Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography (Springer Texts in Social Sciences) [1st ed. 2023] 3031287835, 9783031287831

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Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography (Springer Texts in Social Sciences) [1st ed. 2023]
 3031287835, 9783031287831

Table of contents :
Preface
Contents
Editor and Contributors
About the Editor
Contributors
1 The Importance of Methodology in Geography
Introduction
Importance of Methodology
Research Motivation
The Role and Importance of Research Methodology
Research Method Selection Criteria
References
2 Methodology in Rural Geography
Introduction
Objectives and Classification of Fieldwork in Rural Geography
Leaning Type
Survey and Research Type
Community Building Type
Before Doing Fieldwork
Ensuring Safety and Security!
Encountering with Local People and Building Human Relations
Themes and Methods
Grasping the Outline of the Study Area
During the Fieldwork
When the Fieldwork Is Over
References
3 Portray of Methodologies in Geography: An Inquiry
Introduction
What Is Data
Primary and Secondary Data Sources
Field Study
Preparation of Questionnaire
Sampling Methods
Advantages and Disadvantages
Selected Methodologies Adopted for Selected Case Studies
Case Study I
Case Study II
Summary
References
4 Point Pattern Analysis for Identifying Spatial Clustering Tendency
Introduction
Statistical Tests for Spatial Patterns
Method 1: Nearest Neighbor Analysis (NNA)
Method 2: Distance-Based Analysis
G-function
F-Function
Ripley’s K-Function
Critical Issues in Point Pattern Analysis: Edge Effects and Correction Methods
References
5 Livelihood Changes in Small-Scale Traditional Societies: A Political Ecological Approach
Introduction
Background and Objective
Study Village
Methodology
Conducting Multiscale Interviews
Land Use Analysis
Research Result
Land Use Before LFAP Implementation
Land Use After LFAP Implementation
Rural Development by an International NGO
Economic Status After LFAP
The Growing Influence of Chinese Firms
Approach to Study on Livelihood Change
Advantages of the Political Ecological Approach
Approaching Livelihood Studies from Different Perspectives
References
6 Methodology of Land Use Priorities and Conflicts Study
Introduction
Literature Review
Research Objective
The Research Area
Research Methodology
Data, Data Collection Methods and Analysis
Results and Discussion
Land Use Priorities and Conflicts
Conflicts
Conclusion
References
7 Qualitative and Quantitative Methods as Applied to International Migration
Introduction and Objectives—A Place for Geographical Methodology
What Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Are About?
Examples of Research Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods
Development of Human Geography in Taiwan
Employment Structure of Taiwanese Immigrants in Australia
Practicing Filial Piety Through Parental Care-Giving Across Border
Statistical Analysis of Return Migration
A Qualitative Inquiry on Return Migration of Taiwanese-Chinese from Hong Kong
Conclusions
References
8 Focus Group Discussions in Geography
Introduction
Qualitative Methods in Geography
FGDs in Geography
Objectives
What Are FGDs and Why Do We Need Them?
Planning FGDs
Conducting FGDs
Analyzing FGDs
Conclusion
References
9 Qualitative Research on Environmental Non-governmental Organisations’ Participation in Climate Change Governance
Introduction
Background of the Study
Methods
Procedures
Discussion
Conclusion
References
10 Research Method in Student-Centered Learning
Introduction
Objectives
Methods, Instruments, and Software
Procedure/Steps/Method
Description
Advantages and Disadvantages
References

Citation preview

Springer Texts in Social Sciences

Firuza Begham Mustafa   Editor

Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography

Springer Texts in Social Sciences

This textbook series delivers high-quality instructional content for graduates and advanced graduates in the social sciences. It comprises self-contained edited or authored books with comprehensive international coverage that are suitable for class as well as for individual self-study and professional development. The series covers core concepts, key methodological approaches, and important issues within key social science disciplines and also across these disciplines. All texts are authored by established experts in their fields and offer a solid methodological background, accompanied by pedagogical materials to serve students, such as practical examples, exercises, case studies etc. Textbooks published in this series are aimed at graduate and advanced graduate students, but are also valuable to early career and established researchers as important resources for their education, knowledge and teaching. The books in this series may come under, but are not limited to, these fields: – – – – –

Sociology Anthropology Population studies Migration studies Quality of life and wellbeing research

Firuza Begham Mustafa Editor

Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography

Editor Firuza Begham Mustafa Department of Geography Universiti Malaya Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

ISSN 2730-6135 ISSN 2730-6143 (electronic) Springer Texts in Social Sciences ISBN 978-3-031-28783-1 ISBN 978-3-031-28784-8 (eBook) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8 © The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 This work is subject to copyright. All rights are solely and exclusively licensed by the Publisher, whether the whole or part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilms or in any other physical way, and transmission or information storage and retrieval, electronic adaptation, computer software, or by similar or dissimilar methodology now known or hereafter developed. The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. The publisher, the authors, and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this book are believed to be true and accurate at the date of publication. Neither the publisher nor the authors or the editors give a warranty, expressed or implied, with respect to the material contained herein or for any errors or omissions that may have been made. The publisher remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. This Springer imprint is published by the registered company Springer Nature Switzerland AG The registered company address is: Gewerbestrasse 11, 6330 Cham, Switzerland

Preface

Human geography research is challenging since it is very subjective, quantitative, and diverse. The aim of this book is to introduce researchers and scholars to the various methodologies, techniques, and research approaches available for conducting human geography research. The purpose of this book is to provide the opportunity to learn the current method in the field of human geography and the combination of techniques available, the advantages of each method, and some examples of the case study. The collection methodologies in human geography are very unique as a chapter in this book is a collection of high-rank field experts from South and East Asia. We hope that this book will inspire readers and encourage researchers to investigate and apply new human geography methods. Enjoy your reading! Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Firuza Begham Mustafa

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Contents

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The Importance of Methodology in Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Firuza Begham Mustafa

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Methodology in Rural Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Daichi Kohmoto

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Portray of Methodologies in Geography: An Inquiry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dipti Mukherji and Shweta Ranade

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Point Pattern Analysis for Identifying Spatial Clustering Tendency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tzai-Hung Wen and Fei-Ying Kuo

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Livelihood Changes in Small-Scale Traditional Societies: A Political Ecological Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Satoshi Yokoyama

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Methodology of Land Use Priorities and Conflicts Study . . . . . . . . . . . Subajini Uthayarasa

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Qualitative and Quantitative Methods as Applied to International Migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chiang Lan Hung Nora

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Focus Group Discussions in Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 M. I. Fazeeha Azmi

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Qualitative Research on Environmental Non-governmental Organisations’ Participation in Climate Change Governance . . . . . . . 129 Siti Melinda Haris, Firuza Begham Mustafa, and Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin

10 Research Method in Student-Centered Learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 R. Rijanta and Dodi Widiyanto

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Editor and Contributors

About the Editor Firuza Begham Mustafa is Associate Professor at the Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya. She specialised in agriculture geography, environment management, and geophysical fields. She has produced more than 110 publications including in journals, conferences papers, IPs, and posters. She has also written chapters on many international books and published several scientific books. She served on the Editorial Board Water Conservation Management (WCM), Editorial Board of Geology, Ecology and Landscapes (GEL), International Journal of Creative Industries (IJCREI), and Editorial Board of the Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography (MJTG), University of Malaya. She was appointed as Visiting Fellow of Qinghai National University, China. She is also Council Member of the International Geographical Union Commission on Commission Marginalization, Globalization, and Regional and Local Responses—C16.29, Member of International Geographical Union for Commission on Geographical Education, and Member of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA) and the Centre for Global Geography Education (CGGE) training by Association of American Geography (AAG). She is Associate Fellow (AFMSA) of the Malaysian Scientific Association (MSA). She served as Auditor for Malaysia Qualification Agency (MQA) since 2009 for Geography and Environmental subjects.

Contributors M. I. Fazeeha Azmi Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka Siti Melinda Haris Faculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia Daichi Kohmoto Department of Geography, Nara University of Education, Nara, Japan

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Editor and Contributors

Fei-Ying Kuo Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Dipti Mukherji Department of Geography, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India Firuza Begham Mustafa Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Chiang Lan Hung Nora Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin Faculty of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Shweta Ranade N. L. Dalmia College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Mumbai, India R. Rijanta Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Subajini Uthayarasa Department of Geography, University of Jaffna, Jaffna, Sri Lanka Tzai-Hung Wen Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan Dodi Widiyanto Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia Satoshi Yokoyama Department of Geography, School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan

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The Importance of Methodology in Geography Firuza Begham Mustafa

Abstract

A research methodology is an important framework that explains a study’s methods and procedures. The selection of a research method is crucial since it determines the direction of the research results and the reliability of the research findings. Each study begins with a problem that emerges into a research question and is then processed to generate the study’s objective. The methodology encompasses the entire process of conducting a study, beginning with the selection of the research method, moving on to the parameters to be measured or calculated, the type of data required, the amount of data, the method of data collection, the method of analysis, and the procedure for data description, interpretation, and explanation. The role of research methodology in geographic research is at the core of research efficiency, with the use of precise and systematic research procedures, which streamlines research activities and increases the potential for research success. Research methodology is the backbone of any research, and it determines the level of success of the research. This paper was prepared based on a paper published in the Malay language by Universiti Malaya Press. Keywords

Methodological role . Research methods . Geography

F. B. Mustafa (B) Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia e-mail: fi[email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_1

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Introduction The research consists of numerous major components, including research questions, research objectives, hypothesis, data collecting, data processing, data analysis, interpretation of data analysis, and study conclusion (Woody, 1927). Research is a scientific study that aims to learn new facts or test an idea. Research is a technique to investigate a process to confirm the results of previous studies. It involves the process of data collection, analysis, and systematic interpretation of data to produce new knowledge and answer certain questions or solve problems (Degu & Yigzaw, 2006). Research is a logical and systematic study of something new in a specific topic or subject. It is a research process to find solutions scientifically through procedures that have been arranged to achieve the objectives of the study. Sometimes research is done to confirm the results of previous studies or to test theories that have been created. Slesinger and Stephenson (1930) in the Encyclopaedia of Social Sciences explained research as “the manipulation of things, concepts or symbols to generalize to extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether that knowledge aids in the construction of theory or the practice of an art”. Research methods are techniques used in research operations. Research methods can be classified into three parts as follows, namely: (a) Data collection method. (b) Data analysis method. (c) Data evaluation and description methods. The process used to perform a study is known as the research methodology. It is a systematic approach arranged to achieve and answer the objectives of the study (Goundar, 2012). Research methodology is very important because it is a guideline in research. Failure to use accurate and appropriate techniques can lead to research failure, delays, increased research expenditures, and erroneous research outcomes. Research methodology is a method to systematically solve research problems. It can be viewed as a science that examines how scientific research is conducted. The numerous steps the researcher took to explore the research problem are also part of the research methodology, as well as the reasoning behind the approach or step the researcher chose. Researchers also need to understand the basic assumptions of each technique and need to know the criteria before choosing techniques and procedures. Researchers need to understand the advantages and disadvantages of research techniques or methods used. Researchers not only need to know how to develop a certain index or test, how to calculate the mean, mode, median, or standard deviation or chi-square, and how to apply certain research techniques but also need to know the relevant method or technique, what it means, and why it happens. The researcher should be very clear about the technique he chose and why he chose it so that it can be thought of by others as well (Kothari, 1999). Therefore, the researcher needs to plan the research methodology to ensure that the problem is resolved and the research objective is achieved.

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The research methodology was designed to answer the research objectives. Research can use qualitative or quantitative methods or a combination thereof. Research data can be from primary and secondary sources. The results obtained are interdependent because the researcher uses qualitative and quantitative data types in data analysis. The study area, data sources, and sampling techniques are part of the research methodology (Sileyew, 2019). Research methods can be the techniques used to conduct research. Therefore, research methods or techniques refer to the methods used by researchers in carrying out research operations. In other words, all the methods used by the researcher when studying the research problem are called research methods. The purpose of research is to find answers to specific problems, identify the type of data needed, and unravel the questions that form the purpose of the study. Research methodology is a procedure in which the researcher conducts a study or activity to explain and predict the phenomenon that is to be unraveled in the research question. The goal of research methodology is to provide a clear picture of the researcher’s planning, techniques, and steps. Accurate work schedule planning is another component of research technique that makes it the ideal platform for researchers to map important research activity in order to create an efficient, efficient, and ordered plan. The purpose of research methodology is to direct the researcher so that they don’t deviate from the actual approach and make sure the study objective is coherent (Table 1.1).

Importance of Methodology Even if it is not stated, the methodology will be used in any study that is conducted, but have you ever thought about why methodology should be documented and acknowledged in a study? A study’s methodology consists of guidelines and works instructions. It serves as a guide starting from research planning to data management and presentation of research results. The discussion and explanation of research methodologies will boost confidence in a research test tool. The selection of a research method necessitates comprehension of the chosen approach, in-depth analysis of the steps and procedures involved, consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of the chosen technique, and comparison of that strategy to other techniques. This technique will enable the researcher to have a more comprehensive and holistic understanding of the method that will be used to address the study questions and objectives. Several factors influence method selection, including ease of use, techniques that have been proven to be effective, methods that would provide accurate answers, methods that are easily obtained and affordable, methods that are easy to apply as appropriate, methods that are practical, and methods that exist and are accessible (Fig. 1.1).

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Table 1.1 Perspectives and research methodology

Research methods . Pragmatic . Postmodern . Critical thinking . Positivism . Interpretive Research approach . Inductive . Deductive . Abductive Methodology . Qualitative . Quantitative . Mixed or combined methods Research strategy . Census . Surveys . Ethnography . Experiment . Case studies . Narrative . Theory . Archive study . Action research Data collection and analysis . Various methods of statistical analysis Source Mustafa (2022)

If the method used has been updated or modified, the explanation, description, and specifics concerning the alteration of the method, as well as the reason, justification, or cause for the change, should be explained. The newly modified process’s steps should be described. If the usage of this approach or method is successful, then at the end of the discussion, the benefits of using the method and possible measures that can be suggested to boost the method’s efficacy should be highlighted. If feasible, present a comparison of the study’s results using the modified approach and the original method. This will assist young researchers in better understanding and selecting the approaches required for future study.

Research Motivation What motivates people to conduct research? This is a critical question. A study or research is conducted for a variety of reasons, which include: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Fulfill degree requirements. A strong desire to solve the problem. Address current challenges affecting the community. Service and societal contribution.

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Easy Review

Practical

fast

Method

Evidence

Acurate

Cheap

Application

Exist

Fig. 1.1 Selection factors of a research method. Source Mustafa (2022)

However, this is not a compendium of the elements that encourage individuals to engage in research investigations. Many other factors such as government directives, job demands, curiosity about new things, the desire to understand causeand-effect relationships, and social thinking and awakening can also inspire or drive people to do research operations (Kothari, 1999).

The Role and Importance of Research Methodology The use of appropriate methods plays an important role in research. It can be explained as follows: (a) Accurate research methods can increase the chances of achieving the research objectives. (b) The application of research methodology creates consistent output or research results, facilitates the operation of comparative studies, and is more reliable. (c) The research method also allows the researcher to make comparisons between methods and choose the most suitable method for the study based on the requirements, specifications, time, and data availability.

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(d) The application of precise and organized research techniques can increase research efficiency. (e) One of the most crucial things is to reduce and manage research expenses, especially if the study is unfunded or has a limited budget. (f) Encouraging systematic research. (g) Save study time and reduce the probability of mistakes.

Research Method Selection Criteria Several factors can be used as a guide or as a gauge of a method’s ability or applicability. Things or factors that can be used as a guide include: (1) The ability of the method to answer the study’s aim, as well as the accuracy and reliability of the data generated, is critical factors in selecting the method or methodologies to be employed. (2) The period required by a method is an important factor that must be considered when choosing a method. There are very fast methods for generating answers, but the accuracy of the answers may not be precise, doubtful, or questionable. On the other hand, the study should take into account the period required by a certain method in producing an answer or answering the research question. However, some methods take too long to get the same answer or result. The researcher should check the period for the implementation of the method and choose it based on current needs, especially if the study has a period that needs to be followed. (3) The costs associated with the research method, such as the location of the study area, the size of the study area, the sample size, the number of samples, the frequency of samples, repetitions, the amount of labor required for sample collection, analysis costs, and equipment expenses, should be precisely calculated and estimated so that research preparations can proceed smoothly. One of the most crucial considerations for the study is the cost, particularly if it is an exploratory study without funding. (4) Other elements that should be considered while selecting a research approach include specific technology, tools, or software. There are some research techniques that demand specialized tools, software, and hardware which can be tough to obtain. Therefore, researchers should ensure the existence and availability of technology, tools, software, and equipment they want to use in research. (5) There are research methodologies that are low-cost but need knowledge, skills, and expertise to use. This method may be appropriate and suitable for experienced researchers with a strong background in research and observation in the field. (6) Research should also ensure the accessibility of data and research materials. If the study involves confidential data, unique samples, and protected research

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sources, then the accessibility of samples and data should be detailed before the study begins. Adequate sample size and sample size should also be considered in this matter. The method must be appropriate to meet the overall purpose of the study. (7) The methodology should cover anticipated problems as well as prevention methods. Procedures for minimizing or preventing interference from occurring should be outlined so that it does not affect the research process and the findings of the study. (8) Details of the methodology should be specified so that other researchers can use or apply it. This information is important when developing new procedures and improving old methods so that they may be easily re-applied.

Acknowledgements This article is prepared based on a paper entitled “Peranan Metodologi dalam Kajian Geografi” published by Universiti Malaya Press (Firuza Begham Mustafa (ed.). 2022).

References Degu, G., & Yigzaw, T. (2006). Research methodology. University of Gondar. In collaboration with the Ethiopia Public Health Training Initiative, The Carter Center, The Ethiopia Ministry of Health, and the Ethiopia Ministry of Education. Goundar, S. (2012). Research methodology and research methods. In S. Goundar (Ed.), Cloud computing. Victoria University of Wellington (Chapter 3). Available at http://www.researchgate. net/publication/333015026333015026 Kothari, C. R. (1999). Research methodology—Methods & techniques (2nd ed.). Wishwa Prakashan. Mustafa, F. B. (2022). Peranan Metodologi dalam Kajian Geografi. In F. B. Mustafa (Ed.), Metodologi Terpilih dalam Geografi. Universiti Malaya Press. Sileyew, K. J. (2019). In E. Abu-Taieh, A. El Mouatasim, I. H. Al Hadid (Eds.), Research design and methodology, cyberspace. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.85731. Available from: https://www.intechopen.com/books/cyberspace/research-design-and-methodology Slesinger, D., & Stephenson, M. (1930). The encyclopaedia of social sciences (Vol. IX). MacMillan Publications. Woody, C. (1927). The values of educational research to the classroom teacher. The Journal of Educational Research, 16(3). https://doi.org/10.1080/00220671.1927.10879779

Firuza Begham Mustafa is an Associate Professor at the Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya. She specialized in agriculture geography, environment management and geophysical fields. She has produced more than 110 publications including in journals, conferences papers, IPs and posters. She has also written chapters on many international books and published several scientific books. She served on the Editorial Board Water Conservation Management (WCM), Editorial Board of Geology, Ecology and Landscapes (GEL), International Journal of Creative Industries (IJCREI) and Editorial Board of the Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography (MJTG), University of Malaya. She was appointed as Visiting Fellow of Qinghai National University, China. She is also Council Member of the International Geographical Union Commission on Commission Marginalization, Globalization, and Regional and Local Responses-C16.29, a member of International Geographical Union for Commission on Geographical Education, a member of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA) and

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the Centre for Global Geography Education (CGGE) training by Association of American Geography (AAG). She is an Associate Fellow (AFMSA) of the Malaysian Scientific Association (MSA). She served as Auditor for Malaysia Qualification Agency (MQA) since 2009 for Geography and Environmental subjects.

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Methodology in Rural Geography Daichi Kohmoto

Abstract

Methodologies in research and education to explore the attractiveness and problems of rural areas by fieldwork are discussed. This paper is illustrated with examples of the research and practice in rural areas of Japan. Fieldwork in rural geography is categorized into three types: learning, survey and research, and community building. Before doing fieldwork, the most important thing is to ensure safety and security in any type of fieldwork. Meeting with people and building human relations are exciting aspects of fieldwork in rural geography, but also one that requires attention. Think carefully to decide and understand the study area. During the fieldwork, greeting and thanking people who help you, walking around and observing the area while taking pictures, and understanding the area spatially are important. A few things to keep in mind after the fieldwork is over are also noted. Keywords

Rural area . Fieldwork . Safety . Human relation . Excursion

Introduction Geographical approaches are inevitable for showing the relationship between our lives and “geo” (Kohmoto, 2011), and rural space has many functions and meanings (Woods, 2011). It produces food, captures its water supply, and gets the source of most of our energy. Rural areas have historically provided society with fiber for D. Kohmoto (B) Department of Geography, Nara University of Education, Nara, Japan e-mail: [email protected]

© The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_2

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clothing, stone and timber for building, and wood pulp to make paper. They have also became our “playground” valued for the scenic landscapes and for the natural environment. Moreover, rural areas are home to diverse indigenous cultures. Rural space comprises three intermeshed facets: rural localities, formal representations of the rural, and everyday lives of the rural (Halfacree, 2006), and the reality is rooted in the changing regional diversity of rural areas. Therefore, rural geography often requires fieldwork which is for qualitative and quantitative research and education to explore the attractiveness and problems of rural areas. This chapter is an explanation of methodology in rural geography with special focus on fieldwork by using examples of the practice as a rural geographer. Since many of the examples are from rural areas in Japan (Photo 2.1), there may be some differences from the way things are done in your country or region, and the points to be noted will vary depending on where you choose to conduct your research, but you will find them helpful. Fieldwork builds skills in field observation and comprehension that build problem-solving capabilities (Maskall & Stokes, 2008), and it has evolved to “those that centred on the field study area and its qualities, that involve concern about the ethics of student engagement and that employ blended learning technologies” (France & Haigh, 2018).

Photo 2.1 Rural landscape of a village in Japan (Ojiro, Kami Town, Hyogo Prefecture)

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As for this, it is necessary to take into account the pandemic of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 (new coronavirus infection). In conclusion, the first and foremost question is how it will affect the local people who will take care of. In many rural areas of Japan, elderly people, who are considered to be at high risk of serious illness in COVID-19, account for a large part of the population. In these areas, if employees of a welfare facility for the elderly are infected with COVID-19, the facility will be forced to close. This has a profound impact on the homes of the staff working at the facility, on the people close to the users, from their daily lives to their financial situation and their place in the community. As a researcher and educator, it is necessary to think about this first. Fieldwork is conducted in many university classes. From this point of view, however, the first semester of the liberal arts course “Learning about the region through fieldwork” was canceled in April 2020. Of course, it is important to reduce the risk of infection for students, but it is the duty of those who are often in a position of high social status to ensure that it does not become a negative for the people in the community who take care of them. However, self-restraint is not always the best option. If the local community takes a welcoming attitude and students strongly request fieldwork, it will be important to implement fieldwork after taking measures in response to the request of the other party. In the future fieldwork, based on the experience of the corona disaster, it would be better to place greater emphasis on collaboration between the planning side of a fieldwork and the host region side than ever before.

Objectives and Classification of Fieldwork in Rural Geography For whom and for what purpose do we do fieldwork? Fieldwork in rural areas can be broadly divided into three types. Before going into specific methodologies, the three types of fieldwork seen in the previous chapter will be explained using examples of fieldwork conducted in rural areas. These three types of fieldwork should be mixed as much as possible. Universities have several functions: education, research, and social contribution. By combining these functions, rather than doing them separately, the amount of work and stress can be reduced, and the university’s unique characteristics can be comprehensively demonstrated.

Leaning Type The first is “learning type”. It is done for the participants. Learners develop an eye for the local community and learn something from the local people, culture, society, and nature.

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Think of elementary (primary) school students’ exploration and field trips. They may see plants and rivers around the school, visit factories and public facilities, and listen to local people. Tools for observation and memo, maps, etc. are often prepared. As the learning progresses, it becomes possible to pay attention to the following: annual life in a village, features and origins of the topography, relationship between the location of the village and the topography, relationship between vegetation distribution and the topography and human life, factors of distribution of enterprises and offices, changes in the form of the village, features of signboards, and features and changes in land use. Many of them form the basis of the research type described below. The ability and attitude acquired through such learning can be utilized later. This type of fieldwork is sometimes done to help participants grow as human beings, as the phrase “selfsearching” suggests. Study tours, field trips, and school excursions are of this type. The following are examples of the practices involving this type: (1) An ecotour of Kawakami Village, Nara Prefecture, has been conducted once or twice a year for two days and one night since my previous university. The purpose is to understand the life of forestry, artificial forests, old-growth forest, and mountain villages with the five senses (Photo 2.2).

Photo 2.2 After the experience of firewood chopping with local teachers (Kawakami Village, Nara Prefecture, Japan)

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(2) In collaboration with the local boards of education, my university has launched a new subject called “Introduction to Education in Mountainous Areas”. In this course, a study tour is conducted for two or three days to introduce students to school education and local conditions in mountainous areas. (3) For the first-year students of the social studies education course at Nara University of Education, we created teaching materials for students on school trips to Asuka Village to see the village from various perspectives by staying in private houses and cycling.

Survey and Research Type The second is “survey and research type”. It is a type to clarify something by focusing on fields and objects. Local ecosystems, biology, geology, forest management, architecture, medical care, welfare, folklore, education, tourism, agricultural management, agricultural land, industry, literature, archeological sites and relics, etc., have their own methods and targets. The results of surveys and research are often summarized in academic papers. The main object is the community of the academic field on which the person who conducts the investigation and research is based rather than the inhabitant of the study area. First, my own research can be cited as this type. My graduation thesis was of Tono City, Iwate Prefecture, concerning the decrease, maintenance, and succession of the Nambu Magariya, a local traditional form of rural houses. This thesis was compiled into two peer-reviewed papers. After post-graduate studies, the theme changed to the development of organic agriculture and the actual conditions of organic agricultural production areas in order to explore the ideal way of a sustainable society. This paper summarizes the response and feeling of various farmers to the promotion of organic agriculture led by administration and agricultural cooperative in Aya Town, Miyazaki Prefecture, investigates the development of organic agriculture in developing country Sri Lanka under the Global North– South structure, and examines the actual condition of tea industry and plantation farm in Sri Lanka (Photo 2.3). After getting a job at a university, surveys and research with students have been conducted, and they also have the characteristics of “learning type”. Students set their own research themes and wrote their graduation thesis based on fieldwork, and the teacher gave advice and guidance to examples such as funeral rites and living in a deserted community, the transition and issues of disaster prevention education in the areas affected by the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake occurred in 1995, and the actual conditions of children’s cafeterias in Nara Prefecture. In addition, there is an article on the actual situation of manufacturers of tea whisk (chasen), which is essential for tea ceremony.

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Photo 2.3 View of a typical landscape of tea estates in the highlands of Sri Lanka (after Kohmoto, 2018)

Research and study for compiling the history and geography of local governments are basically of this type. Joint research was conducted with students on tourism and school education in Totsukawa Village, Nara Prefecture. These activities are carried out with the intention of linking them to regional development, including local debriefing sessions (workshop), but at the present stage, he believe that they are strongly aimed at building records and momentum for future regional development. Surveys and research for the compilation of local government’s official books of histories and geography are also basically of this type. Tourism and school education in Totsukawa Village, Nara Prefecture, were conducted with students. In these activities, there is a strong awareness of building records and momentum for future regional development through on-site debriefing sessions (Photo 2.4).

Community Building Type The third is “community building type”. It is a fieldwork to make the future of the region. Fieldwork aimed at discovering and promoting local attractions and solving local issues is a typical example.

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Photo 2.4 Scene from a workshop where we reported on our research on past school education in mountainous areas and exchanged opinions with local people in Totsukawa Village, Nara Prefecture, Japan

In this case, the leading role should be played by local residents and people involved in the community, who are referred to as “local leader”. As for this type, fieldworks with students in hilly and mountainous rural areas have been repeatedly conducted. After more than 10 years of seminar activities in Ojiro, Kami Town, Northern Hyogo Prefecture, three graduates moved to the area and got married (Photo 2.5). The main purpose of my activities in this area was to promote community development by local people, but at the same time, it was also used as a place for students to learn, and later elements of investigation and research also emerged. As a result, “reasons for living in” as a local resident and “reasons for linking to” local concerns are found as important basement for building a sustainable society. Building “resilient” relationships based on “living” fosters the sustainability of society and the region. It is interesting to note that the fieldwork, which was intended for the participants’ learning and research, may end up leading to the creation of the future of life and the region. For example, the participants may be so moved by the area they visited, and they may become supporters or new bearers of the area. On the other hand, local residents who have accepted the fieldwork may be shaken in their sense of values by the reactions of the participants from outside the area and

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Photo 2.5 My seminar students walking in Ojiro, Kami Town, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. They were talking “People in the country aren’t dressed up, but they’re cool” and “I really think so, too ~” Three female students in this photo later got married with males in this area

reevaluate their own area. This experience may lead to the creation of opportunities and sources of income by utilizing local resources. Depending on how you do it, fieldwork can expand your options in life and in your community.

Before Doing Fieldwork Ensuring Safety and Security! In any type of fieldwork, the most important thing is to ensure safety. Be careful of traffic accidents, so you can go home with a smile. If you are not feeling well, you should not push yourself too hard. It is also important to check the weather. When conducting fieldwork at a distance, consult with the local people about whether the fieldwork should be carried out or whether the contents should be changed and respond flexibly. In addition, in the case of the learning type fieldwork, it is necessary to prepare according to the target participants. The next thing you need is peace of mind. The itinerary, schedule, division of roles, and emergency contact information are all important. However, if the planning side decides everything, the participants will become interested and lose

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their independence. It also makes it difficult for the host community to provide advice and exchange based on the local situation. It is more reassuring to have that the planners, participants, and local communities could communicate with each other in advance.

Encountering with Local People and Building Human Relations Meeting with people are one of the most exciting aspects of fieldwork, but also one that requires attention. When you are working with residents, local government, community organizations, or business offices, it is important to know how to get in touch with them. It is recommended that a representative of the organization (e.g., the head of a district) understands the survey. It is important to understand that this is not the same as a “shady” contractor or religious organization that repeatedly visit houses in the community. If there is no such organization, it is a good idea to consult with a person whom many of the people you will be taking care of trust, and in some cases, ask that person to contact them in advance. It is effective to visit each house after obtaining the understanding of the head of the community and other local authorities. When surveying livestock farmers, for example, it is also advisable to consult someone who is familiar with all the livestock farmers in the area. Then, rest of the process became extremely smooth. Pay attention to the relationships within the community. Some residents may be curious as to who referred you here to do the research. The moment you mention a person’s name, a previously friendly person may suddenly change his or her attitude. For them, if information is leaked to that person through you, it would be terrible. When this happens, some people who live outside the area may immediately make fun of the fact that “the countryside is a closed, evil society”. But is this really the case? Such problems may exist in companies in large cities. If you have such concerns, it is advisable to check with the person in charge beforehand. They may be concerned about where you are staying as well. Depending on the person you are talking to, it may be better to hide it well. If you are staying at the house of a former mayor of a town, political disputes in that area may have negative impacts on your research. In such cases, you could blurt out that you are staying at “an acquaintance’s house in that area”.

Themes and Methods It is important to think carefully about the area where the fieldwork will be conducted and the target theme. In particular, if you choose an area or theme that attracts a lot of attention, people in the host communities will feel strongly that “Not again”. In some cases, they will use words like “survey pollution” or “thesis pollution”. Unless you are very serious about your purpose and thoughts, and have

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studied hard, they may not take you seriously. Also, if there is a negative relationship between the university and the researcher, be careful not to affect the people in the area you will be working with. The method of survey varies depending on the field and subject, but if possible, it is better to conduct a complete survey (a survey of all respondents). Only when you know the minority can you get the whole picture. In addition, if all the subjects are understood, it will lead to confidence for the researcher, and it will be possible to gain the respect of the local people and the people in the same industry. However, if time is limited and the researcher wants to get an overview of the subject, a sample survey is acceptable. In that case, it is important to be aware of the position of the sample in the overall picture. There are various methods for questionnaire surveys, but having the questionnaire reviewed beforehand by a person who is central to the target of the survey will help prevent out-of-focus questions and devise ways to ask questions. In the case of interviewing survey, organize the items in advance and number them. This way, even if the conversation jumps from place to place, you can check at the end to see if you missed anything. As a matter of course, you should make appointments. If you are calling an elderly person’s cell phone or home, try not to do so late at night.

Grasping the Outline of the Study Area Once you decide on a study area, read maps to get an overview of the location, topography, and land use. Check the websites of local governments and related organizations and make sure that you do not ask the same questions to interviewees. Local communities are nested. If the relationships among states or prefectures, wide area blocks within states or prefectures, municipalities, elementary and junior high school districts, settlements, and so on are known in advance, so that you can have smooth conversations with local people. They also may change due to mergers of local governments and the consolidation and abolition of schools. It is recommended to check whether the target areas have changed before and after the merger of municipalities or whether schools have been reorganized in recent years, as this will have a significant impact on the social character of the area. The names of surrounding cities and central settlements also have a great potential to come up in conversations with local people. Depending on the nature of the survey, it is also advisable to know the location of commercial facilities, hospitals and clinics, and other facilities that are often used by local people. If you make an effort to understand the local people’s own viewpoints on the community and their behavior, you will be able to have a better conversation with them in the field. You will be glad you did. Look at statistics and literature as much as possible. It is highly recommended that you check out industry-related statistics. The national census, which is conducted every five years (in Japan), has data on the number of people employed

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in each major industry category, so you can track the changes. In addition, the Regional Economic Analysis System (RESAS in Japan) is a useful source of recent economic census and tourism-related data.

