Ilokano lessons 9780824878993, 9780824879006

2,350 373 1MB

English Pages [464] Year 2019

Report DMCA / Copyright

DOWNLOAD FILE

Polecaj historie

Ilokano lessons
 9780824878993, 9780824879006

Table of contents :
Ilokano Lessons
ILOKANO LESSONS
CONTENTS
PREFACE
INTRODUCTION
ILOKANO LESSONS
LESSON ONE
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWO
VOCABULARY
LESSON THREE
VOCABULARY
LESSON FOUR
Additional Vocabulary
VOCABULARY
LESSON FIVE
VOCABULARY
LESSON SIX
VOCABULARY
LESSON SEVEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON EIGHT
VOCABULARY
LESSON NINE
VOCABULARY
LESSON TEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON ELEVEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWELVE
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON FOURTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON FIFTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON SIXTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON SEVENTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON EIGHTEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON NINETEEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-ONE
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-TWO
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-THREE
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-FOUR
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-FIVE
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-SIX
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT
VOCABULARY
LESSON TWENTY-NINE
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-ONE
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-TWO
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-THREE
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-FOUR
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-FIVE
VOCABULARY
SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON TO LESSON THIRTY-FIVE
LESSON THIRTY-SIX
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT
VOCABULARY
LESSON THIRTY-NINE
VOCABULARY
LESSON FORTY
VOCABULARY
LESSON FORTY-ONE
VOCABULARY
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E
APPENDIX F
Dialogue #1
Dialogue #2
Dialogue #3
Dialogue #4
Dialogue #5
Dialogue #6
Dialogue #7
Dialogue #8
Dialogue #9
Dialogue #10
Dialogue #11
Dialogue #12
Dialogue #13
Dialogue #14
Dialogue #15
Dialogue #16
Dialogue #17
Dialogue #18
Dialogue #19
Dialogue #20
APPENDIX G
APPENDIX H
Notes
LESSON ONE
LESSON TWO
LESSON THREE
LESSON FOUR
LESSON FIVE
Nominative Pronouns
LESSON SIX
LESSON SEVEN
LESSON EIGHT
LESSON NINE
LESSON TEN
LESSON ELEVEN
LESSON TWELVE
LESSON THIRTEEN
LESSON FOURTEEN
LESSON FIFTEEN
LESSON SIXTEEN
LESSON SEVENTEEN
LESSON EIGHTEEN
LESSON NINETEEN
LESSON TWENTY
LESSON TWENTY-ONE
LESSON TWENTY-TWO
LESSON TWENTY-THREE
LESSON TWENTY-FOUR
LESSON TWENTY-FIVE
LESSON TWENTY-SIX
LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN
LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT
LESSON TWENTY-NINE
LESSON THIRTY
LESSON THIRTY-TWO
LESSON THIRTY-THREE
LESSON THIRTY-FOUR
LESSON THIRTY-FIVE
LESSON THIRTY-SIX
LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN
LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT
LESSON THIRTY-NINE
LESSON FORTY
LESSON FORTY-ONE

Citation preview

Ilokano Lessons

PALI LANGUAGE TEXTS: PHILIPPINES Social Sciences and Linguistics Institute University of Hawaii Howard P. McKaughan Editor

ILOKANO LESSONS EMMA BERNABE VIRGINIA LAPID BONIFACIO SIBAYAN

Open Access edition funded by the National Endowment for the Humanities / Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Humanities Open Book Program. Licensed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-SA 4.0), which permits readers to freely download and share the work in print or electronic format for non-commercial purposes, so long as credit is given to the author. The license also permits readers to create and share derivatives of the work, so long as such derivatives are shared under the same terms of this license. Commercial uses require permission from the publisher. For details, see https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/. The Creative Commons license described above does not apply to any material that is separately copyrighted. Open Access ISBNs: 9780824878993 (PDF) 9780824879006 (EPUB) This version created: 20 May, 2019 Please visit www.hawaiiopen.org for more Open Access works from University of Hawai‘i Press. The work reported herein was performed pursuant to a contract with the Peace Corps, Washington, D.C. 20525. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and should not be construed as representing the opinions or policies of any agency of the United States government.

Copyright © 1971 by University of Hawaii Press (since July 1971, The University Press of Hawaii) All rights reserved.

CONTENTS PREFACE INTRODUCTION

xii xiii

LESSON ONE 1 Greeting: Naimbag a bigat yo, (maestra). Naimbag a bigat mo, (Juana). 1 Ligature: a, nga 1 Particle: met 1 LESSON TWO 8 Greetings, continued 8 Particles: laeng, ket 8 LESSON THREE 14 Deictics: daytoy, dayta, daydiay, dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay 14 Question Word: ania 14 LESSON FOUR 23 Review 23 Question Word: ania 23 Deictics: (sg) daytoy, dayta, daydiay (pl) dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay 23 New Material 23 Plural of Nouns 23 LESSON FIVE 30 Full Nominative Pronouns: siak series 30 Short Nominative Pronoun: ak series 30 Nominal Marker: ni/da 30 Question Word: sino 30 Conjunction: ken 30 LESSON SIX 38 Review 38 Nominative Pronouns: siak series ak series 38 Question Word: sino 38 New Material 38 Sino + deictic 38 Noun + deictic 38 LESSON SEVEN 45 Equational Sentence: noun + ak pronouns / ni/da _____ 45 Affirmative statement 45 vii

CONTENTS Question Affirmative and negative responses Negative statement LESSON EIGHT Review Equational Sentence: noun + ak pronouns / ni/da

45 45 45 53 53

53 __________ New Material 53 Equational Sentence: adjective + ak pronouns / ni/da 53 __________ LESSON NINE 60 Structure: Sino + ti N Sino + ti N + ti N More on Equational Sentences Negative Question (Saan _____?) 60 Nominal Marker: ti/dagiti 60 LESSON TEN 70 Short Responses to Sino Questions 70 Question Words: Taga-ano ‘from where’ Sadino ‘where’ 70 Ko Pronouns 70 LESSON ELEVEN 80 Ag- verb (actor focus) 80 Structure: Ag + Vbase + ak pronoun / ni/ti ______ 80 LESSON TWELVE 86 The Progressive Form of the ag- verb 86 The Past Form of the ag-verb 86 Question Word: kadi 86 LESSON THIRTEEN 93 Locatives: ditoy, dita, idiay 93 Question Word: ayan ‘where’ 93 LESSON FOURTEEN 100 Um- verb (actor focus) - infinitive form 100 Expansion of sentences with objects and locatives 100 LESSON FIFTEEN 107 Um-verb -progressive and past forms 107 Review of Ag-verbs 107 Oblique personal pronouns 107 Oblique marker: iti 107 Nominalized verb 107 LESSON SIXTEEN 114 Numerals (Ilokano numbers) 114

viii

CONTENTS Question Words: Mano ‘how many’ Kapin-ano ‘how … related’ 114 Review of ko pronouns 114 LESSON SEVENTEEN 120 Review of Equational Sentences 120 Plural of Adjectives 120 Noun Phrase: adj. + nga + noun 120 Conjunction: ngem ‘but’ 120 Tag question: saan kadi? ‘isn’t it?’ 120 LESSON EIGHTEEN 128 Numerals (Spanish numbers) 128 Telling time, day, month 128 Clitic: -en ‘already’ 128 LESSON NINETEEN 135 Review of ko pronouns 135 Attributive articles ti/ni 135 Question Word: akin ‘whose’ 135 Possessives: kukuak, etc. 135 Particle: ngarud ‘then’ 135 LESSON TWENTY 141 The Verbs: mapan/in ‘to go’ 141 Locative affix: pag…an ‘place for’, ‘place of’ 141 Negative: di141 LESSON TWENTY-ONE 149 The verbs kayat and gusto 149 Particle: ngem ‘than’ 149 Alternative Marker: wenno ‘or’ 149 LESSON TWENTY-TWO 155 The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives 155 LESSON TWENTY-THREE 161 -en verb (goal focus) 161 Infinitive form 161 Progressive form 161 LESSON TWENTY-FOUR 169 -en verb, past form 169 Particles: -en/-n ‘already’; pay ‘yet’ 169 LESSON TWENTY-FIVE 175 i-verb (goal focus) 175 Particles: man (request marker) kano (quotative marker) 175 LESSON TWENTY-SIX 184 Adda/Awan: Adda/Awan + N + ko pronoun / ni/ti Adda/Awan + ko pronoun / ni/ti 184 LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN 192 ix

CONTENTS Review of Ilokano and Spanish loan numbers 192 Question Words: mano ‘how many’, ‘how much’ sagmamano ‘how many each’ ‘how much each’ 192 LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT 198 The future 198 The future marker: -nto/ -to/intono 198 Question word: kaano ‘when’ 198 Verbal nouns: panag-+ base; iR base 198 Particles: ngata ‘maybe’ sa ‘I think so’ 198 LESSON TWENTY-NINE 207 The ag-verb: The past, past and present progressive forms; expansions with the use of time and locative expressions 207 Linker: no ‘if, when, while, provided’ 207 Time marker: idi, itay 207 LESSON THIRTY 217 The -um-verb: the past, past and present progressive forms; expansions with the use of time and locative expressions 217 Particle: laeng ‘only’, ‘just’ 217 LESSON THIRTY-ONE 225 Review of the past and the progressive form of the -en verb 225 Linker: uray no ‘even though’, ‘although’ 225 LESSON THIRTY-TWO 231 The i-verb (goal focus), past tense and progressive form 231 Question Word: apay ‘why’ 231 Quotative Word: kuna ‘is said’ 231 Cause Marker: gapo ta ‘because’ 231 LESSON THIRTY-THREE 241 Review of ag-, um-, -en, and i-verbs 241 The recently completed past: ka + partial reduplication 241 LESSON THIRTY-FOUR 247 Daytay: recent past 247 Daydi: remote past 247 LESSON THIRTY-FIVE 253 Question Word: kasano ‘how’ 253 Affixes: kas- ‘like’, ‘similar to’ + -toy / -ta / -diay / oblique / pronouns agpa-(directional focus) agpa-(actor focus) pagpa…an ‘place for’ 253 x

CONTENTS Particle: sa ‘then’ SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON TO LESSON THIRTY-FIVE kas + oblique pronouns / la + adjective/noun LESSON THIRTY-SIX pag-(instrumental focus) LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN i…an verb (benefactive focus) LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT -an verb (locative focus) LESSON THIRTY-NINE maka-verb (actor focus) naka-adjective-like function LESSON FORTY ma-verb (goal focus) Particle: bareng ‘hope’ LESSON FORTY-ONE maki-verb: participative activity (actor focus) paki…an: place for a participative activity APPENDIX A - Ilokano Pronouns

253 263 263 265 265 273 273 284 284 292 292 292 299 299 299 307 307 307 317

APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX APPENDIX Notes

318 320 324 327 362 382 384 401

B - Classroom Expressions C - Common Expressions D - Ilokano and Spanish Loan Numbers E - Useful Vocabulary Lists F - Vignettes of Ilokano Life G - Ilokano Songs H - Glossary

xi

PREFACE These Ilokano Lessons have been developed under the auspices of the Pacific and Asian Linguistics Institute (PALI) of the University of Hawaii under Peace Corps contract #PC25-1507. The first author drafted the lessons first and the second rewrote, revised, and supplemented as seemed necessary using experience gained through testing the lessons in Peace Corps training projects. The third author, Professor Bonifacio Sibayan of the Philippine Normal College in Manila, contributed certain portions of the text. In addition, he edited early drafts and made important suggestions to his co-authors. Many others who participated in the Peace Corps training sessions also deserve our thanks. Though not named, both students and staff contributed much. It is the hope of the editor and authors alike that these lessons will prove of much value and interest to the users. Howard P. McKaughan

xii

INTRODUCTION General Background. The Philippines is a Southeast Asian country of some 7,200 islands compactly distributed off the Asian Mainland. It has a total land area of 114,830 square miles and a population of about 30,000,000. The country has many different languages. On the basis of the number of speakers eight of the languages are classified as major: Bikol, Cebuano, Hiligaynon, Ilokano, Pampango, Pangasinan, Tagalog, and Waraywaray. Ilokano is the third highest in rank in the number of native speakers, the first and second being Cebuano and Tagalog. Ilokano is the dominant language in all the Northern Luzon provinces with the exception of Batanes Province. It is also the dominant language in Tarlac, Zambales, the non-central sections of Pangasinan, and some towns in Occidental Mindoro, Oriental Mindoro, and Cotabato. Ilokano, like all its sister Philippine languages, is a MalayoPolynesian (Austronesian) language. Aim of the Text. There are four basic communication skills: listening, speaking, reading, and writing. The listening and speaking skills deal with the spoken form of language; the reading and writing skills with the written form. The spoken form of a modern language should be learned before its written form, the spoken form being the basis of the study of the written form. The primary aim of this beginner’s text is to enable the student to acquire the ability to hear and understand Ilokano when it is spoken, and to speak and be understood when using it. How to Use this Book. This text is composed of forty-one lessons, seven appendices, and a glossary. The lessons comprise the instructional core; the appendices supplement the lessons; and the glossary serves as a handy reference for the vocabulary items introduced in the lessons. Each lesson generally consists of the following parts. I. Content: the structural content of the entire lesson.

xiii

INTRODUCTION II. Review Section: designed to give a short review of a previous lesson or lessons and to expand on it or them (not found in every lesson). III. Basic Cycle or Dialogue. New material is introduced in early lessons by means of a basic cycle or a dialogue. The dialogue is used when the material is familiar enough not to demand an explanation. The concept of the basic cycle, however, is less familiar and needs some explanation. Briefly, a basic cycle is a very short communication situation consisting of a single exchange between two speakers. This exchange consists of a question or an opener and a response. In this text a basic cycle is indicated by “#” and a number, e.g., #1, and is composed of two sections: an M-phase and a C-phase. The M-phase (a mnemonic device for mimicry, memorization, and manipulation) consists of a question or an opener (M1) and an answer or answers (M2). The C-phase (communication situation) is a combination of an M1 and an M2. The M-phase precedes the C-phase. e.g.

(1)

M1 M2 C

(2)

M1 M2

C1

C2

Naimbag Naimbag met. Naimbag Naimbag met.

a bigat mo. a bigat mo

Good morning. Good morning, (too).

a bigat mo. a bigat mo

Pilipino ka? Saan. Saan ak a Pilipino. Amerikano ak. Saan. Amerikano ak. Pilipino ka? Saan. Saan ak a Pilipino. Amerikano ak. Pilipino ka? Saan. Amerikano ak.

Are you a Filipino? No, I’m not a Filipino. I’m an American. No, I’m an American.

Example 2 shows that there can be as many C’s as there are possible combinations of M1 and M2.

xiv

INTRODUCTION The basic cycles are useful, especially in the beginning stages, because they are short and easy to handle. In this text basic cycles are made use of extensively during the first few lessons. As the students gain control of the language dialogues are gradually introduced. Towards the latter lessons dialogues are used extensively with a minimum of basic cycles. IV. Pattern Drills: drills designed to give optimum oral practice on the structures under study and to bring about mastery of them. V. Cumulative Activity or Supplemental Dialogue: given at the end of each lesson to bring into focus the elements of the lesson. This section is designed to elicit application of the new knowledge gained or re-present the new items of the lesson in combination with other previously-learned items. VI. Vocabulary: a listing of the new vocabulary items introduced in the lesson. VII. Notes: short comments addressed to the student. The notes are usually morphophonemic and cultural. Extended grammatical explanations have not been included. Grammatical explanations are given in some detail in the Reference Grammar to accompany this text. How to Teach the Lessons. Present first the basic cycle or the dialogue. The procedure for presenting the basic cycle is as follows. (1) Give one or two renditions of the basic cycle in meaningful situations. With the use of visual aids, facial expressions, and gestures, convey the meaning of the cycle without using any English translation or explanations if possible. (2) Model the first M two or three times. Have the students mimic it. Be sure that the students have correct pronunciation, rhythm, stress, and intonation. Do the same for the other M’s. (3) Manipulate the grammatical structure exemplified in the Mphase by giving some basic substitution drills. It is advisable to drill the students on the response first so that by the time they practice on the question they already have a good command of the answer.

xv

INTRODUCTION (4) When the students have achieved some proficiency with the M’s, have them use these sentences in real communication situations as given by the C or C’s. For this activity the chain drill is among the most effective techniques. To conduct a chain drill, get somebody to ask the question. (The teacher can start.) Student One (S1) gives the answer. S1 then turns to S2 and asks the question. S2 answers and turns to S3 to ask the question. This goes on around the room until everybody has answered and asked the question. After doing all the above steps, give more pattern drills, supplementary dialogues, and cumulative activities to reinforce memory of the structure. If the instrument used for introducing the structural content is not a basic cycle but a dialogue, the procedure used is the following. (1) Present the entire dialogue to the class. As much as possible, recite the dialogue from memory. Use visual aids (pictures, puppets, cut-outs, etc.) actions, anything to help convey the meaning. (2) Ask comprehension questions. (3) Go through the entire dialogue with the class in a listen-andrepeat fashion. Give the first line; the students repeat. Give the second line; the students repeat, etc. (4) Now that the students have gained a feel for the entire dialogue, go back to the first line. Model it for the class. The students repeat. Be sure that there is correct pronunciation, including rhythm, stress, and intonation as well as individual sounds. Take the second line. Go through it the way you did the first line. Now that you have two lines practiced, have an exchange. Recite the first line and the students give the second line. Exchange roles. The students give the first line, you give the second line. For additional practice, ask one half of the class to give one line and the other half to give the other line, and vice versa. When these two lines have been mastered, move on to lines three and four. Do the same thing as for lines one and two. Then, put lines one, two, three, and four together. Go through the rest of the dialogue in this manner.

xvi

INTRODUCTION When the entire dialogue has been mastered, have individual students present it to the class with the proper actions, props, etc. After all the above activities, clinch the structures introduced by the dialogue by doing the pattern drills, the cumulative activities and/or the supplemental dialogues. There are two types of dialogues used in the lessons: dialogues that introduce the structures being taught and supplemental dialogues. Dialogues of the first type must be memorized but supplemental dialogues need not be memorized. They may be used for additional practice, comprehension exercise, and as a basis for impromptu dialogues. Types of Pattern Drills. The different types of pattern drills used in the lessons are the following. (1) Repetition Drill: a drill in which the teacher models an utterance and the students mimic the teacher’s model. e.g.

Teacher: Students:

Sino ti ‘Site Director’? Sino ti ‘Site Director’?

(2) Substitution Drill: the replacement of an item or items in the base sentence by other items cued by the teacher. e.g.

Teacher Agtaray ti ubing. agtugaw agsangit

Students Agtaray ti ubing. Agtugaw ti ubing. Agsangit ti ubing.

There are two types of substitution drills used in the lessons: fixed slot substitution drills and moving slot substitution drills. A fixed slot substitution drill is one in which the substitution items go into the same part or slot of the model sentence as in the example above. A moving slot substitution drill is one in which the substitution items go into different parts or slots of the model sentence. e.g. Teacher Agtaray ti ubing.

Students Agtaray ti ubing. xvii

INTRODUCTION agtakder lakay daydiay

Agtakder ti ubing. Agtakder ti lakay. Agtakder daydiay lakay.

(3) Transformation Drill: a drill involving a change in the form of a phrase or a sentence. The change may be from a statement to a question, from the affirmative to the negative, etc. e.g. (a) statement to question. Statement: Napintas ti sabong. Question: Napintas ti sabong? (using terminal intonation) (b) affirmative to negative. Affirmative: Adda ti tugaw. Negative: Awan ti tugaw. (4) Expansion Drill: a drill consisting of lengthening a sentence by adding more parts or modifiers to different parts of the sentence. e.g. Expansion Items Expansion Sentence Nagluto ni Maria. iti adobo Nagluto ni Maria iti adobo. idi kalman Nagluto ni Maria iti adobo idi kalman. (5) Question and Answer Drill: a conversation-like drill which consists of somebody asking a question and another person giving an answer. e.g.

Student 1: Student 2:

Kayat mo iti napintas a balay? Wen, kayat ko iti napintas a balay.

(6) Chain Drill: a drill explained in an earlier section whereby participants ask and answer a series of questions around the room. To the Teacher. It is important to realize the fact that probably the single most important element in any teaching situation is the teacher. Textbooks, principles, methods, and teaching aids are entirely dependent on the moving power behind the whole teaching situation--the teacher.

xviii

INTRODUCTION The success of the course depends upon the ingenuity, imagination, and pedagogical skill with which you handle these materials. The techniques and drills presented here are, for the most part, merely suggestive. Teaching is an art. We call on your creativity and resourcefulness to suit these materials to the particular needs and abilities of your students. Whenever necessary and advisable, adjust the vocabulary items in the drills to suit the interests and needs of your students. Combine the patterns in new arrangements meaningful to the circumstances of your class and your classroom. Expand and modify these materials to include the many items called for by the particular demands of your students which no amount of planning and thinking can anticipate in the preparation of a textbook geared to a general group. Most of your teaching time will be devoted to pattern drills. Here are a few pointers on successful pattern drilling. (1) Establish the model with care. Repeat the model sentence twice or even more times, taking care that you use the same pronunciation, rhythm, stress, and intonation. Do your modeling at a normal rate of speed. Whenever it is necessary to emphasize a word or a phrase, slow down a little, but go back immediately to the normal speed. When you slow down on a phrase or a sentence, be sure to preserve the intonation pattern. Stretch it to suit your slower speed but do not distort it. (2) Students must be thoroughly familiar with the form, rhythm, intonation, etc. of the model sentence before they are required to proceed with the drill. (3) Start with concert drills to build up some confidence in the students. Then call on smaller groups and individuals to recite. (4) When conducting individual drills, take care that the students cannot predict when their turn to recite will come. They might tune in for their part and tune out the rest of the drill. Strive always to keep the students alert and ready with the answer. (5) Use gestures to indicate commands like “Listen. Repeat. Everybody recite. One by one. etc.” Gestures are timesavers, and they prevent the distracting interpolation of commands with smooth functioning drills. xix

INTRODUCTION (6) Be very patient with your students and be tactful in dealing with errors. Patience and tact go a long way in establishing a pleasant atmosphere for language learning. (7) As much as possible, get the students to act and talk. Have them act out dialogues, use visual aids, etc., to make their language learning more realistic and meaningful. (8) Whenever possible use teaching aids. Visual aids such as pictures and films greatly aid in introducing the students to some cultural facets of the native speakers of the language being learned. They also give life and interest to the lesson. Audio aids such as tapes, records, and the like, can be put to good use in the second language class. Games and contests, too, are important. They add spice to the classroom activities and help drive away boredom and fatigue. Use any reinforcing technique possible to keep the class moving and to accomplish the goal of learning language. To the Student. The ultimate factor that determines your success or failure in learning Ilokano is your own self. The degree to which you master your new language will depend upon your attitude towards the language class, the type of effort you exert, and the overall seriousness with which you approach the task of learning Ilokano. The approach used here involves a lot of mimicry and repetition. We want to help you to rid yourself of your self-consciousness as early as possible. Listen carefully to the teacher’s modeling and imitate as accurately as possible. Practice using the language at every possible opportunity. Strive constantly to use Ilokano in out-of-class situations. Seize every opportunity to speak, hear, and think in Ilokano. This is imperative because the class situation is, even at its best, an artificial situation. The countless sentences you drill on in class provide a linguistic ability which has to be used in the context of natural, live, meaningful situations in order for them to come alive. The formal structured knowledge of the classroom used in real situations forces you to put the system you are learning to work. You will be surprised at how much you know and how much you can say when you try. Regularity is a remarkable virtue in language learning. So be sure to find some time every day to practice your Ilokano.

xx

INTRODUCTION It is useful to record your speech once in a while and compare it to that of your teacher. This practice will bring your Ilokano progressively closer to that of your teacher. A Note on Orthography. The Ilokano alphabet used in this text consists of a, b, k, d, e, g, h, i, 1, m, n, ng, o, p, r, s, t, u, w, and y. All these letters symbolize sounds similar to their English counterparts. The digraph ng is the velar nasal /ŋ/ and is pronounced as ng in ‘ring’. The o and the u often appear interchangeably in some words; e.g., umuna and umona ‘first’. The e and i sometimes behave in a similar manner; e.g., dyis and dyes for ‘ten’. Occasionally, letters c and f are used in Spanish loans. Just as in Spanish, c is pronounced as k before a, o, and u; and it is pronounced as s before e and i . Word stress may be indicated by the acute accent over the stressed vowel. Ordinarily, stress is left unnoted when Ilokano is written in books and newspapers. In this text we have often written stress to remind the student that it is a necessary part of the pronunciation. It is left unmarked at times to prepare the student for reading Ilokano as normally written. It should also be noted that some words are spelled differently at different times: Mierkoles, Miyercoles, a Spanish loan meaning ‘Wednesday’. This should not be a problem for you. The pronunciation remains the same in either case. The writing of personal pronouns is important. There are two ways of writing Ilokano personal pronouns of the ak and ko classes. One way is to attach them to the words they Follow; e.g., ginatangko ‘I bought (something)’. This is the traditional way of doing it. Some primers have started another way of writing them–separate from the words they follow; e.g., ginatang ko. We have adopted the second way of writing them for two reasons: (1) to avoid very long constructions like ginatangtayo ‘we bought (something)’, and (2) to indicate in a clearer way the pronouns present in a construction. This is particularly helpful when the pronoun is homophonous to the last part of the word it follows; e.g., agkanta ta instead of agkantata ‘Let us (you and I) sing’. A final word is in order to the users of this book. Language and culture are intimately intertwined. Language expresses much of the values, attitudes, and aspirations of a people. Language learning can be an intensely pleasurable and gratifying activity because of this. The learner begins to participate in the culture of another people; he gains an insight into the workings xxi

INTRODUCTION of their mind. The authors intensely hope that students and teachers alike will find this language teaching and learning experience rewarding–the students for the joy of being able to participate in another people’s way of life; the teachers for the privilege of sharing with others something which they deeply cherish.

xxii

ILOKANO LESSONS

LESSON ONE (Umuna a Leksion)

Greeting: Naimbag a bigat yo, (maestra). Naimbag a bigat mo, (Juana). Ligature: a, nga Particle: met #1

M1

Naimbag a bigat yo.1 _______ _ malem __. _______ _ rabii __. _______ nga aldaw __.2

Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. (noontime greeting)3

M2

Naimbag a bigat yo Good morning. (met, response met.4 marker) _______ _malem __ ___. _______ _ rabii __ ___. _______ nga aldaw __ ___.

C1

Naimbag a bigat yo. Naimbag a bigat yo met.

C2

Naimbag a malem yo. Naimbag a malem yo met.

C3

Naimbag a rabii yo. Naimbag a rabii yo met.

C4

Naimbag nga aldaw yo. Naimbag nga aldaw yo met.

1.1 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Model:

Naimbag a bigat yo. _______ _ malem __. _______ _ rabii __. 1

ILOKANO LESSONS _______ nga aldaw __. Model:

Naimbag a bigat yo met. _______ _malem __ ___. _______ _ rabii __ ___. _______ nga aldaw __ ___.

1.2 Substitution Drill. Do the above exercise as a substitution drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice; then substitute the given cues. 1.3 Response Drill. Teacher divides the class into two or more groups. Groups respond to the teacher’s greetings. T G1 T G2

Naimbag a bigat* yo. (pointing to one group) Naimbag a bigat yo met. Naimbag a bigat yo. (pointing to another group) Naimbag a bigat yo met. Kdp. (ken dadduma pay ‘et cetera’)

*Substitute malem, rabii, and aldaw in place of bigat. 1.4 Response Drill. Teacher divides the class into two groups. Groups greet each other according to teacher-supplied cues. Teacher

Response 2

bigat (pointing to group 1) malem (pointing to group 2) aldaw rabii malem Kdp. #2

M1

G1 G2

Response 2

Naimbag a bigat yo. Naimbag a malem yo. ____________ ____________ ____________

Naimbag a bigat mo. _______ _ malem __. _______ _ rabii __.5 _______ nga aldaw __.

2

G2 G1

Naimbag a bigat yo met. Naimbag a malem yo met. ____________ ____________ ____________

Good morning. Good afternoon. Good evening. (noontime greeting)

LESSON ONE M2

Naimbag a bigat mo met. _______ _malem __ ___. _______ _ rabiim __ ___. _______ nga aldaw __ ___.

C1

Naimbag a bigat mo. Naimbag a bigat mo met.

C2

Naimbag a malem mo. Naimbag a malem mo met.

C3

Naimbag a rabiim mo. Naimbag a rabiim mo met.

C4

Naimbag nga aldaw mo. Naimbag nga aldaw mo met.

Good morning. (met, response marker)

1.5 Repetition and Substitution Drill. Do the following exercise as a repetition drill. Then, do it again as a substitution drill. Model:

Naimbag a bigat mo. _______ _ malem __. _______ _ rabiim __. _______ nga aldaw __.

Model:

Naimbag a bigat mo met. _______ _malem __ ___. _______ _ rabii __ ___. _______ nga aldaw __ ___.

3

ILOKANO LESSONS 1.6 Response Drill. Respond to the given cue with the appropriate informal greeting. Cue

Response

6:30 a.m. 11:15 a.m. 3:30 p.m. 8:00 p.m.

Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

a bigat mo. nga aldaw mo. a malem mo. a rabiim.

Continue with other cues. 8:30 a.m. 12:30 p.m.

9:30 p.m. 5:00 p.m.

9:00 a.m. 1:00 p.m.

1.7 Chain Drill. Greet one another according to the cues given by the teacher. Cue

Response

7:00 a.m. 11:30 a.m.

S1 S2

4:00 p.m.

S3 S4

Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

a bigat mo. a bigat mo met. nga aldaw mo. nga aldaw mo met. a malem mo. a malem mo met.

Continue with other cues. 3:00 p.m. 10:00 a.m. #3

M1 M2 C

12:00 noon 8:00 a.m. Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

a a a a

bigat bigat bigat bigat

7:30 p.m. 12:30 p.m.

Kdp.

mo, Ana. mo met, Carlos. mo, Ana. mo met, Carlos.

1.9 Chain Drill. Greet one another according to cues given by the teacher. Cue

7:00 a.m. 12:30 p.m.

Response

S1 S2

Naimbag a bigat mo, Juana. Naimbag a bigat mo met, Pedro. Naimbag nga aldaw mo, Maria.

4

LESSON ONE

Cue

Response

S3 8:30 p.m. S4

Naimbag nga aldaw mo met, Pedro. Naimbag a rabiim, Nestor. Naimbag a rabiim met, Pedro.

Continue with other cues. 4:00 p.m. 5:30 p.m. #4

7:45 a.m. 11:45 a.m.

10:00 p.m. 9:00 p.m.

M1

Naimbag a bigat yo, maestra. Naimbag a bigat mo, Carlos.

M2

Naimbag a bigat yo met, maestra. Naimbag a bigat mo met, Carlos.

C1

Naimbag a bigat yo, maestra. Naimbag a bigat mo met, Carlos.

C2

Naimbag a bigat mo, Carlos. Naimbag a bigat yo met, maestra.

Kdp.

1.10 Response Drill. Teacher and students participate in this drill. The purpose of this exercise is to distinguish between the formal and the familiar forms of the greetings. The teacher provides cues when she doesn’t start the exchange. Cue

Response

7:30 a.m. 3:00 p.m.

T S1 S2 T S3 T S4

Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

nga aldaw mo, Nena. nga aldaw yo met, maestra. a bigat yo, maestra. a bigat mo met, Pedro. a malem yo, maestra. a malem mo met, Nestor. a rabiim, Rosing. a rabii yo met, maestra.

Continue with other cues. 9:30 p.m. 12:15 p.m.

10:30 a.m. 6:30 a.m.

5

Kdp.

ILOKANO LESSONS 1.11 Role-Playing. Students take turns acting as teacher. Student-teacher and students greet one another with cues supplied by the classroom teacher. The classroom teacher indicates by gesture who should start the exchange. Cue

Response

rabii aldaw 9:00 a.m.

St. T S1 S2 St. T S3 St. T

Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

a rabiim, Ana. a rabii yo met, maestra. nga aldaw yo, maestra. nga aldaw mo met, Edy. a bigat yo, maestra. mo met, Rosing.

Continue with other cues. malem 4:30 p.m.

8:00 a.m. bigat

7:45 p.m. 11:30 p.m.

Kdp.

1.12 Response Drill. Teacher and students participate in this drill. Teacher provides cues when she doesn’t start the exchange, and indicates by gesture who should recite. Cue

Response

malem rabii 1:00 p.m. 4:00 p.m.

T S1 S2 S3 S4 T S5 S6 S7 S8

Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag Naimbag

a bigat mo, Juana. a bigat yo met, maestra. a malem mo, Pedro. a malem mo met, Elena. a rabii yo, maestra. a rabiim met, Mario. nga aldaw mo. Edy. nga aldaw mo met, Nestor. a malem mo, Nena. a malem mo met, Ben.

Continue with other cues. aldaw 8:30 a.m.

2:30 p.m. 10:00 a.m.

rabii 5:30 p.m.

1.13 Activity. Act out the following situations. Use appropriate gestures.

6

LESSON ONE (1) It’s 3:00 p.m. You meet a teacher along the corridor. You greet her. (2) It’s 10:15 a.m. You’re drinking coffee at the cafeteria. A friend comes along. You greet him. (3) It’s 12:30 p.m. You’re walking on the playground. You meet a teacher. You greet her. (4) It’s 8:30 p.m. You’re studying in the dormitory. Your roommate joins you. Greet each other.

VOCABULARY a aldaw bigat maestra malem met mo naimbag nga rabii yo

variant of nga (see below) day, noon morning teacher (female) afternoon also, too you (singular) good a grammatical element (ligature) joining two content words such as an adjective and a noun night you (plural)

7

LESSON TWO (Maikadua a Leksion)

Greetings, continued Particles: laeng, ket 2.1 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: aldaw malem rabii Model: Mr. Cruz Mrs. Cruz Dr. Reyes apo Apo Prinsipal Model: Ben Rosa Edy

Naimbag a bigat yo, maestra. Naimbag nga aldaw yo, maestra. __________________________ __________________________ Naimbag a malem yo, Miss Santos. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Naimbag a bigat mo met, Ana. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

2.2 Response Drill. Respond to the cues given by the teacher by giving the appropriate greeting. Cue

6:30 a.m., 3:00 p.m., 11:30 a. m., 8:30 a.m., 7:30 p.m., 12:30 p.m., 4:00 p.m., 9:30 p.m.,

Response

Mr. White Ruben Dr. Sison apo Edy Alice Miss Santos Mrs. Reyes

Naimbag a bigat yo, Mr. White. Naimbag a malem mo, Ruben. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

#1 M1 Kumusta kayo?1 Kumusta kayo, maestra? 8

How are you? How are you, teacher?

LESSON TWO Kumusta ka? Kumusta ka, Rosa?

How are you? How are you, Rosa?

M2 Naimbag laeng. Naimbag laeng, maestra. Naimbag laeng, Juan. C1

Kumusta kayo?2 Naimbag laeng, maestra.

C2

Kumusta kayo, maestra? Naimbag laeng. Naimbag laeng, Juan.

C3

Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng.

C4

Kumusta ka, Rosa? Naimbag laeng. Naimbag laeng, Juan.

Just fine. Just fine, teacher. Just fine, Juan.

2.4 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Kumusta ka, Rosa? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Model:

Kumusta kayo, maestra? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Ben Edy gayyem Miss Cruz Mrs. de Leon Apo Prinsipal

2.5 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Afterwards, substitute the given cues, making all the changes necessary in the new sentence. Cue

Response

Model: maestro apo

Kumusta ka, Maria? Kumusta kayo, maestro? __________________________ 9

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Linda Ruben Mrs. Santos Apo Prinsipal gayyem

__________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

2.6 Response Drill. Teacher and students greet one another. (1) Teacher starts the exchange. T S1 T S2

Kumusta ka, Maria? Naimbag laeng, maestra. Kumusta ka, Edy? Naimbag laeng, maestra. Kdp.

(2) Students start the exchange. S1 T S2 T

Kumusta kayo, maestra? Naimbag laeng. Kumusta kayo, maestra? Naimbag laeng. Kdp.

(Students can be asked to act as teacher.) 2.7 Chain Drill. Practice greeting your classmates. S1 S2 S3 S4

Kumusta ka? (to S2) Naimbag laeng. Kumusta ka? (to S3) Naimbag laeng. Kumusta ka? (to S4) Naimbag laeng. Kdp.

2.8 Chain Drill. Teacher and students participate in this drill. Teacher indicates by gesture who should recite. (Students can be asked to take the role of teacher.)

10

LESSON TWO

S1

Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Kumusta kayo, maestra? Naimbag laeng. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng‚ maestra. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Kdp.

S2 S3 T S4 S5

2.9 Cumulative Drill. Greet one another according to the following pattern. Teacher gives cues and indicates by gesture who should recite. Cue

Response

7:15 a.m.

9:00 p.m.

S1 S2 S1 S2

11:15 a.m.

S3 S2 S3 S4 S3 S4

Naimbag a bigat mo, Edy. Naimbag a bigat mo met, Ana. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Naimbag a rabiim, Juan. Naimbag a rabiim met, Edy. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Naimbag nga aldaw mo, Norma. Naimbag nga aldaw mo met, Juan. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng.

Continue with other cues. 8:00 p.m. 6:00 a.m.

4:00 p.m. 12:00 noon

2.10 Dialogues for Memory. (1)

Ben: Rosa:

Naimbag a malem mo, Rosa. Naimbag a malem mo met, Ben. 11

ILOKANO LESSONS Ben: Rosa: Ben: (2)

Ana: Miss S: Ana: Miss S: Ana:

(3)

Mr. R: Rosa: Mr. R: Rosa:

Mr. R: (4)

PCV: Pedro: PCV: Pedro:

Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng.

And you? How are you?

Ket sika? Kumusta ka? Naimbag met. Naimbag a bigat yo, Miss Santos. Kasta met.

Same to you.

Kumusta kayo, Miss Santos? Nasayaat met.

Just fine.

Ket sika? Kumusta ka? Nasayaat met, Miss Santos. Naimbag a bigat mo, Rosa Naimbag a bigat yo met, Mr. Reyes. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng, Mr. And you? How Reyes. are you? Ket dakayo? Kumusta kayo? Kastoy latta. Just fine. Naimbag nga aldaw mo, Pedro. Kasta met kenka, Jim Kumusta ka? Kastoy latta.

Same to you, Jim.

2.11 Role-Playing. Use the text of the above dialogues in acting out the situations below. Make your performance natural and convincing by using appropriate gestures. (1) You are walking to the dorm. You meet your teacher. You greet him and ask how he is. (2) You are on a bus. A friend gets on. You greet each other. (3) You’re a teacher. You meet your student on the playground. You greet each other. 12

LESSON TWO (4) You are walking on the street. You meet your student’s father. Greet him and ask how he is.

VOCABULARY apo doktor (Dr.) ka kasta met kastoy latta kayo kenka ket kumusta (ka) dakayo gayyem laeng maestro mister (Mr.) misis (Mrs.) naimbag nasayaat prinsipal sika

title of respect for older people or for strangers doctor you (singular) a greeting response: ‘same to you’ a greeting response: ‘just fine’ you (plural) to you and a greeting: how (are you) you (plural) friend a grammatical element (particle) meaning ‘only’, ‘just’ teacher (male) mister (Mr.) madam (Mrs.) fine fine principal you (singular)

13

LESSON THREE (Maikatlo a Leksion)

Deictics:1 Question Word: #1

daytoy, dayta, daydiay, dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay ania

M1

Ania daytoy? Ania dayta? Ania daydiay?

What’s this? What’s that? What’s that (yonder)?

M2

Libro daytoy. Lapis dayta. Lamisaan daydiay.

This is a book. That’s a pencil. That (yonder) is a table.

C1

Ania daytoy?2 Lapis dayta.

C2

Ania dayta?2 Libro daytoy.

C3

Ania daydiay? Lamisaan daydiay.

3.1 Repetition and Substitution Drill. This exercise is done twice: first as a repetition exercise, next as a substitution drill. Model:

Lapis daytoy. Libro _______ Papel _______ Lamisaan ____ Tugaw ______

This is a pencil. _______ book. _______ (piece of) paper. _______ table. _______ chair.

3.2 Question and Answer Drill. Respond to the teacher’s question. T

Ania dayta? (pointing to an object near S1)

14

LESSON THREE

S1 Lapis daytoy. T Ania dayta? S2 Libro daytoy. T Ania dayta? S3 Papel daytoy. Kdp. 3.3 Chain Drill. Ask ania dayta to one another. Be sure to observe proper distances. S1

Ania dayta?

S2

Lamisaan daytoy. Ania dayta? Libro daytoy. Ania dayta? Papel daytoy. Kdp.

S3 S4

3.4 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: libro lamisaan tugaw pisarra tisa ireyser papel

Lapis dayta. Libro dayta. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

That’s a pencil. _______ book. _______ table. _______ chair. _______ blackboard. _______ (piece of) chalk. _______ an eraser. _______ (piece of) paper.

3.5 Question and Answer Drill. Respond to the teacher’s question. T

S1 T S2 T S3

Ania daytoy? Lamisaan dayta. Ania daytoy? Tugaw dayta. Ania daytoy? Pisarra dayta.

15

ILOKANO LESSONS Kdp. 3.6 Question and Answer Drill. Each student shows or touches an object and asks ania daytoy. The whole class responds. S1 C1 S2 C1 S3 C1

Ania daytoy? Libro dayta. Ania daytoy? Papel dayta. Ania daytoy? Tugaw dayta.

3.7 Question and Answer Drill. Distinguish between the use of daytoy and dayta. T S1 T S2 T S3

Ania daytoy? Lapis dayta. Ania dayta? Papel daytoy. Ania dayta? Tugaw daytoy. Kdp.

Repeat the above exercise as a chain drill. S1 S2 S3 S4

Ania daytoy? Ireyser dayta. Ania dayta? Tugaw daytoy. Ania daytoy? Lapis dayta. Kdp.

3.8 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: tisa

Pisarra daydiay. ____________ 16

That (yonder) is a blackboard. _______ (piece of) chalk.

LESSON THREE

Cue

Response

ireyser tawa ruangan diding

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

_______ _______ _______ _______

an eraser. window. door. wall.

3.9 Question and Answer Drill. Respond to the teacher’s question. T C1 T C1 T C1

Ania daydiay? Tisa daydiay. Ania daydiay? Ireyser daydiay. Ania daydiay? Diding daydiay.

Repeat the above exercise as a chain drill. S1

Ania daydiay?

S2

Diding daydiay. Ania daydiay? Ruangan daydiay. Ania daydiay? Tawa daydiay. Kdp.

S3 S4

3.10 Chain Drill. Ask and answer ania daytoy, dayta, daydiay questions. S1

Ania daytoy?

S2

Pisarra dayta. Ania dayta? Lapis daytoy. Ania daydiay? Diding daydiay. Ania dayta? Kdp.

S3 S4

17

ILOKANO LESSONS Variation: Students go up front in pairs and ask each other ania daytoy, dayta, daydiay questions. #2

M1

Ania dagitoy? Ania dagita? Ania dagidiay?

M2

Libro dagitoy. Lapis dagita. Papel dagidiay.

C1

Ania dagitoy? Lapis dagita.

C2

Ania dagita? Libro dagitoy.

C3

Ania dagidiay? Papel dagidiay.

3.11 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Tugaw dagitoy. Lamisaan dagitoy. ______________ ______________ ______________

lamisaan tisa ireyser lapis

3.12 Question and Answer Drill. Respond to the teacher’s question. T S1 T S2 T S3

Ania dagita? Tugaw dagitoy. Ania dagita? Lamisaan dagitoy. Ania dagita? Papel dagitoy. Kdp.

18

LESSON THREE 3.13 Chain Drill. Repeat exercise 3.12 as a chain drill. S1

Ania dagita?

S2

Tugaw dagitoy. Ania dagita? Papel dagitoy. Ania dagita? Diding dagitoy. Kdp.

S3 S4

3.14 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: tawa ruangan diding lapis libro

Pisarra dagita. Tawa dagita. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

3.15 Question and Answer Drill. Respond to the teacher’s question. T C1 T C1 T C1

Ania dagitoy? Pisarra dagita. Ania dagitoy? Tawa dagita. Ania dagitoy? Ruangan dagita. Kdp.

Variation. The above exercise can be done as a chain drill, or a student can act as teacher and ask questions of the class. 3.16 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ireyser

19

Diding dagidiay. Ireyser dagidiay.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

tawa ruangan pisarra Kdp.

_____________ _____________ _____________

3.17 Chain Drill. Ask ania dagidiay to one another. S1

Ania dagidiay?

S2

Lapis dagidiay. Ania dagidiay? Ireyser dagidiay. Ania dagidiay? Pisarra dagidiay. Kdp.

S3 S4

3.18 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher asks ania + deictic questions; individual students answer. T S1 T S2 T S3 T S4 T S5 T S6

Ania daytoy? Lapis dayta. Ania dayta? Papel daytoy. Ania daydiay? Ireyser daydiay. Ania dagitoy? Libro dagita. Ania dagita? Tugaw dagitoy. Ania dagidiay? Lamisaan dagidiay.

3.19 Chain Drill. Do exercise 3.18 as a chain drill. Use different deictics. #3 (Supplementary Cycle) M1 Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘cigarette’?

What’s ‘cigarette’ in Ilokano?

20

LESSON THREE

M2 Sigarilyo. C

‘Sigarilyo.’

Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘cigarette’? Sigarilyo.

3.20 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘cigarette’? _____________ ‘shoes’? _____________ ‘umbrella’? _____________ ‘ceiling’? _____________ ‘floor’? 3.21 Question and Answer Drill. A student asks an ania ti ____ question; the teacher answers it; the class repeats the answer in unison. S1 Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘umbrella’? T Payong. C1 Payong. S2 Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘ceiling’? T Bobeda. C1 Bobeda. Kdp. 3.22 Chain Drill. Ask one another ania ti ___ questions. Use the vocabulary items you have learned so far. S1 Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘blackboard’? S2 Pisarra. Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘chalk’? S3 Tisa. Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘shoes’? S4 Sapatos. Kdp. 3.23 Cumulative Activity.

21

ILOKANO LESSONS (1) Go around the classroom and identify a few objects. Use daytoy, dayta, daydiay, dagitoy, dagita, and dagidiay at least once each. (2) Make a classroom tour with one or two classmates. Ask ania + deictic questions and let your classmate(s) answer. Use daytoy, dayta, daydiay, dagitoy, dagita, and dagidiay at least once each.

VOCABULARY ania bobeda dagidiay dagita dagitoy daydiay dayta daytoy diding ireyser lamisaan lapis libro papel payong pisarra ruangan sigarilyo tawa tisa tugaw

what ceiling those (yonder) those these that (yonder) that this wall eraser table pencil book paper umbrella blackboard door cigarette window chalk chair

22

LESSON FOUR (Maikapat a Leksion)

Review Question Word: Deictics:

ania (sg) daytoy, dayta, daydiay (pl) dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay

New Material Plural of Nouns 4.1 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: dayta ruangan daydiay diding dagita pisarra dagitoy libro dagidiay

Tawa daytoy. Tawa dayta. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

4.2 Transformation Drill. Convert the singular form of the deictic to the plural. Singular

Plural

Papel daytoy. Libro dayta. Lamisaan daydiay. Maestro daydiay. Estudiante dayta. ‘That’s a student.’ Treyni daytoy.

Papel dagitoy. Libro dagita. __________ __________ __________

23

ILOKANO LESSONS

Singular

Plural

‘This is a trainee.’

__________

4.3 Repetition and Transformation Drill. Repeat the sentence given by the teacher. Then, say it a second time changing the number of the deictic. Teacher

Response 1

Response 2

Ruangan daytoy. Silaw dagita. ‘Those are lights.’ Kayo dagidiay. ‘Those are trees.’ Bulong dayta. ‘That’s a leaf.’ Sabong dagitoy. ‘These are flowers.’ Ru-ut dagitoy. ‘That’s grass.’ Kayo daytoy. Bulong dagita.

Ruangan daytoy. Silaw dagita.

Ruangan dagitoy. Silaw dayta.

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________

_____________ _____________

_____________ _____________

4.4 Transformation Drill. A student gives a sentence using a deictic. The class repeats the sentence changing the deictic to the singular or the plural, as the case may be. S1 C1 S2 C1 S3 C1

Silaw dayta. Silaw dagita. Tugaw dagitoy. Tugaw daytoy. Lamisaan dagidiay. Lamisaan daydiay. Kdp.

#1 M1 Ania dagitoy? Ania dagita? Ania dagidiay? M2 Liblibro dagitoy.1 Laplapis dagita. Pappapel dagidiay.

These are books. Those are pencils. Those (yonder) are pieces of paper. 24

LESSON FOUR

C1

Ania dagitoy? Laplapis dagita.

C2

Ania dagita? Liblibro dagitoy.

C3

Ania dagidiay? Pappapel dagidiay.

4.5 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sen tences after the teacher. Lamlamisaan dagitoy.2 Tawtawa dagidiay. Silsilaw dagita. Tugtugaw dagidiay. Kaykayo dagita. Sabsabong dagitoy.

These Those Those Those Those These

are tables. (yonder) are windows. are lights. (yonder) are chairs. are trees. are flowers.

4.6 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ruruangan dagitoy pappapel laplapis dagita lamlamisaan tawtawa si1si1aw dagidiay tugtugaw kaykayo bulbulong

Tawtawa dagidiay. Ruruangan dagidiay. Ruruangan dagitoy. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

4.7 Transformation Drill. Repeat the sentence given by the teacher changing the noun from the singular to the plural.

25

ILOKANO LESSONS

Teacher

Student

Ruangan dagitoy. Bulong dagita. Lamisaan dagidiay. Lapis dagitoy. Silaw dagidiay. Kayo dagita. Tawa dagidiay. Tugaw dagitoy.

Ruruangan dagitoy. Bulbulong dagita. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

4.8 Chain Drill. Ask and answer ania dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay questions. Answer with plural nouns. S1

Ania dagidiay?

S2

Silsilaw dagidiay. Ania dagitoy? Liblibro dagita. Ania dagita? Pappapel dagitoy. Kdp.

S3 S4

ADDITIONAL VOCABULARY bado ‘dress’ or ‘shirt’ pantalon ‘pants’ medias ‘socks’ or ‘stockings’ sapatos ‘shoes’ singsing ‘ring’ relo ‘clock’, ‘wristwatch’

-

badbado

-

panpantalon

-

medmedias

-

sapsapatos

-

sisingsing

-

relrelo

4.9 Short Response Drill. Ask ania questions similar to those in 4.8, and give short responses like the examples below. 26

LESSON FOUR

Question

Response

Ania dagitoy? Ania dagita? Ania dagidiay? Kdp.

Lamlamisaan. Tawtawa. Panpantalon.

4.10 Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a singular noun; S1 gives a statement with a singular deictic; S2 repeats the sentence changing the noun and the deictic to the plural. Cue

S1

S2

tugaw lamisaan sabong sapatos bado ruangan tawa Kdp.

Tugaw daytoy. Lamisaan dayta. Sabong daydiay. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Tugtugaw dagitoy. Lamlamisaan dagita. Sabsabong dagidiay. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

4.11 Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a singular noun; S1 gives a statement with a plural noun and a plural deictic; S2 repeats the sentence changing the noun to the singular but retaining the plural deictic. Cue

S1

S2

papel lapis silaw kayo bulong pantalon medias Kdp.

Pappapel dagitoy. Laplapis dagidiay. Silsilaw dagita. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Papel dagitoy. Lapis dagidiay. Silaw dagita. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

4.12 Chain Drill. Ask one another ania dagitoy, dagita, dagidiay questions, and, using plural nouns, give short responses like the examples below. S1 S2

Ania dagitoy? Lamlamisaan. Ania dagita?

27

ILOKANO LESSONS S3 S4 S5

Pappapel. Ania dagidiay? Kaykayo. Ania dagita? Tugtugaw. Kdp.

4.13 Chain Drill. Ask one another ania + deictic questions with either singular or plural deictics. Using singular nouns, give short responses as you did in the preceding exercise. S1

Ania dagitoy?

S2

Lamlamisaan. Ania dagita? Pappapel. Ania dagidiay? Kaykayo. Ania dagita? Tugtugaw. Kdp.

S3 S4 S5

4.13 Chain Drill. Ask one another ania + deictic questions with either singular or plural deictics. Using singular nouns, give short responses as you did in the preceding exercise. S1

Ania daytoy?

S2

Bado. Ania daydiay? Kayo. Ania dagita? Sabong. Ania dagidiay? Sapatos. Kdp.

S3 S4 S5

4.14 Activities.

28

LESSON FOUR (1) Do a picture study. Identify as many objects in your picture as you can, using singular and plural nouns and your deictics. Elicit some audience participation by asking ania questions of your listeners. (2) Pretend that you are an Ilokano teacher. Give a short lesson on singular and plural nouns.

VOCABULARY bado bulong kayo estudiante medias pantalon relo ru-ut sabong sapatos silaw singsing treyni

dress, shirt leaf tree student socks, stockings pants clock, wristwatch grass flower shoes light ring trainee

29

LESSON FIVE (Maikalima a Leksion)

Full Nominative Pronouns:

siak series1

Short Nominative Pronoun: Nominal Marker: ni/da Question Word: sino Conjunction: ken

ak series1

#1 M1 Sino ak?2 Sino ka?

Who am I? Who are you (singular)? Who is he/she?

Sino? (pointing to somebody) M2 Siak ni Norma.3 Sika ni Ben. Isu ni Mr. Reyes. C1

Sino ka? Siak ni Norma.

C2

Sino ak? Sika ni Ben.

C3

Sino? (pointing to somebody) Isu ni Mr. Reyes.

I’m Norma. You’re Ben. He’s Mr. Reyes.

5.1 Repetition and Substitution Drill. This exercise is done twice: first as a repetition exercise; next as a substitution drill. Model:

Siak ni Norma. Ben. Edy. Miss Santos. Mrs. Reyes.

30

I’m Norma.

LESSON FIVE 5.2 Chain Drill.

T

Siak ni Miss Santos. Sino ka? Siak ni Norma. Sino ka? Siak ni Edy. Sino ka? Siak ni Ben. Sino ka? Siak ni Ana. Kdp.

S1 S2 S3 S4

5.3 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model twice or thrice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: Ben Edy Ana Bob

Sika ni Norma. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

You’re Norma.

5.4 Chain Drill. S1 Sino ak? S2 Sika ni Ruben.

Who am I? You’re Ben.

Sino ak? S3 Sika ni Edy. Sino ak? S4 Sika ni Ana. Kdp. 5.5 Substitution Exercise. Repeat the model sentence twice or thrice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: David

Isu ni Ruben. ___________ 31

He’s Ruben.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Ana Rosa Ben

___________ ___________ ___________

5.6 Chain Drill. T Sino? (asking S1 and pointing Who is he/she? to S2) S1 Isu ni David. Sino? (asking S2 and pointing to S3) S2 Isu ni Ana. Sino? (asking S3 and pointing to S4) S3 Isu ni Rosa. Sino? (asking S4 and pointing to S5) S4 Isu ni Bob. Kdp. #2

M1

Sino Sino Sino Sino Sino

ta? tayo? kami? kayo? da?

Who Who Who Who Who

M2

Data da Juan ken Nena.3 Datayo da Juan, Nena ken Ben. Dakami da Mr. Reyes ken Mr. Castro. Dakayo da Jose ken Pedro. Isuda da Sharon ken Muriel.

C1 Sino ta? Data da Juan ken Nena. C2 Sino tayo? Datayo da Juan, Nena, ken Ben. C3 Sino kami? 32

are are are are are

we (you and I)? we (inclusive)? we (exclusive)? you (plural)? they?

We (you and I) are Juan and Nena. We (inclusive) are Juan, Nena, and Ben. We (exclusive) are Mr. Reyes and Mr. Castro. You (plural) are Jose and Pedro. They are Sharon and Muriel.

LESSON FIVE

Dakayo da Jose ken Pedro. C4 Sino kayo? Dakami da Mr. Reyes ken Mr. Castro. C5 Sino da? Isuda da Sharon ken Muriel. 5.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: Miss Santos, Ben Miss Lopez, Mr. Reyes Ruben, Mrs. Cruz

Data da Juan ken Nena. Data da Miss Santos ken Ben. _______________________ _______________________

5.8 Chain Drill. T S1 S2 S3

Sino ta? Data da Miss Santos ken Ben. Sino ta? Data da Ben ken David. Sino ta? Data da David ken Rosa. Kdp.

5.9 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: dakayo dakami Mr. Garcia ken Diana dakayo Model: kayo tayo

Datayo da Ben, Lorna, ken Tom. Dakayo da Ben, Lorna, ken Tom. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ Sino kami? _________ _________

33

ILOKANO LESSONS 5.10 Question and Answer Drill. Divide the class into two groups. The groups ask and answer sino questions. The teacher provides cues for questions.

Cue

Response

kayo G1 G2 kayo G1 kami G2 kami G1 tayo G2 tayo

Sino kayo? Dakami da Ben, Lorna, ken Edy. Sino kayo? Dakami da Rosa, Miguel, ken Esteban. Sino kami? Dakayo da Rosa, Miguel, ken Esteban. Sino kami? Dakayo da Ben, Lorna, ken Edy. Sino tayo? Datayo da Ben, Lorna, Edy, Rosa, Miguel, ken Esteban. Sino tayo? G1 Datayo da Ben, Lorna, Edy, Rosa, Miguel, ken Esteban.

Kdp. 5.11 Question and Answer Drill, into two or three smaller groups. Divide the class T Sino da? (asking G1 and pointing to G3) G1 Isuda da Ben ken Ana. T Sino da? (asking G3 and pointing to G2) G3 Isuda da Elena ken Roberto. T Sino da? (asking G2 and pointing to G1) G2 Isuda da Susana ken Rosa. Sino da? (asking G3 and pointing to G1) G3 Isuda da Susana ken Rosa. Sino da? (asking G1 and pointing to G2) G1 Isuda da Elena ken Roberto. Kdp. 5.13 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. This drill illustrates the use of plural pronouns for the polite form. 34

LESSON FIVE Sino kayo? Sino da? Dakayo ni Mr. Santos. Isuda ni Mr. Reyes.

