Our Latin Heritage: Book III [Book III]

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Our Latin Heritage: Book III [Book III]

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OUR LATIN HERITAGE HARBRACE EDITION

m BOOK

by LILLIAN M . HINES RUTH B. HOW ARD

(© HARCOURT BRACE JOVANOVICH, PUBLISHERS New York

Chicago

San Francisco

Atlanta

Dallas

and

London

LILLIAN M. HINES is widely known as a teacher of Latin, having taught in a number of schools both in this country and abroad. She received a Master's degree in Latin from Stanford University and has studied the classics on the graduate level in a number of other universities in the United States. Among her writings are numerous articles on Latin, on the art of teaching Latin, and on related subjects. She is also the author of a book entitled Vocabulary Building by the Cluster Method. RUTH B. HOWARD received a Bachelor's degree from Wellesley College, a Master’s degree from Columbia University, and a Doctorate from Catholic University, Washington, D.C. She has taught Latin on the high school and college levels both in Washington and in San Francisco. Since 1962, she has been head of the Department of Foreign Languages at Lowell High School, San Francisco.

The cover photograph is used through the courtesy of the Alinari-Art Ref­ erence Bureau. The illustration is taken from the Ara Pacis, a monument dedicated in 9 b .c . by the Roman Senate to commemorate the Emperor Augustus’ safe return from Gaul and Spain. The altar, which stood in a walled precinct with doors on the east and west, was adorned with reliefs representing the solemn procession of the senators at the dedication ceremony. The typeface on the title page was inspired by a Latin inscription on a slab of marble in the Louvre in Paris. In 1918 Frederic W. Goudy took rubbings of three letters in the inscription and designed a typeface he later named Hadriano. The typeface on the cover is a photo-lettered version of Hadriano.

Copyright © 1967, 1966 by Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any in­ formation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in the United States of America

ISBN 0-1 5-38951 5-2

Preface Book III of Our Latin Heritage is complementary to Books I and II of the series. Its immediate object is the progressive development of competence in comprehending Latin as Latin through the reading of the works of Cicero as well as through the reading of selections from a wide range of other Latin authors, dating from the third century b .c . to the twentieth century a .d . Part I —Review and Preview. Part I, which is divided into ten units, provides a systematic review of the words, forms, and rules of syntax studied in the first two years of Latin. In addition, it provides a preview of words, forms, and rules of syntax that are to be introduced in the third year of Latin. Practice Patterns, which follow every section in each unit, and Sentence Patterns (Latin and English), which conclude each unit, offer abundant material for drill on matter either being reviewed or being taught for the first time. Figures of speech, figures of rhetoric, and figures of syntax, stylistic devices characteristic of Cicero’s writing, are also discussed in Part I. The Practice Pat­ terns that follow test the student’s grasp of this new material. Selections from Sallust’s Catiline, adapted and simplified for sight reading, are found in serial form from unit to unit, and are appropriate material in preparing the student to read Cicero’s Orations Against Catiline. Part I I —Cicero’s World. Part II, an essay in English, describes the Roman Forum and its surroundings, the Italy of Cicero’s time, the Roman provinces, and the Roman constitutions and magistrates. A general knowledge of these significant features of Roman civilization is essential to the comprehension of many passages in the Latin text. Part III—Marcus Tullius Cicero. Part III contains a biography of Cicero and selections from his works. Of the Catilinarian Orations, the First and Third are given in complete form; the Second and Fourth, in summary. The Oration for the Manilian Law is included in the text for its regular structure, its largely narrative style, and the general absence of serious difficulties in translation. The Oration for Archias, famous for its praise of literature, is followed by an extract from one of Cicero’s speeches against Verres and by an extract from Cicero’s Second Philippic. The eleven selections from the extant philosophical works are intended to make the student aware of the great contribution Cicero made to the field of philosophy when he wrote in Latin a survey of Greek philosophy, thereby transmitting to the Middle Ages and the modern world many writings that otherwise would have been lost. The selection from Dë Clàrls Oratoribus con­ tains an account of Cicero’s own early training and experience as an orator. A brief reference to Cicero’s poetical works is followed by excerpts from his letters. Part IV—Survey of Latin Literature. Part IV contains selections not only from the best-known authors of the Golden and Silver Ages of Latin literature but also from the outstanding scholars and writers of the medieval and modern v

periods. Here are to be found examples of the anecdote, fable, and short story. Here also are to be found extracts from the earliest French writers, such as Gregory of Tours; from the founder of English history, the Venerable Bede; from the letters of the Italian humanist Petrarch; from the Colloquia of Erasmus; and from the Utopia of Thomas More. Excerpts from the scientific works of Francis Bacon and Alessandro Volta complete the modern period. At the close of the Survey are translations into Ciceronian Latin of the Gettysburg Address of Abraham Lincoln and the address delivered by John F. Kennedy at his inauguration as thirty-fifth President of the United States. They are included in Book III of Our Latin Heritage because they are striking ex­ amples of modern American orations, written according to oratorical norms of which Cicero himself would have approved. Pedagogical Helps. Book III abounds in pedagogical helps and reference tools for the teacher and student of Latin. First, there are forty-eight pages of illustrations, photographs, and maps. Second, there are copious footnotes for all the Latin selections in Parts III and IV of the book. And third, there are thought questions, under the heading of For Discussion, after each Latin selection in Parts I and III of the book. Appendix. This division of the text, a reference guide for both teacher and student, contains a complete summary of the Latin forms and rules of syntax necessary for the reading of the Latin selections; an essay on the mechanics of letter-writing in Cicero’s time; a list of idioms and phrases; and some notes on the reading of Latin poetry, including the rules of versification and scansion. Vocabulary. The Latin-English vocabulary is marked to indicate the words for mastery listed in the New York State Syllabus in Latin, 1956. It contains all the words on the latest available list published by the College Entrance Exami­ nation Board and various other standard lists. However, it limits the English synonyms to those needed to translate the Latin selections in Book III. The English-Latin vocabulary contains entries only for those words found in the Practice Patterns and Sentence Patterns in Part I. Indexes. An index of the proper names appearing in the text, together with a key to the English pronunciation of these names, and an index of the rules of syntax and of the stylistic devices in the text are also included in Book III.

Contents PART I

Review and Preview

Sallust

Introduction

Unit I

Sallust : The Character of. Catiline

Unit II

Unit IV

t

Unit VII

Unit VIII

Unit IX

Unit X

3

cicero’s literary style • cicero’s stylistic devices • figures of speech : Simile, Metaphor, Personification, Apostrophe

11

The List of Conspirators Accusative Case • First and second declension adjectives • Third declension adjectives • Summary of adjective forms figures of speech : Metonymy, Synecdoche, Hyperbole, Litotes sallust : Failure of Catiline’s Initial Plans Ablative case • Adverbs • Conjunctions figures of syntax : Asyndeton, Polysyndeton, Ellipsis

13 14

Catiline Appeals to His Followers Dative case • Horizontal comparison of case indicators • Sum­ mary of pronouns and pronominal adjectives • Questions figures of syntax : Hyperbaton, Hysteron Proteron, Parallel Structure sallust : The Have’s and the Have-not’s Regular verbs of all conjugations • Semideponent, irregular, im­ personal, and defective verbs figures of syntax : Hendiadys, Zeugma, Pleonasm sallust :

Unit V

Unit VI

Nominative, vocative, and genitive cases • First and second de­ clension nouns • Third declension nouns • Fourth and fifth declension nouns

sallust :

Unit III

1

The Plot Is Betrayed to Cicero Imperative mood • Infinitives figures of rhetoric : Alliteration, Anaphora, Assonance, Repe­ tition sallust : Cicero Is Elected Consul Participles • Ablative absolute figures of rhetoric: Antithesis, Chiasmus, Oxymoron, Rhythm sallust :

Catiline Plots to Kill Cicero The Gerund • The Gerundive • Supine figures of rhetoric: Climax, Anticlimax, Prétention, Rhetorical Question sallust : Manlius Goes to Etruria Subjunctive used in the main verb • Subordinate clauses • Ad­ verbial clauses with the indicative • Adverbial clauses with the subjunctive • A summary of the uses of cum with the subjunctive and the indicative figures of rhetoric : Irony, Paronomasia, Euphemism sallust :

Rome Plans for Defense Substantive clauses • Indirect questions • Relative clauses • Subordinate clause in indirect discourse FIGURES OF SPEECH, SYNTAX, AND RHETORIC: Review sallust :

20 22

23 30 31 32 39 41 42 47 49 50 54 56 57 61 63 64 70 71 72

79 81 82 85

vu

The Forum and Its Buildings The Italy of Cicero's Time: Roads • Towns and Villages

87 90

Roman Provinces Roman Citizenship Orders of Society The Rights of Roman Citizens The Civil Magistrates: Ordinary Magistrates • Extraordinary Magistrates • Religious Officials Roman Political Institutions: The Senate • The Popular Assemblies

91 92 94 95 95

PART III

Marcus Tullius Cicero

Cicero the Man: Family Background • Early Education • The Start of a Career • Quaestorship • Prosecution of Verres • Aedileship • Praetorship • Candidate for Consulship • Consulship • Exile and Recall • At the Mercy of the Triumvirs • Governor in Cilicia • A Year of Vacillation • Final Years • His Political Second Spring • Death of a Hero Cicero the Orator: Styles of Oratory • Types of Orations • Qualities Necessary in an Orator • Technical Structure of an Oration • List of Cicero’s Orations FIRST ORATION AGAINST CATILINE: Catiline’s Early Political Career • Candidate for the Consulship • Preparations for Civil War • Senâtüs C5nsultum Ültimum • Attempted Assassination of Cicero • Broadcasting the Plot Latin Text SECOND ORATION AGAINST CATILINE English Summary THIRD ORATION AGAINST CATILINE Latin Text FOURTH ORATION AGAINST CATILINE English Summary ORATION FOR THE MANILIAN LAW Latin Text ORATION FOR ARCHIAS Latin Text ORATION AGAINST VERRES Latin Text SECOND ORATION AGAINST ANTONY Latin Text Cicero the Philosopher:

de re publica

Cicero the Rhetorician: Cicero the Poet

de claris oratoribus

• de legibus • paradoxa • de finibus BONORUM ET MALORUM • ACADEMICA • TUSCULANAE DISPUTATIONES • DE NA­ TURA DEORUM • DE SENECTUTE • DE DIVINATIONE • DE AMICITIA • DE OFFICIIS

Cicero the Letter-Writer: Love for His Family • Love for His Friends • Love for His Home • Love for Books • Love for Art • Letter to Pompey the Great

via

101

104

113 118 120 147 147 148 149 171 171 172 174 210 211 232 233 236 237 238

265 266

The Early Period (3rd century b .c . to 80 b .c .) Plautus • Quintus Ennius • Marcus Porcius Cato • Publius Terentius Afer The Golden Age (80

276

to a .d . 14) 284 Lucretius • Catullus • Julius Caesar • Varro • Cor­

b .c .

the ace of c i C E B O :

nelius Nepos the

Augustan’

period :

Vergil • Quintus Horatius Flaccus • Livy • Ovid

The Silver Age ( a .d . 14 to a .d . 138) Seneca the Elder • Gaius Velleius Paterculus • Celsus • Phaedrus • Seneca the Younger • Quintilian • Martial • Tacitus • Pliny the Younger • Juve­ nal • Suetonius • Gellius

304

The Late Latin Period (late 2nd to 5th centuries a .d .) Eutropius • Ammianus • Jerome • Augustine • Macrobius • Boethius

322

The Medieval Period (6th to 14th centuries a .d .) Gregory of Tours • Isidore of Seville • The Venerable Bede • Fredegarius • Paul the Deacon • Liudprand • Geoffrey of Monmouth • Ekkehart of Aura • Petrus Alphonsus • Odo of Cerinton • Jacques de Vitry • Carmina Burdna • Gesta Romanorum

333

The Modem Period (about 14th century to present) Petrarch • Coluccio Salutati • Aeneas Silvius • Erasmus • Copernicus • Thomas More • Mark Antony Muret • Francis Bacon • Volta • Abraham Lincoln • John F. Kennedy

353

APPENDIX Latin Forms Summary of Rules of Syntax Letter-Writing in Cicero’s Time

373 406 439

Reading Latin Poetry Major Greek and Roman Gods

440 443

VOCABULARY Latin-English English-Latin

445 513

INDEX OF PROPER NAMES

522

GRAMMATICAL INDEX

529

Illustrations and Maps Insert I

The Roman World Castor and Pollux • Scene on the Palatine Hill • Map of Rome • Hera unveiling herself before her bridegroom Zeus • Minerva • Temple of Jupiter, Baalbek, Lebanon • Map of Italy • A street in Pompeii • A business transaction

22A

Insert II

The World of Cicero Cicero • The Roman Forum • The use of mosaics • Farmers at work • A hunter and his dogs • A fishing scene • Vegetable stall • Food shop • Flour mill • Cutlery store • Cutler’s forge • Barge being dragged along a stream in Gaul by two slaves • The Temple of Vesta

86A

Insert III

Philosophy, Politics, and Law Palimpsest of a page of Cicero’s Dê Rê Püblicâ • The Roman Forum • Cicero as an older man • Sulla • Cicero attacking Catiline at a meeting of the Senate • The Tullianum, an under­ ground dungeon • An orator • Pompey the Great • Merchant ships • Mithridates • Mark Antony • Cleopatra • Roman war­ ship • Bronze law tablet

150A

Insert IV

214A A Sojourn in Greece Athena • Citadel of Mycenae • Athenian Treasury, Delphi • Acropolis and Parthenon • A woman with her maid • A barber, some bakers, and a woman cooking • Woman washing clothes • Boy fishing • Man returning from the hunt • Man on horse­ back • Olive pickers • Blacksmith’s shop • Statuettes of comic actors • Homeric bard reciting poetry • Mosaic showing a scene from a comedy • Greek theater at Epidaurus • An olive grove

Insert V

278A The Caesars and the Barbarians Trajan’s Column • Map of the Roman Republic • Julius Caesar in middle age • Silver denarius minted to commemorate the assassination of Julius Caesar • Demobilization of soldiers • Augustus • Tiberius • Claudius • Vespasian • The Colos­ seum • Hadrian’s villa • Trajan • Hadrian • Marcus Aurelius • Septimius Severus • Diocletian • Head of Constantine • A bar­ barian attack

Insert VI

The Arts and Sciences 342A The nine Muses • Scene from an ancient comedy • A monastic scribe • Manuscript page of Vergil’s Bucolics • Horace • Manuscript page from Horace’s Odes • Andromeda • Ovid • Printer’s workshop • Erasmus • Diagram in Copernicus’ Con­ cerning the Revolution of the Celestial Spheres • Copernicus’ astronomical instruments

PART

I

Review and Preview The period of almost forty years from 80 b.c. to 43 b.c. is called the Age of Cicero. It was during this time that Marcus Tullius Cicero was the most prominent orator and writer in Rome. It was a period of great unrest, of civil wars and dictators, of military might against civil right, of great material prosperity and poverty, of much culture and extravagant display, of moral and religious decadence. Nevertheless, interest in literature and art was widespread, and many writers produced works which were to have a lasting effect on Western culture and literature.

SALLUST The first historian of this period was Gaius Sallustius Crispus (86-35 b.c.). He was born of a plebeian family in Amiternum, a small town in the Sabine territory, and was educated at Rome. He seems to have devoted the early years of his life to literary pursuits. Sallust was active in public life and became a partisan of Caesar and the Democratic Party, or Populârës. He held the plebeian tribuneship in 52 b.c., but two years later was expelled from the Senate on a charge of immorality. The following year, 49 b.c., Caesar procured for him the office of quaestor and so restored him to senatorial rank. In 48 b.c., Sallust served under Caesar in the African War. At the close of the war, Caesar appointed him governor of the province of Numidia. During his governorship he amassed great wealth at the expense of the province and bought immense lands and houses in Italy. He subsequently retired to his luxurious villa on the Quirinal, where he devoted the rest of his life to elegant living and the writing of his historical works. He died in 35 b.c. at the age of fifty-two. Sallust is known primarily for two political pamphlets: the Jugurthine War, an account of the war with Jugurtha from 112 to 106 b.c.; and the Conspiracy of Catiline, an account of the plot to overthrow the state in 63 b.c. The latter was written some twenty years after the conspiracy. Sallust relied not only on Cicero's orations and other available records, but also on his own recollections. He himself had been an eye-witness of much that had occurred, and he was

I

personally acquainted with the leading participants. Although he was a radical in politics and a strong supporter of the Populàrës, he tried to write an unbiased account of the conspiracy. As a historian he is accurate rather than brilliant. His terse and highly polished literary style is unique and quite unlike that of Caesar or Cicero. Excerpts adapted from the Conspiracy of Catiline are given in Units I-X. They serve as background material to Cicero’s orations against Catiline.

Unit I THE CHARACTER OF CATILINE

Lücius Catilina nobili genere nâtus est. F uit m àgnâ vi et animi et corporis sed ingeniô malô pràvôque. Huic ab adulescentia bella intestina (civil), caedës, rapinae, discordia civilis grata fuerunt, atque in his rebus juventütem suam exercuit. Corpus erat patiens ( able to endure) famis, frigoris, vigiliae ( lack of sleep) suprâ quam cuiquam credibile est. Animus erat audax, subdolus, varius. Alieni avidus, suî profüsus, erat ârdêns in cupiditatibus. EI erat satis eloquentiae, sapientiae parum . Vâstus (insatiable) animus im moderata, incredibilia, nimis alta sem per cupiebat. Post dominationem L. Sullae, hunc libido maxima invaserat rei püblicae capiendae; neque quidquam pensi (o f any im portance) habebat quibus^ modis id assequeretur, dum sibi rëgnum pararet. Magis m agisque in dies animus ferox inopia rei familiaris (w ealth) et conscientia scelerum agitabatur. Incitabant eum praeterea corrupti civitatis môrës. In tanta tam que corrupta civitate catervas (groups) omnium flàgitiôrum ( criminals) atque facinorum (scoundrels) circum së habëbat. Els amicis sociisque confisus, Catilina consilium reï püblicae opprim endae cëpit. Hoc consilium adjuvabat quod (th e fact th a t) aes aliënum per omnës terras ingëns erat et quod plërïque Sullani mllitës, rapinarum et victoriae veteris memorës, civile bellum optabant. In Italia erat nüllus exercitus. Cn. Pompëjus in extrëmïs terris bellum gerëbat. Catilinae ipsi m agna spës cônsulàtüs obtinendi erat. Senatus nihil sànë intentus erat. Tütae tranquillaeque rës omnës erant, sed ea prôrsus opportüna Catilinae erant. FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

2

To what class of society did Catiline belong? What kind of character did he have? How strong was he physically? What were his mental and moral characteristics?

5. 6. 7. 8.

What was Catiline’s chief ambition? What two evils were responsible for the disturbed state of the republic? What type of men did Catiline choose for his close companions? Why was there no army in Italy at that time?

s e c tio n

1 Nominative, Vocative, and Genitive Cases NOMINATIVE CASE

USE Subject Predicate noun

LATIN

ENGLISH

Senatus convênit. Conjurati erant Catilinae amïcï.

The Senate assembled. The conspirators were Catiline’s

friends.

Predicate adjective Appositive

Cicerô factus est consul. Pompëjus imperàtor creatus est. Animus erat audax. Aes aliênum ingêns vidëtur. Urbs Rôma oppugnata est.

Cicero became consul. Pompey was appointed general. His spirit was daring. The debt seems enormous. The city (o f) Rome was attacked.

VOCATIVE CASE USE

ENGLISH

LATIN

1st declension

Quid exspectas, Catilina?

What are you waiting for, Cati

2nd declension -us

Responde mihi, amice mi. (sing.) Respondëte mihi, amici mei. (pl.) Tulli, quid agis?

Answer me, my friend.

line?

2nd declension —ius

Answer me, my friends.

Tullius, what are you doing?

GENITIVE CASE ° USE Possession Description

Partitive (W hole)

fPredicate flndefinite value f Origin f Material

ENGLISH

LATIN Domus Ciceronis. Vir màgnae auctoritatis. Fossa quindecim pedum . Puer novem annorum. Partem istam subselliorum. Quis vestrum? Ültimus Rômânôrum. Quid cônsili? Domus est Ciceronis. Est tanti. Mârci filius. Acervus frumenti.

° Rules preceded by a dagger ( f ) appear for the first time in third-year Latin. They are fully explained in the Appendix. Rules

Cicero’s house. A man of great influence. A trench of fifteen feet. A boy of nine years. That part of the benches. Who of you? The last of the Romans. What purpose? The house is Cicero’s. It is worthwhile. Son of Marcus. A pile of grain.

not preceded by a dagger have been taught in first- and second-year Latin,

3

GENITIVE CASE (continued) ENGLISH

LATIN

USE Subjective Objective

Spem Catilinae. Püblicï cônsili particeps.

The hope of Catiline. A sharer of (in) public delibera­

Nômen régis. Agri alien! avidus.

The name of king. Desirous of another’s land.

Memento mei. Obliviscere caedis. Më fûrtï accüsat. Më ipse inertiae condemnô. Impietatis absolutus est. Paenitet më hujus facti. Patris interest. Implëtur Graecarum artium. Pecuniae indigës. Potïrï rèrum.

Remember me. Forget slaughter. He arcuses me of theft. I condemn myself for inactivity. He was acquitted of blasphemy. I repent of this act. It concerns the father. It is filled with Greek arts. You need money. To get control of affairs.

tions. fLimiting With adjectives fWith verbs: remembering forgetting accusing condemning acquitting impersonal interest plenty need potior

PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Select the word in parentheses that makes each of the following sentences grammatically correct. Translate each sentence. 1. Oppidum (Lavinium, Lâvinià) appellatum est. 2. Huic bella intestina erant (grata, gratae). 3. Erant memorës (victoriae, victôrià) veteris. 4. Aes aliënum (parvus, parvum) vidëtur. 5. Communis (salütï, salütis) causa laborabat. 6. Est (invidiae, invidiam) metus. 7. Së cibi (inopiam, inopiae) condemnat. 8. Maxima pars (subselliorum, subselliis) erat vacua. 9. Cicero Tulliam (filiam, filiae) amabat. 10. Dic nobis, (Catilina, Catilinam), consilia tua. B. Complete each of the following sentences by translating the word or words in parentheses. 1. Erat adulêscëns viginti (years). 2. Quis (senators) Catilinam accüsat? 3. Conjurati non erant Ciceronis (friends). 4. Catilina potiri (power) vult. 5. Nômen (consul) cupivit. 6. Cicero erat vir summae (courage). 7. Domum (gold) aedificâvêrunt. 8. Quis (of us) mortem non timet? 9. Màgnam partem (enemy) interfecerunt. 10. Ünus quisque (of you) servabitur.

s e c tio n

2 First and Second Declension Nouns

MASTERY LIST: REVIEW AND PREVIEW * FIRST DECLENSION NOUNS FEMININE

adulescentia, youth amentia, madness

amicitia, friendship angustiae, pi., difficulty

° Words preceded by a dagger ( f ) are on the required list for third-year Latin. The

4

aqua, water aquila, eagle

other words are on the required lists for first- and second-year Latin.

fàra, altar audàcia, boldness avaritia, greed benevolentia, favor causa,reason fclëmentia, mercy fconcordia, agreement fcônscientia, guilt fcônstantia, firmness controversia, dispute copia, supply fculpa, blame cura, care fCüria, senate house fcüstôdia, guard dea, goddess diligentia, care disciplina, training divitiae, pL, riches doctrina, teaching domina, mistress epistula, letter fabula, fable fama, report familia, household fëmina, \yoman filia, daughter f flamma, flame forma, form fortuna, chance fossa, ditch fuga, flight gloria, glory gratia, favor hôra, hour

fïgnôminia, disgrace findustria, activity f inertia, idleness injüria, injustice f innocentia, honesty inopia, want insidiae, pL, ambush insula, island invidia, envy ira, anger f justitia, justice fKalendae, pL, Calends

poena, punishment porta, gate praeda, booty fpraetüra, praetorship provincia, province f prüdentia, foresight puella, girl piigna, fight fquerëla, complaint ripa, bank

f lacrima, tear f laetitia, joy lingua, tongue littera, letter; litterae, pL, epistle lüna, moon f lüxuria, extravagance

sagitta, arrow scientia, knowledge sententia, opinion f sica, dagger silva, forest stella, star summa, leadership

f macula, stain materia, timber memoria, memory mënsa, table f militia, military service f misericordia, pity mora, delay

f tabella, tablet; f tabellae, pL, record f tabula, tablet; f tabulae, pi., records f temperantia, selfrestraint f tenebrae, pi., darkness terra, land toga, toga tuba, trumpet

nâtüra, nature fnëquitia, wickedness fNônae, pL, Nones opera, work fora, coast parricida, parricide f patientia, endurance patria, country pecünia, money

f venia, pardon via, way victoria, victory vigilia, night watch villa, country house vita, life

MASCULINE

poëta, poet

agricola, farmer

nauta, sailor

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

incola, inhabitant SECOND DECLENSION NOUNS MASCULINE (-US)

amicus, friend animus, spirit; animi, courage annus, year favus, grandfather barbarus, foreigner

campus, field captivus, prisoner carrus, wagon cibus, food f colônus, settler conjürâtus, conspirator

deus, god digitus, finger dominus, master equus, horse

5

filius, son gladius, sword inimicus, enemy lëgâtus, envoy liberi, pi., children locus, place lüdus, game, school modus, measure morbus, disease mürus, wall

f nervus, sinew numerus, number nuntius, messenger Ôceanus, ocean oculus, eye populus, people praefectus, governor privatus, private citizen propinquus, relative rëmus, oar f reus, defendant (-er, -ir) magister, -tri, teacher puer, pueri, boy

servus, slave socius, ally somnus, sleep fstimulus, a goad terminus, end tribùnus, tribune f triumphus, triumph tumulus, mound ventus, wind vicus, village

masculine

ager, agri, field liber, libri, book

vesper, vesperi, evening vir, viri, man

FEMININE humus, ground neuter

aedificium, building t aerarium, the treasury f argentum, silver f argümentum, proof arma, pi., arms atrium, hall faurum, gold fauspicium, auspices auxilium, help bellum, war beneficium, kindness biduum, two days

(-urn)

factum, deed f fânum, shrine f fatum, fate f ferrum, iron, sword f flagitium, outrage forum, market place frümentum, grain f fürtum, theft gaudium, joy hiberna, p i, winter quar­

ters

caelum, sky castrum, fort; castra, p i ,

impedimentum, hin­

camp colloquium, conversation fcomitia, p i, meeting fComitium, meeting place in front of Senate concilium, gathering consilium, plan f consultum, decree f convivium, feast

imperium, command f incendium, fire f indicium, testimony f ingenium, talent initium, beginning institutum, practice intervallum, interval

f delictum, fault f dëlübrum, shrine dëtrïmentum, loss domicilium, dwelling dônum, gift f exemplum, example f exitium, ruin f exsilium, exile

6

drance

jiidicium, judgment jugum, yoke

f latrocinium, robbery maleficium, evil deed mandatum, order f monumentum, memorial f municipium, free town negôtium, business

f odium, hate officium, duty oppidum, town f ornamentum, decoration fôtium, leisure pabulum, fodder fpactum, agreement periculum, danger pilum, javelin praemium, reward praesidium, guard pretium, price principium, beginning proelium, battle rëgnum, kingdom responsum, answer rostrum, beak; Rostra, p i, platform f sacrificium, sacrifice saxum, rock scütum, shield signum, sign silentium, silence f simulacrum, likeness f somnium, dream spatium, distance f stipendium, tribute studium, eagerness f stuprum, vice subsidium, aid f suffragium, vote

supplicium, punishment

ftëstimônium, proof tormentum, war engine triduum, three days

f tectum, roof, house tëlum, weapon templum, temple tergum, back ftëstàmentum, last will

vadum, shoal vallum, rampart f venënum, poison

verbum, word vëstïgium, trace vinculum, chain ] vinum, wine fvitium, fault

NEUTER (~US)

vulgus, common people PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Identify the case 1. àrà colônô 2. ôram odium 3. sîcâs auri 4. avï culpam 5. reus humi 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

and number of the following nouns. Translate. lacrimis aerarium comitiis ingeniorum macularum dëlübrl Ignominia flagitils luxuriae fânôrum jüstitiae pacta parricida ferro municipia divitias nervos indicia conviviis stimulo

B. Write in Latin these specified forms. ablative singular and plural: wickedness, example, proof, fault dative singular: complaint, pardon, defendant, vote nominative singular and plural: settler, dagger, outrage, roof genitive plural: joy, sinew, silver, tribute accusative singular and plural: shrine, luxury, disease, poison

s e c tio n

3 Third Declension Nouns

MASTERY LIST: REVIEW AND PREVIEW C O N SO N A N T STEM S

MASCULINE

consul, consulis, consul f conjunx, conjugis, spouse f grex, gregis, flock rëx, rëgis, king dux, ducis, leader f index, indicis, witness jüdex, jüdicis, judge f pontifex, pontificis, priest homo, hominis, man f latro, latronis, bandit ôrdo, ôrdinis, order f praedô, praedonis, pirate sanguis, sanguinis, blood f sermô, sermonis, dis­ course

cûstôs, cüstôdis, guard lapis, lapidis, stone obses, obsidis, hostage pës, pedis, foot f comes, comitis, comrade eques, equitis, horseman f hospes, hospitis, guest miles, militis, soldier pariés, parietis, wall of a house agger, aggeris, mound f career, carceris, prison pulvis, pulveris, dust princeps, principis, chief

fréter, fràtris, brother pater, patris, father soi, sôlis, sun centuriô, -ônis, centurion amor, -ôris, love auctor, -ôris, founder cënsor, -ôris, censor clâmor, -ôris, shout dolor, -ôris, sorrow explôràtor, -ôris, scout f furor, -ôris, rage gladiator, -ôris, swords­ man honor, —ôris, honor imperàtor, -ôris, general

7

labor, -oris, work f maeror, -ôris, grief mercâtor, -ôris, merchant praetor, -ôris, praetor f pudor, -ôris, shame

f aequitâs, -tâtis, fairness aestâs, -tâtis, summer aetâs, -tâtis, age auctôritàs, -tâtis, power calamitâs, -tâtis, disaster celeritàs, -tâtis, speed cïvitâs, -tâtis, state cupiditâs, -tâtis, desire difficultàs, -tâtis, diffi­

culty dîgnitâs, -tâtis, worth facilitâs, -tâtis, ease facultàs, -tâtis, ability fêlïcitàs, -tâtis, good

fortune f gravitâs, -tâtis, weight honestâs, -tâtis, honor hümânitàs, -tâtis, culture lïbertâs, -tâtis, liberty nôbilitâs, -tâtis, noble birth f posteritâs, -tâtis, posterity potestàs, -tâtis, power f sevëritàs, -tâtis, severity f societàs, -tâtis, society f temeritàs, -tâtis, rashness tempestâs, -tâtis,

weather fùtilitàs, -tâtis, usefulness fvarietâs, -tâtis, variety f vëritâs, -tâtis, truth voluntâs, -tâtis, will f voluptâs, -tâtis, pleasure altitûdô, -inis, height cônsuëtüdô, -inis, custom

agmen, -inis, line of

march fcôgnômen, -inis, family

name f discrimen, -inis, crisis flümen, -inis, river

quaestor, —ôris, quaestor rùmor, -ôris, rumor t scriptor, -ôris, writer senâtor, -ôris, senator f splendor, -ôris, brilliance

FEMININE fortitùdô, -inis, bravery lâtitûdô, -inis, width mâgnitüdô, -inis, great­

ness f mânsuëtüdô, -inis, mild­ ness multitùdô, -inis, great number f necessitüdô, -inis, rela­ tionship f turpitüdô, -inis, baseness fformîdô, -inis, dread f libïdô, -inis, pleasure

f imàgô, -inis, likeness f virgô, -inis, maiden salüs, -ütis, safety

f senectüs, -tütis, old age servitüs, -tùtis, slavery virtùs, -tütis, bravery palüs, -üdis, swamp hiems, hiemis, winter condiciô, -ônis, condition f conjürâtiô, -ônis, con­ spiracy f côntiô, -ônis, mass meet­ in g _ dëditiô, -ônis, surrender exercitâtiô, -ônis, train­ ing lëgâtiô, -ônis, embassy münïtiô, -ônis, fortifica­ tion nâtiô, -ônis, race, tribe

NEUTER flümen, -inis, light nômen, -inis, name f ômen, -inis, omen f sëmen, -inis, seed,

source

terror, -ôris, terror timor, -ôris, fear victor, -ôris, victor

obsidiô, -ônis, siege occàsiô, —ônis, occasion opïniô, -ônis, opinion ôràtiô, -ônis, speech profectiô, -ônis, de­

parture f quaestiô, —ônis, inquiry ratio, -ônis, reason regiô, -ônis, region religiô, -ônis, cuit statiô, -ônis, outpost f supplicâtiô, -ônis,

thanksgiving suspîciô, -ônis, suspicion ffax, facis, torch lëx, lëgis, law lüx, lücis, light f nex, necis, slaughter pâx, pâcis, peace vôx, vôcis, voice mâter, màtris, mother mulier, -eris, woman soror, -ôris, sister uxor, -ôris, wife arbor, -oris, tree frôns, frontis, forehead laus, laudis, praise ops, opis, aid; opës, opium, p i , wealth plëbs, plëbis, common

people quiës, quiëtis, rest

corpus, -oris, body f dëdecus, -oris, disgrace facinus, -oris, misdeed frigus, -oris, cold lltus, -oris, shore

pecus, -oris, cattle robur, -oris, oak, strength tempus, -oris, time ffoedus, -eris, treaty genus, -eris, kind

latus, -eris, side tonus, -eris, burden opus, -eris, work t scelus, —eris, crime t verber, -eris, lash vulnus, -eris, wound

caput, -itis, head iter, itineris, route jüs, jüris, right, law tôs, ôris, mouth, face trüs, rüris, country

I-STEMS MASCULINE

civis, civis, citizen collis, collis, hili finis, finis, end hostis, hostis, enemy ignis, ignis, fire f juvenis, juvenis, youth

mënsis, mënsis, month orbis, orbis, circle t senex, senis, old man

môns, montis, mountain pôns, pontis, bridge

ttëstis, tëstis, witness

adulëscëns, adulëscentis, youth

dëns, dentis, tooth FEMININE

faedës, aedis, temple tauris, auris, ear caedës, caedis, slaughter classis, classis, fleet ffaucës, -ium, pi., jaws famës, famis, hunger nâvis, nâvis, ship fpestis, pestis, plague

tsecüris, secüris, ax tsëdës, sëdis, seat turris, turris, tower vallës, vallis, valley vestis, vestis, garment vis, irreg., force virés, -ium, pl., force

cohors, cohortis, cohort mors, mortis, death nox, noctis, night pars, partis, part f sors, sortis, lot urbs, urbis, city

ars, artis, skill NEUTER

animal, animalis, animal fvectigal, vectigalis, tribute

mare, maris, sea fïnsïgne, insignis, mark

moenia, moenium, pi., walls

PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Identify the case and number of the praedonum ruri 1. indices maeroribus 2. gravitas virés voluptàtës 3. imaginis moenia dedecus senectüs 4. necem quaestioni ominibus 5. agmen

following nouns. Translate, comite oneribus aedium formidinis opibus secüribus face vi contionem gregum

sedi senis sorte testibus montium

B. Write in Latin these specified forms. 1. accusative singular and plural: crisis, misdeed, mass meeting, guest 2. genitive plural: prison, sun, centurion, jaws 3. nominative singular and plural: thanksgiving, lash, force, conspiracy 4. dative singular: flock, writer, dust, hostage 5. ablative singular and plural: maiden, crime, bandit 9

s e c tio n

4 Fourth and Fifth Declension Nouns

MASTERY LIST: REVIEW AND PREVIEW

FOURTH DECLENSION NOUNS MASCULINE

aditus, -üs, approach adventus, -üs, arrival aestus, -üs, heat, tide câsus, —üs, accident fcomitâtus, -üs, escort commeâtus, -üs, supplies conspectus, -üs, view fcônsulâtus, -üs, consulate fcruciàtus, -üs, torture currus, -üs, chariot cursus, -üs, course

flüctus, -üs, wave f früctus, -üs, fruit

f quaestus, -üs, profit

f gradus, -üs, step

senâtus, -üs, senate f sënsus, -üs, feeling f spiritus, —üs, breath f strepitus, -üs, noise sümptus, -üs, expense

impetus, -üs, attack f interitus, -üs, death magistratus, -üs, magistracy metus, -üs, fear f motus, -üs, motion

reditus, -üs, return

tumultus, -üs, uprising üsus, -üs, experience versus, -üs, verse vultus, -üs, expression

f nütus, -üs, nod

f dîlëctus, -üs, choice, levy

occâsus, -üs, setting (of sun)

ëventus, -üs, outcome equitatus, -üs, cavalry exercitus, -üs, army exitus, -üs, exit

passus, -üs, pace portus, -üs, harbor NEUTER

FEMININE

manus, -üs, hand

domus, -üs, home

cornü, -üs, horn, wing (of an army)

FIFTH DECLENSION NOUNS FEMININE

aciës, -ëï, line of battle f perniciës, -ëï, destruction plànitiës, -ëï, plain

speciës, -ëï, sight fidës, -eï, faith

rës, -eî, thing spës, -eî, hope

MASCULINE AND FEMININE

diës, -ëï, day PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Identify Translate. 1. cruciàtü 2. domuï 3. früctibus 4. graduum 5. sensuum

the case and the number of each of the following nouns. perniciei quaestus senàtüs manibus rë

spe fidë cornü üsuï môtüs

plànitië dïlëctum speciem interitü impetuum

portibus spiritui diëbus comitatum metibus

magistratuum aciës sümptus vultui spei

B. Write in Latin the second noun in the same noun. Translate. 1. conjugis—step 6. libidines—thing 2. pudôrem—faith 7. palüdum—wave 3. vôcibus—profit 8. scelera—fear 4. temeritas—feeling 9. itineribus—day 5. münîtiônibus—nod 10. foederis—hand

and number as the first 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

juvene—sight sorti—plain moenia—home noctium—horn faucibus—choice

CICERO S LITERARY STYLE Cicero was first and foremost an orator. The qualities that made him a suc­ cess as an orator made him a success as an author, namely, his ability to express himself and his art of persuasion by means of speech. He knew how to adjust his subject matter and his method of approach to the mentality and the temper of his audience, and he knew how to place and to stress his strong arguments, and to minimize and to obscure his weak ones. By his dramatic delivery and intense fervor, Cicero could incite a calm and benevolent throng to fury and violence, or sway their emotions to feelings of pity and compassion. He could fascinate his hearers by his vivacious and dynamic personality. He arranged all his words, phrases, clauses, sentences, and even paragraphs in a melodious rhythm that effected a pleasing harmony of sound and sense. A musical cadence and rhythmic beat prevailed in his use of paired words, balanced phrases, antithetic clauses, and periodic sentences. His sentences varied from the simple and the terse to the intricate and the profound. Each phrase, clause, and sentence has its own unity, co­ herence, and proper emphasis. To recapture the effects of his euphonic and polyphonic prose and to appreciate the systematic and symmetrical effect of a single paragraph or of an entire speech, we must read Cicero's orations or writings aloud. Only in this way can we hope to enjoy the clarity, force, harmony, and elegance of Cicero's style.

CICEROS STYLISTIC DEVICES Cicero employed a variety of stylistic devices. These form an integral element of Latin style, and Cicero used them well and freely for the sake of interest, emphasis, diversity, and general effect on his hearers and readers. These stylistic devices may be considered under three general headings: (1) figures of speech, (2) figures of syntax, and (3) figures of rhetoric. Figures of speech assist the orator to arouse and to inspire the imagination and the intellect by unusual expressions of ideas and associations of ideas. Figures

11

of syntax are striking and unusual grammatical arrangements of the various elements in sentences for the sake of clarity, emphasis, or vividness. Figures of rhetoric are devices by which the orator pleases the ears, as well as the minds, of his audience, and thus stimulates and maintains the attention of his auditors. The word rhetoric is derived from rhetor, the Greek word for orator. FIGURES OF SPEECH

Simile is an imaginative and picturesque comparison between objects of

different classes. In Latin, the simile is regularly introduced by some word meaning as or like: qualis, similis, ut, velut, tamquam. Habëmus senàtüs consultum, inclüsum in tabulis tamquam [gladium] in vagina reconditum.

We have a decree of the Senate buried in the records like a sword in a sheath.

^Metaphor is an implied comparison. It applies to a person or thing the char­

acteristic of another, to suggest a likeness between them. Corinthum patres vetrï, tôtïus Graeciae lümen, exstinctum esse voluërunt.

Your ancestors wished Corinth, the light of all Greece, to be extinguished.

( Corinth, the most important city of Greece, is compared metaphorically with a light. The verb exstinguo means extinguish or destroy.) Personification attributes personal qualities or attributes to inanimate objects or abstract ideas to make the writing more vivid.

SI tëcum patria loquatur, bene attendâs.

If your country should speak with you, you would listen carefully.

(This is one of the famous examples in which Cicero represents Rome per­ sonified as speaking to Catiline. ) Apostrophe is an address in an exclamatory tone to an imaginary or absent

person, or to an inanimate object as if it were alive, or to an abstract idea. This figure is used as a digression in a speech or literary writing in order to express the deep emotion of the speaker or the writer. Ô nômen dulce libertatis! Ô jüs eximium nostrae civitatis!

O sweet name of liberty! O glorious

right of our citizenship!

PRACTICE PATTERNS

Identify the figure of speech in each of the following phrases or sentences. Translate. 1. Si exieris, exhaurietur ex urbe tuôrum comitum sentina rei püblicae.

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Videntur similes hominibus aegris morbo gravi. Ô lëx Porcia, lëgësque Semproniae! Manüs tendit patria. Periculum erit inclüsum penitus in vënis atque visceribus rei püblicae. Si ex urbe së ëjëcerit, sëcumque suôs ëdüxerit, etiam stirps ac sëmen malôrum omnium dëlëbitur. 7. Të patria ôdit et metuit. 8. Ô graviter dëslderàta, et aliquando reddita plëbl Rômànae, tribünicia potestâs! 9. Hi viri clârl erant similës lüminibus civitatis. 10. Si tëcum urbs loquatur, nônne impetrare dëbeat?

SENTENCE PATTERNS

A. Translate into English. 1. Patria commünis est parëns omnium nostrum. 2. Catilina certë erat auctor sceleris, princeps conjüràtiônis, castrorum im­ perator, atque hostium dux. 3. Nëmô hostium eum, fortissimum omnium, capere poterat. 4. Paene tôta urbs Rôma Igne dëlëta est. 5. Adventü Catilinae omnës ex Cüriâ discessërunt. 6. Magna civium pars intra moenia continëbàtur. 7. Tëne hôrum ôra vultüsque môvërunt? 8. Qui£ nostrum, Catilina, haec Ignorât? 9. Tü, M. Tullï, urbem Rômam diligentia servavisti. 10. Quid dëtrlmentl? Nihil dëtrlmentl. B. Translate into Latin. 1. He was desirous of the goods of other men, but wasteful of his own goods. 2. His fierce spirit was aroused more and more day by day by the knowledge of his crimes. 3. Very many nobles wished to become sharers of the public deliberation. 4. Cicero blamed himself for inactivity. 5. Did the consul receive this reward of praise and glory?

Unit II THE LIST OF CONSPIRATORS

Igitur circiter Kalendâs Jüniâs, L. Caesare et C. Figulô consulibus, C atilina prim o singulos appellavit, aliôs hortatus est, aliôs tem ptâvit. Opes suas, im parâtam rem püblicam , m agna praem ia conjüràtiônis

13

docuit. Ubi satis explorata sunt quae voluit, in ünurn omnës convocat quibus maxima necessitüdô et plürim um audaciae inerat. Eô convenerunt senâtôrï ôrdinis P. Lentulus Sura, P. Autronius, L. Cassius Longinus, C. Cethegus, P. et Ser. ( Servius) Sullae Ser. filii, L. Varguntëjus, Q. Annius, M. Porcius Laeca, L. Bëstia, Q. Cürius; praeterea ex equestri ôrdine M. Fulvius Nobilior, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius Capito, C. Cornelius; ad hoc m ulti ex coloniis et münicipils, domi nôbilës. E rant praeterea coinplürës paulô occultius cônsilï hüjusce participés nôbilës, quôs magis dominationis spës hortabatur quam inopia aut alia necessitüdô. Juvenës plërïque, sed mâximë ex familiis nobilibus, Catilinae inceptis favëbant. Hïs in ôtiô facultas ad vivendum vel màgnificë vel molliter erat, sed incerta prô certis, bellum quam pâcem m àlëbant. F uërunt item eâ tem pestate qui crëderent M. Licinium Crassum non Ignarum ëjus cônsilï fuisse; quia Cn. Pompëjus, invisus ipsï, m agnum exer­ citum ductàbat (was com m anding), cùjusvïs opës voluisse contra illius potentiam crëscere, simul confisum, si conjùrâtiô valuisset, facile apud illôs principem së fore. FOR DISCUSSION

1. When did Catiline begin to form his conspiracy? 2. What methods did Catiline employ in getting accomplices for his nefarious schemes? 3. What inducements did he offer? 4. What various classes of men became involved? 5. Who especially favored Catiline’s undertakings? 6. What noted Roman does Sallust say was later suspected of knowing Cati­ line’s plan?

s e c tio n

1 Accusative Case

USE

Direct object ( verb ) ( preposition ) Duration of time Extent of space Place to which

LATIN

Sibi rêgnum parâbat. Post dominationem Sullae conjürâtiônem fëcêrunt. Multos dies ibi mânsit. Paucôs pedês processit vir. Ad castra properàvèrunt. Cicerô Rômam profectus est. Ad Rômam pervenit.

ENGLISH

He was preparing supreme power for himself. After the despotism of Sulla, they conspired. He remained there for many days. The man advanced a few feet. They hurried toward the camp. Cicero set out for Rome. He arrived in the vicinity of Rome.

ACCUSATIVE CASE ( continued) USE

Predicate accusa­ tive

LATIN

Populus Ciceronem consulem creâvit. Fulvia Ciceronem certiorem fêcit.

Double accusative

Cicerô senàtôrès sententiam rogavit. Verbs compounded Exercitum pontem tràdüxit. with preposition Subject of infinitive Catilinam discedere oportet. Object of infinitive Eum urbem relinquere jussit.

Dixit Catilinam discedere. Indirect discourse Ô fortunatum rem publicam! f Exclamatory accusative f Cognate accusative Vitam jucundam vivit.

ENGLISH

The people elected Cicero consul. Fulvia informed Cicero (made Cicero more certain ). Cicero asked the senators their opinion.

He led the army across the bridge. It behooves Catiline to leave. He ordered him to leave the city. He said Catiline was leaving. O fortunate state! He lives a happy life.

PREPOSITIONS GOVERNING THE ACCUSATIVE praeter, except In, into, against (motion ad, to, toward prope, near fadversum, toward to) propter, on account of Infra, below f adversus, against inter, among ante, before secundum, according to intrà, within apud, at, near sub, under (motion to) fcircà, around jüxtà, near supra, above circiter, about ob, on account of trâns, across circum, around cis, citrà, this side (of) fpenes, in the keeping of, ultra, beyond contra, opposite to with f versus, postpositive, per, through fergâ, toward -ward post, after extra, without PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Choose the word or words in parentheses that make each sentence gram­ matically correct. Translate each sentence. 1. Etiam in (senâtü, senatum) venit. 2. Exire jubet consul (hostis, hostem). 3. Catilina së (dignum, dignus) cüstôdià jüdicat. 4. Patëre (tuis consiliis, tua consilia) sentis. 5. Dlcô të venisse in Marci Laecae (domô, domum). 6. Domi­ cilium Romae (multis annis, multos annôs) habebat. 7. Interfectus est propter (seditioni, seditionem). 8. Exercitum (Faesulae, Faesulâs) dêdüxit. 9. Populus Catilinam (consulem, consul) non creavit. 10. Cives (integros, integris) servavi. B. Translate into Latin the word or words in italics. 1. Catiline had around him groups of criminals. 2. He delivered a speech of this kind. 3. I have known you to be brave and faithful to me. 4. People and nations have been paying taxes to them. 5. We ordered the tablets to be

15

brought forth. 6. He confesses that he is an enemy. 7. They fought in a fierce battle. 8. It was necessary for Catiline to depart from the city. 9. He lived for five years. 10. The conspirators confessed that they had been sharers of the plot.

s e c tio n

2 First and Second Declension Adjectives

MASTERY LIST: REVIEW AND PREVIEW f acerbus, bitter f adversarius, opposed adversus, turned toward aeger, sick aequus, just f aerarius, of bronze f aeternus, perpetual aliënus, another’s altus, high, deep amplus, large annuus, annual antiquus, ancient apertus, open f aptus, fit, adapted f assiduus, continual f avidus, greedy barbarus, uncivilized f beatus, happy f bini, two by two bonus, good cârus, dear certus, certain cëterus, the other clàrus, clear commodus, suitable confertus, crowded f contentus, satisfied continuus, continual cotidianus, daily crêber, frequent f cünctus, all cupidus, eager decimus, tenth dëfessus, weary dexter, right f dignus, worthy diversus, diverse f divinus, divine domesticus, domestic f dubius, doubtful dürus, hard

16

ëgregius, outstanding excelsus, lofty f eximius, extraordinary expeditus, unencumbered f externus, external extrëmus, furthest finitimus, neighboring firmus, firm frëtus, relying on frümentàrius, of grain

grâtus, pleasing t hesternus, yesterday hibernus, of winter fhodiernus, today’s f honestus, honorable fbümânus, human idôneus, suitable ignotus, unknown f imperitus, unskilled f improbus, wicked incertus, uncertain f indignus, unworthy f ïnfëstus, hostile iniquus, unjust inferus, lower integer, whole, fresh invitus, unwilling

f jucundus, pleasant jüstus, just lâtus, wide liber, free longinquus, far removed longus, long mâgnus, great malus, bad f manifëstus, obvious maritimus, maritime fmâtürus, ripe

medius, middle meus, my miser, wretched f molestus, troublesome multus, much necessarius, necessary necesse, unavoidable nefarius, impious f nimius, too much nocturnus, by night noster, our nôtus, known novus, new fobscürus, dark occultus, secret octâvus, eighth opportünus, fit parvus, small fpatrius, paternal pauci, pi., few periculosus, dangerous peritus, skilled f perniciosus, destructive perpetuus, perpetual plënus, full plërïque, pi., most posterus, following f praecipuus, especial f praeclarus, excellent fpraeditus, endowed primus, first pristinus, original fproprius, one’s own proximus, nearest püblicus, of the people pulcher, beautiful quantus, how great? quiëtus, quiet quintus, fifth

rêgius, royal reliquus, remaining repentinus, sudden sacer, sacred salvus, safe f sanctus, sacred f sceleratus, criminal secundus, favorable septimus, seventh fseverus, severe sextus, sixth

singuli, p i , one by one sinister, left stultus, foolish summus, highest superbus, proud superus, above suus, his own, her own tardus, slow, late tertius, third f togâtus, clad in a toga tot, indecl., so many

totidem, indecl., as many tütus, safe tuus, your ültimus, last üniversus, all together vacuus, empty varius, different, various vërus, true vester, your vicinus, neighboring vivus, living

ADJECTIVES OF SPECIAL DECLENSION LATIN FORM ünus, üna, imum ùllus, ùlla, üllum nüllus, nülla, nüllum sôlus, sôla, sôlum tôtus, tôta, tôtum alius, alia, aliud uter, utra, utrum uterque, utraque, utrumque neuter, neutra, neutrum alter, altera, alterum

TRANSLATION

GEN. SING.

one, only any, some none, no alone, only all, entire, the whole another ( a different, an ad­ ditional) which ( of two ) each ( of two ) ; both neither ( of two) the other ( of two )

ün/ïus üll/îus nüll/ïus sôl/ïus tôt/ïus al/ïus ( alterius ) utr/ïus utr/îusque neutr/ïus alter/ius

DAT. SING. ün/ï üll/ï nüll/ï sôl/ï tôt/î ali/î utr/ï utr/ïque neutr/î al ter/ï

PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Select the two nouns in parentheses with which each of the following adjectives agrees. 1. improbo (senatui, nautis, seni, consul, comitis) 2. peritis ( rei, rei, latronibus, argento, colonis ) 3. nüllïus (nervus, argümentl, rüs, hospitis, metus) 4. perniciosorum (testium, sicarum, exercituum, pudorem, roboris) 5. propria (sententia, divitias, opinio, lüxurils, triumphi) 6. manifestis (sceleribus, furoris, maeroribus, pontificis, pulveris) 7. nimiô (splendori, môtüs, condicio, quaestio, perniciël) 8. honestum (indicem, cornuum, dierum, honorum, centurionem) 9. tôtl (rë, comitatui, stimuli, Ignominiae, misericordia) 10. eximia (specie, gravitati, formidine, mànsuëtüdinis, hümànitàtl) B. Write in Latin the form of the adjective that agrees with each noun. 6. divitiis—obvious 1. sïcâ—small 7. cupiditatibus—wicked 2 . consiliis—ones own 8. sevëritàte—continual 3. domul—excellent 9. senectütï—happy 4. plânitiël—broad 10. centuriônës—honorable 5. comitâtüs—troublesome

17

s e c tio n

3 Third Declension Adjectives

MASTERY LIST: REVIEW AND PREVIEW

ADJECTIVES IN TWO ENDINGS (-is, rn. and f.; -e, n.) fidëlis, -e, faithful fortis, -e, brave

admirabilis, —e, admir­ able f agrestis, -e, rustic

gravis, —e, heavy

brevis, -e, short

humilis, -e, lowly

f civilis, —e, civil communis, -e, common f consularis, -e, consular f credibilis, —e, credible f crüdëlis, -e, cruel

f illustris, -e, distinguished immortalis, —e, immortal incolumis, —e, safe f incredibilis, —e, incred­ ible f insignis, -e, distinguished

declivis, —e, sloping difficilis, -e, difficult dissimilis, -e, dissimilar f dulcis, -e, sweet

juvenis, —e, voung f lënis, -e, soft levis, -e, light f liberalis, -e, liberal

facilis, -e, easy familiaris, -e, domestic

f mediocris, -e, moderate f mitis, -e, mild f mortalis, -e, mortal fnâvâlis, —e, naval nobilis, -e, distinguished omnis, -e, every, all similis, —e, like singularis, -e, singular f stabilis, -e, steadfast tâlis, -e, such f tenuis, -e, thin f tristis, —e, sad turpis, -e, base ütilis, -e, useful

ADJECTIVES IN THREE ENDINGS (-er, m.; -(e )ris, -(e )re , n.) âcer, âcris, âcre, sharp f celeber, celebris, celebre, thronged alacer, alacris, alacre, eager celer, celeris, celere, swift equester, equestris, equestre, equestrian pedester, pedestris, pedestre, pedestrian

ADJECTIVES IN ONE ENDING tàmëns, âmentis, mad clëmëns, démentis, mild f dëmëns, démentis, mad fdïligèns, diligentis, careful f frequëns, frequentis, crowded ingëns, ingentis, immense innocens, innocentis, innocent f libëns,- libentis,7willingO potëns, potentis, power­ ful

f pracsëns, praesentis, at hand prüdëns, prüdentis, fore­ seeing recëns, recentis, fresh f sapiëns, sapientis, wise vehemëns, vehementis, violent f atrôx, atrôcis, savage audàx, audâcis, bold fëlix, fëlicis, happv ïnfëlïx, ïnfëlïcis, unhappy

par, paris, equal locuplës, locuplëtis, rich senex, senis, old; senum, gen. pi.

supplex, supplicis, sup­ pliant; supplicum, gen pi.

vetus, veteris, old; veterum, gen. pi.

PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. Choose the two adjectives in parentheses that agree with each noun. 1. mensis (primum, ültimus, eünctïs, difficilis, dürïs)

18

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

manuum (pulchra, dulcis, ütilium, veterum, infestorum) animalia ( crùdêlia, periculosi, potentia, industria, perniciosos ) maculas ( tenuis, similes, recenti, perpetuas, crêbrôs ) reis (infelicibus, liberalia, locupletes, egregius, sceleratis) tenebrarum (frequentes, incredibilium, parum, continuum, egregiarum) tumulos ( recentes, lâtôs, mediis, stabilis, ütilium ) carceri ( aperti, antiqua, stabile, obscürô, frequenti ) scriptorem ( doctum, sapientem, senum, locupleti, egregius ) querelae ( singulare, mitis, vehementis, incredibilem, infëstô)

B. Write in Latin the correct form of the adjective for each of the follow­ ing nouns. 6. generis—every 1. caedem—wicked 11. sermonum—wise 12. rationis—any 2. comiti—true 7. portüs—suitable 13. cüstôdï—one 8. mores—useful 3. ôrâtiônis—all 14. parietibus—high 9. mari—broad 4. jüdiciôrum—cruel 15. hospites—no 10. faucium—dangerous 5. consiliis—violent

se c tio n

4 Summary of Adjective Forms DECLENSION

MASC.

FEM.

NEUT.

First and second

bonus liber pulcher

bona libera pulchra

bonum liberum pulchrum

Special genitive dative Third

solus sôllus soli

sôla solius sôlï

sôlum sôllus sôlï

potêns fortis celer âcer

potêns fortis celeris âcris

potêns forte celere âcre

Comparative

-ior

-ior

-ius

Superlative

—issimus -errimus -fl] imus

—issima —errima -illima

-issimum —errimum -fllimum

( liber) ( facilis )

Irregular

f See p. 378. )

REVIEW HELPS

1. Review the regular and irregular comparison of adjectives, page 380 of the Appendix. 2. Review the list of numerals and the declension of one, two, and three on pages 379, 381—382 of the Appendix. 3. Most Latin adjectives are compared like clârus or fortis.

19

4. All adjectives in -er are compared like liber or âcer. 5. Five adjectives are compared like facilis: difficilis, similis, dissimilis, humilis, gracilis. 6. All other adjectives in -lis are compared regularly: nôbilis, ütilis, etc. 7. The formation of the comparative degree is the same for all adjectives of regular comparison. 8. The comparative degree of the adjectives is declined like third declension consonant stems: honor, corpus. 9. All superlative degree adjectives are declined like bonus, -a, - um . 10. With quam, the superlative denotes the highest possible degree: quam plürimi, as many as possible. PRACTICE PATTERNS

A. For each of the following nouns, write the correct Latin form of the adjectives indicated. 1. acië (celer, ültimus, liberior, fortis) 2. colonorum (peritus, ferôx, vetus, fidissimus) 3. praedonibus ( âcer, alacrior, pessimus, infëstus ) 4. münicipiis ( vehemens, sceleratus, miserius, locuples ) 5. foedere ( sacerrimus, turpior, tenuis, par ) B. Write in Latin the specified form for the following words. 1. ablative singular of: senatus optimus, senator fortior 2. accusative plural of: scelus pessimum, facinus nefarium 3. dative singular of: culpa mâxima, exitium majus 4. accusative singular of: formido eximia, metus potentior 5. genitive plural of: imâgô ingentior, simulacrum obscürius C. Write in Latin the following nouns. 1. scriptore—more pru­ dent 2. reôs—very sad 3. filiabus—two 4. colle—middle of 5. avl—one

form of the adjective that agrees with each of the 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

liberis—smallest vitl—neither tëstês—only stipendia—more viribus—greater

11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

pariete—rather high temeritate—very dangerous horls—three centurionem—distinguished laetitia—moderate

FIGURES OF SPEECH

Metonymy is the use of a noun or a name in place of another more commonly used and literal word associated with it. It is the substitution of one word for another that it suggests. Ceres in nàvës ferëbâtur.

Grain was carried onto the ships.

( The name of the goddess of grain is used here instead of the usual word for grain, frümentum. ) 20

Synecdoche is the use of a part for a whole or an individual for a class, or the reverse of these. T.ëcta àrdëbunt.

The roofs ( homes ) will burn.

Hyperbole is obvious exaggeration for the sake of producing a strong effect. Alter fïnës vestrï imperï non terrae sed caeli regionibus terminavit.

The one limited the boundaries of your empire by the regions not of the earth but of the sky.

Litotes is an understatement in the form of a denial instead of the opposite affirmative in order to avoid censure or to increase the effect. Neque enim sunt aut ofyscüra aut non multa.

For they are not hidden, nor are they few in number.

PRACTICE PATTERNS

Identify the figures of speech contained in each of the following sentences. Translate each sentence. 1. Parietês hüjus Cüriae tibi grâtiâs agere gestiunt. 2. Non ïgnôrô. 3. Duodecim secürës in praedonum potestatem venerunt. 4. Homines ex civitate male pàcàtà vënërunt. 5. Gnaeus Pompejus in extremis terris bellum gerëbat. 6. Haec gens bellum populo Rômànô facere et posse et non nolle videatur. 7. Persaepe etiam privati in hâc rë püblicà perniciosos civës morte multarunt. 8. Non nüllï sunt in hôc ordine. SENTENCE PATTERNS

A. Translate into English. 1. Multi crëdidërunt Crassum participem ëjus cônsili fuisse. 2. Catilina etiam in senàtum venit. 3. Ad mortem të, Catilina, dücï oportëbat. 4. Habëmus senâtüs consultum in të, Catilina, vehemëns et grave. 5. Nonne cëterï fortissimi civës circumstant senâtum? 6. Dux signum dat et cohortës progredi jubet. 7. Multos diës in castris së tenuërunt et posteâ pauca milia passuum prôcessërunt. 8. Catilinam certiorem fëcërunt populum Ciceronem consulem creavisse. 9. Cicero senâtum Catilinae multa scelera docuit. 10. Ô tempora, Ô mores! Catilina tamen vitam nefariam vivit. B. Translate into Latin the italicized word or words. 1. In such matters he trained his youth. 2. About the Kalends of June, he summoned the conspirators one by one.

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3. The Senate wants the consul to be mild about this affair. 4. Cicero said that very many of his accomplices assembled at the home of Laeca. 5. They led the conspirators across the Mulvian bridge. 6. It was necessary for Catiline to depart from the city. 7. Catiline asked only his associates their opinions. 8. O wretched man! To think that you would plan to murder the consuls! 9. Did he not delay several days and then hasten to Faesulae? 10. The people did not elect Catiline consul, did they?

Unit III FAILURE OF CATILINE'S INITIAL PLANS

Sed anteà item conjuraverunt pauci contra rem püblicam , in quibus Catilina fuit; dë quâ quam verissime poterô dicam. L. Tullô et M. Lepido consulibus, P. Autronius et P. Sulla, designati cônsulës, lëgibus am bitüs interrogati poenas dederant. Post paulô Catilina, pecüniàrum repeten­ darum ( extortion) reus, prohibitus erat consulatum petere quod intra legitimos dies profiteri nequiverat. E rat eodem tem pore Cn. Piso, adulescens nobilis, sum m ae audaciae, egens, factiosus ( seditious) , quem ad perturbandam rem püblicam inopia atque mali mores stim ulabant. Catilina et Autronius circiter Nonas Decembres, cum hôc cônsiliô com m ünicàtôf parabant in Capitolio Kalendis Januariis L. Cottam et L. Torquatum , cônsulës, interficere; ipsi, fascibus correptis, Pisonem cum exercitu ad obtinendas duâs Hispàniàs m ittere in animô habëbant. Eà rë côgnitâ, rürsus in Nonas Februarias consilium caedis tran stu ­ lerant. Jam tum non consulibus modo, secLplërïsque senatoribus perniciem m achinabantur Quod nisi C atilina m àtürâsset prô Cürià signum sociis dare, eô dië post conditam urbem Rômam pessimum facinus patratum esset. Quia nondum frequentës arm âtï convënerant, ea rës consilium dirëmit. Posteâ Piso in citeriorem Hispaniam quaestor prô praetore missus est, annitente ( conniving) Cra$sô, quod eum infestum inimicum Cn. Pompëjô esse cognoverat. Sed Piso, iter faciëns, in provincia ab equitibus Hispanis, quôs in exercitü habëbat, occisus est. Alii dicunt hoc factum esse quod im perata ëjus injüsta crüdëliaque erant; alii crëdunt eôs equitës fïdôs clientës Pompëjï fuisse et ëjus vo­ luntate Pïsônem aggressôs esse. Sed dë illà superiôre conjüràtiône satis dictum est.

The Roman World The white marble statues of the Dioscuri (Horse-tamers), Castor and Pollux, grace the top landing of the stairs that lead up the Capitoline Hill. These statues were discovered in the sixteenth century in what was recently proved to be the ancient Circus Flarninius, anquï të dëfendere audeat, vïvës, et vïvës ita ut nunc vïvis, multis meis et firmis praesidiis obsessus, në commovëre të contra rem püblicam possis. M ultôrum të etiam oculi et aurës non sentientem , sicut adhüc fëcërunt, speculabuntur atque cüstôdient. 6. crêdô: I s u p p o s e ; a parenthetical remark. 7. erit verendum . . . dicat: I s h a l l h a v e

S.

t o f e a r , I’• s u p p o s e , n o t t h a t all l o y a l c i t i ­ zen s w ill say that I have been too slow to act, b u t th a t s o m e o n e will say I h a v e a c t e d too cruelly. certâ: s u r e , c o n v i n c i n g .

9. interficiëre = interficieris. 10. tuï: genitive with similis. 11. qui . . . fateatur, relative clause of re suit. 12. qui . . . audeat: relative clause of de scription.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who are the enemies referred to in hostium, line 3? What is the imperator et dux hostium plotting against the state? Why does Cicero not have Catiline put to death at once? How will Catiline’s movements be watched? Find examples of chiasmus, metaphor, and irony in the preceding para­ graph.

Ch. I l l - l

The Details of Your Plot Are Known

E tenim quid est, Catilina, quod jam amplius exspectës, si neque nox tenebris obscüràre coetïis nefâriôs nec privata domus p a rie tib u s continëre 1. parietibus:

t h e w a lls [of a h o u se ].

125

voces conjurationis tuae potest, si illüstrantur, sï erum punt omnia? M ütà jam istam mentem, 12mihi crede, obliviscere 3caedis atque incendiorum. Teneris undique; lüce sunt clariora nobis tua consilia omnia, quae jam mëcum 4licet recognoscas. Meministïne më ante diem duodecimum Kalendâs Novembrës dicere in senàtü fore in armis certô dië, qui diës futürus esset ante diem sextum Kalendâs Novembrës Gàjum Manlium, audaciae satellitem atque adm inistrum tuae? Num më fefellit, Catilina, 5nôn modo rës tanta, tam atrôx tam que incrëdibilis, 6vërum, id quod multô magis est adm irandum , diës? 2. mihi crëde: t a k e m y a d v i c e . 3. caedis atque incendiorum: genitive with verbs of forgetting. 4. licet recôgnôscâs: y o u m a y r e v i e w .

5. non modo . . . dies: deed

. . . hut

n o t o n ly as to th e . . . the date.

6 . vërum = sed.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What should be the effect on Catiline of the exposure of his clandestine conspiracy? 2. Who was Gaius Manlius? 3. Had Cicero known beforehand about Manlius’ plans? 4. Had Cicero given the Senate any warning of these plans? If so, when and where?

Ch. Ill—2

I Knew Your Date for Our Slaughter

Dixi ego Tdem in senâtü caedem të 2optimàtium contulisse 3in ante diem quintum Kalendâs Novembrës 4tum cum multï prïncipës cïvitâtis Rômâ non tam iJsuï conservandi quam tuôrum consiliorum reprim endorum causâ profügërunt. 1 . Idem: a l so . 2 . optimatium: o f t h e b e s t ( o f t h e n o b l e s ) .

3. in ante . . . Novembrës: October 28. 4. turn cum: a t a t i m e w h e n .

5. sul: genitive plural; with the plural forms of sui, nostri, or vestri, the ge­ rundive ending in - I is regularly used, regardless of gender and number.

Num ïnfitiàrï potes tê illô ipso dië, meïs praesidiis, m eâ diligentia circumclüsum, commovêre tê contra rem püblicam non potuisse, cum tü 6discessü cëterôrum , 7nostrâ tam en, qui remànsissëmus, caede contentum të esse dïcëbâs? 8Quid? Cum të Praeneste Kalendïs ipsis Novembribus occupâtürum nocturnô im petü esse cônfïderës, sënsistïne illam colôniam meô jüssü meïs praesidiis, cüstôdiïs, vigiliis esse m ünïtam ? Nihil agis, nihil moliris, nihil côgitàs quod non ego non modo audiam sed etiam videam plânëque sentiam. 6. discessü: d e s p i t e t h e 7. nostra . . . caede:

departure. w ith our slaughter ( w i t h th e slaugh ter of u s ) .

8. Quid?:

W h a t a b o u t t hi s?

FOR DISCUSSION /

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

How had Cicero protected the state? What had Catiline intended at that time? What town had Catiline expected to seize? Why had Catiline’s plans failed? Find examples of anaphora, climax, and asyndeton in the preceding para­ graph.

Ch. IV -1

I Know W h a t You Planned the Night Before Last

Recôgnôsce rnëcum tandem noctem illam superiorem; jam intellegës m ultô më vigilâre àcrius ad salütem quam të ad perniciem reï püblicae Dïcô të priôre nocte vënisse inter falcàriôs— non agam obscürë: 2in M àrcï Laecae dom um — convënisse eôdem complürës ëjusdem am entiae scelerisque sociôs. 1. inter falcàriôs: a m o n g t h e s c y t h e m a k e r s (m S c y t h e m a k e r s S t r e e t ) . 2. in . . . domum: t o t h e h o u s e ; when ac-

companied by a modifier, domum, meaning t h e h o u s e or h o m e , may be used with or without a preposition.

127

Num negàre audës? Quid tacës? Convincam, sï negâs. Video enim esse hie in senàtü quôsdam qui tëcum ünâ fuërunt. Ô dl immortâlës! 3Ubinam gentium sumus? In quâ urbe vivimus? Quam rem püblicam habëmus? Hic, hic sunt in nostrô numéro patrës conscripti, in hôc orbis terrae sanctissimo gravissimôque cônsiliô, qui dë 4nostrô omnium interitü, qui dë hüjus urbis atque adeô dë orbis terràrum exitiô cogitent. 6Hôs ego video consul et dë rë püblicâ sententiam rogô, et quôs feirô trucidari oportëbat, eôs nôndum voce vulnerô. 3. Ubinam gentium: W h e r e o n ea r t h? ; gentium, partitive genitive. 4. nostrô . . . interitu: t h e d e s t r u c t i o n o f

5. orbis terrarum = orbis terrae. 6 . Hôs . . . sententiam rogô: I a s k t h e s e m en the ir opinion,

u s all.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Where did Catiline and his associates meet? Whom does Cicero note are present in the Senate? Whose destruction were the conspirators plotting? Whose opinion does Cicero ask? On what does Cicero call the gods to witness? What is Cicero’s attitude toward Catiline in this paragraph?

Ch. IV—2

I Know W hat Was Plotted at Laeca's House

Fuisti hgitur apud Laecam ilia nocte, Catilina, distribuisti partës Italiae, statuisti quô quem que proficisci 2placëret, dëlëgistï quôs Rômae 3relinquerës, quôs tëcum 3ëdücerës, discripsisti urbis partës ad incendia, 4cônfîrmâst\ të ipsum jam esse exitürum, dixisti paulum tibi esse etiam nunc morae, quod ego viverem. 1 . igitur: t h e n .

2. plaeëret: subjunctive in indirect questlon‘

128

relinquerës, ëdücerës: deliberative subjunctive. 4. confirmasti = confirmavisti.

3

R eperti sunt duo équités Rômànï qui të istà cürâ liberarent, et së illâ ip^â nocte paul5 ante lucem me in meô dectô interfectürôs esse pollicërentur. H aec ego omnia, vixdum etiam coetü vestro dimisso, com peri : domrnn meam majoribus praesidiis münïvï atque firmavi, exclüsï eôs quôs tü ad më °salütâtum m âne miseras, cum illi ipsi 7vënissent quôs ego jam m ultis ac summis viris ad më 8id temporis ventürôs esse praedixeram. 5. lecto:

c o u c h , b e d . It wàs customary for prominent Romans to receive visits from their clients in the early morning. The host would recline on his couch while he outlined the business of the dav. 6. salutatum: t o g r e e t ; supine in -um, ex­

pressing purpose after the verb of mo­ tion miseras. 7. venissent: subjunctive in cum-causal clause. 8 . id temporis: a t t h a t t i m e ; id, adverbial accusative, temporis, partitive genitive.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

At whose home did the conspirators meet? What decisions were made at this meeting? What wrs the cause of the delay in carrying out the plans? Who promised to remove this cause? How did Cicero save himself from assassination?

Ch. V - l

Leave the City and Take Your Friends w ith You

Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, perge quo coepisti: ëgredere aliquando ex urbe; p atent portae— proficiscere. Nimium diü të im peratorem tua illa M an lian a castra dësïderant. Ë düc tëcum etiam omnës tuôs; 2sï minus, quam plürimôs; pürgâ urbem. 3Màgnô më m etü liberaveris, 4modo inter më atque të mürus intersit. 1. Mânliâna castra: metonymy. 2. si . . . plürimôs: if n o t all, possible .

3. Màgnô . . . liberaveris: alliteration; a s m a n y as

hyperbaton.

4. modo:

if o n l y .

129

Nôbïscum versàrî jam diütius non potes; 5nôn feram, non patiar, non sinam. 6Mâgna 7dïs immortalibus habenda est atque huic ipsi sJovi Statori, antiquissimo cüstôdï hüjus urbis, gràtia, quod hanc tam taetram , tam horribilem tam que infestam rei publicae pestem totiens jam effligimus. 5 . non feram . . . sinam: anaphora; climax;

asyndeton. 6 . Magna: with gratia. 7. dis . . . habenda est: .should b e f e l t t o ­ w a r d th e im m ortal gods.

8 . Jovi Statori: t o J u p i t e r t h e S t a y e r :

a statue of the god stood in the temple

where they were meeting. It is thought that Cicero pointed to the statue. Jupiter the Stayer is credited with having stayed the flight of the Romans when Romulus appealed to him during a battle with the Sabines.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Where does Cicero advise Catiline to go? 2. What will be the effect of Catiline’s departure on Cicero? 3. Who must be thanked for protecting the state?

Ch. V - 2

I Foiled Your Attempts to Kill Us

Non est saepius hn ünô homine 2summa salüs periclitanda reï püblicae. Quam diü mihi 123cônsulï dësïgnâtô, Catilina, insidiatus es, non püblicô më praesidiô, sed 4prïvàtà diligentia dëfendi. Cum proximis comitiis consularibus më consulem in 5Campô et competïtôrës tuôs interficere voluisti, compressi cônâtüs tuôs nefâriôs amicorum praesidiô et copiis, 6nüllô tum ultü püblicë concitâtô; 1 . in ünô homine: in t h e c a s e o f o n e m a n [Catiline],

2 . summa salüs : t h e h i g h e s t i n t e r e s t . 3. consul! dësïgnâtô: dative after Insidior. The candidate was called consul-elect from the time of his election in July until the first of the following January.

4. prîvàtà: p e r s o n a l . 5. Campô: the Campus Martius, where the consular elections were held. 6 . nüllô . . . concitâtô: w i t h o u t a r o u s i n g any public disturbance.

denique, 'quotienscum que smë petisti, per më tibi obstiti, quam quam videbam perniciem meam cum m àgnà calam itate rei püblicae esse conjünctam. 7. quotienscumque:

8 . më petisti: y o u a i m e d a t m e ; petisti =

a s o f t e n as.

petivisti.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How had Cicero protected himself against Catiline’s attacks? 2. Whom did Catiline try to kill at the Campus Martius? 3. What is remarkable about Cicero’s suppression of Catiline’s attacks?

Ch. V - 3

N o w Universal Anarchy Is Your Goal

^ u n c jam apertê renl püblicam üniversam petis; tem pla deôrum immortalium, ■tecta urbis, 'Vitam omnium civium, Italiam totam 4ad exitium et vastitatem vocas. Quâ rë, quoniam 5id quod °est prim um et quod hüjus imper! disciplinaeque mâjôrum proprium est, facere nôndum audeô, faciam id quod est 7ad sevëritàtem lënius, ad com münem salütem ütilius. Nam si të interfici jüsserô, residëbit in rë püblicâ reliqua conjüràtôrum manus; sïn tü, quod të jam düdum hortor, exieris, exhauriëtur ex urbe tuôrum com itum m agna et perniciosa 8sentïna rel püblicae. Quid est, Catilina? Num dubitâs id, më im perante, facere quod jam tuà sponte faciëbàs? Exire ex urbe jubet consul hostem. Interrogas më, num in exsilium? Non jubeo, sed, si më consulis, suàdeô. 1. Nunc jam:

Now,

however.

2 . tëcta: h o u s e s .

3. vitam: translate in the plural. 4. ad . . . vocàs: y o u t h r e a t e n w i t h

disaster

5. 6. 7. 8.

id: object of facere. est primum: i s o f p r i m a r y ad: a s r e g a r d s . sentina: d r e g s .

im portance.

a n d destruction.

131

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Upon what is Catiline trying to bring destruction? What is it that Cicero does not dare to do? Why? Why is it better for the state to exile Catiline than to put him to death? What figures of the speech do the words tëcta, line 3, and sentina, line 16, exemplify?

Ch. V l-T

Everyone Here Fears and Hates You

Quid est enim, Catilina, quod të ^’am in hâc urbe delectare possit? in quâ nëmô est extra istam conjurationem perditorum hom inum, qui të non m etuat, nëmô, qui non oderit. Quae nota dom esticae turpitüdinis non inüsta vitae tuae est? Quod privatarum Jrërum dëdecus non haeret in fâmâ? Quae libido ab oculis, quod "facinus â m anibus um quam tuis, quod 4flâgitium â tôtô corpore âfuit? Cui tü adulëscentulô, quem °corruptëlârum 6illecebrïs 7irrëtïssës, non aut ad audaciam ferrum 8aut ad libldem facem praetulisti? 1 . jam: n o w , a n y l o n g e r . 2 . rërum: o f a f f a i r s ( o f l i f e ) .

3. facinus: d e s p e r a t e d e e d . 4. flàgitium: s h a m e f u l a c t ; libido, facinus, flàgitium, climax; also oculis, manibus, corpore. 5. corruptelarum: o f e n t i c e m e n t s (to vice).

6 . illecebris: b y t h e a l l u r e m e n t s . 7. irrëtïssès = irretivisses; irrëtîre,

to

en­

snare.

8 . aut . . . praetulisti: t o c a r r y t h e t o r c h .

Torchbearers were streets at night.

necessary

in

the

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is the attitude of the citizens of Rome toward Catiline? 2. What does Cicero accuse Catiline of doingO to the Roman vouth? j

Ch. V I-2

In Your Private Life Crime Is Added to Crime

Quid vërô? N üper cum morte superioris uxôris novis nüptiïs domum vacuëfëcissës, nonne etiam aliô incrëdibilî 12scelere hoc scelus cum ulasti? Quod ego "praeterm itto et facile patior silërï, në in hâc civitate tanti facinoris immanitas aut exstitisse aut non vindicata esse videatur. Praeterm itto 3ruïnàs fortunarum tuârum , quâs omnës proximis 4Idibus 'tibi im pendëre sentiës; ad illa veniô quae non ad privatam Ignominiam vitiorum tuorum, non ad domesticam tuam difficultatem ac turpitüdinem , sed ad 6summam rem publicam atque ad omnium nostrum vitam salütem que pertinent. 1 . scelere: Catiline is believed to have mur­

dered his own son in order to facilitate his marriage to a woman who Sallust savs could not be praised for anything except lier beauty. 2. praetermitto: I p a s s o v e r .

3. ruinas: d o w n f a l l . 4. Idibus: t h e I d e s o f N o v e m b e r 5. tibi impendëre: t h r e a t e n y o u . 6. summam rem püblicam: t h e w e lfa r e of th e state.

suprem e

FOR DISCUSSION

1. With what crimes does Cicero charge Catiline? 2. Which private crimes of Catiline does Cicero say he will pass over in this speech? 3. Which crime does he intend to stress?

Ch. V I- 3

Your Murderous Attempts Have Been Foiled

Potestne tibi haec lüx, Catilina, aut hüjus caeli spiritus esse jucundus, cum scias esse hôrum nëminem qui nêsciat të 'prïdië Kalendàs Jânuâriâs, 2Lepidô et Tullô consulibus, stetisse in 3Comitiô cum tëlô? Manum con­ sulum et principium civitatis interficiendorum causa paravisse? Sceleri ac furôrï tuô non m entem aliquam aut timorem tuum, sed fortünam populi Rômànï obstitisse? Ac jam illa om itto—neque enim sunt aut obscüra aut 4nôn m ulta ^commissa posteâ—quotiëns tü më dësïgnàtum , quotiëns consulem interficere cônâtus es! Quot ego tuas Gpetïtiônës ita conjectas ut vïtàrï posse non vidërentur, parvâ quâdam 7dëcllnàtiône et, ut àjunt, corpore effügï! Nihil assequeris neque tam en cônàrï ac velle dësistis. Quotiëns tibi jam extorta est ista sica dë manibus! Quotiëns excidit càsü aliquô et ëlàpsa est! Quae quidem quibus abs të 8initiàta sacris ac dëvôta sit, nësciô, quod eam necesse putas esse in consulis corpore dëflgere. /

1. prïdië . . . Jânuâriâs: f i rst o f J a n u a r y ,

the d a y before the

that is, December 31.

2. Lepidô . . . consulibus: 66 b.c. 3. Comitiô: an open square near the Forum where, in early times, assemblies were held. 4. non multa = pauca; litotes.

5. commissa posteâ: afterw ard

6. petïtiônës:

the things c o m m itte d later m i s d e e d s ) . t h r u s t s [ i n f e n c i n g ]; a tech­

(your

7. dëclïnâtiône et . . . corpore: ing aside of the b o d y ;

by a swerv­

hendiadys.

8. initiàta . . . dëvôta sit:

dedicated

and

it was customary for an assassin to dedicate and consecrate to a god the weapon with which he intendea to commit an act of violence. In return he expected the god’s aid in perpetrating the crime. consecrated;

nical phrase borrowed from the language of gladiators.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. To whom does Cicero refer in hôrum, line 2? 2. How did Cicero save himself from the dagger of Catiline? 3. Find an example of prétention in this paragraph.

Ch. V l l - l

You Are Scorned by Former Friends

N unc vërô quae tua est ista vita? Sic enim jam tëcum loquar, non ut odiô perm otus esse videar, quô dëbeô, sed ut misercordià, quae tibi 133

nülla dëbëtur. Vënistï paulô ante in senâtum . Quis të ex hâc tan tâ fre­ quentia, tot ex tuïs amïcïs ac -necessariis salütàvit? Sï hoc post hom inum memoriam contigit nëminï, 1234vôcis exspectas contum ëliam , cum sis gravissimo jüdiciô taciturnitatis oppressus? 'Quid quod adventü tuô ista subsellia vacuëfacta sunt, quod omnës cônsulârës, qui tibi Gpersaepe ad caedem cônstitütï "fuërunt, simul atque assëdistï, partem istam subsel­ liorum nüdam atque inanem relïquërunt, quô tandem animo tibi ferendum putas? 1 . frequentia: a s s e m b l y . 2 . necessariis: a ss o c ia te s.

3. post hominum memoriam: w i t h i n t h e m e m o r y of men.

4. vôcis: o f s p e e c h .

5. Quid quod: W h a t o f t h e f a c t t h a t . 6 . persaepe: v e r y o f t e n . 7. fuërunt: instead of sunt; Cicero may have meant to imply that the danger no longer exists.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

By what emotion is Cicero moved toward Catiline? What ought he to feel? What did the senators do when Catiline entered the Senate? What did the Senators do when Catiline sat down? What is the figure of speech in the words vôcis contumëliam, line 3, and jüdiciô taciturnitatis, line 4?

Ch. V II-2

Hated and Feared by A ll, Yet You Remain

Servi ^lëh ercu le meï si më istô pactô m etuerent, ut të m etuunt omnës cïvës tui, domum meam relinquendam putârem : tü tibi urbem non arbi­ traris? E t si më meis civibus 2injürià ^suspectum tam graviter atque offënsum vidërem, 4carëre më aspectü civium quam ïnfëstis omnium oculis conspici mâllem: tü, cum conscientia scelerum tuôrum agnoscas odium omnium, jüstum et 5jam diü tibi dëbitum , dubitas, quorum m entës sënsüsque vulneras, eôrum aspectum praesentiam que vitare? Si të parentës tim ërent atque odissent tui neque eôs ratiône üllà plâcâre possës, ut opinor, ab eôrum oculis ()aliquô concëderës. Nunc të patria, quae communis est parëns omnium nostrum, ôdit ac m etuit, et jam diü nihil të jüdicat nisi dë 'parricidio suô côgitâre; hüjus tü neque auctoritatem 8verëbere nec jüdicium °sequëre nec vim pertim ëscës? FOR DISCUSSION

1. What does Cicero say he would do if he were Catiline? 2. Under what conditions would he do this? 1. mëhercule: b y H e r c u l e s ( b y h e a v e n ): exclamation. 2 . injuria : u n d e s e r v e d l y . 3. suspectum: o b j e c t o f s u s p i c i o n . 4. carëre . . . aspectü: t o b e i v i t h o u t t h e s i g h t ( t o w i t h d r a w f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e ).

134

5. jam diü . . . dëbitum: l o n g d u e . 6 . aliquô: s o m e w h e r e . 7. parricidio: i m p i o u s m u r d e r ; the murder of a parent, parricide. 8 . verèbere = verëberis. 9. sequëre = sequëris.

3. Point out in the first six lines specific words which heighten the effect of the comparison Cicero is making. 4. Prove from the text that Catiline realizes his guilt. 5. What effect does the comparison between Catiline's parents and the state have on the audience? 6. What figure of speech is found in the last sentence? Ch. V I1-3

Our Fatherland Pleads w ith You to Be Gone

Q uae tëcum , Catilina, sic agit p t ^ u ô d a m modo 12tacita loquitur: “Nüllum jam 3aliquot annis facinus exstitit nisi per të, nüllum flàgitium sine të; 4tibi üni m ultorum civium necës, tibi vexàtiô dïreptiôque Sociôrum im pünïta fuit ac libera; tü non sôlum ad neglegendas lëgës et quaestiônës, vërum etiam ad ëvertendàs perfringendàsque 5valuistï. 6Superiôra illa, quam quam ferenda non fuërunt, tam en, ut potui, tuli; nunc vërô 7m ë tôtam esse in m etü propter ünum të; 8quidquid incre­ puerit, C atilinam timërï, nüllum vidërï contra më consilium iniri posse quod à tuô scelere 9abhorreaL non est ferendum . Quam ob rem discëde atque hunc 10mihi timôrem ëripe; si est vërus, në opprim ar, sin falsus, u t tandem aliquando tim ëre dësinam .” 1 . quôdam modo: as it w e r e . 2 . tacita loquitur: s p e a k s , t h o u g h v o i c e l e s s ;

oxymoron. 3. aliquot annis: f o r s o m e y e a r s ; ablative of time. 4. tibi: f o r y o u ; dative of reference. 5. valuisti = potuisti. 6 . Superiora: F o r m e r [ c r i m e s ] .

7. më tôtam: feminine; the state personified as a mother is addressing Catiline. '' 8 . quidquid increpuerit: w h a t e v e r m a y have sounded

( a t th e slig h test n o ise );

increpuerit, subjunctive by attraction. 9. abhorreat: is a t v a r i a n c e w i t h ; subjunc­ tive in characteristic clause. 10 . mihi: dative of separation.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What crimes of Catiline's does Cicero mention here? How has Catiline shown his power? Why is the whole state in fear? Why does the state want Catiline to leave the city?

Ch. V l l l - l

No Honorable Citizen W ould Receive You into Custody, Catiline

H aec si tëcum , ita ut dixi, patria loquatur, nonne im petrare dëbeat, xetiam si vim adhibëre non possit? 2Q uid quod tü të ipse 3in cüstôdiam dedisti, quod vitandae suspicionis causa ad M anium Lepidum të habitare 1 . etiam si: e v e n if.

2. Quid quod: W h a t o f t h e f a c t t h a t . 3. in cüstôdiam: While awaiting trial, a Roman citizen was put under the sur­ veillance of some prominent citizen. To

ask for such surveillance voluntarily was a sign of self-conscious innocence. This procedure was somewhat similar to our custom of requiring bail.

135

velle dîxistï? À quô non receptus, etiam ad më venire ausus es, atque ut domi meae të asservarem 4rogàstï. Cum â më quoque id responsum tulissës, më nüllô modo posse ^eisdem parietibus tütô esse tëcum , qui m âgnô in periculo essem, quod eisdem Gmoenibus continërëm ur, ad Q uintum Metellum, praetorem , vënistï. À quô repudiatus, ad sodalem tuum , ‘virum optimum, M arcum M etellum, dëmigràstï; quem tü vidëlicet et ad cüstôdiendum të dïligentissimum et ad suspicandum sagacissimum et ad vindicandum fortissimum fore putasti. Sed 8quam longë vidëtur â carcere atque â vinculis abesse dëbëre, qui së ipse jam dignum cüstôdià 9jüdicàrit! 4. rogasti : rogavisti. 5. eisdem parietibus:

b y the walls (in the sa m e h o u s e ) .

8. quam longé . . . dëbëre: same

house

9. jüdicàrit = jüdicâverit; characteristic clause.

,6. moenibus: c i t y w a l l s . 7. virum optimum: irony.

h o w f a r d o e s it

s e e m a m a n o u g h t to be.

subjunctive

in

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why did Catiline offer to give himself into custody? 2. How was he treated by Lepidus? by Cicero? by Metellus? 3. What colloquial expression in English adequately translates me . . . tëcum, line 6? 4. How does Cicero interpret Catiline’s action? 5. What phrase is sometimes used as a svnonvm for career?

Ch. V III-2

The Silence of the Senators Condemns You

Quae cum ita sint, Catilina, dubitâs, si ëmori aequo animô non potes, abire in aliquâs terras et vitam istam, multis suppliciis jüstïs dëbitïsque ëreptam, fugae sôlitüdinïquc m andâre? ^‘Refer,” inquis, “ad senatum ”; id enim postulas, et si hic ôrdô placëre sibi dëcrëverit të ire in exsilium, ^obtem peraturum të esse dïcis. Non referam, 1234id quod abhorret a meïs môribus, et tam en faciam ut intellegas quid hi dë të sentiant. Egredere ex urbe, Catilina, libéra rem püblicam metü; in exsilium, si hanc 4vôcem exspectas, proficiscere. Quid est, C ati­ lina? ’Ecquid attendis, ecquid anim advertis hôrum silentium ? P atiuntur, tacent. GQuid exspectas ‘auctoritatem loquentium , quorum voluntatem tacitorum perspicis? 1. Refer: B r i n g t h e m a t t e r . 2. obtemperàtürum të esse: y o u 3. id . . . abhorret: t h a t w h i c h

will obey. is a t v a r i ­

To put the question of Catiline’s exile before the Senate would have been unconstitutional. Again, there were sup­ porters of Catiline in the Senate.

ance.

4. vocem - - verbum.

136

5. Ecquid: a t all. 6. Quid . . . perspicis?

W h y d o y o u w a it for the spoken opinion of those w h o s e w ish you perceive in their silence? The

silence of the senators is equivalent to a condemnation of Catiline’s acts.

7. auctoritatem:

opinion.

1. What does Cicero advise Catiline to do? 2. What does Catiline want Cicero to do? 3. How does Cicero interpret the silence of the senators?

Ch. V III- 3

Every Loyal Citizen W ill Escort You to the Gates

At si hoc idem huic adulescenti optimo, ^ ü b liô Sëstiô, si fortissimo virô, 12M ârcô Marcello, dixissem, jam mihi consuli hôc ipso in templo senatus jüre optimô 3vim et m anüs intulisset. Dë të autem, Catilina, cum quiëscunt, probant; cum patiantur, dëcernunt; 4cum tacent, clamant; neque hi sôlum quorum tibi auctoritas est vidëlicet câra, vita vilissima, sed etiam illi equitës Rômànï, honestissimi atque optimi viri, cëterïque fortissimi cïvës, qui circum stant senatum , quorum tü et frequentiam vidëre et studia percipere et vôcës paulô ante exaudire potuisti. Quorum ego vix abs të jam diü m anüs ac tëla contineo, eôsdem facile addücam ut të, haec quae vastare jam pridem studës relinquentem , üsque ad portas ^prosequantur. 1. Pûbliô Sëstiô: quaestor, 63 b . c . ; de­ fended by Cicero in his speech Prô Sëstiô. 2. Màrcô Màrcellô: consul, 51 b . c . ; de­ fended by Cicero in 46 b . c . in his speech Prô Marcello.

3. vim et manüs: f o r c e a n d h a n d s ( v i o l e n t h a n d s ) ; hendiadys. 4. cum tacent, clamant: oxymoron. 5. prosequantur: e s c o r t .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why would the Senate have laid violent hands on Cicero if he had spoken to Sestius and Marcellus as he spoke to Catiline? 2. How does the Senate show approval of what Cicero is saying to Catiline? 3. Whose violence is Cicero scarcely able to restrain from Catiline? 4. Who would be willing to escort Catiline to the gates if he went into exile? 5. What are the figures of speech in lines 3-4?

Ch. IX -1

M y Words Are Wasted; You Are Past Reform

Q u am q u a m quid loquor? 2Të ut ülla rës Trangat? 2Tü ut um quam të 3corrigàs? 2Tü ut üllam fugam 3m editëre? 2Tü ut üllum exsilium 3côgitës? U tinam tibi istam m entem dï immortàlës 4duint! Tam etsi video, si, meâ 1. Quamquam: A n d y e t . 2. Të, Tü, Tü, Tü: emphatic by position and repetition. 3 . frangat, corrigâs, meditëre, côgitës: sub­ junctive in exclamatory question; po-

testne fieri, is it p o s s i b l e t h a t , should be understood in each question. 4. duint: m i g h t g i v e ; archaic form of dent; optative subjunctive.

137

voce perterritus, Ire in exsilium ;,animum indüxeris, quanta tem pestas invidiae (5nôbïs, 7sï minus in praesens tem pus, 8recentï m em oriâ scelerum tuôrum, at in posteritatem im pendeat, Sed est 9tantl, dum m odo ista sit prïvâta calamitas et â rei püblicae periculis sejungatur. Sed tü 10ut vitiis tuis 1Commoveàre, 103u t lëgum poenas pertim escas, 10ut ^tem poribus rei püblicae cëdàs, non est postulandum . Neque enim 13is es, Catilina, ut të aut pudor um quam â turpitüdine aut metus â perïculô aut ratio à furôre 14revocarit. 5 . animum indüxeris:

you

will

make

up

10 . ut . . . commoveàre, ut . . . pertimescas,

you r m ind.

6 . nôbïs = milii; dative, governed by im­

pendeat. 7. si minus: if n o t ; regularly used for si non when the verb is omitted. 8-. recent! memoriâ: ablative absolute. 9. tanti: w o r t h w h i l e ; genitive of value.

11 . 12 .

13. 14.

ut . . . cëdàs: substantive clauses of pur­ pose, subjects of est postulandum. commoveàre = commoveâris. temporibus: n e c e s s i t i e s , e x i g e n c i e s . is = tâlis: s u c h a p e r s o n . revocàrit = revocàverit: h a s r e c a l l e d ; subjunctive in clause of result.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What may be the result if Catiline goes into exile? 2. Why does Cicero think it worthwhile for Catiline to go into exile? 3. Does Cicero think that Catiline’s going into exile will reform him? Give reasons for your answer. 4. What is the figure of speech in lines 1-2? 5. What figure of speech is expressed in quanta . . . impendeat, lines 4-6?

Ch. IX -2

Once A gain, I Say Go

Quam ob rem, ut saepe jam dixi, proficiscere, ac, si mihi Mnimïcô, ut -praedicâs, tuô Cônflâre vis invidiam, 45rëctâ perge in exsilium. Vix feram ’sermônës 6hominum, si id fëceris; vix molem "istius invidiae, si in exsi­ lium jüssü consulis ieris, sustinëbô. Sin autem servire m eae 8laudï et glôriae mâvïs ; ëgredere cum im portünà sceleratorum °manü, cônfer të ad Manlium, concita perditos cïvës, sëcerne të â bonis, Infer patriae bellum, exsultâ l0impiô latrôciniô, ut â më non ëjectus ad aliënôs, sed invitatus ad tuôs Isse videâris. 1 . inimïcô:

Cicero says that Catiline is interpreting his acts as those of a per­ sonal enemy. 2 . praedicâs: from praedicô; distinguish from praedico. 3. cônflàre . . . invidiam: t o s t i r u p u n ­ popularity.

4. rëctà = rëctà vià: s t r a i g h t w a y . 5. sermônës: g o s s i p i n g . 6 . hominum: subjective genitive.

7. istius: b y y o u ; an illustration of the use of iste as a demonstrative of the second person. 8 . laudl, glôriae: dative after servire. 9. manu: Cicero does not want the band of Catiline’s followers to be left behind. 10 . impiô latrocinio: t r e a s o n a b l e b r i g a n d a g e ; treasonable, directed toward his country; brigandage as opposed to regular war ( bellum ).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How could Catiline, by going straight into exile, stir up feeling against Cicero? 2. What will be the result if Catiline goes to Manlius? 3. Select eight imperatives in the preceding paragraph. Show how they are ar­ ranged in pairs according to thought.

Ch. IX -3

I Know Your Arrangem ents to Go to M anlius

Q uam quam :quid ego të invitem, 12à quo jam sciam 345esse praemissos 4quï °tibi 67ad ‘Forum Aurelium praestolarentur arm ati? 8Cui jam sciam pactam et cônstitütam cum Mânliô 9diem? À quô etiam 10*aquilam n illam argenteam , quam tibi ac tuis omnibus cônfïdô perniciosam ac fünestam futüram , 12cui domi 13tuae 14*sacrarium sceleratum cônstitütum 4,fuit, sciam esse praem issam ? Tü 16ut 17illâ carêre diütius possis quam venerari ad caedem proficiscens solëbàs, â cüjus 18altâribus saepe istam impiam dexteram ad necem civium transtulisti? FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Who are waiting for Catiline at the Aurelian Forum? What, according to Cicero, has Catiline sent ahead? What kind of fortune does Cicero desire the eagle to bring to Catiline? At what time was Catiline accustomed to venerate the eagle?

1 . quid . . . invitem: deliberative subjunc­

tive. 2 . à quô . . . sciam = cum à të sciam. 3. [hominës] esse praemissos: [ m e n ] h a v e

11 . illam: t h a t f a m o u s . 12 . cui: f o r w h i c h ;

13.

bee n sent ahead. 4.

5. 6.

7.

8.

9. 10.

qui . . . praestolarentur: relative pur­ pose clause; the antecedent of qui is hominës understood. tibi: dative with praestolarentur. ad: near. Forum Aurëlium: a small hamlet on the Via Aurelia, about fifty miles trom Rome. This road led along the seacoast of Etruria. By this road Catiline left Rome the following night. Cui: B y w h o m ; dative of agent with pactam et cônstitütam [esse]. diem: October 27; diës is feminine in the sense of an appointed day. aquilam: according to Sallust this le­ gionary standard was said to have been carried by Marius’ troops in his cam­ paign against the Cimbri. Catiline is said to have kept it in a sacred shrine in his own house.

14.

15.

13. 17. 18.

the antecedent is aquilam. tuae: genitive of possession used with locative domi. sacrarium: the Romans often had a little shrine in their houses for the worship of the household gods. Catiline had erected such a shrine in his house for the worship of this famous eagle, which to him signified the leadership of the popular party, the object of his ambition. fuit: the use of fuit, rather than est, draws attention to the fact that the eagle was no longer in the shrine at the time Cicero was speaking. ut . . . possis: h o w c a n y o u ? subjunctive in exclamatory question; ironical. ilia: refers to the eagle; ablative case after carëre. altaribus: a l t a r ; only one altar is meant; the word is used only in the plural by classical writers.

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Ch. X - l

You W ill Go W here Your Character Invites You

Ibis Handem aliquandô quô të jam pridem tua ista cupiditas efïrênâta ac furiosa 2rapiëbat; neque enim tibi 3haec rës affert dolorem, sed quandam incrëdibilem voluptatem . Ad hanc të am entiam nâtüra 4peperit, voluntas exercuit, fortüna servavit. Num quam tü r)nôn modo ôtium, sed në bellum quidem nisi nefarium concupisti. Nactus es, ex perditis atque 6ab omni non modo fortünâ, vërum etiam spë dërelïctïs conflatam, im proborum manum. 7Hïc tü quâ laetitia 8perfruëre, quibus gaudiis exsultabis, quanta in voluptate 9bacchàbere, cum in tanto num ero tuorum neque audiës virum bonum 10quem quam neque vidëbis! 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6.

tandem aliquandô: a t le n g th ; the two words emphasize each other. rapiebat (translate with pridem as plu­ perfect): h a d lo n g b e e n h a r r y i n g . haec rës: Catiline’s departure, which would be a decisive step toward war. peperit: from pariô. non modo = non modo non; the second non is omitted when the expression is balanced by sed në . . . quidem. ab . . . fortünâ . . . dërelïctïs: a b a n ­

by F o r t u n e ; fortüna is per­ sonified, therefore the ablative of agent is used. Hie: H e r e (In this company). perfruëre = perfruëris. bacchâbere = bacchaberis; you w ill r e v e l. The Latin word is borrowed from the wild and frenzied orgies of Bacchus and suggests the height of sensual en­ joyment. quemquam - üllum. doned

7. 8. 9.

10.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What do perdition and derelict mean? 2. Does the step Catiline is about to take cause him any sorrow? 3. Why would the voluptatem of Catiline seem incrëdibilem to Cicero and the other good Romans? 4. What kind of war or peace does Catiline desire? 5. From what kind of men has Catiline obtained aid? 6. What are the figures of speech in lines 1-2 and 3-4?

Ch. X —2

You Have N o w a Field for Intrigue and Crime

. . . 1Habës ubi ostentës tuam illam praeclaram patientiam famis, frigoris, inopiae rërum omnium, 2quibus të brevi tem pore confectum esse sentiës, 3Tantum prôfëcï tum, cum të 4à cônsulàtü reppulï, ut exsul potius 5tem ptàre quam consul 5vexâre rem püblicam possës, atque ut id, quod est â të scelerâtë susceptum, latrocinium potius quam bellum nôm inàrëtur. 1.

Habës ubi ostentës: Y o u h a v e t h e o p p o r t u n i t y o f d i s p l a y i n g ; ubi = locum in

quô; ubi ostentës, characteristic clause. 2. quibus: a n d b y t h e s e ; the antecedents are famis, frigoris, inopiae. 3. Tantum :T h is m u c h .

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4 . â cônsulàtü: Cicero used every effort to defeat Catiline in the consular election of 63 b.c. 5. temptare: a s s a il f r o m w i t h o u t ; vexâre: ravage.

1. What power did Catiline boast of, according to Cicero? 2. What did Cicero effect when he defeated Catiline’s efforts to obtain the consulship? 3. Contrast the meanings of exsul and consul, lines 3 and 4, and latrocinium and bellum, line 5. 4. What is the figure of speech in lines 1 and 2? 5. What is the figure of speech in lines 3 and 4?

Ch. X I—1

The State W ill Blame M e for Being Remiss

Nunc, ut à më, patres conscripti, quandam prope jüstam patriae queri­ m oniam M ëtester ac M ëprecer, 12percipite, quaeso, diligenter, quae dicam, et ea penitus animis vestris m entibusque m andate. Etenim , si mëcum patria, quae mihi vïtâ meà m ultô est cârior, si cüncta Italia, si omnis rës püblica 3loquàtur: “M ârce Tulli, quid agis? 4Tüne eum^ quem esse hostem com peristi, quem ducem belli futürum vidës, quem exspectari im pera­ torem in castris hostium sentis, auctorem sceleris, principem conjura­ tionis, 5ëvocàtôrem servorum et civium perditorum , exire patiëre, ut abs të non ëmissus ex urbe, sed immissus in urbem esse videatur? Nonne hunc in vincula 6dücï, non ad m ortem 6rapï, non summô supplicio f a c ­ tari im perâbis?”

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Who figuratively addresses Cicero in this section? 2. What crimes of Catiline does Cicero mention? 3. What orders for the punishment of Catiline does the imaginary speaker suggest? 4. Find examples of alliteration, climax, and personification in the preceding paragraph. 5. Find examples of asyndeton, paronomasia, and anaphora in the preceding paragraph. 1. détester: avert by protest; dëprecer: avert by prayer; I may avert by protest and prayer.

2. percipite . . . mandate: the preceding ut-clause of purpose depends loosely upon tfese two imperatives. 3. loquatur: future less vivid condition. 4. Tune eum: connect with exîre patiëre. These words constitute the main clause. 5. ëvocàtôrem servôrum: the recruiter of slaves; large numbers of slaves were

seeking enrollment in Catiline’s army in Etruria, but Catiline refused their help, according to Sallust. Cicero’s charge was made for the purpose of impressing the Senate. 6. duel, rapl, mactàrï: the regular con­ struction after imperâbis would be ut with the subjunctive, but Cicero occa­ sionally uses a passive infinitive. With jubeô the infinitive must be used.

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Ch. X I-2

W h at Hinders You from Taking Action, Cicero?

