Mahan Kosh: Encyclopaedia (Encyclopedia) of the Sikh Literature, Volume 2 [2] 8130201631

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Mahan Kosh: Encyclopaedia (Encyclopedia) of the Sikh Literature, Volume 2 [2]

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": ',"', : ': ': "":',:,:::'~,:"::,",~':"',' "~:::'~'1'7:"7":w::,~:;~:6>'::;;";'





mr b n 'rm;;



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English Translation of

..... l-fUTO a1J by



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© Department of Development ofPunjabi Language Punjabi University, Patiala (Established under Punjab Act No. 35 of 1961)


English Translation of

(fJ if f.I ij ~ d3 (I) I 0( d }fiJTO IR fR'ur.






Clspho Clkal Clj CljE

onom Clrhat asa AD E s






~ FlO ("H""M").






m:f~ ~


'fI"a!3' ~ tIT y~ ~fow ~~. ~ ~r.

zit. ftar.

Zit ,;lfstlMi'idld, .~, F.rRg, WH, ~t Uiift, tRur, fe'm, ~, ~,~ ... etc. 14. Thorough research has been undertaken in the case ofmusical terms. See ¥fu",1fT, ore, faM'~M, ~, lj06>w, dTdT... etc. 15. Words appearing as riddles have been elaborately explained. Se~ ~;:rr BO (')Ttf Rq, ~ tTd" tTd", ~ tftfTi'i('), ~LB ~... etc. 16. Detail is given about words relating to medicines and diseases. See FfG, ~, ~, ti~ifei'i, 31lf, t"! ' dtf](')l, ~, fifuaft... etc. 17. Pronunciation ofwords taken from Sanskrit,Arabic, Persian, etc. has been clarified by putting them in the source language. It is also essential to tell the readers that words of different languages which after absorption by the Punjabi language have totally changed their form and meaning, should in their present form and meaning be taken as correct. It is not proper to call them incorrect and relegate them to their former shape. 1 6.



'With the passage oftime, spellings of words change in all the languages. However, current orthography doesnot regard obsolet ~ spellings wrong as in Ramayan: ~~ for~, ~ for ~.; ~ for ~; ~ for ~d; ~ for~; 1fCmft for ~. Similarly, in old English words: aboute

(about); bricke (brick); Cab III (Kabul); gode (good); hande (hand); heuen (heaven); hight (height); hys (his); lande (land); Londinium (London); Noapolis (Naples); nyght (night); pn::ue (prove); speche (speech); tonne (ton); trouthe (truth) etc. are not incorrect.

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Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

Scholars have divided words into eight categories, viz, ~ [tatsam], l?RJQ"~ [aradh tatsam], ~ [tadbhav], ~ [mr$rIt], ~ [anukaraIJ.], ~ [pratrdhvanr], ~ [saketak], and ~ [sak$rpt]. (a) 3'2fAH (unaltered) are those words which after absorption into Punjabi/other languages retain their original form and meaning. For example ~ [uttam], ~ [udar], ~ [upkar], ~ [upma], ~ [anat], ~ [apman], l?8 [at], ~ [an], ~ [rccha], lJCf [sukh], lJ(Jfq [sugadh], [seva], ~ [hath], -m? [hal],"JA" [has], aw [katha], ot5 [kill, [kot] , qre [gUIJ.]' ftf3r [efta], ~ [dkal], trcll3" [jagat], ;:rrtf [jap], ;:[TO [jar], 3H [tej], 3c;) [tol], tTFf [das], tTO [dan], fun [drn], t:IO [dhan], lJlI [dhup], m-r [nam], ?fu:r [nk], tR? [pal], ~ [pul], ~ [prasad], ~ [praIJ.], ~ [phal], m? [bal], ~ [badhan], ~ [bhajan], W"a" [bhar], ~ [bhog], ~ [mall], ~ [mrtr],"Hu [moh] , Jforl;) [magal], ~ [matr], ~ [ras], ~ [raIJ.]' Otf [rath], QTHT [raja], ~ [rup], -m.r [rom], rTIx [10k], ~ [lobh], ~ [vastu] etc. are from Sanskrit; ~ [ummat], })f}-fl(')3' [amanat], })f}-fta" [amir], ~ [::>rat], ~ [sanad], 'R"a'a" [sabab], ~ [sardar], m?'J-f [salam], ~ [haveli], ft:TH3" [hfmat], ~ [h::>l], ~ [kabab], ~ [kamal], cmt [kami], fcBra [krtab], gaFft [kursi], Qfi'iTU [gunah], tJHO [caman], ~ [jahan], tffiW [jalsa], tr?l [jan], ft::ra'Rr [jrgar] , ;:far [jag], 3ta' [tir]' ~ [dastar], ~ [dargah], tm:P" [darja], ~ [darad], ful? [drl], & [din], ~ [divan], ~ [deg], [d::>lat], cr;fuo [nahrr], ~ [narad], mJ}f [naram], ~ [navab], i)c{ [nok], [n::>bat], ~ [bad], ~ [madrasa], J..Rlt [marad], }fl1o) [mal], ~ [murdar], ~ [murabbi], ~ [murid], Hm:Jr [morca], Ht:r [m::>j], H'3" [m::>t] ... etc. are from Persian/Arabic; and})fl.f5 [apil], ~ [sakul], Frnr [soqa], CWJ1 [kalas], ~ [kalar]' wfffi:r [kalrj]' W=r [kes], ~c [kot], "&'ac [karat], ~ [kap5qar], @ Uft:r ffig., ~~., tffi:rw ~.~ mft. etc. Certain lexicographers and scholars not understanding the grammatical rules of Prakrit and Punjabi grammar applicable to derivations froni Sanskrit have given wrong meanings contrary to context. These words have been corrected so as to be in accordance with Gurbani. See Bn 9, ~ 2, lfOl'cf 3, ~ 2, lRFf... etc. Some additional words have been given against lexicographical traditions so that semi-literate scholars do not misinterpret Gurbani wilfully by going against the scriptural texts. For instance trtIfu [caUrI] after t:~ [caur], fa'fQ [rinhI] after fd adj jealous, who resents the prestige and glory of another. "sikhya hasrd jan6 ki pyari man navab."-PP





[hasrl] See ,(JTFm. tJTfit [hasi] See tJTF1. ~ [hasi] See iJ'Ff, ('J1:IT. 2 a major city in district Hissarof Punjab. It is situated at a distance of fifteen miles from Hissar. This is a station of the Rajputana-Malwa railway. It has been -the capital of Anangpal, Prithvi Raj, Masud and George Thomas, etc. It came under the control of the English in 1803 and remained one of their cantonments for a long time. During the mutiny of 1857, the army stationed here revolted and killed many Englishmen. These days there is no cantonment, but remarkable is its agricultural farm. 'U""fitl)fI' [hasia], ~(J' [ha~iyah] A ~~ selvage, border; margin. urmr [hasy] Skt n laughter. 2 jest, joke. 3 one ofthe nine sentiments, of mirth brhumour in poetry. See OFf. (J'I(J' [hah] part expression of griefand surprise. ah! alas! ~ [hahla] n uproar, cry of distress or lamentation. U'tJ1' [haha] part expression of grief, distress or lamentation. 2 remorse, repentance. "haha prabhll rakhrlehu."-dhana m 5. 3 a mythological minstrel. See (JT(JTW. 4 sound of laughter. "haha karat brhani avadhahI."-jEt m 5.5 pronunciation of the character(J'. "haha hot hor mhi jana."-gav bavan kabir. 'iji 'iji [ha hal part expressive of assent. 2 all right, correct, true. 3 oh ! "ha ha laptIO re mureL"-togi m 5. 4 undoubtedly; without hesitation. "ha ha man caran renu." -kan m 5. tfl'(JT ~ [haha huhu] Skt two heads of Gandharavs who are musicians in the court of Indar. "haha huhu gadhrab apsra."-mala m 5 partal. It is written in Gajendarmoksh (a text from the Mahabharat) that Haha and Huhu became: proud of their art and, because

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682 of their pride, they were cursed by sage Deval to be born as elephant and octopus respectively. U'CJT qrij' [haha kar] n uproar of distress or lamentation. ~ [hahuk], ~ [hahuka] a sad sigh. "hahuk let gai sabh hi."-krIsau 'U'Ct [hak] n a call, shout. "jara hak di sabh matI thaki."-suhi kdbir. "When old age beckoned, then all the wisdom got weary.' 2 See, w. "soi sac hak."-var ram 2 m 5. 3 See~. uTa" [hak] n goading. 2 a call, shout. 3 See n necessity, requirement. 'ijTfJ)-fI' [hajma] A /~ digestive power, digestion. 'ij'Ij1ij' [hajar] A /l.> adj present. 2 ostensible, visible. "or hajarumltha bo1de."-vargau 1 m 4. 'ij'Ij1ij' UijO [hajar hajur] A j? /l.> present and visible, transparent. "kr hajar hajur hE."-japu. ij'AdA.fatfa' [hImaban] son of the wind, Bhimsen. -Sd:Iama. See ~ 2. fi:fur [hImmat sIgh] See l1;:r ~. futn [hIy], fldl1I h" is mentioned that she was very beautiful. -carrtr 2. 4 army squad. "jEse cir hUJl ko." Bhimsen's son Ghatotkach was born from his -carrtr 103., marriage with her. Ghatotkach showed great ftJ'ffir [huaw [hunia] n lullaby. "putrahI den lagi hunia hE." -krrsan. ggt!' [hunud] A ,y". plural of ftf~; Hindus. 2 plural of~vo't; Indians. glMl" [hubab] See uara-. 'ifa' [hubb] A ...;...> n love, affection. 2 longing, yearning. sfH [hUm] Skt ~lf n sultry. 2 Skt ~ response. ~ [hUmas] Se(~ cjlf. 2 A ~ low sound as of footsteps. sfHJf ljl.rR' [hUmas dhUmas] n hue and cry, furore, hustle and bustle. "ban vIqanrE hGmas dhumas, kuka paia rahi."-var guj 2 m 5. 'Doors of the rich are ornate but hue and cry pervades them. i.e. they are haunted by lamentation. ' iJH ~ [hum humauJ)..a], ~ '!.jWi'iT [hum humana] v come with fanfare. "hum humaI sagatI sabh ai."-GPs. ~~[hUmardhUmar]See~-gl-lFf."Mmar dhUmar jagi ghatti suna."-cJc;ii 3. yw [huma], ~~ [humau], ~ [humaI] Pin n phoenix; an imaginary bird. A person is believed to be: fortunate on whom falls its shadow as it t1ys non-stop in the sky. "per humau sag lagyo kana."-GPs. I "huma ra kase sayah ayad bazer."-jafar. 2 ,,-In. daughter of the Persian king Bahiman, who had a son named Darab. 3 Bhai Santokh Singh has written humau in place of humayu. "dIlli ka humau bha sahu."-GPS. See !JWli. ~ [humayu] P uiln adj lucky. 2 n Humayun Tuglak. See lj"'Rffi{ToT BT WB Wtr ~ if: 20. IPoets have written that if an arrow. attached with the feather of a phoenix. is shot into the sky, it does not return to the earth, rather it continues hovering in the sky.

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706 3 elder son of emperor Babar and father of Akbar. He was born in Kabul on 7th March 1508. His mother's name was Maham Begam. He ascended the throne on 26 th December 1530 at Agra. Gfall the Mughal rulers, he was a great scholar but lacked soldier-like qualities and was a big opium eater. In the year 1540, Sher Khan Sur Pathan (who was earlier known as Farid), son of Hassan Khan - a fief of Sahasram-defeated Humayun and pushed him out of India and himself ascended the throne of Delhi and assumed the title of emperor. After his defeat at the hands of Shershah, when Humayun was passing through Punjab, he went to Guru Angad at Khadur. The Guru was engrossed in meditation, so he did not pay him any attention. Enraged, Humayun began to draw his sword from its sheath in order to assault the Guru. At this the Guru said. "Now you are drawing the sword to kill hermits. Where was it when you were fighting? Where was it when Shershah was to be combated?" Humayun begged his pardon and was able to get blessings from Guru Angad Dev. Humayun spent many years in asylum with the Persian emperor. With the help of his army, he once again occupied the throne of Delhi on 23 rd June 1555, but could not enjoy his rule for long. Just after six months on the 24 th January 1556, he fell from the stairs of his library and died on 28 th January, 1556. His magnificient mausoleum is situated at a distance of four miles towards the west of Delhi on the bank of river Jamuna. It was got constructed by Begam Hamidabanu (mother of Akbar) in 1565 AD at a cost of 15 lac rupees. ~ [huyau] became. "bIkl teamrrthuyau." -sav£ye m 4 ke. ~ [hursa] See ~.

[hurak] A J.7 n fire. 2 flame. See ~. [hurakl).a] v frighten, threaten. 2 challenge by quivering the nose in anger. ~ [hurkam] adj like a flame. "kacan hurkanI rup sarupa."-carItr 247. See~. ST'6H3" [hurmat], \T0J18 [hurmatI] A ..:Y.7- n pride, honour. "hurmatI tIS no agli. "~var asa. F [hura] A l)y lady with fair complexion and black eyes. Its p!!1ral is ~. Mohammedans have used this word for fairies. ~ [hurras] A vI} plural of ~ (0'1:fT); guard. 2 emperor's bodyguards. ~ [huria] n leap, jump. "paga bIn huria marta."-bas.:'1t kabir. 'The mind leaps without feet.' See Rfu 1::fmf. ~ [hurehIa] was pleased, was overjoyed. "kar kar sag hurehIa."-BG. ~ [hurehi] adj lightweight. "katth hurehi bhusli."-BG. 2 was pleased. Y1? [hul] See~. "hulE' nara."-ramav. 'People are frightened.' 2 Skt J-ftw. 3 a musical instrument. ~ [hulas] See Y1?'R. ~ [hular] n flood. 2 passion. 3 flow of passion. g M;:liiPal [hularval).i] floodwater. yw [hula) short for Y1?'R (~z.wr). "rag maD 1£ pIana ja joban nau hula. "-sri ill 1. ~



Y'H"'R" [hulas] Skt 0R1ffi. See ~z.wr. 2 See qffi1. ~ [hulara] n swing. 2 wave of passion. ~ [huliya] A ? ornament. 2 appearance, features, traces. 'ifWl'5" [hullal] n sound and fury, noise produced during an attack. "ral). hull kalola hullala." -ramav. ~.

[huvmi) See ~. y [hu) See f [hua], ~ [hua] happened. "jE kar apar sudhar hua."-VN. ~ [hue] happened. ~ [husna] See ~. '[U [huh] n oppression, braze:n aggressiveness. "blnsi haumE huh."-sar m 5. 2 assault, attack. "pare huh if kE." -caQi 2. 3 sound and fury. ~'ij' ~'ij' [huh kuh] n noise produced at the time of attack, assault's fury. "huh kuh;'\ bhari."-ramav. ~ ~ [hu hu] a musician in [ndar's court. See

ur. ur. ~q

[huk], -gq [huk] n sound of hu. 2 lamentation. 3 call, outcry. ~ [hUbr] See 'ifqro. ~ [hug] sound of hu. 2 P ...£, army. "QIgge vir jujhare huga phuttia. "-caQi 3. 3 altertness. 4 force. 5 nation. 6 blow, percussion, attack. ~ [hut], ¥7i [hut~m] See i~. "01 blkhadi dokhia te guru te hute."---asa m 5. "blkhE bladhI tab huto."-dl1ana m 5. '[CT [huta] adjexhausted, tired. 2 n swing, jolt. '[3' [hut] Skt short for ~ adj called. "bIn hut nlket dhare carna."--NP '[3?i [hutan] n calling. "mal1dv ek pathyo hIt hutan."~NP

~ [hutI] Skt n calling. 2 name. ~

[hutu] happens. "bacaH sabad ka saphla hu tu." ~ratdnmala. See "iJ3. ~ [huda] P adj old. 2 correct. 3 real, actual. va- [hub] See if.~. "det dub ko dekh hub ko." -GPs. ~ [hubahu] A ,1;"';; adj exactly identical.

'VI' [hurl A J.P plural

of~. n fairy; virgins in heaven, who in Islam are offered to momlns. They are also offered to crusaders who lay down their lives fearlessly in defence offaith. See QO. "hura srol)at bij nu ghat gher khaloia." -caQi 3. ~~ [hull n attack. "debr ek bar dal huI." -GPS. 2 tip of the sword. 3 A J;. surrounding. "hul paVE kahaha."-s brid. 'having surrounded lamented.' "jodhlc1 dekhal) aia. hule hoia."-ramav. 'gathered all around.' ~ [hurl Skt obstinacy. 2 stupidity. "apan hur kaha urjhayo."-33 savEye. 'fr [he] is. "agE jatI na he."-var asa. "SIkh vaQbhagi he."--sukhmani. 2 Skt part 0 ! oh ! "he pral) nath gobfdah."-sal1as m 5. 'frfu [heI] is. "efta tIS hi heI."-var ram 1 m 2. 2 See ihir. 'fr'ij' [heh] n "fr'JT. desire (~.'hJT) for sexual intercourse ('ij'). "aheh hehe." -rama v. 'Those sans sexual desire were provoked erotically by women.' ~ [hehar], [hehra] a village of district and tehsil Lahore. This is situated at a distance of eight miles from Kot Lakhpat in the south·· east direction. The in laws ofBhai Prithi Chand, elder brother of Guru Arjan Dev, belonged to this village, He breathed his last here. His memorial is located here and abundant land and estate is attached to it. 2 a village in police station Raikot, tehsil Jagraon, district Ludhiana. Sant Kirpal Das Udasi belonged to this village. On his way to Malwa, the tenth Guru stayed here. Guru Hargobind also stayed here for some time at the earnest request of a disciple, Bhai Hamira. The bed upon which the Guru sat and the hearth upon which his food was prepared have been preserved. Since the times of Mahant Kirpal Das, Sikh

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congregations have been held here. The gurdwara of both the Gurus is located to the east of the village. During the Sikh rule, onesixth land ofthe village amounting to thousands of bighas was attached to the gurdwara. This place is located at a distance of six miles from railway station Chaukiman in the south-east direction. [heha] See fro. 'frcr [hek] n long high-pitched call. 2 chant. 3 Dg adj one. See 'frw »8" ~. ~ [hekal)], 'frcrn" [hekal], ~ [hekro], 'frw [heka], ~ [heku], ~ [hekuro], u-&- [hekE], mt [heko] adj only one. See 'frcr 3. "CIt TId aVE hekro."-gau var 2 m 5. "heko padhahu hek daru."-var mala m 1. 'fr'arr [hega] Pu n drawing plank; a plank to break lumps in a ploughed field. See 7J(J'OIT. [heel P ~ a little, insignificant. "dIl hee TId dani."-tIlag m 1. ~ [heekas] P anyone. ~ [heegah] P o~ adv sometime. " from within. 2 love. 'frtr [hej] idea originating "dhan ko na hej rahE ganka pras;'igi ko." 3 Kamdev, Eros. [hezam] P ();i n fuel, firewood. 'frtr [heju] n love. 2 happiness. See iTR. fro [heth] adv under, below. 2 Skt ~ vr stop, be cruel. 'froT [hetha] See fuoru+ and 'fro. 'Me [hethI] adv under, below. "kGne hethI jalair."-s farid. UoT [hethi] n derogation, insult. 2 cruelty. See 'fro 2. fur [het] love. See fu3". "dhanu OI bhagat jIn tum s;'igI het."-gau m 5. 2 cause. See ~. "het rog ka sagal s;'isara." -bher m 5. [heta] Bhai Heta, a devotee of the tenth Guru. See FH(;iij'R1. 'frftr [hetI] due to love. "kamal hetI bInsIo hE






bhavra."-dhcma m 5. 2 for. "s;'it hetI prabhI tnbhaval). dhare."-gauam 1. "nad hetI SIrU . Mahabharat. "f dradyuill;}nSarah prapy fr6r [hera] adj watched, visualised. 2 n a hemkut matityac." (43) "hamkut parbet hE hunter's job; deer hunting. 3 meat. "hera roti jaha"-VN. 2 Ratangiri, one of the five hills kame gala katavE kaunu?"-s kabir. 4 Punjabi in Rajgiri in district Patna, is also called song sung in a prolonged sing-song voice. It is 1 Hemkut. specially sung on the occasion of marriage. 'clfacf [henk] Dg n detective; secret agent who fu.rfurfu [hemgIn] See ~r. observes everybody minutely. 'frHymr [hempusap] Dg n a tree which bears golden flowers, magnolia. 2 a flower made of -mIT [heri] adj seen, observed. 2 n huntsman, gold, which in ancient times was showered on hunter. "mngni jnn ghavat heri."-knsan. the hearse of the rich. See e5rno ~. 3 vocative: he ali! ari! he sakhi! ~ [hemphullIka] jasmine blossoming ~ [hem] adj observing, looking. See 'frfuq. msprmg. 2 investigator, researcher. 3 he who eyes Uw [hemal a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev from people's wealth for providing information to a Kapahi subcaste, who belonged to Sultanpur. thief. "taskar hem aI lukane."-bIla a m 4. He became a disciple of Guru Arjan and got 4 Skt ~cx n messenger of death, agent of enlightened. death. "jam raje ke hem ae."-asa patti m 1. ~ [hemacal], ~ [hemadn]. hill of"fr>-r 5 adj abductor; thief. (gold), Sumer; hill (adn) of go Ie!. -mhr [herab] Skt ~ n Ganesh, who enjoys with Shiv. ~ [hemu] a gentleman of Suini subcaste, who lived at Shahdara. He became a disciple of ~ [hel], 'frw [hela] n attack, invasion. "hel Guru Arjan Dev and grew into a great ethical pukarat gonn marat."-GPs. "hela karahu and philanthropic personage. 2 a bania of parahu ik bera."-NP 2 a carnivorous creature, which belongs to the wolffamily; hyena. See Dhusar caste, who was a nobleman of the Delhi king Salim Shah and was appointed a 3Q n lion, tiger. 2 This is also the surname of Hazrat Ali, son-in-law of prophet Mohammad. ~~ [hEdrabad] There are two famous cities by this name, one is in Sin.dh and the other is in the south which is the capital ofthe Nizam. ~rn "ffer [hEdri jhaQa] adj flag in Hydar's name; sign of Ali; a flag' raised by Muslims for religious war. 2 When Banda Bahadur

raised the banner ofrevolt in Punjab, the whole Majha region rose against the Mughal empire. The subedar of Lahore being weak, Muslim priests led the army to fight against the Sikhs. Due to this, the battle came to known as battle ofHaidri Jhanda.This incident took place in Sammat 1767. See fuRwH w. [hm], Mo [hmI] plural ofthird person. are. "hmI yule nah:l ghaDe."-slok. 2 See~. [hEph] A ..;p} n grief, sorrow. "hE sad hEph ju kari kamai."-NP 2 tyranny, cruelty. 3 vr phew, shame. [hEbat] A ..::.p~ n fleaI', terror, dread, fright, scare. 2 awe, dominance. [hEm] Skt adjmade of gold. "sis pE hEm su nike hE Qhari."-NP 2 mountain of snow. mh:r [hEmedh] n (fljf (horse) }fq (sacrificial offering). See ~'}fq. ~ [hEmacal) Skt fuHTtR? mountain of snow, Himalay. ~ [hEmacalI J in the mountain of snow. "tanu hEcali galic"-sri a ill 1. ~ [hEyat] See ~r. ~ [hEyati] adj living, alive. See ~. [hErat], ~ [hEratI] A .::.-~ n astonishment, bewilderment. "tinI dey am kop: tetisa tIn kihEfatI kachu I1a rahi."-guj ill 5. 'Their astonishment knew no bounds.' mr3t [hEfti] adj astonishing, amazing. ~ [hEfaD], m)" [hEfan], ~ [hEranu] A l;)j~ adjastonished, bewildered. "gungaI rahe hEfan."-prabha ill 4. "bhagatI teri hEfan daradu gavavahL"-asa a ill 1. [hEvar] superior and beautiful horse. "kanIk kamIni hevarg{!lvar."-sor a ill 5. ~ [hEvan] A (jl:!:'. aaj animate, living. 2 n living being. "hEvan haram kustani."-tIIJ ill 5. tt rho] v be. 2 Skt part vocative. "lalac choQahu adhho."-asa a ill 1. 3 indicative of future. "mujh te kal.'u na hua, ho na."-asa 'CllJt ill 5.



m m.r



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if' [hO] 2 ego, I-ness. 3 am. "mE ji nama hO ji."-dhcma namdev. ~ [hou] future tense of be; will be. iflW [hoa] happened, occurred. "hoa apI daIalu."-var guj 2 m 5. irfu [hOI] be. 2 will be. "na ko hoa na ko hoI." -sodaru. 3 adv having been. "hOI amra gnh mahI bEtha."-sor m 5. ifremft [hOI pari] has happened, appeared, manifested. "Esi hOIpari."-sar m 5 pdrtal. itfi::ai [hOIba] about to happen, worthy to be. 2 will be, will occur. 3 happens. "jo kIchu brahI SOI paru hOIba."-prdbha m 1. irfu ~ [hOI mahOI] See fchrr and l-ffrft:. mft [hoi] happened. 2 godess Ahoi. See ~. irH [hos] will be, shall be. "jo tIS bhave so bhal hos."-prdbha m 5. 2 P JYi n life, soul. 3 intelligence, wisdom. "hos bhai pharmos sabhf."-NP ~ [hosmad], ~ [hosvad] P VYi adj intelligent, wise. "har6 hosvad ab dham nIj janIye."-NP irfu [hOSI] will be, will happen. ~ [hosIar] See ~. fu:it [hosi] will be. "nanak hosi bhi sacu."-jdpu. -m:rar [ho~ag] P ~-'" famous emperor of Iran. ifFforwt!' '[hosagabad] a prominent city of a district at the bank of river Narbada in Central India (CP.), which is 476 miles from Bombay. -m:r [hoh] may happen. See ~. [haha] happens. "manurahu kacan hoha." -var ram 2 m 5. 2 n jolt, jerk. "bdhufI na maIa hohIa. "-sri chat m 5. 3 swing, oscillating motion, elation. 4 wave, current. "jEse mdha sagar hohe." -sar m 5 Pdrial. Sa metre also called sudhi, characterised by four lines, each line comprising 151, S. Example: tutepare.navemure.asadhare.rIsabhare. -ramav.


