Mahan Kosh: Encyclopaedia (Encyclopedia) of the Sikh Literature, Volume 1 [1] 8130200759

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Mahan Kosh: Encyclopaedia (Encyclopedia) of the Sikh Literature, Volume 1 [1]

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English Translation of ......




© Department of Development ofPunjabi Language Punjabi University, Patiala



q.lilF.lS~d3610(d by


ISBN : 81-302-0075-9

Year : 2006 Copies: 1100 Price : Rs.8001-

Laser Setting: Advanced Centre for Technical Development ofPunjabi Language, Literature and Culture Punjabi University, Patiala. Published by Dr. Param Bakhshish Singh, Registrar, Punjabi University, Patiala and printed at Mis Anand Sons, Delhi.

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Advisory Board Bhai Ashok Singh Bagrian Major A. P. Singh S. P. S. Virdi Param Bakhshish Singh Indu Banga Jodh Singh Jaswinder Singh B. S. Sandhu

Translators (G- 3"' ~~)

Major Gurmukh Singh

(Jf 3"' lftT, lTfr;:pfu 3"' Ws"r)

Mohinder Singh Bajaj Amarjeet Singh Ohawan

(lR" 3"' ffifT"??) (~3"'~)

Hina Nandrajog Madan Lal Hasija

(ll'1tt 3"' fffiro)

Gurdial Singh Aarif


























-- --

--- f---- f---

'w ~ I

phIrI baba gClIa bClgdadI no bahClrI jaI kia Clsthana. ~ ..

arw ~ Olf =-

tfIT ~ lfta'"eT(jT1 =

Iku baba Clkal rupu duja rClbabi mClrdana.

fu3t war f,pg


cmr ~ ~ ~ l-IJ13l7iTl

vekhE dhIanu lClgaI kClrI Iku phClkiru vClqa mClstana.

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Encyclopredia of The Sikh Literature

~ fufda tH3dAd ~ GOITg fc:m"aT l.llful?fIOT I puclna phirIkE dtu bhalO puran bhavi ko."-mala m 5. ~ [udagal] n a fair, carnival. ~ [udaq] Skt ~3~ ad; fearless, not afraid of punishment. "udabir. See ire'. ~ [ubatna] Skt~ a paste of oil seeds, sandalwood, sesame seeds, car5ji, etc., for massaging the body before bathing; it makes the body clean, soft and fragrant. ~ [ubtana] v to put on a wrong and rough path. 2 to turn back. 3 See ~. ~ [ubar] liberation, salvation, redemption.

ij$3 i i!(').

[uftadan] P l;JJlil v to fall, collapse. 2 to be ruined. ~~ [uphanna] See ~G(!OT. "tej tale pay up;:myo jEsa."-GPS. ~ [uphan] n the process of boiling; boiling over. 2 an outburst. ~l:l'a' [ubak] A ...f" adj fat, plump. 2 smart, shrewd. "bajje ubakk."-ca(ii 2. 'Smart fighters clashed among themselves.' ~ [ubkai] n nausea, vomit. ijiild i €(')

See~and~. ~ [ubraI).], ~ [ubran] Skt ~ n the

act of coming up. 2 turning from bad to good condition; improving. 3 attaining liberation. "ubrat raja ram ki sarI).i."-g;:/U m 5. ~ [ubalna] v ~-u 1 m 3. 3 to gush forth. ~ [ubasi] n a yawn, gape. (Many people think that the root of this word is from Arabic u-'f which means a wrinkle or scowl on the brow). See ~. ~~ [ubahI).a] without shoes; barefoot. 2 without a carriage. ~ [ubac] See ~. ~ [ubarI).a], ~ [ubaran] Skt~. to raise, lift. 2 to liberate. 3 to save. "dfJpdi abar let ubariale."-mali namdev. "mE taki ot satah lehu ubaria."-g;:>u;:> m 5. 4 to boil. "kahI cakar s6 deg ubari."-GPS. ~ [ubananu] he saved. "apI ubananu." -var guj 2 m 5. ~~ l:fT(')'

[ubare xan] Abdul Rahiman Khan, a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev, who served the congregation at Kartarpur after imbibing the Guru's precept and was counted among the devout Sikhs. See Janamsakhi of Bhai Bala. ~ [ubalI).a], ~ [ubalna] vto boil, cook in boiling liquid. See ~.

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35 ~

iIor [ubed beg]


He was appointed the subedar of Lahore province for some time in 1761 AD by Ahmed Shah Durani. [n fact he was the ruler of Kalanaur (Gurdaspur) under the aegis of Delhi, and was badly defeated by Raja Chatur Singh of Chamba, Raja Raj Singh of Guier, Raja Dhiraj Pal of Basoli and Raja Kripal Deo of Jammu. ~ [uberaI] n a sub-caste of Khatris. ~ 1:f'O tUbEd xan], ~ ilor tubEd beg] See

[ubarna] SkI -:Jfl-~ v to raise upward, get higher. 2 to burst forth into flame. 3 to swell, rise, spring up. ~ [ubha] a region ofMultan, Dera Gazi Khan and adjacent parts of Bahavalpur state. 2 See ~and ~~. ~

[ubharl).a], ~ [ubharna] v to push up, lift. 2 to incite, instigate. 3 to promote to a higher rank. ~ [ubhe] Set: ~"gljf. "harakh sok ubhe darbar. "-gaLi d m I. 2 See ~. ~ilor. ~9 [ubh] adj standing. 2 adv above, upon. ~ [ubhesas], ~ [ubhesah] Sk/~ "pfdhi ubh kale sasara."-dl1ana namdev. See n sighs, gasps caused by contraction of lungs, ~ and flfdt. :, Skl-:J'f{ both of them. 4 Skl-:J'l"f., by sorrow or by excessiive phlegm. "muh kala vr to fill, complete. 5 S n sky. hoa adarI ubhesas."-var sor m 3. "nave dhaule ubhesah."-var majh m I. 2 sighs. ~ [ubhaI] See ~. ~ [ubhsuk] adja tree, that has dried before ~ [ubhE] See~~. it is cut; dead even when alive. "bharam suke ~ [umai] adjc~xuberant, enthusiastic. "man bahu iJbhsuk kahiahI."-kalI am 4. me ;:ltI hi um;:li."-krIs.::m. ~ [ubhkale] See~, ~ and flfdt. ~ [um;:lh], ~1fUT [umha] See ~. "sabh ~ [ubhay] SkI adv both. umhai dekhbe ko v;:ldhu lal kO."-GPs. ~ [ubhyatr] SkI advon both sides or places. ~ [umak] n keen desire, enthusiasm, fit of ecstasy. "m;:ln n;:l r;:lhE b;:lhu brdhI umkai." 2 in both the worlds, here and hereafter. ~~~ [ubhyalakar] n This figurative -sar m 5. 2 A ~;; depth, seriousness, gravity. expression, whether ornamental or semantic ~ [um;:lkna] See ~. is formed when two or more figurative ~ [umbo], ~:3" [umkrt] filled with expressions are found at one place, and is of zeal. See ~}ror. "umkro hio mrlan pr;:lbhu two kinds: SaSrI$tI and sakar. tar."-suhi m 5. "umkrt r;:lS cale."-mala (a) If a number of figurative expressions, parta1 m 5. even if merged, appear separate, then this is ~ [um;~g] See ~ and tIHar. ~ [umagl).a]l v to have longings, long for. an instance of sasrI$tr: 2 to jump. alakar rk thaI bahut jude jude lakh jahr, trl tadul ki ritr s6 sasrI$ti tahf. ~ [um;:lQnaJi v to long for. 2 to jump. 3 to -garabgjjni. rise. 4 to spread. 5 to surround. (b) but, if on merging, they do not appear ~ [um;:lt], ~Hf3" [um;:ltI] A .,;:..;f n a nation, separate, then it is a case of sakar: nationality. 2 a sect, following a particular religious belie;f and practice. "d;:lrI seVE pay pani ki ritr kar h6y parspar lin, tako sakar nam hE bhakhat par;:lm pr;:lbin. um;:ltr kh;:lri."--var ram 3. -katvy prabhakar. ~ [umdah], I~r [umda] A u ) adj good, ~ [ubhr;:ll).], ~~ [ubh;:lrl).a], ~~ excellent. 2 healthy, sound. 3 chosen.

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4 beautiful.

donkey and camel, bullock and he-buffalo and he-goat

Muhammad. He was stabbed to death by Firoz, a slave, in 23 Hijri (644 AD) Under Caliph Umar, the Muslims conquered Egypt and north Africa, and he undertook boundless preaching of Islam. "kino umarkhItab jyo aj hamaro nyau."-carItr 38. Several tales ofUmar'sjustice arc current. In the book' Alfaruk' it is written that Caliph Umar had framed the rule that one who drank liquor be given 80 lashes. One day his own son Abu Shamah got drunk whereupon Umar himself lashed him so severely that he died. "umarkhItab adalti bEta marvaIa." -j{'ignama. 3 ~ [umarthal] SkI ~ tumour in the intestines, caused by incontinence in eating and drinking and the taking of intoxicating drugs which results in malfunctioning of the four humours of the body. Blood deteriorates and tumours are formed on internal organs. Swelling of tumours causes pain especially when this occurs in the stomach, nave, pelvis, liver, kidney, spleen, etc. There is an acute pain all the time and sleep is impossible to get. The best treatment for it is a surgical operation and the use of blood-cleansing and laxative medicines. Food should be light but invigorative. Juice ofharar (myrobalan) and suMjl).a is found beneficial. "jIna adan umarthal sei jal).anI sulia."-var gau 1 m 4. This means that as the patient knows the pain of this illness, so does the love-lorn lover know of the inner pang. ~ [umra], ~ [umrau], ~ [umraI], ~ [umray], ~ [ummv], ~ [umria],

~ [umna] Sec~. "ab jag jam ju umna

rahE."-gau bavan kabir. ~ [umar} A ) n age, life span. According to Charak Sanhita, age is a state of the union of body, senses, heart and soul. In the Veds, Manu writes that man's age in Satyug was 400 years but decreased by 100 years! in each Yug, and it has come down to 100 years 2 in Kalyug. In the Purans it is shown as thousands and lakhs of years. "jo jo vaJ1E e,lihra sou umar hath pavam."-s farid. See ~1-Rf ~ and ~.

~ J.IlU [umar :?ah] a jat masand (preacher

cum agent) of Sangha clan, resident ofDarauli village. He lovingly participated in the construction of the Harimandar under orders ofGuru Arjan Dev. He looked upon offerings and money as poison. His son Nand Chand became a revenue officer of Guru Gobind Singh.See ittft'. ~ CJEf tWfo [umar hath pavam] S sen Days of life are decreasing, as crops do during the harvesting. "jo jo vaJ1E e,lihra sou umar hath pavanI." It is an ironical statement as lengthening of Iife stands for dying and raising the flame for extinguishing it. ~ [umarkhatabl, ~ [umarkhItabl ":",u..;. l:f. / Caliph Umar son of Khattab was father of Hafsa, third wife of prophet

'vm ~ m~: .23RmT: B"'f ~

(Rig Ved)

"-~~: I

m=raJT [asga] M»I1=JaT n a crowd, an assembly, a multitude. 2 ad; all, entire. "asga as usga." -dh;:lna namdev. 'All this is His.' 3 See »fR. l'>fFI(JfI(f [asgah], »fHo~[asgahu] adjfathomless, unfathomable. "SUl).IE hath hOVE asgahu." -j;:lpu. 'Measuring the fathomless leads to the knowledge of the Divine.' ~ [asg;')dh] Skt 3T~m a medicinal plant, physalis tlexuosa, hot and damp in effect, used for curing ills like cough, asthma, worms in the abdomen, etc. It strengthens and invigorates male potency. ))fJ1tRJfI' [ascaraj] Skt ~ n surprise, wonder, amazement. »IFItRf [asjar] adj unbearable, intolerable. })fFf trfa" [as jan] n burning sensation, mental torment, agony. See »rlJ. "as jan par jan jan jab rahE, tab jaI jotI ujarau lahE."-gau bav;:ln k;:lbir. 'When a man burns in envy and pain got from others and also burns within his own self, then descends the bright light (of spiritual knowledge).' »rffi:ro [asajjan] Skt ~ not a good person; a wicked man. »fRC [asat] Skt »J~ adj eight. »fRC Wl:it [asat sakhi] ~-FfTfurQ n eight gods providing evidence of fate awaiting human beings for their actions in this life. Per Hindus scriptures they are: 1 the earth. 2 the sky. 3 the moon. 4 the sun. 5 the fire. 6 the air. 7 the dawn. 8 the radiance. "tab sakhi prabhu

asat banae, sakh naffiIt dEbe thahIrae. te kahf kara hamari puja, ham bIn apar na thakur duja."-VN. »tl1C WH







[asat saj sajI pural). sodh-hI kar-hI bed abhIas]-dh;:lna m 1. sen In grammar eight points of articulation are: throat, heart, head, tongue, teeth, nose, lips and palate. 2 Eight deformations marking the recitation of the Veds are: jata, mala, $Ikha, rekha, dhvaja, d;')q., rath and ghan. 3 eight grammars I authored by Indar, ChandaI', Kashkritsan, Apishali, Shaktayan, Panini, Amar and Jainendar reslJectively. Grammars listed in Bhavishy Puran are Aindar, Yagy, Raudar, Vasavy, Brahm, Varun, Savitray and Vaishnav. 4 Eight aids or parts to help reading and interpretation are hrasv, diragh, plut, uddat, anuddat, svarIt, anunasIk and m=rc ~ [asat karan] ~ one who has eight ears; Brahma; Chaturanan. >m=rc g1? [asat kul] See ~. ~ [asatdas] eighteen, ~. 2 eighteen Purans. "asatdasi cahu bhed na paIa."-asa ill 1. 3 eighteen sIddhis or spiritual powers. "car padarath asat dasa sIdhI."-sor ravdas. See

four faces, thus eight eyes. "trClsyo ClSClt nEDa."-c.Jbis. ~ [ClsatpCldi] Skt~. n a hymn ofeight stanzas. 2 eight stanzas written in a singular order. In Guru Granth Sahib many stanzas figure under the heading aSCltpadi. Guru Nanak Dev's following asatpCldi ;s in Maru Rag, Nishani metre. Ih mClnu ClvguDI badhIa sClhu deh SClrirE.... ~fRfu. The following aSCltpadi is in Malar Rag 1')jHct:!HifRfQ [asatdasasIdhI] eighteen sIdhis sar metre: or spiritual powers. "asatdasa SIdhI kartalE CClkvi nEn nid nahI cahE, sabh knpa tumari."-bIla ravdas. See ~ bInu pHU nid nCl pai. fRfu. sur CClrE pnu dekhE nEni l1IFI'm=rc~ [ClSClt du] eight and two, ten. "kahu aSClt du avtar kCltthE kClthaDa."-gyan. 'They narrate form of c::>pai metre. the stories often incarnations.' See tH"~. ~ [asCltbhuji] Skt ~ n Durga, who has eight anns. See ~. >m=rc t:JTg [asat dhatu] eight metals, which as ancient scholars mention are: gold, silver, >m1m=rc ~ [Clsat nED], >m=rc ~ [ClSClt nm] eight~ breath), pratyahar (restraining sense organs), eyed; Brahma. In the Purans he is shown with ~

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))fFICiar l:f~


dhan;ta (determination), dhyan (meditation), and samadhI (suspen~ion of body and soul connection). 2 Eightfold path in Buddhism is realised through resolve, thought, action, vocation, exertion, vision, recollection and contemplation. See "if'll 3. ~ l:f(!1}f [astag pra}).amJ Skt ms~ "9'JT111 n a salutation done with eight body-parts: knees, feet, hands, chest, head, speech, eyesight and conscience. This is also called. "danc;l.vat pranarn." l?IRZidlGidl [astagyog] eightfold yog. See l?IFI:~. l?I'RGW [astam] E stamp; a stamped paper. 2 a postage stamp. 3 a ticket. ~ [astavakr] Skt ~ n a rishi whose body had eight twists. He was the son of Kahod, a Brahman, born to Sumati (Sujata), daughter of Uddalak. Thus goes his story in the Mahabharat. Once while Ashtavakar was nn his mother's womb, Kahod was teaching Vedic texts to his disciples. The foetus of Ashtavakar told his father that he was reciting the Ved incorrectly. Kahod got angry and cursed the child to have crooked limbs. So eight parts of the newborn got crooked. According to Vishnu Pural), once, standing in water, while Ashtavakar was praying, four fairies paid obeisance to him. He

was pleased and he told the fairies to ask for any boon and he would grant it. They said that they wanted to marry the most handsome man. At this Ashtavakar came out of water and presented himselfas a prospective groom. They laughed at his crooked body. Ashtavakar got angry but remembering his promise, he resumed his cool and said, "Your wish will be fulfilled but you will fall in the hands of thieves." These fairies later became consorts of Krishan and after the destruction ofthe Yadavs, while Arjun was carrying them from Dvarka to Astinapur, they were captured by dacoits. It is written in Brahm Vaivart Puran, that Devm; son ofrishi Asit was observing austerities on the Gandhmadan mountain. When the fairy Rambha came there she got infatuated on seeing him. When she found that her desire would not be fulfilled, she cursed the rishi and his handsome body became crooked. Thus it was that Deval bec:ame known as Ashtavakar. l?IFI'ic' [ast~t] E assiistant, helper, deputy. '»fRO [asath] »f-F.rc5. adj without deceit or wickedness; simple. "OI khare asathe."-BG 2 See l?IRC. l?fffi!' [asa}).] Dg n hail, a hailstone, sleet. 2 See ))fFf(').

[asat] Skt l?I'lJ. adj destroyed. 2 hidden, invisible, missing. ;~ n an act of disappearing, 4 the setting of the sun. "asat udot bhIa uthI cale."-maru ajuli net 5. 5 Skt nffiJ existence, power. 6 Skt l?fFl3":;r. adj falsehood, untruth. 7 Skt l'lifPtr n bone. See ~ 6. 8 Skt 3TWf, adj untrue, bad, wicked. 9 See »oJ. l)fFJ'3(') [astan] Skt 1f'> n a teat. 2 Skj»llJH?l n the setting of the sun, moon, etc. vanishing, disappearing. ~ [astbal]. A J~!z-,?, n a stable, horse-stable. l)fFI'3"8'Ij1 [astbaj] Se(;~ ~r;:r. ~ [astbaji] See l?II3H8 1i:f1. l?I'R3'

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60 >mE' ~ last bIasat] topsy turvy, upside

1. 2 l?ff'Fcr bone. "asatI caram bIsta ke mude.,,_keda kabir. down. See »n;f ~' "asat brasat su hUI anmiIa."-NP. ~ [astin] See »fTR"3lo. "nIj astin halavan })fFI3}fO [astman] Skt~ n a palanquin. "jy5 karkE."-GPS. hVE sramIt astman dhar hl."-carItr 117. ~ [astural See~. "tej astura ek magaYO.,,_carrtr 190. 2 setting, disappearing. See '»IJ13(') 2. ~ [astarl n a poetic metre also known as ~ '[astotr] Skt 1J~ n praise. 2 a hymn of bhujag prayat. It has four lines and each line praise. See lJ. is organised as: ISS, ISS, ISS, ISS. l')f"ffifw [astaja] See feAfJH'. Example: ~ [astabhl Skt 1f~ n a pillar, column. 2 a base, basis, support. 3 halting, obstruction. maha ghor kEkE ghana ki ghata jy5, 4 being like root; stationary. su dhaya ral).a brjjuli ki chata jy5, sune sarb dano sam:>h£ sIdhae, »iR'3" [asatt], »lFI3JT [asaty] adj not true; false. maha krodh kEkE su baji nacae.-madhata. 2 opposite of the truth; a lie. 2 P 7' a mule. Skt~. 3 the inner lining of ~ [astra] Skt ~ n a weapcn meant for throwing such as a quoit, arrow, ball, etc. See a quilt or jacket. 4 See ~' ~ [astvanl Skt~ n praise, appreciation. ~' 2 In the Purans, weapons, working by "asatvan puj kar."-saloh. 2 the act of praising. spells or by recitation of mantars are also termed astra, such as mohanastra (one of the l)fR3T [astal a poetic metre variously known as five arrows of cupid), pavakastra (fire), astra, krIka, tarak and totak. It has four lines, varul).astra (water), parvastra (mountain), each organised as: 115, 115, 115, 115. vajrashtra (thunderbolt), etc. People at that Example: time believed that such weapons hurled after aSI IE kalki kar kop bhuyo, reciting mantars proved very destructive. ral). rag surag bIkhE bIcryo, Defence was possible if an opposing weapon gahI pal).r krIpal). bIkhE na qaryo, after reciting the mantars was likewise hurled. rIS s5 ral). cItr VIcrtr karyo.-kalki. For example a fire-weapon could be undone l')IRd 'l1a ' [astaul).a] v l')fT-F'EP'HO to stay; to stop; by a water-weapon etc. Detail ofthese missiles to relax. "ghari dOI astaIke unha bacan kita."-JSBB. is given in Sarabloh and charitr 405. "aganr astra chaqa tab danav, jiite bhae ~ [astacal] Skt ~ n the mountain bhasam bahu manav. yawl). astra tab kal behind which the sun sets according to the Purans. calayo, sagal aganI ko tej mItayo. rachas pavan astra sadhana, jiite uqat bhae gal). nana. ~ [astama] See "jujhat sall bhayo bhudarastra tab kal prahara, sabh sIvkan ko astama."-janmejay. pral). ubara. megh astra chora tab danav, bhij ~ [astaval P -:,Dj' (the actual word is ~ gae jIh te sabh manav, vayu astra IE kal calayo, ~, '~' replacing ':G'). a narrow mouthedjug sabh meghan tatkal uqayo."-carrtr 405. with a curved spout used by Muslims for ~ H'O [astra man] equipped with missiles, ablution. ~ [asatI], 1'>fFf3l [ash] n nrf'FJ being, See~. 2 Skt ~ who himself is like an astra. "namo astramane."-japu. existence. "asatI ek drgar kui."-var majh m


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61 ~

[Clstra] See »fH3T. [ClstvapadClk] Skt n something which is real but does not appear to be so due to Ignorance. >m1EI' [ClSClth] n »rtFa-. a bone. 2 adj not firm; unsteady, fickle. ~ [ClsthClkit] Skt 'PElfdr3" adj tired, weary. 2 covered. l)Iffifi'i [dsthdn] Skt ¥ n a teat. "bInu ClsthCln gClU IClveri."-bc:Js,;jt kC'Jbir. See Ftfu l:fffif. ~ [ClsthClI] Skt 'Pa1') n a place. 2 dry land. 3 earth. 4 See ~. 5 not a nice place; unpopulated waste land. "se asthClI SOIn cClubare."-majh m 5. ~ [ClsthClli] Skt Faffi. n a place, spot. 2 a boundary line. 3 earth. ~ [Clsthai] Skt ~,adj stable, lasting, enduring. 2 resident, inhabitant. 3 See))fR1El"it ~. 4 ~ in music the earlier part of recitation in Dhrupad. 5 a refrain. ~ ~ [Clsthai bhav] n In poetics, the nine bases of emotion, Le. rCltI (passion), hasi Goy), ~ok (distress), krodh (anger), utsah (enthusiasm), bhdy (fear), nfda (scorn), VI smClY (wonder) and nIrved (non-chalance). They result in aesthetic pleasures named after these sites. See ~m. >mrnTO [Clsthan] Skt FErO n a residence, place to stay. "Clsthan han nIh kevla."-guj a m 1. l1IJ:rEl"tfO [ClsthapCln] n the act of establishing. ))J1'f81}{T [Clsthama]1 See ~Cf'W. ~ [ClsthaICly] >'>I'f'Fg-~. a house of bones, grave. "pahdnko dsthaldy ko srr nat phrryo kClChu hath nCl ayo."-sc:Jvtye 33. ~ [ClsthavClr] Skt ~ adj stable, static, immovable. "Clsthavdr jagClm kit pCltaga."-gc:Ju kc:Jbir. 2 n immovable objects of nature ilike trees, mountains, etc. l)fRfu [dsthI] n >nfFa' a bone. ~ [dsthIt] Skt fFaO adj situated, ~


established, firm. "asthIt bhde bInsi sdbh cfd."-bhEr m 5. "cdrdnkdmClI asthIt rId atdrI."-sar m 5. 2 >n-fPa'3' unstable. ~ [dsthItI] Skt f'F"Eff3' n stability, steadiness. "kdhil asthItI paiE."-brha, chat m 5. 2 })f-fp"El'f3' instability. ~ [dsthIr], >nFrf'ag [dsthrru] Skt ~ adj stable, eternal. "asthrr jo manIo deh so tdU terClu hOI hE kheh."-jE'ja m 9. 2 fixed, stable, firm. "dstlnr rClh-hu Qolhu mdt kdb-hu." -dhc:Jna m 5. 3 »rt1::rtre" adj not firm, transitory, volatile, unstable. "asthrru kdre nIhcdlu Ih mdnua."-dhc:Jna Ul 5. 'Stabilise this infirm mind.' ~Hf3" [asthIrumdtI] a firm resolve or belief, firm faith. 2 capricious thinking. ~ [dsthur], ))fR1~R'l [dsthul] Skt~ and ~ adj fat. 2 dense. :~ broad, extensive. 4 huge, massive. "nandk so sukhdm soi asthul." -sukhmC'Jni. ~ [dsthabh] See~. "Clsthabha sdbdd sadhu svajanClh."--sc:Jhc:Js m 5. "nabhI kdmc:JI asthabh na hoto, til pavClnu kdvdnu ghdrI sdhIta?"-srdhgosc:Jtr. ~ [dsthabhCln], l?iFIth-ro [dsthamCln] Skt ~ n the act of stopping, hindering. 2 support, basis. "baI rup ClsthabhClnClh."-sc:Jhc:Js m 5. "guru ka sClbCld manhI asthaman."-sukhmc:Jni 3 petrify. ~ [asCld] Skt adjnot~(the best) 2 n a lion, tiger. 3 Leo, the fifth sign of the Zodiac. >m=I'€1:fIO [dsCldkhan] Nawab Asad Khan, whose title was Asafuddaula. Ibrahim was his original name. During the reign of Shahjahan, he held the rank of a commander of four thousand and ofseven thousand troops respectively. During the initial compaign of Banda Bahadur, he was subedar of DeIhL Bahadur Shah appointed him as chief attorney, a rank above that of a minister" He died in 1717 AD.

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has no equal; unique, unparalleled, unequalled. })fRO [asan] Skt l1iF.IO n a meal; food, things worth-eating. "asan basan dhan dham kahu me na dekhyo."-BGK. 2 Skt 31~Fl, blood. 3 Skt 31Wl the act of throwing. See lIiFf vr. l'>fR'i'iT [asna], »!'R'i'iTfu [asnaI] P ~jn a friend. 2 an acquaintance. 3 a swimmer. ~ [asnai] P J~j n friendship, intimacy. 2 acquaintance. "jo kIChu hoa sabh kIchu tujh te teri sabh asnai. "-hIla m 1. 3 the art and skill of swimming. l)fFfOl'U [asnah], ~ [asnaha] Skt ~u n love, affection, intimacy. 2 a paramour, chum, friend. See »JlF.IOT. "sabh mIthIa asnaha."-asa m 5. "guru kupa te mohI asnaha."-gau m 5. >m1c'i'i'i [asnan] See ~ and FJ?iTi'). 2 A (,;)1;.-1 a tooth. ~ [asneh] Skt ~ n love, affection, attachment. "nam na pavhI bInu asneh."-gau m 3. 2 lIiFf (such)~; such love. ~ [asnehI], ~ [asnehi] Skn-i'l"W1, adj dear friend, relative, well wisher. "sabh mIthIa asnehi."-sor m 5. ~ [asnehu] See~. »iFItI' [asap] ~ n a horse, stallion. 2 knight (in the chess game) >m=J1.IE' [aspat], 1?fRlri'3' [aspatI] adj lord of horses. 2 n the sun. "aspatI gajpatI narhI narfd."-ti1§g namdev. 'There are lords of horses, elephants and men, but that ofNamdev is the lord of all the chiefs.' ~ [aspad] See »flF11..rt!". })fFIl..RJff [asparas] Skt :m=rm adj untouched; not touching. 2 a sect that avoids touching metals etc. 3 In Sikhism, a person who restrains his senses from indulging in evil. See ~.

>m=rtrT [aspa] plural of»iFltl'. ))fFJtI1(!' [aspaI).] See ~. })fFI1fT3' [aspat] Skt ~ n a sheet of steel, from which swords are made. See ~. nn:n.ft [aspi] adj a keeper of horses. 2 n a cavalier. ~ [asprrh] Skt ~ adj without greed; uncovetous. 2 desireless. ~ [asphal] adj fruitless; in vain. 2 worthless. 3 abortive. ~'6'3' [asphurat], ~fu3" [asphurrt] Skt ~ adj suddenly struck (idea), intuitive. 2 capricious, transient. 3 revealed. 4 »r-~. which is not within the grasp of knowledge. ~ [asphot], ~ [asphotak] Skt »I'F'WC adj not clear, not well known. 2 sundry, perfunctory. See asphotak kabbIt in Dasam Granth. ~ljfIQ [asphad yar]P .I1frl son ofGustasap, king ofIran. He was a valiant person who on the orders of his father went to capture Rustam, but was killed by the latter. Asfand Yar greatly promoted the fire worshipping Parsi cult. His name appears in the eighth Hikayat. ))fF[S' [asab] P ,-:"",' n horse. ~ [asbab] P ",:",V' n plural ofRWreasons. 2 goods, provisions. ~ [asabhy]. Skt adj lacking in etiquette, uncultured, vulgar, uncouth, ill-mannered. l)fFI}f [asam] Skt unequal, uneven. 2 an odd number. 3 Skt n a stone. 4 a mountain. 5 a cloud. ~ [asamajh] adj ignorant, unwise, stupid. 2 devoid of knowledge. "manu asamajh sadhu sagI patiana."-ram m 5. ~ [asmad] Skt ~ pron we, the like of us. 2 our, ours. »rm-retr [asmarath] Skt 3HPP.f adj unable,

4 ~ adjunworthy of touch; untouchable.

incapable, weak. 2 unintelligent, dull-'.Iacking

l)fJf,: [a!?add] A pI adj very much, beyond

measure. ~ [asdrr!?] Skt ~ adjwho

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the ability for work. })fF(}fl(!" [asmal)] See 'l'lfFIHTO. l1fFI}f'IO [asman] P dr-I n the sky, that revolves like a grindstone. "asman jImi darakhat." -tilag m 5. 2 Skt })f-F/}-fTi'). unequal, not plain. 3 unparalleled, superb, unique, infatuation, violence, greed, vanity. "kahI kabir khojau asman."-gau. 4 n one who does not regard anyone as an equal; vanity, arrogance. "has het asa asman."-gau m 1. 'violence, infatuation, greed and vanity.' l1fFI}f'IO 1;fio [asman xan] See >m'Il-f1?) J:Po. > [asmIta] Skt ~ n considering the visible and the invisible as one; according to Yog Shastar this is one of the five torments, and is named hridaygrathI in Vedant. l2fR'Iftr [asmedh] See ~. ~ [asmajas] Skt 31i;-P"l6(\iffl adjinappropriate, improbable, unsuitable. "sun masi, asmanjas gatha."-NP. 2 incoherent, impertinent. 3 tactless. 4 n improper time. 5 son of Sagar born to Keshini; he was an evil person, so his father drove him out of his house. After his father's death, he ascended the throne. . According to Harivansh, he became a valiant fighter. His son's name was Anshuman. See R'aRr. ~ [asyupasak] Skt l?f~'ltr-7..fl1.lC{ adj

training, cavalry. 2 >lffi:r-~' a worshipper of the sword; a practitioner of weaponry. l)fFRf [asar] A /1 n an effect. 2 pressure. 3 a mark, spot. 4 a connection, relation. 5 history. 6 A / to squeeze. 7 to stop. 8 to give. })fFRJ(Jf [asarag] Skt>m=raf adj sans FJof (creation), uncreated. "namastavasarge."-japu. SeeffilOT. l')fR'6(!" [asaral)] Skt ~ adjwho does not find refuge anywhere; helpless. See ~ FRJt"R"'iJT [asac;la] adj See ~. who kissed it and with the tongue it will give ))fJ.lifu [a~atI] Skt 3rmR1 n lack of peace, evidence in favour of such devotees. restlessness, commotion. l1fH1tT [asadh] Skt l?fFf'tl"jf adj which cannot be ~ [asvar] P ",Iyf a horse rider. adj( one) who proved, intractable. 2 that cannot be cured. is riding a horse. 2 riding some conveyance. 3 n cavalry soldier. Skt ~9ifRTtT. pat1?ahi da asvara kIS prakar hOIa?" ))fR"'"g [asadhu] Skt adj unholy, bad, wicked, -bhagtavli. 3 a copy of Guru Granth Sahib. villainous. "bahuro Ie javhu asvara."-GPs. 4. Guru ))ffITl:f.if [asadhy] See >ifRTtT. ))IFITO [asan] A (;}l,..>1 Skt a benefaction, a virtuous Granth Sahib being taken in a procession. act. 2 kindness. 3 P (;}v1 adj easy, convenient, ~ [asvari] P i.5.h·' n the act of mounting a

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facile. ~

[asanmad], ~ [asanvad] P ...;;\"?I adj indebted, obliged, grateful. l2IWHt [asami] A dL..:r n plural of fuHH; plural of})fffi/T. 2 a rank, post, an appointment. 3 a person paying hiring charges, revenue etc. 4 a party taking side in a legal case. l')f'J1T6" [asar] S adj unconscious, oblivious, inattentive. "na soi£ asar."-s kabir. 2 Skt without 'fITO (essence); inessential. 3 shoddy, cheap. 4 n a castor oil plant. 5 sandalwood. 6 an incense stick. 7 Skt J?iTFITO rain shower. "nmahu nil' asar bahE."-asa kabir. 8 A A.I plural of~, mark, sign, symptom. ~ [asarat] A "::"'.I~, n a sign, signal. "karhf ucaI, asarat dal dai."-caritr 151. 'By raising his hand, (he) gave a signal to the troops.' ))fW6'ET [asarath] Skt ~ n worthless things, vain possessions. 2 a worthless action. "suarath tIagI asarathI racIo, nahI SImrE prabhu. "-sar m 5. »IFr'aft:r [asarathI] in vain, See »fl1TQEf. l')fR'l';I [asar] Skt '»rrwta n the month ofHarh , the fourth month of Bikrami year. Full moon marks its utra1?aQha. ~ [asara], wr;ft [asari] adj our, ours. "nahi kIChu asara jiu."-majh m 5. "rakh-hu saram asari. "-maj11 m 5. »rfi:r [asI] See vr »fF!" n a cutting weapon, sword. "a51 knpan khaqo kharag tupak tabar aru tir."-sanama. 2 a stream that flows near Kashi. "banara5I aSI basta."-g5c;l namdev. 3 in the phrase. "tatvmasI." {~­ :j -»ffi:r) which means 'that is you', it is second person singular 'thou'. "sam ju bed tatvmaS1 mane."-GPs. ~ [asIkni] Skt 3lfucFfT See~. Chenab river. 2 night. 3 a female servant or slave of ladies of the harem. ~ [asIketuJI n one who has »rfI:r (sword)


in his ~ (flag); the deathless one, God. "sri aS1ketu jagat ke isa."-c:Jpai. 2 Guru Gobind Singh. »rfi:l1:r [asIkkh] ad) who is not a Sikh; who has not imbibed the doctrine of Guru Nanak Dev. 2 See »rfi:l'j1:g. »rfi:ff'ts [asJ:kkhIt] Skt ~ adjwho has not received training. 2 uneducated, illiterate. 3 uncouth, uncivilised, vulgar. »t'fi:r3' [asIt] adjnot white. 2 black. "asIt bastra tIh ag."-paras. 21 unlimited, endless. 4 Skt »!fF.r3" blunt, not sharp. 5 eaten, contaminated. 6 n the name of a king of the Surya dynasty who was a son of Dhruvsandhi. After his defeat by the Haihay dan, he retreated to the Himalayas. »IfRasifa [asItban] n a river carrying black water; Jamna (Yamuna) river-sanama. »IfHas·faufur [asItbanpatI] master of Jamna river, Krishandev-sanama. »ifi:Br [asIta] adjnot white, black. "asIta nISI mo sasI se bIgse."-samudr mathan. 2 n Jamna river. 3 Skt:~ adj an eater, a devourer. 4 Skt ~ a thrower. »ffi:Jl:Rr [asIdhar], .~ [asIdhari] adj who wields a sword, swordsman. "anbIkar aSIdhari."-hazare. 2 n Mahakal; Shiv, the destroyer. :3 sword wielding, Khalsa. ~ [asIdhav] a nomad who polishes weapons. See »JfFr and ~. ~ [asIdhuj] See ~. "sri aSIdhuj ju kariahu raccha."--c:Jpai. »rfiio9' [asIni] n an army of swordmen-sanama. 2 an army of~ (horses), cavalry-sanama. »rfi:r tr:I [asI patrl Skt n the blade of sword. 2 according to the Purans, hell spread over four thousand miles on the earth, having a dense forest oftr,e:es bearing swordlike leaves which, while falling upon the sinners, clip their limbs.

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66 ~

[asIpal)I], ~ [asIpal)i], '»lfRtrrf'n Yam, the God ofdeath. 2 the destroyer oflife, a weapon-sanama. 3 a killer, thug-sanama. [asIpam] n Mahakal, the great destroyer holding a sword in hand. "SrI aSipal)I krIpa 4 the enemy of~ (horse), a tiger.-sanama. tumrI kar.'-ramav. 2 Guru Gobind Singh. ~ nf3'a" [asuarI atak]-sanama. enemy of 3 a baptized Sikh. })flJ (breath), the noose. ~ [a$Iva] adj inauspicious. "$iva ('fort!;ft) »flJ>WRO [asuasan] an assurance. See »fTR1R('). apva (~) pukarat bhai."-GPS. 'a female 2 ~-l'lfTRO a blanket to cover the saddle. 3 a jackal giving out ill-ornened sounds.' See fl:w. saddle; padded seat on the horse back. "IJft [asi] See l'>ffi:r. 2 See »11ft. 3 pron plural of ~ [asua] adj without ~ (son), childless. fr, we. "asi khate bahut kamavde."-sava m 5. 2 without ego, unselfconscious, free from pride. "ankal apal dIal asua."-akal. 4 adj who holds l'>ffi:r (sword). "asi gadi bci bal gaq.he."-carItr405. 'widder of the sword, ~ [asuhar]. one who takes })flJ (breath), a killer, an enemy. 2 Yam, the god of death. wearer of the armour.' l?fffu:r [asis], ~[asisri] Skt ~, n a 3 poison. blessing, prayer. "dehu sajal) asisria."_sohIla. ~ [a$UcI] Skt adj impure, profane. »IFfto [asin] sat. See »fTl'fto. 2 "asan asin." ~ [asuda] n the provider of})flJ (vital air); amrit, nectar-sanama. -NP l21H1au'ta [asibahadur] Poets like Bhai Sukha ))fJJt!"'O [asudan] n~horse giving in charity. Singh having translated 'teg' into 'asi', have "asudan gajdan."-ram namdev. attributed thi's name to the ninth Sikh Guru. l?fElf [asudh] adj unconscious, unaware, >m=tbf [asim] adjendless, boundless, unlimited. senseless. 2 Skt 3NJ,~ adj impure, filthy. 3 incorrect, erroneous. ' "payo anad asim hE."-saloh. l'>IFfta" [;:;sir] A ~I adj great, high. 2 chosen, ~ [a$uddhI] n an impurity. 2 a lapse. choicest, best. 3 A 4' arrested, prisoner. ))f'Ij7i [asun] n Skt ~ n the month of Assu, seventh month of the Indian calendar, its full "gIrYo adh jyo hVE nrIpatI drIg yut bhayo moon is in Asvini lunar mansion. asir."-('arItr 30. 4 A .;.:"l near, close by. ))flJfo [asum] n during the month of Assu. 5 tangled hair. "asunI au pIra! sa dhan jhurI mui."-baramah l21Rlast:lo [asirbacan], ~ [asirbadl n a blessing, benediction, an initiatory sermon. tukhari. ~ [asil] Skt »nfu;) n lack of ~ (good })flJO't [asuni] n cavalry.-sanama. conduct), without virtue. 2 adj of bad ~ [asunikumar] See »rf>:rFogwo. "asuni kumar kete asa avtar kete."-akal. character; depraved. 3 A J:=t-J;"I adjvirtuous, nice, gentle. 4 a legitimate issue of wedded ~ [asupatI] n master of the horse, the parents; gentle, descent. sun. 2 master of life, the human soul. ))flJ [asu] See vr ~ n mind, heart. 2 vital 3 transcendent God. breath. "basu dE aSu dE jag me jas lijE."-krisan. ~ [asupavan] adj(horse) having the speed 3 Skt ilil[ a tear. "utsav samE janI asu roki." of wind; a very fast running horse. "asupavan hasatI asvari."-gau m 5. -Cps. 4 Skt~ a horse. "asu hasti rath asvari." ~ [a$ubh] Skt adj inauspicious, unpropitious. -sukhmani. 2 n an unlucky happening, a calamity. ~ [aSUdrI] n the enemy of vital breath;

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~ ft:l'3q



fti3'a" [a:;>ubh chftak] adj hostile; (one) who wishes ill of others. })f}3~ ftf30 [a:;>ubh chftan] n illwill, hostile thinking. l')flJHrT [asumedhl See~. "asumedh jagne." -g5c;f namdev. 2 son of king J~nmejay born to a slave girll. See tro-f oja R?i""lfR1Jf QTi=r, nfur 195. ~ [asumedhan] Janmejaya's second son born of a slavl"lJffi. 2 Dg rye Skt })fTtRIT mustard.

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68 ~ [asures] adjnflJO-Eta-the king ofdemons.

-saloh 2 n absence of grief; happiness, joy, 2 n Ravan. 3 Bali. 4 Hiranyakashipu. pleasure. "asok gayo tIn hil te nasai."-krIsan 5 Shumbh. 6 the rule of demons, Mahadev. 'Happiness fled from them.' 3 a tree that is ))f'JJit yo [asuro pur] the battlefield brimming evergreen and has fragrant flowers, 1-IlJl:j1'Itf. L with demons. "rnuQ katyo asura pur rna." Jonesia Asoca. 4 mercury. 5 Vishnu. 6 king of -cac;Ii 1. 2 city of demons, the underworld. Magdh Desh, son of Bindusar of Maurya ~ [asulu] adv from the origin, since the dynasty and grandson of Chandargupat. His beginning, from the creation of reality. "asulu full name is Ashok Varadhman. In the history ik dhatu."-japu. See ~ 2 and ~. of Buddhism, his is an exalted name. ))I]J [asu] See l1fff and nq. "asu sukhi vasadia Ashok was initially a Shaivite and acjIna rnaIa han raI."-rnajll barallmah knowledged the Brahmans as religious >mJl'f" [asua] Skt~ n jealousy, malice, envy. preceptors. Later he became a Buddhist. He "sara!). parIo tajI garabasua."-gau m 5. provided for 64000 Buddhist monks and 'renouncing pride and malice.' erected 84000 columns of fame on which ~ [asua] n a tear. political and religious edicts were engraved. ~ [asujh] adj invisible. "asujh hr."-japu. During the 18 th year of his reign, he 2 ignorant, stupid. organised a huge religious assembly and ~ [asu!).i] n hope, longing. "vatI asu!).i later sent Buddhist missionaries to Ceylon bam."-s farid. 'equipped again with hope.' and other countries. He prohibited the >mJ3' [asut] adj lacking alignment, misfit. killing of animals. The entire country from Afganistan to Lanka was under his control. 2 unborn. 3 Skt ~3' unstitched, without connection, uninterested. "adI rup asut." This information may be gathered from the edicts engraved in the Pali language on -japu. ))I]J~ [asuda] See ~~. "nIj mj sen asudi stones and found in various parts of the karkr."-GPs. country. Many writers have referred to him as Priyadarshan. ~ [asuyak] Skt adj jealous, envious. Ashok ruled with great elan from >mJW [asuya] See l?flJl'W. Patliputra (Patna) between 269 and 232 BC. ~ [asul] See ~. ~ [asea] Skt »rJ¥f n support, prop, basis. His daughter, the pious Charumati was a famous preacher of Buddhism. "kI aseas. "-gyan. 2 adj (one) who does not consume anything. 3 what is difficult to nrf.ta' 'SIR'tP' [asoca] acij free from worry, carefree. balI pota prahlad da fdrpuri di Icch Ichada, 2 polluted, impure, defiled. 3 (one) who does kar sapuran j2Jgg SJ Ikk Ikotar jagg karada, fdrasal). no parharE jaI patal su hukmibada. not think; unthinking. ~ [asota] n wakefulness, lack of sleep. "nIt -BG parhavE karE asota."-BG >mfiIJu [asagrah] n absence of collectivity, ~ [asJC] S~:e »iFrn 3. failure to collect. })fF{cr [asakh], ~ [asakhay], ~ [asakhyatl >:Ifffi::r3' [asajat] Skt ~ adj collected,joined, closed. "dvar asajat kare."-GPs. 'closed the acijcountless, numberless, limitless, unlimited. doors.' 2 closed, shut. "asakh jap asakh bhau."-japu. >mfor [asag] shameless, unashamed. 2 Skt ~ »fJf3' [asat] Skt ::iRf.'d adj not saintly, unsaintIy, acij alone, without company. 3 uncommon. bad, false, vile. "mIlE asat masat-I kan 4 unattached. 5 n God. 6 Shiv. 7 Guru Nanak rahiL"-g5ihft [assi] Skt ~ eighty. ~ [assu] Skt ~ n the month of Assu on the night of full moon; it is in the mansion a~vIni.

l'>I1Jm:I" [ascaraj] See »itRJtI" and ~. "ascaraj rupa rah;'}t janma."-sahas m 5. ~ last] See }o)fFIC, })fO and »flO. ~ fiift:T last sIdhI] See }o)fFIC fiift:T. >n¥ [astak] Skt n a group of eight objects. 2 a

recitation of eight stanzas. "Im astak ustatI kari path man vachIt paI."-GPs. 3 son of the royal seer Vishvamitar, born to Madhvi daughter of king Yayati. ~ ~ last kuI] n eight races of cobras. In the Purans, they are shown as descended from eight cobras: ~e~, vasukI, k;'}mbaI, karkotak, padam, mahapadam, ~;'}kh and kuIIk. ~ [astg;'}dh] Skt 0f1SVT"U n a group of eight fragrant objects viz. agar (aloe wood), kasturi (musk), kuth (costus speciousus), kesar (saffron) kapur (camphor), khas (root of andropogon muricatus), c;'}dan (sandalwood), and taj (bay tree or its bark) "a~t g;'}dh saj arti dhare."-saloh. ~ Sltf last chap] eight celebrated poets of Vrij who have left their impact on other poets. They are: Surdas, Krishan Das, Parmanand, Kumbhan Da's, Chatur Bhuj, Chhit Swami, Nand Das and Govind Das. ~ fuatrrl? last dIkpal] See ~. ~ fe'cm::r last dIggaj] See f€"aT;:r. ~ tPg last dhatu] See }o)fFIC ~. ~ net last nadi] n In the Purans and the Simritis, eight sacred rivers are: Ganges, Jamna, Sarasvati, Shatdrav (Satluj), Vipasha (Beas), Eravati (Ravi), Chandarbhaga (Chenab), Vitsata (Jehlum). "Iakhe ast nadyan ko darap bhajE."-caritr 405. ~ ?>'few [a~t naIka], ~ i'i"ftlw [ci~t nayIka] See ~ and its footnote. ~ [a$tpadi] See ~. ~ [a~tbasu] See m]. ~ [a~tbhuja] See ~. ~ Han? last mangaI] In the religious scriptures of the Hindus, eight agents for arranging bliss are: horse, elephant, cow, pitcher full ofwater, fan, flag, trumpet and lamp. In some books a lion replaces the horse and a wardrum comes in place of the trumpet. 2 In some scriptures

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they are the fl)lIowing: Brahman, cow, fire, gold, ghee (purified butter), the sun, water and king. 3 a horse that has its mane, tail, chest and four hoofs: all white. ~'l%cf [a$t 10k] Hinduism accepts the following worlds (other than the one of human mortals); braham. 10k (divine sphere), pltrI 10k (world I of deceased ancestors), cadr 10k (sph~:re of the moon), fdrlok (heaven, abode of gods), gadharav 10k (domain of celestial music), rak$as 10k (sphere of demons), yak$ 10k (sphere of wealth), and pI$aC 10k (world of evil spirits). ~ ~:;I'adfRGTtR". ~ [a$tavakr] See ~. ~3d" [a$totar] See~. ~ last] Skt 3T1:~ vr to be without splendour; be invisible; to set. 2 Skt ~ adj hidden, concealed, withdrawn. 3 destroyed, perished. 4 n the mountain behind which sets th~~ sun. S P ~, is~. 6 Skt»rfFEr a bone. "bIsta ast krlmI udaru bharlo hE. "-sClvE-ye sri mukhvakm 5.

lffiJHO [astman], ~ [astmayan] See»f}'El-IO. ~

[astvyast] Skt adj topsy turvy, heIter-

skelter. ~ [astI] Skt n existence, being, essl~nce.

2 visibility, presence. 3 daughter ofJarasandh and wife of Kans, king of Mathura. ~ re fl:ftil" jlastI bhatI prrya] sen three attributes of the Divine: sat (truth), CIt (knowledge) and anad (happiness) "sat cetan anad Ik astI bhatI prry pur."-GPs. See meanings of all the three words. ~[astu] part Skt yes, all right, O.K. 2 be it so. • [astey] n giving up theft, renouncing stealing.


[astra] See


>mf [astri] Skt 31f~?R"~ n an armed person. [asthal] See »{RC5. 2 heart, mind. "jaka asthal tol amlto."-gatha. »rfFEr [asthI] n a bone. ~ [asthlt] See >m1fa3". 2 Skt ~ adj not firm, transitory. "asthlta sog harkha."-sahas })fF'8'l?


»rfFEra" [asthrr] S,ee >m=rf'Ere". [asrn] See l1~ffif 3. >mI [asr] a tear. 2 Skt 31U' n blood. 3 water. 4 adj thrown, shot. See l?ilJd". >mIlf [asram] adj without toil or tiredness. 2 free from sum~ring and pain. ~ [a$ru] Skt n a tear; water shed from the eyes because of sorrow or joy. ~l.fT3" [a$rupat] n shedding of tears; crying, weeping" "asrupat s6 vastra bhIgoe."-NP. »rJ!f¥r [a$rotrry][, ~~ [a$roti] Skt adj (one) who has not list~med to the Scriptures. ~ [a$1il] SkI' adj obscene, indecent. 2 an embarrassing remark. 3 vulgar speech. >mf [asv] Skt~n ahorse, colt. 2 adjextensive. 3 Skt 31Bf poor, indigent. "kanak Clrv hEvar bhumldan."-sukhmani. 'giving of land horses and gold in charity.' ~ [a$ve$] n lord of the celestial horse, the sun.-sanama. ~ [a$v$ala] n a horse stable. l'>IF.l~ [a$vkavacni] n an army that has horses equipped with helmets.-sanama. ~ [a$vgatI] See fl::rf.tcr. 2 horse trot. ~ [a$vtar] See ~. ~ [a$vtari] Skt n a mule, an offspring of a mare and a donkey. >mfcr [a$vatth] Skt ~ n peepal, a sacred big tree, Ficus relegiosa (Religiosa Indica) called a$vatth because horses were tied under it for resting. I })fP)f

lIn the olden times, horses were tied under such trees.

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72 ~ [a~vatthama]

Skt 311/ClC'~, adj (one) whose voice is like the neighing of a horse. 2 n son ofDron, born to Kripi who gave out a neigh-like sound at birth and was therefore named Ashvthama. He was a commander of the Kaurav army. At the end of the final Kurukshetar battle, when Duryodhan was gravely wounded, only Ashvthama, Kripi and Kritvarma were left behind. He wanted to take revenge upon Dhrishtadyuman who had earlier killed his father Dron. He sneaked into the Pandavs' camp at night and killed Dhrishtadyuman in sleep. He then killed Shikhandi, son ofDrupad and five sons ofthe Pandavs and took their severed heads to Duryodhan. With the help of his Brahmastar he also killed Parikshit who was yet in the mother's womb. At this Krishan cursed him and blessed Parikshit with Iife. l On the following day, Ashvthama and his accomplices fled out of fear. Daraupadi wailed and called for the vengeance of her son's death. Yudh ishthar pleaded that, Ashvthama being a Brahman, it would be a sin to kill him. Draupadi agreed with this but demanded that the jewel in Ashvthama's forehead be brought and handed over to her. For this Bhim and Krishan went after Ashvthama, brought the jewel and gave it to her. Dropaudi passed this jewel on to Yudhishthar who studded it in his crown. >mflal [a~vpati] n the sun. See »fFl1.Ifu and ~. 2 Prasen, son of Nighan Yadav and brother of Satrajit. Wearing the syamatak jewel he went for hunting and got killed by a tiger. "a~vpati bIn pra}) pare."-krrsan. ~tIO [asvpan] Skt n a god; an angel who cannot dream (go to sleep). lThe name Prikishat derives from which means to award life to a dead person.

~ [a~vmukh]

Skt a type of demigods, having the mouth of a horse. According to the Purans, they are adept in singing and dancing. ~ [a~vmedh] a religious sacrifice or oblation in which a horse is sacrified. In the remote times, ashvmedh yag was performed with a twin motive i.e. to prove the performer's sway over the entire land or for the sake of progeny. The procedure was that a horse under the spell of certain mantars or holy texts, was set free, with the name and royal dignity of the owner inscribed on its head. It was followed by the king and his army of chiefs. The horse went about in the country. Anyone challenging the sovereignty of the king would catch and tie the horse down. Then a battle would ensue. if the horse was recovered by the king, the chief who tied it down, had to accept the sovereignty of the king. At the end ofthe year, the horse was brought back to the capital where a yag (sacrificial ceremony) was held to which all the kings in whose territories the horse had roamed unhindered were asked to attend. An altar was erected on 21 poles and 18 pits were dug for a sacrifice. Numerous birds and animals were killed and their dead bodies were consigned to flames by the king and the queen. Then the sacrificial horse was brought in, duly washed amidst the chanting of hymns by the Brahman priests. It was slaughtered by the king and his queen with cries of triumph raised from all sides. In case the Ashvmedh was performed for the sake of progeny, the queen slept with the dead body of the sacrificed horse. The Hindus bel ieved that anyone who performed 100 such yags attained the rank of Indar. That is why, it is mentioned in the Purans that Indar often put hindrance in the way of the yags.