Who are you (singular addressee)? Who is he/she? You are Mr. Santos. He is Mr. Reyes.

5.14 Chain Drill. This is an exercise on the use of plural pronouns for the polite form. T S1 S2 S3 S4

Sino ak? Dakayo ni Sino ak? Dakayo ni Sino ak? Dakayo ni Sino ak? Dakayo ni Kdp.

Mr. Santos. Mr. Smith. Mr. Nelson. Mr. White

Reverse the questioning pattern. S1

Sino kayo?

S2

Siak ni Mr. Sino kayo? Siak ni Mr. Sino kayo? Siak ni Mr. Sino kayo? Siak ni Mr. Kdp.

S3 T S4

Smith. Nelson. Santos. Brown.

Ask about a third person. S1 Sino da? (asking S2 and pointing to S3) S2 Isuda ni Mr. Reyes. Sino da? (asking S3 and pointing to S4) S3 Isuda ni Mr. White. Sino da? (asking S4 and pointing to S5) S4 Isuda ni Mr. Brown. Kdp.

35

ILOKANO LESSONS 5.15 Cumulative Dialogues. (1) Situation:

PCV: Miss M: PCV: Miss M: PCV: (2) Situation: PCV’s: Mr. Mayor: PCV’s: PCV:

Mr. Mayor:

A PCV visits his newly-appointed co-teacher, Miss Morales. Miss Morales and the PCV are of the same age but are strangers to each other. (Note the use of the formal form.) Naimbag a rabii yo, apo. Naimbag a rabii yo met. Sumrek kayo. Siak ni Charles Smith, apo. Siak met ni Miss Morales. Agtugaw kayo. Dios ti agngina, apo.

Come in.

Have a seat. Thank you, ma’am.

A group of PCV’s visits the mayor’s office. Naimbag a bigat yo, Apo Mayor. Naimbag a bigat yo met. Sumrek kayo. Dios ti agngina, apo. Siak ni Charles Smith, apo. Isuda da Helen Brown ken Roger White. PCV kami, apo. Maragsakan ak a makaam-ammo kadakayo. ‘I am pleased to meet all of you.’

5.16 Activity. Act out the above dialogues. You may vary the contents slightly.

36

LESSON FIVE

VOCABULARY ak agtugaw kami ken da dakami data datayo Dios ti agngina isu isuda makaam-ammo maragsakan ni siak sumrek ta tayo

I to sit down we (exclusive) and they we (exclusive) we, dual (you and I) we (inclusive) thank you he, she they to get acquainted with to be glad, to be happy proper noun marker I to enter we, dual (you and I) we (inclusive)

37

LESSON SIX (Maikanem a Leksion)

Review Nominative Pronouns:

siak series ak series

Question Word: sino New Material Sino + deictic Noun + deictic 6.1 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ak ta kami tayo kayo da Model: dakayo datayo isuda Mr. Reyes ken Mr. Ramos dakayo Model: Edy ken Nestor Antonio ken Cleopatra Romeo ken Julieta Mr. Smith ken Mr. Brown Mr. ken Mrs. de la Cruz

Sino ka? Sino ak? Sino ta? ______ ______ ______ ______ Dakami da Ben, Ana, ken Edy. Dakayo da Ben, Ana, ken Edy. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Data da Primo ken Bella. Data da Edy ken Nestor. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

6.2 Transformation Drill. Change the following informal sentences to the formal (polite) form with the use of plural pronouns. Teacher

Student

Sino?

Sino da? 38

LESSON SIX

Teacher

Student

Sino ka? Sika ni Mr. White. Isu ni Apo Mayor. Sika ni Apo Prinsipal. Isu ni Presidente Marcos.

Sino kayo? Dakayo ni Mr. White. Isuda ni Apo Mayor. Dakayo ni Apo Prinsipal. Isuda ni Presidente Marcos.

6.3 Chain Drill. Ask and answer sino questions. Use different nominative pronouns. S1 Sino? (asking S2 and pointing to S3) S2 Isu ni Nestor. Sino ta? S3 Data da Nestor ken Ana. Sino da? S4 Isuda da Elena ken Ruben. Kdp. #1

M1

Sino daytoy? Sino dayta? Sino daydiay?

Who’s this? Who’s that? Who’s that (yonder)?

M2

Ni Mario daytoy. Ni Miss Reyes dayta. Ni Rosing daydiay.

This is Mario. That’s Miss Reyes. That (yonder) is Rosing.

C1

Sino daytoy? Ni Miss Reyes dayta.1

C2

Sino dayta? Ni Mario daytoy.

C3

Sino daydiay? Ni Rosing daydiay.

6.4 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: dayta

Ni Miss Reyes daytoy. Ni Miss Reyes dayta.

39

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

daydiay Mr. Santos Ben Rudy Rosing Apo Mayor

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ Model:

dayta daydiay

Sino daytoy? _________________ _________________

6.5 Question and Answer Drill on the use of daytoy and dayta. Use pictures for this drill. (It is usually impolite to ask sino daytoy/dayta when the person talked about is actually present.) Distribute pictures among students. Indicate by gesture who should recite. (1)

Teacher Class S1 Class S2 Class

Sino daytoy? Ni Eisenhower dayta. Sino daytoy? Ni de Gaulle dayta. Sino daytoy? Ni Charlie Brown dayta. Kdp.

(2)

Class Teacher Class S1 Class S2

Sino dayta? Ni Eisenhower daytoy. Sino dayta? (to S1) Ni de Gaulle daytoy. Sino dayta? (to S2) Ni Charlie Brown daytoy.

If additional practice is needed, repeat the above as a chain drill. 6.6 Chain Drill. Ask and answer the question sino daydiay. Sino daydiay? (addressing S1 and pointing to somebody quite far) S1 Ni Ruben daydiay. Sino daydiay? (addressing S2 and pointing to somebody quite far) T

40

LESSON SIX

S2 Ni Mr. Cruz daydiay. Sino daydiay? (addressing S3 and pointing to somebody quite far) S3 Ni Apo Prinsipal daydiay. Kdp. #2

M1

Sino dagitoy? Sino dagita? Sino dagidiay?

Who are these? Who are those? Who are those (yonder)?

M2

Da Mario ken Ben dagitoy. Da Rosing, Edy, ken Ana dagita. Da Mrs. Santos ken Mr. Reyes dagidiay.

These are Mario and Ben. Those are Rosing, Edy, and Ana. Those (yonder) are Mrs. Santos and Mr. Reyes.

C1

Sino dagitoy? Da Rosing, Edy, ken Ana dagita.

C2

Sino dagita? Da Mario ken Ben dagitoy.

C3

Sino dagidiay? Da Mrs. Santos ken Mr. Reyes dagidiay.

6.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Da Rosing ken Ben dagitoy. Da Rosing ken Ben dagita. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Sino dagitoy? ___________ ___________

dagita dagidiay Mr. Reyes, Ana Mr. Santos, Miss Cruz Edy, Nestor Nena, Bob dagita dagidiay

41

ILOKANO LESSONS 6.8 Question and Answer Drill on dagitoy and dagita. The pictures used for exercise 6.5 may be used again. Teacher gives two or more pictures to each student. Teacher indicates by gesture who should recite. (1) Teacher Class S1 Class

Sino dagitoy? Da Kennedy ken Pope Paul dagita. Sino dagitoy? Da Rockefeller ken Marcos dagita. Kdp.

(2)

Sino dagita? Da Martin Luther King ken Percy dagitoy. Sino dagita? Da Macapagal ken Rizal dagitoy. Sino dagita? Da Julie Andrews ken Charlton Heston dagitoy. Kdp.

Class Teacher Class S1 Class S2

6.9 Question and Answer Drill on dagidiay. Sino dagidiay? (asking S1 and pointing to 2 or more people at a distance) S1 Da Ben ken Edy dagidiay. Sino dagidiay? (asking S2 and pointing to 2 or more people at a distance) S2 Da Miss Santos ken Ana dagidiay. Sino dagidiay? (asking S3 and pointing to 2 or more people at a distance) S3 Da Elena ken Martin dagidiay. Kdp. T

6.10 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues making all the necessary changes in the sentence. Cue

Response

Model: Ben ken Norma dagita

42

Ni Nena daytoy. Da Ben ken Norma dagitoy. Da Ben ken Norma dagita.

LESSON SIX

Cue

Response

Miss Lopez daydiay Miss Ramos ken Juan Muriel ken Sharon Muriel Mr. Santos ken Norman dagitoy Apo Prinsipal Apo Prinsipal ken Apo Maestro dagita Apo Maestro

Ni Miss Lopez dayta. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

6.11 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher divides the class into 2 groups. According to given cues, one group asks a sino question, the other answers. Cue

Response

Cue

Response

daytoy

Sino daytoy? Sino ka? Sino dagitoy?

Juana

Ni Juana dayta.

Ben Mr. Reyes ken Dr. Flores Mr. Cruz ken Mr. Castro

Siak ni Ben. Da Mr. Reyes ken Dr. Flores dagita.

ka dagitoy kami

Sino kami?

dayta

Sino dayta? Sino kayo? Sino daydiay? Sino dagidiay? Sino da?

kayo daydiay dagi-diay da

Elena, Rosa, ken Ana Tony

Dakayo da Mr. Cruz ken Mr. Castro Ni Miss Molina daytoy. Dakami da Elena, Rosa, ken Ana. Ni Tony daydiay.

Mike ken Tony Miss Lopez ken Mr. Ramos

Da Mike ken Tony dagidiay. Isuda da Miss Lopez ken Mr. Ramos.

Miss Molina

6.12 Dialogue for Memory. Situation:

John visits his friend, Ben, in his office.

43

ILOKANO LESSONS John:

John:

Naimbag a malem mo, Ben. Naimbag a malem mo met. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Ket sika? Kastoy latta. Sino daytoy? Ni ading ko dayta.

John: Ben:

Agtugaw ka. Dios ti agngina.

Ben: John: Ben:

(pointing to a picture) That’s my younger brother/ sister. Thank you.

VOCABULARY ading mayor

younger sibling mayor

44

LESSON SEVEN (Maikapito a Leksion)

Equational Sentence:

noun + ak pronouns / ni/da _____

Affirmative statement Question Affirmative and negative responses Negative statement 7.1 Dialogue. John: Bert: John: Bert: John:

Naimbag a bigat mo. Kasta met kenka. Siak ni John Brown. PCV ak. Kumusta ka? Naimbag laeng. Amerikano ka? Wen, Amerikano ak.

I’m John Brown. I’m a PCV. How are you? Are you an American? Yes, I’m an American.

7.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Amerikano ak. Pilipino ka. Estudiante. Amerikana ta. Treyni tayo. Pis Kor kami. Maestro kayo. Ilokano da. Cebuano ni Carlos. Hapon da Misu ken Fumiko.

I’m an American (m). You’re a Filipino (m). He/She is a student. We (dual) are Americans (f). We (incl) are trainees. We (excl) are Peace Corps (Volunteers). You are teachers. They are Ilokanos. Carlos is a Cebuano. Misu and Fumiko are Japanese.

7.3 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: 45

Amerikano ak.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

maestra ka estudiante treyni tayo Pis Kor kami kayo Hapon da ni Carlos Cebuano da Carlos ken Vicky

Maestra ak. Maestra ka. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

7.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Give three sentences about yourself, you and your classmate, or other member (s) of the class. e.g.

(1)

Siak ni Ruth Ward. Amerikana ak. Estudiante ak.

(2)

Dakayo ni Miss Cruz. Pilipina kayo. Maestra kayo.

(3)

Isuda da Bert ken Doming. Ilokano ni Doming. Cebuano ni Bert. Kdp.

7.5 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher.1 Amerikano ka? Pilipino ak? Prinsi pal? Estudiante ta? Babbai ta yo? Treyni ka mi? Lallaki ka yo? Maestro da?

Are you an American? Am I a Filipino? Is he/she a principal? Are we students? Are we girls? Are we trainees? Are you boys? Are they teachers?

46

LESSON SEVEN 7.6 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice or thrice. Be sure about your intonation pattern. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ka lalaki estudiante tayo maestro kayo Amerikano ni Ben da Vicky ken Juan

Babai ak? Babai ka? Lalaki ka? ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

7.7 Transformation Drill. The following statements are written on the board. Teacher divides the class into two groups. One group reads a statement; the other group transforms it to a question. Statement

Question

G1 Tagalog ni Ruth. G2 Estudiante da Tom ken Ann. G2 Doktor ak. ‘I’m a doctor.’ Nars kayo. ‘You’re nurses.’ Mayor. ‘He/She is a mayor.’ Abogado kami. ‘We’re lawyers.’ Inhinyero da. ‘They’re engineers.’

G2 Tagalog ni Ruth? G1 Estudiante da Tom ken Ann? G1 Doktor ak? ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

#1 M1 Amerikano ak? Estudiante ni Ruth? Maestra da Cecile ken Nina? M2 Wen, Amerikano ka. Wen, estudiante.

Am I an American? Is Ruth a student? Are Cecile and Nina teachers? Yes, you’re an American. Yes, she’s a student.

47

ILOKANO LESSONS Wen, maestra da.

Yes, they’re teachers.

C1

Amerikano ak? Wen, Amerikano ka.

C2

Estudiante ni Ruth? Wen, estudiante.2

C3

Maestra da Cecile ken Nina? Wen, maestra da.

7.8 Chain Drill. Ask questions of one another, and give affirmative responses. T Abogado ni Nixon? S1 Wen, abogado. Inhinyero ka? S2 Wen, inhinyero ak. Estudiante? (asking S3 and pointing to S1) S3 Wen, estudiante. Pis Kor tayo? Kdp. #2

M1

Pilipino kayo? Inhinyero ni Jim? Estudiante da Pedro ken Elena?

M2

Saan, Amerikano kami. Saan, doktor. Saan, maestro da.

C1

Pilipino kayo? Saan, Amerikano kami.

C2

Inhinyero ni Jim? Saan, doktor.

C3

Estudiante da Pedro ken Elena? Saan, maestro da.

48

LESSON SEVEN 7.9 Question and Answer Drill. Answer the teacher’s questions with negative responses. Use the cues supplied by the teacher. Question

Cue

Estudiante ka?

maestro

Tagalog ak? Doktor? Nars ta? Babbai kami? Mayor kayo (pl)? Cebuano tayo? Prinsipal ni Mr. Torres? Maestro da Mr. Reyes ken Miss Santos?

Negative Answer

Saan, maestro ak. Ilokano Saan, Ilokano ka. nars ______________ doktor ______________ lallaki ______________ treyni ______________ Ilokano ______________ Mayor ______________ prinsipal ______________

7.10 Chain Drill. Ask one another questions that require negative (saan) answers. S1 S2 S3 S4

Maestro ka? Saan, treyni ak. Prinsipal ni Voltaire? Saan, maestro. Abogado da Jack ken Bob? Saan, doktor da. Kdp.

7.11 Question and Answer Drill. Elicit some nouns from the teacher which you can use in formulating questions similar to those in 7.10 above. Ask ania ti Ilokano ti N ?. S1 T Class S2 T Class S3 T Class

Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘senator’? Senador. senador Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘president’? Presidente. presidente Ania ti Ilokano ti ‘carpenter’? Karpintero. karpintero

49

ILOKANO LESSONS Kdp. 7.12 Chain Drill. Using the words you learned in exercise 7.11 and other words you already know, ask and answer wen/saan questions. S1 Presidente ka? S2 Saan, Pis Kor ak. Amerikano tayo? S3 Wen, Amerikano tayo. Karpintero ni Juan? S4 Wen, karpintero ni Juan. Kdp. 7.13 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following negative statements after the teacher. (1)

saan + ak pronouns Saan ak nga abogado. Saan ka a Pis Kor. Saan ta a Tagalog. Saan ta a doktor. Saan kami nga estudiante.

(2)

I’m not a lawyer. You’re not a Peace Corps (Volunteer). We’re not Tagalogs. We’re not doctors. We’re not students.

saan + 3rd person singular and plural nouns Saan a Cebuano ni Ruth. Saan nga Amerikano da Tom ken Ben.

Ruth is not a Cebuano. Tom and Ben are not Americans.

7.14 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ka ta tayo kami kayo 50

Saan ak a maestro. Saan ka a maestro. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

LESSON SEVEN

Cue

Response

da ni Juan da Pedro ken Juan doktor ni Rosa

______________ Saan a maestro ni Juan. __________________ __________________ __________________

7.15 Transformation Drill. Change the teacher’s affirmative statement to a negative statement. Teacher

Students

Tagalog ni Jim. Saan a Tagalog ni Jim. Maestro kayo. Saan kayo a maestro. Abogado da Mr. Reyes ken Saan nga abogado da Mr. Reyes Mr. Cruz. ken Mr. Cruz. Nars kami. _____________________________ Hapon da. _____________________________ PCV ni Fely. _____________________________ 7.16 Cumulative Practice. Using the materials you have learned from this and all the preceding lessons, do one of the following activities: (1) Greet a group and introduce yourself. (2) Introduce a friend to an audience. 7.17 Supplemental Dialogue. Situation: Helen: Ruth: Helen: Ruth:

Helen Brown and Ruth Morales are riding in a bus. Naimbag a malem mo. Siak ni Helen Brown. Ania ti nagan mo? Siak ni Ruth Morales. Maestra ka? Wen, maestra ak. Maestra ka met? Saan, sekretarya ak.

What’s your name?

Are you a teacher, too?

VOCABULARY abogado

lawyer 51

ILOKANO LESSONS Amerikana Amerikano babai babbai Cebuano

American (female) American (male) girl, female girls, females a person from Cebu (male); the female form is Cebuana karpintero carpenter Hapon Japanese (male); the female form is Haponesa Ilokano a person from the Ilocos region; the female form is Ilokana inhinyero engineer lalaki boy, male lallaki boys, males mayor mayor nars nurse Pilipina Filipino woman Pilipino Filipino Pis Kor Peace Corps Volunteer presidente president saan no senador senator wen yes

52

LESSON EIGHT (Maikawalo a Leksion)

Review Equational Sentence:

noun + ak pronouns / ni/da _____

New Material Equational Sentence: adjective + ak pronouns / ni/da _____ 8.1 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Treyni ak. Treyni ka. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

Model:

Estudiante ak? Estudiante ka? ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

ka ta tayo kami kayo da Ben Bob ken Bert ka ta tayo kami kayo da Ben Bob ken Bert

8. 2 Pronunciation Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (see Appendix E, section 9, Nationalities) Alemán Aprikáno/a Kastíla Hapón/Haponésa Insík

German African Spaniard Japanese Chinese 53

ILOKANO LESSONS Italiáno/a Meksikáno/a Pransés

Italian Mexican French

8.3 Chain Drill. Teacher distributes flash cards on which are written the words in exercise 8.2. With these as aids, students ask and answer questions answerable by wen ‘yes’. S1 S2

Aprikano ka? Wen, Aprikano ak. Meksikana ni Elena? Wen, Meksikana. Italiano ak? Wen, Italiano ka. Kdp.

S3 S4

8.4 Chain Drill. Using the same cards used in exercise 8.3, ask and answer questions that call for a saan ‘no’ response. S1

Pranses ak?

S2

Saan, Kastila ka. Insik ka? Saan, Hapon ak. Kastila ni Noel? Saan, Pranses. Kdp.

S3 S4

8.5 Dialogue. Ana: Ben: Ana: Ben: Ana: Ben:

Naggapuam? Dita opisina ni Mr. Reyes. Inhinyero ni Mr. Reyes? Saan, propesor. Nalaing? Wen, nalaing. Nagaget pay.

Where have you been? (There at) Mr. Reyes’ office. Is Mr. Reyes an engineer? No, he’s a professor. Is he smart? Yes, he’s smart. He’s hard-working, too.

8.6 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher.1

54

LESSON EIGHT Natayag ak. Pandek ka. Nagaget. Nasadut ta. Nalumeg tayo. Nakuttong kayo. Nalaing kami. Namuno da. Naanos ni David. Naunget da Bob ken Jim.

I’m tall. You’re short. He/She is industrious. We’re lazy. We’re stout. You’re thin. We’re smart. They’re stupid. David is kind/patient. Bob and Jim are cranky.

8.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ka nagaget ta nalukmeg Juan naanos kayo Cindy ken Ruth nalaing Linda Helen ken Bob

Natayag ak. Natayag ka. Nagaget ka. __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

8.8 Sentence Formation Drill. Using the adjective cues written on the board, give one sentence about somebody or some people in the classroom. Cue

natayag ‘tall’ pandek ‘short’ nagaget ‘industrious’ nasadut ‘lazy’ nalukmeg ‘stout’ nakuttong ‘thin’ nalaing ‘intelligent’ namuno ‘stupid’ naanos ‘kind’ naunget ‘cranky’

Response

S1 S2

55

Naunget ni Pedro. Nakuttong ak. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

ILOKANO LESSONS 8.9 Transformation Drill. Each student gives a statement using one of the adjectives in exercise 8.8. The class echoes the statement as a question. S1 Nagaget ni Bob Johnson. C1 Nagaget ni Bob Johnson? S2 Nalaing tayo. C1 Nalaing tayo? S3 Naanos ka. C1 Naanos ka? Kdp. 8.10 Chain Drill. Using adjectives, ask wen/saan questions of one another. S1

Natayag ni Miss Cruz?

S2

Wen, natayag. Namuno ka? Saan, nalaing ak. Nagaget tayo? Wen, nagaget tayo. Kdp.

S3 S4

8.11 Transformation Drill. Change the teacher’s affirmative statement to its negative form. Teacher

Student

Natayag ak. Pandek da Mr. Reyes ken Mr. Santos. Nagaget ka. Nasadut ni Juan. Nalukmeg ni Esteban. Nakuttong tayo. Nalaing da. Namuno da Alfredo ken Charlie. Naanos kami. Naunget kayo.

Saan ak a natayag. Saan a pandek da Mr. Reyes ken Mr. Santos. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

56

LESSON EIGHT 8.12 Sentence Formation Drill. Give two sentences, one affirmative and one negative, descriptive of yourself or somebody else. Use sets of adjective antonyms. S1 S2 S3

Nagaget ak. Saan ak a nasadut. Naanos ni Carlos. Saan a nauyong. Namuno tayo. Saan tayo a nalaing. Kdp. Additional Vocabulary

nasingpet naloko napintas naalas naguapo saan a naguapo #1

well-behaved naughty, mischievous beautiful ugly (for females) handsome ugly (for males)

M1

Napintas ka? Nasadut ni Maria? Naloko da Ben ken Edy?

M2

Saan, saan ak a napintas. Saan, saan a nasadut. Saan, saan da a naloko.

C1

Napintas ka? Saan, saan ak a napintas.

C2

Nasadut ni Maria? Saan, saan a nasadut.

C3

Naloko da Ben ken Edy? Saan, saan da a naloko.

8.13 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model negative response once or twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

57

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model: da Rosa tayo da Tony ken Marcia kayo

Saan, saan ka a naloko. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

8.14 Chain Drill. Ask one another wen/saan questions using adjectives and give negative answers similar to those in exercise 8.13. S1 S2 S3 S4

Naguapo ni Henry? Saan, saan a naguapo. Natayag ka? Saan, saan ak a natayag. Naunget ni Miss Cruz? Saan, saan a naunget. Kdp.

8.15 Writing Activity. Give a one-sentence description for each of ten famous personalities. You may consult Appendix E, Section V for additional adjectives.

VOCABULARY Alemán Aprikano Kastila Insik Italiano Meksikano naalas naanos nakuttong nagaget naguapo nalaing naloko nalukmeg namuno napintas

German African (male); the female form is Aprikana Spaniard Chinese Italian (male); the female form is Italiana Mexican (male); the female form is Meksikana ugly (for females) kind, patient thin hard-working, industrious handsome intelligent, smart naughty, mischievous stout stupid beautiful 58

LESSON EIGHT nasadut nasingpet natayag naunget pandek pay Pranses propesor

lazy well-behaved tall (used for people) cranky short an enclitic meaning ‘too’ French professor

59

LESSON NINE (Maikasiam a Leksion)

Structure:

Nominal Marker: #1

M1

Sino + ti N Sino + ti N + ti N More on Equational Sentences Negative Question (Saan ____?) ti/dagiti

Sino ti ‘Center Director’? Sino dagiti estudiante?

Who’s the ‘Center Director’? Who are the students?

M2

Ni Al White ti ‘Center Director’. Da Nestor ken Ruben ti (dagiti) estudiante.1

Al White is the ‘Center Director’. Nestor and Ruben are the students.

C1

Sino ti ‘Center Director’? Ni Al White ti ‘Center Director’.

C2

Sino dagiti estudiante? Da Nestor ken Ruben ti (dagiti) estudiante.

9.1 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Ni Ni Ni Ni Ni

Al White ti ‘Center Director’. Dick McGinn ti ‘Country Director’. Jerry Caton ti ‘Site Director’. Terry Ramos ti ‘Language Coordinator’. Doming Castillo ti ‘Ilokano Coordinator’.

9.2 Response Drill. Answer the teacher’s questions with factual answers.

60

LESSON NINE

Teacher

Students

Sino ti ‘Center Director’? Sino ti ‘Country Director’? Sino ti ‘Site Director’? Sino ti ‘Language Coordinator’? Sino ti ‘Field Assessment Officer’?

Ni Al White ti ‘Center Director’. Ni Dick McGinn ti ‘Country Director’. Ni Jerry Caton ti ‘Site Director’. Ni Terry Ramos ti ‘Language Coordinator’. Ni Ed Dreyfus ti ‘Field Assessment Officer’.

9.3 Substitution Exercise. Repeat the model sentence. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: Country Director Tagalog Coordinator Science Coordinator AAP Coordinator FAO PE Coordinator

Sino ti ‘Center Director’? Sino ti ‘Country Director’? Sino ti ‘Tagalog Coordinator’? _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

9.4 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher divides the class into two groups. According to given cues, the groups ask and answer sino + ti N questions. Cue

Question

Answer

PE Coordinator

G1

Sino ti ‘PE Coordinator’?

G2

Tagalog Coordinator

G2

Sino ti ‘Tagalog Coordinator’?

G1

TESL Instructor

G1

Sino ti ‘TESL Instructor’?

G2

Site Director

G2

Sino ti ‘Site Director’?

G1

61

Ni George Ricketts ti ‘PE Coordinator’. Ni Vida de Guzman ti ‘Tagalog Coordinator’. Ni Geri Maiatico ti ‘TESL Instructor’. Ni Jerry Caton ti ‘Site Director’.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Science Coordinator

Question

G1

Sino ti ‘Science Coordinator’?

Answer

G2

Ni Vennise Lomibao ti ‘Science Coordinator’.

kdp. If additional practice is needed, a chain drill on the above can be conducted. S1 Sino ti ‘Site Director’? S2 Ni Jerry Caton ti ‘Site Director’. Sino ti ‘Ilokano Coordinator’? S3 Ni Doming Castillo ti ‘Ilokano Coordinator’. Kdp. 9.5 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Da Da Da Da Da

Nestor ken Ruben ti estudiante. Evelyn ken Precy ti maestra. Doming ken Angel ti maestro. Bob ken Martha ti ‘Science trainees’. Juanita ken Miguel ti ‘Math trainees’.

9.6 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: maestro TESL trainees Bob ken Martha Science trainees Juanita ken Miguel Math trainees

Da Nestor ken Ruben ti estudiante. Da Nestor ken Ruben ti maestro. _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

9.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

62

LESSON NINE

Cue

Response

Model: maestro maestra TESL trainees Math trainees Science trainees Tagalog instructors

Sino dagiti estudiante? Sino dagiti maestro? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

9.8 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher divides the class into two groups. According to given cues, the groups ask and answer sino questions with plural subjects. Cue

Question

Cue

maestro

G1

Sino dagiti maestro?

Angel ken Doming

G2

Answer

maestra

G2

Sino dagiti maestra?

Evelyn ken Precy

G1

TESL trainees

________

Math trainees

________

Science trainees

________

Tagalog instructors

________

Ilokano instructors

________

Elena ken Roberto Barbara, Lorenzo, ken Isidro Juanita ken Miguel Fe, Toni, ken Angel Fely ken Narsing

Da Angel ken Doming ti maestro. Da Evelyn ken Precy ti maestra. ________ ________

________ ________ ________

9.9 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

63

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model:

Siak ti estudiante. Sika ti estudiante. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

sika isu data dakami datayo dakayo isuda

9.10 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher divides the class into two groups. According to given cues, the groups ask and answer sino questions. Cue

Language Coordinator

G1

TESL trainees

G2

Question

Cue

Sino ti ‘language coordinator’? Sino dagiti ‘TESL trainees’?

isu

G1

datayo

G2

PE Coordinator Math trainees Ilokano instructors #2

M1

Answer

sika dakami dakayo

Sino ti maestro ti Ilokano?

Who’s the Ilokano teacher? (literally: Who’s the teacher of Ilokano?) Who are the TESL trainees? (literally: Who are the trainees in TESL?)

Sino dagiti treyni ti TESL?

M2

Ni Doming ti maestro ti Ilokano. Da Bob ken Jane ti treyni ti TESL.

Doming is the Ilokano teacher. Bob and Jane are the TESL trainees.

C1

Sino ti maestro ti Ilokano?

64

Datayo ti ‘TESL trainees’. Isu ti ‘language coordinator’.

LESSON NINE Ni Doming ti maestro ti Ilokano. C2

Sino dagiti treyni ti TESL? Da Bob ken Jane ti treyni ti TESL.

9.11 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Ni Ni Ni Ni Da Da Da

Doming ti maestro ti Ilokano. Ferdinand Marcos ti presidente ti Pilipinas. Leopold ti ari ti Belgium. Elizabeth II ti reyna ti England. Jim ken Martha ti treyni ti science. Mrs. Reyes ken Miss Gomez ti maestra ti Tagalog. Belen ken Geri ti maestra ti TESL.

9.12 Chain Drill. Ask and answer sino + ti N + ti N questions. T

Sino ti presidente ti Pilipinas? Ni Ferdinand Marcos ti presidente ti Pilipinas. Sino ti S1 reyna ti England? Ni Elizabeth II ti reyna ti England. Sino dagiti maestra ti S2 Ilokano? S3 Da Fe, Marcia, ken Narsing ti maestra ti Ilokano. Kdp. 9.13 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues for the underlined element. Cue

Response

Model:

Natayag ti prinsipal. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Model:

Amerikano dagiti treyni. ___________________ ___________________

naanos nalaing naguapo nagaget Amerikano Pilipino lalaki estudiante nasingpet

65

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

nakuttong lallaki babbai nalukmeg

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Model:

naanos pandek nalaing Pilipina

Napintas ti maestra ti Cebuano. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

9.14 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer wen/saan questions. Use common noun subjects and use the nominal markers ti/dagiti. You may or may not expand your questions with a second ti phrase. S1 Natayag ti ‘science coordinator’? S2 Saan, saan a natayag. or, Saan, pandek. Amerikano ti estudiante? S3 Wen, Amerikano. Pilipino ti maestro ti math? S4 Saan, Amerikano. #3

M1

Saan ka a natayag?

Aren’t you tall?

M2

Wen, saan ak a natayag. Saan, saan ak a natayag. Saan man, natayag ak.

Yes, I’m not tall. (meaning: No I’m not tall.) No, I’m not tall.

C1

Saan ka a natayag? Wen, saan ak a natayag.

C2

Saan ka a natayag?

Yes, indeed, I’m tall.

66

LESSON NINE Saan, saan ak a natayag. C3

Saan ka a natayag? Saan man, natayag ak.

9.15 Transformation Drill. Change the following negative statements to negative questions. Statement

Question

Saan Saan Saan Saan Saan Saan Saan

Saan ka a natayag? ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

ka a natayag. ta a nakuttong. da a pandek. a maestro ni Bob. a Pilipino da Jack. a babai ti ubing. a lallaki dagiti ubbing.

9.16 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Wen, saan ak a natayag. ‘Yes (meaning no), I’m not tall.’ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Saan, saan ak a natayag. ‘No, I’m not tall.’ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

nalukmeg pandek Amerikano Pilipino

nalukmeg pandek Amerikano Pilipino

9.17 Chain Drill. Ask and answer negative questions. Give agreement responses: wen/saan + negative statement. nabannog natured

Additional Vocabulary tired brave, courageous 67

ILOKANO LESSONS naannad napangas natakrot

-

cautious, careful conceited, boastful cowardly

S1

Saan ka a nabannog?

S2

Wen, saan ak a nabannog. or, Saan, saan ak a nabannog. Saan ka nga Aprikano?

S3

Saan, saan ak nga Aprikano. or, Wen, saan ak nga Aprikano. Kdp.

9.18 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: natured naannad Amerikano Italiano

Saan man, natayag ak. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

9.19 Chain Drill. Ask and answer negative questions. Give disagreement responses: saan man + affirmative statement. S1 Saan ka nga Amerikano? S2 Saan man, Amerikano ak. Saan ka a naanad? S3 Saan man, naannad ak. Saan ka a treyni? S4 Saan man, treyni ak. Kdp. 9.20 Chain Drill. Ask and answer expanded negative questions. Give either agreement or disagreement responses. S1 Saan a natakrot ti maestro ti TESL? S2 Saan, saan a natakrot ti maestro ti TESL. Saan nga Amerikano ti treyni ti math? 68

LESSON NINE

S3 Saan man, Amerikano ti treyni ti math. Saan a narugit ti kuarto ti lallaki? S4 Wen, saan a narugit ti kuarto ti lallaki. Kdp. 9.21 Cumulative Activity. Break up into smaller groups of twos or threes and prepare a dialogue using as many of the structures as you already know.

VOCABULARY ari naannad nabannog napangas natakrot natured

king cautious, careful tired conceited, boastful cowardly brave, courageous

69

LESSON TEN (Maikasangapulo a Leksion)

Short Responses to Sino Questions Question Words: Taga-ano ‘from where’ Sadino ‘where’ Ko Pronouns1 10.1 Question and Answer Drill. Using the cues written on the blackboard, give long and short responses to sino + deictic questions asked by the teacher. The short response is made by deleting the deictic. Cue

Teacher

Student

Pedro

Sino daytoy?

Ni Ben dayta.

Mr. Reyes Apo Prinsipal Belen, Anita Juan, Roberto Elena, Juan, Roberto

Ni Ben. Sino dayta? Ni Mr. Reyes daytoy. Ni Mr. Reyes. Sino Ni Apo Prinsipal daydiay. daydiay? Ni Apo Prinsipal. Sino Da Belen ken Anita dagita. dagitoy? Da Belen ken Anita. Sino Da Juan ken Roberto dagitoy. dagita? Da Juan ken Roberto. Sino Da Elena, Juan, ken Roberto dagidiay? dagidiay. Da Elena, Juan, ken Roberto.

10.2 Question and Answer Drill. Using the cues written on the blackboard, give long and short responses to sino + ti N questions asked by the teacher. The short response is made by deleting the ti N phrase. Cue

Teacher

Student

Jerry Caton

Sino ti ‘Site Director’?

Ni Jerry Caton ti ‘Site Director’. 70

LESSON TEN

Cue

Teacher

Al White

Sino ti ‘Country Director’?

Barbara, Isidro, Esteban

Sino dagiti ‘Math trainees’?

Belen, Geri, George

Student

Ni Jerry Caton. Ni Al White ti ‘Country Director’. Ni Al White. Da Barbara, Isidro, ken Esteban ti ‘Math trainees’. Da Barbara, Isidro, ken Esteban. Da Belen, Geri, ken George ti ‘TESL instructors’.

Sino dagiti ‘TESL in structors’?

Da Belen, Geri, ken George. 10.3 Chain Drill. Ask one another sino questions and answer with short responses. S1 S2 S3 S4

Sino daydiay? Ni Robert. Sino ti maestro ti ‘math’? Ni Bob. Sino ti prinsipal? Ni Mr. Ramos. Kdp.

10.4 Transformation Drill. Restate the following sentences using the nominal marker da. Teacher

Student

Ni Vicky ken ni Elsa dagitoy. Ni John ken ni Jane dagita. Ni Bert, ni Joe, ken ni Doug ti ‘AAP instructors’. Ni Rosa ken ni Cecile ti maestra. Ni Elisea ken ni Juan ti treyni ti TESL. Ni Evelyn, ni Fe, ken ni Precy ti maestra ti Tagalog.

Da Vicky ken Elsa dagitoy. Da John ken Jane dagita. Da Bert, Joe, ken Doug ti ‘AAP instructors’. _________________ _________________ _________________

10.5 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher.

71

ILOKANO LESSONS (1)

Da Elena ken Ben ti estudiante. Da Elena ti estudiante.2 Da Ben ti estudiante.

(2)

Da Miss Cruz, Miss Gomez, ken Mrs. Santos dagidiay. Da Miss Cruz dagidiay. Da Miss Gomez dagidiay. Da Mrs. Santos dagidiay.

The students are Elena and company. The students are Bob and company.

Those are Miss Cruz and company. Those are Miss Gomez and company. Those are Mrs. Santos and company.

10.6 Question and Answer Drill. (Use Appendix E, Section H, Professions and Occupations, for vocabulary items.) S1 asks a sino + plural marker + noun question; S2 gives a short response with a ken construction; S3 converts the answer to a da construction. S1 Sino dagiti artista? Who are the actors? S2 Da Cary Grant ken Anthony Quinn. S3 Da Cary Grant./Da Anthony Quinn. S4 Sino dagiti karpintero? S5 Da Edy ken Efren. S6 Da Edy./Da Efren. Kdp. #1 M1 Taga-ano ka?

Where are you from?

Taga-ano ni Charlie? Taga-ano da Nena ken Belen?

Where’s Charlie from? Where are Nena and Belen from?

M2 Taga Pilipinas ak. I’m from the Philippines. Taga Amerika ni Charlie. Charlie is from the United States. Taga Manila da Nena Nena and Belen are from ken Belen. Manila.

72

LESSON TEN

C1

Taga-ano ka? Taga Pilipinas ak.

C2

Taga-ano ni Charlie? Taga Amerika ni Charlie.

C3

Taga-ano da Nena ken Belen? Taga Manila da Nena ken Belen.

10.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Taga Pilipinas ak. Taga Pilipinas ka. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Model:

Taga-ano ka? ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

ka ta tayo kami kayo da Rosie Fe ken Juan maestro lallaki ak kami da Miss Lopez Mr. ken Mrs. Cruz prinsipal babbai

10.8 Chain Drill. Ask and answer taga-ano questions, (1) informal form S1

Taga-ano ka?

S2

Taga California ak. Taga-ano ka?

73

ILOKANO LESSONS

S3 S4

Taga Texas ak. Taga-ano ka? Taga Colorado ak. Kdp.

(2) formal form S1 Taga-ano kayo? S2 Taga California ak. Taga-ano kayo? S3 Taga Connecticut ak. Taga-ano kayo? S4 Taga Baguio ak. 10.9 Chain Drill. Using the information gained from exercise 10.8, ask taga-ano questions with different pronouns and nouns. T Taga-ano ni Maria? S1 Taga California ni Maria. Taga-ano da Bill ken Sharon? S2 Taga New York da Bill ken Sharon. Taga-ano tayo? S3 Taga Michigan, N. Dakota, ken Connecticut tayo. Kdp. 10.10 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher divides the class into two groups. According to a given cue, one group asks a question, the other group gives an answer using a pronoun subject. Cue

Question

de Gaulle

G1

Marcos ken Osmeña

G2

Mao Tse Tung

G1

Taga-ano ni de Gaulle? Taga-ano da Marcos ken Osmeña? Taga-ano ni Mao Tse Tung?

74

Response

G2 G1 G2

Taga France. Taga Pilipinas da. Taga China.

LESSON TEN

Cue

Question

Shakespeare ken Milton

G2

Response

Taga-ano da Shakespeare ken Milton?

G1

Taga England da.

10.11 Conversation Exercise. Take up the model dialogue as a memory exercise. Then use it as a chain drill. Model Dialogue: John: Edna: John: Edna:

Taga-ano ka? Taga California ak. Sadino idiay California? Idiay San Francisco.

Chain Drill: S1 Taga-ano ka? S2 Taga Missouri ak. S1 Sadino idiay Missouri? S2 Idiay St. Louis. Variation: (1) S1 Taga-ano ni John? S2 Taga Colorado. S1 Sadino idiay Colorado? S2 Idiay Denver. (2) S1 Taga-ano ti maestro ti ‘science’? S2 Taga Washington. S1 Sadino idiay Washington? S2 Idiay Seattle. #2

M1

Ania ti nagan mo? Ania ti nagan yo?

What’s your (sg) name? What’s your (pl) name?

M2

John Brown ti nagan ko.

My name is John Brown.

75

ILOKANO LESSONS John Brown ken Jane Smith ti nagan mi.

Our names are John Brown and Jane Smith.

C1

Ania ti nagan mo? John Brown ti nagan ko.

C2

Ania ti nagan yo? John Brown ken Jane Smith ti nagan mi.

10.12 Chain Drill. Ask your classmate his name. S1 Ania ti nagan mo? S2 Barbara Stone ti nagan ko. Ania ti nagan mo? S3 Ed White ti nagan ko. Ania ti nagan mo? S4 Sue Richards ti nagan ko. Kdp. 10.13 Chain Drill. Ask two or three persons near you their names and require one of them to answer. S1 Ania ti nagan yo? S2 Barbara Stone, Ed White, ken Sue Richards ti nagan mi. Ania ti nagan yo? S3 Tom Smith, Bob Johnson, ken John Brown ti nagan mi. Kdp. 10.14 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. (The cues are a new set of pronouns, the ko series.) Cue

Response

mo ‘your (sg)’ na ‘his/her’ ta ‘our (dual)’ mi ‘our (excl)’ tayo ‘our (incl)’ yo ‘your (pl)’ da ‘their’

Model:

Ania ti nagan ko? Ania ti nagan mo?

10.15 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another ania ti nagan questions. Use different pronouns.

76

LESSON TEN S1 S2 S3 S4

Ania ti nagan da? Bob ken Jane ti nagan da. Ania ti nagan mi? Efren ken maria ti nagan yo. Ania ti nagan ko? Julian ti nagan mo. Kdp.

10.16 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Ania ti trabahom?

na? tayo? ni Pedro? da Pedro

What do you do? (literally: What’s your job?) What do I do? (literally: What’s my job?) What does he/she do? What do we do? What does Pedro do? What do Pedro and Juan do?

ti

What does the lady do?

dagiti

What do the ladies do?

Ania ti trabahok? Ania ti trabaho Ania ti trabaho Ania ti trabaho Ania ti trabaho ken Juan? Ania ti trabaho balasang? Ania ti trabaho babbalasang?

10.17 Pronunciation Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (See Appendix E, Section H, Professions and Occupations, for more.) nars pyanísta mannúrat barbéro negosyánte karpintéro mannálon agkalkálap agtagibaláy pulís

nurse pianist writer barber businessman carpenter farmer fisherman housewife policeman

77

ILOKANO LESSONS 10.18 Question and Answer Drill. The teacher distributes flash cards on which are written professions and occupations. With these as aids, ask one another ania ti trabaho questions. Imitate the models. Models: Q R Q R

Ania ti trabahom? Nars ak. Ania ti trabaho da Ben ken Edy? Estudiante da.

S1 Ania ti trabaho na? (asking S2 and pointing to S3 ) S2 Mannurat. Ania ti trabahok? S3 Barbero ka. Kdp. 10.19 Cumulative Activity. Pretend that you’re an interviewer for a newspaper, the radio, a TV program, or some other similar establishment. Interview one of your classmates.

VOCABULARY agkalkalap agtagibalay actor/actress babbalasang balasang barber karpintero ko their farmer writer our (excl) your his, hers nagan businessman pulis policeman sadino

fisherman housewife artista ladies, unmarried women lady, unmarried woman barbero carpenter my da mannalon mannurat mi mo na name negosyante pyanista pianist89 where 78

LESSON TEN taga taga-ano tayo trabaho yo

from from where our job, work your

79

LESSON ELEVEN (Maikasangapulo ket Maysa a Leksion)

Ag- verb (actor focus) Structure: Ag + Vbase + ak pronoun / ni/ti ____ 11.1 Dialogue. Situation:

N: John: N:

John: N: John: N: John:

A PCV is on his way to the library. He is stopped by an elderly neighbor and they talk for a short while. Sika ni John Brown? Wen, apo. Agtugaw ka, John. Ne, agsigarilyo ka. Dios ti agngina, apo. Papanam, John? Dita laybrari, apo. Ania ti aramidem? Agbasa ak ti leksion ko, apo.

Are you John Brown? Yes, sir. Sit down, John. Here, have a cigarette. (literally: Here, smoke.) Thank you, sir. Where are you going, John? (There) to the library, sir. What will you do? I will read my lesson, sir.

11.2 Action Drill. The teacher gives a command; everybody performs the action. Command

Response

Agtakder tayo. ‘Let’s stand.’ Agtugaw tayo. ‘Let’s sit down.’ Agsurat tayo. ‘Let’s write.’

Everybody stands. Everybody sits down. Everybody writes.

80

LESSON ELEVEN

Command

Response

Agbasa tayo. ‘Let’s read.’ Agkanta tayo. ‘Let’s sing.’ Agsala tayo. ‘Let’s dance.’ Agtaray tayo. ‘Let’s run.’ Agbasketbol tayo. ‘Let’s play basketball.’

Everybody reads. Everybody sings. Everybody dances. Everybody runs. Everybody plays basketball.

11.3 Repeat exercise 11.2, this time using the pronoun kayo. Teacher gives a command; students perform the action. Teacher

Students

Agtakder kayo. ‘You (pl) stand.’ Agtugaw kayo. ‘You (pl) sit down.’ Kdp.

Everybody stands. Everybody sits down.

11.4 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Agtakder tayo. Agtugaw tayo. Agsurat kayo. Agbasa kayo. Agkanta ta. Agsala ta. Agtaray ka. Agbasketbol ka. 11.5 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command to S2; S2 executes the command; and so on around the class. Cue

Command

Response

surat taray basa tugaw takder

S1 S2 S3

S2 writes. S3 runs. S4 reads. _________ _________

Agsurat ka. Agtaray ka. Agbasa ka. _________ _________ 81

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Command

kanta sala basketbol

Response

_________ _________ _________

_________ _________ _________

11.6 Repeat exercise 11.5 but this time use plural pronouns. Use gestures to indicate the people involved in the command. S1 S2 S3

Command

Response

Agsurat ta. Agtaray tayo. Agbasa kayo. Kdp.

S1 and S2 write. Everybody runs. S4, S5… read.

#1 M1 Ania ti aramidem? Ania ti aramiden ni Juan? Ania ti aramiden dagiti ubbing? M2 Agsurat ak. Agsala. Agtaray da.

What do you do? What does John do? What do the children do? I write. He dances. They run.

C1

Ania ti aramidem? Agsurat ak.

C2

Ania ti aramiden ni Juan? Agsala.

C3

Ania ti aramiden dagiti ubbing? Agtaray da.

11.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. (the present form of the verb) Cue

Response

Model: ka ta tayo kayo da

82

Agtugaw ak. Agtugaw ka. __________ __________ __________ __________

LESSON ELEVEN

Cue

Response

Fina Fina ken Elsa ubing ubbing

__________ __________ __________ __________

11.8 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. This is a drill on the pattern ania + ti aramid + -en + ko pronoun / ni/ti ___ meaning ‘what do/does ___ do?’. Cue

Response

Model: ko na ta tayo mi yo da Edy Edy ken Ana ubing ubbing

Ania ti aramidem? Ania ti aramidek? Ania ti aramiden na? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Repeat the exercise using kua instead of aramid. Kua and aramid are synonyms and are used interchangeably. 11.9 Chain Drill. Teacher cues a noun or a pronoun subject; S1 asks a question introduced by ania ti aramid/kua + -en; S2 answers; and so on around the class. A student may be assigned to give the cue. Cue

Question

Response

tayo

S1 Ania ti aramiden tayo?

mo Pedro

S2 Ania ti aramidem? S3 Ania ti kuaen ni Pedro? __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

ubing mi ko da yo

83

S2 Agbasa tayo. S3 Agsurat ak. S4 Agtaray. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Question

Response

Juan ken Pedro Kdp.

__________________

________

__________________

________

11.10 Transformation Drill. Change the teacher’s statements to intonation questions. Statement

Question

Agsurat ni Ben. Agtakder tayo. Agsala dagiti babbalasang. Agtaray da. Agkanta kayo.

Agsurat ni Ben? _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

11.11 Conversation Exercise. Memorize the patterns. Afterwards, use them in conversation with your classmates. Substitute on the underlined words. Pattern 1: S1 Agsala ka? S2 Wen, agsala ak. S1 Ania pay ti aramidem?

What else do you do?

S2 Agkanta ak pay.

I sing, too.

Pattern 2: S1 Agsurat ni Juan? S2 Saan. S1 Ania ti kuaen na? S2 Agbasa.

VOCABULARY agbasa agbasketbol agkanta agsala agsigarilyo agsurat

to to to to to to

read play basketball sing dance smoke (cigarettes) write 84

LESSON ELEVEN agtakder agtaray agtugaw aramiden kuaen ubing ubbing

to stand to run to sit down to do/make to do/make child children

85

LESSON TWELVE (maikasangapulo ket dua a Leksion)

The Progressive Form of the ag- verb1 The Past Form of the ag- vert2 Question Word: kadi 12.1 Dialogue. (a telephone conversation) Helen: Elaine:

Helen: Elaine: Helen: Elaine:

Hello? Helen, siak ni Elaine. Ania ti ar-aramidem? Agdadait ak. Kayat mo ti agbuya iti ‘Camelot’? Saan ta nagbuya akon idi kalman. Sayang. Ala ngarud, babay.

Hello? Helen, I’m Elaine. What are you doing? I’m sewing. Do you want to see ‘Camelot’? No because I went to the movies yesterday. That’s a pity. Well, then, good-bye.

12.2 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Agbasbasa ak. Agtugtugaw ka. Agtaktakder. Agsursurat ta. Agkankanta tayo. Agsalsala kami. Agtartaray kayo. Agbasbasketbol da. Agsasao ni Juan? Agsangsangit ti ubing.

I’m reading. You’re sitting. He/She is standing. We (dual) are writing. We (incl) are singing. We (excl) are dancing. You’re running. They’re playing basketball Juan is talking/speaking. The child is crying.

12.3 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

86

LESSON TWELVE

Cue

Response

Model: mo na ta mi tayo yo da ubing babbai Pedro Pedro ken Juana

Ania ti ar-aramidek? Ania ti ar-aramidem? Ania ti ar-aramiden na? __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

12.4 Repeat exercise 12.3 using kua- instead of aramid-. Cue

Response

Model: mo na kdp.

Ania ti kukuaek? Ania ti kukuaem? Ania ti kukuaen na?

12.5 Chain Drill. Ask one another what each is doing. Act out and respond according to the cue given by the teacher. Cue

basa

Sl S2

sala

S3

takder

S4

Ania ti ar-aramidem? reads and says: Agbasbasa ak. Ania ti ar-aramidem? dances and says: Agsalsala ak. Ania ti ar-aramidem? stands and says: Agtaktakder ak. kdp.

tugaw kanta surat taray basketbol 12.6 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer ania ti araramiden/kukuaen questions. Use different noun and pronoun subjects.

87

ILOKANO LESSONS

S1

Ania ti ar-aramiden ti maestra?

S2

Agtaktakder. Ania ti kukuaen tayo? Agtugtugaw tayo. Ania ti ar-aramiden da Roberto? Agbasbasa da. Kdp.

S3 S4

#1 M1 Ania ti inaramid mo? Ania ti inaramid ni Juan? Ania ti inaramid ti lalaki? M2 Nagkanta ak. Nagtakder. Nagsala.

What did you do? What did John do? What did the boy/man do? I sang. He stood. He danced.

C1

Ania ti inaramid ni mo? Nagkanta ak.

C2

Ania ti inaramid ni Juan? Nagtakder.

C3

Ania ti inaramid ti lalaki? Nagsala.

12.7 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Nagkanta ak. Nagbasa ka. Nagsala ta. Nagtakder tayo. Nagtugaw ni Nena. Nagsurat da Nena ken Helen. Nagtaray ti babai. Nagsao dagiti babbai.

I sang. You read. We danced. We stood. Nena sat down. Nena and Helen wrote. The girl/woman ran. The girls/women spoke,

12.8 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

88

LESSON TWELVE

Cue

Response

Model:

Ania ti inaramid ko? ‘What did I do?’ Ania ti inaramid mo? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

mo na ta mi tayo yo da Ricardo lallaki

12.9 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania Ania

ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti ti

kinuak? kinuam? kinua na? kinua ta? kinua tayo? kinua mi? kinua yo? kinua da? kinua ni Ricardo? kinua dagiti lallaki?

What did I do? What did you do?

12.10 Command-Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a command; S2 asks a question in the past; S3 answers. Example: (1)

Command: S1 to S3 Question: S2 Response:

(2)

S3

Command: S4 Question: S5 Response:

S6

Agtaray ka. Ania ti inaramid mo? or Ania ti kinuam? Nagtaray ak. Agsala kayo. Ania ti inaramid tayo? or Ania ti kinua tayo? Nagsala tayo.

89

ILOKANO LESSONS 12.11 Conversation Exercise. Have a short conversation with one of your classmates following this model. Sl

Nagbasa ka?

S2 Saan. S1 Ania ti inaramid mo? S2 Nagsurat ak. Use other verb bases, nouns, and pronouns for the underlined elements. # 2

M1 Nagsurat ka kadi? Nagsala kadi da Pedro?

Did you write? (kadi, question word) Did Peter (and others) dance?

M2 Wen, nagsurat ak. Wen, nagsala da. M3 Saan, saan ak a nagsurat. Saan, saan da a nagsala. C1

Nagsurat ka kadi? Wen, nagsurat ak. Saan, saan ak a nagsurat.

C2

Nagsala kadi da Pedro? Wen, nagsala da. Saan, saan da a nagsala.

12.12 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: basa sangit

Nagsurat ka kadi? Nagbasa ka kadi? _______________ 90

LESSON TWELVE

Cue

Response

sala kanta surat

_______________ _______________ _______________ Model:

tugaw takder taray basketbol

Nagsurat kadi ni Bob? Nagtugaw kadi ni Bob? ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

12.13 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: ka tayo sala ubbing babbalasang Norma

Nagsurat kadi ti ubing? Nagsurat ka kadi? Nagsurat tayo kadi? Nagsala tayo kadi? Nagsala kadi dagiti ubbing? Nagsala kadi dagiti babbalasang? Nagsala kadi ni Norma?

12.14 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another kadi questions with past tense verbs. Answer affirmatively or negatively. S1 S2 S3

Nagtaray ka kadi? Wen, nagtaray ak. Nagsala kadi ti estudiante? Saan, saan a nagsala. Kdp. 12.15 Activity.

(1) Tell the class five things that happened yesterday: what you did, what others did, etc. You may consult Appendix E, Section W for more ag- verbs. (2) Do a picture study. Get a picture with lots of activities going on. Relate to the class what’s happening in the picture. Use the progressive form of the verb.

91

ILOKANO LESSONS

VOCABULARY agbuya agdait agsangit agsao kadi

to watch (a movie, a game, etc.) to sew to cry to speak/talk a question word

92

LESSON THIRTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Tallo a Leksion)

Locatives: ditoy, dita, idiay Question Word: ayan ‘where’ 13.1 Dialogue. Situation: Pacing:

Boy:

Pacing:

Boy: Pacing: Boy:

Pacing asks information from a young boy. Ading, mabalin ti agsaludsod?

Wen, manang.

Sino ti dentista ditoy eskuela? Ni Dr. Cuesta, manang. Dios ti agngina. Awan ti aniaman na.

Ading, can I ask a question? (Ading meaning ‘younger sibling’ is a term of endearment used for younger people belonging to the same generation as the speaker.) Yes, manang. (Manang meaning ‘older sister’ is a term of respect used for older girls within the same generation as the speaker.) Who’s the dentist here in school? Dr. Cuesta, manang. Thank you. You’re welcome.

13.2 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Siak ti PCV ditoy ili. Isu ti maestra dita baryo.

I’m the PCV (here) in town. He/She is the teacher (there) in the barrio.

93

ILOKANO LESSONS Ni Mr. Domingo ti prinsi pal idiay central school.

Mr. Domingo is the principal (there-yonder) at the central school.

13.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: dita idiay Model: siak isu Mr. Domingo Model: dakami datayo dakayo isuda da Juan Model: Hilo San Jose Manila Model: ka ta kami tayo kayo da Carlos Carlos ken Clara

Siak ti PCV ditoy baryo. ___________________ ___________________ Sika ti prinsipal ditoy eskuela. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Data ti estudiante ditoy baryo. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Datayo ti PCV ditoy baryo. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Maestra ak ditoy ili. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

13.4 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher cues a locative phrase; S1 asks a sino question; S2 answers in a complete sentence. Cue

Question

Response

ditoy ili

S1

S2

Sino ti prinsipal ditoy ili?

94

Ni Mr. Domingo ti prinsipal ditoy ili.

LESSON THIRTEEN

Cue

Question

Response

dita baryo idiay eskuela

S2

S3

S3

Sino ti nars dita baryo? Sino ti doktor idiay eskuela?

S4

Ni Mrs. Peres ti nars dita baryo. Ni Dr. Sison ti doktor idiay eskuela.

Continue with other cues. ditoy Hilo dita ospital

idiay eskuela idiay baryo

#1 M1 Ayan ti pos opis? Ayan ni Maria? M2 Adda dita laud. Adda idiay eskuela. C1

Ayan ti pos opis? Adda dita laud.

C2

Ayan ni Maria? Adda idiay eskuela.

Where’s the post office? Where’s Maria? It’s (there) in the west. She’s (there-yonder) in school.

13.5 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: eskuela ‘school’ ospital ‘hospital’ simbaan ‘church’ restauran ‘restaurant’ estasyon ti bus ‘bus station’ estasyon ti tren ‘train station’ Maria Maria ken Pedro ubing ubbing

95

Ayan ti pos opis? Ayan ti eskuela? _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

ILOKANO LESSONS Repeat the exercise using ayan na / da in place of ayan.2 Ayan na / da and ayan are used interchangeably before phrases. Ayan na is used before a ti/ni phrase; ayan da before a da/dagiti phrase. Cue

Response

Model:

Adda dita balay. ‘It’s (there) in the house.’ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

laud ‘west’ daya ‘east’ amianan ‘north’ abagatan ‘south’ idiay ospital simbaan dormitoryo ‘dormitory’ ditoy kuarto

13.6 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: mo na ta tayo mi yo da

Ayan ko? Ayan mo? _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

*Ayan na/da is not substitutable for ayan before pronouns. Model: ka ta tayo kami kayo da

Adda ak ditoy Pilipinas. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

96

LESSON THIRTEEN 13.7 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer ayan questions. Give answers that contain locative phrases. S1 S2 S3 S4

Ayan/Ayan na ti ospital? Adda dita ili. Ayan/Ayan na ni Mr. Santos? Adda idiay eskuela. Ayan/Ayan da dagiti lallaki? Adda da ditoy kuarto. Kdp.