During the Fieldwork The most important thing would be to greet and thank people helping you. If there is someone who has played a coordinating role in the fieldwork, that person should be the most important. The survey targets (informants) are also important. If the person who introduced you to the survey target is someone you trust or the head of the local ward, be sure to mention his or her name. This will create a sense of security. Bring souvenirs for these people who are giving their time and energy to you. Choose something that they will enjoy. If they are happy, you will be happy too. If you praise them, they will naturally be even happier. There must be something to praise, such as the beauty of the flowers and trees around the entrance, the taste of the interior design, the neatly mowed levees, the appearance of the house, the scenery, and the cuteness of the pet dog or cat. There must be something that you can praise, so look for it. When conducting interviews, etc., it is important to take a lot of notes. What did these people come to do when they didn’t move their hands after all the preparation and talking? You may feel that. You can record, but don’t rely too much on it. It is hard to listen to the recording again. Also, if you have any questions, ask them and solve them on the spot.

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Depending on who is interviewing you, avoid anything too flashy and wear a collared shirt. In rural areas, it is better to choose a field notebook with a blue, green, or gray cover, rather than red or yellow, to convey the main idea that you are here to study, investigate, or research. Shoes should be comfortable for long walks. It is important to walk around and observe the area. When greeting people, it is necessary to have a different sense of greeting in rural areas than in urban areas. Greet people you meet on the street in a respectful and positive manner. They observe what kind of person you are. It is better to make them feel at ease. If you are lucky, a chance encounter there can greatly expand and deepen your learning and research. Take pictures of the scenery, whether you are walking, riding a bicycle, or driving a car. It will come in handy later on. The landscape is always changing. It changes with the seasons and the weather, and in a few years it may be abandoned land or an uninhabited village. The waterfront may be replaced by concrete blocks. The terrain may be altered. Soil dumps, industrial waste disposal sites, housing complexes, and mega solar power plants may be built. Roads may be widened or rerouted, and some walking paths may become impassable. Buildings may be demolished or reconstructed. Signs and markings will also change. A smartphone or digital camera with a GPS function can be used to record location information. Of course, be sure to take photos related to the subject of your research, but it is essential to take into consideration portrait rights and personal information. When touring an area, it is important to understand the area spatially. Take a map with you when you go around, and record your route using an app on your smartphone (Fig. 2.1). This will allow you to see old aerial photos and maps of the past landscapes of the places you visit, and to better understand the changes in landscape and land use. You can also see the speed of movement for each location and easily create a topographic cross-sectional map of the route.

When the Fieldwork Is Over First of all, send a thank you letter or a message on SNS to the people who helped you. It can be as simple as you like. It is important to express your feelings of gratitude. However, don’t just send a standard text, but also include one specific episode such as “Thank you in this way” at that time. If you keep yourself in the other person’s memory, it will be easier to do fieldwork afterward. Also, no matter how unsatisfactory your research results may be, at least send them to the person who played a coordinating role in the field. In many cases, especially in the case of graduation theses, the results end up on a shelf in the teacher’s laboratory or on a computer. This does not satisfy the people in the community who took care of you. It would only be an exploitation of their time, energy, and information. The reputation of your university or other organization as an outrageous institution might be firmly established. Some people find themselves

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Fig. 2.1 Example of using the app to record the paths walked on a map

in a situation where they are unable to visit the areas that have helped them in their research due to the apology of not being able to give anything back. Let’s deliver some kind of product to them, whether by mail, via the Internet, or on a return visit. This will lead to further research, as well as to human relationships that will serve as a food for your life.

References France, D., & Haigh, M. (2018). Fieldwork@40: Fieldwork in geography higher education. Journal of Geography in Higher Education, 42(4), 498–514. Halfacree, K. (2006). Rural space: Constructing a three-fold architecture. In P. Cloke, T. Marsden, & P. Mooney (Eds.), Handbook of Rural Studies. Sage. Kohmoto, D. (2011). Geotourism and the concept of “regional diversity” born from geography: Sharing viewpoints on “geo” to build sustainable regional societies. Journal of Geography (Chigaku Zasshi), 120(5), 775–785. (in Japanese with English abstract). Kohmoto, D. (2018). Marginalization of tea estates in Sri Lanka in the changing global and national context. In S. Pelc & M. Koderman (Eds.), Nature, tourism and ethnicity as drivers of (de)marginalization: Insights to marginality from perspective of sustainability and development. Springer. Maskall, J., & Stokes, A. (2008). Designing effective fieldwork for the environmental and natural sciences. GEES Teaching and Learning guide. Plymouth, HE Academy Subject Centre for Geography, Earth and Environmental Sciences. ISBN: 978-1-84102-201-7. Retrieved from: https://www.heacademy.ac.uk/knowledge-hub/designing-effectivefieldworkenvironmental-and-natural-sciences Woods, M. (2011). Rural. Routledge.

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Daichi Kohmoto is an Associate Professor of Geography at Nara University of Education, a national university located in the ancient capital of Japan. His research is mainly focused on the futurability of regional diversity with specialties in hilly and mountainous areas, tourism, local learning, and ESD (education for sustainable development). He considers and acts on how to share the value of the rural areas with society as a whole.

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Portray of Methodologies in Geography: An Inquiry Dipti Mukherji and Shweta Ranade

Abstract

Research in simple terms refers to the search for knowledge. It is a scientific and systematic search for information on a particular topic or issue. It is also known as the art of scientific investigation. Research is an effort to trace the truth through the methods of study, observation, comparison and experiment. There are various methodologies to approach any given research topic. Especially when there is development or spatial research the methodology would be mainly based on the quantitative as well as qualitative data with the modern techniques like remote sensing and GIS. There are certain distinguishing features about the way a geographer applies himself to study some phenomenon. The methods of study likewise have been varying mainly due to tools available to a geographer. As the data explosion has taken place the tools and techniques of analysis have also been modified suitably. The emerging technologies of Geoinformatics for analysis specifically Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) can be handy methods to solve practical or real-time problems. And it is found to be a powerful tool for data integration and modeling specially for spatial planning. Among the methods available to collect and analyze spatial, social and economic data are the socio-cultural procedure, historical procedure, the survey procedure, the statistical procedure, the case study procedure and the experimental procedure with cartographic procedure for visualization and understanding. The chapter

D. Mukherji (B) Department of Geography, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India e-mail: [email protected] S. Ranade N. L. Dalmia College of Arts, Commerce and Science, Mumbai, India e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_3

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discusses with case studies, selected experimental methods for carrying out analytical research. The chapter also explains how the database and methodologies and analytical approach could be logically adopted in geography. Keywords

Spatial . Nominal . Ordinal . Symbolization . Physical and social infrastructures

Introduction The subject of Geography is dynamic. Geography is concerned to provide accurate, orderly and rational description and interpretation of the variable character of the of the earth’s surface (Hartshorne, 1959). Geography has been undergoing a renaissance. Geography is the study of life on the surface of the earth. It matters as it is considered today as spatial science dealing with space and spatiality. The main question contemporary geographers put forth is ‘what’, ‘when’, ‘where’, ‘how’ and ‘the emerging pattern over the space. So it is mapping, measuring and monitoring. The most basic geographic aspects are areas, lines and points. Therefore importance of cartography and mapping emerges. Geography shares a number of methods, but the most significant method is regional approach which requires the application of quantitative and cartographic techniques. Geography encourages us to observe our surroundings. It could be the locales of the home or the whole world. Observation is important. Knowledge of other lands provides the perception. What is required is experience and interest. Geography consisted of two main branches, human geography and physical geography. Even as we have become more culturally homogeneous and economically interconnected global differences in the geography of countries exist. Hence role of geography is extensive. The differences have profound impacts in the contemporary environment. Geographers explore what places are about and explore how people shape places and how places shape our lives. This concept brings many areas of geography together in a holistic approach to understand the characteristics and relationships between locales, cities, regions, countries and continents. It is according to D. M. Smith ‘Who gets What How and Where’. The sociocultural approach recognizes man as an active agent and earth as passive agent. Diverse cultural processes have interacted with diverse environment through time shaping and reshaping the habitats. Where and how must be understood in light of the past (Broek, 1966). For example coastal features are formed by a series of changes through time through erosion and depositional processes with question what is where. Therefore geography has a historical dimension, and this leads to the question of why and how. Methodologies in geography focus on the study of human space, physical space, society and the environment through the perspectives of place, space and scale. The analytical approach along with adopted methods in geography has an extensive span from ecology to economics. At the same time many of its research tools and

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analytical methodologies shifted from the research laboratory to the mainstream of science and business. Perhaps quantitative and qualitative approaches remain important within the discipline of Geography, and it is integrated with nature of geographical thought and practice. While taken at face value they appear to be incompatible ways of ‘doing’ geographical investigation, but it is important not to see these two approaches as binary opposites. Geographers employ systems to generate analytical models to understand and explain spatial patterns and interactions. Human geographers, for example, examine human migration patterns or ethnic segregation in a society or differences and accessibility for healthcare amenities and other functional amenities. They also try to find out using adopting selected techniques and methods to investigate association of crops with climatic variation, tribes and tribal combination, diffusion of knowledge base for emergence of industry-oriented landscapes, gender inequalities and aspects of spatial planning political consequences. Moreover, research about physical geography relies on understanding the natural systems in which physical processes operate, i.e., areas may represent regions, forests or other such portions of the earth’s surface enclosed by boundaries of one type or another. Therefore geography deals with spatial concepts such as direction, accessibility, distance, agglomeration, connectivity, relative location, size and shape. This is synthetization, and procedure adopted is by synthetic mapping. So how two branches of geography collaborate each other? Both branches go hand in hand. When geographers deal with analysis in concrete space they have the advantage of looking at what is actually there on the ground. However given the multiplicity of factors that influence the nature of spatial realities of different landscapes, testing scientific hypotheses in concrete space is often very complicated because it is difficult to control the variables. Conducting research in abstract space simplifies the problem and allows scholars to manipulate variables in a homogenous environment with ease. Therefore, geographers increasingly establish an abstract spatial environment in which they test theories and adopt related methodologies. In fact cross-checking and ground truth are also significant. This could be with respect to different sampling methods or subjective and qualitative method. There are various methodologies to approach any given research topics. Among the methods available to collect and analyze spatial, social and economic data are the historical procedure, the survey procedure, the statistical procedure, the case study procedure and the experimental procedure. These methods are found to be extremely useful to establish links among all the facilities as well as to compute the various indices quickly on the basis of different weightages assigned to different facilities. The database is to be designed such that it can be easily be updated and any complex transformation equation can be used involving all the factors. The analysis is possible at present applying GIS for data integration and modeling specially for spatial planning. Main question of geographers is what to investigate, where and how. A geographer tries to establish pattern based on hypothesis. Therefore the investigation for spatial entity should be based on:

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Data Types

Numerical

Interval

Ratio

Categorical

Nominal

Ordinal

Fig. 3.1 Types of data

. . . .

Suitable in scale, size and area. Capable of research—practical issues, e.g., time, area and data available. Geographical—where, strong sense of location, pattern, etc. Based on geographical theory, ideas, concepts and models (clear spatial association or locational focus). . Logical—it must make sense, especially cause and effect. In geography most important is types of data. So what is data in geography? In fact to collect the data we first have to know what type of investigation is to be carried out. Is it field based or document based, i.e., whether the study is based on primary data or secondary data or both. Geographers are not armchair persons. So both types of data are to be considered. Data types are an important concept, which need to be understood, to correctly apply statistical and quantitative measurements to the data and therefore to correctly conclude certain assumptions about it. Following (Fig. 3.1) are the different types of data geographers as spatial scientists have to consider.

What Is Data Facts or figures collected for certain purpose are called data. First it is important to know the scales of measurement of data. So it is whether it is nominal, ordinal, interval or ratio scale of data. For example if you to know how many types markets are there in a selected area for study field survey is warranted. It was found there are 4 types of periodic markets for, e.g., weekly, Monday market, agricultural market and local market data is categorical and nominal. It is also qualitative data. Another example population size based on their income in a city. This data can be obtained from document, and it is numerical. The population size and income could be ranked from high to low, so this data is quantitative ordinal data. Interval and ratio are the two highest levels of measurement. Interval and ratiolevel data are quantitative. The income of the people could be arranged at certain class interval, so the data is numerical at interval scale. Examples of interval-level data include temperature and year. Examples of ratio-level data include distance and area (e.g., acreage). The scales are similar in so far as units of measurement

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are arbitrary: Celsius versus Fahrenheit, Gregorian versus Islamic calendar and English versus metric units. The scales differ in that the zero point is arbitrary on interval scales, but not on ratio scales. Zero degrees Fahrenheit and zero degrees Celsius are different temperatures, and neither indicates the absence of temperature. Zero meters and zero feet mean are exactly the same thing. Important to note this difference is that a quantity of 20 measured at the ratio scale is twice the value of 10 a relation that does not hold true for quantities measured at the interval level, viz., 20° is not twice as warm as 10°). Because interval and ratio-level data represent positions along continuous number lines rather than members of discrete categories. They are also used for analysis using inferential statistical techniques. Correlation and regression, for example, are commonly used to evaluate relationships between two or more data variables. Such techniques enable analysts to infer not only the form of a relationship between two quantitative datasets but also the strength of the relationship. Interval and ratio data are frequently sorted into ordinal-level categories for thematic mapping. The distinction between quantitative and qualitative methods is not just whether a researcher uses numbers or not. Another factor distinguishing the two emphasizes the data collection technique which is used to create the data rather than the data itself. Quantitative methods are those that impose a relatively great amount of prior structure on collected data. Such methods involve a prior choice of constructs to study, a prior choice of variables with which to measure those constructs and prior numerical categories with which to express the measured values of those variables. Qualitative methods in contrast involve less prior structure on data collection. Data collection that is very clearly qualitative might start with a topic area or a broad research question. The constructs, variables and especially the measurement values for the variables are determined as observations are made or even afterward. For example a survey that asks respondents asks number of household members who are earning is quantitative. An interview that asks respondents ‘how they feel’ or their perception about cleanliness in the surrounding would be qualitative. Importantly, these examples also show that a single type of data collection in this case, and explicit reports may be used in a relatively quantitative or qualitative way.

Primary and Secondary Data Sources One way to characterize data in geography concerns whether they were collected specifically for the purpose of a researcher’s particular study. If so we call the data primary. An example would be a geographer who interviews people about their perception toward climate change. The major asset of primary data is that they are collected in a specifically tailored to a particular research question, which means they are probably the data best suited to answering that question. In the example given above, the geographer would design the survey specifically to address the issues. But all of this takes considerable time and effort to do well. Instead the data collected other than the researcher is called secondary. It could be from documents, Census or reports, etc. When a geographer uses satellite

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imagery to study forest and forest fire in a region the imagery was not collected by that researcher, and it was not collected primarily, so he or she could study the scenario. In contrast, the major asset of secondary data is that they are sometimes the only data available to address a particular research question that is even moderately suited to that question. Also, secondary data is almost always less expensive than primary data (in terms of money, time and effort). In the above example, the geographer gets a very large amount of free data obtainable in something like an hour or less, depending on the geographer’s units of analysis, but that geographer has to accept the way the satellite collects imagery. This includes the extent of earth surface coverage, the time the satellite passes over, the spatial resolution of the imagery and the spectral bands recorded. Some geographers use mostly primary data, whereas others use mostly secondary data. This depends mostly on the geographer’s topical area of research. However compared to many other scientific disciplines, both human and physical geographers use a great deal of secondary data. This is probably because they so often study phenomena spatial and temporal scales where it is typically difficult and costly to collect data that a single study does not warrant it. The fact is that secondary data is not tailored to the geographer’s specific research question but could be tabulated as per the nature of many geographers’ research. Especially characteristic of much geographic research in this respect is that researchers study problems at the analysis scale of the available dataset which is often not exactly the scale at which the phenomena operate. Therefore it is important to know. I. II. III. IV. V.

How to work out what you plan to do. Draw up a timed or sequenced plan. This could be modified based on tabulation and generation of new dataset. Work out the location, i.e., where and how would be the research investigation. This could be represented through map with proper design and layout.

Symbolization is the process of choosing how to represent the features on a map. The symbols we choose should help describe additional information about the features on the map. Poor symbolization leads to inaccurate, misunderstood or even deceptive information, while effective symbolization helps to communicate information quickly and clearly. Maps typically contain a legend or key which lists and explains the symbols found on the map. For example, the symbol settlement appears on the map. By looking at the legend or key, you can find the symbol. For example of a symbol is a cross with a circle at the bottom. The legend or key shows that this symbol represents a place of worship, such as a church with a spire. The legend or key helps to provide detailed information about the map which keeps the map from being cluttered. Symbols are important for thematic as well as for topographic maps. Thematic maps are important for visualization of the spatial scenario. These special purpose or thematic maps are choropleth, isopleths and isohyets maps.

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At present geographic approach includes GIS ad Remote Sensing methods of analysis. Applications of these are influenced by the development of technology. GIS provides a powerful collection of tools for the management, visualization and analysis of spatial data. These tools can be even more powerful when they are integrated with statistical methods for spatial data analysis and for query building. The success of GIS has in some ways proved to be a mixed blessing to academic geography. While quantitative geography has developed as a disciplinary specialism over a long period of time, the infusion of GIS and remote sensing has been more rapid and applications-led. Geography has been a consumer not producer of mainstream GIS software. The technology nevertheless provides a crucial means of dealing with the current proliferation of digital data and has important implications for the future development of geography. The emerging technologies of Geoinformatics for analysis specifically Remote Sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Positioning System (GPS) can be handy methods to solve practical or real-time problems. Among the methods available to collect and analyze spatial, social and economic data are survey procedure, the statistical procedure, the case study procedure and the experimental procedure. These methods are found to be extremely useful to establish links among all the variables as well as to compute the various indices quickly on the basis of different weightages assigned. The database can be easily updated, and any complex transformation equation can be used involving all the facilities. GIS is found to be a powerful tool for data integration and modeling specially for spatial planning. This chapter focuses on varied quantitative methods for development and spatial planning.

Field Study Another aspect to be considered is fieldwork. Basic principles and procedures of field study. Before doing the field study some definite principles should be taken to proceed. Fieldwork is one of the central methods of investigation through which geographers gather information about people, places and landscapes and generate formal knowledge about space–society environment relations in different contexts. There are different approaches to this. Geographic research stems from the variety of practices that geographers count as ‘fieldwork’. Majority of the systematic branches of the discipline today from economic and urban geography to cultural and critical geography consider fieldwork as an important method of research endeavors in geography (Fig. 3.2). In broad terms it is evident that geography concerns Land and Man. This can therefore be approached from the side of either Land or Man, and it is unprofitable to debate which is the better approach. Providing indeed that the final viewpoint comprehends both there is little to choose between them (Wooldridge & East, 1967). Field survey is defined as collection and gathering of information at the local level by conducting primary surveys. The primary surveys are also called field

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Fig. 3.2 Principles of field survey

surveys. These are an essential component of geographic enquiry and are carried out through observation, interviews, sketching and measurement (Fig. 3.2). Social and economic studies are conducted in definitive geographical parameters. Geography being a field science, a geographical enquiry almost always needs to be supplemented through well-planned field surveys. Such surveys enhance our understanding about patterns of spatial distributions their associations and relationships both at macro- and micro-level. Field surveys help in comprehending the prevailing situation and processes in totality and at the ground level. Field surveys facilitate the collection of local level information that is not available through secondary sources. So to summarize field surveys are required so that the problem under investigation is studied in depth as per the predefined objectives. Usually the steps involved in a field survey are carried out as per the following: Step 1. Defining the Problem First the problem to be studied is defined precisely. Step 2. Objectives Objectives and purposes of the survey are outlined and requirements delineated in accordance of these, suitable tools of acquisition of data and methods of analysis are chosen. Step 3. Scope of Survey is . The geographical area studied. . Time period of enquiry.

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Step 4. Tools and Techniques of Information Collection Various types of tools are required to collect information. These include: a. Recorded and Published Data: This data is collected from government agencies and non-governmental organizations, and it provides base information about the problem. For example, Local Government Office can provide information about households, persons, while physical features like relief, drainage, vegetation, land use, etc. can be traced out from the topographical maps. b. Field Observations: These are very important and necessary inputs which help in finding the characteristics and associations of geographic phenomena. Here sketching and photography are helpful tools. c. Measurement: Some of field surveys demand on site measurement of objects and events. It involves use of appropriate equipment including state-of-the-art equipment. d. Interviewing: In all field surveys, personal interviews are needed to gather information about social issues, problems, practical difficulties through recording the experiences and knowledge of each individual. Step 5. Compilation and Computation Information thus collected is organized systematically so as to make a meaningful interpretation. Then analysis of all the information collected is undertaken to achieve the set objectives. Notes, field sketches, photographs, case studies, etc. are first organized according to theme and subthemes of the study. Similarly, questionnaire and schedule-based information are tabulated on the same pattern. Step 6. Cartographic Applications Maps and diagrams are used for giving visual impressions of variations in the phenomena. Step 7. Presentations The field study report is prepared in concise form, and it contains all the details of the procedures followed, methods, tools and techniques employed. At the end of the report, the summary of the findings of the investigation is provided.

Preparation of Questionnaire Any research project sets out to answer specific questions or to illuminate a particular subject area. In commercial or market research, the problem is clearly defined by the client, but at the outset of academic research, the aims may be less rigid. However, the first step in designing a research project must be to set out a definite

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central problem or field of investigation. A project cannot be designed if its objective is vague. After finalization of research purpose and implications hypotheses could be formed. These might be as imprecise as speculation about travel difficulties and prices paid, but unless such concerns were set out, it would be impossible to work out the kind of topics to be covered by the research let alone the phrasing of questions. It is not necessary to start with formally worded hypotheses about relationships between phenomena, but even the smallest-scale project must have, at an early stage in its design, definite boundaries to its field of study. Focusing and refining of hypotheses and subject matter can only then begin. Preliminary investigation of literature and secondary material, viz., directories, maps, government and local authority records and statistics must be made next, to find out if the information needed already exists in a usable form. If it does not, appropriate data collection methods can be devised. One way of obtaining primary data is to conduct a survey, to ask questions of a number of respondents. If the data is to be quantifiable and the findings generalized, the questions must be standardized and the respondents chosen in a scientific manner. It might appear that anyone could design and execute a survey, because we are all used to asking questions and obtaining answers, but although most questions will be answered, it is not always possible to know that the respondent has understood the question intended. It is also possible to ask questions which fail to illuminate the problem under investigation. With careful planning pilot testing and revising, these problems can be minimized, but it is also vital to select a project which is not over-ambitious and which can be tackled with the time and resources available. Surveys take two main forms, for questions can be put by an interviewer and the answers recorded on an interview schedule which sets out the questions and provides room for the answers, or a questionnaire can be filled in by the respondents themselves.

Sampling Methods One of the important methodological approaches in geography is sampling. On the basis of research questions and hypothesis on a selected theme data is collected. The way in which we select a sample regarding the theme of research is critical. How we select samples from population would determine the population to which we may generalize our research findings. If we do a poor job at the sampling stage of the research process the integrity of the entire project is at risk. Before describing sampling procedures we need to define a few key terms. The term population means all members that meet a set of specifications or a specified criterion. The entire set of cases from which research sample is drawn is called the population. Therefore target population had to be decided. Sampling frame had to be constructed and applicability of sampling techniques to be considered as per the specific research. After deciding the appropriate sampling technique sampling

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size to be determined and based on this data collection procedure is to be initiated. With respect to this response rate to be assessed and tabulated for analysis. Data derived from a sample is treated statistically. Using sample data we calculate various statistics, such as the mean and standard deviation. These sample statistics summarize and describe aspects of the sample data. These data when treated with other statistical procedures allow us to make certain inferences. From the sample statistics we make corresponding estimates of the population. In general, sampling techniques can be divided into two types: a. Probability or random sampling which includes simple random, stratified random, cluster sampling and systematic sampling. b. Non-probability or non-random sampling includes quota sampling, judgment sampling, snowball sampling and conveyance sampling. With probability sampling, a researcher can specify the probability of an element’s (participant’s) being included in the sample. With non-probability sampling, there is no way of estimating the probability of an element’s being included in a sample. If the researcher’s interest is in generalizing the findings derived from the sample to the general population, then probability sampling is useful and precise. It is also much more difficult and expensive than non-probability sampling. Probability sampling is also referred to as random sampling or representative sampling. The word random describes the procedure used to select elements from a population. For example Stratified Random Sampling: This procedure is also a form of probability sampling. To stratify means to classify or to separate people into groups according to some characteristics such as position, rank, income, education, sex or ethnic background. These separate groupings are referred to as subsets or subgroups. For a stratified random sample the population is divided into groups or strata. A random sample is selected from each stratum based upon the percentage that each subgroup represents in the population. In geography stratified random samples are generally more accurate in representing the population than are simple random samples. They also require more effort, and there is a practical limit to the number of strata used. Because participants are to be chosen randomly from each stratum, a complete list of the population within each stratum must be constructed. Stratified sampling is generally used in two different ways. In one, primary interest is in the representativeness of the sample for purposes of describing the population. In the other, the focus of interest is comparison between and among the strata. Convenience sampling is used because it is quick, inexpensive and convenient. Convenience samples are useful for certain purposes, and they require very little planning. Researchers simply use participants who are available at the moment. The procedure is casual and easy relative to random sampling. In contrast using any available participants with random sampling, where researcher must (1) have a well-defined population, (2) construct a list of members of the population if one is not available, (3) sample randomly from the list and (4) contact and use as many individuals from the list as possible. In many large-scale applications of sampling procedures it is not always possible or desirable to list

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all members of the population and randomly select elements from that list. The reasons for using any alternative procedures include cost, timeliness and convenience. One alternative procedure is quota sampling. There is generally a trade-off between the accuracy of the sample in representing population values and the costs associated with sample size. The larger the sample the more confident we can be that it accurately reflects what exists in the population, but large samples can be extremely expensive and time consuming. A small sample is less expensive and time consuming, but it is not as accurate. Therefore, in situations requiring minimal error and maximum accuracy of prediction of population values large samples would be required. In cases where more error can be tolerated small samples will do.

Advantages and Disadvantages Any research to be carried out in Geography, data collection either qualitative or quantitative is very important. Geographical data is of different forms, viz., altitudes, rainfall, slope, angles, population numbers, traffic flows land values and the list is endless. After preparation of initial framework of research and establishing the methodologies implications of the study are adjudicated. Therefore in field survey researcher could access the ground truth for analysis and thereby cross-check with the data collected from documents which is the secondary data. Any data collected and compiled would be useful if those convey information accurately and consistently about the topic in which we are interested. So a validated survey instrument is required which is the questionnaire design. Major advantages of the knowledge about types of data would initiate the methodologies to be adopted for further analysis. Carrying out spatial analysis knowledge about types of data is significant. When taking up field survey close-up lens on the aspect of research could be studied in detail. So advantages of geographic data are to determine a variety of characteristics of space either physical or human. Information extracted from research using geographic data is important to compare basic details such as economic status, average age and ethnic diversity in different places and spaces. Advantages of quantitative and qualitative methodology in geography: Data in geography has an advantage for carrying out spatial analysis. 1. Methodologies in geography present spatial distribution of features irrespective of whether the values relate to points, lines or areas. 2. Quantitative analysis has distinct advantages in the research process. 3. Methodologies adopted in geography are based on empirical observations and could be verified. 4. This helps in the formulation of models and theories, and this could be tested. 5. The processes which are provided by qualitative methodologies help in formulating definitive explanations. 6. The qualitative approach allows for genuine ideas to be collected from specific socio-economic demographics which are converted to data for interpretation.

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7. In qualitative research in geography sample size could be decided based on the sample population for getting an insight of the project. 8. Respondents are encouraged to be themselves. Data that can be collected from the respondent tends to have more accuracy to it. 9. Facts are important. Human experience cannot be ignored. This causes two different people to see the same event in two different ways. By using qualitative research, it becomes possible to incorporate the complexity of this type of data into the conclusions that come from the collected research. 10. The data which is gathered through qualitative research is perspective-based, which is why it has a predictive quality to it. 11. In geography information reporting is based on the quality and quantity of information that is collected. There are more opportunities to gather new data when using this approach. 12. It is possible for detail-orientated data to be collected. Disadvantages of quantitative and qualitative methodologies in geography: a. Empirical analysis which is established does not take into account the beliefs, emotions, attitudes, desires, hopes, fears and therefore. b. Therefore it does not project exact geographical realities. c. Qualitative statements which were quite useful are sometimes rejected. d. Methodologies adopted with the application of different spatial techniques sometimes generalize the facts, and the outcome is the exaggerated and misleading result. Traditionally in geography stress has been laid on the art of observing any feature or entity and phenomenon. Therefore aim was to defining the characteristics of a particular region or location as observation is an important element in geography which provides database in the geographers’ battery of methods. This is required as emphasis in geography is centered on the analysis of patterns, relationships and processes in the environment. At present spatial analysis is tending to supersede areal differentiation as dominant method in geographical study. The definition of a problem for investigation and appropriate methods to be applied depend on the individual’s view of the aims of geographical study. This could further be scrutinized by (a) what is the investigation and why, (b) the nature of the result to be achieved and (c) the appropriate result to be achieved. For the purpose the data for analysis to be sorted, mapped and graphed but application and interpretation would be difficult unless there is particular aims in mind. The application of recent methodologies of GIS for spatial analysis would definitely project a real-time object oriented solution for decision-making.

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Selected Methodologies Adopted for Selected Case Studies Case Study I Micro-level Infrastructure Planning and Development: A Spatial Appraisal for a Region, Ranade and Dipti (2018) A region always shows a discrepancy in socio-economic characteristic especially if the region is physically different. This disparity reflects on development of that region. If the region has varied physical barriers that creates socio-economic inequalities. Thus it is vital to identify volume of disparities in development at various levels with the help of spatial assessment. In order to identify levels of development within the region spatial disparity is to be measured. Social infrastructures like health and education and physical infrastructure like transport reflect ground reality of the region. Composite index integrates the social and physical infrastructures to see a clear picture of development. Composite index gives a suitable assessment of development as it performs relatively well in terms of cross-regional scenario. With the help of synthetic mapping and ranking technique the composite indices bring out a complete spatial assessment of the region. Development especially socio-economic varies widely across space. It is a common observation, as stated in the 2009 World Development Report (World Bank, 2009), that the location of people is the best predictor of their income. Regional, economic and socio-economic inequalities within a national economy often create social, political and economic problems. Thus it is important to elucidate the reasons behind the inequalities at various levels with the help of spatial appraisal. Infrastructure plays a vital role in the development of any region. Extensive and efficient infrastructure is critical for ensuring the effective functioning of the economy in that area. It is an important factor determining the location of economic activity and the kinds of activities or sectors that can develop in a particular location. Well-developed physical infrastructure reduces the effect of distance between regions with good transport and communication facilities, where the social infrastructure leads the development of the community. In addition, the quality and extensiveness of infrastructure networks significantly impact on economic growth and affect income inequalities and poverty in a variety of way. Data is obtained from secondary source, i.e., District Census Handbook in the context of planning and development at grass-root level. The publication, which is brought out, contains several demographic and socio-economic indicators village-wise and town-wise of the district along with the status of availability of civic amenities, infrastructural facilities, etc. Objectives 1. To assess the physical and social infrastructures. 2. To analyze how these have impacted the development in the region. 3. To enlist the settlements as per the ranking of physical and social infrastructures.

