematician

neelss hen-rik ah-buhl /,ni:ls _hsnrik 'a:bel/ Abeokuta city, Nigeria ab-ay-ok-oo-tah /a'be1oku:,ta:/ Sometimes anglicizcd to ab-i-oh-KOO-tuh.

Aberdonian relating to Aberdeen ab-uhr-doh-ni-uhn /_aba(r)'deonian/ Aberfan village, Wales ab-uhr-van /aba(r)'van/ aberrant departing from accepted standard

uh-berr-uhnt /a'berant,'

ab-an-ky /aban'kA|/ Abbas, Fer-hat Algerian nationalist

Abertawe Welsh name for Swansea

leader fuhr-hat uh-bass /fa(r),hat a'bas/ Abbas, Mahmoud Palestinian

Aberystwytll town, Wales ab—uhr-ist-with /,abar'1stw16/ Abia state, Nigeria ab—i-uh /'abia/ Abidjan port, Cote d’Ivoire


makh-mood ab-ahss /max_mu:d a'bo:s/ AIJIJC, Ernst German physicist

airnst ab—uh /,s:(r)nst 'abe/ abbé abbot or other cleric ab-ay /'abe1/

ab-uhr-tow-ay /,abar'taoe1/

ab-ij-ahn /_abi'd3o:n/ Abitlll‘ German examinations

ab-it-oor /,ab1'tua(r)/ Abizaid, John American general

uh-biz-ayd /abr'zeid/

Abkhazia | Acebes, Angel


Abkhazia autonomous region, Georgia uhp-khah-zi-uh /ap'x:1dbra/ al dente cooked so as to be still firm when bitten al den-'tay/al'dsnte1/ alder tree

awl-duhr /'o:lda(r)/ Alder Hay hospital, England

awl-duhr-hay /_o:1da(r) 'he1/ Alderney island, England awld-uhr-ni /':|:1da(r)nij Aldi German discount store chain 8|-di /'a1di/

Aldis lamp trademark signalling lamp awl-diss /'o:1d1s/ Aldiss, Brian English science fiction writer awl-diss /'o:ldIs/ Alegranza island, Spain al-eg-ran-thuh ,fale'granl-lo,’

aleikum esalaam Arabic greeting uh—lay-kuum ess—uh-lahm /a_lerkom sse‘1c1:m/ Alenqon town, France al-ah(ng)-so(ng) /alo's5/ Alentejo region and former province, Portugal

al-en-tay-zhoo ,/alsn'teI3u:/ aleph letter of the Hebrew alphabet

ah-let /'u:l£f/' Aleppo city, Syria uh-lep-oh /a'1spau/ Established anglicization. The Arabic name

is Halab, pronounced hah-lahb.

Alesi, Jean French racing driver

zhah(ng) al-ay-zi /,3£i a'Ie1zi/ Aletschhorn mountain, Switzerland ah-letch-horn /'n:1ctj‘,h0:(r)n/ Aleut ethnic group inhabiting the Aleutian Islands

al-i-oot /'a1iu:t/

Aleutian Islands I allosaurus


Aligarh city, India

Aleutian Islands islands, US

ul-ig-ar /All'g(1Z(I‘)/ uh-loo—shuhn /a'1u:j‘an/ Alexandre, Boniface Haitian president Alighieri, Dante Italian poet and writer

dan-tay al-ig-yair-i /ldantei alrgjezril

bon-if-ass al-uhk-sah(ng)d-ruh /bonrfas alak‘sf1dra/ Alexandria port, Egypt al-eg-zahn-dri-uh /,alsg'zc1:ndria/

Aline loch and river, Scotland al-in /'al1n/ Alitalia Italian airline al-it-ahl-i-uh /al1‘to:lia/ aliyah immigration to Israel

' Established anglicization.

alfalfa leguminous plant

a|—fal-fuh /al'falfa/ Alfa Romeo car manufacturer al—fuh ruh-may-oh /,alfa ra'me1ao/ Alfvén, Hannes Swedish physicist

uh-lee-yuh /a'ii:ja/ Aliyev, Heydar Azerbaijani statesman hay-dar al-ee-yef /,heido:(r) a'1i:jsf/ Allah ‘God’ (Arabic)

han-uhss al—vayr| /_hanas aI've1n/

uh-lah /a'lo:/

algae sing. alga sea-weed al-jee, sing. al-guh /'aId3i:/, sing. /‘alga,’ The plural is commonly also

Algarve province, Portugal

al-garv /a1'gu:(r)v/, [al'garva] Q Established anglicization. algebra area of mathematics al-juh-bruh /'ald3abra/ Algecii-as port, Spain

al-juh-sirr-uhss /,a1d3a's1ras/, [alxe'8iras] I Established anglicization.

Algeria country

al-jeer-i-uh /al'd3|arie/ ~ Established anglicization. Algiers capital of Algeria al-jeerz /al‘d3Ie(r)z/ ~ Established anglicization. Algol star

al-gol /'algn1/ Algonquin American Indian ethnic

group al-gunk-win /al'gn13kw1n;' Algren, Nelson American novelist awl—gruhn /'o:1gran/ alhaji Muslim who has been to Mecca uhl-haj-i /e1'had3i/ Alhambra fortified Moorish palace

al-ham-bruh /a1'hambra/ Ali, Laila American boxer

lay-luh ah-lee /,1e1la a:'li:/ Ali, Muhammad American boxer

muh-ham-uhd ah-lee /ma_hamad c1:'li:/ Alicante port, Spain

al—ik-an-ti /alrkanti/, [alrkante] 1 Established anglicization.


A more anglicized pronunciation, al-uh, is

sometimes also used.

Allahabad city, India a|~uh-huh-bahd /,a1aha'bu:d/ Allawi, Iyad Iraqi politician

y—ad uh-lah-wi /mad a'lu:wi/ allay diminish

uh-lay /a'le1/ Allegheny city, river, mountain, and college, US

al-uh-gayn-i /_ala'ge1ni/ allegretto musical term

al—uh—gret—0h /,ala'gr:.-ttaof Allegri, Gregorio Italian priest and composer greg-awr-i-oh al—eg-ri /gragozriao a'1egri/ allegro musical term uh-leg-roh /a‘legreo/ allemande German dance al-mahnd ,"almc1:nd,l Allende, Salvador Chilean statesman

sal-vad-or al-yend—ay /salva,do:(r) al'jende1/ allergen substance that causes an allergic reaction

al-uhr-juhn /'ala(r)d3an/ Allerod geological stage al-uh-roed /'alaro:d/ Allie!‘ river, France

al-yay /al'je1/ Alliot-Marie, Michele French defence minister

mee-shel al-i-oh marr-ee/mi:_js1 ali,au ma'ri:/ allosaurus carnivorous dinosaur al-uh-sawr-uhss /,ala'so:res/

alloy I alumna alloy metal

al-oy /'a1a1/ alloy mix to make an alloy uh-loy /a'loI/ Almagest astronomical treatise

al-muh-jest /'a1mad3est/ almanac annual calendar awl—muh-nak /'o:lmanak/ Commonly also ol-muh-nak and al-muh-nak.

Almaty city, Kazakhstan al-mah-‘tuh /al‘mn:to/ Almeria town and province, Spain

al-merr-ee-uh /,a1ma'ri:a/ almirall cupboard or wardrobe al-my-ruh /8l'1T1AII'8/ Almirante Brown city, Argentina

al-mirr-an-tay brown /almrranter 'braon/ Almodovar, Pedro Spanish film director

ped-roh al-mod-oh-var /,pedreo a1mo'daovo:(r)/ Almond, Marc English singer

ah-muhnd }'o:n1and/ almond nut ah-muhnd /'o:mand/ Less commonly also ahl-muhnd or


alms money or food given to poor people ahmz jozmzj

Almqvist, Carl Jonas Love Swedish


alp dwez /_a1p ‘dwez! Alplla Centauri star

al-fuh sen-taw-ry /,alfa ssn'to:r1u/ Alphaeus biblical name

a|-fee—uhss /al'fi:as/ Alpheus Greek god

al-fee-uhss /al'fi:as/ Alpujarras mountainous region, Spain

al-poo-kharr-ass /alpufxaras/' Alsace region, France

a|—zass /al'zas/ AlSl;0l'n French engineering firm

al-stom /‘alstom/ Altai (also Altay) region, Russia

al-ty /al'tA1/ Altair star

aI~tair /'alt£:(r)/ Altamura town, Italy

al-tuh-moor—uh /alta'moara/ Altdorfer, Albrecht German painter

al-brekht alt-dor-fuhr /,a1brsct 'altdo:(r)fo(r)/ Althing Icelandic parliament awl-thing /'o:lB1I]/ Altl10l‘p family home of the Earl Spencer

awl-thorp /'o:1B:):(r)p/ The family pronunciation has traditionally always been awl-truhp, although awl-thorp

was usual for the village. In 2000 the estate released a press statement saying that

henceforth it would be known as awl-thorp, and we changed our recommendation accordingly.


Altlltlssel‘, Louis French philosopher

karl yoo-nuhss loo-vuh aim-kvist

lwee al-tue-sair /_lwi: alty'se:(r)/ altimeter instrument for recording altitude

/_kua(r)l _ju:nas _1u:va 'almkv1st/ aloe vera gelatinous substance al—oh veer-uh /,a1ao 'v1are/ aloha Hawaiian greeting

uh-loh-huh /a'1aohe/

al-ti-mee-tuhr /'alt1mi:ta(r)/ Altman, Robert American film director

aw|t—muhn /'a:ltman/

alopecia partial or complete absence of hair al-uh-pee-shuh /_ala'pi:_[a/

alto singing voice

Alor Setar city, Malaysia

al—tro0—iz-uhm /'a1tro1zam/ aluminium metal

ah-|0r suh-tar /,u:1o:(r) sa'tc1:(r)/ Alost see Aalst Aloysius British b0y’s name

al-oh-ish-uhss ,/alao'1_[as/ alpaca South American mammal related to the llama at-pak-uh /a1'paka/ Alpe (l’Hllez mountain, France

al-toh ,"altao/ altruism selfless concern for others

al-oo-min-i-uhm /alu:'m1niem/ AM is usually (1l1L?7Li1lZLfl1., pronounced

uh-loo-min-uhm. alumna pl. alumnae female former student uh-lum—nuh, pl. uh-lum-nee /0'lAl1‘ll'19/, pl. /~ni:,'

13 alumnus pi. alumni male former student

uh-lum-nuhss, pl. uh-Ium-ni /9'lAI1’lI13S/, pl. /-ni/ alveolus small cavity, pit, or hollow al-vi-oh-luhss ,l,alvi'ao1as/ Alwyn, William English composer

al-win /'a1w1n,' A1zheimer’s disease progressive mental deterioration

alts-hy-muhrz /'altsh1urna(r)z,' Amalfi port, Italy uh-mal-fi /a‘ma1fi/ amalgam a mixture or blend uh-ma!-guhm /a'malgam/ Amalthea moon of Jupiter

am-uhl-thee-uh /ama1'9i:a/ Amapa state, Brazil

am-uh-pah /,ama'po:/ Amarah, al- town, Iraq

uhl uh~mar-uh /al a'mu:ra/ amaretti Italian biscuits

am-uh-ret-i /,ama'reti,’ Amarillo city, US am-uh-ril-oh /ama'r11au/ Amaterasu Shinto god uh-mah-tuh-rah~soo /a,mci:ta'ro:su:/ Amati Italian violin-maker

uh-mah-ti /a'mu:tif Amatola mountain range, South Africa

am-uh-toh-luh /ama'taole/' Amazon river, South America

am-uh-zuhn ]'amazan/ Amazonas state, Brazil

am-uh-zohn-uhss /,ama'zaonas/ Ambala city and district, India

uhm—bah—|uh /am'bu:la/ Ambanja town, Madagascar

uhm-bahn-juh /am'ba:nd3e/ Ambato town, Ecuador am-bah-toh /am'bo:taU/ Ambes town, France

ah(ng)-bess /€1'bss/ Ambohimanga city, Madagascar am-buu-hi—mang—guh /am,bohi'mar|ga/ AJl1l)0Il island, Indonesia

am-bon /am'bnn/ Amchitka island, US

am-chit-kuh /am'tI1tka/ Amec British engineering company

am-ek /'amsk/

alumnus | Amirante Islands ameliorate make better uh-mee—Ii-uh-rayt /a'mi:liareIt/ amen uttered at the end of a prayer

ahgmen /o:'msn/

W pi



Commonly also ay-men.

Amenabar, Alejandro Spanish film director

al-ekh-and-roh am-en-ah-bar /aleflxandrao ams'no:bu:(r)/ Amenhotep Egyptian pharaoh

ah~muhn-hoh-tep /,ci:man'heotep/ americium chemical element

am-uh—riss—i-uhm /,ama'r1siam/

Ames city, Iowa eymz /e1mz/ Ameslan American Sign Language am-uhss-Ian /'amaslan/ amethyst precious stone am-uh-thist /'ama01st/ Amharic Ethiopian language

am-harr-ik /am'harrk/ Amherst town, US

am—uhrst /'ama(r)st/ Amicus trade union for manufacturing and technical workers

am-ik-uhss /'am1kas/ amicus curiae pl. amici curiae ‘friends of the court’ (Latin)

uh-my-kuhss kyoor-i-ee, pl. uh-mee-see /amiukes 'kjoarii:/, pl. /a,mi:si:/ Legal Latin is ofizen anglicized; see LATIN panel. A more classical pronunciation,

uh-mee-kuhss kyoor-i-y, pl. uh-mee-ki, is also possible.

Amiens town, France am-ya(ng) /am'jé/ Amin, Idi Ugandan dictator

ee-di uh-meen /_i:di a'mi:n/ Amindivi Islands group of islands, India

am-in-dee-vi /,amm'di:vi/ amino class of acids

uh-mee-noh /a'mi:nau/ Less coinmonly also uh-myn-oh.

amir Muslim title uh-meer /a'm1a(r)/

Amirante Islands group of islands, Seychelles

am-irr-ant /'am1rant/

Amis, Kingsley | anaesthetic Amis, Kingsley English writer

king-zli ay-miss /_kn]zli'e1m1s/ Amish Christian sect

ah-mish /'o:rmI/ Amman capital of Jordan uh-mahn /a'mo:n/ ammeter instrument for measuring electric current am-muh-tuhr /'amata(r)/ amniocentesis process in which amniotic fluid is sampled

am-ni-oh-sen-tee-siss f,amniaosen'ti:s1s/ Amoco British oil company

am—uh-koh /'amaka0/ amoeba pl. amoebae single-celled animal

uh-mee-buh, pl. uh-mee~bee /e'mi:ba/, pl. /-bi:/ ~ Standard -s plural is also possible. amontillado Spanish sherry

uh-mon-til-ah-doh/a,mnnt1'lc1:dau/, [am0nti'/Kaoo] I Established anglicization. Amos Hebrew prophet

ay-moss /'e1mns/ Amos, Baroness Guyanese-born politician

ay-moss /'e1mos/ amoxicillin penicillin

uh-moks-i-sil-in /a,mnksi's1lm/ Amoy another name for Xiamen uh-moy /a'mo1/ Ampere, André-Marie French physicist

ah(ng)-dray marr-ee ah(ng)-pair /r'1,dre1 ma_ri: (1'ps:(r)/ ampere unit of electric current am-pair /'amps:(r),'

ampersand sign 8: am-puhr-sand /'ampa(r)sand/ amphibious suited for both land and water

am-fib-i-uhss /am'fibias/ Amphitrite Greek goddess am-fit-ry-ti /,amf1'tr1uti/ amphora pl. amphorae ancient Greek or Roman jug


am-pool /'ampu:l/ Sometimes also amp-yool.

AMRAAM Advanced Medium Range Air-to—Air Missile

am-ram /'amram/ Alnritsal‘ city, India

um-rit-suhr /am'r1tsa(r)/ Amstel river, Netherlands

am—stuhl /'amstaI/ 0 Established anglicization. Amsterdam capital of the Netherlands am-stuhr-dam /'amsta(r)dam/, [,clmstar‘dom] Established anglicization. A more Dutch

pronunciation, with stress on the last

syllable, is also common. Amll Darya river, central Asia

ah-moo dar-i-uh /_o:mu: 'dn;ria/ amulet small piece ofjewellery

am-yoo-Iuht /'amjo1at/ Amun-Ra ancient Egyptian god am-uhn rah /,aman 'ra:/ Amundsen, Roald Norwegian explorer

roo-al ah-muun-suhn /,ru:al ‘uzmunsanf Amtlr river, NE Asia uh-moor /a'mue(r),/

amygdala pl. amygdalae part of the brain

uh-mig-duh-luh, pl. uh-mig-duh-lee /9'm1gd-ale/, pl. /-1i:/

Anabaptism doctrine that baptism should only be administered to believing adults an-uh-bap—tiz—uhm /,ana'bapt|zam/ anachronism thing appropriate to a period other than that in which it exists uh-nak-ruh-niz-uhm /a'nakra,n1zam/ Anacreon Greek poet

uh-nak-ri-uhn /a'nakrian/ Anadyr city and river, Russia

uh-nad-eer /a'nadia(r)/

pl. /-ri:/

anaemia deficiency of red cells or of haemoglobin in the blood uh-nee-mi-uh /a‘ni:mia/ anaesthesia insensitivity to pain an-iss-thee-zi-uh /,anis'0i:zia/

Q Standard -s plural is also possible.

anaesthetic substance that induces

am-fuh-ruh, pl. am-fuh-ree /'amfara/, ampoule glass capsule containing a


insensitivity to pain

an-iss-thet-ik /,an1s'9stIk/

anaesthetist | Andorra


anaesthetist one who administers


uh-neess-thuh-tist /a'ni:s9at1st/ Anaglypta trademark type of wallpaper

an-uh-glip-tuh /,ana'gl1pta/ Anah, al- town, Iraq uhl an-uh /ai 'ane/

Anaheim city, US an-uh-hym /'anahAIm/ analgesia inability to feel pain an-uhl-jee-zi-uh ,l,anal‘d3i:zia/ analogue a person or thing seen as

comparable to another an-uh-log /‘analog/' Anambra state, Nigeria

a n-am-bruh /a'nambra/ ananda extreme happiness

ah-nun-duh /ClZ'I1AI1Cl9/ Ananias biblical name an-uh-ny-uhss /,ana‘n1i1as/

an-ky-seez /an'k1\1si:z/ anchorite religious recluse

ank-uh-ryt /'a1]kerAIt/ anchovy small shoaling fish

an-chuh-vi /'antj"avi/ The old-fashioned pronunciation an-choh-vi is rarely heard now.

ancillary providing support to the primary activities of an organization an—Sil~uh-ri /an'si1ari/ Ancona port, Italy

an k—Oh-nuh /a1]'kaona/ Ancre river, France

ah(ng)-kruh /'f1kra/ Andalusia region, Spain

an-duh—loo—si—uh /,anda'1u:sia/ Established anglicization. The Spanish form is Andalucia, and is pronounced

an-dal-oo-see-uh locally, and an-dal-oo-thee-uh in standard Spanish.

Anantnag province, Kashmir

Andalusian relating to Andalusia uh-nunt-nuhg /a'nAntnag/ an-duh—lo0-si-uhn /,anda'1u:sian/ anapaest metrical foot Andaman and Nicobar Islands an-uh-peest /'anapi:st/ groups of islands, Bay of Bengal and-uh-muhn nik-uh-bar /'andaman Commonly also an-uh-pest. 'mkabo:(r)/ anaphora use of a word referring back to andante musical term a word used earlier an-dan-tay /an'dante1,' uh-naf-uh-ruh /a'nafera/ anaphylaxis extreme allergic reaction

an-uh~fil-ak-siss /,anaf1'1aks1s/ anaptyxis insertion of a vowel to aid pronunciation an-uhp-tik-SiSS /_anap't1ksIs/ Anastacia American pop singer an-uh-stay-zhuh /ana'stei3a/ Anastasia Russian princess

an-uh-stah-si-uh /ana‘sto:sia/ anastrozole breast cancer drug uh—nast-ruh-zohl ,/a'nastrazaol/ Anatolia western peninsula ofAsia an-uh-toh-Ii-uh /,ana'taolie/ Anaxagoras Greek philosopher an—ak—sag-uh-ruhss /,anak'sageras/ Anaximander Greek scientist an-ak-sim—and-uhr /a_naks1'mande(r)/ Anaximenes Greek philosopher an-a k—sim-uh-neez /,anak's1meni:z/ Anbar, al- province, Iraq

uhl uhn-bar /el an'bu:(r),l Anchises Greek mythological character

Andean relating to the Andes

an-dee-uhn /an'di:an/ Sometimes also an-di-uhn.

Andelfingen district, Switzerland

an-duhl-fing-uhn /‘anda1,f1nan/ Andersen, Hans Christian Danish author

hanz krist—yuhn an—duhr-suhn /,hanz ,kr|stjen 'anda(r)san/

' Established anglicization. Andes mountain system, South America

and-eez /'andi:z/ ' Established anglicization.

Andhra Pradesh state, India

ahn-druh pruh-daysh /,c1:ndra pre'de1I/ Andijan city, Uzbekistan

uhn-dij-ahn /andI'd3u:n/ andiron metal stand an-dy-uhn /‘and/item Andorra autonomous principality between France and Spain an-dawr-uh /an'do:ra/

andouille | Annapolis Commonlyialso an-dorr-uh.


ang-kor /'ank0:(r)/

andouille type of pork sausage o(ng)-dwee /i1'dwi:/, French [f1'duj]

Anglesey island and county, Wales

Andress, Ursula Swiss actress

Angola country

ur-syuul-uh and-ress /,a:(r)sju1a 'andrEs/ v Established anglicization. Andrié, Ivo Bosnian writer ee-voh and-ritch /,i:vao 'andrrtj'/ Androcles Roman fictional name

and-ruh-kleez /'andrak1i:zl androgen male sex hormone

and-ruh-juhn /'andracl3an/ Andromache Greek mythological


an-drom-uh-ki /an'dromaki/ Andromeda Greek mythological character

an-drom-uh-duh /an'drnmade/ Andropov, Yuri Soviet statesman

yoor-i an-drop-u hf /_juari an'drnpaf/ anechoic free from echo

an-ek-oh-ik /ana'kau1k,I anemometer instrument for measuring wind speed an-uh-mom-it-uhr /,ane'mnm1ta(r),/

anemone plant uh-nem-uh~ni /a'nsmeni/ aneurysm swelling of the wall of an artery

an-yuu-riz-uhm /'anjur1zam/ Angelico, Fra Italian painter

frah an-jel—ik—oh /,fru: an'd3s11keu/ Angelfln, Maya American novelist

and poet

my-uh an-juh-loo /,m:ua 'and3alu:/ Angers town, France ah(ng)-zhay /fi'3e1/ Angers, Avril English actress

av-reel ang-guhrz /,avri:l 'anga(r)z/ Angevin dynasty of English kings an-juh-vin /'and3evm/ ' Established anglicization. Angharad Welsh girl’s name

ang-harr-ad /ar]'harad/ angina medical condition

an-iy-nuh /an'd3nine/ angioplasty surgical unblocking of a blood vessel

an-ji-oh-plast-i /'and3ieo_p1asti/ Angkor capital of the ancient kingdom of


ang-guhl-si /'angalsi/ ang-goh-luh /an'geula/ angora cat, goat, or rabbit of a long—haired breed

ang-gawr-uh /an'g0:ra/

Angstrom, Anders Jonas Swedish physicist

an-duhrsh yoo-nuhss ong-stroem /,ande(r)_f ,ju:nas 'm]strom/ angstrom unit of length

ang-struhm /'anstram/ Anguilla island, the Caribbean

ang-gwil-uh /ar]'gwIla/ Anhui province, China an-khway /,an'xwer/ animadversion criticism or censure an-im-uhd-vur-shuhn /_an1mad've:(r)_l‘an/ animatronics technique of making and operating lifelike robots an-im-uh—tron—iks /,an1ma'trnn1ks/ animé Japanese animation an-im-ay /'anImeI/ anion negatively charged ion an-y-uhn /'3.l‘|AI3!1/ anise Mediterranean plant

an-iss /'an1s/ Anisoptera group of insects

an-y-zop-tuh-ruh /,anA1'znptare,' AnjOll former province, France

ah(ng)-zhoo /f1'3u:;‘ Ankara capital of Turkey

ank-uh-ruh Fankarej ilnkh cross-like design

ank /a1]k/

ankylosaur herbivorous dinosaur ank-il-uh-sor /'ai]kr1as:|:(r)/ ankylosis stiffening of a joint

ank-il-oh-siss /_ai]k1'laos1s/ Annaba port, Algeria an-uh-buh /'anaba/ Anna Karenina novel by Tolstoy

an-uh kuh-ren-in-uh /_ana ka‘rsn1naj Q Established anglicization. Annan, Kofi Ghanaian Secretary General of the United Nations koh-fi an-an /,kaofi 'anan[

Annapolis city, US uh-nap-uh-liss /a'napalIs/



Anglicization When the Pronunciation Unit advises on the pronunciation of foreign

names, words, and phrases, we make recommendations which are as close as possible to the original language. However, we do not expect a perfect reproduction of all non-English sounds. This would be contusing and disruptive for audiences and would also be quite a challenge for broadcasters! Therefore, our recommendations include anglicizations which make speaking and understanding easier. Some simplification is also necessary to give written advice for pronunciations using a respelling system. Our respelling system includes English sounds and also some other consonant and vowel sounds,

for instance the Welsh hl as in llan and the French oe as in coeuar.

Established anglicization of names Many names of foreign countries, rivers, and cities have established

anglicizations: that is, standard ways in which they are pronounced or spelled when they are referred to in English. These established anglicizations are those listed in gazetteers, atlases, and dictionaries. Examples include parr-iss (not parr-ee) for Paris and tib-lee-si for Tbilisi. Examples of established anglicized spellings (for which the pronunciations also differ, of course) include Turin for Torino, Munich for

Miinchen, and Lyons for Lyon. W'here these names appear in this book the native version and an approximate pronunciation is given in a usage note. It is important to note that established anglicizations are

not invariably used in an English-language context: for example, the football team of the city Basle is called FC Basel. The Pronunciation Unit’s recommendations take all these established anglicizations into account. Anglicizations for major place names are usually uncontroversial, but can change over time (e.g. Marseilles, Niger; Majorca). Official spellings or transliterations of

names can also change (e.g. Kollcata, Beijing), which can lead to further changes in established anglicized pronunciations. Less commonly, anglicization can apply to people’s names as well as place names (e.g. Michael Schumacher); this is particularly common with high-profile people in the areas of international sport, showbusiness, and politics. We research the level of anglicization which a particular person prefers for their name before making recommendations.

Established anglicization of words and phrases Words and phrases in languages other than English often appear in an English—language context. Topics such as music, science, literature,

Annapurna I Antananarivo


food and drink, dance, and sport provide many examples. When these words are treated as foreign the Pronunciation Unit makes recommendations which are as close as possible to the original language, subject to the usual simplifications. However, when these words and phrases are taken into English they are generally pronounced using only English sounds, and in such cases a more anglicized recommendation is more appropriate. For example, the French phrase trompe I’aeil is usually pronounced tromp loy in English, rather than tro(ng)p loey. As with place names, these anglicizations too can change over time. The , title of the Spanish novel Don Quixote used to be anglicized to don

, kwik-sot, but this is now rather dated, and don kee-hoh-ti is the angli~ cization we now recommend. Words borrowed from other languages are often initially given foreign pronunciations, and then anglicizations

‘ become established: sudo/cu is an excellent example of this.

Annapurna mountain, Nepal

aniuphjpoor-nuh /,ana'poa(r)na/

sometimes anglieized to alniolhipur-noh.l it annatto orange-red dye

uh-nat-oh /a'nataU/ anneal heat and then cool slowly

uh-neel /a'ni:1/ Annecy town, France

an-see /an'si:/ Annigoni, Pietro Italian painter

pyet-roh an-ig-oh-ni /,pjetrao an1'geuni/ annihilate destroy utterly

uh-ny-il-ayt f8'I1AIIl9Ii/ Annobén island, Equatorial Guinea

an-uh-bon /ana'bon/ Anno Domini ‘in the year of the Lord’ (Latin)

an-oh dom-in-y /_aneu 'dummru/ annus horribilis ‘disastrous year’ (Latin)

an-uhss horr-ee-bi!-iss /,anas hn'ri:bIl1s/ annus mirabilis ‘auspicious year’ (Latin) an—uhss mirr-rah-bil-iss /,anas m1'ra:b111s/ anode positively charged electrode an—ohd /'anaod/ anodyne not likely to cause offence

an—uh-dyn /'anedA1n/ anomaly deviates from what is standard uh-nom-uh-Ii /e'nome1i/

anopheles mosquito uh-nof-il-eez /a'nnfili:z/ anorexia nervosa pathological slimming compulsion

an-uh-rek-si-uh nur-voh-suh /,ane_rsksIe na:(r)'veuse/ Anouilh, Jean French dramatist

zhah(ng) an-wee /,3f1 an'wi:/, [anuj] ANOVA statistical analysis of variance

an—oh-vuh /a'naova/ Ansar al-Islam Iraqi militant group un—sar uhl iss-lahm /Al'l'S(1Z(I') al 1s‘lc1:m/ Anschluss annexation of Austria by Germany in 1938

an-shluuss /'an_f1os/ Anselm, St Italian—born philosopher and theologian

an-selm /‘anselm,' Anshan city, China

an-shan /,an'Ian/ Antabuse trademark for disulfiram ant-uh-byooss /'antabju:s;' antacid preventing acidity an-tass—id /an'tasId/ Antaeus Greek mythological character

an-tee-uhss /an'ti:as/ Antalya port, Turkey

an-tal-yu h /an'ta1ja/ Antananarivo capital of Madagascar un-tun-uh-nuh-ree-voo /1in,tAnana'ri:vu:/

Antares | APEC


Antares star an-tar-eez /an'tu:ri:z/ antebellum occurring before a war

an-ti-bel-uhm /,anti'bslam/ antecedent thing that precedes another an—tiss—ee-duhnt /,ant1‘si:dant,' antepenult the last syllable but two in a word

an-tip-uh-nult /_antIpa'n/ilt/ Anthemius Greek mathematician

an-thee-mi-uhss /an'Bi:mies/ anthracite coal of a hard variety an—thruh—sy‘t /'anBrasA1t/ anthrax serious bacterial disease

an-thraks /'an9raks/ Antibes port and resort, France

ah(ng)-teeb /fi'ti:b/ anticipatory happening in anticipation of something

an-tiss-ip-uh-tuh-ri /an't1sipa_tari,! Antigone Greek mythological character

an-tig-uh—ni /an'ugani/ Antigua town, Guatemala an-teeg-wuh /an'ti:gwa/

Antigua and Barbuda island state, Leeward Islands

an-tee-guh /an'ti:ga/ Antilles group of islands, West Indies

an-til-eez /an't1li:z/ 8IltiIn8.CaSSfl.l‘ piece of cloth put over the

back of a chair

an-ti-muh-kass-uhr /,antima'kasa(r)/ antimony chemical element an—tim-uh-ni Fantlmanij Antioch city, Turkey

ant—i-ok ,I'antink/ antipathy feeling of aversion an-tip-uh-thi /an'tlpe6i/ antiphon short sentence sung before or after a psalm an-tif-uhn /'ant1fan/ Antipodes Australia and New Zealand

an-tip-uh-deez /an't1padi:z/ Antisthenes Greek philosopher and teacher

an-tiss-thuh-neez /an't1s9ani:z/ antithesis pl. antitheses opposite

an-tith-uh-siss, pl. an-tith-uh=seez /an'ti8asls/, pl. /-si:z/ Antlia constellation an-tli-uh /'antlia/

Antofagasta port, Chile ant-of-ag-ast-uh /,antofa'gasta/ Antoninus Pius Roman emperor

an-tuh-ny-nuhss py-uhss /,anta,n.\mas 'pAI9S/ Antonioni, Michelangelo Italian film director

meek-uh-Ian-juh-Ioh an-toh-ni-oh-ni /mi:ka,land3alau antaunieunil Antwerp port, Belgium ant-wurp /'antwa:(r)p,! Established anglicization. The Flemish name is Antwerpen, pronounced unt-wairp-uhn, and the French form is Anvers, pronounced ah(ng)-vair.

Anubis Egyptian god of the dead

uh-nyoo-biss /a'nju:b1s/ Anuradhapura city and district, Sri Lanka

an-uu-rahd-u h-poor-uh ;',anu:ru:da'poara/ Anvers see Antwerp Anwar, Mina English actress

mee-nuh an-war /_mi:na 'anwu:(r)/ Anzoétegui state, Venezuela an-swat-eg-ee /ans'wategi:/ ao dai Vietnamese long-sleeved tunic

ow dy /‘av ,dz\1/ Aoraki official name for Mount Cook, New Zealand

ow-rak-i /au'raki/ aorta main artery of the body ay-or-tuh /e1'0:(r)ta/ Aosta city, Italy

ah-ost-u h /u:'nsta/ Aotearoa Maori name for New Zealand

ow-tay-uh-roh-uh /ao,teia'raoa/ Aozou Strip disputed desert land, Chad ow-zoo /au'zu:/ Apache American Indian ethnic group uh-patch-i /a'pat_\‘i/ apartheid South African policy of segregation uh-part~hayt /a'pu:(r)the1t/ This is the Afrikaans pronunciation, and the one most common in English. Less common

is uh-part-hyd.

apatosaurus herbivorous dinosaur uh-pat-uh-sawr-uhss ]e_pata's0:ras/ APEC Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation ay—pek /'e1pek/

Apeldoorn I appoggiatura


Apeldoorn town, Netherlands

part of the accepted canon of Scripture

ap-uhl-dorn /'apaldo:(r)n/ Apelles Greek painter

uh-pok-rif-uh /a‘pokrrfa/ apogee highest point

Established anglicization. The Italian name

ap-uh-jee /'apad3i:/ Apollinaire, Guillaume French poet gee-yohm ap-ol-ee-nair /gigjaum apoli:'ne:(r)/

is Appennino, pronounced ap-en-ee-noh.

Apollinaris bishop of Laodicea in Asia

uh-pel-eez /e'ps1i:z/ Apennines mountain range, Italy

ap-uh-nynz /'apanA1nz/

aperitif alcoholic drink taken before a meal uh-perr-it-eef /a,per1'ti:f/ aphasia impaired speech after brain damage uh-fay-zi-uh /a‘fe|zia,f aphelion pl. aphelia point furthest from the sun

ap-hee-Ii-uhn, pl. ap-hee-li-uh

Apollyon name for the Devil

uh-pol-yuhn /a'po1jan/ apophthegm concise saying or maxim

ap-uh-them /'ape6em/ apoplectic overcome with anger

apostasy abandonment of a religious or

flpl10l'iSm pithy observation

af-uh-riz-uhm /'afar1zam/ aphrodisiac substance that stimulates sexual desire af-ruh—diz-i-ak /,afre'd1ziak/ Aphrodisias ancient city of Asia Minor

af-ruh-diss-i-uhss /,afra'd1sios/ Aphrodite Greek goddess af-ruh-dy-ti /,afra'dA1ti/ Api mountain, Nepal ah-pi /'u:pi/ Apia capital of Samoa

political belief

uh-pO5t—uh-Si /a'postasi,l apostolic relating to the Apostles

ap-uh-stol-ik /,apa'stol1k/ apostrophe punctuation mark

uh-post-ruh-fi /e'pnstrafi/ apothecary person who prepared and sold medicines uh-poth-uh-kuh-ri /a'poBakari/ apotheosis highest point

uh-poth-i-oh-siss /a,pnHi'aus1s/ Appalachian Mountains mountain

ah-pee-uh /c1:'pi:e/

system, North America

apiary place where bees are kept

ap-uh-lay-chuhn /.apa'le1t_[an/

ay-pi-uh-ri /'e1piori/

Appaloosa North American breed of horse ap-uh-loo-suh /,apa‘lu:sa/

apical relating to an apex

ap-ik-uhl /'ap1kal/ Apis Egyptian mythological god ah-piss ,l'u:p1s/

ap-uh-loh-ni-uhss /_apa'1aonias/

ap-uh—p|ek-tik /,apa'plekt1k/

/ap'hi:lien/, pl. /-lia/

Sometimes also ay-pik-uhl;

Minor uh-p0l—ln—air-iss /e,pol1'na:r1s/ Apollonius Greek mathematician

W" V W *7’


apnoea temporary cessation of breathing

ap-nee-uh /ap'ni:a/ Sometimes also ap-ni-uh.

apocalypse destruction on a catastrophic scale

uh-pok-uh-lips /a'pt>kal1ps/ apocope omission ofthe final sound of a word uh~p0k-uh-pi /a'pokapi/ apocrinc relating to a type of skin cell ap-uh-kryn ,/'apakr1un/ Apocrypha biblical writings not forming

appellant person who appeals to a

higher court

uh—pel—uhnt /e‘palant/ appellation name or title

ap-uh-lay-shuhn /,apa'le1j‘an/ appendectomy removal of the appendix

ap-en-dek-tuh-mi f_apen‘dsktami/ Appenzell canton, Switzerland

ap-uhn-tsel /'apantss1/ Appian Way road southward from


ap-i-uhn /'apian/ applique ornamental needlework uh-plee-kay /a'pli:ke1/

appoggiatura musical term uh-poj-uh-tyoor-uh /a,ppd3a'tjuara/

apricot | arbitrary


apricot fruit ay-prik-oht /‘e1pr1kot/ Sometimes also ap-rik-ot.

a priori knowledge which comes from theoretical deduction ay pry-avvlry /,e1 pr1ni:ErA1/ Also ah pri-aw-ri.

apropos with reference to

a-pruh-poh /,apra'pao/ Apuleius Roman writer

ap-yuui-ee-uhss /_apjo'1i:as,' Apulia region, Italy

uh-pyoo-Ii-uh /a'pju:1ia/ Established anglicization. The Italian name is Puglia, pronounced pool—yuh ['pu/Ma].

Apurimac region, Peru

ap-oo-ree-mak /apu:'ri:mak/ Apus constellation

ay~puhss /'e|pas/ Aqaba port, Jordan ak-uh~buh flakebef Aqsa, al- Palestinian militant group uhl uk-suh /a1'Akse/ Aquae Sulis Roman name for Bath

ak-vvy soo-liss /,akw1u 'su:l1s/ aquamanile water container

ak-wuh-muh-ny-Ii /_akwama'n1\11i/ Aquarius constellation

uh-kwair-i-uhss /a‘kwe:rias/ aquatic relating to water uh-kwat-ik /e'kwatIk/ Less commonly also uh-kwot-ii;

aquavit Scandinavian spirit

ak-wuh-veet /akwa'vi:t/ aqua vitae spirit

ak-wuh vy-tee /,akwe 'v1nti:/ Sometimes also vee»ty; see Latin panel. aqueous of or containing water

ay-kwi—uhs$ /‘e1kwias/ Aquila constellation

ak—wil—uh /'akwi1a/ Aquila city, Italy

ak-wee-luh /'akwi:1a/ Aquinas, St Thomas Italian philosopher uh-kwyn-uhss /a'kwAInas/ Aquitaine region and former province, France

ak-wi-tayn /,akwi'tem/, [akiten]

' Established anglicization.

Ara constellation ar—uh ,/'o:ra/ Arabiyah, al- Arabic TV station

uhl arr-ab-ee-yuh /al ara'bi:je/ Aracaju port, Brazil

arr-uh-kuh-zhoo /,arake'3u:/ Arachne Greek mythological character

uh-rak-ni /a'rakni/ arachnophobia fear of spiders

uh-rak-nuh-foh-bi-uh /a_rakne'faobia/ Arafat, Mount Mountain, Saudi Arabia

arr—uh-fat /'arafat/, Arabic [?ara'faa:t] l Established anglicization. Arafat, Yasser Palestinian statesman

yah-sirr arr-uh-fat /,ju:srr 'arafat/, Arabic Ljaezsir ?ara'fw:t] v Established anglicization. Arafiira Sea sea between Australia,

Indonesia, and New Guinea arr—uh—fo0r-uh /,ara'foaro/ Aragon autonomous region, Spain

arr-uh—guhn /'arogan/ Aragorn character from The Lord qfthe Rings

arr-uh—gorn /'arag:):(r)n/ Ara] Sea inland sea, central Asia

arr-uhl /'ara1/ Aramaic ancient Semitic language arr-uh-may-ik /_ara'menk/ Aramis character in The Three Musketeers

arr-uh-miss /"ararn1s/ Aranyaka Hindu sacred treatise

arr-uhn-yak-uh /,ara'njaka/ Arapaho North American Indian people

uh-rap-uh-hoh /a'rapahao/ Ararat, Mount volcanic peaks, Turkey arr—uh-rat /'ararat/

araucaria tree arr-aw-kair-i-uh /_ar:::'ke:ria/ Arawak South American ethnic group

arr-uh-wak /'arawak/ Arbil see Erbil arbitrage simultaneous buying and selling in different markets

ar-bit-rahzh /'a:(r)b1tru:3/ Sometimes also ar-bit-ri}.

arbitrary random

ar-bit-ruh-ri /'a:(r)b1trari/





Arabic belongs to the Semitic family of languages. With over 150 million native speakers, it is one of the world’s major languages. There are two main forms of Arabic, literary Arabic and colloquial Arabic. Literary Arabic is the standard form: it is the language of the Koran, and is used in the media. Colloquial Arabic comprises the various spoken dialects in everyday usage. Giving recommendations for Arabic pronunciation is complicated by the fact that there is so much variation between different forms of , Arabic. Also, our advice is based on spellings transliterated into the l Roman alphabet, but the transliterations used can be inconsistent and ‘ arbitrary. The Arabic given here is, as always, somewhat anglicized in line with BBC policy and the constraints of phonetic respelling.

Vowels Literary Arabic has three vowels, which can be either long or short, although the quality of these vowels, particularly A, can be realized in many different ways. A is generally pronounced a when short and ah when long. Mohammed is moh-ham—uhd, and Talabani is tah-luh-bah-ni. Short A is sometimes closer to u, next to certain consonants. Qadri is

kud-ri. Long A is sometimes closer to air, but when no R is present in the orthography, we render this sound as ah. This retains the length (which determines stress), but compromises the quality. I is pronounced i when short and ee when long. U is pronounced uu when short and 0o when long. Colloquial Arabic also allows for E and O. E is pronounced e when short and close to ay when long. O is pronounced o when short, and close to oh or aw when long. Some of these vowel qualities are commonly reduced to schwa (uh) in anglicized Arabic. Arabic has two diphthongs. Variously transliterated as AI, AY, EI, or

EI, the first of these is commonly pronounced y in literary Arabic, and ay in colloquial Arabic. This why it is so common to hear names like Mohamed ElBamdez' pronounced both barr-uh-dy and barr-uh—day. The . other diphthong is transliterated AU or AW, and is pronounced ow in literary Arabic, and oh in colloquial Arabic.

Consonants The Arabic alphabet contains all the consonant sounds of English



apart from g, p, and v. There are also many sounds which do not occur ~ in English, some ofwhich are difficult to represent in the respelling. All instances of kh refers to the sound in Scottish loch, never to that of German ich. B, D, F, K, L, M, N, T, and Z are pronounced as in English in anglicized Arabic. DII is pronounced th as in there. GH is pronounced as kh, but with added voicing (i.e. pronounced with vibration of the vocal chords. IPA is [Y]). This sound is always anglicized to g. H is pronounced as h, but can appear in any position in Arabic. We tI'y to reflect this in names such as/lhmed, although due to the restrictions of the respellings we represent this sound as kh in this dictionary. This is not ideal, but is better than leaving it out altogether. J and DJ are pronounced j. In North African dialects, where there is influence from French, J is often pronounced zh. KH is pronounced kh. ‘ Q is pronounced as k, but further back in the mouth (IPA is [q]). This

sound is always anglicized to k. SH is pronounced sh, but beware of syllable breaks between S and H. [sham is iss-hahm. TH is pronounced th.

i .

’ is a voiced pharyngeal fricative (IPA is [i']). This is not always tran-

scribed, and is sometimes expressed as an A in the spelling instead, for example Ba.’th or Baath. This is not a sound we can retain in anglicized pronunciations. The L in the article al/el is silent before the so-called sun letters, i.e. the sounds t, th, d, th, 2, s, sh, I, n, and zh. Al-Zarqawi is uh-zuhr-kah-wi. In a native pronunciation the initial consonant of the following word is doubled to compensate (see more about long Arabic consonants below). This phenomenon is sometimes reflected in the transliteration, and so the Iraqi city Najafmay be spelt an-Najaf as well as al-Najajf

Stress Stress is determined by syllable length and structure, but as a general guide stress is placed on the last syllable containing a long vowel or on the vowel immediately preceding a doubled consonant. As with Italian, the double consonant is not a feature we can retain. Faruq is farr-ook and Muammar is moo-um-uhr. If all vowels and consonants are short, and the word has more than two syllables, stress falls on the antepenultimate syllable. Hanafi is han-at-i.

A1-bois I Argentine


Arbois city, France ar-bwah /u:(r)'bwu:;’ arborea] living in trees ar-baw-ri-uhl /u:(r)'bo:riolf Arbuthnot, John Scottish physician and writer

ar-buth-nuht /u:(r)'bA6nat/ Arcadia mountainous district, Greece

ar-kay-di-uh /u:(r)'ke1dia/ 0 Established anglicization. Arcady ideal rustic paradise ar-kuh-di l‘u:(r)kadi/ arcana secrets or mysteries ar-kay-nuh ,'u:(r)'keina/

ar-den /u:(r)'den/ Ard Fheis an Irish party political conference ard esh /o:(r)d 's_l'/


ark duh tree-o(ng)f /_u:(r)k de tri:':'>f/ Archaean geological term

ar-kee-uhn /u:(r)'ki:an/ archaeopteryx prehistoric bird ar-ki-op-tuh-riks /_u:(r)ki'nptar1ks/ archaic old or old~fashioned

ar-kay-ik /a:(r)'kenk/

/_c|:(r)dne'ma:(r)xan/ are unit of measurement ar /u:(r)/ Arena], Mount volcano, Spain arr-en-al /are'nal/ Arendt, Hannah German—born American philosopher

ar-uhnt /'o:ront/ areola pl. areolae small circular area

uh-ree-uh-luh, pl. uh-ree-uh-lee

Archangel port, Russia

ark-ayn-juhl/'u:(r) ke Ind3el/ Established anglicizatiodiillussian I name is Arkhangelsk, pronounced

ar-khan-guhlsk [8I"X3I‘lQjll5Sl{].

/a'ri:ale/, pl. /-1i:/ Areopagitica poem by Milton arr—i-op-uh-jit-ik-uh /,arinpe'd3Itika/ Commonly also arr-i-op-uh-git-ik~uh.