n pit for holding water; water tank. "baq.o hJj Ik huto banayo."-GPS ~t!tf [hJdaj], ft~ [hJda] A c,.. ,., n open or covered seat placed over a camel or an elephant; howdah. "kacan rajat ghare jIn hJda."-GPS fur; [hJn] See ~. -m=t [hJmE] See ~. [hJr] See "rJr para pur d:,r cale nar har uthyo ur." -NP 2 A .JJ1 throw upward. "jamna




kahu gvaranI h;)rE."-krrsan. 'Milkwomen splash water of lamna upward while swimming.' [bray], i'Rro;r:J [hxvat], ~ [hJrvata] n lightness, meanness, flippancy, triviality. "alap arbal chIma karat hE. Ih jetho hJrvar dharat hE."-GPS [hJra] light, not heavy. See (~. "hJra bhaya sagal turkana."-GPS ~ [hJI] A JJ1 n fear, terror. 2 heart's trembling, fright. See BtJsatvar] ~. a princely state to the east of Kashmir. King Dashrath's queen Kaikai was the daughter of the king of this state. In the ancient scriptures, this place is mentioned also as Kekay. , In 1687 AD the Rajput king of this state embraced Islam after a treaty with Aurangzeb. Now it is a part of the Jammu state. See~. aHc:lijlijl [kasatvari] adj citizens of Kasatwar. "kte ka:;;miri hathe kstvari."-kJ n massacre, genocide. ~ [katvar] n garbage; useless straw. "katarta katvar buhan:. "-krIscm. 'C(dT [kata] A n plan; finely cut piece, chiselled stuff. "kat kata kar lino."-e;"iQi 1. See~. Qdlli [katab] See fuora". ~ [katar] A Jlbj n line, row, class, bevy. 'C('dT(i5" [katal] A J(j n human soul. 2 power, capability, competence. 3 body, physique. 4 See~. afo [katI] Skt adj how many. Cl'faq [katIk] month of Kattak. See CBC'{. "katIk hOVE sadhu sag."-majh barahmaha. 2 adj to what extent. 'Clfufa" [katIkI] in the month of Kattak. "katIkI karam kamavI).e."-majh barahmal1a. ~ [katia] See oGt. ~ [katiph] A d adj having rancour, malice or grudge. "car6 VICC ~arif ko, kon katiph kahaI."-mago. ~ [katipha] A ~ velvet, satin.. 2 See cBtG. ~ [katiphIa] plural of~. ...:a:Jlbj silken CEaC!'




clothes ofvelvet, satin etc. "r;"igparag katiphIa pahIrahI dharmai."~var sar m 4. 'Worldly person wears multicoloured silken clothes.' 'Clg [katu] See Ci\2l". ~ [katun] S tape embroidered with a golden thread used to fix on clothes for glamour. See EActon. ~ [katura] See '3¥. 'Cl3'a' [kateb] A .~ book, sacred book. It is a transform ofkItab. 2 In Gurbani, kateb stands for kutab, and refers in particular to the four books, namely tJret, zabbur, ;'iji! and Koran. "dev bhev na janhi jIh bed Jr kateb." -japu. "bed kateb sasar habhahu bahra."-asa m5. cclw [katela] Ai JI; adj assassin; murderer. "kJm katele."-BG. cEw [katEyal adj engaged in spinning. 2 performing the act of cutting. cEtf [kat;"ic] Skt ~ adv where, at what place. 2 ~ from where, from what place. "kat;"ic mata kat;"ic pIta."-sahas m 5. c{aT [katta] n small sword, which is broad and straight. A ..J2f' . if~ [kattal] A JCi adj who kills. "suI). nanak kattal."-mago. 'O! Guru Nanak, you who put to end with words, listen!' dar [katti] Skt ~~'fiT n rapier; thin straight sword. "parE kattrj1;"i ghat."-VN. ~ [katr] See '3'~, ~ [kath] n legend, story, 2 See CXEf7). 3 See REf excr. 4 See chr. ~ [kathau] tell, relate. 2 say, speak. "kathau na kathni hukam pachana."-gdU d m 1. ~ [kathakl Skt adj expert in narrating; adept in delivering a religious discourse. 2 See ~ 2. ~ [kathakkarl See a:tm'. 'C('l:fd' [kathatl Skt cfl~-n:rFc'r v narrates, speaks. 2 See cxfua". 'C(QdT [kathta] Skt ~ adj who narrates. 2 of

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a story, of an anecdote. "kathta bakta sunta soi."-gau m 1. orao [kathan] n utterance, statement. "kathan sunavan git nike gavan."-dev m 5. trn?)T [kathna] v say, narrate. 2 n description, explanation. See am. iil"l'f01 [kathni] n act of talking; explanation. "kathni kahI bharamu na jai."-sor kabir. ~El?.,"hrm [kathni badni] n only in words; mere talk sans action. "sabadu na cinE kathni badni k'lrE." -sri m 3. ~ [kathniy] Skt n describable, expressible. CfflQ [kathanu] See orao. ~ [bthri] n tale. "bthria satah te sukhau padhia."-var maru 2 m 5. aar [btha] Skt n story, anecdote, description, explanation. 2 annotation. "katha sUl)at malu sagli khovE."-majh m 5. ~ [kathaIa] got described, got expressed. "mIlI sadhu akathu kathaIa tha. "-maru m 5. ~ [kathak] narrator; story teller. await [kathagi] sang the story. 2 singer of a tale in verse. "ham hankatha kathagi." -dhana m 4. 'We are singers of the Creator's praise.' C!$i"iCI" [kathanak] Skt n summary of a story. 2 legend, story, tale. crfu [bthI] adv having described, having narrated. "bthI kathI bthi koti kotI kotI." -japu. 'Mill ions of speakers have described it again and again giving millions ofarguments. ' meaning, it has been described in many ways on innumerable occasions. "saca sabadu kathI."-sri m 5. See em 4. orfu3" [kathIt] Skt adj said, told, described. ~ [bthI tal Skt i5fEIftr3"r adj in the profession of story telling, expert in oratory. mit [kathil described. "kathna kathi na aVE totI."-japu. wfur [bthir] n cU'EB-wuttered composition;

tale in verse, eulogy. "bVIan katthe kathire." --caQi 2. "katthe kathira."-VN. 2 bangle. ~ [bthuri] See~. "ratI kathuri vaqiE." -s farid. i.e 'narration of God's glory.' 2 glory. 3 auspicious smell, fragrance. qtf [katha] Skt Cf)'I-1+\adv how, in what way. "jag bIvhar katha so lahE."-GPS. ~ [bthacan] Skt~ part how, in what way. ~ [bthaCIt] Skt~ adv in some way, somehow. 2 perhaps. of"Ef [btth] n tale. 2 thick extract of acacia catechu, prepared by decocting its bark which is coated on betel leaves and is used for dyeing and in many medicines. Uncaria Gambier. 3 Skt ~T praise, appreciation. "dal gahan katthe."-caQi 3. 'an admirable, warrior.' 4 adj proper to narrate, describable. See chf. of"EfC{ [btthak] Skt adj expert in narrating, maker of a statement. 2 n singer who expresses the meaning ofa song through bodily gestures. chr" [kattha] See em 2. ofEf [bttha] recited, uttered. "pare sam beda jujar bed kattha."-VN. m!" [kad], ~ [kadahu] advwhen, at whattime. "kaul) kahE tu kad ka."-tukha chat m 5. "kadahu samjhaIa jaI."-var sri m 3. 2 See ort!. 3 A .iJ effort, endeavour. 4 P ./ house. S person, someone. ~ [kadxuda] P uP./ owner of the house. 2 king. 3 soul, human soul. 4 married man. m:!O [kadan] Skt n anguish, trouble. "sumatI sadan bhayo kadan bIram hE."-NP 2 war, battle. 3 destruction, assassination. at!H [bdam] See ~. 2 A (~ feet, foot. "tere kadam salah."-bher m 5. 3 Dg stride, foot. ~m- [kadamposi], ~m- [kadambosi] P (fY.') n act of kissing the feet. In the following utterance, the scribe has used kadamposi

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instead ofk;:,d;:,mbosi. "plnrf' kadamposi k;:,u k;:,rte."-GPS. ~ [kadar] Skt n saw. 2 goad. 3 white catechu tree. "bd;:,r bat b:mal."-GPS. See G Kedros. 4 A.I) honour, glory, respect. S measure, standard, weight. ql€af.t(')'R [bdar~anas], qceae '(') [kadardan] P l.![:;.I) adj appreciative; seeking merit. ~ [bdr;:,y], ~ [kadrai] SkI ~ n cowardice; faint-heartedness. 2 nervousness. 3 fear, terror. ~ [kadaI] See cfec;). ~ [kadli] Skt n banana. 2 deer of darkbrown colour found in the Kamboj region. 3 a tree that grows in Assam and Burma; boats are made from its wood. ~ [kadlipuhap] n heart, which is shaped like the flower of a banana. "kadlipvhap dhup pargas."--bhEr CJ kdbir. O(€l')la(') [kudliban] See O(tmla('). ~ [bd;:,v] Skt ~ n ball; ball made of rags; material rolled into a round mass . "khIIat ja!)v kadd-va."-ramav. 0(t!T [kada] Skt adv sometime, at some moment. "jag sukh me vrjhE mIn kuda."~GPS. 2 A C,,) n prohibition, taboo. "nili sIahi bda br!)i." -sri m 1. 'Blue dress is meant to dispel mind's darkness.' 3 A v) tear, saw. 4 set on fire. S taunt. creTB' [kadac], ~ [kadac], ~ [bdacah], ~ [kadacahv], ~ [kadacan], 0!€1ftr3' [kudacIt], ~ [bdaCId], ~lfu [k;:,dapI], ~ [bdapi] adv perhaps. 2 some time, rarely, seldom. "kadac naln SImrat nanak." --var jEt. "n;:,ln sImrat m;:,r!)a k;:,dacah."-sahas ill 5. "bhalo karam nahI kin kadapi."-GPs. ~ [bdamat] A .::/1) n sense of being antique; antiquity, ancientness. ~ [bdI] adv when, at what time. "saphal darsan kadI pau."-sar m 5. "pap bInase

kadIke."-bavan ~ [bdimJ A r{) adj ancient. 2 primitive. 1 "sevak kadim tak ae teri sam hE."-caQi 1. cctfu.ft [kadimi] adjfrom the beginning, See Oltfu-r. "hute bdimi gurughar kere."-GPS. ~ [bdu], ~»f'. [bdua] P L.j.;!' n gourd. "beIahI te bdU21 bt q.aryo."-cJc;li 1. ~ [kadurat] A ':::'-H;/ n darkness. 2 muddiness, dirtiness. 3 anger. ~ [kaduri] See ~'"dO. 2 P U.lj.-d' n diningtable cloth; cloth on which meals are served. 3 meal taken in the name of Fatima, daughter of prophet Mohammad in which prayer is offered in her name. "mIsImIII tam;:,su bharamv kaduri."-bhEr kabir. 'Pray after killing ignorance and confusion.' Those who read the text as bharam kaduri, do not pay heed to the vowel sign [v] after [m]. ~ [kade] See m~. "sahsa kade na jaI."-var maru 1 m 3. ~ [bdac], 0lt!3. [kadat]. See 0!€1ftr3'. "bdac k;:,w!)a na up;:,rjate."-sal1as m 5. "CIt me cItvyO nahi kadat." and "janyo gahyo na chutE k;:,d5ta."~GPS.

'O(tfo [kadan] Skt n food prohibited in religious

scriptures. 2 medically forbidden food. 3 food grain of the coarse variety. Olthr [bd;~b], ore'"H [bdam] Skt ~ n group, community. "sIrjat hE brahmaq. bdab."-NP 2 a particular tree that has yellow flowers. Krishan loved these trees very much. Mostly he frolicked among these trees in the forest. Now the devotees of Krishan in Vrindavan garland his idol with these flowers. Nauclea Cadamba. eft!' [kadd] Khatri subcaste of the Sarins. 2 A ;S height, physique, sturdiness. ~ [kaddavar] P .IJ!;S adjtall. ~ [kaddu] See O(~. ~ [bddub~] P LX/ n toothed sieve; a

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device with a rough surface against which gourd is rubbed into curled pieces. A dish is prepared by dipping these pieces in curd. ~ [kadru], ~~ [kadruka], ~ [kddru] Skt ~ n according to Purans, daughter ofDaksh and wife of Kashyap who gave birth to snakes. "bInta kddru dItI ddItI e nkhI bdri bdnay."

-VN. [kddhar] See chPo. [kdn] See afT~'l'~ I ~ [kapar] See


Cfl-TI"!ITfmfITr ~ "1~IOlfr;qr;qlf.1 ~


~! I

~lit. explain the word QW [guru], moulding the hands At present there is a big town at this place. into the shape ofa lotus, meansC{[kakka] row According to the preceding census, its of which or [gagga] is the third character. population was 60,000. Located there is a gold Raising the third finger, to depict or, that carries tombed mausoleum of Imam Hussain. Many the fifth vowel, which shows snapping the Muslims consider it their sacred duty to bury index finger five times. The second character their dead at this place and, therefore, bring is d'" [rara]; for it at first touch the moustaches, dead bodies from far-off places. Rich people and it will indicate the or [yayya] row. d'" is the from India as Mirs ofKhairpur also take their second character, so raise the second finger. dead bodies there. 2 a compound where It has the sixth vowel, hence snap the thumb models ofthe martyr's tomb are buried. and the index finger six times. Thus becomes ~ [karbal] See ~. the word qr~. In this may be grasped the ~ [karbur] Skt~d'" n gold. 2jimpson weed, formation of all words and vowels. datura stramonium. 3 water. 4 sin. 5 demon. 0CQtP' [karpa] n a double-edged broad sword, "karbur bInasi."-bhavarsamnt. with a \vooden handle. It is used like a lance. C«l1J [karabh] Skt n young one of a camel. 2 protector of the hand, tongs. 3 glove. 2 young one ofan elephant. "kankarabh bIsal ~ [karpati] Skt Cf){QI8"\ adj who uses his kar."-NP. 'anns as long as the trunk of an hands as a vessel; who discards other vessels elephant's young one.' See ~ 13. except his hands. "man bhaIO karpati rahIO ~ [karbhIkh] son of king Dhritrashtar. nagan phIno ban mahi."-sar a m 5. ~ [karbhi] feminine of~. ~ [karpan] See~. 2 drinking with hand iiRJH [kar;nn] Skt ~ n a long stride, pace, step; or one who drinks with hand. one and a half yard in length; a three cubit ~ [karpal] tax collector. 2 See ~. measure. I prem pIr~m kE ganau ek karT ~ [karpali] See~. karam."-cau m 5.2 Skt mf action. "karam ~ [karpur] Skt elephant, who fills his belly karat hOVE nIhkaram."-sukhmani. with the help ofhis trunk. "karpurgatI bIn akal Scholars have divided actions into three dujo kavan?"-gyan. Some ignorant scribes have categories: written this term as "kapurgatI". "k~bugriv (a) krTymaD, which are underway.2 karpurgatI. "--salah. 2 Skt the tree and the (b) prarbadh, which have brought forth the existing body. fragrant substance made from its sap; camphor. ----=~--='------------"karpur puhap sug~dha."-gatl1a. See Ci11JO. 'In Delhi, Hissar, Ambala etc, the measure ofa karam is 'iil"a"S' [karab] doing. "bahur jagg ko karab 57 inches, and in Simla it is 54 inches. Such variations mItayo."-arhJt. 2 A -:-) n sorrow, grief, exist elsewhere also. woe. 3 distress. 4 anxiety. 2knyman karam is of two types: one performed as a 'iilQ1f'li5T [karbalaJ A ytJ.) a place in Iraq matter of routine like having a bath, doing meditation, (Mesopotamia) situated on the western bank performing prayer etc; while the other is performed on of river Euphrates, where Hm-;ain, son of the some special occasions such as Gurpurabs or prayers, fourth caliph Hazrat Ali, was mercilessly killed charitable deeds and oblations performed on the occasions by the army of Yazid on 10'h October, 680. of death and marriage etc.

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773 ~

[kdfamkMq] n country of grace; situation or role in which God bestows His mercy and forgiveness. 2 philanthropic role or detached action. "kfQ (b). ~ [kaladhari] adj powerful. 2 See ~. cm"O [kalan] See ~. 2 See CX"1¥. 3 P u[( n crown. "kam ke kalan bIdhI kine hE bIcarke."-aj. awfC'lfQ [kalamdhI] Skt n moon. 2 adj adept in learning and in craft. ~ [kalanaJr] main town ofa tehsil in district Gurdaspur. Akbar was enthroned here and this

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town was very dear to him. In Sammat 1772, Banda Bahadur, with help from Khalsa Dal, conquered Kalanaur and Singhs were appointed faujdars in place ofSuhrab Khan. QWtr [kalap] Skt n sect, community. "pap kalap ap chapjEhE."-GPS. 2 tail of a peacock. "pakh dharyo bhagvan kalapi."-knsan. 3 quiver. 4 belt, girdle. S trade, commerce. awtft [kalapi] Skt ~n peacock. See QWtr. 2 adj wearer of a quiver belt. ~ [kalabattu] P (j?!J{ interwined wire of gold and silver. aws·tf! [kalabaji] (the art of) acrobatic feat. 2 a jump in which the body spins with head down and feet above. ~ [blam], aH'li [kalamu] A (Jt n dialogue comprising many utterances; convl;:rsation, talk. 2 utterance, maxim. 3 See 01?1f. "sabhna IIkhIa vuri kalam."-japu. "karmi vahE kalam."-var sar ill 1. cmrHffiJ [blamullah], ~ [kalamulla] A iJ1(Jt per Muslim faith, the utterance of God, Koran. "kalamullah ki an tIhare.,,_carrtr 38. ~ [kalar], ~ [blari], ~ [kalal], Cffi'l'm) [kalalan], ~ [kalalanI], ac?r'ffift [kalalni], ~ [kalali] Skt liquor distiller. "ek bud bhar tanu manu devau jo madu deI kalali re."-ram kabir. 'kalali' means the disposition to be selfsufficient. 2 earthen vessel in which liquordistiller carries out fermentation. "kaIa kalalanI lahanI melau." -ram kabir. ~ [kalavat] artist, singer, musician. 2 scholar. 3 moon. 4 powerful, mighty. a1?~ [kalavatni] female musician. 2 prostitute. 3 female scholar. ~ [kalava] P HiD' n embrace, hug. 2 skein, a ball of thread. ~ [kalavan], ~ [kalavat] See ~. [bII] Skt n sin. 2 strife, dispute. "he kalImul krodha."-sahas m 5.3 the fourth era.


"hOVE parvaI,la karallI dhIBaI,la kalI lakhaI,l vicarI .... je ko satu kare so chijE tap ghdrI tapu nd hoi. je ko nau lae badnavi kalI ke lakhaI,l ei."-ram amI. See ~raT. 4 warrior, hero. S This word has also been used for the people of kalIyug, the era of evil. "blI hoi kutemuhi."-var sar mI. 6 This word has also been used for Kalki Avtar. "p:m saman bahE kalI ban."-kdlki. 7 Skt Cf~ part in the day to dawn, tomorrow. "kheIClI,lu aju kI kalI."-sri a mI. ~ [kaIIura] See ac~. ~ [kalI-avtar] Kalki Avtar, who will end the era of vice [kallCyug]. See ~ 2. ~ [kalIaI,l] See qR;)})f'() 2. 2 See ~. ~ [bIIaJ)may], ~ [kalIaI,lmE] blissful, beneficial. "kalIaI,lmE pargat bhae." -brha cMt m 5. ~ [bIIan] See oRilJl1re. kalyan that (scale) has five notes. It has many variants; its pure form is give here. In arohi maddham (4 th note) and nI~ad (7th note) are forbidden. gadhar (3 rd note) is primary and dhEvat (6 th note) is secondary. maddhdm (4 th note) is sharp and the rest are all pure notes. Its time of singing is the first quarter of night. arohi- ~a, ra, ga, pa, dha, ~a. avrohi·· 1;)a, na, dha, pd, mi, ga, ra, ~a. In Guru Granth Sahib, Kalian is at the twenty-ninth place . 2 a town in Bombay presidency: which was once the capital of Chalukya Rajputs. ~ [kaII~t] Sktf~E(,:" adj grieved, distressed. 2 difficult, hard, tough. aFMCJ'd'J [bIIhari] adj termagant, quarrelsome (woman). 2 SkI' n a herb also known as blIkari. Aconitum Napellum. Its effect is hot and dry. H cures diseases of blood, piles, phlegm, cough alld oolic pain. It heals wounds, aborts pregnancy and kills fleas.

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afMaMR [kaIIbles] strifes of the era of evil. "mItane sabhI kaIIkales."-ram ill 5.

afisar [kaIIka] Skt n sixteenth phase of the moon. 2 pod; flower bud, lily. "dutI kaIIka radanmanfdu."-GPs. 'Like White lily is the glamour of teeth. ' ~ [kaIIkal] era of vice [kaIIyug]. (a)surtai adhre me drIrhtai pahan me nasIka canan madhy n:m rahi hat me, dharm rahyo pothIn vagai rahi vrIk;;an me badh prapa piitan me pani rahyo ghat me, yahI kalIkal ne bIhal kio sab jag, "nayak" sukavI ktsi bani hE kuthat me, raj rahi pathan rajai rahi ~itkal raja bhayo nai aru rai rahi bhat me. (b)mirzade pirzade asal amirzade sahIb fakirzade go~e tan go rahe, rayzade rauzade ~ahzade sahuzade kul ke aSIlzade tajpan kho rahe, "thakur" kahIt kaIIkal ke kahIr bic pahIr pahIr piche bhare bhram bho rahe, dan kIrpan samE syan gurugyan samE sabh zade mItkt haramzade ho rahe. (c) kur bhaye kiJvar majur bhaye maldar sur bhaye gupat a~ur bhaye jabre, data bhaye krIpan adata kahE data ham dhani bhaye nIdhan nIdhan bhaye gabre .saCIn ki batan patyat kou jag majh raj darbaran bulEye10g labre, bhanat "prabin" ab chin bhai hfmat, so blIyug adal badal gare sagre. 2 evil time; painful period. See 3. 1 l afMa M1 [kaIIkali] See ~. [kalfg] Skt ~ n a dust-coloured bird, whose neck is long and head is red. "bolat bpot bhrfg khajan kalfg kal."-NP. 2 water melon. 3 the territory which lies between the western Ghats and Godavari. To its north is



lIn Mahabharat, Bhisham has accused the king of being the cause of yug s as: "raja kalasy karrya."

Orissa. 4 fdr jS (Holarrhena antidy- senterica). 5 sarih tree (alhizziallebbek). afi;farr [kalfga] See cxf-RlTlif. tm:iJTO [blyan] See CfM"JIT~. 2: See ~. benediction; blessing. "IU sun harakh uthyo mardana. ucryo srI nanak kalyana. pIta pItamah par pun parke. barnan narn kare jag guru ke. subh gun sag kin parsasa. nIpjyo vedikul avtasa."-NP ~ [kalyana] a disciple of Guru Aljan Dev, who was a spiritual and devout person.. During the settlement of Amritsar, he went to the hills to collect funds and timber etc. At Mandi he was in great trouble. Due to the nonobservance of fast on the occasion of the celebration of Krishan's birthday and for not doing worship in the temple, he was arrested on the orders of the raja ofMandi. Taking him

to be an atheist, the raja wished to impose heavy punishment upon him, but on listening to the sermon of this spiritual personage, he bacame a totally changed man. So he fell upon Kayana's feet and sought forgiveness. The raja accompanied by Bhai Kalyana reached Amritsar for the Guru's audience and became his disciple. 2 a de:voted disciple ofGuru Arjan Dev. He belonged to the Bindrau subcaste. He also served Guru Hargobind and took part in the crusades. See ~~~ l:fT. ~tffi [kalyucr£l Poet Kaly sayeth. "guru ramdas kalyucn:.'''-savEye m 4 ke. mrlra'r [k~lyora] See O~Q. "kam ju nE kOrIk kalyora kEdh6 kare hE. "--krrsan. 'as if cupid has assumed innumerablle forms. ' chra" [kallar] See ern-d. cCMaaM [kailarkaJI]lotlls in barren land, that is, getting best from the worst. 2 a noble fellow taking birth in an ignoble family. "kallarbl bhagat prahIlad."-BG. cfw [kallo] adj alone, all alone. 2 P j( n part of the face that lies between the cheek and the neck; jaw. we [kav] Skt ~ vr compose verse, narrate, draw pictures. 2 See emf. ~ [kavka] See qfuc~. ~ [kavac] Skt n that which obstructs air; armour, coat of mail. 2: protective mantar. "ram kavac das ka sanahu. "-g.'5d m 5. 3 kettledrum. ~ ~ [kavac sanah] wearing an armour or coat of mail. ~ [kavacni] army wearing armour. -sanama. C1iihl i SCl [kavcatclkl, ~ ~ [kavcatkarl destroyer of armour; sword, arrow, spear and gun.-sanama. am [kavacil adj wearer of armour. ~ [kavacul See~ir. ~ [kavgi] cowrie. "'kIs-hU na kavgi pun te

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kab hi lld kayohi dehge."-kalki.


~ [kavaQQi] a rural sport. The players are

divided into two groups, with a line drawn on the ground. A player from one side goes to the other side of the line continuously uttering, "Kavadi, Kavadi." He touches someone on the rival side and comes back to his side without taking a breath and getting caught. If he is caught then he loses. The only tact required is to touch an opponent without taking a breath and not be caught on that side. CNC!' [kava!).], ~ [kava!).u] pran who. "tIn kaval:nJ khalavE kavanu cugavE?"-sodaru. ~ [kavtak] See "kalahI kavtak kar bhari."-kalki. ~ [kavta] See~. 2 poet. "kavte bhi jasi." -var maru 2 m 5. ~ [kavan], ~ [kavanu] See~. "kavan gun pranpatI mIlau meri mai?"-gau m 5. "kavanu sujan jo sauda jorE?"-gau m 5. ~ [bvar] See ~. "par nari ke het btak . kavran ko ghayo."--CdTItr 21.2 morsel. See ~. 3 Skt salt. 4 s~ur juice. 5 curl, tress. ~ [kavra] adj bitter. "pac bIadhI tIagE kavre."-gauam 1. ~ [bvri] cowrie. 2 bitter. 3 Skt plait, brai'd. ~ [kaval] Skt n morsel. "bharyo kaval br anan payo."-GPS. 2 lotus. "gur ke caran kaval rId dhare."-sor m 5. "kaval khne mukh kdv~l sudhare."-GPS. 'put morsels into the lotuslike open mouth. ' ~ [kavalnEn] See ~ . "kavalnEn madhurbhm."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [kavalpargas] See~. "kaval pargas bhae sadh sage."-guj m 5. ~ [kavlay] See~. CWW [kavla] Lakshmi. See CitH'W. "bvla caran saran hE jake."-gau kabir. ~ [kavlas] Kailash mountain. See af'awJ:r. "kavlas mE dhyan chutyo har ka."-cJ(ii 1. See



[kavlasan] Brahma. See ~. Cl'ilMiHc..rfa" [bvlaspatI] Lord of Kailash mountain, Shiv. See 1..RH~. Cl~M'ljGl [bvlasray], ~ [kavlasri] Vishnu, the protector of lotus, from whose navel emerged this flower. "man mE kavlasri jo gyana."-arhJta. Cl~M'oi'a [kavlakat], ~ [kavlapatI] See ~ and~. "harIjas su!).ahI tIsu kavla kata."-var sor m 4. ~ [kavalu] morsel. See ~. "kalE kavalu nnajan janE."-maru solhe m 1. 'One who knows Him, devours death,' i.e. a spiritual person conquers death. 'ClW [kava] A L:;; n plural ofkuvatt. strength, might. 2 See~. . ~ [kavau] See~. 2 spoken word, mandate. "kita pasau eko kavau."-japu. See ~ vr. 3 See ~. "de lEsahI jfd kavau."-var asa. 'body as garment.' ~ [kavaI] A '1 n dress, costume of a rich man. "gUrI diba!).I kavaI pEnaio."-sri m 5 pEpar. "galahu kavaI khol pahInai."-BG. 2


~ [kavaId] A ~I} plural ofkaIdah. rule.