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Methodology The natural division in study area leads to the difference in the levels of development. To bring out this scenario the method of functional score was used for this study. For this method both social and physical indicators were used. Social indicators such as health and education and physical indicators such as transport, communication, water and electricity were used to calculate the functional score. To study the infrastructural development of the district there are number of facilities which need to be taken into consideration. The facilities which were considered for this study area are Primary School, Middle School, Secondary School, Colleges, Hospitals, Dispensary, Primary Health Centre, Registered Private Medical Practitioner, Community Health Worker, Tap Water facility, Wells, Tank, Tube well, Hand pump, River, Canal, Lake, Spring, Post Office, Phone, Electricity for domestic use, Electricity for agricultural use, Electricity for all purposes. In order to quantify the functional score a composite index was constructed on the basis of the weightages calculated by the various variables under consideration. To assign weightages to a given facility simple procedure, evolved by Bhatt (1976), was used. The procedure involves two steps, viz., in the first part weightages were calculated for each subdistrict and then they were combined in the form of a composite index for each village. For example: 10 villages with schools facilities, their weightages and composite index in Shirala Subdistrict. After calculating the composite index, each village was classified in to hierarchy of settlement using ranking method. For creating the class interval natural break was used. Depending upon this classification, every village was classified under hierarchy of settlement (Table 3.1) and (Figs. 3.3 and 3.4). If we observe the maps the fifth level of the settlement rank has the maximum number of villages in both social and physical infrastructures (Figs. 3.5 and 3.6). The study area of Sangli District shows such contrasts for physical settings especially of the relief and climate which impacted the human space. Thus it is Table 3.1 Hierarchy of settlement Tahasil/subdistrict Social infrastructure

Physical infrastructure

First Second Third Fourth Fifth First Second Third Fourth Fifth Shirala

0

2

5

10

76

1

1

1

6

84

Walwa

0

0

8

23

65

0

4

6

17

69

Palus

0

0

4

10

38

1

0

3

10

38

Khanapur

0

2

2

16

87

0

1

2

14

90

Atpadi

0

2

1

10

47

0

0

1

7

52

Tasgaon

0

1

1

10

52

0

0

2

3

59

Miraj

0

0

3

17

43

1

2

13

13

34

Kavathemahankal 0

1

3

9 ara>

47

1

0

0

6

53

1

1

4

19 100

0

1

0

14

110

Jat

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Fig. 3.3 Physical infrastructure rank of sub-district

Fig. 3.4 Social infrastructure rank of sub-district

vital to identify volume of disparities in development at various levels with the help of spatial assessment. So method of composite index was adopted. With the help of GIS the social and physical infrastructures were overlaid to see a clear picture of development. Composite index gives a suitable assessment of development as it performs relatively well in terms of cross-regional scenario. With the help of synthetic mapping and ranking technique the composite indices bring out a complete spatial assessment of the region.

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Fig. 3.5 Synthetic map of physical and social infrastructure of sangli district

Fig. 3.6 Synthetic map ranking the physical and social infrastructure of sangli district

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Relevance of Physical and Social Infrastructures Infrastructure plays a vital role in the development of any region. Extensive and efficient infrastructure is critical for ensuring the effective functioning of the economy in that area. It is an important factor determining the location of economic activity and the kinds of activities or sectors that can develop in a particular location. Well-developed physical infrastructure reduces the effect of distance between regions with good transport and communication facilities, where the social infrastructure leads the development of the community. In addition, the quality and extensiveness of infrastructure networks significantly impact economic growth and affect income inequalities and poverty in a variety of way. Result and Conclusion Physical and social infrastructures’ functional score depend upon the physical and social development of that area. After observing the result of physical infrastructure functional score we can conclude that subdistricts Atpadi, Tasgaon, Kavathemahankal and Jat have the least-developed settlements than Walwa and Miraj. Along with Miraj and Walwa, Shirala and Palus are also showing reasonably progress in the development. Khanapur Subdistrict, on the other hand, has more concentration toward core—urban areas when it comes to physical infrastructure development. Results of the social infrastructure’s functional score are coming slightly different from physical infrastructure. Despite least development when it comes to physical infrastructure, subdistricts like Khanapur, Atpadi and Kavathemahankal are coming as more developed in social infrastructure. On the other hand Shirala and Palus are lesser developed socially. Jat being least-developed area in physical infrastructure remains moderately developed when it comes to social infrastructure.

Case Study II Gender Issue Is Becoming Important These Days. Therefore with Respect to Mcquitty Linkage Analysis Typical Structure Can Be Created and Hierarchical Links Can Be Established Therefore administrative divisions of state of Maharashtra, India, were considered for study. Then for each division four variables were selected to find out the status for analyzing the gender issue. These are sex ratio, child sex ratio, female literacy and females among literates. For each column in Table 3.2 the first, second and third-highest figures were marked for each row. Matrix was prepared in MS Excel. From this matrix, two structures could be derived. Structure is complete when all the variables are taken into account. In this case all eight variables are accounted with two typical structures which reveal the linkage between the variables. It is observed that in the first structure reciprocal relationship exists between sex ratio urban and females among literates which is due to female literacy. As female literacy exists in urban location it also has an impact on child sex ratio (Table 3.2).

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Table 3.2 Correlation matrix for literacy and sex ratio variables in rural and urban areas SR-R SR-R

1.000

SR-U

SR-U

CSR-R

− 0.077

1.000

CSR-R

0.877

− 0.082

1.000

CSR-U

CSR-U

FL-R

FL-U

− 0.102

0.993

− 0.092

1.000

FL-R

0.567

0.078

0.556

0.065

1.000

FL-U

− 0.115

0.981

− 0.116

0.983

0.109

1.000

FAL-R

0.880

− 0.034

0.807

− 0.054

0.837

− 0.039

FAL-U

− 0.093

0.997

− 0.094

0.993

0.088

0.991

FAL-U

1.000

Key SR-R sex ratio (rural), SR-U sex ratio (urban), CSR-R child sex ratio (rural), CSR-U child sex ratio (urban), FL-R female literacy (rural), FL-U female literacy (urban), FAL-R females among literates (rural), FAL-U females among literates (urban)

Typal Structures Derived for Sex Ratio and Literacy Variables 1) CSR-U 2) FL-R

SR-U FAL-R

FAL-U SR-R

FL-U CSR-R

Fig. 3.7 Typal structures derived for sex ratio and literacy variable

In the second structure reciprocal relationship exists between child sex ratio and sex ratio rural. Sex ratio rural is dependent on females among literates rural and female literacy rural (Fig. 3.7).

Summary The most well-known characteristic of spatial data derives from the 1st law of geography derived by Tobler which states that ‘everything is related to everything else but near things are more related than distant things’. The most consensual consequence of the 1st law of geography is that spatial data is characterized by the existence of spatial dependency. This means that values for a particular variable in a specific location are related with the values of that same variable in neighboring locations. Geographic inquiry leads to spatial thinking. So we ask geographic questions and explore geographic resources and data based on thinking. Then we

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analyze geographic information and act upon geographic knowledge. At the end we try to find out the suitable key methods which covers different components of conducting geographical research, viz., research design, literature review, ethical practices and requirements, collection/visualization/interpretation/analysis of qualitative and quantitative data and disseminating research findings. Inter-disciplinary nature of geographical research covers a diverse range of philosophies that explores the human and physical environments and their interactions which aid in planning for at varying scales of analysis applying modern and contemporary methods and techniques.

References Bhatt, L. (1976). Micro level planning. Rajesh Publication, India. Broek, J. O. M. (1966). Compass of geography. Merrill Books. Hartshorne, R. (1959). Perspectives on the nature of geography. Association of American Geographers. Mukherji, D., & Sita, K. (1982). Spatial patterns of out-migration in Maharashtra: 1961–71. Population Geography, 4(1–2), 76–80. Ranade, S., & Dipti, M. (2018). Micro-level infrastructure planning and development: A spatial appraisal for Sangli District, Maharashtra. Universal Review, 7(X), 622–630. Wooldridge, S. W., & East, W. G. (1967). Spirit and purpose of geography. Capricorn Books. World development report (2009). Reshaping economic geography (English). In S. Coulibaly., et al. (Eds.), World development report Washington, D.C. World Bank Group. http://docume nts.worldbank.org/curated/en/730971468139804495/World-development-report-2009-reshap ing-economic-geography

Internet Resources http://www.aag.org/galleries/mycoe-files/OT2_Methods_and_tools.pdf https://www.e-education.psu.edu/natureofgeoinfo/c3_p11.html https://www.nap.edu/catalog/4913/rediscovering-geography-new-relevance-for-science-and-soc iety https://www.rgs.org/CMSPages/GetFile.aspx?nodeguid=441e2182-74a0-4fd4-b41e-ddf53513e 27d&lang=en-GB Source: Retrieved June 10, 2003, online at http://www.weeklyworldnews.com/features/revela tions_story.cfm?instanceid=51782https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319998246

Dipti Mukherji Professor (retired) of Department of Geography, University of Mumbai. Her specialisation is Urban Geography and Planning, Social Geography, Regional Planning and Geographical Information Systems. She has carried out several major and minor sponsored projects funded by Indian Council of Social Science Research, Indian Council of Medical Research and Maritime History Society. Dr. Mukherji has to her credit published papers in National and International journals. She was awarded University Grants Commission Fellowship, India for PostDoctoral work. She is resource person for various workshops and seminars on GIS and Urban Geography. She is associated with several academic organisations and professional bodies. She collaborated with Urban Earth project London for Mumbai walk. She is the President of Indian National Cartographic Association, Mumbai Chapter.

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Shweta Ranade is a faculty member of Geography and Environmental Studies in N. L. Dalmia College of Arts, Commerce & Science, Mumbai. The theme of her doctoral thesis is on “Levels of Development in Sangli District: An Intra-District Geospatial Analysis”. She also did P.G. Diploma Course in GIS and Remote Sensing from University of Mumbai. She is actively involved in explorative research with respect to geospatial analysis of socio-economic data for studying the status of development in Maharashtra, India.

4

Point Pattern Analysis for Identifying Spatial Clustering Tendency Tzai-Hung Wen and Fei-Ying Kuo

Abstract

Any distribution of surface features (SFs) exhibits a particular geographic pattern. An understanding of the patterns of geographic data for SFs can help to explain geographic phenomena better, monitor surface conditions, and compare changes in SFs or track their trends. This chapter introduces the methods for analyzing spatial point patterns, including clustered, dispersed, and random distributions. First, the nearest neighbor analysis (NNA) is introduced for examining spatial patterns. The method requires consideration of only the distance between each sample and its nearest neighbor. Second, distance-based analysis methods, including G-, F-, and K-functions, are explained in detail. These methods infer statistically significant spatial patterns from using the Monte Carlo significance test to determine the confidence interval of the expected value. Finally, a critical issue in point pattern analysis is discussed. All the distancebased methods used face the same problem—the edge effect. Therefore, the correction methods for edge effect are also introduced in the last part. Keywords

Point pattern • Spatial clustering analysis • Edge effect



Nearest neighbor analysis



Distance-based

Introduction Any distribution of surface features (SFs) exhibits a particular geographic pattern. These geographic patterns range from a clustered to dispersed distribution.

T.-H. Wen (B) · F.-Y. Kuo Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_4

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(a)

(b)

clustered

(c)

dispersed

random

Fig. 4.1 Different spatial patterns: a clustered; b dispersed; c random

Between these two extreme patterns are random distributions (Fig. 4.1). An understanding of the patterns of geographic data for SFs can help to explain geographic phenomena better, monitor surface conditions, and compare changes in SFs or track their trends. Also, decision-makers can formulate coping strategies targeting different distribution patterns. For example, a discovery made by an ecologist that a particular species is distributed in a dispersed pattern suggests that this species is highly adaptable. As a result, its habitat covers a vast area. In contrast, a clustered distribution pattern indicates that the species can survive only in a small number of habitats (Wiegand & Moloney, 2013). Tree condition monitoring is crucial to forest management. Forestry authorities can ensure that sufficient forest habitats are preserved by monitoring the forest distribution patterns in logging areas and determining the current forest distribution patterns through long-term regular monitoring (Getzin et al., 2008). In crime analysis, it is possible to compare the distribution patterns of different crime types (e.g., robbery and theft). If a particular type of crime is relatively clustered, it is advisable to determine the high concentration areas further and add more patrol points in these areas (Anselin et al., 2000). Regarding application in infectious disease control, it is possible to explain further the characteristics of the location where the outbreak of an epidemic disease occurred by measuring its spatial distribution and spread pattern (Gatrell et al., 1996).

Statistical Tests for Spatial Patterns When measuring patterns using statistical methods, we determine data-point distribution patterns (e.g., clustered and uniform patterns) through the statistics used

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in spatial analysis methods. A comparison of the measurements shows the differences between the distribution patterns of SFs. In addition to explaining the spatial distribution patterns based on descriptive analysis results, it is necessary to assess the clustering extent further. In summary, the purpose of spatial statistical analysis is to facilitate an understanding of these problems. Spatial statistical analysis renders it possible to determine whether there is a clustered spatial distribution pattern accurately and, if so, to assess the extent of clustering. Similar to the analysis procedure of general statistical tests, a statistical analysis of spatial data first requires establishing a null hypothesis—an event distribution pattern is caused by a particular spatial process. Also, this distribution pattern is viewed as a possible result of a particular spatial process. Finally, the probability that this event distribution pattern is a result of this spatial process is calculated using statistical test methods. The significance level of the analysis result can be determined using statistical test methods, which renders decision-making more cogent.

Method 1: Nearest Neighbor Analysis (NNA) NNA is a method used to examine spatial patterns and considers only the distance between each sample and its nearest neighbor (Clark & Evans, 1954). This basic concept of the method is to examine whether the distribution pattern of the samples is close to a random distribution pattern by calculating the nearest neighbor distances (NNDs). The following explains the meaning of the R-statistic used in NNA and subsequently details the corresponding calculation method. R is given by: R=

r r (e)

(4.1)

where r is the average NND of the samples and r (e) is the expected value of r in a random distribution. r and r (e) are defined as follows: Σ r r= (4.2) n √ A/n r (e) = (4.3) 2 In Eq. (4.2), r is the distance from each sample to its nearest neighbor, and n is the number of samples. In√Eq. (4.3), A is the size of the sample study area, A/n is the NND of each point in an absolutely n is the number of samples, √ A/n uniform distribution, and 2 is the average NND in the hypothesized random through Monte distribution (i.e., r (e)). Alternatively, r (e) can also be calculated √ Carlo simulation. Thus, r (e) is not necessarily always equal to A/n 2 .

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R 1, the distribution of the samples tends to be dispersed; and if R < 1, the distribution of the samples tends to be clustered, as shown in Fig. 4.2. While the distribution patterns of samples can be observed with the NND of each sample, this method may overlook the distances between the non-nearest neighbor samples. Thus, the original NND can be modified to the second, third, or fourth NND. A variable k is used to represent the order of neighbors. For example, k = 2 for second nearest neighbors. This method is referred to as k-order NNA. Figure 4.3 shows a plot of the results for different orders. In this plot, the xand y-axes represent the order of the neighbor and the value of the R-statistic used in k-order NNA, respectively. If the R value increases rapidly from close to zero and subsequently tends to level off, the SF is distributed in regional clusters. If the R value is lower than one throughout and does not fluctuate notably, the SF is centralized in a cluster. Here, let us take the sample data in Fig. 4.3 as an example. The R value is higher than one for low orders, suggesting no significant clustering. Besides, there is an increase in the R value for high orders, indicating considerably dispersed data for the area. Fig. 4.3 An example of k-order nearest neighbors

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Method 2: Distance-Based Analysis Apart from NNA, some methods have been developed based on distance functions, including the G-, F-, and K-functions. These functions are explained in detail as follows.

G-function The G-function directly calculates the cumulative frequency curve of the NND using a table constructed by NNA (Diggle, 2013). The G-function is given as follows: G(d) =

#[d(si ) < d] n

(4.4)

where d is a specified distance, d(si ) is the NND of sample i, and n is the number of samples. Thus, G(d) the proportion of samples whose nearest neighbor samples are within d, i.e., the cumulative frequency distribution, is represented by the trend from 0 to 1 as d increases. The solid and dotted lines in Fig. 4.4 are an unsmoothed cumulative frequency curve and the corresponding curve smoothed by the Poisson distribution, respectively. Spatial patterns can be captured from the cumulative frequency curve generated by the G-function. If the samples are clustered, the value of the Gfunction increases rapidly within a short distance. If the samples are distributed uniformly, the value of the G-function increases slowly. In Fig. 4.4, the G-function value increases rapidly within a distance of 1000 m, suggesting that the NNDs of most samples are shorter than 1000 m. Fig. 4.4 G-function curve

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F-Function The F-function is conceptually similar to the G-function. However, instead of calculating the shortest distance between any two event points, several locations within the study area are randomly selected for the F-function. The distances from these locations to the nearest neighbor samples are calculated, based on which a cumulative frequency curve is plotted (Diggle, 2013). The F-function is given by: F(d) =

#[d( pi , S) < d] n

(4.5)

In Eq. (4.5), d( pi , S) is the distance between the randomly selected location pi and the nearest neighbor sample. The F-function is advantageous due to its ability to overcome the inadequate data problem associated with the G-function; a sufficient number of random points can be selected to calculate the distances, which can ensure a smooth curve (Fig. 4.5). While the calculations of the G- and F-functions appear to be similar, the results differ significantly. For a clustered point distribution pattern, the G-function curve ascends rapidly within a short distance. In contrast, the F-function curve ascends first slowly and then, similar to the G-function curve, relatively rapidly as the distance increases, as shown in Fig. 4.6. For a uniform point distribution pattern, the opposite occurs—the G-function curve ascends rapidly as the distance becomes relatively large. As a result, the F-function curve ascends faster than the G-function curve, as shown in Fig. 4.6. The three methods introduced above, namely NNA, the G-function, and the F-function, consider only the distance from the nearest neighbor point. This, however, may cause misleading situations. Here, we take Fig. 4.7 as an example. In Fig. 4.7, while each event point is close to the nearest event point, the points are very distant from all the other event points. NNA, the G-function, and the F-function all produce a clustered distribution pattern, which is incorrect. Fig. 4.5 F-function curve

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Fig. 4.6 Comparison of the cumulative frequency curves generated by the G- and F-functions Fig. 4.7 An example for which NNA, the G-function, and the F-function may produce erroneous analysis results

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Ripley’s K-Function Ripley (1976) developed the K-function primarily to address problems similar to the above example. The K-function is calculated as follows. First, a circle is drawn with each event point as its center and d as its radius. Then, the number of event points other than that at the center within each circle is calculated. Finally, the numbers for all the circles are averaged, and the average is divided by the distribution density. Thus, the K(d) value is determined. However, it is imperative to repeat these steps to calculate the K(d) values for different d values. K(d) is given by: Σ Σ K (d) =

i

j/=i

I (di j < d)



(4.6)

In Eq. (4.6), I (di j < d) is an indicator function. If the distance Σ between points i and j is shorter than d, I = 1; otherwise, I = 0. Besides, j/=i I (di j < d) is the number of samples (excluding sample i) within the circle with sample i as its center and d as its radius, N is the number of samples, and λ is the average number of samples per unit area. Figure 4.8 shows a schematic diagram of the calculation of the K-function. Instead of considering only the distance from the nearest neighbor point, the K-function calculates the numbers of event points within different distances. Figure 4.9 shows the cumulative frequency curves generated by the K-function for two distributions. Figure 4.9a shows a curve for a clustered distribution. This curve first ascends rapidly because a large number of event points can be covered within a short distance. Then, this curve levels off because no new event points are covered within a certain distance. This trend continues until the next cluster, at which time the curve begins to ascend rapidly again. Figure 4.9b shows a curve for a uniform distribution (dispersed distribution). This curve ascends slowly. In the analysis of real-world data, K(d) curves are not as easily interpretable as the above examples. Thus, the K(d) value is compared with the expected value for an independent random process to determine the distribution pattern. To examine whether a spatial pattern is statistically significant, we need to determine a confidence interval for the expected value. Of the statistical tests used in spatial analysis, the Monte Carlo significance test is predominantly employed to derive spatial patterns. In this test, multiple (generally, 999 or more) random simulations are performed using the Monte Carlo method. In each simulation, a random distribution is simulated under the same study area, and the same number of SFs and the value of its K-function is calculated. Finally, the K-function values at the 5 and 95 percentiles (i.e., at the 95% confidence level) within each search distance are located from the simulated data and are subsequently plotted as the upper and lower bounds of the confidence interval, respectively (Fig. 4.10).

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Fig. 4.8 Schematic diagram of the calculation of the K-function

However, as the search distance increases, the number of discoverable SFs increases, resulting in a considerable increase in the K-function value and a continual increase in the values on the x- and y-axes. Therefore, reducing the value of the K-function can facilitate the plotting and reading of a graph. A typical correction method is the transformation of the value of the K-function. The transformed function is referred to as the L-function (Ripley, 1977). The K-function is transformed to the L-function using the following equation: / L(d) =

K (d) −d π

(4.7)

The expected value of the L-function within any search distance is the search distance itself (d) and is reflected by a horizontal line in a graph. Thus, within any search distance, as long as the observed value of the L-function is greater than its expected value, the distribution tends to be clustered (Fig. 4.11); otherwise, the distribution tends to be dispersed.

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Fig. 4.9 K(d) functions for different distribution patterns

Critical Issues in Point Pattern Analysis: Edge Effects and Correction Methods All the methods used to calculate distances face the same problem—the edge effect. This effect describes a scenario in which an event point that occurs at the edge of the study area is often relatively distant from its nearest neighbor point but, in fact, maybe closer to another event point outside the study area (Haase, 1995). In other words, the NND of the event point in question is underestimated, as shown in Fig. 4.12.

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Fig. 4.10 Observed and expected values of the K-function as well as the upper and lower bounds of the 95% confidence interval

Several event points in Fig. 4.12 are located on the edge of the study area. Each of these event points is relatively close to several event points outside the edge of the study area, which are not included in the calculation as they are outside the study area. This leads to an incorrect result. One of the methods for addressing this incorrect result is to create a buffer distance for the K-function. Specifically, a buffer zone is created along the edge of the study area, and the event points within this buffer zone are included in the calculation (Fig. 4.13). If the data for the areas outside the study area are unavailable, a buffer zone is created within the study area along its edge to reduce its size (Fig. 4.14). The event points within the buffer zone are viewed as edge events and are included in the calculation (Sterner et al., 1986). Unlike the F- and G-functions, which take into account only the interpointistance relationship, the K-function calculates the number of samples within each circle with a sample as its center and, on this basis, involves the plane–point relationship (Getis & Franklin, 1987). Consequently, the edge correction method for the K-function differs from that for the F- and G-functions. The edge-corrected K-function is given by: Σ Σ K (d) =

i

j/=i

w(li , l j )−1 (di j < d) Nλ

(4.8)

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Fig. 4.11 L-functions of the distribution patterns of different SFs

The edge-corrected K-function differs from the original K-function only in that the w(li , l j ) (i.e., the proportion of the circle with sample i as its center within the study area) term in the numerator represents the edge correction weight. If the circle with sample i as its center is located entirely within the study area, w(li , l j ) = 1, i.e., no edge correction is needed. If only half of the circle with sample i as its center is located within the study area, w(li , l j ) = 0.5, i.e., it is assumed that half of the samples are overlooked. Thus, in this case, the originally calculated number of samples within the circle is doubled in the correction for the edge effect.

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Fig. 4.12 Points within the ellipses occur in the areas immediately surrounding the study area, which may lead to an underestimated analysis result for the study area

Fig. 4.13 Outward expansion of the study area to include the SFs that cause edge effects

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Fig. 4.14 Inward contraction of the study area to eliminate the SFs that cause edge effects

References Anselin, L., Cohen, J., Cook, D., Gorr, W., & Tita, G. (2000). Spatial analyses of crime. Criminal Justice, 4(2), 213–262. Clark, P. J., & Evans, F. C. (1954). Distance to nearest neighbor as a measure of spatial relationships in populations. Ecology, 35(4), 445–453. Diggle, P. J. (2013). Statistical analysis of spatial and spatio-temporal point patterns. CRC Press. Gatrell, A. C., Bailey, T. C., Diggle, P. J., & Rowlingson, B. S. (1996). Spatial point pattern analysis and its application in geographical epidemiology. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 21(1), 256–274. Getis, A., & Franklin, J. (1987). Second-order neighborhood analysis of mapped point patterns. Ecology, 68(3), 473–477. https://doi.org/10.2307/1938452 Getzin, S., Wiegand, T., Wiegand, K., & He, F. (2008). Heterogeneity influences spatial patterns and demographics in forest stands. Journal of Ecology, 96(4), 807–820. Haase, P. (1995). Spatial pattern analysis in ecology based on Ripley’s K-function: Introduction and methods of edge correction. Journal of Vegetation Science, 6(4), 575–582. Ripley, B. D. (1976). The second-order analysis of stationary point processes. Journal of Applied Probability, 13(2), 255–266. Ripley, B. D. (1977). Modelling spatial patterns. Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series B (Methodological), 39(2), 172–192.

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Sterner, R. W., Ribic, C. A., & Schatz, G. E. (1986). Testing for life historical changes in spatial patterns of four tropical tree species. The Journal of Ecology, 74(3), 621–633. Wiegand, T., & Moloney, K. A. (2013). Handbook of spatial point-pattern analysis in ecology. CRC Press.

Tzai-Hung Wen Professor in the Department of Geography and Institute of Epidemiology and Preventive Medicine at National Taiwan University (NTU). He is also the Director of NTU Spatial Information Research Center and serve as Editor-in-chief of Journal of Population Studies. His primary research interest is to explore geospatial process in human environment by using multidimensional data from mobile geo-sensors, social media and open data platforms. Prof. Wen’s studies focus on developing advanced spatial-temporal analysis methods for quantifying the role of human mobility in infectious disease diffusion. His major original articles are published in Scientific Reports, Annals of the American Association of Geographers, International Journal of Health Geographics, Applied Geography, Social Science and Medicine, Health and Place and Taiwan Journal of Public Health. Fei-Ying Kuo is a Postdoctoral Fellow of the Department of Geography, National Taiwan University. His current research mainly focuses on developing algorithms for containment zone delineation and evaluating medical resource accessibility for confronting infectious diseases. Other area of research interest includes identifying space-time diffusion structures, and developing algorithms for exploring space-time phenomena in urban environment.

5

Livelihood Changes in Small-Scale Traditional Societies: A Political Ecological Approach Satoshi Yokoyama

Abstract

The perspective of political ecology has the characteristic of seeking the causes of various kinds of issues that arise in local areas not simply at the local level but understanding them by widening the field of view to include relations with the political and economic system at the regional, national and global level. To examine the advantages of applying political ecology to study livelihood changes, this chapter took up a minority ethnic people’s swidden village in northern Laos as the case study. In the study village, which had thus far attained self-sufficiency in upland rice through swidden agriculture, the land and forest allocation program (LFAP) was implemented by the Lao government, and, further, an international NGO that supports the transition from swidden agriculture to sedentary upland agriculture introduced agri-forest products, which have a smaller environmental load. However, the study village, unable to gain sufficient income to buy rice even by selling agri-forest products, began contract farming for cash crops with Chinese firms. To clarify this livelihood change, land use in the two periods before and after implementation of LFAP was analyzed, and an interview survey was also conducted with multilevel actors. As a result, the multiscale political and economic system was identified as having direct and indirect impacts on the local area, the change from subsistence rice farming through swidden agriculture to contract farming for cash crops was elucidated, and the useful application of the political ecological approach in research into livelihood change was verified. Keywords

Political ecology . Livelihood International NGO

.

Swidden agriculture

.

Contract farming

.

S. Yokoyama (B) Department of Geography, School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Japan e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_5

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Introduction In order to understand the development of livelihood studies in geography, this chapter begins by examining the research trends in political ecology. Livelihood studies conducted from a political ecological viewpoint stems from research into cultural ecology. It was not until the 1960s that the direction of cultural ecology as a distinct research field was established and research began to move forward (Butzer, 1989). The mainstream of cultural ecology research in the 1960s was based on the ecosystem concept, which comprehended human livelihood activities within an ecosystem. Representative examples are the research accomplishments regarding the relationships between subsistence activity, such as swidden agriculture, and population carrying capacity in Papua New Guinea (Clarke, 1968) and the Campa subsistence activity and food procurement in eastern Peru (Denevan, 1971). The characteristic of this research was that, while taking as its subject societies that maintain direct relations with the natural environment through their livelihoods, it hypothesized an ecosystem that maintained a state of closure and homeostasis toward the outside world. From the latter half of the 1970s, however, the cash economy and capital permeated into the developing countries through contact with the outside world, thus initiating the experience of the transition from subsistence farming to cash crop farming and the excessive development which caused irreparable damage to the natural environment. For this reason, it became difficult to use the Ecosystem Concept to comprehend the process whereby humans and the natural environment influenced each other to adapt to environmental changes. Thus, a dynamic viewpoint was required to elucidate the kinds of adaptations that took place as a result of external factors influencing local livelihoods and environmental changes. In the field of geography, Nietschmann (1973), who undertook a livelihood analysis of the green turtle (Chelonia mydas) hunting by the Miskito of Eastern Nicaragua, discussed how the local ecosystem site and social stability was destroyed by involvement with the new social economic system arising from an increase in demand for the green turtle in outside areas. Furthermore, from the latter half of the 1970s a research framework that incorporated political and economic trends on a national or international scale to elucidate local livelihood activities and natural resource use began to be adopted. This was early stage political ecology. Research by Grossmann (1981), who discussed the resilience of the subsistence system and the permeation of the cash economy into a subsistence economy village in Papua New Guinea, and Watts (1983), who described the process of gradual loss of the ability to adapt to drought as a result of the permeation of capitalism into the peasant society of northern Nigeria, are taken to be pioneering examples of political ecological studies in geographical research. In contrast to cultural ecological livelihood studies, which focused on the relationship between resource use through livelihood and local cultural and social organization, political ecological livelihood studies focused on

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political and economic aspects of resource use related to livelihood and attempted to expand the field of vision to relationships that included more macro- or global political and economic systems rather than functional linkages with micro- or local cultural and social organization. Political ecology became widely recognized after publication of the research by Blaikie and Brookfield (1987) which discussed the relationship between land degradation and society. Blaikie and Brookfield concluded that, rather than population increase being the cause of land degradation, the wealthy class had monopolized fertile land during the colonial period, and while leaving farmers with only the remaining infertile land for use, the land became degraded when stricter land management was implemented. These early studies clearly indicated the direction of the political ecological approach of elucidating the causes of local environmental problems through an expansion of the axes of space and time. From the 1990s, the political ecological approach also began to be applied to research in social science fields other than environmental issues, livelihood changes and natural resource uses in developing countries. Fields such as urban political ecology are thought to be representative of these (Swyngedouw & Heynen, 2003). Regarding the expansion to such applied fields, the criticism has been voiced that the political ecology of recent years contains no standpoint for the attempt to resolve ecological issues (Walker, 2005). Current political ecology has also been criticized for dogmatically concluding, whatever the circumstances may be, that politics is responsible for the causes of ecological deterioration (Vayda & Walter, 1999). In response to this criticism, Robbins (2004, p. 217) insists that it is political ecology that has allowed us to discern various matters in current environmental problems that differ from what we were able to see previously. In the contemporary world, where globalization is advancing, the political ecological approach has provided many research fields with a vantage point for comprehending local environmental problems and livelihood changes through an expansion of time and space.

Background and Objective This chapter examines livelihood changes in an ethnic minority people’s village in northern Laos, mainland Southeast Asia. In Laos, where mountainous land accounts for approximately 70% of the national land area, there are only very limited areas where it is possible to carry out wet cultivation for production of the staple food rice. The large population that inhabits the mountainous areas relies on swidden agriculture for their rice production. However, as interest in global environmental problems rose, the viewpoint that swidden agriculture caused environmental destruction became more prevalent, leading to government and international organization demands for the transformation of the swidden agriculture being performed in northern Laos to sedentary upland agriculture. Moreover, due to the increase in demand for rubber in China

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in the 1990s, para rubber plantations were introduced into northern Laos and expanded swiftly (Alton et al., 2005; Thongmanivong et al., 2009). In addition, contract farming was introduced into areas close to the Chinese border. Under contract farming, Chinese firms provide cash crop seeds, chemical fertilizers, pesticides and agricultural materials. These are used by farmers to cultivate crops which are then sold to the Chinese firms, resulting in great changes in the farmers’ livelihoods and customary land use. The purpose of this chapter is to explain, by use of the political ecological approach, the methodology for clarifying the impacts on local, small-scale society in northern Laos from the global/national/regional multiscale political and economic system, how the residents responded to these new changes and the kinds of livelihood changes they experienced as a result.

Study Village The village that was the subject of this research was M village, Namo District, Oudomxay Province in northern Laos, where the author has been conducting research for some time (Fig. 5.1). M village is a Khmu ethnic minority village to which the residents migrated from an upland area in 1977 to seek land suitable for paddy fields. As of the end of 2006, the village population was 192 people in 33 households consisting of 41 families. While paddy fields have been created in the village, these are owned by residents of the neighboring N village. The residents of M village own almost no paddy fields and are self-sufficient in the staple upland rice produced by swidden agriculture.

Fig. 5.1 Study area

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The land and forest allocation program (LFAP) was implemented by the government in M village in 2004. LFAP is a government policy measure in which the land within the boundaries of the village was delineated into forest, agricultural land and residential areas, followed by allocation of agricultural land to each household. Since all land belongs to the state, strictly speaking, “allocation” means that the tradeable land use rights are given to each household. The forest is divided into Protection Forest, Conservation Forest, Regeneration Forest, Production Forest in accordance with the current state of the forest, the use of these areas as agricultural land being prohibited. In other words, swidden agriculture can no longer be practiced on land that has been delineated as forest. As the agricultural land allocated to each household is approximately three hectares (ha) per household, it is not possible to continue the former practice of swidden agriculture, which uses a large number of fallow areas in rotation. Thus, LFAP is a policy measure that encourages the transition to sedentary upland agriculture by delineating and protecting the forest and implementing a new division of agricultural land. This can be rephrased by saying that access to the forest for swidden agriculture was denied (Ducourtieux et al., 2005). Prior to the implementation of LFAP, the forest was utilized in a carefully planned way, estimating the area necessary for swidden agriculture from the number of households through discussion in the village. Following the implementation of LFAP, however, land was allocated to individuals, who became personally responsible for farming their allocated areas. From 2004 to 2006, a rural development project to support the transition from swidden fields to sedentary upland fields was implemented in M village by a German International NGO.