Arequipa city, Peru

archangel angel of greater than ordinary rank

ark-ayn-juhl /‘o:(r)kemd3al/ T

Archilochus Greek poet

ar-kil—uh-kuhss /o.:(r)'k1lakas/ Archimedes Greek mathematician ar-kim-ee-deez /_Cl1(I')l(I'ITli2Cll2Z/ archipelago group of islands ar-kip-el-uh-goh /_u:(r)k1'palagau/ archivist person who maintains archives ar—kiv-ist /'o:(r)k1v1st/ archosaur reptile ar-kuh-sor /'o:(r)kaso:(r)/ ARCIC Anglican Roman Catholic

International Commission ar—kik /'c|:(r)k1k/ Arctogaea zoogeographical area ark-tuh-jee-uh /_o:(r)kta'd3i:a/ Arcturus star

Ardea village, Italy

France, and Luxembourg

ar-diz-oh-ni /_c1:(r)di'zauni/ Ardnamurchan peninsula, Scotland

in Paris

ark-tyoor-uhss fu:(r)k'tjoaras/

Ardennes forested region in Belgium,

Ardizzone, Edward British artist

Arc de TI'i0n'lpl‘le ceremonial arch


ar-day-uh /'u:(r)de1a/ Ardeche river and department, France ar-desh /c1:(r)'ds_f/

arr—ek—ee-puh /_ara'ki:pe/ Ares Greek god air—eez /'s:ri:z,' aréte sharp mountain ridge

uh—ret /e'ret,l Arezzo city and football club, Italy uh-ret—s0h /a'rstseo/ Argeles-Gazost resort, France

ar-zhuh-less gaz-ost /u:(r)3a,las ga'znst/ argent silver

ar—juhnt /'ci:(r)d3ant/ Argenta town, Italy

ar—jent-uh /o:(r)'d3enta/ Argentiere village, France

ar-zhah(ng)-tyair /u:(r)3€i'tje:(r)/ Argentina country

ar-juhn-tee-nuh /_a:(r)d3en'ti:na/, Spanish [arxen'tina]

Q Established anglicization. Argentine relating to Argentina ar-juhn-tyn /'o:(r)d3antArn/


Argentinian relating to Argentina ar-juhn-tin—i-uhn /,u:(r)d3an'tmian/ Arges river, Romania

ar-jesh /'i1:(r)d3e_[/ Argo constellation ar-goh /'c1:(r)gao/ argon chemical element ar-gon /'o:(r)gnn/ Argonauts Greek mythological characters

ar-guh-nawts /'u:(r)gana:ts/ A1'g0S city, Greece

ar—g0ss /'n:(r)gos/ argosy large merchant ship

ar—guh-si ,"o:(r)gasi/ argot jargon ofa particular group

ar-goh /‘o:(r)geu/ Argyll and Bute council area, Scotland ar-gyl byoot/o:(r)‘gA11'bju:t/ Arhus (also Aarhus) city, Denmark

or-hooss /'o:(r)hu:sl Ariadne Greek mythological character arr-i—ad-ni /,ari'adni/ A1-ica city, Chile arr—ee-kuh la'ri:ka/ Ariege river and department, France

arr-i-ezh /ari'e3/ Ariel moon of Uranus

air-i-uhl /'e:rialf Aries constellation air-eez /'s:ri:z/

Arimidex trademark drug uh-rim-id-eks /a'r1mideks/ arioso musical term

arr-i-oh-zoh /_ari'aozeo/ Ariosto, Ludovico Italian poet

lood-uh-veek-oh arr-i-ost-oh /lu:da_vi:keu ari'ostau/ Aristarchus Greek scholar

arr-ist-ar-kuhss /,ari'stu:(r)kes/ Aristide, Jean-Bertrand Haitian statesman

zhah(ng) bair-trah(ng) arr-ist—eed /341 be:(r),tr(1 aris'ti:d/ Aristides Greek statesman and general

arr-ist-y-deez /,£ll‘I'SlAIdlZZ/' Aristippus Grcck philosopher

arr—ist-ip-uhss /,ar1‘st|pasf Aristophanes Greek comic dramatist arr-ist-of-uh-neez I,ar1'stnfani:z/ Aristotelian relating to Aristotle

arr-ist-uh-tee-Ii-uhn /,ar1sta'ti:lian/

Argentinian | Armstrong, Louis Aristotle Greek philosopher and scientist arr-ist-ot-uhl /‘aristotal/ arithmetic branch of mathematics

uh-rith-muh-tik /e'ri6mat1k/ arithmetic relating to arithmetic

arr-ith-met-ik /_3I‘I6'm£lll(/ Arkansas city and state, US

ark-uhn-saw /’o:(r)kanso:/ The river Arkansas in Kansas, however, is


Arkhangelsk see Archangel Arlanda airport, Sweden

ar-lan-duh /'n:(r)landa/ Aries city, France arl /o:(r)l/ Arlon town, Belgium

ar-lo(n9) /11:(r)']:3/ armadillo insectivorous mammal

ar-muh-dil-oh /,o:(r)me'd11au,l Armageddon last battle before the Day of Judgement

ar-muh-ged-uhn /,u:(r)ma'gsdan/ 'Armagh county, Northern Ireland

ar-mah /o:(r)'mu:/' Armagnac French brandy ar-muhn-yak /'a:(r)manjak/ Armani, Giorgio Italian fashion designer

jor-joh ar-mah-ni /‘d3o:(r)d3eo o:(r)'mo:ni/ Armenia country ar-mee-ni-uh /o:(r)'mi:nia,/ ' Established anglicization. Armenian, Raffi Canadian composer and conductor

raf-i ar-mee-ni-uhn /'rafi a:(r)'mi:nien/ armistice agreement to stop lighting

ar-mist-iss /'o:(r)mist1s,' Armitage, Richard American politician

ar-mit-ij /'ci:(r)mIt|d3/ armoire cupboard or wardrobe ar-mwar /o:(r)'mwu:(r)/ Armstrong, Louis American jazz musician

loo-iss /'lu:is/ This was his preferred pronunciation, despite the popular pronunciation of his

name as loo-i.

Arne, Thomas | ASCII Arne, Thomas English composer arn /u:(r)n/ Arnhem town, Netherlands

ar-nuhm /'u:(r)nam/ Arno river, Italy ar-noh /'u:(r)nao/ arpeggio musical term

ar—pej—oh /u:(r)'pad;-',ao/ Arquette family name of American actors Patricia, Rosanna, and David ar-ket /u:(r)'k:-:t/ Arras town, France

arr-uhss /‘ares/, [aras] - Established anglicization. Arrhenius, Svante Swedish chemist

svan-tuh arr—ay-ni-uuss /'svanta a'reInios/ arrhythmia irregular heartbeat

uh-rith-mi-uh /a‘r1omia/ arrivederci ‘goodbye’ (Italian) arr-iv-ed-air-chi ,/arIve'ds:(r)t_l'i/ arriviste ambitious or selflseeking person

arr-i-veest /,ari'vi:st/ arrondissement subdivision of a French department

arr-on~deess-mo(ng) /,arnn'di:smf)/, [arfidismfij - Established anglicization.

Arroyo, Gloria. MaeapagalPhilippine president

glaw-ri-uh mak-uh-puh-gal arr-oy-oh /_glo:ria makapagal a'r:>1au/ arsenic chemical element

ar-suh-nik /'ci:(r)san1k/

Artalld, Antonin French actor

ah(ng)-toh-na(ng) ar-toh /(1tau'né (1:(r)'tau/ Artaxerxes king of ancient Persia ar~tuh-zurk-seez /,u:(r)ta'za:(r)ksi:z/ art deco decorative art style art dek-oh /,u:(r)t ‘dskaol Artemis Greek goddess art-im-iss /'o:(r)t1m1s/ Arte Povera Italian artistic movement ar-tay pov-uh-ruh /_o:(r)tei 'pnvara/ arthritis painful inflammation of the joints

arth-ry-tiss /u:(r)'9r/\1t1s/ Arthropoda phylum of invertebrate


ar-thruh-poh-duh /,u:(r)9ra'paoda/

26 articulatory relating to the formation of

speech sounds ar-tik-yuul-uh-tuh-ri /u:(r)'t1kjolatari;' Sometimes also ar-tik-yoo-lay-tuh-ri. artifice clever devices or expedients

ar-tif-iss /'u:(r)t1fis/ artisan worker in a skilled trade

ar-ti Z-3 n /,u'(r)t1' . Z3 nf Sometimes also ar—tiz-an.

art nouveau style of decorative art and design

art noo—voh /_ci:(r)t nu:'vau/ Artois region and former province, France

ar-twah /c1:(r)'twu:/ Aruba island, Caribbean

uh-roo-buh /e'ru:ba/ arugula rocket plant uh-roo-guh-luh /e'ru:gala,'

Arunachal Pradesh state, India arr-oo-nah-chuhl pruh-daysh /aru:,nu:t_l"a1 pra'de1_l"/ Arundel town, England

arr-uhn-duhl /'arende1/ Arwen character from The Lord Qf'th.e Rings ar-wen /'u:(r)wsn,’ Aryabhata. Indian astronomer

ar-yuh-bah-tuh /,u:(r)ja‘bci:ta/ Aryan ethnic group air—i-uhn /'a:rian/ arytenoid cartilage at the back of the larynx arr—it-ee—noyd f|&I‘I'tiI1'lI)I(l/ as ancient Roman coin

ass fasf asana yoga posture

ah—suh-nuh /'c1:sana/ Asansol city, India ass—uhn-sohl /,asan'sao1/ Asante see Ashanti

ASBO Anti-Social Behaviour Order az-boh /"azbao/ ascetic characterized by self—discipline

uh-set-ik fa'sstIk/

Ascham, Roger English scholar and writer ask-uhm /'askam/ ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange

ask-i /'aski/


Asclepius I astigmatism

Asclepius Greek mythological character uh-Sklee-pi-uhS5 /a'skli:pias/

ASLEF Associated Society of Locomotive

AS001; town, England

az-lef /'azlsf/ Asmara capital of Eritrea

ask-uht /'askat/ ASEAN Association of South-East Asian

Engineers and Firemen

ass-mar-uh /as'ma:re/


Asoka see Ashoka

ass-i-an /'asian/

aspartame sweet substance

Asgard world in Scandinavian mythology

ass—gard /'asgo:(r)d/ Ashanti (also Asante) region, Ghana

uh-shan-ti /a'Ianti/ Ashdod seaport, Israel

ash-dod /aj"dnd/ Asher Hebrew patriarch

ash-uhr /'aIa(r)/ Ashgabat (also Ashkhabwd) capital of Turkmenistan

ash-khuh-bat /aj‘xa‘bat/ Ashkenazi Jew of central or eastern European descent ash—kuh-nah-zi /,aj'ka'nu:zi/ Ashkenazy, Vladimir Russian—born pianist vluh-dee-meer ash—kuh-nah-zi /vla_di:mIa(r) _a_[ka'n:ba(r)n,/ Aubusson town, France; also carpet made there oh-byoo-son /Koobjusnn/, [obyso]

29 ~ Established anglicization. Auchterarder town, Scotland

okh-tuhr-ar-duhr /,nxta(r)'o:(r)da(r)/ Auckland city, New Zealand

awk-luhnd /'o:kland,|' an courant aware of what is going on

oh koo-ro(ng) /,ao ku:'rfi/, French [0 kurfi] Auden, W. H. English-born American poet aw-duhn /'o:dan/ Audubon, John James American naturalist and artist

aw-duh-buhn ,"a:daben/ Auerbach, Frank German-born English painter

ow-uhr—bakh /'aoa(r)bax/ au fait having a good knowledge of

oh fay /,ao ‘fell Augean relating to Augeas aw-jee-uhn /o:‘d3i:anf Augeas Greek mythological character

aw-jee-uhss /:i:'d3i:es/ augment change awg—ment /o:g'rnsnt/ Augrabies Falls series of waterfalls, South Africa uh-grah-beez /a'gru:bi:z/ Augsburg city, Germany owks-boork /‘aoksbua(r)k/ augury sign of what will happen in the future aw-gyuu-ri /‘o:gjori/ august respected and impressive aw—gu5t ,/a:‘gnst/ Augusta resort, US aw-gust-uh /:>:'gAsta/ Augustine, St doctor ofthe Church

aw-gust—in /:>:'g1\st1n/ Augustus Roman emperor

aw-gust-uhss /o:'g.\stas/ auk seabird

Auchterarder | autarch Aurangzeb Mogul emperor aw-ruhng—zeb lozranzebl Aurelian Roman emperor aw~ree-li—uhn /o:'ri:lian/ Aurelius, Marcus Roman emperor

mar-kuhss aw-ree-Ii-uhss /,mu:(r)kas o:'ri:lias,f ¢ See LATIN panel. aureole circle of light

aw—ri-ohl /'o:riaol/ Auric, Georges French composer

zhorzh orr-eek /,3a:(r)3 n'ri:k/ auricular relating to the ear aw-rik-yuul-uhr /o:'r1kjo1a(r)/ Auriga constellation

aw-ry-guh /:.>:'rmga/ Aurora goddess of the dawn aw-raw-ruh /o:'r:>:ra/

Aurora Australis southern lights aw-raw-ruh aw-strah-Iiss /a:,ro:ra o:‘stro:l1s/ Aurora Borealis northern lights aw-raw-ruh borr-i-ah-liss /a:,ro:ro bnri'u:l1s/

Auschwitz Nazi concentration camp in Poland owsh-vits /'aoIv1ts/ Auslese German white wine

owss-lay-zuh /'aosle1za/ auspicious conducive to success

aw-spish-uhss /o:'sp1_l‘as/ austere severe or strict ost-eer /n'stia(r),I

Austerlitz, Battle ofbattle in 1805 aw-stuhr-lits /'o:sta(r)11ts/ Austin city, US ost-in /‘nstIn/ Australasia region, South Pacific ost-ruh-lay-shuh /,nstra'le1Ia,' Australopithecus bipedal primate


auld lang syne times long past

/,nstralau'p191kas/ Austria country

awld lang syn /,o:ld Ian 'smn/

ost-ri-uh /'nstria/

awk /aikl

aumbry recess or cupboard in a church

awm-bri /':i:mbri/ Aung San Burmese nationalist leader

owng san /,aun 'san/ Aung San Suu Kyi Burmese political leader

owng san soo chee /aun ,san su: ‘t_I‘i:/

The pronunciation awst-ri-uh is less common now. This is an established anglicization; the German name is

ijsterreich, pronounced oest-uhr-rykh

['o:staraic]. autarch ruler with absolute power

aw-tark /'o:tci:(r)k/

authoritative | Avogadro, Amedeo authoritative able to be trusted as being accurate

aw-thorr-it-uh-tiv /o:'6nr1tat1v/ Less commonly also aw-thorr-it-ay-tiv.

autism mental condition aw-tiz-uhm /'o:t1zam/ Autobahn German motorway

ow-toh-bahn /'aotaobu:n,' Commonly also anglicizedi tojyv¥toEbgagh7n.7 autodidact self-taught person


aw-toh-did-akt /'o:taodidakt/ automaton pl. automata mechanical device made in imitation of a human being

aw-tom-uh-tuhn, pl. aw-tom-uh-tuh /oftnmatan/, pl. /-ta,’ ~ Standard -s plural is also possible. automotive relating to motor vehicles aw-tuh-moh-tiv /,:>:ta'maot1v/ autopista Spanish motorway Ow-‘(Oh-peeSt—uh /_aotao'pi:sto/ Commonly also anglicized to aw-toh-peest-uh. autopsy post-mortem examination

aw-top-si /'o:tDpsi/ Less commonly also aw-top-si.

autostrada Italian motorway ow—toh-strah-duh /,uotao'stro:da/ Commonly also anglicized to

aw-toh-strah-duh. Auvergne region, France

oh-vairn /eo'vs:(r)n/ Auxerre town, France oh—Sair /ao'sa:(r)/ Sometimes erroneously awk-sair.

auxiliary providing additional help and support

awg-zil-i-uh-ri /o:g'z1liari/ Commonly also awk-sil-i-uh-ri.

avalanche mass of snow falling rapidly down a mountainside

av-uh-lahnsh /'avo1n:n_l‘/ Avalon mythical place av-uh-Ion /'avalnn/ avant-garde new and experimental


avast stop! uh—vahst /a'vu:st/ Avastin cancer drug ay-vast-in /e1'vastm/ avatar manifestation of a deity in bodily form av—uh-tar /'avato:(r)/ Avebury village, England

ayv-buh-ri ,"e1vberi/ Aveda American hair and skin care

company uh-vay-duh /a'verda/ Avedon, Richard American photographer

av-uh-duhn /'avadan/ Avellino town and province, Italy

av-el-ee-noh ;‘ave'li:nao/ Ave Maria Catholic prayer

ah-vay muh-ree-uh /,u:ve1 me'ri:o/ Aventine Hill one of the seven hills of Rome av-uhn-tyn /'3V3l'liAl]1/ aver state or assert uh-vur /a'va:(r)/ Avernus Roman mythological name uh-vur-nuhss /a'va:(r)nas/ AVel‘l‘0i§S Spanish—born Islamic philosopher

uh-verr-oh-eez /a'vsraui:z/ Aves class of vertebrates

ay-veez /'eivi:z,/ Avesta sacred texts of Zoroastrianism uh—vest-uh /a'vssta/ avian relating to birds

ay-vi-uhn ,"e1vian/ aviatrix pl. aviatrices female pilot

ay-vi-ay-triks, pl. ay-vi-ay-triss-eez /,e1vi'e1tr1ks/, pl. /-tr1si:z/ Avicenna Persian—born Islamic philosopher

av-iss-en-uh /_avI'ssne/ Avignon city, France

av-een-yoh(ng) /avi:n'j5/

avocet wading bird av-uh-set /'avasst/ Avogadro, Amedeo Italian chemist


and physicist

av-ong gard ,l_avn1j| 'go:(r)d/, French [avfi gard]

am-uh-day-oh av-uh-gahd-roh /amaldelao ava‘go:drao/

avoirdupois | azure


avoirdupois system of weights

av-wa r—dyoo-pwah /,avwo:(r)dju:'pwo:/

Avoriaz ski resort, France av-Orr-i-ah /avori'u:/ avuncular kind towards a less experienced person

uh-vunk-yuul—uhr /a'vm]kjola(r)/ AWACS Airborne Warning And Control System

ay—Wak5 /'e1waks/ Awarua southern tip of New Zealand ah-wuh-roo-uh /o:we'ru:a/ AWOL Absent WithOut Leave

aylz-buh-ri /'e1lzbari/ Aymara South American ethnic group

y—muh-rah /AIl'I‘l9'I‘(]I/ Ayodhya town, India

ah—yohd-yuh /rju:3/, [b5 vwajo:3] bonxie great Skua

bonk-si j‘bm3ksi/ Bonynge, Richard Australian conductor

bon-ing /‘bonny bonze Japanese or Chinese Buddhist teacher bonz /bonzil boojum mythological dangerous animal boo-juhm /'bu:d3am,' Boolean relating to the work of mathematician George Boole

boo-li—uhn /'bu:lian/ boo!‘ rough and bad-mannered person bor /ba:(r)/ Less commonly also boor.

Boiites | boscage


Boiites northern constellation

boh-oh-teez /beo'eoti:z,' Booth, Cherie English lawyer; wife of Tony Blair

shuh-ree booth /ja,ri: 'bu:o/ This British surname is variously

pronounced booth and booth, depending

on individual preference. Boothia, Gulf of gulf in the Canadian

Arctic booth-i-uh /'bu:6ia/ Bophuthatswana region, South Africa

boh-poo-tuht-swah-nuh /,beopu:tat'swu:ne/ bora strong, cold wind baw-ruh /'bo:ra/ Bora-Bora island, French Polynesia

baw-ruh baw-ruh /,bo:ra 'bo:ra/ boracic consisting of boric acid

bu h-rass-ik /ba'rasik,' borage herbaceous plant borr-ij /'bor1d5/ Boris city, Sweden

buu-rawss /bo'ro:s/ Borazon trademark industrial abrasive

baw-ruh-zon /'b:>:razon/ Borbon y Borbon, Juan Carlos de king of Spain

khwan kar-lohss day bor-bon ee

bor—gah-tuh /bo:(r)'gu:ta/ Borgia, C€Si':lI'B Italian statesman

chez-uh-ray bor-juh /,t_1‘szare1 'bo:(r)d3a/ Borgia, Lucrezia Italian noblewoman

loo-kret-si-uh borj-uh /lugkretsia 'bo:(r)d3a/ Boris Godunov opera by Mussorgsky

borr-iss god-uun-of /,bnr1s ,gndunnf/, Russian [bA_r1is goAdo'n0f] ~ Established anglicization. Borlaug, Norman American scientist

bor~lawg /'bo:(r)1o:g/ borlotti bean type ofkidney bean

bor-lot-i /bo:(r)‘iI)ti/

Bormann, Martin German Nazi politician

mar-teen bor-man /,mu:(r)ti:n 'bo:(r)man/ Borneo island, divided between Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei bor-ni—0h /'bo:(r)niao/ Bornholm island, Denmark

born-hohm /"o:>:(r)nheo:m/, ['boenho1m] ~ Established anglicization. Borobudnr Buddhist monument in Java b0rr—0h—buud—00r /,boraobo'doa(r)/ Borodin, Aleksandr Russian composer

al-uhk-sahn-duhr borr-uh-din bor-bon /xwan ,ku:(r)laos del /alak,so:nde(r) 'borad1n/ bo:(r),b'on i: bo:(r)'bon/ Borodino, Battle ofbattle in 1812 in borborygmus rumbling noise in the Russia intestines borr-uh-dee-noh /,bnre'di:nau/ bor—buh-rig—muhss /,bo:(r)ba'r1gmas/ ~ Established anglicization. Bordeaux port, France boron chemical element bor-doh /bo:(r)'dao/ baw-ron /'bo:rnn/ bordelaise served with a sauce of red Borrell, Josep Spanish politician wine and onions zhuuz-ep borr-el /3o_zap bo'rsl/ bor—duh—layz /_b:>:(r)da'1e1z/ Bordet, Jules Belgian bacteriologist and Borromini, Francesco Italian architect immunologist

zhuel bor-day /3y1bo:(r)'de1/ boreal relating to the climatic zone south

of the Arctic

haw-ri-uhl /'bo:rie1/ boreen Irish narrow country road

baw-reen /bo:'ri:n/ Borg, Bjorn Swedish tennis player

byoern borg /,bjm:(r)n ‘b0:(r)g/, [_bjCeI11_ 'borj]

borgata branch of the Mafia

fran-chesk-oh borr-uh-mee-ni /fran,t_[‘eskao ,bora'rni:ni/

Borsalino trademark wide-brimmed hat bor-suh-lee-noh /,b0:(r)sa'li:nao/ borscht Russian or Polish soup borsht /b:>:_(r)_[t/ borzoi Russian Wolfhound

bor-zoy /'bo:(r)zo1;' boscage mass of trees or shrubs bosk-ij /'bnsk1d3/

Boscastle I bourrée


Boscastle village, England b0ss—kah-suhl /'bosku:sel/

Bougainville island, Papua New Guinea boo-guhn-vil /'bu:ganv11/

Bosnia-Herzegovina country boz-ni-uh hurt-suh-gov-in-uh

Bougainville, Louis Antoine de

/,boznia ha:(r)tsa'gnvlna/ Established anglicization. The Bosnian name is Bosna I Hertsegovina, pronounced

boss-nuh ee hairt-suh-gov-in-uh. Bosphorus the Bosporus

boss-fuh-ruhss /'bosfaras,' Bosporus strait connecting the Black Sea with the Sea of Marmara

bosp-uh-ruhss /‘bnsparas/ bossa nova Brazilian dance boss-uh noh-vuh /_bnsa 'naove/ Botha, P. W. South African statesman

boo-uh-tuh /'buate/ 0 This is the Afrikaans pronunciation. Botham, Ian English cricketer bohth-uhm /'bao8am/ This British surname is variously pronounced both-uhm and bohth-uh m, depending on individual preference.

Bothnia, Gulf ofpart of the Baltic Sea both-ni—uh /'bnBnia,l Bothwell, Earl of Scottish nobleman both-wel /'b'oBwal/ bothy (also bothie) small hut or cottage

both-i /'bn6i/

Botox trademark drug prepared from botulin

boh-toks /'baot0ks/ Botswana country bot-swah-nuh /bo‘tswo:na/ Botticelli, Sandro Italian painter

san-droh bot-itch-el-i /,sandrau but1't_|'sli/ botulin bacterial toxin

bot-yuul-in /'bntjol1n/ botulism food poisoning

bot-yuul-iz-uhm /'botjollzam/ bouchée small pastry

boo-shay /'bu:Ie1/ Boucher, Francois French painter frah(ng)-swah boo-shay /frfi,swu: bu:‘_|‘e1/ Boudicca queen of the lceni; also called Boadicea boo-dik-uh /'bu:d1ka,l boudin French black pudding boo-da(ng) /'bu:dé/

French explorer lwee ah(ng)-twahn duh boo-ga(ng)-veel /lwiz €1,two:n do buzgevizll bougie surgical instrument boo-zhi /'bu:3i/

bouillabaisse fish soup boo-yuh-bess /bu:ja'bes/ boulc French form of bowls

bool /bu:l/ Boulez, Pierre French composer and conductor

pyair boo-lez /pjs:(r) bu:'lez/ Boulogne port, France buul-oyn /bn'lmn/, [bulrm] Q Established anglicization. Boult, Adrian English conductor bohlt jbaultl Boulting, Jolm and Roy English film producers and directors bohl-ting /'baoltm/ Boulton, Matthew English engineer bOh|—tuhn /'baoltan/ Bourbaki name of a group of mathematicians

boor-bah-ki /,bua(r)‘bu:ki/ Bourbon European royal house

boor-buhn /'bua(r)ban/, French [burbfi] ~ Established anglicization. Bourbon chocolate-flavoured biscuit bor—buhn /'b:>:(r)ban/ bourbon American whisky bu r-buhn /'be:(r)ban/

Bourbonnais province, France boor-bon-ay /,bua(r)bn'ne1,' bourgeois characteristic of the middle class

boor-zhwah /'bua(r)3wa:/ bourgeoisie middle class boor-zhwah-zee /_boa(r)3wt1:'zi:/ Bourguiba, Habib ibn Ali Tunisian

nationalist and statesman

huh-beeb ib-uhn al-ee boor-gee-buh /ha_bi:b _|ban a,1i: boa(r)‘gi:ba/ bourrée French dance boor-ay /boa're1/

bourse | Bramah, Joseph


brak-i-uh-poh-duh /,bI'akie'peoda,l

bourse French stock market

boorss /boa(r)s/

brachytherapy treatment of cancer

Boursin trademark kind of French soft cheese

boor-sa(ng) /bua(r)'sé/ Boutros-Ghali, Boutros Egyptian diplomat and politician

boo-tross boo-tross gah-Ii /,bu:trns ,bu:trns ‘go:li/ B0llV(-31$ Island Norwegian island in the South Atlantic

boo-vay /bu:'ve1/ bouzouki Greek musical instrument

buuz-oo-ki /bo'zu:ki/

brak-i-therr-uh-pi /|braki'Berepi/ bradawl tool for boring holes

brad-awl /'brado:l/ Bradenham ham trademark dark sweet-cured ham

brad-uhn-uhm /'bradanam/ bradycardia abnormally slow heart action

brad-i-kar-di-uh /_bradi'ku:(r)dia/ brae steep bank or hillside bray fbreil

bovid mammal of the cattle family

Braeburn dessert apple

boh-vid /'haov1d/ bovine relating to cattle boh-vyn /'l)9UVA1l’1[' bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease of cattle; ‘mad cow disease’

bray-burn ,"bre1ba:(r)n/ Braga city, Portugal brah-guh /'bru:ga/ Braganza city, Portugal

boh-vyn spun-ji-form en-kef-uh-lop-uh-thi /,baov1un |spAnd3ifo:(r)m ,s13k£fa'1npe6i/ Bow, Clara American actress b0h /bouf Bowen, Elizabeth Irish-born British novelist

boh-uhn /'baoan/ Bowery street and district in New York City bow-uh-ri /'baoari,l bowhead Arctic whale bOh-hed /'baohed/ Bowie, David English singer b0h—i /'beoil Bowie, Jim American frontiersman

boo-i ,/'bu:i/ l)0Wl8 knife long type of knife

braggadocio boastfill or arrogant behaviour brag-uh-doh-choh /,braga'daotj"au/' Brahe, Tycho Danish astronomer

ty-koh brah-hi /,tA1kau 'bru:hi/, [_ty:ko 'bro:a] ' Established anglicization. Brahma Hindu god

brah-muh /'bro:ma/ Brahman member of the highest Hindu caste brah-muhn /'bro:man/ Brahmanism post-Vedic Indian religion

brah-muh-niz-uhm /'bro:ma_n1zam/

Brahmaputra river, southem Asia bra h-mu h-poot-ruh /,brr1:ma'pu:tra,/ Brahms, Johannes German composer

yoh-han-uhss brahmz /jao,hanes

boh-i /'baoi/


bruh-gan-zuh /bra'ganza/

B if i

Bowles, Paul American writer and CO1T1pOS€I'

bohl; fbaolzf Bowness town, England boh—ness /beu'nas/ Bow Street location in London boh /beo/ Brabant former duchy, western Europe bruh-bant /bro'bant/ Brachiopoda phylum of marine invertebrates

'bru:mz/, ['bra:ms] ¢ Established anglicization. Britlllli Pakistani ethnic group

bruh-hoo—i /bra'hu:i/ Braila city, Romania

bruh-ee-iuh /bra'i:la/ Braille, Louis French educationist

lwee bry /,1wi: 'bm1/ Braille written language for the blind

brayl /breilj Bramah, Joseph English inventor

bram-uh /'brama/

Bramante, Donato I Brignoles Bramante, Donato Italian architect

don-ah-toh bram-an-tay /dn_na:tau


Brazzaville capital of Congo

braz-uh-vil /'hrazav1l/

bra'mante1/ Branagh, Kenneth English actor, producer, and director

Brecht, Bertolt German dramatist

bran-uh /'brane/ Bréincusi, Constantin Romanian

Breda town, Netherlands


kon-stuhn-teen brank-oo-zi /lkonstenttn bra1]'ku:zi/, [konstan'tin

bra13'kuIj] ¢ Established anglicization. Brandenburg state, Germany bran-duhn-burg /'brandan,ba:(r)g/, ['brandan,burk] ~ Established anglicization. Brandt, Bill German-born British photographer

bra nt /brant/ Brandt, Willy German statesman vil-i brant /_v1li 'brant/ Braque, Georges French painter

zhorzh brak /_3o:(r)3 'brak/ Brasilia capital of Brazil bruh-zil-i-uh /bra'zi1ie/

Brasov city, Romania brash-ov /bra'_1'nv/ brassard band worn on the sleeve

brass-ard /‘brasu:(r)d/ brassica plant brass-ik-uh /'bras|ka/ brassiere undergarment bra:-i-air f‘brazis:(r)/ Bratislava capital of Slovakia brat-iss-lah~vuh /,brat1‘s1u:va/,

['bratiis1ava] * Established anglicization.

hratwllrst type of German pork sausage brat-vurst /‘bratva:(r)st/, ['bra:tvorst] Braun electrical appliances company brawn /bro:n/ Braun, Eva German mistress of Adolf Hitler

ay-vuh brown /,eive 'braon,' braw fine, good, or pleasing

braw /bro:/

and poet

bair-tolt brekht /,be:(r)tn1t 'brect/ bray-duh /'brerda/ Bregenz city, Austria

bray-gents /'bre1gsnts/ Brel, Jacques Belgian singer and composer zhahk brel /,3o:k 'brel/ Bremen state, Germany bray-muhn j'breIman/ Brenner Pass Alpine pass bren-uhr /'brena(r)/ bresaola Italian dish

bress-ow-luh /bre'saola,/ Brescia city, Italy

bresh—uh /'breIa,f Bresson, Robert French film director

r0b—air bress-o(ng) /rn,bs:(r) brs's5/ Brest port, France brest /brest,’ Bretagne French name for Brittany

bruh-tan-yuh /bra'tanje/, [bratanj] Breton relating to Brittany

bret-uhn /‘braten/ Breton, Andre French poet, essayist, and critic

ah(ng)-dray bruh-to(ng) /i:i,dreI bre't:'J/ Brezhnev, Leonid Soviet statesman

lay-uh-need brezh-nyef /le1a,ni:d 'bre3njef/ Brie cheese

bree fhrizf

Briers, Richard English actor bry-uhrz /‘bm1e(r)z,' This British family name is variously

pronounced breerz and bry-uhrz, depending on individual preference.

brigand bandit brig-uhnd /'br1g(a)nd/ brigandine coat of mail

Established anglicization. The Portuguese

brig-uhn-deen /'br1gendi:n/ brigantine tw0—masted sailing ship brig-uhn-teen /'br1ganti:n/

form is Brasil, pronounced braz-ee-00

Brignoles town, France

Brazil country bruh-zil /bra‘2.1l/


breen—y0l /bri:n'jo1/


Brindisi | Brunel, Isambard Kingdom

Brindisi port, Italy brin-diz-i /‘br1nd1zi/ brinjal Anglo—Indian name for aubergine brin-jawl /'brInd3o:l/ brio vivacity of style or performance bree-oh /'bri:au/ brioche kind of bread

Bronx borough in New York City bronks /brooks,’ Bronzino, Agnolo Italian painter

an-yoh-loh brond-zee-noh /,anjaolau brnn'dzi:nao/ Bros brothers

bross /bros/'

bree-osh /bri:'n_[/ Brisbane city, Australia briz-buhn /'br1zben/

brose kind of porridge brohz /brauz/

l)I‘iSé ballet jump

broo-uhm /'bru:am,f Brougham British family name

bree-zay /bri:‘ze1/ brisling sardine-like fish briss-ling /'br1sln)/ B1110 city, Czech Republic

bur-noh /'be:(r)nao/, ['brno] Q Established anglicization.

Brobdingnagian huge brob-ding-nag~i—uhn /,brnbd11]'nagien/ Broca’s area part of the brain broh-kuhz /‘braokazf broch Scottish prehistoric circular stone tower

brokh lbrnxi brochette barbecue or grill skewer

brosh-et /brn'j'st/ brochure small book or magazine

broh-shuhr ,"breoj‘a(r)/ Less commonly also brosh»oor.

Brocken mountain, Germany

brok-uhn /'brokon/ bromine chemical element broh-meen /'broomi:n/ bromocriptine drug

brougham horse-drawn carriage

broo-uhm, bruum, broh-uhm, brohm /'bru:am/, /brum/, /‘bran:-am/, fbraoml

Brouwer, Adriaen Flemish painter ah—dri-ahn brow-uhr /_a:driu:n 'braoa(r)/

Brown, Mather American painter math-uhr /'ma6a(r)/ Brubeck, Dave American jazz pianist and composer broo-bek /'bru:bsk/ brucellosis bacterial disease

broo-suh-loh-siss /_bru:sa‘laosIs/ Bruckner, Anton Austrian composer and organist

an-tohn bruuk-nuhr /,antaun 'brokna(r)/ Bruegel (also Brueghel) Flemish family of artists

broy-guhl /'bro1gal/, ['bro:xa1] ' Established anglicization.

Bruges city, Belgium

broozh /bru:3/


This is the French form. The Flemish name



bronchiectasis abnormal widening of the bronchi

bronk-i-ek-tuh-siss /,brm]ki'sktasrs/ bronchiole minute branches into which a bronchus divides

bron-ki-ohl /'brm]kiau1/ bronchiolitis inflammation of the bronchioles bron-ki~uh-ly-tiss /,bro1]kie'1A1tIs/ bronchoscopy method of investigating the bronchial tubes bron-kosk-uh-pi /brnn‘knskepi,l Brflnté family of English authors

bron-ti /'brnnti,’

is Brugge, pronounced bruekh-uh


p 7

Brummell, George Bryan English dandy brum-uhl /'lJl"AIl'18l/ Brundtland, Gro Harlem Norwegian ST.3I€SVVOIT13.I1

groo har-luhm bruunt-Ian /,gru: ,hu:(r)lam 'bront1an/ Brunei sultanate

broo-ny /l)I'llZ'I1AI/

Brunel, Isambard Kingdom English engineer

iz-uhm-bard bruun-el /,1zarnbu:(r)d bro'nsl,'

Brunhild | bupropion Brunhild German mythological name broon-hilt /'bru:nhIlt/ bruschetta toasted Italian bread bruu5k—et~uh /bro'sketa/ Brussels capital of Belgium

bruss-uhlz /'brAsa1z/


v Established anglicization.

Buerk, Michael BBC journalist burk ,'ba:(r)k/ buffet meal consisting of several dishes

buuf-ay /'bofer/

§nYms}Iiy sis, buf-ay.


Established anglicization. The Flemish name is Bmssel, pronounced bruess-uhl

buifet strike

['brYsal], and the French name is Bruxelles, pronounced brue-sel [brysel].

buf-it /'bAf1t/ Buganda former kingdom of East Africa

Bryansk city, Russia bri-ansk /bri'ansk/ Bual variety of wine grape

boo-al /‘bu:al/ Bublé, Michael Canadian singer my—kuhl b00b—lay /_mA1kal 'bu:ble1/ bucatini small hollow tubes of pasta buuk-uh—tee-ni /,boka'ti:ni/

buccaneer pirate buk-uh-neer ;',bAko‘n1a(r)/ Bucephalus favourite horse of Alexander the Great byO0-Sef-uh-luhss /bju:'ssfales/ Buellan, John Scottish novelist

bukh-uhn /'bAxan/ Buchanan, James American statesman

byoo-kan-uhn /bjufkanan! Bucharest capital of Romania

boo-kuh-rest /,bu:ka'rsst/ Established anglicization, sometimes also

boo-kuh-rest. The Romanian name is Bucuresti, pronounced boo-koo-resh-ti

[buku're]‘ti]. Buchenwald Nazi concentration camp

bookh—uhn-valt /'bu:xanva1t/ Budapest capital of Hungary

byoo-duh-pest /bju;da'psst/, [‘budnpe_',‘t] Established anglicization, sometimes also

boo-duh-pest. Buddha founder of Buddhism buud—uh /‘boda/ Buddhism religion buud-diz-uhm /'l'JUdIZ91'i'1/

Buenaventura port, Colombia bway-nuh-ven-toor-uh /_bwemavsn'toara/ Buenos Aires capital of Argentina

bway-noss y-reez /,bwe1nas 'AII‘iIZ/, Spanish /_bwenos 'ajres/

boo-gan-duh /bu:'ganda/ Bujumbura capital of Burundi

buuj-uum-boor-uh /,bod3orn'boara/ Bulawayo city, Zimbabwe

boo-Iuh-way-oh /_bu:ls'we1eo,' bulgar cereal food made from whole


bul-guh r /'lJAlQ8(I‘)/ Bulgari Italian jewellery and perfume house buul-guh-ri /'bolgari/ bulimia nervosa eating disorder

buul-im-i—uh nur-voh-suh /bulimia ns:(r)'vaosa/ Bulsara, Farookh real name of Freddie Mercury

fuh-rook buul-sar-uh /faruzk bol'su:ra/ Bundesbank central bank of Germany

buun—duhss-bank /'bondas_ba1]k/ Bundesrat German upper house of


buun-duhss-raht /'bondas,rn:t/ Bundestag German lower house of Parliament

buun-duhss~tahk /'bondas,ta:k/ Bunsen, Robert German chemist

roh-bairt buun-zuhn /,raoba:(r)t 'bunzan/ The Bunsen burner is pronounced

bun-suhn. Bunyan, J0hl'l English writer

bun-yuhn /'l)AHjBH/ bunyip mythical amphibious monster

bun—yip /'b1mj1p/ BUPA British United Provident Association b00—puh /'bu:pa,' bupropion trademark antidepressant drug byoo-proh-pi—uhn jbjufpraupianf

Burbank | Byzantium

57 Burbank city, California bur-bank /'ba:(r)ba1j|k/

Burberry trademark English fashion label bur-buh-ri /'ba:(r)bari/ burfi Indian sweet bur-fi /'ba:(r)fi/

Burgas port, Bulgaria

boor-gass /bua(r)'gas/ Burgenland state, Austria

bo0r—guhn-lant ,l'boa(r)gan,lant/ Burghley, William Cecil English statesman

bur-Ii /'ba:(r)li,' Burgos town, Spain

boor-goss /'boa(r)gns/ Burgoyne, J0hn English general and dramatist

bur-goyn /ba:(r)'go1n/ burka Muslim garment bur—kuh /'ba:(r)ka/ v Established anglicization.

Burkina Faso country bur-kee-nuh fass-oh /be:(r),ki:na 'fasao/ Established anglicization; a more native pronunciation would be boor-kee-nuh.

Burma country

bur-muh /'ba:(r)ma/

Burnett, Frances Hodgson British-born American novelist

bu r-net /be:(r)'nst/ This British surname is variously

pronounced bur-net and bur-nuht, depending on individual preference.

Burrell, Paul ex-butler of Princess

Diana burr-uhl /'l)A[‘9l/ burrito Mexican dish buh—ree-toh /ba'ri:tao/

Bursa city, Turkey boor-suh /'boe(r)sa/ Burundi country

buu-ruun-di /bo'rundi/ Buryatia autonomous republic, Russia

boor-yah-ti-uh /,boa(r)'jo:tia/ Buscemi, Steve American actor

buush—em—i /bo'j‘smi/ bushel measure of capacity

buush-uhl /'buj‘a1/

bushido Japanese samurai code of honour

bO0Sh-id-Oh /"ou:_l1dao/ Bushnell, Candace American author

kan-diss buush-nel /_kand1s boI'm:l/ Busoni, Ferruccio Italian composer,

conductor, and pianist

fuh-roo-choh boo-zoh-ni /fe,ru:t_|'ao bu:'zaoni/ Bussell, Darcey English ballet dancer

buss-uhl /'l)AS8l/ butane flammable hydrocarbon gas

byoo-tayn /'bju:tein/ butanol isomeric liquid alcohols used

as solvents

byoo-tuh-nol /'bju:tannl/ Buteyko denoting a technique of controlled breathing

boo-tay-koh /bu:'teIkau/

Buthelezi, Mangosuthu (Gatsha) South African politician

ma ng-goh-soo-too boo-tuh-lay-zi (gatch-u h) /ma13,gausu:tu: bu:ta'leIzi

(nails)! Buxtehude, Dietrich Danish organist and composer deet-rikh buuk-stuh-hoo-duh /_di:tric 'bokstahu:da/ Byblos ancient Mediterranean seaport bib~loss /‘bibles,’ Bydgoszcz city, Poland

bid-goshtch /'b1dgn_[tJ/ Byelorussia. former name for Belarus; also called Belorussia

byel-uh-rush-uh /bjala'rA_[a/ byssinosis lung disease biss-in-oh-siss /_bIs1'nausIs,f byte group of binary digits or bits

byt /l)AIt/ Bytom city, Poland

bit-uhm /'bitam,/

Byzantine relating to Byzantium biz-an-tyn /bI'zanti\.m/ Sometimes also by-zan-tyn. Byzantium ancient Greek city

biz-ant-i-uhm jbrzantieml Sometimes also by-zan-ti-dhiiii


C3PO character from the Star Wars films

see-three-pee-oh /si:'Hri:pi:ao/

Caceres province and city, Spain

kath-err-ayss /‘ka9erers/ cachaca Brazilian rum kuh-shah-kuh /ke'_l'o:ka/ cachexia weakness and wasting of the body kuh-kek-Si-uh /ka'kaksia/

Caaba see Kaaba Caan, James American actor ka hn /kozn,’ cabal secret faction

kuh-bal /ke'ba1/ cabaletta simple aria kab—uh—let-uh /_kabe'lata/

cachucha Spanish dance

Caballé, Montserrat Spanish soprano

Caddoan group of American Indian ethnic groups

katch-oo-chuh /ka'tj‘u:tIa/

mont-serr-at kab-al-yay /montserat kaba'lje1/ caballero Spanish gentleman kab-al-yair-oh /,kaba'lje:roo/

kad-oh-uhn /'kadaoen/ Cadiz city, Spain kuh-diz/ke'd1z/ Established anglicization. The Spanish form

cabaret entertainment held in a

is Cadiz, pronounced kath-eeth.

nightclub kab-uh-ray /'kabare1/ Coiiinionly also

I if

Cabbala (also Kabbalah) mystic Hebrew interpretation of the Old Testament kuh-bah-luh ,/ka'bo:la/ Less commoinlyialso kab-uh-luh.


cabbalistic relating to Cabbala

kab-uh~list-ik /kabe‘lIstlk/ Cabernet Sauvignon black wine grape

kab-uhr-nay soh-veen-yo(ng) /,kaba(r)ne1 saovi:n'j5/ Cabinda autonomous district of Angola kuh-bin—d uh /ka'b1nda/ caboclo American Indian ethnic group kuh-bohk-Ioh /ka'baokleo/ Caborn, Richard English politician

kay-born /'ke1bo:(r)n/ Cabo Roig resort, Spain

kab-oh royg /,kabao ‘mtg! Cabot, John Italian navigator

kab-uht /'kabat/ cabriole ballet jump kab-ri-ohl /'kabriaol/ cabriolet car with a roof that folds down kab-ri-uh-lay /'kabriale1/ cacao bean-like seeds

kuh-kah-oh /ka'ku:au/

Cadmean relating to Cadmus kad-mee-uhn /kad‘mi:an/ cadmium chemical element kad-mi-uhm /'kadmiem/ Cadmus Greek mythological character kad-muhss /'kadmes/ Caedmon Anglo—Saxon monk and poet

kad-muhn /'kadman/ Caelian Hill one of the seven hills of Rome see-|i—uhn /'si:lian,' Caelum constellation

see-luhm /'si:lem/ Caen city, France

kah(n9) lkdl

Less commonly also anglicized to kahn. Caerdydd Welsh name for Cardiff

kyr—deeth ,/ka1r'di:o/ Caernarfon (also Caernarvon) town, Wales

kuhr-nar-vuhn /ka(r)'nu:(r)van/, [kaIr'narvon] v Established anglicization. Caerphilly mild white cheese kuhr-fil-i /ka(r)'f1li,! Caesar title of Roman emperors See-zu hr /‘si:za(r),' v See LATIN panel.

