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Historical Dictionary of Malta
 153811917X, 9781538119174

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The historical dictionaries present essential information on a broad range of subjects, including American and world history, art, business, cities, countries, cultures, customs, film, global conflicts, international relations, literature, music, philosophy, religion, sports, and theater. Written by experts, all contain highly informative introductory essays of the topic and detailed chronologies that, in some cases, cover vast historical time periods but still manage to heavily feature more recent events. Brief A–Z entries describe the main people, events, politics, social issues, institutions, and policies that make the topic unique, and entries are cross-referenced for ease of browsing. Extensive bibliographies are divided into several general subject areas, providing excellent access points for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more. Additionally, maps, photographs, and appendixes of supplemental information aid high school and college students doing term papers or introductory research projects. In short, the historical dictionaries are the perfect starting point for anyone looking to research in these fields.

HISTORICAL DICTIONARIES OF EUROPE Jon Woronoff, Series Editor Greece, by Thanos M. Veremis and Mark Dragoumis. 1995. Romania, by Kurt W. Treptow and Marcel Popa. 1996. United Kingdom: Volume 1, England and the United Kingdom; Volume 2, Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland, by Kenneth J. Panton and Keith A. Cowlard. 1997, 1998. Hungary, by Steven Béla Várdy. 1997. Ireland, by Colin Thomas and Avril Thomas. 1997. Russia, by Boris Raymond and Paul Duffy. 1998. Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, by Zeljan Suster. 1999. Poland, 2nd edition, by George Sanford. 2003. Finland, 2nd edition, by George Maude. 2007. Belgium, 2nd edition, by Robert Stallaerts. 2007. Moldova, 2nd edition, by Andrei Brezianu and Vlad Spânu. 2007. Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2nd edition, by Ante Čuvalo. 2007. Modern Italy, 2nd edition, by Mark F. Gilbert and K. Robert Nilsson. 2007. Contemporary United Kingdom, by Kenneth J. Panton and Keith A. Cowlard. 2008. Norway, by Jan Sjåvik. 2008. France, 2nd edition, by Gino Raymond. 2008. Republic of Macedonia, by Dimitar Bechev. 2009. Cyprus, by Farid Mirbagheri. 2010. Austria, 2nd edition, by Paula Sutter Fichtner. 2009. Modern Greece, by Dimitris Keridis. 2009. Czech State, 2nd edition, by Rick Fawn and Jiří Hochman. 2010. Portugal, 3rd edition, by Douglas L. Wheeler and Walter C. Opello Jr. 2010. Croatia, 3rd edition, by Robert Stallaerts. 2010. Albania, 2nd edition, by Robert Elsie. 2010. Armenia, 2nd edition, by Rouben Paul Adalian. 2010. Russian Federation, by Robert A. Saunders and Vlad Strukov. 2010. Kosovo, 2nd edition, by Robert Elsie. 2011. Lithuania, 2nd edition, by Saulius Sužiedžlis. 2011. Ukraine, 2nd edition, by Ivan Katchanovski, Zenon E. Kohut, Bohdan Y. Nebesio, and Myroslav Yurkevich. 2013. Ireland, new edition, by Frank A. Biletz. 2014. Slovakia, 3rd edition, by Stanislav J. Kirschbaum. 2014. Switzerland, 2nd edition, by Leo Schelbert. 2014. Bulgaria, 3rd edition, by Raymond Detrez. 2015. Georgia, 2nd edition, by Alexander Mikaberidze. 2015. Estonia, 2nd edition, by Toivo Miljan. 2015.

Sweden, 3rd edition, by Elisabeth Elgán and Irene Scobbie. 2015. Netherlands, 3rd edition, by Joop W. Koopmans. 2015. Iceland, 2nd edition, by Sverrir Jakobsson and Guđmunder Hálfdanarson. 2016. Denmark, 3rd edition, by Alastair H. Thomas. 2016. Contemporary Germany, 2nd edition, by Derek Lewis with Ulrike Zitzlsperger. 2016. Latvia, 3rd edition, by Aldis Purs and Andrejs Plakans. 2017. Slovenia, 3rd edition, by Leopoldina Plut-Pregelj, Gregor Kranjc, Žarko Lazarević, and Carole Rogel. 2018. Spain, 3rd edition, by Angel Smith. 2018. Turkey, 4th edition, by Metin Heper, Duygu Öztürk-Tunçel, and Nur Bilge Criss. 2018. Belarus, 3rd edition, by Grigory Ioffe and Vitali Silitski Jr. 2018. Malta, 3rd edition, by Uwe Jens Rudolf. 2018.

Historical Dictionary of Malta Third Edition

Uwe Jens Rudolf

ROWMAN & LITTLEFIELD Lanham • Boulder • New York • Toronto • Plymouth, UK

Published by Rowman & Littlefield An imprint of The Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, Inc. 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 http://www.rowman.com Unit A, Whitacre Mews, 26-34 Stannary Street, London SE11 4AB Copyright © 2018 by Uwe Jens Rudolf All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any electronic or mechanical means, including information storage and retrieval systems, without written permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer who may quote passages in a review. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Names: Rudolf, Uwe Jens, author. Title: Historical dictionary of Malta / Uwe Jens Rudolf. Description: Third edition. | Lanham : Rowman & Littlefield, 2019. | Series: Historical dictionaries of Europe | Includes bibliographical references. Identifiers: LCCN 2018027740 (print) | LCCN 2018027919 (ebook) | ISBN 9781538119181 (electronic) | ISBN 9781538119174 (cloth : alk. paper) Subjects: LCSH: Malta—History—Dictionaries. Classification: LCC DG989.8 (ebook) | LCC DG989.8 .R83 2019 (print) | DDC 945.8/5003—dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018027740

The paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials, ANSI/NISO Z39.48-1992. Printed in the United States of America

To Ruth, Stephanie, Michael, Benjamin, Marianna, My mentor Warren Berg and his wife, Jan, and The people of Malta

Contents

Editor’s Foreword

xi

Preface

xiii

Acknowledgments

xv

Reader’s Note

xvii

Acronyms and Abbreviations

xix

Maps

xxiii

Chronology

xxix

Introduction

1

THE DICTIONARY

21

Bibliography

289

About the Author

333

ix

Editor’s Foreword

If ever a country was strategically located, it is Malta. Over the centuries, this was more of a curse than a blessing, involving the country in repeated attacks and periodic invasions as it passed from the hands of one foreign power to another. It was bitterly fought over by European rulers and the Turks, and the balance between Christianity and Islam was often determined here. During World War II, it suffered like no other place. Now that it has finally become independent and the Mediterranean enjoys relative peace and prosperity, Malta’s location is more of a blessing, providing commercial advantages and attracting hordes of tourists (but also illegal immigrants). Long a bastion of the West, it has become a member of the European Union and is working more closely with its partners while maintaining beneficial, if sometimes difficult, contacts with North Africa. Yet for all its strategic significance and closer relations, Malta is not very well known abroad, and that is a pity. While small in size if somewhat larger in population, consisting only of two major islands, it remains strategically important within the Mediterranean context. It boasts an extraordinary history, one that appears not only in books but also in the visible remnants of older periods, which abound. It clings to an exceptional culture, a mixture of the elements of many other cultures that have been absorbed and assimilated, and the landscape is visually stunning. Many of these facets are described and amplified in this historical dictionary of Malta, which first traces its long and often exciting history in the chronology and then puts the island nation into its proper context in the introduction. The dictionary section contains numerous entries on significant persons, places, events, and institutions as well as essential facets of Malta’s politics, economy, society, and culture. More can then be learned by consulting some of the titles in the bibliography. This third edition of the Historical Dictionary of Malta is written by Uwe Jens Rudolf, professor emeritus at Luther College (Decorah, Iowa), who also coauthored the second edition. He has updated the material to reflect events in Malta over the past decade, considerably expanding the introduction, chronology, dictionary, and bibliography, with many completely new entries. This offers the reader an even clearer and more detailed view of Malta’s history, politics, economy, society, and culture. Professor Rudolf was introduced to Malta by his colleague and mentor, the late professor Warren Berg, author of the first edition, who spent a year in the country as a Fulbright scholar. They developed strong relationships with prominent Maltese and revisited Malta numerous times. When Berg retired, xi

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EDITOR’S FOREWORD

Rudolf gladly accepted responsibility for subsequent editions of this Historical Dictionary. He has continued to nurture the bonds between Luther College and Malta by leading and lecturing to student groups studying the islands and by personal visits or business consulting assignments. Jon Woronoff Series Editor

Preface

Among the many places on Earth that I have had the fortune of visiting for extended periods, Malta occupies a very special place in my heart. The warmth of the people matches the warmth of the sunshine there. Whoever spends some time on these historic and culturally rich islands will never completely leave them. Much has changed in Malta since the last edition of this volume: the election of a new government replacing one that had been in office for many years, major improvements in infrastructure, a significant growth in population, and the liberalization of laws permitting divorce and same-sex marriage, to name a few developments. Thus it was with great pleasure that I returned to the islands to conduct the research to write this third edition.

xiii

Acknowledgments

The late Dr. Warren Berg, professor emeritus at Luther College and author of the first edition of this volume, was a longtime colleague and mentor. It was he who earned a Fulbright visiting professorship at the University of Malta and, in partnership with Bryan Gera, chairman of Farsons Ltd., Malta, together with the support of the Chamber of Commerce of Malta, established a scholarship to enable more than 60 Maltese students to spend from one semester to four years at Luther College. The strong connections Dr. Berg and the Maltese alumni built between Malta and Luther College still bear fruit today. Every spring semester, 12 to 14 students from Luther College, along with their professor, spend a semester studying in Malta and the Mediterranean region. The many students and colleagues of Luther College who have benefited from his initiative and leadership remain eternally grateful to Dr. Warren Berg. Warmest thanks are also due to Maltese friends Mark Miceli Farrugia; Maria Mercieca; Fr. Joseph Ellul; and the Maltese alumni of Luther College, especially Victor Galea, Vanessa Frazier, Edward and Gordon Grima Baldacchino, Andrew and Julian Mamo, Ranier Fsadni, Andrew, Michael, and Mark Mangion, Santiago Navarro, and Ignatio Montalto, whose collective pride in and enthusiasm for their homeland made me curious enough to visit Malta for the first time and whose warm receptions have made me return so many times. The following professors and staff at the University of Malta were of direct, invaluable assistance in my research for this book: Dr. Henry Frendo (Department of History), Judge Peter Xuereb (General Court of the Court of Justice of the European Union and former chairman, European Documentation and Research Center), and Mr. Kevin Ellul, director of library services. For their cheerful service searching out so much material for me over so many weeks and months in the Melitensia section of the library, a special thank-you to Maria Azzopardi, Sarita Piscopo, Joseph Mizzi, and Kristine Saliba. My sincerest gratitude to all of the above. Finally, any flaws in the text are all my own.

xv

Reader’s Note

All entries are alphabetized word by word rather than letter by letter. Individuals are listed by family name. Maltese words are used in their common form. Where there is a conflict between the British spellings and the American spellings, the latter are used except in the case of place-names, political parties, and titles of positions. Where known, exact dates are listed. Others may be qualified with the word about. For broader time frames, the word circa or abbreviation ca. is used. Several forms of cross-referencing have been used, with the intention of making the dictionary as easy to use as possible. In annotations, terms that have their own entries in the dictionary are in boldface type. When there are several possible forms of a term—for example, Order of St. John, Knights of St. John, Knights of Malta—all are listed as entries, and those that do not have their own annotations are cross-referenced to the main entry using See references. Related terms are listed at the ends of annotations using See also references.

xvii

Acronyms and Abbreviations



euro

AD

Alternattiva Demokratika

AFM

Armed Forces of Malta

AM

Anglo–Maltese Party

BA

bachelor of arts

BSc

bachelor of science

CBE

Commander of the Order of the British Empire

CCCTB

Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base

CHOGM

Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting

CIO

Chief Information Officer

CMG

Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George

CP

Constitutional Party

DBA

Doctor of Business Administration; sometimes Diploma in Business Administration

DSO

Companion of the Distinguished Service Order

EASO

European Asylum Support Office

EC

European Community

ECB

European Central Bank

EEA

European Economic Area

EEC

European Economic Community

EMWA

Equality for Men and Women Act

EMU

European Monetary Union

ERM

Exchange Rate Mechanism (of the European Union)

EU

European Union

EVRF

Emergency Volunteer Reserve Force

FIAU

Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit

FMOM

Friends of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta

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ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

Fra’

Frater (Latin: “brother,” title for “monk” used by the Knights of Malta)

FWA

Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna

GC

George Cross

GCB

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath

GCE

General Certificate of Education

GCH

Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order

GCMG

Knight Grand Cross of the Order of St. Michael and St. George

GDP

Gross Domestic Product

GWU

General Workers’ Union

HMS

Her (or His) Majesty’s Ship

HSBC

Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation

ICT

Information and communications technology

IIP

Individual Investor Programme

KBE

Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire

KCB

Knight Commander of the Order of Bath

Kt

Knight

LLD

Doctor of Laws (Legal Letters)

Lm

Maltese Lira

M.U.S.E.U.M. Society of Magister Utinam Sequatur Evangelium Universus Mundus (Teacher, may the entire world follow the Gospel) MAM

The Medical Association of Malta

MATSEC

Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate

MBA

Master of Business Administration

MC

Military Cross

MCAST

Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology

MD

Doctor of Medicine

MEEREA

Malta Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies Association

MEP

Member of the European Parliament

MEPA

Malta Environment and Planning Authority

ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS



xxi

MEUSAC

Malta-EU Steering and Action Committee

MFSA

Malta Financial Services Authority

Mgr.

Monsignor, ecclesiastic honorific title

MIC

Malta_EU Information Center

MIMCOL

Malta Investment Management Company Limited

MLP

Malta Labour Party (Partit Tal-Haddiema)

MP

Member of Parliament

MPM

Moviment Patrijotti Maltin (Maltese Patriotic Movement)

MVO

Member of the Royal Victorian Order

NATO

North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBM

National Bank of Malta

NECC

National Euro Changeover Committee

NGO

nongovernmental organization

NP

Nationalist Party

NSO

National Statistics Office

OBE

Officer of the Order of the British Empire

ODZ

outside development zone (zone prohibiting development)

OECD

Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

OSCE

Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe

PAR

Partito Anti-Reformista (Anti-Reform Party)

PCP

Progressive Constitutional Party

PDN

Partito Democratico Nazionalista

PfP

Partnership for Peace

PhD

Doctor of Philosophy

PM

Prime Minister

PN

Partit Nazzjonalista

QC

Queen’s Counsel

RAF

Royal Air Force

RMA

Royal Malta Artillery

SDC

Society of Christian Doctrine

SMEs

small and medium-sized enterprises

SMOM

Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta—The Knights of Malta

xxii



ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS

SS

Steam Ship

TEU

20-foot container equivalent unit

TPPI

Today Public Policy Institute

UEFA

Union of European Football Associations

UHM

Union Haddiema Maghqudin

UM

University of Malta

UN

United Nations

UNESCO

United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

UNHCR

Office of the United Nations High Commission for Refugees

UPM

Unione Politica Maltese

VAT

value-added tax

VC

Victoria Cross

WHO

World Health Organization

Maps

The Maltese Islands.

xxiii

xxiv



MAPS

Mediterranean Sea with Malta in the Center.

MAPS

Mediterranean, Showing Southern Europe and North Africa.

• xxv

xxvi



MAPS

Area of the Two Harbors at the Time of the Great Siege of 1565.

MAPS

• xxvii

Fortified City of Valletta, Capital of Malta.

Chronology

BCE ca. 5200–4500 Ghar Dalam phase. First human settlers. ca. 4500–4400 Grey Skorba phase. ca. 4400–4100 Red Skorba phase. ca. 4100–2500 Megalithic temples constructed. ca. 2500–800 Bronze Age. ca. 800–480 Phoenician colonization. ca. 700–600 Greek presence. ca. 480–218 Carthaginian rule. 264–146 Punic Wars (Rome against Carthage). 264–241 First Punic War. 221–202 Second Punic War. 149–146 Third Punic War. 218 Romans seize control of Malta when Consul Sempronius Longus sails to Malta to accept the surrender of the Carthaginians.

CE Roman Rule 60 Shipwreck of St. Paul the Apostle. 117 The islands become a municipium under Emperor Hadrian. 395 Roman rule ends. 395–535 Visigoth or Ostrogoth presence on Malta?

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CHRONOLOGY

Byzantine Rule 535–870 Byzantine rule. 454 Maltese Islands occupied by the Vandals? 464 Maltese Islands occupied by the Goths? 533 Islands restored to Byzantine rule? Arab Rule 870–1090 Arab rule. 1048 First Byzantine attempt to regain islands. Norman Rule 1091–1194 Norman conquest. 1091 Malta annexed to Sicily. 1122 Arab uprising. 1127 King Roger reconquers the Maltese Islands. 1144 Second Byzantine attempt to regain the islands. 1154 John made bishop of Palermo and Malta. 1154–1205 Genoese influence. Swabian Rule 1194–1266 Swabian rule. 1224 Final expulsion of the Arabs from Sicily and Malta. Angevin Rule 1266–1283 Angevin rule. 1282 Sicilian Vespers. Aragonese and Castilian Rule 1283–1412 Aragonese rule. 1283 12 July: The Battle of Malta. The Aragonese led by Roger de Lauria enter Grand Harbour and destroy the Angevin fleet.

CHRONOLOGY



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1350 Establishment of Maltese nobility. 1350–1357 First incorporation into royal domain. 1393–1397 Time of the tyrants. 1397 Second incorporation into royal domain. Universita established in Gozo. Petitions to Sicily. 1420 Malta becomes feudal possession of Don Antonio Cardona. 1421 7 March: Malta and Gozo are transferred to Don Gonsalvo de Monroy. 1423 Muslim forces attack the Maltese Islands, devastate the countryside, and take many inhabitants as slaves. 1425 Gozitans revolt against Don Gonsalvo de Monroy. 1428 20 June: Last incorporation into royal domain. 1429 September: Tunisian Saracens attempt capture of the islands, taking about one-third of the Maltese population captive. Rule of the Knights of St. John 1530 23 March: Charles V, king of Sicily and Malta, grants Malta to the Knights of St. John. 26 October: The order sails into Grand Harbour to take possession of Malta. 1551 July: Dragut raids Gozo, capturing and enslaving most of the population. 1561 Inquisition officially established. 1565 May 19: Advance troops from invading Ottoman army land on Malta, beginning the Great Siege. 31 May: Turgut Reis lands on Malta with a force of 1,600 men. 23 June: Fort St. Elmo surrenders, and Dragut Reis dies from injuries suffered five days earlier. 11 September: The siege of Malta ends when surviving Ottoman Turks are driven off the islands by the arrival of 8,000 relief forces from Sicily. 1566 28 March: Founding of Valletta. 1568 21 August: Death of Jean Parisot de la Valette and his burial in Valletta. 1571 7 October: A coalition of Catholic forces defeats the Ottoman fleet in the battle of Lepanto. 1573 Foundation stone laid for St. John’s Co-Cathedral.

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CHRONOLOGY

1578 Consecration of St. John’s Co-Cathedral. 1592 Opening of Jesuits College (Collegium Melitense) in Valletta. 1614 The last recorded corsair invasion is repelled in Zejtun, after which the 60-ship Ottoman fleet goes on to attack Melliehah. 1615 21 April: Wignacourt Aqueduct completed. 1676 19 December: School of Anatomy and Surgery founded at the Sacred Infirmary. 1732 9 January: Manoel Theatre dedicated. 1768 Jesuits expelled and their property transferred to the Knights by papal order. 1769 22 November: Conversion of Jesuits College to a university. 1775 9 February: Uprising of the Priests. 1784 Creation of a legal code, Diritto Municipale, under Grand Master Rohan. 1792 19 September: Decree issued by the revolutionary government of France, seizing all possessions of the Knights of St. John located in France. French Occupation 1798 The Inquisition is abolished. 12 June: French invasion; Napoleon lands in Malta. 18 June: Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch, the 71st grand master and the only German ever elected grand master of the Knights of St. John, withdraws from Malta with many of the Knights, relocating the order in Russia. 1–2 August: Napoleon’s navy suffers defeat at the Battle of Aboukir Bay. 2 September: The Maltese revolt against the French. 1799 17 January: Dun Mikiel Xerri is executed by the French. The British take the islands under their protection in the name of the king of Two Sicilies. British Rule 1800 4 September: British occupation begins; French troops depart. 11 September: Congress is dissolved. 1802 27 March: Treaty of Amiens. 15 June: Declaration of Rights is issued by the Consiglio Popolare.

CHRONOLOGY



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1807 18 September: Mgr. Ferdinando Mattei is appointed first Maltese-born bishop of Malta. 1809 23 June: Anglo–Maltese bank is established. 1812 1 May: Banco di Malta established. 18 July: Russia agrees to let the British take over control of Malta. 1813 16 July: The Bathurst Constitution (Malta’s first constitution). 5 October: Sir Thomas Maitland is installed as first governor of Malta. 1814 30 May: The Treaty of Paris is signed. Malta is declared free of the plague. 15 July: The police force is established. 1815 The Congress of Vienna affirms the Treaty of Paris. 1819 The Universita is dissolved. 1828 10 April: Vatican Church–State Proclamation abolishes right of sanctuary in criminal matters and lay ecclesiastical jurisdiction. 1831 20 June: The See of Malta is made independent of the See of Palermo. 1833 May: Construction begins on the Mosta Dome. 1835 1 May: The First Council of Government is granted under British rule. Four of the seven members are officials and three are appointed, two of them Maltese. 1839 14 March: Abolition of press censorship. 20 March: Laying of the cornerstone for St. Paul’s Anglican Cathedral by Queen Adelaide, the first member of British royalty to visit Malta. 1846 February: Carnival riots. 1849 11 May: Letters patent grant a new constitution, setting up the Council of Government with 18 members, 8 being Maltese elected members. 1866 9 October: The Royal Opera House is dedicated. 1869 16 November: Opening of the Suez Canal. 1870 Referendum on ecclesiastics serving on the Council of Government. 1881 Creation of the Executive Council under British rule. 1882 Anglo–Egyptian Bank founded in Malta. 1883 Malta Railway begins operation. 1885 First postage stamps issued.

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CHRONOLOGY

1886 Surgeon Major David Bruce discovers the microbe that causes Malta fever. 1887 Council of Government now has “dual control” under British rule. 1888 Simmons–Rampolla Agreement between Great Britain and the papacy concerning the Church in Malta. 1896 1 December: Electricity officially inaugurated in Malta. 1902 29 December: Accidental discovery of the Hypogeum under the site of a housing development in Paola. 1903 16–21 April: King Edward VII visits Malta. 3 June: Knutsford Constitution withdrawn. August 1903–April 1904: Five elections held, with elected members always resigning immediately afterward. Chamberlain Constitution comes into force. Return to the 1849 form of the Council of Government under British rule. 1905 23 February: Tram service begins, linking Valetta with the Three Cities, Birkirkara, and Zebbug. 1906 15 October: Steam ferry service across Grand Harbour is inaugurated. 30 October: New dry docks, the largest in the world, are completed and put into operation (causing a recession, since this was the end of work for many). 25 June: Dr. Themistocles Zammit discovers the source of Malta fever. 17 December: The Barracca Lifts, built by Macartney McElroy, start operating. First bus service starts operations. 1907 22 December: St. Aloysius’ College opens its doors. 1908 9 November: Malta Boy Scouts Association established. 22 December: First motion pictures shown in Malta. 1909 15 January: First submarine to enter Grand Harbour is a German U-3. 1912 Dun Karm writes his first poem in Maltese. 22 April: The Royal Commission’s report on the dire economic state of Malta is issued. It recommends that the Maltese language be used in lower courts in lieu of Italian. 1914–1918 World War I. Malta becomes known as the nurse of the Mediterranean. After receiving 1,640 wounded from the campaign on the Gallipoli Peninsula, facilities are expanded to 25,000 beds. 1915 12 February: First flight in Malta, a seaplane from HMS Ark Royal. 20 July: Tarxien temples discovered by Dr. Themistocles Zammit.

CHRONOLOGY



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1917 8 May: Dr. Enrico Mizzi is arrested and charged with sedition for his pro-Italian speeches. Mizzi was elected in October, but Francesco Azzopardi, a former council member, sues to annul the election because of Mizzi’s conviction, and the court awards Azzopardi the seat. 1919 25 February: National Assembly convened by Dr. Filippo Sciberras. 7 June: Sette Giugno riots. 20 November: Granting of a new constitution for Malta announced. 1920 15 October 15: Labour Party (Camera del Lavoro) founded. 1921 30 April: Self-government is granted under British rule: letters patent are read and proclaimed by Lord Plummer, installing a new constitution effective 16 May. 1 November: First Parliament opens, inaugurated by Edward, Prince of Wales. Joseph Howard is named prime minister. 1923 2 February: “Innu Malti” played for the first time in public at the Manoel Theatre. 14 October: Dr. Francesco Buhagiar becomes prime minister upon resignation of Joseph Howard. 1924 Compulsory Attendance Act requiring school attendance passed. 24 September: Sir Ugo P. Mifsud becomes prime minister. 19 November: National Museum of Archeology is opened under the direction of Dr. Themistocles Zammit. 1927 28 February: Governor Sir Walter Norris Congreve dies; he is buried at sea on 4 March. 7–10 August: General elections are held; Sir Gerald Strickland becomes prime minister. 1930 Constitution suspended because of Church actions under British rule. 23 May: An assassination attempt by an Nationalist Party (NP) supporter is made on Lord Strickland as he enters the Court of Appeal; three shots are fired, but all miss. 1931 31 March: Malta Railway ceases to operate. 1932 Constitution restored under British rule. Sir Ugo Mifsud becomes prime minister. 1933 2 November: Constitution withdrawn. Malta reverts to the Crown colony status it held in 1813. 1934 1 January: Malti and English become dual official languages. 1935 Rediffusion Radio begins. 1936 Constitution revised to provide for nomination of members to the Executive Council.

xxxvi



CHRONOLOGY

1939 Constitution revised to provide for a Council of Government with some elected representatives under British rule. 1 September: Germany invades Poland. 1939–1945 World War II. 1940 10 June: Italy declares war on Great Britain. 11 June: Italy launches first air raids on Malta, beginning the Great Siege of World War II. 1941 10 January: HMS Illustrious is bombed and severely damaged, repaired and attacked again, then departs Malta several weeks later. 26 July: Italian E-boat attack on Grand Harbour. 1942 13 February: Enrico Mizzi and other detainees deported to Uganda. 9 April: A stray bomb lands in the Mosta church, in which over 250 worshippers are attending mass. The bomb fails to explode, and no one is injured. 15 April: Award of the George Cross to the people of Malta. 14–15 August: Operation Pedestal convoy arrives in Grand Harbour. 1943 20 June: George VI arrives in Grand Harbour for a visit. 7 July: Lord John Gort announces that Malta is to receive self-government as soon as possible after the war. 9–10 July: Invasion of Sicily launched from Malta. 8–10 September: Italian fleet surrenders in Malta. 5 October: General Workers’ Union organized. 17 November: Winston Churchill visits Malta. 8 December: President Franklin D. Roosevelt, the first US president to visit Malta, arrives to present a citation praising the Maltese for their heroism. 1944 28 August: Last air raid on Malta. 1945 2 February: Churchill and Roosevelt meet in Malta prior to the Yalta Conference with Stalin. 25 October: British government announces that a commissioner is to visit Malta to discuss a new constitution. 1946 20 January: National Assembly begins to meet, resulting in the 1947 Constitution under British rule. 1947 17 June: International telephone service is inaugurated. 5 September: The MacMichael Constitution restores self-government under British rule and grants suffrage to all men and women over the age of 21. 25–27 October: General elections are held, the first in which women are permitted to vote. Dr. Paul Boffa becomes prime minister. 1949 Treaty creating North Atlantic Treaty Organization is signed. 1950 2–4 September: General elections. 26 September: Dr. Enrico Mizzi becomes prime minister. 20 December: Dr. Giorgio Borg Olivier becomes prime minister upon sudden death of Enrico Mizzi. 1951 16 February: Parliament is dissolved.

CHRONOLOGY



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1952 6 February: King George VI dies. 23 April: Sir George Borg retires as chief justice. Dr. L. A. Camilleri replaces him. 1952: The Conditions of Employment Regulation Act provides a legal framework for labor relations. 1953 11 May: Parliament votes against local celebration of the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. 2 June: Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II. 17 June: Borg Olivier requests dominion status in Great Britain. 15 October: Governor dissolves the Legislative Assembly. 1955 12 January: Paul Boffa resigns as leader of the Malta Workers Party. 8 March: Dom Mintoff becomes prime minister upon resignation of Borg Olivier. Roundtable conference held. 1956 14 February: Referendum on integration with Great Britain is boycotted by the Nationalists and the Catholic Church. Incident at Rediffusion. 1958 Caravaggio incident. 24 April: Dom Mintoff resigns as prime minister. Borg Olivier declines forming an alternative government. Colonial governor takes direct administration under British rule. 1959 19 February: The 1947 MacMichael Constitution is revoked. 15 April: Interim Constitution provides for an Executive Council under British rule. 1961 Blood Commission provides for a new constitution, allowing for a measure of self-government and recognizing a quasi-state of Malta. 17 March: Archbishop Michael Gonzi issues interdict against Malta Labour Party leader Dom Mintoff and all the members of the party’s executive committee. 29 September: Broadcasting Authority of Malta is established. 1962 17–19 February: General elections; Borg Olivier is chosen premier under Blood Constitution. 20 August: Borg Olivier requests independence for Malta within the Commonwealth. 1964 2–4 May: Referendum on Independence Constitution. 21 July: Stolper report issued. Malta signs Anglo–Maltese Mutual Defense Agreement with Great Britain as part of independence negotiations. Malta Statehood 1964 21 September: Malta is granted independence, becoming a sovereign nation within the British Commonwealth. “Innu Malti” is recognized as the national anthem. 22 September: The cornerstone is laid for the new Univer-

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sity of Malta in Msida. 29 November: Archbishop Gonzi announces that the Maltese language will be used in some parts of the mass. 1 December: Malta becomes the 114th member of the United Nations. 1965 29 April: Malta joins the Council of Europe. Din l’art Helwa is founded. 1966 August: Great Britain declares intention to draw down its military presence in Malta by 1968. 12 December: Malta becomes a signatory to the European Convention on Human Rights. 1967 23 January: Malta ratifies the European Convention on Human Rights. 4 September: Malta applies for a special relationship with the European Economic Community (EEC). 1968 17 April: Central Bank is established. 24 July: Malta joins the International Monetary Fund (IMF). 21 October: Discussions between Malta and the EEC begin. 1970 5 December: Malta enters into an association agreement with the EEC. 1971 17 June: Dom Mintoff is elected prime minister. 3 July: Sir Anthony Mamo is sworn in as the first Maltese national to serve as governor-general. 1972 31 January: Malta establishes formal diplomatic relations with the People’s Republic of China. 26 March: A military base agreement is signed by Malta, Great Britain, and other North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) nations. The King’s Own Malta Regiment is disbanded. 16 May: The change to a decimal monetary system is instituted. The government bars the US naval forces from using Malta as a liberty port. 1973 21 March: Air Malta is established by act of Parliament. 31 March: NATO dismantles military bases in Malta. 25–26 November: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi, as a guest of Prime Minister Dom Mintoff, visits Malta for the first time. 1974 1 April: Air Malta’s inaugural flight departs. 17 April: Government writes off a 12.5 million liri debt owed by Malta Drydocks. 13 December: Malta officially becomes a republic, remaining in the Commonwealth. Sir Anthony Mamo is elected first president. 1975 12 August: Civil marriage act creating a public marriage registry comes into effect. 1976 12 December: Joseph Mercieca is installed as metropolitan archbishop of Malta. 27 December: Dr. Anton Buttigieg becomes second president.

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1977 28 December: Karin Grech, the 15-year-old daughter of a doctor, is murdered by a letter bomb intended for her father, who broke a doctors’ strike. Archbishop Gonzi calls it the “first terrorist act in the country.” 1979 31 March: Declaration of Malta’s neutrality. Military base agreement is terminated. There is a loss of 30 million British pounds revenue as British forces leave. The first Freedom Day is celebrated. 15 October: The headquarters of the Malta Times are set on fire by political activists. 13 December: A new national stadium is inaugurated at Ta’ Qali. 1980 23 August: A territorial dispute with Libya comes to a head when the Libyan navy threatens an Italian oil drilling operation leased by the Malta government. The United Nations mediates the dispute. 29 October: Former prime minister Borg Olivier dies. 1981 4 March: Malta publishes its declaration concerning neutrality, barring foreign troops on Malta’s soil. Malta’s dockyards are no longer allowed to repair US or Soviet ships. 9 November: Parliament is dissolved. 22 November: A clash between supporters of the Malta Labour Party and the Nationalists turns ugly as stones are thrown, cars are set on fire, and more than a dozen people are injured. 12 December: Almost 95 percent of the eligible voters turn out on election day. Although the Nationalists gain the majority of the votes, the Malta Labour Party gets 34 seats versus the Nationalists’ 31 due to Malta’s system of proportional representation. 18 December: Dom Mintoff is sworn in as prime minister. 1982 16 February: Agatha Barbara is elected third president, the first woman to hold the office. 13 March: Colonel Muammar Qaddafi stops in Malta on his way back from Vienna. As a result, relations between Malta and Libya are restored. 1983 20 February: Two Libyan army officers hijack a Libyan Arab Airlines plane with 160 passengers on board and redirect it to Malta. 23 February: Dom Mintoff negotiates release of the passengers. The hijackers are arrested and returned to Libya one month later. 29 March: A political boycott by the Nationalists is ended when 25 NP members are sworn in. 27 April: Paul Xuereb resigns his seat in Parliament to allow Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici to take his place. 2 May: Mifsud Bonnici is sworn in as senior deputy prime minister and minister of labor. 5 May: President Buttigieg dies. 27 June: Church Property Act, empowering the state to seize Church property, is passed. It is an attempt by the Labour government to dismantle Church schools, making education free for all. Nationalist party MPs walk out in protest. 10 August: Malta joins the World Bank.

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1984 21 September: A protest against the government’s closure of several Church schools is put down by force, using tear gas for the first time in Malta, and sets off a season of discontent and political violence. A bomb explosion, the first of 20 such incidents during the remainder of 1984, damages the government computer center in Dingli. 17–19 November: Colonel Qaddafi pays a seventh and final visit to Malta. 22 December: Dom Mintoff resigns. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici becomes prime minister. 29 December: The Caravaggio painting St. Jerome is stolen from St. John’s Co-Cathedral. 1985 13 December: One of the deadliest hijackings to date ends in Malta, where an EgyptAir flight from Athens is forced to land. 1986 15 April: Malta tips off Libya about approaching US planes about to attack. 5 December: Raymond Caruana, a 26-year-old Nationalist Party activist, is murdered in a politically motivated drive-by shooting at party headquarters in Gudja. 1987 23 March: Fire destroys the roof of the Mediterranean Center. 12 May: Dr. Eddie Fenech Adami becomes prime minister, returning the Nationalist Party to power. 19 August: The European Convention on Human Rights is incorporated into Maltese law. 1988 Freeport Corporation is organized. 5 January: Prime Minister Fenech Adami meets with Qaddafi in Libya. 15 April: United Nations Institute on Aging is established in Valletta. August: The Malta Council for Science and Technology is set up. 8 October: Institute for International Maritime Law is established at the University of Malta. 21 December: Pan Am flight 103 explodes over Lockerbie, Scotland, killing all 259 people on board. A Libyan Airline employee stationed in Malta and working for the Libyan secret service is later convicted of placing a suitcase containing the bomb on a flight originating in Malta. 1989 4 April: Dr. Vincent Tabone is elected president by the House of Representatives. First gathering of the Knights of St. John since their departure in 1798 is held in Malta. 2–3 December: A US–Soviet summit between Mikhail Gorbachev and George H. W. Bush takes place on a ship anchored at Malta. 1990 25 May: Pope John Paul II pays the first ever papal visit to Malta. 16 July: The government formally applies for full membership in the European Community. 18 September: Guido de Marco is elected president of the 45th UN General Assembly. 1 November: Malta Stock Exchange is established. 1992 8 February: The new Malta International Airport terminal is inaugurated. 22 February: The Nationalist Party wins the national election. 26 March: Dr. Alfred Sant is elected leader of the Malta Labour Party. 29 May:

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Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip are in Malta for the inauguration of the Siege Bell Memorial. The fiftieth anniversary of Operation Pedestal is celebrated. 24 July: Maritime Museum is opened in Vittoriosa. 1993 Malta signs international convention banning the use of chemical weapons. 6 January: First university degree courses offered in Gozo. 25 February: After serving only seven years, convicted hijacker Ali Rezaq is released, to the shock and dismay of the US government. 25–29 May: The Fifth Games of the Small States of Europe are held in Malta. 26 September: First Malta International Airshow held. 20 November: First elections for local councils held. 1994 Malta is removed from the list of developing countries. 2 February: Broadcasting Authority approves license for Malta Labour Party to operate Super 1, a new television station. 4 April: Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici elected fifth president. May 28: President Mifsud Bonnici officiates at opening of the National Archives. 25 June: European Union (EU) leaders meeting in Corfu confirm that Cyprus and Malta will be included in next EU enlargement. 23 September: Malta Financial Services Centre begins operations as an autonomous body responsible for local and offshore financial activity. 25 October: General Workers’ Union calls a general strike, paralyzing Malta, to protest the value-added tax (VAT), scheduled to take effect on 1 January. 14 December: Maltese students are now able to study at European universities under the ERASMUS Programme. 1995 1 January: The VAT is introduced. 13 January: Ministry of Social Policy establishes a department to ensure equality for women in all sectors. 3 February: Libyan tanker Um El Faroud explodes in the dry docks, killing nine workers. 26 April: Malta joins NATO Partnership for Peace, which the Malta Labour Party (MLP) opposition contends is a violation of Malta’s neutrality as written into the Constitution. 27 July: A brucellosis (Malta fever) epidemic peaks at 129 cases. 31 July: Parliament appoints Joe Sammut as the first ombudsman of Malta. 1 September: The Malta Drydocks Council refuses to bid on ship repair work for US ships, citing the neutrality clause of the Malta Constitution. 21 October: The postal service, privatized as Posta Ltd., takes over mail delivery. 29 October: The assassination in Malta of Libyan citizen and jihad leader Fathi Shqaqi raises tension between Libya and Malta. Israeli agents are suspected to be responsible. 27–28 November: Malta is accepted as a partner in the Euro–Mediterranean Partnership launched at the Barcelona Conference.