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In the 14 th chapter of Valmik's Ramayan, king Dashrath tied three hundred animals to the poles during an Ashvmedh jag, and Kaushlya and other queens killed the horse with a sword and slept with its dead body during the night. 2 a son of King Janmajeya. ~ [a:;;v var] See ~. ~ [a:;;v vEdyl n a veterinary surgeon. ~~;a [a:;;varuqh], l'>!1f~m [a:;;varohi] adj a horse-rider, horseman, cavalier. ~rfiro't [a:;;vmi] n a mare. 2 the first of the twenty seven phases of the moon, so named because the combination ofthree phases looks like a horse's mouth. ~o't ~wa [a:;;vIni kumar] They are two demigods, sons of a mare, regarded as physicians of the gods. In the Nirukt, in the chapter about the gods and in Harivansh, it is written that Sangya, wife ofthe sun could not withstand the light of her husband. Leaving a fake woman, Chaya, in her place, she herself assumed the form of a mare and went to the woods. When the sun came to know of this, he assumed the form of a horse and had twin sons from her.. They came to be known as Ashvini Kumar. There is a story in the Mahabharat that Pandu's widow had begotten her sons Nakul and Sahdev by mating with Ashvini Kumar. In the Vedic agl~ they were believed to be gods of morning and evening respectively. >nU [ah] Skt ~ vr to spread, to be pervasive. 2 pron this. 3 Skt 3Wl~ n a day. 4 the sun. S Vishnu. »f(JRTO [ahsan] A (jl,.;>1 n a favour, an obligation, a good turn. 2 mercy. l?IclA1i'lii:diHE' [ahsanframo:;;] P JY-I; dl,.;>1 adj (one) who forgets a favour; ungrateful. l?ImJ [ahah] parlt expressing, sorrow or grief. ~ [ahkaral:d n pride, arrogance, conceit,

vanity. "jJ:n VIc-·hu ahkaraD cukaIa."-sri m 1 jogi Jdar. ~cmf [ahkam] A (~J plural of~cm. })f(J(!' [ahD] See l?m?l and»fT(J(!'. ~ [ahad] A .A/' n a promise, determination, resolve. "badh ahad Ih ritI s6."-GPS. 2 time, period. 3 duration of a king's rule. i.e., 'eh ghatna bad:;;ah akbar de ahad VIC hoi.' ~ clefl:tOlo1 [ahad:;;J:kni] P ~ -4' n a breach of a promise. ~ [ahdi] A J-,~,' n a particular rank or post during the Mughal rule usually held by horsemen. The pay ofan Ahdi was between Rs. 20 to 25 per month. They served under particular mansabdars (title holders), and were especially sent to convey royal commands or to realize particular dues. They would not leave until the completion of their mission for which they observed a sort of sit down strike. Sometimes an Ahdi during travel was carried on a cot by persons 'begar' (unpaid labour). "tab ::>rag jIy mahI nsae, ek ahdia Iha pathae."-ViY. ~ ih-fro [ahdo pEman] P d,S '-4' n framing of the ru les of an agreem~nt. })fU()' [ahan] Skt a:r,r:rq;:r n hail, hailstone. ~ [ahms] Skt ~ adv day and night. 2 always, at all times. ~ [ahpatI] Skt~ lord of the day, the sun. ~ [ahpatJ:dIn] n the day of the sun, Sunday. })f(J}f [ah21m] Se,e l?f(f. 2 A ff adj urgent, essential. 3 diffiicult, hard. ~ [ahmak] A J'I adj a fool, an idiot. ~ [ahmad] A ...?I adj praised, admired, eulogized. 2 n name of prophet Mohammad. 3 a poet of Persian and Hindi from the seventeenth Bikrami century who wrote prosodic metre and couplets. "ahmad, ya man sadan me han avhf kfh bat?

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74 bIkdt jure jJ b nIpat khulE na kapat kapat. ahmad ham na suhay, ami pIlavE man bIn, jJ bIkh det bulay, man sahIt marbo bhalo." ~ 'f.IT'ij" ~ [ahmad $ar. abdali] of Durrani branch of Abdalis, son of Zaman Khan Saddozai, a poor pathan who by virtue of his intelligence rose to become the army commander of Nadir Shah. After the latter's death in 1747, he occupied Qandhar, as also Balkh, Sindh, Punjab and Kashmir. He launched eight invasions on Punjab between 1747 and 1767. In Sammat 1818 through his subordinate Qalandar Khan, he committed sacrilege by demol ishing the sacred Harimandir Sahib at Amritsar which, however, the Khalsa reconstructed soon upon its original foundation. Ahmad Shah died at Murgab on 7th HarhSammat 1830. See~and~. »f(;n-rt~' R'ure [ahmad sayyad] Sayyad Ahmad Shah Ghazi, was a Muslim priest of Bareilly. In 1827 he instigated Muslims of the Northwestern province against the ruling Sikhs. Several thousand Muslims gathered under his flag for Jehad or religious warfare. He was severely defeated by Sardar Budh Singh Sandhawalia. He died in May 1831 at Balakot in Hazara district fighting against Sher Singh, governor of Kashmir. The Muslims believed that he did not die, but had simply disappeared. ~ [ahmadabad] principal town of Gujrat in Bombay presidency. It was founded by Ahmad Shah, king of Guj rat, in 1413 AD on the bank of Shavarmati river. ~ [ahmadi] adj a disciple of prophet Muhammad. 2 n a Musalman. 3 a follower of the Mirza of Qadiani. See QJWH >iRJHt!. })f(JQ lahar] Skt 3ffi\ n day. l')f(JQ1:f [aharakh] See ~. 2 n absence of happiness; unhappiness, grief.

~ [ahraI,l] ~ [ahraI,lI], ~ [ahran] n

ironsmith 's block; an anvil on which the ironsmith beats hot or cold iron into the desired shape. "ahraI,lI matI vedu hathiaru."



~ [aharnIs] See

»mfoR and »ffuf'oH. [aharman] P d"fi' n according to the Parsi or Zoroastrian religion, the god of evi1. ' Opposed to it is Yazdan, the god of goodness. ~ [ahrat] adj ( one) crying ah! oh! lamenting, wailing. "ahratkotI katyatI gat."-OPs. 2 See l'lfiRI}fO

~3". ~

[ahal] adjnot moving; firm, stable, fixed. "gaq tham ahIE."~gcJU var 2, m 5. 2 A J' n an assemblage, a community. 3 family. 4 husband. 5 adj able, capable. "ahal arf kama!."-0PS. ~ [ahlkar] P .J14' adjworker, employee, servant. 2 expert, specialist. »mW [ahla] adjdifficult to find; rare. 2 without profit, unprofitable, in vain. Skt »!m? See

»rfuw. ~

[ahlad] Skt~ n happiness, pleasure, delight, See ~. ~ [ahaIIa] Skt ~ n daughter of Vridhashav and wife of Gautam (Shardvat). In Ramayan, she was the first and the most beautiful woman created by Brahma. Cursed by her husband she petrified into a stone only to be liberated from the curse by Ram Chandar. "gotam nan ahalIa tari."-mali namdev. See b-r 4. ~ [ahlia] A d' n the one with a family, wife. ~ [ahliha] A Ld:i those living there. ~ 'i'i"i'I'Q [ahle najar] P ~J' adj wise, intelligent, sagacious. l)fUffiIT [ahalya] See ~ and b-r 4. ~ [ahav] Skt ~ n a battle, war. 'For this reason, many poets describe Satan as »lm1r.r [ahe$] n ~ the master of snakes, -dey m 5. 3 Skt a female snake. 4 a snake. Sheshnag. "je nar grase kalukh ahes."-NP. ~ yo [ahia pur] a village in Tanda police l1Ifru [aheh] adjfree from desire for copulation, station, tehsil Dasuya. The railway station is at ascetic, "aheh hehe."-ramav. 'women have a distance of two kilometres to the west. Here turned ascetics into lechers.' in the house ofBaba Jiwan Singh Bhalla is to "m [aher], ~ [ahera] Skt >'>fTlfc n game; be found one ofthe two pothis (books) ofBaba hunting deer. "ahera paro ghar kE gar ."-bhEr Mohan. Both these pothis were earlier at m5. Goindwal. But now these two priests own one ~ taheri], ~ [aheria] Sktl?fTlf2t adjwho hunts. "kal aheri phrrE badhrk jru. '-dhi'Jna each. One is here, the other is at Goindwal. ~ [ahi$] Skt n ))ffu-EtH the king of snakes; kabir. 2 n a particular caste so named because Sheshnag. of its fondness for hunting. ~ [ahin] adj not deficient, complete. 2 not nm [ahE] is. "jo krchu ahE sabh teri rajaI." low or mean; superb. -bhEr m 1. "Rffir [ahir] Skt ~ n a dairyman, milkman. "rfr [aho] part joy, sadness or surprise. "aho! jasy rakhel). gopalah."-sCJhCJs m 5. "tan same "gala biidhr duhr ler ahir."-sar namdev. 2 a ~.


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77 guru aho! ucari."-GPs. ~'it [ahoi] n common goddess, a goddess belonging to the Ahi dynasty, worshipped by virgins. During the festival of navratra (nine nights), virgins make clay models of this goddess and paste them on the walls. On the first of half of the light lunar month, they observe fast and worship its image by burning incense and lighting lamps. On the first of the light half ofKartik month, they immerse these images in running water. A large Ahoi fair is held at Radhakundpur in Mathura district. "han ka SImfan chaqIke fOlO. ~ [akIratr] Skt ~ 11 infamy, ill repute, bad name. ~o [akOth] Skt ~ adj not blunt; sharp. ~iF [akOqa] adj free, without any external constraint; not under anyone's thumb; independent. ~ [akutobhay] Skt adjnot under fear from anywhere. 2 not afraid of anyone; fearless. ~!3' [akObh] Skt ~ 11 a son of Kumbhkaran and younger brother of Kumbh. "kObh akObh se jit sabh£."-VN. 2 At some places~!3'also appears in place of ~!3'. The latter was a demon who was killed by Durga. That story is- told in Markanday Puran. ~ [akul] adj(one) who has no race, caste or pedigree; God. "kahIt kabir aku1 nahi cetIa."-gau. 2 ~. of low caste. ~(!T [aku1aul).a], ~ [aku1ana] v to have mental distress; to be mentally pained, distressed or perplexed. See ~. ~ [akulil).], ~ [akulin] adj of low birth, ignoble. 2 renouncer of caste-culture.

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The shrine owns about 125 bighas of land 3 not related to any caste or race. ";'Ikulin donated by Bhai Matab Singh. One hundred rahItau sabad susar."-sIdhgos~tI. rupees in cash and three quilts are given ~ [akual).a], ~ [akua], ~~ [akuia] annually by the state. Two Sikh mahants serve SklCfj.yrto produce a sound. adjsilent, taciturn, the shrine with devotion. It is about two miles (one) who has taken a vow of silence. "te sahI nah akual).a."~vaq m 1. "ek phUE ras rag to the south from the railway station Bahadur Singhwala (N.\V. Rly). akuia."-krIs;m. 2 See ~ mur. ~ [akok] adj ignorant ofKok Shastar. "kam ~R [akuj] SkI ~, adj bad deed, vice. ke1 akok."-prIthu. 2 See ¥vr beyond description; indescribable. ~ [akoq] SkI ~~ adj endless, countless. "praja dukhaI akuj."-GPs. ~3" [akut] adj beyond measure; limitless, See~. boundless, See ~3". 2 not criticized, not ~ [akor] n a present, an offering. "dije pran condemned. akor."-jet m 5. ~1.f'O [akupar] SkI n a sea, an ocean. 2 a ntefur [akag] adjwithout armour. "tukke akag." fabulous tortoise said to be under the earth. -ramav. See crcrr" >'>I'Ckmfer [akath] adj beyond description, ~ [akera], lm [akero] adv once. 2 See unspeakable, indescribable, inexpressible. »!fu¥. 3 adj solitary, alone. "jab ghat bani "bhumadI dan dine akath."-gyan. 2 without subh th;Jr akero."-krIsan. even a ragged blanket. [ake1a] adj alone, single, without ~ [akapan] SkI 3lCfwFf n state of notcompanion. "age has ake1a."-sor k.::Jbir. trembling or nolt shivering; steadiness. 2 one ~ rakE] part or. "akE koi kIhu devae."-var of Ravan's commanders and a minister. He bIla m 4. was Ravan's maternal uncle, and the son of ~ [akoi] a village ofJind state two kos north Sumali and KetUllnalini. His sister Kaikasi was of Sangrur. Here is a gurdwara of Guru Ravan's mother" Hanuman killed him in a battle. "band nad akapan se."-VN See ~ Hargobind who came here from Saunti and stayed with Manak Chand, a devotee, in and l{UFI3". 3 Per Harivansh, he was an Indian king and was Hari's father. Sammat 1673. Guru Granth Sahib is installed in the gurdwara building got built by SaI'dar ~ [akkl).a] See ~. ~ [akyath] S~~e »imT and »rcmEr. Diwan Singh of Badrukkha. Close to the circumambulatory passage, ~ [akray] adjinactive, motionless, stationary. "akray ek paratam puran."-NP 2 unpurchasable. there is a solid caper tree under which, so believe the local people, the Guru's horse was ~ [akn~] adf not lean or weak. 2 which cannot be pulled; not deserving to be pulled. tied. According to them, earlier Guru Nanak l?ffc!3" [aknt] Ski ~ adf unmade, unbuilt. Dev had also visited Akoi.


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2 Skt ~ adj not fit to be done, misdeed, sin. "akrIt karma."-ramav. »tf~df~d [akntknt] adj doing what cannot be done by others. "tej su rasi aknt knta."-gyan. ~ [akntagy] Skt ~ adj ungrateful, thankless. ~ [akntam] Skt ~ adj not artificial, genuine. 2 real, true. »tf~dif~d [akntaknt], »tfS!d'fS!fa [akntakntI] adj not made or shaped by anyone; assuming various forms. "akntaknt hE."-japu. ~ [akny] adj inactive, passive. ~ [akrur], ~ [akruru] Skt ~ adj not c~uel, merciful~ kind. 2 not irate, calm. 3 n Krishan's paternal uncle and son of Shvaphalak and Gandini. He came to deliver Kans's challenge for battle and took Krishan and Balram from Gokul to Mathura where Krishan killed Kans and re-installed his own maternal grandfather Ugarsen on the throne. "udhau akruru, bIdaru gUl) gavE."-savE'ye m 1 ke. "mohI abE akrur ke hath bulay pathyo mathura hl1 ke rai."-krrsan. »tC! [akr£] See »rf'gGr. l')(6f [ak;;] Skt OTlR vr to enter; to penetrate; to pierce; to attain desire's fulfilment; to spread; to be diffused. 2 none of Ravan's sons whom Hanuman killed while laying waste the Ashok garden. His full name was Akshay Kumar. 3 counters in chess. 4 arl axle. 5 eye. 6 a blue jay. 7 seed of eleocarpus ganitrus used in rosaries. 8 16 masas of oil. 9 soul. 10 Dg myrobalan. »tia [ak~at] See~. ~ [ak~mala]

Skt n a rosary of rudraksh (elecarpus ganitrus) seeds. 2 a rosary ofletters from })f to ~. ~ [ak~mi] Skt ~ adj sans forgiveness. 2 incapable. l?Iim [ak$ay] Skt adj imperishable, everlasting.

~ [ak~ayvatl See ~ [ak~ar]


See »fCfiJ. de sthan] See footnote to

~ ~ Fl:PO [ak~ra

picture 4. ~ [ak~radh]

adj blind with intoxication of knowledge, See ~ ~. ~ [ak~I] Skt an eye. 2 a count of two, two. »rEhl [ak~Jl)i] See ~. })flf [akh] See l')(6f. 2 Dg n a garden, park. 3 See »rfu. 4 See »f1!O 2. ~ [akhau], })fl:ffu [akhaI], ~ [akhaIO] adj indestructible, everlasting. "atal akhaIo deva."-maru m 5. ~ [akhsar] See »t'CmO. l'>fJ::IORf [axgar] P P, n a spark; an ember, a scintilla. })fl:fH [akhaj] A ;g, n acquisition. 2 catching, grasping, gripping. ~ [akhaqa] adj strong, powerful. 2 without a hole, complete. l'>Il;I'3'a' [axtar] P /1 n a star, planet. "rJ~andImag axtar."-ramav. 2 a portent, an omen. 3 a flag, standard. ~ [akhta] See »fTl:IdT. ~ [akhtIar] See ~. ~ [akhni] P n thick soup of meat. "salan J akhni bniii."-knsan. 2 stock of food. adj cooked food. ~ [axbarl A )~I plural of J::ra"iJ. news. "lavpur te ai akhbaru."-GPs. 2 newspaper.. l')fl:flif [akhay] See ~. })fl::Rf [akhar] Skt ~ n a character, a letter; letters for writing Gurbani. "akhar ka bheu na lahat."-var sar m 1. 2 adj which does not dissolve, insoluble. 3 n God who remains in the same state. I "e akhar khnI jahIge OI akhar In mahI nahI."-gau kabir, bavan. 4 n a sermon, an advice, "akhar nanak akhIO apI."-var majh m 1. 5 a mantar according to


ISee Vishnu Puran Part 1, Chapter 22.

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books on magic. "kava!.)u su akharu kava!.) gu!.)u kava!.)u su ma!.)ia rna tu. "--s {arid. 6 nominal; objects which bear names. "drIsat man akhar he jeta."-bavan. l'lfl::IO orr ~fI [akhar ka bheu] n a grammar; grammatical knowledge. "akhar ka bheu na lahat."-var sar m 1. 2 meaning or implication of a sentence. })fl:RJli [akharab] Skt~ adjbeyond the figure of one kharab: 100,000,000,000 ; countless, innumerable. 2 (one) which is not small; great. "garab akharab dur hve gayo."~c5dCJr. 3 tall, not short. ~ [akhrot] Ski ~ n a walnut tree and its fruit. It does not grow in hot climate. ][t has beautiful wood which is used in manufacturing beautiful articles of various types. It grows plentifully in Kashmir. Its kernel is hot and moist in effect. Its Latin name is aleurites triloba. E walnut. ))f1:f(? [akhal] Skt ~ adj whole, complete. "akhal bhavan ke sIrjanhare."-caritr 405. 2 (one) who is not mean. 3 (one) who is not stupid; wise, intelligent. ~ [ii1:Rr [akkhar] See })fl::Rf. ~ [akkhal] Skt a sound of joy, joyful tune. nfl:fT Jj~ [akkha mudl).ia] to ignore the wrong committed by another. 2 to be overbearingly arrogant. 3 to die, to pass away. bhukhan basan bas ratan anek jatI choe,le pH palki anup chabI dham ki, kaha narnah kaha bhae bad$ah kaha $ahan ke $ah jJn dehE parnam ki, beni kavI kahE khal phal me bItavE dIn pale khal khalE kE pakhalE jas cam ki, man hi ki man rahI jati abhIlakhe jab mud gai akhe tab lakhe kIhI kam ki. ~ [akhyau] l')fEiflJf eternal. "pura guru akhyau ja ka matr."-sukhm;;Jni. l'>fl:WJTO [akhyan] See l?fTl:IJtTO. ~ [akhyal] adj beyond thinking, unthinkable. "akhyal akhae,l rup he."-;;JkaL ~ [axvad] P "il a teacher, tutor. })f(Jf rag] Skt 3I!'" vr to go, enter. 2 Skt short form for l'>fCJlfo. 3 Skt 2>rn adj ignoramus. "jyo tag age ag argai."-NP. 'just as an ignorant man gets dumb before a spiritually awakened person.' 4 Skt 311T adj motionless, immobile. 5 n a mountain. 6 a tree. 7 Skt nra.r front, the front side. 8 adjfirst, primary. 9 a leader, head. 10 adv before, in front. "ag tab cala."-d;;Jtt. 'Then he proceeded forward.'

[agasat], ~ [agast] Skt nrarft:r and a celebrated sage who lived in the Vindaya mountain. He composed several hymns of Rig Ved wherein it is held that Agastya was the son of Mitravarun I At the sight of Urvashi he ejaculated his semen, a part of which fell in a pot from which Agastya was born; from the portion that fell outside the pot was born Vashishth. That is why Sayan has held that Agast came out of a pot like an elegant male fish, So he was called Kalshisut (son of a pitcher), Kumbh Sambhav and Ghatodbhav, etc. Due to such a birth, he is also called Maitravaruni or Aurvashey as well. At the time of birth, he was of the size of an extended hand. Once Kalkey demons spread terror in the world, killing holy saints and spoiling religious oblations. When the gods went to kill them, they hid themselves in the ocean. Paying heed to the request of the gods, Agastya drank the entire sea in one draught and the gods succeeded in destroying the demons. For this reason Agastya came to be known as Pitabadhi and Samuderchuluk as well. In the Purans it is recorded that Agastya was the son of Pulasaty. There is a story in the Ramayan that when Agastya saw his ancestors hanging upside down in a pit, they told him that they could be liberated only if he produced a son. Gathering parts of several animals, Agastya formed a girl whom he sent to the ruler ofVidarbh where she was brought up like a princess. When she grew up, Agastya married her. She was named Lopamudra. The Ramayan gives further account ofAgastya that for a long time he observed austerities at Kunjar Hill south of Vindhayachal. The



IMitar and Varun are twin gods. But their names figure together. They are twins like Ashvini Kumars.

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demons were frightened of him. Ram, ~ [agachrni] Skt~ advwhich does not move, motionless, still, eternal. "sarbe jor Lakhshman and Sita stayed with him there. agachmi, dukh ghanero athI."-var maru 1 m To Ram he gave: a sword, Vishnu's bow and a 1. 'At the sight of the eternal Creator, the quiver of arrows. with which he killed Ravan. senses get widely perturbed.' See))fT8' and 'l?fTfu. Agastya was present in Ayodhya at the time of Ram's coronation. The Dravids ofthe south ))IOIH [agaj] n born jfJrom »raT (mountain), ajewel. worship Agastya Muni. "agast adI je baqe 2 a metal. 3 a fruit. 4 Skt})f(J]tf Brahman. 5 a tapastpi vIsekhn:."-akal. headman, leader. 6 Skt »raJTW!'. adj beyond grasp; what the mind and senses cannot grasp. 2 There is a star by this name which rises from the south on 17 th of Bhadon. (August- ~ [agaq] adj not fixed, planted or studded. September) "uday agast p5th jal sokha."-i:ulsi. "su dh5n jIno hE agade."-krIsan. l)f(JTU [agah] Skt »raJTtJ1Jr adj who cannot be ))((J1(!" [agal:tl n according to the rules of poetics, seized. "mere thakur agah atole."-gau m 5. inauspicious character combination, that is: 2 nrcJlTl:f deep, bottomless. "rasna agah agah gun FICJlCf, RaTfa'I'fo. 2 n malignant nature. "manmukh bole adhule trsu mahr agni ka

din. "-krrscm. [agampur] adj a place where there is no grief or anxiety. 2 n highest spiritual stage, salvation. "trtu agampure kahu krtubrdhr jaiE?" -asa eMH m 1. 3 one of the five forts of Anandpur where in Sammat 176 J Bhai Uday vasu."-s~va m 3. Singh and Ishar Singh fought against the Turk ~ [agnia], ~'(jf [agney] Skt ~'(jf adj army. 4 See ~. concerning fire, of fire. 2 n gold. 3 a volcanic ~~ [agamrup] n God, the eternal one; mountain. 4 ~. 5 southeast direction. indivisible appearance. "agamrup ka man 6 Skt~ adjcountless. "maM bir agnia." mahr thana."-gau a m 5. -GPs. l')f(JJ}/T [agma] adj unapproachable. See nran-r. ~ [agnEt] See ~. 2 a leader; one who "pIta mero bac;lo dhani agma."-guj d m 5. gives the lead. 2 See i)f{ffi-fJlT. '))f'(JJ'(fQfo [agnagun] sen guilty of countless })fdJ}fT})fcJJ}f [agma agam] utterly beyond approach, faults. 2 avarice; evil wealth. "agnagun ko absolutely unapproachable. "han agma agam harh6."-krrscJn. apara."-sopurakhu. l'>fOT'ifu" [agnat] See ~. l'>fiJIlj [agamu] See nran-r. »idl(')OII'P21 [agnyastra] See >'>fa'I'fo ~. ~ [agamguru] See ~ 2. lffiJIH [agam] adj inaccessible, unapproachable. 'l'>fOTH'OIIT [agmya] Skt n a woman with whom "agam agocaru anathu ajoni."-sar a m 1. 2 n mating is a heinous sin; another's wife a tree. 3 a mountain. 4 Skt l?fCl1lfOII" adj especially of the teacher or the king. unapproachable. "agam tir nah laghanah." ~ [acyar] A .lV' plural of:am- strangers, -sdhdS m 5. 5 beyond the reach of intellect. aliens. 6 See »rdTlf. 7 future. "jan nanak agam vicana." »IORf [agar] Skt nrcng n an odorous tree found aplenty in Assam. There is juice in its roots -var gau 1 m 4. 8 a sacred text; a Shastar. which is extracted and mixed in incense, as "agam nrgam satrguru drkhara."-maru am 3. "han agam agocar gun agam dIkhali." also used in preparing perfumes. Its Latin name is Amyris Agalocha. I Its effect is warm -bh£r m 4. 'The supreme Shastar has revealed and moist. "kasturr kDgu agar eadan lip I aVE it.' 9 Bhai Santokh Singh has used nran-r for 'arduous'. "sab b:i:dhI sugam agam kachu cau."-sri m 1. 2 Skt»raJ front. 3 adjforemost. nahi."-NP 4 noble, virtuous. 5 P ;; part if. ~ [agmai] adj unapproachable one. ~ [agrak] adj a chief; leader with an 2 ~ "agam agam agmai."-asa m 5. attendant walking in front. "agrak us ke bac;le 3 firelike. thagau."-asa m 5. l'>fORJfu [agarcr], ~ [agarce] P ...:>j; part l')fdJ}f()" ragman] See »riJJ}f()". 2 not moving; firm though, even if. 2 although. ': position. ~ [agmane], >'lfCIIH?i" [agmam:] adv before ~ [agarval] a sub-caste ofthe Vaish caste. time, earlier. "rk dIn kDvarr agmane gai." Its origin is traced to Agroha village in Hisar -earitr 266.2 ahead of, in front. "bhej agmanE IE Eagle-wood. »idlf(')a i a1


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99 district. 2 a Khatri sub-caste arising from Sarins. l?fiITTU [agah], »fQfTftJ [agahI], ~ [agahu] adj Jo>fdlTQ" bottomless, boundless. "maha agah ))fcJRJTH [agraj] A til)' plural of:oJmir. needs. l'>IOIfa". ragan], })ji:J1'S!" [agaru] See iffiJrd". aganI ka sagar."--asa ill 5. "suru sabad sUl)ae ~ [aclab] A ~, adv predominantly, matI agahI."-basat a ill 1. 2 »!OJ1Wf which cannot be grasped by the mind and the senses. probably, surely. l)f(ITW [agla] adv first, prime. "tu bakhsisi "harI agam agahu."-var brha ill 4. "gahyo agla."-var asa m 1.2 old, former. 3 front, fore. jo ne jaI so agah kEkE gahiat."-gyan. 3 See 4 very much, plenty. "Ikna ata agla Ikna nahi 11fT01l(J. 10l)."-s fdrid. 5 n hereafter; the next world. })fOJ1H [agaj], )o)fcJJTW [agajal, l'>fdT'ft:r [agajI] P )~ r ~ [aglai] advforward, to the next. "SUIna n beginning, creation, genesis. M~. 2 an ruppa paq. banh aglai apa."-BG 2 S in the echo, resonance. "tahI anhad sabad agaja." manner of a low caste; indecently. -sor ill 5. 3 which cannot be grasped by the ~ [agalIt] Skt fi'ldFfM3 adj swallowed. the mind and the senses. "sur nan gal) munI "pejhu dISsan ragule mariE agalItE."-GPs. bohay agajI."-savEYe ill 2 ke. See ~. 4 S 'Disgorging causes death.' 2 vomited, countless, innumerable. disgorged. ))fiJJ13" [agat] n one without body. eros. "upma ~ [agli] adj plentiful, much. "kheti jami agat."-gyan. 2 Skt})fT(Jl3" a guest. "jahf agat agli."-sri ill 3. "hurmatI tIS no agli."·-var diney."-NP 3 ad; unknown. "nahI na tum te asa. 2 of the future, of the next world. "agli ab-hI agat."-NP 4 incorporeal, beyond the gal na jal)ia."-maru ill 5 ajulia. 3 See 1'iICJTW. body. "agat anada."-NP ~ [agvan] Se:e}o)fOJ}fi') and l?fI(JJ}f(')". "ap agvan >'>fiJIT3t [agati] See »fOTT3" 1. 2 income, receipt. hOI tIS des."--GPs. 'May you reach that "aj nahi ko dam agati."-GPs. country.' ~ [agatr] See}~ 1. ~ [agvai] See ~. l)fiJJT'!i [agath] adj whose story cannot be told; ~ [agvan] n one who leads; a receiver. indescribable. 2 adj a headman, leader. 3 adv in front, })fidITQ" [agadh] ad; bottomless, unknowable, opposite. "nahI kur kaho tumre agvan."--NP very grim, serious. "agam agadh parbrahamu ~ [agvani] n welcome, lead, going SOI."-sukhilldni. 2 n the Creator, God, whose forward to receive. 2 headship, leadership. limits none can know; whose expanse cannot 3 future. "IS ko phal dekho agvani."-GPS. be grasped by the mind or intellect. 4 adv in front, in the presence of, "bhayo lop ~ [agadhbodh] adjwhose knowledge is dekhat agvani.':-GPS. limitless; having endless knowledge. ~ [agvariJ n an act during which limbs "agadhbodh samrath suami."-asa chat ill 5. J1!OTTfu [agadhI], »iIOIIlJ [agadhu] See »f(jJTQ". stretch in drowsiness; yawning. ~ [agaul] See l'iIiJh? })fQJT)f [agam], })IOTTW [agama] Skt »fOT}fjf adj ~ [agau] adj advance (payment). 2 adv impassable, out of reach. 2 difficult to trace, before hand, in advance. scarce. "hath cano lal agama."-sar ill 5. See l')f(JJ'l'J1 ragas] n the sky. 2 firmament, heavenly »IOT'lft. sphere. "jInI dhare bahu dharal)I agas."-gdu »fO[1}-ft [agami] Skt 3~,adjexpectedto come; awaited. ill 5.

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[agar] n fronts ide or the front part. 2 adv forward, in front. "ItE guru agar ko sIdhar pau c;larkE."-GPS. 3 Skt lifTOTTO n a house, residence. "gun agar sabh sukh datar."-GPs. '»IOJTfu ragan], ~ [agari], »f(Jfl;ft [agari] adv in front, forward. 2 in former times, in the past. 3 in future. 4 n the front halters or fetters of a horse; the front rope of a horse. ~ fl.rsr;ft wfu'a" [agari pIchari sahIb] See ;:ffi ~. »rfcJr [agI] Skt llffa;r n fire. "ghan ghan eha agI."-s farid. 2 See »iOTJf. ~ [apat] See ))fO]JIT3". ~ [apan] SktomR n ignorance, stupidity. uneducatedness, illiteracy. "gIan ajan guru dia agIan adher bInas."-sukhmani. See 0JJl1?i". ~ [apanta] Skt 3T~rFrill n ignorance, idiocy, stupidity. "guru kati agIanta."-asa m 5. ~ [agIanath] because of ignorance, for lack of education. "tum kahe bISarIO agIanath."-marum 5.2 n ignorance, illiteracy. ~ [agIanmatI] n an ignorant mind, a head devoid of knowledge. "agIanmati adher hE."-sri m 3. 2 adjwhose mind is devoid of knowledge. ~ [agIanI], ~ [apani] Skt;mrrR"'\ adj devoid of knowledge, ignorant, foolish. "agIani adha magu na ja!).E."-majh a m 1. 2 advsuddenly, without knowing. "bInSE kaci deh agIani."-sor m 5. ~ [agmt] See ~. l)f(Jft [agi] Skt lliOlfo n fire. 2 fires. "dukh kia agi mariahI."-var sar m 1. 3 to the fire. "agi pala kI kare?"-var majh m 2. . ~ [agu!).], ~ [agun] adj without merit, without skill or art. 2 without worldly desire, passion and quality of goodness. 3 demerit, vice. "gun sIkhraI agun parharkE."-GPS. l'>IQ!1f [aguru] See l?fORl'. 2 adjnot great or weighty. ~ [agua] n front, front side. 2 one who lffiIT1Q

welcomes. "agua len agau ae."-caritr 247. 3 a leader. ~ [aguc;lh], ~ [agur] adj which does not remain hidden, manifest, well known. "re man mur, agur ISO prabhu tE kIh kaj kaho bIsrayo."-savEye 33. »tlff [age] adv in front, face to face. 2 after this. 3 formerly. 4 in the next world. S manifest. "bhagat jana ki patI rakhE VICI kaIIjug age."-sar m 4. 6 See ~. ~ [ageu], ~ [agea] Skt 31WT adj which cannot be understood, incomprehensible. >:Ifiim [ageh] adj without a house, homeless. ~ [ageta] adv before time, premature. 2 adj early, early fruit. »rcilor [agera], ~ [agere] adv before now, already. "tan upjan te hute agere."-GPS. [agE] adv in front, opposite. 2 in the next world. "agE jatI na jor hE."-var asa. lffiif [ago] adv in the first instance, in the first place, before death. "ago de je cetiE, ta kaItu mIlE sajaI."-asa am 1. 2 from the opposite side, from the front. "ta uh ago aOda mIlIa." -JSBB. ~ [agocar] adjwhich does not concern the senses. "agam agocar alakh apara."-bIla m 1. 2 not manifest or veritable. 3 hidden, concealed. "kab-hu na hovhu drIsatI agocar."-bIla m 5. 4 Just as ~ is used for fcI3uro, ~ is used for ~. "jo kachu dnsatI agocar avat, ta kahu man maya thahIravat."-cJbis. ~ a1'I? [agocar basatu] n the Creator, God. 2 spiritual knowledge. ~ [agot] n disappearance of caste; complete wipingout. This term is used for annihilation ofthe enemy, meaning that not a single person of the rival side is left alive. "satru mar kino agot."-GPs. 2 a low caste. 3 without any lineage, casteless.


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»rcit3t [agoti] adj not of the same sub-caste.

unfathomable. "'ag;=>bh hE."-japu. Se(~ »fOJH. "ag;=>m ag;=>m as;=>kh ~ [agode] adv in the beginning, during the loa. "-japu. 2 See lliOJ}f.if. earliest time. "agode satbhau na dICE, pIchode akhICl k=>mI na aVE."-var gau 1 m 4. l'>I'di'Hyo [ag;=>mpur] See »rcJ!HldO. 2 a village in l?IilT3t [ag::Jti] adv firstly, formerly, from the police station Anandpur, tehsil Una, district Hoshiarpur, 25 miles east of Garh Shankar beginning. nrcIh? [ag::Jl] a village in Amloh sub-division, and Navanshahwr Doaba railway station. police station Bhadson ofNabha state; about There are two gurdwaras in this village: (a) Holgar, where Guru Gobind Singh, three furlong northeast of the village is a gurdwara named after Guru Tegh Bahadur. coming from Anandpur, used to hold Formerly there was no gurdwara building; congregation at the time of HoIa; the gurdwara only an old pipal tree was there under which, has no land attached and the priest is a Singh. (b) Dehra Mata Jito Ji. She was cremated according to tradition, the Guru had re:sted. in the land of this village in Sammat 1757. The construction of a building commenced in Sammat 1976. Bhai Natha Singh of Agaul There is a shrine at the cremation site near an donated 10 bighas of land to the gurdwara old pipal tree. It is about 1.5 miles west of which he himself is looking after with Anandpur. The gurdwara gets monetary grant dedication and devotion. of Rs. 100 annually assigned by Bhai Uday This villag(~ is to the nOliheast of Nabha Singh of Kaithal which is received from railway station, 6 miles by un metalled and 8 village Chiparcbiri, district Ambala. Another miles by metalled road. grant of an equal amount since the Sikh rule »rcJTi:r [ag;=>j] adj indestructible, everlasting, See comes from village Khumerha police station Anandpur. Twelve ghumaons ofland assigned oTtr. ~ ~ [ag;=>jaD ag;=>jaD] adj destroyer of by the ancestors of Mian Pradyumen Singh zaildar is also in the name of the shrine. Its what is not destructible, annihilator of the priests are Singhs. See map of Anandpur. unannihilated. »1dlt!l'Sdll'l1H [ag;=>ju1ganime] -japu adjnot subject nrafHyor [ag;=>mpura] There is a village named Balachaur in district Ambala, tehsil and police to destruction by the enemies. »rcri'i3' [ag;=>qJ adj not having temples etc. station Jagadharii. Half a mile northwest of "namastua ag;=>.q;=>."-gyan. this village is Gurdwara Agampura where the l'>IOT3' [ag;=>t] See~. Guru had stayed on his way from Kapalmonraf3t [ag;=>ti] adj countless, numberless, in- chan. It consists of a small building looked after by Akali Siinghs. It has 50-60 bighas of numerable. 2 fllturistic. 3 of the fllture. ~ [ag;=>tuk] Skt 3TlT1W adj (one) who comes; land donated by the villagers. It is connectd new comer. 2 cattle grazing on green plants. with Jagadhari railway station to the northeast by a seven-mile long metalled road. 3 n a guest. 4 next world, hereafter. nraf'Ef [ag;=>th] the next world. See »raT3' and >ii'ar' [agga] n front side. 2 the next world, the hereafter. ~. " iha jas pavo, vath me."-PP »rcJIJI' [agy] Skt 31'?1' an ignorant person. 2 un»rcri'g [ag;=>bh] Skt 3P]"l='l-H, adj bottomless, educated" illiterate. 3 knowing little, semi

»roTH [ag;=>m]

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literate. [agyatl Skt ~ adj unknown. ntdl:il 13Hij(')1 [agyatjobnal, ntdIJfI3;;;~(')1 [agyaty;wnal In poetics, a type of naive heroine, unaware of her youth. »f(JJ:ifT(')' [agyanl See ~. In Punjabi it is mostly written as ~ but, in poetry, in order to keep correct the number of matras l'>fdT.i!T?) is written. ~ [agyanl).ol Pkt ~ , ignorant, ignoramus. "garbel). agyanl).o."-gatha. 2 because of ignorance. ~ [agyanil See ~. in Punjabi verse it is better to write~. See l'>fdT.i!T?). l'>fOJ [agrl n a facade, front part. 2 adj first, topmost, foremost. 3 best. 4 chief, headman. ~ [agrhayal).l See »!ORJ?). l'>fOJH' [agrajl n the first born, elder brother. 2 adv in the presence of, in front of, before. "jIm lute te agraj odhari ke."-c5(1i 1. 3 already. "agraj Ih balak mastana."-NP. l'>fOJMT [agrajal n the elder sister. 2 the river Ganga which is the elder sister ofall the rivers. See sanama 160. ntO]it [agral).i], ~ [agral).iv] Skt 311JUfr adj leader, headman, chief. "pachakarotI agrl).ivah."-sahas m 5. ~ [agrbhag] n front part, the front. 2 end, corner. 3 According to the Hindu scriptures, it is a part of food reserved beforehand for gods during feasts for the dead ancestors. })fUf [agh] Skt 31tt. vr to commit a sin or crime. 2 n sin. See »fUl?iTFI?i'. 3 pain, sorrow. 4 irreligion. 5 affliction, evil. "bitat audh karat aghana." -savEye $ri mukhvak m 5. 6 a demon named Agh. See~. ~ [aghoghdali] adj ( one) who destroys all sins, or eradicates pain and suffering. "sac kah6 agh ogh dali sau."-datt. See mI. ~ [aghatak] adjwho eradicates sins and »IiJf.iI13"

pain. "agatak badm."-savEye ill 4 ke. ' ... say the destroyers of sins.' »fl1/Ck [aghkatl, ~ [aghkatakl n a thorn for (rooting out) sin; river Ganga as a thorn to uproot sins.-sanama 265. 2 (one) who destroys sins. ~ [aghkhac;l], ~ [aghkhac;lakl, ~ [aghkhac;lanl adjwho negates or revokes sins. 2 who destroys suffering. "sukh sagar aghkhac;l." -sri ill 5. 3 who eradicates irreligion. ))lUre [aghatl adj not likely to be. 2 unfit, unworthy. 3 not likely to decrease; irreducible. 4 without body, formless. "ghat mahI khelE aghat apar."-gau kabir bavan. })fUfC(')' Uf2?iT [agatan ghatna] n one who turns the impossible into the possible; maker ofwhat cannot be made; maya. "hE aghatan ghatna su ghaneri."-GPS. ntUlfc3' [aghatIt] adj what has not happened; what has not been made. 2 impossible. 3 unfit. l')fUf(')T [ aghana] ))f1.J.f'dJO. See })fUf. 2 »r-UfO not dense, sparse. l)ftIf('i'TA' [aghnasl, ~ [aghnasakl, »fUf()Tl1'('i' [aghnasan] adj who destroys sin, who eradicates suffering. "abInasi aghnas." -bavan. "aghnasan jagadisurah."-var jEt. ~ [;:lghva] n embodiment or aggregate of sins. "nam ke let hare aghva."-krIsan. l')f1.tS' [agharl adj unhewn, unmade, unformed. 2 uninstructed, untrained. "gurumukhI bal).i aghar gharavE."-sIdhgosatI. 'Gurmukh forms speech in the taksal of sangat'. 3 See B-erB'. l')f1.tS' ft:i'ur [aghar slghl a Sikh warrior, nephew ofBhai Mani Singh. He killed Momin Khan, a Pathan of Kasur, who, on the orders of Murad Begum, headed an army, roaming about in the c0untry, to eliminate the Sikhs. Aghar Singh severed the head ofMomin Khan and presented it in a congregation of the Khalsa in 1757 AD. He fought many battles

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during the invasions ofAhmed Shah Durrani, aghulE."-prabha am 1. See~. and continued to serve the Khalsa with full »flt! [aghu] S adj weak. 2 sick. dedication. »flt!HO [aghuman] Skt ~fUf. sins. ";(otr 21gha dizziness; giddiness; falling in a whirl. "grryo sabh nas hohI."-var jEt. 2 adv forward, bebhumr jhumyo aghumyo."-ramav. yond. "agha srdhal).i sfga dhaul drll."-c;'}qi ~ [aghur] adj sans stare, snarl or scowl. 3. 'Sword cutting through the underworld "aghur netr ghumhi."-gyan. 'The stable ones went beyond the horns of the bull'. go about serenely.' 2 without ill-temper, serene, steady. ~ [aghaul).a], ~ [aghaI1:l] v to eat one's fill; to OVI;:reat; to be satiated. "gobfd ~ [aghural).J S,ee ~ and ~}ffiT. japat agharl).."-asa ch;'}t m 5. ~ [aghul] adjwithout dizziness. "karat pan ))fl.tI'TlJ'Q [aghasur] n a demon named Agh, payukh nrs drn ram rasrk aghul he."-saloh. younger brother ofVakasur, and Raja Kans's ' ...does not feel dizzy like drunkards.' 2 See army commander. Under Kans's orders, he ~. transformed himself into a python. All the ~ [aghor] adjwho is not formidable; lovely, associates of Lord Krishan entered its mouth beautiful. 2 n Shiv. »fiijfu [aghon], »iUmt [aghori] adjwho worships mistaking it for a cave. Krishan after entering Shiv. "jugia aghori muhr jhori me dharat it, expanded his own body so much that the hE."-hanu. 2 n Shiv's attendants. "aghon ar python exploded. "jivanmun huh hamri ab sou aghasur cabgayo he."-krrsan. agghae kate pare su prasana."-ramav. 'Shiv came and were satiated feasting on warriors »IUf'i'iT [aghana] v to eat one's fill, See~. cut into pieces'. 3 a sect founded by Kinanram, 2 adj satiated. "bahut darab karr man na the deviant, who not only advocates the aghana."-gau m 5. consumption of wine and meat but also of l)fl1fTfu [aghanJ adj »fUf-~, enemy of sins; excreta as part of religious practice. Aghoris goodness. 2 Lord Krishan, enemy of demon consider eating in skulls ofthe dead as sacred. Agh. They are also called Kinaramie. ~ [aghavanL ~ [aghavna] v to eat one's fill, overeat. See ~. "amnt nam })fUfo [aghan] short form for})f!.ll(JfO; heap ofsins. "dekh caran aghan haryau."-savEye m 4 ke. pna pritr manohar rhE aghavan pan kau." })ffi' [ac] Skt ~ vr to go, walk, respect, beg. -sar m 5. "IUit [aghi] adjwho sins. 2 an irreligious person. ~ [ackara] a gal).rk metre also called sragvrl).i, kamrnimohna and lak$midhara. It 3 a libertine. "ham se ju aghi trn ko gatr has four lines, each line (having four ragans) devan."-NP organised as SIS, SIS, SIS, SIS: })f'l.tft;:Jr [aghija] adjsatiated, surfeit. See ~~. Example: ~ [aghut] adjdrinking a sip ofwhich is rare. abrka totla sitla sakrni, "aghut amrrt sam."-paras. sfdhuri suprabha subhrama IlgC?O" [aghulna] v to get release, achieve samrla sabhla suprabha duddhri. '-paras. liberation."trn ki dhup aghuliE."-oJkar. 2 to be different, get separate. "ko guru parsadr 'These are all Durga's names.

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l'>ItIO [aean] v to eat; to dine, See


l'>ftlIDffu" [aealmatr] n lasting or unwavering


[acancet] adv suddenly, without prior intellect. 2 adj possessing firm intellect. notice, abruptly. "satr guru purakh aeal acIamatI."-sar m 4. »f;JOT [aena] v to eat, See »flB}f('j. nH::JM'i!Z'l'S' [aeal vatala] Two kos to the south of })ffiO [aear] adj which does not move, inert. Vatala in Gurdaspur district, there is Achal 2 »Iter inedible, not fit for grazing. 3 n the temple dedicated to Mahadev; The name of Creator, who is ever still and stable. 4 lack of the village has also come to be known as knowledge. "acar carr ta SIdhI hoi."~sor m 4. Achal, after this temple. Together with Vatala, })ffiO tJaOT [aear ,earna] v to eat the uneatable. it is called Achat Vatala. Here in Sammat 2 to consume the unconsumable; sins. "acar 1586 a discourse took place between Guru Nanak Dev and the Gorakhpanthis described carr ta nIrmal hoi."-dhana m 3. 3 to move the immovable. as Sidhgost in Guru Granth Sahib. "mela sUD })ftJOM [acaraj] Ski 3TI1iTrf n wonder, astonishment, SIvratr da baba aealyatale ai."-BG amazement, surprise. "aearajrup nIr5jano." Shivratri fair is held on the 14 th of the -sri m 5. bright half of the lunar month of Phagun. A gurdwara was raised where the Guru stayed ~ [aearar:tl SkI ~ n behaviour, conduct, action. "kahiat an, aeariat an kaehu."-sor is named Achal Sahib. A ber tree from the time of the Guru is still there. Maharaja Ranjit ravrdas. 'One thing is said, but another is Singh allotted 150 ghumaons of land to the done.' 2 a carriage such as the chariot, etc. ~ [aeariat] behaviourism. See ~ 1. gurdwara besides sanctioning an annual grant ~ [acal] ad} immobile, immovable, fixed. of Rs. 50. The priests are Singhs. "acal amar nIrbhr pad palo."-brla m 9. 2 n »itfMT [acIa] n the earth.' 2 adj still. a mountain. 3 Pole Star. 4 the Creator. 5 a ~ [aclamatI] See l'>ftlIDffu". village in Gurdaspur district. See ~ ~. ~ lades], ~1I~ [adesur] ~-m, ~ wft:ra" [aeal sahIb] See ~~. ~. adjthe mountain-king. 2 n Mahadev, Shiv, master ofKailash mountain. 3 Shivling ~ tR? crfi.p,rr [aeal cal thapla] See treJ::E. installed in village Achal. See ~ and ~ ~ i5"C [ac;~l that] In music, a scale in which ~. all tunes can be played without moving the equippage positionally; it contains pure notes: ~ [aeyan] SkI n munching, chewing, eating food. "aeyan lage saray mIl tab-hi."-GPS. :;;araj, rr:;;abh, gadhar, madhyam, p5eam, 2 See »flB}f('j. dhrvat and nI:;;ad :;;udh; rr:;;abh, gadhar, dhrvat and nI:;;ad komal; and madhyam tivar ))ffil'U [aeah] adj sans desire; without want; satisfied, patient. (slow-fast). They are thirteen notes in all; depending on the volume they can be I Sanskrit scholars of ancient times have called the earth Achal (static) and the stars of the firmament as moving. multiplied to 26 and 39. See ore F.l"8'"i:!. Guru Gobind Singh interprets Achla as the earth. It does ~ [aeal thaI).] immovable place, fixed not end with kings who call themselves bhupati position. 2 four stages ofspiritual knowledge; (husband of earth). "sag cali abb nahf kahD ke sac kah5 fourth state of the soul l.I"t. "jaki drrsatI agh ogh dali saD. cel re cel acet maha pa~u. kahD ke sag aealthaI).."-savEye m 2 ke. 3. God, Creator. cali na hali haO."-ddtt. ~ '8'2"'l?1' [aeal batala] See ~~.

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105 ~

[acacall] adj without playfulness, not sprightly, immobile, See ~. ~3" [acacetl, ~ [aca!).ak], ~CI [acaI).cakk] adv suddenly, unexpechldly, without prior inkling or warning. l'>I'tJTi [aca!).a] adj who eats. "aca!).a jua!).a." -kalki. 2 See })~. })ftJTO [acan], })ffiT(')C\ [acanak] See ~."ban acan hanyo."-krIsan. })ft:JTO [acar] P .J(p1 pickle; an edible preparation 't of salt, chilli, mustard, oil, vinegar, jaggery, etc. "anIk acaran lIavan thana."-Gps.:2 Skt ~ establishi~d rules of conduct, character, social behaviour. "guru mIII caju acaru sIkhu."-sri m 5. l'>I'tJTaif [acaraj] See ~. ~ [acarvat] ~ [acarvatI] adjwhose conduct and manners are good; of noble character. "acarvatI sai pardhane."-majh ill 5. ~ [acari] See ~. J?ffi12 [ItI'lfT 3. ~ [ajapEl P 4-;1 adv for, for the sake of. 2 therefore. l'>Ifm' [ajab] A --rf adjsurprising, strange, novel. "ajab kam karte han kere."-majh am 3. 2 a resident ofDaroli and brother ofUmar Shah, who became a disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. Appointed as a masand (Sikh preacher-cumcollector), he served the congregation at Amritsar. See ~ and it:! 'ffi!. l'>Ifm' })fiMfT [ajab ajaba] adj stranger than the strange, strangest. "patIt udharal) ajab ajaba."-BG l'>Ifm' ft:fur [ajab sIgh] See ~ 'tRur. })fM8T [ajba] a varl)Ik metre also called akva, kanya and tirl).a. It is a stanza of four lines, each line being organised as SSS, S. Example: laggE tira, bhagE bhira. rosa rujjhe, asta jujjhe.-ramav. nmoH

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109 ~f3"

[ajbakrItI] >1fi'rn-~ a strange form, quaint shape. "ajbakntI ht."-japu. ~ [ajam] A (adjmute, dumb. 2 11 The Arabs call Iran and Turan ajam because they regard it as a country of dumb people. As compared with them they do not consider the latter as good speakers . "hakayat $unidem $ahe ajam."-hakayat 8. })f'ff}f'3" [ajmat] A J glory, greatness. 2 grandeur, veneration. 3 a miracle. "$ara man kE azmat dEn."-GPs. ~ [ajmau!).a] v to test, try, put on trial, experiment with. ))fil H'iJ or [az mah ta mahi] P LS'L C~L )/. from the moon to the fish, or from the sky to the underworld. See»!H 1O. })fR}-ITi'jT [ajmana] See ~. l1Iffi-ITliIF.r [ajmaya$] P J!LJ1 11 a test, trial, an examination. See ~. ~ [ajmidh] See ~. l)(ffijl:i' [ajmukh] 11' one whose face is like that of a goat, son of Brahma. See ~ 2. ))fj=J}fq [ajmedh] 11 an oblation accompanied by the killing of a goat. "gavalabh ajmedh aneka."-rama v. ~ [ajmer] ~~ 11 a town founded by Raja Ajaypal ofthe Chauhan dynasty in Sammat 202, which is now an important city in Rajputana. Here is the mausoleum of the famous Muslim saint Khwaja Muinuddin Chisti 1 who died in


'This Muslim saint was born in central Asia in J142 AD. He visited Samarkand, Baghdad, Jilan, Hamdaan and Mecca in pursuit of religious knowledge. He was gn:atly influenced by the Sufi Saint Sheikh Abdul Qadir Jilani. He reached Ajmer in J 166 AD and preached Islam till the age of seventy. After converting a Hindu saint of Ajmer into a Muslim, he married a Rajput woman. His daughter, Bibi Hafiza Jamal, also preached Islam far and wide. Thousands of Hindus and Muslims visit his mausoleum from far off places.

1235 AD. It is called Khwaja Sahib di Dargah. In history books a wonderful story is related about it. In the course of an expedition, attendants of the Dargah used to unstring the bows of the commanders and keep them in the mausoleum for the night. The foillowing morning he, whose bow was found duly strung, was considered one chosen by God to lead the expedition and become the ruler. Per the custom, when Darashakoh's bow was found strung, Aurangzeb after being enthroned, got the whole matter examined and discovered that there was a tunnel connecting the room where bows were placed with the house of the priest who used to string one of the bows during the night. '''nIj ghar te surag ke rahu. jaI mujavar madrr mahu. adar dehI kaman caqhaI. IS bIdhI rakhi banat banaI."-GPs. ~ fi:fur [ajmer sigh] See am-ft F.J1'(J. ~tft!' [ajmercad] son of Raja Bhim Chand who without any reason but like his father, was an opponent of Guru Gobind Singh. ~ We' IDf'(f ~':t [ajmer VIC kama!). carhni] See~.