Caesarea I Callanetics


kay-juhn /'ke1d5an/ Calabar port, Nigeria

Caesar-ea ancient port, Israel see-zuh-ree-uh /_si:za‘ri:a/

Caesar-can section delivery of a child

kal-uh-bar /kala'bu:(r)/

by cutting through the walls of the abdomen

Calabria region, Italy kuh-lab-ri-uh /ka'labria/

siz-air-i-uhn /sI'ze:rian/‘

Calais port, France

caesium chemical element

kal-ay /‘kale:/, [kale]

see-zi-uhm /'si:ziam/

v Established anglicization.

cafe (also café) small restaurant

calamari squid kal-uh—mar-i /,ka1a'mu:ri/

kaf-ay /'kafeI/

Commonly also kéil-Eyf


cafetiere coffee pot

kaf-uh-tyair ,',kafa'tjs:(r)/ caffe latte drink kaf-ay lat-ay /,kafe1 ‘later! The pronunciation Iah—tay is widespread, especially in AM, but deprecated because it is felt to be less like the Italian.

caffé macchiato drink kaf-ay mak-i-ah-toh /_kafe1 maki'u:tao/ CAFOD CAth0lic Fund for Overseas Development

kaf-od /'l*5i:i*?lfe is _;;i

Cephalonia island, Greece sef-uh-loh-ni-uh /,sefa'launia/

cB{i1}mnly alsoisieziilliililiri-'l:tl'l1|.fl'*K7 G W" Z cerebrum pl. oerebra part of the brain

suh-reeb-ruhm, pl. suh-reeb-ruh jsa'ri:bram/, pl. /-bra/ Commonly also serr-uhb-ruhm, pl.

serr-uhb-ruh. Ceredigion county, Wales

kerr-uh-dig-yon /,ksra'd|gjnn/ cereology study of crop circles

seer-i-ol-uh-ji /,s1ari'olad3i/ Ceres Roman goddess of agriculture

seer-eez /'s1ari:z/ cerise clear red colour

suh-reess /sa'ri:s/ cerium chemical element seer-i-uhm /'s1ariam/ CERN European Organization for

Nuclear Research surn /sa:(r)n/

ceroc dance serr-ok /ss'rok/ The name is a contraction of the French

phrase ‘C'est le roc(k)!’

Cerruti Italian fashion label cherr-00-ti /tIc‘ru:ti/ C€I'llII'l8ll €8l‘Wfl.X

suh-r00-muhn /sa‘ru:man/ Cervantes, Miguel de Spanish novelist and dramatist

mee-gel day sur-van-teez /mi:,gel dei sa:(r)'vanti:z/, /mi,vel de 6er'[3antes/ I Established anglicization. cervical relating to the cervix sur-vik-uhl /'sa:(r)vikal/ The pronunciation su r-vy-kuhl is also common, particularly in the medical


cervix | Chambéry cervix pl. cervices neck of the womb

sur-viks, pl. sur-viss-eez /'sa1(r)v1ks/,


chainé ballet step

shen-ay /Is'ne1/ chaise-longue type of sofa shez-long /Iez'lnng/

pl. /-vrsi:z/ Cesarewitch English horse race suh-zarr-uh-witch /S8'Z8I‘8WIl_f/

Chaka see Shaka

Ceské Budéjovice city, Czech Republic

Chakra centre of spiritual power

chesk-ay buud-yuh-yov-it-suh /_tIsske1 'bodjajnv1tsa/ Cetacea order of marine mammals suh-tay-shuh /sa'teIIa/

Cetshwayo Zulu king set-shway-oh /s&:'tIwe1eo/ Cetus constellation see-tuhss /'si:tes/ Ceuta Spanish enclave, Morocco

syoo-tuh /'sju:ta/, Spanish ['9euta] 0 Established anglicization.

Cévennes mountain range, France say-ven /se1'ven/ ceviche South American fish dish

sev-ee-chay /se'vi:tfe1/ Ceylon former name for Sri Lanka

suh-Ion/sa'1nn,' Cezanne, Paul French painter pol say—zan /,pol se1'zan/ Chablis village, France; also wine made there

shab-lee /_[ab'1i:/ Chabro], Claude French film director klohd shab-rol /,klaod j‘a'broll' cha-cha ballroom dance

chah-chah /'tjc1:t_fc1:,' chacham see haham Chaco War dispute between Bolivia and Paraguay

chah-koh /'t_|"o:koo/ Chad country

chad /tIad/ chador piece of cloth worn by Muslim

women chud-uhr /'tIAda(r)/ chaebol business conglomerate

chay-bol /'tIe1bn1/ Chagall, Marc Russian-born French painter

mark shag-al /,mu:(r)k _fa'ga1/ Chagos Archipelago group of islands, Indian Ocean chah-gohss /'t_l‘c1:gaos/ chai tea

chy /t_l'AI/

in the body

chuk-ruh /'tIAkre/ Chalabi, Ahmad al- Iraqi politician akh-muhd uhl chal-uh-bi /,axmad al 't_|'alobi/ Chalayan, Hussein Cypriot fashion designer

huu-sayn chuh-ly-uhn /hu,se1n t_l'a'lnrenf Chalcedon former city, Asia Minor

kal-suh-don /‘kalsedon/ chalcedony precious stone ka|—Sed—uh-ni /kal's£dani/ Chalcis town, Greece

kal-siss /'ka1s1s/ Established anglicization. Ihc Greel< name’, is Khalkis, pronounced khal-keess.

Chaldea ancient country, Iraq

ka!-dee-uh /kal'di:a/ Chaldee language of the ancient Chaldeans

kal—dee /'kaldi:/ chalet wooden house

shal-ay /'la1e1/ Chaliapin, Fyodor Russian operatic bass

fyod-uhr shal-yah-pin /_fjoda(r) _l"a‘ljn:p1n/ challis clothing fabric

chal—iss /'t_[al1s/ chalumeau musical instrument

shal—uum-oh /‘Ialomao/ Chain indigenous ethnic group of Vietnam and Cambodia

cham /tj‘am/ Chamaeleon constellation kuh-mee-Ii-uhn /ka'mi:1ian/' Chamberlain, Neville British statesman

chaym-buhr-lin /'tj‘e1mba(r)l1n/ Chambertin French red wine

5hah(ng)-bair—ta(ng) /_[Eibs:(r)'té/ Chambéry town, France shah(ng)-berr-ee /j‘nbs'ri:/

chameleon | Charybdis

69 chameleon lizard-like creature kuh-mee—li—uhn /ka'mi:lian/ chametz food prohibited during

Passover khah-mets ,/'xo:mets/ Chamonix resort, France sham-uh-nee /'_famani:/ Chamorro indigenous ethnic group of Guam

chuh-morr-oh /tIe'mnreo/ Champagne region, France shah(ng)-pan-yuh /]'fi'panja/,

[Ifipanfl champagne sparkling wine

sham-payn /_Fam'peIn/ Champaign city and county, US

sham-payn /Iam'pe1n,' champaign open level countryside

cham-payn /'t_l'ampeln/ Champlain, Samuel de French explorer

sam-ue-el duh shah(ng)-pla(ng) /samy,sl do Id'pl€:/

Champs Elysées avenue in Paris shonz uh-lee-zay /,_|‘onz a'1i:ze1/, French [jfiz elize] ' Established anglicization. Chan Chan capital of the pre-Inca civilization of the Chimu Chan than /tj'an 't_I‘an/

chancre ulcer shank-uhr /‘j‘ai]ka(l")/

chandelier hanging light shan-duh-leer /,_[anda'l1a(r)/ Chandigarh city, India

chun-dee-guhr /tIAl‘l'(llZg8(I')/ Chandragupta Maurya Indian CIHPGTOF

chun-druh-guup-tuh mow-ri-uh /_tIAndra,gopta 'mauria/ Chanel, Coco French couturiere koh-koh shuh-nel /_kaokao _\'a'ns1/ Chaney, Lon American actor

Ion chay-ni /,1nn'tje1ni,' Changchun city, China

chang-chuun /,t_[a1]'t_[on/ Chang Jiang see Yangtze Changsha city, China

chang-shah /,tIan'ju:/ Chania (also Khania) port, Crete khan-yah /xa'njo:/ chanterelle mushroom

shan-tuh-rel /Ianta'rsl/ chanteuse female singer shahn—tu(r)z /_[a:n'ta:z/ Chanukkah see Hanukkah Chao Phraya river, Thailand chow pruh-yah /,tj‘ao pro'ja:/ chaparajos (also chaparejos) leather trousers

chap-uh—ray-hohss /_t_fapa're1haos,' chapatti thin pancake

chuh-pat-i /tj‘a'pati/ Chapman, Dinos English artist dee-noss chap-muhn /,di:nus ‘tjapmanl

Chappaquiddick Island island, US chap-uh-kwid-ik /,tIapa'kw1d1k/ Chappell, Greg Australian cricketer

chap-uhl /'tj‘apal/ charango musical instrument chuh-rang-goh /tj‘a'rangaol charas cannabis resin

char-uhss /'tIo:raS/ Charcot, Jean-Martin French neurologist zhah(ng) ma r-ta(ng) shar-koh /36 mo:(r),té _[o:(r)‘kao,' Chardonnay variety of white wine grape shar-duh-nay /'_\‘c1:(r)daneI/ Charente river, France

sharr-ah(ng)t /Ia'r:(r),f1ariao 'di:as/ diazepam drug of the benzodiazepine STOUP

dy~ayz-uh-pam ,/d.AI'BIZ3pElIIl/ As with other drugs in this group, the pronunciation -az-uh-pam is also common. Dibnah, Fred English steeplejack and broadcaster

dib-nuh ,/'d1bne/ DiCaprio, Leonardo American actor

lee-uh-nar-doh dik-ap-ri-oh /li:a,no:(r)deo drkapriaoj dichotomy contrast between two things

dy—kot-uh-mi /(lAI'kDlZ9I‘I‘1i/ Sometimes also dik-ot-uh—mi.

Dickensian relating to Charles Dickens

dik-en-zi-uhn /d1'ksnzien/ dictum pl. dicta formal pronouncement

dik-tuhm,p1. dik-tuh /'drktem/, Pl. /-te/ v Standard -s plural is also possible. didactic intended to teach dy-dak-tik /dA1'dakt1k/’ Sometimes also did-ak-tik.


dideoxycytidine Aids drug

dy-di-oks-i-sy-tid-een /|dAIdlDkSi'SAIiICliZl'1]'

dideoxyinosine Aids drug dy-di-oks-i-in-oh-seen /,dA1dinksi'Inaosi:n/ Diderot, Denis French philosopher

duh-nee dee-duh-roh /da,ni: di:da'reu/ didgeridoo (also didjeridu) Australian Aboriginal musical instrument

dij—uh-rid—o0 /,d1d3er1'du:/ Dido Roman mythological name dy-doh /'dA1dao/ Dido English singer dy—d0h /'dAIdeo/ Didyma ancient sanctuary, Asia Minor

did—im-uh /'d1d1me/ Die Fledermaus operetta by Strauss

dee flay-duhr-mowss /di: ‘flerda(r)maos/ Diego Garcia island, Chagos Archipelago di-ay-goh gar—see-uh /di,ergao gu:(r)'si:a/ Dien Bien Phu town, Vietnam dee-uhn bee—uhn foo /,di:an ,bi:an 'fu:/ Dieppe port, France

dvep Idiepr Diesel, Rudolf French—b0rn German

engineer roo-dolf dee-zuhl /_ru:do1f'di:zelj Dies Irae ‘Day of Wrath’ (Latin)

dee-ez eer-y /,di:az 'I8I'AIf - See LATIN panel.

Dietrich, Marlene German-born American actress and singer

mar-lay-nuh dee-trik /mo:(r),le1ne 'di:tr1k/, German [‘di:tr1r;] ~ Family name anglicized. Dien et mon dl‘0it ‘God and my right’

(French), the motto of the British monarch

dyoe ay mo(ng) drwah /_djo er ms 'drwo:/ Die Walkiire opera by Wagner

dideoxycytidine l dimissory Die Zauberfliite opera by Mozart; ‘the magic flute’ dee tsow-buhr-floe-tuh /di: 'tsaoba(r),flo:ta/ digamma letter of the Greek alphabet dy-gam-uh ldnrgamef digest summary of information dy-jest /'dAId3r-:st/ digest break down dy-jest /dA1'd3est/

éometimes 51;; dij-est. digeSlifdrink

dee-zhest-eef /,di:5r»:'sti:f/ digitalis drug

dij—it-ay-liss /_did31'te111s,‘ diglossia situation in which two

languages are used under different conditions

dy—gl0ss-i-uh ldnrglnsial digraph combination of two letters representing one sound

dy-gra hf /'ClAIgI‘Cl§f/ dihedral having two plane faces

dy-hee-druhi /d»\1'hi:dral/ Dijla see Tigris Dijon city, France

dee-zho(ng) /di:'35/ dilate make wider dy—layt /dA1'lert/ Sometimes also dil-ayt.

dilatory slow to act

dil—uh—tuh-ri /‘diletari/ dilemma situation with a difficult choice

dil-em-uh /d1'1sma/ Commonly also dy-lem-uh.

Dili port, Indonesia

dee-lee /'di:1i:/ dilophosaurus dinosaur

dy-loh-fu h-saw-ruhss /dA1,1aofe‘so:res/ DiMaggio, Joe American baseball player

dim-aj-i-oh /d1'mad3iau/ dimension measurable extent

dee val-kue-ruh /di: val'ky:re/

dy-men-shuhn ldrirmsnjenf

Sometimes also dee val-kue-ruh; the

Sometimes also dim-en-Shuhn.

English version of the title is The Valkyrie.

Die Welt German newspaper

dee Velt /di: 've1t/


dimissory denoting formal permission

from a bishop

dim-iss~uh-rl /'drm1seri/

dimity | Disko dimity cotton fabric dim—it-i /'d1mlti/ dim sum Chinese dish

dim sum /,dm1'snm/ dinar currency unit, Bosnia and Serbia dee-nar /'di:nc1:(r)/ Dinaric Alps mountain range, Balkans

din-arr-ik /d1'nar1k/ dinero money din-air-oh /d1'ns:reo;' Ding an sich ‘thing in itself’ (German) ding an zikh /,dn3 an 'zrba,ru: da ri:'j‘ss/, French [fibara do riIas] embolism Obstruction of an a1'l3e1'Y

em-buh-liz-uhm /'smba11zam/

Elijah Hebrew prophet uh-ly-juh /a'1A1d5@,'

embouchure musical term om-buush-oor /,nmbu'_fua(r)/

Elisha Hebrew prophet

embrasure architectural feature

uh-ly-shuh /a'1A1_fa/

em-bray-zhuhr /em'bre13a(r),'

elision the OII1lSSlOl'l Offl. S0l1l'1Cl when

Speflldflg uh'hzh'uhn I3.159“!

flfllcefl master Qfgeremonies

em-see /sm'si:/ E=mc2 Einstein’s formula

EH5"! City, Russia el‘ee‘5t"h /5'1i?Sl91'

ee eek-wuhlz emm see skwaird /,i: _i:kwalz em ‘si: skws:(r)d/

elixir potion

This formula is ofien pronounced with

el'|k'5eer l5'11ksI9(r)1’

Ellan Vanni!) Manx name for the 1516 of Man e|_yu|,-m Val-Hn /lsljan Ivamnfl E] Nifio climatic phenomenon

el 7'99"“!/Oh /81 'I1i!l"l.l9U/

Ellesmere Island Canada

ell-meet /'elzm1a(r)/ El Pais Spanish newspaper

stress on the m and the squared rather than

the c. However, this stress pattern may suggest, wrongly, that both m and c should be sqtlared, when it is intact only the mdlvldual quantity c Wl1lCl‘l IS squared.

emeritus honorary title

Uh-mel'l'-it-I-!h5$ /8'mEI‘It9$/

emery abrasive em—uh—ri /'smari/

emetic I endocrine emetic causing vomiting

uh-met-ik /a'met1k/

emit: anthropological term ee-mik /'i:mIk/

émigré migrant em-i-gray /'em1greI/ Emi Koussi mountain, Chad ay-mi k00—5i /,e1mi 'ku:si/

Emilia-Romagna region, Italy em-eel-yuh roh-mah-nyuh /e,mi:1ja rao'mo:nja/ Emin, Tracey English artist

em-in /‘emm/ Eminem American singer

em-in-em /,sm1n'sm/ emir Arab title em-eer /e'mIa(r)/ emit-ate lands of an emir em-irr-uht ,f'em1rat/ Emmanuel name given to Christ

uh-man-yoo-uhl /a'manjue1/ Emmental (also Emmenthal) Swiss cheese

em-uhn-tahl /'smantu:l/ Emmerich, Roland German film


roh-lant em-uh-rikh /,rao1ant '81Tl3I‘I()/' emo style of rock music

ee-moh /'i:mau/ emolument salary

em-ol-yuum—uhnt /e'mnljomant/ emoticon representation of a facial expression used in electronic communications

uh-moh-tik-on /a'maot1knn/ empanada Spanish savoury pastry turnover

em-puh-nah-duh /,smpa'na:de/ Empedocles Greek philosopher

em-ped—uh-kleez /am'psdakli:z/ emphysema lung disease em—fuh-see-muh /_emfa‘si:me/ empyema collection of pus in a cavity in the body

em-py-ee-muh /_smpA1'i:me/ empyreal relating to heaven

em-py-ree-uhl /,£I1‘lpAI'I‘iI8l/ Less commonly also em-pirr-i-uhl.

en bloc all together on blok /,nn 'b1nk/

118 The word en, here and in other phrases, can

also be pronounced in the French manner, as ah(ng). Encaenia annual celebration at Oxford


en-see-ni-uh /an'si:nia/ ellceinte pregnant

on-sant /nn'sant/ Can also be pronounced in the French

manner, as ah(ng)-sa(ng)t.

Enceladus moon of Saturn

en-sel-uh-duhss /an'ssladas/ encephalitis inflammation of the brain

en-kef-uh-ly-tiss /8I‘l‘l{BfB'lAI’EIS/ Th;element -cepliulfican also be

7 777

pronounced sef-uhl, here and in other


enchilada filled tortilla en-chil-ah-duh /,sntj‘1'lu:da/ €11Cl'lil'idi0Il book containing essential

information on a subject en-ky-rid-i-uhn /_enkA1'rIdian/ enclave enclosed territory en-klayv /'enkleIv/ Sometimes orik-layv. dd W

encomium praise en-koh-mi-uhm /sn‘kaomiam/

encompass surround en-kum-puhss /£Il'l{Al'l'lp8S/ en croute in a pastry crust on kroot /,nn 'kru:t/ encyclical papal letter

en—sik-lik—uhl /an‘s1k1ika1/ encyclopedia (also encyclopaedia) book giving information on many subjects

en-sy-kluh-pee-di-uh /sn_sn1kla'pi:die/ endemic regularly found among particular people

en-dem-ik /en'dz-:mIk/ Elldemol Dutch television production company

en—duh-rnol /'endamol/ Enderby Land part of Antarctica

end-uhr-bi /'enda(r)bi/ endive Salad leaves

en—dyv /'8I'1ClAIV/ endocrine relating to hormonal glands

en-duh-kryn /'8I1(l8kI‘AII‘l/

11,9 Sometimes also pronounced en-duh-krin or

en-duh-kreen. endogamy marrying within a

community en-d0g—uh—mi /sn'dngami/ endogenous having an internal cause en-doj-uh-nuhss ,'sn'dnd3anes/ endometriosis gynaecological condition

en-duh-mee-tri-oh-siss /,8nde,mi:tri'aus1s/ endorphin hormone en-dor-fin /sn'do:(r)f1n/ endoscopy internal medical investigation en-dosk-uh-pi /sn'dnskapi/ endow give en-dow /en'dao/ Endymion Greek mythological character

en-dim-i-uhn /en'd1mian/ Eneolithic archaeological period

ee-ni-uh-lith-ik /_i:nie'l19ik/ enfant terrible controversial person

endogamy | entremets Enoch biblical character

ee-nok /‘i:nnk/ enoki Japanese mushroom en-oh-ki /e'naoki/ Enola Gay American plane which dropped the first atomic bomb on


uh-noh-Iuh gay /aneoie 'ge1/ enosis hypothetical political union of Cyprus and Greece

en—uh-siss /'snasis/ en papillote cooked and served in a paper wrapper

on pap-i-yot /,nn papi'jnt/ Enron American energy company en-ron /'enrnn/ Enschede city, Netherlands enss-khuh-day /'snsxade1f ensemble group of musicians

on-som-buhl /nn'sornbe1/ en suite adjoining a bedroom

on sweet /on 'swi:t/

on-fon terr-ee-bluh /,nnfnn ts'ri:bla/

Entebbe town, Uganda

Enfant can alsojbeipironounced in the French manner1 as ah(ng)-fah(ng).

entelechy realization of potential

enfeoif give property in exchange for service en-feef /en'fi:f/

enfranchise permit to vote en-fran-chyz /sn'frant_|"A1z,/ Engels, Friedrich German philosopher

freed-rikh eng-uhlss /,fri:dr1c '.=:1j|a1s/ Enisey see Yenisei Eniwetok island in the North Pacific

en-i-wee-tok /,sni'wi:tnk/ enjambement (also enjambment) poetic term en-jamb-muhnt /en'd3ambment/ en masse in a group on mass /_on 'mas/

ennead group of nine en-i-ad /'sniad/ Enniskillen town, Northern Ireland

en-isk-il—uhn /_enIs'kIlan/ Ennius, Quintns Roman poet and dramatist kwint-uhss en-i-uhss /_kw1ntas 'enias/ ennui listlessness

on-wee /nn'wi:/ Eno, Brian English musician

ee-noh /'i:nao/

en—teb—i /en'tsbi/ en-tel-uh-ki /an‘telaki/ entente cordiale friendly understanding between states on-tont kor-di-ahl fon'tnnt ko:(r)di‘n:l/ Can also be pronounced in the French

manner, as ah(ng)-tah(ng)1: kord-yal. enteritis inflammation of the intestine en-tuh-ry-tiss /,snta'rA1tIs/ enthalpy thermodynamics term en-thuhl—pi /'an9elpi/ enthral fascinate en-thrawl /sn'9r:>:1/ entomology study of insects en-tuh—mol-uh-ji /,z-:nta'mnlad3i/ entr’acte interval between two acts of a play or opera

on-trakt /nn'trakt/ en travesti cross-dressed on trav-est-ee /,nn trave'sti:/ entrecote boned steak on-tru h-koht /'pntrakaot/

entrée main course on-tray /'nntre1/ entremets light dish served between courses

ont-ruh-may /nntra'me1/

entrepreneur I epoch entrepreneur businessperson

on-truh-pruh-nur /,nntrapra'na:(r)/ entropy thermodynamics term

en-truh-pi /'£ntrapi/ enuresis involuntary urination

en-yoor-ee-siss /,anjoa'ri:sis/ envelope flat paper container with a flap

en-vuh-lohp fanvelaopl Less commonly also on-vuh-lohp. Enver Pasha Turkish political and

military leader

en-vuhr pash-uh /,enva(r) 'pa_[a/ environs surrounds en-vy-ruhnz {sn'vn1ranz/ envoi (also envoy) a short stanza concluding a poem en-voy /'snv0I/ Enya Irish composer en-yuh /'anja/ Enzed New Zealand or a New Zealander

en-zed /sn'zsd/ enzyme biochemical substance en-zym /'snzA1m/ Eocene geological epoch ee—oh-seen /'i:aosi:n/ Eoin Irish boy's name

oh-in /'ao1n/ Eos Greek goddess

ee-oss /'i:ns/ Eowyn character from The Lord qfthe Rings

ay-oh-win /'exaow1n/ eparchy province of the Orthodox Church

ep-a r-ki /'epu:(r)ki/ épater shock conventional people

ep-at—ay ,fepa'teI/ epaulette shoulder piece on clothing

ep-uh-let /epa'lat/ épée fencing sword

en-av /‘spew


sometimes also ef;ee-muh-iuhl.

Ephesians book of the New Testament

ef-eezh-uhnz /e'fi:3anz/ Ephesus ancient Greek city ef-uh-suhss /'sfasas/ epicene having characteristics of both or neither sex

ep-iss-een /'ep1si:n/ Epictetus Greek philosopher ep-ik-tee-tuhss /_sp1k‘ti:tas/ Epicurlls Greek philosopher

ep-ik-yoor-uhss /,:;p1'kjoaras,l epidemiology study of epidemics

ep-id-ee-mi-ol-uh-ji /,eptdi:mi'nlad3i,I epidural spinal anaesthetic ep—id-yoor-uhl j,cp1'djoaral/ epigeal growing on the ground

ep-ij-ee-uhl /,ep1'd3i:al/ epilepsy neurological disorder ep-il-ep-si /'eprlspsi,l epilogue concluding section

ep~i|-og /‘spring,’ epiphany revelation uh-pif-uh-ni /a'p1fani/ Epirus region, Greece

uh-py-ruhss /'a'pn1raS/ episcopalian of or advocating government of a Church by bishops

ep-isk-uh-pay-Ii-uhn /e,p1ska'pe1lian/ episiotomy obstetric procedure

ep-ee-zi-ot-uh-mi /a_pi:zi'ntami,' epistemology theory of knowledge

ep—ist-im-ol-uh-ji /e,p1st1'mnlad3i/ epistle letter uh-piss-uhl /a'p1sal/ epistolary relating to letters

uh-pist-uh-luh-ri /a'p1sta1ari/ epithalamium song or poem celebrating a marriage

ep-ith-uh-lay-mi-uhm ,',sp16a'1e1miam/

epenthesis pl. epentheses insertion of a sound or an unetymological letter

epithet phrase

ep-en-thuh-siss, pl. ep-en-thuh-seez /epenl-lasts/, pl. /-si:z/ ephedra shrub

epitome perfect example

ef-ed-ruh /s’fsdra,' ephedrine stimulant drug ef-uh-dreen /'efadri:n/ ephemeral transient

ef-em-uh-ruhl /e'fsmaral/


ep-ith-et /'api6et;' ep-it-uh-mi /s'p1temi/ e pluribus unum ‘one out of many’ (Latin), the motto of the US

ay ploor-ib-uuss oo-nuum /er ,ploaribos 'u:nomf epoch period of time ee—pok /'i:pnk/

epode I Ekel, Ferenc


AM is commonly ep-ok.

epode lyric poem

ep-ohd /‘spaod/

eponymous giving their name to something

uh-pon-im-uhss /a'pI)m1‘na$/ EPOS electronic point of sale ee-poss /'i:pns/

epoxy polymer ep-ok-si /e'poksi/ epsilon letter of the Greek alphabet ep-sil-on ;"£ps11on/ Sometimes also ep-sy-Ion.

Epstein, Brian English manager of the Beatles ep—styn /'apst1un/ Epstein, Jacob American-horn sculptor ep-styn /'8pSlIAII'l/

equatorial at or near the equator

ek-wuh-taw-ri-uhl /,ekwa'to:ria1/ equerry royal servant

uh-kwerr-i /o'kwcri/ Sometimes also ek-iviitilli-iri.

equine relating to horses ek-wyn /'El(WAIl'l/ equinox time when day and night are of equal length ek~win»0ks /'ekw1nuks/ The eqm'- element can also be pronounced eek-wi, here and in some other words such

as equilibrium, equilateral, etc.

equitable fair and impartial

ek-wi-tuh-buhl /'ekwrtabal/ equivocate use ambiguous language

uh-kwiv-uh-kayt /a'kw1vake1t/ era period of history

eer-uh /'1ara/ AM is sometimes also err-uh.

Erasmus, Desiderius Dutch humanist and scholar

dess-id-air-i-uuss err-ass-muuss /dss1,de:rios t-:‘rasmos/ A more anglicized pronunciation,

uh-raz-rnuhss, is also sometimes heard. Erato Greek mythological character err-uh-toh /'eratau/ Eratosthenes Greek schoiar and astronomer

err-uh-toss-thuh-neez /,era'tnsBani:z/

Erbil (also Arbil, Irbil) town, Iraq air-heel /e:(r)'bi:1/ erbium chemical element ur-bi-uhm /'a:(r)biam/

Erdofian, Recep Tayyip Turkish prime minister

rej-ep ty-ip air-doh-uhn /,rr-:d3sp ,tAnp 's:(r)daoan/ ere before air /s:(r)/ Erebus Greek god

err-uh-buhss /'arabas/ Erelmt, Saeb Palestinian politician sah—eb err-uh-kaht /,su:ab era'ka:tl eremite Christian recluse err—uh-myt /'aramA1t/ Erevan see Yerevan Erfuri; city, Germany air—foort /'s:(r)foa(r)t/ ergometer apparatus which measures energy expended

ur—g0m-uh-tuhr /a:(r)‘gomata(r)/ ergot cereal disease ur-got /'a:(r)gnt/ erhu (also erh hu) Chinese two-stringed musical instrument ur-khoo /,a:(r)'xu:/

Ericsson Swedish mobile telecommunications company err-ik-suhn /'er1ksan/, ['e:rikson] 0 Established anglicization. Eridanus constellation err-id—uh-nuhss /e'r1denas/ Erie, Lake lake, US—Canada border eer-i /'1ari/

Eriksson, Sven-Goran Swedish football manager

sven yoer-an ay-rik-son /sven ,joe:ran 'e1rIksnn/ Erin literary name for Ireland err-in /'er1n/ Erinyes Greek mythological characters

err-in-i-eez /e'r1nii:z/ Eriskay island, Scotland

err-isk-ay /'errskei/ Erith district of London eer-ith ,"1er16/ Eritrea autonomous state, east Africa

err-it-ray-uh /,z-:r1'tre1a/ Ekel, Ferenc Hungarian composer

ferr-ents air-kel /,fsrsnts ‘exksll

Erlangen l espouse Erlangen town, Germany

air-lang-uhn /‘a:(r)lanan/ ermine stoat ur-min /'a:(r)m1n/ Ernst, Max German artist maks airnst /,maks '.=;:(r)nst,l Eros Greek god

eer-oss /'1arns/ Eroica symphony by Beethoven

err-oh-ik-uh /e'reo1ke,' err be mistaken ur /e:(r)/ errant straying

err-uhnt Parent] ersatz substitute air-zats /e:(r)'zats/ Sometimes also ur-Zats.

Erse Gaelic language urss /e:(r)s/ Erté Russian-born French fashion designer air-tay /e:(r)'te1/ erudite showing great knowledge err-uud-yt /'srod1i1t/ eruv pi. eruvim area. which symbolically extends the private domain of Jewish households err-uuv, pl. err-uuv—im /'srov/, pl /-v1m/ erythema reddening of the skin

err-ith-ee-muh /,er1'6i:ma/ Welsh name for Snowdonia err-urr-i /8'I'Al‘l/ Erzgebirge mountain range, Germany—Czech Republic border

airts-guh-beer-guh /'s:(r)tsge,b1a(r)ga/ Erzurum city, Turkey air-zuu-ruum /'e:(r)zorom/ Esau biblical character

ee-saw /'i:so:/ Esbjerg port, Denmark

ess-byair /'esbjs:(r)/ escalope thin slice of meat esk-al-uhp /e‘ska1ap/ Sometimes also esk-uh-lop.

escargot edible snail esk-ar-goh /s'sku:(r)geo/, French [eskargo]

escarole salad leaf


esk-uh-rohl /'sskaraol/

eschatology theological term esk-uh-tol-uh-ji /,8sko'tnlad3i/ Escaut see Scheldt escheat reversion of property on the owner’s death ess-cheet /es'tIi:t,! eschew deliberately avoid ess-choo /es't_1‘u:/

Escofiier, Georges-Auguste French chef

zhorzh oh-guest esk-of-yay /,3o:(r)3 ao,gyst askn'fje1/ escolar large fish e5k—uh—lar /,aska‘1u:(r)/ Escorial monastery and palace in Spain esk-orr-i-al /_ssknri'al/ escritoire small writing desk

esk-ri-twar /_sskri'two:(r)/ escrow US legal term

esk-roh /'eskrao/

escutcheon shield esk-utch-uhn /e'skAtj‘en/ Esfahan (also Isfahan) city, Iran

ess-fuh-hahn /,asfa'hu:n/ Esher town, England

ee-shuhr /'i:j‘a(r)/ Eskisehir city, Turkey

esk-ish-uh-heer ,/ss'k1]‘ah1o(r)/ esoteric likely to be understood by only a small number of people

ee-suh-terr-ik /,i:sa'tar1k,' Sometimes also ess-uh-terr-ik.

espada fish esp-ah-duh /e'spo:da/ espadrille canvas shoe esp-uh-dril fsspedrilj espalier tree trained to grow against a wall e$p—al—yuhr /e'spa1je(r)/ Gornetimes also esp-al—yay.

Esperanto artificial language esp-uh—ran-toh /,sspa'rantau/

Espirito Santo state, Brazil esp—ee—rit—oo san-too /e,spi:r1tu: 'santu:/ esplanade open area

esp-luh-nayd /ssp1e'ne1d/

§er¢¥ies§ sis? ESP-'"“-"W espouse Support a cause

esp-owz /s'spaoz/

espressivo I étoulfée


espressivo musical term

esp-ress-ee-voh /,espre'si:veo/ espresso coffee esp-ress-oh /s'sprssao/ Sometimes erroneously pronounced

eks-press-oh. esprit de corps mutual loyalty

esp-ree duh kor /e,spri: do 'k:>:(r)/ Esquiline one of the seven hills of Rome esk-wil-yn /‘sskw1l1\m/

Esquipulas town, Guatemala

esk-ee-poo-lass /,eski:'pu:1as/ esquire title appended to a man’s name esk-wy-uhr ls'skwA1a(r)/ Essen city, Germany

ess-uhn /'ssan/ Essequibo river, Guyana ess-uh-kee-boh /,esa‘ki:bau/

Estadio da Luz football stadium, Lisbon

ish-taj-00 duh loosh /1_[,tad3u: do '1u:I/

Estadio Santiago Bernabeu football stadium, Madrid

est—ath-yoh sant-yag-oh bair-nab-ay-oo /estaojau san'tjagau bs:(r)na'be1u:/ estancia cattle ranch

est-anss-i-uh /s'stansia/ Estefan, Gloria Cuban singer glaw-ri-uh est-ef—an /,glo:ria e'stefan/ Estée Lauder American cosmetics company

est-ay law-duhr /,este1 'lo:da(r)/ Esterhaizy, Pal Hungarian composer

pahl est-uhr-hah-zi /,pa:1'asta(r)hu:zi/ Estevez, Emilio American actor

uh-meel-i-oh est-uh-vez /a,mi:1ieu 'estavsz/ Estima potato variety

est-ee-muh /s'sti:ma/ Estonia country

est-Oh-ni-uh /s'staonie/ Eistiablisliedlanglicization. The Estonian name is Eesti, pronounced ay-sti ['e:sti].

Estoril town, Portugal

ish-tuh-reel /1Ita'ri:1/ Sometimes anglicized to est-uh-ril. Estremadura region, Portugal


/,r_\‘trama'du:ra/ Esztergom town, Hungary

est-uhr-gom /'esta(r)gnm/ ETA Estimated Time ofArrival ee-tee-ay /,i:ti:'e1/ ETA Basque separatist movement et-uh /‘eta,’ eta letter of the Greek alphabet

ee-tuh /'i:ta/ étagere furniture

et-uh-zhair /eta'5e:(r)/ et al. ‘and others’ (Latin)

et al /at ‘all et cebera (also etcetera) ‘and so on’ (Latin)

et-set-uh-ruh /et'setara/ Sometimes erroneously pronounced


W p__ W

eth (also edh) Old English letter eth /85/

ethane flammable gas

ee-thayn /'i:9e1n/ §ornetimes also eth-ayn.

ethanol ethyl alcohol eth-uh-nol /'e6ann1/ Ethelretl English king

eth-uhl-red /'s6alred/ ether flammable liquid

ee-thu hr /'i:0a(r)/ ethereal unworldly

uh-theer—i-uhl /e'61arial/ Ethiopia country

ee-thi-oh-pi-uh /,i:6i'aopia/ ethology science of animal behaviour ee-thol-uh-ji /i:'0nlad3i/ ethos spirit of a culture, era, or

community ee-t hoss /'i'9ns/ . AM is sometimes also eth~0SS.

ethyl derived from ethane ee-thyl ,"i:B1u1/ Sometimes also eth-il. Etna, Mount volcano, Italy

et-nuh /'stna/ Eton College boys’ public school, England ee-tuhn /'i:tan/ étouffée spicy Cajun stew

ay-too-fay /,e1tu:'fe1/

Etruscan I Ewoia Etruscan relating to an ancient Italian state uh—trusk-uhn /a'trAskanf etude short musical composition ay-tyood /el'tju:d/, French [etyd] etymology study of the origin of words et-im-0|-uh-ji /,sti'mo1ad3i/ Euboea island, Greece

yoo-bee-uh /ju:'bi:e/ Established anglicization. The Greek name is Evvoia, pronounced ev-yuh.

Eucharist Christian sacrament yoo—kuh-rist /‘ju:karist/ euchre card game

yoo-kuhr /'ju:ka(r)/ Euclid Greek mathematician yoo-klid /'ju:k11d/ Euclidean system of geometry

yoo-klid-i-uhn /ju:'k1idian/ Eugene Onegin opera by Tchaikovsky

yoo-jeen on-yay-gin /,ju:d3i:n un'jeigin/ ~ Established anglicization. eugenics selective breeding yoo-jen-iks /ju:'d3en1ks/ Eugenie wife of Napoleon III yoo-zhay-ni /ju:'3emi/, French [o3eni] ~ Established anglicization. Eugenie, Princess member of the UK royal family yoo-zhuh-ni /'ju:3eni/ eukaryote organism

yoo-karr-i-oht /ju:'kariaut/ Euler, Leonhard Swiss mathematician lay-on~hart oy-luhr /,1e1nnhu:(r)t

'o11e(r)/ eulogy praise yoo-luh-ji /'ju:lad3i/ Eumenides Greek mythological characters

yoo-men-id-eez /ju:'men1di;z/ euphonious pleasing to the ear

yoo-foh-ni-uhss /ju:'faunias/ euphorbia plant yoo-for-bi-uh lju:'f0:(r)bie/ Euphrates river, Iraq yoo-fray-teez /ju:'fre1ti:z/ 0 Established anglicization. Eurasia Europe and Asia combined yoor-ay-zhuh /_jua're13a/ Euratom European Atomic Energy



yoor-at-uhm /joa'ratam/ eureka cry ofjoy your-ee-kuh /joo'ri:ka/ Euridioe opera by Peri

ay-oor-id-ee-chay /eruar1'di:tj‘er/ This Italian pronunciation of Eurydice is

also appropriate for several other operas. Euripides Greek dramatist

yoor-ip-id-eez /,joa'r1p1di:z/ euro currency unit

yoor-oh /'juoroo/ ' Established anglicization.

europium chemical element yoor—0h-pi-uhm /joar'aopiam/ Europoort port, Netherlands yoor-oh-port /'joeraupo:(r)t/, ['o:ro:po:rt] v Established anglicization. Eurydice Greek mythological character

yoor-id-iss-i /joa'r1d1si/ Eurynomc Greek mythological character

yoor-in-uh—mi /jua'r1nemi/ Eusebius Syrian bishop

yoo-see-bi-uhss fju:'si:bias/ Eustachian tube passage leading from the pharynx to the ear yoo-stay-shuhn ,'ju:'ste1Ian/ Euterpe Greek mythological character yoo-tur-pi /ju:'ta:(r)pi/ evanesce pass out of sight

ev-uh-ness /sve'nes/ Sometimes also ee-vuh-ness. Evelyn, John English diarist

eev-Iin /'i:v11n/ The British boy’s or girl’s name Evelyn is variously pronounced eev-lin and ev-uh-lin,

depending on individual preference.

Everest, Mount mountain, Himalayas ev-uh-ruhst /'svarest/ Curiouslyikplorer Sir George Everest (after whom the mountain was named) pronounced his name eev-uh-rest.

Evian trademark mineral water

ev-yah(ng) /'evjo/ evolution biological process ev—uh—lO0—5huhn /,sva'1u:_l'an/ Commonly also ee-vu h-loo-shuhn. Evvoia see Euboea

Ewe I Ezra

125 Ewe west African ethnic group and language

exogamy marrying outside a community

ek-sog-uh-mi /ek'sogomi/

ay-way / 'e1we1/

expatiate speak in detail about

ewe female sheep

ek-spay-shi-ayt /sk‘spe1jie1t/

V00 /1111/ Ewelme town, England yoo-elm /'ju:slm/ ewer jug yoo-uhr /'ju:o(r)/ exalt speak highly of eg-zawlt /sg'zo:lt/ Commonly also eg~zolt. The prefix e.:c- is

variously pronounced eks or egz. Excalibur legendary sword

expiate make reparation for

ek-spi-ayt /'skspie1t/ expletive swear word

eks—plee-tiv /ek'spli:t1v/ AM is eks-pluh-tiv. exposé media revelation ek-spoh-zay /ek'speuze1/ AM is ek-spoh-zay.

expurgate bowdlerize

ek-skal-ib-uh r /eks'kal1be(r)/

ek-spur-gayt /'ekspa:(r)geIt/

ex cathedra with full authority

exquisite beautiful and delicate

eks kuh—thee—druh /,sks ka'Bi:dro/ excelsior hotel name

ek-sel—si—or /ek'se1sio:(r)/ exchequer treasury eks-chek-uhr /aks'tj‘ske(r)/ excoriate scar

ek-skaw-ri-ayt /sk'sko:rie1t/ exeat permission for temporary absence

eks-i-at /'sksiat/’ exegesis , pl. exegeses critical interpretation of a text

ek-sij-ee-siss, pl. ek-sij-ee-seez /,eks1'd3i:s1s/, pl. /-si:z/

exequy funeral rites ek-Suh—kWi /'eksekWi/ Exeter city, England ek-suh-tuhr /'eksota(r)/ exeunt stage direction ek-Si—unt /'8kSlAl’ll,/ ex gratia done as a favour and not under compulsion eks gray-shuh /,eks 'grer_fe/ exigency urgent need ek—sij-uhn-si /‘sksrd3ansi/ Sometimes also ek-sij-uhn-si.

ex libris bookplate inscription

eks leeb-riss /eks '1i:br1s/ ex nihilo out of nothing eks ny-hil-oh /eks 'IlAIl'l1l8U/ Exocet trademark missile ek-suh—set /'sksosat/ exodus mass departure

ek-suh-duhss /'eksedas/

eks-kwiz-it /ek'skw1z1t/‘ Sometimes also eks-kwuh-zit.

extant still in existence

ek-sta nt /ak'stant/ Sometimes also ek-stuhnt.

extol praise ek~stohl /ek'stou1/ extrados architectural term eks-tray-doss /ak'strerdus/ extrasystole arrhythmic heartbeat

eks-truh—sist-uh-Ii /,akstre's1steli/ Extremadura region, Spain

eks-tray-muh-door-uh /,ekstre1mo'doara,' Exuma islands, Bahamas ek—s00—muh /sk'su:ma/ ex-voto offering

eks voh-toh /,eks 'vaoteo/ Exxon Mobil company name ek-son moh-bil /,ekson'meubr1/ eyot island in a river; also called ait ay-uht /'e1at/ eyre medieval court

air /e:(r)/ eyrie eagles nest eer-i /‘tori,’ Sometimes also y-ri or air—i. Ezekiel Hebrew prophet

uh-zee-ki-uhl /e'zi:kia1/ Ezra Hebrew prophet

ez-ruh /'szre/


F faba broad bean; also called fava

fah-buh /'fa:ba/ Faber 3: Faber book publishers fay-buhr /,fe1be(r)/ Faber, Johann German composer yoh-han fah-buhr /,jauhan 'fn:ba(r)/ Faberge, Carl Russian goldsmith and jeweller

karl fab-uhr-zhay /_ka:(r)1'faba(r)3e1/ Fabian Society socialist organization fay-bi-uhn /'fe1bian/ Fabius Roman general and statesman

fay-bi-uhss /'fe1bias/ Fabre, Jean Henri French


zhah(ng) ah(ng)-ree fab-ruh /36 fi_ri: 'fabra/ Fabricius, David German astronomer

dah-vit fab-reet-si-uuss /,da:v1t fab'ri:tsius/ fabulate relate invented stories fab-yuul-ayt /'fabjuleIt/ facile ignoring the true complexities of an issue fass—y| /'fasA11,I

“SsaF!¥Ié§=-*'facsimile exact copy fak-sim-il-i /fak's1m1ii/' factotum employee who does all kinds ofwork fak-toh~tuhm /fak'teotam/ factual concerned with facts

fak-choo-uhl /'faktj'ual/ The pronunciation fak-tyoo-uhl is less

common now. facula pl. faculae bright region on the

surface of the Sun

fak-yuul-uh, pl. fak-yuul-ee /'fakjula/, pl. /~li:/ fado type of Portuguese music fad-oo /'fadu:/ Faenza town, Italy

fah-ent-suh /t'a:'sntsa/ Faeroe Islands see Faroe Islands

Fahrenheit scale of temperature farr-uhn-hyt ,"faranhA1t/ Less commonly also far-uhn-hyt.

faience glazed ceramic ware fy—0(ng)5S /fA1'i')s/, French [fajc'i:s] faille light-woven fabric

fayl lfeill failte ‘welcome’ (Irish Gaelic) fawi-chuh /‘f:J:1tj'a/ Faisal name of two kings of Iraq fy-suhl j'f1usol/ Faisalabad city, Pakistan

fy—suh-iuh-bad /'fAlS8l8,lJ&d/ fait accompii thing that has already happened fayt uh-kOm-pli /‘felt a'knmp1i/, French /fat ak5pli/ Faimbad city, India fy—zuh—bad ffmzabadl fajitas Mexican dish fuh-hee-tuhz /fa'hi:taz/, Spanish [fa'xitas] fakir (also faquir) Muslim religious ascetic

fay-keer /'feik1a(r)/


faucet tap faw-suht /'f0:sat/ faujdar (also faujidar) Indian police oflicer

faw-jid-ar /'fo:d3ido:(r)/ Faulkner, William American novelist

fawk-nuhr /'fo:kna(r)/ Faulks, Sebastian English writer fohks ffaoksf faun Roman god

fawn /fo:n/ fauna pl. faunae animals of a region

faw-nuh, pl. faw-nee /‘fame/, pl. /-ui:/ ~ Standard -s plural is also possible. Fauntleroy excessively well-mannered young boy font-luh-roy /'font1ar:J1,/ Faunus Roman mythological god

faw-nuhss /'fo:nas/ Fauré, Gabriel French composer and organist

gab-ri-el faw-ray /gabri,e1fo:'re1/ Faust German astronomer and necromancer fowst lfaostl Faustus, Dr see Doctor Faustus


faute de mieux ‘for want of better’ (French)

foht duh myoe /,faut do 'mj/ Fauve group of painters who favoured fauvism fohv lfaovl fauvism style of painting

foh-viz-uhm /'feovizem/ faux pas embarrassing or tactless act

foh pah /fau 'pu:/ fava broad bean; also called faba fah-vuh /'fo:va/ favela Brazilian shack or shanty town fav-el-uh /fa'vela/ favrile glass coloured iridescent glass

fuh-vreel /fa'vri:1/ Fawcett, Farrah American actress farr—uh faw-suht /fare 'fa:sat/ Fawkes, Guy English conspirator fawks /fo:ks/ Fayed, Emad ‘Dodi’ son of Mohamed Al Fayed

ee-mad doh-di fy-uhd /_i:mad ,deudi 'fAI8(l/ Fayed, Mohamed Al Egyptian chairman of Harrods

muh-ham-uhd uhl fy—uhd /ma,hamad al 'fAI8d/

faute de mieux | Fenian Federer, Roger Swiss tennis player roj-uhr fed-uh-ruhr /,rod5a(r) 'fedara(r)/, German ['fe:do1‘B] This is his own anglicized pronunciation.