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1996 26 October: MLP candidate Dr. Alfred Sant is elected the fifth prime minister since independence, winning 50.7 percent to the NP’s 47.85 percent of votes cast. 27 October: Malta withdraws from NATO’s Partnership for Peace. 23 November: Foreign Minister George Vella formally withdraws Malta’s bid to join the European Union. 1997 1 January: A Malta-based launch collides with a larger ship off the coast of Sicily, and 280 people drown. 9 June: Two Turkish hijackers commandeer an Air Malta flight on its way to Istanbul but surrender in Cologne. 13 July: The Appledore report is issued, regarding restructuring of the dockyards. 27 July: Posta Ltd. goes into liquidation. The postal service is taken over by the postmaster general until a new company can be set up. 1998 8 June: Mintoff’s vote against the government’s stance on the Cottonera project creates a crisis. 5 September: Over 95 percent of voters turn out for elections that return the Nationalist prime minister Edward Fenech Adami to power. 10 September: Malta reactivates its application to join the EU. 1999 2 May: Professor Guido de Marco is appointed president. 22 November: The minister of finance presents a white paper on government plans to privatize government services and enterprises. 12 December: Malta-flagged oil tanker Erika breaks in two south of Brest, causing a major environmental disaster 31 December: St. James Cavalier Centre for Creativity opened. 2000 23 January: Passage of first equal opportunities law to protect handicapped. 4 February: The Malta Film Commission is launched with Winston Azzopardi appointed as film commissioner. 10 February: New laws on dual citizenship come into effect. 15 February: Formal accession negotiations between Malta and the EU are opened. 12 March: Local council elections in 23 towns and villages give the Partit Nazzjonalista (PN) 49.3 percent and MLP 48.8 percent of the votes. 25 May: Seven of the eight chapters in negotiation for EU membership are provisionally closed. The EU launches the Socrates program for Malta. 14 June: Formal decision taken by EU Enlargement Commission to close the first seven chapters with Malta. 19 June: Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) removes Malta from its list of tax havens. 23 June: Explosion at Marsa power station leads to a total shutdown of the country’s two sources of electrical power at Marsa and Delimara. 4 July: Wardens are established and operating in 54 localities throughout Malta and Gozo. 14 July: Joseph Sammut is reappointed ombudsman for a second and final term of five years. 20 July: Hal Saflieni Hypogeum is inaugurated after a nine-year restoration and conservation project partly funded by UNESCO. 11 August: A foundation to establish the Malta College of Arts, Sciences and Technology is signed into law. 22 September: St. James Center for the Arts is opened after an Lm4 million renovation of the St. James Cavalier. 1 October: Malta signs an

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association agreement with the EU, allowing the Maltese to fully participate in educational programs for youth. 21 October: A new movement called Iva Malta fl-Ewropa (Yes! To Malta in Europe) is established to promote Malta’s EU membership. 14 December: Malta signs the United Nations convention against international organized crime and protocols on trafficking of people (especially women and children) and illegal immigrants. 2001 10 March: Turnout of 71 percent of eligible voters for local council elections. Malta Labour Party gains majority with 49.3 percent, versus 48.1 percent for the Nationalists and 2.6 percent for the independents. 14 March: On a state visit to Bulgaria, President De Marco survives a car accident that kills one man. 14 April: Neolithic Temples at World Heritage Site Hagar Qim are damaged by vandals, causing a national outcry and a protest march. 8–9 May: Pope Jean Paul II visits Malta. 27 June: Malta negotiates the right to restrict European Union workers from access to Maltese jobs for seven years upon joining the EU, whereas Maltese workers will be able to work in the EU immediately upon Malta’s accession. 16 December: A power transmission cable between Malta and Gozo is commissioned. 2002 16 January: Dr. Noel Arrigo is sworn in as the new chief justice. 31 March: Small retail shops are permitted to open for business on Sundays. 23 April: Italian oil company ENI begins drilling for oil in Maltese waters. 25 April: Malta signs agreement to sell 40 percent of Malta International Airport. 9 May: First International Fireworks Festival in Malta organized by the Malta Tourism Authority. 4 August: Chief Justice Noel Arrigo and Judge Patrick Vella are arraigned on bribery charges. 25 August: Judge Vincent De Gaetano is sworn in as the new chief justice of Malta. 22 September: Former prime ministers Mintoff and Mifsud Bonnici launch Front Maltin Inqumu (Front Maltese Awake), a group opposing Malta’s joining the European Union. 21 October: Industrial and Employment Relations Act is passed, consolidating and updating labor laws to eliminate discrimination and to introduce gender mainstreaming and family-friendly policies. 13 December: Formal negotiations for Malta’s joining the EU are concluded in Copenhagen, Denmark. 2003 1 January: Deadline for Malta to have all necessary laws in place for joining the European Union. February: Equality for Men and Women Act is passed by Parliament. 8 March: Referendum vote held, with 91 percent of eligible voters turning out, of which 53.6 percent approve Malta’s joining the EU. 12 April: Turnout of 96 percent of eligible voters in national elections returns the Nationalists to power with a 51.7 percent majority and 35 seats versus 47.6 percent and 30 seats for the MLP. Alternattiva Demokratika receives only 0.7 percent of the votes, thus gaining no seats. 16 April: Prime Minister Eddie Fenech Adami and Foreign Affairs Minister Joe Borg sign

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Malta’s accession to the EU in Athens. 2–7 June: The 10th Games of the Small States of Europe are held in Malta. 19 June: The draft of a Constitution for Europe is published by the EU. 14 July: House of Representatives ratifies the EU accession treaty. 15 July: Thirteen years to the day that Malta applied for membership, President Guido de Marco signs the European Union Act, clearing the way for Malta to join the EU. 9 August: The new Cottonera Marina is inaugurated. 17 August: The new Marine Mammals Protection Regulations (2003) are issued. 29 October: Malta signs the Council of Europe’s Convention on Nationality, designed to make it easier to acquire a new nationality or recover a former one. 27 September: The new Flora, Fauna and Natural Habitats Protection Regulations of 2003 are published, bringing Malta’s regulations in line with those of the EU. 29 September: Malta becomes a member of the International Commission for the Conservation of Atlantic Tunas (ICCAT). 13 October: Malta joins the European Economic Area. 5 November: Drydocks and Malta Shipbuilding are restructured as Malta Shipyards, eliminating 900 workers. 10 November: The Ta’ Kandja pumping station in Siggiewi is sabotaged, and the water is contaminated with petroleum. 2004 23 January: Dr. Janet Mifsud appointed first “equality promotion” commissioner. 7 February: Prime Minister Eddie Fenech Adami resigns from party leadership. 9 February: President Guido de Marco visits Qaddafi in Libya. 3 March: Dr. Lawrence Gonzi wins the race for Nationalist Party leadership and becomes prime minister “in waiting.” 20 March: Dr. Tonio Borg elected deputy leader of the Nationalist Party and deputy prime minister. 22 March: Eddie Fenech Adami resigns as prime minister and from Parliament. 23 March: Lawrence Gonzi is sworn in as prime minister. Three women are announced as cabinet members. 29 March: Eddie Fenech Adami is elected president of Malta. 29 April: The celebration for Malta’s joining the EU begins. 1 May: Malta becomes a member of the EU. 12 June: Turnout of 82 percent of Maltese and Gozitan voters go to polls to elect EU parliamentarians. 21 June: Local council elections held: Labour gets 68 seats (50.2 percent), the Nationalists 68 seats (46.4 percent), the AD 1 seat (1.5 percent), and the Independents 3 seats. 3 July: John Dalli, minister of foreign affairs, resigns and is replaced by Dr. Michael Frendo, parliamentary secretary. 17 July: The introduction of the environment tax causes an uproar from unions and social partners. 26 July: The eco tax is postponed. 3 November: Negotiations between the government and the General Workers’ Union to restructure the dockyards are concluded, whereby Malta Shipbuilding and Malta Dockyards are restructured as Malta Shipyards, greatly reducing the workforce. 6 October: Prime Minister Gonzi meets with Qaddafi in Libya. 22 October: Malta’s first EU commissioner, Dr. Joe Borg, begins term as

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commissioner for fisheries and maritime affairs. December 12: Chief Justice Joseph Said Pullicino appointed ombudsman by unanimous parliamentary vote. 2005 13 January: A protest by illegal immigrants at Safi Barracks detention center results in a scuffle with armed forces guards, causing injuries to 26 detainees and 2 guards. Amnesty International calls for an investigation into alleged undue use of force. 16 January: The EU grants Malta €4 million (US$5 million) for restoration work on eight cultural and tourist sites, including the Hagar Qim temples and the city of Mdina. 26 February: Domus Romana reopened to the public after refurbishing. 23 March: Malta–Gozo helicopter service resumed. 5 April: Smoking is no longer allowed in any entertainment establishment without a smoking room. 8 April: The EU determines that Malta qualifies for Objective 1 funding category after all. 2 May: The Maltese lira enters the EU’s Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II). 14 June: The government launches the National Euro Changeover Committee (NECC) to formulate and implement a specific plan dealing with all aspects pertaining to the final adoption of the euro. 7 July: The Maltese Parliament unanimously ratifies the EU Constitution. 22 July: BirdLife Malta and BirdLife International submit a formal complaint to the European Commission about Malta’s failure to adequately transpose and enforce the Birds Directive into national law. 23 August: The Emission Alert SMS 4 Clean Air campaign is launched by the Malta Transport Authority. 24 September: Malta applies for full membership in the OECD. 28 September: The Malta Aviation Foundation’s Battle of Malta Memorial Hangar at Ta’ Qali is inaugurated. 1 October: The US government buys land to build a US$50 million embassy compound at Ta’ Qali. 2 October: Five youths from Qrendi are killed in the nation’s worst traffic accident. 3 October: Prime Minister Gonzi meets with President Bush in the White House. 14 October: Restoration works at the Ggantija temples, which suffered a collapsed wall from heavy rains in September 2003, are completed with Lm36,000 from the EU Solidarity Funds. 21 October: Atlantica S.p.A. di Navigazione signs an agreement to buy the government’s 69 percent shares in Sea Malta. 26 October: Prime Minister Gonzi announces that the electricity surcharge has been raised from 17 percent to 55 percent to offset rising oil prices. Petrol prices are now to be reviewed monthly instead of every quarter. 3 November: Announcement of National Reform Programme, with an investment of €227,569,863 to strengthen the country’s competitiveness, economic growth, environmental protection, and job creation in line with the EU’s Lisbon Agenda. 25–27 November: Malta hosts the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM), for which Queen Elizabeth II and Prime Ministers Tony Blair (UK) and John Howard (Australia) visit Malta. 7 December: The Italian shipping company, Grimaldi, decides against buying the

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government’s Sea Malta shares. As a result, the Maltese company is liquidated five days later. 18 December: Malta obtains a net EU budget package of €455 million (US$575 million) over a seven-year period. 2006 16 January: Victor A. Galea is elected president of the Malta Chamber of Commerce and Enterprise. 2 February: Ian Micallef, president of the Chamber of Local Authorities, is named vice president of the EU’s Committee of the Regions. 4 February: New regulations make it illegal for anyone under 16 years of age to consume alcohol. The European Parliament is finally able to interpret its plenary sessions into Maltese after four interpreters of Maltese are added to the staff. 6 February: EU commissioner for the environment Stavros Dimas officially admits that an exemption from a specific article of the Birds Directive was discussed during Malta’s accession negotiations, weakening the EU’s stance against Malta’s continuation of spring hunting. 10 February: The Malta Environment and Planning Authority (MEPA) obtains €200,000 from the EU Transitional Facility to assist in implementing the EU environmental acquis with a “polluter pays” principle. 14 February: Reacting to the global bird flu threat, the government suspends hunting at sea and rounds up all wild ducks. 22 February: Illegal immigrants tear down fences at three detention centers. The detainees do not seem interested in escaping but rather in drawing attention to their living situation. 11 March: The opposition wins local elections with 53.9 percent of the votes. Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi states that low turnout played a significant part in the Nationalist Party’s poor showing. 14 March: The government nominates former attorney general Anthony Borg Barthet as its member on the European Court of Justice (ECJ) for a further six-year term. 27 March: The Dubai company TECOM and the Malta government sign an agreement regarding the company’s plans to build a Lm110 million IT center called SmartCity at Fort Ricasoli, in which the government is to have a 9 percent interest. 30 March: The government adopts the European Union’s Birds Directive. 31 March: Family and Social Solidarity Minister Dolores Cristina establishes the Commission on Domestic Violence. 15 May: The cabinet approves the government’s plan to sell for €220 million (US$300 million) its 60 percent stake in Maltacom to TECOM Investments of Dubai, the company behind the SmartCity project. TECOM also agrees to invest about Lm30 million in new state-of-the-art technology for Maltacom in the first three years. 26 May: The Forni Sea Passenger Terminal, part of the Valletta Waterfront project, is officially opened by President Edward Fenech Adami. Malta is now able to handle home-porting passenger operations (cruises starting and ending in Malta). 26 June: Close to 400 illegal immigrants escape from the detention center before being rounded up and returned to the center several hours later. 25 July: The House of Representatives votes 33–28 in favor of the controversial extension of the building development zones. 6

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August: The Sigma report on Malta is released. A joint effort by the OECD and the EU to evaluate the 10 new EU member states’ “regulatory management capacities,” it praises the Civil Service and the Malta Environment and Planning Authority for their efficiency and regulatory capacities but urges more administrative simplification. 11 August: The European Union officially launches its first joint border patrol mission to slow the influx of illegal immigrants from Africa to European shores. 6 September: Malta’s first women judges, Magistrate Abigail Lofaro and lawyer Anna Felice, are sworn in by President Fenech Adami. 7 September: The leading budget airline, Ryanair, announces its first routes to Malta, making over four million seats available. 12 September: Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi announces that the Euro–Mediterranean Parliamentary Assembly is to be based in Malta. Italy and Libya agree to collaborate in dealing with illegal immigration and human trafficking by launching joint patrols in Libyan waters. 15 October: Thousands fill the streets of Valletta for its first Notte Bianca. 31 October: Archeological investigations unearth traces of a Bronze Age settlement and Roman remains at the historic Santa Margerita Cemetery in Rabat. 12 November: Beginning in 2008, Malta will receive a minimum of €300,000 (US$400,000) annually from the European Return Fund to be used for the repatriation of illegal immigrants to their country of origin. 2007 24 January: Mgr. Paul Cremona is installed as the archbishop of Malta. 27 February: At a press conference, Prime Minister Gonzi announces that in January 2007, the government formally submitted Malta’s application to join the eurozone and to adopt the euro. 10 March: Turnout of 68 percent of eligible voters for local council elections at 16 localities in Malta and 6 in Gozo. The MLP wins 53 percent, the NP 44 percent, and the AD and independents 3 percent of the votes cast. 24 April: The final agreement on SmartCity Malta, projected to be the biggest foreign investment ever in Malta, is signed. 11 May: STMicroelectronics, a major manufacturer, threatens to pull out of Malta if it does not receive substantial financial support from the government. 3 June: Over 5,000 Maltese faithful witness the canonization of George Preca, the first saint of Malta, by Pope Benedict XVI. 9 June: A new conservative party, Azzjoni Nazzjonali, is launched by former PN member Josie Muscat. 15 June: Electric car public transport system is introduced in Valletta. 24 June: An all-night session of the European Council leads to a compromise on the controversial EU Constitution Treaty. Now referred to as the Reform Treaty, it ensures a sixth parliamentary MP for Malta, putting it on an equal footing with Luxembourg. 29 June: Prime Minister Gonzi inaugurates the controversial Lm220 million hospital Mater Dei. 10 July: The EU finance ministers unanimously vote to approve Malta’s entry into the eurozone with the conversion rate of €1 = Lm0.4293.

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2008 1 January: The euro replaces the Maltese lira as the official currency of Malta. 11–12 February: Malta hosts the EU–League of Arab States Foreign Affairs Ministerial Meeting of 27 EU and 22 Arab states’ foreign ministers. 19 February: Internet provider GO signs an agreement with Emirates Company to lay a second underwater Internet cable from Italy that will expand capacity ninefold. 20 February: New harbor terminal at Mgarr, Gozo, is inaugurated. 8 March: National elections return Gonzi as prime minister. 12 March: Following the close election victory by the Nationalist Party, President Fenech Adami appoints 14 new cabinet members. 20 March: Malta applies to rejoin NATO. 30 March: All border controls are lifted in Malta for travel within the Schengen area as the Schengen Agreement comes into full force. 3 April: NATO readmits Malta as a member. 11 April: The United States and Malta sign a visa waiver agreement to permit Maltese to enter the United States without a visa. 25 April: The European Court of Justice bans spring hunting in Malta for 2008. 6 June: Dr. Joseph Muscat is elected the new leader of the Malta Labour Party, succeeding Dr. Alfred Sant. 3 August: The EU approves the release of the first batch of funds under the 2007–2013 financial program, signaling the biggest ever investment in Malta, which should contribute to a dramatic upgrading of the island’s infrastructure. 8 August: Malta signs a double taxation avoidance treaty with the United States. 1 October: Joseph Muscat is sworn in as the leader of the opposition Labour Party. 30 December: A record 1.3 million tourists visit Malta, a 4 percent increase over 2007. 2009 28 January: The deficit for 2009 balloons to over €400 million. The government launches a €10 million grant program to subsidize private investment in alternative energy solutions. February: Opponents, fearing damage to the historic structure, succeed in convincing the government to abandon controversial plans for an underground expansion to St. John’s Co-Cathedral Museum. 19 February: A group of 71 Tunisians, part of 262 rescued earlier this month, protest at Hal Far detention center barracks, breaking windows and hanging from bed sheets. 4 April: George Abela is unanimously elected the eighth president of Malta. 17–18 April: Pope Benedict visits Malta. 18 April: Italy and Malta become involved in a dispute over which country should accept 140 illegal immigrants rescued near Lampedusa by a Turkish freighter. 23 April: The General Workers’ Union and the Malta Dockers’ Union meet to settle a dispute over which union should represent the workers at the Malta Freeport. 30 April: Malta hosts international firework festival. 17 May: Agora, the first major film entirely produced in Malta, premieres at the Cannes film festival. 6 June: The lowest percentage of eligible voters since 1955 turns out to vote for the Maltese members of the European Parliament and some of the local councils. June 11: Suleiman Abubaker is killed by a bouncer in a Paceville nightclub. 10 September: The European Court of

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Justice declares that Malta must follow the EU Birds Directive banning spring hunting. 21 September: The remains of over 190 protected birds are discovered in woodlands at Mizieb managed by the hunter federation. 14 October: The EU Arab League Liaison Office is officially inaugurated in Floriana. 2010 1 January: New electricity and water rate increases of 29 percent are introduced. New EU rules tracing fish from catch to plate go into effect in an effort to reduce the €10 billion annual illegal fishing. 1 March: A bill to revoke the electricity rate hikes is defeated, causing major public protest in the ensuing days. 30 March: The Malta shipyards are closed before being transferred to a private investment group. 1 April: A 50-cent bed tax per hotel night, originally scheduled for 1 January, comes into effect. 2 April: Malta is plunged into darkness on Good Friday due to a power failure, the second time in eleven days due to failure of a boiler at the aging Marsa power plant. 16–17 April: Pope Benedict visits Malta. 17 May: Two mountain climbers become the first Maltese to conquer Mount Everest. 12 August: President Guido de Marco dies at age 79. 24 September: Prime Minister Gonzi inaugurates the new temple coverings and museum at the Hagar Qim and Mnajdra megalithic temples. 4 October: Major renovation of the Freedom Square area and Valletta gate commences. 10 October: The first office block of Smart City, Malta, is inaugurated. The €300 million minimum investment is expected to create 5,600 new jobs. 5 November: A contract is signed with Arriva, a German subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn AG, to provide bus service in Malta. 15 November: Nikol Cauchi, bishop of Gozo, passes away at age 81. 12 December: The Qui-So-Sana gardens and playground, on the Sliema promenade, renovated at a cost of €2 million, are opened by Prime Minister Gonzi. 2011 A five-year plan to restructure Air Malta is initiated. After a €200 million investment by the government, another €66 million will be needed to make the airline debt free. 15 February: Uprising against Qaddafi begins in Libya. 18 February: High winds damage the recently installed protective covering of Hagar Qim temple. 21 February: Two Libyan pilots, Colonel Ali Al-Rabti and Abdullah al-Saheen, refuse to execute orders to bomb citizens in Benghazi and receive permission to land their Mirage fighter jets in Malta. 26 February: More than 2,200 Chinese nationals arrive in Malta on a chartered ship that evacuated them from Libya. They are subsequently flown home to China. 16 March: The opposition Labour Party successfully proposes a motion to hold a public referendum on whether divorce should become legal in Malta. 19 March: A multistate NATO-led coalition begins a military intervention against Libya to implement a UN Security Council resolution to halt Qaddafi’s army’s attacks on civilians. 21 March: Pro and anti-Qaddafi demonstrators clash and are arrested for throwing stones in

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front of the Libyan embassy in Malta. 4 April: The deputy foreign minister of Libya arrives in Malta to meet with Gonzi, seeking a diplomatic solution to the Libyan crisis. 28 May: A referendum on whether divorce should be legal in Malta is approved by 53 percent of the voters. 3 July: Arriva begins operating the Malta buses. 25 July: Parliament passes legislation legalizing divorce in Malta. 2 August: Father Godwin Scerri and Father Charles Pulis are found guilty and sentenced to six and five years respectively for sexually abusing boys at an orphanage in the 1980s. 16 August: Fifteen police officers, three soldiers, and one migrant are injured when sub-Saharan African migrants riot at the Safi detention center after their asylum requests are denied. 1 October: Divorce law comes into force. 18 October: US secretary of state Hillary Clinton stops in Malta on her way to Tripoli to consult with Prime Minister Gonzi. 16 November: A powerful bomb kills a former inmate who had just been released from prison. 30 November: Government decides to privatize St. Luke’s Hospital and the hospital on Gozo. 30 December: Parliament passes legislation to increase maternity leave to a full 16 weeks in 2012 and to 18 weeks by 2013. 2012 1 January: A double homicide grips Malta: Duncan Zammit and Nicholas Gera stab one another in Gera’s apartment. 18 February: Prospero Grech is elevated to cardinal at the Vatican, only the second Maltese ever to achieve that rank and the first in 170 years. 14 March: President Vincent Tabone, who hosted the 1989 summit between George H. W. Bush and Gorbachev, dies two weeks short of his 99th birthday. 16 March: The iconic former rector of the University of Malta, Father Peter Serracino Inglot, passes away at age 75. 30 May: Nationalist MP Franco DeBono joins the opposition in a vote of no confidence in Home Affairs Minister Dr. Carmelo Mifsud, a severe setback for the Nationalist government. 24 July: A footbridge linking both sides of the Fort Elmo breakwater is restored at a cost of €2.8 million. 24 July: Malta’s most controversial politician and prime minister, Dominic “Dom” Mintoff, passes away at the age of 96. 25 August: State funeral held for Dom Mintoff. 3 September: Major thunderstorm and heavy rains cause a death by lightning, flash flooding, and major property damage in Birkirkara. 5 October: Leaders from France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria, and Malta meet in Valletta for the second 5+5 Dialogue Summit. 12 October: Valletta awarded the title of European Capital of Culture 2018 based on two themes: “exchange and imagination.” 16 October: EU commissioner John Dalli is forced to resign when an investigation by the EU antifraud office concludes there is “unambiguous evidence” that one of his supporters was involved in attempted bribery. 20 October: Tonio Borg is nominated to replace John Dalli as EU commissioner of health and consumer protection. 5 November: Four men are killed in an explosion at a fireworks storage facility on Gozo. 10 Decem-

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ber: The Gonzi government falls when Nationalist Franco Debono votes against his party’s proposed budget in reaction to a German company being contracted to run Malta’s bus service. 15 December: New Barakka lift is inaugurated. 2013 7 February: Gonzi dissolves the government and calls for new elections to be held on 9 March. 10 February: Oil trader George Farrugia is granted a presidential pardon conditioned on his testimony in the Enemalta oil procurement scandal, which potentially involves millions of euros in kickback payments. 14 February: Minister Austin Gatt, whose portfolio includes Enemalta, denies any involvement in an oil procurement scandal. 19 February: Enemalta chairman Tancred Tabone and consultant Frank Sammut are indicted on charges of accepting bribes in the oil procurement scandal. 9 March: In the general election, Joseph Muscat is elected prime minister in a landslide victory for the Labour Party, returning it to power for the first time in 15 years. 11 March: Muscat is sworn in as the 13th prime minister of Malta. 27 August: After several incidents in which reticulated buses caught fire, 68 are removed from service. 15 September: Parliament passes the “Protection of the Whistleblower” Act. October: 250 Syrian and Palestinian refugees drown when their boat capsizes south of Lampedusa. 12 November: Parliament approves the sale of Maltese passports to wealthy foreign investors. 22 December: Arriva, a subsidiary of Deutsche Bahn, AG, announces that it will cease operating Malta’s bus system and pull out of Malta. 2014 1 January: Government’s Transport Malta takes over the operation of the bus system in Malta. 12 February: Health ministry reaches an agreement with Queen Mary University of London for the opening of Barts Medical School in Gozo. 11 March: Malta signs agreement selling a 33 percent interest in Enemalta to Shanghai Electric. 25 February: A large number of migrant detainees, many of whose asylum petitions had been denied, riot when members of Parliament tour the detention facilities. 4 April: MarieLouise Coleiro Preca is sworn in as the ninth president of Malta. 16 April: Civil Unions Act of 2014 is signed into law, allowing same-sex unions and granting such couples the right of adoption. Act X, a constitutional amendment, makes it illegal to discriminate on the basis of gender identity or sexual orientation. 1 May: Malta celebrates the 10th anniversary of joining the EU. 24 May: Labour Party wins a surprising 54 percent of the European Parliamentary election votes; three candidates from Labour and three Nationalists are elected. 13 June: The first same-sex marriage is performed in Malta. 2 July: Medserv, an oil and gas company, inaugurates Malta’s first solar farm at Kalafrana with 8,000 panels. 12 August: Explosion in electricity distribution center causes national power outage. 25 August: The Migrant Offshore Aid Station (MOAS) ship Phoenix starts its first migrant search and rescue

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mission. 21 September: Malta celebrates 50th anniversary of independence from Great Britain. Hunters march in a spontaneous protest against the government decision to ban hunting until October 10. Several attack birdwatchers. 12 November: Parliament approves a bill permitting the sale of Maltese citizenship for a one-off payment of €650,000. 21 March: Charles Jude Scicluna is installed as the archbishop of Malta. 5 September: Archbishop Scicluna and Imam Muhamed El Sadi lead a procession to mark the 450th anniversary of the end of the great Siege of Malta. 2015 25 February: Charles Jude Scicluna is named archbishop of Malta. 18 March: Malta’s government signs an agreement with Queen Mary University of London to open Barts Medical School in Gozo. 300 students are expected to enroll over a five-year period. 1 April: Parliament adopts the Gender Identity, Gender Expression and Sex Characteristics Act (GIGESC Bill), a historic breakthrough for the rights of trans and intersex persons in Malta. 9 April: Italy’s prime minister Renzi and Malta’s prime minister Muscat inaugurate a new power cable supplying electric power to Malta from Italy. 12 April: A referendum in support of spring bird hunting is passed by a slim margin. 19 April: Over 800 refugees drown when their boat capsizes in the Mediterranean. 22 April: 1,000 demonstrators including the president of Malta and the US ambassador attend a candlelight vigil for the 800 migrant drowning victims. 4 May: Parliament moves into its new facility in Freedom Square, Valletta. Daboma Jack, a black student from Hungary, is slapped and spat on by a Maltese woman, then mistakenly arrested by police, after he tries to instill order at a bus stop. The police apologize and launch an investigation. 6 August: An estimated 600 migrants are rescued from a sinking boat, a day after 200 drowned and another 370 were saved from another sinking boat. 4 October: Twenty-eight bystanders are injured, some critically, when a car crashes into a crowd at a charity event at Malta International Airport. 20 October: Four employees of Identity Malta are arraigned on charges of corruption for accepting bribes. 10 November: EU Council president Donald Tusk addresses a special session of the Maltese Parliament ahead of the Valletta Summit on Migration. 11–12 November: Malta hosts the “Valletta Summit” at a meeting of EU and AU (African Union) countries to discuss dealing with migration issues, following up on the tragic drowning on 19 April. 19 November: The armed guard of Home Affairs Minister Manuel Mallia fires shots following a road rage incident in Gzira. 8 December: Prime Minister Muscat fires the acting police commissioner and asks his minister of home affairs, Manuel Mallia, to resign over a cover-up of an incident in which shots were fired. 2016 The population of Malta grows to an estimated 440,000, 9 percent of whom are immigrant noncitizens, a cause for concern among many Maltese. 16 January: A man due in court on human trafficking charges is killed when

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a bomb explodes under his car. 11 March: Maltese government signs a contract to establish an American University of Malta (AUM), ensuring an admission of 4,000 students by 2029. 3 April: A leak of “Panama Papers” reveals a long list of politicians from around the globe hiding funds in secret accounts, including two Maltese: MP Konrad Mizzi and the prime minister’s chief of staff, Keith Schembri. 28 April: Prime Minister Muscat announces a cabinet reshuffle, in which Konrad Mizzi loses his energy and health portfolio but is retained as a minister without portfolio in the prime minister’s office. 18 July: Parliament adopts a constitutional amendment that institutes new rules for nomination and disciplinary actions against judges and revises rules of the judiciary. 6 September: A car bomb severs a driver’s legs. 6 October: The EU launches the European Border and Coast Guard Agency to react more quickly to surges in refugees trying to enter Europe. 17 October: Medical authorities announce that the controversial “morning after” pill will be legally available in Malta. 31 October: Two major explosions occur on the same day: a car bomb, the third such bombing in 2016, kills a man, and the other is an accidental explosion of fireworks. 23 December: Two Libyan men hijack an internal flight from Sebha to Tripoli, demanding to be flown to Rome and threatening 111 passengers and 6 crew members. The plane is forced to land in Malta because of insufficient fuel. 2017 1 January: Malta assumes the presidency of the EU council for the first six months of 2017. 11 January: A failure of the interconnector cable from Sicily causes a nationwide power outage. 20 January: Air Malta announces cost-cutting measures of €6 million that may include job cuts and wage freezes, after Alitalia withdraws from an agreement to buy a stake in the Maltese airline. 24 January: The English Grand Master of the Knights of Malta hands in his resignation to Pope Francis over a dispute regarding the distribution of birth control in Myanmar. 3 February: EU heads of government meet for a summit in Valletta. 20 February: The European Committee on Money Laundering and Tax Evasion (PANA Committee) visits Malta to investigate the “Panama Paper” revelations. A car bomb kills the driver and injures five innocent travelers. 7 February: Two consecutive power outages hit Malta’s interconnector cable supplying electricity from Sicily, causing power outages in Malta. 8 March: a major storm causes Malta’s iconic Dwejra Window to collapse into the sea.. 24 April: The controversial liquefied natural gas power plant, costing over €400 million, is inaugurated two years behind schedule. 27 April: NATO secretary general Jens Stoltenberg meets with EU defense ministers in Valletta for talks on European defense and strengthening NATO–EU cooperation. 2–3 June: The 80th interparliamentary meeting between the EU Parliament and the US Congress convenes in Valletta. 3 June: The Labour Party easily wins a snap election, garnering 55 percent of the votes cast. 13 June: Malta’s permanent representative to

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the Council of Europe signs the Convention on Combatting Violence Against Women and Domestic Violence on behalf of the EU. 20 August: Maltese government refuses landing rights for the CiStar, a “ship of hate” supported by Defend Europe, an anti-immigration organization. 11 September: London-based Barts Medical School opens on Gozo in temporary quarters, with 42 students. 16 October: Journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, a frequently outspoken critic of Muscat’s Labour government, is brutally murdered in a car bombing. 31 October: Former national football star and businessman Darren Debono is arrested by the Italian authorities, accused of involvement in a major oil smuggling operation with Libyans. 30 November–1 December: Representatives of the European Parliament Pana Committee visit Malta to investigate the state of the rule of law in the country. 4 December: Three criminals known to the police, George and Alfred Degiorgio and Vincent Muscat, are arrested in connection with the murder of the journalist Daphne Caruana Galizia. 5 December: Italian police arrest 25 members of the mafia in a Palermo raid, revealing that the mobsters had plans to infiltrate Malta’s gaming industry as a means of money laundering. 2018 1 January: Valetta commences celebrations as one of two European Capitals of Culture 2018. 4 January: Police disarm a car bomb that fails to detonate. Twelve full-time lecturers and other administrative staff at the American University of Malta are abruptly dismissed by email with no explanation given. 25 January: The Planning Authority approves a controversial application to build a 32-story residential and hotel tower in Paceville. 3 February: The EU’s Frontex launches a new mission, Themis, that no longer obliges it to take all migrants to Italy, as was the case with the earlier Frontex operation, Triton. 6 February: Doctors strike in reaction to the government’s privatization of three hospitals. Originally to be taken over by Vitals Global Health, a little-known foreign health management company, the contract is sold to Steward Healthcare, an American company. 10 February: Prime Minister Muscat announces that he will not seek reelection for the next term. 5 March: Malta’s Parliament lowers the minimum voting age in national and EU Parliament elections to 16. 9 March: The EU Commission announces that it is opening infringement proceedings against Malta, Cyprus, and Greece for not levying correct VAT. 14 March: Mossack Fonseca, the law firm at the heart of the “Panama Papers’ global tax evasion scandal that revealed the existence of secret accounts owned by Maltese government officials Mizzi and Schembri, announces it will close due to adverse publicity from the leak. 22 March: Maltese banking officials seize control of the Pilatus bank in Malta after its owner, Ali Sadr Hasheminejad, is arrested in the United States. 9 April: Two tourists are killed and 45 injured when a tour bus hits a tree overhanging the road in Zurrieq. 11 April: Health Minister Chris Fearne introduces a new bill making in vitro fertiliza-

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tion and surrogate births available to single individuals and same-sex couples. 12 April: A Greek court refuses to extradite the whistleblower Maria Efimova, who claims that the wife of Prime Minister Muscat owns a secret account containing money from Azerbaijani sources. 21 April: European Parliament president Antonio Tajani says Malta’s rule of law must be monitored the same as that of Poland and Hungary. 25 April: Parliament passes a law lowering the legal age of consent from 18 to 16.

Introduction

Whether the Mediterranean Sea is the “cradle of civilization,” as is so often stated, may be open to debate; that Malta is at its center is not. Situated in the middle of the Mediterranean Sea, this tiny island group, consisting of very rocky terrain with soil of limited quality, has an amazingly rich history. The scope of Malta’s story is compelling and vast, especially when contrasted with its tiny size. Home to some of the oldest freestanding, man-made structures known to the world—older even than the pyramids and Stonehenge— Malta, at one time or another, has been invaded and occupied by most of the civilizations bordering the surrounding sea. From about 800 BCE until 1979, the Maltese were ruled by outsiders. Phoenicians, Carthaginians, Romans, Arabs, Byzantines, and various other European powers—Spanish, Italian, French, and British forces—took turns controlling the archipelago. Their primary goal was always either to protect or attack shipping. Malta’s chief resources, its strategic location guarding major trade routes through “the narrows” between it and Sicily and its natural deepwater harbors have made it a highly desirable piece of real estate throughout history. The Grand Harbour is one of the finest in the world. More recently, since joining the European Union on 1 May 2004, Malta has served as a cultural as well as geographic bridge between Europe and the Arabic-speaking countries of North Africa.

LAND AND PEOPLE The Maltese archipelago is located approximately 100 kilometers (60 miles) south of Sicily, 288 kilometers (180 miles) east of Tunisia, and 355 kilometers (220 miles) north of Libya. It is almost equidistant between Gibraltar on the west and Alexandria on the east. The nation consists of three inhabited islands, Malta, Gozo, and Comino, and several tiny, uninhabited ones, encompassing 316 square kilometers (122 square miles) in total area. Malta is the largest at 246 square kilometers, Gozo is 67 square kilometers, and Comino covers barely 2.59 square kilometers (95 square miles, 26 square miles, and 1 square mile, respectively). The longest distance on the island of Malta from the northwest to the southeast is approximately 27 kilometers, and the widest is 14.5 kilometers (17 and 9 1

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miles, respectively). For Gozo, the corresponding distances are 14.5 kilometers and 7 kilometers (9 and 4.5 miles, respectively). Situated at 36 degrees latitude north, the archipelago has a typical Mediterranean marine climate, featuring hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters. June, July, and August are the hottest months, with temperatures often in excess of 35 degrees Celsius. Winters are mild, with low temperatures around 10 degrees Celsius during January and February. Although the island of Malta contains rural areas devoted to agriculture, Gozo is known as the “green island” because of its greater agricultural development. Both islands are quite hilly, but there are no rivers and just a few streams. Numerous harbors and bays surround the island of Malta; Gozo, however, has relatively few. According to the most recent census taken in 2011, Malta’s population was 417,000; however, by 2018 the population was reported to be 460,000, of whom approximately 12 percent are non-Maltese nationals. More than 90 percent of the population lives on Malta and the remainder on Gozo. The population of the tiny island of Comino is limited to the staff of a single resort hotel serving the needs of visiting vacationers. Leaving aside the anomalies of Monaco and the Vatican, only Singapore has a population density greater than that of Malta, which has approximately 1,400 inhabitants per square kilometer. Malta’s population, largely concentrated in the area around the Grand and Marsamxett Harbours, grew by over 9 percent in the decade from 1985 to 1995. This growth slowed in the following decade to about 6 percent, and although the population was projected to begin a gradual decline, so far the opposite has happened. In the various guidebooks, Maltese are described as being very friendly, patriotic, stubborn, bright, hardworking, and resilient. A report by a royal commission from 1911 stated that the Maltese “type is South European . . . but fairer in color, in the towns at any rate . . . a strong, hardy race . . . temperate, thrifty and industrious . . . though lacking self confidence.” This is understandable for a people who until recently had no control over their own destiny. Threatened with death or capture and enslavement by hostile forces, Malta’s native peoples had to endure a hardscrabble existence for much of their history. This might explain some contradictory character traits: the Maltese have lived through the centuries with a certain “us versus them,” insider versus outsider, ruled versus rulers dichotomy. Even today, the nation is sharply divided into two camps: on the one hand, those who resist, consciously or not, the influences of globalization, and on the other, those with international perspectives and ambitions, open to the outside world, willing to embrace foreign investment and influence. Though fairly equally split along two party lines on many other issues, the Maltese share a common fervor to express their political views; it is not at all unusual to have 80 to 95 percent voter turnout in national elections. They are

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also staunchly united about their religion. Ninety percent profess to be Roman Catholics, and although recently church attendance has been in decline, much of Maltese social life still centers on the Church. Other than its passionate, hardworking people, the limestone on which the islands sit, a sunny climate, and deep, natural harbors, Malta has no resources. This has meant that limited harvests have to be supplemented by trade with outsiders, the greater part of Malta’s exports consisting of services. Whether as a way station for Phoenician traders; for ship repairs and refueling for the British navy; or for finance, tourism, English-language schools, and online gambling, throughout the centuries Malta has relied on trade in services as the main contributor to the country’s gross national product (GNP). Advances in modern technology, such as long-range and nuclear weapon systems, have greatly diminished the military value of its strategic location, while Malta’s population and dependence on trade with other countries have grown. Until the installation of an interconnector electric cable with Italy in 2015 and more recently the installation of some solar energy collection and waste conversion facilities, 100 percent of its energy needs, including desalination of over half of Malta’s water supply, were met by imported oil. To date, numerous attempts at finding oil reserves on land or in the territorial waters surrounding Malta have been unsuccessful. Whether because of their closer proximity to Italy or strong loyalty to the pope in Rome, certainly since the arrival of the Knights of St. John, the Maltese people have considered themselves to be European. This makes it all the more remarkable that the linguistic legacy of the Arab invaders survived so many centuries of Italian and European influence; even today, the devoutly Roman Catholic population appeals to God as “Allah.” Only recently have the Maltese begun to leverage their country’s ability to serve as Europe’s “bridge” to Arab cultures and economies of North Africa. The Maltese language (Malti) was long thought to have been derived from the language spoken by the Phoenicians and Carthaginians, who colonized the islands from 800 to 218 BCE. However, more recent studies suggest that Maltese has its roots in the dialects of Arabic spoken in Northern Africa, especially Tunisia, that migrated to Malta via Sicily. In any case, it is a curious mixture of Semitic words and structures, including Romance and English words, a unique legacy of Malta’s various invaders/occupiers. The Maltese language has existed in written form for only about 200 years, using the Roman alphabet along with a few diacritical marks. Until the middle of the last century, it was considered a “kitchen language,” mainly used by the less educated. The educated class, government, and law courts spoke Italian and later English. The “language question,” whether Italian or English should be favored, was a long-standing controversy dividing many Maltese. It was not until the mid-1930s, when a standard Maltese orthography evolved, that

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the Maltese language became a factor in building a national identity. Today, Maltese and English are the two official languages. Maltese has also gained international standing as one of the official languages of the European Union (EU).

PREHISTORIC INHABITANTS The Maltese archipelago was once inhabited by many animals no longer found there, including dwarf hippos and elephants, whose remains were found in Ghar Dalam, the “Cave of Darkness.” This is evidence that in earlier periods of the ice age, which ended around 12,000 BCE, a land bridge connected the African and European continents. It is probable that humans followed the same travel paths, but the only human evidence in the cave, two teeth, was found in 1917. These were long thought to have belonged to Neanderthal man but more recently were carbon-dated as coming from Neolithic man. In 2018, researchers from Queen’s University in Belfast, using soil and DNA analysis, determined that the first inhabitants arrived about 5900 BCE (700 years earlier than previously thought) and came from different parts of the Mediterranean and Europe, including Africa. Most likely they came via Sicily, from which the islands can be visible on a clear day, probably first settling on Gozo and then Malta. Beginning around 3600 BCE, the inhabitants built temples of huge rock slabs set in circular patterns. The structures became increasingly intricate and ornate and, judging from the various items discovered, were used for the worship of one or more deities. In order to construct such massive edifices, there must have already been a fairly cohesive social organization. Archaeologists surmise that after about 800 years, the islands’ inhabitants had become sufficiently successful in agriculture to enable them to develop a societal structure that allowed some individuals to specialize in temple building and worship activities. About 2500 BCE, the structures began to be used more as burial places. Archaeologists have excavated 6 of the 23 temple sites discovered on Malta and Gozo. Their style of construction is not found anywhere else in the world. Until the 1990s, when some older structures in southeastern Turkey were discovered, the temples at Gigantija were considered to be the oldest freestanding, human-made structures on Earth, predating the great pyramids of Egypt and Stonehenge by a thousand years. Because they were only recently unearthed and thus exposed to the elements, there was serious concern about atmospheric damage as well as vandalism. The government, with the

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help of EU funding, has greatly improved the protection and management of these sites, with the construction of several new museums, and a protective tent covering one of them. The Bronze Age on Malta dates from about 2500 to 700 BCE. The people of this era were of a different race and culture, distinguished by their copper and bronze tools and weapons. These inhabitants were thought to have been more preoccupied with warfare, moving away from the exposed temple sites to higher ground near Marsaxlokk, a site more easily defended against foreign invaders. Several urns containing cremated human remains were discovered at the site of the Tarxien temples, the first evidence of cremation on Malta.

PHOENICIANS, GREEKS, AND CARTHAGINIANS Around 800 or 700 BCE, Phoenicians from the Levant began inhabiting the Maltese islands. Several of their rock-cut tombs and cave dwellings have been uncovered on Malta and Gozo. An inscription on a stone column dedicated to “our Lord Melqart, Lord of Tyre,” written in both the Carthaginian Phoenician language and classical Greek, indicates interaction with Greek colonies on nearby Sicily as well. The Phoenicians founded Carthage at present-day Tunis and established a great naval and commercial presence in the Mediterranean. The Carthaginians are credited with founding Malta’s first cities and an administration that coined the first money in Malta. They controlled the islands until 218 BCE, when the Romans drove them off in the Second Punic War.

ROMAN RULE When the Romans defeated the Carthaginians as rulers of the Mediterranean Sea, Malta came under Roman control and was ruled by the propraetor (governor) of Sicily. Later, it received a propraetor of its own, directly responsible to the emperor in Rome, giving Malta and Gozo the status of a municipia, which allowed them to mint their own coins. Some of those coins bear Punic as well as Latin inscriptions, attesting to the fact that a form of Punic language survived among the general population. Two main cities, one called Melite, located on the site of present-day Mdina, and another on Gozo, named Gaulos, existed during the period of Roman rule. The remains of several dozen villas, some baths, and numerous

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Roman catacombs and other burial sites are scattered about the islands. The most impressive and best preserved of the villas, located just outside the walls of Mdina, has been restored as a museum. Although details of Roman rule over Malta are very scarce, it must have been a fairly peaceful and prosperous era. Beyond serving as a way station for shipping and the occasional pirate raids in the region, economic activity on the islands seems to have revolved around agriculture. A letter by the Roman statesman Cicero mentions the quality of Malta’s honey and linen. Judging by the number of olive presses found on the sites of Roman villas, there must have been extensive olive oil processing during Roman times. Around 60 CE, a ship carrying 275 passengers, including St. Paul and St. Luke, is believed to have been wrecked on the island of Malta during a storm. The biblical account of the event and of the three months that followed is important to Christians everywhere but of particular concern to the Maltese. Although the first evidence of practicing Christians dates from several centuries later, the Maltese generally consider St. Paul’s arrival on Malta as the “time we became Christians.” At any rate, there is no doubt that Malta is a Christian nation even today, both written into its constitution and by practice. When the Roman Empire fell to invading Vandals from North Africa, they invaded Sicily around 455 and other insulas maximas, presumably also including Malta, but there is no concrete evidence of that or of any other impact on the islands by the Visigoths. In 476, the Barbarian king of Italy, Odoacer, seized control of the islands, which were then taken over by the Ostrogoth Theodoric in 493, who later controlled Sicily and therefore presumably Malta, until well into the sixth century.

BYZANTINE RULE Byzantine forces drove the Goths out of Sicily in 533 CE. A letter written in 592 CE by Pope Gregory to Lucillus, the first known bishop of Malta, indicates that Malta was already a secure part of the Eastern Roman Empire. Little other evidence remains from this period, but it was during Byzantine rule that Christianity became firmly established on the islands. Greek trading activity and other cultural influences were strong until the arrival of the Arabs. They swept across the North African coast, causing a northward retreat of the Byzantines, whom they evicted from Sicily and finally Malta in 870 CE.

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ARAB RULE Very little is known about the period when the Aghlabid Arabs from North Africa invaded Malta in 869 and 870, laying waste to the country, killing most of its inhabitants, and capturing the remainder as slaves. Other than the Semitic structure of the Maltese language and a majority of place-names plus a few Arab tombstones, there is strikingly little evidence left from the two centuries of Arab control in Malta. This may well be because unlike the large, difficult-to-move megalithic temples, smaller structures were often dismantled in later centuries and recycled to construct new buildings or rubble walls

THE MIDDLE AGES In the middle of the 11th century, the Normans conquered much of southern Italy and Sicily. After the Great Schism of 1054 split the Latin and Byzantine Churches, Pope Nicholas II and the Norman leader Robert Guiscard signed an agreement under which Guiscard, in exchange for being named duke of Puglia and Calabria, promised to restore Christianity to Sicily by conquering the Arab rulers of the region. Robert summoned his younger brother, Roger I, from Normandy to assist in the campaigns and installed him as count of Sicily after the successful capture of Palermo in 1072. Guiscard admired and adapted some aspects of the Arab culture. He treated his Greek and Arabic subjects with tolerance and respect, employing their artists and builders in his court. After several unsuccessful raids, mainly to quell piracy in the region, Guiscard conquered the Arabs occupying Malta in 1091. He followed a similar approach of allowing his Arab subjects to remain under the rule of their emir, so long as they paid tribute to the Sicilian ruler. Although Roger I and his son Roger II are credited with the re-Christianization of Malta, building many churches, the myth of a completely Christian Malta after the subjugation of the Muslims (as described in 17th-century accounts by Maltese writers Abela and Manduca) has been discredited by later scholars. The Normans permitted the Muslims and Jews under their control to worship openly and freely. After Constance, the daughter of Roger II, married into the Hohenstaufen line of German rulers, the Swabians, under Henry VI, took control of the Kingdom of Sicily and therefore Malta. Charles of Anjou, supported by Pope Clement IV, conquered Sicily in 1266. The Angevins were in power until the Sicilians revolted against their French oppressors in 1282, allowing the Aragonese to seize control. Throughout these power shifts, the rulers of Sicily installed feudal lords on Malta, who taxed the inhabitants. This ended tempo-

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rarily about 1397, when Gozo and Malta became part of the royal domain. Both islands were ruled by a hakem, or local governor, appointed by the king of Sicily. In the following three decades, Malta was handed back to feudal lords and returned to the royal domain, albeit a much weakened kingdom that left Malta exposed to attacks by Muslim invaders from North Africa.