2 drill. "karE kavaId vIdya sag."-GPs. ~

[kavai] See ~. "kaha su lal kavai." -asa am 1. ~ [kavaci] adjwho wears an armour. "bhayo re!).uka te kavaci kuthari."-paras. ~ [bvat] Skt n that lets air in and out; door. ~ [bvad], ~ [bvada] A A} adj shameless, immodest, devoid of self-respect. "dargahi hon khuar kavade."-BG. 2 guide, leader. "dIl mahI SOCI bICarI kavade! bhIsat dojak kInI pai?"-asa kabir. 'Leaders of the Muslims! ponder within.' See~. ~ [bvadI] See Y>fTfeafu. "dhru prahrlad kavadI tIlocan."-NP.

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795 ~

[kdvayad] See ~. [kdvali] See ~. ~ [kavav] See ~. "ek kavav!' te sabh hoa."-maru m 5. See ~ vr. ~ [kavar] See~. 2 door. See Ol~. ~ [kavI] See ~ vr one who composes, creates or narrates is a poet. Scholars have described four types of poets: "path curav!' bharya, arth curaVE put, bhav curaVE mit so, sute kahE avdhut. arth hE mul bhali tuk qar su achar patr hE dekhkE jijE, ch;:}d hE phul navo ras so phal dan ke ban s6 sicbo kijE, "dan" kahE y3 prabinan s6 suthri kavIta sunkI' ras pijE, kiratI ke bIrva kavI hE In ko kdb-hu kumlan na dijE. kaha guru karan dadhicI balI benu kaha sake saIIvahan ke aj-hu b gae hE, kahii pnthu parath pururava puhamIpatI haric;:}d puran ;) bhoj vIdtae hE, kahE "matIram" kou kavIn ko nfdo mat kaVIn pratap sab desan me chae hE, qhuq dekho tin 10k ami hE kavIn mukh kete mue mue raja kavIn jrvae hE. 2 n Valmiki. 3 Shukar. 4 Brahma.. :5 Pandit. 6 in Bengal a physician is also called a kavi. 'i5l'fucr [kavIkl, ~ [kavIka] Skt rein, bridle. "mukhbal asu kaVIka jIv mani."-NP. 'like a bridle for an intractable horse.' See ~


0lfu»Irw. ~ [kavIt] See~. "pothi gitkavIt kIchu

kade na karanI dhana."-sri d m 1. ~ [kavIta] Skt n verse; compostion in verse. ~

[kavItt] See 0lfil'3' and~. ~ [kavItra] See ~. ~ [kavItva] Skt composing of verse, poem. 2 prudence, cleverness. 3 poetic quality. ~ti(T [bvIprIya] a book on poetics

authored by the: well-known Hindi scholar Keshav Das. "pragat p;:}cmi ko bhayo kavIpnya avtar, sorE SE atthanvE' phagun SUdI budhvar." ~ [kavIraj:l supreme poet. 2 Valmiki. 3 Shukracharya. 4 Vyas. 5 Bhai Gurdas. 6 Bhai Nandlal. 7' Bhai Santokh Singh. 8 Vedraj, a supreme physician. See ~ 6. [kavi] See a:fu. 2 blue lotus, water lily. "c;:}drama sIvEya ko kavikE pahICaniE."-dkal. "kaulu ttl hE kavia tu hE."-sri m 1. 3 A tJ J strong, mighty, powerful. ~ [bvial).] Ski poets have. "sujas kdly kavian bakhal).HJ. "-sdvEye m 5 ke. ~ [kavisar], C~Q [kavisvar] master poet.



cR [kave] Skt 'Cfi'2t: of the poet. "git nad kaVIt kave sunI."-tukha bardhmaha. 'having heard music and poetry. ' wfq [kav;:}dh] See o~h:r. ~ [kavy] See~;r. food given or oblation performed after the invocation of ancestors. 2 food from which balls or cakes are prepared for the ancestors. 3 world of ancestors. 4 admirer. ~ [kaval] A Ji j singer; one who sings in the congregation of sufis. Its root is ~(1i. or.r [karl n layer. of gmvel. 2 attraction. "kap badhan biidhIO sis mar."-basJt a m 3. 3 restraint. "ma:[a moh nIt karu."-var ram 1 m 3.4 sound producl~d by gunfire. 5 See CG?iT. ~ [ka+aiE] be boiled:: be cooked; be pained or troubled "ta mere manu, kaItu karaiE?"-g3mai?"-brla ktr ch;:> I dou k;:>r jurva I, d;:>somkh mukh dyaI ;:>pnokE chItkayO hE, micm q.;:>raI bar bar s;:>traI, aj hVEg;:>yO sIpahi moso tilhi ko tu jayo hE, k;:>hE ka$iram t;:>b ram s6 p;:>r$uram sIkkh bamdev ju ke nike kE sunayo hE, jilki sJhE khat ch;:>tr dhari k;:>hI kahI jat tilhi pE mE d;:>s;:>n tInuka p;:>krayo hE. ramcadrovac pharto k;:>pol bol bol;:>thi bamh;:>n ke q.arto ukhar darh j;:>mi jo b;:>d;:>n mE, jit birkhet p;:>thEdet j;:>mlok tohI leto s;:>bh ch;:>tnn ko bEr ek chIn mE, kaha k;:>r6·h;:>tya pran;:>b jo tIhare h;:>t subh;:>t k;:>haI r;:>n thaq.he hot r;:>n mE, y;:>hE jan nato ho b;:>cyo hE ek bamh;:>n ke ka$iram s;:>m;:>jh sdmdjh kdr mdn mE. See footnote to UQ1-fl7i i'i'CCf.

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Cl'll3 [kasu] from whom, to whom. "ta kahi£ kasu?"-prabha am 1. 2 short for ~R "aradh uradh mukhI lagau kasu."-bher a k$rif dar kasbah kagar kunad."--ze>far. A dagger given by Guru Hargobind to Raijodh is now with the family ofBagh,~1 Singh. Kangar is to the north of Rampura Phul railway station at a distance of 16 miles. See tJGOc'iTHT FfTfua".


[kagardi], ClTimrtr-dT [kagardag] terms used in musicology. They are the notes of mndag. They are marked by alliteration as "kagardi kupyo kapI katak."-ramav. See


cc+asr [kagra] a hill district of Punjab and its principal town. Once it used to be the capital ofKatoch Rajputs. Now the main town of the district is Dharamsala. ~ [kagres] kiing of Kangra. "tab£ kopIya kagresa k;:>toca."-VN. Cl"CitJ:r [kage$] 'O(TCl"-i'lH. See ~fu". Cl'tT [kac] Skt n glass. vr att shine. "kac bIhajhan kacan chaqan."-bIla m 5. 2 wax. 3 shellac, sealing wax. 4 adj unripe. "kacgagria abh m;:>jhria."-asa m 5. 5 adj clay-built, temporary. "kac kota rachatI toya."-sahas m 5. ccitr [kac] See Cl"tr 1. 2 anal circle. 3 border of

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waist-cloth that is first passed between the legs and then hooked. Skt ~. Ol'i3Olaflf [kacbramI] adj cheat, hyprocrite. "kackaramI na jat sahi."-sar ill 5 partal. 'A cheat cannot withstand the lure of wealth.' qitfi'j [kacan] Skt ~ n gold. 2 adj golden. 0('ltIWiJ [kacmac] solanum rubrum, cape goose berry. 0l'tJT [kaca] adj unripe or unbaked. "kaCE karVE rahE na pani."-suhi kabir. Here earthen pitcher is the body and .water is the breath of life. 2 faithless. "mukatI bhed kIa jal)E kaca?" -gauaill 1. "kahIde kace sUl)de kace."-an.'Jdu. 3 an ignorant person, not steadfast in knowledge and action. "kace guru te mukat na hua."-o.'Jkar. 4 hypocrite, untrustworthy. "jInI manI horu mukhI horu SI kaj ko :?aham." -krrsan. 2 did. "ki pratIpal."-bher namdev. ~ [kIlol] See ~. [kIll] small nail. 3 pron what. "aIgaIo ki na aIo."-suhi chat fi;mo [kIllat] A ~ n feeling of being meagre m 1. 'When the Creator has come to mind, in number and quantity; shortage, lack. what is left behind?' i.e. 'Nothing remains fctw [kIlla] n stake, nail, peg. 2 measure of behind.' 4 adv why, for whom. "ki vISarahI? dukh bahuta lagE."-asa m 1. "jcmmat ki na muo land equivalent to one acre. abhaga."-maru solhe m 3. "gahIo kina ada?" fctl.fl" [kIIli] small peg, spike. m [kIv] adv how, in which way, by what -pl1Unlle m 5. means. "kIV kar akha kIV salahi?"-japu. cfl' [ki] P short for fu--et. [kI-i'], that it. ~[kIvdati]Skt~ n hearsay; rumour. ~ [kiu], ofttr [kio], oftnr [kIa], ~ [kiau] did. "badhap han ek, nanak kiu."-maru m 5. "kio fOl'ilfdlll' [kIvrIya] Pu n doorfiap, door. sigaru mIlaDkE tai."-bIla am 4. "gururamdas 2 window; opening. 3 See ~ 2. ~ [kIvria] See rOl~rdGl'. 2 doorkeeper, ghan kiau pragasa."-saveye m 5 ke. cftnrfu [kiahI] is/are done. "te kiahI parvaD." guard, sentinel. fctW [kIva] See fchfr. -varsar m 2. ~ [kIvar] See ~. "darsanu dijE kholI ~ [kialo], oft»rr [kia] has done. "kat hamaro kialo khasmana."-asa m 5. "kia khelu baq kIvar."-bIla kabir. ~ [kivari] n small window, an opening. melu tamasa."-saveye m 4 ke. 2 small flaps of the door. 3 adj watchman at cfuft [ki-i] did. "ham har ki guru ki-i hE basithi." the door; officer on duty at the entrance of a -nat parta1 m 4. palace. "kam kIvari dukh sukh darvani. "-bher a'tl1' [kie] did. "kai kotI kie dhanv;'H." -sukhmani. 2 adv by doing. "sunatI kie turaku kabir. 'Passion is the officer incharge of the je hoega?"-asa kabir. fort and pain and pleasure are two watchmen at the entrance.' 4 n kind of tax prevalent in cflR' [kis] pron who, to whom. "tab chal chIdr lagat kahu kis?"-sukhmani. 2 did, began Rajputana, collected from each house. (journey) "pun kasi ko kis pIana."-GV 10. ~ [kIvar], ~ [kIvara] See mrz and~. 3 Skt ofur n monkey. "mahabali ravan das sis. ~ [kIvari] See ~. fat' [kIve], ~ [kIvE] adv how, in what way. prakram garab haryo mIl kis."-GPS. 4 ka "malu haumE dhoti kIVE na utrr."-sri m 3. (sky) i:? (lord), the sun. 5 bird. ~ [kIvEhE] have to do. "tryodas baras gae afb:rrd" [kisar] Skt fc:hrg n needle-like thorns on the ears of barley, paddy and wheat. "saDu phI! Ehe:. jahu hamE kachu kaj kIVEhE."-ramav. kisara cIthIa kaDu laIa tanu jharI."-var majh '0 Bharat! you go, I have some work to do.' m 1. It means organs like fingers etc. 2 how (in which way) is it?

fqw [kIla] A ,.$ n fort, castle. fu'wl;r [kIlal] water. See Ciflwc? "kin sc:man

foci [kIva] See



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ettIJ [kist] P.::.l' fuHfIJ·

841 ~

[kijaltu] is done. "kahe kijatu hE manIbhavan?"--mal'u kabir. crn:r [kih] what. cftw [kija] did, provided. "sam sahIb sukh kij cftuj [kihEi] advwhere. "bule bEt). kihEi kare ghaI hE."-maru soll1e IT! 5. jihEi?"-ramav. (He) said, 'Where is he who cftft [kijE] ple:ase do . 2 is done. has given wounds.' 2 In the hill dialect, it means cftG [kit] Skt n insect. "kit hasatI sagal puran." why. -g5c;f m 5. :I~ insigniificant, petty. 3 adj hard, cftcr [kik] did, made. "nam bIna nakte nak rigid. 4 This word has also been used for Kaitabh, the demon. "sahasbahu madhu kit kik."-prabha m 4.2 See 'R1~. citcm' [kika~] Skt n member of a low caste; mahIkhasa."-gao a m 1. 'Sahasarbahu, caqal. Madhu, Kaitabh and Mahikhasur.' See ~. cil'arG [kikat] Skt n Bihar state; where a caste 5 See fuo1.f. by the name ofkikat lived in ancient times that cftca' [kitak] SkI' n insect. 2 adj hard, rigid. is why is this name for Bihar. 2 horse. cftGif [kitaj] n silk, produced by a kit (insect). 3 poverty, indigence. 4 an old name ofMagadh cftG ~ [kilt pakhal)i] adj worm in the stone, worm to Ibe found in stone. "acftdan deI region. 5 advpenniless, penurious. ~ [kikar] See fa'a'fu. prabhu mera vIc:r pathar kitpakhat).i he." -maru solhe m 4. ~[kikur], ~ [kikfi] advhow, in what way. "tuhaqe nal kikfi nIbhEgi."--JSBM. cftG3 [kitabhJI See ~~. "tate madhu kitabh tan CiITe' [kic] n mud, sludge, slime. "bIapat dhara."-VN. oftit [kiti] n ant. ("Ik bIhag Ik kiti rita." mohkic."-asa chat m 5. cmret [kicai] should keep. "ltIn SagI sagu TId -NP. 2 humility, gentleness. "kiti parbat kicai nanak jIna apt).a suau."-var guj 2 m 5. khaIa."-iilsa kabil'. See ~. 3 adj humble, gentle. "ki.ti hOI kE khaI."-s kabir. ~ [kicak] Skt n hollow bamboo. 2 son of king Kekay and brother-in-law of king Virat oft? [kitu] S(~e liftC'. who was killed by Shim for molesting Dropadi. cft3' [kit] has made, has done. "koi vIrla apan kit.,,_nat m 5 parta1 "man apne kau mE Matiy Hindi poets have written his name as hansakha kit."--tot;li m 5. ~ and ~. See f~q, for~~ and cftaT [kita] dione, "kita paiE apl)a."-var asa. ~. 2 created. "]kita kaha karE manI man?"-sri m cfItr.r [kicar] n mud, sludge, slime. "kicar hath 1. "kite kall merE SamanE, karal)haru tnl)u na buqai."-sava m 1. Here it means an evil janE."-sor In 5. 3 create. "kita 10riE kam su act. han pahI akhiL"-var sri m 4. oflBft:r [kicarI] in the mud, in the slime. "kicap ett3r ~fT [kita kart:ra] work performed. ata gUIPana."- s kabil'. cftft:ra' [kicIt] put (apart) "bhram te kiCIt bhfn." 2 already done; creation, created. "kita kartIa -bavan. as da sabhu gaIa."-·val' gau 1 m 4. cite' [kice] oiffi' [kicE] make. Se,e~. "haruas cftfu' [kitI] n reputation, fame. 2 Skt fc!3t (tfc1) kicE jiu."-majh m 4. attempt, effort. "jap na tap na karam kitI." cflt:ret [kijai] See ofttreT. -basiit m 5.3 did, performed. cftHg [kijahu] do. ~ [kitianu] he did it. "bhirahu moklai what is? short for kI-ast. Skt

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kiticmu."-var ram 2 m 5. 'from adversity changed to prosperity. ' ~ [kitu] See otl3". "tek nanak sacu kitu." -sri m 5. ett3'lft [kitoi], ofuTIJ [kitosu], ofuTIJ [kitosu] has made. "mmo jog kitoi."-mDdav.I)i m 5. cfuTo [kiton], oit3o [kitonu] has made. "kiton apl)a p~th nnala."-BG "jeha kitonu teha hoa."-sri m 3. oft3l.r [kitom], cft31J [kitomu] I did. 2 has put. "idhal).u kitomu ghal).a."-var jet. ~ [kidns] Skt ~ and ~e=r adv as it looks; of what kind, of what sort. ofto [kin] has done, had done. "manukh ko janam lin SImran nahI nImakh kin."-jeja m 9. 2 why, for what. "mucu mucu garabh gae kin bacIa?"-g;w kabir. 'There were so many miscarriages; why has this escaped?' 3 why not. "kin sUl)ehi gorie!-sri m 1. 4 P l;)'! n enmity. 5 battle, war. 6 guile. 7 See off. cttofi:r [kinasI] has done. "jo kIchu kinaSI prabhurajaI."-bds;Jt dm 1. 2 why not. "prabhu sarl)agatI kinasI hog?"'-bdS;Jt d m 1. etI7m [kinah] See cftor 2. oo(')daf.f [kinahko$] P Jf! adj one who tries to take revenge. oilol:fru' [kinkhap], oitocfra" [kinkhab] See CilHCfTll. cftor [kina] did, performed. "so pae jo kIchu kina he."-maru solhe m 1. 2 P ,:f enmity, rivalry. See ofIo 4. 4 The word ofIo also carries the same meaning. ~ [kinaram], ~ [kinaramie] See ~.

citoT [kini] has done, has performed. "han gatIkini."-gdu m 3.2 See ~. n plural of~oo, value. "tIS di kimna pai."-srim3. "kimna saka paI sukh mItihu bahare."-jet var. ~ [kimat] A.::..l n price. 2 value. 3 estimate, guess.

cftH [kim] A


cfu.rfd" [kimatI] See ofu..s. "kimatI kOI na jal)E duja."-maru solhe m 5.2 See ofu..s 3. "anIk dokh aru bahut sajai. taki kimatI kahal).u na jai."-maru m 5. 3 adj who knows the worth; who judges the value. "sabh kimatI mIh kimatI pai."-soddru. cftl.St [kimti] P (ft valuable, precious. See

ofu.r3". cfb.rr [kima] A J n minced meat. ofu..rtt [kimae] ;ppreciator, one who values merit. "nahI kimatI kimae."-bher m 5. ~ [kimahu] from the price. See ofu.r. "sukh kimahu bahre."-var maru 2 m 5. ottf1.n:;rr [kimIyal, ettHt»rr [kimia] G kt n alchemy; chemia. 1 Earlier people engaged themselves in converting copper into gold and lime into silver. Though they did not succeed, yet due to their research, there originated the science of chemistry. This has enabled many countries to accumulate large quantities ofgold and silver. ofu.ft>wara' [kimiagar] P ./kt alchemist; person engaged in practising alchemy. cibjl:f3' [kimukhat] P d n granular leather made from the skin of a donkey or a horse and dyed in green, mounted especially on the sheaths of the swords. etta [kir] Skt ~ adj indigent, penniless. 2 parsimonious, miserly. 3 greedy. 4 Skt n parrot. "kir s6 pritI kari ganIka. "-gurusobha. 5 Kashmir. 6 adj of Kashmir. Dg n oarsman, fisherman. ~ [kiral)] Skt oilt' adj scattered, dispersed. 2 extended. ~ [kirl)a] Skt ~"F.ltI] n vile look, evil eye. 2 look filled with anger. 3 adj habit of looking at the ground with downcast eyes" ~ [kudhaka] blow on the neck; giving an insulting push. 2 horrible stumble. "nCltaru kudhaka dIvai he."-brl.a kw [kehIa] of what kind, of what sort.


i5tsJ [kehu] pron any. "un thao na kehu."-sar m 5. ~

[kehe] of what type. crab, red-coloured fish ofscorpion's

~[kek] n


amft [kekai] Skt ~fi:nit daughter of raja Ashvpati of Kekaya,who was wife of Dashrath and mother of Bharat. QOle1hel'l [kekain~}dan] Bharat, son of Kekai. ~ [kekay] a territory in Kashmir region, now called Kakka. 2: something from the land of Kekay.3 inhabitant ofKekay, ofKakka. "asIt kClraI,l prabhas;}t kekay."-ramav. 'Kekay horses, having black ears, look very glorious.' 4 land between Heas and Satluj. ~ [kekyi] See &o~ft. ~ [keka] Skt n sound of a peacock. c3lc!t [keki] n peacock. iffe'3" [keCIt] pron anyone, someone. ifm.r [kejam] A (~j n act of snapping. 2 sword. "jape chappar chae baI,lia kejma. "-cJQi 3. 'Swords drawn (by both sides) seemed as if the battlefield was covered with a thatched roof. ' it:lw [kejma] swords, See fu:n.r 2. ~ [keqa], ihft [keqi] how big, how large. clo [ket] pron how many. "uthI sIdhare ket." -bavan.2 how much, to what extent. "manukh ki kahu ket calai?"-asa 111 5. "gun naIka! gUI,l kahiYE ket."--bLia m 5.3 any. "karaj nahi ket." -majh barahmaha. 4 why. "ta c;lariE ket?"-var sri m 4. :; Ski abode. 6 place. 7 sense. 8 concept. 9 grain. 10 flag; ~ and &0, both are correct. 11 See 1~ 3. ~ [ketak] adj how many. 2 how much. "mE murakh ki ketak bat hE kotI paradhi.\ tarIa re."-sor 111 5, '''manukh ki kahu ketak bat." --bIzer m 5. ~ [ketak:c], a:o-dt [ketki] Skt n screwpine tree L Pandanus Odoratissimus. 2 screwpine 'accused.

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flower. Many people use its essence and scent. It gives energy to the heart and the brain. See

the icy current of Rudarhimala in Garhwal state.(U .P) at a hi II under the mountain of ~andckor. Mahapanth. The peak is 11,753 feet high. A ~ [ketdnI] adj a cannon with a cavity. "gala Sadashiv Mandir is situated there in which pdd prIthme UCdr ketdnI pCld kdhu ;jt." Mahadev in the form of a male buffalo is said -SClnama. abode of the cannon ball; the gun; to be placed. It is told that, after being defeated big cannon. by Pandavs, Shiv came here in the form of a ~[ketra], . 2 one who skins an animal; skinner. 3 of the skin. "meri khallum:>jre gursIkkhha4hade."-BG. ~: [khav] See ~. ~:c!' [khavcl1).], ~ [khavl.).a], w~ [khaval.).u] v bear, tolerate. "prabh das ka dukhu na khavISakahI."-var guj 2 m 5. "nidak sakat khav na sakE."-basat am 4. "nIVaI.).U su akharu



khaval.).u gul.).u."--s farid. See rn. "khave na vaJ1anI."--var gu;2 m 5. 'cannot be tolerated.' "eku bol bhi khcl'vto nahi."-asa m 5. 'Even a single utterance could not be tolerated.' 2 pardon, forgive. 3 dissolve, merge. "avatal.).u ape khaVE dudh kau khapal.). na deI. "-sri d m 1. l:fVl7iTor [khavlana] v feed. "jo bijE so khavlavEgo. "-kan dill 4. ~ [khavas] A ul} n plural of J:fTR [xas]; ministers, grandies etc, royal servants. 2 special qualilties. 3 A ~n;" lion. 4 slave. S dacoit, plunderer. "kine kharab khane khavas."-aj. 6 P ~fl} adjpetitioner, supplicator. ~ [khavasi] P ttl} duty of an attendant. "narad sarad karalu khavasi." -asa kabir. 2 backseat of a buggy, ,chariot or howdah of an elephant etc for the servant to sit in attendance, behiind the noble man. 3 grandies, distinguished or favourite attendants. "kIa laskar kIa neb khavasi?"-var majh m 1. ~ [khavaIl.).aj! v feed, provide food. "es no kur bolI In khavaIiE?"--var guj 1 m 3. l:Ifu [khan] See 1:~. 2 having tolerated. ~ [khavi] n talI and rough grass which, like reed stalk, has a small ear at its top. ~ [khavis], Cj,furcft [khavisni] djinn, ogre, ogress. "khavisni pIsacni bItal bir bhnvi."

-pp ~

[xavid] P ~:j n wheat or barley plant on which the ear has not appeared yet. 1::f& [khavin] See ~. ~ [khavhi] See ~. lS' [khar] or ~. [kharu] See 1::SC')T. 2 Skt m paddy straw. "kharu khavahI amnt dehI." -guj m 1. S~' residue of pressed mustard seed etc; oil cake. 3 crop. "kharu paki kur bhajE bInS£,"--sri m 1 pahrre. 4 Skt lSTZ, six. "dharal.).I suvani khar ratan jaravi."-gau var 2 m 5. Here khar has a pun: 'The earth decorated with different kinds of gem-like grass,

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becomes comely after having been equipped Sammat 1860 and ascended the throne of with spiritual glory.' Lahore in Sammat 1896; but wily Dhyan Singh ~ [kharasanI) will take away. "avgal). Dogra dethroned him and put Naunihal Singh, kharsanI banI. "-sri m 1 pahIre. Kharag Singh's son, on the throne. Having ~ [kharhar) n knocking or clattering sound. remained grief-stricken for one year, Kharag l:j"3'q [kharak) See ~. 2 a village which Bhai Singh died at the age of 38 years, on 21 51 of Santokh Singh has referred to as Kharak. It is Kattak Sammat 1897. situated at a distance of twelve kohs towards ~ [kharagdhari) adj sword-bearing. 2 n the south of Dhamdhan. While travelling Khalsa; the sword-bearer. 3 the Timeless One. through Bangar, Guru Teg Bahadur halted here ~ [kharagdhvaj) the Timeless One, whose under a banyan tree. "kharak gram nIygrodh I standard has the emblem a sword. vIsala. tahi'i jaI ?fIfu ~ })f: 225.