“Quid tandem të im pedit? ^ ô s n e m âjôrum? 12At persaepe etiam p ri­ vati in hàc rë püblicâ perniciosos civës m orte m ultârunt. An 3lëgës, quae dë cïvium Rômànôrum supplicio 4rogàtae sunt? At num quam in hâc urbe, 5quî â rë püblicâ dëfëcërunt, cïvium jüra tenuërunt. An invidiam 6posteritâtis timës? Praeclaram vërô populo Rômânô refers grâtiam , qui të, hominem 7per të côgnitum, 8nüllà com m endatione mâjôrum, tam m âtürë ad summum im perium per omnës 9honôrum gradüs extulit, si propter invidiam aut alicüjus periculi m etum salütem civium tuôrum neglegis. Sed, 10sl quis est invidiae metus, num est vehem entius 11sevëritàtis ac fortitüdinis invidia quam inertiae ac nëquitiae pertim ëscenda? An, cum bellô vâstâbitur Italia, vexâbuntur urbës, tëcta ardëbunt, turn të 12nôn exïstimâs invidiae incendiô cônflagrâtürum ?” 1. Môsne mâjôrum?: Precedent was always very important among the Romans, since they had no formal written constitution. 2. Ai: introduces the country's answer to Cicero’s supposed explanation of his leniency. 3. lëgës: Several laws had confirmed the ancient right of appeal; the Valerian law, 509 b . c . , the three Porcian laws, 198, 195, 194 b . c . , and the Sempronian law, 122 b . c . , provided that no Roman citizens could be put to death or scourged without the right of appeal to the people; these laws also provided that the accused could escape these punish­ ments by going into voluntary exile. 4. rogàtae sunt: have been passed; lêgem rogâre usually means to propose a bill. 5. qui . . . dëfëcërunt: those who have re-

volted from the state (traitors). Cicero’s argument had no legal sanction. The law required that they be tried in court and proved guilty before they could be punished. 6. posteritatis: of posterity ( hereafter). 7. per . . . côgnitum: recognized through your own achievements.

8. nüllà . . . mâjôrum: Cicero did not win office because of his ancestors. He was a member of the equestrian order. 9. honôrum: of offices; quaestorship, aedileship, praetorship, consulship. 10. si quis est [tibi]: if you have any. 11. sevëritàtis . . . invidia: the unpopu­ larity due to your severity and courage.

It was this unpopularity that forced^ him into exile five years later, 12- non = nonne.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Had any precedent of putting dangerous citizens to death been established? Who, does Cicero say, never had the rights of citizens at Rome? Why does Cicero personally owe gratitude to the Roman people? Find examples of hyperbole, irony, synecdoche, chiasmus, and ellipsis.

Ch. X II—1

I Am Not M otivated by Fear of Unpopularity

His ego sânctissimïs rel püblicae vôcibus et eôrum hom inum , qui hoc idem sentiunt, 1m entibus pauca respondëbô. Ego 2sl 3hoc 4optim um fic tü jüdicârem, patrës conscripti, Catilinam m orte m ultârï, ünïus üsüram 1. mentibus: sentiments. 2. si . . . jüdicârem, . . . non dedissem: if I considered (now, in the present) I should not have given (in the past).

3. hoc: explained by the infinitive phrase, Catilinam morte multârï. 4. optimum factü: the best thing to do; factü, the supine, ablative of respect.

hôrae 5gladiàtôrï istï ad vivendum non dedissem. Etenim , si 6summi viri et clarissimi 7cïvës 8Sàturnïnï et Gracchôrum et Flacci et 8superiôrum com plürium sanguine non modo së non contam inarunt, sed etiam 9honestàrunt, certë, verendum mihi non erat në quid, hôc 10parricïdà civium interfecto, invidiae n mihi in posteritatem redundaret. 12Quod si 13ea mihi màximë im pendëret, tam en 14hôc animô fui semper, 15ut in­ vidiam virtüte 16partam glôriam, non invidiam putarem . 5. gladiatori isti: to that bandit; a gladiator was an object of contempt to most cul­ tured Romans. 6. summi viri: magistrates, as Opimius, Marius, Valerius. 7. elves: private citizens, as Scipio Nasica. 8. Saturnini . . . complürium: the genitives depend on sanguine; superiorum com­ plürium: of very many men of earlier times; an exaggeration.

9. honestarunt [së]: ennobled themselves. 10. parricida . . . interfecto: ablative abso­ lute. 11. mihi . . . redundaret: might overwhelm me in the future.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

Quod si . . . fui: a mixed condition. ea = invidia. hôc animô: ablative of description. ut . . . putàrem: result clause. partam [from pariô]: gained.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why does Cicero think it is not the best thing to do to put Catiline to death? 2. What does Cicero say he should not have to fear if he were to put Catiline to death? 3. To whom does Cicero refer in the term gladiatori? 4. What is the figure of speech in the word redundaret?

Ch. X I1-2

A ll W ill Be Convinced If Catiline Leaves

Q uam quam non nüllï sunt in 1hôc ôrdine, qui aut 2ea, quae imminent, non 3videant aut ea, quae vident, dissim ulent; 4quï spem Catilinae f o l l i ­ bus sententiis aluërunt conjüràtiônem que nascentem non crëdendô corrôborâvërunt; 6quôrum auctôritâte 7m ultï non sôlum 8improbï, vërum etiam im periti, 9sï in hunc anim advertissem , crüdëliter et 10rëgië n factum esse dicerent. Nunc intellego, 12sï iste, quô intendit, in M ânliâna castra pervënerit, nëm inem tam stultum fore, 13quî non videat conjüràtiônem esse factam , nëm inem tam im probum , 13quï non fateatur. 14Hôc autem ünô 1. hôc ôrdine = senâtü. 2. ea: dangers. 3. videant, dissimulent: subjunctive in characteristic clauses. 4. qui = hi autem. 5. mollibus: wavering. 6. quorum r: et eôrum. 7. multi = multi alii. 8. improbi: dishonest; opposite of boni, good citizens, in political sense. 9. si . . . animadvertissem, . . . dicerent: mixed condition.

10. régie: like a tyrant ( tyrannically); an offensive word to the Roman. 11. factum esse: that I had acted. 12. si . . . pervenerit: subordinate clause in indirect discourse, hence pervenerit is in the subjunctive mood; intendit is in the indicative mood because the clause quo intendit is parenthetical. 13. qui . . . videat, qui . . . fateatur: rela­ tive clauses of result. 14. Hôc ünô interfecto = Si hic ünus inter­ fectus sit.

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interfecto, intellego hanc rei püblicae pestem paulisper repi imi, non in perpetuum comprimi posse. Quod si së ëjëcerit sëcum que suôs ëdüxerit et eôdem cëterôs undique collectos I:,naufragôs aggregarit, exstinguëtur atque dëlëbitur non modo haec tam 10adulta reï püblicae pestis, vëium etiam stirps ac sëmen malorum omnium. 15. naufragos:

bankrupts.

16. adulta:

full-grown.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What criticism does Cicero make about certain senators who are present before him? 2. What would be the reaction of some present if Cicero had condemned Catiline to death? 3. What does Cicero say is the best course of action to insure the future safety of the state? 4. What is the implication in the word naufragos, line 11? What is the differ­ ence between this word and perditos? 5. Find examples of metaphor, alliteration, and paronomasia in the preceding paragraph. Ch. X III—1

H a lfw a y Measures W ill Only A g gravate The Danger

Etenim jam diü, patrës conscripti, in his periculis conjurationis ïnsidiïsque 12345*versamur, sed -nësciô quô pactô omnium scelerum ac 'veteris furoris et audaciae hnëtüritàs in 'nostri consulatus tem pus ërüpit. Qùod si ex tantô °latrôciniô iste ünus tollëtur, vidëbim ur fortasse ad breve quoddam tempus cürà et m ctü esse relevât!; periculum autem residëbit et erit inclusum penitus in vënïs atque in visceribus rei publicae 7Ut saepe hominës aegri morbô gravi, cum Saestü febrique jactantur, si aquam gelidam biberunt, primo relevari videntur, deinde inulto gravius vehem entiusque afflictantur, 'sic hic morbus, qui est in rë püblicâ, ^relevatus istius poena, vehementius 10reliquïs vïvïs ingravëscet. 1. versamur: with jam diü translate as perfect. 2. nësciô quô pactô = aliquô pactô; nësciô quis is a compound indefinite pronoun. 3. veteris: the reference is to the first con­ spiracy of Catiline nearly three years before. 4. màtüritâs: r i p e n es s . What is the meta­ phor and where does it begin? 5. nostri —meï, like nos for ego; editorial we.

144

6. latrôciniô: b r i g a n d a g e = b a n d o f b r i g ­ a n d s ; use of abstract noun for a concrete one. 7. Ut . . . sic: J u s t as . . . so; correlatives. 8. aestii febrique: w i t h f e v e r h e a t ; not necessarily hendiadys. 9. relevatus: conditional. 10. reliquis vivis (ablative absolute) = si reliqui vivent.

1. 2. 3. 4.

Who is referred to in iste ünus, line 4? If Catiline is removed by death, will there be an end of the conspiracy? From what disease is the state suffering? What will be the only remedy?

Ch. XI11-2

Let Loyalties Be M ad e M anifest

Q uâ rë d eced an t improbi, decernant së â bonis, imum in locum C ongregentur, m ürô dënique, quod saepe jam dïxï, C ëcernantur â nôbïs; M ësinant ïnsidiârî 12domï suae 345cônsulî, C ircum stare tribünal praetôris urbânî, obsidëre C um gladiis 6Cüriam, 7malleolôs et facës ad Inflamman­ dum urbem com parare; 1sit dënique Inscriptum in fronte 8ünïus cüjusque,s 9quid dë rë püblicà sentiat. Polliceor hoc vôbïs, 10patrës conscripti, n tantam in nôbïs consulibus fore diligentiam, tantam in vôbïs auctori­ tatem , tantam in equitibus Rômânïs virtütem , tantam in omnibus bonis cônsënsiônem, u t C atilinae profectione omnia patefacta, illüstràta, op­ pressa, vindicata esse 12videàtis. FOR DISCUSSION

1. To whom does consul!, line 3, refer? 2. What are Cicero's political ideals as expressed in the last sentence of the paragraph? 3. What three classes of Roman society does Cicero mention in the last paragraph? 4. What beneficial results does Cicero promise from the departure of Catiline? 5. Find examples of alliteration, anaphora, asyndeton, and climax in the pre­ ceding paragraph. 1. sëcëdant, sëcernant, congregentur, sëcernantur, dësinant, sit inscriptum: jussive subjunctive. 2. domi suae: locative; suae emphatic, but not reflexive. 3. consuli: dative with ïnsidiârî; the allu­ sion is to the attempted assassination on the previous morning. 4. circumstare tribünal: in an attempt to intimidate the court and obstruct justice; the tribunal of the city praetor was ap­ parently in the middle of the Forum. It was a raised platform on which was placed the praetor’s chair. 5. cum gladiis = armati. 6. Cüriam: the Senate house; the Curia Hostilia was the regular meeting place of the Senate.

7. malleolos: fire-darts, shaped like ham­ mers; malleoli were thrown, facës (torches) were held in the hand. 8. ünïus cüjusque: of each and every one. 9. quid . . . sentiat: what his political views are; indirect question, subject of sit inscriptum. The reference is to the Roman custom of branding a criminal on the forehead with a letter indicating the nature of the offense. 10. patrës conscripti: senators. 11. tantam . . . cônsënsiônem: Cicero here expresses his own political ideals for Rome. 12. videatis: the time of videatis is that of fore, line 7.

145

Ch. X III-3

To You, Jupiter, W e A ppeal for Protection

^ i s c e ominibus, Catilina, cum summâ reï püblicae salüte, cum tuâ peste ac pernicie cumque eôrum exitiô, qui së tëcum omni scelere p ar­ ricidioque jünxërunt, proficiscere ad impium bellum ac nefarium . Tü, 2Juppiter, qui 3eisdem, quibus haec 4urbs, auspiciis â Rômulô es °cônstitütus, quem 6Statôrem hïijus urbis atque im perï vërë nôm inàm us, hune et hüjus sociôs â tuïs cëterïsque templis, a tëctïs urbis ac m oenibus, à vïtâ fortünïsque civium 7arcëbis, et 8hominës bonôrum inimïcôs, hostës patriae, latrônës Italiae, scelerum foedere inter së ac nefârià societate conjünctôs, 9aeternïs suppliciis vïvôs mortuôsque mactâbis. FOR DISCUSSION

1. Whom does Cicero tell Catiline to take with him when he leaves Rome? 2. Why is Cicero’s prayer to Jupiter particularly appropriate? 3. How does Cicero wish Jupiter to punish the conspirators? 1. Hisce ominibus: With these forebod­ ings; -ce is an intensive enclitic; ablative of attendant circumstances. 2. Juppiter: Cicero invokes the statue of the god. 3. eisdem . . . auspiciis: under the same auspices; this is equivalent to at the same time. 4. urbs: supply cônstitüta est. 5. cônstitütus: established. The temple,

vowed by Romulus in a battle with the Sabines, was not built until 294 b .c .

146

6. Statorem: Protector. 7. arcëbis: you shall keep off. The use of the future indicative reflects Cicero’s confidence that the prayer will be heard. Arcëbis and mactâbis are used as mild imperatives. 8 homines: object of mactâbis. 9. aeternis suppliciis: Cicero himself did not believe in eternal punishment.

SECOND ORATION AGAINST CATILINE On the night following the delivery of the First Oration, Catiline left Rome by the Via Aurelia, which led northwest along the coast. His followers spread the report that he was on his way to Massilia because he preferred exile to the tyranny and abuse of the consul at Rome. In reality, he was en route to Faesulae, where he intended to join Manlius and take charge of the troops that had gathered there. The following day (November 9), Cicero addressed the people from the Rostra in the Second Oration. He announced that Catiline had departed from Rome in order to take command of the revolutionary army gathered at Faesu­ lae. He defended himself for not having arrested Catiline, saying that he realized that now all Romans were convinced of Catiline’s crimes against them and against the state. Cicero added a savage denunciation of Catiline’s worth­ less partisans who had remained in Rome, and he warned them that they were being closely watched. Moreover, he still hoped that they would follow their leader to the camp of the revolutionaries so that no one would doubt their true character, and they could then be dealt with as the known enemies of Rome. As for the enemies who remained in Rome, Cicero’s aim was to reform them. These were made up of six classes: (1) Landowners, heavily in debt, but unwilling to sell a sufficient amount of their property to satisfy their obliga­ tions. They had joined Catiline’s party hoping for a general cancellation of debts. (2) Disappointed office-seekers, also in debt, whose only hope of gain­ ing power and the positions they coveted was by violence. (3) Old veterans of Sulla’s military colonies who had ruined themselves through reckless expendi­ tures. (4) Bankrupt citizens, who hoped for any change that would benefit themselves. They were flocking to Catiline’s camp from city and country. (5) Desperate criminals, whose number was so large that there were not enough prisons to hold them all. ( 6 ) A youthful group of dandies and pleasure-seekers, men of Catiline’s own caliber. Cicero thought that an army made up of such profligates could scarcely be a match for the government forces now being organized. Moreover, the Romans had walled towns and other resources, and they also had virtue on their side, in contrast to the vice of the revolutionaries. Cicero warned the Romans that although adequate measures had been taken to protect the state, to check Catiline, and to restrain his partisans, they should protect their own houses. The conspirators who had remained in the city would be allowed to leave if they wished. If they attempted to make trouble, they would be apprehended and punished. All would be done with restraint and with as little severity as possible; there would be no disturbance. The gods had aided the Romans; now they, the Romans, must pray to the gods to defend the city. 147

THIRD ORATION AGAINST CATILINE Catiline s partisans in Rome, ignoring Cicero s warnings, went ahead with preparations for the destruction of the city and the citizens. They set Decem­ ber 19 as the date for murdering the city officials and plundering the city. Meanwhile, news had come that Catiline had unlawfully assumed the fasces of a magistrate, had taken command of the insurgent forces at Faesulae, and was marching on Rome. The Senate promptly denounced both him and Man­ lius as public enemies, ordered Antonius to march against them, and instructed Cicero to guard the city. In the absence of a regular police force, Cicero had availed himself of volun­ teers from the upper classes. He had besides an armed force of Sabines and numerous spies and informants. But, although he was quite aware of the plans of the conspirators, he had no written evidence against them. At this time, a delegation from the Allobroges happened to be in Rome, seeking aid against the cruel and avaricious Roman officials who were govern­ ing their country. Having received no satisfaction from the Senate, the delega­ tion was disposed to listen to leaders of the conspiracy. Catiline promised the Allobroges assistance if they, in turn, would provide reinforcements for his army. They, however, alarmed by the seriousness of the proposal, presented the matter to their patron in Rome, Quintus Fabius Sanga, who immediately informed Cicero. This was the golden opportunity the consul had been waiting for. The envoys from Gaul were advised to profess the warmest interest inj:he conspiracy and to demand written pledges to take to their people. Three of the conspirators promptly sent the requested documents. The Allobroges then promised that on their return trip to Gaul they would detour to confer with Catiline in Etruria. Lentulus, one of the conspirators, arranged for a certain Titus Volturcius to accompany them with a letter and messages for Catiline. The envoys, accompanied by Volturcius, set out from Rome on the night of September 2. Two miles north of the citv, while crossing the Mulvian Bridge over the Tiber, they were arrested by two praetors and a company of soldiers sent to intercept them, according to a prearranged plan. At first they pre­ tended resistance but soon yielded up the incriminating evidence and returned to Rome. The letters were taken to Cicero, who at once ordered the writers to appear before him early on the morning of December 3. The Senate hastily convened in the Temple of Concord in the Forum. Here Volturcius turned state s evidence and gave important testimony. After the seals on the letters were acknowledged by the writers, the letters were read and the conspirators proved guilty. When the meeting ended late in the day, Cicero went before the people and gave them an account of what had happened. This speech is called the Third Oration Against Catiline. 148

Ch. 1-1

By the Favor of the Gods, Rome Has Been Saved

^ e m püblicam , Quirïtës, 12vïtam que omnium vestrum, 3bona, fortünâs, conjugës lïberôsque vestrôs atque hoc domicilium clarissimi imperi, fortünâtissim am pulcherrim am que 45u rbem , hodierno dië deorum im ­ m ortalium summô ergà vos “amore, laboribus, consiliis, periculis meis ë flammà atque ferrô ac paene ex faucibus fâtï 6ëreptam et vobis C onserva­ tam ac 6restitütam vidëtis. 1. Rem püblicam . . . vidëtis: a good ex­ ample of a periodic sentence. Note that the meaning is held in suspense until the last word. This sentence is the keynote to the entire speech. 2. vltam omnium vestrum: l i v e s o f e v e r y one of y on ( t h e p e o p l e ) . estates e r t y ), g o o d s ( p e r s o n a l

3. bona, fortünâs:

4. urbem: in apposition to domicilium. 5. amôre: ablative of cause. 6. ereptam, conservatam, restitütam: they agree with the nearest subject urbem, but logically they agree with the other subjects in the indirect discourse that depends on vidëtis.

( landed propp r o p e r t y ).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who are the Quirïtës? By whom have the Romans been saved? How have they been saved? From what have they been saved? Find examples of asyndeton, alliteration, and metaphor in the preceding paragraph.

Ch. 1-2

Rejoice Because I, Cicero, Have Saved You

E t si non minus nobis ’jucundi atque illüstrës sunt eï diës, quibus con­ servam ur, quam illi quibus nascimur, quod salütis certa laetitia est, 2nàscendï incerta condicio, et quod sine 3sënsü nascimur, cum voluptate servam ur, profecto, quoniam 4illum, qui hanc urbem condidit, ad deôs immortàlës ’benevolentia fàm àque sustulimus, esse apud vos posterôsque vestrôs in honore f;dëbëbit 7is qui eandem hanc urbem conditam amplificàtam que servavit. Nam stôtï urbi, templis, dëlübrïs, tëctïs ac moenibus subjectos 9prope jam ïgnës circum datôsque restinximus, idem que gladios in rem püblicam dëstrictôs rettudim us m ücrônësque eôrum à jugulis vestris 10dëjëcimus, 1. jücundï . . . illüstrës: j o y f i d a n d b r i g h t . 2. nascendi . . . condiciô: t h e s t a t e i n t o w h i c h w e are born.

3. sënsü: f e e l i n g . 4. ilium: Romulus, deified under the name of Quirinus. The Quirinalia, an annual festival held on February 17, kept his memory alive.. 5. benevolentia fàmàque: w i t h a f f e c t i o n a n d praise

6. dèbëbit: w i l l d e s e r v e . 7. is qui: Cicero. 8. toti urbi . . . moenibus: datives with subjectos and circumdatos. 9. prope jam: a l r e a d y a l m o s t ( j u s t b e f o r e ) . 10. dëjëcimus = àvertimus; dëjëcimus is a term used in fencing.

( w i t h a f f e c t i o n a t e p r a i s e ).

149

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why are the days on which Romans have been saved more suitable for rejoicing than the days on which they were born? 2. Who has just saved the city? 3. How should he now be regarded? 4. What figures of speech are illustrated by the following words and phrases: non minus, line 1; quod . . . condicio, lines 2—3; sine sënsü nascimur, line 3; benevolentia fâmâque, line 5; gladiôs . . . dejecimus, lines 8-10?

Ch. 1-3

I Shall Explain W hat W as Done in the Senate

*Quae quoniam in senàtü illüstràta, patefacta, com perta sunt per më, vôbïs jam 2expônam breviter, Quirïtës, ut, et 3quanta et quam m anifesta et quâ ratiône 4invëstïgàta et com prehensa sint, vos, qui et ignoratis et exspectatis, scire possitis. Prïncipiô, 5ut Catilina 6paucïs ante diêbus ërüpit ex urbe, 7cum sceleris sui sociôs, hüjusce nefarii belli acerrimos 8ducës Rômae reliquisset, semper vigilavi et providi, Quirïtës, 9quem ad m odum in tantis et tam absconditis insidiis 10salvï esse n possëmus. 1. Quae: These facts; quae is used as a connective here. 2. exponam: supply ea as object to ex­ ponam; ea: them. 3. quanta = quantae res; quanta . . . comprehënsa sint: object of scire. 4. investigata et comprehënsa: hunting terms. 5. ut: ever since. 6. paucïv . . . diëbus: a few days ago; the night of November 8.

7. cum . . . reliquisset: tial clause. 8. ducës: as leaders. 9. quem ad modum: as to 10. salvi: safe; it means being in danger. 11. possëmus: subjunctive tion.

cum-circumstanhow. unharmed after

in indirect ques­

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What does Cicero say he will explain? Whom did Catiline leave in the city after his departure? What has Cicero been doing since Catiline fled from the city? Are the words illüstràta, patefacta, comperta, line 1, arranged in order of time or of importance? Explain. What figure of speech is illustrated by these words? Find a figure of speech in the second paragraph.

Ch. Il—1

Catiline's Accomplices Remained in Rome

Nam tum, 1cum ex urbe Catilinam ëjiciëbam —non enim jam vereor hüjus 2verbi invidiam, cum illa magis sit tim enda, 3quod vivus exierit— 1. cum . . . ëjiciëbam: purely temporal clause with the indicative.

150

2. verbi: Cicero is referring to ëjiciëbam. 3. quod . . . exierit: in apposition to ilia.

Philosophy, Politics, and Law Palimpsest is the name given to a parchment, tablet, or other writing material which has been written on more than once but which has been so imperfectly erased that the original writing is still visible. Shown below is a palimpsest on which the large writing, dating from the fourth century, is a page of Cicero's De Re Piiblicii and the small writing, dating from the late seventh century, is a page of a work on the Psalms by St. Augustine.

The Roman Forum The Roman Forum was a center for the religious, civil, legal, political, and commercial life of the city. Today the ruins of many buildings are still evident. On the left are the Temple of Saturn and the Temple of Antoninus and Faustina. The small circular building in the center is the Temple of Vesta. To the right of this is the Temple of Castor ( the three columns). The Colosseum and the Arch of Titus can he seen in the background. ( See pages 87-90.) 150-B

Bust of Cicero

as an older

man.

The marble portrait bust at the right has been identified as the dictator Sulla. It was necessary for Cicero, in his first criminal case, Pro R6sci6 Amerin6, to attack Su1la's freedman, Chrysogonus, at a time when Sulla was the most powerful man in Rome. ( See page 106.) Bust of Sulla.

Cicero attacking

Catiline

at a meP.ting of the Senate.

The Tullianum,

150-D

an underground

dungeon.

This famous painting by Cesare Maccari gives an artist's concept of Cicero attacking Catiline at a meeting of the Senate. The meeting was not held in the Curia, as the seats in the painting would seem to imply, but in the Temple of Jupiter Stator. The other senators are represented as having separated themselves from the conspirator. ( See page 134.) The bronze statue below called ' Arringatore, is a life-size likeness of an orator named Aulus Metilius. It dates from the second century B.C., and it is regarded as a masterpiece of Etruscan-Roman art.

An orator.

The Tullianum ( left) was the underground execution chamber of the Career, the oldest prison in Rome. It was here that Lentulus and other accomplices of Catiline were strangled to death without trial during the time of Cicero's consulship. For this violation of Roman law, Cicero was eventually exiled. ( See page 109.) The prison may still be seen on the eastern slope of the Capitoline Hill.

Pompey the Great.

The portrait bust of Pompey the Great, one of the most successful Roman generals, is from 50 B.c. Pompey's exploits are treated at length in Cicero' s Pro Lege M aniliii ( see pages 172-209). As a result of this oration, Pompey was appointed commander-it1-chief of the Third Mithridatic War and was ultimately victorious.

Merchant ships, from a marble sarcophagus.

150-F

(Above) Mark Antony. (Below) Cleopatra.

Mithridates,

King of Pontus. Roman warship.

Bronze law tablet,

discovered

in 1760 near Piacenza,

Italy.

In Rome and the provinces, laws were engraved on bronze tablets and posted in public places for all to read. When a Ho01an governor began his term of office, he usually issued a series of laws. The bronze tablet pictured above, which dates from the first century B.C., is part of the Lex established by Julius Caesar when he was governor of Cisalpine Gaul.

150-H

sed tum , cum illum 4exterm inàrï volebam, aut reliquam conjuratorum m anum simul 5exitüram aut eôs, qui 6restitissent, Infirmos sine illo ac débiles fore putabam . A tque ego, u t vïdï, 7quôs mâximô furôre et scelere esse Inflammatos sciëbam, eôs nôbîscum esse et Romae remansisse, in eô omnës dies noctësque cônsümpsï, ut, quid agerent, quid m olirentur, 8sentlrem ac viderem , ut, quoniam auribus vestris propter incredibilem m àgnitüdinem sceleris m inorem fidem 9faceret ôràtiô mea, rem ita 10com prehenderem , u t tum dëm um “ animis salütl vestrae “ provideretis, cum “ oculis m ale­ ficium ipsum “ videretis. 4. exterminari: banished. 5. exitüram: Cicero was disappointed in this hope since the most dangerous con­ spirators remained in the city. 6. restitissent: represents restiterint in direct discourse. 7. qu5s: The antecedent is eôs in the next line. 8. sentirem . . . vidêrem: subjunctive in clause of purpose, in apposition to eô.

9. faceret: subjunctive by attraction. 10. comprehenderem: I might grasp; sub­ junctive of purpose depending upon vidêrem. 11. animis, oculis: emphatic and strongly contrasted. 12. prôvidërétis: subjunctive in result clause. 13. vidërëtis: subjunctive by attraction.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What did Cicero hope would happen when Catiline departed from the city? How did Cicero show that he was concerned about the safety of the state? Explain the four different ways ut is used in the last sentence. What figure of speech is illustrated by provideretis and vidërëtis, lines 11 and 12?

Ch. 11-2

Fatal Blunders of the Conspirators W ere Discovered

Itaque, 4ut com perï lëgâtôs Allobrogum, 12bellï Transalpin! et tum ultüs Gallici excitandi causa, à 34P. Lentulô esse 4sollicitâtôs. eôsque in Galliam ad suôs cîvës 5eôdem que itinere cum litteris m andâtïsque ad Catilinam esse missôs, com item que eis adjunctum esse 6T. VoJturcium, atque huic ad C atilinam esse datas litteras, facultatem mihi oblàtam putàvï, ut, 7quod erat difficillimum, quodque ego semper optabam ab dis im mor­ talibus, ut tôta rës non sôlum à më, sed etiam à senâtü et â vôbïs manifëstô dëprehenderëtur. 1. ut comperï: from Quintus Fabius Sanga, patron in Rome of the Allobroges. 2. belli . . . Gallici: Transalpine War and Gallic revolt; Gallic = Cisalpine Gaul. 3. P. Lentulô: Publius Lentulus, praetor at this time, but a man of bad repute and a follower of Catiline. After Cati­ line’s departure he was the recognized leader of the conspirators in the city. 4. sollicitatos: approached.

5. eôdem itinere: the party would pass through Etruria on their way to Gaul and so could deliver letters to Catiline’s camp. There was one letter for Catiline; the instructions were oral., 6. T. Volturcium: Titus Volturcius, a con­ spirator who turned state’s evidence. 7. [id] quod: a thing which; the idea con­ tained in the clause ut . . . dëprehen­ derëtur is the antecedent of quod.

151

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What did Lentulus hope to obtain from the Allobroges? Why did he approach them? What did he give them for their people? What were the Allobroges to carry to Catiline? Who was to serve as their guide? What fortunate opportunity was now given Cicero?

Ch. 11-3

A Trap W as Laid at the M ulvian Bridge

Itaque d estern o dië L. Flaccum et C. Pom ptinum praetôrës, fortissi­ mos atque 2amantissimôs rei püblicae virôs, ad më vocavi; rem exposui; quid fieri placëret, ostendi. Illi autem , 3qui omnia dë rë püblicâ prae­ clara atque ëgregia sentirent, sine recüsàtiône ac sine üllâ m orâ nego­ tium suscëpërunt et, cum advesperasceret, occultë 4ad pontem Mulvium pervënërunt atque ibi in proximis villis ita 5bipartitô fuërunt, u t Tiberis inter eôs et pons interesset. Eôdem autem et ipsi sine cüjusquam suspicione multos fortës virôs ëdüxerant, et ego ex praefectürâ 6R eàtïnà com plürës dëlëctôs adulëscentës, quorum opera ütor assiduë in rë püblicâ praesidio cum gladiis miseram. Interim Tertia ferë vigilia exâctâ, cum jam pontem M ulvium 8màgnô com itàtü lëgâtï Allobrogum ingredi inciperent ünâque Volturcius, fit in eôs impetus; 9ëdücuntur et ab illis gladii et à nostrïs. 10Rës praetoribus erat nota sôlïs, ïgnôrâbâtur à cëterïs.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What reliable men did Cicero choose to help him in carrying out this strategy? 2. How did these men accept the task assigned them? 3. What military forces did Cicero send? 4. Describe in your own words what happened at about 3 a . m . 1. hesterno dië: the previous day, Decem­ ber 2. 2. amantissimôs . . . püblicae: thoroughly patriotic. 3. qui . . . sentirent: who ( since they ) had fine and lofty sentiments; praeclara, ëgregia, cognate accusatives. 4. ad pontem Mulvium: a bridge across the Tiber two miles north of Rome, at the beginning of the Via Flaminia. 5. bipartito: in two divisions, one at each end of the bridge.

152

6. Reàtïnà: Reate was a Sabine town about forty-five miles northeast of Rome. Cicero was the patron, the legal repre­ sentative of the inhabitants of Reate at Rome. 7. tertià . . . exâctâ: The third watch ended at about 3 a .m .

S. màgnô comitàtü: ablative of accompani­ ment without cum; a military expres­ sion. 9. ëdücuntur: are drawn. 10. Rës: The reason [for the attack].

Ch. Ill—1

The Dispatches and the Conspirators W ere Delivered to M e

Turn interventü Pom ptini atque Flacci ^ ü g n a , quae erat commissa, 2sëdàtur. L itterae, quaecum que erant in eô com itàtü, 123integrïs signis, praetoribus traduntur; 4ipsl com prehensi ad më, 5cum jam dllücësceret, dëdücuntur. A tque hôrum omnium scelerum improbissimum m achinatorem , 6Cimbrum Gabinium , statim ad më, nihil dum suspicantem , vocavi; deinde item arcessitus est 7L. Statilius et post eum 8C. Cethëgus; 9tardissimë autem L entulus vënit, crëdô, quod 10in litteris dandis praeter cônsuëtüdinem proxima nocte n vigilàrat. 1. pügna . . . commissa:

th e stru g g le w h ic h h a d begu n . sëdâtur: w a s b r o u g h t t o a n e n d . integris signis: i v i t h s e a ls u n b r o k e n .

2. 3. 4. ipsi: the envoys of the Allobroges and Volturcius. 5. cum . . . dïlücësceret: cum-circumstantial clause. 6. Cimbrum Gabinium: Publius Gabinius Cimber, one of Catiline’s confederates. 7. L. Statilius: Lucius Statilius; he, with Gabinius, was to set fire to the city in twelve places.

8. C. Cethëgus: Gaius Cethegus, a senator who was to have charge of the assas­ sination of Cicero and many senators. 9. tardissimë . . . Lentulus: Lentulus’ lazy habits made him the subject of jokes, particularly because his name actually means s o m e w h a t s l o w . 10. in litteris dandis: in w r i t i n g le tte r s ; irony. One of the letters was four lines long. 11. vigilàrat = vigilaverat.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

When was the struggle brought to an end? To whom were the letters which had been seized handed over? To whom were the envoys and Volturcius led? Whom did Cicero summon to appear before him? What reason does Cicero ironically give for Lentulus’ being very slow in coming?

Ch. Ill—2

I Had the Senate Open the Dispatches

Cum summis et clarissimis hüjus civitatis Viris, qui audïtâ rë, fré­ quentés ad më m âne convënerant, 2litteràs â më prius aperiri quam ad senâtum 3dëferrï placëret, në, si nihil 4esset inventum , tem ere â më tantus 5tum ultus injectus cïvitâtï vidërëtur, negâvï më esse factürum , ut dë perïculô püblicô non ad 6cônsilium püblicum rem integram dëferrem. 1. viris: dative with placëret. These men were summoned by Cicero as witnesses. 2. litteras . . . aperïrï: subject of placëret. 3. dëferrï: strictly speaking, this should be dëferrentur after prius quam.

4. esset inventum: subjunctive in subordi nate clause in indirect discourse. 5. tumultus: d i s t u r b a n c e . 6. consilium püblicum: the Senate.

153

Etenim , Quirites, si ea, quae erant ad më dëlàta, reperta non essent, tam en ego non arbitrabar in tantis rei püblicae periculis esse mihi nimiam diligentiam pertimëscendam. Senatum 7frequentem celeriter, ut vidistis, coëgï. A tque interea statim, admonitu. Allobrogum, C. Sulpicium praetorem , fortem virum, misi, 8qui ex aedibus Cethëgï, si quid tëlôrum 9esset, efferret; ex quibus ille maximum sicarum num erum et gladiorum extulit. 7. frequentem: in a f u l l ’ m e e t i n g , in the Temple of Concord.

8. qui . . . efferret: purpose clause. 9. esset: subjunctive by attraction.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who came to Cicero when they heard the news? What did they think Cicero ought to do? Why did Cicero refuse to follow their advice? From whom did Cicero receive information against Cethegus? What evidence was found in Cethegus’ house?

Ch. IV -1

A t the Trial Volturcius Turned State's Evidence

1Intrôdüxï Volturcium sine 12Gallïs; 3fidem püblicam jüssü senâtüs dedi; hortatus sum, ut ea, quae sciret, sine timore indicaret. Tum ille dixit, cum vix së ex mâgnô timore 4recreâsset, à P. Lentulô së habëre ad Catili­ nam m andata et litteras, 5ut servorum praesidio üterëtur, ut ad urbem quam prim um cum exercitü accëderet; id autem eô cônsiliô, ut, cum urbem ex omnibus partibus, 6quem ad m odum dëscrïptum distribütum que erat, incendissent caedem que infinitam civium fëcissent, praestô esset 7ille, 8quï et fugientës exciperet et së cum his urbanis ducibus con­ jungeret. FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What did Cicero offer Volturcius to persuade him to turn state’s evidence? What was Volturcius’ emotional reaction to this proposal? For whom did Volturcius have a letter? What suggestions had Lentulus written in this letter? How was Catiline to help in the proposed general massacre?

1. Intrôdüxï: i.e., into the Senate. 2. Callis: the Allobroges, who had been ar­ rested with Volturcius. 3. fidem püblicam: t h e p u b l i c p l e d g e o f p ro tectio n .

4. recreàsset = recreavisset. 5. ut . . . üterëtur: [ u r g in g g u a r d o f s la v e s .

h im ] to u se a

6. quern . . . erat: explanatory clause in in­ direct discourse, therefore indicative. 7. ille: Catiline. 8. qui . . . exciperet . . . conjungeret: sub­ junctive in relative clause of purpose.

Ch. IV -2

The Gallic Ambassadors G ave Testimony

In tro d u cti autem Galli jüs jürandum sibi et litteras ab Lentulo, Cethëgô, Statilio *ad suam gentem 2datàs esse dixerunt, atque ita 3sibi ab his et à L. Cassio esse praescriptum ut equitatum in Italiam quam prim um m itterent. Pedestres 4sibi copias non dëfutüràs; Lentulum autem 5sibi confirmasse 6ex fatis Sibyllinis 7haruspicum que responsis, së esse tertium illum C o r ­ nelium , ad quem rêgnum hüjus urbis atque imperium pervenire esse necesse; Cinnam ante së et Sullam fuisse; eundem que dixisse fàtàlem hunc annum esse ad interitum hüjus urbis atque imperi, qui esset annus decimus post virginum 9absolütiônem, post 10Capitôlï autem incënsiônem vïcësimus. H anc autem n C ethëgô cum cëterïs controversiam fuisse dïxërunt, quod Lentulo et aliis Saturnalibus caedem fieri atque urbem incendi placëret, Cethëgô nim ium id longum vidërëtur. 1 ad . . . gentem: f o r t h e i r n a t i o n , the Allobroges. 2. datas: agrees with litteras, but applies also to jüs jürandum. 3. sibi . . . esse praescriptum: t h a t t h e y h a d b e e n d i r e c t e d ; sibi refers to Galli. 4. sibi: to the conspirators and to Cassius. Lucius Cassius was another conspirator; his instructions were oral. 5. sibi confirmasse: h a d d e c l a r e d t o t h e m ; sibi refers to Galli. 6. ex fàtïs Sibyllinis: a c c o r d i n g t o t h e S i b y l l i n e o r a c le s .

7. haruspicum: o f t h e s o o t h s a y e r s . 8. Cornëlium: His full name was Publius Cornelius Lentulus Sura. Lentulus is

saying that the Sibyl prophesied that three men bearing the name Cornelius would rule Rome. L. Cornelius Cinna was consul from 87 to 84 b .c.; L. Cor­ nelius Sulla was supreme dictator from 82 to 79 b .c. 9. absolütiônem: a c q u i t ta l . The incident referred to here is unknown. To allow the sacred fire of Vesta to go out was a very serious offense; this may have happened at this particular time. 10. Capitôli incënsiônem: in 83 b .c . The cause is unknown.

11. Cethëgô . . . fuisse: t h a t C e t h e g u s h a d ; dative of possession.

had

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What written evidence of the conspiracy did the Allobroges say they had? What assistance in carrying out the conspiracy had L. Cassius prescribed? What kind of military help did Cassius say he did not need? What great future did Lentulus foresee for himself? On what grounds did he base his ambitious hopes?

Ch. V - l

The Letters W ere O pened and Read

1Ac në longum sit, Quirïtës, 2tabellàs proferri jussimus quae à quôque dïcëbantur M atae. Prim um ostendim us Cethëgô; signum côgnôvit. Nos 1. Ac . . . sit i T o b e b r i e f . 2. tabellas: The wooden tablets, on which the letters were written.

3. datae [esse]:

to

have

been

g iven

[to

t h e m e s s e n g e r ].

155

lïnum incidimus, lëgimus. E rat scriptum 4ipsîus m anü Allobrogum senatui et populo, 'sësë, quae eôrum lëgâtls cônfïrmâsset, factürum esse; Gôrâre, ut item illi facerent, quae 7sibi eôrum lëgâtl recëpissent. Tum Cethëgus, 8quï paulô ante aliquid tam en dë gladiis ac sicis, quae 9apud ipsum erant dëprehënsa, respondisset dlxissetque së sem per bonôrum ferram entorum 10studiôsum fuisse, recitatis litteris, dëbilitâtus atque abjectus conscientia repente conticuit. Introductus est Statilius; côgnôvit et signum et m anum suam. Reci­ tatae sunt tabellae n in eandem ferë sententiam ; confessus est. 4. ipsius manü: b y h is o w n h a n d . Letters were usually written by a secretary and not signed; the seal was sufficient evi­ dence of authenticity. 5. sësë . . . factürum esse: subject of erat scriptum. 6. [së] ôràre: a n d t h a t h e i m p l o r e d . 7. sibi . . . recëpissent: t h e i r e n v o y s h a d a c c e p t e d [as an obligation] f o r t h e m ­ s e lv e s ; sibi refers to lëgâtl.

8. qui: a l t h o u g h ; qui . . . respondisset dlxissetque is a characteristic clause with the accessory idea of concession. 9. apud ipsum: a t h is h o m e . 10. studiosum fuisse: h a d m a d e a h o b b y of. 11. [scriptae] in . . . sententiam: [ w r i t ­ ten ] w ith a lm o st th e s a m e co n ten t.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How did Cicero elicit a confession of guilt from Cethegus? 2. What was Cethegus’ excuse for keeping weapons in his house? 3. How did Statilius react when the letter in his own handwriting was read?

Ch. V - 2

Lentulus Broke Down and Confessed

Tum ostendi tabellâs Lentulô et quaesivi côgnôsceretne signum. Annuit. “Est vërô,” inquam , “nôtum quidem signum, imâgô *avï tuï, clarissimi viri, qui am âvit ünicë patriam et cïvës suôs; quae quidem të â tantô scelere etiam 2m üta 3revocàre dëbuit.” L eguntur 4eàdem ratiône ad senàtum Allobrogum populum que litterae. Si quid dë hïs rëbus dïcere 5vellet, fëcl potestatem . A tque ille prïmô quidem negâvit; post autem aliquanto, tôtô jam indicio exposito atque ëditô, surrëxit; quaesivit â Gallis, 6quid sibi esset cum eis, quam ob rem domum suam vënissent, item que â Volturciô. Qui cum illi breviter cônstanterque respondissent, per quem ad eum quotiënsque vënissent, quaesïssentque ab eô, nihilne sëcum esset dë fâtls Sibyllinis locütus, turn ille subito, scelere dëmëns, quanta conscientiae vis esset, ostendit. 1. avï: P. Cornélius Lentulus, consul ninety-nine years before. The portrait head of a distinguished member of a family was a favorite design on a seal. 2. müta: t h o u g h v o i c e l e s s . 3. revocâre dëbuit: o u g h t to h a v e r e c a ll e d .

156

4. eàdem ratiône: o f t h e s a m e k i n d ; abla­ tive of description. 5. vellet: subjunctive in subordinate clause in implied indirect discourse. 6. quid . . . els: w h a t h e h a d t o d o w i t h th e m .

Nam, 7cum id posset Infitiari, repente praeter opinionem omnium con­ fessus est. Ita 8eum non modo ingenium °illud et 10dlcendl exercitatio, qua sem per valuit, sed etiam propter vim sceleris m anifesti atque deprehensi im pudentia, quâ superabat omnës, im probitâsque dëfëcit. 7. cum . . . infitiari: cuni-concessive clause. 8. eum: object of dëfëcit. 9. illud: well-known, the ordinary mean­ ing of file when it follows the noun.

10. dicendi exercitatio: practice (skill) in oratory.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How did Cicero rebuke Lentulus when he admitted that the seal on the letters was his? 2. How did the Gauls and Volturcius answer Lentulus’ questions? 3. What did Lentulus do unexpectedly? 4. What skill of Lentulus failed him in his crucial moment? 5. What figure of speech is expressed by müta revocare, line 4?

Ch. V - 3

Gabinius Confessed; the Conspirators Betrayed Their G uilt

Volturcius vërô subito litteras proferri atque aperiri jubet, quâs sibi à Lentulo ad C atilinam datas esse dicebat. A tque ibi vehementissime perturbatus Lentulus tam en et signum et m anum suam cognovit. 1E rant autem 2sine nomine, sed ita: “Quis sim, scies ex eô quem ad të misi. Cürà, 3ut vir sis, et côgità, 4quem in locum sis progressus. Vidë, quid tibi jam sit necesse, et cürà, ut omnium tibi auxilia adjungas, etiam in fi­ m orum .” Gabinius deinde introductus 6cum primo im pudenter respondëre coepisset, ad extrëm um nihil ex eis, quae Galli Insim ulabant, negavit. Ac mihi quidem , Quirïtës, cum 7illa Scertissima visa sunt argüm enta atque indicia sceleris, tabellae, signa, manüs, dënique ünïus cüjusque cônfessiô, tum m ultô certiora illa, color, oculi, vultus, taciturnitas. 9Slc enim obstipuerant, sic terram intuëbantur, sic fürtim non num quam 10inter sësë aspiciëbant, ut non jam ab aliis indicari, sed indicare së ipsi vidërentur. 1. Erant: It was; the subject is litterae understood. 2. sine nomine: without heading. The nor­ mal letter had the name of the writer and that of the recipient and an abbre­ viated greeting. Here the heading was omitted as a precaution. 3. u t . . . sis: that you play the man. 4. quern . . . progressus: ivhat point you have reached.

5. Infimorum: of the lowest. Lentulus is suggesting that Catiline should accept slaves in his army. 6. cum . . . coepisset: cum-concessive clause. 7. ilia: the following evidence. 8. certissima: very certain. 9. Sic . . . obstipuerant: They were so dazed.

10. inter sësë: at each other.

157

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What did Volturcius do in order to involve Lentulus more deeply in the conspiracy? 2. How was the handwriting of the letter identified? 3. How did Gabinius react to the charges of the Gauls? 4. What, besides the written evidence, helped to convince the senators of the guilt of the conspirators? 5. Find an example of anaphora in the two Latin paragraphs on the preced­ ing page.

Ch. V I-1

The Senate Praised the Consuls and the Praetors

Hndicils expositis atque ëditïs, Quirites, senatum consului, 12dë summâ rë püblicà quid fieri placëret. D ictae sunt à 3prïncipibus acerrim ae ac fortissimae sententiae, quas senatus 456sine üllà varietate est secütus. Et quoniam nôndum est ’perscriptum senàtüs consultum , ex memoria vôbls, Quirïtës, quid senatus cënsuerit, exponam. Primum mihi gratiae verbis amplissimis aguntur, Gquod virtüte, con­ silio, providentia meà rës püblica maximis periculis sit liberata. D einde L. Flaccus et C. Pomptinus praetôrës, quod eôrum opera 7fortï fîdëlïque üsus essem, merito ac jüre laudantur. Atque etiam virô forti, 8collëgae meô, laus im pertitur, quod eôs, qui hüjus conjüràtiônis participés Puis­ sent, 10à suis et à reï püblicae consiliis removisset. FOR DISCUSSION

1. Whom did Cicero consult after the evidence of the conspirators’ guilt "had been set forth? 2. How did the Senate express its gratitude to Cicero for exposing the con­ spiracy? 3. Who else, besides Cicero, was given credit for helping to expose the con­ spiracy? 4. How had Cicero’s colleague helped in this crisis? 1. Indiciis . . . cditïs:

W h e n th e e v id e n c e h a d b e e n s e t f o r th a n d r e c o r d e d .

2. dë summâ rë püblicà = dë salùte reï püblicae. 3. principibus: t h e le a d e r s [ o f t h e S e n a t e ], the consuls-elect, then the ex-eonsuls. 4. sine . . . varietate: u n a n im o u s ly . 5. perscriptum: After a vote was passed, a committee of Senators wrote it out in a finished draft. 6. quod . . . sit lïberàta: a quoted reason, therefore the subjunctive. 7. fortï fîdëlïque: The men were praised

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because of their good qualities, not just because Cicero had made use of their services. 8. collëgae: Gaius Antonius, Cicero’s col­ league, who had done little more than set out to take command of troops in the north. He had been a supporter of Catiline, but Cicero won him over by promising him Macedonia, a desirable province. 9. fuissent: subjunctive by attraction. 10. à suis et à reï püblicae cônsiliïs: f r o m h is o w n c o u n s e l s a n d t h o s e o f t h e s ta te .

Ch. V I—2

The Conspirators W ere Placed in Custody

A tque 1ita cënsuërunt ut P. Lentulus, cum 2së praetürà abdicâsset, in cüstôdiam traderetur; item que utï C. Cethegus, L. Statilius, P. Gabinius, qui omnës 3praesentës erant, in cüstôdiam traderentur; atque idem hoc dëcrëtum est in 4L. Cassium, qui sibi prôcüràtiônem incendendae urbis dëpoposcerat; in M. Cëpârium , cui ad sollicitandos pastôrës Àpüliam attribütam esse erat indicatum ; in P. Fürium , qui est ex eis colonis, quôs Faesulas L. Sulla °dëdûxit; in Q. Annium Chilonem, qui ünà cum hôc Füriô sem per erat in hac Allobrogum sollicitatione versatus; in P. Umbrënum , 6libertinum hom inem , â quô prim um Gallos ad Gabinium perductos esse 7cônstàbat. A tque 8eâ lënitâte senatus est üsus, Quirïtës, ut ex tanta °conjüràtiône tan tâq u e hâc m ultitüdine dom esticorum hostium, 10novem hom inum per­ ditissim orum n poenà rë püblicà conservata, reliquorum mentës sanari posse arbitràrëtur. 1. ita cënsuërunt:

they passed the follow ­

in g v o t e .

2. së . . . abdicâsset: h a d r e s i g n e d . A magis­ trate could hot be arrested while holding office. 3. praesentës: These men were all members of the Senate. 4. L. Cassium: Cassius, Furius, Chilo, and Umbrenus were w arned in time to escape. Ceparius, who had left the city before the decree was passed, was over­ taken and brought back. 5. dëdüxit: Sulla the dictator had settled his

veteran soldiers in various sections of Italy after the Civil War. 6. libertinum hominem: a f r e e d m a n ; one who had been a slave and had been freed.

7. cônstàbat: it w a s e s t a b l i s h e d . 8. eà . . . üsus: d i s p l a y e d s u c h l e n i e n c y . 9. conjuratione: b a n d o f c o n s p i r a t o r s . 10. novem hominum: Of the nine, only five were punished.

11. poenà: ablative of means with the abla­ tive absolute rè püblicà cônservàtà.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What did the Senate decree with regard to Lentulus and the other con­ spirators who were present? 2. What part did Cassius have in the conspiracy? Ceparius? Furius? Chilo? Umbrenus? 3. Why had the Senate reacted so leniently?

Ch. V I- 3

A Public Thanksgiving Was Decreed in M y Honor

A tque etiam Supplicatio dis im m ortalibus pro singulari eorum merito meô nom ine dëcrëta est, quod -mihi prim um post hanc urbem conditam 1. supplicatio:

a t h a n k s g i v i n g , probably for five days. It usually consisted of festivi­ ties and offerings to the gods. 2. mihi . . . togàtô: t o m e a c i v i l i a n ; usu­

ally thanksgivings were decreed for a trium phant general wearing military garb. Cicero was the first civilian to whom the honor had been given.

159

togâtô contigit, et hïs décréta verbïs est, 123quod urbem incendiis, caede cïvës, Italiam bellô liberassem. Quae supplicatio 4sl cum cëterïs supplica­ tionibus conferatur, 5hoc interest, 6quod 7cëterae, bene gesta, haec üna, cônservâtâ ré püblicâ, cônstitüta est. Atque illud quod faciendum prim um fuit, factum atque transactum est. Nam P. Lentulus, quam quam patefactis indiciis, confessionibus suis, jüdiciô senàtüs non modo 8praetôris jüs, vërum etiam civis âm ïserat, tam en m agistràtü së abdicavit, 9ut, quae religiô C. Mario, clârissimô virô, non fuerat, quôminus C. Glauciam, dë quô nihil nôm inâtim erat dëcrëtum , praetorem occideret, eâ nos religiône in prïvàtô P. Lentulô püniendô lïberàrëm ur. 3. quod . . . liberassem: subjunctive in sub­ ordinate clause in indirect discourse. 4. si . . . conferatur . . . interest: mixed condition. 5. hoc interest: t h e r e is t h i s d if f e r e n c e . 6. quod . . . cônstitüta est: in apposition to hoc; after cëterae, sc. cônstitütae sunt; with gestà, sc. rë püblicâ. Translate the ablative absolutes by causal clauses. 7. cëterae: a ll o th e r s .

8. praetôris jüs: immunity from prosecu­ tion while in office. 9. ut . . . lïberàrëmur: in o r d e r t h a t in p u n i s h i n g P. L e n t u l u s a s a p r i v a t e c i t i ­ ze n tee m ig h t b e fre e fro m th a t scru p le, w h ic h [scru p le] G a in s M a riu s, a v e r y f a m o u s m a n , h a d n o t h a d [ to p r e v e n t h i m ] f r o m k i llin g G a i u s G la u c i a , w h i l e h e te a s p r a e t o r , a b o u t w h o m n o t h i n g h a d b een d e c re e d b y name.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why was the thanksgiving decreed in Cicero’s honor a rare occurrence in Republican Rome? 2. What specific reasons for this thanksgiving does Cicero mention in the preceding paragraphs? 3. What did Lentulus the praetor do? 4. What principle had Marius violated in bringing about the death of Glaucia, the praetor? Ch. V l l - l

The Plot Had Collapsed W ithout Catiline

Nunc quoniam, Quirïtës, consceleratissimi perïculôsissimïque belli ne­ farios ducës Captos jam et comprehensos tenëtis, existimare dëbëtis omnës Catilinae copias, omnës spës atque opës, hïs dëpulsïs urbis periculis, "'concidisse. 3Quem quidem ego cum ex urbe pellëbam , hoc prôvidëbam animô, Quirïtës, remôtô Catilina, non mihi esse P. Lentuli 4somnum nec L. Cassi 'adipes nec C. C ethëgï ‘'furiosam tem eritatem 7pertim ëscendam . 1. captüs . . . comprehënsôs: a l r e a d y captive and c o m p l e t e l y i n y o u r p o w e r . 2. coniadisse: h a v e c o l l a p s e d , (somewhat oi an exaggeration to calm the fears of t:ic' people' ).

3. t.'ueni: Catiline.

4. somnum: i n d o l e n c e . 5. adipës: c o r p u l e n c e . 6. furiosam temeritatem: m a d f u r y . 7. pertimescendam: agrees with temeri­ tatem but includes somnum and adipës.

Ille erat ünus tim endus ex istis omnibus, sed 8tam diü dum urbis moenibus continebatur. Omnia 9nôrat, 10omnium aditüs tenebat; appel­ lare, tem ptare, sollicitare poterat, audebat. E rat ei consilium ad facinus aptum , consilio autem neque m anus neque lingua deerat. Jam ad certas rês conficiendas certôs hominës dëlëctôs ac dëscrïptôs habëbat. Neque vërô, n cum aliquid 12m andarat, confectum putabat; nihil erat, 13quod non ipse obiret, occurreret, vigilaret, laboraret; frigus, sitim, famem ferre poterat. 8. tam diü: o n ly so lo n g . 9. nôrat = nôverat. 10. omnium . . . tenebat:

h e k n e w h o w to

a p p r o a c h all m e n . cum: w h e n e v e r .

11. 12. mandàrat = mandaverat.

13. quod: object of obiret, but construed with occurreret, which would require the dative, and with vigilaret and la­ boraret, which should have ad quod or in quo.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What has happened to Catiline’s plots now that his principal accomplices are in custody? 2. What does Cicero say that he foresaw when he was expelling Catiline from the city? 3. What qualities did Catiline have that made him so dangerous to the city? 4. Find examples of climax, asyndeton, and alliteration in the preceding para­ graphs?

Ch. V II- 2

I Removed the M asterm ind and Saved You

H unc ego hom inem tam acrem, tam audacem , tam paratum , tam calli­ dum, tam in scelere vigilantem, tam in p e rd itis rëbus diligentem nisi ex Momesticls Insidiis in 12castrënse latrocinium compulissem—dicam id quod sentio, Q uirîtës—non facile hanc tantam môlem mali à cervicibus vestris dëpulissem. Non ille 3nôbïs 4Sâturnàlia constituisset neque 5tantô ante exit! ac fati diem rei publicae dënüntiàvisset 6neque commisisset, ut signum, ut litterae suae, tëstës m anifëstï sceleris, dëprehenderentur. Quae nunc illo absente sic gesta sunt, ut nüllum in prïvàtâ domô fürtum um quam sit tam palam inventum , quam haec tanta in rë püblicà conjüràtiô manifëstô inventa atque dëprehënsa est. Quod si Catilina in urbe ad hanc diem remansisset, quam quam , quoad fuit, omnibus ëjus consiliis 7occurrï atque obstiti, tam en, sut levissimë dicam, 9dlm icandum 1. perditis rëbus: d e s p e r a t e v e n t u r e s . 2. domesticis: w i t h i n t h e c i t y , in contrast with castrense, in t h e fie ld . 3. nôbis: dative of reference. 4. Saturnalia: This date, December 17, would have been too late for Catiline. 5. tantô ante: so f a r a h e a d .

6. neque commisisset:

nor w o u ld he have

a llo w ed .

7. occurri atque obstiti: 1

opposed

and

r e s is te d .

8. ut . . . dicam: to s p e a k 9. dimicandum . . . fuisset:

v e r y m ild ly . w e w o u ld have

h a d t o c o n t e n d w i t h h im .

161

nôbïs cum illô fuisset, neque nos um quam , cum ille in urbe hostis esset, tantis periculis rem publicam 10tantâ pâce, tantô ôtiô, tantô silentio lïberàssëmus. 10. tanta pâce, tantô ôtiô, tantô silentiô: ablative of manner. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What qualities necessary for the perpetration of crime does Cicero attribute to Catiline? 2. What would Cicero not have accomplished if he had not forced Catiline to leave the city? 3. With what does Cicero compare the discovery of a theft in a private home? 4. What would Cicero have had to do if Catiline had remained at Rome? 5. Select an example of anaphora and an example of asyndeton from the pre­ ceding paragraphs.

Ch. V l l l - l

The Gods Guided, Protected, and W arned Us

Q u am q u am haec omnia, Quirites, ita sunt â më a d m in istrâ t^ ut deôrum immortalium nütü atque cônsiliô et gesta et provisa esse videan­ tur. Idque 2cum conjectürà 3cônsequï possumus, 4quod 5vix vidëtur Ghüm ànï cônsilï tantàrum rërum gubernatio esse potuisse, tum vërô 7ita praesentës hïs tem poribus opem et auxilium nôbïs tulërunt, ut eôs paene oculis vidëre possëmus. Nam 8ut illa om ittam , visas nocturno tem pore 9ab Occidente faqës ârdôrem que caeli, ut fulm inum jactüs, ut terrae môtüs relinquam ; ut om ittam cëtera., quae 10tam multa, n nôbïs consulibus, facta sunt, ut haec, quae nunc fïunt, 12 canere dï immortâlës vidërentur, hoc certë, quod sum dictürus, neque praeterm ittendum neque 13relinquendum est. FOR DISCUSSION

1. How had Cicero managed affairs during these dangerous times? 2. What incidents does Cicero say he will pass over? 3. Select an example of preterition from the preceding paragraphs. 1. Quamquam: A n d y e t . 2. cum: n o t o n l y , correlative with turn,

but

assum e.

h a rd ly p o s ­ sib le th a t th e d irectio n of such im p o rta n t m a tte rs c o u ld h a v e b e e n [th e w o rk ] of hum an w isd o m .

6. hümànï cônsilï: predicate genitive.

162

in s u c h a w a y . o ve r th e fo llo w ­

in g [ i n c i d e n t s ].

also.

3. consequi possumus: w e c a n 4. quod: b e c a u s e . 5. vix . . . potuisse: it s e e m s

7. ita praesentës: p r e s e n t 8. ut . . . omittam: t o p a s s

9. ab occidente: in t h e w e s t , the quarter for unlucky omens. 10. tam multa: in s u c h n u m b e r s . 11. nôbïs consulibus: ablative absolute. 12. canere: to p r e d i c t . 13. relinquendum: l e f t o u t.

Ch. V III- 2

The Gods Averted the Predicted Calamities

Nam profecto m emoriâ tenetis, 4C otta et Torquàtô consulibus, complürës in Capitôliô rës 12dë caelô esse percussas, cum et simulacra deôrum 3dëpulsa sunt et 4statuae 'veterum hom inum dëjectae et 6lëgum aéra liquefacta et 7tàctus etiam ille, quï hanc urbem condidit, Romulus, 8quem inauratum in Capitôliô, parvum atque lactentem , uberibus lupinis in­ hiantem , fuisse meministis. Quô quidem tem pore cum haruspicës ex tôtà 9E trürià convënissent, caedës atque incendia et lëgum interitum et bellum civile ac domesticum et tôtïus urbis atque im perï occâsum appropinquare dïxërunt, nisi di immortàlës, 10omnï ratiône plâcâtï, n suô nüm ine 12prope fâta ipsa flexissent. 1. Cottâ . . . consulibus: in 65 b.c. 2. dë . . . percussas: s t r u c k b y l i g h t n in g . 3. dêpulsa sunt: w e r e t h r o w n d o w n [ f r o m

7. tactus = percussus. 8. quem inauratum in Capitôliô . . . fuisse meministis: w h o , y o u r e m e m b e r ,

t h e i r p e d e s t a l s ].

4. statuae: s t a t u e s [ o f m e n ] ; simulacra were images ( of gods ). 5. veterum: o f f o r m e r t i m e s . 6. lëgum . . . liquefacta [sunt] : t h e b r o n z e t a b l e t s o f t h e l a w w e r e m e l t e d . The laws were engraved on bronze tablets and preserved in temples.

w a s on th e C a p i t o l , a s a g i l d e d s t a t u e .

9. Etrürià: a district famous for its sooth­ sayers. 10. omnï ratiône: in e v e r y w a y . 11. suô nümine: b y t h e i r o w n d i v i n e p o w e r . 12. prope . . . flexissent: s h o u l d a lso b e n d th e fa tes th e m se lv e s.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What four portents occurred in Rome during the consulship of Cotta and Torquatus? 2. What calamities had the soothsayers foretold? 3. How could these calamities be averted?

Ch. V III- 3

In G ratitude to the Gods, Games W ere Celebrated, and a Larger Statue of Jupiter Was M ade

Itaq u e illôrum responsis tum et 4lùdï per decem diës facti sunt, neque rës ülla, quae ad plâcandôs deôs pertinëret, praeterm issa est. ïdem que jüssërunt sim ulacrum Jovis 2facere màjus et 3in excelso collocare et 4contrà, atque antea fuerat, ad orientem convertere; ac së spëràre dïx1. lüdï: g a m e s . All public games were re­ ligious in their origin. Later they de­ generated into political tools. The games included chariot races and gladiatorial contests. 2. facere: sc. Rômànôs (those consulting the haruspices).

3. in excelsô: in a h ig h p o s i t io n . contra . . . fuerat: o p p o s i t e t h e f o r m e r p o s i t io n ; it would be turned around and face the east.

4.

ërunt, sî illud signum, quod vidëtis, sôlis ortum et Forum C üriam que conspiceret, ’fore 6ut ea consilia, quae clam essent inita contra salütem urbis atque imperï, illüstràrentur, ut â senâtü populôque Rômànô perspici possent. Atque 7illud signum collocandum cônsulês illi locàvërunt; sed tanta fuit operis tarditas, ut, neque Nuperioribus consulibus neque nobis, ante hodiernum diem collocârëtur. 5. fore: [ t h e r e s u lt] w o u l d h e; object of spëràre. 6. ut . . . illüstràrentur: substantive clause of result, subject of fore. 7. illud signum . . . locàvërunt: t h o s e c o n ­

Usually the censors cared for such matters, but the censors of 65 b .c . had resigned. 8. superioribus consulibus: u n d e r t h e la te c o n s u ls ; the consuls of 64 b .c . sta tu e.

s u ls c o n t r a c t e d f o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f t h a t

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

How did the Romans try to placate the gods? What did the soothsayers order the Romans to do? What result did the soothsayers hope for? Why was the erection of the statue of Jupiter delayed?

Ch. IX—1

A Strange Coincidence Was a Proof of Divine Favor

1Hlc quis potest esse, Quirïtës, tam âversus â vërô, tam praeceps, tam 2m ente captus, 123qul neget 456h aec omnia quae vidëmus, praecipuëque hanc urbem deorum immortalium nütü ac potestate adm inistrari? Etenim , cum esset ita responsum, caedës, incendia, interitum reï püblicae co m p arât, et ea per cïvës, quae tum propter m âgnitüdinem scelerum non nüllïs incrëdibilia vidëbantur, ea non modo côgitàta â nefariis civibus, vërum etiam suscepta esse sënsistis. Illud vërô nonne ita ’praesëns est, 6ut nütü Jovis O ptim i Mâximï factum esse videatur, 7ut, cum hodiernô dië m âne 8per Forum meô jüssü et conjüràtl et eôrum indicés in 9aedem Concordiae dücerentur, eô ipso tem pore signum statuerëtur? Quô collocato atque ad vos 10senàtum que converso, omnia, quae erant côgitàta contra salütem omnium, illüstrâta et patefacta vidistis. 1. Hic: U n d e r th e s e c ir c u m s t a n c e s .

2. mente captus: m e n t a l l y a f f e c t e d . 3. qui neget: as to d e n y ; relative clause of result. 4. haec . . . vidëmus: i.e., all this universe. Cicero here affirms the rule of a Provi­ dence. 5. praesëns: p r o v i d e n t i a l . 6. ut . . . videàtur: as to a p p e a r ; result clause.

164

7. ut . . . statuerëtur: substantive clause of result in apposition to illud. 8. per Forum: In going from Cicero’s house on the Palatine to the temple of Concord, the Forum would have to be crossed. 9. aedem: t e m p l e ; in plural, aedës = house.

10. senàtum:

th e S e n a te house.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What must every Roman now admit? 2. Why had some Romans hesitated to believe that the conspiracy was pos­ sible? 3. What strange coincidence occurred that very day? 4. What is the meaning of signum, line 11?

Ch. IX -2

The Gods M ad e the Conspirators Rash and the Gauls Faithful

*Quo etiam majore sunt istï odiô suppliciôque digni, qui non solum vestris domiciliis atque tectis, sed etiam deorum templis atque dëlübrïs sunt 12fünestôs ac nefâriôs ignes inferre conati. Quibus ego si më restitisse dicam, 3nim ium mihi sümam et non sim ferendus; ille, ille Juppiter restitit; ille Capitolium , ille haec templa, ille cünctam urbem, ille vos omnës 4salvôs esse voluit. Dis ego im mortalibus ducibus 5hanc mentem, Quirïtës, voluntâtem que suscëpï, atque ad haec tanta indicia pervënï. Jam vërô ab Lentulô cëterïsque domesticis hostibus tam dëm enter tantae rës crëditae et 6ïgnôtïs et barbaris num quam essent profecto, nisi ab dis im m ortalibus huic tantae audaciae consilium esset ëreptum. Quid vërô? 7ut 8hominës Galli ex civitate male pàcàtà, quae gëns üna restat, 9quae bellum populo Rômànô facere et posse et non nolle videatur, spem im peri ac rërum maximarum ültrô sibi à 10patriciis hominibus ob­ latam neglegerent vestram que salütem suis opibus anteponerent, id non divinitus esse factum putatis, praesertim qui nos non pügnandô, sed tacendo superare potuerint? FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why should the Romans feel personal resentment against the conspira­ tors? 2. To whom does Cicero give credit for saving Rome and the Romans? 3. What figures of speech are illustrated in lines 4-5 and in the words non nolle, line 12? 1. Quo: For this reason. 2. fünestôs ac nefâriôs ignés: deadly and infamous fires.

3. nimium . . . sümam: 1 would be too presumptuous.

4. salvos: predicate adjective for all four subjects of esse. 5. hanc . . . suscëpï: I conceived this pur­

7. ut . . . neglegerent . . . anteponerent: substantive clauses of result in apposi­ tion to id. 8. hominës Galli: men from Gaul. 9. quae . . . videatur: relative character­ istic clause. 10. patriciis hominibus: Lentulus, Cethegus, and others.

pose and determination.

6. ïgnôtls: to strangers; dative after crë­ ditae.

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4. Who incited Lentulus and the other conspirators to act as they did? 5. Why could a different course of action have been expected of the Allo­ broges? Ch. X —1

Let the Gods Be Thanked; Consider Former Conflicts

Quam ob rem, Quirites, quoniam ad omnia p u lv in a ria supplicatio décréta est, 123celebràtôte illôs diës cum conjugibus ac liberis vestris. Nam m ulti saepe honorés dis immortalibus jüstï habiti sunt ac dëbitï, sed profectô jüstiôrës num quam . Erepti enim estis ex crüdëlissimô ac m iser­ rimo interitü; sine caede, sine sanguine, sine exercitü, sine dim icatione; 3togàtï, më ünô togàtô duce et im peratore, vicistis. Etenim 4recordàminï, Quirïtës, omnës cïvïlës 5dissënsiônës, non sôlum eâs, quâs audistis, sed eâs, quâs vôsmet ipsi meministis atque vidistis. L. Sulla P. Sulpicium oppressit; C. M arium, 67cüstôdem hüjus urbis, m ultôsque fortës virés partim ëjëcit ex civitate, partim interëm it. Cn. Octâvius consul armis expulit ex urbe 'collëgam ; omnis 89*h ic locus 9acervïs corporum et civium sanguine redundavit. 10Superàvit posteâ Cinna cum Mario; tum vërô, clarissimis viris inter­ fectis, “ lümina civitatis exstincta sunt. Ültus est hüjus victoriae crüdëlitâtem posteâ Sulla; né dici quidem opus est, 12quantà dëm inütiône civium et quanta calam itate rei püblicae. Dissënsit M. Lepidus à claris­ simo et fortissimo viré, 13Q. Catulô; attulit non tam ipsius interitus rei püblicae lüctum quam 14cëterôrum. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What advice does Cicero give to the citizens about the celebration of fhe thanksgiving? 1. pulvinaria: shrines; actually they were couches upon which images of the gods were placed in a reclining position, to­ gether with offerings of food. 2. celebratote: you shall celebrate (cele­ brate) ; second person plural future im­ perative; the future implies formality. 3. togati: dressed in the toga, the garb of peace. 4. recordamini: imperative; notice that recordamini does not take the genitive. 5. dissënsiônës: periods of strife. 6. cüstôdem: Marius, who was victorious over the Cimbri and the Teutons. 7. collëgam: Cinna, who escaped but was deposed from the consulship. 8. hie locus: the Forum; there the adher­ ents of Octavius and Cinna had fought. 9. acervis . . . redundavit: was piled icith bodies and flowed with the blood of citizens. It was estimated that 10,000

10. 11. 12.

13.

14.

were killed. Redundavit is used with two meanings; zeugma. Superavit: Gained control. They be­ sieged Rome in 87 b .c. lùmina: lights ( leading men). These included Octavius, Quintus Catulus, and Marcus Antonius. quanta . . . civium: The proscription lists contained the names of almost five thousand citizens; quanta dëminütiône, quanta calamitate: ablatives of attendant circumstance. Q. Catulô: son of Quintus Catulus men­ tioned in footnote 11. As consul in 78 b .c . he opposed his colleague, Marcus Lepi­ dus, the leader of the popular party. After the death of the dictator Sulla, Lepidus overthrew most of Catulus' laws and works. cëterôrum: the associates of Lepidus.

2. Why must this thanksgiving be different from all preceding celebrations? 3. Who was the leader to whom credit ought to be given for this thanksgiving? 4. What crimes against their fellow-citizens had been committed by Octavius? Marius and Cinna? Sulla? Quintus Catulus? 5. What figure of speech is lümina, line 14? Ch. X - 2

I Saved You in a Civil Strife Unequaled for Cruelty

A tque illae tam en omnës dissensiones erant ëjus modi 1quae non ad dëlendam , sed ad com m utandam rem püblicam pertinërent. Non illï nüllam esse rem püblicam , sed in eâ, quae esset, së esse prïncipës, neque hanc urbem conflagrare, sed së in hàc urbe flôrëre voluërunt. Atque illae tam en omnës dissënsiônës, quârum nülla exitium rei püblicae quaesivit, ëjus modi fuërunt, ut non 2reconciliàtiône concordiae, sed internecione civium 3dïjüdicàtae sint. In hoc autem 4ünô post hom inum memoriam mâximô crüdëlissimôque bellô, quale bellum nülla um quam barbaria cum suâ gente gessit, quo in bellô lëx haec fuit à Lentulo, Catilina, Cethëgô, Cassio cônstitüta ut omnës qui, °salva urbe, 5salvl esse possent, in hostium num ero dücerentur, ita më gessi, Quirïtës, ut Gsalvï omnës cônservârëmini, et 7cum hostës vestri tantum civium superfutürum putàssent quantum Infinitae caedi 8restitisset, tantum autem urbis, quantum flamma 9oblre non potuisset, et urbem et cïvës integrôs incolum ësque servavi. 1. quae . . . pertinërent: relative clause of result.

2. reconciliatione concordiae:

bi/ p e a c e f u l

reconciliation.

3. dïjüdicàtae sint:

were

settled;

perfect

subjunctive in result clause.

4. ünô: w i t h o u t e x c e p t i o n . 5. salva, salvi: salvus means safe in a

physical sense, and solvent in a commer­ cial sense.

6. salvl: s a f e a n d s o u n d . 7. cum . . . putàssent: cum-concessive clause.

8. restitisset: 9. obire: m e e t

w ithstood (reach).

( escaped

from ).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What had been the purpose of the earlier periods of strife? 2. How did this war, instigated by the conspirators, compare with former wars? 3. From what calamities did Cicero save the citizens and the city? 4. What is the figure of speech in salvà urbe, salvl omnës conservaremini, lines 11- 12? Ch. X I

I Ask No Reward, but the M em ory of M y Service

Quibus prô tantïs hëbus, Quirïtës, nüllum ego à vôbïs praem ium virtütis, nüllum Insigne honoris, nüllum m onum entum laudis postulô 1. rébus:

services.

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praeterquam hüjus diëï memoriam sem piternam . In animïs ego vestris omnës trium phos meôs, omnia ornam enta honoris, m onum enta gloriae, laudis insignia condi et collocârï volô. Nihil më m ütum potest delectare, nihil tacitum , nihil dënique ëjus modi, quod etiam "minus digni assequi possint. M emoria vestra, Quirites, nostrae 123rës 4alentur, sermonibus crescent, °litteràrum m onum entis in­ veterascent et corroborabuntur; eandem que 6diem intellego, quam spërô aeternam fore, 7prôpàgâtam esse et ad salütem urbis et ad memoriam cônsulâtüs mei, ünôque tem pore in hâc rë püblicà duos cïvës exstitisse, quorum 8alter finës vestrï im perï non terrae, sed caeli regionibus term ina­ ret, 9alter ëjusdem imperï domicilium sëdësque servaret. 2. minus digni = indigni; even unworthy men such as actors and gladiators have been honored with such things. 3. rës: a c c o m p l i s h m e n t s . 4. alentur: w i l l b e n o u r i s h e d ( k e p t f r e s h ) . 5. litterarum monumentis: historical works. 6. diem: p e r i o d ( s p a c e o f t i m e ) .

7. prôpâgâtam esse: h a s b e e n p r o l o n g e d . 8. alter: Pompey, victor in the Mithridatic war, as well as conqueror of Sertorius in Spain and of the pirates in the Medi­ terranean. 9. alter: Cicero.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How does Cicero wish to be remembered for his services? 2. What honors does Cicero say he does not want? 3. What famous Roman citizens does Cicero include in the words duos cïvës, line 11? 4. What did each accomplish for the state? 5. Find examples of anaphora, asyndeton, and hyperbole in the preceding paragraphs.

Ch. X II—1

You Must N o w Protect M e from the Living Conspirators

Sed quoniam eârum rërum, quâs ego gessi, non leadem est fortüna atque 2condiciô quae illorum, qui externa bella gessërunt, quod 3mihi cum eis vivendum est, quos vici ac subëgï, 4illï hostës aut interfectos aut oppressos relïquërunt, 5vestrum est, Quirïtës, si 6cëterïs facta 7sua srëctë prosunt, mihi mea në 9quandô obsint, prôvidëre. 10M entës enim hominum audâcissimôrum sceleratae ac nefariae në vôbïs nocëre possent, ego providi; në mihi noceant, vestrum est prôvi1. eadem . . . quae: t h e s a m e as. 2. condicio: s itu a tio n . 3. mihi . . . vivendum est: I m u s t liv e ; the verb is impersonal. 4. illi: victorious generals. 5. vestrum est: it is y o u r [ d u t y ] . 6. ceteris: governed by prôsunt. 7. sua: refers to ceteris, which is the sub­

ject of the thought, although not the grammatical subject of prôsunt. 8. rëctë = meritô. 9. quandô: a t s o m e t i m e ; indefinite after në. 10. Mentës: in t e n t i o n s ; subject of possent; placed first in sentence for emphasis.

dëre. n Q uam quam , Quirïtës, 12mihi quidem ipsi nihil ab istïs jam nocërî potest. M agnum enim est in 13bonïs praesidium , quod mihi in perpetuum com paratum est, m agna in rë püblicà 14dïgnitâs, quae më sem per 15tacita dëfendet, m agna vis 16cônscientiae, 17quam qui neglegunt, cum më violâre volent, 18së ipsi indicabunt. 11. Quamquam: A n d 12. mihi . . . potest:

y e t. 1 in d e e d ca n n o t b e in ­ ju re d b y th e se m e n n o w .

13. bonis: the optimàtës, whose support he expects. 14. dignitas: p r e s t i g e . 15. tacita: [a l t h o u g h ] s ile n t.

16. conscientiae: o f in n e r k n o w l e d g e [that Cicero had saved the state]. 17. quam qui neglegunt = si qui eam negle­ gunt: [ a n d ] t c h o c v e r d i s r e g a r d s th is. 18. së . . . indicabunt: iv ill b e t r a y t h e m ­ selves.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is the difference between Cicero's achievements and those of a gen­ eral who has waged foreign wars for Rome? 2. What must Roman citizens now do for Cicero? 3. What has Cicero already done to protect himself? 4. What will be his silent defender? 5. How will those who try to harm Cicero show their own guilt? 6. Find an example of oxymoron in the preceding paragraphs.

Ch. X I1-2

Protect Me; I Shall Provide for Your Safety

Est enim Hn nôbïs 12is animus, Quirïtës, ut non modo nüllïus audaciae cëdâm us, sed etiam omnës improbos ültrô sem per lacessamus. Quod sï omnis im petus dom esticorum hostium, dëpulsus à vôbïs, 3së in më ünum converterit, vôbïs erit videndum , Quirïtës, 4quà condicione posthâc eôs esse velïtis, 5quï së prô salüte vestrâ obtulerint invidiae perïculïsque om­ nibus; mihi quidem ipsï, quid est 6quod jam ad 7vïtae früctum possit acquïrï, cum praesertim neque 8in honore vestrô neque in 9glôrià virtütis quidquam videam 10altius, n quô mihi libeat ascendere? 1. in nôbïs = in mè; the ablative with in is used to show possession of abstract qualities. 2. is animus: s u c h s p ir it. 3. së in më ünum converterit: s h a ll b e t u r n e d u p o n m e a lo n e . Within five years Cicero was banished on the ground that he had put citizens to death without trial. 4. qua condicione: in w h a t p o s i t i o n ; abla­ tive of description. 5. qui . . . obtulerint: subjunctive by at­ traction.

6. quod . . . possit acquïrï: relative char­ acteristic clause. 7. vitae früctum: life 's e n j o y m e n t . 8. in . . . vestrô: in y o u r official p r o m o ­ tio n s.

9. glôriâ virtütis:

re p u ta tio n

g a in ed

by

m e r it.

10. altius: h i g h e r ( p o s i t i o n ) .

11. quo . . . ascendere:

to w a rd

w h ic h

I

c a r e to c l i m b .

169

12Illud profecto perficiam, Quirïtës, ut ea, quae gessï in cônsulâtü, privatus tuear atque ornem, ut, si qua est invidia in conservanda rë püblicà suscepta, 13laedat invidos, 14mihi valeat ad gloriam. D ënique ita 15më in rë püblicâ trâctâbô, ut m em inerim semper, quae gesserim, cürem que, ut ea virtüte, non câsü gesta esse 16videantur. Vos, Quirïtës, quoniam jam est 17nox, venerati Jovem illum, cüstôdem hüjus urbis ac lsvestrum, in vestra tëcta discëdite et ea, quam quam jam est periculum dëpulsum tam en 10aequë ac 20priôre nocte cüstôdiïs vigiliisque dëfendite. Id në vÔbïs diütius faciendum sit, atque 21ut in perpetua pace esse possitis, prôvidëbô. FOR DISCUSSION

1. To whom does domesticorum hostium, line 3, refer? What is the figure of rhetoric? 2. To whom does eôs, line 4, refer? 3. What promise does Cicero make as to his conduct as a private citizen? 4. What does Cicero ask the Romans to do before they return home? 5. How much longer will they have to protect their homes? 12. Illud: explained by the clause ut . . . ôrnem; substantive clause of result. 13. laedat: subject invidia understood. 14. mihi valeat: m a y r e d o u n d . 15. me . . . trâctâbô: I s h a l l c o n d u c t m y s e l f in p u b l i c life.

16. videantur: a r e s e e n . 17. nox: The Senate meeting that immedi­ ately preceded the delivery of this ora­

170

tion evidently lasted nearlv all dav. IS. vestrum: objective gentive; a rare use of the gentive plural of tü.

19. aequë ac:

ju s t as.

20. priôre nocte: l a s t n i g h t ; after the second oration. 21. ut . . . prôvidëbô: a hint foretelling the execution of the arrested conspirators.

FOURTH ORATION AGAINST CATILINE On December 5 the Senate met in the Temple of Concord to decide the fate of Lentulus and the four other conspirators then under arrest. The report was abroad that their friends and freedmen had begun to agitate and to form plans for their release. The courts were so corrupt that it was possible that they would be freed if the case came up for trial. The conspirators might even be rescued by force. Under these circumstances, it was imperative for Cicero to act at once. The first senator called upon at the meeting was Decimus Junius Silanus, consul-elect. He advocated the death penalty. He was supported in this opinion by the other senators until Julius Caesar, then praetor-elect, was asked his opinion. He affirmed that it was a fundamental principle of the Roman con­ stitution that no citizen should be put to death without the right of appeal to the people. He also pointed out that to inflict punishment without a formal trial would establish a dangerous precedent and would only provoke a re­ action in favor of the conspirators. He then went on to advocate the con­ fiscation of the conspirators’ property and their imprisonment in some of the larger towns of Italy. The effect of his speech was such that the other senators began to waver. Even Quintus Cicero, brother of the consul, leaned toward Caesar’s proposal. As the Senate was now in a state of indecision, Cicero arose and delivered the Fourth Oration Against Catiline. In it he gave a detailed analysis of the entire situation and its possible effects on the country and the people. In it he also reviewed the speeches of Silanus and Caesar. Without speaking deci­ sively for either proposal, he clearly revealed his own conviction favoring the death penalty. Against Caesar’s view favoring perpetual confinement, he urged that Lentulus and the other conspirators, by the very fact of having taken up arms against the Republic, forfeited their right of citizenship and conse­ quently the protection afforded Roman citizens by the law. Finally he ex­ horted the senators to do their duty, to disregard his personal safety, and to consider only the welfare of the Republic. The Senate, however, still wavered. Tiberius Nero, grandfather of the future emperor, proposed postponement until Catiline was defeated in the field. Then Marcus Porcius Cato, a fiery young tribune-elect, declared so vigorously for the death penalty that the wavering ceased and the senators voted for the death of the conspirators by a large majority. There was no delay in carrying out the penalty. Lentulus, Cethegus, Gabinius, Statilius, and Ceparius were led to the Tullianum, a loathsome subterranean dungeon on the slope of the Capitoline Hill, where they were strangled to death (see page 150E ). 171

ORATION FOR THE MANILIAN LAW First Mithridatic War: In 88 b .c . the Romans became involved in a war with Mithridates VI, a cruel and unscrupulous Oriental despot. Mithridates was King of Pontus, a mountainous stronghold southeast of the Black Sea and east of the Roman province of Asia. This province included all western Asia Minor and most of the islands of the Aegean Sea. The richest of all Rome s provinces, it afforded opportunities for profitable investment of great sums of money. It also furnished a large portion of Rome’s grain supply. Mithridates began his reign about 120 b . c . His insatiable ambition for conquest led to the annexation of lesser Armenia and Colchis and the northern shore of the Black Sea. For a while, his attempts of further expansion to the west were blocked by the Romans. However, he continued his aggressive poli­ cies and obtained control of Bithynia and Cappadocia. Before the end of 88 b .c . he had gained possession of almost all Asia Minor. The following year Mithridates sent an army to Greece, where he was decisively defeated by the Roman general Lucius Cornelius Sulla and forced to pay a huge indemnity. Thus this first Mithridatic War, which lasted from 8 8 to 84 b . c ., closed with a temporary victory for the Romans. Second Mithridatic War: When Sulla returned to Italy to engage in Civil War with the Marian Party, he placed Lucius Licinius Murena in command of the Roman army. Murena brought on a second Mithridatic War by undertaking, on his own responsibility, an invasion of Pontus, only to be driven out in defeat. Sulla commanded him to refrain from hostilities, and the war, which had dragged on from 83 to 81 b . c ., came to an end. Although Murena was later awarded a triumph, the war accomplished little of importance for either side. Third Mithridatic War: After the Romans had taken possession of Bithynia, a province bequeathed to them by King Nicomedes III, Mithridates began a war that was to last for ten years (74-64 b . c . ) . He was supported by his allies, the pirates, who at that time were very powerful; he also hoped for aid from the Roman insurgents in Spain, who were former followers of Marius, and who were now being led by Sertorius. Mithridates invaded Bithynia and at first was successful, defeating a division of the Roman army and besieging Chalcedon. Soon, however, he was compelled to raise the siege by Lucius Licinius Lucullus, the able Roman general who had been placed in charge of the Roman army. Undaunted, Mithridates next besieged Cyzicus, an important city on the southern shore of the Propontis, but was overpowered by Lucullus who, with a comparatively small army, compelled him to abandon the siege and return to Pontus. Mithridates was again defeated in a naval battle off the coast of Troy,

and also at Cabira in Pontus. He himself barely escaped being captured by diverting the Roman soldiers with plunder. Mithridates took refuge in Armenia. In 69 b . c . Lucullus inflicted a severe defeat on Tigranes, King of Armenia and son-in-law Mithridates, but his attempt in 68 b .c . to complete the conquest of Armenia failed because his troops, sick of war and homesick and clamoring for discharge, made further successes of any magnitude impossible. Mithridates at once renewed hostilities and recovered Pontus, while Tigranes advanced on the Roman armies from the east. Lucullus had to retreat. The political enemies of Lucullus in Rome now secured his recall through the appointment of Manius Acilius Glabrio, a consul of 67 b .c . Glabrio was a man of no military ability and could do nothing to restore the morale of the troops. It was at this moment of crisis that the tribune Gaius Manilius brought forward in the popular assembly a bill for the appointment of Pompey as the commander of the Roman forces in the East. Pompey successfully concludes the third Mithridatic War: Gnaeus Pompey was born in 106 b . c . He had served under his own father in the Social War (90-88 b . c . ), in the Civil War under Sulla (76-71 b .c . ) , and in the war against Sertorius in Spain (76-71 b . c . ) . His outstanding military successes had already earned him two triumphs, and although he had not yet reached the minimum age and had not served as quaestor or praetor, he was elected consul in 70 b .c . In 67 b .c ., by the bill of the tribune Aulus Gabinius, he was placed in charge of the war against the pirates, who were preying upon Roman commerce, raid­ ing island and coast towns, capturing Roman citizens and holding them for ransom, ançl cutting off Rome’s supply of grain. The bill was bitterly opposed by the aristocratic party, represented by Catulus and Hortensius. They felt that it was contrary to precedent and dangerous since it would confer absolute power upon one individual. In spite of this strong opposition, the bill was passed. Within three months, Pompey cleared the Mediterranean of pirates. He even routed them from their strongholds in Cilicia, a district of southeastern Asia. The seas were once more safe for peaceful commerce. Such was the man whom the tribune Gaius Manilius, in 66 b . c ., proposed as commander of the third war against Mithridates. Only members of the aristo­ cratic party objected and for the same reasons that they had opposed the bill of Gabinius the preceding year. Cicero, as praetor, won the favor of the people when he supported the measure in his first political speech before the popular assembly. The bill of Manilius was enacted into law by the votes of all the tribes of the assembly. Pompey, who was already in Asia, immediately took command of the Roman army. By the end of the year 66 b . c . he had forced Mithridates to take refuge in Dioscurias, a Greek city in Colchis, and had come to terms with Tigranes. Mithridates raised another army but, finding himself surrounded by disaffection and treachery, he committed suicide in 63 b . c . Pompey had not only successfully concluded the Mithridatic War, but had also restored Roman power and prestige in the East. He also conquered the countries of Syria, Phoenicia, and Coele-Syria, and organized them into the 173

Roman province known as Syria. His next move was to besiege and take Jerusalem in Palestine. When he returned to Rome, he was granted a triumph, which was said to be the most magnificent and spectacular that the city had ever witnessed. Cicero's speech for the bill of Manilius, Prô lëge Mànilià or Dë imperiô Cn. Pompeji, is a famous example of a deliberative oration, although the part referring to Pompey is demonstrative. The oration as a whole is a masterpiece, with the orderly and effective arrangement of its material matched by its sys­ tematic use of rhetorical devices and by its vigorous yet pleasing manner of expressing thought. Although the praises of Pompey are exaggerated, Cicero painted such a vivid and convincing picture of the chaotic situation in Asia and so effectively marshalled his arguments in regard to Pompey’s unique ability to handle the problems of that situation that the members of his audience were not left in doubt as to the course they should follow.

Ch. 1-1

Cicero Explains His First Appearance as a Political Speaker from the Rostra

Quamquam mihi semper Trequëns conspectus vester multô jücundissimus, hic autem 12locus 3ad agendum amplissimus, 4ad dicendum orna­ tissimus est visus, 5Quirïtës, tamen 6hôc aditü laudis, qui semper 78*optimô cuique maxime patuit, non mea më Voluntas adhüc, sed Vitae meae ratiônës 10ab ineunte aetate susceptae prohibuërunt. Nam cum antea n per aetâtem nôndum hüjus auctoritatem loci attingere audërem 12statueremque nihil hüc nisi perfectum ingeniô, ëlabôràtum industria afferri oportëre, omne meum tempus amicorum 13temporibus transmittendum putavi. FOR DISCUSSION

1. Whom is Cicero addressing in his first speech to the people as praetor? 2. Why has he been prevented from speaking to them before? 3. To whom had Cicero devoted himself since early manhood? 1. frequëns conspectus vester: the sight of you assembled in large numbers. 2. locus: the Rostra in the Forum. 3. ad . . . amplissimus: most dignified for discussion. 4. ad . . . ornatissimus: most honorable for speaking. 5. Quirites: Fellow citizens; addressed in

their civil capacity. 6. hôc aditü: from this pathway. 7. optimo cuique: to all the best men. 8. voluntas: subject of prohibuit under­ stood.

174

9. vitae . . . ratiônës: my plan for life. 10. ab . . . aetàte: at the beginning of man­ hood. The Roman boy became of age when he was between fourteen and six­ teen years of a^e. 11. per aetâtem: because of my youth. Cicero began his legal work at the age of twenty-six; he is now forty. 12. statuerem = jüdicàrem. 13. temporibus: legal difficulties. J

O

Ch. 1-2

He Dedicates His Oratorical A bility to the Quirites

Ita neque hic locus vacuus um quam fuit ab eis, qui vestram causam dëfenderent, et meus labor in privatorum 1perïculïs caste integrëque 2versàtus, 3ex vestrô jüdiciô früctum est amplissimum cônsecütus. Nam cum propter 4dllâtiônem comitiorum ter praetor 5prïmus centuriis cünctls renüntiâtus sum, facile intellëxï, Quirïtës, et quid dë më jüdicàrëtis et quid aliis praescrlberëtis. Nunc 6cum et auctoritatis in më tantum sit, 7quantum vos honoribus m andandis esse voluistis, et ad agendum facultatis tantum , quantum hom inï vigilant! 8ex forënsï üsü prope cotidiana dicendi exercitatio potuit afferre ; certe et, si quid auctoritatis in me est, apud eos utar, qui eam m ihi dedërunt, et, si quid in dicendo consequi possum, eis ostendam potissimum, qui !'el quoque reï früctum suô jüdiciô tribuendum esse 10düxërunt. 1. periculis: lawsuits, trials. 2. versatus: engaged. Fees to lawyers were forbidden by law. 3. ex vestrô jüdiciô: by electing him to the praetorship. 4. dilationem comitiorum: postponement of the elections.

5. primus . . . renüntiâtus sum: I was the first to be declared elected. There were three elections: two were postponed probably on account of unfavorable omens; the third election was valid. In each of the three elections Cicero’s elec­ tion was the first that the consul an­ nounced.

6. cum . . . in më . . . sit: since I have. 7. quantum . . . voluistis: as you wished there should be by your conferring of offices upon me. 8. ex forënsï üsü: from law practice. The

courts sat in the basilicas around the Forum, hence the English word forensic. 9. ei . . . reï: for this accomplishment also. Cicero was a novus homo, with only his legal ability and power of oratory to recommend him to high office. 10. düxërunt = putàvërunt.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Why had the people chosen Cicero for praetor? Why had three elections been held? What is meant by centuriis, in line 4? To what does auctoritatis, line 7, refer? To what does hie locus, line 1, refer?

Ch. 1-3

M y First Efforts Are on Behalf of Gnaeus Pompey

A tque hllud in primis mihi laetandum jüre esse video, quod in hàc 2ïnsolità mihi ex hôc locô ratione dicendi causa tâlis oblâta est, in quà l.

illud , . . quod: 1 realize that 1 am espe-

2. insolita: unfamiliar.

daily cntitled to rejoice over the fact that.

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3ôràtiô deesse nêminî possit. D icendum est enim dë Cn. Pom pëjï l i n g u ­ lari eximiàque virtüte, hüjus autem ’ôrâtiônis difficilius est exitum quam principium invenire. Ita mihi 6nôn tam copia quam m odus in dicendo quaerendus est. 3. ôràtiô: speech (words). 4. singular! . . . virtüte: the unique (ind extraordinary merits.

5. ôrâtiônis: topic, Pompey s fitness to command against Mithridates. 6* non . . . modus: not so much for fullness ( material) as moderation.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What will be the subject of Cicero’s speech? 2. In what will his chief difficulty consist?

Ch. II—1

A N ew Leader Is Needed Against M ithridates and Tigranes

Atque ut Mnde ôràtiô mea proficiscatur, unde haec omnis causa 2dücitur, bellum grave et periculosum vestris 'Vectigalibus ac sociis à duôbus potentissimïs rëgibus infertur, M ithridate et Tigrâne, quorum alter 4relictus, alter f)lacessitus occasionem sibi ad occupandam 6Asiam oblatam esse arbitratur. Equitibus Romanis, honestissimis viris, afferun­ tur ex Asiâ cotïdië litterae, 7quôrum m àgnae rës aguntur in vestris vectigalibus exercendis occupatae; qui ad më prô 8necessitüdine, quae mihi est cum illô ôrdine, 9causam rei püblicae periculaque rërum suârum dëtulërunt. 10Bïthÿniae, quae nunc vestra provincia est, vicôs exüstôs esse complürës, n rëgnum Ariobarzanis, quod finitim um est vestris vectigalibus, tôtum esse in hostium potestate; L. Lucullum , magnis rëbus gestis, ab eô bellô discëdere; 12huic qui successerit non satis esse paratum ad tantum bellum adm inistrandum ; 1,0’ünum ab omnibus sociis et 14civibus ad id bellum im peratorem dëposcï atque expeti, eundem hunc ünum ab hostibus metui, praeterea nëminem. 1. inde . . . unde: may begin at the point 2. 3. 4.

from which. dücitur: is derived. vectigalibus: tributaries. relictus: having been allowed to escape. lacessitus: having been provoked.

5. 6. Asiam: the Roman province of Asia, not all Asia Minor. 7. quorum . . . occupatae: whose great for­ tunes, invested in the collection of your revenues, are at stake. The Equités

controlled the collection of taxes. For this privilege they paid the government a large sum of money.

8. necessitudine: connection. Cicero be­ longed by birth to the class of Equités. 9. causam: situation. 10. Bithyniae: bequeathed to the Romans by Nicomedes III and made a province. 11. rëgnum Ariobarzanis: the kingdom of Ariobarzanes, Cappadocia. 12. huic . . . successerit: his successor, the consul Manius Acilius Glabrio, who did nothing during 67-66 b .c . 13. ünum: Pompey. 14. civibus: Roman citizens in Asia Minor.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What did the aggressors hope to accomplish by this war? Why did the Equités report conditions in Asia to Cicero? How did the Equités get their information? What was the situation in Bithynia? Why had Lucullus withdrawn from the war? What does Cicero say about Lucullus, successor?

Ch. 11-2

V ita l Issues Are Involved. How Shall W e M eet Them?

Causa quae sit vidêtis: nunc quid agendum sit considerate. Primum mihi vidëtur dë g e n e re belli, deinde dë m âgnitüdine, tum dë im pera­ tore dëligendô esse dicendum . Genus est enim belli ëjus modi quod mâximë vestrôs animôs excitare atque Inflammare ad persequendi stu­ dium "dëbeat; in quô 3agitur populi Romani gloria, quae vôbïs à majoribus cum m agna in omnibus rëbus tum summa in rë m ilitari tradita est; 3agitur salüs sociorum atque amicorum, prô quâ m ulta màjôrës vestri m agna et gravia bella gessërunt; 3aguntur 4certissima populi Romani vectigalia et mâxima, "quibus amissis, et pacis ornam enta et subsidia belli requïrëtis; 3aguntur bona m ultorum civium, Gquibus est à vôbïs et ipsôrum et reï püblicae causa consulendum. 1. genere: character. 2. dëbeat: subjunctive in characteristic clause. 3. agitur, agitur, aguntur, aguntur: Em­ phatic repetition of ago stresses the danger of having so many things at stake.

4. certissima: surest. 5. quibus àmissïs: if these arc lost. 6. quibus . . . consulendum: for whose interests . . . i/ou must take thought.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Under what three heads does Cicero propose to discuss this subject? 2. What four important matters are at stake in the Mithridatic War? 3. For what purposes are the revenues from Asia used by the Romans? Ch. I l l - l

M ithridates Has Defied the Arms of Rome Too Long

E t quoniam sem per ^ p p e te n të s gloriae praeter cëterâs gentës 2atque avidi laudis fuistis, dëlenda est vôbïs ilia 3macula Mithridcàticô bellô superiore concepta, quae 4penitus jam ïnsëdit ac nimis inveteravit in po­ puli Rômànï nômine; "quod is, qui ünô dië tôtâ in Asia tot in civitatibus 1. appetentës glôriae: hungry for fame. 2. atque: and even. 3. macula: stain; the great massacre of Italians in Asia, which was ordered by Mithridates i n 8 8 b .c .

4. penitus . . . inveteravit: has already sunk deep and remained too long.

5. quod: the fact that.

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ünô nüntiô atque ünâ significatione litterarum cîvës Rômànôs omnës 6necandôs trucïdandôsque dënotàvit, non modo adhüc poenam nüllam süo dignam scelere suscëpit, sed ab illô tem pore 'annum jam tertium et vïcësimum rëgnat, et ita régnât, ut së non Ponti neque C appadociae 8latebrïs occultare velit, sed ëm ergere ex patriô 9rëgnô atque 10in vestris vectigalibus, hoc est n in Asiae lüce, versârï. Etenim adhüc ita nostrï cum illô rëge contendërunt im perâtôrës, u t ab illô Insignia victoriae, non victoriam reportarent. ^T rium phavit 13L. Sulla, trium phavit L. M ürëna dë M ithridate, duo fortissimi viri et summi imperâtôrës, sed ita trium pharunt, ut ille pulsus superâtusque 14rëgnàret. Verum tam en illis im peratoribus laus est tribuenda, 1,Jquod ëgërunt, venia danda, quod relïquërunt, proptereà quod ab eô bellô 16Sullam in Italiam rës püblica, M ürënam Sulla revocavit. 6. necandos trucïdandôsque: It is said that 80,000 Italians were killed by a single written order in this one-day massacre.

7. annum . . . régnât: has already reigned twenty-three years. He had also reigned twenty-five years before 88 b . c . 8. latebris: ablative of means. 9. rëgnô: Pontus.

10. in vestris . . . versârï: to busy himself among your tributaries. 11. in . . . lüce: in full view of Asia.

Mithridates wished a place “in the sun.” 12. Triumphavit: celebrated a triumph over. 13. L. Sulla: commander in the first Mithridatic War, 88-84 b . c . 14. rëgnàret: remained king. 15. quod = propter id. 16. Sullam . . . revocavit: Sulla returned to Rome in 83 b .c . because of the activities of the Marian faction; Murena was re­ called in 81 b .c .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. To whom does is, line 4, refer? 2. How has Mithridates been punished for his crime against the Italians? s 3. How does he now, after twenty-two years, show his utter disregard for the Romans? 4. Who celebrated empty triumphs over Mithridates? 5. Why were these triumphs practically meaningless? 6. Why should leniency be shown the Roman generals for what they left unaccomplished?

Ch. V I-1

The Revenues of Rome Are at Stake

Quâ rë, si propter sociôs, nüllà ipsï injürià lacessiti, màjôrës nostrï cum Antiochô, cum Philippô, cum Aetolls, cum Poenis T elia gessërunt, quantô vos studio convenit injüriïs prôvocàtôs sociôrum salütem 12ünà cum imper! 1. bella: These wars were a mere pretext for territorial expansion. The Romans defeated King Antiochus of Syria and his Aetolian allies in 190 b .c . and

Philip V of Maeedon in 197 b .c . The three Punic Wars took place in 264-41, 218-01, 149-46 b .c . 2. ünâ cum: at the same tune with.

vestri dignitate defendere, praesertim cum 123dë maximis vestris vectigali­ bus agatur? Nam ceterarum provinciarum vectigalia, Quirites, 4tanta sunt ut eis ad ipsas provincias tütandàs 5vix contenti esse possimus; Asia vërô tam opima est ac fertilis, ut et 6übertàte agrorum et varietate früctuum et m âgnitüdine pastionis et m ultitüdine eârum rërum quae exportentur, facile omnibus terris antecellat. Itaque haec vobis provincia, Quirïtës, si et 7bellï ütilitàtem et 8pacis dignitatem retinere vultis, non modo à calam itate, sed etiam à m etü calamitatis est defendenda. 3. dë . . . agatur: it is a question about your greatest revenues ( your greatest revenues are at stake). 4. tanta: such [so small). 5. vix . . . possimus: we can hardly find them sufficient.

sources of revenue from the provinces were a land tax, tax on pasture land, and import and export duties. 7. belli ütilitàtem: advantage [in the time] of war.

8. pàcis dignitatem: honorable position

6. übertâte . . . exportentur: the Roman

[in the time] of peace.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Why did the Roman ancestors wage war against Antiochus and others? Why ought the Romans to protect the provincials in Asia? How do the revenues from Asia compare with those from other provinces? What are Asia’s natural resources that bring revenue to Rome? What is the figure of speech in line 2?

C h. V I-2

W e M u s t P r o t e c t T h is P r o v in c e

Nam in cêterïs rëbus 7cum venit 2calamitàs, tum 2dëtrïm entum accipi­ tur; at in vectigalibus non sôlum adventus mali, sed etiam metus ipse affert calam itatem . Nam cum hostium côpiae non longe absunt, etiam si irruptio nülla facta est, tam en pecuaria relinquitur, agri cultüra deseritur, m ercatorum navigatio 3conquiëscit. Ita neque 4ex portïi neque 5ex decumis neque 6ex scrïptürà vectigal conservari potest; quâ rë saepe totius anni 7früctus ünô rüm ôre periculi atque ünô belli terrore am ittitur. Quô tandem animo esse existimatis aut eôs, 8qui vectigalia nobis pënsitant, aut eôs, 9qui exercent atque 10exigunt, cum duo rëgës cum 1. cum: whenever; used with present tense. 2. calamitas, detrimentum: disaster (the cause of loss), damage (the loss re­ ceived). 3. conquiescit: is at a standstill. 4. ex portü: from customs, export and im­ port taxes. 5. ex decumis: from tithes, levied on agri­ cultural products. 6. ex scrïptürà: from the pasture tax, levied

7. 8. 9. 10.

on shepherds and herders who used state lands. früctus: income. qui . . . pënsitant: who pay, i.e., the natives of Asia Minor. qui exercent: who farm. exigunt: collect; the agents and slaves who attended to the actual details of the collection.

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maximis copiis prope adsint, cum üna excursio equitàtüs perbrevi tem ­ pore totius anni vectigal auferre possit, cum n püblicânî ^fam ilias maxi­ mas, quâs 13in salinis habent, quas in agris, quâs in portibus atque 14cüstôdiïs, màgnô periculo së habêre arbitrentur? Putâtisne vos illis rëbus fruï posse, nisi eôs, 1:,quï vôbïs früctuï sunt, cônservàritis non sôlum, ut ante dixi, calam itate, sed etiam calam itatis form idine liberatos? 11. püblicànî: the tax-farmers, who bought the rights of collecting the provincial taxes. 12. familias: gangs [of slaves] who were engaged in the actual work of collecting the revenues.

13. in salinis habent: keep in the salt works. 14. cüstôdiïs: coast-guard stations; these sta­ tions prevented goods from being smug­ gled out. 15. qui . . . sunt: who are the means of y our enjoyment.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. In what way does a threat of war affect the revenues from the threatened province? 2. What happens when the troops of an enemy are not far away? 3. What often causes the loss of the income of an entire year? 4. To whom does duo rëgës, line 9, refer? 5. Whom must the Romans save from disaster and fear of disaster?