Federline, Kevin American dancer fed—uhr-lyn /'fsda(r)lA1n/

fedora felt hat fuh-daw-ruh /fa‘d:):ra/ feijoada Brazilian or Portuguese dish

fay-zhwad-uh /fe1'3wada,' feis pl. feiseanna Irish or Scottish music festival

fesh, pl. fesh-uh-nuh /fsf/, pl. /'f£Iane/ felafel see falafel felid mammal of the cat family

fee-lid /'fi:11d/ felix culpa ‘fortunate fault’ (Latin)

fay-liks kuu|—puh /,feil1ks 'ku1pa/ v See tam: panel. Felixstowe port, England fee—lik-stoh /'fi:11ksteu/ fellah pl. fellahin Egyptian peasant

fel-uh, pl. fel-uh-heen ,"fsla/, pl. /fela'hi:n/ Fellini, Federico Italian film director

fed-uh-ree-koh fel-ee-ni /fade,ri:kao fa'li:ni/

fazenda Portuguese estate or large farm fuh-zen-duh /fa'zsndaf fazendeiro person who owns a fazenda faz-en-day-roo /,fazan'de1ru:/

felo de se suicide fee-loh dee see /,fi;lau di: 'si:/ felucca small boat fel-uk-uh /f8'lAl(8/

Featherstonehaugh British family

femme fatale seductive woman


fam fuh-tahl /,fam fa'ta:l/

feth-uhr-stuhn-haw, fan-shaw, fest-uhn-haw, fee-suhn-hay,

femur pl. femora bone of the thigh

feebstuhn-haw /'fsoa(r)stanho:/,

pl. /'fsmara/ ~ Standard -s plural is also possible.

/'fan_|‘:>:/, /Tsstenho:/, /'fi:sanhe1/, /'f1a(r)stanh0:,' febrifuge medicine used to reduce fever feb-rif—yo0j /'fsbr1fju:d3/

February month feb-roo-uh-ri /‘februari/ Commonly also feb-yoo-uh-ri, and sometimes also feb-ruu-ri or feb-yuu-ri.

Fechner, Gustav German physicist and psychologist

guust-ahf fekh-nuhr /_gusto:f 'fscna(r)/ fedayeen (also fidayeen) Arab guerrillas

fed-uh-yeen /_f1~:da'ji:n/

fee—muhr, pl. fem-uh-ruh /'fi:me(r)/, fenestella niche in a church

fen-uh-stel-uh /,fene'stsla/ fenestra pl. fenestrae hole or opening

fuh-nest-ruh, pl. fuh-nest-ree /fa'nestra/, pl. /-tri:/ feng sllui Chinese system of laws in relation to the flow of energy

fung shway /,fA13 'jwe1/ A more anglicized pronunciation, feng shwee, is also heard. Fenian member of the Irish Republican


fee-ni-uhn /'fi:nian/

fennec | fez fennec small fox fen-ek /‘fem-:k,' Fennoscandia land mass in NW Europe

fen-oh~skan-di-uh /_fsnau'skandia/ fenugreek plant fen-yoo-greek ,"fcnju:gri:k/ feral in a wild state

ferr-u hl /'fsral/ fer de lance viper fair duh lahnss /,fs:(r) do 'lu:ns/ feretory shrine containing the relics of a saint

ferr-uh-tuh-ri /'fsratari/ Fergana city, Uzbekistan

fuhr-gah-nuh /fe(r)'gu:na/ This is the Uzbek pronunciation. A Russified pronunciation, fyuhr-guh-nah, is alsoheard.

feria Spanish fair ferr-i-uh /'faria,! ferial denoting an ordinary weekday feer-i-uhl /'f|arial/

Ferlinghetti, Lawrence American poet and publisher fur-ling-get-i /_fe:(r)l1n'gati/ Fermanagh county, Northern Ireland

fuhr-man-uh /fa(r)'mana/ Fermat, Pierre de French mathematician

pyair duh fair-mah /,pja:(r) da fa:(r)'mu:/ fermata musical term fur—mah-tuh /fa:(r)'mu:ta/ Fermi, Enrico Italian-born American atomic physicist en-ree-koh fur-mi /sn,ri:kau ‘fa:(r)mi/ fermi unit of length fur-mi /'fa:(r)mi,l fermium chemical element fur-mi-uhm /'fa:(r)miam/ ferox trout

ferr-oks /'fsrnks/ Ferranti, Sebastian English electrical engineer

fuh-ran-ti /fa'ranti/ Ferrara city and province, Italy ferr-ar-uh /fa‘ro:ra/ Ferrari, Enzo Italian car designer and manufacturer ent-soh ferr-ar-i /,sntsao fe'ru:ri/ The make ofcar is fuh-rar-i.


Ferreira, Wayne South African tennis player fuh-rair-uh /fa'ra:ra/ Ferrel‘, Ibrahim Cuban singer

eeb-rah-eem ferr—air /i:bru:,i:m f1-:'re:(r)/ Ferrero, Juan Carlos Spanish tennis player

khwan kar-loss ferr-air-oh /xwan _ko:(r)lns fe'rs:ran/ Ferrier, Kathleen English contralto ferr-i-uhr /'f£ria(r)/ ferrous containing iron

ferr-uhss /'fsras/ ferruginous containing rust ferr-00-jin~uhss /fe'ru:d3Inas/ Fes see Fez

Fessenden, Reginald Aubrey Canadian—born American pioneer of


fess-uhn-duhn /'fssandan/ festoon garland of flowers

fest-oon /fa'stu:n/ feta (also fetta) Greek cheese

fet-uh /‘fat:-M fete public function fayt /fe1t/ fetid (also foetid) smelling extremely unpleasant fet-id /'fEtId/

Commonly also fee-tid.

fetor a strong, foul smell

fee-tuhr /'fi:te(r)/ fettuccine (also fettucini) type of pasta

fet-uu-chee-ni /,fz-:tu'tIi:ni/ Feuerbach, Ludwig German philosopher

loot-vikh foy—uhr-bakh /_lu:tv1c 'fa|a(r)bax/ Feydeau, Georges French dramatist

zhorzh fay-doh /_z:>:(r)3 ferdaul Feyenoord Dutch football team and

suburb of Rotterdam

fy-uhn-ort /'fAI6I‘l0I(l‘)t]' 0 See ourcn panel. Feynman, Richard Phillips American physicist

fyn-muhn /'fA1nman,' Fez (also Fes) city, Morocco fez [fez] fez Turkish hat

fez /fsz/



fiance (also fiancée) person to whom one is engaged to be married

fi-on-say /fi'nnse1/

Finucane, Patrick

filariasis tropical disease fil-uh-ry~uh—siss /,f1la‘rA1as1s/ filet nlignon tender piece of beef

Commonly also fl-ahn-say, and in AM also

fil-ay meen-yo(ng) /,f11e1 'rni:njfi/ W


AM is fil-ay min-yawn.



fianchetto chess move

fyan-ket-oh /fjan‘kstau/ Fianna Fail Irish political party fee-uh-nuh foyl /,fi:ana ‘foil/, Irish Gaelic [fliana 'fa:1*] v Established anglicization.

Fibonacci, Leonardo Italian mathematician

lay-oh-nar~doh fee-boh-nah-chi /1eiao,nu:(r)dao ,fi:bau'nn:tIi/ fibroma pl. fibromata benign fibrous


fy-broh-muh, fy-broh-muh-tuh /f.u'braoma/, pl. /-matey’ v Standard -s plural is also possible. fibromyalgia rheumatic condition

fy-broh-my-al-ji-uh /,fA1braumAI'a1d3ia/ fibula pl. fibulae leg bone fib-yuul-uh, pl. fib~yuul-ee /'frbjola/, pl. /-1i:/ I Standard -s plural is also possible.

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb German philosopher

yoh-han got-leep fikh-tuh /jaohan ,gntli:p ‘frets! ficus plant

fy-kuhss /'f1nkas/ Commonly also fee-kuhss; see LATIN panel.

fidayeen see fedayeen FIDE world chess federation

fee-day /'fi:der/ Fiennes, Ralph English actor

rayf fynz /,re1f 'fA1nz/ Fiennes, Ranulph English explorer ran-uhlf fynz /,ranelf'fA1nz,' FIFA Fédération Internationale de Football Association fee-fuh /'fi:fa/ Figaro character in Mozart's opera The Marriage ofFigaro

fee-guh-roh /'fi:garao/ Fiji country

fee-jee /'fi:d3i:/ Fijian relating to Fiji fee-jee-uhn /fi:'d3i:en/

Filipino relating to the Philippines

fil-ip-ee»noh /_f111'pi:nan/ film noir film genre film nwar /film 'nwc1:(r)/ filo (also phyllo) pastry fee-loh /'fi:1oo/ filovirus virus

fee-loh-vy-ruhss /'fi:lao,v1nras/ filS used to distinguish a son from a father of the same name

feess /fi:s/ finale last part of an event fin-ah—|i /f1'nt1:li/ finance management of money fy-nanss /'fA1nans/ Less commonly also fy-nanss and fin-anss. financial relating to finance

fy-nan-shuhl /fA1'nanj'al/ Less commonly also fin-an-shuhl.

fin de siecle relating to the end of a century

fa(ng) duh syek-luh /1?: do 'sjakla/ fine French brandy feen /fi:n/ fine musical term

fee-nay /'fl.II]8I}' Fine Gael Irish political party

fin—uh gayl /_fma ‘gen/, Irish Gaelic [,f1in1e 'ge:1] Finisterre, Cape promontory, Spain fin—ist—air /_fm1‘ste:(r)/ Finland country fin-luhnd /'f1nland/ Established anglicization. The Finnish name is Suomi, pronounced 500-om-i.

Finn MacCool (also Finn Mac Cumhaill) Irish mythological character

fin muh-kool /,f1n ma'ku:l/ Finno-Ugrle group of languages

fin-oh-yoo-grik /,fmao'ju:gr1k/ fino sherry

fee-noh /'fi:neo/

Finucane, Patrick Northern Irish lawyer

fin-oo-kuhn /f1'nu:kan/

Fiorentina | Florence


Flamsteed, John English astronomer

Fiorentina Italian football club

flam-steed /'flamsti:d/

fyorr-en-tee-nuh /ijnren'ti:no/ fioritura pl_ fioriture musical term

fi-aw-ri-toor-uh, pl. fi-aw-ri-toor-ay /fi_0:ri'tuara/, pl. /-reI/ fiqh philosophy of Islamic law

feek /fi:k,I Firenze see Florence

Flanagan, Fionmlla Irish actress fin-00-lu h ffrnuzlel Flanders region, divided between Belgium, France, and the Netherlands flahrl-duhrz /'flo:nda(r)z,I Established anglicization. The Flemish

name is Vlaanderen, pronounced

firn crystalline or granular snow

vlahn-duh-ruh(n), and the French name is

feern /‘flan,’

Flandre (or Flandres), both pronounced

fifni Indian dish


feer-ni /'f1e(r)ni/

Fischer-Dieskau, Dietrich German

Flandrian geological stage

flahn-dri-uhn Fflozndrianl


deet-rikh fish-uhr dee-skow /_di:tr1c ,frj‘a(r) 'di:skao/ Fischer, Joschka German politician yosh-kuh fish-uhr /jnfka 'frj‘a(r)/ Fish I-Ioek suburb of Cape Town fish huuk /'f1j' hok/ fistula pl. fistulae abnormal or surgically made passage

fist-yuul-uh, pl. fist-yuul-ee /'f1stju1e/,

pl. /-1i:/

~ Standard -s plural is also possible. FISU International University Sports Federation

fee-zoo /'fi:zu:/

Flaubert, Gustave French novelist gue-stahv floh-bair /gy,stu:v flaU'be:(r)/ Flavian dynasty of Roman emperors flay-vi-uhn /'fle1vian/ flavin pigment flay—vin /'i1e1v1n/ fleadh Irish music festival flab /flu:/ Fleming native of Flanders

flem-ing /'flemm/ Flemish relating to Flanders

flem-ish /'flsm1j‘/

fitché heraldic term fitch-ay /'f1tj'e1/

Flensburg city, Germany

Fiume see Rijeka

fleur-dc-lis lily flur—duh-lee /,f1a:(r)da'1i:/ fleury decorated with fleurs-de-lis; also flory

flenss~boork /'flensbua(r)k/

ljord deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs fyord /fj:J2(r)d/, Norwegian [fjuzr] flageolet French kidney bean

flaj-uh-let /flad3a'let/, [t1a3o1r-:1

Flevoland province, Netherlands

Commonly also flaj-u h-lay. The same pronunciations are used for the musical


flag-uhn /'flagan/ _

flen /flen/ flambé covered with spirits and set alight briefly

flom-bay /‘flnmbei/, French [flfibe] Flamborough Head promontory, England

flam-buh-ruh /'flambara/ Flamengo Brazilian football club

fluh-meng-goo /f1a'mangu:/

flay-voh-lunt /'fle1vao1Ant,/

floccinaucinihilipilification action of estimating something as worthless

flagon container in which drink is served Flaine resort, France

floor-i /'flueri/

flok-sin-aw-si-ni-hil-ip-il-if-ik-ayshuhn /,fl'oks1,no:si,nihrli,p1l1f1'kerIen/ floccus pl. flocci tuft of wool flok-uhss, pl. flok-y /'flokas/, pl. /-kA1/ Plural is sometimes also flok-sy.m7W7i I I

flokati Greek rug

flok-ah-ti /fln'ka:ti,' Florence city, Italy

florr-uhnss /'flnrens,' Established anglicization. The Italian name

is Firenze, pronounced firr-ent-say.

Florentine | Folsom


Established anglicization. The Dutch name

Florentine relating to Florence

is Vlissingen, pronounced vliss-ing-uh(n).

florr-uhn-tyn fflorantarnj Flores island, Indonesia flaw-ress /'fl0ZI'£S/ Flores island, the Azores

florr-uhsh /‘floral! Floriano city, Brazil florr-i-an~o0 /flnri'anu:/ Florianopolis city, Brazil florr-i-uh-nop-uul-iss /,flo:ria‘nnpolis/ floriferous producing many flowers

florr-if-uh-ruhss /flp‘rIfaras/ florilegium pl. florilegia collection of literary extracts

florr-il-ee-ji-uhm, pl. florr-il-ee-ji-uh /,flnrI'1i:d5iam/, pl. /-d3ia/ O Standard -s plural is also possible. florin former British coin florr-in /'flnrm,I Florio, John English lexicographer flaw-ri-oh /'fl:>:riaul flory decorated with fleurs-de—lis; also fleury flaw-ri /'fl:):ri[ flotilla small fleet of ships fluh-til-uh /fla't1la/ Flotow, Friedrich German composer freed-rikh fl0h~toh /,fri:dric ‘flautaul flotsam wreckage of a ship flot-suhm /'flntsam/

fluvial relating to rivers floo-vi-uhl /'flu:vial/ fluvoxamine antidepressant drug

floo-voks-uh-meen /flu:'vnksemi:n/ F0, Dario Italian writer dar-i-oh foh /,du:riau ‘foul

Foca city, Turkey fotch-uh ,f'fntj'a/ focaccia Italian bread fuh-katch-uh /fa'kat_‘|‘a/ Foch, Ferdinand French general

fair-dee-nahlng) fosh /fe:(r)di:_nfi

‘fall foetid see fetid Foggia town, Italy foj-uh /'fod3a/

Fogh Rasmussen, Anders see Rasmussen, Anders Fogh fogou Cornish earth-house

foh-goo /'faogu:/ fiihn (also foehn) hot wind foen /fe:n/ foie gras short for paté de foie gras fwah grah /_fwo: ‘grozj Fokine, Michel Russian-born American dancer mee—shel fuh-keen /mi:,_l‘sl fa'ki:n/

Fokker, Anthony Dutch-born

floweret floret flow-uh-ruht /'flaoerat/

American aircrafi designer

flugelhorn musical instrument

Thelsame pronunciation make of aircraft.

fol:-uhr /'fnka(r)/

floo-guhl-horn /‘flu:galha:(r)n/ Fluminense Brazilian football club floo-min-e(ng)-si /flu:m1'nési/

fluoresce shine or glow brightly flaw-ress /fl:i:'res/ Sometimes also floo-uh-ress.

fluoride chemical compound floor-yd /'fluerA1d/

Cornmoiily alsoilaw-ryd.i


fluorine chemical element floor-een /'fluari:n/

cSmmon1{=§1§o fiiw-rééinf


used for the

folacin another term for folic acid fohl-uh-sin /'faules1n/ folic acid vitamin of the B complex foh-lik /'feol1k/ Sometimes also fol-ik. folio individual leaf of paper or parchment

foh-Ii-oh /'fauliao/ Folketing Danish parliament fol-kuh—ting /'fn1katn]/ Folkestone port, England

fohk-stuhn /'faukstan/

Fluoxetine trademark antidepressant drug follis Roman coin floo-olr-suh-teen /flu:'nksati:n/ fol-iss /'fo1rs/ Flushing port, Netherlands

flush-ing /'flA_[I1J/

Folsom Palaeo-Indian culture

fohl-suhm /'faolsam/

Fomalhaut I fortis


Fomalhaut star foh-muhI—hawt /'feoma1_ho:t/

mee-losh for-muhn /,mi:1nI ‘fo:(r)men/

foment instigate or stir up foh-ment /feo'mant/ fomites objects or materials which are likely to carry infection fOh—mit—eeZ /‘faum1ti:z,' fondant thick paste made of sugar and water

Formentera island, Mediterranean

for-men-tair-uh /,f:J:(r)men'ts:re/ Formica trademark plastic laminate for-my-kuh /f3Z(I')'Il'lAIkB/

formicarium ant’s nest for-mik-air-i-uhm /,f:):(r)mI'ka:riam/ formidable inspiring fear or respect

fon-duhnt /'fnndant/

f0r—mid-uh—buhl /'fo:(r)m1dabal/

fondue French dish

comaszigias tor-mid-uh-buhl.

fon-doo /'fnndu:/, [fiidy] fontanelle space between the bones of

Formosa former name for Taiwan for-moh-suh /fo:(r)'maosa/ formula pl. formulae mathematical rule

the skull in an infant

fon-tuh-nel /_fonta'ns1,' Fonteyn, Margot English ballet dancer

for-myuul-uh, pl. for-myuul-ee

mar-goh fon-tayn /,mc1:(r)gau

/'fo:(r)mjule/, pl. /-1i:/ I Standard -s plural is also possible. formulary collection of set forms

fon‘tem/ fontina Italian cheese fon-tee-nuh /fnn'ti:na/ foo yong Chinese dish

for-myuul-uh-ri /'f0:mjoleri/ Fornax constellation

foo yong /_fu: 'jm]/

for-n a ks /'f01(I‘)I18kS/

foramen pi. foramina opening or passage

Fornells resort, Menorca

for-nelss /fo:(r)'nals/

fuh-ray-men, pl. fuh—ram-in-uh /fa're1man/, pl. /-'ram1na/ forastero cacao tree forr-uh-stair-oh /,fnra'sts:rau/

Forster, E. M. English novelist

for-stuhr /'fo:(r)sta(r),' Forsyth, Frederick English novelist for-syth ]fo:(r)'szu6/ Forsyth, Bruce English entertainer

foray sudden attack

forr-ay /'fnre1/ Forbes American magazine f°TbZ /f91(1")bZ/ The British surname is variously

pronounced for-buhss and forbz, depending on individual preference.

for-syth /'fo:(r)sA1H/ _ forsythia shrub for-sy-thi-uh /fo:(r)'sA18ie/ Fortaleza port, Brazil

fordo (also foredo) kill

for-doo /fo:(r)'du:/ forehead part of the face

fawr-hed /'fo:(r)hed/ Less commonly also forr-id.

Forfar town, Scotland for—fuhr /'fo:(r)fa(r)/ forfeit lose or be deprived for-fit I'f:1:(r)fIt,l forint currency unit, Hungary

forr-int /'formt/ formaldehyde gas, used in solution as a preservative

for-mal-duh-hyd /fo:(r)'maldahmd/ Forman, Milos Czech-born American film director

for-tuh-lay-zuh /,fa:(r)ta'1e1ze/ Fort-de-France capital of Martinique

for-duh-frah(ng)ss /_fo:(r)de'fr&s/ forte thing at which someone excels for-tay /"fo:(r)te1/ Sometimes also fort-i, but fort is less

common now. forte musical term for-tay /'fo:(r)te1/ fortepiano type of piano for-tay-pyan-oh /_fo:(r)teI'pjanau/ forthwith immediately forth-with /fo:0'w16/ Sometimes also forth-with. fortis strongly articulated for-tiss /'f:>:(r)trs/

fortissimo | Frau


fortissimo pl. fortissimi musical term

for-tiss—i-moh, pl. for-tiss-im-i /fo:(r)'tis1mao/, pl. /-mi/ ' Standard -s plural is also possible. Fort Knox military reservation, US

noks lnoksl Fort Lamy former name for N’Djamena

for lam—ee /,f:>:(r) 'lami:/ Fortuyn, Pim Dutch politician pim for-toeyn ],pIm fClZ(I‘)'lZiBlI1/ Fona Italia Italian political party fort-suh ee-tahl-yuh /,f:1:(r)tsa i:'to:lja/ Fosbury, Richard American high-jumper foz-buh-ri /'fozbari/ fossa pi. fossae hollow

foss-uh, pl. foss-ee /'fosa/, pl. /-si:/ Fosse, Bob American theatre and film

foy-ay /'fo1e1,l Fra title given to an Italian monk or friar frah /fro:/ fracas disturbance or quarrel

frak-ah /'fraku:/ Fragonard, Jean-Honoré French painter

zhah(ng) on-orr-ay frag-on-ar /36 nnn,re| frago'nu:(r)/ franc former currency unit, France

frank /frank/, [fro] France country

frahnss /fruznsl, [frfis] ' Established anglicization. Franche-Comté region, France

frah(ng)sh ko(ng)-tay /,frfiJ‘ k5'te1/ fiancium chemical element

fran-si-uhm /'fransiam/ Franck, César Belgian—born French


foss-i /'fosi/


fosse narrow trench or excavation

‘Foss /fos/ fossiliferous containing fossils

foss-il-if-uh-ruhss /,fosi'11faras/ Foucault, Michel French philosopher

mee-shel foo-koh /mi:,Jel fu:'keu/

say-zar frah(ng)k /se1,zu:(r) 'frfik/ Franconia medieval duchy, Germany

frank~oh-ni-uh /fran'kaonie/ francophone French-speaking frank-oh-fohn /'fral]keofaun/ Frankenstein novel by Mary Shelley

frank-uhn-styn /'frankanstA1n/

Foulah see Fula

folllard material of silk or silk and cotton foo-lard /‘fu:lu:(r)d/

Foulkes, Imogen BBC journalist fohks ffaoksf This British surname is variously

pronounced fohks and fowks, depending on individufd preference.

Frankfort city, US frank-fuhrt /'fra13kfa(r)t/' Frankfurt city, Germany frank-furt /'fra13kfa:(r)t/, German /'frar]kfort/ Q Established anglicization. Franklin, Aretha American singer

Fourier, Joseph French mathematician zhoh-zef foor-i-ay /3ao_z£f foari'e1/

uh-ree-thuh frank-Iin /a_ri:(-la Tranklml

The same pronunciation is used for Fourier

Franz Josef emperor of Austria frants yoh-Zef /_frants 'jaozsf/





fovea pl. foveae depression in the retina

foh-vi-uh, pl. foh-vi-ee /'fauvia/, pl. /-vii:/ Fowles, John English novelist fowlz ifaolzl Fox, Vivica American actress viv-ik-uh /'v1v1ka/

Fox Quesada, Vicente Mexican president

vee-sen-tay foks kay-sah-thuh /Vl1|SEI'ltE1 lfoks ke1'sr1:oa/

foyer entrance hall

frappé iced drink frap-ay /fra'pel/ Frascati region, Italy; also white wine made there frask-ah-ti /fra'sku:ti/ frater refectory of a monastery

fray-tuhr /'fre1ta(r)/ Frattini, Franco Italian politician frank-oh frat-ee-ni /,fra|]kao fra'ti:ni/ Frau pl. Frauen German title for a woman frow, pl. frow-uhn /frao/, pl. /'fraoan/

Fraulein | Frostrup, Mariella


Friedrich, Caspar David German

Friiulein German title for a. young woman froy-lyn /'fI‘0llAII1/ Fray Bentos port, Uruguay


kasp-ar dah-vit freed-rikh /,kasp(1:(r) ,do:v1t 'fri:dr1c/

fray bent-oss /,fre1'bsntos/

Friel, Anna English actress

freel /fri:l/

Frazier, Joe American boxer

fray-zi-uhr /'fre1zia(r)/

Friesian breed of cow free-Zhuhrl /‘fri:3an/ Friesland province, Netherlands

This sumame can also be pronounced

fray-zhuhr in AM.


freez-luhnd /'fri:zl:-md/, ['fri:slunt] ~ Established anglicization.

Fredericton city, Canada

fred~rik-tuhn /'fradr1ktan/

freesia plant flee-zhuh /'fri:3a/ Commonly also free~zi-uh.


Frege, Gottlob German philosopher

got-lohp fray-guh /,gotlaop 'fre1ga/ Freiburg city, Germany

fry-boork /'frA1boa(r)k,' Frelimo Mozambican political party frel-ee-moh /frs'li:mau/

Fremantle port, Australia free-mant-uhl /'fri:mantal/ I-Yémont, John Charles American explorer

free-mont /'fri:mont/ freon trademark aerosol propellant free-on /'fri:nn/

Frigga Norse mythological character frig-uh /'fr1ga/ frijoles beans

fri-hoh-less /fri'haulss/ Frisia ancient region, Europe free-zhuh /'fri:3a/ Commonly also friz-i-uh.

frittata Italian dish frit-ah-tuh /fr1'to:ta/ fritto misto Italian mixed dish

free-toh mist-oh /,fri:tao 'm1stao/ Friuli historic region, Europe fri-00-Ii /fri'u:1i/ Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, Italy

fri-oo-li ven-ets-i-uh joo-Ii-uh /fri,u:1i

vanetsia 'd3u:1ie/

Frescobaldi, Girolamo Italian

frizzante semi-sparkling

composer jirr-ol-uh-moh fresk-oh-bal-di /d31,rnlamau fI'8Sk8U'baldi/

frit-san-tay /fr1t'sante1/

Fresno city, US frez»noh /'freznao/ Freud, Lucian German-born British painter

loo-si-uhn froyd /_lu:sian ‘frolcll Freud, Sigmund Austrian psychotherapist

zeek-muunt froyd /_zi:kmunt 'fr:nd,' Frey Norse god

fray lfrell Freya Norse goddess fray-uh /'fre1a/ fricative type of speech sound frik-uh-tiv /'fr1kat1v/ Friedan, Betty American feminist and writer free-duhn /'fri:den/ Friedman, Milton American economist

freed-muhn /'fri:dman/


Fl'0biSl'l8l', Martin English explorer

froh-bish-uhr /'freub1]'a(r)/ Frodo character from The Lord ofthe Rings froh-doh /'fraudeo/

Friihliche Weihnachten ‘Happy Christmas’ (German) froe-likh-uh vy-nakh-tuhn /_fro:lico 'w\maxtan/' fromage frais soft cheese from-ahzh fray /frn,mo:3 'fre1/ Fronde series of civil wars, France

fro(ng)d /fr5d/ frontier border separating two countries

gfirun-teer /'fmnt1a(r)/

c¢;;1mo;.i;;1so frun-tear. I



Frostrup, Mariella Norwegian-born English television presenter marr-i-el-uh fI’O5t—rUup /mari_zla Trnstrupl



French French is a Romance language, spoken by over 100 million people as their mother tongue. It is an oflicial language in many countries, such as Belgium, Switzerland, Canada, and numerous African countries. French pronunciation is diflicult because it is unpredictable. Like English—although less so——the pronunciation does not always reflect ~ the spelling. You may get different sounds represented by the same let-

ter, and there are letters which are sometimes pronounced and sometimes silent. For example, should the S in the family name Ramus be pronounced? As it happens, both forms are used and not even a native French speaker could be sure without checking with the owner of the ‘ name first! Having said that, here are some general pronunciation tips. ‘

Stress French does not have stressed syllables in the same way as English. In a French word all syllables are given more or less equal weight, while the

1 last syllable in a sentence is pronounced with a little more force. This sentence-level tonal pattern is sometimes mistaken for word-final stress. Despite this, when giving advice on how to pronounce French names in an English context it becomes necessary to use stress. Traditionally, English speakers like to stress the first syllable of French words, and will say kal-ay and shat-oh for Calais and chdteau. The BBC sometimes gets complaints about this, as it is perceived as less ‘French’. These days, when we research French names for our broadcasters we often give last—syllable stress, as you will see in the many French entries in this dictionary.

Accents Accents in French therefore do not indicate stress, but vowel quality. An acute accent over E makes a sound close to ay (although not diphthongal in French). André, for example, is pronounced ah(ng)-dray. A grave accent over E is pronounced as in English bed. Iréne is ee-ren.

Nasalized vowels Vowels are nasalized before N or M at the end of a word or when N or


M is followed by another consonant. Otherwise, the vowel is not nasalized and the N or M is pronounced. So bon is pronounced bo(ng), and bonne is bon. The letter E can be pronounced either ah(ng) or a(ng) when nasalized. Contrary to popular belief, the composer Poulenc is in fact pronounced poo-|a(ng)k, not poo-|ah(ng)k.


Frottola I fiigu


Liaison The letters S, Z, X, T, D, N, M, R, P, and G are usually silent at the end of a word, but if the next word begins with a vowel sound they are generally pronounced. Petit is puh~tee, but petit enfant is puh-teet ah(ng)-fah(ng). This phenomenon is known as liaison. There are many

rules governing the occurrence of liaison in French. For example, it is more common in formal language than in an informal, colloquial context.

Some other letters C is pronounced s before the letters I, E, and Y. It is pronounced k before A, U, O, and all consonants. Q is always pronounced s. CH is

H ”

always sh.


G is pronounced zh before I, E, and Y. It is pronounced g before A, O, U, and all consonants. p H in word—initial position is always silent, although there are two kinds

l p l



of silent H. One kind, known in French as H aspiré, prevents liaison taking place. Loanwords from other languages (hi-fi, hot-dog) are likely to be H aspire. J is always pronounced zh. O can be either oh or 0. (3 is always oh. Q is always k. S is usually s. Between vowels and in a liaison it is voiced 2. U is always ue, the close, rounded vowel you find in French vu. W can be either v or w, more usually v. X can be pronounced in different ways, usually ks, but gz between vowels. In some cases it is also pronounced s, as in the place name Aumerre. Y is ee as a vowel, and y as a consonant.

Frottola Italian madrigal fT°t'°h'll-lh /'f1‘T1'I9U19/

fructose sugar f""k‘t°hZ / 'f1"1\k’£9UZ/ FTSE London stock exchange index

ful-It-si /'futsi/ Fuad name of two kings of Egypt

f°°-ad /'fu1a=(r)dB(r)/ gaberdine worsted or cotton cloth

gab-uhr-deen /,gaba(r)'cli:n/ Gabes (also Qahis) port, Tunisia gah—biss /'gu:brs/ Gabo, Naum Russian-born American sculptor

rlawm gab-oh /,no:m 'gabeo/ Gabon country

guh-bon /ge'bnn/, French [gabfi] Established anglicization; sometimes also gab-on. Gflbonese relating to Gabon

gab-uh-neez /gaba'ni:z/ Gaboon viper snake

guh-boon /ga'bu:n/ Gabor, Zsa Zsa Hungarian—born American actress

zhah zhah gab-or /,3u: 30: ga'bo:(r)/

~ Established anglicization; see ARABIC panel. Gade, Niels Danish composer

neelss gay-thuh /,ni:1s'ge1oa/, ['gs:oa] gadolinium chemical element

gad-uh-lin-i-uhm /_gada'11niam/ Gaea Greek mythological character; also called Gaia jee-uh /'d3i:a/ Gael Gaelic—speaking person

983/| /9911! Gaelic relating to the Gaels or their language gay-lik, gal-ik /'ge111k/, /‘gal1k/ Irish Gaelic is usually pronounced gay-lik,

while Scottish Gaelic is more commonly

gal-ik. Gaeltacht region, Ireland

gayl-tuhkht /'geiltoxt,' Gagarin, Yuri Russian cosmonaut

yoor-i guh-gar-in /,joariga'g(1:rIn/ Gagauz Moldovan ethnic group

gag-uh-ooz /gaga'u:z/

pronunciation, khab-uu-roo-ni, is also

Gain. Greek mythological character; also called Gaea gy-uh /'gAI8/ gaijin Japanese word for a foreigner gy-jin /gn1'd31n/ gaillardia plant of the daisy family gay-lar-di-uh lge1'1u:(r)die/


Gainsborough, Thomas English

The pronunciation of the Hungarian

surname Gébor is gah-bor. Gaborone capital of Botswana

gab—uh-roh-ni /_gaba'raoni/ Established anglicization. A more native

Gabriel biblical name

gay-bri-uhl /'geibrial/ Gabrieli, Giovanni Italian Composer and organist

juh-vah-ni gab-ri-ay~li /d3a,vo:ni gabri'elli/ Gad biblical name gad [gad]

Gaddafi, Mu’ammer (also Qaddafi) Libyan head of state

muu—um-uhr guh—dah-fi /mo,Ama(r)


gaynz-buh-ruh /'ge1nzbara/ Gainsbourg, Serge French singer

sairzh ga(ng)z-boor /,se:(r)3 'gezboa(r)/ gaita bagpipe

gy-tuh /'gA1t-3/ Gaitskell, Hugh English statesman gayt-skuhl /'geitskal/ gala social occasion

/Ieguiia,/,—~ ~~—


gaiduzfi1;, Arabic [mu-Ammau.)

Sometimes also, and commonly in AM,






Gaelic Irish Gaelic (usually pronounced gay-lik, and sometimes just called Irish) and Scottish Gaelic (usually pronounced gal—ik) are two distinct languages. However, they are closely related to one another, and it is possible to generalize about the pronunciation that should be used when words or names from either langu age are be'mg spoken in ' an English-language context. The BBC broadcasts in both Scottish Gaelic (see htt : www.bbc.co.uk scotla.nd alba) and Irish (see httpzfl www. c.co.u nort ermre an ms , and we usually consu t native speakers wor ng within the to verify our recommendations. As always, these are anglicized in line with our policy and the constraints of the respelling. There can be a considerable level of anglicization of Gaelic place names, since English is usually also spoken. There is also some regional variation between speakers of Gaelic. Our consultation with native speakers allows us to gauge the appropriate level of anglicization, as well as giving us guidance with the more complex areas of Gaelic pronunciation. A few broad guidelines are listed below. Stress in Gaelic generally falls on the first syllable, with a few specific exceptions.

Vowels An acute accent (called afada in Irish Gaelic) indicates that a vowel is lpng. In our recommendations we advise that A is pronounced uh and A is aw; E is pronounced e and E is ay; I is pronounced i and I is ee; O is pronounced o and O is oh; and U is pronounced u and U is 00. Other

vowel pronunciations such as diphthongs are more complex, and we consult native speakers for guidance.

Consonants B, C, F, L, M, and R are pronounced approximately as in English. D, G, L, N, S, and T are as in English before A, O, or U, but they change before E or I; D becomes j, G is gy, L is ly, N is ny, S is sh, and T is ch. For example, the Gaelic toast Sléinte can be pronounced slahn-chuh. H at the beginning of a word is pronounced h, but H afier a consonant indicates a pronunciation change. BH and MH are usually both

pronounced v. For example, the Scottish name Mimiri can be pronounced vah-ri (although mar-i is also used), and the Irish name Siobluin is shiv-awn. DH and GH are both pronounced similarly to kh (as in loch) before A, O, or U, and y before E or I or in the middle of a word. PH is pronounced f, CH is pronounced kh (as in loch), and SH

and TH are both pronounced h. Sequences of consonants with H can also become completely silent; we consult dictionaries and native speakers for further guidance.


galactagogue | galliot galactagogue food or drug promoting flow of a mother’s milk guh-lakt-uh-gog /ga‘laktagng/ Galadriel character from The Lord of

the Rings gal-ad-ri-el /ga'1adris1/ galago bushbaby guh-lay-goh /ga‘lelgao/ Galahad knight gal-uh-had /'ga1ahad/ galangal herb gal-uhng-gal /'gala1]gal/ galant musical term

gal-ant /ga'1ant/ galantine dish of white meat or fish

gal-uhn-teen /'galenti:n/ Galapagos Islands islands, Pacific Ocean

guh-lap-uh-goss /ga'1apagos/ Galatas resort, Crete

gal-at-ass /gala'tas/ Galatea Greek mythological character gal-uh-tee-uh /_gale'ti:o/

Galatasaray Turkish football club guh-lat-uh-suh-ry /ga,latasa'r.u/ Galati city, Romania gal-ats /ga'lats/ Galatia ancient region, Asia Minor guh-lay-shuh /ga'le1_l'a/ Galatians book of the New Testament

guh-lay-shuhnz /ga'le1_fanz/ Galba Roman emperor gal-buh /'ga1ba/

Galbraith, John Kenneth Can-adian—born American economist

gal-brayth /'galbre19/ The BR pronunciation of this surname is

gal-brayth. Galeio airport, Rio de Janeiro

gal-i~ow(ng) /ga1i'ao/ Galen Greek physician

gay-luhn /'gei1an/ galenic relating to Galen guh-len-ik /ga‘1en1k/ galette savoury pancake

guh-let /ga'lat/ galia melon small melon gah-Ii-uh /'gu:lia/ Galicia autonomous region, Spain guh-liss-i-uh /ga'l1sia/, [ga'li6ja]


Established anglicization. Also known as Galiza in Galician, pronounced gal-ee-thuh.

Galilean relating to Galileo

gal-il-ay-uhn /,ga11'1e1an/ Galilean relating to Galilee

gal-il-ee-uhn /,ga11'li:en,' Galilee region, ancient Palestine gal-il-ee /'gal11i:/ Galileo Galilei Italian astronomer gal-il-ay-oh gal-il-ay-i /,ga11'leIao ,gal1'1eii/ Galiza see Galicia gall impudent behaviour gawl /9o:1/

Gallagher, Liam and Noel English musicians

gal-uh-guhr /'ga1ega(r)/



This British surname is variously

pronounced gal-uh-huhr, gal-uh-khuhr, and gal-uh-guhr, depending on individual


gallant charming man guh-lant [ga'lant/ Gillie port, Sri Lanka gawl /go:l/ - Established anglicization. galleria collection of shops under a single roof

gal-uh-ree-uh /,ga1a'ri:a/ Gallia Narbonensis Roman province

gal-i-uh nar-buh-nen-siss /,ga1ia ,n(1:(r)ba'nens1s/ Galliano Italian liqueur

gal-i-ah-noh /_gali'o:nao/ galliard dance gal-i-ard /'galio:(r)d/ Gallic relating to France

gal-ik /'gal1k/ Gallican relating to the ancient Church of Gaul or France

gal-ik-uhn /'gaI1ken,' Gallicism French idiom gal-iss-iz-uhm /'ga11,s1zem/ galligaskins breeches, trousers, or gaiters

gal-ig-ask-inz /,ga1r'gaskmz/ gallimimns dinosaur gal-im-y-muhss /_ga11'mA1mes/ galliot ship gal-i-uht /'galiet/

Gallipoli | Gandhi, Mahatma

I4~3 Gallipoli peninsula, Turkey

guh-lip-uh-Ii /ga'lIpali/ gallium chemical element

gal—i—uhm /'galiam/ galliwasp lizard gal-i-wosp /'galiwosp/ galloglass mercenary gal-oh-glahss /'ga1aoglo:s/

Gama, Vasco da see da Gama, Vasco Gamay variety of black wine grape gam-ay /'game1/ gamba see viola da gamba Gambia country

gam-bi-uh /'gambia/ Gambier Islands group of coral islands, South Pacific

gam-bi-uhr /'gambia(r)/ Gambon, Michael Irish-born British

gallon unit of volume

gal-uhn /'galen/ galloon ornamental strip of fabric guh-loon /ga'lu:n/ Galloway area, Scotland gal-uh-Way /'galowe1/ gallstone hard mass formed in the gall bladder

gawl—stohn /‘go:lstaon/


gam-bon /'garnbnn/ gamelan traditional Indonesian instrumental ensemble gam-uh-lan /'gama1an/ gamgee surgical dressing

gam-ji /'gamd3i/

Gallup poll trademark assessment of

Gamla Stan historic area of Stockholm

public opinion gal-uhp /'galap,I Galois, Evariste French mathematician

gam—luh stahn /,gamle 'st(1:n/ gamma letter of the Greek alphabet gam-uh /'gama/ Gamow, George Russian-born American physicist

ay-varr-eest gal-wah /e1va_ri:st gal'wu:/ galop ballroom dance gal-uhp /'galep/ Sometimes also gal-op.

gamut complete range of something gam-uht /'gamet/

galosh waterproof overshoe

Gan dialect of Chinese

gay-moh /‘ge1mao/

guh-losh /ge'1nj‘/ Galsworthy, John English novelist gawlz-wur-thi /'go:lzwe:(r)oi/ Galtieri, Leopoldo Argentinian politician

lay-op-ol-doh galt-yair-i /le1n_pDldaU ,galtj'a:ri/ Galton, Francis English scientist

gawl-tuhn /'go:lten/


Galvani, Luigi Italian anatomist

luu-ee-ji gal-vah-ni /1o,i:d3i ga1'vc1:ni/ galvanic relating to electric currents produced by chemical action

gal-van-ik /gaI'van1k/ galvanize shock someone into taking action gal-vuh-nyz /'galvonA1z,/ galvanometer instrument for measuring electric currents

gal-vuh-nom~it~uhr /,ga1va'nnm1ta(r)/

Galveston port, US gal-vuh-stuhn /'galvaston/ Galway county, Republic of Ireland gawl-way /'go:lwe1/

gan /gan,’ ganache whipped filling of chocolate and cream guh-nash /go‘na_l'/ Ganapati another name for Ganesh gun-uh-put-i l_gAna'pnti/ Giincii city, Azerbaijan

guhn-juh /'gand3o/ Gance, Abel French film director

ab-el gah(ng)ss /a,ba1 'gds/ Gand see Ghent Gandalf character from The Lord of the Rings gan-dalf /'gandalf/ Gander town, Newfoundland

gan-duhr /'ganda(r)/ gander male goose

gan-duhr /'ganda(r)/ Gandhi, Indira Indian stateswoman in-dirr-uh gahn-di /_ind1ra 'go:ndi/ Gandhi, Mahatma Indian nationalist and spiritual leader muh-haht-muh gahn-di /ma,ho:tma 'go:ndi/

Gandhi, Rajiv I Garuda

:(r)'d3aunei/ Giotto Italian painter jot-oh /'d3ntau/' girandole candlestick jirr-uhn-dohl /'d31randaul/

giro | Glenrothes

151 giro system of electronic credit transfer

glan-juul-uhr /'g1and3ula(r)/ The pronunciation gland-yuul-uhr is less

jy-roh /'£l3AIl"9U/

Gironde river estuary, France

zhee-ro(ng)d /3i:'r5d/


Girondist member of the French

Glasgow city, Scotland glah;;goh/'g1nizgao/

moderate republican party

jirr-on-dist /d51'rond1st/ Gisborne port, New Zealand giz-buhrn /'gizba(r)n/ Giscard d’Estaing, Valéry French statesman


name; locally, the pronunciation is


Glashow, Sheldon Lee American physicist glash-ow /'g1a_]‘ao/ glasnost policy of more open consultative government

/val:-::,ri: 3i:,sku:(r) ds'stE/ GiSh, Lillian American actress

gish /9117

glass-nost /'glasnnst[, Russian

Gissing, George English novelist

giss-ing /'g1sm/ gite French holiday house

zheet /3i:t/ gittern medieval stringed instrument

git-urn /'gito:(r)n] Giuliani, Rudy American politician joo-Ii-ah-ni /d3u:li':(r)/

Herceptin cancer drug hur—sep-tin /ha:(r)'sept1n/ Herculaneum ancient Roman town

hur-kyuul-ay-ni-uhm /,ha:(r)kju‘le1niam/

Herculean I hetman Herculean requiring great strength

hur-kyuul-ee-uhn /,ha:(r)kju'li:an/ Sometimes also hur-kyoo-Ii-uhn. Hercules Greek mythological character; also called Heracles hur-kyuul-eez /'ha:(r)kjo1i:z/ Hereford city, England

herr-uh-fuhrd /'herofa(r)d/ Herero African ethnic group

huh-rair-oh /ha're:rao/ Hereward the Wake semi—legendary Anglo-Saxon leader

herr-uh-wuhrd /'herewe(r)d/ Hergé Belgian cartoonist air-zhay /s:(r)'3e|/ hermaphrodite human or animal

having both male and female sex organs hur-maf-ruh-dyt /he:(r)'mafradA1t/ Hermaphroditus Greek mythological character

huhr-maf-ruh-dy-tuhss /ha,mafra‘d1utas/ Hermes Greek mythological character

hur-meez /'he:(r)mi;z/ Hermes French fashion label

air-mess ,'e:(r)'mes/ Hermosillo city, Mexico air-moss-eel-yoh /,e:(r)mo‘si:1jeo/ hernia pl. herniae medical condition

hur-ni-uh, pl. hur-ni-ee /'ha:(r)nia/, pl /-nii:/ I Standard -s plural is also possible.

Herning city, Denmark hair-ning /'hs:(r)nn3/ Herod name of several rulers of ancient Palestine

herr-uhd /'hsrod/ Herodotus Greek historian herr-od-uh-tuhss /hs'rndetas/ Herophilus Greek anatomist

heer-of-il-uhss /h1a'rnf11as/ Herr pl. Herren German title for a man

hair, pl. herr-uhn /he:(r)/, pl. /'heren/ Herri Batasuna Basque political party

err-i bat-ass-oo-nuh /,eri bata'su:na/ Herschel, William German—born British astronomer

hur—shuhl /'ha:(r)Ial/ Hertford town, England hart-fuhrd /'ho:(r)tfe(r)d/

Hertz, Heinrich Rudolf German physicist


hyn-rikh r00-dolf hairts /,h1\II‘lI'l(} ,ru:dnlf 'he:(r)ts/

hertz SI unit of frequency hurts /ha:(r)ts/ Herut Israeli political party

herr-oot /hs'ru:t/ Herzegovina see Bosnia-Herzegovina Herzl, Theodor Hungarian-born Austrian Zionist leader hurt-suhl /'ha:(r)tsal/, German

[,te:odo:e 'herts1] ' Established anglicization. Herzog, Wemer German film director

vair-nuhr hairt-sohk /,ve:(r)na(r) 'he:(r)tsaok/ Heshvan see Hesvan Hesiod Greek poet

hee-si-uhd /'hi:sied/ Hesperian concerning the Hesperides

hesp-eer-i-uhn /ha'spIarien/ Hesperides Greek mythological characters

hesp-err-id-eez /hs'speridi:z,' hesperidium pl. hesperidia fruit hesp-uh-rid-i-uhm, pl. hesp-uh-rid-i-uh /_hespa'r|diam/,

pl. /-dia/

Hesperus name for the planet Venus

hesp-uh-ruhss ,"hesperas/ Hess, Rudolf German Nazi politician

roo-dolf hess /_ru:dn1f 'hes/ Hesse state, Germany

hess /hes/ Established anglicization. The German name is Hessen, pronounced hess-uhn.