[ajay] adj unconquerable, invincible [ajya] Skt n hemp, cannabis. 2 Bhai Gurdas has used this word in place of a nanny goat. "ajya adhin tate param pavItr bhai." -BGK. l'>I'HQ [ajar] adj intolerable. "sadhu kE sagI ajar sahE."-sukhmani. 2 Skt sans ;::RJT (old age), ever young, new. 3 A ;:1 11 reaction, consequence. 4 See »rft:IQ' 2. 5 who never gets old; ideas. "ajar gahu janIE amar gahu manIE." -maru m 1. 1')fffiJIjl:f [ajarsukh] adj ever new happiness, permanent comfort. ~ ffiJ(!T [ajar jar!).a] v to tolerate the intolerable, digest the indigestible. "ajar pad kEse jarau."-kalI m 5. ))fHtif


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110 ~

[djdr pdd] See »rtI"Q ~. ~ [djrail], ~ [djrailu] See GfuB3t". "djrailu phdre$ta tIlu pire ghal).i."-gau var I m5. ~ 'iil"fHTEl [djai] in vain, useless. See ~. "mdnmukh kdrdm kdre djai."-prabha am 5. 2 a wrong place. "bhula phin:: djai."-prabha m I. ~ [ajae] See nfRTfu. 'l)f;:[Tij' [djah] without a specific place. "djah hE."-japu. 2A ~I:>' n a curtain, screen. 3 a cover for the pillow, quilt, etc. l')fH'Ttft [ajaci] adj unestimated, inestimable, beyond estimation. "dmdr djaci hdU mIle." -oJnkar. "toldu nam djaci."-maru m I. "sdtIguru te magdu nam djaci."-maru solhe m 4. 2 adv without asking for, without begging. 3 Skt3~,adj(one) who does not beg or ask for. ~and~. l'>fNlfij [ajul adj sans birth, unborn. 2 immovable, ~ }/T3T [ajito matal See t=ft3" lfI3T. motionless. "aju hE."-japu. See~. 3 part a vocative, 'yes sir.' l)ftfur [ajibl A .~ adj strange, uncommon, supernatural. >m;fol [ajuniJ Skt »>iff?> adj without origin. nrtftH [ajiml A (-fifo adj great, eminent. "hariphul 2 unborn. ajimE."-japu. 'stronger than the competiitors, ~ol R~ [ajuni sEbM], >m;fol R'~ [ajuni that is strongest of all.' sabhauJ, ~~o;f [ajuni sabhavJ Skt ~ ~ [ajimabadl See tfCi'iT. adj who is not born through the vagina. 2 whose existenc(~ is not on account ofanother nrriblF.l"O [ajimU~i$anJ A 0~' adj exercising entity; self perpetuating. 3 sans birth and self great influence; claiming majes~y. ~ [ajira!)] Skt 31'Jftuf adj which does not existing. 4 n the Creator, Vahguru. become old. 2 n dyspepsia, ('~in Arabic! ~ [ajupJ Skt ~P.f adj without restriction or Persian, indigestion, also called ajiran or check, unbound. "namasta ajupe."-japu. 2 Skt madaganI. It is caused by overeating, exertion guileness, innocent. with filled stomach, untimely sleep, grief, ~ [ajubal a four line matnk stanza, each line having eight matras with pauses at the swimming immediately after eating, etc. Fasting is good for a dyspeptic patient. Black end of each set of four matras, the last matra cumin, corriander seed, pepper longum, black being guru. It is also known as jivan. pepper, ginger, patraj (pollen of flowers), Example: aniseed kernel, root of long pepper, cItra, krudhyo bhai. sar jhar laL curcuma recliinata, myrobalan, abalbed, as sar chore. janu nabh ore.-GV 6. cardamom, common salt, black salt, all in 2 A -:J. adj strange, wonderful, supernatural.


Page 150 of 674


»ftt [aje] adv now, yet. 2 even now, till now. 3 Skt ~ adj not worthy of conquest. »fttl)f [ajea] See ~. »fttur [ajeha] adj like this, similar, of this sort. 1?f#t;r [ajey] Skt which is not worth conquering. "ajey;'l abhey;'l."-VN. ~ [ajev] See 1?f#t;r. "ajev hari."-akal. 2 See ~and »!tflB". "rudravtar sOdar ajev."-datt. 3 })fff-~ like Brahma. >ml~ [ajevi] See >ml~. "alakh abhevi adr ajevi."- kalki. »1ft [ajE] till now, See »ftt I. "ajE su rabu na bahurro."-s farid. 2 »ffilif. n defeat, rout, reversal. 3 adjwhom it is difficult to conquer; invincible. "ajE alE."-japu. 4 n the Creator, God. "ajE gag jal atal srkh sagatr sabh navE." -saveye m 5 ke. 5 Raja Aj, grandfather ofRam Chandar. "ajE su roVE bhikhra khar."-ram var 1 m 1. 'Raja Aj wept after abdicating the throne while begging alms in separation from queen Indumati.' See~. »1ft fi:fur [ajE sfgh] son of king Janmejay born to a slave girl. "ajE sf gh rakhyo rajiputr su~;'l."-janmejay. nfft it [ajE jE] adjwho conquered the unconquerable. ~ [ajEmal] See~. "ajEmal kio bEkOthhr than."-g5ittao [ajodhan] See ~. 2 See nrGtml. »tilo [ajon], ~ [ajonr], ~ [ajoni] Skt~ adj who does not come through the vagina; beyond birth. ))jtl(')1H~ [ajonisabhau] See ~ M "ajoni

s;'lbhau na trsu bhau na bharma."-sor m 1. "abrnasi aeal ajonis;'lbhau."-saveye m 4 ke. })f;l [ajJ], nfi:r [ajS] adj even now, uptil now. "ajJ na patrar nrgam bhae sakhi."-jet ravdas. ~ [aj;'lgam] See ifur;r ~ ~ 12. 2 adjwho does not walk around; stationary. })fifo [aj;'ln] See'ilfRT. 2 ~. See;:ro:;:r . ~ [aj;'lbh] Skt adjtoothless. 2 n a frog. ~ [aj;'lm] l?fM?)Jf. "aj;'lm hE."-japu. nft::r3" [ajjar] n a flock, herd (of goats or sheep) >mfa" [ajhar] adj which does not drop or fall off. 2 without dropping ~ [ajhat] adjwhich cannot be glanced at or peeped into, invisible. "kr ajhatas."-gyan. l'>f5Ttr [ajhap] adj without a cover or screen, uncovered. 2 without sloth or lassitude; active. See "Sltf. ~ [ajhu] n a tear. ~ [ajhujh] adjwho cannot be fought against. "ajhujh hE."-japu. ~ [ajh;'ljh] adjnottrembling, steady. See~ . "ajMjh hE."-japu. ~ [aj1al)] adj without gyan (knowledge), ignorant, naive. 2 a child. 3 ignorance, naivety. l)fC [at] Skt 3R, vr to go about, loiter, wander. 2 n pricking, planting, driving into. "pag me at k;'ltak jEse."-krrsan. })fCOf [atak] n an obstacle, obstruction. 2 an impediment. 3 River Atak (Indus). 4 a town l on the bank of river Atak; a district of this name in Rawalpindi division also named Campbellpur. ~ [atakl)a], ~ [atakna] v to stop, stay (temporarily). 2 to fall in love. "atkro sut banrta s;'lg."-kan m 5. "atak rahi lakh raj kumara."-caritr 312. IFort ofAtak was built on emperor Akbar's order in 1583 AD. Maharaja Ranjit Singh further fortified it and

stationed a large army there.

Page 151 of 674


Page 152 of 674


[;:ltbr] See })fCOffi" "tiiki na~? ghat atkarIo."-caritr 124. 'thought of a trick to destroy him', l1I'Ccifl? [atka1] n a guess. 2 a thought. 3 an estimate. 4 a know-how; plan. ~ [atblna] v to guess, evaluate. 2 to consider. 3 to appraise, estimate. "pnito [adhen] See~. ~ [adhey] See~. "ahI adheyjhutholakh »n:r.iI"liIi' [adhy-y;:Jn] SkI n recitation of the t£se."-NP Guru's words as uttered by him; that is, a IS ee Bhai Gurdas, Var 23, pauri 13. study, a reading. ~ [adhIve~an] SkI n


Page 172 of 674


[iIQT [anha] adj blind, without eyesight. »f(JW [dnhana], );~ [anhavan] v to bathe, take a bath. "avadh anhae kaha tIlak ldgae kaha."-hasram. ~~ [cmhera] darkness. See ~. >;fo [ann] Skt 3Fl n food, victuals. 2 corn, grains. 3 God whose energy imparts life to the creatures. 4 the sun. 5 breath. 6 eatables. })fi'):iJ' [dny] Skt ad} other, second. 2 stranger, unfamiliar. 3 different, separate, apart. ~ [anyatr] Skt part at another place, elsewhere. ))fi')jJ8T [anyatha] Skt adj opposite, against. 2 false, illusory. ,3: part otherwise, or. ~ [anyau], ))fO"jj'!'fu- [anyaI], ~ [dnyay] Skt 3-RITm.nIt! [apsud] SkI ~LJJft! Sund and Upsund. were real brothers and sons of the demon Nikumbh or Nisund. They had Brahma's blessing that no third person could kill them as long as they did not fight with each other. Tilottama the apsara, was sent from heaven to kill them. Both got enamoured of her and quarrelled between themselves. She told that she would marry the one who was more powerful. Both of them died fighting each other, and Tilottama went back to. heaven. "baQhe sud apsud dVE dEt bhari..." "duhu bhrat badhkE trIya gai brahmpur dhaI."-carrtr 116. ~ [apsos] See ~. "adhIk kin apsos ham."-NP 2 drier or sucker of))fl..f (water), the sun. 3 the wind, air. ~ [apsvarath] n selfishness. ~ [apsvarthi] adj selfish. ~ [apharalJ.] n stealth, theft. 2 snatching, plundering. 3 concealment, hiding. ~ [apkarakh] SkI ~ n insult, disrespect. 2 the act of pulling down. .3 deficiency, loss. l)f1rcRJ}f [apkaram], ))f1.fc51T}f [apkam] SkI ~ n a bad or wrong action. 2 sin. ~ [apkar] n opposite of upkar. 2 evil, harm. 3 wickedness, villainy.


"See para:;;"r srmntr. Ch. 3.

mIli dughatdharl sudar nari, mrIganmal dahIn ko ai, madhur vrh;:igan sabad sunai, mIli jO:;>Ita 2 balak god, huti suhagaI).I sahIt pramod. surbhi3 vatas 4 cughavat thaQhi. catat rIdE pritI bahu baQhi, kag dahni dI$I uQ ava, nakuP daras sabhhIn ne pava.-GPs. As for the Sikhs, such is Bhai Gurdas's dictum. sajja khabba SJI). na man vasaIa... bhakh subhakh VICar na ChIk manna ... ~ [apasrnar] SkI »fl.I1tH1O. n epilepsy, as a result of which memory gets lost. Seei1-reoft. ~ [apsar] Sk/~. n a wrong time; an in-appropriate or late time. "sal' dpsar na pacaI).Ia."-sri beni. 2 lack of leisure. 3 SkI 311ffi\. running. 4 an aquatic animal. ))f1../ffifI' [apsara] SkI ~ n a female emerging from))fl..f (water). According to Ramayan and the Purans, apsras came out when oceans were churned. The Veds contain little about them. They only mention Urvashi, etc. Manu holds that seven manus created them and they were taken as their joint creation. Vayu Puran has an account of 14 of them and Harivansh 7. They mention their two varieties comprising: ten orthodox and thirty four ordinary ones respectively. With their enticement the apsaras would disturb austerities of many holy men. It is written in Kashi chapter that they are 350,000,000 in number but the more prominent among them are only 1,060. In Ramayan their number is given as 60 crore. Only those warriors are rewarded with apsaras Iwoman carrying two pitchers of water. 'woman. 3COW.

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~ [apkari] adj who does wrong; who

inflicts harm. ~ [apkiratIl SkI 31~ n infamy,

opprobrium, notoriety. "kab-hu apkiratI mahI aVf.."-sukhillani. ~ [apkhepan] SkI ~ n the act of pulling down; toppling. ~ [apgatI] n going down; a fall, misery. 2 going to hell. 'l)ftfiJIT [apga] n what}o)fl.f (water) merges into; a river, stream. See~. ~ [apear] n an evil or bad behaviour. ~[apehara], ~[apaeehra] See~.

[apaj] SkI n born of water; a lotus. [apjas] or ~ [apjasu] SkI ~ n ignominy, infamy, opprobrium. "apjasu mItE hOVE jagI kiratI."-guj ill 5. l'>flrtIlJ [apjasu] See nn.rr:m. ~ [apI).a]pran own. 2 n a kinsman, relative. ~ [apI).auI).a] v to make one's own, adopt, draw to one's side. ))fl.f3' [apat] adj without honour or respect, disgraced. "apatu pasu manmukhu betala." -illaru solhe ill 1. 2 leafless. "apat karir na mauIiE."-BG 3 See ~. 4 S useless, purposeless. ~ [apatan] See }o)fl.f 3. 2 not in a state of fall, steadiness; firmness. ~ [aptij], ~ [aptiI).a] adj not satisfied or reassured, lacking faith. "aptij patiI).a." -savryeill5 ke. 'was charmed without reposing faith.' "hath nIgrahI aptij na bhijE."-illaru solhe ill 1. 'Faithless mind is obstinate in not stopping to placate the senses.' ~ [apatu] n selfhood, ego, conceit, pride. "kamkrodhlobhmohapatupaedut."-savEye m 3 ke. 2 See l?fl.f3". 3 See ~. ~ [apaty] SkI n an offspring, a progeny. })fl..fEf [apath] n a wrong path, an evil passage. 2 awkward gait. l)fl..fil



~ [apatth] SkI »f1.fEIJf n food or conduct that

aggravates sickness. 2 harmful conduct, misconduct. l')flR [apad] n calamity, distress. 2 })f-l.fe", reptiles like snakes etc. which crawl. 3 a condemned place. l')f1.ft!T [apda] calamity. See }){ll.RT. "apda ka marIa grIh te nasta."-prabha a ill 5. nn.rlf'Q't [apdhari] n maternal affection, motherly tenderness. "bInsi apdhari."-brla ill 5. l')ftfi') [apan] See »fT'lI'] n one's self. "pragat na hot apanp:> goi."-NP 2 owning, possessing. 3 he who blesses; one who utters a blessing. l')ftfi')T [apna] See »fT'lI'ltRf Ritor [apar sayog] gives rise to chekapanhutI. n second marriage. "jIS Istri ka bharta kalbas Example: yodha ke nahI mE pIkhyo kabhi pith pE ghau, hOIa hOI, cahie uske pIcche jat sat sil pale, kIte vall CItt Q.ulavE nahi, j:J jane kISi upau katyo ag Ikk sIla te phISal gayo mam pau. rahIt kar rahI nahi sakti, tab jari cori na kare, Seeing a wound inflicted on the back of a apl)i Ink dekhkE apar sajog kare."-prem soldier, if someone asks him the reasons with the remark that a valiant person sustains sumarag. wound in the front not at the back, the ~ [aparca] See ~.


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[aparath] See~. ))f1.ffiOT [apama] v to reach, arrive. 2 to be equal to. "takau koi apar na sak£."-kalI m 4. 3 See

unacquaintance. l'>fl.l"fafu3' [aparrcrt] Skt adj unacquainted, unfamiliar. ~ [aprok~], »n.Ricr [aparokh] Skt adj not ~. ~ [aparpar], l?itRfl.ffiT [aparpara], »fl..RJl.@' away from sight; manifest, present, apparent, [aparparu] See ~. "ehu p5j vakhat tere visible. aparpara."-maru solhe m 5. "aparparu manr ~ [apar5par], ~ [apar5paru], ~ gursabadu vasarau."-s~w£yem 4 ke. [aparapar] Skt ~ adj not mutual or })IlN 1ftI:H [apar brahm] n immanent God, the reciprocal, not wishing or desiring help from Deity together with all the properties of anyone. 2 without Iineage or dynasty; who has no need of another's help in creation or nature. 2 the individual soul. ~ [aparma] Skt l?il;fW n untrue perception, perpetuation of dynasty. "aparapar false knowledge, wrong understanding. See parbrahamu parmesaru."-sor m 5. "til adrpurakh aparapar karta ji."-sopurakhu. 1jW. "trrputi me lakh ap ko kahe aparma gyan."-GPs. 3 Skt limitless, boundless. ~ [apvarag] Skt ~ n a high post or })f't.faT [apra] n worldly wisdom; other than position. 2 liberation, emancipation. "gahak divine knowledge; practically useful je apvarag ke."-NP. knowledge. "(f?lTG'U ~ ~~ ~ mrnT [db-hi] adv this very moment, now, immediately. nmc:ft ~ [db-hi kdb-hi] adv now and any time; now and not later. "db-hi kdb-hi kIChu nd jana."-ram m 1. ~ [dbke], l?n:r& [dbkE] adv this time, this moment. "dbke chutke thaur nd thaJ:o."-giJU kdbir. "abkE kdhIE namu nd ffiIldI."--maru m 1. l?f8}:ffiU [dbxdrdh] A ~J.I plural of~. l?f8J:«IT3' [dbxdrat] plural of~. l?fSl:it [dbkhi] Dg n a bad time, an il1-·omened moment. l?I1rclT3' [dbgdt] Skt l?f1..fOIf3'. n a miserable condition, poverty, misfortune "sadhu bInu Ese dbgdtI javE."-g5Q kabir. 2 Skt l?ffuoJ3' adj imperishable, eternal. 3 Skt~ adjbodlyless. "adI purakhabgdtdbInasi."-dkal4See~. l?IlrtJl? [dbcal] See~. l?IaeModld [dbcalmgdr] See ~ 0ilTd'. l?faM [dbdj] Skit ~ n born of water, lotus. 2 the moon which was born from the sea. ~ [dbjdd] A 4' n a series of letters beginning with dlIf, be, jim, dal, etc. 2 an alphabet. 3 a table ofletters used for counting numbers beginning with dlIf, be,jim, dal. The complete table is as under: J"':"'l:,. J J ; Vb

12345 6 7 u J I) ( (;) ..; 10 20 30 40 50 60

8 (j


9 .J 80

J' 90











i 600









While mentioning dates in years, poets use two such suggestive letters in which these counting letters may also be employed. >mEa' [dbtdb] n a dilly-dallying, an evasion. 2 an excuse, pretext. 3 advalways. 4 anytime. "db tdb dVdru nd magdu hdn pdhI."-guj d m 1. 5 this and the other world. l?IS3'd' [dbtdr] A .r-I adj very bad. Skt~. 2 with a short tail, with tail cut, tail-less. l?Pfu'r [dbdtta] See ~. })fat!' [dbdd] metathesis ofl?Ri:T, See l?Ri:T. 2 Skt })fat!' n a cloud that provides water. "amntvak abdd amnt te."-GPs. 3 year. 4 camphor. 5 sky. 6 Skt ~ adj unspeakable, unutterable. 7 A ~,without end, boundless. 8 constant, perpetual, always the same. 9 A .J! n a slave. l?f8t!TM' [dbdal] A J'~' adjchangeable, changing. 2 n saintly persons ofa particular rank similar to the Hindu's dlikpals as guardian deities of different directions. The Muslims believe in 70 abdals out of which 40 are in Syria and 30 in other places. Some writers accept only 40 abdals and they believe that the world is intact because of them. When one of them dies, God appoints some other holy person in his place. Thus they go on changing and hence their designation abdal persists. Prominent abdals are called Gaus. Abdal is a plural of bdddl (change) "marphdtI ffidnu marhu dbdala."-maru solhe m 5. To transfigure concepts with spiritual exercise is essential for attaining the status of an abdal. In this verse-line abdal has a double meaning; those who kill the fickle mind are also abdals. 3 Abdal is one of the five ofMuslim holymen:

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gaus, kutab, vali, abdal, and kalandar. Many put kutab in place of kalander. 4 a Muslim community in Kangra district, whose members live on beggary and accompany dead bodies singing to the burial/cremation ground. They also sing about exploits of the valiant warriors. ~ [abda1a] See ~. ~ [abdaIi] adj connected with Abdal, "karI abdali bhesva."-bhEr namdev. See ~ 3. 2 n Pathans of Saddozai tribe are also called abdali. They are a branch of Durranis and are also called by this name. See ~ W(J" ~ and ~oro'T. ~ [abdi] A 15-:' adj everlasting, immortal. ~ [abdul] See ~w. "sun abdul q.haq.i cal ayo."-GPs. ~l:I"'O [abdulsamad khan] (;j(;..vVI-"I son of Muhammad Amin Khan, a rank-holder who courtier during the reign of Aurangzeb, who was given the title ofDiler Jang (valiantin-battle). Duringthe reign of Farukhsiyar, he was transferred from Kashmir to Lahore as subedar. He launched an invasion on Banda Bahadur at Gurdaspur and by employing deceit made him a prisoner and sent him to Delhi. During the time of Muhammed Shah, he was subedar of Multan. He died in 1739 AD. In Sikh history he also figures as Samund Khan. Zakariya Khan subedar of Lahore (Khan Bahadur) was his son. See'lfe'r. ~ J:ITO [abdul xan] See ~w l:flO. ~ ~ [abdul rahman] companion of the Prophet and religious fighter who accompanied him in numerous battles. He died at Madina in 32 Hijri. According to JSBM, Abadul Rehman initiated nine families. ~QYlHJ:ITO [abadu1rahimxan] cJ(; f.J JIJ!

well known as Khan Khanan, son of Bairam Khan, who was an ally ofAkbar. He was born at Lahore in 1556 AD. After the death of Todar Mal, he became Akbar's foremost vazir in 1589. His daughter Jani Begam was married to prince Danial. After Akbar's death he remained in Jahangir's service for 21 years, and died in 1627. His grave is near the mausoleum of Sheikh Nizamudin in Delhi. He was a scholar of many languages and poet with Rahiman and Rahim as his noms-deplume. His couplets in Hindi are very fascinating: kahr rahim ya pet s6 ky6 na bhayo tu pith, bhukhe man brgar hE bhare brgarr dith. sadhu sarahE sadhuta, yati YO$Ita jan, rahrman sace sur ki vEri karE bakhan. kahr rahim gatr dip ki kul kuput ki sor, bare ujraro karE baq.o adhero hoI. pharji ~ah na hVE sake gatr teq.hi tasir, rahrman sidhi cal te pyado hot vazir. karat nrpunai guI) brna rahrman nrpun hajur, rnano terat vrtap caq.h rh prakar ham kur. khira mukh dhar katrye malrye namak lagar, karve mukh ko cahrye rahrman yahi sajaI. 2 a paymaster of Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Khalsa Dal in Doaba killed him and liberated many Hindu girls from his clutches. ~ [abdulla] adjGod's slave. 2 a musician in Guru Hargobind's retinue who encouraged and roused the bravery of Sikh army by singing ballads of the heroes. See ~. 3 the eldest son ofAbdul Mutallib ofQuraish tribe, and father of Prophet Muhammad. He died in 571 AD. ~ J:ITO [abdulla xan] subedar of Jalandhar who died during a battle against Guru Hargobind fought at Gobindpur (Hargobindpur) in Sammat 1687. ))flJtf [abadh] Skt ~ adj unbound, free. 2 Skt

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l'lfll11:r ~.

not worthy to be killed, sueh as a child, a sick person, a woman and a refugee. 3 who cannot be killed by anyone. 4 Skt ~EfTtr.if; unbound, unobstructed, unhealable. "kalphas abadh lage."-asa r;)vdas. l)fSfu [abadhI] See ~. 2 Skt31fim 11 blearer of water; sea, ocean. >mrlbw [abdhIja] Skt ~ 11 born of sea, Lachhmi. 2 wine, liquor. ~ [abdhut] See ~. ~ [abadhy] See l1ratr 2. ))(8O'IJft [abnasi] See l?furJ:ft. ~ [abnus] See ~. "syah mane abm.ishI ko taru."-krrs;)n. l1I8liIO!3" [abyakt] ~ without body, formless, unembodied. See ~ ; "abyakat rup apar."--;)kal. l')f8ti[T3" [abyat] A ~!:Ia'6O [abaran] Skt~adjcolourlmre [abro], ~r:?" [abroI] See ~. »fm5" [abal] adjlacking strength, weak, "abal bal topa."-maru jEdev. 'broke the might of the mighty', I.e., weakened the senses. 2 A JJ' first. "abal naG khudaI da."-JSBB. ~ [ablak] A ~l adj piebald, speckled (horse), white and black. >mrW [abla] Skt 11 a woman. 2 adjweak, feeble. 3 A J..f lacking in intelligence, foolish. l')f'8'l'fur [abIis] A,):, 11 one who is bereft of God's grace; Satan, devil, "takabbar kita abIis 'ne ga1lanal: j1ma."-jagnama. >>is;3iiPij' [abarvaha] adj half-asleep, halfawake. l)fST [aba] A Ii' 11 plural of~ (father). Skt~. "~m abe thavhu mIthra."-sri m 5. l')f'8Tfft [abasi]l1ayawn.See~.2flowerof

basa. "januk phul abasi rahi."-carrtr 317. See

»l'aTFf 2. [abah] ad} without arms, armless. 2 without transport; who does not ride a blue jay (as does Lord Vishnu "namast~ abahe." -japu. 3 without:EI"U (sexual desire). See~. ~ [abajar] P Ab adj unhappy, 8' (with) 1?fIt.I'I'ij' (hurt). l'>I'1Pt!' [abad] adj without ~. (dispute), undisputed. 2 Sele~. ~ [abadan] See~. »rWQ' [abadh] adj without restriction, unrestricted, unchecked. 2 unimpeded, unobstructed. 3 See~. ))ftfltf.iI' [abadhy] adj unrestricted, unimpeded. ~ [ababil] A IJ.:~' 11 a swallow. ))fSTij' [abar] adj without slackness or delay. 2 without obstruction, unobstructed "khaqa abar~."-gyan. 3 See~. ))f'fu [abI] adv now, at this time. "abI kIchu krrpa kijE."-dh;)na m 3. 2 Skt ~ 11 a ram. l'>fWU

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3 a billy goat "abl madh hom karaI."-gyan. 4 the sun. 5 a mountain. 6 a mouse, rat. 7 the air. 8 calotropis procera, a wild plant. 9 modesty, shyness. 10 adj good, all right. ~ [ablakat] See ~. ~ [ablkhad] adj without a conflict. "ablkhad dey durat."-akal. ~ [ablgat], ~ [ablgatu] Skt ~. adj unknowable. "jab ablgat agocar prabhu eka."-sukhmani. 2 imperishable and perpetual. "jo jan jambhaj-hl ablgat kau." -suhi kabir. "abgatu samajh lana."-gau kabir. 3See~.

))ffuan.r [ablgam] Sktl?lSOlH. n certain acumen, sure knowledge. 2 ~ adj indestructible. ~ [ablgami] adjhaving sure knowledge. "adVE alakhpurakh abl gami." -akal. 2 imperishable. See))ffuan.r 2. ~ [ablcal] adj motionless, unmovable, permanent. "ablcal niv dhari gur nanak."-guj

m5. [ablcalnagar] a sacred town related with the tenth Guru situated near Nader (nader, ~) city on the bank of Godavari river. Here Guru Gobind Singh breathed his last on the 5th of the bright half of the lunar month of Katak Sammat 1765. The Sikhs have chosen this name with reference to a line in Suhi Chhand "ablcal nagar l gobfd guru ka." to the true congregation and the highest spiritual state. Its other name is Hazoor Sahib and it is now accepted as the fourth Takhat of the Khalsa. Here the following weapons of Guru Gobind Singh are preserved: a quoit, a broad sword,' a steelbow, a mace, a steel arrow, five golden swords and one small sword, six in~hes long. Besides these many more priceless weapons,


lIn Gurbani, Abchal Nagar, means congregation-cumhighest spiritual state.


which cannot be seen in the museums of capital cities, are beautifully displayed on the Guru's throne. They include a blade of Mai Bhago's spear whom ignorant people call an eight-armed goddess. ghanachri abrcalnagar ujagar sagar jag jahar jahur jaM jot hE jabar jan, khade hE pracaq khar kharag kudaq dhare khajar tuphag puj karad krrpan ban, sakti sarohi sd sag jamdar cakr qhale gan bhale rrpu ghale chrpr jag than, camkat carD or ghor rup kaIIka ko badna karat kavr jor panr tahi than. manhar sudar godavri vrhin mal calE jal saIIta satul gag kul chabr pav;;i, khare khare taro khare hare hare pat jare patr patr kare char saghni ko chavai, bolat brhag rag rag ke utag than 1;iri gobId sIgh ko sIghasan suhavai, jar darsavai manorath uthavai so kamna ko pavai satokh sIgh gavai. -GPs. Nander has other gurdwaras as under: 2 Shikarghat in the south of Nander on the bank of Godavari where the Guru would relax for a while after hunting. 3 Sangat Sahib where soon after his arrival at Nander, the Guru addressed his first congregation. This place is within the precincts of the city. 4 Hira Ghat where he threwa' diamond into Godavari presented to him by Bahadur Shah. This place is in the south of the city. 5 Gobind Bag, about two furlongs from the main gurdwara where the Guru occasionally went and rested for a while. Now this is an agricultural field, tllough a small room is also built there.

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nak~a abIcalnagar naf1an gurdvara ------ •


(9). ~

n;;d"f (hazur sahIb) sl"""n



manmad hEdaraood ."



~ mugat st~~






mugal rasta gurdvanii te hur pfdii no bahman vara o



_ e: ":" :::: :: .(8)