THE ORDER OF ST. JOHN In 1522, the young Turkish sultan Suleiman conquered the stronghold of the Knights of St. John on the Island of Rhodes. Suleiman was reportedly so impressed with the brave resistance put up by the Knights that he let them leave Rhodes with their weapons and ships, a decision he was to regret some decades later. In search of new headquarters, the Knights roamed the Mediterranean for several years until finally, in 1530, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V of Spain, offered them the Maltese islands for an annual rental fee of one Maltese falcon. He also required the Knights to garrison Tripoli. The offer was reluctantly accepted, and the order moved its navy and equipment to the island of Malta. Work on improving the fortifications was begun immediately, causing an improvement in the local economy as well. The reaction of the Maltese general population was very positive because of the new jobs and the greater protection the Knights could give against the constant threat of pirates and other marauders. The Maltese nobility, never accepted as equals by the aristocratic Knights, did not have the same positive reactions to their new overlords, and their opinion did not improve over the years. The Great Siege in 1565 is the second major event celebrated by the Maltese (after the shipwreck of St. Paul). The Turks arrived with a fleet of almost 200 ships, the largest ever seen in the Mediterranean up to that time, carrying 30,000 to 40,000 of the finest soldiers that Suleiman could muster. Although expecting a quick victory, they also carried equipment for a lengthy siege. Turgut Reis, known as “Dragut,” who had previously invaded Malta in 1551, attacking Gozo and killing or enslaving most of the population, was the overall commander. He arrived after the battle had started and brought an additional 1,500 soldiers. Against these numbers, there were approximately 8,500 defenders, including 592 Knights, 5,830 Maltese militia and irregulars, and 1,230 mercenary soldiers. The remainder were galley slaves, released on a pledge of faithful service. The siege lasted 110 days, from 21 May to 8 September, with battle after battle fought following fierce bombardments by the Turks. Several times the Knights were able to avoid what seemed like sure defeat. Although Dragut was killed by a cannonball fragment in one of the early battles, leadership

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passed to the equally qualified Mustapha Pasha. Two events led to the end of the siege and the retreat of the Turks. First was a daring raid on the Turkish camp at Marsa by the Knights’ small cavalry coming from Mdina. They burned and destroyed most of the supplies and equipment and killed everyone, sentries and wounded alike. When he received word of the attack, Mustapha, fearing encirclement, called a retreat from a battle that was on the verge of becoming a Muslim victory. Soon after, a relief army from Sicily landed at the northern end of the island. When that intelligence was given to Mustapha, he ordered an immediate and total withdrawal from Malta. Only 15,000, or less than half of the original invading forces, lived to return to Constantinople. As the siege was about to begin, Queen Elizabeth I of England wrote that she feared for all of Christian Europe if the Turks prevailed in Malta. Her statement indicates the level of apprehension felt throughout Europe over past Muslim successes and the threat of further advances. After the victory, a joyous relief replaced the apprehension and caused an outpouring of wealth to the Knights. The result was a great improvement in the order’s treasury, which permitted it to embark upon the construction of the fortified city of Valletta and the repair of the siege damages. In subsequent years, the order became commonly known as the Knights of Malta. It continued to improve the island’s fortifications as well as the architectural enhancement of the newly established city of Valletta, which soon became known throughout Europe for its beauty. The feared return of the Turks never took place, and the order’s fighting capability gradually deteriorated.

FRENCH OCCUPATION The French Revolution caused the loss of the order’s wealth and landholdings in France. In addition, the loyalty of the Knights of the French Langue became doubtful. Finally, in 1798 Napoleon’s forces invaded without opposition and took control of the island of Malta. The invaders were welcomed by the Maltese, who had long since grown tired of the Knights and now viewed them as lazy and arrogant intruders upon their land. The French permitted the Knights to leave with their personal property. The order finally settled in Rome in 1834 (and remains there today) after numerous unsuccessful attempts to legally regain its position in Malta Although the French had been welcomed with high expectations by the Maltese, those hopes soon turned to anger as the new invaders began looting. Property belonging to the order was seized, including many items to which the Maltese could have made some degree of legitimate claim. What aroused

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the greatest anger, however, was the looting of the churches, especially the silver candelabras and communion vessels, which quickly and completely reversed the attitudes of the populace. Clergy, farmers, and nobles took up arms to attack the French troops. In their anger, mobs gained control of Mdina and then forced Napoleon’s army of occupation to retreat into fortified Valletta, where it was subjected to a complete blockade. Knowing that they were too weak to defend themselves even if they did overcome the French forces, the Maltese sent a delegation to the British naval vessels anchored off the island. The request was for assistance to both dislodge the French and come to the islands as a protecting force. The British, having defeated Napoleon at the Battle of the Nile, accepted, and the French garrison was forced to surrender. In a repeat of recent events, the newcomers were welcomed almost as saviors.

BRITISH RULE In 1802, under the Treaty of Amiens, Britain gained sovereignty over Malta, but in a power-sharing arrangement, the islands were to have been returned to the Order of St. John. The Maltese protested vehemently both this decision and the fact that they had been given no voice in the discussions. In the end, both sides broke the terms of the treaty. This provided the British with enough time to have second thoughts. Under the Treaty of Paris in 1814, Britain was awarded Malta as a colonial possession. Because they had invited the British to Malta as equals in ousting the French, the Maltese reacted angrily to the treaty, justifiably upset that they were to have new colonial masters. The Treaty of Paris is an example of how differently the two parties perceived their relationship, and it would prove to be an irritant for many years to come as Malta became a major British naval base. It is fair to say that the arrival of the British began a love/hate relationship in which the dominant feeling fluctuated from time to time. There is a Maltese saying that “all foreign nations are bad but the British are least bad.” Malta’s strategic importance as a base for the British navy increased with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. This generated prosperity in the islands, and the Maltese relationship with their British overlords became almost positive as the British military provided resources and jobs. However, when downturns came, the Maltese resentment at being British “servants” resurfaced. With each new constitution, the British felt that they were making serious concessions to the Maltese. But when a new constitution was received with less than total gratitude, it was usually replaced with something even more irritating to the local population.

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WORLD WAR I AND THE AFTERMATH World War I ushered in a period of great prosperity for the islands. Because it often served as many as 20,000 sick or wounded Allied military personnel at any given time, Malta became known as the “nurse of the Mediterranean.” However, a sharp economic downturn after the war led to unrest. On 7 June 1919, a demonstration in Valletta to protest the price of bread turned ugly. In three separate incidents, inexperienced, poorly trained British soldiers fired on crowds, killing two Maltese and one Gozitan. The next day, a fourth civilian was bayoneted and killed. These events have become known as the Sette Giugno (Seventh of June) riots, and the four dead are revered as political martyrs. It is said that Maltese nationalism was born during the events of those two days, and 7 June is still celebrated as a national holiday. The tragedy gained the attention of the British, and one result was the new Constitution of 1921, the first ever to refer to Malta as a nation. It created a dual system of government: a democratically elected legislature to deal with all matters of local concern and an administrative head appointed by the British to deal with colonial matters (essentially, foreign affairs and defense). The top official of the legislature was the prime minister and of the administration, the colonial governor. For a variety of reasons, the Constitution was suspended in 1930, restored in 1932, and suspended again in 1933. Selfgovernment in Malta did not return until 1947.

WORLD WAR II The third major event in Malta’s modern history was World War II. Surprisingly, the British War Cabinet considered using Malta and Gibraltar as bribes to keep Italy out of the war. As late as 28 May 1940, the matter was put to a vote of the five members of the British War Cabinet, but it was defeated, 3–2. Then, on 10 June 1940, Italy declared war and began bombing the islands, primarily Malta. The Italian attacks on Malta pretty much settled the language question that had been debated for so many years. When the bombs began to fall, streets in Valletta were renamed from their Italian names to English and Maltese names. The German Air Force joined the Italians in November 1941, and the bombing intensified. As a result, Malta gained the dubious distinction of being by far the most heavily bombed place of the entire war. The great majority of bombs were dropped in the area surrounding the Grand Harbour, concentrating their destructive effect to an even greater extent.

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An invasion by the Italians early in the war would most certainly have been successful, as there were minimal defense works in place. Also, a later invasion planned jointly by the Germans and Italians would likely have succeeded had it been carried out. Even the fierce bombings could have been much more effective if the bombers had concentrated on the electric power plant at the Marsa end of Grand Harbour. A loss of power would have drastically reduced Malta’s ability to fight. Any one of these actions would have eliminated this festering sore for the Axis powers. That the attackers did not execute them became an important factor in the eventual Allied victory in the war. Planes and submarines going out of Malta were severe disruptors of the flow of supplies to the Axis forces in North Africa. German general Erwin Rommel was to write later that Malta’s conscience had to carry the burden of the deaths of thousands of German and Italian soldiers. On the other hand, Axis planes and surface vessels were able to almost completely stop the flow of supplies to the islands. Always dependent on imports, the population’s minimum needs were estimated at 26,000 tons (23,587 metric tons) of cargo per month. Only 26,000 tons arrived in total during the first six months of 1942. Both civilians and military forces were on extremely short rations, and as was the case in the siege of 1565, surrender was deemed to be only days away. Finally, however, the remains of a huge convoy named Operation Pedestal (the Maltese call it “il konvoy Santa Marija”) limped into Grand Harbour: four severely damaged cargo ships and a sinking tanker, the SS Ohio, tied to the others and barely kept afloat. There is no doubt that this convoy saved Malta from certain surrender. That it arrived at all was achieved at a tremendous cost in human lives, ships, and matériel. In April 1942, in recognition of their bravery and sacrifice, King George VI awarded his nation’s highest civilian honor, the George Cross, to the people of Malta. A depiction of the medal appears in the upper left corner of the nation’s flag. May and June 1943 were months of beehive activity in Malta as preparations for the invasion of Sicily were made. New airfields were built on Gozo to become the home base for a USAAF fighter group. Everywhere supplies and equipment were being stockpiled, and amphibious vessels were made ready. The nerve center was the underground headquarters of the Supreme Commander of the Allied Forces, US general Dwight Eisenhower, at the Lascaris war rooms in the bastions of Valletta. D-Day was 10 July 1943, and the invasion fleet of 3,000 ships and major landing craft departed carrying 115,000 British Commonwealth and 66,000 American soldiers. After the invasion, the fervor of war preparations declined, and Malta began rebuilding. A deserved tribute to the importance of the Battle of Malta was contained in an editorial in the New York Times: “If we want to find the spot

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where the tide began to turn, Malta is as good as any.” Considering that the first bombs dropped on Malta came from Italian aircraft, it was only fitting that the surrender of the entire Italian navy should take place there. It did just that in early September 1943.

INDEPENDENCE AND NATIONHOOD Although Malta’s wartime experience diminished the anti-British attitudes that had existed earlier, it did nothing to dampen the desire for true selfgovernment and eventual independence. A two-party system evolved: the Malta Labour Party (MLP) and the Nationalist Party (NP). Both wanted to reduce the power of the Church in political activities, although the NP was more subtle in its approach. The war had been a great equalizer. It had a democratizing effect on the Maltese population, which had suffered shoulder to shoulder, rich alongside poor, working class beside professionals. In 1947, women gained the right to vote in national elections, and the MLP, traditionally seen as more proBritish than the NP, gained in popularity. Opinions about the manner in which Malta should free itself from rule by and dependence on Great Britain were divided. The NP supporters wanted Malta to become a dominion like Canada, while the more aggressive MLP wanted integration into the United Kingdom, including representation in the British Parliament. A rising political star, Dominic (Dom) Mintoff, came on the scene as a forceful speaker and combative debater, very successful at rallying followers. Educated in England as a Rhodes scholar, he was initially strongly proBritish. He pushed hard for Malta to become integrated into the empire, going so far as to suggest that the new state be called “The United Kingdom of Great Britain, Northern Ireland and Malta.” The British government was not interested, and Mintoff soon changed his strategy to work for complete independence. He took over the MLP leadership and was elected prime minister in 1955 but resigned three years later, protesting the firing of several dockworkers. The ensuing riots caused the British government to revoke the Constitution. In the election of 1962, after Malta had been granted a new constitution, the powerful archbishop of Malta, Michael Gonzi, issued an interdict stating that anyone who voted for Mintoff would be committing a mortal sin. Many accused the British government of enlisting the Catholic Church to interfere with the elections in order to help the NP win. Whether this is true or not, the NP won and elected Giorgio Borg Olivier as prime minister. Mintoff still garnered enough votes to be reelected and served as leader of the minority.

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Certainly independence for former colonies was in the air during the 1960s, but even today there is disagreement about when the country actually gained its independence. Most agree that this took place on 21 September 1964, when Malta was granted independence from Great Britain, becoming a constitutional monarchy, a sovereign nation in the British Commonwealth. Yet the British retained the right to maintain a military presence for another 10 years. Because the Nationalist Party was in power from 1962 to 1971, which included the time of official independence in 1964, the MLP supporters took the view that independence really came when the British troops finally pulled out in 1979, a withdrawal that was negotiated by Mintoff during his regime. An independent Malta quickly took its place as a nation among nations. A few months after independence, it became the 114th member of the United Nations and joined the Council of Europe.

ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT The new nation was faced with the necessity of freeing its economy in a very short time frame from dependence upon funds from its military occupiers. First of all, the naval dockyards would have to be converted from military to commercial use. Infrastructure for tourism was lacking; hotels, restaurants, nightclubs, and swimming pools would have to be constructed where few existed. Tourism would also require complete retraining in skills and attitudes for those who would be employed in the industry. Britain, throughout its rule over Malta, was one of the world’s great industrial powers. One wonders why Malta could not have been made a greater beneficiary of that expertise. Instead, when independence arrived and the British departed, Malta was left with a minuscule managerial class. That was the greatest void in its attempts to become economically viable. Furthermore, Malta would need small factories for the development of light industry; potential entrepreneurs would need access to, among other things, a modern banking system, a stable monetary system, an efficient communication network, and reliable power sources. Malta needed to develop desalination plants as water needs increased with economic growth. These were immense challenges that required unusually strong and effective leadership. Reelected as prime minister in 1971, Mintoff led an aggressive restructuring of the economy. The government nationalized many businesses to provide jobs and minimize competition. The dockyards, Malta Shipping, and Air Malta were all state owned. Mintoff promoted self-sufficiency, banning many imports in order to support local products.

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He also made significant changes in Maltese foreign policy. One of the matters of continual disagreement was the amount of the annual rent Malta received from the British for their military bases. In 1972, an agreement was signed to permit the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) to maintain its Mediterranean base in Malta. In 1974, the new nation became a republic, shedding its allegiance to the British monarchy but retaining membership in the British Commonwealth. In 1979, under a declaration of full neutrality, all military agreements were terminated, and the remaining British forces stationed in Malta departed. Mintoff made the democratic Western powers uneasy: he forced NATO out of Malta; barred US ships from entering Malta’s harbor for repairs or refueling; and forged new relations with Libya and communist countries, such as Cuba, China, and Russia. The decade of the mid-1970s to mid-1980s became a time of considerable political unrest in Malta. Parliament was dissolved in 1981. Party headquarters were destroyed as party rivalries between the MLP and the NP boiled over into mob violence, bombings, and several unsolved murders. Although not directly implicated in the violence, alleged false arrests and police brutality were attributed to some of Mintoff’s followers, and his fiery rhetoric did little to calm political tensions. In the general election of 1981, 95 percent of the electorate turned out to vote. Although the Nationalists gained the majority of votes, Malta’s system of proportional representation enabled the Labourites to gain 34 seats in Parliament to the NP’s 31, returning Mintoff as prime minister. The passage of an act in 1983 that allowed the government to seize Church property in its attempts to dismantle Church schools further inflamed passions among the opposition. Mintoff and the MLP lost the election in 1987 to Edward “Eddie” Fenech Adami and the Nationalists. Fenech Adami was elected prime minister and began a long process of changing course, reversing much of what Mintoff had done. Socialism was in retreat, and the communist states were failing. Malta moved to the world’s center stage when it hosted the US–USSR summit. Under Adami’s leadership, Malta formally applied to become a member of the European Union (EU).

MEMBERSHIP IN THE EUROPEAN UNION The single most significant event in Malta after World War II and gaining independence was becoming a member of the European Union on 1 May 2004, a process that took almost 35 years and involved numerous hurdles and setbacks. Recognizing its economic and political vulnerability as a small

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INTRODUCTION

island nation and fearful of being shut out of Europe in a rapidly globalizing world, Malta, under the leadership of Prime Minister Borg Oliver, had entered into an association agreement with the European Community in 1970. After the Nationalists replaced the MLP in the elections of 1987, the government, under Prime Minister Fenech Adami, embarked on the ambitious goal of joining the EU by applying for full membership in July 1990, against staunch opposition from the MLP. Membership required, among many other changes in the political and economic structure of the nation, that Malta adopt a value-added tax (VAT) system of taxation. The VAT proved to be very unpopular and resulted in a brief return to power of the MLP in 1996, with the election of Alfred Sant as prime minister. One of his first actions was to suspend the application for EU membership, stalling the process until the NP was returned less than two years later. Formal negotiations for Malta’s membership began in 2000. As promised by the NP during the electoral campaign, a referendum was held in March 2003. Ninety-one percent of the eligible voters cast ballots, 53.6 percent of them favoring EU membership. In a somewhat peculiar twist, the opposition leader, Sant, tried to argue that because the referendum lacked the approval of the majority of eligible voters, it had failed. A month later, the NP’s pro-EU stance was further validated when Fenech Adami, riding a wave of EU optimism, was reelected and signed the accession treaty in Athens, Greece, four days later, paving the way for Malta’s becoming a member of the EU on 1 May 2004. It is difficult to exaggerate the immensity of the challenges Malta had to overcome in order to conform its economic, political, legal, and social structures to the requirements of EU membership. Deficit spending, high inflation, and debt had to be brought under control. The economy had to be shifted away from one that was inefficient and state run, with an emphasis on job security, to one that was privatized, more competitive, and market driven. The government had to adopt and adapt 80,000 pages of EU legislation (the acquis) to Maltese law. Ingrained habits and customs, such as a casual attitude toward the environment, waste of resources, littering, pollution, and bird hunting (not to mention ignoring laws and regulations!), had to be changed. Malta had to eliminate high duties that protected local industry and bring inflation and deficits under control. The government needed to put into place standards regarding the rights of women, children, and handicapped persons and force inefficient industries to rationalize or shut down. The case of the dockyards, a labor union stronghold where an expectation of lifetime employment reigned, was a particularly sensitive issue. Membership in the EU greatly bolstered the politicians’ ability to muster support for these difficult changes.

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The financial benefits of Malta’s membership were considerable: access to EU funding in the amount of €900 million in the 2007–2013 budget, supporting infrastructure improvements; access for Maltese to the much larger EU markets, jobs, and education; and access to technological assistance and the electrical grid of Europe are just a few. Once EU membership was assured, Fenech Adami stepped down, and Lawrence Gonzi was elected prime minister to replace him. Gonzi continued the NP policies, making the most of EU membership to gain funding and legal support for structural reforms. Malta has succeeded in revising its laws to attract more banks and become a leading center for financial services. The “SmartCity” development and Internet gambling investments created new industries and more jobs. A push to bring low-cost airline service to Malta helped to grow the vital tourism sector of the economy. The Gonzi government was in office for almost a decade, during which it managed to attract €2.4 billion in EU assistance to institute the majority of the infrastructural and organizational reforms required for EU membership. On 1 January 2008, within less than four years of joining, Malta was able to introduce the euro currency, a process exceptionally well handled, without the expected price hikes that many other EU countries faced. Gonzi negotiated Malta’s entry into the Schengen Agreement, and with funding from the EU, Maltese infrastructure (especially the roads), education, and health-care services were greatly improved. As the standard of living improved, Maltese attitudes, especially about social norms, were also changing, becoming much more liberal. The opposition Labour Party recognized this and had already in 2011 managed to successfully argue for a national referendum on the issue of legalizing divorce in Malta. The referendum result favoring allowing divorce was a major political embarrassment for the more conservative prime minister and leader of the Nationalist Party, particularly after he had doggedly voted against the divorce bill in Parliament, notwithstanding the referendum result. The citizenry was ready for change and caught the Nationalists off guard. “The most crucial point in all of this [ultimate change in government] was the divorce referendum,” stated the young Labour Party leader Joseph Muscat. “From that point on it seemed like the country wanted to move with the times.” There were also other factors at work that led to a decline in popularity of the ruling NP: several bribery scandals involving government officials, an increasing flood of illegal immigration from northern Africa, and a disastrous privatization of the bus service, not to mention a dramatic increase in electricity rates and pension reform, all causing increased dissatisfaction with the NP government led by Gonzi. He managed to be reelected in 2008 by a very slim margin, but in 2012, when Franco De Bono, a Nationalist MP, withdrew

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his support for Gonzi’s 2013 budget bill because it included transferring the national bus service to a German company, the Gonzi government fell, and Parliament was dissolved. The Labour Party’s candidate, Joseph Muscat, won the election of March 2013 in a landslide, gaining 36,000 surplus votes to become the 13th prime minister of Malta. The Labour government continued many of the Nationalist policies, using EU funding for infrastructural projects such as repairing fortifications and historic buildings across the island, improving roads, and initiating educational projects such as the master IT graduate program and employment and training programs for the youth. The Labour Party also initiated further social changes, including the legalization of gay marriage and the adoption of children by gay couples. Since taking office in 2013, Joseph Muscat has given his island steady economic growth (5 percent in 2016), record low unemployment (at 3.5 percent the second lowest in the EU), and its first budget surplus in 32 years. Critics fault the government for courting votes by hiring many more workers, especially Labour Party supporters, to reduce unemployment, thereby creating “a sprawling bureaucracy.” The opposition accuses Muscat of encouraging a “mentality of clientelism,” the notion that connections to the prime minister or the Labour Party are a requirement for getting government contracts or important posts. Shortly after coming into office, in an effort to boost Malta’s finances, the Labour government introduced the Individual Investor Programme (IIP), which allows foreign nationals to purchase Maltese passports, providing visa-free access to 168 countries, including, most notably, those in the European Union. Additional controversy resulted from efforts to raise funds through privatization of government-owned assets, such as the sale of a 33 percent interest in Enemalta to Shanghai Electric. Three hospitals, including the only one on Gozo, were privatized via a 30-year lease to a completely unknown health-care company registered in the British Virgin Islands whose ultimate owner was unknown. When the company, Vitals Global Health, failed to fulfill its obligations under the lease, it sold the contract to an American company, Steward Healthcare, resulting in a brief strike by Malta’s doctors. Corruption scandals have also plagued the Labour government and could yet cause its downfall. When the “Panama Papers” were leaked to the press in April 2016, they revealed that Konrad Mizzi, minister of health, and Keith Schembri, the prime minister’s chief of staff, had secret offshore accounts. These claims, made public by the popular journalist/blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, have been fervently denied. None directly involves Muscat, but he has refused to have Mizzi and Schembri resign, causing angry protests by many Maltese. Mizzi was responsible for a major multiyear oil purchase

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agreement with the Azerbaijani oil company and is suspected of planning to receive kickbacks from the deal for which he had opened the secret accounts. Schembri is suspected of receiving bribes in the sale of Maltese passports. Caruana Galizia also accused the prime minister’s wife, Michelle Muscat, of owning a third secret account, which received US$1 million from a firm belonging to Leyla Aliyeva, the daughter of the president of Azerbaijan. Muscat’s spokesman has called this “an outright lie.” The Aliyev family is rumored to have funneled funds through a bank in Malta for money-laundering transactions. Azerbaijan’s links to European institutions are already under scrutiny in Milan, where a prosecutor is investigating allegations that it paid a €2 million (US$2.2 million) bribe to an Italian member of the parliamentary assembly of the Council of Europe, the human rights organization headquartered in Strasbourg. Reacting to pressure over these serious accusations, Muscat called a snap election on 3 June 2017, which he and his Labour Party again won by a decisive margin. Simon Busuttil, who had become the leader of the Nationalists after Gonzi’s resignation, stepped down, but remained as a member of Parliament. He was replaced by Adrian Delia. Caruana Galizia also alleged that Chris Cordona, minister of the economy, visited a brothel while on official business in Germany. Cordona denies the allegation. He filed a suit against Caruana Galizia and had her assets frozen but refuses to turn over his cell phone log, which could verify his location. On 16 October 2017, Caruana Galizia was brutally murdered by a car bomb, drawing massive public protests into the streets of Valletta and worldwide condemnation. The European Parliament sent several of its members to investigate and found “evidence of systematic and serious deficiencies in the rule of law in Malta,” noting a “perception of impunity” and blaming the “lack of independence of the Maltese police” for the slow progress in the investigation. With the expert assistance of Europol (the joint EU police agency), the Dutch police, and the American Federal Bureau of Investigation, the three Maltese men accused of carrying out the murder were caught, but they are considered “low-level known criminals” with no discernible motive. Meanwhile, the Pilatus Bank, which was already in the spotlight because of its connection to the Aliyev family, was closed when its owner was arrested in Washington on unrelated charges. A group of 45 journalists representing 18 news organizations from 15 countries, under the lead of a French organization called Forbidden Stories, have organized “The Daphne Project” to continue Caruana Galizia’s work, publicizing information she had yet to expose.

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Whether Prime Minister Muscat and his government manage to survive the various scandals swirling around them remains to be seen. Muscat has stated that he will not seek another term as prime minister. There is no doubt that within the European Union and beyond, the reputation of Malta’s governance is in need of repair. Many other serious challenges face Malta in the coming years as well: how to deal with a burgeoning population; the shortage of affordable housing and land to build it on; coping with a flood of immigrants who continue to come from North Africa; how to maintain economic competitiveness in the face of the growing competition posed by cheaper labor from China, India, and elsewhere; and how to combat the threat of climate change, which could have especially harsh consequences for small island nations like Malta. Fortunately, in reviewing what the Maltese have endured over the millennia, there is reason to believe that they will survive and thrive in the face of these challenges as well.

A ABELA, DR. GEORGE (1948–). The son of a port worker, George Abela was born in Qormi on 22 April 1948. He was educated at the Lyceum and studied at the University of Malta, where he earned a bachelor’s degree in English and a law degree; he worked in private practice for over 30 years, specializing in civil, commercial, and industrial law. In 1995, he earned a master’s degree in law. For 25 years, Abela acted as legal consultant to the General Workers Union and helped various trade unions in their negotiations with the Maltese government, especially the restructuring of Air Malta and the port reform negotiations of June 2007, in which Abela represented workers’ interests. Abela has also been a lifelong supporter of sports in Malta, especially football (soccer). He served as the president of his local club, Qormi FC, and as president of the Malta Football Association from 1982 to 1992. Under his leadership, the national football team of Malta was raised to a professional level with full-time paid professional players, and the national stadium was significantly upgraded. He served as Malta’s representative to the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) and sat on the Court of Arbitration for Sports headquartered in Lausanne, Switzerland. In 1992, Abela was elected deputy leader of the Malta Labour Party (MLP) in charge of party affairs and appointed legal consultant to the prime minister when the MLP won the general election of 1996. He has also served as director of the Central Bank of Malta for a number of years, was executive director of the Bank of Valletta, and was a member of the Electoral Commission in 1987. Representing the MLP, he was an active member of the Malta–EU Steering and Action Committee (MEUSAC), both before and after Malta’s joining the European Union (EU). In 1996, he was appointed as a legal consultant to the prime minister, Alfred Sant, but resigned in 1997 following a disagreement with Sant. He quit the MLP in 1998 due to a disagreement with the party executive’s decision to call an early election, which he considered unwise during a parliamentary crisis. In 2000, he severed all ties with the General Workers’ Union’s administration and served

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as legal consultant to various government entities, including the Malta Environment and Planning Authority (MEPA) and the Malta European Union Steering Action Committee (MEUSAC). When Alfred Sant resigned the party leadership in 2008, Abela contested the position but lost in a runoff against Joseph Muscat. Abela was elected president of the Republic of Malta on 4 April 2009, the eighth president to serve independent Malta and the first elected by unanimous approval of both political parties in Parliament. It was also the first time that a ruling party nominated a candidate for president coming from the party in opposition. Abela’s term as president ended in 2014. He married Margaret Cauchi, and they have two children, Robert and Maria. See also PRIVATIZATION. ACQUIS COMMUNAUTAIRE. A French expression without a good English equivalent (approximately: “community patrimony”), it is usually shortened to “the acquis” and refers to the entire body of European Union (EU) laws, treaties, regulations, or directives agreed on by the EU institutions, including judgments handed down by the European Court of Justice. Any country wishing to join the EU must adopt, implement, and enforce all of the acquis. This often requires changes in existing national law and/or administrative and judicial structures and practices. Based on negotiations before joining, some candidate countries are granted derogations, meaning that they are temporarily or permanently excused from adopting a particular part of the acquis. At the time Malta was preparing to join the EU, it had to translate into Maltese language and law over 80,000 pages comprising the acquis, a monumental task. Malta was given derogations, allowing it more time to make some of the more difficult adjustments, such as reducing state aid for shipbuilding and repair activities of the dockyards, regulating bird hunting, and applying the Common Customs Tariff to imports of certain textile products over a transitional period, which expired on 31 December 2008. AGRICULTURE. Given Malta’s size, location, poor soil conditions, and scarcity of water, supplying food to the inhabitants has always been a struggle for the Maltese. The hilly and uneven terrain necessitates the construction of many terraces, resulting in small, inefficient plots of land. The latest EU census concerning agriculture was conducted in 2010. It found that there were 12,530 agricultural holdings in Malta, an increase of 14 percent from 2003 data, with an average size of 0.9 hectars (2.2 acres) worked by approximately 1,200 full-time and 17,000 part-time farmers. Only 25 percent of farmers own the land on which they farm. The increase in holdings is attributable to two factors: increased scrutiny of the registered farmland and land

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being further divided as it is inherited by the next generation. Not only are the small plots of land labor intensive, the farmers often overapply fertilizer to them, putting pressure on the ecosystem. Based on evidence found in the Ghar Dalam (Cave of Darkness), the earliest inhabitants of Malta grew barley, wheat, and lentils. The Carthaginians, Arabs, and Normans are credited with introducing and refining farming and irrigation techniques important to the dry conditions of Malta. Under the Roman occupation, a significant olive oil production was developed, and the Normans introduced citrus fruits and cotton. The latter became a major crop, prized for its quality in producing sails and a valuable good traded for food and other necessities. By the beginning of the 15th century, Maltese cotton had replaced Turkish suppliers to the cloth makers of Genoa, Barcelona, and Montpelier. That the cotton crop became an important source of revenue is evidenced by the 2 percent tax levied on cotton exports by the Universita in 1472. When sails were replaced by steam engines, the cotton crop disappeared from Malta. Handmade lace, itself a dying art, currently lingers as the only trace of the once important cotton trade. When the British arrived in Malta, they introduced the potato as a more efficient crop than wheat for alleviating the widespread malnutrition on the island. Maltese potatoes have become the most significant agricultural export. Today, Malta is even more dependent on trade, as over 95 percent of its net cereal consumption is imported. Agricultural production represents less than 2 percent of GDP. The number of full-time farmers has declined by over 65 percent in the last 20 years, and nearly 12 percent of agricultural land has been lost to other uses. However, farming is still an important aspect of the islands’ economic and cultural activity. It consists of three types: intensive farming of fruits and vegetables, requiring irrigation; dry farming; and livestock production, consisting of 47,465 pigs, 15,690 dairy and beef cows, rabbits (a traditional meat dish of Malta), poultry, sheep, and goats. Except for vegetables and egg production, in which Malta is self-sufficient, poultry and meat production is supplemented by imports. In addition to potatoes, major crops include tomatoes and wine grapes. The EU survey measures total utilized agricultural area (UAA), which in Malta amounts to 11,450 hectares (28,300 acres), representing 36.2 percent of the total landmass of the country. Of the total UAA, 79 percent is arable land, almost half of which is used for fodder crops. Fresh vegetables, melons, and strawberries are grown on 15.1 percent of UAA and potatoes on 6.1 percent. Permanent crops, which include vineyards (5.3 percent) and olive trees (1.2 percent), represent 10.9 percent of total UAA. When the British troops departed, the government was again concerned about food security and implemented farm subsidy schemes to support agricultural production. Since joining the EU, the local agriculture sector has

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been receiving support from the Common Agriculture Policy (CAP), especially for rural development. During the 2007–2013 period, this funding amounted to €105 million. A growing interest in ecotourism has created a new focus on traditional crops and foods. Although olive oil continued as an important ingredient of Maltese cuisine, its local production had almost completely disappeared until a recent effort to reintroduce olive trees. To date, organic farming represents less than 1 percent of agricultural production in Malta. Agriculture in Malta continues to be under increasing pressure. EU special transition funding for farmers ended in 2014; the average age of Malta’s farmer today is 55; and the costs of fertilizer and other inputs continue to rise. The lack of price controls and declining profits due to competition from imports pose serious threats to the future of agriculture in Malta. See also ECONOMY. ALTERNATTIVA DEMOKRATIKA (AD). One of the more recently organized of Malta’s political parties, the AD came into existence in 1988–1989 after two members of the Malta Labour Party (MLP), Wenzu Mintoff and party president Toni Abela, challenged the party to change some goals and practices. When their moves were not accepted, the two left the MLP to organize their own party. This new “democratic alternative” attracted those who had become disenchanted with the traditionally harsh, adversarial politics of Malta. It has emphasized concerns about the environment, corruption, the debasement of culture, and similar matters. Although it has been unable to secure a single seat in Parliament in any of the national elections to date, it did gather enough votes to cause some concern for the two major parties and has managed to elect about a dozen local councilpersons. Probably frustrated at the party’s lack of success, Mintoff and Abela both quit the AD and returned to the MLP. Increasingly, the AD has focused on environmental issues and is commonly known as the “green party.” It consistently supported Malta’s bid to join the European Union (EU), hoping, like many Maltese, that membership would force Malta to raise its environmental standards. In 2004, one of AD’s founding members, Arnold Cassola, was a candidate for the EU Parliament. He garnered a surprising 9.33 percent of first preference votes, just short of gaining a seat. Cassola later ran as a candidate in Italy’s Parliament and was elected. From 1998 to 2008, the AD was led by Dr. Harry Vassallo, an articulate and outspoken critic, whose editorials frequently appeared in the local papers. During the 2008 national election campaign, Vassallo stated that the AD was seeking to enter into a coalition with whichever of the two main parties was interested in doing so, provided it was willing to uphold the AD’s priorities for the electoral campaign. These were:

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1. Respect for all EU environmental directives, including the abolition of spring hunting. 2. Malta Environment and Planning Authority (MEPA) reform, including the elimination of the extended development zones. 3. Rent reform, including the reduction of income from rent from 35 to 15 percent. 4. Public transport liberalization. 5. Extension of maternity leave from 13 to 26 weeks, paid by the government. 6. Reduction of income tax from 35 to 30 percent, while tax on the income of banks would be increased from 35 to 40 percent. 7. An electricity surcharge, to be based on consumption. 8. Introduction of divorce and a law to regulate cohabiting couples. 9. A more transparent governance, with a Freedom of Information Act, a Whistleblower Act, and a law regulating party financing. In the national election of 2008, the AD again failed to win a single seat in Parliament, receiving only 3,810 votes or 1.3 percent of the 291,000 votes cast, putting it in third place among the nine parties on the ballot but far behind the Nationalist Party and the MLP. As a result, Vassallo stepped down as party leader, and Dr. Arnold Cassola was elected at a special meeting on 14 June 2008 to replace him; he served as party chair from 2008 to 2009 and again from 2013 to 2017. Carmel Cacopardo succeeded Cassola in September 2017 and currently serves as chair of the party. The AD ran again in the snap election of 2017 and gained only 2,500 votes out of a total 315,000 cast. ANGEVIN RULE. Although there were Swabian heirs to the Sicilian throne, Pope Clement IV achieved his objective of eliminating German influence in the region by crowning Charles of Anjou as king of Sicily in 1266. After fierce battles with the other claimants, Charles emerged victorious and gained complete control of Sicily and Malta. The Angevins imposed a rule that was both firm and tight and stationed a garrison of French soldiers on Malta. The Maltese were given a measure of local government plus the appointment of a notary public resident in the islands (prior to that time, it was necessary to travel to Sicily for such services). Offsetting these benefits was the burden of extremely high taxes. French rule was not very popular in Malta and even less so in Sicily. In 1282, there was an uprising known as the “Sicilian Vespers.” Malta, still held by the Angevins, became the regrouping site for a large Angevin fleet to launch a counterassault on Sicily. In 1283, an Aragonese fleet appeared, and Grand Harbour was witness to the first major battle to be fought in its vicinity. The Angevin fleet was defeated, much to the joy of the Maltese, and the

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rule of the Aragonese had begun. Although Angevin rule over Malta was of relatively short duration, it was during this period that Malta began to be absorbed into the Latin and European systems of law and government. ARAB RULE. In less than 100 years after the death of Muhammad in 632, the Arabic Muslim Empire had spread east of Syria and west into North Africa. By 832, the Aghlabid Arabs of North Africa invaded Sicily and captured Palermo. These excellent desert horsemen had become seasoned sailors and had built a fleet, which controlled the central Mediterranean. Some think that the Aghlabids began raiding the Maltese islands as early as 836. In 869, they attempted a siege but were driven off by the local population. Then, in 870, a stronger fleet was sent and, despite strong resistance, Malta fell to Arab rule. Arab rule was to last for 220 years and exert great influence on the local population, culturally as well as economically. Not only does the Maltese language retain evidence of Arabic influence, but evidence can also be seen in some artifacts in the National Museum, most of the place-names in Malta, and many Arabic agricultural techniques. It is also likely that the Maltese gained from the maritime influence of their rulers. Unfortunately, little exists in the form of written evidence to inform us about this time. Although the Arabs did not attempt to impose their religion upon their subjects, they did impose the payment of a tribute on those who wished to retain their own faith. There is evidence that Christianity became a minority among Malta’s religions, but this was probably caused as much by the immigration of Muslims as by the defection of Christians. ARAGONESE RULE. After the defeat of the Angevin fleet in 1283, the Maltese gave the victorious Aragonese a joyous welcome in their happiness over the delivery from French oppression and their anticipation of improved economic circumstances. It wasn’t always to be so. Too often the tiny islands were to become political pawns of the powerful. Between 1283 and 1350, the kings of Aragon granted political (including taxing) authority to a succession of Sicilians, awarding them the titles of marquis or count of Malta. In 1350, the Maltese petitioned King Lewis of Aragon to cease granting such authority and to place the island under his own domain. When he acted positively on the petition, these hardships abated for a while. Later, when King Frederick III died in 1377, he was succeeded by his daughter, Maria. Because of the unrest in Sicily, Maria, a minor, was sent to live with her uncle, King Martin of Spain. In 1391, she married the king’s son, Martin the Younger. In his gratitude to Guglielmo Raimondo Moncada for bringing the couple together, the king gave him the title and privileges of

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marquis of Malta. In 1393, Moncada renounced the title, and it was awarded to Don Artale D’Alagona, ushering in a period of severe hardship for the Maltese. The period 1393–1397 has become known by historians as the “time of the tyrants” because of the harsh and competitive rule of four Sicilians who claimed authority over the populace. Late in 1397, the islands were again made part of the royal domain of Sicily through a deed, signed at Catania, which praises the Maltese for their loyalty and bravery. In 1398, King Martin I called all representatives of the cities of Sicily to a general meeting. Malta and Gozo, as part of the royal domain, were included. One of the rulings of this “parliament” was that the islands of Malta and Gozo were never again to be granted out in fee and that they were to continue to be a part of the reigning monarch’s dominion. Obviously, there was great rejoicing by the Maltese over this recognition. News of Martin’s death in 1409 was received by the Maltese with deep sadness, as there was a general feeling that he had been the one responsible for giving them the national recognition they felt they deserved. He was succeeded by Martin II, who in turn was succeeded in 1412 by Ferdinand I, the first of the Castilian line of rulers. In 1416, Alfonso V the Magnanimous (1396–1458) succeeded to the throne of Aragon. To finance wars in the Mediterranean region and the Levant, he pawned the Maltese islands to Spanish viceroys in 1420 and 1426. Finally, in 1428, Alfonso V pledged the islands, which he called “a noteworthy and conspicuous limb and gemstone of the royal crown,” to the Kingdom of Sicily in perpetuity. See also CASTILIAN RULE. ARCHAEOLOGY. Malta is full of significant archaeological sites covering an estimated seven millennia and including megalithic temples that are among the oldest man-made structures known to exist anywhere, yet an examination of major reference works on archaeology reveals surprisingly sparse references to Maltese sites. It was not until 1988 that archaeology was added as a field of study at the University of Malta as part of the Department of Classical Studies. As the Malta government began to realize their importance to tourism, it has increased support for the excavation and conservation of archaeological sites, especially since European Union funding became available. Unusual stone monuments on Malta had been attracting curious visitors for many centuries. Jean Quintin d’Autun, a cleric who spent six years on Malta, published Insulae Melitae Descriptio in France in 1536. It is the earliest known work referencing archaeological sites in Malta. Over a century later, Giovanni Francesco Abela (1582–1655) published Della Descrittione di Malta, in which are found the first detailed references to archaeological artifacts such as Punic and Roman coins, lamps, and jewelry, which he

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collected. Included is a pair of short decorative stone columns engraved with a dedication to the god Melkart in Greek and Phoenician. One of these was later given to the king of France and provided a French scholar with a key to deciphering the Phoenician alphabet. Abela describes some of the Neolithic temples in detail, observing that, because of the immensity of the stones with which they are built, they must have been built by giants. He also references some catacombs and Roman temples. A number of Maltese and foreign writers in the 17th through 19th centuries provide descriptions and or illustrations of archaeological sites on Malta. Notable among these are Count Giovanni Antonio Ciantar’s Malta Illustrata (1780), Agius De Soldanis’s study of Gozo, Gozo Antico-Moderno e SacroProfano (1745), and Jean Houel’s Voyage Pittoresque des Isles de Sicile, de Malte et de Lipari, published in the 1780s, which offered the best descriptions and detailed illustrations of Maltese and Gozitan sites, thus giving modern archaeologists an idea of the state of the temples before any excavations. The first significant and methodical excavations were begun by A. A. Caruana, Albert Mayr, and Father Magri in the late 1800s. But Dr. Themistocles Zammit, considered the “father of Maltese archaeology,” was the first to carry out excavations in a scientifically careful manner. He excavated the sites of the Tarxien temples, the Hal Saflieni Hypogeum, and many other sites in the early decades of the 20th century. Zammit directed the Valletta Museum, later renamed the National Museum of Archaeology and housed in the Auberge de Provence since 1958, where many of the original artifacts from various sites are preserved and protected. After Zammit’s death in 1935, serious archaeological research was not resumed until the 1950s, when Professor J. D. Evans was able to establish a chronology of prehistoric eras through the dating of various styles of pottery. In 1954, the well-known British archaeologist Professor David Trump came to Malta to assist Evans. Trump worked on Maltese archaeological sites, excavating the Ggantija, Skorba, and Xaghra Circle temple sites for 40 years. He served as curator of the national museum from 1958 to 1963 and published numerous articles and books on the archaeology of Malta. For the last 30 years, a team of experts from universities in Ireland, Great Britain, and Malta, led by Professor Caroline Malone from the School of Natural and Built Environment at Queen’s University in Belfast, has been working at one burial site in Malta. The team has excavated 220,000 bones, representing between 500 and 800 people, and using DNA analysis determined that the first inhabitants came from different parts of the Mediterranean and Europe, including Africa. Radiocarbon dating established that the first inhabitants arrived around 5900 BCE, about 700 years earlier than was previously thought. These early inhabitants cared for their sick, injured, and elderly and

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were “hardy and determined,” continuing with daily tasks despite being in chronic pain from advanced bone degradation. They survived on meat, cereals, and pulses, but as time went on they ate less meat and almost no fish. The research team also identified several episodes of separate colonization. A second colonization arrived at approximately 3850 BCE from Sicily and spent 1,500 years on the island. Professor Malone stated that “considering the small size of Malta, the stability and duration of this colonization is unheard of in Europe in terms of how they were able to live on ever-degrading land for such a period of time.” See also DOMUS ROMANA; GHAR DALAM. ARCHITECTURE. Few places can claim as locally concentrated and broad a span of architectural history as is found on the islands of Malta. From the neolithic temples to Punic caves, from Roman villas to baroque churches, from fortified bastions to modern high-rise buildings, Maltese architecture features significant examples of the influences of the various cultures that have ruled the archipelago. However, only a few examples of the architectural structures preceding the arrival of the Knights of St. John are still standing. The Knights brought with them the art and culture of continental Europe along with abundant riches to support a new, lavish style of building, the baroque. The scarcity of trees on the islands has dictated that most of the structures are made of local stone. The traditional globigerina limestone used as building material dominates the islands, giving it a distinctive golden patina while limiting most structures to a height of between four and five stories. Although in recent decades the limestone has given way to concrete and steel structures, globigerina is still a highly preferred decorative surface treatment. The hot climate with scarce rainfall has influenced building styles and features: flat roofs on most buildings (except churches and some public structures) serve as terraces for drying clothes in the daytime, catching evening breezes, and collecting water during infrequent rains. Loggias and porticos providing shade and air circulation are commonly found architectural features in Malta. Many buildings, especially homes, are long and narrow because the lack of timber meant that stone slabs were used for ceilings as well. The maximum span achievable was about two meters, which necessitated supporting arches, an important design component of Maltese architecture. Typically Maltese are also the stone or wooden gallerias, enclosed porches, that adorn the upper floors of most multistory buildings, allowing their occupants to witness what is happening in the street below without being too publicly exposed. In a country that served as “an island fortress” for much of its history, military architecture was naturally of great importance, and most of the early architects brought to Malta by the Knights were military engineers. Frances-

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co Buonamici from Italy and Mederico Blondel of France were brought in to serve as the order’s resident engineers but also built churches and palaces, transforming Valletta and Mdina into baroque cities. In the early 18th century, fearing another invasion by the Turks, the Knights appealed to the king of France for assistance. He sent a design team to aid in bolstering Malta’s defenses. It was led by one of the most experienced military engineers of France, Brigadier René Jacob de Tigné. His assistant, Charles François de Mondion, took over as chief engineer after Tigné’s departure and supervised construction for 18 years, a period in which many of the fortifications were completed. Both were under the influence of the most famous French military strategist and designer of fortifications, Sébastien le Prestre de Vauban. Among the most extensive and admired fortifications in the world (almost 25 kilometers in length), they included barracks, hospitals, and warehouses constructed by the order of the Knights and further developed by the British. Many ornamental gates and other decorations were added in later years to make the massive bastions more appealing to the eye. The first native Maltese architect was Gerolamo Cassar. Born circa 1520, he fought against the Turks during the Great Siege. After the defeat of the Turks, Cassar worked under Francesco Laparelli, who was brought to Malta to design the new city, Valletta. When Laparelli left, Cassar took over, becoming the architect responsible for many of the new auberges relocated in Valletta. The Italian Renaissance found its expression in the layout of Valletta, with straight streets and large public spaces The British influence is also quite evident in the many monumental and austere colonial public buildings, schools, military barracks, and hospitals, mostly built in the neoclassical style. The Bighi Naval Hospital, completed in 1832, is generally acknowledged as the best example of this style. The most prominent Maltese architect of the second half of the 19th century, Emanuel Luigi Galizia (1830–1907), was influenced by 19th-century Romanticism. Galizia garnered his greatest recognition for two of the more unusual structures still standing in Malta. One is the Catholic Addolorata Cemetery, in neo-Gothic style; the other is the Muslim Cemetery, originally built by the order, which had to be relocated to make way for a new road. Galizia’s Ottoman Turkish Muslim Cemetery in Paola is designed in a “flamboyant and exotic oriental style that had absolutely no architectural precedence on the island” (Thake and Hughes 2005, 80). Other than the lone high-rise, Portomaso Tower, so far no structures dominate the horizon more than the churches of Malta. They represent a physical manifestation of religious piety that required a tremendous amount of resources. Although the baroque style is dominant in many of Malta’s public structures, especially churches, there are also examples of classical, neoGothic, and modern styles, including some mixtures, such as the 1844 St.