Methodology This chapter elucidates how local residents responded to new institutions and new agricultural practices introduced from outside, and, as a result, what kind of livelihood changes took place. To achieve this, it is first necessary to gather data on the residents’ reactions, such as acceptance, compromise and rejection, by conducting interviews through fieldwork at the research site. It is also necessary to comprehend how land use changed before and after the events that were introduced from outside. The combination of these different methods is crucial in research based on the political ecological viewpoint.

Conducting Multiscale Interviews Interviews are the most important method for elucidating local livelihood activities. However, even if interviews are conducted directly with households in the village that is the subject of the research, the only data that can be gained are those on matters such as family composition and livelihood. Thus, it is required to conduct

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interviews at the national, regional and local levels when carrying out research from the political ecological viewpoint. At the national level, information is gathered on when and how events such as the enacting of laws and regulations that have impacts on livelihoods were implemented. To do this, it is necessary to conduct interviews with the persons in charge at the relevant ministries and agencies. The author’s research in Laos has received survey permission from the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) as the contacting ministry. Thus, a hearing was conducted with the persons in charge at the MAF research institute, the National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute (NAFRI), regarding agriculture and forestry policy, LFAP, contract farming and other matters, including information specific to the area under study. The author also requested permission to inspect and copy materials on all kinds of policies. In the village, it is possible to identify the firms the villagers are actually contracting with, but no other information can be obtained about other firms. Therefore, before proceeding to the research site, visits to the Provincial Agriculture and Forestry Office (PAFO) and District Agriculture and Forestry Office (DAFO) to conduct interviews with the officers in charge of agriculture and forestry are a must to obtain the latest information on agriculture and forestry trends in the area. Not only in Laos but all over mainland Southeast Asia, with the spread of high value-added agricultural sectors such as vegetables and fruit trees, as well as plantation projects, contracting between foreign firms and farmers for production and sales is advancing. Local administrative organizations such as PAFO and DAFO have the most accurate grasp of information on this kind of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). Following this, information on the village that is the subject of the research is gained by conducting interviews with the village head, the elders and others who are very knowledgeable about the village. The interviews are conducted employing the semi-structured interview method using the items and content indicated in Table 5.1 as the mandatory question items. When this has been completed, introductions to the households to be surveyed are given by the village head, and, based on the general village information already acquired, information is then gathered through conversations with the informants using the unstructured interview method.

Land Use Analysis To verify livelihood changes in the case study conducted in M village, land use in 2004, prior to implementation of LFAP, and in 2007, following the implementation of LFAP, were compared. Maps that form the basis for preparation of land use maps are necessary. WorldView-2 satellite images, which provide a very high panchromatic resolution of 0.46 m, were used in this research. The satellite images

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Table 5.1 Items and contents of semi-structured interview Items

Contents

History

Year of establishment of the village, the consolidation of villages

Residents

Number of males, female, infants, children, elderly and labor force Number of families and households Population and number of families, and households by ethnicity Religion

Land

Areas of farmland, forest and residential area Land concession Implementation of LFAP

Infrastructure

Schools and teachers (primary school, secondary school) Electricity and water supply

Economy

Commercial crops, plantations, livestock, fish farming, non-farm activities

were superimposed on land and forest classification maps prepared in 2004 by Namo District DAFO using GIS (ArcGIS). Land surveying of all agricultural land in M village was also conducted using GPS in 2004 and 2007.

Research Result Land Use Before LFAP Implementation When M village was surveyed in 2004, the land delineation had just recently been completed, and the residents were still practicing swidden agriculture on a large area, 18.89 ha, of Regeneration Forest and Production Forest, as shown in Fig. 5.2. In this year, the village was capable of self-sufficiency in rice and absolutely no problem arose in the daily life of the villagers. Forest products were also being gathered from the Production Forest and Conservation Forest (Fig. 5.3). As of 2004, customary land use and day-to-day use of biological resources by the residents was still continuing, and it can be surmised that LFAP was not particularly effective. The administrative organization that implements LFAP is DAFO. The central government provides training to DAFO staff on matters such as land survey techniques and how to prepare land use rights papers. The small budget of the Lao government, however, makes it difficult to bear the personnel costs necessary to implement LFAP. An international NGO thus provided technical and financial support for the implementation of LFAP in M village. In the hearing conducted with MAF, it was stated that not only in M village but throughout Laos, funds and technical cooperation from overseas donors such as international NGOs and official development assistance (ODA) from the governments of many countries was indispensable for the implementation of LFAP.

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Fig. 5.2 Forest classification and land use of M village in 2004

Fig. 5.3 Gathering of various forest products by a resident of M village in 2004

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Land Use After LFAP Implementation LFAP in M village began in 2004 with support from an international NGO, and land was allocated to all residents in 2006. The activities of the international NGO then ended in 2006. The author visited M village again in 2007 to conduct a land use survey using GPS following completion of LFAP (Fig. 5.4). As this survey measured the agricultural land area actually in use, allocated but unused agricultural land is not reflected in the map. An overview of the land use in the village shows that, centering on the Nam Pak River flowing from west to south in Fig. 5.4, sedentary upland fields are situated on the sloping land in the upstream area on the west side, while paddy fields are distributed in the low-lying areas developed along the main road. Further, fishponds have also been constructed in 32 locations, but are hard to confirm on the map due to their small size. Land allocated to the residents was not only land within that classified as agricultural land, but, as can be seen from Fig. 5.4, upland fields have been cleared in several locations along rivers in areas classified as forest, such as in Regeneration Forest, Production Forest, Protection Forest and Conservation Forest. It can be clearly seen that the forest classification itself is not very strictly enforced. According to the village head, if an application is made to DAFO, an official title certificate will be issued, and ownership recognized, provided the field is a sedentary upland field and not a swidden field.

Fig. 5.4 Forest classification and land use of M village in 2007

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Land on which swidden agriculture was being practiced at the time of the 2004 survey had almost all become sedentary upland fields in 2007, and it is possible to see that this land had been allocated to the residents. According to the residents, swidden agriculture was last practiced in 2005, after which no swidden agriculture was carried out. Thus, swidden agriculture disappeared from M village, and the livelihood of the residents changed to crop cultivation on sedentary upland fields.

Rural Development by an International NGO To enable a smooth transition from swidden agriculture to sedentary upland agriculture, the international NGO initiated preparatory support activities in the village from 2003, carrying out investigations into how best, after the implementation of LFAP, to practice sustainable agriculture in the village while conserving the natural environment. As a result, the international NGO introduced into the village seven kinds of field crops—soybeans, peanuts, maize, sesame, cassava, garlic and shallot—and nine kinds of fruit crops—banana, mandarin orange, orange, lychee, longan, plum, pomelo, lime and pineapple. The reason for the introduction of fruit crops, hardly cultivated at all in northern Laos up to that time, took into account the facts that fruit imports from China were increasing and that there was also a market for fruit inside Laos. It was also thought that the self-sufficiency in upland rice from swidden agriculture could be covered by purchasing rice with the earnings gained from fruit cultivation. The agricultural land allocated to the residents was not flat land, but sloping land on which swidden agriculture had previously been practiced. The international NGO therefore planted sunhemp (Crotalaria juncea), a leguminous green manure crop that fixes nitrogen in the soil, along the contour lines, and recommended that crops be grown between the rows of sunhemp, an agricultural practice known as alley cropping. This agricultural method has the merits of preventing soil runoff and also obviates the need for chemical fertilizers. Additionally, to prevent the total loss of a crop even in the occurrence of abnormal weather conditions or damage by disease or insects, mixed cropping, where several different kinds of crops are cultivated on the same plot, was recommended. The characteristics of the agricultural development devised by the international NGO were, therefore, a method that had consideration for the environment, agricultural crops that were matched with market trends and the cultivation of forest products.

Economic Status After LFAP To clarify the current state of household economy in M village, interviews were conducted with households that had ceased to practice swidden agriculture after the implementation of LFAP and had begun sedentary upland agriculture. Let us take up here two households that owned only very small areas of paddy field and explain their land use after the implementation of LFAP (Table 5.2). This

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Table 5.2 Land use after LFAP in case households (2006) Household

No. of household members

Allocated land

Area (ha)

Agricultural and forestry products being grown

A

5

Paddy

0.27

Wet rice

Upland field A

1.06

Fruits: Longan, Lychee, Mandarin Orange, Mango, Orange, Pineapple, Plum, Pomelo Crops: Maize Forest products: Puack muack (Boehmeria sp.)

Upland field B

0.20

Vegetables for self-consumption

Paddy

0.09

Wet rice

Upland field C

0.47

Fruits: Longan, Lychee, Mandarin Orange, Pineapple, Plum Crops: Peanuts Forest products: Galangal, Rattan

Upland field D

0.53

Crops: Maize

B

4

was carried out by onsite observation of the agricultural and forest products being cultivated and GPS survey measurements. Land which was allocated but had not been cleared as of 2007, and thus was not planted, is not included in Table 5.2. Household A was a family of five people that owned only 0.27 ha of paddy field. The amount of wet rice that could be produced on this area of land would be enough to feed a family of five for three months. Previously, the family had produced upland rice on swidden fields as well as on paddy fields, the total rice production enabling self-sufficiency. Following the implementation of LFAP, however, it became necessary to sell the agricultural and forest products produced on the two upland fields the family had been allocated to purchase enough rice to cover the nine-month shortfall. The various agricultural and forest products planted on upland field A resulted in an income of 800,000 kip (approximately USD100). However, since the rice shortfall could not be resolved with the income from the agricultural and forest products alone, a pig was sold for 300,000 kip (approximately USD37.5) and forest products harvested from the forest were sold for 2.41 million kip (approximately USD301), enabling the purchase of rice to cover the household’s needs for the year. In addition, the family helped out with the farm work on paddy fields owned by other households, receiving rice as payment for the labor. Household B did not own any paddy fields before the implementation of LFAP and was self-sufficient in rice from swidden agriculture alone. The household was allocated a mere 0.09 ha of land for paddy field use, which they converted to a paddy field in 2004, but were able to produce only 10 kg of rice. In 2006, as

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the maize that the household planted in upland field D was completely spoilt by wild boars, no income was gained from this field. There was also hardly any fruit harvested from the fruit trees cultivated in upland field C. The household thus sold a water buffalo and a pig to gain an income of approximately 4 million kip (around USD500). The household’s remaining livestock was reduced to just two water buffalo. Even so, as the household faced extreme difficulties in daily life, they gathered forest products, gaining an income of 1.162 million kip (around USD145). As seen from the above, in M village, where it became impossible to practice swidden agriculture after the implementation of LFAP, it became clear that the shortfall of rice produced from paddy fields alone could not be fully resolved from the profits gained by the sale of agricultural and forest products cultivated on allocated land. The residents therefore had little option but to sell livestock and gather forest products to purchase the necessary rice. Originally, the hunting or gathering of plants and animals in the Production Forest and Conservation Forest after implementation of LFAP was prohibited by law, but the two households taken up in the case study above had been gathering forest products from these forest areas. Furthermore, up until that time large livestock animals such as water buffalo and pigs had been moveable assets that functioned as a safety net, since they could be sold off when sudden payments had to be made in the case of sickness or other emergencies. After the implementation of LFAP, however, households fell into a situation where daily life became impossible without selling their moveable assets such as livestock. The fruit trees that were introduced by the international NGO do not produce income until several years after planting, and thus they contributed very little to incomes immediately after implementation of LFAP. The pattern that developed after implementation of LFAP was that households possessing insufficient areas of paddy field abruptly fell into poverty. The international NGO also understood this situation and supported the village by donating a large number of pigs. That, however, was nothing more than a temporary stopgap measure, and it was clear that this was not a fundamental resolution of the issues brought about by LFAP.

The Growing Influence of Chinese Firms In the mid-2000s, when LFAP was being implemented in northern Laos, Chinese firms were already conducting para rubber plantation projects in a large number of locations. However, the international NGO, which had aimed for the compatibility of sustainable economic activities with environmental conservation, refused to introduce para rubber plantations, which destroy the biodiversity of the forest, into M village. The impact of China was not limited to para rubber plantations. From 2005, the contract farming of watermelon and red bell peppers, and in 2006 that of pumpkins, was initiated in the area in which M village is situated. Nevertheless, the international NGO, which was active in M village until 2006, did not allow the

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introduction of contract farming by Chinese firms due to the use of large amounts of pesticides and chemical fertilizers. In October 2006, however, as soon as the activities of the international NGO came to an end, the residents of M village began contract farming with Chinese firms on the agricultural land allocated to them under LFAP (Fig. 5.5). Contract farming of red bell peppers was implemented by 11 households, while one household carried out the contract farming of watermelon. Assuming that no disease or insect damage occurs, and pesticides and fertilizers are applied as instructed, both of these crops will produce a yield of 30 t/ha. In January 2007, red bell peppers were harvested for the first time by M village residents, who were busy with shipping work. Compared with the environmentfriendly agriculture introduced by the international NGO, the contract farming of commercial crops for export to China fetched an income that was several tens of times greater per unit area of land. Many of the residents of M village ceased the practice of the unprofitable agriculture recommended by the international NGO and planned to introduce contract farming. Moreover, some of the residents began to consider establishing para rubber plantations on their allocated land. Since the trees did not contribute any income, Household A, indicated in Table 5.2, was

Fig. 5.5 Contract farming of red bell peppers with Chinese firm at allocated farmland of M village in January 2007

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reported to be planning to plant para rubber trees by felling the fruit trees planted in upland field A. Household B also stated that they wished to plant para rubber trees in upland field D, where they had previously cultivated maize. What will happen to M village in the future? The speed of changes in land use has accelerated in the past few years. The residents have little time to think about what is beneficial and what is harmful. Events that have never been experienced previously are being brought in from outside without any idea of how to deal with the changes. The implementation of LFAP, development support by the international NGO and the Chinese firms coming over the border—all of these came into the village while the residents were still in a state of complete unpreparedness for their acceptance.

Approach to Study on Livelihood Change Advantages of the Political Ecological Approach The international NGO that supported the government LFAP introduced environment-friendly agriculture into M village, but this brought about a deterioration in the household economy compared with the period during which swidden agriculture was being practiced. Almost no income could be gained from the fruit trees that had been planted in the sedentary upland fields, and the residents fell into a situation where daily life became impossible without the gathering of forest products, which had been prohibited, and the sale of livestock, which up until that time had functioned as a safety net. The reason for this was that the activities of what could be said to be the self-righteous nature of support from advanced countries—the compatibility of environmental conservation with poverty eradication implemented by the international NGO—did not function properly. All the households interviewed in M village stated that they had never fallen into a state of severe rice shortfall when they had practiced swidden agriculture. As cropland is allocated in accordance with the number of workers in a household in swidden agriculture, the area of cropland for producing the necessary amount of rice was always secured. Despite this, the practice of swidden agriculture was forcibly curtailed when land was allocated under LFAP. It was the international NGO that created the trigger for the generation of poverty as a result of agitating for the introduction of a new form of agriculture in synchrony with the government’s LFAP. Since contract farming by Chinese firms uses large amounts of pesticides and chemical fertilizers, and thus did not match with the principles underlying the activities of the international NGO, the introduction of contract farming was postponed during the period when the NGO was active in the village. When the activities of the international NGO came to an end, however, the residents sought a solution for their severe economic situation in cash crop cultivation and para rubber plantations for Chinese firms. This could not be averted, since land use rights had been allocated to each household by LFAP, which had been supported

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Fig. 5.6 Factors of land use and livelihood changes in M village

by the international NGO. If the international NGO had not supported LFAP, the contract farming of watermelon and red bell peppers with the Chinese firm would probably not have gone ahead. A huge contradiction has arisen here. Transferring the power to manage the forest and land is to entrust everything to the decision making of the residents. The external actor that was able to skillfully penetrate this system was the Chinese firms. The activities of the international NGO were not the only cause of the changes. Livelihood change was brought about by three external impacts that advanced simultaneously into M village, these being policy, development support and the Chinese firms that came over the border (Fig. 5.6). The important point of research into political ecology is not to seek the causes of environmental issues and livelihood changes that occur locally merely in the actions and decision making of the villagers alone, but to consider these in conjunction with company trends and the enacting of laws at the higher dimensions of the regional and national levels, and also, for example, the aid and environmental conservation activities at the global level. That is why it is imperative to conduct multiscale interviews with government and municipal officials, village representatives and individuals. This research also provides data on the actual crop selection of residents after LFAP as well as land use changes. This kind of detailed analysis of spatial data based on fieldwork is indispensable in political ecology research that seeks to comprehend issues that actually arise at the local level.

Approaching Livelihood Studies from Different Perspectives The international NGO and the government were linked in a mutually complementary relationship in the research at M village, but the Chinese firms were unrelated to either the government or the international NGO, and were, if anything, an actor hostile to these other actors. The conclusion of this research is that the final choice of the residents of M village, however, was contract farming with

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the Chinese firms. Since it was the government’s LFAP and the international NGO which provided backup for LFAP that indirectly assisted the transition to agriculture resulting in environmental damage and, furthermore, is less sustainable, it should also be possible to take up the issues inherent in LFAP and livelihood change from a different viewpoint by focusing on more political issues. At the same time, turning the focus of research to the livelihood and land use aspects of the disappearance of swidden agriculture would make a different argument possible. The change from swidden fields to sedentary upland fields and plantations is an irreversible form of land use. When swidden fields are converted to sedentary upland fields, changing them back again is fraught with ecological and economic difficulties. It is not impossible, but returning the forest back to a state in which swidden agriculture can be practiced would require several decades, during which time the land could not be used for agriculture. The red bell pepper cultivation that was introduced into M village was all exported to China, but if changes took place in the red bell pepper market in China, the price might fall and demand dissipate, necessitating the introduction of a new cash crop as a substitute. As it is now unfeasible for M village to return the fields to swidden fields, the residents will need to continue to produce cash crops far into the future. By focusing on ecology and land use rather than political issues, it becomes possible to elucidate the relations between the environment and livelihood strategies for the survival of local people. Political ecology, as a research approach for explaining livelihood changes in local society, holds great potential, but it is necessary to be aware that the conclusions reached may differ greatly depending on whether one decides on a political focus or an ecological focus when implementing the survey. Therefore, it is necessary to establish hypotheses based on sufficient information and data gathered before implementing the survey and to carefully examine the hypotheses in order to make corrections in the direction of the research methodology. Acknowledgements This survey was made possible through the support of the people of M village, Namo District, Oudomxay Province, and the staff of the National Agriculture and Forestry Research Institute, Laos. A portion of the expenses for this study was funded by the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, the A Trans-disciplinary Study on the Regional Eco History in Tropical Monsoon Asia: 1945–2005, headed by Professor Emeritus Tomoya AKIMICHI. I received excellent advice from the members of the research project. The author would like to express his sincere thanks to everyone for their valuable advice.

References Alton, C., Bluhm, D., & Sananikone, S. (2005). Para rubber study: Hevea brasiliensis, Lao P.D.R. Lao-German rural development in mountainous areas of Northern Lao PDR. Blaikie, P., & Brookfield, H. C. (Eds.) (1987). Land Degradation and Society. Metheun. Butzer, K. W. (1989). Cultural ecology. In G. L. Gail & C. J. Willmott (Eds.), Geography in America (pp. 192–208). Merill Publishing Co. Clarke, W. C. (1968). Place and people: an ecology of a new Guinean community. University of California Press.

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Denevan, W. M. (1971). Campa subsistence in the Gran Pajonal. Eastern PeruGeographical Review, 61(4), 496–518. https://doi.org/10.2307/213389 Ducourtieux, O., Laffort, J., & Sacklokham, S. (2005). Land policy and farming practices in Laos. Development and Change, 36(3), 499–526. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0012-155X.2005.00421.x Grossmann, L. (1981). The cultural ecology of economic development. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, 71(2), 220–236. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2562793 Nietschmann, B. (1973). Between Land and Water: The Subsistence Ecology of the Miskito Indians. Seminar Press. Robbins, P. (2004). Political ecology: A critical introduction. Blackwell Publishing. Swyngedouw, E., & Heynen, N. (2003). Urban political ecology, justice and the politics of scale. Antipode, 35(5), 898–918. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8330.2003.00364.x Thongmanivong, S., Fujita, Y., Phanvilay K. & Vongvisouk, T. (2009). Agrarian land use transformation in Northern Laos: From swidden to rubber. Southeast Asian Studies, 47(3), 330–347. https://doi.org/10.20495/tak.47.3_330 Vayda, A. P. & Walters, B. B. (1999). Against political ecology. Human Ecology, 27(1), 167–179. https://www.jstor.org/stable/4603312 Walker, P. A. (2005). “Political ecology: Where is the ecology? Progress in Human Geography, 29(1), 73–82. Watts, M. J. (1983). Silent violence: Food, famine and peasantry in Northern Nigeria. University of California Press.

Satoshi Yokoyama is a Professor in the Department of Geography, the School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Japan. His research interests lie in the field of human-nature interactions, particularly in land-use change, natural resource use, and livelihood change. One of his most recent research interests includes traditional fermented foods in the Himalayas and Southeast Asia region. He is an author or editor of seven books, and over 90 academic book chapters and research articles. He is a member of the Science Council of Japan (SCJ) since October 2020 and a delegate of the Association of Japanese Geographers (AJG) from April 2018. He also was a Visiting Scholar at East-West Center, U.S.A. from 2005 to 2006; a Visiting Associate Professor at the Research Institute for Humanity and Nature, Japan in 2011; and Visiting Professor at Center for Southeast Asian Studies, Kyoto University, Japan from 2013 to 2014.

6

Methodology of Land Use Priorities and Conflicts Study Subajini Uthayarasa

Abstract

Studies based on land uses are essential in order to carry forward developmentoriented studies in any part of the world. Land use denotes how land is utilized to provide things and services. The land use of an area will not remain the same throughout all times. Changes will keep on occurring in land use from time to time on the basis of quantities and acreage. Change in land use is only an outcome of the interaction between man and environment. As rapid developmental activities are going on, following resettlements in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka, changes are also taking place also in land use. Since too many changes are occurring within a short period, it becomes necessary to find out the priorities and controversial issues therein. Thus, the object of this study is to find out the priorities and conflicts in the land use found along selected river basins (Kanagarayanaru, Peraru and Paliaru) in Northern Sri Lanka. Primary and secondary data have been obtained for this study. Geographical Information System in addition to polymorphic analysis method has also been used to co-ordinate and evaluate the agricultural, settlement and environmental priorities. It is important to calculate the weightage for the classes of factors that influence the co-ordination of agricultural, settlement and environmental priorities, using the process of step-by-step analysis. Saaty’s (Saaty and Vargas, 1991) comparative scale has been used for the process of step-by-step analysis. Pairwise comparison system has been used to evaluate the weighing of factors and thereby land use priorities and conflicts have been calculated. Weighting values were issued to 104 gramasevaka divisions and by overlaying weightage the areas for the co-ordination of agricultural, settlement and environmental priorities have been ascertained. By overlaying these priority maps, conflicting land uses have been identified. Conflicts arise particularly in areas where land

S. Uthayarasa (B) Department of Geography, University of Jaffna, Ramanathan road, 94, 40000 Jaffna, Sri Lanka e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_6

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uses do not suitably tally with the physical environment and also due to the unplanned land use activities undertaken by the peasants. Thus, it has been possible to identify the conflicts in land use through the study of land use priorities. This study has thus helped to identify land use priorities and conflicts, and it is hoped that it will serve as a guide for further studies undertaken in the river basins of Northern Sri Lanka as well as in other river basins in the future. Keywords

Land use • Priorities • Conflicts • River basins

Introduction Studies based on land use are important to carry forward development-oriented activities in any part of the world. Land use denotes how land is utilized to provide things and services. Whereas the term land use refers to the human activities found in a particular land area, the term “land cover” refers to the natural and artificial features covering that area (Anderson 2001). According to the option of world food and agricultural institution, land use refers to the activities undertaken by the local population in an area. The land use of an area will not always be of the same nature. The change will be occurring in land use according to time, quantity and extent. Physical, biological, technical, economic, institutional and political factors wield much influence in these land use changes (Lambin and Ehrlich 1997). Information related to land use is essential to handle land resources efficiently. Information on land uses is determined through land use surveys. Such surveys help to gather the correct information on how land resources of the country are utilized, contemporary changes in land use, evaluation of land use suitability and on land use planning (Sante-Riveira et al., 2008). Land use changes are infecting an exposition of the inter-relation between man and the environment. Various changes in land use are brought about by events like increase in population and rapid urban development time to time and place to place. These changes on social, economic and political bases may take place rapidly or slowly according to circumstances. Within the last thirty years, a number of land use changes have occurred in the research area, due to the internal war. The need to regularize these is seen in the research area. Most land areas here used without proper planning are found under unsuitable land use patterns. After the war, many great changes are occurring in land use. As a result, conflicts also have appeared among the land use priorities. Due to this classifying land use of the research area under three heads, viz. agriculture and agriculture-oriented land use, environmental protection-oriented land use, and settlemental and settlement oriented land use, the priorities in land use have been identified on the basis of (1) the preference of the people in the research area and (2) the prevailing land use systems. In other words, the trends of land use, suitability of land use and the preference of the people in the research area form the main factors that decide the land use priorities.

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Literature Review This is a review that includes materials collected after reading several local as well as international research articles. Thu (2012) is a scholar who in his study about the conditions prevailing in East Timor wrote his article about, “Availability of land, arising of land conflicts, various land rights and the livelihood of people after the internal war.” An analysis of land access should be helpful in understanding the multifaceted nature of land ownership problems that crop up in a situation that follows such a war. One cannot simply be satisfied with the opinion that the conditions for land access are related only to the assets concerned. In fact, they are also entwined with local historical conflicts, cultural traditions and the broad changes brought about by the displacement of societies. The results of this research illustrate that the destruction of assets alone cannot be attributed to those historically prevailing conflicts which had in the past been undoubtedly a cause for the disturbances and that they still contribute directly to the problems related to unsolved asset ownership, available resources and development activities, and thereby lead to present as well as future conflicts. This research is also helpful in determining the livelihood strategies adopted by people in such war situations, the land conflicts arising among people, their livelihood partners and to suggest the type of solutions to such problems. Cour et al. (2008) undertook a research known as “Decision-aid in Tanzania for the management of land resources in the Ruaha river basin.” Conflicts and competitions were surmounting among the uses of water resources in this river basin. This research aims at suggesting combined strategies to estimate the availability of water resources, to efficiently allocate such water resources and to manage the available natural and water resources. The data collected for this research have been analyzed through the GIS and results obtained. In Iran, Sadeghi et al. (2009) conducted a study of the Brimuand watershed which has an extent of 9572 ha. This was named “Maximization of land use in water shed scales.” This research was done for the purpose of determining the most suitable land allocation for various land use patterns, reducing soil erosion and increasing benefits. Primary and secondary data for this research were analyzed through the sensitivity analysis method and results obtained. Kopacz and Twardy (2011) conducted a study to emphasize the permanent maintenance of the grasslands found in the Raba river basin in the Carpothian mountain ranges between the years 1980 and 2005. The main aim of this research was to estimate the changes that occur in the land use patterns in grasslands and open lands. The primary and secondary data for this research were analyzed through the regression method and results obtained. Unruh (2008) studies the land ownership problems of war-affected countries, particularly Somalia, Uganda, Angola, Ethiopia and Siberia. This is a characteristic research done on the basis of sustainable livelihood programs in order to identify the postwar land ownership problems and develop sustainable livelihood of village farmers.

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“The effect of changes brought about in the land use patterns of the central parts of Heine river basin in Northwest China” was a research carried out by Nain et al. (2014). Land use data for this research have been obtained using aerial photographs and land set T.M images. Results obtained after the analysis of the data showed that the extent of agricultural land had increased from 15.38 to 43.60% during the periods 1965–1986 and 1986–2007. Thus, several research articles have been read and suitable material for this research collected.

Research Objective The purpose of this research is to identify the priorities and conflicts found in the agricultural, environmental and settlement land use in the research area.

The Research Area Out of the five administrative divisions in the Northern Province, the research area spreads into the three districts of Mullaitivu, Kilinochchhi and Vavuniya. Generally, research areas are formed on the basis of administrative limits. However, this research area has natural river basins for its borders. In other words, the research area is that area which includes the basins of Kanagarayanaru, Peraru and Paliaru. It is bounded on the north by Jaffna lagoon, on the northwest and east by Indian Ocean, on the south by Vavuniya south regional secretarial division and on the west by the regional secretarial divisions of Poonakari and Manthai. This research area is situated between latitudes 8° 52, 54,, and 9° 31, 18,, N. Longitudinally, its location is between 80° 20, 41,, and 80° 44, 50,, E. Wholly and partly the following nine regional secretarial divisions come within the research area: -Vavuniya, Vavuniya north, Puthukudiyiruppu, Oddusuttan, Karaithuraipattu, Thunukkai, Karaicchi, Kandawalai and Pacchilaipalli. Likewise, 104 gramasevaka divisions also come within this research area wholly and partly. The total extent of the research area is 136,511.62 ha (1365.11 km2 ). This is 2% of the total area of Sri Lanka. The location of the research area can be observed in Fig. 6.1. In keeping with the fan-shaped landscape of the research area, the three rivers in the dry zone drain toward north and northeast directions. These three rivers seem to be seasonal streams. This area has a monsoon climate. Average temperature ranges from 28 to 30 °C. This area receives a rainfall from 1250 to 2000 mm. Rainfall is received from both southwest monsoon and the northeast monsoon (Sri Lanka map 2013). According to the soil classification of Sri Lanka, the soil resources of the research area belong to the low country dry zone variety. These soils have an acid content of 6–7 (pH value) (Sri Lankan map 2014). More alluvial soil is found along the basins of Kanagarayanaru, Peraru and Paliaru. The distribution of alluvium is found particularly more in the areas including Kilinocchi,

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Fig. 6.1 Location of the research area

Uruthirapuram, Vattakacchi, north of Ramanathapuram, Kandavalai, Umaiyalpuram, Korakkankattu, Mayavanoor, Mavadiyamman, Mutthaiyankattu, Thanduvan, Peraru, Katsilaimadu, Thatchadamban, Kanagarayankulam south, Marailuppai, Tharmapuram and Putthuvettuvan. Within the natural vegetation divisions of Sri Lanka, the research area comes within the tow country dry zone forest type. The varieties of trees in this forest include Satin, Naga, Palu, Ebony, Samandalai, Teak, Veerai, Yavarana, Punnai, Sirupunnai, Ilanthai, Itthivahai, Jungle mango, Jungle tamarind, Mahil and Manjavenna (Direct observation—2015, participatory field study—2016).

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Two types of water resources, viz. surface water and underground water, are found in the research area. There are many big and small tanks constructed by man for his own needs as well as for other purposes. The water collected in big tanks during the rainy season flows into the main rivers through tributary streams. Thereafter, water is filled into reservoirs by the main rivers. For example, Iranaimadu reservoir is filled by Kanagarayanaru, while Mutthaiyankattu reservoir is fed by peraru. In this research area, there are large tanks like Iranaimadukulam, Kanagarayankulam, Semamadukulam and Kanagambikaikulam, also more than 100 smaller tanks, and there are also more than 100 abandoned tanks (Direct observation—2015, 2016). The land use patterns of the research area include the following 19 types: dense forests, open forests, barren lands, hydro (water bodies), paddy cultivation areas, home gardens, scrub land, sparsely used crop land, unclassified lands, marshy lands, other crops, built up area, sand areas, forest plantation, playgrounds, grasslands, chena cultivation, rocks and mangroves (S.L. Map—2014). While 35,803 families live in this area, the total population amounts to 117,806. 95% of them have agriculture as their main occupation (Field study—2016). The soil and water resources are favorable to this. People of various races live here such as Tamils, Muslims and Sinhalese (2%). Religion wise, there are Hindus, Christians, Muslims, and Buddhists. This area and the people here were badly affected by the past 30 years of internal war.

Research Methodology Data, Data Collection Methods and Analysis Primary and secondary data have been used for this research. Primary data were collected through participatory field research and interviews. Satellite images and digital land use maps have been used for secondary data. Satellite images formed the main data source in finding out the periodical changes in land use. The images with 0.5 m spatial resolution obtained from the satellite “Geo – Eye” were used in this research. The research area is an area totally affected by the war. People got displaced and resettled. Land-based data as given below have been used to fulfill the purpose of this research:Agriculture and agriculture-based areas (paddy, home gardens, sparsely used cropland, mixed crops, (unclassified), trees (other crops), Chena cultivation, settlements and settlement-based areas (settlements, trade centers, home gardens, other building structures, play grounds) areas to be conserved in the environment (forest—dense, open and timber based), water bodies, marshy land and mangrove, grasslands, barren lands and shrubs, sand and rocky lands). These data have been divided into classes, each of which has been assigned 1–9 norms. This can be observed in Table 6.1. During the central committee discussions, the classes given the highest importance, and lowest importance by the people of the area were respectively assigned to 9 and 1 norms (Standards).