---.,"'_--;:=::::::::.:::::::: ,




-- _ _·ta sahIb lor

~~~~~asllian ~







\\ II

\'" hanuman mit!" [ab;'lC] adj who cannot be deceived, undeceivable. "as prakar lakh rIde sadiv abac jo."-NP l)flf~ [abadta] n boundlessness, freedom, salvation. "badna ko let hi abadta ko det jan."-NP ~ [abbas] A vI? n son of Abdal Mutallab and paternal uncle of Prophet Muhammad. He died on 21 February 653AD. His grave is in Medina. Abasi family to which caliphs of Baghdad belonged is so known after his name. 2 a flower; plant gulabbas or gulabbas. ~ ~ [abbul phajal] ~'i.' son of Sheikh Mubarak and brother ofFaizi was minister of emperor Akbar. His title was Allami and he was a great scholar. Born in 1551 AD, he died in 1602 AD. He wrote many important books including Aiyar Danish a translation in Persian of Panch Tantra. His Aini-Akbari is a great book of history describing Akbar's administration. ))f8'jf [aby] See ~. ~a:i1ifq3 [abyakrIt] See ~. ~ [abrIl~i] Skt ~ adj without a wound (~); unwounded. "jo abrmi thaQhe hute brIl)i kIye kartar."-cantr 128. })f9 [abh] See l'»fu". ~ [abhau] adj fearless, intrepid. 2 n fearlessness intrepidity. "guru amar das parsiE abhau labhE."-savEye m 3 ke. ~ [abhat], ~ [abh-atar] Skt ~ n in the middle. 2 heart, mind, conscience. 3 adv inside, in the heart. "agam agocar rahIa abh-at."-bhEr a kabir. "nrrbhau so abh-atar vasIa."-maru solhe m 1. ~ [abh-atarr] adj inner, mental "sacu

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m 1. 'Empty (minds) are irrigated (with karr)i abh-;'ltan seva."-gau a ml. 2 adv from Guru's teaching) and filled to the brim'. within, inside. "'jal mahI keta rakhiE abh-;'ltan ~ [abharan] an ornament. See~. "har suka."-asa a D.1 1. ~ [abhak~], .»Blj [abhakhu] Skt ~. adj kajar bastra abharan kine."-bIla pa[tal m 5. "abharan hE."-japu. not fit for eating; religiously forbidden food. "lobhi j;'ltu n", jaI).ai bhakhu abhakhu sabh ~ [abhara], ~ [abhana] adjnot filled, empty, partly filled. "abhara saru bhana." khaI."-sri m .5. -savEye m 4 ke. 'Mind filled (with content»f!fiIT [abhagJl Skt ~ adj unbroken, ment) is really full'. unbreakable. "tIS diban abhag."-var asa. "abhag sabha s;'lg hE sadha."-asa m 5. 2 Skt ~ [abharIth], ~ [abharItha] See 3l111T. unfortunate, unlucky. ~. ~ [abhagat] Skt~ adjwithout devotion, ~ [abharvaha] See ~. irreligious. 2 which has not been divided, ))fW [abha] glory, See ~. "laSE trIy vaki unbroken. "abhagat hE."-japu. '(God) is abha."-krrsan. 2 l?f (without) ~ (light). indivisible' . ~ [abhau] n lack of~(respect); disrespect, ~ [abhagan] See >'l@OT 1. insult, "jJ b bhau abhau Ih manE."-sor m 5. ~ [abhach] See »&ld.' 2 Skt ~. absence, want, non-existence, ~ [abhajl adjwho does not rUIl away:; firm. "pekhan sunan abhau."-NP 3 destruction. See 2 who cannot be defeated or overcome. ~. 3 unbreakable:. 4 not fit to be consumed. ~ [abhaI] Sl~e ~. 2 n hatred. 3 an ill~ [abhadr] adj wicked, ungracious. intentioned attitude. 4 lack of interest. 2 inauspicious. See ~. "subhaI abhaI ju nIkatI aVE situ taka jaI." ~ [abhpir] See»rfu" and tikI'. -maru a m 5. 'Interested or disinterested, ~ [abh-lbhagatIl, ~ [abh-bhagti] whoever comes near (fire), loses his cold'. See»rfu" and elorfo. 2 n worship of the manifest ~ [abhas] Skt~n a reflection, an image. deity or saint. "manmukh te abh-bhagatI na 2 light. "das car 10k abha abhas."-braham. hovsI."-prabha a m 1. "abh-bhagti PIr l?f'§lTl:f [abhakh] Skt ~ adj silent, reticent. agE."-tukha baramaha. "re l;'lpat knsan abhakh;'l.";-prabha baI)i. 'You l?fID-ITO [abhman] See »rfu'Hro. are mute for saying God's name.' ~ [abhay] atdj fearless. ~ [abhakhan] Skt ))fT-~ n an utterance, ~ [abhaydan] n bounty of intrepidity, a statement. "avra dekhI na SUI).E abhakhE." -suhiravdas. 21?f(not)~(speaking),silence. making the refugee fearless, removing the ))3Tl:fT [abhakha], l?f'§lTf1:PlfT [abhakhIa] n refugee's fear. ~ [abhar] adjunfilled, empty. "guru ramdas language not fit to be spoken. The Hindus sar abhar bhare."-scwEye m 4 ke. 2 See~. regarded Greek and Arabic as barbarian ~ [abharak] See ~. languages and directed the people not to use these uncivilised languages. See ~ t.fTO""F.IQ ~ [~bharaJt).] See~. 2 a~iwhich no one wears, uncherished. 'Fi'fu3r b. 4. ~ 'Fi'fu3r b. 6. "abhakhIa ka ~ [abharat] adjwhich has not been filled; kutha bakra khaI).a."-var asa. The Guru did empty. "abharat SIC bhae subhar sar."'-sar a not consider any language barbarian but only

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pointed out to the Hindus! and the Muslims the ideas of pollution. Referring to the practice of beating a camel with a stick drawn from its own load, he tells the Muslims that they kill an animal by repeating' in the name ofAllah'. To the Hindus he remonstrates that they forbid others from polluting theif'kitchen though they themselves eat meat prepared in Allah's name. How strange is their reason. If the Guru had considered Arabic, Persian etc., as foul languages, he would not have employed them in his spiritual utterances. ~ [abhakh£] See ~. ~ [abhakha] See l?&Tl:f. ))SI(IT [abhag] adj who does not get his share. 2 Skt i>ffi1Or.iI" n misfortune, bad luck. 3 adj unfortunate, unlucky. "ram kin japsI abhag." -bl1er ravdas. ~ [abhaga], l'i@TCIft [abhagi] Skt 3Tmfl'r;:r, adj unfortunate, luckless. "jIs kau bisr£ pranpatI data, soi gan-hu abhaga."-dhana m 5. "nam vIsana se manmukh mUT abhagi."-asa chJt m4. ~ [abhagu] Skt ~. n misfortune, bad luck. "ram na jap-hu abhagu tumara."-gau a m1. ~ [abhat] adjwhich has no parallel; unique, peerless. "sobha abhat."-ben. ~ [abhan] n disbelief, lack of faith. ~ [abhani] See})f1'ePO and~. ~ [abhav] Skt n lack, absence, nonexistence. Scholars have accepted five types of it: a) pragbhav (prak - abhav): non-existence in the past, as the sword was non-existent before its manufacture from steel as a weapon. b) pradhvasa bhav: non-existence of something after its destruction, as when

fireworks get burnt into ashes. c) anyonyabhav: mutual non-existence, of one thing in the form of another, as an ass is not a cow and vice-versa. d) atyatabhav: non-existence at all times as horns of a rabbit or flower of the sky. e) samyIkabhav: non-exisence at any particular time, for example of a pot after it has been taken away. 2 bad or wrong idea or vow. 3 lack of faith. ~ [abhI]prep which prefixed to a word gives the meaning of vis-a-vis (FI7ilj1:f), bad (Ht!"), upon (~), near (ilS"), far (~o), around (~), well (tfaft 3W), without (reoi ), desire (re'6r), liking (gftr), etc. 2 in the Sikh scripture abhI has appeared as a short form for abhyatar, which means inside the mind, or conscience. "pritam pritI bani abhI £si."-mala am 1. "sabadI abhI sadhare."-asa cl1Jt m 1. "bIn abhI sabad na majie:"-sri am 1. 'Withoutthe word, the mind cannot be rendered pure'. l?ffirlI [abhIUl, l'>fftffi [abhIO] Skt~ n doubt. 2 reasoning, argument. "apa pad nIrbaI) na cinIa In bIdhI abhIu na cuk£."-asa kabir. 3 adj »f-mif unafraid, fearless. ~ [abhIa] adjwithout fear, fearless. "abhed abhIa."-akal. ~li [abhIas] Skt »rnJ1TFf n practice, repetition for improving performance. "karhI bed abhIas."-dhana m 1. ~ [abhIasi] Skt ~ adjwho practises ascetic discipline or devotion. ~ [abhIagat] Skf~ n coming face to face. 2 a visitor, guest. 3 a mendicant, sadhu. "abhIagat ehI na akhianI jI parghan bhojan karenI."-var ram 1 m 3. »I"fip,f3' [abhI~H], ~~ [abhI~Har] See

ITaking a stick from the load on the back of the camel


and beating it with that.


[abhISaraI)] Skfn advancing, going forward. 2 getting closer.

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177 ~

[abhIsar] n a battle. 2 method. 3, effort. l?If!!lR'fdCi(i [abhIsanka] n In poetics the heroine who makes deliberate effort to go to the lover. It is oftwo types: (a) kri;mabhIsanka: who on a dark night goes dressed in the black, and (b) $uklabhIsanka: who goes wearing white clothes on a moonlit night "set saj saj chali Sayre ki pritI kaj, cadni me radha mano cadni si hVEgai." -krI$dn. ~ [abhIsecl, ~ct [abhIkhek] Skt ~. n the act of sprinkling (water). 2 a ritual bath at coronation when water is sprinkled with kU$a (sacred grass). 3 sprinkling amrit in the eyes and the hair at the time of baptism. l?I'&1:r [abhIkkh] adj who does not beg alms. 2 Skt »IfucrJf n fame, renown. 3 splendour. 4 Skt ~ adj famous, renowned. l?If!!I"ar [abhIg] adjwhich does not get wet; dry. 2 cruel, brutal. 3 ~ adj well-acquainted, knowing closely. 4 awakened (soul). ~ [abhIg-atam] Skt 3T~;:r, adj profound scholar, metaphysician. "kai kotI abhIg-atam nIkor."-sc.:khmani. 'Crares of profound scholars and crores of novice:s are here' . ~ [abh:[gIa] Skt 3TM~T n memory, remembrance, recollection. ~ [abhIgyl See l?If!!I"ar 3 and 4. ~ [abhIcar] n According to the book of charms or incantations there are six barbarous deeds consisting of killing,attracting, stupefYing, hating, distracting and bewitching. See~ 4 and 5. l'>I'firt:r [abhIj] adj which does not get wet. 2 not compassionate, stone-hearted. 3 See »m 3. "akhIjje abhIjje."-japu. l?I'fuft:E" [abhIjIt] Skt ~ n According to astrology, the last stages of the zodiac, along

with the first four phases of the moon, during which period victory over the enemy is achieved by encountering him from the front. That is why it is termed abhIjIt. 1 2 son of Chandarvanshi king, Puru, and father ofAhuk. 3 adj in a contest victor over his enemy. 'I')fft;e- [abhId] adj ~ which cannot be pierced; not fit to be pierced. ~ [abhIdhal Skt n power to clarify the power of the spoken word; word-power to reveal its objective. ~ [abhIdhan] Skt n an utterance, speech. 2 dictionary. ..::-liJ. l'>fftfo [abhfn] adj who does not feel any empathy. "manmukh abhfn na bhIjai."-var sar m 4. 2 Skt ~ adj not different, not separate, similar" ~ [abhmay] Skt n the act of revealing heart's disposition. 2 The act of revealing; a play through bodily gestures, dramatics. ~ [abhInIVe$] Skt n an entry, admittance. 2 concentration. 3 In yog system, mental conflict is accepted as distress arising from the fear of death. ~ [abhuiadan] Skt ~ n happiness. 2 contentment. 3 praise "sar majjE abhInadan karE."-GPS. 4 supplication request. "sur kar abhInadan. "-GPs. ~ [abhIpir] n mind's agony. "prabhu jal).E abhIpir. "-sri a m 1. 2 Skt~ enthusiasm, courage. 3 desire. 4 See »rf!!Iq3". ~Tlif [abhIpray] Skt n intention, purport. 2 import, tenet. »rf!!Iq3" [abhIpret] Skt adj intended. desired. ~ [abIbad~m] Skt ~ n a salutation done while standing in front. 2 praise, admiration. ~ [ablumatl adj heartily, desired. "jo IS ome people regard the zodiac (l'lffuf,:s-) as a planet but it is not so. See »&ttf.

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abhImat datar:"-NP 2 samat. according to opinion. ~ [abhImatI] n pride, arrogance. "tJ abhImatI kya phal tum pavhu."-NP 2 desire, inclination: "abhImatI bat dharo ur mahi." -NP.3 an opinion, counsel. ~ [abhImanyu] adj who in his heart bears anger against the enemy. 2 n son ofArjun and Krishan's sister Subhadra. He killed· Duryodhan's son Lakshman on the second day of the battle of Mahabharat, but himself died after displaying valour on the thirteenth day. He was married to Uttra, daughter of king of Viratpati. She gave birth to kingParikshit who ascended the throne after the Pandavs. l2ffin..rro [abhIman] Skt n pride, vanity. "abhIman khoI khoI."-brla m 5. 2 ego, self, conceit, egotism. "lobh abhIman bahut hakara."-majh Cl m 3. 3 Skt disrespect, insult. "man ClbhIman madhe so sevak nahi."-sri m 5. "tEsa man tEsa abhIman."-sukhmClni. ~ [abhImamni] adj proud (woman). 2 nstream.-SClnama. ~ [abhImani] adj (a woman) who is proud. "abhImani ki jar sar par jae."-g5m-Rr [dmdr} Skt n a god, that does not die. "dmdr sImdrkdr jahI Sdmdr jdY pavhI dn hdr."-GPS. 2 adj deathless, undying. ";-jmnt piVE amaru su hOI."-sukhmani. "amar gahu marrlE"."-maru m 1. 'Conquer your unconquerable mind i.e. bring it u~der control.' 3 unmoving, immutable, irrevocable. "teri amaru rajaI."-asa c11Jt m 5 brrhare. 4 short form for Guru Amar Das. "sacu Sdea satlguru amaru hE."-var gau 1 m 4. "lahIl).a tu hE guru dmaru tu vicarra."-var ram 3. See ~~. 5 A /' n order, command. "amar hil).;-j jatha rajanah."-sahas m 5. "SIr upan amaru karara."-maru m 5.6 currency; a coin. "amar ealavE e;-jm de."-BG 7/1 a ruler. "amaru veparvahu hE."-var sar m 3. >m-Rr fi:Tur [amdr sighJ grandson of Baba Ala Singh and the younger son of tikka (prince) Sardul Singh. He was born to Rani Hukma on Harh Badi 7 Sammat 1805 (1748 AD) and ascended the throne of Paiiala at the age of 18. He was a great soldier, expert administrator and staunchly religious person who was initiated into the Sikh faith by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. The state of Patiala registered great progress under his reign. During 1767 AD he rescued 20,000 Sikh men and women from the clutches ofAhmad Shah Durrani and earned the popular title ofb;-jdichor (Iibrator ofcaptives). He died on Phagan Badi 8 Sammat 1838 (February 1781 AD). 2 See 2lf -&ir. 3 a scholar of Sanskrit and author of Amarkosh. 4 eldest son of Rana Partap Singh, king of Mevar. 5 See FrWa3" cr-. >m-Rr fifg' [amdr sIddhuJ A village in police bf}{t:.if

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deathlessness. "amar das amratu chatr guru station Muzang of district Lahore. About one ramhI diau."-savEye m 5. furlong east of the village is a gurdwara dedicated to Guru Hargobind who arrived l'>!}ffit!TJ1 R'f3qr~ [amardas satguru] the third preceptor of the Sikhs. He was the son ofTej here from Guru Mangat. Earl ier there used to Bhan (Tejo), a Bhalla Khatri and Mata be a simple shrine here. Now with the Sulakkhani (Lachhmi) of village Basarke. initiative of Bhai Mohan Singh Akali, Rai Born on the 14 th ofthe bright half ofthe lunar Bahadur Sir Ganga Ram constructed the well month Vaisakh, lOth Jeth Sammat 1536 of the gurdwara in Sammat 1979. There is in corresponding to 5 May 1479 AD. On 1ph the same village seventeen kanals of land in Magh Sammat 1559, he was married to Mansa the name of the gurdwara. Devi to whom were born two daughters, Bibi This is about 1.5 miles east ofKot Lakhpat Bhani and Dani, and two sons, Baba Mohan railway station. >m-rnFft [amrasi] adj of the ,colour of mango and Mohari. Amar Das became a disciple of Guru Angad Dev in Sammat 1597 and served JUice. him with so much devotion that the latter ~Tfu' [amarhrbhratr] n an illusion of immortality born out of i.gnorance. chose him as his successor on )'d Vaisakh "amarhrbhratr choQ."-BG Sammat 1609. })f}-RJq [amarak] adj immortaliser, 2 imm0l1al, Occupying the religious throne, he unextinguishable. "so dipak arnarak sasar." preached Sikhism by sending out preachers far and wide and establishing hospices! for -ram kabir. 3 See 'H"O'a". ))f}-RI" chi" [amar kO$] a dictionary corhpiled in prayers and charity. With the introduction of Sanskrit verse:s by a Jain scholar Amar Singh. meal-taking by' the congregation sitting In it, words belonging to different groups are together in a row, he eradicated differences between the high and the low castes. At listed in separate parts. Bhai Santokh Singh Amritsar, he ordered Guru Ram Das to compiled a Hindi translation ofthis dictionary for public benefit and named it Namkosh. It construct a bathing tank. He also added to contains 2044 couplets. The Bhai has not the splendour of Goindwal, made efforts for given the year of its compilation, but has help to the sick, and for general welfare got an open well constructed in Sammat 1616 quoted at the end: "jamna tat jo buria grath karan lag tahr, with 84 steps leading down to the water level an sudhasar tir par kari samapat yahr." in it. He breathed his last on Bhadon Sudi ~ [amarakh] Skt»fHJ>j' n lack offorgiveness; 15 th (2 Assu) Sammat 1631 (I September anger, wrath. 1574) at the age of95 years 3 months and 23 ~ [am2 rkhal).] Skt i)f1-f1'f')f}Rf-»R'n demons, the killers of gods. "kop ~n~k bhare amrardan an p~re karvar ughare."-carItr 52. ~ })ffu [amrardan an] gods, the enemies of the demons, who are killers of gods.-sanama. ))f}RJ'fu [~mrarI] n >')f}Rf-»>fu enemies of gods. ~ [amralay] n >')f}Rf-~. the house of the gods; paradise. ~ [amrav~tI], ~ [amravti] n the city ofgods; the capital ofIndar. In the Purans, its circumference is mentioned as of 800 miles, "nIrakh lak arnravatI laji."-VN 2 a town in Guntur district of Madras Presidency. It is situated on the bank of Krishna river, and was once made the capitalofAndhra by Suraj Dev, a ruler of Orissa during the 12th century. ~ [amno] adj deathless. 2 reached, arrived. "kIS jatI te kIS p~d-hI ~mno." -keda ravdas. ~ [amrik] See »f~. "marida amrik chuQaIa."-BG 10. 1?O-Rfla' fi:fur [amrik SIgh] of Jambar sub-caste, a resident of village Meghiana. Baptised by Guru Gobind Singh, he displayed great l?fHQTtr

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bravery during the battle of Anandpur. '))I}rsf [amaru], })f~ [amm] See >m-Rf. 2 short name of Guru Amar Dev. "guru amaru hi viearIa."-var ram 3. 3 a devout dIsciple of Guru Amar Dev. ~ [ammt], >1~ [amrud] P J~' jf n a fruit and its tree jamphaI; E guava, L psid!ium guajyava. In Persian both these words signify a pear, but many writers have used them for jamphal. In Arabic it is named jf?. ~11 [amres], ~Jj~ [amresur], l',ff}f6'F.[~ [amre~var] n Indar, lord of gods, also called Amritesh. ~ [amret] See »'hj3'. >m-ffi'lffift [amro bibiJ daughter of Guru Angad Dev married to Guru Amar Dev's nephew in Basarke village:. It was on hearing from her the line, "bhaIa manuru kaeanu phIrI hOVE je guru mIlE tIneha."-maru m 1, that Guru Amar Das became a devotee of Guru Angad Dev. Bibi Amro's memorial shrine is at Basarke village. See~. ~ffiJ [amratar] adj immortal, ever living. 2 god-like. "gurumukh amratar. "-BG 3 (one) who rules over his own conscience. »f}R? [amaI] This word has been used for l®-/O. "bhalyu amalu satguru sagI nIvasu."--savEye m 4 ke. 'Noble is the compnay of Guru Amar Dev.' 2 S n opium or any inebriant. "amlan SJ;U amlilaptaIo."-sor m 5. 3 Ski an:rc:r adj without filth; dean. "Ioean amal kamaldal jEse."-NP. 4 n mica. 5 Ski ~ soiuness, -acidity. "hanat jal ag ko amal sur rag ko." -krrsan. 'Water kills fire and sourness spoils music.' 6 adj sour, acerbic. "madhur salvan su amal bIdh pun tIkat kakhaya."-GPs. See l:fZml. 7 A f n an act, action, character. "amal jI kitI.a duni Vl:eI se dargah ogaha."-s farid. Sa rule, principle:. 9 management. 10 government, goverance. "turak pathal).i amalu kia."·-var

asa. 11 pratcice. 12 A Jf hope, expectation. })f}fl?3'I}T [amaltas] a plant bearing light yellow flowers and long beanlike fruit containing pulp, medicinally used as a purgative. Its effect is warm and moist. Its name in Arabic is ~!f and in Latin Catharto carpus fistula. ~ [amaldar] P ..IfY adjan administrator, officer, a governor. ~ [amaldariJ n administration, government, rule" reign. })\')-/ffi') [amlan] ad} l')f (not)+ Hffio (dirty); not dirty. "amlan malan ehah nahidhup."-gau thIti kabir. 2 P [l.f adv practically; by implementing some rule or principle. l')f}f'W lamIa] A Jf plural of~, a team of workers; staff. 2 Skt 31l'C'fT tamarind. 3 bIj:Jri, a species of citron or lemon. ~ [amaIIt] Ski adjnot rubbed, or crushed, or split or trampil~d; uncrushed. >m-i'l'ft [amli] S an opium addict; addicted to any drug. "bInu amIE amli marIgaia."-bIla a m 4. 2 ~J'Tfi-wi. a performer of an act, or executor of an order, etc.; an official, a practitioner. See ~. 3 Skt ~ L Tamarimdus Indica, n Imli tree or its sour fruit used in sauc,es, etc. Its effect is cold and dry; if increases appetite and strengthens head and heart, and its use during cough and common cold should be avoided. ~ [amalu] See))f}-l(? l')f)1;Ii'iT [amarna] v to reach, arrive at. See l'lfrsor. l)f}{;ft [amriJ n mother. 2 adj who has reached or arrived (from the mortal world). See l?f>-SOT. l')f)-I'T lama] See >1fw. 2 Ski 3111T n noon, new moon; moonless night. :3 a house, home, residence. 41 this world, the earth. ~ [amau] Skt >mfor adj without measure, immeasurable, boundless. "uee agam amau." -majh dInrEI). m 5. 2 what cannot be contained, does not get absorbed.

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[ama!).] adjwithout pride, humble. 2 ~. which can't be weighed. 3 deathless. "sei rahe ama!). jIna satIguru bhetIa."-var maru 2 m 5. 4 n l')f}{I03". an entrusted thing. "parai ama!). kIU rakhie?"...,.var sar m 3. 5 Seel')fHT?j". ))(}f13' [amat], ~ [amaty] SkI ~ n a minister, councillor, advisor. "nnpatI amat bat mukh bhakhi."-NP. ~ [amatr] adjwithout a vowel. 2 unlimited, immeasurable. l')fHT?j" [aman] See '))f}fI(!". 2 n an insult, disrespect. "nic lie nahi man aman."-gcw kabir thIti. 3 l')f}{I03". money/object placed in trust. "avar vasatu tujh pahI aman."-asa m 5. 4 Skl3P'lFr adj immeasurable. "aman hE. "-japu. 5 humble. 6 unbelievable, unacceptable. "sune su hasy avai aman yak toria."-NP. 'Your word is unbelievable.' 7 P (;.ILl n protection. 8 protection given to jazia payers imposed upon non-Muslims during the Muslim rule. 9 See Eb-rro. >m-fT03" [amanat] A ..::.-=LI n trust money, anything entrusted to someone for safe custody. 2 protection. 3 sleep. 4 See fEHro3". 1?fH'i'j'mfF.f raman baxa~] P ~ti:JL' adj provider of refuge, saviour from suffering. ))f)-fIOT [amana] See l')fHT?j". 2 A ,.;LI trust money or anything given in trust for custody. "bEri kara!).I pap karta basatu rahi amana."-asa m 5. ))()-fTO't [amani] SkI 3111Tf.1~ adj without pride, humble. 2 renouncer of self-respect. "buri amani ritI."-GPs. l)fHI'lf [amap] adjunmeasured. 2 immeasurable. l')fW}f [amam] See l'>IH'W [amama] See fuwHr. ))f}fl1if [amay] SkI adj free from illusion. 2 wileless, guileless. l2fH1OcII" [amarag] n a wrong path, an evil course. ~ [amaragI] n on or in a wrong path or an evil course. "mar;:)gu ChOQI ;:)mar;:)gI '))f}fI(!"


pa I."-bher namdev. [;:)mari] See ~. })f}{'5 ramal] See »fT}fl1? ~ [amavas], ~ [amavasIa], ~ [amavsya] SkI ~ n When the moon and the sun are under the same Zodiac sign, it shows the last date of a lunar month counting the 30th of it as the terminal one. "kilT amavas sac cadrama."-var majh m 1. ";:)mavasIa cad gupat gE!).ar."-bIla thIti m 1. New moon night stands for ignorance and the moon light for spiritual knowledge. ~ [amava!).], ~ [amavan] adj which cannot be contained. 2 beyond measure, uncountable. See ~. ~ [;:)mIU], ~ [;:)mIo], llffi.I>,r [amI;:)] SkI ~ n an elixir, ambrosia (P abehayat). "amIU hanr;:)s coIa."-bIha chat m 5. "amIa saravro piu h;:)n han nama."-bIha ch:'Jt m 5. ~ [amIadnsatI] n a life-providing glance, compassionate look. "amI;:)dansatI subh karE hare ;:)gh."-savf:ye m 2 ke. ~ [amIk], ~ [amIka] adj matchless, immutable, second to none. 2 SklWJ!fi adjthat one, so-and-so. 3 SkI ~ adj safe and sound. ~ [amIt] ad} ineradicable, inadvertent. ~ [amIt], »rf'H3'r [amIta] adj dateless; limitless, boundless. ~ [amItoj] SkI ~adjwhosestrength is boundless. "amItoj kahIjje."-japu. ~ [;:)mItopsa]l'>ffi.rg--~. See ~ and l'>ffi.rg-. l?ffi.r3m.Ir [amI topma] l'>Ifi.r3"-~. ~ [amrtr] n not a friend; an enemy. ~ [amIy] See llffi.I>,r. l7ffi.R;r [amII] adjseparate, incompatible. "amII jan kardayo hatavan."-GPs. >m-ft [ami] See llffi.I>,r. ~ lamia] a devotee belonging to Hehar sub-caste who became a disciple of the sixth ~

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185 4 during the next birth or life between death Guru and displayd great valour during the and the next birth. battles of Amritsar and Kartarpur. ~ [Clmiala] adj where ambrosia is l'>Il::fl? [amul], ~ [amulak], JoifJ:f1')T [amula], available. 2 n the moon; a ray of nectar. ~ [amulik] Skt ~ adj priceless, invaluable. "amul bhaI amula samahI."-jdpU. "cClrClnkClmClI sitClI Clmiale."-BG ~ [Clmi~ah] a village in police station "amulik lal Ihu ratan."-sukhmani. "harI ap Khalra in Lahore district which was visited amulClk h£ mulI na paIa jaI."-anJdu. by Guru Nanak Dev. A gurdwara of hard >mj [amu] See >mi. 2 A yf a paternal uncle. bricks was raised here in Sammat 1978. The ~ [ClmuQ-h] adj not foolish, wise. village has donated 25 bighas of land to it; l'>fl;f63' [amurat], ~ [amuratI] Skt~-~ the priest is an Udasi Sikh. This place is. 13 adjformless, shapeless. 2 n the sky. 3 the soul. miles south-west of lallo railway station. 4 the air. 5 direction. 6 the transcendent one. »iHlcr [Clmik] A J! adjdeep, bottomless, "amik »nj1? [amul] adj rootless, groundless. 2 See hE."-japu. ~. ~ u- [Clmikul Ima h£j -japu. 'has >m;fffiI' [amuly] ad} priceless, invaluable. deep faith; is d,eeply religious.' ~ [Clmurh] See ~. )}f}.fto [Clmin] A ~" adjhonest to a deep religious »nf{t [ameu] Skt »nftif adj beyond measure; faith. 2 n an official of revenue depmtment unlimited, boundless. "nanak apI ameu hE." who measures land and makes estimate of the --var bIha m 3. 2 which is not contained. produce. See fssrffi. »nfR [amej] See nrHF.L "bhojan meve amej karae."-NP. 'with fruit served food'. ~ [amingarh] Skt ~ 110' an old village on a mound between Thanesar and >mfc [amet] adjindelible, firm. 2 ineradicable, Taravari where Abhimanyu fell as a martyr. impersishable. At this place, a raging battle was fought »iHoo [amethan], '»IJfoor [amethna] Skt~;:r between the Khalsa and the royal army during v to twist, rotate. "satpat b£that bhuja the time of Banda Bahadur on 11 Maghar am£that."-NP. 2 to take airs. "Eth-hI Eth Sammat 1767 (November 1710 AD.) am£th gavavE."-cdrItr 266. >m-ire: [amir] A,/-" n a sovereign, king. 2 a chief. »iH3' [amet] adjboundless. "abha amet."-ddtt. 3 a rich man. 4 adjwho gives orders. 5 title of >mfq [amedh], >mf!lJT [amedhy] Skt ~ adj the ruler of Afghanistan; the present AmiI' not worthy of sacrifice. 2 impure. 3 n an Amanullah however calls himself a king. impure substance. 4 adj without intellect, l'>IlfRft [amiri] P J,/-'I n sovereignty, mastery, brainless, foolish. "se apClvItr amedh khala." affluence, liberality. -var gdU 1 m 4. >mi [Clmu] 'Skt pran your, to you. »iHtif [amey] See l~. ))fl:fUT [amuhal adj renegade, apostate. »iH'l'ft [ameli] adj unsocial, uncooperative. 2 imperious, intractable. See 2See~. l)flj'Q [amuk] Se(~ ~ 2. »f}fur [amogh] Skt adj who does not fail; >mjCil3" [amukat] adj not free, bound. 2 See~. unfailing, successful. "amogh darsan beat l')f)fif [amutr] Skt adv in the other world. apara."-majh m 5. 2 sure, unfailing. 3 n 2 there, at that place. 3 here, at thiis place. Vishnu. 4 Shiv. 5 Satguru.


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186 ~ [Clmogh dClrSCln] adjwhose glimpse

See >nI1j3' ~. 3 water. 4 ghee, purified is not fruitless. See l?fJfur. 2 n Guru Nanak Dev, butter. 5 milk. 6 wealth. 7 liberation, the true preceptor. salvation. 8 a tasty juice. "jIh prClsadI ChCltih nrih? [amol], ~ [amolak] See }ff}jC'). "guD ClmrIt khahI."-sukhmClni. See 68tnI1j3' [ClmrIt] Skt ~ n a drink that keeps and obtained a grant for the site with 500 bighas'ofland from Akbar in 1577 (Imperial Gazetteer of India). death away; nectar, ambrosia. 2 potion sanctified by Guru Gobind Singh and served 'The Sarovar (tank) is 500 feet long, 490 feet wide and to Sikhs on their initiation into the Khalsa. 17 feet deep.

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naksa amrItsar

relve lain

• nasan gurdvara ---- • •

khalsa kalrj

plppli sahIb








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191 l

continuously recited. The annual Baisakhi fair was initiated by the fifth Guru himself and Baba Buddha started the Divali fair in celebration of Guru Hargobind's return from the Gwalior fort. During Phagun Sammat 1818, Ahmad Shah Durrani got Harimandir blasted the tank with gun powder and filled with earth. Foundation for its rebuilding was laid by Sardar Jassa Singh Ahluwalia on 11 til Vaisakh Sammat 1821 and the complex was rebuilt with in a few years through the efforts Bhai Des Raj. Water for the tank comes through a hash (narrow canal) constructed by Udasii saints, Pritam Das and Santokh Das, in Sammat 1838 with the help of the villagers. It brought water from river Ravi but now since 1923 it is brought from the Bari Doab canal and put into the hash. Maharaja Ranjit Singh occupied this holy city in Sammat 1859 and decorated Harimandirwith gold and marble. He also got built Rambag garden in the name of Guru Ram Das, and Gobindgarh fort in the name of Guru Gobind Singh during 1805-09 AD. On the road to Lahore, the Khalsa College was built by the Panth (Sikh community) in 1892 AD.2 lThe circumambulatory passage ofHarimandir is 13 feet wide and the length of each side is 66 feet. The passage of the bridge from Darshani Deori to Harimandir is 240 feet long and 21 feet wide and is supported by 38 vaults. 'The foundation of Khalsa College was laid by the Governor of Punjab, Sir lB. Lyall, on March 5. 1892. On April 12, 1904, a huge conference was organised by Maharaja Sir Hira Singh, the ruler of the Nabha State under his own chairmanship in which representatives of the Sikh States took part alongwith Sir Charles M. Rivaz, the then Governor of Punjab. A large sum of money was collected and donated to bring the college on finn footing. The government ofPunjab and the Sikh States rendered a lot of monetary help to this institution.

This sacred city is 33 miles from Lahore, 1232 miles from Calcutta, 1260 miles from Bombay and 816 miles from Karachi. According to the last census, the population ofAmritsar city is 1,60,218 including 65,313 Hindus, 71,180 Muslims, 21,474 Sikhs, 1,446 Christians, 5 Buddhists, 738 Jains and 54 Parsis (Persian Zoroastrians). There are four more sacred tanks in Amritsar: (a) Santokhsar named after a Sikh, Santokha of Peshawar, was completed by Guru Arjan Dev, though its construction was started by Guru Ram Das. See qrg ~ 'lJ01if orft:r 2, a 12 and 13. (b) Kaulsar was got built by Guru Hargobind in Sammat 1684 in Kaulan's memory. (c) Bibeksar was got built by Guru Hargobind in Sammat 1685 outside the city as a residence for a rationalist Sikh sect, Bibeki Bihangams. (d) Ramsar was got buiIt by Guru Arj an Dev in Sammat 1659-·60. It was here, seated on the bank of the tank, that the Guru composed Sukhmani as well as compiled Guru Granth Sahib. Other gurdwaras and sacred spots in Amritsar are: (l) Akal Takhat. See ~ ~dJT. (2) DehraAtal Rai on the bank ofKaulsar; attached to it are 91 shops and 42 kanals of land in Sultan village and a 58 ghumaons hunting ground reserved in Amritsar tehsil (subdivision). Se:e ~ m1:r3' 'QTij" [ amn t d h ar], »mf3" "QTiJT [ amn t women. To set a different procedure for them dhara] n unbroken concentration on God. would be a sacrilege against 'gunnat'. 2 as believed by the followers ofYog, flow of elixir in the forehead is caused with the force ~ W1? [dmnt kal] See ~ ~. of praDa yam (restraining breath). It is also ~ i'fm [dmnt kOQli] See 3J.Rr £k tT 21.f 3. known as amnt varuDi (spiritual liquor) 3 a ~ m [dmnt gdtI] a matnk and vdrDIk metre characterized by a stanza offour lines, medicine prepared by mixing sap of parsley, each line having 12 matras, ending in III mint and camphor taken in equal measures. It is a very good drug to cure ailments of the combination. stomach. Example: sumdtI mdha nkhI rdghuvdr. ~ [amntdhari] adj (a Sikh) who has taken amrit by undergoing the baptismal dOddbhI bajdt ddr ddr. ceremony. 2 a river ofelixir. 3 a flow of elixir. jdg ki dSU dhunI ghdr ghdr. 4 a melody sung in God's praise. 5 a spiritual pur rdhi dhunI surpur.-ramav. discourse. See ~. 2 Its second form is tvant gdtI which has four lines each structured as: III, 151, III, S. »rfii3' yfo [amn t dhunI], »rfii3' 1Jfo [amn t dhvanI] Skt ~ !:Rf.1 melodious singing of Example: sumatI maha munI sUluye, God's praise. 2 a matnk metre, having six lines, the first two lines forming a couplet, tan man f?ri nIj gunIye, each of the remaining four lines having 24 man mah hoy su kaluye, matras each with a pause after every eighth dhdn sab apan lahIye.-ram c;'}drrka. syllable; the initial phrase comes at the end 3 In its third form there are ten characters in of the last line and the last phrase of the each line, fifth and tenth ones being guru. This characteristic applies to the second form as well. 'It is pronounced bhdya here.

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kine an rO'>RJRi'i fi.r3r [arjan pIta] Arjun's father, Indar. »!OtI'Q [ arjanu] See >'>RJRi'i. '»RJR' il'oft [araj begi] P Jj ilt n an officer during the Mughal rule who received petitions from the people and forwarded them to the king. "kharo arajbegi tIS tham:."-GPs. In ladies' palace such an official was called Urda Begni. ~ [arajmad] P ~..If adj who petitions. 2 good. 3 honoured, honourable. 4 respectable, honourable. })ffiffT [arja] See ~ffi1T. ~ [arza] P JI)) adj cheap. ~ [arjadhI], n~ [arjadhe] n life, period or duration of being alive. "pal khmI chijE arjadhe."-asa ill 5. ~ [arjani], »R1"n'09' }f(? [arjani mal] son of Baba Mohri and grandson of Guru Amar Das, who after death was brought back to life by the Guru's blessing. 'arja (petitions). "Arjun (one of the paqavs). 'white. bright. 4Arjun (tree). ;clean, whose conscience is clear. "See tlJ-ffiTGt17i" (pair ofltrees). 7

w idth or expanse.

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~ [drjari] See ~. 2 P ~J;;,r adj

~ i'M'Fr

l)fQ6" [drdth] Skt ~ vr to beg, desire, explore, afflicted with grief; grieved. "Istri drjari hoi encircle. 2 Skt ri n meaning, purport, sense. mdrd!). prdyat."-JSBM "dhdryO drdth jo sdbdd mdjhara, bar bar ur kdrl)RJtft [drji] A iff n an application, a petition. 2 hu vIcara."-GPs. 3 purpose, motive, aim. adj apparent, visible. "kalIka kal hi jIu drji "puchIa 1' namarta dharat hE." l')RJCrTOT [arthana] v to interpret; to tell the or for the smooth completion of various meaning of. 2 to understand the meaning of a mundane tasks. It is performed standing with sentence. both hands folded together. "sukh data bhE ~ [arthapatti] Skt ~ n understanding bhajno tIsu agE kan ardasI."-$ri m 5. the unsaid meaning; an instance ofverification "ape jal)E karE apI ape al)E raSI, when one statement automatically proves tISE agE nanka khalI-I kicE ardasI." -maru var 1 ill 2. another, as 'it rains' automatically proves that "dUI kar jon karau ardasI."-bher m 5. the sky is overcast. See ~. 2 a figure of meaning in po~~try. See OlI~:IIidal "ttl thakur tum pahI ardasI, ~ [arthav] See ~ and l)ffiEI1(')1'. 2 n a jiu pfQu sabh teri raSI, bodily gesture conveying a mental condition. tum mat pIta ham bank tere, 3 a feat, performance or show of skill. "sastra tumri knpa mahI sukh ghanere, praharat suran pE kar hathan ko arthav kOI na janE tumra atu,


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uce te uca bhdgV;'}tu, sdgdl sdmdgri tumn: sutrI dhari, tum te hOI so. agIakari, tumri gdtI mItI tum hi jani, nandk das sdda kurbani."-sukhmani. ~ [ardasia] n someone, generally a granthi, leading the Sikh supplicatory prayer. 2 one who performs a prayer. ~ [drdag] Skt~ adjcrushed, pulverised. 2 begged, asked for. "deu sadhu S;'}gdtI drdagIo."-sar m 5. })ide 1fdl6 [drdagIO] begged, supplicated, asked for. See ~ and l?RfeTClT. })fQfts [drdIt] crushed, trampled See »RJe7i 2. "bhdjat drdIta dgha."-datt. 2 (something) asked for. l?fdQ' [drddh] Skt 3T~ part under, below. See »ffi'Q" ~O!I". 2 Skt 3Wf adj half. "aradh sdrir kataiE."-~ri a m 1.3 the middle, centre. "ddho urddh drdha."-japu. 4 Skt 3Tli worthy of completion. 5 obtainable, procurable, fit to be had. "aradh njak sabh jagat ko."-scmama. 6 Skt 3TRWf. adoration, adorable. See nrefq. 7 soul. See»ffi'Q" ~ 4. l?fdQ' ~ [aradh urddh] Skt})j'Q": W this and the next world. 2 the earth and the sky. "dradh urddh dou tdhI nahi."-gau kabir. 3 low and high. 4 creatures and God. "tau drddh-hI urddh mIlIa sukh pava."-gau kabir bavan. l?fdQ'mfRft [drddh sdriri] one's better half, wife. "dradh sariri nan na chocjE."-asa kabir. "10k ved gu.Q gyan VICC aradh sariri mokh duari."

-BG [aradhsIra] Skt ~~. A ;J? Hemicrania (headache in half the head) Its causes are : eating meals without vegetable dishes; eating before digesting the earlier meal; taking too much ice and liquor; excessive copulation, carrying heavy load on

})idQfRd l

the head, excessive menstrual discharge. Its symptoms are headache in half the head, severe headache, excessive palpitation of the heart, weakening of eyesight, and heaviness in the eyes. Its treatment comprises: (I) Opium and gum of acacia tree should be rubbed into a paste which should be plastered over the temples and the aching half of the head. (2) About one ratti of saffron should be roasted in purified butter and rubbed on the aching part. (3) Purified butter and raw sugar mixed in warm milk should be taken. (4) One should drink castor oil mixed in hot milk. (5) Grains of rice which ripen in 60 days should be soaked and when dry should be finely ground and taken as snuff. (6) Oil of costus species, warmed in hot water, should be applied as paste. (7) Chebiolic myrobalan, buleric myrobalan, emblic myrobalan, wormwood and bark of margosa tree should be combined and thoroughly boiled in water with raw sugar mixed in it and taken as a drink. (8) One should eat ten leaves of basil with hot milk. (9) One should daub emblica ribes and black sesame seeds ground in water. (10) One should drink water of raw coconut. Ifhemicrania pain starts after sunrise, and increases as the sun goes up, but stops at sunset, it is called suryavarat. To cure this, two rattis of quinine and the same amount of burnt alum be ground together finely and taken with water at day-break, thrice after every two hours. "aradhsIra arv hndEsaghat."-c;~rItr405.

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[aradh kDbhi] See RI'Q" [ardho afadh] advexactly half. l1Rlit })ffifu [ardho aradhI] adv half and half, in two equal parts, that is, in the centre or middle. "dutia ardho aradhI samaIa."-ram m 5. 'In dvapar, half the religion prevailed.' ~ [ardhag] Skt 3Tufs::r See ~. 2 n Shiv who has his body half male and half female. 3 adjhalfpmi, in two parts, bipartite. "ardhag kafe bhat kotI."-Cdrrtr 1. ~ ,ardhagak] n one who has made half his body female; Shiv; Rudar. "kEdh6 hE anag ardhagak ke atak te."-CdrItr 109. ~ [ardhagi] n wife. 2 Shiv. "nacyo hE ap taha afdhagi."-CdrItr 125. )')RIO [aran] See 1?f21oRfo. ~ [arpal).], »f"Rl"tlO [aradhan], l?RJl'Q'OT [aradhna] Skt})fTQltI'O n service, worship, devotion. "han han nam aradhna."-maru am 5. ~ [aradhI] having worshipped. "tIs-hI aradhI sada sukh hOI."-ram m 5. 2 See l)fTOTl:f.if•

[arana] v to give a loud cry, involvl~ in. "ttkhal kanh araI."-krIsan. ~ [arapau] See l'>RJTtIO. l'>RJTtIO [arapan]Skt ~ n giving, entrusting,


offering. "hiu arapau."-sar ch{it m 5. 'I offer my heart'. »ffi1H [aram] a garden, See l1fTOl}f "bityo jab ek jam krirte aram bIkhe."-GPs. 'Three hours were spent having a walk in the garden'. l'>RJ'O [arar] adj without bickering or dispute. 2 without a fight. 3 stubborn, obdurate. ~ [aralak], ~tffior [araIIk] Skt~ adj walking aslant. 2 n a cook. "ayas din araIIk tai."-NP ~ [aravan] v to entangle, hook. 2 n an obstruction, a hitch. 3 a hindrance, an obstacle. "rnahi'!. kutII bahu paI aravan."-NP ~ [aravni] n an obstacle, riddle. 2 an entanglement, obstruction. l)ffu [an] Skt nan e!1emy, a foe. 2 a weapon. ~ [ano] got entangled. 2 got caught up. See l'lfa'OT. "ano prem ki khon."-sar m 5. ~ [anar], l ~ [anara] adj who resists, or contests. 2 stubborn, mulish. 3 })ffu of})ffu, an enemy of an enemy; a destroyer of the enemy. "arIar aSI."-scmama. ~ [ansat], ntR~ [an~t] Ski an obstruction. 2 a calamity, distress. 3 sorrow, agony. 4 a crow. 5 a margosa tree. 6 a demon whom Kans sent in the form of a bull to kill Krishan but who himself got killed. He was called Vrikhabhasur. "7 a soapwart. 8 son of Vishvamitar born to the daughter of King Yajati. "tIS te ek putr upjava, nam anst jahI ko gava."-GPs. ~I Dg a mud house. ".Fd':!'!jd [an~tasur] ~-~ See ~ 6. ~ [ankheu] See ~. ~ [anjananI] See ~. ~ [anjrt] See ~. ~ [arfq.] See i~. ~ [an!)], ~r [arI!)at] Skt 3f?!lUT adjwho does not have any debt to pay; free of debt. ~ [an!)i] See~. 2 })ffu-»fO'T an army of the enemy.-sanama.

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206 ~ [Clrfd]

n an enemy. 2 a short form for

~ (destroyer of enemy). "gClmne Clrfd su

gubfd ne chuqaI din."-GPs. ~ [ClrfdClm] Skt ~ adj who destroys the enemy. "sunClt ClrfdClm tIt ko gCle."-GPs. ~ [ClrIdev] See ~ »!fu. ~ [ClrIyar] See l?ffuwo. ~ [ClrIll], ~ [ClrIlla] See ~. ))Rft [Clril See »f;ft. 2 See »!fu. 3 See nrffi. "Clri Clri tf' ka kClri, kClri kClri ki ritI. nah nah taka bhClli, bhClli nah 56 pritI."-anonymous. 4 a vocative for a woman. "Clri bail gobId namu mClt visrE."-guj trrloccJn. ~ [ClriCll] See~. "atI arialnahI calhI agare."-GPs. ~ [aritha] Skt ~ n a soap nut, seed pod. ~ [aril] See ~. })@' [aru] part and, as well as; a conjunction. "maIa phas badh nClhi pharE aru manu sGnI na luke."-asa kabir. l1@fu[aruCI]Sktlackofinclination; disinclination. 2 lassitude, hatred. 3 a disease in which hunger disappears. See~. ))@tJ [aruj] adjfree from disease (gtr); healthy. ~ [arujananI] cpd Chandarbhaga river; related to whom is the moon, who dispels disease.-sanama. ~ [arujjhan] v to get entangled. 2 to ride. 3 to get busy, be involved. ~ [arul).] Skt n sun's chariot. 2 sun's charioteer, son of Kashyap and Vinita and elder brother of Garur. He is a cripple in the lower part of the body, because his mother in her anxiety to see him had broken the egg while yet raw. Therefore he is also called ~.I In the Purans, he is described as deep red in colour, and that the pre-dawn redness is his. Arun's wife is named Shyeni; Sampati and Jatayu are their sons. "karam karI arul). pfgula ri."-dh,ma 1»fO

(without) ~g (thighs), without thighs.

tnlocan. 3 vermilion. 4 adjblood-red. [arul).cur] Skt n one having a red plume; a rooster. "ClrUl).Cuf ka tan sas I bhayo." -sanama. 'The moon turned a cock.' ~ '8"fait [Clrun barIl).i] cpd Sarasvati river with red (~) water (m).-sanama. ~ [ClrUl).a] a tributory of Sarasvati which joins the latter near Pehoa. 2 a madder. 3 a potable red weed; cJlai; deracea. 4 seed of Abrus precatorius. 5 a red coloured cow. 6 Skt 3TIfun worship. "ghati pac b Clrul).a karkE."-NP. ~ [arul).e:;;l n Arun's master, the sun. ~ [arul).OdCldhI] n Red Sea separating Egypt and Arabia. ~i-eur [arul).oday] n the sunrise; the time when the sun appears; the redness before sunrise; dawn, morning, See ~. ~'Q3t [ClrGdhati] Skt ~udt n daughter of saint Karadam and wife of ascetic Vashishth. 2 a small star seen near the Great Bear; according to the Purans, one who cannot see Arundhati star dies within 40 days. 3 tip of the tongue. $ [aruddh] adj l?f (not) 2'v'Q' (busy), unobstructed. l?f§O' [arun] See ~. l?f§O' aifaFM [Clrun barInIn] See ~~. the land of Sarasvati river (Arun Barini). -sanama. ~ [aruj] A (:;,/ n rise; progress; increase. 2 height, elevation. 3 See ~ 2. ~ [ClrujhCln] n a complication, tangle. 2 an obstruction, impediment. 3 v to be busy with something, be involved. ":;;ah sag kIm bak arujhe."-GPs. l?fVf [aruqh] See ~ and ~. ~'lf [amp] adj formless, shapeless. 2 illshaped, ugly. ~ [Clrupa] a varl).Ik metre, also called karira, characterized by four lines, each line being ~

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207 bI¥ organised as ISS, 5. ~ [arogta] n absence of disease, sound health. Example: sabe jage, bhrama bhag~, ~ [arogi] Skt 3TUfTR~ adj not sick; hale and hearty, healthy. hatha tyage pagalage.-ramav. 2 If we double the length of the verses, and ~ [arogy] See :~. "arogya maharogya." organise the structure as ISS, 5, ISS, 5 then it is -sCJhCJS m 5. known as $uddhga. ~ [arodhan] Skt »@t:/O v to stop, impede; Example: to encircle. "ros arodhan krurbrIte."-CJkal. ~ [aropan],'51j [alakhu] See })fMl:f. minds which cannot subsume them. "ki'lkan kari h£ chap sou h£ Qhal Qhalat."-hanu. Sita's >m?cIf [alag], »r.~ [algau] adj ))j'-~ which is arm is more delicately described than the ring. not attached or engaged; uncommon, strange, rare. "algau JOI madhukarau."-va.r maru 1 ~ [alpahiaul, ~ [alpahia] adj unconnected, unengrossed. "lep nahi m 1. See HlJC~. l)fffiJItiTTJl [algayas] A ~~I n a loud call or cry alpahiau."-jEt m 5. 2 feeble heart. 3 feeble for justice. hearted. >m5trcJr [alpag], l~ [alpagy] Skt ~ adj })f'l?cJRIH [algaraj] A JjJl adjcareless, negligent; having little knowledge, ignorant. without desire. 2 lazy, sluggish. 3 selfish. ~ [alpatil n a pouch in a soldier's belt >mXit [algol See ~. ~ [algoza] P ~;j.ll n a kind of musical containing gun powder or cartridges. instrument made of wood. It gives: out a ))ffit( If'm;~ tal palal] n a false show, an ostenation. 2 an insubstantial action. See >m; and ~. "gali al palalia."-gau var 2 m 5. >m?W talpa] See warr. ~ [alpaI] adjunengrossed, unconnected. See~. ~ [alpahari]



adj who eats

less, detached, alone. [alpata] Skt ~ adj detached, alone.


See~. ~ [alpari] See ~. ~

[a1aph] A ...;JI n the first letter of Persian and Arabic alphabet. 2 indictor of figure one in arithmetic. See l'>I8ffi:. 3 abbreviated name of Allah (God). 4 indicating Monday in astrology and astronomy. 5 a horse standing straight on hind legs. ~ J:ITi'i" [alaf xan] Alifkhan, an army commander ofAurangzeb, who fought against Guru Gobind Singh at Nadaun in Sammat 1747. This battle is mentioned in Chapter IX of Vichitar Natak. 2 another Mughal army chief. See Ft'e" }:fT('). ~ [alpha] See 1'lfffift. ~ [alphaj] A J;lP!f n plural of~. 1'lfffift [alphi] A adj upright like the letter alaf. 2 n a long gown without arms worn by holy men; a khafani. It symbolises the oneness of God. ~ [albatta] A ~ part of course, no doubt, without doubt. 2 yes. 3 but. ~ [albal] See ~ . ~ [albalIt] Sktll1IM~fM3 adjsurrounded, encircled. "bal rahe a1balIt jal."-NP See



~ [albela] adj carefree, having no worry.

2 foppish, crooked. ~ [alabh], ~ [alabhu], ~ [alabhy] adj not obtainable, rare. "ISU jag mahI nam alabhu h£."-var sor ill 3. })fM}f [alam] adj suffering, afflicted. 2 A ~ a standard. 3 adj standing upright. 4 raised. "sam~er alam kine dhae sabhi sIpaha."-saloh. 5 See~. 1'>fMHR3" [almast] P ..:-11 adj inebriated, drunk. 2 carefree, lost in love. "harIrasu piv£ almasat matvara."-asa ill 5. 3 a devotee of Guru Nanak Dev and Baba Shri Chand, known also as Kamalia and Godria. Almast was born in the house of a Gaurh Brahman in Sammat 1610. Balu Hasana was his younger brother. After becoming a follower of Baba Gurditta, he became the head of a sub-sect of Udasis. Guru Hargobind went to Nanakmatta to the aid of Almast. pun a1masat sadhu ko dhir, dekarI bhale guru bar bir.-GPS. This pious person died at Nanakmata in Sammat 1700. See ~. ~ aaou:t1€i'i [alam barka~idan] P I.j~ ~ v to raise a spear high. 2 to raise a flag. })fIDffl" [almal] poison and dirt. See>m; and lffi. "almal khai SUI chai pai."-var asa. 'Ghoris disgraced themselves by indulging in drink and dirt.' ll1'MWR" [almas] P vL11 n a diamond, a hard substance. ~ [almari] Pg almerio or almirah n a chest of drawers. ~QT [almora], ~~ [almora] a city and capital of Kumaon region of the United Provinces. It was the capital of the kings of Chand dynasty in the sixteenth century. The British occupied it in 1815 AD. There is a story in the third chapter of the second half of Janamsakhi and Guru Nanak Prakash that

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a king had captured Bhai Bala for offering religion. 2 king ofthe Khilji dynasty who ruled him as a sacrifice to goddess Chandi. He was at Delhi from Sammat 1353 to 1373. He got the ruler of this place. Guru Nanak Dev the dome-like gate near Qutab Minar built in preached the name of God to the king and Delhi in 1310AD. the people of Almora and made them his Kings bearing this name of Sayyad and disciples. There used to be a gurdwara here Bahmani dynasties have also been there in Gaur and BengaL and the people were devoted to Guru Nanak Dev. Due to the negligence of Sikh pre:achers, ~ [alan] adj said, spoken. 2 sung. the gurdwara as well as the Sikh faith have })fWFf [alas] n See~. 2 Skt a disease of the vanished away from this region. tongue. ~ [alarak] Skt >lffiCI' son of Madalsa and ~ [alasi] adj l'W-wm. a female performer king Kuvalyashv l (Ritdhvaj). He was a great especially of lasy dance. "juala jayati alasi spiritual scholar also known as Bhumishth. anadi."-c~di 2. See Wl1.iI'. See fm:f. invisible. 3 Yogis shout alakh when asking for alms. It was with this call that Ravan approached Sita. "bhekh alekh ucar kE ravan."-ramav. 'Ravan in disguise saying alakh approached Sita'. 4 unaccountabl{~ "tate janam alekhE."-asa kabir. 5 who has no fate recorded on his forehead; free from bonds of Karma. "alekh hari."-akal. "God without any bonds." ~ [alekhi] See nfficr. ~ [alep] adj unattached, unengrossed, unsullied. ~ [aIel] n a line. 2 a current, a stream. "chuti hi:' sis pE sr:m alele."-kdlki. 3 adj adolescent, inexperienced. ~ [aloa] Look, see! See ~lffi') and ~. 2 full of wonder. "magar pachE kachu na sujhE ehu padam aloa . "-dhana m 1. 'It is a rare posture.' ~ [aloan] Skt~. n the act of seeing, looking. ~ [aloI] See nffireo. 2 Skt ~. adj strange. 3 adv having seen, after seeing. ~ [aloIara] adj seen. "nm aloIara han janiara."-ram chat m 5. ~ [aloIa] saw. See ~. ~ [alOIn] n seeing, beholding. "aoad rup sabh nEn aloIa."-asa m 1. "dusar nahi aloiE."-dev m 5. ~ [aloiE] Let us see. See ~. ~u [aloh] adj without iron i.e. without a weapon. "gayo k;m bira su yate aloha."-VN 'Who is that valiant who has not suffered the weapon of death?' ~ [alok] Skt ~or. n light, a miracle. 2 a glimpse, look. "sOdar badan alok."-sar surdas. 3 Skt 3rm-Cfi adj not within sight; invisible. "alok hE."-japu. 4 n desolate, lonely. 5 the other world. "10k alok gavaI durananI."-ramav. '0, evil faced Kekai, you

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have lost both the worlds'. 6 Skt~. unworldly, strange. ~ [alokanl Skt ~ v to see; to peep. "it ut dah dIS alokan."-ram ruti m 5. »tior [alogl, ~ [alognil, ~ [alogil adj not of this world; strange, uncanny. 2 untouched, unattached, unengrossed. "surag pavItra mIrat pavItra, paIal pavItr alogni."-ram m 5. "nanak log alogi ri sakhi."-asavri m 5. ~ [alonal adj See ~(!T. ~ [alopl Skt ~l.f adj invisible, hidden. "hoi alop bhavani deva raj de."-cac;li 3. 2 })f not (~l.f) secret; evident, manifest. ".n [aloll adjnotfu? (frivolous or frolicsome); serious, settled. ~ [alovl).al, ~ [alovanl vto see, behold, observe, watch. "m~n alovau sadhjano."-gCJU CJ m 5. ";:jtCJrI baharI Iku m~n alovna."-var guj4 m 5. ~ [abkIk] adj not of this world; other worldly, unworldly. 2 strange, wonderful. ~ [al;:i] Skt 31C'fl1. part all, entire. 2 only. 3 able, capable. 4 n an ornament. ~ [al;:jk] short form for»fiORf. 2 ~upto Lanka (Ceylon). 3 the celestial sphere, firmament, sky. "s£1hI dabat £1 parat al;:jk par."-GPs. })RofCFa' [alakarl Skt ~ n an ornament. "al;:ikar mIII thdi hoi hE."-dhCJna m 5. 2 literary figure of speech which adds to the beauty ofa poetic expression without obvious ornamentation. I This is of two kinds: ~abadal;:jkar or ornamentation ofwords as in a rhyme and alliteration, and arthal;:jkar or ornamentation of meaning such as a simile, metaphor, allegory. Where these two types are merged together, it becomes ubhyal;:jkar or a double-edged ornament. In this book they I3IMs~q;i1J1R1 ~.