Hesse, Hermann German-born Swiss novelist

hair-man hess-uh /,hs:(r)man'hese,1 Hesvan (also Heshvan) Jewish month hess-vuhn /'hesvan/

heterogeneous diverse het-uh-ruh-jee-ni-uhss /,hetare'd5i:nias/ Less commonly also het-uh-ruh-jen-i-uhss. Sometimes also spelled heterogenous, in which case the pronunciation het-uh-roj-u h—n uhss is commonly used.

hetman Polish or Cossack military commander het—muhn fhetmenl


heurige wine from the latest harvest hoy-rig-uh /'h:>1r1ge/ heuristic enabling a person to learn Something for themselves

hyoo-uh—rist-ik /,hjua'r1st1k/ Heugh British family name hyoo /hju:/

heurige | Hilfiger, Tommy hibachi portable cooking apparatus hib-3‘lCl‘I-l /hI‘bfli_l'i/

hibakusha survivor of either of the atomic explosions at Hiroshima or Nagasaki hib-uh-k00—shuh /‘h1ba,ku:_|‘a/ Hibernian relating to Ireland

The place in Northumberland, however, is

hy-bur-piiiuhn /hA1'ba:(r)nien/


The Scottish football team of the

is hib-ur-ni-uhn.

Hewitt, Lleyton Australian tennis player lay-tuhn hyoo-it /_le1tan 'hju:It/ hexachord musical scale of six notes hek-suh-kord /'heksek:>:(r)d/ hexad set of six hek—sad ]‘heksad/

hibiscus plant hib-isk-uhss /h1'b1skas/ hic jacet epitaph hik jay-set /_hIk ‘d3eiset/

hexagon figure with six straight sides

I-Iidalgo state, Mexico

hek—suh—guhn /'heksagan/ hexahedr-on figure with six plane faces

hek-suh-heed-ruhn /_heksa'hi:dran/ Sometimes also hek-Suh-hed-ruhn.

hexamerous having parts arranged in groups of six

hek-sam-uh-ruhss /hsk'samares/ hexameter line of verse consisting of six metrical feet

hek-sam-uh-tuhr /hek‘sameta(r)/ Hexateuch books of the Bible hek—suh-tyook fheksatjuzkf hexavalent having a valency of six

hek-suh—vay-luhnt /_heksa've1lant/ Heyer, Georgette English novelist

hay—uhr /'he1a(r)/ Heyerdahl, Thor Norwegian anthropologist toor hay—uhr-dahl /,tua(r) 'he1a(r)du:1/ Heysel football stadium, Belgium

hy-suhl /'l'1AIS9l/ I See DUTCH panel. Hezbollah (also Hizbullah) extremist Shiite Muslim group

hez-buul-ah /,hezbo'lc1:/ Hezekiah biblical name

hez-uh-ky-uh /hsza'k1u9/ hiatus pause

hy-ay-tuhss fl'lAI'9Ii9S/ Hiawatha legendary North American Indian chieitain

hy-uh-woth-uh /,hAIa'wo6a/ hiba Japanese conifer

hee-buh /'hi:be/


Commonly also yak-et.

ee-dal-goh /i:'dalgau/ Hidatsa American Indian ethnic group hid-at-suh fhrdatsaf hidrosis sweating

hid-roh-siss /h1'dreos1s/ hierarch chief priest or other leader hy—uh—rark / 'hAI8I'('1Z(1”)l{/ hierarchy system of ranking hy-uh-rar-ki /'l'1AI9lI‘ClI(I‘)l(l/ hieratic concerning priests hy-uh-rat-i k /,hA1e'rat1k/ hieroglyph symbol in ancient Egyptian hy-ruh—glif /'l'l.AlI'9Qllf/ hierophant priest who interprets sacred mysteries

hy-roh-fant /'hAn'aufant/ Hiel'l'0 island, Canary Islands

yerr-oh /'jsrao/ hijab head covering worn by some

Muslim women

hij-ahb /h1'd3u:b/ Hijaz see Hejaz hijra transvestite or eunuch

hij-ruh /'h1d3re/ Hildegard of Bingen, St German abbess

hil—duh-gard bing-uhn /_h1ldago:(r)d

'b113an/ Hildesheim city, Germany

hil-duhss-hym /'h1ldas_hn1m/ Hilfiger, Tommy American fashion


hil-fig-uhr /'h11f1ga(r)/

Hilla, al- | histrionic


hin-duut-vuh /hn1'dotve/

Hilla, al- province and town, Iraq uhl hil~uh /a1'h11a/ Hilversum town, Netherlands hil-vuhr-suhm /‘hIlva(r)sam/ Himachal Pradesh state, India

hinoki Japanese tree hin-oh-ki fhrneukij Hingis, Martina Swiss tennis player

mar-tee-nuh hing-giss /mci:(r),ti:na

him-ah-chuhl pruh-daysh /hi_mu:t_|‘a1

'hn]gIs/ Hipparchus Greek astronomer hip-ar-kuhss /h1'pc1:(r)kas/

pra'de1j"/ Himalayas mountain system, Asia him-uh-lay-uhz /,h1ma'Ie1az/

hippeastrum amaryllis hip-i-ast-ruhm /_hipi'astram/‘

Established anglicization. Less commonly

hippocampus pl. hippocampi part of

also him-ah-Ii-uhz.

the brain

himation ancient Greek garment him-at-i-on /h1'mation/ Himmler, Heinrich German Nazi leader hyn-rikh him-luhr /,h1\1nr1c 'hIm1a(r)/ Hims see Homs Himyarite ancient ethnic group of the Arabian peninsula

hip-oh-kam-puhss, pl. hip-oh-kamp-y /_hipau'kampeS/, Pl. /-pA1/ hippocl-as wine flavoured with spices

hip-uh-krass /'h1pakras/ Hippocrates Greek physician

hip-ok-ruh-teez /hr'pnkreti:z/ hippogriff mythical creature hip-oh-grif f'h1paogrrf/ Hippolytus Greek mythological

him-yuh-ryt /'h1mjannt/ Hinault, Bernard French racing cyclist


bair-nar ee-noh /be:(r),no:(r) i:'neo/

hip—0l-it-uhss /h1'po1ites,' hippopotamus pl. hippopotami African mammal

Hinayana branch of Buddhism hee-nuh—yah—nuh /,hi:na'jo:na/


Hindemith, Paul German Composer

powl hin-duh-mit /,paol 'hindem1t/ Hindenburg, Paul von German statesman

powl fon hin-duhn-boork /,paul fnn 'h1ndan_boe(r)k/ A more anglicized pronunciation,”



hin-duhn-burg, is used for the Zeppelin named after him.

Hindi Indian language hin—di /‘hindi/ Hindley, Myra English murderer hind—li /'hInd1i/ British surnameiis variously pronounced hind-Ii and hynd~li, depending on individual preference. 7 W H Hindu relating to Hinduism hin—d0o /'h1ndu:/ Hindu Kush range of mountains, Asia l‘Lin—d00 kuush /,h1ndu: 'koj‘/ Sometimes also ltoosh.

Hindustan historical region, Asia hin-duust-ahn /,h1ndo'stu:n/

Hindustani group of Indian languages hin-duust-ah-ni /_h1ndo'sto:ni/ Hindutva strong sense of Hindu identity

pl. hip—uh-pot-uh-my /_hipa'pntames/, pl. /-ITIAI/ I Standard -es plural is also possible. hiragana Japanese writing system hirr-uh—gah-nuh /_hira'gu:ne/ hircine relating to goats hur-syn /'ha:(r)sn1n/ Hirohito emperor of Japan hirr-oh-hee-toh /_h1ra'hi:taoj, [cirocito] ¢ Established anglicization. Hiroshima city, Japan hirr—osh-im-uh /hr'rn_[1ma/ This anglicized pronunciation is closer to

the Japanese than the also common

pronunciation hirr-uh-shee-muh. See JAPANESE panel.

Hispaniola island, Caribbean isp-an-yoh-luh /_xspan'jaula/

Hispanist expert in Spanish language and culture hisp-uh—nist / 'h1span1st/ histamine chemical involved in immune responses hist-tuh-meen /'h1stami:n/ histrionic excessively dramatic hist—ri—0n—ik /,h1stri‘on1k/

Hitchens, Ivon I holothurian


Hitchens, Ivon English painter y-vuhn hitch—uhnZ /,AIV8Yl'hIlI_l9I'1Z/ Hittite ancient ethnic group ofAsia Minor

hit-yt /'h1tA1t/ Hizbullah see Hezbollah Hmong Asian ethnic group; also called Meo or Miao

hmong fhmnnj Hobart capital of Tasmania, Australia

hoh-bart /'haoba:(r)t/ Hobbema, Meindert Dutch painter myn-duhrt hob-uh-muh /,i1’1AIl'lCl8(I‘)t ‘hnbamaf I See DUTCH panel. Hobbes, Thomas English philosopher hobz jhnbzl Hoboken city, US

hoh-boh-kuhn /'heubeukan/ Ho Chi Minh Vietnamese statesman

hoh chee min /,hau tj'i: ‘mm,’ Hodeida port, Yemen huh-day-duh /ha'de|da/ hodiernal relating to the present day hod-i-ur-nuhl /,hndi'e:(r)ne1/ I-loeg, Peter Danish writer

pay-duhr hoe ],pe1de(r) ‘heal Hoffa, Jimmy American trade union leader hof—uh /'hofe/

Hofmannsthal, Hugo von Austrian poet and dramatist

hoo-goh fon hof-muhnss-tahi /,hu:geu fun 'hnfmons,tu:l/ hogan Navajo Indian hut

hoy-zin /'ho1z1n/ I-Iokan group of American Indian languages hoh-kan /‘haukan/ hoki fish

hoh-ki /'haoki/ Hokkaido island, Japan hok-y—d0h /hD'l(AI(l8U/ Hokusai, Katsushika Japanese painter

kat-suu-shee-kuh hok-uu-sy /katsujizka 'hI)l{USAI/ Holarctie zoogeographical region hoh—lark-tik /hao'lu:(r)kt1k/ Holbein, Hans German painter hanss hol-byn /‘hams 'hnlb1un/ Holborn part of London

hoh-buhrn /'haoba(r)n/ Sometimes also hohl—buhrn. Htilderlin, Friedrich German poet freed-rikh hoel-duhr-leen /,fri:dr1c 'h(2lda(r)li:n/ Holi Hindu festival

hoh-lee /'haoli:/ Holinshed, Raphael English chronicler hol-in-shed /'hnlm_[ad/

hollandaise sauce creamy sauce hol-uhn-dayz /,hnlan'de1z/ Hollerith, Herman American engineer

hoh-guhn /'haugan/ Hogarth, William English painter hoh-garth /'hoogu:(r)6/


Hohhot capital of Inner Mongolia autonomous region, China hoh-hot /hao'hnt/ Q Established anglicization. hoisin Chinese cooking sauce

o so

Hoggar Mountains mountain range, Algeria

hog-uhr /'hnga(r)/ Hogmanay New Year’s Eve hog-muh-nay /'hngmane1/ Hohenstallfen German dynastic family

hoh-uhn-shtow-fuhn /,hauan'_[taofen/ Hohenzollern German dynastic family hoh-uhn-tsol-uhrn /,haoan'tsn1a(r)n/ A more anglicized pronunciation, hoh-uhn~Zo|—uhrn, is also common.

hol-uh—rith /'holar1B/ Holm island, Scotland

holm [holm] holm (also holme) islet

hohm /haom/ holmium chemical element

hohl-mi-uhm /'haulmiam/ holocaust destruction on a mass scale

hol-uh-kawst / 'hn1ak:>:st/ Holocene the present epoch hol-uh-seen /'hn1asi:n,' Holofernes biblical name

hol-uh-fur-neez /,hnla'fa:(r)ni:z/ Sometimes also huh-l0f—uhr-neez.

holothurian sea cucumber

hol-oh-thyoor-i-uhn /_hulao'6juerian/

Holst, Gustav | Hooghly


Holst, Gustav English composer

pronunciation as another, but a dilferent meaning

guust-ahv hohlst /,gustu:v 'haolst/

hom-uh-fohn / 'hnmafaun/ Homo sapiens primate species

Holstein former duchy of Saxony hol-shtyn / ’hnl_|'tn1n/ Holsteinian geological period hol-Sty-ni-uhn ,'hnl'stnmian/ holt den of an otter

hoh-moh sap-i-enz /,haomao 'sapienz/ Commonly also hoh¥moh say-pi-uhnz,

homosexual sexually attracted to people of one’s own sex

hOhl1I lhaoltl

Holyfield, Evander American boxer

uh-van-duhr hoh-Ii-feeld /a,vanda(r) 'heo1ifi:ld/ Holyhead port, Wales hol-i-hed /'hol1h£d/

hom-oh-sek-shoo-uhl /,homao'sekj’ual/ Words that contain the prefix ham0- can usually be pronounced hom-oh or


Holyoake, Keith New Zealand

Homs (also Hims) city, Syria

statesman hoh-li-ohk Phauliaokl Holyrood Scottish parliament

homss /hams,’ homunculus pl. homunculi small human or humanoid creature

hol-i-rood /'hnliru:d,' homage special honour or respect hom-ij /'hom1d3/ hombre ‘man’ (Spanish) omb-ray /'nmbre|/ homeopath practitioner of homeopathy hoh-mi-oh-path /'haomiaupa6/ Less commonly also horri-oh-path.

homeopathy system of complementary medicine

hoh-mi-op-uh-thi /,haomi'opa6i/ Less commonly also hom-i-op-uh-thi.

hom-unk-yuul-uhss, pl. hom-unk—yuu|-y /homnnkjolas/, pl. /-int,’ ~ Standard -es plural is also possible. Honda, Soichiro Japanese motor manufacturer

soh-ee-chirr-oh hon-duh /sau_i:t_[1rau ‘hands! Honduras country hon-dyoor-uhss /hnn'djoaras/, Spanish [on'duras] ~ Established anglicization.

Honecker, Erich East German

Homer Greek epic poet hoh-muhr /'haoma(r)/ Homeric relating to Homer

statesman ay-rikh hon-ek-uhr /_e1rI¢ 'hnnska(r)/

Honegger, Arthur French composer hon—uhg—uhr /'hnnaga(r)/, [artyr onegezr] 0 Established anglicization.

hoh-merr-ik /hao'mer1k/ homily religious discourse

horp-il-i /'homili/ homogamy inbreeding

honewort plant

hom-og-uh-mi /hrrmogamii

homogeneous of the same kind hom-oh-iee-ni-uhss /,homao'cl3i:nias/ Less commonly also pronounced


if H


homogeny uniformity huh—moi-uh-ni /ha'mod3eni/

homologate approve for sale

huh-mol-uh-gayt /ha'mnlageIt/ homonym word having the same pronunciation or spelling as another, but a dilterent meaning hom-uh-nim /'hnman1m;' homophone word having the same

hohn-wurt /‘haonwa:(r)t/ hongi Maori greeting

hong-i /'hnni/ Honiara capital of the Solomon Islands hon-i-ar—uh /_hnni'o:ra/ Honolulu state capital of Hawaii

hon-uh-loo-loo /,hnna'lu:lu:/ honorand person to be publicly honoured

on-uh-rand /'nnarand/ Honshu island, Japan

hon-shoo /'hon_|'u:/ Hooghly (also Hugli) river, India hoog-Ii /'hu:glif


Hoogstraten, Nicholas van I Houston

Hoogstraten, Nicholas van English

hor-suhnss /'ho:(r)sans/ Horst Wessel Song official song of the

property magnate

van hoog-strah-tuhn /van 'hu:gstro:tan/ Tl‘lC7ll)lllJCl1 pronunciation of

Horsens port, Denmark

Nazi Party in Germany surname is _


hookah oriental tobacco pipe

huuk-uh /'hoka/ hoopoe bird h00—p00 /'hu:pu:,f Hoosier native of Indiana, US

hoo-zhuhr /'hu:3o(r)/ Hopi American ethnic group

hoh-pi /'haopi/ hoplite ancient Greek soldier hop-lyt /'ht)plAit/

hora (also horah) Romanian or Israeli dance

haw-ruh ,/'ho:ra/ Horace Roman poet horr-uhss /‘horas/l Established anglicization. The Latin is Huratius, usually pronounced

horr-ay-shi-uhss; see LATIN panel. horal relating to hours

haw-ruhl ,/'ho:ral/ Horatian relating to Horace

horr-ay-shuhn /hn'reI_[an/

horst vess-uhl /,h0:(r)st 'vssal/ I-Iorta, Victor Belgian architect

veek-tor or-tah /vi:k,t0:(r) :J:(r)'tu:/ hortatory aiming to exhort

hor-tuh-tuh-ri /'h0:(r)tatari/ hortensia plant

hor-ten-si-uh /h:1:(r)'tsnsia/ Horus ancient Egyptian god

haw-ruhss /'ho:ras/ Hosay Muslim festival hoh-zay /hao'ze1/

Hosea Hebrew prophet

hoh-zee-uh /hau'zi:a,/ hospitable fiiendly and welcoming

hoss-pit-uh-buhl /hn'sp1tebal/ Sometimes also hosp-it-uh-buhl. hospitaller member ofa charitable religious order

hosp-it-uh-luhr /'hospitala(r),f hospodar Ottoman governor h0sp—uh—dar /'hospado:(r)/ H685, Rtl(l0lfGerman Nazi

commandant of Auschwitz

roo-dolf hoess /,ru:dolf'hoes/


Houdini, Harry Hungarian-born American magician hoo-dee-ni /hu:'di:ni/ Houellebecq, Michel French writer mee—shel wel-bek /mi:,j‘sl wsl'bek/

maks hork-hym-uhr /,maks

Hough, Stephen English pianist

horchata drink made from tiger nuts Or-Chah-tuh ,fo:(r)'tIo:ta/

Horkheimer, Max German 'ho:(r)k_hA1ma(r)/ Hormuz island, Iran

hor-mooz /h:):(r)'mu:z,'

I-Io:-nung, Ernest William English novelist

h0r—nuhng /'ho:(r)naI];' Horologium southern constellation

horr-uh-loj-i-uhm /,hora'lnd3iam/ Horowitz, Vladimir Russian-born

American pianist

vlad-im-eer horr-uh-vits /,vlad1m1a(r) 'hnrav1ts/ horror vacui fear of leaving empty spaces

horr-uhr vak-yoo-y /,hora(r) 'vakjuA1/ hors d’oeuvre small savoury dish

Or durv /,0:(r) 'da:(r)vj, French [or douvr]

llllf /l'!1\f/ __l_______ l_________


This British surname is variously

pronounced huf, hof, and how, depending on individual preference. Hough End in Manchester is huf.

I-loullier, Gerard French football l'I'l€Ll'lELg€l'

zhay-rar ool-yay /3ei,rc1:(r) u:l'je1/ houmous chickpea spread

huum-uhss /'homas/ houngan voodoo priest

hoong-guhn /'hu:ngan,' houri beautiful young woman

hoor-i f'hoari/

Housatonic river, US hoo—suh—ton—ik /,hu:sa'ton1k/ Houston port, US (Texas) hyoo-stuhn /'hju:stan/

houting | Huon pine There are many US towns called Houston, most of which are pronounced as above. Houston in Delaware and in Georgia,

however, are how-Stuhn. The NASA space centre is in Houston, Texas.

houting fish how—ting /‘haot1n/ howdah seat for riding on an elephant or camel how-duh ,I'hauda/ howitzer gun

how-it-suhr /'hao1tsa(r)/ Howrah city, India

how-ruh /'haure/ howtowdie Scottish dish

how-tow-di /hao'taodi,I Hoxha, Enver Albanian statesman

en-vuhr hoj-uh /_snva(r) 'hnd3a/ Hoxnian geological period hoks-ni-uhn /'hnksnian/ hoya shrub hoy-uh /‘hora,’

Hozier, Clementine maiden name of Clementine Churchill

klem-uhn-teen hoh-zi-uhr /_k1smanti:n 'hauzia(r)/ Hradec Krailové town, Czech Republic

hrad-ets krah-lov-ay /_hradsts 'kra:lnveif Hrodna city, Belarus

hrod-nuh /'hrodna/ Hrvatska see Croatia hryvna (also hrivna) currency unit, Ukraine hreev-nuh /'hri:vna/ Huainan city, China

khwy-nan /,xwA1'nan/ Huallaga river, Peru wal-yag-uh /wa'ljaga/

Huambo city, Angola wam-boo /'wambu:/


Huhli city, India |'lOO-bli /'hu:b1i,f

hubris excessive self-confidence

hyoo-briss /'hju:br1s/ hueheu type of salmon hoo-kuhn /'hu:l-can,’ Hllé city, Vietnam

hway /hwe1/ Hugli see I-Iooghly Hugo, Victor French poet, novelist, and dramatist vik-tuhr hyoo-goh /_v1kta(r) 'hju:geo/, [viktozr ygo] v Established anglicization.

Huguenot French Protestant

hyoo-guh-noh /'hju:ganao/ hui large ceremonial gathering I100-i /'hu:i/ hula Hawaiian dance h00—|uh ]'hu:la/ I-Iu Jintao Chinese president khoojin-tow /_xu: d3m'tao/ Hulce, Tom American actor

hulss /hols,’ Humber estuary, England humb-u hr /'l1All'lb9(I‘)/ humectant preserving moisture

hyuum-ek-tuhnt /l'ljU'l'1‘l£l{tBI1t/ humerus pl. humeri arm bone hyoo-muh-ruhss, pl. hyoo—muh-ry /'hju:maras/, pl. /-rAi/ humidor airtight container hyoo-mid-or /'hju:m1do:(r)/ humoral relating to the body fluids

hyoo-muh-ruhl f'hju:m9ral/ humoresque short piece of music

hyoo-muh-resk /,hju:ma'rssk/ Humperclinck, Engelbert German composer

eng-uhl-bairt huum~puhr-dink /_enalbe:(r)t 'hompa(r)dn]k/ i


Huang Hai Yellow Sea

The 1970s pop singer Engelbert

khwang khy /,xwa1] 'xAi/ Huang Ho Yellow River khwang hoh /_xwa1] 'hau/ huarache sandal

Humperdinck, who named himself after the

warr-atch-ay /wa'ratIe1/ Huascaran volcano, Peru wask-arr-an /waska'ran/ Hubei province, China khoo-bay /_xu:'bei,I

German composer, is usually eng-guhl-burt

hump-uhr-dink. humus organic component of soil

hyoo-muhss /'hju:mas/ Hunan province, China khoo-nan /,xu:'nan/

Huon pine conifer hyoo-on /'hju:on/

hurdy-gurdy | hyperalgesia

177 hurdy-gurdy musical instrument hur-di-gur-di /'ha:(r)di,ge:(r)di/ Huron North American ethnic group hy00r—uhn /‘hjuaran/

h00-i| /'hu:1l/

hyacinth plant hy-uh-Sinth /‘hnraslnfl/' Hyacinthus Greek mythological

The same pronunciation is used for Lake



hy-uh-sinth-uhss /,l‘lAI8'SIn69S]

I-lurrian ancient ethnic group

Hyades star cluster

hurr-i-uhn /'hAI'lBl'1/ hurricane storm hurr-ik-uhn /‘h.mkan/

hyaenodon extinct mammal


hy-uh-deez /‘h1uadi:z/


Hllsék, Gustav Czechoslovak statesman guust-ahf huuss-ahk /_gostu:f 'husa:k,l H1185, John Bohemian religious reformer

huss /has,’ Established anglicization. Czech fbrm is Jan Hus, pronounced yan huuss.

Hussein, ibn Talal (also Husain) former king of Jordan

ib-uhn tuh-lal huuss-ayn /,1ban ta,1a1 hu'se1n/ I-IllSS€in, Saddam (also Husain) Iraqi

statesman sad-ahm huuss-ayn /sa,d:(r)/ Marie Antoinette former French queen, wife of Louis XVI

marr-i ah(ng)-twan-et /_mari ,l')twa'nct/ Marie Byrd Land region ofAntarctica mar-i burd /,mu:ri 'ba:(r)d,l Marie de Médicis former French queen

muh-ree duh may-di-seess /ma_ri: do ,me1di'si:sl Mari El autonomous republic, Russia

mar-ee el /,ma:ri: 'el/ marijuana (also marihuana) cannabis marr-i-wah-nuh /,mari'wa:ne/ marimba musical instrument

muh-rim-buh /ma'rimba/ Marinetti, Filippo Italian poet and dramatist

fil-ee-poh marr-i-net-i /fi,1i:peo ,mari'nsti/ marionette string puppet

marr-i-uh-net /_maria'net/


Marischa] College I Martenot, Maurice

Marischal College part of Aberdeen University

mar-shuhl /'mu:(r)_[al/

Maris Piper variety of potato marr—iss /‘mans,’ Marist member of Roman Catholic order the Society of Mary

mar-ist /'mo:r1st/ This is the order’s preferred pronunciation,

although mair-ist and marr-ist are also heard.

mar-muht /'mo:(r)mat/ Marne river, France

mam /mo:(r)n/ marque make of car mark /mo:(r)k/

marquee large tent mar-kee /mo:(r)'ki:/

Marquesas Islands islands, French Polynesia

mar-kay-suhss /mu:(r)'keises/ However, the Marquesas Keys in Florida arc pronounced mar-keez-uhss.

Maritsa river, Europe muh-rit—suh /ma'rltso/ Mariupol port, Ukraine marr-i-oo-pol /_mari'u:pol/

marquess (also marquis) nobleman mar-kwiss /'mu:(r)kw1s/

marioram herb

marquetry inlaid work

mar-juh-ruhm /'mo:(r)d3aram/ Markaryan, Andranik Armenian


and-ruh-neek mar-kuhr-yahn /andre_ni:k mo:(r)ko(r)'jo:n/ Markiewicz, Constance Irish politician; first woman elected as an MP mar-kiv-itch /'mt1:(r)k1vrt_|'/ Established anglicization of her surname; the Polish pronunciation is

mar-kyev-eetch. Markova, Alicia English ballet dancer uh-leess-i—uh mar—koh-vuh /a,li:sia mo:(r)'kauva/ Markov model statistical model

mar-kof /'mo:(r)knf/ Marlborough, Duke of British general mawl-buh-ruh /'mo:lbare/ However, Marlborough in New Zealand and in Zimbabwe, and the cigarette brand

Marlboro, are pronounced marl-buh-ruh.

marline light rope mar-lin /'mu:(r)lm/

Marmara, Sea of sea, Turkey mar-muh-ruh /'mn:(r)mara,' Marmite trademark savoury spread mar-myt /'mu:(r)ma|t,l marmite earthenware cooking container ma r-meet /mo:(r)'mi:t/ marmoreal made of or compared to marble

mar-maw-ri-uhl /mo:(r)'mo:rio1/ marmoset monkey mar-muh-zet /'mn:(r)mazst/ marmot rodent

mar—kuh-tri /'mo:(r)katri/ Marquette, Jacques French missionary and explorer zhahk ma r-ket /,3u:k mo:(r)'kat/ marquise wife or widow of a marquis mar-keez /mo:(r)'ki:z,/ Marrakesh (also Marrakech) city, Morocco

marr-uh-ltesh /,mare'ksj"/ Marryat, Frederick English novelist marr-i-uht /'mariat/ Marsala dessert wine produced in Sicily

mar-sah-Iuh /mo:(r)'su:la/ Marsalis, Wynton American trumpeter

win-tuhn mar-sah-liss /,w1ntan mo:(r)'so:lis/ Marseillaise French national anthem mar-say-yayz /,mo:(r)sei'je1z/ Marseilles city, France mar-say /mt1:(r)'set/ The French spelling is Marseille. An older anglicized pronunciation of the English

spelling, mar-saylz, is rarely heard now.

Marsyas Greek mythological character

mar-si-uhss /'mu:(r)sias/ Martaban, Gulf of part of the Indian

Ocean mar-tuh-bahn /,mo:(r)ta'bo:n/ Martello small circular fort mar-tel-oh /mo:(r)'te1eo/ Martenot, Maurice French pianist and inventor

morr-eess mar-tuh-noh /mn_ri:s m:1:(r)ta'nao/

Martial I mastodon This pronunciation is also correct for the musical instrument he invented, the

ondes-vnarrewmt. Martial Roman cpigrammatist

mar-shuhl /'mu:(r)Ial/ Martineau, Harriet English writer mar-tin-oh /'mu:(r)t1nao/

martinet person who demands complete obedience

mar-tin-et /,mn:(r)tl'net/ Martinique island, Caribbean mar-tin-eek /_mo.:(r)t1'ni:k/ M3.l'lltS Hindu mythological characters

murr-uuts ,"m.\ruts/ Marvell, Andrew English metaphysical poet

mar-vuhl /'mu:(r)val/ Maryland state, US mair—i—luhnd /'me:ri1end,/ This is the usual BR pronunciation. AM is

often also merr-i-luhnd or marr-i~luhnd. Marylebone district of London

mar I‘- U h—luh-buhn Fmaralabenf Sometimes also marI—uh-buhn.

Masaccio Italian painter

maz-ah-choh /ma'zu:tIao/ Masada architectural ruins, Israel

muh-sah-duh /me'su:da/ Masai (also Maasai) Kenyan ethnic group

mah-sy /mo:'sA1/ masala mixture of spices

muh-sah-Iuh /ma'su:la/ Masaryk, Tom:-ii“; Czechoslovak


mayS5-feeld ,I'meIsfi:1d/

Maseru capital of Lesotho muh-sair-oo /ma'se:ru:/ Masha], Khaled (also Meshal)

Palestinian statesman khah-luhd muh-shal /,xu:lad ma'j'all Mashhad (also Meshed) city, Iran mash-had /maj"had/ Mashona Afiican ethnic group

muh-shon-uh /me'j‘ona/ masjid mosque

mU5s-jid /'mAsd3Id/

masquerade pretence

mask-uh-rayd /,maske're1d/ Massachusetts state, US mass-uh-choo-suhts /,masa't_]"u:sats/'

massage rubbing of the body with the hands mass-ahzh /'maso:3/ Commonly also muh-sahzh.

massasauga rattlesnake mass-uh-saw-guh /‘,masa‘s:):ga/ Massawa port, Eritrea; also called Mitsiwa

m uh-sah-wuh /ma'sa:wa/ masseter cheek muscle

mass—ee—tuhr /ma'si:ta(r)/ masseur person who provides massage professionally mass—ur /ma'sa:(r)/ masseuse female masseur mass-u(r)z /ma'sa:z/ AM is mass-ooss. Massif Central mountainous plateau,



tom-ahsh mass-arr-ik /,tnmo.:_|‘

mass-eef sah(ng)-tral /_ma_si:f s€1'tra1/

'masarIk,I Masbate island, Philippines mass-bah-ti /mas'bo:ti/ Mascagni, Pietro Italian composer and conductor

Massine, Léonide Russian—Frcnch choreographer

lay-on-eed mass-een /1e1o,ni:d ma'si:n/ Massinger, Philip English dramatist

pyay-troh mask-ahn-yi /_pje1treo

mass-in-juhr /‘masmd3a(r)/'

ma'sko:nji/ Mascarenes group of islands, Indian Ocean

MHSSOII, André French artist

mask-uh-reenz /,maska'ri:nz/ mascarpone cream cheese

mass-kuhr-poh-nay /,maska(r)'paone1/ Masefield, John English poet and novelist

ah(ng)-dray mass-o(ng) /fi,dre| 'mas5/ mastaba ancient Egyptian tomb mast—uh-buh /'mastaba/ mastectomy surgical operation to remove a breast mast-ek-tuh-mi /ma'stektami/ mastodon large extinct mammal mast—uh-don fmastadonf


Mastroianni, Marcello l Maupassant, Guy de

Mastroianni, Marcello Italian actor

mar-chel-oh mast-ruh-yan-i /rnu:(r)_t_fs1ao mastra'jani/ Masuria region, Poland muh-zoor-i-uh lmzrzoarial Matabele African ethnic group

mat-uh-bee-Ii /,mata'bi:li/ Mata Hari Dutch dancer and secret agent mat-uh hah-ri /,mate 'ho:ri/ Mataram town, Indonesia

mut-uh-rahm /mAta'ro:m/ Mataskelekele, Kalkot Vanuatuan statesman kal-kot mat-uh-skel—uh—kay-luh /ka1,kot _matasks1a'ket1a/ maté bitter infusion

mat-ay I ‘mater,’ matelot sailor mat-loh /'matleu/ mater ‘mother’ (dated) may-tuhr /'me1ta(r)/ ' See LATIN panel. mater dolorosa Virgin Mary sorrowing for the death of Christ mah-tuhr dol-uh-roh-suh /,mu:ta ,do1a'raosa/ materfamilias female head of a family

may-tuhr-fuh-mil-i-ass /,melta(r)fa'm1lias,I materia medica body of remedial substances used in medicine

muh-teer-i-uh med-ik-uh /ma,t1aria 'madika/ Mathura city, India

mut-oor-uh /'mAtuara/ matinee afternoon performance

mat—in-ay /'mat1ne1,l Matisse, Henri French artist

ah(ng)-ree mat-eess /d,ri: ma'ti:s/ Mato Grosso region, Brazil

mat-oo gross-00 /,matu: 'grnsu:/ matriarch female head of a family may-tri—ark /'mettric1:(r)k,f matriculate be enrolled at a university muh-trik-yuul-ayt /ma'tr1kjoleIt/ matrimony state of being married mat-rim-uh-nl /‘matr1mani/ matronymic name derived from a mother or female ancestor mat-ruh-nim-ik /,matra'n1m1k/ matryoshka pl. matryoshki Russian doll

muht-ri-osh-kuh, pl. muht-ri-osh-ki /,matri.‘nj"ka/, pl. /-ki/ ma.tsI.ll'i Shinto festival mat-soo-ri /mat'su:ri/ Matsuyama city, Japan

mat-suu-yah-muh /,matso'ja:ma/ v See JAPANESE panel.

Mattel American toy manufacturers muh-tel jma'teIl Matterhorn mountain, Switzerland

mat—uhr-horn /'mata(r)h0:(r)n/ Matthau, Walter American actor mat—ow /‘matao/ Matthias, St apostle

muh-thy-uhss /ma'9A1as/ Maturin, Charles Irish novelist

mat-yoor-in /'matju9rIn/ matutinal occurring in the morning

mat—yoo-ty-nuhl /,l'HfltjL1'tAII'18i/ Also muh-tyoo-tin-uhl. matzo (also matzoh or matzah) unleavened biscuit, traditionally eaten by Jews during Passover mot-suh /'motse/ Can also be pronounced mut-suh or,

influenced by the spelling, mat-soh.

mauby West Indian drink moh-bi ,"maobi/ maudlin self-pityingly sentimental

mawd-lin /‘mo:d1In/

Maugham, Somerset British novelist mawm lmozml Maui island, Hawaii mow-i /'maoi,/ Mau Man African secret society

mow mow /‘mats mao/ Malina Kea volcano, Hawaii

mow-nuh kay-uh /,maone 'ke1a/ Mauna Loa volcano, Hawaii mow-nuh loh-uh /_maone 'laoa/ Maunganui mountain, New Zealand

mong-uh-noo-i /mnna'nu:i/ Maulldy Thursday Thursday before Easter mawn—di /'mo:ndi/

Maupassant, Guy de French writer gee duh moh-pass-ah(ng) /,gi: de maupa'sr'1/

Maupin, Armistead I meatus Maupin, A1-mistead American writer ar-mist-ed maw-pin /,u:(r)m1stsd 'm:1:pm/ Mauresmo, Amelie French tennis player

am-ay-lee maw-rez-moh /ame1_li: mo:rez'mau/ Mauriac, Francois French novelist

frah(ng)-swah morr-i-ak /frd_swu:


mah-yot /mn:'jnt/ Mayr, Ernst Walter German-American zoologist

airnst val-tuhr myr /_a:(r)nst ,valta(r) 'm1ue(r)/ Mazar-e-Sharifcity, Afghanistan muh-zar-esh-uh-reef /ma,zo:ra_l‘a'ri:f/ Mazarin, Jules Italian-French statesman

mnri'ak/ Mauritania African country morr-it-ay-ni-uh /,mor1'te1ma,I

zhuel maz-arr—a(ng) /_3yl maza'ré/ mazarine blue butterfly maz-uh-reen /'mazari:n,I

Mauritius island country

Mazatlan port, Mexico

mu h-rish—uhss /ma‘r1Ias/ Maury, Matthew American oceanographer

maw-ri /'mo:ri/ Maurya ancient Indian dynasty mow-ri-uh /'maurie/ Mauser trademark make of firearm

mow-zuhr /'mauza(r)/

mass-at-Ian /,masat'lan/ Mazdaism Zoroastrianism maz-duh-iz-uhm /'mazda,1zam/ mazdoor Indian labourer

muz—do0r /ITlAZ'ClU9(I‘)/ mazel tov ‘congratulations’ (Hebrew) maz—uh| tof /'mazel ,tnf/ mazer wooden drinking bowl

mausoleum building housing a tomb or tombs maw-suh-lee-uhm /,mo:sa'liam/

may-zuhr ,"meiza(r)/ mazurka Polish dance muh-zur-kuh /ma'za:(r)ka/

mauve pale purple colour

Mazzini, Giuseppe Italian nationalist leader

mohv lmauvl maven expert

may-vuhn /'me1van/ Mé. Vlast symphonic poem by Smetana

mah vlast /,mu: 'vlast/ maxilla pl. maxillae jaw

mak-sil-luh, pl. mak-sil-lee /mak's1la/, pl. /-1i:/ ~ See LATIN panel. lnaxixe Brazilian dance

muh-shee-shuh /ma'_1'i:j‘a/ Maya Central American ethnic group my-uh /'m1ua/ maya Hindu supernatural power mah-yuh /'mo:ja/ Mayakovsky, Vladimir Georgian poet and dramatist

vluh-dee-meer my-uh-kof-ski /_ml\ra'knfski/ Mayan family of Central American languages

my-uhn /'mA1an/ Maynooth town, Republic of Ireland may-nooth /meI'nu:B,' mayoral relating to the office of mayor mair-uhl /‘me:ral,' Mayotte island, Indian Ocean

juuz-ep-ay mat-see-ni /d3u,zepei mat‘si:ni/ Mbabane capital of Swaziland uhm—bab-ah-ni /,emba'bu:ni/ mbaqanga South African popular music style

uhm-bak-ang-guh /_amba'kanga/ Mbeki, Thabo South African statesman

tah-boh uhm-bek-i /,ta:bao am'bski/ mbira thumb piano uhm-beer-uh lam'biara/ Mbundu African ethnic group

uh m-buun-doo lanrbunduzl Mbuti African ethnic group uhm-boo-ti /am'bu:ti/ mea culpa acknowledgement of one’s error may-uh kuul-puh /,me1a 'kulpa/ ~ See LATIN panel. meander follow a winding course

mi-and-uhr /mi'anda(r)/ Meath county, Republic of Ireland

meeth /mi:9/ meatus passage leading to the interior of

the body

mi-ay-tu hss /mi'e1tas/

mebos | megrim


mebos fruit preserve

mee-boss /'mi:bns/ Mebyon Kernow Cornish nationalist political party meb-i—on kur-noh /,mcbion 'ka:(r)nau/ Mecca (also Makkah) city, Saudi Arabia mek—uh /'mska/ Established anglicization. Sometimes also milk-uh. a more Arabic-sounding pronunciation.

Meccano trademark construction toy muh-kah-noh /ma'ku:neo/

Mechelen city, Belgium mekh-uh-Iuhn /‘mexolan! Meehlin type oflace mek-lin /'mekl1n/ Mecklenburg former state, Germany melcluhn-burg /'meklanba:(r)g/, ['msklenbork] ' Established anglicization. meconium faeces ofa newborn infant

mi-koh-ni-uhm /mi'kaoniem/ meconopsis poppy mek-uh-nop-siss /_mska'nnps1s/ médaillon round cut ofmeat or fish

may-dy-yo(ng) /,me1dA1'j5/ Medan city, Indonesia

may-dun /'meIdAn/ Medau rhythmical exercise

may-dow /'meldao/ Medawar, Peter English immunologist med—uh—wuhr /'msdawa(r)/ Medb Irish mythological queen

mayv [mew] Medea Greek mythological figure

muh-dee-uh /ma'di:a;' Médecins sans Frontieres international charity

med-sa(ng) sahlng) fro(ng)t-yair /Imsdsfi so fr5'tjs::(r)/ Medellin city, Colombia med-el-yeen /,medel'ji:n/, [me0e'/Kin] Media ancient region ofAsia mee-di-uh /'mi:dia,f medicament substance used for medical treatment muh-dik-uh-muhnt /ma‘dIkamant/ Medicean relating to the Medici family

med-i-chee-uhn /,medi't]'i:an/ Medici powerful Italian family

med-itch-i /'madltIi/, ['me:dit_\'i]

Established anglicization. Another

anglicization, med-ee-chi, is seen as less correct.

medieval (also mediaeval) relating to the Middle Ages

med-i-eev-uhl /,medi'i:val;' Medina city, Saudi Arabia; also the name for the old walled part of a North African town

med-ee-nuh /ms'di:na/ mediocre of average quality mee-di-ohk-uhr /,mi:di'ooka(r)/ meditative relating to meditation

med—it-uh-tiv /'mad1,tativ/ Mediterranean sea, Europe

med-it-uh-ray-ni-uhn /,msd1te'remian/ Médoc red wine

may-dok /me|'dnk/ medulla oblongata part of the brainstem

muh-dul-uh ob-long-gah-tuh /me,dAla _ob1nr]'gu:ta/ Medusa Greek mythological character



Other pronunciations such as muh-doo-suh

are also used.

meerkat mongoose meer-kat /'m1a(r)kat/ meerschaum white clay-like material meer-showm /'m|a(r)_[aom/ Meerut city, India meer-uht f'm1arat/ mefloquine antimalarial drug

mef-luh-kween /'meflakwi:n/ megalopolis very large city

meg-uh-lop-uh-liss /,maga'lnpaI1s,! megalosaurus dinosaur meg-uh-loh-saw-ruhss /_msgalao'so:ras/ Meghalaya state, India

may-gah-luh-yuh /meI'go:1eja/ Megiddo ancient city, Palestine

muh-gid-oh /ma'g1dao/ Megillah book of Hebrew scriptures muh-gil-uh /ma'glla/ lnegilp mixture added to oil paints

muh-gilp /ma'g11p/ megrim fish mee-grim /'mi:gr|m/

Meiji Tenno | Memphis Meiji Tenno former emperor of Japan may-ji ten-oh /,me1d3i 'teneo/ meiosis pl. meioses type of cell division my—0l'|-siss, pl. my-oh-seez /mA1‘aos1s/, pl. /-si:z/ Meir, Golda Israeli stateswoman gol-duh may-eer /,golde meI'1a(r)/ Meirelles, Fernando Brazilian film director

fair-nan-doo may-rel-ish /fe:(r),nandu: me1'relI_\'/ Meirionnydd district, Wales

mair-i-on—uhth /ms:ri'nna0/ Meissen city, Germany; also a type of porcelain

my-suhn /'m1usan/ Meissner effect magnetic flux myss-nuhr /'mnIsna(r)/ Meistersinger member of a guild of German lyric poets my-stuhr-zing-uhr /'mA1sta(r)zma(r)/ Meitner, Lise Austrian-Swedish physicist

lee-zuh myt-nuhr /,1i:za 'm.utna(r)/ meitnerium chemical element

myt-neer-i-uhm /mAIt'nIariam/ Meiwes, Armin German cannibal ar-meen my-vuhss /,u:(r)mi:n 'I‘I'lAIV8S/ Mekele city, Ethiopia

muh-kay-li /ma'ke1Ii/ Meknes city, Moroeco

mek-ness /msk'nss/ Mekong river, Asia mee-kong /mi:'kn1]/ mela Hindu fair or festival may-luh /'me1la/ Melaka. state, Malaysia

muh-Iak-uh /ma'1aka/ melamine compound used in making plastics

mel-uh-meen /'melami:n/ melancholia sadness mel-uhn—k0h~li—uh /_me1an'kau1ia/ Melanchthon, Philipp German Protestant reformer fil-ip mel-ank-thon /_f1l1p me'1a13k9nn/ Melanesia region of the western Pacific

mel-uh-nee-zhuh /,msla'ni:5a/ melange varied mixture

may-lo(ng)zh /me1'1fi3/ melanin pigment


mel-uh-nin /'melan1n/

melanoma tumour mel-uh-noh-muh j,mela'naome/ melatonin hormone mel-uh-toh-nin /,mela'taon1n/

Melbourne city, Australia mel-buhrn /'ma1ba(r)n/ Melchior traditional name of one of the Magi mel-ki-or /'mslki:>:(r)/ Melchizedek biblical character

mel-kiz-uh-dek lme1'k|zadsk/ Meleager Greek poet

mel-i-ay-guhr /,me1i'e1ga(r)/ melee confused fight

mel-ay /'msle1/ Melilla Spanish enclave in Morocco mel-ee-yuh /me'1i:je/ melisma pl. melismata group of notes

sung to one syllable of text

muh-liz-muh, pl. muh-liz-muh-tuh /ma'1Izma/, pl. /-mata;‘ Melkite Orthodox Christian mel-kyt /'melk1ut/

melliflllous pleasingly smooth and musical to hear

mel~if-loo-uhsss /ms'11fluas/ Mellon, Andrew American financier and philanthropist

meI—uhn /'melan/ Melos see Milos Melpomene Greek mythological character mel-pom-uh-ni /msl'pnmani/ meltemi Mediterranean wind mel-tem—i /msl't£mi/ Melua, Katie Georgian-born singer

mel~oo-uh /‘meme,’ membrum Virile man’s penis memb-ruhm virr—ee-li /,membram v1'ri:li/ meme element of a culture passed from one individual to another

meem /mi:m/ memento mori reminder of the inevitability of death

mem-en-toh maw-ri /msmentao 'm:>:ri/ Memphis ancient city, Egypt; also city, US

mem-fiss /'mamf1s/

2+7 memsahib Indian term of address for a

married white woman mem'5ahb rmamsuzbf Sometimes also mem-sah-hib.

ménage a lCl‘0iS arrangement in which

three people live together

may-nahzh ah trwah /me1,no:3 o: 'll‘W0I/

memsahib | Mennonite an-tohn-yoh day men-doh-thuh

/anjaonjao dei men'dau9a/ Menelaus Greek mythological character men-uh-lay-uh55 /_mgng'1e195/

Menelik (3-15° Menelekl Ethl°Plan king

men‘Uh‘|ek /.I11~‘3I19'18li/

Manes Egyptian pharaoh mee-neez /'mi:ni:z/

menagerie collection of wild animals muh-naj-uh—ri /ma'nad3ari/

Menezes, Jean Charles de See dc Menezes

Menai Strait sea channel Wales men_y rmanml ’