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Table 6.1 Classes and norms of factors that influence the priorities for the allocation of land use Factors

Classes

Norms (position)

Agriculture and agriculture based

A1—Paddy

9

Settlements and settlement based

Environmental protection areas

A2—Home gardens

8

A3—Sparsely used cropland

7

A4—Mixed crops (unclassified)

5

A5—Trees (other crops)

3

A6—China cultivation

1

S1—Settlements

9

S2—Trade centers

6

S3—Home garden

8

S4—Other buildings

5

S5—Play ground

3

C1—Forest

9

C2—Water bodies

9

C3—Marshes land and mangrove

7

C4—Grasslands

6

C5—Barren lands and scrubs

3

C6—Sand and rock

1

Every class shown in Table 6.1 wields its influence in allocating priorities in different quantities. In other words, the class of each factor wields its influence at various situations. Due to this, various weightage values have been calculated for the classes of factors that decide the priorities for agriculture, settlement and environment. In this research, polymorphic analysis has also been used along with geographical information system to co-ordinate and evaluate the agricultural, settlemental and environmental priorities. It is important to calculate weightage using the step-by-step analysis for the classes of factors that influence in co-coordinating the priorities for agricultural, settlemental and environmental priorities. For this, Saaty’s pair-wise comparison method has been used. Pair-wise comparison method has been used to value the weightage of factors. In this method, only two classes can be compared at a time (Yashon et al., 2014). Here too, the classes which contribute to co-ordinate the agricultural, settlemental and environmental priorities have been taken two by two and compared to provide the weightage of the classes. This process can be observed in the steps from 1 to 3 in Table 6.2. As an illustration, the weightage process for the factor including agriculture and agriculture-based classes has been calculated and shown for the gramasevaka division of “Periyaittimadu.” Thus, all the aforesaid activities have been calculated for

86 Table 6.2 Scales for comparing the process of hierarchical analysis function

S. Uthayarasa

Scales

Selected scales

1

Equal importance

3

Where one factor is of medium importance than the other

5

Where one factor is of (great) firm importance

7

Where one factor is of very (greater) very firm importance

9

Where one factor is extremely important than the other

2, 4, 6, 8

Intermittent values

Source Saaty and Vargas (1991)

the classes within which they come, in respect of all the 104 gramasevaka divisions in the research area covering agriculture and agriculture-based areas, settlemental areas and preferable environmental areas, and weightage values also obtained. The priorities scale used in comparing two classes in the process of step-by-step analysis is shown in the method arrangement of Table 6.2. This is a standard and popular method of scaling. Here the numbers related to the quantities are also given along with matters related to qualities. Values from 1 to 9 have been given in this scale. During the comparison of two classes, if both are found to be of equal importance, scale1 is applied. If one factor is of medium importance, then scale 3 is applied. If it is in-between scale 1 and 3, scale 2 is applied therein. Thus, the other scale values applied on the basis of importance can be observed in Table 6.2. The importance attributed to factors, when compared, is shown in method 1 in Table 6.2. Thus when paddy cultivation (A1) and home gardening (A2) are compared, as paddy is given extreme importance, it is assigned scale 9. Next, when home gardening (A2) and areas with lesser crop cultivation (A3) are compared, scale 6 is assigned thereto. Following this when areas with lesser crop cultivation (A3) are compared with tree crops (A5), scale 4 is assigned thereto. Likewise other factors also have been compared and assigned values. The importance assigned to the classes of the above factors was decided also on the basis of the discussions that took place at the central committee. In step 1, in Table 6.2, when 2 classes re-compared, one can see the values assigned to the five classes, when comparing the two classes, and also the decimal values obtained when they were intercompared. For example, the value denoted as 9.00 in the cage indicated horizontally as A1, and vertically as A2, has been converted to 1/9 (0.11) in the cage indicated horizontally as A2 and vertically as A1. Similarly, the decimal values for the other factors also have been calculated. Table 6.2—Calculation of weightage through the process of hierarchical analysis function.

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Step 1: Quantities (extents) selected through comparison of two classes Periyaitthimadu A1

Class

A2

A3

A5

A6

A1

1.00

9.00

8.00

7.00

5.00

A2

0.11

1.00

6.00

5.00

3.00

A3

0.12

0.16

1.00

4.00

3.00

A5

0.14

0.20

0.25

1.00

2.00

A6

0.20

0.33

0.33

0.50

1.00

In step 2, the total average and percentage of all five classes have been calculated, and their weightage values are obtained through comparison of two classes. Step 2 (Table 6.2): Weightage values obtained through comparison of two classes Class

A1

A2

A3

A5

A6

Total

Average

Weightage values

A1

0.63

0.84

0.51

0.38

0.36

2.72

0.54

54.4

A2

0.07

0.09

0.39

0.27

0.21

1.03

0.20

20.6

A3

0.08

0.01

0.06

0.24

0.21

0.60

0.12

12.0

The weightage values obtained through the step-by-step analysis process in respect of five classes in the gramasevaka division of Periyaitthimadu can be observed in step 3. Step 3 (Table 6.2): Weightage values obtained in the process of hierarchical analysis function Classes

Weightage values

Paddy—A1

54

Home gardens—A2

21

Areas under smaller cultivation of crops—A3

12

Tree crops—A5

07

Chena cultivation—A6

06

More weightage values have been obtained for paddy cultivation through the step-by-step analysis while lesser weightage values have been obtained for Chena cultivation. Likewise weightage values have been given as shown in step 3, to areas under smaller crop cultivation, home gardening and tree crops. Similarly, in the case of agricultural and agriculture-based classes too, through superimposition of weightage, the 104 gramasevaka divisions have been assigned weightage values, and the areas for the co-ordination of agricultural, settlemental and environmental

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priorities have been estimated. These have been classified and mapped. Accordingly, the areas that could be included for coordinating the priorities of the research areas have been recast into the highest, medium and lowest classes. Such activities (analysis) have been undertaken also for areas of environmental protection as well as for settlements and settlement-based areas.

Results and Discussion Land Use Priorities and Conflicts Priorities Classifying the land uses prevailing in the research area, as stated in the methodology, into three, i.e., agriculture and agriculture-based, environmental protection-based land uses and settlement and settlement-based land uses, also taking into consideration the preferences of the people in the research area, the priorities for land use have been identified. That is to say that the existing trends of land use, suitable land uses and the preferences of the people in the area form the main factors in identifying the priorities of land uses. The agriculture in the research area and the priorities for agriculture-based land uses may be observed in Fig. 6.2. Within the agriculture and agriculture-based land uses are included paddy, home gardening, Chena cultivation, other crops and crops of smaller cultivation along with cattle rearing (goats, cows and poultry, etc.). Agriculture and agriculturebased land uses occupy 30.89% of the total research area. The alluvial soil and the reddish brown soil found here (Vattakkacchi, Urutthirapuram, north of Ramanathapuram, Kandavalai) are very favorable to agricultural activities. Paddy cultivation is undertaken in larger extents within the gramasevaka division coming under the secretarial divisions like Karacchi, Kandavalai and Oddusuddan. Particularly the irrigational facilities available from Iranamadukkulam, Kanagarayankulam, Semamadukulam, Mutthaiyankattukulam and Kanakampikaikulam are favorable for paddy cultivation in the research area. Apart from this, the water from Kanagarayanaru, Peraru and Paliyaru and the irrigation facilities from Iranaimadukkulam are very congenial, not only for paddy cultivation but also for other combined crop cultivation. Among the agricultural pursuits of the research area, maha and yala paddy cultivation, upland crops and the cultivation of cereals occupy an important place. Rain-fed chena cultivation is undertaken in areas like Thirumurukandy and Puttuvedduvan. Agriculture and agriculture-based activities are found rather less in the regional secretarial divisions of Puthukkudiyiruppu and Karaithuraippattu in the research area. Though the soil resources here are congenial to agricultural activities, water is a big problem. As an illustration it is worth mentioning here that in 2015, 9 acres of upland cultivation got completely destroyed due to lack of water in the gramasevaka division of Mutthayankattu (Central Committee discussions—2016). The main reason was the drying up of well waters, due to insufficient rainfall. Though

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Fig. 6.2 Priorities for agricultural and agriculture-based land uses

smaller extents of agricultural activities were carried out in the above gramasevaka divisions, at a small scale, even those were destroyed by wild animals. Every year crops are destroyed by wild animals like elephants and wild boars in areas like Koolamurippu and Karuvelankadal. In the dry seasons, various crop diseases affect the agricultural activities of this area. For example in 2016, about 7 acres of chilly cultivation was ruined in the gramasevaka division of Karuvelankandal by “whitening” disease. Due to such reasons, people in these areas are reluctant to engage themselves in agricultural activities. In other words, though some of the physical factors in the research areas are favorable to agricultural activities, others are rather unfavorable. In this respect, the priority areas advanced in agriculture are found mostly in the fertile areas closer to river basins. Particularly the highest priority areas of agriculture are lying near Iranaimadukkulam fed by Kanakarayanaru and in the river

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basins of Peraru and Paliaru. In the southern half of the research area also, there are agricultural extents distributed here and there. The main reason for this is that in such higher areas, agricultural activities are undertaken with the help of irrigation from more than 100 smaller tanks found close by. This can be observed well in the areas closer to Kanagarayankulam and Semamadukkulam. The priority for land uses based on agriculture is rather limited in the regional secretarial divisions of Oddusuddan, Puthukkudiyiruppu and Vavuniya north. The main reason being shortage of water in these areas. In addition, these are mostly forest areas and also declared as environmentally protected by the environmental authority. Population also is sparse, which is another reason for less priority being given to agriculture in these areas. The priorities based on environmental protection have been derived on the bases of the opinions of the people arrived at during central committee discussions and the present land use pattern. The position of these priorities can be seen in Fig. 6.3. The highest priority in environmental protection has been assigned to forests by the people in the research area. Particularly more forests are destroyed without any plan to get their lands for the settlement purposes and to fulfill their timber needs. Apart from this, people who come in the nights into these forests from other areas, stealthily cut down valuable trees like Satin, Palai, Teak, Veerai and Yavaranai and take them away to other areas. In the forests found within Karachi regional secretarial division, about 250–300 feet of timber is thus cut down within 2 h in the nights and transported to outer areas (Central committee discussions— 2016). One-third of the Palu forests in this area have been completely destroyed (Central committee discussions—2016). Due to such reasons, forest areas show the highest priority to environmental protection. Dense forests are found particularly in the regional secretarial divisions of Oddusuddan, Vavuniya and Vavuniya north while open forests are found in the gramasevaka divisions of Puliyankulam north, Panrikkeythakulam, Panikkankulam, Thirumurukandy, Indupuram, Vallipuram, Mannakandai and Mulliyavalai west. Trees for timber are grown in the gramasevaka divisions of PeriyaItthimadu, Ponnahar and Kombavil. The highest priority is given to the protection of the forest in the above gramasevaka division, because of the interest shown by the people. Medium priority for environmental protection has been given by the people to water spots, marshy lands, marshi land vegetation, grasslands as well as for sandy and rocky areas, during central committee discussions. While Iranamadukkulam, Mutthayankattukulam, Semamadukulam and Kanagarayankulam are larger extents of water, there are also more than hundred smaller tanks. It is worth mentioning here that there are number of tanks in the southern half of the research area. It is adjoining them, that marshland mangrove; grass lands and unused bare lands are found. Sandy areas are protected by strict and tight laws. Without causing damage to the environment, sand is excavated only with permissions. It is worth mentioning here, that in rivers like Peraru and Kudamuruttiaru, permission is granted by environment-related officers including the gramasevaka, to transport 15 tractor loads of sand for a month.

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Fig. 6.3 Priority for land uses based on environmental protection

On the basis of the people’s opinions obtained at the central committee discussions in the research area, and the result of the researcher’s direct field study, the priorities of settlemental and settlement-based land uses have been identified at three levels, viz. the highest priority, medium priority and lowest priority. This can be seen in Fig. 6.4. Thus, Mankulam, Udayarkattu south, Puthukkudiyiruppu east, Kombavil, Mulliyavalai west, Kilinochchi town, Periyaparanthan and Thirumurukandy gramasevaka divisions have been identified as having the highest priority for settlement and settlement-based land use. After resettlement, the gramasevaka divisions mentioned above are rapidly developing. Increased population, the availability of service facilities, possibility of fulfilling various needs (banks, hospital, school and the location of the main roads) within the same vicinity from the main reasons for the highest priority being given to settlemental and settlement-based land

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Fig. 6.4 Priorities for settlemental and settlement-based land uses

uses in these areas. For example, the priority for settlemental and settlement-based activities may be seen very high along A9 main road (Jaffna–Kandy) and A35 main road (Paranthan–Mullaitivu). The gramasevaka divisions of Thirunagar north, Vivekananda nagar, Thirunagar south, Anandapuram, Baratipuram, Thiruvaiyaru west, Kanagambikaikulam, Vattakacchi and Semamadu have been identified as having the medium priority for settlemental and settlement-based land uses. These are areas developing after resettlement. Those identified as having the lowest priority for settlemental and settlement-based land use are the agricultural areas basic to the livelihood of the people and those including the important parts like forests, marshy lands, grass lands and marsh land vegetation. The people of the research area will never agree to undertake any settlemental and settlement-based land use activities, disturbing the situation already prevailing therein.

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93

85.1

90 80

76.04

70 60 46.51

50

47.52

40 30 20 10

15.51 8.45

5.97

9.79

5.11

0 Agriculture and agro - based

Environmental Settlemental and Protection settlemental based High Mideum Low

Fig. 6.5 Priorities for land use

Thus, it has been possible to know the positions of the priorities for agriculture and agriculture-based land uses, environmental and environment-based land uses as well as settlemental and settlement-based land uses. It can also be observed in the three figures (Figs. 6.1, 6.2 and 6.3) how they differ according to the gramasevaka divisions. The extents of priorities between the aforesaid land uses can also be seen at a glance, in Fig. 6.5.

Conflicts The priorities of land uses pertaining to agriculture and agriculture-based activities, the environments to be protected and settlemental and settlement-based activities have already been obtained. Overlaying these priority maps, the conflicts in the land uses have been identified. Such conflicts occur particularly in areas where land uses do not in keep with the physical environment and also due to unplanned land use activities undertaken by the people. This can be observed in Fig. 6.6. While conflict between agricultural and environmental protection is prevalent in about 5816 ha, the conflict between agriculture and settlement areas is found in about 6833 ha. Again the conflict between settlemental and environmental protection areas is found in about 93,611 ha. About 5233 ha of land is free of any conflicts. These are observed in Table 6.3. The conflict between agriculture and environmental protection is seen mostly in the regional secretarial divisions of Oddusuddan and Puthukkudiyiruppu. After

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Fig. 6.6 Conflicts between main land uses Table 6.3 Conflicts between main land uses No.

Conflicts

1

Agriculture–Environment Protection

5816.09

4.26

2

Agriculture–Settlement

6833.41

5.00

3

Settlement–Environment Protection

25,017.74

8.32

4

Agriculture–Settlement–Environment Protection

93,611.37

68.59

5

No conflicts area

5233.01

3.84

136,511.62

100.00

Total

Extent (ha)

Percentage (%)

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resettlement, about six acres of forests have been destroyed and agricultural activities are undertaken. Likewise the conflict between agriculture and settlement has been identified mostly in the regional secretarial divisions of Karacchi, Kandavalai, Vavuniya and Karaithuraippattu. Since agricultural lands here are used for housing schemes after resettlement, they are getting converted into settlement areas. Two acres in Ponnahar, seven acres in Vattakkacchi and three acres in Indupuram have thus become settlement lands. The conflict between settlement and environment with spread in the southern and eastern parts of the research area. In fact, the conflicts between all three lands uses can be seen distributed throughout the research area. The main reasons for this situation are the development activities and the housing schemes after the war. For example, sixteen acres of field lands in Puliyampokkanai and four acres in Kilinocchi have been converted to settlement areas. The three main land use priorities and the conflicts between them have been identified. This can be observed in Fig. 6.7. The priorities and conflicts related to land uses are observed in Table 6.4. The priorities of the research area have already been discussed. Medium conflicts have been exposed (1) between agricultural and environmental protection areas (2) between agricultural and settlemental areas and (3) between environmental protection areas and settlement areas (See Fig. 6.7). 17,858.42 ha have been identified as areas of medium conflicts. In other words, medium conflicts occur when the priority for a particular land use is high, while the priorities for other land use are found to be of medium scale. Medium conflicts are found particularly in the south, northeast and north of the research areas. The main cause behind this situation is that land use systems had not been properly followed for a long time because of the war. The people in the research area have been using agricultural lands for settlements, and environmental protection areas for settlements as well as for agricultural activities. As an illustration, it may be pointed out that 2.4 ha of home garden lands have been converted to settlement lands in the regional secretarial division of Kandavalai. Such changes can be clearly seen in this chapter under the section land use changes. If all three main land uses in the research area have high or medium or low priorities together at the same time, such areas are considered to be areas with the highest conflict. Such conditions are found mostly around the basin of Peraru. High conflicts are in 62% of the gramasevaka divisions in the regional secretarial division of Oddusuddan. Apart from this, high conflicts are also found spread along the south half and northeast quarter of the research area. This is due to the unplanned and unsuitable land uses adopted during the past period of war.

Conclusion By knowing the priorities of land uses in the research area, it has been possible to find out the conflicts existing here in land use. In other words, where there are more than one priority in land use conflicts tend to crop up between/such land uses.

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Fig. 6.7 Priorities and conflicts related to land uses Table 6.4 Priorities and conflicts for land use types No.

Priorities and conflicts

1

Agricultural priority

20,062.67

14.70

2

Environmental protection priority

60,199.58

44.10

3

Settlemental priority

13,373.37

09.80

4

Medium conflict

17,858.42

13.08

5

High conflict

25,017.58

18.02

136,511.62

100.00

Total

Extent (ha)

Percentage (%)

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The main reason for more than one priority to arise is the existence of unplanned land use systems. Most of the gramasevaka divisions in the selected river basin are in the process of rapid development particularly building activities are progressing rapidly. More number of buildings have been erected in the gramasevaka divisions of Kilinochchi town, a small part of Ambagamam, Thirumurukandy, Vivekananda Nagar and Periyaparanthan. Particularly in areas adjoining main roads, one can observe the development of business institutions, service centers and the dense occurrence of settlements. All roads have been repaired, and transport is going on very efficiently. Former home garden and forest areas have been converted into areas with buildings while other areas have become cultivation lands. Though such changes are taking place, it is necessary that they are done with care. When lands are used for settlement purposes, it must be affirmed that they are of lesser importance for other land uses. For example, in recent times, the agricultural lands adjoining A9 road are getting converted to settlemental areas. This is the need of the hour. These changes are acceptable as they are occurring to meet the increase of population in these areas. However, the changes in forests are not altogether acceptable. They are likely to affect the equilibrium in the natural environment. Therefore, it is important that while paying attention to the land use changes in environmental, agricultural and forest cover areas, it is also necessary to find out the priorities and conflicts likely to arise. It has to be mentioned here that during war times the situation was not congenial to implement land use systems properly. Hence through this research, it has been possible to determine the priorities and conflicts in the selected river basins. Besides, it is also hoped that this research will be of guidance to future studies undertaken on the river basins of north Sri Lanka as well as on river basins elsewhere.

References Anderson, J. R. (2001). A land use and Cover classification system for use with remote sensor data. US Government Printing office. Cour, J. G., Kadigi, R. M., Lankford, B. A., Yawson, D. K., & Tumbo, S. (2008). A decision—Aid for the Management of water resources in the Ruaha river Basin, Tanzania (pp. 01–11). www. iwmi.org. Kopacz, M., & Twardy, S. (2011). The land use changes in agricultural areas between 1980 and 2005 with particular emphasis on permanent grasslands—an example of the upper Raba River basin. Joural of Water and Land Development, 15, 19–28. Lambin, E. F., & Ehrlich, D. (1997). Land-Cover change in sub-Saharan Africa (1982–1991): Application of change index based on remately sensed surface temperature and vegetation indices at continental scale. Remote sensing and Environment, 61, 181–200. Nain, Y. Y., Li, X., Zhou, J., & Hu, X. L. (2014). Impact of land use change on water resource allocation in the middle reaches of the Heihe River Basin in Northwestern China. Journal of Arid Land, 6(3), 273–286. Sadeghi, S. H. R., Jalili, K., & Nikkami, D. (2009) Land use optimization in watersed scale. Land Use Policy, 26, 186–193. Sante-Riveira, I., Crecente-Maseda, R., & Miranda-Borros, D. (2008). GIS-based planning support system for rural land-use allocation. Computers and Electronic in Agriculture, 63, 257–273.

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Saaty, L. S., & Vargas, G. (1991). Prediction, projection and forecasting (251p). Kluwer Academic Publications. Thu, P. M. (2012). Access to land and livelihoods in past-confilict timor-leste. Australian Geographer, 43(2), 197–214. Unruh, J. D. (2008). Toward sustainable livelihood after war: Reconstituting rural land tenure systems. Natural Resources forum 32, 103–115. Yashon, O., Ouma, Y. O., & Tateishi, R. (2014). Urban flood vulnerability and risk mapping using integrated multi parametric AHP and GIS: Methodological overview and case study assessment. Water, 1515–1545.

Subajini Uthayarasa is a senior lecturer in Geography, in the field of Agriculture Geography, Cartography, Globalization, wellbeing and human Geography. She obtained her Ph.D. from university of Jaffna, Sri Lanka, from “Land use allocation for sustainable livelihood development: Based on selected river basins of northern Sri Lanka”. She has published more than 35 research papers in the field of Agriculture, sustainable livelihood development, rural development and river basins. She has written more than 45 articles in local newspapers. She has published a book “A Geographical study of Kanakarayan river basin”. She is a resource person in National instituted of education in Sri Lanka.

7

Qualitative and Quantitative Methods as Applied to International Migration Chiang Lan Hung Nora

Abstract

The objectives of this chapter are to (1) demonstrate how geographical knowledge is produced by research, (2) provide examples of research outcome using quantitative and qualitative methods, (3) demonstrate how different methods would produce different findings, and (4) discuss the pitfalls of different research methods. The two enduring approaches to the study of human geography, using published/unpublished Census data and interview data collected in the field are first presented. It is followed by several studies to illustrate the quantitative and qualitative approaches. The quantitative method is demonstrated by a bibliometric analysis of publications on human geography in Taiwan, employment of the Taiwan-born in Australia, and return of Hong Kong immigrants to Canada are presented to reveal general patterns. The qualitative approach used to investigate ethnic business that engage Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants in Australia, cross-border parental care of Taiwanese-Chinese to practice filial piety, and intended return migration of Taiwanese-Chinese in Hong Kong, are meant to provide nuanced understanding of immigrants’ complex circumstances and experience. While qualitative studies are appealing in human geography in the English literature, a qualitative–quantitative divide in geography should not be emphasized to lose sight of collaboration and methodological pluralism. Keywords

Quantitative approach . Qualitative approach Taiwanese-Chinese . International migration

.

Methodological pluralism

.

C. L. H. Nora (B) Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, Taipei City, Taiwan e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_7

99

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Introduction and Objectives—A Place for Geographical Methodology Science is an enterprise dedicated to “finding out”. Three purposes of research include: exploration, description, and explanation.

As a discipline develops, two aspects play important roles, the history and philosophy of the discipline, and the methodology. It is mandatory for students pursuing graduate degrees to take required courses on the two subjects, to consolidate their training and be stimulated to launch research topics for writing their thesis. The literature, however, has increased slowly to gear to the needs of students. Sometimes they are included in textbooks written by contemporary geographers, but most unlikely to be written in the native language of the readers, nor presented in a culturally sensitive manner. Translations of books in the English language, such as All Possible Worlds (Martin, 2005), have appeared on the scene for decades, while individuals came forth with different versions after years of teaching, such as History and Concepts: A Student’s Guide (Holt-Jensen, 1988). To familiarize Chinese students with articles written on the history and methodology of geography, key articles have been translated into Chinese (Chiang et al. 2014). Due to the breadth of the geographical discipline, one would not expect to see a book devoted to the three sub disciplines in geography: human geography, physical geography, and Geographic Information Science, all at the same time. This is the reason why I want to contribute a chapter on research methods in human geography, starting with English, and hopefully, translated into Chinese in future for wider classroom use. Using examples of research conducted by geographers mainly is a way to demonstrate the nature of geography with respect to being a part of social science. Having taught “Research Methods” as a required course for many years, I can find appropriate examples to illustrate how one decides on the research problem, what methodology to choose, and how it is implemented. It is believed that research topics should be selected with regard to their relevance to the problems of the real world. Like many social science subjects, human geography faces debates in approaches in research, such as idiographic vs. nomothetic, topical vs. regional, and qualitative vs. quantitative. This chapter provides a critical analysis of qualitative and quantitative methods which are used in producing fruitful research outcomes on immigration. While doing research, one needs to assert the rationale of the research problem, be familiar with the related literature, and adopt the appropriate methodology to be used for the research problem, before presenting the findings. It is therefore important for graduate students to familiarize with the methodology before starting his/her research, be it a term paper, a senior thesis, or a graduate thesis. This chapter is written for geography students in their junior or senior years, and those who are preparing for graduate studies, or just starting a graduate program. The

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objectives of this chapter are to (1) demonstrate how geographical knowledge is produced by research, (2) provide examples of research outcome using quantitative and qualitative methods, (3) demonstrate how different methods would produce different findings, and (4) discuss the pitfalls of different research methods. In the following section, I introduce two enduring methods used in human geography, quantitative and qualitative. For demonstration, several research studies are used as examples. The objective is to encourage students to be exposed to both quantitative and qualitative methods as research instruments, not being exclusive of the other, as each has its advantage and disadvantage. Even though a student may not develop his/her career as a geographer, learning different methodologies is beneficial in solving problems in one’s day-to-day undertakings.

What Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Are About? The distinction between qualitative and quantitative data in social research is essentially the distinction between numerical and nonnumerical data. Qualitative data tends to be open-ended without predetermined responses while quantitative data usually includes closed-ended responses such as found on questionnaires of psychological instruments. (Creswell, 2014)

The simplified definitions above can be further elaborated in Table 7.1, which helps to spell out differences between the two methods. Instead of emphasizing dichotomy, the two approaches should be treated as complementary. It is the responsibility of the author of a book on methodology to state the nature of each method, as has been done by Creswell (2014). Table 7.2 is meant to help the student to consider the full range of possibilities of data collection and to organize these methods by their degree of predetermined nature, their use of close-ended versus open-ended questioning, and their focus on numeric versus nonnumeric data analysis. They are further elaborated in ensuing chapters of his book (Chaps. 8–10). Progress in Human Geography, a flagship journal in geography, has published a number of articles contesting different methodologies. DeLyser and Sui (2014) called for an engaged openness with a generosity toward methods (emerging or enduring) that are different from their own, for such methodological pluralism will be vital for their intellectual survival (p. 295). Two enduring methods were reviewed, one typically qualitative (interviewing) and one typically quantitative (mapping). Interviews can access intense and intimate emotions and experiences that go far beyond words: “Interview-based research is not for those interested in superficial empirical engagements: done well, it may require lengthy and/or repeat interviews, potentially with large numbers of people.” On the other hand, there is obvious appeal for such a model of scholarship for quantitative researchers who experienced the paradigms of empiricism, theory, computation, and data mining. The growth of Big Data has brought about a methodological revolution, so-called

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Table 7.1 Contrasts between qualitative and quantitative research Quantitative Methods

Qualitative Methods

Purpose

To describe how widespread a phenomenon is. To detect regularities and patterns to predict change

To provide a deeper insight into the impact of phenomena on humans. The research process is useful to understand and facilitate change

Focus

Presents the view of the outsider of a research situation. Attempts to dispel myths

Presents the insider’s view of the situation. More bottom-up than top-down. Limited to human beings

Method

Asks “what” or “to what extent” question. Assesses the extent of demographic change over time. Obtains statistical data based on empirical observation

Ask a “why” and “how” question. Examine human behavior, attitudes, motivation and perceptions so as to uncover cultural meanings

Techniques Follows a preset replicable instrument. Involves a broad sample

Flexible and allows probing to uncover information. Often involves a smaller sample

Benefits

Data has greater internal validity. Develops theories grounded in the experience of informants. Good for explaining human beliefs and behavior. Hypothesis generating

Is quantifiable and representative of the population. Can reach a large population in a short period of time. Good for fact-finding and hypothesis testing

Table 7.2 Nature of different research methods Quantitative Methods

Mixed Methods

Qualitative Methods

Predetermined

Both determined and emerging methods

Emerging methods

Instrument based questions

Both open- and closed-ended questions

Open-ended questions

Performance data, attitude data, observational data, and census data

Multiple forms of data drawing on all possibilities

Interview data, observation data, document data, and audiovisual data

Statistical analysis

Statistical and text analysis

Text and image analysis

Statistical interpretation

Across databases interpretation

Themes, patterns interpretation

Source Creswell (2014)

fourth paradigm which is based on statistical exploration and data mining. There is ethical concern existing in both methods. In qualitative studies, it is inappropriate (for the researcher) to share materials such as field notes or interview transcripts without carefully anonymizing them, since they often include confidential information and observation. On the other hand, Big Data research faces looming ethical

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issues, as large data sets may appear anonymous but have retained identity information subsequently made public by research (p. 302). In the following sections, the author gives examples of research using qualitative and quantitative methods.

Examples of Research Using Quantitative and Qualitative Methods Development of Human Geography in Taiwan This section started with an example of a quantitative study on the development of human geography in Taiwan (Chiang & Jou, 2006). The main body of the article contains a bibliometric analysis of publications from 1996 to 2005 in five major journals of geography in Taiwan. With the intent of drawing an academic map of the decade, the diversity of the field of human geography in Taiwan is demonstrated, despite a small academic population of around 170 geographers (p. 27). Jou initiated the research by adopting the system of Bibliographies in Japanese Geographical Researches used by the Human Geographical Society of Japan, which has a schema of 32 geographical areas as the basis of classification. Credit goes to her two graduate students who spent ten months to study 293 papers published within the decade. A total of 71 theoretical oriented papers are identified, and further divided into theoretical (22), research (33), and introductory (16) articles (p.33). The research articles are further divided into four “clusters” to accentuate the dynamics of the subfields, led by Environmental Management and Hazards (48), Economic Geography (43), Social/Cultural Geography (30), Urban Geography (23), Historical Geography (22), Tourism and Recreation (21), Geographical Education (15), Population Geography (14), and Transportation (2), etc. The analysis illustrates a cultural turn in human geography, which was once dominated by geographers trained in universities of education, historical, and regional geographies in earlier periods. The new generation of human geographers increasingly publish in English journals, and “lean toward other social science subjects, such as sociology, anthropology, political science, and economics” (p. 36). Younger geographers returning from the USA after further education have contributed to a greater diversity in research, and a robust geographical community is envisioned. The descriptive statistics used for the research has not permitted explanation, nor bringing up names of researchers, except a small number of geographers who attempted frontier areas (footnotes on p. 30).

Employment Structure of Taiwanese Immigrants in Australia Continuing with an overall picture of progress in human geography in Taiwan, this article introduces research on Taiwanese diaspora two decades ago, to showcase how quantitative method was applied. Working with a sociologist, I co-authored a paper on Taiwan-born immigrants in a flagship journal on international migration

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(Chiang & Kuo, 2000). We used the unpublished 1986, 1991, and 1996 Australian Censuses to examine the labor force participation, employment rates, occupational status, levels of income, and gender differences on the economic performance of Taiwanese immigrants to Australia. The unemployment rates of Taiwan-born migrants in 1981, 1986, 1991, and 1996 were 8.2%, 13.9%, 26.9% and 19.6%, respectively. The paper is substantiated by background literature and statistics from Taiwan and Australia, including Overseas Destinations of Taiwan-born Immigrants, 1990– 1998; Taiwan’s International Migration Trends, 1975–1999; Demographic Profile of the Taiwanese in Australia; Distributions of Taiwanese Migrants in Australia, 1996; Distribution of Taiwan-born Immigrants in Three Major Cities in Australia, 1986, 1991, 1996; and Distribution of the Taiwan-Born Population in Different States. Following my quantitative research on employment, I developed a research project to explore high unemployment rates of the Taiwan-born (Chiang, 2004), despite being well educated and fairly affluent. Using qualitative methods that included ethnographic interviews and participant observation, I examined economic integration of recent Taiwanese business and skilled migrants in the three Australian cities: Sydney, Brisbane, and Melbourne which had the highest percentage of Taiwan-born. The results indicated that Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants found it difficult to secure employment, start profitable businesses, and adapt to the host society. The integration challenges included lack of fluency in English, different social and cultural milieu, lack of familiarity with Australian business culture and labor relations, complex rules and regulations governing the establishment of business enterprises, small size of the market, high taxes, and lack of willingness to take up work not commensurate with their education and economic background. Data from the Australian Census taken every five years provided the backdrop of this follow-up study and helped formulate conceptual questions. Qualitative information was collected through personal ethnographic interviews with individual immigrants from Taiwan between July 1999 and February 2001. My analysis is based on ethnographic research that investigated labor force experiences of recent immigrants from Taiwan in Australia from an emic (insider’s) perspective that gave voice to the immigrants and focused on self-assessment of their economic integration. While the interviews were unstructured and open-ended, they were guided by a list of general questions. The interviews focused on employment patterns and work experiences of the study participants and aimed to answer the following research questions: What types of jobs did the Taiwanese-Chinese have? How did their employment experiences in Australia compare with their employment experiences in Taiwan? What kind of difficulties did they encounter trying to secure employment? What kind of income-generating activities do they have outside of conventional occupations as defined in the Census? The interviewees were willing to speak about their experiences in great detail. A respondent explained the low employment rate of Taiwanese:

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Because of Australia’s economic recession, heavy taxation, worker protection, the incentives for us to invest are greatly reduced. The survival of middle and small businesses is questionable.