have been shown in the alphabetical order. nffi# [al;:jke] Skt 31""C'lS~~(f adj adorned, ornate. "alakar alake."-japu. 'An ornament was adorned'. ~ [al;:jkrItl See~. "alakrIta sudehya." })Rofcit [alaki],

-VN. ~

[alakhl adjwhat cannot be written. 2 what cannot be seen; invisible, imperceptible. "sace sabadI alakh."-sCJva m 3. »fiaT [alag] adjunattached, unengrossed. 2 Pkt n direction, side. 3 adjwithout lameness. See

Ear. ~

[alagh], »fiur.r [alaghy] adj impassable; difficult to cross. ~ [al;:jb] Skt ~ n a support, stay, shelter. 2 a refuge. »fiao [alabanl, »fi~. [alabanul Skt ~ n stay, support. "hasat alabanu dehu prabhu." -gCJu m 5. 2 See ~. ~ [alabu~al See FRnJ3'. ~ [alharl adj unthinking, thoughtless. 2 ignorant. 3 inexperienced. S~. ~ [all] Skt ~ or l?fO'CJ n a longish variety of pumpkin; a gourd. 2 A Jf sub-caste. See >m? name of a dynasty. l'lfw [aHa] adj not fully ripe. 2 n God. See nfW. l?fwF.rru [aHa:';iahl, ~ [allayar] a Pathan trader of horses in Delhi and Lahore. Bhai Para Parmahans of Dalla village met him one day on the bank of Beas and impelled him to see Guru Amar Das. Not only did he turn a Sikh but also became extremely pious. The third Guru assigned him the duty ofpreaching Sikhism. ~ ray] Skt 31C(, vr to protect (the word €nf evolved from this root); to please; to go about; to be loved; to satisfy; to understand; to enter; to wish; to adopt. 2 Skt~ a prefix indicating determination, disrespect, dearth, fall, etc .. See~,~, ~ etc.

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~ [avclIya], ~ [avaia] adj who


~ [avastha] See ~.

comes or arrives. "yadu bir ke dham ~ ~ [avastha catu~tay] n four stages avarya."-krrsan. of life: childhood, boyhood, youth and old »WA" lavas] Skt '~ adj helpless, powerless. age. 2 See ~ and BTQ ~. 2 See ~. 3 ~, n help, aid. 4 grace, ~ ~ [avastha tray] three states: waking, kindness, beneficence. dreaming and deep dreamfree sleep. ~ [avastha] Skt ~ n condition, state, ~~ [avastha dvay] two states, prosperity circumstance. 2 age. 3 four c:onditions: and poverty. 2 know lege and ignorance. wakefulness, dreaming, profound sleep and 3 pain and pleasure, etc. state of blessedness. 4 stages of age: ~ [avasthrtr] Skt n a halt, stop. childhood, youth and old age. ~ [ava$y] Skt part surely, certainly; ~ [avsar] Skt n a chance, an opportunity, without doubt. occasion. 2 leisure, recess, respite. 3 rain. 4. a ~ [ava$yak] adj necessary. See ~. poetic embellishment describing timely »j~J:1J1adl [avai?yakta] necessity. See »j1~HJtadi. execution of work as the right uSle of time. ~ [avharl See:~. Example: ~ [avhrt] Skt adj alert, attentive. jab lagu jara rogu nahi ara, ~t:f [avahrtth], ~'EfT [avahrttha] Skt jab lagu kalr grasi nahi kara, ~ n poetic de:vice of cleverly hiding,joy jab lagu brkal bhai nahi bani, because of modesty and fear. bhajr lehr re man! sarrgpani" ~'ij(! [avheraJ)] v to see, look at, behold. ab na bhajsr bhajsr kab bhai? 2 to insult. See l'}f~. 3 See ~. aVE atu, na bhajra jai.-bher kabir. ~ [avhelan] Skt n an insult, a disrespect. kal karata ab-hr kar, ab karta su Ital, 2 disobedience, contravention of order. pachE kachu na horga jab srn: aVE kal. "avhalan nahr trn ko kijE."-NP -5 kabir. ~ [avka:;;] Skt n a place, post. 2 the sky. ~ [avsarprJ)i] See ~ mrftrtt. 3 a distance, space, gap. 4 leisure, respite. ~ [avsan] Skt n ~ sense, wiit, pnese:nce ~ [avJkiraJ)] Skt ~ adj spread. of mind. "avsankedrvEyaho."-akal. "satrun 2 scattered. 3 extended. "nar avkiral). ke avsan gae chut."-krrsan. 2 Skt rest, repose. jahfkaha."-GPs. 3 limit, extent. 4 death. 5 end, conclusion. ~ [avkhad], ~ [avkhadu], ~ 6 evening, sunset. [avkhadh], 1~ [avkhadhu] Skt >?fRq. n a ~ [avsari] adjworthless. 2 unappreciated. medicine, drug. S,ee~. "harr harr namu "vaJ)aspatr rahE ujar adar avsari."-BG 3 Skt avkhadu mukhrpara."-sor m 5. "avkhadh ~ which d,ecreases, or comes to an end, sabhe kitran, nfdak ka daru nahI."-var gau come to end. 1 m 5. "rog mrtE harr avkhadhu lar." ~ [avsekh] Skt~ adjremainder, balance. -sukhmani. 2 n end, a conclusion. ~ [avgaJ)] See ~. "guJ)ah vasr avgaJ) ~'ffi') [avsecan] Skt n watering, irrigating. nasE."-asa cMt m 1. 2 Skt to insult. 2 getting wet with sweat, perspiring profusely. ~ [avgaJ)r] adv because of faults and 3 extracting blood from the body; phlebotomy. foibles. "avgaJ)r muthe cota khahi."-asa m 3.

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216 ~

[avgaI).Ian] adj having demerits, sinful, vicious. "kamaI).I kamI na avai khoti avgaI).IarI."-sri a m 1. 2 insulting, degrading.


[avguI).] opposite of virtue; a fault, vice. 2 a sin. 3 a crime. ~ [avgUI).I] because of demerit, due to vices. See~2. ~ [avgat] Skt adjknown. 2 fallen, apostate. ~ [avguI).Iara], ~ [avguI).Iari] 3 Skt ~ adj unknown. "vahguru jo avgat adj vicious, devoid of virtue, "avguniari kat hE us di gatI i?abad kar lakhde hen."-JSBM vIsari."-dhana chat m 1. "avgat lila satguru keri. "-GPS. ~it [avguI).i] adj having faults; accused, 4 indestructible. 5 Skt ~ invisible, criminal. 2 full of drawbacks. "avguI).i formless. 6 n Kamdev, god of love. 7 the bharpur hE."-oakar. 3 with or because of Creator. 8 soul. demerits. ~ [avgatI] Skt n intellect, understanding. ~~ [avguI).u] See ~wfu3" [aIt] SkI l?rrf€3J:r n the sun. 2 Sunday. 3 See l'}[TljJ'3', l'Wfu3o [aItan] See l'WOI3O. l'>f'fE-er [a:rda] P 6",1 future. l')fTfuq [aIdh] See l'WWT. nrrfu'S' [aIbo] v to come. "na kachu aIbo na kachu jaIbo."-dhcma pipa. 2 to take birth. ~ [aITa] See ~. 2 n the letter })f. "aITE apI kare j:rnI choqi."-asa pati m 1. ~ [aITIa] advon arrival, after those who came. "je mE hoda varIa mIta aIpa." -s farid. ~ [ail n death. "ai na metal). ko samrath." ---:oakar. 2 age, llife-span. 3 aymata, goddess Durga; a temple of a goddess of this name at Baibhilara in Rajputana is famous. See >wEt tfEr. 4 wealth or illusion. "ai puta Ihu jagu sara."-bila thIti m 1. 5 past tense of~. 6 future tense l'>f~. "Ihu vela kat ai."-gau kabir. 7 Smother. 8 a calamity. 9 Dg a rope for tying an elephant. ~ lain] p I n management, administration, government. 2 law, rules. ~ [aina] P ~'i" n a mirror. In ancient times a well-rubbed piece of iron (ahan) was used for this purpose, hence this name. ~ [aiputa] See ~ and ~ tf'Ef. 2 creation ofthe material world, maya. "aiputa Ihu jagu sara."--bIla thIti m 1. ~tr [aipath] a radical wing of shakits, The worshippers of Shiv and power, opposed to

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224 dak~In marag. See l'>1dQ(')'dlJ;!d and ~. Singh. She was very religious, brave and See >wit 3.2 one ofthe twelve sects of yogis judicious by nature. which is more liberal in its dealings with other ~ [a~caray] See ~ and })ffiQji. sects. ~ rasa})] SkI l'>fTR'()" n a place, state, seat; an ~tft [aipathi] a worshipper of mother Ay act of sitting. 2 a cloth spread to sit upon. (iron, weapon, fire). 2 Gorakhpanth yogis who 3 third stage of yog during which the are worshippers of shakti (power). 3 See >wit practitioner assumes his sitting posture. In yog tIEr 2. "aipathi sagal jamati."-jdpU. 'befriending shastar 84 postures have been taken from all is to be an ai pathi.' various movements of animals, birds and l')fTR" [as] SkI 3m:[, vr to sit; to be present; to be; positionings of some other objects. Four of to forsake. 2 SkI 3TN1T n hope, expectation, them are considered paramount. They are: desire, longing. "as anIt tIag-hu tarag." (a) sIddhasan: keeping left heel under the -sukhmdni. 3 direction, side. "tat khel jfh rectum and right heel under the phallus. as."-NP 4 SkI ~. mouth. "namo as ase (b) padmasan: placing ofleft foot on the right lldmo bak bake."-jdpU. 5 a face. 6 SkI »fTF.r, thigh and the right foot on the left thigh and food, meals. 7 SkI »fTR", ash. See E ash. 8 a catching with the right hand extended from behind the back, the big toe of the right foot seat. 9 a bow. 10 soon, quickly. "kalu ko bulaI and catching the big toe of the left foot with raI lin tab as hE."-NP See~. 11 P vI the left hand and keeping the chin away from a millstone. See l'>fTRHT()". 12 P Jl an essence extracted by boiling some object, as the the chest, by a width of four fingers to essence of barley. concentrate the gaze on the tip of one's nose. l')fTR""fTi.t [asase] See »fTR" 4. (c) sfhasan: sitting with ankles placed tightly under the rectum and the phallus, and placing ~ [asak] A cf... SkI ~ adj who loves. "nanak asak kiiQhiE sad-hi rahE samaI."-var both hands on the knees fixing the gaze on asa m 2. 2 SkI an eater, a guzzler. See »fTR" 6. the tip of the nose. (d) bhadrasan: catching the big toes while ~ [askat] SkI ~. adj who loves, rapt, engrossed. "bIkhE ras SIU askat mure."-kan keeping the posture of padamasan. "jog SI dh asa}) caurasih ebhi kan kan rahI a."-sor d m m 5. 2 SkI ~ powerful, mighty. ~ [a~kar] P .J~r adj apparent, manifest, 5. 4 SkI ~jaw. obvious; its pronunciation as ~ is also ))fTR3' [asat] See l'lffir. 2 ~. adj a believer in correct. God and in the other world. 3 n west. "UdE ~ [aski] P j?.. n love, state of being in nahl asat."-maru solhe m 1. 4 a weapon, a love. "eh kInehi aski dUjE lagE jaI."-var asa missile. "asat dhare nIhare."-gyan. m2. >wFI3Or [astak] See~. nf1'R9 [asaku] See ~. ~ [astarl, ~ [astara})], »fTFI'3'"d?i ~ [a~ke] part bravo! well done! S~. [asataran] ~-3JTttRUT n a bedstread; a bed for a newly married couple. "astaran bar l')fTR" cia" [as br] queen of Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala. She carried on the administration bIsad vIsala."-GPs. 2 a warm covering for during the reign of her husband and during an elephant. the minority of her son Maharaja Karam l)fll'ET [astii] P (:,Il;:-l n a place. 2 a door. 3 a

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function. ))fTRl.ITH" [aspas] near about, around, in the vicinity. "as pas ghan tursi ka bnva."-gau kabir. nrrH" ~ [as pIas] n strong hope, intense desire. ~ [aspurI).a], ~ [aspuma] n caste goddess of Chauhan Rajputs who believe her to be the fulfiller fo all desires. 2 service of the spiritual guide. 3 spiritual knowledge of self. ~ ~ [asphul d:Jla] See l?IFI"e' l::fTO. l)fTR}-fI'i") [asman] See })fFI}fl('). l)fTR}-fI'i") 1:fTi"i [asman xan] son-in-law of Painde Khan who stole Baba Gurditta's hawk, and together with Painde Khan fought against Hi'i"W. Guru Hargobind at Kartarpur in Sammat ~ [astin] P JI n the sleeve ofa shirt, coat. 1691. He was killed by Baba Gurditta in this ~ [aste] See ~. battle. ~ [asthai] See ~ 4 - 5. l)fTR}-fI'i") '6'a" tasman car] n a rambler of the sky, ))fl'FJ(') [asan] See ~. "nIvli karam asan bird. 2 an arrow.-sanama. caurasih In mahI satI na aVE jiu.."-majll m 5. ~ [asmudr] adv up to the sea. "asmudr 2 a saddle. "asan ae bag gahI balvac;l vIsesa." b phni duhai."-GPs. -GPS. 3 Skt 3mT., thunderbolt of Indar, ~ [asmat] Skt W-'fflf3". adv on all sides, lightning. 4 Indar. 5 one who serves meals. all around. 2 with full ceremony, very ~o [asanaksun] adj who siits in pl~rfect properly. mental tranquillity. "asanaksun anbIkat ))f'1"f.I'lif [a$ay] n an aim, object, intention. 2 a rag."-datt. longing, wish. })j1"H'(")T [asna] Skt n state, stage, situation. 2 See ))fTR'a" [asar] Skt~ n a prop, basis, stay. 2 an ~. asylum, a resort" refuge. "jIh asar Ia bhavjal ~ [asnai] See ~. tarI).a."-bavan. "Ih asar puran bhae kam." l'>I'Hfo [asanI] on or in a seat. "pna aI base -gaum 5. gnh asanI."-mala m 5. l)fTffiJ}f [asram] See »fTlJH. })jiHf(')ii@'H [asnxvas] adj home of all hopes; l'>fTFI'eT [asra] See ))fTR'a". whom people trust for the fulfilment of their ~ [asav] Skt n life breath. 2 a type of wine hopes. See })jTfjT f'iwtH. not extracted through distillation but prepared ))fIFIO't [asni] n lust, hope. "prabhu puran asni by fermentation, like somras and toddy. mere mana."--asa m 5. 2 See »fTJfu:i. :J See lWl1;/t [asri] n a hope, desire, an expectation. »rHo. "nanak asri nI'bahI."-var jet. })('FI1.It!' [aspad] Skt })j1'"P1.R'. n a place, spot. 2 a l')flW rasa] Skt })flBT n a desire to have, hope. position, rank.. 3 reputation, honour. 4 work, "asa karta jagu mua."-var guj 1 m 3. 2 a hermitage. l1fTRfd" [asatI] See l?fflJ. 2 short form of~. 3 ~ existence. See ~. ~ [astIk] Skt ~ adj who believes in the existence of the Creator and of the other world; a theist. })jIHfdCld l [astIkta], ~ [astIky] n theism; firm beliefin the Creator and in the hereafter, Theist. ~ [astik] Skt 31mlTcr a sage who was the son of sage Jaratkar and Mansa, sister of Vasuki, cobra. During a sarapmedh (killing of snakes) ritual, he saved the tribe of his mother, the Talkshak and Anant snakes. "atyo astika maha vIpr sIddha."-janmejay. See

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direction, side. "turn nahI avo tab It asa." -NP. "magan manE mahI cItvau asa nEnhu

tar tuhari."-kedam 5. 3 a musical measure in its own right, sung in the early morning. Guru Angad Dev started the daily routine of singing Asa di Var in the presence ofGuru Nanak Dev. Guru Arjan Dev added to it twenty four stanzas composed by the fourth Guru, one stanza to each balladic measure. Now it is daily sung in the gurdwaras. "gaI rababi asa var."-GPs. In Sikh way of life, Asa is also sung in the course of evening prayer. In this measure, all notes are pure.! gadhar measure may be added to Asa in descending but not in ascending tone. The descending tone of Asa comprises sa, re, rna, pa, dha, ni, sa, and ascending tone has re, sa, ni, dha, pa, rna, ga, re, sa, in that order. 2 Among the Rags in Guru Granth Sahib Asa is the fourth in order. 3 4 aim, intention, purport. See >wF.ItiT. "ta babe us da asa jaJ.).Ia." -JSBB. 5 A (..,f' a club, heavy stick. "asa hatth kItab kacch."-BG "mansa man nIvanhu asa."-rnaru solhe m 5. 'Killing or eradicating of desire is hope. '4 ~ [asar] Skl>wF.ItiT n an object, a purport, meaning. "puran asaI."-bIla m 5. ~ [asaIs] See l)fIFl'Ttiff.f. ~ [asaIti] adj hopeful, expectant. 2 A ~r adj grieving (woman). "asaIti as kI as puraiE."-phunhe m 5. 'Fulfil the hope of the sorrowful' . 'For various notes See JVl" and ore. 2In view of differences in different places, singers join Asa with rishabh and dhaivat soft also. 3Many writers have considered Asa as a subordinate submeasure ofMegh and the time ofits rendition as sunrise. 4Muslim hermits also, like monks ofDandi sect, consider holding a club as their denominational sign.


[asai] n hope, expectation. "man mahI cItvau Esi asai."-asa m 5. »fTH1FIfu [asas-hI] See »fTRlRO. 2 See P (;i~bl.A. 3 to praise. 4 to raise, lift. l')fTWffi'; [asasan] Skt WlfFlO n an assurance, a consolation. 2 support, suCcour. "sIdh sadhak asas-hI."-sdveye m 3 ke. "chIa darsan asasr."-sdveye m 3 ke. lWW ft:fur rasa SIgh] a clerk of Guru Gobind Singh. Once, in order to help a poor Sikh, he sent a demand draft for Rs. 500 to another Sikh. That Sikh made the payment. When the demand draft was presented to the Guru, he enquired why it was sent without his order. Asa Singh got frightened and fled during the night, and sent the following couplet to the Guru: "mukh kara mero karE karat na parupkar, tIS ko mE phIl karogi pa1ta is darbar." This meant that the offence was of the clerk's pen which now says, 'if my face was not blackened for a good deed for another's good, then I would have in turn blackened the face of the clerk'. The Guru was pleased at Asa Singh's note and he called the latter back and reinstated him in the same job. ~ [asasE] See »fTRlRO. lWW tft ~ rasa di var] written at the end of Asa measure in Guru Granth Sahib, it is a composition in saloks and balladic stanzas, by Guru Nanak Dev, though it also includes a few saloks of Guru Angad Dev. Since olden times it is sung early in the morning. Guru Arjan Dev also included in it 24 stanzas of Guru Ram Das to correspond to each balladic stanza, and taught the Sikhs to sing them. See BTQ~. "paryo bhog jab asavar."-GPs. l')f'WQ" [asadh], nrwfl:r€ [asadhIO] incurable. See l?fRl!T. "diragh rog maIa asadhIo."-geJU thItj m 5.

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[asan] P l.:Jl---l adj easy. rasa nlvas] See })fl11 ~,. "guru amardas asa nlvas."-savEye m 3 ke. l1f'FI'Td'Q' [asabadh], ~ [asabadhu] adjtied down because of hope; hopeful, expectant. ))fIW)f [asam] a country north east of Bengal and south of the Himalayas, mostly covered with forests, mines, rivers and streams. It was visited by Guru Nanak Dev and Guru Teg Bahadur. It was also known as Kamrup in the past. »fTRT H7iW rasa mansa] hope and desire to acquire things. "asa mansa dou blnasat." 1?fTFrO

lWW ~

-asa m 1. lWR"tiI'f.I' [asaya~]

P J!l.-1 n comfort; a happy state; this word is derived from the root )~. >wJtTij" [asar] SkI n a severe downpour or shower; rain. 2 Dg clouds. 3 A .1171 plural of 'I?fFRf, signs, indicators. 4 a trait. 5 breadth, width. ~ [asavri] This is a complete! musical measure, one of the ten arragements of musical notes or modulations oflndian music. It is sung for three hours of the day from the sunrise onward. It has three soft notes of gadhar, dhnrat and nl~ad, the remaining being pure (See ~ and '(5T'C) In asavari, dhEvat is basic but gadhar is only suppOlting, the remaining ones are all basic notes. During the ascent nl~?ad and gadhar are not used but all notes are applicable during the descent; five notes sa"re, rna, pa and dha figure in the ascent but seven notes sa, ni, dha, pa, rna, ga and re are uSI~d in the descent. Owing to the difference of place and opinion among most musicologists, many have accepted asavari singing in bhErav and bhnvi measures. In Guru Granth Sahib, asavri has been combined with asa measure also. 'Arohi has five and Avrohi seven tunes.

t!t ~. hopeful, desirous. ~ [asavati] See~. "asavati as gusai, puriE."-var jEt. })f'I'A'I;f [asar] SkI ~ n the month of Harh. See ~. "asar suhada tIsu lagE jIsu manl hancaral). nlvasu."-majh baramaha. i)fTR1;1f [ asa r a] See ))fFIT3T. ~ [asap] during the month of Harh. ~ [asaru] See ~ and ~. ~ [aslkh], rwfRl:fI' [aslkha] SkI ~ n a blessing, benediction. >mIT [asi] A u~ adjwho sins, or is an evil doer, or a criminal. >mfb:r [asis] See nrrf'm:f. "puta, mata ki asis." l)fTW


rasa va]'] See


~ [asavat] Slct31NrfCKf.adj

-gujm 5.

»rJflo [asin] Skt adj sitting, seated. "sagal manorath puran asina."-bIla m 5.2 situated. [asina] See 'l?fTFfto. })f'I'ffta' [asir] Skl)~ a blessing. 2 See l?flfur. l?!IA~a'i@eo [asirvacan], l?!iA~a'i@'t! [asirvad] SkI n a blessing, benediction. See nrrf'm:f. >WJJ [asu] Skl»jTff adv at once, promptly. "asu hi tichan IE aSI ~ri han."-knsan. 2 See»fIJ. l?filJ [asu] n a tear, tears. ))fI}jCIT [asug] adj quick-footed. 2 n wind. 3 an arrow. 4 light. >WJJ3cr [asutokh] Sk/~ adjeasy to please. 2 n Guru Nanak Dev. 3 Shiv according to the Purans. ~ [a~uftah] P ":pI adj upset, perplexed. Its root is ~30. ~ [a~uftan] P ~1 v to be distraught, bewildered or deeply agitated. ))fTJJQ' [asur], l?!lJg''dT [asuri] adj concerning a demon, of a demon. 2 n an ogress, a giantess. "suri asuri kfnll"i rijh rahlt purnan."-carItr 2. 3 See~ 2. ~ J:i'ufd" [asuri sapatl], ))fl1J'ffi Htrer [asuri sapada] SkI ~~ ~n wealth or glory earned ~

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228 through demonic means. 2 excess of foul Hinduism: brahrncharay, gnhasth, vanprasth actions like lust, anger, etc. and sanyas. "car varan car asram hahI, jo ~ [asures] king of demons. See ~R. han dhIavE so pardhanu."-g5c;i m 4. See tr'O "asures kopa h;"lkari."-cac;ii 2. »fl1Jlf. »l"I;I [asu] soon, quickly, See i>fTl.J 1. "gaman ~ [asrmai] See~. "kamal bIgSE tayar bhae kayo asu."-NP. madhu asrmai."-sri m 5. 'Lotus blooms and >WJ;f [asu] n tears. honey drips.' ~ [asu!).i] n hope, desire, wish. "vatI asu!).i ))fTlJ}ft [asrarni] adj who lives in a hermitage. banI."-s farid. 'having tied the luggage of 2 who lives through the four-stages of life. countless hopes'. 2 adj an unrealizable hope. »fTlllif [asray] See »fTffiJ. "tat asray;"l nanak." -sahas m 5. ~ [asudan] P (,;)JYI v to be comfortable, be prosperous. »f'TFJ~ [asrav] Skt n flow, current. 2 n a ~ [asuda] P o ';l adjin comfort, prosperous. dripping, falling in drops. 2 happy. 3 living in comfort. "gaj baji asude »fTfJIs [asnch], l"lfTfi:r3" [asnt] Skt l'>fTftI3" adj karkE."-GPS. staying on support, dependent. 2 n a servant, >m'hr [aseb] P ~f n a distress, suffering. 2 a an attendant. shock, trauma, blow. 3 the shadow of an evil >ml [asr£] l?f11IlJf. See »fTffiJ. ~TRO [asvasan] See l')fTFITA7j. "asvasan yut spirit; its entry in the body or the mind. l2fTff [as£] See »fTF(1jf. sikh ucar."-GPs. ~ [asok] See ~. 2 »fT (from all sides), ~Tt!" [asvad], ~re?i [asvadan] n savour, taste. 2 tasting, sucking, relishing. F.t'a" (grief); excessive sadness. l11"'U [ah] v is. "jIn kau dhun IIkhIa ah."-gau ~ [as:m] an unlucky omen. See ito. lWFfW [as;"lka] Skt ~ n a doubt, worry, var 1 m 4. 2 n a desire, an inclination, wish. "jogi jati sIdh han ahE."-gau m 5. 3 part a suspicion. 2 fear, dread. lWlftrO [as;"ljan] Skt 3Tffi01,\if;:r n binding and word indicating grief and surprise, ah. 4 pran connecting. 2 hanging, suspending. See Htr this, that. and Jt:ro. l1j'1'(JG rahat] Pkt a noise caused by someone's »flJi'o [as;"ln] Skt ~ adj sitting near. 2 adv arrival, sound of footsteps. 2 a battlefield. near, close by. "ath pahn ahat bIkhE juddh bhayo bIkrar." ~ [as;"lbhau] adj who has not been born, -cCJrItr 97. birth less. "as;"lbhau udvIau."-savEye m 5 ke. ~ [aha!).] n locust. See >Wm'l 1. 'The birth less has appeared.' 2 See ~. >WU3" rahat] adj injured, wounded, beaten up. See l11?)I(J3". ~ [a$caray] See i>ftl'"6i1. ))fTJc'j [ahan] See~. "ahan manfd brfd ae ~ [astIk], ~ [astrkta] See l>fTFlfuor 1 and l1jIHfdCl(3 • dal."-GPs. 2 P I"mI" lahar]

2 an endeavour, attempt. "sev;:)k kE thakur hi ka ahar jiu."-majh m 5. "ahar sabhr karda phrrE aharu rku na hor."-var ram 2' m 5. 3 Skt a sigh, deep breath indicating grief.



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3 asthma. 4 Skt a summoner. 5 the summoned. [ahu xutcm] deer of Khutan (in China). See ~. ~3" [ahut] Skt adj was called, was summoned; sent for. "gayo beg kalu ahuta."

SUDae."-maru m 1. [akbat] A ..::.;;~ n the next world, the hereafter. 2 the end, finis. See »rmr. l)fTOI"d' [akar] See ~. 2 Skt n a mine. 3 treasure. 4 a store, stock. 5 a caste, class. -NP 6 adj good, superior. 7 more, excessive. ~ [ahe] See ~, l'if'TZJT and >wfu. "hE hosi l)jT(SRJl:f [akarakh] Skt ~ n a sense organ. 2 a ahE. "-maru m 5. 'is, shall be and was.' test, touchstone. 3 a magnet. 4 attraction. "jab "nanak saraDI ahe."-asa m 5. akarakh karat ho kab-hii, tum mE mIlat ~ [ahE] See l')fT(J' and lWfu. "jogi jati sIdh han dehdhar sabh-hii."-c.Jpai. "citi sas ahE."-gau m 5. 'Jogis desire to realise God'. akarakhte."-sahas m 5. "jaha trIkha man ~ [aho] See ~ and l'if'TZJT. "w aho kerhe tujhu ak'}rakhE."-sukhmani. kam."-s farid. 2 part yes; that is right. 3 or, ~ [akarkhaD] Skt l?f'W'f'~ n attraction, else. 4 otherwise. pull. 2 act of ploughing. ~ [ahag] P ....t.:r n a desire. 2 a resolve, an ~ [akal] Skt~ adjperplexed, confounded. aim. 3 time, occasion. 4 a prelude to singing. "hau akal bIkal bhai bIn dekhe."-bIla am ~ [ahvan] Skt n a call, summon, invitation. 4. 2 A J~ adj wise, intelligent. "kI akal 2 an invitation letter. 3 a name. 4 an edict. alamE."-japu. 3 a carpenter Sikh of village Vadeghar who was the maternal grandfather ))fICl' [ak] n})fO( a wild plant, calotrosis procine. "dhan joban ak ki chaIa."-dhana chat m 1.' ofBhai Rup Chand. "akal kah'E tahI ko namu, man me gurumat ko VIsramU."-GPs. See 2 P Ji a trouble, a conflict. 3 a vice, fault, ~m. 4 a spiritually awakened devotee demerit. 4 A J~ adj disloyal. 5 disobedient. »Pa" [ak] See l?fcx. 2 S a weight; 1/16th of a seer, of Guru Arjan Dev from Sultanpur. a Chhatank. 3 an anna, a coin, I/16 th of a rupee. ~ [akall Dg n a branded and cauterized bfia'R' takas] P viii pron that person, that man. bull set free, a stud bull. l)jlaeaMo1 [aktarloni] Sir David Ochterloney, ~ [akar] n pride, arrogance. 2 rigidity. 3 a village seven kos north of Patiala in Sirhind son of a noble American. He came to India tehsil and under Musepur police station and made himself prominent with his bravery visited by Guru Teg Bahadur. There is only and prudence. He was a general in the Bf''lgal army. In October 1804 AD, he allied himself one platform and no building where the Guru stayed. The priest is a Nirmala Sikh. It is two with general Lake and drove out Jasvant Rao Holkar from Delhi. The British appointed him miles north ofKauli railway station. to oversee British-Sikh relations, and on l)j1CfT [aka] T Iii n a master, an owner. several occasions he entered into l'>f"aTA' takas] See nrcxrFI'. 2 all-pervasive God. 3 space, the sky, paradise, heavenly spheres. correspondence with Maharaja Ranjit Singh. On the occasion of the marriage of Prince "trE gUD mohe mohIa akas."-asa m 5. 4 the Kharak Singh in 1812, he was Maharaja's sun, the moon, and other planets which emit light or shine. SeeOTOl7)~. 5 pride, conceit. guest at Lahore. He died at Meerut on 15 "upan caraD talE akas."-ram m 5. 'Humility July 1825 at the age of 68 years. l)jrat:f [akath] See )o)fqEf. "nanak akath ki katha is superior to pride'. ~ }j3'O


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[aka1? kusum] n a flower of the sky. 2 impossibility, improbability. l)fI'a'TB" ofiIfT [aka1? gaga] n a celestial niver, named madakIni mentioned in Purans which flows in the sky. In Punjabi it is known as 'bachelors' road.' a galaxy called the Milky l')fTii(TJJ


Way.Pl;.iW· ~ 'tl'Q

[aka$ car] n birds. 2 an arrow. -s;mama. 3 a god. 4 a star, planet. 5 an aircraft, a balloon, etc. 6 adj who wanders in the sky. ~ m [aka1? balJ.i] n a celestial 'utterance. 2 according to Sikhism, a divinely inspired idea or speech of a spiritually awakened person. ))f1'(il"Ifi:r [akasI] in the sky. See ~I(Y. ~ [akasi] ad} concerning the sky; cellestial, . heavenly. mror'l3 [akasu] See ~ . ~ [akak1?a], ~ [akakhIa], ~ [akakhya] Skt 3Wf>f~ n a desire, wish. 2 the need of one word for expressing the mt~aning of another word, as for example in the phrase "Read this lesson", the lesson is the need of reading or in "Go there", there or that place is the need (akaksa) of going. ~ [akar] Skt n a form, structure, semblance, "hukmi hovanI akar."-jdpU. 2 stature, bulk, figure. 3 composition, construction. 4 a mark, sIgn. ~ ftr:I [akar cItr] See ftr:I ~C{TO 3. ~ [akaru] ad} having a shape, form or figure. "soi gupat soi akaru."-asa m 5. 2 n a form, shape. l)fifQ [akI] P ,.it pron that, which, he, who. ~ [akIl] See l'>fTm? ~ t!"H [akII das] a priest of the Hindali sect who assisted Lahore officials to apprehend many Sikhs. ~ [aki] A J~ad} defiant, rebellious. "aki marhI aphari."-maru m 1.


[akGcan] Skt ~O\~ n contraction, shrivelling, shrinkage, constriction. See~trO. ~ [akull Ski ad} diffused, pervasive. "ramaia akul ri bai."-gu} namdev. 2 ))f-~, without a pedigree or lineage. 3 without birth. "amar hOI sdd akul rahe."-prdbha namdev. 4 n God. "akul k£ ghan jauge."-ram namdev. 5 perplexed, confounded. "1?okakul rodan ko kina."-GPs. ~ [akramalJ.] Skt n an attack, assault. 2 crossing the limit. >wi!To [akrat] Ski adj surrounded. 2 spread, expansive. 3 assaulted, attacked. 4 helpless. "jdb hot dharanI bharakrat."-rudr. 'helpless under pressure'. See §lidigi::s. ~ [akntI] Skt ~ n a shape, form. 2 stature, structure. 3 an idol, image. ~ [ak1?epl Skt 2;rr!ffq" n the act of throwing. 2 a taint blemish, stigma. 3 a literal figure of meaning (irony) having self-abuse in the utterance. Example: "kabir rora hOIrahu bat ka tajI man ka abhImanu, Esa koi dasu hOI tahI mIlE bhagvanu. kabir rora hua ta kIa bhaIa? pathi kau dukhu deI, Esa tera dasu hE jIu dharni mahI kheh. kabir, kheh hui tau kIa bhaIa? j:> UQI lagE ag, hdrIjanu Esa cahiE jIu pani sarbag. kabir, pani hua ta kIa bhaIa? sira tata hOI, harIjanu Esa cahiE jEsa han hi hoI." -skabir. (b) a second form ofAkshep or irony is where utterance appears legally sound, but is intended to reject the ideas; Example: "bhag phim mad Ira chako raho mdst dIn rat, In seVdn te turdt hi ndr vIdeh hVEjat." 4 an irony, a sarcasm, sneer. ))fllf [akh] See Jo)ficr. 2 See »fTfu. 3 See ))fl1:f(!T. l)fil:f [akh] Skt »!fu". n an eye. "tdb te kou akh

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232 tare nahi anyo."-ramav. [akhaJ)], ~ [akhJ)a] v to say, speak, tell. "akhaJ) vala kIa vecara."-asa m 1. ~ [akhaJ)I] n something said or spoken of. "akhanI akhE bakE sabhukoI."-asa m 3. 2 n a statement explanation. "akhaJ)I aukha saca nau."-sodar. ~ [akhaJ)u] v to say, utter, speak, tell. "akhaJ)u sUJ)na teri baJ)i."-bher m 1. 2 n a speech, an utterance. ))fTl:f3T [axta] P ':;1 adj castrated, sterilised. axtan means to pull, axta thus means whose testicles have been castrated. l')f'l:fO [akhan] See ~. 2 adv every moment, always. ))fll:Itif [akhay] Skt~n a name. "bhavbhadhan ke am ko akhay bhekhaj car."-NP. 'The four characters of the name Vahguru are a medicine against the disease of worldly bondage'. l1fTl:re" [akhar] Skt"Y)f6(Q a letter of the alphabet, a character. "kine ram nam I k akhar." -sukhmani. 2 A j i adj last, ultimate. 3 n the end, a finis. 4 a result, consequence, outcome. ~ [akhauJ)a] v to be called, named or described. "paqIt akhae bahuti rahi."-var ram 2, m 5. ~ [akhaJ)] Skt »fTl:fjfI'O n a tale, story. 2 a description, explication. l')fTl:I1'ij" Hm [akhar maqli] n a theatre, stage. "akhar maqli dharaJ)I sabai."-ram m 5. 2 a group of actors. ~ [akhara] See ~. "rasJ;maqal kino akhara."-suhi parta1 m 5. ~ [akhar] Skt~. n Harh, a summer month in which occurs the full moon in the mansion of purabakhara. l)fTl:fr;1T [akhara] See ~. "racanu kina Iku akhara."-maru solhe m 5. "gurumati sabhI ras bhogda vaqa akhara."-var maru 2 m 5. ~

l')fTfl:r [akhI] n mouth, which is used to utter

everything. "akhaJ)u akhI na rajIa."-var majh m 2. 2 adj mentionable, utterable, fit to be talked about. "akhI no japE akhI.."-var sar m 1. 'The mentionable one (God) is not visible to the eye'. 3 n an eye. See Example 2. 4 adv having said. "mada kISE na akhI jhagra pavJ)a."-vaq chat m 1. 5 See })fTl:fJI'. ~ [akhIr] at last, in the end. See l?fTCRf 2. "akhIr bIaphtam."-trlag m 1. ))fTl:ft [akhi] See~. 2 n an eye. 3 with or by means of eyes. "dekhIa gurmukhI akhi." -var sri m 4. "gurmukh hOVE ta akhi sujhE." -maru solhe m 3. ~ [akhiphor] n a wink, a moment, an instant. ~ [akhiphon] advin an instant, instantly. "udharsI akhiphorI."-guj m 5. ))fT1:fta" [akhir] See »n:fur. l')fT1j [akhu] Skt n a digging animal. 2 a rat, mouse. 3 a mole, porcupine, etc. ~ [akhurna] See ~. lW11 [akhu], »fl1j [akhu] adjwho says. 2 fit for saying, mentionable. "akhu akha: sada sada."-var sar m 1. 3 See >'ifTl3. ~ [akhut], l?fT¥T [akhuta] See l'>fl3C. "bahut khajane merE palE parIa amol lal akhuta." -sarm 5. ~ [akhet], ~ [akhetak] Skt n hunting, game, chase. ~ [akhetil Skt ~;:r,adjwho hunts; who chases wild animals. ~ [akhepl See ~. ~ [akher], })flifQ firafu [akher buatI], ~ [akher], ~ ftref3" [akher bIratI] See~. n hunting as a means of livelihood or profession. 2 interest in or practice of hunting. "akher buatI baharI aIo dhaI."-bher m 5. "akher bIratI rajan ki lila."-g;:w m 5. l?flif [akhE] name. See »fTl::lJf. "nanak akhE guru

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bfT:ff'C[ilT a name, noun. 2 good 4 Shastar. 5 Tantar Shastar, book of charms reputation, prestige, renown. and mystical formu lae which has seven parts: 1')fT1:fMJ [akhyar] a letter, a character. See »f1::Rf. creation, dissolution, worship of gods, "kine ram nam Ik akhyar."-sukhmani. practice of mystical formulae, performance l')fTl:f:iIT [akhya] See })fQf.if. of sacrifices and repetition of the name of ~ [akhyaIka] Skt~. n a story, some deity with a definite aim and tale, fable. contemplation. "agC:1ill nIgam kahe janu nanak l'>fTl:f.iITi') [akhyan] Skt n a story, tale. 2 history, sab dekhe 10k.. 1 sabaIa."-toQi m 5. chronicle. ~ [agaman] Skt n arrival, advent. 2 profit, ~ [axvud] See ~. gain. l?f1(Jf rag] n sugarcane; the top portion ofcertain ~ [agamapai], ~ [agamapayi] tall grasses like sorghum etc. 2 fire, "ag Jlagau Skt31IJIJOOIlqlf£li,adjwho comes and goes, visitor. tIh dhaulhan jIh nahi han ko nau. "-s kabir. 2 subject or liable to birth and death or to 3 an order, command. See >wfur. 4 adv in front, growth and decay, transient, impermanent. ahead. "p:m ke g:m te ag calyo."-knsan. l?f1(Jf ~ rag yatar] Dg a fire-arm, weapon like 5 Skt n a crime, sin. a gun, musket, etc. ~ [agasat] See })f(JJR3'. 2 Skt >:>fT"a'TJf;r adj 'l?fTiIT'a' [agar] n a miine, quarry. See d3(')'dld. connected with the sage Agast. 3 ofAgastya's 2l?-1dJ adv before, at first, earlier. "sabad tarag sub-caste. 4 n the: southern direction. pragatat dIn agar.. "-savEye m 4 ke. 'A wave ))fTiJIU [agah] Skt lWqrr n persistence, obstinacy. of recitation appears before daybreak.' 3 »rdJ.if 2 ad'T forward, in front. 3 adj second, oth,er. adj a headman, chieJI~ "can mran kah-hI bahu "dos det agah kau adha."-bavan. agar."-gau kabir. 4 Skt n night of the new l)(Id'Jj1 [agaj] See »l'd1Tff. 2 Skt»tqfffn elder brother. moon, moonless niight. 3 a principal officer, leader. 4 Brahman. ))fTdI'QT [agra] Agra, a city on the bank of })fI(JJ3' [agat] Skt adj arrived. 2 n a guest. Yamuna in United Provinces. Sikandar Lodhi l)f'I(JJ"O ragan] See nfOTfn. 2 See l'lfdTf'cE3'. 3 See first made it his capital and built Badalgarh »rioTo. fort on the bank of Yamuna. Later at a cost of »rioTo ragan] Skt 3Rl:,rruT a compound, courtyard. Rs. 36 lacs, emperor Akbar got built a grand ))fl'dJ03' [aganat], l?fl(JlO3T [aganta] adj countless, and strong fort at the same site through Mir innumerable. "parbrahameso aganta."-bavan. Muhammad Qasim Khan. })f'I'd1"fo [aganI], »fi"aTf?5' [aganI] in the courtyard. Akbar greatly added to its prosperity and "sobha mere aganI."-brla m 5. "aganI sulch renamed it Akbarabad. See ~ and F.JTill1(JT. basna."-phunhe m 5. 'living comfortably in In and around the Maithan sector of this the compound'. "ghan aganI na sukhai."city are gurdwaras dedicated to Guru Teg sri be1).i. 2 See »IOffo. Bahadur and also a gurdwara of Guru Gobind

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Singh. According to Guru Partap Suray, Guru Hargobind also came here with emperor Jahangir. ~ [agal] adj foremost, leading, chief. 2 excessive, abundant. "sukh magat dukh agal hOI."-gau a m 1. 3 adv in front, ahead. 4 n the next world, hereafter. "bahut sIal)ap agal bhara."-gau m 5. ~ [aglara] adj of the past, former. "maIa moh m;mI aglara pral)i."-sri trrlocan. ~ [aglare] plural of~. 2 adv in front, face to face, "tInI aglare mE rahII) na jaI." -sri trIlocan. ~

[agvan] See


1WaT'@'I-fi"ft [agvamni] n a gun or musket (which

pukes fire }-scmama. raga] n the front part, front side. 2 a forehead. 3 a chest. 4 Skt adj near, closelyrelated. 5 future. 6 the hereafter "aga apan sudharan karan."-GPs. 7 the result, effect, outcome. 8 T ~1 a transform of~, a master, owner. »fl(II"'R" ragas], >WOJTff [agasu] See ~. "lakh agasa agas."-japu. ))fl(II'Tij" [agah] adjbottomless. 2 P 0(1 informed, knowing, privy. "garab jIna vaQIaia dhan joban agah."-s f;;Jrid. l)fI'iJI'T'UT [agaha] towards the front, to the future. "agaha ku tragh pIcha pher na muhaQra." ))f1QIT

command, "man gobfdE agIo."-gau m 5. "agIa manI bhagatI hOI tumari."-asa m 5. ~ [agIakari] Skt 31nrFflTf't'l, adj obedient. "agIakari sada suhagal)I."-var suhi m 3. ~ [agIras] ~ adj belonging to the clan of sage Angira. 2 n Vrihaspati, the teacher of gods. l1fTCIft [agi] n fire. "dekhI nIvana jal mahI agi."-pr;;Jbha ;;J m 1. 'absorbed dark traits in the qualities of goodness'. ~ [aguri] Skt ~ n a finger. ~ [agu] adj a leader. 2 a guide. ";}dha agu je thiE kIu padharu jal)E."-suhi chJt m 1. 3 Skt n a vow, solemn declaration, commitment. '»fTiit [age], ~ [agE] adv in front. 2 after this. "agE gham pIchE rutI jaQa."-tukha bar;;Jhmaha m 1. 3 future. "agE dayu pachE naraIl)u."-bher m 5. 'In between the future and the past is the eternal.' ~ ~ [agE pachE] adv before and behind. 2 in this world and the next. "agE pachE madi sOI."-gau m 5. ~ [agaj] See l>fOf;:r. l2f1OftB [agajat] adj free from destruction, indestructible, immortal. "agajat paga."-ram var2 m 5. ))f~

-maru var 2, m 5. ~

nIvari agI jotI di paiE."-suhi ;;J m 1. ~ [agIo], l?fTfcn>w [agIa] Skt 31mT an order,

[agahi] P (j~1 n knowledge, acquaintance, vigilance. >woJTN [agaj], l?fl()JTj=fT [agaja] P ;~, n a beginning. 2 the origin. "jIhva dhunI agaja."-ram m 5. ~ [agami] Skt3WTTflf:r,adjcoming. 2 future. ))fT(J[TO [agar] Skt n a home, residence. 2 a store. 3 a treasury. ~ [agI] fire. "agI lagaI m;}dar mahI sovhI."-g;;JU k;;Jbir. 2 Skt 31T~rT an order, command. See ~. 3 ignorance. "sabadI

[ag;}tuk] Skt adj (one) who comes. 2 n a visitor, guest. ~ [agya] See ~. })IidlOiiIC(Id'J [agyakari], ~ [agyapalak] See~. ~

[agyI] with or by order. "mE sukh paID guragyI."-jet m 5. ~ [agrah] Skt n obduracy, obstinacy. 2 perseverance, persistence. 3 a shelter, place, abode. 4 grace, kindness. 5 an arrest; a grasp. 6 an attack, invasion.

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»fla]tft [agrahi] Skt~adjobstinalte, obduralte. See l'JiTO]U. [aghl See '»fl.lf. 2 Skt Y>fUf n price, rat,e, cost. "taba suvaran sag te suvaran agh brkaI." -alijkar sagar sudha. ~ [aghaUI:tal See ~. "jIni cakhIa premras se trIpat rahe aghaI."-barahmaha majh. 'Those who tasted the juice of love, remained satiated and content'. "aghae sata."-maru m 5. ~ [aghaIa] adj satiated, content, surfeited. l1fIUIT3" [aghatl Skt n a blow, stroke. 2 an injury, hurt, wound, push. "karE: bahu aghat sastra prahara."-VN 3 a butchery, slaughter-house. l)fTU(TOT [aghana] See ~. 2 adj satiated, surfeited, content. "harI pi aghane."-sri chJt m5. ~ [aghavan] See ~(!T. "nam japat aghavE." -sukhmani. >wufti:rr [aghija] See })ftlflw. "trIpat rahe aghija he."-maru solhe m 5. ~ [aghulna] See. ~. ~ [aghu], l'>f'Uf [aghe] S adv in the prese:nce of, face to face. "sacu jaDe kacu vEdIO tu aghu aghe salve. nanak atsari majhI nEDu bIa qhalI pabaDI jJ:u jDmIo."-var maru 2 m 5. 'You consider false things which shall pass away as true, and you go forth to get them, but they are fle~:ting like butter in fire and a lily in water'. >wUrn [aghor] See nJtlto. 2 adjhighly frightening, terrible. "param aghor rup tIh."--par2s. lWlYwWa' [ajar] See »IFRf. 2 n Anjana's son, Hanuman. >wftr [ajr] Skt n a battle, contest, encounter. ~ [ajna] v to put collyrium in the eyes. 2 a battlefield. 3 a path, route. 4 surpassing.

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5 See >1fTFl'Jf.

lWfi::rtr [ajIj] A .7.100 adj humble. "ajIj ria bat." -japu. 2 upset. 3 poor. 4 incapable. 5 helpless. ~ 'i'iWB" [ajIz navaz] P JI}.7.16 adj who

encourages the helpless. n helplessness, humility. l?fTftD.r [ajIm] See »flIDf. l?fTftD.r F.RT [ajIm ~ah] See »flIDf 'F.ll(J. ~ [ajivIka] Skt n means of livelihood; a vocation, profession. See A ..:iJjj. })f'tf [aju] today. "aju kalI manjair pra!)i." -mart! solhe m 1. 2 advon going day. ~ [~jurda] See ~. l'>fTijOl [ajuni], ~ ~ [ajuni sabhau] See ~ M. "ajuni sabhau."-maru solhe m.5. >Wit [ajr] See »fiii:roT. 2 Skt ~ vr to refine; to shine; to produce. "jo ajE so disE kal."-lnla a m 1. 'Whoever is born is subject to death'. >wRo'l [ajonil, }J~ [ajoniu] adj ilfGifo. See ~it. "ajoniu bhalyu amalu satIgur sagI nIvasu."-saveye m 4 ke. 'your stay with the birthless, decent and true guru (Amar Das)'. l'>fTilit JfertI [ajoni sabhau], l1I"Ftit Ff~ [ajoni sabhavIau] See >lfWi1 M. "parbraham ajoni sabhau."-sar m 5. "ajoni sabhaVIaU jagatguru bacanI tarayau."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [ajy] Skt n butter, ghee. 2 oil. 3 milk. »fTW [ajha] ad} without a master, humble. 2 needy. lWG [at] M obduracy, willfulness. ntiG [at] Pkt n the space between the: thumb and the forefinger. "at seti nak pakarhI:" -dhana m 1. 2 a trick, tactic. 3 connection, consonance. 4 S sharp sight. 5 smartness of sight. 6 Dg tenacity. »fTGO [atan] See »teO and ~. >WeT lata] n ground corn, flour. "Ikna ata agla Ikna nahi lo!)u."-s farid. lWO lath] Skt~. adj eight, 8. "ath pahar apna khasamu dhIavaU."-asa namdev. ~ [ajIZi] ().7.1oo


lWO fmr3T o1rdc:l'() ~ lath sIphta nitIvan dial Eight qualities of a statesman are: "pnthme Ese lijr her, sabh karaj me hoy dIler. dusar apno kadar pachan, dn~atI dharr nike man man. tntIye agya svami sath, rahr prasan cahr ya~ gath. caturath maram apno joy, ta ko kahE patr jo hoy. pacam bat chupavr rse, kou lakhr bhed nahf jEse. kha~tam rse karo ucar, bad~ah ko jo darbar, ta mahI nIkti jo sad rahe, sag ~ah ke bata kahe, tIn ko CIt rnithe kahI b£11, karr hath me budhI ko rn. saptam sukhan sabhar nIkale, darja apna ap sabhale. a~tam suhbat lahI pat~ah, rahE xamo~ ho~ ke mah, jab b nahI puchr ko bat, tab b nahI bhakhE kusarat. jIS mahI sIphat ath yahI ahI phate paIhr s;)b bIdhI mahI." -buddhrvaradhr m 1. »flO ~ lath srav;)!)] one with eight ears, Brahma. Having four heads, he had, therefore, eight ears and eight eyes. lWO iPH lath jam] eight periods of three hours each, meaning a complete day and night. "ath jam caUS;)thI gh;)ri tU;) nIrkh;)t rahr jiu." -s kabir. See ~F!O URft. lWO ~ lath dngl See l1iRC ~ and lWO~. l)fI'QT [atha] n a group of eight. 2 eight. 3 the digit 8. ~ [athol adj y.ff1P1 eighth. "tat bhayo jab atho."-krrsan. ~ [aQ] Pkt n a cover, shelter, refuge. 2 a

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screen. 3 a support, basis. 4 a nose-string ~ [aQo] n an egg, "jEse aQo hIrde mahI." -mali m 5. which is attached with a hook to the hair so that the weight of the ornament does not ~ [aQabar] See nrchRr. "meri sejriE aQabar ba1).Ia."-asa chat m 5. impinge on the nose. "ajcm aQ sudhar bhale pat."-krrscm. 5 See~. "aQ sIpar ko rokas ~ [aQh] See ~. "aQh dam ko chipro hOIO aga."-GPs. 6 in Punjabi, a water channel is lakhi1).a."-asa dMna. 2 n support, basis. 3 See also called aQ. ~. ~ [aQ] n an egg. 2 an ovary. ~ [aQhak] Skt n one fourth of a dron; four ~ [aQa1).] Dg n a shield. seers in weight. 2 a measure ofsize, ten fingers ))fT'33" [aQat] See ~. brokerage. 2 a soldier in breadth from each of the four sides. 3 S of Soini sub-caste who was a sepoy in the message. King's army at Delhi. He became a disciple ~ [aQhaII], ~ [aQhalu] adj dependent. of Guru Arjan Dev, who besides giving the "nanak so sahu ahI jake aQhali habhuko." former the gift of God's name taught him to -var guj 2 m 5. 2 dependent, needy. l)fTW [aQha] n a dispute, a violent fracas. 2 adj be brave for the good of here and hereafter. ))fI'lJT [aQa] adj crooked, aslant, awry. 2 a needy, wanting, dependent. competition. 3 an obstruction, obstacle. >wfu [aQhI] Skt ~ adj complete. 2 with, 4 basis, support. "hamro kou ::>r na aQa." including. "dhanaQhI aQhI bhaQan han nIdhI hot jIna na cir."-guj C'J m 5. 'Those -knsan. 5 a halting place, resort. 6 a band who had no garment to wear became far richer for a hawk to perch. "bakh$I$ guru ki baz than the rich on receiving the treasure of sahIt tfh aQe par bathaI sukh man."-GPs. ~ [aQa] n an egg. "phuto aQa bharam ka." God's name'. 3 See ~ and ~. ~ [aQhi1).i] adj worth a quarter of a pice; -maru m 5. 2 (the egg shaped) universe. cheap. "aQhi1).i hoi lakhi1).i."-BG l)I'T itw [aQa tika] n a slanting forehead mark worn by Shaivites shaped like the moon of ~ [aQhu] See ~ and l?R:iT. the second night of the bright fortnight; a ~ [aQhy] Skt adj strategic, tactful. "sarba tnpuQ. "aQa tike mukh-hu na lag." bhar1).aQhy."-japu. 'is inclusive of all metaphors.' 2 rich, wealthy. -rC'Jtanmala. The Vaishnavites regard the slanting forehead mark of the Shaivites as a ~ [a1).] See ~. 2 See~. 3 S subjection, allegiance. 4 obedience, dutifulness. 5 Dg a derogatory. See ~ Y~. ~ [aQa1).], ~ [aQan] See ~OJI'3t5 [atpdt], l')j~ [atpdtu], ~ [atpdtr] SkI 3ll(f'1?f n protector from the sun's heat, an umbrella; a parasol. 2 a canopy or umbrella as a mark of royalty. "SIr atpdtu SdCO tdkhdt."-sCJveye m 4 ke. ~ [atdpdtfdl).i] army ofa crowned king. -sCJnama. ))f'3H [atdm] SkI ~n God, for full detail of this word, See under »fT3HT. "atdm ram tISU nddri aIa."-sukhmCJni. 2 individual soul. "atdm mdhI ram, ram mdhI atdm."--bhEI" CJ m 1.3 mind. "prdbhu kdU SImdrhI tInI atdm l)fT3lf

jita."-sukhmCJni. 4. one's own self. "sdbh te nicu atdm kdrI mandu."-dev m 5. 5 a body, corpse. 6 patience. 7 nature. 8 SkI 31T-~ deep darkness, meaning darkness of ignorance. "nfda kdrI kdrI ndrdk nIvasi, atdrI atdm japE."-maru CJ m 1. I ~ [atdmhatya] n a suicide. ))f'3H ~ [atdm gdUl).U] n entrance into the self. 2 travelling to attain self-knowledge. "atdm gdUl).U kdrenI."-var ram 1 m 3. ))f'3H 'ar.3' [atdmgdr], })fT3}f ~ [atdmgdru] n a fort of the mind, mind as a fort. "atam gdTU bIkhdm tIna hi jita."-majh m 5. ~ [atmdgy] SkI ~ adjone knowing the self. ~ [atdmgyan] SkI ~ n knowledge of the self. 2~ knowing God. ~ [atdmgyani] n a Brahmgyani. one who has attained knowledge of the supreme spiritual reality. 2 a knower of the self. ))f'3H t.lf13' [atdm ghat] n a suicide. »fT3lf t1fT3l [atdm ghati] adj who commits suicide. "nam nd jdp-hI te atdm ghati."-gCJu m5. ~ [atmdj] SkI ~ n own-born son. 2 Kamdev, Cupid. 3 blood. l')j13}ffiT [atmdja] n daughter. ~it [atdmjol).il] Dg n one's own source of origin; mood; Cupid, Kamdev. ~ 3lw [atam tirdth] n pilgrimage place of the self; spiritual knowledge of the self. l')j'TO)f '3TIrFa' [atdm tirdthI] in the sacred precinct of the self. "sac tapdru jal).iE ja atdm tirdthI kdre nIvas."-var asa. l')jT3}f ~ [atdm ddrds] a glimpse of God. ISome ignorant persons, without following the meaning hold that the writer, has written erroneously 'atas' as 'alam'. Following their suggestion, some persons have dared to print 'atas' there. See Guru Granth Sahib's bir of 1430 pages published by MufidAam Press p.l 0 13, line 3.

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2 Dg a mirror in which one looks at one self. ~ [atam darsi] Skt 3TT('l1 ~ adj who sees spiritual reality; for whom God is a visible reality. ~ [atamdan], ~ [atamdanu] n a gift of the self; self-sacrifice. 2 a gift or donation of spiritual knowledge. "gurujevaQu data ko nahi jInI dIta atamdan."-sri m 5. })f'3}f ti~ [atam dravl)a] v to feel pity or compassion; to soften. »fT3}f 1;fCIT'R' [atam pragas] n spiritual light. 2 a miracle of self-knowledge. ))fl3}f~ [atam prabodh] n spiritual knowledge; knowledge of God. "dukh bhajan atam prabodh."-savEye m 4 ke. })f'3}f '8'R' [atam bas] adj who has one's self under control. 2 self-reliant. "atam bas hE." -japu. 3 n continence. ~ [atambhu] n born from self, God. 2 son. 3 Brahma. "atambhu bhal ritI pachanat."-NP 4 Shiv. 5 Vishnu. 6 Cupid. l1fT3}f 'ij"R' [atam ras] n a relish of spiritual knowledge. "atamras jInI jal)Io."-savEye m 1 ke. l'>fT3H ~ [atam rak$a], l'>fT3H -a'fcf>w [atam rakkhIa], »fT3}f 0CfJfT [atam rakhya] n selfdefence, protection of one's own self. 2 protection of mind or soul "atam rakhya gopal suami."-sahas m 4. ~ [atamrat] adj who loves the soul. 2 who has attained spiritual knowledge. 3 proud of one's body. "atamrata sasar gaha te nar nanak nIhphalah."-sdhds m 5. 'Those who take pride in their body, donot attain salvation'. »fT3}f Q'H [atam ram] n such a soul in which those possessing spiritual knowledge dwell; the supreme Soul; God. "gurmukhI man samjhair atamram bican."-sri m 1. 2 a yogi frequenting the spiritual domain. »fT3}f


~ [atam vId] Skt ~ adj equipped with spiritual knowledge; possessing mystery of the soul. »fT3}f~ [atam vIdya] n theology especially as taught in the Upanishads; knowledge or science of the self. l'>fT3W [atma] Skt ~, (31\f,-"J1f.1;:rj by which knowledge is acquired; the basis of knowledge got from the Guru's teaching. Knowledge of the soul is the central element in living beings which is the source of many desires. In human beings it is the source from which knowledge of! and mine arises. Some have accepted its location in the brain, and others in the heart while still others believe it permeating the entire body. According to Nyay philosophy, the soul possesses qualities of comfort, pain, knowledge etc., Their presence is the proof of the soul's existence. »fT3}f

"~~~ B'@G':wfEr [athI] See l?fTEr. 2 l?fEf money, wealth. to the Bible and Quran, God made with earth "athI sd nic ghan hOI, athI dekhI nIV€ jIS and in his own image. "baba adam kau kIChu dOI."-o~kar. 'If the lowly and the foolish nadan dIkhai."-bhE'r kClbir. According to a possess wealth, the clever and the noble, also Biblical story, while Adam was sleeping, God bow in respect.' 3 in sensual matters. See took out one of his ribs and turned it into Eve. ~. 4 set, disappeared. "mero janam God put this couple in the garden of Eden maran dukh athI."-bCls~t kClbir. 5 1'ifq here. telling them that they might live there in "mna bhuli athI."-o~kar. 6 tired. "bhukh pleasure and eat fruit. He instructed them not pIaso athI kIU dan jaIsa jiu."-dllCina ch~t to eat fruit of a particular tree. Satan came m 1. 7 ~ supplicant, desirous, aspirant. and lured Adam and Eve to eat the forbidden "bhulo marag athI."-sri CI m 1. 8 the rich; fruit, for which act they were expelled from the wealthy. 9 a word with »rtf in the Eden with the curse that Adam's progeny shall beginning. "suasatI athI bal).i barmau, satI have to toil for living and shall be liable to death. In the Bible, Adam's age was 930 suhal).u sada manI cau."-jClpu. Words like years, and Cain I, AbeF and Seth were his sons. those beginning with ~ and »rEf enthuse the mind (like the Arabic word sub-han or the T.P. Hughes writes in his Dictionary of Islam that after explusion from heaven, Adam Sikh formula satInamu) See »rEf and ~. Professor Teja Singh interprets these lines fell in Ceylon and Eve in Jeddah in Arabia. as 'Salute is to Him who Himself is Maya, They remained separated for 200 years, after which the angel Gabriel brought Adam to Bani and Braham. He is truth incarnate, Mount Arfah and united him with Eve. Adam beautiful and in the form of infinite then went with his wife back to Ceylon where pleasurable desire for doing good'. l?fTfa3:;r [athIty] 11 instability, impermanence. there is a 7426 feet high hill and also a bridge 2 See >wfu3:;r ~. 3 See ~. named after Adam. According to the >wfu3:;r ~ [athIty bhavan] 11 the world, a Ramayan this bridge was made by Ram Chandar. Some poets think that Ram was guest house, an inn. "atya t asa a thI ty bhavna."-sClhCls m 5. 2 a transient home. Adam, and Sita was Eve. 3 adj wrapped in ~ [ad] Skt l')fTfu adj first, initial, basic. 2 11 leather. 4 of wheatish colour. the beginning; origin. 3 the primary cause. ~ "f.l('j1'J:ft [adam ~anasiJ 11 test of a man; a method to assess man's merits and demerits. 4 part others. ~ [ad] See nP3" and ~. jJP€ dey jivan to sajjan sanehi sag ~ [adak] See l1flfuor. 2 SkI »fTt!-q 11 fresh jJP€ dey mic to bhali hi bhumI ka~i ki. jJpE dey dand to han ke bhajan yut ginger. See ~ 2. ~ [adagg] adj burning, aflame, afire. jJP€ dey lacch bane seva aVIna~i ki. 2 shining, lighted. "adagg jog sOdar sarup." 'This pronounced as 'QT?)'. -datt. 'This is pronounced as '~'.