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Paul’s Anglican Pro-Cathedral, a landmark of Valletta, which features a neoclassical facade and a Gothic spire, the first use of the Gothic style in Malta. Another neoclassic landmark is the Mosta Dome, featuring one of the largest open spans in the world. Although constructed in the architectural styles of earlier centuries, a surprising number of the churches are of recent vintage. Many are credited to Guze Damato, whose best-known work is the church at Xewkija in Gozo, begun in 1952. Post–World War II architecture has been dominated by functionality and clean lines of the “international modern style.” A few contemporary Maltese architects, such as Richard England, have been very successful at adapting modern building requirements and techniques to the Maltese environment, using massive walls and bold circular forms to break the more monotonous honeycomb mold of so many apartment blocks. Two of his works, the St. Joseph Parish Church at Manikata and the renovation project for the St. James Cavalier, are excellent examples. In October 2010, demolition of the arcades in Freedom Square was begun to make way for a major project to build a new Parliament building, repurpose the site of the bombed out Royal Opera House, and modernize the Valetta city gate. In spite of extensive public criticism of the proposed project because it imposed a modern structure on a historic site, the Gonzi government supported the project. The greatest controversy resulted from the fact that the government went ahead with the project in a world heritage site without ever consulting UNESCO! The design, developed by the well-known Italian architect Renzo Piano, features two massive cut stone cubes suspended on columns and connected by several bridges. The Valletta gate and bridge entering the city were redesigned to return the gate width to its original dimensions and provide a dramatic, angular opening in the fortifications lined by steel blades, giving it a cutting-edge look. The project included an open-air performance area on the old opera house site, modernizing the ditch below the city, removing the parking, and revitalizing the space as a green area. Work was completed in May 2015. Unfortunately, uncontrolled and indiscriminate building continues to scar and consume much of what little open countryside remains in Malta. This began to be brought under some control in 1992 with the passage of the Development Planning Act and the establishment of the Malta Environment and Planning Authority (MEPA) in 1993. However, conflicts among developers, the government authorities, and conservationists continue to intensify as land for building is increasingly scarce. Most recently, several applications to build high-rise structures have raised public outcry. In April 2018, 22 nongovernmental organizations, including the Chamber of Architects (Kamra tal-Periti), protested the demolition of historic buildings in urban conservation areas that are supposed to be protected according to Malta’s

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constitution. The NGOs called for a binding list of protected properties and a public fund to allow the state to acquire key properties in exceptional circumstances. See also MANOEL THEATRE; ROYAL OPERA HOUSE; SACRED INFIRMARY; ST. JOHN’S CO-CATHEDRAL. ARMED FORCES OF MALTA. After the departure of the Knights of St. John, Maltese soldiers were first organized in April 1800 as the Maltese Light Infantry, a battalion under the command of the British Royal Marines that helped to evict the French from Valletta and Malta. The battalion was disbanded in 1802 and replaced by the Maltese Provincial Battalions, the Malta Coast Artillery, and the Maltese Veterans. The latter were experienced soldiers under the Knights who returned to Malta after being forced to serve under Napoleon in Egypt. In 1815, the forces were disbanded and reconstituted as the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery, the forerunner to the Royal Malta Artillery (RMA), which played an important role in defending the islands during World War II. In 1970, the Malta government took charge of its own troops, organized as the Malta Land Force, which, on 19 April 1973, was restructured under the current organization as the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM). It consists of a headquarters and three regiments. The 1st Regiment (infantry) is tasked with providing territorial security at the airport and other sensitive locations as well as assisting the police with drug enforcement. The 2nd Regiment is responsible for patrolling and protecting territorial waters and air space, while the 3rd Regiment provides logistical support. An Emergency Volunteer Reserve Force (EVRF), consisting of male and female part-time soldiers, is trained by and under the command of the 1st Regiment. In November 2006, the AFM underwent a reorganization, creating air and maritime squadrons as independent units are no longer part of the 2nd Regiment. Because of limited finances, the force frequently had to depend on equipment transferred or financed by several countries. This made it difficult to standardize the equipment. For example, at one time eight different types of pistols and ammunition were in use. More recently, since the push to join the European Union, funding for the military was increased to provide better equipment. Since Malta’s entry into the EU, the AFM has become more engaged in peacekeeping missions. The AFM has participated in seven overseas operations, including the campaign in Libya and migrant rescue operations in the Mediterranean sea. ASSEMBLEA (1850–1928).

NAZIONALE.

See

SCIBERRAS,

SIR

FILIPPO

AZZJONI NAZZJONALI



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AUBERGES. The Knights of St. John often lived elsewhere in Europe, at their homes or in lands owned and operated by the order. When they were at the convent (the home base in Malta), they were separated into langues based on their region or country of origin. Each langue had its own auberge (dormitory). Originally, these were located in Birgu (renamed Vittoriosa after the Great Siege of 1565), but when the Knights moved to Valletta in 1566, eight new auberges were designed by Gerolamo Cassar. Five of these remain and are used as government offices or museums. The finest, the Auberge de Castille et Leon, is now the office of the prime minister. Several of the original auberges in Vittoriosa (Birgu) have also been restored and are still in use. AZZJONI NAZZJONALI. See POLITICAL PARTIES.

B BALL, REAR ADMIRAL SIR ALEXANDER (1756?–1809). As a British Royal Navy captain, Sir Alexander Ball was appointed to command the squadron blockading the French military detachment, which had retreated into the fortified city of Valletta in 1799. The French finally surrendered on 5 September of that year, and Ball was placed in charge of the civil administration of the islands. At first, the British were uncertain about the value of Malta, but Ball produced documents emphasizing the many benefits Great Britain could gain by retaining possession. Early in 1801, he was recalled to naval duty and, when that tour ended, received as a reward for his efforts a large cash bonus and was created a baronet. In June 1802, he returned to Malta as rear admiral and with a permanent appointment as civil commissioner. During his time in office, he instituted reforms in the courts and in public health matters. He was respected during his life and sincerely mourned upon his death in the San Anton Palace on 25 October 1809. He is buried in Fort St. Elmo. An impressive monument, erected through public subscription, stands to this day in the Lower Barracca Gardens in Valletta. BAND CLUBS. The passionate rivalries that seem to permeate Maltese society find unique expression in the phenomenon of the band club (Kazin banda). In 2014, there were 91 such clubs, involving over 4,200 musicians. Many of the band clubs are named after British imperial personages, leading to the suspicion on the part of some Maltese that band clubs were founded by the British as a means to keep the Maltese distracted and divided. Most band clubs have a place to meet, and some also serve as pubs or restaurants. While the British military bands may have provided a strong role model, in fact, the first band clubs were founded in 1860 by a Maltese, Indri Borg. They provided music for the festas (feast-day celebrations) and developed into focal points for rivalries among various local parishes seeking to outdo each other in all aspects of the festas. The volume of fireworks, the number of candles, the guest bands, and the extent of street decorations are some of the factors in determining which band club has outdone its rivals. 35

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Not unlike some soccer fans of Europe and Latin America, band club members in Malta have sometimes become so fervent in their competition with other clubs that violence has ensued. A political scientist at the University of Malta, Mario Vassallo, described band clubs as the “predecessors of political parties. . . . Malta is made up of parishes. Each parish celebrates its own annual feast, for which there are band clubs. Each band club is in favour of a different saint, breaking villages into two.” The Catholic Church and the police have had to intervene on several occasions to control some of the excesses. A 2017 study found that there were 23,000 members of band clubs, not all of them musicians, since the clubhouse also served as a place to socialize, drink coffee, play bingo, and so forth. See also MUSIC. BANKING. Malta has made major changes in its banking system since joining the European Union. The once tightly controlled and publicly owned sector has been largely privatized and liberalized, inviting foreign institutions to its shores. The Central Bank of Malta was established in 1968 and assumed the issuing and control of banknotes and coins in Malta. A Currency Surveillance Unit oversees currency in circulation and watches for any counterfeit currency or suspect transactions. On 1 January 2008, when Malta adopted the euro as its currency, the Central Bank joined the European Central Bank System and the European Central Bank (ECB). Its primary function now is to maintain price stability, controlling inflation at about 2 percent. Over 30 private and commercial banks have operations in Malta, with balance sheets totaling €30 billion and employees numbering over 10,000. The Malta Financial Services Authority (MFSA) is the sole regulator of financial services activities in Malta. It regulates and supervises credit and financial institutions; issues licenses for banking, investment, trust, and insurance business; and also houses the country’s Registry of Companies. In 2016, Malta ranked 16th out of 140 countries with the most sound banking systems. Major commercial banks operating in Malta today include the Bank of Valletta (BOV) and the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC). Both are descended from a long lineage of banks in Malta. The BOV lays claim to being the oldest, tracing its beginnings to 1809, while the HSBC, currently the largest commercial bank in Malta, has its origins in the Anglo–Egyptian bank from 1864. Smaller institutions with significant numbers of Maltese clients include the APS Bank and the Lombard Bank. Before the arrival of the British in 1800, banking in Malta was carried out on an ad hoc, private basis by totally unregulated moneylenders. An exception was a fund called Massa Frumentaria, which was managed by the Universita to ensure a sufficient supply of grain to the islands. The Order of

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Knights of St. John’s “Commun Tesoro” (the order’s “common treasury”) also served as a kind of bank, dealing with extensive export and import trading transactions, determining exchange rates, collecting and distributing funds from various sources, and paying for supplies and services. Two other institutions that functioned as quasi banks were the Monti di Pieta and Monte della Redenzione degli Schiavi. The latter was a fund used to ransom slaves captured by the Muslims, and the former served as an early form of bank, lending money to the poor against items pledged as collateral, thus helping citizens in financial distress avoid the usury rampant at the time. These two funds were merged shortly before the French evicted the Knights from Malta. On 1 April 1977, the funds were vested with the Maltese government and continue, albeit in greatly diminished capacity, to this day as Monti di Pieta. The Massa Frumentaria was finally wound up on 24 June 1994. The first institution in Malta to actually call itself a bank was the Anglo–Maltese Bank, established on 23 June 1809, nine years after the British took control of Malta. Competition was not long in coming, as the Banco di Malta opened its doors on 1 May in 1912, and in the same year a family of successful Italian immigrants from Genoa, the Tagliaferros, who operated in shipbuilding and grain trade, established the first private merchant bank in Valletta. Another prominent pioneer in banking was the Marquis Joseph Scicluna, whose bank, Joseph Scicluna et fils, was established in 1830 and by 1890 had three offices in Valletta, the first example of bank branches in Malta. Scicluna was the first banker to introduce checks to Malta, which were called “cisk” by the Maltese. Cisk became the nickname of the family and was used to name the beer still sold today, in which the Scicluna family had considerable investment. The stately home Scicluna built and occupied on a spit of land protruding into the sea at St. Julians has become the landmark site of a casino today. The Scicluna name lives on as an investments management company, Scicluna Estates Ltd. Another banking institution with a long history in Malta was the Anglo–Egyptian Bank, founded in 1864. In 1925, it became part of the English Barclays Bank, which the government of Dom Mintoff, eager to gain more control over the economy, nationalized in 1975 as the Mid-Med Bank. When it came to Malta in 1999, the HSBC took over the Mid-Med Bank. A similar fate befell the oldest banks of Malta in 1946 when the Anglo–Maltese Bank and Banco di Malta merged to form the National Bank of Malta (NBM). In 1949, Scicluna et fils affiliated with the group, as did Tagliaferro and Sons two decades later. On 6 December 1973, a run began on the NBM. The Central Bank, apparently on instructions from Mintoff, refused to come to the bank’s assistance, and the NBM was taken over by the government without compensation to any of its shareholders. The government then set up a new bank, the Bank of Valletta (BOV), in 1974, which

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took over the assets and liabilities of the collapsed NBM. The Mintoff government held 70 percent ownership of the BOV, selling 20 percent to a Sicilian bank and slightly less than 10 percent to the public. In 1992, the BOV became the first public company to be listed on the Malta Stock Exchange, and in 1995, as part of the Nationalist government’s drive to privatize state-owned entities, reduced its ownership share of the bank to 25 percent. A lawsuit filed by the former shareholders of the NBM, in hopes of being compensated for their losses from the collapse of the bank, is yet to be settled. Another major bank crisis in Malta involved the collapse of the Bank of Industry, Commerce and Agriculture, a small commercial bank established in 1963 by the Pace brothers, Cecil and Henry. Known by the acronym BICAL, this bank’s failure in November 1972 involved fraud, resulting in numerous court cases that took over 25 years to settle. A more recent bank scandal resulted in the closing of the Pilatus bank, established by an Iranian, who was arrested in the United States, accused of money laundering Twenty banks currently offer services in Malta similar to those found in any EU country. Debit and credit cards and branch, telephone, and online banking are available, and ATMs are widespread. BARBARA, AGATHA (1923–2002). Born in Zabbar on 11 March 1923, Agatha Barbara was educated in government schools. As a young woman during the World War II Axis bombings, she served as supervisor of victory kitchens. In 1945 she became a teacher, but she turned to politics in 1946, joining the Malta Labour Party (MLP). She was the first woman elected to Parliament, in 1947. In 1955, she became the first woman minister when she was named minister of education. Five months later, she successfully introduced compulsory full-time education for all Maltese aged 5 through 14 years. She was involved in constructing or renovating over 40 schools throughout Malta and instituted special schools for handicapped children, free health care, textbooks and transportation for all pupils, and stipends for university students. Barbara has probably done more than any other Maltese to raise the educational standards and literacy rate of Malta. Active in the administration of the MLP, Barbara was a staunchly loyal supporter of Dom Mintoff and Malta’s workers. She was sentenced to jail by the British for her participation in a national protest against British rule in 1958. She, along with her fellow executive leaders of the MLP, was also interdicted by the Church in April 1951. From 1971 to 1974, Barbara was again minister of education and culture and from 1974 to 1981, minister of labor, culture, and welfare. She successfully campaigned to raise the leaving school age to 16. Barbara served as acting president on several occasions. A skillful negotiator, she helped re-

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solve the constitutional crisis of the mid-1980s. She successfully contested every election until 16 February 1982, when she was elected by Parliament as the first female president of Malta, serving in this office until 1987. President Barbara died on 4 February 2002. A monument in her honor was unveiled in Zabbar in April 2006. See also WOMEN. BATHURST CONSTITUTION. This was not really a constitution at all, but rather the instructions given in 1813 by the colonial secretary in Britain, Lord Bathurst, to the British governor of Malta. It stipulated that “the authority of the Governor is limited only by order of the King; he is responsible to His Majesty and to his country for his conduct, but his discretion is not to be shackled by any body of persons resident in Malta.” At the same time, it provided for the “free exercise of religious worship to all persons who inhabit or frequent the islands.” The overall effect of the instructions was to make Malta a Crown Colony and to specifically eliminate the Maltese from having a voice in the conduct of the affairs of their land. See also BRITISH RULE. BATTLE OF ABOUKIR BAY. This battle, which is also known as the Battle of the Nile, took place on 1 August 1798. Napoleon planned to strike at Britain through India, and that was the primary reason for his expedition to Egypt. His stop in Malta on the way was but a chance at an added prize to be gained through a temporary detour. In Egypt, his army won the Battle of the Pyramids, but his navy lost when his fleet, crowded into the small harbor, was unable to maneuver, allowing the British fleet, under the command of Admiral Horatio Nelson, to destroy it without difficulty. The treasures from the ransacked palaces, churches, and other buildings in Malta had been loaded aboard Napoleon’s flagship, L’Orient, which was sunk during the battle, taking them to the bottom of the bay. One of the items of high value, which somehow did not end up at the bottom of the Nile Delta, was Jean Parisot de la Valette’s sword, with its jewel-encrusted, gold hilt. It was taken back to France and remains to this day in the possession of the Louvre Museum in Paris. Suggestions that it is a national treasure of Malta and should be returned have so far gone unheeded. See also FRENCH INVASION; FRENCH OCCUPATION. BATTLE OF LEPANTO. Just six years after the Great Siege of 1565 came another major military action against the Ottoman Turks. This naval battle occurred on 7 October 1571 and became celebrated throughout Europe as evidence, together with the victory at Malta, that the seemingly irresistible force of Turkish expansion could be contained. The combined European

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fleet was under the command of Don John of Austria, son of Charles V. It consisted of the Spanish Mediterranean fleet, a squadron each from the Papal States, Genoa and Venice, and three galleys of the Knights of St. John. Together, the fleet consisted of 6 galleasses, 212 galleys, and 24 transports under sail. The Turkish fleet was composed of 250 galleys plus various support vessels. The battle began with the Turks in an excellent defensive position, but they failed to follow up their early success, and the Europeans slowly began to destroy their center. The Ottoman flagship, under the command of Ali Pasha, was taken after a fierce hand-to-hand fight. The three galleys of the Knights were to hold the right wing of the attack and managed to do so, but with heavy loss of life. At the end of the day, it became apparent that the battle was a great victory for Christian Europe, and only a few of the Turkish ships were able to retreat. Turkish losses were enormous: 50 ships lost and 20,000 men taken prisoner or killed. A secondary outcome was the release of tens of thousands of Christian slaves from the oar-boards of the Turkish galleys. Serving aboard a Spanish ship during the battle was Miguel de Cervantes, considered by many to be the greatest figure of Spanish literature, the author of Don Quixote. He was wounded twice in the chest by gunshot, and his left hand was maimed, probably by a sword wound. Although the victory at Lepanto marked the end of Turkish attacks in the western Mediterranean and Europe, the central and eastern Mediterranean continued to suffer from smaller attacks for several years. Historians identify the Lepanto battle as the last major action in which the oared galley was the predominant attacking vessel. BATTLE OF THE NILE. See BATTLE OF ABOUKIR BAY. BERTIE, FRA’ ANDREW (1929–2008). A Scot and descendant of Mary, Queen of Scots, Andrew Willoughby Ninian Bertie was born 15 May 1929 in London. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, and spent two years in the Scots Guards before being admitted to the Order of the Knights of St. John in 1956. Bertie became involved in the government of the order in 1981. He was elected the 78th grand master in 1988, its only British head to date. Bertie lived in Malta for 20 years, so he was also the first grand master to have a real connection with the island nation since the order’s embarrassing capitulation to Napoleon in 1798. The University of Malta conferred an honorary degree on him in 1993, and Bertie presided over the order until his death on 7 February 2008, age 78.

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BIRD HUNTING. Because the Maltese islands are a main stopover point for many species of European migratory birds on their way to and from the African continent, the trapping and hunting of birds has become a source of passionate debate in Malta and the European Union (EU). The islands’ limited space, about half of which is open to hunters, also causes frequent conflicts of interest between hunters and hikers (known as “ramblers”). A survey conducted by the Malta Times revealed that two-thirds of the Maltese population opposes bird hunting, considered an important Maltese tradition by its proponents. The Maltese political situation, so evenly and fiercely divided between Nationalists and Malta Labour Party adherents, has enabled the estimated 16,000-strong hunters’ lobby to hold the country hostage, preventing stricter laws against their sport. In 1972, support from an active group of bird enthusiasts helped achieve the passage of the Benelux Convention on the Hunting and Protection of Birds. Many Maltese and their supporters from outside Malta were hoping that EU membership would give the government the necessary clout to better regulate hunting. In June 2005, a formal complaint was filed with the EU by nongovernmental organizations BirdLife International and BirdLife Malta, charging the Maltese government with failure to transpose into Maltese law the EU Birds Directive that bans spring hunting. Just when the EU Commission was preparing to start formal infringement procedures, the Maltese government reluctantly changed its laws to meet some of the EU requirements, but it continued to insist that it had negotiated an exemption from the Birds Directive that permits hunting of turtle doves and quail in the spring. In the spring of 2008, the EU initiated infringement proceedings, and the EU court ruled against Malta’s position, forcing limits on bird hunting. A coalition of NGOs managed to get enough signatures (over 45,000) to force a national referendum on whether bird hunting should continue to be legal. The referendum was held on 11 April 2015. Seventy-five percent of the eligible voters turned out, and by the slimmest of margins (50.4 percent) voted in favor of keeping the season open. The EU granted Malta derogations to permit a limited quota of mourning doves and quail. Recently, mourning doves were removed from the quota because of a decline in population and pressure from external groups. In 2017, the national hunting bag limit was set at 5,000 quail, and each hunter was limited to shooting 5 quail, with a seasonal bag limit of 10. The extent of the season has been further restricted, and hunting is only legally permitted between two hours before sunrise and noon every day while the season is open. The spring hunting season has recently been limited to three weeks; however, opponents of bird hunting complain that the dates for the hunting season were moved to April, coinciding with the height of the migration period for turtle doves. Passions run high on both sides of the issue, which

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will continue to remain contentious since violations are frequent, enforcement is still lax, and pressure from the EU to eliminate what many view as a national tradition is increasingly resented. BIRGU. See THREE CITIES, THE. BLOOD COMMISSION. Chaired by Sir Hilary Blood, the commission was appointed by the British government to examine the political needs of Malta and to make recommendations for a course of action. During the last three months of 1960, the commission visited the islands in order to gauge public opinion. The members agreed on two main propositions: Malta is a Roman Catholic country whose religion must be respected, and Malta’s independence must be granted despite whatever risks seem to exist. In October 1961, Malta was given a new system of government under the “Blood Constitution,” which was to encourage elections and the formation of a government that could then determine the nation’s political future. The “constitution” stipulated that there exist a nation called the “State of Malta” and provided for a legislative assembly of 50 members. This assembly was given full powers in every area except defense and foreign affairs, which were to be shared with the British. Even at this late date in the movement toward independence, the colonial governor was specifically given the power to override the cabinet and the legislature in these matters. BLOOD CONSTITUTION. See BLOOD COMMISSION; CONSTITUTION. BOFFA, SIR PAUL (1890–1962). Born in Vittoriosa (Birgu) on 30 June 1890, Sir Paul Boffa joined the tiny Labour Party in 1922, was elected to its governing board in 1924, and became leader in 1927. In the elections of 1932, he was the only member of the party to gain a seat on the Council. A likable person, he was a physician by profession who served with distinction as a medic in World War II. Boffa had pro-British and antisocialist leanings. He supported his political opponent, Lord Strickland, when the latter was the target of the bishops’ pastoral letter, and this branded him as antiChurch. In the elections of 1947, the Malta Labour Party (MLP) won an overwhelming victory, and Paul Boffa took the positions of prime minister and minister of justice. However, Dom Mintoff, the deputy leader of the party, led all candidates in the number of votes received. At an MLP conference in October 1949, a resolution was offered thanking Boffa for his service to the party but also stating that he was lacking in the necessary qualities to lead either the party or the nation. It passed by 244

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votes to 141. A few days later, Boffa and a number of his followers resigned from the party “as now constituted” and took action to form the Malta Workers Party, which lasted just six years on the political scene. In the short time he was in office, Boffa’s government accomplished much. It improved housing, stimulated an increase in emigration (viewed positively at the time), implemented full-time and compulsory education, and placed teacher education with two capable religious orders. In addition, public health standards were improved. Unfortunately, Boffa’s political career was undercut by one of the most charismatic politicians on Malta’s political scene, his successor as prime minister, Dom Mintoff. Boffa died on 6 July 1962 without seeing his beloved country become a free and independent nation. See also POLITICAL PARTIES BONELLO, GIOVANNI (1936–). Giovanni Bonello was born 11 June 1936. A lawyer and leading authority on human rights law, he declined an appointment as chief justice and president of the Constitutional Court of Malta in 1990 and was appointed as judge of the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg, France, serving from 1 November 1998 until 31 October 2004. When his term ended, the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe rejected the candidates proposed by the Maltese government to replace him, and Bonello’s term was extended until 19 September 2010, when he retired. Considered a liberal judge, his legal opinions were so highly respected that they were frequently independently published. A history aficionado, Bonello’s collected opinions were published in 2008 in a book entitled When Judges Dissent. He has written numerous authoritative publications on Malta’s history, and his articles on constitutional law frequently appear in The Times of Malta. BORG, SIR GEORGE (1887–1954). On 10 June 1940, the chief justice and president of the Court of Appeals, Sir Arturo Mercieca, was summoned to appear before General Dobbie and told either to resign his positions or face forced removal. He chose voluntary resignation and was later interned and deported as a suspected Italian sympathizer. He was succeeded in both positions by Sir George Borg. As the highest-ranking Maltese civilian during the war years, Borg was often called upon to represent the general population. Borg was slightly wounded in an air raid during the ceremony to welcome General Dobbie’s replacement, Lord Gort, to Malta. It was also Borg who, on behalf of Malta, accepted the George Cross in a ceremony held on 13 September 1942. On 3 September 1943, the Royal Air Force presented to the

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Maltese people the last survivor of the three Gloster Gladiator aircraft, the one named Faith. As nine Spitfires dipped low over the Palace Square, Sir George Borg accepted the historic relic amid the cheers of the assembled crowd. His most significant action, however, was taken on 4 May 1942, when he and two other appeals judges reversed the judgment of a lower court and found the deportation of all the internees, including Sir Arturo Mercieca, to be illegal. Even with that decision, two years passed for some and three for others before the deportees were permitted to return to Malta. BORG COSTANZI, EDWIN J. (1925–2013). A brilliant student, Edwin Borg Costanzi was only 18 years old when he was awarded a bachelor of science degree in mathematics at the University of Malta. He continued on to qualify as an architect and civil engineer. He was only 20 years old in 1945 when he received the first postwar Rhodes scholarship to Oxford University to attend Balliol College and was awarded a master’s degree after achieving outstanding results on his examinations. He then returned to Malta in 1949 to begin teaching mathematics at the university. He was named vice chancellor and rector magnificus in 1964 at the age of 39 and began the push to revise the curriculum, aligning it more with the British system, and to modenize the facilities. He was the driving force behind the construction of the new campus at Tal Qroqq, Msida, which opened in 1967. As evidence of the high regard in which he was held, he was elected chairman of the Association of Commonwealth Universities in 1976–1977. Professor Borg Costanzi, or “EBC” as his students affectionately called him, died on 14 May 2013. BORG OLIVIER, DR. GIORGIO (1911–1980). The man who, as prime minister, led Malta to independence from Great Britain was born in Valletta on 5 July 1911. While pursuing his law studies at the University of Malta, Borg Olivier was elected president of the Students’ Representative Council, the beginning of his political career. He earned the LLD in 1937 and became a notary public in 1938. In 1939, he was elected as one of three Nationalist Party members of the Council of Government. In May 1940, when the leader of the Nationalist Party, Dr. Enrico Mizzi, was first interned by the British and later deported to Uganda because of suspected Italian sympathies, Borg Olivier became interim leader. After his return in 1945, Mizzi regained his post and made Borg Olivier his right-hand man. Borg Olivier became deputy leader of the party in 1949 and was appointed minister of education, public works, and reconstruction. He successfully contested all elections from 1947 until his death.

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When Mizzi died in December 1950, Borg Olivier was unanimously appointed leader of the Nationalist Party by the Executive Committee and became prime minister. His shrewdness as a politician enabled him to use the religion issue and the archbishop to his advantage, even though his relations with the archbishop were usually tense. Nevertheless, he worked toward, and was able to gain, a reduction in the clerical and episcopal influence in the politics of Malta. After the election of 1962, he guided passage of the Independence Constitution and was, in great measure, responsible for Malta’s gaining independence while maintaining good relations with the British both before and after the event. Although he continued to use the given name Giorgio in all official circumstances, after World War II, he used George in the informality of the political arena. After the Nationalists lost the election of 1976, he resigned the party leadership and was succeeded by Eddie Fenech Adami. Borg Olivier died on 29 October 1980. BORG PISANI, CARMELO (1914–1942). Born in Senglea in 1914, Borg Pisani attended schools emphasizing the use of Italian, and it became well known that he held strong pro-Italy views. He attended a school in Italy and later joined a number of Italian fascist organizations with branches in Malta. In 1936, he accepted a scholarship to study art in Rome. With a strong desire to see Malta become a part of Italy, he wrote a letter to Benito Mussolini in 1940 in which he offered his services. Borg Pisani served in the Italian army in Greece in 1941 and then, when plans were being made for the invasion of Malta, he was selected for special training. He was to land in his homeland to gather information on all aspects of the military situation and civilian attitudes. Although he was intelligent and well trained, everything went wrong. The bulk of his equipment was lost during his landing, and he was discovered clinging to a cliff near where he had been put ashore, unable to make his way to the top. After his capture, Borg Pisani was brought to Mtarfa, where several persons recognized him. He quickly divulged the nature of his mission and was taken to prison. His trial began on 12 November 1942 in a criminal proceeding before three judges, headed by the chief justice, Sir George Borg. Two lawyers were appointed to defend him. The trial was conducted under wartime rules and took place behind closed doors. The court found him guilty and on 19 November sentenced him to death by hanging. Several pleas for reversal and others for clemency were rejected, and on 28 November the sentence was carried out. A short time afterward, a drawing was carried in the Italian newspapers depicting Borg Pisani being put to death while calling “Viva Italia!” He was awarded Italy’s highest medal for bravery, posthumously, and continues to be recognized in Italy as one of the war’s heroes. See also CRIME; WORLD WAR II.

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BRIGUGLIO, LINO (1944–). Born in St. Venera, Malta, on 27 January 1944, Briguglio was educated at St. Aloysius College, St. Michael’s College of Education, and the Royal University of Malta, where he graduated with BA (Hons.) and MA degrees in economics. He earned the PhD in economics at the University of Exeter. Briguglio was active in politics as a member of the National Executive Committee of the Malta Labour Party (MLP), but in a clash with Dom Mintoff’s leadership style, was expelled from the party in 1977. A cofounder and first general secretary of the short-lived Democratic Party, he failed to get elected to Parliament in the general elections of 1987. As an economist, Briguglio devised a “vulnerability index,” gaining an international reputation in the measurement and analysis of economic challenges particular to small island economies. He has served on several national commissions and as adviser to the United Nations on small island economies. He was the head of the Department of Economics and the director of the Islands and Small States Institute of the Foundation for International Studies at the University of Malta, where he has been on the faculty since 1976. Professor Briguglio has edited and published several books and numerous articles on small developing island economies. He is married and has three children. BRITISH RULE. The British and the Maltese began their relationship by seeing it from quite different perspectives. Because the British helped drive the French from Malta in 1800, they believed that “to the victor belong the spoils.” In contrast, the Maltese believed that they had “invited” the British to help evict the French from Valletta and thus had become a part of the British Empire of their own free will. They expected to have a strong voice in the governance of their land. The British viewed the islands as a military outpost; protecting and extending the interests of their nation and from 1814 until their departure in 1979, a minimum of 4,500 British servicemen were stationed on the island. A royal commission appointed to fully investigate all matters concerning civil government of the islands in 1812 reported that the Maltese were not fit to be involved in any political power. The result was that the so-called Bathurst Constitution of 1813 vested all authority in the British governor, and he was not “to be shackled by anybody of persons resident in Malta.” In 1835, letters patent from London granted Malta the authority to create the Council of Government to advise and assist the governor; however, only two of the eight members were to be Maltese appointees. This was probably the closest to the decision-making level of government that any Maltese had ever been permitted. Because the letters required that only the governor listen to the Council’s opinions, one-man rule remained in place. New letters patent, issued in 1849, completely changed both the structure and the authority

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of the Council. It was to be a legislative body and could enact laws, provided these were not contrary to either UK laws or colonial orders. It had 18 seats, consisting of 10 appointed and 8 popularly elected officials. At least five of the appointees were to be Maltese, giving local citizens the majority. Still, the Crown reserved the power to disallow any actions of the Council. In 1881, letters patent created an executive council of three senior officials who were to advise and assist the governor. Two years later, new letters redefined the powers of the Council of Government with the effect of reverting to the situation of 1835. A new constitution formulated in 1887 created a dual system of government, combining popular control of the legislature with Crown control of the administrative functions. It did not function well and was changed in 1903 by the creation of a structure similar to that of 1849. The severe government control created a troubled political scene, which lasted until World War I. In 1921, the British attempted, within limits, to recognize Maltese demands for self-government while still retaining control in the hands of the governor for matters of military and other interests. A new constitution created two distinct governments, each with both legislative and executive powers in its own defined area. The “Maltese government” was, in effect, controlled by a British governor who consulted with a nominated council. This constitution was suspended in May 1930 because of a dispute with the Vatican regarding local political activity. The suspension lasted until June 1932, when the dual government system again became active. The Constitution was suspended again in November 1933, when the British grew increasingly fearful of the political influence of fascist Italy. In 1936, another new constitution vested full authority in the governor. This was relaxed slightly in 1939 with the establishment of a Council of Government similar to that of 1903. Due to the events of World War II, the Colonial Office exhibited a more positive attitude toward Maltese self-government thereafter. In 1947, a new constitution, similar to that of 1921, created a unicameral rather than a bicameral legislature. The Maltese considered it inadequate and proposed a series of reforms. In April 1958, the majority Malta Labour Party resigned from government, and the leader of the opposition Nationalist Party refused to form a new government. As a result, the governor took absolute control. Shortly thereafter, Royal instructions again made Malta a Crown Colony, with all authority vested in the governor. Pressure for home rule continued, including demands for independence. In 1952, large concessions toward home rule were made, and actual movements toward independence were begun. The Independence Constitution was approved in London on 1 August 1963. Malta became an independent nation within the British Commonwealth on 21 September 1964. British troops were still based there until they finally departed on 31 March 1979, but British influence remains a dominant feature of Maltese life and culture.

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Malta still exhibits many of the signs of a former British colony: a population largely fluent in English, driving on the left side of the road, its legislation mainly based on that of Great Britain. Furthermore, ties to the British mainland, cultural as well as economic, continue to be very strong. Many Maltese get tertiary education in Great Britain, and Malta is a popular destination for British tourists as well as retirees. It remains to be seen what impact Britain’s Brexit (departure from the European Union), scheduled to take effect in 2019, will have on the relationship between the two nations. See also BLOOD COMMISSION; LANGUAGE QUESTION; POLITICAL PARTIES. BROTHER GERARD (BLESSED GERARD). See KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. BRUCE, SURGEON MAJOR DAVID. See MALTA FEVER. BUHAGIAR, DR. FRANCESCO (1876–1934). Born in Qrendi on 7 September 1876, Francis Buhagiar studied at the University of Malta, earning a law degree in 1901. After 20 years spent in the practice of law, he ran for the Legislative Assembly as a candidate for the Unione Popolare Maltese (UPM) and was elected in 1921 and 1924. He served as minister of justice for a year before becoming the second prime minister of Malta on 13 October 1922, completing the term of Joseph Howard. Buhagiar resigned on 22 September 1924 because the coalition government with the Labour Party had fallen apart on 2 January, and only 10 UPM members had been reelected to Parliament. He was appointed a Superior Court judge and died in 1934. See also ELECTIONS; POLITICAL PARTIES. BUSUTTIL, DR. SIMON (1969–). Born on 20 March 1969, Simon Busuttil was educated at St. Aloysius College and the University of Malta, where he earned a diploma of notary public and a doctor of laws degree in 1993. He continued his studies in Great Britain, completing a master’s degree in European studies at the University of Sussex in 1994, and returned to the University of Malta to earn a master of jurisprudence in international law in November 1995. After a brief stint practicing law, Busuttil became active as an adviser and speechwriter on European Union (EU) affairs, serving numerous ministers of the Maltese government. During the EU accession process, he served as a member of Malta’s negotiating team. In 1999, he was appointed head of the Malta–EU Information Center (MIC), tasked with communicating the EU accession process to the Maltese public. His work in writing a voluminous body of explanatory pamphlets, speeches, and newspaper columns, as well as

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several books on EU membership issues, deserves much of the credit for the “yes” vote on the EU referendum in March 2003. In December 2003, he was recognized for his service to Malta by becoming the youngest person to be appointed a member of the National Order of Merit (MOM). Gifted with an exceptional ability to put his Nationalist Party affiliation aside when explaining complex issues to the general public in an evenhanded, lucid manner, Busuttil became one of the most respected young political figures in Malta. This was best demonstrated by his election on 12 June 2004 on the first count as the first Maltese member of the European Parliament (MEP), gaining almost 60,000 votes. As an MEP, Busuttil served on the Budget Committee and was elected vice president of the Parliament’s delegation to Maghreb countries. He is active in EU–Mediterranean issues and was appointed group negotiator for the center-right group of the EU Parliament on the proposed European Asylum Support Office (EASO), which the EU established in 2010. He succeeded in getting EU assistance for Malta to deal with illegal immigration and was reelected by an overwhelming margin to a second five-year term as MEP on 6 June 2009. On 8 May 2013, Busuttil was elected leader of the Nationalist Party, replacing PM Gonzi, and was elected to Malta’s Parliament on 13 May 2013. He stepped down as party chair after the Nationalist Party suffered an embarrassing defeat in the snap election of June 2017. Busuttil continues to serve as a member of Parliament. BUTTIGIEG, DR. ANTON (1912–1983). The second president of Malta, Anton Buttigieg was born in Qala, Gozo, on 12 February 1912. He earned a law degree from the University of Malta in 1940 and shortly thereafter entered politics as an active worker for the Constitutional Party. However, in 1953 he chose to join the Malta Labour Party (MLP) and was elected to Parliament in 1955. Buttigieg served the MLP as editor of the party’s newspaper, as party president, and as deputy leader from 1962 to 1976. He ran and was successful in every parliamentary election until 1976. In 1971, when Labour carried the election, Buttigieg was named minister of justice and deputy prime minister. Although he was in the number two position of government, he and Prime Minister Dom Mintoff were often in disagreement. In June 1976, Buttigieg sent a secret letter of resignation to Mintoff, who promised him the presidency if he would also resign from Parliament. He did so and, as a result, was without a salary until being sworn in as president on 27 December. As president, he wanted to put aside his party affiliation and to act as the head of state for all citizens, saying, “we are all brothers and have Maltese blood in our veins.”

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Buttigieg’s greatest accomplishment was the easing of tensions relating to the withdrawal of the British forces from the islands in 1979. Rear Admiral O. N. A. Cecil, the commander of the British Forces at the time, gave full credit to Buttigieg, saying, “I do not think many realize the long term effects had 1979 been a departure with bad grace.” Buttigieg and Cecil were good friends. Buttigieg was a published poet and Cecil an excellent pianist. They collaborated on “The Parting Song,” which became the main feature of a final concert performed by the combined bands of the British Royal Marines and the Armed Forces of Malta. In part, the hymn’s words said: “Now the hour has arrived for our sad adieu, Not with hate in our hearts, But like lovers let us part, Linked in a kiss and embrace, Sincere and true.” When Buttigieg, in failing health, relinquished the presidency in December 1981, he did so without any fanfare or congratulatory messages from either party. He died of cancer on 5 May 1983. See also FREEDOM DAY. BYZANTINE INFLUENCE. Constantine I was the first Roman emperor to grant full rights and freedom to the Christian Church. He transferred the capital from Rome to Byzantium and renamed it Constantinople. After his death in 337, the empire was divided among his three sons, Constans, Constantine, and Constantius. After Constantine was killed in battle in 340 and Constans was murdered in 350, the Empire was reunited under Constantius. In 395, Emperor Theodosius I divided the empire between his two sons, Honorius and Arcadius. Honorius reigned over the west (Italy, Africa, Spain, Gaul, and Britain), and Arcadius reigned over the east (Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and Egypt). Although no real evidence exists one way or the other, it is commonly assumed that Malta was included in the eastern portion at that time. Those were troubled times for both Rome and Byzantium, and it is likely that Malta suffered as well. See also VANDALS.