An example of self-employment in ethnic business is given by a respondent: I prepare lunch boxes for about 30 children daily. They pay AUD$6 (about US$4) for a lunch box with rice and three side dishes. I have been asked by “astronaut” parents to deliver them to their “parachute” children. Every weekend, my husband and I go to the market for grocery shopping. He also helps me deliver lunch boxes to their homes.

Hitchings and Latham (2020) asserted that qualitative research currently predominate in human geography: “Outside the world of Geographic Information Science, qualitative methods would seem to define human geography’s direction and purpose as an empirical enterprise.” They have taken 200 qualitative papers from ten leading human geography journals and subjected them to a systematic review in terms of how they describe their practical methods and present their empirical data (p. 390). The procedural details are very much the same as what I have pursued in studying Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants to developed countries. They are conducted in the manner of exploratory social research, which are carefully done to dispel some misconceptions and help focus future research. An earlier reference on qualitative research by social geographers was documented by Baxter and Eyles (1997) who used in-depth interviews to enhance “rigor.” As pointed out by Stevens (2001), without fieldwork, geography is second-hand reporting and armchair analysis, losing much of its involvement with the world, its original insight, its authority, its contributions for addressing local and global issues, and its reason for being.

Practicing Filial Piety Through Parental Care-Giving Across Border Based on in-depth interviews of Taiwanese-Chinese living in Australasia, a recent project was completed with the support of the C. C. K. Foundation in Taiwan, R.O.C. for a translocal study by Chiang and Ho (2020) who is geographer and psychologist, respectively. Trained in quantitative methods, we believe that quantitative information is important to serve as background, and to generate research questions. We attribute a section on “Three Decades of Taiwanese Settlement in Australia” (pp. 237–239) in our paper (Ho & Chiang, 2016) to the late Graeme Hugo, a leading geographer and demographer, who provided us with unpublished data, and graphs on the changing pattern of Taiwanese settlement in Australia, especially return migration (Figs. 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3). This pilot study drew our attention to parental care-giving administered across border to follow the Chinese tradition of practicing filial piety. As Taiwanese new immigrants reached middle-age, their parents have mostly returned to Taiwan, while quite a significant number of the younger generation who completed tertiary education have returned to Taiwan or have moved on to other countries.

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Fig. 7.1 Australia: Taiwan-born settler arrivals and permanent departures, 1990–91 to 2010–11. Source DIAC unpublished data

Fig. 7.2 Australia: age sex structure of Taiwan-born permanent arrivals and departures, 1993–94 to 2012–13. Source DIBP unpublished data

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Fig. 7.3 Australia: age sex structure of Taiwan-born long-term arrivals and departures, 1993–94 to 2012–13. Source DIBP unpublished data

Using ethnographic data collected in the field, Chiang and Ho (2020) launched a study to demonstrate how filial piety is practiced across the border by the first generation of Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants. Our paper presents a case of Taiwanese-Chinese families in Australia and New Zealand who have provided transnational care to their parents in Taiwan. Filial piety remains an important societal and family value in Taiwan, despite industrialization, urbanization, and modernization in recent decades. Fieldwork was undertaken between July 2014 and November 2016 in four research sites: Auckland and Hamilton in New Zealand, as well as Sydney and Brisbane in Australia. The target families were ethnic Chinese from Taiwan living in the research sites and who were or had been caregivers to their elderly parent(s) over 65 years of age living in another country. To ensure that a variety of family backgrounds, life cycle stages and parent care arrangements were included in the experiences of the people, participating families were recruited through snowball sampling of Taiwanese-Chinese communities. Participants shared their previous migration experiences, transnational family patterns, care-giving practices, attitudes toward filial piety, and opinions of the medical systems and aged support services in their origin and destination countries. This method not only enabled participants to use their own words to tell us a great deal about their experiences and attitudes, but also allowed them to reveal key underlying social structures. The authors believe that careful empirical description takes the place of speculation and impressions in a qualitative study (Babbie, 2020: 19). In the paper, types of care is first listed in a table, and later elaborated by case studies. Five types of care are deduced from the narratives of 43 participants, and presented as follows:

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Type 1: Parent(s) in good health, adult children visit them in Taiwan one to three times per year Our mum used to spend six months each in Taiwan and Australia every year, after we immigrated in 2001. She is now 85, in good health and lives by herself. She has a busy life … and does not want to come back to live with us anymore … She uses the internet every day, reaches us through the family line group, and uses skype to communicate with her grandchildren in Brisbane.

Type 2: Parent(s) in good health and still active; live(s) for extended periods with adult children in New Zealand/Australia Mum is a retired civil servant, with a pension to live on, and demonstrates her independence well. She visits us [in Auckland] once a year on a permanent residence visa. We have always told her that she can stay with us as long as she wishes. She used to come to spend Chinese New Year here, staying up to three months, but not anymore. She cannot get used to the weather here, nor get around easily without driving.

Type 3: Parent’s health deteriorates, or in a critical situation in Taiwan; regular return visits are made to provide care to share with sibling My mum, 86, lives with my brother. I couldn’t apply for her to come to New Zealand because I am not a single child. My brothers and sisters back in Taiwan and I share expenses and hire a live-in maid. When my mum had an operation, I returned to visit her two times a year. I can take four week’s leave each time from the hospital where I work, and take an extra week of ‘sick leave’.

Type 4: Parent care in New Zealand/Australia I grew up in a simple and frugal environment in rural Taiwan, and all of us are filial. We came to Brisbane in 1968 when our children were six, four, and one-and-a-half years old. As we needed to raise our kids, we never returned to visit our parents, and I did not even go back to attend my father’s funeral, as I could not afford the time and expenses. My wife was the primary caregiver when my mum came to live with us in Brisbane, when my father passed away.

Type 5: Parents passed away before or after the immigration of adult children When my mother-in-law was living, my brother and sister-in-law who lived in the same apartment building took care of her. My husband went back to visit his mom only once a year, because he was busy with his real estate business. My mother-in-law treated me like her daughter, and I flew back to take care of her before she passed away, taking turns with my father-in-law. When my father-in-law was seriously ill, I went back to take care of him for three weeks, before he passed away at the age of 100.

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Our research concludes that Chinese cultural traditions of filial piety remain strong among the respondents who spoke with compassion about their “left-behind” parents in Taiwan. Although both sons and daughters back in Taiwan played major roles of caring for their parents, emigrant children also did their very best to return and share care work regardless of gender. They could afford to support decent living conditions, shared expenses with their siblings, hired domestic helpers for their aged parents, paid their parents’ airfare to visit them as often as they wished, and made regular or impromptu return visits when needed. Findings also suggest that there is a shift in eldercare practices from gender specific to relatively gender flexible. That is, both sons and daughters contribute care in response to different family circumstances and needs. Due to word limit requirements of journals, narratives were shortened. This is a disadvantage of using a qualitative approach. Moreover, fieldwork is timeconsuming, demanding of good rapport with participants, and experience of the researchers. Original data collected over a long period of time overseas involve expenses in transportation, lodging and food, and safety nowadays. Language skills would be required to interview different subethnic Chinese abroad. Research tips offered by writers of different chapters of Moss (2002) are worth taking into account. This section ends with a quote from a study of feminist geographers in Taiwan, to share an unforgettable experience of interviewing (Chiang & Song, 2019): While gathering information, it was helpful to get their trust and consent to accept our faceto-face interviews, and recognize the originality and significance of our research endeavor. Each interview took two to three hours, and repeat visits were made when needed to ensure that we have a valid sample. As the purpose of our project is well-understood, relationship of the researcher and the researched takes on positionality as peers in the discipline of feminist geography. Even though a small community of feminist geographers is studied, the authors took heed of the differences of participants and exercised reflexivity by expanding the questions asked accordingly.

Statistical Analysis of Return Migration Research on new Asian immigrants proliferated in the last three decades due to the significant increase of emigrants from East Asia. The driving forces of emigration were a rising middle-class in the newly industrialized countries/regions, social political changes in the home country, and aspiration for global education for the younger generation by their parents. Using the Canadian Censuses of 1996 and 2001, Fong (2012) made an estimate of return migrants born in Hong Kong who arrived in Canada in different periods. The results show that Hong Kong-born immigrants who arrived in Canada after 1990 are more likely to have returned than

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are immigrants who arrived before 1990. The data demonstrate that a large proportion of immigrants came to Canada because of the political uncertainty about Hong Kong’s future, and the return occurred in the post-handover period, as this cohort learned that the situation in Hong Kong after its return to China was not as undesirable as they had originally thought. As a quantitative sociologist, Fong is interested in how large the number of return migrants are from time to time, to understand one aspect of return migration. The Canadian Censuses of 1996 and 2001 are vital for his research. However, even using reliable sources like governmental census, a quantitative research cannot avoid coverage errors. In Fong’s paper, he fell short of covering all the HongKongers that returned from Canada, as discussed (pp. 30–31). A qualitative researcher, on the other hand, might be more concerned with the reasons why these migrants would like to return, the decision-making process they undergo, and to what extent they fit in their original society after returning. Apart from detailed narratives and lived experiences derived from a qualitative study, newspapers and magazines, often known as “texts,” might be useful research resources for a better understanding of the return migrants’ lives. However, questions that are brought up by a qualitative researcher are not limited to qualitative methods and vice versa. Take social adaptation as an example, a qualitative researcher might depend on in-depth interviews to understand return migrants’ social adaptation process, while a quantitative researcher, conversely, might design a questionnaire that includes a variety of questions to supplement information on return migrants’ social adaptation. In this regard, albeit different approaches, a quantitative research is still able to address a seemingly qualitative question with their statistics-based data.

A Qualitative Inquiry on Return Migration of Taiwanese-Chinese from Hong Kong As noted by anthropologist Gmelch (1980: 157), the multimethod approach adequately address the issues of return migration: “Statistical survey data are needed to establish the basic dimensions of the problem as well as to understand the range of variation and the co-variation of factors. But equally important will be the intimate knowledge and insight that comes through in-depth interviews and participant-observation which will allow us to move from description to explanation.” As an illustration, I use the intention of Taiwanese-Chinese to return from Hong Kong, despite their successful efforts in developing careers, establishing families, and planting new roots by becoming HongKongers over the last few decades. A large majority of the immigrants stated their intention to return to Taiwan to luo ye gui gen (落葉歸根, a falling leaf finds its way to its roots) (Chiang, 2019). The Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants desired to re-migrate to a more hospitable environment, to enjoy a better quality of life compared to that of Hong Kong, where some of them have developed a strong sense of belonging.

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When I asked the participants whether they are returning to Taiwan or not, their answers were “Yes,” “No,” or “Not sure,” followed by elaborations. Examples are given below: “Yes:” I miss my job and my mom’s cooking in Taiwan. I cannot work in Hong Kong, because my father-in-law does not permit me to do so.

Before my mother passed away, I had always wanted to return to Taiwan... My husband [from HongKong], who received four years of university education in Taiwan, went back to work in Taiwan for one year but could not adapt. We therefore re-migrated to Hong Kong, while our son decided to stay behind to finish his tertiary education in Taiwan. Now that our son got married and lives in Taiwan permanently, my husband repeatedly talks about going back [to Taiwan]. He realizes that staying in the same city as my son, is necessary in old age.

I am returning to Taiwan in the future with my husband when we retire, as the Medicare system is much better than that in Hong Kong, where I can only afford to visit the public hospital. [Here], one needs to wait for a long time to see the doctor. It is easier for me to find the right doctors in Taiwan where I worked as a nurse before.

“No:” My parents in Taiwan have passed away, and my three children were born and raised here. My business is in Hong Kong, where I have already assimilated, and enjoy the convenient transportation and freedom in Hong Kong. My husband’s salary would be greatly reduced, if we return to Taiwan. The Hong Kong education system is multi-faceted and suits my children better. There is no career opportunity for us in Taiwan. Taiwanese have no cosmopolitan vision; people’s topics of conversation and mindset make me bored. I feel that the media and my friends focus only on Taiwan and their personal lives.

To conclude this section, I discover that fieldwork enables the researcher to scrutinize the complexities of movement patterns beyond the original conceptualization of the problem. For my studies of Taiwanese-Chinese overseas, I have taken multiple trips to countries/states, such as Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Guam and Hong Kong. I used a sensitive micro-level field research design together with mixed methods, combining interviews of a number of people with census statistics and surveys as background to help to conceptualize the research problem. Through the application of ethnographic interpretation with participant observations, I was

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able to gain an understanding of the emotions, experiences, and significance of migration to their lives. Moreover, I was inspired to develop new subject matters for future research. The qualitative part in my research, however, cannot escape challenges by journal reviewers who regard the sample size as a limitation, and not “representative,” a common but mistaken criticism of this technique (Valentine, 2005). Even spending three years in preparing and doing fieldwork in Australia and New Zealand, where the two authors visited 43 Taiwanese-Chinese immigrants, they had to defend the sample size by explaining: “Given the sampling procedure and size of the sample, we do not intend to generalize about Taiwanese-Chinese who are settled in Australia and New Zealand, but rather to acquire a nuanced understanding of immigrants’ complex circumstances and experience.” (Chiang & Ho, 2020). After reviewing several articles that use quantitative and qualitative methods in this section, I have experienced the power of engaging in a pluralist approach, integrating qualitative analysis into quantitative modeling approach, instead of dividing them. Thirty-seven years after defending my Ph.D dissertation, I still remember being required to test the statistical significance of the sample size of 96 female rural–urban migrants among 336 who left their rural homes for Taipei (Huang [Chiang], 1983). Apart from using published and unpublished data on out migration, an extensive survey was carried out in two rural communities in Taiwan. The young female migrants from these households were followed up later in Taipei Metropolis for face-to-face interviews. Since then, I was infatuated with the ground data obtained beyond the statistics I gathered for the first part of my research, and enjoyed interacting with the participants of my research. A mixed method approach, in the true sense of the word, emerged as a powerful research tool for our new generation of researchers. My research projects in human geography from thereon always included the element of care, requiring me to meet participants face to face, not just checking them out from the household registration, nor membership rosters of organizations. The questions asked were open-ended, so that the respondents felt free to express themselves, instead of checking predetermined categories of answers as in a survey which could be conducted over the phone, or administered for 15 min to a tourist in the Sydney Airport, or a Garden in London. For close to three decades, I have become an avid researcher who consistently used qualitative methods for my research, not treating the people I studied as subjects only. Publishing diligently, I gave voice to the people I studied as a way to pay back to my interviewees who were welcoming, generous with their time, and patient. In each of my qualitative studies, every questionnaire is “custom-made” according to the research problem, pretested a few times, revised, and administered carefully to ensure quality.

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Conclusions The very strength of geography is precisely in its methodological pluralism, which in the end will best contribute to understand the changing planet. (Barnes, 2011: 334)

It is hoped that the students in human geography are enlightened by textbooks on research methodology and do further readings that guide them in launching research projects in future. Whether one is teaching research methods in a university, carrying out research projects, and working in the business/government sectors, one needs to approach the subject methodologically. Let us bear in mind that “methodological pluralism and an open embrace of methods and data sources not one’s own will become even more important.” (DeLyser & Sui, 2014: 302). Depending on one’s worldview/reality, one can choose one or both of the approaches introduced in this chapter. A quantitative approach might imply a world that everything can be explained through statistics and causal relationship, while a qualitative approach tends to treat the world as an emerging, generic world, where unlimited possibilities could be found. Researchers’ own personal training and experiences also influence their choice of approach (Creswell, 2014), and you will always find answers to your research problem. It is also important that you are sure about what you are looking for in the first place, state it clearly, and go for it. A course requirement may be a term paper or a proposal, but the focal point of the proposal still lies in the statement of the problem. In a graduate thesis, the statement of the problem often take up a whole chapter. This would be preceded by review of pertinent literature, followed by the research methodology, and several chapters on research findings. Finally, the conclusion, whereby you would be summarizing your research findings, will show how well you have addressed the research problem. You will then high-light the significance of your research in the conclusions. If you are confident about the contributions of your research, and know what policy implications it may have for the community/subject you are studying, you would be ready to go to your oral defense. Good luck to your research! Acknowledgements My heartfelt thanks go to the Department of Geography, National Taiwan University, for providing me with the environment for my research. My appreciation goes to Shawn Sun for looking up recent references on qualitative methods, formatting the manuscript, and offering valuable insights as a graduate student.

References Babbie, E. (2020). The practice of social research (15th ed.). Cengage Learning. Barnes, T. J. (2011). This is like déjà vu all over again. The Professional Geographer, 63(3), 332– 336. https://doi.org/10.1080/00330124.2011.566514 Baxter, J., & Eyles, J. (1997). Evaluating qualitative research in social geography: Establishing ‘rigour’ in interview analysis. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 22(4), 505–525. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0020-2754.1997.00505.x

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Chiang, L. H. N. (2004). The dynamics of self-employment and ethnic business ownership among Taiwanese in Australia. International Migration, 42(2), 153–173. https://doi.org/10.1111/j. 0020-7985.2004.00284.x Chiang, L. H. N. (2019). There’s no place like home: Taiwanese married women in Hong Kong. Translocal Chinese: East Asian Perspectives, 13(2), 137–166. https://doi.org/10.1163/245 22015-01302003 Chiang, L. H. N., & Jou, S. C. (2006). Development of human geography in Taiwan in the last decade. Japanese Journal of Human Geography, 58(6), 557–571. https://doi.org/10.4200/jjhg. 58.6_557 Chiang, L. H. N., & Kuo, L. W. (2000). An examination of the employment structure of Taiwanese immigrants in Australia. Asian and Pacific Migration Journal, 9(4), 459–481. https://doi.org/ 10.1177/011719680000900403 Chiang, L. H. N., & Song, Y. L. C. (2019). Practicing feminist geography in Taiwan. Gender, Place & Culture, 26, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1080/0966369X.2019.1608914 Chiang, L. H. N., & Ho, E. (2020). Parent care in transnational families: Experiences of TaiwaneseChinese families in Australia and New Zealand. In S. Huang & Ruwanpura, K. (Eds.), Handbook on Gender in Asia (pp. 128–145) Cheltenham: Edward Elgar. Chiang, L. H. N., Chang, P. Y., Yang, P. H., & Huang, Y. W. (Eds.) (2014), Contemporary Issues in Geographical Thought: Selected Translations. 3rd edn, Taipei: Tonsan. Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. Sage. DeLyser, D., & Sui, D. (2014). Crossing the qualitative-quantitative chasm III: Enduring methods, open geography, participatory research, and the fourth paradigm. Progress in Human Geography, 38(2), 294–307. https://doi.org/10.1177/0309132513479291 Fong, E. (2012). Return migration from Canada to Hong Kong. The China Review, 12(1), 25–44. Gmelch, G. (1980). Return migration. Annual Review of Anthropology, 9(1), 135–159. https://doi. org/10.1146/annurev.an.09.100180.001031 Hitchings, R., & Latham, A. (2020). Qualitative methods 1: On current conventions in interview research. Progress in Human Geography, 44(2), 389–398. Ho, E., & Chiang, L. H. N. (2016). Translocal families: The challenges of practicing filial piety through parental care-giving across borders. Translocal Chinese: East Asian Perspectives, 10(2), 232–258. https://doi.org/10.1163/24522015-01002004 Holt-Jensen, A. (1988). Geography—history and concepts: A student’s guide (3rd ed.). Paul Chapman Publishing Ltd. Huang [Chiang], L. H. N. (1983). Female migration in Taiwan: A study of process, adaptation and linkage (Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Geography) University of Hawaii. Martin, G. J. (2005). All possible worlds: A history of geographical ideas (4th ed.). Oxford University Press. Moss, P. (Ed.). (2002). Feminist geography in practice: Research and Methods. blackwell Publishers. Stevens, S. (2001). Fieldwork as commitment. The Geographical Review, 91(1–2), 66–73. Valentine, G. (2005). Tell me about: Using interviews as a research methodology. In R. Flowerdew & D. Martin (Eds.) Methods in Human Geography: A Guide for Students Doing a Research Project, pp. 110–127, 2nd edn, London: Longman.

Chiang Lan Hung Nora is Professor Emeritus of Geography, National Taiwan University. Her interests include Diaspora Taiwanese-Chinese, gender and geography, and the application of qualitative methods to her research. Her recent research focuses on Taiwanese migrants to developed countries. She sits on the editorial boards of several journals and has edited many books, monographs, and journal theme issues. She served on the Steering Committee of the IGU Gender Commission (formerly Study Group on Gender), and was a member of the Editorial Board of Gender, Culture and Place, and a member of the Society of Women Geographers since 2009.

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Focus Group Discussions in Geography M. I. Fazeeha Azmi

Abstract

Within the discipline of Geography, Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) have increasingly been used in qualitative research during the last three decades. This chapter begins with a brief discussion on how different epistemological and ontological positions influence methodological choices in our research. Then, it discusses the importance of qualitative research methods in geography to know the ‘unknowable’ research areas. The chapter makes a plea for mutually benefitting from interdisciplinary research methods, by highlighting how FGDs have been used in various disciplines. This chapter while focusing the importance of FGDs in Geography focuses on understanding what FGDs are and explains why they are necessary. It also features in detail the important points to be considered during the planning part of FGDs. Further, it irons out the processes related to conducting a good FGDs and details out how FGDs could be analyzed with a special focus on content analysis. It also touches briefly upon the application of computer-aided software to analyze FGD information. It concludes by re-emphasizing the importance of FGDs as a valuable data collection method. Keywords

Qualitative research . Focus group discussions . Geography . Methodology

Introduction The discipline of geography has witnessed a range of philosophical and methodological developments since its origin. In the history of geography, one could

M. I. Fazeeha Azmi (B) Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Kandy, Sri Lanka e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_8

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observe that theories, philosophies, and methodologies have constantly been changing, paving ways to new paradigms. Paradigms are defined as ‘basic belief systems based on ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions’ (Guba & Lincoln, 1994). Hence, paradigms propose a philosophical foundation to different worldviews. It influences theory and methods (Willis et al., 2007). It is important to acknowledge that each paradigm has its own epistemology, ontology, and methodology. Different paradigms evolved at different times have been contested, criticized, politicized, and rejected paving way to paradigm shifts. Paving ways to accommodate different epistemologies and methodologies, Aitken and Valentine (2014) have mapped out positivism, humanism, Marxism, and feminism as some of the major theoretical traditions that have influenced the geographical thinking. These paradigms have reflected the way how knowledge is produced and individuals see or experience the world. Sayer and Morgan (1985) point out that different ontologies (beliefs about the world, beliefs about the reality or nature, being) and epistemologies (ways of knowing the world, what we know about the reality) have close connections with the methods we use in research. Philip (1998) notes that within the academic community, it has been a common practice to link particular epistemologies with specific methodologies. As such, the quantitative approaches to understand the world mainly relied on the positivist epistemology while qualitative approaches drew mainly from humanistic epistemology (Philip, 1998; Willis et al., 2007). Humanistic geographers have started to use methods that would help them ‘to explore meanings, emotions, intentions and values’ (Clifford et al., 2010). Such methods include in-depth interviews, participant observations, and focus groups to name few. It is acknowledged that different types of theories, philosophies, and methodologies ultimately form geographical knowledge However, it is pertinent to note that the quantitative/qualitative dichotomy has recently been challenged by geographers accommodating different worldviews to study social issues (Hay, 2000).

Qualitative Methods in Geography Qualitative research in geography has long been acknowledged in the history of early geographies (Cope, 2010; Corbin & Strauss, 2008). Cope (2010) claims that during the last three decades, geographers have increasingly engaged with qualitative research methods, producing vast volume of research findings. Adding further, Cope (2010) notes that geographers in the past have used qualitative methods extensively, but not systematically. The quantitative revolution of the 1950s and 1960s has made visible impacts, not only in quantitative data, but has also challenged the qualitative ways of knowing. As early as 1990s, Pile (1991) has noted that new cultural geography, which deals with human experience and meanings, requires new methods to explore research questions. When discussing the place

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of qualitative methods in human geography, Hay (2000) notes that research questions of human geography today demand multiple conceptual and methodological approaches. He further adds that qualitative research methods in geography have also contributed to research areas which were identified as ‘unknowable’. These ‘unknowable’ areas include feelings, emotions, attitudes, perceptions, opinions, motivations, concerns, and cognitions. I want to highlight the growing importance of ‘interdisciplinary’ approaches though it has advantages and limitations, which can mutually benefit research methodologies in different disciplines. With reference to FGDs, they have for example been used in fields such as education, sociology, health, marketing, and community medicine. Although academic arguments exist for and against interdisciplinary approaches, the modern-day research practices have heavily been drawn from interdisciplinary methodologies. As such, I believe that discipline of geography can also benefit from methodological applications such as FGDs to expand its research focus and increase the quality of information.

FGDs in Geography FGDs were said to be initially originated in the field of Sociology as early as 1920s and had widely been used in market research before it re-entered social sciences during the 1990s (Smithson, 2000; Hay, 2000; Wilkinson, 2011). With the increasing development in participatory research methods, FGDs allow to accommodate different worldviews. Today, FGDs have gained wider popularity in social sciences including in the discipline of Geography. In recent years, an increasing interest in using Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) as a method to collect data in qualitative research has been widely practiced by social scientists. Hay (2000) claims how geographers have used FGDs to collect information regarding pregnancy,1 allocation of land, labor, and capital,2 and problems and difficulties faced by the rural and non-metropolitan communities in Australia.3 Geographers, who have been using qualitative methods to collect data and information, have extensively used FGDs in a wide range of topics. Longhurst (2003) notes that FGDs have become an important research tool in Geography since 1990s. In recent years, geographers have extensively used FGDs research in the areas of migration (Goss & Leinbach, 1996), gender, youth (Azmi et al., 2013) pedagogic studies (Breen, 2006), emergency responses (Zeigler et al., 1996), conservation (Nyumba et al., 2018), emotional geographies (Morrison et al., 2020), and feminist geographies (Longhurst, 1996; Pini, 2002). FGDs are considered as a good tool to collect data and information about perceptions, attitudes, experiences, and new ideas within

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Longhurst (1996). Goss and Leinbach (1996). 3 Gibson, K., Cameron, J., & Veno, A. (1999). Negotiating restructuring and sustainability: A study of communities experiencing rapid social change. In Australian Housing and Urban Research Institute Working Paper. AHURI. 2

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a social context. FGDs provide an in-depth understanding of social issues. However, using FGDs as a method has its own merits and challenges, which will be discussed later in this chapter. In this chapter, I discuss about FGDs. The chapter starts with a brief introduction to what FGDs are and why do we need them. Next, it discusses logistics and planning related to FGDs in detail. Then, it describes the process of conducting FGDs, followed by a section on analysis of FGD data. Finally, it concludes with a summary of the chapter.

Objectives The main objective of this chapter is to show the growing importance of FGDs in social sciences in general and more particularly within geography. It attempts to document how the epistemological and ontological positions of the researcher reflect their methodological choice. The chapter furnishes important steps involved in FGDs in practice as a research method.

What Are FGDs and Why Do We Need Them? FGD is a qualitative research method growing in social sciences. FGDs generally involve a small group of people discussing a particular topic or a set of issues under the guidance of a moderator. During FGDs, people’s views, perceptions, experiences, attitudes, and opinions are solicited. The FGD is based on a set of carefully designed questions. The researcher acts as the moderator and enables the group members to actively participate. The moderator facilitates the group discussion. The discussion is recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using qualitative techniques (Wilkinson, 2011). FGDs have been defined by different researchers (Powell & Single, 1996; Cameron, 2005; Krueger & Casey, 2000; Longhurst, 2003). According to Krueger and Casey (2000, 2): A focus group is a special type of group in terms of purpose, size, composition and procedures. The purpose of conducting focus group is to listen and gather information. It is a way to better understand how people feel or think about an issue, product or service. Focus groups are used to gather opinions

The above definition provides a very clear understanding of what FDGs are. They are not simple gatherings of people: They are organized carefully to discuss a particular topic that is identified by the researchers to gather information and opinions from a pre-identified group of people. Although FGDs look very informal, it is a highly technical exercise. FGDs can be used either as a standalone method or used in combination with other methods. With the increasing popularity of participator methods in geography, FGDs have been used in combination with other methods.

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With the spread of global COVID-19 pandemic, mode of conducting FGDs has already started to change (Schultz & DeMers, 2020; Stewart & Shamdasani, 2017). Many researchers have resorted to online research methods. As such, online FGDs are becoming important tools to collect data and information on human experiences, values, customs, beliefs, ideas, attitudes, perceptions, and views. Online FGDs have already been tested and carried out in research activities as an alternative to face-to-face FGDs (Hancock, 2017; Reisner et al., 2018). Reisner et al. (2018) when discussing the use of online FGDs in health-related sensitive topics with underserved patient population claim that online FGDs provide anonymous environments, especially for marginalized groups to discuss certain issues that are not possible to discuss face to face. Hancock (2017) also supports online FGDs as they provide anonymity and non-threatening environments to conduct research allow participants an open environment to express their views independently. Internet is increasingly providing new technological platforms that are user-friendly and secure sites to conduct good quality research at present with greater bandwidth. Online FGDs have advantages and limitations. Identifying a confidential physical place to conduct FGDs, minimized costs related to time and money, increased accuracy, recruiting participants from remote and diverse geographical locations and accessing excluded, stigmatized, rare, or marginalized groups are some of the few advantages of online FGDs (Hancock, 2017; Reisner et al., 2018). Watson et al. (2006) point out the analytical advantage of online FGDs as it allows transcripts to be downloaded and analyzed through Computer-Assisted Data Analysis Software (CADAS). Online FGDs have disadvantages too. Lack of face-to-face interactions, less personal nature, missing opportunity to spontaneous responses (if the FGDs are not live events), limited moderator control due to non-physical presence, and possibility to deviate from the intended topic of discussion are some of the related disadvantages (Hancock, 2017; Reisner et al., 2018). However, under the current global COVID-19 pandemic situation in the world, many researchers have already switched to online data collection methods. Researchers have been using Zoom, Microsoft team, and other online platforms to collect data while under lockdown or in mobility-restricted areas.