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of previous actions. "adI akur ala."-bIha chat m 5. >wfu nffi:r [adI atI] adv in the beginning and at the end; birth and death. "adI atI jo -n~}Val sIgh. rakhanharu."-sukhmani. 2 at any or every time. ~o [adamxor] adj (one) who eats men; »fTfu"Fr [adIs] See ~. 2 See ~. 3 adv cannibal. »f1t!}f ~ Y1? [adam da pul] Adam's Bridge, a all around. "adIs phIrEya teto bhut kE pachaniE."-akal. 4 See l?fTfuF.r and >wtfu:r 2. 17 miles long low ridge extending from Rameshvaram in Madurai district of Madras l">f"'fua" [adlk] part etcetra, and others. 2 Skt to Munnar in Ceylon. According to the >wecf n fresh ginger. "adlk ke blkh cabat Ramayan tale, it is a bridge wh ich Ram bhorE."-kl'Isan. 'munches aconite root instead of fresh ginger'. Chandar got constructed through Nal and Nil for transporting his army to Lanka (Ceylon). >wfu ~ [adI kavI] n the first poet; Valmik. 2 Shukrachary. See~ 2. ~[admi] A (]Jf n man; progeny of Adam. >wfu~ [adI kumar] n Brahma's sons, Sanak etc. "kai dey adIkumar."-dkal. "ham adami hii. Ik dami."-dh;:ma m J. [adI ~ [admiyat] n humanity, human nature, »fTfe" gwfu [adI kuman], "l?-fT"fu gentlemanliness, civility. kumari] n goddess Druga. Parvati. 2 Lachhmi. l)fTt!O radar] Skt n respect, regard, hospitality. nrrreQJO [adr gur] n Guru Nanak Dev. "adIgurae namah."-sukhmani. See~. 2 welcome, reception, hospitality" "adaru dlta parbraham."-suhi d m 5. »fTfe" tfcJf'fe" [adI jugadI], »rfu tf~ [adI ~ radar] See~and~. jugadi] from the beginning of time. "adr ~ [adaras] Skt l?fIt:F.f n a mirror. "darsE jugadI dalalu tu thakur."-asa a m 1. "adI VIC adaras badan ko."-GPs. 2 an annotation, jugacii rakhda."-majh m 5 dInl'E1) I. a commentary. 3 a sample. 4. a principle, ~ [adlt] See :I~. 2 the sun. See »fl"fe3:;r. l)t'f€3wfuH [adIm] See})fTt!}f. 2 Skt adjfirst, initial. 3 in grammar, first part of a sentence which is related to the final part, for example in "vIdvan gyani sigh, uttam ketha karda hE", vIdvan gyani sigh is »fIfBH. ~ [adImatu], ~ [adImatr] n Rf30Ttf the primal formula. "satInamu tera para purbala."-maru solhe m 5. "dehI ta japi adImatu."-basat m 3. ~ radII] A JJ~ adjjust, impartial, fair. "adIl adal calaIda."-BG ))fl'fuw [adIla] adj the first, initial. 2 vocative, '0, Judge 1.' ~ [adIle] of ancient times, aboriginal. "adIle bhagat jItu lagI tare."-savEye m 4 ke. ~ [adi] See »flfe-. 2 adj brought, fetched. "jInI sita adi qauru vaI."-var ram m 1. 3 A l5J~ adj habituated. 4 practising. ~ [afdi] See nrtft 2. >wtfu:r [adis] n »flfe--EIH. primal, master, God. 2 P J!JI fire. ~ lades], ~ [adesu] Skt~ n an order command. 2 news, intelligence. 3 instruction, advice. 4 in grammar, replacing a letter with another. 5 Yogi's mutual salutation. "adesu tISE adesu."-japu. ~ffi') [adelan] Skt n repeated oscillation, swinging. 2 a disturbance, a commotion. 3 excitement. 4 a noise, clamour, uproar. ~ lady] Skt adj initial. 2 principal, great. 3 n a thumb. 4 eatable, food. ~tP3'" [adyopat] Skt adv from the first to the last, from the beginning to the end, throughout. ~ [adns], ~ [adnsy] Skt~ adj

invisible. 2 SktYWt!ff a model, standard, norm. "adnsy dharam."-japu. ))fI'l:f [adh] adj half. "adh ghari kou nahI rakhr." -dev m 9. 2 See »rfu. l?fTtIfo [adham] short form of~; king's army. -scmama. ~ [adhar], l)fimjT [adhra] adj blind. "adhar ki padvi kahi pavr."-VN. 2 ignorant, stupid. 3 arrogant, conceited. n{ltIT [adha] adj half. ~ [adhan] See »fQ1?l. ~ [adhar] See l'>fLI'TO. "nam tera adhar mera."-gau kabir. 2 food. "jIn pEdaIs tu kia soi deI adhar."-tIlag m 5. ~ [adhari] See ~. 2. n stay, support. "sabhna jia ka adhari."-maru solhe m 3. 3 a mendicant's bag. "qaqa mudra khftha adhari." -bIla kabir. nMi:r [adhI] Skt n mental suffering. See OR. 2 worry, anxiety, concern. nMi:r ~~ [adhI dEVIk] Skt adj (suffering) caused by gods. 2 n a calamity caused by heat and cold, rain, lightning, a natural calamity. nMi:r Yfuor [adhI bh::>tIk] Skt adj (suffering) caused by living beings. 2 n (pain) caused by snakebite, tiger, dogbite, etc. l?fTt:ft [adhi] adj (feminine) half. "ek ghari adhi ghari."-s kabir. 2. See »rfu. 3 Skt n vigilance. ))firft [adhi] n a fierce blinding storm; a dust storm "gIan ki ai adhi."-gau kabir. ))fTtfur [adhit] See lIfl=ft3'". l)f!tflo [adhin] See l'>Itflo. ~ [adhunIk] Skt adj of the present; modern. l'>f"9" [adhu] adj half. 2 suffering mentally. ))fTih;r [adhey] Skt n something which stays on some support like a bangle on the arm. 2 adj sustainable. ))fTihr [adher], l?fi'iloT [adhera] See l?iilo "adherE rahu na koi."-var majh m 1.

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245 ~

[adhor;:n:d Skt n a keeper and driver of an elephant; a mahout. ~ [adhyatmIk] Skt 31T~~'>f1.f'O]"fu. to advice from others. 2 who can do things })fT1.I"(!" [apaI).] Skt n a shop. 2 a market 3 See on his own wJithout external prodding. »f'l.IO. "apaI). lia je mIIE."-majh barahmaha. 3 speaking spontaneously without refinement })fIlffTlIT tapa] n one's own self, selfhood. 2 pride, 3 SktYWlJ adj received, acquired. 4 wise; shrewd. ego. 3 one's real worth orreal self. "jannanak 5 who tells the reality. 6 n a sage, hermit. bIn apa cim: mItE' na bhram ki kai."-dhana ~ [apatkam] Skt ~ adj all whose m 9. 4 M l?fTLr' father. desires have been fulfilled; fully satisfied. l2fTtIT [apa] pron. plural of l'>fTtf. we. ~ [apatI] See ))fTLf3' 1. 2 Skt 1'lfT1\r n l)fT1.(ti! [apau] Skt ~:;Pl;ro n watering, acquisition, profit. irrigation. "salIl apau saragpaI).i."-sri m 1. ~ [apatu] Ski ~ n ego, pride. 2 love of 'Irrigate with water i.e. with God's name'. the self. "choQ apatu bad ahakara."-toc;ii m 5. 2 See~~.

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~ [apaut).a] See~. 2 v to adopt, make

(something) one's own, "prabhu gahI bhuja apaIo."-gau am 5. ~ [apaIa] adopted as one's own. See ~. 2 merged in 'his Qwn form. "kama apI karavan ape, kahu nanak apI apaIo." -sar m 5. l?fTU1U [apah] disinterested. See l")ftIT(T. "karat). karat). samrath apahe."-maru solhe m 4. ))fTl.fTQ [apar] See })fl.fTO. "kautak karE rag apar."-sukhmani. l'>fTfi.r [apI] See )){Tl.f. 2 part self, by oneself. "apI chute nah chutiE."-var mala m 1. 3 SkI n a friend, a chum. ~ [apIa] adjowned, made one's own. "l;'lk bhabhIkhat). apIo ho."-sor namdev. ~ ~ [apit).E apahu], ~ >wRr rapine apI] by onself; without another's help. "apinE apahu."-var suhi m 1. "jInI apinE apI sajIa sacra alakh aparo."-van'Y [apu] one's self. See)){Tl.f. "apE jat).E apu." -japu. "apu savarhI :thE mIlhI."-s farid. 2 selfcpride, egotism. "apu tragI s;'lt caran lagI."-prabha partal m 5. 3 part self, one's 'self. "apu gae auran hu khovhI. ','-gau kabir. lWU))fIt( [apeap], lWU>wRr [apeapI] See~ 'nfTfJ. "han ape apI upaIda."-sri m 4 vaI)jara. lWU lWU [ape ape] selfalone, one's self. 2 vain, conceited. "ek mahaii til ape ape, ek mahalI garibano."-gau m 5. 3 See lWU >wRr. ~ [apodhap], ~ [apodhapi] n rat race for one's own interests; extreme selfishness; ,action to please oneself alone. "apo dhapi hOIkE nyare nyare dharam calavE."-BG 2 SkI ~ ill-intention, illomened thinking, perplexity. l'>f'l1 [ap:>] See)){Tl.f and~. pride. 2 by oneself. "nanak je ko apo jat).E, agE gaIa na soh£." -japu. 'if some one thinks that he is able to

achieve anything.' [afat] A .,:;,1 SkI l'>fTlR n a calamity, adversity. 2 a distress, affliction. 3 a turbulence, tumult. . ~ [aftab] P ",:""Dl n drier of water, the sun. "aftab sam uday na hov£."-GPs. ~tiIHO [aphtabe yaman], ~ liIWi'i' [aphtabe yaman] P ~",:""Dl-l:Jlt",:""Dl the sun of Yemen; bright and very hot. "caraGe falak aftabe yaman." "kI mahe falak aftabe yaman."-hakayats. ~ [aphart).a], ~ [aphama] v to bloat, swell with pride. See l?fGTO. ~ [afadl P J.jl part a term of applause and approval; well done, bravo. 2 adj -This word meaning 'who produces' comes at end as in jaM afd, the creator of the world. ~ [afridah] P &,~.)1 produced, gave birth to. »)jIO~idlt!(') [afridan] P l:J-t)1 v to give birth, produce. ~ [aphridi] See ~. ~ [aphrin] See ~. ~ [afat] A .::-Gl plural of~. "sarka::; hVE aphat uthai."-GPS. ~ [aphar] See l?fGTO. ~ [aphu] See • . "amli mI::;ri chafTHJ'f n anger, ire. "Irkha parukha chal amarkha." ))(T}1t! [amad] P ..I came, "kuja amad kuja raphti."-trlag namdev. 'Where did you come -NP. 2 Skt l?fTHF.f an intimate touch. 3 a consultation. from, where do you goT. 2 n income Skt'tl%f. })fTHfu [aman],))fT}Rft [amri], ilfTH'2 [amaru] See "amad xarac sabharan kare."-GPs. »f}f'Q and })f11-fQ. "aji amri nIvalka karam .~ [amdan] P d ..r v to come, arrive. 2 n vare."-datt. 'unborn, deathless practitioners income. »f19'OII'

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of Yoga.' ~ [amrud] See ~. ~ [amro] See '»fl}Rf. }')f'}IH' [amCll] See »fT'fI.ffi. ~ [amlClk] See~. "hath amlak atClm gyana."-NP ~ [amli] See nn-rc;ft. l')fT)-fTf.I1jf [ama$ClY] SkI n the stomach wherc~ raw food (am) settles. 2 the first part of the small intestine, where liver and gall bladder meet; duodenum. ~ [amat] See »fH'3". ))fl}fIt!(J [amadClh] P ~AT' ready, prepared. ))fT}I'I'5 ramal] A Jlfl n plural of ~1-IC? actions, doings, pranks, tricks. »f'fi.r [am I] See »fTl-/liT and 3'1'fi.f. lWfHcr [amIkh] SkI ~ n meat, flesh. "pnthClm tClj-hu amIkh ko khana."-NP >wfi.rn' [amIl] A J~ doer, performer, practioner. 2 n a worker, servant; an employee "amII mulkCln ke JIS thai"-GPS. 3 a revenue official of old times, whose descendants are still called amils in Sindh. 4 an artisan, craftsman. »fl}ft [ami] adj suffering from a disease; sick, patient. See })fI)-f 3. 2 A Amen l part be it so ! 3 please accept, approve. lW!1 [amu] P ,:r n river Oxus ofBukhara which flows through the middle of Turan and Iran (Persia). "amu adI bakhankE israstra kahI ;}t."-scmama. 'Varun is the husband of river Amu, and his weapon is execution.' -Semama. ~ [amextClh] P ;t'r adjblended, mixed. ~ [amextan] P v to join, mix. l'lfIHi:r [amez] P Xl adj mixed. 2 mixed; used after a word as 'ffiwHt.r. ~ [ameZI:;;] P J;tT' n mixing, mixture. »f'lfur ramey] adj See~. 2 which cannot be



'This is originally a Greek word meaning 'really', 'infact'. Christians and Muslims utter it loudly after their supplicatory prayers.

absorbed or accommodated. "cClkha dvar amey vahya su aVE."-NP ))fl}Rr [amer] , ~:. lamer] an ancient town near Jaipur which once was a capital. See»'iw and

»fmr. ))fTlf ~ ramo samI).e] adv face to face.

"lakkh nClgarevCljjCln amo samI).e."-c~di 3. ~. [amokhtClh karl P .Ill' ~,...T' adj trained, skilled in doing work. l?fT'lft:so [amokhtCln] P v to receive instruction or training. 2 to teach or train. ~ [amod] SkI n happiness, pleasure, enjoyment. "ur amod sag bhe gClhIvClr."-NP ~ [amol],})fI}j-W [amola], ~ [amoli] See ~. 2 priceless. "guru pClhI SIr bec amolia." -var geJU m 4~ [amatrCll)] SkI n an invitation. 2 a solicitation. l'lfI'Ii [amr] SkI n a mango. l'lfI'Ii Ho [amr mJr] n pollen of a mango. ))fTtiJ' [ay] SkI n income. l'lfIliI'R' [ayCls], l?{ll:if;1:J [aysu] n permission. See



l?fTfuR . 2 spread. "mClstClk ayClt 10cCln lone."-NP. 3 A ..;;:..;1 a line of the text of Bible or Quran. 4 a sign, mark. S prophet's miracle. l?f"liI'8i') [aytCln] SkI n a house, home, residence. 2 god's house; a temple. ))fTljj'3' [ayCltt] SkI 3jTIr'fT adj subordinate, subservient. ~ [ayCld] P ~:r adj likely to come. 2 A ~~ returning. 3 appllicable. l'lfItiIO [a ycl n] S ee »!lifO. »flljJT [aya] v past tense of~. "bClga bhI aya cau."-var vac;i m 3. 2 Pg a nurse. 3 P ~1 part what; if; or. lWtiI"H [ayam] SkI n extending, pervading. 2 act of bringing within rules. See ~. 3 See l'}fljfT)-f. »fTliI3' [ayClt] SkI adj broad.

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258 >wl!!'. [ayu] Skt n age. 2 ghee, clarified butter. 3 a Chandarvanshi king, son of Pururva. 4 food, corn. 5 air. 6 an offspring. 7 medicine, drug. ~ [ayusman], ~ [ayukhman] Skt ~ adj long Iived, lasting for a long time. >wl!!'l:fT [ayukha] Skt ~ n age, duration of life. >wl!!'l:f.if [ayukhy] Skt ~ adjwho gives life. 2 n eatables fit for a sickperson. 3 strength, power. ~ [ayut] See ~ and l?fTliI3". ~ [ayudh] Skt n a weapon. 2 a horn or conchshell, which is helpful in a battle. ~ [ayudhan] a battle, See ~. "ghor ayudhan ESO bhayo."-carrtr 405. ~ [ayur] n age. "chIn chIn ayur bitat jai." -NP. See >wl!!'l:fT. ~ ~ [ayur ved] Skt ~\: n a minor Ved about the age of human beings; a medical science. Ashvini Kumar is regarded as its chief preceptor; he taught it to Indar, who in turn taught it to Dhanvantri. This Ved is derived from Atharv Ved. Now there is no book bearing this name, but all books on medical science are covered by it. "ayur ved kiyo parkasa."-dh ana tar. ~ rayed] P you come. This word is coined from »fl}R'O. ~ [ayodhan] Skt n a battle, war. 2 a battlefield. l)f1Q far] Skt n an awl. "ar nahijIh topau."-sor ravrdas. Here})Rf' stands for sharp intellect. 2 a tooth ofa circular saw; an axle ofa wheel. 3 a raw metal. 4 a pointed prod for driving an animal. 5 A ./~ shame, modesty. 6 S to cajole, express love or fondness. lWQR' [aras] n sloth. "bIsar arsa sabE prdbhat 10k jag-hi."-suraj 2 Skt l'>fll'f' adj concerning a sage (rishi); a sage's composition. 3 n a

book respected for its association with a sage. l1f1OR3T [arasta] n laziness, sloth, lassitude. 2 See ))fIQTR'3T. l)fTOR't [arsi] Skt ~ n a mirror, a looking glass. "Ihu manu arsi koi gurmukhI vekh£." -majh a m 3. "j£se'taro tari :lr arsi sanah sastra."-BG See~. 2 an ornament with a mirror fixed in it which ladies wear on their thumbs. "kaha su arsia muhI b~ke."-asa am 1. 3 also used in place of~. ~ [arakat] Skt~ adjred. 2 with a tinge of redness. ~ HHfo [arakta jdlanI] n a river of reddish water; Sarasvati.-sanama. l')fI"6il [ara jl See »fTQljf. l')f'OR3T [arajta] Sktnrrri?;r n culture, civilization. "sIrjan arajtay."-NP. 2 superiority, eminence. 3 candour, simplicity. ~ [arjani] Skt »itfo't adj white as silver (»RI'iJO), bright. 2 a female collector. "nama arjani marjani."-caQi 2. ~ [arjay] Skt ~ n simplicity, serenity, honesty. "arjav bma kutIlta jOI."-GPS 2 adj simple, guileless, innocent. ~ [arja] S n age. state. 2 See })flOlj1T. "je jug care arja."-japu. 3 Skt »rttJIT mother. 4 a metre. See QJTUT. 5 adj noble woman, virtuous lady. "bhan£ nIj bharja s6 arja ! srava!). kar."

-GPs. l')fTijWfu [arjadhI] n ~-~. duration of life. See })fij'FJTfu. ~

[arjan] n the enemy of age; old age. -sanama. ~ ~ [arjan an] n enemy ()f))flijj1T (old age), amrit, elixir.-sanama. ~ [arjari] See l?RJtI'1'fu. 2 age. "bmu sImtan jEse saraI' arjari."-gau a m 5. ~ [arji] A if.;~ adjtemporary, impermanent. ~ [arzu] P ,;./' n a desire, wish, hope.

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259 ~

l?f'a"31'1ffi:Jw [arti sohIla] n song ofjoy in which

'Though word arta is not in the sense of arti but Sikhs

true arti is described. Here, recitation begins with "j£ ghan kiratI akhic" "tItU ghan gavhu sohIla." and culuminates as "k£si arti hOI bhavkhaQna, teri arti anhata sabad vajat bheri." l?f"'6t!" [arad] P J./I n flour, ground corn. 2 from vr~. let one bring, brings, will bring. ~ [ardra] SktY'tfTt! adjwet, soaked. 2 soiled. l?fTQO [aran] adjred coloured. "jari sag jare rajr aran uchar."-NP 'Red coverlets interwoven with golden thread look beautiful'. 2 See ~. 3 Bhai Santokh Singh has used »fIiJO in place of ~ (forest). "aran jIt dIS ghani nIhari."-GPS. 4 See l?fTO?M. ~ [aranjat] lotus grown out of a pond (~). Se'e »fTQ~'3'. "anan aranjat suhaL" -NP ~ [arnya] Skt 31"f{UIf adj relating to forest; wild. ~ [arnyak] Skt ~ related with forest; vanprasth, the third stage of life for a Hindu. 2 those Brahman parts of Veds which were studied while Iliving there because saintscholars staying in forests taught them to their disciples. See ~ ~liT ~ etc. 2 ~ [araph] A ..J./!l; adj a possessor of spiritual knowledge (~)."araph kamIl vaH valayat." -GPs. l'){'IOlT [arab] n Arabia. 2 Arab, Arabian. "arab ke arbi aradhl': tere nam hl':."-akal. 3 the language of Arabia; Arabic "kahu arbi torki parsi ho."-aka1. 4 an Arab (or Arabian) horse "kache arbi pabb mana sapaccha."-paras. ~ [arbal], ~ [arbala] n »rrq-~. strength and age. 2 age, duration of life, lifetime. "barakh bahattar bhai arbal."-GPs. l?f"a'8t [arbi] See :~.

do employ it this way as well. Udasi Saints declaim: "arta

2Four forests vnhad, tEtnriy, Etrey and b$itki are well

[aralJ.] n an anvil; ironsmith's block. See ~. "kaIa aralJ. man VICI lona."-maru m 1. 2 Skt depth, solemnity. 3 a pilt, pond. 4 Sa war, battle. ~ lJ3" [aralJ. sut] n son ofAran (pond); lotus. "aralJ.sut kar prabhu SIr layo."-NP. 'the master taking it as lotus put his hand on the head'. 2 the moon, which is son of the deep ocean. ~ [aralJ.I] in a furnace or forge for melting or heating up metals like iron. "j:cu aralJ.:I loha paI bhanI gharail:."-suhi a mI. 2 n an eddy, a whirlpool. ~ [arat], »fTO"3T [arta] Skt amf adj coward, timid. 2 suffering, in pain. "arat dual' ratat pfguria."-gau m 5. "gopal tera arta."-dhana dMna. 'Your timid slave seeks shelter with you, master of the earth.' Some ignorant people interpret this as l'ifT03t (a ceremonial worship of gods by moving lighted lamps in front) holding that it is Dhanna Jat's 'l?f~)T'.1 ~ [aratI] Skt 3TTftf n pain, humility, poverty. 'l?f'a"31. [arti] SkI' ~ n what happens even without night, that is, to do worship by revolving lighted lamps for which reason it is called non-night worship. According to Hinduism, lamps are revolved four times at the feet ofthe image, twice at the level of the navel and seven times around th,'1f5'3'. 2 plural of~. See l)fTW 6. ))f'I'l?1O [alan] Skt n rope or chain for tying an elephant. 2 See Ewo. ~ [alap] Skt n speech, conversation, dialogue, parley. 2 in music, the process of producing a proper note; a prelude to singing, "gU!} gobfd gavhu sabhI han jan, rag ratan rasna alap."-brla m 5. ~ [alapan], ~ [alapna] v to say, speak. 2 to establish the form of music by arranging the sounds in the prelude. 3 elaborating of a note. ~ [alapI] having sung the prelude. ~ trr [alav dI] See ~t!lo. ~ [alavat] adjhaving a house, who owns a house. "alavati Ihu bhram johE."-mala namdev. 'The owners of the house are under the misconception that low caste persons cannot pray to God there.' ~ [alavati] to the master of the house. See~.

>wfi? [alI] n of the house. "man laga alI jajal." -sri m 4 pahrre. 2 Sktwffi a (female) friend. 3 a row, line, class. ~ [alIsy] See >m?ffiT. 2 Skt 3ITffIB:r the act of making the dancers dance well; making the world dance. "alIsy karam."-japu. ~ [alfgan] Skt ~ n an embrace, a clasp. ))f1'fim [alI m] See l?fTIDf. wffi [ali] Skt n a female friend. 2 a line, row. 3A J~ adjgreat, high. 4 superb, grand. 5 Bhai

Santokh Singh has used l?flffi(female) in place ofthe Sindhi word ~ (wet). "ur sulgat lakri jImI ali."-GPS. See~. >wID fi:fur [ali sfgh] a resident of village Salaudi. Along with his brother Bhai Mali Singh he was in the service of Vazir Khan, subedar of Sirhind. When Banda Bahadur, at the head of Khalsa force, reached Punjab, the subedar jeered at them. They felt insulted, quit his service and joined the Khalsa force. After the conquest of Sirhind, Ali Singh was made its deputy Subedar. He was later, martyred along with Banda Bahadur in Delhi. ~ [aliq.h] Skt adj licked, lapped. 2 n lying down during the hunt so that the quarry comes close to the hunter unafraid. ~ [ali!}], ~ [aliDa], »fTffio [alin] See~. 2 Skt»l'ffio adj absorbed, become one in thought. "janak raj vartaIa, satjug aliDa."-savEye ill 4 '. ke. 'Satyug came to prevail in Kaliyug'. ~ [alu], ~ [alu] Skt n a potato, an underground crop, commonly used as a vegetable. Its seed was first ofall brought from America by Sir Walter Raleigh in 1584. Its scientific name is Solanumt uberosum. 2 a flask, sieve. 3 P }i Skt l'>fl1JOf a kind of fruit which ripens in summer and is sour-sweet in taste, "naspatI pIsta ral alu."-GPS. See ~ and l'>fl1J '§"l:flW. ~ [aluca] P ~"i Skt ~ and ~. n potato a fresh plum (when fully ripe it is called alu bukhara), E Plum, L Prunus domestica. ~;m mm:r [aludah maGaz] P T ~-,,,r adj having a depraved mind. See ~. ~ [aludan] P d-,,Ji to smear, besmear. ~~ [aluda], ~fun.rr [aludIa] P ~)}i adj smeared, bedaubed. 2 dirty, filthy, unclean. vr l'>fl1J~. "nanak VI!}U naVE aludIa."-var maru 2 m 5. ~ ~}:fI'ijT [alu buxara] P vir. }i n a plum,

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alucha from Bukhara, potato of Damascus. arousing terror; suppuration etc. for creating Greek physicians used it in various medicines a sense ofdisgust and loathsomeness; strange and its effect is cold-moist; it softens things for creating wonder; transient, imperintestines and cures bilius humour, clears manent things for a feeling of tranquility; and blood and cures vomiting, stops thirst and children for arousing affection. despite being sour it does not increase cough. ~ [alhl)a] See ~. [ale] See l'Wffi 3. ~ lay], ~ lay] i)fll;i!" n age. "av ghatE tan ehijE." ~ [alekh] Skt n writing. 2 See l'lffi1:f. -vac;l m 3 alah1)ia. "av ghatE dIn jaI."-sri m ~ [ala] S wet, moist. "pat palo bhi alo hm." 1 pahrre. 2 come (imperative). See~. "av ~GPs. 2 green. av su bhav s6 kahI."-paras. "je tISU nadan ~ [ala harakh] a village iin nazamat na avai."-japu. Sunam, police station Bhavanigarh, Patiala ~ [avail comes, may come. See ~ and state. Here, half a mile south ofthe village is ~. a gurdwara of Guru Teg Bahadur who came ~ lavas], ~ [avasI] See ~. 2 See . here from Gunike. ~. 3 (s)he will come. A beautiful gurdwara was built here in ~ [avaf?yak] Skt adj necessary. Sammat 1966. Five copies of Guru Granth i)j''ilBOIIClld l [ava~y< kta] Skt n necessity, Sahib are kept open side by side. The room requirement. where the Guru stayed is separate (from the ~ [avhul, ~ [avho] come (imperative). main building.) The priest is an energetic "avhu bhEl~e galI mIlhI."-sri m 1. "avho Sikh. The gurdwara has 125 bighas of land satjanhu !."-suhi chat m 4. donated by the Patiala state. It is close to ~ [avagr] (she) will come. "avagI agIa Bhavanigarh road, nine miles west ofNabha parbraham ki." -asa m 5. railway station. ~ [avgir] See ~. ~ [alok] Skt n light, miracle. 2 a sight, ~ [avagyak] adj 3TTCIWfl adj who insults; glimpse, view. contemptuous. 2: discourteous, rude. ~ [alocan] Skt n a sight, view. 2 an ~ [avaj] See~. 2 Pkt n a kind of musical investigation, consideration. instrument. "sores ke avaj sur ke nad sune ~ [alocna] Skt n an investigation., deterdarvaje."-carrtr 108. mination ofgood and bad points. 2 a revision. ~ [avatal)], l?fl~~ [avatal)u], ~ [avatan] 3 a review. v to heat, boil thoroughly. 2 n water added to l1f'h [alab] See ~'8". milk for boiling. "avatal)u ape khaVE dudh kau ~ [alaban] See ~ao. khapal) na deI."-sri m 1. 3 Skt 3TTC!ftf;:r, a ~ [alaban vIbhav] a supporting whirlpool, an eddy; eddying water. 4 Skt ~ cause of emotion; a factor helping the rise of n circle, circuit, round. 5 churning. 6 melting a particular feeling, for example, a hero and of metals; smelting. 7 beating, thrashing, "jahI heroine in the sentiment of love; an enemy in avate bahut ghan sath."-asa m 5. arousing terror; a strange shape or speech for ~ [avate] See ~ 7. ridicule or mirth; a heart-rending speech or ~ [aval)] n coming, arrival. 2 taking birth. situation arousing pity; fearfulm~ss for ~ tI"'"@trcEl':Ttl. ~ [avarad] n mixing of high ancllow notes in music producing a ripple effect. 2 P m! (he) may bring, brings or will bring. ~ [avarda] Dg n age. "sakat ki avarda jaI bnthari."-dhana m 5. 2 P ~JJjr adj brought. 3 presented. See ~. ~ laval] See )~. 2 a Jat subcaste, See ~C? 4. 3 Skt ~ adj unclean, filthy. 4 perplexed. "hau phIrau dnlani aval baval."-dev m 4. ~ ~ laval kheriJ a village; according to Bhai Santokh Singh Guru Gobind Singh coming from KUlrukshetra had camped here. "caqhe Ikaki satIguru aval kheri gram . pahuce tIS thaI jaIkar utre hIt bIsram."

-GPs. ~


[aval baval] surprised and bewildered; mad, See~. ~ [avla] »fTH~)cif. See ~w "ja1)u qalI camutte avle."-caQi 3. ~ [avalI] Skt n a row, line, class. ~ [avarna] See ~ to occur, strike; to come to mind. ~ laval n. a brick kiln, potter's kiln. ~ [avaIl] actions of the early period or of the beginning" See ~. "man samajhu Ch::>qI avaIle."-g5Q ill 5. ~ lavas] See ~. ~ [avahan] Skt n (an act of) calling, or summoning. 2 invoking a god by reciting a mantar. "avahan sagre sur kare."-GPs. ~ [avagau1)], ~ [avagaun], ~ [avagaman], ~ [avagava1)u], ~ [avagavan], ~Ci: [avag::>1)], ~ [avag::>n] Skt ~ n the act of coming and going; arrival and departure. 2 birth and death. 3 passing through 84 lac lives of different kinds so as to undo the effect of actions of earlier births. The soul is liberated from this cycle by the acquisition of spiritual knowledge and then becomes free from transmingration forever. kai janam bhae kit pataga, kai janam gaj Inin kuraga. kai janam pakhi sarap hOIO, kai janam hEvar bnkh jOIO. mIlu jagdis mIlan ki baria, cIrakal Ih deh sajria. kai janam sd gUI karIa, kai janam garabh lun khana. kai janam sakh kan upaIa, lakh caurasih jonI bhramaIa ...-asa ill 5. udam kar-hI anek hannamu na gavhi, bharamhI jonI asakh man janamhI avhi. pasu pakhi sEl tarvar ga1)at kachu na avae,

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biju bOVSI bhog bhog-hI kia apI).a pavae... -jEt m 5. nIjghan mahalu pavhu sukh sahje bahun na hOIgo phera. -gaum 5. phahe kate mIte gavan phatIh bhai manI jit, nanak gur te thItI pai phnan mIte nItnit. -bavan. janam maran ke mIte adese, sadhu ke puran updese... thItI pai cuke bhram gavan, sunI nanak han han jasu sravan. -sukhmani. saranI gahi parbraham ki mItIa avagavan, apI tana kutab SIU guI). gubfd prabh ravanu. -gau thrtr m 5. Indians have believed in metempsychosis or transmingration of souls since ancient times. According to the Greek historian Herodotus (11,53,81, 123) ancient Egyptians also believed in transmigration. Greek metaphysicians too have been preaching this view. Modern theosophists think that ancient Jews, Christians, Muslims and others also be,lieved in it in some form or the other. Now only those people accept transmigration whose religious leaders were once related to ancient Indians or those who still have respect for archaic beliefs. Buddhists, Jains, Hindus, Sikhs and neotheosophists all accept this philosophy. Scholars ofthe modern times have divided this view-point into three branches: (a) When a child is born, God does not invent a new soul for it; an already existing soul in the bodiless form assumes this new body for the first time and will never adopt a body in future. This theory is called the doctrine of pre-existence. (b) The soul has already been roaming in millions of men, animals, trees, etc. and after

quitting the present body too, it will roam as born in different bodies. This is what is known as metempsychosis or transmigration of soul. (c) Human soul before coming in the present bodily form has been living as man or woman, but not as animal, bird or tree etc. and after the present life it will be born again and again in human form until its redemption from the cycle of birth and death. This is the theory of re-incarnation. ~ [avaj] P jl,1' n a sound, a word. 2 a call, cry. 3 See ~ ~. ~ ~ [avaj lEI).i] Taking order from Guru Granth Sahib, in the following form. When Guru Granth Sahib is opened, two of its pages are in front of us. If, on ti1e left hand side page a hymn starts at the top, this should be read. if it contains a hymn continuing from the previous page, then the left hand page should be turned backwards and the hymn continuing from the previous page should be read as complete hymn ending on the left hand page first opened.The same procedure is adopted at the time ofthe naming ceremony for a new born baby. ~ [avajai] n coming and going; usual traffic. "avajai saCIvan keri."-GPS. 'coming and going of ministers'. 2 a cycle of birth and death. ~ [avIgyak] adj disobedient, insulting, "surag dey aVIgyak hOI."-GPs. See~. ~ [avfdh] Skt 3TTfc.t;ur adjup to Vindhyach I. See 'Mr. ~ [avnat] Skt »fT-~ adj indifferent towards worldly affairs. 2 Skt })ff~ continuously, uninterruptedly. 3 See~. ~ [avnbhav] Skt~n manifestation, appearance. 2 birth, origin, creation. ~ [avi] n a small kiln for baking pots of

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clay. "ghzar] A )1),1 n a tool, an implement, instrument. 2 a sin, crime. ~ [::>jhar] See~. ~ [::>talna] v to shift from a place; to slip away. 2 to get lost; to be untraced. ~ [::>taul.)a] v to render hot; to boil. n:rcw. >lfG'O [::>tan] n heat, high degree of warmth. 2 boiling, seething. >kw [::>tana] See »j~. ~ [::>qhar] adj easily or readily relenting. 2 hard-hearted, obstinate. 3 S a curtain. 4 help, assistance. [Sqha], n:rm [Sqhi] a town 15 miles east of Pandarpur in Bombay presidency, where Bhagat Namdev's elegant temple Nagnath is situated. "pher dia dehura name kau, paqian kau pIchvarla." This hymn is inscribed in the Audhia Nagnath temple at Dhar in the Central Provinces. lihr btl See ~.


~ bd] A J ~ to return, come back, tum round. »j-q [::>dh] See ~.

>iii:r [Sdh], nfW [Sdha]

adj reversed, upside down. "badh Sdh srhja tar lrya."-carrtr 306. ~ 0T'CII0'Ef [::>dhia nagnath] See »to [::>n], »tfo [::>nr] the earth. See ~ and~. "monan me nir ::>nr qarE brfd bOd kO."-GPS. »Rr [::>r] part a coordinator; and. 2 adj additional. 3 excessive, abundant, surplus. »hm [::>ras] Skt n related to ~ (breast), born of Wo; son, begotten from father's semen. 2 progeny born from a (wedded) wife's womb. ~ [::>rat] See ~. ~ irer [::>ra b::>ra] adj half mad, carefree, indifferent. "nath suno ::>ri b::>ri bate hE bakat


sou."-NP. ~ [::>rotri] sen~-~. (used negatively)

not any other than the born one. "as sOdar nahr ::>rotri."-carrtr 319. »hfar [::>rag] P .1.", n a throne. 2 short form for Aurangzeb. "tab ::>rag jry mahI rrsae."-VN 3 wisdom, sagacity; 4 deceit, guile. 5 happiness. 6 woodworm, weevil. nf~i1r;'hr bragzeb]1 ~;••{", third son of Shahjahan and Arajmand Bano born on 3 November 16182 at Dohad3 of district Panch Mahal in Bombay Presidency. In 1658, having imprisoned his father in Agra fort, he ascended the throne of Delhi on 21 July. Having obtained a religious decree that his elder brother Dara Shikoh had acted against the tenets ofIslam, he got him killed in Delhi in September 1659. He told his younger 'His full name was Abuzafar Muhiuddin Muhammad Aurangzeb. His title was Alamgir. 210 October 1619 according to some. 3literally, it means 'two boundaries' being right on the border of Gujrat and Malva.

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brother Murad who was an aspirant 1to the throne that he did not want the kingdom; and that after killing Dara with his help, he would put the crown on his head, and leave for Mecca. Unfortunately Murad was thus deluded by Aurangzeb's plan, and along with the later he defeated Dara at Fatehabad near Agra. After his victory, Aurangzeb held a grand party during which he made Murad drink heavily and put him in prison at Gwalior. Three years later, he accused him of the murder of a Saiyad and had him killed. Thus having members of his family imprisoned and murdered, Aurangzeb assumed the title ofAlamgir (possessor ofthe world). His full name was Abu al Muzaffar Muhaiyuddin Muhammad with the title Alamgir added to it." This staunch folllower of the Sunni creed of Islam was a highly learned, sagacious, industrious person, expert in the art of governance. His dress and food were very simple, and he did not take liquor or any other intoxicant, and spent very little money on his personal neeas. During leisure he made caps and prepared copies ofthe holy Quran, did not consider Islam and Hinduism as equal, and did not hesitate to commit deliberate acts of grave injustice. He was extremely glad to have the title ofMuhiuddin c{.J\t (animator of religion) from his correligionists. He ordered the closure of Hindu fairs, temple functions and Vedic schools, and having demolished famous Hindu temples at Mathura, Benaras, etc. he got mosques built in their place" He reimposed Jazia (a tax) on the Hindus which had been stopped by Akbar. With the reimposition of !azia and other taxes and the persecution of HJindus, all Rajput whom Akbar had befriended became

hostile to him. In this connection a letter which Raja Raj Singh wrote to Aurangzeb in 1680 AD as quoted by colonel Tod in his book "Rajasthan" is worthy of note: "Your elders had fostered Hindus, Muslims, Jews, Christians, as also the atheists with equal care, but during your reign many have become homeless and have left the country. There is virtually a doomsday all around, people are dying of hunger; your subjects, trampled under the feet of soldiers, are crying; traders are beating their breasts. How can the rule ofan emperor who demands tax from such suffering subjects, remain stable? If you have faith in your own sacred book you will see that God is common to all and is not only of the Muslims. He is worshipped in the mosques but his gongs are also struck in the temples. When we spoil the picture painted by an artist, we without doubt are displeasing him. Similarly, one who spoils the work of God becomes liable to His displeasure. The tax which you demand from the poor Hindus is unfair because they do not have the means to pay. But ifyou must impose Jazia, ask me and Maharaja Ram Singh to pay. By kiHing minor flies you are stigmatising your greatness." This emperor was a staunch enemy ofmusic and considered it against the teachings of Islam. Therefore all the royal musicians were dismissed. Once, all the musicians of Delhi created a great clamour while following a hearse passing in front of the emperor palace. On enquiring the emperor was told that music had died during his rule and the people were going to bury it. Aurangzeb told them to bury it so deep that it may not come out again. It was Aurangzeb's oppression and tyranny which made Shivaji his enemy, and the

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Marathas began uprooting the Mugal rule. By assassinating Guru Teg Bahadur, he sowed seeds of enmity in the hearts of all the Sikhs, the consequences of which had to be faced by his succesors. Guru Gobind Singh sent him Zafarnama, which contained some pieces of sane advice. At the time of his death, Aurangzeb repented over his actions. He wrote to his son: "I brought nothing butdemerits with me when I came, and 1 am now going with bundles of sins. 1have committed horrendous errors and 1 do not know what punishment shall be meted out to me. 1am seriously worried about my salvation". Having ruled for fifty years, Alamgir died, at the age of 90 years and 17 days', at Ahmadnagar in the South, on 21 February 1707 (Sammat 1763), and was buried in a mausoleum near Daulatabad. Aurangzeb had five sons (Sultan Muhammad, Bahadur Shah, Azam Shah, Muhammad Akbar and Kam Bakhash) and four daughters (Zebunnisa, Jinnutnisa, Badrunnisa and Miharunnisa). At the time of his death the annual income of the kingdom was to the tune of Rs. 317, 935, 050. ~ [Jraga] emperor Aurangzeb. "Jraga carIa juddh m} jebunIsa pukare."-jagnama. ~ bragabad] a famous ciy in Hyderabad Deccan which was formerly known as Khirki. Emperor Aurangzeb renamed it after his own name in 1653 AD. ~ [Jl] See ~ and ~. 2 n white yarn, L Arum Campanulatum. ~ [Jla] A L,I adj very good, the best. lif~ [Jlad] A Jli,I n plural of ~ (son), offspring, progeny. 2 dynasty, clan, race. 'According to Hijri.


274 ~ [Jlia] See ~.

~ [;wal] See ~. »i;r [Jr] absence of rain, dry season, See $ . "mas bhadrpad Jr lagi as."-GPs. ~ [Jrna] v (some idea) to come to mind; to strike. ~ bray] a musical composition with five notes. See ~. nf [a] See »f}f. 2 Bhai Santokh Singh has used nf in place of ~ "a parmatam atambhu." -NP. 3 nf also appears in place of l'lfO. See l?f~. nf~ ~~

[aakIt bhev]-datt. unwritten or unmeasured secret. nfl:r [as] SkI ~ vr to divide into parts, partition. 2 SkI »fR. n a part, segment. 3 nfl:r is also used to mean ~R (family or pedigree) as in "gurua$". 'guru family'~ 4 sixteenth part, a phase of the moon. 5 See l?flJ. 6 SkI 3fB a shoulder. nfl:r [as bhevi] adjborn from God's divine power. 2 lightning, the rays of which are frightening. "gajE gEl). devi, maM as bhevi." -VN. nfl:r l-fli [as mala] See~. nfw ~ rasa autar], nfRr ~ rasa avtar], ~ [asavtar] SkI ~ n The Purans mention the supernatural powers of gods; some ofthem are seen in divine incarnations. Those with a few (not all) powers called a$avtar are partial incarnations. Some may be having nine powers, some sixteen powers. "asa autaru upaIonu."-var guj 1 m 3. "anIk purakh asa avtar."-sar a m 5. lim [f90 [akur], ~gsr. [akuru] Skt ~~ n blood. 2 water. 3 germination mark, spore, sprout, micro organism. "purdb kdrdill akur jdb· prdgte."-gau m 5. 4 luck, fate, destiny. "akur bhdlo hdmara."-toqi m 5. 5 seed, root. "bhdgtdn ka akuru rakhIo."-dhana ill 5. ~ [akura] n a hook, loop. ~ [akur] See~. "purdn lIkhdt nIsan kdrdill akuf hE."-BG l'>f1:f [akh] Skt 3l6~(,\ vr to float, be carried by the current, continue to do something. 2 an eye. "for rag] Skt ~, vr to mark, walk, engage in some work. 2 Ski 316;!T n body. 3 a limb, hand, foot, head etc. 4 a way out, measure, effort. 5 a friend, dear one. 6 a point of view,

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espousal. "jIn ka ag karE mera suami."-sar m 4 partal. 7 a part, share. 8 a numeral, figure. 9 a kingdom around Bhagalpur in Bengal whose capital once was Champapuri. "tIS dIS ag bag te adi."-GPS. There is a story in Mahabharat that Bali's wife Sudeshna gave birth ag, vag, kalfg, pUQar and suk~, the five sons ofsage Diraghatma who founded different kingdoms after their respective names. "far}fllT rag sag] adjwith the body, embodied. "guru ag sag rahe." 2 always accompanying. ~ [ag-hin] adj limb-less, crippled. nfort:r [agaj] Skt adj born from a limb. 2 n a son, progeny. 3 pore, hair. 4 disease. 5 Cupid. ~ [aga1).] Skt ~ and ~ n a courtyard, compound. 2 going about, roaming, rambling. ~ [agtra1).] Skt n the protector of the body, clothes; a dress. 2 a helmet, breast plate, armour. l?fare' [agad] Skt ~ n decorator of a limb; an ornament, anklet, bracelet. 2 son of Bali and Tara, and nephew of Sugriv. He went to Ravan's court as an emissary ofRam Chandar. "It kapIpatI ar ram dut agad-hf pathayo." -ramav. 3 one ofLakshman's sons, who founded the town Angadi in his name. 4 See ~~. ,,£~ 'Rf3qr~ [agad satIguru] The second preceptor of the Sikhs, was born on Sunday, 15 th day of the lunar month of Vaisakh (5 Vaisakh) 1561 Bikrami era (31 March 1504 AD). He was the son of Pheru Mal Khatri and Daya Kaur of village Matte di Sarai (district Firozpur). He was named Lahina. He was married in Sammat 1576 to Khivi, daughter of Devi Chand Khatri of village Sanghar, the ruins of which are near Khadur. Two sons, Dasu and Datu, and two daughters, Amaro and Anokhi, were born to them. Initially Bhai Lahina, like his father, was a devotee of goddess Durga, and used to visit Vaishnav Devi every year as the head of the

devotees. During Sammat 1589, while going to Vaishnav Devi (Javalamukhi according to Nanak Prakash) he met Guru Nanak Dev at Kartarpur, and, forsaking the worship of the goddess, he became a disciple of the Guru only, who, pleased with his devotion and service, renamed him Angad and made him his successor on 17 Harh Sammat 1596. He started functioning as the Guru from 23 Assu 1596, and preached the doctrine of Nanak Dev with rare efficiency. In Sammat 1598, he began Propagating knowledge in Gurumukhi script without any discrimination of caste. He got the biography of Guru Nanak Dev written in Sammat 1601 of which a distorted version is now known as Bhai Bale wali Janamsakhi. After having functioned as Guru for 12 years 9 months and 17 days, he breathed his last at Khadur on 3 Baisakh (Chet Sudi 4) Sammat 1609 (29 March 1552 AD) at the age of 47 years, 11 months and 29 days. liaro ragan] See~. 2 short form for l?foror. woman. "sudar madrr agan seja."-NP. See

nforor. ,,£tJrOT [agna] Skt 31S:,1T";fr n a woman with

beautiful limbs. "agna adhin kam krodh me prabin."-akal. ~ [agnyas] Skt ~ n (according to Hinduism) touching individual limbs in turn, while reciting the mantars. See 0('3"1'G!(') fl:rl7:/f3", part 1,~: 5 to 8. "far~ [agpharakl).a],,,far~ [agphur1).a] v (for muscles) to throb, quiver or flutter involuntarily. Among the Hindus throbbing ofmuscles is variously considered auspicious or inauspicious. See ~ ~ ~ ~, »1': 59. In Sikhism such a belief is not given any credence. "devi dey na sevka, tat na mat na phura1). vIcare."-BG ~ [agbin] See ~.

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"far ¥aT [ag bhag] Skt adj who has some limb

is accepted as the chief priest of gods and the god of oblations. Some say that Angira is the broken. 2 n absence of some part ofthe: body. "fcm.r [agam] Pkt adj dear, beloved. "ttl agam offspring ofUru and Agneyi. At one place it is written that he was born from the mouth of vaQ ja!).Ia."-tukha m 4. Brahma. Simriti, Shradha and Swadha were ~ [agrau] n Guru Angad Dev. "gurujagat his wives; Utathy; Virahspati and Mrikandu, phrra!). sih agrau."-savE'ye m 2' ke. 'the lionhis sons; and Bhanumati, Raka, Sinivali, like son of Pheru, universal guru Angad'. Archismati, Havesmati and Punyjanika were 2 Angira rikhi, a sage. See ~ and >:ff(JRlT. his daughters. ~ [agrakhal n a stringed dress for protecting In the forest chapter of Mahabharat it is limbs, reaching down to the knees, is also called aga. written that Angira was the son of Agni and "foRrr [agra] See l'lff'arer. 2 n an ember., burning his wife was named Shubha. See~. coal. "agra brrhaganI ke nIkre."-kr:rsan. nfaft [agi] Skt ~~ adjhaving a body, animate, living "rakho agi aIJ."-suhi m 4. 2 a resident ~ [agrai] See ~. ~ [agrag] Skt n a paste of saffron, musk, of Ang region "bagi kalfg agi ajit."-kalki. sandalwood, for applying to the body for 3 partisan. 4 a bodice, stay. fragrance. 2 clothes, ornaments, etc. for ~ [agia] See l?ffaror". adorning the body. 3 an armour. ~ [agikar], ~ [agikaru] Skt ~ Jiararor [agrana] v to stretch the body in order n something\.vhich has been accepted or adopted. "agikar kio men: kart£."-guj m 5. to remove languor. ~ [agrej], ~ [agreji] See '~fc[tr and ~ [agiknt], ~ [agikrItu] Skt~ adj accepted, approved. "prabhI din daIal »j!lJffi' [agn:] n the sage Angira. See 1~fuRr". kio agikntu."-kan m 4. "parurau agn: guru na!).ak jas gaIao."-SavE'ye "faftoT [agitha], :I?fafIo't [agithi] n a fire place. mIke. 'Pururia and Angira'. 2 xa a funeral pyre. »j!CJSTit [agrai] n stretching of limbs due to ~. [agusatJ" ~ [agusth] Skt ~ n a languor. thumb. "kubIja udhri agusat dhar."-basat a nfi0f0l:fT. »j!arro [agar], ~ [agIar] Skt ~R n a crooked body was straightened.' See~. burning coal or piece of wood; amber. ~ [agu$t] P .:~ n a finger. "kachua kahE agar bhI lorau."-a8a kdbir. ~ [ago$tri] P n a ring, finger. Here agar means spiritual enlightenment. ~ [agun], 1~~ [aguriJ, ~ [aguriaJ ~ [agIka] Skt ~ a lady's garment, Skt ~ n a finger. See ~. bodice, stays "agIka suragi nat var ragi." ~ [agul] Skt n a measure equal to the width -ramav. of a finger. 2 See ~. "ffin'aT [agrra] ~ n the author of several ~ [aguII] Skt ~n a finger. 2 a thumb. verses of Rig Ved, counted among the se:ven The five fingers are named thumb (agu$th), great sages and the ten lords of creation.. He fore-finger (tarjni), middle-finger (madhyma),



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ring-finger (anamIka), and little finger (kanI:?thIka). ~ [agulIka] See ~. 2 See ~. "fqr~ [agulItr], nr~~ [agulItral).] Skt n a protective leather cover worn on the thumb and the fore finger while using bow and arrows. According to Valmik this protective cover used to be of the hide of large-sized lizards. The second cadi carItr also quotes. "badhe baddh godhaguIItral). baddha." "kahu agulItral). kate pare hE." -carItr 320. 2 a housewife; a metal cap worn on the finger by a tailor. ~ [aguli] See ~. ~ [agulik] Skt 31"''5rn:!b-d'C1~\-rri'Q=Cf1 n a glove. 2 a ring, seal. "kahu agulikadI ke ratan rajE." -carItr 405. nli!!Ml~ia [agulitral).], nli!!Mlf~a [agulitrIl).] See nli!! fPlg la. "su sobh agulitnl).a."~ramav. ~ [aguliyak] See ~. ~ [agutha] thumb. See ~ and ~ 2. ~ [aguthi] n a ring worn on the thumb; a thumb-ring containing a mirror. 2 a ring. "fW6' [agur] See ~. "pachE hano agur." -sTirn 1. 2 P ./1, grapes, seedless dried grapes called kI:?mI:? and with seeds called munakka. Superior quality of wine and vinegar are prepared from grapes. In India grapes ofQuetta and Kandhar are ofa superior quality. 3 grape vine. "fqrcT [aguri] n newly sprouted crop. "cori mIrag aguri khaI."-oJkar. "hari aguri gadha carE."-gaukobir. Here gad-ha means pride that feeds on green sproutings i.e. aguri means virtues of good deeds like charity, etc. 2 drink such as wine, vinegar, etc. made from gtap~s. 3 adj of the colour of grapes, light green. ~ [agocha] Skt something to clean a body, especially a towel; a large handkerchief, "Isnan dio kar ap agochan poch sudhare."

-gurusobha. ~ [agrez],


[agrezi] See recrr;:r and

re-a):tft. })[ur tagh] Skt ~ vr to go, begin, gamble,

stain, mark, stumble, complain, make haste. nffiy: [aghnl, llf1.y-T [aghri] Skt ~ n a root. 2 a foot, which leaves a mark on the ground. See nfur vr "aghri sam arbfd saras tav man sam madhup karijE."-NP >mr [a!)] See nfq, nfar and ~. ~ [a!)al).], ~ [a!)al).u], ~ [a!)anl, ~ [a!)anra] See~. "sahu bEtha a!)al).u malI." -var maru 2 m 5. Here a!)al).u means 'the mind.' "mIratkara a!)anre bare."-vaQ olahl).ia m 1. ~ [aDu] See nfq and nfar. "ham mEl bhare duhcaria han rakh-hu agi a!)u."-suhi rn 4. 'Take our side, 0 favouring God.' nrn- [a!)E] nr-l?f: See ~nrn-. l?hr lac] Skt ~ vr to bow, worsh ip, decorate, beg, reveal, remove, spread, collect. 2 Skt 31fif n a flame, i.e. sorrow, woe. "rati ac dukh na Iai. "-bhEr a m 3. 3 Skt ~ a scratch, abrasion, "bhumI ragavli majhI vIsuIa bag, jo nar pir nIvajIa tIna ac na Iag."-var ram 2 m 5. 'Living in the thorny garden of the Divine, one does not get a scratch.' ~ [acar], »ftrer [acral, ~ [acaI], ~ [ada], ~ [acaIu] Skt ~ n the end part of a scarf or a headcloth, fringe, border. "acal gahIa sadhu ka."-asa m 5 bIrhare. "ada gahaIo jan apne kau."-nat rn 5. 2 a garment. "kahu cada ada ko banaVE.,,_carItr 405. ~ [acuri] See nfi:r1;ft. "f;:r raj] Skt 3I0f,~ vr to clean, go, admire, brighten, rub oil, decorate. >,f;::ra' [ajal).] See nft:Io. 2 n bringing. "CUl). cUl). ajal). butia."-BG nffio [ajan] Skt ~ n antimony ground into collyrium, "gIan ajan gun dia agIan adher bmas."-sukhrnani. 2 black ink. 3 wealth

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279 "ajan mahI nHajan rahic:."-suhi m 1, 4 a mountain of collyrium mentioned in Valmik's Ramayan. 5 night. 6 a past(~ for massage on the body. See }}\';:r" vr "gIan ajanI mera manu Isnam:."-dhana am 5. 7 a lizard. 8 Skt 3TGf"l sitting in a solitary place; isolation; seclusion. "ape sab ghat bhogvE suami, ape hi sab ajan."--var lJIha m 4. "jia upaI jugatI vaSI kini ape gurumuklhI ajan."-mala a m 1. 9 in the dialec:t of Chamba hills, ajan stands for the knot tied on the clothes of the bride and the bridegroom. "ffio furFa" [ajan g:ErI] See "ffio 4,. l1fi::Ior [ajna] v to apply collyrium to the eyes. "ajan tEsa ajiE jEsa pHU bhavc:."-suhi chat m 1. 2 Skt n a sty, a pimple on the eyelid. 3 In Sastarnammala, a young maiden doing a faciial makeup is mentioned as ajna. "ajnan ke nam IE." 4 Hanuman's mother. See l?fMol }}\'trfo [ajam] adv with collyrium. 2 with massage paste (abhyajan). See »fffi'i 6. »ft::ro'l [ajni] Skt ~ n wife of the monkey (or forest dweller) Keshri and mother of Hanuman; Anjna. 2 maya (wealth, illusion). 3 woman with body covered with sandalwood paste etc. "ajni ke dhir hE."-ramav. 'Horses are as volatile as pupils ofa woman's e:ye.' 4 a sty. }}\'t=r09JI 3' [ ajnisut], }}\'R7i9t=r [ajnij], }}\,i1c'i9"30liI" [ajnitanay] son of Anjani; Hanuman, Anjani Kumar. >m:mo [ajman] See nhrHo. "f;::rft;r rajah], }}\'j,m [ajIi] Skt ~ n palms joined in the form of a cup. 2 palmfuls of water thrown as dedication to the dead forefathers. The Sikh Gurus have rejected the practice and have advised the people to accept the will of the Almighty. In Guru Granth Sahib. under the title ajli in malar

measure in the line "sajog vIjOg dhur-hu hi hua." we are advised to abide by the will of the Divine. 3 See ~. l1ffitH [ajam] P (~;, n an end, a consequence, finale. 2 result. ~ [ajiE] Seen,h=rot". ~ [ajir] Skt ~ P n a fig tree and its fruit. L Ficus carica. Its fruit contains seed. It is sweet in taste. Physicians of the Greek system of medicine use it in several prescriptions. Figs ofKabul and Iran are very sweet; their effect is hot and moist. 2 a town, 30 miles away from Qilat in Balochistan. >ffi:fu;) [ajil] See &tfm. ~ [ajum] A (' pl.!!ral ofOffif (planet). stars. ~ [ajuman] p ~ n an assembly ofeminent persons. nftn-r is plural ofOffif (star); a place where eminent persons, celebrities ofsociety, gather. . ~ [ajuril, ~I' [ajuIi] See ~. 2 joining of both hands in salutation "karI sadhu ajuli punu vada."-sohIla. ~ [ajhu] n a tear. ~ [aj1], ~ [aj1uI adv thus, like this, in this way. nrn- [a~l] Skt 3TU6 n an egg. 2 a testicle "tab tere dou ad cabEhE."-carItr 43. 3 the universe, which is be egg-shaped. 4 a musk-carrying navel. 5 Kamdev, ICupid. 6 cupola ofa temple. 7 semen. 8 short form for ~ (oviparous) "ad bInasi jer bInasi."-sar m 5. 9 a son of king Yayati. ~ [adaj] Skt n born like fish, birds, reptiles etc. from eggs, oviparous. "adaj jeraj utbhuj setaj tere kite jata."-sor m 1. 2 the world, the universe, the earth. "adaj phor jor vIchor." -bIla thIti m 1. See ~ and f'I:rf11 ififc'iT. ~ [adtuk] n egg-like world whose one half is the earth and the other half is the sky. ";'idtuk jacE bhasmati."-mala namdev.