13.8 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer ayan questions. Make use of locative words (not phrases) in your answers. S1 S2 S3

Ayan/Ayan na ni Maria? Adda dita. Ayan ti eskuela? Adda ditoy. Kdp.

13.9 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: dita idiay ka agsalsala eskuela dita

Nagsala ak ditoy kuarto. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

13.10 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another wen/saan questions with verbs and locative words/phrases. Answer in complete sentences. S1 S2 S3 S4

Nagtaray ka idiay eskuela? Wen, nagtaray ak idiay eskuela. Nagbasa da Maria idiay laybrari? Saan, saan da a nagbasa idiay laybrari. Agkankanta ni Pedro idiay kuarto? Wen, agkankanta idiay kuarto. 97

ILOKANO LESSONS Kdp. 13.11 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another ania ti aramid/kua-en questions in the past or in the progressive. Use locative words or phrases. S1 Ania ti inaramid mo idiay ili? S2 Nagsala ak. Ania ti ar-aramidem ditoy laybrari? S3 Agbasbasa ak. Kdp. 13.12 Cumulative Activity. Break up into smaller groups of twos or threes. Make a dialogue on one of these situations. (1) You’re looking for somebody or for a group. You ask information from your friend. (2) You’re looking for a place. You ask information from a stranger.

VOCABULARY abagatan agsaludsod amianan ayan baryo daya dita ditoy dormitoryo eskuela estasyon ti bus estasyon ti tren idiay ili laud mabalin

south to ask/inquire north a question word, ‘where’ barrio east there here dormitory school bus station train station there (yonder) town west possible, can be

98

LESSON THIRTEEN manang ospital pos opis restauran simbaan

term of respect for older girl/woman belonging to the same generation as the speaker hospital post office restaurant church

99

LESSON FOURTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Uppat a Leksion)

Um- verb (actor focus) - infinitive form Expansion of sentences with objects and locatives 14.1 Dialogue. Situation: John: Maria:

John: Maria:

John Brown borrows an item from a neighbor. Apo, umay ak man. Ay, ni John gayam. Umuli ka. Apay kadi? Bumulod ak man kuma iti martilyo. Aguray ka ta sapulek.

May I come in? Oh, it’s John. Come up. Is there anything I can do for you? (literally: Why?) May I borrow a hammer? Wait and I’ll look for it.

14.2 Action Drill. The teacher gives some commands. Everybody performs the actions. Command

Response

Rumuar tayo. Sumrek tayo. Tumakder tayo. Lumagto tayo. Uminom tayo iti serbesa. Gumatang tayo iti lapis. Bumulod tayo iti libro. Dumawat tayo iti sabong.

Everybody Everybody Everybody Everybody Everybody Everybody Everybody Everybody

goes out of the room. enters the room. stands. jumps. drinks beer. buys a pencil. borrows a book. asks for a flower.

14.3 Repetition Drill, Repeat the following commands after the teacher. Umay ka.

Come. 100

LESSON FOURTEEN Rumuar ka. Sumrek ta. Tumakder ta. Lumagto tayo Uminom tayo iti danum. Gumatang kayo iti libro. Dumawat kayo iti papel.

Let’s drink water.

14.4 Sentence Formation Drill. The teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command; the class performs the action collectively or individually as the command requires. Cue

ruar

S1 Rumuar kayo.

S2, S3 … leave the room. S2 and S3 buy cigarettes. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

gatang S2 Gumatang ta iti sigarilyo. takder ____________ inom ____________ lagto ____________ bulod ____________ dawat ____________

14.5 Simple Substitution Drill. (the present form of the verb) Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Umay ak dita. Sumrek ak dita. ___________ ___________ ___________

Model:

Uminom ak iti serbesa. __________________ __________________

Model:

Bumulod ak iti libro. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

serrek takder lagto tulong ‘help’ gatang dawat papel lapis tugaw lamisaan

101

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model:

Gumatang ak iti lapis. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

ka ta kami tayo kayo da Robert Robert ken Tom ubing lallaki

14.6 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer ania ti {a ramid/kua} -en questions. Question

Response

S1 S2

S2 S3

Ania ti aramidek? Ania ti kuaen na? Kdp.

Lumagto ka. Gumatang iti papel.

14.7 Transformation Drill. Change the following statements to kadi questions. Statement

Question

Bumulod ka iti libro. Bumulod ka kadi iti libro? Gumatang ni Ben iti serbesa. Gumatang kadi ni Ben iti serbesa? Uminom tayo iti danum. ____________________ ‘We drink water.’ ____________________ Dumawat ti balasang iti ____________________ sabong. Tumakder ti ubing. ____________________ 14.8 Conversation Drill. Have a short conversation with your classmate following the given pattern. S1 Gumatang kadi da Juan iti lapis? S2 Saan. S1 Ania ti kuaen da? S2 Bumulod da.

102

LESSON FOURTEEN Use other verbs and nouns/pronouns for the underlined elements. The iti phrase is optional. 14.9 Expansion Drill. The teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a short statement; S2 expands the statement with an iti phrase. Cue

inom gatang bulod dawat Kdp.

Response 1

Response 2

S1 Uminom ka. S2 Gumatang tayo. ____________ ____________

S2 Uminom ka iti danum. S3 Gumatang tayo iti libro. __________________ __________________

For more um- verbs, refer to Appendix E, Section W. 14.10 Expansion Drill. Follow the procedure for exercise 14.9. This time, however, expand the statements with locative words/phrases. Cue

Response 1

Response 2

umay S1 Umay kayo. takder S2 Tumakder ni Jaime. lagto ___________ inom ___________ uli ___________ Kdp.

S2 Umay kayo ditoy. S3 Tumakder ni Jaime idiay kuarto. _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

14.11 Sentence Formation and Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 forms an expanded affirmative Statement; S2 converts the affirmative statement to the negative. Czue

Response 1

Respoznse 2

lagto

S1 Lumagto ti ubing idiay kuarto. inom S2 Uminom dagiti lallaki iti serbesa. dawat _____________ tulong _____________ bulod _____________ takder _____________ gatang _____________

103

S2 Saan a lumagto ti ubing idiay kuarto. S3 Saan nga uminom dagiti lallaki iti serbesa. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

ILOKANO LESSONS

Czue

Response 1

Respoznse 2

uli

_____________

_____________________

14.12 Expansion Drill. Repeat the teacher’s statement. Afterwards, expand it with the given cues. e.g.

Teacher

Student

(1)

(a) (b) (c)

Gumatang ak. iti sabong dita tiendaan

Gumatang ak. Gumatang ak iti sabong. Gumatang ak iti sabong dita tiendaan.

(2)

(a) (b) (c)

Bumulod ka. iti libro idiay laybrari

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________

(3)

(a)

Dumawat ni Rosa, iti lapis dita opisina

_______________________

Uminom ti ubing. iti gatas ditoy kuarto

_______________________

(b) (c) (4)

(a) (b) (c)

_______________________ _______________________

_______________________ _______________________

14.13 Integration Drill. Combine the teacher’s statements into one long one following this pattern: action + actor + object + locative. This drill makes use of um- verbs and ag- verbs. Example: (1)

Teacher: Students:

(a) Agbasa ka iti libro. (b) Agbasa ka idiay laybrari. (c) Agbasa ka iti libro idiay laybrari.

(2)

(a) Uminom ni Mr. Ramos ti kape. (b) Uminom ni Mr. Ramos dita kapeterya. (c) ______________________________

(3)

(a) Agsala tayo iti Tinikling. (b) Agsala tayo ditoy eskuela. (c) ____________________

104

LESSON FOURTEEN (4)

(a) Bumulod ti maestro iti ireyser. (b) Bumulod ti maestro idiay opisina. (c) __________________________

(5)

(a) Agsurat ak ditoy kuarto. (b) Agsurat ak ti surat. (c) __________________

(6)

(a) Gumatang kayo dita tiendaan. (b) Gumatang kayo iti papel. (c) _______________________

14.14 Cumulative Activity. Write one command for each member of the class. Use expanded sentences using either an iti phrase or a locative; or both. You may ask the teacher the Ilokano of some words you may want to use.

VOCABULARY aguray to borrow coffee kapeterya kuma water to ask for gatas gayam gumatang to jump umay uminom umuli sapulen serbesa surat tiendaan Tinikling tumakder

to wait bumulod kape cafeteria subjunctive expression meaning ‘wish’ or ‘hope’ danum dumawat milk a particle meaning ‘so’ as in Ay, ni Juan gayam. ‘Oh, so it’s John!’ to buy lumagto to come to drink to ascend to look for, to seek 116 beer letter market, store the Philippine folk dance popularly known as the bamboo dance to stand 105

ILOKANO LESSONS tumulong

to help

106

LESSON FIFTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Lima a Leksion)

Um-verb -progressive and past forms Review of Ag-verbs Oblique personal pronouns Oblique marker: iti Nominalized verb 15.1 Dialogue. Situation: Mother: Norma: Mother: Norma: Mother: Norma:

Mother comes home from the market. She checks on the children. Norma, ayan dagiti ubbing? Adda da dita komedor, Nanang. Ania ti kukuaen da? Umin-inom da iti gatas. Ket ayan na met ni Manong mo? Tumultulong iti karruba, Nanang. Agar-aramid da iti balay ti baboy.

Norma, where are the children? They’re in the dining room, Mother. What are they doing? They’re drinking milk. And where’s your older brother? He’s helping the neighbors, Mother. They’re building a pigsty.

15.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following verbs after the teacher. This is a drill on the formation of the progressive form of the verb. uminom gumatang bumulod dumawat lumagto tumakder umay tumulong

-

umin-inom gumatgatang bumulbulod dumawdawat lumaglagto tumaktakder um-umay tumultulong 107

ILOKANO LESSONS umuli

-

umul-uli

15.3 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Lumaglagto ak ditoy. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Model:

Umin-inom ak iti ‘coke’. ___________________ ___________________

Model:

Bumulbulod ak iti libro idiay laybrari. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

takder umay tulong uli gatang dawat

ka ta tayo kami kayo da Rosa Rosa ken Ben estudiante

______________________

15.4 Question and Answer Drill. Using the cues provided by the teacher, ask and answer ania ti kukua / ar-aramid / en questions. You may expand your sentences. Teacher

Mr. Castro takder yo gatang balasang tulong tayo inom da

Students

Sl S2 S3 S4

Ania ti ar-aramiden ni Mr. Castro dita? Tumaktakder Ania ti kukuaen yo? Gumatgatang kami iti sapatos. Ania ti ar-aramiden ti balasang? Tumultulong idiay eskuela. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 108

LESSON FIFTEEN

Teacher

Students

bulod ubbing lagto Kdp. #1

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________

M1

Ania ti inaramid mo? Ania ti kinua ni Ana?

What did you do? What did Ann do?

M2

Timmakder ak. Gimmatang iti prutas.

I stood. She bought some fruits.

C1

Ania ti inaramid mo? Timmakder ak.

C2

Ania ti kinua ni Ana? Gimmatang iti prutas.

15.5 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Limmagto ti ubing. Timmakder dagiti babbalasang, Immay ni Pedro. Timmulong da Ben ken Juan. Immuli ak dita balay. Imminom ka iti danum. Gimmatang ta iti kotse. Bimmulod tayo iti libro. Dimmawat da iti kape.

The child jumped. The ladies stood. Peter came. Ben and John helped. I went up to the house. You drank water. We bought a car. We borrowed (a) book(s) They asked for coffee.

15.6 Command-Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a command; S2 asks a question in the past; S3 answers. Command

S1

S2

(to S3) Lumagto ka. Tumakder tayo.

Question

S2

S3

Ania ti inaramid mo? Ania ti inaramid tayo?

109

Response

S3

Limmagto ak.

S4

Timmakder tayo.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Command

S3

S4

(to S4) Uminom ta iti ‘coke’. Rumuar kayo.

Question

S4

Ania ti inaramid da? Ania ti inaramid tayo?

S5

#2 M1 Sino ti timmakder?

Response

S5

S6

Imminom da iti ‘coke’. Rimmuar tayo.

Who stood?

M2 Ni Juan ti timmakder. Isu ti timmakder. C1

Sino ti timmakder? Ni Juan ti timmakder.

C2

Sino ti timmakder? Isu ti timmakder.

John was the one who stood. He was the one who stood.

15.7 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, maintaining the past form, substitute according to the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: lumagto agtugaw dumawat agbasa agkanta umay

Sino ti timmakder? Sino ti limmagto? Sino ti nagtugaw? ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

15.8 Substitution Drill. Practice giving answers to sino + ti verb questions. Repeat the model twice. Then, substitute the given cues.1 Cue

Response

Model: Juan ken Tom ubing ubbing siak sika

Ni Juan ti limmagto. Da Juan ken Tom ti limmagto. Ti ubing ti limmagto. Dagiti ubbing ti limmagto. Siak ti limmagto. _____________________ 110

LESSON FIFTEEN

Cue

Response

isu data dakami datayo dakayo isuda

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

15.9 Question and Answer Drill. Using the cues given by the teacher, ask and answer sino + ti verb questions. Use the past form of the verb, and give complete answers. Cue

dumawat

S1

agbasa

S2

umuli agbasketbol uminom agtaray Kdp.

Question

Cue

Sino ti dimmawat iti prutas? Sino ti nagbasa iti libro? _____________

sika

S2

Fe

S3

_____________ _____________ _____________

Answer

da Lito datayo isuda lallaki

Sika ti dimmawat iti prutas. Ni Fe ti nagbasa iti libro. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

15.10 Command-Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a command; S2 asks a sino + ti verb (progressive) question; S3 gives a short response. Use either ag-or um- verbs. Command

S1

S2 S3

(to S3) Agsala ka. Tumulong tayo. (to S4) Tumakder ta.

Question

Response

S2

(to S4) Sino ti agsalsala?

S4

S3

Sino ti tumultulong? Sino ti tumak-takder?

S4

S5

111

S6

Ni Maria, or Isu. Datayo Da Ben ken Bob. or, Isuda.

ILOKANO LESSONS 15.11 Repetition Drill. (This is an exercise on the oblique personal pronouns.2 Teacher must use gestures to convey the meaning of the new set of pronouns.) Observe the teacher’s gestures and repeat the following sentences after her. Bumulod ni Maria iti bolpen kaniak. Gumatang ni Maria iti bolpen kenka. Dumawat ni Maria iti bolpen kenkuana. Bumulod ni Maria iti bolpen kadata. Agsurat ni Ben kadakami. Agtaray ti ubing kadatayo. Umay dagiti ubbing kadakayo. Agsurat ni Ben kadakuada.

Maria borrows a ball point pen from me. Maria buys a ball point pen from you. Maria asks for a ball point pen from him/her. Maria borrows a ball point pen from us (dual). Ben writes to us (excl). The child runs to us (incl). The children come to you (pl). Ben writes to them.

15.12 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Notice the oblique phrases. Bumulod ka iti libro kenni Miss Reyes. Agsurat tayo kada Elaine ken Tom. Dumawat ka iti papel iti maestra. Agtaray ni Bob kadagiti estudiante.

You borrow a book from Miss Reyes. We write to Elaine and Tom. You ask for paper from the teacher. Bob runs to the students.

15.13 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: kenka kenkuana kadata kadakami kadatayo kadakayo kadakuada

Gumatang ni Rosa iti lapis kaniak. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ 112

LESSON FIFTEEN

Cue

Response

kenni Ben kada Juan iti babai kadagiti babbai

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

15.14 Chain Drill. Give a command to your classmate and use either an oblique pronoun or an oblique phrase. S1 Dumawat ka iti papel kenni Bob. S2 asks for a piece of paper from Bob. Bumulod ka iti ireyser kenkuana. S3 borrows an eraser from a third person. Kdp.

VOCABULARY baboy kadakami kadakayo kadakuada kadata kadatayo kenka kenkuana manong prutas

Pig to/for us (excl) to/for you (pl) to/for them to/for us (dual) to/for us (incl) to/for you (sg) to/for him/her term of respect for older male belonging to the same generation as the speaker fruits

113

LESSON SIXTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Innem a Leksion)

Numerals (Ilokano numbers)1 Question Mano ‘how many’ Words: Kapin-ano ‘how … related’ Review of ko pronouns #1 M1 Mano ti tugaw ditoy?

How many chairs are there here?

M2 Walo ti tugaw ditoy. There are eight chairs here. C1

Mano ti tugaw ditoy? Walo ti tugaw ditoy.

16.1 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (Ilokano numbers, zero to twenty, written on the board) 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

awan maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo siam sangapulo

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo sangapulo duapulo

ket ket ket ket ket ket ket ket ket

maysa dua tallo uppat lima innem pito walo siyam

The rest of the numbers are in Appendix D. 16.2 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.

114

LESSON SIXTEEN

Cue

Response

Model:

Mano ti tugaw ditoy? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Model:

Maysa ti tugaw ditoy. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

lamisaan pisarra silaw treyni maestra lallaki babbai nars doktor dua tallo uppat lima innem treyni pito walo siam sangapulo awan

16.3 Chain Drill. Ask and answer mano questions about the people and the objects in different places within the immediate vicinity. S1 Mano ti nars ditoy eskuela? S2 Maysa ti nars ditoy eskuela. Mano ti kotse dita ruar? S3 Tallo ti kotse dita ruar. Mano ti ubbing idiay pagay-ayaman? S4 Sangapulo ti ubbing idiay pagay-ayaman. Kdp. #2

M1

Mano ti ulom?

How many heads do you have?

M2

Maysa ti ulok.

I have one head.

115

ILOKANO LESSONS C1

Mano ti ulom? Maysa ti ulok.

16.4 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (Parts of the Body. For more items refer to Appendix E, Section K.) ulo mata agong ngiwat lapayag takyat siko

-

head eye nose mouth ear arm elbow

ima ramay tumeng gurong saka ramay ti saka

-

hand finger knees legs feet toes

16.5 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

ko na ta tayo mi yo da Juan lalaki

Model:

Mano ti ulom? Mano ti ulok? Mano ti ulo na? ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

16.6 Chain Drill. Ask and answer mano questions regarding the parts of the body. S1 S2 S3

Mano ti saka ni Juan? Dua ti saka ni Juan. Mano ti ramay ko? Sangapulo ti ramay mo. Kdp.

16.7 Command-Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a command; S2 asks a mano + nominalized verb question; S3 answers. Study the examples.

116

LESSON SIXTEEN (1) Command: Question: Answer: (2) Command: Question: Answer: Kdp. #3

S1 Agtugaw ka. S2 Mano ti agtugtugaw? S3 Maysa ti agtugtugaw. S4 Agsurat kayo. S5 Mano ti agsursurat? S6 Tallo ti agsursurat.

M1 Kapin-anom ni Mr. Cruz?

How are you related to Mr. Cruz?

M2 Uliteg ko ni Mr. Cruz. Mr. Cruz is my uncle. C1

Kapin-anom ni Mr. Cruz? Uliteg ko ni Mr. Cruz.

16.8 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (The words are written on the board.) tatang nanang kabsat manong manang ading

-

Kinship Terms father lolo mother lola sibling uliteg older brother ikit older sister kasinsin younger sibling kaanakan

-

grandfather grandmother uncle aunt cousin nephew/niece

(For more kinship terms, refer to Appendix E, Section G.) 16.9 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues.2 Cue

Response

Model: ko na ta tayo

Kapin-anom ni Mary? Kapin-anok ni Mary? _________________ _________________ _________________ 117

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

mi yo da

_________________ _________________ _________________ Model:

Manang ko ni Mary. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

kabsat kasinsin ading ikit kaanakan

16.10 Chain Drill. Give the person sitting next to you a piece of paper on which are written the names of at least three of your relatives. With these as cues, ask one another kapin-ano questions. S1 Kapin-anom ni Mabel Smith? S2 Kasinsin ko ni Mabel Smith. Kapin-anom ni Robert Brown? S3 Tatang ko ni Robert Brown. Kdp. 16.11 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer mano questions using the kinship terms you have just learned. S1 Mano ti uliteg mo? S2 Uppat ti uliteg ko. Mano ti ikit mo? S3 Awan ti ikit ko. Kdp. 16.12 Supplemental Dialogue. Situation: Pedro: Mother: John: Mother: John: Mother:

John meets the mother of Pedro. Nanang, ni John Thompson daytoy. Kumusta ka, John? Nasayaat met, Nana. Taga-ano ka, John? Taga New York ak, Nana. Mano ti kakabsat mo? 118

LESSON SIXTEEN John: Mother: John: Mother: John:

Tallo da, Nana. Ayan da? Adda da idiay New York, Nana. Mano ti tawen mon? How old are you? Duapulo ket maysa, Nana.

VOCABULARY ading agong kaanakan kabsat kapin-ano kasinsin gurong ikit ima lapayag lola lolo manang manong mano mata nanang ngiwat ulo uliteg ramay ramay ti saka saka siko takyag tatang tumeng

younger sibling nose nephew/niece sibling how … related cousin leg aunt hand ear grandmother grandfather older sister older brother how many eye mother mouth head uncle finger toe foot elbow arm father knee

119

LESSON SEVENTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Pito a Leksion)

Review of Equational Sentences Plural of Adjectives1 Noun Phrase: adj. + nga + noun Conjunction: ngem ‘but’ Tag question: saan kadi? ‘isn’t it?’ 17.1 Dialogue. Belen: John: Belen: John:

Napintas ti Detroit? Wen, dakkel pay a lugar. Ado ti tattao idiay? Ado. Dadakkel pay dagiti balbalay.

Is Detroit beautiful? Yes, its also a big place. Are there many people there? There are many. The houses are also big.

17.2 Simple Substitution Drill. Repeat the model twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: atiddog napintas nadalos puraw

‘long’ ‘nice’ ‘clean’ ‘white’

bassit dakkel nalaing

‘small’ ‘big’ ‘smart’

Model:

Dakkel ti lamisaan. ‘The table is big.’ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Napintas ni Dina. ______________ ______________ ______________

17.3 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues adjectives; students form sentences. Cue

Response

atiddog

Atiddog ti lapis. 120

LESSON SEVENTEEN

Cue

Response

napintas puraw nadalos bassit (person) dakkel napigsa (person) nalaing (person)

Napintas ti Honolulu. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

17.4 Transformation Drill. S1 forms a statement with a ti phrase. S2 changes the ti phrase to the plural. Singular

Plural

Napintas ti maestra. Dakkel ti lamisaan. Napigsa ni David. Naanos ni Ben. Kdp.

Napintas dagiti mamaestra. Dakkel dagiti lamlamisaan. Napigsa da David. Naanos da Ben.

17.5 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Napipintas dagiti mamaestra. Dadakkel dagiti estudiante. Napipigsa dagiti Amerikano. Babassit dagiti lamlamisaan. Atitiddog dagiti laplapis.

The The The The The

teachers are beautiful. students are big. Americans are strong. tables are small. pencils are long.

17.6 Simple Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Nalalaing dagiti mamaestra. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Napigsa da Juan. _____________ _____________

napintas bassit dakkel natayag nasingpet

17.7 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues adjectives; students form sentences with plural adjectives and ti phrases.

121

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

dakkel bassit napintas nalaing atiddog napigsa puraw

Dadakkel dagiti lamlamisaan. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

17.8 Transformation Drill. Replace ti with either daytoy, dayta, or daydiay. S1 gives a statement ti with any of the with a ti phrase; S2 replaces the deictics in the singular form. Bassit ti lamisaan. Nalaing ti estudiante. Dakkel ti tawa. Kdp.

Bassit daytoy. Nalaing daydiay. Dakkel dayta.

17.9 Transformation Drill. Convert the singular forms to the plural. Bassit daytoy lamisaan. Nalaing dayta estudiante. Dakkel daydiay tawa. Atiddog dayta lapis. Napintas daytoy sabong. Napigsa dayta ubing.

Babassit dagitoy lamlamisaan. Nalalaing dagita estudiante. Dadakkel dagidiay tawtawa. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

17.10 Transformation Drill. Change the singular form to various forms of the plural. Study the example. Cue

Response

Example: Bassit daytoy la lamisaan.

S1 Babassit dagitoy lamlamisaan. S2 Babassit dagitoy lamisaan. S3 Babassit dagitoy. S4 Bassit dagitoy.

(1) Napintas dayta kayo. (2) Attidog daydiay lapis. (3) Napigsa daytoy lalaki. 122

LESSON SEVENTEEN 17.11 Repetition Drill. Contrast the use of the ti phrase in an equation sentence and the noun phrase using nga. Sentence

Phrase 2

Atiddog ti lapis. ‘The pencil is long.’

atiddog a lapis lapis nga atiddog

} ‘long pencil’

Napintas ti maestra.

} ‘beautiful teacher’

‘The teacher is beautiful.’

napintas a maestra maestra a napintas

Puraw ti papel. ‘The paper is white.’

papel a puraw puraw a papel

} ‘white paper’

Nadalos ti kuarto. ‘The room is clean.’

nadalos a kuarto kuarto a nadalos

} ‘clean room’

Dakkel ti estudiante.

dakkel nga estudiante estudiante a dakkel

} ‘big student’

‘The student is big.’

17.12 Simple Substitution Drill. Repeat the model phrase twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

nadalos a lamisaan _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

Model:

dakkel nga estudiante _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

atiddog puraw napintas bassit dakkel libro lapis PCV maestro

17.13 Transformation Drill. Change the following sentences to phrases.

123

ILOKANO LESSONS

Sentence

Phrase

Puraw ti papel. Napintas ti maestra. Nadalos ti lamisaan. Atiddog ti lapis. Dakkel ti libro. Nalaing ti estudiante.

puraw a papel/papel a puraw napintas a maestra/maestra a napintas nadalos a lamisaan/lamisaan a nadalos atiddog a lapis/lapis nga atiddog dakkel a libro/libro a dakkel nalaing nga estudiante/estudiante a nalaing

17.14 Expansion Drill. S1 gives a noun phrase; S2 adds a deictic or ti/ni phrase to the noun phrase to form a sentence. Phrase

Sentence

nadalos a lamisaan napintas a maestra nalaing nga estudiante bassit a libro dakkel a tugaw atiddog a lapis puraw a papel

Nadalos a lamisaan daytoy. Napintas a maestra ni Miss Santos. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

17.15 Expansion Drill. Use of ado ‘many’ plus a noun phrase and a locative in a sentence. Teacher gives a sentence with ado; students expand the sentence. Cue

Response

Ado ti lamisaan. ‘There are many tables.’ Ado ti tugaw.

Ado ti babassit a lamisaan ditoy. Ado ti dadakkel a tugaw idiay. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

_______ _______ _______ _______ _______

lapis libro papel maestra estudiante

#1 M1 Napintas a babai ni Rosa? M2 Wen ngem nasadot. C1

Napintas a babai ni Rosa?

124

Is Rosa a pretty girl? Yes, but she’s lazy.

LESSON SEVENTEEN Wen ngem nasadot. 17.16 Chain Drill. Ask one another wen/saan (intonation) questions. Answer with wen, ngem …. Refer to Appendix E, Section V for more adjectives. S1 S2 S3 S4

Nalukmeg nga ubing dayta? Wen ngem nakapsot. Dakkel a lamisaan daytoy? Wen, ngem ababa. Napintas a kuarto dayta? Wen ngem narugit. Kdp.

Is that child stout? Yes, but he’s weak. Yes, but it’s short. Yes, but it’s dirty.

17.17 Sentence Formation Drill, Give an expanded sentence using ngem. Napintas ni Rosa ngem nasadot. Nalukmeg ta ubing ngem nakapsot. Dakkel a lamisaan dayta ngem ababa. Kdp. #2 M1 Nalukmeg ti ubing, saan kadi? M2 Wen, nalukmeg. Saan, saan a nalukmeg. Saan, nakuttong C1

Nalukmeg ti ubing, saan kadi? Wen, nalukmeg.

C2

Nalukmeg ti ubing, saan kadi? Saan, saan a nalukmeg. or, Saan, nakuttong.

The child is stout, isn’t he? Yes, he’s stout. No, he isn’t. No, he’s thin.

17.18 Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model:

Nalukmeg ti ubing, saan kadi?

125

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

napintas bassit nakapsot dakkel napigsa

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

17.19 Chain Drill. Ask one another saan kadi questions. Answer affirmatively or negatively. S1 Nalinis ti kuarto, saan kadi? S2 Saan, narugit. Nalaing a maestro ni Ben, saan kadi? S3 Wen, nalaing. Atiddog ti lamisaan, saan kadi? S4 Saan, saan nga atiddog. Kdp. 17.20 Cumulative Activity. Do one of the following activities. (1) Talk about your home. Describe your family, your home town, etc. (2) Describe your dream girl or dream house. (3) Describe a picture. In doing the above you may get your classmates involved by asking them questions. 17.21 Supplemental Dialogue. Situation: Two students (A and B) talk about teachers. A: B: A: B: A:

Nagasat ni Juan. Apay? Nalaing ken nagaget ti maestra na iti math. Naanus ngata a mangisuro? Wen, napintas pay a balasang.

126

John’s lucky. Why? His math teacher is smart and industrious. Does she teach patiently? Yes. She’s a pretty lady, too.

LESSON SEVENTEEN B: A:

Nalaing kadi amin dagiti mamaestra idiay unibersidad? Saan, ngem ado ti nalalaing.

Are all the teachers in the university smart? No, but many are smart.

VOCABULARY ado atiddog atitiddog balay balbalay bassit babassit kuarto dakkel dadakkel 1amisaan 1amlamisaan lapis laplapis lugar nakapsot nadalos nailet nalukmeg napigsa nasadot ngem puraw tao tattao

plenty long (singular) long (plural) house houses small, tiny (singular) small, tiny (plural) room large (singular) large (plural) table tables pencil pencils place weak clean140 tight stout strong lazy but white person persons

127

LESSON EIGHTEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Walo a Leksion)

Numerals (Spanish numbers) Telling time, day, month Clitic: -en ‘already’ 18.1 Dialogue. (This is a portion of a conversation between a PCV and his landlady, Nana Berta.) Nana B: PCV: Nana B: PCV: Nana B: PCV:

Ania ti trabahom, barok? PCV ak ditoy, Nana. Nabayag ka di-toyen? Saan Nana, idi la Martes; idi dos ti Hulyo. (after a pause) Ania ti orasen? Alas tresen.

What do you do, my son? (‘Son’ here is a term of affection for a non-relative.) I’m a PCV here, Aunt. (‘Aunt’ here is a term of affection for a non-relative.) Have you been here long? No, Aunt, only since Tuesday, the second of July. (after a pause) What time is it now? It’s three o’clock already.

18.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following words after the teacher. (Items are written on the board.)

128

LESSON EIGHTEEN

Spanish Loan Numbers (1-31)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

uno (primero) dos tres kuatro singko sais siete otso nuebe dies onse dose trese katorse kinse disisais

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31

disisiete disiotso disinuebe beinte beinte uno beinte dos beinte tres beinte kuatro beinte singko beinte sais beinte siete beinte otso beinte nuebe treinta treinta y uno

See Appendix D for more Spanish numbers. 18.3 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following items after the teacher. (Teacher may use a cardboard clock as visual aid.) Ala una Alas dos ____ tres ____ kuatro ____ singko ____ sais ____ siete ____ otso ____ nuebe ____ otso y media ____ nuebe y kuarto ____ dies y singko menos kuarto para alas nuebe _____ singko para alas dies _____ beinte para alas dose _____ dies para alas onse

1:00 2:00 3:00 4:00 5:00 6:00 7:00 8:00 9:00 8:30 9:15 10:05 8:45 9:55 11:40 10:50

129

ILOKANO LESSONS 18.4 Question and Answer Drill. Students take turns asking Ania ti orasen?. The whole class answers according to the cue shown on the cardboard clock. Question

Cue

Ania ti orasen? ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

7:00 10:00 2:15 12:30 1:00 11:05 8:40 5:55

Response Alas siete. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

Repeat the above exercise as a chain drill. 18.5 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer questions regarding the daily schedule. Follow the given pattern. S1 Ania nga oras ti ‘language’? S2 Alas siete ti agsapa.

7:00 a.m.

Additional Vocabulary

almosar

-

breakfast

pangngaldaw -

lunch

pangrabii

-

panagriing

-

dinner/ supper reveille

panagturog

-

bedtime

ti agsapa ti malem tialdaw

-

a.m.

-

p.m.

-

ti rabii

-

at noon at night

#1 M1 Ania nga aldaw ita? What day is today? Ania nga aldaw idi kalman? What day was yesterday? Ania nga aldaw intono What day is tomorrow? bigat? M2 Lunes ita. Domingo idi kalman. Martes intono bigat. 130

Today is Monday. Yesterday was Sunday. Tomorrow is Tuesday.

LESSON EIGHTEEN

C1

Ania nga aldaw ita? Lunes ita.

C2

Ania nga aldaw idi kalman? Domingo idi kalman.

C3

Ania nga aldaw intono bigat? Martes intono bigat.

18.6 Repetition Drill. Days of the Week

Lunes Martes Mierkoles Huebes

-

Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday

Biernes Sabado Domingo

-

Friday Saturday Sunday

18.7 Chain Drill. Ask one another a series of three ania questions regarding the day today, yesterday, and tomorrow. For your first answer, use the cue given by the teacher. Question

Cue

Answer

S1 Ania nga aldaw ita? Ania nga aldaw idi kalman? Ania nga aldaw intono bigat?

Biernes S2 Biernes ita. Huebes idi kalman. Sabado intono bigat.

S2 Ania nga aldaw ita? Kdp.

Martes

S3 Martes ita. Kdp.

18.8 Repetition Drill. The Months of the Year

Enero Pebrero Marso Abril Mayo Hunio

-

January February March April May June

Hulio Agosto Septiembre Oktubre Nobiembre Disiembre

131

-

July August September October November December

ILOKANO LESSONS 18.9 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another Ania a bulan ita. Answer with the cue the teacher points to on the blackboard. S1 S2

#2

Question

Cue

Ania a bulan ita? ‘What month is it now?’ Ania a bulan ita? Kdp.

Enero

S2

Answer

Enero ita.

Hunio

S3

Hunio ita.

M1

Ania ti petsa ita?

What date is today?

M2

Dos ti Pebrero.

February 2.

C

Ania ti petsa ita? Dos ti Pebrero.

18.10 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following phrases after the teacher. Primero ti Enero Dos ti Pebrero Tres ti Marso Kuatro ti Abril Singko ti Mayo Sais ti Hunio

January 1 February 2 March 3 April 4 May 5 June 6

18.11 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks the date; S2 gives dates based on cues given by the teacher. (Cues may be written on flash cards.) Question

Cue

Response

Ania ti petsa ita? _____________ _____________ _____________

February 1 January 6 September 11 August 10

Primero ti Pebrero. Sais ti Enero. Onse ti Septiembre. Dies ti Agosto.

18.12 Dialogue. Follow this pattern. Substitute other words for the underlined ones. S1 S2

Naimbag a bigat mo. Naimbag a bigat mo met.

132

LESSON EIGHTEEN S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2

Ania ti orasen? Alas otso y media. Ania nga aldaw ita? Mierkoles. Ania ti petsa? Beinte uno ti Hunio. Dios ti agngina. Awan ti aniaman na. Innak ngaruden a. Ala wen.

I’m going now. Okay.

18.13 Cumulative Practice. (1) Imagine that you want to see the principal for something important but he is out. You find his clerk. Talk to the clerk to find out what day and time you may be able to see him. (2) You meet someone and after the social amenities ask him for the time, date and day. Don’t forget the thank-you and leavetaking expressions. 18.14 Supplementary Dialogue. Lilia:

Nagsapa kan?

Rosa:

Adda miting mi iti alas otso. Alas siete y kuarto laeng. Apay ania kadi nga aldaw ita? Sabado. Di met Biernes ti miting ti mamaestra aya? Saan, Sabado, disisais iti daytoy a bulan.

Lilia: Rosa: Lilia: Rosa:

VOCABULARY Abril Agosto Agsapa

April August morning 133

Why are you so early? We have a meeting at 8:00. It’s only 7:15. Why, what day is today? Saturday. Isn’t the teacher’s meeting Friday? No, Saturday, the sixteenth of this month.

ILOKANO LESSONS almosar bulan Biernes kalman Disiembre Domingo Enero Huebes Hulio Hunio intono ita Lunes Marso Martes Mayo Mierkoles nabayag Nobiembre Oktubre panagriing panagturog pangngaldaw pangrabii Pebrero petsa Sabado Septiembre

breakfast month Friday yesterday December Sunday January Thursday July June future time marker now, today Monday March Tuesday May Wednesday long time November October reveille bedtime lunch dinner/supper February date Saturday September

134

LESSON NINETEEN (Maikasangapulo ket Siam a Leksion)

Review of ko pronouns1 Attributive articles ti/ni2 Question Word: akin ‘whose’ Possessives: kukuak, etc. Particle: ngarud ‘then’ 19.1 Dialogue. Situation: Belen: John: Belen: John: Mariano:

John is invited to Belen’s house. Sumrek ka, John. Daytoy ti nanumo a balay mi. Dios ti agngina. Daytoy ti inaudi mi. Mariano ti nagan na. Nagpintas dayta gitara mon. Saan ko a kukua. Kukua ni Manang Belen.

Come in, John. This is our humble home. Thank you. This is our youngest (sibling). His name is Mariano. What a nice guitar you have! It’s not mine. It’s Manang Belen’s.

19.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Balay ko daytoy. Manok mo dayta. Sapatos na daydiay. Pinggan ta daytoy. Kotse mi daydiay. Tatang da daydiay. Asawa ni Ronald daydiay.

This is my house That is my chicken. That over there is his/her pair of shoes. This is our (dual) plate. That’s our (excl) car. That’s their father. That over there is Ronald’s wife.

135

ILOKANO LESSONS 19.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Repeat the model sentence twice. Then, substitute the given cues. Cue

Response

Model: mo na ta mi tayo yo da ni Rosa da Tomas ti maestro

Balay ko daytoy. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

19.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher points to objects, pictures or persons. Students tell who the owners of the objects are, or to whom the persons are related. Example

sapatos tatang asawa relo gayyem balay manok libro kotse kompadre

Response Sapatos mo daytoy. Tatang ni Maria daydiay. Asawa diay prinsipal ni Rosa. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

19.5 Transformation Drill. Replace ni/da noun in these sentences with pronouns. Balay ni Pedro daytoy. Kabsat da Rosa daydiay. Nanang ni Rosa daydiay. Sapatos ni Juan dayta. Tatang da Ben daydiay.

Balay na daytoy. Kabsat da daydiay. ______________ ______________ ______________

19.6 Chain Drill. Ask and answer questions regarding your possessions and relations. 136

LESSON NINETEEN

S1 Papel mo daytoy? S2 Saan, papel ni Chuck. Gayyem mo ni Stan? S3 Wen, gayyem ko. Libro na daydiay? S4 Saan, librok. Kdp. #1

M1

Akin balay daytoy?

Whose house is this?

M2

Balay mi.

It’s our house.

C

Akin balay daytoy? Balay mi.

19.7 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following sentences after the teacher. Akin Akin Akin Akin Akin

sapatos (iti) daytoy? kabalyo (iti) dayta? retrato (iti) daydiay? panyo (iti) dayta? opisina (iti) daydiay?

Whose Whose Whose Whose Whose

shoe is this? horse is that? picture is that (yonder)? handkerchief is that? office is that (yonder)?

19.8 Chain Drill. S1 points to an object and asks an akin question; S2 responds, and so on around the class. S1 Akin tugaw iti daytoy? S2 Tugaw ko. Akin libro dayta? S3 Libro na. Kdp. #2 M1 Akinkukua iti daytoy3 a lapis? M2 Kukuak. C

Whose pencil is this? Mine.

Akinkukua iti daytoy a lapis? Kukuak. 137

ILOKANO LESSONS 19.9 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following questions and responses after the teacher. Question

Akinkukua lapis? Akinkukua libro? Akinkukua papel? Akinkukua lapis? Akinkukua libro? Akinkukua papel? Akinkukua libro? Akinkukua tugaw? Akinkukua lamisaan? Akinkukua kuarto?

Response

iti daytoy a

Kukuak.

Mine.

iti daydiay a

Kukuam.

Yours (sg).

iti dayta a

Kukuana.

His/Hers.

kadagitoy a

Kukuata.

Ours (dual).

kadigidiay a

Kukuami.

Ours (excl).

kadagita a

Kukuatayo.

Ours (incl).

kadagitoy a

Kukuayo.

Yours (pl).

kadagitoy a

Kukuada.

Theirs.

iti daytoy a

Kukua ni Tom. Kukua da Tom.

Tom’s.

iti dayta a

Tom’s and his group’s.

19.10 Chain Drill. Ask one another akinkukua questions. S1 Akinkukua iti daytoy a libro? S2 Kukuak. Akinkukua kadagita a papel? S3 Kukua da Pablo. Kdp. 19.11 Sentence Formation Drill. Point to an object belonging to somebody other than you; make a statement about it; then reinforce your statement with a possessive pronoun. S1 Librom daytoy. Kukuam. S2 Lapis ni Rosa dayta. Kukuana. Kdp. 19.12 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. 138

LESSON NINETEEN

S1 Kukuam daytoy, saan na a kukua. S2 Kukua ni Juan daydiay, saan ta a kukua. S3 Kukua da dayta, saan tayo a kukua. ______________________________ ______________________________ ______________________________ 19.13 Question and Answer Drill. Ask a wen/saan question that starts with kukuam. Question

Response

S1 Kukuam daytoy lapis? S2 Wen, kukuak. S2 Kukua ni Ben daydiay gitara? S3 Saan, saan na a kukua. Kdp. 19.14 Repetition Drill. This is a drill on the shorter forms akinkua and kuak. Question

Answer

Akinkua iti daytoy a lapis? Akinkua iti daydiay a libro? Akinkua iti dayta a papel? Akinkua kadagitoy a lapis? Akinkua kadagidiay a libro? Akinkua kadagitoy a libro? Akinkua kadagita a papel? Akinkua kadagitoy a tugaw? Akinkua iti daytoy a lamisaan? Akinkua iti dayta a kuarto?

Kuak.

Mine.

Kuam.

Yours (sg).

Kuana.

His/Hers.

Kuata.

Ours (dual).

Kuami.

Ours (excl).

Kuatayo.

Ours (incl).

Kuayo.

Yours (pl).

Kuada.

Theirs.

Kua ni Ben. Kua da Ben.

Ben’s. Ben’s and his group’s.

19.15 Chain Drill. Follow the given pattern. substitute other words for the underlined ones. Note the use of ngarud ‘then’. 139

ILOKANO LESSONS

S1 Kabsat mo ni Lita? S2 Saan. S1 Akin kabsat ngarud? S2 Kabsat ni Elsa. 19.16 Cumulative Activity. (1) Teacher gathers articles belonging to different students. A student goes to the front and asks to whom the articles belong. Students claim their property. (2) Have a short dialogue with one or two of your classmates. Use the possessive pronouns.

VOCABULARY akin asawa kadagidiay kadagita kadagitoy gayyem ngarud

whose husband/wife of/among those yonder of/among those of/among these friend then (as in ‘Whose is it, then?’)

140

LESSON TWENTY (Maikaduapulo a Leksion)

The Verbs: mapan/in ‘to go’ Locative affix: pag…an ‘place for’, ‘place of’ Negative: di20.1 Dialogue. Situation: Pedro: John: Pedro: John:

A PCV meets a friend. Papanam?1 Mapan ak agdigos. Sadino ti pagdigosam? Idiay ubbog dita abagatan.

Where are you going? I’m going to take a bath. Where will you take a bath? At the spring in the southern part of town.

20.2 Repetition Drill. Repeat the following questions and answers after the teacher. Question

Response

Papanam? ‘Where do you go?’ Papana na?

Mapan ak agopisina.

I go to the office.

Mapan ageskuela.

She/He goes to school.

Mapan tayo agpasyar. Mapan kami bumulod iti baso. Mapan da gumatang iti nateng. Mapan agtrabaho.

We go for a walk.

‘Where does she/ he go? Papanan tayo? Papanan yo? Papanan da? Papanan ni Tomas?

141

We go to borrow a glass. They go to buy vegetables. He goes to work.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Papanan da Rosa?

Mapan da dumawat iti kahon idiay opisina.

They go to ask for a box from the office.

20.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Mapan ak agopisina. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Model:

Innak agopisina. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

Model:

Mapan agopisina ni Juan. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Model:

Mapan ak/innak agopisina. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Mapan ak/innak bumulod iti lapis. _______________________ _______________________

ka ta tayo kami kayo da ka ta tayo kami kayo da da Juan ti maestro dagiti maestra ageskuela agbasa agtrabaho gumatang dumawat

20.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students construct sentences following this pattern: mapan/in- + ak pronoun or ni/ti phrase + verb derived from the base + object (if needed).

142

LESSON TWENTY

Cue

Response

trabaho basa bulod eskuela gatang dawat opisina pasyar

Mapan ak/Innak agtrabaho. Mapan agbasa ni Maria. Mapan kayo/in kayo bumulod iti baso. ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________ ____________________________

20.5 Expansion Drill. Add a locative word or phrase to the sentence formed in 20.4. Examples:

Mapan ak agtrabaho idiay. Mapan agbasa ni Maria idiay Honolulu.

20.6 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks the question papanan + ko pronoun or ti/ni phrase; S2 answers with in/mapan + ko pronoun or ti/ni phrase + verb or a locative. Question

Answer

Papanan ni Charlie? Papanam? Papanan na? Papanan tayo? ___________ ___________

Mapan agopisina. Innak ageskuela. Mapan idiay. Intayo dita. ___________ ___________

20.7 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a question; S2 gives a complete negative or affirmative response. Question

Response

Mapan ka/In ka agopisina?

Saan, saan ak a mapan2 agopisina. Saan man. Mapan tayo agpasyar. Wen, innak/mapan ak idiay. ____________________ ____________________

Saan tayo a mapan agpasyar? Inka idiay? __________________ __________________

20.8 Deletion Drill. For naturalness, answer the questions in 20.7 in short forms.

143

ILOKANO LESSONS Pattern:

Saan ak nga agopisina./Saan. Saan man agpasyar tayo./Saan man. Innak/mapan ak/wen.

20.9 Repetition Drill. Contrast mapan/in ‘go’ with umay ‘come’. Inka idiay. Innak dita. Mapan ka ageskuela idiay. Mapan tayo agpasyar dita.

Umay Umay Umay Umay

ka ditoy. ak ditoy. ka ageskuela ditoy. tayo agpasyar ditoy.

20.10 Dialogue. Substitute other nouns and pronouns. Pattern 1:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Papanam? Mapan ak idiay ili. Saan ka nga umay idiay balay? Saan man.

Pattern 2:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Umay ka ditoy? Saan, mapan ak idiay daya. Saan ka nga mapan agtrabaho? Saan, innak agburak. ‘No, I’ll go fishing.’

20.11 Repetition Drill. The use of the negative di-.3 Diak agbasa. Dika agpasyar. Dita agtrabaho. Ditayo ageskuela. Dikami dumawat iti libro. Dikayo gumatang iti manok. Dida umay.

I do not read. You don’t take a walk. We don’t work. We don’t go to school. We don’t ask for a book. You don’t buy a chicken. They don’t come.

20.12 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: ka ta tayo kami

Diak mapan agopisina. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

144

LESSON TWENTY

Cue

Response

kayo da

_________________ _________________

Use unmay instead of mapan. 20.13 Transformation Drill. Change saan to di-in the following sentences. Saan ak a mapan agpasyar. Saan ka a mapan agtrabaho. Saan tayo a mapan ageskuela. Saan kami a mapan bumulod iti tugaw. Saan da nga umay dumawat iti nateng. Saan kayo nga umay agbasa. Saan da nga dumawat iti mangga.

Diak mapan agpasyar. Dika mapan agtrabaho. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

20.14 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a question with di+ mapan/umay. S2 answers in the negative using di-. Question

Response

Dika mapan agpasyar? Dita mapan agtrabaho? Dikayo mapan agopisina? Dida umay agdigos? ________________ ________________

Saan, diak mapan (agpasyar). Saan, dita mapan (agtrabaho). Saan, dikami mapan (agopisina). Saan, dida umay (agdigos). ____________________ ____________________

20.15 Chain Drill. Follow these patterns. Substitute other words for the underlined ones. Pattern 1:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Agopisina ka? Saan. Papanam ngarud? Mapan ak ageskuela.

Pattern 2:

S1 S2 S1

Dika bumulod iti libro? Saan. Ania ngarud?

145

ILOKANO LESSONS

Pattern 3:

Pattern 4:

#1 M1

S2 S1 S2

Innak gumatang iti papel. Inka/Mapan ka agtrabaho? Saan, innak ageskuela.

S1 S2

Umay ka agpasyar? Saan, innak agtrabaho.

Sadino ti pagtrabahoam?

Where do you work?

M2

Idiay Central School.

(There-yonder) at the Central School.

C

Sadino ti pagtrabahoam? Idiay Central School.

20.16 Repetition Drill. This is a drill on the use of ti pag…an + ni/ti N or ko pronoun. (1)

Question

Answer

Sadino ti pagtrabahoam? ‘Where do you work?’ Sadino ti pageskuelaan ni Tom? ‘Where does Tom go to school? Sadino ti pagbasaan na? ‘Where does he study?’ Sadino ti paggatangan iti baso? ‘Where does one buy glasses?’ Sadino iti pagbulodan iti libro? ‘Where does one borrow books?’ Sadino ti pagpasyaran dagiti ubbing? ‘Where do the children take a walk?

Idiay Peace Corps Office. Idiay Central School. Dita abagatan. Dita tiendaan ni Maria. Ditoy laybrari. Idiay Luneta.

(2) Repeat the above questions using ayan instead of sadino. 20.17 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: eskuela

Sadino ti pagbasaan tayo? ___________________

146

LESSON TWENTY

Cue

Response

pasyar trabaho dawat bulod gatang opisina

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ Model:

mo na ta mi tayo yo da ni Pedro da Pedro

Sadino ti pagopisina ak? ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

20.18 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 forms a question with sadino/ayan + pag…an; S2 answers with a locative word or phrase. Cue

Question

Response

trabaho eskuela pasyar basa digos dawat gatang bulod

Sadino ti pagtrabahoam? Ayan ti pageskuelaan ni Maria? _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

Idiay laud. Idiay. ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

20.19 Variation Drill. With this dialogue as model, substitute other words to make up your own. S1 Papanam? S2 Mapanak agtrabaho. S1 Sadino/ayan ti pagtrabahoam? S2 Idiay bangkag. S1 Sadino ti bangkag mo? S2 Idiay laud. 147

ILOKANO LESSONS 20.20 Cumulative Practice. (1) Pretend that you are talking to a young boy. Ask him his name; where he goes to school; where he plays; where he takes a walk; etc. (2) Make a long distance call to your home. Ask about the weekend plans of the different members of the family.

VOCABULARY agdigos agpasyar agtrabaho baso kahon Luneta mangga nateng papanan ubbog

to take a bath to take a walk to work glass box a park in Manila mango vegetable where to go spring

148

LESSON TWENTY-ONE (Maikaduapulo ket Maysa a Leksion)

The verbs kayat and gusto1 Particle: ngem ‘than’ Alternative Marker: wenno ‘or’ 21.1 Dialogue. Situation: Edna: Lu: Edna: Lu: Edna:

Two friends are at the cafeteria for a snack. Ania ti kayat mo? Kayat ko ti ‘apple pie’. Sika, ania ti kayat mo? Kayat ko ti uminom iti tsa. Ania ti kayat mo, napudot wenno nalamiis? Kaykayat ko ti nalamiis.

What do you like? I want (a piece of) ‘apple pie’. You, what do you like? I want to drink tea. What do you want, hot (tea) or iced* (tea)? I prefer iced* (tea). (*literally, nalamiis means ‘cold’)

21.2 Repetition Drill. Kayat + {ko pronoun / ni/ti ____} + ti ____. Kayat ko ti tsokolate. Kayat mo ti inapoy. Kayat ni Pedro ti aglangoy. Kayat mi ti agbasa. Kayat da ti gumatang ti tsokolate. Kayat dagiti mamaestra ti nadalus. Kayat yo ti napintas.

I like chocolate. You like steamed rice. Pedro likes to swim. We (excl) like to read. They like to buy chocolate. The teachers like that which is clean. You like the beautiful one.

21.3 Simple Substitution Drill.

149

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model:

Kayat ko ti inapoy. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Model:

Kayat ko ti gumatang iti libro. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Model:

Kayat ko ti agbasa. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Model:

Kayat ko ti tsokolate. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Model:

Kayat ni Rosa ti tsokolate. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

kape tsokolate prutas ikan karne bulod dawat basa langoy surat napintas dakkel mo na ta tayo mi yo da Cely ti ubing dagiti ubbing

21.4 Repeat exercise 21.3 using gusto instead of kayat. Gusto and kayat are synonyms. 21.5 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues nouns or verb bases; students form sentences with kayat + ko pronoun or ni/ti ______ + ______. Cue

serbesa kape basa surat

Response

Pattern:

Kayat ni Tomas ti serbesa. Kayat ko ti kape. ____________________ ____________________ 150

LESSON TWENTY-ONE

Cue

Response

Miss Santos tsokolate langoy inapoy nadalos Maria maestra puraw

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

21.6 Substitution Drill. Ania or sino + kayat. Cue

Response

Model:

Sino ti kayat mo a maestra? ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Model:

Ania ti kayat na a sida? __________________ __________________ __________________

Model:

Ania ti kayat na nga aramiden? ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

gayyem PCV estudiante prutas bado sapatos kuaen kanen inomen

21.7 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer ania or sino + kayat questions. Give short responses. S1 Sino ti kayat mo a presidente? S2 Ni Kennedy. Ania ti kayat mo nga aramiden? S3 Agbasa. Ania ti kayat mo a sabong? S4 Rosas. Kdp. 21.8 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an affirmative or a negative question using kayat or gusto. S2 answers in the negative using saan, di-. 151

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Kayat mo ti kape? Saan yo a kayat ti aglangoy? Kayat ni Juan ti keddel? _____________________ _____________________

Saan, diak kayat. Saan, dimi kayat. Saan, dina kayat. _____________ _____________

21.9 Dialogue Variation. Use the pattern below and substitute other words for the underlined ones. S1 S2 S1 S2

Kayat mo ti serbesa? Saan. Ania ngarud ti kayat mo? Gatas.

21.10 Question and Answer Drill. Kayat + ko + ti mapan _____; S1 asks a question; S2 answers either in the negative or affirmative. Question

Response

Kayat mo ti mapan idiay Manila? Kayat yo ti mapan agpasyar? Kayat da ti mapan aglangoy? _______________________ _______________________

Wen, kayat ko. Saan, dimi kayat. Wen, kayat da. ____________ ____________

#1

M1

Ania ti kaykayat mo, inapoy wenno patatas?

Which do you prefer, rice or potatoes?

M2

Kaykayat ko ti inapoy ngem patatas.

I prefer rice to potatoes.

C

Ania ti kaykayat mo, inapoy wenno patatas? Kaykayat ko ti inapoy ngem patatas.

21.11 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: kape - serbesa

Ania ti kaykayat mo, nalabaga wenno puraw? ________________________

152

LESSON TWENTY-ONE

Cue

Response

aglangoy agbasa bumulod gumatang nalukmeg nakuttong

________________________ ________________________

Model: kape - serbesa aglangoy agbasa gumatang bumulod nakuttong nalukmeg

Kaykayat ko ti nalabaga ngem puraw. Kaykayat ko ti kape ngem serbesa. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

21.12 Chain Drill. Ask one another ania ti kaykayat questions. Give short responses as illustrated below. S1 S2 S3

Ania ti kaykayat mo, lapis wenno bolpen? Kaykayat ko ti bolpen. Ania ti kaykayat mo, agtakder wenno agtugaw? Kaykayat ko ti agtugaw. Kdp. 21.13 Chain Drill.

Pattern: S1 Sino ti kaykayat mo ni Nixon wenno ni Humphrey? S2 Kaykayat ko ni Nixon. 21.14 Substitution Drill. Model:

Kayat ko ti kape ngem kaykayat ko ti tsa. _________ asul ________________ derosas. ________ ni Fe ________________ ni Gloria. ______ ti maestro _____________ ti prinsipal. ______ dagiti lallaki _________ dagiti babbai.

21.15 Sentence Formation Exercise. State two of your preferences according to the model in exercise 21.14. 153

ILOKANO LESSONS 21.16 Cumulative Activity. (1) You are an architect commissioned to design a house for a client. You confer with your client to find out his likes, dislikes, and preferences. (Instead of an architect you may be some other professional interviewing a client.) (2) Talk to the class about your, or some other person’s likes, dislikes, and preferences in colors, foods, games, friends, politicians, etc.

VOCABULARY aglangoy bado kayat kanen keddel gusto nakuttong nalamiis napudot patatas rosas sapatos serbesa tsa tsokolate

to swim dress like, want food pinch love to thin cold hot potatoes rose (flower) shoes beer tea chocolate

154

LESSON TWENTY-TWO (Maikaduapulo ket dua a Leksion)

The comparative and superlative forms of adjectives 22.1 Dialogue. Situation:

Two ladies are in a shoe store picking out a pair of shoes.

Elena:

Kayat mo daytoy nalabaga? Napinpintas sa daydiay puraw ngem dayta. Wen, ngem kasla nalaglagda daytoy. Diak unay kayat ti nalabaga a sapatos. Kaykayat ko ti puraw.

Aida: Elena: Aida:

Do you like this red pair? The white one seems to be better than that one. Yes, but this looks more durable. I am not too fond of red shoes. I prefer white ones.