C h . VIII—1

T he Im p o rta n c e o f th e W a r; M u ch W a s D o n e b y L u c u llu s

Quoniam dë genere belli *dixi, nunc dë m àgnitüdine pauca dicam. Potest enim hoc dici, belli genus esse ita necessarium , u t sit gerendum , non esse ita magnum, ut sit pertim ëscendum . 12In quô 345m àximë laboran­ dum est në forte ea Vobis, quae diligentissimë providenda sunt, con­ tem nenda esse videantur. Atque ut omnës intellegant më L. Lücullô tantum im pertire laudis, quantum forti virô et sapienti homini et m âgnô im peratori dëbeàtur, dïcô ëjus adventü màximàs "M ithridati copias omnibus rëbus ôrnàtàs atque ïnstrüctàs fuisse, urbem que Asiae clarissimam nôbïsque amicissi­ mam 6Cyzicënôrum obsessam esse ab ipso rëge mâximâ m ultitüdine et oppügnàtam vehementissimë; quam L. Lücullus virtüte, assiduitate, cônsiliô summis obsidionis periculis liberavit. 1. dixi: I have finished speaking. 2. In quô: In this [regard], 3. maxime laborandum est: great care must be exercised.

4. vôbïs: translate after videantur. 5. Mithridati: dative of possession with fuisse.

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6. Cyzicenorum: that of the Cyzicenes. Cyzicus was an important city on an island of the Propontis ( Sea of Mar­ mora); it was besieged by Mithridates, 74 b .c.

1. What general subject does Cicero now take up for discussion? 2. Why does Cicero mention the achievements of Lucullus here? 3. What city did Lucullus free from siege? C h . V III—2

O t h e r V ic t o r ie s o f L u c u llu s

Ab eôdem im peratore classem m âgnam et ôrnàtam , quae *ducibus Sertorianis ad Italiam 2studiô atque odiô inflammata 3raperëtur, supera­ tam esse atque depressam ; m âgnâs hostium praeterea copias multis proe­ liis esse dëlëtâs, patefactum que nostris 4legiônibus esse Pontum, qui anteâ populo Rômànô ex omni aditü clausus fuisset; 5Sinôpën atque Amisum, quibus in oppidis erant domicilia rëgis, omnibus rëbus ôrnàtâs ac refertas cëteràsque urbës Ponti et C appadociae perm ultas, 6ünô aditü adventüque esse captas; rëgem spoliatum rëgnô patriô atque avïtô ad aliôs së rëgës atque ad alias gentës supplicem contulisse; atque haec omnia, 7salvîs populi Rômànï sociis atque 8integrls vectigalibus esse gesta. Satis opinor haec esse 9laudis, atque 10ita, Quirïtës, ut hoc vos intel­ legatis, à nüllô n istôrum, qui huic obtrectant lëgï atque causae, L. Lücullum sim iliter ex hôc locô esse laudatum . 1. ducibus Sertorianis: with Sertorius’ men as officers; ablative absolute. 2. studio atque odiô: keen hatred. 3. raperetur: icas being rushed. 4. legiônibds: dative. 5. Sinôpën: Greek form of accusative. Sinope was the real capital of Mithri­ dates. 6. ünô = sôlô: mere. 7. salvis . . . sociis: without loss to the allies; ablative absolute.

8. integris vectigalibus: without touching the revenues; ablative absolute. 9. laudis: This tribute of praise to Lucullus served three purposes: (a) it expressed due appreciation for what Lucullus had accomplished; (b) it called attention to the extent of the war; ( c ) it prepared the way for Cicero to recommend Pompey. 10. ita = tâlis. 11. istorum: Catulus and Hortensius.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What fleet did Lucullus defeat and sink? How was the Pontus opened up for the Roman legions? What important cities were taken at the mere approach of Lucullus? In praising Lucullus, what boast does Cicero make?

C h . IX -1

T he R e a so n fo r th e E scap e o f M ith rid a te s

^ e q u ïr ë tu r fortasse nunc, quem ad modum, cum haec ita sint, d e li­ quum possit m agnum esse bellum. Cognoscite, Quirïtës; non enim hoc 1. Requiretur: The question will be asked. 2. reliquum: rest of; magnum is a predicate adjective.

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sine causa quaeri videtur. Primum ex suô rëgnô sic M ithridâtës profügit, ut ex eôdem Pontô M ëdêa 3illa quondam profügisse dicitur, quam prae­ dicant in fugâ frâtris sui m em bra in eïs locïs, quâ së parëns persequerëtur, dissipavisse, ut 4eôrum collëctiô dispersa m aerorque patrius celeritatem persequendi retardaret. Sic M ithridâtës fugiëns 5màximam vim auri atque argent! pulcherrim ârum que rërum omnium, quàs et â mâjôribus accëperat et ipse bellô superiôre ex tôtà Asiâ direptas in suum rëgnum congesserat, in Pontô omnem reliquit. Haec dum nostri colligunt omnia diligentius, rëx ipse ë manibus effügit. Ita 6illum in persequendi studio maeror, 'hos laetitia tardavit. 3. illa: that famous. Medea, daughter of Aeetes, king of Colchis, fled with Jason, who was in charge of the Argonautic expedition. To delay the pursuit of her father, she killed her brother, dismem­ bered him and threw his limbs into the sea.

4. eôrum . . . dispersa: the collection of these scattered [limbs].

5. mâximam vim: a cast amount. 6. ilium: the former, Medea’s father. 7. hôs: the latter, the Roman soldiers.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What comparison does Cicero make between the flight of Medea and that of Mithridates? 2. What had been the sources of Mithridates’ wealth? 3. What deterred the Roman soldiers from pursuing Mithridates?

C h. IX -2

L u c u llu s 7 F in a l C a m p a i g n M e t w i t h S o m è S u c c e s s

Hunc in illô timoré et fugâ Tigrânës, rëx Armenius, excëpit Miffïdentem que rëbus suis cônfïrmâvit et afflictum ërëxit perditum que recreâvit. 2Cüjus in rëgnum 3posteâ quam L. Lücullus cum exercitü 4vënit, plürës etiam °gentës contrâ im perâtôrem nostrum concitâtae sunt. Erat enim metus injectus eïs nâtiônibus, quâs num quam populus Rômânus neque 6lacessendâs bellô neque tem ptandâs putâvit; erat etiam alia gravis atque 7vehemens opïniô, quae animôs gentium barbarârum pervâserat, fânï locuplëtissimï et religiosissimi diripiendi causâ in eâs ôrâs nostrum esse exercitum adductum . Ita nâtiônës m ultae atque m âgnae novô quo­ dam terrôre ac m etù concitâbantur. 1. diffidentem . . . recreavit: encouraged, uplifted, and restored [him], despair­ ing of his affairs, downcast, and ruined;

rebus: dative with diffidentem. 2. Cüjus: Tigranes. 3. postea quam = postquam. 4. venit: When Tigranes refused to sur­ render Mithridates to the Romans, Lu-

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cullus began a brilliant campaign against Armenia. 5. gentes: tribes, along the Caspian Sea to the Persian Gulf. 6. lacessendas . . . temptandâs: should be provoked or challenged. 7. vehemêns opïniô: fanatical notion.

Noster autem exercitus tam etsi surbem ex Tigranis rëgnô ceperat et proeliis 9ïisus erat secundis, tam en nim ia longinquitate locorum ac 10dësïderiô suôrum com m ovebatur. Hic jam plüra non dicam; fuit enim illud n extremum, ut ex eis locis a militibus nostris reditus magis m àtürus quam progressio longior quaereretur. 8. urbem: Tigranocerta, capital of Armenia. 9. fisus erat: had experienced. 10. dësïderiô suôrum: longing for their

( homesickness); this led to mutiny. 11. extremum: the final result. fa?nilies

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

To whom does hunc, line 1, refer? Why were many tribes stirred up against the Romans? In what way could this have been interpreted as a holy war? What is the figure of syntax in line 1?

C h. IX -3

W ith L u c u llu s S u p e r s e d e d , t h e S i t u a t i o n Is C r itic a l

M ithridates autem së et suam m anum jam cônfïrm ârat et eôrum opera, qui ad eum ex ipsïus rëgnô Concesserant, et mâgnïs adventiciis auxiliis m ultôrum rëgum et nàtiônum juvàbâtur. Nam hoc 12ferë sic fieri solëre accëpimus, 34u t rëgum afflictae fôrtünae facile m ultôrum opës alliciant ad m isericordiam , m àxim ëque eôrum qui aut rëgës sunt aut vivunt in rëgnô, ut eïs nôriien rëgâle m agnum et sanctum esse videâtur. Itaq u e tantum V ictus efficere potuit, quantum 5incolumis num quam est ausus 6optare. Nam, cum së in rëgnum suum recëpisset, non fuit 7eô contentus, quod ei praeter spem acciderat, 89u t illam, postea quam pulsus erat, terram um quam attingeret, sed in exercitum nostrum clarum atque V ictôrem 10im petum fëcit. Sinite hôc locô, Quirïtës, sicut n poëtae solent, qui rës Rômànàs scribunt, praeterire më nostram calam itatem , quae tanta fuit, ut eam ad aurës 12im peràtôris non ex proeliô nüntius, sed 13ex sermône rüm or afferret. 1. concesserant: had retired. 2. ferê . . . solêre: almost invariably hap­ pens.

3. ut . . . misericordiam: that the fallen fortunes of kings easily attract through pity the assistance of many [people], 4. victus: after his defeat. 5. incolumis: unharmed [before that de­ feat].

6. optâre = spëràre. 7. eô: ablative with contentus. 8. ut . . . attingeret: this substantive utclause explains eô . . . quod. 9. victorem: treated as an adjective with exercitum.

10. impetum fëcit: Mithridates defeated the Romans under M. Fabius in 68 b . c . ; he defeated them again under C. Triarius, while Lucullus was in Armenia. 11. poëtae: Naevius, who wrote an epic on the First Punic War, and Ennius, who wrote the Annales, an epic poem of Roman history. 12. imperatoris: Lucullus. 13. ex sermône rumor: general talk. Cicero is alluding to the overwhelming defeat of Triarius, a general of Lucullus, whose forces were almost annihilated by Mith­ ridates in 67 b . c .

183

Hïc in illô ipso malô gravissimâque belli 14offënsiône, L. Lücullus, qui tam en 15aliquâ ex parte eïs 1Gincommodïs m edërï fortasse potuisset, vestrô jüssü coâctus, quod im perï d iü tu rn ità tï11modum statuendum vetere exem­ plo putavistis, partem militum, qui jam lhstipendiis confecti erant, dimisit, partem M \ Glabrioni tradidit. M ulta praetereo consulto; sed ea vos conjectürà perspicite, quantum illud bellum factum putetis, quod 19conjungant rëgës potentissimi, renovent agitatae nâtiônës, suscipiant integrae gentës, 20novus im perator noster accipiat, vetere exercitü pulsô. 14. 15. 16. 17.

offensione: defeat. aliqua ex parte: in some measure. incommodis: reverses. modum: limit.

18. stipendiis confecti erant: had served their time.

19. conjungant: mage in conjunction. 20. novus imperator: Glabrio.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What was Mithridates doing while Lucullus was warring with Tigranes? How was Mithridates able to get so much help so readily? When Mithridates had recovered his own kingdom, what did he do? What was the extent of the Roman defeat? Why was Lucullus withdrawn from the command of the Roman army? Find examples of personification and prétention in the preceding para­ graphs.

Ch. X - l

P o m p e y Is t h e O n ly P o s s ib le C h o ic e a s C o m m a n d e r

4Satis mihi m ulta verba fëcisse videor, quâ rë esset hoc bellum genere ipso 12345n ecessàrium, m àgnitüdine periculosum; "restat, ut dë im perâtôre ad id bellum dëligendô ac tantis rëbus praeficiendo dicendum esse videatur. 4Utinam, Quirïtës, virorum fortium atque "innocentium côpiam tantàm habërëtis, ut haec vôbïs dëlîberâtiô difficilis esset, 6quem nam potissimum tantis rëbus ac tantô bello praeficiendum putàrëtis! Nunc vërô cum sit ûnus Cn. Pompëjus, qui non modo eorum hom inum, qui nunc sunt, gloriam, sed etiam antiquitatis ‘memoriam svirtüte °superârit, quae rës est, quae cüjusquam animum in hàc causa dubium facere 10possit? Ego enim sic existimo, llin summo im peratore quattuor hàs rës inesse oportëre: scientiam rei militaris, virtütem , 12auctôritàtem , fëlïcitàtem . 1. Satis . . . videor: I seem to have said enough [to shorn]. 2. necessarium . . . periculosum: Cicero is summarizing the two points of the con­ firmatio already discussed.

3. restat, ut . . . dicendum esse videatur: it remains for me, as I think, to speak; the substantive ut-clause is the subject of restat. 4. Utinam . . . habërëtis: a wish unful­ filled in present time.

5. innocentium: of upright men.

6. quemnam potissimum: who above all others.

7. memori'am: records. 8. virtute: abiliti/. 9. superàrit = superaverit: subjunctive in characteristic clause. subjunctive clause.

10. possit:

in

characteristic

11. in . . . oportëre: that in a great com­ mander there ought to be.

12. auctoritatem: prestige.

1. What are the two general topics that Cicero has discussed in Chapters II-IX? 2. What is the third topic which he now takes up for discussion? 3. Why, in Cicero’s opinion, ought it to be easy for the Romans to decide who is their outstanding general? 4. To whom does Cicero think Pompey is superior? 5. What does Cicero think are the four outstanding qualities of an ideal commander? Ch. X - 2

Pompey Has A ll the Qualities of the Ideal Commander

Quis igitur hoc hom ine scientior um quam aut fuit aut esse dëbuit? Qui ë lüdô atque p u e ritia e disciplinis, bellô màximô atque acerrimis hostibus, ad patris exercitum atque in militiae disciplinam 12profectus est, qui extrëmâ pueritia miles in exercitü fuit summi 3imperâtôris, ineunte adulescentia maximi ipse exercitüs 4im peràtor, qui saepius cum hoste conflixit quam quisquam cum inimico 56concertâvit, plüra bella gessit quam ceteri lêgêrunt, plürës provincias confecit quam alii concupiverunt, cüjus adulescentia ad scientiam rei militaris non alienis praeceptis, sed suis imperiis, non offensionibus belli, sed victoriis, non stipendiis, sed 6trium phis est erudita. Quod denique genus esse belli potest, in quô illum non 7exercuerit fortüna rei püblicae? 8Cïvïle, 9Àfricànum, 10Trànsalpînum , n Hispâniënse 12mixtum ex civitatibus atque ex bellicosissimis nationibus, 13servile, 14nàvàle bellum , varia et diversa genera et bellorum et hostium, non solum gesta ab hoc ünô, sed etiam confecta, nüllam rem esse declarant 15in üsü positam militari, quae hüjus viri scientiam fugere possit. 1. pueritiae disciplinis:

th e

tr a in in g

of

ch ild h o o d .

2. profectus est: Pompey’s father, Cn. Pompejus Strabo, commanded an army in the Social War (90-88 b .c .); at its outbreak Pompey and Cicero were boys of sixteen; in 89 b .c . Cicero served as a private. 3. imperatoris: Pompey \s father, who had fought in the Civil War against Cinna and Marius in 87 b .c . 4. imperator; In 83 b .c . Pompey, now twenty-three, aided Sulla by raising three legions, in return for which he received the title of Imperator. 5. concertavit: h a s c o n t e s t e d [in c o u r t ] . Notice the contrast between hoste and inimïcô. 6. triumphis: Pompey celebrated a triumph in 81 b .c . for his African victories, and again in 71 b .c . for his Spanish victories.

7. exercuerit: subjunctive in characteristic clause. 8. Civile: the Civil War (88-82 b .c .). 9. Âfricânum: the war in Africa against the Marian forces, in 82 b .c . 10. Transalpinum: On his way to Spain in 76 b .c ., Pompey conquered several Gallic tribes. 11. Hispaniense: the campaign against Ser­ torius and his followers in Spain. 12. mixtum: i n v o l v i n g . 13. servile: Spartacus, the leader of the re­ bellious slaves, had already been crushed by Crassus before Pompey returned from Spain in 71 b .c. Pompey slaughtered a remnant group trying to escape to Gaul. 14. navale: the war against the pirates, in 67 b .c . 15. in . . . militari: i n v o l v e d in m i li t a r y e x ­ perien ce.

185

1. What specific proofs does Cicero give of Pompey’s military experience? 2. List the wars in which Pompey participated.

Ch. X l - l

Pompey's M ilitary Ability; His Victories on Land

JJam vërô virtütï Cn. Pompeji quae potest 2ôrâtiô par inveniri? Quid est, quod quisquam aut illô dignum aut vôbïs novum aut cuiquam inaudi­ tum possit 3afferre? Neque enim illae sunt sôlae 4virtütës im peratoriae, quae vulgo existimantur, 3labor in negotiis, fortitüdô in periculis, in d u s ­ tria in agendo, celeritas 7in conficiendo, consilium in providendo, quae tanta sunt in hôc ünô, quanta in omnibus reliquis im peratoribus, quôs aut vidimus aut audivimus, non fuerunt. 8Tëstis est Italia, quam ille ipse victor L. Sulla hüjus virtüte et subsidio confessus est °lïberâtam; tëstis est Sicilia, quam multis undique cinctam periculis non terrore belli, sed 10cônsilï celeritate 11explicavit; tëstis est Africa, quae magnis oppressa hostium copiis eorum ipsorum sanguine redundavit; tëstis est Gallia, per quam legionibus nostris iter in H ispa­ niam Gallorum internecione 12 patefactum est; tëstis est Hispania, quae saepissimë plürimôs hostës ab hôc superâtôs prôstràtôsque 13cônspëxit; 14tëstis est 15iterum et saepius Italia, quae, cum servili bellô taetrô perïculôsôque 1Gprem erëtur, ab hôc auxilium 1"absente expetivit, quod bellum 18exspectàtiône ëjus attenuatum atque im m inütum est, adventü 19sublâtum ac sepultum.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Why does Cicero say it is almost impossible to do justice to Pompey’s military ability? 2. What are the five qualities for a military commander? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Jam vërô: M o r e o v e r . ôràtiô par: w o r d s a d e q u a t e to d e s c r i b e . afferre: b r i n g f o r w a r d [as proof]. virtütës: q u a litie s . labor in negotiis: p a i n s t a k i n g a t t e n t i o n to d e ta ils .

6. industria in agendo: e n e r g y in a c tio n . 7. in conficiendo: in e x e c u tio n . 8. Tëstis: W i t n e s s [to the facts just men­ tioned]. 9. liberatam: from the Marian party. 10. cônsilï celeritate: t h e s w i f t n e s s o f h is s tr a te g i/.

11. explicavit: r e le a s e d . 12. patefactum est: Pompey opened a new, important road through the Cottian Alps.

186

13. cônspëxit: Pompey spent over five years (77-71 b .c . ) in Spain as commander against Sertorius. 14. tëstis . . . Italia: The anaphora of tëstis gives unity to this entire paragraph. 15. iterum et saepius: a g a in a n d a g a in . 16. premerëtur: another allusion to the war with the slaves and gladiators under Spartacus. 17. absente: Pompey was in Spain when the Servile War broke out in Italy. 18. exspectatione ëjus: b y t h e a n t i c i p a t i o n o f h is [ c o m i n g ] .

19. sublatum ac sepultum:

w as rem oved and b u r i e d ( w a s b u r i e d in o b l i v i o n ) .

3. How does Pompey compare with other generals in the possession of these qualities? 4. How is Italy a witness to Pompey’s military ability? Sicily? Africa? Gaul? Spain? 5. Find examples of anaphora, asyndeton, climax, and personification in the text.

Ch. X I-2

Rome's Prestige Was Lost Because of the Depredations of the Pirates

Testes 1nunc vërô jam omnës sunt ôrae atque omnës exterae gentës ac nàtiônës, dënique 2m aria omnia cum üniversa, tum in singulis ôrïs omnës sinüs atque portüs. Quis enim tôtô mari locus per hôs annôs aut tam firm um habuit praesidium ut tütus esset, aut tam fuit abditus ut latëret? Quis nâvigâvit, 3quï non së aut mortis aut servitütis periculo com m itteret, cum aut hieme aut 4*refertô praedônum mari nâvigâret? Hoc tantum bellum, tam turpe, Tam vetus, 6tam lâtë divisum atque dispersum quis um quam 7arbitrârëtur aut ab omnibus im peratoribus ünô annô aut omnibus annis ab ünô im peratore confici posse? Quam provinciam tenuistis à praedonibus liberam per hôsce annôs? Quod vectigal vôbïs tütum fuit? Quem socium dëfendistis? 8Cui praesidio classibus vestris fuistis? Quam m ultas existimatis insulas esse dësertàs, quam m ultàs aut m etü relictas aut à praedonibus captas urbës esse sociorum?

FOR DISCUSSION

1. To what degree is the Mediterranean seaboard a witness to Pompey’s mili­ tary ability? 2. How could an area on the sea remain safe from the pirates? 3. What two risks did a Roman have to take when he sailed the Mediterranean Sea? 4. At what time of year was the sea infested with pirates? 5. Why did it seem difficult for the war to be won by one general? 6. Find an example of anaphora in the text. 1. nunc vërô jam: N o w in f a c t. 2. maria . . . portüs: n o t o n l y

3. 4.

t h e s e a s in t h e i r e n t i r e e x t e n t , b u t a lso a ll t h e b a y s a n d h a r b o r s o n e v e r y c o a s t. qui non së . . . committeret: w i t h o u t e x p o s i n g h i m s e l f ; characteristic clause. refertô praedônum marl: w h e n t h e s e a w a s i n f e s t e d w i t h p i r a t e s ; ablative abso­

5. tam vetus: o f s u c h lo n g s t a n d i n g . Ten years before Caesar had been captured by them. 6. tam lâtë divisum: so w i d e s p r e a d . 7. arbitràrëtur: w o u l d h a v e t h o u g h t ; po­ tential subjunctive. 8. Cui praesidio: double dative.

lute.

187

Ch. X II—1

Pompey's Conquests on the Sea

Sed quid ego lo n g in q u a commemoro? F uit hoc quondam , fuit pro­ prium populî Rômànï, longé â domô bellâre et prôpügnàculïs im perî sociôrum fortünâs, non sua tëcta defendere. Sociis ego nostris m are per hôs annôs clausum fuisse 2dïcam, cum exercitüs vestrî num quam à 3Brundisiô nisi 4hieme summâ transm iserint? Qui ad vos ab exteris nationibus venirent, captos querar, cum lëgàtï populi Rômânï redëm ptï sint? M ercatoribus tütum mare non fuisse dicam, cum °duodecim secürës in praedonum potestatem pervënerint? 6Cnidum aut 7Colophônem aut 8Samum, nobilissimas urbës, innum erâbilësque alias captas esse commemorem, cum vestrôs portüs atque eôs portüs, 9quibus vitam ac spiritum dücitis, in praedônum fuisse potestâte sciâtis? 10An vërô ïgnôràtis portum n Câjëtae 12celeberrim um ac plënissimum nâvium, inspectante praetôre, â praedonibus esse direptum , ex 13Mïsënô autem ëjus ipsius 14lïberôs, qui cum praedonibus anteâ ibi bellum gesserat, â praedonibus esse sublâtôs? Nam quid ego 15Ôstiënse incommodum atque illam lâbem atque ignominiam rei püblicae querar, cum prope inspectantibus vobis classis ea, 16cui consul populi Rômânï praepositus esset, â praedonibus capta atque oppressa est? 17Prô di immortàlës! Tantam ne ünïus hominis incrëdibilis ac divina virtüs tam brevi tem pore lûcem afferre rei püblicae potuit, u t vos, qui modo ante ostium Tiberinum classem hostium vidëbàtis, 18ei nunc nüllam intrâ 19Ôceanï ostium praedônum nàvem esse audiâtis? FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Who did not dare cross the Mediterranean except in winter? Who were held for ransom by the pirates? Who else of importance fell into the power of the pirates? What happened at Caieta? Misenum? Ostia?

1. longinqua: e v e n t s in d i s t a n t p la c e s . 2. dicam: deliberative subjunctive. 3. Brundisio: B r u n d i s i u m , port of embarka­ tion for Greece and the East. 4. hieme summâ: in t h e d e p t h o f t e in te r . 5. duodecim secürës = duo praetôrës: t w o p r a e to r s . Each praetor was attended by six lictors, each lictor carrying the fascës (bundle of rods) and the secüris (ax). 6. Cnidum: Cnidus, in Caria. 7. Colophonem: Colophon, in Lydia. 8. Samum: in (the island of) Samos. 9. quibus . . . dücitis: th r o u g h w h i c h y o u d r a w t h e b r e a t h o f life; from these harbors came the grain for Rome. The chief sources of grain supply were Sar­ dinia, Sicily, and Africa.

188

10. An . . . ïgnôràtis: You

su rely

are not

ig n o r a n t o f t h e f a c t th a t.

11. Càjëtae: Caieta (now Gaëta) in Latium, on the west coast of Italy. 12. celeberrimum: v e r y p o p u l o u s . 13. Mïsënô: M i s e n u m , in Campania. 14. lïberôs: only one child, the daughter of M. Antonius, the Roman orator. 15. Ôstiënse: a t O s t i a ; Ostia was the port of Rome at the mouth of the Tiber; cf. ôs, th e m o u th .

16. cui . . . praepositus esset: characteristic clause; the consul’s name is not known. 17. Pro: ejaculation. 18. ei: emphatic, in apposition with vos. 19. Oceani ostium: the Strait of Gibraltar.

5. Find examples of synecdoche, hendiadys, and metonymy in the preceding paragraphs. 6. To whom does imius hominis, line 19, refer?

Ch. X II-2

Pompey Alone Crushed the Pirates and Ended the W ar

A tque haec qua celeritate gesta sint, quam quam videtis, tam en *â më in dicendo praetereunda non sunt. Quis enim um quam aut obeundi negôtï aut consequendi quaestus studio -tam 12345b revl tem pore tct loca adire, tantôs cursüs conficere potuit, 2quam celeriter, Cn. Pompëjô duce, 4tan tl belli im petus navigavit? Qui, nondum tem pestivo ad navigandum mari, Siciliam adiit, Africam exploravit, in Sardiniam cum classe vênit atque haec tria friim entâria subsidia rei publicae firmissimis ’’praesidiis classibusque münïvit. Inde cum së in Italiam recepisset, 6duàbus Hispànils et 7Galliâ Trans­ alpina praesidiis ac nâvibus 8cônfïrm àtà, missis item in ôram Illyrici maris et in 9Achajam om nem que Graeciam nâvibus, Italiae 10duo maria maximis classibus flrmissimlsque praesidiis "adornavit; ipse autem ut Brundisio profectus est, ündëquïnquàgësim ô dië tôtam ad imperium populi Rômâni Ciliciam adjunxit; onmës, qui ubique praedônës fuërunt, 12partim capti interfectlque sunt, 12partim ünïus hüjus së imperio ac potestati dëdidërunt. Idem î3Crëtënsibus, cum ad eum usque in Pam phyliam lëgâtôs 14dëprecâtôrësque misissent, spem dëditiônis non adëm it obsidësque imperavit. Ita tantum bellum, tam diuturnum , tam longë lâtëque dispersum, quô bellô omnës gentës ac nâtiônës prem ëbantur, Cn. Pompëjus extrëmâ hiem e apparavit, ineunte vëre suscëpit, media aestâte cônfëcit. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What was remarkable about the way Pompey conducted the pirate war? 2. Where were the tria frümentâria subsidia? 1. â më: used for emphasis instead of mihi with the gerundive. 2. tam . . . quam: a s . . . as; correlatives. 3. brevi tempore: In about three months Pompey rid the seas of pirates. 4. tanti . . . nâvigâvit: T h e a t t a c k ( o n s e t ) o f so g r e a t a te a r s w e p t o v e r t h e sea.

5. praesidiis: g a r r is o n s on land; classibus: -fleets for protection on the seas. 6. duâbus Hispâniïs: citeriore et ülteriôre. 7. Galliâ Transalpina: provincia Narbônënsis; the southern coast is meant. 8. cônfirmâtâ: agrees with the nearest form, Galliâ, but includes Hispâniïs.

9. Achàjam: the Peloponnesus. 10. duo maria: the Adriatic and the Tyrrhe­ nian. 11. adôrnâvit: f u r n is h e d . 12. partim . . . partim: e i t h e r . . . or. 13. Crëtënsibus: f r o m t h e C r e ta n s ; dative of separation with adëmit. Metellus had subdued the island of Crete but with such cruelty that the Cretans preferred to submit to Pompey. The incident al­ most led to Civil War between Pompey and Metellus. 14. dëprecâtôrës = ad dëprecandum; ex­ plains the purpose of lëgâtôs.

189

3. What happened to the pirates defeated by Pompey? 4. What did Pompey do with Cilicia, the headquarters of the pirates? 5. When did Pompey organize, begin, and end the war against the pirates?

Ch. X l l l - l

Pompey Has the Other Qualities of a Perfect Commander

3Est haec divina atque incredibilis virtüs im peratoris. 2Quid? Ceterae, quâs paulo ante commemorare coeperam, quantae atque quam m ultae sunt! Non enim 3bellandl virtus solum in summo ac perfecto im peratore quaerenda est, sed m ultae sunt 4artës eximiae hüjus adm inistrae comi­ tesque virtütis. Ac primum, quanta ^innocentia debent esse im peratores, quanta deinde in omnibus rébus °tem perantiâ, quanta fîdë, quanta fa­ cilitate, quantô ingenio, quanta hüm ânitâte! 7Q uae breviter quâlia sint 8in Cn. Pompëjô, consideremus. !)Summa enim omnia sunt, Quirites, sed ea magis ex aliôrum 10contentione quam ipsa per sësë cognosci atque intellegi possunt. Quem enim im peratorem possumus n üllô in num ero putâre, cüjus in exercitü centuriâtüs 32vëneant atque 12vënierint? Q uid hunc hom inem m agnum aut amplum dë rë püblicà côgitâre, qui pecüniam ex aeràriô dëprôm ptam ad bellum adm inistrandum aut propter cupiditatem pro­ vinciae m agistratibus diviserit aut propter avaritiam Rômae 13in quaestû reliquerit? 1. Est: is indeed; emphatic. 2. Quid: But more. 3. bellandi virtüs: fighting ability. 4. artës: Qualities. 5. innocentia: integrity. 6. temperantia: self-control. 7. Quae = Ea.

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

in: found in. Summa: of the highest degree. contentione: comparison [with]. üllô in numéro: of any standing. vëneant, vënierint: from vëneô. in quaestû: at interest.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What six traits of character ought a general to possess besides the four chief qualities already mentioned? 2. How can Pompey’s outstanding qualities best be judged? 3. What evil is referred to in the second paragraph? 4. In what two ways does a dishonest general use the money given to him for the conduct of a campaign?

Ch. X III-2

The Conduct of the Roman A rm y Among Allies

Vestra adm urm uratio 3facit, Quirïtës, ut agnoscere videam ini, qui haec fëceiint; ego autem nôminô nëm inem ; quâ rë Irasci mihi nëmô 1. facit: shows.

190

poterit, nisi qui ante de sê voluerit cônfitërï. Itaque propter hanc ava­ ritiam im peratorum quantas calam itates, 12quôcum que ventum sit, nostri exercitiis ferant, quis ignorat? Itinera quae 3per hôsce annôs in Italia per agros atque oppida civium Rôm ânôrum nostri im perâtôrës fecerint, 4recordàm inï; tum facilius statuetis, quid apud exterâs nâtiônës fieri existimetis. Utrum plûrës arbitram ini per hôsce annôs militum vestrorum armis hostium urbës an °hibernis sociôrum cïvitàtës esse dëlëtâs? 2. quocumque . . . sit:

w h e r e v e r th e ij h a v e

gone.

3. per . . . annôs:

d in in g

th e se

recent,

years.

4. recordamini: imperative.

5. hibernis: The allies were expected to furnish winter quarters for the Roman soldiers, but they frequently paid large sums to free themselves of this heavy burden.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. How did Cicero’s condemnation of the dishonest practices of Roman gen­ erals affect his hearers? 2. Why does Cicero say that he will mention no names? 3. How had the Roman armies treated the peoples of Italy in recent years? 4. What comparison does Cicero ask his audience to make?

Ch. X III-3

Pompey Restrains His Arm y

Neque' enim potest exercitum is continëre im perator, qui së ipse non continet, neque sevërus esse in ju d ican d o , qui aliôs in së sevërôs esse jüdicës non vult. "Hïc m iram ur hunc hominem tantum excellere cëterïs, cüjus legiônës sic in Asiam pervënerint, u t non modo 3manus tanti exer­ citiis, sed në ‘vëstlgium quidem cuiquam pâcàtô nocuisse dicatur? Jam vërô quem ad modum mllitës hibernent, cotïdië sermônës ac litterae perferuntur; "non modo ut süm ptum faciat in 6mllitem, nëminl vis affertur, sed në cupienti quidem cuiquam perm ittitur. 7Hiemis enim, non savaritiae perfugium màjôrës nostri in sociôrum atque amicorum tëctïs esse voluërunt. FOR DISCUSSION

1. How can a general best enforce discipline upon his soldiers? 2. How did Pompey’s soldiers act in peaceful territories? 1. judicando: The governor of a province acted as chief justice as well as military commander. 2. HIc: U n d e r t h e s e c ir c u m s t a n c e s . 3. inanus : h a n d , refers to plundering and other deeds of violence. 4. vestigium: f o o t p r i n t , refers to damage

done to crops by an army on the march. 5. non modo = non modo non. 6. militem: s o l d i e r y . 7. Hiemis: f r o m t h e w i n t e r ; objective geni­ tive. S. avaritiae: f o r g r e e d ; subjective genitive.

191

3. Concerning what are reports daily received? 4. What was the desire oi: the Romans of former generations? Ch. X IV -1

Pompey's Unusual Self-restraint and Self-control

*Age vërô, cëterïs in rebus qua sit tem perantia, considerate. Unde illam celeritatem et tam incredibilem cursum 12inventum putatis? Non enim illum eximia vis rëmigum aut ars inaudita quaedam guber­ nandi aut venti aliqui novi tam celeriter in ültim às terras pertulërunt, sed eae rës, quae cëterôs rem orârï solent, non retardarunt; non avaritia ab ïnstitütô cursü ad praedam aliquam dëvocàvit, non libido ad volup­ tatem , non amoenitas ad dëlectàtiônem , non nobilitas urbis ad cog­ nitionem, non dënique labor ipse ad quiëtem ; postrëm ô 3*sïgna et 3tabulàs cëteraque 3ôrnàm enta Graecorum oppidorum , quae cëterï tollenda esse arbitrantur, ea sibi ille në V isenda quidem existimavit. Itaque omnës nunc in eis locis Cn. Pom pëjum sicut aliquem non ex hac urbe missum, sed 5dë caelô dëlâpsum intuentur; nunc dënique incipiunt crëdere fuisse hominës Rômànôs hâc quondam continentia, quod jam nationibus exteris incrëdibile ac 6falsô m em oriae proditum vidëbàtur; nunc imperl vestri splendor illis gentibus lücem afferre coepit; nunc intel­ legunt non sine causa màjôrës suôs tum, cum eà tem perantia m agistràtüs habëbàm us, servire populo Rômânô quam im perare aliis maluisse. 1. Age vërô: B u t c o m e ! 2. inventum: a c q u i r e d . 3. signa, tabulas, ornamenta: s ta t u e s , p a i n t ­ in g s, w o r k s o f art. Roman generals usually took these from the peoples they conquered in order to enlarge their own private art collections.

4. visenda: g o to s e e . 5. dë caelô dëlâpsum:

descended

from

heaven.

6. falsô . . . prôditum:

fa lsely tra n sm itte d

to p o s te r ity .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What six attractions that ordinarily delayed other generals did not delay Pompey? 2. How did Pompey regard works of art in Greek towns when he was adminis­ tering war? 3. What effect did Pompey’s self-control have on his reputation? 4. How did Pompey’s self-restraint help the reputation of the Romans among the allies? Ch. X IV -2

Pompey's Courtesy, Wisdom, Fidelity, and Kindness

Jam vero ita facilës Vditus ad eum privatorum , ita 2llberae queri­ moniae dë 3aliôrum injüriïs esse dicuntur, ut is, qui dignitate principibus 1. aditüs: a c c e s s . 2. liberae: f r e e l y

192

3. alidrum: subjective genitive. a llo w ed .

excellit, fa c ilita te ïnfimïs 5pâr esse videâtur. Jam 6quantum cônsiliô, quantum dîcendï gravitate et copia valeat ( 7in quo ipso inest quaedam dïgnitâs 8im perâtôria ), vos, Quirïtës, hoc ipso ex 9locô saepe cognovistis. 10Fidem verô ëjus quantam inter sociôs existimari putatis, quam hostës omnës omnium generum sanctissimam jüdicàrint? H üm ânitâte n jam tan tâ est, ut difficile 12dictü sit, utrum hostës magis virtütem ëjus pügnantës tim uerint an m ànsuëtüdinem victï dïlëxerint. E t quisquam dubitabit, quin huic hoc tantum bellum 13trànsm ittendum sit, qui ad omnia nostrae m em oriae bella conficienda divino quodam côn­ siliô nâtus esse videâtur? 4. facilitate: a f f a b il i t y . 5. par: o n a l e v e l w i t h . 6. quantum . . . valeat:

8. imperatoria:

h o w e ffe c tiv e h e is b y h is c o u n s e l, a n d b y t h e d i g n i t y a n d f l u e n c y o f h is d i s c o u r s e ; indirect ques­

tion. 7. in quo ipso:

a p p ro p ria te

to

a

com ­

m ander.

[a c a p a c i t y ] in w h i c h o f

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

its e lf .

loco: the Rostra. Fidem: w o r d o f h o n o r . jam: m o r e o v e r . dictü : supine. transmittendum sit: o u g h t

to

be

en­

tru sted .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What kind of people had easy access to Pompey? 2. How do the Roman allies regard Pompey’s word of honor? 3. Who seems to have been born in accordance with some divine plan?

Ch. X V -1

Pompey's G reat Prestige

E t quoniam A uctoritas quoque in bellis adm inistrandis m ultum atque in im periô m ilitari valet, certë nëm inï dubium est quin 12eâ rë idem ille im perator 3plürim um possit. 456V ehem enter autem pertinëre ad bella adm inistranda, 5quid hostës, quid socii dë im peratoribus nostris existi m ent, quis ignorat, cum sciâmus hominës, 6in tantis rëbus 7ut aut con­ tem nant aut m etuant aut oderint aut am ent, opinione non minus et fàmà quam aliquâ ratiône certâ commovërï? Quod igitur nôm en um quam in orbe terrarum clarius fuit? Cüjus rës gestae parës? D ë quô hom ine vos, 8id quod mâximë facit auctoritatem , tan ta et tam praeclara 9jüdicia fëcistis? An vërô üllam ùsquam esse ôram 1. 2. 3. 4.

auctôritàs: prestige. eâ rë: in t h i s r e s p e c t . plurimum possit: is p r e - e m i n e n t . Vehementer . . . pertinëre: h a s

7. ul . . . ament: result clause depending on commovërï. 8. id quod . . . auctoritatem: t h a t w h i c h a very

im p o r ta n t b ea rin g .

5. quid hostës . . . existiment: this clause is subject of pertinëre. 6. in tantis rëbus: in s u c h c rise s.

c o n tr ib u te s g r e a tly to p restig e.

9 jüdicia: military commands and civil offices conferred upon Pompey by the people.

193

tam desertam putatis, quô non 10illïus diëï fâma pervaserit, cum üniversus populus Rômânus 11refertô Forô com plëtïsque omnibus templis, ex quibus hic locus conspici potest, ünum 12sibi ad com m üne omnium gentium bellum Cn. Pompëjum im peratorem dëpoposcit? 10. illïus diëï: the day Pompey took command of the pirate war.

11. refertô: packed. 12. sibi: as their choice.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What effect does a commander’s prestige have upon his allies during war? 2. Who demanded Pompey as commander of the war against the pirates?

Ch. X V -2

The Results of Pompey's A ppointm ent to the Pirate W a r

Itaque, Hit plüra non dicam neque 12aliôrum exemplis confirmem, quantum auctoritas valeat in bellô, ab eôdem Cn. Pompëjô omnium rërum ëgregiàrum exempla 3süm antur; qui 4quô dië â vôbïs m aritim ô bellô praepositus est im perâtor, tanta repente vïlitâs annônae ex summà inopiâ et câritâte reï früm entâriae cônsecüta est ünïus hominis spë ac nômine, quantam vix 56*ex summâ übertâte agrôrum diüturna pâx Gefficere potuisset. Jam accepta in Pontô calam itate ex eô proeliô, dë quô vos paulô ante Hnvïtus admonui, cum socii pertim uissent, hostium opës anim ique crëvissent, satis firmum praesidium 8prôvincia non habëret, àmïsissëtis Asiam, Quirïtës, nisi 9ad ipsum discrimen ëjus tem poris divinitus Cn. Pompëjum 10ad eâs regiônës fortüna populï Rômânï attulisset. Hüjus adventus et M ithridatem Insolita Inflammatum victôriâ continuit et Tigranem mâgnïs copiis m initantem Asiae retardavit. E t quisquam dubitabit, quid virtüte n perfectürus sit, qui tantum auctoritate perfëcerit, aut quam facile imperiô atque exercitü sociôs et vectigalia cônservàtürus sit, qui 12ipsô nôm ine ac rüm ôre dëfenderit? FOR DISCUSSION

1. What caused the drop in the price of grain? 2. What period could not have produced a like effect? 1. ut . . . dïcam: to refrain from saying more. 2. aliorum exemplis: illustrations [from the lives] of other men. 3. sümantur: let [illustrations] be taken; jussive subjunctive. 4. quo die: on the day on which. 5. ex: after. 6. efficere potuisset: would have been able to produce.

7. invitus: reluctantly. 8. provincia: the province [of Asia]. 9. ad . . . temporis: at that moment of crisis. 10. ad eâs regiônës: Pompey was actually in Cilicia, the pirate state. 11. perfectürus sit: he will accomplish. 12. ipso nômine ac rümôre: by the mere mention of his name.

3. To what events does accepta in Pontô calamitate, line 8, allude? 4. What would the Romans have lost if it had not been for Pompey’s presence in Asia Minor? 5. What result can be expected if Po’mpey is sent against Mithridates? 6. What is the figure of syntax in line 17?

Ch. X V I-1

A dditional Evidences of Pompey's Prestige

Age vërô illa rës quantam dëclàrat ëjusdem hominis apud hostës populi Roman! auctoritatem , quod ex locis tam longinquis tam que diversis tam brevi tem pore omnës huic së ünï dëdidërunt! Quod Crëtënsium lëgâtï, cum in eôrum Insula noster hm peràtor exercitusque esset, ad Cn. Pompëjum in 12ültimàs prope terras vënërunt eïque së omnës Crëtënsium cïvitâtës dëdere velle dlxërunt! 3Quid? Idem iste M ithridàtës nônne ad eundem Cn. Pompëjum lëgâtum üsque in Hispaniam misit? 45E um quem Pompëjus lëgâtum semper jüdicâvit, 3eï, quibus erat molestum 6ad eum potissimum esse missum, speculatorem quam lëgâtum jüdicàrï m âluërunt. Potestis igitur jam constituere, Quirltës, hanc auctoritatem multis postea rëbus gestis màgnïsque vestris jüdicils 7amplifîcàtam quantum apud illôs rëgës, 8quantum apud exterâs nâtiônës valitüram esse exîstimëtis. 1. imperator: Metellus. 2. ültimâs: f a r t h e s t [ f r o m R o m e ] , Pam­ phylia. 3. Quid?: A g a i n ? 4. Eum: in apposition with the preceding lëgâtum. 5. eï . . . molestum: t h o s e w h o w e r e a n ­

referring to Metellus Pius, the other commander in the war with Ser­ torius. 6. ad . . . missum: subject of erat. 7. amplificatam: i n c r e a s e d . 8. quantum . . . valitüram esse: i v h a t noyed;

effect

. . . w ill have.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

To whom did the Cretans wish to surrender? Who sent an envoy to Pompey in Spain? Who was judged by some to be a spy rather than an envoy? How had Pompey’s prestige been increased?

Ch. X V I- 2

Pompey Has Had Good Luck

d e liq u u m est, ut dë fëlïcitàte ( 2quam praestare dë së ipso nëmô potest, 3meminisse et com m em orare dë alterô possum us) sïcut 4aequum est 1. Reliquum est: I t r e m a i n s ; the subject of cst is the ut—clause, ut . . . dicamus. 2. quam: s o m e t h i n g w h i c h . 3. meminisse: sed is understood before meminisse; asyndeton.

4. aequum est: i t is p r o p e r ; dicere is understood from dicamus.

195

hominês dê potestate deorum, tim ide et pauca dicamus. Ego enim sic existimo, 5Mâximô, 6Mârcellô, 7Scïpiônï, 8Mariô et cêterïs mâgnïs im pera­ toribus non sôlum propter virtütem , sed etiam propter fortünam , 9saepius 10imperia m andata atque exercitüs esse commissôs. n F uit enim profecto quibusdam summis viris quaedam ad am plitudi­ nem et ad glôriam et ad rës màgnàs bene gerendas divinitus adjüncta fortüna. Dê hüjus autem hominis fëlïcitàte, dë quô nunc 12agimus, hàc ütar m oderatione dicendi, non ut in illius potestate fortünam positam esse dicam, sed ut praeterita meminisse, reliqua spëràre videam ur, në aut 13invïsa dis immortalibus ôràtiô nostra aut 14ingràta esse vide­ atur. 5. Mâximô: Q. Fabius Maximus Cunctator, who foiled Hannibal by his delaying tactics. 6. Marcello: M. Claudius Marcellus, who captured Syracuse for the Romans in 2 1 2 b .c .

7. Scîpiônï: either Scipio Africanus Major, who defeated Hannibal, or Scipio Afri­ canus Minor, who destroyed Carthage. 8. Mario: C. Marius, who opposed Sulla in the Civil War.

9. saepius: r e p e a t e d l y . 10. imperia mandata [esse] . . . commissôs: c o m m a n d s h a v e b e e n g iv e n a n d a rm ies e n t r u s t e d to .

11. Fuit . . . quaedam . . . divinitus adjüncta fortüna: A c e r t a i n g o o d l u c k w a s , b y t h e fa vo r of h e a v e n , a d d e d .

12. agimus = loquimur. 13. invisa: d i s p l e a s i n g . 14. ingràta: th a n k l e s s .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is the fourth major qualification of a good general? 2. To what did Maximus and the other generals owe their good luck? 3. Why does Cicero use moderation in speaking of Pompey’s good luck? Ch. X V I-3

W e Must Hope His Good Luck W ill Continue

Itaque ^ ô n sum praedicâtürus, quantâs ille rës 12domï m ilitiae, terra m arïque quantàque fëlïcitàte gesserit; ut ëjus sem per voluntatibus non modo cïvës 3assënserint, sociï 3obtem peràrint, hostës 3oboedierint, sed etiam venti tem pestàtësque 3obsecundàrint; hoc brevissimë dïcam, nëminem um quam tam im pudentem fuisse, qui ab dis im m ortalibus 4tot et tantâs rës tacitus audëret optàre, quot et quantâs dï im mortàlës ad Cn. Pompëjum dëtulërunt. 5Quod ut 6illï proprium ac perpetuum sit, Q uiiitës, cum commünis salütis atque im perï, tum ipsius hominis causa, sïcutî facitis, velle et optare dëbëtis. 1. non sum praedicâtürus:

I d o not in te n d

to p r o c l a i m ^

2. domi militiae = domi militiaeque:

in

p e a c e a n d in w a r .

3. assënserint; obtemperârint; oboedierint; obsccundàrint: assen ted ; yield e d ; o b ey ed ; favored.

4. tot et tantâs rës: a s m a n y g r e a t 5. Quod: t h is [ g o o d l u c k ] . 6. illi . . . sit: m a y e s p e c i a l l y a n d b e his.

deeds, a lw a ys

Quâ rë, cum et bellum sit ita necessarium, ut neglegi non possit, ita m agnum , u t accüràtissim ë sit adm inistrandum , et cum ei im peratorem praeficere possitis, in quô sit eximia belli scientia, singularis virtüs, clarissima auctoritas, ëgregia fortüna, dubitatis, Quirites, quin hoc tantum boni, quod vobis ab dis im m ortalibus oblatum et datum est, in rem püblicam conservandam atque amplificandam conferatis? FOR DISCUSSION

1. What facts does Cicero say he will not talk about? 2. In what four ways had Pompey’s good luck been manifested? 3. What does Cicero consider the cause of Pompey’s good luck? Ch. X V II—1

Pompey Is N ear the Scene of W a r w ith an Arm y

Q uod si Romae Cn. Pompejus privatus esset hoc tem pore, tam en ad tantum bellum is erat deligendus atque m ittendus; nunc cum ad cëterâs summas ütilitàtës haec quoque O pportünitàs adjungatur, 12ut in eis ipsis locis adsit, 2ut habeat exercitum, 2ut ab eis, 3qui habent, accipere statim possit, quid exspectam us? Aut 4cür non, 56d ucibus dis immortalibus, eidem , cui cëtera summâ cum salüte rei püblicae commissa sunt, hoc quoque bellum rëgium com m ittam us? 6At enim vir clarissimus, 7amantissimus rei püblicae, vestris beneficiis amplissimis 8affectus, 9Q. Catulus, item que summis ornamentis honoris, fortünae, virtütïs, ingeni praeditus, 10Q. Hortënsius, ab hâc n ratione dis­ sentiunt. Quorum ego auctoritatem apud vos 12multis locis plurim um valuisse et valëre oportëre confiteor; sed in hâc causa, tam etsi côgnôscëtis auctôritàtës contrarias 13virôrum fortissimorum et clarissimorum, tam en, 14omissïs auctoritatibus, 15ipsà rë ac ratiône exquirere possumus vëritàtem , atque hôc facilius, quod ea omnia, quae à më adhüc dicta sunt, idem 16istï vëra esse concëdunt, et necessarium bellum esse et m agnum et in ünô Cn. Pompëjô summa esse omnia. 1. opportünitàs: advantage. 2. ut . . . adsit, ut habeat, ut . . . possit: three substantive clauses in apposition with opportünitàs. 3. qui habent [exercitüs]: Lucullus and Glabrio. 4. cür . . . committamus: deliberative ques­ tion. 5. ducibus . . . immortalibus: ablative ab­ solute. 6. At enim: But, in fact. 7. amantissimus . . . püblicae: most pa­ triotic.

10. Q. Horténaus: Cicero’s chief rival as an orator and advocate. At this time both Catulus and Hortensius were bitterly opposed to Cicero’s view. 11. ratiône: view. 12. multis locis: on many occasions. 13. virôrum: subjective genitive. 14. omissis auctoritatibus: if these views are disregarded.

15. ipsa . . . ratiône: by a consideration of the actual facts.

16. isti: worthy opponents of mine; isti is not disrespectful in this sentence.

8. affectus: favored. 9. Q. Catulus: Quintus Lutatius Catulus, who had been consul in 78 b .c .

197

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What three advantages does Pompey have at this time? 2. Who, according to Cicero, seems to favor Pompey’s appointment as com­ mander of this war? 3. What two well-known Romans opposed Pompey’s appointment?

Ch. X V II-2

Objections Are Raised by Hortensius

Quid igitur ait Hortensius? Si ünï 12o mnia tribuenda sint, dignissimum esse Pompejum, sed ad ünum tam en omnia dëferrï non oportëre. 2Obsolëvit jam 3ista 4ôràtiô 56rë multô magis quam verbis refütàta. Nam 6tü Idem, Q. Hortënsï, m ulta prô tuâ summâ 7côpià ac singulari facultate dïcendï et in senâtü contra virum fortem, 8*A. Gabinium , °gra viter ôrnâtëque dïxistï, cum is dë ünô im perâtôre contra praedônës constituendo 10lëgem prômulgâsset, et ex hôc ipso locô 1p e rm u lta item contrà earn lëgem verba fëcistï. Quid? Tum, per deôs immortâlës, si plüs apud populum Rômànum auctoritas tua quam ipsius populï Rômànï salüs et vëra 12causa valuisset, hodië hanc glôriam atque hoc orbis terrae im perium tenërëm us? An tibi turn imperium hoc esse viclëbàtur, cum populï Rômànï lëgàtï, quaestôrës praetôrësque capiëbantur, cum ex omnibus provinciis 13com m eàtü et prïvâtô et püblicô prohibëbâm ur, cum ita clausa nôbls erant m aria omnia, ut neque privatam rem transm arinam neque püblicam jam obire possëmus? FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is Hortensius’ objection to the appointment of Pompey? 2. Why was such concentrated power unconstitutional for the Roman govern­ ment? 3. Where had Hortensius delivered his speech in opposition to the Gabinian law? 4. How has Hortensius been refuted? 5. What was the danger in following Hortensius’ advice? 6. Find an example of ellipsis in paragraph 3. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

omnia: all power. Obsolëvit jam: is now out of date. ista: that [argument] of yours. ôrâtiô: argument. rë: by the facts. tü idem: you yourself. copia: fluency. A. Gabinium: Aulus Gabinius, who had proposed the bill that placed Pompey in command of the pirate war.

9. graviter ôrnàtëque: impressively and brilliantly.

10. lëgem prômulgâsset: A bill had to be announced seventeen days before it could be voted upon. 11. permulta . . . verba fëcistï: you spoke very fully.

12. causa: interests. 13. commeàtü: traffic.

Ch. X V III—1

W e Lost Our Prestige During the Pirate W a r

Q uae clvitâs anteà um quam fuit (non dïcô A theniensium , quae satis làtë quondam m are tenuisse d ic ito , non 12Carthàginiënsium , qui per­ m ultum classe ac maritimis rëbus valuerunt, non 3Rhodiôrum, quorum üsque ad nostram memoriam disciplina nâvâlis et gloria rem ansit), quae civitas, inquam , antea tam tenuis quae tam parva Insula fuit, quae non portüs suôs et agrôs et aliquam partem regionis atque ôrae m aritim ae per sê ipsa M ëfenderet? At hercule aliquot annos continuos ante lëgem Gabiniam ille populus Rômânus, °cüjus üsque ad nostram m emoriam nômen invictum in navali­ bus pügnïs perm anserit, m àgnà ac m ultô mâximâ 6parte non modo ütilitàtis, sed dignitatis atque im perl caruit. 1. Atheniensium: the Athenians, who had been a great naval power. 2. Carthàginiënsium: the Carthaginians, who had dominated the Mediterranean Sea before the Punic Wars. 3. Rhodiorum: the Rhodians, who rose to naval power after the defeat of the Carthaginians.

4. defenderet: subjunctive in relative result clause. 5. cüjus . . . permanserit: characteristic clause. 6. parte: ablative with caruit.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Name the four peoples who had in turn dominated the Mediterranean Sea. 2. What had the Romans lost previous to the passage of the Gabinian law?

Ch. X V III-2

Conditions Before the Passing of the Gabinian Law

Nos, quorum müjôrës A n tiochum rëgem classe 2Persem que superarunt 3om nibusque nâvâlibus pügnïs Carthâginiënsës, hominës in maritimis rëbus exercitatissimos paràtissim ôsque, vïcërunt, 4*el nüllô in locô jam praedonibus parës esse poterâm us; nos, qui anteà non modo Italiam tütam 5habëbàm us, sed omnës sociôs in ültimïs ôrïs auctoritate nostri im perï 6salvôs praestare poteram us, tum, cum Insula 7Dëlos tam procul à nôbls 1. Antiochum: In the war against Antio­ chus the Roman navy, with the help of the Rhodian fleet, was particularly ac­ tive. 2. Persemque: Perseus, the last king of Macedonia, who was defeated by Lucius Aemilius Paulus at Pydna in 168 b .c . The Macedonians had no navy. 3. omnibus . . . pügnïs: in the First Punic War, as well as in the sieges of Syracuse (214-212 b .c .) and of Carthage (147146 b .c. ). The Romans were defeated by the Carthaginians at Drepanum, 249 b .c .

4. eî: we, I say; in apposition with nos, line 1. 5. habêbàmus: we used to keep. 6. salvos praestare = tûtôs habëre; tütôs, protected; salvos, saved from danger that is passed. 7. Dëlos: Highly revered as the birthplace of Apollo and Diana, Delos was at this time an important center for trade. In 69 b .c. it was ravaged by pirates and its sanctuaries were destroyed.

m

in Aegaeô marl posita, quô omnës undique cum m ercibus atque oneribus com m eabant, referta divitiis, parva, sine mürô nihil tim ëbat, 8ïdem non modo provinciis atque oris Italiae maritimis ac portibus nostris, sed etiam 9Appià jam Via carebam us; et eis tem poribus non pudëbat m agistràtüs populi Rômànï in 10hunc ipsum locum escendere, n cum eum nobis majorés nostri 12exuviis nauticis et classium spoliis ôrnâtum reliquissent! 8. Idem: we, I say. 10. hunc . . . locum: the Rostrum. 9. Appia . . . Via: the principal highway 11. cum: although. for trade and travel through Italy. 12. exuviis: trophies. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What other countries besides Italy did the Romans keep safe by the prestige of their empire? 2. How were the Romans hampered and restricted during the period when the pirates controlled the Mediterranean? 3. Why should the Roman magistrates have been ashamed to mount the Rostrum during the pirate war?

C h. X IX -1

T h ere A re O b je c tio n s to G a b in iu s ' S e rv in g a s P o m p e y 's L e g a te

^ o n ô të animô tum, Q. Hortënsi, populus Rômànus et cëterôs, qui erant in eâdem sententia, dicere existimavit ea, quae sentiëbàtis; sed tam en in salüte commünï idem populus Rômànus M olôii.suô m àluit quam auctoritati vestrae 3obtem peràre. Itaque ûna lëx, ünus vir, 4ünus annus non modo nos illa miseria ac turpitudine liberavit, sed etiam effëcit, ut aliquando vërë vidërëm ur omnibus gentibus ac nationibus terra m anque imperare. RQuô mihi Getiam indignius vidëtur obtrectatum esse adhüc (G abinio Micam anne Pompëjô an utrique, id quod est vërius?), 8në lëgàrëtur A. Gabinius Cn. Pompëjô expetenti ac postulanti. U trum ille, qui postulat ad tantum bellum lëgàtum, 9quem velit, idôneus non est 10qui im petret, n cum cëterï ad expilandos sociôs dïripiendàsque prôvinciâs, quôs voluërunt, lëgàtôs ëdüxerint, an ipse, cùjus lëge salùs ac dignitas populo 1. 2. 3. 4.

Bonô . . . animô: with good intentions. dolôrï: sorrow. obtemperare: to obey. ünus annus: 67 b .c .; repetition of Gnus is the figure of anaphora.

5. 6. 7. 8.

Quô: for this reason. etiam indignius: even more unjustifiable. dicam: deliberative subjunctive. në . . . Gabinius: so that Gabinius

200

would not be appointed as legate; nega­

tive purpose clause. 9. quem velit: characteristic clause. The Gabinian law must have coven the general in command power to appoint his own lëgâtï. Such an appointment was generally considered unconstitutional. 10. qui impetret: characteristic clause. 11. cum: whereas. O

Rômànô atque omnibus gentibus cônstitüta est, 12expers esse débet glôriae êjus im peratoris atque ëjus exercitüs, qui cônsiliô ipsius ac 13perïculô est cônstitütus? 12. expers . . . débet: ought to be deprived of ( have no share in ). 13. perïculô: at his own risk. Opposition to

the bill was violent, and Gabinius’ life was in danger.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. In the hour of decision, what did the Roman people prefer to Hortensius’ arguments? 2. To what do lëx, vir, and annus, line 4, refer? 3. Who was begging and pleading that Gabinius be made Pompey’s legate? 4. To whom do ille, ipse, and ipsius, lines 10, 13, and 15, refer? 5. Why does Cicero think that Gabinius should be Pompey’s legate?

Ch. X IX -2

P re c e d e n ts H a v e A lr e a d y B een E sta b lish e d

An 1C. Falcidius, Q. M etellus, Q. Caelius Latiniensis, Cn. Lentulus, quôs omnës 23h onôris causa nôminô, cum tribünï plêbï fuissent, annô proximô lëgâtï esse potuërunt; in ünô Gabinio sunt tam :idiligentës, qui in hôc bellô, quod lëge Gabinia geritur, in hôc im peratore atque exercitu, quem per vos ipse constituit, etiam 45p raecipuô jüre esse dëbëret? 5Dë quo lëgandô cônsulës spërô ad senâtum relàtürôs. Qui si dubita­ bunt aut gravabuntur, ego më profiteor 6relâtürum ; neque më im pediet cüjusquam inimicum ëdictum , 7quô minus vôbïs frëtus vestrum jûs beneficiumque dëfendam , neque praeter 8intercessiônem quidquam audiam, dë quâ, ut arbitror, isti ipsi, qui m inantur, 9etiam atque etiam, quid liceat, considerabunt. Meà quidem sententia, Quirïtës, ünus A. Gabinius belli maritimi rërum que gestarum Cn. Pompëjô socius 10ascrïbitur, proptereâ quod alter ünï illud bellum suscipiendum vestris suffragiis dëtulit, alter n dëlâtum susceptum que cônfëcit. 1. C. Falcidius . . . Cn. Lentulus: These men served as tribunes of the people and in the following year were lëgâtï. These cases were not parallel with the case of Gabinius. 2. honoris causa: with the highest respect. 3. diligentés: punctilious, about the law in Gabinius’ case. 4. praecipuô jüre: special privileges. 5. Dé . . . lëgandô: about his appointment as legate.

6. relaturum [esse]: Cicero as praetor has the right to refer the matter to the Senate.

7. quo minus . . . dëfendam: from defending, relying upon you [your support ], your right and privilege.

8. intercessionem: veto. 9. etiam atque etiam: again and again. will think twice before using the power of veto. 10. ascribitur: is to be reckoned, in the minds of the people, as Pompey’s only partner in the pirate war. 11. dëlàtum . . . cônfëcit: After it had been assigned to him, Pompey took charge of (the war) and brought it to a con­ clusion.

201

1. 2. 3. 4.

Why was Gabinius entitled to special privilege? Who had the right of veto? To whom does ipsi, qui minantur, line 10,refer? To whom do alter, ünï, and alter, line 14, refer?

C h. X X -1

C a tu lu s O b je c ts to P o m p e y 's A p p o in tm e n t

Reliquum est, ut dë Q. Catuli A uctoritate et sententia dicendum esse videatur. Qui cum ex vobis quaereret, si in ünô Cn. Pompëjô “’omnia poneretis, ;isl quid eô factum esset, in quô spem essêtis habitürï, cëpit magnum suae virtütis 4früctum ac dignitatis, cum omnês ünà prope voce in r'eô ipso vos spem habitürôs esse dixistis. Etenim tâlis est vir, ut nülla rës tanta sit ac tam difficilis, 6quam ille non et consilio regere et integri­ tate tuërï et virtüte conficere possit. Sed ‘in hôc ipso ab eô vehementissimë dissentio, quod, 8quô minus certa est hom inum ac minus diüturna vita, hôc magis rës püblica, dum per deôs immortàlës licet, frul dëbet summi viri vita atque virtüte. 1. auctoritate et sententia: the weighty opinion.

2. omnia poneretis: you stake your all. 3. si . . . esset: if anything should happen to him.

4. früctum: tribute. 5. eô ipso: Catulus.

6. quam . . . possit: relative clause of result. 7. in hoc ipso: on this point, the uncer­ tainty of human life; explained by the quod-clause. 8. quo minus . . . hôc magis: the less . . . the more.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

What question did Catulus ask the people regarding Pompey? What was the people’s answer? Why is length of life an important factor in electing a commander? What kind of man is Catulus said to be? Why does Cicero differ from Catulus regarding Pompey’s appointment? Find a figure of syntax in line 1, and a figure of rhetoric in line 10.

C h . X X —2

R o m a n s H a v e O fte n A c te d C o n tra ry to P re c e d e n ts

At enim: 1 Në quid novl flat contra exempla atque ïnstitüta m ajorum .” Non dïcam hôc locô màjôrës nostrôs sem per in pace cônsuëtüdinï, in bellô ütilitàtï “paruisse, sem per 3ad novôs càsüs tem porum novôrum 1. Në . . . fiat: Let there be no innovation. 2. paruisse: yielded to. 3. ad . . . accommodasse: adapted con-

202

sidérations of new plans to new conditions of the times.

consiliorum ratiônës accommodasse; non dicam duo bella mâxima, 4Pünicum atque ’Hispaniense, ab ünô 6im peràtôre esse confecta duàsque urbës potentissim âs, quae huic imperio maxime m initabantur, Carthaginem atque Num antiam , ab eodem Scipione esse dëlëtâs; non commemorabo nüper ita vobis patribusque vestris esse visum, ut in ünô 7C. Mario spës im perï pônerëtur, u t idem cum Jugurtha, idem cum Cimbris, idem cum Teutonis bellum adm inistraret. 8In ipso Cn. Pompëjô, in quô novi constitui nihil vult Q. Catulus, quam m ulta sint nova °summâ Q. C atuli voluntate cônstitüta, recordamini. 4. Pünicum: the Third Punic War, ended by the fall of Carthage in 146 b .ç . 5. Hispàniënse: the war in Spain, ended by the capture of Numantia in 133 b .c . 6. imperatore: P. Cornelius Scipio Afri­ canus Minor, who against the law was elected consul twice, first to lead the army against Carthage, 147 b .c ., and second that he might finish the war, 134 b .c .

7. C. Mario: against the law, Marius was elected consul for five successive years. He defeated Jugurtha, King of Numidia, in 105 b .c., the Teutoni in 102 b .c., and the Cimbri in 101 b .c. Actually Marius was elected consul seven times. 8. In . . . Pompëjô: In the case of Gnaeus Pompcy himself.

9. summà . . . voluntate: with the entire approval.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. By what three arguments does Cicero refute Catulus’ objection to Pompey’s appointment? 2. To whom does idem in line 9, refer? 3. How is Catulus’ previous record inconsistent with the argument he proposes? 4. Find three examples of pretention in the preceding paragraphs. 5. Find an example of parallel structure. 6. Find an example of anaphora.

C h. X X I-1

P o m p e y ' s C a r e e r Is F ille d w i t h B r o k e n P r e c e d e n t s

Q uid tarn ^ o v u m quam adulëscentulum privatum 12exercitum difficili reî püblicae tem pore conficere? Cônfëcit. Huic praeesse? Praefuit. Rem optim ë ductü suô gerere? Gessit. Quid tam 34p raeter cônsuëtüdinem quam hom ini peradulëscentï, cüjus aetâs 4à senàtôriô gradü longë abesset, im perium atque exercitum dari, Siciliam perm itti atque Àfricam bel­ lum que in eà provincia adm inistrandum ? °Fuit in his provinciis singuunprecedented.

1.

novum :

2.

ex ercitu m

.

.

.

c o n ficere:

to raise an

army. 3. p r a e te r c ô n s u ë tü d in e m :

contrary to cus­

tom.

4.

à

g r a d ü : In 82 b . c . Pompey years too young to enter the

se n à tô r iô

was

six

Senate; moreover he had not yet held the quaestorship, which was a requisite for being admitted to the Senate; the minimum age for the quaestorship was thirty-one. 5. Fuit: He displayed.

203

lari innocentia, gravitate, virtüte; bellum in Âfricâ maximum cônfëcit, victorem exercitum deportavit. Quid vërô tam inauditum quam 6equitem Rômânum trium phare? 7At eam quoque rem populus Rômânus non modo vidit, sed omnium etiam studio visendam et concelebrandam putavit. Quid tam inüsitàtum , quam ut, cum 8duo cônsulës clarissimi fortissimlque essent, eques Rômânus ad bellum maximum formïdolôsissimumque prô cônsule m itterëtur? Missus est. 6. equitem . . . triumphare: Ordinarily, a triumph was celebrated only by one who had been a consul or a praetor. 7. At . . . putavit: The Roman people

joined in the celebration with enthu­ siasm. 8. duo cônsulës: Aemilius Lepidus and D. Junius Brutus, consuls in 77 b .c .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

How did Pompey help his country in a time of crisis? To whom does huic in line 2 refer? How old was Pompey when he waged war in Sicily and Africa? Why was Pompey permitted a triumph? How did the Roman people regard Pompey’s triumph? Pick out five instances of Pompey’s unusual achievements mentioned by Cicero in this section. 7. What is the figure of syntax in line 7?

C h . X X 1 -2

A ll T h e s e V i o l a t i o n s o f P r e c e d e n t W e re A p p ro v e d b y C a tu lu s

Quo quidem tem pore cum esset ^ ô n nëmô in senâtü, qui diceret non oportëre m itti hominem privatum 12prô cônsule, 3L. Philippus dixisse dicitur non së illum sua sententia prô cônsule, sed 4prô consulibus m it­ tere. T anta in eô reï püblicae bene gerendae spës 5cônstituëbàtur, ut duôrum cônsulum münus ûnïus adulëscentis virtùtï com m itterëtur. Quid tam singulare, quam ut ex senàtüs cônsultô 6lëgibus solùtus, consul ante fieret, quam ülluin alium m agistratum per lëgës capere 7licuisset? Quid tam incrëdibile, quam ut iterum eques Rômânus 8ex 1. non nëmô: someone. 2. prô cônsule: as proconsul; Pompey was given proconsular power for the war with Sertorius in Spain. 3. L. Philippus: Lucius Marcius Philippus, consul in 91 b .c ., famous for his caustic wit. 4. prô consulibus: Pompey would do the work of both consuls who had refused to go.

5. cônstituëbàtur : was fixed. 6. lëgibus solùtus: released from the laws, which set the minimum age for consul at forty-two. 7. licuisset: he would have been entitled. 8. ex senàtüs cônsultô: The consent of the Senate was necessary for any triumph.

senâtüs cônsultô 9trium phàret? 10Quae n in omnibus hom inibus nova post hom inum m em oriam cônstitüta sunt, ea tam m ulta non sunt quam haec, quae in hôc ünô hom ine videmus. A tque haec tot exempla, tanta ac tam nova, profecta sunt in eundem hom inem à Q. C atuli atque à cëterôrum ejusdem dignitatis amplissi­ m orum hom inum auctoritate. 9. triumpharet: for his success in Spain over Sertorius. He triumphed in Decem­ ber 71 B.C. 10. Quae . . . nova . . . cônstitüta sunt:

Whatever precedents have been estab­ lished. 11. in omnibus hominibus: in the case of all other men.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

Who objected to a private citizen’s being sent in the place of a consul? Who thought that Pompey could do the work of two consuls? What legal restriction prevented Pompey from acting as consul? Who initiated all the important and striking innovations that were made in the case of Pompey? 5. What is the figure of speech in line 1? the figure of rhetoric in lines 2-3?

C h . X X II—1

T h e O p p o n e n t s o f t h e L a w S h o u l d N o w Y ie l d

Q uâ rë videant, ne sit p erin iq u u m et non ferendum , 12illôrum auctori­ tatem d ê , Cn. Pompeji dignitate à vobis com probatam sem per esse, vestrum ab illis dë eôdem hom ine jüdicium populique Romani auctori­ tatem im probari, praesertim cum jam 3suô jüre populus Rômânus in hoc hom ine suam auctoritatem 4vel contra omnës qui dissentiunt, possit dëfendere, proptereà quod, 5eisdem 6istis reclam antibus, vos ünum illum ex omnibus dëlëgistis, 7quem bello praedonum praepônerëtis. Hoc si vos tem erë fëcistis et 8reï püblicae parum consuluistis, rëctë isti studia vestra suis consiliis regere conantur; sin autem 9vôs plüs tum in rë püblicâ vidistis, vos, 10eïs repügnantibus, per vôsmet ipsôs dignitatem huic imperiô, salütem orbi terrarum attulistis, aliquando isti prïncipës et n sibi et cëteris populi Rômànï üniversï auctoritati parendum esse fateantur. 1. periniquum . . . ferendum: very unjust and intolerable.

2. illorum: of the aristocracy as a whole, the optimàtës. 3. suô jüre: of their own right. 4. vel: even. 5. eisdem . . . reclamantibus: in spite of the protests of these same men.

8. rei . . . consuluistis:

gave too little thought to [the interests of] the state. 9. vos . . . vidistis: you have had a deeper insight into [the interests of] the state. 10. eïs repügnantibus: in spite of their op­ position.

11. sibi et cëteris: dative of agent with the gerundive parendum.

6. istis: refers to the subject of videant. 7. quem . . . praepônerëtis: ielative clause of purpose.

205

1. What should Catulus and other members of the aristocracy now beware of? 2. How did the Roman people show more political insight than the objectors? 3. To whom does illls, line 3, refer? eôdem homine, line 3?

C h. X X II-2

A M a n o f P o m p e y ' s C h a r a c t e r Is N e e d e d in A s i a

Atque in hôc bellô Asiâticô et hëgiô non sôlum militaris illa virtüs, quae est in Cn. Pompëjô singularis, sed aliae quoque virtütës animi m âgnae et m ultae requiruntur. Difficile est in Asia, Cilicia, Syria rëgnlsque interiorum nationum ita 12versârï 3nostrum im peratorem , ut nihil aliud nisi dë hoste ac dë laude cogitet. Deinde, etiam si qui sunt pudore ac tem perantia 45m oderàtiôrës, tam en eôs esse tàlës propter m ultitüdinem cupidorum hominum nëmô arbitratur. Difficile est dictü, Quirïtës, quantô in odio simus apud exterâs nàtiônës propter eôrum, quôs ad eâs per hôs annôs cum im perio misimus, 5libïdinës et injüriàs. Quod enim fânum putatis in illis terris nostris m agistratibus 6religiôsum, quam civitatem sanctam, quam domum satis clausam ac m ünïtam fuisse? Urbës jam locuplëtës et copiosae 7requlruntur, 8*q uibus causa belli propter diripiendi cupiditatem Inferatur. Libenter haec côram cum Q. Catulô et Q. Hortënsiô, summis et claris­ simis viris, disputarem ; nôvërunt enim !)sociorum vulnera, vident eôrum calamitàtës, querimonias audiunt. 10Prô sociis vos contra hostës exercitum m ittere putatis an n hostium simulatione contra socios atque amicos? Quae civitas est in Asia, quae non modo im peratoris' aut lëgàtï, ^sed ünïus 12tribünl militum 13animôs ac splritüs 14capere possit? FOR DISCUSSION

1. What other qualities are needed in this particular war, in addition to mili­ tary skill? 2. How have most of the other Roman generals acted when sent with an army to the provinces? 3. Why do the Roman generals seek out rich and opulent cities? 4. How have some Roman generals used the enemy against whom they have been sent? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

rëgiô: royal, with kings. versari: to he engaged. nostrum imperatorem: a general of ours moderatiores: more self-controlled. libîdinës: licentiousness. religiosum: religiously sacred. requiruntur: are sought for. quibus: against which; quibus . . . In­ feratur is a relative clause of purpose.

206

9. sociorum vulnera: the woes of our allies. 10. Pro: for the protection of. 11. hostium simulatione: under the pretence of [acting against] enemies.

12. tribuni militum: six to each legion. 13. animôs ac splritüs : pride and insolence. 14. capere: satisfy.

C h . X X III—1

P o m p e y Is t h e O n l y G e n e r a l W h o m t h e A l l i e s W a n t in T h e ir C i tie s

Q uâ rë, etiam si quem habëtis, 1quï, 23collâtis sïgnïs, exercitüs rëgiôs superare posse videatur, tam en, nisi erit idem qui së â pecüniïs sociôrum, *quî ab eôrum conjugibus ac liberis, qui ab ornam entis fànôrum atque oppidorum , qui ab aurô gazâque rëgiâ manüs, oculôs, animum cohibëre possit, non erit idôneus, 1quï ad bellum Asiaticum rëgium que m ittâtur. 3Ecquam putâtis civitatem 4pâcâtam fuisse, quae locuplës sit? Ecquam esse locuplëtem , quae 56istïs pâcàta esse videâtur? 6Ôra m aritim a, Quirïtës, Cn. Pom pëjum non sôlum propter rei mili­ taris glôriam sed etiam propter animi continentiam requïsïvit. Vidëbat enim praetôrës 7locuplëtârï 8quotannïs pecüniâ püblicâ praeter paucôs, neque 9eôs quidquam aliud assequi 10classium nomine nisi ut n dëtrïmentis accipiendis majore affici turpitüdine vidërëmur. Nunc quâ cupiditate hominës in provincias et quibus 12jactürïs, 13quibus condicionibus proficiscantur, ignorant vidëlicet isti, qui ad ünum dëferenda omnia esse non arbitrantur; quasi vërô Cn. Pompëjum non cum suis virtütibus, tum etiam aliënis vitiis m agnum esse videamus. Quâ rë nolite 14dubitâre quin 15huic ünï crëdâtis omnia, qui inter tot annôs ünus inventus sit, quem socii in urbës suâs cum exercitü vënisse gaudeant. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What absolute requirement, besides ability to conquer the royal armies, is essential for an Asiatic commander? 2. How have Roman commanders in the past treated wealthy states in the provinces? 3. For what two reasons have cities on the seacoast asked for Pompey for commander? 4. To whom do istis, line 7, and isti, line 14, refer? 5. To whom does ünum, line 15, refer? 6. What is the attitude of the allies toward Pompey? 1. qui . . . videâtur, qui . . . possit, qui . . . mittatur: characteristic clauses. 2. collàtïs sïgnïs: in actual battle. 3. Ecquam . . . civitatem: Do xjou think that any state.

4. pàcàtam: [considered] subdued. 5. istïs: to these [commanders]. 6. Ôra maritima: the cities of the western and southern coasts of Asia Minor. 7. locuplëtàrï = [së] locuplëtàre. 8. quotannis: There was a new governor every year. 9. eôs: refers to provincial governors in general.

10. classium nomine: by a nominal fleet. 11. dëtrïmentïs accipiendis: by incurring de­ feats.

12. jactürïs: expenditures [of money as brib­ ery]. 13. quibus condicionibus: on what terms. 14. dubitàre quïn . . . crëdâtis: hesitate to entrust; dubitàre, meaning to hesitate, is usually followed by the complementary infinitive. 15. huic ünï: to this one man, i.e., to Pompey.

207

C h . XXIII—2

Let t h e O p i n i o n s o f O t h e r P r o m i n e n t R o m a n s P r e v a i l

Quod si 'auctôritâtibus hanc causam, Quirites, confirm andam putatis, est vôbïs auctor vir bellorum omnium m àxim ârum que rërum perltissimus, 2P. Servilius, cüjus tantae rës gestae terra m arïque 3exstitërunt, ut, cum dë bellô deliberetis, auctor vôbïs gravior esse nëmô dëbeat; est 4C. Cüriô, 5summïs vestris beneficiis mâximîsque rëbus gestis, summo ingeniô et prüdentià praeditus; est 6Cn. Lentulus, in quô omnës prô amplissimis vestris honoribus summum consilium, summam 'gravitatem esse cog­ novistis; est 8C. Cassius, integritate, virtute, constantia singulari. Quâ rë vidëte num hôrum 9auctôritàtibus illôrum 10ôrâtiônï, qui dissentiunt, respondëre posse videamur. 1. auctoritatibus: by experts. 2. P. Servilius: Publius Servilius Vatia, consul in 79 b .c.; he fought against the pirates in 78-75 b . c . 3. exstitërunt = fuërunt. 4. C. Cüriô: Gaius Scribonius Curio, con­ sul in 76 b .c. and afterward governor of Macedonia. 5. summis . . . praeditus: rewarded with your highest favors, distinguished for his very great achievements, [and] endowed with the highest degree of talent and prudence.

6. Cn. Lentulus: Gnaeus Cornelius Lentu­ lus Clodianus, consul in 72 b .c . He served as lieutenant with Pompey against the pirates. He had been defeated by Spartacus. 7. gravitàtem: dignity. 8. C. Cassius: Gaius Cassius Varus, consul in 73 b .c . He was also defeated by Spartacus. 9. auctôritàtibus: expert opinions of these [men].

10. ôràtiônï: arguments.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. Who are the experts mentioned by Cicero in this paragraph? 2. What does Cicero ask his hearers to observe? C h . X X iV - 1

I A p p l a u d a n d A p p r o v e M o s t H e a r t i l y T h is L a w

Quae cum ita sint, 4C. Mànïlï, prim um istam tuam et lëgem et 2volun­ tatem et sententiam laudô vehem entissim ëque comprobô; deinde të hortor, ut, 3auctôre populo Rômànô, m aneâs in sententia 4nëve cüjusquam vim aut minas pertimëscàs. Primum in të satis esse animî persevërantiaeque arbitror; deinde, cum tantam m ultitüdinem cum tantô studio adesse videamus, quantam iterum nunc in eôdem hom ine praeficiendo vidëmus, quid est, quod aut dë rë aut dë perficiendi facultate dubitëm us? Ego autem, quidquid est in më studï, cônsilï, laboris, ingenl, quidquid hôc beneficio populi Rômànï atque hac potestate praetoria, quidquid auctoritate, fidë, constantia possum, id omne ad hanc rem conficiendam tibi et populo Rômànô polliceor ac dëferô. 1. C. Mànïlï: Gaius Manilius the tribunis plëbis who pioposecl the bill under discussion. 2. voluntàtem et sententiam: purpose and proposal.

208

3. auctore . . . Rômànô: with the authority of the Roman people; ablative absolute, 4. nëve: and not.

1. What was the position of Gaius Manilius when he proposed his bill? 2. What does Cicero urge Manilius to do? 3. What qualifications and advantages does Manilius have which will help carry the bill through? 4. What does Cicero promise to devote to the passing of the bill?

C h. X X IV -2

M y M o tiv e s A re P atrio tic a n d D is in te re s te d

Tes torque 1omnës deôs et eôs maxime, qui huic locô 2tem plôque praesident, qui omnium m entes eôrum, qui 3ad rem püblicam adeunt, maxime 4perspiciunt, 5më hoc neque 6rogàtü facere cüjusquam, 7neque quô Cn. Pom pëjï grâtiam mihi per hanc causam conciliàrï putem , 8neque quô mihi ex cüjusquam 9am plitüdine aut praesidia periculis aut adjüm enta honoribus quaeram , proptereà quod pericula facile, 10ut hominem praestare oportet, innocentia tëctï repellëmus, honorem autem neque n ab ünô neque ex hôc locô, sed eadem illa nostra laboriosissima ratione vitae, si vestra voluntas 12feret, cônsequëm ur. Quam ob rem, quidquid in hâc causa 13mihi susceptum est, Quirïtës, id ego omne më reï püblicae causa suscëpisse cônfïrmô, tantum que abest, u t aliquam mihi bonam gratiam quaeslsse videar, 14ut multâs më etiam sim ultàtës partim obscürâs, partim apertas intellegam mihi non neces­ sarias, vôbïs non inütilës suscëpisse. Sed ego 15më hôc honore praeditum , tantis vestris beneficiis affectum statui, Quirïtës, vestram voluntatem et rei püblicae dignitatem et salütem provinciarum atque sociorum meis omnibus 16commodIs et rationibus praeferre oportëre.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What facts does Cicero call upon the gods to witness? By what means will Cicero repel dangers from himself? What does Cicero place above his own interests? To what does hôc honore, line 14, refer?

1. omnës deôs: the gods whose temples were near the Forum or on the Capitol. 2. templôque: both loco and templô refer to the Rostra. 3. ad . . . adeunt: enter public life. 4. perspiciunt: observe closely. 5. më . . . facere: Cicero means here to support the bill of Manilius. 6 rogâtü: at the bidding. 7. neque quô . . . putem: nor because I think; putem is subjunctive in a clause of quoted reason.

8. neque quô . . . quaeram: nor because I am seeking; rejected reason. 9. amplitudine: influence. 10. ut . . . oportet: so far as a [mere] man may guarantee [anything].

11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16.

ab ünô: Pompey. feret: shall allow. mihi = à më. ut . . . intellegam: result clause. më . . . praeferre: subject of oportëre. commodis et rationibus: advantages and interests.

209

ORATION FOR ARCHIAS Archias, a Greek poet, was born about 120 b . c . in Antioch, a Syrian city which formerly had been a center of wealth and culture, but which at the time had declined greatly because of wars and internal discord. A talent for verse-making won him honors while still a boy, and he was received and feted in many of the Greek cities which he visited in the course of his travels. He went to Rome in 102 b .c ., at a time when the pursuit of Greek culture had become fashionable and Greek scholars were flocking to Rome in great numbers. Archias at once became the protégé of several aristocratic families, espe­ cially the Luculli, who remained his most intimate friends. He spent some time in Sicily with Marcus Lucullus, brother of Lucius the general, and on his return journev through Italy, he stopped at Heraclea, a Greek city in Lucania, on the Gulf of Tarentum. While in this allied town, Archias was enrolled by the Heracleans as a citizen. Heraclea had been a cïvitàs foederata with Rome since 279 b . c . In 89 b . c ., after the Social War, the lëx Plautia Papiria granted Roman citizenship, under certain conditions, to all citizens of towns previously allied with Rome. The conditions were ( 1 ) enrollment in a civitas foederata; (2) residence in Italy; and (3) public declaration before a praetor. Archias, having fulfilled these conditions, became a Roman citizen. He took the name Aulus Licinius Archias; Licinius was the name of the gens to which his patrons, the Luculli, belonged. In 88 b .c . Lucullus, as quaestor, served in the First Mithridatic War under Sulla and took Arehias with him. They returned to Rome in SO b . c . Arehias again accompanied Lucullus in 73 b . c ., when Lucullus was given the command against Mithridates. After the command of the war was transferred to Pompey by the Manilian law, Lucullus and Arehias returned to Rome. In 63 b . c . Lucullus had his triumph, and Arehias published his poem the Mithridâticum, an epic on the exploits of Lucullus, the first poem written in Greek by a Greek in praise of a Roman. Suddenly and for no apparent reason, in 62 b .c ., a suit was brought against Arehias by a certain Grattius, who sought to prove that the poet had falsely claimed Roman citizenship. Arehias was without documentary evidence to support his case. The records of Heraclea had been burned during the Social War. His name was not on the census lists because of his long absences in the East with Lucullus. The only record he could show was the registration roll of Metellus the praetor, the reliability of which had been called into question. Fortunately, Arehias secured the services of Cicero, then at the height of his fame.

210

Cicero was personally concerned in more ways than one. Archias had not only been one of his teachers, but had also promised to write a poem in Greek on the achievements of his consulship. Lucullus had also helped and advised Cicero during his consulship. The trial was held before a jury, with Quintus Cicero, brother of the orator, presiding. Cicero talked briefly on the facts of the case, then devoted the remaining two thirds of his speech to a eulogy of the poet and a defense of literature in general and of poetry in particular. His eulogy of learning, the expression of his belief in the power of the true, the good, and the beautiful, and his enthusiasm for all that spells culture make this the most memorable of all his orations. Archias was acquitted. He began but never finished a poem on Cicero’s consulship. None of his works has been preserved. He owes his fame to Cicero’s oration.

Ch. I

I A m D e e p l y I n d e b t e d t o M y T e a c h e r , A u l u s L icin iu s

1Sî quid 12est in mê ingenï, jüdicës ( 3quod sentio quam sit exiguum ), aut si qua 4567exercitàtiô dicendi (in quâ më non Infitior m ediocriter esse versatum ), aut si hüjusce rel Tatiô aliqua ab optim arum artium studiis ac disciplina Gprofecta (à quâ ego nüllum confiteor aetâtis meae tempus abhorruisse), ‘eârum rërum omnium 89vel in prinus hic Aulus Licinius früctum à më repetere prope suô jüre dëbet. Nam, °quoad longissimë potest mëns m ea respicere spatium praeteriti temporis, et pueritiae memoriam recordari 10ültimam, 11*inde üsque repetëns, hunc video mihi 1-principem et ad suscipiendam et ad ingrediendam 13ratiônem 14hôrum studiorum ir,exstitisse. 16Quod si 17haec isvôx, hüjus h ortâtü praeceptisque 19cônfôrm àta, 20nôn nüllïs aliquando salütï fuit, à quô id accëpimus quô cëterïs 21opitulàrï et aliôs servàre possëmus, liuic profecto ipsi, --quantum est situm in nôbïs, et opem et salütem ferre dëbërnus. Ac në quis â nôbïs hoc ita dïcï forte m ïrëtur, quod alia quaedam in hôc facultas sit ingenï neque haec dicendi ratio aut disciplina, në nos quidem 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

SI quid: Whatever. est in më: I possess. quod = et. exercitatio dicendi: skill in speaking. ratio: theoretical knowledge. profecta: resulting from. eârum rërum: se. ingenï, exercitationis, ratiônis. vel in primis: among the very first. quoad longissimë: as far hack as. ültimam: earliest. inde . . . repetëns: retracing even from that time.

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

principem: leader (guide). rationem: systematic pursuit. hôrum = meôrum. exstitisse = fuisse. Quod si: If then. haec = mea. vox: oratorical power. cônfôrmàta: cultivated. non . . . salütï: a means of safety to some.

21. opitulari: to render services. 22. quantum . . . nôbïs: as far as in me lies.

huic ünï studio 23penitus um quam dediti fuimus. Etenim omnës artes, quae ad 24hüm ânitâtem pertinent habent quoddam com m üne vinculum et quasi 25côgnâtiône quâdam inter së continentur. 23. penitus: exclusively. 24. humanitatem: culture.

25. côgnâtiône: kinship.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Who are the jüdicës whom Cicero is addressing in this oration? Why should Archias benefit particularly from Cicero’s gift of oratory? Who had been Cicero’s earliest teacher and guide? Who has benefited from Cicero’s oratorical ability? To what activity has Cicero never been devoted entirely? What does Cicero find among the various studies that belongs to a liberal education?

Ch. II

W ith a Poet as Client, M y Style of Pleading Is Unusual

Sed në cui vestrum mirum esse videatur 4më 2in quaestione légitima et 3in jüdiciô püblicô ( 4cum rës agâtur apud r,praetôrem populi Rômânï, lëctissimum virum, et apud 6sevërissimôs jüdicës, 7tantô conventü hom i­ num ac frequentia) hoc ütl genere dicendi, quod non modo â cônsuëtüdine judiciorum, vërum etiam â forënsî sermône 8abhorreat, quaesô â vôbïs ut in hâc causa mihi dëtis hanc veniam, accom m odatam huic °reô, vôbïs, quem ad modum spërô, non molestam, ut më prô summô poëtâ atque ërudïtissimô hom ine dicentem , hôc concursü hom inum litteralissi­ morum, hâc vestrâ hüm ànitàte, hôc dënique praetôre 10exercente jüdicium, patiam ini dë studiis hüm ânitâtis ac litterarum paulô loqui liberius et in ëjus modi n persônà, quae propter 12otium ac studium m inim ë in jüdiciïs 13perïculïsque trâctâta est, ütï prope novô quôdam et inüsitâtô genere dïcendî. 14Quod si mihi â vôbïs tribu! concëdïque sentiam , perficiam profectô, ut hunc A. Licinium non modo non sëgregandum , cum sit civis, â numéro civium, vërum etiam, si non esset, putëtis 1'asciscendum fuisse. 1. me . . . ütï: subject of videatur. 2. in . . . légitima: in a criminal court. 3. in . . , püblicô: in a state trial. 4. cum . . . agâtur: although the case is being tried.

5. praetorem: Quintus Cicero, brother of the orator. 6. severissimos jüdicës: strict jury. 7. tantô . . . frequentia: in such a crowded assembly.

212

8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

abhorreat: is inconsistent with. reô: Archias. exercente judicium: presiding. persona: character. ôtium . . . studium: tranquil pursuits; hendiadys. 13. periculis: trials. 14. Quod: This. 15. asciscendum fuisse: ought to have been received [as a citizen].

1. 2. 3. 4.

What very well-read man is referred to here? W hat permission is Cicero asking? Why is Cicero’s request appropriate in this case? What figure of speech is exemplified in the words conventü . . . fre­ quentia?

5. What is Archias’ usual occupation?

Ch. I l l - l

A t an Early A ge Archias Rose to Fame

Nam, ut prim um 1234ex pueris excessit Archias atque ab eis artibus, quibus aetas puerilis 2ad hum anitatem Informari solet, së ad scribendi studium contulit, prim um Antiocheae (nam ibi nâtus est 3loco nobili), 4celebrl quondam urbe et côpiôsà atque eruditissimis hominibus 56lïberâlissimlsque studiis affluenti, celeriter antecellere omnibus ingenï glôriâ coepit. Post in cêterïs Asiae partibus cünctàque Graeciâ Gsïc ëjus adventüs celebra­ bantur, ut fâmam ingenï 7exspectàtiô hominis, exspectationem ipsius adventus adm lràtiôque S9superâret. E rat Italia tum plena G raecarum artium ac Miscipllnàrum, studiaque haec et in Latio vehem entius tum colebantur quam nunc eisdem in oppidis et hic Romae propter tranquillitatem reï püblicae non neglege­ bantur. Itaque hunc 10et Tarentini et Locrënsës et Rëgïnï et Neapolitani civitate cëferïsque praemiis n dônàrunt, y~et omnës, qui 1:!aliquid dë ingeniis poterant judicare, cognitione atque hospitio dignum existimarunt. Hac tan ta 14celebritâte fâm ae cum esset 15jam absentibus nôtus, Rômam vënit, Mario consule et Catulo.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What was the occupation that Archias engaged in when he was still a young man? 2. Where was Archias born? 3. What was Archias’ reputation at Antioch? 1. ex pueris: from boyhood. 2. ad . . . ïnfôrmàrï: to be trained for cul­ ture.

3. locô nôbilï: of [a family] of high rank. 4. celebri: populous. 5. liberalissimis studiis: the highest culture. 6. sic . . . celebrabantur: were so thronged ( brought such throngs). 7. exspectatio: anticipation. 8. superaret: exceeded. 9. disciplinarum: of their practical applica­ tion; that is, of the Greek learning.

10. 11. 12. 13.

et: not only. dônârunt = donaverunt. et: but also. aliquid . . . jüdicâre: were able to pass any judgment at all oni men of talent.

14. celebritate fâmae: on account of his w id esp read rep utat ion.

15. jam absentibus: even to those remote from him.

213

4. 5. 6. 7.

How does Cicero illustrate Archias’ fame? What did peace and prosperity stimulate at Rome? How did the inhabitants of Tarentum, Regium, and Naples treat Archias? When did Archias come to Rome?

Ch. 111-2

The Scholars of Rome W ere Proud to Welcome Archias

Nactus est primum cônsulës eôs, quorum alter ^ës ad scribendum màximàs, alter cum rës gestâs, tum etiam studium atque 12aurës adhibëre posset. Statim 3Lüculli, cum 4praetextàtus etiam tum Archiâs esset, eum domum suam recëpërunt. E t 56erat hoc non sôlum ingenl ac litterarum , vërum etiam nàtürae atque virtütis, Gut domus, quae hüjus adulëscentiae prim a fâvit, 7eadem esset familiarissima senectütï. E rat tem poribus illis jücundus 8Q. Metellô illi Num idicô et ëjus Piô fïliô, audiëbàtur à 9M. Aemiliô, vïvëbat cum Q. C atulô et patre et filio, à 10*L. Crasso colëbàtur; Lïicullôs vërô et n D rüsum et 12Octâviôs et 13Catônem et tôtam 14Hortënsiôrum domum 15dëvïnctam cônsuëtüdine cum tenëret, affîciëbâtur summô honore, quod eum non sôlum 16colëbant, qui aliquid percipere atque audire studëbant, vërum etiam si qui forte 17simulàbant. FOR DISCUSSION

1. Who at Rome gave Archias subject matter for his poems? 2. What celebrated Roman family received Archias? 3. What other famous Romans honored Archias? 1. rës: themes. 2. aurës: attention. 3. Lücullï: a famous Roman family; Lucius and Marius had won victories in the East. 4. praetextatus: wearing the toga prae­ texta; here it simply means youth. Archias, as a Greek, would not have worn the toga praetextata, which Roman boys wore, until the age of seventeen or eighteen. 5. erat . . . ingenï: this was due not only to his native talent; ingenï, genitive of possession used as predicate. 6. ut . . . esset: result clause; in apposi­ tion with hoc. 7. eadem: also. 8. Q. Metellô: Q. Caecilius Metellus Numi­ dicus, the uncle of Lucullus; he defeated Jugurtha, King of Numidia, in 109 b .c . 9. M. Aemiliô: Marcus Aemilius Scaurus, a leader of the aristocracy; he was consul in 115 and 107 b .c .

214

10. L. Crassô : Lucius Crassus, an eminent orator. 11. Drüsum: M. Livius Drusus: tribünus plëbis in 91 b .c.; he lost his life the same year. 12. Octâviôs: Cn. Octavius, his son, and an­ other Cn. Octavius; all were consuls. One of them, a colleague of Cinna and his bitter enemy, was massacred in a reign of terror, 87 b .c . 13. Catônem: M. Porcius Cato, the father of Cato of Utica. 14. Hortensiorum: a famous Roman family; the most noted Hortensius was the orator, a rival of Cicero. 15. dëvïnctam cônsuëtüdine: united by [bonds of] intimacy.

16. colëbant: respected him ( cultivated his friendship).

17. simulabant: pretended [this].

A Sojourn in Grt~ece Athena, the goddess of wisdom and the goddess of war, was the patroness of Athens and the protectrcss of the city. Her most famous tcrnp1e was the Parthenon in Athens, and the rock sacred to her was the Acropolis. This bronze statue, which dates from the fourth century B.c., was found in Piraeus, the chief port of Greece, about fi\'c miles southwest of Athens. Although she is the goddess of war, she is honorcd main1y as a protector and a dt'fcnder.

Citadel

of Mycenae,

looking toward

the Lion Gate.

Athenian Treasury, Delphi.

At the left, the two lionesses, now headless, of the Lion Gate stand guard over the entrance to the ancient ruins of Mycenae's citadel and royal residence. Above is a Doric-style temple, built to commemorate the founding of democracy by Cleisthenes in 509 B.c. Below, the Parthenon, the temple of Athena, stands on the highest point of the Acropolis, where it dominates the city of modem Athens and symbolizes the power and glory of ancient Athens. Acropolis and Parthenon,

Athens.

Greek potters made vases, dishes, bowls, and jars of lovely design and handsome decoration. In the earliest period, black-glazed figures were set against a red clay background; in a later period, when the potters had perfected their art, the color scheme was reversed. The subjects depicted on classical pottery ranged from daily life to mythology. Greek artists also made figurines, similar to those below, which usually depict deities and domestic scenes.

A woman with her maid.

Boeotian terra-cotta figures, showing a borber,

._____ _________

so_m_e_b_a_kers, and a woman cooking. Sixth century: B.C.

Man returning

Man on horseback.

from the hunt.

Woman Boy fishing.

Blacksmith's

shop.

washing

clothes.

Homeric bard reciting poetry.

Statuettes

of corn ic

Mosaic showing a scene from a comedy.

Music, the art of the Muses, included among the Greeks everything that belonged to a higher intellectual and artistic education. Originally the singing or chanting of an epic poem was accompanied by a cithara plucked by a bard or rhapsode such as the one pictured on the facing page. Later the rhapsode recited his poetry at the courts of princes and before festive gatherings without the aid of musical accompaniment. The comic actors on the facing page are playing parts typical of the characters in the New Comedy introduced by Menander, an Athenian of the fourth century B.c. In the theater at Epidaurus, pictured below, there is represented a scene from a Greek play staged in 1960.

Greek

theater

at Epidaurus.

An Olive Grove Olives were an important item in the economy of Greece and Rome. The olive itself was eaten as a fruit, and its oil, obtained hy means of an olive press, was used as a base in cooking, as a relish, or as a dressing, just as butter is used today. The oil was also employed for burning in lamps and for anointing the hody after a bath. Experts believe that some of these trees from the grove on the island of Leukas in the Ionian Sea date from the days of Plato in the fourth century B.C.

Ch. IV

A dm itted to Citizenship in Heraclea, He Later Became a Citizen in Accordance W ith the Terms of the Law

Interim ^ a tis longo intervallo, cum esset cum M. Lücullô in Siciliam profectus et cum ex eâ prôvinciâ cum eôdem Lücullô dëcëderet, vênit 2H ëraclëam . Q uae cum esset cïvitâs 3aequissimô jüre ac foedere, ascribi së in eam civitatem voluit, idque, cum ipse per së dignus putàrëtur, tum auctoritate et grâtiâ Lücullï, ab Hëraclëënsibus im petrâvit. D ata est cïvitâs Silvânï 4lëge et Carbônis: 5Sï qui foederatis civitatibus ascripti fuissent, si tu m , cum lêx fereba­ tur, in Italia dom icilium habuissent et si sexâgintâ diebus apud praetorem essent professi. Cum hic domicilium Rômae multos jam annôs 6habëret, professus est apud praetorem Q. M etellum, 7familiarissimum suum. Si nihil aliud nisi dë civitate ac lëge dicimus, nihil dico amplius: 8causa dicta est. Quid enim horum infirmari, Grati, potest? Hëraclëaene esse eum ascriptum negabis? Adest vir summa auctoritate et 9religiône et fidë, M. Lücullus: qui së non opinari, sed scire, non audivisse, sed vidisse, non interfuisse, sed 10ëgisse dicit. Adsunt Hëraclëënsës lëgàtï, nobilissimi hominës; hüjus jüdicï causa cum m andatis et cum 11püblicô tëstimôniô, vënërunt; 12quï hunc ascriptum Hëraclëae esse dicunt. Hic tü 13tabulàs dësïderàs H ëraclëënsium püblicàs, quàs 14ïtalicô bellô, ïncënsô 15Jtabulâriô, interisse scimus omnës. Est ridiculum ad ea, quae habëm us, nihil dicere, quaerere, quae habëre non possumus, et dë homi­ num m em oriâ tacëre, litterarum memoriam flagitare, et 16cum habeas amplissimi viri religionem, 17integerrim ï 18münicipï jüs jurandum fidem­ que, ea, quae dëpràvàrï nüllô modo possunt, repudiare, tabulas, quas idem dicis solëre corrum pi, dësïderàre. An domicilium Rômae non habuit is qui tot annis ante civitatem datam sëdem omnium rërum ac fortünàrum suârum Rômae collocavit? An non 1. satis . . . intervallo: some little time after; ablative of time within which. 2. Hëraclëam: to Heraclea, a colony of Tarentum. 3. aequissimo . . . foedere: with full treaty rights; ablative of description. 4. lëge: this law was proposed in 89 b .c. by the tribunes M. Plautius Silvanus and C. Papirius Carbo. It conferred Roman citizenship upon residents of Italy under certain conditions. 5. SI . . . professi: a quotation from the law. 6. habëret: had had. 7. familiarissimum suum: his intimate friend.

8. causa . . . est: the case has been stated ( the defense has been made ). 9. religiône et fidë: conscientiousness and reliability. 10. ëgisse: that he did [it]; Lucullus ob­

tained the franchise for Archias. 11. püblicô tëstimôniô: official evidence [of their magistrates].

12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

qui: and they. tabulas: records. ïtalicô bellô: known as the Social War. tabulâriô: the record office. cum: although. integerrimi: perfectly honest. münicipî: as a result of the Social War, Heraclea is a municipium, a free town.

215

est professus? Immô vërô eïs tabulis professus, quae sôlae ex illà ^profes­ sione collëgiôque praetorum obtinent püblicârum tabularum ^ a u cto ri­ tatem . 19. professione . . . praetorum: registration

20. auctoritatem: reliability.

of that board of praetors. FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

To what province did Archias go with M. Lucullus? Why did Archias wish to go to Heraclea to be enrolled? What figure of speech does jüre ac foedere, line 3, exemplify? What were three provisions of this law? How had Archias fulfilled these provisions? Who testified to Archias' enrollment as a citizen of Heraclea? What had happened to the records at Heraclea? Where had Archias lived for many years? Before whom had Archias declared his intention of becoming a citizen?

Ch. V —1

His Registration Before Metellus Is on Record

Nam, ^ u m 12Appi tabulae neglegentius asservatae dicerentur, Gabini quam diü 34incolumis fuit, Tevitâs, post dam nationem calamitas 5omnem tabularum fidem resignasset, Metellus, horno sanctissimus 6modestissimusque omnium, 7tanta diligentia fuit, ut ad L. Lentulum praetorem et ad jüdicës vënerit, et ünïus nôminis litürà së comm otum esse dixerit. His igitur in tabulis nüllam litüram in nom ine A. Licini vidëtis. Quae cum ita sint, quid est, 8quod dë ëjus civitate dubitëtis, praesertim cum aliis quoque in civitatibus fuerit ascriptus? Etenim , cum 9mediocribus multis et aut nüllà aut 10humili aliqua n arte praeditis gratuito civitatem in 12Graecià hominës im pertiëbant, Rëgïnôs crëdô aut Locrënsës aut Neapolitanos aut Tarentinos, quod 13scaenicis artificibus 14largïrï solëbant, id huic, summâ ingenï 15praeditô glôrià, noluisse! 1. cum: as. 2. Appi: Appius Claudius Pulcher, father of the Clodius who was responsible for Cicero’s banishment in 58 b .c . Appius was then praetor, later consul (79 b .c ); he was expelled from the Senate in 86 b .c ., perhaps because of carelessness in his official records. 3. incolumis = ante damnationem. 4. levitâs: frivolity ( general worthlessness). 5. omnem . . . resignasset: had destroyed all reliability of the records.

6. modestissimus: the most conscientious. 7. tanta ; tarn.

216

8. quod . . . dubitëtis: relative character­ istic clause. 9. mediocribus: ordinary people; dative with impertiëbant. 10. humili: lowly (inferior). 11. arte: accomplishment. 12. Graeciâ = Màgnà Graeciâ, in southern Italy, colonized by the Greeks. 13. scaenicis artificibus: stage performers; this was a degrading occupation at that time. 14. largiri: to lavish (to hand out right and left ).

15. praedito: endowed.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What is the criticism of Appius’ records? of Gabinius’ records? 2. What evidence is cited of the reliability of Metellus’ records? 3. To whom were the citizens of Regium, Locri, Naples, and Tarentum ac­ customed to grant citizenship? Where were these places located?