C CALLEJA, JOSEPH (1978–). Born on 22 January 1978 in Attard, Malta, Joseph Calleja is a young tenor, a rising opera sensation, who studied under noted Maltese tenor Paul Asciak and made his debut in 1997 as McDuff in Macbeth. The following year, at age 19, he won first prize in the Caruso Competition in Milan and became a prize winner at the Belvedere Hans Gabor Competition the same year. In 1998, he won the Caruso Competition in Milan and in 1999, a prize in Plácido Domingo’s Operalia International Opera Competition in Puerto Rico. He had already, by the age of 30, gained an international reputation performing leading roles at major theaters throughout Europe and the United States. His first solo album, Tenor Arias (2004), was very well received. The second solo album, The Golden Voice (2005), was also highly acclaimed. A third solo album, Calleja—the Maltese Tenor (2011), was followed in the same year by a DVD of Calleja costarring with Renée Fleming in a Royal Opera performance of La Traviata, which was nominated for an Emmy award. Calleja has been featured on over a dozen albums and appeared in several films. Beginning in 2009, Calleja has organized and performed in a series of annual concerts with other well-known singers at the Graneries in Floriana. He married Tatiana Lisnic, a soprano opera singer from Moldova. They have two children. See also MUSIC. CAMILLERI, CHARLES (1931–2009). Born on 7 September 1931 in Hamrun to a musical family, Charles Camilleri was the most accomplished and internationally recognized of all Maltese composers. He began his career composing works in his teens, including the Malta Suite, composed when he was only 16 years old, which was strongly influenced by Malta’s folk legends and music. Camilleri was a talented musician, self-taught on a variety of instruments, as well as an author on subjects concerning music. He composed over 300 works for orchestra, ensemble, solo instrument, and voice. Camilleri’s compositions have been performed worldwide, and over half of them have been recorded commercially. His books on improvisation are 51

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widely used. He appeared as a conductor and lecturer in many countries and held the rank of professor at the University of Malta. Camilleri died on 3 January 2009. CARAVAGGIO (1573–1610). Born Michel Angelo Mersi in 1573, the artist became known by the name of his birthplace, Caravaggio, and used it as the signature on his paintings. After a series of brawls in Italy, including one for which he was accused of murder, he made his way to Malta, arriving in July 1607. He had several relatives and friends who were Knights of the Order of St. John, and there is strong evidence that he also hoped to become one. His first commission was to do a portrait of Grand Master Alof de Wignacourt. The grand master’s pleasure over the portrait is evidenced by the compensation awarded: a collar of gold, two slaves, and some other items of esteem. The major compensation, however, was that Caravaggio was made a Knight of the Order of Obedience. He was then given the most important commission the order could offer: a painting of John the Baptist to hang as the altarpiece of a large oratory off the right aisle of the conventual church of the order, St. John’s Co-Cathedral. It is the largest painting he ever executed and was probably done in appreciation of his knighthood. His faint signature, “Fra Michel Angelo,” is proof that he was already a knight and proud of it. The Beheading of John the Baptist became one of two worldrenowned masterpieces he painted while in Malta, the other being St. Jerome. He painted a few others of lesser quality, including Sleeping Cupid. After living in Malta for just over a year, Caravaggio attacked and killed a knight of nobility and was thrown into prison. It is assumed that he had inside assistance and made his escape, leaving Malta. Because he had become an embarrassment to the order when the charge of murder became known, the grand master expelled him in early December 1608. Nevertheless, Caravaggio continued to pass himself off as a knight to the end of his days. In October 1609, he was severely wounded in another brawl. His face was cut to the extent that it was unrecognizable, and his recovery was slow. Some of his friends petitioned for his pardon from the murder charge. Before dying of a fever on 18 July 1610, he received a pardon from Pope Paul V. In spite of having only a rather short, 37 troubled years of life, Caravaggio left behind lasting evidence of his exceptional artistic talent. See also CARAVAGGIO INCIDENT; PRETI, MATTIA (1613–1699). CARAVAGGIO INCIDENT. From the time they were completed in 1608, the two masterpieces painted by Caravaggio were on display in the conventual church of the order, St. John’s Co-Cathedral. In 1957, they were sent to Italy, where their restoration was funded by the Italian government prior to their becoming the central part of an exhibition in Rome. Upon their return

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to Malta, they were taken by government agents not to their longtime home in the Co-Cathedral, but to the National Museum for display. The explanation given by the government of Dom Mintoff was that these paintings were national treasures and should be on display where all the people could benefit from seeing them. The archbishop, claiming ownership, submitted the dispute to authorities in the Vatican. Under canon law, the finding was in favor of the archbishop, and the Mintoff government was ordered to return the paintings. The order was ignored. However, in April 1958 the paintings were returned to the Co-Cathedral without preliminary notification. A few days later, Dom Mintoff released a statement which said, in effect, that mutual understanding between the government and the ecclesiastical authorities was necessary for the welfare of the people. CART TRACKS (CART RUTS). These are parallel grooves or ruts in the hard surface rock (upper coralline limestone) that exist in several places throughout Mediterranean countries; the greatest number, more than 100 sites, have been found in Malta and Gozo. They are usually situated the same distance (an average 55 inches or 140 centimeters) apart and are sometimes V-shaped and sometimes U shaped. Like railroad tracks, they often merge into one another. In one area between Dingli and Rabat, so many cross and merge that the site has been named “Clapham Junction” after the London Railway Station. These tracks are an archaeological enigma. Several theories have attempted to explain what they were used for and how they came into existence. It is most likely that they were tracks on which sledges, pulled by men or animals, were used to move heavy loads. Carbon dating places them at 2500 BCE, too late for the moving of stones for the huge megalithic temples. One theory asserts that they were used to move topsoil from the valleys to the hills in order to make terraces and thus expand the amount of tillable land. Some tracks end in the sea, making for an even greater mystery. More recent research has identified 31 sites throughout Malta and Gozo that are closely associated with nearby quarries, so possibly the tracks were connected to the quarrying of stones used in road and building construction. The ruts were most likely chiseled by human hands, and their continued use probably contributed to their unusual depth. Although the surface rock today is as hard as granite, it was probably much softer, living stone when it was used for transporting materials, whatever they might have been. See also ARCHAEOLOGY; GEOLOGY. CARTHAGINIAN RULE. A city-state located on the Bay of Tunis in North Africa, Carthage was founded in the 9th century BCE by Phoenicians from Tyre. As the Phoenicians in the eastern Mediterranean began to dimin-

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ish in strength and authority after their defeat in Tyre and Sidon by the Assyrians and Babylonians, the Carthaginians assumed the vacant leadership in the central and western parts of the Mediterranean. About 480 BCE, they assumed possession of the Maltese Islands and created a form of partial home rule, including a senate and an Assembly of the People as well as the authority to mint local coinage. Elsewhere, the wealth, power, and authority of Carthage continued to expand. In the silver mines of Spain alone, Carthage employed over 40,000 men. In the world of commerce, the Carthaginians developed the use of insurance and using ships as collateral (“bottomry”) to raise funds, among other practices stimulating trade. They were to be a positive influence in Malta until the end of the Punic Wars in 219 BCE. CARUANA DINGLI, EDWARD (1876–1950). Born Eduardo Lorenzo Giorgio Carmelo Vittorio Caruana Dingli on 10 August 1876, the son of Major Raffaele Caruana Dingli and Martha Garoni, he became a prolific artist and the best-known Maltese painter of portraits and folk scenes in the beginning of the 20th century. Malta’s equivalent of Norman Rockwell, his colorful paintings depicting Maltese village people and rural scenes were used as advertisements promoting tourism in the early 1920s. Although he showed talent at a young age, Edward first followed his father’s career as an officer in the army, serving for 15 years. He married Charlotte Falzon in 1900, and the couple had two sons. The marriage ended in divorce about the same time as Caruana Dingli decided to resign his commission with the army to become a professional painter. He had already been sketching and painting during his service in the military. His impressive technical expertise won some of his works awards, and he came to the attention of the Duke of Connaught, who purchased several of Caruana Dingli’s watercolors. A portrait of the Duke was so well received that it led to a commission to paint a portrait of King George V, which cemented his fame as Malta’s premier portrait artist. Caruana Dingli was an influential and popular director of the Government School of Art, established in 1926. He suffered from ill health for much of his life and died of congestive heart failure on 9 May 1950. CARUANA GALIZIA, DAPHNE (1964–2017). Born Daphne Anne Vella in Sliema on 26 August 1964, Caruana Galizia was educated at St. Dorothy’s Convent and later at St. Aloysius College. In 1997, she earned a bachelor’s degree in archaeology from the University of Malta. She married Peter Caruana Galizia in 1985, and the couple has three sons: Matthew, Andrew, and Paul. Politicized by her late teens, Caruana Galizia was arrested when

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she was 18 years old and imprisoned for 48 hours following her participation in a prodemocracy protest. She joined the Times of Malta as a reporter and columnist in 1987. In 1992, Caruana Galizia became associate editor of the Malta Independent; beginning in 2004, she edited Taste and Flair, a Maltese food and culture journal, the most successful of several magazines she created and edited, Due to her uncompromising, aggressive style of reporting, including some petty attacks on Maltese personalities, Caruana Galizia became a frequent target of those she criticized. She regularly received death threats and was involved in 42 civil suits and 5 criminal cases. Although she was considered too critical and abrasive by many in Malta, “whether admired or despised, she was read by all.” In 1995, the door of her residence was set on fire and her pet dog’s throat was slit. An article she published in 2006 regarding neo-Nazi activists in Malta resulted in tires being set on fire behind her house late at night. Had one of her sons not discovered the fire in time, it might well have caused serious injury or even the deaths of Caruana Galizia and other family members asleep inside. Caruana Galizia became best known for her online blog “Running Commentary,” started in 2008, in which she fiercely criticized corruption and “cronyism that is accepted as something normal here.” She could not “bear to see people like that rewarded.” Her blog readership reached an estimated 400,000, more than the total number of readers for all of Malta’s daily newspapers combined. Caruana Galizia exposed corruption by several of the most prominent Maltese politicians. She accused the Maltese EU commissioner for health and consumer policy, John Dalli, of taking a bribe from a Swedish tobacco company, resulting in his dismissal. She reported on lavish spending by politicians and trusts set up to receive kickbacks from rich Russians who bought Maltese passports. She alleged that the minister of the economy, Chris Cordona, visited a brothel in Germany while on official business. Through this and other investigative reporting that “nearly single-handedly brought down the government,” Caruana Galizia was labeled “Malta’s onewoman wikileaks.” In 2016, Politico magazine identified her as “one of the 28 people most likely to shape Europe in 2017.” Caruana Galizia’s most serious allegations involved offshore accounts of several high-ranking officials in Prime Minister Joseph Muscat’s government—including his wife, Michelle; his chief of staff, Keith Schembri; and Konrad Mizzi, minister of energy—tying them to several shell companies and alleging that they had been receiving illicit payments from the government of Azerbaijan. The scandal caused the prime minister to repeatedly denounce Caruana Galizia’s revelations about his wife’s involvement as

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“fake news” and call for snap elections, which he nevertheless won by a convincing margin. Caruana Galizia was frequently harassed with lawsuits called SLAPP (strategic lawsuits against public participation), intended to censor, intimidate, and silence critics by burdening them with the cost of a legal defense until they abandoned their criticism or opposition. For example, on 8 February 2017, a court in Malta ordered her bank accounts frozen after two government officials filed a libel case against her demanding €47,000 in damages. The ultimate retaliation came on 16 October 2017. As she was driving away from her home, Caruana Galizia was brutally murdered by a car bomb, causing shock and outrage not only in Malta but around the world. All major newspapers carried the story. Julian Assange, founder of the website Wikileaks, offered a €20,000 reward. Caruana Galizia had reported threats two weeks earlier and requested police protection, but was ignored. One of her sons, Matthew Caruana Galizia, also a journalist, decried Malta as a “mafia state.” Several members of the European Parliament traveled to Malta to investigate the state of the “rule of law.” Protesters, in numbers hardly seen before, stormed police headquarters demanding the resignation of the police chief, Lawrence Cutajar. As of this writing, three known criminals have been arrested and accused of the murder, but there is strong suspicion that they were hired by other, as yet unknown, individuals. Thirty minutes before she was killed, Caruana Galizia prophetically posted her last blog, in which she ominously wrote: “There are crooks everywhere you look now. The situation is desperate.” A pressroom of the European Parliament in Strasbourg has been renamed in her honor, and she was posthumously awarded the German Reporter Prize for Investigative Journalism by the Reporter-Forum in Berlin, Germany, and the American Society of Journalists and Authors Conscience in Media Award. In the citation for its Primio Civitas 2018 award, the Italian Ande Association noted: “Daphne Caruana Galizia, European journalist in the service of the international community, forever an icon of truth and freedom knowing of the grave risks, who worked alone to serve the common good.” A consortium of international media houses, including the Times of Malta, established the Daphne Project, which continues to push for investigation of Caruana Galizia’s murder. See also CRIME; MEDIA; WOMEN. CASSAR, GEROLAMO (1520–1592). In 1568, Cassar succeeded Francesco Laparelli as chief architect of the fortified city of Valletta. A native of Malta, Gerolamo Cassar was described as a man of perfect morals. As a boy, he fought in the Great Siege of 1565, learning some things about fortifications through working with the details of men assigned to their rebuilding after battle damage. He was sent by the Order of the Knights of St. John to Rome for formal architectural study and became its chief military engineer

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prior to being named Laparelli’s assistant. He later fought in the VenetianTurkish War of Cyprus from 1570 to 1573. His greatest accomplishments are his tangible, visual designs of the eight auberges, the Grand Master’s Palace, St. John’s Co-Cathedral, and many lesser buildings in Valletta. It is said that Laparelli made Valletta a fortress, and Cassar made it what Benjamin Disraeli called “a city built by gentlemen for gentlemen.” See also ARCHITECTURE. CASTILIAN RULE. Martin II of Sicily and Aragon died in 1410 without leaving any children as heirs. According to his will, his successor was to be elected from among his relatives by the nobles of Aragon and Sicily. In 1412, Ferdinand de Antequera, husband of Martin’s sister, was elected king of Aragon, Castile, and Sicily. He took the crown as Ferdinand I, the first Castilian ever to occupy the throne. For a number of years, the Maltese increasingly had been subjected to raids by Saracen pirates, so in 1416 they petitioned Ferdinand’s son Juan, who had been named viceroy of Sicily, for assistance. They requested a number of improvements, particularly in the defense system. Juan was sympathetic and agreed to the improvements plus a reduction in the duties on imports from Sicily. The reforms never happened because Ferdinand died in the same year and was succeeded by his son, Alphonso V. With the change in the Crown came an almost continuous state of warfare against the Angevin princes and the republics of Pisa and Genoa. The North African pirates also increased the frequency of their attacks on Alphonso’s realm. The result of all of this military activity was heavy taxation of the people, including the Maltese. In 1419, the king used Malta and Gozo as collateral when he borrowed 30,000 Aragonese gold florins from Don Antonio Cardona. As a part of the contract, Cardona became governor and rector of the islands with full jurisdiction over them in all matters, both civil and criminal. He was also granted the right to receive and retain all monies from taxation and other revenues. Soon, Cardona transferred his rights to Don Gonsalvo de Monroy. The Maltese suffered from two devastating raids by Saracens from North Africa, in which a large portion of the population was either killed or taken into slavery. Then the main crop, cotton, failed, and famine gripped the islands. All of these calamities, on top of the severe and arbitrary taxation, caused the Maltese to revolt. Everything belonging to Monroy was pillaged and destroyed, and his wife fled to one of the fortifications at the harbor, against which a siege was set. For a short time, Malta was in the control of the Maltese. The Sicilian government, in support of Monroy, prohibited Maltese vessels from entering any of its harbors. The result was equivalent to a blockade of Malta, as most grain and other essential foods came from Sicily. The fervor of the revolt soon died down, and the leaders had second

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thoughts. The realization that Malta needed the aid and protection of Sicily brought about an alternate plan of action. It was decided to redeem the island by paying off the amount of the loan. With supreme effort, 20,000 florins were raised. The Monroys demanded hostages as guarantees for the remaining 10,000. A Maltese nobleman, Antonio Inguanez, offered his two sons as hostages. As part of the contract, the Maltese demanded certain political rights plus a clear, unequivocal promise that the islands must never again be ceded by the Crown. Reluctantly, Alphonso agreed and in 1428 gave formal ratification. Early in 1429, Monroy died, leaving a surprising will in which he renounced the 10,000 florins, which had remained unpaid, and awarded 10,000 more to King Alphonso for the defense of his realm, especially the islands of Malta and Gozo. He returned the remaining 10,000 to the Maltese and called Malta “the bulwark of Christianity, and worthy of defense from the Saracens.” Alphonso was influenced by events and especially by Monroy’s will and again returned Malta to the royal domain as a free country. The joy over these events was short-lived. Within a year, the Hafsid Saracens of Tunisia invaded and laid siege with a force of 18,000. Again, a great many Maltese were killed or taken into slavery. In spite of the severe hardships, the defenders were victorious. However, the economy was left in ruins, and for many years there was a struggle to raise ransom monies to free those enslaved. In order to replace the diminished population, foreign immigration was openly encouraged. Another change was that, for economic reasons, the Maltese increasingly turned to piracy. CATHEDRAL. See ST. JOHN’S CO-CATHEDRAL. CATHOLIC CHURCH. There are few countries besides Malta in which the Roman Catholic religion has had as strong and pervasive an influence on everyday life. Article 2 (i) of the Maltese Constitution states that “The Religion of Malta is the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion.” According to a survey conducted in 2018, 92 percent of Maltese claim to be Catholic. Over 350 large, ornate churches dominate the skyline, and religious statues are found everywhere. By tradition, the first official visit of the president of Malta is with the pope, and official ceremonies for installing government officials include kissing a cross. Maltese tradition asserts, and the majority of Maltese firmly believe, that St. Paul’s shipwreck, described in the Bible (Acts 28:1–12), took place on Malta’s shores and that the Catholic Church was founded by Paul the Apostle and St. Publius during the first century CE. The Maltese faithful, who revere St. Paul as their patron saint and St. Publius as Malta’s first bishop, like to assert that only Rome has a longer reigning Apostolic See. The earli-

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est documented evidence of a cleric’s presence on Malta dates from 451 CE. Equally well established is the fact that since the Norman invasion displaced the Arab rule in the late 11th century, Roman Catholicism has been the dominant religion in Malta. By the time of the arrival of the Knights of St. John in 1530, there were already over 430 churches and chapels on Malta and Gozo. In 1561, the Vatican asserted its power against the government in Palermo, Sicily, when the Holy Office in Rome conferred upon Mgr. Cubella the fullest power to investigate and prosecute all acts of heresy in Malta. This created a situation in which there were three persons of virtually equal authority. The grand master of the Knights was officially an equal of all the monarchs of Christendom, but the Holy Roman Emperor maintained the right to nominate the local bishop, who was then given a voice in the Knights’ affairs, while Inquisitor Cubella also tried to assert his power as a representative of the pope. A similar three-way struggle for power and influence continued, albeit with different antagonists, for more than four centuries. While the Knights protected the islands against foreign invaders, the Church, with its own laws, operated in Malta as a quasi state within a state. In the villages and countryside, the priests served as de facto local governments. Native Maltese were not permitted to become members of the order because it feared the Church’s influence on the local population. It was a priest who led an uprising against the Knights of Malta in 1775 (which was brutally quashed), and it was priests who organized the revolt against the French occupiers. Initially welcomed as liberators from the oppressive Knights, the French troops committed a major error when they moved against the Maltese churches, looting silver and valuables and closing down convents. After the Maltese had invited the British in to help evict the French, they wanted to establish clear guidelines for their new occupiers. On 15 June 1802, the Maltese issued a “Declaration of Rights,” which included the assertion that “His Majesty the King is the protector of our holy religion, and is bound to uphold and protect it as heretofore; and without any diminution of what has been practiced since these Islands have acknowledged His Majesty as their sovereign to this day.” The British rulers, while denying the Maltese political control, learned from the French experience and did their utmost to avoid interfering in the Church’s domain, so long as the strategic military and foreign policies of the islands were not involved. However, given the power that the Church exercised over the Maltese, appointing the bishop of Malta recurred as a source of controversy. Whether wisely or cunningly, the British chose to negotiate with the Vatican directly, rather than with the Maltese ecclesiastics. The British government knew that Great Britain and the Vatican had broader interests at

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stake, involving many other colonies besides just Malta, and decided to use that fact to negotiate an agreement with the pope in regard to appointing bishops of Malta. The Vatican agreed to allow the British to veto its appointments before announcing them publicly. In 1828, the British negotiated three concessions from the Catholic Church concerning the relationship between the colonial rulers and Roman Catholic Church in Malta: the jurisdiction of ecclesiastical courts was restricted to spiritual matters only; the right of sanctuary in criminal cases was eliminated; and all clergy, except bishops, could be made subject to court proceedings. In late 1930, then prime minister Lord Strickland, although himself a Catholic born in Malta of an English father and Maltese mother, caused a major confrontation between the Church and government when he attempted to interfere in the removal of a Catholic priest. The Vatican resented Strickland’s authoritarian style in this matter, but the incident was part of a more general dissatisfaction in Malta concerned with “the language question.” Strickland was accused of trying to promote the English language and culture to the detriment of the Italian-speaking professional class and the Maltesespeaking clerics and their parishioners. On 1 May 1930, a pastoral letter to the clergy, signed by the archbishop of Malta and the bishop of Gozo, was distributed saying, in effect, that it was a grave sin to vote for Lord Strickland or any of his candidates in the elections of 1930 and that priests were forbidden to administer the sacraments to those who refused to obey the instructions. The British protested the action to the Vatican, but the protest was rejected. Then, the governor of Malta, with the full approval of London, refused to allow the elections to be held and withdrew the Constitution. Lord Strickland remained as prime minister in an advisory capacity. In May 1932, he addressed a letter of apology to the pope, which was accepted. Early in June, it was declared that since the pope had accepted the apology, the pastoral letter was rescinded. A similar conflict between Church leaders and politicians occurred in 1961 when Archbishop Michael Gonzi, angered by Dom Mintoff’s attacks on the Church and its schools, issued an interdict against him and stated that anyone voting for Malta Labour Party (MLP) candidates was committing a mortal sin and would be denied the sacraments and a Christian burial. The same democratizing influences of World War II and the acceleration of globalization in recent decades that have led Malta to assert its independence have had an impact on the Maltese attitudes concerning the Catholic Church in Malta. While over 90 percent of the Maltese population still claims to be Roman Catholic faithful, results of a survey released in 2018 indicated that weekly attendance at Sunday mass has fallen to approximately 38 percent, down from 72.7 percent in 1982 and 50 percent in 2006, declining 1 percent per year. This still compares quite favorably with other predominant-

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ly Catholic countries, such as Italy and France, where church attendance has fallen to 10 percent. The survey also reported that 74 percent of Maltese attend church services once a month. In Gozo, a much smaller population, around 60 percent, still attends mass regularly. Reports of sexual predation by some clergy have likely played a role in that decline. Although divorces granted to Maltese in other countries were officially recognized in Malta, it was the only European country in which divorce was illegal until a 2011 referendum and subsequent change in the law. Sixty percent of the population surveyed in 2008 thought that divorce would be legalized within 10 years. Legislation allowing civil unions by 2014 and same-sex marriages by 2017 was further evidence of a shift in social mores toward a more secular society, less willing to obey the dictates of the Church. The proportion of civil marriages has risen from 33 percent of total registered marriages in 2010 to 48 percent in 2014. Despite these changes, the Catholic Church, with its schools, societies, festas, and band clubs, still exerts a dominant influence on everyday life in Malta. See also JESUITS; JEWS OF MALTA; PRIVILEGIUM FORI; XERRI, DUN MIKIEL. CECIL, REAR ADMIRAL O. N. A.. See BUTTIGIEG, DR. ANTON (1912–1983). CENTRAL BANK OF MALTA. See BANKING; FINANCIAL SERVICES. CHURCH. See ARCHITECTURE; CATHOLIC CHURCH; INQUISITION; JESUITS; RELIGION. CHURCHILL, SIR WINSTON (1874–1965). Although his military service in World War I was as a lieutenant colonel in the army at the front in France, Winston Churchill’s political actions were always supportive of the Royal Navy, probably dating back to his appointment as First Lord of the Admiralty in 1911. His service in the Colonial Office in 1921 made him well aware of Malta and the aspirations of the Maltese. When Churchill became British prime minister in May 1940, he was almost alone in recognizing the importance of holding and strengthening Malta. Paul Reynaud, prime minister of France, proposed that an offer be made to Italy that if it stayed out of the war, it would be awarded Gibraltar, Malta, Corsica, and Nice at war’s end. When the five-man War Cabinet voted on whether to accept the proposal, Churchill voted “no.” He was joined by Clement Attlee and Arthur Greenwood. The two favorable votes were cast by Neville Chamberlain and Lord Halifax.

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In late spring 1942, Churchill worried about the failure of so many convoys to get through to the islands. He told General Claude Auchinleck, commander in chief of Middle East operations, that he must create a military diversion to help ease the attacks on the convoys, for to lose Malta would be a “disaster of the first order.” When Auchinleck showed some reluctance, Churchill threatened to relieve him of his command if he did not act. Churchill’s tenacious support of Malta helped save it from surrender or defeat. If Churchill’s actions showed him to be pro-Malta, the Maltese responded by being pro-Churchill. No Maltese air raid shelter was without some kind of a religious shrine. What made them unusual was that Churchill’s picture was often present along with a crucifix and a picture of Our Lady. See also ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO (1882–1945). CIVIL COMMISSIONER. See GOVERNORS OF MALTA. COLEIRO PRECA, MARIE-LOUISE (1958–). Born 7 December 1958 in Qormi, Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca has spent over 40 years in politics as a member of the Malta Labour Party. She graduated from the University of Malta with a bachelor’s degree in legal studies and humanities. At age 13, she served as a volunteer in the Catholic Action Movement and was elected public relations officer of the Polytechnic students union when she was only 16. At age 21, she was elected the general secretary of the MLP and served as president of the party’s Women’s Association. Since 1998, when she first sought a seat in Parliament, Coleiro Preca was elected from the sixth electoral district in every election until she became president. As a member of Parliament in opposition, she served as shadow minister for social policy, tourism, the national airline, and health and on the Parliamentary Committee for Social Affairs and the Family. She also served in the parliamentary delegation to the Council of Europe. Coleiro Preca is well known for her political activism, especially with regard to addressing social problems. After the Labour Party came into power in 2013, she was appointed minister for the family and social solidarity. During the year that she served as minister, she initiated a significant number of reforms. These included creation of regional family resource centers, simplifying the pension and welfare systems, providing supplemental support for children in poverty and full pensions to widows who are working. Sworn in on 4 April 2014 as the ninth president, Coleiro Preca is the youngest president ever to serve Malta and only its second woman. She was the first president of Malta to have been unanimously approved by the Parliament in spite of being from the party not in power at the time.

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After assuming the presidency, Coleiro Preca established a number of entities to ensure dialogue and to foster effective unity among the Maltese people. On 15 June, she founded the President’s Foundation for the Wellbeing of Society with the aim to “create a safe space for dialogue on social wellbeing, bridging popular wisdom with academic research.” Coleiro Preca has spent most of her life fighting for social causes. It is safe to say that she played a significant role in the reform movement and changing public attitudes regarding divorce and gay marriage initiated by the Labour Party. Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca is married to Edgar Preca and has a daughter, Angie. See also WOMEN. COMMONWEALTH. The British Crown, which once reigned over an empire “on which the sun never sets,” gradually relinquished control over its various colonies. Beginning with Canada in 1867, Australia in 1900, New Zealand in 1907, South Africa in 1910, and Ireland in 1921, one by one the former British colonies were given a newly created status known as “dominions.” They were independent nations yet bound together by a common past, culture, and interests, a grouping once described as a “Commonwealth of Nations.” In 1926, the prime ministers of these countries adopted the Balfour Report, which highlighted the new reality, describing the dominions as “autonomous Communities within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown.” Allegiance to the Crown was no longer a requirement when the Commonwealth prime ministers met in 1949 to admit India as a republic and drop “British” from the name of their organization. Today, the 53 heads of nations, including Malta, still belong to the Commonwealth and meet every other year to discuss common goals and resolve contentious issues. Malta hosted the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) on 25–27 November 2005 and again on 27–29 November 2015, which was attended by her Royal Highness Queen Elizabeth II. CONSIGLIO POPOLARE. A forum for discussing matters relating to the well-being of the islands, the Consiglio Popolare, or “popular council,” was originally part of the Universita. An early form of representative government, its members were elected from among the Maltese nobility, those in various professions, the clergy, and certain artisans. The electors were the heads of families. The Consiglio Popolare was abolished by Grand Master Rohan of the Knights of Malta in 1790. There was agitation to permit its

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reorganization when the British took over from the French, but permission was refused. An attempt to reconstitute a consiglio popolare in the early 20th century failed as political parties emerged and divided the organizers. CONSTITUTION. Malta was granted numerous constitutions by the British, who revoked them several times during their rule over the island. The various constitutions are known by the name of the particular British official who led the negotiations. The first was the Bathurst Constitution of 1813, which was not a true constitution but merely orders that essentially left all decisions under the control of the governor. The same was true of the 1835 Constitution, the Ponsonby orders, but they allowed for the appointment of a seven-person advisory council. Letters patent in 1849 provided for a council with the first elected majority. By 1887, the first representative government was achieved due to the efforts of Gerald Strickland and Enrico Mizzi, but in 1903, the Chamberlain Constitution was a step backward to the conditions of the 1849 Constitution, under which the council only served as an advisory body. Following the bread riots of 1919, the Amery Constitution was granted in 1921, creating a diarchy under which the British government was responsible for foreign affairs and defense matters but left local issues to be decided by a bicameral legislature elected by Maltese. It was suspended in 1930, reinstated in 1932, and suspended again in 1933, eliminating any participation by Maltese until 1936, when members were nominated to the executive council. An amendment to this constitution recognized Malti as an official language along with English. The MacDonald Constitution of 1939 restored an elected council of government, but the governor led the country through the turmoil of World War II. In 1947, self-government was restored. From 1955 to 1964, Malta was rocked by political upheaval that again caused constitutions to be granted, only to be withdrawn again. In 1961, the Blood Constitution was the first to mention the “State of Malta.” The Independence Constitution of 1964, which is in force today (as amended), is divided into four parts. The first contains information concerning the national anthem, the flag, religion, and language. The second deals with questions of principle, such as the right to work, compulsory and free primary education, social assistance, and insurance. The third covers citizenship and the fundamental rights and freedoms of each individual. The fourth concerns the head of state; the Parliament, including its powers, composition, procedures, and all election matters; the judiciary; finance; public affairs; and other miscellaneous matters. See also CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS; PRIME MINISTERS.

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CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS. Over two dozen major acts have altered the 1964 Independence Constitution. The first of these was adopted on 13 December 1974 and provided that Malta would cease to be a monarchy and would instead become a democratic republic. This meant that the executive authority ceased to be vested in the British queen (or king). Those powers were henceforth assumed by the president of the republic. Election is by the Parliament for five years. The act further provided for a reduction in the voting age from 21 to 18. Another act, which went into effect on 14 February 1987, came about through a bit of political “horse-trading” between the Nationalist and Labour Parties. In the preceding election, Labour had carried a majority of the seats in Parliament even though the Nationalists obtained a higher total of the popular vote. Of course, the Nationalists were anxious to change that defect for the future. The Malta Labour Party wanted to ensure that the nation would never again be a base for any foreign military forces. Each gained its objective in this act. It provided that Malta was to be neutral and that no foreign military base would ever be permitted on its soil. Its second provision gave assurance that any political party receiving more than 50 percent of the valid votes cast in the first count of an election but having a total number of elected members of Parliament amounting to less than 50 percent would have its total number of seats increased so that its total would be one seat greater than that of the other party or parties. An act in 1989 provided for the allowance of dual citizenship in certain limited cases, which in February 2000 was considerably broadened, permitting dual citizenship for most Maltese citizens. In 1991, the constitution was amended by adding “sex” into a clause prohibiting discrimination based on “creed or color.” Sixty-eight local councils were established in 1993 to promote more local decision making. As part of joining the European Union (EU), the Constitution had to be amended to prevent Malta’s laws from conflicting with EU laws. Another amendment was passed in 2015 requiring all political parties contesting an election to register. CONSTITUTIONAL PARTY (CP). The CP had its origins in a merger of Dr. Augusto Bartolo’s Constitutional Party and Gerald Strickland’s Anglo–Maltese Party. The new party kept the name of Bartolo’s party, but the leadership passed to Strickland. Although the party’s positions were based on the pragmatic needs of the moment, a few major ones remained unchanged over the years. The party was staunchly pro-Great Britain. In the language question it was pro-English, although from time to time, mild support was given to the idea of equality between English and Italian. The CP usually agreed in general with the Malta Labour Party on social reforms. Direct taxation and any increase in succession duties (inheritance taxes) were al-

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ways opposed. Instead, the party supported the position that government revenues should come from indirect taxes. The party was dissolved in February 1946 due to a dispute among many of its leaders. See also POLITICAL PARTIES; STRICKLAND, MABEL EDELINE, OBE (1899–1988). CORONATION INCIDENT. An event that united all of the diverse political factions in Malta occurred in the spring of 1953. It was learned that Malta’s flag was not to be included with those of other members of the British Commonwealth in coronation ceremonies for Elizabeth II as queen. To make matters even worse, Prime Minister Giorgio Borg Olivier had not been invited to participate. On 13 May 1953, the Legislative Assembly took unprecedented unanimous action to protest these official slights and canceled any local celebrations of the event. On 22 May, it was announced that Malta’s prime minister would be on the invitation list and would be treated in a way similar to the prime ministers of Northern Ireland and Southern Rhodesia. The announcement also stated that the Maltese flag would be carried during the event. The motion canceling Malta’s own celebrations was rescinded, again by a unanimous vote. The prime minister and flag participated in the festivities in London, and a merry celebration was held in Malta. CORRUPTION. In 1853, E. E. Crowe, an Englishman, wrote that Malta was “peopled by a corrupt, idle and criminal race under the Knights,” but went on to state “the Maltese, it now seems, bear the very contrary character. Crime is rare and no race can be more industrious.” In today’s Malta, crime is still rare and, generally speaking, limited to petty theft and destruction of personal property. However, there have been notable exceptions, especially since Malta’s accession to the European Union. Whether bribery, money laundering, peddling, or nepotism, corruption can be found to a greater or lessor degree in every country. Yet smaller countries, especially autonomous island states like Jersey and the Virgin and Cayman Islands, that are English speaking and lacking resources, have developed financial services making them particularly desirable jurisdictions in which to park money “off shore,” farther away from scrutiny. The growth in this industry has been driven by a significant increase in freedom to move capital globally that began in the 1980s. Similarly, Malta, with membership in the EU as of 2004, has developed its financial services industry, which is currently estimated to equal eight times GDP and has become a major source of revenue. Joining the EU brought about an increase in capital flows and hence temptations for local contractors, government employees, and foreigners, including criminal elements seeking to launder money and gain access to the larger EU market. The online gaming industry, which has recently become

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another major source of revenue for Malta, has come under scrutiny as an avenue for Italian and Russian mobsters, among others, to launder ill-gotten gains. In 2012, an Australian business risk analysis company, commenting on the situation in Malta, expressed the opinion that “corruption does not represent a significant challenge for businesses operating in Malta.” However, it added a cautionary restriction: “except for most notably the public procurement sector.” Enemalta, the nationally owned fuel company, purchases around €360 million of oil or around €1 million a day. Given such high expenditures, it is not surprising that Malta’s oil purchases would be an attractive target for corruption by the officials involved. In January 2013, a major oil procurement corruption scheme was revealed, proving the point. Beginning in about 1999, executives of an oil storage company had been colluding with executives of the state-owned energy company, Enemalta, to share kickbacks on oil storage and purchasing contracts. Commissions labeled “consultancy fees” amounting to $300,000 annually— in total an estimated $6 million—are alleged to have been paid by a Dutch company to an Enemalta procurement committee member’s Swiss bank account for oil purchased by the state utility. In August 2009, Frank Portelli, director of St Philip’s Hospital, claimed he would be willing to reveal the names of Enemalta officials he believed were being bribed, but only if whistleblowers’ legislation were in force. It was not until September 2013 that a “protection of the whistleblower” act was passed. Trials for the executives involved were still in process as of early 2018. Soon after it was elected to power in 1987, the Nationalist Party administration set up an agency to fight corruption, hoping to prevent a repetition of what happened under Mintoff’s Labour government. The Permanent Commission Against Corruption was established by act of Malta’s Parliament in 1988. Although it investigated 425 cases between 1988 and 2014, not a single person involved in those cases has been arrested by the police. According to a EU report on corruption issued in December 2015, almost half of businesses surveyed complained that in the preceding three-year period, corruption prevented them from winning a public contract. The report states that corruption is pervasive in tender offers managed by national as well as local authorities, where connections between the local elite and political figures are as strong as they are in Malta. Malta signed the United Nations Anticorruption Convention in 2005 and ratified it in 2008. Malta is also a signatory to the Council of Europe’s AntiMoney Laundering Measures and the Financing of Terrorism (MONEYVAL). Laws are enacted in Malta, especially as a requirement for joining the EU, but violations of the laws are often not at all or only minimally investigated, and penalties are frequently weak or not enforced. In 2002, Chief Justice Noel Arrigo and Judge Patrick Vella were investigated by police over

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claims that they had accepted thousands of Maltese liri in return for reducing by four years a convicted man’s prison sentence on appeal. They served less than the two years to which they were sentenced. In late October 2012, Maltese EU commissoner for health John Dalli was under investigation by Olaf, the EU antifraud agency. A Maltese businessman, Silvio Zammit, had asked for a bribe from snus (chewing tobacco) producer Swedish Match. Zammit claimed that through his connection as a canvasser for Dalli, he could influence the commissioner’s position on legislation concerning tobacco sales. Although strongly denying any direct involvement, Dalli had been aware of Zammit’s efforts and failed to report them. As a result, he resigned from his position under pressure and quit politics. He currently stands accused of participation in a Ponzi scheme to defraud investors in the United States. Although corruption has plagued both political parties that have dominated the Maltese government in the last five decades, the most numerous and serious allegations have come to light since the election in 2013 of the Labour government headed by Joseph Muscat. In 2014, Jimmy Magro, the executive chairman of the Malta Projects Coordinating Agency, was accused of demanding a kickback of €25,000 for the purchase of waste equipment. Although the Permanent Commission against Corruption was “morally convinced” he had solicited money in 2014, he continued to serve in his position with reduced pay (later reimbursed) and then retired. The entire matter went before the court, but to date (2018) it has not been resolved. In August 2016, Neville Gafá, a government official and childhood friend of the prime minister, was accused of selling medical visas to Libyan nationals. So far (2018), the police have failed to pursue an investigation. In order to follow EU directives, Malta overhauled its public procurement procedures in 2016, decentralizing tendering procedures for contracts of various values and increasing capacity for e-procurement. Ministries now vet their own tenders, and the Contracts Department, which formerly had that role, now acts as regulator of the procurement process. Yet the problem of transparency in the awarding of contracts (as required by the EU) has not yet been addressed, causing some in the public and media to question whether the government of Malta has the political will to make the procurement process “transparent and fair.” A Freedom of Information Act was passed in 2012; however, members of the media are finding strong resistance on the part of the current administration to release information, often under the excuse that “commercial sensitivity” requires that the information be withheld. More serious allegations of corruption in the Muscat government were revealed in February 2016 by journalist and internet blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia. She accused then minister of energy and health Konrad Mizzi and Prime Minister Muscat’s chief of staff, Keith Schembri, of having set up

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secret overseas accounts to hide kickbacks from oil and passport sales. She also claimed that the owner of another secret offshore account was none other than the prime minister’s wife, Michelle Muscat. This allegation has not been investigated to date (2018), but the release of the “Panama Papers” several months later confirmed the existence of accounts held by Mizzi and Schembri. Caruana Galizia’s brutal murder in a car bomb explosion on 16 October 2017 caused massive demonstrations and focused worldwide attention on the rule of law in Malta. Although the government offered a million-euro reward for information in the case, the country’s reputation was further damaged by Muscat’s persistent refusal to remove Mizzi and Schembri from office, insisting they had done nothing illegal. The prime minister took away Mizzi’s energy and health portfolios but kept him in the cabinet as a “minister without a portfolio,” reinstalling him later as minister of tourism. In reaction to Caruana Galizia’s murder, the European Parliament sent an eight-person delegation to Malta tasked with investigating the rule of law in Malta. In their report, the members of the EU delegation noted various concerns about Malta’s political system, namely “ an unclear separation of powers, weak implementation of anti-money laundering rules, Malta’s cash-forpassports scheme, the continued presence of individuals in government with links to the Panama Papers scandal and too many powers in the attorney general’s remit that were not fully used.” The Maltese attorney general claimed that it was the responsibility of the police to investigate and bring charges before he could proceed and that currently there was insufficient evidence to prosecute. Caruana Galizia had published numerous articles based on accounts by Maria Efimova, a Russian employee of the Pilatus Bank, registered in Malta. She alleged that members of the Aliyev family, which rules Azerbaijan and owns the bank, transferred money to Schembris’s and Mizzi’s Panama companies. Efimova is the same whistleblower who further alleged that a third Panamian company, owned by the prime minister’s wife, received over $1 million from the Aliyev family. In late 2017, Eva Jung, a Danish investigative journalist who helped to expose the complex $2.9 billion moneylaundering scheme known as the “Azerbaijani laundromat,” commented that the methods and procedures exposed in Malta looked similar. Jonathon Ferris, an investigator with Malta’s Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit (FIAU) who was looking into the allegations concerning the account allegedly owned by Michelle Muscat, was abruptly fired without clear cause. His request for whistleblower status has so far not been granted. On 21 March 2018, the chairman of the Pilatus Bank, Ali Sadr Hasheminejad, was arrested in the United States on unrelated charges, and on the same day, Maria Efrimova turned herself in to authorities in Greece, where she had fled, fearing for her life.

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As minister for health, Konrad Mizzi had also been involved in negotiations for the privatization of three state-owned hospitals. In September 2015, the government suddenly announced that an unknown firm, Vitals Global Healthcare (VGH), had been given a contract to take over Karin Grech, St. Luke’s, and the Gozo General hospitals. The contract called for Vitals to upgrade and manage the hospital facilities for 30 years (later increased to 99 years). In addition, Vitals was contracted to construct a new campus for the Barts School of Medicine on Gozo, scheduled to begin classes in the fall of 2016. The VGH Group, based in the British Virgin Islands, had no previous experience running hospitals, and the identities of its owners were hidden by a series of shell companies. Twenty-one months later, after VGS failed to raise enough capital to complete the transaction and none of the deadlines for completion of stipulated services had been met, the contract was sold to an American company, Steward Healthcare, Intl. When the deal was taken to court by one of the original investors, court filings revealed that the Maltese government had secretly signed a deal with VGH five months before a request for proposals had been issued. To date, the investor or investors that own a remaining 30 percent of VGS remain unidentified, raising considerable speculation about who this may be and why the name(s) are being kept secret. Another “open secret” for several years was the smuggling of oil from Libya to Europe via Malta. A former Maltese soccer star turned businessman, Darren Debono, was arrested in Sicily by the Italian police in October 2017. He and another Maltese had formed an unofficial consortium for illicit fuel smuggling from Zuwarah, Libya, to Malta and Italy, earning the group over €30 million. The kingpin in the operation was a Libyan national, Fahmi Ben Khalifa. Because the smuggling operation involved some Mafia members, who have used car bombings to kill their rivals, some are speculating that they may be behind the car bombing of Caruana Galizia. In its latest ranking of freedom and democracy in the world, the independent research organization Freedom House reflected concern over Malta’s gradual erosion of the rule of law by lowering Malta’s place from 17th to 33rd. Given the plethora of incidents yet to be investigated that involve suspicions of corruption in the Muscat government, Matthew Caruana Galizia, a son of the murdered journalist, may be justified in denouncing Malta as “a mafia state” in which “a culture of impunity has been allowed to flourish by the government.” COUNCIL OF EUROPE. Not to be confused with the European Council (an organ of the European Union), the Council of Europe consists of two statutory organs: the Committee of Ministers and the Assembly. It was founded on 5 May 1949 by the Treaty of London, which was signed by the

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10 original member nations. The idea of an organization that would evolve into a “United States of Europe” was proposed by Winston Churchill. Its goal was to promote unity and common action among those states that practiced pluralistic democracy and to uphold the rule of law and respect for human rights. Malta joined the Council of Europe as its 18th member on 25 January 1965. The Council currently represents 47 members and regularly meets at its secretariat in Strasbourg, France. The Council of Europe’s main activity is to draft conventions, international treaties, for its member states. On some occasions nonmember states have also been invited to sign conventions, for example, the Convention on Cybercrime, signed by Canada, Japan, South Africa, and the United States. Its most important contribution has been the establishment of the European Court of Human Rights. The flag of the European Council as well as its anthem, Beethoven’s “Ode to Joy,” later became the flag and anthem of the European Union. COUNCIL OF GOVERNMENT. See BORG OLIVIER, DR. GIORGIO (1911–1980); BRITISH RULE. CREMONA, MONSIGNOR PAWLU (1946–). Born in Valletta on 25 January 1946, Pawlu Cremona attended the Lyceum in Hamrun before joining the Dominicans in September 1962. He was ordained a priest in 1969 by Mgr. Michael Gonzi, then archbishop of Malta. He taught moral philosophy and theology for many years at the Dominican Studium in Rabat and earned a doctorate from the Pontifical University of St. Thomas Aquinas in Rome, then served as Dominican provincial until 1989, when he was called as parish priest serving Our Lady of Fatima in Guardamangia and, later, the parish of Jesus the Nazarene Church in Sliema. He has held numerous administrative offices and authored books and commentaries on theological issues while continuing to educate Dominican novices. Cremona was announced as the 11th archbishop of Malta on 2 December 2006 and was ordained by his predecessor, His Excellency Mgr. Joseph Mercieca, on 26 January 2007. Shortly after his installation, he raised some eyebrows in Malta, where at the time divorce was still illegal, when he expressed his support for laws to protect cohabiting couples. On 17 October 2014, Archbishop Cremona resigned his position, the first bishop of Malta to resign prior to retirement age since the 19th century. Bishop Charles Scicluna was appointed apostolic administrator during the sede vacante (vacant seat) and was subsequently appointed the next archbishop of Malta by Pope Francis on Friday, 27 February 2015.