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partisanship. [xatnj;:Jm;:J], C:fTf3m:n..rr [khatnj;:lma], crffifow [khatnnIsa] A 6:J1,; n satisfaction, contentm.ent, patience. "khatnj;:Jma hOI urt;:JbhL"-NP "jhuthmuthk;:JhE s;:Jbhkhatnko j;:Jma rakh, j;:Jma hOI gh;:Jr me to khatnj;:Jma r;:JhE." -llIpatk;;WI. "khane ko hama rahE na kahu ki tama r;:JhE. jo gath me j;:Jma rahE Ito khatnjama rah£."-gval. ~fl [khati] Skt ~ n carpenter, cutter, outcaste. "na Ihu brahmaD na Ihu khati."-g5Q kabir. 2 Skt ~ adjwho digs; who hoes. 3 in a muddy pit. "ane pavDa khati tOVE."-scwa m 1. 1:f1fO [xatun] T (;,IiI,; respectable woman, lady, wife, begam. l:f"r [khad] Skt ~. "bhram bhE s;:Jgle khad." -sar m 5. 2 edible substance, meals. .3 manure, fertilizer. See CfT3" 3. 1::fTt!H [khadam] See 1:flfuJ..r. 1fi!'a" [khadar] Skt ~ n mud, slush. 2 mire, land near a river bank, that always remains slushy. 3 land adjoining the foot hills. l:I't~[khadari] a village in tehsil Nankana Sahib ofdistrict Shekhupura. There is a gurdwara in memory of Guru Arjan Dev in this village. 2 a resident of village Khadar. See l::fTeB" 2 and 3. l:flfe- [khad I] See l::fT"eJl. J:fTfm-r [xadIm] A (ll,; n adoring servant, humble well-wisher, servant. "khad:[m kijE bara khudaI."-GPs. 2 servant. J:fTfew [xadIma] feminine ofxadIm. l:f'tIT[khadi] n coarse cloth of homespun cotton, perforated coarse cotton cloth. 2 adj eatable. ~f[khaday] Skt n ~food, meals, eatables. 2 adj eatable, edible. "ak;:JrDa karotI akhady khadya."--sahas m 5. lfTtlT [khadha] eaten. "khadha hOI suah."-var majh m 1. lfTtfT3T [khadhata] See 31". l:f'it [khadhE] on eating. "kIa khadhE kIa 'J:fTf~

pEdhE ho:r?"-var majh m 1. P (;,II,; n wealthy person, noble man. "sultan khan maluk umre."-sri a m 1. 2 home, dwelling place. "kahu gari godri nahi kahu khan parara."-asa kabir. 'Some do not have even tatters or rags, while others have majestic and ell~gant palaces to live in.' See tRJ1'QT. 3 family, housl~hold, kith and kin. "jEse . ghar lagE agI bhag nIks;:Jt khan."-BGK. 4 beehive, honey beehive, honeycomb. 5 title of the Pathans, appellation of the Pathans. 6 Skt 1:fI(fr "s;:JbhI khusia sabhI khan."-var sar m 1. 7 See l~-rfo. }:fl'i')F.\'Tij [xan$ah] a disdplle of Bhai Pheru (s;:Jci dari) who was a sage professing deep faith. }:fTOR1}{l' [xansama] P ,;.ILl)1,; attendant of a rich man. 2 one who cooks food for a rich man; butler. }:fTi'iU [xanah] See: 'l:fIOI'. ~[xankah] P ~!f;L; or ~I,; n dwelling place, home. 2 residence, particularly of a Muslim monk. l:fTOl:ITi')T [khankhana] P l.jtlil,; supervisor of a princely palace. 2 chiefofchiefs. 3 a high rank which was conferred on army commanders by Mughal emperors. 4 a famous nobleman. who was one of the chiefs of Akbar. See l?1ai;;JMaJlHJ:f'?i". 5 a rich man, and devotee ofthe tenth Guru, who usually stayed in Agra. His real name was Munaim Khan. He attained the rank ofa minister during the regime ofemperor Bahadurshah. He dit~d in Sammat 1768. 1 1JITi'5'ifit [xangi] P l.fl,; adj domestic, household, pertaining to the house. 2 used for a harlot satirically. ~ [khanjarad] ,,;I,;Jj.JJ armoury, arsenal, arms-store. See l:f1'C'i'F1d":ft.- - - - - - - 'I::fI7i [khan]

Bahadur Shah got annoyed with him because knowingly


he let Banda Bahadur escape from the blockade. His book Ilhamat Munimi is very popular.

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944 1:I'(')Ad 1e1

[khanjaradi] adj pertaining to the annoury. See~. "karan guman kamangar khanjaradi bahut bakhoa."-BG. 'The bowmakers boast that the bows made in their armoury are special.' l::fTC'leTO [xandan] P (;,II,,\; n dynasty, lineage. ~H [khandes] Skt territory towards the south of Satpura mountain range in the Bombay presidency, which is divided into two regions. Dhulia is the capital of western Khandesh while Jalgaon is that of eastern Khandesh. ~ [khanprara] See 'l:fT(') and ~. l:fTOl.rO [khanpan] v relish eating. 2 n foodstuff. ~ [khanpur] a village near Gurdwara Toka in tehsil and police station Naraingarh of Ambala district. When Guru Gobind Singh arrived in Toka, his camels were stolen away. The Guru came to this village to warn the thieves. There was a Manji Sahib here, which has since been washed away by floods. Land measuring about I 00 bigha~ is allocated to the gurdwara. The priest is a baptised Sikh. 1:jI(')~Witld [khanbahadur] His real name was Zakriakhan. He was son ofAbdul Samad Khan and the father of Shahnwaz. He is referred to as Khanoo among the Khalsa Panth. His role in Sikh history is duly mentioned. See~. etc. Khanbahadur became governor of Lahore in 1739 AD and died in 1745. J:ITi')}f [xanam] P (\; n wife of a khan; queen; begum. "mir na khanam sagI na kou drISatI nIharau."-savEye sri mukhvak m 5. 1:fTOlfIi') [khanman] P (;,Ilit; short for xanah va samano house and luggage. 1:ji(')dA'e' [khanrajada] a villa,ge about one and a halfkos away to the wesfofKhadoor Sahib. A gurdwara in memory ofGuru Angad Dev is situated there. The Guru came here after being harassed by the rich people ofKhadoor village. He was persuaded to come here by Tapa.

Now this place is named as Chhapri or Khan Chhapri. See~. ~ [khanval] an ancient village; Guru Arjan Dev founded Tarn Taran on a part of the land ofthis village after purchasing it. See 3d(')3'o('). 'l:fl7iT [khana] n food, meals. 2 v take meals, eat. 3 P ,.;t; n house, home. 4 wife, woman, lady. 5 a Brar Sikh who on the order of Kapoora went to the tenth Guru to guide him to the path leading to Khidrana (Mukatsar) pool. 6 a devotee belonging to Chhura subcaste of village Dalla, who attained selfrealisation on becoming a disciple of Guru Amar Dev. 1:I""i')'1"f [khanaI] housing complex, houses. "mIlak khanaI."-trlag ill 5. 2 Afghans; Muslim nobility. l:fTfo [khanI], l::fT?iT [khani] Skt 'l:ffo and crrfo n mine. "vacan bhane gunkhanI."-GPS. 2 classification ofthe origin of mammals. "a.:f1WHW N~ [muamla lEl).a] collect cereals, food, milk, cash etc. from different households in a village. ~ ~ [mu~ka kasl).ia] til~ beard. ~ [muslidhar] he who keeps a Muslim woman as his wife. ~ fuJ:roro: [muhamdi Isnan] take a nude bath; take a bath without undergarments. ~ ~ [muMmdi savari] camel. ~"i1w [muhamdi pJla] razor. ~ [mukhmajl).a] twig for brushing teeth. lj&R:Rff [muchahra] moustaches. lj3ft:Rr'r [mut-hua] club; pestle use:d for preparing a nourishing cold drink by crushimg poppy seeds, almonds, sugar etc. ~ [murgaia] bulbs ofa vegetable plant grown on water.

~[mevra] one who offers prayers;

H?iH3" [manmat] wilful

one who leads devotees to present themselves before the Guru. Htr [mEdal wh(~etmeal. }Rro R"~rr [mEdan jal).a] go out in the open to defecate. ~ ~rer [morca laul).a] start work. 2 start a battle. ~ [mordhuj] a care1ree ascetic, Udasi saint belonging to the sect of Sodhi Meharban. HtfT 'J1Tft:n:r [maji sahIb] a small palanquin used for laying Guru Granth Sahib. 2 palanquinshaped platfbrm raised for the Guru to sit on. ~[ralll).i] observance ofthe Sikh traditional code. ~ IT(f,:fl [rahI~i bahl).i] religious rituals and practices; codes and principles of religion. "6U3" [rahat] compliance with the traditional Sikh code. ~r [rahatnama] a book describing the Sikh religious code. ~ [rahatia] one who observes the traditional Sikh eade; baptised Ravidasia Sikh. 'ij'tft [rajjil small ladle. ~ [ral).sf~;a] n fart. ~.~ [ral).sfga vajaul).a] v fart. ~ [ramcJka] not to take any consideration of the place where food is being cooked, considering the whole earth as the cooking place of God. ~ [ramjaga] gun. ~ [ramqol] leather bucket for drawing water from a well. ~ [rambag] world, universe. 2 forest, wood. QTi-/Qli [ramras] salt, also named as sarabras and rupras. ~ [ramroji] estate allotted to Ramgarh

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fort at Amritsar for the Khalsa. ~ [ramlac;lc;lu] watermelon. ~tfT [ruppa] onion. ~ [rupbr] vessel, usually earthen, for boiling milk on low heat. ~ [rupras] salt. ~[re$am]jute. ~ (')lW [re$mi nala] cord ofjute.

h [ror] a kind of pulse; moth. ~[raghar] mulberry.

2 arrogant, conceited. ~ [raghri] corncob of maize. 2 shrew, illreputed woman. ~ [lakhnetra] blind in one eye. ~ [lakhbaha] with one hand maimed. ~ [lac;lc;l.u] squash gourd, tIc;lo. ~ [lavera] one without a beard. ~ fl:fur [Higra sIgh] cook, butler. WtJT [laca] wooden seat. wtflt!IC;' [lacidal)a] millet, Panicum spicatum. ~lf ~~ [lekhe laul)a] utilise, consume material by distributing. 2 spend in the name of God. ~[loh] large oblong iron hotplate. ~'1'fuRr[loh lagar] large oblong iron hotplate, cauldron; provisions for food. iORf HH3' [lagar masatl, iORf lfFf3T('iT [lagar mastana] meals not being cooked for want ofprovisions. iii' -gm [lac;li bucci] miscreants, mischiefmongers. 2 vicious persons not observing the traditional Sikh code. ~[vahir]large body of Sikhs on the move; body of Sikhs observing the traditional code, which visits gurdwaras and exercises control over the attendants; group of Sikh preachers who preach Sikhism in various regIOns. ~ ~ [vahir paul)a] march. 2 pass away. ~ [vahiria] member ofthe body of Sikhs on the move.

~ [vatau] traveller. 2 destructible. ~[vartava]large ladle,


scoop. 2 distributor.

fRo ~ [vehle SIr vala] one who has no

hair on his head; bald. 'l:fTHa'[khalak] See ~. "khalak thavahu bhula mutha."-maru am 5 ;jjuli. l:fTHW [khalka] Oh God! "$UI)I benati khalka!" -manz sollle m 5. ~ [khalku] See 1::I'"fu-a. ~[khalra] a police station of district Lahore situated at a distance of 13 miles south west of Jallo railway station. Guru Nanak Dev visited this place. A holy shrine has been constructed here. Land measuring 40 bighas' has been allotted to this holy place. J::I'TW [xala] A jl,; n aunt, mother's sister. 2 uncle, husband of mother's sister. l:(l'ft;m' [khalI s] See i::fTffi1. 't:fTfl;;cr [khaIIkl, 1:f"Tfu adj well-to-do, happy, nIvas nCl khujhE."-BG. 'Fragrance does not delighted. "madClr khusal khatClr." -ramav. reside in the bamboo.' ~ ft:fur [khu:;;al sigh] son of Hargobind, a lf~ [khUjhl)a] n err; make a mistake. "vad Gaur Brahmin by caste, resident ofIkri, district kClredClf khUjhE." -BG. Mehrat. He was recruited as a soldier in ~ [khut-hClr] adj debased, perfidious, impure. Dhaunkal Singh's platoon in sammat 1864 in "m.m khut-hClr tera nClhI bIsasu."-bIla m 5. the army of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. On one ~ [khutai], ~ [khutIai] n baseness, blemish, vice. "pnthie ki Im suni khutai." occasion, impressed by his elegant turn-out, the Maharaja exclaimed "It would have been -GPS. better, had this young man been a Singh." yZw [khutera] adj having defect, defective. Khushala at once turned Khushal Singh. He ~ [khuc;!] n ditch, hole. "khodi khuc;! nClhI kEse also got his son Ramlal, and his brother's son lClhyo."-GPs. Teju baptized as Singhs. Eventually, he was lfir [khUc;!] See i~. promoted to the post of a supervisor of ~ l)J61aa@IM1 [khuc;!a1 ClkbClrvali] a village in Maharaja's antechamber. Khushal Singh died police station Boha, tehsil Mansa, circle in 1844. His descendants' seat ofadministration Barnala of Patiala state. A gurdwara of Guru is Sheikhupura to which are attached 180 Gobind Singh stands a furlong away to the villages of several districts (Sheikhupura, south of the village. When the Guru was staying at Sirsa, the Sialkot, Lahore and Amritsar) with Rs 1,20,000 daughter of Nabi Baksh, ruler of the area, as ll1come. confined Gulab Singh, a Sikh goldsmith, to a ~ [khusa1i] P JI.-Jf n prosperity, opulence. 2 happiness. dungeon. Enamoured of the man, she wanted l§fu[khuSI] by snatching, by usurping. See ~ 1. to have sexual relation with him, but he did not 'lJF.ft [xu:;;i] P n happiness. "khusi khuar bhCle want to blemish Sikhism, his faith. Accompanied by five Sikhs, the omniscient ras bhogCll)."-maru a m 1. 2 adj favoured. Guru arrived at the village and liberated that "rClhIt ko khusi na aYClu."-savEye m 3 ke. "jo Sikh from the dungeon and delivered a religious sIkhuno 10cE so gur khusi aVE."-var gau 1 m 4. '!fffi!T [khussl)a] v get entangled. 2 scatter. 3 get sermon to Nabi Baksh. That underground cell is still there in the village. duped. ~ [khuhdi] residue, remnant. See~. 1lf[l:[-1:!Cf. breach of cclebacy.


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A simple structure has been improvised lj'Eft [khutthi] adj bewildered, ·perplexed. 2 n there. Residential quarters are closeby. PaHala purse for holding money, wallet. 3 pile of rolls, state has granted 50 ghumaons ofland as well. heap ofclothes. "jle khutthi bfqa bahE, kID hOI Two miles long unmetalled path links it with bajaj."-BG. Bareta railway station. Jj"e" [xud] PJf part self. "khud khasam baqa ljir [khuqq] hole, ditch. See ~. atol."-tr];J/r; m 5. lj'og [khUqh] Skt ~ n trunk of a felled tree. lj'~ [khUdkar] P ./(;;} king. 2 lord, master. "susak khuqh s6 lagkar thaqho. "-GPS. "khakhekhGdkarsahalam."-asa patim 1. "mr 2 broken tree trunk, sleeper. 3 cylindrical roller adhule ki tek tera nam khGdkara."-tr];Jg to extract juice by crushing sugarcane. namdev. 3 /t-e} is also a transform of "khuqha adan rakhI kr denI su m;)l sajaI." xudav;'ldgar. -val' majh m 1. lj't!C(I'ijT [khi)dkara] vocative "he khUdkar! he lj' [khUqha] SkI' ~ adj blunt, not sharp. khUdgar!" ~'[khul)as] n mind's dispersion, spleen, anger. ~ [xudku~i] po j;} n suicide. "khadhikhUl)as jogisra."-BG. "vekh caIItr jogi 13'elfm{ [khudkhasam] one who is his own khul)saI."-BG. master, and is unconcerned with any other ~~ [khul)sal)a] v be disconnected, fret., get person's supremacy. "khudkhasam baqa enraged. See 1j. llI'i"i"a' [gamk] See ~. 2 See ~ and ~. "pan sua ganak udhare."-n.1 n grit, dust, dust storm. 4 profit, benefit. 5 pleasure. 'dTa'e'f.r [gabe. (7) to take five drops of chaulmoogra oil three times a day and apply it to the swollen limbs. (8) to take ten drops of margosa oiL (9) to make balls ofbaIb(tg weighing five and halftolas, haraT di chIll two tola~, khassi aule seven tolas, and CItti trIbi sixteen tolas. They should be separately ground and sieved. All these should be mixed with double the quantity of old guT, balls ofthe size of betelnut should be prepared and each morning one should be taken with warm water. "gal:ctkust upja dustan tal1."-carrtr 405. i1lfw [garIa] formed, created, shaped, carved.

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or;ft [gari] small fort.

Jind state. The village is situated at a distance


[garia1l a subcaste of Bunjahi Khatris, its correct pronunciation being gurial. "garia1 mathradas hE."-BG. 2 spear man, lancer. 'iIT31>w [garial n spear, lance. 2 small spear. "garia bhasuc;li bhErvi bhala neja bhakh." -scmama. 3 an ardent but enlightened devotee ofGuru Hargobind. He was deputed to preach the Guru's doctrine in Kashmir. Sain Shahdaula, a resident of Gujarat, became a follower ofthe Guru on listening to Sukhmani from him. Garhia served the nineth Guru as well. He is also named as gac;lhia. ~ [garul See ore and or.r. "jInI bharamgaru torIa."-var guj 2 m 5.

ofeighteen miles on a pucca road to the southwest of Patiala railway station. At the time ofthe Guru's visit to this place, this land was a part of Samana. That is why some writers hold that this gurdwara is in Samana. See 'Ff}fTOI". orr [gal Skt vr go, proceed, praise, appreciate. 2 n appreciation, praise. 3 singing, recitation. 4 suffix indicating future tense. "jiare jahIga mE jana."-g;m k2bir. 5 short for OT'H [gaml (OJ'H [gram]). "nahI lakhE ham ko jan ga ke." -kns2n. 'ofa vilIage.' art [gal village. 2 short for 'dJT(')" [gan]. See 'dJT(')" 6. "baccga ku~tah car,,"-j2f2r. ~[garedarl See~. ~ [gaul See orr(r,rr [gana] See 0T'Q7jT. dRfI"[gari] n abuse, name calling. 2 ma1lediction,

curse. "tIS kE kulI lagi gari."~mala m 4, "rarE garur tum sUlJ.ahu." -oJkar. 'Listen to the holy hymn ofGarurh to eradicate the poison of evils (in the form of snakebites). ' ~ [garuriJ See ~. ~ [garE] See 0T'Q7jT. ~ [garh] n small fort. "gun bIkham garh tori."-sar m 5 partal. 2 cave, cavern, dungeon. "bIkham garh karu pahucE nahi."-sar m 5. ~.r, [garhpaty] Skt ~ n who is related to the head of a family. Agni, by which the head of a household discharges obligations relating to ancestors and his day-to-day domestic chores. ~ [gall S n conversation. "sat tere SIU gal galohi."-gau In 5. "sab rEnI samhalahI hangal."-prabha m 4. "koi anI sunaVE han ki hangal."-nQlt m 4. 2 curse. 3 See (ffTffi'iT. 4 See 0TT1'3. ~ [galak] adj who calls names. 2 who destroys. 'iJ1'THO [galan] v cause decay. 2 cause leak, drip. ~ [galab] A "":~~ adjstrong, overpowering. 2 victorious. 3 also used in Punjabi for kalab (a die or cast) "guIIka galab mahI QhalvaI." -GPs. 4 a famous Urdu poet. 5 See ~. ~ [galabh] See ~. ~ [galav] son ofsage Vishvamittar. 2 disciple of Vishvamittar. There is a story in Mahabharat that out of regard for him Galav on completing his education, desired to make an offering to Vishvamittar, who declined to accept the offelr a number of times. Getting irritated on Galav's persistent request, he told him to offer eight hundred white horses having black ears. At this Galav got worried and called his dear friend Garurh (a vehicle of Vishnu) for help. Garurh carried him on his back to king Yayati. Galav requested him for horses. ~ [garur] See~.

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The king told him that he did not have such horses, but his daughter, Madhvi, could fulfil his desire. Galav took Madhvi to king Haryashv and requested him to provide 200 horses in return for a son born from the womb ofMadhvi. After getting a son, Sumana from her, Haryashv returned Madhvi alongwith 200 horses. Then Galav approached king Divodas. He also got a son Pratardan from Madhvi and gave 200 horses to Galav and returned Madhvi. Thereafter Galav presented Madhvi to Ushiner, who also begot a son, Shivi from Madhvi and handed Madhvi back to Galav alongwith 200 horses. When no more horses were available anywhere else, Galav on the advice of Garur handed over 600 horses and offered Madhvi to Vishvamittar in lieu of the remaining 200 horses. Vishvamittar got a son named Ashtak from Madhvi. Ultimately Galav returned Madhvi to king Yayati. "gal;w adI anat munIsar brahmhu te nahI jat ganaye."-ddtt. ~[galfi] adjtalkative, gossip monger. 2 n a village in tehsil Gurdaspur, which has a holy place in memory ofBaba Sri Chand. CJT1"l?1"fu [gaIn] See ~(!T. "Ik phIka na galaI."-s fdrid. 'do not indulge in fake talk.' dl'wFee [galaIO] uttered, spoke. See ~. "kIa galaIo bhuch."-var maru 2 m 5. See ~.

arrfi5" [gaII],


[gali] adv by causing to decompose, by decaying. "hIVE gaii gaii tanu chijE."-kdlI d m 4. 2 n talk, conversation. "bfddk galI sUl)i."-asa m 5. "gali bIa vIkar, nanak dhal)i vIhul)ia."-var gdU 2 m 5. "nanak gali kUfia bajh paritI kareI."-var VdQ m 1. 3 plural of gall. "se gali rab kia."-s fdrid. 4 (third declension); merely by talking. "gali harInihu na hOI."-toQi m 5. 5 Skt n abuse, name-calling, curse. "jo bemukh gobfd


te pIare, tInI kulI lagE gaII."-sor d m 5. 6 infamy, blemish, blot on one's reputation. "tere kulahI na lagE gaii jio."-majh d m 5. ~ [galh] Skt 1j(Y(1 n cheek. ~ atIW [galh bajana], 0llC3 HTQ7iT [galh marna] v talk nonsense. 2 boast. "avat hE cale galh bajavat."-knsdn. 3 bleat like a male goat (by putting thumb in the mouth) in Shiv temple. Realising the insult heaped upon her husband Shiv, Sati got herself burnt in the oblation perfomed by her father Daksh. Virbhadhara, the disciple of Shiv, disrupted the oblation by beheading Daksh. Shiv pardoned his fatherin-law Daksh and fixed the head of a he-goat on his beheaded body, thus bringing him back to life. Shiv was very much pleased to hear the bleating sound produced by Daksh. Since then, the d€votees have been producing bleating sound to please Shiv. ~ [gay] singing. "gav leh."-asa m 5. 2 Skt ~: (plural offirst declension): "gav sab ani." -ndrav. 3 village. "bIkhEbIadhI ke gay mahI basu."-ram m 5.4 P /t' ox. "amIt gay lavgan ke bhare."-ddtt. countless carts laden with cloves. ~[gav] n village. ~[gavasI], ~[gavsi] will sing. 2 singing, reciting. ~ [gavahI] sings. 2 (they) sing. "gavahI isaru barma devi. "-jdPU. ~ [gavhi] sings. 2 (they) sing. ~ [gaval)] See 0'T"fu0. dl',{to [pan] Skt ~ knowledge, learning, intelligence, understanding. '\'}tan gIan na aIO mntaku hE sasar."-var sri m 3. 2 the Transcendent One - i.e. who is knowledge incarnate. ~[gIan-ajan],~ [gIan-ajanul n spiritual insight, collyrium like spiritual insight. "gIan-ajanu gun dia, agIan adheru bInas."-sukhmani. ~ [gIan-idri] See ~. "gur gIanfdri dnrta."-g3c;f namdev. ~ [gIanhil).], ~ [gIanhinl adj devoid of knowledge, ignorant. "gIanhil).a agIanI puja."-s;wa m 1. ~ii' [ gIankhaql n stage of spiritual knowledge, state ofselfrealization. "gIankhaq mahI gIanu parcaqu."-japu. 2 dIJli(,)O(i$. ~ [gIanmati] adj who has intellect guided by true knowledge. "gIanmati pachata he."-maru solhe m 3. ~ [gIanraul, ~ [gIanraI] n the Transcendent One-Master of all knowledge; from whom emanates all knowledge. "gIanrau jab sejE ave."-asa m 1. ~ [gIanvat] adj intellectual. "gIanvat kau tatuvicar."-gau bavan kabir. ISanskrit


is formed by the union of;:r and


That is

why it acquires the shape;!f in Punjabi. It is difficult to popularise it because at places it is written as"iJTj[ in the changed form.

~ [gIanil Skt ~TR;:r"

adj who is knowledgeable; scholarly. "apu bicare su gIani hOI."-gaum 1. "bhE kahu kau detnahI, nahI bhE manat an. kahu nanak sun re mana, gIani tahI bakhan."-s m 9. 2 See ilT.iP'?l1. ~[gIarasI] n eleventh day of the lunar phase, Ekadashi. ~ [gIarahl eleven. "gIarah mas pas ke rakhe."-prabha kabir. ~~fi::l1:f[gIarahgera sIkkh] instruction to utter the holy hymn consecutively for eleven times. "gIarahI gera SIkkh SUl).I gur sIkh IE gursIkkh sadaya."-BG. There was a ritual prevalent before the creation of the Khalsa that a person was instructed to utter ~ ~ consecutively for eleven times while being baptised a Sikh. 2 Some scholars are of the opinion that this instruction implies Mool Mantar i.e. from 9{;'0 QT01:fwR, which has eleven adjectives to define the Creator. ~ [gIaral See~. ~ ~ [gIara $IV], ~ 9'i [gIara rudrl See SR'. ~ [gIarkil n dense bush. 2 cave, cavern. farRG [gIsatl Skt ~ stretched hand, span, one fourth of a yard. "kIte qeqh gIste." -janmejay. fd'ia'R;5t[gfglil n Durga-havingthe sign ofthe moon on her forehead. "gigli higli pfg1a."-paras. 'farnt [gIccil n back of the neck. fam'r [gIjal A ,;; n diet, food, meals. ~ [gIzaf] See ~. , ~ [gIjhl).al, f'dr57>r [gIjhnal v get used to, become addicted to, long for. See farqr. "sadh knpaii han sagI gIjhaIa."-majh ill 5. farG'cr [gItakl n endocarp, stone of fruit. "badrip hal ki g I tak baqeri."--GPS. fakr [gItta] Skt ~ ankle. ftno [gIth] See fan::rc. fcmr [gIql Skt f'ol'c n mucus or viscid matter

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code. 3 adj suffering from; "rog-gIrasat cItare nau."-gdum 5. 'He meditates who is gripped by the Divine.' fdldRfa [gIrasatI], foRn:r3T [gnasti], ~ See~. [gnasatu] Skt 'lffi~R, householder, person ~ [gIDna] See '(l'fw [grria] P -:J: weeping, wailing, crying. "subh dmla till bIgEr guia kdrde hdn."-JSBM f. qfH"a"'3' [gujrat] Skt :1'*'-( n a subdivision of Bombay region, which includes territories of Kacch, Kathiawar, Palanpur and Daman. Its spoken language is Gujarati. 2 a sword made

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in Gujarat state or Gujarat city. This sword is of two types: long Gujarat and short Gujarat. See lkl~. 3 a town in Punjab which is a district headquarters. It is situated between Wazirabad and Lalamoosa. A gurdwara in memory ofGuru Hargobind is built near Kabuli Gate in Gujarat. While returning from Kashmir the Guru stayed here. This place is situated one mile to the east ofGujarat railway station. Four edicts said to be written by Guru Gobind Singh are preserved at the residence of Bhai Lal Singh of goldsmiths' street in Gujarat. On reading the copies of these commands, one fails to be convinced that they were actually written by the tenth Guru because the command of Sammat 1754 contains a reference to the Khalsa, which was actually baptised in Sammat 1756. The last Anglo-Sikh war was fought near Gujarat on 21'1 February, 1849. See osl»fr 3 and~.

garib ki ko gujraVf:?"-bhE"r kabir.

'QJ"ffift [gujri] wife of a Gujjar, milkmaid. 2 past of guzCl~tcm; passed, elapsed. 3 died, expired. See ~. 4 See ~ H'3"". 'QJ"ffift lfI3T [gujri rna ta]1 daughter of Lal Chand Subhikhia Khatri and Mata Bisan Kaur. She was married to Guru Teg Bahadur on 15 th Asu Sammat 1686 at Kartarpur. She had the privilege of being the mother of Guru Gobind Singh. When younger sons ofGuru Gobind Singh were brought to Sirhind after being captured by the Mughals, she was with them. On hearing that her grandsons had been martyred she breathed her last on 13 th Poh Sammat 1761. The minaret in which she was confined along with Zorawar Singh and Fateh Singh is now named as Mata Gujri da Burj. A shrine built on the remains of Mata Gujri is situated near gurdwara Jyoti Saroop. See FRl"ftft: and ~.