Ch. V - 2

W hy His N am e Is Not on the Census Lists Is Explained

Quid? C ëterï non modo ^ o s t civitatem datam , sed etiam post 123lëgem Pâpiam aliquô modo in eôrum m ünicipiôrum tabulas irrepserunt. Hic, qui në ütitur quidem illis, in quibus est scriptus, quod semper së Hëraclëënsem esse voluit, rejiciëtur? 3Cënsus nostrôs requiris. Scilicet; est enim 4obscürum 5proximïs cënsôribus hunc cum clarissimo im peratore, L. Lücullô, apud exercitum fuisse; superioribus cum 6eôdem quaestore fuisse in Asià; 7prïmïs, 8Jüliô et Crassô, nüllam populi partem esse cënsam. Sed, quoniam cënsus non jüs civitatis confirm at ac 9tantum modo indicat eum, qui sit cënsus, 10ita së jam tum gessisse n prô cive, eis tem poribus, quibus tü criminaris 12në ipsius quidem jüdiciô in civium Rômànôrum jüre 13esse versatum, et tëstâm entum saepe fëcit nostris lëgibus et 14adiit hërëditàtës civium Rôm ànôrum et 15in beneficiis ad aerarium dëlâtus est à L. Lücullô, 16prô cônsule. Q uaere 17argüm enta, 18si quae potes; num quam enim 19hic neque suô neque amicôrum 20jüdiciô 21revincëtur. FOR DISCUSSION

1. What three reasons does Cicero give for the absence of Archias’ name on the three last censuses? 2. Was enrollment on the census list a proof of citizenship? 1. post . . . datam:

after the franchise w a s

granted.

2. lègem Pâpiam: passed in 65 b .c ., three years before the date of this trial. It provided that all persons not having a legal residence in Italy must leave Rome. It was under this law that Grattius was prosecuting Archias. 3. Cënsus: c e n s u s lists. 4. obscurum = tibi non nôtum. 5. proximis censoribus: a t t h e t i m e t h e last census w a s taken.

6. eôdem quaestore: Lucullus, who at that time was quaestor. 7. primis: a t t h e first [ c e n s u s ] , after Archias had become a citizen in 89 b .c . 8. Jüliô et Crassô: Julius and Crassus were the first censors after the new law.

9. tantum modo: m e r e l y . 10. ita . . . gessisse: w a s s o

conducting him ­

self.

11. pro: as. 12. në . . . jüdiciô:

not ev en

in hi s o w n

opinion.

13. esse versatum: e x e r c i s e (h a v e a n y s ha re) . 14. adiit: e n t e r e d u p o n . 15. in beneficiis: a m o n g t h e b e n e f ic i a r i e s . Only a citizen could be an heir or even receive a legacy. 16. prô cônsule: a s p r o c o n s u l . 17. argumenta: c o n v i n c i n g p r o o f s . 18. si . . . potes: if y o u c a n [ find] a n y . 19. hic: Archias. 20. jüdiciô: o p i n i o n . 21. revincëtur: w i l l b e r e f u t e d .

217

3. What did this enrollment merely indicate? 4. In what three ways had Archias clearly shown that he believed himself a citizen? Ch. V I-1

Poets Afford Us Education and Recreation

Quaeres à nôbïs, Grâtï, cür tantô opere hôc homine M ëlectëmur. Quia 2suppeditat nôbïs 3ubi et animus ex hôc forënsï strepitü reficiatur et aurës 4convïciô dëfessae conquiëscant. An tü existimas aut °suppetere 6nôbïs posse quod cotïdië dïcàmus in tanta varietâte rërum, nisi animôs nostrôs 7doctrïnà 8excolâmus, aut ferre animôs tantam posse °contentiônem, nisi eôs doctrïnâ eâdem relaxëmus? Ego vërô fateor më hïs studiïs esse dëditum . Cëterôs pudeat, 10sï qui ita së litteris abdidërunt, ut nihil possint ex eïs neque ad com m ünem af­ ferre n früctum neque 12in aspectum lùcem que prôferre; 13më autem quid pudeat, qui tot annôs ita vïvô, jüdicës, ut â nüllïus um quam më 14tem pore aut 15commodô aut ôtium meum abstraxerit aut voluptâs âvocârit aut dënique somnus retardàrit? 1.

dëlectëmur:

taken

up

w ith

( interested

in).

2. suppeditat . . . ubi:

he furnishes us w h e r e ( he su pplies us w ith th e m ea n s w h e r e b y ).

3. ubi = locum in quo; ubi . . . reficiatur: characteristic clause. 4. convicio: w r a n g l i n g . 5. suppetere = passive of suppeditare. 6. nôbïs: includes other orators and public men. 7. doctrïnâ: b y l e a r n i n g ( b y t h e s t u d y o f

8. excolamus: c u l t i v a t e . 9. contentionem: st rain. 10. sï . . . abdidërunt: if t h e y 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

h a v e so b u r i e d t h e m s e l v e s in t h e i r b o o k s . früctum: a d v a n t a g e ( w e l f a r e ) . in . . . prôferre: t o b r i n g o u t i n t o t h e light of pu blic ity. më . . . pudeat: b u t w h y s h o i d d I b e ashamed? tempore: n e e d . commodô: a d v a n t a g e .

l i t e r a t u r e ).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Who is asking Cicero why he esteems Archias so much? How does the reading of poetry help Cicero in his oratory? How do some people misuse their study of literature? How does Cicero use literature in his private life? How does he use it in his professional life?

Ch. V I—2

Time That Others Dissipate I Devote to Literature

Quâ rë quis tandem më deprehendat, aut quis mihi jüre suscënseat, “si, quantum 3cëterïs ad suas rës obeundâs, quantum ad fëstôs diës lüdô1. reprehendat: potential subjunctive. 2. sï quantum . . . temporum; . . . tantum . . . egomet . . . sumpsero: if I t a k e as

218

much time as; temporum is plural be-

cause it refers to many occasions. 3. cëterïs: t o o t h e r s .

rum celebrandos, quantum ad alias voluptàtës et ad ipsam requiem animï et corporis conceditur tem porum , quantum aliï tribuunt 4tempestïvïs conviviis, quantum dënique 5alveolô, quantum 6pilae, 2tantum mihi egom et ad haec studia recolenda sümpserô? A tque hoc ideô mihi concedendum est magis, quod ex his studiis haec quoque crëscit ‘ôràtiô et facultas, quae, quantacum que in më est, numquam amicorum periculis defuit. 8Quae si cui 9levior videtur, 10illa quidem certë, quae summa sunt, u ex quô fonte hauriam, sentio. 4. tempestivis conviviis: t o e a r l y b a n q u e t s ; they began in the early afternoon. 5. alveolô: d i c e p l a y i n g . 6. pilae: ball. Handball games were favor­ ite amusements of the Romans. 7. ôràtiô et facultas: p o w e r in s p e a k i n g ; hendiadys.

8. Quae si: B u t if this. 9. levior: t rifling m a t t e r . 10. ilia: t h o s e [ p r i n c i p l e s o f r i g h t l i v i n g ]; object of hauriam. 11. ex . . . hauriam: indirect question.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. In what three general ways does Cicero say Romans spend their leisure time? 2. What were some of the amusements that Romans enjoyed in their leisure time? 3. How did Cicero spend his leisure time? 4. What talent of Cicero’s benefited by this wise use of leisure time? 5. Who benefits especially from this talent? Ch. V I-3

Literature Records G reat Achievements and Noble Deeds

Nam, nisi f u l t o r u m praeceptis “m ultisque litteris mihi ab adulescentia suasissem nihil esse in vïtâ mâgnô opere expetendum nisi 3laudem atque honestatem , in eâ autem persequenda omnës cruciàtüs corporis, omnia pericula mortis atque exsili 4parvï esse dücenda, num quam më prô salüte vestra in tot ac tantas dim icationes atque in ;jhôs 6prôflïgàtôrum hominum cotidianos im petüs objecissem. Sed 7plënï omnës sunt libri, 7plënae Ssapientium vôcës, °plëna exem­ plorum vetustas; quae jacërent in tenebris omnia, nisi litterarum lümen accëderet. Quam multas nobis imagines non sôlum ad intuendum , vërum 1. multorum praeceptis:

b y th e teachings

of m a n y [m asters].

2. multisque litteris: ture

and by much

litera­

( b y w i d e r e a d i n g ).

3. laudem atque honestatem: r e p u t a t i o n f o r i n t e g r i t y ; hendiadys. 4. parvi: o f l i t t l e i m p o r t a n c e . 5. hôs = më. 6. profligatorum hominum: those members

of the popular party who sympathized with the Catilinarian conspirators and who eventually avenged their death by Cicero’s exile. 7. plënï . . . plënae . . . plëna: anaphora. 8. sapientium vôcës: t h e t e a c h i n g s o f t h e philosophers.

9. plëna . . . vetustas: [is] f u l l o f i n s t a n c e s .

antiquity

(h istory)

219

etiam ad im itandum fortissimorum virôrum 10expressas scriptores et Graeci et Latini reliquerunt! Quas ego mihi sem per in adm inistranda rë püblicâ prôpônëns, n animum et m entem meam ipsâ cogitatione hominum excellentium 1“conformabam. 10. expressas . . . reliquërunt: h a v e d e p i c t e d

that is, the emotions and the intellect.

12. cônfôrmàbam:

a n d l eft.

11. animum et mentem:

heart

and

I e n d e a v o r e d t o train.

m ind;

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What does Cicero think is the only thing worthwhile seeking in life? What are to be considered of little importance in pursuing this aim? To what has Cicero already exposed himself in pursuing this aim? What would have remained in oblivion if it were not for the light of litera­ ture? 5. What have the Greek and Latin writers depicted and left to us? 6. How did Cicero train his emotions and intellect?

Ch. V II

Great Men O w e Their Eminence to Talent and Culture

Q u a e re t quispiam: ‘Quid? Illi ipsi summi viri, quorum virtütës litteris 2prôditae sunt, istàne doctrïnà, quam tü effers laudibus, ërudïtï fuërunt?’ Difficile est hoc dë omnibus confirmare, sed tam en est certum , 3quid respondeam. Ego multos hominës 4excellentï animo ac virtüte fuisse sine 5doctrïnà et nàtürae ipsius 6habitü prope dïvïnô per së ipsos 7et m odera­ tos et gravës Sexstitisse fateor; etiam illud adjungô, saepius ad laudem atque virtütem °nâtüram sine doctrïnà quam sine nàtürà valuisse doc­ trinam. 10Atque idem ego hoc contendo, cum ad nâtüram n eximiam et illüstrem 12accesserit 13ratiô quaedam cônfôrm àtiôque doctrinae, tum illud 14nësciô quid praeclarum ac singulare losolëre exsistere. Ex hoc esse hunc 1. Quaeret quispiam: S h o u l d a n y o n e 2. proditae sunt: h a v e b e e n h a n d e d

ask. down

[ t o U.S1]; i.e., to the books to which he has just alluded.

3. quid respondeam: ( m y a n s w e r );

w h a t I should an sw er

indirect question subject

of est.

4. excellenti . . . virtüte: ablative of de­ scription.

5. doctrïnà: f o r m a l t r a i ni ng . 6. habitu prope dïvïnô: b y an c o n t r o l l e d a n d s er i ous .

8. exstitisse = fuisse.

sa m e t im e I maintain.

11. eximiam et illüstrem: e x c e p t i o n a l a n d noteworthy.

12. accesserit:

th e re

has

been

added

(is

g i v e n ).

13. ratio . . . doctrinae: m e t h o d a n d m o d e l ­ almost su p er­

h u m a n quality.

7. et moderàtôs .. . gravës:

9. nâtüram sine doctrïnà . . . sine nàtürà . . . doctrinam: chiasmus. 10. Atque . . . contendô: A n d y e t a t t h e

both

s e l f-

ing of training t r a i n i n g ).

(a

certain

system atic

14. nèsciô quid = aliquid. 15. solëre exsistere: is a c c u s t o m e d ( is t h e u s u a l r e s u l t ).

t o exi st

num éro, quem patres nostri viderunt, divinum hominem, 16Àfricànum; ex hôc 17C. Laelium , 18L. Fürium , moderatissimos homines et continentissimôs; ex hôc fortissimum virum et 19illis tem poribus doctissimum, 20M. Catonem illum senem; qui profecto si nihil 2lad percipiendam colendam que virtütem litteris adjuvarentur, num quam së ad earum studium contulissent. Quod si non hic tantus früctus ostenderetur, et si ex his studiis delecta­ tio sôla peteretur, tam en, ut opinor, hanc animi 22remissiônem hümànissimam ac liberalissimam jüdicàrëtis. 23Nam 24cëterae 2r,neque tem porum sunt neque aetatum 26omnium neque locorum; at haec studia adulescen­ tiam alunt, senectütem oblectant, 27secundâs rës ornant, 2Sadversis per­ fugium ac solacium praebent, dëlectant domi, non im pediunt foris, 29pernoctant nôbïscum, 30peregrïnantur, 31m sticantur. Quod si ipsi haec neque attingere neque 32sënsü nostrô gustare possëmus, tam en ea m ïrârï dëbërëm us etiam cum in aliis vidërëmus. 16. Africanum: Scipio Africanus the younger, who destroyed Carthage in 146 b .c. 17. C. Laelium: Gaius Laelius, a friend of Scipio. 18. L. Fürium: Lucius Furius Philus, consul in 136 b .c. 19. illis temporibus: f o r t h o s e t i m e s . 20. M. Catônem: M. Porcius Cato (234-149 b .c . ) was a conservative Roman, particu­ larly hostile to all things Greek. He wrote a history (Orïginës) and a work on farming (Dë Agrî Cultürâ). 21. ad . . . virtütem: t o w a r d t h e a p p r e c i a ­ tion a n d cultiv ation of virtue. remissionem: r e l a x a t i o n .

22. 23. Nam . . . rüsticantur: This sentence is a famous tribute to cultural education; it

is as true now as it was in the days of Cicero. 24. cëterae [animî remissiônës] : o t h e r r e ­ laxations of the m ind.

25. neque . . . sunt: a r e n o t a d a p t e d to. 26. omnium: use with temporum, aetàtum, locôrum. 27. secundâs rës: p r o s p e r i t y . 28. adversis [rébus]: f o r a d v e r s i t y . 29. pernoctant: t h e y p a s s t h e n i g h t . 30. peregrinantur: t h e y a c c o m p a n y u s o n our journeys.

31. rüsticantur: 32.

th e y pass the tim e w ith us in t h e c o u n t r y . sënsü nostro gustâre: a p p r e c i a t e w i t h our o w n u ndersta nding.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What does Cicero admit about men of natural ability without learning? 2. What combination produces the best kind of leader? 3. What occupation is suitable to all circumstances, ages, and places?

Ch. V l l l - l

Actors Are A pplauded for Physical Graces; Men with Intellectual Talents Should Likewise Be Honored

Quis nostrum tam animo agresti ac dürô fuit, ut ^ ô s c ï m orte nüper non com m ovërëtur? Qui cum esset senex mortuus, tam en propter excel1. Rosci: Quintus Roscius was a slave who had become the most applauded actor of his time and had acquired great

wealth. He died only a few months before this trial (62 b .c .).

lentem artem ac venustatem vidëbâtur omnïnô 12morï non debuisse. Ergô ille corporis 8môtü tantum amorem sibi conciliàrat à nôbïs omnibus; nos 4animôrum incredibiles môtüs celeritâtem que ingeniorum neglegemus? Quotiens ego hunc Archiam vidi, jüdicës (ü tar enim vestrâ benignitate, quoniam niâ in hoc novô genere dicendi tam diligenter attenditis), quotiens ego hunc vidi, 5cum litteram scripsisset nüllam, m agnum num erum optimorum versuum dë eis ipsis rëbus, 6quae tum agerentur, dicere ex tempore! Quotiëns 7revocàtum 8eandem rem dicere, Jcommütàtïs verbis atque sententiis! Quae vërô accürâtë côgitâtëque scripsisset, ea sic vidi probari, ut ad 10veterum scriptorum laudem perveniret. 2. mori . . . debuisse:

o u g h t n o t to h a v e

6. quae . . . agerentur: g o i n g on

died.

3. môtù: a g i l i t y . 4. animorum . . . ingeniorum:

extraordinary m e n ta l ac tiv ity a n d natural quickness. 5. cum . . . nüllam: w h e n h e h a d w r i t t e n no letter ( w ith o u t h aving w ritten a letter).

w h i c h w e r e then

( c u r r e n t e v e n t s ).

7. revocatum: w h e n e n c o r e d . 8. eandem . . . dicere: t o t r e a t

the same

theme.

9. commutatis . . . sententiis: 10.

w ith a change

of w o r d s a n d expressions. veterum: a n c i e n t ( c l a s s i c ) .

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

What particular qualities made Roscius so popular with the Roman people? Why ought Roscius not to have died, according to Cicero? In what ways has Archias frequently shown his cleverness and ability? With whose extraordinary mental activity and natural quickness does Cicero compare the agility and grace of Roscius?

Ch. VI11-2

All Nations Have Honored Poets

Hunc ego non Mlligam, non Adm irer, non omnl ratiône dëfendendum 1putem ? Atque sic â summis hominibus ërudltissim lsque accëpimus, 2cëterârum rërum studia 34ex doctrïnà et praeceptis et arte cônstâre, 4poëtam nàtürà ipsâ valëre et mentis viribus excitàrï et ’quasi dïvïnô quôdam spïritü ïnflàrï. Quà rë 6suô jüre 7noster ille Ennius sànctôs appel­ lat poëtâs, quod quasi deôrum aliquô dônô atque m ünere scom m endâtï nôbïs esse videantur. Sit igitur, jüdicës, sânctum apud vos, humanissimos hominës, hoc poëtae nômen, quod nülla um quam barbaria violavit. Saxa et sôlitüdinës voci respondent, bëstiae saepe immànës cantü flectuntur atque côn1. diligam, admirer, putem: subjunctive in

5. quasi . . . ïnflàrï:

deliberative question.

2. cëteràrum . . . studia: all o t h e r t h in g s;

the

pursuit

of

i.e., except poetry.

3. ex . . . cônstâre:

is b a s e d o n i n s t r u c t i o n ,

rule, a n d p r a c t i c e .

4. poëtam . . . valëre:

[but] the p o e t d e ­ r i v e s his p o w e r f r o m n a t u r e h er s e lf .

222

6. 7.

is i n s p i r e d as i t w e r e w ith a certain d iv in e p o w e r . suô jüre: w i t h hi s o w n ( s p e c i a l ) r i ght . noster . . . Ennius: o u r o w n f a m o u s E n n i u s ; born at Rudiae in Calabria in 239 b .c . The Romans considered him

the father of Latin poetry.

8. commendàtï nôbïs:

e n t r u s t e d t o us.

sistunt; nos 9ïnstitütï rébus optimis non poêtârum voce moveamur? 10H om ërum “ Colophonii civem esse 12dlcunt suum, 13ChiI suum vindi­ cant, “ Salaminii repetunt, 1’Smyrnaei vërô suum esse confirmant, itaque etiam dëlübrum ëjus in oppidô dëdicàvërunt; 16perm ultl alii praeterea pugnant inter se atque contendunt. 9. instituti . . . optimis:

instru cted in th e b e s t s u b j e c t s ( e d u c a t e d as t v e a r e ) .

10. Homërum: Homer, the famous Greek epic poet who wrote the I l i a d and the Odyssey.

11. Colophonii: the citizens of Colophon in Asia Minor. 12. dicunt . . . vindicant . . . repetunt . . . confirmant: s a y . . . c l a i m . . . d e m a n d . . . i nsist; climax.

13. Chii: the people of Chios, a city on the island of Chios in the Aegean Sea. 14. Salaminii: the people of Salamis in Cyprus. 15. Smyrnaei: the people of Smyrna in Ionia. There were a temple and a statue of Horner at Smyrna. 16. permulti alii: Rhodes, Argos, and Athens are cities mentioned by tradition as claiming Homer.

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What does Cicero say we have learned from most eminent 'and learned men? 2. In what way does the profession of poetry differ from other professions? 3. What does Ennius remark about poets? 4. How should the name of poet be regarded among cultured men? 5. What mythological character is said to have moved rocks by his music? 6. Compare the myths of Amphion, Arion, and Orpheus. 7. What cities contended for Homer as a native son?

Ch. I X - 1

Shall W e Repudiate Our Poet Who Records Our Deeds?

Ergô ill! ^liën u m , quia poëta fuit, post mortem etiam expetunt; nos hunc vivum, qui et voluntate et lëgibus noster est, repudiabim us, praeser­ tim cum omne ôlim studium atque omne ingenium contulerit Archias ad populi Rômânï gloriam laudem que celebrandum ? Nam et 2Cimbricâs rës adulëscëns attigit et ipsi illi C. Mario, qui 3dürior ad haec studia vidëbàtur, 4jücundus fuit. N eque enim quisquam est tam âversus à 5Müsïs, 6quï non m andârï versibus 'aeternum suôrum laborum facile praeconium patiatur. T h e ­ mistoclem illum, summum Athënls virum, dixisse âjunt, cum ex eô 1. aliênum: f o r e i g n e r . 2. Cimbricas res: the campaign of Marius against the Cimbri in 102 b .c . Archias wrote an epic poem on Marius’ victory over the Cimbri. 3. dürior . . . studia: t o o r o u g h f o r t h e s e p u r s u i t s . Marius’ only education was in the camp and on the battlefield. 4. jücundus fuit: w a s p l e a s i n g t o ( f o u n d f a v o r w i t h ).

5. Müsïs: the nine goddesses who presided over various phases of learning. 6. qui . . . patiatur: relative characteristic clause. 7. aeternum . . . praeconium: e v e r l a s t i n g panegyric (e u lo g y).

8. Themistoclem: Themistocles, the cele­ brated Athenian leader, born about 514 b .c . He was victorious over the Persian fleet at Salamis, 480 b .c.

223

quaererëtur, quod acroâma aut cüjus vôcem libentissim ë audiret: ëjus, à quô sua virtüs optimë 9praedicàrëtur. Itaque ille Marius item eximië 10L. Plôtium dïlëxit, cüjus ingenio putàbat ea, quae gesserat, posse celebrârï. 9. praedicaretur: subjunctive in subordinate clause in indirect discourse after audire understood.

10. L. Plôtium: Lucius Plotius Gallius, Roman rhetorician,

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Why should the Romans not repudiate Archias? In what way had Archias glorified the Roman people? What sort of poetry would please any man? What poetry did Themistocles prefer? Why did the uneducated Marius like Lucius Plotius so much?

Ch. IX -2

Archias Has Im m ortalized Rome by His Poetry

^ ith rid â tic u m vërô bellum, m agnum atque difficile et in m ulta V arie­ tate terra m arique versatum, tôtum ab 123hôc 4567expressum est; °qul libri non modo L. Lücullum, fortissimum et clarissimum virum, vërum etiam populi Rômànï nômen illüstrant. Populus enim Rômânus aperuit, Lücullô im perante, Pontum et rëgiïs quondam opibus et ipsâ Gnàtürà et regione vallatum; populi Rômànï exercitus, eôdem duce, non màximà manü innumeràbilës Armeniorum copias Tfüdit; populi Rômànï laus est urbem amicissimam 8Cyzicënôrum ëjusdem cônsiliô ex omnï im petü regiô atque tôtïus belli ôre ac faucibus 9ëreptam esse atque servàtam ; 10nostra semper ferëtur et praedicàbitur, L. Lücullô dim icante, cum, interfectis ducibus, dëpressa hostium classis est, incrëdibilis apud n Tenedum pügna illa nàvàlis; nostra sunt tropaea, nostra m onum enta, nostri trium phi. 12Quae quorum ingeniis efferuntur, ab eis populi Rômànï fàm a 13celebràtur. Càrus fuit Àfricànô superiôrï noster Ennius, itaque etiam in sepulchrô Scipionum p u tàtu r is esse cônstitütus 14ex marm ore; at eïs laudibus certë 1. Mithridàticum . . . bellum: that part of the Mithridatic War which was con­ ducted by Lucullus, patron of Archias. Archias had accompanied Lucullus on two of his campaigns and had written a poem on the subject. 2. varietate: v i c i s s i t u d e s . 3. hoc: Archias. 4. expressum est: h a s b e e n d e p i c t e d . 5. qui: n o w t h e s e . 6. nàtürà et regione: hendiadys. 7. füdit: r o u t e d . 8. Cyzicenorum: Cyzicus was saved by Lu­ cullus in 73 b .c.

224

9. ëreptam . . . servàtam:

rescued and kept

safe .

10. nostra . . . praedicàbitur: be

m entioned

and

i vi ll a l w a y s p r o c l a i m e d a s o ur

[achievement]. 11. Tenedum: T e n e d o s , an island opposite Troy. A victory for the Romans was won here over Mithridates’ fleet in 73 B.C.

12. Quae = Et haec. 13. celebràtur: is g l o r i f i e d . 14. ex marmore: i n m a r b l e (a bust or a statue ).

non sôlum ipse qui laudatur, sed etiam populi Rômànï nômen ôrnâtur. In caelum hüjus proavus Catô tollitur; mâgnus honôs populi Rômànï rebus adjungitur. Omnês denique illi Maximi, Marcelli, Fulvii non sine comm ünï omnium nostrum laude 15decorantur. 15. decorantur: are honored. FOR DISCUSSION

1. Whom did Archias glorify in his account of the Mithridatic campaign? 2. Where did Lucullus win victories for the Roman people? 3. Where was a marble image of Ennius supposed to have been placed by Scipio Africanus? 4. What other famous men and families are honored in the Annales of Ennius? 5. What figure of speech is exemplified in ore ac faucibus, line 9? nostra . . . nostra . . . nostri, line 12?

C h . X —1

H e r o e s D e s i r e t o b e I m m o r t a l i z e d in V e r s e

Ergo illum, qui haec fecerat, R u d in u m hominem, majorés nostri in civitatem receperunt; nos 12hunc Heracleensem 3multls civitatibus ex­ petitum , in hac autem lëgibus cônstitütum dé nostrà civitate ejiciemus? Nam si quis minôrem glôriae fm etum putat ex Graecis versibus percipi quam ex patinis, vehem enter errat, proptereâ quod 4Graeca leguntur in omnibus ferë gentibus, Latina suis finibus exiguis sànë continentur. Quâ rë, 5sï rës eae, quâs gessimus, orbis terrae 6regiônibus dëfïniuntur, cupere dëbëmus, quô m anuum nostrarum tëla pervënerint, 7eôdem glôriam fâm am que penetrare, quod 8cum ipsis populis, dë quorum rëbus scribitur, haec am pla sunt, 8tum eïs certë qui 9dë vltâ glôriae causa dim icant, hoc maximum et periculorum 10incitâm entum est et laborum. Quam multos scrîptôrës rërum suârum magnus ille 1A lexander sëcum habuisse dicitur? Atque is tam en, cum in 12Sïgëô ad Achillis tum ulum 1. Rudinum hominem: a man of Rudiae, Ennius, who later became a Roman citizen. 2. hunc Heracleensem: Archias. 3. multis civitatibus: dative of agent with expetitum. 4. Graeca = Graeca scripta. Greek at that time was the world language, while Latin was hardly used outside Italy except as an official language. 5. si: since. 6. regionibus = finibus. 7. eôdem: to the same place (as far); Cicero wishes the record of Rome’s

armies to be known as far as their weapons reach. 8. cum . . . turn: not only . . . but also. 9. dë vita: for their lives (at the risk of their lives).

10. incitamentum: inducement. 11. Alexander: King of Macedonia, who penetrated with his army as far east as India. 12. Sïgëô: Sigeum, a promontory near Troy. Achilles is the hero of Homer’s Iliad, and Alexander claimed to be his de­ scendant.

225

astitisset: “Ô 13fortünàte,” inquit, “adulëscëns, 14quî tuae virtütis Ho­ merum praeconem invënerïs!” 15Et vërë. Nam, nisi Ilias illa exstitisset, idem tumulus, qui corpus ëjus contëxerat, nômen etiam obruisset. 13. fortunate: vocative. 14. qui . . . invënerïs: relative characteristic clause; qui, since.

15. Et vërê [locütus est]: And [he spoke] truly (he was right).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4.

To whom does ilium, line 1, refer? In what language did Archias write? How far, according to Cicero, should Rome’s fame be extended? For whom would a knowledge of the nation’s achievements be an induce­ ment?

C h . X —2

R o m a n s H a v e A lw a y s H o n o re d a n d R e w a r d e d P oets

Quid? Noster hic 4Magnus, qui cum virtüte fortünam adaequavit, nonne 2Theophanem M ytilënaeum, scriptorem rërum suârum, in contione militum civitate dônâvit, et nostri illi fortës viri, sed 3rüsticï ac mïlitës, dulcëdine quadam gloriae commoti, quasi participés ëjusdem laudis, màgnô illud clâmôre approbàvërunt? Itaque, crëdô, si civis Rômânus Archiâs lëgibus non esset, 4ut °ab aliquo im peratore civitate dônàrëtur, perficere non potuit. Sulla cum Hispânôs et Gallôs dônâret, crëdô, hunc 6petentem repudiàsset; quem nos in contione vidimus, cum ei 7libellum malus poëta 8dë populo 9subjëcisset, quod epigramm a in eum fëcisset, tantum modo 10alternis versibus longius­ culis, statim ex eis rëbus, quâs tum “ vëndëbat, jubëre ei praem ium tribui, sed eà condicione, 12në quid postea scriberet. 13Quï sëdulitàtem mali poëtae düxerit aliquô tam en praemio dignam, hüjus ingenium et 14virtütem in scrïbendô et 15côpiam non expetisset? 1. Magnus: Both Alexander and Pompey were called “the Great.” 2. Theophanem: Theophanes of Mytilene, a Greek historian. He was a friend and adviser of Pompey and wrote a history of the war with Mithridates. 3. rüsticï: uncultured. 4. ut . . . dônàrëtur: substantive clause of result. 5. ab . . . imperatore: Roman generals could confer citizenship upon individuals. 6. petentem = si petlsset. 7. libellum: little book ( manuscript ). 8. dë populo: of the people. 9. subjëcisset: had handed up (to Sulla sitting on a platform).

10. alternis . . . longiusculis: with alternate lines slightly longer; i.e., elegiac couplets. 11. vëndëbat: he was selling; Sulla was pre­ siding at the sale of property confiscated from those whom he had proscribed. 12. nè . . , scriberet: substantive clause of purpose in apposition with eà condi­ tione. 13. Qui . . . düxerit: relative characteristic clause expressing cause; qui, since. 14. virtütem: excellence. 15. côpiam: facility.

Quid? 16A. Q. M etellô Piô, familiarissimo suô, qui cïvitàte multos dônâvit, neque per së neque per Lücullôs 17im petrâvisset? 18Quî prae­ sertim üsque eô dë suis rëbus scrîbï cuperet, ut etiam 19C ordubae nàtïs poëtïs, pingue quiddam sonantibus atque 20peregrïnum , tam en aurës suas dëderet. 16. A. Q. Metellô Piô: Aulus Quintus Metel­ lus Pius, cousin of the Lücullï. 17. impetravisset: would have secured (from Aulus Quintus Metellus Pius). 18. Qui . . . cuperet: relative character-

istic clause expressing cause; qui, since. 19. Cordubae: Cordova, Spain. 20. peregrinum: foreign-sounding (provin­ cial).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

To whom does Noster hic Magnus in line 1 refer? Why did Theophanes receive his citizenship? How did the soldiers show their approval of Theophanes* work? To whom did Sulla give citizenship? How did Sulla reward a poor poet? How does Cicero indirectly state that Archias is a Roman citizen? How did Aulus Quintus Metullus show that he wanted his deeds written?

C h . XI—1

A ll M e n D e s i r e F a m e ; E v e n G e n e r a l s H o n o r P o e t s

N eque ,enim est hoc dissimulandum, quod obscürârï non potest, sed *prae nobis ferendum : trahim ur omnës studio laudis, et 2optimus quisque mâximë 3glôrià dücitur. Ipsi illi philosophi etiam eis libellis, quôs dë contem nenda glôrià scribunt, nômen suum inscribunt; in eô ipso, in quô 4praedicàtiônem 5nôbilitâtem que dëspiciunt, 6praedicàrï dë së ac nôm inàrï volunt. 7Decimus quidem Brütus, summus vir et im perator, 8Accï, amicissimi sui, carm inibus tem plorum ac m onum entorum aditüs exornavit suorum. Jam vërô ille, qui cum Aetolis, Ennio comite, bellavit, 9Fulvius non 1. prae nôbïs ferendum: must he brought 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

before us (must be frankly acknowl­ edged ). optimus quisque: each best one (the best of us ). glôrià: ambition. praedicationem: praise. nobilitatem: renown. praedicari . . . nôminàrï: to be praised and named ( celebrated) [for their own

works]. 7. Decimus . . . Brütus: consul in 136 b . c . and a famous Roman general who triumphed in 132 b . c . over what is now Portugal. He built a temple of Mars on the Campus Martius.

8. Accï: a friend of Brutus and a writer of tragedies. Some of his verses were inscribed at the entrance to the temple of Mars. 9. Fulvius: Marcus Fulvius Nobilior, a Roman general who led an expedition against Aetolia. He was a patron of Ennius and took him on the expedition. In his triumphal procession (187 b . c . ) , he displayed over a thousand Greek statues, some of which he placed in a temple of Hercules and the Muses, which he had built in the Campus Martius.

227

dubitavit Martis 10m anubiàs Müsïs consecrare. Qua re, in qua urbe im perâtôrês n prope armât! poëtârum nômen et M üsàrum dêlübra coluërunt, 12in eâ non dëbent 13togàtï jüdicës â M üsàrum 14honôre et à poëtârum salüte abhorrëre. 10. manubiâs: spoils. 11. prope armàtï: almost armed ( almost straight from war).

12. in eâ [urbe]: in this [city]. 13. togàtï: in civilian dress, 14. honore: honoring,

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What general attitude of men toward praise and ambition must be openly avowed? 2. How do philosophers who pretend in their books to condemn praise and renown contradict their own teaching? 3. How did Brutus show his respect for literature? 4. What Roman general did the poet Quintus Ennius accompany on his ex­ pedition to Aetolia? 5. With whom does Cicero contrast famous Roman generals in their high regard for literature? 6. To whom did Marcus Fulvius Nobilior dedicate the spoils of war?

Ch. X I-2

C i c e r o H o p e s t o H a v e H is D e e d s P e r p e tu a te d b y A rchias

Atque ut bd libentius faciàtis, jam 12më vôbïs, jüdicës, indicàbô et dë meô quôdam amôre glôriae, nimis àcrï fortasse, vërum tam en honestô, vôbïs cônfitëbor. Nam, 3quàs rës nos in cônsulàtü nostrô vôbïscum simul prô salüte hüjus urbis atque imper! et prô vïtà cïvium prôque üniversà rë püblicà gessimus, attigit 4hic versibus atque bncohàvit. Quibus audïtïs, quod mihi m àgna rës et jücunda vïsa est, hunc ad perficiendum adhortàtus sum. Nüllam enim virtüs aliam m ercëdem labôrum perïculôrum que dësïderat praeter hanc laudis et glôriae; r>quà quidem dëtràctà, jüdicës, "quid est quod in hôc tam exiguô vîtae curriculô et tam brevï tantïs nos in labôribus exerceâmus? Certë, 8sï nihil animus praesentiret in posterum , et sï, quibus le g io n i­ bus vîtae spatium circum scriptum est, eisdem omnës côgitàtiônës ter1. id: honor the Muscs and protect the poets.

2. mê . . . indicàbô: I shall betray myself to you.

5. incohàvit: he has begun [fo celebrate]. 6. qua . . . dëtràctà: and if this is taken away.

3. quàs rës = eàs rës quàs: Cicero is re­

7. quid est quod: what reason is there why. 8. si . . . posterum: if the sold has no

ferring to his suppression of the Catilinarian conspiracy. 4. hic: Archias.

9. regionibus = finibus.

228

anticipations of the future.

m inaret suas, nec tantïs së laboribus frangeret neque tot 10cürïs vigiliisque angeretur nec totiëns n dë ipsâ vita dim icaret. 12Nunc insidet quaedam in optimô quôque virtüs, quae noctes ac dies animum gloriae stimulis concitat atque adm onet non 13cum vitae tem pore esse dim itten­ dam com m em orationem nominis nostri, sed 14cum omni posteritate adaequandam . 10. cürïs vigiliïsque: cares and wakefulness ( sleepless periods of anxiety ). 11. dè . . . dimicaret: struggle [at the risk] of his very life. 12. Nunc: As it is. 13. cum . . . dimittendam: must not cease

together with our lifetime ( when our lifetime is over). 14. cum . . . adaequandam: must he made equal with all posterity ( must he trans­ mitted to all posterity).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

What self-accusation does Cicero make? What has Archias begun to write? What is the only reward that real talent seeks? What great incentive does man have to endure the anxieties of life? What must not cease at the end of life?

C h . XII—1

M o n u m e n ts of L iterature A lo n e A re Im m o rta l

An vërô Ham parvi animi V ideàm ur esse omnës, qui in rë püblicà atque in his vitae periculis labôribusque 'Versamur, 4ut, cum üsque ad extrëmum 5spatium niillum tranquillum atque ôtiôsum 6spïritum düxerïmus, nôbïscum simul m oritüra omnia arbitrëm ur? An statuas et 7imâginës, non anim orum “simulacra, sed corporum, r,studiôsë m ulti summi hominës relïquërunt; 10cônsiliôrum relinquere ac virtütum nostrarum n effigiem nônne m ultô malle dëbëmus, 12summis ingeniis expressam et politam? Ego vërô 13omnia, quae gerëbam , jam 14tum in gerendo spargere më ac dissëm inàre arbitrabar in orbis terrae memoriam sem piternam . Haec vërô, sive l ’à meô sënsü post m ortem àfutüra est, sive, ut sapientissimï hominës putàvërunt, 10ad aliquam animi mei partem pertinëbit, nunc 17quidem certë 18côgitàtiône qinâdam spëque dëlector. 1. tam parvi animi: so small-minded (nar­ row-minded); predicate genitive of de­ scription. 2. videamur . . . omnës: are ice all to ap­ pear; deliberative question. 3. versamur: are engaged. 4. u t . . . arbitrëmur: as to imagine. 5. spatium [vitae]: period [of life]. 6. spiritum: hreath. 7. imaginés: likenesses (busts). 8. simulàcra: images (representations). 9. studiôsë . . . relïquërunt: have carefully left behind (have been eager to leave).

10. consiliorum: deliberations (aspirations). 11. effigiem: likeness (record). 12. summis . . . politam: portrayed and polished by [men of] the highest genius.

13. omnia . . . gerëbam: all my deeds. 14. turn . . . gerendo: at the very moment of doing [them].

15. à meô sënsü: from my consciousness. 16. ad . . . pertinëbit: it will be known to some part of my soul.

17. quidem: at any rate. 18. côgitàtiône . . . dëlector: I find pleasure in some such thought and hope.

229

FOR DISCUSSION

1. What, according to Cicero, would be indicative of a narrow mind? 2. What did many great men leave behind them as a memorial to their own greatness? 3. How does Cicero think works of the mind should be appropriately remem­ bered? 4. What are Cicero’s expectations regarding the remembrance of his own achievements? 5. In what hope does Cicero take special delight?

C h . XII—2

A c q u i t T h is M a n W h o s e R e p u t a t i o n a n d A c c o m p l i s h m e n t s D eserve a F av o rab le J u d g m e n t

Quâ rë cônservâte, jüdicës, hominem 1pudôre eô, quem amicorum vidëtis comprobari 2345cum M ïgnitâte tum etiam V etustate, ’ingenio autem tanto, 6q7 uantum id convenit existimari, quod ’summorum hom inum in­ geniis expetitum esse videatis, 8causâ vërô ëjus modi, quae beneficio lëgis, auctoritate municipi, tëstimôniô Lücullï, tabulis M etelli comprobëtur. Quae cum ita sint, petimus à vôbls, jüdicës, 9sl qua non modo hüm àna, vërum etiam divina in tantis ingeniis com m endatio débet esse, 10ut “ eum, qui vos, qui vestrôs imperàtôrës, qui populi Rômànl rës gestâs semper ôrnâvit, qui etiam his recentibus nostris vestrisque domesticis periculis aeternum së tëstimonium laudis datürum esse profitëtur estque ex eô numéro, qui semper apud omnës sancti sunt habiti 12itaque dicti, l3slc in vestram 10accipiatis fidem, 14ut hüm ânitâte vestrâ 15levatus potius quam acerbitate 16 violatus esse videatur. Quae dë causa prô meà cônsuëtüdine breviter sim pliciterque dixi, jüdicës, ea cônfldô “ probâta esse omnibus; quae à forënsl aliëna jüdi1. pudôre eô: of such modesty; ablative of description. 2. cum . . . turn: not only . . . but also. 3. dignitate: prestige. 4. vetustate: continuance ( long dura­ tion).

5. ingeniô . . . tantô: with as much talent. 6. quantum . . . exïstimârï: as it is fitting for it [that quality] to be considered.

7. summorum . . . ingeniis: by the talents of eminent men ( by eminent men of talent). 8. causà . . . modi: with a case certainly of this kind; ablative of description.

9. si . . . esse: if there shcndd be any com­ mendation not only human, but also divine in such great talents.

10. ut . . . accipiatis: substantive clause of purpose. 11. eum: Archias. 12. itaque dicti: and so proclaimed. 13. sic . . . fidem: you so receive him under your protection.

14. 15. 16. 17.

ut . . . videatur: result clause. levâtus: relieved (supported). violàtus: injured. probâta . . . omnibus: have been proved to [the satisfaction of] all.

ciàlïque cônsuëtüdine et dë hominis ingeniô et com m üniter dë ipso 18studiô locütus sum, ea, jüdicës, â vôbïs spërô esse in bonam partem accepta; ab eô, qui jüdicium exercet, certô sciô. 18. studio: studies (profession).

FOR DISCUSSION

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

For what three reasons does Archias appear worthy of acquittal? What four legal arguments seem to support Archias’ citizenship? What is unusual about Cicero’s method of presentation in this case? Of whose approval is Cicero hopeful? Of whose approval is he certain?

231

ORATION AGAINST VERRES Gaius Verres, a man of noble birth, misgoverned the island of Sicily during his propraetorship (73-70 b .c . ). As soon as he left the island, the Sicilians brought suit against him in Rome for extortion and oppression. To conduct the prosecution they had recourse to Cicero, who had served ably and honorably as quaestor of Sicily in 77 b .c . and who now enjoyed an enviable reputation as a Roman advocate. Since the Sicilians were demanding redress in the form of large sums of money, the suit against Verres was brought before the Repe­ tundae, the Roman court reserved for cases of extortion. Verres’ only hope lay in preventing a fair and speedy trial. He hired as prosecutor a Sicilian friend, Quintus Caecilius, who would be in collusion with him and would not press him too hard. Cicero, learning of the scheme, brought the matter before the praetor of Rome and had himself named prosecutor in the case. Outwitted by Cicero, Verres now tried to postpone his trial until the following year when Hortensius, his attorney and the most famous lawyer in Rome at the time, would be consul, and his friends would be members of a picked jury. To consume time, Verres and Hortensius planned to bring before the same court a trumped-up charge against another provincial governor, with the understanding that this trial would come up before the trial of Verres. This intrigue was foiled by Cicero’s quick wit, skill, and industry. He was allowed one hundred and ten days for collecting evidence, just two days more than the number allowed for the trumped-up case. Cicero hastened at once to Sicily, returned fifty days later with an overwhelming mass of evidence and hundreds of indignant and injured witness, and forced the prosecution of the case. At the trial Cicero omitted the usual full presentation of the case because there would have been a lengthy and time-consuming rebuttal from Hor­ tensius, which would have delayed the case until Hortensius would be consul. Instead he produced such overwhelming and convincing evidence that, after nine days of testimony from the witnesses, Hortensius threw up the case, and Verres went to Massilia in voluntary exile. The preliminary speech is known as the Àctiô Prima. The Àctiô Secunda, which is divided into five parts, contained the additional material which Cicero had collected with such care. These five speeches were never delivered, but they were written out and published, a scathing indictment of the worst type of Roman provincial governor and, indeed, of unscrupulous public offi­ cials of all ages. With this victory over Verres, Cicero had established his reputation. He had defeated and superseded Quintus Hortensius, the most distinguished orator of the day. 232

In the selection that follows, which is toward the end of the fifth speech of the Àctiô Secunda, Cicero recounts the scourging and the crucifixion of a certain Publius Gavius of Consa, Italy. Gavius was a Roman citizen carrying on business in Sicily. He had been arrested and thrown into prison at the stone quarries, but somehow had escaped to Messina, where he began to talk freely about bringing Verres to court on a charge of illegal arrest of a Roman citizen. Gavius was arrested, and on that very day Verres arrived at Messina. The case was tried by Verres in the public forum. Although the Law of Porcius forbade the scourging of Roman citizens, and although the Law of Sempronius gave a Roman citizen the right to appeal to the popular assembly at Rome against any death sentence, Verres ordered Gavius stripped, scourged, and crucified. Cicero says that with Gavius the rights and liberty of all Roman citizens were crucified, and that Verres flaunted his contempt for Roman citizenship. G a v iu s 7 T h re a ts R e p o rte d to V erre s

Gâvius hic, quem dïcô, 1Cônsânus, cum 123in illô num éro civium Ro­ m anorum ab istô in vincula conjectus esset, et, nësciô quâ ratiône, clam ë 3lautum iïs profügisset, 4M essànamque venisset—r>quï 6tam prope jam Italiam et moenia 7Rëgïnôrum civium Rômânôrum videret, et ex illo m etü mortis ac tenebris, quasi lüce libertatis et odôre aliquô lëgum recre­ atus, revixisset—loqui Messanae et queri coepit, së civem Rômânum in vincula esse conjectum; 8sibi rëctâ iter esse Romam; Verri së praesto advenienti futürum . Non intellegëbat miser 9nihil interesse, utrum haec Messanae, an apud istum in praetorio loquerëtur. Nam (u t ante vos docui) hanc sibi iste urbem dëlëgerat, quam habëret adjütrïcem scelerum, fürtôrum recep­ tricem, flàgitiôrum omnium consciam. Itaque ad 10m agistm tum M am er­ tinum statim dëdücitur Gâvius: eôque ipso dië càsü Messânam Verrës vënit. Rës ad eum dëfertur: esse cîvem Rômânum, qui së Syrâcüsls in lautum iis fuisse quererëtur: quem, jam ingredientem in nâvem, et Verrï nimis atrociter m initantem , ab së retrâctum esse et asservâtum, ut ipse in eum statueret quod vidërëtur. 1. Cônsànus: a citizen of Consa, a free Roman town in southern Italy. 2. in illô numéro: Cicero has been describ­ ing the treatment of a number of fugi­ tives of the army of Sertorius in Spain who, after the death of Sertorius, had made their way to Sicily. 3. lautumiis: the stone pits at Syracuse, used as a prison. Verres had seized and imprisoned illegally a considerable num­ ber of Roman citizens there. Gavius had escaped and made his way north to Messana, modern Messina. 4. Messânam: the point of Sicily nearest

5. 6. 7. 8.

Italy. According to Cicero, this city was an accomplice in Verres’ crimes. qui: when he. tam prope: Messina is little more than th ree miles across the strait ( the ancient Scylla and Charybdis). Rëgïnôrum: Rhegium is almost in sight of Messana. sibi . . . Romam: he was going straight to Rome.

9. nihil interesse: it did not matter. 10. magistratum Mamertinum: a magistrate of Messana; the inhabitants of Mes­ sana were called Mamertini.

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T o rtu re a n d Crucifixion o f a R o m a n C itizen

Agit hominibus grâtiàs, et eôrum benevolentiam ergâ së diligentiam que collaudat. Ipse, inflammatus scelere et furore, in forum venit. À rdëbant oculi: tôtô ex ôre crüdëlitàs ëm inëbat. Exspectabant omnës, 4quô tandem prôgressürus aut quidnam àctürus esset; cum repente hominem proripi, atque in forô mediô nüdâri ac dëligàrï, et virgas 2expediri jubet. Clam a­ bat ille miser, së civem esse Rômânum, m ünicipem Cônsànum; 3meruisse cum L. Raetio, splendidissimo equite Rômânô, qui 4Panorm ï negôtiârëtur, ex quô haec Verrës scire posset. Tum iste, së comperisse eum specu­ landi causa in Siciliam à ducibus Tugitïvôrum esse missum; cüjus rei neque index, neque vëstïgium aliquod, neque suspicio cuiquam 6esset ülla. D einde jubet 7undique hominem vehementissimë verberari. 8C aedëbàtur virgis in mediô forô Messanae civis Rômânus, jüdicës; cum interea nüllus gemitus, nülla vôx alia illius miseri inter dolorem crepitum que plâgârum audiëbàtur, nisi haec, Cïvis Rômânus sum! Hâc së commemoratione civitatis omnia verbera dëpulsürum , cruciâtum que à corpore dëjectürum arbitrabatur. Is non modo hoc non perfëcit, ut virgarum vim dëprecàrëtur; sed, cum im ploraret saepius, 9üsürpâretque nômen civitatis, crux—crux, inquam —ïnfëlïcï et 10aerumnôsô, qui numquam istam n pestem viderat, com parabatur. Ô nômen dulce libertatis! Ô jüs eximium nostrae civitatis! Ô 12lëx Porcia, 13lëgësque Semproniae! Ô graviter dësïderàta, et aliquando red­ dita plëbï Rômânae, 14tribünicia potestas! 15H ücine tandem omnia recidërunt, ut civis Rômânus, in provincia populi Rôrïlânî, in oppido foederatorum , ab eô qui beneficio populi Rômànï 16fascës et secürës habëret, dëligàtus in forô virgis caederëtur? Quid? cum ïgnës ârdentësque laminae cëterïque cruciàtüs adm ovëbantur, si të illius acerba 1. quô tandem : how far. 2. expedïrï: to be prepared, i.e., by untying the fascës (rods and ax), which were the insignia of the praetor’s imperium. 3. meruisse [stipendia]: served as a soldier. 4. Panormi: at Panormus [all-harbor]; modern Palermo. 5. fugitivorum: of the runaway slaves, who had been concerned in the servile war of Spartacus. 6. esset: subjunctive in characteristic clause. 7. undique: all over his body. 8. Caedebatur: note the emphatic position. The imperfect tense is used in lively description. 9. üsürpàret: kept uttering. 10. aerumnôsô: wretched.

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11. pestem: accursed thing, i.e., the cross. 12. lèx Porcia: the law forbidding the scourging of Roman citizens. 13. lëgës Semproniae: the laws giving a Roman citizen the right to appeal to the popular assembly at Rome against any death sentence. 14. tribunicia potestas: By means of this power a tribune could protect plebeians against patrician injustice. 15. Hücine . . . recidërunt: Have all things finally come to thisP

16. fascës et secürës: the rods and the axes, symbols of the magistrates’ authority. On what American coin are these sym­ bols used?

im plôrâtiô et vôx miserabilis non inhibebat, në civium quidem Romano­ rum, qui tum aderant, flëtü et gem itü mâximô commovëbàre? In crucem tü agere ausus es quem quam , qui së civem Rômânum esse diceret?

V e r r e s , t h e E n e m y o f A ll F r e e M e n

Sed quid ego ^ lü r a dë Gàviô? quasi tü Gàviô tum fueris ïnfëstus, ac non nomini, generi, jürï civium 12hostis. Non illi, inquam , homini, sed causae commünï libertatis, inimicus fuisti. 3Quid enim attinuit, cum M am ertini, more atque ïnstitütô suô, crucem fixissent post urbem, in via Pompëjâ, të jubëre in eâ parte figere, quae ad fretum spectaret; et hoc addere—quod negâre nüllô modo potes, quod omnibus audientibus dixisti palam —të idcirco illum locum dëligere, ut ille, quoniam së civem Rômânum esse diceret, ex cruce Italiam cernere ac domum suam pros­ picere posset? Itaque illa crux sôla, jüdicës, post conditam Messanam, illô in locô fixa est. Italiae conspectus ad eam rem ab istô dëlëctus est, ut ille, in dolôre cruciàtüque moriëns, perangusto fretü divisa servitütis ac libertatis jüra cognosceret; Italia autem 4alum num suum servitütis extrëmô sum m ôque supplicio affixum vidëret. 5Facinus est vincire civem Rômânum; scelus verberâre; prope parri­ cidium necâre: quid dicam in crucem tollere? Verbô satis digno tam nefâria rës appellârï nüllô modo potest. Non fuit hïs omnibus iste con­ tentus. “Spectet,” inquit, “patriam : in cônspectü lëgum lïbertâtisque m oriâtur.” Non tü hôc locô Gâvium, non ünum hominem nësciô quem [cïvem Rôm ânum ], sed commünem lïbertâtis et cïvitâtis causam in ilium cruciâtum et crucem ëgistï. 1. plüra: sc. dïcam. 2. hostis: an enemy making war on the rights of Roman citizens. 3. Quid enim attinuit: What else did it mean.

4. alumnum: foster-child, i.e., adopted citizen. 5. Facinus . . . necâre: double climax (facinus, scelus, parricidium; vincire, verberare, necâre).

235

SECOND ORATION AGAINST ANTONY After the assassination of Caesar in 44 b .c ., it became evident that the con­ spirators had removed the despot, but not the despotism. The conspirators had no definite plans and remained inactive. Antony, however, had seized Caesar s papers and used them to his own unscrupulous advantage, gathered an army around him, and passed a law allotting to himself north and central Gaul for five years. Brutus and Cassius then left Italy, never to return. Cicero had also started out for Greece, but Brutus met him en route and advised him to return to Rome and try to rouse the people and restore the republic. When Cicero returned to Rome on August 31, he was criticized in the Senate by Antony for having absented himself from the meeting. Two days later Cicero appeared in the Senate and delivered an oration against Antony. On September 18 Antony replied in vindictive terms. In October, Cicero com­ posed and circulated a second oration against Antony, considered one of the most famous and effective of all political pamphlets. Relations between the two men went from bad to worse. Twelve other orations, masterpieces of invective, were published within the next few months, and they aroused all Italy. But words could not deprive Antony’s legions of their weapons, and Cicero had no legions. Antonv had a rival for power in Octavian, Caesar’s nephew and heir. He was only twenty years of age, but he had for his service an army of veterans, and he had won the support of Cicero and the republican party by declaring in favor of the republic rather than a dictatorship. In the spring of 43 b .c ., Octavian and the consuls marched against Antony and defeated him, forcing him to flee across the Alps. The people in Rome were jubilant and turned out in great numbers to congratulate and honor Cicero. But the rejoicing was premature. Antony, together with Lepidus and his large army in Gaul, marched against Octavian. Instead of a battle an unex­ pected reconciliation took place. Antony, Lepidus, and Octavian formed the second triumvirate, based upon a compact which guaranteed the proscription of each one’s personal enemies and eventually led to Cicero’s murder by Antony’s emissaries. This second oration against Antony was called a Philippic because of its likeness in tone to the famous invectives of Demosthenes against Philip of Macedon, who in the fourth century b . c . had attempted to deprive the Greeks of their liberties. The term was first used by Cicero himself, as a joke. It was later extended to the entire series of fourteen orations against Antony. 236

C icero, A n to n y , a n d C a e s a r

Recordare igitur illum, M. Antônï, diem, quô dictàtüram Sustulisti; pône ante oculos laetitiam senàtüs populïque Rômânï, cônfer cum hâc im mânï 2nundinâtiône tuà tuôrum que; tum intelleges, quantum inter lucrum et laudem intersit. Si të laus allicere ad rëctë faciendum non potest, në m etus quidem â foedissimis factis potest àvocâre? 3Judicia non metuis. Si propter innocentiam , laudo, sin propter vim, non intellegis, qui istô modo jüdicia non timeat, ei quid tim endum sit? Quod si non metuis virôs fortës ëgregiôsque cïvës, quod â corpore tuô prohibentur armis, 4tuï të, mihi crëde, diütius non ferent. Quae est autem vita diës et noctës °timëre à suis? Nisi vërô aut mâjôribus habës bene­ ficiis obligatos, quam 6ille quosdam habuit ex eis, â quibus est interfectus, aut tü es üllà rë cum eô comparandus. F uit in illô ingenium , ratio, memoria, 'litterae, cüra, côgitâtiô, dili­ gentia; rës bellô gesserat, quamvis rei püblicae calamitosas, at tamen mâgnàs; multos annôs rëgnâre m editatus màgnô labore, magnis peri­ culis, quod côgitàrat, effëcerat; müneribus, 8monumentïs, 9congiàriïs, epulis m ultitüdinem im peritam 10dëlënierat; suôs praemiis, adversarios clëm entiae specië dëvïnxerat; quid m ulta? A ttulerat jam liberae civitati partim m etü, partim patientia cônsuëtüdinem serviendi. 1. sustulisti: abolished. 2. nundinatione tuà tuôrumque: marketing [conducted] by you and your friends.

3. Jüdicia: law-courts. 4. tui: your own [followers]. 5. timëre à: to fear from (to dread).

6. ille: Caesar.

7. 8. 9. 10.

litterae: literary ability. monumentis: buildings. congiariis: gifts. delenierat: had conciliated.

C i c e r o O f f e r s H is Life f o r t h e F r e e d o m o f H is C o u n t r y

D ëfendi rem püblicam adulëscëns; non dëseram senex; contempsi Catilinae gladiôs, non pertim ëscam tuôs. Quin etiam corpus libenter 1obtulerim , si ^repraesentari m orte meà libertas civitatis potest, ut ali­ quando dolor populi Rômânï pariat, quod jam diü parturit. Etenim , si abhinc annôs prope vïgintï hôc ipso in 3templô negavi posse mortem im m àtüram esse cônsulârï, quantô vërius 4nunc negàbô seni! Mihi vërô, patrës conscripti, jam etiam optanda mors est, 5perfünctô rëbus eis, quàs adeptus sum quasque gessi. Duo modo haec optô, ünum, ut moriëns populum Rômânum liberum relinquam (hôc mihi mâjus ab dis immor­ talibus dari nihil p o test), alterum , ut ita cuique ëveniat, ut dë rë püblicâ quisque m ereatur. 1. obtulerim: 1 would offer. 2. repraesentari: to be realized. 3. templô: the Temple of Concord, in which he made his fourth speech.

4. nunc . . . seni: I shall say it note in old age.

5. perfünctô: modifies mihi and governs rébus els.

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CICERO THE PHILOSOPHER After his exile in 58 and 57 b .c ., Cicero’s political career was at an end, except for a short period before his death. Because of political troubles at Rome, he retired to private life, devoting all his time and energy to writing. His purpose in writing on philosophical subjects was to interpret for his fellow Romans the best philosophical writings of the Greeks. In so doing he had to create his own Latin philosophical vocabulary, which proved to be so accu­ rate and valuable that it has been used in all succeeding ages to express philosophical thought. It w a s f r o m 55 t o 44 b .c . t h a t h e w r o t e t h e f o l l o w i n g p h i l o s o p h i c a l w o r k s : 54 b .c. Dë Rë Pûblicâ, a discussion of the best form of government and the 52

b .c.

duties of citizens. Dë Lëgibus, a treatment of law as a function of morality, a discussion of sacred law, and an analysis of the machinery of government.

(From 51 to 46 b . c ., due to his absence in Cilicia and then because of the Civil War, Cicero almost ceased to write. ) 46 b .c. Hortënsius, an enumeration of the advantages of studying philosophy. Paradoxa, an explanation of the six Stoic paradoxes. 45 b .c . Dë Finibus Bonôrum et Malôrum, a criticism of the chief ethical systems of the day: Epicureanism, Stoicism, and that of the Old Academy. Acadëmica, a discussion of the theory of knowledge held by Greek thinkers. 45-44 Tusculanae Disputàtiônës, a treatment of certain conditions essential b .c. to morality and happiness. Dë Nâtürà Deôrum, an examination of the principal theories concern­ ing the nature and the power of the gods.

44

b .c.

Dë Senectüte (Catô Major), an application of the principles of philosophy to the alleviation of the real or apparent difficulties of old age.

Dë Dïvïnàtiône, a discussion of augury and other forms of divination. Dë Amïcitià (Laelius), a treatise on the various aspects of friendship. Dë Officiis, an application of moral principles to the questions and difficulties of ordinary life.

All these works, except Hortënsius, are extant. Early in 45 b . c . Cicero’s daughter Tullia died. He spent the following year in retirement trying to assuage his grief by writing. It was then that he wrote Dë Cônsôlàtiône in an effort to mitigate his own grief and that of others by the application of the principles of philosophy. This treatise has been lost. 238

DE RE PUBLICA The Dë Rë Püblicà, written in 54 b . c ., was inspired by the Republic, a book of dialogues in which Plato developed the concept of the ideal state. Cicero based his work not on the theories of the Greek philosopher, but on the practi­ cal ideals in the Roman constitution. Like most of Cicero’s philosophical writings, the Dë Rë Püblicà is in the form of the dialogue which, among the ancients, was a common device to give vividness and clarity, as well as dramatic interest, in the presentation of an abstruse subject. The dialogue is imagined to have taken place in 129 b .c . between the younger Scipio Africanus and his friends. They discuss what is the best form of government—monarchy, aristocracy, democracy—and the duties of a citizen. In the excerpt given here, the younger Scipio relates to a group of his friends a dream, in which he seemed to see first his grandfather, the elder Africanus, and then his father, Paulus. His grandfather reveals to him the future—the conquest of Carthage, the overthrow of Numantia, and the political honors that will come to him. His father tells him about life after death, says that justice and loyalty are the best preparation for the immortal life, and explains the universe to him.

S cip io 's D r e a m

Cum in 1Africam vënissem 2M \ Mànïliô consuli ad quartam legionem tribünus, ut scitis, m ilitum , 3nihil mihi fuit potius quam ut 4Masinissam convenirem rëgem, familiae nostrae 5jüstïs dë causis amicissimum. Ad quem u t vënï, 6complexus më senex collacrimavit, 7aliquantôque post suspëxit ad caelum et, 8“G râtës,” inquit, “tibi agô, 9summe Soi, vôblsque, reliqui Caelitës, quod, antequam ex hâc vïtâ migrô, cônspiciô in meô rëgnô et 10hïs tëctïs P. Cornëlium Scipionem, cüjus ego nomine ipso 1. Africam: the province of Africa; it ex­ tended from Numidia on the west to Tripolis on the southeast. This had once been the territory of the Carthagin­ ians. 2. M\ Mànïliô consuli: under the consul Manius Manilius; Manilius was consul in 149 b .c., at the beginning of the Third Punic War. 3. nihil . . . quam: my greatest desire was. 4. Masinissam: accusative after conveni­ rem, meet. Masinissa, King of Numidia,

felt indebted to Scipio the Elder, since the latter had restored Masinissa’s hereditary kingdom to him. 5. jüstïs dë causis: for just reasons. 6. complexus . . . collacrimavit: embraced me and wept copiously.

7. aliquantôque post: and after some time. 8. Grâtës: Thanks. 9. summe . . . Caelitës: O supreme Sun, and you other heavenly beings; apos­ trophe. 10. his tëctïs: under my roof.

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recreor; itaque num quam ex animô meô discedit illius optim i atque invictissimi viri memoria.” D einde ego illum dë suô rëgnô, ille më dë nostra rë püblicâ percontatus est, m ultisque verbis l'ültrô citrôque habi­ tis, 112ille nôbïs cônsüm ptus est diës. Post autem 13apparàtü rëgiô accepti, sermonem in m ultam noctem prôdüximus, cum senex nihil nisi dë Àfricânô loquerëtur, om niaque ëjus non facta sôlum, sed etiam dicta meminisset. Deinde, ut 1415cubitum dis­ cessimus, më et dë via fessum et qui ad m ultam noctem vigilassem 15artior quam solëbat somnus complexus est. Àfricànus së ostendit eâ forma quae mihi ex imagine ëjus quam 16178ex ipso erat nôtior; quem ubi agnôvï, equidem cohorrui, sed ille, ' ‘“Ades,” inquit, “animô et om itte timôrem, Scipio, et quae dicam trade memoriae. C arthaginem isbienniô consul ëvertës. Cum autem C arthaginem dëlëveris, trium phum ëgeris, cënsorque fueris, et 19obieris lëgâtus Aegvptum , Syriam, Asiam, G rae­ ciam; 20dëligëre iterum consul absëns, bellum que maximum cônficiës, Num antiam exscindës. Sed cum eris currü in Capitolium invectus, 21offendës rem püblicam consiliis perturbatam 22nepôtis m eï.” (In his dream Paulus, Scipio’s own father, appears to him.) “Sed sic, Scipio, ut avus hic tuus, ut ego qui të genuï, jüstitiam cole et pietatem , quae cum sit m agna in parentibus et propinquis, tum in patriâ mâxima est. 23Ea vita via est in caelum et in hunc coetum eôrum qui jam vïxërunt et 24corpore laxati illum incolunt locum quem vidës” (erat autem is 25splendidissimo candore inter flammas circus ëlücëns), “quem vos, ut à Grâis accëpistis, 26orbem lacteum nuncupatis.” Ex quô omnia mihi contem planti praeclara cëtera et m irabilia vidëbantur. E rant autem eae stellae quas num quam 2Tex hoc loco vidimus, et eae m àgnitüdinës omnium quâs esse num quam suspicati sumus, ex quibus erat illa minima quae, ultim a à caelô, 2Scitima à terris, lüce lücëbat aliënâ. 11. 12. 13. 14.

ültrô citrôque: by both of us. ille . . . dies: we spent the whole day. apparàtü rëgiô: with royal magnificence. cubitum: to take our rest; supine, ex­ pressing purpose. 15. artior . . . est: a deeper sleep enveloped

16. 17. 18. 19.

me (I fell into a deeper sleep) than usual. ex . . . nôtior: more familiar to me from his bust than from himself ( his person). Ades . . . animô: Be present (Have) courage. bienniô: within two years. obieris lëgâtus: you will go as envoy.

20. dëligëre . . . absëns: you will be chosen consul a second time in your absence.

21. offendës: you will come upon (find). 22. nepôtis meï: Tiberius Gracchus, son of Cornelia, who was the daughter of the elder Africanus. 23. Ea = Tàlis. 24. corpore laxàtï: relieved of the body. 25. spendidissimô candôre: ablative of de­ scription. 26. orbem lacteum: Milky Way. 27. ex hôc locô: from our globe. 28. citima: nearest.

DE LEGIBUS Although it is thought that Cicero’s Dë Lëgibus consisted of five books, only three survive. In the subject matter the Dë Lëgibus is closely related to the Dë Rë Püblicâ. The work is of value because it relates the Roman theory and practice of law in Cicero’s time. In the first book, Cicero argues that law is a natural thing, a function of morality. In the second book he treats sacred law, and in the third the machinery of government. The Dë Lëgibus was suggested by another work of Plato’s, his Laws. In the following passage, which is taken from the second book, Cicero expresses the opinion that there should be temples because they encourage and stimulate practices of religion. Although he himself does not believe in the pagan gods, he seems to believe in a supreme being. He also is of the opinion that observance of the regulations of the state religion fosters the observance of law and good citizenship.

Practice of Religion Is of V alu e to the State

D ëlübra esse in urbibus ^ënseô, nec sequor 12magôs Persarum, quibus auctoribus Xerxës Inflammasse tem pla Graeciae dicitur, 3quod parietibus inclüderent deôs, quibus omnia dëbërent esse patentia ac libera, quo­ rum que hic m undus omnis tem plum esset et domus. 4Melius Gràî atque nostri, qui, u t augërent pietatem in deôs, eâsdem illôs urbës quâs 5nôs incolere voluërunt; 6affert enim haec opinio religionem 7ütilem civitati­ bus, si quidem et illud bene dictum est à 8*P ÿthagorà, doctissimo virô, 9tum màximë et pietatem et religionem versari in animis cum rëbus divinis operam darëm us, et quod 10Thalës, qui sapientissimus in n septem fuit, hominës existimare oportëre omnia, quae cernerent, deorum esse plëna; fore enim omnës castiôrës, velutï cum in fànls 12essent, mâximë 1. cënseô: I propose. 2. magôs Persarum: the Persian Magi; Persia encouraged astrologers, sooth­ sayers, and magicians. 3. quod . . . inclüderent: quoted reason. 4. Melius: sc. fëcërunt. 5. nos: sc. incolimus. 6. affert: encourages. 7. ütiJem: Roman religion was under the control of the state; it was often used for political purposes. 8. Pÿthagorà: Pythagoras, who lived from about 540 to 510 b .c ., was founder of the

Pythagorean school of philosophy. His disciples used to attribute to him their own statements in a Greek phrase equiv­ alent to the Latin ipse dixit. 9. turn mâximë . . . cum: particularly at the time when.

10. Thalës: sc. dixit; Thales was the earliest of the group of pre-Socratic philosophers. 11. septem: the Seven Wise Men of Greece were Solon, Thales, Pittacus, Bias, Chilon, Cleobulus, and Periander (or Epimenides). 12. essent: feel.

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religiosos. Est enim quaedam opinione species deorum in oculis, non solum in mentibus. E andem que rationem lücï habent in agris. Neque 13ea quae à majoribus prodita est cum dominis, tum famulis posita in fundi villaeque cônspectü, religio Larum, repudianda est. Jam rïtüs familiae patrum que servare id est, quoniam antiquitas proximë accëdit ad deôs, à dis quasi traditam religionem tueri. Tum fëriârum fëstôrum que diërum 14ratiô 1;jin liberis requietem litium 16habet et jurgiorum, in servis operum et labôrum ; quâs 17compositor anni conferre débet ad perfectionem operum rüsticôrum . Quod ad tem pus ut sacrificiorum 18lïbàm enta serventur fêtusque pecorum , quae 19dicta in lëge sunt, 20diligenter habenda ratio intercalandi est; quod ïnstitütum perïtë â Numâ 21posteriôrum pontificum neglegentia 22dissolütum est. 13. ea . . . religiô Larum: that worship of 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

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the Lares. ratio: provision. in liberis: for freedmen. habet: ordains. compositor: the one who plans. libamenta: offerings of the sacrifices.

19. dicta . . . sunt: are mentioned. 20. diligenter . . . est: provision must be carefully made for the insertion of the intercalary months. 21. posteriorum: of later periods. 22. dissolutum est: has become obsolete.

PARADOXA A paradox is a statement that seems contradictory, unbelievable, or absurd although it may actually be true. One of Cicero’s minor philosophical works, the Paradoxa, concerns the six paradoxes of the Stoics. It was written in such a way that it would be suitable for delivery before a popular audience and so gives us an idea of how Cicero himself practiced rhetoric. He explains how some of the most famous Stoic maxims could be applied in actual circum­ stances. In the excerpt that follows, Cicero cites instances from Roman history to prove that virtue is greater than riches.

Virtue Is G reater Than Riches

Si censenda nobis sit atque aestim anda !rës, utrum tandem plüris aestim em us pecüniam Pyrrhi quam 12Fabriciô 3dabat an continentiam Fabrici, qui illam pecüniam repudiabat? utrum aurum Samnitum an responsum 4M \ Curi? hërëditâtem L. Pauli an lïberàlitàtem Àfricànï, qui ëjus hërëditâtis Q. Mâximô fràtrï partem suam concessit? 5*H aec profecto, quae sunt sum m arum virtütum , plüris aestim anda sunt quam 6illa, quae sunt pecüniae. Quis igitur, 7si quidem ut 8quisque quod 9plürim ï sit possideat ita divitissimus habendus sit, dubitet quin in virtüte divitiae sint, quoniam nülla possessio, nülla vis auri et argenti plüris quam virtüs aestim anda est? Ô di immortales! non intellegunt hominës quam m agnum vectigal sit parsim onia. Venio enim jam ad sümptuôsôs, relinquo istum ^q u aestu ­ osum. C apit ille ex suis praediis n sescëna 12sëstertia, ego centëna ex 1. rês: the question. 2. Fabricio: Gaius Fabricius, one of the ambassadors sent to make terms with Pyrrhus in 280 b .c . The latter could not bribe Fabricius nor seduce him from his duty to his country. 3. dabat: offered; dabat here means tried to give, for Fabricius refused to accept the money. 4. M\ Curl: Manius Curius Dentatus, a contemporary of Fabricius, who refused the gifts offered him by the Samnites. 5. Haec: The latter, continentia and li­ béralités.

6. illa: pecunia and aurum. 7. si quidem . . . habendus sit: if there­ fore we ought to consider.

8. quisque . . . divitissimus: each man most wealthy in proportion as he owns the property that is worth most.

9. plürimî: genitive of price. 10. quaestuosum: fond of gain. 11. sescëna sëstertia: six hundred thousand sesterces.

12. sëstertia: pi. of sëstertium, a thousand sesterces.

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meïs; illî aurâta tëcta in villis et sola m arm orea facienti et signa, tabulas, supellectilem, et vestem infinite concupiscenti non modo ad süm ptum ille 13est fm etus, sed etiam ad faenus exiguus. Ex meô tenui vectigali, detractis süm ptibus cupiditatis, aliquid etiam redundabit. U ter igitur est divitior, 14cui deest an cui superat? qui eget an qui abundat? cüjus pos­ sessio quô est major, eô plüs requirit ad së tuendam , an quae suis së viribus sustinet? 13. est früctus . . . exiguus: his income is scanty ( inadequate ).

244

14. cui: sc. is as an antecedent.

DE FINIBUS BONORUM ET MALORUM In the Dë Finibus Bonorum et Malorum there are three separate dialogues, each a discussion of one of the chief ethical systems of the day: ( 1) Epicurean­ ism, (2) Stoicism, and (3) that of the Old Academy of Antiochus. This work is particularly valuable because of the creation of a Latin philosophical termi­ nology, which eventually passed into the languages of modern Europe. The scene for the second dialogue, a discussion of Stoic ethics, is described at the beginning of Book III. Cicero, on his arrival at his country villa at Tusculum, about fifteen miles from Rome, decides to visit the neighboring villa of Lucullus, whose orphaned son is Marcus Cato’s ward. Marcus Cato expounds the Stoic ethic. Scene of Cicero's Second Dialogue

Nam in Tusculano cum essem vellem que ë bibliotheca puer! Lücullï quibusdam libris ütï, vënï in ëjus villam ut eôs ipse ut solëbam dëprômerem. Quô cum vënissem, M. Catônem quem ibi esse nëscieram vïdï in bibliothëcà sedentem , multis circumfüsum Stoicorum libris. E rat enim ut scis in eô aviditas legendi, nec satiari poterat; quippe qui 4në reprënsiônem quidem vulgi inànem reform idans in ipsà cürià solëret legere saepe dum senâtus côgerëtur, nihil operae rei püblicae dëtrahëns; quô magis tum in summô ôtiô 12màxim àque copia quasi helluârï libris, si hoc verbô in tam clârà rë ùtendum est, vidëbàtur. Quod cum accidisset, ut alter alterum necopinato vidërëmus, surrëxit statim. D einde 34p rïm a ilia quae in congressü solëmus: 4“Quid tü,” inquit, “hüc? à villa enim crëdô;” et: "Si ibi të esse scissem, ad të ipse vënissem.’’ “H eri,” inquam , 5“lüdïs commissis ex urbe profectus vënï ad vesperum. Causa autem fuit hüc veniendi ut quôsdam hinc librôs prômerem. E t quidem , Catô, hanc tôtam côpiam jam Lücullô nostrô nôtam esse oportëbit; nam eum 6hïs librïs cum mâlô quam reliquô ôrnâtü villae dëlectârï. 7Est enim mihi m âgnae cürae (quam quam hoc quidem proprium tuum münus est) 8ut ita ërudiâtur u t et patrï et 9Caepiônï nostrô et tibi tam propinquo re­ spondeat.” 1. ne . . . reformidans: not even fearing the idle censure of the mob.

2. maxima copia: with a vast- supply (of books).

3. prima ilia: those first things. 4. Quid tù . . . hüc? What ( brings) you here? Ellipsis.

5. lüdïs commissis: because the games began.

6. 7. 8. 9.

his libris cum = cum his libris. Est . . . cürae: For I am very anxious. ut ita ërudiâtur: that he be so educated. Caepioni: Gnaeus Servilius Caepio, con­ sul, 106 b.c.

245

ACADEMICA The Academica, written in 45 b .c ., was a defense of the philosophy of the New Academy. It is an abstruse discussion, in dialogue form, of the theories of knowledge held by Greek thinkers, and since much of what they wrote is no longer available to us, Cicero is a valuable source of our information on the philosophy of the Academy. The Acadëmica is considered the most difficult of Cicero’s writings. Only about three-fourths of the entire work remains. The following excerpt, taken from Book II, gives us some idea of the scientific notions discussed by the ancient Greeks.

Some Scientific Beliefs of the Ancients

^ a b i t â r î ait Xenophanes, in lünà, eam que esse terram m ultarum urbium et m ontium : portenta videntur, sed tam en nec "ille qui dixit jüràre possit ita së 123rem habêre 45n eque ego non ita. Vos etiam dicitis °esse ë regiône nobis in contraria 6parte terrae qui 7adversls vestigiis stent contra nostra vestigia, quôs 8antipodàs vocâtis: cür mihi magis suscënsëtis qui 9ista non aspernor quam eis qui cum audiunt 10dësipere vos arbitrantur? n Hicetâs Syràcüsius, ut ait 12Theophrastus, caelum, sôlem, lünam, stellâs, 13supera dënique omnia stâre cënset neque praeter terram rem üllam in m undô movërl, quae cum circum axem së summâ celeritate 14convertat et torqueat, ir,eadem effici omnia quae si stante terra caelum m ovërëtur; atque hoc etiam Platonem in Timaeo dicere quidam arbi­ trantur, sed paulô obscürius. . . . 1. Habitari: impersonal, passive; habitari . . . in lünà: the moon is inhabited. 2. ille qui dixit: the author. 3. rem: the facts. 4. neque . . . ita: nor [am I able to swear that they are] not so. 5. esse: sc. eôs. 6. parte: side. 7. adversis vestigiis: with the traces (soles of their feet) in the opposite direction. 8. antipodas: antipodes; any two places

directly opposite each other on the earth.

9. ista: [doctrines] of yours. 10. dësipere vos arbitrantur: think that you are silly.

11. Hicetâs: a philosopher of Syracuse. 12. Theophrastus: a Greek philosopher, a disciple of Plato and Aristotle. 13. supera . . . omnia: all the things above. 14. convertat: it revolves. 15. eadem . . . movërëtur: produces all the same results which would be produced if the earth were stationary and the heaven were being moved (in motion).

Nec tam en istas quaestiones physicorum 16exterm inandâs putô. Est enim anim orum ingeniôrum que 17nàtüràle quoddam quasi pabulum con­ sideratio contem plàtiôque nàtürae; 18ërigimur, 19altiôrës fieri vidëmur, hüm âna despicimus, côgitantësque supera atque caelestia haec nostra ut exigua et m inim a contem nim us. Indagatio ipsa rërum cum maximarum tum etiam occultissimarum habet oblectationem ; si vërô 20aliquid oc­ currit quod vërï simile videatur, 21hüm ànissimà com plëtur animus volup­ tate. 16. exterminandas [esse]: should be set aside.

17. nàtüràle pabulum: natural nourishment. 18. erigimur: we are uplifted.

19. altiôrës: more exalted. 20. aliquid: something (idea). 21. humanissima voluptate: with the most refined pleasure.

247

TUSCULANAE DISPUTATIONES Cicero wrote the Tusculanae Disputationes in the last year of his life. The scene of the dialogues is his Tusculan villa. The titles of the five books are (1) On Despising Death, (2) On Enduring Pain, (3) On Alleviating Distress, (4) On Other Disorders of the Soul, and (5) On Virtue as Sufficient in Itself for a Happy Life. The material, based on the works of Greek philosophers, was adapted to Roman thought. The philosophy is not deep, the style is that of fluent and easy discourse, and there is a wealth of literary and historical allusion—all of which make the work well suited as reading for the cultured man of the world. The Tusculan Disputations have always been among the most popular and readable of Cicero’s works. The following selection is taken from the fifth book. Here Cicero argues that an exterior show of riches does not always accompany interior happiness. According to the Stoic view, which Cicero here accepts, a man’s happiness does not depend upon externals, such as money, but rather upon his wisdom and virtue. To illustrate his point Cicero cites an example from the life of Dionysus, the tyrant of Syracuse.

Dionysius, the Tyrant of Syracuse

D uodëquadràgintà annôs tyrannus Syrâcüsânôrum fuit D ionysius, 2cum quïnque et vïgintï nàtus annôs dom inatum occupavisset. Quâ pulchritüdine urbem, quibus autem 123opibus praeditam servitùte oppres­ sam tenuit civitatem! Atqui dë hoc homine à bonis auctoribus sic scrip­ tum 45accëpimus, summam fuisse ëjus in vïctü tem perantiam , in rëbusque gerendis Virum acrem et industrium , eundem tam en 6maleficum nàtürà et injustum. Ex quô omnibus bene vëritâtem intuentibus 7vidërî necesse est miser­ rimum. 8Ea enim ipsa quae concupierat, në 9tum quidem cum omnia së posse cënsëbat, cônsequëbàtur. Qui 10 cum esset bonis parentibus atque 1h o n esto locô natus (etsi 12id quidem alius aliô modo tra d id it), abun1. Dionysius: the elder of that name; a wealthy, cruel tyrant of Syracuse (404367 b .c.). 2. cum: after. 3. opibus: resources. 4. accepimus: we are told. 5. virum: sc. eum fuisse. 6. maleficum: vicious.

248

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

vidërï: sc. eum. ea . . . ipsa: those very things. turn . . . cum: at the very time when. cum: although. honestô locô: of respectable station. id . . . tradidit: sc. auctor; one author has handed it down in one way, another in another.

d âretque et 13aequâlium fam iliaritatibus et 14cônsuëtüdine propinquorum , crëdëbat eôrum nëminî, sed eïs quôs ex familiis 15locuplëtium servôs dëlëgerat, 16quibus nôm en servitütis ipse dëtràxerat, et quibusdam 17convenïs et feris barbaris corporis cüstôdiam com m ittëbat. Ita propter injüstam dom inâtüs cupiditatem in carcerem quôdam modo ipse së inclüserat. 13. aequâlium: c o n t e m p o r a r i e s . 14. consuetudine: i n t i m a c y . 15. locuplétium: o f w e a l t h y m e n .

16. quibus: dative of separation. 17. convenis: s tr a n g e r s .

Dionysius Teaches Damocles a Salutary Lesson

Q u am q u a m hic quidem tyrannus ipse jüdicàvit 12quam esset beatus. Nam cum quidam ex 34ëjus assentatoribus, Damoclës, com m em oraret in sermône copias ëjus, opës, m ajestatem dom inâtüs, rërum abundantiam , m agnificentiam aedium rëgiàrum , negâretque um quam beatiorem quem ­ quam fuisse, “Visne igitur,” inquit, “Ô Damocle, quoniam të haec vita dëlectat, ipse eam dëgustâre et fortünam experiri meam ?” Cum së ille cupere dixisset, collocari jüssit hominem in aureô lecto 4stràtô pulcherrim o textili stragulo, magnificis 5operibus picto, 6abacôsque com plürës ôrnàvit argentô aurôque caelâtô. Tum ad mënsam eximiâ form a puerôs dëlectôs jüssit consistere, eôsque nütum illius 7intuentës diligenter m inistrare. A derant 8unguenta, corônae, incendëbantur odôrës, m ënsae 9conquïsïtissimïs epulis exstruëbantur. Fortünâtus sibi Damoclës vidëbàtur. In hôc mediô 10apparàtü fulgentem gladium n ë lacünârï 12saetà equïnâ 13aptum dëm ittï jüssit, ut im pendëret illius beâtï 14cervïcibus. Itaque nec pulchrôs illôs m inistràtôrës aspiciëbat nec 15plënum artis ar­ gentum , nec m anum porrigëbat in mënsam; jam 16ipsae dëfluëbant corô­ nae; dënique exôrâvit tyrannum ut abire licëret, quod jam 17beatus nollet esse. Satisne vidëtur déclarasse Dionysius 18nihil esse 19ei beatum cui semper 1. Quamquam: A n d y et. 2. quam . . . beatus: Dionysius realized how unhappy he was. 3. ëjus: i . e., of Dionysius. 4. stràtô . . . stràgulô: c o v e r e d w i t h a

lo a d e d w ith ex q u isite ( ch o icest ) via n d s. apparàtü: d i s p l a y . ë lacünârï: f r o m t h e c e ilin g . saetà equïnâ: a h o r s e ’s hair.

5. operibus pïctô:

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

6.

16. ipsae dëfluëbant;

m o st b ea u tifu l w o v e n ta p estry. em b ro id e re d w ith d e ­ s ig n s . abacôsque . . . caelâtô: a n d a d o r n e d se v e ra l se rv in g ta b le s w ith e m b o s s e d s i l v e r a n d g o l d d is h e s .

7. intuentës: agrees with eôs. 8. unguenta: o i n t m e n t s . 9. conquisitissimis . . . exstruëbantur:

aptum: agrees with gladium. cervicibus: dative with impendëret. plénum . . . argentum: f u l l - o f - a r t ( w e l l w r o u g h t ) silv e r . slip p ed d o w n of th e m ­

s e lv e s .

17. beàtus: ironical. 18. nihil . . . cui: t h a t

t h e r e is n o h a p p i n e s s for th e m a n o v e r w h o m .

w ere

19. ei: antecedent of cui.

249

aliqui terror im pendeat? Atque 20eî në integrum quidem erat 21ut ad jüstitiam rem igraret, civibus libertatem et jüra redderet; 22eis enim së adulëscëns 23imprôvidâ aetâte 24irrëtierat erratis, 25eaque com m iserat 26ut salvus esse non posset si sânus esse coepisset. 20. el . . . quidem: 21.

f o r h i m [ D i o n y s i u s ] it w a s n o t e v e n w i t h i n h is p o w e r . ut . . . remigraret: t o r e tu r n t o j u s t i c e ;

result clause. 22. eïs = tâlibus, agreeing with erràtïs;

such

errors.

23. imprôvidâ aetâte: tive of time.

250

r e c k le s s

age;

abla­

24. irrëtierat: h a d e n s n a r e d . 25. ea commiserat: h a d c o m m i t t e d

such

deeds.

26. ut . . . coepisset: Cicero implies that it was too late for Dionysius to remain safe if he returned to virtuous dealing with his fellow men.

DE NATURA DEORUM In the Dë Nâtürà Deôrum we find contrasted the views held in regard to the gods by the different schools of philosophy—Epicurean, Stoic, and Academic. C. Velleius the Epicurean sets forth the views of the Epicureans—that happi­ ness is the chief good. Q. Lucilius Balbus speaks for the Stoics—that duty is the chief good. And C. Aurelius Cotta expresses the doubts of the members of the Academy, who, being skeptical, reserve their decision. The following selection, taken from Book III, asks if there is divine justicewhy good men so often suffer and wicked men prosper. Cotta the Academic, in trying to refute Lucilius Balbus’ contention that gods exist, points out, in general, the imperfections of creation and, in particular, the failure of men to get their just desserts in this life. W hy Do the Wicked Prosper?

1D ëbëbant illï quidem omnês bonôs efficere, si quidem hominum generi 2cônsulëbant. 1 3Sïn id minus, bonis quidem certë consulere dëbëbant. C ür igitur 4duo Scïpiônës, fortissimos et optimôs virôs, in Hispania Poenus oppressit? Cür 5Màximus extulit filium consularem? Cür 6Màrcellum H annibal interëm it? Cür 7Paulum Cannae sustulërunt? C ü r Poe­ norum crüdëlitàtï 8Rëgulï corpus est praebitum ? Cür 9Àfricànum domes­ tici parietës non tëxërunt? Sed haec 10vetera et alia perm ulta; n propiora videamus. Cür avunculus meus, vir innocentissimus idem que doctissimus, 12P. Rutilius, in exsilio est? Cür 13sodàlis meus interfectus domi suae, Drüsus? C ür tem perantiae 1. Dëbêbant . . . efficere: They [the gods] ought to have made. 2. cônsulèbant: cared for. 3. Sin id minus: But if not.

4. duo Scïpiônës: the two brothers, Publius and Gnaeus Scipio, were killed by the Carthaginians in Spain in 212 b .c. 5. Maximus: Quintus Fabius Maximus Cunctator showed his greatness in bear­ ing nobly the death of his son. 6. Marcellum: Marcus Claudius Marcellus, many times a consul, was killed in 209 b .c . by the forces of Hannibal. 7. Paulum: Lucius Aemilius Paulus, who fought and died at Cannae, although he disapproved of his partner’s decision to engage in the battle. 8. Rëgulî corpus: Regulus was cruelly tor­

9.

10. 11. 12.

13.

tured upon his return to Carthage after his failure to recommend to the Roman Senate an exchange of prisoners. Africanum: Scipio Africanus the Younger, head of the party of the aristo­ crats, was found dead in his own bed in 129 b .c . He was believed to have been murdered. vetera: sc. sunt. propiora: more recent. P. Rutilius: Publius Rutilius Rufus, al­ though he was distinguished for his up­ rightness in Asia, was charged with extortion by the tax collectors and un­ justly condemned. sodâlis meus: Cotta, speaking, was also a pontifex. Drusus was murdered because of his attempted reforms.

251

prüdentiaeque 14specimen ante 15simulâcrum Vestae pontifex mâximus est 16Q. Scaevola trucidatus? Cür ante etiam tot civitatis principes 17â Cinnâ interem pti? Cür omnium perfidiosissimus, C. Marius, 18Q. Catulum , praestantissim â dignitate virum, mori potuit jubere? Dies deficiat si velim num erare 19quibus bonis male ëvënerit, nec minus si commemorem quibus improbis optimë. Cür enim Marius, tam feliciter 20septimum consul, 21domï suae senex est m ortuus? Cür omnium crüdëlissimus tam diü Cinna 22rëgnàvit? 23At dedit poenas. Prohiberi melius fuit im pedlrlque në tot summos virôs interficeret quam ipsum 24aliquando poenas dare. 2JSummô cruciâtü suppliciôque 26Q. Varius, homô importünissimus, periit; si, quia 2'D rüsum ferrô, 28M etellum venënô sustulerat, illos conservari 29melius fuit quam poenas sceleris Varium pendere. D uodëquadràgintà annôs 30Dionÿsius tyrannus fuit opulentissim ae et beatissimae civitatis; 31quam multos ante hunc in ipso Graeciae flore 32Plsistratus! At 33Phalaris, at 34Apollodôrus poenas sustulit. Multis 35quidem 36ante cruciatis et necatis. E t praedônës saepe poenas dant; nec

14. specimen: p a t t e r n . 15. simulacrum Vestae: a statue of the god­ dess Vesta stood in the round temple at the corner of the Roman Forum. 16. Q. Scaevola: Quintus Scaevola, the younger jurist of that name, was killed in 82 b .c ., a victim of the civil war be­ tween Marius and Sulla. 17. à Cinnâ interempti: a reference to the massacre at Rome in 87 b .c. 18. Q. Catulum: Quintus Catulus, a former colleague of Marius in the consulship. He helped Marius conquer the Cimbri, but later incurred the enmity of Marius and was put on his proscription list in 87 b .c . Catulus committed suicide by inhaling charcoal gas. 19. quibus . . . ëvënerit: f o r w h a t g o o d m e n it t u r n e d o u t e v i l

( th e g o o d m e n v isite d

btj m i s f o r t u n e ).

20. septimum: f o r t h e s e v e n t h t i m e . This was the longest on record. 21. doml . . . mortuus: It would have been expected that a man of such violence would have died a violent death long before his actual death. 22. rëgnàvit: r u le ; Cinna wielded ruthless power at Rome from 87 to 84 b .c . 23. At . . . poenâs: B u t ( y o u w i l l s a y ) h e w a s p u n i s h e d . This is the imaginary reply of the reader. The author answers in the next sentence.

24. aliquando: f in a lly ( i n t u r n ) . 25. Summô . . . suppliciôque:

W ith th e g re a te st to rtu re a n d p u n is h m e n t ( m o st p a i n f u l t o r t u r e ) ; hendiadys; ablative of

manner. 26. Q. Varius: Quintus Varius, who was tribune in 91 b .c . and author of a law concerning treason* He was convicted by the application of his own law. ' 27. Drüsum ferrô: D r u s u s w i t h a d a g g e r ; ferrô: metonymy. 28. Metellum venënô: Quintus Caecilius Metellus Numidicus, victor over Ju­ gurtha. 29. melius fuit: it w o u l d h a v e b e e n b e t t e r . 30. Dionysius: cf. pages 248-250. 31. quam multos: sc. annôs. 32. Pisistratus: sc. tyrannus fuit. He ruled tyrannically at Athens intermittently from 560 to 527 b .c . 33. Phalaris: tyrant of Agrigentum. He had a brazen bull in which he used to burn alive those with whom he was dis­ pleased. 34. Apollodorus: tyrant of Cassandreia. He pretended to be the friend of the people until he gained their confidence, then he become a notorious tyrant. 35. quidem ante: Y e s i n d e e d , b u t n o t u n til. 36. ante: b e f o r e h a n d .

tam en possumus dicere non plürës captivos acerbe quam praedones necâtôs. 37Anaxarchum D em ocriteum à Cypriô tyranno excarnificatum 38accëpimus, 39Zënônem Eleae in torm entis necatum . 40Quid dicam dë 41Sôcrate, cüjus m orti illacrim ari soleô 42Platônem legëns?

37. Anaxarchum Democriteum: Anaxarchus, of the school of Democritus of Abdera. He was tortured to death by Nicocreon, king of Salamis, in Cyprus. 38. accëpimus: We have received (It is rerelated ). 39. Zënônem Eleae: Zeno of Elea, famous disciple of Parmenides, the philosopher. He was tortured to death by a tyrant.

40. Quid dicam: rhetorical question. 41. Socrate: Socrates, one of the wisest of Greek philosophers, was unjustly con­ victed of corrupting youth and of irreve­ rence toward the gods, and he was condemned to death. 42. Platonem: Plato, the Greek philosopher who immortalized Socrates in his Dia­ logues.

253

DE SENECTUTE The Catô Major, known familiarly as Dë Senectüte, was written in April of the year 44 b .c . It is a popular essay in Ethics, applying the principles of philosophy to the alleviation of what some consider one of life’s chief burdens, old age. Cicero at the time was sixty-two years old, and he dedicated his work to his lifelong friend, Atticus, who was three years older. In writing the Dë Senectüte, Cicero had a distinct political purpose. He wanted to stir up in his readers an admiration for that period of Roman history which he personally considered the Golden Age of Roman politics, the era of the Punic Wars. The personages in the conversation of Dë Senectüte were men who were famed for their connection with the Punic Wars—Cato the Elder, Scipio Africanus the Younger, and Laelius. At the time of the supposed con­ versation, Cato was eighty-four; Scipio, thirty-five; and Laelius, a little older. In the excerpt that follows, Cato the Elder is refuting the charge that old age takes away the capacity for enjoyment. He claims that old age has pleas­ ures far more refined and satisfying than those of sense. One of these pleasures is the exercise of influence, which old age will always possess if a well-spent youth has preceded. Cato answers the statement that old men’s tempers spoil their enjoyment by stating that this is the fault of character, not of age.

In Praise of Old Age

Sed Mn omni ôràtiône m em entote eam më senectütem laudâre, quae fundam entis adulescentiae cônstitüta sit. 12Ex quô efficitur, id quod ego mâgnô quondam 3cum assënsü omnium dixi, miseram esse senectütem , quae së ôràtiône dëfenderet. Non 456cànï nec rügae repente auctoritatem arripere possunt, sed honestë âcta superior aetâs °früctüs capit auctori­ tatis extrëmôs. 6Haec enim ipsa sunt 7honôràbilia, quae videntur levia atque commünia, 8salütàrï, appeti, dëcëdï, assurgi, dëdücï, redücï, cônsuli; quae et 1. in . . . ôràtiône: in ali my speech (in everything I say ). 2. Ex quô efficitur: And so it comes about ( From this is implied ). 3. cum assënsü omnium: with the assent of all ( universal agreement ). 4. cànï: sc. capilli; ellipsis. 5. früctüs . . . extrëmôs: receives the re­ wards of prestige at the last. 6. Haec: These [attentions]; the attention expressed in the following infinitives. 7. honorabilia: marks of honor.

254

8. saltitari: to be called on in the morning ( the morning call); appeti: to be sought out ( being sought after); dëcëdï: to be given precedence (precedence) ; assurgi: to be risen (having people rise for you); dëdücï, redücï: to be led from and to be led back ( being ecorted to and from [the Forum]); cônsulï: to be consulted ( being consulted ) ; dëcëdï and assurgï are intransitive verbs used impersonally in the passive.

apud nos et in aliis civitatibus, 9ut quaeque optime 10m orata est, ita dili­ gentissime observantur. 1’Lysandrum Lacedaem onium , cfijus modo feci mentionem, dicere âjunt solitum Lacedaem onem esse honestissimum domicilium senectütis; 1Jnüsquam enim tantum tribuitur aetati, nusquam est senectus honoratior. 13QuIn etiam 1’memoriae proditum est: cum Athenis ir,lüdïs quidam in theatrum grandis nâtü venisset, H:mâgnô cônsessü locum nusquam ei datum â suis civibus; cum autem ad Lacedaemonios accessisset, qui lëgàtï cum essent, certô in loco consederant, consurrexisse omnës illi dicuntur et 1‘senem sessum recepisse. Quibus cum â cünctô cônsessü lsplausus esset multiplex datus, 1!,dlxisse ex eis quendam Athenienses 20sclre, quae rëcta essent, sed facere nolle. M ulta in 21vestro collëgiô praeclara, sed hoc, dë quô agimus, in primis, quod, ut quisque aetâte 22antecëdit, ita ^sententiae principatum tenet, neque sôlum 24honôre antecëdentibus, sed eis etiam, qui cum imperio sunt, màjôrës nâtü augurës anteponuntur. Quae sunt igitur voluptàtës corporis cum auctoritatis praemiis com parandae? Quibus qui splendidë üsï sunt, ei mihi videntur 2r,fâbulam aetâtis 2(:perëgisse nec 27tam quam inexercitati histriônës in extrëmô âctü corruisse. At sunt môrôsl et anxii et Iracundi et diffîcilës senës. Si quaerimus, etiam avari; sed haec 2Smôrum vitia sunt, non senectütis. Ac môrôsitâs tam en et ea vitia, quae dixi, habent aliquid excüsàtiônis non illius quidem jüstae, sed quae probari posse videatur; contem ni së putant, dëspicï, illüdï; praeterea in fragili corpore odiosa omnis offënsiô est. Q uae tam en omnia dulciora fiunt et 2!,môribus bonis et artibus, idque cum 30in vita, tum in scaena intellegi potest ex eis fratribus, qui 31in 9. ut . . môràta est: nered

a s e a c h is b e s t m a n ­

( a s e a c h o b s e r v e s g o o d m a n n e r s ).

10. môràta: from môs, môris,

cu sto m , m a n ­

n er.

11. Lysandrum: L y s a n d e r , the Spartan gen­ eral, who humbled the Athenians. 12. nùsquam . . . honoratior: This statement is made direetly by Cato, instead of being quoted in indirect discourse as if from Lysander. 13. Quin etiam: A n d i n d e e d . 14. memoriae . . . est: it h a s b e e n h a n d e d d o w n to m e m o r y

( t h e r e is a s t o r y ).

15. lüdïs: f e s t i v a l , probably in honor of the Great Dionysia; ablative of time. 16. màgnô cônsessü: ablative absolute of concession. 17. senem sessum recepisse: o f f e r e d t h e o l d m a n a s e a t; sessum is a supine of scdeô, expressing purpose after recepisse used as a verb of motion. 18. plausus . . . multiplex: r e p e a t e d a p ­ p la u se .

19. dixisse: depending upon prôditum est. 20. scire . . . nolle: dependent upon dixisse. 21. vestrô collëgiô: sc. augurum; the col­ lege or board of augurs to which Cato belonged. In his time there were nine members. 22. antecêdit: sc. aliôs. 23. sententiae principatum: p r e c e d e n c e in d eb a te.

24. honore antecëdentibus: as regards office, past or present. 25. fâbulam aetâtis: d r a m a o f life. 26. perëgisse: t o h a v e p l a y e d . . . to its e n d . 27. tamquam . . . histriônës: lik e u n p r a c ­ t i c e d a c to r s .

28. môrum: o f c h a r a c te r . 29. môribus . . . artibus: 30. 31.

w ith g o o d h a b its a n d s k ills ( e d u c a t i o n ). in vita: in [r e a l] life. in Adelphis: in t h e A d e l p h i , an extant comedy of Terence (about 190-159 b .c.).

See page 282.

Adelphis sunt. Q uanta in altero diritas, in alterô cômitâs! 32Sïc së rës habet: ut enim non omne vinum, sic non omnis nàtüra vetustate coacescit. Severitatem in senectüte probô, sed eam, sicut alia, modicam, acerbita­ tem nüllô modo. 33Avàritia vërô senilis quid sibi velit, non intellego; potest enim quidquam esse absurdius quam 34quô viae minus restet, eô plüs viatici quaerere? 32. Sic . . . habet: So it is. 33. Avaritia . . . velit: But what senile avarice wishes for itself ( what sense avarice can have in an old man).

256

34. quo . . . quaerere: to seek more provi­ sions as one nears the journey's end; quo and eô are ablatives of degree of difference.

DE DIVINATIONE The Dë Dïvïnàtiône was one of Cicero’s last philosophical works. It is a dialogue in two books on divination, the means of foreseeing and foretelling the future. The question is whether the gods grant men such powers. Cicero and his brother Quintus are supposed to be at Cicero’s villa at Tuscu­ lum. They set forth the theory and practice of divination. In the first book, Quintus represents the Stoic point of view, defends divination, and gives an account of its development in Rome. In the following excerpt, he first cites the story of the consul Lucius Paulus, who had been chosen to wage war against King Perses. A remark uttered spontaneously by his little daughter Tertia was received by her father as a very fitting omen. Quintus then relates, through Lucius Flaccus, the high priest of Mars, an incident in which a conversation between Cecilia, the wife of Metellus, and her niece seems to forecast future events. Omens Verified by the Event

*L. Paulus consul iterum , cum el bellum ut cum 2rëge Perse gereret obtigisset, ut eà ipsâ dië domum ad vesperum rediit, filiolam suam T er­ tiam, quae tum erat adm odum parva, osculans animum advertit t r i s ­ ticulam. “Quid est,” inquit, “mea Tertia? Quid tristis es?” “Mi p ater,” inquit, “Persa periit.” Tum ille, artius puellam complexus, “Accipio,” inquit, “mea filia, om en.” E rat autem m ortuus catellus eô nomine. L. Flaccum , flaminem M artialem, ego audivi cum diceret Caeciliam 4M etelli, cum vellet sororis suae filiam in m atrim onium collocare, exisse in quoddam sacellum ominis capiendi causa, quod fieri more veterum solebat. Cum virgô stâret et Caecilia in sella sederet, neque diü ülla vôx exstitisset, puellam defatigatam petisse à m atertera ut sibi concederet paulisper ut in ëjus sella requiesceret, illam autem dixisse, “Vërô, mea puella, tibi concëdô meâs sëdës.” Quod ômen rës cônsecüta est; ipsa enim brevi m ortua est, virgô autem 5nüpsit cui Caecilia nüpta fuerat. H aec posse contem ni vel etiam rïdërï praeclàrë intellego, sed id ipsum est deôs non putare, quae ab eis sig­ nificantur contem nere. 1. L. Paulus consul iterum, cum: When Lucius Paulus was consul the second time; 168 b . c . 2. rëge Perse: King Perses.

3. tristiculam: a little sad. 4. Metelli: sc. uxorem. 5. nupsit: sc. ei.

257

DE AMICITIA The Laelius, or Dê Amïcitià, was probably written in June 44 b . c . Although it belongs to the ethical works of Cicero, it was written as a popular essay and deals with the aspects of friendship that would hold most appeal for readers in general. The imagined conversation takes place between Laelius and his sonsin-law Scaevola and Fannius a few days after the death of Scipio Africanus the Younger in 129 b . c . The chief speaker is Gaius Laelius, a distinguished states­ man, soldier, and one of the greatest patrons of literature that Rome ever produced. The friendship of Laelius and Scipio was renowned in their own era and immortalized by Cicero in the Dê Rë Püblicâ and in the Dë Amïcitià. Scaevola belonged to a family of lawyers. He was distinguished for his remarkable knowledge of law, his wit, and his learning, as well as his affa­ bility. Fannius served under Scipio in the Third Punic War. He was a man of letters and wrote a history which was mentioned by Cicero and Sallust. In the selection given here, we find the statement that without virtue friend­ ship cannot exist. The advantages and importance of friendship in both pros­ perity and adversity are pointed out. The V alue of Friendship

Est enim amicitia nihil aliud nisi omnium dîvînârum hüm ànàrum que rërum cum benevolentia et câritâte cônsënsiô; quâ quidem 1haud sciô an, excepta sapientia, nihil melius homini sit à dis im m ortalibus datum . Divitias alii praeponunt, bonam alii valëtüdinem , alii potentiam , alii 2honôrës, m ulti etiam voluptàtës. Bëluàrum 23hoc quidem 4*extrëmum; 5illa autem superiora 6cadüca et incerta, posita non tam in consiliis nostris quam in fortünae tem eritate. 1. haud sciô an: I a m i n c l i n e d to th in k . 2. honorés: 'political offices. 3. hoc: last-named, i.e. voluptàtës, p l e a s u re s; sc. est.