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CRIME. Given its size and insular location, Malta is, generally speaking, a safe country. Nonviolent and nonconfrontational crimes, such as pickpocketing and purse snatching and theft of cell phones, computers, money, jewelry and iPhones, tend to be the main criminal activities. Among European Union countries, Malta ranks lowest for rapes, homicides, and drug-, fraud-, and bribery-related crimes, but is average for automobile thefts, burglaries, and assaults and high for robberies. Of the over 8,000 crimes reported in 2008, 60 percent were cases of theft, damage to property was 17 percent, and bodily harm occurred in only 7 percent of the reported incidents. Domestic violence, a category that had not been adequately reported until then, ranked fifth, at 6 percent. Crime rates are higher in those areas that draw a lot of tourists. St Julian’s, Sliema, Valletta, and St. Paul’s Bay accounted for 55 percent of reported criminal incidents in 2016. Paceville, a suburb with many bars and nightclubs, draws a younger crowd and, combined with excessive alcohol consumption, experiences a much higher rate of crime than the national average. Smuggling of drugs and attempts to avoid duties are less frequent, but officers disrupted 459 smuggling attempts between January and September 2016. These included 254 attempts to avoid paying duties on products for the local market, 189 attempts involving prohibited products, 5 vehicles, a cabin cruiser, 10.2 million cigarettes, 15 kilos of cocaine, 8.5 kilos of cannabis, and 300 ecstasy pills. Also intercepted were 9.7 million counterfeit products, from shampoo to washing liquid to cigarettes. Tax evasion on alcohol and cigarettes still represents the greatest activity in the black market. As increasing numbers of tourists and migrants arrive in Malta, authorities have seen an increase in crimes involving human trafficking for purposes of sex or forced labor; however, these remain relatively few in number. Corruption and money laundering are additional concerns for Malta as it attempts to become a well-regulated center for banking, financial services, and online gaming. In the last two decades, several ministers in both of the major parties and the prime minister’s wife, Michelle Muscat, have been suspected of taking bribes or kickbacks in procurement of oil, the sale of passports, or influence peddling. Suspicion about Russian and Italian mafia obtaining Maltese passports and infiltrating businesses in Malta has also grown in recent years. Violent crime is lower than in many other EU countries. Armed violence and assaults against the general public or targeting of foreigners is very uncommon. However, attacks of revenge or intimidation against local residents have occurred. These tend to be dramatic yet isolated events, such as setting cars and residential doors on fire. Car bombings have also occurred. Although they are normally rare, Malta witnessed five car bombings in 13 months recently, which killed three persons and injured two others. These typically involved known criminals with connections to gangs or the mafia.

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However, the brutal car bomb murder in October 2017 of Daphne Caruana Galizia, a journalist who was aggressively blogging about corruption in the Maltese government, has elicited vehement local and global condemnation, bringing into question the rule of law in Malta. The European Parliament sent a delegation to investigate the state of the rule of law in Malta. See also DALLI, JOHN (1948–); MIZZI, KONRAD (1977–).

D DALLI, DR. HELENA (1967–). Born Elena Christine Abela, Dr. Dalli is a Maltese politician with the Labour Party. She represented Malta as a contestant in the Miss World Competition of 1979 and played the role of a feisty policewoman in the 1985 Joe Don Baker film Final Justice, her only film appearance. First elected to Parliament in 1996, she is the third most elected woman in Maltese political history and a staunch campaigner for women’s issues. From 1996 to 1998, she was the parliamentary secretary for women’s rights. Since 2013, when the Labour Party was returned to government, Dr. Dalli has been serving as minister for social dialogue, consumer affairs, and civil liberties. In April 2015, she sponsored a law establishing basic rights for transsexual and intersex people. Dr. Dalli is a columnist for the Nationalist Party–leaning Times of Malta as well as the Labour Party newspaper, L-Orrizont, and lectures in economic and political sociology, public policy, and sociology of law at the University of Malta. See also WOMEN. DALLI, JOHN (1948–). John Dalli was born on 5 October 1948, the first of five children of Carmel and Emma Dalli. He received his secondary education at the lyceum and studied for a degree in accountancy at the Malta College of Arts, Science and Technology (MCAST) with a scholarship from the Malta Drydocks, where he was serving as an apprentice. He continued working there and completed his studies to become a chartered accountant. After two years at the Drydocks and a year with an ad agency, Dalli went to work as an accountant for Blue Bell Malta, an American firm and the largest textile factory in Malta at the time, becoming its financial controller in 1962. Dalli spent two years in Brussels with the firm before returning to Malta in 1979 when he was asked to head the marketing efforts of the Nationalist Party (NP) in preparing for the 1981 general elections. He had already been active in the NP since 1971 as a member of the party’s youth

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movement, and in 1981 he resigned from the Blue Bell Company to become a candidate for Parliament in the elections of 1981. He failed to get elected at that time and then set up his own consulting firm. Dalli gradually became more involved in politics, working less at consulting and more for the party. He organized the printing and publishing sector of the party and its financial systems as well as introducing computers to the Maltese political scene. He developed programs to create databases of voters in Malta. Dalli was elected to the Malta Parliament in 1987 as a candidate with the NP and was reelected in five successive campaigns. He served as parliamentary secretary for industry (1987–1990), minister of economic affairs (1990–1992), minister of finance (1992–1996, 1998–2004), and minister of foreign affairs and investment promotion (2004). While at the Ministry of Finance, Dalli was responsible for the design and introduction of the VAT (value-added tax), which was a part of preparing the Maltese taxation system for Malta’s membership in the European Union (EU). The introduction of the VAT was very unpopular with the electorate and is in large part considered to have been responsible for the Nationalist government’s losing the election of 1996 to the MLP, which promptly eliminated the VAT and withdrew Malta’s application to join the EU. When dissent in the MLP caused the NP to return to government two years later, the VAT and the application for EU membership were reinstated. From 1987 to 1996 and again from 1996 to 2004, Dalli cochaired the Libyan–Maltese Joint Commission, negotiating political and economic agreements between Malta and Libya to bring them into accord with the EU acquis. In February 2004, he ran for the leadership of the NP but lost to Lawrence Gonzi. Dalli was reelected to Parliament in the March 2008 general election and returned to the cabinet of the Gonzi government as minister for social policy with a portfolio that included health, the elderly, employment and training, housing, and industrial relations. On 10 February 2010, Dalli resigned as minister and member of Parliament when he was appointed the EU’s commissioner for health and consumer policy in the Barroso Commission. As commissioner, Dalli was embroiled in a number of controversies. He authorized a genetically modified potato and approved the publication of a school calendar that included holidays of various religions but omitted Christian holidays. He had to apologize for pro-Qaddafi comments made at the time of the Libyan civil war. However, the worst issue was an allegation that a Maltese entrepreneur, Silvio Zammit, had used his contacts with Commissioner Dalli in an attempt to influence a legislative proposal on tobacco products under consideration by the EU Commission. A complaint filed in May 2012 by the tobacco producer Swedish Match Company, which had

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been approached by Zammit trying to sell his influence, caused an investigation to be launched by OLAF, the EU’s antifraud office. Although no evidence of Dalli’s direct involvement was found and he denied any, he had been aware of the situation and therefore was pressured to resign, which he did on 16 October 2012. More recently allegations have surfaced that Dalli and a Maltese female friend were involved in a Ponzi scheme run by his two daughters that stole millions of dollars from investors in the United States. To date, the case is still being tried in court. John Dalli is a fellow of the Certified Chartered Accountants of the UK and a member of the British Institute of Management. He married Josette Callus, and they have two daughters. See also CORRUPTION; DOCKYARDS. DE BONO, DR. EDWARD (1933–). Considered one of the world’s leading authorities in creative thinking, Edward De Bono has written numerous books in which he developed the concepts of “lateral thinking,” “Six Thinking Hats,” and other techniques for teaching thinking as a skill. De Bono was born on 19 May 1933 in Malta, studied at Oxford as a Rhodes scholar, and earned an MA in psychology and physiology and a doctorate in medicine from Cambridge. In 1969, he established the Cognitive Research Trust (CoRT), which has developed into commercial training programs, teaching business problem solving for major corporations. In 1992, he founded the De Bono Institute for the Design and Development of Thinking at the University of Malta, offering master’s degrees in creativity and innovation, and four years later he founded a similar institute in Melbourne, Australia. De Bono’s latest creation, launched in 2004, is the World Centre for New Thinking, housed in a compound in Fort Ricasoli, Malta. De Bono envisions a physical location where governments, corporations, and nongovernmental organizations that pay a membership fee can send representatives to engage in creative problem solving. DE MARCO, GUIDO (1931–2010). Professor Guido de Marco served as president of Malta from 1999 to 2004. He was born in Valletta on 22 July 1931 and educated at St. Aloysius College and the University of Malta, earning a bachelor of arts in 1952 and a doctor of laws degree in 1955. He began his legal career as a lawyer for the government and contested his first election in 1962 as an unsuccessful candidate for the Democratic Nationalist Party (Partito Democratico Nazionalista). De Marco was named Crown counsel in 1964 and elected to Parliament as a candidate of the Nationalist Party in April 1966, a post he retained in every election until he resigned to become president. He lectured in criminal law at the University of Malta,

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where he was promoted to professor in 1989. He served as secretary general of the Nationalist Party until 1977, when he was elected deputy leader of the party. In 1987, upon the Nationalist Party’s return to power, de Marco was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of the interior and justice. He introduced bills in Parliament adopting the European Convention on Human Rights into domestic law and is credited with the founding of the Police Academy and modernizing the police force. Appointed minister of foreign affairs in May 1990, de Marco’s extensive knowledge of international affairs, speaking skills, and personal charm made him one of Malta’s most popular politicians and a prominent representative for Malta in the United Nations. On 18 September 1990, he was elected president of the United Nations General Assembly (45th Session). As president of the UN General Assembly, de Marco initiated reform of the body after the fall of communism. As a result of his visits to North and South Korea, both countries became members of the UN. His proposal for revising the role of the UN Trusteeship Council is still under discussion today. De Marco actively represented Malta in other international organizations, such as the Council of Europe, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the Commonwealth. After completing his term as president of Malta, de Marco was chosen to be the new chairperson of the Commonwealth Foundation, the intergovernmental body of the Commonwealth, which works with civil society organizations. On 25 October 2000, Queen Elizabeth II honored de Marco by bestowing upon him the title of Knight Grand Cross of the Most Distinguished Order of St. Michael and St. George (GCMG). He in turn honored the queen by presenting her with the Maltese Companion of the Order of Merit. In 2006, de Marco was awarded the Shuman Prize. His autobiography, The Politics of Persuasion, was published in 2007. He passed away on 12 August 2010 and after three days of national mourning was given a state funeral on 16 August 2010. DEBONO, FRANCO (1974–). Franco Debono was born on 9 March 1974, into a “staunch Nationalist family.” He claims to have been interested in politics at an early age. After completing his schooling at St Aloysius’s College in Birkirkara, he studied law at the University of Malta and earned a doctorate in law in 1999. He became a criminal defense lawyer and owns a law firm in Valletta, Franco Debono and Associates. Debono first ran for office in the general elections in 1998 on the Nationalist Party ticket, and again in 2003, but failed to win a seat. He was elected to Parliament on his third try, in 2008; to the surprise of many, he managed to unseat two long-standing members, Louis Galea, minister of education, and Helen Damato, parliamentary secretary for the elderly.

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In Parliament, Debono chaired the committee on the “recodification and consolidation of laws” and was also a member of a special committee on “black dust precipitation,” investigating several incidents of unusually high pollution. He became known as a rebel, frequently attacking members of his own party, especially the prime minister and his cabinet, whom he considered to be an “evil clique.” Debono felt Malta needed urgent changes to its laws and in 2012 succeeded in pressuring the prime minister to split the Ministry for Justice and Home Affairs into two separate departments. Increasingly dissatisfied with the ruling Nationalist Party and especially with Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi, Debono began openly voting against his own party. In May 2012, he voted in favor of a motion of no confidence in Minister for Home and Parliamentary Affairs Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici, which passed, forcing Mifsud Bonnici to resign. The final rupture with his party came in December 2012, when Debono threatened to vote against the government’s budget proposal unless Gonzi removed Austin Gatt from his post as minister for infrastructure transport and communication. When Gonzi refused to give in to this demand, Debono voted against the budget measure, which was defeated, causing the Gonzi government to fall and call for new elections. Debono promised to “remain a thorn in Gonzi PN’s side” until his parliamentary career was over. When the Labour Party won the 2013 elections in a landslide, a jubilant Debono was carried around on the shoulders of Labour supporters. Although at one point he considered starting a new party to push for democratic reforms, Debono decided that he was “fed up with politics” and would not seek reelection. A few weeks after the Labour administration had been installed, he accepted an appointment from the Muscat government as commissioner of laws overseeing constitutional reform and still serves in that capacity. DEROGATION. See EUROPEAN UNION. DIMECH, EMMANUEL (1860–1921). A challenger of the Catholic Church as well as the colonial government, Emmanuel Dimech was influenced by Fortunato Mizzi’s anti-British ideas. But for Mizzi’s pro-Italian stance he substituted Maltese nationalism. He was born on 25 December 1860 to an impoverished family. His mother died when he was only 13, and he began a life of crime. Dimech spent 20 years in and out of prison, initially for robbery but later for complicity in murder and charges of counterfeiting currency. While in prison, he read every book he could get his hands on and thus more than made up for his lack of formal education. Upon his final release from prison in 1897, he traveled throughout Europe, becoming aware of the various new revolutionary doctrines being talked about there.

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Upon his return to Malta, Dimech set up foreign-language instruction for the lower classes, wrote language textbooks, founded a self-help organization for the poor, and attempted to form a trade union. Because of these activities and his socialist leanings, he was viewed as an agitator and opposed by both the governor and the archbishop. In October 1911, he was excommunicated for, among a variety of other charges, advocating equal rights for women, being a socialist, publishing a radical newspaper, and being a Protestant (a charge that was never substantiated). At the same time, all his supporters were condemned. Dimech was too far ahead of his time and never successful in politics. He was arrested again and deported to Sicily in September 1914, where he became a prisoner of war and was transferred to a concentration camp in Alexandria, Egypt. After being moved among various prisons, an insane asylum, and concentration camps in Egypt, he died on 17 April 1921. Dimech’s ideas, however, did not die with him and were picked up by others. He has become a hero to the Labour Party, and his statue stands in what has to be the most prestigious location in Valletta, just in front of the prime minister’s office, the Auberge de Castille. He is also featured as the “prisoner hero” on the website of Mid-Dlam ghad-Dawl (from Darkness to Light), a prisoners’ advocacy organization founded in 1995. See also BRITISH RULE; LANGUAGE QUESTION; MALTI. DIN L’ART HELWA. Din l’Art Helwa (“This sweet land”) is a nongovernmental organization founded through the initiative of Judge Maurice Caruana Curran, meeting with other like-minded citizens at the Manoel Theatre in Valletta on 9 July 1965. Over more than five decades, its prime objective has been and continues to be safeguarding Malta’s cultural heritage and natural environment. The organization has maintained a watchdog role, lobbying the authorities for the protection of the landscape and the rich architectural legacy of the Maltese Islands. The organization, with 9,000 members, receives no direct government support, being solely funded by contributions and sponsorships. It has restored many historical buildings and structures on the islands, especially chapels and the numerous watchtowers that line the Maltese coast. See also HERITAGE MALTA. DINGLI, SIR ADRIANO (1818–1900). Born in Valletta in 1818, Adriano Dingli was the son of a Gozo-born judge who became chief justice. He was awarded the doctor of laws degree from the University of Malta in 1837, at the age of 19. For the next five years, he studied a variety of subjects at several European universities. He was elected to the Council of Government as the member from Gozo in 1849, and in 1854, he was appointed Crown advocate. In 1880, like his father before him, Dingli became chief justice and

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president of the Court of Appeals. With that title, he served on several significant diplomatic missions to Great Britain and several nations around the Mediterranean. Probably his most significant contribution to Malta was his work in constructing a reformed Code of Civil and Commercial Law. A powerful and articulate person as Crown advocate, he was equally fluent in English, Italian, and Maltese. He personally favored the use of English— his wife was English—but he opposed the forced imposition of the language upon the people by the colonial authorities. He was often a voice of reason between the British authorities and the Maltese patriots. Dingli retired from public life in 1895 and died on 25 November 1900. See also BRITISH RULE; LANGUAGE QUESTION. DOBBIE, LT. GENERAL SIR WILLIAM GEORGE, KCB, CMG, DSO (1879–1964). Appointed acting officer of administration of the colonial government of Malta on 24 May 1940, William Dobbie was named governor and commander in chief on 19 May 1941. A professional soldier who stood six feet, four inches tall, Dobbie commanded attention. He, his wife, and his daughter were members of the Plymouth Brethren, and their strong faith led them to lead simple, pious lives. Dobbie was hard working, without humor, and devoid of the ability to tolerate anything frivolous. He was frequently seen on his knees in prayer, even in public circumstances. He would always end meetings by saying, “the Lord has spoken and so it shall be.” He seemed to be totally without fear and would often appear in the middle of a bombing raid or some other catastrophe. As the raids continued at increased intensity, he would speak to the people over Rediffusion Radio, a radio system wired into most homes and the larger bomb shelters. The Maltese, a people of faith, were comforted by his religious broadcasts. His concern for them and his messages endeared him to the great majority of the population. At the same time, there were those who were highly critical of what they saw as his lack of leadership, pointing to a failure to instruct the public through air raid drills or even to dispense information about the signals warning of such raids. Dobbie was faulted for his failure to have adequate bomb shelters constructed soon enough and then for the lack of any measure of comforts such as lighting, ventilation, any kind of seating, handrails on the stairs, and the like. Another serious complaint was his failure to develop a plan for quickly getting cargo ships unloaded between the bombing raids (in March 1942, 16,000 tons of supplies entered Grand Harbour from one convoy; after three nights, only 807 tons had been taken off before the ships were sent to the bottom). Early in his appointment, he urged the home government not to use Malta as a base for offensive operations against the Axis convoys to North Africa, fearing that such action would provoke even greater bombardment in retaliation.

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On 7 May 1942, Sir William was abruptly relieved of his duties and he, his wife, and his daughter left Malta on the same plane that had brought his replacement, Lord Gort. The plane arrived and left in the middle of an air raid. Poor health was given as the reason for the sudden departure, and most accepted that explanation, though some thought it due to administrative weakness. After the war, a story became public that Dobbie had been on the verge of surrendering and had managed to notify Winston Churchill, who acted immediately to change the leadership. People who can remember those times are still divided: Was Dobbie exactly what Malta needed in those difficult days, or was he just the opposite? See also BRITISH RULE. DOCKYARDS. At one time, about 20 percent of the Maltese workforce (14,000) was employed at the British naval dockyards. They were a major force in bringing industrialization to Malta, helping it to develop a highly skilled workforce. The reduction in employment began slowly after World War II and continued until 1959, when the colonial administration published a five-year plan for more rapidly diminishing the dockyard workforce. The entire rundown was unpopular, not only because of the obvious unemployment it created but also because of a sense of betrayal. It was the dockyards and the Three Cities area surrounding the yards that had been most heavily bombed during the war. The matter became a major political issue and source of great financial losses in the years leading up to independence and continued to be so until 2009. A naval dockyard is geared to the rapid repair of damaged ships, regardless of cost, so that they may be returned to active duty, especially during wartime. A yard that is devoted to the repair of commercial vessels, however, must give primary concern to the costs incurred. The reduction of the workforce was a natural, though painful, necessity as the change from a naval to a commercial yard was being made. After Malta gained its independence, the dockyards added shipbuilding and yacht repair and maintenance to the other services previously provided. In 2003, the government added a “super-yacht” service and repair facility to attract higher value customers in a niche market. A series of restructuring initiatives involving lengthy negotiations with the General Workers’ Union began in 2001 and led to the 5 November 2003 merger of Malta Drydocks with Malta Shipbuilding to form a new company, Malta Shipyards, which leased the facilities from the government. The workforce was reduced from 2,600 to 1,700, but the government agreed to reassign surplus workers to other entities, and almost half (46 percent) of the 900 management staff members took early retirement. Although the yards became more efficient, added new functions, downsized the workforce, and greatly increased revenues, they accumulated a debt of over €640 million (US$900 million) and were still incurring millions of euros in annual operat-

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ing losses. A five-year transition period to phase out subsidies for the yards was negotiated with the European Union. This meant that all subsidies to the yards had to end by 2008. In 2009, the dockyards were split into three entities (shipbuilding, super-yacht servicing and repair, and the Manoel Island ship servicing and storage facility), each was offered for sale, and the employees were offered retirement packages. In 2010, the facilities were sold to a private Italian company, the Palumbo group. See also ECONOMY; PRIVATIZATION; YACHT MARINAS. DOMUS ROMANA. The remains of the Domus Romana, or Roman House, were accidentally discovered in 1881 near the fortification walls of Mdina. The multiroom layout and decorative elements of the house, which is estimated to date from the early part of the first century BCE, indicate a very wealthy Roman owner. The most remarkable features of the site are the sophisticated mosaics, which rival in beauty and richness those of Pompeii and Piazza Armerina in Sicily. Only the floor remained of the house, but the early discoverers of the ruins managed to restore some of its architectural features and protect the mosaics from the elements by building the first structure on Malta specifically intended to protect an archaeological site. This became a small museum opened to the public in 1882, housing the mosaic floor and other fragments of Roman artifacts found around the area in Mdina. Sir Themistocles Zammit, Malta’s first director of museums, further excavated and studied the site from 1920 to 1924. In 1925, a new building designed by the architect Galizia was opened as the Museum of Roman Antiquities. That structure, which is essentially what remains today, added more exhibiting space and a neoclassical facade and garden. The museum was closed during World War II and reopened in 1945. Overhauled and modernized with the help of European Union funds, a project that took several years, the newly named Domus Romana was reopened for public visits on 26 February 2005. The exhibit was overhauled again in 2011. The recent discovery of corrosion in iron rods in a concrete subfloor from 20thcentury restoration efforts has prompted new concerns about preserving the mosaic floor. See also ARCHAEOLOGY. DRAGUT’S RAID. In July 1551, the Barbary corsair Dragut (Torgut Reis) took his fleet to Malta with the intention of invading the islands by overpowering the Knights of St. John. After he had seen how they had been able to strengthen their fortifications in the area of the two harbors, he moved on to lay siege to Mdina, the ancient fortified capital of the Arabs. Frustrated there by the strength of the fortress, he took his force to Gozo, where it easily overpowered the few defenders, taking almost the entire population of the

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island into slavery. It is thought that Dragut’s observations during these raids led to the preparations for the Great Siege of 1565, which the by then 80year-old corsair led in the service of Suleiman the Magnificent and in which he was killed by a cannonball fragment on 23 June 1565 during the siege of Fort St. Elmo. His body was taken to Tripoli, where he is buried in Dragut’s mosque. DU PUY, RAYMOND (10??–1160). Raymond du Puy de Provence was a French knight and was Grand Master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Knights Hospitaller) from 1121? to 1160. As the second grand master, he developed the Knights Hospitallers into a strong military power. He was a relative of Adhemar of Le Puy, the papal legate during the First Crusade. He accepted the eight-pointed Amalfi cross as an official symbol of the order, which later became known as the Maltese cross after the establishment of the order on Malta. Raymond divided the order into clerical, military, and serving brothers and established the first significant Hospitaller infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. See also HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE; KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN; SACRED INFIRMARY.

E E-BOAT ATTACK. A very daring attempt to penetrate Grand and Marsamxett Harbours was carried out on 26 July 1941 by elements of the Italian navy. The attack had the dual purpose of paralyzing the submarine base and destroying the ships of a convoy that had arrived a few days earlier. The assaulting “armada” consisted of a wide variety of small vessels, such as motor torpedo boats, baby submarines, and E-boats. The latter were manned boats carrying a high explosive charge in all spaces except for the engine and the ejector seat for the driver. The “armada” contained the experienced elite of the Italian navy with a well-prepared battle plan. Fortunately for Malta, the Italians possessed outdated information on defenses, and worse yet, the expected simultaneous air attack was poorly timed and misdirected. The result was a disaster for the attackers. The most they were able to accomplish was the destruction of part of the breakwater viaduct at the entrance to Grand Harbour. The victorious defenders captured 18 prisoners and recovered 15 corpses. There was great heroism on both sides. A monument was placed at the port of Augusta, Sicily, from which the attackers departed, commemorating “the enterprise, unlucky and glorious.” See also ITALY; WORLD WAR II. ECONOMY. As an island nation with few resources except for its limestone; warm, sunny climate; and well-educated, English-speaking workforce, Malta has always been heavily dependent on trade, especially in services, and very vulnerable to external economic shocks, such as surges in energy costs. It has to import almost 80 percent of its food and nearly 100 percent of its energy inputs, 95 percent in the form of oil and 5 percent in coal. Before the arrival of the British in 1800, most of Malta’s inhabitants engaged in agriculture or service to shipping. There was little manufacturing industry on the islands except for tobacco and cotton processing, and poverty was widespread. Under the British, Malta became a major transit point for trade between Great Britain and its colonies in Africa and Asia, a

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key stopping off point for refueling (coal) and ship repair, especially after the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. In times of war, Malta’s economy experienced stronger spurts of growth. In the last five decades, Malta’s economy has undergone two major transformations: the first after the British troops departed and the second when the Nationalists returned to power in 1987 and propelled the country toward membership in the European Union (EU). At the time of their departure, the British forces were contributing about 30 million pounds annually to the Maltese economy. The loss of revenue from the departure of the British military required an urgent and radical restructuring of the economy. Consultants from the United Nations and Great Britain, as well as from other countries and agencies, provided expertise for the effort to ease what all knew was to be an abrupt change for the infant nation. Six development plans were initiated from 1959 to 1986. There was general agreement that tourism, light industry, conversion of the dockyards to commercial use, and expansion of the servicing of yachts would be the major areas in which Malta could become economically viable. These have, in fact, played an important role in Malta’s economic development. The Malta Labour Party government, under the forceful leadership of Dom Mintoff, adopted a socialist, state-controlled economic strategy, which was primarily concerned with creating jobs and protecting workers. The state took an active role in the economy of Malta, owning and operating businesses in the manufacturing, banking, and other service sectors, including the dockyards. Part of the government plan to reduce unemployment relied on the emigration of a significant number of Maltese citizens to other countries. At the same time, citizens of other nations were enticed to settle in Malta by a promise of low taxes in exchange for a promise not to seek gainful employment. Soon after Malta gained independence from Britain, a variety of proposals for the creation of a free port together with offshore banking were put forward and implemented. Construction expanded rapidly in the 1960s and tourism in the 1970s. High tariffs and quotas protected local businesses against competition from foreign suppliers. The second major transformation of Malta’s economy began when the Nationalist government under Edward Fenech Adami returned to power in 1987. It recognized the vulnerability of the small island economy to external shocks, especially as its main trading partner, Great Britain, was likely to join the EU. Malta feared being excluded and pinned its hopes on joining the EU as well. Achieving this required a totally different approach from that of the Mintoff era. The requirements of membership necessitated a major liberalization of Malta’s economy, new laws, and improvements in infrastructure that are still continuing since Malta joined the EU on 1 May 2004. Dependence on a socialist, state-run economy developed under the Mintoff regime, which guaranteed jobs at the expense of bad roads and economic stagnation,

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has been replaced by a more open, globally competitive spirit of entrepreneurship. Once a protected economy seeking local substitutes for as many imports as possible, something that may have been necessary under the harsh conditions at the time, Malta now faces the forces of globalization head on. The changes brought about by the economic liberalization under the Nationalist government in the final years of the 20th century helped the economy expand greatly: privatization of many state-owned, loss-making companies and entities has for the most part been achieved. Economic growth has averaged more than 3 percent since EU membership; real GDP expansion was an impressive 4.5 percent in 2013, 3.5 percent in 2014, 6.2 percent in 2015, and 5.6 percent in 2017. Annual total GDP has risen from 53 percent of the EU average in 2001 to 95 percent in 2017, amounting to 5.7 billion euros or about 14,000 euros per person. The manufacturing sector has surged, growing from 17 percent to over 30 percent in 15 years. Tourism, attracting almost 2 million annual visitors, has grown to represent more than onequarter of the economy. The government has moved away from offshore banking, strengthening laws and regulations governing financial services, which grew 30 percent from 2005 to 2008, employing over 7,000 workers and contributing 12 percent of GDP. An infusion of funds from the EU has helped the country to upgrade infrastructure, especially its roads, and expand education and job training. Malta joined the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2005 and, by bringing its inflation, debt, and deficit down to EU requirements, was able to adopt the euro on 1 January 2008, providing a greater economic stability that has begun to attract even more foreign investment. The information technology center called SmartCity, established in 2006, plans ultimately to employ 3,500 highly skilled workers to make Malta an information technology center of the Mediterranean region. After a few years of EU membership, Malta still faced a growing number of economic storm clouds on the horizon: public debt totaling 3.5 billion euros (exceeding the EU limit of 3 percent); unemployment, which averaged under 5 percent in the previous decade, at almost 8 percent; mounting competition from Asia, especially China; top-heavy public sector employment; high water and energy costs; and a considerable reduction in funds from the EU that had been helping with infrastructure. As part of the 2008 electoral campaign, the government of Lawrence Gonzi laid out its “Vision 2015.” The prime minister identified seven sectors that the government would continue to develop in order for Malta to gain a competitive advantage by the year 2015. These included further expansion of financial services and information and communications technology (ICT); improvements in infrastructure for tourism, education, and health care; in-

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centives to attract more manufacturing (especially higher value-added industries, such as pharmaceuticals); and plans to make Gozo a model of environmental sustainability. The Muscat government that succeeded Gonzi in 2013 has continued this vision, which is bearing fruit. Malta was only slightly affected by the 2008–2009 recession. The economy grew at 4 percent in 2013 to 6.3 percent in the first half of 2017, and the unemployment rate at the end of 2017 stood at 3.6 percent, the second lowest in the EU. The current account surplus, which is forecast to grow to nearly 10 percent, is driven by strong export growth, especially in services (87 percent of GDP), and when combined with a decline in imports, it should keep the economy strong in coming years. The recently developed online gaming industry was Malta’s second biggest source of income (after tourism) by 2014, employing over 8,000 people working for 250 licensed operators and contributing almost 12 percent of GDP. Real GDP growth is projected to slow somewhat in 2018 to 4.9 percent because of increases in pension spending and tax refunds. Increased private consumption due to increases in population, consumer confidence, and disposable income is expected to be the main driver growing the economy in coming years. As new EU funds become available in 2019, investment in planned “large transport, health and education projects,” is expected to pick up, according to Fitch, a rating agency that recently gave Malta an A+ outlook. It projects housing construction and exports to continue growing strongly in 2018. By 2018, the government is expected to reduce the fiscal deficit to 0 from around 2 percent of GDP in 2014 by cutting subsidies and other budget items. However, there are some challenges in the road ahead as well. The EU is considering reforms in its tax system. The proposed introduction of common taxation rules for large corporations, known as Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB), could see Malta’s income from multinational subsidiaries registered in the country drop by more than 50 percent, in some cases even by two-thirds. The EU is also concerned about Malta’s sale of passports, known as the Individual Investor Programme (IIP), which has generated over €200 million and opened borders to other EU countries for wealthy Chinese, Russian, and other foreigners, some with tainted backgrounds. Meanwhile, the Muscat government is facing allegations of corruption; a cabinet minister, the prime minister’s wife, and his chief of staff have been accused of taking kickbacks from foreign oil deals and the passport sales. The International Monetary Fund, in a 2018 report on the state of Malta’s economy, warned that “sustained efforts are needed to safeguard the financial system’s integrity. Robust implementation and effective enforcement of the Anti-Money Laundering framework is critical given the size of Malta’s financial sector, the fast-growing remote gaming activity, and the high de-

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mand for the IIP.” But the report also noted that Malta’s economic outlook was “favorable” because growth was “decelerating gradually and converging to about three percent over the medium term . . . driven largely by domestic demand, backed by rising incomes and historically-low unemployment while buoyant services exports will continue to sustain current account surpluses.” See also FILM PRODUCTION IN MALTA. EDUCATION. By law, education is compulsory from ages 5 to 16, for a total of 11 years. However, the minister of education has the authority to extend the age in certain courses whenever it is deemed necessary. Education is free in the public schools. Approximately 24 percent of students are in church schools, and 7 percent attend private schools. State kindergartens begin at age three, and by age four, almost 100 percent are enrolled. Primary education is for six years and secondary for five. After that, students sit for the General Certificate of Education (GCE) examination of London or Oxford plus the Malta matriculation examination, both at the ordinary level. Upon securing the required number of “O level” passes, the student is eligible to enter the “Sixth Form” to prepare for the advanced level examinations (“A levels”). A pass in each of these examinations is transferred as the equivalent of 10 credit hours to a college or university in the United States. The Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Examinations Board was established in 1991 by the Senate and the Council of the University of Malta (UM). The board developed an examination system to replace the GCE Ordinary and Advanced level examinations. The dropout rate from education and training has gone down from 24 percent in 2010 to 20 percent in 2015, and the goal is to reduce it to 10 percent in 10 years. Tertiary educational opportunities are available locally at the University of Malta as well as the Malta College of Arts, Sciences and Technology (MCAST), which caters to many specialized technical fields. In addition, a wide variety of evening adult education courses, ranging from music and dramatic arts to business subjects and chef’s training, are available. Since obtaining European Union (EU) membership, Maltese citizens also have tuition-free access to European educational institutions through various EU-funded programs, especially the education programs for youth, which focus on funding vocational training, formal education, and informal education, respectively. The EU Erasmus+ Program allows Maltese university students to spend a semester or a year at a number of participating European universities. Hoping to attract more international students, especially from the Middle East, the Muscat government granted a Jordanian company a license to open a new university in Malta based on the American system. The “American University of Malta” was opened for enrollment in September 2017, but to

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date the recruitment of students is far below what was expected. Most of the professors hired to teach were dismissed after the first semester, and the university seems destined to close. EISENHOWER, DWIGHT D. (1890–1969). After the successful invasion of Sicily in July 1943, which was directed from deep within the limestone tunnels of the Lascaris War Rooms below Valletta, Supreme Allied Commander Eisenhower returned to Malta. One of the first things he did was to compose a statement of congratulations to the Maltese. It was printed on the front page of every newspaper on 5 August 1943: The epic of Malta is symbolic of the experience of the United Nations in this war. Malta has passed successively through the stages of woeful unpreparedness, tenacious endurance, intensive preparation and the initiation of a fierce offensive. It is resolutely determined to maintain a rising crescendo of attack until the whole task is complete. For this inspiring example the United Nations will be forever indebted to Field Marshall Lord Gort, the fighting services under his command and to every citizen of the heroic island.

The Lascaris War Rooms are preserved as a museum, open to the public, in which Eisenhower’s spartan office and desk can be viewed. The jeep used by Eisenhower on Malta is on exhibit at the War Museum adjacent to Fort St. Elmo. ELECTIONS. The number and variety of political parties contesting the national elections changed almost continually until independence. Since that time, however, the Malta Labour Party and the Nationalist Party have dominated. Election results, according to the number of seats in the legislative bodies gained by party, are as follows: • 1921. Legislative Assembly: Unione Politica Maltese 14, Constitutional Party 7, Labour Party 7, Partito Democratico Nazionalista 4. Senate: Unione Politica Maltese 4, Constitutional Party 1, Labour Party 2. • 1924. Legislative Assembly: Unione Politica Maltese 10, Constitutional Party 10, Malta Labour Party 7, Partito Democratico Nazionalista 5. • 1927. Legislative Assembly: Constitutional Party 15, Nationalist Party 14, Malta Labour Party 3. Senate: Constitutional Party 3, Nationalist Party 4. • 1932. Legislative Assembly: Nationalist Party 21, Constitutional Party 10, Malta Labour Party 1. Senate: Nationalist Party 5, Constitutional Party 2.

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• 1939. Council of Government: Constitutional Party 6, Nationalist Party 3, Malta Labour Party 1. Executive Council: Constitutional Party 2, Nationalist Party 1. • 1945. Council of Government: Malta Labour Party 9, Jones Party 1. Executive Council: Malta Labour Party 3. • 1947. From this date on there was only the single legislative body, the Parliament: Malta Labour Party 24, Nationalist Party 7, Democratic Action Party 4, Gozo Party 3, Jones Party 2. • 1950. Nationalist Party 12, Malta Workers Party 11, Malta Labour Party 11, Constitutional Party 4, Democratic Action Party 1, Independent 1. • 1951. Nationalist Party 18, Malta Labour Party 14, Malta Workers Party 7, Constitutional Party 4. • 1955 Malta Labour Party 23, Nationalist Party 17. • 1962. Nationalist Party 25, Malta Labour Party 16, Democratic Nationalist Party 4, Christian Workers’ Party 4, Progressive Constitutional Party 1. • 1966. Nationalist Party 28, Malta Labour Party 22. • 1971. Malta Labour Party 28, Nationalist Party 27. • 1976. Malta Labour Party 34, Nationalist Party 31. • 1981. Malta Labour Party 35, Nationalist Party 31. • 1987. Nationalist Party 34, Malta Labour Party 31. • 1992. Nationalist Party 34, Malta Labour Party 31. • 1996. Malta Labour Party 35, Nationalist Party 34. • 1998. Nationalist Party 35, Malta Labour Party 30. • 2003. Nationalist Party 35, Malta Labour Party 30. • 2008. Nationalist Party 35, Malta Labour Party 34. • 2013. Labour Party 39, Nationalist Party 30. • 2017. Labour Party 37, Nationalist Party 30, Democratic Party, 2. In the 2017 election, a newly formed party, Partit Demokratiku (PD), formed a coalition with the Nationalist Party, called Forza Nazzjonali (National Force). Two of the PD candidates were elected, the first time since 1962 that a third party managed to gain a seat in Parliament. In order to give citizens more control over local matters, Parliament passed a local councils act in 1993, creating 68 local councils with from 5 to 13 council members, depending on the population of the community. Since November 1993, local elections for council seats have been held in rotation so that every year, one-third of the local councils hold elections based on a schedule.

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Since 2004, when Malta joined the European Union (EU), elections have been held every five years for representatives to the European Parliament. Malta was given five seats initially. When the Lisbon Treaty was ratified, Malta received a sixth member of the European Parliament (MEP); thus, in the 24 May 2014 elections, six MEPs were elected. See also CONSTITUTION; CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS; REFERENDA. EMIGRATION. The British colonial government began encouraging emigration as early as the late 19th century. The high birth rate of the Maltese at that time was causing increasing economic pressures, which in turn caused social unrest. In addition, the colonial administrators were concerned with the impact of the growing civilian population on the military capabilities of the naval base. In 1812, even before the islands had been formally incorporated into the British Empire, a commission commented favorably upon the general standard of living but inserted a word of caution concerning the size of the population. It was noted that the Maltese lived long and had large families. Emigration from the islands occurred over the years in spurts, depending on the condition of the local economy compared with those in other countries. Early emigration was to other countries around the Mediterranean as well as to Great Britain. After World War I, the largest movements were to the United States, Canada, and Australia. The emigrants were not always well received in their new homelands. In 1916, 214 Maltese emigrants were refused entry into Australia despite having legal visas and British passports. Australian union members were protesting, worried that immigrants would take away jobs. The Australian government, facing reelection, denied entrance to the Maltese. The ship carrying them, a French liner, was diverted to New Caledonia, and the emigrants were only allowed into Australia six months later, when the controversy had died down. After 1920, marriages by proxy were permitted. This allowed a groom who had already emigrated to marry a woman left behind in Malta, permitting the new bride to join her husband abroad, saving the couple a round-trip journey of two months. Following World War II, Australia became the primary recipient of Maltese migrants. At its peak in 1952, 11,200 citizens left Malta. Some of the emigration involved children, estimated to have numbered somewhere from 3,000 to 10,000, 310 of whom were documented as sent by the Catholic Church to Australia, while the vast majority ended up in Great Britain. At present, emigration has become negligible, and many of the earlier emigrants have returned to the islands to retire with their hard-earned savings. It is said that a major source of income for Gozo arrives each month in the form of American and Canadian Social Security checks.

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After 10 February 2000, Maltese emigrants were permitted to have dual citizenship. On 1 March 2008, a monument in the shape of a folded paper boat was inaugurated at the Valletta Waterfront Cruise Terminal as a memorial to the many Maltese who left their homeland. ENERGY. Until recently, Malta was almost totally dependent on imported fossil fuels for its energy supply and imported about one million tons of petroleum products per year, half of it consisting of fuel oil. That meant all electricity was generated by oil, and 60 percent of the islands’ water supply still depends on that electricity to operate the desalination system, converting seawater to drinkable water. Desalination consumes 6 percent of total electricity produced. So far, attempts at locating oil on the islands and in its territorial waters have not been successful. The Maltese government owns and controls Enemalta, the company responsible for all energy generation and distribution on the islands. Although it is against European Union (EU) rules for such a monopoly situation to exist, Malta received a derogation because of the size of its market, which does not make competitive systems feasible. Residential cooking is still predominantly done by portable gas cylinders distributed individually to each residence. In anticipation of obligations to be incurred upon joining the EU regarding energy production, transmission, and consumption, the government set up the Malta Resources Authority in 2000. Among others, its duties include overseeing the energy sector. In August 2006, the government released a draft of an energy policy. This policy established targets for 2010 to achieve three main goals: security of supply, at reasonable cost, and with limited harm to the environment. It identified wind, solar, and biomass waste as viable renewable energy sources to pursue. Geothermal, hydropower, tidal, and biomass from crops were rejected as not feasible for Malta. Wind energy is estimated to be capable of replacing up to 9 percent of 2003 levels of electricity generation. The government rejected the viability of land-based wind turbines, exploring deep-sea installations of wind turbines instead. So far nothing has come of that, but several small private windmills have been erected. Another 9 percent of potential electricity generation is expected from solar (photovoltaic) systems and almost 6 percent from solid waste treatment. For a country that has sunshine 85 percent of the daylight hours and an abundance of wind, it was surprising that Malta has not been more active in harvesting solar and wind energy. This is beginning to change. The EU Commission has proposed a new set of renewable energy targets for Malta, as set forth in the Lisbon Agenda. By 2020, the country should be producing 10 percent of its energy needs from renewable sources. With government incentive schemes to subsidize up to 25 percent of the cost of installing

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photovoltaic electricity and solar water heating systems, residential roof top solar installations have, in just the last seven years, gone from nearly zero to over half of the national renewable energy production. One in five households now owns a rooftop solar installation. For many years, Malta relied on two electric-power-generating stations with a total capacity of only 571 megawatts, serving the three inhabited islands on a single electricity grid. The two plants were powered by heavy fuel oil with a high (up to 3.5 percent) sulfur content, adding to an already serious air pollution problem. In 2009, demand for electricity increased to such an extent that brownouts and even complete power failures occurred several times. The urgent need for additional electricity generation capacity was once again dramatically highlighted in 2012 when a complete power outage paralyzed the country for an entire day. Since then, Malta has diversified its energy supply system. In March 2015, a 59-mile-long subsea direct current interconnector cable connecting Malta to a power grid in Sicily became operational. At a cost of €182 million, it reduces Malta’s energy cost and isolation. It allows for both import and export of electrical power. It enables Malta to tap into cleaner, more efficient electricity generation, adding 100 megawatts of generating capacity. Currently, the country’s electric network is supplied through a mix of various sources, including 32 percent from Sicily through the interconnector, 22 percent from local grid-connected renewables, and 46 percent from the gas-fired plants. With financial assistance from Shanghai Electric, which purchased a minority interest in Enemalta for an estimated €250 million in December 2014, a floating liquefied gas storage and regasification system and a new gas-fired electric generation facility were built. The plant became operational in April 2017 and allowed Malta to finally shut down its antiquated, more expensive, and more polluting generating plants. The new gas power plant and the interconnector are expected to operate at 50-percent efficiency, a vital aspect of Malta’s ability to meet the 2020 energy efficiency target of 27 percent mandated by the EU. To power the new gas-fired plant, a liquid natural gas tanker port was installed. This has caused great concern for the general population living nearby, who fear the potential for a disastrous explosion. The government plans to replace that system in coming years with a subsea gas pipeline from Libya or Sicily. An additional energy source comes from waste treatment plants. A thermal treatment plant that came on line in December 2007 at a cost of €12.8 million (cofinanced by the fifth Italo–Maltese Financial Protocol) processes a wide variety of waste, including abattoir waste, clinical waste, refuse-derived fuel (waste such as wood that generates a large quantity of energy), and other waste such as industrial sludge. In 2010, a solid waste treatment center at St. Antnin was inaugurated amid great controversy but with almost €17 million (two-thirds of the funding) from the EU. It was converting about 35,000 tons

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of organic waste into electricity for 1,400 households until its complete destruction by a fire in May 2017. A new €50 million mechanical and biological treatment plant and bulky waste facility, named Malta North, was built on the old Maghtab landfill site and put into service on 3 February 2016. It was 85 percent financed by the EU and is expected to generate almost 10 gigawatt hours of electrical energy per year. Not only do these renewable energy sources cut carbon dioxide emissions, they also reduce pollution that would have occurred from the prior practice of dumping the waste into landfills and or the sea and further diversify Malta’s energy sources. There is no doubt that EU membership, with its imposition of rules and regulations as well as considerable financial support, brought about a huge change in Maltese attitudes and practices regarding energy. In June 2001, a group of concerned citizens formed the Malta Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies Association (MEEREA), a nongovernmental organization that, according to its charter, seeks to “promote discussion on energy related issues among energy actors including consumers and energy decision makers in Malta.” The government still faces a significant challenge in the transportation sector. It needs to increase the quality and utilization of public transport, reducing the number of cars on the island. Currently, there is more than one car for every two residents of Malta, consuming a quarter of the fossil fuel imports. In April 2018, the government launched a program to encourage small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) that consume more than 75,000 Kwh to conduct an energy audit. The program is offering up to €5,000 in rebates to cover expenses of implementing energy conservation efforts recommended by the audit. See also ECONOMY; TRADE. ENGLAND, RICHARD (1937–). Malta’s best-known contemporary architect, Richard England was born on 3 October 1937 in Sliema. He studied architecture and civil engineering at the University of Malta, receiving a bachelor’s degree in 1961. After a year of studying interior design at the Polytechnic in Milan, he spent two years working for an architectural firm there before returning to Malta to join his architect father in private practice. England has designed numerous hotels, villas, office buildings, churches, and public structures all over Malta. His best-known work includes the Church of St. Joseph at Manikata, the Central Bank of Malta Annex, the Millennium Chapel, the St. James Cavalier Centre for Creativity in Valletta, and his proposed master plan for the entrance to the island’s capital city, Valletta. He has won many international awards, including six International Academy of Architecture Awards, two Commonwealth Association of Architects Regional awards, and the Grand Prix of the International Academy of Architecture in 2006.