Planning FGDs FGDs need to be prepared carefully based on several criteria that are discussed below. Using FGDs as research method is primarily influenced by the purpose of the study. Krueger and Casey (2000) claim that FGDs are best suited in situations, where a researcher wants to look for a range of ideas or meanings, understand different perspectives between groups or categories of people, and uncover factors that influence opinions and ideas to emerge from the groups, to pilot test ideas, to conduct large-scale qualitative studies, and to elucidate already collected quantitative information. Longhurst (2003) asserts that FGDs are ideal in situations where data or information are scant. According to Longhurst, FGDs are much

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useful in new research areas. Skop (2006) points out that FGDs are good when the researcher wants to bring the voices of the people who are living in the margins of the society. Participation of marginalized people in FGD could bring empowerment to them if the researcher can use strategies to deconstruct the traditional power structures between the researcher and the researched (ibid). The researcher needs to be well aware of the research context and research problems. A thorough understanding of the research context is an essential precondition to conduct an effective FGDs as it equips the researcher with full confidence over matters that are going to be discussed. When using FGDs, researcher intends to draw from personal experiences, beliefs, perceptions, norms, values, and attitudes that are diverse. Hence, it is important to familiarize with the sociocultural and historical context the research is located. Longhurst (2003) warns about being mindful about cultural differences, especially in contexts where researchers from developed world conduct researches in developing worlds. She highlights the contribution of feminist geographers in deconstructing power relations in such situations. In cross-cultural and cross-national research, FGDs allow to have culturally diverse knowledge (Smithson, 2000). However, in practice a foreign researcher can face language challenges. Therefore, the researcher needs to arrange for a translator or train a facilitator. The next most important aspect related to the above points is developing good questions. Krueger and Casey (2000) claim that developing good questions for FGDs needs time and careful planning. Cameron (2005) describes that wording of questions and issues are very important in preparing questions. The researcher has to prepare a set of questions, considering the objectives of the proposed research. However, in practice, the researcher might experience challenges and difficulties in applying the same set of questions. Unlike in the quantitative methods, modifying research question is always possible in the FGDs according to different field situations. However, it should be noted that modifying the questions during the process of FGDs could lead to confusions among the participants. It is also important to consider that the researcher should understand that some of the pre-planned questions cannot be asked verbatim during the actual FGDs. Some questions need to be paraphrased, made simple, and made it clear to the participants. The questions should lead to conversations and trigger further discussions. Longhurst (2003) points out that there are no hard and fast rules regarding how the questions should be. However, she suggests that it is important to consider a combination of effective questions influenced by the research topic. It is also important to consider the time length of the FGDs. Normally, FGDs last between 1 and 2 h. Researchers have arranged questions based on themes also. As poorly designed questions could be confusing to participants and result in a waste of time, Krueger and Casey (2000) highlight the importance of ensuring the quality of questions and maintaining a questioning route. Even a well-experienced researcher might find it challenging every time he or she has to draft a carefully designed set of questions. Krueger and Casey (2000) list the qualities of a good set of pre-designed questions. According to him, such questions should evoke conversations, contain simple word use that is familiar to the participants, easy to say,

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clear, concise, open ended, one dimensional (not to include too many variables in a single question), and well thought. Planning FGDs is very important for its successful execution. The planning exercise needs time and is closely related to the objectives of the proposed research. Once the objectives are clearly formulated, the next most important step is to identify the participants. Identification of participants is generally done through purposive sampling method (Cameron, 2005, 2010). FGDs generally involve a uniform group, who have something in common (Morgan, 1996). However, conflicting views are presented in terms of the composition of the group. While one group of literature argues in favor of a pre-existing group (Kitzinger, 1994), the other does not support that claim (Powell and Single, 1996). After identifying the potential participants, the researcher needs to explain the purpose of the FGDs, to make them aware of the purpose of the research. During this stage, the researcher might need to tell the participants about the purpose of the study, information needed, importance of such information, confidentiality of information, and for what purposes the collected information will be used (Krueger & Casey, 2000). Depending on researchers’ position on the composition of the FGD team, the researcher can identify the other potential participants through snowball, purposive, or any other suitable sampling methods. Size of the FGDs matters a lot in the success of conducting them. Different views exist in terms of number of participants needed for a FGD. While some studies have pointed out that number of participants should be between 6 and 12 (Longhurst, 2003), 10 and 12 (Krueger & Casey, 2000), and 6 and 10 (Cameron, 2005), others have pointed out the group can be consisted of as few as four. Krueger and Casey (2000) point out that FGDs with smaller number of participants are becoming popular as it is relatively easy to recruit and conduct the discussion. However, 5–8 is recommended as ideal number. If the numbers are more than 10, it would be difficult for the moderator to conduct the discussion. Further, it may also lead to small group formation within the larger group. One should be mindful that smaller number of participants might not provide a broader picture of the topic under discussion. Similar to numbers, the composition of the participants is also important. Generally, in FGDs participants do share some similar backgrounds or something in common (Smithson, 2008). Feminist geographers have pointed out that when a group consists of a mix a sex, women in the group might feel powerless or excluded. They have conducted separate FGDs based on sex (Mackay, 2019). As a feminist geographer, my research experience shows that women alone FGDs work well compared to a mix group of participants. However, it should be noted that my research areas geographically concentrated mainly in developing countries such as Sri Lanka, India, and Fiji, where sociocultural factors heavily shape women’s participation in the society, hence in the FGDs. As it became evident, women’s voices are more freely heard in spaces where they feel comfortable to express themselves. When recruiting participants for FGDs, it is also important to consider other intersections such as ethnicity, religion, age, education, and occupation, depending on the objective of the research. Paying attention to these different intersections might

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help to get different voices heard. Further, Krueger and Casey (2000) criticize that although maintaining homogeneity in a FGD is good, it is also important to allow variation to a certain extent. However, the purpose and the objective of his research and the sociocultural contexts of the research might influence the composition of the participants to be included (Cameron, 2005). The researcher has to consider such factors carefully when recruiting members. After deciding on the number of participants and the composition of the FGD, the researcher has to recruit them. It is always advisable to identify a pool of participants (Freeman, 2006). This is a very important step in planning. Parker and Tritter (2006) point out that in qualitative research, participants of FGDs should not be selected in an ad hoc manner. Although Krueger and Casey (2000) proposes identifying a random pool of participants to minimize bias in the selection process, he affirms that no selection process is free from bias. Parker and Tritter (2006) emphasize that the issues of sampling and selection should be carefully handled in the recruitment of participants for FGDs. As a geographer who has extensively employed qualitative methods in my research, I find that if the researcher has to rely on gatekeepers to access participants, the researcher does not have control to check whether the recruitment process is biased or not. This situation could especially be confronted by foreign researchers, with no or limited access to field. The researcher who has direct access to field research sites or informants can carefully engage in the selection of participants (Krueger & Casey, 2000). After identifying the potential list of participants, the researcher can decide on whom he or she exactly wants to include in the FGD. Following this process, the researcher has to communicate with the participants. The initial communication with the participants could be established through telephone, email, social media, or direct communication. During the first meeting, it is essential to explain the purpose of the FGD to establish rapport and trust. After the initial communication, the researcher could allow the group members to know the other participants in the group. Once the pre-arrangements for recruitments are done, the researcher has to find a suitable date, time, and place to conduct the FGD. Meeting date, time, and place should also be carefully arranged considering the convenience of all the members in the group. If at any point an ethical clearance is needed, or an unofficial consent from the village/community is needed, the researcher should make arrangements to get them in well advance, as these procedures might take time. In many researchers, the researcher himself or herself serves as the moderator. The role of the moderator is very important in conducting FGDs (Tausch & Menold, 2016). For that reason, facilitation has been identified as crucial in FGDs. Along with the moderator, assisting persons (note taker, observer) are also important. They should also be given proper training on the whole process. The principal researcher (most instances the moderator) can arrange a pre-planning workshop with the FGD administrative group. As most of the FGDs are recorded, the researcher needs to know the technical matters related to recording instruments and a backup plan in case of an unexpected circumstance. It is advisable to test all

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the equipment before the FGD commences. Only after completing the logistical arrangements, the researcher can start FGD session.

Conducting FGDs The important and most challenging part of FGDs is conducting them. The experience of the moderator is important for the successful conducting of FGDs. When conducting FGDs, it is important to make sure to have equal participation, maintain a balanced attitude, follow a sequence in questions, and adhere to time. The researcher needs to prepare a good agenda to ensure the orderly conduct of the session for a fruitful result. First and foremost, FGD organizers should create a smooth environment for the discussion to take place. In order to create a conducive environment, FGDs can begin with the offering of some food and drinks. Such an arrangement would create a smooth environment, where the participants would find a comfortable environment to express their opinions and/or share their thoughts. When commencing FGDs, the moderator could request the participants to introduce themselves. It would also be possible to let participants know each other very informally, during the pre-session tea/coffee. At the beginning of the session, the researcher could brainstorm the group members about the topic which is going to be discussed. It is also essential to make them aware of the rules of the house and ensure confidentiality. After that, the purpose/objectives of the FGD could be formally introduced. Following on, the core question/s can be introduced. Before starting to ask more focused specific questions, it would always be better to commence with general questions. Longhurst (2003), sharing her experience in using FGDs, points out that she has not been very strict about asking the pre-prepared questions in an order. She prefers to allow discussions in a conversation type that naturally emerges. However, she emphasizes that she makes sure all the questions planned initially are asked during the session. Krueger and Casey (2000) emphasize the importance of sequences of questions. Once the core question is introduced to the group, the researcher can start to build question sequences (Krueger & Casey, 2000). As there are no hard and fact rules, the researcher can decide whether it would be good to follow question sequence or let the participants to allow in discussion in a conversational manner, depending on the participants. The role of a skillful moderator and assistants is crucial in conducting FGDs. The moderator should be able to act neutrally and encourage discussion and interaction. Although there are conflicting views on the order of questions that are to be asked, the moderator needs to know the questions he or she uses, follow up, and exist in type to ensure the engagement of participants. In some groups, there will be one or two participants, who will dominate the discussion and one or two who keep quite. Dominating participant might lead the direction of the discussion toward a single opinion. In FGDs, participants reflect varieties of opinions. In such

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situations, the moderator needs to be able to control the direction of the discussion to get equal involvement and listen to different voices. During FGDs, participants might ask questions from the moderator. In such situations, the moderator should be as brief as possible and take such questions at the end of the discussions. The next important aspect to consider during FGDs is time management. The time length of a FGD should not exceed two hours. It is suggested that 60–90 min are perfect. Although the organizers of FGDs make good plans well in advance to conduct successful FGDs, some unexpected, uncontrollable events might turn down the whole plan. The proposed participants might not show up for various reasons. Logistical arrangements could be disrupted due to power failure. Bad weather conditions could stop participants from attending the events. Therefore, the organizers of FGDs should have an alternative plan.

Analyzing FGDs Smithson (2000) points out that although FGDs have been widely used by researchers, there has been a lack of literature related to analyzing FGDs. However, we could observe that there is recent development on the topic (Rabiee, 2004, Cameron, 2005, Krueger & Casey, 2000, Wilkinson, 2011, Barbour, 2014). Krueger and Casey (2000) warn that analyzing FGDs should not be taken lightly. They should be ‘practical, systematic and verifiable’. Whichever technique is applied to analyze FGD data, it is important to make sure it follows an orderly approach and not be ad hoc. Systematic approach will ensure transparency and minimize errors and a logical order. If analysis is verifiable, it will allow others also to come to same findings by using same data. Purpose of the research guides the analysis. Wilkinson (2011) identifies content, thematic, ethnographic, phenomenological, narrative, experiential, biographical discourse, and conversational analysis as techniques of FGD data analysis. Based on theoretical and epistemological backgrounds connected to content analysis and ethnographic analysis, Wilkinson (2011) examines the use of each of the previously mentioned approaches. He claims that compared to ethnographic analysis, content analysis is relatively systematic and comprehensive. These tools can serve different types of research questions and produce different analytical outputs. According to Wilkinson (2011), most of the research using FGDs has used content analysis. As FGDs provide a wealth of information, as soon as the FGDs are over, the researcher needs to commence the data-organizing process. First, the audio recordings must be transcribed. It is important that at this stage, the note taker and the moderator work together to make sure the correct entries and to sort out any other complications. It is better to consider one FGD at a time. Transcribing audio recording takes long hours. A one-hour FGD may take 3–4 h of transcribing work. Once the researcher has completed the transcribing work, it is essential to go through it several times to get a thorough understanding of the discussion

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Fig. 8.1 Content analysis. Based on: Erlingsson and Brysiewicz (2017)

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Theme Category Code Condensed meaning unit Meaning unit

(Cameron, 2005). At this point depending on the objectives of the research, the researcher can decide on the analytical tool. For example, if the researcher decides to select content analysis, which is a popular tool, he or she should know it clearly. There is a rich literature on step-by-step instruction on content analysis. For new researchers, as FGDs provide a wealth of information analyzing may pause challenges. The whole purpose of content analysis is to systematically arrange the large volume of information into a well-organized summary. Erlingsson and Brysiewicz (2017) provide a very clear guide to content analysis. Figure 8.1 shows the content analysis process. According to Erlingson and Brysiewicz (2017), the transcribed materials derived from FGDs should be carefully read and ready for analysis. As the first step of analysis, the text should be divided into small sections (Meaning units). Next the meaning units should be condensed further, without making changes to original meaning (Condensed meaning units). The condensed meaning units should be coded (Codes).4 Codes should be further arranged into categories (Category). The researcher can go up to themes depending on the objectives. Several researchers have used thematic analysis as important analytical tool. The researcher can check against the questions or themes or categories that guided the FGDs (Gibbs, 2007). Today, software-assisted content analysis has also been employed by researchers without doing the coding manually (Cypress, 2019; Saldaña 2015). They are becoming increasingly popular in large-scale open-ended survey responses and in analyzing interviews (Feng and Horenstein, 2019). QDAS, NVivo, MaxQDA, QDA Miner, and ATLAS.ti are some of the popular software in use for qualitative data analysis. Advantages and limitations of applying these software packages have been noted by several researchers (Cypress, 2019). The proponents of software data packages argue that they are good for handling

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Saldaña (2015) provides a very detail practical guide to qualitative data analysis using coding. This is a very comprehensive guide.

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large volume of data (MacMillan, 2005), ensuring faster, efficient data management (Ryan, 2009), and ensuring consistency (Bergin, 2011). Others have criticized software-aided content analysis as they are too much depending on computers. They warn that such software might create artificial or unrealistic information. Further, purchasing software would be expensive, as most of them require license. Paulus and Lester (2020) discuss the best practices related to data analysis software.

Conclusion Geographical research methods underpin a specific epistemological and ontological position. Objectives and purpose/s of the research shape the methodology. Qualitative research in geography has immensely benefitted from FGDs as a data collection method to explore human feelings, perceptions, attitudes, views, values, norms, and experiences. This clearly confirms the link between the choice methodology and epistemology. FGDs in geography, more specifically in human geography, have contributed to the co-construction of knowledge. FGDs are perfect in research environments where the researcher wants to deal with a large amount of qualitative data, engage in reflexive research, and listen to multiple voices over a specific topic. FGDs have taken a new form with the outbreak of COVID-19 pandemic, as researchers have limited/controlled access to field. FGDs at present are mostly conducted through different online platforms underpinning its own merits and demerits. Pre-planning of FGDs is crucial for the success of conducting them successfully. The role of moderator in conducting a successful FGD is decisive. The FGD data analysis would pose challenges unless they follow a systematic method. Several tools have been employed to extract data from rich volume of information gathered. To conclude, it should be recognized that the broadening research topics in geography, more specifically in human geography, has made FGDs an essential method in the discipline.

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Pile, S. (1991). Practising interpretative geography. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers, 458–469. Pini, B. (2002). Focus groups, feminist research and farmwomen: Opportunities for empowerment in rural social research. Journal of Rural Studies, 18(3), 339–351. Powell, R. A., & Single, H. M. (1996). Focus groups. International Journal of Quality in Health Care, 8, 499–504. Rabiee, F. (2004). Focus-group interview and data analysis. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 63(4), 655–660. Reisner, S. L., Randazzo, R. K., White Hughto, J. M., Peitzmeier, S., DuBois, L. Z., Pardee, D. J., Marrow, E., McLean, S., & Potter, J. (2018). Sensitive health topics with underserved patient populations: Methodological considerations for online focus group discussions. Qualitative Health Research, 28(10), 1658–1673. Ryan, M. E. (2009). Making visible the coding process: Using qualitative data software in a poststructural study. Issues in Educational Research, 19(2), 142–161. Saldaña, J. (2015). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Sage. Sayer, A., & Morgan, K. (1985). A modern Industry in a declining region: Link between methods theory and policy. In D. Massey, & R. Megan (Eds.), Politics and methods (pp. 147–168). Methuen. Schultz, R. B., & DeMers, M. N. (2020). Transitioning from emergency remote learning to deep online learning experiences in geography education. Journal of Geography, 119(5), 142–146. Skop, E. (2006). The methodological potential of focus groups in population geography. Population, Space and Place, 12(2), 113–124. Smithson, J. (2000). Using and analysing focus groups: Limitations and possibilities. International Journal of Social Research Methodology, 3(2), 103–119. Smithson, J. (2008). Focus groups. In P. Alasuutari, L. Bickman, & J. Brannen (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of social research methods (pp. 357–370). SAGE. Stewart, D. W., & Shamdasani, P. (2017). Online focus groups. Journal of Advertising, 46(1), 48– 60. Tausch, A. P., & Menold, N. (2016). Methodological aspects of focus groups in health research: Results of qualitative interviews with focus group moderators. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, 3, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2333393616630466 Watson, M., Peacock, S., & Jones, D. (2006). The analysis of interaction in online focus groups. International Journal of Therapy and Rehabilitation, 13(12), 551–557. Retrieved from http:// www.ijtr.co.uk/ Wilkinson, S. (2011). Analysing focus group data. In D. Silverman (Ed.), Qualitative research (pp.168–184). SAGE. Willis, J. W., Jost, M., & Nilakanta, R. (2007). Foundations of qualitative research: Interpretive and critical approaches. Sage. Zeigler, D. J., Brunn, S. D., & Johnson, J. H. (1996). Focusing on Hurricane Andrew through the eyes of the victims. Area, 28(2), 124–129.

Fazeeha Azmi is a Professor in the Department of Geography, University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka. Her research interests include youth, poverty and livelihood changes, women and migration, internal displacement, post war development, tourism, small-scale fisheries and migration. She has published journal articles and book chapters on the above areas and presented her works in international conferences. She teaches human geography related courses both at undergraduate and postgraduate levels. She is interested in participatory qualitative research methods.

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Qualitative Research on Environmental Non-governmental Organisations’ Participation in Climate Change Governance Siti Melinda Haris, Firuza Begham Mustafa, and Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin Abstract

In this article, the researcher focuses on describing the methodology of qualitative research to explore the Environmental Non-governmental Organisations’ (ENGOs’) participation in the Malaysian climate change governance. The question of “What is the present condition of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance in Malaysia?” will be addressed in the study. The objective of the study is to explore the present condition of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance in Malaysia. The study is designed based on exploratory research using a qualitative method. The procedures in data collection and analysis were based on the phenomenology strategy. Primary data were gathered through interviews with individuals representing ENGOs, public officials, and academia that were selected using a purposive sampling technique. Thematic analysis of the qualitative data was conducted using ATLAS.ti software. Several benefits and drawbacks of the methods employed in the study were also discussed in this article. Keywords

Environmental non-governmental organisations governance . Qualitative

.

Climate change

.

Climate

S. M. Haris Faculty of Administrative Science and Policy Studies, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Seremban, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia F. B. Mustafa (B) Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia e-mail: [email protected] R. N. Raja Ariffin Faculty of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_9

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Introduction Merriam (2009: p.13) defines qualitative research as “understanding the meaning people have constructed, that is, how people make sense of their world and the experiences they have in the world.” She defines qualitative research based on the research purpose and focus. In another definition, Aspers and Corte (2019: p.155) describe qualitative research as “an iterative process in which improved understanding to the scientific community is achieved by making new significant distinctions resulting from getting closer to the phenomenon studied.” They highlight the processes and outcomes of qualitative research. It tells that a distinctive feature of qualitative research is its contribution in terms of new knowledge and novelty to the scholars’ community. The qualitative research method has been widely employed in various fields of social sciences, including human geography discipline. The qualitative method was used in many areas of human geography to explain human environments, social processes, and individual experiences. This method is considered ideal in answering the question related to individuals’ experiences and their social structures (Winchester & Rofe, 2010). Essentially, this method aims at exploring and understanding phenomena and behaviours, rather than measuring them (Green & Thorogood, 2004). Therefore, researchers must comprehend the whole process of qualitative research from start to finish so that the aim of the research can be achieved. In this article, the focus is on the descriptions of the qualitative research methodology in exploring ENGOs’ participation in the Malaysian climate change governance. It demonstrates the procedures in collecting and analysing the qualitative data. However, the article is limited to the explanation of the methodological part of the study only, without discussion of the findings.

Background of the Study One of the sustainable environment issues that impacted the whole population around the globe is climate change. According to Article 1 of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) (IPCC, 2018), climate change is defined as “a change of climate which is attributed directly or indirectly to human activity that alters the composition of the global atmosphere and which is in addition to natural climate variability observed over comparable time periods.” Climate change is not merely caused by natural climate variability, human activities; particularly, economic activities have contributed to changing the climate system. The greenhouse gases emitted in a country may increase the global warming facing all humans around the world. Climate change has been said the greatest threat to human civilisation. The severe potential effects to the earth and its inhabitants have urged for actions at the global level. Globally, the issues of climate change ranging from mitigation to adaptation have been discussed in various international climate discourses such as

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the annual Sustainable Development Goals Summit. Ever since the introduction of a legal framework to regulate climate change issues, namely the UNFCCC during the UN Earth Summit 1992, the issue has become a global agenda that necessitates global cooperation for climate actions at local, regional, and international levels. The aim of the UNFCCC is to levelling off the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere to curb its adverse effects on climate change. At the moment, the number of parties to the Convention is 197 parties (UNFCCC, 2020). Since 1995, all of the parties are meeting at the Conference of the Parties every year to review the progress and make relevant decisions for effective climate change measures. NGOs, in general, are acknowledged by many developed countries as one of the critical partners in implementing the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). However, they are less recognised in developing countries, including Malaysia. Albeit many ENGOs existed in the country to safeguard the environment, they are viewed as foes rather than friends of the government. Likewise, they are considered as pressure groups who dare to criticise the government. Such perception exists because they condemn the development projects initiated by the government that destroys the environment. Ironically, the government is doubtful towards the environmental activists, although they are unable to influence political stability in the country (Yew, 2016). ENGOs should be treated as partners to the government to ensure viable policies can be introduced to solve public issues effectively. Fröhlich and Knieling (2013) mentioned that governance embraces the concept of interrelationship and cooperation among stakeholders. In the context of climate change governance, as described by Jagers and Stripple (2003), it refers to mechanisms of decisionmaking and actions to move society towards mitigating and adapting to the risks of climate change. It tells that ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance is necessary to improve the effectiveness of policies and strategies introduced by the government to address climate change. In governance, the participation of ENGOs or civil society can be seen in four stages of the policymaking process as suggested by Osmani (2008), specifically the identification of policy options, policy formulation, policy implementation, and policy evaluation. The inclusion of ENGOs in the governance process is essential to perform good climate change governance. Another issue may result from the lack of ENGOs’ participation, particularly lack of public awareness of climate change that may constrain the attainability of the national targets for climate mitigation and adaptation. Improving ENGOs’ participation could support the effective formulation and implementation of climate policies, and subsequently, it upholds the good governance of climate change. However, very little is known about the participation of ENGOs in the Malaysian context of climate change governance. Therefore, understanding to what extent and how they participate in climate change governance is essential as it could contribute to enhancing and sustaining active participation. Against this background, a central question of “What is the present condition of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance in Malaysia?” will

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be addressed in the study. The objective of the study is to explore the present condition of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance in Malaysia. It is expected that the findings of the study could provide a clear picture of their participation in climate change governance for further investigations in future studies.

Methods The study is directed by the central question of “What is the present conditions of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance in Malaysia?” In the light of the research question, the study is designed based on exploratory research. Sekaran (2003) explains that exploratory research could be adopted when the current information about a situation is scarce to understand the topic in-depth. As described by Yin (2009), the purpose of exploratory research is to explore a phenomenon for an extensive understanding of how a situation occurs. Given the limited studies of the Malaysian context available in the literature, the study adopts exploratory research in designing the study to establish an in-depth understanding of the participation of ENGOs in climate change governance. Fundamentally, there are three research methods that can be chosen to address the identified research problem, namely quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods. According to Creswell (2012), the decision to employ either quantitative, qualitative, or mixed method depends on the nature of the research problem and the questions posed to address the problem. In brief, the quantitative method is an investigation of a topic by measuring the variables in quantifiable terms (Mertler, 2015). In a quantitative method, a researcher seeks to describe a research problem by describing the trends or explaining the relationship among variables. Investigating the relationship implies that the researcher is aiming at determining whether one or more variables/attributes might influence the other variables/attributes (Creswell, 2012). Unlike quantitative research, qualitative research may not aim to test objective theories for the relationship of variables. A qualitative method, on the other hand, is clearly opposite to the quantitative method. In qualitative research, a researcher may be interested in exploring and understanding the subjective meaning of individuals or groups that could justify social or human problems (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). However, some research questions need to be addressed through both quantitative and qualitative methods. The combination of both methods is commonly called a mixed method. On the other hand, mixed method is between quantitative and qualitative research that could produce a deep understanding of a topic being studied beyond either quantitative or qualitative data alone (Creswell & Creswell, 2018). Once the research method is chosen, the researcher may identify the research design and the related procedures to conduct the research, such as sampling techniques, instruments, and data analysis (Creswell, 2012). In the study, a qualitative method will be adopted in order to answer the research question. In a qualitative method, detailed information can be collected

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from respondents through direct communication involving researchers and respondents (Zikmund, 2003). Berg (2004) explains that the aim of qualitative method research is fundamental to address the research questions by investigating various social contexts and individuals from the contexts. In addition, with the objective to explore the present conditions of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance, the study employs a qualitative method in view of several points as highlighted by Creswell (2012). Creswell (2012) suggests that the qualitative method could render an in-depth understanding of the phenomenon and the practices being studied, investigate the processes, and produce comprehensive perspectives. Hence, the qualitative method enables exploration of how ENGOs participate in climate change governance in the Malaysian setting through a collection of detailed and rich information from various perspectives, including the ENGOs, public officials, and academia. With the qualitative method, the focus could be given to the voices and experiences of key informants from various groups involved in the governance of climate change.

Procedures Creswell (2013) underlined five qualitative approaches to inquiry: narrative, phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, and case study. Narrative research focuses on investigating an individual, collecting data in terms of stories, reporting, and discussing the meaning of individual experiences (Creswell, 2012). Phenomenology research aims to describe an individual’s lived experience regarding a particular situation under study (Balls, 2009). A researcher may design an inquiry using this approach if the research objective is to study what people experience and how people experience the topic being studied (Leavy, 2017; Patton, 2002). Grounded theory research refers to a qualitative procedure to develop a theory that explains various concepts in a particular topic (Creswell, 2012). Next, ethnography research seeks to address the question of “What is the culture of this group of people?” (Patton, 2002). In other words, the interest of the researcher is on understanding the culture of a particular society. Lastly, case study research is an inquiry of a real-life phenomenon within a specific context that tries to answer the question of “how” or “why” about a set of events, in which researchers have little or no control over the events (Yin, 2009). Among the five qualitative approaches by Creswell (2013), the ideal approach to the inquiry of the study is phenomenological research. The rationale for the phenomenology approach is because Creswell (2013) states that a researcher may investigate subjective phenomena using phenomenological research strategy. The present condition of ENGOs’ participation in climate change governance is a subjective phenomenon that necessitates an investigation of how they experience governance activities. A comprehensive understanding of the meaning of the ENGOs’ experiences in taking part in the governance of climate change in Malaysia through numerous activities and events may be valuable to all relevant

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stakeholders in climate change governance. Therefore, the procedures in data collection and analysis will follow the phenomenology strategy for this qualitative study. There are four main types of qualitative data collection methods: observations, interviews, documents, and audio-visual materials (Creswell, 2007). Observation is a process of describing events, behaviours, and things systematically in the context of the study (Marshall & Rossman, 1989). It is witnessing an event directly by the researcher during the fieldwork. It can be used in any subject matter, but it depends on the research question (Driscoll, 2011). It is suitable for studying the behaviour of people. An interview is a learning tool through conservation (Leavy, 2017). Data can also be collected through documents that are interpreted by the researcher to provide the meaning of an event in the research topic (Bowen, 2009). Last but not least, audio-visual materials, such as videotapes, compact discs, and photographs, can also provide qualitative data for research. In the study, primary data were gathered through interviews and documents that can be accessed to produce information about the research topic. The data of the study comprise oral interviews and written texts from relevant documents. The unit of analysis of the study is the organisation. Thus, data were collected from individuals representing ENGOs who have experienced the activities of climate change governance. The sampling technique to select the individuals is the purposive sampling technique. The purposive sampling technique seeks the best individuals that can help in understanding the research problem and providing the best data for the study (Creswell, 2003; Patton, 2015). In line with the research objective to understand the meaning of individuals’ experience in climate change governance, the pre-determined criteria are the individuals who are representing ENGOs across different regions in Malaysia at both national and state levels to gain understanding from different perspectives. Table 9.1 presents the potential participants. According to Polkinghorne (1989), interviews can be conducted with 5–25 individuals for phenomenology study. However, Patton (2002) emphasised that the sample size depends on what is to be discovered, why it needs to be discovered, how the findings will be used, and what resources are available for the study. For the study, the number of potential participants is 15, which is made up of the members of ENGOs who have experience and knowledge in climate change governance activities, such as the president, vice president, secretary, and committee members. The recruitment of the participants is through emails of invitation letters sent to the NGOs. An information sheet containing the details of the study was attached to the email for their reference. In addition, the participants were asked to sign the consent form to ensure confidentiality and inform their rights during the process. In order to strengthen the study, triangulation of data sources is conducted by collecting data from public officials, academia, and relevant documents, as illustrated in Fig. 9.1. Patton (2002) pointed out that a single method in a study has a higher risk of errors related to the method as compared to a study that uses more than one method. The reason is that different types of data allow validity checks

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Table 9.1 Sample of the study

Name

Organisation

Region

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Level

Mr. A

ENGO001



National

Mr. B

ENGO001



National

Mr. C

ENGO002



National

Mr. D

ENGO002



National

Mr. E

ENGO003



National

Mr. F

ENGO004



National

Mr. G

ENGO005



National

Mr. H

ENGO006



National

Mr. I

ENGO007



National

Mr. J

ENGO008

Central

State

Mr. K

ENGO009

Northern

State

Mr. L

ENGO0010

Southern

State

Mr. M

ENGO0011

East Coast

State

Mr. N

ENGO0012

Sarawak

State

Mr. O

ENGO0013

Sabah

State

across all data. Therefore, two public officials from the top management in relevant departments of the Ministry of Environment and Water (MEWA) and two academicians who have expertise in the field of climate change and governance from public universities were included in the list of potential participants. Next, documents such as pamphlets, brochures, or any publications by the ENGOs will provide data for triangulation of the interview data. An in-depth interview is suitable for the study as it meets the requirement to address the central research question mentioned previously. Taylor et al. (2016) describe an in-depth interview as the face-to-face and direct communication between the researcher and interviewees aiming at understanding interviewees’ perspectives on lived experiences or situations using their own words. They also emphasise that the interviewer is the research tool. It implies that the interviewer not only needs to seek the answers but also to learn what questions to ask and how to ask them during the interview process. Fig. 9.1 Triangulation of data sources

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An interview guide was prepared beforehand to ensure the fluency, and all key questions are asked to the participants. The interview guide is a list of general questions to be posed to the participants in which it serves as notes for the interviewer to ask specific questions (Taylor et al., 2016). The questions in the interview guide were developed based on the research question that being put into words that understandable by the participants. The interview guide is composed of openended questions that were referred to three experts in relevant fields to review the instrument. Feedback from the experts, in the form of comments and suggestions, were taken into account, and some initial questions were revised. Specifically, several descriptive questions to attract the participant’s interest to talk further on the topic were added. Question on the challenges they are facing in taking part in climate change governance was also included before closing the interview. Apart from that, several terms were suggested to be explained to the participant before asking specific questions. After the instrument has been reviewed by the experts, pilot testing was conducted with a member of ENGO and an academician. The primary purpose of the pilot test was to prepare for the actual data collection. It helps in identifying any potential errors in the interview design that allow amendments prior to the actual study (Kvale, 2007). The participants for the pilot tests were selected based on the suggestion of Turner (2010) that the participants should possess similar criteria to the participants for the actual study. The pilot tests were conducted at the time and venue convenient for the interview session and were recorded using an audio-recording device. Following the pilot tests, four questions were removed due to redundancy and to shorten the interview duration. Besides, the sequence of the questions was revised to ensure the flow of the questions is natural and proper. It is important to note that any studies that involve human that require ethical review from the research ethics committee of the university. Since the subject of the study is the individuals from ENGOs, public agencies, and universities, the researcher had applied for a review of the research ethics and was granted approval from the research ethics committee. Therefore, ethical considerations were adhered to by the researcher to avoid any issues from occurring during the research process. During the actual data collection, the time and place for the interviews were set based on the preferences of the participants. Some participants prefer in-person interviews, and some had suggested a virtual interview to prevent transmission of the COVID-19 pandemic that worse at the moment. Regardless of the way it was conducted, the participants were given an explanation of the objective of the study and their rights as participants of the study. By signing the consent form, they are deemed to agree to the research disclaimers. Nearly all interviews conducted so far were completed between 40 and 70 min. The interviews were recorded in an audio-recording device (with the participants’ permission) and jotted down in the interview guide. The interview data were analysed using thematic analysis. Braun and Clarke (2006) define thematic analysis as a method to identify, analyse, and report the patterns or themes that emerged from the qualitative data. The thematic analysis in the study was guided by the procedures suggested by Braun and Clarke (2006).

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Fig. 9.2 Six phases of thematic analysis (Braun & Clarke, 2006)

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Familiarisation with all data Finding the initial codes Discovering the themes Re-examining the themes Labelling the themes Writing the outcomes

As illustrated in Fig. 9.2, there are six steps in conducting analysis that involve activities such as coding, creating themes, and reporting. A software called ATLAS.ti was used in the data analysis process. The ATLAS.ti is an essential tool that helps a researcher to use a computerised system in conducting the thematic analysis. It can store all forms of qualitative data (i.e. transcript, documents, visual, audio) in one place. The sophisticated features allow researchers to spend more time analysing and exploring the data (Soratto et al., 2020). More importantly, the researcher can build visual networks of a concept map that comprises memos, codes, and themes (Creswell, 2007).

Discussion This section discusses the benefits and drawbacks of conducting human geography research using qualitative methods, interviews, and the application of computerised tools in data analysis. The discussion is based on the researcher’s personal experience and views. In general, qualitative research is all about collecting information about the behaviour and perception of humans. The focus is on addressing the questions of how and why certain activities and situations happen. Obviously, qualitative research provides an in-depth and detailed analysis of the issues and subjects being studied in a particular context. It allows the development of new ideas and theories with empirical findings for more explorations on relevant phenomena in the field of human geography. From the technical aspect, there is flexibility in designing the process resulting from emerging results during the research. It can also be inexpensive because only a small sample size is required. However, it can be costly because the participants are at different places in Malaysia and abroad. The small sample size also creates an issue of generalisability. The findings of the study cannot be generalised to a large population. Besides, the presentation of non-statistical data may not be able to attract the attention of certain groups of people, such as public officials and practitioners.