4. extremum: h i g h e s t a im . 5. ilia: those first-named. 6. cadüca et incerta: f l e e t i n g

a n d u nsta b le,

Virtue the Preserver of Friendship

Qui autem in virtüte Nummum bonum pônunt, p ra e d a rë “illi quidem , sed haec ipsa virtüs amicitiam et gignit et continet, nec sine virtüte 1. summum bonum: h i g h e s t g o o d . 2. illi: sc. faciunt; illi = Stoics and Peripa­ tetics; the Stoics were named from the painted stoa or portico in Athens, where Zeno, their founder, lectured; the Peri-

258

patetics were followers of Aristotle, and received their name from Aristotle’s habit of strolling about with his disciples in the Lyceum.

am icitia 123esse üllô pactô potest. 4Jam virtütem ex cônsuëtüdine vitae serm ônisque nostri interpretem ur, nec eam, 5ut quidam docti, verborum magnificentia, m ëtiâm ur; virôsque bonôs eôs qui habentur numeremus, 6Paulôs, Catônës, 7Gallôs, Scïpiônës, 8Philôs; hïs commünis vita contenta est; eôs autem om ittam us qui omnïnô nüsquam reperiuntur. 3. esse: e x ist. 4. Jam: T o p r o c e e d . 5. ut . . . doctï: a s

7. Gallos: Gaius Sulpicius Gallus, served c e r ta in

lea rn ed

m en

( p h i l o s o p h e r s ) ; sc. faciunt. 6. Paulos: the use of the plural to mean m e n lik e P a u l u s ; Lucius Aemilius Paulus

under Paulus. A famous astronomer, he predicted an eclipse. 8. Philos: Lucius Furius Philus, consul of the year 136 b .c ., was a friend and patron of Greek culture.

was the conqueror of Perseus, King of Macedonia, at Pvdna in 168 b .c . The A dvantages of Friendship

Tàlës igitur inter virôs amicitia tantâs ^p p o rtü n itàtës habet quantâs vix queô dicere. Principio 2qui potest esse vita 3“vïtàlis,” ut ait Ennius, quae non in amici m ütuà behevolentià conquiëscit? Quid dulcius quam habëre 4quicum omnia audeâs sic loqui ut tëcum ? 5Qui esset tantus früctus in 6prôsperïs rëbus, nisi habërës qui illïs 7aequë ac tü ipse gaudëret? 8Adversàs vërô ferre difficile esset sine eô qui illàs gravius etiam quam tü ferret. 1. 2. 3. 4.

opportünitàtës: a d v a n t a g e s . qui: h o w . vïtàlis: w o r t h liv in g . quïcum = quôcum; quïcum is used when the statement is general; quôcum, when

5. 6. 7. 8.

Quï: H o w . prosperis rëbus: p r o s p e r i t y . aequë ac: e q u a l l y as. Adversas: supply rës.

some individual is meant. Friendship Embraces Innum erable Blessings

D ënique cëterae rës quae expetuntur opportünae sunt singulae ^ëbus ferë singulis, divitiae 2ut ütàre, opës ut colâre, honôrës ut laudëre, voluptàtës ut gaudeâs, valëtüdô ut dolore careàs et m üneribus fungâre cor­ poris; am icitia rës plürim âs continet: quôquô të verteris, praesto est, 3nüllô locô exclüditur, num quam intem pestiva, num quam molesta est: itaque non aquâ, non igni, ut âjunt, locis plüribus ütim ur quam amicitia. N eque ego nunc dë V ulgari aut dë mediocri, quae tam en ipsa et dëlectat et prodest, sed dë vërà et perfecta loquor, quàlis 5eôrum qui pauci nom inantur fuit. Nam et secundas rës splendidiôrës facit amicitia, et 6adversâs partiëns com m ünicànsque leviôrës. 1. rëbus . . . singulis: poses

for in d iv id u a l p u r ­

( a s i n g l e e n d ).

2. ut ütàre: sc. els. 3. nüllô locô: ablative of separation. 4. vulgari: sc. amicitia.

5. eôrum quï pauci nominantur = eorum paucorum qui nominantur. 6. adversas . . . leviôrës: a n d a d v e r s i t y l i g h t e r b y d i v i d i n g a n d s h a r in g it.

259

DE OFFICIIS The Dë Officiis, a treatise on moral duties, has been called the best practical treatise on ethics that pagan antiquity produced. It was written in the last year of the author’s life and was addressed to his son, at that time a student at the university at Athens. The three books reflect Stoic teachings as well as Cicero’s own experiences and observations. The first book, which is considered the best, treats the virtues of wisdom, courage, justice, and self-control; the second deals with utility and its function; the third discusses the conflicts between what is morally good and what is useful. In the selection that follows, taken from Book III, Cicero notes examples of owners defrauding buyers by keeping silent about defects in the article to be sold. Here he cites the case of a schemer who, in order to sell a piece of value­ less property, skillfully arranges appearances of the estate so that it seems to be better than it is. The luckless buyer does not discover the deception until after the sale has been concluded.

An Ancient Swindle

Quod si V ituperandi sunt qui reticuerunt, quid dë eis existimandum est 12quï ôràtiônis vanitatem adhibuerunt? C. Canius, çques Rômânus, nec infacetus et satis litteratus, cum sê Syràcüsàs otiandi, ut ipse dicere solëbat, non negotiandi causa contulisset, dictitabat sê hortulos aliquos emere velle quô invitare amicôs et ubi së oblectare sine interpellatoribus posset. Quod cum 3percrëbruisset, Pythius 4ei quidam , 5qui argentariam fa­ ceret Syràcüsïs, vënâlës quidem së hortôs non habëre, sed licëre 6ütï 7Caniô, si vellet, ut suis, et simul ad cënam hom inem in hortos invitavit in posterum diem. Cum ille 8prômïsisset, tum Pythius, qui esset ut A rgen­ tarius apud omnës ôrdinës 10gràtiôsus, piscàtôrës ad së convocavit et ab eis petivit ut ante suôs hortulôs postrïdië piscarentur, dïxitque quid eôs facere vellet. 1. vituperandi sunt:

th e y

ought

to

be

2. qui . . . adhibuerunt:

who

have

em ­

p lo y e d u n tru th .

3. percrëbruisset: h a d 4. ei: sc. dixit. 5. qui . . . faceret: b u s in e s s .

260

6. üti:

sc.

bis hortis.

7. Caniô: dative with licëre.

b la m ed .

8. promisisset:

had

p ro m ise d

c e p te d ). b een sp rea d abroad. who

d id a

b a n k in g

9. argentarius: b a n k e r . 10. grâtiôsus : f a v o r e d .

(h a d

ac­

Ad cenam 11tem porî venit Canius; 12opipare à Pythio 3apparàtum convivium, cum barum ante oculôs l4m ultitüdô; 15prô së quisque quod ceperat afferebat, ante pedës Pythi pisces abjiciebantur. Tum Canius, “Quaeso,” inquit, 16“quid est hoc, Pythi? tantum ne pis­ cium? tantum ne cum barum ?” E t ille, “Q uid m irum ?” inquit, “hôc locô est Syràcüsïs quidquid est piscium, 1(hic aquâtiô, hac villa isti lscarëre non possunt.” Incensus Canius cupiditate contendit à Pÿthiô ut venderet; gravate ille primo; quid m ulta? im petrat. Em it horno cupidus et locuples tanti quanti Pythius voluit; et ém it 19ïnstrüctôs; 20nômina facit, negotium conficit. Invitat Canius postridie familiârës suôs, vênit ipse m àtürë; 21scalmum nüllum videt, quaerit ex proximo vicino num fëriae quaedam piscatorum essent, quod eôs nüllôs vidëret. “Nüllae, quod sciam,” inquit; “sed hic piscari nüllï solent; itaque heri m irabar quid accidisset.” 22Stom achârï Canius; sed quid faceret? nondum enim 23C. Aquilius, collëga et familiaris meus, protulerat 24dë dolô malô formulas; in quibus ipsis cum ex eô quaererëtur quid esset dolus malus, respondëbat cum esset 25aliud simulatum, aliud actum. Hoc quidem sànë lüculentë ut ab hom ine perïtô dëfïniendï. Ergô et Pythius et omnës aliud agentës, aliud simulantës perfidi, improbi, malitiosi. Nüllum igitur eorum factum potest ütile esse, cum sit tot vitiis 26inquinàtum . 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

tempori: o n t i m e . opiparê: s u m p t u o u s l y . apparatum: sc. erat. multitudo: sc. erat. prô së: f o r h i m s e l f . quid est hoc: w h a t d o e s th is m e a n ? hic aquâtiô: t h i s is a r e g u la r w a t e r i n g

see a th o le p in

22. 23.

p la ce.

18. carëre non possunt:

21. scalmum . . . videt:

cannot

get

a lo n g

w ith o u t.

19. instructos: e q u i p m e n t . 20. nomina facit: h e m a k e s

the e n try ( e n ­ te re d th e a m o u n t onth e accou n t h o o k ).

24. 25. 26.

he d id not even ( n o t a s ig n o f a b o a t ) ;

a tholepin was a peg, an oarlock, to which an oar was strapped. Stomachari: w a s f u r io u s ; historical in­ finitive, used instead of the imperfect in lively description. C. Aquilius: G a i u s A q u i l i u s , the jurist, who was praetor with Cicero in 66 b . c . dë dolô malô: f o r c r im in a l f r a u d . aliud . . . àctum: p r e t e n d i n g o n e t h i n g , p r a c t i c i n g a n o th e r . inquinatum: t a i n t e d .

261

CICERO THE RHETORICIAN It is not surprising that the greatest orator of the Roman world should mani­ fest his interest in the theory of his art by writing a series of works outlining the theory and practice of public speaking. All of these have survived to our time. The following is a complete list of these works: 84 55

b .c.

Dë Inventione Rhëtoricâ, two books completed by the author as a

b .c.

youth. Dë Ôràtôre, three books, in dialogue form, on the education of the

orator and the theory of oratory. 46

b .c .

Dë Claris Ôrâtôribus (B rutus), one book, giving a history of Roman

oratory, with a preliminary sketch of the eloquence of the Greeks. Ôràtor, one book, depicting the ideal orator. 46 or 45 D ë Partitione Ôrâtôriâ, question-and-answer discussion on public b .c. speaking. 44 b .c. Topica, a compendium of the sources from which the orator can draw

his arguments. Dë Optimô Genere Ôràtôrum , a preface to translations—now lost—that

Cicero had made of two celebrated Greek orations by Demosthenes and Aeschines. The preface treats of the Attic and the Asiatic styles.

DE CLARIS ORATORIRUS The Dë Claris Ôrâtôribus, a history of Greek and Roman oratory, is also known as the Brütus because Cicero addressed it to his friend, Marcus Junius Brutus. Cicero gives comments on individual orators and even includes an interesting description of his own style. The following selection is taken from the close of the dialogue, where Cicero gives an account of his own study, training, and experience as an orator.

Cicero's Training in Oratory

Eram cum Stôicô Diodotô, qui, cum habitavisset apud më m ëcum que Vixisset, nüper est domi Jmeae mortuus. À quô cum in aliis rëbus tum studiôsissimë in Mialecticâ exercëbar, quae quasi contracta et 4astricta 1. vixisset: h a d l i v e d ; this word implies close intimacy, which the word habi­ tavisset ( h a d m a d e h is r e s i d e n c e ) does not.

2. meae: genitive to agree with the locative doml. 3. dialectica: lo Og ic . 4. astricta: c o m p r e s s e d .

eloquentia p utanda est; sine quà °etiam tü, Brüte, judicasti të illam jüstam eloquentiam , quam dialecticam dilatatam esse putant, consequi non posse. H uic ego 6doctôrî et 7ëjus artibus variis atque multis ita eram tam en deditus ut ab exercitationibus ôràtôriïs nüllus dies vacuus esset. 8C om m entabar declam itans, sic enim nunc loquuntur, saepe cum M ârcô Pisone et cum Quïntô Pompëjô aut cum aliquo cotidie; idque faciebam m ultum etiam Latine, sed Graece saepius, vel quod Graeca ôràtiô plüra ôrnâm entô suppeditans cônsuëtüdinem similiter Latlnë dicendi afferëbat, vel quod à Graecis 9summls doctôribus, nisi Graecë dicerem, neque corrigi possem neque docërï. 5. etiam tü, Brüte: y o u , t o o , B r u t u s ; this is addressed to M. Junius Brutus, one of the interlocutors. Later Brutus joined Cassius, as they became leaders of the Lïberàtôrës, who assassinated Julius Caesar.

6. doctor!: t e a c h i n g . 7. ëjus . . . multis: t o h i s v a r i o u s a n d m a n y su b je c ts, such as philosophy, mathe­ matics, and music. 8. Commentabar: I u s e d t o p r a c t i c e . 9. summis: f o r e m o s t .

Beginning of Legal Practice

xTum prïm um nos ad causas et prlvâtâs et püblicàs adire coepimus, non ut in Forô discerëmus, quod plërîque fëcërunt, sed ut, -quantum nos efficere potuissëmus, Moctï in Forum venïrëmus. Eôdem tem pore 1234Molônï dedim us operam; dictatore enim Sullâ lëgàtus ad senâtum dë Rhodiorum ’praemiis vënerat. Itaque prim a causa püblica, prô Sexto Rôsciô dicta, tantum com m endationis habuit 6ut non ülla esset quae non 7dïgna nostrô 8patrôciniô vidërëtur. Deinceps inde m ultae quàs non diligenter ëlabôrâtâs et tam quam °ëlücubrâtâs afferëbàmus. 1. Turn prïmum: Cicero’s first extant ora­ tion, Prô Quïnctiô, was delivered in 81 B.C. 2. quantum . . . potuissëmus: a s f a r a s p o ssib le .

3. docti: t r a i n e d . 4. Molônï: Molo of Rhodes, a famous teacher, a Greek rhetorician, teacher of Cicero.

5. praemiis: r e i m b u r s e m e n t , for their losses in the Mithridatic Wars. 6. ut non ülla [causa]: t h e r e i v a s n o [ c a s e ] . 7. dlgna: f i t t i n g . 8. patrocinio: a d v o c a c y . 9. ëlücubrâtàs: s m e l l i n g o f t h e m i d n i g h t o il.

Study in Athens

Itaque cum essem biennium versatus in causis, et jam in Forô cele­ bratum meum nôm en esset, Rômâ sum profectus. Cum vënissem Athënâs, sex mënsës cum Antiocho, Veteris Acadëmïae nobilissimo et prüdentis1. veteris Acadëmïae: o f t h e O l d A c a d e m y ; the teachers of the Academic philosophy were divided into three distinct groups,

and were known as the Old, Middle, and New Academy, respectively,

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simô philosopho, fui, stucliumque philosophiae, num quam intermissum, à prïm àque adulescentia cultum et sem per auctum , hoc rürsus summô 2auctôre et doctôre renovavi. Eôdem tam en tem pore Athenis 3apud Dem etrium Syrum, veterem et 4nôn Ignobilem dicendi magistrum, studiose exerceri solebam. 2. auctore: guide. 3. apud: under the direction of.

4. non Ignobilem: litotes.

S t u d y in t h e P r o v i n c e o f A s i a

Post 1à më Asia tôta peragrata est, fuïque cum summis quidem ora­ toribus, quibuscum exercebar 2ipsls libentibus; quorum erat princeps M enippus Stratonicensis meô jüdiciô tôtâ Asia tem poribus disertissimus; et si 3nihil habere molestiarum nec ineptiarum Atticorum est, hic ôrâtor in illis num erari rëctë potest. Assiduissimë autem mëcum fuit Dionysius 4Màgnës; erat etiam Aeschylus 5Cnidius, nec m anendi fida et cum discesserit allàtüra m aerorem ? Quod si nec ex arbitrio retinërï potest et 6calamitôsôs fugiëns facit, quid 1. 2. 3. 4.

Quae: She. ludentem: sc. eam. tranquillitatis: sc. causa. quam . . . relïctüram [esse]: that she will not abandon him; indirect discourse.

332

5. nec . . . fida: not sure of staying (of whose stay you are not sure).

6. calamitosos . . . facit: fleeing makes [them] miserable,

est aliud ‘fugâx quam futürae quoddam calamitatis indicium? Neque enim quod ante oculos situm est suffecerit intuërï; rêrum exitüs prüdentia m etitur eadem que sin alterutro m ütâbilitâs 9nec form idandas fortünae minas nec exoptandas facit esse blanditias. Postrëmô aequo animô toleres oportet quidquid intrà fortünae 10aream geritur, cum semel jugô ëjus colla submiseris. Fortünae të regendum dedisti: dominae moribus oportet obtem perës. Tü vërô volventis rotae im petum retinëre cônâris? At, om­ nium m ortalium “ stolidissime, si m anëre incipit fors esse dësistit. 7. fugax: a transitory thing (fickle fortune).

8. in alterutro: on both sides. 9. nec formidandas: not to be feared; gerundive.

10. aream: scope (reach). 11 . stolidissime: most stupid (foolish); voc-

ative.

T H E M ED IEV A L P E R IO D 6th TO 14th CENTURIES During this period Latin was the international language of Europe. It was the living language of the Christian Church and of medieval scholars. Latin writing was vital and varied. Religious treatises, histories, romances, anecdotes, dramas, and sacred and secular poetry were produced, sometimes in very excellent classical Latin, sometimes in Latin modified by the changes that had slipped into the language because of natural growth and development in customs and ideas. During the first three centuries of the Medieval Period, vulgar Latin was undergoing such changes that it could hardly be recognized as Latin at all. De­ clensional endings were lost, prepositions were used more frequently, auxiliary verbs were introduced, and the rules of classical Latin writing were radically changed. The Romance languages had begun. Gregory of Tours: The Historian of the Barbarians

Gregory of Tours (538-594) was born in Auvergne, France, of an illustrious family. Since the educational opportunities of that period were seriously limited, his education was also limited, although he seems to have read some of the Latin classics. His chief production is The History of the Franks, in ten books. This History was the last great book written in Latin while Latin was still the language of the people. From the viewpoint of history, the work is of great value because it presents a vivid description of the life and ideas of an age poor in literary products. The History is likewise of importance because it gives us a specimen of the Latin language in the period of its decline. The first two books of Gregory’s History are based on the works of earlier writers; the remaining eight books, on earlier experience. The story of Attalus, like other stories found in the History, is related with simplicity and vigor. 333

THE STORY OF ATTALUS 1Theudericus et Childebertus foedus iniêrunt et, datô sacram ento, ut neuter contra alterum ageret, obsides invicem acceperunt, quô facilius firm arentur quae dicta essent. Multi tunc fïliï senâtôrum in hâc obsidi­ one dati sunt; sed ortô iterum inter rëgës 1234scandalô, ad servitium püblicum sunt addicti, et quivis eôs ad cüstôdiendum accëpit. Multi tamen ex eis per fugam lapsi, in patriam rediërunt; non nüllï in servitio sunt retenti. Inter quôs Attalus, nepôs Gregôrï, 56L ingonicï principis, 6ad püblicum servitium 7m ancipâtus est cüstôsque equôrum 8dëstinâtus [est]. 9E rat enim intrâ 10TrëvericI term ini 1Territôriô cuidam barbarô serviëns. Dënique Gregorius ad inquirendum eum puerôs dëstinàvit, qui, eô inventô, obtulërunt barbarô münera. Sed barbarus respuit ea, dlcëns, “Hic puer tâlï genere decem auri libris redimi dëbet. Quibus redeunti­ bus, Leô quidam ex coquina domini sui ait: “Si mihi perm ittas, fortasse, possim eum redücere dë captivitate.” Gâvisô autem domino, Leô 1-dïrëctus vënit ad locum voluitque puerum clam abstrahere sed non potuit. Tunc conducto homine quôdam, Leô ei ait: “Veni m ëcum et vënum dà më in domô barbari illius, sitque tibi lucrum pretium meum, modo liberi­ orem aditum habeam faciendi id quod dëcrëvï.” Acceptô sacramento, horno abiit et, Leone vënditô duodecim aureis, discessit. Ëm ptor Leonem rogavit quid operis sciret, et ille respondit: “In omni­ bus quae 13m andücàrï dëbent in mënsïs dominorum, perïtissimus sum, nec timeô në quisquam reperïrï possit similis mel in hâc scientiâ. Vërum dïcô tibi, etiam si rëgï epulâs cupias më parâre, fercula rëgàlia componere më posse nec quisquam 14më melius.” At ille: “Ecce 15diës sôîis adest; 1Gin hâc dië, vïcïnî et parentés meï invitâbuntur in domum meam. Rogô ut faciâs mihi epulâs quod admïrentur et dïcant: Tn domü rëgis melius non aspëximus.’ ” Et Leô: Jubeat dominus meus,” inquit, 17“pullôrum gallïnâceôrum m ultitüdinem et faciam quae praecipis.” Praeparâtïs eïs, quae dixerat puer, 1sillôxit sôlis diës fëcitque Leô epulâs mâgnâs. Epulantibus autem 1. Theudericus . . . Childebertus* sons of Clovis, first King of France. 2. obsidione: state of being a hostage. 3. scandalo: quarrel. 4. ad . . . addicti: They were made public slaves and assigned by the king to his subjects. 5. Lingonici principis: a leader in Langres, a city of France. 6. ad . . . servitium: dative in classical Latin. 7. mancipatus est = vënumdatus est. 8. dêstinâtus [est] : was appointed.

9. Erat . . . serviëns = serviëbat, in classical Latin. 10. Trëvericî termini: of the boundary ( country ) of Trêves, now Trier. 11. territôriô: within the district. 12. dïrëctus: straightway (immediately). 13. manducari = edi. 14. më: ablative of comparison. 15. diës sôlis: Sunday. 16. in hâc dië ' hâc dië. 17. pullôrum gallïnâceôrum: of young chickens.

18. illüxit: dawned.

om nibus et laudantibus prandium , parentés illius discesserunt. Dominus puerô grâtiâs dedit, et hic accepit potestatem super omnia quae habebat dominus suus, 1920d ïligëbatque eum valdë et omnibus qui sëcum erant 20ipse 21dispënsàbat cibum. Post anni vërô cursum, cum jam sëcürus esset dominus 22illîus dë 22eô, abiit in prâtum , qui erat 23domI proximus, cum Attalo puerô, cüstôde equôrum ; et dëcum bëns in terra cum eô longë, aversis dorsis, në cog­ noscerentur simul, dicit puerô: “Tem pus est ut jam côgitâre dë patriâ dëbeàm us. Moneô të ut hac nocte, cum equôs ad claudendum addüxeris, në somnô të dës, sed cum prim um të vocâverô, am bulëm us.” Vocaverat enim barbarus ille multos ad epulas inter quôs erat gener illius. M edia autem nocte, eïs à convivio surgentibus et së quiëtï dantibus, Leô secütus est generum domini sui cum 24pôtü. Ait ad eum homô: “Dic tii, serve soceri mei, quando voluntatem adhibëbis, ut, assümptïs equis ëjus, eâs in patriam tuam ?” Hoc quasi jocô dixit. Similiter ille joculariter respondëns vëritàtem ait: “H àc nocte dëlïberô.” E t ille: “U tinam ,” inquit, “cùstôdiant më famuli mel, në aliquid dë rëbus mels assùmâs.” Et rïdentës discessërunt. D orm ientibus autem cünctïs, vocâvit Leô Attalum, stràtïsque equïs, interrogavit num habëret gladium. Respondit: “Non est mihi necesse, nisi tantum lancea parvula.” At Leô ingressus mânsiônem domini sui, appre­ hendit scütum ëjus ac gladium. Domino interrogante quis esset aut quid sibi vellet, Leô respondit: “Ego sum Leô, servus tuus, et suscito Attalum ut surgat velôcius et dëdûcat equôs ad pastum; dëtinëtur enim somnô quasi 25ëbrius.” Qui ait: “Fac ut libet.” E t haec dïcëns, dormivit. Ille vërô ëgressus foris, m ünïvit puerum armis, invënitque jànuàs àtrï divinitus 26reserâtâs. Sümptls reliquis equïs sëcum, discessërunt, ünum 27volùcrum cum vestim entis tollentës. Venientës ad Mosam fluvium, ut transirent, relïctïs equïs et vestimentis, natantës super scüta, in ülteriôrem ëgressï sunt rïpam, et inter obscüram noctem ingressi silvâs, latuërunt. T ertia nox advënerat; etiam nüllum cibum gustantës iter faciëbant. T unc reperta arbore plënà pômïs, quae vulgô prüna vocant, edunt, et sustenâtï, ingressi sunt iter Cam paniae. Qui pergentës, audiunt 28pedibulum equôrum currentium dïxëruntque: “Nos prosternam us in terram në appaream us hom inibus venientibus.” Vërum cum vënissent in locum illum, restitërunt, et hôs repperissent, si nox obstaculum non praebuisset. Tum, môtls equïs, discessërunt. 19. dïligëbatque: sc. dominus. 20. ipse: Leo.

21. dispensabat = distruëbat. 22. dlïus, eô: both pronouns refer to Leo. 23. doml = domui.

24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

pôtü: drink. ëbrius: drunk. reserâtâs = non seràtàs: unlocked. volücrum: roll. pedibulum: noise of feet.

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29Hï autem nocte ipsâ ad urbem pervenerunt, ingressïque invenerunt hominem qui eis domum Pauli 30comitis indicavit pulsantësque jânuam comitis ingressi sunt. Dïxitque Leô comiti: Nos rogâmus ut nobis ali­ quid cibi dès; quattuor dies nihil panis gustavimus. Occultatis autem pueris, praebuit eïs pânem et vinum. Secütusque est barbarus, iterum quaerens pueros; sed illüsus à comite, regressus est. Comes enim amicitiam cum Gregôriô antiquam habebat. Tunc resümptïs pueri cibô viribus, per duos diës in domô comitis commorantes, discessërunt, et sic üsque ad Gregôrium pervënërunt. Gavisus autem, visis pueris, flëvit super collum Attali, nepotis sui. Leonem autem à jugô servitütis absolvëns cum omni familia suâ, dedit ei terram propriam, in quâ cum uxore ac liberis liber vixit omnës diës vitae suae. 29. HI: Leo and Attalus.

30. comitis: count.

Isidore of Seville: Seventh-Century Scholar

Isidore of Seville (c. 560-636) was a famous and influential scholar. Even at an early age he was an excellent student. Eventually he set forth his unusual fund of knowledge in digests or encyclopedias, which contained a vast amount of information on historical and scientific subjects. The number of manuscripts of his works probably surpassed that of any other text except the Bible. His Etymologiae sive Origines (Etymologies or Origins) was his most important work, and it became one of the most influential reference books of the Middle Ages. In fact, there is scarcely a work of any size produced at that period which does not show that its author was familiar with Isidore’s work. Professing to give information on a great variety of subjects, the author first treated each particular subject etymologically and then proceeded to give a variety of historical and descriptive matter. He used, where feasible, quota­ tions from the classical writers. Most of the information is interesting, although not always scientifically correct. Because he himself had been an ardent stu­ dent of the classics, his Latin is essentially correct classical Latin. The following selection, which is taken from Etymologiae sive Origines, is a discussion of day and night. It must be remembered that the author was writing during the Middle Ages, when scientific knowledge depended entirely upon man s personal powers of observation. At that time the telescope and other astronomical instruments had not been invented. What little informa­ tion Isidore had, he acquired from his reading of the ancient Latin classics. DAY AND NIGHT Diës est praesentia sôlis; sïve soi supra terras, sicut nox est sol sub terris. Ut diës aut nox sit, causa est aut suprà terram soi, aut sub terris. Diës lëgitimus habet vïgintl quattuor hôràs, üsque dum diës et nox spatia sul 1. Ut: Granted that.

336

cursüs ab oriente sole üsque ad alium orientalem sôlem caeli volübilitàte conclüdunt. 2Abüsïvë ünus dies est spatium ab oriente sole üsque ad occidentem . Sunt diëï spatia duo, 3interdiànum atque nocturnum ; et est dies quidem hôràrum vïgintï quattuor, spatium hôràrum duodecim. Vocâtus est diës à parte meliôre. Diës secundum Aegyptios incohat ab occàsü sôlis; secundum Persâs ab ortü sôlis; secundum Athëniënsës à sextâ hôrâ diëï; secundum Rômànôs â m edia nocte. Diës diet! sunt â dels, quorum nômina Rômânï quibusdam sideribus sacrâvërunt. Prim um diem â Sole appellàvërunt, qui princeps est omnium siderum, sicut et idem diës caput est cünctôrum diërum; secundum â Lima, quae Sôlï et splendore et m àgnitüdine proxima est, et ex eô m ütuat lümen; tertium ab 4stellà Mârtis, quae Vesper vocâtur; quârtum ab stella °Mercuriï, quam quidem candidum circulum dicunt; quintum ab stella Jovis, quam Phaethontem âjunt; sextum â Veneris stella, quam Lüciferum 6asserunt, quae inter omnia sidera 7plüs lücis habet. Septimus ab stella Saturni, quae triginta annis fertur explëre cursum suum. Proinde ex his septem stellis nômina diërum 8gentïlës dedërunt, quod existim arent per eôsdem aliquid sibi effici, dïcentës së habëre â Sole spiri­ tum, â lünà corpus, â M ercurio ingenium et linguam, â Venere volup­ tatem , â M arte sanguinem, â Jove tem perantiam , â Sâturnô 9hümôrem. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Abüsïvë: Incorrectly. interdianum: daily (interval). stellâ: star ( planet). Mercurii = Mercuri.

6. 7. 8. 9.

asserunt: assert (call). plus lücis: most light. gentiles: pagans. hümôrem: fluids.

The Venerable Bede: The Father of English History

The boy destined to be known to posterity as the father of English history was born in 672 or 673 in Northumberland, England. At the age of seven, Bede entered the monastic school of Jarrow. He was a natural scholar and once wrote of himself that it was a delight to learn and teach and write. In his historical, theological, and scientific writings, Bede collected all the learning available (especially from Jerome, Augustine, Cassiodorus, and Isi­ dore), thus bridging the gap between the second and the seventh centuries. It was through him that the early Christian and Roman culture came to the Middle Ages. He gave this learning to his countrymen, the Anglo-Saxons, who later carried it to the countries of the continent. This was possible because he wrote in Latin, and Latin was the only language of education in the countries of Western Europe. Bede's most important and famous work was The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. Although entitled a history of the Church, it ’is an accurate and entertaining account of historical events from the invasion of Britain in 55 b . c . b y the Romans under Julius Caesar to the beginning of the reign of Ceolwulf, King of Northumbria in a .d . 731, to whom the Preface is addressed. 337

The following description of the Britain of the seventh and the eighth centuries is taken from the first chapter of the first book of The Ecclesiastical History of the English Nation. A DESCRIPTION OF BRITAIN Britannia, Ocean! Insula, cui quondam Albion nômen fuit, inter septen­ triones et occidentem locâta est, Germaniae, Galliae, Hispaniae, maximis Europae partibus adversa, quam quam ab illis m ultô intervallo divisa est. Haec Insula per milia passuum O ctingenta 2in boream longa, lata est milia passuum ducenta. H abet 3â meridie Galliam Belgicam; à tergô autem unde Oceano Infinito patet, 4Orcadas Insulas habet. Opima est frügibus atque arboribus Insula, et alendis apta pecoribus ac jümentïs; vineas quibusdam in locis germinat; et avium ferâx terra m anque generis diversi; fluviis quoque plerum que piscosis ac fontibus praeclara copiosis est et praecipue 5salmone abundat et anguilla. C api­ untur autem saepissime et vituli marini et delphines, 6nec non et balaenae; Oonchÿlia inveniuntur variorum generum, inter quae sunt müsculae, quibus includuntur saepe m argaritae, omnis coloris optim ae, id est, et rubicundi, et purpurei, et 8jacintinl, et prasini, sed maxime candidi. Sunt et cocleae satis abundantes, quibus tïnctüra 9coccineI coloris facitur, cüjus rubor pulcherrimus nüllô um quam sôlis ârdôre aut plu­ viarum 10hümôre pallescere; sed quô vetustior est, eô solet esse clarior. Insula Britannia habet fontes aquarum n salsarum; habet et fontes calidos, et ex eis fluvios aquarum calidarum; balinea calida, accommoda omni aetati et sexui in disjimctls locis aedificata sunt. Aqua calonem recipit, cum per certa metalla currit, et non sôlum calida fit, sed ^effer­ vescit. Haec Insula etiam copiam metallorum, aeris, ferri, plum bi, argenti habet; gignit et gagatem plûrimum optim um que. Hic lapis est nigrôgemmeus et incensus serpentes fugat; 13attrïtü calefactus haec applicita detinet. 1. 2. 3. 4.

octingenta: eight hundred. in boream: northward. à merldië: to the south. Oreadas: Orkney; on the opposite side of Britain lie the Orkney isles. 5. salmône: in salmon. 6. nee non: and also.

7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

conchylia: shellfish. jacintinl: violet. coccinei: of scarlet. hümôre: moisture. salsârum: salt. effervescit: boils. attrïtü: by rubbing.

Fredegarius: Unknown Chronicler of the Seventh Century Nothing is known of Fredegarius, except that he wrote a chronicle of events which was intended to be a continuation of Gregory of Tours’ history up to the seventh century. This chronicle includes events that took place in the 338

period from 581 to 642. Several supplements under the name of Fredegarius continue the history from 642 to the year 768, i.e. to the period of Charle­ magne in the eighth century, but these supplements are actually the work of other chroniclers. Fredegarius’ work is valuable today because it contains facts of a period of history which would otherwise have been obscure. His chronicle is more than just annals. It often narrates human interest details that are fascinating. The Latin, however, is poor and far removed from the usual standards of classical Latin. THE SARACENS AND THEIR CONQUESTS S aracën ï, à latere montis 12Caucasï, super mare Caspium, terram Ercôliae ôlim considentes, cum in nimiâ m ultitüdine crevissent, tandem arma süm entës provincias 3H ëraclï imperatoris ad vastandum 45irruunt; con­ tra quôs Hëraclïus mïlitës °ad resistendum dïrëxit. Cum pügnâre coepis­ sent, Saracënï mïlitës superant, eôsque gladiô graviter trucidant. Fertur in eô proelio centum quinquaginta milia militum à Saracënïs esse inter­ fecta. Praedam eôrum Saracënï per lëgàtôs Hëraclïô offerunt. Hëraclïus, vindictam super Saracënôs cupiëns, nihil ab his recipere voluit. Congre­ gata undique dë Universis provinciis imperl mâximà m ultitüdine militum, trànsm ittëns Hëraclïus lëgàtiônem ad 6*P ortâs Caspiâs, quàs Alexander M âgnus ‘M acedô super mare Caspium 8aereàs fier! et seràrï jüsserat, 9propter inundationem gentium saevissimarum, quae ültrà montem Caucasi culminis habitabant, easdem portas Hëraclïus eôs aperire praecëpit, indeque centum quinquaginta milia 10pügnàtôrum aurôque loca­ torum n auxiliô suô contra Saracënôs ad pügnandum m ittit. Saracënï, duos habentës prïncipës, ducenta ferë milia erant. Cum castra 12nec procul inter së exercitus uterque 13posuissent, ita ut in crastinum bellum inirent, eàdem nocte gladiô morbi Hëraclï exercitus percutitur. In castris quinquaginta et duo milia ex militibus Hëraclï in viis m ortui sunt. Cum in crâstinô dëbërent ad proelium ëgredï, cernentës 1. Saracënï: the Saracens, a people of Arabia Felix. 2. Caucasi: Caucasus; the Caucasus Moun­ tains are between the Black and the Caspian Seas. 3. Hëraclï imperatoris: of the Emperor He radius.

4. irruunt: overran; historical present. 5. ad resistendum: ad with the gerund ex­ pressing purpose; used absolutely. 6. Portas Caspiâs: the Caspian Gates, the narrow pass between the Caucasus and the sea.

7. Macedô: the Macedonian, Alexander the Great; Macedonia was a country be­ tween Thessaly and Thrace in Greece. 8. aereas: brass; agrees with Portas. 9. propter inundationem: on account of the inundation (to check the invasion). 10. pügnàtôrum: of warriors.

11. auxiliô suô: dative of purpose. 12. nec . . . së: quite near one another; litotes. 13. posuissent: plural to agree with exercitus singular, but meaning both armies.

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eôrum exercitüs milites partem màximam m ortuam , adversus Saracënôs nec ausi sunt inire proelium. Regressus est omnis exercitus H ëraclï ad proprias sëdës. Saracëni 14môre quô coeperant prôvinciâs H ëraclï im pera­ toris assiduë vâstâre pergëbant. Cum jam Hierosolymam propinquâssent, Hëraclïus së eôrum violentiae non posse resistere vidit. Posteâ â febre vexatus crüdeliter vitam finivit. 1;jCui successit Constantinus, filius ëjus, cüjus tem pore 16pars püblica â Saracënïs nimium vàstâtur. 14. more: according to custom (as was their custom ); ablative of accordance.

15. Cui: dative after successit. 16. pars püblica: the Roman Empire.

Paul the Deacon: Scholar of Charlemagne's Court

Paulus Diaconus (Paul Warnefried), a Lombard, lived in the eighth century, but the exact dates of his birth and death are unknown. In his youth, he received an unusually good education, became a Benedictine monk some time prior to 782, and lived at the celebrated monastery at Monte Cassino. While there he became acquainted with Charlemagne and went to his court to plead for the release of a brother from captivity. Paulus was successful in his attempt and remained at court for several years, where he became one of the scholars who assisted Charlemagne in the revival of learning. In 787 he returned to Monte Cassino and there passed his remaining years in completing his writings. His greatest work is the History of the Lombards. It is of value today not only because it contains a history of the times but also because it contains stories from Teutonic mythology. In the following selection, which is taken from the History of the Lombards, we have evidence of the credulity of the people of the time. A LUCKY DREAM Gunthram nus erat rëx pacificus Francorum et omni bonitate con­ spicuus. Ille, cum V ënàtum quôdam tem pore in silvam isset, et sociis ëjus diversas in partës discurrentibus, ut solet fieri, ipse cum ünô fidëlissimô amico remansisset, gravissimo somnô oppressus, caput in amici gremio reclinans, obdormivit. Dum rëx dormit, amicus vidit ëgredï dë ôre ëjus parvum animal simile serpenti et discurrere quasi vellet transire tenuem rivum, qui prope erat. Deinde amicus gladium suum super hunc rivum posuit, et hoc modo pontem praebuit, super quem illud reptile, dë quô diximus, ad aliam ripam transiit. Postea animal quoddam foram en montis, qui trans rivum erat, ingressum est et post breve tem pus regressum est super eundem pontem et in ôs rëgis dë quô exierat, intrâvit. 1. vênâtum: supine.

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G unthram nus post haec dë somnô excitatus est et amicum certiorem fëcit sê visionem vidisse. R ettulit eninl paruisse sibi in somnis quod rivum quendam per pontem ferreum transisset et sub montem quoddam intra­ visset ubi m agnam auri copiam aspexisset. Amicus autem rëgem certi­ orem fëcit quid ipse vidisset. 2Quid pliira? Effossus est locus ille, et màximus thësaurus, qui ibidem antiquitus erat positus, est repertus. Dë hoc aurô rëx poculum solidum m irae m àgnitüdinis et m agni ponderis fëcit. 2. Quid plüra? Why (say) more?; ellipsis. Liudprand: Tenth-Century Historian

Liudprand, a Lombard, was born about 922. He served in his boyhood as a page to King Hugo of Italy. Later he filled positions of various degrees of importance at the court and eventually was sent as a special envoy to the court of Constantinople. He returned to Italy in 961. Liudprand wrote three historical works which are graphic and entertaining, though not always unbiased. The best known is the Antapodosis, a loosely constructed history of European affairs and especially of events in Italy, Germany, and the Orient from the years 887 to 949. In the first book of the Antapodosis, Liudprand relates that the inhabitants of the city of Constantinople, as a precaution against their neighboring enemies, posted armed soldiers each night at every intersection in the city. If these guards caught anyone roaming about the streets after dark, they were ordered by the Emperor Leo to arrest him at once and give him a whipping; then they were to keep him under close guard and bring him up for public trial the next day. One night, to test his guards, the emperor went forth into the streets. The results of his venture are related in the following selection. A FAITHFUL GUARD Môs 4Novae Rômae est nocte armàtôs mïlitës 2cîvitâtis cüstôdiendae causa pônere. Itaque Leô im peràtor cüstôdum fidem cônstantiam que probâre volëns, sôlus post crepusculum ë 3palàtiô dëscendëns ad prïmum cüstôdem pervënit. Quem ut cüstôdës 4fugientem et quasi së vitantem vïdërunt, 4com prehënsum quis esset aut quô pergeret interrogâvërunt. Së tabernam petere dixit. Cui mox: “Primum të bene verberabim us,” inquiunt, 5“com pedibusque constrictum üsque in crastinum reserva­ bim us.” 1. Novae Rômae = Byzantium. 2. civitatis = urbis. 3. palàtiô: the palace. The word palace is derived from the Latin word palatium, which originally meant the Palatine Hill

in Rome where Augustus had his house. 4. fugientem, comprehënsum: both words agree with Quem, translated him. 5. compedibus: with shackles.

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Quibus respondit: "N equaquam , fratres mei, nequaquam ; accipite quod porto, Gperm ittite ire quô volô. Qui, duodecim acceptis aureis, eum statim dimiserunt. Inde vërô trânsiëns ad secundum vënit cüstôdem. ‘Quo quem ad modum et in prima captus, datisque viginti aureis, est dimissus. Ad terti­ um deinde dum venisset, captus est, vërum non ut prim o ac secundo, datis aureis, est dimissus, sed ablatis omnibus, com pedibusque graviter constrictus, pügnis et flagris diu verberatus, cüstôde usque in crastinum 8prôdücendus servatur. His discedentibus, cüstôdem im perator ad së vocans: "Amice mi,” inquit, "Leonem im peratorem nôvistïne?” ‘ Quomodo, respondit, "noscere possum quem vidisse më non meminerim? ,jAd püblicum sânë, rârô quam quam 10dum prôcëdit, â longë, n quia nëqueô, cum intueor, 12mïràbile quiddam et non hominem vidëre videor. D are autem të operam 13quô hinc illaesus exeâs quam id percontari tibi commodius est.” 6. permittite ire = permittite ut eam. 7. Quô . . . captus: There as when he had been taken in the first place ( There taken as before). 8. producendus: to be brought before [the judges]; gerundive. 9. Ad püblicum: in public.

10. dum prôcëdit: when he appeared. 11. quia nëqueô (non possum): because 1 coidd not [get close],

12. mirabile quiddam: something wonder­ ful.

13. quô - quômodo.

Geoffrey of Monmouth: An Originator of English Legends

Geoffrey of Monmouth (c. 1100-1154) wrote the History of the Kings of Britain, a work whose historical value is of so little importance that it might have passed into oblivion were it not for its legends about King Arthur and the Knights of the Round Table. There is also another reason for interest, espe­ cially for students of the workb of Shakespeare. The main plot of Shakespeare’s tragedy King Lear is derived from the fast-moving account of a king of Britain, named Lear, and his three daughters, Goneril, Regan, and Cordelia. An adapta­ tion of the general features of this account is found in the Gesta Rômànôrum, a very popular storybook which seems to have been compiled about the end of the thirteenth century.

AN ANCIENT ACCOUNT OF KING LEAR Post mortem 1Bladud ërigitur Leir, ëjusdem filius, in rëgem; qui sexâgintâ annôs patriam “viriliter rëxit. 3Cui negàtà m asculini sexüs proie, nàtae sunt tantum m odo trës filiae, vocatae 4Gonorilla, Regan, Cordeilla. 1. Bladud: of Bladud, king of Britain. 2. viriliter: vigorously. 3. Cui . . . proie: He had no male children.

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4. Gonorilla . . . Cordeilla: Goneril, Regan, Cordelia.

The Arts and Sciences This mosaic of the nine muses, which dates from the second century A.D., once farmed the floor of a villa in Treves ( Trier ) , Germany. Top row: Clio ( History), with scroll; Terpsichore (Choral Dance and Song), with lyre; and Thalia (Comedy), with comic mask and shepherd's staff. Middle row: Era to ( Lyric Poetry), with lyre; an unidentified muse; and Euterpe ( j\f usic), with double flute. Bottom row: two unidentified muses; U rania (Astronomy), with a celestial globe. The three muses without symbols are Calliope ( Epic Poetry), Melpomene (Tragedy), and Polyhymnia ( Sar,red Songs).

This illustration, a work by Ass teas ( .360-:3:30B.c.), is an example of the vase painting clone in Nola, a city in southern Italy, noted in ancient times for its beautiful vases. The figures depicted arc typical of the stock characters of the south Italian farces. Two thieves are trying to drag a miser off his money chest as his slave stands helplessly by.

:342-B

The fall of Rome in A.O. 476 almost extinguished the light of literature and art in western Europe. For the next ten centuries the work of writing and making books was carried on largely in the monasteries. Shown above, in a fifteenth-century painting, is a monastic scribe writing in Gothic letters on vellum (calfskin) or parchment (sheepskin).

342-C

This illustration, which dates from the fourth or fifth century, is from a manuscript page containing the closing lines of Vergil' s First Bucolic and the opening lines of his Second Bucolic. The poet is pictured sitting between his manuscript box and his desk and holding in his hand a scroll of poems. In all, Vergil composed ten Bucolics, or Eclogues, short pastoral poems or songs about herdsmen; they were published between 42 and 39 B.c.

342-D

Coin portrait of Horace.

Manuscript page from Horace's Odes.

The manuscript page of Horace's Odes, pictured above, has the concluding lines of a poem on constancy in love and the first line of a poem celebrating the poet's narrow escape from a fa1ling tree. The picture of Andromeda enchained, below, \Vas inspired by the myth ahout Perscus and Andromeda contained in Ovid's 1'1etamo,phoses. ( See pages 296---304.) Idealized

wall painting of Andromeda, from Pompeii.

Seventeenth-century French representation

of Ovid.

Printer's workshop. Anonymous sixteenth-century woodcut.

The fact that classical literature enjoyed a revival from the fourteenth to the seventeenth centuries was due not only to the genius and scholarship of such men as Petrarch and Erasmus ( pictured at right) but also to the invention of movable type and to the efforts of the printers ( pictured above).

Erasmus. A sixteenth-century portrait by Holbein.

► 342-F

Theories of the Solar System In the third century B.c., Aristarchus taught that the earth and the planets revolve around the sun. In the second century A.D., Ptolemy insisted that the sun rotated around the earth. In the sixteenth century, Copernicus advanced his theory that the earth turns upon its own axis and, together with the other planets, revolves around the sun. The diagram in Copernicus' book De Revolutionibus Orbium Caelestiurn, which is illustrated below, shows Copernicus' heliocentric theory of the solar system. At the right is a picture of an astrolabe on an astronomical globe, dating from 1450.

....

\.(•h~-.,

:I

·-· '...~, ..,,, V

- J,

\:

'

Qui eâs mïrô amôre, sed umagis nâtü minimam, Cordeillam, vidëlicet diligebat. Cum in senectütem 56vergere coepisset, côgitâvit sê rëgnum suum ipsis dïvïsürum esse eâsque idoneis maritis in m âtrimôniô datürum esse, qui easdem cum rëgnô haberent. Sed u t sciret quae illarum majore rëgnï parte dignior esset, adiit singulas ut interrogaret quae ipsum magis diligeret. Interrogante ergô illo, Gonorilla prius nüm ina caeli tëstàta est patrem sibi 7plüs cordi esse quam anim am quae in corpore suô 8dëgëbat. Cui p ater dixit: “Quoniam senectütem vitae tuae praeposuisti, të, carissima filia, m aritabo juveni, quem cum que ëlëgeris, cum tertia parte B ritanniae.” D einde Regan, quae secunda erat, exemplo sororis suae benevolentiam patris allicere volëns, jüre jürandô respondit së 9nüllâtenus 1012conceptum exprim ere aliter posse n nisi quod ipsum super omnës creâtürâs diligeret. 12Crëdulus ergô pater, eâdem dignitate quam 13prïm ôgenitae prom iserat, cum aliâ tertià parte rëgnï eam m aritavit. At Cordeilla ültim a, cum intellëxisset eum 14*p raedictarum ^ a d u la­ tionibus 16acquiëvisse, tentâre illum cupiëns, aliter respondit. “Est üspiam, mi pater, filia quae patrem suum plüs quam patrem diligere arroget? Non reor equidem üllam esse quae hoc exprimere audeat, nisi ridiculosis verbis vëritàtem celâre nitatur. 17Nem pe ego dllëxï të semper ut patrem ; nec adhüc 18â prôpositô meô divertor. Audi 19certitüdinem amôris quem adversus të habeô; et 20interrogâtiônibus tuis 21flnem impone. Etenim 22quantum habës, tantum valës tantum que të diligo.” D einde p ater vehem enter Iratus locütus est: “Quia senectütem patris tui tam sprëvistï, atque më eô amôre quô më sorôrës tuae diligunt 23dëdïgnàta es diligere, etiam ego të dëdlgnar, nec üsquam in rëgnô meô cum tuis sororibus partem habëbis.” Sine m orâ cônsiliô 24procerum rëgnï dedit puellâs duâs duôbus duci­ bus, 25C ornubiae et Albaniae, cum m edietate tantum insulae dum ipse vïvëbat. Post m ortem autem ëjus tôtum rëgnum Britanniae eisdem con­ cessit. D einde contigit ut Aganippus, Francorum rëx, fàmà pulchritüdine Cordeillae audîtâ, continuô nüntiôs suôs ad rëgem dirigeret, rogâns ut 5. magis: more [than the others]. 6. vergere: to approach. 7. plüs cordi: more to her heart ( dearer to her ).

' 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

dëgëbat = vïvëbat. nullatenus: by no means. conceptum = sententiam. nisi quod: except that. Crëdulus: credulous, too trusting. primogenitae: first-born, oldest. praedictarum: of the aforementioned [daughters].

15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

adulationibus = blanditiis. acquiëvisse: had succumbed. Nempe = Scilicet. à . . . divertor = mentem meam mütàvï. certitudinem: assurance. interrogationibus: questionings. finem impône : dësine. quantum: sc. amôrem à më. dëdïgnâta es: you have disdained. procerum: of his nobles. Cornubiae et Albaniae: of Cornwall and of Albany.

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Cordeilla sibi in matrimonio traderetur. At pater, in ïrâ perseverans, respondit sësë libenter illam datüram esse, sed sine terra et pecünià. Cum id Aganippô nüntiàtum esset, misit iterum ad Leirum rëgem, dïcëns së satis auri et argenti aliârumque possessionum habëre. Dënique, con­ firmato foedere, mittitur Cordeilla ad Galliam et Aganippô nübitur. Post paucôs vërô annôs, ut Leir senëscëbat, 26ïnsurrëxërunt in eum ducës quibus Britanniam cum duabus filiabus diviserat, abstulëruntque ei rëgnum rëgiamque potestatem quam üsque ad illud tempus viriliter et glôriôsë tenuerat. . . . At cum in memoriam pristinae dignitatis reductus esset atque miseriam in quam redactus esset vidisset, cogitare coepit minimam filiam trans ôceanum adire. . . . Cum sôlô comite vënit tandem Karitiam, ubi filia sua erat. Exspectans autem extra urbem, misit ei nüntium suum qui indicaret ipsum in tantam miseriam lapsum esse, et, quia habëret nihil cibi aut vestis, misericordiam filiae peteret. Quô indicato, commota est Cordeilla, et flëvit 27amârë quaesivitque quot mïlitës sëcum habëret; qui respondit ipsum nëminem habëre, excepto quodam 28armigerô, qui foris cum eô exspectabat. Tunc illa cëpit quantum opus erat auri et argenti, deditque nüntiô praecipiëns ut patrem ad aliam civitatem düceret ibique ipsum infirmum adjuvaret et 29balnearet, indueret et cùrâret. Imperavit etiam ut quadraginta mïlitës bene indütôs et 30parâtôs retinëret, et tunc dëmum ad rëgem Aganippum et filiam suam adveniret. Simul atque rëgiô apparâtü et ornamentis et 31*familià insignitus fuit, 32mandàvit Aganippô et filiae suae sësë à generis suis expulsum esse ë rëgnô Britanniae et ad ipsôs vënisse ut, auxiliô eôrum, patriam suam recuperare posset. Et illi cum 33cônsulibus et proceribus obviam venientës, cum honore suscëpërunt ilium dedëruntque ei potestatem tôtïus Galliae dônec eum in pristinam dignitatem restaurare possent. Interea misit Aganippus lëgâtôs per ùniversam Galliam ad colligendum in eà omnem armatum militem ut auxiliô suô rëgnum Britanniae Leir socerô reddere labôrâret. Quô facto, dîixit sëcum Leir Aganippum filiam­ que suam et collëctam multitüdinem in Britanniam, cum generis pügnâvit, et triumphô potitus est. Deinde cum omnës in potestatem suam redëgisset, tertio post anno mortuus est; mortuus est et Aganippus. Cordeilla vërô, rëgnï 34gubernàculum adepta, sepelivit patrem in quôdam 35subterràneô, quod sub 36Sorà intrâ 37Legecestriam fieri praecëperat. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31.

ïnsurrëxërunt: r o s e u p . amârë: b i t t e r l y . armigerô: a r m o r - b e a r e r ( s q u i r e ) . balneâret: b a t h e . parâtôs: p r e p a r e d ( e q u i p p e d ) . familia = satellitibus: a t t e n d a n t s cort).

(es­

32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37.

mandavit: h e s e n t t o tell. consulibus: c h i e f a d v i s e r s . gubernaculum = gubernationem. subterràneô: u n d e r g r o u n d ( c a v e ) . Sorà: S o a r [ R i v e r ] . Legecestriam: L e i c e s t e r s h i r e .

Ekkehart of A ura: Compiler of a Universal History

There are several writers by the name of Ekkehart who flourished in the Middle Ages. One of them, Ekkehart of Aura, lived from the end of the eleventh century to the middle of the twelfth. Little is known about him except that he undertook the compilation of a universal history, or set of chronicles, from the time of Moses to his own day. The sources of his informa­ tion are many and varied. He made little or no distinction between truth and fiction, and his work shows little originality and less great learning. Though of no great value as history, his work was an immense success because his nar­ ratives were amusing and interesting. Ekkehart wrote in simple medieval Latin. The sentences are not involved, and the word order approaches that of our own language. His syntax shows considerable change from that of classical Latin. The extract from Roman his­ tory given here furnishes details of the struggle between Caesar and Pompey.

THE DIE IS CAST Rediëns Caesar victor ex Galliâ M ëcernï 12sibi absenti iterum consula­ tum poposcit; sed 3contrâdictum est eï â Marcello cônsule, 45annïtente Pompëjô et Catône, jüssusque est Caesar, dïmissïs exercitibus, Rômam venire; et ex M àrcellî consulis auctoritate ad legiônës quae apud Lüceriam erant Gnaeus Pompëjus cum imperiô missus est. Propter quam injüriam C aesar së contulit Ravennam. M arcus Antonius et Püblius Cassius, tribünï plëbis, prô Caesare intercëdentës, â Lentulo consule cürià Forôque prohibiti, ad Caesarem pro­ fecti sunt, Cüriône simul Caeliôque com itantibus. Caesar cum m ilitibus quôs habëbat contra patriam vënit, et °Rubicône flümine transm eato, 6mox u t Ariminum vënit, 7quïnque cohortës quâs tunc sôlâs h ab ëb at—cum quibus, ut Livius ait, orbem terrarum adortus est— quid factü opus esset ëdocuit, dëplôràns injurias suas, causam belli civilis 8prô restituendis in patriam tribünis esse tëstâtus est. Inde per Antonium septem cohortës quae 9apud Sulmonem m orabantur â Lücrëtiô accëpit, trës legiônës quae cum Domitiô apud Corfinium m orabantur ad suôs patrës transm isit. Cônsulës vërô cum Gnaeô Pompëjô, senâtus omnis, 1. dëcemî . . . cônsulâtum: object of poposcit; used instead of a substantive clause of purpose. 2. sibi absenti: to him though absent. 3. contradictum est: it was denied. 4. anmtente . . . Catône: with the approval of Pompey and Cato; ablative absolute. 5. Rubicône: the Rubicon, a small river near Ariminum. Its crossing by Caesar was an act of war against the Senate

because it marked the boundary between Italy and Cisalpine Gaul. 6. mox ut: as soon as. » 7. quinque . . . ëdocuit: he explained to the five cohorts . . . what was to be done.

8. pro . . . tribünis: gerundive construc­ tion. 9. apud Sulmonem: near Sulmo, a city in central Italy.

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atque üniversa nobilitas ex 10urbe fugiëns et in Graeciam transiens, apud n Dyrrachium bellum contra Caesarem parabant, quô m ulti 12orientis rëgës 13cum auxiliis conveniëbant. Caesar vacuam urbem ingressus, dictatorem së fëcit, negâtam que sibi ex aeràriô pecüniam, fractis foribus, invâsit, protulit 14ex eô auri 15pondô 4135, argenti pondo prope nongenta milia. 10. urbe: Rome. 11. Dyrrachium: an important city in Illyria, opposite Brundisium. 12. orientis: of the East.

13. cum auxiliis: with reinforcements. 14. ex eô: from it (the treasury), 15. pondô: sc. libras.

THE BEGINNING OF THE END ( Caesar, leaving three legions to seize Marseilles, hastened to Spain, where he defeated strong Pompeian forces. He attacked Pompey at Dyrrachium, but was defeated and fled under cover of night.) Inde, C itato agmine, Caesar per Ëpïrum in Thessaliam perrëxit, Pompëjus vërô cum mâximïs côpiïs secütus est, bellum que commissum est. Vidëre ibi et 12gemere 3erat 4contràctàs Rômânôrum vîrës in campïs Pharsalicis ad occisionem m ütuam constitisse, quâs, si concordia rëxisset, nüllï populï, nüllï rëgës ferre potuissent. F uërunt enim ex parte Pompëjï octôgintà octô cohortës, peditum plüs quam 40,000, equitës in sinistrô cornü 600, in dextrô 500, rëgës et senâtôrës et Rômânï equitës plürim ï, ex parte autem Caesaris minus quam 40 milia peditum , equitës mille. Caesar sunt in eô proeliô Pom pëjànôrum 15,000, centuriônës 33. Pompëjus fugiëns, in ôstiô Pënëï amnis oneâriam nâvem nactus, in Asiam transiit, inde per Cyprum Alexandriani petiit, ut à 5rëge A egypti,vcui tütor ipse à senàtü datus fuerat propter juvenilem ëjus aetatem , acciperet auxilia. 6Quî fortünam magis quam am icitiam secütus, occidit Pompëjum, caputque ëjus et anulum Caesari misit. Quibus conspectis, Caesar etiam lacrimas füdisse dicitur, tanti viri intuëns caput, generi quondam suï, et 7inundàtum odoribus im peravit cremârî. 1. citâtô agmine: with forced marches; ablative absolute. 2. gemere: to sigh [over the facts]. 3. erat: it was [possible]. 4. contractas . . . vîrës: that the assembled forces of the Romans.

5. rëge Aegypti: brother of Cleopatra, who was to have ruled jointly with her. 6. Qui: not the king, but Pothinus who gave the order for Pompey’s murder. 7. inundatum odoribus: drenched in per­ fumes.

Petrus Alphonsus: Storyteller of the Twelfth Century

Petrus Alphonsus, a godson of Alphonsus I, King of Aragon, lived in the early part of the twelfth century. He was familiar with the popular Arab fables and from them collected about thirty that illustrate the advice a father

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would give to his son. A number of these stories are found in the Gesta Romanorum and their subject matter appears in such other collections of stories as the Decameron of Boccaccio. In the following selection, a father is advising his son to beware of false and guileful counsel. To make his point more forcefully, he tells his son a parable about the thief who did not distinguish between good advice and bad advice.

A THIEF BREAKS INTO A HOUSE ON A MOONBEAM Ôlim quidam latrô ad domum cüjusdam divitis p e rre x it intentione fürandï. E t ascendens tectum ad fenestram per quam fümus exibat per­ venit, et num quis intus vigilaret 12auscultavit. Quod dominus domüs comperit et suaviter uxori suae ait: “Interroga altâ voce unde veniat mihi iste tam m agnus quem habeô 3cënsus. Quod ut 4rescias m ultum labora.” Tum illa altâ voce ait: “Domine, unde tam magnum habuisti censum cum num quam m ercator fueris?” At ille: “Quod deus dônàvit, servâ et noli inquirere unde mihi tanta pecünia venerit.” At illa, 5sïcut eï injünctum erat, magis ac magis ut resciret Instigabat. T andem quasi coactus precibus uxoris suae inquit: “Vide në cuiquam 6sëcrëta nostra dëtegàs: latrô fui.” At illa ait: “Mirum mihi vidëtur quô modo tam m agnum cënsum latrocinio potuisti acquirere, quod num quam audivim us clamorem sive aliquam 7calumniam inde.” At ille ait: “Quidam m agister meus carm en më docuit quod dlcëbam ubi super tëctum ascendëbam ; et veniëns ad fenestram accipiëbam radium lünae m anü et carm en meum 8septiës dlcëbam , scilicet 9‘saulem,’ et ita dëscendëbam sine perïculô et, quidquid pretiosum inveniëbam in domô corradëns, süm ëbam . Tâlî ingeniô hunc quem possideô cënsum habeô.” At m ulier ait: “Bene fëcistï quod mihi tàlia dixisti; nam ubi filium habuerô, në pauper vivat, hoc carm en docëbô.” At dominus inquit: “P er­ m itte ut ego nunc dormiam; quoniam somnô 10aggravâtus volô quiëscere.” E t ut magis dëciperet, quasi dormiëns n stertere coepit. Perceptis dënique talibus verbis, für m agnopere gavisus est et dicto septiës carm ine et assüm ptô m anü radio lünae, laxatis m anibus et pedibus per fenestram in domum m agnum faciëns sonum, cecidit et fràctô crüre et bracchiô congemuit. At dominus domüs quasi nësciëns inquit: “Tü quis es qui ita cecidisti?” Ad haec latrô: “Ego sum ille für ïnfëlïx qui tuïs crëdidï fallacibus dictis.” 1. perrêxit: went; cf. the verb pergô. 2. auscultavit: listened attentively [to find out]. 3. census: wealth. 4. resciâs: find out. 5. sicut . . . erat: as she had been enjoined.

6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

sécréta nostra: our secrets; accusative. calumniam: challenge. septiës: seven times. saulem = saule. aggravatus: heavy. stertere: to snore.

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Odo of Cerinton: Writer of Parables Odo of Cerinton, or Sherrington, England, was a Cistercian monk who flourished about the end of the twelfth century. He wrote a Book of Parables, or animal stories with morals, which he based partly on the Romulus version of the fables of Phaedrus, and partly on the animal epics current at that time in Europe. A PERILOUS PARTNERSHIP Leô et lupus et vulpës cônsënsërunt vënârî. Vulpës cëpit ânserem, lupus arietem pinguem, leô bovem macrum. E t cum dëbërent ^ ra n d ë re , dïxit leô lupô 2quod praedem partîrëtur. Dixit lupus: “Ünus quisque 3habeat quod cëpit; leô suum bovem, ego arietem , vulpës anserem .” Leô îrâtus ërëxit palmam et unguibus extraxit corium dë capite lupi. E t dixit vulpi quod divideret. E t ait vulpës: “Domine, tü 4comedàs dë pingui ariete 5quantum volueris, qui teneras habet carnés, et postea dë ânsere quantum volueris, et tandem bovem tem pta, qui dûràs habet carnës. E t quod rem anserit, dës nôbïs, qui 6hominës vestri sumus.” Ait Leô: “C ertë bene dicis. Quis të docuit ita bene partiri?” E t ait vulpës: “Domine, ille rubeus capillus soci m ei,” dëm ônstràtô capite 7excoriàtô. 1. prandëre = comedere. 2. quod . . . partîrëtur: to divide the booty; indirect discourse in classical Latin. 3. habeat: jussive subjunctive.

4. 5. 6. 7.

comedas: potential subjunctive. quantum volueris: as much as you wish. hominës = servi: servants. excoriàtô: scalped.

A PHYSICIAN’S FEE Ôlim lupus 1osse ferë strangulabatur. Quaesitus est m edicus. Dïxërunt servientës: 2“Cicônia habet longum rôstrum, et poterit os â gutture extrahere.” Quaesita est cicônia; mercës m agna est promissa. Vënit, et os â gutture extrâxit. M ercëdem quaesivit. Cui lupus nihil dare voluit, dïcëns: “Nônne, cum caput tuum fuit in ôre meô, potui të interficere? Nônne sufficit tibi quod permisi 3të vivere?” 1. osse: distinguish os, ossis, bone, from ôs, ôris, mouth. 2. Cicônia: stork.

3. të vivere: in classical Latin there would be a subordinate clause after permïsï.

A SLACKER WHO LEARNED HIS LESSON Asinus fre q u e n te r vidit quod porcô dabâtur pânis et cibus hüjus modi, et nihil labôrâbat, nisi quandô bene com ëderat, iit M ormitum. Côgitâvit igitur asinus intrâ së: “Porcus iste bene habet; bene com edit et bibit et nihil labôrat; ego tôtà dië labôrô et parum comedô; fingam më infirm um esse.” 1. frequenter: over and over again.

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2. dormitum: supine.

F ëcit sïc. 3In pace jacuit. Stim ulavit eum dominus ëjus; surgere nôluit; sed ingem uit. E t ait dominus uxori suae: “Asinus noster Infirm atur.” Dixit dom ina: “Quoniam ita est, dëm us ei pânem et farinam et portem us ei aquam .” F êcêrunt sic. Asinus parum com edit in principio, postea satis, et im pinguatus est. E t dixit asinus sibi: “Nunc habeô bonam vitam .” Cum porcus esset im pinguatus, fecit dominus domüs venire 4carnificem cum secüre et 5cultellô, u t porcum interficeret. Carnifex secüre percussit porcum in caput ita u t occiderit, et cultello extraxit sanguinem dë gutture. Quod vidëns, asinus perterritus est, timëns në ipsum interficeret cum im pingua­ tus esset. E t ait sibi: “C ertë màlô labôrâre et vitam pristinam dücere quam sic interfici.” E t exivit ë stabulo et saltavit ante dominum suum. Q uod vidëns, dominus restituit eum pristino officio, et bonâ m orte m ortuus est. 3. In pace; in quiet. 4. carnificem: butcher.

5. cultello: with a small knife.

Jacques de Vitry: A Celebrated Speaker

Jacques de Vitry was bom in France in the latter half of the twelfth century, and died in 1240. He left several volumes of public discourses in which he used a great many exempla to make his speaking more effective. These examples were drawn from many sources, even from oriental stories, and were generally placed near the end of his talks. HONESTY IS THE BEST POLICY Ôlim erat quidam bornes, Henrïcus nômine; cum 2balïvï ëjus, ipso ignorante, praecëpissent jânitôribus ut nüllum pauperem ad ipsum 3perm itteren t intrâre, quidam puer circiter nôvem annôrum, dë quô non m ultum jânitôrës cürâbant, ingressus est ad ipsum et petivit ab eô (u t m ater ëjus eum 4ïnstrüxerat ) ut aliquid ei daret. Comes vërô vidëns puerum nüdum et quod non habëbat ubi pecüniam reponeret, dedit ei dënârium ünum et dïxit eï: “Vàde et eme bursam et cito 5revertere.” P uer vërô, volëns Glucràrï m edietatem dënârï, 7obulô ünô bursam parvam ëm it et alium obulum sibi reservavit. Cum autem ad comitem reversus esset, comes anim advertëns puerum bursam parvam ëmisse, quaesivit â hôc: “Prô quantô ëmistï bursam istam? Vidë ut mihi dicas vëritâtem .” Puer vërô perterritus ait: “Domine, ünô obulô ëmï, accipe alium obulum , si vultis.” 1. comes: count. 2. balîvï: stewards. 3. permitterent: in classical Latin this verb is followed by a substantive clause of purpose.

4. Instruxerat: had instructed. 5. revertere: imperative. 6. lucrari: to gain. 7. obulô ünô: for one obulus (a small coin),

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Cui comes ait: “Sï mâjôrem bursam prô dënâriô émisses, ipsam plênam 8dënàriïs reportasses, sed quod obulum lucrari voluisti, parvam bursam reportabis plenam .” 8. dënàriïs: ablative with plënam. Anonymous: C arm ina Burana

During the Middle Ages student life was quite different from that of modern times. Groups of young men often wandered from one university city to an­ other, living a merry and irresponsible life, rarely participating in the scholastic activities of the schools of learning. Their songs ranged from serious verse to carefree rhymes about tavern life. The most important collection of such songs is known as the Carmina Burana (from the abbey of Benedictbeuern). SPRING Salve Ver A ptatum , am antibus grâtum , gaudiorum fax multorum, flôrum increm entum ; m ultitüdô flôrum et color colorum 2salvëtôte, et 2estôte jocôrum augm entum ! Dulcis avium 3concentus sonat, gaudeat juventüs. Hiems saeva transiit, nam lënis spirat ventus. 1. optatum: long-desired. 2. salvëtôte, estôte: future imperative plu­ ral.

3. concentus: singing together (harmony).

WINTER Dë râmïs cadunt folia, nam Viror tôtus periit, jam calor 2lïquit omnia et abiit; nam signa caelï ültim a soi petiit. 1. viror: greenness.

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2. liquit = reliquit.

Jam nocet frïgus 3tenerïs, et avis brüm à laeditur, et 4philom ëna 5cëterïs conqueritur, quod illis Ignis 6aetheris adim itur. 3. teneris: the tender (things); dative. 4. philomëna: nightingale.

5. ceteris: dative. 6. aetheris: of heaven.

Anonymous: G esta R om anorum

The Gesta Romanorum, the most popular storybook of the Middle Ages, is supposed to have been compiled about the end of the thirteenth century. The title Deeds of the Romans is very misleading. In reality, oriental, legendary, and classical tales form the basis of the work. Although almost every story is prefaced with the name or a reign of a Roman emperor who may or may not have existed or who seldom had any connection with the circumstances of the narrative, these tales usually have no connection with the Roman people or with Roman history. The purpose of the tales was to instruct by means of illustrative stories that would make an impression on the minds of illiterate auditors. AN ADAPTATION OF THE STORY OF KING LEAR Theodosius in ^ ïv itâ te Rômànà rëgnàvit, prüdëns valdë et potëns, qui trës fïliàs pulchrâs habëbat, dïxitque filiae senior!: “Q uantum diligis m ë?” At illa: “C ertë plüs quam më ipsam.” Ait ei pater: “E t të ad mâgnâs divitias prôm ovëbô.” Statim illam dedit 2ünï rëgï opulentô et potenti 3in uxôrem. Post haec vënit ad secundam filiam et ait eï: “Q uantum diligis m ë?” At illa: 4“T antum quantum më ipsam.” Im perator vërô eam cuidam 5ducï trâdidit in uxôrem. E t post haec vënit ad tertiam filiam et ait eï: “Q uantum më diligis?” At illa: “T antum quantum 6valës, et non plüs neque minus.” Ait eï pater: 7“Ex quô ita est, non 8ita opulenter domino 9m arïtàre sïcut et sorôrës tuae;” trâdidit eam cuidam 10comitï in uxôrem. Accidit cito post haec ut im perator bellum contra rëgem Aegypti n habëret. Rëx vërô im peratorem dë imperiô fugabat unde bonum refu1. cïvitàte Rômânà: the city of Rome; in medieval Latin civitas usually means city. 2. ünï: used here as the indefinite article. 3. in uxôrem: in marriage. 4. Tantum quantum: As much as. 5. duci: to a duke.

6. vales: you deserve. 7. Ex . . . est = Quae cum ita sit, in clas­ sical Latin. 8. ita opulenter = tam opulentô. 9. marïtâre = maritabis. 10. comiti: to a count. 11. haberet: had (undertook).

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gium habëre non poterat. Scripsit litteras ànulô suô sïgnàtàs ad prim am fïliam suam, quae dixit së patrem suum plüs quam së ipsam diligere; rogavit ut ei succurreret in necessitate sua cum dë im periô suô expulsus esset. Filia, cum hâs litteras ëjus lëgisset, virô suô rëgï câsum prim o nârrâbat. Ait rëx: “Bonum est ut succurram us eï in hâc suâ m âgnâ necessitate. Colligam exercitum et cum tôtâ potestate meâ adjuvàbô e u m / Ait illa: “Istud non potest fieri sine mâgnïs expënsïs. Sufficit quod eï concëdâtis, quam diü est extra imperium suum, quinque mïlitës qui cum eô asso­ cientur.” Et sic factum est. Filia patri rescripsit eum alium auxilium ab eà habëre non posse, nisi quinque mïlitës dë süm ptibus rëgis in sociëtâte suâ. Im perator cum hoc audïsset contristatus est valdë et intrâ së dicëbat: 12“Heu mihi, tôta spës mea erat in seniôre fïlià m eâ quod dïxit së më plüs quam së ipsam diligere, et propter hoc ad m âgnam dïgnitâtem ipsam p rô m ô v ï/ Scripsit statim secundae filiae, quae dïxit: “Tantum të dïligô quantum më ipsam;” rogâvit ut eï succurreret in tantâ necessitâte. At illa, cum audïsset, virô suô nüntiâvit et ipsï 13cônsiliâvit ut nihil aliud eï concëderet nisi victum et vestitum quam diü viveret honestë prô tâlï rëge, et super ( dë ) hôc litterâs patrï suô rescripsit. Im perâtor cum hoc audïsset contrïstâtus est valdë dïcëns: “D ëceptus sum per duâs filiâs. Jam tem ptâbô tertiam quae mihi dïxit: ‘T antum të dïligô quantum v a lë s /” Litterâs scripsit eï ut ei succurreret in tantâ necessitâte et quômodo sorôrës suae eï 14respondërunt. Tertia filia cum vidisset inopiam patris sui ad virum suum dixit: “Domine mi reverende, mihi succurre in hâc necessitâte. Jam p ater meus expulsus est ab hereditâte suâ.” Ait vir ëjus: “Quid vis tü u t eï faciam?” At illa: “Exercitum colligâs et ad superandum inimicum suum pergâs cum eô.” Ait comes: “Voluntâtem tuam adim plëbô.” Statim collëgit mâgnum exercitum et 15süm ptibus suis propriis cum im perâtôre perrëxit ad bellum. Victoriam obtinuit et im perâtôrem in imperiô suô posuit. Tunc ait im perâtor: “Benedicta hôra in quâ genuï fïliam meam ^ju n i­ orem. Ipsam minus aliis fîliâbus dïlëxï et mihi in m âgnâ necessitâte suc­ currit et aliae filiae meae dëfëcërunt, propter quod tôtum im perium reliquero post m ortem meum filiae m eae juniôrï,” et sic factum est. Post 17dëcessum patris filia junior rëgnâvit et in pâce vitam finivit. 12. Heu: Alas. 15. sümptibus = expënsïs. 13. cônsiliàvit = monuit. 16. juniorem: younger. Here the meaning 14. respondërunt = respondissent, in classiis youngest. cal Latin. 17. dëcessum = mortem. 352

THE MODERN PERIOD ABOUT 14th CENTURY TO PRESENT Petrarch’s appreciation of Cicero as the supreme master of Latin prose, his passion for collecting original manuscripts and inscriptions in Latin, and his recognition of the value of studying the Greek classics in the original made him the leader and the inspiration of Renaissance scholars. The latter despised medieval Latin and turned to the works of the ancient classicists for models and for inspiration. It was an artificial movement with disastrous results, for Latin ceased to be the spontaneous, living, growing language it had been during the Middle Ages. Latin, however, continued to live as the language of the Roman Catholic Church and, until the middle of the nineteenth century, was for all classical scholars a second mother tongue and an invaluable means of communication.

Petrarch: The Greatest of the Italian Humanists Francesco Petrarca ( 1304-1374), called the first modern man and the greatest of the Italian humanists, was, from his boyhood, a passionate admirer of the great Latin classics and, in his later years, an eager collector of ancient manu­ scripts. He was an enthusiastic admirer of ancient Roman civilization and was especially devoted to Cicero and Vergil. The following selection is taken from one of Petrarch’s letters, replying to a friend’s request for information about some Cicero manuscripts. To his corre­ spondent he describes his ceaseless efforts to obtain from many countries manu­ scripts of Cicero’s works. PETRARCH’S LOVE FOR CICERO Ab ipsâ pueritiâ, quandô cëteri omnës Mnhiant 2Aesôpô, ego librïs Ciceronis incubuï, seu nâtürae ïnstînctü seu parentis hortâtü, qui auctôris illïus 3veneràtor ingëns fuit. E t illà quidem aetâte nihil intellegere po­ teram ; sôla më verbôrum dulcëdô quaedam et 4sonôritàs dëtinëbat, ut quidquid aliud vel legerem vel audirem raucum mihi longëque 5dissonum vidërëtur. C rëscëbat in diës dësîderium meum, et patris adm îrâtiô ac pietâs aliquam diü im m àtürô fâvit studio. . . . In lëgis studio septennium tôtum perdidi. U tque rem paene ridiculam flëbilemque audiâs, factum est aliquandô u t omnës quôs habëre potueram Ciceronis et simul aliquot poëtàrum libri latibulis, ubi ego m etuëns illôs abdideram , më spectante ërutï, exürerentur; quô spectàcillô non aliter ingem ui quam si ipse eisdem flammis injicerer. 1. inhiant: w e r e g a z in g a t ( p o rin g o v e r ) . 2. Aesôpô: [th e f a b le s o f] A e so p . This was a medieval version of Aesop’s fables in Latin.

3. venerator: w o rsh ip e r. sonôritàs: m e lo d io u sn e ss. 5. dissonum: d isc o r d a n t ( d is s o n a n t).

4.

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Proinde pater, nam memini, më tam m aestum contem plans, subito duos libros paene jam incendio 6adüstôs eripuit et Vergilium dextra tenens, laeva Rhetoricam Ciceronis, utrum que flenti mihi subridens ipse porrexit. “E t habë tibi h u n c /’ inquit, “prô sôlâciô quôdam ràrô animi, hunc prô 7adminiculô civilis studl.” His tam paucis sed tam magnis comitibus animum solatus lacrimas pressi. D einde circâ primos annos adulescentiae, 8meï jüris effectus, libris legalibus abdicatis ad 9solita remeavi, 1012eô ferventior quô interrupta delectatio acrior redit. Nunc ad Ciceronem redeô. Varias amicitias n per diversa contraxeram, quod essem in loco ad quem fieret ex omni regione concursus. ^A beunti­ bus dëmum amicis et, 1314u t fit, petentibus num quid ë patria suâ vellem, respondëbam nihil praeter libros Ciceronis ante alios; dabam ^m em ori­ alia, scrïptôque et verbo Instabam. E t quotiëns precës quotiëns pecüniam mïsï, non per ïtaliam modo, ubi eram nôtior, sed per Galliâs atque G er­ maniam et risque ad Hispaniam atque Britanniam . M ultô studio multàque cürà m ulta undique parva volümina collëgl. Nil mihi ferë nisi ünus Cicerô 15sapiëbat, praecipuë 16ex quô Q uintiliani înstitütiônës Ùrâtôriâs lëgï, quàrum quôdam locô 17haec plânë sententia sua est; nam et liber abest et verba non 18teneô: 19“Bene dë së spëret, quisquis erit, cui valdë Cicerô placëbit.” Circâ quintum et vïcësimum vitae annum , inter Belgâs Helvëtiôsque fëstïnâns, cum 20Leodium pervënissem, 21audïtô quod esset ibi bona copia librôrum, 22substitï comitësque dëtinuï dônec ünam Cicerônis 23ôràtiônem m anü amïcî, alteram meà m anü scripsi, quam posteâ per Italiam 24effüdï. E t dë libris quidem 25Rei Publicae jam dëspëràns, librum 2GDë Consola­ tione quaesivi ânxië, nec invënï; quaesivi et librum D ë Laude Philoso­ phiae, quod et ipse libri titulus excitabat, et in libris 27Augustïnï, quôs jam legere cooperam, 28librum illum ad vitae m ùtàtiônem et ad studium vërï m ultum sibi profuisse compereram. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

adüstôs: burned. adminiculo: aid. meï . . . effectus: having come of age. solita: accustomed things {pastime). eô . . . quô: the more ardent as. per diversa = per diversas regiônës. Abeuntibus . . . amicis . . . petentibus: dative after respondëbam. ut fit: as [usually] happens. memorialia: memoranda. sapiëbat = placëbat. ex quô: sc. tempore. haec . . . est: this thought is clearly expressed.

18. teneô = teneô memorià. 19. Bene . . . placëbit: the exact words are, Hie së prôfëcisse sciat cui Cicerô valdë placëbit.

20. Leodium: Liège, Belgium. 21. auditô . . . librôrum: an ablative abso­ lute with a clause in place of a noun. 22. substiti —moratus sum. 23. ôràtiônem: One of the manuscripts copied was the Prô Archiâ. 24. effùdï: 1 caused to be spread abroad ( scattered ). 25. Reî Püblicae: Part of the Dë Rë Püblicâ has been preserved. 26. Dë Cônsôlàtiône, Dë Laude Philoso­ phiae: All of these books have been lost. 27. Augustini: Augustine was one of the greatest writers and preachers of the early Christian Church. 28. librum ilium: the Hortënsius, no longer extant.

Coluccio Salutati: Collector of Cicero's Writings

Coluccio Salutati (1330-1406) was born at Stignano. Because his family was forced to flee their native countryside, he spent the first nineteen years of his life at Bologna. He was a born student and had the benefit of good teachers, who prepared him for a course in law. When he returned to his native Stignano, he obtained his notary’s license, and spent the next seventeen years serving as a notary but receiving little income. In his plentiful leisure he read the ancient classics and the works of such writers as Dante, Petrarch, and Boccaccio. At the age of forty-three he was appointed notary at Florence, and in 1375 was advanced to the position of chancellor, which he held with great satisfac­ tion and success for thirty-one years. At his death in 1406, he was awarded the laurel wreath for poetry. Coluccio Salutati was one of the outstanding humanists and Latin scholars of his time. A zealous and successful collector of Latin and Greek manuscripts, he was particularly interested in the works of Cicero. The following selection, which is taken from a letter to a friend in Padua, shows how industriously and systematically he sought out manuscripts of Cicero’s works, which lay neglected and uncared for in libraries. CICERO’S WRITINGS WANTED Dë Ciceronis volüminibus miror 1quod plürës non sint 2apud vos, et eô mâximë quia 3ex quàdam Petrarcae epistulà 45d atur intellegi longë plürës Ciceronis librôs apud eum fuisse. Audiveram etiam ipsum habuisse 5Verrinas (In V errem ); sed në dum omnia quaerô plüribus caream, ut hi in papyro transcribantur petô: 6Dë Lëge Frümentàriâ, A d Hortensium, Prô Plancio, Prô Pübliô Sulla, 7Dë Laudibus Mâgnï Pompeji, et 8Milônidnam, quam ültim um habeô adeo corruptam et 9inexplëtam 10quod dici potest më illam n penitus non habëre. 12Philippicarum quattuor habeô; 13reliquàs rogô scribi facias in papÿrô. H abeô ôràtiônem 14A d Populum Rôm ânum ipsius Ciceronis quandô iit in exsilium, quae incipit, Si quando inimicorum, et cëtera. Si est altera apud 1. quod = ut. 2. apud vos = apud të. 3. ex . . . fuisse: Petrarch made great ef­ forts to collect Cicero’s manuscripts; see pp. 353-54.

4. datur intellegi: it is given to understand ( one can understand ). 5. Verrinas: the oration against Verres is known as In Verrem. 6. Dê . . . Milonianam: these are the titles of some of Cicero’s orations. 7. Dë . . . Pompêjï = Dë Lège Mànïlià.

9. inexpletam: incomplete. 10. quod . . . potest: ut . . . possit, in clas­ sical Latin; result clause. 11. penitus: at all. 12. Philippicarum: there were fourteen of these orations against Antony; see pp. 236-37.

13. reliquas . . . papÿrô = rogô ut faciâs ut reliquae in papÿrô scribuntur, in clas­ sical Latin. 14. Ad Populum Rômânum: this oration has been falsely attributed to Cicero.

8. Milonianam: Prô Müône.

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vos 15[quae] intitulâtur A d Equités Rômànôs, 16fac et illam scrïbï aliter sufficiat et quam habeô. 17G ràtulàtiônem ad senâtum Prô R editü dé Exsiliô habeô, sed, ut arbitror, 18incomplëtam. . . . Non possum crëdere 19quod librôs Dé Finibus Bonôrum et Malôrum non habeâtis. Si apud vos sunt, cum mihi sit liber ille im perfectus, . . . dësïderô habëre 20com plëm entum ëjusdem quart! et tôtum quïntum . Q uattuor Académïae librôs, si reperîrï possent, nôvit Deus quam ârdenter vidëre cupiam et habëre. Vidë 21quam am ïcâbiliter quâve cônfîdentiâ tëcum agam. . . . Sed amor spem praebet, et côgit aviditâs rërum 22Cicerônicârum ut in petendô sim rüsticus et in gravandô ültrâ quam deceat importünus. 15. [quae] intitulàtür: the two titles, Ad Populum Rômànum and Ad Equités Rômànôs, refer to the same oration. 16. fac . . . scribi = fac ut illa quoque scribantur, in classical Latin. 17. Cràtulâtiônem: expression of thanks. 18. incomplêtam: Coluccio is wrong here; his copy was complete.

19. quod . . . habeâtis = vos . . . habëre, in classical Latin. 20. complementum: about half of Book IV was missing. 21. quam amïcâbiliter: in what a friendly fashion.

22. Cicerônicàrum: pertaining to Cicero.

Aeneas Silvius: Author and Diplomat

Aeneas Silvius is the literary name of Enea Silvio de’ Piccolomini (14051464). He was born on a small farm in Siena and claimed to have been descended from Romulus, but his claim would be difficult to verify or to justify. He was successful in the literary life of Siena and successful as a diplomat. Aeneas Silvius wrote much in very good Latin. His Commentarii Rërum Memorabilium contain an interesting account of his own career and travels^ as well as of his times. He had studied the works of Cicero with great enthusiasm and wrote the following appropriate epitaph.

CICERO’S EPITAPH Hoc jacet in tum ulô Rômànae gloria linguae, Tullius, infandae quern rapuëre manüs. Anton! gladiis cecidisti, m agne senâtor, et ^ à jë tà n u s të sepelivit ager. 2Éloquiî cünctôs superasti 3laude Pelasgôs, tütaque të 4sôlum cônsule Rôma fuit. Ergô licet tum ulô tua m em bra tegantur opâcô, non tam en haec nôm en mors tulit omne tuum . 1. Càjëtânus: of Cajeta, a city on the west coast of Italy, now Gaeta. 2. Eloquii: in classical Latin Ëloquî would have been used.

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3. laude: excellence; ablative of respect, 4. sdlum: adverb.

D um caelum terras respexerit et m are caelum, 5effugient laudes saecula nülla tuas. 6Vos, qui transitis, pueri juvenësque virique, sistite et “Ô Cicero,” dicite, “noster, 7avë.” 5. effugient: will be unfamiliar with. 6. Vos . . . transitis: Travelers passing along the ancient road could read the

inscriptions on the tombs which lined both sides, 7. avë: hail.

THE MAID OF ORLEANS Joan of Arc ( 1412-1431 ) was bom in the village of Domremy, France, to a poor peasant family. In her childhood most of her country was occupied by the English. In 1428, when the English were besieging Orleans and when it appeared as if the French would lose the war, this unknown peasant girl approached the commandant of her district and claimed that she had been commissioned to save France. Many believed her insane and thought it the height of folly to permit an untrained ignorant girl of seventeen years and of the peasant class to lead seasoned French soldiers against the undefeated English. However, Joan suc­ ceeded in convincing the French leader, Charles, to let her try to save Orleans. Dressed in shining armor and mounted on a fine horse, she led the French army to Orleans and to victory. In May, 1429, the English were compelled to withdraw from the city of Orleans, and Joan witnessed the crowning of Charles VII at Rheims. Failure followed success, and a year after the battle of Orleans, Joan was captured by the Burgundians and sold to the English. After a framed trial, she was convicted of witchcraft and was burned at the stake in the city of Rouen; Charles VII made no attempt to save her. Her cruel and unjust death united the French. They swore they would not stop until the English had been driven from France, and in 1453, they accomplished this. Joan of Arc has always been regarded by the French as a heroine of the highest caliber. For more than five hundred years she has been a national symbol, an image of patriotism that has never grown dim. A WOMAN LEADS AN ARMY

1Dux fëm ina belli facta est. Allata sunt arma, adducti equi; puella ferociorem ascendit et, ârdëns in armis, hastam vibrans, coegit equum currere atque in circulum së vertere haud aliter quam dë 2Camillà fâbulae tradunt. Quod cum nôbilës anim advertissent, nëmô inventus est qui ductum fëm inae contem pserit. Nobilissimus quisque, assümptïs armis, cupidissim ë secütus est virginem quae, paratis omnibus, itineri së com1. Dux . . . est: cf. Dux fëmina facti: a well-known line from Vergil’s Aeneid, I: 364.

2. Camillà: a Volscian heroine, ally of Tumus, who was Aeneas’ rival for Lavinia.

misit. Aditus per terram ad 3Aurëliànum patebat difficillimus. Itinera quaeque 4praeclüserat ’Anglic!; tribus urbis portis ^objecerant tria castra, eaque fossà et vâllô m ünierant. 3. Aurelianum: Orleans. 4. praeclüserat: had blocked.

5. Anglic!: the English. 6. objecerant: had set up as barriers.

THE ENGLISH ARE SURPRISED AND DEFEATED

Puella, 4haud Ignara 2Ligerim fluvium per moenia civitatis fluere, nâvës occultô in locô früm entô 3oneràvit, atque cum copiis ingressa est. Obsessis dë sua profectione admonitis, velôcl rëmigibus et rapidi flüminis cursü üsa, ilia in cônspectü civitatis est visa priusquam hostës earn ventüram esse côgnôverint. Prôcessërunt Anglic! armât!, sed frustra aditum virginis rem orârï cônâtï sunt; multis acceptis vulneribus, terga dedërunt. Illa, urbem ingressa et summô civium gaudio accepta, com m eatum omnis generis jam pereunti­ bus fame importavit. Nec m orata sequenti lüce castra hostium , quae portam 4praecipuam obsidëbant, m àgnô furôre invàdit, replëtïsque fossis atque aggere ac vâllô disjecto, Anglicôs fugâvit, ac potita m ùnïtiônibus, turrës et prôpügnâcula, quae hostës parâverant, incendit. Idem que, hortâta incolârum animôs, per aliâs portâs ëgressa, in aliis castris effëcit. Cum dïvïsï AnglicI plüribus in locis essent nec alia castra aliis castris subvenire possent, per hunc modum solüta et penitus finita est 5Aurëliânënsis obsidiô; ex victis hostibus, qui ad eam obsidionem convënerant, vix clâdis nüntius superfuit. Nec hüjus rei gloria alteri quam puellae data est, quamvis fortissimi ac perltissimï pùgnâtôrës et prïncipës qui saepe côpiâs düxerant, interfuërunt. 1. haudïgnàra: litotes. 2. Ligerim:Loire; a river in souihern France.

3. oneravit: loaded. 4. praecipuam: main, principal. 5. Aurëliànënsis: of Orleans.

THE DAUPHIN IS CROWNED CHARLES VII AT RHEIMS

Hârum rërum fâma, ad vïcînâs gentës et deinde ad longinquiôrës dëlâta, semper mâjor htinerandô facta, m entës omnium stupôre implëvit. 2Delphïnus, jam puellae crëdëns, cüjus dicta fïrm âverant facta, ad sus­ cipiendam corônam sësë parâvit. Nôbilitâs üniversï rëgnï, mirificis puellae operibus auditis, incrëdibill cupiditâte visendi virginem, â tôtâ Galliâ, assümptïs armls, convënit. Intrâ mënsem suprâ trïgintâ equitum milia propriis impendiis pügnâtüra ad D elphinum cônflüxit. Qui tantâs adesse arm âtôrum côpiâs magis ac magis laetâtus, 3prôcëdente in armls et vexillum rëgium gestante puellâ, illâs in Rëmôs dùxit. 1. itinerando: by traveling. 2. Delphinus: the Dauphin; the title of the oldest son of the King of France.

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3. prôcëdente: moving forward ( riding in front); participle in ablative absolute construction.

In itinere omnia oppida in potestate hostium erant, populusque omnis, novis obligati 4jüràm entïs, fidem servare Anglicis, ac D elphinum 5hostiliter accipere decreverant. At ubi omnia oppida D elphinum puellam que prope adesse cognoverunt, m irabile dictü, nëmô contrâ arm àtüs occurrit, nëmô portas clausit, nëmô venientibus malëdïxit. Quocum que ventum est, effüsa obviam plëbs D elphinum , tam quam dominum eum salütàvit. Cum prope Rëmôs 6ad quadraginta ferë stadia pervënisset exercitus, in urbe erat m agnus metus. Nihil Anglicis tütum visum est. Ubi D elphinus urbi erat propinquus, nüntiôs misit qui civitatem tradi jubërent, et 7corônàtiônem suam 8Rëmënsibus annüntiàrent. Nüllus autem in porta vel in urbe arm atus repertus est; togati cïvës extra moenia illi occurrërunt. Delphinus, sine conditionibus, sine pactis, sine üllà C ontra­ dictione, apertas portas ingressus est. Nëmô clàmâvit; nëmô signum 10indïgnâtiônis ostendit. 11Franci dum portam ünam ingrediuntur, Anglici altera fugiunt. Cônflüxit circâ D elphinum eum salütantium Francorum magnus con­ cursus, major circâ puellam. M àgnà populi frequentia, multis nobilibus circum astantibus, D elphinus môre mâjôrum rëgnï 12Franciae coronam suscëpit, clam ante m ultitüdine 13Carolô rëgï vitam et victoriam. 4. jüràmentïs = jüribus jürândïs. 5. hostiliter: as an enemy. 6. ad . . . stadia: to within almost forty stadia (five miles); stadium = 200 yards. 7. coronationem: coronation. 8. Rëmënsibus: citizens ( people) of Rheims.

9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

contradictione: opposition. indignationis: of resentment. Franci: the French, Franciae: of France. Carolô: for Charles.

Erasmus: Cosmopolitan Humanist of Europe

Desiderius Erasmus Rotterodamus (1466-1536) was the outstanding hu­ manist of fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Europe. Although he was Dutch by birth, he was intimately identified with the learning and scholars of Germany, England, Italy, and Switzerland. In England he was closely associated with Sir Thomas More and other English humanists. A thorough Latin and Greek scholar, he wrote textbooks on Latin grammar and related subjects, translated various Latin texts, including the first edition of the Greek testament, and produced editions of several Latin authors. His Praise of Folly, which was pub­ lished in England and is one of the most remarkable of satires, his Colloquies, and his Letters have an inherent interest even to people of today. Some three thousand of his letters are extant. They serve as an important primary source for the social, religious, and intellectual life of his era in all countries important at that time in Europe. Erasmus was the general editor and literary adviser for a well-known pub­ lisher from 1521-27. He edited Cicero's Tusculan Disputations, a dialogue regarding belief in immortality. The following selection is taken from the introduction to this work. 359

INTRODUCTION TO CICERO'S TUSCULAN DISPUTATIONS Cum Johannes Frobënius, vir ornatissimus, constitueret proferre 1Tusculânâs Quaestiones M arci Tulli, m ëque rogavisset u t hic 2aliquid ad­ derem opellae meae, quô liber exiret aliqua recentis ütilitâtis accessione com m endatus, eô libentius 3hanc 4suscëpï provinciam quod plüribus jam annis mihi nihil aut perpusillum commercï 5cum müsïs m ânsuëtôribus fuisset. Itaque conferendorum exemplarium negôtiô 67famulïs dëlëgâtô, 7jüdicandï partës sümpsï. Ubi variabant exemplaria, vel quod probabatur 8amplexi sumus, vel, si vidëbàtur anceps jüdicium, utram que lëctiônem servavimus, alteram in contextü, alteram in spatio marginis; non nülla 9citrà codicum suf­ fragium 10restituimus, sed n nec adm odum m ulta, et ibi dum taxat ubi rës homini doctô et exercitato non esset obscüra; non nihil etiam 12scholiôrum adjëcimus. Dum haec agô bidui triduique dispendium facere necesse fuit in aliis studiis. Atque hüjus 13dispendï adeô më non paenituit u t dësïderem , si liceat, ad veterës illôs amicos rem igrare ac mënsës aliquot cum illis fam iliariter vivere. Tantum früctüs më sënsï percëpisse ex his libris relëctïs, non tantum 14ob stilï rübïginem abstergendam (quam quam hoc quoque non nihil est, meô quidem jüdiciô), vërum m ultô magis ob anim ï cupiditàtës m oderandas 15refrënandàsque. Quotiëns inter legendum 16exspuëbam in stolidôs istôs qui in Cicerône nihil praeclarum dictitant 17praeter verborum phaleras! 18Quam illic est varia lëctiô volüminum quae doctissimi Graeci dë rëctë beâtëque vivendo relïquërunt! Q uanta vis, quanta copia salübrium ac sanctissimorum prae­ ceptorum! Q uanta cognitio quantaque m em oria priscarum simul et recentium historiarum! Tum autem , quam altae côgitàtiônës dë vërâ hominis fëlïcitâte, quae plânë dëclârant ilium hoc ëgisse quod docëbat! Jam vërô in explicandis rëbus procul â com m ünï sënsü ac sermône popu1. Tusculanas Quaestiones: the Tusculan Disputations. This dialogue regarding belief in immortality has remained through the ages one of Cicero s most popular works. (See pp. 248-50.) 2. aliquid . . . meae: something of my own

that was missing from the manuscript. 11. nec . . . multa: not very completely. 12. scholiôrum: (of) notes; partitive geni­ tive. 13. dispendi: genitive after paenituit. 14. ob . . . abstergendam: on account of

little work (a little contribution of my own).

rubbing off the rust of my style ( the im­ provement of my style ). refrënandàsque: arid restraining. exspuëbam . . . istôs: felt a scorn for those stupid people. praeter . . . phaleras: except rhetorical ornament. Quam . . . voluminum: How various (wide) a reading is [shown] there of the works.

3. hanc . . . provinciam = hoc negotium. 4. suscëpï: verb of the main clause. 5. cum . . . mânsuëtôribus: with polite

15. 16.

literature. 6. famulis: to my student assistants. 7. judicandi partës: the role of critic. 8. amplexi sumus: we clung to (kept).

17.

9. citrâ = sine. 10. restituimus: Erasmus inserted material

18.

làrï sëmôtïs, quâsque m ultî 19dëspëràbant Rômànà linguâ trâctârï posse, quae perspicuitas, qui candor, quae facilitas, quae copia, quae denique festivitas! Philosophiam , quae prim um in rêrum nàtüràlium contem platione oc­ cupata procul aberat à vïtâ commünï, Socrates primus 20in terras atque etiam in domôs dëdüxisse legitur. Platô et Aristotelës cônàtï sunt eam et in 21aulàs rëgum et in senâtum et in ipsa tribünâlia prôdücere. M. vërô Tullius mihi vidëtur eam etiam in 22proscënium perdüxisse; cüjus opera sic loqui didicit ut 23prôm iscuum etiam vulgus possit applaudere. Atque hüjus generis tam multos librôs scripsit vir ille difficillimis tem poribus sum m ôque rei püblicae tum ultü, quosdam etiam rëbus in summam dësperâtiônem adductis. 19. dêspêrâbant: despaired of ( did not think).

20. in terras: to nations. 21. aulâs: halls (courts).

22. proscenium: stage. 23. promiscuum . . . vulgus: the common crowd (herd).

Copernicus: A Classical Scholar Who Became a Great Astronomer

Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the renowned astronomer, was born at Torun, Poland. He began his first serious study of mathematics and astronomy at the University of Cracow in 1491, and after four years there went to Italy to continue his education. When he returned to Poland ten years later, he had become proficient not only in Latin, Greek, mathematics, and astronomy, but also in medicine and jurisprudence. In 1506, immediately after his return from Italy, he began to develop his astronomical system and to write down his findings. From these he evolved the system of astronomy that eventually changed the theories of the universe generally accepted up to that time. In the following extract from the preface of his work, Dë Revolütiônibus Orbium Caelestium, he explains that he found support for his astronomical theories in the second book of the Academica of Cicero. (See pages 246-247; 342-H. ) COPERNICUS QUOTES FROM CICERO JQ ua rë hanc mihi operam sümpsî, ut omnium philosophorum quos habëre possem librôs legerem, 12indàgâtürus anne 3*ü llus um quam O pina­ tus esset 5aliôs esse môtüs sphaerarum m undi quam illi 6pônerent qui in 1. Quâ ré: Copernicus has expressed his dis­ satisfaction with the methods used by professors of mathematics. 2. indâgâtürus: for the purpose of discover-

4. opinatus esset: had supposed; indirect question. 5. aliôs esse . . . quam: were other than. 6. ponerent: laid down.

ing.

3. üllus: any [of them], i.e., of the philoso­ phers.

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scholis 7m athëm ata profiterentur. Ac repperî quidem 8apud Ciceronem primum, 9Nicetam sensisse terram movêrï; postea et apud 10Plütarchum invënï quôsdam aliôs in eâ fuisse opinione. Inde igitur occasionem nactus coepi et ego dë terrae m obilitate cogitare. E t quamvis absurda opïniô vidëbàtur tam en quia sciëbam aliis ante më hanc concessam libertatem ut n quoslibet fingerent circulos 12ad dëmônstrandum phaenom ena astrorum, existimavi mihi quoque facile perm itti 13ut experïrem an 14positô terrae aliquô môtü flrmiôrës dëm ônstràtiônës quam illorum essent inveniri 15in revolütiône orbium caelestium possent. 7. mathëmata: mathematics. 8 apud Ciceronem: in Cicero; in the second book of the Académica. 9. Nicetam: Cicero gives the name Hiceta instead of Niceta. 10. Plütarchum: Plutarch; a Greek writer; the work referred to here is entitled: On the Opinions of Philosophers.

12. ad demonstrandum: gerund. 13. ut experïrem: substantive clause of pur­ pose; experïrem = experirer in classical Latin. 14. positô . . . môtü: some movement of the earth having been assumed ( by assum­ ing that the earth had some movement). 15. in revolütiône: for the revolution.

11. quoslibet circulos: whatever circles they pleased.

Thomas More: The Man for All Seasons

Thomas More (1478-1535) was the son of Sir John More, a lawyer and judge, and a highly esteemed citizen of London, and Agnes, the daughter of Thomas Grainger. His family provided an excellent education, which was aimed toward law, and eventually his legal career took him to Parliament, where he won the favor of Henry VIII. In 1532 he became Lord Chancellor. A short time later, unable to accept the opinions of the king regarding marriage and matters of supremacy, he offered his resignation as chancellor. When he refused to take the oath of royal supremacy, he was condemned to death for high treason. On July 6, 1535, he paid with his life for his convictions. Utopia, a social satire, gives More his high place in the fields of social philosophy and letters. He wrote the book in Latin because that was the com­ mon language of scholars throughout Europe, and scholars would be More’s public. In the first book he drew a picture of the corruption of English life at the beginning of the sixteenth century. In the second we are shown an ideal society. Here tyranny and luxury have been abolished, private property is unknown, and manual labor is looked upon as the sole profitable occupation. THE ATTITUDE OF THE UTOPIANS TOWARD EXCESSIVE WEALTH, HUNTING, AND DICING Quid [dïcam dë his] qui superfluas opës servant ut nüllô acervi üsü sed sôlà contem platione dëlectentur? Num V ëram percipiunt, an falsâ potius voluptate lüduntur? Aut dë hïs qui dïversô vitiô aurum quô numX. vêram: sc. voluptatem.

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quam sint üsürî, fortasse nec vïsürï amplius, abscondunt, et 2sollicitï në perdant, perdunt? Quid enim aliud est, üsibus dëm ptum tuis et omnium fortasse m ortalium 3tellürï reddere? E t tü tam en abstrüsô thësaurô, velut anim i jam sëcürus, laetitia gestis. Quem si quis fürtô abstulerit, cüjus tü Ignarus fürtî decem post annis obieris, tôtô illô 4decenniô, 5quô subtractae pecüniae superfuisti, 6quid tuâ rettulit surreptum an salvum fuisset? U trôque certë modo 7tantum dem üsus ad të pervënit. Ad hâs tam ineptas laetitias àleàtôrës (quorum Insaniam audïtü non üsü côgnôvëre) vënâtôrës praeterea atque 8aucupës adjungunt. Nam quae suâvitâs esse potest, ac non fastidium potius, in audiendo làtràtü atque ululàtü canum ? aut qui major voluptatis sënsus est, cum 9leporem canis Insequitur, quam cum canis canem? 10Nempe idem utroblque agitur; accurritur enim, si të cursus oblectet. At si të caedis spës, laniâtüs exspectatio sub oculis peragendi retinet, misericordiam potius movëre dëbet, spectare n lepusculum à cane, imbëcillum â validiore, fugacem ac tim idum â ferôce, innoxium dënique à crüdëlï 12discerptum . Itaq u e Utopiënsës tôtum hoc vënandï exercitium, ut rem liberis indig­ nam 13laniôs ( quam artem per 14servôs obire eôs ut supra diximus ) rejëcërunt, Infimam enim ëjus partem esse vënàtiônem statuunt, reliquas ëjus partës et ütiliôrës et honestiôrës, ut quae et multô magis conferant, et anim alia necessitatis dum taxat grâtià perim ant, cum vënâtor ab miseri 15anim alculï caede ac laniàtü nihil nisi voluptatem petat. Quam spec­ tandae necis libidinem in ipsis etiam bestiis aut ab animi crüdëlis affectü cënsent exoriri, aut in crüdëlitàtem dënique assiduo tam efferae volup­ tatis üsü dëfluere. H aec igitur, et quidquid est hüjusm odï ( sunt enim 16innum era ) quam ­ quam prô voluptatibus m ortalium vulgus habeat, illi tam en, cum nàtürà nihil Insit suave, plànë statuunt cum vërâ voluptate nihil habëre com­ mere!. 2. solliciti: disturbed (solicitous). 3. telluri reddere: to return to the ground ( when you hide it in the ground ). 4. decenniô: ten years; from decennium,

post-classical Latin. 5. quo . . . superfuisti: in which you sur­ vived the stolen money ( in which you lived after the money was stolen). 6. quid tuâ rettulit: what did it matter to you. 7. tantumdem: just as much ( the same).