QfffiJ'5t [gujrati] adj pertaining to Gujarat. 2 a

qJw [guja] SkI ~UfT n small red and black seed

Brahmin subcaste, which originated from Gujarat of Sindh. It is also named as Vyas. Its members accept alms offered during the eclipse-period. They also accept other forms of maligned alms. 3 language spoken by the people ofGujarat. 4 a sword made in Gujarat.'c'l [guzran] P l:JI.JY n sustenance, livelihood. ilJAai~iMi [gujravala] a district headquarters in Punjab, which in hoary past was founded by Gujjars. For some period, it was named as Khanpur. It is forty-two miles away from Lahore in north-west direction. It was the capital of Mahan Singh, father of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. According to some historians, Gujranwala is the birth place of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ~ [gujravEl may provide; may request. "mo

ofAbrus precatorius. 2 kettledrum, large drum beaten with a rope of twisted clothes. qf'ftTfuR" [gujaIs] See qT;::rrl:iIF.f. QJ"A"JJ [guja~t] P '::':-1;1' released, freed, relieved. ~ [guja~tan] P renounce; give up. 2 release, free. Qfwo [gujan] P l:Ji( adj dense, thick, concentrated, non-rarefied. Q]t.I"ir[guzaf] P "';f! n nonsense. 2 scandalous and false remarks, gossips. qfH"'lilF.l"[gujaya~]P J!.i( n capacity, accommodation. 2 space, room. QJt.r"'a" [guzar] P .If;! suione who provides. It is used as a suffix like in rnalguzar. qfflTa" [gujar] See qTtl7i".


ilJA'aei'i [gujardCln] P cJ).Jf)f v set free, release. 'Many historians have written her name as qrtRitl-fT3T [gujri mata] but the correct name is gujri mata.

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present, offer. 3 give, offer. QI't.fT'ij('jT [guzarna] v spend time, pass time. 2 offer. See QjH'ije(') 2. "subdhr m:vaj Sdrar gujardu."-sul1i k;;lbir. Q)'t.lTaH [guzardm] P (.Jj) may I leave: I leave; I will leave. 'ijJ"H'TaT [gujara] P v') n sustenance, livelihood. 2 money, material etc received for sustenance. QJt.ITfaF.r [guzarI$] P J.JI) n request, prayer. QI'm~ [guzarf ddhkar] P .1'6'-;):.1 1) adj doing work, performing work, supervising work. ift::ra" [gOjrt] Skt adj resounding. itffircr; [gOjiddn] P v absorb, merge. qr;:ffir [guzir] P 1) ;; effort, remedy. 2; plan, method. qft«r [gujjdr] Skt QJ't'fu cow grazer; a subcaste of Aheers (milkmen). 2 a subcaste of Khatris. 3 Gujarat state. 4 a blacksmith and disciple of Guru Angad Dev, who was prominent among philanthropists. "gujjdr jatr luhar hE. "-BG . qf~ [gujjdrval] a town under police station Dehlon in district Ludhiana, situated at a distance of four miles to the west of Quilla Raipur railway station. The sixth Guru stayed here for some time. There is a gurdwara one and half miles away to the south-east of the village, which is also named as Gurusar. 30 bighas ofland has been donated by the villagers for the gurdwara. A religious fair is held on the fourteenth day of the lunar phase ofChet. qf~ [gujjravala] See QjHdi~IW. W5" [gujh], ~ [gujhra], QP5T [gujha], .~1ft [gujhi], Qfw [gujjhal, Qfm [gujjhi] Skt qJ(r..r See q]ran khalavE karE nIt hItde$ ko, vad VEr irkha vIkar man lavE nahI, mentor. "ram na choQau gurhIgar."-basat par hIt khed sahE, devE na kale$ ko, kabir. sadacari sahsi suhnd saty vratdhari, ClJdccda1 [gurkami] n mode of living prescribed Ese gursIkkh sartaj hE vnje$ ko. by Guru Nanak Dev, ideals of Sikhism. 2 This word has also been used for the Guru's "gurkan:1i bInu bharamu na bhagE."-basat a teachings. "gursIkh de gursIkkh mIlaIa." m 1. 2 great deeds. -BG. ClJQWd' [gurkar] service performed in the name ~ [gursukhu] eternal bliss, ultimate pleasure. of the Guru; religious work pertaining to the "gur mIlI gursukhu pai."-suhi a m 4. Guru. "jo sIkh gurkar kamavahI."-var gau 1 m4. 2 liberation, salvation. ~ [gursev], ~ [gurseva] n service of ~ [gurkupa] grace of the true Master, the Guru, submission to the Guru. "gursev na grace of the mentor. "gurkIrpa te mIlE bhai cor cor."-basat m 1. "gurseva tapa SUI vaQIai."-maru solhe m 3. tapu saru."-asa am 3. "gurseva te bhagatI Cl)"aiJT [gurag] P Jj n wolf. kamaI. tab Ih manas dehI pai."-bhE'r kabir. ~ [gurgaml n path directed by the Guru. "gurgam gIanu batavE bhedu."-gauthrtikabir. Only by dedicating oneselfto the Guru and 2 scripture containing teachings ofthe spiritual meditating upon Him, does one attain the status mentor; holy hymns composed by the Guru. of a real human being. Prior to this, a person "gurgam pramal)I ajaru jarIo."-SaVE'ye m 5 ke. was just like an animal, i.e. one without 3 adjattainable or achievable with the Guru's dedication and devotion to the Guru is no more ~[gursIkh], ~ [gursIkhra] n follower

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the Mughal empire. "gurajdar dYE dine sag." crr~~. 3 a sect of Muslim Guru, by the teachings ofthe Guru. "gurgamI faqirs, who keep maces with them. bhed su han ka pavau."-gau kabir val' 7. ~ [gurjanl, QJd'FIo [gurjanul See QJgi1O. "na Q)"ij'alT[gt,Jrga] one who sits in ambush like a wolf; han bhajIo na gurjanu sevIo."-sor ill 9. selfish person. See qjQOT. 2 follower of the ilJdASdeid [gurajbardarl, ~[gurajmarl See Guru. Qjdtl€'d. royal employees keeping maces. They Qf~ [gurgabi] P J(! a kind of'pair of were authorised to use these for the recovery wooden sandals; pum"p shoes. of dues and penalities from the defaulters. ~ [gurgIanJ, crr~ [gurgIanu] n Mace bearing mendicants often used to beat teachings ofGuru Nanak Dev. "gurgIan dipak their bodies with maces and get alms by ujIaria."-gau m 5. 2 self-realisation, which frightening the householders. transcends all kinds of knowledge. "gUl'gIanu ~ [gurjotI llight of the Almighty, spiritual padarathu namu hE."-suhi ~ ill 4. enlightenment. "gurjotI arjun mahI dhari." QfOcitt.r [gurgopJ, ~ [gurgopak] adj (one) -savEye ill 5 ke. Guru less; one who conceals the name of his ~ [gurajhl, qrd'"5?i' [gurjhanl n entangled knot. or her spiritual mentor and pretends to be fully "sakat sutu bahu gurjhi bhana."-kalI a ill 4. divine. 2 maligner of the Guru. See iittlo. ~ [gurtal See CjJg3T. qJQ 'iitfife' [gur gobfd] Guru Gobind Singh. 'Qfd'3t [gurtil See ~. "gurti adI dehf sukh "rahIO gur gobfd."-s ill 9.2 spiritual[ guide in kad."-GPS. the guise of Guru Gobind Singh. 3 spiritual ilJd€so' [gurdachnal See Qjg€F6i(c;'. "to prathmE teacher with knowledge ofthe entire universe; gurdachna dijE. pachE ~ravaI). gyan ko kijE." the Creator. -NP. ~ [gurghar] See crrguRf. ilJdedRO [gurdarsanl n philosophy of the Guru; printed scripture depicting the philosophy of ~ [gurcaraI).], ~ [gurcaran] feet ofthe spiritual guide; feet of the mentor. "gurcaraI). Sikhism. "khatu darsanI vartE vartara. gurka lagi sahajI jagi."-brla chJt ill 5. "gurcaran darsan apar apara."-asa ill 3.2 glimpse of the sarevahI gursIkh tor."-basJtill 1. true Master. ~ [gurcall, ~ [gurcalil n religious ilJd€dAFo [gurdarsam] on having glimpse ofthe Guru. "gurdarsanI udhrE sasara."-asa ill 3. practices of the Guru. "gursIkh mit calahu gurcali."-dhana ill 4. 2 from the scripture of the Guru. qra;:r [gurajl P ;j n mace; knobbed iron club. ilJd€dAO [gurdarsanul See Qjd€dH('). "gurdarsanu dekhI maI).I hOI bIgasu."-sukhillani. See ~. "pIta prahIlad SIU guraj uthai." -bhEr a ill 3. ~ [gurdarasul See Q]d€dH(,). "gurdarasu Qj'OtlOI3' [gurjagatl See~. "gurjagat phIraI). paIa agIanu gavaIa."-tukha chJt ill 4. sib agrau."-savEye ill 2 ke. 'son ofPheru-Guru ~ [gurdanau] See ~. Angad Dev, a universal spiritual guide.' ~ [gurdal P ~)J E kidney; a pair of glands (kidneys) on the backside ofthe abdomen and ilJdAe'd [gurajdarl adjmace holding; possessing a mace; armed with a mace. 2 n a band of below the eleventh rib. They are a kind ofpiped glands, which filter impurities from the blood persons armed with maces like chobdars during

qraorfH [gurgamI] on the path directed by the

-GPs. See

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and excrete (drain) them as urine through the bladder. QJQeTR" [gurdas] adj follower of a spiritual teacher; disciple of the true spiritual mentor. 2 n Bhai Gurdas. "adI bnddh gurdas gan caM dISI me gurdas."-GPS. A true Sikh, Bhai Gurdas was cousin brother of Bibi BhanL He was initiated into Sikhism by the fourth Guru in 1636 and a acquired knowledge ofthe Sikh doctrine from the fifth Guru. As a preacher, he, wholeheartedly, preached the doctrine of Sikhism. He spread the message of Sikh religion to many places like Lahore, Agra, Kashi etc. According to the historians, the original version of Adi Granth (Guru Granth Sahib) dictated by Guru Arjan Dev was penned by Bhai Gurdas. The verses written by Bhai Gurdas (40 Val's and 556 Kabbits) are a valuable treasure of the Sikh doctrine. It would not be an exaggeration to say that the Sikh code of conduct written by Bhai Sahib has no peer. Guru Arjan Dev remarked that one acquired true knowledge ofSikhism only after studying the compositions ofBhai Gurdas. Bhai Gurdas breathed his last on the 8th day ofthe bright phase oflunar month Bhadon in Sammat 1694 in Goindwal during the time of the sixth Guru. The Guru, personally, performed the last rites. 3 Gurdas, a preachercum collector of tithes and offerings and a descendant of Bhai Ram Rai. He served the tenth Guru after the death of Ram Rai. See "3"d"'. 4 a devoted Sikh poet, who added his own composition to Val'S ofBhai Gurdas as the 41 st Val' which reads: "pio pahul khaqdhar hUI janam suhela. yah yah! gobid sigh ape gur cela." etc. 5 a saint ofUdasi (ascetic) sect of Shikarpur, whose place of worship in Sindh is very famous. He has recorded meanings of

difficult words appearing in Guru Granth Sahib. ~'ij' [gurdaspur] district headquarters of Punjab, which is forty-five miles away from Amritsar by rail. Banda Bahadur was captured here by Abdul Samadhkhan with an army comprising about twenty thousand soldiers and was sent to Delhi. See a€%li~d. Q]"dfu'3T [gurdItta] See ~3T ~. 2 son of Tilok Singh and grandson ofBaba Phul, who was the ancestor of Nabha dynasty. Gurditta died in 1754 AD. See~. ~ ~ [gurd I tta baba] Gurdatt Baba. The elder son of Guru Hargobind, born to Mata Damodari on full moon day of Kattak 15 th in Sammat 1670 at Daroli (district Ferozepur). Baba was given religious education and training in martial arts in an excellent way under the supervision of his father Guru. He was married to Ananti, daughter of Rama Sill Khatri at Vatala on 21 sl Baisakh, Sammat 1681. She gave birth to Baba Dheer Mall and Guru Hal' Rai. Baba Gurditta became a disciple of the supreme yogi, Baba Sri Chand. He spread Sikhism for and wide in India through Udasi sect with the help of his four disciples who had all the virtues. Baba ji breathed his last on 10 th day of brighter phase of Chet in Sammat 1695 1 in Kiratpur, where an elegant shrine has been constructed in his memory. See ~. Historians have forwarded two reasons for the title of "Baba" given to him. One, he appeared as Guru Nanak Dev to Sai Buddhan IBhai Santokh Singh has erroneously written the year as Sammat 1692. The Kartarpur manuscript of Guru Granth Sahib has on its first and last blank pages references to many different dates and events. In "joti jot I samav;m de carr tr". the date given is Chet Sudi 10 Sammat 1695 which is correct.

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Shah; two, he became a disciple of Baba Sri Chand and was appointed chief of his Udasi sect. 2 See ~w GfTST. ~ [gurdikhial religious instruction by the spiritual mentor. "bIn gurdikhIa h:se gIan?"-bheT ill 5.."gurdikhIa jIh manI basE nanak masatkI bhagu."-bavcm. ~ [gurduar] See ~ and \~. 2 religious seat of the Guru. ~ [gurduaral ~~, adv through the Guru, by the spiritual mentor. 2 n religious place for preaching; seat of the Guru. 3 Sikh temple, Sikh shrine, the place established by any ofthe ten Sikh Gurus or where Guru Granth Sahib is reverently kept. The Sikh shrines were named as Dharamsala during the period of Guru Nanak Dev to Guru Arjan Dev. l Initially Amrit Sarovar(Amritsar), it was named as Harimandir by Guru Arjan Dev and dharamsalas were named gurduara from the time of Guru Hargobind. The Sikh gurdwara is a centre of learning for students, preacher for seekers of spiritual knowledge, hospital for the sick, storehouse of food for the hungry, iron-fortress for protecting the chastity of women and resting place for the pilgrims. During the times of the Gurus and the Budha Dal, the gurdwaras were maintained with great care. The priest of a gurdwara used to be an ardent devotee, scholar and bearer of good moral character. With the passage oftime, during the reign of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, major historical gurdwaras came under the control ofDogras who could not manage them properly. This mismanagement also gradually I"me bIl> onom sound created "': -: by the clashing of weapons like swords etc. ~u [cakabyuh] Skt ~u n maze as a trap laid by soldiers, out of which the enemy cannot escape. Abhimanyu, son ofArjun, died after he was trapped in a maze. The diagram is given here.


/ I


~ I trfur [cakI] short for cakIt; amazed. "cakI cakI rahE dey danav munI."--hd)are 10.2 adv by lifting, picking up. '6fu3" [cakIt] Skt ad) afraid. 2 surprised. ~ [cakIya] Pu n hand-operated mill to grind flour etc. "cakIya ke se pat bane gagan bhumI pun dOI."-carItr 81. :eoit [caki] n hand-operated mill etc "kolu carkha caki c;·,ku."-var asa. 2 ad) lifted, raised.

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3 provoked, instigated, stirnulated. ;rcftl,rr [cakia] Pu See tl""fuw, ~ [cakijhOl).i] v work a handmi II to grind

flour etc. 2 pick up a row. "put kuput caki uthI jhoi."-BG. ~ [cakidan] P 0~ v leak, drip, trcfRJr [cakira], ~ [cakiraha] n woodpecker, so named because it can peck at the wood with its beak; hoopoe, lap wingA -k"'; SeeB"fu-ro. ;rcg [caku] See BOf. ~ [cakotraJ n pomelo citron; a large sized lemon of the shape of a gourd; Citrus Decumana. ~ [cakotri] n small-sized owl. ~ [cakota] n fixation ofagricultural rent after assessing the produce of a field. Rent paid in cash rather than barter of crop. ~ [Cdkor] Skt n hill partridge with red legs. Greek partridge. Poets talk about its love for the moon. "man pnti cad c)kor."--lnla a ill 5. In olden times, kings used to tame partridges and take food only after feeding it to the partridge to find out whether the food was poisoned. The partridge's eyes at once turned red and it died that very instant if the food was poisoned. That is why this bird is also named as VI $dclr:;;an-mntyuk. Many poets have described this bird as fireeater. "cOean cap CClhu dISI W [g;'idadhual, oTt!"'1J}f [g5dadhum] n polluted (unholy) smoke; tobacco smoke. "g5dadhum v5s te tyagahu."-GPS. [g;'idJra], oT~;rr [gadJra] n sweetened bread. In olden times there was a ritual of distributing sweetened bread on the occasion of weddings as also on the death of people who died in mature age. oft::r [gadh] Skt~vrtorture; kill; go; give pain, beg, praise. 2 n quality perceivable through the nose; smell, odour, bad smell, fragrance. "sahas tav gadh IV calat mohi."-sollIla. 3 sulphur. 4 pride 5 See ofg. ~ [g;'idhia] adjfragrant, redolent. "c5dan vas sug5dh g5dhaia."-bIla dill 4.2 n maker of perfume. ai't:rRTa" [g5dhsar] n perfume. 2 Dg sandal wood. ~ [g;'idh-hasti] n an elephant from whose glands wine trickles. ~ [gadhak] Skt TA:.T'P n sulphur, extracted from mines, yellow and red in colour, largely used to cure skin diseases. Physicians prescribe this to cure many other diseases. 2 adj suggestive, indicative. 3 from which arises foul odour. oft«!" [gadhal)] Skt TA:.R n boldness. 2 violence. 3 backbiting, insinuation. ~~ [gadhal).VEl).] n bold utterance. 2 insinuation; slander, backbiting. See o1l:R:.



"g5dhal).v£l). SUl).ahI urjhavahI."--asa ill 5. oT~fc!" [gadhal).v£l).I] in insinuating and defamatory language. See o1l:R:. "gadhal)v£l)I rata hI tkari, sabd£ suratI na ai. "--sor ill 1. alQFawEl [g5dhbIlail, aIQFaM'~ [gadhbIlav] Skt lFufcrrnq n a foul smelling animal. There is a hard swollen gland near the hip of the this foul smelling animal from which viscous liquid with yellow perfume comes out. Physicians LIse it in many medicinal concoctions. oTt:Ilfl't!O [gadhmadan] a mountain, which, according to Purans is situated to the south of Sumeru. The jungle close to this is also called Gandhmadhan. Per Ramayan, this mountain is situated near Kailash. According to the geographical dictionary, it is a part of Rudrhimalaya. This range starts from northeast of Badrikashram. 2 See ~c. 3 a large flower-sucking black bee, which is drawn to fragrance. 'dftlfi:rar [gadhmng] Skt n musk deer, from the navel of which musk comes out. See~. ~ [gadharab] Skt adjwho accepts fragrance; its lover; or who learns music. 2 n heavenly singer; in Atharav Ved the number of heavenly singers is 6333; of them, eight are very important: (JTUT [haha], ~ [huhu], cItrarath, has, VI$Vatsu, gomayu, Wmbam and nadI. There is a mythical story in Purans that sage Kanav married Daksh's two daughters Muni and Pradha and gandharavs are their progeny. Per Vishnu Puran, the origin of gandharavs is from Brahma. It is mentioned in Harivansh that gandharavs were born from Arishta's womb. 3 musk deer. 4 Indian cuckoo, nightingale. S in music a type of rhythm. 6 second husband of a widow. 7 horse. 8 breath. 9 day. alQdaoald [gadharabmgar], ~ [gadharabpur] See 1J"t'alf~. 2 In Mahabharat, a town near Mansarovar, guarded by celestial singers.

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aillaah] Skt ~ vr acquire, get, grasp, stop, iIPl"'tIO [gyap;:ln] Skt~ n realising, instructing. collect. 2 n planets like the sun, having gravity, 2 expressing. Per epistemology, there are infinite number of ar.RlJ1 [gyaras] n lunar fortnight's eleventh day. planets but astrologers ofHindu religion believe ~ [gyar;:lh] See ~. in nine planets, which are worshipped on the ~ [gyar;:lv] adj eleventh; day eleven. occasion of marriage, oblation etc. See f [gram] Skt n village "gram gram nagar sabh grahImedhi ka hovEga. "-JSBM. phIna."-ndt d m 4. 2 group, community. ~ [grahesur], ~ [grahesuri] owner of 3 basic note in the musical scale of a rag; in the house, lady of the house. music three houses viz $a!aj, madhyam and l IljtlHd o [grajsatan] Gardezstan, a territory gadhar are described which are alternately between India and Gazni. See~. "grajsatan known as nadyavarat, subhadra and jimut; with gaji."-kdlki. $a!dj (the first note) in mind if we expand the O]lfc'i [grathan] Sid n act of braiding. 2 collecting. remaining notes, then $a!aj is a house; the same 3 kneading. is true for maddham and gadhar; some ~ [gradeji] See ~ and ~. scholars are ofthe view that pacam is the third ~ [grabh] See Cl'Rffi'. "te dUjE bhaI pavahI house in place of gadhar. grabhjoni. "--jEt m 4. 2 Skt 1]'1-1 vr capture, In some books of music, madra house is collect, receive. 3 n capturing, holding. $d!dj, madhyam is mddhay house, nI$ad is tar 'CI]'ftf [grabhI] in the womb. "jiu bahut grabhI house. vase."-bavan. 0Il'}-ftfTl? [grampall, OI~ [gramadhi$l n or [gra] adj holder; short for grahak. "sargra landlord of the village. 2 village headman. birha."-sanama. 'the string that holds the ~ [gramil).], Cl]"'}-fto [gramin] adj rural 2 n arrow. ' villagers "bhE su manE nahI gramin."- GPs. 0J'Ff [gras] SkI n morsel. 2 food. "gras dehu ~ [gramy] SkI adjrural. 2 uncivilised, fool. 3 n a verse in which uncivil words are used in par bas na deu."-GPS. "sas gras ko data thakur." -gau kdbir. abundance. 4 animals such as donkeys, pigs etc which are reared in the villages. 0JTR?iT [grasnal See 0J11?iT. "jamahI grase jhot." -sarm 5. ~ [gnsat] very heavy. See d'Ifu1J. "gada grisat a.rfi=r [grasI 1while eating. See OJ'"R'. "saSI grasI pa!).;}."-VN. 2 distance between the tip of the harInamu samalI."-sukhm~Jni. 'while thumb and the tip of the little finger of a fully stretched palm. See fame. "musatI agusat breathing and eating.' 2 having captured. "haumE grasI Ikatu thaI kie."-asa d m 1. gn st5 parma!).a."- janmejay. CI,I'T(J [grah] See ORJTU 2. fa,rRo [gnsat] Skt f'a.ruFcr n husband and wife living together as a family. 2 household or family OI~ [grahak] Skt adj holder, receiver. 2 purchaser, client. 3 trapper. 4 hawk, that life. "VIce gnsat udas rahai."-guj m 4. 3 In Shastarnammala grasIt has occasionally been captures patridges etc. used for gnsat. 0J1'Utl' [grahaj], CJ]Tr ghtotkac e pad pntham ucar. pun an bhakho $akatI ke nIksE nam apar" -sanama. 'Hit with spear, Lachhman became unconscious and Ghatotkach died.' ~ [ghatodbhav] one who is born from a pitcher, sage Agast. See ~. ufc [ghatt] adj deficient, less. 2 Skt "'iTc:,c, vr go, spread, scrub, spoil. 3 n landing place; place for filling water and bathing on the river bank. tii'GT [ghatta] n dust. t.lfi5T [ghatha] S adjworn out. "khadIa khadIa muh ghatha. "-var guj 2 m 5. tl/C!" [ghaI).] Skt 'i:fU1. vr shine, glow. 2 Dg cloud. See UfO. "ghaI). varasahI rutI ae."-tukha barahmaha. "ghaI). unaVI vuthe."-ram ruti m 5. 3 adj abundant, much. "mE jehi ghaI). ceri."-suhi chat m 5.4 blacksmith's sledge. S anvil. ~ [ghal).haI).] n cloud. "ghal).haI).ghora, janu baI). mor~."-suraj. 2 roar of dark clouds,

thunder of clouds. UlC!" [ghaI).a] S abundant, plentiful. "rahasu upjE manI ghaI).a."-suhi chat ill 5. "govfdu aradhiE hOVE an;')du ghaI).a."-majh barahmaha. 2 dense, thick. lIlit [ghaI).i] S adj abundant. 2 dense, thick. ~ [ghaniar] n blacksmith's sledge, hammer. "ghaI).iar mare tIt tal jIu."-m 1 bano. 2 cloud. See ~. urcrer [ghaI).era], ~ [ghaI).eri] adj plentiful. See ~ and UR't. "mItr ghaI).ere kan thaki." -sri m 3. "kISE thofi kIse hE ghcweri."-majh


Uli [ghaI).o] Sand Dg adj plentiful, much. "ghaI).o ghaI).o ghaI).o sad 10fE."-toQi m 5.

urcfcf [ghaI).~k] n jingle of big and small bells. "ghaI).~k ghughru sur~."-ramav. 2

thunder of

dark clouds. [ghatI).a], ~ [ghataI).u] v put, pour. 2 throw. "tInI janI sabhI qar sutIghate." -bIha chat m 4. 3 send. urf::r [ghatI] adv having thrown. "kIthE vaJ1a ghatI."-s farid. 2 having got. "ghatI galava calIa." -var gau m 4. 3 having sent. ufaT [ghatta] In prosody this metre consists of two lines, each line having thirty-two matras. There are four pauses each after eight matras, with no guru laghu restriction at the end. Example: uattam karI).i, nItpratI karI).i, hE yahI varI).i, sIkkhan riti.... (2) Keshavdas defines ghatta metre as comprising two lines, each having 30 matras, with the first pause at the tenth, second at the next eighth and third at the last twelfth matra, the end being a nagaI)., that is, III. Example: nfda ke tyagi, guru anuragi, gurusIkh dhari sadgun.... 3 In Dasam Granth, ghatta consists of ~

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three lines, the first line having of twentyfour matras with pauses at the eleventh and the next thirteenth matra; the second! line contains sixteen matras and the pause is at the eighth and the sixteenth matra; the third line has thirty-two matras" the pause here is at the eighth, and the sixteenth matra and at the end there are two laghu maltras. This variant is the most difficult one. Example: dharam na karhi ek, anek pap kEhi:: sabh. laj bee t;'ihI, phIrE sagal jag, pap kamEhE, durgatI pEhE, papsamud jEhE nahi tar.-kdlki. 1.1/0 [gh;m] Skt "iJ"Q-»f/..f n cloud. "jor ghata gh;m ae sakhi."-krrsdn. 2 a musical instrument made of bronze. "git rag ghan tal SI kure." -bIla am 1. 3 mace, iron mallet. "jahI avte bahut ghan sath."-asa m 5. 4 deluge, flood. 5 anvil upon which a blacksmith beats iron. 6 Htr" [mothal, cyperus rotundus. 7 body. 8 iron. 9 camphor. 10 mica. 11 adj dense. "as pas ghan tursi ka bIrva."-gdu kdbir. "eku bagiea pec;l.u ghan kana.,,_asa m 5. 12 all, entire. "c;l.ube nam bInu ghan sath."--maru m 5. 13 hard, tough. 14 solid, heavy. 15 many, plentiful. "bIkar ghan."-phunhe m 5. tlIi'iFf"ij' [ghansar] Skt n water. 2 camphor. "e;'idan s6 ghansar mIle."__h;mu. 3 sandalwood. Ul'?ifJ:fur [ghansfgh] a devout disciple from village Fazilka (district Ferozepur). Guru Gobind Singh baptised him and he showed great valour during the battles ofAnandpur. t.Ifi')ff3' [gh;msut] n water, son ofcloud.-sdnama. 'l.Ifi'ilJ3' tRf [ghdnsut dhdr] n cloud.-s;mama. 'l.Ifi'ilJ3' tRf yfo 3"3" [ghansut dhar dhUnI tat an] n ghan-sutdhar (cloud) dhunI (roar or thunder), 3"'3" [tat] (father), his enemy arrow. Meghnad's father-Ravan. his enemy arrow. -s;mama.