22.2 Repetition Drill. The comparative form of adjectives.1 Naim-imas ti tsokolate ngem ti kape. Atatiddog ti lapis ngem ti tisa. Napinpintas ni Lorna ngem ni Rosa. Basbassit ni Pedro ngem ni John. Daddakkel ak ngem isu. Napigpigsa ka ngem ni Tomas.

Chocolate tastes better than coffee. A pencil is longer than a piece of chalk. Lorna is more beautiful than Rosa. Pedro is smaller than John. I am bigger than he/she. You are stronger than Thomas.

22.3 Repetition Drill. The comparative form of the adjective. naimas - naim-imas

naanos - naan-anos 155

ILOKANO LESSONS nangisit - nangisngisit napigsa - napigpigsa nalaing - nalalaing

bassit - basbassit dakkel - dakdakkel ababa - ab-ababa

22.4 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Naluklukmeg ni Lita ngem ni Fe. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

Model:

Basbassitak ngem ni Fe. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Model:

Dakdakkel ka ngem siak. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Model:

Basbassit ti balay ngem ti eskuela. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

nalaing dakkel napintas napigsa bassit ka ta kami tayo kayo da isu isuda dakami dakkel atiddog napigsa napintas nadalos

Substitute daytoy, dayta, daydiay for the ti phrases. 22.5 Substitution Drill. Teacher cues an adjective; student uses its comparative form in a sentence. Cue

Response

dakkel nalukmeg bassit napintas

Dakdakkel ni Juan ngem ni Pedro. Naluklukmeg ak ngem isu. Basbassit ti balay ngem ti eskuela. _________________________ 156

LESSON TWENTY-TWO

Cue

Response

nadalos atiddog nalaing napigsa

_________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

22.6 Question and Answer Drill. Pattern 1:

S1 Ania ti at-atiddog, daytoy lapis wenno dayta tisa? S2 Dayta lapis. S1 Sino ti naluklukmeg, ni Juan wenno ni Jose?

Pattern 2:

S2 Ni Jose. S1 Sino ti napinpintas, isu wenno ni Maria?

Pattern 3:

S2 Isu. 22.7 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: tao ubing balasang lalaki

Ad-ado dagiti balbalay ditoy ngem idiay. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

22.8 Sentence Formation Drill. Use ad-ado in sentences of your own. 22.9 Chain Drill. Pattern: S1 Ania ti kayat mo, daytoy basbassit wenno dayta dakdakkel? S2 Daytoy dakdakkel. #1

M1

Sino ti kalaingan nga estudiante ditoy?

Who’s the smartest student here?

M2

Ni Rosa ti kalaingan nga estudiante ditoy.

Rosa is the smartest student here.

157

ILOKANO LESSONS

C

Sino ti kalaingan nga estudiante ditoy? Ni Rosa ti kalaingan nga estudiante ditoy.

22.10 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: kalukmegan kakuttungan kadakkelan kabassitan kapintasan kasingpetan

Sino ti kalaingan nga ubing ditoy? _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________ _________________________

22.11 Question and Answer Drill. Pattern 1:

S1 Sino ti kapintasan nga ubing ditoy? S2 Ni Cindy ti kapintasan nga ubing ditoy.

Pattern 2:

S1 Ania ti kadakkelan a balay ditoy? S2 Ti balay ni Mr. Cruz ti kadakkelan a balay ditoy.

Repeat the exercise using short responses. 22.12 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: lukmeg dakkel pigsa dalos Model: pigsa dakkel lukmeg dalos laing kapsot

Kalaingan ni Jose ditoy klase. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ Kabassitan nga ubing ni Mario ditoy. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

158

LESSON TWENTY-TWO 22.13 Sentence Formation Drill. Choose an adjective and give three sentences following the given model. Adjective: dakkel (1) Dadakkel tayo amin. (2) Dakdakkel ni Juan ngem ni Pedro. (3) Kadakkelan ni Juan kadatayo amin. You may consult Appendix E, Section V for more adjectives. 22.14 Repetition Drill. Ways of intensifying the adjective to approximate the superlative form. Kadakkelan ni Ben. (1) Nagdakkelen ni Ben! (2) Nakadakdakkel ni Ben! (3) Dakkel unay ni Ben!

How big Ben is! Ben is so big! Ben is very big!

22.15 Transformation Drill. Re-express the following statements in the three ways illustrated in 22.14. Kakapsotan ka.

(1) _________________ (2) _________________ (3) _________________

Kaanosan ni Miss Cruz.

(1) _________________ (2) _________________ (3) _________________

Kapurawan ti rosal.

(1) _________________ (2) _________________ (3) _________________

Kasam-itan ti mangga.

(1) _________________ (2) _________________ (3) _________________

22.16 Cumulative Activity. (1) Compare two or three countries, cities, people, fruits, flowers, etc. (2) Talk about some of the places you have seen and your impressions about them.

159

ILOKANO LESSONS You may refer to the section on sample comparison of adjectives, Appendix E, Section V for adjectival forms.

VOCABULARY nakapsot nadalos naimas nalagda napigsa nasingpet rosal

weak clean delicious durable strong well-behaved gardenia

160

LESSON TWENTY-THREE (Maikaduapulo ket Tallo a Leksion)

-en verb (goal focus)1 Infinitive form Progressive form 23.1 Dialogue. Situation: Ester: Mrs. S: Ester: Mrs. S: Ester: Mrs. S:

An older teacher (Mrs. Samonte) and a younger teacher are talking in the Home Economics building. Ania ti aramiden yo What are you going to ita, Manang? do, Manang? Agbasa ak iti leksion I’ll read my lesson. ko. Apay kadi? Why? Bulodek kuma man I would like to borrow bassit ti libro yo. your book. Basaem pay la narud You may read it (then) ta agdait ak pay. and I’ll sew first. Alaem dita lamisaan. Take it from the table. Ania kadi ti daiten What are you going to yo? sew? Daitek ti barong ni I’ll sew the barong of Juan. John.

23.2 Repetition Drill. Basaen ta ti surat. Lutuen tayo ti karne. Puteden yo ti tali. Iddepek ti silaw. Patayem dagiti manok. Tokaren da dagiti pyano. Kitaen ti ubing ni Norma.

Let’s read the letter./We read the letter. Let’s cook the meat./We cook the meat. Cut the string (or rope)./ You cut the string (or rope). I turn off the light. Kill the chickens./You kill the chickens. They play the pianos. The child looks at Norma.

161

ILOKANO LESSONS Sapolen ti maestro da Juan. Denggen dagiti estudiante ti prinsipal. Angoten ti aso ti karne.

The teacher looks for John and others. The students listen to the principal. The dog smells the meat.

23.3 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: buloden gatangen sapolen alaen ‘to get’ Model: mo na ta tayo mi yo da ni Rosa da Rosa ti maestra dagiti estudiante

Basaen tayo ti libro. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ Basaek ti nobela. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

23.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; student forms a sentence following this pattern: -en verb + ko pronoun or ni/ti phrase + ti phrase. Cue

luto kita dengngeg gatang kanta dait sapol ala puted iddep tokar

Response

e.g.

Lutuek ti inapoy. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

162

LESSON TWENTY-THREE 23.5 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Basaek ti surat mo. Basaen ni Maria ti surat mo. Basaen ni Maria ti librom. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

ni Maria libro ti estudiante mi tayo bulod da

23.6 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dayta daydiay manok daytoy dayta

Lutuen tayo daytoy kaine.2 ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

23.7 Transformation Drill. Change the marker ti to daytoy , dayta, or daydiay. Teacher gives cues. Teacher

Cue

Student

Gatangem ti lapis. Lutuen na ti karne. Basaek ti leksion ko. Bulodem ti kartib da. Daiten ni Carol ti bado na. Linisen da ti kuarto. Tokaren ni Bob ti biolin.

daytoy dayta daytoy daydiay dayta daydiay daydiay

Gatangem daytoy lapis. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

23.8 Sentence Formation Drill. Give sentences similar to those of 23.7 with daytoy, dayta, and daydiay as noun markers. Use the verb bases cued by the teacher. Cue

Response

gatang basa dait sapol linis

Gatangen ti doktor daydiay balay. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ 163

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

patay ala

__________________________ __________________________

23.9 Repetition Drill. Contrast between ag- or um- verbs (actor focus) and the -en verb (goal focus). Agbasa ak iti leksion ko. Agkanta ka iti Manang Biday Agluto da iti ikan. Agsapol ni Juan iti libro. Bumulod ti abogado iti kotse.

-

Basek ti leksion ko.

-

Kantaem ti Manang Biday. Lutuen da iti iken. Sapolen ni Juan ti libro. Buloden ti abogado ti kotse.

-

23.10 Transformation Drill. Change the ag-or umverb to an -en verb. Agsapol ni Tatang iti aso. Agpatay da iti baboy. Gumatang ti mayot iti balay. Uminom kayo iti basi. (basi ‘rice wine’) Agtokar ka iti pyano. Dumawat ti ubing iti tinapay. (tinapay ‘bread’) Agaramid da iti balay. Umuli ni Manong iti kayo.

Sapolen ni Tatang ti aso. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

23.11 Sentence Formation -Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base. S1 gives a sentence with an ag- or um- verb; S2 repeats the sentence changing the ag- or um- verb to an -en verb. Cue

Response

basa

S1 S2

luto bulod

Agbasa kami iti leksion mi. Basaen mi ti leksion mi. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ 164

LESSON TWENTY-THREE

Cue

Response

gatang

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

kanta dait tokar sala

23.12 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an ania ti aramiden question; teacher cues a verb form; S2 gives an answer. Question

Cue

Response

Ania ti aramidek? Ania ti aramidem? Ania ti aramiden na? Ania ti aramiden ni Tomas? Kdp.

-en -ag -um-en

Basaem ta leksion mo. Agbasa ak iti leksion ko. Bumulod iti libro. Buluden na ta libro ni Juan.

#1 M1 Ania ti ar-aramidem?

What are you doing?

M2 Basbasaek ti peryodiko. I’m reading the newspaper. C

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Basbasaek ti peryodiko.

23.13 Repetition Drill. The progressive form of the -en verb. buloden basaen daiten sapolen

-

bulbuloden basbasaen dadaiten sapsapolen

lutuen gatangen tokaren alaen

-

lutlutuen gatgatangen toktokaren al-alaen

23.14 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: daytoy

Basbasaek ti peryodiko. ___________________ 165

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

bulod na gatang daydiay da da Tatang

___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

23.15 Chain Drill. S1 asks ania ti ar-aramiden + ko pronoun or ti/ni phrase; S2 gives an answer using an -en verb. S1 Ania ti ar-aramiden da? S2 Dadaiten da ti bado da. Ania ti ar-aramidem? S3 Salsalaek ti Tinikling. Kdp. 23.16 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students use the present progressive form of the -en verb in sentences. Cue

Response

gatang kanta bulod luto basa dait tokar sapol uli

Gatgatangek daytoy prutas. Kankantaek ti Manang Biday. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

23.17 Transformation Drill. Change the following statements to wen/saan questions. Statement

Question

Linlinisem ti kuarto.

Linlinisem ti kuarto? ________________

Kankantaen ni Ed Ames ti ‘Impossible Dream’. Salsalen dagiti ubbing ti ‘Swan Lake’. Al-alaen tayo ti libro tayo. 166

________________ ________________

LESSON TWENTY-THREE 23.18 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another wen/saan questions using the progressive form of the -en verb. S1 Al-alaen da dagiti sabong? Saan, saan da nga al-alaen dagiti S2 sabong. Salsalaen tayo ti Tinikling? S3 Wen, salsalaen tayo ti Tinikling. Kdp. 23.19 Cumulative Activity. (1)

Pretend that you are one of the following: (a) a team leader in a summer camp (b) a Girl Scout or a Boy Scout troop master (c) a mother organizing the household for a Saturday morning general cleaning activity. Prepare a list of commands to give your members. Consult Appendix E, Section W for more verbs, or ask your teacher the Ilokano of some particular verbs you want to use.

(2)

Opposite each of the commands you have prepared, write a wen/saan question which you can use to check on your members while they are performing the task you have assigned them.

VOCABULARY agdait alaen angoten balay barong basaen basi buloden biolin kantaen kitaen

to sew to get/take (something) to smell house man’s Philippine formal shirt to read (something) rice wine to borrow (something) violin to sing (something) to see, to look at

167

ILOKANO LESSONS daiten denggen (dengngegen) gatangen ikan iddepen inapoy ita lutuen patayen puteden pyano sapolen tinapay tokaren

to sew (something) to listen to to buy (something) fish to turn off (the light, etc.) steamed rice now to cook (something) to kill (someone or something) to cut piano to look for/seek (something) bread to play (an instrument)

168

LESSON TWENTY-FOUR (Maikaduapulo ket Uppat a Leksion)

-en verb, past form Particles: -en/-n ‘already’; pay ‘yet’1 24.1 Dialogue. Situation:

Two friends talk about a program.

Ben:

Nagburga ka iti programa?

Ann:

Wen, Napintas daydiay programa. Nagsala da Carmen. Ania ti sinala da? Sinala da ti Itik-Itik.

Ben: Ann:

Did you attend the program? (Literally: Did you watch the program?) Yes. The program was nice.

Carmen and others danced. What did they dance? They danced the Itik-Itik.

24.2 Repetition Drill. The past form of the -en verb. kantaen tokaren sapolen daiten ulien

-

kinanta tinokar sinapol dinait inuli

aramiden inomen iddepen alaen kanen ‘to eat’

-

inaramid ininom iniddep innala kinnan

24.3 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: ni Maria bulod tayo

Binasak ti War and Peace. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 169

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

gatang da sapol ala

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

24.4 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dawat inom tokar uli sapol dait kaan

Ania ti kinantam? Ania ti dinawat mo? _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

24.5 Chain Drill. Ask and answer questions following the given patterns. Pattern 1:

S1 S1

Ania ti sinala tayo? Sinala tayo ti Tinikling.

Use other verbs and pronouns or nouns for the underlined words. Pattern 2:

S1 S2

Ania ti kinanta ni Ana idiay eskuela? Kinanta na ti Pamulinawen.

Substitute other verbs, nouns or pronouns, and deictics for the underlined words. 24.6 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dakkel bassit puraw nalabaga ‘red’ asul ‘blue’ derosas ‘pink’

Innala da ti napintas a sabong. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ 170

LESSON TWENTY-FOUR

Cue

Response

amarilyo

‘yellow’

________________________

24.7 Combination Drill. Combine the short sentences given by the teacher into a single expanded sentence. The first number serves as an example. (1) (a) (b) (c)

Pinuted ni Berto ti tali. Atiddog ti tali. Pinuted ni Berto ti atiddog a tali. or, Pinuted ni Berto ti tali nga atiddog.

(2) (a) (b) (c)

Linuto da ti nateng. Adu ti nateng. _______________

(3) (a) (b) (c)

Dinait ni manang ko ti bado na. Napintas ti bado. _____________

(4) (a) (b) (c)

Ininom ko ti kape. Napudot ti kape. _____________

(5) (a) (b) (c)

Dinawat tayo ti prutas. Ado ti prutas. ___________

(6) (a) (b) (c)

Innala ti gayyem mo ti gitara. Baro ti gitara. ___________

24.8 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another wen/saan questions. Use the past form of -en verbs and expand your sentences with adjectives. Give complete answers. S1 Iniddep mo ti dakkel a silaw? S2 Wen, iniddep ko ti dakkel a silaw. Kinnan yo ti naimas a sida? S3 Saan, saan mi a kinnan ti naimas a sida. Kdp.

171

ILOKANO LESSONS You may see Appendix E, Section V for more adjectives. 24.9 Chain - Transformation Drill. S1 gives an expanded affirmative statement with an -en verb in the past form. S2 transforms it to the negative. S2 gives the next statement, S3 answers, and so on around the class. S1 Binulod na daydiay librok a berde. S2 Saan na a buloden daydiay librok a berde. Sinapol ko ti nalabaga a lapis. S3 Saan ko a sinapol ti nalabaga a lapis. Kdp. #1

M1

Kinanta dan ti Pamulinawen?

Have they already sung Pamulinawen?

M2

Wen, kinanta dan ti Pamulinawen. Saan, saan da pay a kinanta ti Pamulinawen.

Yes, they have already sung Pamulinawen. No, they haven’t sung Pamulinawen yet.

C1

Kinanta dan ti Pamulinawen? Wen, kinanta dan ti Pamulinawen.

C2

Kinanta dan ti Pamulinawen? Saan, saan da pay a kinanta ti Pamulinawen.

24.10 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Dinait mon ti pantalon? __________________ __________________

Model:

Dinait ni Mr. Santosen ti pantalon? ______________________ ______________________

Model:

Wen, dinait kon ti pantalon. _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Wen, dinait ni Mr. Santosen ti pantalon.

gatang ala sapol bulod gatang ala

172

LESSON TWENTY-FOUR

Cue

Response

sapol bulod

________________________ ________________________ Model:

Saan, saan ko pay a dinait ti pantalon. ________________________ ________________________

Model:

Saan, saan pay a dinait ni Mr. Santos ti pantalon. ________________________ ________________________

gatang ala

sapol bulod

24.11 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another wen/saan questions using the past form of -en verbs and the particles -en/-n ‘already’ and pay ‘yet’. Give complete answers. S1 Iniddep mon ti silaw? S2 Wen, iniddep kon ti silaw. Ininom ti ubingen ti gatas? S3 Saan, saan pay nga ininom ti ubing ti kape. Kdp. Repeat the exercise using either the infinitive form or the progressive form of the verb. #2

M1

Saan mo pay a dinait ti pantalon?

M2

Saan man, dinait kon ti pantalon. Saan, saan ko pay a dinait ti pantalon.

C1

Saan mo pay a dinait ti pantalon? Saan man, dinait kon ti pantalon.

C2

Saan mo pay a dinait ti pantalon? Saan, saan ko pay a dinait ti pantalon.

24.12 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer wen/saan negative questions. Use any form of the -en verb and use the particles -en/-n ‘already’ and pay ‘yet’. S1 Saan yo pay a buloden ti tugaw? 173

ILOKANO LESSONS

S2 Saan man, buloden min ti tugaw. Saan pay a ginatang ni Ben ti kotse? S3 Saan, saan pay a ginatang ni Ben ti kotse. Saan na pay a toktokaren ti biolin? S4 Saan man, toktokaren nan ti biolin. Kdp. 24.13 Cumulative Activity. Break up into smaller groups of twos or threes and prepare a dialogue using as many of your new structures as possible.

VOCABULARY amarilyo asul berde derosas gitara itik-itik naimas nalabaga programa sida

yellow blue green pink guitar a Philippine folk dance imitating the movements of a duckling delicious red program fish, viand

174

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE (Maikaduapulo ket Lima a Leksion)

i- verb (goal focus) Particles: man (request marker) kano (quotative marker) 25.1 Dialogue. (At the dining table) Roy: Ben: John: Roy:

Iyawat mo1 man bassit ta asin, Ben. Ited mo man kenkuana, John. Ne, addaytoy. Dios ti agngina.

Please pass the salt, Ben. Will you pass it to him, John? Here it is. Thank you.

25.2 Repetition Drill. Base

-ted -awat -pan -subli -kabil

Ited ko ti/daytoy libro kenka. Iyawat na ti/dayta lapis kenkuana. Ipan ni Juan ti/dayta papel idiay. Isubli tayo ti/daydiay tugaw kadakuada. Ikabil yo ti/dayta kape dita lamisaan.

I give this book to you. He/She hands (gives) the/ that pencil to him/her. John brings the/that paper there. Let us return the/that yonder chair to them. Put the coffee on the table.

25.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: awat pan subli lako

Ited ko toy libro kenka. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ 175

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model:

Ited ni Tom daytoy lapis kenkuana. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

Model:

Ited ni Juan ta surat kaniak. _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Model:

Ipan mo daytoy papel idiay opisina. ____________________________ ____________________________

ko mo na ta tayo mi da da Tom ti ubing dagiti ubbing kenka kenkuana kadata kadatayo kadakami kadakayo kadakuada kenni Juan kada Rico iti ubing kadagiti ubbing

dita kuarto iti kahon

25.4 Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command; S2 negates the command changing nouns to kaniak pronouns whenever applicable. Cue

Command 1

Command 2

awat ‘hand over’

Iyawat mo dayta papel kaniak

Saan mo nga iyawat dayta papel kaniak.

176

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE

Cue

Command 1

Command 2

ted ‘give’

Ited tayo daytoy tsokolate ubing. pan ‘take’ Ipan yo dagitoy libro kadakuada. kabil _______________ ‘put’ baga _______________ ‘say’ subli _______________ ‘return’

Saan tayo nga ited daytoy tsokolate kenkuana. Saan yo nga ipan dagitoy libro kadakuada. _______________ _______________ _______________

Vary the exercise by changing the word order like: Iyawat mo kaniak ta papel. 25.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an ania ti question; S2 gives a long response. Question S1

Response S2

Ania ti ited mo kaniak? Ania ti ipan ta idiay opisina? Ania ti ikabil yo iti kahon? ____________________ ____________________

Libro ti ited ko kenka. Papel ti ipan ta idiay opisina. Sapatos ti ikabil mi iti kahon. ____________________ ____________________

Deletion Drill. For naturalness, answer the questions with the following shorter forms. (1) Libro ti ited ko. (1) Papel ti ipan ta. ___________ ___________

(2) Daytoy libro. (2) Dagita papel. __________ __________

(3) Libro. (3) Papel. ____ ____

25.6 Conversion Drill. Convert the singular forms in the following questions to plural. Singular

Plural

Ania ti ited mo kaniak? Ania ti ipan ni Juan kenkuana?

Ania dagiti ited yo kadakami? Ania dagiti ipan da Juan kadakuada?

177

ILOKANO LESSONS

Singular

Plural

Ania ti ikabil ko iti lamisaan? Ania ti isubli na kenka? Ania ti ibagam kenni Rosa? Ania ti iyawat ko kenkuana?

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

25.7 Repetition Drill. Command

Request

Iyawat mo dayta lapis. ‘Hand over that pencil.’ Ibelleng mo daytoy. ‘Throw this.’ Ibaga yo ti damag. ‘Tell the news.’ Isurat tayo ti nagan na. ‘Let’s write his/her name.’ Ited ta ti kartib. ‘Let’s give the scissors.’

Iyawat mo man dayta lapis. ‘Please hand over that pencil.’ Ibelleng mo man daytoy. ‘Please throw this.’ Ibaga yo man ti damag. ‘Please tell the news.’ Isurat tayo man ti nagan na. ‘Let us please write his/her name.’ Ited ta man ti kartib. ‘Let us please give the scissors.’

25.8 Transformation Drill. Change the following commands to requests. Command

Request

Isurat mo ti nagan mo. Ited tayo ti bola kenkuana. Idulin yo ti libro yo. Ipan mo daytoy sida idiay.

______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

25.9 Repetition Drill. The indirect command or request. Isurat mo man kano ti nagan mo. Ited tayo man kano ti bola. Idulin yo man kano ti libro yo. Ibati tayo kano ti tsinelas tayo. Ibato ta kano ti bola.

Somebody requests that you write your name. Somebody requests that we give the ball. Somebody requests that you keep your books. Somebody commands that we leave our slippers (behind). Somebody commands that we throw the ball. 178

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE 25.10 Transformation Drill. Change the following commands or requests to indirect forms. Ibelleng mo daytoy basura idiay. Idulin yo dagiti daan a peryodiko. Ited tayo dagitoy papel kadakuada. Ipan tayo man dagitoy mangga dita. Irikep tayo man ti ruangan. 25.11 Sentence Formation-Transformation Drill. Teacher cues a verb base; S1 gives a command; S2 changes it to a request; S3 changes the request to its indirect form. Cue

dulin

rikep bati bato baga awat surat

Response

S1 S2 S3

Idulin mo ti librom. Idulin mo man ti librom. Idulin mo man kano ti librom. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

25.12 Expansion Drill. Modify the nouns with adjectives and attributes. S1 gives a statement; S2 expands. Ited mo kenkuana daytoy libro. Ikabil ko daytoy lapis iti lamisaan. ____________________

Ited mo kenkuana daytoy dakkel a librok. Ikabil ko daytoy atiddog a lapis iti lamisaan ni Maria. ____________________ 179

ILOKANO LESSONS ____________________

____________________

#1 M1 Ania ti ar-aramidem?

What are you doing?

M2 Isubsublik ti makinilya. C

I’m returning the typewriter.

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Isubsublik ti makinilya.

25.13 Repetition Drill. The progressive form of the verb. isurat ited idulin iyawat

-

isursurat it-ited iduldulin iyaw-awat

ibelleng ipan irikep

-

ibelbelleng ip-ipan irikrikep

25.14 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: ited isubli ipan idulin isurat iyawat

Iyaw-awat ni Juanito ti libro. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

25.15 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher gives the verb bases; students form sentences in the progressive form. Cue

-ted -pan -subli -awat -surat -baga -kabil ‘put’

Response

e.g.

It-ited ko daytoy kahon kenka. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

25.16 Question and Answer Drill using ania ti ___.

180

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE

Question

Response

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Ania ti ar-aramiden yo? __________________ __________________

It-ited ko toy libro kenni Maria. Isubsubli mi daytoy lapis. ____________________ ____________________

25.17 Repetition Drill. The past form of the verb. Inrikep ko ti ruangan. Insurom ti sala kenkuana. 2

Imbelleng ni Nena ti sida. Impan tayo daydiay tugaw kenni Juan.

I closed the door. You taught the dance to him. Nena threw the fish away. We took the chair to John.

25.18 Command-Question and Answer Drill. Teacher gives command. S1 follows the command. Teacher asks: Ania ti inaramid mo? ‘What did you do?’S1 answers using the past form in-. Vary the exercise by asking a member of the class the question: Ania ti inaramid ni ______/na? T S1 T S1 T S2

Ited mo daytoy papel kenni John. Acts. Ania ti inaramid mo? Inted ko daydiay papel kenni John. (Addressing S2) Ania ti inaramid ni (name of S1)? Inted ni (name of S1) daydiay papel kenni John. or Inted na daydiay papel kenni John.

Continue in the same manner with the following commands. Ipan mo dayta libro dita lamisaan. Iyawat mo kaniak dayta lapis. Isubli tayo daytoy lamisaan idiay opisina. Ikabil mo dayta lapis mo ditoy tugaw ko. Ibagam ti oras iti klase. Iyeg mo kaniak dayta librom. Vary the exercise by having the members of the class give the commands, ask the questions, and give the answers with minimum assistance from the teacher. 25.19 Supplemental Dialogue.

181

ILOKANO LESSONS Sylvia:

Old Woman: Sylvia:

Old Woman: Sylvia: Old Woman: Sylvia:

Ilako yo kadi ta Will you sell those bananas, saba, Nana? Aunt? (‘Aunt’, here, is a term of respect for non-relatives.) Wen, balasang Yes, my girl. ko. Ibaba yo3 man Please put them down. ngarud. Mano ti How much is a bunch? sangasapad? Singkuenta Fifty centavos only. laeng. Nagnginan! That’s too expensive. Can’t Awan tawar you lower the price, Aunt? nan, Nana? Ited ko kenka I’ll give it to you for forty iti kuarenta. (centavos). Ala wen. (to a All right. (to a boy) Please boy) Ipanmo take this to the house, son. man bassit (‘Son’, here, is an daytoy idiay affectionate term used for balay, barok. non-relatives.)

VOCABULARY addaytoy asin kahon kano ibaga ibati ibato ibelleng ikabil idulin ipan irikep isubli isurat isuro ited iyawat makinilya

contraction of adda ditoy ‘Here it is.’ salt box it is said (quotative marker) to tell (something) to leave (something) behind to hurl (something) to throw (something) away to put (something) (somewhere) to keep (something) to take (something) to a place to close (something like a door or a window) to return (something) to write (something) to teach (something or someone) to give (something) to hand (something) over typewriter 182

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE nangina

expensive

183

LESSON TWENTY-SIX (Maikaduapulo ket Innem a Leksion)

Adda/ Awan:

Adda/Awan + N + / ka pronoun / ni/ ti Adda/Awan + / ko pronoun / ni/ti

26.1 Dialogue. Situation:

A PCV is asked about his family.

Antonio:

Adda kakabsat mo?

J. Brown: Antonio J. Brown: Antonio J. Brown:

Wen, adda. Mano da? Tallo da. Ayanu da? Idiay Los Angeles.

Do you have brothers and sisters? Yes, I have. How many are they? They are three. Where are they? They are in Los Angeles.

26.2 Repetition Drill. The use of adda ‘possession of’ and awan ‘non-possession of’. Adda Adda Adda Adda Adda

aso ken pusa tayo. basi da. singsing na. pitakak. nuang ni Rico.

We have a dog and a cat. They have basi (native wine) She/He has a ring. I have a wallet. Rico has a carabao.

Awan Awan Awan Awan Awan

aso ken pusa tayo. basi da. singsing na. pitakak. nuang ni Rico.

We have neither a dog nor a cat. They have no basi. She/He has no ring. I have no wallet. Rico has no carabao.

26.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: 184

Adda aso ni Pedro.

LESSON TWENTY-SIX

Cue

Response

pusa balay singsing relo kabsat

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ Model:

Awan pusa da. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

Model:

Awan kabsat ko. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

singsing medias sapatos aso mo na ta tayo mi yo da ni Carlos da Ramon ti ubing dagiti ubbing

26.4 Sentence Formation and Conversion Drill. Teacher cues a noun; S1 uses it with adda; S2 replaces adda with awan and changes the noun possessor into a pronoun whenever applicable. Cue

Response 1

Response 2

pusa singsing aso kabsat asawa nuang relo pitaka

Adda pusak. Adda singsing ni Alice. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

Awan pusak Awan singsing na. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

185

ILOKANO LESSONS 26.5 Transformation and Question-Answer Drill. Teacher gives a statement with adda; S1 converts it to a question; S2 answers with a long response in the affirmative. Statement

Question

Response

Adda aso daydiay ubing. Adda kabsat mo.

Adda aso daydiay ubing? Adda kabsat mo?

Wen, adda aso na.

Adda asawa ni Tomas. Adda pusa tayo.

Adda asawa ni Tomas? Adda pusa tayo?

Adda singsing yo.

Adda singsing yo?

Adda libro da.

Adda libro da?

Wen, adda kabsat ko. Wen, adda asawa na. Wen, adda pusa tayo. Wen, adda singsing mi. Wen, adda libro da.

For additional vocabulary, see clothes and accessories for men and women, Appendix E, Section O. 26.6 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks adda questions; S2 answers with short responses in the affirmative. Question

Response

Adda singsing mo? _______________ _______________ _______________

Wen, adda./Adda. _______________ _______________ _______________

26.7 Follow the instructions in 26.5 but answer with a long answer in the negative. Statement

Question

Response

Adda aso daydiay ubing. ______________ ______________ ______________

Adda aso daydiay ubing? ______________ ______________ ______________

Awan, awan aso daydiay ubing. ______________ ______________ ______________

26.8 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a question; S2 answers with short negative responses.

186

LESSON TWENTY-SIX

Question

S1

Response

Adda singsing mo? ______________ ______________

S2

Awan. _____ _____

26.9 Transformation and Question-Answer Drill. Teacher gives a statement with awan; S1 converts it to a question; S2 answers with a long response in the affirmative using a possessive pronoun. Statement

Question

Response

Awan kabsat mo.

Awan kabsat mo?

Awan aso ni Juan.

Awan aso ni Juan?

Awan singsing ta.

Awan singsing ta?

Awan asawa ti maestra yo. Awan pusa tayo.

Awan asawa ti maestra yo? Awan pusa tayo?

Awan papel da.

Awan papel da?

Adda, adda kabsat ko. Adda, adda na. Adda, adda sing ta. Adda, adda na. Adda, adda tayo. Adda, adda da.

aso sing asawa pusa papel

26.10 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another awan questions. Give short affirmative responses. Question

S1

Response

Awan papel yo? ____________ ____________

S2

Adda. _____ _____

26.11 Follow the instructions in 26.9 but answer with a long response in the negative. 1

Statement

Question

Response

Awan kabsat mo.

Awan kabsat mo?

Awan singsing ni Maria. Awan asawa na. Awan pusa yo. Awan aso ta.

Awan singsing ni Maria? ____________ ____________ ____________

Awan, awan kabsat ko. Awan, awan singsing na. __________________ __________________ __________________

187

ILOKANO LESSONS 1

Statement

Question

Response

Awan sapatos mi.

____________

__________________

26.12 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another awan questions. Give short negative responses. Question

S1

Response

Awan sapatos yo? ______________ ______________ ______________

S2

Awan. _____ _____ _____

26.13 Chain Drill. Students ask adda and awan questions. Answers should be complete and according to fact. Pattern 1:

Pattern 2:

S1 S2 S3

Adda kabsat mo? Wen, adda kabsat ko. Awan, awan lapis ko.

Adda lapis mo?

S1 S2 S3

Awan asom? Awan, awan asok. Adda, adda nuang ko.

Awan nuang mo?

26.14 Repetition Drill. The use of adda ‘presence of’ and awan ‘absence of’. Adda Adda Adda Adda

ak iti kuarto. ka iti kosina. ta iti likod ti balay. tayo iti baba ti agdan.

I am in the room. You are in the kitchen. We are behind the house. We are (literally: below) the stairs. Pat is outside the church.

Adda ni Pat iti ruar ti simbaan.

Substitute awan for adda in the above sentences. 26.15 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: balkon ‘porch’ salas ‘living room’

Adda ni Maria iti balay. __________________ __________________

188

LESSON TWENTY-SIX

Cue

Response

komedor ‘dining room’ kosina ‘kitchen’

__________________ __________________ Model:

ruar ‘outside’ abay ‘beside’ baba ‘below’ tengnga ‘middle’ asideg ‘near’ laud ‘west’

Adda ni Juan iti uneg ti eskuela. ‘John is inside the schoolhouse.’ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

Substitute awan for adda in the above sentences. 26.16 Substitution Drill. Replace iti with a locative in the sentences above (exercise 26.15). e.g.

Adda ni Maria idiay balay. Adda ni Maria dita balkon. _____________________ _____________________

26.17 Exercise. Teacher cues a preposition; student gives a sentence using adda or awan. Cue

Response

abay uneg baba tengnga asideg ruar daya

Adda ni Maria iti abay ti balay. Awan ak iti uneg ti eskuela. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

#1

M1

Ayan mo?

Where are you?

M2

Adda ak ditoy kuarto.

I’m in the room.

C

Ayan mo? Adda ak ditoy kuarto. 189

ILOKANO LESSONS 26.18 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: mo na ta tayo ni Juan da Juan ti babai dagiti babbai

Ayan ko? ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________

Model: salas kosina komedor balkon sirok ‘ground space under the house’

Adda ak ditoy kuarto. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

26.19 Chain Drill. Pattern:

S1 S2

Ayan ni Maria? Adda dita kosina.

Substitute on the underlined items. 26.20 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an ayan question; S2 answers with a prepositional phrase or a locative. Consult Appendix E, Section L for additional vocabulary. Question

Response

Ayanna ni Juan? Ayan yo? Ayanna ti kahon? _____________ _____________

Adda iti sango ti balay. Adda kami ditoy. Adda iti uneg ti bodega. ___________________ ___________________

Use pictures to do the above exercise. 26.21 Chain Drill. Pattern: S1 Adda librom? S2 Adda. 190

LESSON TWENTY-SIX S1 S2 S1 S2

Mano? Dua. Ayan da? Addada iti uneg ti kahon.

Try kabsat, pusa, and other words in place of libro. 26.22 Cumulative Activity. (1) With the use of a map, locate your town/city. (2) With the aid of a sand table, give the locations of the principal buildings on a campus or in a typical town. (3) Talk about the members of your family; what they have and where they are. (4) Talk about a picture showing the position of objects using adda and awan.

VOCABULARY abay asideg awan baba balkon basi bodega komedor kosina likod nuang pitaka pusa ruar sango salas simbaan singsing sirok tengnga uneg

beside near, close by none down, below porch rice wine storehouse dining room kitchen in back of, behind water buffalo wallet cat outside in front of living room church ring under center, middle inside

191

LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN (Maikaduapulo ket Pito a Leksion)

Review of Ilokano and Spanish loan numbers Question mano ‘how many’, ‘how Words: much’ sagmamano ‘how many each’ ‘how much each’ 27.1 Dialogue. Situation: Rita:

Seller: Rita: Seller: Rita:

Seller:

At the market. Nana, adda lako yo nga itlog ti pato? Adda, balasang ko. Sagmamano?1 Sagkikinse.2 Mano met ngay ti maysa a reppet ti utong? Treinta’y singko.

Aunt, do you have duck eggs for sale? (‘Aunt’, here, is used as a term of respect for a non-relative.) I have, my girl. How much each (are they)? Fifteen centavos each. And how much is a bunch of string beans? Thirty-five centavos.

27.2 Repetition Drill. The use of mano and sagmamano. Mano ti maysa nga abokado? Sagmamano ti abokado? Mano ti maysa a tarong? Sagmamano ti tarong?

How much is one avocado? How much each are the avocados? How much is one eggplant? How much each are the eggplants? 192

LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN Mano ti maysa a bangus? Sagmamano ti bangus? Mano ti maysa a balut? Sagmamano ti balut?

How much How much milkfish? How much How much

is one milkfish? each are the is one balut? each are the balut?

27.3 Repetition Drill. Sentimos ti maysa. Sagsesentimos. Singkuenta ti maysa. Sagsisingkuenta. Pisos ti maysa. Sagpipisos. Dies pesos ti maysa. Sagdidies pesos.

One centavo for one. One centavo each. Fifty centavos for one. Fifty centavos each. One peso for one. One peso each. Ten pesos for one. Ten pesos each.

27.4 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher gives cues; S1 asks a mano question; S2 answers. The first two numbers serve as the pattern. Cue

Response 1

Cue

Response 2

mansanas

Mano ti maysa a mansanas? Mano ti maysa a bangus? _____________

twenty centavos one-fifty

Beinte.

bangus mais ‘corn’ tarong

_____________

papaya

_____________

kamatis

_____________

manok

_____________

fifteen centavos ten centavos twenty-five centavos five centavos two-fifty

Uno sing kuenta. _______ _______ _______ _______ _______

27.5 Question and Answer Drill. Repeat exercise 27.4 using sagmamano and sag + amount. Cue

Response 1

Cue

Response 2

mansanas

Sagmamano ti mansanas?

twenty centavos

Sagbebeinte.

193

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response 1

Cue

Response 2

bangus

Sagmamano ti bangus? ________________ ________________

one-fifty

Sagu-uno Singkuenta. ________________ ________________

_________ _________

________________ ________________

27.6 Repetition Drill. The use of units of measure and units of volume. Mano ti maysa bagas? Mano ti maysa pasayan? Mano ti maysa asukar? Mano ti maysa ti kappo? Mano ti maysa tela?

a ganta ti

How much is a ganta of rice?

a kilo ti

How much is a kilo of shrimps? How much is a bag of sugar?

a supot ti nga atado a yarda ti

How much is one lot (a group) of clams? How much is a yard of dress material?

27.7 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: balatong ‘mongo beans’ mais asin ‘salt’

________________________ ________________________ Model:

karne ‘meat’ karne ti baka ‘beef’ karne ti baboy ‘pork’ ikan pasayan repolyo ‘cabbage’

Mano ti maysa a kilo ti pasayan? ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Model: arina ‘flour’ asin

Mano ti maysa a ganta ti bagas? ________________________

Mano ti maysa a supot ti asukar? ________________________ ________________________ 194

LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN

Cue

Response

Model:

Mano ti maysa nga atado ti kappo? ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Model:

Mano ti maysa a yarda ti tela? ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

pasayan tarong parya ‘bitter melon’

tali ‘rope’ ribon ‘ribbon’ leys ‘lace’

27.8 Activity. Set up a market and “go to market”. Some students act as sellers; others, buyers. Then, exchange roles. #1 M1 Sagmamano ta ti lapis? M2 Sagdudua.3 C

How many pencils do we each have? Two each.

Sagmamano ta ti lapis? Sagdudua.

27.9 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Sagmamano ta ti lapis? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Model:

Sagmamano ta ti lapis? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

tayo kayo da kami da Luz bol pen kotse balay mata agong lapayag

195

ILOKANO LESSONS 27.10 Repetition Drill. saggaysa sagdudua saggatho saggapat saglilima sagnenem sagpipito sagwawalo sagsisiam sagsasangapulo

one each two each three each four each five each six each seven each eight each nine each ten each

27.11 Question and Answer Drill. Ask one another sagmamano ‘how many each’ questions. e.g

S1 S2 S3

Sagmamano ta ti ulo? Saggaysa. Sagmamano ta ti kuaderno? Sagpipito. Kdp.

27.12 Cumulative Activity. Break up into smaller groups of twos or threes. Prepare a dialogue using a variety of structures and vocabulary items.

VOCABULARY abokado arina asin asukar atado bagas balatong balut bangus kamatis kappo karne karne ti baboy karne ti baka

avocado flour salt sugar a lot, a portion uncooked rice mongo beans duck’s egg with partially developed embryo milkfish tomato clam meat pork beef

196

LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN kilo ganta itlog lako leys mais papaya parya pasayan pato repolyo reppet ribon sagsagmamano supot tali tarong tela utong yarda

kilogram ganta (a grain measure) egg merchandise, wares; to sell lace corn papaya bitter melon shrimps duck cabbage bundle ribbon a prefix meaning ‘each’ how much/many each paper bag rope, string eggplant cloth, textile string beans yard

197

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT (Maikaduapulo ket walo a Leksion)

The future The future marker: -nto/-to/intono Question word: kaano ‘when’ Verbal nouns: panag- + base; iR base1 Particles: ngata ‘maybe’ sa ‘I think so’ 28.1 Dialogue. Situation: Pedro: John: Pedro: John: Pedro: John: Pedro: John:

A friend asks John his plans when he returns home. Kaanonto ti panagawid mo idiay Amerika? Intono umay a tawen. Anianto ti aramidem intono adda kay idiay? Agbasa ak to. Saan kanto nga agtrabaho? Saan man. Agkasar kanto pay ngatan? Saan ta ubing ak pay.

When will you go home to America? Next year. What will you do when you are there? I’ll study. Won’t you work? Yes, I will. You’ll get married, perhaps? No because I’m still young.

28.2 Repetition Drill. Question word kaano + panag + base + ko pronoun. Question

Answer

Kaano ti panagsurat yo?2 ‘When will you write?’ Kaano ti panagkanta tayo? ‘When will we sing?’ Kaano ti panag luto ni Ana? ‘When will Ana cook?’

Intono bigat. ‘Tomorrow.’ Intono rabii. ‘Tonight.’ Intono madamdama. ‘Later.’

198

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT

Question

Answer

Kaano ti panagbasa da? ‘When will they read?’ Kaano ti panagdalos yo? ‘When will you clean?’

Intono malem. ‘This afternoon.’ Intono aldaw. ‘This noon.’

28.3 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: surat kanta punas luto dalus Model:

Kaano ti panagbasa ni Pedro? _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

mo na ta mi tayo yo da ni Nanang da Fidel dagiti babbai

Kaano ti panaglutok? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

Intono bigat. _____ malem. _____ lunes. _____ umay a bulan. _____ sumaruno nga aldaw. _____ lawas na. _____ alas singko. _____ madamdama. _____ kua.

On Monday. Next month. Next day. Next week. At 5 o’clock. By and by./Later. indefinite future time

28.4 Substitution Drill. Teacher cues the verb base for the question and the time expression in English for the response; S1 asks a question with kaano; S2 answers with intono.

199

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Cue

Response

basa

Question

this afternoon

kanta ___________ dait ___________

Thursday by and by indefinite future tense 8:00 p.m. next month

Intono malem. ___________ ___________ ___________

Kaano ti panagbasam? luto ___________ punas ___________ surat ___________

___________ ___________

28.5 Repetition Drill. The question and the answer in the future may also be stated this way. Question

Answer

Inton ano ti panagbasam? ‘When will you read?’ Inton ano ti panagsurat tayo? ‘When will we write?’ Inton ano ti panagdait mo? ‘When will you sew?’

Intono3 madamdama. Inton Lunes. No umay a bulan.

28.6 Chain Drill. S1 asks a kaano or inton ano question; S2 answers with intono/inton/no + time expression. Consult your vocabulary list for bases and for time expressions. S1 Kaano ti panagbasam? S2 Intono bigat. Kaanonto ti panagsurat mo? S3 Inton madamdama. Inton ano ti panagkanta da? S4 No malem. 28.7 Expansion Drill. Follow the pattern below. S1 asks a kaano question; S2 adds an object; S3 adds a locative word or phrase; S4 answers. (You may consult Appendix E for more words.) Question: S1 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo? Expansion: S2 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo iti istorya? S3 Kaano ti panagbasa tayo iti istorya ditoy klase?

200

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT Answer:

S4 Intono/Inton/No bigat.

28.8 Some verbs are also nominalized with the affix iR base; e.g., ipapan. Go through exercises 28.3-28.7 with these bases. -

pan awat subli gatang

ipapan4 iyaawat isusubli igagatang

- umay - dawat - tulong

iyuumay idadawat itutulong

28.9 Repetition Drill. The future marker -nto/-to + intono with the ag- and -um- verbs and the -en and i- verbs. Agsurat akto intono rabii. Agbasa kayto intono malem. Uminom tanto intono alas tres. Dumawat kayonto iti papel intono madamdama. Labaam to dagiti badok intono bigat. Daitento ni Maria toy pantalon ko intono umay a bulan. Iyegto ni Carlos daydiay libro na intono Lunes. Ited konto daytoy kenka intono alas kuatro.

I will write tonight. You will read this afternoon. We will drink at 3:00. You will ask for paper by and by. You will wash my dresses tomorrow. Maria will sew my pants next month. Carlos will bring his book on Monday. I will give this to you at 4:00.

28.10 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases and verb forms; students form sentences in the future. They may choose their time expressions. Cue

Response

gatang (-um-) " (-en)

Gumatang akto iti libro intono bigat.5

luto (-en) punas (i-) " (ag-) dait (ag-) " (-en) " (i-)

Gatangekto daydiay medias intono madamdama. ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________

201

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

laba (ag-)

______________________________________

28.11 Question and Answer Drill with adda + papanan + ko pronoun or a ni/ti phrase and the future marker. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. S2 asks the next question, S3 answers, etc. S1 S2

Adda papanan yo intono bigat? Adda papanam intono aldaw? ______________________ ______________________

S2 S3

Adda/Awan. Adda/Awan. _________ _________

Use adda with the -en and i- verbs + the future marker. Question

S1 S2

Response

Adda basaen yo intono bigat? Adda iyeg da intono madamdama? ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

S2 S3

Adda/Awan. Adda/Awan. _________ _________ _________

28.12 Question and Answer Drill with ania + ti kayat. Question

S1 S2

Response

Ania ti kayat monto a sida intono bigat? Ania ti kayat danto nga aramiden intono Lunes? ______________________ ______________________

S2

Ikan. ‘Fish.’

S3

Agay-ayam danto. ‘They will play.’ _______________ _______________

28.13 Question and Answer Drill. (1) S1 asks ania ti aramid + -en + to + intono; S2 answers. Question

S1 S2

Ania ti aramidemto intono bigat? Ania ti aramiden yonto intono malem? _____________________ _____________________

Response

S2

Agbasa akto (intono bigat).

S3

Labaan minto dagiti badbado mi (intono malem). ______________ ______________

202

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT (2) Variation Drill. Use no in place of intono in the preceding sentences. Answer in short responses. Question

Response

Ania ti aramidemto no bigat? ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Agbasa akto. __________ __________ __________

28.14 Transformation Drill. S1 gives statement; S2 converts it to the negative.

an

affirmative

Affirmative

Negative

Agsurat akto kenka intono bigat. Agdaitto ni Maria iti bado na no malem. ______________________ ______________________

Saan akto nga agsurat kenka intono bigat. Saanto nga agdait ni Maria iti bado na no malem. ______________________ ______________________

28.15 Substitution Drill. Replace saan in the negative sentences in 28.14 with di-. Diakto agsurat kenka intono bigat. Dinto agdait ni Maria iti bado na intono malem. _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 28.16 Question and Answer Drill. Wen/Saan questions. S1 asks a negative or affirmative question; S2 answers either in the negative or affirmative in this manner: Question

Response

Lutuem to daytoy karne intono rabii? Saan nga agbasa ni Jose intono malem? ___________________ ___________________

Wen, lutuekto./Saan, diakto lutuen. Saan man, agbasanto./Saan, dinto agbasa. ___________________ ___________________

28.17 Chain Drill. Use of ngata ‘maybe’; sa ‘I think so’. Pattern 1:

S1 Saan ak nga aglaba intono bigat. S2 Kaanonto ngarud ti panaglabam? 203

ILOKANO LESSONS S1 Intono lawasna ngata. ‘Next week maybe.’ Pattern 2:

S1 Umay kanto intono bigat? S2 Wen sa. ‘Yes, I think so.’

28.18 Repetition Drill. The use of ngata ‘do you think’ in questions. Umay da ngata intono bigat? Do you think they’re coming tomorrow? Agtokar ngata ni Ben iti Do you think Ben will play the biolin intono bigat? violin tomorrow? Agpyano ngata ni Rosa Do you think Rosa will play the intono madamdama? piano later? 28.19 Question and Answer Drill. Ask questions similar to those in exercise 28.18 (with ngata). Possible answers are: Wen ngata. Wen sa. Saan sa.

Yes, maybe. Yes, I think so. No, I don’t think so.

Question

Response

Agbasa ka ngata intono madamdama? Aglinis tayo ngata iti balay intono Lunes? Bumulod da ngata iti martilyo? ________________________ ________________________

Wen ngata. Wen sa. Saan sa. ______ ______

28.20 Question and Answer Drill. Base + -nto/ -to to show a certain degree of uncertainty of the future; absence of the future marker shows certainty. Certain

Uncertain

Umay Agbasa Agtaray kami

Umayto Agbasanto Agtaray kaminto

Practice with other bases. 28.21 Repetition and Question-Answer Drill with the base + -nto/-to to show uncertainty of the future.

204

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT

Question

Response

Agbasa kayonto? Agsurat danto? Saan tanto nga agluto? Saanto nga agbasa ni Jose?

Wento/Saan. Wento/Saan. Wento/Saan. Saanto man. Saanto man/Wen, saan.

Practice with other bases. 28.22 Chain Drill. Substitute other words for the underlined ones. S1

Umay kanto?

S2

Kaano?

S1

Intono bigat.

S2

Saan sa a mabalin.

S1

Apay?

S2

Adda papanak. 28.23 Cumulative Practice.

(1) Tell about your plans when you get to the Philippines. (2) Tell about your plans when you get back home. (3) Write about (1) and (2) to a friend. 28.24 Supplemental Dialogue. Sandra: Cecile: Sandra: Cecile: Sandra: Cecile:

Kaanonto ti panageksomen tayo? Intono umay a domingo (lawasna). Iti bigat wenno malem? Bigatto ngata. Saan tayonto nga umay iti malemen? Saan man.

When shall we have our examinations? Next week. Morning or afternoon? Morning, maybe. Shall we not come in the afternoon anymore? Oh yes, we will.

VOCABULARY agawid

to go home 205

ILOKANO LESSONS lawas madamdama ngata panagawid sa saanto man singko subli sumaruno tawen umay

week later perhaps, maybe one’s going home expression of doubt: ‘I think’ as in ‘I think it’s red.’ Yes, indeed (future) five, nickel return next year to come

206

LESSON TWENTY-NINE (Maikaduapulo ket Siam a Leksion)

The ag-verb: The past, past and present progressive forms; expansions with the use of time and locative expressions Linker: no ‘if, when, while, provided’ Time marker: idi, itay 29.1 Dialogue. Nena:

Nagpasiar ni Apo Padi ditoy itay bigat.

Rosa: Nena:

Ket… Agmimiting tayo kano no kayat yo.

Rosa:

Ania kano ti mitingen tayo?

Nena:

Daydiay maipanggep ti panagkanta tayo idiay simbaan tono Domingo.

The Rev. Priest came here this morning. And… He said we’ll have a meeting if you want to. What did he say we’d meet for? About our singing in church on Sunday.

29.2 Repetition Drill. Review of the present progressive form of the ag- verb. Base

tugaw kanta idda sala ay-ayam buya adal

Agtugtugaw ka dita. Agkankanta kami iti Manang Biday. Agid-idda ni Jose. Agsalsala da. Agay-ayam dagiti ubbing. Agbuybuya tayo iti TV. Agad-adal iti pyano daydiay anak na.

You are sitting there. We are singing Manang Biday. Jose is lying down. They are dancing. The children are playing. We are watching TV. His/Her child is studying piano.

29.3 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues the verb base; student forms a sentence using the present progressive form. 207

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

1

kanta surat idda sala ay-ayam buya adal

Response

Agkankanta dagiti PCV. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

29.4 Expansion Drill. Add an object or a locative to sentences similar to those in 29.2. S1 gives the statement; S2 expands. Statement

Expansion

Aglutluto ni Maria. Agbuybuya ak. Agsursurat da. Agad-adal kami. ______________ ______________

Aglutluto ni Maria iti karne. Agbuybuya ak iti TV. Agsursurat da kenni Juan. Agad-adal kami ditoy laybrari. ______________________ ______________________

29.5 Expansion Drill. Add ita ‘now’ or itatta ‘right now’ to sentences expanded as in 29.4. Agbasbasa ni Juan iti leksion na itatta. Agkankanta da iti Pamulinawen ita. Agay-ayam da idiay kalsada ita. _____________________________ _____________________________ 29.6 Transformation Drill. Convert affirmative statements to the negative. S1 gives the affirmative; S2 converts it to negative. Affirmative

Negative

Agbasbasa ni Juan. Agay-ayam da Jose ken Pedro. Agsursurat da. ___________________ ___________________

Saan nga agbasbasa ni Juan. Saan nga agay-ayam da Jose ken Pedro. Saan da nga agsursurat. ______________________ ______________________

29.7 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a negative or affirmative question; S2 gives an appropriate response.

208

LESSON TWENTY-NINE

Question

Response

Agtartaray ni Jose?

Wen, agtartaray./Saan, agtug-tugaw. Saanman, agkankanta da./Saan, agbasbasa da. _______________________ _______________________

Saan nga agkankanta dagiti ubbing? ________________ ________________

29.8 Expansion and Question-Answer Drill. The use of no ‘if, when, while, provided’ to join two clauses. S1 asks a question; S2 answers in the negative: saan, di- + _____. Example: Q

Agkankanta ka no aglutluto ka?

R

Saan, diak agkankanta no aglutluto ak.

Q

Agsigsigarilyo da no agtrabtrabaho da? Saan, dida agsigsigarilyo no agtrabtrabaho da.

R

Are you singing while you are cooking? (Do you sing when you cook?) No, I’m not singing when I’m cooking. (No, I don’t sing when I cook.)

29.9 Repetition and Substitution Drill. Time expressions showing regular intervals or habitual action. Agbasbasa ak nga inaldaw. ______________ inoras. ____________ a binigat. _____________ minalem. _____________ rinabii. _____________ binulan. _____________ linawas/dinomingo. _____________ dinomingo. _____________ tinawen.

I read every day. __________ hour. __________ morning. __________ afternoon. __________ evening. __________ month. __________ week. __________ Sunday. __________ year.

Agbasa ak iti bigat. __________ malem. __________ aldaw.

I read in the morning. _____ in the afternoon. _____ at noon.

209

ILOKANO LESSONS __________ rabii.

_____ in the evening.

29.10 Translation Drill. Teacher gives a sentence in English; student translates it into Ilokano. English

Ilokano

I’m playing every day. (I play every day.) She is cooking every night. (She cooks every night.) We are sewing every afternoon. (We sew every afternoon.) They are reading every morning. (They read every morning.) ___________________ ___________________

Agay-ayam ak nga inaldaw. Aglutluto nga rinabii. Agdadait kami nga minalem. Agbasbasa da nga biniget. ___________________ ___________________

29.11 Question-Answer and Expansion Drill. S1 asks an ania ti ar-aramiden question; S2 answers; S3 adds an object and/or a locative to the answer; S4 adds a time expression. Example:

S1 S2 S3

S4

Ania ti ar-aramiden ni Juan? Agbasbasa ni Juan. Agbasbasa ni Juan iti leksion na./Agbasbasa ni Juan idiay laybrari./ Agbasbasa ni Juan iti leksion na idiay laybrari. Agbasbasa ni Juan iti leksion na idiay laybrari nga inaldaw.

29.12 Comprehension-Response Drill. After S4 says the last complete sentence, students ask sino, ania, sadino, and kaano questions about it; others answer. Example: Agbasbasa ni Juan iti leksion na idiay laybrari nga inaldaw. Q R Q R Q

Sino ti agbasbasa? Ni Juan. Ania ti basbasaen na? Ti leksion na. Sadino ti pagbasbasaan na? 210

LESSON TWENTY-NINE R Q R

Idiay laybrari. Kaano ti panagbasa na? Inaldaw.

29.13 Substitution Drill. Use the following bases in the progressive form to tell about the natural elements. Base

Sentence

tudo ‘rain’ angin ‘wind’ kimat ‘lightning’ gurruod ‘thunder’ arbis ‘drizzle’ init ‘sun, sunshine’

Agtudtudo. Agang-angin. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

It is raining. The wind is blowing. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

29.14 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression and a locative to the sentences in the preceding exercise. Agtudtudo ita ditoy. Agang-angin a binigat idiay. Agtudtudo nga inaldaw idiay Pepeekeo. ________________________ ________________________ 29.15 Review of the past form of the ag- verb. Teacher cues the verb base; student forms a sentence in the past. Cue

Response

basa idda ay-ayam buya dait adal

Nagbasa daydiay ubing. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

29.16 Question and Answer Drill. The use of ania + ti inaramid? S1 asks the question; S2 answers. Question

Ania Ania Ania Ania

ti ti ti ti

Response

inaramid inaramid inaramid inaramid

mo? na? da? ti maestra?

Nagkanta ak. Nagay-ayam. Nagsurat da. Nagbasa.

211

ILOKANO LESSONS 29.17 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a sino question; S2 answers. Question

Response

Sino ti nagsurat? Sino ti nagdait? Sino ti nagay-ayam? ________________

Siak. Ni Maria. Dakami. ________

29.18 Repetition Drill. Past time expression markers: itay ‘recent past’ and idi ‘remote past’. Nagsurat ak itay. Nagdait tayo itay bigat. Nagbasa da itay alas tres.

