Indian Culture and the Days of Buddha

ANCIENT INDIAN civilisation and culture have undergone so many changes and modifications that it is so easy task to trac

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Indian Culture and the Days of Buddha

Table of contents :
Contents
1 Introduction
2 Culture Of The Mind
3 Personal Freedom
4 Women
5 Marriage
6 Social Orders
7 Meetings And Gatherings
8 Homes
9 Daily Habits And Customs
10 Amusements
11 Beliefs And Faiths
12 Education
13 Literature
14 Fine Arts And Architecture
15 Art And Science
16 Philosophy
17 Social Service
18 Towns And Villages
19 Kings And Rulers
20 Government And Laws
21 Army And War
22 Economic Conditions

Citation preview

INDIAN CULTURE IN THE DAYS OF THE BUDDHA BY

A. P. de ZOYSA,

B.A., Ph.]). (l.ond.)

ofGray'8 Inn Ba.r·at·Jaw l"d. F.:I;Q/Hi".. I,. Q,i.nt~1 LIJ"g"uV'" to Ih. U .. i...T4iUu

'1 L"dQn a",1 Comlwidgil

W1TfJ nr:STf:(1"",fMENTS OF

f.l. U. [

1Iin~

.in r, CG. LTD.

NOR RI S RO/d) COLOlHDO

COLOMBO

M. D. GUNASENA & CO., LTD.

M. D. GUNASIONA & CO. LT". 217 NORl!l8 HOAll

COLOMflO

First 1'1Iu1ished

JIlI~.

1\:153

This hcHlk i$ copyright. Nu porlion or extrl\ct of it mllY be repr{)dll~OO in any mllnner without the wriHen COllRcnt of

the Publiahers.

Prinled and PuW~h~d by M. D. Gt.lna~tn(J «Co. Lld., ColomW--R-Ji6J-3/Q4

CONTENTS Chapter

Page

III

1'~;ItSONAI,

1\'

\\'OMKN"

1 3 1l 16

MARRIAGE

24

SOCIAl, OIlDERS

29

MEETINGS AND GATHERINGS

3ek Edie~ I. Il. Karuna 1.

Uppthha

2. KandarakaBulla

IUI-tion of things to be considered fortUllRte was given ns the 110SSessiJlg of a kind flnd eomp1\SSiOJ11\te henrt towlInls all beillgS, heiJlg cheerful nnd modest, not despising otherll Rmlllot being 11roud of birth, wisdom. wcalth or c1IU18, ha.vinp: true ami good friends, IIll.ving a wife of e;o, mighty lIllO strong, bite with their iron teet,h those who arc driven hf'l1ce. s The devils were 1I0t confined to t.heir own worlds. Some of them inhabited the eart.h. I\lrl ra, the E\·i lOne, wafl rf'prescnted 3S the mighty l. SPllyNlfo YI_Brahma Suttll 3. AmM'1I' 6. Alpha SIMlliidfl Sulla. 7. (p) Sr>ttjir:aya. (b) K(Jlp~llIlhray". (cl S'"'!lha1h(ly''' (") 'l'rn'p Archery find tire l11HnagelTlcllt of horses and of elephallts were the occupations of experts. Of such llrts thero were eigllteell, Ilud Illso there w('ro eighteell SciOllCf'S or brunches of knowledge. The mental culture tauJ!ht in Buddhist psychology was 1l1\ art or practice rather tha.n a. mere theory. The special Jlsychic Jlowers to be achieved were clairvoyance, c1air-lHldilll1ce, performance of supernormal acts, knowledgo of utJlers' mindll, Illcmories of )lllst lives Ilud frredom from illusiolls,' I. 3.

U,Mtw_N'uUl.l.

7'!IeTll G,;/!Iri_l'il"yi.

2. 4.

U.

88

V!lOII"""]"'!U' A!I!la!rol!lii-Vi8Jikii. "It is nut CMy tQ reckun how 10llg nu I\oon is by snyiug so many ye.'H8, 80 mnllY cClIturiCll, so Illany th"".'!llr"l cClll"riCfl."- Sanytdfa Niki;ya~Nida"a Vawa. /d,lhi Hula.

Medical science had t,hroughout the figes a practical bUllis. Along with it had developed surgery. Royal Physiciall Jivaka was the be8t of the Surgeon8, who oporaws the brains ami the heart and intestines. '.rhe common types of disease, in the days of the Buddha, llad been leprosy, boils, tlry leprosy, cOllsumption and fita. I There were nursing homes! and as a result of Buddhist innuellce hospitals were built evcn for animals. s S\1rg~(llls, oculists and doctors for children were not uncommoll. ( ,Iivl~kn., a rontellll'urar)' of t1w BUlldlla, has Leen known as the cleverest surgeon and phpicinll. lie llad to cOl1\lllnin of his heavy work in attending to a large number of paticlltB. 6 He was the pupil 'Of a "world renowned phpicill.ll". When he had s}lent seven years with the teacher, Jivaka thought, "1 learn much and leam easily, and 1 understand well and do not forget what 1 have leamt. J have studied 1I0W seven years, and 1 do not see the end of this art. When shall r see tile end oftllisMt 1"6 This doctor cnred a chronic headache of 1\ noble lady at Saketa by administering some medicine through the nose. At Hiijngllha he performed an operation 011 the head of a patient who was given up a~ ;lleuTl~ble. "Jivaka ordered him to lie down on his bed, tied llim fust to his bed, cut through the skin of the head, drew apart the flesh on each side of the incision, pulled two gcrms out. He closed up the sides of the wound. Stitched up tile skin on the head and anointed it with sah·e. He was cured within twenty-olle days".' Another of his surgical feats wall the operation on the son of a nobleman at Benares, "who used to amuse hilll~elf by' turning over and o·ver' ". That brought upon himself an entanglement of his intcstilles, in consequence of whicll he could not lligest his footL lie grew lean, disfigured and discoloured. Having examined him Ji\'Rka cut through the skin of the belly, drew the twisted intestines out, tlisentangled and put them back. Then he stitched the skin together, Hnd aUllointed it with slll\'e. Before long the patient gained Ilis health.' MIUty are the recorded surgical operations and cures done by J'ivakn.

The use of remedies for animals had fouml work for \"tltcrinary 'Surgeolls and physicialls. There were doctorll who treated elephanta. 7 The uso of herbs for medicine was COllllllon. A fllll\otlll physician wishing to test his pupil's skill once llsked Ilim to find out about 'l'nkkal. !i.

Villaya-Mahii V/lgg:L I. In!ll,ription$ IIrHl M,d";'·(I,!I.$(I. I'inaya-Mah... VlIgga I.

7.

K"ta .Jiitata.

':J.

A~ok ...

2. ·1.

7"11_ ... (Jiitll,i. lI...h"'flj,illl 8,,11