[ghannsur] n sound like the thunder ofa cloud. "bahuro ghansyam ghanassur kE." -krIsan. l.lI'Ol:T.iJIH [ghan;;yam] n Krishan, who is darkcomplexioned like a cloud. 2 dark cloud. 3 See ~


[ghanhar], UI~ [ghanhar] n cloud. "ghanhar ghor daso dISI barsE."-mdla dm 1. "jab unVE ghan ghanhare."-ndt dm 4. 'when dark clouds gather'. ~ [ghankdla] a metre, also known as eItrakala, characterised by four lines, each having sixty-three matras, first three pauses being after sixteen matras each, the fourth after fifteen matras, ending with 51. The first and the second pauses alliterate. Example: harI harI sImarahu agam apara, jIsu sImaratu dukh mItE hamara, han han satIgurupurakhu mIlavahu, gUrI mIlIE sukhu hoi ram ... -jet m 4. SUDI SUDI jiva SOI tumari, til pritam thakur atI bhari, tumre kartab tumhi jaDahu, tumri ot gupala jio .... -majhm5. 2 Its second form has fourth pause at the fourteenth matra, ending with two guru, the total number ofmatras being 62. Example: veki veld j;''it upae, dUI padi dUI rah calae, gur pure VIDU mukatI na hoi, saeenam japI laha he ... -maru solhe m 1. gurbal)i rId mahI basao, dharamkIrat kan ehako cha1}ao, de;; k::>m pE tanu dhanu varo, Ih gursIkkhi ritihE ... UI"i'itJ"ij'

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3 Its third form has fourth pause at the sound like that of a cloud. 3 Ravan's son, Meglmad. thirteenth matra, ending with ldghu guru, total number ofmatras being 61. l1fc'i'i'ITt!fo [ghan-nadanI] n gun that thunders like a c1oud.-sanama. Example: jo disE so eko tu hE, UlO foJ:ro [ghan nIsun] n who thunders like a bal).i teri sraval).I SUl).iE, cloud, Meghnad.-sanama. duji avaru na japasI kai, Ufi')tf~ [ghanpal] a varnIk metre; sagal tumari dharl).a ... "rupghanachri" on transformation into gaI:lIk -maru solhe m 5. metre is known as "ghanpal"; it is characterised in each lines by 32 characters parhda sa mE papa pani, as: SIS, 551, III, III, SIS, 151, SIS, III, 511, III, 5, I, (with 4 bahfda kur kapat di hatti, satIguru meri duvIdha katti, pauses after every 8 characters). narkahG pakar nIkalIa. Example: janto na at jfh, nIgam pural). ved, kothi adhi SUjhE nahi, gote khada maya mah!, har har :;;e:;;matI, pay na sakat jahI. satIguru sacce no salahi, kal hu ko kal aj, amar dyalu dey, canal). karI vekhalIa. pujto vnje:;;ahan, lay CIt hIt tahI... darhi teri nur jhamakkE, urofl:r;r [ghanpny] n peacock. 2 pied cuckoo. mattha bla vag tahakkE, ~t?' [ghanbud] n raindrop. "as ghanbUd pny :;;aran ten jam joh na sake, pny gungan h£."-BGK. sevak ke rakhvaIIa. 1.II'7im1 [ghanras] n water. 2 camphor. sadhujan gurdarsan kita, 3 concentrated juice. dho carnamnt guru da pita, ~ [ghanvah] n wind, that carries away namdan guru pure dita, clouds. amrIt nam pIaIIa. UfOT [ghana] See Uf"T. "ketak anahI ~ [ghargehal)I] n wife. "purablo knt tal najike. ko ghar ghar lavat hE nike." karam na mItE Ii ghargehal)I !"-dhana -GPS. 'fix after shaping.' trrlocan. ~ [ghar-uea] n that which resides in the ~ [ghargola] n children of a household sky, cloud. See If'tJT Ufij" and ~. slave. "kan kupa kine ghargole."-maru solhe 1lffi»Ifa" [ghar-an] n horse's e:nemy, lion. "ghar- mI. arI nadanI ad I kahI."-sal1ama. 'gun.' 'l.lfa'UI'aT [gharghara] a river in UP which takes 1IRmO [gharsan] Skt ~ n friction, rubbing. its origin from Kumaon and merges with Sarju. 2 dragging. Gogra. ~ [gharhai] adj destroyer of a household. ~ [gharghalakJ adj destroyer of a family "jhagaru karE gharhai."-geJU kabir. See ~. or household. urefu [gharahI] within the family or household. URI' U/Tffi"iT [ghar ghalna] n ruin a family or "abhE nIrajanu gharahI laha."-savE'ye m 4 ke. household. See~. URl'WCl"if [ghar ka kaj], URl'wcm [ghar lea kam] tIRI'fc!' [gharal)I], URlit [gharl)i] Skt~. n wife, n one's own work, personal work; virtuous wedded woman, consort, better half. deed, leading to salvation. "ghar ka kaju TId jal)i ~ [ghardar], ~ [ghardvar] n house and rura."-suhi m 5. See URf '& offi.r. portico i.e. houses of ordinary people and a 'llRr W H'Ff [ghar ka mas] n wife. "ghar ka mas king's palace. "ghardarphInthaki bahutere." cagera."-var mala m 1. -oakar. 'has gone through births in high and URI' eft GffiJfo [ghar ki gihanI], URI' eft('JTfij- [ghar low places.' ki nan] wife, married woman. "ghar ki gihanI ~ [ghardibal)u] n audience hall. 2 court chamber. "satIguru mera ghardibal).u."-bhE'r cagi."-dhana dh{}na. "ghar ki nan bahut hIt ja SIu."-sor m 9. m5. URI' eft ft:rm [ghar ki bIlai] See })f[J}-f ;r~' and URJOT [gharna] v create, organise. "ISU pani te jIn tu ghana."-ram am 3 ljW. URI' cl ~ eft icft orfc!' [ghar ke jathere ki etiki URJO't [gharni] See ~ and URlit. kal)I]-asa m 5. 'no longer afraid of the god of 1lRfO'b:r [gharnis], llRJ'?lR- [gharnes] n lord ofthe death.' household. "sobha sabh bhai man maddh -URI' cl ~ [ghar ke dev] n famJily deity. "ghar ke gharnis ko."-krrsan. 2 queen. dev pItar ki choQi gur ko sabadu laIo."-brla URJa"'a' [gharbar] n house and household material. kabir. 2 elders such as parents. household property. "grrhi jogi tajIgae URI' offi.f [ghar kE kamI] in one's household gharbar."-brla m 5.


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~ [gharbari] ad) householder. "IkI udasi

IkI gharbari."~maru solhe m 5. "gharbari gursIkkh hUI."-BG. ~ [gharbaru] See ~. URI' ~ ctr [ghar balu ka] n house of sand, i.e, perishable body and worldly goods. URI' mfu urg [ghar bhitan gharu] residence within a house. 2 soul's presence within the body. "ghar bhitan gharu guru dIkhaIa."~sor amI. URJ}f [gharam] Skt un-f n sunshine. 2 sweat, perspiration. 3 summer. 4 per etymology such substances as clarified butter, milk etc. which are heated and drunk during an oblation. UffiHtJ7'5' [gharmahal] n time of stay. 2 time of stay, residence. URI' H~ [ghar m;'idar] ordinary house and palace. 2 house and town. "ghar madar khusia tahi."-var gau 2 m 5. See l-ft!O and H'fu'a'. tIfaO [gharar] See ~ and~. t.lRI'ftr [gharan] adv having closely rubbed and cropped (hair). "bhaVE Iabe kes kan bhavE gharan muQaI. "-s kabir. 'whether have matted hair or become a closely shaved ascetic. ' ~ [gharvasu] n state of mind, steadfast in the body. "bInu han kIU gharvasu?"~sri mI. 2 mating with a woman; cohabitation. "khusre kIa gharvas?"-var ma)h m 1. 3 residing in the house. ~ [gharval] a caste of the Rajputs. ~ [gharvaIal, ~ [gharvalil n spouse, master, mistress of the house. l.lfij';j'" [gharar] half-churned curd. 2 See URS7JT. ~ [ghararna] v crop closely, scrape. URJft:r [ghararI] adv having closely cropped, having scraped. See UfOfu. ~ [gharau] ad) of or relating to the household. 2 See ~. 3 See URJl!J. ~ [gharahu] from the house. "haumE mui

gharahu."--sri m 1. 'from the heart.' [gharat] Skt ~ n flourmill, especially a watermill. ~ [gharal,la], tl/QW [gharana] n family, house, line. 2 ad)of or relating to a house or a family. ~ [gharaval] n big gong; a musical instrument shaped like a baking plate made of a metal, such as bronze. "bahu bajahI gharaval nad;'i."-GPS. urfu [ghan] within the house: "ghan bahan tera bharvasa."-dhana m 5. "pIr ghan SohE nan."-dhana chi'itm 1. 2 in the body. "pfQI mm jiu kIh ghan jata?"-gau kabir. 11I'fawa' [ghanar] See ~. ~ [ghanari] n one who strikes a gong; timekeeper. ~ [ghanaval], ~ [ghanyar] See ~. "ghanaval bajat thankara."-GPS. ~ [gharyari] See l.lffu»Rft. "jab ghanyari ghari bajavE."--CarItr 246. ~ [ghanvasu] stay at home. "sasu buri ghanvasu na devE. "-asa m 1. 'Ignorance does not let self-realisation grow.' 2 See~. t.lRft [ghari] n a while. "adhi ghan adhi hu te adh."- s kabir. 2 small earthen pitcher. 3 in the house. "ete jia jacE hahI ghari."-mala Ufa'TG

namdev. ~

[gharia] for just a while. "ramnam bInu gharia na jivau."-asa namdev. [a] is a suffix means a small quantity. URftnrr [gharia] n goldsmith's crucible. 2 ad) fabricator. ~ [gharial] See UIfu»R;s-. URib-ftar [gharimik] a while. See ~. urg [gharu] See URI'. "gharu laskaru sabhu tera." -sorm 5. urg~

[gharu mahalu] See ~. "gharu mahalu na kab-hu paIda."-maru solhe m 3. lJIWW [gharual n house, residence. "balua ke

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gharua mahI baste."-keda kdbir. 'The sandhouse means the body.' ~ [gharelul adj ofor pertaining to the house. 2 domestic. uffi" [ghan:] of the house. "ghar£ ;'idan sabhu vathu h£."-asa m 3.2 of the house, within the house. "ghar£ ;'idan ko gharu pae."-maru solhe m 3.3 gives shape to. "'ghar£ itIka prem samet."-GPS. ~ [ghah).al v send. "apI han ghalE." -var maru 1 m 3. 2 See llfT(?(!T. ~ [ghallkalii] This village is located to the west of railway station Ghall Kalan at a distance of half a mile. It falls und,er police station and tehsil Moga in district Ferozepur. Close by to the north-east is a gurdwara of Guru Hargobind, who visited this place on his way to Darauli. A hall is built. Ten ghumaons of land are assigned to it by the village. ufW [ghalla] This village is located in tehsil Samrala of district Ludhiana. A gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh exists at this place. ~ [ghallughara] destruction, annihilation, devastation. 2 The battle which was fought on 2 nd Jeth Sammat 1803 between Lakhpat Rai and the Khalsa near the pond ofKanuwan is known as Chhota Ghallughara and the one fought on 28 th Magh Sammat 1818 with Ahmad Shah Durrani, near Raipur Gujjarwal at Kupparhirhe is called Vadda Ghallughara in Sikh history. About fifteen to twenty thousand Singhs and approximately the same number of Durranies were killed in it. UlWit [ghavfc;li] a village of Sikh landlords. It is situated near police station Barqi in district Lahore. To its south-west at a distance ofabout half-a-mile, there stands a gurdwara of Guru Nanak Dev. He reached here from Jahman. Some scholars have mentioned it as Lahurha Sahib because a lahura (cardymyxa) tree then

existed there, under which the Guru seated himself. A traders' colony was there. A son was born to a trader, so everyone was busy in making merriment. Bhai Mardana said "0 Lord! I have been hungry for two days. If you permit I may go to visit the village and have my meals." The Guru permitted him to go with the warning that he should not beg meals. Mardana sat for some time at the traders' door, but they were so engrossed in merrymaking that nobody paid any attention to him. It so happened that the boy died and they started crying and wailing. The Guru advised them to surrender to the Almighty's will and recited a shabad in Sri Rag under the title "pahre". There is a small gurdwara there, where Guru Granth Sahib is kept. Twenty bighas of land are assigned to the gurdwara. A fair is held on the I Dth of the Shradhs. It is located to the south-west of Jalia railway station at a distance of eleven miles. ~ [ghaveri] n circle. 2 vertigo, dizziness, giddiness. 3 fragrance. "phulel ghaveri."-BG. Uf3" [ghar] n banana. 2 See 1.lf3?iT. 3 pitcher. U/33" [gharat] n composition, texture, manufacture. ~ [gharthalil n pitcher stand. 2 place where water is served free. "sapat samudar jac£ gharthali."- m;:Jla namdev. USOT [gharnal v create, give shape to; compose. "ghari£ sabadu saci taksal."-japu. 2 sculpt; scrape. UfaT [gharal n pitcher. "k;'idhI kuhara SIfI ghara."-s fdrid. UIfu' [gharIl advhaving sculpted. "ghap bhac;le jInI avi saji."-asa Pdti m 1. ~ [ghapal1 n clock. 2 flat round plate made of metal such as bronze, which is struck in temples. 3 Skt'1fiJcCfl alligator. ~ ~ [ghapal bOgal a tower at the

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threshold of Harimandar, Amritsar, where a clock chimes to tell time. ~ [gharIaliJ, ~ [gharIalia] one whose job is to strike a metal gong to indicate time; timekeeper. ~ [ghanalu] See~. 2 See ~ 3. ur;ft [ghari]l n unit oftime spanning 24 minutes. See ~. "ek ghari adhi ghari."-s kabir. See ~usT. 2 small pitcher. "laju ghari SIU tutIpari."-gau kabir. 'Human body is a small pitcher, while rope is the age.' 3 mechanism such as a watch or clock etc. to measure time. Initially ancient scholars made sundial and clepsydra in India. These find mention in such ancient Sanskrit texts of astronomy as Goladhyay etc. Sandglass and other mechanical clocks, time pieces and pocketwatches using metallic discs of brass and iron and employing springs are inventions of the foreigners. History is witness to the fact that the first time-measuring mechanism was invented by a German, Henry de Wyck, in 1379 AD who presented the same to Charles V king of France in Paris. Several improvements have since been made in it over a period of time, but most commendable modifications were carried out by Huygens in 1657, Hooke in 1666, Graham in 1715 and Harrison in 1726. Now three types of watches are in vogue i.e pocket watches 2 , wall clocks and tower clocks. All these need to be wound daily or after two days with a key. The spring thus l"TflRt ~~: ~: -.:r-~ cr~'f1T ~-jyotI(>. Time taken in pronouncing 10 guru characters is equivalent to one breath. Six breaths make a p;J] and sixty pals in turn make a ghari. 2The first ever pocket watch was invented by Pcter Holc, a craftsman ofNurunberg-Bavaria during thc middle of the fifteenth century.

wound which Imparts movement to discs slowly becomes loose and gets totally unwound. The unwound spring is w0und once again. Now-a-days countless «locks run on electricity. The largest of all the clocks are located on the clock tower of Parliament House and on the wall of Crystal Palace in London. Some people are of the opinion that the clock on Colgate Factory in New York (America) is the largest in the world. The tower of Parliament House (London) has 360 steps and on the top ofthese, is installed a clock named Big Ben. It was installed about fifty-five years ago. Its gigantic size can only be judged by actually seeing it. It has four dials. The diameter of each dial is twenty-three feet. Its minute hands are 14 feet long. Its pendulum weighs 450 pounds and each digit is two feet long. Gaps between minutes are one foot squares. Its gong weighs twenty-three and a halftons and the hammer with which it is struck also weighs two maunds. It is wound thrice a week and it takes five hours to wind it. Last year (in 1927 AD) a marvellous clock, known as the eighth wonder of the world, was manufactured in Vienna~the capital ofAustria. It is a musical clock. It was got ready in sixteen years. Statues oftwelve famous kings of European history are concealed in it in such a way that when an hour is struck a particular statue appears and remains there for full one hour, during which time a particular tune plays continuously. New inventions by skilled craftsmen have revolutionized the watch industry as is evident from the watches of today. ~ [gharial] a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev, who was a silk worker. 2 adj craftsman. ~ [gharial], ~ [gharialul See~.

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1125 •

"gharial jIu qukhi n:.QI vIhaI."---s [arid. "darvajE jaIkE kw qItho gharialu."--s [,Hid. ~~ [gharualo] Dg pitcher. "jJ:U akaSE gharualo mrIgtrIsna bhdrIa."~gujnamdev. 'a pitcher located in the sky, filled with water of mirage.' See~. ~ [gharuka] another name of Ghatotkach. See ur~. "macyo yuddh jayo karan s;}g5 gharuke."- narsfgh. uSer [gharota], uSw [gharola] n pitcher. 2 small pitcher. uS-m [ghar5ci], uSI=it [ghar5ji] pitcher stand. U[T [gha] short for ghatak. 2 short for 'ghah (grass)'. 3 direction. "Mu It ghumat prem Chdki, atI ghorat hE uh gha ghan karo."'-aspho. 4 short for ~ (wound). uP' [gha] n side direction. "rah lag duhu gha te hoyo."-NP. 'The ceremony of giving fees to the menials, was performed by both the sidles.' "gae uh gha nIkar."-rvdr. 'Arrows went over to the other side. "pherat hE gur ke chaM ghai."~ GV 10. ~ [ghau] n wound, injury. "nahI ghau katara kan sakE."--sri mI. 2 attack, injury, stroke. "parIo nisanE ghau."--maru kabir. 'The weapon hit the target.' urrfu [ghaI] See~. 2 adv having murdered, after killing "brahma.Qu naVE jia ghaI."-dhana mI. 1lf1fuor [ghaIk] adjlethal, killing. ~ [ghaIl] adj injured, wounded, hurt. uret [ghai] See urtit. 2 wounded. See Ulr(J. tII¥t [ghai] See lifT. UfTFf [ghas] Skt n grass. 2 trace leflt due to attrition, corn. "dhanukhghas In sabh-lnn hath."-GPS. Uf"R' lj'ij' ~ [ghas ml1h lE.Qa] See UfTiJ- Jj'ij' futr E~.

'UfI1ft [ghasi] n line produced due to friction; abrasion, drag. 2 convention. 3 grass cutter,

hay cutter. "je raj bahale til. hangulam, ghasi kau hannam kaqhai."-gau m 4.4 Skt god of fire. ~ [ghasidas] See ~. U[T'ij' [ghah] See Uf"R' 1. "siha baja carga kuhia ena khavale ghah."-var majh mI. U[T'ij' 'li'ij' fVtJ '5(!T [ghah ml1h VICC lE.Qa] v . accept subordination; show oneself as very submissive; be ready to serve like an animal. t.lfTtit [ghahi] See UfTFft 3. urry [ghahu] See UfTfr and Uf'(J. 2 worthless; insignificant. "naddrI upthi je kare sultana ghahu karaIda."-var asa. urrctt [ghaki] adj (she) who kills, woman assassin. "sma dn ghaki."-52 poets. UI"'"al'QT [ghagra] See l;lIUffiT. urraJT [ghaga] n circumference, circle, sphere. urur [ghagh] a sagacious scholar of Kanauj; renowned for statements regarding astrological influences. He was born in 1696 AD. 2 wise, sagacious. 3 clever, smart. UfTURJI' [ghaghra], ~ [ghaghIro] See UjUfijT. "pardesi kE ghaghrE cahu dISI lagi agI."-s kabir. Here llfTURJT stands for the body, and soul's robe is on fire from all around. urrc [ghat] or lIP? [ghatu] n composition. "gha~ gharat bhayo svaran ko."-C,rro [Bran] n knowledge. "anrk bhekh aru Bran dhran."-bavan. fip,fTO't [Brani] adj scholar, sage. "bhagat Brani so r."-ba van. ~ [Branu] See "fu>wo. 'i [Bu] Skt vr produce a sound. W [BaBa] character tii. See ~. "BaBa BIanu nahi ffiukhbatau."-ba van. ~ [Bras] n morsel. 2 swallow. "BaBa BrasE kal trh."-bavan. ~ [BrIhal] adj who enjoys; who uses. See tii 2. "BrIastva BrIhala."-gyan. 'You enjoy through the character tii.' 2 Scholars interpret this word to mean a family man.

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tr [cacca]

eleventh character ofPunjabi script. Its articulation is made from the palate. 2 Stir of. "sfghac bhojan jo nar janE."-asa namdev. 3 Skt part again, and 4 faith, belief. 5 comparable. 6 n sun. 7 moon. 8 tortoise. 9 thief. 10 rascal, evil person. 11 Shiv. 12 in Punjabi, shortforvIcc as in: "thoredInac Ihk~mhojauga."-prov. ~ [caul infinitive ofcava!).u; say, state. See~. "tii cau saja!). mEQIa."-var manz2 m 5.2 See ~. 3 four. "sekha, cau cakIa cau vaIa."-var sor m 3. See ~ and e@~ire»fT. 4 trust, belief. "lakhyo aj kas hE cau baQhyo."-NP. ~ [causath] See ~. ~ Cl'W [causath kala] See Cl'W. tr@'Rotrra' [causath car] sixty-eight. "bhare jog!).i patr causath car~."-c;'jcji 2. See ~~. ~ [causathI] Skt ~:lSf& sixty-four. ;;@RfoURft [causathI ghari],;;@RfouSt [causathI ghari] day and night, nowadays; a day and night consist of 60 gharis and each gh crack. 5 sound produced by the clash of we~pons like swords etc. 6 T J adj firm, strong. 7 healthy. 8 n time, period. 9 E chalk. iJTa" ~ [cak caky] Skt n glitter, glamour. 2 brightness, shine. 3 grandeur. urcci'Q'd" [cakcudhar] See BOftj'Q'd" and tfij'Q'd". "kIte cakcudhar carhe kak bahi."-carrtr405. 'tI'c«f [cakar] P flo. n servant, attendant. ~ [cakri] n se;vice, attendance. "jInI gur ki kiti cakri tInI sad baIIhari."-tIlag m 4. ~ [cakaru] See 'tI'c«f. "cakaru lagE cakri je G)IE khasmE bhaI."-var asa. ~ [cakrem] P (-ff short for cakar hastem. 'We are servants.' tJ1CU [caki] n flour mill, grinding mill. "caki catahI cun khahI."--basat kabir. 2 coagulated piece of some object in the shape ofbarfi (an Indian sweet). 3 sod around a plant's root. tPg [caku] See tJ1Q". ~ [caku] P }f n knife, penknife. tf'1;f [cakh] See BTlfOT. Skt '''1 11 I"n JJ:1ii; ~: "fi1:


;n; ~~: ~ ~surr. 2 Skt conscious. "kaha ftfh [cfc;loll See ~. CItem ki cesta?"-akal. ~ [cIl).ag] n spark, spark offire. 2 a urinary fi3'"37> [cftan] Skt n meditation, contemplation. "subhcftem gobfdramal).."-var guj 2 ill 5. disease. See fuoor 2. fuw [crria] n maid servant, female attendant. piercing through the armour.' Some ignorant scribes have written cIlkata for cIlt~lh. "teri pTIy crria."-sar m 5. 2 sparrow. ftra'lw [crriya] See fual»r' 2. "crriya ban me fum..r [CIlam] P ~ cup-shaped earthen bowl of cuhkE tab b,"-krIsan. a hubble-bubble used for smoking hemp, ~ [cnu] See fB"O. "nru hoa dekhe tobacco etc. fuMf' [CIlmIla], fufui'Hf'M" [CIIIm:III] Skt sarigpani."-majh m 5. fe"ij' [cITe] irritated, got irritated. "cITe car lightning. "CIIImIII bIsiar dunia phani."-var Ghuke."-VN. 'in irritation, (they) advanced mala m 1. 'The world, flashing like lightning, from all sides.' 2 plural ofcHa (CIra). is transitory.' 2 P ...J): without proof. ~ [cITokr;a] adj old, ancient. ft.fM" [CIII] Skt 1~ VI' open, loosen, express f;N'tft [cIT5ji] n a dry fruit having fiJur seeds one's mind, play trick, cheat. 2 n kite., within its shell; seeds of pnyal tree, which ftfw [CIlIa] n bowstring, merit. 2 embroidered taste like almonds. Its latent effect is warm end portion ofa turban. 3 P .J;- period offorty and oily. L Chironjia aspida. "dakh crr5ji mrrc§. days for keeping fast etc. ftl1;sl [CIlh] n double sack used for loading adI. "-GPS. ~ [crrakal] n long time. 2 adv after a beasts. 2 SkI a preying bird. long time, since long. "crr5kal Ihu df'll sajria." ~ [CIlIiavala] a village in tehsil Falia of district Gujarat. There was an unprovoked -gaum 5. battle between the Sikh forces ofSardar Chatur ~ [cIrajiv], ftlJrll'iil [cIr5jivi] See ~ Singh and his son Raja Sher Singh Attariwala and~. fin? [CII] Skt fcrq VI' wear clothes; dress up. against Lord Gough on 13 th January, 1849. 1 In 2 See 'f'th;). this combat twenty-eight British army officers, ~ [CIlak] n lustrc, brightness, light. two hundred eighty-six junior officers and ~ [CIlakr;a] V shine, sparkle, flash. 1. adj 'In this eon text see "Annexation of the Punjab" by Major shining, bright. "ujdlu kEha CJlakl!a." Evans Bell.