8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

aucupês: hawkers. leporem: hare. Nempe: For. lepusculum: little hare. discerptum: pulled to pieces. laniôs . . . rejècërunt: have thrown back to their butchers. 14. servos: bondsmen. 15. animalcull: of a little animal. 16. innumera = sine numero.

M a rk A ntony M uret: Leading Latin Scholar of the Sixteenth Century

Mark Antony Muret (1526-1585) was a well-known Latin scholar in the early part of his life in France and in the latter part in Italy. An author, 363

lecturer, and publisher, he took an important part in the critical study and editing of Greek and Latin classics. He was acknowledged by competent critics to be the leading Latin stylist of his time. He wrote Latin of such Ciceronian perfection that his orations, with those of Cicero, were read in schools up to the time of the eighteenth century. His publications include Lêctiônês, Epistolae, Ôràtiônês, editions of a number of Latin authors, translations of some Greek authors, and commentaries, as well as original poetry. The following selection is taken from one of Muret’s orations delivered in Rome in 1583. WHY STUDY LATIN? Si ex Latinis scriptoribus neminem haberem us praeter Ciceronem, Vergilium, Senecam, Livium, Plinium, T acitum —et constat m ultos esse aliôs, qui in idem Alburn referri queant—sed si eôs sôlôs haberem us, justa tam en mihi causa vidërëtur cür ad eôs intelligendôs linguam Latinam avide disceremus. Nunc 12accëdit alia longé gravissima, quae nos incendere studio dëbeat. Nam 3cum 4earum linguarum, quârum üsus ërudïtïs cum vulgô commünis est, ùna quaeque et certis et angustis finibus circum scripta tenea­ tur, hârum dë quibus animus üsus tôtô 5propem odum terrarum orbe diffüsus est. ïtalicë loquentem soli Italici intelligent; 6qui tantum Hispànicë loqua­ tur, inter Germânôs 7prô m ütô habëbitur; Germ anicus inter Italôs nütü ac manibus prô linguâ ütï côgëtur; 8qui Gallico sermone perïtissim ë ac scientissimë ütàtur, ubi ë Galliâ exierit, saepe ültrô irrïdëbitur; qui Graecë Latïnëque sciat, is, quocum que terrarum vënerit, non intelligëtur tantum , sed 9apud plërôsque adm irationi erit. Atque haec causa vel mâxima est cür Graecë aut L atïnë potius quam ïtalicë aut Gallicë scribere, 10quicum que id ëgregië praestare possunt, dëbeant. Nam qui scribunt, aut n ütilitàtem püblicam aut gloriam suam sequuntur; 12sï ütilitàtem püblicam , certë m ultô plüribus prôdërunt, si eâ linguâ scribant, quae apud omnës gentës quibuscum modo aliquid nôbïs üsüs aut commercï est 13intelligàtur. Glôriam quoque suam longius làtiusque diffundunt, si ea scribant quorum pulchritüdô ab omnibus populis ac gentibus percipi queat. 1. album: list (category ). 2. accêdit . . . gravissima: sc. causa. 3. cum . . . ùna quaeque . . . teneatur: cum-causal clause. 4. earum linguarum: i.e. other languages besides Latin and Greek. 5. propemodum = paene. 6. qui . . . loquatur: characteristic clause. 7. pro mütô = mütus. 8. qui . . . ütàtur: characteristic clause.

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9. apud . . . erit: will be for an admira­ tion among very many (will be admired by very many); admîràtiônï: dative of

purpose. 10. qulcumque . . . possunt: subject of dëbeant. 11. ütilitàtem: good. 12. si . . . püblicam: sc. sequuntur, strive after.

13. intelligàtur: subjunctive by attraction.

F r a n c is B a c o n : S c h o la r o f th e E liz a b e th a n A g e

Sir Francis Bacon (1561-1626) was born in London. His father was Nicholas Bacon, Lord Keeper to Elizabeth I, and his mother was a remarkable student of Greek and Latin; she probably cultivated the literary talents of her young son. Francis entered Trinity College, Cambridge, at the age of twelve, and there he devoted his time and efforts to the study of law. With his course of study completed, he traveled in Europe. After his return to his native land, he served in the English court. Although he failed to find favor with the Queen, he had a friend and patron in the Earl of Sussex, who chose him as a political adviser. After the death of Elizabeth I, Bacon rose rapidly in political offices, the highest of which was Lord Chancellor of King James I. Convicted of taking bribes, he fell from favor, which he never regained. The rest of his life he spent in writing and in scientific experiment. His most important works were the Dê Dignitate et Augmentis Scientiarum and the Novum Organum. In the following selection, which is taken from the Novum Orgànum, Bacon emphasizes the importance of the experimental method in science. THE PROGRESS OF MAN Rürsus, p u tet quispiam Q uantum intersit inter hom inum vitam in cul­ tissima Europae provincia et in regione aliqua Novae Indiae, maxime fera et barbara; eam tantum differre existimabit u t m erito hominem hom ini Deum esse, non solum propter auxilium et beneficium, sed etiam per [vitae] statüs com parationem , rëctë dici possit. Atque hoc non solum, non caelum, non corpora, sed artës praestant. Rürsus, vim et virtütem et consequentias rërum inventarum notare 2juvat; quae non in aliis m anifëstius occurrunt, quam in illis tribus quae antiquis incognitae, et quarum origo, licet recentia, obscüra et sine glôriâ sunt: artis nim irum im prim endi, 3pulveris torm entârï, et 4acüs nauticae. 5H aec enim tria rërum faciem et statum in orbe terrarum m ütàvërunt: prim um , in rë litteraria; secundum, in rë bellica; tertium , in navigationi­ bus; unde innum eràbilës rërum m ütâtiônës secütae sunt; ut non aliquod im perium , 6nôn secta, non stella màjôrem efficaciam et quasi 7ïnflüxum super rës hüm ànàs exercuisse videatur, quam 8ista m ëchanica exercuërunt. Praeterea, non abs rë sequëtur tria hüm ânae ambitionis genera et quasi gradüs distinguere [possumus]. Prim um eôrum, qui propriam potentiam 1. quantum intersit: how much difference there is. 2. juvat: it is pleasant. 3. pulveris tormentârï: of gunpowder. 4. acüs nauticae: of the mariners compass.

5. Haec . . . tria: For these three [inven­ tions]. 6. non secta: not [some philosophical] sect. 7. ïnflüxum: influence; late Latin. 8. ista mëchanica: those machines.

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in patriâ suâ amplificare cupiunt; quod genus vulgare est et turpe. Secundum eôrum, qui patriae potentiam et im perium inter hüm ànum genus amplificare nituntur; illud plüs certë habet dignitatis, cupiditatis haud minus. Quod si quis hüm ànï generis ipsius potentiam et im perium in rërum Universitatem Instaurare et amplificare cônëtur, ea sine dubio ambitiô (si modo ita vocanda sit) reliquis et sânior est et 9augustior. Hominis autem imperium in rës 10in solis artibus et scientiis ponitur. N àtürà enim non im peratur, nisi [eï] parendo. 9. augustior : more majestic.

10. in . . . scientiis: in things [which deal

with] the arts and sciences alone.

Volta: Founder of Electricity as a Modern Science

Alessandro Volta was born on February 18, 1745, at Como, in northern Italy. His family belonged to the local nobility but, as Volta later stated, in his youth he had been “poorer than poor.” Although so backward as a child that he was believed to be an imbecile, at the age of twenty-nine he was teaching physics at Como’s college, where he had studied mathematics and physics. The announcement of his invention of the electrophorus in 1775 was followed in 1782 by the development of his condensing electroscope; both are very delicate instruments for indicating the presence of electricity. But his greatest contribution was his electric pile, or battery, which became the key to the new science of electricity. His simple experiments with pairs of dissimilar metals in a suitable liquid conductor led to the establishment of the basic electrical theory of the electrochemical series and to the first electric generator. For the first time man could observe the results of a continuous flow of electricitv. The following excerpt is from an article written in Latin by Volta and de­ livered on May 5, 1792, in the great hall of the University of Pavia. In it he analyzed the inconsistencies of Galvani’s hypothesis of “animal electricity.” VOLTA INITIATES THE MODERN SCIENCE OF ELECTRICITY Initiô hüjus anni revocâbar ad ëlectricitàtem 2occàsiône p h a e n o m e ­ norum mirabilium, quae Galvànius in 4tentàm inibus suis dëtëxit dëscrïpsitque. In hïs dëmônstràvisse vidëtur 5vigëre p e rp e tu o in anim alibus cüjusque speciëï aliquam ëlectricitàtem . H aec ëlectricitâs, ut Galvànius confirmat, ab ipsis gignitur, et in ipsïs 7orgInïs vi vitae sponte concitatur. Scilicet vidëtur 8fluidum ëlectricum , ruptô nàtüràliter aequilibrio, in nervis jam non quiëscere, sed esse in continuô aliquô m ôtü, aut sësë ex 1. ëlectricitàtem: electricity. 2. occâsiône: upon the occasion. 3. phaenomenorum: of the phenomena

( scientifically described facts). 4. tentaminibus: treatises. 5. vigëre: flourishes (exists).

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6. perpetuô: continuously. 7. organis: organs; here, a part of the body adapted to some special function or functions, as a leg or an arm. 8. fluidum ëlectricum: electric fluid (cur-

rent).

hâc in aliam partem effundit nïsü, 9quàtenus 101r edundat vel deficit. H âc dë causa experim enta illa omnia Galvànï prim um iterum cônâtus sum; deinde, n dëducta ex eis 12cônsectària 13ad examen revocavi, novis praecipuë ïnstitütïs 14dë industria experimentis, quibus m ulta dëtegere nobis datum est, quae Galvânium ipsum aliôsque physicos, eandem post illum viam ingressos, fügërunt. In ter praecipuas quaestiônës nondum cônstitütum est: prim um , num in experim entis Galvànï validissimae 15contràctiônës musculorum, quae excitantur, et artuum môtüs, ob 16duplicem m etalli 17contactum hinc müsculô, inde nervô animalis rïtë 18dissecti ac praeparati, qui motus ëlectricô fluido, ab ünâ ad aliam partem per arcum 19conductorem rum ­ penti, sine dubiô dëbet, ideô ëveniant, quod hoc fluidum sive sponte sive vi ipsâ organorum 20animalium, ad hanc vel illam partem tendat; quô in càsü vëra ac propria animalis ëlectricitâs habërï m erërëtur, quodque Galvànius tuëtur; deinde, num aliquando hoc ita fiat, an, quod plüribus in câsibus ëvenïre jam prôrsus dëm ônstràvï, m etalla in experimentis adhibita, cum partibus anim alium 21succô plënïs adm oventur, atque aptë applicantur, per së ac propriâ virtüte fluidum ëlectricum, aliter quiëtum , turbare, concitare, pellere possint, adeô, ut organa animalia non nisi 22passïvë sësë habeant. Ergô, rationem phaenom enorum , quae à Galvàniô ëlectricitâtï anim ali attribuntur, ego ëlectricitâti 23artificiàlï, sive extra corpus anim ale excitatae, tribuere malim. Tandem , hoc novum ëlectricitàtis artificialis principium , à më dëtëctum , rem anëbit, quod màximam huic scientiae lücem afferre potest; dënique, vis ac virtüs m etallorum et carbonis, ope simplicis contàctüs cum corpori­ bus 24hüm idïs, fluidum ëlectricum concitabit et pellet; haec certis experi­ m entis extra corpora anim alia ïnstitütïs confirmavi. quatenus : insofar as. redundat vel déficit: ebbs or flows. dêducta: deduced (drawn). consectaria: conclusions. ad examen: for consideration. dë industria: assiduously. contractiones: contractions. duplicem: double. contactum: contact. dissecti: dissected. conductorem: conducting. 20. animalium: animal; genitive plural of the adjective animalis, —e. 21. succô = hümôre: moisture. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19.

22. passive: passively; Volta correctly con­ tends that the animal organs of them­ selves did not conduct the electricity generated by the dissimilar metals and the carbon; the moisture in the organs was the liquid conductor needed to com­ plete the electrical circuit.

23. artificiali: artificial. 24. hümidïs: moist; two dissimilar metals, such as copper and zinc, in a salt water solution, will cause a continuous flow of electricity; charcoal (carbon) can be substituted for a metal.

A b rah am Lincoln: The Gettysburg Address

Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865) was the sixteenth President of the United States. Even before he was elected to the highest office of our country, his speeches had won him a national reputation. His English was bold, direct, 367

and unaffected, and he was an excellent pleader. He expressed great thoughts in all his speeches. In his last speech, the second inaugural address, delivered just about a month before his tragic assassination, he uttered the noble phrase that was characteristic of his life and career: “With malice toward none, with charity for all.” Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address is among the greatest speeches in the English language. The President had gone to Gettysburg on November 19, 1863, to dedicate a cemetery for the thousands of Americans who had lost their lives in the three-day battle from July 2 to 4. The great orator chosen for the occa­ sion was the famous Edward Everett, and he spoke for two hours. The Presi­ dent, who had been invited to say “a few appropriate remarks” after Everett’s speech, spoke for about two minutes. Everett had spent months on his address; Lincoln had written only a draft. Everett’s speech, which was wildly applauded, was printed in all the papers. Lincoln’s received only polite applause and very little mention in the press, but his words that day have become immortal. GETTYSBURG ADDRESS Octôgintâ et septem abhinc annôs civitatem novam, libertate ortam atque huic proposito omnës m ortales p a rile s nâtôs dëdicâtam , majorés nostri in hâc terra peperërunt. Bellô civili gravlque nunc versamur, quaerentes utrum illa civitas an ülla civitas tam orta atque dêdicâta diü perm ànsüra sit. In campô pügnae illius belli acerrim ae adsumus. Convenimus ad partem hüjus cam pi con­ secrandam in sepultüram eôrum qui vitam ad patriam conservandam hic deposuerunt. Dignum atque 2decorum nos hoc facere. Non tam en hanc terram vërë dëdicàre, consecrare, sanctificare pos­ sumus. Viri enim fortës, qui hïc contendërunt vel adhüc vïventës vël mortui, exiguam facultatem nostram aut amplificandi aut im m inuendi magnopere superàvërunt. Verba nostra hic ëmissa hominës aut paululum anim advertent aut brevi obllvlscentur, sed quod illi hïc effëcërunt, nüllô pactô dë memoriâ hom inum ëlàbitur. Immô vërô nôbïs adhüc in vïtâ versantibus incum bit operï nôndum perfecto nos dëdicàrï quod illi, qui hïc contendërunt, 3hactenus tam praeclàrë prôm ôvërunt. Immô vërô restat ut huic m âgnô negôtiô im perfecto nos conferam us— scilicet, ut ex hïs dëfünctïs honoratis studium mâjus hauriam us; illius causae prô qua ill! ex ïmô corde sësë obtulërunt; ut nos praesentës 4fîrm iter statuâm us në hï m ortuï früstrâ vltam dëposuerint; u t haec cïvitàs sub Deô lïbertâtï 5renàscâtur; et ut im perium in populo fundâtum , â populo gestâtum , ad populï salütem parâtum num quam dë hâc terra peribit. 1. pariles: e q u a l. 2. decorum: 'proper. 3. hactenus : th u s far.

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4. fîrmiter: h ig h ly . 5. renascatur: sh a ll

h a v e a n e w b irth .

John Fo Kennedy: An Orator in the Ciceronian Tradition

Although such statesmen as Gladstone, Lincoln, and Churchill wrote and spoke in English, the cadence and periodic structure of their speeches reflect their common debt to Cicero, the recognized father of oratory. A more recent example of the Ciceronian influence is found in the address delivered by John F. Kennedy at his inauguration on January 20, 1961, as thirty-fifth President of the United States. Whenever we read this speech in English, we are aware of the obvious resemblance to Cicero’s style. But when the speech is translated into Latin, with idioms, phrases, and vocabulary that Cicero might have used, the re­ semblance is startling. We can thus see how the expression of the Ciceronian Age has helped to shape the expression of our modern age and has made it impossible not to recognize our Latin heritage.

THE INAUGURAL ADDRESS H odië victoriam non factionis sed libertatis celebram us—quae et finem et initium repraesentat—quae tam renovationem quam m ütàtiônem sig­ nificat. Nam ego hodië côram vôbïs et Deô om nipotenti idem solemne jüs jürandum jüràvï quod majores nostri abhinc centum septuaginta quinque paene annis praescripserant. Tem poribus nostris omnia maxime m ütantur. Nunc enim hominës m ortàlës in m anü h abent ut non sôlum hom inibus inopia num quam p atienda sit sed quoque ut vita m ortalium omnium exstinguatur. At tam en eaedem ^p ïn iô n ës novissimae prô quibus patrës nostri prôpügnàb an t adhüc in diversis orbis terrarum partibus passim periclitantur— màximë illa quâ crëdimus jüs hüm ânum non dë voluntate rëgnantium sed dë m anü Dei nasci. Nôbïs non obliviscendum est hodië nos hërëdës esse illôrum qui prïm ï novïs rëbus studërent. 12N üntium dïvulgëtur hôc ë tem pore et locô amicis inim icisque 3pariter facem illam traditam esse novô Amëricânôrum ge­ neri qui, hôc saeculo nati, bello tem perati, pace difficili acerbàque exer­ citati, hërëd itàte nostra avïtà 4ëlàtï, et nôlentës aut vidëre aut pati 5jüra hüm àna gradâtim solvi quibus haec patria nostra sem per 6së dëdicâverit, et quibus nos tem poribus nostris 7domï forïsque 8obligëmur. Sciant omnës populi sive benevoli sive malevoli sint, nos parâtôs esse ad quodlibet pretium solvendum, quem libet laborem sustinendum , 1. opiniones novissimae: lie f s .r 2. Nüntium dïvulgëtur:

re v o lu tio n a ry b e ­ L e t th e w o r d g o

6.

fo rth .

3. pariter: a lik e. 4. ëlàtï: l if te d u p { p r o u d ) . 5. jüra . . . solvi: h u m a n

7. rig h t

to

be

8.

w e a k e n e d s te p b y s te p { th e slo w u n ­ d o in g of th o se h u m a n rig h ts ). së dëdicâverit: h as b e e n d e d ic a te d {co m ­ m it te d ). domî forïsque: a t h o m e a n d a b ro a d ( a ro u n d th e w o r ld ). obligëmur: a re b o u n d { c o m m i t t e d ) .

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9quam libet molestiam tolerandam , quem libet amicum adjuvandum , cuili­ bet inimico resistendum ut nos libertas superet et bene procédât. Hoc 9101s pondëmus; immô et plüra jürâmus. Sociis nostris antiquis n quibuscum môrum et religionis principia commünicâmus, nos fore amicos fidos pollicemur. Conjünctï nos omnem conatum novum invicem perfi­ cere possumus. Disjünctï tam en pauca perficiemus, neque audem us provo­ cationi potenti obviam Ire m ütuô dissentientes ac divisi. Nationibus illis novissimis, quâs laeti inter nâtiônës liberas nunc salütàmus, fidem damus nos non passürôs esse ut, 12vetere 13dom inàtiône colônicâ excussa, aliud jam subeant 14m ultô acerbius. Eâs sem per nôbïscum sentire haud putam us. Semper autem sperabim us eas libertatem suam dëfënsürâs esse. Rem iniscantur illôs qui ïnsipientës tem poribus praeteritis potentës fieri conarentur et, ut âjunt, tigris tergô veherentur, postea intus inventos esse. Illis gentibus, quae per dimidium orbis terrarum in casis vicisque habitantës vincula commünis miseriae rum pere contendunt, prom ittim us nos eïs mâximô auxiliô futürôs esse (per quantum necesse erit tem pus) quippe qui së juvent; hoc faciëmus, non quia 15Com m ünistae hoc faciant, neque quod nos suffragium eorum velimus, sed quod ita agere bonum est. Etenim si libera nationum societas illis multis pauperibus succurrere nequit, neque paucôs dïvitës salvâre non poterit. 16Cïvitàtibus meridionalibus germanis ferë nôbïs hoc imprimis spondëmus: bona dicta in opera bona nos com m ütàtürôs esse, societatem novam cum illis ad proficiendum efficientës, ut civibus liberis et civitatibus liberis ad vincula 17egestâtis dëpônenda opem feramus,. H ac tam en 18m ütàtiône placida 19bonae spei ut dom inatio hostilissima potiatur nôbîs non perm ittenda est. Sciant omnës finitim ae cïvitâtës nos ünà cum illis quemvis im petum hostilem subversionem que in qualibet rë püblicà Amëricânâ oppügnâtürôs esse. Etiam sciat omnis nâtiô aliëna nos ipsôs qui in hôc orbis terrarum latere habitam us, constituisse patriarum nos­ trarum dominos manëre. 20Nàtiônibus Ünïtls, üniversâll conventui civitatum quae sunt suï jüris in quô sôlam et optimam spem pâcis pônim us hôc nostrô saeculo cum belli arma pâcis 21ratiônibus tantopere praestant rürsus fidem nostram 9. quamlibet . . . tolerandam: meet any hardship. 10. spondëmus: we pledge. 11. quibuscum . . . commünicâmus: whose cultural and spiritual origins we share. 12. vetere . . . excussà: ablative absolute. 13. dominatione: tyranny. 14. multô acerbius: much more bitter (far more iron) [tyranny], 15. Commünistae: the Communists.

16. Civitatibus . . . nôbîs: To the southern states almost sisterly to us (To our sister republics south of our border). 17. egestatis = paupertatis. 18. mütàtiône: ablative with potiatur. 19. bonae spei: hopeful. 20. Nationibus Ünîtîs = Foederatarum Na­ tionum Cônsiliô. 21. rationibus: instruments.

renovam us u t sustineam us atque cürëm us në fiat 22tribünal conviciis tantum trâditum ; quasi scütum supra nàtiônês novâs atque débiles con­ firm abim us; tütëlàre ëjus 23m andàtum in plürës orbis partës dilata­ bimus. Illis postrëm ô nationibus 24quae nôbïs mala velint, non tam spondëmus quam eâs precam ur ut utraeque pàcem 25dënuo petere incipiant, prius­ quam 26vïrës istae âtrae et exitiàlës, quâs viri docti per scientiam invënërunt, omnës m ortâlës 27excidiô sive consulté sive câsü 28sepeliant. Non audëm us esse im parati në malevolentës nostri animum augeant. Tum dënique cum tëla nostra haud üllô dubiô idônea aptaque fuerint, intrepidi et certi erimus fore ut illa tëla num quam aptentur. Sed në putëm us duâs nâtiônum societâtës praepotentës sëcürâs futürâs esse u t rës nunc stant—cum utrâque ex parte süm ptibus tëlôrum novôrum populi opprim antur, jürë m etuentës në 29m ortifera vis atomica lâtius sem per percrëbrëscat, simul tam en 30ënixë contendentës utrim que ut aequilibrium illud am biguum terrôris com m ütent, quod sôlum ab hüm ànà gente bellum sànë ültim um cohibet. D ënuo igitur incipiam us—utrim que memorës urbanitatem potentia non carëre et vëra dicta sem per probare necesse esse. Num quam timoris causa colloquam ur; sed num quam colloqui timeamus. U trim que magis eâs quaestiônës agâmus in quibus consentimus quam quibus m ütuô dividimur. U trim que prim um condiciônës gravës et dëfinitas dë tëlïs scrütandïs m oderandïsque ferâmus et illam potentiam absolütam alias nàtiônês dëstruendï sub omnium nâtiônum potestatem absolütam redücâmus. U trim que ut m irabilia nàtürae, non terribilia invicem invocent con­ jungamus. C om m üniter astra invëstigëmus, regiônës désertas ad üsum hüm ànum redigam us, pestilentias dëleàmus, ôceanî profunda explôrëmus, artës com m erciaque sustentëm us. U trim que nos conjungamus ut per orbem terrarum praeceptis Isaiae prophëtae oboediam us: "Solvite onera gravia . . . oppressos liberate.” Si dënique m ütuï auxili initium in suspicionis caligine effici potest, utrique conjungam us ad hoc opus instandum ; efficiamus, non recëns imperi aequilibrium , sed novam condicionem lëgum in quâ fortës sint jüstï, dëbilës sint sëcürï, pàx servëtur. 22. tribünal . . . trâditum: 23. 24.

a trib u n a l tu r n e d o v e r to in su lts ( a fo ru m fo r i n v e c t iv e ) . mandatum . . . dilatabimus: w e sh a ll e n ­ la rg e its w r it in m o re p a r ts o f th e w o r ld ( th e a re a in w h ic h its w r it m a y run ). quae . . . mala velint: w h o w o u ld b e illd is p o s e d to w a r d u s ( w h o w o u ld m a k e th e m s e lv e s ou r a d v e r s a r ie s ) .

25. dënuo = rürsus. 26. virés . . . exitiàlës: 27. 28. 29. 30.

d a rk a n d d e s tr u c tiv e p o w e r s ( d a rk p o w e r s of d e s tr u c tio n ) . excidiô: in d e stru c tio n . sepeliant: b u r y ( e n g u l f ) . mortifera: d e a d ly . ënixë: stre n u o u sly .

371

H aec quidem omnia non primis centum diebus, conficientur neque primis mille diebus, neque omni hüjus m agistrâtüs tem pore, forsitan ne intra quidem totam aetatem nostram in hôc m undô actam . At tam en saltem incipiamus I In m anibus vestris cives mei, potius quam in meis, ültim us term inus agendi rationis ponetur, seu felix seu infelix. Ex quô tem pore condita est haec nostra civitas, omne Am ericanorum saeculum provocatum est u t fidem suam patriae testaretur. Sepulchra juvenum Am ericanorum , qui hoc mimus susceperunt per totum orbem terrarum vidërï possunt. Diebus nostris tuba nos iterum vocat—non ut arm a feram us, quamvis opus sit armis, nec ut pügnam sustineamus, quamvis in aciê instruam ur; sed potius vocamur ut certam en agâmus diüturnum et obscürum , dë annô in annum, “Spë gaudentës, tribulatione patientës”—certam en contra illôs hominum hostës commünës: tyrannidem , egestatem , morbôs, atque bellum ipsum. Nonne foedus grande et üniversàle contra hôs hostës ferire possumus, (nos qui in omnibus partibus—septentrionalibus, m eridionalibus, orien­ talibus, occidentalibus—habitam us), quod vivendi rationem früctuôsiôrem omnibus hominibus praestare possit? Nonne vos in hunc cônâtum semper m em orandum in posterum nôbïscum sociôs conjungëtis? Per diüturnôs annàlës rërum gestarum hüm ânârum , paucissimis hom i­ num saeculis datum est libertatem tem pore maximi periculi tuërï. Ab hôc officio gravi minimë refugiô, immô libentissimë id suscipio. N eque crëdô, quem quam ë nôbïs malle in patriâ aliâ vel aetate quam hac vivere. Vigor ille, fidës illa, studium illud quod ad hunc cônâtum adhibëm us patriam nostram illüm inàbit omnësque item, qui ei serviunt; et ardor illius ignis orbem terrarum vërë accendere potest. Itaque, cïvës mei Amëricànï, nolite rogare quid patria vestra prô vobis facere possit, immô etiam quid vos prô patriâ facere possitis, id rogâte. Cïvës mei hüjus orbis terrârum , nôlïte rogâre quid nos Am ëricànï prô vôbïs âctürî sïmus, sed quid vos nôsque conjünctï prô hom inum lïbertâte efficere possimus. Dënique, sive reï püblicae Amëricânae sive orbis terrârum cïvës estis, â nôbïs qui hic adsumus eâsdem excelsâs fïrm itâtis et lïberâlitâtis nôrmâs poscite quâs â vôbïs nos flâgitâmus. Conscientiam püram praem ium nos­ trum certum et ünicum esse scientës et jüdicês ültimôs factôrum nos­ trorum esse posterôs, prôgrediâm ur ut patriam nostram cârissimam dücâmus, Deique benedictionem et opem rogâmus, conscii tam en hic in terris Dei opera et nostra vërë esse dëbëre.

372

Appendix

Latin Forms Declension of Nouns

FIRST DECLENSION SINGULAR

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

PLURAL

puella, a girl puellae, of a girl or a girVs puellae, to or for a girl puellam, a girl puellâ, from, by, or with a girl

puellae, the girls puellarum, of the girls or the girls* puellis, to or for the girls puellâs, the girls puellis, from, by, or tvith the girls

1. In form the vocative case is always the same as the nominative case. 2. Nouns of the first declension are feminine, except nouns denoting males, which are masculine. 3. The dative and ablative plural of filia is filiabus, and of dea, deàbus.

FIRST DECLENSION: GREEK NOUNS Greek nouns, especially proper names, are generally Latinized and declined regularly according to their stem characteristic. Those of the first declension ending in -ë are feminine; those ending in -as or -ës are masculine. In the plural they are declined like puella, and in the singular as follows: Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Voc.

Pënelopë Pënelopës Pënelopae Pënelopën Pënelopâ Pënelopë

Aenëâs Aenëae Aenëae Aenëam (-an) Aenëâ Aenëâ

Anchïsës Anchisae Anchisae Anchïsën (-am) Anchisa Anchîsë (—â, —a )

The Greek name Thisbë is declined like Pënelopë; Archias is declined like Aenëâs. 373

SECOND DECLENSION

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

servus servi servô servum servô

ager agri agrô agrum agrô

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

servi servôrum servis servôs servis

agri agrorum agris agrôs agris

SINGULAR vir viri viro virum virô PLURAL viri virorum viris virôs viris

filius fili filio filium filiô

oppidum oppidi oppido oppidum oppido

filii filiorum filiis filios filiis

oppida oppidorum oppidis oppida oppidis

1. Second declension nouns in -us, -er, or -ir are masculine; those in -um are neuter. Vulgus, common people, is neuter. 2. Filius, proper names in -ius, and nouns in -ium usually have -I (not -iï) in the genitive singular, with the accent on the penult. 3. The vocative singular of nouns in -us is -e; filius and proper names in -ius have -ï: serve, fill, Cornell. 4. The vocative of deus is deus.

SECOND DECLENSION: GREEK NOUNS Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Voc.

Delôs (-u s) Dëli Dëlô Delon (-u m ) Dëlô Dële

Ilion (—um) Ilii Ilio Ilion (-u m ) Ilio Ilion (-u m )

Panthüs Panthi Pantho Panthün Panthô Panthü

Androgeos (-u s) Androgei (-e ô ) Androgeo Andrqgeôn (-ô ,- ô n a ) Androgeô Androgeos

THIRD DECLENSION M a s c u lin e a n d F e m in in e C o n s o n a n t S t e m s

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

honor, m. honoris honori honorem honore

pater, m. patris patri patrem patre

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

honorés honôrum honoribus honorés honoribus

patrës patrum patribus patrës patribus

374

SINGULAR regio, f. rex, m . regionis rëgis regioni rëgi regionem regem regione rëge PLURAL regiônës rëgës regionum rëgum regionibus rë gibus regiônës rëgës regionibus rëgibus

princeps, m. principis principi principem principe

cîvitâs, /. civitatis civitati civitatem civitate

pës, m. pedis pedi pedem pede

prïncipës prïncipum principibus prïncipës principibus

cïvitâtës civitatum civitatibus cïvitâtës civitatibus

pedës pedum pedibus pedës pedibus

Some masculine and feminine nouns of the third declension end in -s in the nominative. If the stem of a noun ends in -c or — g, the nominative will end in -X, as reg— f- s = rëx; duc— b s = dux. Nouns with stems ending in -tr have the nominative ending in -ter, as pater from patr-. A final - t or -d of the stem is dropped before -s, as ped— \-s — pës. Short -i in a stem of more than one syllable changes to short —e in the nominative, as princip----b s = princeps. Nouns with stems ending in -din and -gin end in -Ô in the nominative, as virgo, virginis and multitüdô, multitüdinis. Neuter Consonant Stems SINGULAR N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

flüm en fl ü m in i s flüm inî flüm en flüm ine

co rp u s corporis co rp o ri corpus corp o re

g en u s g en eris g en eri genus g en ere

caput cap itis c a p iti caput ca p ite

ite r itin eris itin eri iter itin ere

c a p ita c a p itu m cap itib u s c a p ita cap itib u s

itin era itin eru m itin erib u s itin e ra itin erib u s

PLURAL N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

flüm ina flüm inum flüm inibus flüm ina flüm inibus

c o rp o ra co rp o ru m c o rp o rib u s co rp o ra co rp o rib u s

g e n e ra g en eru m g en erib u s g en era g en erib u s i -Stems

Neuter

Masculine and Feminine SINGULAR N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

cïvis, mf. cïvis cïvl cïvem cïve

c aed ës, /. caed is caedi ca e d e m caede

u rb s, f. u rb is u rb i u rb e m u rb e

m are m aris m ari m are m ari

nox, /. noctis n o cti noctem n o cte

cohors, /. cohortis co h o rti co h o rtem co h o rte

n o ctës n o ctiu m n o ctib u s no ctës (- -ïs) n o ctib u s

m aria co h o rtës m ariu m co h o rtiu m m arib u s c o h o rtib u s coh o rtës (- -is ) m aria m arib u s co h o rtib u s

PLURAL N om . G en. D a t. A cc. A bl.

cïvës cîvium cïv ib u s cïvës ( - ï s ) cïv ib u s

caed ës c a e d iu m c a e d ib u s caed ës ( - i s ) c a e d ib u s

u rb ës u rb iu m u rb ib u s u rb ës ( - i s ) u rb ib u s

1. Masculine and feminine i-stem nouns fall into three classes: a. Nouns ending in -is or -es and having the same number of syllables in the genitive as the nominative. b. Monosyllables in -s or -x whose base ends in a double consonant. c. Nouns ending in -ns or -rs. 2. Neuter i-stem nouns end in -e, -al, -ar. 3. Turris and some proper names in -is have -im in the accusative singular as turrim, Tiberim. 375

THIRD DECLENSION: GREEK NOUNS Paris Thalës Paridis (-o s ) Thai—ëtis (-is ) Paridi (-1) Thai—ëtl (-1) Par— ida ( -im , -in ) Thai—ëta ( -ën , -em ) Paride Thalë Pari (Paris) Thalë

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abi. Voc.

Atlas Atlantis Atlanti Atlanta Atlante Atlà

Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Voc.

Solôn (Solo) Solônis Solôn! Solôna (-em ) Solône Solôn

Xenophôn Xenophontis Xenophonti Xenophônta ( -em ) Xenophonte Xenophôn

âër âeris âerl âera (-e m ) âere âër

SINGULAR Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

héros hërôis hërôl hërôa hërôe

lampas lampados lampadi lampada lampade

basis baseos bas! basin basl

PLURAL Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl.

hërôes hërôum hërôibus hërôas hërôibus

lampades lampadum lampadibus lampadas lampadibus

basés basium (-eô n ) basibus basis (-e is) basibus

MIXED (SECOND AND THIRD) DECLENSION: GREEK NOUNS Nom. Orpheus Dïdô Achilles Gen. Orphei (-ë ï ) Achillis Dïdüs (—ônis) ' Dat. Orpheô (-e ï) Achilli Dîdô ( —ônï) Acc. Orpheum (-e a ) Achillem Dïdô (-ôn em ) Abl. Orpheô Achille (-1) Dïdô (—ône) Voc. Orpheu Achillës Dïdô Nom. Gen. Dat. Acc. Abl. Voc.

Athôs Athô (—ônis) Athô Athô (—ônem) Athône Athôs

M. Nom. impetus Gen. impetùs Dat. impetui Acc. impetum Abl. impetù

376

Oedipus Oedipodis (-1) OedipidI Oedipum (-o d a ) Oedipide (-Ô) Oedipe FOURTH DECLENSION SINGULAR F. domus domüs (domi, l o c . ) domui, domô domum domô

Sôcratës Sôcratis (—1) SôcratI Sôcratën (-e m ) Socrate Socrate (-e s )

N. cornü cornùs cornü cornü cornü

PLURAL M. N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

F.

im p e tü s im p e tu u m im p e tib u s im p e tü s im p e tib u s

N. c o rn u a co rn u u m co rn ib u s co rn u a co rn ib u s

dom üs d o m u u m , d o m ô ru m d o m ib u s d o m ü s, dom ôs d o m ib u s

Most fourth declension nouns in -us are masculine; manus and domus are feminine; a few in -u are neuter. F I F T H D E C L E N S IO N

SINGULAR M. N om . diës G en. d iëî D a t. d ië î A cc. d iem A bl. d ië

PLURAL M. diës d iëru m d iëb u s diës d iëb u s

F. rës reî reï rem rë

F. rës rëru m rëb u s rës rëb u s

Fifth declension nouns are feminine, except dies, which is sometimes mascu­ line in the singular, always in the plural. Irregular Nouns SINGULAR N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

vis, /. — —

vim vî

n ëm ô, mf. ( nü llïu s ) n ë m in ï n ë m in e m ( n ü llô )

d eu s, d eï deô d eu m d eô

m.

bôs, mf. bovis bo v ï bovem b ove

J u p p ite r, m. Jovis Jovï Jovem Jove

bovës bovum , boum b ô b u s, b ü b u s bovës b ô b u s, b ü b u s

— — — — —

PLURAL N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

vïrës v îriu m v ïrib u s v ïrës ( —ïs ) v ïrib u s











d eï, d iï, d ï d e ô ru m , d eu m d eïs, d iïs, dïs deôs d eïs, diïs, dïs

SINGULAR N om . G en. D a t. Acc. A bl.

senex, m. senis senï sen em sen e

os, n. ossis ossï os osse

carô , /. carn is c a rn ï c a rn e m c a rn e

PLURAL N om . G en. D a t. A cc. A bl.

senës se n u m sen ib u s senës se n ib u s

cam ës — c a rn ib u s c arn és c a rn ib u s

ossa ossium ossibus ossa ossibus

377

1. The following i n d e c l i n a b l e n o u n s are neuter and occur in the singular number only: fâs, r i g h t ; nefàs, w r o n g ; nihil, n o t h i n g ; instar, li k e n e s s ; mâne, m o r n in g .

2. The following d e f e c t i v e n o u n s lacking regular plural meanings are used mostly in the singular: a. Proper names: as Rôma, R o m e ; Italia, I t a l y . b. Abstract nouns: as gravitas, d i g n i t y . c. Names of material: as ferrum, ir o n ; oleum, o il. 3. The following d e f e c t i v e n o u n s are used only in the plural: a. Names of classes: as majores, a n c e s t o r s ; gemini, t w i n s . b. Names of places: as Athënae, A t h e n s ; Alpes, A l p s . c. angustiae, d e f i l e , d i s t r e s s ; arma, a r m s ; divitiae, r ic h e s ; insidiae, a m b u s h ; mànës, t h e s h a d e s ; minae, t h r e a t s ; nüptiae, n u p t i a l s ; reliquiae, r e m a i n s ; tenebrae, d a r k n e s s .

Declension of Adjectives F IR S T A N D S E C O N D D E C L E N S IO N S

PLURAL

SINGULAR M. N om . bonus G en. b o n i D at. bono Acc. b o n u m Abi. bonô

F. bona bo n ae b o n ae bo n am bonâ

N. bo n u m bo n i bonô bonum bon ô

M. bo n i b o n o ru m bonis bonôs bonis

F. bonae b o n a ru m bonis b o n âs bonis

N. bona b o n o ru m bonis bona bonis

N om . G en. D at. Acc. Abi.

m iser m iseri m isero m iserum m iserô

m isera m iserae m iserae m iseram m isera

m iseru m m iseri m iserô m iserum m isero

m iseri m isero ru m m iseris m iseros m iseris

m iserae m iseraru m m iseris m iseras m iseris

m isera m isero ru m m iseris m isera m iseris

N om . G en. D at. Acc. Abi.

p u lc h e r p u lc h ri p u lch rô p u lch ru m p u lc h ro

p u lc h ra p u lc h ra e p u lc h ra e p u lch ram p u lc h ra

p u lc h ru m p u lc h ri p u lc h ro p u lc h ru m p u lc h ro

p u lc h ri p u lc h ro ru m p u lch ris p u lch ro s p u lch ris

p u lc h ra e p u lc h ra ru m p u lc h ris p u lc h ra s p u lch ris

p u lc h ra p u lc h ro ru m p u lc h ris p u lc h ra p u lch ris

A D JE C T IV E S O F S P E C IA L D E C L E N S IO N

The following adjectives have a genitive singular termination in -ius, a dative singular termination in -i, and their other forms like bonus, miser, and pulcher. alius, alia, a liu d , o th e r , a n o th e r a lte r, a lte ra , a lte ru m , th e o th e r u te r, u tra , u tru m , w h ic h ( o f t w o ) ?

378

ü n u s, ü n a , ü n u m , o n e , a lo n e ü llu s, ü lla , ü llu m , a n y n ü llu s, n ü lla , n ü llu m , n o n e

u te rq u e , u tra q u e , u tru m q u e , e a c h o f t w o , b o th

sôlus, sôla, sôlum , o n ly , s in g le , a lo n e tô tu s, tô ta , tô tu m , th e w h o le , e n tir e , a ll

n e u te r, n e u tra , n e u tru m , n e ith e r ( o f t w o )

SINGULAR M. N om . ü n u s G en. D a t. A cc. ü n u m A bl. ü n ô

F. üna ü n ïu s ünî ünam ünà

N. ünum

ünum ünô

M. alter

F. a lte ra alteriu s alteri a lte ru m alteram alterô a lte ra

N. alteru m

alteru m alterô

M. u te r

F. u tra u trlu s u tri u tru m u tra m u trâ u trô

N. u tru m

u tru m u trô

1. The plurals are those of bonus, miser, and pulcher. 2. Alius has aliud in the nominative singular neuter and the accusative singu­ lar neuter. 3. Alter has alterius in the genitive singular which is frequently used for the genitive of alius.

T H IR D D E C L E N S IO N T w o T e r m in a tio n s

M. & F .

T h r e e T e r m in a tio n s

N.

M.

F.

O n e T e r m in a tio n

N.

M. & F .

N.

SINGULAR N om . b rev is G en. b rev is b re v i D a t. Acc. b re v e m b re v i Abl.

b re v e

acer

b re v e

ac re m

âcris âcris âcrï acrem âcrï

âcre

âcre

p o ten s p o te n tis p o te n ti p o te n te m p o ten s p o te n ti

PLURAL N om . b rev ës b re v ia b re v iu m G en. b re v ib u s D at. b rev ës ( - i s ) b re v ia Acc. b re v ib u s A bl.

àcrës àcriu m âcrib u s àcrës ( - ï s ) âcrib u s

acrës

àcria

p o te n të s p o te n tia p o te n tiu m p o te n tib u s p o te n të s ( - i s ) p o te n tia p o te n tib u s

O n e T e r m in a tio n

O n e T e r m in a tio n

M . & F.

àcria

M. & F.

N.

N.

SINGULAR v etu s N om . v eteris G en. v e te ri D a t. v e te re m A cc. v e te re A bl.

m em o r m em oris m em o ri m em o r m em o rem m em o ri

v etu s

PLURAL v eterës v e te ra N om . v e te ru m G en. v e te rib u s D a t. v e te ra A cc. v e te rë s v e te rib u s A bl.

m em orës m em o ru m m em o rib u s m em o rës (--is) m em o rib u s

— — — — —

379

P R E S E N T A C T IV E P A R T IC IP L E

SINGULAR M .& F . N. N om . vocâns G en. vocantis D a t. v o can ti Acc. v o c a n te m vocans A bi. v o can te (-1 )

plural

M .& F . N. v o can tes v o c a n tia v o c a n tiu m v o c a n tib u s v o can tes ( —Is) v o c a n tia v o c a n tib u s

When the present participle is used as an adjective, the ablative indicator is -I.

R E G U L A R C O M P A R IS O N O F A D JE C T IV E S P o s itiv e

C o m p a r a tiv e

S u p e r la tiv e

clâru s, - a , - u m fo rtis, - e a u d â x (a u d â c is ) p o tën s (p o te n tis ) lib e r, —era, - e ru m âcer, âcris, âcre sim ilis, - e

cla rio r, clariu s fo rtio r, fo rtiu s a u d â c io r, a u d â c iu s p o te n tio r, p o te n tiu s lib erio r, lib eriu s acrio r, acriu s sim ilior, sim ilius

clarissim u s, - a , - u m fo rtissim u s, —a, - u m au d â c issim u s, - a , - u m p o te n tissim u s, —a, —u m lib e rrim u s, - a , - u m a c e rrim u s, - a , —um sim illim u s, - a , - u m

IR R E G U L A R C O M P A R IS O N O F A D JE C T IV E S b o n u s, - a , —um m alus, - a , —um m âg n u s, - a , - u m p arv u s, —a, - u m m u ltu s, - a , - u m m u lti, - a e , - a

m elior, m elius p ëjo r, pëjus m ajo r, m âjus m inor, m in u s ------- , p lüs p lü rë s, p lü ra

o p tim u s, —a, - u m p essim u s, —a, - u m m ax im u s, —a, —u m m in im u s, —a, —u m p lü rim u s, —a, - u m p lü rim ï, - a e , —a

The positive degree of the following adjectives is rare or is not in common use. The last five are prepositions or adverbs. exterus, - a , - u m Inferu s, - a , - u m p o steru s, —a, - u m su p eru s, - a , - u m

ex terio r, - iu s In ferio r, —ius p o sterio r, - iu s su p erio r, - iu s

ex trëm u s, - a , - u m infim us, or im u s, - a , - u m p o strë m u s, or p o stu m u s, - a , - u m su p rë m u s, or su m m u s, - a , - u m

( cis, c itrâ ) ( in, in trâ ) ( p ra e , p rô ) (p ro p e ) ( ü ltrâ )

c ite rio r, —ius in te rio r, - iu s p rio r, p riu s p ro p io r, - iu s u lte rio r, - iu s

c itim u s, —a, —u m in tim u s, - a , - u m p rim u s, - a , - u m p ro x im u s, - a , - u m ü ltim u s, - a , - u m

1. The following adjectives have no comparative: vetus, novus, fidus, falsus, sacer, pius. 380

2. The following adjectives have no superlative: alacer, ingëns, prônus, juvenis, senex. 3. Some adjectives use the adverbs magis, more, and màximë, most, for com­ parative and superlative degrees: most adjectives in -eus, -ius, and -uus ( not -quus ) are compared in this manner. idôneus, suitable

magis idôneus, more suitable

maxime idôneus, most suitable

D E C L E N S IO N O F C O M P A R A T IV E A D JE C T IV E S M . & F.

N.

N om . clârior G en. clarioris D a t. clâriôrï A cc. clâriôrem A bl. clâriôre

M. & F.

SINGULAR clarius

N.

plüs plüris







clarius



plüs plüre





PLURAL clâriôra

N om . clàriôrës G en. clâriôrum D a t. clarioribus Acc. clariores clâriôra A bl. clarioribus

plürës plüra plürium plüribus plürës (-is ) plüra plüribus

In the singular plüs is used as a neuter noun and has no masculine or femi­ nine forms.

N U M E R IC A L A D JE C T IV E S M. N om . d u o G en. d u ô ru m D a t. d u ô b u s A cc. duos, d u o A bl. d u ô b u s

F. duae d u â ru m duâbus d u âs duâbus

N. duo duôrurr. duôbus duo duôbus

N. m ilia m ilium m ilib u s m ilia m ilib u s

M. & F. N. tria très triu m trib u s tria très trib u s

For the declension of ünus, see page 379. In the singular mille, thousand, is an indeclinable adjective. In the plural milia is a neuter noun followed by the genitive of the noun denoting the per­ sons or things that are numbered. Arabie

Roman

Cardinal

1 2 3 4 5

I II III I II I or IV V

ü n u s, - a , - u m duo, duae, duo trè s, tria q u a ttu o r q u in q u e

Ordinal p rim u s, —a, - u m secu n d u s, a lte r te rtiu s q u â rtu s q u in tu s

381

Arabic 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 28 29 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1,000 2,000

Roman VI V II V III V IIII or IX X XI X II X III X IIII or XIV XV XVI X V II X V III X V IIII or XIX XX XXI X X V III XXIX XXX XXXX or X L L LX LX X LXXX LXXXX or XC C Cl CC CCC CCCC D DC DCC DCCC DCCCC M MM

C a r d in a l

Ordinal

sex sep tem octô novem decem ü n d ecim d u o d ecim tre d ecim q u a ttu o rd e c im q u in d e c im sëdecim sep te n d ecim d u o d e v ig in ti ü n d ë v ig in ti v ig in ti u n u s e t v ig in ti, v ig in ti ü n u s d u o d ë trïg in tà ü n d ë trïg in tâ trig in ta q u a d ra g in ta q u in q u a g in ta sex âg in tâ se p tu a g in ta o c to g in ta n ô n â g in tâ c e n tu m cen tu m ( e t ) u n u s d u c e n ti, —ae, —a tre c e n ti, —ae, —a q u a d rin g e n ti q u in g e n ti sescenti se p tin g e n ti o c tin g e n ti n o n g e n ti m ille duo m ilia

sextus sep tim u s o ctav u s nonus d ecim u s ü n d e c im u s d u o d e c im u s te rtiu s d ecim u s q u a rtu s d ecim u s q u in tu s d ecim u s sextus d ecim u s sep tim u s d ecim u s d u o d ëv ïcësim u s ü n d ë v ïc ë sim u s v icësim u s v icësim u s p rim u s d u o d ë tric ë sim u s ü n d ë trïc ë sim u s tricë sim u s q u a d râ g ë sim u s q u ïn q u â g ë sim u s sex àg ësim u s se p tu â g ë sim u s o ctô g ësim u s n ô n âg ësim u s c e n tësim u s c e n tësim u s ( e t ) p rim u s d u c e n të sim u s tre cen të$ im u s q u a d rin g e n të sim u s q u ïn g e n të sim u s sescen tësim u s se p tin g e n të sim u s o ctin g e n të sim u s n ô n g en tësim u s m ïllësim u s bis m ïllësim u s

1. The distributive numerals, as singuli, one each, bïnï, two each, déni, ten each, answer the question quotënï, how many each? 2. Numeral adverbs, as semel, once, bis, twice, ter, thrice, answer the question quotiëns, how often? 3. In combining Roman numerals the larger numeral regularly precedes. Thus VI = 6, LVI = 56, and so on. When the smaller numeral precedes, it is to be read by subtraction. Thus IV = 4, IX = 9, XL = 40, XC = 90; thus XCIX = 99.

Adverbs

DECLEN. 1st & 2nd

REGULAR FORMATION TYPE OF ADJECTIVE FORMULA ADJECTIVE

ADVERB

base + - ë

altus liber pulcher

altë liberë pulcbrë

Most regular adj.

base + -iter

fortis celer âcer

fortiter celeriter âcriter

audâx

base 4- -ter

audâx

audacter

Adj. in -n s

base + -er

potëns

potenter

All regular adj.

3rd

REGULAR COMPARISON POSITIVE COMPARATIVE Adjective Adverb Translation

altus, —a, -um altë

Adjective Adverb Translation

fortis, - e fortiter

deeply

POSITIVE bene, well male, badly multum, much parum, little magnopere, greatly facile, easily prope, near, nearly saepe, often diü, for a long time

more (rather, too, quite) deeply

SUPERLATIVE

most (very) deeply fortissimus, -a , -um fortissimë

more (rather, too, quite) bravely

IRREGULAR COMPARISON COMPARATIVE melius, better pëjus, worse plüs, more minus, less magis, more, rather facilius, more easily propius, nearer saepius, oftener diütius, for a longer time

deeply freely beautifully bravely swiftly sharply boldly mightily

altissimus, -a , —um altissime

altior, -iu s altius

fortior, -iu s fortius

bravely

TRANSLATION

most (very) bravely

SUPERLATIVE

optimë, very well pessimë, very badly plürimum, most minimë, not at all, least màximë, very greatly, especially facillimë, very easily proximë, nearest, recently saepissimë, most often diütissimë, for a very long time

Conjunctions

Conjunctions connect words, phrases, or clauses. They are of two kinds: coordinate, joining words, phrases, or clauses having the same construction; and subordinate, joining a subordinate to a principal clause. 383

1. Coordinate conjunctions are divided into the following classes: a. c o p u l a t i v e ( uniting ) : et, —que, atque ( ac ), a n d ; etiam, a n d a l s o ; quoque, a l s o ; neque ( nec ), a n d n o t: ( 1 ) et connects expressions of equal importance. (2) -que connects expressions closely related or combined in meaning; it is added to the second word of the two to be combined, or to the first word of the second clause. (3) atque (ac) connects two expressions, the second of which is more important in meaning; ac is used only before consonants. (4) etiam (et/jam ) connects expressions of equal importance; it is also used as an adverb. (5) quoque is generally used as an adverb; it is placed after the em­ phatic word: tü quoque, y o u a ls o . (6) The following pairs are often used: et . . . et, b o t h . . . a n d ; neque (nec) . . . neque (nee), n e i t h e r . . . n o r . b. d i s j u n c t i v e (separating) : aut, vel, -ve, sive, o r: (1) aut . . . aut, e i t h e r . . . o r (exclusive); aut Pompejus aut nüllus, e ith e r P o m p e ij o r n o b o d y .

(2) vel . . . vel, e i t h e r . . . o r (not exclusive); Satis diü v e l nâtürae vïxï v e l glôriae. I h a v e l i v e d l o n g e n o u g h t o s a t i s f y e i t h e r n a t u r e o r g lo r y .

(3) -ve, o r , rarely connects principal clauses; it usually connects only the less important parts of the sentence, or subordinate clauses; Cür timeam dubitemve locum defendere? W h y s h o u l d I f e a r o r h e s i t a t e t o s t a n d m y g r o u n d ? With në it forms nëve or neu, which is used as a continuation of në or ut in prohibitions and purpose clauses; Profügit në caperëtur nëve interficerëtur. H e f l e d t h a t h e m i g h t n o t b e c a p tu r e d o r k ille d .

(4) Sive (seu) . . . sïve (seu), i f e i t h e r [ w h e t h e r ] . . . o r [ o r if ] is used in disjunctive conditions; sïve irrïdëns sïve quod ita putàret, e i t h e r l a u g h i n g o r b e c a u s e h e t h o u g h t s o ; sïve deae sint volucrës, w h e th e r th e y a re g o d d e s s e s o r b ir d s .

c.

a d v e r s a tiv e

( opposing ) : sed, vërum, vërô, autem, at, atquï,

b u t;

tamen,

n e v e r th e le s s , y e t:

( 1 ) sed, b u t , corrects or limits a preceding statement. (2) vërum, b u t , stronger than sed: vërô, in f a c t , and at vërô, b u t in t r u t h , emphasize a contrast with a preceding statement. (3) autem, b u t , h o w e v e r , is the weakest of the adversatives, and often marks a mere transition; it is postpositive. (4) at, b u t , a t l e a s t , introduces with emphasis a new point; at enim is almost always used to introduce a supposed objection. ( 5 ) atquï, b u t , h o w e v e r , n o w , introduces an objection. (6) tamen, n e v e r t h e l e s s , y e t , emphasizes the importance of something that follows in opposition to a preceding statement. 384

d.

(7) The following pairs are often used: non sôlum . . . sed etiam, n o t o n l y . . . b u t a l s o ; non modo . . . sed etiam, n o t o n l y . . . b u t a l s o ; non modo . . . sed, n o t o n l y . . . b u t ; non modo non . . . sed në . . . quidem, n o t o n l y n o t . . . b u t n o t e v e n . Cum . . . turn are also used for n o t o n l y . . . b u t a ls o . i n f e r e n t i a l (consequence, result): ergo, t h e r e f o r e ; igitur, t h e n , a c c o r d i n g l y ; itaque, t h e r e f o r e , a c c o r d i n g l y , a n d s o ; idcirco, f o r t h i s r e a s o n ; proinde, h e n c e ; deinde, t h e n , in t h e s e c o n d p l a c e ; dënique, f in a lly , in f in e :

( 1 ) ergo, used of things proved formally. (2) igitur, weaker than ergo, used in passing from one stage of an argument to another; it is usually postpositive. ( 3 ) itaque, used in proof from the nature of things rather than in formal proof. (4) idcircô, regularly followed, or preceded, by a correlative. ( 5 ) proinde, used to introduce a command. ( 6 ) deinde, used with primum, f ir s t, in a succession of points introduced by the writer. (7) dënique, introduces the conclusion of a series or the conclusion of an argument. Proinde, deinde, and dënique are generally considered adverbs. e. c a u s a l: nam, namque, enim (postpositive), f o r , introduce an explanation of a preceding statement; etenim, f o r , f o r o f c o u r s e , and its negative neque enim introduce something needing no proof; quâ rë, idcircô, w h e r e f o r e , introduce a logical consequence, or a command. 2. Subordinate conjunctions are divided into the following classes: a. f in a l (end or purpose) : ut, uti, quo, ( i n o r d e r ) t h a t ; në, quominus, quin, t h a t n o t; for usage, see pages 75, 426. b. c o n s e c u t i v e (result): ut, ( s o ) t h a t ; ut non, ( s o ) t h a t n o t ; for usage, see pages 75, 426-427. c. t e m p o r a l (tim e): quandô, cum, ubi, w h e n ; simul, simul ac, simul atque, cum primum, ut primum, a s s o o n a s ; dum, donec, quoad, quam diü, w h i l e , u n t i l , a s lo n g a s ; antequam, priusquam, b e f o r e ; postquam, a f t e r ; for usage, see pages 74, 76, 428-429. d. c a u s a l ( reason ) : quia, quod, quoniam, quandô, b e c a u s e ; cum, s i n c e ; for usage, see pages 74, 76, 429-430. e. c o n c e s s i v e : quamquam, quamvis, cum, licet, etsi, a l t h o u g h ; for usage, see pages 74, 76, 430-431. f. c o n d i t i o n a l : si, if; nisi, ni, i f n o t; sin, b u t if; dum, modo, dummodo, i f o n ly , p r o v id e d .

g.

ut, uti, quam, a s ; sicut, e v e n a s ; prout, a c c o r d i n g a s ; velut, j u s t a s ; tamquam, quasi, a s if. h. i n t e r r o g a t i v e (in questions): adverbs used as conjunctions; for usage, see page 432. c o m p a r a tiv e :

355

Interjections I n te r je c tio n s a r e e x c la m a tio n s o f s u rp r is e , jo y , s o rro w , c a llin g , e tc . Ô,

O!

ecce, behold! ën, lo here! euge, bravo! iô, ho!

heu, eheu, alas! vae, woe! pro, for! edepol! by Pollux! indeed! hercule, hercle, mëhercule, by Hercules!

Declension of Pronouns PERSONAL

First Person SINGULAR N om . ego G en. mel D at. mihi Acc. Abl.

Second Person

më më

PLURAL VOS vestrum, vestri vôbïs vos vôbïs

SINGULAR tü tui tibi të të

PLURAL nos nostrum, nostri nôbïs nos nôbïs

1. T h e r e is n o p e r s o n a l p r o n o u n o f t h e t h i r d p e rs o n . I ts p la c e is ta k e n e ith e r b y a d e m o n s tr a tiv e p r o n o u n ( u s u a lly is,

he;

ea,

she; id , it)

o r, if t h e a n t e c e d e n t

is th e s u b je c t o f th e s e n te n c e o r c la u s e , b y a re fle x iv e p r o n o u n . 2. T h e e n c litic - m e t is s o m e tim e s a d d e d to c e r ta in fo rm s o f th e p e r s o n a l p r o ­ n o u n s ; as e g o m e t, I myself.

R E F L E X IV E

First Person SINGULAR N om . G en. D at. Acc. Abl.

— m eï m ihi më më

Second Person

Third Person

PLURAL —

SINGULAR —







n o stri nôbïs nos nôbïs

tu ï tib i të të

v estri vôbïs vos vôbïs

suï sibi së, sësë së, sësë

suï sibi së, sësë së, sësë

PLURAL

SINGULAR

P O S S E S S IV E

F irst P erson Second P erson T h ird P erson

Referring to Singular Antecedent meus, -a , -um , my, mine tuus, —a, -um , your, yours suus, -a , -um , his, her, hers, its (reflexive) ëjus (gen. sing, of is) his, her, hers, its (n o t

reflexive)

PLURAL

R e f e r r in g to P lu ra l A n te c e d e n t

F irs t P erso n S econd P erson T h ird P erso n

n o ste r, - t r a , - tr u m o u r , o u rs v e ste r, - t r a , - tr u m yo u r, you rs suus, —a, —um th e ir , th e ir s ( reflexive) eô ru m , e â ru m , eô ru m (g en . pi. of is) th e ir , th e ir s (n o t reflexive)

1. The vocative masculine singular of meus is mï. Meus, tuus, suus, noster, vester are used as adjectives, agreeing with the thing possessed. 2. The enclitic -pte is sometimes added to the ablative singular of the posses­ sive adjective; as suôpte ingeniô, by his own genius.

D E M O N S T R A T IV E P R O N O U N S A N D A D JE C T IV E S

PLURAL

SINGULAR M. N om . hie G en. D at. Acc. h u n c Abl. hoc

F. haec hü ju s hu ic hanc hâc

N. hoc

M.

hoc hôc

hôs

Norn. ille G en. D at. Acc. ilium Abl. illô

illa illius illi illam illa

illud

illi illo ru m

illud illô

illôs

N om . is G en. D at. Acc. eum Abl. eô

ea ëjus ei eam eâ

id

ei, ii eô ru m

id eô

eôs

hi h ô ru m

F. hae h â ru m his hâs his

N. h aec h ô ru m h aec

illae illaru m illis illas illis

illa illorum

eae eâru m eis, iis eàs eis, iis

ea eôrum

illa

ea

PLURAL

SINGULAR M.

M. N om . iste G en. D at. Acc. istum A bl. istô

F. ista istius isti istam istâ

N. istu d

istu d istô

istôs

N om . Idem G en. D a t. Acc. e u n d e m Abl. eô d em

e ad em eju sd e m eid em eandem e ad em

idem

eid e m , Idem eo ru n d em

idem eô d em

eosdem

isti isto ru m

F. istae istaru m istis istas istis

N. ista istorum

ea e d e m e â ru n d e m eisd em , iisdem easd em eisd em , iisdem

e ad em e o ru n d e m

ista

ead em

The enclitic -ce is sometimes used with demonstratives in classical Latin; as hüjusce modi, of this kind; istuc for istud, and istaec for ista. 387

IN T E N S IV E P R O N O U N A N D A D J E C T IV E

PLURAL

SINGULAR F. ipsa ipsius ipsî ipsam ipsâ

M. N om . ipse G en. D at. Acc. ipsum Abl. ipso

N. ipsum

M. ipsi ip sô ru m

ipsum ipso

ipsôs

N. ip sa ip sô ru m

F. ip sae ip sâru m ipsis ipsâs ipsis

ipsa

R E L A T IV E P R O N O U N

PLURAL

SINGULAR F. quae cüjus cui q u am quâ

M. N om . q u i G en. D at. Acc. quern Abl. quo

N. quod

M. qui q u o ru m

quod quô

quôs

N. quae q u o ru m

F. quae q u â ru m q u ib u s quâs q u ib u s

quae

IN T E R R O G A T IV E P R O N O U N A N D A D J E C T IV E

SINGULAR

Pronoun

PLURAL

Adjective

M. & F. N. q u id N om . quis G en. cüjus D at. cui q u id Acc. quem Abl. quô

M. qui

q u em quô

F. quae cüjus cui q u am quâ

Pronoun and Adjective N. quod

M. qui q u o ru m

quod quô

quôs

F. quae q u â ru m q u ib u s q u âs q ù ib u s

N. quae q u o ru m quae

IN D E F I N IT E P R O N O U N S A N D A D JE C T IV E S

The indefinite pronouns are quis and qui, any one, some one, and their compounds. Only the pronominal part of the compounds is declined. The following indefinite pronouns are used in both substantive and adjective forms. IN D E F I N IT E P R O N O U N

M. &F. quis quisquam quispiam quisquis aliquis

N. quid quidquam quidpiam quidquid aliquid

quidvis quivis, quaevis

388

anyone, anything anyone, anything anyone, anything whoever someone, some­ thing, anyone, anything anyone you wish, anything you wish

I N D E F I N IT E A D J E C T IV E

M. F. N. qui (quis) quae (qua) quod any quisquam quidquam any (rare) quispiam quaepiam quodpiam some aliqui

aliqua

aliquod

any

quivis

quaevis

quodvis

any you please

quem vis, quidvis quamvis

( accusative )

quilibet, quidlibet quaelibet

quemvis

quamvis

quodvis

anyone you please, quilibet anything you please

quaelibet

quodlibet any you please

quidam , quiddam quaedam quendam , quiddam quandam

a certain one, a certain thing

quidam

quaedam

quoddam

a certain

( accusative)

quendam

quandam

quoddam

( accusative)

quisque

quidque

quisque

quaeque

quodque

each

ecquis

ecquid

each one, each thing does anyone?

ecqui

ecquod

quisnam

quidnam

ecqua (- q u a e ) quaenam

any? anu at all? of what kind, pray?

who, pray? what, pray?

quinam

quodnam

( accusative )

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Indefinite pronouns are declined in general like the interrogative quis. Indefinite adjectives are declined in general like the relative pronoun qui. The feminine singular of the indefinite adjective aliqui is aliqua. In the declension of quidam, m becomes n before d. The indefinite quis, quid, is generally used after si, nisi, num, or në. The indefinite relative quicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, whoever, whatever, is used both as an adjective and as a substantive. The first part qui- is declined like the relative qui. 7. Both parts of the indefinite relative quisquis, quidquid, are declined like quis, but only quisquis, quidquid, and quôquô are in common use. 8. Quisquam and quisquis are declined in the singular only. 9. Two compounds of uter are used with the force of indefinite pronouns: uterque, utraque, utrumque, each of two (plural, both, the two); and alteruter, alterutra, alterutrum, one or the other.

Regular Verbs PRINCIPAL PARTS T h ir d C o n j.

(-iô )

F o u r th C o n j.

F ir s t C o n j

S e c o n d C o n j.

T h ir d C o n j.

VOCÔ vocâre vocavi vocâtus

moneô monëre monuï monitus

regô regere rëxï rëctus

capiô capere cëpï captus

audio audire audivi auditus

monë— monu— m onit-

STEMS ° regerêx— rëct-

capecëp capt-

audï— audïv— audit-

vocàvocàv— vocât-

* In the following paradigm s the stem or the part of a stem that is used in a given form appears in lightface type. The tense indicator and person indicator appear in boldface type.

Generally, letters that are neither a part of the stem nor a part of the indicators appear in italics. In certain forms w here such type distinction is im practical, the entire form appears in boldface type.

389

IN D IC A T IV E M O O D

Active Voice PRESENT

I call, am call­ I warn, am warn­ ing, do warn ing, do call

I rule, am rul­ ing, do rule

I take, am tak­ ing, do take

7 hear,

am hear­ ing, do hear

VOCÔ vocâs vocat

moneô monës monet

regô regis regit

cap iô capis capit

audio audls audit

vocâmus vocâtis vocant

monëmus monêtis monent

regimus regitis regunt

capimus capitis capiunt

audimus auditis audiunt

IMPERFECT

I was calling, I was warning, called, used to warned, used to warn call

I was ruling, ruled, used to rule

I was taking, took, used to take

I was hearing, heard, used to hear

vocâbam vocàbàs vocâbat

monëbam monëbâs monëbat

regëbam regëbâs regëbat

capiebam capiêbâs capiebat

audiebam audiêbâs audiebat

vocâbâmus vocâbâtis vocabant

monëbâmus monëbàtis monëbant

regëbâmus regëbâtis regëbant

capiëbâmus capiebatis capiebant

audièbàmus audiêbâtis audiebant

1 shall hear

FUTURE

I shall call

I shall warn

I shall rule

Z shall

vocâbô vocâbis vocabit

monëbô monëbis monëbit

regam regês reget

capiam capiës capiet

audiam audiës audiet

vocabimus vocabitis vocabunt

monëbimus monëbitis monëbunt

regëmus regëtis regent

capiemus capietis capient

audiëmus audiëtis audient

take

PERFECT

I called, have called

I warned, have warned

I ruled, have ruled

I took, have taken

I heard, have heard

vocàvï vocavisti vocâvit

monui monuisti monuit

rëxl rëxistï rëxit

cëpl cëpistî cëpit

audivi audivisti audivit

vocavimus vocavistis vocàvërunt

monuimus monuistis monuerunt

rëximus rëxistis rëxërunt

cëpimus cëpistis cëpërunt

audivimus audivistis audïvërunt

PLUPERFECT

I had called

I had warned

/

vocaveram vocâverâs vocaverat

monueram monueras monuerat

rêxeram rëxeràs rêxerat

cëperam cëperâs cëperat

audiveram audiveras audiverat

vocaveramus vocaveratis vocaverant

monueramus monueratis monuerant

rëxerâmus rëxerâtis rexerant

cëperâmus cëperâtis cëperant

audiveramus audiveratis audiverant

had ruled

/

had taken

/

had heard

FUTURE PERFECT

I shall have called

I shall have warned

I shall have ruled

/

shall have taken

I shall have heard

vocàverô vocaveris vocaverit

monuerô monueris monuerit

rëxerô rëxeris rëxerit

cëperô cëperis cëperit

audivero audiveris audiverit

vocaverimus vocaveritis vocaverint

monuerimus monueritis monuerint

rëxerimus rëxeritis rëxerint

cëperimus cëperitis cëperint

audiverimus audiveritis audiverint

Passive Voice PRESENT

I am called

I am warned

I am ruled

I am taken

1 am heard

vocor vocaris vocatur

moneor moneris monetur

regor regeris regitur

capior caperis capitur

audior audiris auditur

vocamur vocamini vocantur

monemur monemini monentur

regimur regimini regnntur

capimur capimini capiuntur

audimur audimini audiuntur

IMPERFECT

I was called

1 was warned

I was ruled

1 was taken

I was heard

vocâbar vocabaris vocabatur

monëbar monëbâris monëbâtur

regëbar regëbâris regëbâtur

capiebar capiebaris capiëbâtur

audiebar audiebaris audiebatur

vocabamur vocabamini vocabantur

monëbâmur monëbâminï monëbantur

regëbâmur regëbâmini regëbantur

capiebamur capiebamini capiebantur

audiebamur audiebamini audiebantur

FUTURE I s h a ll b e

I s h a ll b e

I s h a ll b e

I s h a ll b e

I s h a ll b e

c a lle d

w a rn ed

r u le d

ta k e n

h eard

v o cab o r vocaberis v o c a b itu r

m onëbor m oneb eris m o n e b itu r

re g a r reg ëris re g ë tu r

c a p ia r cap ieris c a p ie tu r

a u d ia r au d ieris a u d ie tu r

v o c a b im u r v o cab im in i v o c a b a n tu r

m o n e b im u r m o n eb im in i m o n e b u n tu r

re g e m u r reg em in i re g e n tu r

c a p ie m u r ca p ie m in i c a p ie n tu r

a u d ie m u r a u d ië m in ï a u d ie n tu r

PERFECT I w a s r u le d ,

I w a s w a rn ed , h ave been w a rn ed

I w a s c a lle d , h a v e b e e n c a lle d

h a v e b e e n r u le d

*

vocâtu s - a , -u m

sum youthful; juvenis, -is, m/f., youth, young per­ son, voung man. f juventüs, -tütis, vouth, the voung. f juvô, -âre, jüvï, jütum, help, aid. f jüxtâ. adv., close bv, near, in like m an­ ner; prep, -f- ace., close to, near to, hard by. K K., abbrev. for Kalendae. fKalendae, -ârum, /., the Calends, first dav of the month. ✓

L labefacio, —ere, -fêcï, -factum , cause to totter. labefacto, -a re , —âvï, —àtum , cause to totter, underm ine, lâbës, -is, /., disgrace, stain, flàbor, lâbï, lapsus sum, slip, fall, slip away, make a mistake. °labor, -ôris, m., labor, toil, effort, work, trouble, hardship, achievement, bur­ den. laboriosus, - a , -u m , adj., laborious. °labôrô, -a re , -âv ï, -àtu m , work, work for, labor, suffer, lacerô, -a re , -âv ï, -àtu m , tear to pieces, lacertus, - ï, m., upper arm, arm. f lacessô, -e re , -ïv ï, —ïtum , provoke, at­ tack. f lacrim a, -a e , tear, lactens, -en tis, adj., taking milk, suckling. flacus, —ûs, m . , lake. laedô, -e re , laesi, laesum, injure, offend, f laetitia, -a e , joy, pleasure, delight, laetor, -à rï, -â tu s sum, rejoice, be glad, f laetus, - a , -u m , adj., glad, joyful, gay. f laev u s,,-a , -u m , adj., left, on the left hand. lam ina (lam m ina), -a e , /., thin plate, plate. lancea, -a e , /., lance, spear, laniâtus, -ü s, m . , tearing in pieces, m u­ tilation. laniô, -a re , -âv ï, -àtu m , tear to pieces, tear. lanius, - ï, m . , butcher, executioner, flapis, -id is, m., stone, lâr fam iliàris, m . , household deity, hearth, home ( b y meton.). largior, -ïrï, -îtu s sum, give bountifully, bestow. largus, - a , -u m , adj., abundant, copious, lascivia, —ae, f . , dissipation, lassus, - a , -u m , adj., wearied, latebra, -a e , /., hiding place, flateô, -ë re , -u i, - , escape notice, hide, be concealed, flatex, -icis, m . , fluid, liquid, latibulum , - ï, n., hiding place.

*làtitüdô, -inis, /., width, breath, làtràtus, -ü s, m., barking, latrô, -ônis, m., robber, brigand, bandit, thief. làtrô, -à re , -àv ï, -àtu m , bark, bay. latrocinium, - ï, n., robbery, brigandage, piracy, band of robbers. *latus, -eris, n., side, flank. *làtus, -a , -u m , adj., broad, wide, laudàtor, -ôris, m., eulogist. °laudô, -à re , -âv ï, -àtu m , praise, extol. ° laus, laudis, f., praise, fame, glory, lautus, -a , -u m , adj., grand, rich, splen­ did. lavô, -à re , -âv ï, -lavàtum (lautum , lôtum ), wash, flaxô, -à re , —àvï, —àtum, loosen, relax, lea, -a e , f., lioness, leaena, -a e , f., lioness, lectïca, -a e , /., litter, lëctiô, -ônis, /., reading, lectulus, - ï, m., small bed, bed. lëctus, - a , -u m , adj., select, excellent, lectus, -ï, m., bed, couch, lëgàlis, -e , adj., of the law, legal, lëgàtiô, -ônis, f., embassy, legation. Mëgâtus, - ï, m., ambassador, envoy, leg­ ate, lieutenant. *legiô, -ônis, f., legion, lëgitimus, -a , -u m , adj., legal, legitimate, proper, criminal, lëgô, -à re , -àv ï, -àtu m , appoint, send as an envoy. *legô, -ere , lëgï, lëctum, gather, collect, select, pick out, read, lëniô, -ïre , -ïv ï, -ïtu m , soften, soothe, flënis, -e , adj., soft, smooth, mild, gentle, lenient, moderate, lënitâs, -tâtis, /., softness, mildness, lentus, -a , -u m , adj., slow, pliant, leô, -ônis, m., lion. lepor (lepôs), -ôris, m., charm, wit. lepusculus, - ï, m., a young hare, flëtum , - ï, n., death, destruction. °levis, -e , adj., light, heedless, trivial, fickle. levitàs, -tà tis, f., lightness, fickleness, leviter, adv., lightly, flevô, -à re , -àv ï, -àtu m , lighten, lift. °lëx, lëgis, /., law, bill, rule.

479

libam entum, - ï, n., libation, offering to the gods. libellus, - ï, m., little book, pam phlet, complaint, libëns, -entis, a d j . , willing, f libenter, a d v . , willingly, gladly. *liber, -b ri, m., book. *liber, -era , -erum , a d j . , free, unre­ stricted; liber, -eri, m., free man; liberi, -ôrum , m. pi., children, liberalis, -e , a d j . , liberal, noble, gen­ erous. lïberàlitâs, -tâtis, f . , nobleness, liberal­ ity, generosity, sacrifice, libéré, a d v . , freely. ° libero, -are , -àv ï, -àtu m , free, liberate, set free, relieve. ° libertés, -tâtis, freedom, liberty, libertinus, -a , -u m , a d j . , of a freedman; libertinus, —ï, m . , freedman. libet, -ère, libuit (libitum est), it pleases, it is agreeable, libido, -inis, pleasure, wantonness, passion, extravagance, license, libra, -a e , /., balance, pair of scales, Roman pound, librariolus, -ï, m., bookseller, copyist, licentia, -a e , license, freedom, permis­ sion. 0licet, -ère , licuit (licitum est), it is perm itted, although, f limen, -inis, n., threshold, lineam entum (lïniàm entum ), - i, n., fea­ ture. ° lingua, -a e , f., tongue, language, f linquo, -ere, liqui, - , leave, abandon, forsake, linteum, -ï, n., linen, sail, linum, -ï, n., flax, thread, lippus, - a , -u m , adj., blear-eyed, liquefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum , make liquid, melt, liquëscô, -ere , - , - , become fluid, melt, liquor, -ôris, m., liquid, fluid, lis, litis, /., legal controversv, lawsuit. °littera, -a e , /., letter of the alphabet; litterae, -âru m , f. pi, letter, epistle, document, literature, litterarius, - a , -u m , adj., relating to reading and writing.

litteratus, -a , -u m , a d j . , lettered, learned, litüra, -a e , erasure. *litus, -oris, n . , shore, seashore. °locô, -are , -àv i, -àtu m , put, place, contract for, hire, flocuplës, -ëtis, a d j . , rich, wealthy, locuplëtô, -a re , -àv i, -àtu m , enrich. °locus, - i, m . , place, region, site, posi­ tion, rank, occasion, topic, locütiô, -ônis, speech, discourse, longë, a d v . , in length, far away, afar, far off, at a distance, far. longinquitâs, -tâ tis, /., distance, remote­ ness. longinquus, —a, -u m , a d j . , remote, dis­ tant, far removed, longiusculus, - a , -u m , a d j . , a little longer. *longus, - a , -u m , a d j . , long, far, farther. °loquor, -ï, locütus sum, speak, say, talk, lüceô, -ëre , lüxï, - , be bright, shine. Kicidus, - a , -u m , a d j . , clear, bright, lücifer, -fera, -ferum , a d j . , light-bearing, lucror, -à ri, -àtu m , gain, profit, lucrum, - ï, n., gain, profit. flüctus, -ü s, m . , sorrow, grief, lücubràtiô, -ônis, /., working by lamplight. lüculentë, a d v . , brilliantly, lüculentus, -a , -u m , a d j . , brilliant, ex­ cellent. flücus, -ï, m . , grove, sacred grove, liidibrium , - ï, n . , derision, sport, f lïidô, -ere , lüsï, lüsum, play, delude, elude. °lüdus, - ï, 7ii., play, game, school; lüdï, -ôrum , m . p i . , public games, spec­ tacles. lügeô, -è re , lüxî, —, mourn, lament, flüm en, -inis, n., light, glory, ornament, brilliance. °lüna, -a e , f., moon. lupinus, - a , -u m , a d j . , of a wolf, lupine, f lupus, -I, m . , wolf, lüsiô, -ônis, f., a game, play, flüstrô, -â re , -àv ï, -à tu m , purify, trav­ erse, scan, luteus, -a , -u m , a d j . , of clay, grimy. °lùx, lîicis, /., light, daylight, day. lüxuria, -a e , f., extravagance, luxury.

M

macer, -e ra , -eru m , adj., lean, thin, m àchinàtor, -oris, m., originator, con­ triver. m àchinor, -à ri, -à tu s sum, plot, devise, màctô, -a re , —àvï, -âtu m , punish, kill, m acula, -a e , /., spot, stain, m adefacio, -e re , -feci, -factum , moisten, soak. madeô, -è re , -u ï, - , be moist, be wet. m aeror, -ôris, m., sadness, grief, m aestitia, —ae, f . , sadness, sorrow, f maestus, -a , -u m , adj., sad, despondent, dejected. 9 magis, adv., more, rather. ° magister, -tri, m., master, teacher. ° m agistratus, -ü s, m . , public office, magistracy, a m agistrate, office, adm in­ istration. mâgnificë, adv., splendidly, grandly, magnificentia, -a e , magnificence, magnificus, - a , -u m , adj., magnificent, grand. m àgnitüdô, -inis, f., greatness, magni­ tude, size, extent, enormity. *m agnopere, adv., greatly, very much, exceedingly. *mâgnus, —a, —um, adj., great, large, big, ample, powerful, tall, loud, high, vast, im portant; *major, mâjus, comp., greater, larger, etc.; major nâtü, older, elder; maximus, -a , -u m , s u p e r l . , greatest, largest, etc.; màximus nâtü, oldest, eldest; *majorés, -u m , m. p i . , ancestors, forefathers, ancestry, fore­ bears. magus, - a , -u m , adj., magical, magus, -Ï, m., magician, majorés, s e e mâgnus. male, adv., badly, ill, scarcely, hardly, m aledïcô, -e re , -dïxï, -dictum , curse, fmaleficium, -I, n . , evil deed, crime, of­ fense, wrong, evil, maleficus, - a , -u m , adj., evil-doing, evil, malevolus, —a, —um, adj., ill-disposed, m alitiosus, —a, -u m , adj., crafty, un­ principled, malleolus, - ï, m . , fire-dart, fm âlô, m âlle, m âluï, - , prefer, choose.

màlum, -î, n., apple. °malus, - a , -u m , adj., bad, evil, wicked, ill; c o m p . , pëjor, pëjus, worse, inferior; s u p e r i . , pessimus, -a , -u m , very bad, worst; malum, - î, n., evil, ill, misfor­ tune, calamity, malus, -î, m . , pole, mast, beam, m andâtum , - î, n . , command, order, writ, instructions. *mandô, -are, -àv ï, -âtu m , give over, in­ trust, commit, command, enjoin, con­ fer, instruct, commission; fugae sè m andâre, take to flight, màne, adv., in the morning, early. °maneô, -ère, mânsî, mânsum, stay, re­ main. manifëstô, adv., clearly, manifestly, fm anifëstus, - a , -u m , adj., clear, m ani­ fest, obvious, mànsiô, -ônis, f . , sojourn, house, mànsuëtüdô, -inis, /., mildness, clem­ ency. manubiae, -àru m , f . p i . , booty, spoils, prize money. °manus, —üs, f . , hand, force, band. °mare, -is, n . , sea. m argarita, -a e , /., pearl, margô, -inis, m . , edge, margin. *maritimus, -a , -u m , adj., of the sea, maritime, marine, naval, marïtô, -âre , -àv ï, -âtu m , marry, give in marriage, maritus, - î, m . , husband, marmor, -oris, n., marble, marmoreus, -a , -u m , adj., of marble, marble. °m àter, -tris, f . , mother. °m âteria, -a e , /., timber, material, m aternus, —a, —um, adj., of a mother, maternal. m âtertera, —ae, a m other’s sister, m a­ ternal aunt, m athëm ata, G r e e k p i . , mathematics, m âtürë, adv., early. m àtüritàs, -tàtis, f . , ripeness, maturity, fullness. m àtürô, -â re , -àv ï, -âtu m , m ature, has­ ten. fm âtürus, —a, —um, adj., ripe, m ature, early.

481

màtütïnus, -a, -uni, adj., of the morning, morning. mâximë, adv., in the highest degree, most, chiefly, especially, maximus, see mâgnus. meâtus, -üs,' m., passage, path, mëchanicus, -a, -um, adj., mechanical, medeor, -ërï, - , -, heal, remedy, medicus, -I, m., doctor, physician, medietâs, -tàtis, the middle, mean, half. mediocris, -e, adj., moderate, mediocre, ordinary, mediocriter, adv., moderately, meditor, -ârï, -âtus sum, reflect, con­ sider, plan, aim. °medius, -a, -um, adj., middle, midst, in the middle of. mëhercule, interj., by Hercules! verily, mellitus, -a, -um, adj., honeyed, as sweet as honey, honev-sweet. fmembrum, -i, n., limb, member, f memini, -isse, def., remember, recol­ lect. fmemor, -oris, adj., mindful, remembering. memorabilis, -e, adj., worthy to be re­ membered, memorable. ° memoria, -ae, memory, remem­ brance, record, memorialis, -e, adj., memorial, f memoro, -are, -âvï, -âtum, mention, relate, speak. °mëns, mentis, /., mind, intellect, reason, purpose, heart. *mënsa, -ae, /., table. ^mënsis, -is, m., month, mentiô, -ônis, f., mention. °mercâtor, -ôris, m., trader, merchant, mercënàrius, -a, -um, adj., hired, mer­ cenary. mercës, -ëdis, /., pay, wages, price, re­ ward, remuneration, salary, mercor, -ârï, -âtus sum, purchase, fmereô, —ëre, -ui, -itum; mereor, -ërï, —itus sum, earn, gain, deserve, merit, fmergô, -ere, mersi, mersum, dip, sub­ merge. merïdiës, -ëï, m., midday, noon, merïdiônâlis, -e, adj., southern.

482

mérité, adv., deservedly, justly, merx, mercis, /., merchandise. -met, encl. suffix, added to personal pro­ nouns, self, own. metallum, —i, n., metal, mëtior, -ïrï, mënsus sum, measure, plan, fmetuô, -ere, -ui, -, fear, dread, fmetus, — üs, m., fear, dread. °meus, -a, -um, poss. adj., my, mine, my own, of mine, f micô, -âre, -ui, -, flash. *miles, —itis, m., soldier, milia, see mille. mïlitâris, -e, adj., of a soldier, military, militia, -ae, military service, warfare; domi militiaeque, at home and abroad. °mille, indecl., thousand; milia, -ium, n. pi., thousands, minae, -àrum, f. pi., threats, minimë, see parum, minimus, see parvus. minitor, -ârï, -âtus sum, keep threaten­ ing. minor, -ârï, -âtus sum, threaten, minuô, -ere, -ui, -ûtum, lessen, reduce, minus, see parvus, parum, fmïrâbilis, -e, adj., wonderful, marvel­ lous; mïrâbilia, -ôrum, n. pi., wonders, mïrâculum, -ï, n., miracle, wonder, mirificus, -a, -um, adj., wonderful, f miror, -ârï, —âtus sum, wonder at, mar­ vel at, admire, f mirus, -a, -um, adj., wonderful, strange, f misceô, -ëre, -ui, mixtum, mix, mingle, misellus, -a, -um, adj., little, poor little. °miser, -era, -erum, adj., wretched, mis­ erable; miser, -eri, m., poor wretch, miserâbilis, -e, adj., wretched, unhappy, pitiable, unfortunate, f misereô, -ëre, -ui, -itum ; miseror, -ërï, -itus sum, pity, miseria, -ae, misery, distress, wretch­ edness. misericordia, -ae, /., pity, compassion, mercy, missilis, -e, adj., missile, f mitis, -e, adj., mild, gentle. *mitto, -ere, misi, missum, send, hurl, release. môbilitâs, -tàtis, f., mobility.

f., moderation,

/., delay, hesitation, m o d e ra tu s, - a , -u m , ad]., restrained, m o r a t u s , - a , - u m , adj., mannered, en­ controlled, discreet, dowed with good manners, m oderor, — à r ï, — â t u s s u m , control, re­ f m o r b u s , - i , m., sickness, disease, strain, moderate, regulate, m o r d a c i t e r , adv., bitingly, sharply. m o d e s t e , adv., modestly, ° m o r i o r , m o r i , m o r t u u s s u m , die. m o d e s t i a , - a e , f., modesty, discretion, * m o r o r , - â r ï , - â t u s s u m , delay, linger, propriety. wait; n i > f f m o r a r i , care nothing for. m o d e s t u s , - a , - u m , ad]., moderate, mod­ m ô r ô s i t à s , - t â t i s , f., peevishness, est. m ô r ô s u s , - a , - u m , adj., peevish. m o d i c u s , - a , - u m , ad]., moderate, m o d ­ ° m o r s , m o r tis , death, est. m o r s u s , - ü s , m., biting, bite, ° m o d o , adv., only, merely; with u t , pro­ f m o r t a l i s , -e, adj., mortal, human; vided only; n o n m o d o . . . s e d e t i a m , m o r t a l i s , - i s , m/f., a human being, mortal. not only . . . but also; now, just now, a little while ago; m o d o . . . m o d o , m o r t u u s , - a , - u m , adj., dead, at one time . . . at another. m ô r u m , - ï , n., mulberry, blackberry, ° m o d u s , - i , m., measure, size, limit, way, m ô r u s , - ï , m., mulberry tree. manner, method, kind, sort; ë j u s m o d i , * m ô s , m ô r i s , m., manner, habit, custom, of that sort; h ü j u s m o d i , of this kind; practice; pi., character, morals, m i r a b i l e m i n m o d u m , in a wonderful f m ô t u s , —ü s , m., movement, motion; manner; q u e m a d m o d u m , in what m ô t u m t e r r a e , earthquake. way, how, as; q u ô m o d o ( q u ô m o d o ) , ° m o v e ô , - ë r e , m ô v ï , m ô t u m , move, stir, set in motion, start, remove, arouse, how; n ë s c i ô q u ô m o d o , somehow or other. disturb, influence; c a s t r a m o v ë r e , break camp; s ë m o v ë r e , betake oneself, move. f m o e n i a , - i u m , n. pi., walls, city walls, * m o x , adv., soon, presently, thereupon, city. next. f m ô l ë s , - i s , /., mass, barrier, burden, m ü c r ô , - ô n i s , m., point, dagger, m o l e s t ë , adv., with difficulty; m o l e s t ë f m u lie r , - e r i s , woman, female, f e r r e , to be annoyed at. m o le s tia , - a e , trouble, annoyance, m u l t i f a r i a m , adv., in many places, m u ltifa r iu s , — a, - u m , adj., manifold, distress, hardship, labor, m u l t i l o q u u s , —a , - u m , adj., talkative, m o l e s t u s , - a , - u m , ad]., troublesome, m u l t i p l e x , - i c i s , adj., manifold, varied, grievous, annoying, f m o l i o r , - i r i , - i t u s s u m , plan, plot, toil repeated. ° m u l t i t ü d ô , - i n i s , f., multitude, great over, undertake, number, crowd, host, numbers, f m o l l i s , - e , ad]., soft, gentle, wavering, m u l t ô , adv., by much, by far, far. m o l l i t e r , adv., softly, effeminately, lux­ m u l t ô , - a r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , punish, fine, uriously. m u l t u m , adv., much, greatly, especially, m o m e n t u m , - i , n., motion, importance, often, very; p l u s , comp., more; p l u ­ m o n a c h u s , - i , m., monk. r i m u m , superi., most, verv, for the * m o n e ô , - ë r e , - u i , - i t u m , admonish, ad­ most part, generally. vise, warn. * m u l t u s , -a, - u m , adj., much, many, * m ô n s , m o n t i s , m., mountain, many a, extensive, great, great quantity m ô n s t r ô , - a r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , show, point of; p i , many, many persons; p l ü s , out. p l ü r i s , comp., used only in sing., as a f m ô n s t r u m , - i , n., warning, omen, por­ noun, more, a greater number or quan­ tent, monster, monstrosity, tity, the majoritv; pi., a number of, f m o n u m e n t u m ( m o n i m e n t u m ) , —ï , n., several; p l ü r ë s , - i u m , m. pi., more, sevreminder, monument, memorial. m o d e r â tiô , - ô n i s ,

°m ora, -a e ,

483

eral, the majority; p l ü r i m u s , - a , - u m , superl., most, very many, very large, fmundus, -I, m., the universe, world, planet. m ü n i c e p s , - i p i s , m/f., citizen of a free town, fellow-townsman, f m ü n i c i p i u m , - I , n., free town, munici­ pality. * m ü n iô , - I r e , — ï v ï , - I t u m , fortify, build, guard. ° m ü n îtiô , - ô n is , fortification, rampart, f m ü n u s , - e r i s , n., duty, service, activity, office, task, show, favor, m u r m u r , - u r i s , n., rumbling, murmur, m u r m u r â t i ô , - ô n i s , f., murmuring, mut­ tering. m ü r u s , - I , m., wall, city wall, m ü s , m û r i s , m/f., mouse. M ü sa , - a e , muse; m ü s a e m â n s u ë t i ô n ë s , polite literature, m ü s c u l u s , - I , m., little mouse, muscle, m u s s e l,

weasel, m ü tà b ilità s , - t à t is , mutability, m û t â t i ô , - ô n i s , /., change, revolution, f m ü t ô , - a r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , change, alter, m ü t u ë , adv., mutually, reciprocally, m ü t u ô , adv., mutually, in exchange, m ü tu o r , -â r ï, — â t u s s u m , borrow, m ü t u s , - a , - u m , adj., d u m b , mute, m ù t u u s , - a , - u m , adj., borrowed, re­ ciprocal. m u s të la , - a e ,

N

conj., for, namely, for instance, n a m q u e , conj., for, for in fact, and for. *nam ,

find, obtain, n à r r à t i ô , - ô n i s , f., narration. * n à r r ô , - a r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , relate, tell. ° n à s c o r , - I , n â t u s s u m , be born, grow, n â t à l i s , - e , adj., natal, of birth, native; n â t â l i s , - i s , m., birthday, n â t i ô , - ô n i s , /., nation, tribe, race, people, country, state, n a tô , - à r e , — â v ï , - â t u m , swim, float, n â t ü , abl. sing., by birth; g r a n d i s n â t ü , very old, aged; m à j o r n â t ü , older; m à x i m u s n â t ü , oldest, n à t ü r a , - a e , f., nature, character, disposi­ tion, natural ability. n a n c is c o r , - I , n a c tu s s u m ,

484

adj., natural, of nature, - u m , adj., born, old; n â t u s ,

n â tü r à lis , - e , n â tu s, - a ,

-I,

m., son. n a u fr a g u s,

-a ,

-u m ,

n a u fr a g i, - ô r u m ,

adj. shipwrecked; m. p i , shipwrecked

men, ruined characters, n a u sea , -a e , seasickness, n a u t a , - a e , m., sailor, n a u t i c u s , - a , - u m , adj., naval, nautical, f n â v à l i s , - e , adj., naval, n à v i c u l à r i u s , —I, m., boat owner, n à v i g à t i ô , - ô n i s , f., sailing, navigation. * n â v ig ô , - à r e , — â v ï , - â t u m , sail. ° n à v i s , - i s , /., ship, vessel; n à v i s o n e r â r i a , merchant vessel, see n a u t a . enclitic adv./conj.; as adv., a sign of direct questions; as conj., introduc­ ing indirect questions, whether; - n e

n â v ita , °-n e ,

. . .

whether . . . or. ° n ë , adv./conj.; as adv., not; n ë . . . q u i d e m , not . . . even, not . . . either; as conj., that . . . not, in order that . . . not, in order not to; after verbs of fearing, lest, that . . . not; n ë q u i s , so that no one. n ë , interj., indeed, really, n e - , neg. prefix, not. nec,

see

an,

neque,

adv., necessarily. * n e c e s s â r i u s , - a , - u m , adj., necessary, inevitable; n e c e s s à r i ï , - ô r u m , m. p i ,

n e c e s s à r iô ,

close friends, kinsmen, relatives. * n e c e s s e , indecl. adj., necessary, n e c e s s i t à s , - t à t i s , f., need, necessity, in­ terest, intimacy, n e c e s s itü d ô , - in i s , need, relationship, friendship, n e c n e , adv., or not. f n e c ô , - à r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , kill, slay, n e c o p l n à t ô , adv., unexpectedly, n e c o p ï n à t u s , - a , - u m , adj., unexpected, f n e c t ô , - e r e , n e x i , n e x u m , tie, fasten, f n e f à r i u s , - a , - u m , adj., impious, wicked, nefarious, infamous, f n e f à s , n., indecl., sin, crime, n e g l e g ë n s , - e n t i s , adj., careless, n e g l e g e n t e r , adv., carelessly, n e g l e g e n t i a , - a e , f., carelessness, neglect, f n e g l e g ô , - e r e , - l ë x ï , - l ë c t u m , disregard.

fnegô, -are, -âvî, -âtum , say no, say that . . . not, deny, refuse, negôtior, -ârï, -àtus sum, do business, trade, be in business. ° negotium, -ï, n., business, task, affair, difficulty. °nëmô, dat., nëminî, acc., nëminem, m/f., no one, nobody; non nëmô, some, t nemus, -oris, n., woodland, grove, f nepôs, -ôtis, m., grandson, descendant, nephew. nëquàquam, adv., not at all, by no means. °neque (nec), and not, nor; neque . . . neque, neither . . . nor. nequeô, -ire, -Ivi, - , be unable, fnëquïquam, adv., not in any way, in vain, to no purpose, nëquitia, -ae, f., worthlessness, wicked­ ness, negligence, nervus, -i, m., sinew, strength. ° nësciô, -ire, -ivi, - , not know, be ig­ norant, not know how; nësciô quis, quid, some one or other, something or other, somebody, something; nësciô quô pactô, somehow or other, some­ how; nësciô quô modo, I know not how, somehow; nësciô quà ratiône, somehôw or other; nësciô an, probably, neuter, -tra, -trum , adj., neither (of two); neutri, -ôrum, m. pi., neither party. nëve (neu), conj., and not, nor, and lest, and that . . . not. nex, necis, murder, slaughter, death, fni, adv./conj., not, that not, if not, un­ less; Quid ni? Why not? ni forte = nisi forte. nidifico, -are, -àvï, -âtum, build a nest, fniger, -gra, -grum, adj., black, dark, nigrôgemmeus, -a, -um, adj., glossy black. °nihil, n., indecl., nothing; adv., not at all; non nihil, somewhat, to some ex­ tent. nihilum, -ï, n., nothing; nihilô minus, adv., nevertheless, nonetheless, fnimbus, -i, m., rainstorm, rain cloud, nimirum, adv., doubtless, surely, of course. nimis, adv., too much, excessively, too.

nimium, adv., too, too much, nimius, -a, -um , adj., too much, too great, excessive. °nisi, conj., if not, unless; after a neg. or interrog., except, unless, but; nisi si, except, unless, niteô, -ëre, -uï, - , shine, glisten, nitor, niti, nixus sum, lean on, rely on, struggle, strive, nitor, -ôris, m., brilliance, niveus, -a, -um, adj., snowy, nix, nivis, snow. fnô, nàre, nâvï, nâtum, swim, float. *nôbilis, -e, adj., famous, well-known, noble, prominent, distinguished, well­ born. ° nôbilitâs, -tàtis, f., noble birth, nobility, high rank, fame, nocëns, -entis, adj., guilty. °noceô, -ëre, -ui, -itum, harm, injure, noctù, adv., at night. fnocturnus, -a, -um, adj., by night, noc­ turnal, nightly. °nôlô, nolle, nôluï, -, be unwilling, not to wish. *nômen, -inis, n., name, reputation, re­ nown, title, nôminàtim, adv., by name, expressly, fnôminô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, name, call, celebrate. °nôn, adv., not, no. Nônae, -ârum, /. pi., the Nones, the seventh of March, May, July, October; the fifth of the other months. °nôndum, adv., not yet. nongenti, -ae, -a, adj. nine hundred. °nônne, interrog. adv., used in direct ques­ tions expecting the answer yes, not? nônnüllus (non nüllus), -a, -um, adj., some, several. *nônus, -a, -um, adj., ninth, nôrma, -ae, rule, standard, norm. °nôs, nostrum, nostri, pi. of ego, we, us; nôsmet, we ourselves, fnôscô, -ere, nôvï, nôtum, come to know, learn; perf., have learned, know, under­ stand. 0noster, -tra, -trum , adj., our, ours, nota, -ae, mark, sign, notabilis, -e, adj., remarkable.

485

notitia, -ae, f., celebrity, acquaintance, notô, -are, -âvï, —âtum, mark, notice. °nôtus, -a, -um, adj., known, familiar, famous, well-known. 0novem, indecl., nine. °novus, -a, -um, adj., new, recent, novel, strange, unusual; rës novae, revolution; tabulae novae, new accounts, cancel­ lation of debts; novus homo, political upstart. *nox, noctis, night, f nübës, -is, cloud. nübô, -ere, nüpsï, nüptum, be married, marry, wed (of a woman only), nüdô, -are, -âvï, -âtum, lay bare, strip, nüdus, -a, -um, adj., bare, without clothes. *nüllus, -a, -um, adj., not any, not at all, none, no; nüllus, -I, m., no one, nobody. fnum, interrog. adv., with a direct ques­ tion to which a negative answer is expected, not so, is it?; in indir. ques­ tions, whether, fnümen, -inis, n., nod, will, power of a

god, divine power, deity, numéro, -are, -âvï, -âtum, count, num­ ber, reckon, consider, pay out. *numerus, -ï, m., number, amount, quan­ tity, category, position, rank, “numquam, adv., never; non numquam, sometimes. *nunc, adv., now, at present, at this time, nuncupô, —âre, -âvï, -âtum, name, call by name. nundinâtiô, -ônis, f., trade, business. *nüntiô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, announce, report, tell. °nüntius, -ï, m., messenger, message, news, word, fnüper, adv., recently, newly, lately, nüptiae, -ârum, f. pi., marriage, nüsquam, adv., nowhere, nütô, —âre, —âvï, —âtum, nod, sway, waver, nütus, -üs, m., nod, will. O Ô, interj., O! oh! °ob, prep. + acc., on account of, toward,

486

against, for; quam ob rem, for what reason, why, therefore, obdormiô, -ïre, -ïvï, -ïtum, fall asleep, sleep. obeô, -ïre, -iï (-ïv ï), -itum, go to meet, meet, engage in, attend to, undergo, die. objiciô, -ere, -jëcï, -jectum, expose, offer, object. oblectâtiô, -ônis, f., delight, oblectô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, delight, please, divert. obligô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, bind, oblige, be under obligation, commit, oblino, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , smear over, besmear. oblïviô, -ônis, /., forgetfulness, oblivion, oblïvïscor, -ï, -lïtus sum, forget, obnoxius, -a, -um, adj., liable, submis­ sive, subservient, oboediô, -ïre, -ïvï, -ïtum, obey, serve, obruô, -ere, —ruï, -rutum, bury, crush, obscürë, adv., obscurely, obscürô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , hide, conceal, fobscùrus, -a, -um , adj., dark, obscure, concealed, unknown, obsecrô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , beg, beseech, obsecundo, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, favor, sup­ port. obsequium, -ï, n., deference, compliance, obsequor, -ï, -secütus sum, yield, sub­ mit to. observantia, -ae, f., respect, observô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , observe, watch, mark. ° obses, -idis, m/f., hostage. ° obsideô, -ëre, -sëdï, -sessum, obstruet, blockade, besiege, obsidiô, -ônis, f., siege, attack, obsistô, -ere, -stitï, -stitum, resist, ob­ ject. obsolëscô, -ere, -lëvï, —lëtum, grow old, become. obstàculum, -ï, n., obstacle, hindrance, fobstipëscô ( obstupëscô ), -ere, -uï, -, be dazed, be amazed, obstô, -âre, —stitï, -stàtum, stand in the way, oppose, hinder, resist, obsum, -esse, —fuï, - , hurt, injure, obtegô, -ere, -tëxï, -tëctum, conceal.

obtempero, -are, -âvï, - à tum, submit to, obey. °obtineô, -ère, -uï, -tentum , hold, ob­ tain, take possession, secure, win. obtingô, -ere, -tigi, - , befall, happen, obtrectator, -ôris, m., detractor, obtrecto, -are, -âvï, -àtum, disparage, oppose, object, obtruncô, -are, -àvï, -àtum , cut off, slaughter. obturbô, -are, -âvï, -àtum, disturb, harass. obviam, adv., in the way of, meet, occâsiô, -ônis, f., occasion, opportunity, favorable moment. *occàsus, -üs, m., falling, setting, down­ fall; occàsus sôlis, sunset, the west, occidëns, -entis, m., the west, occident, occidentàlis, -e, adj., western; occidentàlis, -is, m., the West, occidô, -ere, -cidï, -câsum, fall, set. °occïdô, -ere, -cïdï, -cïsum, cut down, kill, murder, slay, occisiô, -ônis, killing, slaughter, occulô, -ere, -uï, —cultum, hide, conceal, occulte, adv., secretly, foccultô, -àre, -âvï, -àtum, hide, con­ ceal. f occultus, -a, -um, adj., secret, hidden, obscure. ° occupé, —àre, —âvï, -àtum , seize, oc­ cupy, win, invest, hold, engage, f occurro, -ere, -curri, -cursum, meet, appear, occur, occursô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum, run to meet, meet. °Ôceanus, -ï, m., the ocean, ocellus, -ï, m., a little eye; used as a term of endearment. ^octàvus, -a, -um, adj., eighth. *octô, indecl., eight. octôgêsimus, -a, -um , adj., eightieth. octôgintà, indecl., eighty. *oculus, -ï, m., eye. fôdï, ôdisse, ôsürus, def., hate, odiôsus, -a, -um , adj., hateful, odious, f odium, —i, n., hate, hatred, odor, -ôris, m., odor, perfume, oeconomicus, -a, -um, adj., orderly, eco­ nomic.

offendô, -ere, -fendï, -fënsum, strike against, offend, offënsiô, -ônis, f., misfortune, offerô, -ferre, obtulï, oblàtum, offer, present, expose, officio, -ere, -fëcï, -fectum, hinder. ° officium, -ï, n., duty, service, task, re­ sponsibility. °ôlim, adv., once, formerly, of old, once upon a time, in times past, fômen, -inis, n., omen, sign, ôminor, —àrï, -âtus sum, predict, f omittô, -ere, —mïsï, -missum, pass over, omit, disregard, neglect, give up. fomnïnô, adv., altogether, of course; with negatives, at all. fomnipotëns, -entis, adj., omnipotent, al­ mighty. ° omnis, -e, all, every, entire, the whole; omnës, -ium, m. pi., all men; omnia, -ium, n. pi., everything, onerârius, -a, -um, adj., fitted for bur­ dens; nàvis onerâria, merchant vessel, fonus, -eris, n., load, burden, cargo, f opàcus, -a, -um, adj., dark, opella, -ae, /., little work, notes, opera, -ae, /., work, pains, effort, service, assistance, help; operam dare, take pains, work, help; operae pretium, worthwhile, operiô, -ïre, -uï, -pertum, cover over, opifex, -ficis, m., workman, opïmus, -a, -um , adj., fat, fertile, rich, fopïniô, -ônis, /., opinion, fopïnor, -àrï, -àtus sum, suppose, think, conjecture, opitulor, -àrï, -àtus sum, bring help, aid. *oportet, -ëre, -uit, -, it is necessary, must, ought, opperior, -ïrï, -pertus sum, wait. ° oppidum, -ï, n., town, city, oppônô, -ere, -posuï, -positum, set against, oppose, opportunë, adv., fortunately, opportünitàs, -tàtis, /., advantage. °opportünus, -a, -um, adj., advantageous, opportune, useful, helpful, fit. ° opprimô, —ere, —pressï, —pressum, op­ press, suppress, crush, overthrow, over­ burden.