I wrote a while ago. We sewed this morning. They read (past) at 3 o’clock. We cooked yesterday. The children swam last Sunday. You sang last night.

Nagluto kami idi kalman. Naglangoy dagiti ubbing idi Domingo. Nagkanta kayo idi rabii. 29.19 Simple Substitution Drill. Nagbasa da itay malem. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

bigat. alas singko. napan a tawen. kua.

____________ nabiit. Nagkanta kami idi kalman. _____________ rabii. _____________ Lunes. _____________ naminsan nga aldaw.

They read (past) this afternoon. ________ this morning. ________ at 5 o’clock. ________ last year. ________ at (indefinite past time). ________ recently. We sang yesterday. _______ last night. _______ Monday. _______ the other day.

29.20 Expansion Drill. S1 gives a sentence. Teacher cues itay or idi; S2 repeats the statement and adds the cued word + a time expression. Sentence

Cue

Expansion

Nagay-ayam da.

idi

Nagay-ayam da idi kalman.

212

LESSON TWENTY-NINE

Sentence

Cue

Expansion

Nagdait ak. _____________ _____________

itay _____ _____

Nagdait ak itay bigat. ___________________ ___________________

29.21 Expansion and Transformation Drill. Add an object, a locative, and a time expression to the statement. S1 gives a statement; S2 adds a receiver or locative or both; S3 converts it to a negative statement. Statement S1

Expansion S2

Transformation S3

Nagkanta da.

Nagkanta da idiay eskuela idi kalman. Nagdait kami iti bado mi itay bigat. _________________ _________________

Saan da a nagkanta idiay eskuela idi kalman. Saan kami a nagdait iti bado mi itay bigat.

Nagdait kami. ___________ ___________

_____________ _____________

29.22 Question and Answer Drill. Wen/Saan questions. Students ask and answer questions. Teacher controls both question and answer by cueing ‘negative/affirmative’. Cue

aff. neg. ____ ____

Nagay-ayam ta idi kalman? Saan tayo a nagkanta idi Lunes? _________________________ _________________________

Wen/Saan. Saan man/Saan. ____________ ____________

29.23 Comprehension and Response Drill. S1 gives expanded affirmative sentences similar to 29. 21. Students ask sino, sadino, and kaano questions based on the sentence. Example:

Nagtrabaho kami idiay eskuela itay bigat.

Q R Q R Q R

Sino ti nagtrabaho? Dakami Sadino? Idiay eskuela. Kaano? Itay bigat.

213

ILOKANO LESSONS 29.24 Question and Answer Drill. Students may consult Appendix E, Section W for more bases. Examples: Question

Response

Ania dagiti inaramid mo itay bigat?

Nagdigos ak. ___labar____ ___sipil yo__ ___sagaysa___ ____________ Nagkanta ak. ___pasyar____ ____________ Nagbasa ak. ___surat_____ ____________

Ania dagiti inaramid mo idi rabii? Ania dagiti inaramid mo idi Lunes?

29.25 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern and use other bases. S1 S2 S1 S2

Nagbuya ka iti sine idi rabii? Saan. Ania ngarud iti inaramid mo? Nagmakinilya ak.

29.26 Repetition Drill. The past progressive of the ag- verb. (optional) Q R Q R Q R

Ania ti inar-aramid mo idi adda ka idiay Manila? Nagdadait ak idi adda ak idiay Manila. Ania ti inar-aramid ni Maria idi ubing pay? Nagay-ayam ni Maria idi ubing pay. Ania ti inar-aramid da idi agad-adal da? Nagbuybuya da iti drama idi agad-adal da.

What were you doing when you were in Manila? I was sewing when I was in Manila. What was Maria doing when she was still young? Maria was playing when she was young. What were they doing when they were studying? They went to see plays when they were studying.

29.27 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer questions similar to the sentences in 29. 26. 29.28 Cumulative Practice.

214

LESSON TWENTY-NINE (1) Tell the class what you do regularly: every day, every weekend, every Sunday, every week, etc. (2) Tell the class what you did last weekend. (3) Tell what you did before you got into the Peace Corps. (4) Write your family about your activities in training. 29.29 Supplemental Dialogue. Fred: Nardo: Fred:

Nardo: Fred: Nardo: Fred:

Nardo:

Naggapuam? Nabayag a dika nakitan. Naggapo ak idiay Mindanao. Ay wen, nangngegmo a nagkasar ni Marianon? Saan. Kaano? Idi Domingo. Kasano ti boda? Nagragsak. Nag-pandanggo pay dagiti nobio ken nobia. Sayang ta diak naabutan.

Where have you been? I haven’t seen you for a long time. I came from Mindanao. By the way, (literally: Oh, yes,) have you heard that Mariano has gotten married already? No. When? Last Sunday. How was the wedding? It was very happy. The bride and groom even danced the Pandanggo. It’s a pity that I didn’t arrive on time for it.

VOCABULARY agangin agarbis agbuya agkimat agguruod aglangoy agsardeng agtudo ammo angin binigat binulan

to blow (said of the wind) to drizzle, to shower to watch (the movies, TV, a program, etc.) to give out flashes of lightning to thunder to swim to stop to rain know wind every morning every month 215

ILOKANO LESSONS kalman kimat kita domingo dinomingo gurruod idi inaldaw init inoras ita itatta itay langoy laybrari lawas linawas malem minalem miting mabiit maminsan napan a tawen no padi Pamulinawen pastor rabii rinabii sagaysay sipilyo tudo

yesterday lightning see week every week thunder before; past time marker every day sun every hour now right now recent past swim library week every week afternoon every afternoon meeting short time, a little while once last year if; future time marker priest title of an Ilokano song minister night every night comb toothbrush rain

216

LESSON THIRTY (Maikatallopulo a Leksion)

The -um-verb:

the past, past and present progressive forms; expansions with the use of time and locative expressions Particle: laeng ‘only’, ‘just’ 30.1 Dialogue. Situation:

Jose looks for John.

Jose: Ben:

Ayan na ni John? Adda idiay talon. Tumultulong kenni Tatang na. Kasano a napan, limmugan iti nuang? Saan. Simmurot kada Tomas. Nagdyip da.

Jose: Ben:

Where’s John? He’s in the ricefield. He’s helping his father. How did he go; did he ride a carabao? No. He went with Tom and others. They rode in a jeep.

30.2 Repetition Drill. Review of the present progressive form of the -um- verb. Base

inom gatang sungbat utang uli ulog

Umin-inom ak iti gatas. Gumatgatang da iti niog. Sumungsungbat ti estudiante. Umut-utang ni Juan iti kuarta. Umul-uli tayo iti dakkel a bantay. Umul-ulog dagiti bisita. 217

I’m drinking milk. They’re buying coconut. The student is answering. Juan is borrowing money. We are climbing a high mountain. The visitors are leaving.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Base

surot

Sumursurot ak kenka.

I’m tagging along with you.

30.3 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues base; a student forms a sentence using the present progressive form of the -umverb. Cue

Response

lagto inom utang ulog uli surot sungbat

Lumaglagto dagiti estudiante. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

30.4 Question and Answer Drill. Question

Response

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Ania ti kukuaenda? _________________ _________________

Umul-uli ak. Umin-inom da. ___________ ___________

30.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a sino question; S2 answers. Question

Response

Sino ti umin-inom? Sino ti lumaglagto? Sino ti bumulbulod? ______________

Ni Pedro (ti umin-inom). Da Juan (ti lumaglagto). Siak (ti bumulbulod). ______________

30.6 Expansion Drill. Add an object/locative word or phrase or both, or an oblique pronoun to a statement. Teacher gives the statement. Statement

Expansion

Bumulbulod ka. Gumatgatang ak. _____________ _____________

Bumulbulod ka iti kartib kenni Rosa. Gumatgatang ak iti serbesa idiay Hilo. ____________________________ ____________________________

218

LESSON THIRTY

Statement

Expansion

_____________

____________________________

30.7 Expansion Drill. To similarly expanded sentences in 30.6, add regular (habitual) time expressions. Bumulbulod ka iti kartib kenni Rosa tunggal aldaw. Gumatgatang ak iti serbesa idiay Hilo a minalem. ______________________________________ ______________________________________ ______________________________________ 30.8 Repetition Drill. Other time expressions showing irregularity (non-habitual) of occurrence. Gumatgatang ak iti prutas no dadduma. ____________________ sagpaminsan. ____________________ a patinayon. ____________________ a kanayon.

sometimes once in a while always always

Now use these expressions with expanded sentences similar to 30.6. 30.9 Comprehension-Response Drill. S1 gives an expanded affirmative statement; other students ask and answer adda, sino, ania, sadino, and kaano questions. Example: S1 Gumatgatang ni Jose iti mansanas idiay tiendaan itatta. Q R Q R Q R Q R Q R

Adda gumatgatang? Wen, adda. Sino? Ni Jose. Ania ti gatgatangen na? Mansanas. Sadino? Idiay tiendaan. Kaano? Itatta. 30.10 Repetition Drill. The use of idi ‘when’ or ‘while’.

Gumatgatang ak iti prutas idi agtudtudo.

I was buying fruits when it was raining. 219

ILOKANO LESSONS Umul-uli da iti balay idi nagtelepono ka. Sumangsangpet ni Maria idi pumanpanaw ni Juan. Umis-isem ti ubing idi nagkanta ta.

They were coming up to the house when you phoned. Maria was arriving when John was leaving. The child was smiling when we sang.

Repeat the exercise using itay of idi. ‘when’ or ‘while’ instead 30.11 Combination Drill. Join two of the sentences below with idi or itay. Lumaglagto dagiti ubbing idiay salas. Nagkimat. Lumuglugan tayo iti kalesa. Sumsumrek ni Ading dita kuarto. Agmakmakinilya ak. Pimmanaw dagiti bisita. Tumultulong tayo kenni Ana. Umin-inom kayo ti kape. Nagsala ni Rosa. 30.12 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks ania + ti araramiden/kukuaen + ko pronoun or ni/ti phrase + idi/itay clause. S2 gives an appropriate answer. Question

Response

Ania ti ar-aramidem itay agtudtudo?

Agad-adal ak iti leksion ko. Bumulbulod iti kartib. _____________________ _____________________

Ania ti ar-aramiden ni Juan idiay barberya idi limmabas ak? _____________________ _____________________

30.13 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues an -um- verb; student forms an expanded sentence with a past tense verb. Cue

Response

tumakder uminom gumatang umuli umisem pumanaw tumulong

Timmakder ak iti tugaw. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ 220

LESSON THIRTY

Cue

Response

lugan

__________________

30.14 Expansion Drill. Teacher gives a statement; S1 adds an object; S2 adds a locative word or phrase; S3 adds a time expression. Statement

Timmawar ak.

Response

S1 S2 S3

Gimmatang ka. Imminom dagiti lakay. ‘The old men drank.’ Bimmulod ni Mr. Reyes. Dimmawat da. Timmulong kayo.

Timmawar ak iti medias. Timmawar ak iti medias idiay tiendaan. Timmawar ak iti medias idiay tiendaan idi kalman. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

30.15 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks ania + ti inaramid + ko pronoun or ni/t i phrase + time expression; S2 answers. Question

Response

Ania ti inaramid mo idi kalman? Ania ti inaramid ni Juan itay? ___________________

Gimmatang ak iti libro. Limmugan iti bus. _______________

Variation: Use kinua instead of inaramid. 30.16 Repetition Drill. The past progressive.

221

ILOKANO LESSONS Dimmawdawat ak iti papel kenkuana idi kalman. Timmultulong ni Ben ken Maria idi napan a bulan. Bimmulbulod da iti libro idiay laybrari idi ages-eskuela da. Immin-inom da iti gatas idi babassit da. 30.17 Sentence Formation Drill. Construct sentences similar to the ones in 30.16. #1 M1 Dimmawat ka iti makinilya?

Did you ask for a typewriter?

M2 Saan, bimmulod ak laeng.1 C

No, I just borrowed (one).

Dimmawat ka iti makinilya? Saan, bimmulod ak laeng.

30.18 Repetition Drill. Question

Response

Timmaray ka itay? Nagsala kayo idi kalman? Nagsangit ti ubing? ‘Did the child cry?’ Nagtudo idiay Manila?

Saan, nagna ak laeng. Saan, nagbuya kami laeng. Saan, nagriao laeng. ‘No, he just screamed.’ Saan, nagarbis laeng.

30.19 Sentence Formation Drill. Ask and answer questions similar to those in 30.18. Use the following pairs of verbs. gumatang dumawat agay-ayam agkatawa aglampaso ‘to scrub’ agmakinilya

--------

tumawar bumulod agbuya umisem agsaplid ‘to sweep’ agsurat

30.20 Cumulative Practice. (1) Tell the class what you do regularly.

222

LESSON THIRTY (2) Tell what you do sometimes while in training. (3) Tell what you were doing when something else was happening. 30.21 Supplementary Dialogue. Aida: Belen:

Aida:

Belen: Aida:

Belen:

Aida:

Immay ni Marcia idi agtuntuno ak iti ikan? Immay sa. Dimmawat man ngata iti bayabasen. Saan, bimmulod iti pagsagatan ta agluto da kano iti kankanen. Simmangpet kadi ni Anitan? Saan pay ta sumsumrek kano pay la idi nagawid da Angeles. Umulog ak man pay ta innak gumatang iti saba. Tumawar ka a nalaing ket naloko ti aglaklako.

Did Marcia come while I was broiling fish? I think she did. She probably asked for some guavas again. No, she borrowed a strainer because she (and some others) will cook some native delicacies. Has Anita arrived yet? Not yet because (they say) she was still going to class when Angeles (and her companions) came home. I’ll step out a minute because I’ll go buy some bananas. Haggle well because the storekeeper is rather sly (with prices).

VOCABULARY agdyip aglako agmakinilya agtelepono agtuno barberya bayabas

to ride in a jeep to sell to type 255 to phone to broil barber shop guava 223

ILOKANO LESSONS kalesa kankanen kartib mansanas no dadduma sagpaminsan tumawar tunggal umutang

rig native delicacy scissors apple sometimes, once in a while sometimes, once in a while to haggle every to borrow (money), to buy on credit

224

LESSON THIRTY-ONE (Maikatallopulo ket Maysa a Leksion)

Review of the past and the progressive form of the -en verb Linker: uray no ‘even though’, ‘although’ 31.1 Dialogue. Sara: Belen:

Sara: Belen: Sara: Belen:

Apay, ania ti ar-aramidem? Sapsapulek tay librok. Binasak idi rabii ket awan met ditoyen. Ania kadi ti basbasaem? Tay Bertoldo ni Voltaire. Binulod mo idiay laybrari? Saan, ginatang ko.

Why, what are you doing? I’m looking for my book. I read it last night and now it isn’t here anymore. What are you reading? Voltaire’s Bertoldo. Did you borrow it from the library? No, I bought it.

31.2 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Bulbulodek ti libro na. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Model:

Karkartibek ti buok na. ‘I am cutting her hair.’ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

gatang kartib sapul basa

mo na ta tayo mi yo da

225

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

ni Ana da Martin ti babai dagiti ubbing

_________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

31.3 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues the verb base and object; students form sentences in the progressive form. (Cues may be written on the blackboard.) Cue

Cue

Response

digos gatang sapul kartib bulod basa kanta luto adal

ubing Example: manok lapis lupot bolpen libro ‘Pamulinawen’ adobo leksion

Digdigosek daytoy ubing. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

31.4 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks ania ti ar-aramid/kukua- questions. S2 answers. Question

Response

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Ania ti kukuaen yo? ________________ ________________

Dadaitek daytoy badok. Basbasaan mi ti leksion mi. _____________________ _____________________

31.5 Chain Drill. S1 gives a statement. S2 asks sino and ania questions; S3 answers. Example: S1 Dadaiten ni Maria ti bado na. S2 Sino ti agdadait? S3 Ni Maria. S2 Ania ti dadaiten na? S3 Bado na. S1 Basbasaen da dagiti libro da. S2 Sino ti agbasbasa?

226

LESSON THIRTY-ONE S3 Isuda. S2 Ania ti basbasaen da? S3 Dagiti libro da. 31.6 Question and Answer Drill. Students pattern their drill after these models. (1)

S1 Saan a basbasaen ni Josefa ti leksion na. S2 Ania ngarud ti kukuaen na? S1 Dadaiten na ti bado na. Substitute other bases and nouns for the underlined words. You may use pronouns instead of some nouns.

(2)

Transformation Drill. Convert the -en verbs in (1) to agor -um- verbs. Pattern: S1 Saan nga agbasbasa ni Josefa iti leksion na. S2 Ania ngarud ti kukuaen na? S1 Agdadait iti bado na.

31.7 Repetition Drill. Past tense of the -en verb. Base

basa luto digos sapul adal dait

Binasa daydiay estudiante ti leksion na. Linutok daytoy sida. Dinigos mi daydiay ubing. Sinapul ko ni Juan. Inadal da daydiay mapa. Dinait na dayta pantalon mo.

31.8 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: bulod tayo libro basa na ni Jose

Ginatang mi daytoy payong. Binulod mi daytoy payong. Binulod tayo daytoy payong. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

227

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

surat

______________________

31.9 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher gives the verb base; students form sentences with past tense verbs. Cue

Response

kanta basa bulod gatang luto dait aramid inom sapul digos

Kinanta yo ti Manang Biday. Binasa ni Juan ti libro. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

31.10 Expansion Drill. Add time expressions. Teacher cues time in English; students form sentences similar to 31.9 and add time expressions. Cue

Response

yesterday

Kinanta da ti Manang Biday idi kalman. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

the other day last year a while ago last week last month three o’clock indefinite future time

31.11 Expansion Drill. Add a locative to the sentences in 31.10. Example:

Kinanta da ti Manang idiay eskuela idi kalman. ____________________________ ____________________________

31.12 Question and Answer Drill. Based on the expanded sentences formed in 31.11, students ask ania ti aramid-/kua-, sino, sadino, and kaano questions. 228

LESSON THIRTY-ONE Example: Q R Q R Q R

Statement Kinanta da ti Pamulinawen idiay eskuela idi kalman. Ania ti inaramid da? Nagkanta da. Ania ti kinanta da? Pamulinawen. Sino ti nagkanta? Isuda.

(You may continue asking questions thus.) Q R Q R Q R

Sinoda? Da Rosa, (____, ____, ____). Sadino ti nagkantaan da? Idiay eskuela. Kaano ti panagkanta da? Idi kalman.

31.13 Repetition Drill. The use of uray no ‘even though’, ‘although’. Binasak ti leksion ko uray no atiddog. Dinait na ti bado na uray no rabiin. Linabaan ni Maria ti blusa no uray no nadalos pay.

I read my lesson even though it was long. She sewed her dress even though it was night already. Maria washed her blouse even though it was still clean.

31.14 Sentence Formation Drill. Make original sentences using uray no. 31.15 Repetition Drill. Past progressive form of the -en verb. Sinapsapol me isuda idi naminsan nga aldaw. Dinadait mi dagiti badbado mi idi. Kinarkartib tayo dagiti magasin idi kalman. Pinutputed da dagidiay tali idi Lunes. Kinankanta ni Maria ti kansion idi rabii. 31.16 Sentence Formation Drill. Construct sentences similar to those in 31.15. 31.17 Cumulative Practice. Form smaller groups of threes or fours. Have a conversation centered on your activities of the past few days. Use a variety of verbs; time expressions; locative phrases. 229

ILOKANO LESSONS

VOCABULARY agdigos bado blusa kartiben daiten digosen uray no

to take a bath dress blouse to cut (something) with a pair of scissors to sew (something) to bathe (somebody) even though, although

230

LESSON THIRTY-TWO (Maikatallopulo ket Dua a Leksion)

The i-verb (goal focus), past tense and progressive form Question Word: apay ‘why’ Quotative Word: kuna ‘is said’ Cause Marker: gapo ta ‘because’ 32.1 Dialogue. (harmless gossip) Maria:

Oy, Ipay, adda ibagak kenka.

Ipay: Maria:

Ania? Ammom, kuna ni Ana a nakita na kano ni Jose nga adda inyawat na kenni Elena idi Domingo. Ket…innala ni Elena?

Ipay: Maria:

Diak ammo. Ngem adda nakitak nga isubsubli na itattay.

Ipay:

Adu amin!*

Say, Ipay, I have something to tell you. What is it? You know, Ana says she saw Jose hand something to Elena last Sunday. And…did Elena get it? I don’t know. But I saw her returning something to him a while ago. Oh, come on!*

*Literally this means ‘Many all.’ 32.2 Repetition Drill. The progressive form of the i- verb. Base

awat Iyaw-awat ko ti kape. pan

Ip-ipan na ti manok idiay tiendaan. ted It-ited ni Maria ti kuarta na. subli Isubsubli mi dagitoy libro.

231

I am handing (a cup of) coffee (to someone). He is bringing the chicken to market. Maria is giving her money (to someone). We are returning the books.

ILOKANO LESSONS

Base

baga Ibagbaga ni Juan a mapan tayo kanon.1

Juan is telling us to go now.

32.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Iyaw-awat ni Juan ti retrato. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

Model:

It-ited ko ti lapis. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Model:

Isubsubli ni Maria ti libro na kaniak. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

ted pan subli mo na ta tayo mi yo da ni Jaime da Dora ti maestro dagiti ubbing

kenka kenkuana kadata kadatayo kadakami kadakayo kadakuada kenni Rita kada Rey iti maestro kadagiti maestro idiay laybrari iti opisina

______________________ ______________________

32.4 Moving Slot Substitution Drill.

232

LESSON THIRTY-TWO

Cue

Response

Model: istorya kadakuada libro subli kenka ted pan kenni Juan kahon kadakayo

Ibasbasak daytoy surat kenkuana. Ibasbasak daytoy istorya kenkuana. ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

32.5 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher writes verb bases, nouns and oblique pronouns on the blackboard. Students form sentences with appropriate choices. Verb Bases

Nouns

Pronouns

ted pan subli awat basa surat baga kabil ‘put’

kahon leksion lapis silaw papel libro damag baso

kaniak kenka kenkuana kadata kadakami kadakayo kadakuada kenni Rita kada Rey

Examples: It-ited ko daytoy kahon kenka. Iyaw-awat ko daytoy lapis kenni Rita. ____________________________ ____________________________ #1 M1

Apay nga it-ited na dayta baso kenka?

Why is he giving the glass to you?

M2

Gapo ta kukuak.

Because it’s mine.

C

Apay nga it-ited na dayta baso kenka? Gapo ta kukuak.

32.6 Moving Slot Substitution Drill.

233

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

Model: iyawat kadakuada mo kadakami kuaderno sida ni Daisy kenni Ruben

Apay nga it-ited na ti baso kenka? __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

32.7 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Gapo ta kukuak. Gapo ta adda bisita. Gapo ta kayat na. ______________ ______________ ______________

adda bisita kayat na nasingpet ka bulbulodek isubsubli da

32.8 Question and Answer Drill. Use the question word apay and start the answer with gapo ta. Question

Response

Apay nga ibelbelleng da ti gatas? Apay nga iduldulin mo ti kuadernom? ____________________ ____________________

Gapo ta nabangles. ‘Because it’s spoiled.’ Gapo ta nalpas ti klasen. ____________________ ____________________

32.9 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression to sentences similar to those formed in exercise 32.5 above. It-ited na kaniak daydiay lapis na itay bigat. It-ited na kaniak daydiay libro na itay agbasbasa ak. __________________________________ __________________________________ 32.10 Comprehension and Question-Response Drill. Students ask ania and kaano questions about the expanded sentences formed in 32.9.2

234

LESSON THIRTY-TWO Example: Q R Q R

Statement It-ited na kaniak daydiay lapis na itay bigat. Ania ti it-ited na? Daydiay lapis na. Kaano? Itay bigat.

32.11 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Insublik ti baso kenkuana. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

Model:

Inted ko ti kahon kenni Juan. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

ted pan lako awat mo na ta tayo mi yo da ni Belen da Rosa ti babai dagiti tattao

32.12 Moving Slot Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: kenkuana awat mo maleta ‘suitcase’ pan na ni Juan kadakuada

Insublik daydiay libro kenka. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

32.13 Sentence Formation Drill. Use the chart in 32.5 for the formation of sentences using the past form of the i - verb. 235

ILOKANO LESSONS Example: Inted ni Razel ti retrato kaniak. Insubli ti ubing ti bola kenni Rita. 32.14 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression to the sentences in 32.13. S1 gives a statement; teacher cues marker: itay/idi; S2 adds a time-expression phrase. Example: Cue

itay idi

Response

Sl S2 Sl S2

Inyawat ni Juan daydiay libro kaniak. Inyawat ni Juan daydiay libro kaniak itay bigat. Inted ni Razel ti retrato kenka. Inted ni Razel ti retrato kenka idi kalman.

You may also add a locative. Example: Inyawat ni Juan daydiay libro kaniak itay bigat idiay laybrari. 32.15 Question and Answer Drill using wenno ‘or’. Pattern: Q Ania ti inted ni Razel kenka, libro wenno lapis? R Libro. 32.16 Sentence Formation Drill. Join two simple sentences, one affirmative, one negative, with ngem ‘but’. Example: #2

Inted ko daydiay inapoy ngem saan da a kayat. Imbaga na ti damag ngem saan ko nga insurat.

M1 Ania ti kuna ni Maria? M2 Kuna na nga insurat na ti report. C

What does Maria say? She says she wrote the report.

Ania ti kuna ni Maria? Kuna na nga insurat na ti report.

32.17 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

(1)

Response

Model:

Ania ti kuna na? 236

LESSON THIRTY-TWO

Cue

Response

ko mo ta mi tayo yo da ni Rosa da Juan ti babai dagiti maestra

____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

(2)

Model: subli awat pan belleng tinnag ‘mail’

Kuna na nga inted na ti surat. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

Repeat exercise (2) using the infinitive form of the verb. Example: Kuna na nga ited na ti surat. 32.18 Question and Answer Drill. Ask ania ti kuna questions. Use either past or infinitive forms of the verb in your answer. Example: S1 Ania ti kuna ni Miss Reyes? S2 Kuna na nga ited na iti report tayo. Ania ti kuna ti ubing? S3 Kuna na nga imbelleng na iti basura. Kdp. 32.19 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: da Juan ti presidente dagiti senador mo

Ania ti kinuna ni Maria? ‘What did Maria say?’ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

237

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

da

__________________ Model:

Kinuna na nga naimbag ti ili. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

napintas nalinis nasayaat

32.20 Question and Answer Drill. Use the past form of kuna (kinuna). S1 Ania ti kinuna ti presidente? S2 Kinuna na nga naimbag ti ili. Ania ti kinuna ni Apo Mayor? S3 Kinuna na nga ited na ti ado a radio kadatayo. Ania ti kinuna dagiti senador? S4 Kinuna da nga insurat da ti atiddog a surat. Kdp. 32.21 Repetition Drill. The use of kano

3

instead of kuna.

Kuna na nga insurat na ti report. Isurat na kano iti report. Kuna ni Ben nga inted na ti mansanas. Inted kano ni Ben iti mansanas. Kuna ti ubing nga iyawat na ti lapis. Iyawat kano ti ubing ti lapis. Kuna da nga ipan da daytoy sida idiay. Ipan da kano daytoy sida idiay. 32.22 Question and Answer Drill. Ask ania ti kuna/kinuna questions. Answer with kano. S1 S2 S3

Ania ti kuna ti superbisor? Ited tayo kano ti libro tayo. Ania ti kinuna da? Impan da kano dagiti ubbing idiay oditoryum. Kdp. 32.23 Cumulative Practice.

238

LESSON THIRTY-TWO (1) Relate something which somebody told you. (2) Relate a conversation you heard between two or more people. 32.24 Supplemental Dialogue. A:

B: A: B: A: B: A:

Ayan daytay sabon? Inkabilko ditoy asideg ti palangana itay ket awan metten. Saan ngata nga indulin ni Juana? Saan ta saan met nga im-immay ni Juana ditoy. Saludsudem man ken Belen no nakita na. Napan met nageskuela ni Belenen. Ket biruken ta a. Bay-amon. Gumatangak to ti sabalin.

Where’s the soap? I put it here near the basin a while ago, but it’s not here anymore. Could Jane not have put it aside? No, because Jane has not been here. Ask Belen if she saw it. But Belen has left for school already. Well, let’s look for it. Never mind. I’ll buy a new bar.

VOCABULARY baso basura belleng bisita kahon kano kuarta kuna damag itinnag maleta manok mansanas radio report retrato subli

glass, tumbler garbage, trash throw visitor box it is said money say news to drop, to mail (a letter) suitcase chicken apple radio report picture return 239

ILOKANO LESSONS tinnag

drop, mail (a letter)

240

LESSON THIRTY-THREE (Maikatallopulo ket Tallo a Leksion)

Review of ag-, um-, -en, and i- verbs The recently completed past: ka + partial reduplication 33.1 Dialogue. Situation:

At the bus station.

Jane:

Manong, pagparparadaan ti bus a para Manila? Dita abay ti dakkel a poste. Pimmanawen ti umuna a biahe? Wen, kapanpanaw na laeng. Ay, sayang. Naudi ak.

Man: Jane: Man: Jane:

Manong (Older Brother), where does the bus for Manila park? (There) beside the big post. Has the first trip left yet? Yes, it has just left. Oh, what a pity. I’m late.

33.2 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: kasalsala kabasbasa kain-inom kaul-uli Model: kabulbulod kaal-ala kasapsapol the poem.’ kait-ited kaidul-dulin kaisur-suro

Model:

Kakankanta ti ubing. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ Kagatgatang ko ti libro. __________________ __________________ __________________ Kaisursurat ko ti daniw. ‘I have just written __________________ __________________ __________________ 241

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

kaisasao

__________________

33.3 Repetition-Transformation Drill. Forms of the verb. Base Form

Past

Recently Completed

agkanta agsala gumatang dumawat linisen puteden isurat ibaga ibelleng iyawat

nagkanta nagsala gimmatang dimmawat lininis pinuted insurat imbaga imbelleng inyawat

kakankanta kasalsala kagatgatang kadawdawat kalinlinis kaputputed kaisursurat kaibagbaga kaibelbelleng kaiyaw-awat

33.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher gives the infinitive form of a verb; student gives a statement with the verb in the recently completed form. Cue

Response

bumulod iddepen agtaray alaen rummuar isuro ibati aglagto irikep

Kabulbulod ko iti libro. Kaid-iddep ko ti silaw. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

33.5 Transformation Drill. Teacher gives a series of sentences with verbs in the past tense; students repeat the sentences, changing the verbs to the recently completed past. New Vocabulary

bákir káma dumánon dimmánon lúgaw óso tugáw

-

forest bed to arrive at (a place) past form of dumanon porridge, gruel bear chair 242

LESSON THIRTY-THREE

Teacher

Students

Nagna ni Goldilocks iti bakir.

Kapagpagna ni Goldilocks iti bakir. ____________________

Dimmanon iti balay ti tallo nga oso. Simrek iti balay. Nagtugaw iti tugaw. Kinnan na ti lugaw. Nagidda iti kama. Simmangpet ti tallo nga oso. Nagtaray ni Goldilocks.

____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

33.6 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher cues a verb; S1 asks a question with a past tense verb; S2 answers with a verb in the recently completed form. Pattern: T linisen S1 Lininis ni Benen ti sapatos ko? S2 Wen, kalinlinis na. Cue

Response 1

Response 2

agmakinilya pumanaw gatangen ibato agbayad tumulong patayen idulin

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

_____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

#1

M1

Katugtugaw Have the guests just sat down? dagiti bisita?

M2

Wen, katugtugaw da. Saan, nabayagen.

C1

Yes, they have just sat down. No, for a long time now. (meaning: No, they sat down a long time ago.)

Katugtugaw dagiti bisita? Wen, katugtugaw da.

243

ILOKANO LESSONS C2

Katugtugaw dagiti bisita? Saan, nabayagen.

33.7 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Katugtugaw dagiti bisita? ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

Model:

Saan, Saan, Saan, Saan, Saan, Saan, Saan,

takder sangpet sala inom kanta itattay pay idi pay la Lunes Martes lawas na napan a bulas tawen

nabayagen. itattay pay. idi pay la Lunes. idi pay la Martes. idi pay la lawas na. idi pay la napan a bulan. idi pay la napan a tawen.

33.8 Question and Answer Drill. Ask wen/saan questions with verbs in the recently completed past. Give negative answers. S1 S2 S3

Kapanpanaw ni Lolo? Saan, nabayagen. Kasangsangpet ni Lola? Saan, itattay pay. Kdp.

33.9 Question and Answer Drill. Ask wen/saan questions similar to those in 33.8. Give affirmative answers. S1 Kain-inom dagiti bisita ti basi? S2 Wen, kain-inom da. Kairikrikep mo ti ruangan? S3 Wen, kairikrikep ko. Kdp. 33.10 Combination Exercise. Join the teacher’s two short sentences into one long one using ta (short for gapo ta).

244

LESSON THIRTY-THREE Example:

T S

(1) (2)

Kasangsangpet ko. Naladaw ti bus. Kasangsangpet ko ta naladaw ti bus.

(1) Kaibelbelleng da ti basura. (2) Nag-adal da. (1) Kaid-iddep na ti silaw. (2) Dinait na ti badok. (1) Kalinlinis ko ti kosina. (2) Kabutlutok. (1) Kasursurat tayo kenkuana. (2) Kagatgatang tayo iti papel. (1) Kalamlampaso ni Ben ti datar. Ben has just husked the floor.’ (2) Kasangsangpet na. 33.11 Sentence Formation Drill. Make sentences of your own similar to those in 33.10. 33.12 Cumulative Activity. Pretend that you are a radio announcer. You are watching a series of events and you relate it to your audience in the recently completed past. You may be “watching”: (1) a familiar fairy tale (2) a baseball or football game (3) a senate discussion etc.

VOCABULARY bakir biahe bus kama daniw dumanon lugaw naudi oso pagparadaan poste

forest trip bus bed poem to arrive at (a place) gruel, porridge late, last bear parking place post

245

ILOKANO LESSONS sayang

expression of regret equivalent to ‘what a pity!’

246

LESSON THIRTY-FOUR (Maikatallopulo ket Uppat a Leksion)

Daytay: recent past Daydi: remote past 34.1 Dialogue. Rico: Celso: Rico: Celso:

Rico: Celso:

Immay daytay anak daydi Mr. Jones itay. Ania ti imbaga na? Inyeg na daydi libro a binulod na idi. Ay wen, adda malagip ko. Ayan na daydi dakkel a kahon ditoy? Imbelleng kon. Apay aya? Ikabil ko kuma dagitay ginatang ko a libro.

The child of the late Mr. Torres came a while ago. What did she say? She brought the book which she borrowed before. Oh, yes, I remember something. Where’s the big box that used to be here? I’ve thrown it away already. Why? I would like to put the books I bought in it.

34.2 Repetition Drill. The use of daytay (sg) and dagitay (pl) to indicate the recent past. Sino daytay gimmatang? Sino daytay bimmulod? Sino dagitay nagkanta? Sino dagitay nagbasa? Ania daytay ginatang na? Ania daytay binasa da?

Who was it that bought (something) just now/recently? Who was it that borrowed (something) just now/recently? Who were those that sang just now/ recently? Who were those that read just now/ recently? What did she buy just now/recently? What did they read just now/recently?

247

ILOKANO LESSONS Ania dagitay linuto da? Ania dagitay kinanta da?

What did they cook just now/recently? What did they sing just now/recently?

Repeat the sentences with daytay, above, and substitute the contracted form tay. e.g. Sino tay gimmatang? 34.3 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a sino question; S2 answers. S2 asks an ania question; S1 answers. Use daytay (or tay) and dagitay. Example: S1 S2 S1

Sino daytay immay? Ni Rosa. Ania dagitay ginatang mo? Nateng ken ikan.

34.4 Repetition Drill. The use of daydi (sg) and dagidi (pl) to indicate the remote past. Sino daydi gimmatang iti bola? Sino daydi bimmulod iti lapis? Sino dagidi nagento iti pinakbet? Sino dagidi immay idi kalman? Ania daydi binulod na? Ania dagiti linuto da?

Who was it who bought a ball before? Who was it who borrowed a pencil before? Who were those who cooked pinakbet before? Who were those who came yesterday? What was it which he/she borrowed before? What were those which they cooked before?

Repeat the sentences with daydi and substitute the contracted form di. e.g.

Sino di gimmatang ti libro?

34.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks a sino question; S2 answers. S2 asks an ania question; S1 answers. Use daydi (or di) and dagidi.

248

LESSON THIRTY-FOUR Example: S1 Sino dagidi immay idi kalman? S2 Da Sharon. Ania daydi kinanta da? S1 Manang Biday. 34.6 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher gives cues; S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Cue

sino-daytay ania-daydi ania-dagidi sino-dagitay ania-dagitay sino-daytay

Question

Response

S1 Sino daytay immay itay? S2 Ania daydi sinala yo? ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

S2 Ni Ben. S3 Tinikling. _________ _________ _________ _________

34.7 Conversion Drill. Change ti to tay (daytay) then to di (daydi) in these sentences. Basbasaen da ti surat mo.

Examples: Basbasaen da tay surat mo. Basbasaen da di surat mo. Binasa mi ti leksion mi. ________________ ________________ Dinait ko ti badok. ________________ ________________ Ginatang ni Jose ti libro na. ________________ ________________ 34.8 Expansion Drill. (1) Add itay + a time expression to statements with daytay. S1 gives a short sentence; S2 expands it. Basbasaen da daytay surat mo. Dadaiten ni Rosa S2 daytay badom. _________________ S1

Basbasaen da daytay surat mo itay bigat. Dadaiten ni Rosa daytay S3 badom itay malem. ___________________ S2

249

ILOKANO LESSONS (2) Add idi + a time expression to statements with daydi. S1 gives a short statement; S2 expands it. Time expressions are written on the board. S1 Basbasaen da S2 daydi ______________ ______________

Basbasaen da daydi surat mo. surat mo idi naminsan a bulan. ______________ ______________

34.9 Combination Drill. Join two clauses with itay/idi. Consult your list for more bases. Notice the verb forms. Basbasaen da daytay surat ko itay/idi immay ka. Gatgatangen mi daytay libro itay/idi agdadait ka. Dadaitek daydi badom idi nagkanta ka. Lutlutoek daydi adobo itay/idi nagpasiarka. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 34.10 Transformation Drill. Change the singular forms daytay/daydi in 34.9 to their plural forms. Basbasaen da dagitay surat ko itay immay ka. Gatgatangen mi dagitay libro itay agdadait ka. ________________________________ ________________________________ 34.11 Question and Answer Drill. Sino + daytay/ daydi + noun ______. Question

Response

Sino daytay maestro tayo itay napan a semester? Sino daytay gayyem ni Dora? Sino daydi estudiantem a taga Cebu?

Ni Mr. Torres.

Sino daydi maestro tayo iti matimatiks?

Ni Cynthia. Ni Miss Gutierrez. Daydi Mr. Rocio.

34.12 Substitution Drill. Substitute other words for the underlined ones in the following dialogue. S1 Malagip mo daydi gayyem ko a nalaing nga agkanta? 250

LESSON THIRTY-FOUR

S2 Saan, sino? S1 Celso ti nagan na. S2 Ay, wen. Sadino ti ayan na itan? S1 Adda idiay Amerikan. 34.13 Cumulative Practice. (1) Talk about old friends and classmates with an old friend. (2) Talk about something you just saw, borrowed, bought, etc. (3) Write your friend reminding her about something she borrowed from you at one time. 34.14 Supplemental Dialogue. Juan:

Nana O:

Juan: Nana O: Juan: Nana O:

Manot tawen yon, Nana Odiang?

Ammok pay, barok. Naiyanak ak kano idi dakkel a layos idi presidente daydi Don Birat. Daydi Don Birat nga ama ti agdama a gobernador? Wen. Bumaket ka met ngaruden. Ay ket wen, a.

How old are you, Aunt Odiang? (‘Aunt’, here is a term of respect used for a non-relative.) I don’t know, son. They say I was born during the big flood while Don Birat was president. The late Don Birat, father of the current governor? Yes. You must be rather old already, then. Oh, but yes, of course.

VOCABULARY adobo agdama anak bola

a Philippine meat dish usually of pork and/ or chicken cooked in soy sauce, vinegar, and spices current child ball

251

ILOKANO LESSONS bumaket Cebu kalman dagidi dagitay daydi daytay layos malagip matimatiks nateng pinakbet

getting old (said of women); the masculine counterpart is lumakay Cebu, a city in the southern Philippines day before plural marker indicating remote past plural marker indicating recent past singular marker indicating remote past singular marker indicating recent past flood to remember mathematics vegetables a popular Ilokano vegetable dish

252

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE (Maikatallopulo ket Lima a Leksion)

Question Word:kasano ‘how’ Affixes: kas- ‘like’, ‘similar to’ + / -toy / -ta / -diay / oblique pronouns agpa-(directional focus) agpa-(actor focus) pagpa…an ‘place for’ Particle: sa ‘then’ 35.1 Dialogue. Situation: Ester: John: Ester:

John:

Ester:

John describes how to wash clothes. Ammom ti aglaba, John? Wen, Apay kadi? Kitsek man no ammom met laeng. Kasano ti panaglabam iti kawes? Kastoy. Umuna nga upprak, sakonto sabonan. Intono kua gelgelek sako gawgawan. Kalpasan na, pekkelek sakonto isalapay. Ania, ammok met la ti aglaba? Wen. Nalaing ka gayam.

Do you know how to wash clothes, John? Yes. Why do you ask? Let me see if you really know. How do you wash clothes? This way: first I soak them and then soap them. Then I rub them, then rinse them. Afterwards, I squeeze them, then hang them to dry. Well, do I know how to wash clothes? Yes. I didn’t know you were good at it.

35.2 Repetition-Substitution Drill. Kasano + nominalized verbal: ti panag-/iR-. Kasano ti panaglaba?

How does one wash (clothes)? 253

ILOKANO LESSONS ________ ________ ________ ________

panagdait? panagluto? panagbasa? ibubulod ti igad?

________ igagatang ti ikamen? ________ ilalagto tayo? ________ ipapan yo?

How does How does How does How does grater? How does

one one one one

sew? cook? read? borrow a

one buy a mat?

How do we jump? How do you go?

35.3 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students form questions with kasano plus either of the nominalizing affixes: panag- or iR-. Cue

Response

dait luto lagto awid pan basa bulod inom kanta punas

Kasano ti panagdait/idadait? Kasano ti panagluto/iluluto? ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

35.4 Expansion Drill. Add an actor, an object, a locative, or any combination of these three to the above questions. Pattern:

Kasano ti panagdait iti kamisadentro? Kasano ti panagluto na iti pinakbet? Kasano ti ipapan tayo idiay ili? ___________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________

35.5 Repetition Drill. kas-1+ / -toy ‘like this’ / -ta ‘like that’ / -diay ‘like that over there’ Kastoy ti panagluto. Kasta ti panaglangoy. Kasdiay ti ilalagto.

This is the way to cook. That’s the way to swim. That (over there) is the way to jump.

35.6 Simple Substitution Drill. 254

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE

Cue

Response

Model: Kasta Kasdiay Model: surat tugaw katawa laba Model: bulod gatang pan inom awid

Kastoy ti panagdait iti bado. _____________________ _____________________ Kasdiay ti panagbasa. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ Kasta ti ilalagto. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

35.7 Substitution and Question and Answer Drill. Teacher cues a nominalizing affix; S1 asks a kasano question; S2 answers with kastoy/kasta/kasdiay. Cue

Question

Response

panag Kasano ti panagluto iti bistik? iR Kasano ti iyiinom iti agas? _____ _____________________ _____ _____________________

Kastoy ti panagluto iti bistik. Kastoy ti iyiinom iti agas. ________________ ________________

35.8 Chain Drill. S1 asks how an activity is done; S2 demonstrates the process or points to an example and says kastoy/kasta/kasdiay ____________. S1 Kasano ti panagtugaw mo? S2 Kastoy (and shows S1 how she sits). Kasano ti panagtakder ni Carol? S3 Kasdiay ti panagtakder na. Kasano ti panagbasa na? S4 Kasta ti panagbasa na. Kdp. 35.9 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks how one does an activity; S2 answers with an adjective or a verb.

255

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Kasano ti panagawid ta? Kasano ti panagbasa ni Ana? Kasano ti panagkatawa da? _______________________ _______________________

Agkaretela ta. Nalaing. Napigsa. _________ _________

35.10 Transformation Drill. S1 gives statement; S2 converts it to the negative.

an

affirmative

Affirmative

Negative

Kastoy ti panagtugaw na. Kasdiay ti panagbasa mi. ___________________ ___________________

Saan a kastoy ti panagtugaw na. Saan a kasdiay ti panagbasa mi. ______________________ ______________________

35.11 Question and Answer Drill with kastoy/kasta/ kasdiay. Teacher asks an affirmative wen/saan question; S1 answers, then he asks the negative form of the question; S2 answers either affirmatively or negatively. Question

Response

T

Kastoy ti panagpunas ti lamisaan? S1 Saan a kastoy ti panagpunas ti lamisaan? S2 ________________ ________________ ________________

S1 S2

Wen, kasta./Saan, kasdiay. Saan man, kasta./Saan kasdiay. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

35.12 Repetition and Substitution Drill with nominalized agand -um- verbs explaining a process. Question

Response

Kasano ti aglangoy? _______ surat _______ basa _______ luto _______ bumulod iti libro? _______ gatang _______ _______ dawat _______

Kastoy ti aglangoy. Kasta ti agsurat. Kasdiay ti agbasa. Kasdiay ti agluto. Kasdiay ti bumulod iti libro. Kasdiay ti gumatang ______. Kastoy ti dumawat ________.

256

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE 35.13 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher cues bases for nominalized ag- or -um- verbs. S1 asks a kasano question; S2 answers with kastoy/kasta/kasdiay + _____. Cue

Question

Response

basketbol maneho langoy drowing pingpong tenis boling

Kasano ti agbasketbol? __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

Kastoy ti agbasketbol. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

35.14 Repetition Exercise. Asking about and explaining a procedure: use of sa, santo, umuna, intono. Example:

Q R

Kasano ti panagapoy? ‘How does one steam rice?’ Kastoy ti panagapoy. Umuna, sukatem ti bagas, samonto arasawen. Ipisok mo iti banga. Danumam samo rukuden ti danum na. Isaang mo. Paluagem aginggana ti maatianan, samonto linayen.

35.15 Repetition Drill. Giving directions: agpa + kas Question: Responses:

Kasano ti mapan idiay pos opis? Agpakasta ka. ____ kastoy ___ ____ kasdiay ___ ____ ____ ____ ____

.

How does one go to the post office? You go that way. You go this way. You go that way over there You go that way. You go south. You go left. You go right.

kuna ___ abagatan ___ kanigid ___ kanawan ___

35.16 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks to be directed to a place; S2 answers with an expanded sentence. Question

Response

Kasano ti mapan idiay estasyon ti bus?

Agpalaud ka, latta.

257

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Kasano ti mapan idiay munisipio (presidensia)? _____________________ _____________________

Agpakanawan ka no madanon mo idiay kalsada. _____________________ _____________________

Refer to Appendix E, Section J for important places in towns and barrios. 35.17 Asking directions and giving a detailed response. Substitute other words for variation. Question:

Kasano ti mapan idiay pagkaseroan yo?

Response:

Surotem daytoy a dalan sakanto agpakanawan iti umuna a kanto. Ti maikalima a balay iti katigid ti pagkaseroan mi.

#1

M1 Sino ti pagpapukisam?2

To whom will you go for a haircut?

M2 Ti barbero. Ni Pedro.

The barber. Peter.

C1

Sino ti pagpapukisam? Ti barbero.

C2

Sino ti pagpapukisam? Ni Pedro.

35.18 Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: laba dait luto plantsa ‘press, iron’ suro makinilya 35.19 Chain Drill. 258

Sino ti pagpapukisam? Sino ti pagpalabaam? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE Pattern 1: Pattern 2:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Sino ti pagpapukisam? Ni Pedro./Ti barbero. Sadino ti pagpapukisam? Idiay barberya.

Substitute on the underlined words. 35.20 Cumulative Drill. Follow this pattern. S1 Papanam? S2 Mapan ak agpapukis. S1 Sino ti pagpapukisam? S2 Ni Goryo. S1 Sadino ti pagpapukisam? S2 Idiay balay da. Substitute on the underlined words. 35.21 Repetition Drill. The use of agpa + base + / ak pronoun / ni/ti ______ . Agpapukis ak. Agpadait ak iti badok. Agpaagas ni Cesar.

I’ll have a hair cut. I’ll have a dress sewed (for myself). Cesar will have himself treated for an ailment. I’ll have her/him help me.

Agpatulong ak kenkuana. Agpabulod ak iti kuarta. I’ll have someone borrow money for me. Agpaluto ni Maria iti Maria will have someone cook kankanen. goodies. 35.22 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dait agas tulong bulod

259

Agpaluto ak. __________ __________ __________ __________

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

pukis lako

__________ __________

35.23 Question and Answer Drill. Use sino. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Example:

Sino ti agpapukis? Sino ti agpatulong?

Ni John (ti agpapukis). Siak (ti agpatulong).

35.24 Response Drill. S1 gives a statement; S2 gives a comment. Statement

Comment

Ado ti libro tayo. Atiddog ti buok kon. Awan bado mon. _______________ _______________ _______________

Agpabulod tayo. Agpapukis ka. Agpadait ak. __________ __________ __________

35.25 Sentence Formation-Expansion Drill. Use masapol ‘it is necessary’ with the nominalized verb to express a needed process. Masapol ti agpapukis. Masapol ti agpadait. _________________ _________________

It is necessary to have a haircut. It is necessary to have a dress/shirt sewed.

Then add a no ‘if’ phrase to the statement to explain the need. Masapol ti agpapukis no atiddog ti buok. Masapol ti agpadait no awan bado. _____________________ _____________________

It is necessary to have a haircut if one’s hair is long. It is necessary to have a dress/ shirt sewed when one has none.

35.15 Cumulative Activity.

260

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE (1)

Explain a process. (a) how to fix a recipe (b) how to wash plates (c) how to clean a room (d) how to build an airplane model (e) how to hunt a deer etc.

(2)

(a) (b)

Direct a stranger to certain part(s) of the town. Guide tourists around the city, the town, or the campus.

35.16 Supplemental Dialogue. John:

Pedro: John: Pedro:

Atiddog ti buok kon. Kayat ko kuma ti agpapukis. Adda ngata barbero ditoy? Adda met barberya ket dita laud ti tiendaan. Isurom man kaniak ta mapanak to no madamdama. Surotem daytoy a dalan sakanto agpa-abagatan idiay balay da tata Berto. Ti maikadua a balay ti barberya ni Immong.

My hair is already long. I would like to have a haircut. Is there a barber here? There’s a barber shop west of the store. Will you teach me how to get there because I’ll go (to the place) later. Follow this road, then turn south at the house of Uncle Berto. The second house is Immong’s house. (‘Uncle’, here, is a term of respect for non-relatives.

VOCABULARY agapoy agas agboling agdrowing aginggana agmaneho agpakuna agpingpong agtenis

to steam rice medicine to play bowling to draw until to drive (a vehicle) to go in an indefinite direction to play pingpong to play tennis 261

ILOKANO LESSONS arasawen banga bistik kalpasan kanawan kanigid kanto kasdiay kasta kastoy kawes danuman gawgawan gelgelen ipisok isalapay linayen maatianan maikalima munisipio pagkaseroan pekkelen plantsa pukis rukuden sukaten uppran

to wash (vegetables, fruits, uncooked rice) clay pot beef steak afterwards right (hand) left (hand) corner that (yonder) way that way this way clothes to put water (on something) to rinse (clothes and the like) to rub (clothes and the like) to put into the pot preparatory to cooking to hang in order to dry (clothes, etc.) to cook well and evenly (usually said of rice) to dry up (said of something being cooked) fifth municipal hall boarding house to squeeze (something) press, iron haircut to measure to measure to soak

262

SUPPLEMENTARY LESSON TO LESSON THIRTY-FIVE kas + / oblique pronouns / la + adjective/noun S35.1 Repetition Drill. kas + oblique pronouns + / ni/ti / nga + / noun / verb / adjective Kaskaniak ni Juana. Kaskenka ni Elena. Kaskenkuana ni Chris. Kaskadata nga Ilokano ni Juan. Kaskadakami nga Amerikano ni Chris. Kaskadatayo nga agbasbasa ni David. Kaskadakayo nga agdadait ni Maria. Kaskadakuada a nalaing ni Juan.

Juana is like me. Elena is like you. Chris is like her/him. Juan is an Ilokano like us. Chris is an American like us. David is a student like us. Maria is a seamstress like you. Juan is intelligent like them.

S35.2 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: kenka kenkuana kadata kadakami kadakayo kadatayo kadakuada

Kaskaniak ni Juan. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

S35.3 Comprehension Drill. Teacher gives a sentence in English; students translate it into Ilokano. English

Ilokano

Chris is like us (dual). John is like them.

Kaskadata ni Chris. ________________ 263

ILOKANO LESSONS

English

Ilokano

Pedro is like us (excl). ________________ ________________

________________ ________________ ________________

S35.4 Repetition Drill. kasla + / noun/adjective Kasla Kasla Kasla Kasla Kasla

ubing ni Maria. lakay daydiay ubing. maestra dayta babai. nasingpet ni John. nalaing ni Pedro.

Maria is like a child. The child is like an old man. That girl is like a teacher. John seems good. Pedro looks bright.

S35.5 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: maestro babai nalaing nalukmeg

Kasla ubing ni Juan. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

S35.6 Translation Drill. English to Ilokano. Elena is like an American. John looks big. Chris is like a queen (reyna). Dorothy is like a man.

_____________________ _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

264

LESSON THIRTY-SIX (Maikatallopulo ket Innem a Leksion)

pag- (instrumental focus)1 36.1 Dialogue. Situation: Aida:

Jose:

Aida:

Jose:

Aida:

Two classmates discuss assignment. Ania ti aramiden tayo para iti programa tayo intono Domingo? Agaramid tayo iti bassit a kalapaw a pagdekorasyon iti entablado. Ado ngata ti masapol tayo a pagaramid ti kalapaw? Saan. Mangala tayo latta ti nipa ken kawayan idiay talon. Ay wen. Pagatep tayo daydiay nipa ken pagdiding tayo met daydiay kawayan.

an extra-curricular What shall we do for the program on Sunday? We shall make a small hut to decorate the stage with. Do we need much to make a hut? No. We’ll just get some thatch palm and bamboo in the field. Oh, yes. We shall use the thatch palm for a roof and we shall use the bamboo for walls.

36.2 Repetition Drill. The infinitive form of the pag- verb. Pagsurat mo daytoy. Pagbadok dayta. Pagpunas ta daydiay nisnis. Paglampaso tayo daytoy bunot.

Use this to write with. I’ll use that to dress with. We’ll use that rag to wipe with. We’ll use this coconut husk to scrub with.

265

ILOKANO LESSONS Pagdigos mi daytoy danom. Pagdait da dayta panait. Pagtualia yo daydiay.

We’ll use this water to bathe with. They’ll use that thread to sew with. Use that for a towel.

36.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: surat punas lampaso digos dait tualia mula

Pagbadok daytoy. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

36.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Use nouns you use every day with pag-. You may consult Appendix E, Sections M, N, O for clothing, utensils, etc. Example:

Pagtsinelas ko daytoy. Pagsipilyok daytoy. Pagtualiak daydiay. Pagbadok dayta. _______________ _______________

36.5 Question and Answer Drills. S1 asks questions; S2 answers. (1) with ania Question

Response

Ania ti pagbadom? Ania ti pagsurat ko? Ania ti paglampaso na?

Daytay puraw. Daytoy lapis ko. Dayta bunot. ‘The coconut husk.’ Dayta barreta. ‘The crowbar.’ ______________________ ______________________

Ania ti pagkali mi? _________________ _________________

266

LESSON THIRTY-SIX

(2) with adda/awan Adda pagsurat yo? Awan pagdait mo? ______________ ______________

Adda./Awan. Adda./Awan. __________ __________

(3) with ayan na Ayan na daytay pagdait mo? Ayan na daytay pagpunas ta? Ayan na ti pagbadok? _________________ _________________

Addaytoy (Adda ditoy). Addaydiay (Adda idiay). Addayta (Adda dita). ________________ ________________

(4) with kayat Kayat mo a pagsurat daytoy lapis ko? Kayat yo a pagtualia daydiay? _________________ _________________

Wen./Saan. Wen./Saan. _________ _________

36.6 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with no ‘if’. Daytoy ti pagdait mo no agdait ka. Daydiay ti pagpunas yo no agpunas kayo. _______________________________ _______________________________ 36.7 Expansion Drill. Use no saan ‘if not’ in the first clause. Note the verb forms. No saan mo a pagdigos daytoy, alaen na. No saan yo a pagsurat dayta, idulin ko. No saan ta a pagpunas daydiay, ited ko kenni Rosa. _____________________________________ _____________________________________ 36.8 Transformation and Expansion Drill. Teacher gives a sentence; S1 changes the verb to the future; S2 gives a time expression.

267

ILOKANO LESSONS Example: (1)

T S1 S2

Pagbadom dayta puraw. Pagbadomto dayta puraw. Pagbadomto dayta puraw intono bigat.

(2)

T S1 S2

Pagtualia ta dayta dakkel. Pagtualia tanto dayta dakkel. Pagtualia tanto dayta dakkel intono Domingo.

36.9 Repetition Drill. Progressive form of pag-. Pagbadbadok daytoy puraw. Pagdigdigos na dayta danum a napudot. Pagsursurat da dagiti lapis. Paglamlampaso yo dagita ragragas. Pagpunpunas na ti nisnis. Pagdadait tayo ti makina. 36.10 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: surat dait punas tualia lampaso awit pinggan

Pagbadbadok daytoy. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

36.11 Repetition Drill. The progressive form with time expressions: kanayon ‘always’; no dadduma ‘sometimes’; pasaray ‘once in a while’. (1)

Pagbadbado na dayta asul a binigat. Pagsursurat ko daytoy lapis a kanayon. Pagdadait mi dayta panait mo no dadduma.

(2)

Pasaray da pagtagbat dayta buneng mo. No dadduma pagsursurat da dayta bolpen mo. Kanayon da a paglampaso dayta bunot.