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In addition to being a very successful architect, England is an accomplished painter, poet, photographer, and sculptor, who has written several books containing his creations and ideas on aesthetics. England has lectured as a guest professor in universities all over Europe and North America and is himself the subject of four books and numerous articles. Probably his most controversial work to date is a three-meter-high sculpture in stone letters, spelling the word “love.” The letters are upside down so that the word “love” is reflected right-side up in the waters of Spinola Bay, at the tip of which it was erected in 2005. England was also asked to submit a design using the space currently occupied by the ruins of the bombed-out Royal Opera House for a new chamber for Parliament. The public outcry opposing the idea put those plans on hold. Six monographs have been published on his works. He is a professor at universities in Europe, the United States, and the United Kingdom. He is vice preseident of the International Academy of Architecture and an honorary fellow of the American Institute of Architects. England has also received the Officer of the Order of Merit of Malta , the 2000 Belgrade Architectural Triennial Gold Medal, and the 2012 Annual Award from the International Academy of Architects. ENGLISH-LANGUAGE SCHOOLS. See SAVONA, SIGISMONDO (1837–1908); TOURISM. ENVIRONMENT. Malta faces serious challenges covering the entire gamut of environmental issues: waste disposal; sewage treatment; energy generation and consumption; air, water, and soil quality; and destruction of habitat through overdevelopment, littering, hunting, and soil erosion. These problems are compounded by the seasonality of tourism, which further stresses the islands’ carrying capacity. As the fourth most densely populated political entity in the world (over 1,375 inhabitants per square kilometer), Malta must continually choose between conflicting pressures of providing housing and preserving green space. Due to the Maltese love of cars, compounded by an inefficient public transport system, in 2016 there were more than 355,000 vehicles registered for a population estimated at just over 435,000. Some 79 percent of the vehicles are private passenger vehicles, translating to an average of 1.2 persons per vehicle or 840 cars for every 1,000 persons. On hot, stagnant summer days, it is possible to see an inversion trapping exhaust gases over the island, so that even on this relatively tiny archipelago in the middle of the Mediterranean, one can experience a smog cover. A seasonal population surge, brought about by almost 2 million tourist arrivals per annum, on which the economy is increasingly dependent, greatly compounds Malta’s environmental challenges.

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Conservation promises the most significant benefits to the energy-starved country. Mater Dei Hospital, the largest complex of its kind in the world, completed in 2008, is the first building in Malta to feature fully insulated external walls and specially insulated glass in its windows. In addition, rainwater is collected on rooftops, stored, and then used for toilets, washing clothes, or irrigation. Low-flush toilets and environmentally adapted refrigerants as well as polypropylene piping are included in the construction of the building. Still, as with most public buildings, its wide expanses of roofs lacked solar panels until recently, and the consumption of electricity for this gigantic complex is equal to that of the entire population of Gozo (almost 40,000 inhabitants). Based on per capita consumption, Malta is the ninth thirstiest nation in the world, and only 40 percent of its water comes from the natural aquifers below ground. Seawater treated by osmosis, an energy-intensive process, provides most of the rest. Illegally drilled wells (boreholes) have become a serious issue recently, especially as the water service charges have been raised and water subsidies are no longer permitted under European Union (EU) law after 2011. In spite of this, treated sewage water is thrown into the sea instead of being reused as second-class water. EU funds have helped to initiate a system by which drivers can text message the license plates of polluting vehicles to the inspection authorities. With significant financing from the EU, the (literal) mountain of garbage accumulating at the Maghtab landfill on the northeast side of the island is being closed down and replaced with a waste treatment plant. Tax breaks have been instituted for those installing solar and photovoltaic energy alternatives in their homes. Today 20 percent of homes have solar electric and water heating panels installed on them. Although Malta obtained a transition period until 2013 to implement the new recycling and recovery targets for packaging waste, a recycling program with separation of different waste types and “bring in” stations at various sites were instituted in 2010, to the surprise and amazement of many skeptical observers in a country not traditionally very concerned about littering and the environment. Alternattiva Demokratika, Malta’s “green” political party since 1989, has to date not succeeded in acquiring sufficient support for environmental protection to gain a single seat in Parliament. According to EU data from 2016, Malta has the worst record of all the EU countries with regard to recycling. Of the 647 annual kilograms per capita generated (second highest in the EU), only 8 percent of municipal waste is recycled or sent for composting, while the remainder ends up in the Magħtab landfill. The EU has mandated that at least 55 percent of municipal waste must be recycled by 2025, rising to 60 percent by 2030. Beginning in 2019, Malta is planning to build a waste-to-energy facility at Magħtab at an estimated cost of €150

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million. The 5,000-square-meter facility is expected to be completed in 2023 and to process 114,000 tons of waste per year which, combined with its recycling target of 60 percent, should allow Malta to meet the EU standards. Currently, there is increasing alarm regarding a building boom taking place in Malta, further threatening the islands’ environment. Several major high-rise residential towers are being proposed that would severely affect neighboring inhabitants, creating noise, dust, and traffic congestion during a multiyear construction period. Once completed, these mega buildings would also block sunshine from adjacent buildings and stress the water and sewer capacity of the area, not to mention having a negative impact on its aesthetics. In reaction to the pressures on the environment, a number of very active nongovernmental environmental groups have formed, such as Flimkien ghal Ambjent Ahjar, Friends of the Earth Malta, and BirdLife Malta, that are gaining more grassroots support for changes in the way Malta treats its environment. The many laws of the EU, which Malta has had to adopt as a condition of membership, and the significant financial support that this membership brings with it are helping to raise awareness of the enormous environmental challenges facing a small, densely populated island nation such as Malta. EURO. As a requirement of joining the European Union (EU), Malta, along with the nine other candidate countries, joined the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) but with a derogation. This meant that the new member states would not have to adopt the euro as their national currency until they were ready to do so. They must, however, be making continuous progress toward having their economies converge with the 12 other member countries already using the euro. The degree of convergence is measured by the inflation rate, budgetary deficit, and national debt, which may not exceed prescribed limits based on the average of the three best performing countries. Before adopting the euro, candidate countries are required to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM II) for a trial period of no less than two years. Participation in ERM II binds members to manage their interest rates and money supply in coordination with the European Central Bank, keeping the exchange rate of their currency vis-à-vis the euro within a range of plus or minus 15 percent of an agreed fixed rate. In a surprise announcement on 2 May 2005, Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi declared that Malta was ready to join the ERM II and to adopt the euro in place of the Maltese lira “as soon as feasible.” A notional exchange rate of 0.4293 liri per euro was established and a National Euro Changeover Committee (NECC) set up, tasked with formulating an action plan to organize and manage the implementation of the euro, including, critical to success, the education of citizens about the process.

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The Maltese public voiced a number of concerns about adopting the euro. The foremost worry was that it would cause significant inflation as merchants “rounded up” the prices in euros. To address this concern, retailers and the service industry were, as of 1 January 2007, required to display prices in both euros and liri. Another issue was the question of which images should be used on the currency to represent Malta. After two rounds of consulting public opinion in early 2006, three images were selected: the Maltese cross, with the most votes, the Maltese coat of arms, and in third place, an image of the Mnajdra Temple. What to call the new currency was also controversial. The National Council for the Maltese Language favored the use of a Maltese spelling, but the EU requires that all official languages of its member states use the term “euro.” (Greece is the only exception since it does not use the Roman alphabet). The cabinet decided that the word “euro” should be used in all Maltese legislation and official documents, although it encouraged the use of Maltese spelling (ewro) in other circumstances. On 16 May 2007, the commissioner for economic and financial affairs of the EU, Joaquín Almunia, recommended that Malta be permitted to adopt the euro, and on 1 January 2008, the euro replaced the Maltese lira as the official currency of Malta. See also BANKING; FINANCIAL SERVICES; LANGUAGE QUESTION; MALTI. EURO–MEDITERRANEAN PARTNERSHIP. At a conference held in Barcelona on 27–28 November 1995, ministers of the European Union (EU) and other countries of the Mediterranean region formed the Euro–Mediterranean Partnership and issued the Barcelona Declaration, establishing a “Barcelona Process,” an initiative to promote regional cooperation. The three main objectives of the partnership are maintaining peace and stability through dialogue among the countries participating; creating and sharing regional prosperity through financial assistance; and ultimately establishing a free trade area, promoting cultural understanding and exchanges between civilians of the region. These goals are to be promoted through partnership-wide, multilateral agreements as well bilateral agreements between the EU and other members of the partnership. “Conscious of its unique geographical position—at the North of Africa and the Arab States and at the South of Europe—as well of its make-up, a kaleidoscope of European and Arab cultures, . . . the only nation that has a Semitic language written in Roman letters,” Malta is uniquely positioned to further the Barcelona Process. An example of Malta’s involvement in this process is the launching on 4 May 2007 of the European-Mediterranean Initiative for Technology and Innovation (EuroMedITI), a platform for cooperative research and innovation headquartered in the Mediterranean Con-

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ference Center in Valletta. Its goal is “to establish a more enhanced and structured dialogue between the Union and the League of Arab States so that closer Euro–Arab relations and understanding is achieved.” Current non-EU members include Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Palestine, Syria, Tunisia, and Turkey, but the agreement is open to other members in the future. Euro–Mediterranean Association Agreements are in force with most of the partners (with the exception of Syria and Libya). Together the region represents 8.6 percent of total EU external trade. EUROPEAN ECONOMIC COMMUNITY (EEC). See EUROPEAN UNION. EUROPEAN UNION. Aside from World War II and gaining independence from Great Britain, the most significant event in Malta’s history during the 20th century was joining the European Union. The EU was originally called the European Economic Community (EEC), which was formed in 1957 by the Treaty of Rome. The major European combatant powers of World War II sought closer economic cooperation to avoid future wars. Through a series of treaties, the EU has forged a common market promoting free trade, including the free movement of capital, labor, and services among its member countries. The EU has enlarged its membership to include 27 European countries as of 2009 and, in 1999, created a common currency, the euro, currently used by 16 of the member states. In 1961, Great Britain applied for membership in the EU (the EEC at the time) but was rebuffed by France under Charles de Gaulle. Malta, heavily dependent upon trade and tourism, a large portion of it with Great Britain, sensed the growing importance of the EU bloc. Afraid of being shut out of Europe, the continent, and the culture it had identified with most closely over the centuries, Malta negotiated an association agreement with the EU on 5 December 1970. Great Britain eventually became a full member in 1973. On 16 July 1990, the Maltese government, led by Prime Minister Fenech Adami, submitted its application to become a full-fledged member of the EU. In order to qualify for membership, a candidate country must show that it is able to adopt the acquis communautaire, the entire body of EU laws and regulations, in addition to meeting certain requirements concerning its economic performance. This was quite a challenging task for a small country like Malta with limited resources and burdened by debt and poor infrastructure. As part of its convergence with the EU economies, Malta was required to institute a new system of value-added taxation (VAT). The VAT proved so unpopular with the electorate that it was widely blamed for costing the Nationalist Party (NP) the election of 1996.

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On 23 November 1996, the newly elected Malta Labour Party (MLP) government of Alfred Sant withdrew Malta’s application for EU membership. However, it was reactivated less than two years later on 10 September 1998 when the Nationalists regained control. The government instituted a “National Programme for the Adoption of the Acquis,” outlining its strategy to meet requirements for membership by the target date of 1 January 2003. As a member of the EU, Malta would gain much freer access to a huge and growing market; its citizens could seek employment or study and travel freely in EU member countries. Malta also stood to gain access to EU structural funds for improving its infrastructure and economic competitiveness. Realizing the importance of popular support for EU membership to become a reality, the government undertook several important measures to inform and involve the public. It established the Malta EU Steering and Action Committee (MEUSAC) to engage a broad spectrum of citizens in the process. MEUSAC membership included the core negotiating team as well as technical experts and representatives from the business organizations, unions, political parties, and various other nongovernmental organizations. MEUSAC was the key public body that coordinated and reviewed negotiations between Malta and the EU. The Malta–EU Information Centre (MIC) was also set up, tasked with informing the public on the various processes and many issues related to EU membership. Later, when membership in the EU had been achieved, the MIC organization and functions were absorbed into MEUSAC. Formal accession negotiations between Malta and the EU were opened on 15 February 2000. These negotiations involved the timetable for adoption of the acquis. Each of its 35 chapters, devoted to aspects such as agriculture, competition, employment, and so forth, was examined to see how easily Malta could adapt to its requirements. Malta was able to obtain 76 special arrangements (derogations) concerning its adoption of the acquis. The main arguments for special treatment were Malta’s small population and island status, which make it more vulnerable to external shocks and less able to avoid monopoly situations. Of particular concern was a potential market distortion from an influx of competitive labor (especially from the former Soviet bloc), which could displace Maltese workers. Another concern was the threat of investors from other EU countries buying up scarce land and displacing local residents. Malta obtained special guarantees that its antiabortion laws would not be challenged, that a 25-mile fishing conservation zone around Malta would be maintained, that Gozo would be considered a separate region eligible for extra assistance, and that Malta’s neutrality would be preserved. Malta was also given additional transition time to eliminate subsidies for the dockyards

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and agriculture, while it preserved the right to use protective measures in case of severe economic impacts. A derogation allowing Malta not to charge VAT on food and medicines was made permanent in 2009. The MLP continued to voice its opposition to Malta’s joining the EU. Sant argued for an alternative agreement he called “partnership,” a sort of free trade agreement that lacked many of the greater benefits and responsibilities of full membership. Other Labourites, led by former prime ministers Dom Mintoff and Mifsud Bonnici, organized a group named “Front Maltin Inqumu” (Front Maltese Awake), opposing EU membership. They proposed an alternative association agreement, reviving an earlier Mintoff idea that proposed Malta as the “Switzerland of the Mediterranean.” A referendum was held on 8 March 2003, asking a simple question: “Do you agree that Malta should become a member of the European Union in the enlargement that is to take place on 1 May 2004?” Fifty-four percent voted in favor, 46 percent against. In a curious twist, both sides claimed victory. Sant tried to argue that the no vote had won because only 48 percent of eligible votes were cast in favor, whereas 52 percent (following the MLP’s recommendation) either voted “no,” abstained, or destroyed their ballots. Prime Minister Fenech Adami called for general elections in the following month, in which the NP gained 35 seats versus 30 for the MLP, thus sealing the victory for Malta’s joining the EU, which it did formally on 1 May 2004. As a member, Malta currently has six representatives serving in the European Parliament and is represented on the EU Commission by Karmenu Vella, commissioner for environment, maritime affairs, and fisheries. Three Maltese have served as commissioners on the EU Council in the past: Joe Borg, first as commissioner for development and humanitarian aid and later for fisheries and maritime affairs; John Dalli, commissioner for health and consumer policy; and Tonio Borg, commissioner for health and consumer policy. Karmenu Vella is currently Malta’s EU commissioner for environment, maritime affairs, and fisheries. The EU Commission in Malta is represented by Elena Grech. Malta has qualified for access to EU funding in excess of €2 billion, which, along with matching funds from the government, has begun to bring about significant improvements in the lives of Maltese citizens. On 1 January 2008, Malta successfully adopted the euro, replacing the Maltese lira as its national currency. For the seven-year period 2014–2020, member states—in dialogue with the European Commission—are required to prepare a partnership agreement that outlines their development objectives and how they will be achieved using the 2014–2020 funding from the European Structural and Investment (ESI) Funds. These funds include the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), the Cohesion Fund (CF), the European Social Fund (ESF), the

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European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD), and the European Maritime and Fisheries Fund (EMFF). The agreement for 2014–2020 focuses on three funding priorities: • fostering competitiveness through innovation and the creation of a business-friendly environment, • sustaining an environmentally friendly and resource-efficient economy, and • creating opportunities through investment in human capital and improving health and well-being. Most of the programs proposed by the Maltese government that are approved by the European Commission will be funded 75 to 85 percent by the ESI Funds. Malta has been allotted €1.1 billion for the 2014–2020 period. On 23 June 2016, 51.9 percent of the participating UK electorate (with a turnout of 72.2 percent) voted to leave the EU, known as the “Brexit.” The UK government invoked article 50 of the EU Treaty, which means that it is scheduled to leave the EU on 29 March 2019. The stress of the sudden mass migration from Syria experienced by many EU member countries has created a wave of nationalism that might cause some other countries to leave the EU. How this could affect Malta, which has a considerable reliance on trade, tourism, and educational and other exchanges with the United Kingdom, remains to be seen. See also LISBON AGENDA; SCHENGEN AGREEMENT.

F FARRUGIA, LOUIS A. (1951–). Louis Farrugia received his education in Great Britain and qualified as a fellow member of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales in 1973. He returned to Malta in 1974 after working for a brief period with the public accounting firm Pricewaterhouse in Italy. In 1980, Farrugia was appointed managing director of Simonds Farsons Cisk, one of Malta’s largest companies. Founded in the 1920s by his father, Lewis Farrugia, after his family’s flour mill was burned down during riots over the increased price of bread, it is Malta’s major brewery, engaged in the brewing, production, and sale of branded beer and beverages. The group also operates a number of well-known quick-service food franchises (TGIF, Pizza Hut, Burger King, and KFC) and imports major brands such as Danone, Quaker, and Tropicana. Like his father before him, Louis Farrugia is a prominent member of the business community, who has served as chairman of the Malta Chamber of Commerce (1998–1999) and as an officer on the Council of the Malta Federation of Industries. He was appointed a director of the Malta Development Corporation in 1987 and served as deputy chairman (1988–1991). He was reappointed as a director a decade later and served for a two-year period. Farrugia played an active part in the setting up of the Foundation for Human Resources, an organization jointly launched by the government and private industry in September 1990 to provide training and support in human resources. He served as its president until May 1994. Between March 2000 and September 2006, he served as a nonexecutive director of HSBC Bank Malta and in November 2003 became a director of the London-based Commonwealth Business Council. In recognition of his contribution to Malta’s industry and enterprise on a national level, the president of Malta nominated Farrugia a member of the Order of Merit in November 2004.

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In November 2006, Farrugia was appointed as a nonexecutive director of Malta Venture Capital, a newly established venture capital fund, and also serves as chairman of two other family-owned businesses: Multigas and Farrugia Investments. He married Monica Galea and has two sons. FARRUGIA, DR. MARLENE (1966–). Marlene Farrugia was born 24 July 1966 in Zurrieq, Malta. She graduated from the University of Malta, where she was trained as a dentist. Farrugia entered politics when she was elected as a member of the Nationalist Party (NP) in the local council elections of 1996 under the name Marlene Pullicino. At the time she was married to Jeffrey Pullicino Orlando. Farrugia served on the Zebbug local council for three years. In 1998, she was a candidate on the NP ticket in the general elections but only gained 311 first-count votes in the fifth district and was not elected. Opposed to Malta’s joining the European Union, she switched her party allegiance in 2003 after Malta voted to join the EU, becoming a member of the Malta Labour Party (MKP), which had strongly opposed EU membership. She ran on the Labour ticket in 2008 and was elected with 3,375 first-count votes in the fifth district. Farrugia was reelected in 2013 and appointed chairperson of the Permanent Committee for the Environment and Planning. In a disagreement with Muscat’s government, she voted against her party and for an NP-sponsored amendment to an environmental protection act proposing more transparency in government appointments. Greatly upset by the Labour Party’s decision to sell Maltese passports, she resigned from the party before her term ended in November 2015 to remain in Parliament as an independent member. Famously outspoken against government corruption and for protecting the environment, she had already been a strong critic of Muscat’s government over other issues such as divorce, which as a devout Catholic she opposed. More recently she opposed the transfer of a parcel of protected ODZ (outside development zone) land to a Jordanian company that wanted to found an American-style university. Upset with corruption in both the NP and the Labour Party, Farrugia founded the Partit Demokratiku (Democratic Party), also known as the “Orange Party,” in June 2016. In the run-up to the general elections of June 2017, the former leader of the NP, Simon Busuttil, proposed a coalition between the NP and the PD that came to be called Forza Nazzjonali (National Force). Farrugia and her partner, former Labour whip Godfrey Farrugia, ran on the NP ticket and were elected, the first time since independence that a third-party candidate was elected to Parliament. See also POLITICAL PARTIES. FEAST DAYS. See FESTAS.

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FENECH ADAMI, DR. EDWARD, KUOM, LLD (1934–). Born on 7 February 1934 in Birkirkara, Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami studied economics and law at the University of Malta, becoming an attorney in 1959. He joined the Nationalist Party, was elected to Parliament in 1969, and was reelected in every general election that he contested thereafter. In 1977, he succeeded Dr. Giorgio Borg Olivier as leader of the party and served as prime minister from 1987 to 1996. Under his resolute leadership, Malta dismantled much of the socialist legacy of Dom Mintoff, instituting major changes in preparation for joining the European Union (EU). Improvements in infrastructure, privatization of state-owned corporations, and streamlining of government services were launched. Malta submitted its formal application to join the EU on 16 July 1990, only to have it frozen by the Malta Labour Party when it returned to power for 22 months (1996–1998). As soon as Fenech Adami and the Nationalists were back in control, the process of integration with the EU was resumed, and membership negotiations concluded in December 2002. Prime Minister Fenech Adami signed the EU Accession Treaty on 16 April 2003. He resigned from the office of prime minister on 23 March 2004 and was elected president of Malta on 4 April 2004, serving until George Abela succeeded him on 4 April 2009. He was married to Mary Fenech Adami (d. 8 July 2011) and has five children, one of whom, Beppe Fenech Adami, is a member of Parliament for the Nationalist Party. FESTAS. Distinctly Maltese celebrations, which have their roots in similar traditions in Sicily, festas take place annually in the towns and villages between the beginning of May and the end of September. The celebrations are family events to be anticipated by members of all ages and involve great quantities of locally made fireworks and numerous marches by band clubs. They are part religious, part political, and part festive carnival. Originally, these celebrations were held on a day commemorating the patron saint of the local parish, but in recent years the government has decreed that they be held during the closest weekend. The statue of the saint is brought out of the parish church and carried in the parades. In many of the towns and villages, rival band clubs have evolved, generally with different political leanings. As each will have its own patron saint, each will hold its own festa. On occasion, the rivalries have become so intense that the parish priests have had to cancel some festas, fearing brawls and fistfights. The entire funding for these events comes from private donations. Heavy competition is involved in fund-raising so as to have the “best festa,” meaning the most numerous, expensive, and loudest fireworks. Over €1,300,000 is spent each year on fireworks in Malta.

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The task of preparing these elaborate fireworks displays usually takes the entire year and involves some risk. In the last 30 years, 36 workers have been killed in accidental explosions during the manufacture of fireworks. It was thought that contemporary changes, such as television, would erode the festas’ popularity, but on the contrary, enthusiasm for them seems to have become stronger than ever. They have also become important events on the tourist calendar. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; MUSIC; RELIGION. FILFLA. One of the uninhabited islands of the Maltese archipelago, Filfla is but a rock jutting out of the sea not far off the southwestern coast of Malta. It has no harbors or inlets and is visited only with great difficulty. It was used as a safe haven by some Maltese to escape the 1813 plague and, at various times over a period of two centuries, as a target for naval gun practice by French, British, Italian, and American forces. This reduced the island’s size considerably and made it even more dangerous to access because of a shoreline littered with large rock fragments and unexploded shells. The Malta government banned the bombing in 1971 and declared the island a nature preserve in 1989. Its isolation has made it a living link with the distant past. It is home to a dark green lizard identified as Lacerta muralis var. filfolensis, which is found nowhere else. FILM PRODUCTION IN MALTA. To help Malta’s economy survive the departure of the British forces, the government decided to attract filmmakers to the islands. Malta’s predictably sunny weather, its centuries-old yet wellpreserved fortifications and buildings, its remote location, relatively low wages, and an English-speaking population all combine to make Malta a destination popular with filmmakers. Since 1925, well over 100 films have been shot in Malta, including more than 40 major feature films. Several James Bond titles, The Gladiator (2000), The Count of Monte Christo (2002), Troy (2004), Steven Spielberg’s Munich (2005), The Da Vinci Code (2009), and Conan the Babarian (2011) were filmed in part or entirely in Malta. In 1964, the government established the Mediterranean Film Studios (MFS) on the peninsula by Fort Ricasoli as a state-owned company, offering a unique feature at the time: two large tanks for shooting underwater scenes. In 1993, the MFS company was privatized, first leased and subsequently bought by Catalyst Entertainment Inc. of Toronto. In 1999, the company was bought by German businessman Jost Merten, who has undertaken the restructuring and cost-cutting steps necessary to keep the business competitive.

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The government introduced financial incentives in 2005, offering a rebate of up to 20 percent of most of the local expenditure. As a result, an estimated €18 million was injected into the economy by the film industry over a 12month period (2005–2006) as 12 productions were filmed on the islands, including Spielberg’s Munich and The Da Vinci Code, a rather controversial film for predominantly Catholic Malta. Agora, shot in 2009, was the first major film produced entirely in Malta. Since 2013, the production of over 50 films has injected more than €200 million in foreign direct investment into the economy. Most recent among these films are Risen (2016), Murder on the Orient Express (2017), and The Assassin’s Creed (2017). FINANCIAL SERVICES. One of Malta’s strategic goals has been to increase the quality and size of its financial services sector. By reducing bureaucracy, lowering fees, and simplifying procedures, the government has hoped to attract foreign banking operations to Malta. This would enable banks to take advantage of Malta’s lower cost structure, well-educated workforce, and location as a bridge between Europe and the Mediterranean south. In anticipation of European Union (EU) membership, many changes in Malta’s banking laws were introduced, beginning in January 2000, to harmonize them with EU regulations and bring Malta into line with international best practices in financial services. Government ownership of banks was greatly reduced, and the Central Bank of Malta, which had been established in 1968 after independence, was given greater independence from government interference. Several foreign banks set up operations in Malta, most notably the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. In 1994, Malta stopped issuing offshore licenses, the last of which expired in September 2004. Malta was among the first six countries in the world to reach an advanced accord on financial practices with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), assuring that it does not serve as a tax haven country. The Malta Stock Exchange Act of 1990 established a stock market that began trading operations on 8 January 1992. Over 75,000 individual investors, a significant number given Malta’s economic size, buy and sell stocks and bonds there. In 2013, the Securities and Exchange Commission of the United States gave its official approval to the Malta Stock Exchange by declaring it a Designated Offshore Securities Market. On 23 July 2002, the Malta Financial Services Centre, governed by the Malta Financial Services Authority, was established by an act of Parliament as an autonomous public institution to become the sole regulator of banking and other financial services, such as investing, insurance, and the Malta Stock Exchange, all duties previously carried out by the Central Bank. Origi-

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nally developed to serve retail funds sold to the local market, Malta’s fund administration sector now includes almost 100 European funds and more than 150 hedge funds, attracting global investors. The conclusion of double tax treaties with many of the largest free market economies of the world, including with the United States in April 2008, has made Malta an attractive site to set up investment and trading subsidiaries. The financial services sector of the economy has grown considerably in the last decade. It now represents about 12 percent of Malta’s GDP, a share that is expected to rise to more than 15 percent in the next five years as more companies move to Malta in anticipation of the United Kingdom leaving the EU. In a move to further increase investment flows to Malta, the government, on 12 November 2013, introduced a program to sell Maltese passports to wealthy foreign investors at a cost of €650,000 each. The program is expected to raise €30 million in the first year and €300 million per year once fully operational. Although this plan has been criticized by many, especially EU member countries, the EU court in Luxembourg confirmed that “member states have full sovereignty to decide to whom and how they grant their nationality.” The Financial Intelligence Analysis Unit (FIAU) is a government agency established on 1 October 2002 under the Prevention of Money Laundering Act. It is responsible for the collection, collation, processing, analysis, and dissemination of information to combat money laundering and the funding of terrorism and to monitor compliance with relevant legislation. The firing of an FIAU officer who was investigating Konrad Mizzi, a minister in the Muscat government, as well as Muscat’s chief of staff, Keith Schembri, both of whom had secret accounts divulged in the “Panama Papers,” has caused some to question the state of the rule of law in Malta. The situation is further complicated by the allegation made by the late blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia that Muscat’s wife also owns such an account. This allegation is believed to have prompted Muscat to call a snap election in June 2017, which, given the booming economy and low unemployment, he won handily. In addition, concern is also growing in Malta that Italian and Russian mafiosi are moving into the Maltese gaming industry. Numerous reports from Europol, Reporters Without Borders, and the European Parliament’s temporary committee on the Panama Papers have raised serious concerns about Malta’s governance, illegal activities, and lax enforcement. The government has failed to adequately address allegations of poor banking supervision, money laundering, and corruption, which the police are accused of failing to investigate. These concerns, coupled with the government’s sale of passports to foreigners, caused the European Parliament to launch an investigation that filed a report calling for the removal of Mizzi and Schembri, among other

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measures. So far, the government has not responded except to deny the allegations. Another threat to the investment and financial services sector in Malta is a proposal currently being considered by the EU Commission to introduce common taxation rules for big companies. Known as Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base (CCCTB), it would eliminate the special tax haven status currently used by smaller countries of the EU such as Luxembourg, Cyprus, and Malta to attract subsidiaries of multinational corporations to their shores. Some estimate that if the proposal is adopted, it could cause income from tax arrangements derived from subsidiaries of multinationals registered in Malta to decline by more than half, and in some cases even by two-thirds. See also CRIME. FLAG OF MALTA. Tradition has it that the red and white colors of the Maltese national flag were given to Malta in 1091 by Count Roger of Sicily. He supposedly tore off a portion of his own flag, which was checkered in red and white. There is no historical evidence to support this account. The national flag of Malta is prescribed in the Constitution as consisting of two equal vertical stripes, white in the hoist and red in the fly. The width of the flag is one and a half times its height. The George Cross is represented in the upper left corner of the white field. FLIMKIEN GHAL AMBJENT AHJAR (FAA). One of the newer and most active nongovernmental organizations in Malta, Flimkien ghal Ambjent Ahjar (FAA, literally translated from Maltese as “together for a better environment”) is a grassroots movement growing out of a general public outrage about the destruction of cultural heritage and a decline in the natural environment caused by overdevelopment of the islands. FAA was founded by Helen Caruana Galizia and Astrid Vella in the spring of 2006, following a drive to prevent the demolition of one of the oldest buildings in the locality of Sliema that dated back to the baroque period. FAA quickly organized two public rallies, bringing together a large number of NGOs in an unusual show of unity, gaining significant public support. The organization’s sense of urgency was heightened by rationalization plans that were being proposed by the Malta Environment and Planning Authority (MEPA) that would have redrawn development zones, opening more of the countryside for building speculation. Public protest led by FAA and other environmental groups caused MEPA to cut back the proposal. These and subsequent initiatives on subjects as diverse as overdevelopment, planning legislation reform, water issues, air pollution, alternative energy, and heritage protection have helped FAA to raise the profile of environmental issues in Malta in both the public and political consciousness.

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FAA’s efforts have also succeeded in helping to block development on several other projects: in Gozo, at Ramla al Hamra and Ta Cenc, and in Valletta, a proposed underground museum addition to the St John’s Co-Cathedral that some experts feared threatened the integrity of the cathedral’s foundations. FAA continues to fight against overdevelopment and for preservation of the environment. The organization also organizes frequent lecture and excursion programs to inform the public about Malta’s heritage and environmental issues. See also NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs). FONDAZZJONI PATRIMONJU MALTI (FPM). In 1992, a group of individuals with support from the government and numerous corporate donors established a foundation with the goal of preserving and promoting Malta’s cultural heritage. The Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti (FPM; Maltese Heritage Foundation) organizes exhibitions, research projects, and publications highlighting Maltese antiques, art, and culture. Its main publication is Treasures of Malta, a highly acclaimed magazine issued three times a year. Because it is so widely and highly respected, the foundation is able to gain access to valuable private collections (of which there are many in Malta), making them accessible to the public in Malta and abroad. The FPM has recently signed a partnership agreement with the Malta Study Center at the Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML) in Collegeville, Minnesota, to begin digitizing private collections of pre-1800 manuscript collections in Malta. The FPM’s largest project to date is the painstakingly complete restoration of the Palazzo Falzon (Norman House) in Mdina, which it opened to the public as a museum in the spring of 2007. See also DIN L’ART HELWA; FONDAZZJONI WIRT ARTNA (FWA); HERITAGE MALTA; NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs). FONDAZZJONI WIRT ARTNA (FWA). Organized to help preserve Malta’s national heritage, Fondazzonji Wirt Artna (FWA), literally translated as Our Country’s Heritage, is a nongovernmental organization that relies on many volunteers in addition to a paid staff. FWA owns and operates several historical sites, such as the Malta War Museum in Vittoriosa (Birgu), featuring a complex of underground bomb shelters, and Fort Rinella, at which it performs reenactments and occasionally fires a 100-ton gun, the largest in the world, featuring a 45-centimeter caliber barrel. FWA also performs the traditional canon salute at the Upper Barrakka Gardens, which was used to mark high noon in earlier times. See also DIN L’ART HELWA; FONDAZZJONI PATRIMONJU MALTI (FPM); HERITAGE MALTA.

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FONSECA, EMMANUEL PINTO DE (1681–1773). The longest serving grand master, Emanuel de Pinto Fonseca brought the Order of St. John to its zenith in international recognition and diplomacy. He considered himself the equal of any reigning monarch of Europe and acted accordingly. He did not hesitate to challenge (and to bluff) larger states for his own ends. He was arrogant and autocratic. Fond of pomp, Pinto insisted on royal protocol at all ceremonies. He expelled the Jesuits from Malta and converted their college into a recognized university. The beautiful Auberge de Castille was completed during his reign. In 1749, there was an uprising of slaves, who attempted to murder Pinto and seize control of the island of Malta. The attempt was crushed, and Pinto had more than 60 of the slaves put to death in what became known as the “carnival of cruelty.” He died at age 92, leaving the order in a state of unsteady finances. See also SLAVE UPRISING; SLAVERY AND SLAVE TRADE. FOREIGN POLICY. Independence in 1964 required the new nation to develop, for the first time, its own foreign policy. Even before independence, Prime Minister Borg Olivier had to decide which of the two Chinas Malta would recognize. He opted for the US position, that Taiwan represented the true China, as opposed to the British position, which urged recognition of mainland China. Malta sought to emphasize its newly independent stature further by adopting a policy of nonalignment. In June 1971, Dom Mintoff was returned to office as prime minister. He immediately began negotiating with Great Britain to completely withdraw its forces from Malta and, in 1973, led Malta to join the nonaligned movement in pursuit of a policy of neutrality. On 15 December 1980, Malta signed an agreement with Italy to guarantee neutrality between the two nations and in 1981 published the “Declaration Concerning Neutrality,” which barred foreign troops from Malta’s soil. US warships were banned from entering Maltese waters for resupply and/or repairs, and the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) had to close its subheadquarters in Malta. Malta under Mintoff turned away from the Western powers, such as Great Britain and the United States, seeking instead closer relations with the Arab states of Libya, Egypt, Syria, and Tunisia and communist states such as the People’s Republic of China and North Korea. He hoped to have Malta become a bridge between Europe and North Africa. When the Nationalist Party returned to power in 1987 and Fenech Adami was elected prime minister, he made it clear that Malta would continue its policy of nonalignment yet seek closer relations with the United States and other Western powers. However, the two main priorities of the new administration were to have Malta gain membership in the European Union (EU) and to improve Malta’s finances.

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Since 2004, Malta’s foreign policy has continued within the framework of its obligations to fellow members of the EU. Malta’s strategic goals include making the best of EU membership while strengthening ties to surrounding Mediterranean neighbors; working for peace and development in the Middle East, especially Palestine and Israel; and maintaining a focus on key issues such as climate change, energy supplies, and the particular problems of small island economies. Malta continues actively to seek strengthened bilateral relations with key partners through its 27 embassies and consulates around the world. Malta is an active participant in the United Nations, the Commonwealth, the Council of Europe, the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe, and various other international organizations. In these fora, Malta has frequently expressed its concern for the peace and economic development of the Mediterranean region. Malta’s strategic objectives, as outlined in the Guiding Principles of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs in 2006, include seven priorities: “the strengthening of Malta’s participatory role within the European Union; enhancing and promoting further Malta’s bilateral relations; contributing effectively towards multilateralism; reaffirming Malta’s vocation and determination to strengthen peace and security in the Mediterranean; recognizing the importance and relevance of the Maltese living abroad; securing a more effective political and economic role for Malta’s Representation Overseas, and the promotion of Maltese culture abroad.” See also EURO–MEDITERRANEAN PARTNERSHIP; ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION; LIBYA; SCHENGEN AGREEMENT; UNITED STATES–SOVIET SUMMIT. FORTIFICATIONS. Because of its strategic location and deep, well-protected harbor, Malta has been the scene of many invasions and military conflicts over the centuries. With one of the world’s most extensive and concentrated collections of walled cities, citadels, forts, towers, batteries, redoubts, entrenchments, and pillboxes, Malta has been called the “Fortress island.” In his History of the Fortress of Malta (1858), British major general Whitworth Porter described the islands as “the most powerful artificial fortress in the world.” Malta’s fortifications were built over thousands of years, beginning with the Bronze Age around 1450 BCE and up to World War II in the mid-20th century. The Phoenicians, Romans, and Byzantines built a number of defensive walls around important settlements, especially Mdina, but other than several recently discovered Punic–Roman foundation walls, not much evidence of them remains today. The defensive walls around Mdina were probably first destroyed around 870 when the Arabs conquered the island and murdered or hauled its inhabitants away as slaves. Several hundred years after 1091, when Roger I reconquered the island from the Arabs, a fortification known as Castellu di la Chitatior or castrum civitas was erected. It was

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one of three forts known to have existed on Malta in the late Middle Ages, the other two being one in the center of Gozo, where the citadel stands today, and the other, known as Castrum Maris, later rebuilt as Fort St. Elmo on the eastern tip of Valletta. In 1429, Mdina was successfully defended against an attack by Hafsid invaders from Tunis, but the first canons arrived on the islands by 1474, making the fortifications of the city obsolete. The major fortifications of the Maltese islands were principally the result of two eras: first when the Order of the Knights of St. John ruled Malta from 1530 to 1798, and second when the British took over the islands from 1800 until the end of World War II. When the Knights took possession of Malta in 1530, they immediately began work to build defensive fortifications, fearing attacks by the Turkish force that had previously driven them out of their fort on the island of Rhodes. They rebuilt the Castrum Maris, which was renamed Fort St. Elmo, and established their headquarters in Birgu, where they built Fort St. Angelo. By the end of the 18th century, when first the French and then the British took over the islands, Malta had extensive fortifications around the Grand Harbour, including Forts St. Angelo and St. Elmo, and in Marsamxett Harbour, Fort Manoel, which included the Lazzaretto. In addition, the Knights positioned towers strategically all over the island, close enough to one another so that fires signaling the approach of an enemy could be seen and the warning be relayed from one tower to the next. Fifteen of these towers were built, a number of which still exist today. In the decade after the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights also built the city of Valletta as a fortified town, with walls, bastions, cavaliers, counterguards, and a ditch that remain largely intact to this day. The ruined Fort St. Elmo was rebuilt and integrated into the city walls. The area around St. Elmo was strengthened a number of times in the 17th century. The defenses of Gozo’s Cittadella were also improved by the order. The main city in the center of the island had been overrun and destroyed in 1551 by an Ottoman raid in which almost the entire population of Gozo was captured and removed as slaves. The order completely rebuilt the city’s entrance and southern walls between 1599 and 1622. Throughout the 17th century, defensive walls were extended, surrounding land outside of the cities of Valletta, Senglea, and Birgu, whenever funds allowed. Fort Ricasoli was built at the entrance to Grand Harbour opposite side Fort St. Elmo to further protect the eastern shore of Malta. When the British took over Malta in 1800, they did not plan to stay and occupy the Knights’ fortifications. They were under the delusion that the naval forces of Great Britain were a sufficient defensive power and actually considered dismantling the fortifications. Fortunately, when the British realized that Malta was a valuable colony as a coaling and ship repair station for the navy, they began to build a number of additional forts of their own on

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various parts of the island. Fort Campbell, built between late 1937 and 1938, was the last fort constructed on Malta. Aerial bombardment was the newest threat, so the fort was designed on an irregular plan, with buildings scattered around, avoiding a concentration of potential targets. It still exists today but in a ruined state. In World War II, the British mainly added pillboxes and antiaircraft positions on top of the bastions of existing forts. In the 21st century, the Maltese realized that the fortifications, many of which had fallen into a sad state of disrepair, were valuable tourism assets and, with the help of EU funding, began to restore a number of them. A fully restored Fort St. Elmo was recently opened to the public as an extensive museum of Malta’s military history. See also THREE CITIES, THE. FORZA NAZZJONALI. See BUSUTTIL, DR. SIMON (1969–); FARRUGIA, DR. MARLENE (1966–); NATIONALIST PARTY (NP); POLITICAL PARTIES. FRAZIER, VANESSA (1969–). Vanessa Frazier (née Grima Baldacchino), the daughter of the late Frank Grima and Maria Baldacchino, was educated at the school of the Convent of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and New Lyceum Sixth Form. She earned a bachelor’s degree in business and French from Luther College in the United States and a master’s degree in diplomatic studies from the University of Malta, with a major in international law. Frazier joined the diplomatic corps of Malta as a student diplomat in 1992 and in 1994 was confirmed as a first secretary. She held a series of postings in Malta’s embassies in Washington, D.C., Rome, London, and Brussels. While in London (from 2002 to 2006), she served as the head of the political unit in the Malta High Commission, handling all Malta–UK bilateral relations as well as relations with the International Maritime Organization and the Commonwealth. During the two years leading up to the 2005 Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM) in Malta, she represented the CHOGM 2005 Taskforce in London, arranging all aspects of that meeting. In November 2005, she was appointed ambassador for immigration and subsequently acting permanent secretary of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. From 2006 to 2011, Frazier headed the Defense Matters Directorate within the office of the prime minister. She was responsible for a wide range of international security issues, including European defense policy, Mediterranean defense and security issues, the integrity of Malta’s sovereignty, and Malta’s involvement in crime management operations overseas. She advised and supported the prime minister in the management and direction of the Armed Forces of Malta (AFM) and acted as the civilian oversight of the AFM.