487

—um, adj., equipped, °oppûgnô, -are, -âvî, -âtum , attack, as­ ôrnàtus, —a, adorned, distinguished, sail, besiege, fops, opis, /., no nom. or dat. sing., aid, ôrnàtus, -ùs, m., decoration, adornment, help, power; opes, -ium, pi., wealth, fôrnô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum , provide, adorn. riches, means, resources, advantages, °ôrô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum , speak, pray, im­ plore. optimâs, -àtis, ad]., of the best, aristo­ cratic; optimàtës, -um, m., pi., no­ ortus, -ùs, m., rising; ortus sôlis, sunrise, fôs, ôris, n., mouth, face, expression. bility, the optimates, optimê, ado., superi, of bene, best, well countenance, done. fos, ossis, n., bone, optimus, -a, -um, adj., superl. of bonus, ôsculor, -ârï, -àtus sum, kiss, ôsculum, —ï, n., kiss. best, very good, excellent, optô, -are, -âvî, -âtum, wish, desire, °ostendô, -ere, -tendi, -tentum, show, point out, display, present, indicate, pray for. offer. opulenter, ado., sumptuously, opulentus, -a, -um, adj., rich, wealthy, ostentô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum, exhibit, dis­ play, show, present, opulent. °opus, -eris, n, work, labor, endeavor, ostentum, -I, n., portent, prodigy, deed; opus est, there is need of, it is ostium, -î, n., door, mouth, entrance, necessary; tantô opere, so much, so ôtior, —ârï, -âtus sum, be at leisure, be very; quanto opere, how much, how on vacation, greatly; màgnô opere, see magnopere, ôtiôsus, -a, -um, adj., at leisure, calm, opusculum, —ï, n., little work, trifling undisturbed, careless, task. fôtium, -î, 77., leisure, quiet, calm. fora, -ae, /., coast, seacoast, shore; ôra P maritima, seacoast. pâbulor, -ârï, -àtus sum, forage, seek ôrâculum, -ï, n., oracle, prophecy. *ôràtiô, -ônis, oration, speech, oratory. fodder. pàbulum, -i, n., fodder, pasture, food, eloquence, ôrâtor, -ôris, m., orator, speaker, pacificus, -a, -um, adj., peacemaking, ôrâtôrius, -a, -um, adj., oratorical, pacific. orbis, -is, m., circle, ring, sphere; orbis paciscor, -I, pactus sum, agree, bargain. terrae or terrarum, the earth, the *pàcô, -âre, -âvî, -âtum , pacify, subdue. world. pactiô, -ônis, f., agreement, ôrdinàtiô, -ônis, f., a setting in order, ar­ pactum, -ï, n., agreement, pact, way, rangement. means; quô pactô, how. *ôrdô, -inis, m., order, body, routine, °paene, adv., almost, nearly, class; in ôrdinem, in order; ôrdine, in paenitet, -ère, -uit, it repents, it dis­ due order, regularly; ex ôrdine, in pleases. regular succession, pàgânus, -a, -um, adj., belonging to a oriens, -entis, m., the East, the Orient; village; pàgânus, -ï, m., countryman; oriëns sôl, sunrise, pagan. orientalis, -e, adj., eastern; orientalis, palaestra, -ae, /., gymnasium, training -is, m., the East, in rhetoric, f orïgô, -inis, f., origin, source. palam, adv., openly, publicly; prep. + *orior, -ïrï, ortus sum, arise, rise, spring abl, in the presence of. from; ortà luce, at daybreak, f palleo, -ère, -uî, - , turn pale, grow pale fôrnàmentum, -ï, n., decoration, orna­ with fear, ment, equipment, mark, distinction; pallëscô, -ere, -uî, - , become pale, pi., treasures. pallidus, -a, -um, adj., pale.

pallium, -ï, n., Greek mantle, cloak, pal­ lium. t palma, -ae, hand, claw, paw. pàlor, —ârî, -âtus sum, wander about, stray. palüs, -üdis, /., swamp, pampinus, -ï, m/f., vine tendril, fpandô, -ere, pandi, passum, stretch out, extend, pânis, -is, m., bread. papyrus, -ï, m/f., papÿrum, -ï, n., the plant papyrus, parchment made from papyrus. °pàr, paris, adj., equal; par, paris, m., an equal, a pair, parâtus, -a, -um, adj., ready, prepared, tparcô, -ere, peperci (parci), parsum, spare. parcus, -a, -um, adj., sparing, thrifty, f parëns, -entis, m/f., parent. *pareô, -ère, -uï, - , appear, obey, pariés, -etis, m., wall, house wall, arid, -ere, peperï, partum, bring forth, produce, gain, bring about, pariter, adv., alike, equally. °paro, -are, -àvi, -àtum , prepare, make ready, provide, get, obtain, parricida, -ae, m., a murderer of parents or relatives, parricide, parricidium, -ï, n., parricide. *pars, partis, f., part, share, direction, party, role, region, section, side, fac­ tion; ûnà ex parte, on one side; ex maxima parte, for the most part; in bonam partem, in good part; diversam in partem, in a different direction, parsimonia, -ae, f., thrift, particeps, -ipis, adj., sharing; particeps, -ipis, m., sharer, partner, participant, fpartim, adv., partly, in part; partim . . . partim, partly . . . partly, either . . . or. partior, -iri, -itus sum, share, divide, parturio, -ire, -ivi, -itum , bring forth, parum, adv., too little, not quite, not enough; minus, comp., less; minimë, superi., least, very little, by no means, not at all. parvulus, -a, -um, adj., small, very little. °parvus, —a, —um, adj., small, little;

parvi, of little worth; minor, minus, comp., smaller, less, younger; minimus, -a, -um, superl., smallest, least, very small, youngest, tiny, tpàscô, -ere, pàvï, pâstum, feed; pass., graze, pasture, passer, -eris, m., sparrow, tpassim, adv., here and there, from every direction, far and wide, everywhere. *passus, —üs, m., pace, step, pàstiô, -ônis, f., pasture, pasturage, pastor, -ôris, m., shepherd, t patefacio, -ere, -feci, -factum, open up, disclose, reveal. °pateô, -ëre, -uï, -, lie open, be open, reveal, extend, épater, -tris, m., father; pi. ancestors; pater familias, head of a household, householder; patrës conscripti, sena­ tors, gentlemen of the Senate, patiëns, -entis, adj., patient, fpatientia, -ae, patience, endurance. °patior, -i, passus sum, suffer, permit, allow, endure. °patria, -ae, f., country, native land, na­ tion. patricius, -a, -um, adj., patrician, f patrius, -a, -um, adj., of a father, pa­ ternal, ancestral, patrô, -àre, -âvï, -àtum, effect, per­ petrate. patrocinium, -ï, n., patronage, advocacy, patrônus, -ï, m., patron, advocate. ° pauci, -ae, -a, adj., a few, few. pauculus, -a, -um, adj., very few, very little. paucus, -a, -um, adj., few, little, fpaulâtim, adv., little by little, gradually, paulisper, adv., for a little while. °paulô, adv., by a little, a little; paulô ante, a little while ago. °paulum, adv., a little, somewhat, pauper, -eris, adj., poor;, pauper, -eris, m., a poor man. paupertàs, -tâtis, f., poverty, paveô, -ëre, pàvï, -, fear, tremble. °pâx, pàcis, f., peace, peccâtum, -ï, n., sin, error, peccô, -are, -àvi, -àtum, err, sin. fpectus, -oris, n., heart, breast, mind.

489

pecuaria, -ôrum, n. pi., herds of cattle. *pecünia, -ae, /., money, wealth; pi. riches. pecus, -oris, n., cattle, flock, herd, fpecus, -udis, /., cattle, head of cattle, pedes, -itis, m., foot soldier, infantry­ man; pi., infantry, pedester, -tris, -tre, adj., on foot, pedes­ trian. peditatus, -üs, m., infantry, pegma, -atis, n., bookcase, pëjor, pëjus, adj., see malus, pëjus, see male, f pelagus, -î, n., sea. *pellô, -ere, pepulï, pulsum, beat, expel, drive out, defeat, impel. Penàtës, -ium, m. pi., household gods, fpendeô, -ëre, pependi, -, hang, depend, fpendô, -ere, pependi, pënsum, hang down, weigh, consider, pay, value, fpenetrâlis, -e, adj., penetrating; pene­ tralia, n. pi., shrine, penetrô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, penetrate, f penitus, adv., deep within, entirely, wholly. pënsitô, -are, -âvï, -âtum, weigh out, pay. pënsô, -are, -âvï, -âtum, weigh, pay, ponder, consider, pënsum, -i, n., importance, weight. °per, prep. + acc., through, across, among, during, by, by means of; as prefix, very, peradulëscëns, -entis, m., very young man. peragô, -ere, -ëgï, -âctum, pass through, finish. peragrô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum, wander through, traverse, perangustus, -a, -um , adj., very nar­ row, narrow, perantiquus, -a, -um, adj., very old. perbrevis, -e, adj., very short, percello, -ere, -culi, -culsum, strike down, crush, fpercipiô, -ere, -cëpï, -ceptum, per­ ceive, learn, comprehend, observe, de­ rive. percôntor, -àrï, -âtum, inquire, question, ask a question.

percrëbrëscô, —ere, —ui, —, spread aboard, spread. percutio, -ere, -cussi, -cussum, strike, beat. f perditus, -a, -um, adj., ruined, aban­ doned, desperate, fperdô, -ere, -didi, -ditum, ruin, lose, destroy. perdücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum, lead through, bring, conduct, peregrë, adv., abroad, away from home, peregrïnâtiô, -ônis, /., travel, journey, peregrinor, -àrï, -àtus sum, travel, peregrinus, -a, -um , adj., foreign, perennis, -e, adj., perennial, fpereô, -ire, —ii (-ivi), -itum, be lost, perish, die. perexiguë, adv., very scantily, niggardly, perfectiô, -ônis, /., completion, perfec­ tion. perfectus, -a, -um, adj., perfect, ac­ complished, complete, full, fperferô, -ferre, -tuli, -lâtum , bear, en­ dure, tolerate, carry, deliver, report. ° perficio, -ere, -fëcï, -fectum, accom­ plish, carry out, bring about, bring to pass, perfect, succeed, perfidia, -ae, /., treachery, perfidiosus, -a, -um, adj., treacherous, faithless. perfidus, -a, -um , adj., faithless, treach­ erous. perfodio, -ere, -fodi, -fossum, dig through, pierce, perfringo, -ere, -frëgi, -fractum, in­ fringe, break down, perfruor, -ï, -früctus sum, enjoy fully, experience, perfugium, —ï, n., refuge, perfungor, -ï, -fùnctus sum, perform, pergô, -ere, perrëxï, perrëctum, proceed, go on, go forth, perhibeô, -ëre, -uï, -itum , cite, assert, render. perhorrëscô, -ere, -uï, - , shudder at. periclitor, -àrï, -àtus sum, try, venture, endanger. f periculosus, -a, -um, adj., dangerous. ° periculum, -i, n., danger, peril, trial, risk.

p e rim o , - e r e , - ë m ï, -ë m p tu m , d e s tr o y , k ill.

p e rin d e , adv., in t h e s a m e m a n n e r ; with ac, u t, or q u a m , ju s t as. p e rin iq u u s , - a , - u m , adj., v e r y u n ju s t, p e rïtë , adv., s k illfu lly , w is e ly , t p e ritu s, - a , - u m , adj., s k ille d , e x p e r i­ enced.

v e r y g r e a t. r e m a in , b e p e r m a n e n t ,

th o r o u g h ly ,

—ui,

a la r m ,

—itu m , te r r if y ,

f r ig h te n f r ig h te n ,

fp e rtim ë sc ô , - e r e , - u i, - , b e c o m e v e ry m u c h a la r m e d , b e a la r m e d , fe a r, d r e a d . ° p e rtin e ô , - ë r e , - u ï, - , r e a c h , e x te n d ,

t r u s t, p e r m i t , a llo w , tr u s t. d e e p ly , m o v e , d i s t u r b , a la r m ,

p e rm u ltu s, - a , - u m , adj., v e r y

m uch;

pi. v e r y m a n y ,

-ë ï,

/.,

d e s tr u c ti o n ,

d e a th ,

a g ita te ,

a r r iv e a t. a r r iv e a t, r e a c h , a tta in ,

p e rv id e ô ,

-ë re ,

- v id i,

-v is u m ,

se e

°p ës, p ed is, m., fo o t, pessim us, see m alus, p e stile n tia , - a e , 7 ., d is e a s e , p la g u e , fp e stis, - is , / ., p la g u e , p e s t, r u in , d e ­ s tr u c tio n , s c o u r g e ,

p etïtiô , - ô n is , /., t h r u s t, a im , c a n d id a c y ,

r u in , d is a s te r ,

fp e rn ic iô su s, - a , - u m , adj., d e s tr u c ti v e , d a n g e r o u s , d e a d ly , —are, —àvï, —â tu m , p a s s

c a n d id a tu re .

*p etô , - e r e , p etiv i, p e titu m , s e e k , s e e k th e

fo r, a sk , a sk fo r, b e g , r e q u e s t, a im a t.

p h ae n o m e n o n , - ï , n., a p p e a r a n c e , p h e ­

n ig h t.

f p e rp e tu u s , - a , - u m , adj., c o n tin u o u s , p e r p e t u a l , p e r m a n e n t , la s tin g ; in p e r­ p e tu u m , fo r e v e r, p e rp u sillu s, - a , - u m , adj., v e r y little , p e rsa e p e , adv., v e r y o f te n , p e rsc rib o , -e re , —scripsi, - s c rip tu m , —ire ,

—sënsï,

—sënsum ,

fe e l

d e e p ly .

^ p e rse q u o r,

- ï,

-s e c ü tu s

sum ,

fo llo w ,

p u r s u e , c a r r y th r o u g h , s e t f o r th , p u n ­ ish .

p e rse v ë ra n tia , —ae, /., p e r s e v e r a n c e , p e rse v ë rô , - à r e , - à v ï, - â tu m , p e r s is t, c o n tin u e .

p e rso n a , - a e ,

f.,

nom enon,

p h ilo m ë n a , - a e , n ig h tin g a le , p h ilo so p h ia, - a e , /., p h ilo s o p h y , p h ilo so p h u s, - i , m., p h ilo s o p h e r , p h y sicu s, - a , - u m , adj., r e la tin g to n a t u ­ ra l s c ie n c e s , p h y s ic a l; p h y sicu s, —ï, m ., n a t u r a l p h ilo s o p h e r , s c ie n tis t,

w r ite in fu ll,

p e rse n tio ,

—à re , - à v i, - à tu m ,

t h r o u g h , see .

* p e rm o v e ô , —ère, —m ôvi, - m ô tu m , m o v e

fp e rn ic ië s ,

* p e rtu rb ô , d is tu r b .

°p e rv e n iô , - ir e , —v ënï, - v e n tu m , c o m e ,

p e rm à tü ru s , - a , - u m , adj., v e r y rip e , fp e rm ittô , - e r e , —m isi, -m is su m , e n ­

m a s k , ro le , p a r t , c h a r a c ­

te r , p e r s o n .

^p ersp icio , - e r e , -s p ë x ï, -s p e c tu m , s e e th r o u g h , p e r c e iv e , se e .

p e rsp ic u ita s , —tâ tis , /., c le a r n e s s , p e rsp ic u u s, —a, —u m , adj., c le a r , e v id e n t , tra n s p a re n t,

p e rstô , - a r e , - s titi, - s tâ tu m , s t a n d firm , p e r s is t.

—ère,

p e rv à d ô , - e r e , -v à s ï, - , p e r v a d e , r e a c h ,

p e rm a n e ô , —ère, —m ân sï, —m ân su m , s ta y ,

p e rn o c to ,

° p e rte rre o ,

t e n d to w a r d , p e r t a i n to , c o n c e r n .

p e rlitte ra tu s , - a , - u m , adj., v e r y le a r n e d , p e rm a g n u s, - a , - u m , adj., v e r y la rg e ,

r u in o u s ,

* p e rsu a d e o , —ère, —suâsï, —su âsu m , p e r ­ suade.

fp ie tà s, - tâ tis , /., p ie ty , a ffe c tio n , p ig er, - g r a , -g ru m , adj., la z y , p ila, - a e , f., b a ll, b a ll g a m e , p ilu m , - i , n., ja v e lin . fp in g ô , - e r e , pinxi, p ic tu m , p a i n t , d e c o ­ r a te .

f p in g u is, - e , adj., fa t, h e a v y , f e rtile , p in n a ( p e n n a ) , - a e , f e a th e r , w in g , p in u s, —i, /., p in e tr e e , p ip iô , - à r e , - à v ï, - â tu m , c h ir p , p isc à to r, - ô ris , m., fis h e rm a n , piscis, —is, m., fish, piscor, - â r ï , - à tu s sum , fish, piscosus, - a , - u m , adj., a b o u n d i n g in fish.

fp iu s,

-a,

-u m ,

adj., d u tif u l, d e v o u t,

p io u s .

491

or p la c i tu m e s t,

f p o p u la r is , —e , ad j., p o p u l a r , d e m o c r a tic ;

p le a s e ; p la c e t, it p le a s e s , it s e e m s b e s t,

m. pi., t h e p o p u l a r p a r t y , th e d e m o ­

f p la c e ô , - è r e , - u ï , - i t u m

f p l a c i d u s , - a , - u r n , ad]., g e n tle , p la c id , p e a c e f u l. p la c ô , - a r e , - â v ï , - à t u m , a p p e a s e , p l a ­

c ra ts . p o p u lo r ,

-â rî,

-à tu s

su m ,

la y

w a s te ,

d e v a s ta te , r a v a g e . ° p o p u lu s , - i , m . , p e o p le , n a tio n ,

c a te . p lâ g a , - a e , /., b lo w , p la g a , - a e , n e t f o r h u n tin g ,

p o r c u s , - i , m ., p ig , h o g . p o r r ig ô , - e r e , - r ë x ï , - r ë c t u m , s tr e tc h o u t,

p là n ë , a d v . , p la in ly , c le a rly , p la n g o r , - ô r i s , m., lo u d la m e n ta tio n , p là n itië s , - ë ï , p la in , le v e l g r o u n d , p la n u s , - a - u m , adj., e v e n , le v e l, flat; p la n u m , - i , n ., p la in , le v e l g r o u n d , p la te a , - a e , s tr e e t. p la u d o , - e r e , p la u s i, p la u s u m , a p p la u d , p la u s u s , - ü s , m ., a p p la u s e . ° p lë b s , p lë b is , f., c o m m o n p e o p le , m o b . f p l ë n u s , - a , - u m , adj., fu ll, fille d w ith , f p l ë r ï q u e , - a e q u e , - a q u e , m o s t, v e ry m any. p lë r u m q u e , a d v . , g e n e r a lly ,

e x te n d . *p o rta , - a e , g a te , e n tr a n c e , p o r t e n t u m , - i , n., p o r t e n t , p r o d ig y , sig n , o p o r to , - a r e ,

c a r ry , b e a r ,

ta k e . ° p o r tu s , —ü s , m . , p o r t, h a r b o r , f p o s c ô , - e r e , p o p o s c i, - ,

a sk , d e m a n d ,

beg- _ p o s s e s s iô , - ô n i s , /., p o s s e s s io n , p o s s id e ô , - ë r e , - s ë d ï , - s e s s u m , p o sse ss, h a v e , h o ld . O p o ssu m , p o s s e , p o t u i , - , b e a b le , c a n . * p o s t,

p l u m b u m , - I , n., le a d , p lïir ë s , p l ü r a , see m u ltu s , p l ü r i m u m , a d v . , m o s t, v e ry m u c h , e s p e ­

-â v ï, -â tu m ,

a d v . / p r e p , - f acc.,

a f te r w a r d s ,

n e x t, b e h i n d , a f te r . ° p o s te â , a d v . , a f te r w a r d s , t h e r e a f te r , p o s t e à q u a m , conj., a f te r ,

f., th e f u tu r e , p o s ­

c ia lly ; see m u ltu m , p lü r i m u s , - a , - u m , see m u ltu s ,

fp o s te ritâ s ,

p lü s , s ee m u ltu m . p lu v iu s , - a , - u m , adj., r a in y ; p lu v ia , - a e , ra in .

^ p o s te r u s , - a , - u m , ad j., n e x t, fo llo w in g ;

-tâ tis ,

te r ity , f u t u r e g e n e r a tio n s .

n., c u p . - a t i s , n., p o e m .

in p o s te r u m , f o r th e f u t u r e ; p o s te r i, - ô r u m , m. pi., d e s c e n d a n t s , p o s te r ity ;

p ô c u lu m , - I ,

p o s te r io r , - i u s , c o m p . , fo llo w in g a f te r ,

poëm a, °poena, -a e , p u n is h m e n t, p e n a lt y . ° p o ë t a , - a e , m., p o e t,

n e x t,

p le d g e .

f p o lu s , —i, pôm um , -i,

-ü tu m ,

d e file ,

d is ­

n.,

p o s th u m o u s ; a d p o s tr ë m u m , a t la st, p o s th â c , a d v . , a f t e r th is , h e n c e f o r t h , h e r e a f t e r , in th e f u tu r e , f p o s tis , - i s , m., d o o r p o s t, d o o r. ° p o s t q u a m , conj., a f te r , w h e n ,

n., w e ig h t, b u r d e n , p ô n e , a d v . /prep. + acc., b e h in d . s itu a te ,

s e t,

p itc h

m., b r id g e , f p o n ti f e x , - f ic is , m., p r ie s t, p o n tif f, p o n t i ­ fe x , b is h o p , f p o n t u s , - i , m., s e a .

th e

next

day,

th e

p o s t u l a t u m , - i , n., d e m a n d .

( c a m p ). ° p o n s , p o n tis ,

on

d a y a f te r , t h e n e x t d a y .

* p ô n ô , - e r e , p o s u i, p o s itu m , p u t , p la c e , p o s t,

p o s tr ë m u s , - a , - u m , s e e p o s te r u s . * p o s tr ïd ië , a d v . ,

f r u it, a p p le ,

p o n d u s, -e ris ,

492

-a ,

p o s tr ë m ô , a d v . , fin a lly , a t la s t,

m., p o le , sk y ( b y meton.).

e s ta b lis h ,

p o s tr ë m u s ,

m u s , - a , - u m , s u p e r l ., la s t, la s t- b o r n ,

p o litic u s , - a , - u m , adj., p o litic a l. * p o llic e o r , - ë r ï , - i t u s s u m , p r o m is e , -u ï,

in f e r io r ;

- u m , su p e rl ., la s t, lo w e s t, w o r s t; p o s tu ­

p o lio , - i r e , —iv i, - i t u m , p o lis h ,

p o llu ô , - e r e , g ra c e .

la te r ,

*p o s tu lô , - a r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , d e m a n d , r e ­ q u e s t. ° p o të n s ,

-e n tis ,

ad j.,

p o w e r f u l,

p o te n t,

a b le , c a p a b l e , m ig h ty , in f lu e n tia l, p o te n tia , - a e , a b ility . ° p o te s tâ s ,

-tâ tis ,

p o w e r , p o te n c y , m ig h t, p o w e r,

p o litic a l

p o w e r,

a u t h o r i t y , c o n tr o l;

p o te sta te m

fa c e re , g iv e o p p o r tu n i ty ,

e n d o w e d w ith ,

p r o v id e d w ith ,

f p o tio r, - ïr ï , - Itu s sum , g e t p o s s e s s io n of, o b ta in , b e m a s t e r of.

p otis, adj. indecl., a b le , c a p a b le ; p o tio r, - iu s , comp., p r e f e r a b l e , b e t t e r ; p o tis­ sim us, - a , - u m , superl., c h ie f , p r i n c i ­

p ra e d iu m , —I, n., f a r m , e s ta te , p ra e d ô , -ô n is , m . , r o b b e r , p ir a te , p ra e fe c tü ra , - a e , /., p r e f e c t u r e , p ra e fe c tu s, - I , m., p r e f e c t, c o m m a n d e r , g o v e rn o r.

p ra e fe ro , - fe r re , - tu li, - lâ tu m , p u t b e ­

p a l, m o s t p r o m i n e n t, f p o tiu s,

adj.,

f p ra e d itu s, - a , - u m ,

adv., r a t h e r , m o r e ; p o tissim u m ,

fo re , p r e f e r , a n tic ip a te .

c h ie fly , e s p e c ia lly , b e s t o f a ll, p r e f e r ­ a b ly .

° praeficio, - e r e , - fë c î, -fe c tu m , p u t in

p ô tu s, - ü s , m., d r in k . p ra e , prep. + abl., b e f o r e , in f r o n t o f, in

^ p ra e m itto , - e r e , —m isi, -m issu m , s e n d

p ra e b e ô , - è r e , - u ï, - itu m , s u p p ly , o ffe r, f u r n is h , s u r r e n d e r , tr e a t,

p ra e c e llo , - e r e , - , - , e x c e l, f p ra e c e p s, -c ip itis , adj., h e a d lo n g , ra s h , p ra e c e p to r, - ô ris , m., te a c h e r , i n s tr u c to r ,

n.,

o rd e r, p re c e p t, c o m ­

p ra e c id o , - e r e , -c is l, -c is u m , c u t off. p ra e c in g o , - e r e , -c in x i, c in c tu m , g ir d , e n c ir c le . f p ra e c ip io , - e r e , - c ë p ï, - c e p tu m , in s tr u c t, com m and.

p ra e c ip ito , - à r e , - à v î, - â tu m , r u s h h e a d ­ lo n g , th r o w d o w n ,

p ra e c ip u ë , adv., e s p e c ia lly , fp ra e c ip u u s , - a , - u m , adj.,

r e w a r d , p r iz e ,

n.,

first n a m e , p r a e ­

p ra e p a rô , - a r e , - à v î, - â tu m , p r e p a r e fo r. p ra e p ô n ô , - e r e , -p o s u i, -p o s itu m , p la c e in c o m m a n d , p r e f e r ,

-e re ,

-sc rip si,

-s c rip tu m ,

p r e s c r i b e , d ir e c t, r e q u ir e ,

fp ra e së n s, -e n tis ,

m a n d , te a c h in g , ru le ,

adj.,

a t h a n d , p r e s e n t,

im m e d ia te , tim e ly ,

p ra e se n tia , - a e , /., p r e s e n c e , t h e p r e s e n t, p ra e se n tio , -Ire , -s ë n s l, -së n s u m , a n tic i­ p a te .

fp ra e s e rtim , adv., e s p e c ia lly , p raesid eô , - è r e , -s ë d ï, - , p r e s id e o v e r. * p ra e sid iu m , - I , n ., p r o te c tio n , d e f e n c e , h e lp , g a r r is o n , g u a r d , b o d y g u a r d s ,

p e c u lia r ,

p ra e stà n s, - a n tis ,

adj.,

o u ts ta n d in g ,

re ­

m a r k a b le , e m in e n t,

e s p e c ia l, e x c e lle n t,

p ra e c lâ rë , adv., v e r y c le a r ly , a d m ir a b ly ,

p raestô , - à r e , - s titi, - s titu m , s ta n d o u t, e x c e l, b e b e t t e r , s u r p a s s , b e r e s p o n s i­

e x c e lle n tly ,

f p ra e c la ru s, - a , - u m , adj., b r il lia n t , e x ­ c e lle n t, s p le n d i d , r e m a r k a b le ,

p ra e c ô , - ô n is , m . , h e r a ld , p ra e c o n iu m , - i , n., h e r a ld in g , e u lo g y , p ra e c u rro , - e r e , -c u c u rr i, -c u rs u m , p r e ­ c e d e , su rp a ss,

p ra e c u rso riu s, —a, —um , b e f o r e ; p ra e c u rso riu s,

adj., -I,

r u n n in g m.,

p re ­

b le , g u a r a n t e e , e x is t b e f o r e , a n t e d a t e , o u tp a c e , o ffe r, k e e p . °p ra e stô , adv., a t h a n d , p r e s e n t, r e a d y , h e re .

p raesto lo r, - à r ï , - à tu s sum , w a it fo r. ^p raesu m , -e s s e , —fu l, - , b e in c o m m a n d of.

p ra e te n d o , - e r e , - te n d i, - te n tu m , e x te n d , a lle g e , p r e t e n d .

c u rs o r.

p ra e d a , - a e , / ., b o o ty , p ra e d ic a tio , - ô n is , / ., p ra e d ic a to r, - ô ris , m . , p ra e d ic ô , - a r e , - à v î,

n.,

f p ra e n o m e n , -in is , nom en.

p ra e sc rib o ,

p u b l i c te a c h e r ,

p lu n d e r, p r a is e , p r e a c h in g , p re a c h e r,

- â tu m , p r o c la im ,

p r e a c h , d e c la r e ,

p ra e d ic ô , - e r e , - d ix i, - d ic tu m , f o r e te ll, p r o c la im , sa y .

ahead. ° p ra e m iu m , —I,

c o m p a r is o n w ith , fo r, b e c a u s e of.

p ra e c e p tu m , - ï ,

c o m m a n d , p la c e in c h a r g e of.

* p ra e te r,

adv./prep. + acc.,

p a s t,

be­

y o n d , b y , b e s id e s , e x c e p t, c o n tr a r y to .

° p ra e te re â ,

adv.,

b e s id e s ,

m o re o v e r,

in

a d d itio n , also , f p ra e te re o , - Ir e , - i i ( - I v i ) , - itu m , p a s s b y , p a s s o v e r, o m it,

p ra e te ritu s , - a , - u m ,

adj.,

p a s t, g o n e b y .

493

t p ra e te rm itto ,

-e re ,

-m is i,

-m is su m ,

p ra e te rq u a m , adv., f u r t h e r th a n ,

m o re

after neg., e x c e p t; with

q u o d , a p a r t fro m t h e f a c t th a t, p ra e te x ta tu s, - a , - u m , adj., w e a r in g th e to g a p r a e te x ta , u n d e r a g e . °p ra e to r, -ô ris , m., a R o m a n m a g is tr a te , p r a e to r .

p ra e to riu m , - i ,

n.,

official r e s id e n c e o f a

p r a e t o r o r p r o p r a e to r , a- p a la c e , h e a d ­ q u a r te r s in a R o m a n c a m p , im p e r ia l b o d y -g u a rd ,

p ra e to riu s, - a , - u m , adj., p r a e to r ia n , of fp ra e tü ra , - a e ,

office

of p ra e to r

at

R o m e , p r a e to r s h ip .

p ra e v e rtô , - e r e , -v e rs i, -v e rs u m ( p r a e ­ v erto r, - ï , -v e rs u s s u m ), a n tic ip a te , fo r e s ta ll, b e p r e o c c u p ie d , p ra n d e ô , - è r e , p ra n d i, —, ta k e b r e a k f a s t, lu n c h .

p ra n d iu m , - ï , n ., la te b r e a k f a s t, lu n c h , m e a l.

p rasin u s, - a , - u m , adj., le e k - g re e n , p rà tu m , - ï , n., m e a d o w , pràv u s, - a , - u m , adj., d e p r a v e d , p e r ­ v e rs e .

p reco r, - â r ï, - â tu s sum , p r a y , b e g . p re h e n d o , - e r e , - h e n d ï, -h ë n s u m , se iz e , ta k e .

-e re ,

pressi,

p ressum ,

p re s s

h a rd , o p p re ss, ch eck ,

p re sb y te r, - e r i, m., p r e s b y te r , p r ie s t, pretio su s, - a , - u m , adj., p r e c io u s , c o s tly , o f g r e a t v a lu e .

°p re tiu m , - i, n., p r ic e , v a lu e ; o p erae p re tiu m , w o r th w h ile , fp re x , precis, p r a y e r , e n tr e a ty , r e ­ q u e s t.

fp rid e m , adv., lo n g a g o ; with jam , n o w fo r a lo n g tim e , lo n g s in c e . v io u s d a y .

adv., a t first. ° p rim u m , adv., first, in th e first p la c e , a t first, fo r th e first tim e ; q u a m p rim u m , as p o s s ib le ; p rim u m , as so o n as.

cum

*prim us, - a , - u m , adj.,

494

° p rin c ep s, - ip is , ad j., first, c h ie f, f o r e ­ m o s t; p rin c e p s, —ipis, m ., le a d in g m a n , p r in c e , le a d e r , c h ie f. ° p rïn c ip â tu s, —üs, m .,

th e

first

p la c e ,

le a d i n g p o s itio n , p r im a c y ,

p rin c ip iu m , —ï, n., b e g in n in g , i n tr o d u c ­ tio n , p r in c ip le , o r ig in ; p rin c ip io , abl., in th e b e g in n in g , in th e first p la c e , a t first.

°p rio r, p riu s, -ô ris , adj., f o r m e r , p r e v i ­ o u s , first, e a r lie r , priscus, - a , - u m , adj., a n c ie n t, p rim itiv e ,

p ristin u s, - a , - u m , ad j., f o r m e r , o rig in a l, p riu s, a d v . , b e f o r e , s o o n e r , r a t h e r , e a r lie r . * p riu sq u a m (p riu s . . . q u a m ) , conj., b e fo re ,

p rïv à tim , a d v . , p r iv a te ly , f p riv a tu s, - a , - u m , adj., p r iv a te , p e r ­ s o n a l; p rïv â tu s, - i , m . , p r i v a t e c itiz e n , in d iv id u a l,

prïvô, —are, - à v ï, —à tu m , d e p r iv e . °p rô , p r e p . + abl., b e f o r e , fo r, in f r o n t of, on

b e h a l f o f, in

p la c e

o f, in

r e tu r n

fo r, in a c c o r d a n c e w ith , in p r o p o r tio n to , c o m p a r e d to , in c o n s id e r a tio n of. p ro av u s, —ï, m ., g r e a t g r a n d f a t h e r , a n ­ c e s to r.

p ro b ita s, - ta tis , / ., u p r i g h t n e s s , p r o b ity , p ro b ô , - a r e , - à v ï, - à tu m , a p p r o v e , p ro v e , p ro b ru m , - ï , n., c rim e , d is g r a c e f u l c o n ­ d u c t.

*p rô cëd ô , - e r e , -c e s s i, -c e ss u m , g o f o r ­ w a rd , su c c e e d , a d v a n c e , go on. p rô cellô , - e r e , - , - , th r o w f o r w a r d , c a s t dow n.

p rô c ë rità s, - tà tis , /., h e ig h t, prôcessiô, - ô n is , advance, p ro cu l, a d v . , fr o m a f a r , f a r , f a r a w a y , a t ° p rô c u rrô , - e r e , —c u rri, -c u rs u m , r u n fo r­ w a rd , c h arg e,

* p rim o ,

so o n

p a r­

a d is ta n c e , b e y o n d .

° p rïd ië , adv., t h e d a y b e f o r e t h e p r e ­

as

e s p e c ia lly ,

a n tiq u e .

p r e to r ia n ra n k ,

*prem ô,

in p rim is,

tic u la r ly .

p a s s o v e r, o m it, th a n , b e y o n d ;

f o r e m o s t;

(u b i, u t)

p ro d ig iu m , - ï ,

n.,

o m e n , p r o d ig y , w o n ­

d e r.

p rô d ito r, - ô ris , m . , b e t r a y e r , tr a ito r , p rô d ô , - e r e , - d id i, - d itu m , b e tr a y , h a n d dow n.

first,

le a d in g ,

°p rô d ü c ô , - e r e , —d ü x ï, - d u c tu m , b r in g

forward, bring, bring out, lead forth, prolong, produce. °proelium, -ï, n., battle, profectiô, -ônis, /., setting out, de­ parture. f profecto, adv., surely, certainly, doubt­ less, undoubtedly, indeed, prôferô, -ferre, -tuli, -latum, bring forth, produce, publish, professiô, -ônis, /., acknowledgment, declaration, registration, prôfîciô, -ere, -feci, -fectum, accom­ plish, effect, progress, help. °proficiscor, -ï, -fectus sum, set out, depart, proceed, advance, go. f profiteor, —êrï, -fessus sum, acknowl­ edge, avow, profess, declare, register, profligo, -are, —âvï, -àtum, ruin, debase, profugio, -ere, -fügï, -, flee, escape, profundo, -ere, —fûdï, -füsum, rush forth, squander, profundus, -a, -um, adj., deep, pro­ found; profundum, -ï, n., depth, profüsus, -a, -um, adj., lavish, wasteful. ° progredior, —i, —gressus sum, go for­ ward, advance, progress, go. progressio^ -ônis, advance. °prohibeô, -ère, -ui, -itum, prevent, hinder, prohibit, hold back, keep from, exclude. proinde, adv., hence, therefore, accord­ ingly, then, prôjiciô, -ere, -jècï, -jectum, throw out, expel. f prôlës, -is, /., offspring, prôloquor, —ï, -locûtus sum, speak out, tell. promiscuus, -a, -um, adj., mixed, com­ mon. f prômittô, -ere, -misi, -missum, prom­ ise, pledge, take, accept an invitation, prômô, -ere, prompsi, prômptum, pro­ duce, disclose, prômptus, -a, -um, adj., ready, prômoveô, -ère, -môvï, -môtum, move forward, promote, prômulgô, -are, -âvï, -àtum, publish, bring forward, prônùntiô, -are, -âvï, -àtum, announce, deliver.

propâgô, -àre, -âvï, -àtum, spread, ex­ tend. ° prope, adv./prep. + acc., near, nearly, almost. properë, adv., hastily, rapidly. * properô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum, hasten, hurry. propheta, -ae, m., prophet, propinquô, —àre, —àvï, -àtum, approach. ° propinquus, -a, -um, adj., near, related; propinqui, -ôrum, m. pi., relatives, propior, -ius, -ôris, adj. comp., nearer. *prôpônô, -ere, -posui, -positum, put forth, propose, suggest, make clear, keep before, propositum, -ï, n., plan, purpose, proprius, -a, -um, adj., one’s own, per­ sonal, special, particular, peculiar, char­ acteristic. °propter, adv./prep. + acc., near, hard by, on account of, because of, in be­ half of. °proptereà, adv., on that account, there­ fore; proptereà quod, because, for the reason that, prôpügnàculum, -ï, n., rampart, bul­ wark. prôpügnâtiô, -ônis, f., defence, prôpügnâtor, -ôris, m., defender, prôpügnô, -àre, -âvï, -àtum, defend, fight. fprôra, -ae, /., prow, bow of a ship, prôripiô, -ere, -uï, -reptum, throw for­ ward, hurl, prôrsus, adv., forward, certainly, en­ tirely, truly, absolutely, proscribo, -ere, -scripsi, -scriptum, pub­ lish, advertise, confiscate, proscribe, proscriptio, -ônis, /. notice of sale, pro­ scription, confiscation, proscripti, -ôrum, m. pi., the proscribed, prôsequor, —ï, -secütus sum, follow, pursue, escort, prospectus, -üs, m., view, prospect, prospéré, adv., prosperously, favorably, successfully, prosperus, -a, -um, adj., fortunate, fa­ vorable, prosperous, fprôspiciô, -ere, —spëxï, -spectum, fore­ see, provide, have a view of.

495

prosterno, -ere, -strâvï, -stratum, throw to the ground, prostrate, prôsum, -desse, -fui, - , benefit, be of use, profit, be profitable, be beneficial, protendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum, stretch out. prôtinus, adv., immediately, prout, adv., just as, as. prôvidëns, -entis, adj., prudent, wise, providentia, -ae, foresight, providence, f provided, -ëre, -vïdï, -visum, foresee, provide for, take care, plan. ^provincia, -ae, province, duty, office, prôvocâtiô, -ônis, /., challenge, prôvocô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, challenge, provoke, summon, proximë, adv., nearest, last, directly, proximo, adv., very recently, very lately. °proximus, -a, -um, adj., very near, nearest, next; proximi, -ôrum, m. pi., neighbors. fprüdëns, -entis, adj., foreseeing, wise, prudent, sensible, prüdenter, adv., prudently, discreetly, prüdentia, -ae, foresight, wisdom, prudence. pruinosus, -a, -um, adj., full of hoar­ frost. f pübës, -is, f. youth. püblicânus, -i, m., tax collector, publican. °publicus, -a, -um, adj., public, of the people, state; rës püblica, state, com­ monwealth, public welfare, pudet, -ère, -uit (-itum est), it shames, it makes ashamed, pudïcë, adv., shamefacedly, modestly, chastely. fpudor, -ôris, m., shame, modesty, de­ cency. °puella, -ae, girl, maid. °puer, pueri, m., boy, child, slave, serv­ ant. puerilis, -e, adj., boyish, of a boy, of boyhood. pueritia, -ae, boyhood, childhood. °pügna, -ae, fight, battle, combat, dis­ pute, quarrel, pügnâtor, -ôris, m., combatant, soldier. °pügnô, -are, -âvï, -âtum, fight, con­ tend.

496

pügnus, -ï, m., fist. ° pulcher, -chra, -chrum, adj., beautiful. fine, handsome, pulchritüdô, -inis, f., beauty, excellence, pulchritude, pullus, -a, -um, adj., dark, gray, dusky, pullus, -i, m., chicken, pulsô, -are, -âvï, -âtum, beat, strike, dash against, knock, move, pulvinar, -âris, n., couch for images of gods. pulvis, -eris, m., dust, powder, pünctum, -ï, n., point, moment, püniceus, -a, -um, adj., purple, püniô, -ire, -ivi, -ïtum, punish, fpuppis, -is, /., stern, ship, pürgô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum, cleanse, purifv, defend. f purpureus, -a, -um, adj., purple-colored, pûrus, -a, -um, adj., clean, pure, pusillus, -a, -um, adj., very small, puny, puteal, -âlis, n., stone curb around the mouth of a well or a sacred place. °putô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, cleanse, con­ sider, think, reckon, imagine, pÿramis, -idis, f., pyramid.

Q quà, adv., by what way, where, quadrâgintâ, adj. indecl., forty, quadrimus, -a, -um, adj., of four years, four years old. quadringenti, -ae, -a, adj. pi., four hun­ dred. quadrupës, -pedis, adj., of four feet; quadrupës, -pedis, m/f. , quadruped. *quaero, -ere, -sivi, -situm, seek, ask for, inquire. quaeso, -ere, - , - , I beg, I pray, please, quaestiô, -ônis, f., investigation, inquiry, question, court, problem. *quaestor, -ôris, m., quaestor, treasurer of state. quaestuosus, -a, -um, adj., remunerative, fond of gain, quaestus, -ûs, m., profit, gain; in quaestù, at interest. fquâlis, -e, adj., interrog., of what sort? what kind of? relat., of such kind, such as, as.

quâlitâs, -tâtis, f., quality, quâliter, adv., as, just as. ° quam, adv. to what degree, how, how greatly; how? after comparatives, than; after tam, as; ivith superlatives, as . . . as possible; quam diü, see diü; quam ob rem, see ob; quam primum, see primum. quamlibet, adv., however much, as much as you like, tquamquam, conj., although, though, and yet. quamvis, adv./conj., as . . . as you please; however much, however, no matter how, although, tquandô, adv./conj., as adv., interrog., when? at what time? adv., indef., after si and në, at some time, at any time, ever; as conj., when, since, because, quandoque, adv., at whatever time, whenever. quantulus, -a, -um, adj., how little, how small. quantum, adv., relat., as much as, as far as, as much; interrog., how much? how far? ° quantus, -a, -um , adj., interrog., how large? how great? how much? quanto opere, how much? how greatly? relat., tantus . . . quantus, as great/much . . . as, so great/much . . . as; quanti, gen. of indef. value, of what worth/ value? at what price? quantuscumque, -acumque, -umcumque, adj., however great, fquârë (quâ rë), adv., relat., therefore, wherefore; interrog., why? how? for what reason? quârtânus, -a, -um, adj., relating to the fourth; febris quârtâna, quartan fever. °quârtus, -a, -um , adj., fourth; quarto, for the fourth time, f quasi, adv., as if, as it were, quaterni, -ae, -a, adj. pi., four at a time, four each. *quattuor, adj. indecl., four. -que, encl. conj., and. quem ad modum, in what way? how? just as, as. queô, -ire, -ii (-iv i), -, be able, can.

querëla, -ae, complaint, querimonia, -ae, complaint, t queror, -i, quaestus sum, complain, questus, -üs, m., complaint, lament. *qui, quae, quod, rel. pron., who, which, what, that, quia, conj., because. fquicumque, quaecumque, quodcumque, indef. pron., whoever, whatever, which­ ever. *quidam, quaedam, quiddam (quod­ dam), indef. pron./adj., a certain one, a certain thing; as adj., certain. ° quidem, adv., indeed, in fact, at least; në . . . quidem, not even, quidni (quid ni), why not? fquiës, -ëtis, /., rest, peace, quiet, tquiëscô, -ere, quiëvï, quiëtum, keep quiet, be still, rest, become quiet, quiëtus, -a, -um, adj., quiet, peaceful, inactive. quilibet, quaelibet, quidlibet (quodlibet), indef. pron./adj., anyone you please, any at all, anyone, anything; as adj., any you please, fquin, adv./conj., why not? but, in fact, indeed, truly, so that . . . not, but that, but, that, without, quinam, see quisnam. quingenti, -ae, -a, adj., five hundred, quinquaginta, adj. indecl., fifty, quïnquàtrus, -uum, f. pi., a festival of Minerva. 0quinque, adj. indecl., five. °quintus, -a, -um, adj., fifth, quippe, adv./conj., of course, forsooth, for, to be sure, certainly, indeed. fQuirïtës, -ium, m. pi., citizens, fellow Romans, fellow citizens. °quis, quid (qui, qua/quae, quod), indef. pron./adj., anybody, anyone, anything; as adj., some, any; në quis, so that no one; si quis, if anyone. °quis, quid (qui, quae, quod), interrog. pron./adj., who? which? what?; as adj., what? which? what kind of? quisnam, quidnam (quinam, quaenam, quodnam), interrog. pron./adj., who, pray? what, pray? who, then? what, then?; as adj., of what kind, pray?

497

quispiam, quidpiam ( quispiam, quae­ piam, quodpiam), indef. pron./adj., anyone, anything; as adj., any, some, tquisquam, quidquam (quisquam, quid­ quam), indef. pron./adj., anyone, any­ thing, anyone or thing at all; as adj., any ( rare ). °quisque, quidque (quisque, quaeque, quodque), indef. pron./adj., each one, each thing, every one, every thing; each person; as adj., each, every, quisquis, quidquid (quicquid), indef. pron., whoever, whatever, everyone who, everything which, quivis, quaevis, quidvis (quodvis), in­ def. pron./adj., anyone you wish, any­ thing you wish, anyone, anything; as adj., any you wish. •quo, adv., interrog, whither, where, to what point? to what place? in what direction? relat., to which place, wher­ ever, whither, that, in order that; quo üsque, how far? how long? quo minus (quominus), in order that . . . not; quô pactô, how? quoad, adv., 6s far as, as long as, till, until. quocumque, adv., whithersoever, in what­ ever direction. •quod, conj., because, since, in that, as to the fact that, whereas, the fact that, that, f quod si, but if. quo minus, see quo. quômodo (quô modo), adv., in what manner, how. tquondam, adv., formerly, once upon a time, once, f quoniam, adv., since, inasmuch as, be­ cause, as, seeing that, tquoque, conj., also, too. quôquô, adv., wherever, quôrsum, adv., whither, where, fquot, adj. indecl., how many? quotan­ nis, every year, quotidianus, -a, -um , adj., daily, fquotiëns, adv., interrog., how often? how many times? relat., as often as, as. quotienscumque, adv., as often as, how­ ever often, whenever.

R radius, -i, m., rod, staff, spoke, ray, beam, radix, -icis, root. ràmôsus, -a, -um , adj., branching, branchy. frâmus, -i, m., branch, twig, bough, limb. f rapidus, -a, -um , rapid, devouring, rapina, -ae, /., rapine, plundering, frapiô, -ere, rapui, raptum, snatch, carry off, abduct, plunder, seize, carry away, rârô, adv., rarely. ràrus, -a, -um, adj., scattered, rare, •ratio, -ônis, account, reckoning, method, manner, plan, purpose, situa­ tion, reason, f ratis, -is, f., raft, boat, raucus, -a, -um , adj., harsh, harshsounding. recens, -entis, adj., new, fresh, recent, receptrix, -icis, f., receiver, recidô, -ere, reccidï ( recidi ), -, fall back, come back. •recipiô, -ere, -cëpï, -ceptum, take back, receive, admit, undertake; së recipere, retreat, return, reciproco, -are, -àvï, -âtum , move back­ wards and forwards, flourish, recitô, -are, -àvï, -âtum , read aloud, recite. reclàmô, —are, -àvï, -âtum , protest, reclino, —are, -àvï, -âtum , recline, recôgitô, —are, -àvï, -âtum , think over again, reconsider, recôgnôscô, -ere, -nôvï, -nitum, recog­ nize, review, recolô, —ere, —ui, —cultum, cultivate, reconciliàtiô, —ônis, f., reconciliation, recondô, -ere, -didi, -ditum, conceal, close. f recordor, -àrï, -àtus sum, remember, recall. recreô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum , refresh, restore; së recreàre, recover, rëctë, adv., rightly, duly, properly, wisely, rëctus, -a, -um , adj., straight, right, straightforward, recuperô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum , get back, recuperate.

recüsâtiô, -ônis, refusal, recùsô, —are, -âvï, —âtum, refuse. *reddô, -ere, -didi, -ditum, give back, return, restore, render, repay. 0redeô, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -turn, go back, return, come back, redigô, -ere, -ëgï, -àctum, drive back, reduce, subdue, conquer, redimô, -ere, -ëmï, -ëmptum, buy back, redeem, ransom. *reditus, -üs, m., return. *redûcô, -ere, —düxï, -ductum, lead back, bring under, redundô, —are, —âvï, -âtum, overflow, overwhelm, be left over, ebb. refellô, -ere, -felli, -, refute, refercio, -ire, -fersi, -fertum, cram full, referô, -ferre, -tuli, -lâtum , bear back, bring back, bear again, report, refer, relate; grâtiam referre, repay; pedem referre, draw back; së referre, return, rëfert, -ferre, retulit, it interests, it con­ cerns, it matters, refertus, -a, -um , adj., filled, packed, reficiô, -ere, -fëcï, -fectum, renew, re­ fresh. reformido, -are, -, -âtum , dread greatly, fear. refrënô, —âre, -âvï, -âtum , restrain, curb, refugiô, -ere, -fügï, -, flee back, shrink from. refugium, -i, n., refuge. refulgeô, -ëre, -fulsi, - , shine, gleam. refütô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , refute. rëgàlis, -e, adj., of a king, royal. rëgia, -ae, f., royal palace. rëgië, adv., tyrannically, despotically. *rëgïna, -ae, queen. °regiô, -ônis, /., region, territory, sec­ tion. frëgius, -a, -um , adj., of a king, royal, trëgnô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , reign, rule. °rëgnum, -ï, n., kingdom, royal power, supreme power, sovereignty, control. °regô, -ere, rëxï, rëctum, guide, direct, control, govern, rule, regredior, -ï, -gressus sum, return, with­ draw, retreat, rejiciô, -ere, -jëcï, -jectum, throw back, reject.

relaxô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, loosen, relax, relegô, -ere, —lëgï, -lëctum, read again, reread. relevé, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, lift up, relieve, freligiô, -ônis, /., cult, piety, worship, religion. religiosus, -a, -um, adj., sacred, conse­ crated. *relinquo, -ere, -liqui, -lictum, leave be­ hind, abandon, omit, reliquiae, -ârum, f. pi., remains. °reliquus, -a, -um, adj., left, remaining, rest of; reliquum, -ï, n., a remainder. °remaneô, -ère, -mânsï, -mânsum, re­ main. remedium, -i, n., remedy, medicine, cure, remeô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, go back, re­ turn. rëmex, -igis, m., oarsman, rower, remigrô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, wander back, return. reminiscor, -ï, -, recall, remember. °remittô, -ere, —misi, -missum, send back, lose. remoror, -ârï, -âtus sum, delay, keep waiting. *removeô, -ëre, -môvï, -môtum, remove, withdraw, f rëmus, -ï, m., oar. renitor, -i, -, struggle against, renovâtiô, -ônis, /., renewal, renovô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , renew, take up again. renüntiô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, report, an­ nounce, declare, reparô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, renew, repair, prepare for. ° repellô, -ere, reppuli, -pulsum, drive back, repel, keep back, repente, adv., suddenly, repentinus, -a, -um, adj., sudden, freperiô, -ire, repperi, repertum, find, discover. repeto, -ere, -petivi, -petitum, seek again, repeat, retrace, demand, repleô, -ëre, -ëvï, -ëtum, fill again, fill, repônô, -ere, -posui, -positum, replace, put. reportô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, carry back, gain.

499

repraesento, -are, -âvï, -âtum , bring back, symbolize, reprehendo, -ere, -heridï, -hënsum, blame, censure, reprénsiô (reprehensio), -ônis, cen­ sure. reprimô, -ere; -pressi, -pressum, repress, thwart. reptilis, -e, ad]., creeping, reptile; rep­ tile, -is, n., reptile, f répudié, -are, -âvï, -âtum, refuse, re­ ject, repudiate, repügnô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum, fight back, oppose, requiës, -ëtis, f., rest, repose, requiëscô, -ere, -quiëvï, -quiëtum, rest. Irequïrô, -ere, -quîsîvï, -quîsîtum, ask for, search for, demand, require, miss, inquire, seek. °rës, reï, /., thing, matter, affair, business, circumstance, fact, property, situation, etc.; rës frümentâria, grain supply, pro­ visions; rës püblica, state common­ wealth, government; rës gestae, ex­ ploits, deeds; rës familiàris, wealth, goods, property; rës secundae, pros­ perity; rës adversae, adversity; rës mïlitàris, warfare; rës bellica, warfare; rës literâria, literature; quam ob rem, why; quà rë, why. resciô (rescïscô), -ere, -scîvï, -scîtum, find out, know, rescribo, -ere, -scrïpsï, -scriptum, write back. reservô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, keep back, save, hoard up. resideô, -ëre, -sëdï, -, sit, sit back, be left, remain behind, stay, remain, resïdô, -ere, -sëdï, -, sit down, settle, subside. resïgnô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, destroy, re­ scind. ° resistô, -ere, -stiti, -, halt, resist, with­ stand, oppose, f respiciô, -ere, -spëxï, -spectum, look back, regard, consider, watch, look at. ° respondeô, -ëre, -spondï, -spônsum, answer, reply, respond, correspond, responsum, —i, n., answer, response, reply, respuô, -ere, -spui, -, spurn.

500

restinguo, -ere, -stinxi, -stinctum, extin­ guish, put out, destroy, restituo, -ere, -stituï, -stitütum, restore, restô, -àre, -stiti, -, resist, remain, en­ dure, stop. resümô, -ere, -sümpsï, -sümptum, re­ sume, take up again, renew, resupinus, -a, -um, ad]., on one’s back, f retardô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum , check, de­ lay, retard, hold back, reticeô, -ëre, -uï, -, be silent, keep secret. 0retineô, -ëre, -ui, -tentum , hold back, hold, retain, retrahô, -ere, -trâxï, -trâctum , withdraw, withhold. retro, adv., backward, to the rear, behind, in the rear, back, retundo, -ere, rettudi, retüsum, beat back. reus, -a, -um, ad]., accused; reus, —i, m., defendant, prisoner, revello, -ere, -velli, -vulsum, tear away, take. reverendus, -a, -um, adj., reverend, reverentia, -ae, /., reverence, awe. revertor, —i, -versus sum, turn back, re­ turn. revinco, -ere, -vivi, -victum, refute, dis­ prove, reviso, -ere, -, -, revisit, revivisco, -ere, -vixi, -, come to life again. revocô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum , call back, re­ call, divert, revolô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum , fly back, revolütiô, -ônis, f., revolving, revolution. °rëx, régis, m., king, prince, rhëtor, -oris, m., a teacher of rhetoric, rhetorician, orator, rictus, -üs, m., wide-open jaws, jaws, frideô, -ëre, risi, risum, laugh, laugh at, smile, ridicule, ridiculosus, -a, -um , adj., laughable, ridiculous, droll, joking, ridiculus, -a, -um , adj., ridiculous, ab­ surd. rima, -ae, /., cleft, crack, fissure. *ripa, -ae, /., bank, edge. rïtë, adv., properly, rightly. rïtus, -üs, in., religious custom, rite.

rivus, -ï, m., brook, stream, frôbur, -oris, n., oak, oak tree, strength, rogàtü, abl. m., by request of. rogitô, -are, -àvï, -âtum , keep asking questions, ask frequently. °rogô, —are, —àvï, —âtum, ask. rogus, -I, in., funeral pyre, rostrum, -ï, n., beak, beak of ship; Rostra, -ôrum, n. pi., speaker’s platform in the Forum, rota, -ae, /., wheel, rubeô, -ère, - , - , be red, blush, rubèscô, -ere, -uï, -, turn red. rubeus, -a, um, adj., red, reddish, rubicundus, -a, -um , adj., red, ruddy, rübigô, -inis, /., rust, rubor, -ôris, m., redness, blush, rudis, -e, adj., rough, rude, uncultivated, ignorant, rüga, -ae, /., wrinkle, fruina, -ae, /., ruin, downfall, t rümor, -ôris, m., rumor, report, frumpô, -ere, rùpï, ruptum, break, burst, part, interrupt, fruô, -ere, rui, rutum, fall in ruins, go to ruin, rush, rush wildly, f rüpës, -is, /., rock, cliff. °rürsus, adv., again, back again, once more, in turn, früs, rüris, n., country, lands, rüsticor, -ârï, -âtus sum, spend time in the country, rüsticus, -a, -um, adj., of the country, rustic, rural, uncultured, rude. S sacellum, -I, n., small chapel, f sacer, -era, -crum, adj., holy, upright; sacra, —ôrum, n. pi., sacred rites, f sacerdôs, -dôtis, m/f., priest, priestess, sacerdotium, -ï, n., priesthood, sacramentum, -I, n., oath, sacrarium, -ï, n., shrine, f sacrificium, —î, n., sacrifice, sacrilegium, -î, n., sacrilege, sacrilegus, -a, -um , adj., sacrilegious, sacrô, -are, -àvï, -âtum , dedicate, con­ secrate. f saeculum, —î, n., generation, age, cen­ tury.

° saepe, adv., often, frequently, re­ peatedly, f saevio, -ire, -ii, -itum, rage, fsaevus, -a, -um, adj., wild, fierce, sav­ age, cruel, terrible, sagâx, -âcis, adj., clever, shrewd. °sagitta, -ae, /., arrow, shaft, f sâl, salis, ??., salt, wit. salinae, -ârum, f. pi., salt works, saltern, adv., at least, at any rate, saltô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum, leap, dance, saltus, -üs, m., leap, bound, jump, salùbris, -e (salùber, -bris, -b re ), adj., healthful, healthy. °saliïs, -ütis, f., safety, health, greeting; salùtem dicere, greet, salütô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum, greet, salute, welcome, call on. salvë, salvëte, imperative of salvëre, (to be well), Hail! Good Day! salvô, —àre, -àvï, -âtum , save. °salvus, -a, -um , adj., safe, well, sanciô, -ire, sànxï, sânetum, make sacred, ratify, decree, sànctifîcô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum , sanctify, fsànctus, -a, -um, adj., holy, upright, sànë, adv., certainly, indeed, of course, surely, as you know, fsanguis, -inis, m., blood, bloodshed, blood relationship, sànô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum, heal, restore to sanity. sànus, -a, -um, adj., sane, health, sensi­ ble, of sound mind, fsapiëns, -entis, adj., wise, sensible; sapiëns, -entis, m., philosopher, wise man. sapientia, -ae, /., wisdom, prudence, sapiô, -ire, -ivi, -, be prudent, be wise, satelles, -itis, m/f. , attendant, satellite, satiô, -àre, -àvï, -âtum, satisfy, satiate. °satis, adv., enough, sufficiently, ade­ quately; as indeclinable adj., enough, sufficient; as a noun, with gen., enough, satisfacio (satis faciô), -ere, -fëcï, -factum, give satisfaction, satisfy, saucius, -a, -um , adj., wounded, injured, f saxum, -i, n., rock, stone, scaena, -ae, /., stage, scene, scaenicus, -a, -um , adj., of the stage.

501

scapulae, —arum, f., shoulders, scelerâtë, adv., wickedly, sceleratus, -a, -um, adj., wicked, crimi­ nal; sceleratus, -ï, m., criminal, scelero, -are, -âvï, -âtum, profane with guilt. scelestus, -a, -um, adj., wicked, infamous, f scelus, -eris, n., crime, wickedness, im­ pious action, sceptrum, —ï, n., scepter, schola, -ae, /., school, sciens, -entis, adj., versed in, acquainted with. °scientia, -ae, /., knowledge, science, scilicet, adv., of course, forsooth, doubt­ less, certainly, scindo, -ere, scidi, scissum, split, cleave. *sciô, -ire, -ivi, -itum, know, be aware, understand, know how, perceive, be assured; haud sciô an, I am inclined to think, I do not know, but. . . . scïtë, adv., cleverly, shrewdly, scitus, -a, -um , adj., clever, judicious, f scopulus, -i, m., cliff, rock, crag. *scrïbô, -ere, scripsi, scriptum, write, compose, describe, tell, enroll, f scriptor, -ôris, m., writer, author, his­ torian. scrïptüra, -ae, /., writing; tax on public pastures. °scütum, —i, n., shield, sëcëdô, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, withdraw, depart, keep away, fsëcernô, -ere, -crëvï, -crëtum, separate, distinguish, fsecô, -àre, secui, sectum, cut off. sëcrëtus, -a, -um, adj., secret, secundum, prep. + acc., following, after, along, by, next to, according to. ° secundus, -a, -um, adj., following, fa­ vorable, second; rës secundae, pros­ perity. secüris, -is, /., ax, battle-ax. sëcüritàs, -tâtis, f., security, sëcürus, -a, -um, adj., free from care, secus, adv., otherwise, not so, differently, sed, conj., but, yet. *sedeô, -ëre, sëdï, sessum, sit, be seated, fsëdës, -is, seat, habitation, base, sedile, -is, n., seat, bench, chair.

502

sëditiô, -ônis, /., sedition, treason, sëdô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum , settle, bring to an end. sëdücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum, lead astray, withdraw. sëdulitâs, -tâtis, /., persistence, industry, sëdulô, adv., zealously, purposely, dili­ gently. sëdulus, -a, -um, adj., industrious, busy, sëgregô, -àre, -àvi, -âtum, set apart, separate, exclude, sëjungô, -ere, -jünxï, -jünctum, disjoin, separate. sella, -ae, seat, chair; sella cürülis, magistrate’s chair . semel, adv., once, once for all; semel atque iterum, repeatedly, sëmen, —inis, n., seed, source, sëmoveô, -ëre, -môvï, —môtum, move away, remove. °semper, adv., always, ever, constantly, sempiternus, -a, -um , adj., everlasting, perpetual. °senàtor, -ôris, m., senator, senâtôrius, -a, -um , adj., of a senator, senatorial. *senàtus, -üs, m.. Senate, council of elders. f senectüs, -tütis, /., old age. senëscô, -ere, senui, -, grow old. fsenex, senis, adj., old, aged; m., old man. senilis, -e, adj., senile, of the old. senior, -ius, adj., comp., elder; elderly person, eldest, fsënsus, -üs, m., feeling, consciousness, sense, understanding. °sententia, -ae, thought, opinion, sen­ tence, epigram, sentina, -ae, dregs, bilge water. *sentiô, -ire, sënsi, sënsum, feel, think, realize, know, learn, be aware of. sentus, -a, -um , adj., neglected, rough, sepeliô, -ire, -ivi, sepultum, bury. °septem, adj. indecl., seven, septendecim, adj. indecl., seventeen, septennium, -ï, n., a period of seven years. septentriônàlia, -ium , n. pi. the North, septentriônës, -um, m. p i , the North.

septingenti, -ae, -a , adj. pl., seven hun­ dred. ° septimus, -a, -um , adj., seventh, septuàgintâ, adj. indecl., seventy, sepulchrum, -i, n., grave. ° sequor, -I, secütus sum, follow, pursue, agree with, strive after, sera, -ae, bar, bolt, serënus, -a, -um, adj., serene, sërius, adv. comp, of sërô, later, too late, fsermo, -ônis, m., conversation, dis­ course, speech, report, language, serô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum , bolt, lock, sërô, adv., late, too late, serô, -ere, sëvï, satum, sow, plant, pro­ duce. serpëns, -entis, m/f., snake, serpent, sërus, -a, -um , adj., late, servilis, -e, adj., of a slave, servile, f servio, -ire, —ivi, -itum, serve, be a slave. servitûs, -tûtis, f., slavery, servitude. *servô, -âre, —âvï, -âtum , save, keep, watch, preserve, guard. °servus, -i, in., slave. sescënï, -ae, -a, adj. pl., six hundred each. sescenti, -ae, -a, adj. pl., six hundred, sëstertius, -i, m., sesterce, coin worth about four cents: abhr. HS. seu, see sive. fsevëritâs, -tâtis, f., severity, gravity, sternness. sevërus, -a, -um, adj., stern, strict, severe. °sex, adj. indecl., six. sexâgintà, adj. indecl., sixty, sexcënï, see sescënï. *sextus, -a, -um, adj., sixth, sexus, —üs, m., sex. *si, conj., if, in case, whether. °sic, adv., thus, so, in this way, in this manner, as follows, to such an extent; ut . . . sic, as . . . so, while . . . yet. fsica,-ae, /., dagger. f sicut (sicuti), adv., as, just as, so as, even as, as it were, as if, like, tsidus, -eris, n., star, constellation, planet. siet = sit, pres. subj. of sum.

sigillâtus, -a, -um , adj., adorned with small figures, carved, sïgnificàtiô, -ônis, f., sign, signal, significo, -âre, -âvï, —âtum, indicate, show, signify, sïgnô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum, mark, seal, designate. ° signum, -ï, n., mark, sign, signal, image, statue, seal (of a ring), standard. °silentium, -ï, n., silence, quiet, f sileô, -ëre, -uï, -, be silent, fail to speak of. sillybus, see sittybus. °silva, -ae, f., forest, woods, grove. °similis, -e, adj., like, similar, similiter, adv., in like manner, similarly, simplex, -icis, adj., single, simple, simpliciter, adv., simply, frankly. ° simul, adv., at the same time, at once, together; simul atque, as soon as. fsimulâcrum, —i, n., likeness, portrait, image, statue, figure, simulàtiô, -ônis, f., pretense, f simulô, -âre, —âvï, -âtum, pretend, feign, simulate, simultàs, -tâtis, f., enmity, animosity, f sin, conj., but if, on the contrary. °sine, prep. + abl., without, fsingulàris, -e, adj., single, singular, unique, outstanding, unusual. ° singuli, -ae, -a, adj. pl., one each, indi­ vidual. ° sinister, -tra, -trum , adj., left, left-hand, on the left; sinistra, -ae, /., the left hand. fsinô, -ere, sivi, situm, let, permit, fsinus, -üs, m., curve, bay, fold, bosom, fsistô, -ere, stiti, statum, stop, halt, check, restrain, sitis, -is, /., thirst. sittybus, -i, m., a strip of parchment for a book title. situs, -a, -um, adj., placed, situated, based on; situm est, it lies, it is de­ pendent, situs, -üs, m., site, situation, fsive (seu), conj., or if; sive . . . sive (seu . . . seu), if . . . or if, whether . . . or. socer, —eri, m., father-in-law. sociâlis, -e, adj., of allies, social.

503

fsocietàs, -tàtis, /.,

alliance,

society,

retinue. ° socius, -a, -um, adj., sharing, associated with; socius, -ï, m . , associate, ally, comrade, accom plice, socrus, -üs, /., mother-in-law. sodâlis, -is, m., a close associate, com ­ panion. asôl, solis, m., sun. sôlàcium, -ï, n. , comfort, consolidation, fsoleô, -ère, solitus sum, semidep., be accustom ed, be customary, be used to. f solidus, - a , -um, adj., solid, firm, strong, sôlitüdô, -inis, /., solitude, exile, sotitus, - a , -um, adj., accustom ed, usual, solium, -i, n. , throne, sollemnis (solemnis), -e, adj., solem n, sacred. sollicitatio, -ônis, /., instigation, sollicito, -are, -àvï, -âtum, incite, stir up.

sollicitus, -a, -um, adj., agitated, sôlor, —ârï, —âtus sum, console, fsolum, -i, n., ground, earth, soil, floor. sôlum, adv., only, alone, merely; non solum . . . sed etiam, not only . . . °

but also.

asolus, -a, -um , adj., alone, only, solütiô, -ônis, /., looseness, paym ent, ex­ planation.

solütus, -a, -um, adj., loose, negligent. asolvô, -ere, solvi, solutum, loosen, undo, release, pay, w eaken, absolve; of ships, with or without nâvem or naves, set sail, w eigh anchor, f somnium, —i, n. , dream. °somnus, —ï, m . , sleep, slumber, f sonitus, -üs, m., sound, fsonô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, sound, sonôritâs, -tâtis, /., m elodiousness, sonus, -ï, m., sound. fsopor, -ôris, m . , deep sleep, inactivity, laziness. y sordeô, -ère, - , - , be dirty, appear des­ picable, be base, sordës, —is, /., dirt, baseness of station, sordidus, -a, -um, adj., dirty. asoror, -ôris, /., sister, f sors, sortis, f., lot, fate, f spargô, -ere, sparsi, sparsum, scatter, spread abroad.

504

spatior, —âri, —âtus sum, spread out. ° spatium, — ï, n . , space, distance, interval. aspecies, -ëï, /., sight, appearance, show, perception,

specimen, -inis, n. , exam ple, spectaculum, —ï, n. , spectacle,

show,

play.

0spectô, -are, -âvï, -âtum,

look at, see,

observe.

speculâtor, -ôris, m., spy, investigator, speculor, -ârï, -âtus sum, spy out, watch, spëlunca, -ae, /., cave, cavern, spernô, -ere, sprëvï, sprëtum, spurn, d e­ spise.

°spërô, —âre, —àvï, —âtum, hope, hope for. °spës, speï, f . , hope, expectation, trust, sphaera, -ae, f., globe, sphere, fspïritus, -üs, m., breath, air, spirit, soul, pride, life.

°spïrô, -âre, -àvï, -âtum , breathe, blow, splendeô, -ëre, - , - , shine, glitter, splendidë, adv., brilliantlv, nobly, splendidus, -a, -um , adj., brilliant, ra­ diant, distinguished, splendor, -ôris, m . , brilliance, splendor, glitter. spoliô, -âre, -àvï, -âtum, rob, despoil, plunder. f spolium, -ï, n., skin, hide; pi. spoils,

spondeô,

-ère,

spopondi,

spônsum,

pledge solem nlv, promise, sponte, abl. f . , free will; sponte suà, vol­ untarily, spüma, -ae, /., foam , froth, fspümô, -âre, -àvï, -âtum , foam, froth, stabilis, -e, adj., firm, steadfast, stable, stabulum, -ï, n., stable. °statim, adv., im m ediatelv, at once, statiô, -ônis, /., outpost, station, guard. Stator, -ôris, ???., Stayer, Protector (title of J u p ite r). statua, -ae, /., statue, im age. 0statuô, -ere, -uï, -ütum , set up, set upon, place, erect, decid e, determine, statura, -ae, /., stature, status, -üs, m., position, status, founda­ tion, state, stella, -ae, f . , star, constellation, f sternô, -ere, stràvï, strâtum, spread, strew, cover, saddle.

stertô, -ere, - , - , snore, stilus, -î, m . , column, stylus, pen. stimulô, -are, -àvï, -âtum , goad, incite stimulus, -i, m., goad, spur, incentive, stipendium, -I, n., tax, tribute, soldier’s pay, campaign, military service; sti­ pendia merëre, serve in the army, stipes, -itis, m . , tree trunk, stlpô, -are, -àvï, -âtum , pack, accom­ pany, crowd, stirps, stirpis, f., stock, source. °sto, -are, steti, statum, stand, stand still; stato die, on an appointed day. stolidus, -a, -um, a d j . , stupid, dull, stomachor, -àrl, —âtus sum, be angry, strangulo, -are, -àvï, -âtum , choke, strenuus, -a, -um , a d j . , vigorous, brave, fstrepitus, -üs, m., noise, din f strldeô, -ere, stridi, -, (strîdô, -ere, stridi, - ) , creak, hiss, f stringo, -ere, strinxi, strictum, draw tight, bind, unsheath, graze, fstruô, -ere, strüxï, strüctum, build, con­ struct, arrange, plan, studeô, -ère, -ul, -, be eager, studiôsë, a d v . , eagerly, carefully, studium, -I, n . , eagerness, zeal, enthusi­ asm, pursuit, study, desire, devotion, interest, effort, stultitia, -ae, foolishness, stultus, -a, -um, a d j . , foolish, stupid, stupeô, -ère, -ul, -, be stupefied, stupor, -ôris, m., insensibility, amaze­ ment, dullness, stupidity, stupor, stuprum, -I, n . , dishonor, vice, lust, suâdeô, -ëre, suâsl, suâsum, advise, ex­ hort, urge, persuade, suavis, -e, a d j . , sweet, pleasant, suâvitâs, -tâtis, /., sweetness, suavity, suaviter, a d v . , pleasantly. °sub, prep. + acc./abl., under, beneath, up to, just before, near, below, at, at the foot of, under the control of. subdo, -ere, -didi, -ditum, place under, substitute, subdolus, —a, —um, adj., crafty, subdücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum, lead up, beach (ships), withdraw, subeo, -Ire, -ii (-Ivi), -itum, go under, undergo.

subigo, -ere, -ëgï, -âctum, conquer, subdue. subinde, adv., from time to time, re­ peatedly, subsequently. °subitô, adv., suddenly, unexpectedly, subitus, -a, -um, adj., sudden, unex­ pected. subjicio, -ere, -jëcï, -jectum, place under, submit, subject, expose, sublatus, s e e tollô. sublevô, -are, —àvï, -âtum, lift up, sup­ port. fsubllmis, -e, adj., lofty, sublime, submitto, -ere, —misi, -missum, send as help, submit, subrldeô, -ëre, -risi, - , smile, subsellium, -I, n., bench, seat. *subsequor, —I, -secütus sum, follow after, follow up, comply with, sup­ port. °subsidium, -I, n., help, aid, resource, subsisto, -ere, -stitl, -, halt, subtraho, -ere, -tràxï, -trâctum, with­ draw, steal away, subveniô, -Ire, -vënl, -ventum, succor, relieve. subversiô, -ônis, /., overthrow, subver­ sion. succëdô, -ere, -cessi, -cessum, advance, succido, -ere, -cldl, -clsum, cut off, cut down. succurro, -ere, -curri, -cursum, aid, as­ sist, help, sücinum, -I, n., amber, suffero, -ferre, sustuli, sublàtum, bear up, suffer. sufficio, -ere, -fëcî, -fectum, satisfy, be sufficient. suffrâgium, -I, n., vote, suffrage, judg­ ment, support. °sul, sibi, së, së, reflex, p r o n ., himself, herself, itself, themselves. °sum, esse, fui, futürus, be, exist, summa, -ae, /., leadership, supremacy, sum, summit; summa imperl, chief command; summa rërum, the general good. ° summus, -a, -um, adj., highest, su­ preme, eminent, important; s e e su­ perus.

505

°sürnô, -ere, sümpsï, sümptum, take, obtain, assume; supplicium sümere, inflict punishment; operam sümere, take trouble, sümptuôsus, -a, -um, adj ., expensive, costly, sumptuous, extravagant, sümptus, -üs, m., outlay, cost, expense, expenditure, supellex, -lectilis, /., household furni­ ture, furniture. ° super, adv./prep. + acc./abl ., above, over, besides, in addition to, concern­ ing, about, superbia, -ae, arrogance, pride, f superbus, -a, -urn, adj., haughty, proud, arrogant. superfluo, -ere, -flüxî, -flüxum, flow over, overflow, superfluus, -a, -um, adj., overflowing, superfluous. *superior, -ius, adj., higher, superior, former; see superus. *superô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, conquer, de­ feat, surpass, survive, excel, abound, be too much, triumph, supersum, -esse, -ful, -, be left, survive. *superus, -a, -um, adj., high, high up, upper; m. pi., the gods above, the gods; superior, -ius, comp., higher, su­ perior, better, stronger, earlier, former, previous; superi., summus, -a, -um, highest, uppermost, highest part of, top of, most eminent; summum, -ï, n., the top, summit; superl., suprëmus, -a, -um, highest, loftiest, top of, last, final, extreme, supreme, supervacuus, -a, -um, adj., superfluous, supervenio, -ire, —veni, -ventum, come upon. suppedito, -are, -àvï, -âtum, supply, provide. suppetô, -ere, -ïvï, -itum, be at hand, be supplied. suppleô, —ëre, -ëvï, -ëtum, fill, fill up. fsupplex, -icis, adj., suppliant; supplex, -icis, m., suppliant, fsupplicâtiô, -ônis, thanksgiving, sup­ plication. fsupplicium, -ï, n., punishment, torture, execution.

*suprâ, adv./prep. + ace., above, before, beyond, more, over, on. fsurgô, -ere, surrëxï, surrëctum, rise, arise, get up. surripiô, -ere, -ripui, -reptum, snatch away, steal, suscënseô, -ëre, -ui, -, be angry at. ° suscipio, -ere, -cëpï, -ceptum, under­ take, begin, suffer, conceive, gain, incur, accept, suscitô, -are, -àvï, -âtum, stir, rouse, f suspendo, -ere, -pendï, -pënsum, hang up, keep in suspense. ° suspicio, -ere, -spëxï, -spectum, look up at, look askance at, suspect, suspicio, -ônis, mistrust, suspicion, suspicor, -àrï, -âtus sum, suspect, mis­ trust. suspirium, -i, n., deep sigh, deep breath, suspiro, -are, -àvï, -âtum, sigh, whisper, sustentô, -âre, -àvï, -âtum , support, en­ courage. °sustineô, -ëre, -uï, -tentum, hold up, support, sustain, bear, wait for. sustuli, see tollô or sufferô. °suus, -a, -um, adj., poss. reflex., his own, her own, its own, their own; his, hers, its, theirs; sui, m. pi., his men, his friends; sua, n. pi., (his, her, their) own possessions or property, synagoga, -ae, congregation, syna­ gogue of Jews. T tabella, -ae, tablet, writing-tablet; pi., writing-tablets, a letter, taberna, -ae, shop, tavern, inn. tabëscô, -ere, tabui, - , waste away, f tabula, -ae, board, tablet, record, list, picture, painting; pi., archives, tabulàrium, -ï, n., record office, registry, ftaceô, -ère, -ui, -itum , be silent, keep silent, say nothing, taciturnitàs, -tàtis, f., silence, tacitus, -a, -um, a d j . , silent, secret, taeda, -ae, /., torch, wedding torch, taedium, -i, n., weariness, disgust, taeter, -tra, -trum , a d j . , vile, disgraceful, tàlàris, -e, a d j . , of the ankles, reaching to the ankles.

ftà lis , - e , a d j . , such, of such kind or sort; tà lis . . . q u â lis, such . . . as. ta lu s, -I, m., ankle. ° ta m , a d v . , so, so much, to such an ex­ tent; tarn . . . q u a m , so much . . .

as, so . . . as. 0ta m e n ,

adv.,

nevertheless, yet, still,

however. ta m e tsi, c o n j . , although, though, yet, and

yet. ta m q u a m , a d v . , as if, just as if, as it

were, as. f ta n d e m , a d v . , at last, at length, finally;

prav, I beg of you. fta n g ô , - e r e , te tig i, tâ c tu m , touch, ta n tô , a d v . , so much. ta n to p e re (ta n tô o p e r e ), a d v . , so much,

so greatlv, far. ° ta n tu m , a d v . , s o much, so greatly, so

far, as far, only, alone, merely, ta n tu m d e m , a d v . , just so much, just as much, so great, the same, ta n tu m m o d o , a d v . , merely, only. * ta n tu s, - a , - u m , a d j . , so great, so large, so important, of such a size; ta n tu s . . . q u a n tu s , as great . . . as, such . . . as; ta n tï est, it is worth while, it is of much value, ta rd é , a d v . , slowly, ta rd itâ s , - tâ tis , /., slowness. * tard ô , - a r e , - à v ï, - â tu m , retard, hinder, delay. * ta rd u s, - a , - u m , a d j . , slow, tardy, late, f ta u ru s , - i , m., bull, të c tô riu m , - i , n., plaster, whitewash, ftë c tu m , - i , n., roof, ceiling, house, të c tü ra , - a e , /., a covering over, over­ laying with plaster, fte g ô , - e r e , tëxï, të c tu m , cover, hide, conceal, protect, shield, fte llü s , -îiris , earth, land, ground. °të lu m , - i , n., javelin, dart, weapon, missile, spear, fte m e rë , a d v . , rashly, heedlessly, fte m e rità s , - tâ tis , f., rashness, temerity, fickleness. fte m p e ra n tia , - a e , self-restraint, selfcontrol, temperance, moderation, te m p e rô , - a r e , - â v ï, - â tu m , moderate, control, temper.

time, season, weather, storm, tempest, emergency, tem p estiv u s, - a , - u m , adj., timely, se a ­ sonable, suitable, early. * tem p lu m , -i, n., temple. ° te m p tô , - à re, - â v ï, - â tu m , test, try, attempt, assail. * tem pus, —oris, n., time, season, neces­ sity, period, life; ex te m p o re , ex­ temporaneously, extempore, °te m p e stà s,

- tâ tis ,

fte n d ô , - e r e , te te n d i, te n tu m (të n s u m ) ,

stretch out, extend, aim. te n e b ra e , - à r u m , f. pi., shades, darkness, ten eb rico su s, - a , - u m , adj., dark, gloomy, ten eb ro su s, - a , - u m , adj., dark, gloomy. ° ten eô , - è r e , - u i, te n tu m , hold, keep, possess, maintain, te n e r, - e r a , - e ru m , adj., tender, effemi­ nate. te n tà tiô , - ô n is , trial, temptation, fte n u is , - e , adj., thin, fine, slight, weak, little, scanty, te n u ità s, - tâ tis , f., thinness, slimness, refinement, ten u s, prep. + abl., as far as, up to, to. tep eô , - è r e , - , - , be lukewarm, be warm with love, ter, adv., three time, thrice. ° te rg u m , - i , n., back, rear; te rg u m d a re or v e rte re , flee, take to flight, te rm in é , — âre, - â v ï, - â tu m , limit, end, close. te rm in u s, - i , m., boundary, limit, end. * te rra , - a e , /., earth, land, soil, ground, country; orbis te rra e or te rrà ru m , the world; te rra e m ô tu s, earthquake, te rrë n u s, - a , -u rn , adj., of the earth, earthv. ✓ te rrib ilis, - e , adj., frightful; te rrib ilia , - ô ru m , n. pi., terrors, te rrito riu m , - ï , n., district, territorv. ° te rro r, -ô ris , m., terror, fear. ° te rtiu s , - a , - u m , adj., third, f te stâ m e n tu m , - ï , n., will, last will, testament. të stim ô n iu m , - ï , n., proof, evidence, testi­ mony, witness, ftë stis, - is , m/i., witness, të sto r, - â r ï, —âtu s sum , call to witness, be witness, give testimony, testify.

507

texô,

-e re ,

weave, con­

0tra h ô , - e r e , trâ x ï, trâ c tu m , draw, drag,

m., bed-chamber, mar­

tra n q u illitâ s , - tâ tis , /., calm, tranquillity, tra n q u illu s , - a , - u m , adj., quiet, peace­

- u ï,

tex tu m ,

attract, squander,

struct. tth a la m u s , - i ,

riage. th e à tru m , -ï, n., theater. th é sa u ru s, -ï, m., treasure, treasury. tigris, - is ( —idis ), m / f ., tiger, tigress. ° tim ed, - è r e , - u î, —, fear, dread, tim id u s, - a , - u m , a d j . , timid, afraid,

cowardly. ° tim o r, -ô ris , m., fear, timidity, tîn c tü ra , - a e , /., dyeing, dye. tin g ô , - e re , tïnxï, tin c tu m , wet, bathe, tinge. titu lu s, - î , m., inscription, title. *toga, - a e , f., toga, gown, fto g â tu s , - a , - u m , a d j . , clad in a toga, in civilian dress, in the garb of peace, to lerô , - a r e , - à v ï, - â tu m , bear, endure, sustain, tolerate. °to llô , - e r e , sustuli, su b la tu m , lift, raise, take up, exalt, extol, carry off, take away, abolish, ruin, remove; an co ram to llere, weigh anchor, set sail, fto n ô , - a r e , - u i, - itu m , thunder, to re u m a , - a tis , n., carved or embossed work. to rm e n tâ riu s, - a , - u m , a d j . , pertaining to a military engine for discharging mis­ siles; pulvis to rm e n tâ riu s, gunpowder, to rm e n tu m , - ï , n., machine for hurling missiles; pi., artillery, fto rq u e ô , - ë r e , torsi, to rtu m , twist, tor­ ture. f torus, - ï , m., couch, marriage, torvus, - a , - u m , a d j . , grim, stern. °to t, a d j . i n d e c l . , so many, to tid e m , a d j . i n d e c l . , just as many, as many, the same number of. to tiën s, a d v . , so often, so many times. *tôtus, - a , - u m , a d j . , whole, entire, total, all. tra b s, tra b is, /., beam, timber, trâ c tô , - a r e , - à v ï, - â tu m , drag, treat, haul. ° trâ d ô , - e r e , - d id i, - d itu m , hand over, deliver up, surrender, transmit, com­ mit to, hand down, give, trâ d ü c ô , - e r e , - d ü x ï, - d u c tu m , lead across, bring across.

508

ful. ° trâ n s, prep. + acc., across, beyond, trâ n sc rïb ô , - e r e , -s c rip s i, -s c rip tu m ,

copy, transcribe. ° trà n se ô , - ir e , - i i , - itu m , cross, cross

over, pass by, pass along, pass, trâ n sfe rô , - f e r r e , - tu li, - lâ tu m , transfer, transport, postpone, trâ n sfu g a , - a e , m/f., deserter, trâ n sig ô , - e r e , - ë g i, - â c tu m , carry through, finish, spend, trâ n situ s, - ü s , m., passage, trà n sm a rïn u s, - a , - u m , a d j . , from across the sea. trâ n sm eô , - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m , go across, cross. trâ n sm ittô , - e r e , -m is i, -m is su m , send

across, transmit, devote, cross, trâ n sp o rtô ,

-â re ,

- à v ï,

- â tu m ,

carry

across. trà n sv e h ô , - e r e , -v e x i, - v e c tu m , trans­

port, pass by. trà n sv e rsu s, - a , - u m , a d j . , crosswise, tre m e b u n d u s, - a , - u m , a d j . , trembling, ftre m ô , - e r e , - u i, —, tremble, tre p id ô , - â r e , - à v ï, —â tu m , tremble, be

agitated. f tre p id u s, - a , - u m , a d j . , trembling. °trë s, tria , a d j . , three, trïb u là tiô , - ô n is , f., tribulation, trib u n a l, - à lis , n., tribunal, trib ü n ic iu s, - a , - u m , a d j . , of a tribunal, tribunicial. ° trib u n u s , —ï, m., tribune; trib ü n u s plëbis, tribune of the people; trib ü n u s m ïlità ris, military tribune, ftrib u ô , - e r e , - u ï, - ü tu m , assign, allot, bestow, yield, give, attribute, trid u u m , - ï , n., three days, trifo rm is, - e , a d j . , three-formed, having th ree forms, trïg in tà , a d j . i n d e c l . , thirty, tristic u lu s, - a , - u m , a d j . , somewhat sor­ rowful, a little sad. f tristis, - e , a d j . , sad, dejected, tris titia , -ae, f., sadness.

ftr iu m p h ô , -a r e ,

-â v ï,

-à tu m ,

c e le b r a te

a tr iu m p h , triu m p h ,

m., m.,

f triu m p h u s, - ï , triu m v ir,

—î ,

w here.

triu m p h ,

u lcisco r ,

triu m v ir;

triu m v iri,

m . pl., a b o a rd o f th ree m en .

-ô ru m ,

t r o p a e u m , - î , n., t r o p h y , tru cïd ô ,

-a re,

b u tch er,

-â v î,

m urder,

u b iq u e , adv., w h e r e v e r , a n y w h e r e , e v e r y ­

fü lter io r ,

sla u g h te r,

a ssa ssin a te .

(tu itu s) guard,

sum ,

lo o k

p ro tect,

at,

safe­

*tu m ,

adv.,

n., p e a s a n t ’s h u t . th en ,

at

-iu s,

adj.

th at

com p.,

at

th is

avenger,

a d v . / p r e p . + acc.,

sid e

of,

beyond,

farth er,

be­

p u n ish er, on

b esid es,

th e

oth er

p a st.

° ü ltr ïx , - i c i s , adj., a v e n g in g ,

adv., on th e fa rth er sid e, v o lu n ­

ta rily ,

tim e ,

m .,

-ô r is,

fü ltr ô ,

guard, d efen d , observe, tu g u r iu m , - I ,

p u n ish ,

la s t , m o s t d is t a n t , e n d o f, fin a l,

ù ltr â ,

b e h o ld ,

avenge,

f ü lt im u s , - a , - u m , adj. s u p e r i , fa r th e st,

° t u b a , - a e , f., t r u m p e t ,

w a tch ,

sum ,

y o n d , u lte r io r ,

-â tu m ,

fu lto r,

tü tu s

u ltu s

ü llu s , - a , - u m , adj., a n y .

° t ü , t u ï , p r o n ., y o u .

tu eor, - ë r ï,

-i,

sp o n ta n e o u sly ,

b esid es;

ü ltr ô

c itr ô q u e , o n b o th sid es, u lu lâ tu s , - ü s , m ., h o w lin g ,

tim e . t u m u l t u s , —ü s , m . ,

u p r isin g ,

tu m u lt,

d is­

f um bra, -a e ,

sh a d e, g h o st, sh a d o w ,

u m b r i f e r , - f e r a , - f e r u m , adj.,

tu rb an ce.

( h u m e r u s ) , - i , m ., sh o u ld e r ,

f um erus

m. m o u n d , g r a v e , to m b ,

tu m u lu s, - i ,

shady,

tu n c , a d v., th e n , ju st th e n , at th a t tim e ,

f u m q u a m , adv., ev e r.

tu n ic a , - a e , /., tu n ic , u n d e r g a r m e n t,

° ü n à , adv., a lo n g w ith , to g e th e r w ith ,

f tu rb a,

u n d a , - a e , f., w a v e ; p i , t h e s e a .

-a e,

th ron g,

crow d,

tu r m o il,

ftu r b ô , - â r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , d istu r b , tr o u ­

ü n d ëq u ïn q u â g ë sim u s,

b le.

adj., b a s e ,

-e,

tu r p itü d ô ,

-in is,

/.,

base

con­

unguô

tu tor, g u a r d ia n ,

tü tor, -à r ï, - â t u s su m , w a tc h , sa feg u a rd ,

-u m ,

adj.,

your,

yours

(re­

ferrin g to o n e p e r s o n ) . ty p u s, - î ,

m.,

ty ran n y, d esp o tism ,

m.,

w here?

u n x i,

u n ctu m ,

sin g le ,

so lita r y ,

-e,

adj.,

g en er a l,

-tâ tis,

th e

u n iv e r sa l,

w h o le,

the

u n iv e r se , th e w o rld , -a ,

-u m ,

adj.,

a ll

togeth er,

-a ,

-u m ,

adj., o n e ,

sin g le ,

so le ,

anyone,

civ ility , w it.

u b in a m

earth ? w h e r e

-a,

adj.,

-u m ,

urban,

urbane,

city . ° u r b s , u r b is, /., city ; t h e C ity (o f R o m e ) .

* u b i, a d v., w h e r e , w h e n ,

on

adj.,

-u m ,

fü n iv e r su s,

urbânus,

ü b e r t â s , - t â t i s , f., r i c h n e s s , f e r tility .

w here

p erfu m e,

u r b â n itâ s, - t â t is , /., r e fin e m e n t, u r b a n ity ,

n., u d d e r , b r e a s t ,

w here?

-ere,

o n ly , s o m e o n e ,

ü b e r , - e r i s , adj., rich , fr u itfu l,

adv.,

o in tm e n t,

en tire , w h o le , u n iv e rsa l.

d e s p o t, tyran t.

U

u b in a m ,

all

u n iq u e , sin g u la r,

°û nu s,

über, -e r is,

-a,

ü n iv e rsitâ s,

t y r a n n ic u s , - a , - u m , adj., ty r a n n ic a l,

ty ra n n u s, -I ,

on

a n o in t, b e sm e a r ,

ü n iv e r sâ lis,

a fig u r e o n t h e w a ll,

ty ra n n is, - id i s ,

n .,

-ï,

(u n g ô ),

ü n ic u s,

f t ü t u s , - a , - u m , adj., s a f e , p r o t e c t e d . -a,

sid e s,

ta lo n , c la w ,

tü tô , a dv., sa fely ,

m.,

a ll

u n g u is , - i s , m., n a il o f a fin g e r or a to e;

tow er,

tü tor, - ô r is ,

from

sid es. u n g u en tu m ,

d u c t, d isg ra c e. * tu r ris, - i s ,

adv.,

°u n d iq u e ,

d isg ra c efu l,

baseness,

adj.,

-u m ,

u n d ë v ïg ë s im u s , - a , - u m , adj., n in e te e n th .

tu r g id u lu s , - a , - u m , adj., s w o lle n , ftu r p is,

-a ,

fo r ty -n in th ,

f t u r b o , - i n i s , m ., w h ir lw in d , sto rm ,

°tu u s,

f u n d e , adv., w h e n c e , from w h a t p la c e ,

in

g e n tiu m ,

th e

w o rld ?

u r g e ô , - ë r e , u rsi, - , iir n a , - a e

/.,

urn,

press

hard, urge,

w ater-jar,

b u r ia l

urn.

ü s it à t u s , - a , - u m , adj., c u s t o m a r y .

509

adv., a n y w h e r e , ü s q u a m , adv., a n y w h e r e , f ü s q u e , adv., a l l t h e w a y ,

v a lë r e ,

ü sp ia m ,

u p to , as fa r as, an

e x te n t; q u o u s q u e , h o w far? h o w lo n g ?

m .,

u se,

f.,

v a lë tü d ô , - in is ,

have

great

h e a lth , sta te o f h ea lth ,

ill h e a l t h . * v a lid u s,

-a,

adj.,

-u m ,

* v a llë s, - is , v à llô ,

usurp. -ü s,

p o w erfu l,

w e ll,

stron g,

w a ll

ab ou t,

p o w erfu l.

u se, u sury,

ü s ü r p o , - a r e , - à v ï , —â t u m , u s e , m e n t i o n ,

°üsus,

very

w e ig h t; v a lë , v a lë te , fa re w e ll, g o o d b y e ,

e v e n to, e v e n ; ü s q u e a d e ô , to su c h

üsüra, - a e ,

be

sk ill,

a d van tage,

v a le , v a lle y ,

-are,

-à v ï,

-â tu m ,

fo rtify .

n.,

p r a c t i c e , e x p e r i e n c e ; ü s u s e s t , t h e r e is

°v â llu m , - i ,

need.

v â n ë s c o , - e r e , —, - , v a n i s h , d i s a p p e a r ,

*ut

adv./conj.,

(u tï),

as,

w hen,

sin c e ,

a lt h o u g h , h o w ; u t p r im u m , as s o o n as,

v â n itâ s,

ra m p a rt, w a ll,

f.,

-tâ tis,

fvàn u s,

u t n o n , so th a t

fv a r ie tà s, - tâ t is ,

adv.,

u tcu m q u e,

how ever,

w henever,

at

adj.,

°u ter, -tr a , -tr u m ,

w h ich

(of tw o )?

w h ich ? w h ic h e v e r o f th e tw o ?

w h ich ­

ever one?

adj.,

each

o f tw o , b oth . °ü tilis, - e ,

f v a riu s, - a ,

v a ry in g ,

v a rio u s,

d iffer en t, c h a n g e a b le ,

°vàstô,

f., d e v a s t a t i o n , r u i n .

-tâ tis, -à re,

-â v ï,

-â tu m ,

la y

-v e,

adv., o h adv., b y

adj.,

f v â t ë s , - i s , m / f ., s e e r , p r o p h e t .

u sefu ln ess, a d v a n ta g e ,

th at! w o u l d that!

enclitic,

w aste,

vast, h u g e ,

or.

n.,

v ec tig a l, -à lis ,

all m e a n s , a s s u r e d l y .

tax,

trib u te,

revenue,

trib u ta ry . fveh em ën s,

adj.,

-e n tis,

v io le n t,

vehe­

m e n t, stern,

adv., o n b o t h s i d e s , u t r i m q u e , adv., o n b o t h s i d e s , u t r u m , adv., w h e t h e r ; u tru m u tr o b iq u e ,

w h eth er

. . .

in

b o th ,

or.

-ere,

v ex i,

pass., adv./conj.,

em p ty ,

vacan t,

v o id , w o rth less,

v ëlà m e n , -in is,

v ë lô c ità s, -tâ tis , v ë lô c ite r ,

g o , w a lk , m o v e ,

fo ld , s h a llo w , sh o a l,

fv ë lô x ,

v a g in a , a e, /., sh ea th , sca b b a rd , -â r ï,

-â tu s

sum ,

stray,

p o w erfu l,

. . .

n.,

rid e,

a c tu a lly ,

sa il.

or;

vel

or.

co v e rin g ,

v eil,

clo a k ,

adv., -ô c is,

s p e e d , v e lo c ity , q u ic k ly ,

adj.,

sp e e d ily ,

sw ift,

fast,

flee t,

fv ë lu m ,

-i,

n.,

c o v e rin g ,

v eil,

sa il;

v êla

d a r e or f a c e r e , s e t sa il, g re a tly ,

th o r o u g h ly ,

very

m u ch , very. -ëre,

carried ,

even,

bear,

sp eedy. roam ,

w ander.

adv.,

be

carry,

c e a l.

fvâd ô, -er e, - , - ,

n.,

v ig o r o u sly ,

v ë lô , - â r e , - à v ï , - â t u m , c o v e r , v eil, c o n ­

v a d i m o n i u m , - ï , n ., b a il, s e c u r ity ,

vadum , -ï,

vectu m ,

. . . v el, eith er

adj.,

-u m ,

v io le n tly ,

g re a tly , stro n g ly , ea g e rly ,

convey; * v el,

v a c u ë fa c iô , - e r e , - f e c i, - fa c tu m , va ca te. -a ,

adv.,

ea r n e stly . fv eh ô ,

V *vacuus,

veh em en ter,

v e h e m e n tly , . . . an,

f., w i f e .

fu xor, -ô r is,

510

adj.,

-u m ,

f.,

en joy.

have

v a in ,

ch a n g ea b le­

fv â stu s, - a , -u m ,

*ü tor, - ï , ü su s su m , u se, e m p lo y , p o ssess,

* v a le ô ,

v a riety ,

u se fu l, e ffec tiv e ,

ex p e d ie n c y ,

v a ld ë ,

vacan t,

d ev a sta te, ra v a g e, d estroy,

adj.,

fü tilitâ s, -tâ tis ,

f vagor,

adj.,

-u m ,

n ess.

v â stità s,

°u terq u e, -tr a q u e , -tr u m q u e ,

u tiq u e ,

-a ,

v a riô , - a r e , - à v ï , - â t u m , vary,

a ll.

u tin a m ,

in d isc r e tio n ,

fa lseh o o d ,

t h a t , in o r d e r t h a t , s o t h a t , in o r d e r to; . . . n o t.

v a n ity ,

fv e lu t

(v e lu ti),

adv.,

ju st

as,

lik e

if, a s. -u i, be

w e ig h t;

-itu m ,

be

im p o r ta n t, p lü r im u m

stron g, keep

be

w e ll,

(p e r m u ltu m )

v ë n a , - a e , /., v ein .

adj., t o b e s o l d , - ô n i s , f., h u n t i n g .

v en à lis, - e , v ën â tiô ,

fo r sa le,

as,

m.,

vën âtor, -ô r is,

h u n ter,

v ën d ô , -e r e , -d id i, -d itu m ,

se ll,

-Ire,

-iï

f veneror,

-itu m ,

be

so ld ,

m ., v e n e r a to r ,

-â r î, -â tu s

sum ,

es­

fa v o r, p a r d o n , fo r g iv e n e ss,

° v e n i ô , - i r e , v ë n i, v e n t u m , c o m e , a rriv e, reach.

adj.,

in t h e

adj., y o u r , y o u r s ( referring to more than one). fv ë stïg iu m , - i, n., f o o t p r i n t , f o o t s t e p , -tru m ,

trace, e v id e n c e ,r e c o r d , v e s t i m e n t u m , - ï , n. , c l o t h e s ,

f.,

fv e stis, - is ,

v e n te r , - t r is , m ., b e lly ,

v e s t i t u s , —ü s ,

ven tosu s,

-a ,

adj.,

-u m ,

w in d y ,

in co n ­

stan t.

veto,

-âre,

fv etu s,

m.,

° ven tu s, - i,

w in d ,

as a sla v e.

f.,

ch arm , grace, b ea u ty ,

v e n u s t u s , - a , - u m , adj., c h a r m in g , g r a c e ­ fu l, c o m e ly ,

m., c lo t h in g , r a im e n t ,

-u i,

-itu m ,

adj.,

-e r is,

fo rb id ,

o ld ,

p ro h ib it,

a n cie n t,

form er,

vetu stâ s,

f.,

-tâ tis,

age,

a n tiq u ity ,

a p p r o a c h o f sp r in g ,

n.,

verb er, -e r is,

f.,

v ex â tiô , - ô n is ,

o ld , a n c ie n t,

h a ra ssin g , v ex a tio n ,

p lu n d e r , ra v a g e , to rm en t. road , street, journey,

p ath .

pi.,

la sh , w h ip ;

scourg-

in g , flo g g in g ,

v iâ tic u m ,

-ï,

n. ,

m oney

—â v ï ,

-â tu m ,

b eat,

la sh ,

jo u rn ey ,

v ib r ô , - â r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , sh a k e , b r a n d ish ,

ô v e r b u m , - ï , n ., w o r d ,

v ïc ë sim u s, - a , - u m ,

v ë r ë , a d v ., tru ly , r e a lly , r ig h tly .

v ic in ia ,

*vereor, -ë r ï, -itu s

su m , revere, resp ect,

-a e,

f.,

-tâ tis,

tru th ,

tru th fu ln ess,

-tâ tis,

/.,

m/f.,

sla v e

born

in

th e

a d v ., in

tru th ,

tru ly ,

in

fact,

in ­

/.,

adj.,

change;

m.,

-ô r is,

adjective,

h e ig h t, w art,

n e ig h b o r h o o d ,

n e ig h b o r in g ; v ic i­

in

v i c e m , in

v ic to r ,

tu rn ,

conqueror;

as

v ic to r io u s.

v e r s i c u l u s , —ï , m . , a p o o r l i t t l e v e r s e ,

*v ic to r ia , - a e , /., v ic to r y ,

v e r so , - â r e , - â v ï , - â t u m , turn o fte n , turn

v i c t u s , —ü s , m . , f o o d , s u s t e n a n c e . ° v i c u s , —i , m . , v i l l a g e , s t r e e t ,

ab ou t, ch a n g e, f v e r s o r , - â r ï , —â t u s s u m , b e i n v o l v e d , b e e n g a g e d , b e b u sy , b e a c tiv e , b e p r o m i­ sk illed

v ic in ­

m u tu a lly . °v ic to r ,

d e e d , certa in ly , b u t, b u t in d e e d ,

v ic in ity ,

n u s, - i , m ., n e ig h b o r , v ic is, - i s ,

h o u s e , sla v e .

tw e n tie th ,

ity , n e a r n e s s, fv ic in u s, - a , - u m ,

v e r i t vj .

adj.,

n e ig h b o r h o o d ,

n earness. v ïc ïn itâ s,

fear.

f.,

a

strik e.

s c o u r g e , flo g .

-a e,

for

so ld ie rs’ sa v in g s,

-are,

verruca, -a e ,

adj.,

v estu stu s, - a , - u m ,

° v ia , - a e , /., w a y ,

v ë r à x , - â c i s , adj., tr u th fu l,

n en t, b e

o ld

fv e x ô , - â r e , - â v ï, - â t u m , harass, w a ste,

v ë r , v ë r i s , n., s p r i n g ; i n e u n t e v ë r e , a t t h e

fv ë r ità s,

clo th es,

age.

v en u stà s, -tâ tis ,

verberô,

pi.,

clo th in g ;

v e te ra n , o f lo n g sta n d in g ,

v ë n u m d ô , - d a r e , - d e d i , - d a t u m , se ll, se ll

versus,

b u t,

tr u e , rea l.

( e r is ) , m ., e v e n in g ,

-tra ,

v ën o r , - â r ï, - â t u s su m , h u n t,

*vërô,

yet,

e v e n in g . ° v ester,

in d u lg e n c e .

v er n u la ,

ce rta in ly ,

tru th , fa c t, r e a lity .