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In terms of the interview, the data collection method will benefit the researcher in obtaining a deeper level of information from the participants. It also allows flexibility for research in asking questions to the participants, whereby the interview can range from structured to unstructured interview. The researcher can ask both close-ended and open-ended questions to get in-depth information. Although it offers rich data, it requires skills to conduct an effective interview. Researchers need to equip themselves with skills in the process of questioning, such as icebreaking, active listening, and controlling emotions. Confidentiality and anonymity also become a concern of the participants on how the researcher will protect their identity and privacy. The issue can be overcome by ensuring ethics in research by preparing the informed consent form for the participants. Other than privacy issues, the COVID-19 pandemic that currently hit the world had probably affected the willingness of the potential participants to be interviewed. In data analysis, technological advancements have taken the process to a more sophisticated level. Although some researchers still analyse their qualitative data manually, many researchers have opted for the software to assist them in analysing data, particularly ATLAS.ti. It benefits the researcher in terms of analysing the data systematically and effectively. Although it helps the researcher in data analysis, the analytical process in interpreting the data into codes and themes relies on the researcher’s understanding of the thematic analysis method, reliability, and validity in qualitative research.

Conclusion From the perspective of human geography, the study is addressing a research problem in the area of political ecology that concerns the relationship between humans and the environment. The study concerns how humans can improve climate change governance that subsequently promotes environmental sustainability. In the context of the study, the NGOs are the groups of people who get together and establish organisations that operate independently from the government and try to influence the government’s policies in governing climate change. It is worthwhile to note that qualitative research offers a comprehensive understanding of the topic under research. On top of that, the findings of qualitative research are valuable in developing theoretical frameworks and models that can be tested in quantitative research. Since a single research method, as in the study, may lead to some questionable issues, the limitations were addressed with triangulation to obtain data from different perspectives. Most importantly, the research ethical standards were followed and upheld by the researcher for responsible conduct of the research. To conclude, researchers must consider the need for qualitative research based on the research questions and the nature of the phenomena. Some issues or problems may arise during the qualitative research process, in which it demands the researcher to be flexible in conducting the procedures with appropriate actions to ensure the quality of the research.

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Siti Melinda Haris is a senior lecturer at the Universiti Teknologi MARA. Her main research interests include environmental and climate change governance, civil society, and public participation. She is also involved in research related to public policy and public management. She has published several articles in international and local journals and conferences in the field of climate change governance and public management. Firuza Begham Mustafa is an Associate Professor at the Department of Geography, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, Universiti Malaya. She specialized in agriculture geography, environment management and geophysical fields. She has produced more than 110 publications including in journals, conferences papers, IPs and posters. She has also written chapters on many international books and published several scientific books. She served on the Editorial Board Water Conservation Management (WCM), Editorial Board of Geology, Ecology and Landscapes (GEL), International Journal of Creative Industries (IJCREI) and Editorial Board of the Malaysian Journal of Tropical Geography (MJTG), University of Malaya. She was appointed as Visiting Fellow of Qinghai National University, China. She is also Council Member of the International Geographical Union Commission on Commission Marginalization, Globalization, and Regional and Local Responses- C16.29, a member of International Geographical Union for Commission on Geographical Education, a member of the Southeast Asian Geography Association (SEAGA) and the Centre for Global Geography Education (CGGE) training by Association of American Geography (AAG). She is an Associate Fellow (AFMSA) of the Malaysian Scientific Association (MSA). She served as Auditor for Malaysia Qualification Agency (MQA) since 2009 for Geography and Environmental subjects. Raja Noriza Raja Ariffin is an Associate Professor in the Department of Administrative Studies and Politics, Faculty of Business and Economics, Universiti Malaya. She is currently the Deputy Director at the Institute of Public Policy and International Management (INPUMA). Her area of expertise includes public policy analysis, transportation and urban management. She has published widely in the area of public policy, transportation, urban management and healthcare in the local and international journals, books and chapters in book. She is also active in collaborating with several public agencies, such as the Land Public Transport Agency (APAD), Petaling Jaya City Council and the Social Institute of Malaysia.

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Abstract

Student-centered learning has been encouraged as one among one of the approaches in undergraduate teaching at Gadjah Mada University. Delivering knowledge on rural planning at our department has been conducted through a student-centered learning process in which teaching materials are delivered through a combination of lectures and mini research activities in Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia. After an introduction to the subject, students are prepared to conduct mini-research activities in order to understand (1) the process of rural planning and (2) the outputs and outcomes of the planning process at village level. The groups of students have to report the progress of their mini-research weekly during lecture sessions. The field findings from different villages are compared, discussed, and elaborated against various principles, concept, and theories in rural planning. This book chapter aims at elaborating various methods used by groups of students to study the process and the outputs and outcomes of rural planning in some villages in Yogyakarta Province. The most frequently used combination of research methods to gather relevant data is (1) content analysis or text analysis of planning documents, (2) secondary data analysis, (3) field observation or rapid rural appraisal, (4) focus group discussion/participatory rural appraisal, and (5) structured and unstructured households surveys. The design process, fieldworks, data analysis, data presentation, and reporting of various research methods used are going to be discussed in more detail in the chapter, and some illustrations and

R. Rijanta (B) · D. Widiyanto Department of Development Geography, Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia e-mail: [email protected] D. Widiyanto e-mail: [email protected] © The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2023 F. B. Mustafa (ed.), Methodological Approaches in Integrated Geography, Springer Texts in Social Sciences, https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-28784-8_10

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examples of process and outputs from the mini-research activities would be presented. The chapter is written based on our experiences in teaching the subject of rural planning through a combination of lectures and mini-research activities to provide students more opportunities to gather various relevant information to understand both the theoretical and empirical aspects of the subject. Student reports, powerpoint presentation files, and class notes would be used as main sources of data for writing this chapter. Discussions among teaching team members and other lectures practicing similar student-centered learning method would be made to explore and share experiences in methodological aspects of the teaching process. This chapter confirmed that mini-research activities in the subject of rural planning show some advantages such as (1) students are exposed to new unprecedented experiences in learning, (2) students are exposed to new learning atmosphere of active learning, and (3) some students are exposed to real experiences of rural planning process. The disadvantages of SCL in rural planning are slow process of initiation and the problems of difficulties to see the resource persons in the more remote village. Keywords

Mini-research • Student-centered learning • Undergraduate study • Rural planning • Indonesia

Introduction Rural planning as a subject at the Regional Development Study Program at the Department of Development Geography has been taught through a studentcentered learning since 2008. The subject is considered to be a challenge for undergraduate students as they are commonly first learners in the complexities of development issues. Their limited empirical experiences in dealing with issues in understanding development matters may be stumbling block for effective learning. Student-centered Learning (SCL) is an active learning approach within which students become the active target of teaching and learning process (Rukmini & Tanoto, 2018). Student-centered learning gains its popularity as it is believed that the learning outcomes may be improved significantly through the process of active learning. SCL is a learning strategy that treat students as an active and independent subjects and as adult learners who are responsible for their own learning and able to study beyond the classroom. Under these principles, students are expected to have and appreciate of life-long learning and mastering the complementary soft skills and hard skills. On the other hand, lecturers would play an important role as facilitators and partners in learning process rather than as a main source of knowledge. Harsono (2008) demonstrates that there are many advantages of student-centered learning as compared to teacher-centered learning. These include active learning, interactive learning, independent learning, collaborative learning, cooperative learning, and contextual learning. Nevertheless, there are also many difficulties

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associated with supporting student-centered learning in higher education, although it is also evident that SCL activities may stimulate the development of higher-order skills such as critical thinking and problem-solving (Brush & Saye, 2000). In delivering the subject matters of rural planning, the team of lecturers utilize a mini-research process and tandem teaching deliveries in the classroom. Referring to the work of Finsterbusch (1976) mini-survey is defined as survey with a minimum number of samples. Using the same token, mini-research in this chapter is defined as a research that utilizes a set of research methods implemented under limited time and resources in order to understand complex issues related to legal and institutional aspects of rural planning, process of rural plan formulation, implementation of rural plan at village level, and monitoring and evaluation. Among notable research methods used by the students are content analysis, secondary data analysis, rapid rural appraisal, unstructured interviews with village authorities, and household surveys. This is very different from the terms of mini-research paper which is mainly dealing with preparing a scientific paper as a part of student learning based on reviews of scientific papers without any empirical data. The SCL is built on the principles of learning that comprises active and constructive process as well as social activity. SCL requires mental reflection, uses prior knowledge, takes longer time, depends on rich context, and requires strong motivation (Harsono, 2008). In the context of delivery of rural planning matters, students are encouraged to play active roles in preparing, designing, implementing, and reporting the outcomes their mini-research. Learning can be research-based as in the topics are mostly acquired from research-based exercises, instead of obtaining subject matter from conventional lectures. The experiences of staff in processes of inquiry are highly integrated into the student learning activities; the division of roles between teacher and student is minimized; the scope for two-way interactions between research and teaching is deliberately exploited. The implementation of SCL in the subject of Rural Planning requires fieldwork activities as students should gather various information from the local authorities and form the rural dwellers using various methods and techniques. According to Fuller et al. (2010), depth of learning is facilitated by fieldworks; furthermore, effective student learning in terms of depth and understanding is most likely obtained from research contexts where students are actively engaged (Healey, 2005). Prior to fieldwork activities, students would have to join classes for introductory issues in rural planning as apart of national development planning systems. At least five introductory sessions are provided to students via conventional lectures on (1) evolution of rural development thought, (2) the Indonesian planning and budgeting systems, (3) rational comprehensive planning in the Indonesian development systems, (4) spatial planning as a framework for sustainable development, and (5) rural planning practices and procedure at the village level. Upon the completion of the course works, students are introduced to group works for the preparation of mini-research in the next 8 weeks. The typical preparatory works cover (1) collection of secondary data on norms, standards, procedure, and manual for planning, (2) collection of laws and regulation related

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to rural planning from national to village level, (3) preparation of mini-research proposals, (4) collection of long-term and midterm planning documents from national to village level, (5) preparation of field survey instruments such as checklist, interview guides, and questionnaires, (6) collection of data through fieldworks independently, (7) data analysis for weekly progress reports in class, (8) weekly progress reports in class, and (9) final reporting and h.. Students focus their mini-researches on selected villages by studying the process of preparation, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of village midterm development plan (Rencana Pembangunan Jangka Menengah Desa or RPJMDes). The mini-research activities require students to learn various relevant regulations as a norm in order to understand the standard practices of rural planning process and its implementation in their respective villages. This process allows for the identification of various problems, constraints, and factors determining the success of rural planning and its implementation.

Objectives The chapter aims at describing the research method combination used in miniresearch activities for delivering the subject matters on rural planning at the undergraduate program in Regional Development at the Department of Development Geography, Gadjah Mada University. The chapter would elaborate the research design, fieldworks, data analysis, and data presentation on every method commonly used in the student mini-research.

Methods, Instruments, and Software The main methods in preparing this chapter are reviewing student reports and relevant theories on various methods used in the mini-research activities. A series of discussions between the teaching team members of the subject of rural planning and other lecturers practicing similar method of student-centered learning has been made. Information from lecturers of different subjects applying for similar set of process and delivery methods through SCL (e.g., Field Work II and Field Work III) lead to better understanding of the respective substance and mastering various methods and techniques of data collections, analysis, and presentation. The Field Work I is organized at the faculty level and aims at providing a more comprehensive views on geography through a geographical landscape reading to all students of all departments at the Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University. Geography is understood as a science dealing with the relationship between human and their relationship with the nature using spatial analysis, ecological analysis, and regional complex analysis (Haggett, 2001). All the compulsory fieldworks are typically organized through 14 weeks of lectures and studio works for the preparation of research instruments and 10 days of fieldwork implementation and reporting. No specific instruments and software are used in preparing this chapter.

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Procedure/Steps/Method a. Inventory of student reports, powerpoint files, and class notes from the last twelve years of experiences. The student reports for the period of 12 years are readily available for reviews, including powerpoint presentation files. b. Reviewing the relevant literatures especially those related to SCL as a scientific justification for the implementation of mini-research as a part of delivery method in teaching various aspects of rural planning. The review leads to the fact that many scholars strongly believe the advantages of using SCL in delivering complex subject like rural planning for early learners in higher education. The review is presented in the introductory section of this chapter. c. Extracting relevant information from available student reports and class notes to build understanding on the experiences through categorization of information. The extracted information is structured according to the method used in mini-research to build the backbone of the discussion section in the chapter. The step also includes the preparation of some illustrations for data presentation and visualization to make the chapter more accessible. This helps in drawing the experiences of using research methods such as content analysis, secondary data analysis, rapid rural appraisal/field observation and focus group discussions/participatory rural appraisal, and structured/unstructured household survey, respectively. d. Writing the chapter is conducted following the structured information obtained from previous steps.

Description a. Content Analysis/Text Analysis The section would discuss the process of content analysis of various texts related to rural planning in Indonesia. Relevant texts on laws, presidential decree, Ministry regulation and district level regulation, and village planning documents are to be reviewed. Groups of students have to be able to find consistency, inconsistency, continuity, and discontinuity among various texts, including the planning documents at the village level. From this exercise, students learned about multiple factors determining choices in planning. Groups of students reviewed relevant documents for rural planning in Indonesia. For example, a group of students (Pangesti et al., 2015) studied some documents, such as (1) Law No. 25/ 2004 about National Development Planning System (Sistem Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional), (2) Law No. 34/ 2004 about Local Government (Pemerintahan Daerah), (3) Law No. 6/ 2014 on the Rural Village (Desa), (4) Government regulation No. 72/2005 about the village, (5) The Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 66/2007 about Rural Development Planning, and

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(6) Technical Instruction No. 414.2/1408/PMD. Another group of students (Siregar et al., 2015) added three other regulations of six that have been cited by the previous group of students. The additional regulations are (7) Government Regulation No. 43/2014 about Rules of Law Enforcement No. 6/2014 about the Rural Village, (8) Government Regulation No. 60/2014 about Village fund from State Expenditure Budget, and (9) Law No. 23/2014 about Local Government. All of the reviewed documents are ranging from the most general norms to the most operational guidance to follow by the government organization and personnel in implementing the practices of rural planning. These documents in planning are known as Norms, Standard, Procedure and Manuals (NSPM). The implementation of all cycles in rural planning in Indonesia must comply with those regulations. Another group of students cited the NSPM definition from government regulation. For example, a group of student (Siregar et al., 2015) cited NSPM definition from Government Regulation No. 25/2000 and Government Regulation No. 102/2000. Experience from this group of student (Siregar et al., 2015) identified indicators to construct the NSPM as a result of document review. This group worked on indicators such as (1) legal policy, (2) position, (3) process, (4) content, (5) funding, (6) implementation, (7) determination, and (8) evaluation. Another type of NSPM’s indicators was designed by another group (Manalu et al., 2014). This group followed four indicators: input, process, output, and impact as suggested by The Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 66/2007 about Rural Development Planning. Another group was also following the guidance of the Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 66/2007 about Rural Development Planning. But this group of students further divided the indicators into more details: regulation as a source of references, substantive content, principles, source of funds, drafting team, drafting term, drafting process, reporting, guidance, and supervision (Rachmadani et al., 2015). For evaluating the NSPM and the RPJMDes document, it was found a different technique to show compatibility between NSPM and the RPJMDes document. A group of student offered a simple method, see Fig. 10.1 (Manalu et al., 2014). First, this group created a table or matrix containing NSPM’s indicators and the summary of the RPJMDes document content. Second, this group wrote the NSPM indicators on the column side. Third, under the column, this group reported the scope of the RPJMDes document corresponding the NSPM’s indicators. For example, for the input indicator of the NSPM, this group filled in with sub-indicator, namely the village profile contents: (1) village profile, (2) seasonal calendar, and (3) institutional chart. Four, if this group found that there were√sub-indicators in the RPJMDes document, this group wrote or gave checkmark ( ). Another group of student offered a different method (Darmayanti et al., 2015). First, this group identified twenty-one indicators from The Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 66/2007 about Rural Development Planning as their NSPM guideline. Second, this group placed seventeen indicators from reviewing RPJMDes document. Third, this group designed a table containing three columns. Fourth, for the first column, on the left side, they wrote the title of Ministry of

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Fig. 10.1 An example of a group of student work on review a planning document (RPJMDes). Source Adapted and modified from Manalu et al. (2014)

Home Affairs Regulation No.66/2007 as the title and then followed by the twentyfirst indicators. Fifth, for the third column, on the right side, they wrote RPJMDes as the title followed by seventeen indicators. Sixth, for the second column: On the middle, this group drew an arrow connecting the indicator was found both in the NSPM and the RPJMDes document (Fig. 10.2). Another group of students presented the compatibility between the NSPM and RPJMDes in a table form (Rachmadani et al., 2015). This group visualized the

Fig. 10.2 An example of a group of student work on review a planning document (RPJMDes). Source Adapted and modified from Darmayanti et al. (2015)

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result of their analysis into three columns but quite different from the previous group. First, this group wrote the content on the first column, followed by “Permendagri No.66 Tahun 2007” in the second column, then on the third column this group wrote “RPJM Desa …”. Second, for the first row, they wrote “literature” to show the indicators. Third, on the second row, this group wrote “sumber acuan” or regulation as a source of references. Fourth, this group wrote other indicators on the third until row ten. Fifth, this group then filled in the indicators. From these techniques, students could identify for example consistency or inconsistency. A guideline for consistency or inconsistency of development program can be seen in Regulation of Ministry of National Development Plan/Head of Indonesian Planning Board No. 5/2019 (Menteri Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional/Kepala Badan Perencanaan Pembangunan Nasional, 2019). To identify a consistency of development program (in this mini-research), students needed to compare their NSPM and the reviewed document (RPJMDes) and attempted to find did there were similar content both in the NSPM and the planning document. An example of consistency or inconsistency can be found in students’ work. One example from Rachmadani et al. (2015) identified six regulations based on their NSPM guided by Regulation of the Ministry of Home Affairs No. 66/2007. They placed twelve ordinances cited in their RPJMDes planning document. Students identify if there are any consistencies or inconsistencies. First, using the technique as explained in Fig. 10.3, students identified four matching points in regulation in the NSPM and RPJMDes. To illustrate this inconsistency, it needs to scrutinize the focus of the respective regulation. For the NSPM, the rules were mostly applied on a national scale and stipulated between 2004 and 2006. While on the RPJMDes documents, most of the regulations were on the district scale, others are regulations that describe the village. Besides, this group reviewed a document RPJMDes on the 2015 and 2020 time frame, whereas most of the regulations were stipulated between 2004 and 2014. b. Secondary Data Analysis Secondary data analysis is mainly aimed at providing an overview of the village profile. Time series analysis to the village data may help the students to understand various trends and development of the respected village. According to Steenwinkel (1989), secondary data are a set of data collected by the government or other institutions for various purposes. The data that have been collected from primary sources and made freely available for others to use according to their purposes are considered as secondary data. This type of data has been collected in the past for more general or no specific objectives, such as census data collected by the government. In this mini-research, students used secondary data mainly from the planning document (RPJMDes). Data on population, land use, presence of various rural service facilities, and agricultural and non-agricultural production are readily available from secondary data available in our laboratory. The village data are extracted from nationwide statistical data of Village Potentials. The village potential data are

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Fig. 10.3 An example of a group of student work on review a planning document (RPJMDes). Source Adapted and modified from Rachmadani et al. (2015)

collected annually covering more than 70,000 villages across Indonesia. The data are available in electronic files that it is easy to transmit and manage. These data give students some knowledge about the profile of the village from which they can develop more detailed and relevant questions during their fieldworks. An example of questionnaire cover of Village Potentials is given (Fig. 10.4). For analytical purposes, secondary data are described in the village profile section in the student report. Students report the village general situations ranging from the physical aspects, such as geographical location, administrative boundaries, village size, village land use composition, and change. Another set of information, such as economic, socio-cultural, and demographic conditions, is also discussed to provide more detailed account of the village to the readers. Another group of students reported (1) village overview, (2) village work plan, and (3) village problems (Nabila et al., 2015) as a result of their identification and analysis of the RPJMDes paper as a medium-term document of rural planning. c. Field Observation/ Rapid Rural Appraisal Field observations are made to understand the general situation of the village and to cross-check various aspects obtained from secondary data analysis. Visual documentation to the problem and some process may be made using multiple tools such as a camera to capture still images as well as moving objects. Accidental interviews with some resource persons encountered during the field observation are also possible to conduct at this phase of fieldwork. Progress of physical developments obtained from secondary data analysis may be documented in the field during observation. Moreover, deeper insight into various development issues in the village can be investigated by interviewing resource persons accidentally found

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Fig. 10.4 Example of a cover of village potentials questionnaire

in the field. Many issues related to the implementation of rural development plan at village level may be addressed during the interview sessions with various groups of the villagers encountered by chance. Some groups of students reported that they conducted Rapid Rural Appraisal for their field survey (Darmayanti et al., 2015; Rachmadani et al., 2015). According to the students’ report, they worked with RRA to collect more detail and with deeper insight but under limited time and resource availability (Rachmadani et al., 2015). Another group of students explained that for their field survey, RRA is treated as supplementary methods to complement information gathered from secondary data analysis (Ni’mah et al., 2015). This group prepared a set of question list as a tool for (1) evaluating the consistency of the RPJMDes against the village objective situations and (2) as a guide for further data collections through unstructured interviews (Hidayah et al., 2015). A group of students reported that they took documentation by taking some pictures showing the situations of agricultural lands, livelihood of the local people, inland fisheries, and infrastructures in the village (Rachmadani et al., 2015). During their observation, students reported that they also conducted interviews to the accidentally selected local people. As shown in the attachment of their report, this group also plan to conduct an accidental interview with the head of hamlets (Pamungkaslara et al., 2015). For the accidental interview, this group prepared some unstructured questions for the head of hamlets and other resource person in the village.

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Some groups of students also reported that many villages have allocated greater funding for physical development more than non-physical development such as empowerment of the poor and creation of employment for unemployed youth (Atana et al., 2015; Nisak et al., 2015; Pangesti et al., 2015; Sriastutik et al., 2014). To identify the reasons of physical development was given more significant budget than non-physical development, students employed RRA and in-depth interviews with various resource persons. First, they chose two indicators: (1) percentage of allocation of activity funds and (2) percentage of physical and non-physical activities (Fauzi et al., 2014). Second, this group divided the indicators into physical and non-physical. Third, they calculated the percentage of budget allocated to these indicators. Fourth, they compare which one was bigger: the budget for physical or non-physical development? Similarly, another group of students also calculated the percentage of the physical and non-physical but using the term of the program rather than activity (Nisak et al., 2015; Paula et al., 2015; Siwi et al., 2015). The way a group of students explaining the reasons of some villages concentrate on physical development was answered through in-depth interview. A group of students argued the reasons of the village government gave higher priority for physical development because facilities or infrastructures are directly to satisfy the need of the society (Paula et al., 2015). Another group argued that physical development is still considered as a priority because the result of the physical development can be seen visually and the benefit and directly be enjoyed by community (Siwi et al., 2015) (Fig. 10.5). Another group mentioned two reasons for high priority to physical development in the village: (1) the legal basis of the fund utilization permits for carrying out the physical development activities, and (2) the local bureaucracy are ready technically to carry out the implementation (Darmayanti et al., 2015) (Fig. 10.6). d. Focus Group Discussion/ Participatory Rural Appraisal Focus group discussion (FGD) is conducted when students obtain information on the planning process, planning outputs, outcomes, and factors determining success and failures at the village level. When it is possible, the group of village officers and students gather in the same room and share their knowledge on the process of rural planning and conduct a focus group discussion. The meeting may also be attended by the chairperson of village representative as the partner of village officers in development. When a focus group discussion is not possible, data gathering would be conducted through unstructured and in-depth interviews with different village officers. Two groups of students had an opportunity to attend a Village Meeting for Development Planning or Musyawarah Perencanaan Pembangunan (Musrenbang) where the community members collectively discuss, formulate, and decide about medium-term development and/or annual development plan (Hidayah et al., 2015; Pangesti et al., 2015). For students who had an opportunity attending the Musrenbang, they had an experience at least on how a planning process at the local level was conducted and how public participation in development planning was

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Fig. 10.5 Example of infrastructure development: asphalt road. Source Siwi et al. (2015)

Fig. 10.6 Example of physical development: embankment of irrigation canal (left) and road pavement (right). Source Darmayanti et al. (2015)

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exercised to arrive at final decisions on what to do and how the budget would be spent in the coming year. These groups shared their experiences in attending real planning exercises at village level through weekly class presentation. For other groups that had no opportunities to attend a Musrenbang meeting or scheduling an FGDs, they have to collect the information of the planning process from a series of interviews with village officers and village representatives. Before visiting the village, students were advised and guided to plan and design a list of questions and to whom the questions should be addressed. For example, a group of students addressed their questions to the head of village, the village secretary, chief of hamlet, village community leaders, and some village inhabitants (Pamungkaslara et al., 2015). Regarding the planning process, students also designed the questions. Some key questions such as (1) who are the actors on drafting the plan?, (2) how many people were involved?, (3) what kind of consideration on building the drafting team?, (4) how society engage on the drafting process?, and (5) how long the drafting document takes? (Hidayah et al., 2015). Students chose two kinds of interviews to collect the data from their respondents, i.e., structured and semi-structured. For example, some groups of students decided on a structured survey using the prepared questionnaire (Murti et al., 2015; Nugraheni et al., 2015). In the questionnaire, the students ask questions about (1) the drafting or preparation of the planning document, (2) funding sources and utilization, (3) physical development programs, (4) community participation, and (5) various obstacles in the implementation (Nugraheni et al., 2015). Another group of students opt semi-structured interview in which the prepared questions are formulated in general terms only and they had an opportunity to raise further questions as the interview proceeded (Husna et al., 2015; Nabila et al., 2015; Paula et al., 2015). e. Structured and Unstructured Household Survey Structured household surveys are occasionally used by groups of students to assess the participation of rural households in planning process, to assess the acceptance of the rural households on projects and programs implemented by the village administration, and to assess the satisfaction of the villagers to the development process and outcomes. To provide an example on how the structured household survey was conducted as a complement to lectures, a mini-household survey is elaborated in the following section. The mini-survey research was aimed at assessing the village problems and potentials for rural development. The information obtained from the survey was utilized as a background information in viewing the midterm village development plan in Condongcatur Village, Depok Subdistrict, Sleman Regency, Yogyakarta Province. The survey research was a part of a number of methods used simultaneously. This was conducted in October–November 2012. The overall steps of structured household comprise (1) preparation of the research design, (2) sampling and fieldwork for data collection, and (3) data analysis and reporting.

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Preparatory works consist of coaching on structured household survey, designing a questionnaire, and testing the questionnaire with a dummy interview. As some of the students joining the mini-research have not attended research method course, some practical guidance on survey research was delivered in some classes. Students’ participation in the project was also in designing the questionnaire. In questionnaire design activities, students learn how to break down various concepts to investigate by identifying their dimensions and formulate corresponding questions with the desired data measurement levels (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio). Every question formulated in the questionnaire is reflecting a variable and the answer to every question would yield data with a certain measurement level. The students are also made aware of the advantages and disadvantages of data with different measurement levels and possibilities and impossibilities of data processing with various statistical techniques. As a part of the preparatory works, a simulation of interviews using the questionnaire was conducted to identify problems with clarity of questions and to estimate the duration of an interview. In the step of selection of respondents, a probability sampling was not possible to establish due to limited time allocated for household survey. Under limited available time, it was not possible to construct the full list of households as a sampling frame. The household samples were accidentally selected among those who are encountered in the field and willing to be respondents. It is important to note that the impossibility to employ probability sampling technique in this research causes a limitation for generalization of the research outcomes. Thus, it was important to complement the structured household survey with other research methods for a cross-check and triangulation. Interviews using questionnaires were conducted by students as field enumerators and supervised by the lecturers. The students have to submit the filled questionnaires for daily checking by the lecturers. This is to ensure that every questionnaire has been filled correctly that it can proceed to further processing, i.e., data entry into the SPSS software. In this process, some students have to go back to the field to see the same households in the next day due to missing answers, inconsistent answers, or irrelevant answers. During interviews, students also take a note about resourcefulness of respondents for a consideration in selecting resource persons in the in-depth and unstructured interviews later within the fieldwork period. Students interview the selected rural households to collect relevant data, analyze, and present the data in various forms of visualization techniques. After completing all the structured interviews and all questionnaires are filled, the next step is data entry from questionnaires into SPSS software. At the beginning, an SPSS file should be created at least with all variable names, data measurement, column width, decimals, labels of variable attributes, and values. Data from every respondent are entered into the file in row wise. The columns in the file represent variables where value of variables from corresponding respondent are inputted column wise. Upon the completion of data entry, data inputted have to be cleaned from various possibilities of errors. Among simple techniques to find the errors in data entry or data misplaced in wrong columns is simply by running descriptive

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statistics of the data at least to obtain information the maximum and minimum values of all variables. It is advisable to print the descriptive statistics as it would be easy to find the errors on screen using the printed outputs at the same time. The emergence of unexpected data values is indicating typing errors and/or misplaced of data in wrong columns. Data analysis is executed using SPSS software to produce descriptive statistics, frequency tables, cross tables, and various graphs. An example of frequency tables produced is presented as follows. Students have to be able to make interpretation of this sort of data and recognize the consequences of this situation in the context of planning in agriculture and related sectors in the village under study. In order to be better able to understand the meaning and consequences of such quantitative data in Table 10.1, students are advised to conduct an in-depth qualitative data gathering by visiting the most resourceful respondents as identified during the structured household survey. Unstructured household interviews are conducted to obtain deeper insight of particular aspects of rural planning, such as the consequences of various problems faced by farmers in this urbanizing village. By understanding this set of quantitative and qualitative data, the students would be able to assess the rationale of corresponding agricultural programs and projects in the RPJMDes. The structured and unstructured data collections are commonly conducted simultaneously at household levels. Table 10.1 An example of frequency table extracted from mini household survey, Condongcatur Village 2012 Perception on the constraints for agriculture development in Condongcatur Total Percent Village 1

Small farm size is too small

4

13.3

2

Lack of financial capital

4

13.3

3

Low yield of farming

1

3.3

4

Limited facilities of warehouse

2

6.7

5

The village is designated as urban area expansion

4

13.3

6

Low spirit of entrepreneurship among farmers

2

6.7

7

Incoming investment is mainly in non-agriculture

4

13.3

8

Farm conversions to non-agricultural use

1

3.3

9

Difficulties in farm input procurement

4

13.3

4

13.3

10 Neglected irrigation canals due to urbanization Total Source Prasetiyani et al. (2012)

N: 30 %: 100

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Advantages and Disadvantages What lessons learned from this mini-research activity are provided in this section of advantages and disadvantages. In line with Harsono (2008) first, students received unprecedented experiences to learn as researchers in the field and practiced some research methods in groups. Second, students were also exposed to experiences on research atmosphere on how they worked altogether in a group, managed discussions, and received suggestions from the peers and the lecturers. These experiences are not offered from other subjects available at the undergraduate program. Third, students learned the real process of rural planning and its implementation as a first-hand experience from the real actors. However, some drawbacks are also identified from this mini-research activity. First, few groups of students need more efforts to develop working atmosphere that close supervision and guidance from the team of lecturers. Second, some groups (Husna et al., 2015; Murti et al., 2015; Rachmadani et al., 2015) mentioned that their location of villages were quite far from campus so they have to manage time carefully while on the one hand they had an appointment with the key person on the other hand they had a class at the same time. It is also the reason that they can do the fieldworks mostly on weekends which are also family time for the people in the villages. The students also make use the 13th week of the semester to collect data for the mini-research. The week has been regularly allocated for all relevant lectures to send students to conduct micro-project assignments in the fields to complement the conventional lectures. Acknowledgements The authors acknowledge the contribution of participants of the rural planning course at the undergraduate program in Regional Development, Department of Development Geography, Gadjah Mada University from 2008 to 2019 whose reports and powerpoint presentations have been referred in developing this chapter. This chapter would not materialize without their accumulative works in the last 12 years. The authors also recognized Surani Hasanati, Arry Retnowati, and Alia Fajarwati for their contributions as members of the teaching team in several semesters. Special thanks also go to the Head of the Department of Development Geography and the Head of the Regional Development Program at the Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, and all staff members for supporting the authors in preparing the chapter.

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R. Rijanta is a prominent scientist in the field of rural geography, sustainable livelihood, ruralurban linkages and regional development. He is a full professor in Rural Geography at the Faculty of Geography, Gadjah Mada University, Indonesia. He earned his Ph.D. in Geography from Gadjah Mada University under a collaborative research program on Rural Diversification with Utrecht University, the Netherlands. He has published more than 100 research papers on rural development, rural diversification, sustainable livelihood, rural-urban linkages and regional development in reputable journals. He has participated in more than 80 consultancy projects in the fields of regional development planning, spatial planning and rural resettlement planning under the Centre for Regional Development Studies, Gadjah Mada University. Currently, he is a country coordinator of a collaborative research on Following Frontiers of the ‘Forest City’: Towards Sustainable and Inclusive Urbanisation in Kalimantan and Beyond as apart on an international consortium of universities in Indonesia and the Netherlands. Dodi Widiyanto is an Assistant Professor at the Faculty of Geography Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia. He received his Doctor of Geography in 2020 from Nagoya University, Japan. He completed his Master of Regional Development from the University of Queensland, Australia, in 2010. He finished his Bachelor of Science in geography with a major in regional development planning from Universitas Gadjah Mada, Indonesia, in 2003. He is interested in studying the geography of food, regional development, society and space, and behavioural geography. His current research is on local food and human behaviour in rural and urban areas.