Men crimgina], ele Josef G erman Nan.' war

Menander Greek dramatist muh-nan—duhr /ma'nanda(r),' Menapian relating to a glaciation in nonhem Europe

muh-nap-i-uhn /ma'napian,'

_ _ _ menaqulnone one of the K vitamins

men-uh-kwin-ohn /,msna'kw1naon/ menarche onset of menstruation

men-ark-E /ms'nu:(r)ki/

Mencius Chinese philosopher; also called Meng-Izu

men-si-uhss /'msnsias/

Mellfikell» H- L- AII1@1'i¢aHj0l1l"flflli$ll m9nlo,f

Mephistopheles mythological demon mef-ist-of-uh-leez /_mef1s‘tnfali:z/

Mephistophelian (also Mephistophelean) wicked

mef-ist-uh-fee-Ii-uhn /,mef1sta'fi:lian/ Less commonly also muh—fist-uh-fee-Ii-uhn

or mef-ist-of-uh-lee-uhn. Mercalli scale scale for expressing the local intensity of an earthquake muhr-kal-i /ma(r)'kali,' mercantile relating to trade


mur-kuhn-tyl /'ma:(r)kantA:l/ Mercator, Gerardus Flemish cartographer

juh-rard-uhss mur-kay-tuhr /d3a,ro:(r)das ma:(r)'ke1te(r)f

Merced city, US rnuhr-sed /ma(r)'sed,'

Mercedes Benz trademark German car manufacturers muhr-say-deez benz /ma(r),se1di:z ‘hanz/, [mer_tse:des 'bents] Q Established anglicization. Merchant, Ismail Indian film producer

iss-myl mur-chuhnt /|s,m1u1 'ma:(r)t_|'ant/ Mercia former kingdom of central England mur-si-uh /‘ma:(r)sie,l Merckx, Eddy Belgian cyclist ed-i mairks /_sdi 'me:(r)ks/ Mercosur customs union between Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay mair-koh-soor /'me:(r)kaosoa(r)/ Mercouri, Melina Greek actress and politician

muh-lee-nuh muhr-koor-i /ma,li:na ma(r)'koari/ mercurial subject to unpredictable changes of mood mur-ky0or—i-uhl /ma:(r)'kjoaria1/ merde ‘shit’ (French) maird /me:(r)d[ mere Maori war club merr—i /‘meri/ Meredith, George English novelist and poet merr-uh-dith /'merad1B/ However, the usual Welsh pronunciation of surname is muh-red-ith.

merengue style of dance music merr-eng-gay /ms'rs1]ge1/ mereology philosophical study

merr-i-ol-uh-ji /,msr1'nlad3i,' meretricious attractive but having no real value merr-uh-trish-uhss /_mera'tr1_fasf merganser diving duck

mur-gan-suhr /ma:(r)'gansa(r)/ merguez spicy beef and lamb sausage

mur-gez /ma:(r)'gez/

Mérida | Messina

24-9 Mérida city, Spain

mair-id-uh /'me:rida{, ['merioa] v Established anglicization meridian circle of constant longitude

muh~rid-i-uhn /m3'I'ldi8n/

meridional in the south muh-rid-i-uh-nuhl /ma'r1dianal/ meringue baked sugar and egg whites

muh-rang /me'ran/ merino breed of sheep muh-ree-noh /ma'ri:nao/ meritocracy government by people selected according to merit

merr-it-ok-ruh-si /,msr1'tokrasi/ meritorious deserving reward or praise

merr-it-aw-ri-uhss /,mer|'t:>:rias/ Merkel, Angela German stateswoman ang-gel-uh mair-kuhl /,a13gsla

'me:(r)kal/ merlon solid part of a crenellated

parapet mur-luhn /'me:(r)lan,/ Merlot Wine grape

mu r-loh /ma:(r)'lao/ Meroe ancient city, Sudan

merr-oh-i /'msraoi/ Merope Greek mythological character

merr-uh-pi /'mcrapi/ Merovingian Frankish dynasty of medieval Europe merr-uh-vin-ji—uhn /,mera'v|nd3ian/ Mersa Matruh town, Egypt

mur-suh muh-troo /_ma:(r)sa ma'tru:/ Mersey river, England

mur—zi /'me:(r)zi/ Mersin port, Turkey mair-sin /me:(r)'s1n/

may-dam /mer'dam/

mesembryanthemum plant muh-zem-bri-anth-uh-muhm /ma_zembri'anBamam/ Meshal, Khaled see Mashal, Khaled Meshed see Mashhad meshuga (also meshugga) crazy (Yiddish) muh-shuug-uh /ma'_1‘oga/

meshuggener crazy person (Yiddish) muh-shuug-uh-nuhr /ma'Iogana(r)/ Mesic, Stjepan Croatian president

styep-an mess-itch /_stjepan 'mes1t_1‘/ Mesmer, Franz Anton Austrian physician

frants an-ton mez-muhr /,frants ,antnn 'mezma(r)/ mesmeric causing a person to become transfixed

mez-merr-ik /msz'merrk/ Mesnes region near Wigan, England maynz lmelnzf meson subatomic particle

mee-zon /'mi:znn/ Mesopotamia ancient region, Asia

mess-uh-puh-tay-mi-uh /,mssapa'te1mia/ mesothelioma cancer mez-oh-thee-Ii-oh-muh ,/,mz»:zeo,Bi:li'eoma/ Mesozoic geological era mess-uh-zoh-ik /,mesa'zau1k/ mesquite tree

mesk-eet /ma'ski:t/ Messalina (also Messallina) Roman empress

mess-uh-lee-nuh /,mesa'li:na/ Messerschmidt, Willy German

Merthyr Tydfil town, Wales

aircraft designer

mur-thuhr tid-vil /,ma:(r)9a(r) 'tIdv|l/ mesa flat—topped hill may-suh /'me1sa,'

vil-i mess~uhr-shmit /_v11i 'mssa(r),_lm1t/

mésalliance unsuitable marriage

mez-al-i-uhnss /mt:'zalians/ mescalin (also mescaline) hallucinogenic compound mesk-uh—lin /‘meskal|n/ Less commonly also mesh:-uh-leen with the latter spelling.

mesclun green salad

mesk-loon /mes'klu:n/ Mesdames plural form of Madame

Messiaen, Olivier French composer

ol-eev-yay mess-yah(ng) /oli:_vjei me'sj:re1z/ morganatic denoting a marriage in which one spouse has no claim to the other’s possessions mor-guh-nat-ik /_mo:(r)ga'natik/ Morgan le Fay legendary enchantress mor—guhn luh fay /,mo:(r)gan1a 'fe1/ MORI Market and Opinion Research International

morr-i /'mnri/ moribund at the point of death

morr-i-bund /'I’I1D1‘IbAl‘Id/ Miirike, Eduard German poet

ayd-wart moe-rik-uh /,erdwo:(r)t 'me:rIka/ Morisco Spanish Moor

muh-risk-oh /ma'r1skeu/ Morisot, Berthe French painter

bairt morr-iz-oh /,be:(r)tmor1'zau/ Mormon member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints m0r—rnuhn /‘mo:(r)man/ mornay served in a cheese-flavoured white sauce mor-nay /'mo:(r)ne1 I

Morocco country muh-rok-oh /ma'rnkau/ Moroni capital of Comoros muh—r0h-ni /ma'rauni/

Morpeth town, England mor-puhth /'mo:(r)paEl/

Morpheus | Mostar


Top ten most frequently asked questions The following list gives examples of the words and names we are asked about the most, both by BBC programme makers and by members of the audience. Look up each individual entry for the Pronunciation Unit recommendation! BaslefBasel Roosevelt 1 Boudicca

cervical Niger al-Qaeda

Morpheus Roman mythological


morf-yooss ]'mo:(r)fju:s/

Commonly at-go .s.;i_fiiJis;. I if if C morphine drug mor-feen /'mo:(r)fi:n/ Morpurgo, Michael English children’s writer

mor-pur-goh /m:>:(r)'pa:(r)gau/ Morricone, Ennio Italian composer

en-yoh morr-i-koh-nay /,enjau mnri'kaone1,l mortadella Italian sausage mor—tuh-del-uh /,mo:(r)ta'de1a/ mortgage loan

mor-gij /'mo:(r)g1d3/ mosaic picture produced by arranging tiles moh-zay-ik /mau'ze11k/ moscato Italian dessert wine

mosk-ah-toh /mo'sku:tao/ Moschino Italian fashion label

mosk-ee~noh /mn'ski:nao/ Moscow capital of Russia



Shrewsbury Van Gogh Uranus


m0Sk—0h /'mnskao/ Established anglicization; AM commonly mosk-ow. The Russian name is Moskva,

pronounced muhsk-vah.

Mose] river, Europe

moh—zuhl /‘meuze1/ This is the German pronunciation; the river

also runs through France, where the spelling is Moselle and the pronunciation is moz-el. Wine of the same name is produced in both


moshav cooperative association of Israeli smallholders

moh-shahv /rnao'j'o:v/ Moslem see Muslim Mosley, Oswald English fascist leader

mohz-Ii /'maoz1i/ Mossad Israeli secret intelligence service

moss-ad /m1:>'sad/ Miissbaner eifeet chemical nuclear elfect

moess-bow-uhr /‘moesbaoa(r)/ Mostar city, Bosnia—Herzegovina most-a r /'mostc1:(r)/

Mosul l mudra


Mosul city, Iraq moo-suhl ,l'mu:sal/

Moygashel trademark type of Irish linen moy-gash—uhl /mo1'ga_[al/

Commonly also moh-suhl, which is

Mozambique country

becoming an established anglicization. Our

moh-zam~beek /_maozam'bi:k/ Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus

recommendation is based on the advice of

Iraqi Arabic speakers.

motet short piece of sacred choral music mo h-tet /mau'tet,' motif decorative image moh-teef /mau'ti:f/ motjuste appropriate word

moh zhuest /,mau '3yst/' Moto, Severo Equatorial Guinean statesman

sev-air-oh mot-oh /ss,ve:rau 'mntau/

Austrian composer

volf-gang am-uh-day-uuss moht-sart /,\/ulfgan 3m9,d€IUS 'maotsu:(r)t/ mozzarella cheese mot-suh-rel-uh /,mntsa'raIa/ MPEG international standard for encoding and compressing video images

em-P99 /'smp8s/ Mpumalanga province, South Africa

uhm-poo-muh-Iang-guh /am,pu:ma'langa/

motorcade procession of motor vehicles moh-tuhr-kayd /'maota(r)ke1d,f

mridangam drum

Motown trademark type of music moh-town /'maotaun/

uhm-rid-ung—guhm lemrrdiingaml Ms woman’s title

motte mound forming the site of a castle

mot /mot/ moue pouting expression

moo /mu:/ moules lnariniere mussels cooked in a

wine and onion sauce mool marr-in-yair /_mu:l mar1n'js:(r)/ Mouli trademark kitchen utensil moo-Ii /'mu:li/ Moulin Rouge cabaret in Montmartre, Paris moo-la(ng) |’OOZh /_mu:lE: 'ru:3/

mountebank person who deceives others mown-tuh-bank /'mauntaba:]k/ Mount Isa town, Australia y-Zuh /'ntza/

Mourne Mountains range of hills, Northern Ireland morn /mo:(r)n/ moussaka (also mousaka) Greek dish moo-sah-kuh /mu:'su:ka/

mousseline fine fabric mooss-leen /'mu:sli:n/ mousseux sparkling moo-soe /mu:'so/ Mowgli character in The Jungle Boole

mow-gli /'maugli/ Various sources indicate that this is the pronunciation Kipling would have used, although the name was pronounced

moh-gli in the Disney film.

muhz /maz/ MSS manuscripts

em-ess-iz /sm'es1z,' Mswati Swazi king

uhm-swat-i /em‘swati/ mu letter of the Greek alphabet

myoo /mju:/ Mubarak, Hosni Egyptian statesman

huuss-ni moo-bar-uhk /,husni mu:'hn:rak/ Mucha, Alphonse Czech painter and designer al-fonss muukh—uh /_alfnns 'moxa/ muchacha ‘young woman’ (Spanish)

moo-chatch-uh /mu:'t_[atIa/ muchacho ‘young man‘ (Spanish) moo-chatch-oh /mu:'tIatIau/ Muchinga Mountains mountain range, Zambia

moo-ching-guh ,'mu:'tIn]ge/ mucho ‘much' or ‘many’ (Spanish) muutch-oh /'mutIao/ mucosa pl. mucosae mucous membrane

myoo-koh-suh, pl. myoo-koh-see /mjufikausa/, pl. /-si:/ Mudejar pl, Mudejares Gothic-Islamic architectural style

moo—day-khar, pl. moo-day-khar-ayss /mu:dei'xu:(r)/, pl. /-reis/ mudra symbolic hand gesture used in

Indian dance mud-ruh /'ITlA(ll‘8/

muesli I Munch, Edvard muesli cereal mixture mooz-Ii /‘muzzli/'

Sometimes also myooz-Ii; both are anglicizations ofthe German word milisli, pronounced rnuess-Ii ['my:sIi]. muezzin man who calls Muslims to prayer

moo-ez-in /mu:'szm/ mufii plain clothes /'mAfti/

Mugabe, Robert Zimbabwean statesman

muug-ah-bi /mu'ga:bi/ Mughal Muslim dynasty of Mongol origin

moog-uhl /'mu:ga1/ Muhajiroun, al- extremist Islamic group

uhl muu-haj-irr-oon /al mo,had31'ru:n/

Muhammad (also Mohammed) Arab prophet and founder of Islam moh-ham-uhd /mao‘hamad/ Muhammad All see Ali, Muhammad Muharram Islamic month

muh-hurr-uhm /l'I18'l1AI‘3II1/ Muir, Jean English fashion designer

myoor /mjoa(r)/ Inujahidin (also mujahedin, mujaheddin, or mujahideen) guerrilla fighters in Islamic countries

moo-jah-huh-deen /,mu:d3a:ha'di:n/ Mujibur Rahman Bangladeshi statesman

muuj—ee—bo0r rakh-mahn /mo,d3i:bua(r) rax'mo:n/ Mukalla port, Yemen muuk-al-uh /mo'ka1a/ mukhtar Arab head of local government muukh-tar /'moxtu:(r)/ mukluk high, soft boot muk-luk /'m1\klAk/ muktuk whale blubber muk-tuk /'m.\ktAk,' Muldoon, R0bBl't New Zealand


mui-doon /IT1Al'dI.1Il'l;' mulefa creature in Philip Pullman’s His Dark Materials muul-ef-uh /mu'lsfa/ Mulhacén mountain, Spain moo-lath-en /,mu:la'Bsn/

262 Miilhflim city, Germany

muel-hym /'my:1h1um/

Mulhouse city, France muel-ooz /my‘lu:z/ 'I'he German name of this city in



Alsace-Lorraine is Miihlhausen, pronounced

muel~how-zuhn ['my:lhauzan]. rnnllah Muslim learned in Islamic theology

muul-luh /'mula,/

mullein plant mul—in /'mA1m/ Muller, Hermann Joseph American geneticist mul-uhr /'mA1a(r)/ Miiller, Johannes German anatomist and zoologist

yoh-han-uhss muel-uhr /jau,hanas 'mYla(r)/ muller grinding stone

mul-uhr /'mAIa(r)/ Miiller—Thurgau white wine grape

muel-uhr toor-gow /,lTlYl9(1") 'tua(r)gao/

mulligatawny spicy soup mul-ig-uh-taw-ni /_mAl1ga'to:ni/ Mullingar town, Republic of Ireland

mul-ing-gar /,mAl1n'go:(r)/ Mulroney, Brian Canadian statesman

mu|—r00—ni /mAl'ru:ni/ Multan city, Pakistan

muu|—tahn /mo1'tu:n/ multiparous having borne more than one child mul-tip-uh-ruhss /I1'lAl'lZIp6l‘8S/ multiply in several different ways mul-tip-Ii /'I‘[‘lAl.iIpli/ multivalent having many applications mu!-ti-vay-iuhnt /,mAlti've1lant/ multum in parvo a great deal in a small space

muul-tuhm in par-voh /,mo1tam In 'po:(r)vau/ Mnlnbai city, India; also called Bombay muum—by /mum'b.\1/ mumpsimus traditional custom or idea adhered to although shown to be unreasonable mump-sim-uhss /'II1AII1pSIII13S/ Munch, Edvard Norwegian painter ed-vard muunk /,advo:(r)d 'munk/


Munchausen syndrome | muskellunge

Munchausen syndrome mental disorder in which a person feigns illness muuntch-ow-zuhn f'muntj‘,auzan/

Murmansk port, Russia moor-mansk /moa(r)'mansk/ Murnau, Friedrich (F.W.) German

Established anglicization. The German

film director

pronunciation of the original Baron Miinchhausen’s name (note the difference in

freed-rikh moor-now /_fri:dr11/ 4

Nevada state, US nuh-vah-duh ,'na'vu:de/

NI ‘daughter of' in lrish surnames nee /ni:/

NGVEPS city, France

niacin vitamin ny-uh-sin /'nA1os1n,'

nuh-vair /ne've:(r)/ Nevis island, Caribbean nee-viss /'ni:v1s/ Newark city, US and UK

nyoo-uhrk /‘nju:a(r)k/ Newcastle city, England ny00—kah—$uhl /'nju:ku:sal/ This is a standardized version of the place name; locally, the pronunciation is


Newfoundland island, Canada nyoo-fuhnd-land j,nju:fand'land/ The stress can fall on all three syllables but this is the pronunciation preferred by

Newfoundlanders. However, the breed of dog is usually nyoo-fownd-luhnd.

Ne Win Burmese politician nay win /,ne1 'WlI'1/ New Orleans city, US nyoo or-Ii-uhnz /nju: 'o:(r)lianz/ Other pronunciations are also heard; this

stress placement is the most common in both BR and AM.

Newry city, Northern Ireland

nyoor-i /'njuari/ Nez Percé North American ethnic group nez pair-say /_nsz 'ps:(r)se1/ Ng Cantonese family name "9 /'11/ ngaio New Zealand tree

ny-oh /'n1\1ao/

Niagara Falls city and waterfalls, Canada/US

ny-ag-ruh fnaragral Niamey capital of Niger

nyah-may /nju:'me1/ Niamh Irish girl’s name

neev lnizvf Nibelung mythological dwarf nee~buh-luung /'ni:balun/

Nibelungenlied German poem nee-buh-luung-uhn-leet /'ni:be1oi]an_1i:t/

Nicaea ancient city, Asia Minor

ny-see-uh /mu'si:a/ Nicam digital sound format ny-kam /'I1AIl(8I1'l/

Nicaragua country nik—uh-rag—yuu—uh /_n1ka'ragjua,/ Spanish [nikzrraywa] Established anglicization. A pronunciation closer to the Spanish, nik-uh-rag-wuh, is also common, and nik-uh-rah-gwuh is typical of AM.

NICE National Institute for Clinical

Excellence nyss /n1us/ Nice city, France neeSS Jnizsl

Nicene Creed Christian text ny-seen /'n1usi:n,'

niche I Njal


niche recess

Nike Greek goddess, also a sportswear company ny-ki /‘nnlkif Nikkei stock market index

neesh ___,_/‘L1i-I,’

AM is nitch.

Nichiren Buddhist sect

nik-ay /‘mke1/

nish-uh-ruhn /'n1Iaran,/ Nicklaus, Jack American golfer nik-luhss /'n1klas/

nil desperandum ‘don’t give up‘ (Latin)

nil desp-uh-ran-duhm /‘ml _daspa'randam/

Nicobar island group, India

nimbostratus cloud

nik-uh-bar /'nIkabo:(r)/ nicoise salad nee-swahz /ni:'swc1:z/ Nicosia capital of Cyprus nik-uh-see-uh /,n1ka'si:a/

nim-boh-strah-tuhss /,nImbao'stru:tes/ NIMBY Not In My Back Yard nim-bi /'n1mbi,' Nimes city, France

Niemiiller, Martin German pastor

neem /ni:m/

mar-teen nee-moel-uhr /_mu:(r)ti:n 'ni:mcele(r)/ Niépce, Joseph Nicéphore French

Nin, Anais French writer

an-uh-eess neen /ana,i:s 'ni:n/ Nineveh ancient city, Assyria


nin-uh-vuh /‘n1nava/ Ningria autonomous region, China

zhoh-zef nee-say-for nyeps /3au'zef ni:sei_f:::(r) 'njcps/

ning-shyah /_nn]'Ijo:/

Niersteiner white wine

neer-shty-nuhr /'l"ll3(I‘)__ftAll'18(I‘)/ Nietzsche, Friedrich German philosopher

Ninian, St Scottish bishop nin-i-uhn /'n1nian/ Niobe Greek mythological name ny-uh-bi /'IlAl8l)l/ niobium chemical element ny—oh~bi—uhm /mu'aubiam,I Nipissing district, Canada

freed-rikh neet-shuh /_fri:dric ‘ninja! Niflheim Nordic mythological underworld niv-uhl-haym /'n1valhe|m/ Established anglicization. The Icelandic

nip-iss-ing /'nlpISIl]/

version of the name, Niflhcimr, is

NIREX Nuclear Industry Radioactive

pronounced nee-buhl-hay-muhr. Nigel‘ country

ynee-zhair /ni:'3e:(r)/



An older, more anglicized pronunciation ny-juhr is also heard, but we no longer

recommend this.

Niger river, Africa

ny-juhr /'n.ud3a(r)/ Nigeria country

ny—jeer-i-uh /TlAI'fl3I8I‘l3/ nihilism philosophy

ny-il-iz-u hm /'I'lAIllIZ8lTl/ Niigata port, Japan

nee-gat-uh /'ni:gata/ Nijinsky, Vaslav Russian dancer vass-luhf nizh-in-ski /,vaslef n1'31nski/ Sometimes anglicized to nij-in-ski.

Nijmegen lZOW‘I1, Netherlands

ny-may-guhn /'nA|me1gan/, ['ncime:va(n)]

Waste Executive ny—reks /'l‘1AII‘El{S/ nirvana transcendent state neer-vah-nuh /ma(r)'vo:na/ Nis (also Nish) city, Serbia

neesh /ni:]‘/ nisi legal term ny-sy /'l'1AISAI/ Niteroi port, Brazil

nee-tuh-roy /_ni:ta'r:>1/ nitrogen chemical element ny-truh-juhn /'nn1trad3an/ Niue island, New Zealand

ni-00-ay /ni'u:e1/ Nilliniy Novgorod port, Russia

nizh-ni nov-guh-rod /,n13n1 'novgarod/, [,n1i3ni 'n:)vgarat] I Established anglicization. Njal Icelandic mythological character

nyowl /njaul/

Nk1'umah,Kwame | nous


Nkrumah, Kwame Ghanaian politician

kwam-i ng—kroo-muh /,kwami 1]'kru:me/ Nobel, Alfred Swedish chemist

al-fred noh-bel /,a1fred nau'bel/ Stress

shifts to the first syllable

in the phrase ‘Nobel Prize’: noh-bel pryz.

nobelium chemical element noh-bee-Ii-uhm /nao'bi:l1am/ noblesse oblige aristocratic duty n0h—ble5s uh-bleezh /naU,b1es a'bli:3/ Noll (also N0) Japanese theatre noh /nao/

noisette piece of meat nwaz-et /nwa‘zst/ noisome smelly

Noriega, Manuel Panamanian statesman

man-we! norr-i~ay-guh /man_wa1 ,nnr1'e1ge/ N01-rkiiping city, Sweden nor-shoe-ping /'no:(r),j‘o:p113/ Northampton town, England nor-thamp-tuhn /n:>:(r)'9ampten/ Northumberland county, England nor-thum-buhr-luhnd /l'lOZ(I‘)'9AI‘l'1b8(I‘)l9I1Cl/ Norway country nor-way /'no:(r)weI/ Established anglicization. The Norwegian

name is Norge, pronounced nor-guh.

noy-su hm /'no1sam/ Nokia telecommunications company

n0k—i—uh /'nnkia/ noli me tangere ‘d0n’t touch me’ (Latin)

noh-Ii may tang-guh-ray /,nauli met 'ta13gereI/ Other pronunciations are possible; see LATIN paneh

nolle prosequi legal term nol-i pr0ss—uh—kWy /,nnl1 'prnsekwA1/ Nolte, Nick American actor nohl-ti /‘neulti/ nom de guerre assumed name nom duh gair /,nnm do 'gs:(r)/

nom de plume pen name nom duh ploom /,nnm do 'p1u:m/ Nome city, US noh m /naom/ nomenclature naming nuh-men-kluh-chuhr /ne'ms1] k1atIe(r)/ AM is noh-muhn-klay-chpuhfr.

naw-ri /'n:>:ri,'

_ T

nonagon nine-sided shape non-uh-guhn /'n'onagan/ nonchalant relaxed

non-shuh-luhnt /'nnn_\"a1ant,' nonpareil matchless

non-puh-rayl /,nnnpe're11/ non sequitur illogical statement non 5ek—Wi—tuhr /non 'sekw1ta(r)/ Nootka Canadian ethnic group nuut-kuh /'notka/ nori edible seaweed

Norwalk Virus virus causing gastroenteritis

nor-wawk /'n:1:(r)w0:k/ Norwich city, England

norr-ij /'nnrId3/ Nosferatu vampire noss-fuh-rah—t00 /,nr)sfe'ru:tu:/ Nostradamus French astrologer noss-truh-dah-muhss /,nnstra'd:'ranja,sto:t/

Oregon state, US orr-uh—guhn /'nragen/

oratorio large-scale musical work

uh~rel /a'rel/ Orenburg city, Russia orr—uhn—burg /'nranba:(r)g,' Oreo trademark American chocolate biscuit aw—ri-oh /'o:riao/' Oresteia play trilogy by Aeschylus

0-ruh-tor-i-oh /'ora'to:riao/ oratory small chapel orr-uh-tuh-ri /'oretari/ Orbison, Roy American singer roy or-biss-uhn /_ro1 ':J:(r)b1san,'

orca whale

orr-est-y-uh /nras'tma/

or-kuh /'o:(r)kaj Orcadian relating to the Orkney Islands

or-kay-di-uhn /o:(r)'kerdian/ Orcagna, Andrea Italian painter and architect

an-dray-uh or-kah-nyuh /an'dreIe :>:(r)'k0.:nja,' orchitis inflammation of the testicles or-ky-tiss /(JI(I‘)'kAIlZIS/ Orczy, Emmuska Hungarian-British novelist

em-uush-kuh ort-si /,smo1‘ka 'a:(r)tsi/ ordinand trainee priest

or-di-nand /'o:(r)dmand;'

ordinarily usually or-duh-nuh—ril-i /'o:(r)danar11i/ Commonly also or-di-nair-il-i.

ordinary usual

or-fclguh-nun-ri /'o:(r)danari/ Reduced pronunciations


or ord-uhn-ri are common, and or-din-err-i is also possible.

ordinate mathematical line or-di-nuht ,I'o:(r)dmat/ Ordnance Survey organization which produces maps

ord-nuhnss sur-vay /,:>:(r)dnans 'sa:(r)ve1/ Ordovician geological period or-duh-vish-i-uhn /,:):(r)da'v1_\‘ian/ ordure excrement

or-dyuur /':J:(r)djoa(r)/ Orebro city, Sweden

oe-ruh-broo /_(e:ra'bru:/

Orel city, Russia

Orestes Greek mythological character

orr-est-eez /n'ri-:sti:z/ flresund (also Oresund) strait between Sweden and Denmark

oe-ruh-suund /,oe:ra'sund/ orfe fish

orf /0:(r)f[ Orfeo ed Euridice opera by Gluck

or-fay-oh ed ay-oo-rid~ee-chay /o:(r)'fe1ao ed e1u:r1'di:tj‘e1/ Orfl‘, Carl German composer karl orf /,ko:(r)l 'o:(r)f/ organdie cotton fabric or-guhn-di /':i:(r)gandi/ organum type of polyphonic music or-guh-nuhm /':>:(r)ganam/ organza dress fabric or-gan-zuh /o:(r)'ganza/ orgone excess life force or—gohn /'o:(r)gaun/ oriel large upper-storey bay with a window

aw-ri-uhl /‘:>:ria1/ orifice opening

orr-if-iss /'nr1f1s/ origami Japanese art of folding paper orr-ig—ah-mi /,or1'gu:mi/ Origen Christian scholar and theologian orr-ij-uhn /‘m"rd3en/ Orinoco river, South America

orr-in-oh-koh ]_nr1'n9okao/ oriole bird aw-ri-ohl /'o:riao1/_ Orion constellation

uh-ry—uhn /8'I‘AI8I'l/

orison | osmium


orison prayer orr-iz-uhn /‘or1zan;‘

Orissa state, India uh-riss-uh /a'risa/ Orkneys islands, Scotland ork-neez /'o:(r)kni:z/

Orlando city, US or-Ian-doh /o:(r)‘landao/ Orleans city, France or-lay-ah(ng) /o:(r)le1'fi/ Less commonly anglicized to or-lee-uhnz, which is the pronunciation used for the place of the same name in Quebec. See also

NEW ottusaus.

Orlnazd Zoroastrian god

or-muhzd /'o:(r)mezd/ ormolu metal alloy

or-muh-loo /'a:(r)ma1u:/ ornery bad—tempered

or-nuh-ri /':>:(r)neri/ ornithology study of birds

or-nith-ol-uh-ji /,0:(r)n1‘6nlad3i/ orography branch of geography dealing with mountains

orr-og-ruh~fi /n'rngrafi/ Oromo member of an East African ethnic group

orr-uh-moh /'nramao/ Orontes river, Asia

uh-ron-teez /a'runti:z/ oropharynx part of the throat

aw-roh-farr-inks /,o:rao'far1nks/ orotund imposing orr-oh-tund /'I)l“8UtAl'lCl/ orpharion stringed instrument or-farr-i-uhn /o:(r)'farian/ Orpheus Greek mythological character

or-fyooss /'o:(r)fju:s/ Commonly also or-fi-uhss.

Less commonly also or-thoh-ep-i or or-thoh-ee-pi. We find it ironic that the pronunciation of this word is so variable.

orthogrlathous having a jaw which does not project forwards

or-thog-nuh-thuhss /o:(r)'9ngna9as,I orthogonal involving right angles or-thog—uh-nuhl [o:(r)'6ngenal/ orthography spelling system or-thog-ruh-fi /:i:(r)'Bngrafi/ orthopaedics branch of medicine dealing with bones or muscle deformity or-thuh-pee-diks /_o:(r)6a'pi:d1ks/ orthosis pl. orthoses splint or brace

or-thoh-siss, pl. or-thoh-seez /o:(r)'6eos1s/, pl. /-si:z/

ortolan bird or-tuh-luhn /‘o:(r)talan/ Oruro city, Bolivia uh-roo-roh /a‘ru:rao/ Orvieto town, Italy

or-vyay-toh /o:(r)'vje1tau/ oryx antelope

orr-iks /‘nriks/ orzo small pieces of pasta ort-soh /':>:(r)tsao/ Osaka port, Japan

oh-sah-kuh /au'sa:ka/ ' See Japanese panel. oscillate move in a regular rhythm oss-il-ayt /'ns1le|t/ oscular relating to kissing

osk-yuul-uhr /'nskjo1a(r)/ Osh city, Kyrgyzstan

osh /nI/ Oshawa city, Canada osh-uh-wuh /'nIewa/

osier willow

orrery model of the solar system orr-uh-ri /'Drari/

oh-zi-uhr /'auzia(r),I Osijek city, Croatia 05$-i-yek /'osrjek/

ortanique citrus fruit

Osiris Egyptian god

or-tuh-neek /,o:(r)to'ni:k/ Ortega, Daniel Nicaraguan statesman

dan-yel or-tay-guh /dan,jsl 0:(r)'te1ga/ orthodontics treatment of dental irregularities or—thuh—don-tiks /,o:(r)6a'dnnt1ks/ orthoepy correct or accepted

pronunciation of words or-thoh-uh-pi /o:(r)'8auapi/

oh-sy-riss /ao'sA1r1s/ Oslo capital of Norway oz-loh /'nz1eo/, ['us1u] ~ Established anglicization. Osman I Turkish founder of the Ottoman empire

oz-muhn /'nzman/ osmium chemical element oz-mi-uhm /'uzmiam/

osmosis | Ottoman osmosis process of diffusion oz-moh-siss /nz'maos1s/ Osnabriick city, Germany

oz-nuh-bruuk /'nznabrok/, [,asna'brYk] osnaburg coarse linen oz-nuh-burg /'nznabe:(r)g/ osprey bird of prey Osp—ri /'nspri/ Less commonly also osp-ray.

Ossetia region, Caucasus oss-et-i-uh /os'etis/ An older anglicized pronunciation, uh-see-Shuh, is given in various reference

works. Our research has indicated that the pronunciation we recommend, which is

closer to the Russian, is more acceptable.

Ossi citizen of the former German Democratic Republic

oss-i /'nsi/ Ossian legendary Irish bard; also called Oisin 05$-i—uhn fusion] ossify turn into bone

OSS-i-fy /'ns1fn1/ osso buoo Italian dish made of shin of veal

oss-oh boo-koh /,nsao 'bu:kau/ ossuary receptacle for bones

oss-yoo-uh-ri /"nsjueri/ Ostade, Adriaen Van Dutch painter

and engraver ah—dri-ahn vun ost-ah-duh /'o:dric1:n VAI1 n'stu:da/ Ostend port, Belgium ost-end /n'stsnd/ ostensible appearing to be true, but not necessarily so

ost-en-sib-uhl /n'stsns1bal/

ostentatious showy 0st-en-tay-shuhss /,nsten'te1_\‘es/ Osteomyelitis inflammation of bone or bone marrow

ost-i-oh-my-uh-ly—tiss /,DSti8Ul'IlAI3'lAItIS/ osteopathy branch of complementary medicine 0st—i—0p—uh-thi /,nsti'npa6i/

osteoporosis medical condition ost-i-oh-puh-roh~siss /,nstiaupa‘raos1s/


Ostia ancient city, Italy ost-i-uh /'nst1a,' ostinato pl. ostinati repeated musical phrase

ost-in-ah-toh, pl. ost-in-ah-ti /_nst1'nu:tao/, pl. /-'nd:ti/ - Standard -s plural is also possible. ostler person employed to look after guests’ horses 055-luhr /'nslo(r),' Ostpolitik foreign policy of détente with the former communist bloc

ost-pol-it-eek /'nstpnli,ti:k/ ostracize exclude

ost-ruh-syz /'nstras1i1z/ Ostrava city, Czech Republic ost-ruh-vuh /'ostrava,~' Ostrogoth member of an ancient people 0st-ruh-goth /'nstragn6,' Ostwald, Friedrich German physical chemist

freed-rikh ost-valt /,fri:dric 'ostvalt/ 0§Wi¢Cim town, Poland; site of

Auschwitz concentration camp osh-vyen-cheem /o_\"vji=:ntIi:m/ Otago region, New Zealand

ot-ah-goh /o'tu:gao,' otaku young people highly skilled in computer technology oh-tah-koo /ao'tci:ku:/ otiose serving no practical purpose oh-ti-ohss /'8Utl9US]' otolog: study of the ear oh-tol-uh-ji ,'au'tn1ad3i/ Otomanguean family of American Indian languages

oh-tuh-mang-gi-uhn /,auta'mangian/ otorhinolaryngology study ofdiseases

of the ear, nose, and throat

oh-toh-ry-noh-larr-in-gol-uh-ji /,aotau_r.unao_lar1n'gnlad3i,' Otranto strait between Italy and Albania Oh-tran-toh /'aotranteu/ Ottawa city, Canada

ot-uh-wuh ,f‘I)tewe/ ottocento relating to the 19th century in

Italy not-oh-chen-toh /,ntao't_[sntao/ Otzi mummified Stone Age man, discovered in Austria

oet-si /'cetsi/ Ottoman Turkish dynasty ot-uh-muhn /'ntamon/


Ouagadougou l Ozymandias

Oudenarde town and battle site, Belgium oo-duh-nard /'u:danci:(r)d/, Flemish ['oudanu:rde]

ov—id /'nv1d/ Oviedo city, Spain ov-yay-thoh /,nv'jer6ao/ ovine relating to sheep oh-vyn /'oovn1n/ ovulate discharge ova from the ovary ov-yu ui-ayt /'nvjulert/ ovum pl. ova female reproductive cell oh-vuhm, pl. oh-vuh /':(r) 'nste1k,' I See GAELIC panel. Sabine ancient Italian ethnic group sab-yn /'sabA1n/ Sabine river, US

suh-been /sa'bi:n/ Sabin vaccine

say-bin /'seIbm/ sabot clog shoe sab-oh /sa'bao/ sabotage deliberately destroy sab-uh-tahzh /'sabatn:3/ saboteur person who engages in sabotage

sab-uh-tur /,sabo'to:(r)/‘ sabra Jew born in Israel

sab-ruh /'sabra/ Sabreur cavalryman using a sabre

sab-rur /sa'bre:(r)/ sabzi vegetables (Indian)

sub-zi /‘SAlJZl/ Sacajawea American Indian woman


sak-uh-juh-wee-uh /,sakad3o'wi:o/ The spelling and translation of her name are disputed; the less common spelling

Sacagawea is pronounced either as above or

as sak-ag-uh-wee-uh.

saccade rapid movement ofthe eye sak-ahd /sa'kn:d;' saccharin (also saccharine) sugar substitute

sak-uh-rin /'sakorm/ sacerdotal relating to priests

sass-uhr~d0h-tuhl /_sasa(r)'daotal/ Sometimes also sak-uhr-doh-tuhl or


sachem chief say-chuh m /'se1tIamf Sachertorte chocolate gateau zakh-uhr-tor-tuh /'zaxa(r),to:(r)ta/ Sachs, Hans German poet and


hanss zaks /,hans 'zaks/ Sachsen see Saxony Sachsen-Anhalt see Saxony-Anhalt sackbut early musical instrument

sak-but /'sakbAt/ sacrament ceremony

sak-ruh-muhnt /'sakramant/

Sacramento | St Croix Sacramento river, US sak-ruh-men-toh /,sakra'msntao/

Sacranie, Iqbal Malawi-horn British Muslim campaigner

ik-bahl suh-krah-ni /,ll{l](1ZlS3'kI‘(1ZIll/ sacré blell French expression ofsurprise sak-ray bloe /,sakrei ‘blof sacrilege violation of something sacred sak-ril-ij /'sakrIl1d3/ sacristy room in a church sak-rist-i /'sakr1sti/ sacroiliac relating to the sacrum and the ilium

say-kroh-il-i-ak /,seikrao‘1liak/ sacrosanct too important to he

interfered with

sak-ruh-sankt /'sakrasankt/ sacrum hone in thc lower back say-kruhm /"SBIl(I‘8l’l'1/

Sadat, Anwar al- (also es-Sadat) Egyptian statesman

un-wuhr uh-suh-dat /,AllW8(l') asa'dat/ ~ See ARABIC panel. Saddam Hussein see Hussein, Saddam Sadducee member of a Jewish sect

sad—yuuss-ee /'sadjosi:/ Sade, Comte (18 French writer


suh-gay-shuhss /sa'ge1Ios/ sagacity wisdom

suh-gass-it-i /sa'gasIti/ Sagan, Carl American astronomer

say-guhn /'se1gan/ Sagan, Francoise French writer

frah(ng)-swah: sag-ah(ng) /frf1,sw(1:z sa'gt"1/ Sagitta small constellation

suh-jit-uh /sa‘d3ita/ Sagittarius large constellation saj-it-air-i-uhss /,sad3I'ts:rias/ sago edible starch

say-goh /'se1gau/ saguaro giant cactus

suh-gwah-roh /sa'gwo:rao/ Saguia el Hamra intermittent river, Western Sahara

suh-gee-uh el ham-ruh /'sa,gi:a sl ‘hamra/ Saba, Meghnad Indian physicist

mayg-nud suh—hah /_m6IQflAd sa'ho:/ Sahara desert, North Africa suh-har-uh /sa'hu:ra/

Sahel region, North Africa suh-hel /sa'hs1,I sahib Indian form of address for a man sahb /stub,’

ko(ng)t duh sahd /,k5t da 'su:df

Sometimes also sah-hib.

Sade Nigerian-born British singer

Sahiwal breed of cattle

shah-day /'Iu:de|/ sadhu Indian holy man sah-doo /'st1:du:/ Sidi (also Saadi) Persian poet

sah-dee /sn:'di:/ sadomasochism sexual practice

say-doh-mass-uh-kiz-uhm /,se1dao'masak1zam/ Sadr City city, Iraq

sad-uhr ,"sade(r)/ Sadr, Moqtada al- Iraqi Shia leader

mook-tad-uh uh-sad-uhr /mu:k_tada

sah-hiv-ahi /‘su:hivu:l/ sai Japanese dagger sy /san! Said, Edward Palestinian-American


sah-eed /so:'i:d,' Saigon city, Vietnam sy—gon /s1\1'gon/ saint person acknowledged as holy

saynt /SBIl'IiI/' When ‘saint’ (or 'St’) appears before a name, it is usually pronounced suhnt.

a'sada(r)/ Safavid Persian dynasty saf-uh-vid /'safev1d/

St Albans city, England

Saffron Walden town, England

St Asapb city, Wales

saf-ruhn wawl-duhn /,safren 'w:>:idan,' saga long story sah-guh j'su:ga/ sagacious having good judgement

suhnt awl-buhnz /sant 'o:lbanz/

suhnt ass-uhf /sent 'asaf/ St Briavels village, England suhnt brev-uhlz /sant 'brevalzj St Croix island, Caribbean

suhnt kroy /sant 'kro1/

Saint—Denis I Saladin

339 Saint-Denis suburb, Paris

sa(ng) duh-nee /,sé da'ni:/ Sainte-Beuve, Charles French critic and writer

sharl sa(ng)t boev /_j‘u:(r)l set 'boev/ St-Emilion tovm, France

sa(ng)t ay-mil-yo(ng) /,sét e1m1l'j5/ St—Etienne an industrial city in SE central France, south-west of Lyons

sa(ng)t ay-tyen /,sét ei'tjan/ Saint-Exupéry, Antoine dc French writer and aviator

ah(ng)-twahn duh sa(ng)t eg-zue-pay-ree /6._two:n da sét sgzypei'ri:/ St Gotthard Pass mountain pass in the Alps suhnt got-uhrd /sent 'gnta(r)d/, German [zankt '9othart] ' Established anglicization. St Helena island, South Atlantic

suhnt huh-lee-nuh /sent ha‘li:na/ ~ See also Helena, St. St Helier capital of Jersey

suhnt hel-i-uhr /sent 'hslia(r)/ St Kilda island group, Scotland suhnt kil-duh /sent 'kllda/

Saint Laurent, Yves French couturicr

eev sa(ng) lorr-ah(ng) /,i:v ,sE1n'rfi/ St Leger horse race

suhnt lej-uhr /sent 'lsd3a(r)/ St Lucia country, Caribbean suhnt loosh—uh /sant 'lu:_[a/ St-Malo port, France

sa(ng) mah-loh /sé ma:'lau/ St Martin island, Caribbean

sa(ng) mar-ta(ng) /sf: ma:(r)'té/ St Moritz resort, Switzerland

sa(ng) morr-its /sé mn'r1ts/ St-Nazaire port, France

sa(ng) naz-air /sé na'zs:(r)/ St Petersburg city, Russia

suhnt peet-uhrz-burg /sent ‘pi:ta(r)zba:(r)g/, [sankt

p*1t*rr'burk] ~ Established anglicization. St Piilten city, Austria zarikt poel-tuhn /zankt 'pce1tan/

Saint-Saens, Camille French composer

kam-ee sa(ng) sah(ng)ss /ka,mi: sé 'sf1s/

- See rnzucn panel. Saint-Simon, Comte de French social reformer

ko(ng)t duh sa(ng) see-mo(ng) /,k5t do ,s€: si:'m5/ St S0[)lli&\. Byzantine monument

suhnt soh-fee-uh /sent sao'fi:e/ St-Tropez resort, France sa(ng) troh-pay /_sé trau'pe1/ St Vincent island, Caribbean suhnt Vin—suhnt /sent 'v1nsant/ Saipan islands, Pacific sy-pan /sA1'pan,I saith says (archaic third person singular)

seth /sa6/ saithe fish sayth /se16/ Saiva branch of modern Hinduism Sy-vuh ,f'sA1va/ Sakai city, Japan sah-ky /'so:k1\1/ Sakamoto, Ryuichi Japanese composer

ryoo-itch-i sak-uh-moh-toh /,rju:|t_[i saka‘maotao/ Sake Japanese alcoholic drink sak-ay /'sake|j saker large Eurasian falcon say-kuhr /'se1ka(r)/ Sakha, Republic Ofofficial name for


sah-kuh /'sc1:ka/ Sakhalin island, Russia sak-uh-leen /.saka'li:n/ Sakharov, Andrei Russian physicist and civil rights campaigner and-ray sakh-uh-ruhf /an_dre1 ‘saxarafl Saki British short-story writer

sah-ki /'su:ki/ salaam aleikum greeting in many

Arabic-speaking and Muslim countries

suh-Iahm uh—lay-kuum /sa,lu:m a'le1kom/

salaiciolls unduly interested in sex

suh-lay-shuhss /sa'leiIas/ Saladin sultan of Egypt and Syria

sal-uh-din /'salad1n/ Established anglicization of Salah al-Din, an Arabic honorific title for which an acceptable anglicized pronunciation would be sal-ah-uh-din.

Salafi I Saltillo Salafi member of an orthodox Muslim sect

suh-Iah-fi /sa'lo:fi/ salal heather plant suh-lal /sa'lal/ Salam, Abdus Pakistani physicist ab-duuss suh-lahm /,abdos sa'lu:m/ Salamanca city, Spain sal-a m-ank-uh /,sala'mar]ka/ salamander newt-like amphibian

sal-uh-man-duhr /'sala,manda(r)/ Salamis island, Greece sal-uh-miss /'sa1am1s/ salat ritual prayer of Muslims sal-aht /sa'Io:t/

Salazar, Antonio de Oliveira Portuguese statesman

an-ton-yoo di ol-iv-ay-ruh suh-luh-zar /an,tnnju: di nlrvelra sala'zo:(r)/ salbutamol synthetic compound related to aspirin

sal-hyoo-tuh-mol /sal'bju:tamnl/ salchow jump in figure skating

Sal-koh /‘salkao/ Salem city, US say-luhm /'SBll8ITl/ Salerno port, Italy sal-air-noh /sa'ls:(r)nao/ Salesian relating to St Francis de Sales suh-lee-zi-uhn /sa'li:zian/ Salford city, England sawl-fuhrd /'s0:Lfa(r)d/ salicional organ stop

suh-lish-uh—nuhl /sa'11,|‘anal/ salicylic acid bitter compound

sal-iss-il-ik /,sah'sil1k/ salient most noticeable or important

say-Ii-uhnt /'se11iant/ Salieri, Antonio Italian composer

an-tohn-yoh sal-yair-i /an_taunjau sa1‘j‘s:ri/ salina salt lake or marsh suh-ly-nuh /sa'lAmal saline containing salt say-lyn /'seilA1n/ There are several places worldwide called Saline. The place in Scotland is pronounced

sal-in, in Italy sal-ee-nay, and in the US suh-leen. Salinger, J. DTAmerican yvriter


sa|—in-juhr ,/'sal1nd3a(r)/ Salisbury city, England sawlz-buh-ri /'so:lzbari/ Salish American Indian ethnic group

say~lish /'seilrI/ Salk, Jonas American microbiologist joh-nuhss sawlk /,d3aunas 'sa:lk/ Sallust Roman historian and politician

sal-uhst /'salast/ salmanazar large wine bottle sal-muh-nay-zuhr {,salma'ne1za(r)/ Salmond, Alex Scottish politician Sam-uhnd /‘samand/ salmonella pl. salmonellae bacterium

sal-muh-nel-uh, pl. sal-muh-nel-ee /,salma'nsla/, pl. /-1i:/ Salome biblical character suh-loh-may /sa'laome1/ Oscar Wildcs play Salome’ is usually pronounced sal-oh-may, and the Strauss

opera based on it is given the German pronunciation zah-Ioh-may.