°vërus, - a , -u m , °vesper, -er i

ven erate,

te e m , w o rsh ip , v en ia , - a e ,

n.,

° verum , -ï,

(-iv i),

ven erator, -ô r is,

tru ly ,

b u t in f a c t .

v e n ë n u m , - ï , n., p o i s o n , vëneô,

adv.,

°vërum ,

fv ertex ,

m., v e r s e , l i n e , - i c i s , m., s u m m i t ,

*verto,

-ere,

observe,

tow ards,

pass.

f versus, - ü s ,

v er ti,

top , peak.

versum ,

arou n d , ch a n g e, con vert.

turn,

turn

one

m ay

see,

o b v io u sly ,

clea r ly , o f co u rse. °v id e ô , -è r e ,

in , liv e , r e m a in ,

a d v . / p r e p . + acc.,

adv.,

v id ë lic e t,

v id i,

c o n sid er ,

la c k

see,

w itn e ss,

p erceiv e, take

, seem , appear, seem good

v ig ilâ n s, - a n t is , ° v ig ilia ,

v isu m ,

-ae, of

f.,

sle ep ,

adj.,

care;

or

rig h t,

w a tc h f u l, a c tiv e .

w a tc h in g , w a tch ,

w a k e fu ln ess,

guard,

se n tin el.

511

aw ake,

v itu lu s, - i ,

w a tch , w a tc h over, k eep on th e w a tch ,

se a -c a lf.

*v ig ilô , - a r e ,

-â v î,

-à tu m ,

keep

% ig in t i, adj. indecl., t w e n t y ,

-ere,

-u l,

-,

becom e

f v ï v ô , - e r e , v ix i, v i c t u m , liv e . w o rth less,

v i l i t a s , - t â t i s , f ., c h e a p n e s s , l o w

p ric e.

* v i l l a , - a e , f ., f a r m h o u s e , c o u n t r y h o u s e ,

v in c tu m ,

adv., s c a r c e l y , w i t h d i f f i c u l t y , adv., h a r d l y , s c a r c e l y y e t .

*vocô, -à re, -â v ï, -à tu m ,

-àre,

° v o l6 ,

v o lu i,

-,

v e lle ,

v o lü b ilità s,

v i n d i c ô , - a r e , —â v ï , - à t u m , c l a i m , v i n d i ­ c a te , p u n ish , a v e n g e , assert, la y c la im

-tâ tis,

v e n g e a n c e , p u n ish m e n t,

v in e a , - a e , /., v in e y a r d , v in e,

v o l u c e r , —c r i s ,

v io le n tia , - a e ,

p ro v a l.

v io le n c e , v e h e m e n c e ,

f v io lo , - a r e , - â v ï , - à t u m , v io la te , h a rm , w r o n g , in ju re.

m a id e n ,

girl,

v ir g in ,

/.,

a b ility ,

courage,

ex c e lle n c e ,

ch aracter,

n o b le in stin c t, m o r a l q u a lity .

v ir é s,

-iu m ,

stren gth ,

fa c e r e , u se v io le n c e,

n.,

(usually

pi.),

v isu s, - ü s ,

m.,

v isu m ,

go

to

see,

v isit,

s e e in g , sig h t, a p p e a r a n c e ,

v ô v ï,

prayer,

vôtu m ,

f., voice,

v ô cis,

ap­

v o tiv e

vow ,

w ish ,

u tteran ce,

w ord,

sa y in g , sh o u t,

adj.,

-e,

com m on,

o rd in a ry ,

u su a l, v u lg a r , v u lg ô ,

adv.,

c o m m o n ly , u su a lly ,

n ., c o m m o n

p e o p le ,

crow d,

ra b b le, m o b , m a ss, m u ltitu d e , h erd , —a r e ,

-à v ï,

-à tu m ,

wound,

° v u l n u s , - e r i s , n. , w o u n d , v u lp e c u la , - a e , /., a little fox.

f v u ltu s,

v ita lis , - e , adj., v ita l,

-u s,

ex p re ssio n ,

co u n te­

dam age,

X

n. , f a u l t , f l a w , s i n , v i c e , -â v ï,

m .,

n a n c e , lo o k , fe a tu r e s , fa c e .

v itiô , - a r e , - â v ï , - à t u m ,

escape.

d eter m in a tio n ,

v u lp ë s , - i s , /., fox.

° v i t a , —a e , / . , l i f e ,

-are,

d esir e,

in ju re .

v isio n .

f v itiu m , - i ,

w ish ,

d esir e. °vôx,

^ v u ln erô ,

v ïs iô , - ô n i s , /., v ie w , v isio n , v isi,

w ill,

favor,

-ère,

f v u lg u s, - i ,

in te rn a l

o r g a n s , v ita ls, v isc e r a ,

-ere,

vôtu m ,

v u lg à ris,

° v i s , a c e . v i m ; a b l . , v i , f ., f o r c e , v i o l e n c e ,

-e r is,

/.,

re v o lv e ,

fvoveô,

m anhood,

v a lo r , b r a v e r y , g o o d n e s s , v ir tu e , w o r th ,

v isc u s,

re v o lu tio n ,

o ffe rin g .

v ir ilis , - e , adj., m a n ly , v ir ile ,

pi.,

fly in g , w in g e d ;

emphatic for v o s . - ï , n., v o w , w i s h ,

vôsm et,

f v ir id is , - e , adj., g r e e n ,

forces; v im

adj.,

f v o lu p t à s , - t â t i s , /., p le a s u r e , e n jo y m e n t,

pass.,

v ir g a , - a e , /., tw ig , rod , w h ip ,

pow er;

m o tio n ,

f v o l v ô , - e r e , v o l v i , v o l ü t u m , ro ll, ro ll u p ;

v ir e s , se e v is.

m er it,

r e v o lv in g

d e lig h t , s a t is f a c t io n , g o o d w ill, joy.

* v i r , v i r i , i n., m a n , h u s b a n d , h e r o ,

-tü tis,

w illin g ,

in., b i r d , n., r e v o l v i n g ,

-tâ tis,

in clin a tio n ,

fv ir tü s,

be

w h ir l, c o il, b o o k , v o lu m e . * v o lu n tà s,

f v i n u m , - i , n., w i n e ,

/.,

spread

w ish ,

/.,

v o lu ce r, - c r is , - e r e ,

v o lü m e n , - in is ,

to.

-in is,

fly ,

re v o lu tio n , flu e n c y ,

v i n d e m i o l a , - a e , f., lit t le s a v in g s ,

512

-à tu m ,

d e sir e , m e a n , w ill, in te n d ,

v a il, su r p a ss, w in , d e f e a t , f v i n c u l u m , —i , n ., c h a i n ; p i . , p r i s o n ,

fv ïtô ,

-â v ï,

abroad.

b in d .

° v in c ô , - e r e , v ic i, v ic tu m , c o n q u e r , p r e ­

v in d ic ta , - a e ,

ca ll, s u m m o n ,

in v o k e , n a m e , v o lô ,

v illa , fa rm , h o m e s t e a d , e s ta te , v in x i,

a liv e , liv in g ,

v ix d u m ,

v ilis, - e , adj., c o m m o n , c h e a p ,

f v in cio , - ir e ,

adj.,

° v iv u s, - a , - u m , fv ix ,

b ecom e cheap,

fv ir g ô ,

m.,

cize.

v i g o r , - ô r i s , in., v i g o r , e n e r g y ,

v ïsô ,

ca lf; v itu lu s m a r in u s ,

v it u p e r o , - à r e , - â v ï , - à t u m , b la m e , cr iti­

be aw ake.

v ïlë sc ô ,

m.,

-à tu m ,

sh un ,

a v o id ,

xystu s, nade.

-i,

m .,

open

co lo n n a d e,

prom e­

English-Latin A able, be able, p o s s u m , p o s s e , p o t u l , about, d ë + abl. , a d + acc., adv. with numerals, c i r c i t e r , above, adv., s u p r à ; from above, d ê s u p e r ; prep., s u p e r - f acc. absent, be absent, a b s u m , - e s s e , à f u ï , â fu tü ru s.

accept, a c c i p i ô , - e r e , accomplice, s o c i u s ,

-c ë p ï, -I,

-cep tu m .

m .;

p a rtice p s,

p erfic io ,

c ô n fïciô , - e r e , - f ë c ï , - f e c t u m ; -ere,

-fë c ï,

-fectu m ;

e fficio ,

-er e, -fë c ï, -fe ctu m .

d e m n o , - a r e , —â v ï , - â t u m .

-su ëtu m ;

côn su ëscô,

-ere,

-su ë v ï,

perf. be accustomed; be ac­

p ro g red io r, - î , -g r e s s u s su m .

advise, ( a d ) m o n e ô , - ë r e , - u ï , - i t u m , afraid, be afraid of, t i m e ô , - ë r e , - u î , - . aid, a u x i l i u m , -î, n.; s u b s i d i u m , -ï, n.; ( a d ) j u v ô , - a r e , —j ü v ï , - j ü t u m . co m m o v eô , -ë r e , -m ô v ï, -m ô tu m ;

p erm oveo, -ë r e , -m ô v ï, -m ô tu m .

alive,

v ïv u s, - a , - u m ;

be alive,

v ïv ô , - e r e ,

v ïx ï, v ïc t u m .

ail, o m n i s , - e ; t ô t u s , - a , - u m (the w hole); c ü n c t u s , - a , - u m (all to­ gether); u n i v e r s u s , - a , - u m (all to­ gether), ally, s o c i u s , - ï , m . almost, p a e n e ; f e r ë . alone, s ô l u s , - a , - u m ; ü n u s , - a , - u m . already, j a m . also, e t i a m ( usually precedes the em­ phatic word)', q u o q u e ( always after emphatic w o r d ) . although, q u a m q u a m , e t s ï , t a m e t s ï , q u a m v ïs, lic e t, u t, c u m .

q u ï,

qua

( after

-u m

(q u a e),

a negative);

quod;

q u isq u a m ,

q u id q u a m ; q u isp ia m , q u a e p ia m , q u o d ­ a liq u ï,

q u a e v ïs,

a liq u a ,

q u o d v ïs;

q u o d lib e t;

a liq u o d ;

q u ïlib e t,

ec q u ï,

q u ïv ïs,

q u a e lib e t,

ecqua

(-q u a e),

ecquod.

anyone, anything, q u id ;

customed, s o l e ô , —ë r e , s o l i t u s s u m , semidep. across, t r â n s + acc.; (a bridge) i n + ahl. advance, p r ô c ë d ô , - e r e , - c e s s i , - c e s s u m ;

alarm,

iillu s, - a ,

p ia m ;

accordance: in — with, e x , d ë , or p r o d f i b / . ; s e c u n d u m 4 - acc.; a d + acc. account, on account of, o b , p r o p t e r + acc. accuse, a c e ü s ô , - a r e , —â v ï , - à t u m ; c o n ­ accustom,

um quam .

any,

- i p i s , m.

accomplish,

altogether, o m n ï n ô . always, s e m p e r . among, i n t e r + acc.; a p u d + acc.; s o m e ­ t i m e s i n + abl. and, e t ; a t q u e , a c ; - q u e ; and so, i t a q u e ; and yet, t a m e n ; and not, e t n o n (to negative a single word); n e q u e or n e c (to negative a whole clause); and no one, n e c q u i s q u a m ; and never, n e c

ü llu s,

q u isp ia m ,

q u id q u a m ; q u a e v ïs,

-a,

q u id p ia m ;

a liq u is,

q u id v ïs;

-u m ;

a liq u id ;

q u ïlïb e t,

q u is,

q u isq u a m , q u ïv ïs,

q u a e lib et,

q u id lib et; e c q u is, e c q u id ,

approve, approve of,

probô,

-are,

-â v ï,

-â tu m .

armed, a r m â t u s , - a , - u m . arms, a r m a , —ô r u m , n. pi. army, e x e r c i t u s , - ü s , m . around, adv. c i r c â , c i r c u m ; prep., c i r c u m + acc. arouse, e x c i t ô , - â r e , - â v ï , - â t u m ; p er)m oveô,

-ere,

-m ô v ï,

circâ ,

(com ,

-m ôtu m ;

a g i t ô , - â r e , —â v ï , - â t u m .

arrive (a t), p e r v e n i ô , ï r e , - v ë n ï , - v e n t u m , as, u t ; as . . . as, t a m . . . q u a m ; such . . . as, t â l i s . . . q u â l i s ; as great as . . . , t a n t u s . . . q u a n t u s ; as often as, t o t i ë n s . . . q u o t i ë n s ; as soon as, sim u l

atq u e,

ac,

p rim u m ,

ubi

ïd e m

atq u e,

ac,

ut

p rïm u m ,

cum

the same as, as far as, t e n u s (adv. = all the

p r im u m ; q u ï;

(prep. + a b l . ) , û s q u e w ay), q u â t e n u s , q u o a d , q u o d , q u a n ­ t u m (conjunctions); as if, as though, q u a s i , u t sï, t a m q u a m

as follows,

ita; a s

(sï), v elu t

long as,

(sï);

quoad, quam

d iü , d u m .

as soon as possible,

quam

p rim u m .

513

as . . .

as possible, quam + superla­

tives, adjective or adverb.

ask, quaero, -ere, quaesivi, quaesitum; rogô, -âre, -âvï, -àtum; flàgitô, -are, -àvï, -àtum; postulô, -âre, —âvï, -àtum; poscô, -ere, poposci, -. ask for, petô, -ere, -ïvï, -Itum; quaerô, -ere, quaesivi, quaesitum; poscô, -ere, poposci, -. assembly, conventus, -üs, m., contiô, -ônis, f. associate, socius, -I, m.; comes, -itis, m/f.; sôdàlis, -e, m. at, in -f abi.; locative case; at the house of, ad + acc.; at night, noctù; at once, statim, cônfestim; at home, domï; at daybreak, prima lüce; at midday, ad meridiem; at present, nunc, in prae­ sentia; at first, prîmô, primum; at last, postrëmô, tandem, attack, impetus, -üs, m. attempt, cônâtus, -üs, m.; cônor, -ârl, âtus sum; temptô, -âre, -âvï, -àtum. avenge, ulciscor, -I, ültus sum; vindicô, -âre, -àvï, -àtum. await, exspectô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum. away, be away, absum, -esse, àfuï, àfutürus. B

baggage, impedimenta, -ôrum, n. pl. bandit, latrô, -ônis, m. battle, pügna, -ae, proelium, -I, n. be, sum, esse, fui, futürus; see exsistô, exstô, versor, be able, possum, posse, potui, -. be absent, be away, absum, -esse, àfuï, àfutürus. be afraid, timeô, -ere, -ul, -; see vereor, be in command (charge) of, praesum, -esse, —fui, -futürus. be here (be present), adsum, -esse, -ful, -futürus. be unwilling, nôlô, nolle, nôluï, -. be willing, volô, velle, volui, -. because, quod, quia, quoniam, propterei quod, cum + subj.; use participle or abl. abs.

because of, propter, ob -f acc.; use abl. of cause.

514

become, be done, be made, flô, fieri, factus sum. before, adv., ante, anteà, prae, prius; prep., ante, apud -f acc., côrum, prô, prae + abl.; conj., ante quam (ante­ quam), prius quam (priusquam), besides, adv., praetereâ; prep., praeter -f acc.

best, optimus, -a, -um. better, adj., melior, -ius; adv., melius, betray, prôdô, -ere, -didï, -ditum; tràdô, -ere, -didi, -ditum, between, inter + acc. beware, caveô, -ère, càvï, cautum, blame, accüsô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum; con­ demno, -àre, -àvï, -àtum. bold, audàx, -àcis. boldly, audacter, bountifully, give, see largior, boy, puer, pueri, m. brave, fortis, -e. bravely, fortiter. bribe, pretium, -I, n.; corrumpo, -ere, -rüpï, -ruptum, bridge, pôns, pontis, m. bring, porto, -àre, -àvï, -àtum; ferô, ferre, tulï, làtum. bring forth, prôferô, -ferre, -tulî, -làtum. broad, làtus, —a, -um. but, sed, at, atqui, tamen, autem, vërô; but if, sin, quod si; but also, sed etiam, by, ab -f abl.; ad, apud, jüxtâ, prope, per + acc.; by night, noctü, nocte; by stealth, fürtim; by chance, forte; one by one, singuli, singillàtim.

C camp, castra, -ôrum, n. pl. can, possum, posse, potul, -. cause, causa, -ae, f. cease, dësinô, -ere, -sivi, -situm, censor, cënsor, -ôris, m. centurion, centuriô, -ônis, ru. certain, a certain, quidam, quaedam, quoddam (quiddam), change, mütô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum; commütô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum. check, reprimô, -ere, -pressi, -pressum; probibeô, -ère, -uï, -itum; impediô, -Ire, -ïvî, -Itum.

children, lïberï, -ôrum, m. pl. choice, dilectus, -üs, m. citizen, cïvis, -is, m/f.; private citizen, prïvàtus, -ï, m.; fellow-citizens, Qui­ ntes, -ium, m. pl. city, urbs, urbis, /. collect, colligô, -ere, -lëgï, -lëctum; côgô, -ere, —ëgî, -âctum. come, veniô, -Ire, vënî, ventum, command, imperium, -I, n.; jüssum, -I, n.; mandatum, -I, n.; of the senate, dëcrëtum, —I, n.; the right to give orders, imperium, -I, n.; imperô, -are, -âvï, -âtum ; jubeô, -ëre, jüssï, jussum; be in command of, praesum, -esse, —ful, -. complain, queror, queri, questus sum. complaint, querëla, —ae, f. condition, condiciô, -ônis, /. confer, colloquor, -I, -cütus sum. confess, fateor, —ërï, fassus sum; confiteor, —ërï, —fessus sum. consent, cônsënsus, -üs, in.; without your consent, të invito, abl. abs. conspiracy, conjüràtiô, -ônis, f. conspirator, conjüràtus, -I, m. consul, consul, —is, m. consulate, cônsulâtus, -üs, m. consulship, cônsulâtus, -üs, m. consult, cônsulô, -ere, -uï, -tum. continuai, continuus, —a, —urn. country, rüs, rüris, n.; in the country, rürï; one’s native land, patria, -ae, tract of land, agrï, -ôrum, m. pl.; fïnës, -ium, m. pl.; region, terra, -ae, regiô, -ônis, /.; state, rës püblica, rei püblicae, /. courage, virtüs, -tütis, f. crime, scelus, -eris, n.; facinus, -oris, n. crisis, discrimen, -inis, n. crowd, turba, -ae, f.; vulgus, -I, n.; multitüdô, -inis, f. crush, opprimô, -ere, -pressi, -pressum, curia (the senate-house), cüria, -ae, f. custom, môs, môris, m. cut down, occïdô, —ere, —cïdï, —cïsum ; succïdô, —ere, -cïdï, -cïsum.

D dagger, sïca, -ae, f.

danger, periculum, -I, n. dangerous, periculosus, -a, -um. dare, audeô, -ëre, ausus sum. day, diës, -ëï, m/f.; for the day, in diem; by day, interdiü; from day to day, in diës; some day, aliquando, adv. death, mors, mortis, f. decide, jüdicô, -are, -âvï, -âtum; dëcernô, -ere, -crëvï, -crëtum; cônstituô, -ere, -stituï, -stitütum; statuô, -ere, -uï, —ütum; cônfïrmô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. decree, dëcrëtum, -I, n.; dëcernô, -ere, -crëvï, -crëtum. defend, dëfendô, -ere, -fendï, -fënsum. defendant, reus, -I, m. delay, mora, -ae, f.; cünctâtiô, -ônis, f.; (com)moror, —ârï, -âtus sum; tardô, -âre, —âvï, -âtum. deliberation, dëlïberâtiô, -ônis, cônsultâtiô, -ônis, f.; consilium, -I, n. deliver (a speech), ôrâtiônem habeô, -ëre, —uï, -itum. demand, postulô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum; poscô, -ere, poposci, -; flâgitô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. deny, negô, -âre, —âvï, -âtum. depart, discëdô, -ere, -cessï, -cessum; excëdô, -ere, -cessï, -cessum, desert, dëserô, -ere, -uï, -turn, desire, cupiditâs, -tâtis, f.; dësiderium, -ï, n.; cupïdô, -inis, f.; cupiô, -ere, -ïvï, -ïtum; dësïderô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. desirous, avidus, -a, -um; cupidus, -a, -u m .

despise, contemnô, -ere, -tempsï, -tempturn. destroy, dëleô, -ëre, -ëvï, -ëtum; vâstô, -âre, -âvï, —âtum. die, morior, morï (morïrï), mortuus sum. difficult, difficilis, -e. disclose, patefacio, -ere, -fëcï, -factum; expônô, -ere, -posuï, -positum, discover, inveniô, -ïre, -vënï, -ventum; reperiô, -ïre, repperï, repertum; comperiô, -ïre, -perï, —pertum. disease, morbus, -ï, m. distinguished, clârus, -a, -um; praeclârus, -a, -um; ïnsïgnis, -e; nôbilis, -e. distrust, diffïdentia, - f.; diffïdô, -ere, -fïsus sum.

515

do, faciô, -ere, fed, factum; ago, agere,

egî, actum, doubt, dubitô, -are, -àvï, -àtum; there is no doubt, non est dubium, drive out, ëjiciô, -ere, -jëcï, -jectum;

expellô, -ere, -puli, -pulsum, dust, pulvis, -eris, m.

E each, quisque, quaeque, quodque; omnis, -e; of tw o, uterque, utraque, utrum­ que; each one, quisque, quidque. eagerness, studium, -I, n.; cupiditas,

-tatis, /. easily, facile, easy, facilis, -e. elect, dësïgnàtus, -a, -um; creô, -are, -àvï, -àtum. end, finis, -is, m ., make an end, finio, -ire, -ivi, -itum, endure, perferô, -ferre, -tuli, -làtum; sustineo, -ëre, —ui, -tentum; patior, pati, passus sum. enem y, of ones country , hostis, -is, m / f .; personal , inimicus, -i, in. envoy, lëgàtus, — i, m. envy, invidia, -ae, f.; invideô, -ëre, -vidi, -visum. escape, effugiô, -ere, -fügï, -; perfugio, -ere, -fügï, -. establish, constituo, -ere, -uï, -ütum; cônfïrmô, -are, -àvï, -àtum. esteem , aestimô, -are, -àvï, -àtum. even, etiam; not even, në . . . quidem, ever, umquam. every, omnis, -e; quisque, quaeque, quodque; everybody, omnës, -ium, m. p i ; everything, omnia, -ium, n. pl.; everyw here, ubique, passim; from every side, undique, exam ple, exemplum, -ï, n. excellent, optimus, -a, -um; praeclarus, -a, -um; ëgregius, -a, -um. exile, exsilium, -ï, n.; be an exile, exulô, -are, -àvï, -àtum. expect, exspectô, -are, -àvï, -àtum. eye, oculus, -ï, m.

F faith, fidës, -eï, f.

516

faithful, fidus, - a , -u m ; fîdëlis, -e. false, falsus, -a, -um. fam e, gloria, -ae, /.; fàma, -ae, /.; laus,

laudis, /. fam ily, familia, -ae, gëns, gentis, f.; genus, -eris, n. far, longë, procul; how far, quam longë? father, pater, -tris, m. fault, dëlictum, -ï, n.; vitium, -ï, n.; culpa, -ae, /. fear, timor, -ôris, m.; metus, -fis, m.; timeô, -ëre, -uï, -; metuô, -ere, -uï, -. feeling, sënsus, -üs, m. fierce, ferôx, -ôcis; saevus, -a, -um; ferus, -a, -um; àcer, âcris, âcre, fight, pugno, -are, -avï, -àtum; dimico, -are, -àvï, -àtum. find, reperiô, -ire, repperï, repertum; in­ venio, -ire, -vënï, -ventum; find out, comperiô, -ire, -peri, -pertum. fire, incendium, -ï, n.; ignis, -is, m.; set on fire, incendô, -ere, -cendï, -cënsum. fit, aptus, -a, -um. flee, fugio, -ere, fügï, fugitum; prôfugiô, -ere, -fügï, -fugitum, flock, grex, gregis, m.; pecus, -oris, n. food, cibus, -i, m.; victus, -fis, m. for, on behalf of, prô + abi. force, vis, -, /.; cügô, -ere, -ëgï, -àctum. foresee, provided, -ëre, -vidi, -visum; prospicio, -ere, -spëxï, -spectum, forget, obliviscor, -i, oblitus sum. form, (côn)fôrmô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum; form a plan, consilium capiô, -ere, cëpï, captum; form a conspiracy, conjüràtiônem faciô, -ere, fëcï, factum, free, liber, -era, -erum; lïberô, -àre, -àvï, -àtum. friend, amicus, -ï, m.; intim ate friend, familiàris, -is, m/f. from, à, ab; ë, ex; dë, preps. + abl. front, in - of, prô + abl.

G general, imperàtor, -ôris, m. get possession of, potior, -iri, potitus sum. give, dô, dare, dedi, datum; give back, reddô, -ere, -didi, -ditum; give bounti­ fu lly, largior, -iri, -itus sum. gladiator, gladiàtor, -ô ris, m.

glory, gloria, -ae, /.; decus, -oris, n.,

honor, -ôris, m. girl, puella, -ae, f. go, eô, ïre, il (ïvï), itum; go across, trànseô, —ïre, —il (—Ivi), —itum; go out, exeô, -ire, -iï (-ivi), -itum; go to m eet, obeô, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum. g °d , deus, -Ï, m. gold, aurum, — i, n. good, bonus, -a, -um; goods, bona, -drum, n. pi.; possessiones, -um, f. pi.; rës, rërum, f. pi. great, magnus, —a, -um; ingens, -entis; so great, tantus, -a, -um; as great as, tantus . . . quantus; how great, quan­ tus, —a, -um; too great, nimius, -a, -um; greater, major, mâjus; greatest, maximus, -a, -um; summus, -a, -u m . greet, salütô, -are, — âvï, -âtum. guards, cüstôdiae, -ârum, /. pi.; cüstôdës, -um, m. pi. guest, hospes, -itis, /. H hand, manus, -Cis, f.; to be on hand, ïnstô, -are, -stiti, -statum; hand over,

tràdô, -ere, -didi, -ditum, happen, fib, fieri, factus sum; it happens, accidit, -ere, accidit, —; contingit, -ere, contigit, -. happiness, félicitas, -tâtis, /. happy, laetus, -a, -um; beâtus, -a, -um; felix, -icis, hard, dürus, -a, -um; difficilis, -e. harm, detrimentum, — i, n.; damnum, —i, n.; injüria, -ae, noceô, -ère, -uï, -itum. hasten, properô, -are, -âvï, -âtum; fëstïnô, —âre, -âvï, -âtum; mâtürô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum; contendo, -ere, -tendi, -tentum, hate, ôdï, ôdisse. hatred, odium, -i, n. have, habeô, — ëre, -uï, -itum. hear, audio, -ire, -ivi, -itum. help, auxilium, -i, n.; subsidium, -i, n.; (ad)juvô, -âre, -jüvï, -jütum. here, hic; be here, adsum, -esse, -fui, -futürus. h esitate, dubitô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum.

high, altus, -a, -um; superus, -a, -um. him self, reflex., sui; intens., ipse, hinder, impediô, -ire, -ivi, -itum; dë-

terreô, -ëre, -uï, -itum. his, her, its, ëjus; reflex., suus, -a, -um. hold, teneo, -ere, -uï, tentum, hom e, domus, -üs (-ï), f.; tëctum, - ï, n.; at hom e, domï. honor, honor, -ôris, m.; insigne, -is, n.; laus, laudis, f. honorable, honestus, -a, -um. horn, cornu, -üs, n. hostage, obses, -sidis, m/f. how , quam; how far, quam longë; how long, quam diü; how m any, quot; how many tim es, how often, quotiëns. I I, ego, mei. if, si; if anyone, si quis; if som eone, si aliquis; if ever, si quandô; if indeed, si quidem; if only, si modo; if not, si minus; nisi, imm ortal, immortâlis, -e. in, on, in + abl. inactivity, inertia, -ae, f. increase, augeô, -ëre, auxi, auctum; crësco, -ere, crëvï, crëtum. intend to do, facere in animô habeô, -ë r e , -uï, -itum; factürus sum, esse, fui, futürus. into, in 4- acc. island, insula, -ae, f.

J jaws, faucës, -ium, f. pl. join, (con) jungô, -ere, -jünxï, -jünctum;

continué, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. joy, laetitia, -ae, f.; gaudium, - ï , n. judge, jüdicô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. K kill, interficio, -ere, -fëcï, -fectum; oc­

cido, -ere, -cïdï, -cïsum; necô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. kind, genus, -eris, n.; modus, -ï, m. king, rëx, rëgis, m. know , intellego, -ere, -lëxï, -lectum; sciô, —ïre, scivi, scitum; nôscô, -ere, nôvï, nôtum; côgnôscô, -ere, -nôvï,

517

-nitum; sentiô, -Ire, sênsï, sënsum; not know , nësciô, -Ire, -ïvï, —; ïgnôrô, -are, -âvï, -àtum; make know n, dëclàrô, -are, -âvï, -àtum; indicô, -are, -âvï, -âtum. know ledge, scientia, -ae, f.; conscientia, -ae, f.

L labor, labor, -ôris, m. lack, be lacking, dësum, -esse, -fui, —;

careô, -ëre, —ul, -itürus. language, lingua, -ae, /. large, mâgnus, -a, -um. lash, flagrum, -I, n.; flagellum, -I, n.; verber, -eris, n. later, sërius; a little later, paulô post, law , lëx, lëgis, /. lay plots, ïnsidiâs parô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. lead, dücô, -ere, düxï, ductum; lead to, addücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum; lead out, ëdücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum; lead across, trâdücô, -ere, -düxï, -ductum, leader, princeps, -ipis, m.; dux, ducis, m. learn, disco, -ere, didicï, —; côgnôscô, -ere, -nôvï, -nitum. learned, ërudïtus, - a , -um; doctus, - a , -um. learning, doctrina, -ae, f.; ërudïtiô, -ônis. leave, leave behind, relinquo, -ere, -lïquï, -lictum; dëserô, -ere, -uï, -tum; discëdô, -ere, -cessï, -cessum; excëdô, -ere, -cessï, -cessum, left, reliquus, -a, -um; opposite right, sinister, -tra, —trum; left hand, sinistra, -ae, /. let, sino, -ere, sïvï, situm; patior, patï, passus sum; permitto, -ere, -mïsï, -missum; in volitive subjunctive. letter, epistula, -ae, /.; litterae, -ârum, f. pi.; tabellae, -ârum, f. pl. liberty, lïbertâs, -tâtis, f. life, vïta, -ae, f. light, lüx, lucis, f.; lumen, -inis, n. little, a little, paulô, adv. live, vïvô, -ere, vïxï, vïctum; (d w e ll) , habitô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. locate, (col)locô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. lose, âmittô, -ere, -mïsï, -missum, love, dïligô, -ere, -lëxï, -lëctum; amô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum.

luxury, luxuria, -ae, f.

M m agistrate, magistrâtus, -üs, m. m aiden, virgô, -inis, f.

make, faciô, -ere, fëcï, factum; be m ade, fïô, fieri, factus sum; make war on, bellum ïnferô, -ferre, -tulï, illàtum; make know n, indicô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum; make an end, fïniô, — ïre, -ïvï, -ïtum. man, homô, -inis, m.,- vir, virï, m.; young man, adulëscentulus, -ï, m.; adulëscëns, -entis, m.; desperate m en, perditï, -ôrum, m. pl. manner, modus, -ï, m.; ratio, -ônis, f.; cônsuëtüdô, -inis, f. m any, multï, -ae, -a; as m any . . . as, tôt . . . quot; very m any, permultï, -ae, -a; plürimï, -ae, -a. mark out, dësïgnô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. mass m eeting, assem bly, contiô, -ônis, /. m e, use form of ego. measure, metior, -ïrï, mënsus sum. m eeting, concursus, -üs, m.; conventus, -üs, m.; mass m eeting, contiô, -ônis, f.; m eeting of the p eople, comitia, -ôrum, n. pl. m iddle ( o f ) , medius, -a, -um. m ild, mïtis, -e. m ilitary, mïlitâris, -e. m oderate, mediocris, -e. m oney, pecünia, -ae, f. m onth, mënsis, — is, m. more, plüs, n. sing.; plürës, -a, -iu m , m/ f / n. pl.; magis, adv.; more and more, magis magisque. m ove, moveô, -ëre, môvï, môtum; m ove deeply, permoveô, -ëre, -môvï, -môtum. m uch, multus, -a, -um. murder, trucïdô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum; occïdô, -ere, -cïdï, -cïsum. must, dëbeô, -ëre, -uï, -itum; necesse est ivith infinitive constr.; oportet, with infinitive constr.; use passive peri­ phrastic. m yself ( reflex. 1st pers.) , meï, mihi, më.

N nation, nâtiô, -ônis, f.; gëns, gentis, f.;

patria, -ae, f.

near, prope + acc. necessary, necesse, indecl. odj.; to be necessary, necesse esse; oportere, neighbor, vïcïnus, -ï, m.; vîcïna, -ae, neighbors, finitimi, -ôrum, m. pl. neither, neuter, -tra, -trum. neither . . . nor, neque . . . neque, never, numquam, adv. nevertheless, tamen, adv. night, nox, noctis, at night, noctü,

nocte, no, nüllus, -a, -um. nob le, nobilis, -e; nobles, nôbilës, — ium, m. pi. nod, nütus, -ü s , m.; nütô, -are, -âvï,

-âtum. no longer, non jam. no one, nëmô, dat. nëminï, m/f. not, non; haud; not only . . . but also, cum . . . tum; non modo . . . sed etiam; or not, annôn; necne; not at all, minimë; nequaquam, advs.; not . . . even , në . . . quidem, nothing, nihil, indecl ., n. now , nunc, adv.; jam, adv.

O O, Ô, interj. obtain, assequor, — ï, -secütus sum; im­ petro, -are, -âvï, -âtum. obvious, manifëstus, -a, -um. officiais, magistrâtüs, -uum, m. pl. often, saepe, adv.; as often as, totiëns . . . quotiëns; how often? quotiëns? on account of, propter, ob -f acc. once, at, statim, adv. one, ünus, -a, -um; one . . . another, alius . . . alius; the one . . . the other, alter . . . alter; one by one, singuli, -ae, -a. on e’s ow n, proprius, -a, -um. only, alone, solus, -a, -um. opinion, sententia, -ae, opîniô, -ônis. opportune, opportünus, -a, -um; cornmodus, -a, -um. or, aut; vel; -ve; sive; an; or not, an non (annôn), alternative direct ques­ tions; necne, alternative indirect ques­ tions. order, ôrdô, -inis, m.; jubeô, -ëre, jüssï,

jüssum; imperô, -are, -âvï, -âtum; in order that, ut. other, another, alius, alia, aliud; (all ) the other, cëterï, -ae, — a; belonging to another, aliënus, -a, -um. others, the others, cëterï, -ôrum, m. pl.; reliqui, -ôrum, m. pl. ought, dëbeô, -ëre, — uï, -itum; oportet, -ëre, oportuit, our, noster, -tra, -trum. outrage, flâgitium, -ï, n. ow e, dëbeô, -ëre, -uï, -itum. P pardon, venia, -ae, f. part, pars, partis, /. pass by, praetereo, -ire, -ii (-ivi), -itum;

intermitto, -ere, -misi, -missum; prae­ termitto, -ere, -misi, -missum, pass over, omitto, -ere, omisi, omissum, peace, pâx, pâcis, /. people, populus, -ï, m. perceive, percipiô, -ere, -cëpï, -ceptum. perm it, sinô, -ere, sivi, situm; patior, pati, passus sum; permitto, -ere, -misi, -missum. persuade, persuâdeô, -ëre, -suâsï, -suâsum. pirate, pïrâta, -ae, m.; praedô, -ônis, m. place, locus, -ï, m.; loca, -ôrum, n. pl. plain, plânus, -a, -um; manifëstus, -a, -um; clàrus, -a, -um; plânitiës, -ëï, /. plan, cônsilium, -ï, n. pleasant, pleasing, jucundus, -a, — um. plot (co n sp ira cy ), conjürâtiô, -ônis, f.; plots, insidiae, -ârum, f. pl.; ïnsidiâs parô, -àre, -âvï, -âtum; plot against, mâchinor, —ârï, -àtus sum. poison, venënum, -ï, n. possession, gain ( g e t ) possession of, po­ tior, -iri, -itus sum; take possession, occupô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum; capiô, —ere,

cëpï, captum, praise, laus, laudis, f. predict, praedico, -ere, -dixi, -dictum, prefer, mâlô, mâlle, mâluï, —; antepônô, -ere, -posui, -positum, prepare, (com)parô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum. presence, praesentia, -ae, f.; in the pres­ ence of, apud + acc. preserve, (côn) servô, -âre, -âvï, -âtum.

519

p re v e n t, p ro h ib e ô , - è r e , - u ï, - itu m ; im ­ p ed io , - îr e , -ïv ï, -îtu m . p rid e , su p e rb ia , - a e , f. prison, career, -e ris , m. p riso n er, cap tiv u s, -I, m. profit, frü ctu s, - ü s , m .; q u aestu s, - ü s , m. prom ise, polliceor, - ë rï, pollicitus sum . proof, a rg ü m e n tu m , -I, n.; in d iciu m , -I. p ro te c t, p rô te g ô , - ë r e , -të x ï, -të c tu m . p ro v id e d th a t, p ro v id e d , d um m odo,

conf. p rovince, prôvincia, - a e , f. p ru d e n t, p rü d ë n s, -e n tis , p u b lic, p ü b licu s, - a , -u m . p u n ish , p üniô, -Ire , —ïvï, -îtu m . p u rsu e, ( î n ) seq u o r, -I, -s e c ü tu s sum . p u t to d e a th , interficio, - e r e , -fë c ï, -fe c tu m .

Q q u a e sto r, q u aesto r, -ô ris ,

m.

R re a d , lego, - e r e , lëgï, lëctu m ; re a d alo u d , recitô, - a r e , -à v ï, - à tu m . receive, accipiô, - e r e , -c ë p ï, -c e p tu m ; recipiô, - e r e , - c ë p ï, -c e p tu m . rejoice, g au d eô , - ë r e , g â visus sum ; laeto r, - à r ï, - à tu s sum . re la te , dïcô, - e r e , dixi, dictus; nàrrô , - a r e , - â v ï, -â tu m . rem ain , (re )m a n e ô , - ë r e , -m â n sï, - m â n sum . re p o rt, fâm a, - a e , f.; n ü n tiu s, - ï , m.; d ëferô, - fe rre , - tu lî, -la tu m , resist, resistô, - e r e , - s titi, - . rev eal, indico, - a r e , -â v ï, - â tu m ; p a te ­ facio, - e r e , -fë c ï, -fa c tu m , rev o lu tio n , novae rës, n o v âru m rëru m ,

f. pi. re w a rd , p raem iu m , - ï, n.; frü ctu s, - ü s , m.; m ercës, -ë d is , f. riches, d ïvitiae, -â ru m , f. pl; opës, - u m , /• pirig h t, jüs, juris, n.; jüstus, - a , -u m . rob, dïripiü, - e r e , - u ï, -re p tu m , roof, tëctu m , - ï , n. ru le , regô, - e r e , rëxï, rëctu m ; ad m in is­ tro, - â r e , - â v ï, -â tu m .

520

S sad , trïstis, - e . safe, salvus, - a , - u m ; tü tu s, - a , - u m . sail, nâvigô, - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m . sailin g , n âv ig âtiô , -ô n is , /. sam e, id em , e a d e m , idem , save, (c ô n ) servô, - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m . say, dïcô, - e r e , dïxï, d ic tu m ; lo q u o r, - î, locütus sum ; âjô; in q u a m , seat, subsellium , - ï , n.; ta k e o n e ’s seat, sit d o w n , assïdô, - e r e , - s ë d ï, —; cônsïdô, - e r e , - s ë d ï, -se ssu m , secretly , o ccu ltë, adv. sectio n , p ars, p a rtis, /. see, video, - ë r e , vïdï, vïsum ; perspiciô, - e r e , -sp ë x ï, -s p e c tu m , seek, q u a e rô , - e r e , q u aesïv ï, q u aesïtu m ; (e x )p e tô , - e r e , - p e tïv ï, -p e tïtu m . seem , videor, - ë r ï, vïsus sum . seize, o ccupô, - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m ; capiô, - e re , cëpï, c a p tu m , sen ate, sen âtu s, - ü s , m. sen ato r, sen âto r, -ô ris , m. sen d , m ittô , - e r e , m ïsï, m issum ; send a h e a d , p ra e m itto , - e r e , -m ïs ï, - m is ­ sum . serious, gravis, - e . serve, serviô, —ïrï, -ïv ï, -îtu m . set ( p la c e ) , pô n ô , - e r e , p o su ï, positum , set fire to, in cen d ô , - e r e , -c e n d ï, -c ë n sum . set fo rth , expônô, - e r e , -p o s u ï, -p o s itu m ; explicô, - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m . set o u t, proficiscor, - ï , —fectu s sum . se ttle r, colônus, —ï, m. sev eral, co m p lü rës, - a or - ia , pl.; non nüllï, - a e , - a , pl. severe, sevërus, - a , - u m ; gravis, - e . sh am e, p u d e t, - ë r e , p u d u it or p u d itu m est. sh are, co m m ü n icô , —âre, - â v ï, -â tu m . sh a re r, p a rtic e p s, -ip is , m. sh rin e, d ë lü b ru m , - ï , n.; fân u m , - i, n.; sacrâriu m , - i , n. sig h t, a p p e a ra n c e , asp ectu s, - ü s , m. silen t, tacitu s, - a , - u m ; b e silen t, taceô, - ë r e , - u ï, -itu m . silver, a rg e n tu m , - ï , n. since, cu m -f subj.; q u ia , q u o n iam -f

indic.

sin ew , n erv u s, - I , ra. sit, sedeô, - è r e , sëdï, sessum ; sit d o w n , cônsïdô, —ere, - s ë d ï, —sessum , situ a te d , situs, - a , - u m ; collocatus, - a - u m ; po situ s, - a , - u m . six, sex, indecl. adj. skilled, p e ritu s, - a , - u m . sla u g h te r, caed ës, -is , /. slave, servus, —ï, m. sm all, p a rv u s, - a , - u m ; sm aller, m inor, m inus; sm allest, m inim us, - a , -u m . sn a tc h , rap id , - e r e , - u î, ra p tu s ; d ërip iô , - e r e , - u i, -re p tu s , so, sic; ita; tarn; cdvs. so ld ier, m iles, - itis , m. som e, q u id a m , quaedam , quoddam ; som e . . . o th ers, alii . . . alii, som e d a y , a t som e tim e, a liq u a n d o , adv. som eone, so m eb o d y , see any. son, filius, — ï, m. sp eak , lo q u o r, - ï , locütus sum . sp eech , ôràtiô, -ô n is , f. sp irit, an im us, - ï , m.; sp iritu s, - ü s , m. sta te , rës p ü b lic a , re ï p ü b lic a e , f.; cïvitâs, - tâ tis , f. step , passus, - ü s , m. stop, (c ô n )sistô , - e r e , - s titï, - . su d d e n , su b itu s, - a , - u m ; re p e n tin u s, - a , -u m . suffer, su stineô, - è r e , - u ï, - te n tu m ; ac­ cipio, - e r e , - c ë p ï, - c e p tu m ; suffer h a rm , q u id d ë trïm e n tï capiô, - e r e , cëpï, c a p tu m , su ita b le , id ô n eu s, - a , - u m . su n , soi, sôlis, m. su p p ress, rep rim o , - e r e , -p re s s i, - p r e s ­ sum ; com prim o, —e r e ,3 -p re s s i, - p r e s ­ sum . su p p o se, existim o, - a r e , - â v ï, - â tu m .

T ta b le ts , ta b e lla e , - â r u m , f. pl. ta k e , capiô, - e r e , cëpï, c a p tu m ; süm ô, - e r e , süm psï, sü m p tu m ; ta k e p o sses­ sion, o ccu p ô , - a r e , - â v ï, - â tu m . ta k e a seat, assïdô, - e r e , - s ë d ï, - ; cô n ­ sïdô, - e r e , - s ë d ï, -se ssu m , tax, s tip e n d iu m , - ï , n.; vectig al, -â lis , n.; trib ü tu m , - ï , n. tell, dïcô, - e r e , dïxï, d ic tu m ; n ârrô , - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m .

term , condiciô, -o n is , f. te rrify , (p e r) te rr e ô , - ë r e , - u ï, -itu m . te rro r, terro r, -ô ris , m. th a n , q u am , conj.; abl. of comparison. th a n k sg iv in g , su p p licâtiô , -ô n is , /. th a t, in o rd e r th a t, so th a t, u t; with comparatives, qu o ; after expressions of doubt, q u in ; th a t . . . n o t, në. th a t, dem. pron./adj., ille, illa, illud; is, ea, id. th e ir, eôrum , eâru m ; reflex., suus, - a , -u m . th em , use forms of ei, illi, hi, isti. th e n , turn, tu n c , adv. th e re , ibi, adv.; to th a t p lace, eô, adv. th ey , ei, illi, hi, isti. th in g , rës, reï, f. th in k , exïstim ô, - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m ; a rb i­ tro r, —àrï, - â tu s sum ; p u tô , - â r e , -â v ï, - â tu m ; th in k a b o u t, côgitô, - â r e , - â v ï, -â tu m . th is, dem. pron./adj., hic, h aec, hoc; is, ea, id. th re e , très, tria. tim e, te m p u s, -o ris , n.; a t th a t tim e, tu m , tu n c , eô tem p o re , illô tem p o re ; how m an y tim es, q u o tiën s? to, ad -f acc. to d a y , h o d ië, adv. to m o rro w , crâs, adv. to w n , o p p id u m , - ï , n.; free to w n , m ün icip iu m , —ï, n. tra in , exerceô, - ë r e , - u ï, - itu m , tre a c h e ry , p erfid ia, —ae, f.; in sid iae, - â r u m , f. pl. trib u te , stip e n d iu m , - i , n. tro o p s, côpiae, - â ru m , f. pl. tro u b leso m e, m olestus, - a , - u m . tru e , vërus, - a , - u m . tru s t, cônfïdô, - e r e , -fis u s sum . tru th , v ëritâs, -tâ tis , f.; v ëru m , - ï , n. try , cônor, —àrï, - â tu s sum ; te m p tô , - â r e , - â v ï, -â tu m . tw o , duo, d u ae, duo.

U u n til, d u m , conj. u rg e, h o rto r, —àrï, - â tu s sum . us, nos. use, ü to r, ütï, üsus sum .

521

useful, ütilis, - e . useless, inütilis, inânis, - e .

-e ;

vânus,

-a ,

-u m ;

V v iolent, vehem ens, -e n tis , vote, suffragium , - ï , n. W w ait, w a it for, exspecto, - a r e , - â v l, -â tu m . w all, city w all, m in u s, - ï, m.; w all of a b u ild in g , p ariés, -e tis , m.; city w alls, fortified w alls, m oenia, -ô ru m , n. pi. w ar, b ellu m , - ï , n.; of w ar, m ilitaris, - e ; m ake w ar, bellum Inferre, w a ste fu l, prôfüsus, - a , - u m . w a tc h , vigilô, - a r e , - â v ï, - â tu m ; servo, - a r e , - â v ï, - â tu m ; spectô, - â r e , -â v ï, - â tu m . w av e, u n d a , - a e , f.; flüctus, - ü s , m. w ay, m odus, - ï, m.; via, - a e , f. w e, nos, nostrum . w eak, ïnfïrm us, - a , - u n i; dëbilis, - e . w e a lth , dïv itiae, - â ru m , f. pl. w h a t, interroge q u id ; interrog. adj., q u ï, q u a e , quo d . w h en , cum ; ubi, q u an d ô . w h e n e v e r, cum -f indic. w h e re , ubï. w h e th e r, u tru m , num . w hile, durn. w ho, w h a t, w h ich , rel. pron ., qu ï, q u ae, q u o d ; interrog. pron., quis, q u id .

w h o ev er, q u ïc u m q u e , quaecum que, quodcum que. w ho, p ra y ? q u isn a m , q u a e n a m , q u id nam ? w h o le, tô tu s, - a , - u m . w hy, cür; q u â rë ; q u a m ob rem . w ick ed , m alus, - a , - u m ; im p ro b u s, - a , - u m ; scelerâtu s, - a , - u m . w ick ed n ess, n e q u itia , - a e , /. w ise, sap iën s, -e n tis . w ish, v o lu n tâs, - tâ tis , cu p iô , - e re , -ïv ï, -ïtu m ; volô, velle, voluï, - ; dësïd erô , - â r e , - â v ï, - â tu m ; n o t w ish, nôlô, nolle, noluï, - . w ith , cum + abi.; a p u d + acc. w ith o u t, sine + abi. w o n d e rfu l, m ïru s, —a, —um ; m ïrâbilis, —e. w o u ld th a t, u tin a m + subj. w re tc h e d , m iser, - e r a , - e ru m , w rite , scrïbô, - e r e , scrïpsï, scrïp tu m . w rite r, scrip to r, -ô ris , m.

Y y ear, annus, - ï , m. you, tü , tuï. y o u n g m a n , ad u lëscën s, - e n tis , m.; ju ­ venis, -is , m/f. y o u r, referring to one, tu n s, - a , - u m ; referring to more than one, vester, - tr a , - tr u m . y o u th , a d u le sc e n tia , - a e , ju v en tu s, - tü tis , /.

Index of P roper Names English Pronunciation of Names

Latin proper names in English translation should be pronounced as English words. The values of the following consonants should be carefully observed: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

soft g (b e fo re e a n d i) = /: S ïg ëu m , A rg ile tu m soft c (b e fo re e an d i) = s: P ïc ë n u m , C ilicia h a rd c (b e fo re a, o, u ) = k: L a e c a , R u b icô , L ü c u llu s x = ks: X erxës c an d t b efo re io an d iu h av e th e so u n d of sh, an d th e i has th e so u n d of y in yes ; L ü c iu s 6. final s a fte r e has th e so u n d of z: V errës 7. q u = kw: Q u irïtës

522

The student should remember to accent the first syllable when the word has only two syllables; in words of more than two syllables, accent the penult (next to the last) if long in Latin; otherwise, accent the antepenult (third last). A. = A ulus, a p ra e n o m e n A c a d e m ia , - a e , 263, 273 A ccius, - i , m ., 227 A ch âja, - a e , 189, 323 A chilles, - is , m., 225 A d elp h i, - ô ru m , m. pl., 256 A d ra m y ttë n u s, - a , - u m , adj., 264 A egaeus, - a , - u m , adj., 200 A eg y p tiu s, - a , - u m , adj., 337 A eg y p tu s, - i , /., 240, 323, 346 A em ilius, - i , m., M arcu s A em ilius S caurus, 214 A enëâs, - a e , m., 296 A eschylus, - ï , m., 264 A esôpus, - ï, m ., 353 A etôlus, - a , - u m , adj., 178, 227, 278 À frân iu s, - ï , m., 323 A frica, - a e , f., 186, 189, 203, 204, 239, 323 À fricàn u s, - ï , m., see Scïpiô Â fricus, - a , - u m , adj., 297 A h âla, - a e , m., 122; see Servilius À leus ( Ë lë u s ) , - a , - u m , adj., 27 8 , 279 A lex an d er, - d r ï , m., 225, 339 A lex an d ria, - a e , 323, 346 Âlis ( É lis ) , - id is , /., 278 A llobrogës, - u m , m. pl., 148 ff. A m isus, - ï , /., 181 A m p h ith e a tru m , - ï , n., 313 A n ax arch u s, - ï , m ., 253 A nnius, - ï , m., Q. A nnius, 14 A n tio c h ë a , - a e , /., 213 A n tio ch u s, - ï , m., 178, 199, 263 A n tô n iu s, - ï , m., M arcu s A ntônius, 236, 293, 305 ff.; G âjus A ntônius, 56 A p o llo d o ru s, - ï , m., 252 A ppius, - a , - u m , adj., A p p ia Via, 200 A ppius, - ï , m., C la u d iu s A ppius, 321 À p ü lia , - a e , 63, 81, 159 A q u iliu s, - ï , m., G âjus A quilius, 261 A rchiâs, - a e , m., A ulus L icinius A rchias, 214 ff .; see L icinius A rg ïlë tu m , - ï , n., 269 A rgolicus, - ï , m., 265 A rim in u m , - I , n., 323, 345

A rio b arzân ë s, - is , m., 176 A risto critu s, - ï , m., 267 A risto telës, -is , m., 361 A rm enii, - ô ru m , m. pl., 224 A rm enius, - a , - u m , adj. A rp in u m , - ï , n., 268 A sia, - a e , f., 176 ff. A siâticus, - a , - u m , adj., 206, 207 A ssyrius, - a , - u m , adj., 313 A th ën ae, - a r u m , f. pl., 223 ff. A th ën iën sis, - e , adj., 199, 255, 337 A tticu s, - ï , m., T itu s P o m p o n iu s A tticus, 268, 293 A u g u stin u s, - ï , m., D . A urëlius A u g u sti­ nus, 354 A ugustus, - ï , m., 321 A ulus, - ï , m., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. A. A u rëliu s, - a , - u m , adj., F o ru m A urëlium , 139; A urélia V ia, 147 A u tro n iu s, - ï , m ., P ü b liu s A u trô n iu s P aetu s, 14, 22 A v en tin u m , - ï , n., 269

B ab y lo n , - ô n is , f., acc. - ô n a , 313 B ab y lô n ia, - a e , /., 301 B ëstia, - a e , m., L ü ciu s B ëstia, 14 B ib u lu s, - ï , m., M arcus C alp u rn iu s B ib u ­ lus, 322 B ith y n ia, - a e , f., 176 B o eô tia, - a e , /. B rita n n ia , - a e , 338, 354 B ru n d isiu m , - ï , n., 188, 189 B rù tu s, - ï , tu D ecim u s Jü n iu s B rütus, 227; M arcus fü n iu s B rü tu s, 263, 269, 305, 320; B rü tï (D ecim u s Jü n iu s and M arcu s Jü n iu s, b o th co n sp irato rs a g a in st C a e s a r ) , 324

.,

C. = G âjus, a p ra e n o m e n C a e c ilia , - a e , 257 C ae ciliàn u s, - ï , m., 312 C ae ciliu s, —ï, m., see M etellu s C aeliu s, - ï , m., 345; Q u in tu s L atïn iën sis, 201

C aelius

523

C ae sar, - a ris , m., G âjus Jülius C aesar, 289, 320 ff.; L ücius Jülius C aesar, 13; L ücius Jülius C ae sar O ctaviu s, 305; L ücius Jülius C aesar S trabô, 217, 320 C ae sareu s, - a , - u m , adj., 313 C à jë ta , - a e , f., 188, 305 C à jë tà n u s, - a , - u m , adj., 356 C am illu s, - i , m ., see F ü riu s C am p u s, - i , m., see M artius C an in iu s, - i , m. C an iu s, - i , m., G ajus C anius, 260, 261 C a n n a , - a e , f., 251 C ap ito lin u s, - a , - u m , adj., 22, 155 ff., 240 C a p ito liu m , - i , n., 22, 155, 163 ff., 240 C a p p a d o c ia , - a e , f., 178 ff. C apua, -a e , 72, 81 C arb ô , -ô n is , m ., G ajus P ap iriu s C arb o , 215 C àrës, - u m , m. pl., 313 C a rth à g in ië n sis, - e , adj., 199, 281 C a rth a g o , - in is , /., 203, 240 C aspius, - a , -u m , adj., 339 C assius, - i , m., L ücius C assius L onginus, 14, 155 ff.; G ajus C assius L o n g in u s, 305, 324; G ajus C assius V arus, 208; P ü b liu s C assius, 345 C a tilin a , - a e , m ., 2 ff., 312 C atô , -ô n is , m., M arcus P orcius C ato, 221, 225, 281; M arcus Porcius C atô (fa th e r of C atô U tic e n sis), 214; M ar­ cus Porcius C atô U ticensis, 225, 322, 323, 345; C atônës, 259 C a tu lu s, - ï , m., Q u in tu s L u ta tiu s C a tu ­ lus, 213, 214, 252; Q u in tu s L u ta tiu s C atu lu s, 166, 197, 202 ff. C au casu s, - I , m., 339 C ëp à riu s, - ï , m., M arcus C ëp âriu s, 159, 171 C erës, C ereris, /., 292 C e th ë g u s, - i , m., G ajus C e th e g u s, 14, 153 ff. C hilo, -ô n is , m., Q u in tu s A nnius C hilô, 159 C hius, - a , - u m , adj., 223 C h rem ës, - is , m., 283, 284 C icerô, -ô n is , m., M arcus T ullius C icerô (o ra to r), 4 9 ff.; M arcus T ullius C icerô (s o n ), 267 ff.; Q u in tu s T ullius C icerô (b ro th e r of o r a to r ) , 212, 270, 271, 331;

Q u in tu s T u lliu s C icerô (so n of Q u in ­ tu s ) , 271 C ilicia, - a e , 189, 206 C im b ri, - ô ru m , m. pl., 203 C im b ricu s, —a, - u m , adj., 223 C in ciu s, - ï , m., L ü ciu s C incius, 274 C in n a, - a e , m., L ü ciu s C o rn eliu s C inna, 1 5 5 ,1 6 6 , 252 C la u d iu s, - i , m., A p p iu s C lau d iu s P u l­ ch er C n. = G n aeu s, a p ra e n o m e n C n id iu s, —a, —um , adj., 264 C n id u s, - i , /., 188 C o lo p h ô n , —ônis, m ., 188, 223 C o m itiu m , - i , n., 133 C o n c o rd ia , - a e , /., 88 C ô n sân u s, - i , m., 233 C o rd u b a , - a e , /., 227 C o rfin iu m , - i , n., 345 C o rn éliu s, - i , m., 155; G àjus C ornelius, 1 4 ,6 3 C o rv in u s, - i , m., 321; see V alerius C o tta , - a e , m., G âjus A urelius C otta, 251; L ü ciu s A urelius C o tta, 22, 163 C rassus, - ï , m., L ü c iu s L icinius C rassus, 214; P ü b liu s L icin iu s C rassus D ives, 217; M arcu s L icinius C rassus D ives, 14, 22, 272 C rëtën sis, - e , adj., 189, 195 C u p id o , - in is , m., 287 C u ria , - a e , f., C ü ria H o stilia, 145 C ü riô , -ô n is , m., G âjus S cribonius C üriô, 208 C u riu s, - ï , m., M arcus C u riu s, 271; M arcu s C u riu s D e n ta tu s , 243; Q u in tu s C urius, 14, 49, 56, 64 C ÿ clâd e s, - u m , f. pl., 298 C y p riu s, - a , - u m , adj., 253 C y p ru s, - i , f., 3 4 6 C ÿ zicën u s, - a , - u m , adj., 180, 224 D a m a sip p u s, —i, m., 331 D am o clès, - is , m., 249 D e c e m b e r, - b r is , - b r e , adj., 22 D ëlos, - i , /., 199, 313 D ë m ë triu s, - i , m., 264 D ë m o c ritë u s, - a , - u m , adj., 253 D ë m o sth e n ës, - is , m., 23 6 , 311, 318 D id ô , - u s ( - ô n is ), /., 295 D io d o tu s, - i , m., 2 6 2

D io n y siu s, - i , m., 248 ff., D ionysius M ag ­ nes, 264 D o la b e lla , - a e , m., P ü b liu s C ornélius D o la b e lla , 3 19, 331 D o m itiu s, - i, m ., 345 D rü su s, —î, m., M arcus Livius D rüsus, 2 1 4 ,2 5 1 ,2 5 2 D y rrh a c h iu m , - I , n., 323, 346 E le a , - a e , f., 253 E n n iu s, - i , m., 222 ff., 292 É p ïru s, -I, 323, 346 E rc ô la , - a e , f., 339 E trü ria , - a e , f., 63, 71, 124, 148, 163 F a b iu s, - a , - u m , adj., Q u in tu s F ab iu s M âxim us C ü n c tà to r, 196, 22 5 , 251; Q u in tu s F a b iu s S anga, 148 F a b ric iu s , - a , - u m , adj., G ajus F ab ric iu s L uscinus, 243 F a e s u la e , - â r u m , f. pl., 56 ff., 124 ff. F a lc id iu s, - I , m., G ajus F alcid iu s, 201 F a le rii, - o ru m , m. pl., 298, 299 F a le rn u s, - a , - u m , adj., 331 F a lisc i, - ô ru m , m. pl., 298 F a u s tu s , - i , m ., see Sulla. F e b ru a riu s , - a , - u m , adj., 22 F ig u lu s, - i , m., G âjus M arcius F ig u lu s, 13 F la c c u s, - ï , m ., M arcu s F u lv iu s F laccu s, 123, 143; L ü ciu s V alerius F laccu s, 123; L ücius V alerius F laccu s, 152 ff., 257 F la m in iu s, - a , - u m , adj., Via F lam in ia, 152 F o rm ia n u s, - a , - u m , adj., 305 F o ru m , - i , n., 148 ff., F o ru m A urelium , 139 F ra n c i, -ô ru m , m. pl., 340 F u lv ia , - a e , /., 49, 64 F u lv iu s, - i , 7ii., M arcus F ulvius N obilior, 14, 225, 227 ; see F laccu s F ü riu s , - ï , in., P ü b liu s F ü riu s, 159; L ü c iu s F ü riu s P hilus, 221, 259; L ücius F ü riu s, 321; M arcu s F ü riu s C am illus, 298, 299 G a b in iu s, - ï , m., A ulus G ab in iu s, 1 9 8 ff.; P ü b liu s G ab in iu s C ap itô , 14, 216; P ü b liu s G ab in iu s C im b er, 153 ff.

G âjus, - ï , m., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. C. G a llia , - a e , f. G allice, adv., 364 G allicu s, - a , - u m , adj. G allu s, - a , - u m ; adj., G allus, -I, m. G âv iu s, - i , m., 233 ff. G e rm a n ia , - a e , f. G e rm a n u s, - a , - u m , adj. G la b rio , - ô n is , m., M anius Acilius G la b ­ rio, 176, 184 G lau cia, - a e , m ., G âjus Servilius G laucia, 160 G n aeu s, - ï , m ., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. C n. G racch u s, - i , m., T ib eriu s S em pronius G racch u s, 122; G ajus G racch us, 123; G racch i, 143, 290 G raecë, adv., 263, 364 G ra e c ia , - a e , f. G raecu s, - a , - u m , adj. G raju s, - a , -u m , adj., G reek, 241 G ra tiu s ( G r a ttiu s ) , —i, m., 215 G reg ô riu s, - ï , in. H eg iô , - ô n is , in., 277, 278 H ê ra c lë a ( - l a ) , - a e , f., 215 ff. H ëraclëën sis, - e , adj., 215 ff. H ë ra c lïu s, - ï , m., 339 ff. H e rm a ( - ë s ) , - a e , ni., 273, 274 H e rm ë ra c lë s, - is , in., 273 H ërô d ës, - is , m., 269 H iero so ly m a, - ô ru m , n. pl. (Je ru sa le m ), 340 H isp a n ia , - a e , /. H isp àn ic ë, adv., 364 H isp ân iën sis, - e , adj. H isp ân u s, - a , - u m , adj. H o m ëru s, —ï, m., 223 H o rtè n siu s, - ï , m., Q u in tu s H o rten siu s H o rtàlu s, 197 ff. ïd ü s , - u u m , f. pl., 132 îlia s, - a d is , f., 226 Illy ricu s, - a , - u m , adj., 189 In d ia , - a e , f., 365 Iô n ës, - u m , m. pl., 313 ïso c ra të s, - is , m., 311 Issus, - i , f., 272 ïta lia , - a e , f. ïta lic ë , adv., 364 ïta lic u s , - a , - u m , adj. Ita lu s, - I , m., 364

525

Jâ n u â riu s, - a , - u m , adj. J u b a , - a e , m., 323 J u g u rth a , - a e , m., 203 Jü liu s, —ï, m., G àjus Jülius, 63; see C aesar Jü n iu s, - a , - u m , adj., 13, 268 J u p p ite r, Jovis, m., 163 ff., 337; Ju p p ite r O p tim u s M axim us, 164; J u p p ite r S ta ­ tor, 130, 146 K. or K al. = K a le n d a e , 291 K alen d ae, - r u m , f. pl., 13, 22, 72, 126 ff., 268 L. = L ü ciu s, a p ra en o m en L a c e d a e m o n , -o n is , /., 255 L a e c a , - a e , m., M arcus Porcius L aeca, 1 4 ,6 3 , 121 ff. L a eliu s, —ï, m., G ajus L aelius Sapiens,

221 L à r, L a ris, m., 242 L a tin e , adv., 263 ff. L a tîn iën sis, - is , see C aelius L a tin u s, - a , - u m , adj. L a tiu m , - I , n., 213 L e n tu lu s, - I , m ., P ü b liu s C ornélius L e n ­ tu lu s Siira, 14, 151 ff.; G naeus C o rn é ­ lius L e n tu lu s, 201; G naeus C ornélius L e n tu lu s C lodiânus, 208; L üciu s C o r­ nélius L e n tu lu s, 216 L e ô n id â s, - a e , m., 269 L e p id u s, - I , m., M anius A em ilius L e p i­ dus, 133, 135; M arcus A em ilius L e p id u s, 22, 166; M arcus A em ilius L e p id u s, 323 L ib e ra to re s, - u m , m., 263 L icin iu s, - I , m., A ulus L icinius, 211 ff., see A rchias L ivius, - I , m., 345, 364 L ocrensis, - e , adj., 216 L ü c e ria , - a e , 345 L ü c ifer, - f e r i, m. L ü ciu s, - I , m., a p ra e n o m e n , ahbr. L. L ü c rë tiu s, - I , m., 345 L u c u llu s, - I , m., L ücius L icinius Lücullus, 176 ff.; M arcus L icinius Lücullus, 215 L y san d er, - d r l , m., 255 M . = M àrcu s, a p ra e n o m e n

52 6

M ’. = M an iu s, a p ra e n o m e n M aced o , -o n is , m., 339 M a c e d o n ia , - a e , /. M aeliu s, - I , m., S p u riu s M aelius, 122 M âjus, - a , - u m , adj., 291 M a m e rtin i, - ô ru m , m. pl, 23 3 , 235 M an iliu s, - I , m., G ajus M anilius, 208; M anius M anilius, 239 M an iu s, a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. M ’. M an lian u s, - a , - u m , adj., 129, 143 M an liu s, - I , m ., G ajus M anlius, 56 ff., 126 ff., 138, 139 M a n tu a , - a e , f., 313 M arcellu s, - ï , m., M àrcu s C lau d iu s M ar­ cellus, 196, 251; M àrcu s C lau d iu s M àrcellus, 137, 322; M àrcellï, 225 M àrciu s, - I , m., Q u in tu s M àrcius Rëx, 81 M àrcu s, - I , m., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. M . M ariu s, - I , m., G ajus M ariu s, 123, 160 ff. M arp ësiu s, - a , - u m , adj., 296 M ars, M ârtis, m., 2 28, 337 M àrtiàlis, - e , adj., 257 M àrtiu s, - a , - u m , adj., C a m p u s M àrtius, 56 M asin issa, - a e , m., 239 M assilia, - a e , 147 M a u rità n ia , - a e , /., 323 M au sô lëu m , —I, n., 313 M àxim us, see F a b iu s, V alerius M ëd ëa, - a e , f., 182 M e d iô lâ n u m , —I, n., 316 M eg aricu s, - a , - u m , adj., 273, 274 M e m p h is ,- is ( - i d o s ) , / . , 313 M e n a rc h u s, - I , m., 278 M en ed ëm u s, - ï , m., 284 M en ip p u s, - I , m., 264 M en o p h ilu s, - I , m., 273 M ercu riu s, - ï, m., 337 M essàn a, - a e , f., 23 3 , 235 M ete llu s, - I , m., Q u in tu s C aecilius M etellu s C eler, 81, 136; M àrcu s M etel­ lus, 136; Q u in tu s C aeciliu s M etellus C réticu s, 81, 201; Q u in tu s C aecilius M etellu s N u m id icu s, 2 14, 252; Q u in ­ tus C aeciliu s M etellu s P ius, 214, 215, 216, 227, 230; Q u in tu s C aecilius M etellu s P ius Scipio, 289 M in erv a, - a e , f., 318 M îsën u m , - I , n., 188 M ith rid à të s, - is , m., 176 ff.

M ith rid â tic u s, - a , - u m , adj., 177, 224 M olô, - ô n is , m., 263, 264 M u lv iu s, - a , - u m , adj., 152 M u n d a , - a e , f., 324 M ü rë n a , - a e , m., L ü c iu s L ic in iu s M ü r ë n a , 178 M ü sa, - a e , f., 223, 228, 265 M y tilë n a e u s, - a , - u m , adj., 226 N e a p o lita n u s, - a , - u m , adj., 213, 216 N epos, - ô tis , m., G â ju s C o r n e liu s N e p o s , 319 N erô, - ô n is , m., T i b e r i u s N e r ô , 171 N inus, - î , m ., 301 N ô n ae, - â r u m , f. pl., 22 N o v em b er, - b r is , - b r e , adj., 72, 126, 127, 268 N u m a, - a e , m., 242 N u m a n tia , - a e , f., 203, 240 Ô cean u s, - î , m., 188 O c tâ v iâ n u s, - ï , m., 236 O c tà v iu s, - ï , m., G n a e u s O c tâ v iu s , 166, 214 O c tô b e r, - b r is , - b r e , adj. Ô gygës, - is ( Ô g y g u s , - î ) , m., 2 9 2 O p ïm iu s, - î , m., L ü c iu s O p ïm iu s , 1 2 3 O rcu s, - î , m., 2 8 8 O riën s, -e n tis , m., 3 2 3 Ô stiënsis, - e , adj., 1 8 8 P. = P ü b liu s, a p r a e n o m e n P a lâ tiu m , - î , n., 120 P a m p h ÿ lia , - a e , f., 234 P a n o rm u s, - ï , f., 234 P â p iu s, - a , - u m , adj., 217 P a u lu s, - î , m., L ü c iu s A e m iliu s P a u lu s , 251; L ü c iu s A e m iliu s P a u lu s , 240, 243, 257, 259; L ü c iu s A e m iliu s P a u lu s , 81 P elasg i, -ô ru m , m. pl., 356 = G r a e c i,

m. pl. - i , m., 346

-ô ru m ,

P ën ëu s, P e n te lic u s, - a , - u m , adj., 274 P e rsa e , - â r u m , m. pl., 241, 337 P ersës, - a e , m., 199 P e tra rc a , - a e , m., 355 P e trë ju s, - î , m., M a r c u s P e tr e ju s , 3 2 3 P h a e th o n , - ô n tis , m., 337 P h a rsa lia , - a e , f., 323 P h a rsa lic u s, - a , - u m , adj., 346

P h ilip p icu s, —a, —u m , adj., 236, 318 P h ilip p u s, - ï , m., L ü c iu s M a r c iu s P h il ip ­ p u s , 204; P h ilip p u s ( K i n g ) , 178, 310 P h ilo c ra të s, - is , m., 278, 279 P h ilo p o lem u s, - I , m., 277 P h o en issa, - a e , f., 295 P ïcën u m , - i , n., 63, 81 P in n iu s, - i , m., 292 P isistra tu s, —i, m., 252 Pïsô, -ô n is , m . , G n a e u s P is o , 22; M a r c u s P iso , 263 P latô , -ô n is , m., 246, 253, 311, 361 P la u tiu s, - a , - u m , adj., 81 P lin iu s, - a , - u m , adj., G a ju s P lin iu s C a e c iliu s S e c u n d u s , 316, 364 P lô tiu s, - i , m., 224 P lü ta rc h u s, - i , m., 362 P o en u s, - i , m ., 281; P o e n i, - ô r u m , m. pl., 178 P o m p ëjàn u s, - a , - u m , adj., 346 P o m p ëju s, - i , m . , G n a e u s P o m p e ju s M agnus,

1 7 2 ff.;

Q u in tu s

P o m p ë ju s

R ü fu s , 8 1 ; Q u in tu s P o m p e ju s , 2 6 3 ; G n a e u s P o m p ë ju s , 3 2 3 ; S e x tu s P o m p ë ­ ju s, 3 2 3 ; V ia P o m p ë ja , 2 3 5

P o m p tin u s, - a , - u m ,

adj.,

321;

G a ju s

P o m p t in u s , 1 5 2 ff.

P o n ticu s, - a , - u m , adj., 297 P o n tu s, - i , m ., 178, 181, 182 P o rciu s, - a , - u m , adj., 234 P ra e n e ste , - is , n., 127 P ü n icu s, - a , - u m , adj., 203 P y ram u s, - i , m., 300 ff. P y rrh u s, - i , m ., 243 P y th a g o ra s, - a e , m . , 241 P y th iu s, - a , - u m , adj., 260, 261 Q. = Q u in tu s, a p r a e n o m e n Q u in q u à trü s, - u u m , f. pl., 318 Q u in tilia n u s, - i , m ., 354 Q u in tilis, - e , adj., 269 Q u irin u s, —i, m . , 149 Q u irïtës, - iu m , m. pl., 149 ff. R aeciu s, - ï , m., L ü c iu s R a e c iu s , 234 R a v e n n a , - a e , f., 289, 345 R e a tin u s, - a , - u m , adj., 152 R eb ilu s, - i , m., 331 R ëgïnï, - ô ru m , m . pl., 213, 216, 233

527

R ëgulus, - ï , m., 251 R h ë to ric a , - a e , f., 354 R hodius, - a , - u m , adj., 199, 263 R hodus, - I , 264 R ôm a, - a e , f. R ô m àn u s, - a , - u m , adj. R ôm ulus, - I , m., 146, 163, 292 R ôscius, - i, m., Q u in tu s Roscius, 221; Sextus R oscius, 263 R ôstra, - ô ru m , n. pl., 147, 305 R ubicô, -ô n is , m ., 345 R udinus, - a , - u m , adj., 225 R utiliu s, - i , m ., P ublius R utilius R üfus, 251 Saenius, - i , m ., L ucius Saenius, 72 S alam iniu s, - a , - u m , adj., 223 S am nites, - iu m , m. pl., 243 Sam os, - i , f., 188 S aracën ï, - ô ru m , m. pl., 339 S ard in ia, - a e , f., 189 S a tu rn a lia , - ô ru m , n. pl., 155, 161 S atu rn in u s, —ï, m., L ücius À pulëjus S a­ tu rn in u s, 123; S atu rn in i, -ô ru m , m. pl., 1 4 3 ,2 9 0 S atu rn u s, - i , m., 292, 337 Scaevola, - a e , m., Q u in tu s Scaevola, 252 S caurus, - i , m ., M arcus A em ilius S cau ­ rus, 214 Scïpiô, -ô n is , m., P üblius C ornélius Scipio A fricanus M ajor, 196, 225, 243; P üblius C ornélius Scïpiô A fricanus M inor, 196, 203, 221, 239, 240, 251, 275; P üblius C ornélius Scïpiô N asica S erâpiô, 122; P üblius Scïpiô, 251; G naeus Scïpiô, 251 Sem iram is, - is , f., 300 S em pronius, - a , - u m , adj., 234 S eneca, - a e , m., 364 S eptim ius, - ï , m., 63 S ertô riân u s, - a , - u m , adj., 181 S ervilius, - ï , m.. G em inus Servilius, 280; P üblius Servilius V atia, 208; G n aeu s Servilius C aepio, 245; Servilius C asca, 324; G ajus Servilius A hala, 122; G ajus Servilius G laucia, 123, 160 S ervius, - ï , in., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. Ser. S ëstius, - ï , m., P üblius Sëstius, 137 Sextilis, - e , adj. S ibyllinus, - a , - u m , adj., 155, 156

528

S icilia, - a e , f., 186 ff. S ïgëum , - i , n., 225 S ilanus, - i , m., D ecim u s Jü n iu s Silanus, 171 S ilvanus, - i , m., M arcu s P lau tiu s Sil­ v anus, 215 Sinôpë, - ë s , f., 181 S m y rn aeu s, —a, —um , adj., 223 S ôcratës, - is , m., 253, 327, 361 Sp. =: S p u riu s, a p ra e n o m e n S tatiliu s, - ï , m., L ü ciu s Statilius, 14, 153 ff. S tato r, -ô ris , m., 130, 146 Stoicus, —a, —u m , adj., 24 5 , 262 S trato n ïcën sis, - e , adj., 264 Sulla, - a e , m., L ü ciu s C o rn éliu s Sulla, 2, 71, 155 ff.; S ervius Sulla, 14; Püblius Sulla, 14, 22; L ü c iu s F a u stu s Sulla, 323 S u llan u s, - a , - u m , adj., 72 Sulm ô, - ô n is , m., 345 S u lp iciu s, - i , m., G ajus S ulpicius, 154; P ü b liu s S ulpicius R üfus, 166; G âjus S ulpicius G allus, 259 S y ch aeu s, - i , m., 296 S y ràcü sae, - a r u m , f. pl., 233, 260; Syràcü sàn u s, - a , - u m , adj., 248; Syràcüsius, - a , - u m , adj., 246 Syria, - a e , /., 206, 240 Syrus, - i , m., 264 T. = T itu s, a p ra e n o m e n T a c itu s, - i , m., 364 T a re n tin i, - ô ru m , m. pl., 213, 216 T e n e d u s, - i , f. T e re n tia , - a e , f., 267 T e rtia , - a e , f., 257 T e u to n i, - ô ru m , in. pl., 203 T h a lë s, - is , m., 241 T h ë b a e , - â r u m , f. pl., 292 T h e m isto c lë s, - is , m., 223 T h e o d o siu s, - i , m ., 351 T h e o p h a n ë s, - is , m., 226 T h e o p h ra s tu s, - i , m., 246 T h e ssa lia , - a e , f., 32 3 , 3 4 6 T h isb ë , - ë s , f., 300 T ib e rin u s, - a , - u m , adj., 188 T ib e ris, - is , m., 152 T ib e riu s, - ï , m., a p ra e n o m e n T ig râ n ë s, - is , m., 176 ff.

T irô , - ô n is , m., M arcu s T u lliu s T iro, 271, 272 T itu s, - i , m., a p ra e n o m e n , abbr. T . T o rq u â tu s , - ï , m., L ü c iu s M anliu s T o r­ q u a tu s , 22, 163 T ra n s a lp in u s, - a , - u rn , adj., 151, 185, 189 T riv ia , - a e , 313 T rô ja , - a e , 265 T rô ju s, - î , m ., 295 T u llia , - a e , /., 267 T u lliâ n u m , - ï , n., 171 T u llio la , - a e , 267 T u lliu s, - î, m., 356; see C icerô; M arcus T u lliu s, 81, 141, 286, 360, 361 T u llu s, - î , m L ü ciu s T ullus, 22; L ü ciu s V olcàcius T u llu s, 133 T u sc u la n u s, - a , - u n i, adj., 245, 268, 272, 305, 316 T u sc u lu m , - i , n., 245 T y n d a ru s , - î , m., 278, 279 T y ra n n iô , -ô n is , m., 273 U lixës, - is , m ., 265 U m b rë n u s, - ï , m., P ü b liu s 159 U to p iën su s, - e , adj., 363

V aleriu s, - ï , m., see F laccu s; M axim us V alerius C o rvinus, 321 V arg u n tëju s, - I , m ., L. V arg u n tëju s, 14, 63 V arius, - I , m., Q u in tu s V arius, 252 V arrô, - ô n is , m., M arcus V arrô, 323 V ârus, - ï , m ., Q u in tu s V àrus, 323 V atin iu s, - ï , m., 330 Vëjï, -ô ru m , m. pl., 299 V enus, - e ris , 287, 337 V ër, V ëris, n., 350 V ergilius, - ï , m., 313, 354, 364 V ërô n a, - a e , 313 V errès, - is , m ., G àjus V errës, 232 ff. V esper, - e ris , m., 337 V esta, - a e , f. V estalis, - e , adj. V o ltu rciu s, - ï, m., T. V olturcius, 151 ff. V u lcân u s, - ï , m., 318 X ënô, -ô n is , m ., 269 X enoclës, - is , m., 264 X en o p h an ës, - is , m ., 246 X erxës, - is , m., 241

U m b rën u s, Zënô, - ô n is ,

m.,

253, 269

Gram m atical Index a b la tiv e case, ab so lu te, 24, 5 9 -6 0 , 419, 4 3 6 • a c c o m p a n im e n t, 23, 419 • a c ­ co rd an ce, 25, 420 • ag en t, 23, 420 • a tte n d a n t c ircu m stan ce, 24, 4 1 9 • cause, 25, 421 • co m p ariso n , 24, 418 • d e g re e of differen ce, 24, 418 • d e ­ scrip tio n , 24, 418 • m a n n e r, 24, 4 2 0 • m a te ria l, 23, 420 • m eans, 24, 417 • p e n a lty , 24, 4 1 9 • p la c e from w h ich , 23, 4 2 0 • p la c e in w h ich ( w h e re ) , 23, 4 2 0 • p rep o sitio n s w ith , 23, 421 • p ric e , 24, 4 1 9 • re sp e c t (sp ecifica­ tio n ), 24, 4 1 8 • rev iew a n d p rev iew of uses, 2 3 - 2 6 • se p a ra tio n , 2 4 -2 5 , 4 2 0 • so u rce (o rig in ), 25, 421 • su m ­ m ary of uses, 4 1 7 -2 1 • tim e w h e n an d w ith in w h ich , 24, 419 • w ay ( r o u te ) , 24, 4 1 8 • w ith ad jectiv es, 24, 4 1 8 • w ith opus est, 24, 418 • w ith special

verbs (d e p o n e n ts ), 24, 418 • w ith su p in e, 69, 439 • w ith iisus, 418 a ccu sativ e case, co g n ate, 15, 416 • d ire c t o b ject, 14, 415 • d o u b le accu sa­ tive, 15, 415 • d u ra tio n of tim e, 14, 416 • ex clam ato ry , 15, 417 • ex ten t of space, 14, 416 • G reek accu sativ e, 416 • in d ire c t sta te m e n t, 15, 52 • o b ject of infinitive, 15 • p la c e to w h ich (lim it of m o tio n ), 14, 416 • p re d ic a te accu sativ e, 15, 415 • p rep o sitio n s w ith , 15, 417 • rev iew an d p rev iew of uses, 1 4 -1 5 • su b jec t of infinitive, 15, 416, 4 3 3 -3 4 • w ith ad, 14, 416, 417 • w ith co m p o u n d v erb s, 15, 4 1 5 -1 6 • w ith im p erso n al v erbs, 4 05, 4 1 6 • w ith m id d le voice, 417 • w ith nam es of p laces, 14, 4 1 6 « w ith v erb s of em o ­ tion, 416

529

activ e p e rip h ra stic , 58, 399, 4 3 5 -3 6 a d je c tiv e clau se, 83, 425, 431 ad jectiv es, a g reem en t, 4 0 7 -0 8 • as ad v erb s, 408 • as nouns 407 • com ­ p arison, 3 8 0 -8 1 • declension, 3 7 8 -7 9 • declension of co m p arativ e, 381 • d e m o n stra tiv e , 35, 387 • indefinite, 36, 3 8 8 -8 9 • intensive, 35, 388 • in ­ te rro g a tiv e , 36, 388 • n u m erical, 3 8 1 82 • p artic ip ia l, 380, 408, 4 3 4 -3 5 • possessive, 3 8 6 -8 7 • p re d ic a te , 53, 59, 407, 415, 433, 434, 435 • pro n o m in al, 35, 408 • reflexive, 35, 386 • rev iew a n d p rev iew of uses, 1 6 -2 0 • special declension, 17, 378, 379 • su m m ary of ad jectiv e p a tte rn s, 19 • su p erlativ e, 20, 380, 381 • w ith ab lativ e, 24, 418 • w ith d ativ e, 414 • w ith gen itiv e, 4, 4 1 2 • w ith quam, 20 a d v e rb ia l clauses, 7 4 -7 8 , 4 2 6 -3 1 a d v erb s, 2 6 -2 8 , 383 • com pariso n , 28, 383 • form ation, 26, 383 a g re e m e n t, adjectives, 407 • appositives, 406 • nouns, 4 0 6 -0 7 • p artic ip le s, 407, 409, 435 • p re d ic a te ad jectiv es, 53, 407 • p re d ic a te nouns, 53, 4 0 7 • relativ e p ro n o u n w ith a n te c e d e n t, 4 0 8 -0 9 • verbs, 410 âjô, conju gation, 405 aliquis, indefinite p ro n o u n , 36, 388 a llite ra tio n , 54 an aco lo u th o n , 278 a n a p h o ra , 54 annôn, 432 antequam, 74, 76, 429 an ticlim ax , 70 an tith e sis, 61 a p o stro p h e , 12 ap p o sitiv e, 3, 406, 410, 434 assonance, 54 a sy n d eto n , 30

bôs, declension,

377

card, d eclension, 377 case, h o rizo n tal com parison, 3 3 -3 5 • n o m in ativ e, genitiv e, etc., see n o m in a ­ tiv e case, g en itiv e case, etc. cau sal clauses, 74, 76, 4 2 9 -3 0 -ce, enclitic, 36, 387

c h a ra c te ris tic clau ses, 83, 4 3 1 —32 ch iasm u s, 61 clau ses, in d e p e n d e n t (u se d in m ain v e rb ) 72, 4 2 4 -2 5 • su b o rd in a te , 7 3 78, 4 2 5 -3 2 • tra n sla tio n of p artic ip les by, 5 8 -5 9 , 4 3 5 - 3 6 • u sed as ad je c ­ tives, ad v erb s, or n o uns, 4 2 5 -3 2 clim ax, 70 coepi, 4 0 4 -0 5 co m m an d s, see im p e ra tiv e co m p ariso n , ab lativ e, 24, 4 1 8 • clauses, 74, 76, 431 ; see a d jectiv es, ad v erb s c o m p le m e n ta ry in fin itiv e, see infinitive c o m p o u n d v erb s, see a c c u sa tiv e case, d a tiv e case concessive clau ses, 74, 76, 4 3 0 c o n d itio n a l clau ses, 74, 76, 77, 78, 4 3 0 31 co n ju g a tio n of v erb s, su m m ary of form s, 3 8 9 -4 0 5 co n ju n ctio n s, c o o rd in ate, 29, 3 8 4 -8 5 • su b o rd in a te , 29, 385 c o n tra c te d fo rm s, 406 c o o rd in a tin g re la tiv e s, 408 cum, co n ju n ctio n , see cau sal, conces­ sive, te m p o ra l, an d c u ra -c irc u m s ta n tia l clauses • p re p o sitio n , see a b la tiv e case (a c c o m p a n im e n t, m a n n e r) • su m m ary of uses of cum, 77 cum-cau sal, 76, 77, 430 c u m -c irc u m s ta n tia l, 77, 428 c u m -c o n c e ssiv e , 76, 77, 4 3 0 c w m -te m p o ra l, 74, 76, 77, 428 cum primum, 74, 428 d a tiv e case, a g e n t, 32, 68, 4 1 4 • d o u b le, 32, 414 • eth ical, 32, 4 1 4 • in d irec t o b ject, 32, 413 • possession, 32, 414 • p u rp o se , 32, 414 • re fe re n c e , 32, 4 1 4 • rev iew a n d p re v ie w of uses, 32 • se p a ra tio n , 32, 4 1 4 • w ith ad jectives, 32, 414 • w ith c o m p o u n d v erb s, 32, 414 • w ith sp ecial (in tra n sitiv e ) v erb s, 32, 413 d eclen sio n , see a d je c tiv e s, n o u n s, p ro ­ nouns d e fe c tiv e v erb s, 47, 4 0 4 -0 5 d e lib e ra tiv e su b ju n c tiv e , 72, 425 d e m o n stra tiv e , see ad je c tiv e s, p ro n o u n s d e p o n e n t v e rb s, 43, 45, 3 9 6 -9 8

d e sc rip tio n , see a b la tiv e case, g en itiv e case d e s c rip tiv e clauses, see c h a ra c te ris tic clau ses deus, d eclen sio n , 377 d ifferen ce, a b la tiv e of d e g re e of, see a b la tiv e case d ire c t o b je c t, see a c c u sa tiv e case d ire c t q u e stio n , see q u estio n s d isco u rse, in d ire c t, see in d ire c t s ta te ­ m e n t, in d ire c t q u e stio n donee, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 429 d o u b tin g , expressions of, w ith s u b ju n c ­ tive, 428 dum, proviso, 76, 429 • w ith h isto rical p re se n t, 74, 4 2 9 • w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 76, 4 2 9 dummodo (dum modo), proviso, 76, 429

ecquis,

in d efin ite p ro n o u n , 36, 389 ellipsis, 30 eo, co n ju g atio n , 4 0 2 -0 3 e th ic a l, see d a tiv e etsl, w ith concessive clauses, 74, 76, 430 e u p h e m ism , 80 e x clam ato ry , see a c c u sa tiv e , q u estio n s expressions of p la c e , 25 fe a rin g , verb s of, 82, 427 ferô, c o n ju g a tio n of, 4 0 2 -0 3 figures, stylistic, 1 1 -1 2 fid, co n ju g atio n of, 403 for, 405 fore ut, 434 fruor, w ith ab lativ e, 418 fungor, w ith a b la tiv e , 418 fu tu re p assiv e p a rtic ip le , see g e ru n d iv e g e n itiv e case, d escrip tio n , 3, 4 1 2 • in ­ d efin ite v alu e ( p r ic e ) , 3, 411 • lim ­ itin g , 4, 4 1 0 • m a te ria l, 4, 4 1 2 • o b jectiv e, 4, 412 • origin, 4, 4 1 2 • p a rtitiv e (o f th e w h o le ), 3, 411 • possession, 3, 4 1 0 • p re d ic a te , 3, 411 • rev iew a n d p re v ie w , 3 - 4 , 4 1 0 13 • su b jec tiv e, 4, 4 1 2 • w ith a d ­ jectives, 4, 412 • w ith causa an d gratia, see g e ru n d , g e ru n d iv e , p u r ­ p o se • w ith im p e rso n a l verb s, 4, 4 1 2 13 • w ith potior, 4, 413 • w ith v erb s

of accusing, co n d em n in g , a c q u ittin g , 4, 4 1 2 -1 3 • of fo rg e ttin g a n d re m e m ­ b erin g , 4, 412 • of p le n ty an d w a n t ( n e e d ) , 4, 413 • of em otion, 413 g e ru n d , 6 4 -6 5 , 437 • w ith ad, causa, gratia to express p u rp o se , 65, 437 g e ru n d iv e , 6 6 -6 9 , 4 3 7 -3 8 • w ith ad, causa, gratia to express p u rp o se , 67, 438 • w ith d ativ e, 32, 68, 414 • w ith sum (p assiv e p e rip h ra s tic ), 6 7 -6 8 , 438 h e n d ia d y s, 47 hic, 35 • d eclension, 387 h in d e rin g , verbs of, 82, 4 2 7 -2 8 h o riz o n ta l co m p ariso n of cases, 3 3 -3 5 h o rta to ry su b ju n c tiv e , 72, 4 2 4 -2 5 h y p e rb a to n , 39 h y p e rb o le , 21 h y stero n p ro te ro n , 39

idem, 35 tile, 35 •

• d eclen sio n , 387 declen sio n , 387 im p e ra tiv e m o o d , 5 0 -5 1 , 422, 4 3 2 -3 3 • see su m m ary of all v erb form s, 3 8 9 405 im p erso n al p assive, 32, 406, 413, 415 im p erso n al v erb s, 4, 52, 4 0 5 -0 6 , 4 3 4 • w ith g en itiv e, 4, 413 • w ith infinitive, 53, 434 in d efin ite ad jectiv es a n d p ro n o u n s, 36, 3 8 8 -8 9 in d ic a tiv e m ood, co n ju g atio n : d efectiv e, 47, 4 0 4 -0 5 • d e p o n e n t, 43, 45, 3 9 6 98 • irre g u la r, 4 0 0 -0 4 • re g u la r, 3 8 9 96 • sem id e p o n e n t, 3 9 8 -9 9 • syntax, 4 2 2 -2 4 in d ire c t c o m m a n d , see p u rp o se (su b ­ s ta n tiv e ) in d ire c t d isco u rse, su b o rd in a te clause in, 84, 4 3 2 • see in d ire c t q u estio n , in ­ d ire c t s ta te m e n t in d ire c t o b ject, 32, 413 in d ire c t q u e stio n , 82, 432 in d ire c t sta te m e n t, 53, 434in finitive, 5 1 -5 3 , 4 3 3 -3 4 • accu sativ e su b jec t, 52, 53, 4 16, 434 • as appositiv e, 4 3 4 • co m p le m e n ta ry , 5 2 -5 3 , 433 • h isto rical, 52, 4 3 4 • in d ire c t sta te m e n t, 53, 4 3 4 • o b jectiv e, 5 2 -5 3 ,

531

433 • as p re d ic a te nom in ativ e, 4 3 4 • p re d ic a te n o m in ativ e w ith , 53, 433 • reflexive p ro n o u n w ith , 53 • rev iew of uses, 52 • su b jectiv e, 5 2 -5 3 , 434 • su b jec t of infinitive, 15, 52, 416 inquam, 405 inten siv e p ro n o u n , 35, 388 in terjec tio n s, 386 in te rro g a tiv e ad jectiv es a n d p ro n o u n s. 36, 388 in tra n sitiv e verbs, 413, 415 ipse, 35 • declension, 388 irony, 79 irre g u la r nouns, 3 7 7 -7 8 irre g u la r v erb s, 4 6 -4 7 • conju g atio n , 4 0 0 -0 4 is, 35 • declension, 387 iste, 35 • declension, 387

jam, jam dm, jam düdum, jam pridem, 4 2 3 -2 4 jussive su b ju n ctiv e, 72, 424, 425 le tte r-w ritin g , 439 licet, w ith concessive clauses, 76 lito tes, 21 locativ e case, 25, 421

mâlô, conjugation, memini, 4 0 4 -0 5 -met, 36, 386

(c o n ju n c tio n ), after verbs of fearing, 82, 427 • after verbs of h in d e rin g , 82, 4 2 7 -2 8 • in p u rp o se clauses, 75, 82, 426 • w ith h o rta to ry , jussive, an d o p ta tiv e su b ju n ctiv e, 72, 4 2 4 -2 5 -ne (e n c litic ), in te rro g a tiv e p artic le , 38 • d o u b le d ire c t q u estio n , 38 • d o u b le in d ire c t q u estio n , 83, 432 necne, w ith d o u b le in d ire c t q u estio n , 8 3 ,4 3 2 n e g a tiv e c o m m an d s, 5 0 -5 1 , 433 nëmô, declension, 377

532

co n ju g atio n , 4 0 4 -0 5 • see n e g a tiv e co m m an d s n o m in a tiv e case, ap p o sitiv e, 3, 410 • p re d ic a te ad jectiv e, 3, 407, 433 • p r e d ­ ic a te n o u n , 3, 410, 433 • rev iew and p re v ie w of uses, 3, 4 1 0 • su b jec t, 3, 410 nonne, w ith d ire c t q u e stio n , 38 n o u n ( s ) , ad jectiv es u se d as, 4 0 7 • a g re e m e n t, 4 0 6 -0 7 • clauses (s u b ­ s ta n tiv e ), see d o u b tin g , fe a rin g , h in ­ d erin g , in d ire c t q u e stio n , p u rp o se , r e ­ su lt • d eclen sio n , 3 7 3 -7 8 • G reek, 373, 37 4 , 3 7 6 • irre g u la r declension, 3 7 7 -7 8 • p re d ic a te , 3, 53, 40 6 , 407, 41 0 , 43 3 , 4 3 4 • rev iew a n d p rev iew of, 3 -1 5 , 23, 25, 32 num, w ith d ire c t q u estio n s, 38 • w ith expressions of d o u b t, 4 2 8 • w ith in ­ d ire c t q u estio n s, 83, 4 3 2 n u m erals, 3 8 1 -8 2 • see also ü n u s o b ject, d ire ct, 14, 415 • in d ire c t, 32, 413 o b jectiv e, g en itiv e, 4, 4 1 2 • infinitive, 5 2 -5 3 , 433 odi, 4 0 4 -0 5 o p ta tiv e su b ju n c tiv e , 72, 425 os, ossis, d eclen sio n , 377 oxym oron, 61

4 0 3 -0 4

m e ta p h o r, 12 m etonom y, 20 modo, w ith proviso clause, 76, 429 m oods, see im p era tiv e, in d icativ e, s u b ­ ju n ctiv e



nôlô,

p a ra lle l s tru c tu re , 39 p a ro n o m a sia , 79 p a rtic ip le s, 5 7 -6 0 , 4 3 4 - 3 7 • ab lativ e ab so lu te, 24, 5 9 -6 0 , 41 9 , 4 3 6 • as ad jectiv e, see a d je c tiv e s • declension, 380 • of d e p o n e n t v erb s, 3 9 6 -9 8 • of irre g u la r v erb s, 4 0 0 - 0 4 • rev iew of, 5 7 -6 0 , 4 3 4 -3 7 passive p e rip h ra s tic , 6 7 -6 9 , 438 p erso n ificatio n , 12 p la c e , ad v e rb s of, 2 6 - 2 7 • expressions of w ith p rep o sitio n s, see a b la tiv e case, a c c u sa tiv e case • expressions of w ith ­ o u t p rep o sitio n s, 25 • lo cativ e case, 25, 421 p leo n asm , 48 plus, d eclen sio n , 381 p o ly sy n d e to n , 30 possession, see d a tiv e case, g en itiv e case possessive, see a d je c tiv e s, p ro n o u n s

possum, c o n ju g a tio n , 401 postquam, w ith te m p o ra l

qui, clauses,

74,

428 p o te n tia l su b ju n c tiv e , 72, 425 potior, w ith ab lativ e, 418 • w ith g e n i­ tive, 4 ,4 1 3 p re d ic a te , accu sativ e, 15, 415 • a d je c ­ tive, 53, 59, 407, 415, 433, 434 , 435 • n o u n , 3, 53, 407, 408, 410, 433 , 434 p re p o sitio n s, see a b la tiv e case, accu sa tiv e case p re te ritio n , 70 priusquam, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 76, 429 p ro n o u n s, declen sio n , 3 8 6 -8 8 • d e m o n ­ stra tiv e , 35, 387 • indefinite, 36, 3 8 8 89 • in ten siv e, 35, 388 • in te rro g a ­ tive, 36, 388 • p erso n al, 35, 386 • possessive, 35, 386 • quisque, 3 6 -3 7 • reflexive, 35, 53, 386 • relativ e, 36, 388 • su m m ary of p ro n o u n s a n d p ro ­ n o m in al ad jectiv es, 3 5 -3 7 —pte, en clitic, 387 p u rp o se , clauses: a d v e rb ia l, 75, 426; re la ­ tive, 75, 426; su b sta n tiv e , 82, 4 2 6 • d a tiv e of, 32, 414 • ex p ressed by ad, causa, pr gratia w ith g e ru n d : 65, 437; w ith g e ru n d iv e , 67, 438 • ex p ressed b y su p in e, 69, 438

quam,

w ith expressions of com parison, 418 • w ith su p erlativ es, 20 quam dm, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 429 quamquam, w ith concessive clauses, 74, 430 quamvis, w ith concessive clauses, 76, 430 quandô, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 429 quasi, w ith clauses of com p ariso n , 76, 431 quemadmodum, w ith clauses of c o m p a ri­ son, 431 queô, 405 q u e stio n s, d e lib e ra tiv e , 72, 425 • d ire c t, 38 • d o u b le d ire c t, 38 • d o u b le in ­ d ire c t, 83, 4 3 2 • exclam ato ry , 425 • in d ire c t, 83, 4 3 2 • p ro n o u n , 38 • rh e ­ to ric a l, 70, 4 2 5 • w ith -ne, nonne, num, 38

in te rro g a tiv e ad jectiv e, 36, 388 • relativ e p ro n o u n , 36, 388, 431 quia, w ith causal clauses, 74, 429 quicumque, in d efin ite ad jectiv e a n d p ro ­ no u n , 36, 389 quin, w ith verbs of d o u b tin g , 82, 428 • w ith verbs of h in d erin g , 82, 427 quis, in d efin ite p ro n o u n , 36, 388 • in te r­ ro g ativ e p ro n o u n , 36, 388 quisque, in d efin ite p ro n o u n , 3 6 -3 7 , 389 quo, w ith clauses of p u rp o se, 75, 426 quoad, w ith tem p o ra l clauses, 74, 429 quod, w ith cau sal clauses, 74, 4 2 9 • w ith su b sta n tiv e clauses, 82, 431 quominus, w ith verbs of h in d e rin g , 82, 427 quoniam, w ith cau sal clauses, 429

reflexive, see ad jectiv es, p ro n o u n s re g u la r v erb s, co n ju g atio n , 3 8 9 -9 6 re la tiv e , clause: ad jectiv e, 83, 431 • c h a r­ acteristic, 83, 4 3 1 -3 2 • p u rp o se , 75, 426, 431 • resu lt, 75, 4 2 6 -2 7 , 431 re la tiv e p ro n o u n , 36, 388 • ag reem en t, 408 • a n te c e d e n t, 4 0 8 -0 9 • c o o rd in a t­ ing, 408 • d eclension, 388 re p e titio n , 54 resu lt, clauses: ad v erb ial, 75, 426 • re la ­ tive, 75, 4 2 6 -2 7 • su b stan tiv e, 82, 427 rh e to ric a l q u estio n s, 70 rh y m e, 62 rh y th m , 61 s e m id e p o n e n t v erb s, 46, 3 9 8 -9 9 senex, d eclen sio n , 377 se q u e n c e of ten ses, 73, 424 si, w ith c o n d itio n al clauses, 74, 76, 7 7 7 8 ,4 3 0 - 3 1 sicut, w ith clauses of com parison, 74, 431 sim ile, 12 simul, simul atque, w ith tem p o ra l clauses, 74, 428 sin, w ith c o n d itio n al clauses, 74, 76 sp ecial v erb s, see a b la tiv e , accu sativ e, d a tiv e , an d g en itiv e cases su b je c t, of finite v erb , 3, 4 1 0 • of in ­ finitive, 15, 52, 416 su b je c tiv e infinitive, 52, 53, 434 s u b ju n c tiv e by a ttra c tio n , 76

533

su b ju n c tiv e m ood, con ju g atio n : see d e ­ fectiv e, d e p o n e n t, irre g u la r, a n d re g u ­ lar verbs • in in d e p e n d e n t (p rin c ip a l) clauses: see d e lib e ra tiv e , h o rta to ry , ju s­ sive, an d volitiv e su b ju n ctiv es • in s u b ­ o rd in a te clauses, see a d je c tiv e , a d ­ v e rb ia l, cau sal, c h a ra c te ristic , c o m p a ri­ son, concessive, and c o n d itio n a l clauses, expressions of d o u b tin g , fe a rin g , h in d e r­ ing, p u rp o se, re la tiv e , resu lt, s u b o rd i­ n a te clause in in d ire c t d isco u rse, su b sta n tiv e clauses, te m p o ra l clauses su b o rd in a te clause in in d ire c t d isco u rse, 84, 432 s u b o rd in a te clauses, see clauses su b sta n tiv e ( n o u n ) clauses, see d o u b tin g , fe a rin g , h in d e rin g , in d ire c t q u estio n , p u rp o se, resu lt sum, co n ju g atio n , 400 su m m ary : of ad jectiv e form s, 19 • of p ro n o u n s an d p ro n o m in al ad jectives, 35 su p erlativ e, see ad jectiv es, a d v erb s su p in e, 69, 4 3 8 -3 9 synecdoche, 21 syntax, su m m ary of rules, 4 0 6 -3 9

tamquam,

w ith clauses of com parison, 76, 431 te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 76, 4 2 8 -2 9 tim e, ad v erb s of, 27 • see a b la tiv e case, accu sativ e case tmesis, 286 tra n sitiv e v erb s, 415 • u sed ab so lu tely , 417

ubi, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, ubi primum, w ith tem p o ra l

ut,

w ith th e in d ic a tiv e : in clauses of co m p ariso n , 74, 43 1 ; in tem p o ra l clauses, 74, 4 2 9 • w ith th e su b ju n c ­ tive: a fte r v erb s of fearin g , 82, 427; in clauses of p u rp o se , 75, 82, 426; in clauses of resu lt, 427 ut primum, w ith te m p o ra l clauses, 74, 429 utinam, see o p ta tiv e s u b ju n c tiv e ütor, w ith ab lativ e, 418

velut, in clauses of co m p ariso n , 76, 431 v erb s, a g re e m e n t, 4 0 9 - 1 0 • co m p o u n d : w ith accu sativ e, 15, 4 1 5 -1 6 • w ith d ativ e, 32, 414 • c o n tra c te d forms, 406 • d efectiv e, 47, 4 0 4 -0 5 • d e ­ p o n e n t, 43, 45, 3 9 6 -9 8 • im personal, 4, 32, 52, 4 0 5 -0 6 , 41 3 , 435 • in ­ tra n sitiv e, see a c c u sa tiv e case (w ith im p erso n al v erb s, w ith m id d le v o ic e ), d a tiv e case, im p e rso n a l v erb s • irre g u ­ lar, 4 6 -4 7 , 4 0 0 -0 4 • sem id ep o n e n t, 46, 398 • w ith ab la tiv e , 24, 4 1 8 • w ith d ativ e, 32, 413, 414 • w ith genitive, 4 ,4 1 2 - 1 3 vèscor , w ith ab lativ e, 418 vis, d eclen sio n , 377 v o cativ e case, 3, 373, 374, 4 2 1 -2 2 v o litiv e su b ju n c tiv e , 72, 42 4 , 425 void, co n ju g atio n , 404 w h o le,

see

g e n itiv e case, p a rtitiv e

z eu g m a, 48

74, 429 clauses, 74,

429 ünus, declension, 379 üsus, w ith ab lativ e, 418

G H i

j K L M N

534

2 3 4 5