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'Mortal persons are the residue.' See IDlH3t. [aQ baQ] n incompatible speech. 2 out of context babble. 3 adj crooked, bent. nf-g f{fu [aQ vnddhI] ~L~ Hydrocele. accumulation of serous fluid about the testes. It is caused by living in a flatulent way, eating rheumy substances, copulation by restraining normal excretary system, drinking too much toddy wine. In medical books its seven forms, each born of winds, bile, impure blood, etc. are mentioned; its patient must get.himself treated at once by a competent doctor. Good medicines for rubbing, pasting or eating should be used so that the cause of the enlargement of testes is removed. The following medicine has been found to be effective: Take a bark of large myrobalan, terminalia chebula, wormwood, carriander seed, each 2 tolas, cloves 1 tola, cassia acufolia 4 tolas, all ground and sieved, add to it one and a half times sugar and same amount of honey. Mix all these and keep them in an earthen vessel; this should be lapped up or eaten with water in quantity according tq the patient's age. One tola intoxicating hemp mixed with brown lump sugar should be bound around the testes; alternatively the fruit of dhak tree soaked in water and mixed with ghee (clarified butter) should be rubbed as well as bound around the testes. ~ [aQa] See ~. nfiPOfTO [aQakar] Skt adj egg shaped; oval; elliptical. 2 n geography and astronomy. ~ [at] Skt 3RL vr to tie. 2 Skt 3R1 n the end, death. 3 a consequence, effect, result. 4 boundary, extent. 5 the last breath, the time of death. "at ki bar nahi kachu tera."-g;m kabir. 6 centre, middle. 7 See l'>f3Jr. ~ J11:fTit [at sakhai] adj who helps at the last moment (death). 2 who remains a constant ~~

friend till the end. 3 n religion. 4 God. 3R":~21 adj who is at the centre; situated in the interior. 2 n in grammar, four characters tif, 0, 1?, ~ which are between kavarag and U$mavaraI)., (w, lSf, B, 6") characters. 3 human soul. l'>Iaclaa,r-o [atdr dhran], »f3Q UJ!1?) [atdr dhyan] See ~ "Q1('). 2 n a mental view of the soul. ~~ [atdrbhav] Skt3Rf'l'flCrn heart's object or desire, intention. 2 internal understanding. 3 non-existence, destruction. »f3Q ~3" [atdr bhut] Skt 3P'Cf~(l adj existing within; included in the self. 2 n an individual soul; spiritual essence of a living being. ~ l-R? [atdr mdI] Skt 3RPfc;r n mental impurity, pollutiC'n ofthe mind. 2 filth in the stomach. ~ ljCf [atdr mukh] Skt ~ adjwho turns mental impulses inward. 2 one with face turned within. »f3Q 'li5"fua'r [atdr Iaplka] Skt 3l~dC1frqCfiI n a poetic figure of speech. See ~. »f~t:!" [atdrved] Skt ~G adj a country having altars of different religions. 2 n a country lying between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, mentioned as Brahmavarat in the Hindu scriptures. 3 a country between two rivers, doab. ~cl [atdrvedi] adj who dwells between two rivers. See ~. an inhabitant of an inter-river basin; a resident of Brahmavarat. nf3"or [atra] n a re:frain and pause in the text of a hymn. 2 a distance, gap. 3 a cover, shield, obstruction. "jln kE bhitdrI he 2Jtra, jEse PdSU tese UI ndra."-bher namdev. 4 according to Yog, 5tra is what disturbs mental traquility. See 'GrOT ~ 1-30. 5 adv without, except. »f3fu [atdrI] adj internal, inner. "atdrr rag mdha dukh."-maru solhe m 3. 2 advwithin, inside. "nandk rdvr rdhro sdbh atdrI."-mala m 5. 3 in the mind or the heart. "atdrI blkhu mukhI amrItu sUI).ave."-gau m 5. "atdrI efta nid nd sove."-var sor m 3. »f~ [antrIkf;'], »f3ftfcr [atrIkkh], »f3'els

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282 [atrich] Skt 3R1ft~ n space between the earth and the heaven. 2 the sky. 3 the other world. "atrich bhae pache 10k pachtat hE."-BGK. 'People do not honour saints during their lifetimes but repent after they are gone.' ~ [atariy], ~ [atariv] Skt 3R!fritT mr1.RJT [adh parapara] n a thoughtless observance of an old custom; blind faith. l?ftr fin? [adh bIll, »It:r fuw [adh bIla] n a dark hole; vagina; vulva. 2 illiteracy, ignorance. "adh bIla te kaQh-hu karte."-dev m 5. litJ 1lTtro [adh bicar] n blind or incomplete

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thought. "adhIa adh bicar."-var sar m 1. "ji:reT [adhra] n a blind person. See »fr.r. ~ [adhrata], nfmJTT [adhratra] n night blindness, amaurosis. See ~r. nftRft [adhri] adj dark. "jese rat adhri."-BG nfm¥ [adhla], nftrn1 [adhli] n a blind person, the blind. 2 adj ignorant, thoughtless. "~ldhri matI adhli."-suhi chat m 1. 2' Shravan's father and mother. "frr ~ [adh vartara], nfrr ~!T [adh vartava] n thoughtless behaviour. "adh vartava bhau duja."-scwa m 1. nfrr~ [adh vI~vas] Skt n blind faith; belief without reason. nfrrr [adha] blind and ignorant. Se,e nfr.:r. "adha agu je thie kw padhar jal).£."-suhi chat m 1. "nanak hukam na bujhai adha kahif SOI." -var ram 1 m 2. "adhe ehI na akhicmr jIn mukhI 10 I l). nahI, adhe SOI nanka khdsamhu ghuthe jahI."-var ram 1 m 2. nfrrr »(l:fij" [adha akhar] See ~ . nfrrr ¥ [adha kup] See nfrr ¥. 2 stubborn and ignorant persons who do not let light from outside come inside. "manhu jI adhe kup kahra brrad na jal).ni."-var sar In 1. nfQr "lj'Q" [adha dhOdh] See nfrr tjrl". ~ [adhar] ignorance, See nft:IalQ. "pausat sarl).i lagu carl).i mIte dukh adhar."-sri m 5. ~ [adharjJ adj dark. 2 lacking kne wledge; ignorant. "deh ~dhari adh."~vad. chat m 5. nf~ [adhali] temporary blindess and giddiness because Of some defect in the stomach and the brain or because of d,ebiility. "ffl:mrra" [adhIar], "f~ [adhIara] n darkness. 2 ignorance. "nam mIlE canal). adhIar."-bIla m 1. "kIU karr nrrmal kru karr adhIara."-sIdh gosatI. ~ [adhIari] adj (feminine) dark. 2 n ignorance. "bIn satIguru adhIarL"-gujm 5. nft:ft [adhi] adj (feminine) blind, uneducated;

See ~ and nfrr. "adhi rayatI gIan VIhul).i." -var asa. "ftft ~o't [adhi kothi] n a dark cell. 2 an ignorant mind. "adhi kothi tera nam nah!." -asa m 1. 3 womb, mercy. ~ [adhulau], :I?fgw [adhula] adjdark, with or in darkness. 2 ignorant, devoid of knowledge. "adhulau dhadh kamai."-bher m 1. "bharamI bhulal).a adhula."-sri m 1. 3 intoxicated with pride. 4 n a blind man. "f~ [adhula] See nfyw. 2 adj smeared or stained with dirt. "matu bhasam adhule garab jahI."-basat a ill 1. nfit ~tf [adhe kup] See nfrr ¥. "manhu jI adhe kup."-var sar m 1. "f-qQ' [adher], nf:la-QT [adhera] See nf'Q'WQ. "agIan adher bInas."-sukhmaili. 2 injustice. 3 ignorance. 4 adj being ignorant. 5 blind. "kotI pragas na dIse adhera."-ram m 5. 'In spite of countless lights, a blindman cannot see.' See fuR. ~ [adheri] See: ~. ~ ~ [adheri kothril n a cell in a prison which generally has no light. 2 womb. "fii [adh:l] See }>f'Q" and "f~. "adh:l bob mugadh gavar."-prabha m 1. 'mentally blind, enamoured fool, deaf to Guru's sermon.' nft:r:;rrQ [adhyar], l'l1i~ [adhyara] See >?ft:roRr. 2- igrrorance. "dukh drIdr adhyar ko nas." -saveye m 4 ke. "ta m-ItIa sagal adhyara." -sor m 1. l?fq [adhr] 3RJ n a hybrid caste of hunters and fowlers. 2 at country lying between Krishna and Gudawari rivers. It is now called Tilangana. 3 people of Andhra, originally independent, were conquered by Ashoka. After him they again became independent and progressed so much that their rule extended upto the western ghats where they began to

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scriptures, this ceremony should be performed rule after deposing the' Kanav' dynasty.These when the child is six months old. Andhra kings, thirty in all, ruled for about 450 years and at last their rule ended around ~ [anmayko~] See 225 AD. The title of these kings was ,,:j1;T [ana] blind; devoid ofthinking, thoughtless. "ana bola kIChu nadan na avr."-majh am 3. Shatkarni, Pulmai IV being th~ir last king. >Mo [anI] with or by food. "dehuri calE paI).i })j'q ~ [adhr va~] See })j'q 3. anI."-S farid. See»f(')jf. "fo [an] See l?fo. n corn, grain, edible stuff. "an te rahta dukh dehi sahta."-prabha am 5. >ifo>,rr [anI a] other, another, some other, different. "jIh saman kahf lagE na ann." 2 vital air. "lagria pin an."-var maru 2 QakhI).e m 5. 3 some other. See »f(')jf. "an -VN. nfQ [anu] See"fo. "anu nd khahI dehi dukhu marag taj-hu."-savE'ye m 4 ke. ~ [ansal], ~ [an~ala] n a community dijr."-ram am 1. kitchen; an alms house. "ghar ghar ansal ~ [anha] See nfq. 'lifo:;r [any] Skt})fOJf adjother, some other, another, karchaQa."-d I lip. different. 2 not one's own, stranger, alien. ~ lanka] n the earth, producer of grains. ~ [anyacl See l'>fotr. 2 goddess Anpurna. ~ [aI).kut] Skt ~ n a pile of food; a ~ [anyatr] Skt~ advsomewhere else, at some other place. 2 without. Hindu festival falling on the day following Divali. On this day devotees place food in front ~ [anyatha] See ~. of the deity, but religious books allow it to be ~ [anyay] See >lfc'j'j1Tljf. celebrated on any day between the moonless ~ [anyony] See ~. and full moon day of the month of Katak. ~ [anvay], ~ [anvE] See ~. l'>fotr [anac] Skt ~ adv others too; more ~ [anvIt] Skt 3Tf.=cRf adj included, enclosed. >is' lab] leaves of gram plant; chaff of only agam. leaves of gram plant. 2 SktYmj a mango plant ~ [anchetr] Skt a:rFIB'f n a place where the and fruit. 3 Skt ~ vr to go, make a sound. hungry get food; a free public kitchen. "fo3' [anat] Skt~ advsomewhere else; else 4 n a call, shout. 5 going. 6 father. 7 an eye. where. 8 water. 9 See >1fw and~. 10 See~. ~ [anatha] See ~. »i1rRG [abasat], ~ [aba~th] Skt ~ n a ~ [andata] n a provider offood; a patron, mahaut of an elephant. 2 son of a Brahman guardian; nourisher. 2 adj a title of kings in father born to a Vaishya woman. 3 old name of central Punjab; Majha. "Ik abasat des Rajputana. nIrpala."-caritr 274. ~ [anpurI).a] Skt ~ n a Hindu goddess who fills the devotees' houses with food. Its l'>faor [abak] ~ n father. 2 copper. 3 an eye. "abak abuj me abu chae."-NP 'water (tears) famous temple is in Kashi and the festival for swelled in lotus like eyes.' worshipping it falls on the eighth of the bright half of the lunar month of Chet. nfaa'r [abka] See ~. "fo tpBO [an pra~an] Skt 3m "5I"NR n a Hindu ~ [abI).a] v to suffer from a disease (amay), custom of first feeding the new born baby by be sick. 2 to get tired, be fatigued. 3 to making it lick food. According to the religious stretch, be stiff.


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287 ~ [;'}bar] Skt ~ vr to gather; to accumulate.

2 Skt ~ n the sky, firmament. ";'}bar dharatI vIchopanu."-var ram 1 m 3. 31 brain, the tenth door; brain. ";'}bar kl1ja kurlia."-suhi m 1 kucaji 'The brain resounded with the sounds of water fowls.' 4 clothes, garments. "duhsasan ki sabha dropti, ;'}bar let ubariale." -mali namdev. 5 a perfume produced from the fat ofa whale. A ? 6 mica. 7 cotton. 8 Amber (Amer), an old town ofRaj putana, which prior to Jaipur was the capital of Kachhvaha Rajputs. See »'fiRr. 9 Some ignorant scribe has written ~ instead ofl)fifare" in Dasam Granth. "bhajat bhayo ;'}bar ki dara. "-cJdr. 'Tht: moon enjoyed sexual union with the wife ofAngiras (Brahaspati).' 10 P ./.1 tweezers, nippers, pincers. bhre" cjW [;'}bar kl1ja] See bhre" 3. bhre" ~ [;'}bar cur] n a scented paste made with perfume of whale's fat used by rich people to massage the body. bhre" 81? [;'}bar bel] See ~ and »fHo ~. "jaaifi?(!i [;'}braur:la] v to convey, deliver. "jIn jiu dia so njak JbravE."-suhi ravrdas. ~ [;'}brai] See l?1'aa i fi?(!i. 2 n l?f)~, a line of mango trees; a mango grove. »hRit [;'}bri] adj related to the sky. See 2 n unirrigated Iland relying only on rainfall. ~ [;,}bti] P 1/.)6- adj smelling like the perfillme of whale-fat and black in colour. ~ [abris], ~ [abrik], l'lhRi'h:r [abrikh] Skt ~ n a hearth for parching grain. 2 a trough used for parching grain. 3 Vishnu. 4 the Sun. 5 Shiv. 6 a battle, war. 7 according to Valmik's Ramayan, son ofSuryvanshi king Prashusharuk, who was Ikshaku's descendant in the 28 th generation. I To protect him,


lIn Bhagvat Ambarish is mentioned as son of Nabhag, See chapter 9, item 4-5, Mahabharat also confirms Bhagavat.

Vishnu's Sudarshan Chakar chased sage Durvasa whose story is as follows: On 12th ofKartik, king Ambrik was ready to break his fast on the eleventh day, when sage Durvasa arrived. The king invited him also to eat but th,e latter said that he would first take a bath. The king waited a long while but Durvasa did not return. On the advice of his priest, the king then broke his fast. Durvasa on return got very angry. He pulled a tuft of his hair with which he created a smart person who started beating the king. Vishnu sent his Sudarshan Chakar to protect the king which killed the smart person and chased Durvasa who ran for his liife but did not receive any refuge in the world. Tired at last, he sought refuge with Ambrik himself who saved him from the Sudarshan Chakar. 2 Another story in Ling Puran is that Narad and sage Parvat, on seeing the beauty of Sundari, Ambarik"s daughter, fell in love with her and approached the king for her hand. The king replied that he would marry his daughter to a person of her liking. Both of them then went separately to Vishnu, each asking the god to turn the other into a monkey so that the princess might not marry him. The god granted their request. So both of them became monkey-faced and neither could get the princess. They cursed-Ambrik that he would remain enveloped in darkness. Vishnu in order to protect his devotee Ambrik shot his Sudarshan Chakar which produced light like that of the sun and dispelled darkness. It then chased the two sages, Narad and Parvat, who sought forgiveness from Ambrik, which was granted. It was only then that they found peace. "abrik kau dio abhE pad."-maru namdev. "janyo bhagat bhup abris."-GPs. 2See Bhai Gurdas Var 10, pauri 4.

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288 ~

[abva] adj of the colour of a mango; of the colour of mango juice. "abva rag badhe." -krrsan. ~ [abarna] v to reach; to arrive at. "brn beri parr na abrE."-vac;l ill 1.2 to be equal to; to achieve similarity. "rkatu tol na abra." -suhi ill 1 kucaji. "amli amal na abrE."-vac;l ill 1. 'For an addict nothing equals the drug he is addicted to.' ~ [aba] Skt ~ n mother. "abu lIye aba ag dhoe."-NP 2 Durga. 3 elder daughter of Kashi's king Indardyuman whom Bhishampitamah snatched away for his brother Vichitarviray. But she wanted to marry Shalv. Learning about this, Bhisham sent her to Shalv, but he did not accept her. Disappointed, she worshipped Shiv, and during her next birth she as Shikhandi became the means to kill Bhisham in the battle of Mahabharat. ~ [abakri], ~ [abakhri] n a shrivelled piece of a raw mango. 2 a small raw mango. "abakpa je khae."-BG ~ [abar] P .Jyl a heap, stack, rick. 2 a pit, pond. ~ [abari] P w [Ia] SktYiffi pran this. "pun Ia ausar carE body) like those (that) of fE (Cupid); na hatha."-bawm 2 this. See fi:F:r. "Ia sukh possessing a beautiful body. "Iagsat."-gyan. fuR [IS] pran this, it. It is an inflexional form te bhIkhIa bhali."-s kabir. 3 part or. ~ [Iahu] this very, only this. "Iahu jugatI of fEU. "tab IS kau sukh nahi koI." bIhane kai janam."-sukhmani. -sukhmani. 2 SkI -{m n a king. "tIya Isa, ~ [Ia!).] adjignorant, innocent. 211 a child. gahyo kIsa."-ramav. 'King Ravan's wife, ~ [Ia!).ap] n ignorance, innocence. Mandodari was caught by oflH (monkeys).' 2 childhood. 'fuJ:rJror [Is-hak] See F~8djwoer [Ianath], ~ [Iamp] n ignorance, 'See atrI SIffirItI ~ 44. E

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2 worshipable God. 3 a friend. 4 adj desired, wanted. 5 worshipped. 6 beloved. "Isat mit aru bhai."-jEt m 5. ~ [Isatka] See fEz. fuRc ~ [Isat dey] Skt ~ ~ 11 wOl1thy of worship according to one's religion. For the Sikhs it is God, the Creator. 2 tutelary god of a clan. fuRc Hl3' [Isa~ mit] adj desired friend, dear friend. See fu"Rc 6. ~fu [IstapattI] Skt ~crqITr n'~ (desired)>>fl1.ff3"(gain); finding a desired point in the opponent's speech or action, desired success. "t:) bhi IStapatI ham jova."--GPs. 2 profit, gain. ful:rc!H [I starn] See »fFlCTH. fuRit [ISti] adj having a deity, or patron saint. 2 one who realises or actuates a charm. "kahyo kI Isti hi baQa taman karat banaI." -NP 3 Skt ~ 11 an oblation; a religious sacrifice. 4 desire, wish. Fead(Jld [If;itahar] A 11 publicity, public notice; an announcement. reRdasiM [Istakball A J~! 11 a welcome; a reception; going forward to receive as a mark of respect or honour. ~ [Isatdua] A lo;yl 11 an expression of desire. 2 a prayer, supplication, request. fuR3Ha'ra" [Isatmrar] A .If/'! 11 fiml11ess, resoluteness. 2 continuity. 3 without change. fuR" 3W [IS tara] adv like this, in this manner. feRdie(') [I stadan] P t,:J) t:-! v to stand. 2 to halt. feRdie' [Istada] P nt:-! adj standing. ~ [IstamaI]A Jp! being or putting in use; use. feRfd~qliql [IstIhakak] A J~! an entitkment. feRfddl'R' [IstIgasa] A .: l4-! a request: petition to the ruler for obtaining justice; an appeal. feRfaRi [Istfja] A lfr'! 11 cleansing of a drain. 2 cleansing the excretory organs with earth


or water after easing or pissing. According to the Islamic texts one does not remain fit to perform a namaz if the body or cloth is soiled by urine. Therefore the wetness left after urination should be sucked clean with a piece of stone or hard earth. ~ [IstImarar] See ~. feafdGl'l!! [If;itIyak]A JPI 11 fondness. 2 wish, desire. 3 love. feRfdM'(J [IstIIah] A L,-LU-l consultation. 2 a technical term, or phrase, having a special meaning, such as 'deg teg' (literally kettle and sword) meaning feeding and destruction of enemies to continue, as the goal of the Khalsa. See l::f"(\)R" -e- ~. ~ [Istnj] n menses, menstrual discharge -sanama. 2 metaphorically, red sea. ~ [Istri] 11 a smoothing iron press, used by tailors and washermen. 2 SktF{t a woman. 3 wife. "Istri ta]i kan kam vIap;a."-maru d m 1. See 'i'JT'6t. ~T [Istri jatI] four types of women according to Kamshastar. See Fffi:Io't, tJPi301, ~ and ~'>'t and lJ21'I" nrf'3". feR~ftld [IstrijIt] adjconquered by a woman, i.e. uxorious. ~ [istri dhan] 11 dowrY,ornaments and cash which a bride gets from her father or the groom at t11e time of marriage. Katyayan and Manu have referred to six types: (l) money in cash and kind given at the time of marriage. (2) goods given at the time of departure after her second visit to her in-laws. (3) pelf given by the husband Ito please his wife. (4) money and objects given by her brothers. (5) material things given by her mother and (6) gifts given on different occasions by her father. See manu SImntI Ch 9, .~ 194. ~ 'ijTMT [Istri raja] 11 Mohini Avtar.-ddsam grath.


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fuJ::rfERr [IsthIr] Skt f'J:'Era" adj firm, steady.

4 Prophet Muhammad named his faith Islam, fuJ:ro1o [Isnan] Skt FrR n cleansing the body. followers of which are called Muslim or 2 bathing. A bath has been accepted by Musalman. The five principles ofIslam are: scholars as the basis of good health and (a) believing in one God. deliverance from disease, and subtly (b) praying five times a day. considered, bathing also enhances spiritual (c) giving 'zakat' (one fourteenth part of cleanliness and mental peace. The praise of earnings in charity). bath in Sikhism is universally acclaimed, but (d) observing fasts during the month of Ramzan; the Gurus have not considered cleansing the and body without cleanliness of the mind as (e) going on pilgrimage to kaaba in Mecca. Besides these rules, one who has faith in helpful for spiritual well being. "kan Isnan sIman prabhu apna tan man bhae aroga." prophet Muhammad, God's messengers, the -sor m 5. For a better understanding. See (')TIf angels, the revealed book Quran, the last day -ero fuJ::J?>ro. of judgment and in Allah is a Muslim or In the modern times, many incurable "mom In" ~y' (a believer). diseases are treated with special baths like fumrH J:If [Islam xa] son of Shaffi Khan, one sun bath, steam bath, mud bath, or bath with of the maulavis (Muslim priests) of Kabul, medicated water. was subedar of Lahore during the reign of FeROi(')l [ISnani] SktFllf.1~adjwho has a bath. Bahadur Shah. When the Sikhs ofMajha rose 2 who remains clean by habit. under Banda Bahadur, Islam Khan at first fi!1:IorQ [Isnanu] See fuFroro. "Isnanu karhI remained quiet in Lahore, but when Muslim dInu rati."-majh d m 3. religious teachers raised the Haidri banner, fuJ:rlP3' [ISpat] See ~. he too willy-nilly sent troops to fight against fi!HH [Isam] A (! n a name. 2 a name of God, the Sikhs but got defeated in the month of See 3FI'8t. Savan of Sammat 1767. He died in Lahore ~ [ISmail] See FeS~l'i:JlH. in 1768. Some writers have mentioned him ~ [I~rat] A.::.-/' leading a luxurious life. as Aslam Khan or Muslim Khan. fumrH -e- ~ [Islam de fIrke] According 2 the act of living together. to Hadis Tirmazi, prophet Muhammad had reHdlell'S [Israil] A adj chosen (fuFror) of (~) God. In Hebrew this word also means opined that while the Jews had seventy two a true friend of God. 2 n This is another name clans, his followers would have seventy three, and all but one would go to hell. Asked to of Jacob, the first initiator of Israel i dynasty. clarify, he said. "Those who follow me and See Fesd1cllH and ~. reHdlH~ [Israstra] See "';elfnHr.:rd'rt:lH=~. my companions will go to heaven." Sunni Muslims claim that they are the ones thus reHd'.iil'S [Israfil] See :GfuF.r3r. blessed by the Prophet. ~ [ISrar] n insistence. See ~. Besides the Sunn is, Islam has seventy two FfHl'S'u [ISlah] A [,11akar kahf solitary. "thake kaval Ibl."-s [drid. Here karhI Ikat."-sri m 5. 'collects wealth.' :l See

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lotus stands for the soul. fucr't3t [rkati], fuai3t [rkati] Skt~, adj a fecrM'sY[rkIai] n solitariness, loneliness. 2 a devotee who keeps his devotion hdden in his sheet or wrap of a single width. "caru patabar heart and does notreveal it at all. "soi bhagat ki rkIai."-NP 3 See~. Ikati jiu."-majh m 5. 2 living in seclusion. fecrM'cl i [rkiaha] See fei2! n difference, disagreement, separation. 2 antagonism, different view. ~ [IkhtIar], ~ [Ikhtyar) See ~. ~

[Ikhbar] See »fJ:f8lO. (;'fJ! discharge, dismissal, expulsion. ~ [IXlas], ~ [Ikhlasu] t.f lP! n purity, clarity. 2 sanctity. "rIdE Ikhlasu nIrakhle mira."-bher kdbir. 3 friendship. ~ [Ikhlak] See ~. ~ [Ikhvak), ~ [Ikhvaku] See ~. "nrIp Ikhvak bali Ik kal."-GPs. ~ [Ikhika] Skt~ n an arrow. 2 a reed, a piece of straw. 3 elephant grass, especially the reed-like portion just below the ear at the top. 'Wj [:i:khu] Skt"fu15 n an arrow. 2 a reed of elephant grass. ~ [Ikhuas] SktfuJrHn a bow from which an arrow (I~U) is shot. ~ [Ikhuasaj] n born from a bow, (fulrR) an arrow; an arrow shot with a bow.-scmama. ~ [Ikhuasajni] n an army equipped with arrows (I~vasaj)-scmama. 'Wjl'>fTR09" [Ikhuasni] n an army of archers. -s;:mama. fuytr [Ikhudh] Skt~!:\ vr wielding of arrows (and bows). fu1ffu [IkhudhI], W!tiT [Ikhudhi] Skt fu15fu n a holder of arrows; a quiver. "Ikhodhi katI 56 kas parath ayo."-krIS;;}n. ffi1:r [Ikkh] Skt~ n E Sugarcane. L Saccharum officinarum. ~ [Ikhvadhi] See fuJ:rfu. "dae Ikhvadhi dVE."-par;;}s. 'gave two quivers of arrows! ,

ful:Rrrtr [IXraj] A

fedlfMR3 1()

[Ikhvaku] See ~Ti!. "kul Ikhvaku vIkhe jo raja."-GPs. fi!lIT [fg] Skt~ vr to go, tremble, shiver. 2 n a mark, sign. 3 a movement; an effort. 4 a signal, a hint, a gesture. reos [fgat] See fiffirr3". fidlfl'Sf.t [fgII~] E English adj connected with England. 2 n the English language, the language of England. 3 in Punjabi, pension is also termed as English. fedlfl'SHdlo [fglIstan], ~~ [fgltc;l] P \:J~j E England. n a country of the English people. a country in north-west of Europe bounded by Scotland in the north, North Sea in the east, Irish Sea in the west. It is a triangular country with an area 50,874 square miles, maximum length 420 miles and breadth 360 miles. Its area including Scotland, Wales and Ireland is 121,027 square miles. According to the census of 1911, its population is 47,263,530. Its people are known as English, their religion is Protestant Christianity; some Roman Catholics are also there, their number being around 22 lacs. England is divided into fifty counties; railway line zigzags slightly over 16,000 miles. Hardly any village is without a post office, hospital, school, library or church; primary education is free and compulsory; therefore there is no illiteracy in England. England's capital is London with a population of 70 lacs. It is the largest city in the world. The detailed narration of how England conquered India is to be found under

itAc ~ chaft. England rules over a huge empire of the world over which the sun never sets because it is spread over vast areas in all corners of the world. Several countries in Europe, America, Australia, Africa and Asia are

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included in it. It occupies one fourth of the entire earth surface where one fifth of the human race lives. The total area of the British Empire is 13,909, 782 square miles and its population is 460,094,000. In area it is ovelr 273 times that of England. Of its population only about fifty million belong to the white race. The government of England is democratic with a king as its head. Its present mlcer is Emperor George V. England, Wales and Scotland are collectively called Britain and its people are known as the British. fiffiJr3' [fglt] SkI ~ adj moving. 2 marked, with marks. 3 n a signal, sign or indication through gesture, such as a wink. 4 bodily action, motion, effort, movement. "fgIl: bol vIlokm keri."-GPS. reQJtft [fgudi] SkI .~ n godni, wild staff tree, L Gordia augustifolia, its glutinous fruit is edible and it heals swelling of the throat and blisters in the mouth. "fgudi khare VI sal." ~;:r [fgrej] Pgfi!'amt.r F Anglais. inhabitants of England. ~tft [fgreji] the language of the people of England. fiftr [fc] E inch, one twelfth of a foot and one thirty sixth part of a yard. [Ich] See 'fusr. "man Ich pai prabhu dhlai."-asa eMit m 5. ~ [Ich-ara] adjnar suffixed to fflsr, adj desired, wanted. 'fu'sfi:r [IchasI] will desire, desires, you desire. "IchaSI jamadI prabhya."-guj jedev. See



reiiS [fchat] SkI ~ adj desired, wanted, required. "man fchat hi phal pavat hE."-s;weye m 4 ke. W [Icha] SkI ~ desire, yearning, want.

'fu&ro [Ichat],

2 longing, craving for what is not. fesiiNi'I [Ichacaril] ~v0tilIR1, adj one going around according to his own desire. ~'a'a' [Ichapurak], ~ [Ichapuraku] adj who fulfills desires. "Ichapuraku sarab sukhdata."-dhana m 4.2 n God. "Ichapuraku rakhE nldan."-asa ill 5. resr [Iccha] See fu5r. ref&s' [Icchlt] See ~. ft!§ [Icchu] SkI €iv~ adj desirous. 2 n See~. 3 Dg jaggery, brown lump sugar, gur. ~ [Icchuk] See rei [ICCha] See fE'sr. 2 SkI ~~ adj worth seeing, handsome. "uthi ChICh Iccha."-VN. 'rose charming splashes.' fu;:r [Ij] See fuH:;r. ftf;:r [fj] See ~. 'fui::rc:Jra' [Ijhar] A .J~' n disclosure, expression. fut:rorA' [Ijnas] See J?ftI?iTR. rei«JT [Ijra], f~ffiTT1jJ' [Ijray] A un n implementation; fulfilment; putting into action, as of a court order. ~ [Ijlas] A ~.lJJ:>1 n a place for sitting. 2 seat of an officer, court. ~ [Ijazat] A .::-)I:>! n permission, order. 2 sanction, approval. ~ [Ijaphat] A ":";W>I a symbol or letter added to show a relation: affix, apostrophe. In Sikh scripture vowel symbol for [r] i.e. [f] is used for this purpose as in "yak araj guphtam pesI to."-tIlag m 1. In this book the sign for this is "\". 'fut:JrGr [Ijapha] A .J!;. 1 n an accretion, addition. fuwa3" [I jabat] A ...::.--:I:>! acceptance. 2 easy and liberal excretion of stools. ~[Izar]A .IU! n loose trousers usuallywom by women, a pyjama or salwar. f8f.hlae [Izarbad] P .k..JU! n a cord for fastening trousers at the waist ~ [I jara] See futr'Q. "sol-hI sahls Ijara."

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-bhEr namdev. 2 A ~.J1f I n a contract, agreement. ~ [fjil] G, A, P IE Evengel F Evengile L Evangelium, n goodness, happy news. 2 a scripture ofthe Christians, the New Testament. fuffiJr [Ijeha] adv like this, thus. fuR [IjE] n Shiv, the conqueror of lust.-2 IjE has also been used in place of jE. See fuR fuR. fuR fuR [IjE bIjE] See m;r fut:nJr. 2 n a hymn of praise composed by Jay and Vijay. "IjE bIjE su gavte."-GPs. 3 the victory of iJi:1Jr (one's god). 4 victory song of Shiv. retr3' [Ijjat] A ..:,.. j n honour, respect, prestige. fEt:r:r [Ijjar] n a flock, drove, herd of sheep and goats. 2 a fold, pen, enclosure for goats and sheep. fia:r.;r [Ijy] Skt adjworthy of respect. 2 worthy of worship. 'fEt:uJr [Ijya] Skt n worship. 2 a ritual. ~ [fp], ~ [fpu] adv thus, in this manner, like this. [It] See ~. "It snal).e bhuI saval).u." -s farid. 2 Skt~, vr to go. ~ [Itava] See~. "~ahn Itava me huto nana nam sunar."-carItr 90. [Itt] See ~. [Ith], fuo;;r [Ithra], fuor [Itha] Skt fu'1f adjdesired, wanted. 2 worshipped. "han IthE nIt dhIafda."-sri m 5 pEpaI. 3 dear. "gusai mIhaqa Ithra."-sri m 5 pEpaI. "mItrna Ith dhan rup hil).."-var jEt. 'dear friend.' 4 See



rec reo

fuFrc. fuorut [Ithaha] See fucs"ru+. fu5" [IthE] See reo. 2 to the adored one, See

reo 3.3 to the adored one. See reo 2. rear [Ittha] See reo. "putr mItr gurubhai

Ittha."-BG ft:!1m [fdas] G Indos, E Indus. n Indus river. W [Iqa] See W. 2 See ~. ~ [fqia] E India. the country of Indus

river. See fJ~H3i(').

re1Jt' [Iqqa] adj so large; this large. 'fu [fdheln], rem-r [fdham] Skt~!:Ff and ~ n firewood, fuel, See Efq-o. 2 fuel used in a ritual, samIdha. W:Rr [Idhar] advon this side, hither, in this direction. fun [In] pron plural offuR'. "In SIU pritI kari ghaneri."-asa m 5. 2 Skt ~'l n the sun. 3 master, owner. ft:oF.rr [In$a] A ei! n a writing, a script. 2 authorship, a composition. fuoHt [msa], fuoRro [Insan] A ~(), n man. ~ [msaph] A .....;[) I n the act ofsplitting into two halves. 2 sifting of truth from untruth (falsehood); justice, equity. fe(')f{ldiiii [mhnaph] A --ilj! the act ofturning one's face away; being disloyal. 2 disobeying, acting defiantly. feoorra" [mkar] A .J~! n a refusal; denial; disobeyance; non acceptance. [fml).] See rem>. "fml). jal telve no tav£." -BG fe(')fiildiOdI [mfIrag] A [;I)JJ n leisure; holiday. Its root is :GCJl:Ol3'. fe(')faH' q [InbIsat] A .bk"1 n happiness, pleasure, joy. Its root is ~ (freedom). fun fafq [m bIdhI] adv thus, in this way. 2 by this method. "In bIdhI sagaru tari£." -ramav m 1. fuoT [ma] adjthis much, so much. 2 SeefuQr. re(')lf~d [maIt] See ~. ~ [man] A i.:/l;f' n a bridle; a rein. 2 a visible object. 3 opposition, antagonism. firotH [mam] A (l7i1 a reward. ~ [Inayat] A .::.c l;f' n a favour, kindness. 2 an attempt, endeavour. re()lllldi:fTO [Inayatxan] a ruler of Rahon, after


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309 routing whom, Banda Bahadur occupied the town. fuo't [Ini] these, by or to these. "Ini hukamu na bujhIa jaI ."-sdv£ye m 4. 2 these men, such men. 3 this much. reg [inu] See ~. ~UT [Ineha], ~tit [Inehi] adv like this or these, such as. "cadan bhagta jotI Inehi sarbe parmal karl)a."-tilag m 1. fuIWH3". Fel'S'Gltfl [Ilayci] SktT!fIT 11 cardamom, L Alpinia Cardamomum. According to physicians, its effect is dry-hot; it refreshes the heart and brain, increases appetite; removes foul smell from the mouth and cleanses the throat. It cures the diseases of kidney and urinary bladder; and stops vomiting. Fel'SiGltn ~ [Ilayci dal)a] 11 seeds of cardamom, rolled in sugar syrup or sugarcoated. People in Amritsar take it to their homes as consecrated food; it is also called a makhal)a. (a kind of sweet drop) See~. fel'S'~d3 [Ilavarat] Skt ~ or '~(l 11 according to Bhagvat, a region of Jambudvip, (one of the seven regions of the world including India) which is west of Malyavan mountian, east of Gandhamadean, south of Nilgiri and north ofNishid mountain. ~ [Ilava] See ~.


~ [I11ati] See ~ I.

fE'Mr [Ilia] A V! part but. ~ [Ilval] Skt

11 a demon, son of Vipracit born to Sihinka. His story as given in Ramayan and Mahabharat is thus: He changed his brother Vatapi into a ram and used to serve its cooked flesh to Brahmans, later he would call Vatapi who would tear the Brahman's body and re-emerge killing the eater in the process. Once when sage Agast was so served, he digested Vatapi who could not come out at I1val's call. ~ [IV], ~ [IV] Skt ~ vr to be satisfied and contented; to please. 2 adv thus, like this, in this manner. "jo IV bujhE su sahajI samal)a." -prabha kdbir. thus. 3 now. "IV ChU~E phIn phas na paI."-oakar. 4 Skt ~ part equal. 5 surely, certainly. 6 as if. ~m [IV hi] only in this way, thus alone. See ~. "bIkhai dIn rEn IV hi gudarE."-sar m 5. 'spends day and night uselessly.' fear [Ivaj] A J ~ 11 a change, an exchange, replacement. ~ [IVe] adv thus, in this manner. ~ [Iveha] adv like this, resembling this, in this way. "phI~ Iveha jivIa jItu khaI vadhaIa pet."-var suhi m 1. W [Ira] Skt ~ a vein recognized in Yog which originating from the left nostril and passing along the left side of the spine, reaches the brain. Through this vein yogins practise regulated and controlled respiration. It is also called lunar vein because its god is the moon. "Ira pIgla sukhman bade."-gdU kabir. 2 a cow. 3 the eal1h. 4 a praise. 5 goddess Durga. ;'Tra mrIra bhima jagdha trL "-sdloh. 6 mother of Pururava, mentioned as wife of Budh and daughter DfVaivasvat Manu. 7 step-

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mother of Krishan and one of the wives of Vasudev. Et [i] Skt ~ vr to go, expand, desire, eat, throw, send, prompt. 2 suf Et is added to adjectives to form nouns like ~ from ljOl:f, fl:r.rot from RJll'O etc. It is also used to form words of feminine gender like Ul;ft from l.ih:rr, R'it from "Fl'cr etc. 3 n Lachhmi. 4 Sarasvati. "gUT parbati rna i."-japu. 'Guru is Durga, Lachhmi (}IT) and Sarasvati (El).' 5 pron this. 6 part a confirmatory word. "karam dharam sagla i khovE:."-dhma m 5. 7 it also indicates the second case as in "srkhi atE sagti parbraham karr namaskarIa."~ram val' 3. 'Individual Sikhscand ,?ongregations bowed to you for being tralTscendent God.' 8 See if. if [i] sufmeaning plural subjective case; by from, with etc. "morl rul). jhul). lara."-vaq m 1. 'Peacocks dance and sing.' "gall hau sohagal).r bhEl).e."-asa patti m 1. 'apparently happy in wedlock.' 2 P J.:' pron this. [is] Skt tlr.r n master, husband, owner. 2 God, master of the world. "tau gOl). is baran nahi sakau."-nat a m 4. 3 a king. 4 Rudar, Shiv. 5 Vishnu. "is mahesaru dey trnhi atu na para."~varmala m 1. 6 Skt~ vr to have authority, have power. 7 Skt ~ vr to kil I, go, see, pick. 8 Dg a furrow. tlFrc fiftl'>w cf'l../7ft [isat f qia kapni] Many companies bearing this name have been active in South Asia, ofwhich the British and French companies are well known. The first French company was formed in 1604 AD and the British East Company was established on 31 December 1600 with a capital of £ 72,000 authorised to trade: with India, China and other eastern countries. Captain Hippon opened its first office in India in 1610-11. After getting emperor Jahangir's approval


in 1612 for increased business, a factory was set up in' 1613. Then in 1634, orders from Shahjahan to open two workshops in Bengal were procured. In 1668 the company got Bombay from Charles II which the king had received from Portugal as a part of dowry. During the reign of James II, in 1690 admiral Nicholson was called by the company with a fleet of 12 warships, 200 guns and 600 soldiers to protect its territorial and other interests. Gradually the company increased its military strength. It purchased Calcutta and several other towns in 1698 and established Fort William. In 1757 Clive defeated Bengal's Subeclar Nawab Sirajudaula and o~cupied a large part of his kingdom. In this way the British also extended their hegemony to other parts of the country. In 1772, the British Parliament decided to exercise its control on the company's political activities. At last in 1858 the company handed over the rule of India to Queen Victoria of England and in 1877 the Queen of England assumed the title of Empress of India. tlHliiHel [isphajai] See elHSHel. 8'1HsdlM [isabgol] P Jk' n a drug fleawort, Plantago ovata or ispagula, which has leaves like the ears of a horse (asap). Its effecl1s moist, cold and it is used in several medicines. ILcures dysentelry and softens intestines. Its Arabic name is t,w.1% and Latin name is Plantango isphagula. e1HsHe1 [isbajail a Pathan tribe. "isbajai baqo dal ek."~GPs. ~~ is a different tribe. 'ilmr [isarlor -ern-2" [isaru] Skt E'tJ:p:f n possessor of supermacy and glory, God. 2 Shiv. "isaru brahma sevde a1:u trnhi na lahia."-var guj I m 3.3 a particular yogi who preached Gorakh Nath's cult. "bolE isaru satr sarup."-var ram 1 m 1. 4 a king. "baran abaran raku nahi

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isaru."-bIla ravidas. 5 master, owner. 6 one who has power and glory. -etmr [isar sIgh] See ~. 2 a resident of Sihen village in Bangar region and a prominent member of Nishanwali Mis!. He rendered great service to the Sikh Panth. He received seven wounds during the great Holocaust. Akali Phula Singh was his son. See ~ fi:fur. elHdihi [israstra] adj ~'d"-~ weapon of the great master. "krIsan ballabha pratham kahI israstra kahI at."-scmama. 'Krishan's darling Yamuna, its master Varun and his weapon, the noose.' ~ [isaru] See~. 2 Godship, lordship. ~~ [isvi] A Jr:f adj related to Christ; Christian era as in "isvi san." ~ FrO [isvi san] n year commencing from the birth of Christ, Christian calendar which commences from Bikrami Sammat 57. 1 In English books the year numeral is followed by AD, abbreviation ofAnn. (year) Domini (ofour lord), while dates preceding the birth of Christ are marked with the suffix BC (before Christ) ~ [iSfu] a village in Samrala tehsil of Ludhiana district. For merly in Nabha state, it has a gurdwara ded icated to Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru. ~ [isa] 2:::: Jesus was the son ofYusaf(Joseph), a carpenter of Palestine.::' According to the Bible, the angel Gabriel came to Virgin Mary and told her that she would become pregnant and would give birth to a preacher of religion in Bethlehem.>



In fact in fixing the Christian Calendar a mistake offour years and 6 days has been made but this correction has not been inserted to avoid confusion. The use of this Calendar started in 532 AD.

2See Swinton's outlines of the World History p. 189. 'This city is 5 miles south of Jerusalem in Palestine.

Accordingly, Christ was born in 57 Bikrami. Among the Christians, he is known as the son of God. According to the Quran, at the time of his birth, people of the tribe asked Mary how she a virgin gave birth to a child in Bathlehem. Mary pointed to the infant and told them that they could ask the child itself. At this the child asserted his coming from God and removed people's suspicion (See Quran, 'IJdO 1-ffum.r (lines 27-31). According to the Jews, Christ underwent circumcision and received baptism from John. He started preaching at the age of 30 and made many disciples of whom twelve are regarded as his primary followers. He roamed about in many cities and villages preaching the new religion and showing miracles, but because his teachings were contrary to the current usage and rituals, opposition to him grew among the Jews who, especially the chief priest of Jerusalem, became hostile towards him. Finding him an impediment to his own position, he became Christ's chief enemy and alleged that Jesus called himself the son of God and spread unrest among the people. So Jesus was dragged to the court of the Pilate. Knowing full well that Jesus was innocent, the Pilate sentenced him to be produced before king Herod who ordered Jesus to be put on the Cross. Accordingly, Jesus was nailed in hands and feet to the Cross (t)and was thus killed. The grave of this great soul is in Jerusalem. He was hardly 33 years old at the time of his death. The Bible also tells that Lord Christ became alive after death; his body disappeared from the grave and he was seen by several persons after that. The symbol of the cross hung in Churches and worn by the devout around their neck,

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signifies the above incidents. Christians believe that Christ by sacrificing himselfwashed away the sins of his believers and that all who believe in him shall be blessed. 2 See E'lR. 3 Skt Etw Durga. 4 wife of one's master. 5 power, strength. 6 long shaft of a plough. 7 spokes of a wheel. ~ [isai] P Jl.-:f adjrelating to Jesus. 2 n a follower of the Christian religion; a Christian. "¢lw }:flO [isa xan] a chief of Manjh tribe who for a time was subedar ofDoaba. He inflicted. severe atrocities upon the Sikhs and killed Kapur Singh Bairar. See~. ~1? [isaxd] a branch of Usman Khail Pathans. 2 several other Pathan sub-castes are included in it. ~ [isan] Skt~. n Shiv; Rudar. 2 north east. 3 master. ~ [i:;iIni] See E1=lfo 2. itJJ [isu], ~ [isur] ~ [isuru] See ~. 2 who has a fortune; wealthy. 3 a king. "rak nahi isuru."-bIla ravidas. ~ riSE] to God. 2 on or over God. "balI balI jai prabhu apnE iSE."-illaru solhe ill 5. 3 of God. "nahI nED disE bInu bhajan iSE ChOQI maIa calIa."-jEt eMit ill 5. Eb:r [isr] See ~. ~ [israDI], itJ:rC1l c!-l"lI:5l only this much; merely this much quantity. ~ [etIhyl, ~ [etIjjh] Skt ~ be thus; traditionally a well known matter, the mere existence being its proof. See 1j1-I',ffu [saOc;lI an], ~'fu;wfu [saOc;lI an] n an enemy of the elephant (Jff5t); the lion. -SCJllama. FrtIfao't [sClOc;lIni] n an army having elephants in it.-sc)llama. ~ [sauc;li] Skt ~ adj who tolerates. "maha sastra sCluc;li."-ramav. 2 See~. ~ [sClOc;li] See Ft'it. FrtI~ [sClOc;lyatak] n killer of the elephant, the lion.-Sc)llama. H€1'a:i!i3a t]"foo1' [sClOc;ly2ltClk dhunmi] n a lion, the killer of the elephant; a gun, that roars like him.-sc:mama. ~ [saul).] Skt'F.ltil7) n sleeping, having a nap. 2 Skt ~ an omen, good or ill, depending upon the reward; a sign etc. "soi sasatu saul). sOI."-sri m 5. See »fl..fHQJ7) and mgo. H€1't, ~, etc. when fay ~, »!fu ~ etc. are added at the end of the

aforesaid terms, they mean the gun. Another name for the gun is the enemy of the lion. In this context, following are the names been ascribed to the lion "adI taraganI sabad ucaro jankE, jacar kahI naIk pad bahuro thanh, satru ~abad ko take at ucariE, hoi sakal tupak ke nam sumItr vIcariE." -8]]. 'Grass grew because of the tarangani (the stream), the deer was its grazer whose hero was the lion and whose enemy was the gun'. Names ofthe streams are also not common. At some places, the stream demolishes the banks; at other places, it is the ripper of the mountains; still at other places it gets associated with the mythological names i.e. ~'d''€!f3nifeCl fl:rw for Jamuna, '§fu:m J-fT3T for Ganga, ~R"i'ifo for Chandarbhaga etc.

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As the grass grows on the earth, so very intricate names are assigned to it liike "nIsnalkananI sunear patI arr." 'the bearer of Chandarbhaga-the earth, its produce is the grass anet the grazer of the grass is the deer, whose lord is the lion and its enemy is the gun. Assuming the earth to be the property of Kashyap the Prajapati, the names ascribed to the gun are the most difficult as "uee sravaIS es eSl)i ISl)i arl)i." It means 'The lord ofSrava (horse) is Indar and his lord is Kashyap, his property is the earth, and its master is the army whose enemy is the gun.' At places word ~ is coined by employing the term f'qtr four times as adI $abad mat;'}g bhal)ijE, car bar nrlp pad ko dijE, arl)i take at bakhano, sabh sri nam tupak ke jano.-1251. 'Lord ofmat;'}g (Airavat, the elephant)-Indar, his master Kashyap, his property, the earth, its protector, the royal army and its destroyer, the gun. If readers study Sastarnammala keeping the aforesaid rules in mind, they win find it easy to grasp the meanings. ~ [sastrani] n an armed force.-sClnama. ~ [sastrapatI], HH~d'H [sastraraj], ~re [sastrarat] n a lord of weapons the sword, srii sahib.-sti." 'is carnivorous.' 2 cooked ~ [~agaf] P ..J~ n a crack, fissure, hole, vegetables; a relish added to food. orifice. ~ [sagarva] adj in a dignified manner, in ~ [sag.:>na] See 1J'1::RT ftf"Q". a respectable way. "manu tanu tamI sagarva R~ [saggaratta] very close and loving. ja dekha han nE!).e."-var kan 111 4. 'Only by Ffl.IlC [saghat] See Rufc. seeing Hari, I attain dignity in full'. FI1IfO [saghdn] adjdense, concentrated. See UfO. mJft [sagO feminine of l1cIJT. "ah;3budhI bahu sdghan maIa."-guj m 5. 'R"iJ1't6" [sagir] A ? adj small, le:s8, tiny. 2 accompanied by a musical instrument. "hE 2 inferior, mean. gE bahan sdghan ghan."-s kabir. See UfO. FI'qJe [sagu!).], FIqfO [sagun] adj endowed with 3 cloudy. qualities like education and art. 2 with a ~ [saghara!).], Ffl.1RJ7) [sagharan] v to string. 3 with a bow-string. 4 inhering instincts massacre; to annihilate. "asur saghara!). ram of purity, passion and wickedness. S See"FlCg(') hdmara."-maru soLhe 111 1. "Ik fdri pakan and ROJO. "sagun apsagun tIS kau lag-hI jIsu sdghare."-natam 4.2 to accumulate, collect. citI na ave."-asa ill 5. "aghae sukh saghare."-sar m 5 Fl'q!7) l'>f1.IRqJO [sdgun apsdgun] When these: two ~ [sdgharEl See l1'UfTOi'i. words come together, they stand for good 'fltl" [sac] Skt ~"'Cf, vr to wet; to serve; to omen. See FIqfO 5. understand fully; to be related in full. 2 adj ~ [~aguftdn], ~ [~agufta] Se:e 'fF.rq]'".G3"U who attends. 3 n truth. "sac bInu sakhi mula and fHi)j.ii';3('). na baki."-sava m 1. 4 The supreme being as J'IWlW [sagua] Pkt n a rope, a trouser-string. incarnation of truth. "sac ki ba!).i nanak 2 a cradle, crib. "sdgua kE yako pdhIcanakh£."-tI1J'g m 1. 5 ecstasy. "tat-hI tdtu hu."-c'JrItr 228. mIlIa sac pava."-gau bavan kabir. 6 See and Rtr. 7 Dg n a sub-caste, dynasty. F.JWO [~agun] P l:J plural of F.ICJ?i (Hom). ~ [~agufa] P J n a bud. 2 a leaf-bud, ~ [sacau] See F!'tP". shoot. 'Rtf Wl:ft [sac sakhi] a true witness. 2 a true evidence. 3 a true story. ~ [sagur], ~ [sagurau], ~ [sagura], "FlC[;f [sagup] adj latent, hidden, secret. mrFtfuw [sac sohIla] a true song; a composition 2 close, intense, thick. "lal sagup."-prabha in praise of the Creator.



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11tJ1:lT [sackMlj1:f [sanmukh], 'H'(')Jjl3 [sdnmukhu] Skt ~ spiritual sons of Brahma, namely, Sanak, adv facing, face to face. "sdnmukh sdhI Sanandan, Sanatan and Sanat Kumar. ban."~asa chatm 5.2 obedient. "mohri putu "brahmadIk sankadIk Sdndk sanaddn sdnmukhu hOIa."-se>du. 3 n whose face is Sdnatdn sanatkumar tIn kau maha1u turned towards the Guru and who has turned du1bhavdu."-asa m 5. his back on worldly distractions and has FIOihr [sdnke$] n ~-itr.r. master or father of developed such prime qualities as goodwill, Sanak, Brahma. "sankes nadan pavhi ndhI friendliness etc. bhev."-akal. "mEtri karUI).a dYE 1akho mudIta tiji jan. ~it!O [sankesnadan] son ofBrahma. See catur upekhya JIS VIkhE sdnmukh so ~. pahIcan."-NP FI7iiII3" [sangat] See Ror3'. "guru daya1u ki da'ya ffi'iliI" [sanay] Skt adj principled. 2 old, ancient. kE sangat hE."-BG 2 beatitude, emancipation. 'fI'i'iT [sdna] See R"(')"Ttf. 2 See ~. 3 A PI:.- a

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climber, leaves ofwhich are used as a purgative. L Cassia Senna. It is called markaqIka in Sanskrit. In Ayurvedic system of medicine, it is believed to eradicate such diseases as constipation, leprosy, flatulence and cough, etc. Physicians consider the senna ofMecca (Cassia Lanceolata) very useful. Its effect is warm and dry. It drains bile through loose motions and cures pain in the gout and the ribs. ~ [sanau] See ~. 2 See Ffi'ilfu" 2. "R(')Tl')f3" [sanaat] A ..:-i'l;.> n workmanship, craftsmanship. The root of this word is ~ which means 'to make something skilfully.' 'R'i')'l"fu [sanaI] See m;r. A It 11 commendation, praise. "pajvi sIphatI sanaI."-var majh m 1. 'Laudation of the Praiseworthy (God) is the fifth namaz.' 3 P a small trumpet. "bajatr kotI bajhi sanaI bhen sajhi"-ramav. ~ [sanart] eulogy, praise. See Ffi'ilfu" 2. "sanaIt bahut kar."-JSBB. ~ [sanai] n one who is worthy of praise or laudation; God. 2 air-filled leatherbag used as help to cross a river, etc. "bhup-hI laya earhaI sanai. santa bie pari pun jai."-c-f'fEo [samaIn] to merge, commingle, be immersed (in). 2 n rennet or sour milk used to produce curd. "dudhu karam phunI suratI samaIl).u."-sulli m I. 3 destruction, ruin, annihilation. "labI lobhI ahi'ikarI mata garabI bhaIa SamaIl).u."-asa chat m 5.4 Skt PH'Gl7i' laughter, joking. 'R}f\'fuw [samaIla] merged (into), commingled (with). "nama saeI sarna Ila."-prabha. 'FfHT'E'T [samail n peace; forbearance. 2 pervasion. diffusion. "ghatI ghatI rahIa samai."-mala a mI. 3 absorption. "UpjE nIpjE nIpajI samai."-gaukabir. 'absorbs.' 4P J,P petition, hearing. "moln anath ki karahu

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samai."-gau m 5. 6 See ~ F1i-fTEt. 7 See

J=!H1'fu 7 and 8. '\lare sekh j£se samai samae."

[samah] See ~(!T, ~ and flHTUT. 2 l1-~)-fT(J with enthusiasm, eargerness or keenness. 3 cause to be conveyed or delivered. "sabhna njak samahda pIara." -sor m 4. 4 A ~ V- adj magnanimous, liberal. 5 merciful, compassionate. Fl1-fTCJ'O [samahar] n collection, aggregate, assemblage. "nanak sace saCI samahar."-var ram 2 m 5. 2 According to grammar a kind of a compound, expressing a relationship. 'ffi-l'l'U'QT [samahra], ~ [samahra] Skt ~ Ff-»rrf(J;3' adj collected, accumulated. 2 brought together at one place. 3 associated with, joined. "so bhagta manI vutha saCI samahra."-var guj 2 m 5. 4 with pleasure, with delight. "bhaIa samahra hanratan vIsaha."-brla chat m 5. FI1fTUT [samaha] Skt ~:P::rTef~ adj collected, accumulated, supplied. "jia j;:jt sabhI pache kana pnthme njaku samaha."-sar a m 5. "brahamgIani k£ garibi samaha."-sukhmani. 2 merged or absorbed (in), engrossed (in). "japI nanak bhagat samaha."-sor m 4.3 See m-rrfu3". "ape gUI). gavaIda pIara ape sabadI samaha."-sor m 4. FIl-r'lJ'T'Q [sdrnahar] See FfHT(J"O 2. FIlfl'fu€' [samahIo], FI1-fTfu»rT [samahIa] See 'Rl-f'lU

-cantr 335. 'The Sheikhs were laid low in the battlefield in such a fashion as if they had been engrossed in listening to music.' m-rn [samas] Skt n RJf->m1 the act of sitting together at one place. 2 gathering, collecting. 3 According to grammar, the concept or method of forming one compound word from several simple ones. For example, there is compounding in words like ~.I 4 an abstract, abridgement. "duje hUI VIt vyas samas."-GPs. 'The second quality of a speaker (orator) is that he should know how to expand and abridge his speech.' 'RlfTH7) [samasan], 'R}fTffif [samasam], m-rfJ:m [samasIm] A plural ofFP-lfFlH3" red insects; They come out of their holes during the humid heat ofthe rainy season. "manhu pekh samasan ke mukh dhaI cali mIl juth ahi h£."-knsan. 'Female snakes have rushed to eat up the moths.' m-fTfft [samasi] wi11 merge (into) or commingle (with) "jIn seVIa mera han ji, se han han rupI samasi."-sopurakhu. RlfTH~ [samasoktI] a figure of speech (a succinct expression), which imparts veiled knowledge ofa secondary thing through a hint of the principal one. RJ-fTf'c:r3". l1}frfu3' [samalut] Skt adj absorbed in Example: sfghan ki sun garaj ko j;'ibuk hoe m:m.... meditation, meditating (mind). "sahIj rogi nubal sfgh pIkh musa bhae dIler. samadhI samahIo."-kan m 5. 2 dressed (as Here the coward, the king and the vile food), prepared. 3 pure. 4 pervading. "ghatI persons, are hinted at through the jackal, the ghat I rahIo samahIo."-sor m 5. "nanak lion and the mouse respectively. sarab samahIa jiu."-majh m 5. RlfTfi[3' [sama$nt] Skt adj Skt dependent (on); 'fTHTtit [samahi] merges (into), pervades. supported (by). 2 who has found refuge (in). ~ [samahiE] See ro-rru and 'RWiJ'T. "njak 3 connected or concerned (with). samahi£."--var ram 2 m 5. lIn grammar various kinds of compounds, such as FIH"g [samahu] See ro-rru. avyayibhav, tatpuru$, samanadllIkaral), dyad etc. are m-fT(JJ' [samag], Fl1-fICJI}f [samagdm] Skt FPf -»ff0J}f n a meeting, union, combination. "ek pdl described in detail.