Salonen, ES3.—Pel(l(fi Finnish conductor

ess-uh pek-uh sal-on-uhn /,2-zsa ,paka 'sa1onan/ Salonica former name of Thessaloniki suh-Ion-ik-uh /sa'lon1ka/ Salop former name of Shropshire

sal-uhp /'salap/ Salopettes trousers with shoulder straps

sal-uh-pets /,sa1a‘p£ts/ salpingectomy surgical removal of the

Fallopian tubes sal-pin-jek-tuh-mi ,I,salpin'd3aktami/ salpingostomy surgical unblocking of a Fallopian tube sal-ping-gost-uh-mi /_sa1pnj|'gnstami/ Salsa Latin American dance music sal-suh /'sa]sa/ salsify edible plant

sal-sif-i /'sa1s1fi/ salt white crystalline substance

sawlt fsozlti Commonly also Solt. This variation in

pronunciation applies to a wide range of

words spelled with al (e.g. Salisbury, Walter).

saltarello energetic dance

sal-tuh-rel-oh /,salta'rsl:-mi Saltillo city, Mexico Sal-tee-yoh /sal'ti:jao/


saltimbocca I samsara

saltimbocca Italian dish

khwan an-tohn-yoh sam-arr-ang

sal-tim-bok-uh /,salt1rn'boka,l saltine savoury biscuit

/xwan an_teonjao sama'ra1]/

sawl-teen /sa:l'ti:n/ saltire diagonal cross

sawl-ty-uhr /'SDlllIAI3(I‘)/

saltpetre potassium nitrate

sawlt-peet-uhr /sa:1t'pi:ta(r)/ salubrious health-giving suh-loo-bri-uhss /se'lu:brias/ salud ‘cheers’ (Spanish)

Sal-00th /sa'lu:6,|' saluki breed of dog

suh-loo-ki /sa'lu:ki/ salut ‘cheers’, ‘hi’ (French) Sal-ue /sa'ly/ salutary producing good efl"ects

sal-yuut-uh-ri ,f'saljoteri/ Salvador port, Brazil

Sal-vad—or /salva'd0:(r)/ Salvador-can relating to El Salvador

sal-vuh-dor-i-uhn /_sa1va'd0:rien/ Salve Regina Roman Catholic hymn

Sal-vay ruh-jee-nuh /,salve1 ra'd5i:na/ sal volatile scented solution of ammonium carbonate in alcohol

sal vuh-lat-il-i /,sal va'lat1li/' salwar loose, pleated trousers; also called shalwar

sul-war /s1\l'wu:(r)/ Salyut Soviet manned space station

Samaria ancient city, Palestine

suh-mair-i-uh /sa‘ms:rie/ Samarinda. city, Indonesia sam-uh-rind-uh /,sama'rinda/ Samarium chemical element suh-mair-i-uhm /sa'ms:riam/ Samarkand (also Samarqand) city,


sa m—ar-kand /,samu:(r)'kand/ Samarra city, Iraq suh-mar-uh /sa'mo:ra/ Sama Veda Hindu text sah—muh vay-duh /'so:ma _ve1da/ samba] spicy relish Sam-bal /'sambal/ sambhar spicy lentil dish

sahm-bar /'so:mbu:(r)/ sambuca aniseed-flavoured liqueur sam-boo-kuh /sam'bu:ka/ Samfil Chinese trouser suit

sam-foo /'samfu:/ Samhain Celtic winter festival sah-win /'su:win/ Sami Scandinavian ethnic group sah-mi /'so:mi/ samisen (also shamisen) Japanese lute sam—i-sen ,"samisen/ samite rich silk fabric sam-yt ,I'sam.»\1t/

suhl-yoot /sa'lju:t/

samizdat clandestine copying and

Salzburg city, Austria

distribution ofbanned literature

salts-burg /'saltsba:(r)g/, German j'zaltshurk/ ' Established anglicization.

Salzgitter city, Germany

zalts-git-uhr /'zalts,gIte(r)/ Salzkammergut resort area, Austria

zalts-ka m-uhr-goot /'zaltskama(r)_gu:t/ samadhi state of concentration achieved

through meditation

. sum-ah-di /s1\'mo:di/ Samar island, Philippines

Sam-ar /'samo:(r)/ Samara city, Russia

suh-mar-uh /sa'mci:ra/ Samaranch, Juan Antonio Spanish former president of the International Olympic Committee

sam-iz-dat /'samizdat/ Samoa islands, Polynesia 5uh—m0h—uh /se‘maoa/ Samos island, Greece say-moss /‘selmns/, ['su:m0s] v Established anglicization. samosa triangular savoury pastry suh-moh-suh /sa'mausa/ samovar tea urn

sam-uh-var /_sama'vl1t(I')/ Samoyed Siberian ethnic group sam-oy-ed /sam':)1ad/ Sampdoria Italian football club samp-daw-ri-uh /samp'd0:ria/ samphire plant

sam-fy-uhr /‘samfA1a(r)/ samsara material world sum-sah-ruh /SAl'1’l'SClZI‘8/

samskara | San Sebastian samskara Hindu purification rite

sum-skah-ruh fSAl'I1'Sl((1ZI‘9/ Samson Agonistes poem by Milton sam-suhn ag-uh-nist-eez /samsan age'nisti:z/ ' Samsung Korean electronics company $am—sung /'SEl1'I1SAlj/ samurai member of a Japanese military caste

sam-uu-ry /‘samumI/ Sana’a (also Sanaa) capital of Yemen san-ah /'sano:/ San Andreas fault fault line, California

san and-ray-uhss /san an‘dre1as/ Sancerre white wine

sah(ng)-sair /sfi'se:(r)/ Sanchi archaeological site, India

sun-chi /‘sAntj‘i/


sangrail (also sangreal) holy grail sang-grayl /sa13'gre1l/ Sangria red wine drink

sang-gree-uh /san'gri:a/ sanguine cheerfully optimistic

sang-gwin /'sangw1n/ Sanhedrin supreme council in ancient

Jerusalem san-heed-rin /san'hi:dr1n/ Sometimes also san-uh-drin.

San Jacinto town, US san juh-sint-oh f,san d3a's1ntou/

San Jose city, US san hoh-zay /,san hau'zeI/ San JOSé capital of Costa Rica San khoss-ay /_san xn'seI/ San Juan capital of Puerto Rico

Sancho Panza fictional character in

san hwahn /,san 'hwc1:n/

Don Quixote san-choh pan-zuh /_santjeu ‘panzaf ~ Established anglicization. Sanctus part of the Mass sank-tuuss /'sar|ktos/

Established anglicization. Other places of this name in Latin America are pronounced san khwan.

Sand, George French novelist zhorzh sah(ng) /_3o(r)3 's:ni/ Sauron fictional character in The Lord of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha British royal the Rings house

sow-ron /'saor'on/

sauropod dinosaur saw-ruh-pod /'sa:rapnd/ Saussure, Ferdinand dc Swiss linguistics scholar

fair-din-ah(ng) duh soh-suer /f£:(r)di,n(1 do sao'sy(r)/ sauté fried quickly soh-tay ['seotel/ Sauternes white wine

soh-tairn /sao‘ts:(r)n/ Sauvignon white wine grape

soh-vin-yo(ng) /'sauvmj5/

saks koh-burg goh-thuh /,saks _kauba:(r)g 'gao0a/ saxifrage plant saks-if-rayj ,"'S8l{SlfII‘9Id3/ Saxony region, Germany

salt-suh-ni /'saksani/ Established anglicization. The German name is Sachscn, pronounced zakh-Suhn. Saxony—Anhalt state, Germany

sak-suh—ni an—halt /_saksani 'anhalt/ Established anglicization. The German

name is Sachscn—Anhalt, pronounced

zakh-sohn an-halt.

Sauze d’OlllX resort, Italy

sohz doo /,saoz 'du:/ Sava.i’i (also Savaii) island, Samoa

sah-vy-i /S(lI'VA|i/ Savalas, Telly Greek actor

tel-i suh-val-uhss /,tsli se'va1as/ Savannah port, Georgia

suh-van-uh /sa'vana/

sayonara ‘goodbye’ (Japanese)

sy-uh-nar-uh /,SAI9'T1(lII‘8/ sayyid Muslim claiming descent from

Muhammad say-yid /'se1j1d/ scabies skin disease

skay-beez /'ske1bi:z/

Savannakhet (also Savannaket) town,

Scacchi, Greta Italian-English actress

Laos suv-un-uh-ket /sAv./ma'kst/ savant learned person

Scafell Pike mountain, England

sav-uhnt /'savant/ saveloy pork sausage

sav-uh-loy /'savaloi/ Savery, Thomas English engineer

say-vuh-ri /'se1varil

gret-uh skak-i /,grste ‘skakil skaw-fel /,sk0:'fai,'

scagliola imitation marble skal-yoh-luh /skal'jaola/ scald see skald scalene having sides unequal in length

skay-leen /'ske|li:n/

scalenus | schizandra


scalenus pl. scaleni neck muscle skuh-lee-nuhss, pl. skuh-lee-ny /ska-rliznas/, pl. {-n1\1/ scallop edible mollusc

skol-uhp /'skn1ap/ Commonly also skal-uhp.

Ti”? WW

Scania international vehicle manufacturers skan-yuh /'skanja/ scandium chemical element

skan-di-uhm /'skandiam/ Scapa Flow strait, Scotland skah-puh floh /_ska:pa 'flao/ scapula pl. scapulae shoulder blade

skap-yuul-uh, pl. skap-yuul-ee /‘skapjola/, pl. /-li:;' 0 Standard -s plural is also possible.

scarab beetle skarr~uhb /‘skarebf scaramouch boastful but cowardly person

ska rr-uh-mootch /skara'mu:tI/ Scarborough port, England skar-buh-ruh f 'sko:(r)bara/ scarify cut and remove debris from a


skarr-if-y /'skar1fA1/ Scarlatti, Alessandro Italian composer

al-ess-and-roh skar-lat-i /alt.-:,sandrao skc1:(r)‘1ati/ scatological preoccupied with


skat-uh-lo]-ik-uhl [skate'loc13ikal/ Scaup diving duck skawp /skozpf scavenge collect from waste

skav-uhnj /'skavend3/ scenario outline of a film suh-nar-i-oh /se'nu:riao/ Schadenfreude pleasure derived from another’s misfortune shah-duhn-froy-duh / ‘Iuzdanfroidal Schama, SiIl10n English historian

shah-muh /'_l‘o:ma/

schedule plan shed-yool /'_l'sdju:l/ AM is sgd-iyool, also increasingly common

in BR.

Scheele, Carl Wilhelm Swedish chemist

karl vil-helm shay-luh/_k:ra/ senhorita Portuguese titlc for a young woman sen-yuh-ree»tuh /,sr:nja'ri:ta/ Senkaku islands, East China sea sen-kak-oo /'ssnkaku:/ Senna, Ayrton Brazilian racing driver

ah-eer-tuhn sen-uh /o:_Ia(r)tan ‘sens/'

Senor pl. sefiores Spanish title for a man

sen-yor, pl. sen-yor-ayss /ss'nj:>:(r)/, pl. /-rers/ Senora Spanish title for a woman

sen-yaw-ruh /se'nj:>:ra/ seiiorita Spanish title for a young

woman Sen-yuh-ree-tuh /_senja'ri:ta/ sensei ‘teacher’ (Japanese) sen-say /s£n'seI,l sentient able to perceive things

sen-ti-uhnt /'ssntiant/ Sometimes also sen-shuhnt.

Sentamu, John English archbishop

sent-uh-moo /'sentomu:/ Seoul capital of South Korea

SOl‘ll /sao1/ ¢ Established anglicization.

sepal part of a flower

Sep-uhl /'sepal/ Sephardi pl. Sephardim Jew of Spanish or Portuguese descent

sef-ar-di, pl. sef-ar-dim /ss'fr1:(r)di/, pl. /-d1m/ sephira pl. sephiroth attribute in Hebrew mythology

Sef-irr-ah, pl. sef-irr—oht /‘ssfiru:/, pl. /'sefIraot/ sepia brown colour see—pi—uh /'si:pia/ seppuku ritual suicide

sep-uh-koo /'s£paku:/ ' See mmnesr panel. septcentenary 700th anniversary

sept-sen-tee-nuh-ri /,septssn'ti:nari/ Commonly also sept -sen-ten-uh-ri.

septicaemia blood poisoning

sep-tiss-ee-mi-uh ,',sr.pu'si:mia/ Septuagesima Sunday before


sept-yoo-uh-jess-im-uh ,f,ssptjua'd3ss1ma/ sepulchral relating to a tomb

suh-pul-kruhl /sa'p:\lkral/ sepulchre stone monument

sep—uhl-kuhr /'sepalke(r)/ sequential forming or following in a logical order or sequence

Suh-kwen-Shuhl /sa'kwen_|'al/

sequester isolate or hide away suh-kwest-uhr /sa'kwesta(r)/ sequestrate take legal possession of see-kwu l1-strayt /‘si:kwastre1t/ sequoia redwood trcc

suh-kwoy-uh [sa'kwo1a/ Serafinowicz, Peter English comedian serr-uh-fin-uh-wits /sr:ra'f1naw1ts/ seraglio women's apartments in a Muslim palace

serr-ah-Ii-oh /ss'ro:liao,f Seraing town, Belgium

suh-ra(ng) /sa'ré/ scrape (also sarape) shawl

suh-rah-pay /sa'ro:pel/ seraph pl. seraphim angelic being serr-uhf, pl. serr-uhf-im /'ssraf/, pl. /-flm/'

v Standard -s plural is also possible.

seraphic angelic suh-raf-ik /sa'raf1k/' Serapis Egyptian god suh-rap-iss /sa'rap1s/

Seremban city, Malaysia suh-rem-buhn /se'remben/ serendipity happy chance serr-uhn-dip-it-i /,seren'd1p1ti/ Serengeti plain in Tanzania

serr-en-get-i /,seren'geti/ Sereny, Gitta English sociologist gee-tuh suh-ree-ni /,gi:te sa'ri:ni/ sergeant army rank

sar-juhnt /'so:(r)d3ent/

Sergipe | sexcentenary Sergipe state, Brazil sair-zhee-pi ls:::(r)'3i:pi/

serif projection finishing off a stroke ofa letter

serr-if /'ser1f/ Se:-ota, Nicholas English curator

suh-roh-tuh /sa'roota,' serotine bat 5err—uh-teen /'serati:n/ serotonin chemical compound serr-uh-toh-nin /_sera'taonm/ Seroxat trademark antidepressant drug

suh-rok-sat /se'ruksat/ Serpens constellation

sur-puhnz /'sa:(r)panz/ serpentine like a snake sur-puhn-tyn /'S8I([‘)p9I1tAI1’1/' SERPS State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme

surps /sa:(r)ps/

Serraillier, Ian English author suh-ral-i-ay /se'ralie1/ Serse sec Xerxes serum pl. sera. liquid in blood

seer-uhm, p1. seer—uh /'s1aram/, Pl. /-l"9/ v Standard -s plural is also possible. serval African wild cat sur-vuhl /'sa:(r)val/ sesame edible seed

sess-uh-mi /'sssami/ Sesotho language of Lesotho sess-oo—t0o /ss'su:tu:/ sesquialtera denoting a ratio of3:2

sesk-wi-alt-uh-ruh /,seskwi'a1tera/ sesquicentenary 150th anniversary sesk-wi-sen-tee-nuh-ri /,seskwissn'ti:nari/ Commonly also sesk-wi-sen-ten-uh-ri.

sesterce pl. sesterecs ancient Roman coin

sest-urss, pl. sest-ur-seez /'sssta:(r)s/, pl. /ss'sta:(r)si:z;' sestertius pl. sestertii ancient Roman coin (Latin name)

sest-ur-shuhss, pl. sest-ur-shi-y /se'sta:(r)Ias/, pl. /-'sta:(r)j‘ia|/ Sestina poetic form

sest-ee-nuh /ss'sti:na/ Sestriere resort, Italy sest-ri-air-ay /ssstri's:re1/

352 The French name is Sestrieres, pronounced

sest-ri-air. Seth, Vikram Indian novelist and poet

vik-ruhm sayt /flvikrem 'se1t,' Seth Egyptian god

seth /52:0] Setswana language, Africa

set-swah-nuh /ss'tswu:na/ Setlibal port, Portugal suh-too-buhl /sa'tu:bal/

Seurat, Georges Pierre French painter zhorzh 50e—rah /_3o:(r)3 so'ro:/ Sevastopol port, Ukraine; also called Sebastopol

suh-vast-uh-puhl /sa'vastapal/, [slivastopali] ' Established anglicization.

Severnaya Zemlya islands, Arctic Ocean Syay-vuhr-nuh-yuh zuhm-lyah /,sje1va(r)naja zam'ljo:/

Severodvinsk port, Russia syay-vuh-ruh-dvinsk /,sje1vara'dvmsk,f Seville city, Spain suh-vil /sa'vil/ Establishecl anglicization. The Spanish name is Sevilla, pronounced say-veel-yuh

[se'l3i1(a]. Sevres type of fine porcelain

sev—ruh /'sevra/ sevruga sturgeon fished for its caviar

sev-roo-g uh /ssv'ru:ga/ sewage waste water and excrement $00-ij /'su:1d3,l Less commonly syoo-ij. Seward, Anna English poet

see-wuhrd /'si:wa(r)d/ sewer underground conduit

soo-uhr /'su:e(r)/ Less commonly syoo-uhr.

sewin (also sewen) sea trout syoo-in /'sju:1n/ Sexagesima Sunday before Quinquagesima

sek-suh-jess-im-uh /_saksa'd3asima,f sexcentenary 600th anniversary

sek-sen-tee-nuh-ri /,ssksen'ti:nari/

Sextans | shaman

353 Eoinmonly alsoisek-sen-ten-uh-ri. W I I


Sextans constellation sek-stu h nz /'sekstanz/ sextant instrument seks-tuhnt /'sekstent/ sextuplet each of six children born at one birth

seks—ty00p-luht /ssks'tju:plot/ Commonly also seks-tup-luht or






Seychelles country

say—shelz /sei'j".slz,I Seychellois native of the Seychelles

say-shel-wah /sei_l’a1'wo:/ Seyfert type of galaxy

say-fuhrt /‘seifa:(r)t/ Seymour, Jane third wife of Henry Vlll

see-mor /'si:mo:(r)/ Sezession avant-garde art movement zayt-sess-yohn /_ze1tsss'jeon/

Sfax port, Tunisia sfaks lsfaksl Sf0l'Z3.l‘ld0 musical term

sfor-tsan-doh /sfo:(r)'tsandoo/ sgraffito pl. sgraffiti decoration made by scratching

sgraf-ee-toh, pl. sg raf-ee-ti /sgra'fi:teo/, pl. /~ti/ Shaallxi province, China

shahn-shee /_[a:n'l‘i:/ Shabaka Egyptian pharaoh

shah-uh-kuh /‘jab-aka}

raising water shuh-doof /Ia'du:f,l Shaffer, Peter and Anthony English playwrights shaf-uhr /'_fafa(r)/ Shaftesbury, Earl of English philanthropist shahfts-buh-ri /'Iu:ftsbari/ shagreen sharkskin

shag-reen /Ia'gri:n/ shah title of the former monarch of Iran

Shah /j"o:/ shahada. (also shahadah) Muslim profession of faith

shuh-hah-duh /It->'ho:da,l Shah Alam city, Malaysia

shah ah-luhm /,_l'c1:'o:1om/ shahid (also shaheed) Muslim martyr shuh~heed /_[9'l1lICl/

Shaik, Schabir South African


shab-eer shayk /Ia,b1a(r) 'Ie1k/ Shaitan (also Shaytan) the Devil in Islam

shay—tahn /_[ei'tc1:n/ Shaka (also Chaka) Zulu chief shak-uh /'_[aka/

Shakhty city, Russia shahkh-ti /‘_fo:xti/ Shakti Hindu feminine expression of the divine

shuk-tee /'[itkti:/

shabbaba musical instrument shuh-bab-uh /j‘a'baba/

shakuhachi bamboo flute

Shabbat Sabbath (Hebrew)

Shakur, Tllpac American rap artist

sha b-at /j'a'bat/ Shabbos (also Shabbes) Sabbath (Yiddish) shab—uhss /'_l‘abas/ shabu—shabu Japanese beef dish

shab-oo shab-oo /Jabu: 'Iabu:/ shadchan (also shadkhan) pl. shadchanim Jewish marriage broker

shad-khuhn, pl. shad—khuhn-im /'j‘adxen/, pl. /'1‘adxan1m/ Shadjareh, Massood Iranian chairman of Islamic Human Rights Commission

rnuh-sood shah—juh-ruh /ma,su:d '_fo:d3era/ shadoof pole with a bucket used for

shak-uu-hatch-i /,_fako'hatji/ too-pak shak-oor /_tu:pak _1‘a'koa(r)/ shallot onion-like vegetable Shuh-lot /_l‘a‘lot/ Shalmaneser ancient king ofAssyria $hal—muh—nee-zuhr /,1‘alme'ni:za(r)/ shalom ‘peace’ (Hebrew) shuh-lom /j‘a'1nmj shalwar loose, pleated trousers; also called salwar Shu I-war /_1‘A1'wo:(r)/' shaman person regarded as having

access to the spirit world 5ham—uhn /'_l‘aman/ Commonly also shay-muhn.

Shamir, Yitzhak I Shelob


yits-hahk sham-eer /j1ts,hu:k

Shatl: al-Aral) river, Asia shut uhl arr—uhb j_j‘At al 'arab/


Shavian relating to George Bernard

Shamir, Yitzhak Israeli statesman

shamisen see samisen Shan Chinese and Burmese ethnic group

shahn /j'u:n/ Shandong province, China

shan-duung /_Ian'don/ Shanghai city, China


shay-vi-uhn /'IeIvian/ Shavuoth (also Shavuot) Jewish festival shah-voo-ot /Ic1:vu'ot,/ Commonly also shu h-voo-uhss, a Yiddish pronunciation

shang-hy/,_[ai3'hA1/ Shango religious cult

shang-goh /'Ia1j|gau/ Shangri-La Tibetan utopia

shang-gri-Iah /,_fa13gri'lu:/ Shankar, Ravi Indian sitar player

ruv-i shunk-uhr /,rAvi 'IAIjl(9(1“)/ Shantou port, China

shan-toh /Ian'tao/ shantung silk fabric 5han-tung/j'an't1n]/ Shanxi province, China

shan-shee /,Ian'Ii:/ shapka Russian fur hat

shap-kuh /'_fapka/ sharara loose pleated trousers

shuh-rar-uh /_[e'ru:re/ sharia (also shariah) Islamic canonical law

shuh-ree-uh /_[a'ri:a/ Sharif, Nawaz Pakistani statesman

nuh-wahz shuh-reef /na_wu:z j'a'ri:f/ Sharif, Omar Egyptian actor

oh-mar shuh-reef /_aom(1:(r) j‘a'ri:f/ Shaljah state, United Arab Emirates shar-juh /']‘u:(r)d3ej Sharma, Shankar Dayal Indian statesman

shunk-uhr dy-ul shar-muh /,ji\ka(r) dA1,Al 'j‘c1:(r)ma/

Sharm el-Sheikh resort, Egypt sharm uhl shayk /,Ic1:(r)m a1 ‘jerk,’ Sharon plain, Israel

shair-uh n /'Is:ran/ Sharon, Ariel Israeli statesman

arr-i-el shuh-ron /ari_a1 ]'a'ron/ sharon fruit persimmon Shair-uhn /'Is:ran/ Shar Pei breed of dog

shar pay /,Iu:(r) ‘peil shashlik mutton kebab

shash-Iik f’_[a]'11k/

Shaytan see Shaitan Shea stadium in New York

shay /fen’ shea nut—bearing tree

shee-u h /'Ii:a/ sheading administrative division of the Isle of Man shee-ding /'j'i:dI1]/

Sheafifer American pen manufacturers shay-fuhr /'Ie1fe(r),' Sheba biblical place name

shee-buh /'Ii:ba/ Shebang matter or set of circumstances shuh-bang /Ia'baI_]/

shebeen unlicensed establishment selling alcohol

shuh—been /j‘e'bi:n/ Sheela-na-gig medieval stone female figure

shee-Iuh nuh gig /,_fi:la na 'QlQ/ Sheikh (also sheik) Arab leader

shayk [jerk] Established anglicization. The more

Arabic-sounding pronunciation shaykh is also sometimes used. Less commonly also

sheek. sheitel wig worn by a Jewish woman Shay-tuhl /'_l‘e1ta1/ Shekel currency unit, Israel shek-uhl /'j‘skal/ Shekinah (also Shekhinah) Jewish symbol

shuh-ky-nuh /_[1'kA1na/ shellac resin melted into thin flakes Shuh-Iak /_\"a'lak/ Shelley, Percy Bysshe English poet bish she|—i /,bII 'Isli/ Shelob spider in The Lord ofthe Rings

shee-lob /'Ii:1nb/


Shenandoah river, US shen-uhn-doh-uh /,_fr:nan'daua/ shenanigans secret activity

shuh-nan-ig-uhnz /I1'nan1ganz/ sheng Chinese musical instrument 5hL"'\9 l'.lA1J/

Shenyang city, China shuhn-yahng /__\‘an'jo:I]/ Shenzhen city, China shuhn-juhn /,_|‘an'd3an/ Shenzhou Chinese spacecraft shuhn-joh ,f__\'an'd3ou/ Sheol Jewish underworld

shee-ohl /'ji:ao1,I Sher, Anthony English actor shur /'_[a:(r)/ Sheraton, Thomas English furniture-maker

Sheri‘-uh-tuhn /‘_feratan/ ’s-Hertogenbosch city, Netherlands

sair-toh-khuhn-boss /,sr-;:(r)taoxan'bos/ sherwani knee-length man’s coat shur-wah-ni /_fe:(r)'wo:ni/

Shevardnadze, Eduard Soviet statesman

ed-wuhrd shuh-vuhrd-nahd-zuh /,sdwa(r)d ,j‘ova(r)d'nu:dza/ Shia (also Shi’a) branch of Islam

shee-uh /'[i:a/ shiatsu Japanese massage therapy shi-at-soo /Ii'atsu:/ shibboleth distinctive custom shib-uh-Ieth /'I1ba1s8/ Shibuya district of Tokyo Shib-00-yuh /Irbuzjei‘ shidduch Jewish arranged marriage 5hid—uhkh /'_[1dax/ Shih—iLZll breed of dog

shit—SO0 /Ii'tsu:/ shiitake mushroom shit-ah-kay /_|‘1'tu:ke1/ ~ See JAPANESE panel. Shiite (also Shi'ite) adherent of the Shia branch of Islam

shee-yt /'_[lIAIt/ Shijiazhuang city, China shuh—ji-ah—jwahng /_l'ed3io:'d3wci:rJ,' shikhara (also shikara) spire on a

Hindu temple shik-ar-uh /_f1‘ka:ra/

Shenandoah I Shoah Shil(0l(ll island, Japan

shik-oh-koo /Ii'kaoku:/

shiksa non—Jewish woman shik-suh /'I1ksa/ shillelagh thick stick shi|~ay~li /_[1'1e1li/ Shillong city, India shil-ong /_[1'lm],I Shillllli African ethnic group

shil-uuk /_f1'1uk/ Shiloh, Battle of American civil war battle Shy-Ioh /'_|‘A11ao/ Shimano bicycle component


shim-ah-noh /Ii'ma:nao,' Shin Bet (also Shin Beth) security service of Israel

shin bet /Im ‘bat; Shinkansen Japanese high speed railway Shin-kan-sen /'j‘mkan_san/

Shinola US trademark brand of boot polish shy-noh—luh /j‘AI'neola/ Shinto Japanese religion shin-toh /'j'1ntao/ Shiraz city, Iran

sheer-az /Iia'raz/ Shiraz black wine grape Shirr-82 /[I'raz/ shire county Shy—uhr /'_[1\ro(r)/ This is the pronunciation for the word in

isolation or in phrases such as ‘shire horse‘. As a suiiix, e.g. in Laneashire or Cheshire,

the pronunciation is much reduced to -shuhr or, less commonly, -sheer.

Shiva (also Siva) Hindu god shee-vuh /'_|'i:va/ Shiva (also shivah) Jewish period of mourning Shiv-uh /'_fIva/ Shiv Sena Hindu nationalist organization shiv say-nuh /,1‘IV 'sema/ Shizuoka city, Japan

shiz-oo-oh-kuh /_J1zu:'aoka/ Shkodiir city, Albania shkoh-duhr /'_[kauda(r)/ Shoah Holocaust

shoh-uh /'_l'aoa/

Shoemaker-Levy I Siddhartha Gotama Shoemaker—Levy comet shoo-may-kuhr lee-vi /,Iu:me1ke(r) '1i:vi/

shofar ram’s-horn trumpet used in Jewish ceremonies

shoh-fuhr /'Ieufe(r)/ shogun hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan shoh—guun /'_\‘augon,' Shoji sliding screen door shoh—ji /'Ieod3i/

Sholapur city, India shoh-Iuh-poor /,_faula'pua(r)/ Shona African ethnic group shoh—nuh /'j'aona/ shoogly unsteady (Scottish)

shuug-Ii /'_[og1i/ Shorinji Kempo martial art

shuh-rin—ji kem-poh /j‘a,rmd3i 'kempao/ Shoshone American Indian ethnic group shuh—sh0h-ni /_l'a'_[aoni/ Shostakovich, Dmitri Russian composer

duh-meet-ri shost-uh-koh-vitch

shtum (also schtum) silent shtuum /_ftom/ shtup (also schtup) have sexual intercourse with

shtuup /Itup/ shubunkin goldfish shuub-unk-in ,'_\'u'bAnk1n/ Shllfii look or reconnoitre

shuuf-ti /'I0fti/ Shugiin Japanese parliament shoo-gee-in / '_|‘u:gi:1n/ Shul synagogue

shool /_[u:1/ Shumen city, Bulgaria shoo-muhn /'Iu:man/ Shllra. Islamic council

shoor-uh /'_luera/ shuriken weapon in the form of a star

5h00r-ik-en /‘_foar1kan/ Siachen Glacier glacier, India

see-uh-chen l‘si:at_\‘an/ Sialkot city, Pakistan si-ahl-koht /si'o:lkeot/ Siam former name for Thailand

sy-am /sA1'arn/

/da,mi:tri _Iosta'kaov1tj'/ Sholaokan style of karate

Sibelius, Jean Finnish composer

shoh-toh-kan /'j'eotaokan/ Showalter, Elaine American writer shoh-wawl-tuhr /']'aUwo:1ta(r),f shoyu Japanese soy sauce shoh-yoo /'j‘aoju:/ Shreveport city, US shreev-port /'Iri:vpo:(r)t/ Shrewsbury town, England shrohz—buh-ri Hreuzberil

éihenik city, Croatia

Equallyflconimorilyi sliitiol-lit! h- ri . iI30th

pronunciations are used in the town. Shri (also Sri) Indian title of respect

shree /_|'ri:/ shrimati Indian title of respect for a woman

shree-mut-i /'_[I‘lIII1Alil/ Shriner member of a US charitable society

sh ry-n uhr /'_fI'AII'13(I')/ shtetl pl. shtetlaich small Jewish town in eastern Europe


zhah(ng) sib—ay-ii-uhss 1,36 SI'lJ8Ill6S/ shee-buh-nik /'j'i:ban1k/ Sihiu city, Romania

sib-yoo /s1'bju:/ Sibyl woman prophet sib-il /‘sIb1l/ Sihneft Russian oil company $ib—nyeft /sIb‘njsft/ sic ‘thus’ (Latin) Slk /sIk/ Sichuan province, China

suh-chwan /se't_[wan/ v See also Szechuan. Sickert, Walter English painter

sik-uhrt /'sIka(r)t/

Siddhartha Gautama founder of Buddhism; also called Siddhartha Gotama sid-ar-tuh g0w—tuh-muh /s1,du:(r)ta 'gautema/

Siddhartha Gotama founder of Buddhism; also called Siddhartha

shtet-uhl, pl. shtet-lakh /'_|‘teteI/, pl.


/'_l'tst1ax/ v Standard -s plural is also possible.

sid-ar-tuh goh-tuh-muh /s1,da:(r)ta 'geotema/

siddhi I Silesia


siddhi complete understanding Sid-i /'SICli/

sidereal of the distant stars

sy-deer-i-uhl /SAI'ClI3l’l8l/ Sidhe Irish mythological fairy people

shee /Ii:,' Sidi bel Abbes town, Algeria

sid-i bel uh—be5s /,s1di bel a'bes/ Sidi bou Said town, Tunisia sid-i boo suh-eed /,s1di bu: sa'i:d/ Sidon city, Lebanon sy-duhn /'sn1den/ Sidra inlet, Libya; also called Sirte

sid-ruh /'sidra/ Siebengebirge range of hills, Germany

zee-buhn-guh-beer-guh I'zi:benga,ble(r)ga/ Siegessiiule Column, Berlin

zee-guhss-zoy-luh /'zi:gaszo11a/ Siegfiied Wagnerian character and hero of the Nibelungeiihcd

seeg-freed /'si:gfri:d/, German [‘zi:kfri:t] ' Established anglicization. Sieg Heil Nazi victory salute zeek hyl /,zi:k 'l’1AIl/ Sieglinde Wagnerian character Zeek-lin-duh /zi:k'l1nda/ Siegmllnd Wagnerian character zeek-m uunt /'zi:kmont,' Siemens German family of scientists lee-muhriss /'zi:mens/ The name of the company founded by the family is usually anglicized to see-muhnz.

siemens SI unit of conductance

see-muhnz /'si:manz/ Siem Reap city, Cambodia syem ryahp /sjem 'rjo:p/ Siena city, Italy

si-en-uh /si'i-:ne/ sierra jagged mountain chain Si-ail‘-uh /si'e:ra,/ Commonly also si-err-uh.

Sierra Leone country Si-err-uh |i—0hn /si_era1i‘aun/ Sierra Madre mountain range, Mexico

si-err-uh mah-dray /si,era'mo:dre1/, Spanish [_sjera ‘maore] v Established anglicization. Sierra Nevada mountain range, Spain

si-err-uh nuh-vah-duh /si,era ne'vo:de/, [,sjera ne'L$aoa] v Established anglicization.

siesta afternoon nap si-est-uh /si'esta/ sievert Sl unit of dose equivalent

see-vuhrt /'si:va(r)t,' sigil magical symbol sij-il /'sid311/ Sigisoara town, Romania

sig-ish-war-uh /s1gI_['wo:ra,f sigma letter of the Greek alphabet

sig-muh /‘sigma,’ sigmoidoscopy examination of the colon Sig-moy-dosk-uh-pi /,s|gm:n'doskapi/ Signac, Paul French painter

pol seen-yak /,po1si:'njak/ signatory party that has signed an agreement

sig-nuh-tuh-ri /'s1gnatsri/ signor pl. signori Italian title for a man

seen-yor, pi. seen-yor-i /'si:nja:(r)/, pl. /-'nj;):ri/ signora Italian title for a woman seen-yor-uh /si:‘njo:ra/ signorina Italian title for a young woman seen—yuh—ree-nuh /,si:nja'ri:na/ Sigur R63 Icelandic rock band

see-guhr rohss /,si:ga(r) 'raos/ Sihanouk, Norodom Cambodian statesman

norr-uh-dom see-uh-nuuk /nora_dnm si:e'nok/ Sikhism religion

seek-iz-uhm /'si:kizam/ Sikkim state, India

sik-im /'s1k1m/ Sikorsky, Igor Russian—American

aircraft designer

ee-gor sik-or-ski /,i:ga:(r) srka:(r)ski/ silage compacted fodder

sy-lij /'SAIlId3/ Sildenafil trademark drug

sii-den-uh-fil /s1l‘denaf11/ Silenus Greek god

sy-lee-nuhss /s1u'li:nas/ Silesia region, Europe sy-lee-zi-uh /SAI'liZZi9/

silhouette | Singspiel This region is mostly in Poland. The Polish name is Slask, pronounced $hlo(ng)$k.

silhouette dark shape sil-00-et /,srlu'st,' silicon chemical element

sil-ik-uhn /'sil1kan/ silicone synthetic material

sil-ik-ohn /'s1l1kaon/ silo tower used to store grain

sy-loh /'sA11eu/ Siloam biblicai pool near Jerusalem sy-loh-uhm jsarlauaml Silurian geological era

sy-lyoor-i-uhn /s.u'ljuarian/ Silvanus Roman god

sil-vah-nuhss /s1l'vo:nas/ Silverstein, Shel American cartoonist shei sil-vuhr-steen /jal 's11va(r)sti:n/ Simbirsk city, Russia

sim-beersk /s1m'bia(r)sk/ Simenon, Georges Belgian novelist zhorzh see—muh-no(ng) /,3o:(r)3 si:ma'n5/


sim-yuul-ay-kruhm, pl. sim-yuul-ay-kruh /,s1mjo'1e1kram/, pl. /-kra/ v Standard -s plural is also possible. simurg mythical bird

sim-urg /s1'ma:(r)g/ simvastatin drug sim-vuh-stat-in /s1mva'statm/ Sinai peninsula, Egypt sy-ny /'SAI1'lAI/ Sinaloa state, Mexico

see-nuh-loh-uh /,si:na'laua/ Sinatra, Frank American singer sin-ah-truh /s1'na:tra,l Sinclair, Clive English engineer

sink-lair /'s1r3kls:(r)/ sine trigonometric function syn [SAID] sinecure position requiring little work sin-uh-kyoor ,f'smakjua(r)/ commonlyjalso syn-uh-kyoor. sine die with no appointed date for

Simeon Hebrew patriarch

resumption (Latin)

sim-i-uhn /'s1mian/ Simeon Stylites, St Syrian monk

see-nay dee-ay /,si:ne1 'di:e1/

sty-Iy-teez /stA1'lA1ti:z/ Simferopol city, Ukraine

seem-fuh-rop-uhl /,si:mfa'ropa1/ simian relating to apes or monkeys

sim-i-uhn /‘srmian/ simile figure of speech Sim-il-i /'s1m11i/ Simla city, India

sim-luh /'simla/ simnel cake fruit cake eaten at Easter sim-nuhl ,"s1mne1/ Simon Boccanegra opera by Verdi

see-mon bok-uh-nay-gruh /si:,mnn bDl(8'I1BIgl'8/ Simonides Greek lyric poet

sy-mon-id-eez /s1u'mnn1di:z/ simony buying or selling of ecclesiastical


$y—muh-ni /'s1umani/ simpatico likeable sim-pat-ik-oh /slm'patIkau/ Simplon pass, Switzerland

simp-Ion /'s1mplDn/ simulacrum pl. simulacra representation of something

sine qua non essential condition (Latin)

sin-ay kwah non /,sme1kwu:'nnn/ Commonly also other pronunciations


as sin-i kwah nohn; see urrm panel. sinfonia symphony; also the name of a

London-based orchestra sin-f0h—ni-uh /sm‘faunie/ Established anglicization. The Italian

pronunciation, however, is sin-fon-ee~uh, which is less commonly also used.

sinfonietta short symphony Sin-foh-ni-et-uh /,smfauni'sta,/

Singapore country sing-uh-por /,s1i]a'p:J:(r)/ Singh, Manmohan Indian prime minister

mun-moh-hun sing /l‘l‘lAl'l_l‘n8Ul'lAl‘1 'sn]/ The first name is commonly also

pronounced mun-moh-hun by Hindi speakers.

Singspiel pi. Singspiele form of German light opera

zing-shpeel, pl. zing-shpeel-uh f'zn3_[pi:l/, pl. /-la/

Sinhala I Skanda


Sinhala (also Singhala) ethnic group and language, Sri Lanka; also called Sinhalese

sing—huh-luh /'snj|hela/ Sinhalese (also Singhalese) ethnic group and language, Sri Lanka; also called Sinhala

sing-huh-leez /,s1r]ha'li:z/ sinistral of the left side

sin-ist-ruhl /'sm1stra]/ Sinn Féin Irish political party

Shin fayrl /,j'm ‘fem,’ sinology study of China

sy-nol-uh-ji /s1u'nnlad3i/ sinsemilla variety of cannabis

sin-suh-mil-uh /,s1nsa'm|la/ Sint-Niklaas town, Belgium

sint nik~lahss /,s:nt 'n1klo:s/ Sintra (also Cintra) town, Portugal

sint-ruh /'smtra/ Sinllijll city, North Korea

sin-Wee—]Oo /,smwi:'d3u:/ SintlOnS curvy

sin-yoo-uhss /'smjuas/ sinus cavity within a bone

sy-nuhss /'sA1nos/ Siobhan Irish girl's name

shiv-awn /Ii'vo:n/ Sion see Zion Si0llX North American ethnic group

$00 /su:/

siphon tube sy-fuhn /'SAIf8l"l/ Sirdar see Sardar

Sirius star sirr-i-uhss /'sirias/ Sirleaf Johnson, Ellen Liberian president

sur-leef /'sa:(r)li:f/ Sil'0C(!0 see scirocco

sirrah term of address for a man

sirr-uh /'sIra/ Sirte inlet, Libya; also called Sidra

seer-tay /'sia(r)te1/ sisal fibrous plant Sy-suhl /'smsal/ Sisley, Alfred French painter

al-fruhd siz-Ii /,alfrad 's1zli/

Sistani, Ayatollah Ali al- Iraqi senior Shia cleric

y-uh-tol-ah al-ee uh-sist-ah-ni

/A1a_tolo: a,li: as1s'to:ni/ Sistine Chapel chapel in the Vatican

sist-een /'s1sti:n,' Sisyphean denoting a task that can never be completed

5iS5—if-ee-uhn /_s1si'fi:an/ Sisyphus Greek mythological character

siss—if-uhss /'s1s|fes/ Sita wife of Rama

see-tuh /'si:ta/ sitar musical instrument Sit-3|’ /s1'tu:(r)/ Sitges resort, Spain

see-chuhss /'si:tIas/ sitka spruce tree

sit-kuh /'sitka/ Sitlls inversus medical condition

sy-tuhss in-vur-suhss /,s/utas m'va:(r)sas/ sitzfleisch buttocks

zits-flysh ,"z1tsflmI/ Siva see Shiva Sivan Jewish month

See-vahn ,"si:vo:n/ Siwalik Hills foothills in the Himalayas Si-wah-lik /s|'wo:l1k/ sjambok whip Sham-bok /'j'ambok/ Sjiig1‘en's syndrome autoimmune condition

shoe-graynz /'j‘o:gremz/ This pronunciation is closest to the Swedish

pronunciation of Sjiigren's name. Anglicizations shoh-gruhn and shur-gruhn are also common. ska style of music

skah /sko:/ Skagen town, Denmark Skag-uhn /‘skagan/, ['sgeyan] 0 Established anglicization.

Skagerrak strait between Norway and Denmark

skag-uh-rak /'skagarak/ skiil ‘cheers’ (Swedish, Norwegian, and Danish) skawl /sko:l/ - See also snot. skald (also scald) Norse bard skald /Sl(EllC1/

Skanda Hindu god

skan-duh /'skanda/

skean-dhu | Smirnoff skean-dhu dagger skee-uhn dOO /gskizan ‘du:/

skedaddle depart quickly or hurriedly skuh-dad-uhl /ska'dada1/ skein length ofyarn skayn fskernf skeletal relating to a skeleton 5ke|—uh—tuh| /'sksletal/ Less commonly also skuh-lee-tuhl.


slaver saliva running from the mouth

slav-uhr /'slava(r)/

Slavic language family slah-vik /'sIu:v1k/ Commonly also slav-ik.

Slavonic Slavic sluh-von-ik /sle'vnn1k/ sleight use of dexterity or cunning

skee /ski:/

slyt /slart/’ Sligo county, Republic of Ireland Sly-goh /'slA1gao,' Sliven city, Bulgaria slee-vuhn /'sIi:van/

Eighty years ago our BBC predecessors

slivovitz plum brandy

skene part of the set in Greek theatre

skee-ni /‘ski:ni/ ski device for travelling over snow

recommended the pronunciation shee,

sliv—uh-vits /‘sl1vov1ts,'

which is how the word is pronounced in

Sloth reluctance to Work

Norwegian. However, the anglicization skee quickly took hold.

Skiathos island, Greece ski—ath-oss /ski'a9ns/ Skibo castle, Scotland Skee-boh /'ski:bao/ Skidoo trademark motorized toboggan $kid—00 /sk1'du:/ skijoring being pulled on skis by a horse or dog

skee-jaw—ring ,f'ski:d3o:rn3/ Sklodowska, Maria see Curie, Marie skol ‘cheers’

skol [skull Less commoiilyalso 5k*:nsi/ Sprechgesang style of dramatic vocalization

sprekh-guh-zang /'_[prccga,za1]/ Sprechstimme another term for


sprekh-shtim-uh /'_[prce,_l'trma,l sprezzatura studied carelessness

spret-suh-toor-uh l,spratsa'toara/ Springbok gazelle

spring-bok /'spr11)bok/ spritsail extended sail

sprit-suhl /'spr1tsal/ spruit small stream

Sprayt /spre1t/ spumante sparkling white wine

spoo-man-tay /spu:'mante1/ spume froth or foam spyoom /spju:m;' Spurious not being what it purports to be

spyoor-i-uhss /'spjoorias/ Sputnik Soviet satellite spuut-nik /'spotn1k/ Spyri, J0l‘l3.nn3. Swiss author

yoh-han-uh shpeer-i /jau,hana '_[p1eri/ squall sudden violent gust ofwind skwawl /skwo:l/ Sql1fl.l0l‘ dirtiness

skwol-uhr /‘skwn1e(r)/ squamous covered with scales

skway-muhss /'skwe1mes/ Squeegee scraping implement

skwee-jee /’skwi:d3i:/ squirearchy landowners collectively

skwy-uhr-ar-kl /'skw1na_ro:(r)ki/ squireen minor landowner

skwy-uh-reen /_skwA1a‘ri:n/' Srebrenica town, Bosnia-Herzegovina sreb-ren-it-suh /'srebre_n1tsa/ Sri see Shri

Sri Lanka I statin Sri Lanka country Sri lank-uh /sri 'lanka/ Srinagar city, India Srin—ug—ul'ir /SI‘I'1'lAQ8(I‘)/ St see Saint Stabat Mater medieval Latin hymn stah-bat mah-tuhr /,sto:bat 'mu:te(r)/ stabile free-standing abstract sculpture or structure

stay-byl /'ste1b.u1/ staccato musical term stuh-kah-toh /sta'ku:tao/ staifage accessory items in a painting stuh—fahzh /sto'fu:3/ Stafford town, England

staf-u hrd /'stafa(r)d/ staithe landing stage

stayth /steto/ Stakhanovite productive worker in the former USSR stuh-khahn-uh~vyt /ste'xc1:nevA1t/ stalactite structure hanging from the roof of a cave stal-uhk-tyt /'stalaktAIt/ Stalag German prison camp

shtal-ag /'j'talag/ stalagmite structure rising from the

floor of a cave stal-uhg-myt /'S‘lI&l3QI1‘1AIt/ Stalin, Joseph Soviet statesman joh-zuhf stah-lin /,d3oozaf 'sto:l1n/,

Russian [_jos*1f 'stali1n] v Established anglicization.