268

LESSON THIRTY-SIX 36.12 Sentence Formation Drill. Make sentences with verbs in the progressive form. Use time expressions similar to those in 36.11. Example:

Paglinlinis ko daytoy a kanayon. Pasaray mi pagpunpunas dayta.

36.13 Expansion Drill. Add pay la (laeng) ‘still’ to a wen/saan question. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Notice the en ‘already’ in the response. Consult Appendix E, Section V for adjectives. Question

Response

Pagbadbado na pay la daydiay puraw? Pagsursurat yo pay la dayta lapis a bassit? Pagdadait da pay la dayta panait a napuskol? Pagkalkali yo pay la dayta barreta? ________________________ ________________________

Wen./Saanen. Wen./Saanen. Wen./Saanen. Wen./Saanen. __________ __________

36.14 Presentation. The past form of pag- is pinag-. Teacher asks a student to do something. Afterwards teacher and students talk about the activity. Example: T: John, pagsurat mo daytoy tisa. John: (Writes with piece of chalk.) T: Pinagsurat ni John daydiay tisa. (addressing John) Ania ti inaramid mo dita tisa? John: Pinagsurat ko daytoy tisa. T: (addressing class) Ania ti pinagsurat ni John? Class: Tisa ti pinagsurat ni John. 36.15 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dait punas digos awit sapatos tungo

Pinagsurat mo daytoy? _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

269

ILOKANO LESSONS

Cue

Response

innaw

_________________

36.16 Question and Answer Drill. Ask ania ti _____ and yes/ no questions alternately, to be answered accordingly. Pattern:

S1 S2 S3 S2 S3

Ania ti pinagsurat mo? Daytoy (ti pinagsurat ko). Pinagsurat mo daytoy? Wen./Saan. or Saan mo a pinagsurat daytoy? Saan man./Saan.

36.17 Repetition Drill. Past progressive form (optional). Pinagsursurat ko ta lapis idi rabii. Pinagdadait na ta dagom idi kalman. Pinagpunpunas ta dayta rigis itay napan a domingo. Pinagtutualia mi dayta idi awan ka. 36.18 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dait punas tualia digos lampaso

Pinagsursurat na dayta idi. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

36.19 Question and Answer Drill with ania. Question

Response

Ania ti pinagpunpunas na idi? Ania ti pinagdadait mo idi? _____________________ _____________________

Daytoy. Daydiay. ______ ______

36.20 Cumulative Practice.

270

LESSON THIRTY-SIX (1) Tell the class what they can use to do certain activities. (2) Pretend that after telling a new maid her duties, you show her the cleaning materials, the cooking utensils, etc. 36.21 Supplementary Dialogue. Lita: Sara: Lita: Sara: Lita: Sara:

Ania daytoy? Dayta ti pagkagkagay ni Nana Barang no nalamek. Ania met ti pagul-ules na? Daytay burbur a napuskol. Ket pagpanpandiling na met la di inted ko? Wen a, patinayon. Pinagpandiling na man idi kalmanen.

What’s this? That’s what Nana Barang uses for a shawl when it’s cold. And what does she use for a blanket? The thick furry one. Does she ever use the long skirt I gave her? Oh yes, very often. She used it again yesterday.

VOCABULARY aginnaw ala buneng bunot kali kanayon dagom idulin innaw lampaso mula nadadael napuskol narugit nisnis panait pasaray rigis sepilyo tsinelas

to wash dishes get bolo, machete coconut husk 308 dig always needle keep wash dishes polish (the floor) with a coconut husk plant destroyed, broken thick dirty rag for wiping thread occasionally, sometimes rag toothbrush slippers 271

ILOKANO LESSONS tualia tungo

towel firewood

272

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN (Maikatallopulo ket Pito a Leksion)

i…an verb (benefactive focus) 37.1 Dialogue. Situation: Bill:

Tomas: Bill: Tomas:

Bill:

Bill asks Tomas to buy him something. Tomas, igatangannak Tom, will you please man iti kayo ta buy some wood iyaramidak ni Laura ti because I’ll make lamisaan na. Laura a table? Ania a kayo ti kayat What kind of wood mo? do you like? Daydiay narra tapno Narra so it’s nalagda. durable. Wen. Igatangan kanto Yes. I’ll buy you intono bigat. Apay, some tomorrow. kasangay kadi ni Why, is it Laura’s Laura iti mabiit? birthday soon? Wen. Intono Huebes. Yes. On Thursday.

37.2 Repetition Drill. Non-past form of the i…an verb. Base

dait

Idaitak ni Maria iti bado na.1

luto

Ilutoam ni Doris iti kanen na.

gatang

Igatangan na ni Elena iti sapatos na. Ibulodan ta ni Mr. Smith iti libro. Ilabaan mi ni Tata Berto.

bulod laba

I’ll sew Maria a dress. (literally: I’ll sew Maria a dress for her.) You cook Doris some food. (literally: You cook Doris her food.) He/She will buy a pair of shoes for Elena. We will borrow a book for Mr. Smith. We will wash (clothes) for Uncle Berto.

273

ILOKANO LESSONS

Base

surat awat sagana pili

Isuratan tayo ti lakay. Iyawatan yo iti danom dayta ubing. Isaganaan da ti bisita iti kuarto. Ipilyan ni Nanang ni Lina iti relona.

Let’s write (a letter) for the old man. (You) hand the child some water. They prepare a room for the guest. Mother chooses a watch for Lina.

37.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: mo na ta mi tayo yo da ni Luz da Rosa ti babai dagiti lallaki

Isaganaak ni Nanang. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

37.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues bases; students form commands. Cue

dait gatang luto bulod laba surat awat sagana pili

Response

e.g.

Idaitam ni Maria iti bado na. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

274

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN 37.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks sino/ siasino questions; S2 answers in short responses. Use the same bases as in 37.4. Question

Response

Sino ti idaitam iti bado? Sino ti igatangan ta iti libro? _____________________ _____________________ _____________________

Ni Maria. Ti/Daytay ubing. ___________ ___________ ___________

37.6 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks ania questions; S2 answers. Notice the verb form in the question and the oblique construction. Question

Response

Ania ti daitem para kenni Maria? ‘What will you sew for Maria?’ Ania ti gatangen ta para iti/itay ubing? ‘What shall we buy for the child?’ Ania ti isurat ta para kenkuana? ‘What shall we write for him/her?’ ____________________________ ____________________________

Bado (na). Libro (na). Daniw. _______ _______

37.7 Transformation Drill. Change the infinitive form to the future. S1 gives a sentence with the verb in the infinitive form; S2 changes the verb to the future. Infinitive

S1 Ibulodak ni Juan iti maleta. S2 Isaganaan mi ti bisita. __________________ __________________ __________________

Future

S2 Ibulodak to ni Juan iti maleta. S3 Isaganaan minto ti bisita. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

37.8 Expansion Drill. Add a future time expression to the sentences in 37.7. Consult your list of time expressions in Appendix E, Section B. Ibulodam to ni Juan iti maleta intono bigat. Isaganaan min to ti bisita intono madamdama. 275

ILOKANO LESSONS ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 37.9 Question and Answer Drill. Question word kaano + nominalized verbal. Notice the oblique construction again. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Question

Response

Kaano ti ibubulod mo iti maleta para kenni Juan? Kaano ti panagsagana mi para iti bisita?

Intono bigat.

________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Intono madamdama. _______________ _______________ _______________

37.10 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. Q Ania ti aramidem?/Ania ti kuaem? R Igatangak iti libro ni Ana intono umay a domingo. (Ask sino, ania, and kaano questions on this statement.) Q Sino ti igatangam iti libro? R Ni Ana. Q Sino ti gumatang? R Siak. Q Ania ti gatamgem? R Libro. Q Kaano ti panaggatang mo? R Intono umay a domingo. You may add a locative to the statement if you want to. Substitute other words for the underlined words. 37.11 Repetition-Substitution Drill. The double pronoun.2 (1)

Igatangannak iti singsing. _______na ka ____________ _______na ta ____________ _______na kami __________

You or he/she buys (for) me a ring. He/She buys you a ring. ______ us ________ ______ us ________

276

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN _______na tayo __________ _______na ida ___________ _______na ni Rosa _______ _______na da Rosa _______ (2)

______ us ________ ______ them ______ ______ Rosa ______ ______ Rosa and others ________

The plural form. Use da instead of na in the preceding sentences. Igatangan dak iti singsing. Igatangan da ka ____________ _______ da ta _____________ _______ da kami ___________ _______ da tayo ___________ _______ da ida ____________ _______ da ni Rosa ________ _______ da da Rosa ________

37.12 Use other verb bases with double pronouns. Base

bulod surat awat ala sagana luto pili

Example:

Ibulodan na ka iti maleta. Isuratan na kami iti daniw. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

37.13 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. Substitute other words for the underlined ones. S1 Itutoan nak man iti adobo? S2 Apay, dimo ammo ti agluto iti adobo? S1 Saan man, ngem masado ak.

Yes but I’m lazy.

37.14 Repetition Drill. Progressive form of i…an verbs. Contrast the infinitive with the progressive form.

277

ILOKANO LESSONS

Infinitive

Progressive

Igatangak ni Maria iti bado na. Ilabaam ni Rosa. Ibulodan ta ni Rey ti libro. Isaganaan tayo ti bisita. Idaitan tayo ti ubing iti pantalon na.

Igatgatangak ni Maria iti bado na. Ilablabaam ni Rosa. Ibulbulodan ta ni Rey ti libro. Isagsaganaan tayo ti bisita. Idadaitan tayo ti ubing iti pantalon na.

37.15 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dait bulod surat pili sagana luto laba awat

Igatgatangak ti ubing. _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________ _________________

37.16 Transformation Drill. S1 gives a statement in the infinitive; S2 changes it to the progressive form using the bases used in 37.15. Infinitive

Progressive

Igatangak ni Ana iti sapatos. Ilabaam ti kabsat mo. _________________ _________________ _________________

Igatgatangak ni Ana iti sapatos. Ilablabaam ti kabsat mo. ___________________ ___________________ ___________________

37.17 Transformation Drill. S1 forms a command; S2 negates it. Example:

S1 S2

Idaitam ni Maria iti bado na. Saan mo nga idaitan ni Maria iti bado na. ________________________________ ________________________________ ________________________________

278

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN 37.18 Question and Answer Drill. S1 asks an ania ti araramiden/kukuaen question; S2 answers with the progressive form. Question

Response

Ania ti ar-aramidem? Ania ti kukuaen yo? _______________ _______________

Isagsaganak ti lutuek. Iyaw-awat mi ti kuarta kenkuana. _________________________ _________________________

37.19 Sentence Formation Drills. (1) Use ta ‘because’ to join two clauses: the first clause to contain the progressive form; the second to start with adda/awan. e.g. Isagsaganak ti lutuek ta adda bisitak. Idadaitan mi ti bado na ta awan ti bado na. _________________________________ _________________________________ (2) Join two clauses with idi ‘when’, ‘while’. e.g. Idadaitak ni Maria iti bado na idi immay ka. Isagsaganaan mi iti kuarto na idi immayab. (ayab ‘call’) _________________________________ _________________________________ 37.20 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression to sentences in the progressive form. S1 gives a sentence; teacher cues a time expression in English; S2 expands S1’s sentence. S1

Cue

Idadaitak ni Maria. Ilablabaan na. __________ __________ __________

sometimes Idadaitak ni Maria no dadduma. always Ilablabaan na a patinayon. now _____________ every day _____________ every _____________ night

S2

279

ILOKANO LESSONS 37.21 Repetition Drill. Contrast the progressive and the past form of the i…an verb. Progressive

Past

Iyaw-awatak iti danom ni Miss Lopez. Isagsaganaan da ni Rosa iti kuentas na (necklace). Idadaitan mi ti babai iti bado na.

Inyawatak iti danom ni Miss Lopez. Insaganaan da ni Rosa iti kuentas na. Indaitan mi ti babai iti bado na. Inlutuan ni Rosa dagiti estudiante.

Ilutlutuan ni Rosa dagiti estudiante. 37.22 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Indaitak ti ubing. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

gatang awat surat bulod laba sagana pili luto

37.23 Sentence Formation Drill. Form sentences in the past with the verb bases used in 37.22. Example: Ingatangak ti ubing iti kendi (candy). Inlabaam ni Rosa. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 37.24 Transformation Drill. S1 gives a statement in the infinitive; S2 changes it to progressive; S3 changes it to past. Non-past

Progressive

Past

Ibulodak ni Juan iti libro. Iyawatam ti lalaki iti baso.

Ibulbulodak ni Juan iti libro. Iyaw-awatam ti lalaki iti baso.

Imbulodak ni Juan iti libro. Inyawatam ti lalaki iti baso.

280

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN

Non-past

Progressive

Past

______________ ______________ ______________

______________ ______________ ______________

______________ ______________ ______________

37.25 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression to the sentences formed in 37.24. Vary the exercise by giving various acceptable word orders. Example:

Ingatangak ti ubing iti kendi idi kalman. Idi kalman ingatangak ti ubing iti kendi. Imbulodam ni Mr. Ruiz iti libro itay bigat. Itay bigat imbulodam ni Mr. Ruiz iti libro. _______________________________ _______________________________

37.26 Transformation Drill. Teacher gives an affirmative statement; S1 transforms it to a question; S2 answers in the affirmative or negative. Example: T Ingatangam ni nanang mo iti mansanas. S1 Ingatangam ni nanang mo iti mansanas? S2 Saan, diak ingatangan./Saan man ingatangak. 37.27 Chain Drill. Students ask and answer questions following the given pattern. At the end, a student puts the details together in an expanded sentence. S1 Imbulodak ni Ana. S2 Iti ania? S1 Iti libro. S2 Kaano? S1 Idi kalman. S2 Sadino? S1 Idiay laybrari. S3 Imbulodam ni Ana iti libro idi kalman idiay laybrari. 37.28 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with sa ‘then’ as in the following. Pattern: Inlutoan na ti anak na sana inikkan iti kuarta. 281

ILOKANO LESSONS Ingatangak ni Rosa iti payong sako imbulodan iti kapote. ___________________________________ ___________________________________ ___________________________________ 37.29 Cumulative Practice. (1) Request someone to do several things for you. (2) Tell the class what your host family does for you. (3) Write your family about what your host did for you in training. 37.30 Supplemental Dialogue. Diana: Carla: Diana: Carla: Diana: Carla: Diana: Carla: Diana:

Itarimaan mo man daytoy aritos ko? Apay? Igatangak ti paris na a singsing. Ingatangam ni Rita iti kuentas nan? Saan pay. Kaano ti igagatang mo? Intono umay a bulan. Ipiliam iti napintas, wen? Wen, isagsaganak pay iti bado na.

Will you please fix my earrings? Why? I shall buy a matching ring. Have you bought Rita a necklace yet? Not yet. When will you buy (one)? Next month. Pick a nice one for her, will you? Yes. I’m even preparing a dress for her.

VOCABULARY aritos ayab bisita kasangay kuentas lakay nalagda narra pantalon

earrings call guest, visitor birthday necklace old man durable narra tree pants 282

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN pili sagana singsing umayab

choose prepare ring to call

283

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT (Maikatallopulo ket Walo a Leksion)

-an verb (locative focus) 38.1 Dialogue. Situation: Elena: Aida:

Elena:

Aida:

Two teachers plan on how to raise funds. Sino ngata ti Who would want to buy gumatang iti ballots, I wonder? balota? Awan ammok. I don’t know of any, but Ngem apay dita la why don’t we just ask kuma dawatan the PTA members for dagiti PTA iti contributions? kontribusionen? Ay wen. Nasayaat Oh, yes. I think it would sa no kantaan ta be better if we sing to ida nga umuna them first so that tapno mangted da. they’ll give some contribution. Saan, saritaan ta la No, let’s just talk them idan. into it.

38.2 Repetition Drill. The infinitive form of the -an verb. Base

gatang bulod kanta lako dawat

Ni Nana Odiang ti gatangak iti prutas. Da Juan ti bulodan mi iti kuarta. Kantaam ta ubing. Lakoan tayo ni Rosa iti balota. Dakami ti dawatan yo iti kontribusion.

Nana Odiang is the one from whom I will buy fruits. Juan and company are the ones from whom we will borrow money. Sing to the child. Let’s sell Rosa some ballots. We are the ones from whom you will ask for contribution.

284

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT

Base

tulong punas

Tulongam dagiti tattao. Punasak daytoy lamisaan.

Help the people. I’ll wipe (clean) this table.

38.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dawat lako bulod Model: dawat kanta bulod Model: sika isu dakami data isuda ni Pedro da Juan

Ni Mrs. Fernandez ti gatangan yo iti bagas. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ Lakoan tayo ni Rosa. ________________ ________________ ________________ Siak ti gatangan yo iti libro. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

38.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students form sentences with -an verbs. Cue

Response

bulod gatang lako punas dawat kanta tulong

Bulodan yo ni Rosa iti bagas. _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________

285

ILOKANO LESSONS 38.5 Question and Answer Drill. Ask sino and ania questions based on sentences similar to the ones formed in 38.4. S1 gives a statement; S2 asks an ania question; S3 answers; S4 asks a sino question; S5 answers. Example:

S1 S2 S3 S4 S5

Ni Mrs. Fernandez ti gatangan yo iti patis. Ania ti gatangen yo? Patis. Sino ti gatangan yo? Ni Mrs. Fernandez.

38.6 Question and Answer Drill. Ask sadino questions using the infinitive form of -an verbs. Question

Response

Sadino ti gatangan yo iti patis? Sadino bulodan ta iti kotse? _____________________ _____________________

Idiay tiendaan. Dita garahe. ___________ ___________

38.7 Transformation Drill. (a review) Change the infinitive form to the future by adding the future marker to to the appropriate word in the sentence. Infinitive

Future

Example: Ni Maria ti gatangakto iti nateng. Ni Miss Santos ti bulodan tayo iti libro. Kantaak ti anak ni Dora. Lakoan mi dagiti estudiante iti kuaderno. Ikkan tayo ni Dr. Sian iti retrato.

Ni Maria ti gatangak iti nateng. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

38.8 Repetition Drill. The progressive form of the -an verb.1 Gatgatangan mi ni Mrs. Ruiz iti nateng. Laklakoan yo dagiti estudiante iti magasin.

We are buying vegetables from Mrs. Ruiz. You are selling magazines to the students.

286

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT Ik-ikkam ni Celia iti sabsabong.

You are giving Celia flowers.

38.9 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dawat bulod gatang

Laklakoan mi ni Juana iti sabong. __________________________ __________________________ __________________________

38.10 Sentence Formation Drill. Write time expressions and nouns on the board. Teacher or student-volunteer cues verb bases. Students form sentences. (On the board) Time Expressions

Nouns

Cue

kanayon inaldaw tunggal rabii tunggal Sabado minalem binulan binigat

sabsabong nateng radyo kotse libro lamisaan papel

dawat gatang bulod ala lako punas dawat

Example: Dawdawatak ni Rosa iti sabsabong a kanayon. 38.11 Question and Answer Drill. sino + ngata _____ + time expression showing regularity or habitual action. Question

Response

Sino ngata ti bulbulodan da iti kuarta a kanayon/patinayon? Sino ngata ti kankantaan da nga inaldaw? Sino ngata ti gatgatangan da iti bagas tunggal aldaw? __________________________

Ni Mr. Fernandez. Isuda. Dakami. ______

(Use other bases with other time expressions.) 38.12 Repetition Drill. The past tense of the -an verb.2 Linakoan mi ni Mrs. Cortes iti singsing.

We sold Mrs. Cortes a ring.

287

ILOKANO LESSONS Inikkan da daydiay agpalpalama iti bagas. Ni Baket Rosa ti ginatangan da iti nateng. Ni Maestra ti binulodan da iti libro. Ti PTA ti dinawatan mi iti kontribusion.

They gave the beggar some rice. They bought vegetables from Old Lady Rosa. We borrowed the books from Teacher. We asked the PTA for contributions.

38.13 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Ti PTA ti dinawatan mi iti libro.

Model:

Linakoan mi da Rosa.

gatang bulod bulod kanta tulong 38.14 Sentence Formation Drill. Time expressions are written on the blackboard. Teacher cues verb bases; students form sentences with -an verbs in the past tense. The first sentence serves as model. (On the board) Time Expressions

Cue

Response

idi kalman

dawat

itay idi naminsan nga aldaw itay malem idi Domingo itay alas onse

kanta _____

Ni Juan ti dinawatak iti papel idi kalman. _______________________ _______________________

_____ _____ _____

_______________________ _______________________ _______________________

38.15 Question and Answer Drill. Teacher gives an affirmative or negative statement; S1 changes it to a question; S2 answers. Statement

Question

Response

Linakoam ni Rita iti singsing.

Linakoam ni Rita iti singsing?

Saan, diak linakoan.

288

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT

Statement

Question

Response

Saan mo a dinawatan iti kontribusion ti maestram. __________________ __________________

Saan mo a dinawatan iti kontribusion ti maestram?

Saan man, dinawatak.

_______________ _______________

_________ _________

38.16 Transformation Drill. Teacher gives a statement with a verb in the infinitive form; S1 changes it to the future; S2 changes it to the progressive; S3 changes it to the past. T S1 S2 S3

Infinitive Future Progressive Past

Ni Rosa ti __________ __________ __________

gatangan ni Maria iti singsing. gatanganto __________ gatgatangan __________ ginatangan __________

Do this with other verb bases. 38.17 Expansion Drill. Add a locative and a time expression to the sentences formed in 38.16. Example:

Ni Rosa ti gatangan ni Maria iti singsing idiay Manila intono malem.

38.18 Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a statement using the -an verb in any tense; other students ask and answer sino, ania, kaano, sadino questions about the statement. Example: S1 Q R Q R Q R Q R

Ni Mrs. Lim ti binulodak iti tugaw idiay laybrari idi kalman. Sino ti binulodam iti tugaw? Ni Mrs. Lim. Ania ti binulod mo? Tugaw. Sadino? Idiay laybrari. Kaano? Idi kalman.

38.19 Cumulative Practice.

289

ILOKANO LESSONS (1) Every student makes a list of five verb bases to be used with -an. Have students give sentences using the verbs listed.3 (2) Use the same verbs in the past, the future, and the progressive forms. 38.20 Supplemental Dialogue. Situation: Housewife:

Maria:

Housewife: Maria: Housewife:

Maria:

A housewife talks to her maid. Maria, tultulungam met la ni Juan nga agdalos? Wen, Nana, inaldaw. Linakoam met la ni Miss Cortes iti daing? Saan pay Nana. Intono bigat ti kunana. Dimo lipatan a bayadan daytay lakay no madamdama. Wen, Nana.

Maria, do you help John clean (the house)? Yes, Aunt, every day. (‘Aunt’, here, is a term of respect for older non-relatives.) Did you sell Miss Cortes some dried fish? Not yet, Aunt. She said (she’ll buy) tomorrow. 328 Don’t forget to pay the old man later. Yes, Aunt. (meaning: No, Aunt, I won’t forget.)

VOCABULARY balota kontribusion kuaderno kuarta daing ikkan ited lipatan mangted patis

ballots contribution notebook money dried fish to give (something to somebody) to give (something) to forget to give salted fish sauce 290

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT sarita tapno tunggal

talk so that every

291

LESSON THIRTY-NINE (Maikatallopulo ket Siam a Leksion)

maka- verb (actor focus) naka- adjective-like function 39.1 Dialogue. Situation: Sita: Dora: Sita: Dora: Sita: Dora:

Visiting a sick person. Kumusta ti panagriknam? Kaasi ni Apo Dios, naimbag akon. Makabangon kan? Wen, makapagna ak payen. Makapan kanto ngata idiay eskuela inton Lunesen? Barbareng no mabalinton. Kitaekto.

How do you feel? By God’s mercy, I’m well now. Can you get up yet? Yes, I can even walk already. Do you think you can already go to class on Monday? I hope it will be possible then. I’ll see.

39.2 Repetition Drill, maka- verb. (1) Maka + base to express ability Makakanta ni Rosa. Makabasa dayta ubing. Makadait ni Jose. Makauli da. Makasala ka. Makabado ni Ester.

Rose can sing. That child can read. Joseph can sew. They can climb. You can dance. Esther can put on her dress.

(2) Maka- + Rbase to express desire or urge or feeling Makakankanta ak. Makasalsala ak. Makaul-uli ak iti niog. Makadadait ak iti bado.

I I I I

feel feel feel feel

like like like like

292

singing. dancing. climbing a coconut tree. sewing a dress.

LESSON THIRTY-NINE 39.3 Simple Substitution Drill. The use of maka-to express ability. Cue

Response

Model: uli sala dait basa pan

Makakanta ak. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

39.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb base; students form sentences with maka- + an object. (maka- to express ability) Cue

Response

uli dait kanta laba basa

Makauli ak iti kayo. Makadait iti pantalon ni Jose. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

39.5 Question and Answer Drill with sino. S1 asks; S2 answers. Question

Response

Sino ti makadait? Sino ti makakanta? Sino ti makasala? _____________ _____________ _____________

Siak (ti makadait). Isuda (ti makakanta). Dakami (ti makasala). ________________ ________________ ________________

39.6 Substitution Question and Answer Drill with ania + ti maaramid ____. Choose the bases you want to use. Question

Response

Ania ti maaramid mo? ______________ na? ______________ ta? ______________ tayo? ______________ mi? ______________ yo?

Makakanta ak. Makasala. ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

293

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

da? ko? ni Juan? da Rosa? ti lalaki dagiti babbai

___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

39.7 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. Substitute appropriate words for the underlined ones. Q R Q R

Sino ti makakanta? Siak. Ania pay ti maaramid mo? Makasala ak pay.

39.8 Chain Drill. Use of wen/saan questions; pay ‘also’; ngarud ‘then’; laeng ‘only’. Choose your bases. Pattern 1:

Q Makakanta ka? R Saan. Q Ania ngarud ti maaramid mo? R Makasala ak.

Pattern 2:

Q Makaluto ka? R Wen. Q Ania pay ti maaramid mo? R Makalaba ak pay.

Pattern 3:

Q Saan ka a makakanta? R Saan man. Q Ania pay ti maaramid mo? R Makasala ak pay.

Pattern 4:

Q Saan ka a makakanta? R Saan. Q Ania ngarud ti maaramid mo? 294

LESSON THIRTY-NINE R Makasala ak laeng. 39.9 Sentence Formation Drill. Join two clauses, an affirmative and a negative, with ngem ‘but’. Pattern:

Makaluto ni Pat ngem saan a makadait. Makakanta kami ngem dikami makasala. Makaidda da ngem saan da a makaturog. ________________________________ ________________________________

39.10 Repetition Drill. Maka- + Rbase (to express urge or desire to). Makadadait ak. Makabasbasa da. Makakankanta kami. Makasalsala dagiti ubbing.

I feel like sewing. They feel like reading. We feel like singing. The children feel like dancing.

39.11 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: dait uli sala basa

Makakankanta ak. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

39.12 Expansion Drill. Form similar sentences as in 39.11 but add a time expression like a kanayon, no dadduma, ita, etc. Example:

Makakankanta ak a kanayon. ______________ no dadduma.

39.13 Expansion Drill with ngem ‘but’; met ‘also’ Makadadait ak no dadduma ngem awan met iti makina. Makatuktukar ni Delia sagpaminsan ngem awan met ti pyano.

I feel like sewing some- times, but there’s no sewing machine. Delia wants to play the piano once in a while, but there is no piano. 295

ILOKANO LESSONS

Form similar sentences. 39.14 Repetition Drill. Past form naka-. (1)

Nakagatang ak iti libro. Nakalutu ak ti inapoyen. Nakakanta akon. Nakaturog ni Pedro. Nakasala. Nakapanen.

I was able to buy a book. I have cooked rice already. I have sung already. Peter was able to sleep. He/She was able to dance. He/She has gone already.

(2)

Nakabasa ak idi rabii. Nakapanak itay bigat.

I was able to read last night. I was able to go this morning. We were able to sing at four o’clock. You were able to sew yesterday. You were able to cook early. They were able to go up a while ago.

Nakakanta kami itay alas kuatro. Nakadait kayo idi malem. Nakaluto kayo a nasapa. Nakauli da itay.

39.15 Sentence Formation Drill. Students form sentences in the past from verb bases and time expressions written on the blackboard. Verb Base

Time Expression

Response

kanta dait turog luto laba surat basa

idi kalman itay bigat itay napan a Domingo idi malem idi lawas na idi napan a bulan idi Huebes

Nakakanta da idi kalman. ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________ ________________

39.16 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. Pattern 1: Q R Q R

Nakakanta kan? Saan pay. Apay? Nagbasa ak.

Pattern 2: Q Nakakanta kayon? 296

LESSON THIRTY-NINE R Saan pay. Q Kaanonto ngarud? R Intono rabii. 39.17 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with ta (gapo ta) ‘because’. First clause is in the negative; the second is in the affirmative. Notice the verb form of the second clause. Example: Saan a nakadait ni Maria ta naglaba. ____________________________ ____________________________ 39.18 Repetition Drill. naka- + base to form adjective-like words. Nakasapatos ni Pedro. Nakaamerikana ni Juan. Nakakotse da Juan. Nakapuraw ni Rosa.

Peter has shoes on. John has a coat on. John and company are riding in a car. Rose is in white.

39.19 Sentence Formation Drill. Form sentences similar to those in 39.18 with words such as: pantalon

e.g.

tsinelas medias kamiseta kamisadentro sandalyas

Nakapantalon ti ubing itatta. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

You may expand your sentences. 39.20 Cumulative Practice. (1) Ask a classmate whether he can do several things you ask him to do. (2) Ask a friend/classmate about some of the things he could do sometime back. 297

ILOKANO LESSONS (3) Imagine that you’re looking for a maid. Write some of the qualities she should have to a friend who lives in the next town. (4) Role-play: interviewing someone for a possible position. 39.21 Supplemental Dialogue. Aida: Nina: Aida: Nina: Aida: Nina:

Agawid tan ta makaturog1 akon. Makapagna ka ngata? Wen, nalaing ak nga magna. Makaadayo ta ngata ket nangato ta sapatos mo? Makataray ak pay a no ania ti kunam. Intan ngaruden ta naladaw la unayen.

Let’s go home because I’m already sleepy. Do you think you can walk? Yes, I’m good at walking. Do you think we can go far? Your shoes are high-heeled. I can even run, for all you know. Let’s go, then, because it’s very late already.

VOCABULARY Kaasi ni Apo Dios kamisadentro kamiseta mabalin makabangon makapagna makapan medias panagrikna sandalyas

By God’s mercy man’s shirt T-shirt possible to be able to rise from bed to be able to walk to be able to go socks, stockings feeling sandals

298

LESSON FORTY (Maikauppat a Pulo a Leksion)

ma-verb (goal focus) Particle: bareng ‘hope’ 40.1 Dialogue. Situation: Esteban: Bob: Esteban: Bob: Esteban: Bob:

Esteban and Bob discuss a deadline. Malpas mo met la ngata dayta report mo intono Biernes? Wen, mabulod ko la ketdi daydiay baro a libro ni Juan. Ania a libro? Daydiay Current Trends in Mathematics. Nabasa na kadin? Diak ammo. Barbareng no nabasa nan.

Do you think you’ll finish your report by Friday? Yes, so long as I can borrow John’s new book. What book? Current Trends in Mathematics. Has he read it yet? I don’t know. I hope he has (read it already).

40.2 Repetition Drill. The infinitive of the ma- verb. (1) Contrast between maka- and ma-1 maka-

ma-

Mabasak ti libro. ‘I can read the book.’

Makabasa ak iti libro. ‘I can read a book.’

Makadait ka iti pantalon. ‘You can sew a pair of pants.’

Madait mo ti pantalon. ‘You can sew the pair of pants.’

Makasala iti pandanggo. ‘He/She can dance pandango.’

Masala na ti pandanggo. ‘He/She can dance the pandango.’

299

ILOKANO LESSONS (1) Contrast between maka- and ma-1 maka-

ma-

Makaluto ni Juana iti pinakbet. ‘Juana can cook pinakbet.’

Maluto ni Juana ti pinakbet. ‘Juana can cook (the dish) pinakbet.’

(2) Mabasak ta libro. Maaramid na ta trabaho. Makanta ta ti Pamulinawen. Malako mi daytoy basi. Mainom tayo amin daytoy serbesa. Madait da ti bado da.

I can read the book. He can do the work. We can sing the Pamulinawen. We can sell this rice wine. We can drink all this beer. They can sew their dresses.

40.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: basa aramid kanta inom sala dait

Malako ta daytoy. ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________ ______________

40.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students form statements with ma-. Cue

lako dait kanta sala aramid basa

Response

e.g.

Malakok daytoy librok. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

40.5 Repetition Drill. Use of kuma ‘hope to’ or ‘wish to’. Malakok kuma daytoy baboy ko.

I wish I could sell my pig./ I hope I will be able to sell my pig. 300

LESSON FORTY Madait na kuma daydiay bado na. Mabasak kuma daytoy surat na. Maaramid ta kuma daytoy trabaho ta.

I wish she could sew her dress./I hope she will be able to sew her dress. I wish I could read his letter./I hope I will be able to read his letter. I wish we could do our job./ I hope we will be able to do our job.

40.6 Sentence Formation Drill. Use kuma in a sentence with a ma- verb. e.g.

Masalak kuma ti Tinikling. _____________________ _____________________

40.7 Repetition Drill, Use of masapol ‘(it is) necessary’. Masapol a malakok daytoy baboy ko. Masapol a madait mo dayta badok. Masapol a mabasa ta daytay surat mo. Masapol a makanta mi ti Pamulinawen.

It is necessary that sell my pig. It is necessary that to sew my dress. It is necessary that read your letter. It is necessary that sing Pamulinawen.

I be able to you be able we be able to we be able to

40.8 Expansion and Question-Answer Drill. Use apay ‘why’ to be answered by gapo ta ‘because’. Q R Q R Q R Q R Q R

Apay a masapol a malakom dayta baboy? Gapo ta masapol ko ti kuarta. Apay a masapol a madait na dayta badom? Gapo ta masapol a mapan ak idiay ili. Apay a masapol a mabasa yo daydiay surat? Gapo ta adda kayat ko nga ammoen. __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________ __________________________________

40.9 Question and Answer Drill with ngata ‘maybe’ S1 asks a question with ngata; S2 answers with bareng 2 ‘it is to be hoped’.

301

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Malakom ngata ta baboy mo? Madait na ngata daydiay pantalon mo? Madigos mo ngata toy ubing? __________________ __________________

Bareng malakok. Bareng madait na. Bareng madigos ko. ________________ ________________

40.10 Expansion Drill with no ‘if’. Use a ma-verb in the first clause; an -en verb in the second. Malakok dayta baboy no gatangem. Mausar na ti bado na no daitem. Makan tayo ti ikan no lutoem. _______________________ _______________________

I can sell the pig if you buy it. She can wear her dress if you sew it. We can eat the fish if you cook it.

40.11 Expansion Drill. Use no + kayat. Pattern:

Malakok dayta baboy no kayat ko. Madait ko daytoy badok no kayat ko. ____________________________ ____________________________

40.12 Repetition Drill. Past form na-. Nalakom daydiay balay mo? Nadigos na daydiay ubing? Nakanta da ti Pamulinawen? Nainom yo daydiay basi? Nabasam daydiay surat na?

Were you able to sell your house? Was he able to bathe the child? Were they able to sing Pamulinawen? Were you able to drink the rice wine? Were you able to read his/her letter?

40.13 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: digos 302

Nalako na. _________

LESSON FORTY

Cue

Response

kanta inom basa dait

_________ _________ _________ _________ Model:

ko mi mo ta yo ti ubing dagiti ubbing ni Rosa da Rosa

Nalako da. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________

40.14 Question and Answer Drill. Ask yes/no questions in the affirmative and negative alternately. Response may be in the affirmative or negative. Use sa ‘perhaps’ in your answers. Question

Response

Saan na a nalako daytay tagilako Nalako nansa./Saan sa. na? ‘merchandise’, ‘wares’ Nalako na daytay relo na? Wen sa./Nalako nansa./Saan sa. Saan yo a nadait daytay bado ni Saan man sa./Saan sa. Rosa? Nadait ni Rosa daytay badom? Wen sa./Saan sa. _______________________ ______________ _______________________ ______________ 40.15 Chain Drill. Follow this pattern. Give appropriate substitutes for the underlined bases. (1)

To express doubt with sa Example:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Saan na a nalako tay singsing? Saan sa. Apay? Nangina kano unay.

303

ILOKANO LESSONS (2)

With certainty Example:

S1 S2 S1 S2

Saanda a nadigos daytay ubing? Saan. Apay? Nalamiis unay.

You may add a time expression or locative to the sentences if you want to. Example:

S1 Nadigos mo dayta ubing idiay karayan itay bigat? S2 Saan. S1 Apay? S2 Naturog.

40.16 Transformation Drill. Change the infinitive form to the future. Infinitive

Future

Malakok ti relok. Mabasam dayta nobela. Malako ni Juan daydiay manok. Mauli da daydiay niog.

Malakokto ti relok. Mabasamto dayta nobela. ___________________ ___________________

40.17 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with intono ‘when’. First clause with ma- and -n ‘already’; second clause with maka. e.g. Malakokto daytoy relo kon intono makariing ka. Madait nanto daydiay bado nan intono makadigos ka. _______________________________________ _______________________________________ 40.18 Cumulative Practice. Students form groups of twos or threes. Each group presents an original dialogue. 40.19 Supplemental Dialogues. (1) Situation:

Mr. Cruz, a teacher, sees Carias, a farmer. Carias has been sick but is now fully recovered.

304

LESSON FORTY Mr. Cruz: Carias: Mr. Cruz: Carias: Mr. Cruz: Carias:

Apay, Carias, nadamag ko a nagsakit ka kano. Wen, maestro, ngem kaasi ni Apo Dios ket immimbag akon. Al-alwadam ta dikanto mabegnat. Sapay kuma maestro ta saan. Saan ka pay kuma nga agpagpagna unay. Saan maestro. Mangwatwatwat ak laeng. Bareng makatrabaho akton.

(2) Situation:

Yes, sir, but by God’s help I have become well already. Be careful that you don’t suffer a relapse. I hope, sir, that I don’t. You shouldn’t be walk ing about too much yet. No, sir. I’m just exercising around a bit. I hope I shall be able to work soon.

Pablo checks on Doro’s command of English.

Pablo:

Maawatam ti Ingles?

Doro: Pablo: Doro: Pablo:

Wen. Makasurat ka? Sangkabassit. Apay? Mabasam daytoy surat ni Mr. Smith? (reads the letter silently) Wen, matarusak pay.

Doro:

Say, Carias, I heard that you got sick.

Do you understand English? Yes. Can you write? A little. Why? Can you read this letter of Mr. Smith? (reads the letter silently) Yes, I can understand it too.

VOCABULARY barbareng kuma masapol nalamiis nangina ngata tagilako tango trabaho unay

hopefully subjunctive term meaning ‘hope’ or ‘wish’ necessary cold, cool expensive maybe merchandise, wares the Argentine dance, tango job an intensifier meaning ‘very’ 305

ILOKANO LESSONS

306

LESSON FORTY-ONE (Maikauppat a Pulo ket Maysa a Leksion)

maki-verb: participative activity (actor focus) paki…an: place for a participative activity 41.1 Dialogue. Situation: Ester: Rita: Ester: Rita: Ester:

Ester and Rita talk about a dance to be attended. Intayonto kano makisala intono piesta kuna ni Delia. Sadino ditoy ti pakisalaan tayo? Dita oditoryum dita plasa. Umay kadi makipiesta dagitay kakabsat na? Saan sa ta immay da met nakipaskuan.

Delia says we will go and attend a dance during the fiesta. Where shall we go to attend the dance? At the auditorium in the plaza. Are her brothers/ sisters coming for the fiesta? Maybe not because they came for Christmas.

41.2 Repetition Drill. The infinitive form of maki- verbs. (1)

Makiinom ak man, Apo. Makilugan ak man, Mr. Cruz. Makipayong ak man, maestra. Makikuyog ak man kenka.

(2)

Makipiesta kami idiay San Fernando.

May I please have a drink, sir/ma’am? May I ride with you, Mr. Cruz? May I share the shade of your umbrella, teacher? May I go with you? We will attend the fiesta in San Fernando. 307

ILOKANO LESSONS Makitienda da ditoy.

They will do their marketing here. We will spend Christmas in Manila. The young ladies will dance at the wedding.

Makipaskua tayo idiay Manila. Makisala dagiti babbalasang idiay bodaan.

41.3 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Makipiesta kami. _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________

Model:

Makipaskua ak. ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________

kuyog tienda paskua miting sala inom ka ta tayo kami kayo da ni Rosa da Juan ti ubing dagiti tattao

41.4 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues verb bases; students form sentences with maki- (infinitive form) plus a locative and a time expression. Cue

Response

tienda sala inom kuyog paskua miting piesta

Makitienda ak ditoy ita. Makisala da idiay ili. __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________ __________________

308

LESSON FORTY-ONE 41.5 Question and Answer Drill. S1 gives a sentence similar to 41.4; S2 asks a sino question; S3 asks a sadino question; S4 asks a kaano question to be answered by other students.1 (1)

Statement Q R Q R Q R

Makitienda ak ditoy itatta. Sino ti makitienda? Ni ______. Sadino ti pakitiendaan na? Ditoy. Kaano? Itatta.

(2) Do the reverse. Students ask sino, sadino, kaano questions. Then a student summarizes the details in one statement. 41.6 Question and Answer Drill. Adda/Awan and the plural nominative pronoun. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Question

Response

Adda makipiesta kadakayo? Awan makimiting kadakuada? _______________________ _______________________

Adda./Awan. Adda./Awan. __________ __________

41.7 Expansion Drill. Add a time expression in the future to the questions in 41.6. Example: Adda makipiesta kadakayo inton Domingo? Awan makimiting kadakuada inton bigat? ________________________________ ________________________________ 41.8 Dialogue Variation. Substitute on the underlined items. Example 1: with adda. S1 Adda makipiesta kadakayo? S2 Adda.

309

ILOKANO LESSONS S1 S2 S1 S2 Example S1 S2 S1 S2 S1

Sino? Dakami. Inton ano?/Kaano? Inton Domingo. 2: with kayat/mapan. Kayat yo ti makisala? Wen. Kaano? Intono rabii. Sadino? Idiay munisipio.

Substitute mapan for kayat. 41.9 Question and Answer Drill with ammo-. (1) Ammo + ko pronoun + nga- ‘know that’. S1 asks a question; S2 answers. Question

Response

Ammom a makitienda danto no bigat? Ammo yo a makipiesta tayo/tono Domingo? Ammo da a makimiting ni Apo Direktor inton alas tres? ____________________________ ____________________________

Wen./Saan. Wen./Saan. Wen./Saan. _________ _________

(2) Ammo- + no ‘if’. Question

Response

Ammo yo no makikiyug da kadatayo? Ammom no makisala ni Juan intono rabii? ____________________________ ____________________________

Wen./Saan. Wen./Saan. _________ _________

41.10 Repetition Drill. Progressive form of the maki- verb. Makititienda ak ditoy. Makikuykuyog ka kadakuada. Makipipiesta kami idiay Laoag.

I go marketing here. You are going with them. We are attending the fiesta in Laoag.

310

LESSON FORTY-ONE Makipaspaskua da idiay ili tayo. Makipangpangan da.

We are spending Christmas in our home town. They are eating (with others).

41.11 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model:

Makikuykuyog da. _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________

piesta sala miting inom tienda paskua

41.12 Sentence Formation Drill. Teacher cues the verb bases; students form sentences in the progressive form of the maki- verb. Cue

Response

piesta sala inom paskua kuyog miting

Makipipiesta ni Jose idiay Narvacan. _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________ _____________________________

41.13 Expansion Drill. S1 gives a statement in the progressive form; S2 expands it by adding a locative and a time expression. Statement

Expansion

Makipaspaskua da. _______________ _______________ _______________

Makipaspaskua da ditoy a patinayon. ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

41.14 Question and Answer Drill with apay + di- + ko pronoun + met + the progressive form of mak i-. Answer with gapo ta ______.

311

ILOKANO LESSONS

Question

Response

Apay dika met makititienda ditoyen? Apay dida met makimismisa idiayen? Apay dikayo met makimitmingen?

Gapo ta adda klase min.

________________________ ________________________

Gapo ta adayo ti balay da. Gapo ta adda ti trabaho mi. __________________ __________________

41.15 Repetition Drill. Past form: naki-. Nakitienda ak itay bigat dita ili. Nakipiesta akon idi kalman idiay Laoag. Nakipaskua da idiay Baguio. Nakimiting kayo itay. Nakisala dagiti babbalasang idi rabii. 41.16 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: tienda paskua miting sala inom

Nakipiesta kami idiay Pasay. ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________ ______________________

41.17 Repetition Drill. Paki…an (place for).2 Question

Response

Sadino ti pakipiestaan da? ‘Where do they attend the fiesta?’ Sadino ti pakibodaan tayo? ‘Where do we attend the wedding?’ Sadino ti pakiay-ayaman dagiti ubbing? ‘Where do the children play?’

Idiay Vigan. ‘In Vigan.’ Dita abagatan. ‘In the south.’ Ditoy eskuelaan. ‘Here in school.’

41.18 Students ask and answer sadino questions with nominalized paki…an verbs similar to those of 41.17. 41.19 Repetition Drill. Naki…an (place for past participative activity). (1) Contrast the infinitive and past forms of the verbal nouns. 312

LESSON FORTY-ONE

Paki…an

Naki…an

Ditoy ti pakisalaan mi.

Ditoy ti nakisalaan mi idi Domingo. Idiay iti nakimitingan tayo itay bigat. Dita ti nakitiendaan ni Maria idi kalman.

Idiay ti pakimitingan tayo. Dita ti pakitiendaan ni Maria. (2)

Sadino ti nakipartian da Idiay ayan da Pedro. Jose? Sadino ti nakitrabahoan da Idiay kalsada. tatang mo?

41.20 Sentence Formation Drill. Make sentences with the past form plus time expressions. Example: Nakimiting da idi kalman. Nakisala kami idi rabii. Naki-inom tayo itay. ___________________ ___________________ 41.21 Expansion Drill. Join two clauses with kuma no ‘perhaps if’. First clause has naki-; second has another verb in the past form or adda. Example: Nakimiting kami kuma no imbaga da. Nakitienda kayo kuma no adda tiendaan. Nakisala da kuma no kinayat da. Naki-inom tayo kuma no adda mainom. ________________________________ ________________________________ 41.22 Dialogue Variation. Substitute other bases and words for the underlined ones. Example: S1 Nakimiting ka idi kalman? S2 Saan.

313

ILOKANO LESSONS S1 Apay? S2 Nakikuyog ak kada Juan. S1 Nakipiesta kami (idiay Sta. Cruz). 41.23 Repetition Drill. Paki + R + -an (place for habitual participative activity). Idiay Laoag ti pakipipiestaan mi. Ditoy ti pakititiendaan ni Nanang. Ditoy ti pakipangpanganan da. Idiay ti pakipaspaskua an dagiti ubbing.

Laoag is the place where we attend fiestas regularly. This is where Mother goes to market regularly. This is where they eat with others regularly. That (a place yonder) is where the children go for Christmas habitually.

41.24 Simple Substitution Drill. Cue

Response

Model: tienda piesta paskua inom dagos digos kuyog

Idiay ti pakiturturogan mi. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________

41.25 Sentence Formation Drill. Form sentences similar to those in 41.24. 41.26 Question and Answer Drill. Ask and answer sadino questions. Example:

Sadino ti pakiin-inoman yo? Sadino ti pakititiendaan da? _____________________ _____________________

314

Idiay daya. Ditoy ili. ________ ________

LESSON FORTY-ONE 41.27 Transformation Drill. Change the infinitive form in the preceding sentences to past and add a time expression. Example: Sadino ti nakiin-inoman yo idi napan a tawen? ________________________ ________________________

Idiay daya. _________ _________

41.28 Cumulative Practice. (1) Tell the class what activities you want to participate in when you get to the Philippines. (2) Tell your family about activities you are participating in. 41.29 Supplemental Dialogue. Dolores: Ana: Dolores: Ana: Dolores: Ana: Dolores: Ana:

(to some friends) Papanan yo? Mapan kami makimisa idiay ili. Ania ti pagluganan yo ngay? Makilugan kami kada Juan. Saan kadi a makimismisa ni Rosa? Saan man ngem nakitienda ita. Makikuyog ak man ngarud kadakayo?3 Wen, umaykan.

(to some friends) Where are you going? We’re going to attend Mass in town. Where will you ride? We’ll ride with John (and company). Doesn’t Rose go to Mass? Yes, she does, but she went to market today. May I join you, then? Yes, come along.

VOCABULARY boda kuyog dagos Laoag misa Narvacan paskua

wedding go with temporary lodging place capital city of Ilocos Norte Holy Mass (Catholic Church service) a town in Ilocos Sur Christmas 315

ILOKANO LESSONS piesta plasa

fiesta town plaza

316

APPENDIX A Ilokano Pronouns

Pronoun Series ‘SIAK’ ‘AK’ ‘KO’ ‘KANIAK’ (oblique)

PLURAL 1st Person

Pronoun Series ‘SIAK’ ‘AK’ ‘KO’

SINGULAR 1st Person 2nd Person siak sika ak ka ko/-k mo/-m kaniak kenka

dual data ta ta

excl. dakami kami mi

2nd Person

incl. datayo dakayo tayo kayo tayo yo

3rd Person isu ø na kenkuana 3rd Person isuda da da

‘KANIAK’ kadata kadakami kadatayo kadakayo kadakuada (oblique)

317

APPENDIX B Classroom Expressions

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

Dumngeg kayo Dublien yo./Isao yo. Serra-an yo ti libro yo. Isao yo a sinaggaysa. Sika. Dakayo amin. Ditoy a bangir. Dita a bangir. Denggen yo nga umuna. Tuladen dak.

11. 12. 13.

Sungbatan dak. Maawatan yo? Punasam/boraem ti pisarra. Awan ti agsao ti Ingles. Intayo agkapen.

14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28.

Awan ti makaringgor./Awan ti agtagtagari. Agulimek kayo. Ala/sige manen. Maminsan pay. Agsaludsud ak, sumungbat kayo. Dakayo ti agsaludsod. Ikabesa yo daytoy. Agadal kayo a nalaing. Aramiden yo ti ‘home work’ yo nga inaldaw. Saan yo a pigpigsaan. Mangala ka man iti tisa idiay opisina? Ania ti saan yo a maawatan? In-inayadem nga isao. 318

Listen. Repeat./Say it. Close your books. Repeat one by one. You (singular). All of you. This side. That side. Listen first. Repeat after me. (Literally: Imitate me.) Answer me. Do you understand? Erase the blackboard. Don’t speak English. Let’s go for our coffee break. Don’t be noisy. Be quiet. Again. Once more. I ask; you answer. You ask questions. Memorize this. Study hard. Do your homework every day. Not too loud. Please get some pieces of chalk from the office. What don’t you under stand? Say it slowly.

APPENDIX B 29. 30.

Di kayo agladladaw nga umay. Nalpasen ti klase. Agawid tayon.

319

Don’t come late. Class is over. Let’s go home.

APPENDIX C Common Expressions

A.

B.

Greetings 1. Papanam?/Papanan yo? 2. Nangan kan? 3. Kaano ti sangpet yo? Invitational expressions 1. Dumagas kay pay. 2. Intayo agpasyar. 3. Kuyugen nak man? 4. 5. 6. 7.

C.

D.

Intayon. Intayo aglalangoy. Mangan tayon. Aginana tayon.

Leave-takings 1. Dios ti agbati. (said by person leaving) 2. Dios ti kumuyog. (said by person left behind) 3. Mapan kamin./Umuna kam pay. 4. Kasta pay a./Kasta pay laeng a./Kasta ngaruden. 5. Inkamin./Inkami pay laeng. 6. Umay kanto manen./Umay kayonto manen. Shopping 1. Intayon makitienda./Intayon makimerkado. 2. Ania ti gatangen tayo?

320

Where are you going? Have you eaten? When did you arrive? Drop in. Let’s take a walk. Will you accompany me? Let’s go. Let’s go swimming. Let’s eat. Let’s rest. God stay with you. God go with you. We’re leaving. So long. We’re leaving. Come again.

Let’s go to market. What shall we buy?

APPENDIX C 3.

E.

4.

Sagmamano dagitoy/ dagita? Awan tawar nan?

5. 6.

Nangina unay. Awan ti sabali a klasen?

7. 8. 9.

Mano ti maysa a yarda? Mano ti sangka disso? Awan ti nalaklakan?

10.

Gumatang ak man iti ______.

Mealtime expressions 1. Agidasar kan. 2. Mabisin akon. 3. Ania ti sida tayo? 4.

Naimas ti sida tayo.

5. 6.

Nabsug akon. Mangan kayo. Dikay agbabain. Naimas ti pannangan ko. Pagsasangwan tayo ti adda.

7. 8. F.

Physical indispositions 1. Mad-madi ti riknak. 2. Nabannog ak. 3. Nasakit ti ulok. 4. Nasakit ti bagbagik. 5. Agsasadut ak. 6. 7. 8. 9.

G.

Aggurigor ak. Malammin ak. Kasano ti riknam? Agpupungtot ak.

How much is each of these/those? Can’t I have it for less? It’s too expensive. Don’t you have another kind? How much is a yard? How much is a lot? Is there no cheaper one? I’d like to buy ______.

Set the table. I’m hungry now. What do we have for lunch/dinner? Our lunch/dinner is good. I’m full. Eat. Don’t be shy. I have a good appetite. Let’s share what we have. I’m feeling bad. I’m tired. I have a headache. I don’t feel well. I don’t feel like doing anything. I’m running a fever. I feel cold. How do you feel? I’m mad.

Words of frustration and disappointment 1. Ania metten! How awful!

321

APPENDIX C

H.

2.

Nagbayag kan!

3. 4.

Ania ket din! Sika ngamin!

5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Apay ngamin! Adda la kenka. Awan serserbi na! Naladawen! Awan ti pabpabasolem! Nagdakesen! Bay-amon!

Words of banter and fun 1. Sadot! 2. Awan bibiang mo! 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

I.

Langgong!/Torpe! Loko! Nakasursuron! Lastog/Pangas! Bastos/Bastian! Awan ti bain!/Awan ti bain mo! Bal-la!/Bagtit!

Other useful expressions 1. Nakitam! 2. Gasanggasaten. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ania ngaruden? Sika ti makaammo. Ania ti orasen? Imbagak la ngaruden. Awan maaramid na? Ania ti napasamak? Nabayag kayon?

10. 11.

Sino ti kadua yo? Am-ammom ni (name of person)? Nalpas yon?

12.

322

What took you so long? Oh my! It’s your fault. (Literally: It’s because of you.) Why? Oh why? It’s up to you. It’s useless. Too late! Don’t blame anyone. Too bad! Never mind! Lazy bone! None of your business! Stupid! Nuts! How irritating! Braggart! Rude! Shameless! Crazy! See! Whatever will be, will be. What now? It’s up to you. What time is it? I told you so. Can’t he do anything? What happened? Have you been waiting long? Who is with you? Do you know (name of person)? Have you finished (something)?

APPENDIX C 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32.

Umuna kayon. Aganos ka. Napintas ti ______. Naimbag ti ______. Nasayaat ti ______. Kayat ko ti ______. Gustok ti _____. Tulungan nak man? Aguray ka. Mabiit laeng. Awan ti usarek. Iddepem ti silaw. Ania ti pagluganan tayo? Naggapuan yo? Intayo agtapat. Ania ti ar-aramidem? Kaasi ni Apo Dios. No ipalubos ni Apo Dios. Sapay koma ta kasta. Ala man ngarud. Pangngaasim man (bassit).

323

Go ahead. Be patient. The ______ is nice. The ______ is good. The ____ is fine. I like (something). Will you help me? You wait. Just a moment. I have nothing to use. Turn off the light. Where shall we ride? Where did you come from? Let’s go serenading. What are you doing? With God’s mercy. God willing. It is hoped to be so. Please do. Please.

APPENDIX D Ilokano and Spanish Loan Numbers

Ilokano Numbers 1 maysa 2 dua 3 tallo 4 uppat 5 lima 6 innem 7 pito 8 walo 9 siam 10 sangapulo 11 sangapulo ket maysa 12 sangapulo ket dua 13 sangapulo ket tallo 14 sangapulo ket uppat 15 sangapulo ket lima 16 sangapulo ket innem 17 sangapulo ket pito 18 sangapulo ket walo 19 sangapulo ket siam 20 duapulo 21 duapulo ket maysa 22 duapulo ket dua 30 tallopulo 40 uppat a pulo 50 lima pulo 60 innem a pulo 70 pito pulo 80 walo pulo 90 siam a pulo 100 sangagasut (maysa a gasut) 101 sangagasut ket maysa 112 sangagasut ket sangapulo ket dua 123 sangagasut ket duapulo ket tallo 134 sangagasut ket tallopulo ket uppat 145 sangagasut ket uppat a pulo ket lima 156 sangagasut ket lima pulo ket innem 324

APPENDIX D 167 178 189 199 200 300 400 510 523 1,000 2,000 2,300 2,340 2,345 10,000 100,000 1,000,000

sangagasut ket innem a pulo ket pito sangagasut ket pito pulo ket walo sangagasut ket walo pulo ket siam sangagasut ket siam a pulo ket siam dua a gasut tallo a gasut uppat a gasut lima a gasut ket sangapulo lima a gasut ket dua pulo ket tallo sangaribo (maysa a ribo) dua a ribo dua a ribo ket tallo a gasut dua a ribo ket tallo a gasut ket uppat a pulo dua a ribo ket tallo a gasut ket uppat a pulo ket lima sangapulo a ribo sangagasut a ribo (maysa a gasut a ribo) sanga riwriw (maysa a riwriw)

Useful Spanish Loans 1 uno 2 dos 3 tres 4 kuwatro 5 singko 6 sais 7 siyete 8 otso 9 nuwebe 10 diyes 11 onse 12 dose 13 trese 14 katorse 15 kinse 16 disisais 17 disisiyete 18 disiotso 19 disinuwebe 20 beinte 21 beinte uno 25 beinte singko 30 treinta 325

APPENDIX D 35 40 45 50 60 70 80 90 100 101 112 123 134 145 156 167 178 189 199 200 300 400 500 1,000 1,969

treinta’y singko kuwarenta kuwarenta’y singko singkuwenta sisenta sitenta otsenta nubenta siento siento uno siento dose siento beinte tres siento treinta’y kuwatro siento kuwarenta’y singko siento singkuwenta’y sais siento sisenta’y siete siento sitenta’y otso siento otsenta’y nuwebe siento nubenta’y nuwebe dos sientos tres sientos kuwatro sientos kinyentos mil mil nuwebe sientos sisenta’y nuwebe

326

APPENDIX E Useful Vocabulary Lists

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V.