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sukh sadhsamagam kotI bekuthah pae."-sar candleholder. 2 a lamp stand. m 5. "mIlI sadhsamaglO."-bTla m 5. m-rrfe" [samadI] means such as F.P-R1f. See 2 arrival. 3 coitus, sex. CfCFftl'f3". 'FI'lf'OIT [samaga] Skt ~r adj obtained. n m-f"Q" [samadh] n a memorial at the cremation arrived, merged (in). "dehi mahI deu site. 2 See ffifTfu. samaga."-sor m 1. IDfTQ"m [samadh bhai] a village in tehsil Moga FfHTi1t [samaglO] See FJHTOT}-f. of district Ferozepur. The place has come to FIJiltm [samacar] short form for FJ}f"I"t:Rf~. be known thus because of the memorial (RJ-!TQ") ~ [samacaraD] Skt n good conduct or ofBhai Rup Chand that is situated here. There behaviour. 2 acting upon, practising. is in this village a gurdwara of the sixth Guru "gursabadI samacarIo."-savEye m 4 ke. "lOsi who, while passing through Malva, had come budhI samacari."--brla kabir. "satu sathokhu here. At that time this village did not exist. samacare."-savEye m 4 ke. Pandit Bhola Ram Udasi, a unique scholar of ~ [samacarIo], RJ-Ilmft. [samacari], F~ Nyaya Shastar, belonged to this village. [samacare] See ffi-~. m-rtr" [samadha] Skt rf -»IT-LJT n resolution of a 'fI"HTtJl'ij" [samacar] Skt n an account of time. dispute. 2 a reply (to a question). 2 news, tidings. 3 message. 4 usage, custom, 3 concentration of mind on one object. 4 See FI'l-fTl:f'7)• practice. RH'tJTij" tr:I [samacar patr] a newspaper. 'RJfTl:fT7) [samadhan] Skt n concentration of 'RWtft [samaci] short form for "R'l-fltft?:~. mind. 2 fortitude. 3 a reply to a question. 4 a m-rrtJ [samaj] Skt n assembly, gathering. 2 a decision. meeting, conclave. 3 a council chamber or m·pftr [samadhI] Skt n the act of total hall. 4 an elephant. It is a transform of:RTHtf. perceptual concentration. 2 merger of the See "FP1-IH. mind in the object of meditation. 3 a Vaishya, ~ [samaDau] adj merged, contained, who was a companion of king Surath and a included. devotee of goddess Durga. "samet samadlu ~ [samaDa] adj merged, commingled. samadhI lagai."-c.:'i'Qi 1. 4 a figure of speech "sarbe samal)a apI."-vaQ m 1.2 SktH-}rf'o3". that renders easy the meaning of one word by commended, admired. "jajI kaj vialu suhavlO relating it to the others: othlO mas samaDa."'-var mala m 1. 3 Sc;:e F:nfI?)T. Example: HWw [sdmia] See ro-ft adj peaceful; who is pacified. 2 Skt FI'HW part middle, inbetween. 3 close by. "jaka mit sajdn hE samia. tIsu jdn kdU kdhu kaki kdmia."-gau m 5. ~ [sdmik$dI).] See FlJ-f!5?;. ~ [sdmigdrdbh] Skt F.fJ-l9cJm" n fire; a conflagration produced by rubbing twigs of the land tree which rishis regarded supremely pure for yags and sacrificial fires. mfttfto [sdmicin] Skt adj capable, suitable. 2 entire, complete. m.ft&:o [sdmichdn] Skt ffif -~. ~ n the process ofdeliberating; carefully considering. FlJ-itsr [sdmicha] Skt ~ See FlJ-f!5?;. n a point ofview. 2 an opinion, agreement. 3 a decision. FI"l-fIH [sdmijd take rest. 2 blend in, mix in. "nandk sukh sdhdjI samijE."-ram m 5. 3 is absorbed. 'A"rft3"r [sdmita] adj absorbed, mixed. 2 blossoming, developed. "bujhI SdCU samita."-var guj 1 m 3. m-fttr [sdmipl Skt advnear, in proximity, close. mfh.r3" [sdmipdt] adj very close, very near. 2 Skt H~ n the sky. "mIrdt 10k pdIal sdmipdt asthIr than jIsu hE."-maru solhe m5. FIl-ikr [sdmir] Skt n ffif-iRr. (cool) breeze, wind, air. 2 See fu:r 0TliT. mikn.ra' [samirsut], FIl-ikr 30Gf [sdmir tdnay] n the son of the wind (Hanuman) 2 Bhimsen. FIl-ikr t!T ck" [sdmir da kot] See If'ffi fRur. ~ [salagh] n a pitchfork. It is an agricultural hot water. ~ [salok] Ff-icr the same people, the same implement. Its shape is like that of a trident. It is a large fork with sharp, widely spaced country. 2 Skt wffiu a type of salvation. It prongs for pitching straw and chaff. involves living in the realm of the Deity.

Page 463 of 674



mra [salhab] See fi::lc.'5rs'.


jag!).a."-var g. 5 a sin. 6 harsh words. 7 a brl tree. 8 king of ~ ~ 37> [savat saval tan]-scmama. a black Madrdesh, who was the brother ofMadri, wife deer; whose body is white and black; a deer of king Pandu. During Draupti's swayambar with black back and white chest. he was defeated by Bhimsen, and turned [savatr] a co-wife. See ~. "savatr enemy of his sister's sons. During the battle ek trh nrrp-hr bulai."-cmy', each line having 31 matras, the first pause being at the 16 t\ second at the subsequent l5 t \ with a nagan (III) at the end. Example: mukh te tika sahIt ucarat, ram rIde nahI puran rahIt, kan upde$ sunav£ logan, kachu na kamavE apan kahIt.. .. -GV6. (4) The fourth type of sav£ya is 'daju dUI sath c;:>lai."-asa kabir. 3 Skt Fl'rd S lucky. a group of peopl,e travelling together; a Ff'trc') [sadan] Skt n a paste prepared with oil, caravan. "parI p;:>p g;:>c;l.i l;:>diahI pap p;:>rI barley flour and turmeric to massage the bh;:>riE sath."-var asa. "muthre sei sath."-var bride. "bh;:>n me hasaI tan sadan malaI gau 2 m 5. 4 mnd;"lg, a kind of two sided subh."-NP. 2 Skt mfcA:. adj an elephant-rider. drum. See Rfu' 3. 3 a horse-rider. 4 a chariot-rider. "raj na bhag FI'l1'ftt [sathdi] adj who accompanies; na hukdID nd saddn."-asa m 5. "raj mal saddn companion. 2 n companionship. "tah rakhE ddrbar."-bhcr m 5. 5 A c'J\r' a gatekeeper, namu sathdi."-kah m 4. janitor. WEfij' [sathar] n H-1~ lying down on the 'R't! ~ [sad murada] adj simple-minded, modest. ISome so-called Sikhs ask the ragis to recite this hymn during the marriage ceremony on the pattern of Hindu's 'A"t!'6' [saddr] adj with regards, with respect. "bEth-hI sad;:>r sr;:>ddha dh;:>rkE."-GPS. 2 See custom of performing or worshipping "~atI" by the


maternal grand-parents of the bridegroom.


Page 488 of 674

456 ~~

[sadal bar] a wild forest between the rivers Ravi and Chenab. The sage Sandil used to reside in this forest, hence the name '~aQIly va!).'. ~ [sadra] adj simple, unassuming, not given to deceiving. 2 n taste. Ff"t!" [sada] P ~JL- adj clean, clear. 2 unalloyed, pure. 3 foolish, illiterate. 4 n grandfather of Bhai Rup Chand, resident of the village Tuklani. 5 a devout Sikh of Guru Hargobind residing in Balakh. The author of Dabistan Mazahab writes that Sada moved from Balakh for Iraq to bring horses for his master. His son was very sick at that time. He was asked by his fellow-villagers not to leave his son at this stage but Sada preferred to serve his master. Sada had hardly covered the first stage of his journey when his son died, but he did not return home. He brought three horses ofexcellent quality for the Guru, which were ultimately snatched away from him by Khalil Khan, an officer of Shahjahan. 'f.IT'eI"S' [~adab] P ",:",'Jt adj new, fresh. 2 lush green, verdant. ~ [~adabi] P ~'Jt n newness, freshness. 2 verdure. wfu [sadI] with taste. "tnpatI nd aVE bIkhIa sadI."-ramm 5. adjwith origin. 3 Sktn wind, the air. 4 a warrior. 5 a chrioteer. Wfe' [sadI] n peace. "sukh sadI ghan aIa." -sor m 5. 'peacefully.' 'fIT fuur;ft [sa dIhari] the same day. "tusi sa dIhari lahJr ja!).a."-JSBM ~ [sadIk] A ~:H adjfirm in faith, devoted. "pir pekabar saIIk sadIk."-asa m 1. 2 true. 3 n name ofMuhammad Jafer Imam, who was born in 83 Hijri and died in 148 Hijri. FI'fua' [sadH] A .J J('" likely to commence, likely to be issued. 2 A .JJIr- careless, carefree. JI1t!t [sadi] feminine ofFRT. 2 P t,).iP eminent


Persian poet, Sheikh Sadi, resident ofShiraz. He was born in 1175 AD and expired in 1292 AD. Many of the books written by him like Gulistan, Bostan, Pandnama, etc. are worldfamous. 3 t5 Jt happiness, bliss. 4 marriage. 5 See wfu. W'eltrfo [siidipanI] son of Sandipan. See

R't!lLrfo. ~

[sadu] n taste. 2 SktTf!! adjtasty, delicious. "sakat hanras sadu na janIa."-sohIla. 'did not enjoy the supreme pleasure.' ~ [sadun] Skt ~ n the act of relishing; the act of enjoying. "jIhva sadun phiki ras bIn."-sar m 1. ~ [sadr] Skt adjthick, dense. 2 soft, tender, delicate. 3 greasy. 4 charming. 5 n a forest. ~ [sadn~], ~ [sadn~y] Skt ~ n sense of looking similar; equality, similarity. wq [sadh] Skt m~ vr to complete; to conquer; to win laurels. 2 n perfection, excellence. "jau tuhI sadh pHam ki."-s kabir. 3 Skt ·Bll·r excellent. "jasu japat han hovhI sadh."-gau am 5. 4 a saint. "sadh upan jaiE kurbanu." -sukhmani. 5 short form for FjT[f(). "jap tap sajam lakkh sadh sIdhav!).a."-BG 'fI'Tq [sadh] n a hole made in a wall by thieves; house-breaking. "pntham siidh dE darab curavE."-CarItr 104. 2 See Fji"q'o. wrlHH'ilT [sadhsamag], RJQRHlOIH [sadhsamagam] n a congregation of holymen. "prabhu aradhiE mIII sadhsamag£."-bIla m 5. wq wq [sadh sadh] See F!11J wg. Wtl'lfar [sadhsag], H'Qfldlf3 [saclhsagatI], R'LIJtm.r [sadhsagam] See WQ'HHT(Jl}f. "sadhsagatI UpjE bIsvas."-gau thIti kabir. "sadhsagatI kE acii lavhu."-jE't m 5. 2 Bhai Nand Lal describes Sikh religion as "sadhsag". "hamcuna dar mazhabe i sadhsag."-j.fdgi. wq Fi'aTt3' [sadh sagat] n by holy-congregation. "nanak pritI lagi tIn ram SIU bhetat sadh

Page 489 of 674


sagat."-asa chat m 5. 2 in the company of a saint (holyman). FI'tT Jffar [sadh sap] through the company of a saint. "sadh sagJ: sabhu dukhu ITlItaIa." -bIla m 5. "sadh sagI hUI nnmala."-gau thIti m 5. FI'tT Jfarrl n a gyan VIcar nahi jIn ko, myna. "cDc pasar rahe SISU sank jEse."-cac;li kya upde~ karE tIn ko? .. 1. "Ih vatas sarIka mukh pasar."-GPs. 2 a ~ [saravbh:>m] See ~. female go-between, intercessor. ~ [sarvan] See ~. 2 a camel-keeper. wfifaT [sarfg] a species of pied cuckoo; a rain'flTaT [sara] adj full, whole. 2 See FRJ. 3 brotherbird. See w8'or I. "krIpa jalu dehI nanak in-law, brother of one's wife. See ~. sarfg kau."-sohIla. 'Give the rainbird life providing water, says Nanak.' A'd'A'd [sarasar] FJTij' and l?fRTd'. "Sarasar lakhavE jab£."-NP. wrJdlQd [sarfgdhar], ~ [sarIgpal).I], ~ [sarfgpal).ij,"fIT'foa1trrfo [sangpamj, wd'dl~l [saragarhi] a border village in Kohat district situated about one and a half mile away wf''dOJ1.P(')T [sangpanij See 'flTd"~. fi'om Fort Lockhart. There is a small fortress "sarfgdhar bhagvan bIthula."-maru solhe m 5. "CIrU hoa dekhe sarfgpal).i."-majh m 5. built there by the Indian government. In the battle fought here on 12 th September 1897, "natvat khe1E sangpanI."-gav kabir. "bhajlehI re man, sangpani."-bher kabir. twenty one Sikhs of36 Sikh Batallion, encircled by thousands ofAfridis, didnot show cowardice, 2 See~ 8, 9 and 10. but fought bravely as becomes the duly baptised A'rJdl'ra [sarfgarIj n enemy ofa bow, a sword. The sword can cut the bow. "sEph sarohi Sikhs. According to the version ofAfridis, these satruarI sarfgarI jfh nam."-sanama. Sikhs laid down their lives after killing about two hundred enemies and injuring hundreds of ~ [sarij adj complete, whole. 2 abstract, gist. them. To commemorate their sacrifice, the "nanak Ihu matI sari jiu."-majh m 5. 3 stated. "guru pure eh gal sari." -sor m 5. 4 n government has built up memorials at fort Lockhart, Amritsar and Ferozepur. information, news, inquiry. "apni Itni kdChu na FfTOlO [saran] adj under shelter. "dasdasro satah sari."-sar m 5. 5 See RTfu. "karam dharam tum ki saran."-sar m 5. 2 See 'RQ('):;f. 3 n essence caupar saj-hu satI kar-hu tum sari."-bffiJ [sIah] See


~ [sIarana] get cooled. See ~.

fRnfr [sIal past tense of '5,rn [sIah] black. See ~. "sIahau hoa set."-majh bar;;,hmaha. 'from youth got into old age.' ~ [sIahgo1;>] P J / ~h-- n a. carnivorous quadruped having black ears. Its face is like that of a cat and body is as that of a dog. It is kept for hunting. It pounces quickly upon animals like a hare, deer, etc. Its zoological name is Felis Caracal. ~R [sIahpo1;>] See ~ and ~. ~ [SIahar] a village under police station Delhon in tehsil and district Ludhiana, which is situated at a distance of four miles northeast ofAhmedgarh railway station. There is in this village a gurdwara in memory of Guru Ri]1}f

Hargobind about halfa mile west ofthis village. When the Guru was on his way from Rarha (rara) to Jagerha, his horse fell ill near this village. The Guru halted here, and the horse died at this place, and was buried with a shawl covering it. There is a shrine raised over the burial place near the gurdwara. In the beginning, it was a very ordinary shrine, but now the present priest Bhai Tehil Singh has since Sammat 1975 got constructed a beautiful place of worship. The recitation of Guru Granth Sahib is done here daily. ~ [sIahi] P U'h-- n blackness, soot. 2 ink. 3 mental dirt, wickedness of mind. See CRT 2. ~fiat [sIahi tIbbi] a place near Anandpur Sahib, where the Guru pierced to death two Muslims with his arrows. Instigated by the hill-rulers, they were trying to blow up the Guru with cannon shots while he was holding a holy congregation there. ft:rnfrtit tftfufu [sIahi di bIdhI] A script-writer has written down the method of making ink on the last page of Bhai Banno's manuscript of Sri Guru Granth Sahib. While preparing fresh manuscripts the ink-making formula was blindly copied word for word by the ignorant script-writers. So much so some foolish scholars insist on reciting this portion dealing with the method of preparing ink. The formula for ink production is as under: "soot weighing 1 sirsahi, bolu 3 sarsahi 2, arabic gum 2 sarsahi, amethyst (purple or voilet quatz) one ratti, gold one ratti, bIjEsar water4 , copper-utensil, wood of magosa tree Jbolu is a medicine named Myrrha in English and mur in

IThe village derives its name Gurusar, after the word

Persian. According to Ayurvedic system its effect is


assumed to be warm. It cures abdominal diseases. It is

2Golewala is a railway station on Lahore- FerozepurBhatinda railway line.

also called maslvardhan in Sanskrit. 4bhagra. Its Bengali name is masrraj.

Page 508 of 674


(Azadirachta indica), soot ofa burning earthen lamp collected at a distance from the flame.\ grinding of all thes,e contents is to go on for twenty days." The ancient wriiters used to prepare ink by this method. Addanshahi Sikhs were engaged in its trade particularly, hence this ink was popularly known as "ac;l.l~a1).$ahi srahi." ~ [srahu] See ~. "tanu srahu hor badan jar kumlar."-var guj 1 m 3. ~ [sra1).] n recognition, knowledge, identification. ~ [sra1).na] v to recognise, have knowledge of. ~ [sra1).ap] n wisdom, intelligence, cleverness. "sahas SIa1).ap karr rahe manr kon: ragu na hor."-sri m 4.2 experimentation. 3 miserliness, niggardliness. ~ [sIa1).a] adj wise, prudent. Sele A l~~' far-sighted, sagacious. 2 clever. 3 miserly, niggardly. 4 n a village under police station and tehsil Pehowa, district Kamal, which is situated ten kos west of Pehowa. The tenth Guru Gobind Singh had held at this place a meeting with saint Shahbhikh ofThaska. 2 The heavy pointed heads ofthe arrows ofthe te:nth Master kept in gurdwara are worth-seeing. Guru Teg Bahadur had earlier sanctified this place with his gracious presence. ~ Ruret [sra1).a s£yda] a village in tehsil Goohla district Kamal. There is a gurdwara in memory of Guru Gobind Singh in this village. ~ [SIa1).u] adj an acquaintance, a familiar Ithe earthen lid over the lamp to collect soot is not to be scrubbed, only the dust particles are to be removed gently. 2

Many authors have refe:rred to the name of the saint as Bhikhanshah. See W ag lagE kesekE bujhaie?

hasadra kheladra penadra khavadra vrce hOVE

bahar se bhag ot hjiat kot garh, garh me j::> lut hjE kaho kat

mukatr:'-m 5 var gu} 2.

jaiE? coran ke trasJar saran gahe narid, mare mahipatr

"ghalr khar krchu hath-hu deL nanak rah pachal)-hr

jiu kEsekE bacaiE? maya Q.arpat har gurudvarE javE,

seI."-m 1 varsar.

taha j::> biapE maya kaha thahIraiE?"-='BGK.

Page 520 of 674

490 Sikhism. 2 the path of Guru Nanak Dev. ~ [sfgaru] a Sikh of Guru Arjan Dev who "gurusIkkhi da lIkkhDa lakkh na cItragupat remained in attendance of the sixth Guru and lIkh jaDE."-BG "bIn sIkkhi tarbo kjE [s f mn tI ], fi:rfi:r3t [sImnti] Skt ~ft1 n memory, memorial. 2 scriptures which the rishis wrote by recollecting the sayings of the Veds and the teachings of the elders. Their number is large but thirtyone are the major ones including the eighteen and the twenty eight from the list below: manuslmntI, yagyavalaky, laghu~trI, atn, vnddh atn, VI~nu, laghuharit, vnddh harit, :>~nas, :>~nas s;'lhlta, aglras, yam, apst;'lb, s;'lvart, katyayan, vrIhaspatI, para~ar, vnhatpara~ari, vyas, laghuvyas, ~;'lkh, lIkhlt, dak~, g:>tam, vnddh g:>tam, ~atatap, vasI~ath, pulasty, budh, ka~yap, and narad SImntI. "sastra sfmntI blnas-hIge beda."-gau a m 5. "katI SImrltI puran sastra na avai yah cltt."-japu. fl:ror [SlY] word used for Sita. "raghuvClr bIn SlY na jly£, SIy bIn jlyE na ram."-ramav. fi:rt;m [sIyam] P (~ adj third. fJn;rc [sIyar] P /::: n plural of 'fl'to3" (temperament); characteristics. [sIya]Like fuur, this word also connotes Sita. fi::rorru [sIyah] P ~ k-:: adj black. ~ [sIyaha] P :,h-- n paper on which



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counting is recorded; a book of arithmetic. several diseases. Its effect is cold-dry, and ~ [sIyapatI] n Ram Chandar, husband causes constipation, kills germs in the of Sita. abdomen and acts as digestive and appetiser. fm;po [sIyar] See fR»Iro. "m sfgh hE m sIyar The jamun vinegar is an antidote against hE."-akal. 'He is neither a lion nor a jackal'. swelling and spleen in belly. ft::Rr [SIr] Skt ~ and F.fu;f n head. "SIr dhan ~ [sIrkar] See FRJClTij". 2 n duty, obligation. tali gali meri aU."-sava m 1. 2 used as adj "lale no sIrIkar hE dhurI khasIm this word connotes supremacy as in "vele SIr phurmai."-maru am 1. 3 government. "jIs pahucI).a, ate Ih sana da SIr hE."-prov. hi ki sIrkar hE tIs hi ka sabhukoI."-sri m 3. 3 This word also means ftFr (create). See fRfa'. 4 subjects. "eh jam ki sIrkar hE ena upau fl::Rn::r [SIras] See mmr. jamQaQu karara."-var guj 1 m 3. ft::Rr ~ [SIr sadka], ft:Rr ~ [SIr saddak] P fl:Rrcft [sIrki] n a cover made of reeds. 2 a J.v ~ n anything given in charity after cottage made by weaving reeds. waving it around the head; sacrifice. fR'dals'ff [snkibas] adj one who lives in a cottage of reeds. He shuns a permanent abode "sIrsadka satguru dIvayo."-GPS. "sIrsaddak satIguru ko bhari."-GV 1 O. and manages by spreading a reed cover wherever he wants to subsist. "rahf marhajke fi:RrRrtit [sIrsahi] See ffiI'R"tit. ~ [sIrhana] Skt ~ n a support for sIrkibas."-GPs. 2 n a low caste, so named on account of its members Iiving under SIrkis. the head; a pillow, cushion. "sIrhana avar ft::Rr ~ [SIr kurbani] See ft:Rr ~. tulai."-sor kabir. ~ [sIrkhfQi] n xa crude sugar. 2 a metre ~ [sIrhfd] See mrf'J't. f1:Rrc:f [:;;irak] A J ) n partnership. alliance. named :;;rikhaQ, which is a transform of palvagam metre, characterised by alliteration union. 2 a belief that someone, other than but no rhymes. It has four lines, each line God, has divine qualities. having 21 matras, with the first pause after the ~ [sIrkaQQh] adj chief, supreme; who sits twelfth, and the second pause after the among others with head held high. subsequent ninth matra, the last two matras ~ [:;;nkat] A .::./') n a participation, being guru. partnership. Example: fi:Rtcltr [sIrkap] the title of Hudi king, lord of the Gakharpatis, who chopped the heads of jutte vir jujhare, dhaga vajjia, bajje nad karare, dala mu:;;ahda, his enemies. See ~. "sIrkap ke de:;;atar lujjhe karaI).-are, saghar surme, ayo."-carrtr 97. 2 a part of Taxila, whose vutthe jan Qarare, ghanIar kEbari. remains are found in Rawalpindi district. See -ramav. ~. This very form occurs in Kalki Avtar: fH'dOl'deI [snkarda] See H'dOld€'. "mE IIkh baI).e ag bhujagi, saval sohI).e, ghalla val rajIa jo hE sIrkarda."-jagnama. trE SE hatth utagi, khaQa dhuhIa.... 'fl:raw [snka] P ~ Skt ~ n grape or sugarcane juice heated and made into syrup See~~~8. (b) Second fonn- Each line comprises 22 which is sour; vinegar. It is added to pickle, matras, the first pause occurs after the twelfth sauce etc. and is used by physicians to cure


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matra which is a laghu; the second pause occurs after the last matra which is a guru. The middle of the line is marked by assonance. Example: marat bIdhia SEn, su tega hath 1£, ;iIvgal) sam n,lhi c£n, It£ ut dhiivda .... (c) According to this rhythm, there is SIrkhfq.i of23 matras in which pauses occur at the 14 th and the 9 rd matras. See 'lI~:er ¥


fi::rni:fur [s Irjit] See FRI'i'fl3".

[sHjyIau] created. formed. See ~. "saCI sIrjyIau sasar."-saveye sri mukhvak m 5. ft:rao [sIrath], ft::rafo [SIrathI], fR'acft [sIrthi] SkI ~ n creation, formation. 2 the world. This word is also formed from the root snj. "jeti SIrathI upai vekha."~japu. "ja karta SIrthi kau saje."-japu. fJ::ro ~ [SIr talvaya] adj (one) hanging 21. ~ar [sIrkhutha], fRo1!w [sIrkhLJttha] adj upside down. See fJ::rawo. (one) with dishevelled hair. 2 one whose hair fi:ra3rH [s Irtaj] See ffif31'R. has been plucked., 3 n A sect of Jainism, the fl:rafd" [SIratI] SkI ~ n a headache; pain in members of which pluck their hair. "nal1dk je the head. "jara mara tapu SIratI sapu sabhu SIrkhuthe navanJ: nahi."-var majh m 1. hank£ vaSI hE, koi lagI na sakE bInu han ~'ij" [sIrkhur] adj from head to foot, from ka laIa."-gau m 4. tip to toe. "Ikna peral) sIrkhur pafe."~asa a ~ [sIrtral)], ~ [sIttran] SkI fRdP2i'c: n a helmet. "phorgai SIrtran ko."-cac;li 1. 2 a m 1. Some had ragged garments from tip to pillow. toe. 2 all; without exception. ffld€'3 i [sIrdata] n God, the Almighty who is ~ar [sIrkhutha] See ~. "jogi kapria the supreme Provider. 2 Guru Teg Bahadur SIrkhuthe bInu sabd£ galI phasi."-prabha who laid down his life for the sake of his m 1. religion. 3 adj who sacrifices, who gives his ffr6l:fift [sIrkhaq.i] See ~. life for his religion and country. fl:raqfH [sIrgOm] n one, whose head has been plucked; a hairless head. 2 shorn. "prIthme ffldQdC: ' [sIrdharl)a] v to put (something) on one's head. 2 to carry out someone's orders. jati khatri ek. tapar sagatI kIyo vIvek.... sIrgOm nam tahI thahIrayo."~gurusobha.' 3 to accepting somebody as one's master. 4 for a woman to accept someone (with ~ [sIrjal)] SkI vr '~' to create, interlink, marital feeling) as her husband. shed away. 2 ~~ n the act of composing, fAd(')Ii€,m [siah] A A an obedient follower. Those Muslims, who are followers ofAli, son-in-law of Hazrat Muhammad, are called Shia. They assume that Ali is the real caliph, and the former califs are not the successors of Hazrat Muhammad. Sunni Muslims call the Shia clan, Rafzi, which means a deserter and the followers, deserters of truth. Shia Muslims prepare Tazias (model ofthe tomb) in memory of the revered Hussain during the Muharram and observe mourning. See ~ ~ ~. ~ [siara] adj cold. ~ [siarana] v to become cold. 2 adj cooled/cool down. Fft»Iw [siala] adj cold. "agg tatti jal siala." -BG rft>w [sial Sita, daughter of Janak. "sia jit ano, hano sarab dano."-ramav. 2 See~.


Fft»rra' [siar] n FiEr-»JTa" a furrow drawn by the tip of a plough. "kahu kahu ka4hyo siara, jItO bij dIy sabh vIstara."-NP 2 See f'F!nfto. ~ [sial], Fft>'>r"w [siala] n cold season, winter, the season during the months of Maghar and Poh. "siale sohadia pIT gaii bahria."-asa farid. 'fflE1:r [sies] n Ram Chandar, husband of Sita. See ro 6. FftR' [sis] Skt F.fl1:f n head. 2 short form of11fTFfu:r. "dE dIj sis calyo utko."-krIsan. 3 Skt "#rn lead, a base metal. FftR' ~ [sis akasI] head raised towards the sky i.e. holding (one's) head high, not bowing down towards the earth on account of a discomfiture of misdeeds. "jau gurdeu ta sisu akasI."-bhEr namdev. Ffb:raTt:r [sisgaj] a sacred place relating to the ninth Sikh Guru, situated in Chandni Chowk, Delhi, where the supreme master laid down his life on Magh Sudi (light half of lunar month) 5th Sammat 1732 for the protection of the distressed Indians. This gurdwara was built by Sardar Baghel Singh in Sammat 1847. Afterwards, the Muslims constructed a mosque in its vicinity. At last Raja Saroop Singh of lind state acquired the land from the government at the end of the 1914 revolt and raised the gurdwara and donated an estate to it. See f€'c;ft. 2 See »ri~ ~ i 3. 3 See »'h:JTw i 5. 'I:ftI:t3To [sistan] P c.l1:::- Skt ~'/.:fR a country situated to the east of Persia and on the western border of Baluchistan. ro-'f13i" See 'FIQ 2.

'Jfb:re' [sisad] adjwho offers his head. 2 P y(f three hundred. mHQdw [sukhia] ad} happy. "so sukhia jIsu bhram gaIa."-bas;'}t m 5. lJtft'if 'lj1t:f [sukhi h11 sukh] adj puposeful joy coming from all the comforts. "mE sukhi h11 sukh paIa."-sri ill 5 pcpaI. lJlj [sukhu] See '8'f. "sukhu dukh rahat sada nIrlepi."-sor ill 9. ~ [sukhupatI], 1J~tr31 [sukhupati] Skt ~ n dreamless but sound sleep. 2 according to Patanjal philosophy, an state of mind which experiences daily the contact of the soul with the eternal Spirit (Brahm), but in this condition it is not known whether the (soul) has united with the eternal Spirit. ~ [sukhu] See J31j'.

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532 ~ [sukhetIa] ~-»l'"CJIT n a state of being

blissful. "sukh sukhetIa."~varguj 2 m 5. lJl:lan magaro."--GV 6. 4 17 a kettledrum. "sutri bajat."-GPS. 5 :-,'kr B-3G'T. a beautiful boat, fine boat. 1]3"M" [sutal] SkI 11 he II. Sec Ffl.B l..f'3TC? B3"ST [sutra], 1J3;fl" [sutri] adj asleep. "sutri so sahu c;ilthu."--var miJrU 111 5. 2 lost in sleep of ignorance. "sutre asakh mara jhuthi kan.1e."-scH-a 111 5. lJ3T [suta] 17 presence ofmind, a\\areness. 2 SkI daughter. 3 adjasleep. "jrs tc suta nanka jagae soi."--asa a 111 J.


3';:r a magical or mystical formula for the worship of gods. See 3'::r. [suttam] adj excellently superbly. "anat gyan suttama'·-gyall. 2 See t:f3}{. ful breasts.

J.rERf [suth2Jr] adja beautiful place; an excellent spot. 2 ~ stable, firm. "suthof CIt bhdgtan In t. "~s"vcve m -I ke. lJ"EfOT lsuthra] ildj BI'f'Q clean, pure. "tatha sostdra suthrc sdl11udac."--GPS. 2 a metre. See FRfFft. 3 Sec ~FfTU. i]EfdT Isuthri] See J]3"d1. 2 femi nine of CJ130T I. 3 a female member of the Suthra faith. lJ~F.f'U Isuthrc~ahl, B~WUT [suthfe~ahi] [n

the house of Nanda Khatri, a resident of Brampur village ncar Baramula, was born in 1672 a child with teeth. He was abandoned as the astrologers declared him ill-omened. While conlIng back from Kashmir. Gun:

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Hargobind took norice of the child. The Guru took pity on him, brought him up with care and named him Suthra, who in return became a great devotee of the Guru and served Guru Har Rai as well. He was a great merry-maker. Several of his humorous stories are world famous. He got an order from the emperors of Delhi to collect money from shops. His sect is known as Suthreshahi. Most of' those belonging to this sect have nO\\ forgotten the Sikh tenets. They ask for money from shops by beating bamboo-sticks. Some times they use filthy language, while at other moments they blacken their faces in protest. ~ [suthal], JjEI"ffi [suthli], JjE~ [suthau], 1JB17l Isuthan] ad} a beautiful place; an excellent spot. 2 11 an assoc i31tion of the sages. "suthau S;)CU luanu nIr111al hOI."-gau 1113. tp::rfu- [suthalu] in the best place. "bFSI suthanI kaha gun tere."'-mdla 111 1. J]WQ [suthanu] See 1'fEP7'i. J]"f'Ero [sutlur] ad} fully stable, immovable. BB [supdnrl in sleep. "supdnr rk partdkhr rku."-savEye m 3 ke. }JlRf3fa' [supn;'ltClrI] asleep. "to kara rClhiahr supnatdrI."-gau m 1. i.e. 'remained in idle sleep.' "d;na dhdrdmll aru gur ki seva e supn;'ltarr nahi."-ram kabir. lJtri'f32 [supn;'ltaru] Skt ~ dream figuring in a dream, pervasive illusion. "supn;'ltdru sasaro."-vaQ m 1 alahaI).ia. 2 unreal, dreamlike. ~ [supdrdD] Skt lJld adj having beautiful feathers. 2 having lovely leaves. 3 J1 a blue

jay. 4 a mango. See l.Rl'C:. lJ1..RJ'QT [sup d rd ha] See J1l.I'OLlT. lJ~ [sllpClrbaD] adj nice example, superb proof. 2 See ~. ~ [sllpClrv;m] Skt ~,n a deity having an elegant body. 2 one having excellent body parts. 3 an arrow. 4 a bamboo with beautiful nodes. ~ [suparvaD] See ~ . 2 an excellent example. lJ1..f1'q [supatr] adj fine pot. 2 fully deserving. 1J1..P?l [supan] a ladder, See~. "brrd manrn jat bani sllpan."-NP 'ladders embedded with gems. lJtrrfuH [suparrsl See FRG'FdH. ~ [supari] n beta nut, aroca nut. L Aroca Catechu. Its effect is dry and cold. It cures disorders of the mouth and strengthens teeth and thickens semen. The extract of its flowers, duly boiled, is very effective in curing diarrhoea of the infants. Eating beta nut along with betal-Ieaf is quite prevalent in India. "pan supari khatia."-tIlag m 4. ffi:B [suputl, ~ [suputrl adjnoble son, dutiful son, devoted son. lJld'm!' [supllrad] See ~ . lJV3' [suput] See ~. lJV~ [supurJ Skt n the 'bijora' plant and its fruit, See~. 2 brimful; full to the brim; overflowing. lJitt!' [suped] P ~ adjwhite, milky, fair. "koi 04hE nil koi saped."-ram m 5. "rah hovanr kalia supeda se v;'ln."-var suhi m 1. 'Noble persons remain so even in adverse circumstances as white objects remain the same inspite of the dark night.' ~ [supeda] J1 a white substance like orpiment (hartal) employed in vetting writings or is used by painters. 2 an oxide of lead used in paints; white lead. 3 eucalyptus, a very tall

Page 579 of 674


and straight tree. It gets its name from its white bark. Beautiful eucalyptus trees are found in Kashmir, especially on both sides of the road near Srinagar; white poplar. 4 th~ white margin outside the inscription, around the four sides of a writing. "garyo supeda kagaj jOT.·' -GPS. ~ [suped] P J ~~ 11 whiteness. "rata pmaI).u manu rata, supedi satu danu."--sri m 1. 'Wearing white garb is the symbol of truth and charity.' lJ1i [supt] See 1Jl-f3'. [suptI] See J]l.f8 3 and 4. lJ1Jrno [suprasfn], lJ1.£Ffo rsupras~'in], B1JHa [suparsanu] Skt~~ adj delighted, cheerful, very happy. "sat suprasan ae vas I p'ica. "-gau 111 5. "guru jrn kau su prasanu."-SaVEye In 4 ke. 2 pure, transparent. 3 n Kuber's son. lJ1J~ [suprabha] 11 glow, lustre. 2 glory. 3 ad) superb, radiant. Bi1:r»fT [suprra], BflJW [suprrya] a metre, also known as 'c;lrlla', employing four lines, each line having sixteen matras, with SII in the end. Example: kahO bhat mrl mukh mar (Karat, kahO bhat bhaj pukarat arat, ketak jodh phrrE relI). gahat.. ketak jujh baragan bayahat.-kdlki. 2 wife. 3 adj very dear, darling. lJ~ [sufatan] P l~ v to thread, 1:0 pierce. ~ [sufatni] P J~ adj worthy of threading. lJG7i [suphan], lJGi)T [suphna] Seec[l..f7iT· ~ [suphal],~) [suphalu] adj fime result. "kaVI ta kusurn praphulI hi sup hal arath srnuday."-NP 2 good result. 3 :mccessful. "suphalu janarnu nanak tab hua."---znarll m 9. 13~ [~upha] A ..$~ neigbhourhood, vicinity. 2 See J1GT 5. lJG'fa1;r (supharr~] See ~ftn::r. lj'fu»r' [sOphra] Skt ~ carefulness, smartness.


2 sense. "ag sag urjhar brsrate sOphra." --plwnhe m 5. i.e. 'The black bee loses its sense by getting entangled with the lotus flower. ' 1fa' [sOb] See BH. "'sOban sabad suna avni tar." -cantr 405. lJS(J [subah] A [/ 11 morning, dawn. "subah nrvaj sarar gujarau."-suhi kabir. 2 A ~ doubt, suspicion, fear, uncertainty. lJ~ [sub-hadarn] p(;: advearly in the morning, at dawn. lJatr' [sub-hal See J.J"'ffiJ 2. "be sub-ha jo bIna narnune. "-NP lJ~ [sub-haI).], J3Cf9'O [sub-han] A (;) li the eternal Spirit, the Creator. "Jr jahan nrdan kachu nahr, e sub-han! tuhi srrdara."-33 savEye. ljatJ ' C'l1fJ3d [sub-hanitrttar] See f3'30. lJ'S(JTQ [sub-hanu] See ~. "sab dunia subhanu." -m 1 var majh B~ [subak] 17 sobbing; hiccup. "subkat rodat adhrk hi."-GPS. See J31:rmiT. 2 P ~ adj light, soft. 3 brisk walker. 4 disgraced. ljaa3dR(') [subakatgin] a king of Gazni, Alpatgin's Turkish slave, who became his general and successor. He invaded Punjab, then under King Jaipal. Many Hindu kings ofthe country united to confront him but were --.. eventually defeated. H,: was coronated in the year 977 and died in 997. His son, Mahmud Gaznavi was a very powerful emperor. Subaktgin is also known as Nasiruddin. lJm:f()T (subakna] -v to sob. See'l]"'S'Cl(' 1. lj''SOft (subki] P J; 11 meanness, inferiority. 2 disgrace. "bhai parajay subki ham ko." -GPS. lJ-a?l [suban] 17 son. Jj"S('ii{ (subnarne] adj like a son, as a son. "narnasta ajanme, narnasta subnarne."-japu. 'God is unborn" and is son-like i.e. like the

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lJ1I3" [subrat] n 3 superior VO\\, good principles.

progeny. 1J~: [subraO] See ~.

~ [sOb21j P


a fragrant grass: poets compare it with the beloved's hair: also tangled or matted hair. L Nordostachys.

Jfar [sOba] a spike used in cleaning and clamping

13nr3" [subrrt] SkI

acij noble, virtuous. 3 well-done, superbly performed. "anek krr tt subrr tao ,. -gyaIl

2 well-to-do.

~ [subrrta] aeljvirtuous (woman). "sunahu

a gun or cannon. ij-a'R [subasj See ~ .

TJETfIC{ [subas:lk] aclj fragrant redolent. "pan

subntc! In, ur jan."-GPs. 'Listcn vil1uous (lady)" lJ~

k2pur subaSClk cad2n."-asa kabir. ijsrtr [subah] See J'18(J and

2 a sage. "tahi1 subrat nama munI rah£" -carItr 3] 9. 3 aclj righteous. virtuous.



[subahu] aclj having robust arms. "dhae subahu yodha sakop."-kalki. 2 n a demon. brother 0 f Marich, who vvas ki lied by Ram

[subh] Sk! 1'1" to shinc. to be beautiful. to talk nicelv 2 iJelj good, nice. fine. "subh bClcCln boll gun ,l!liOl. "-sar partil1m 5. 3 light. 4 bliss. 5 comfort.

B~ [sObh] Ski

Chandar for spoiling Vishvamitar's oblation. "sagharyo subaha."·-ramav. 3 a minister of

a demon. brother of Nisumbh. born from the womb of Danu and semen of Kashyap. He was ki lied by Durga

Sugrecv. 4 Shatrughan's son. TJfufu;w [subICiIaJ, ~ [SUbIdyil] n sel1'-

in a battle. "sObh IlIsObh p2~hava jam de dham mj"-c5c;li 3. Sec 7il:ffu 2.


knowledge, noble knowledge. 2 aclj noble

lJ"§" F.r Fft:r 2. Ftur [segh] S 11 briskness, smartness. Ft'ur [segh] Skt adj one who is associated with a lion; of a lion. 2 lion-like i.e. brave, heroic. "jEse palan saran segh."-mali m 5. 3 See Ftur. Rtfi') [sec:ml, RtJ?iT [secna] Skt 11 irrigation, watering. 2 spraying. 3 dampening. 4 a vessel like a bucket used for irrigation.



'Some are of the opinion that Shekhu was the pet name ofJahangir by which he was called by his parents. Hence this. favourite village of his acquired this name.

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Ht:r [sej] Skt'WJJJ n a bed for sleeping, bedstead,

from perspiration. 2 n a kind of very small bed. "sej sohni cadan CJa."-sor a m 5. creatures which are born from moisture ofthe ~ [sejbad] n a string for fastening beddings; earth and from perspiration; spontaneous a small rope of cotton or si Ik to tie bed sheets generation. "aqaj jeraj setaj utbhuj tere kine to the tops of bedstead's legs. "sej bad guphe jata."-sor m 1. baq jari."-GPS. R30r [set-tal Skt ~33'" n whiteness. it=Rft [sejril, ~ [sejria] See Rtr and it=P'. H~3' [setdut] Dg n the moon, whose shine is "tau meri sukh sejria." -sar m 5. white. SkI ~3'tg8. R;:r ~l')fT [sej va1ua] n See~. a bed string. R~ [setbara!.).] white colour. 2 frightened; "basaku sej va1ua."-mala namdev. 'Snake with face turned white. "set bara!.). sab duta." Vasuki is string-like.' ···guj a chJt m I. 'All perversions are fearstricken .. H";:r;ft [sejriJ, it=P' [seja] Skt a bedstead. "seja suhavi sagI prabh kE."-bIha chJt m 5. "na ~!T [setbadh] See ~. ma!.).e sukh sejri, bInu PIr bad sigaru."-sri a R31 [seti] with, alongside, alongwith. "seti m 1. khasam samaI ."-var asa m 2. "manu mera Re [seth] SkI JI1'! adj supreme. 2 wealthy. 3 n dIa1u seti thIrU na rahE."-asa m I. 2 from, a money lender. 4 a title for rich Marvari and out of. Parsi merchants. ~ [setu] Skt n a bridge. "badhIo setu bIdhatE." Ror [setha] an Arora, resident of Chuhnian, -sIdhgosatI. who by becoming a devotee of Guru Arjun R~l:f!T [setubadh] See )o)fTt}-f and ~lJo. 2 a Dev attained spiritual enlightenment. book, in which details are given of the Fto't [sethi] a sub-caste of Khukhran business construction of the boat-bridge over Jehlum community. "la1a sethi jal)iE."-BG 2 a subby Pravarsen, king of Kashmir. caste of Aroras. 3 a rich man's business of ~1:f!T ~~o [setubadh rame~var] See 1'If'"t}f money lend ing. See Ro. and ~JTCf. ~ [se!.).I] Skt JIfu' n a row, queue. R~rft [setubadhi] adj resident of Setubandh ~ [se!.).u] See it! 7. (Rameshvar) Ft3' [set] Skt ~3' adj white. "sIahau hoa set." ~ [setabar] Skt~3'-nfaGwhite sky. 2 char-barahmaha majh i.e. 'has become old.' See acterized by a virtuous trait; dominated by flr3'. 2 with, alongside, along with. "prabh ki knowledge. "sam kahE set'ibar suami."-var dargah sobha set."-gau m 5. 3 SkI R~ n asa. 3 in white dress; incarnation of the swan. See JHI~3Id. 4 a sect of Jainis. See Ro. coolness. 4 calmness. "gar dEn hari bo1hari qari set ko."-BGK. 'One who speaks abusive R~ [sedur] Skt ~ n vermilion. "na sedur mag savari."-carItr 367. words is devoid of calmness.' 5 See R~. 6 short form for H3'ii (if rtf) "utbhuj set Rtr [sedh] n straightness. "karhu sedh IS tare bInadha."-sar m 5. dISI ko ham ko khoj 1ehu tIt jaI."-GPS. Ft3' ~ ~ [set aset ajIna] n a deer with 2 Skt adjfrightened, timid. 3 n an obstruction, dappled skin; a black deer-sanama. ban. ~ [sedhkhana] P ..;(,;.:.:/' alavatory, stools. R3' ~ [set kust] See ~3' ~. R3t1 [setaj] SkI adj pests like lice born Ftw [sedh;::Jr] See Fr~.


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579 R~ [sedhav] See H~.

H'g"a" [sedhur] See H~. "tTn sedhur miig dai SH pE."-krrsw fi:fur [sagatia sIgh] a disciple of Guru \:TR". Gobind Singh who on the orders of the Guru, FfoJ3yw [sagatpura] a village, in Patiala state, went with seven riders to ask Kirpal Katochi district Fategarh (Basi), Police station Mulepur, and Bhim Chand Kehluri to be reconciled which was founded by Sodhi Didar Singh, with each other at the time when Hussaini had invaded the hilly kings. Sangatia Singh great-great grandson l of Baba Kaul Ji of was killed in the battle. "sigh sagtia taM Saba Kaul pathae."-VN. Sanmali Das Jfarfec? [sagdrl] P J~ ad} stone-hearted. hard-hearted. cruel. HOfi' iT [sagna] See ~. "karr sukrrtu, nahi Abhairam sagna."-maru solhe m 5. 2 in the company of. "nahi re jam satavE sadhu ki sagna." Jaspat Singh -dhana m 5. R(jJ}f [sagam] SkI R-(jJ}f n a meeting, union. Didar Singh

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609 "sadhu s;")gam hE nIstara,"~gau m 5, of Nabha. Raja Raghubir Singh added 2 confluence of two streams, 3 sexllal union substantially to the hu~tle and bustle of this between wife and husband~ coition. city. In Sangrur there are two weapons of Guru Ffcmf [s;}gar] Skt n a war, battle, fighting. 2 a Gobind Singh. One is a sword on which the thick iron chain, ordinary chain (ornamental). text in golden letters reads"gar mahI garue s;}gar parhi."-l\lP e:--,~..fV:h~.:,,-,~j~-'7-S/SofAh;/;,fu:.' FfORJUw [s;}gria] a cohort, companion, associate. ~ [sag2,ldip] Skt FF\\JM'ilU' an island to the south of India, called Lanka. See Ear. 2 in the company of. "dutan s;3gria.'·'-bTha m5. "man-hu sagaldip ki nan gare me tabor ki [s;}garur] a town founded by Surtia Singh pik navini."-ca. Rl-f3' [samat] SkI adj honoured. 2 agreed. consented. "yah sabh samat mero hoi."~NP 3 Indian calendar era, year, annum. In this book, Sammat is used for Bikrami year. See ~ and 8m. HHfo [samatI], ffi.r3t [samati] Skt ~ n an opinion. 2 desire. RHO [sam;:m] M usan' s father, res ident of Shahbajpur, who was a staunch disciple of Guru Arjan Dev. He did not waver in accepting God's will. When Kapur Deo asked who was a genuine Sikh, the Guru named Samano His name appears in caubolas also. "saman jau IS prem ki dam kIhu hoti sat." -cdubole m 5. "saman hE sahbajpure ko." -GPS. 2 adj eight. 3 See ffi.rcr> "§Oi1. H}fO' ~m:r [saman buraj] A (;,;. an octagonal tower. See ff1-(7) 2. "thryo buraj saman ki bari."-GPS. R~ [samal] n care, vigilance. 2 memory, attention. FfHw [s~mla] See RJ-fW. "sahIt samle SIr par cira."-GPS. 2 let me remember. "sahI sahI tujhu samla."-sri m 1. Fil-rfu [samaII] carefully. 2 after remembering. "hau samalI thaki ji oh kade na bolE kaura." -suhi chJt m 5. '} am tired of recollecting, 1 do not remember a single instance when he did speak bitterly.' 3 See R1jf'c?

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HJ;f [samu] See ZT13T»fT ~ -R1j eft. in Malwa, who brought milk for Guru Gobind Jf1jrn- [samhalr] adv carefully, attentively.

Ffw [sarna] Dogar, a resident of Suniar village

Singh when he arrived there. ~(!T [samaUIia], Ff~fT [samara] See FfHT"€!(!T- ~ . "samar puran purakh, karte."--v2Q cll,;'jt m 5. RJf'?l [samanl, Hwfc') [samanr] See HH1(). "bEri mit hoe saman."--bllu m 5. "teri dubrdha drrsatr samanra."-maru jE'dev. 2 Skt ~ respect. See FI?)}{'l7'i. ~ [samanra] See Rw;'). 2 See ]qT}fT(')'JfT. ~ [samam:] R'/'H·r?;-. 'considers equal.' See ~ ~.' 2 ~ honours, respects. ~ [samaran] v to preserve., maintain. 2 to remember, miss. "'jru ban:k mata samare." -majl? m 5. "age te na samara."-sul?i k2bir. JfWf) [sarna I] See 1~. ~ [samaI2n] preserving, maintaining. 2 remembering. "guru duane ho:[kE sahrb samalehu."-var bIlla In 3. "dukh bhi samalror."-var sulli m 2. "sevan sai apl).a rlIt uthr samalanr."-\·ar sulli m 3. ~o [samalen] take care of:, recite. "je nrt uthr samalen."-var g2U 1 m 4. Fffi.r [samr] SeeRt-f. 2 adjafter sleeping. "carr gavara samr."-s f2rid. lffi.Il?fT [samra] Skt IDfJIT. n base, support. 2 a kind of a T-shaped support on which sadhus rest their arms. "sagli jot]: hama:ri samra." -asa m 1.

JfHt [sami] is known as Samir now, and is five koh from Bhatinda. Bhai Santokh Singh has stated that Guru Gobind Singh stayed here after leaving Bhatinda. "uL~gh path ketak jab ae, qera sami gram supae."-GPS Now there is a gurdwara at this place. The Guru arrived at Damdama after leaving Sammi. Fl1:fcf [samukh] Ski adv face to face, in front of, facing. ~ [samulphar] See R1::it»r'.

"samhaii buk bhari."-s f2rid. H1j'funrr [samhlra] adj preserved, seized, occupied. "samhiia sacu thanu."-sulli cll,;'jt 111 5. Jf~ [samyak] Ski ff1=1TCfl ad; charming, beautiful. 2 merged. 3 reality, right. ffifer [samrath], Rtf§' [samrathu], ~ [samrrth] See RHO',,!'. "karhr kahal).ia samrath kat kiah."-sri 111 1. "Esa samrathu harr jiu apr." -ram 111 5. "samrrth purakh apar."-sdva m 5. lfur3- [sayat] Skt adjproperly tied. 2 committed to religious rules. 3 who has controlled his mind and senses; moderate. JftiIH [sayam] See Rt=!H. Jftill--l'Ol [sayamni] .Skt n abode of Dharamraj; a place where a person is strictly accountable. ~ trf3' [sayamni pdtr] the god of justice. See~.

Jfm.ft [saymi] See Fft:n-ft. ~CB [sayukat] Skr HL!Jc;r

adj in the company of. alongwith. 2 related, attached. Jf'lE3' [sayut] See F!tr3'. Jf~3T [sayuta] a metre also named aruha and prrya. Its characteristics are four lines, each line comprising 115, 151, 151, S. Example: pun beli raj mahef;> bhyo, jrn qaq kahun te layo, jry bhat bhat sukhi nara, atr garb so chutkyo dhara.-ben. See sm ~H tT ¥ b. Ffitcrr [sayog] See -H-ftaT. Jf-Gioft [say 0 gi] See F\"'Roft. rfilH?l [sayojan] Skr n the act of connecting properly. 2 a yoke; yoking of an ox, a horse etc. with a plough or a cart etc. ~ [salagan] Skr ~. adj attached, joined. "salagan sabh sukh chatr."-maru am 5.

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FiIDo [savahan] SkI n the act of driving properly. 2 goading. 3 a passenger. 4 a ship. Ff~ [savatl, ~ [savatsar] SkI ~-~ a year, annum, year of the Christian era, twelve months. (a) See ~ RO. (b) See "F.I"CX~. See R'fMs

5. "Fl7Jkal. 1024 yards long and 840 yards wide. The 2 Vishnu. 3 ad} the rich, the wealthy. jewellery and gems of this temple are more 1}T lJIDft [sri pacmi] According to the Hindu precious than of all the Hindu temples ofIndia. mythology, goddess Lachhmi is worshipped Because of this temple. the colony and the on this day (Magh Sudi 5) That is the reason island are known by the name of Srirang. its name is Sri Panchmi. Ramanuj, a great devotee of Srirang. died at F,(TGE [sri phCllJ SkI ad}whose fruit is beautiful. this place. 2 17 mimosaceous tree. 3 the tree of Aeglc ~ [srIragI] with Srirang (the Almighty). Marmelos and its fruit. 4 Many people also in God. "sriragI rate namI mate."-asa chat call Naliyer coconut tree by this name but m 5. this is not correct. See~. 1j1 ~ [sri ragu] See 1JT ;frquf ad} a person having a 1JW3rr [srivatas] SkI ~ 17 beautiful is his fair complexion. 2 a white-coloured horse, mark; Vishnu. There is a curl of white hair on the chest of Vishnu which in palmistry IS which is killed during the sacrif~ce ofashvmedh yag.According to the Purans, a white horse with regarded as a very important mark. black ears and yellow tail is required for this Some scribe has mistakenly vvritten Fit ~ instead of~. See ~. 1}~ [sribh.=>gvdti] See ~. JIbBt [srimati] feminine gender ofiJ'T 'WO. JjhfT() [sriman] SkI '>IT11FT. ad} graceful. 2 wealthy. 3 a person having a high post. 111 l:f1::flITCf [sri mukhbak], 11T l:f~ [sri mukhbaky], J}T l:f~ [sri mukhvak], J}T l:f~ [sri mukhvaky] sentences uttered from the lips of graceful persons. 2 divine words uttered by Guru Gobind Singh as "sdvaye sri mukhbaky mohla 5." and "ja pu sri mukhvak patsahi 10." l:J'b..f3' [srimatJ, 1JTq3' [sriyut] See J}Two. 1JT OTOT [sri rag] See fJ::Kft OTOT. IilJal [srirag] SkI ~ 17 the Almighty (KanaI') sacrif~ce.l

1"c5dr Varal) SUkar0I) syalTI SUV;)ral.1 pucch S~)n)aIl.'·--gv'-H1.

1Jm [srivar] See J]lLrf3'. 1J~ !srivaral)] See 1]T ~. 1J~ [srivas] See 1JT ~. 2 the white lotus in which resides goddess Lachhmi. [swJ /)'kl 1;1, 1'1' to flO\v. drip. 2 SkI 9:1 vr to listen, go, drop. flow. ¥Isrut] SkI ~3'. ndjhcard, listened. 2 known, ramous, reno\vned. 3 who has heard the sermon. 4 II ear. 5 attitude. See BQ3". "cubhi r.=>hi srut prabhu carnan mahI."-VN [:;;rutI] Skt 17 ear. 2 Veds, Veds are called :;;rutis because in olden times these were not vvritlen. They were learnt only by listening. "SrutI SImntI gun gavln karte."-suhi ch:it 111 5.3 listening. hearing. 4 a story. a saying. 5 a tale, rumour. 6 (in music) particular division ofthe octave. a qualier tone or interval (tweilty two or these are enumerated) their



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names are as follows: tivra. kumudvati. m~dra and ch~dOV2'ti are of saciaj: dayavati. r~jrni and raktlka are ofn:;;abh; r3dri and krodha are of gadhar: vjnka. praSan1)i, pritr and marini are of madhyam: :;;ntr. rakta. sadiprni and alaplni are of pacam: madati. rohIl)i and ramya are of dhE\Tat: ugra and k:;;obhIl)i are of nr:;;ad. See~7. ~l:fTJT

[srutyanupras] See l'lf ~. J;j"iii [svach] See Hiii, "svach marag hdrIbhagtaDah."~sahas m 5. ~Ifu [svachad] See ~. 7fiii [svacch] See Hi::;. ~t=lO [svajan] one's own kin, close relatives. 2 See Jjt=lO. "sabad sadhu svajanah. "--sCJhas

m5. ~3'9: [svat')tr] Skt ad} If (self)


(under). a person who is not under other's contro!' llq [svatv] Skt II feeling of ownness, proprietary interest. l'ft (svad] SkI ~ vr to relish, be happy, to cover. Jf€'H [svades] one's own country. l1~m [svadesi] ad) of one's own country. l1I:KIH [svadharam] one's own religion, one's own sect. 2 sense of duty. iiW [svadha] SkI part according to Hindu practice, this word is uttered while m~lking sacrificial fire/offerings to the forefathers. In Braham Vaivart Puran it is written that from Brahma's mind, two daughters Svl/adha and Swaha took birth. Swadha was offered to the forefathers and Svvaha to the gods Forefathers and gods were pleased to receive offerings made through them. See JfUT. lIfO [svan] Sk/~ vr to utter; mend; make noise

while eating. 2 n sound, voice. 3 SkI ~. a dog. ~ [svap] Skt~\ VI' to sleep, lie down. ~l.ltf [svapac] See Bl.ltf. JJ1..f0 [svapanl See 1JLI7l. l1~ [svapandar~an] See tQF.l7). Jt~ [svapanphal] In Hindu scriptures the auspicious and inauspicious results of dreams are fully described. See Valmik Ch 2 a 69 and Aitrey. Arnyak. Arnyak 3 Ch 2 Part 4 and Mastya Puran a 242. The results of dreams are acknowledged in the Bible too. See Daniel Ch 7. It is also found in the holy Quran. See Surat Yussouf, verse 36, 37, 102. However, Sikh faith does not recognize consequences of dreams. See 1]1-f7iT. Jt~ [svabhav] See ~. ~ [svabhavoktI] a figure of speech dealing with description of the exact nature of things. Its another name is jatI. Example: lauki athsathI tir3thI nai. kaurapcm tau na jai.-sor kabir, cadan lep hot deh kau sukh gardhabh bhasam sagitI .--dhana 111 5. manmukh man na bhIjai atI mde CIt kathor SdpE dudh piaiE adan visu nIkor.-suhi d

m3. ~ [svabhu] Skt adjself-born; born from one's own self; one who is not other's creation. See ~.

~li\' [svaya] SkI ~ part self. ~G\''i!r3C(' [svayadutIka] in poetics, the heroine

who does the job of a messenger (gobetween). Jtl:il'l;[C(1'F.f [svayapraka~] self-luminous; which does not get Iight from another source. ~"SQ [svayabar] Sk/~ n choice of husband by a princess in a public assembly of suitors. Sec FfT3T and tH1if3t ~ 1J'if"SQ. In India the last

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640 such function was held by Raja Jai Chand of Kanoj for his daughter Sanyukta. J;f"liaw [svay;')braj SkI t;ftr\'~ adj a damsel who herself chooses her husband. J;ftrI'~ [svay;')bhu] See M. 2 11 Brahma. J;fo [svar] SkI fCl\ part heaven. 2 superior, excellent. 3 11 breathing; inhaling and exhaling. 4 a sound in recitation.' seven primary note of musical scale which arc: :;iajaj, rI$abh, gadhar, madhyam, p~cam. dh£vat and nI:;iad. Scholars of music, deities and rishis, have taken $ajaj from the crying of the peacock. rI$abh from the notes of a rainbird (some believe rI:;iabh to owe its origin to the bellowing of a cow), gadhal' from the bleating of sheep and goats, madhyam from the croaking ofa water fowl, p;')cam from a koel, dh£vat from the croaking of a frog, and nI$ad from the trumpet of an elephant. 2 Notes on the musical scale, which rishis set up while formulating the science of music, were called pure notes. When high and low tones were needcd for some modes, they madc five VIkrIt svars (modified notes). Out of these five, four, that is, rI:;iabh, gadhar, dh£vat, and l1I:;iad become komal (soft), while madhyam becomes tivr (sharp) after modification. In this way all notes grow from 12 svars (seven original and five modified) See orz. Some untrained persons believe that rIE,iabh, gadhar, dh£vat and nI:;iad are tivr, madhyam is low and $adaj and p;')cam are acal 'In musicology. svar is defIned as one that is gloriolls in itself 2~ ~i ~ fJ11JTT"Fcr

T!1'iT 1itIflil1.. I I

~ 'l11fiSruT. I 3~ CJ, 1Wm