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soldiers, eighteen Indian anny officers and two hundred seventy-eight soldiers i.e. a total of 610 army personnel laid down their lives. The British Government has constructed a memorial of this war.! Now Chillianwala railway station is situated on Lala Musa and Malak Walline. fu;r [err] n insistence, obstinacy. 2 sense of irritation. Skt ~ vr get angry. fu;ror [crrna] v get irritated. See fts". ~ [crrva] Sktfufl..J'zn soaked, boiled, salted, and beaten fried rice. It is a favourite dish of the people belonging to eastern India. fu3r [erra] n male sparrow; well known bird, that mostly lives in houses. Fe;jiQa ' [crrauDa] v irritate, make angry. (Skt ~ vr.get angry). "dusatu dEt crrara."-bhE"r m3. ~ [errai] n sense of irritation; irritation. 2 adjprovoked to irritation. "oni tupak taDr calai, onhi hasatr crrai."-asa am 1. 'Mughals fired a volley with guns. The Pathans advanced their army ofelephants by goading.' In wars fought in the ancient times, the Indian rulers used to fight by positioning their elephants in front but they could not face the attack of guns and cannons. fu;.ft [crri] n sparrow. "crri cuhki pah phuti." -var gau 2 m 5. tit [ei] of. "satei sagatr satkatha ras." -asa ravIdas. ITo Record The names of the brave officers Who fell in the grcat battle Fought on the adjoining plain 13 'h January, 1811-9. This cross is placed beside Their tomb by Richard 6 'h Earl of Mayo; Viceroy and Governor-General, 1871.

tif [ci] n chirping sound of a sparrow. 2 low cry, plaintive sound. 3 P t:t? n wrinkle, shrivel. 4 See tftn. 5 adj picker. It is used as a suffix as in gulci-picker of flowers. tfu:r [cis] n throbbing pain, shooting pain. 2 cry, shriek, wailing sound. "hasatr bhagkE cisa marE."-g5Q kabir. tftR3+ [cista] P u~ n puzzle, quiz. 2 P UI~ what is he? what is that? ~ [cihka] See ~. ~ [cihaD] n horse's neigh; sexual excitement. "caclie taji eihaDa."-ramav. m [cik] Skt~vrtolerate, get impatient, touch. 2 n shriek, cry. ~ [cikna] v shriek, cry, shout with pain in a loud voice, grumble with ire. 2 See~. tftaor [eikna] See ~. 2 adj smooth, soft, mild. 3 oily. See~. ~ [cibr], ~ [cikar] n mud, slush, slime. See~. "q.hrg gram ki cikar brthrava."-asa eMit m 4. titcmr [cikrr] in the mud. "moh cikarr phathe." -asa chat m 4. ~ [cikaru] See~. " paDi cikaru pavE go."-kan a m 4. tftQr [cika] n two-stringed musical instrument that is played with yard-like rod; a village in district Kamal tehsil Kaithal police station Gulha. A gurdwara relating to Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Teg Bahadur is situated there. The shrine is raised, but there no priest. It is 20 miles to the north-east ofPatiala railway station connected by an unmetalled road. See~. ~ [cIghaD] Dg n long stick used for the cremation of a dead body; unhewn club. tile~gc1 [cicvahuti] n an insect 'with soft red velvety coat, which appears in the rainy season; a kind oflady bug-Mylabris Cichrrii. Ayurvedic physicians use it to cure paralysis. It is beneficial to rub the powder of this insect

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mixed with wax on the swollen part of the tfId(,)ij'ij [citanhar] adjone who paints; a painter. body. 2 11 an artist, portraitist. "kIn OI cite ~ [eici] 11 little finger. 6(f(')D,!6(I. citanhare. "-gdU k;:Jbir. ~0RIft [eiciigli] little finger. "jIU lahuri ciciigli tfum [cit;:lr], tflohI cun khahI."~bas;'jtbbir. 2 lime, lime stone. "cun cIh;:>n na rahaI."-s kabir. 3 See

"12. ~ [cunri] n mantilla or light head-cloth for

women. ''c:unri navin

lal."~ NP.

~ [cunri] See~. 2 adjwhich sucks. "jibh

r;:>saI]).I cunri."-var maru 1 m 1. 3 See 'lit. JOT [cuna] See 'In. "dUI ser magau cuna." -sor bbir. 2 slaked lime or powdered lime stone. 3 v leak, trickle, drip. ¢ [cuni] n small fragment of gem, small piece ofa ruby. 2 light head cloth for women, mantilla. ~ [cunia] See ~l»rT. 2 plural of euni. ~o1Hit [eunimaQi] a market of Lahore city where Guru Ramdas was born. See m. ~ [cup] See 12i-f. "sahje cup sahje hi japna." -gau a m 5. 2 See 'Jl.IO'. ~ [cup]).a], 'Jl.f7lT [cupna] v suck, sip. ~ [cupi] See ~. 2 adv silently, without making a noise. "eupi nu]).;:>u paIa."~asa m 1. See »f[I}f ~ and t'tit. VQ [cur] or 'J2 [euru] Skt"-~ vr burn, reduce to ashes. 2 n short for Cur;:>l). "nfda teri jo kare so VaJ1E euru."--var ram 3. 'gets reduced to dust.' 3 See ¥. "motieur baQ galnn galnnaia." -bIla am 4. ~an] See ~. [eurma] n sweet food made with bread crushed in butter and sugar. 2 It is also prepared by frying small pieces, made ofdough offine wheat flour, mixed with cooking oil and then by crushing them into powder and mixing


sugar in them. This food is specially offered to honour stoic saint Baba Srichand and is called rot prasad. Hindus offer this sweet food to Hanuman and Bhairav. ~ [cura] See~. "sakh motiema."-BG. 'turns a shell into a precious pearl.' 2 ~ [emma]. "akhaQ kirt;)nu tInI bhoj;:>nu eura."-gau a m 5.3 powdered stuff. 4 adjpowdered, ground. ~ [emi] n crushed bread mixed with ghee and sugar. 2 bracelet, bangle. Y9 [cmu] See ¥. ~ [cuI] n thin side of a door board which is fixed like an axle in the hole ofthe threshold; a tenon fitted into a mortise. ~m. 2 See ¥. 3 Skt fF.n:fr hair dressed into a braid, a tuft of hair left unshorn on top of the head. ~ [culka] See ~. yw [cula] See 'JC? 2 hip, hip joint, haunch. 3 See 1fI3T. ~ [eulh], 1fI3T [eulha] Skt Wfi and ~ n fireplace in a kitchen. "basudha khodI karahI dUI eulhe."-asa kabir. ~ [cuvcm] Skt ~ trickle, drip. ~ [cur], ~ [cupk] n pigtail, hair tied into a braid. 2 plume. 3 top of a mountain. 4 bracelet or metallic bangle. 5 a metallic ring put on the tusks of an elephant. "cur earaI hE datan dou."~GPS. ~ [eura] Skt n a tuft of hair left unshorn on top of the head. 2 crest grown on the head of a peacock and other birds. 3 raised platform or embankment around a well, maun'd. 4 forehead. 5 crown, coronet. 6 metallic bangle, bracelet or bangle usually of gold or silver, set ofarmlet bangles worn by the newlywed bride. "eura bhanu palagh SIU mudhe!" -vac;l m 1, V~ [eurama]).I] Skt n precious gem embedded in a crown. 2 a jewel for wearing on the head. 3 master or husband.

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vf;rcr" ~ [curIka] adj crowned lady. 2


tr30 1IG


;J;;rcr [cecak] P 11 smallpox. See FlEw. glass bangle. ~ [cet] Skt 11 servant, disciple. 2 husband, male ¢ [curi] 11 a small set of red and white bangles spouse. 3 jester, joker. 4 In poetics, a pimp or wom by the newly-wed woman; bracelet, glass procurer, who helps in bringing together the bangle. "na illaniaru na curia. "~~~vCJ(l m 1. hero and the heroine. ~;ilHaz [curisarot] See ~. ~ [cetak] n dramatic entertainment, spectacle. ~ [curd], ~ [curdi] See~, 2 adj one 2 game of illusion. "natCJkcetCJkkIyekukaja." who wears bangles. "pluf s5pi curdia kCJttCJl). -VN. "kInhu SIdhI bahu cetak lae."-ram CJ bah pasar."--mCJgo. m 5.3 devotion, hobby. ~ [curhal, W [curhi] See ~. ~ and ~ [cetkaia], B"zoit [cetki] adj one who ~. presents a spectacle. 2 magician, who creates ~ [ce] suj'indicative of genitive: of. "l).adi ce illusion. "magahI ndhI SIdhI cetak, natha."-dhCJna tTIlocCJn. "name ce svami." cetkuia."-bIla CJ m 4.3 fashionable. -gujri. 2 part then, if. "tum ce par;}su ham ce ~3" [cet] Skt ~ part in case, provided, if. loha. "-pTCJbha namdev. "tum ce dhani 2 perhaps. 3 Skt ~ n mind, heart. "bhet cet dhanaq.h lakhmibdr mace cero anucar kfkar." han kIS£ na mIIIo."-$ri m 1 pCJhII'e. 4 soul. -sCJloh. 3 See ftrgan] P ~(~ n playing with cloth-ball and sticks. 2 stick with which this game is played. 3 playing ground. 4 drum beating. iQrcy [c::>guD] See ~. [c::>ghar], Bus- [c::>ghar] See ~. \1tJ' [c::>c] See 'lnB". 2 snout, human face; (derogatory) ugly face. "kukar jya c::>c kac;lh caki catbe ko jaI."-BGK. ~ [c::>coba] adj having four sticks. "c::>coba gnh vastra banayo."-cdrrtr 74. 'a tent having four poles.' [cJChatta] adj having four roofs; a four storeyed [c::>jhar] See ~. ri. [c::>Da] See ~ and ~. 'ffi!t [c::>Dij adj four times. "dUDi C::>Di bramat." -var ram 3. ~ [c::>tra] See ~. tidd'fiifua [c::>trasalnb] n platform made for the Guru to sit. 2 particularly the platform of the sixth Guru in village Malha (Patiala state, district Bhatinda) which is seven miles to the east ofJaito railway station. Guru I-Iargobind





stayed here for three days and liberated a female snake. 180 ghumaons of land is attached to the gurdwara. Baisakhi fair is held here. ~ m [c::>tra ji] See B"'3" m. ifa'r [c::>ta] See ~. ~ [c::>tal] See i3"'"d" ~. ~ [c::>ta1i], ~ [c::>talis] forty-four. ~ [c~ti] See ~. ~ [c::>ti-akkhar], ~ [c::>tisakkhar] See ~ nfcfa". ~ [c::>luka] See ~. B"'3" [c5te ji]1 Guru Har Rai's gurdwara is famous by the name ofChaunte ji. It is situated four furlongs to the north ofBumboli village of Kapurthala state and police station Phagwara, about 100 ghumaons of land is attached to it. A great festival is held here on the Baisakhi day. It is seven miles to the north ofPhagwara railway station. ~ [oth] See mItr. 2 act of chewing, crushing. "ekallI ghaI c::>th SIr c;larL"-cdrrtr 52.3 onefourth part; in ancient times the head of a group of villages was allowed by the emperor onefourth reduction in the revenue collected by him, enabling him, in return, to keep some army under him for maintaining peace. This exemption was called c::>th and the freeholder (the head) was called c::>thdar. ~ [c::>lhdar] See ~ 3. [c::>tha] See~. -e-~ [c::>thaia] See B-EfTW. 2 sharecropper who was allowed to take one fourth share of the yield. ~ [c::>thapad] See ~. ffipw [c::>thayaj orBifw~ [c::>th£ya tap] fever that recurs every fourth day. "sukha jvar teia cJthaya.'·-car~tr 405. See 31lf (e).



iRHrC)ddS],~[c::>dasI]See~and~. [Its root is cStra: ;:ft [ji] is honorific.

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[CJdah] See ~. B-et~Oi [c:Jdil 10k] seven skies and seven nether worlds i.e. bhuah, bhuvah, svah, mahah, jamh, :cJTeij' [c:Jdah da cadar] the mutiny that took place during Sammat 1914 (1857 AD).l tapah, and saty. atal, sutal, VItal, gabhstImat This mutiny of the so ld iers was the result of (t;)lat;)l), mahatal, rasatal, and pata!. According many political and religious reasons. First of to Sidhan t Siromani~a book ofastrology-these fourteen worlds exist on this earth itself. all, some disturbance took place in the Bengal and Bombay armies. On 10 lh of May, the W ~ [c:Jdil vIdya] See ~ fue"jjT. Meerut regiment got disorderly and the sepoys ifq [cSdh] n glare, light. 2 piercing light, blazing of regiment No. 34 murdered a British officer. light. This disturbance spread like fire in the whole iftloT [c5dhna] v shine, glow. "cSdhIt car dI$a of India. Many English people including bhai."--paras. 'The four directions got lit or illumined. ' children and women were killed. The rebellious army and people of the countryside accepted -e-mr [c:Jdhar] n headmanship; post ofa village n5bardar. "cJdharkarahI banaI."~CarItr40. the Delhi emperor Bahadurshah as their master and they made Delhi the base for warfare. ~ [CJdhrani] wife of a village headman. The emperor was imprisoned and his sons were B-mft [cJdhri] See ~. 2 Guru Arjan Dev's loving devotee from Suri subcaste, who killed. attained self-enlightenment and became a In this upheaval, the kings of Phulkian states and all rajas of other states of Punjab famous philanthropist. and Sikh chiefs and Sikhs living in the irrit [cSdhi] n flash of light. 2 closing of eyes due to dazzling light. 3 optical illusion. 4 mirage. countryside rendered great help to the British government. In the conquesl of Delhi, the Sikh ;3il ~ 0lt!"Q [c:Jdhe da gadar] See B-e-cr t!" :areQ. maharajas and the people in general played a ih.r [C:Jp] , B'tr [cSp] n longing for joy, cheerfulness, great role. On 1Olh November 1858, this mutiny high spirits. 2 hobby. was put down. This event took place during ihrel [c:Jpai] ~ a poetic form, employing the reign of Lord Canning, the Governor matnk metre. It comprises four lines, each line having fifteen matras. The first pause is General. ~ [c:Jdah bh;)v~m] See FJT3lIfTO(TFf and W3" at the eighth matra, next at the fifteenth thereafter and the ending is with guru laghu; it l8"'r), as well as Bt+ ~Oi. 'ffi:u 030 [c:Jdah r;)tm] See Q3?l. is also named jaykari. 'ffi:u ~ [c:Jdah 10k] See Bt~ ~or. Example: SU!).IE isaru b;:Hma f du, 'ffi:u ~ [c:Jdah vIdya] See ~ fueJrr. [c:JdahI] See ~. SUD-If: mukhI salahaD- madu, W [c:Jda] See ~. SUD-IE jog jugatI tan bhed, B-et [c:Jdil] See ~. SU!).IE sasat sfmrItI ved.--japu. B-et ~ 1[3T ~ ~ -e- [c:Jdil gm). $rota ate (b)If this metre has a jaga!). at the end, it is vakta de] See Bor -e- Cl]var, ekr~gi, ekagi, ekatvasi, samarat, sarasvati, sagor, sIddhsen, t;>ital, suratI-sIddh, t;>5kar, sabhalka, t;>abhu, svarsIddh, hanipha, harat;>nIdhI, kanak, kanipha, kamals£n, karamnasi, kalavIlasi, kalet;>nasi, kaledra, kelIkaran, kevalkarmi, krIt;>an kumar, khdldknIdlu, khfthdf, gaganvasi, gIrIdhar, gIrIbodh, guphabasi, gopal, govardhdn, ghdnanadi, cdturb£n, calnIdhI, jalak, jog-anupi, jotImagan, jotIldgdn, jhagar, tapan, tar~gi, durt;>anjotI, dukkhnasi, dhuram, l1ItyasIddh, nIrdt, parvat, palaknIdln, pulasbhogi, puran, pral).nath, bIh~gdmjogi, bfbsar, bImdljotI, braham, brahambhogi, bruhumyogi, bhartharI, bhutnath, bh~gar, mdhayogi, magandhar, muktet;>var, mulm~tri, yognIdln, ramsIddh, r~gnath, loharipa, l5gar, vIt;>nupatI and VIcItrkarmi. ~ ~ ~ [c::Jrasi bkkh jivJ, ~ ECf ~ [c::Jrasi lakkh yonI] Ancient scholars of Hindu religion believe in 84 lac species ofinanimate and animate beings. Out of these, nine lac are aquatic living beings, ten lac are birds which fly in the sky, twenty lac are static or immovable trees etc, eleven lac are beings of crawling type like snakes, insects etc, thirty lac are those having four feet and four lac are human species among which monkeys,


chimpanzees etc. are included. 2 The Jains classify 84 lacs species as fellows: Seven lac on the earth, 7 lac in the water, 7 lac in the air, 7 lac in the fire, 10 lac in the roots (like carrot, radish etc.) 14 lac in the shrub trees etc., 2 lac are having two senses, skin and mouth, 2 lac having three senses, skin, mouth and eyes, 2 lacs having four senses, skin, mouth, nose and eyes, 4 lac gods live in heaven, 4 lac beings live in hell, 14 lac are human beings, who are one-legged and twolegged, 4 lac are quadrupeds. ~ [c::Jrag] adj four-coloured, c::Jr~ga. 2 cut into four segments (pieces). 3 n an assault with a sword; while sitting in virasan posture, striking with sword on the neck of a grazing male goat so that its neck, both forelegs and right hind leg, get amputated. 4 See ~ 3. [c::Jrl See ~. 2 Skt ~ elevated place, high place. ;l;p- [cJfa], B;ft [Ofi] adjwide; spread breadthwIse. ~ [c::Jfotri] a subcaste of Khatris. "ketfIa ofotri." EG. ~ [c5ur] See tJT)-f"O. "s~t c~ur q.hulavau." -suhi



tfar [c5gJ n large paper kite; tukkal. "mE nahI tilln c;)q.haIv c~g."-GPS. 2 adj good. See tfar tfja dekhkE."-cJQi Durga, she came to be known as Chandi and 3. 3 goddess Kali. 4 xa fire. 5 a devotee of Chandika. "muq ko muq utardayo ab c;'}q ko Guru Arjan Dev who rendered great service hathlagavat c;'}qi."-cJQi 1. 8 state of trance in buildingAmritsar. caused by yogic exercise. "chuti c;'}q jage trnl>w [caqia] a devotee of Guru Arjan Dev braham."-cJQi 1. 9 short for 'cJqIka'. belonging to the Ohir subcaste. 2 a subcaste "nIrakh rup bar caq ko gIryo murcha khae." of latts and Baluches. -cJQi 1. 10 adj sharp, fast. 11 hot. "ab suraj ki tim tft ~ [c;'}qi di var] a Punjabi poem c5q bran bhi."-GPS. 12 furious, angry. appearing in Dasam Granth, after the two 13 intense, frightening, dreadful. "caq kop kE Chandi Charitars, written in ballad form, c;'}qIka e ayudh karlin."-cJQi 1.14 S n moon. depicting the story of Durga's warfare. It is also called "bhag:>ti ki var". ~ [caqaia] adj who has evil inclination; wanton in nature. "caqal caqaia."-bI1a am 4. tITittfTo [caqipath] a collection ofseven hundred ~ [caqkar] See ~. hymns from Markandey Puran, named ~ [caqDa] v beat into sharpen. 2 warn. Ourgapath, and Ourgasaptshati comprising the 'ffiraw [caqrasa] See n-roror. story and significance of the merits of the J$irew [caqaIla] a Rajput subcaste. Colonel goddess. See FI3'"Fll] Dg n hindmost part of an army; the rear. ~ [c;'idra] Skt n moon. 2 moon-like disc on a peacock's feather. 3 water. 4 gold. 5 a mountain in Nepal. See ~. 6 camphor. 7 pearl with pinkish hue. 8 Per yog, the blood vessel Ira. 9 indicative of one because the moon is thus regarded. 10 semi-circular arrow. "kIte c;'idr tnsul SEthi s;'ibharE."-cCJrItr 96. 11 adjbeautiful; charming. ~[cadrsekhar]Skt~nShiv, who wears the moon on his head; Mahadev. 2 See"FlcRr 3. ~ [c;'idrsekhri] n goddess Durga, who wears the moon (as her head-ornament). tf'Illo't UTQ [c;'idrseni hal'] n an inlaid gold necklace which has small and large semicircular beads and a crescent-shaped central piece. It is women's prized ornament. "c;'idrasenIn IncJnIn hiran."-sCJJoh. ~ [c;'idrCJhara] See 1J?l1 (a). ~ [c;'idrahas], ~ [cadrahasu] Skt ~sr-(,ffi n which has moon-like glitter, the sword. It is made of sakela, not of steel. 2 a particular sword of Ravan which he had received from Shiv. "Cm;ft [c5bIali] language of Chamba region. 2 a female of the Chambial subcaste. 3 adj concerning Chamba. tfS1;ft [cabeli] See ~1 and B'ft:qr 5.

ID-r rc3m] n skin, hide, leather. tfmr~ [cam cor] ravisher of another's wife.

2 an adulterer. ~ [c5marna] v stick, cling. tfW\J [c5mar] See t:J'}fIQ. "meri jatI bIkhIat c5mar5."--mala ravidas. tffif [eomI] in the leather. "pasu maDaSI camI pale\e."-var mala ill 1. thf [c5mu] S skin, hide, leather. "jiu pig camu tera hdge."-·var gau 1 ill 4. tfm5t [c5meli] See't3""Hm and ~ 5. ~n [cyavon] a sage who was Bhrigu's son from Puloma's womb. It is mentioned in Mahabharat that when he was in the womb, a demon wanted to carry away his mother. At this the child emerged from the womb of his mother and destroyed the demon with his dazzle. As he had abandoned the womb he was known as Chyavan. He married Sukanya, daughter of raja Sharyati. Aurav was his son and Richik his gnlndsoll. Richik's son was Jamdagani and Jamdagani's son was Parshuram. 2 drip from: trickle; stream fmih. ~ [cyu] Skr vr drip, trickle; fall, decline. ~ [cyul] SkI ~-l\'l vr irrigate, moisten, stream forth. 2 adj fallen; fallen from. 3 apostate, deliant. 4 dripped from; streamed forth, oozed. ~ [cyutI] Skr n oozing. 2 fall, degradation. 3 slip, oversight, mistake. 4 anus. 5 vulv~ vagina. ~ [ev!'1 ildvoozing, dripping, falling. 2 having oozed or dripped. "CVE cali asav dhar." -llrIp$;'}bhu.

'According to 67'h chapter ur Drolla section or the Mahabharat, this river has been rormed with the bloud of the cows sacrificed ill Rantidev's yag.

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decorated, rendered elegant. "t.=m rup chae hE. "-krIsan. iiicJ [chahJ n six. "car mar;:itah chah mue."-s kabir. See ~a- J-RB. "chahu dIS dhar."-gau thIti kabir. 2 act of piercing or cutting. "kharges su sis chahe hE."-knscm. iil'iJ'a'Q [chahbarJ spread-over cloud, overcasting cloud. "fdrE no phurmala vutha chahbar lar."-var mala m 3. 'It rained continuously.' iiicJ l,ft [chah mueJ See ~ m3". ~ [chahviJ See M. ~ [chahIl).J n extensive pond, lake; lowlying area where rainwater coIIects and stands for a long time. 2 See ~. ~ [chahIl).aJ v be destroyed. 2 go into hiding. "hOI achal chal ;:idar chahIl).a."-BG. 'being guileless, not to desire one's fame in the delusive worldly affairs.' ~ [chahiaJ n shade; shadow. "dhup nahi chahia."-gau kabir. ~ [chahudlsJ advtowards the six directions; towards the sky, the netherworld and the four directions; in all directions. See iN. ~ljl:f [chahumukhJ See CfCljl:f and "l::Sl7l?l. 'S'fr [chaheJ See iN 2. ~ [chaheruJ small quantity of buttermilk that remains in butter and which, on heating, settles down. &:C{ [chakJ n satiation; satisfaction. See BC\ vr. 2 splendour, grace. See ~. 3 See iiq. ~ [chakchdkaJ adj satiated. '\'imrrt chakchake."-asa eh:'it m 4. 'iircI"C!'T [chakl).aJ v eat or take meals. 2 be

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satiated; be content. 3 adorn oneself, seem glorious. "ChClkI ChClkI byom bIvan;')."-hJjare 1O. See BOf vr. ~ [chClbt) See ~ ~ 2W" 2. 'iirefOT [chClkna) See ~. 2 be taken aback; be astonished. ~ [chClkvari) adj living on water; aquatic. "kClhu chala dhClre chE! bhari, kClhu chClkvari." -dkal. 2 eater; guzzler. 3 glorious. 4 comely, elegant. ~ [chClkra) n cart. i;io{T [chClka) See ~. 2 See 6lW. ~~ [chClkauDa) v feed; make one drink. 2 decorate; embellish. 3 delight. sfcr [ChClkI) short for ChClkIt. 2 having eaten. See ~ 2. "ChClkI kIn rClhClhu chaQI kIn asa?"-gdu bavdn kdbir. 3 having been decorated; having got elegant. See ~ 3. ~ [chClkIa) ate. 2 became satiated. 3 was decorated. 'iilfao [ChClkIt) adj decorated, embellished. 2 satiated, satisfied. riC!" [chClkoD) hexagon, an object with six corners. ~ [chClkk) decorative material; clothes,jewelry, etc given by the maternal grand parents of a young girl at the time of her marriage. ~ [chakka) n hexad. 2 collection ofsix poems. See, W2 ~ -e- ~ under »f'W 0TaT which are sung in combination with »flFIT-et~[asadi var). 3 a throw in gambling, in which six cowries appear obverse. 4 five senses and conscience. ~ i~ [chClkka chuttDa), 6lW wzor [chakka chutna) v (for the five sense organs and the mind) stop functioning; become unconscious. 2 lose at gambling; dropping of the cowries from one's hand due to defeat. ~ [chClkkel plural of chClkka. six stanzas of composition by a devotee of Durga, in the name of Guru Gobind Singh beginning as:

"nClmo ugrCld;')ti ,m;')ti sIvEya"... etc. Skt n young he-goat. 2 goat-skin. 3 a bag made from goat-skin to keep water. iiliir [ChClChl, iiliir w [chatia] 11 chest, breast. 2 umbrella. i s [chat] See ~. 2 roof. 3 wound, injury. "ayudh ko chat lag na kou. "--N? iiStR' [chatis] 11 thirty-six. S3H [chataj] n blood which oozes from a iiStR' tn:l1f [chatis pakh;')q] thirty-six kinds of wound.--sallama. 2 red colour; red-coloured dissimulations or hypocrisies. No particular article.-sallama. number of dissimulations is referred to here; implied is their being numerous. The Chinese ~ [chatdhar] See ~. 2 the wounded. See E;B 3. traveller Fahiyan has written that ninety-six kinds of dissimulations are prevalent in the iil3('jT [chatna] n verandah on the front side of a house: dooriess roofed area. 2 a kind of Madhya Desh. He means that they are mushroom. "chatr ke bacHe jEse chatna ki chah countless. "khatdarsan bahu VEr kar nal chatis pakMq caIae."-BG. bEthe."-BGK. iiStJ [chatih] See 53tJ:r. iiStf [chCltap] Dg n emperor, monarch. iiStJ nffi;r3" [chatih ;')mnt] thirty-six kinds of ~ [chatpatr] See~. ambrosial foods. Several scholars have counted i s ~ [chat banur] See i"3"~. ~ [chatar] See ~. as many kinds of eatables but it is just a ~ [chatardhar] See~. conjecture. Bhai Gurdas has very nicely ~ [chatri] 11 small umbrella. 2 roof of an explained the concept of thirty-six kinds of foods. "khat ras mIth rus melkE chatih bhojan umbrella's size on a chariot. 3 domed memorial han rasoi". Through mutual combinations, usually found in Rajputana. 4 See~. each taste can be converted into six different is;'fT [chatra] See iil3('jT. 2 adj roofed. "chatre bajar."--var ram 2 m 5. In a roofed market, relishes and this explanation can be applicable in all the countries. "jIh prasad I chatih amnt business can be carried on during winter, khahI. "-sukhmalli. "chatih ;')mn t bhojan summer and in the rainy season. Here 'roofed market' stands for a holy gathering. khaDa."-majh m 5.2 all kinds offood. iiS'lr [chatab], ~ [chatabi] P ,":",l? fl::r:.:rrGr adv &Stu tfiIT [chatih jug] period of time equalling thirty-six mythological aeons; that is, nine at once, immediately. tetrads, each of four ages or aeons. It is a ~ [chatara] adj of a ram. "bIn SImrun jEse hypothesis of the ancient scholars that, after sig chatara."-gau a 1J1 5. 2 11 a six-stringed