Stallone, Sylvester American actor stuh-lohn /sta'1eon,l stalwart loyal and hard-working stawl-wuhrt /'sta:1wa(r)t/ Less commonly also stal-wuhrt. Stalybridge town, England

stay-Ii-brij /'ste11ibr1d3/ Stambolic, Ivan Serbian statesman

ee-van stam-buh-litch /_i:van 'stamba1itj'/ starnen male organ of a flower

368 Stanhope, Hester English traveller

Stan-u hp /'stanap/ Stanier, William English railway engineer

Stan-i—uhr /'stanie(r)/ Stanislaus, St patron saint of Poland

stan-iss-lowss /'stan1s1aus/ Established anglicization.


is Stanislaw, pronounced stan-eess-waf.

Stanislavsky, Konstantin Russian theatre director kon-stuhn-teen stan-iss—laf—ski ,lkDnstanti:n ,stanIs'lafski/ Stansted airport, England

stan-sted /'stansted/ stanza group of lines in a poem Stan-zuh /'stanza/ stapes bone in the middle ear Stay—peez /'ste1pi:z/ staphylococcus pl. staphylococci bacterium

stat-il-oh-kok-uhss, pl. staf—il-oh-kok-y /,staf1lao'knkas/, pl. /-'l(Dl{Al/ Plural is sonietilmeslalso -liolt-sy; see panel.

Stara Zagora city, Bulgaria

star-uh zuh—gorr-uh /_stu:ra za'gnra/ starboard one side of a ship

star-buhrd /'stt1:(r)ba(r)d/ Sometimes also star-bord.

Starck, Philippe French interior


fee-leep stark /fi:,li:p 'stu:(r)k/ stargazy pie Cornish fish pie star-gay-zi /'sto:(r)ge1zi/ starveling undernourished person StarV—ling /'sto:(r)vl1n/ Stasi internal security force of the former German Democratic Republic

shtah-zi /'_[tu:zi/ stasis period of inactivity

stay-sis f'SteISIS/ statant heraldic term

stay-tuhnt /'ste1tant/

stay—muhn /'sterman/ stanchion upright bar or frame

Staten Island borough of New York City

stan-shuhn /'stan_l‘en/ Stanford, Charles Villiers Irish-born

statice sea lavender

composer vil-uhrz stan-fuhrd /,v1larz 'stanfa(r)d/

stat-uhn /'statan/ stat-iss-i /'stat1si/ statin cholesterol-lowering drug stat-in /'stat1n/


status quo existing state of affairs

stay-tuhss kwoh /_steitas 'kwau/ statutory required or permitted by statute

statch-00-tuh-ri /'stat_[otari/

Stauffenberg, Claus von German aristocrat; attempted to assassinate Hitler

klowss fon shtow-fuhn-bairk /_k1aos fon '_['taofanbz::(r)k/ Stavanger port, Norway

stuh-vang-uhr /sta'vana(r)/ Stavropol territory, Russia

stav-ruh-puhl /‘stavrapal/ steak au poivre peppered steak oh pwahv-ruh /an 'pwu:vra/

steatopygia accumulation offat on the buttocks

stee-uh-toh-pij-i-uh /_sti:atao'p1d3ia/ Steaua Bucharest Romanian football club

styah-wuh boo-kuh-rest /,stjl/ toque woman’s small hat tohk ltaukl Tora Bora village, Afghanistan toor-uh boor-uh /,tuara 'buara/ Torah Hebrew scriptures

taw—ruh /'to:ra/, [to'ro:] Q Established anglicization. torchere ornamental stand tor-shair /to:(r)'Is:(r)/ torchon type of bobbin lace

tor—shuhn /'t0:(r)_[an/ toreador bullfighter torr-i-uh-dor /'toriad0:(r)/ torii gateway ofa Shinto shrine taw—ree /'to:ri:/ ¢ See mrnuass panel. Torino see Turin

Tonga country

Tomio river, Sweden

tOng—uh /'tn1]a/ Tongariro mountain, New Zealand tong-uh-reer—oh /,tm3e'r1arau/ Tonge, Jenny English politician

tor-ni-oh /'to:(r)niau/ torpor state of inactivity t0r—puhr /'to:(r)pa(r);' torque twisting force tork /to:(r)k,I

tong ltnnl

Torquemada, Tomas de | Tortola


Tone Pitch is used in all languages to indicate differences in meaning, but there are two basic ways in which this is achieved. In a language like English, pitch operates at sentence level, so that different intonation in

the utterance Ben loves cycling can make it a statement or a question. In so-called tone languages, on the other hand , pitch operates at wo rd level to change the meaning of words. Even when yes is said with a falling or rising intonation in English, to make it either a statement or question respectively, it is still the whole utterance that has changed, not the meaning of the word itself. Chinese is a tone language with four basic tones. The word ma has ‘ four different meanings, depending on which tone is used. Pronounced . with a high level tone it means mother, with a high rising tone hemp, with a low falling rising tone horse, and finally with a high falling tone it means scold. We do not expect BBC announcers to be able to make these tonal distinctions, and we cannot retain them when giving Chinese recommendations in our phonetic respelling, even though this may on occasion result in some pronunciations that are rather bewildering to Chinese ears! Many languages of western and southern Africa, such as Ewe, Yoruba, and Lingala, are tone languages. The only European tone languages are Swedish and Norwegian, Where tone is used to a lesser extent than in Chinese. In Swedish there are around 300 word pairs that differ only in the use of tonal accent. There are two tones, sometimes referred to as acute and grave accent. Acute accent, or single tone, makes the word anden mean the duck. Grave accent, or double tone, makes the same word mean the spirit.

Torquemada, Tomas de Spanish Grand Inquisitor

tom-ass day tor-kem—ah-thuh /trrmas dei ,to:(r)kc'mu:oa/ Torres Strait channel north of Australia t0rr—uhZ /'tnroz/ Torricelli, Evangelista Italian mathematician and physicist

ev-an-juh-lee-stuh torr—i-chel-i /svand3e'li:ste _tori'tjsli/ Torshavn capital of the Faroe Islands

torss-hown /'to(r)shaun,' torte pl. torten cake or tart

tor-tuh, pl. tor-tuhn /'to:(r)ta/, pl. /‘t0:(r)tan,' Tortelier, Paul French cellist

tor-tel-i-ay /to:(r)'telie1/, [tortalje] 1- Established anglicization. tortilla Spanish pancake

tor-tee-yuh /to:(r)'ti:ja/ tortoise reptile tor-tuhss /'to:(r)tas/ commonly also t°r_tOyZ'

Tortola island, Caribbean tor-toh-Iuh fto:(r)'taola,I


Toruri city, Poland tOrr-0On /'tnru:n/, ['toru_n] ~ Established anglicization.

tosa breed of dog toh-suh /'taosa/

Toscana see Tuscany Toscanini, Arturo Italian conductor

ar-toor~oh tosk-uh-nee-ni /o:(r),toarao ,tnska'ni:ni/

Torun | Traherne, Thomas toor /toe(r)/ tout attempt to sell

tovvt /taot/

Toutatis Celtic god too-tah-tiss /tu:'to:t1s/ tout court with no addition ‘(O0 koor /_tu: 'koa(r)/ tout de suite immediately

too duh sweet /,tu: do 'swi:t/

tostada Mexican pancake

tovarish (also tovarich) comrade

tost-ah-duh /to'sto:da/ totara New Zealand tree toh-tuh-ruh Ftaotarel

tov-ar-ish /tn'vo:r1II toxaemia blood poisoning

T0tn6S town, England

toxocariasis larval infection

tot—nuh$S /'tntnas/ toucan tropical bird

too-kuhn /'tu:kan] touché acknowledgement of a hit

too-shay /tu:'Ie1/ Toulon port, France

tok-see-mi-uh /tnk'si:mia/ tok-soh-kuh-ry-uh-siss /,tnksaoka'r/nests,’ toxophilite lover of archery t0k—50f—il-yt /tnk'snf1lA|t/ Toynbee, Arnold English economist

toyn-bi /'t:>1nbi/

too-lo(ng) /tu:'l6/ Toulouse city, France too-looz /tu:'1u:z/

trabeation use of beams in architectural

Toulouse-Lautrec, Henri French

Triblous see Tripoli

painter and lithographer

ah(ng)-ree too-Iooz loh-trek /d_ri: tu:_1u:z 1ao'trsk/ toupee artificial hairpiece

too-pay /‘tu:pe1/ tour de force skilful performance toor duh forss /_toa(r) do 'fo:(r)s/ Tourette’s syndrome neurological disorder tuu-rets /to'rsts/ tourmaline mineral

toor-muh-Ieen /'toa(r)mali:n/ Tournai town, Belgium toor-nay /tua(r)'ne1/ This is the French name. The Flemish name

is Doornik, pronounced dor-nik. 7

tournedos small cut of beef

toor-nuh-doh /'toa(r)nadao/ tourney medieval tournament

toor-ni /'toa(r)ni/ Sometimes also tor-ni.

tourniquet device for stopping the flow of blood toor-_nik-ay /‘toa(r)mke1/ Commonly also tor-nik-ay. T0llI'S city, France


tray-bi-ay-shuhn /,tre1bi'e1Ian/ Trabzon port, Turkey

trab-zuhn /'trabzan/ An older name for the port, Ttebizond, is pronounced treb-iz-ond.

trachea pl. tracheae windpipe

truh-kee-u h, pl. truh-kee-ee /tre'ki:a,' pl. /-'ki:i:,' éomnimily also day-ki-uh. Standard -s plural is also possible.

tracheotomy incision in the windpipe

trak-i-0t-uh-mi /_traki'ntami/ trachoma eye infection truh-koh-muh /tra'kaoma/

Tradescant, John English botanist truh-desk-ant /tra'deskant/

Trafalgar, Battle of naval battle truh-fal-guhr /tra'falga(r)/ tragedian tragic actor truh-jee-di-uhn /tra'd3i:dian/ traghetto pl. traghetti jetty for gondolas

trag-et-oh, pl. trag-et-i /tra'gstao/, pl.

/-'98ti/ tragus part of the external ear

tray-guhss /'tre1gas/ Traherne, Thomas English religious writer

truh-hurn /tra'ha:(r)n/'

trahison des clercs | Treves trahison des clercs betrayal of standards by artists or writers

trah-iz-o(ng) day klair /_trc1:1z5 der 'kls:(r)/ trait distinguishing quality trayt ltrertl Commonly also tray.

Trajan Roman emperor

tray-juhn /'tre1d3an/ trajectory path of a flying object truh—jek-tuh-ri /tra'd3ektari/ Trakehner breed of horse

trak-ay-nuhr /tra'kema(r),' Tralee town, Republic of Ireland truh-lee /tra'li:/

Traminer white wine grape truh-mee-nuhr /tra‘mi:na(r)/ tranlontana cold north wind tram-on-tah-nuh l,tramnn‘to:na/ tranche portion of something trahnsh /tro:n_1'/ transept part of a church tran-sept /'transept/ transferable able to be transferred

transs-fur-uh-buhl /trans'fa:raba1/ Commonly also trahnss- or


Transkei region, South Africa tran-sky /tran'skm/ transparent allowing light to pass through tran-sparr-uhnt /tran'sparant/ Less commonly also trahn- or tran-spair-uhnt.

transubstantiate convert into the body and blood of Christ

tra n-suhb-stan-shi-ayt /,transab‘stanIie1t/ Transvaal former province, South Africa tranz-vahl /tranz'vo:l/ Transylvania region, Romania tran-sil-vay-ni-uh /,trans11'vemie/ Trapani town, Italy trah-puh-ni /'tro:pani/ trapezium pl. trapezia quadrilateral tru h-pee-zi-uh m, pl. truh-pee-zi-uh /tra'pi:ziom/, pl. /-zia/ - Standard -s plural is also possible.

trapezoid quadrilateral trap-uh-zoyd /‘trapezoid,’


Trapido, Barbara South African-born novelist truh-pee-doh /tra'pi:deu;’ Tris-OS-Montes region, Portugal

traz oozh mont-uhsh /,traz u:3 'mnnta_fI trattoria Italian restaurant

trat-uh-ree-uh /,trata‘ri:a/ trauma distressing experience

traw-muh /'tra:ma/ Lesscommonly also trow-muh.

travois sledge truh-voy /tra'vo1/ Treacy, Phillip English milliner

tray-si /'tre1si/ treadle foot lever tred-uhl /'tredal/ treatise w1'itten work on a particular


tree-tiss /'tri:trs,' Trebbiano variety of wine grape

treb-yah-noh /,trsb‘jo:nao/ Trebizond see Trabzon Treblinka Nazi concentration camp, Poland

treb-link-uh ltrcblmkal trebuchet large catapult

treb-yuush-ay /'trebjo_[e1/ Less commonly also treb-yuush-et. trecento 14-th century

tray-chen-toh ftrertjentaof trefa against Jewish law tray-fuh /'trerfa/ trefoil clover-like plant tref-oyl /'trafa1l/ trenchant vigorous or incisive

tren—chuhnt rtrsntjantl 'Irencharti, Hugh British air marshal

trensh-uhrd /'trenj‘e(r)d/ Trentino-Alto Adige region, Italy tren-tee-noh al-toh ad-»ij-ay /trsn,ti:naU ,alteo 'adid3e1/ trepan saw used to perforate the skull

tru h-pan /tra'pan/ trephine surgical saw

truh-fyn /tra'fA1n/ Tretyakov art gallery in Moscow

truht-yuh-kof /‘tratjaknfl Tréves see Trier


Trevino, Lee American golfer truh-vee-noh /tra'vi:nao/

Trevelyan, George Macaulay English

Trevino, Lee [ tripos triduum period of three days’ observance trid-yoo-uhm /'tridjuam/ Trier city, Germany


treer /tria(r)/

truh-vil-yuhn /tra'vI1jen/

The same pronunciation is an appropriate

This British surname is variously

anglicization for Danish film director Lars

pronounced tru h-vel-yu hn or

von Trie1"s name. The city is near the border

truh-vil-yuhn, depending on individual

with Luxembourg. The French name is


Treves, pronunced trev.

Trevithick, Richard English engineer

trev-ith-ik /‘trevi91k/ triad group ofthree try—ad /'tr1\1ad,' triage preliminary assessment tree—ahZh /'tri:u:5/ Triassic geological period

try-ass-ik /t1“AI'3.SIRf tribadism lesbian sexual practice

trib—uh—diZ—uhm /'trlbadIzam/

Trieste city, Italy

tri-est /tri'est/ trigeminal nerve try-jem-in-uhl /tmi'd3sm1na1/ trigonometry branch of mathematics tri-guh-nom-uh-tri /,tr1ga'nometri/ trilobite fossil try-loh-byt / 'tI‘AIl8UlJAIt/ trimaran yacht with three hulls

try-muh-ran /'iI['AIHl91“8I1]

Tribeca area of New York City

trimester period of three months

try—bek-uh /tr1n'bska,/ tribunal body established to settle dispute try-byoo-nuhl /trAI'bju:nal/

Tl'in1l1l'ti Hindu trinity

triceps arm muscle

try-seps ,1 'tm1ssps/ triceratops dinosaur try-serr-uh-tops /tr1\1'seratnps/

Trichet, Jean-Claude French president of the European Central Bank

zhah(ng) klohd tree-shay /3(1,k1eud tri:'j"e1/ trichology study of the hair and scalp trik—ol-uh—ji jtri'kn1ad3i/

trichomoniasis infection trik-oh-muh-ny-uh-siss /_trIkaome'nAias1s/ triclinium dining table with couches along three sides

try-klin-i-uhm itmrkliniemf This and many other words with tri- can be

pronounced either tri- or try-; see LATIN panel

tricolour three-coloured flag trik-uh—|uhr /‘tr1kale(r)/ tricot fine knitted fabric

tree-koh /'tri:kao/

tricoteuse woman who knits tree-kot-oez /,tri:kI)'toe:z/' Tridentine Catholic catechism trid-en—tyn /tr1'dant1un/

try—mest—uhr /lII‘Al'l'Il8St8(l“)[' trimeter line of verse trim-uh-tuhr /‘tr1m1ta(r)/ trim-oor-ti /tr1'moa(r)ti/ Trincomalee port, Sri Lanka trink—uh-muh-lee /,trn]kema'1i:/ ‘Trinidad and Tobago country, Caribbean

trin-id-ad tuh-bay-goh /'tr1n1dad te'be1gao/ Trinitarian relating to the Trinity

tri-nit-air-i-uhn /,trIn1'ta:rian/ trinitrotoluene explosive try—ny-troh-tol-yoo-een /trA1,nnItrao'toljui:n,' triplltllong three vowels combined in one syllable

trif-thong /‘tr1fHrn]/



Z i

Tripitaka sacred Buddhist canon

trip-it-uh-kuh /tr1'p1taka/ triplex trademark safety glass

trip-leks /'tripleks/ Tripoli capital of Libya

trip-uh-ii /'tripali/ The Arabic name is Trablous, pronounced

trah-blooss. tl‘ip0S examination at Cambridge

University try—po5$ /'tI‘A[])DS/

triptych | truculent triptych picture on three panels trip-tik /'tr1pt1k/

Tripura state, India trip—oor-uh /'tripoara/ trireme ancient war galley

try-reem /'tm1ri:m/ triskaidekaphobia superstition regarding the number thirteen

trisk-y-dek-uh-foh-bi-uh /_tr1ski\1dska'faobia/ triskelion Celtic symbol

trisk~el-i-uhn /tr1'ski-:1ian/ trisomy chromosome abnormality triss-uh-mi /'tr1sami/ Tristan da Cunha island, South Atlantic

trist-uhn duh koon-yuh /,tr1stan da 'ku:nja/ tristesse melancholia

treest-ess /tri:'stss/ Tristan legendary knight, lover of Isolde; also called Tristram trist-uhn /'tI'ISt8l1/ Tristram legendary knight, lover of

Iseult; also called Tristan trist-ruhm /'tr1stram/ triticale cereal crop trit—ik-ay-Ii /,tI‘ItI'l(Elll/' Triton Greek god try-tuhn /'trn.1tan/' triumvir pl. triumviri Roman officer

try~um»vuhr, pl. try-um-vuh-ry /trAI'Amve(r)/, pl. /-r1u/ triumvirate three men holding power try-um-virr-uht /tl"AI'1\I‘I‘lVII'9t/ triune consisting of three in one try-yoon /'tI'AIjL1Zl'1/ Trivandrum port, India triv-and-ruhm ftrrvandramf Troad ancient region, Asia Minor troh-ad /'traoad/ Trobriand Islands islands, Pacific troh-bri-uhnd /'traobriand/ trocar surgical instrument troh-kar /'treuko:(r)/ _ trochaic consisting of trochees truh-kay-ik /tra'ke11k/' trochee metrical foot troh-kee f'traoki:/

Trockenbeerenauslese sweet German white wine


trok-uhn-bair-uhn-owss-lay-zuh /'tI‘Dl{8I‘l,lJ£2l‘3I1,8OSl8lZ8/ troglodyte cave-dweller trog-luh-dyt /'trngladAIt/ troika Russian vehicle troy-kuh /‘tro1ka,I troilism sexual activity involving three participants

troy-liz-uhm /'trailizam/ Troilus and Criseyde poem by Chaucer

troy-luhss kriss-ay-duh /‘trades l(I‘I'SeId6f Trollope, Anthony English novelist

trol-uhp /'trolap/ trompe l’ceil visual illusion

tromp loy /,tromp ‘101/, French /tr5p leer] - Established anglicization. Tromso city, Norway truum-soe /'tromsn:/ Trondheim town, Norway

trond-hym /'tI‘DI1('il‘lAIl1'l/, ['tr:1nhejm] I Established anglicization. troposphere region of the atmosphere trop-oh-sfeer /'trnpaosf1a(r)/' '1i'ossa»chs valley, Scotland

tross-uhks /'trnsaks/ troth faith or loyalty trohth /trao0/ Trotsky, Leon Russian revolutionary

Ii-on trot-ski /Ii'on 'trntski,' Trottisclifle village, England troz-Ii /'troz1i/ troubadour French medieval lyric poet

troo—buh-dor /'tru:bado:(r)/ Troughton, Patrick English actor trow-tuhn /'traotan/

trousseau pl. trousseaux items collected by a bride for her marriage

troo-soh, pl. troo-sohz /'tru:sao/, pl. /-sauz/ trouvaille lucky find

troo-vy ftl“l.lZ'VAI/ trow think or believe troh /trau/ T1-owbridge town, England troh-brij /'traobr|d3/ Troyes town, France trwah ftrwcul truculent quick to argue

truk-yuul-uhnt /'tI‘Al(jUl9l"lt/


Trudeau, Pierre | tuk-tuk

Trudeau, Pierre Canadian statesman

tsoo-kem-oh-noh /tsu:'kE.maunau/'

pyair troo-doh /,pjs:(r) 'tru:dao/ Trudgill, Peter English linguist

v See JAPANESE panel.

trud-gil /‘tr1\dg1l;' Truffaut, Francois French film director

frah(ng)-swah true-foh /frolswuz try'fao/ Tl'lljill0 city, Peru

troo-kheel-yoh /tru:'xi:ljao/ Truk Islands islands, Micronesia truk /trAk/ TI'lll'0 town, England

troor-oh /'truarau/

trypanosomiasis tropical disease trip-uh-noh-suh-my-uh-siss /_iI‘lpF-)l‘l3US8'mAl3SlS/ tryptophan amino acid

trip-tuh-fan /‘tr|ptafan/ Tsang, Donald cliicfexccutive of Hong Kong;

lung /d3/\n/ tsar (also czar or tzar) emperor of Russia

tsar /tsu:(r)f tsarevich (also czarcvich or tzarevich)

son ofa tsar

tsar-uh-vitch /'tsu:rav1tI/ tsarina (also czarina or t1.arina)wife of a tsar tsar-ee-nuh /tsu:'ri:na/ TSRVO national park, Kenya

tsah-voh /'tsu:vao/ tsessebi antelope

tsess-ay-bi /tss'se1bi/ tsetse hloodsucking fly t$et—Si /'tsatsi/ Tshwane another name for Pretoria chwah-nay ,l'tIwo:ne1/

tsimmes (also tzimmes or tzimmis) Jewish stew

tsim-uhss /‘tsimas/ Tsing Tao Chinese brewery ching dow /'t_|"11;] 'dao/

Tsiolkovsky, Konstantin Russian aeronautical engineer

lion-stuhn-teen tsi-uhl-kof-ski /knnstz->n'ti:n ,tsial'kofski/ Tskhinvali capital of South Ossetia

tskhin-vah-Ii /tsx1n'v1t'fas/ volumetric relating to the measurement of volume

vol-yuum-et-rik /,vt>1jo'metr1k,'

voluminous I vygie


voluminous very loose vuh-lyoo-min-uhss /va'lju:m1nas/ voluptuary person devoted to luxury

vuh-lup—ch0o-uh-ri /ve'L\pt_\‘uari/ V0llli'.€ Spiral Scroll

vuh-lyoot /va'lju:t/ volvulus pl. volvuli bowel twist

vol-vyuul~uhss, pl. v0l—vy00-ly /'vulvjolas/, pl. /-lAI/ Volzhsky city, Russia volzh-ski /'vn13ski/ vomer small bone separating the nasal cavities voh-muhr /'vaoma(r);' Vonnegut, Kurt American writer

von-uh-guht /'vnnagat/ von Recklinghausen's disease hereditary illness

fon rek-ling-how-zuhnz /fon 'reklu;1,hauzanz/ Voortrekker an Afrikaner who migrated north foor-trek-uhr /'foa(r),treke(r),' Vorarlberg state, Austria fawr-arl-bairk /'fo:r,u:(r)1be:(r)k/ Voronezh city, Russia vuh-r0n—yuhZh /ve'ronja3/ Vorstellung pl. Vorstellungen mental image

for-shtel-uung, pl. for-shtel—uung~uhn /'fa:(r),jte1un/, pl. /-lunan/ vortex pl. vortices whirling mass vor-teks, pl. vor-tiss—eez /'va:(r)tsks/, pl. /-tisizzj ~ Standard -es plural is also possible. Vosges mountain system, France

vohzh /vau3/ Vostolt Soviet spacecraft

vost-ok /'vnstnk/ votary monk or nun voh-tuh-ri /'vaotari,' voussoir stone used to construct an arch voo-swar ,/'vu:swu:(r),/ Vouvray white wine

voov-ray /'vu:vre1/'

vox humana organ stop voks hyoo-mah-nuh /,v0ks hju:'mo:na,! VOX populi opinions of the majority voks p0p—yoo-lee /,vnks ‘pnpjulizf voyeur watcher vwy-ur /vw1u'a:(r)/ Vuillard, Edouard French painter

ayd-war vwee-yar /,e1dwa:(r) vwi:'jo:(r)/ Vuitton, Louis French fashion designer

lwee vwee5to(ng)l,Iwi: vwi:‘t5/ Variouslanglicizationsinay


reference to his fashion label.

Vukovar battle site, Croatia voo—kuh-var /'vu:kavu:(r)/ Vulgate Latin version of the Bible

vul—gayt /'v1\lge1t/ Vulpecula constellation

vul-pek-yuul—uh /val'pekjola/ vulpine relating to foxes vul-pyn /'VAlPAll1/ Vyatka town and river, Russia

vyaht-kuh /'vju:tka/' vygie flower

fay-khi /'ferxi/


W33] river, Netherlands

vahl fvo:1/ Wabbit exhausted (Scottish) wab-it /'wab1t/ Wadi valley wod-i /'wodi/ Wadi Halfa town, Sudan wod-i hal-fuh /,wndi 'halfa/ I Established anglicization.

Waifen SS combat units in Nazi Germany

vaf-uhn /'vafan/ Wagga Wagga town, Australia wog-uh wog-uh /,wnge 'woga/ Wagner, Richard German composer

rikh-art vahg-nuhr /,rica:(r)t 'vu:gne(r)/ wagon-lit railway sleeping car

vag—o(ng) lee /,vagfi '11:,’ Wahhabi (also Wahabi) Sunni

Muslim sect

wuh-hah-bi /we'ho:bi/ Waiata Maori song

wy-uh-tuh /'w1uata;' Waikato river, New Zealand

wy-kah-toh /WAl'l((1Zl8U,/ Waikiki beach, Hawaii wy—kik-ee /'wl\1k1,ki:/ Wainscot wooden panelling on walls wayn-skuht /'weInskat,' Waitangi, Treaty of founding document of New Zealand wy-tang-i /WAI'lI8.'[_]l/ Wajda, Andrzej Polish film director an-jay vy-duh /,and3eI 'vA1da/ wakame Japanese edible seaweed

wak-am-ay /'wakame1/ Wakhan salient corridor of land, Afghanistan

wuh-kahn /wa'kc1:n/ wakizashi short Japanese sword wa k-i-zash-i /.waki'zaIi/ Waldenses puritan religious sect wol-den—seez /wo1'dsnsi:z/

Waldheim, Kurt Austrian statesman

kuurt valt-hym /,ko(r)t 'va1thAim/ waldo remote-controlled device wawl-doh /'wo:ldao/ Waldorf type of salad wawl-dorf /'wo:1d:>:(r)f/ Waldsterben death of forest trees valt—shtair-buhn /‘valt‘j'te:(r)ban/ Waler breed of horse

way-luhr /'we1la(r)/

Walesa, Lech Polish statesman lekh va-wa(ng)-suh /,1ex va‘w§;sa/' wali governor

wah-Ii /'wc1:li:/ Wallacea zoogeographical area

wol-ay-si-uh /wo'le1sia/ wallaroo kangaroo

wol-uh-roo /,wn1e'ru:/ Wallasey town, England

wol-uh-si /'wolasi/

Wallenberg, Raoul Swedish diplomat rowl val-uhn-bairg /,rau1 'va1anbe:(r)g/ Waller, Fats American jazz musician

fats wol-uhr /,fats 'w1)le(r)/ Wallis and Futuna Islands islands, South Pacific wol-iss f00—to0-nuh /'wol1s fu:'tu:na,/ Walloon French-speaking Belgian wol-oon /wo'lu:n/ Walpole, Robert English statesman

wawl-pohl /'w0:1paol/ Walpurgisnacht May Day's eve

va|—puur-giss-nakht /val'poa(r)gisnaxt/ Walras’ law economic law val-ra hss ,l'valro:s/ Walsall town, England

wawl-sawl /'w:>:lso:l/ Walsingham, Francis English politician

wawl-sing-uhm /'wo:1s11]am/


Walther, Johann Gotfried | wavicle

Walther, Johann Gotfried German composer

yoh-han got-freet val-tuhr /jaohan ,gotfri:t 'valta(r)/ Walvis Bay port, Namibia

wawl-viss /'wo:lv1s/ Wampanoag member of a confederacy of American Indian peoples wahm-puh-noh-uhg /,wo:mpa'naoag/ Wampum beads used as money

wom-puhm /'wompam/ wan pale

won /won,’ Wanamaker, Sam American actor and

ot-oh var-buurk /,otao 'va:(r)bork/ Wax-dour Street used to allude to the British film industry wor-duhr /'w:):(r)da(r)/ Warfarin rat poison and drug

wor-fuh-rin /'wo:(r)farIn/ Warhol, Andy American artist

wor-hohl /'wa:(r)haol/ Warlpiri Australian Aboriginal language

worl-puh-ri /'wo:(r)1pari/ warmonger advocate of warfare

wor-mung-guhr /'wo:(r),mnI]ga(r)/

won-uh~may-kuhr /'wnnarne1ka(r)/

warrigal dingo dog worr-ig-uhl /'wnrigel/ Warrington town, England

This pronunciation is also correct for his

worr-ing-tuhn /'WDI‘IIJt8l'lf


actress daughter, Zoe.

Wandeljahr pl. Wandeijahre year spent travelling abroad

van-duhr-yar, pl. van-duhr-yar-uh /'vanda(r)jo:(r)/, pl. /-re/ Wanderlust desire to travel

won-duhr-lust ,f'wonda(r)lnst,/ Sometimes also van-duhr-luust, a more German-sounding pronunciation.

Wanganui port, New Zealand

wong-uh-noo-i /_wm]a'nu:i/ Wankel engine rotary internal-combustion engine


Established anglicization. The surname of

the engine's German inventor is pronounced

vank-uhl. Wannsee lake resort and location of a Nazi conference, Germany van-zay /'vanzet/ wapentake county subdivision

wop-uhn-tayk /'WDp8nteIl{/ wapiti red deer wop-it-i /'wnp1tij Waqf charitable endowment made by a Muslim

wokf fwnkff waratah Australian shrub

worr-uh-tah /,wnra'tu:/ Warbeck, Perkin Flemish claimant to the English throne pur-kin wor-bek /,pa:(r)km 'w:):(r)bsk/ Warburg, Otto German biochemist

Warsaw capital of Poland

wor-saw /'w:>:(r)so:/ Established The Polish name is Warszawa, pronounced var-shav-uh.

Warwick town, England worr-ik /’wnr1kf Warwick, Dionne American singer dee—0n wor-wik /‘(lion 'wa:(r)w1k/ wasabi Japanese paste

wuh-sah-bi /wa'su:bi/ wassail spiced ale or mulled wine woss-ayl /"wnse1l/ Wat Buddhist monastery or temple

wat /wat/ Waterloo battle site, Belgium

waw-tuhr-loo /_wo:ta(r)'lu:/ Established anglicization. The French

pronunciation is vat-air-loh [vaterlo], and

theliilenlish is wah,-tu hgr-loh ['wa:tar1o]. Watteau, Jean Antoine French painter

zhah(ng) ah(ng)-twahn wot-oh /,3c'1 ii,two:n 'wotaof, [vato] v Established anglicization of surname. wattle building material

wot-uhl /'wotal/ Waugh, Auberon English writer

aw-buh-ruhn waw /,o:beran 'wo:/ Waugh, Evelyn English novelist eev-lin waw /jzvlm 'w:>:/ wavicle entity having properties of both

waves and particles

way-vik-uhl /'weiv1kal/

wayang I Wenceslas


wayang Javanese theatrical performance

wah-yang /'wo:jaIJ/ Wayland the Smith legendary

vy-mar /'vA1ma:(r)/ Weimaraner breed of dog

wuh-zeer /wa'zIa(r)/

vy-muh-rah-nuhr /'vA1me,ru:ne(r)/

Weald district in south England

weeld /wi:ld/ Weaver, Sigourney American actress sig-oor-ni /sI'goa(r)ni/ Weber, Carl Maria von German composer

karl muh-ree-uh fon vay-buhr /,ku:(r)1me_ri:e fon 've1ba(r)/ Weber, Wilhelm German physicist

vil-helm vay-buhr /,v11hs1m 'veIba(r)/ Tl-ieiSiI innit oi magnetic flux is named alter this scientist, and pronounced in the same way. -

Webern, Anton von Austrian composer an-ton fon vay-buhrn /,antnn fon 'verba(r)n/ Weddell Sea arm of the Atlantic Ocean wed-uhl /'wedal/ Wedekind, Frank German dramatist frank vay-duh-kint /,frar_|k 've1dak1nt/ Wedgwood trademark English pottery wej—wuud /'wsd3wud/ Weejee pseudonym of American photographer Arthur Felig

wee-jee /'wi:ji:/ Weelkes, Thomas English composer wilks fwrlksl Wegener, Alfred German meteorologist

al-frayt vay-guh-nuhr /,a1fre1t 'vergana(r)/ Wehrmacht German armed forces

vair~makht /‘ve:(r)maxt/ Wei Chinese dynasty


Wyn-Steen /'WAII1SlZlII1/ Weinstube pl. Weinstuben small German tavern

vyn-shtoob-uh, pl. vyn-shtoob-uhn /'vAIn,j'tu:ba/, pl. /-j"tu:ben/ Weismann, August German biologist

ow-guust vyss-man /,augost 'vmsman,' Weissmuller, Johnny American swimmer and actor

wyss-muul-uhr /'WAIS|I'I1Ul8(I‘)/ Weisswurst German veal sausage

vyss-voorst /'vA1svoa(r)st/ Weizmann, Chaim Russian~bom Israeli statesman khym vyts-muhn /,xArm‘vn1tsman/ welcll fail to pay debts weltch /welt_l'/ Welkin sky

wel-kin /'ws1k1n/ Well/com town, South Africa

vei-kuhm /'vslkam/ Welles, Orson American film director or-suhn welz/,o:(r)san'wa1z/ Wellinglonifl. giant redwood tree

wel-ing—t0h-ni—uh /,weln]'taunia,'

wels fish velss /vsls/ Weltanschauung pl.

velt-an-show-uung, p1.velt-an-show-uung-uhn

Wei ch’i Chinese board game


Weidenfeld, George English publisher

see-mon vay /si:_mnn ‘veil

Weinberg, Steven American physicist wyn-burg /'wA1nba:(r)g/ Weinstein, Harvey American film

Weltanschauungen view of life

way /weI/

way-fang /,weI‘fan{ Weil, Simone French essayist

Weil’s disease leptospirosis Weimar city, Germany

wazir vizier

vy-duhn-felt ,l'vAIdanfe1t/ Weifang city, China

koort vyl /,ku(r)t 'vA11/ vylz /VAllZ/

character way-Iuhnd /‘Welland,’

way chee /wei 'tIi:/

Weill, Kurt German composer

/'vslt,an_Fauu1]/, pl. /-on an] Weltschmerz world-weariness velt-shmairts /'vs1t,Ims:(r)ts/ Welty, Eudora American writer

yoo-daw-ruh wel-ti /'wslti/ Wenceslas king of Bohemia; also called


wen—suhss-lass /‘wensaslas/



E Welsh Welsh is one of the native languages of the UK, a Celtic language spoken mostly in Wales. The BBC broadcasts extensively in Welsh (see * httml/wvvw.bbc.co:u*l§[cyinru), and we usually consult native speakers working within the BBC to verify our recommendations. The pronunci» ation of Welsh is complicated by several factors, including the influence ‘ of English on some spellings and pronunciations and the considerable variation in pronunciation between different parts of Wales. Some broad guidelines are given here, but in practice we always check Welsh pronunciations with native speakers for acceptability.

Stress Stress in Welsh generally falls on the penultimate syllable. If the final syllable is stressed, this is marked with an acute accent.


. Consonants 1 Most consonants are pronounced as in English. CH is pronounced kh as in Scottish loch. DD is pronounced th as in there; Dajjydd is pronounced dav-ith. F is usually pronounced v, and FF is pronounced f. LL is pronounced hl. To make this sound, position your tongue as ifyou are about to say an English L, then blow air around the sides.

Vowels A circumflex indicates that a vowel is long, and a grave indicates that a vowel is short. However, these accents do not always appear. In our recommendations A is pronounced a if short, and ah if long.

E is pronounced e, air, or ay. I is pronounced i or ee, or y as in yes when followed by a vowel, unless the I has a diaeresis (l), in which case it is i or ee despite the following vowel. O is pronounced 0 if short, oh if long, and U is pronounced i if short, ee ‘ if long. i y W, which is a vowel in Welsh, is pronounced uu or 00; Clwyd is pronounced kloo-id. l ' Y, which is a vowel in Welsh, is pronounced u as in bun, i, or ee. This varies with regional accent as well as vowel length. VVhen it appears on its own it is the Welsh word for the, and has an unstressed pronunciation uh. Diphthongs are usually sequences of their component parts.

Wenceslaus | wholly


Wenceslaus king of Bohemia; also

west-uhn soo-puhr mair /_westan

called Wenccslas wen-suhss-lowss fwansaslaosl Wenger, Arsene French football manager

_su:pa(r) 'ms:(r)/

ar-sen veng-uhr /u:(r),sen 'vana(r)/ Established anglicization for his surname. The French pronunciation is va(ng)-gair

[végsr]. Wensleydale cheese wenz-Ii-dayl /'wsnz1ide1l/ Wenzhou city, China wen-joh f,wsn'd3ao/ werewolf person who changes into a wolf wair~wuuIf /'ws:(r)wolf/ Werner, Abraham German geologist

ah-bruh-ham vair-nuhr /,o:breham 'vs:(r)na(r)/ ’ Werner, Alfred French-born Swiss


al-fruhd vair-nair /,alfrad vs:(r)'na:(r)j Wernicke’s area region of the brain wur-nik-uhz /'wa:(r)nikaz/ Established anglicization. Discovered by German scientist Carl Wernicke, pronounced vair-nik-uh.

Wertenbaker, Timberlake Basque—born playwright

tim-buhr-layk wurt-uhn-bayk-uhr /,t1mba(r)1elk wa:(r)tanbe1ka(r),' Wesak Buddhist festival; also called Vesak

wess-ak /‘wesak/ Weser river, Germany vay-zuhr /'ve1za(r)/ Wesker, Arnold English dramatist wesk-uhr /'wsska(r)/ Wesley, John English preacher wez-li /‘wszli/ West Bromwich town, England West brom-itch /_west ’brnm|tj‘/ West, KanYe American rap singer kahn-yay west [,ko:njeI 'wsst/ Westmann Islands islands, Iceland

vest-muhn /'vsstmen/ Westmeath county, Republic of Ireland

west—meeth /wsst'mi:B/ Westmorland former county, England

west-muhr-Iuhnd /'westma(r)1and/ Weston-super-Mare town, England

Westphalia former province, Germany west-fay-Ii-uh /wcst'ferl1al Established anglicization. The German

name is Westfalen, pronounced vest—fah—luhn. weta grassh0pper—like insect

>3?!-9.b_/lwee’. ...._. Alsothienamie of a Zealand company, particularly noted for their work on the Lord ofthe Rings trilogy.

Weyden, Rogier van der Flemish painter

rokh-eer vun duhr vy-duhn /ro,x1a(r) van da(r) 'VAI(l3Tl/, Dutch [r0,vi:r vun dor vsiden] ~ See DUTCH panel. Weymouth port, England

way-muhth /'weimaB/ whanau Maori extended family or community fah-now /'fo:nao/ Whangarei port, New Zealand

fong-uh-ray /'fnnarei/ what-finger keeper of a wharf

wor-fin-juhr /'wo:(r)fmd3a(r)/ Wharton, Edith American writer

wor-tuhn /'w:>:(r)tan,' whaup curlew

wawp /wozpl Wheatstone, Charles English physicist weet-stuhn /'wi:tstan/ wheesht interjection used to demand silence (Scottish) weesht /wi:_[t/ Whinchat songbird

win-chat /'w1nt_1'at/ whippoorwill nightj ar wip-puhr-wll /'w1pa(r)w1l,' Whitlam, Gough Australian statesman gof wit-luhm /,gof 'wrt1am/ Whitsuntide part of the church calendar wit-suhn-tyd /'witsantA1d/ Whoa command to a horse to make it stop or slow down

woh /wao/ Wholly entirely l'\O|'1l-ll /'l‘l8Ull/

423 Commonly pronounced in this way, with a

long or double I, to avoid confusion with holy.

whooping cough disease

hoo-ping /'hu:pn3,' whoreson unpleasant or disliked person hor—suhn /'h0:(r)san/ whorl turn in the shell of a gastropod or mollusc worl /w:):l/ Whyalla town, Australia wy—al-uh /wi\I'ala/ whydah weaver bird

wid—uh /'w1da/ Whymper, Edward English mountaineer wimp-uhr /'wimpa(r)/ Wicca religious cult of modern witchcraft

wik-uh /'w1ke/ Wichita city, US witch-it-aw /'wIt1'1to:/ wickiup American Indian hut

wik-i-up /'w1ki1\p/ Wicklow county, Republic of Ireland

wik-loh /'wiklao/

Wickremesinghe, Rani] Sri Lankan prime minister

run-il wik-ruh-muh-sing-huh /,mni1 _w1krama'sn3ha/ witldersliins anticlockwise wid-uhr-shinz /‘w1da(r)_\‘mz/ Widget small device wij-uht /'w1d3et/ Widnes town, England wid-nuhss /‘w1dnas/ Wien see Vienna

Wiener sausage

wee-nuhr /'wi:na(r)/ Wiener means ‘Viennese’ in German; a less

anglicized pronunciation veen-uhr is usual in phrases such as ‘Wiener schnitzel' and ‘Wiener waltz’.

Wiesbaden city, Germany

veess-bah-duhn /'vi:sbu:dan,' Wiesel, Elie Romanian-born American human rights campaigner

el-i vee-sel /_alivi:'ss1/ Wiesenthal, Simon Austrian Jewish investigator of Nazi war crimes

zee-mon vee-zuhn-tahl /_z1:mnn

whooping cough I Winnebago 'vi:zant(1:l/ The §imonWWiesenthal lcentreslin


usually anglicize the first name to Sy-muhn.

Wigan town, England wig-uhn ,"w1gen/

Wilberforce, William English politician

wil-buhr-forss ,"w11ba(r)fo:(r)s/ wildebeest mammal

wil-duh-beest /'WI]dabi:st/ Wilder, Billy Austrian -born American film director wyI—duhr /'WAIld8(I‘)/ Wilder, Thornton American writer

wyl-duhr /'WAIld8(I‘)/ Wilhelm former emperor of Germany vil-helm /'vilhs1ml Wilhelmina former queen of the

Netherlands wil-hel-mee-nuh /,w11hs1'mi:na/ Wilhelmshaven port, Germany

vil—he|mz-hah-vuhn /'v11he1mz,hc1:van/ Wilkes Land region of Antarctica

wilks /w1lks/ Willemstad capital of the Netherlands Antilles wil-uhm-sta ht /'w1lamstc1:t;'

William of Occam see Occam wily skilled at gaining an advantage

wy-Ii /'wmli/ Wimereux town, France

vee-muh-roe /'vi:marce/ winceyette fabric win—si~et /,wmsi'et/ Winchester city, England win—chuh-stuhr /‘w|ntj'asta(r)/ Winckelmann, Johann German archaeologist

yoh-han vink-uhl-man /,jauhan 'v1r]kalman,-'

Windermere lake, England wind-uhr-meer /'w1nda(r)m1a(r)/ Windhoek capital of Namibia

vint-huuk /‘v1nthok/ windigo cannibalistic giant

wind-ig-oh /'w1nd1gao/ wing cliun simplified form of kung fu wing chuun /wn] 'tIon/ Winnebago American Indian ethnic


win—uh—bay—goh /_w1na'be1gau/

Winnipeg I wonga Winnipeg city, Canada win-ip-eg /'w1n1psg/ Winterhalter, Franz German painter

frants vint-uhr-halt-uhr /frants 'vinta(r),ha1te(r),' Winterthur town, Switzerland

vint-uhr-toor /'v1nta(r),tua(r)/ Wirral peninsula, England wirr-uhl /'w1ra1/ Wirtschaftswunder economic miracle

veert—shaf‘ts-vuund-uhr /'v1a(r)t_l'afts_vunda(r)/ Wirtshaus pl. Wirtshiiuser inn in a German-speaking country

veerts-howss, pl. veerts-hoyz-uhr /'v1a(r)tshaus/, pl. /-ho1ze(r)/ Wisbech town, England

wiz-beech /'w1zbi:tI/ Wisconsin state, US wiss-kon-sin /w1s'knns1n/ Wisden, John English cricketer wiz-duhn /'wrzdan/ wiseacre person with an affectation of knowledge wyz-ayk-uhr /'wA1zeIka(r)/ Wisent bison

wee-zuhnt /'wi:zant/ Wissenscliafl pursuit of knowledge viss-uhn-shaft /'v1sanIaft/ Wisteria climbing shrub wist-eer-i-uh /wi'st|aria/ Witchetly large beetle larva witch-uh-ti /'w1tj'ati/ witenagemot Anglo-Saxon council

wit-uhn-uh-guh-moht /‘witanage,maot/ withal in addition

with-awl /wi'o:>:l/ Withy willow branch with-i /‘wroi/ Wittenherg town, Germany

vit-uhn-bairk /‘vrtanbs:(r)k/

Wittgenstein, Ludwig Austrian-British philosopher

loot-vikh vit-guhn-shtyn /_iu:tvi