W. A.

Days of the Week; Months of the Year Time Expressions Important Calendar Events Directions Measurements Officials: School, Public, Church Kinship Terms Professions and Occupations Nationalities Important Places in Towns and Barrios Parts of the Body Parts of the House: In and Around Things for the House; Things for Cleaning Utensils and Other Things in the Kitchen; Eating Utensils Clothes and Accessories: for Men; for Women; for Men and Women Foods: Vegetables; Fruits; Seafood; Drinks Planting Terms; Parts of Plants Insects and Animals Topographical Terms Natural Elements and Occurrences Modes of Transportation List of Adjectives: for People; for Objects and Conditions; for Clothes; for Food; for the Weather; Colors; Useful Antonyms; Sample Comparison of Adjectives List of Verb Bases and the Affixes They Commonly Take Days of the Week Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday

Lúnes Martés Miyérkoles Huébes Byérnes Sábado 327

APPENDIX E Sunday

Domíngo

Months of the Year January Enéro February Pebréro March Márso April Abríl May Máyo June Húnyo July Húlyo August Agósto September Septyémbre October Oktúbre November Nobyémbre December Disyémbre B.

Time Expressions afternoon later last Sunday/Monday… week month year night morning month now noon next Sunday/ Monday week month year night today tomorrow tomorrow morning noon

malém madamdamá idí napán a Domíngo/Lúnes idí napán a láwas/idí láwas na idí napán a búlan idí napán a tawén idí rabií agsápa búlan itá aldáw intóno Domíngo/Lúnes intóno umáy a láwas intóno umáy a búlan intóno umáy a tawén rabií itá nga aldáw intóno bigát intóno bigát ti agsápa intóno aldáw no bigát intóno malém no bigát

afternoon evening/ intóno rabií no bigát night week

láwas 328

APPENDIX E

C.

D.

year yesterday

tawén idí kalmán

Important Calendar All Saints’ Day anniversary baptism birth birthday Christmas novena of Masses before Christmas feast (fiesta) funeral novena of prayers after the burial Holy Week Holy Monday/ Tuesday/ Wednesday Holy Thursday Good Friday Holy Saturday Easter Sunday

Events Fiésta ti natáy anibersáryo/panagtawén bunyág pannakayanák kanagánan/kasangáy Paskuá mísa agináldo fiésta punpón pasiám

Independence Day lent New Year Palm Sunday Rizal Day Three Kings town fiesta wedding

semána sánta nasantoán a Lúnes/Martés/ Miyérkoles or: Lúnes/Martés/ Miyérkoles sánto Huwébes sánto Biérnes sánto Sábado de Glória Paskuá ti panag-úngar/Domíngo de páskua Aldáw ti waya-wayá kuarésma baró a tawén Domíngo Rámos Aldáw ni Rizál talló nga ári fiésta ti íli kasár

Directions straight west/go west east/go east north/go north south/go south right/to the right left/to the left

dirétso láud/agpaláud dáya/agpadáya amiánan/agpa-amiánan abagátan/agpa-abagátan kanawán/agpakanawán kanigíd/agpakanigíd 329

APPENDIX E E.

Measurements 1. linear measure inch foot yard mile centimeter meter kilometer

pulgáda pié yárda mília sentimétro métro kilométro

2. weight measure gram kilogram pound ton

grámo kílo líbra toneláda

3. liquid capacity liter gallon demijohn

litró galón dama juána

4. dry capacity (grain, fruit, etc.) chupa tsúpa ganta gánta/salóp cavan kabán (75 liters) F.

School Officials head teacher librarian principal school dentist school physician school nurse superintendent supervisor teacher

hedtítser laybráryan prinsipál dentísta ti eskwéla doktór ti eskwéla nars ti eskwéla superintendénte superbisór méstro (male)/méstra (female)

Public Officials barrio captain barrio lieutenant chief of police councilor governor

kapitán del bárrio teniénte del bárrio hépe ti pulísya konsehál gobernadór 330

APPENDIX E judge mayor president representative

G.

secretary senator treasurer vice governor vice mayor vice president

hués mayór presidénte representánte/ pannakabagí diputádo sekretáryo senadór tesoréro bise gobernadór bise mayór bise presidénte

Church Officials bishop cardinal minister missionary mother superior nun pope priest rector

obíspo kardinál minístro misyonáryo superyóra madré pápa pádi rektór

Kinship Terms father mother sibling brother sister older brother older sister younger brother/sister son/daughter son daughter first-born/elder brother or sister youngest child/younger brother or sister grandfather grandmother uncle aunt brother-in-law sister-in-law 331

tátang nánang kabsát kabsát a laláki kabsát a babái mánong mánang áding anák anák a laláki anák a babái inauná inaúdi lélong/lólo lélang/lóla ulitég íkit káyong ípag

APPENDIX E nephew/niece nephew niece grandchild grandson granddaughter cousin (1st degree) cousin (2nd degree) cousin (3rd degree) term of address for older man (one generation above) term of address for older woman (one generation above) term of address for person (same generation as speaker) term of address for younger person (same generation as speaker) H.

Professions actor/actress architect dancer dentist doctor (physician)

kaanakán kaanakán a laláki kaanakán a babái apóko apóko a laláki apóko a babái kasinsín kapidúa kapitló táta nána mánong (male) mánang (female) áding

artísta arkitékto baylarína dentísta doktór (male)/doktóra (female) inhinyéro (male)/inhinyéra (female) hués abogádo (male)/abogáda (female) músiko nars pintór parmasiyotiko (male)/ parmasiyotika (female) pyanísta propesór iskultór kumakánta

engineer judge lawyer musician nurse painter (artist) pharmacist pianist professor sculptor singer

332

APPENDIX E teacher/instructor

maéstro (male)/maéstra (female) biyolinísta mannúrat

violinist writer Occupations barber bill collector businessman butcher carpenter chauffeur clerk conductor cook dressmaker/seamstress employee

barbéro kobradór negosyánte agparpartí karpintéro tsupér eskribiénte konduktór kusinéro modísta empleádo (male)/empleáda (female) mannálon bombéro agkalkálap kapatás basuréro hardinéro mangulkulót sanidád agtagibaláy plansadóra dyánitor mangmanggéd kaséro/kaséra labandéra kartéro kantéro mekániko mensahéro mammáltot yáya pintór retratísta pulis kargadór agdamdamíli

farmer fireman fisherman foreman garbageman gardener hairdresser health inspector housewife ironing woman janitor laborer landlord/landlady 1aundrywoman mailman mason mechanic messenger midwife nursemaid painter (of houses…) photographer policeman porter potter 333

APPENDIX E plumber rig-driver salesman secretary

street cleaner student surveyor tailor tenant (farm) waiter/waitress

tubéro kutséro aglakláko sekretáryo (male)/sekretárya (female) babaonén sapatéro tindéro (male)/tindéra (female) kaminéro estudiánte agrimensór sastré katalónan wéyter/wéytres

Nationalities African American Australian Canadian Chinese Dutch English Filipino French German Greek Indian (Hindu) Italian Japanese Jew Mexican Russian Spaniard Turk Vietnamese

Aprikáno Amerikáno Ostralyáno Kanéydyan Insík/Sangláy Holándes Inglés Pilipíno Pransés Alemán Griégo Bombáy Italiáno Hapón Húdyo Meksikáno Rúso Kastíla/Españól Túrko Byetnamís

Important Places in Towns and Barrios bakery bank barber shop beauty parlor

panaderyá bángko barbérya pagkulkulután

servant shoemaker storekeeper

I.

J.

334

APPENDIX E cemetery chapel church cockpit drugstore gambling den hospital hotel library market moviehouse/theatre municipal building (townhall) playground plaza post office periculture center restaurant school store station bus station train station K.

kamposánto kapílya simbáan galyéra/pagpapallótan botíka sugalán ospitál otél librería tiendáan/merkádo pagipabuyáan/síne munisípyo pag-ay-ayáman plása posópis perikultyúr restawrán eskwéla tiendáan estasyón estasyón ti bus estasyón ti tren

Parts of the Body abdomen arm armpit back body bone breast cheek chest/breast chin ear elbow eye eyebrow eyelashes face finger foot forehead

buksít, tián takyág kilíkilí likód bagí tuláng súso pingpíng barúkong tímid lapáyag síko matá kíday kurimatmát rúpa rámay sáka múging 335

APPENDIX E gums hair hand head heart heel hip knee leg lips lungs mouth nail nape neck nose palm rib shoulder skin skull sole thigh tongue tooth waist L.

gugút buók íma úlo púso múkod pátong túmeng gúrong bibíg bará ngíwat kukó teltél tengngéd agóng dakúlap paragpág abága kúdil bángabánga dapán luppó díla ngípen síket

Parts of the House balcony/porch bathroom bedroom ceiling dining room door floor garage ground space under neath the house kitchen living room post rails roof room stairs 336

balkón banyó kuartó bóbeda komedór ruángan/rídaw básar/datár garáhe sírok kusína sálas adígi réhas/barandílyas atép kuartó agdán

APPENDIX E storeroom toilet wall window window sill

sagumbí/bodéga kasílyas didíng táwa pasamáno

Around the House garden granary outhouse pig pen playground poultry washing place yard

hardín kamálig kasílyas úbong ti báboy pagay-ayáman póltri paglabaán paraángan

M. Things for the House bamboo bed bed bedspread bench/stool blanket/sheet cabinet calendar chair clock curtain dresser flower vase hammock mat mirror mosquito net piano pillow pillow case radio refrigerator rocking chair shelf sofa/couch stove table low dining room table

pápag/balítang káma/katré kóbrekáma bangkó ulés aparadór kalendáryo tugáw reló kurtína tokadór pluréra dúyan/indáyon ikamén sarmíng moskitéro piyáno pungán súpot ti pungán rádyo repridyeréytor kulumpyó istánte sopá dalikán lamisáan dúlang 337

APPENDIX E

N.

telephone television transistor radio trunk

telépono telebisyón transistór baól

Things for Cleaning basin broom coconut husk floor wax mop/rag pail rake soap soft broom stick broom

palanggána ságad lampáso plórwáks pagnasnás timbá karaykáy sabón ságad nga buybúy ságad nga i-ít

Utensils and other Things in the Kitchen basin palanggána big pot dungdúng blowpipe anguyób bolo/machete bunéng broiler parílya can láta can opener ábreláta casserole/pan kaseróla cooking vat silyási cup tása dining table lamisáan dipper tábo drinking glass báso faucet grípo frying pan paryók grater igádan jar (earthen) burnáy kettle kaldéro knife kutsílyo ladle akló oven órno pail timbá pitcher pitsér plate pláto/pinggán platter bandehádo pot bánga 338

APPENDIX E

O.

pot-lifter made of rattan pot ring shredder sink spatula stove strainer table cloth trash can winnowing basket

silóng sagapá gadgádan labábo syansí dalikán sagátan mantél basúra bigáo

Eating Utensils bowl cup drinking glass fork knife napkin plate platter/china tray saucer spoon teaspoon wine glass

malukóng tása báso tinidór kutsílyo serbilyéta pláto bandehádo platíto kutsára kutsaríta kupíta

Clothes and Accessories for Men cane hat necktie pants polo shirt Filipino formal shirt socks suit undershirt undershorts wallet

bastón kallugóng korbáta pantalón pólo sért bárong Tagálog médyas térno/amerikána kamiséta karsonsílyo pitáka

Clothes and Accessories for Women blouse blúsa native blouse of fine-textured kimóna material bra bra brooch barpín 339

APPENDIX E

P.

cape/shawl chemise/slip clothes comb dress earrings fan girdle hair pin half-slip handbag necklace nightgown panties (underpants) skirt (knee-length) long skirt worn by old women slippers (for house use) slippers (for dress use) stockings/socks umbrella veil wooden shoes

kagáy kamisón kawés sagaysáy bádo/bestída arítos páid/abaníko girdél hérpin náguas bag kuwentás báta kalsón/sapín pálda pandilíng tsinélas sapatílya médyas páyong bélo bakyá

Common to Men and Women belt handkerchief pajamas raincoat ring shoes slippers sweater wrist watch

sinturón panyó padyáma kapóte singsíng sapátos tsinélas swéter reló

Parts of Clothes button collar pleat pocket sleeve zipper

botónes kuwélyo plits/pliéges bólsa manggás síper

Foods

340

APPENDIX E Vegetables asparagus bean bitter melon cabbage carrot cassava Chinese cabbage Chinese celery corn cucumber eggplant ginger green pepper horseradish tree lettuce mongo beans mushroom mustard okra onion peas potato radish spinach squash/pumpkin string beans swamp cabbage sweet potato/yam taro tomato turnip white squash yam (violet in color)

palláng paryá repólyo károt kamóteng káhoy petsáy kutsáy maís pipíno taróng layá síli marunggáy letsúgas balátong u-úng mustása ókra sibúyas sitsaró patátas rábanos kulítis karabása utóng kangkóng kamóte gábi kamátis singkamás tabúngaw úbe

Fruits apple avocado banana cooking variety breadfruit cantaloupe cashew coconut corn

mansánas abokádo sabá dippíg rímas melón kasúy niyóg maís 341

APPENDIX E grapes guava jackfruit lichee lime mango mountain apple papaya peanuts pear pineapple plum Java plum pomelo sour sop star apple starfruit tamarind tangerine watermelon

úbas bayábas anángka/langká litsiyás daláyap manggá makópa papáya maní péras pínya sarguélas lungbóy suá guayabáno kaimíto dalígan salamági kahél sandyá

Seafood clam crab (big) crab (small) fish catfish milkfish mudfish oyster prawn sardines shrimp smoked fish snail squid tuna

kappó rasá kappí ikán paltát bangús dalág tírem padáw sardínas pasáyan tinapá bisokól pusít tulingán

Drinks beer chocolate coffee ginger tea juice

* bir/serbésa tsokoláte kapé tahú tubbóg/dyus 342

APPENDIX E

Q.

milk soda pop tea wine

gátas sop dringks tsa árak

Planting Terms harvest plant plow seed seedbed seedling to dig to harvest to plant to plow to transplant rice seedlings to water

áni múla arádo bukél pagbonobónan bunúbon agkáli/kalién agáni agmúla agarádo agraép agsibúg

Parts of Plants bark branch bud bulb

ukís ti káyo sangá búsel ramót (nagbukél a ramót) sábong búnga bulóng ramót bukél uggót ungkáy siít puón bassít a sangá

flower fruit leaf root seed shoot stem thorn trunk twig R. Insects and Animals ant bee bird butterfly carabao (water buffalo) cat chicken

kutón uyúkan billít kulibangbáng nuáng púsa manók 343

APPENDIX E cockroach cow crocodile deer dog dove fish frog goat hen horse monkey Pig rat rooster sheep snake spider turtle boar (wild pig) S.

ípes, sípet báka buáya ugsá áso kalapáti ikán tukák kaldíng upa, dumalága kabályo bákes or sónggo báboy utót, baó kawítan karnéro úleg lawálawá pag-óng/pawíkan alíngo

Topographical Terms brook/creek cave cliff desert/waste/wilderness farm (not a rice field) forest grassland hill island lake/pond meadow mountain ocean peak (of a mountain, etc.) plain/level land port/wharf precipice/ravine rice field river road/street sandy place 344

wáig kuéba teppáng let-áng bangkág bákir karuútan túrod púro dánaw taltálon, karoótan bantáy taáw tuktók tanáp (especially, flat top of mountain, hill, mesa) pyer, pantalán derráas tálon karayán kalsáda/lansángan kadarátan

APPENDIX E

T.

sea seashore/beach spring stream village volcano waterfall

baybáy/taáw ígid ti baybáy ubbóg áyus purók/báryo bulkán buráyok

Natural Elements and Occurrences air/wind breeze cloud dawn/sunrise dew drizzle/rain shower drought dust earthquake fog/mist lightning moon mud rain rainy days rainbow sand sky/heavens smoke soil star stone sun thunder twilight/sunset typhoon/storm water wave whirlpool

ángin pul-óy úlep bannáwag/ag1awág linnáaw arbís kalgáw tápuk ginginéd angép kimát búlan pítak túdo nepnép bul-laláyaw dárat lángit asúk dagá bitwén bató ínit gurrú-ud sumipngét bagyó danúm dallúyon, allón alinonó

U. Modes of Transportation airplane bicycle boat

eropláno bisikléta barangáy 345

APPENDIX E buggy/rig bus canoe car/automobile cart jeep/jeepney raft sailboat sled ship tricycle truck wagon V.

kalésa/karetéla bus bángka kótse karisón dyip/dyípni rákit/bálsa bilóg pasagád bapór traysikél trak bagón

List of Adjectives For People absent-minded active adolescent

mananglilípat nasiglát bumaró (male)/bumalásang (female) naungét dákes napintás/nalapsát dakkél naturéd naannád nadalós napangás/natangsít natakrót nasíkap naungét agbagtít/agmaúyong naúyong nangísit/napugót nakaay-ayát nagagét

angry bad beautiful/pretty big brave/courageous cautious/careful clean conceited, boastful cowardly crafty/sly cranky crazy cruel dark-complexioned delightful/likeable diligent/hard-working/ industrious dirty disorderly/rowdy drunk fair-complexioned fast

narugít naríri nabarték napúdaw napardás 346

APPENDIX E fickle fine/good/well-behaved

agbáliw-báliw nasingpét/naimbág/ nasayáat naangáy garampáng/ maragampáng tarabítab nataráki naragsák nalintég naémma, napakumbabá nanengnéng nagagét nalaíng/nasírib naimbág nasadót ulbód, salawásaw naási nalóko naemmá naringgór lakáy/bakét naános kaási nadáyaw nanomó natalná nakutí nabaknáng nagubál/bastós naladíngit pandék/bassít na-ungét managbábain nabuntóg bassít natangsít naímot nalukmég napigsá tórpe/namúno natáyag tarawítaw/nasaó nakuttóng

funny/comical flirtatious gossipy/tattletale handsome/dashing happy/cheerful/gay honest humble ignorant industrious intelligent/wise kind/good lazy liar merciful mischievous/naughty modest noisy old patient pitiful polite/courteous poor quiet restless/wriggly rich rough/coarse/uncouth sad short short-tempered shy slow small/tiny snobbish/haughty stingy stout/fat strong stupid/dumb tall talkative thin/slim 347

APPENDIX E ugly vain-glorious weak

naalás napasindáyaw nakapsút/nakápuy

For Objects and Conditions big cheap/inexpensive clean clear crooked deep destroyed broken dirty dull durable/sturdy empty expensive few little foul-smelling fragile/delicate weak/brittle/easily torn or snapped/rather of poor quality fragrant full/filled hard hazy/vague heavy high light (of weight) long loose low many/plenty narrow new nice/good-looking/pretty old rectangular rough/coarse round/circular rugged 348

dakkél nalaká nadalús nalawág/nalitnáw nakilló adálem nadadáel nabúong, nabúrak, natókkol narugít namudél nalagdá awán nagyán nangína sumagmamanó bassit nabangsít delikádo narukóp nabangló napnó, napusék natangkén nalábo nadagsén nangáto nalag-án atiddóg naláwa nababá adú akíkid, nailét baró napintás dáan rektángguló nakersáng nagbukél/sírkulo lasonglasóngan

APPENDIX E shallow sharp short small smooth/fine smooth/levelled

abábaw natadém ababá bassít nalamúyot nasimpá/nalínis/ napalánas naluknéng kuadrádo derétso napuskól trayánggulo nagsallapíd naalás baliktád nabasá naláwa

soft, tender square straight thick triangular twisted ugly upside- down/inside-out wet wide For Clothes bright-colored faded light-colored/pale long loose new old pressed/ironed shiny short snug/tight thick thin transparent wrinkled/creased wide narrow

narangráng immuspák, naguspák, nagkúpas nakusnáw atiddóg naláwa baró dáan plantsádo nasiléng nakitíng nailét napuskól naingpís nasaragásag nalunés, nalodlúd akába akíkid

For Food bitter bland bruised/squashed chewy/resilient cold

napaít natamnáy naluló nakilnét nalamíis 349

APPENDIX E cooked crisp dead decayed/spoiled/rotten delicious/good dry fishy fresh hard hot/warm mature nutritious oily peppery-hot rancid raw; unripe ripe (particularly fruits) salty soft/tender soggy sour sweet tasty tough (e.g., meat) wilted young

nalúto narasí natáy nabungsót naímas namagá nalangsí nasadíwa natangkén napúdot natangkenán nasustánsya namantéka nagásang nabanglíg naáta naluóm naapgád naluknéng nabasá naalsém nasam-ít nanánam nakulbét nalayláy naganús

For the Weather bad bright/clear cloudy cool, cold, chilly dark dim dusty early good hot, humid, warm late muddy quiet/calm rainy windy

dákes nalawág, naranyág naúlep nalam-ék nasipngét nalidém natápuk nasápa naimbág napúdot naládaw napítak natalná natúdo naangní

350

APPENDIX E Colors black blue brown green grey orange pink violet white yellow

nangísit asúl tsokoláte/kapé/kayumanggí bérde senísa naranghádo derósas líla puráw amarílyo

Useful Antonyms (adjectives) beautiful - ugly big - small bright - dark bright - dim clean - dirty cheap - expensive dry - wet durable - weak (of poor quality) far - near fast - slow fragrant - odorous hard - soft high - low hot - cold industrious - lazy intelligent - stupid loose - tight long - short new - old noisy - quiet patient - cranky stout - thin strong - weak sweet - sour tall - short well- behaved - naughty wide - narrow

napintás - naalás dakkél - bassít nalawág - nasipngét naraniág nalidém nadalús - narugít nalaká - nangína namagá - nabasá nalagdá - narukóp adayó - asidég nadarás - nabayág nabangló - nabangsít natangkén - naluknéng nangáto - nababá napúdot - nalamíis nagagét - nasadót nalaíng - tórpe or namúno naláwa - nailét atiddóg - ababá baró - dáan naringgór - naulímek naános - naungét nalukmég - nakuttóng napigsá - nakapsút nasam- ít - naalsém natáyag - pandék nasingpét - nalóko akába - akíkid

Sample Comparison of Adjectiver Positive

Comparative 351

Superlative

APPENDIX E ababá akába akíkid amarílyo asúl atiddóg baró bassít bérde dáan dakkél naalás naános naási nabangló nabangsít nabasá nadalós nagagét nagásang naímas naimbág naímot nakapsút nakuttóng nalagdá nalaká nalamíis nalawág nalidém nailét nalabága naláwa nalóko nalukmég naluknéng namagá nangína nangísit napigsá napintás napúdot naraniág naringgór

ab-ababá ak-akába ak-akíkid naam-amarílyo naas-asúl at-atiddóg barbaró basbassít naberberdé nadadáan dakdakkél naal-alás naan-ános naas-ási nabangbangló nabangbangsít nabasbasá nadaldalós nagaggagét nagasgásang naim-ímas naim-imbág naim-ímot nakapkapsút nakutkuttóng nalaglagdá nalaklaká nalamlamíis nalawlawág nalidlidém nail-ilét nalablabága nalawláwa naloklóko naluklukmég nalukluknéng namagmagá nanginngína nangisngísit napigpigsá napinpintás napudpúdot naranraniág naringringgór 352

kaababaán kaakabáan kaakikídan kaamarilyóan kaasulán kaatiddogán kabaroán kabassitán kaberdeán kadaánan kadakkelán kaalasán kaanósan kaasián kabangloán kabangsitán kabasaán kadalusán kagagetán kagasángan kaimásan kaimbagán kaimútan kakapsútan kakuttongán kalagdáan kalakaán kalamiísan kalawagán kalidemán kailetán kalabagáan kalawáan kalukoán kalukmegán kaluknengán kamagaán kangináan kangisítan kapigsáan kapintásan kapudútan karaniágan karinggúran

APPENDIX E narugít narukóp nasadót nasam-ít nasayáat nasiléng nasingpét nasipngét natangkén natáyag naulímek naungét pandék présko puráw tórpe W.

narugrugít narukrukop nasadsadót nasamsam-ít nasaysayáat nasilsiléng nasingsingpét nasipsipngét natangtangkén nataytáyag naul-ulímek naung-ungét napanpandék naprespreskó napurpuráw natortorpé

karugitán karukupán kasadután kasam-ítan kasayaátan kasilengán kasingpetán kasipngetán katangkenán katayágan kaulímkan kaungetán kapandekán kapreskoán kapurawán katorpeán

List of Useful Verb Bases and the Affixes They Commonly Take adal ag-en

study to study to study (something)

agas ag-an

treat/cure to treat (oneself) to treat (somebody)

ala ag-en

get to get to get (something)

angin ag-en

wind to blow (said of the wind) to be blown by the wind

aramid ag-en

make/do to make/do to make/do (something)

awat i/iyawat/ -en

receive to hand (something) to receive (something) 353

APPENDIX E

ayab ag-an

call, summon to call to summon (somebody)

ayat ag-en

love to love to love (someone)

ay-ayam ag-en

toy/game to play to toy with (something)

aywan ag-an

take care of to take care of to take care of (somebody or something)

bagkat ag-en

lift to carry/lift to carry/lift (something)

bantay ag-an

watch to watch to watch (somebody or something)

bangon -um-en

get up to get up to pull somebody up

basa ag-en

read to read to read (something)

bati agi-

remain to remain to leave (someone or something)

bato ag-en i-

throw/stone to stone to stone (somebody or something) to throw (something)

bayad ag-

pay/payment to pay 354

APPENDIX E -an

to pay for (something)

bulod -um-en

borrow to borrow to borrow (something)

buteng ag-

fear to fear

buya ag-en

view/watch to view/watch to watch (something)

kagat ag-en

bite to bite to bite (something)

kanta ag-en

sing to sing to sing (a song)

katawa ag-an

laugh to laugh to laugh at (somebody)

kita ag-en

see to see (each other) to look at (somebody or something)

kuyog ag-en

go with/accompany to go together to accompany

dait ag-en

sew to sew to sew (something)

dalos ag-an

clean to clean to clean (something)

danon -en

reach to reach

355

APPENDIX E i-

to bring some information to somebody’s attention

digos ag-en

bath/bathe to bathe to bathe (somebody)

diram-os ag-an

wash the face to wash the face to wash somebody’s face

gatang -um-en

buy to buy to buy (something)

gurigor ag-

fever to have fever

idda ag-an

lie down to lie down to lie down on (something)

innaw ag-an

wash dishes to wash dishes (actor-focus) to wash dishes (goal-focus)

inom -um-en

drink to drink to drink (something)

isem -um-an

smile to smile to smile at (someone)

iwa ag-en

slice to slice to slice/cut up (something)

laba ag-an

wash clothes to wash clothes (actor- focus) to wash clothes (goal-focus)

lagto ag-

jump to jump 356

APPENDIX E -um-en

to jump to jump over (something)

lampaso ag-en

scrub/husk to husk to husk (the floor)

langoy ag-en

swim to swim to swim (a certain length)

lualo ag-en

pray to pray to pray (a particular prayer)

lukat ag-an

open to open to open (something)

lugan ag-um-an

ride to ride to ride (a vehicle, etc.) to ride on (something)

luto ag-en

cook to cook to cook (something)

makinilya ag-en

type to type to type (something)

maneho ag-en

drive to drive to drive (a car)/to operate (a machine)

ngalngal ag-en

chew to chew to chew (something)

panaw -um-an

leave to leave to leave (somebody)

357

APPENDIX E payong ag-an

umbrella to use an umbrella to shade (someone) with an umbrella

pigerger ag-

tremble to tremble

pulbos ag-an

powder to powder to powder (somebody)

punas ag-an

wipe to wipe to wipe (somebody or something)

puor ag-an i-

burn/fire to burn to burn (something) to throw something into the fire

rikep ag-an i-

close to close to close (something) to close (something)

sakit agma-

sickness to ache to be sick

sagad ag-an

sweep to sweep to sweep (something)

sagana agi-an

prepare to prepare to prepare (something) to prepare for (something, someone)

sagaysay ag-en

comb to comb (one’s own hair) to comb (one’s own hair or somebody else’s)

sala

dance 358

APPENDIX E ag-um-

to dance to dance

salog ag-um-

go downhill to go downhill to go downhill

sang-at ag-um-

go uphill to go uphill to go uphill

sangit ag-an

cry to cry to cry over (somebody or something)

sangpet -umag-

arrive to arrive to arrive

sao ag-en

talk to talk to say (something)

saplid ag-an

broom/sweep to sweep to sweep (something)

sapul ag-en

look for/search to look for to look for (something)

sarita ag-en

talk/story to talk to relate

sarming ag-an

mirror to use a mirror to see the reflection of (something) in a mirror

sepilyo ag-en

toothbrush to brush one’s teeth to brush (something)

359

APPENDIX E serrek -um-en i-

enter to enter to enter (a place)/invade (something) to bring in (something)

sindi ag-an

light to light (one’s cigarette) to light (a lamp)

sungbat -an i-

answer to answer (somebody) to give as an answer

surat ag-an i-

write to write to write (somebody or on something) to write something

suro i-en

learn/teach to teach to learn

surot -umi-

follow/go with to follow to take along

takder ag-um-

stand to stand to stand

taray ag-umi-

run to run to run to run with/elope

tarimaan ag-en

fix to fix to fix (something)

tawar -um-

haggle to haggle

tugaw ag-

chair/sit down to sit down 360

APPENDIX E -an

to sit on (something)

tulad ag-en

imitate to imitate to imitate (somebody)

tulong -um-an

help to help to help (somebody)

turog ma-

sleep to sleep

uli -um-en

ascend/climb to ascend to climb up (something)

ulog -um-

descend/go down to go down

unget ag-an /ungtan/

anger to scold/be angry to scold (somebody)

utang -um-en

owe/debt to owe/borrow money to borrow (money)

361

APPENDIX F Vignettes of Ilokano Life

This is a set of twenty short, authentic dialogues that portray the interaction between the PCV and his Ilokano friends and acquaintances. The English versions are a combination of literal and approximate translations. Approximate translations are used only when literal translations result in unidiomatic English utterances. Dialogue #1 Situation:

PCV: S(tore) K(eeper): PCV:

SK: PCV: Translation PCV: SK: PCV:

A PCV is now acquainted with the people in the neighborhood. He passes by a small sari-sari store. He cannot drop in for a chat. He gives the customary greeting… Lumabas ak pay, manong. Dumagas ka pay, a. Into la no {adda pay papanak. maminsanen ta adda agur-uray kaniak idiay balay. adda nasken uga aramidek. agap-apura-ak.} Isu a no dika dumagasen. Lumabasak ngaruden. I’m passing by, Manong. Drop in a minute. Some other time {I’m going somewhere. because somebody’s waiting for me at home. I have an urgent task to do. I’m in a hurry.} 362

APPENDIX F SK: PCV:

Well, that’s okay if you won’t drop in. I’ll be on my way, then. Dialogue #2

Situation:

A PCV meets somebody who has earlier invited him to a party. The PCV expresses his regrets for being unable to attend the party.

PCV:

Mrs. Reyes (or, Manang) -diak met nakaumay diay pabuniag yon ta nagsakitak. Wen ngarud, di ka met nakaumayen. Uray a no nasao met la ni John nga saanak a makaumay. Wen, nasao na. Disdispensaren dak laengen a. Wen, awan aniaman na. Bareng no inton maminsan makaumay kanton. Saanak to a di saan a umayen no maminsan no kastoy la ket ti karadkad.

Host: PCV: Host: PCV: Host: PCV: Translation PCV: Mrs. R: PCV: Mrs. R: PCV: Mrs. R: PCV:

Mrs. Reyes (or Manang), I wasn’t able to make it to the baptismal party at your place because I got sick. That’s right, you weren’t able to make it. I hope John mentioned that I couldn’t come. Yes, he did. Please excuse me. Yes, that’s all right. Let’s hope that next time you’ll be able to make it. I won’t fail to come next time if I remain this healthy. Dialogue #3

Situation: Gift Giver:

A PCV receives a birthday present. (to PCV) Kasangay mo gayam tatta. Alaem ngarud daytoy tapno adda pakalaglagipam ti ita nga aldaw.

363

APPENDIX F PCV: GG: Translation GG: PCV: GG:

(receiving the gift) Adu la nga pakaringring-goran yo. Dios ti agngina unay ti pannakalagip yo kaniak. Dayta la ketdin, nanumo laeng. So, it’s your birthday today. Please accept this (present) so that you’ll have something to remember this day by. You should not have bothered. Thank you for remembering me. Nothing big, it’s just a humble present. Dialogue #4

Situation:

A PCV gives a birthday present to someone.

PCV: Recipient: PCV:

Ited ko man daytoy sangkabassit, apo. Adu la nga pakaringringgoram. Apay ngay? Pakakitkitaan yo met a kaniak, ken pakalaglagipan yo ti aldaw nga ita. Yamanek la unay ti pannakalagip mo. Dios ti agngina unay. Awan aniaman na.

R: PCV: Translation PCV: R: PCV: R: PCV:

May I offer this little token, sir? Why did you have to bother? That you may have something to remind you of me, and to remember this day by. I’m deeply grateful for your remembrance of me. Thank you very much. You’re welcome. Dialogue #5

Situation: PCV: Seller: PCV: S: PCV:

A PCV tries the art of haggling. Sagmamano ti saba yo, ina? Tallo ti binting (or bainte-sinko). Nagngina metten, ina. Ilaklaka yo met, a. Mano ngay ti kayat mo? Innem ti bintingen (or bainte sincon), a.

364

APPENDIX F S: PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV: Translation PCV: Seller: PCV: S: PCV: S:

PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV: S: PCV:

Saan a mabalin. Dina pay puunan. Ngem tapno di mo kunkuna, barok, uppat a bukel ti bainte-sincon. Nangina pay la unay. Saglilima a sentimos laengen ta mangala ak ti ado bassit. Sige man laengen. Mano ti kayat mo? Daytoy sangasapad. (counts) Sangapulo ket innem. Mano daydiayen ngay no saglilima a sentimos? Otsenta sentimos. Daytoy ti pisos, ina. Daytoy ti suplim. Innak pay ngarud. Dios ti agngina. Umaykanto manen. Saan a masasaan. How much each are your bananas, mother? (‘Mother’, here, is a term of respect for an old lady.) Three pieces for twenty-five centavos. It’s so expensive, mother. Please lessen the price. How much do you want? Please give it at six for twenty-five centavos. It cannot be. That doesn’t even come up to the buying price. But, just so that you won’t feel bad about it, my son, I’ll give them to you at four for twenty-five centavos. (‘Son’, here, is used as an affectionate term for a young person who’s a non-relative.) It’s still too expensive. Sell them at five centavos a piece and I’ll buy quite a few pieces. All right. How many do you want? This whole bunch. (counts) Sixteen. How much would that be at five centavos a piece? Eighty centavos. Here’s one peso, mother. Here’s your change. I’ll be leaving now. Thank you. Come again. I sure will.

365

APPENDIX F Dialogue #6 Introduction:

In most communities in the Ilocos, invitations to parties, baptisms, and even weddings, are extended orally. It is common for the host to send someone (usually a girl in her late teens) to extend the invitation. The girl may be the host’s daughter or a relation. Servants are never sent on this errand.

Girl: Owner of the House: Girl:

Apo umay ak man? Ay, ni Ana. Dumanonka. Ania balasang ko?

OH: Girl: OH: Girl: OH: Girl: PCV: Translation Girl: Owner of the House: Girl:

OH: Girl: OH: Girl: OH:

Nana, imbaondak da nanang ta iyananus yo kan kuma ti umay diay balay no Domingo. Apay, ania ti maaramid? Agbuniag diay inaudi nga adimi. Pangrabiin to, nana. Dakay to aminen a ti umay. Pati ni John, ti PCV? Wen, nana. Ibagam ngad kenkuana, a, ta adda met ditoy. Pati sika, John, umay kanto met, a. Mapadayawanak ti imbitasyon yo. Umay kamto. Ma’am, may I come up to your house? Oh, it’s Ana. Come up. What can I do for you, my daughter? (‘Daughter’, here, is an affectionate term used for a young girl who’s a non-relative.) Aunt, mother sent me over to ask you to please come over to our house on Sunday. (‘Aunt’ is a term of respect used for a non-relative.) Why, what will take place? Our youngest brother/sister is going to be baptised. It will be a dinner, Aunt. I hope all of you will come. Including John, the PCV? Yes, Aunt. Tell him, since he is here. 366

APPENDIX F Girl: PCV:

And you, John, you come too. We are honored by your invitation. We will come. Dialogue #7

Situation: FF: John: FF: John: FF: John: FF: John: FF: John: Translation FF: John: FF: John: FF: John: FF: John: FF: John:

A PCV is now ending his tour of duty. He meets a Filipino friend. Oy, John, agpayso a dandani ti panagawid mo diay Amerikan? Wen. Tallo la a domingok ditoyen. Kasta unay ngata nga iliw mon. Wen. Maganatan ka nga umay iti aldaw a panagluas mon? Wen ngem narigat met gayam ti pumanaw. Apay, adda kadi saan mo a mapanawan? Awan met ketdi, a, ngem adu met ngamin ti nagayyem ko ditoyen. Anianto ti aramidem no makasubli ka idiay Amerika? Diak pay ammo. Kayatko nga ituloy manen ti panagadal ko. Hey, John, is it true that it’s almost time for you to go back to the States? Yes. I’ll be here just another three weeks more. You must be extremely homesick by now. Yes. Are you eager for your departure day to come? Yes, but it’s difficult to leave. Why, is there anybody whom you can’t leave behind? Not that there’s somebody, but I have already made many friends here. What will you do when you get back to the United States? I still do not know. I’d like to continue my studies.

367

APPENDIX F Dialogue #8 Situation: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: Translation PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid:

A PCV hires a laundrywoman. (addressing maid) Ania ti masapul mo? (applicant) Immayak ta masapul yo kano ti labandera, apo. Sino ti nagkuna? Da Mrs. Dacanay, apo. Ay wen. Sika ti karruba da a ni Maria? Wen, apo, siak. Ammom ti aglaba ken agplantsa ti pantalon? Wen, apo. Ket ti barong? Ammok met, apo. Siak ti para laba da Mr. Dacanay ti barong da. Nasayaat, a, ngarud. Kasano ti kayat mo nga panagbayad ko, binulan, dinomingo wenno por pidaso? Dakay man, no ania ti kayat yo. Nasaysayaat sa no por pidaso. Mano ti pantalon? Kas diay panagbaybayad da Mr. Dacanay laengen. Otsenta ti pantalon, tallo a piseta ti camisadentro, pisos ti barong. Ala wen. Umay mo ngad alaen a dinomingo ti palabaak. Wen, apo. What do you need? I came, sir, because somebody told me that you need a laundrywoman. Who told you? Mrs. Dacanay, sir. Oh yes. Are you Maria, her neighbor? Yes, sir, I am. Do you know how to launder and press pants? Yes, sir. What about ‘baróng Tagalogs’? I do, too, sir. I wash Mr. Dacanay’s ‘barongs’. That’s fine. How do you want me to pay you; monthly, weekly, or by the piece? It’s up to you, sir. 368

APPENDIX F PCV: Maid: PCV: Maid:

I think it’s better to pay you by the piece. How much would you charge for a pair of pants? The same price that Mr. Dacanay pays me. Eighty centavos for a pair of pants, sixty centavos for a shirt, one peso for a ‘baróng’. All right. You may come to get my laundry once a week. Yes, sir. Dialogue #9

Situation: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: Translation LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

A PCV is asked by his landlady about his age and his place of birth. Ket mano met ti edad mon, John? Ania ti edad nana? Tawen. Mano ti tawen mon? Ay, tawen gayam ti edad. Bainte uno kon, nana. Nagubing ka gayam. Kaano ti pannakaiyanak mo? Idi mil nueve sientos kuarenta y otso, nana. Ania a bulan ken petsa? Primero ti Abril, nana. Sadino idiay Amerika ti nakaiyanakam? Idiay Gorman, California, nana. (And) how old are you, John? What’s ‘edad’, Aunt? (‘Aunt’--term of respect for non-relatives.) ‘Age’. How old are you? Oh, so ‘edad’ means ‘age’. Twenty-one, Aunt. 406 You’re so young. When were you born? 1948, Aunt. What month and date? April first, Aunt. Where in the United States were you born? Gorman, California, Aunt. Dialogue #10

Situation:

A PCV is asked questions by his landlady about himself and his parents. 369

APPENDIX F

LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: Translation LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

John, adda asawa mon? Awan pay, nana. Baro ak pay. Ket sibibiag pay la dagiti nagannak kenka? Kaasi ni Apo Dios, nana, sibibiag da pay. Ania ti trabaho ni Tatang mo? Maestro iti high school, nana. Ket ni met Nanang mo? Maestra met iti high school, nana. Sika met ngay, ania ti trabahom idi idiay Amerika? Nagtrabaho ak iti super market. Ania ti Super Market? Tiendaan nga adda amin a lako: makan, masida, mainom, dagiti aramaten ti balay. Ay, sarisari store a dakkel? Wen, nana. John, are you already married? Not yet, Aunt. I’m still single. (‘Aunt’--term of respect for non-relatives.) Are your parents still alive? Through the mercy of God, Aunt, they’re still alive. What does your father do? He’s a high school teacher, Aunt. What about your mother? She’s a high school teacher, too, Aunt. And you, what was your job in the United States? I worked at a supermarket. What’s a supermarket? A store where we find all types of goods: foods, meats, drinks, household goods. Oh, a huge sarisari store? Yes, Aunt. Dialogue #11

Introduction:

There are female visitors at the house where a PCV lives. They would like to know about the PCV’s family and home.

370

APPENDIX F L1 : John: L2: John:

L1 : John: L2 : John: L2 : John: L1 : John: L2 : John: L1 : Translation L1 : John: L2 : John: L1 : John: L2 : John: L2 :

John, awan la ti retrato ti familyam ken ti balay yo idiay Amerika? Adda. Kayat yo a kitaen? Wen, kitaen tay man. (Brings out pictures of home and family.) Daytoy ti tatang ko. Ni nanang ko daytoy. Daytoy ti kabsat ko a lalaki ken daytoy met ti kabsat ko a babai. Ubing pay dagiti nagannak kenka? Lumakay met ni tatangen. Dandani innem a pulo (60) ti tawennan. Ub-ubing bassit ni nanang. Manot tawen da dagitoy addim? Disisiete ni Mark; katorse ni Becky. Napintas toy balay yo. Manot kuarto na? Tallo ti pagturugan. Daytoy man ti kuartok (shows picture). Nagpintas gayamen. Daytoy ti salas mi. Daytoy piano ket piano pay la ni nanang idi balasang pay. Ammom ti agpiano, John? Saan. Kadakam a tallo nga agkakabsat ni la Becky ti adda interes na ti piano. Siak ket tape recorder la ti ammok a tukaren. Ay, no siak a ket pati tip rekorder diak ammo a tukaren. John, don’t you have pictures of your family and your home in the States? I do. Would you like to see them? Yes, let’s see them. (Brings out pictures of home and family.) This is my father. This is my mother. This is my brother, and this is my sister. Are your parents still young? Father is getting old. He’s almost 60 years old. Mother is a little younger. How old are your brother and your sister? Mark is 17; Becky is 14. Your house is beautiful. How many rooms does it have?

371

APPENDIX F John: L1 : John: L2 : John: L1 :

It has three bedrooms. Here’s my room. It’s so pretty. Here’s our living room. This piano has belonged to my mother ever since she was unmarried. Do you play the piano, John? No. Among us 3 brothers and sister, it’s only Becky who’s interested in the piano. Me, it’s only the tape recorder which I can play. Oh, as far as I am concerned, I can’t even play a tape recorder. Dialogue #12

Situation: LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

A PCV and his landlady talk about the PCV’s former job in the United States. Ni, John, nabayag ka met bassit ditoyen. Diak met la madamagen no aniat trabahom idi idiay Amerika. Ti naudi a trabahok nana, kasakbayan ti panag-Piskor ko, ket timmultulongak ti paglakwan ti gasolina. Ket no naggraduar ka met ti Kolegion? Nagtrabaho ka pay la iti kasdiay? Idiay Amerika, nana, ket saan a nakababain ti agtrabaho iti paglakwan ti gasolina. Ania ti husto nga aramid mo ngarud? Ammo yon a nana: agpunas ti kotse, mangikabil ti gasolina, mangsukat ti bimtak a pilid, agugas ti narugit a kotse, ken dadduma pay. No dadduma mangted ak ti direksion kadagiti naka oto a saan da nga ammo ti papanan da. Mano met ti sueldom iti dayta a trabahom? Bassit laeng nana, nasuruk la a maysa a dollar ti maysa nga oras. Nagadun. Uppat a pisos ti maysa nga oras. Tallo pulo ket dua a pisos ti maysa nga aldaw? Saan nana. Ti dollar idiay ket bassit met ti magatang na. Aya? Wen, nana.

372

APPENDIX F Translation LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

LL: John: LL: John: LL: John:

Well, John, you’ve been here for quite some time now. I’ve never had the chance to ask you what you used to do in the United States. The last job I had, Aunt, before I joined the Peace Corps, was as a service station attendant. (‘Aunt’--term of respect.) But you’re a college graduate. Did you still hold such a job? In the United States, Aunt, it’s not degrading to work in a gasoline station. What, exactly, did you do, then? Well, you know, Aunt--clean cars, fill up gasoline tanks, change flat tires, wash dirty cars, etc. At times I gave directions to people driving cars who didn’t know how to get to where they were going. And how much were you paid for your job? Not too much, Aunt, just a little over a dollar per hour. That’s much. Four pesos an hour. Thirty-two pesos a day. No, Aunt. A dollar there (in the States) can’t buy too much. Is that right? Yes, Aunt. Dialogue #13

Situation: A PCV is on his way to the train station to buy a ticket. He meets a friend. A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Papanam? Mapanak gumatang ti ticket ko. Apay, papanam? Innak to diay Manila no rabii. Aniat pagluganam? Tren. Nagsapa ka nga gumatang ti ticket mon? Wen tapno saanak to nga agap-apora no rabii ta adda pay papanak a sabali intono malem.

Translation A: Where are you going? 373

APPENDIX F B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

I’m going to buy a ticket. Why, where are you going? I’m going to Manila tonight. How are you going? (Literally: What are you riding in?) By train. You’re getting your ticket rather early. Yes, so that I won’t have to hurry tonight because I still have to go somewhere this afternoon. Dialogue #14

Introduction:

PCV: Server: PCV: Server: PCV: Translation PCV: Server: PCV: Server: PCV:

This is a short dialogue on ordering a simple meal. Place: Tudo-tudo In this type of eating place, often called karinderia and usually located in the public market, a minimum of language is necessary for ordering a meal. All that one does is point out the food he wants. It may be necessary to say: Kayat ko dayta. If the server picks out the wrong dish, one says: Saan a dayta, dayta nay (this time making sure his finger points to what he wants). The server says: Daytoy? If it is the right dish, one says: Wen. The dialogue may proceed thus. (pointing to dish) Kayat ko dayta. Daytoy? Saan. Dayta nay. Daytoy? Wen. I like that. This one? No, that one. This one? Yes.

374

APPENDIX F Dialogue #15 Situation:

A PCV enters a restaurant and takes one of the available tables. The waitress (usually a girl in her teens) comes and the PCV orders a meal.

PCV:

Kayat ko ti mangan. Ngem ikkan nak pay nga umuna ti serbesa. (leaves and comes back with bottle of beer and glass with ice cubes) Ania pay ti kayat yo? Ania ti nasayaat a masida itatta? Adda adobo, pinakbet, sinigang a bangus ken dadduma pay. Ania pay? 411 No kayat yo, adda dinardaraan ken pinapaitan. Ikkan nak iti sinigang a bangus, adobo, ken inapoy. Ania ti kayat yo nga dulce? No adda tungdal ikkannak iti dua. Awanen? Adu daytan.

Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Translation PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV: Girl: PCV:

I want to eat. But, first, give me a beer. (leaves and comes back with bottle of beer and glass with ice cubes) What else would you like to have? What’s good to eat today? We have adobo, pansit, sinigang a bangus, and other dishes. What else? If you wish, we have dinardaraan and pinapaitan. Give me sinigang a bangus, adobo, and steamed rice. What would you like for dessert? If you have tungdal (a species of bananas), give me two. Will that be all? That’s much.

375

APPENDIX F Dialogue #16 Situation: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: Translation PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno:

A PCV makes travel arrangements for himself and a friend with Anno, a rig-driver. (addressing Anno, the local kutsero) Anno, adda papanam no bigat? Awan. Apay kadi, John? Mapan kam kuma diay ili no bigat. Ilugan nakam man. Sinti kaduam? Ni Barbara. Ania nga oras ti kayat yo a panagrubuat tayo? Masapa tay kuma bassit. Daytay aglawag--maysa nga alas singko. Mabalin met. Mano’t pagbayad mi ngay? Rauntrip wenno itulud kay la diay ili? Itulud nakam laeng ta agmalmalen kam idiay. Adda miting dagiti mamestro. Mangted kay to la ti uppat nga pisosen. Nagngina metten. Tallo laengen a. Anian, agsubli ak nga awan ilugan ko. Husto ti uppat ta nawadwad la bassit ti kuartayo. Ala man laengen. Kasta ngaruden. Adda ak to idiay iti masapa. (addressing Anno, the local rig-driver) Anno, are you going anywhere tomorrow? No. Why, John? We’d like to go to town tomorrow. Could you drive us in? Who’s going with you? Barbara. What time would you like for us to leave? I wish we’d leave rather early. Sometime at dawn--around 5:00. That’s fine. How much shall we pay you? Is it round trip, or shall I merely drive you into town?

376

APPENDIX F PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno: PCV: Anno:

You’ll just have to drive us into town because we’ll stay there all day. There’s a teachers’ meeting. You can give me ₱4.00. That’s too expensive. Would ₱3.00 do? Oh, but I’m coming back without passengers. ₱4.00 is just right because, anyway, you’re rather affluent. Well, all right. Very well, then. I’ll be at your place early. Dialogue #17

Situation:

A PCV buys a bus ticket.

PCV: Gumatang ak man ti tiket a para Baguio. T(icket) S(eller): Primera wanno tercera (klase)? PCV: Mano ti primera? TS: Otso singkwenta. PCV: Ti tercera ngay? TS: Kuatro singkuwenta. PCV: Ikkannak man iti tercera (klase). (In the meantime lays money on the counter.) TS: (hands out ticket) Ne. PCV: Dios ti agngina. (gets change) Translation PCV: May I buy a ticket to Baguio? T(icket) S(eller): First class or third class? PCV: How much would a first class ticket cost? TS: ₱8.50 PCV: What about a third class ticket? TS: ₱4.50 PCV: May I have a third class ticket? TS: Here. PCV: Thank you. Dialogue #18 Situation:

A PCV introduces a PCV friend to his landlady.

John:

Nana, iyam-ammok man toy gayyem ko a PCV. Ni Walter daytoy. Isu ti PCV da diay Bangar. (bows very slightly towards landlady)

Walter:

377

APPENDIX F Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter and John: Landlady: Translation John: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter: Landlady: Walter and John: Landlady:

Kumusta ka Walter? Nasayaat met, Nana. Agtugaw kayo. Katno ti isasangpet mo ditoy Pilipinas, Walter? Itay napan a tawen, Nana. Nabayag ka met gayam bassiten. Wen, nana, ngem ita la a bumisita ak ken ni John. Ala ket agsarsarita kayo latta, ta adda bassit papanak. Agmalmalem kadtoyen. Ipabpabalay mo, laeng, a? Wen, nana. Kasta ngaruden. Dios ti kumuyog kadakayo, nana. Dios ti agbati. Aunt, may I introduce my PCV-friend to you? This is Walter. He’s the PCV in Bangar. (bows very slightly towards landlady) How are you, Walter? Fine, Aunt. Have a seat, both of you. When did you arrive in the Philippines, Walter? Last year, Aunt. So, you’ve been here for quite some time now. Yes, Aunt, but this is my first visit to John. Well, I’ll leave you to visit with each other because I’m going somewhere for a while. Stay here the whole day. Do feel at home. Yes, Aunt. I’ll be on my way, then. God go with you, Aunt. God stay with you. Dialogue #19

Situation:

A PCV goes to visit his principal. He is unfamiliar with the district. He asks for information from a stranger.

378

APPENDIX F PCV: Stranger: PCV: Stranger: PCV: Stranger:

PCV: Translation PCV: Stranger: PCV: Stranger: PCV: Stranger:

PCV:

(addressing stranger in a street or street corner) Dila mabalin ti agsaludsod, apo? Saan man. Apay kadi? Napukaw ak metten. Sadino ditoy ti Mabini Street? Ay, adayo bassit ditoy. Apay, sinot makimbalay ti birbirokem idiay? Balay ti prinsipal ditoy Gabaldon. Ay, wen. Surotem daytoy a kalsada. Inton madanon mo daydiay a lansangan agpakannawan ka. Agbilang ka ti tallo nga babassit a kalsada. Kumita kanto ti makanigid mo. Makitam to ti balay a binato. ‘diay kaabay na a baro a balay ti balay ti prinsipal. Dios ti agngina unay. May I ask a question, sir? Surely. What can I do for you? (literally: Surely. Why?) I’ve lost my way. Where’s Mabini Street? Oh, it’s quite aways from here. Why, whose house are you looking for? The house of the principal of Gabaldon. Oh, yes. Stay on this street. When you reach that street over there, turn right. Count three small streets. Look to your left. You’ll see a stone house. The new house beside it is the principal’s house. Thank you very much. Dialogue #20 Diay Tiendaan

Situation: A: B: A: B: A: B:

A young lady and an older lady meet in the market. Apay, nana, nagadu ti gatangen yo a sidan? Adut sangaili mi. Apay, sinot sangaili yo? Da Rosa. Isuda amin a sangka familia? Wen a, ken intugut da dagitay dua a kadua da ta masapol da nga agawir kadagitay babassit. 379

APPENDIX F A: B:

Ay, kasta. Ni, kasta ngaruden, a nana. Kumustan to la da Rosan. Agpasiar dan to met koma, a, diaybalay. Wen. Ibagak to.

Translation In the Market A: B: A: B: A: B: A: B:

Oh, Aunt, you’re buying so much viand! We have many guests. Why? Who are your guests? Rosa and company. The whole family? Yes, and they brought along both their maids because they’re needed to baby-sit. Oh, I see. Well, then, I’ll be on my way. My regards to Rosa and the rest. I hope they’ll come to our house for a visit, sometime. Yes. I’ll tell them. A Slide Show

Situation:

A PCV gives a brief slide show on his home city and state during a P.T.A. gathering.

PCV: (introducing his own talk) Diak ammo no ammo yo a taga Detroit ak. Ti Detroit adda idiay Michigan. Dagitoy ipakitak nga retrato, naala da idiay Michigan. View of Detroit from the Air: Ti Detroit adda iti igid ti Lake Michigan. Isu ti ayan ti kadadakkelan a fabrika ti automobil. View of a Lake and a Picnic Ground: Adu ti lake idiay Michigan. Pag-ay-ayaman ken pagpipiknikan dagitoy a ‘lake’. View of the U. of M.: Daytoy ti U. of M., maysa a kadakkelan ken agdindinamag nga universidad idiay Amerika. Adu ti Filipino nga agad-adal ditoy. The Seasons: Mamimpat nga agsukat iti klema ken tiempo idiay Michigan. Daytoy ti fall-tiempo a panaglabaga ken panagtinnag dagiti bulbulong. Winter Scene of the Same Place: Isu met la a lugar daytoy. Ngem ita, nagtinnag dagiti bulbublungen ket adu met ti snow iti daga. Spring: Ditoy natunaw aminen ti snow ket mangrugi man nga agbulong dagiti kayon. 380

APPENDIX F Summer: I tan, summer, a makuna, napuduten. Makitayo manen ti amin a bulbulong. Translation A Slide Show PCV: (introducing his own talk) I don’t know if you know that I’m from Detroit. Detroit is in Michigan. These pictures I’m going to show you were all taken in Michigan. View of Detroit from the Air: Detroit is on the shore of Lake Michigan. It’s where we find the largest automobile factories. View of a Lake and a Picnic Ground: There are many lakes in Michigan. These lakes are play-and-picnic areas. View of the University of Michigan: This is the University of Michigan, one of the largest and most famous universities in the United States. There are many Filipinos who go to school here. The Seasons: The climate and the season change four times a year in Michigan. This is fall--the season when the leaves turn red and fall. Winter Scene of the Same Place: This is the same place (as the former picture). But, now, the leaves have already fallen, and there’s much snow on the ground. Spring: Here, all the snow has already melted, and, once again, the trees start to leaf. Summer: Here, summer, so-called, it’s already hot. You see all the leaves, once more.

381

APPENDIX G Ilokano Songs

(1)

Bannatiran Bannatiran ta dutdut mo’t kalilibnosan. Ta panggep mo di ka patuloyan. Pumanaw kan sadino ti papanam? Sadino bannatiran, Ania nga kayo ti inka pagdissuan?

(2)

Dungdunguen Kanto Dungdunguen kanto unay-unay. In-indayonen kanto’t sinama-a-ay. Tultuloden kanto’t naalumamay, Pagammuanen inkanto malibay. Annay pusok, annay, annay, Nasaem, naut-ut la unay. Itdem kaniak ti pannaranay Tapno asi ak a maidasay.

(3)

Manang Biday Manang Biday ilukat mo man Ta bentana ikalukbabam Ta kitaem toy kinayawam Matay akon no dinak kasian. Asino ka nga aglabas-labas Toy hardin ko pagay-ayamak? Ammom ngarud a balasang ak Sabong ti lirio di pay nagukrad.