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the dissolution of the world, the state of ill 5.4 a Kshatri. See~. nothingness prevails for a period ofthirty-six ~ [chatrsal] a famous raja of Panna. He ages. "chatih jug gubaru sa ape g;ll:tat kini." was son of Champat Rai of Bundela dynasty -var ram 1m3. "jug chatih gubar kar."-BG. and poet Lal was the jewel of his court. He died in 1734 AD. 2 Gopinath's son, jewel of ~ 'ffi:ro [chatih bhojan] See 53TJ ~. ~ [chatul Skt 6f:'f n umbrella. 2 canopy of a the Chauhan dynasty, king ofBundi and close king as regal insignia. "l1l:hcalu caur chatu." associate ofDara Shikoh; he was killed in 1658 -var ram 2 m 5. "Iku sahrbu SIr chatu. "-asa AD in Dara's battle against Aurangzeb. m5. ~ [chatrasIr] adj who has a canopy over &fO' [chatt] n shade; derived frorn chadIt. his head. "patsahu chatrClSIr sou."-baVdll. 2 umbrella. 3 See i3'~. &f:Ia' [chCltrClk] Skt n a plant akin to acacia i3' '8Q;f [chatt banur] Chhat and Sanur are arabica; a parasol-shaped mushroom which two proximate villages in Patiala state and are appears during the rainy season. 2 parasoloften called by this combined name. Before shaped tree. 3 umbrella. 4 honeycomb. the conquest of Sirhind, in Sammalt 1767, the ~ [chatrClc;l.hala] king, over whose head is Khalsa Dal, in alliance with Banda Bahadur, held a large umbrella. "chCltrClc;l.hala cal bhCle jCltr btr jat hE. "~BGK. 'When a king becomes conquered these villages. i3r [chatta] n umbrella. 2 roofed market; alley unsteady, people under his sway dwindle or narrow lane. 3 beehive; wasps' nest. See away.' ~ [chatrCll:ti] army of a parasol-shaded king. ~ 4. 4 dishevelled hair (of the head). 5 In 2 congregation or society of Kshatris. Shahpur area, loose hair ofthe head are termed -Sdllama. as chatte. i3b=r [chattis] thirty-six. See 6i3lM. &f:Itrn' [chCltrCldhar] one over whose head a sJlH~i(') [chattisvana] adj thirty-sixth. "rahyo parasol is held; king, emperor. 2 parasolnak me ku~t chattisvana.'·'-j;mmejay. 'Thirty bearer; one who holds a parasol over a king's head. sixth part of leprosy remained there.' &f3'))fT(!T [chattear;la] a village, under police &f:It:fTa' [chCltrCldhar] See &f:ImJ'. 2 xa opium; poppy has a mark of parasol on it, hence this station Kotbhai, in district Ferozepur, ten kohs name. to the east of Muktsar, where there is Guptsar gurdwara of Guru Gobind Singh. See Q)l.f3'FlCf &r-f'QT6' ~ [chatradhar patsahiJ empire. "chatdhar patsahia."-sri m 5. and~. ~ [chatyo] wounded, injured. "sahasrasaYClka ~ [chCltradhari] See ~. chCltyo."-paras. 'was wounded with a ~tl'fu' [chatrapatI] n owner of a canopy, a king. 2 adjhaving a canopy over head. "pac;l.It, thousand arrows.' sur, chatrapCltI raja, bhagat braban Cluru na ~ [chCltr] n See~. "chatr 11a patr na caur 11a." koI. "-bIla ravIdas. -SClVE'ye sri mukhvak m 5. 2 Skt short for chCltvClr; abode, residence. "salagan sabh sukh ~ IchatrapaJ::lI] adj holding an umbrella in his hand. 2 This word has also been used chCltr." -man! d m 5. 'The sky uniformly covers for ~astrapaDI. and provides comfortable abode to all.' 3 adj canopy-like. "dahdIS chatr megh ghata."-sor ~ lchCltrapal1 n king.

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~ [chdtrdbhagl demise ofa king. 2 disorder

yogis hidden in the huts.' 2 who j ingles, who in a state. 3 widowhood. tinkles. 3 removing in a moment. ~ [chdtral n horned ram. 2 ram that has suet 'S"Oa" [chdndkL ~ [ch n fight, battle, war. ;:ret' [jada] See He' and ~. 2 P Re. dead body, corpse. 2 ritual his sarapmedh yagy and spared the life of of taking away the dead body to the specified Takshak. "janmej raj mahan."-gyan. "rovahI place for cremation or burial. 3 bier. janmeja khuI gaIa."-var ram 1 m 1. tfi'il"3" [janat] A ..:.-~ n plural of janat; gardens, R'i'i'AA [janmejE] Janamejay has. "janmejE orchards. 2 See fi::'i'oro. 3 Hone who enlightens. gursabad na janIa."-gau am 1. 'As Janamejya See tfI013". did not heed Vyas's dictum, disease struck 'fI'O'i')T [janana] H v make known, find out. 2 be him.' 2 See~. born. 3 P ,.;t) related to women. ~ [j;:'l11motsav] birthday celebration. ~ [janab I A ,-:,",1>. n honorific vocative; sir. ~ [janvasa] place where a marriage party fj()lijt!(') [janardan] SkI ~ adj deliverer or terminator of birth-death cycle; whose grace is put up. ~ [janvac.lal, ~ [janvaral, ~ redeems a person from the cycle of birth and [janvara] a town near Bidar, in the state of death. 2 one who gives trouble to the people. Hyderabad Deccan, whose noble men 3 n Vishnu. -Rustam Rai and Bala Rai, were got released ~ [janavar] See~. 2 bird. "gyan janavar from prison by Guru Gobind Singh. ki lai baj hVE cakhi."-krrsan. ~ [janvesur] lord of Janvara. See~. Rfo [jam] SkI n reproduction, birth. 2 mother. fIi')T [jana] person. ";warI pac ham ek jana." 3 motherland. -gau m 1. 'There are five enemies and I am ~ [j;mIClt] ~. knows. "jako rup rag nahI janIat."-hajare 10. alone.' 2 SkI origin, birth. 3 adj bogotten, 'tl'fo3' [jamtJ Skt adj born. "moh jamt SaSE sabh produced. 4 plural of jan. "satjana sunahI subhbacan. "-sukhmani. 5 See fi:ror 5. harh"i."-NP 2 produced, reproduced. ~ [janaul).a] See ~. tJf7f't!T [janfda] adj aware, knowledgeable. 2 one who gives birth; one who produces or ~ [janaur] See ~. ~ [janaIa] made one realise, made reproduces. known. "prabhu janaIa tab hi jata."--prabha a ~ [janfdrl king, provider, ruler. 2 the lord of devotees, the Creator. "sri janfdr ko coj m 5. 2 bore, gave birth. ~ [j;:maIt] See t=!7i"B. bIsala. "--salah. [There have been two Janmejays before him; for this ~ [jamyat] knows. See~. "adhIk rup jamyat tako jag."-carrtr 251. "jagat bhayo tate reason. he should be called Janmejay Ill.

;:nrih::r [janmej],

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sabh janIyat. "-c)bis.

After the enunciation of Ved mantars, cotton balls are collected from the field. Then bieari hanjani. "-basal: m 5. 2 known, they are de-seeded. After taking a seat on the understood. "murakh bat jani na kaehu." embankment of a well, one spins cotton thread -krIsau 3 Skt maidservant. 4 wiife, consort. with a spinning top hanging in the well. When S woman. twisted cotton thread is ready, enough to 'tl"OT [jani] devotees have. See t17iT I. suffice for a full length janeu, this is thrice ~ [jania] See t17iT 3 and OTJ-Itl7il:r;w. folded and twisted into a cord. Those three tri'i'tlir3' [janiyat] See ;::rfon.s, i=ITo:or3' and H"C'fh:;ro. twisted cords make an agar and two agars make FI'Q [janu] devotee. See RO 6.. "janu nanak magE a janeu. Such a janeu is worth wearing by the danu. "-var ram 2 m 5. 2 person, man. See RO dVIj. It is worn on the left shoulder and hung 7. "sa t saran I jo janu par£." --sukhmal1i. on the right side. While performing funerary 3 advas if. "srOl.)at dhar mli nabh ko janu sur rites in honour of the deceased ancestors, this ko ram jalajulI dino."-c5-I'O'". [jamunadril mountain from which Yamuna originates; Kalind mountain. See ~. 2 a resident of Kalind mountain. See



~. ~ [j"munapatI], ~ [jamunapItl

Krishan and Varun. See HH n elderliness. 2 splendour. HMTJfl' [jalasri] adj subsisting on water alone. 'tfli51"l'StiI' [jCllalay] n sea, the house of water. Al'S'l'S'Sle [jCllalabad] In Afganistan, a town See 002. situated on the road to Kabul. A sacred place 'fI'l'S""H"l'S [jCllajal] Skt '*111i.1Ci n waterfall, spring. Choha Sahib, exists here in memory of Guru 2 brook. 3 P Lf.1J:> an ornament comprising Nanak Dev. See t1 n exile, banishment, transportation for life. Brahmans, after uttering spells, offer a handful of water as oblation to the sun, the ogres ~ [jCllavCln] v See ~. Al'S''ilda [jalavart] Skt\JfC1"Tiftf n whirlpool, vortex. disperse in no time. tfli5"t!' [jalad] See ;::l'we'. "hukam jaladan tabE See~. tIfi5' [jClII] n fire. ";'}tClrI lagi jalI bujhi."-sri m ucara."-GPS. Skt~. ffii5Tfbtr [jaladhIp], ~ [jClladhIpatI] n lord 1. "jCllI bujhi tujhahI bujhai."-sor a m 1.

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"baldi jalI nIVrE knpa te."--maru solhe m 1. 2 v adv quickly, immediately. "ha·thu na laI kasubhrE jalIjasi lad abi two rattis, should be taken with cow's buttermilk twice a day; (4) iron, peel of harar, revad xatai, bru, nasadar, all these should be taken in equal measure and three doses of 1liz mashas each, 'should be taken thrice a day with cow's buttermilk or makoextract; (5) l?arched grams soaked 21 times in the milk ofcactus and dried in shade be taken from 1 to 5 grams thrice a day; (6) fill extracts ofaniseed and mako in fruits of bitter gourd at night and one masa powder of the root of ndkchIkkaDi herb be taken with it, the next morning; (7) take two tolas of the juice ofkarela; (8) eat crushed fried mako; (9) a powder of 4 tolas of fdr jS, 4 tolas of roasted asafoetida, 4 tolas of calcined conchshell (sakh di bhasam), magha (piper longum) one tala be made and taken with cow's buttermilk according to age and strength; (10) a paste of grounded puthkaqa be applied on the abdomen;

(11) two drops ofcroton oil be taken thrice a day; (12) accumulated fluid be got extracted by some skilled doctor. ~ [jabka] See Rex. ~ [jalajal] all water; water only. "jIu jalmin jalajal pritI hE."-kalI a ill 4.2 See~. t=ri3. [jalatj burns. 2 See ~. trni::ra [jaladhar] a demon: Per Padam Puran Shiv's raging ego begot Jalandhar from the oceans. A demon that rose from the ocean groanly so bitterly that the universe was utterly confused. Brahma took him into his lap and tried to console him. He pulled Brahnia's beard so forcefully that tears flowed from his eyes. That is why Brahma gave him Jalandhar as his name. When he came of age, he conquered Indar's paradise and tormented the gods. Shiv came to help Indar in his fight against Jalandhar. Jalandhar's wife, Varinda(who was the daughter of Kalnem) sat to worship Brahma for the victory ofher husband. In order to interrupt the worship, Vishnu went to Varinda in the guise of Jalandhar. Seeing her husband, Varinda stopped the worship, rose from her place and Jalandhar died at the same time. There is also a story that Vishnu raped her. It is also mentioned in Padam Puran that Varinda voluntarily burnt herself alive on her husband's funeral pyre and with Vishnu's blessings, four trees - tulsi (holy basil), aula (emblica officinal is), pala~ (butea frondoso) and peepal (boucerosia edulsis) grew from her ashes. See ~. 2 an ancient saint. 3 some write Jalandhar as Jalodar. See GPSm 4, a 50. "rag jaladhar udar vIsala. pira det maha sabh kala." See ~t!O. 4 a city of Doaba which is the principal town of the district.

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There is a story in Padam Puran that assuming Jalandhar as his son, the ocean gave him this country (Trigart) to live, hence its name Jalandhar. Prior to this it was submerged in sea water. ~ [jal;'idhari] n Jalandhar's wift:, Varinda. 2 Durga who helped Shiv in eliminating Jalandhar. "jal;}dhri ta dIn te nama. japo c;'iQlka ko sabh jama."-rudr. ~ [jal;'ibal] Skt n stream., river. 'iil\I [jalh] a Bhatt bard who eulogised the Guru. "sumatI jalh jaDi jugatI."-s;weye ill 3 ke. ~ [ja1ahD], ~ [jalahn] ;'It Bhatt bard who eulogised the Guru. "ja1han til' blpas banayo." -saveye ill 4 ke. 2 a Sidhu Jatt from Bhadana village, who was an open-minded, and largehearted devotee. His wife's name was Ramki. His simple words carried del~p meanings. Once when he was transplanting onions, somebody asked him how union with God could be achieved. Pat came the reply. "rabb da ki pauDa, odhro puttDa te edhar 1au1).a." i.e. 'divert your mind away from worldly affairs and dedicate it to God.' He was a contemporary of the sixth Guru. "jalhan sadh huto JIS than. tahf lag pahuce guru bhagwan. nam ramki tIS ki dara. harkhat ur pIkh yak ucara."-GPS raSI 7 a 15. ~ [jaly], ;::n;r.;ro [ja1yan] a Bhatt bard who eulogised the Guru. See ffij' and H"1fO. "gobfd puri sam ja1yan til' bIpas banayo."-saveye m4ke. ;::fHo [jallan] See ~. ~ [jallad] A J{jf n one who flogs. 2 executioner, hangman. tffl [jallo] a mas~d (a priest who received offerings and presented them to the Guru) of Tulspur. He was in the service of Guru Arjan Dev. tW [jay] Skt n impulse. 2 speed. See ~".


[javan] Skt adj impulsive, agile. 2 n horse. 3 pron which, who. "javan ka1 sabh jagat banayo."-c.Jpai. 4 See~. 5 See Ro. H~()aa(') [javanbran] n which gives moonlightthe moon. "j;waJll karan ki bhaganI bakhanahu. sut car kahI pun sabad pramanahu. take at satru pad dijE. nam tupak ke sabh 1ahI lijE." ~sanama. moon's sister Chandarbhaga river; its son grass; its grazer deer and his enemy, the gun. ~ [javnIka] Skt n tent wall, curtain. ~ [java] See fFf~ and BW. 2 Skt n gu1dupahrria flower; Chinese rose. 3 Javasa, a prickly plant used in medicine; Javahancarp.el thorn. "java jemI jare."~VN 4 saffron. ~ [javaID], ~ [javam] See ~. ~ [javai] Skt ~ son-in-law. "kIs hi dhara kia kuram sake naIl javai."-asa m 4. tW"A" [javas], ~ [javasa] Skt l:if'Pfl", ~ and 'l:iP'"FTa". L Alhagi Maurorum. n Javaha, a type of grass which perishes in the rainy season and is used for making superior shutters for cooling the air in summer. Its seeds are pestrepellent. 2 Skt ~ speed, flow. "than j~g ko javas."-PP ~ [javahar] A /tjj~ plural of j;:Jhar, jewel. H~'(:HlfFfl1f [javaharsfgh] See~. 2 resident of Agra, a Jarhia Sikh, who attended the congregation ofthe tenth Guru, when he visited Agra. 3 maternal uncle and minister of Maharaja Dalip Singh who was murdered by the army at Lahore on 21 st September 1845. Lal Singh was appointed minister in his place. Jawahar Singh's memorial is at Masti Darvaza. 4 a Punjabi poet who wrote "Ramvar" in 102 stanzas. It tells the story of Ramayan in brief. A specimen i c given below: "supnakha apachra bani kar karan ca1a, akhe raje ram 11111 sun rau chata1a, mEnU tU kar Istri tak joban ba1a,

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tmll hor ki lorie jIS rava!). sala. ~ [javItri] See ~. raghupatI kahI sun supnakh, Ih gall na mana ;:Nt [javi] Skt "lfcr;:r, adj fast-running, clever. sahas kasale mansa jInha do rana, "slJnat dutle javi turag."-GPs. 2 one who eats rup vataIa rakhsi ban ai bana, barley. "jalasri javi."-paras. 'living on water palka utto janki muh kardi vana, and eating barley.' 3 n oat or barley-like lachman nakk utana nale do kana...." foodgrain. It is largely fed to the animals. L ~ [javaha] See ~. 2 In Pothohari. Avena Sativa. rapeseed is also called by this name. ~ [javeh!).a] advas, like. "paba javeh!).e." iW"7i [javan] Skt q~?l: P Jf? nand adj -c§c;Ii 3. 'like mountains'. youngman, youth, youthful. iWmJ [j;wehar] See~. "lal javehar mat:\ki ~ [javana] plural of javan. gurbhaQarE SOI."-sri a ill 1. ~ [javani] P j,? n youth. iWc:Rit [javehri] See~. 2 n jeweller, a person ~ [javab] See Hmr. who judges the quality ofjewels. 3 ofjewels. "handh;mu ratan javehri so gun handhanu ~ [javamarad] P J/'? adj brave man. 2 youngman. han pasahu devaIa."-var brla ill 4. ~ [javeha] adv as, like. ~ [javamardi] P UJ/l? n bravery. ~ [javayan] Skt IfCWfT n thyme, Ptychotis ~tJT [javadha] a Jatt subcaste. 2 a village ajowan. P~. a soalike drug used to treat inhabited by Jatts of Jawandha subcaste. stomach ache, gastric trouble and indigestion; H;f [jar] Skt~ adjinanimate. 2 foolish, idiotic. javayan is diuretic and cures the disease of "jar baman In rasan ko janE kaha upaI." bladder and liver. -krrsaD. 3 root; origin. 4 foundation, base. 5 See;::r;:r('iT. It is sown in the mr :1th of Magh and harvested in Harh. Ll height it equals a ~ [jarat] adj studded, inlaid. 2 n process of coriander plant. Its effect is hot and dry. "mel studding or inlaying. javayan khaI su badna."-NP See~. ffif3T [jarta] n foolishness, stupidity. tNTQ [javar] n millet, food grain of autumn 2 unawareness. 3 adj one who inlays. harvest. Skt 1ii'~. L Sorghum Vulgare, E i1;R)T [jarna] ), stud; inlay something with a blow. Great millet. 2 A .If? neighbourhood. ~ [jarbharatJ Skt~. There is a tale in 3 neighbouring country. Bhagwat that raja Bharat reared a deer. His H;eia!!l'c:::' [javarbhata] See ~. affection for the animal remained firm even at the time of his death. Hence he was born as a ~ [javal], HWI.2 [javalu] A JIJJ n decline, downfall. "khauphu na khata na tarsu javalu." deer. After dying as a deer he was born as a -gau ravrdas. 'there is no fear, no omission brahman. Being in the know of his previous and no fear of downfall at that place.' 2 P JI? birth, he detached himselffrom everybody and sack, large bag. 3 deception, fraud. 4 adj led an inanimate life. Hence this name was openly. "java I duha: nE!).a nu naca v!).a." assigned to him. -Ci'Jrrtr 228. 5 A J~ plural ofjabal (mountain). mrifcr [jarmekh] n a nail which is driven with a specific procedure at the time of constructing "calle acal java!." -kalki. 'Even the most a house or raising a garden. Foundation mark. powerful warriors, stable as mountains, got ~ [jarvat] adj tN~\J1t] awake. "jagat suta bharamI -krrsan. 4 adv wherever, where. "jahi or jau vIguta."-maru m 5 Jjuli. atI adar taha hi pau."-Poets 52. A'dldH fd [jagatjotI] n spiritually-awakening ~ [jahuJ (will) go. See W;'~."mo kau chogI light, different from the mundane one. na au jahu re." -g n feeling of exhaustion, total loss ofvitality. A'(,) adj living, animate. H"(')'(')' [janan] v knowing, learning. AI(,)(,)ijlij [jananhar], t'I l (')(')()lg [jananharu] adj knowledgeable, knowing. "jananhar prabhu parbin."-sukhmemi. 'H"'O'(')T [jan-na] See H"(')'(')'. "jan nanak jagu jamo mrthIa."-gaum 9. H"'i'i'i"ITur [janniy] adj worth knowing. "janniy budhI karkE jou."-GPS. H"'OlJ'ijT [janpura] Bhai Santokh Singh has mentioned in the 35 th chapter ofthe 12th section of Gurpratap Suray that Guru Tegh Bahadur stayed at Janpura after his departure from Jind. This village is in Bangar from where the Guru set out for Agra. "janpure Ik hE guruthana. taM. karan w [jugia] practitioner of yog. 2 coupled. trn [jugu] See tJ"dT. trn trn [jugu jugu] several ages. 2 throughout the ages, in each era. "han jugu jugu bhagat upaIa."-asa cbat m 4. eqrtI'RT [jugupasa] Skt ~ n condemnation, vilification. See qJ1.f vr. 2 hatred, hate, disgust. ~ [jugupasIt] Skt ~ adj maligned. 2 contemptible, disgusting. ;rcitR' [juges], ~ [jugesur] master of sages, lord of yogis. 2 Shiv. 3 Gorakh. 4 the Creator. S Baba Sri Chand. t:rahr [jugat] end ofan era. 2 doomsday; ultimate destruction of the universe. t:JClfoa' [jugatar1within an aeon, within the era. 2 another era i.e. several aeons. "jese jal atar jugatar base pakhan."-BGK. ~ [juggalJ.], ~ [juggalJ.I] a yogini, a horrible goddess attending upon Durga. "jay japahu juggalJ. juh jua."- raju dehI ta kavan bac;"-guj namdev. 2 n barley. P j. 3 adv when, whenever. R' [jSl See R 2. ~ [j:>u1 See ~ and R. Ru'o [j:>har] n pond, tank. See ~. 2 A fi ft pearl. 3 precious stone, gem, jewel. 4 raw material, e.g cotton for cloth, iron for a sword etc. 5 merit, quality. 6 an old ritual "jivhar" in Rajputana, from which the. word j:>har is derived. Due to a threat from the enemy, wives faithful to their husbands would put an end to their families, with weapon or fire. This ritual is called j:>har. See ~. 7 oxides of steel, iron oxide. 8 sublimation ofmedicine. ;lmft [j:>hri] n jeweller, connoisseur and trader ofjewels. h [j:>kl T Jft n army, military, armed forces. 2 group, gang, crowd, swarm. 3 A J,j tasting. 4 happiness, ecstasy. 5 feeling ofspiritual bliss.

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3 roz maya dunia uphtadam "lakhyo ap ne apan apa su jJk."--GPS. $aba$ be-adli $ab$aham, R;:r [jJjl A r:,.,j n husband. 4 kan! gurez makun tu byaxu$ irnu [zJjah], Rw [zJja] A ~Ij n wife. Ro lj;m] pron which, that. 2 who, that. "nid mat kunem jI jag guaham, ustatI jJn ke sam."-hajare 1 O. 3i n See ~ This means: 1 Kalayavan came to the battlefield and (~). 4 moonlight. "taha cadra ki m j:m hE." said, "I am the commander of the army." -ramav. "barkiratI jJn."-NP. 2 And repeated, "0 Baman! come and ~ [jJnpur] Skt~~ra town on the bank combat with me. Don't have any illusion in of river Gomti, in Benaras division of UP. It is your mind." a district headquarters. Guru Teg Bahadur 3 I, th(~ day, come to the battlefield as the visited this place. A gurdwara naffil~d Sangat sun. I am unique and as the moon, am night's Mridangwali is situated in this town. The Guru husband. stayed at the residence of Gurbax Singh and offered him a mrIdag (a two-sided drum) for 40 Krishan! Don't hesitate. Come joyfully so that wle may win the game of warfare that singing ofhymns. Still it is reverently preserved is so crucial." at this holy place. The scented and perfumed oils ofJaunpur are very popular. 'ifoIorHr [j5gnama] epic ofa battle. 2 Many books of this title are available, which have iW [jJpEl part if, in case, provided. inr [jJb] if now, now if. description of the battle betw.een the army Hso [jJban] n youth. "jJban bahIkram kanlk of Lahore Darbar and British forces. 1 3 a kuc.lIah."-sahas m 5. compostion of thirty-two stanzas by a devotee popularly known as Var Guru Gobind Singh ih?crr [jJIag] adv until, tilL as long as., "ffw [jJIal, Rwo [jJIan] See ffiIw. ji. This depicts a conversation between fm [jJb] See~. emperor Aurangzeb and his daughter R;p- [jJra] n twins, either of the twins, twinZebbunisa, and details of the battle of born. Bhangani. tfar [j5g] P ...L n rust. 2 large bell olr gong, RiITH [jagaml Skt \JjS~1Tl1 wanderer, roamer, aboddess homeless. "asthavar j5gam kit conch shell. "jag ghugharu tall:[ka upjat rag pataga."---g;:w kdbir. 2 a branch of Shaivite an5t."--prichat. 3 island of Zanzibar on the sect. Its ascetics, wear a serpentine cord over east coast of Africa. See ;:faTt and ~Ht Haft. 4 P their head with a metallic moon fitted'in it. ....5. battle, war. ,far ))(IIDfT [jag azma] P 1.;I~ adf one who Instead of heavy earrings they put on brass ornaments decorated with peacock feathers. tries his hand in war; experienced in warfare. They are divided into two classes-unattached tfar~ [j5g darayadl' description of the war ofKalayvan in Krishanavtar ofDasam Granth wanderers and householders (having families). "jagam jodh jati s5nlasi."-maru is given in the following savEye: m 1. 1 jag darayad kaIjam5n, tfar ~ [jag musapha] battlegong, large bell bagoyad ki man pbj ko ~aham, 2 ba man jag bugo kun baya IJangnamas written by Shah Muhammad and Bhai Sahib hargIz dII rna na zara kon va ham, Singh are very famous.

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rung to proclaim war. "jag illusapha vCljjIa." tf