(4)

O Naraniag a Bulan O naraniag a bulan, Un-unnoy ko’t indengam. Dayta naslag a silaw mo, 382

APPENDIX G Di ka kad ipaidam. O naraniag a bulan, Un-unnoy ko’t indengam. Toy nasipnget a lubong ko, In ka kad silawan Tapno diak mayaw-awan. No in ka nanglipaten, Karim kaniak naggibusen, Samsam-itek ni patay, O bulan nga aklonen. Nanglaylay toy ayat ko In ka kad palasbangen. Un-unnoy ko darasem Nga ikeddeng. (5)

Pammulinawen Pammulinawen, Pusok indengam man. Toy umas-asug, agrayo ta saddiam. Panunutem man, di ka pagintutulngan, Toy agayat, agrayo ta saddiam. Itdem ti di ak kalipatan Ta nasudi unay a nagan Uray sadin ti ayam Lugar sadino man No malagip ka, pusok ti mabang-aran.

(6)

Ti Ayat Ti Maysa Nga Ubing Ti ayat ti maysa nga ubing, Nasamsam-it ngem hasmin. Kasla sabong nga apagukrad, Ti bulan iti Abril. Ti ayat ti maysa a lakay, Aglalo no agkabaw. Napait, napait, napait a makasugkay.

383

APPENDIX H Glossary

This glossary is a compilation of all the vocabulary items introduced in the different lessons. The entries are alphabetized according to the following scheme: A

B

K

D

E

G

H

I

L

M

N

NG

O

P

R

S

T

U

W

Y

Each item is entered in the following manner: Ilokano word; part of speech; meaning; lesson number where it first appears. e.g.

abagatan N

south 13

This means that abagatan is a noun which means ‘south’ and it first appears in lesson 13. The parts of speech and the abbreviations used are: N V Adj Adv Prep Conj Pron Part Int QW D a Part abagátan N ábay Prep abokádo N abogádo N Abríl N ak Pron

noun verb adjective adverb preposition conjunction pronoun particle interjection question word deictic variant of nga 1 south 13 beside 26 avocado 27 lawyer 7 April 18 I5 384

APPENDIX H akín Pron addaytóy áding N adó Adj adóbo N agángin V agapóy V agarbís V ágas N agáwid V agbása V agbásketbol V agbóling V agbúya V agkalkálap N agkantá V agkimát V agdáit V agdamá Adv agdígos V agdrówing V agdyíp V aggurrúod V aginnáw V aginggána Adv agláko V aglangóy V agmakinílya V agmaného V agóng N Agósto N agpakuná V agpasyár V agpíngpong V agsála V agsaludsód V agsángit V agsaó V agsápa N agsardéng V agsigarílyo V agsúrat V

whose 19 contraction of Adda ditoy. ‘Here it is.’ 25 younger sibling 6 plenty 17 a Philippine meat dish usually of pork and/or chicken cooked in soy sauce, vinegar and spices 34 to blow (said of the wind) 29 to steam rice 35 to drizzle, to shower 29 medicine 35 to go home 28 to read 11 to play basketball 11 to play bowling 35 to watch (a movie, a game, etc.) 12 fisherman 10 to sing 11 to give out flashes of lightning 29 to sew 12 current 34 to take a bath 20 to draw 35 to ride in a jeep 30 to thunder 29 to wash dishes 36 until 35 to sell 30 to swim 21 to type 30 to drive (a vehicle) 35 nose 16 August 18 to go in an indefinite direction 35 to take a walk 20 to play pingpong 35 to dance 11 to ask/inquire 13 to cry 12 to speak/talk 12 morning 18 to stop 29 to smoke (cigarettes) 11 to write 11 385

APPENDIX H agtakdér V agtagibaláy N agtaráy V agtelépono V agténis V agtrabáho V agtúdo V agtugáw V agtúno V agúray V ála V aláen V aldáw N Alemán N almosár N amarílyo Adj Amerikána N Amerikáno N amiánan N ammó V anák N ángin N angóten V aniá Pron ápo N Aprikáno N aramíden V arasáwen V ári N arína N arítos N artísta N asáwa N asidég Prep asín N asúkar N asúl Adj atádo N atiddóg Adj atitiddóg Adj awán Adj

to stand 11 housewife 10 to run 11 to phone 30 to play tennis 35 to work 20 to rain 29 to sit down 5 to broil 30 to wait 14 get 36 to get/take something 23 day, noon 1 German 8 breakfast 18 yellow 24 American (female) 7 American (male) 7 north 13 know 29 child 34 wind 29 to smell 23 what 3 title of respect for older people or strangers 2 African (male); the female form is Aprikana 8 to do/make 11 to wash (vegetables, fruits, uncooked rice) 35 king 9 flour 27 earrings 37 actor/actress 10 husband/wife 19 near, close by 26 salt 25 sugar 27 blue 24 a lot, a portion 27 long (singular) 17 long (plural) 17 none 26 386

APPENDIX H ayáb V ayán Pron babá Prep babái N babassít Adj babbái N babbalásang N báboy N bákir N bádo N bagás N balásang N balátong N baláy N balbaláy N balkón N balóta N balút N bánga N bangús N barbáreng Adv barbéro N barberyá N baróng N baryó N basáen V bási N báso N bassít Adj basúra N bayábas N belléng V bérde Adj biáhe N Biérnes N bigát N binigát Adv binúlan Adv biolín N bisíta N bistík N blúsa N bóbeda N

call 37 a question word, ‘where’ 13 down, below 26 girl, female 7 small, tiny (plural) 17 girls, females 7 ladies, unmarried women 10 pig 15 forest 33 dress, shirt 4 uncooked rice 27 lady, unmarried woman 10 mongo beans 27 house 17 houses 17 porch 26 ballots 38 duck’s egg with partially developed embryo 27 clay pot 35 milkfish 27 hopefully 40 barber 35 barber shop 30 man’s Philippine formal shirt 23 barrio 13 to read (something) 23 rice wine 23 glass, tumbler 20 small, tiny (singular) 17 garbage, trash 32 guava 30 throw 32 green 24 trip 33 Friday 18 morning 1 every morning 29 every month 29 violin 23 visitor, guest 32 beef steak 35 blouse 31 ceiling 3 387

APPENDIX H bóda N bodéga N bóla N búlan N bulóden V bulóng N bumakét Adj bumúlod V bunéng N bunót N bus N ka Pron kaanakán N kabsát N kadakamí Pron kadakayó Pron kadakuáda Pron kadagidiáy Pron kadagitá Pron kadagitóy Pron kadatá Pron kadatayó Pron kadí Part kahón N kalésa N káli V kalmán N kalpasán Adv káma N kamátis N kamí Pron kamisadéntro N kamiséta N kanawán N kanáyon Adv kankanén N kanén N kanigid N kanó Part kantáen V

wedding 41 storehouse 26 ball 34 month 18 to borrow (something) 23 leaf 4 getting old (said of women); the masculine counterpart is lumakay 34 to borrow 14 bolo, machete 36 coconut husk 36 bus 33 you (singular) 2 nephew/niece 16 sibling 16 to/for us (exclusive) 15 to/for you (plural) 15 to/for them 15 of/among those yonder 19 of/among those 19 of/among these 19 to/for us (dual) 15 to/for us (inclusive) 15 a question word 12 box 20 rig 30 dig 36 yesterday 18 afterwards 35 bed 33 tomato 27 we (exclusive) 5 man’s shirt 39 T-shirt 39 right (hand) 35 always 36 native delicacy 30 food 21 left (hand) 35 a quotative marker meaning ‘It is said.’ 25 to sing (something) 23 388

APPENDIX H kánto N kapé N kapeteryá N kapin-anó QW kappó N kárne N kárne ti báboy kárne ti báka karpintéro N kartíb N kartíben V kasangáy N kasdiáy Adv kasinsín N kastá Adv kastá met Kastíla N kastóy Adv kastóy lattá kawés N kayát V káyo N kayó Pron keddél V ken Part kénka Pron kenkuána Pron ket Part kílo N kimát N kíta V kitáen V ko Pron komedór N kontribusión N kosína N kuadérno N kuáen V kuartá N kuartó N kuentás N

corner 35 coffee 14 cafeteria 14 how … related 16 clam 27 meat 27 pork 27 beef 27 carpenter 7 scissors 30 to cut (something) with a pair of scissors 31 birthday 37 that (yonder) 35 cousin 16 that way 35 a greeting response: ‘Same to you.’ 2 Spaniard 8 this way 35 a greeting response: ‘Just fine.’ 2 clothes 35 like, want 21 tree 4 you (plural) 2 pinch 21 and 5 to/for you (singular) 2 to/for him/her 15 and 2 kilogram 27 lightning 29 see 29 to see, to look at 23 my 10 dining room 26 contribution 38 kitchen 26 notebook 38 to do/make 11 money 32 room 17 necklace 37

389

APPENDIX H kumá Part kumustá (ka) QW kuná V kúyog V da Pron dakamí Pron dakayó Pron dakkél Adj dadakkél Adj dagidí D dagidiáy D dagitá D dagitáy D dagitóy D dágom N dagós N dáing N daíten V dámag N dániw N danúm N danumán V datá Pron datayó Pron dáya N daydí D daydiáy D daytá D daytáy D daytóy D denggén (dengngegen) derósas Adj didíng N digósen V dinomíngo Adv Dios ti agngína Disiémbre N ditá D ditóy D

subjunctive expression meaning ‘wish’ or ‘hope’ 14 a greeting: how (are you) 2 say 32 go with 41 they, their 5, 10 we (exclusive) 5 you (plural) 2 large (singular) 17 large (plural) 17 plural marker indicating remote past 34 those (yonder) 3 those 3 plural marker indicating recent past 34 these 3 needle 36 temporary lodging place 40 dried fish 38 to sew (something) 23 news 32 poem 33 water 14 to put water (on something) 35 we, dual (you and I) 5 we (inclusive) east 13 singular marker indicating remote past 34 that (yonder) 3 that 3 singular marker indicating recent past 34 this 3 to listen to 23 pink 24 wall 3 to bathe (somebody) 31 every week 29 thank you 5 December 18 there 13 here 13 390

APPENDIX H doktór (Dr.) N domíngo N Domíngo N dormitóryo N dumánon V dumáwat V

doctor 2 week 29 Sunday 18 dormitory 13 to arrive at (a place) 33 to ask for 14

Enéro N eskuéla N estasyón N estudiánte N

January 18 school 13 station 13 student 4

gánta N gatángen V gátas N gawgáwan V gáyam Part

Huébes N Húlio N Húnio N

ganta (a grain measure) 27 to buy (something) 23 milk 14 to rinse (clothes and the like) 35 a particle meaning ‘so’ as in Ay, ni Juan gayam. ‘Oh, so it’s John! 14 friend 2 to rub (clothes and the like) 35 guitar 24 to buy 14 leg 16 thunder 29 love to 21 Japanese (male); the female form is Haponesa 7 Thursday 18 July 18 June 18

ibagá V ibáti V ibató V ibelléng V ikábil V ikán N ikkán V íkit N iddepén V idí Adv idiáy D idúlin V iláko V

to tell (something) 25 to leave (something) behind 25 to hurl (something) 25 to throw (something) away 25 to put (something) (somewhere) 25 fish 23 to give (something or somebody) 38 aunt 16 to turn off (the light, etc.) 23 before; indicator of past time 29 there (yonder) 13 to keep (something) 25 to sell (something) 25

gayyém N gelgelén V gitára N gumátang V gúrong N gurrúod N gustó V Hapón N

391

APPENDIX H íli N Ilokáno N íma N inaldáw Adv inapóy N inhinyéro N ínit N innáw V inóras Adv Insík N intóno Part ipán V ipisók V iréyser N irikép V isalapáy V isú Pron isúbli V isúda Pron isúrat V isúro V itá Adv Italiáno N itattá Adv itáy Adv itéd V itík-itík N itinnág V itlóg N iyáwat V lakáy N láko N, V láeng Part laláki N lalláki N lamisáan N lamlamisáan N

town 13 a person from the Ilocos region; the female form is Ilokana 7 hand 16 every day 29 steamed rice 23 engineer 7 sun 29 wash dishes 36 every hour 29 Chinese 8 future time marker 18 to take (something) to a place 25 to put into the pot preparatory to cooking 35 eraser 3 to close (something like a door or a window) 25 to hang in order to dry (clothes, etc.) 35 he, she 5 to return (something) 25 they 5 to write (something) 25 to teach (something or someone) 25 now, today 18 Italian (male); the female form is Italiana 8 right now 29 recent past 29 to give (something) 25 a Philippine folk dance imitating the movements of a duckling 24 to drop; to mail (letter) 32 egg 27 to hand (something) over 25 old man 37 merchandise, wares 27; to sell 27 a grammatical element meaning ‘only, just’ 2 boy, male 7 boys, males 7 table 3 tables 17

392

APPENDIX H lampáso V langóy V Laoág N lapáyag N lápis N laplápis N láud N láwas N láybrari N layós N leys N libró N likód Prep lináwas Adv lináyen V lipátan V lóla N lólo N lugár N lúgaw N lumagtó V Lúnes N Lunéta N lutúen V maatianán V mabalín Adj mabií1 Adv makaámammó V makabángon V makapagná V makapán V makinílya N madámdamá Adv maéstra N maéstro N

polish (the floor) with a coconut husk 36 swim 29 capital city of Ilocos Norte 40 ear 16 pencil 3 pencils 17 west 13 week 28 library 29 flood, deluge 34 lace 27 book 3 in back of, behind 26 every week 29 to cook well and evenly (usually said of rice) 35 to forget 38 grandmother 16 grandfather 16 place 17 gruel, porridge 33 to jump 14 Monday 18 a park in Manila 20 to cook (something) 23 to dry up (said of something being cooked) 35 possible, can be 13 short time, a little while 29 to get adquainted with 5 to be able to rise from bed 39 to be able to walk 39 to be able to go 39 typewriter 25 later 28 teacher (female) 1 teacher (male) 2

393

APPENDIX H maikalimá Adj maís N malagíp V malém N maléta N maminsán Adv mánang N mannálon N mannúrat N manó QW manók N mánong N mansanas N manggá N mangtéd V maragsákan Adj Marsó N Martés N masápol Adj matá N matimátiks N Máyo N mayór N Meksikáno N médias N met Part mi Pron Miérkoles N minalém Adv mísa N mísis (Mrs.) Adj mistér (Mr.) Adj míting N

fifth 35 corn 27 to remember 34 afternoon 1 suitcase 32 once 29 term of respect for older girl/woman belonging to the same generation as the speaker, older sister 13, 16 farmer 10 writer 10 how many 16 chicken 32 term of respect for older male belonging to the same generation as the speaker, older brother 15, 16 apple 30 mango 20 to give 38 to be glad, to be happy 5 March 18 Tuesday 18 necessary 40 eye 16 mathematics 34 May 18 mayor 6 Mexican (male); the female form is Meksikana 8 socks, stockings 4 also, too 1 our (exclusive) 10 Wednesday 18 every afternoon 29 Holy Mass 41 madam (Mrs.) 2 mister (Mr.) 2 meeting 29 394

APPENDIX H mo Pron múla N munisípio N

you (singular), your 1, 10 plant 36 municipal hall 35

na Pron naalás Adj naános Adj nabayág Adj nakapsót Adj nakuttóng Adj nadadáel Adj nadalós Adj nagagét Adj nágan N naguápo Adj nailét Adj naímas Adj naimbág Adj nalabága Adj nalagdá Adj nalaíng Adj nalamíis Adj nalóko Adj nalukmég Adj namúno Adj nánang N nangína Adj napan a tawen Adv napigsá Adj napintás Adj napúdot Adj napuskól Adj nárra N nars N narugít N Narvacán N nasadút Adj nasayáat Adj nasingpét Adj natáyag Adj

his, hers 10 ugly (for females) 8 kind, patient 8 long time 18 weak 17 thin 8 destroyed, broken 36 clean 17 hard-working, industrious name 10 handsome 8 tight 17 delicious 22 good, fine 1 red 24 durable 22 intelligent, smart 8 cold, cool 21 naughty, mischievous 8 stout 8 stupid 8 mother 16 expensive 25 last year 29 strong 17 beautiful, pretty 8 hot 21 thick 36 narra tree 37 nurse 7 dirty 36 a town in Ilocos Sur 41 lazy 8 fine 2 well-behaved 8 tall (used for people) 8 395

APPENDIX H naténg N naúdi Adj naungét Adj negosyánte N ni Part nisnís N no Part Nobiémbre N no daddúma Adv nuáng N

vegetable 20 late, last 33 cranky 8 businessman 10

nga Part

a grammatical element (ligature) joining two content words such as an adjective and a noun 1 then (as in ‘Whose is it, then?’) 19 perhaps, maybe 28 but 17 mouth 16 October 18 bear 33 hospital 13

ngarúd Part ngatá Part ngem Part ngíwat N Oktúbre N óso N ospitál N pádi N pagkaseroán N pagparadáan N Pámulinawén N panagáwid N panagrikná N panagriíng N panagtúrog N panáit N pandék Adj pantalón N pangngaldáw N pangrabií N

proper noun marker 5 rag for wiping 36 if; future time marker 29 November 18 sometimes, once in a while 30 water buffalo 26

priest 29 boarding house 35 parking place 33 title of a popular Ilokano song 29 one’s going home 28 feeling 39 reveille 18 bedtime 18 thread 36 short 8 pants 4 lunch 18 dinner/supper 18 396

APPENDIX H papáya N papél N paryá N pasaráy Adv pasáýan N paskuá N pastór N patátas N patayén V patís N páto N pay Part páyong N Pebréro N pekkelén V pétsa N piésta N píli V Pilipína N Pilipíno N pinakbét N pisárra N Pis Kor N pitáka N plantsá V plása N pos ópis N póste N Pransés N prinsipál N prográma N propesór N prútas N púkis V pulís N puráw Adj púsa N putéden V pyanísta N pyáno N

papaya 27 paper 3 bitter melon 27 occasionally, sometimes 36 shrimps 27 Christmas 41 minister 29 potatoes 21 to kill (someone or something) 23 salted fish sauce 38 duck 27 a particle meaning ‘too’ 8 umbrella 3 February 18 to squeeze (something) 35 date 18 fiesta 41 choose 37 Filipino woman 7 Filipino 7 a popular Ilokano vegetable dish 34 blackboard 3 Peace Corps Volunteer 7 wallet 26 press, iron 35 town plaza 41 post office 13 post 33 French 8 principal 2 program 24 professor 8 fruits 15 to cut hair 35 policeman 10 white 17 cat 26 to cut 23 pianist 10 piano 23

rabii N radio N rámay N

night 1 radio 32 finger 16 397

APPENDIX H rámay ti sáka N reló N repólyo N repórt N reppét N restaurán N retráto N réyna N ríbon N rígis N rinabií Adv rosál N rósas N ruángan N ruár Prep rukudén V rú-ut N

toe 16

sa Part

expression of doubt: ‘I think’ as in ‘I think it’s red.’ 28 no 7 yes, indeed (future) 28 Saturday 18 flower 4 foot 16 where 10 prepare 37 comb 29 how much each, how many each 27

saán Adv saanto man Sábado N sábong N sáka N sadíno QW sagána V sagaysáy N sagmamanó QW sagpaminsán Adv sálas N sandályas N sángo Prep sapátos N sapólen V sapúlen V saríta V sáyang Int senadór N sepílyo N

clock, wristwatch 4 cabbage 27 report 32 bundle 27 restaurant 13 picture 32 queen 9 ribbon 27 rag 36 every night 29 gardenia 22 rose (flower) 21 door 3 outside 26 to measure 35 grass 4

once in a while, sometimes 30 living room 26 sandals 39 in front of 26 shoes 4 to look for/seek (something) 23 to look for, to seek 14 talk 38 expression of regret equivalent to ‘What a pity!’ 33 senator 7 toothbrush 29 398

APPENDIX H Septiémbre N serbésa N siak Pron siká Pron síko N sidá N sigarílyo N sílaw N simbáan N síno Pron síngko N singsíng N sírok Prep sublí V sukáten V sumarunó Adj sumrék V súpot N súrat N ta Pron takyág N tagá Prep tagá-anó QW tagiláko N talí N tángo N taó N tapnó Conj taróng N tátang N tattáo N táwa N tawén N tayó Pron téla N tengugá Prep tiendáan N tinápay N Tiniklíng N tinnág V

September 18 beer 14 I5 you (singular) 2 elbow 16 fish, viand 24 cigarette 3 light 4 church 13 who 17 five, nickel 28 ring 4 under 26 return 28 to measure 35 next 28 to enter 5 paper bag 27 letter 14 we, dual (you and I) 5 arm 16 from 10 from where 10 merchandise, wares 40 rope, string 27 the Argentine dance, tango 40 person 17 so that 38 eggplant 27 father 16 persons 17 window 3 year 28 we (inclusive) 5 cloth, textile 27 center, middle 26 market, store 14 bread 23 the Philippine folk dance popularly known as the bamboo dance 14 drop, mail (letter) 32 399

APPENDIX H tísa N tokarén V trabáho N tréyni N tsa N tsinélas N tsokoláte N tuália N túdo N tugáw N tumakdér V tumáwar V túmeng N tumúlong V tunggál Adv tungó N

chalk 3 to play (an instrument) 23 job, work 10 trainee 4 tea 21 slippers 36 chocolate 21 towel 36 rain 29 chair 3 to stand 14 to haggle 30 knee 16 to help 14 every 30 firewood 36

ubbíng N ubbóg N ubíng N ulitég N úlo N umáy V umayáb V uminóm V umú1i V umútang V únay Adv unég Prep upprán V uray no Conj utóng N

children 11 spring 20 child 11 uncle 16 head 16 to come 14 to call 37 to drink 14 to ascend 14 to borrow (money); to buy on credit 30 an intensifier meaning ‘very’ 40 inside 26 to soak 35 even though, although 31 string beans 27

wen Adv

yes 7

yárda N yo Pron

yard 27 you (plural), your 1, 10

400

Notes LESSON ONE 1. Cultural Note. The plural pronoun is often used in Ilokano as a sign of respect. Literally, naimbag a bigat yo means ‘good morning you all’. It is used as a greeting for a plurality of addressees. A second use for this social formula, however, is as a respectful greeting addressed to a singular person. It is usually used for elders and for strangers. 2.

The ligature nga has two forms: a and nga. The form a is used before consonant-initial words; nga before vowel-initial words. For example: naimbag a bigat, naimbag nga aldaw.

3. Naimbag nga aldaw mo/yo is a greeting that is used at noon (between about 11:00 a.m. and 1:00 p.m.). Literally it means ‘good day’. 4. Met is a response marker. Naimbag a bigat mo met literally means ‘good morning, too’ or ‘good morning, also’. 5. The pronoun mo has two forms: mo and -m. Mo is used after consonant-final words; -m after vowel-final words. The form -m is usually attached to the word it follows. For example: bigat mo, rabiim (rabii + -m).

LESSON TWO 1.

Ka and kayo mean ‘you’ (singular) and ‘you’ (plural), respectively. They are parallel to mo and yo. Ka and kayo and mo and yo belong to two different sets of pronouns. You will learn more about them in the succeeding lessons.

401

Notes

2.

Kumusta kayo means ‘How are you all’. It is used as a greeting for a group of people. However, it is also used as a polite greeting for an individual–usually an elder or a stranger. (See Notes, 1, Lesson One.)

3. Dakayo is a full form of the pronoun kayo. These two forms have their respective uses which will be learned in the succeeding lessons.

LESSON THREE 1. The Ilokano deictics (also called demonstratives) are: Singular

Plural

daytoy dayta daydiay

dagitoy dagita dagidiay

(near speaker) (near hearer, far from speaker) (away from both speaker and hearer–yonder)

2. Notice the deictic switch between daytoy and dayta in questions and answers where daytoy refers to something near the speaker (ordinarily within his reach) and dayta refers to something away from the speaker but near the hearer. In some instances dayta may be used to point out that which is not within reach of either the speaker or the hearer, but somewhere not too far from either one or the other. e.g.

Q R Q R Q

Ania daytoy? Pisarra dayta. Ania dayta? Lapis daytoy. Ania dayta? 402

Notes

R

Lapis dayta.

LESSON FOUR 1. Plurality in Ilokano can be signaled through the noun by the reduplication (doubling) of its first syllable. e.g.

lib.ro ‘book’

--

lib.lib.ro ‘books’

(In the above example, the dot [.] indicates syllable division.) Most often, the reduplicated syllable is closed. That is to say, it ends in a consonant (see example above). When the first syllable of the noun ends in a vowel and the second syllable starts with a consonant, the initial consonant of the second syllable is “borrowed” to close the reduplicated syllable. e.g.

pa.pel ‘paper’

--

pap.pa.pel ‘pieces of paper’

sa.bong ‘flower’

--

sab.sa.bong ‘flowers’

If the second syllable begins with a vowel, the first syllable is merely repeated. e.g.

ma.es.tra ‘teacher (f)’

--

ma.ma.es.tra ‘teachers (f)’

ru.a.ngan ‘door’

--

ru.ru.a.ngan ‘doors’

403

Notes

Most nouns lend themselves to the pluralizing device of reduplication. However, there are a few exceptions like estudiante and nars which do not reduplicate. There is also a small set of nouns which does not follow the general pattern of reduplication described above. e.g.

ba.la.sang ‘lady’

--

bab.ba.la.sang not ‘ladies’ bal.ba.la.sang

ta.o ‘person’

--

tat.ta.o not ta.ta.o ‘persons’

Exceptions of both types are not too plentiful and should be learned as special items. 2.

(a) In a construction consisting of a noun and a deictic (noun + deictic), it is possible to express plurality in two ways: plurality of both noun and deictic; plurality of the deictic alone. e.g.

sabsabong dagitoy ‘flowers’ ‘these’

--

These are flowers.

sabong dagitoy ‘flower’ ‘these’

--

These are flowers.

But it is incorrect to express plurality thus: *sabsabong daytoy

404

Notes

(The asterisk before the example indicates that the construction is not acceptable.) It should, therefore, be noted that between the noun and the deictic, the more important element for signaling plurality is the deictic. It can express plurality without requiring the plural form of the noun, but the noun cannot be pluralized without the obligatory pluralization of the deictic. (b) In a noun + deictic construction, the plural form of the noun is not an essential requirement. However, it is necessary to know how to form the plural of nouns because there are other constructions where its use is required. You will meet these constructions later.

LESSON FIVE 1. The Nominative Pronouns. There are two sets of nominative pronouns in Ilokano: the full forms (siak series) and the short forms (ak series).

Nominative Pronouns Siak series (full form)

Ak series (short form)

Singular 1st per. 2nd per. 3rd per.

siak sika isu

ak ka ø

I you he/she

data

ta

we (you and I)

Plural 1st per. (dual)

405

Notes

1st per. (excl) 1st per. (incl) 2nd per. 3rd per.

dakami datayo dakayo isuda

kami tayo kayo da

we (excl) we (incl) you they

(The symbol ø for the 3rd per. singular, short form indicates a zero or absent form.) 2. Usage. Sino + pronoun is not the customary question used to elicit a person’s name. What is usually used is ania ti nagan mo ‘What’s your name?’. The use of sino + pronoun in this lesson is as a pedagogical device for introducing the nominative pronouns. 3. Ni and da are proper noun markers. Ni is the singular form, and da is the plural. e.g.

ni Edy da Edy ken Ben

LESSON SIX 1. Notice the structural difference in the answers to sino questions making use of pronouns and deictics. Sino ka?

Siak ni Ben.

(pronoun + noun phrase)

Sino daydiay? Ni Ben daydiay. (noun phrase + deictic)

LESSON SEVEN 1. There are several ways of forming wen/saan (yes/no) questions in Ilokano. The most common way is by means of a rising intonation at the end of the sentence. This type of

406

Notes

question has exactly the same elements and word order as the statement, but the statement has a falling intonation while the question has a rising intonation. e.g.

2.

Estudiante ka.

You’re a student.

Estudiante ka?

Are you a student?

In answering questions with noun subjects, it is more natural to use pronouns. e.g.

Estudiante ni Ben? Wen, estudiante. Estudiante da Ben ken Ann? Saan, maestro da.

LESSON EIGHT 1. Ilokano has two kinds of adjectives: affixed adjectives consisting of the affix na + base; and base adjectives. e.g.

(1)

affixed adjective na + pintas adjectival ‘beauty’ affix

(2)

--

‘beautiful’

base adjective pandek short

napintas

--

407

Notes

dakkel big

--

LESSON NINE 1. Ti and dagiti are nominal markers like ni and da (see Lesson 5). Ti and dagiti mark common nouns; ni and da, proper nouns. e.g.

ti estudiante dagiti estudiante ni Pedro da Pedro ken Juana

student students Peter Peter and Jane

Ti is singular and dagiti is plural. However, this distinction in number is more according to form than according to function. In actual usage dagiti is often contracted to ti so long as ambiguity does not result from this contraction. When there is a possibility of ambiguity in meaning, the full form is used. e.g.

Q R

Sino dagiti estudiante? Da Juan ken Marina ti estudiante. Pis Kor dagiti estudiante.

2. Notice that in giving responses to negative questions, the agreement response is wen/saan + negative statement. The disagreement response is saan man + affirmative statement. e.g.

Q

Saan ka nga Amerikano?

Agreement Responses (a) Wen, saan ak nga Amerikano. 408

Notes

(b)

‘Yes, I’m not an American.’ (meaning: ‘No, I’m not an American.’) Saan, saan ak nga Amerikano. ‘No, I’m not an American.’

Disagreement Response Saan man, Amerikano ak. ‘Yes, indeed, I’m an American.’ The wen + negative statement response may cause initial difficulty in mastery because of its dissimilarity to the English no + negative statement response. However, it is often used in Ilokano and should be mastered.

LESSON TEN 1. (a) The ko series of pronouns is as follows. Person

Singular

Plural

1st

ko/-k ‘my’

ta ‘our (dual)’ mi ‘our (excl)’ tayo ‘our (incl)’

2nd

mo/-m ‘your’

yo ‘your’

3rd

na ‘his/her’

da ‘their’

There are several uses of the ko pronouns. The use illustrated in this lesson is that of possession. Other uses will be learned in succeeding lessons. (b) The pronouns ko and mo have two forms each: ko/-k and mo/-m respectively. Ko and mo occur after words ending in consonants; -k and -m alter words ending in vowels. -k and -m are attached to the words they follow. e.g.

nagan ko

my name

409

Notes

nagan mo trabahok trabahom

your name my job your job

2. The phrase da + singular proper noun has a plural meaning. e.g.

da Juana

Juana and others

LESSON ELEVEN 1. The Ilokano verb is composed of a base or stem and an affix. The base/stem provides the meaning and the affix shows the relationship of the verb to other parts of the sentence. 2. The ag- verb is an actor-focus verb. That is to say, it lays emphasis on the actor. The ag- verb takes the nominative pronouns: the siak series and the ak series. e.g.

Agtugaw ak. Siak ti agtugaw.

I sit. I will be the one to sit.

3. In verb formation the affix ag- is prefixed to the base/stem. If the base/stem starts with a vowel, the g of ag- becomes the first sound of the first syllable of the base/stem. e.g.

ag- + taray ‘run’

--

ag- + awid ‘go home’

--

agtaray /ag.ta.ray/ ‘to run’ agawid /a.ga.wid/ ‘to go home’

LESSON TWELVE 1. The progressive form of the verb consists of the affix plus a partial reduplication of the verb base.

410

Notes

e.g.

agbasa ‘to read’

--

agbasbasa ‘is reading’

agadal ‘to study’

--

agad-adal ‘is studying’

2. The past form consists of the affix nag- plus the verb base. e.g.

agbasa ‘to read’

--

nagbasa ‘read (past)’

agadal ‘to study’

--

nagadal ‘studied‘

LESSON THIRTEEN 1. The locatives ditoy ‘here’, dita ‘there’, and idiay ‘thereyonder’ are parallel to the demonstratives daytoy, dayta, and daydiay, respectively. 2.

Ayan before a noun phrase is in frequent variation with ayan na or ayan da. Ayan na is used before singular noun phrases (ti/ni phrases) and ayan da is used before plural noun phrases (da/dagiti phrases). e.g.

Ayan na ti ubing? Ayan na ni Marcia? Ayan da dagiti ubbing? Ayan da da Marcia?

LESSON FOURTEEN 1. -um- verbs are actor-focus verbs. They take the nominative pronouns, both full and short.

411

Notes

e.g.

Lumagto ak. Siak ti lumagto.

I jump. I will be the one to jump.

2. In verb formation -um- is placed immediately before the first vowel of the verb stem. e.g.

-um-+ inom ‘drink’

uminom ‘to drink’

-um-+ gatang ‘buy’

gumatang ‘to buy’

LESSON FIFTEEN 1.

The answer to a sino + nominalized verbal question requires a full nominative pronoun. e.g.

Q R

Sino ti lumagto? Siak ti lumagto. Siak.

Who will jump? I will (be the one to) jump. I will.

A nominalized verbal is a verbal predicate preceded by ti. 2. The oblique personal pronouns are: Person

Singular

Plural

1st

kaniak

kadata (dual) kadakami (excl) kadatayo (incl)

2nd

kenka

kadakayo

3rd

kenkuana

kadakuada

Also, see Appendix A for a comparative presentation of all the different pronoun series.

412

Notes

LESSON SIXTEEN 1.

Ilokano has two sets of numbers: native Ilokano numbers and Spanish loans. The two sets have their respective uses and should both be learned.

2.

Morphophonemic note. When the pronouns ko and mo follow kaanakán, the final n disappears and -k and -m are attached to the preceding word. Thus: kaanakán +

ko mo

--

kaanakák kaanakám

LESSON SEVENTEEN 1.

(a) Recall that Ilokano has two kinds of adjectives: affixed adjectives consisting of the affix na + base; and base adjectives. e.g.

(1)

affixed adjective na + pintas ‘beauty’ -- napintas ‘beautiful’

(2)

base adjective dakkel -- big bassit -- small

(b) The Ilokano adjective has a singular and a plural form. In most instances the plural is signalled by reduplication of the CV (consonant-vowel) of the first syllable of the base. e.g.

napintas ‘beautiful’

--

na.pi.pin.tas

413

Notes

nadalus ‘clean’

--

na.da.da.lus

dakkel

--

da.dak.kel

--

ba.bas.sit

‘big’ bassit ‘small’

(The dot [.] in the examples indicates syllable division.) There is a small number of adjectives that have the same form for the singular and the plural. e.g.

kulot asul

---

curly blue

These items are learned as exceptions. (c) The singular form of the adjective can have either a singular or a plural meaning. The plural form can have only a plural meaning. e.g.

Naanos ti maestra.

The teacher is kind. The teachers are kind. The teachers are kind.

Naanos dagiti maestra. Naaanos dagiti maestra.

2. (a) The construction adjective + nga + noun can be transformed into noun + nga + adjective without any change in meaning. e.g.

adjective atiddog

+

nga

+

a

noun lapis

414

a long pencil

Notes

napintas

noun

a

+

balay

nga

+

a beautiful house

adjective

lapis

nga

atiddog

a long pencil

balay

a

napintas

a beautiful house

(b) The adjective + nga + noun and the noun + nga + adjective constructions are phrases, NOT complete sentences like: adjective

+

ti

+

noun

Atiddog

ti

lapis.

The pencil is long.

Napintas

ti

balay.

The house is beautiful.

LESSON EIGHTEEN Ilokano uses two systems of numbers, the Iloko and a borrowed system from Spanish. Spanish numbers are used for telling the time and the date. They are also used in giving monetary amounts. The ‘native’ numbers are used in practically all other situations and may vary with some Spanish numbers in the last instances mentioned above where Spanish numbers are used. The following illustrates this overlap in the use of money. Q

Mano ti kuartam?

How much money do you have?

R

Dos pesos./Dua nga pesos.

Two pesos.

415

Notes

Q

Sagmamano ti saba?

How much each are the bananas?

R

(1) Saglilima a centavo./Sagsisinko.

Five centavos each.

(2) Sagsasanpagulo a centavos./Sagdidies.

Ten centavos each.

(Note the reduplication even with the Spanish loans.)

LESSON NINETEEN 1. See Notes, Lesson 10, for ko pronoun series chart. 2. The attributive articles ti/ni are: Singular

Plural

ti

dagiti

ni

da

They are similar in form to the nominative articles. The attributive articles indicate possession. Ti and dagiti are used with common nouns; ni and da with proper nouns. e.g.

ti ubing dagiti ubbing ti aso dagiti aso ni Pedro da Pedro da Pedro ken Juan

of of of of of of of

416

the child the children the dog the dogs Peter Peter (and others) Peter and John

Notes

3.

Pronunciation Note. When uttered at normal speed, akinkukua iti daytoy a lapis is pronounced /akinkukuadtoy a lapis/, and the shorter form akinkua iti daytoy a lapis is /akinkuadtoy lapis/. Iti is omitted and daytoy is contracted. The plural forms kadagitoy, kadagita, and kadagidiay, however, are never contracted even in rapid speech. Thus, for example, akinkukua kadagitoy a lapis is pronounced /akinkukua kadagitoy a lapis/, and the shorter form akinkua kadagitoy a lapis is pronounced /akinkua kadagitoy a lapis/.

LESSON TWENTY 1.

(a) Cultural Note. The question Papanam? ‘Where are you going?’ may either be a genuine question seeking information, or it may be a friendly greeting. As a friendly greeting it is equivalent to the American greeting ‘Hi’, the only difference being in the response where the customary Ilokano answer is dita nay or dita meaning ‘there’. The student learning Ilokano has to observe for himself and learn to distinguish the situations when Papanam? is a genuine question asking for information and when it is merely a greeting.

(b) Morphophonemic Note. Note the loss of the final n in papanan when followed by the -k ‘I’ and -m ‘you’ pronouns. papanan + -k

-- papanak

papanan + -m

-- papanam

When followed by the other pronouns in the ko series, n remains. For example: papanan + na -- papanan na papanan + da -- papanan da

417

Notes

2. (a) The verb in which is a less formal substitute for mapan ‘go’ is used only with short nominative pronouns: the ak series as in innak ‘I (will) go’, inta ‘both of us (will) go’, inka ‘you (sg) (will) go’, inkayo ‘you (pl) (will) go’, inkami ‘we (excl) (will) go’, intayo ‘we (incl) (will) go’, inda ‘they (will) go’. All the preceding in + pronoun combinations can be followed by either a verb or an adverb. e.g.

In tayo agbasa. In kami idiay. In tayon.

We (will) go and read. We (will) go there. Let’s go now.

However, in da is almost always followed by a verb, and only rarely by a locative. e.g.

In da agmula. In da idiay tiendaan.

They (will) go to plant. They (will) go to the store.

(b) The verb in is not substitutable for mapan in the third person singular. In this instance, only mapan is acceptable. For example: Right:

Mapan agopisina ni Tomas. ‘Thomas goes (will go) to the office.’

Wrong:

*In agopisina ni Tomas.

(The asterisk indicates that the form is never used.) (c) In cannot be used in negative constructions. Wrong:

*Saan ak nga in dita. 418

Notes

Right:

Saan ak nga mapan dita. ‘I won’t go there.’

3. The negative signal di- is generally less formal than saan.

LESSON TWENTY-ONE 1. Gusto and kayat are substitutable for each other. However, the two words are slightly different in meaning. Kayat usually means ‘want’ or ‘like’; gusto means ‘love to’. Kayat ko ti agsala. Gustok ti agsala.

I want to dance. I love to dance.

2. The marker ti nominalizes an adjective or a verb. For example: (a)

adjective -ababa ‘short’

ti ababa ‘a/the short one’

Kayat ko ti ababa. ‘I want a short one.’ (b)

verb uminom ‘to drink’

--

ti uminom ‘a drink’ (used as a noun)

Kayat ko ti uminom. ‘I want a drink.’

419

Notes

LESSON TWENTY-TWO 1. It may be initially difficult to distinguish between the comparative form and the plural form of the adjective. The difficulty may arise from the fact that both forms are signalled by partial reduplication. Partial reduplication means the repetition of a part of the base. This is to distinguish it from complete reduplication or the repetition of the entire base. e.g.

partial reduplication dakkel ‘big’

--

dadakkel ‘big’ (plural form)

complete reduplication uppat ‘four’

--

uppat-uppat ‘four by four’, ‘by fours’

The reduplication systems for the plural form and the comparative form of the adjective, however, are quite different from each other. The following examples illustrate the difference. (Recall that Ilokano has two types of adjectives: base adjectives and na- affix adjectives. See Notes, Lesson 8.) Adjective

Plural

Comparative

(1)

na.pin.tas ‘beautiful’

na.pi.pin.tás

na.pín.pin.tás

(2)

na.da.lus ‘clean’

na.da.da.lús

na.dál.da.lús

420

Notes

(3)

na.ru.git ‘dirty’

na.ru.ru.gít

na.rúg.ru.gít

(4)

na.la.ing ‘intelligent’

na.la.la.íng

na.lá:.la.íng

(5)

a.si.deg ‘near’

a.a.si.dég

ás.a.si.dég

(6)

a.ki.kid ‘narrow’

a.a.kí.kid

ák.a.kí.kid

(7)

dak.kel ‘big’

ka.dak.kél

dák.dak.kél

In the above examples (.) indicates syllable division and (:) indicates length. The important characteristic of the comparative form is the closed syllable structure of the reduplicated syllable. That is to say, the reduplication ends either with a consonant or with length. When the reduplicated syllable of the base ends in a vowel, the initial consonant of the succeeding syllable is “borrowed” to close the reduplication (see examples 2, 3, 5, 6). If the succeeding syllable starts with a vowel, the reduplication is “closed” by length (see example 4). The plural form generally has an open reduplicated syllable. That is to say, it ends in a vowel. Reduplication consists in the repetition of only the first V (vowel) or the first CV (consonant-vowel) of the reduplicated syllable of the base, regardless of whether or not a C follows the V. (Compare examples 1 and 7 with the rest.)

421

Notes

Another point of difference between the comparative form and the plural form is in the stress patterns. The plural form has only one strong stress located in the word base, while the comparative form has two: one in the word base and another in the reduplication. There are some exceptions to the reduplication rules for the plural form and the comparative form. These exceptions shall be learned as individual items. For example: Adjective

Plural

Comparative

ababa

a.bab.ba.ba

‘short puraw

na.pur.pu.raw

‘white’

LESSON TWENTY-THREE 1.

(a) The -en verb is a goal focus verb. In a goal focus construction emphasis is laid not on the doer but on the receiver of the action. Thus, for example, in the sentence Gatangen na ti libro, what is in focus is ti libro. (b) The -en verb takes the ko series of pronouns. (c) Morphophonemic Note. When the verb affix -en combines with the pronouns ko and mo of the ko series, n disappears and -k and -m are used forming -ek and -em. For example: basaen + ko

--

basaek

422

Notes

‘to read (something)’

‘I read (something)’

basaen + mo

--

basaem ‘You read (something)’

2.

In colloquial speech, daytoy, dayta, and daydiay as noun modifiers are often reduced to toy, ta, and diay, respectively. e.g.

daytoy balay dayta balay daydiay balay

---

toy balay ta balay

--

diay balay

LESSON TWENTY-FOUR 1.

The particles -en/-n ‘already’ and pay ‘yet’ are complementary to each other. -en/-n is used in affirmative constructions; pay in negative constructions. -en/-n is a clitic. That is to say, it is attached to another word. The form -en is used after consonant-ending words; -n after vowel-ending words. e.g.

inninom + -en ‘drank’

--

innala + -n ‘took’

--

imminomen ‘drank already’ innalan ‘took already’

423

Notes

LESSON TWENTY-FIVE 1. Morphophonemic Note. The verbal affix i- when prefixed to a vowel-initial verb base is followed by y with y becoming the initial sound of the first syllable of the verb base. e.g.

i + awat

--

i + alis

--

iyawat /i.ya.wat/ ‘to hand over’ iyalis /i.ya.lis/ ‘to transfer (something)’

The initial i- may be dropped forming yawat and yalis. The past forms are inyawat and inyalis, respectively. 2. Morphophonemic Note. The past form of the i-verb is in- + verb base. e.g.

in- + surat

--

insurat

When the verb base starts with p or b, the n in in- becomes m. e.g.

in- + bato in- + pan

--

imbato

--

impan

When the verb base starts with k or g, the n of in- is pronounced ng. e.g.

in- + kabit

--

inkabit /ingkabil/

in- + gawid ‘hold back’

--

ingawid /inggawid/ ‘to hold back

424

Notes

3. Cultural Note. This suggests that the old woman selling the bananas is a peddler who goes around carrying her wares in a basket (generally called labba) on her head. The buyer requests the seller to put the basket down. The seller may set the basket down on the ground, or she may hold it while standing, and the prospective buyer looks the goods over.

LESSON TWENTY-SIX 1.

Adda and awan constitute an affirmative-negative pair expressing ‘existence’ and ‘nonexistence’ or ‘possession’ and ‘nonpossession’. The disagreement answer to an adda question is expressed with awan, and vice versa. For example: Question

Disagreement Answer

Adda aso daydiay ubing? ‘Does the child have a dog?’

Awan, awan aso daydiay ubing.

Awan pos opis ditoy? ‘Is there no post office here?’

Adda, adda pos opis ditoy.

‘No (literally, none), the child doesn’t have a dog.’

‘Yes (literally, there is) there is a post office here.’

2. Note that the oblique marker iti (Lesson 15) can also function in a locative phrase. For example: Adda ka iti kosina. Awan da iti likod ti balay.

You’re in the kitchen. They’re not behind the house.

LESSON TWENTY-SEVEN 1. Sagmamano means ‘how much’ or ‘how many’.

425

Notes

2. Sag- is a prefix with a distributive meaning. It can be translated as ‘each’. When prefixed to a base, the base gets partially reduplicated. e.g.

sag- +

--

sagmamano

mano sag- + pisos

--

sagpipisos

There are a few morphophonemic changes involved in prefixing sag- to Ilokano numbers. Among them are: sagsagsagsag3.

+ + + +

maysa tallo uppat innem

-----

saggaysa saggatlo sagpapat sagnenem

In giving answers to sagmamano ‘how much’ questions, Ilokano and Spanish numbers freely alternate. e.g.

Q

Sagmamano ti bangus?

R

Sagdodos pesos. Sagdudua a pisos.

LESSON TWENTY-EIGHT 1.

( 4) Two ways of forming verbal nouns are presented in this lesson. The first is the combination panag- + base. e.g.

panag- + basa ‘read’

--

panagbasa

panag- + dalus ‘clean’

--

panagdalus ‘act of reading’ 426

Notes

The second is the prefix i- + partial reduplication + base, abbreviated iR base. e.g.

i + R + subli ‘return’

--

insusubli ‘act of returning’

i + R + awat ‘receive’

--

iyaawat /i.ya.a.wat/ ‘act of receiving’

When the base starts with a vowel as in awat ‘receive’, y is introduced after i- and it becomes the initial sound of the first syllable of the base. (See example above. See also Notes, Lesson 25.) 2.

In this example, Kaano ti panagsurat yo? is translated ‘When will you write?’ the precise tense conveyed by the construction is usually determined by the context. Thus, the response intono bigat ‘tomorrow’ indicates that the context requires a future answer. Where the contextual situation does not clearly indicate the tense involved, tense markers are used to make the time element clear: -nto for the future; idi for the past. e.g.

Kaanonto ti panagsurat yo? Kaano idi ti panagsurat yo?

When will you write? When did you write?

In much the same way, iR base verbal nouns may also translate as future or past. e.g.

Kaano ti isasangpet da? Kaanonto ti isasangpet da? Kaano idi ti isasangpet da?

When will they arrive?/When did they arrive? When will they arrive? When did they arrive?

427

Notes

3.

The future marker intono may be reduced to tono or no. Intono bigat, tono bigat, no bigat all form is more formal than mean ‘tomorrow’. The long the short forms with no being the most informal.

4. Refer to #1 above. 5. In this construction the following are possible: Gumatang ak to iti libro intono bigat. Gumatang ak iti libronto intono bigat. Gumatang ak iti libro intono bigat. Gumatang ak to iti libro. (no definite time) Note that when there is a definite time indicated, the future marker must precede it (intono bigat). 6. Saanto man may be translated ‘Yes, sometime later’ or ‘Why not, but later.’

LESSON TWENTY-NINE 1.

Pronunciation Note. When the verb base starts with a vowel, the g of the verbal affix ag- becomes part of the first syllable of the base. e.g.

ag- + adal ‘study’

--

agadal /a.ga.dal/ ‘to study’

ag- + iwa ‘slice’

--

agiwa /a.gi.wa/ ‘to slice’

LESSON THIRTY 1.

The particle laeng means ‘only’ or ‘just’. In the following context it indicates an activity of comparatively minor importance.

428

Notes

Q

Gimmatang ka iti makinilya?

Did you buy a typewriter?

R

Saan, bimmulod ak laeng.

No, I just borrowed (one).

LESSON THIRTY-TWO 1. Most of the materials in this book are written in full form. The shortened forms used in ordinary or casual speech reflecting the morphophonemics of the language are seldom used. It is assumed that as you gain better control of the language, the shorter forms become easier to use even when the written form represents the full form. For example, the sentence Ibagbaga ni Juan a mapan tayo kanon is normally said Ibagbagan Juan a mapantay kanon. 2. As you gain greater competence in the use of the language you should have the feel for the variety of word (or constituent) order possible such as: Inted ni Razel ti retrato kenni Loreto itay malem. Inted ni Razel ti retrato itay malem kenni Loreto. Inted ni Razel kenni Loreto ti retrato itay malem. Inted ni Razel itay malem ti retrato kenni Loreto. Inted ni Razel kenni Loreto itay malem ti retrato. Itay malem inted ni Razel ti retrato kenni Loreto. Itay malem inted ni Razel kenni Loreto ti retrato. At the same time you must get the feel for unacceptable word orders such as: *Itay malem kenni Loreto inted ni Razel ti retrato. *Itay malem ti retrato inted ni Razel kenni Loreto. *Ti retrato kenni Loreto inted ni Razel itay malem.

429

Notes

This ‘feel’ for rejecting the unacceptable constructions is an important phase of language learning. 3.

Kano is a particle which indicates reported speech. It is used in variation with kuna + pronoun/ noun + nga. e.g.

Kuna na nga mapan ni Nena idiay Manila. Mapan kano ni Nena idiay Manila.

He/She says that Nena goes to Manila. Somebody says that Nena goes to Manila.

It is possible to have a long construction with kuna + pronoun/noun + nga and kano. e.g.

Kuna na nga mapan kano ni Nena idiay Manila.

He/She says that somebody says Nena goes to Manila.

This would indicate reported speech that goes back to a third speaker. (Speaker 1 reporting what Speaker 2 reported regarding Speaker 3’s utterance.)

LESSON THIRTY-THREE The recently completed past is composed of ka + partial reduplication. For ag-, -um-, and -en verbs, partial reduplication is with the verb base and the verbal affix is dropped. e.g.

agtugaw ‘to sit down’

--

katugtugaw ‘has just sat down’

bumulod ‘to borrow’

--

kabulbulod ‘has just borrowed’

inomen

--

kain-inom

430

Notes

‘to drink (something)’

‘has just drunk (something)’

With i- verbs, the verbal affix is retained and partial reduplication is with the verb base or, in the case of some exceptions, with the affix and part of the base. e.g.

ibaga

--

‘to tell (something)’

kaibagbaga ‘has just told (something)’

idulin kaiduldulin

--

‘to keep (something)’ ‘has just kept (something)’

ipan

--

‘to take (something) somewhere’ ‘has just taken (something) somewhere’

--

‘to give (something)’ ‘has just given (something)’

kaip-ipan

ited kait-ited

LESSON THIRTY-FOUR Daydi (short form di) is used generally in two senses: (1) in the sense of the late, i.e. deceased, and (2) in speaking of the remote past with reference to things or events, or to persons referred to such as tao, ubing, babai, kaduak, etc., where the meaning may or may not necessarily indicate that the person is dead depending upon the context. Compare: (1)

Daydi Mr. Torres. Daydi tatang ko.

431

Notes

(2)

Malagip mo daydi gayyem ko a nalaing nga agkanta? (See exercise 34.12, this lesson.)

In (1) above the meaning conveyed is that the referents are deceased. In (2) the context indicates that the referent is alive.

LESSON THIRTY-FIVE 1.

Kas- is a prefix that means ‘like’ or ‘similar to’. In combination with -toy, -ta, -diay (from daytoy, dayta, daydiay, respectively) the following words are formed: kastoy kasta kasdiay

2.

this way that way that (yonder) way

The discontinuous construction pagpa…an means ‘a place for having an action done by someone’. The difference between pagpalutuan and paglutuan should make the concept clear. pagpalutuan

-

paglutuan

-

Daytoy ti pagpalutuan mi. Daytoy ti paglutuan mi.

a place where one can have someone do some cooking a cooking place This is the place (not another place) where we will have someone cook (something). This is our cooking place.

432

Notes

LESSON THIRTY-SIX 1. The pag- verb (instrumental focus) indicates that what is in focus is the thing that is used for accomplishing an action. This is one of the most versatile verb prefixes and its use should be mastered. e.g.

Pagdait mo ti panait.

Use the thread for sewing.

LESSON THIRTY-SEVEN 1. The i…an verb is a benefactive focus verb. The focus or emphasis in the sentence is a person or thing benefited by the action. e.g.

Idaitak ni Maria ti bado na. Ilutoak ti aso ti kanen na.

I will sew Maria a dress. I will cook the dog his food.

In these sentences the underlined elements are in focus. 2. Without some context the use of the double pronouns in the following sentences can be ambiguous. (1)

(2)

Igatangannak iti singsing.

Igatangan na kami iti singsing.

(a)

You buy me a ring.

(b)

He/She buys me a ring. You (sg) buy us (excl) a ring. He/She buys us (excl) a ring. You (pl) buy me a ring. They buy me a ring.

(a) (b)

(3)

Igatangan dak iti singsing.

(a) (b)

433

Notes

(4)

Igatangan da ka iti singsing.

(5)

Igatangan da kami iti singsing.

(a)

We buy you a ring.

(b) (a)

They buy you a ring. You (pl) buy us a ring.

(b)

They buy us (excl) a ring.

Such sentences as the above are usually disambiguated by adding the referent for the third person to the actor or doer. For example, ni Pedro added to sentences 1 and 2 to make them read: Igatangannak iti singsing ni Pedro. Igatangan na kami iti singsing ni Pedro. will unambiguously produce meanings 1b and 2b. Likewise, adding da Pedro to sentences 3, 4, and 5 will give meanings 3b, 4b, and 5b.

LESSON THIRTY-EIGHT 1.

The progressive form of the -an verb is generally used for action taking place at the moment of speaking or for habitual action when marked by an adverb expressing regularity such as patinayon ‘all the time’, inaldaw ‘daily’, binigat ‘every morning’, minalem ‘every afternoon’, dinomingo ‘every Sunday’ or ‘weekly’, etc. e.g.

Ay-aywanan na daydiay ubing a patinayon. Kankantaan na daydiay ubing nga inaldaw.

434

He/She takes care of the child always. He/She sings to the child every day.

Notes

2. Compare the past forms of the -en and the -an verbs. Both take the past tense infix -in- but the -an verb retains the -an whereas the -en verb drops the -en. e.g.

-an

-en

punas

punasan pinunasan Pinunasan na daydiay lamisaan. ‘He/She wiped the table.’

punasen - pinunas

dawatan dinawatan Dinawatan da ni Pedro iti kuarta. ‘They asked money from Peter.’

dawaten - dinawat

‘wipe’

dawat ‘beg’, ‘ask’

3.

Pinunas na ti rugit ti lamisaan. ‘He/She wiped the dirt off the table.’

Dinawat da ti kuarta ni Pedro. ‘They asked for Peter’s money.’

The -an verb is sometimes confused with the -en verb (Lessons 23, 24). This tendency should be avoided because the two verb types contrast in meaning. Observe how they differ in the following cases. (a)

(b)

(c)

Punasam ta rupam. Punasem ta rugit ta rupam. Kantaam ta ubing. Kantaem ti Pamulinawen. Ikkatam ta banga. Ikkatem ta banga.

Wipe your face. Wipe the dirt off your face. Sing to the child. Sing (the song) Pamulinawen. Take off some of the content from that pot. Remove that pot.

435

Notes

LESSON THIRTY-NINE 1.

The two uses of maka- verbs taken up in this lesson are those for expressing: (a)

ability to do certain things e.g. Makasala ak. I can dance.

(b)

feelings or desires e.g. Makasalsala ak.

I feel like dancing. I want to dance.

A third use of maka- is to express bodily needs. In this third use the bases are words that express physiological functions, emotions, and activities that emanate from within the subject. e.g.

maka-+ sarwa ‘nauseate’

--

makasarwa ‘to be nauseated’

maka-+ sangit ‘cry’

--

makasangit ‘to be tearful’

maka-+ turog ‘sleep’

--

makaturog ‘to be sleepy’

In connection with this third usage it might surprise the English speaker that certain expressions of bodily needs which are not said in English are said in Ilokano. This might give the impression that Ilokanos are crude. This is not so.

LESSON FORTY 1.

Note the essential difference between maka- (actor focus) and ma- (goal focus) verbs.

436

Notes

Makalako ak iti basi.

I can sell basi.

Malakok ti basi.

I can sell the basi.

Also it is possible to substitute Malakok dayta.

That can be sold by me.

but not *Makalako ak dayta. 2. Bareng ‘It is to be hoped’ has another form barbareng. e.g.

Bareng malakok. Barbareng malakok.

I hope I can sell (it). I hope I can sell (it).

LESSON FORTY-ONE 1. The important point in this lesson is the use of the prefixes denoting participative action and the place for such participation. 2. There are generally three senses in which the paki…an construction is used. (a) place for the participative activity. e-g

Sadino ti pakikuyogam kenkuana?

Where do you go with him?

(b) ‘reason for’ when used with ania.

e-g

Ania ti pakikuyogam kenkuana?

Why do you go with him? (Literally: What’s the reason for your going with him?)

(c) person or party with whom the activity is performed.

437

Notes

e.g.

Sino ti pakikuyogam?

Whom do you go with?

Construction (c) above is less often used than Sino ti kakuyog mo? ‘Whom do you go with?’. Only sense (a) is taken up in this lesson. 3.

There are certain maki- verbs that are virtual requests and which, therefore, almost obligatorily require the request marker man. e.g.

maki-+ inom ‘drink’

--

makiinom ‘to drink (with others)’

Makiinom ak man. ‘May I drink with you.’ Most maki- verbs, however, do not belong to this category.

438