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In 2011, while at the helm of the defense directorate, Frazier and her team consolidated Malta’s response to the Arab Spring. Her directorate established a “humanitarian hub” in Malta, which proved to be one of Malta’s most important contributions to the Libyan crisis, not only evacuating thousands of wounded Libyans and ex-patriot workers from several countries, but also coordinating the flight paths for military aerial assets participating in the operation flying over Maltese-controlled airspace. For her effective and widely praised work in the Libyan conflict, the French government honored her as Knight in the National Order of Merit. Frazier has served as Malta’s ambassador to Belgium, Luxembourg, and NATO. She is currently Malta’s ambassador to Italy and is also accredited to San Marino as well as all Rome-based UN bodies. A several-time national champion in judo, most recently in 2016, Frazier has for over 30 years represented Malta in national and international competitions, including the Olympics. For her diplomatic work in Italy, she was recently awarded the Italian government’s Gran Croce, the Italian Medal of Honor, and was named “Woman Inspiring Europe 2013” by the European Institute for Gender Equality. She married Marco Frazier, and they have two children. FREEDOM DAY. Established as a national holiday to celebrate the departure of British forces from Malta, the first Freedom Day occurred on 31 March 1979. The ceremonial activities were held at Senglea at a new monument erected to commemorate the event. President Anton Buttigieg was to have had a major part in the important historical event but was upstaged by Libya’s head of state, Colonel Muammar al-Qaddafi. The two arrived at the monument site at the same time. The difference was that the Qaddafi contingent consisted of several hundred Libyan students who were studying in Malta plus over 500 other Libyans who had traveled to the island on a passenger ship for the event. The continual orchestrated shouts of “Qaddafi! Qaddafi!” dominated the event even as the British flag was lowered and the Maltese flag was raised at midnight. The president had to watch, powerless, as this major event in his small nation’s history was overpowered by the actions of the leader of a neighboring nation. Whether Qaddafi had received an “official” informal invitation to the event or came on his own has never been definitively determined, but suspicions persist. On the morning of the next day, the HMS London departed Grand Harbour, taking with it the final remnants of the British forces. President and Mrs. Buttigieg stood in the wind and rain on the highest roof of Fort St. Angelo at the mouth of the harbor to wave farewell. They did this so that the final symbolic event of the leaving of the British forces would not be tarnished by the embarrassment of the preceding evening. Freedom Day is still celebrated every 31 March.

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FREE PORT. In order to attract foreign businesses to Malta, the government established the Malta Freeport Corporation in January 1988. A free port consists of a cargo-handling facility with duty-free enterprise zones that enable products to be landed in Malta without officially entering the country. After the products have been further processed (through some value-adding operations), they are shipped on to other countries without having to pay Maltese duties. The manufacturers save money, and Maltese workers get more jobs. Taking advantage of Malta’s location and deep harbors, the free port has become a major transshipment hub in the Mediterranean, especially for goods from Asia on their way to Europe. Currently, over three million 20foot container equivalent units (TEUs), to and from 115 foreign ports, pass through the facility annually. Since privatization on 5 October 2004, the port has been operated by several companies, under a 30-year lease that was recently extended to 65 years. The property, covering three-fourths of a square kilometer and including two kilometers of quay, is owned by Malta Freeport Corporation Ltd., while cargo-handling operations are carried out by Malta Freeport Terminals, Inc. An oil terminal that stores and transfers crude oil, fuel oil, jet fuel, and gasoline, operated by Oiltanking Malta, a German subsidiary, is also located at the free port. Another lessee is Medserv PLC, a company serving the offshore oil and gas industry. Medserv installed the first and to date largest solar farm in Malta, with 8,000 photovoltaic panels covering 20,000 square meters at a cost of over €4 million. The farm will produce 9,600 kilowatt hours of electricity daily, equivalent to the power consumed by 800 homes. See also ECONOMY; ENERGY; TRADE. FRENCH INVASION. After the French Revolution, attitudes in France toward the Order of the Knights of St. John shifted definitely toward the negative. In the prevailing circumstances, an organization with aristocratic and religious foundations was unlikely to be very popular. In 1792, all of the order’s possessions in France were confiscated by the government. This loss of wealth and income plunged it into a state of financial instability. Of necessity, it began negotiations for alliances with Russia, the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, Austria, and Great Britain. Because the French had cultivated subversive elements in Malta, there was a strong pro-French attitude on the part of the Maltese. Many French Knights, including the commander of fortifications, were in sympathy with what was happening in France. The French fleet, on its way to Egypt, stopped in Malta on 9 June 1798. Napoleon requested permission to have his ships enter Grand Harbour to take on water. His request was denied. The next day his armed troops were put ashore. A combination of surprise, poorly manned defenses, and pro-French factions among the Knights and the Maltese caused the meager resistance to

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crumble. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch asked for an armistice on 11 June 1798. Napoleon’s terms were harsh indeed. The order was to give up all claims to the Maltese Islands and to all its property located there, real and personal. Within a few days, the grand master and other Knights left the islands (although the Knights of the French Langue were permitted to stay). Napoleon moved his command ashore to take control and to set about applying French revolutionary principles to the lives of the Maltese. The influence of the Church was reduced significantly, and the Inquisition was abolished. All valuables of the Knights that could be removed were transferred to the French fleet. A new legal code was instituted. The initial response of the Maltese citizenry was extremely positive because the French occupiers had rid Malta of the Knights, with their excesses in spending and lifestyle. See also BATTLE OF ABOUKIR BAY; FRENCH OCCUPATION. FRENCH OCCUPATION. The Maltese found the revolutionary concept of equality, encouraged by their new French rulers, a most acceptable one after the autocratic reign of the Knights of St. John, which had lasted over 250 years. However, this positive feeling slowly began to erode. The French refused to pay the debts of the Knights, leaving the local suppliers to suffer the losses. The feeling of unfairness was heightened as they watched the wealth of the Knights being loaded onto the French ships. The new rulers also refused to honor the pensions promised to loyal servants and other employees of the order. Interest rates were raised, new taxes were imposed, and the terms of leases on public lands were arbitrarily altered. On 17 June 1798, Napoleon left Malta, resuming the movement with his fleet toward Egypt, his primary objective. He left behind 4,000 soldiers as a garrison to control the islands. Gradually, negative opinions about the new rulers began to harden. When it was learned that Napoleon had suffered a defeat by the British navy in Egypt, the status of the French occupying force in Malta was tenuous at best. The most serious mistake committed by the French, however, was the pillaging of the churches’ silver and other valuables. This aroused the anger of the Maltese, which finally erupted when the French attempted to strip ecclesiastical buildings in Mdina. The small force of French soldiers in the old city was massacred, and shortly thereafter all of Malta rose up against the occupiers. The remaining French forces withdrew into the fortifications of Valletta. When several brave attempts to storm the fortifications failed, the decision was made to deny supplies to those in the city. It was, in essence, a blockade against the French by the Maltese on their own island. The Maltese created a sort of national assembly and sent messengers seeking help to Sicily and Naples. The king of Naples responded by sending a squadron of Portuguese ships. A British squadron under the command of Captain Alexander Ball also joined the blockade, and Ball became the over-

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all commander. After a while, it was decided that a land campaign was needed as well as the blockade, and Brigadier General Thomas Graham was given the responsibility of raising a local regiment of volunteers. He was very successful, and the unit became the Maltese Light Infantry, a part of the British army. Eventually, the French gave up because of the effects of the blockade and the threat of a land-based assault. Unfortunately, history repeated itself, and the Maltese were given no voice in the surrender negotiations, which permitted the French to leave the island with all of their possessions. The Maltese could only look on as the departing soldiers left in defeat, taking with them a great number of items belonging to Malta. On 5 September 1800, the British flag was raised over Malta. See also FRENCH INVASION. FRENDO, DR. HENRY (1948–). Born on 29 August 1948, Henry Frendo studied the Maltese and English languages in addition to history at the University of Malta, earning a BA and an MA in history with a thesis on the language-culture clash in Malta. He chaired a student organization leading a national campaign called Djar ghall-Maltin (Houses for the Maltese), which sought to ease the housing crisis for lower income Maltese. In the early 1970s, Frendo served as editor of a daily newspaper, Il Hajja, then earned a PhD in 1976 at Oxford with a dissertation on the formation of Maltese political parties under British rule, which was later published as a book under the title Party Politics in a Fortress Colony: The Maltese Experience. Before becoming a full-time faculty member, Frendo left Malta in 1979 due to disagreements with the ruling Labour government and served as a program officer with the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Egypt, and Papua New Guinea. He returned to Malta in 1988 to accept an appointment as associate professor of modern history at the University of Malta. Since 1992, Frendo has been a full professor of modern history at the University of Malta and a leading authority on Malta’s contemporary political history, authoring numerous books on Maltese political parties and personalities, including The Origins of Maltese Statehood: A Case Study of Decolonization in the Mediterranean and Europe and Empire: Culture, Politics and Identity in Malta and the Mediterranean. From 1993 to 1997, he chaired the Malta branch of the European Cultural Foundation and from 1994 through 1998 was the mayor of Attard. In 1994, he was elected as the first president of the Local Councils Association and served as head of a delegation to the Congress of Local Councils association in Strasbourg.

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From 2001 to 2012, Frendo served as chairman of Malta’s Refugee Appeals Board. He has also been appointed vice president of the Council of Europe’s committee of experts on local government. Frendo married Margaret DeBono, and they have three children. FRENDO, DR. MICHAEL (1955–). Born 29 July 1955, a younger brother of Dr. Henry Frendo, he earned a doctor of laws degree from the University of Malta in 1977 and was admitted to the Maltese bar in 1978. He earned a master’s degree in European legal studies from the University of Exeter (UK) in 1984. His legal practice over several decades included corporate law, communications law, and gaming law, as well as a postgraduate specialization in European Union law. Dr. Frendo was active in the politics of Malta, serving as a Nationalist Party member of Parliament for 26 years (1987 to 2013), during which he held ministerial offices with varying portfolios. He was minister for broadcasting, culture, youth, and sport (1990–1994) and minister of telecommunications, transport, and technology (1994–1996) and a member of the European Convention on the Future of Europe. From 2004 to 2008, he served as Malta’s foreign minister, the first person to hold that office after Malta joined the European Union. Dr. Frendo organized the first EU–Arab League foreign ministers’ meeting, which he cochaired in Malta with the foreign ministers of several Arab states in February 2008. He is a signatory to the Treaty of Lisbon and the Treaty for a Constitution of Europe and was a member of the Convention on the Future of Europe and speaker of the House of Parliament from 2010 until he left politics in 2013 to become chairman of the Banf Bank (Malta) PLC. In December 2017, Dr. Frendo was appointed vice president of the European Commission for Democracy through Law (the Venice Commission) of the Council of Europe, of which he had been a member since 2013. He continues to practice law, lecturing on gaming law in the Faculty of Laws at the University of Malta. He married Irene Brincat, and they have three children. See also FOREIGN POLICY. FRIGGIERI, OLIVER (1947–). Currently Malta’s most prominent novelist and literary critic, Friggieri was born in Floriana, Malta, on 27 March 1947. He studied at the bishop’s seminary and earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in Maltese, Italian, and philosophy at the University of Malta. In 1978, he earned a doctorate in Maltese language and literary criticism from the Catholic University in Milan, Italy.

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Friggieri began a teaching career in 1968 as a secondary school instructor in philosophy and the Maltese language before joining the faculty at the University of Malta as a lecturer in Maltese in 1976. He was appointed head of the Department of Maltese in 1988 and became a full professor by 1990. Friggieri has written several short stories and 10 novels, mostly in Maltese, although, interestingly, his two most recent works are in English: Children Come by Ship (2013) and Let Fair Weather Bring Me Home (2015). As an active member of Malta’s literary revival movement (Moviment Qawmien Letterarju) in the early 1970s, he was a contributor and later editor of Il Polz (the Pulse). In 1971, Friggieri cofounded Is-Saghtar (“the Tyme”), a children’s literary and cultural magazine, and continues to serve on its editorial board. In the same year, he helped establish a publishing company, Klabb Kotba Maltin (Maltese Book Club), focused on the publishing of books in Maltese. He has also served as editor of the University of Malta’s Journal of Maltese Studies since 1980. Friggieri is considered the “uncontested expert” on Malta’s national poet, Dun Karm Psaila. See also LITERATURE; MALTI. FRONTEX. See ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION.

G GALEA, VICTOR (1960–). Victor A. Galea was born on 24 September 1960 in Sliema, the oldest child of Anthony Galea and Anna Salomone. He graduated in 1983 with a bachelor of arts in management from Luther College. In 1996, he earned an MBA from Brunel University after a course of study at Henley Management College. Galea joined his family business in Malta in 1983 as a third-generation manager of the V. J. Salomone Group, a company founded in the 1920s and still a leading distributor of fast-moving consumer goods in Malta. An active promoter of Maltese trade and commerce, Galea was first elected to the Council of the Malta Chamber of Commerce in 1989 and has remained active in chamber business, serving as vice president in 2004 and 2005. In 2006, he was elected to a two-year term as president of the chamber, during which time he helped to strengthen the organization by engaging in discussions with the Malta Federation of Industry to engineer a merger. In December 2007, the merger memorandum of understanding was signed. Galea holds directorships in several other companies. He is also a director of Middle Sea Insurance as well as Malta Enterprise. He married Rita Cachia, and they have three children. GAMES OF THE SMALL STATES OF EUROPE. These games, a sort of mini-Olympics, organized by the members of the European Olympic Committee (EOC), have been held in odd-numbered years since 1985 at various locations. Eligible are those nations whose populations are below one million citizens and thus qualify as “small.” Currently included are Andorra, Cyprus, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro, and San Marino. Malta entered into an ambitious series of construction projects of athletic facilities prior to hosting the fifth games in 1993. It hosted the games again in 2003, placing fourth in the overall medal count with 44, 11 of them gold. Malta, which ranks fifth in total medals won since 1985, is scheduled to host the games again in 2023. Currently, 12 sports are contested, including athletics, basketball, judo, swimming, tennis, lawn bowling, and volleyball. 123

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GANADO, DR. HERBERT (1906–1979). As editor of a Maltese-language newspaper that favored Nationalist Party (NP) positions, Herbert Ganado was one of those detained and then exiled to Uganda soon after the outbreak of World War II. Upon his return after the war’s end, he became active again in the political and social life of the islands. Soon he became president of Catholic Action, an organization of laymen of the Catholic Church. In 1956, he became a member of the Executive Committee of the NP. In 1958, he joined a number of other party members in a breakaway group that founded the Democratic Nationalist Party. This new party had objectives not very different from those of the parent party, except that the attitude toward the Church and the clergy was much more positive. In the elections of 1962, the new party gained 9.3 percent of the votes, while the parent party gained 42 percent. In 1966, the newer party’s percentage dropped to 1.3 percent, and after that, it ceased to exist as a political party. Ganado’s memoirs, Rajt Malta Tinbidel, were translated into English by Dr. Michael Refalo. GENERAL WORKERS’ UNION (GWU). See TRADE UNIONS. GENOESE INFLUENCE. When King Roger II of Sicily and Malta died in 1154, his successor was William I. He became known as William the Bad because of his personal lifestyle and his lack of interest in the affairs of governance. The main beneficiaries of his rule were the Genoese, who were granted a number of substantial privileges, especially in Sicily. His successor, his son William II, became known as William the Good, probably both because of his close relationship with the Church and the contrast of his reign with that of his father. When William II died childless in 1190, a dispute arose over the succession. The rightful heir was Constance, the daughter of Roger II, married to Henry VI, son of the emperor of Germany. However, the pope feared the possible German influence in the area and gave his support to Tancred, of illegitimate birth and Norman descent, who was crowned king of Sicily in 1190. He elevated a Genoese pirate, Margarito of Brindisi, to the position of royal admiral of Sicily and count of Malta. He was succeeded by another Genoese corsair, William Grasso. Grasso, in turn, was succeeded by his son-in-law, Henry Pistore, an ambitious, colorful person, who became Count of Malta in 1203. In 1205, Pistore and some Maltese sailors in two galleys captured two additional Venetian galleys and, with the four, attacked Tripoli in Libya. They were welcomed as heroes upon their return to Malta. Pistore continued to use Malta as a base for his operations throughout the Mediterranean, most likely with a positive impact on the economy. Genoese influence attained its highest level at this

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point. A strong Genoese fleet sailed from the islands in 1205 to successfully attack Syracuse, Sicily, after it had been seized by Pisans. After that point, Pistore’s connections with Malta diminished and disappeared. GEOLOGY. The Maltese archipelago was formed 5 to 25 million years ago through the uplifting of sedimentary layers that once were below the sea. The lifting action resulted in fissures along several fault lines caused by forces that gave Malta steep cliffs and deep natural harbors. Its terrain slopes from a high point in the southwest, site of the Dingli cliffs, to the lower-lying shores of the northeast. Five major layers of geological deposits, mainly limestone and clay varieties, make up the islands. Sandwiched between the upper and lower coralline limestone layers are (from top to bottom) a layer of green sand, a layer of blue clay, and a layer of globigerina limestone. The globigerina layer is about 20 to 100 meters (65 to 338 feet) thick. It derives its name from the planktonic globigerinid foraminifera, the skeletons of which form most of its sediment. Fossils of crocodiles, turtles, and seals are also found in this layer. Locally known as “franka,” globigerina is a very soft, honey-colored limestone, which has been quarried from deep pits around the islands. Abundant, soft, and easily sawed into blocks, it is Malta’s main natural resource and is the traditional material used to build and decorate most of the buildings in Malta. The harder, dense, crystalline coralline limestone was used to build the megalithic temples. The green sand layer is soft, porous, and only 1 to 10 meters thick. It lies on top of the impermeable blue clay layer, which acts as a sort of reservoir collecting water underground. The blue clay layer, on average one meter thick, is the most fertile but also very soft and subject to erosion. See also ARCHITECTURE. GEORGE CROSS (GC). The endurance of the Maltese people through the horrors of the incessant bombings of World War II and the severe hardships they caused was heroic. That heroism was recognized on 15 April 1942, when a message was received in Valletta from King George VI. In his own handwriting it said, “To honour her brave people I award the George Cross to the Island Fortress of Malta to bear witness to a heroism and devotion that will long be famous in history.” The George Cross is the highest award that Great Britain can bestow on civilians. The award to Malta was the first time that a collective group received this award (the only other recipient being the Royal Ulster Constabulary in 1999). The flag of Malta, divided vertically into a white field on the left and a red field on the right, was soon changed to include the depiction of the George Cross in the upper left corner of the white field.

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In a ceremony amid the ruins of Valletta on 13 September 1942, the governor and military commander, Lord Gort, said: On my appointment as Governor of Malta, I was entrusted to carry the George Cross to this island fortress. By the command of the King, I now present to the people of Malta and her dependencies, the decoration which his Majesty has awarded to them in recognition of the gallant service which they have already rendered in the fight for freedom. How you have withstood for many months the most concentrated bombing attacks in the history of the world is the admiration of all civilized peoples. Your homes and your historic buildings have been destroyed and only their ruins remain as monuments to the hate of a barbarous foe. The Axis Powers have tried again and again to break your spirit but your confidence in the final triumph of the United Nations remains undimmed. What Malta has withstood in the past, without flinching, Malta is determined to endure until the day when the second siege is raised. Battle-scarred George Cross Malta, the sentinel of Empire in the Mediterranean, meanwhile stands firm, undaunted and undismayed, awaiting the time when she can call “pass friend, all is well in the island Fortress.” Now it is my proud duty to hand over the George Cross to the people of Malta for safekeeping.

He closed by reading the citation written by King George VI and handed the case to the chief justice, Sir George Borg. A plaque displaying the citation was mounted on the wall of the grand master’s Palace in Valletta. In 1988, the George Cross Island Association (GCIA) was organized and began holding annual reunions, featuring commemoration ceremonies of the granting of the GC. Recently, these festivities have occasioned criticism by some Maltese, who resent the addition of the GC to the Maltese flag as an arbitrary act on the part of the colonial administration and another symbol of British domination of the island. GEORGE VI (1895–1952). His Majesty King George VI, the British monarch, showed his respect and affection for the people of Malta in many ways, but chief among them were the following. On 3 April 1942, he assumed the title of colonelcy-in-chief of the royal Malta Artillery Regiment, an unusual honor to be given to a non-British military unit. His message to the regiment included his “admiration for the stout-hearted resistance of all in Malta, Service personnel and civilians alike, to the fierce and constant air attacks of the enemy.” He concluded by saying, “Please convey my best wishes to all ranks of my new Regiment, and assure them of the added pride with which I shall follow future activities.” On 15 April 1942, he awarded the George Cross to the people of Malta. On 20 June 1943, he arrived in Grand Harbour aboard the HMS Aurora. He stood on a special platform built on the ship’s bridge, saluting the joyously boisterous crowds that filled every available space around the harbor.

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See also WORLD WAR II. GERADA, BISHOP EMANUELE (1920–2011). Born in Malta on 18 May 1920, Emanuele Gerada was ordained a priest on 1 August 1943 for the Archdiocese of Malta. He was appointed auxiliary archbishop of the Archdiocese of Malta and coadjudter archbishop in 1968. He studied in Rome for a doctorate in canon law and served in the Vatican’s diplomatic service until 1967. Gerada was a Vatican diplomat with an excellent reputation and extensive experience. His main charge was to settle the problems between the Malta Labour Party (MLP) and the Church. As a beginning gesture of conciliation, he invited all members of Parliament to his consecration service. Dom Mintoff, together with his followers, declined the invitation, giving as their reason the fact that so many of them continued to be denied the sacraments of the Church through the interdiction because of what were interpreted as political activities against the Church. It was not until 13 December 1968 that Gerada’s diplomatic skills succeeded in getting Archbishop Michael Gonzi to remove the religious restrictions. At the same time, he pledged that he would work hard to reach an agreement with the party. The relationship between Gonzi and Gerada was always tense, with each attempting to outmaneuver the other. In early 1969, Gerada prepared a draft of a Church/ MLP agreement, which, when revised, was approved by Mintoff. He then sent it to the Vatican for approval. The return letter raised several objections and urged slower progress. Gerada never showed the letter to anyone else but proceeded with the negotiations. Finally, on Good Friday, 4 April 1969, a statement was issued bearing the signatures of Mintoff and Joe Camilleri of the MLP and Archbishop Gonzi, Bishop Gerada, and Bishop Cauchi of the Church. It provided that a distinction be made between the political community and the Church and included the promise that the Church would not interfere in politics. In addition, it recognized the duty and right of the Church to teach its principles. The Church also promised not to impose mortal sin as a censure. Many observers believe that this agreement paved the way for the MLP victory in the election of 1971 and for Mintoff to become prime minister. After this success, Gerada lost his chance to become archbishop through excessive meddling in both political and Church affairs, while Gonzi was not yet retired. The local priests became polarized, and Gerada lost credibility among them. The Vatican reacted to the outcry against him in November 1973 by naming him apostolic nuncio in Guatemala and El Salvador. Gerada retired on 17 October 1995 and died on 21 January 2011. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; LIGUTTI, MONSIGNOR LUIGI (1915–1984).

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GHAR DALAM. This cave, called the “Cave of Darkness,” is located near the village of Birzebugia along the southeast coast of the island of Malta. It is one of the most important paleontological and archaeological sites in Malta. This is because discoveries made inside it provide tangible evidence that the archipelago was once part of a land bridge between Europe and Africa. The fossil and skeletal remains of a variety of roaming animals of both continents have been found in the cave and are now on display in the museum at the same location. Included are dwarf hippopotamuses and elephants from the south and wild boar, red deer, and antelopes from the north. It is presumed that these animals were driven southward by the advancing ice age and roamed freely until the coming of the great floods about 700,000 years ago. It was then that the archipelago became separated from the two continents, stranding the animals on Malta, where they eventually became extinct. The cave also contains evidence that it was used by humans in the Stone Age and again in the Bronze Age. Teeth found in the cave were once believed to have belonged to contemporaries of Neanderthal man, but this was later disproved. In 1991, a new species of woodlouse (Armadillidium ghardalamensis), only found in Ghar Dalam and a neighboring cave, was identified. The cave and its museum were declared a “Special Area of Conservation” under the European Union’s Natura 2000 framework and are currently administered by Heritage Malta, the national agency responsible for museums and conservation of cultural heritage. See also GEOLOGY. GLOBIGERINA. See also ARCHITECTURE; GEOLOGY. GLOSTER GLADIATOR. At the outbreak of World War II in 1939, there were three dozen airports on Sicily, all within a 15-minute flight of Malta. Based on them were 350 bombers and 200 fighters of the Italian Regia Aeronautica. These were fast, modern aircraft manned by experienced pilots. Against this powerful force, there were on Malta just four obsolete biplanes, which were there only by accident. When the British carrier HMS Glorious hurriedly departed the islands for duty in the defense of Norway, eight crated naval fighter planes, called Gloster Gladiators, were left behind. Although they were designed for use aboard aircraft carriers, a compromise decision was made, and four of the planes were assigned to the RAF defense of the Maltese Islands. The official quota of aircraft for that defense was to have been two squadrons of bombers and reconnaissance planes and four squadrons of fighters. They were never assigned because of the severe needs elsewhere. Thus, the defense was entrusted to four sturdy but outdated naval aircraft converted for land use. The pilots were all volunteers from air force administrative staff, none of whom had been trained in fighter aircraft. Of the

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12 volunteers, 7 were selected. The ground crews to service the aircraft also came from an array of Maltese and RAF volunteers. Knowing that it was inevitable that Italy would declare war soon, the small air force practiced all aspects of fighter tactics and the required land support. At 6:57 a.m. on 11 June 1940, shortly after Italy officially declared war, the first wave of bombers approached Malta, expecting no opposition. Instead, they were met by the four converted fighter planes. That first day, the Italians mounted eight raids, using well over 150 bombers. The first raids were without fighter support, but from then on, all raids carried such additional protection. After that first day, one of the Gladiators was retired to a hangar as a source of repair parts. The remaining three, named Faith, Hope, and Charity, raised the morale of the garrison of 30,000 British and Maltese and the 225,000 civilians by their highly visible air actions. Benito Mussolini had boasted that his forces would be in Malta in a few weeks. He was proved to be very wrong. The three Gladiators shot down 30-plus enemy aircraft. Only one Gladiator was lost to enemy action. Even more important was their disruption of the precision bombing runs. With the arrival of Hurricane fighters in August, the Gladiators gained a well-earned retirement. Currently, the body of Faith (without its wings) is on exhibit in the National War Museum in Valletta. However, in May 2007, the newly organized Malta Aviation Museum in Ta Qali requested permission to take possession of the aircraft as part of its exhibit. In exchange, it promised to restore the craft to its original state by adding a pair of wings recently donated for that purpose by the RAF. Moving the airplane to the larger new facilities of the Malta Aviation Museum is supported by 66 percent of the Maltese citizenry, but Heritage Malta, the organization overseeing the National War Museum, has so far refused to release its prized artifact. See also BORG, SIR GEORGE (1887–1954). GONZI, ARCHBISHOP MICHAEL, KBE (1885–1984). Michael Gonzi was born in Birgu, Malta, on 16 November 1885, the youngest of eight children in a working-class family. He earned a degree in philosophy from the University of Malta and did further theological studies before being ordained as a priest in 1908. After serving in several parishes, he was appointed Roman Catholic chaplain to the British forces on Malta during World War I. For a time, Gonzi was a professor of holy scripture at the university, and in 1919 he was appointed secretary to the archbishop. At the same time he was given the title of monsignor. One of the cofounders of the Labour Party, he was elected to the Senate in 1921. In 1924, at the age of 39, he was appointed bishop of Gozo and had to relinquish his Senate seat. As bishop, Gonzi was in a position of authority to advocate for the Church against the government, regardless of the party in power. Because Gonzi considered the Church itself to be above any civil authority, both he and the

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Church came into almost continual conflict with the government. He also feared that Protestantism, brought to Malta by the British, was making inroads among the Maltese. Although he was never anti-British, the colonial authorities feared him. As bishop of Gozo, he joined with the archbishop of Malta in the issuance of the pastoral letter against the followers of Lord Strickland. During World War II, Gonzi allayed British fears about him when he declared that hoarding food was a mortal sin, causing the Gozitans to send their surplus wheat to Malta, helping with the shortages there. After a long period of negotiation among the Colonial Office in London, the Holy See in the Vatican, and various factions in Malta, Gonzi became archbishop in December 1943 and was immediately awarded the KBE. He issued an order that forbade priests from becoming candidates for any political office. Although he favored the MLP under Paul Boffa, when Dom Mintoff took over as leader, the antagonism between the two eventually prompted Gonzi to issue a pastoral letter against him. His opposition to Giorgio Borg Olivier was more subtle, but it was there. Gonzi’s workingclass background bought him considerable popularity among the masses. Among the clergy, he gained loyalty through patronage. In a strange way, it was the colonial authorities that supported the political strength of the Maltese Church. When independence came, that support was gone. After a lengthy series of confrontations, debates, and negotiations, Gonzi was forced to agree to a lessening of Church authority in civil matters and to lift the pastoral interdict. Just prior to his resignation as archbishop in 1976, he declared that “Malta is spiritually and morally sick.” A small man (the pope once referred to him as “quel grande piccolo uomo”—that a big small man), Archbishop Michael Gonzi played a big part in the modern history of Malta. He died on 22 January 1984. See also CREMONA, MONSIGNOR PAWLU (1946–); GERADA, BISHOP EMANUELE (1920–2011); LIGUTTI, MONSIGNOR LUIGI (1915–1984); PRIVILEGIUM FORI. GONZI, DR. LAWRENCE (1953–). Lawrence Gonzi was born on 1 July 1953 in Valletta. He studied law at the University of Malta, graduated in 1975, and began his law career as an attorney in private practice. He later joined the Mizzi Group of companies as a corporate lawyer and rose to group chairman, a position he held from 1989 to 1997. A strong commitment to the Catholic faith led him to join the Malta Catholic Action Movement, for which Gonzi served as general president from 1976 to 1986. The political and religious turmoil of the 1980s motivated him to become involved in politics when he contested the 1987 election as a Nationalist Party (NP)

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candidate. He was elected speaker of the House of Representatives on 10 October 1988, serving the Sixth Legislature (1988–1992), and was unanimously reelected speaker for the Seventh Legislature on 5 April 1992. Reelected to Parliament in October 1996, Gonzi continued to earn respect for his calm but forceful leadership, serving as opposition party whip, secretary to the Parliamentary Group, and shadow minister for social policy. He was elected as NP general secretary in the following year and led the Nationalists to victory over a Malta Labour Party (MLP) government that had been in office less than two years. Reelected to Parliament in 1998, Gonzi was appointed minister for social policy and leader of the House of Representatives. His business and negotiating experience served him well as he helped to restructure Malta’s economy in preparation for membership in the European Union (EU) by reforming employment and industrial relations, especially in the case of restructuring at the dockyards. He also introduced a stringent policy of zero tolerance toward benefits fraud. When Guido de Marco was appointed president of the republic, Gonzi was elected to replace him as deputy leader of the NP. Prime Minister Edward Fenech Adami chose him as deputy prime minister. After Fenech Adami had successfully led Malta to a point at which membership in the EU was assured, he stepped down, paving the way for Gonzi to be chosen and sworn in as prime minister on 23 March 2004. Gonzi was a determined leader, taking many steps required for membership in the EU that involved major changes and short-term pain for long-term gain. Despite the cost to his popularity and chances for reelection, he continued to push through reforms, seeking to take maximum advantage of EU funds available to new member states. However, the changes required for EU membership were difficult, and along with some embarrassing accusations of corruption against John Dalli, one of his ministers, caused his popularity and that of the NP to decline. Gonzi was reelected on 8 March 2008 in a hotly contested election, which the NP won with the slimmest of margins, garnering only 1,500 votes more than the rival MLP. When a member of his own party voted against a budget proposal by the Gonzi government, the government fell. Gonzi was forced to call for an election, which the NP lost, and he stepped down. GORT, LORD, VC, GCB, DSO, MVO, MC, ADC (1886–1946). General John Standish Surtees Prendergast Verecker Viscount Gort became governor and military commander in chief in Malta on 7 May 1942, relieving General William Dobbie. He had been commander of the British Forces in France early in the war and in that capacity had to suffer the military indignity of the Dunkirk evacuation. Early on, it was feared that he had been brought to Malta to oversee a similar disaster, namely a surrender. However, he was slowly able to gain the respect of both the civilian and the military

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populations as he led them through the darkest days of the war. He kept a lower profile than had his predecessor, even as he paid more attention to the physical needs of the two populations. As the war in the Mediterranean became more favorable to the Allies, Lord Gort had to act as host and guide to a long list of visiting dignitaries, including King George VI, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, Dwight Eisenhower, and many of the other top officers of the Allied military forces. He was a member of the party accepting the official surrender of the Italian fleet in Malta. To show their gratitude and respect for Gort, the Maltese held a public event in his honor on 12 March 1944, in Zebbug. On behalf of the Band and Allied Clubs of Malta and Gozo, he was presented with an elaborately decorated and inscribed “Sword of Honour” as a token of “the People’s admiration, gratitude, devotion and love.” Another large public gathering was held on 5 August 1944, in Valletta, a farewell celebration as Lord Gort left Malta for his new post as high commissioner and commander in chief of Palestine. See also GEORGE CROSS (GC); WORLD WAR II. GOVERNORS OF MALTA. The first British administration was led by Captain Alexander Ball, who was appointed civil commissioner, followed by three others. Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Maitland was the first of a total of 34 governors who served as chief administrators of Malta under the British. Upon Malta’s gaining its independence in 1964, then ruling governor Sir Maurice Dorman continued representing the British government as governor-general for seven years until Dom Mintoff requested that a Maltese should hold the post. Dorman resigned, whereupon Sir Anthony Joseph Mamo became the first Maltese to hold the post, which he did until 1974, when Malta became a republic and he was elected president. Civil Commissioners of Malta Captain Alexander Ball

1799–1801

Major-General Henry Pigot

1801

Sir Charles Cameron

1801–1802

Rear-Admiral Alexander Ball

1802–1809

Lieutenant-General Sir Hildebrand Oakes

1810–1813

Governors of Malta Lieutenant-General Sir Thomas Maitland

1813–1824

General the Marquess of Hastings

1824–1826

GOVERNORS OF MALTA

Major-General Sir Frederic Ponsonby

1827–1836

Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Bouverie

1836–1843

Lieutenant-General Sir Patrick Stuart 1843–1847 Richard More O’Farrall

1847–1851

Major-General Sir William Reid

1851–1858

Lieutenant-General John Gaspard Le 1858–1864 Merchant Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Storcks

1864–1867

General Sir Patrick Grant

1867–1872

General Sir Charles Van Straubenzee 1872–1878 General Sir Arthur Borton

1878–1884

General Sir Lintorn Simmons

1884–1888

Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Torrens

1888–1890

Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Smyth 1890–1893 General Sir Arthur Freemantle

1893–1899

Lieutenant-General Lord Grenfell

1899–1903

General Sir Mansfield Clarke

1903–1907

Lieutenant-General Sir Henry Grant

1907–1909

General Sir Leslie Rundle

1909–1915

Field-Marshal Lord Methuen

1915–1919

Field-Marshal Viscount Plumer

1919–1924

General Sir Walter Congreve

1924–1927

General Sir John du Cane

1927–1931

General Sir David Campbell

1931–1936

General Sir Charles Bonham Carter

1936–1940

Lieutenant-General Sir William Dobbie

1940–1942

Field-Marshal Viscount Gort

1942–1944

Lieutenant-General Sir Edmond Schreiber

1944–1946



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Sir Francis Douglas

1946–1949

Sir Gerald Creasy

1949–1954

Major-General Sir Robert Laycock

1954–1959

Admiral Sir Guy Grantham

1959–1962

Sir Maurice Dorman

1962–1964

Governors General of Malta Sir Maurice Dorman

1964–1971

Sir Anthony Joseph Mamo

1971–1974

GOZO. The sister island to Malta, Gozo is 67.3 square kilometers in area and has a population of approximately 37,500. The closest of the Maltese islands to Sicily, it was probably the first of the archipelago to be settled and has been inhabited for more than 5,000 years. The Ggantija megalithic temples on the island are among the world’s oldest freestanding, man-made structures, as well as among the world’s oldest religious structures. Legend has it (with the support of many scholars) that Gozo is Ogygia, the island where Odysseus was held captive by Calypso for seven years. It is possible to visit a reputed “Calypso’s Cave,” and most tourists do. In July 1551, Ottoman Turks invaded the island and killed or captured and took away as slaves the entire population, estimated to have numbered about 5,000 at the time. Gozo’s name has changed over the centuries. The Phoenicians called it Gwl, probably because its shape was reminiscent of their ships of that name. The Greeks called it Gaulos, their name for the same kind of ship. To the Romans, it was Gaulus, and to the Byzantines, Gaudes. When the Arabs arrived, they called it Ghawdex (pronounced “Awdesh”), the name still used in Maltese today. In medieval times, a Latinized version used by church scholars was Gaudisium, synonymous with the Latin word for “joy.” The Castilians used their own word for “joy” and called the island Gozo, the name still used by non-Maltese to this day. The inhabitants of Gozo are, of course, Maltese, but they also believe they have a higher distinction—they are Gozitans. History supports their opinion; there have been more persons from Gozo gaining high national offices than the size of the population would suggest. If one were to characterize the two islands by color, Malta is light beige, and Gozo is green. The island is rural in character, more conservative and, compared to the main island Malta, less developed. In addition to the Ggantija temples, it was known for the Azure Window, a natural limestone arch that was a remarkable geological feature and major tourist attraction, until a powerful wave swept it into the sea in 2017.

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Gozo suffers from “double insularity” (an island that is mainly accessed from another island), which is also a double-edged sword: its isolation makes it difficult to reach and less developed yet all the more attractive as the “green lung” of the islands, a place for Maltese to “get away from it all.” That is also the reason Gozo has received special European Union funding to upgrade tourist sites, including the construction of a new museum at the Ggantija site, significant improvement of roads, and major restoration work on the imposing citadel at its central town of Victoria. Except for two years during the French occupation, Gozo has been governed as a part of Malta. On 14 April 1961, a Civic Council was established that allowed for some local government. When the Malta Labour Party came into power, a referendum was held asking the Gozitans whether their council should be abolished. Facing difficult economic conditions at the time, they voted overwhelmingly to do so. In 1987, the Ministry of Gozo was set up (demoted to a Parliamentary secretariat by the Labour government between 1996 and 1998). Some local government was restored on Gozo when the Local Councils Act was passed in 1993, establishing 14 councils on the island. Currently, the only way for the general public to reach Gozo is by ferry. Three ferries currently make the 25-minute crossing on a regular schedule every 45 minutes, carrying over a million cars and many more passengers per year. A helicopter service stopped operating in 2006, and a proposal to build and airport was dropped due to environmental considerations. In June 2013, a “mega Chinese state-owned company [China Communications Construction Corporation Limited]” financed a €4 million feasibility study of building a bridge between Malta and Gozo. The study concluded that the bridge would take four years to build and cost €1 billion in addition to up to €4 million per year in operating and maintenance costs. The Chinese proposed to complete building the bridge by 2020, but strong opposition from environmentalist organizations such as Din l-Art Helwa and Flimkien ghal Amjent Ahjar stopped the project. Seismic investigations in the GozoMalta channel commissioned by Transport Malta were begun in late 2017 to determine the feasibility of a subsea tunnel. The government has decided to pursue a tunnel as the most cost-effective solution. However, those who object to the idea worry that having a permanent link will cause Gozo to lose its unique character. They fear that the “ill-conceived overdevelopment” and subsequent environmental damage that the island of Malta has suffered would also ruin Gozo. See also ECONOMY; FORTIFICATIONS; HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE; NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENTS; TRANSPORTATION.

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GRAND MASTERS OF THE ORDER OF ST. JOHN (IN MALTA). The original title of the person chosen to lead the Knights of the Order of St. John was “Master of the Hospital and the Custodian of the Poor of Christ,” which was shortened to “grand master” in 1267. The grand master, elected for life, was an absolute ruler. Elections to choose a replacement were held almost immediately upon the death of a grand master in order to avoid the possibility that the pope might interfere in the selection process. Twentyeight of the 78 Knights elected grand master served the order while it was in Malta: Fra’ Philippe Villiers de L’IsleAdam (France)

13 November 1521–21 August 1534 (elected in Rhodes)

Fra’ Pierino del Ponte (Italy)

26 August 1534–17 November 1535

Fra’ Didier de Saint-Jaille (France)

22 November 1535–26 September 1536

Fra’ Juan de Omedes (Aragon)

20 October 1536–6 September 1553

Fra’ Claude de la Sengle (France)

11 September 1553–18 August 1557

Fra’ Jean Parisot de la Valette (Provence)

21 August 1557–21 August 1568

Fra’ Pietro del Monte (Italy)

23 August 1568–26 January 1572

Fra’ Jean Levesque de la Cassiere (Auvergne)

30 January 1572–31 December 1581

Fra’ Hughes de Loubens de Verdalle 12 January 1582–4 May 1595 (Provence) Fra’ Martin Garzes (Aragon)

8 May 1595–7 February 1601

Fra’ Alof de Wignacourt (France)

10 February 1601–14 September 1622

Fra’ Luis Mendez de Vasconcellos (Castile)

17 September 1622–7 March 1623

Fra’ Antoine de Paule (Provence)

10 March 1623–9 June 1636

Fra’ Jean Paul Lascaris de Castellar (Provence)

13 June 1636–14 August 1657

Fra’ Martin de Redin (Aragon)

17 August 1657–6 February 1660

Fra’ Annet de Clermont-Gessan (Auvergne)

9 February 1660–2 June 1660

Fra’ Rafael Cottoner (Aragon)

5 June 1660–20 October 1663

Fra’ Nicholas Cottoner (Aragon)

23 October 1663–29 April 1680

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Fra’ Gregorio Carafa (Italy)

2 May 1680–21 July 1690

Fra’ Adrien de Wignacourt (France)

24 July 1690–4 February 1697

Fra’ Ramon Perellos y Roccaful (Aragon)

7 February 1697–10 January 1720

Fra’ Marcantonio Zondadari (Italy)

13 January 1720–16 June 1722

Fra’ Antonio Manoel de Vilhena (Castile)

19 June 1722–10 December 1736

Fra’ Ramon Despuig (Aragon)

16 December 1736–15 January 1741

Fra’ Emmanuel Pinto de Fonseca (Castile)

18 January 1741 –23 January 1773

Fra’ Francisco Ximenes de Texada (Aragon)

28 January 1773–9 November 1775

Fra’ Emmanuel de Rohan (France)

12 November 1775–13 July 1797

Fra’ Ferdinand von Hompesch (Germany)

17 July 1797–12 May 1805 (evicted from Malta in June 1798)

See also AUBERGES; DRAGUT’S RAID; GREAT CARRACK OF RHODES; GREAT SIEGE OF 1565; KNIGHTS AFTER RHODES. GREAT CARRACK OF RHODES. It was probably the largest ship in the Mediterranean at the time and was the flagship of the Knights of St. John. Named the Santa Maria, it had eight decks and could stay at sea without resupply for six months, a lengthy time considering that it carried more than 700 men, including crew members, Knights, soldiers, and slaves. One feature, unusual for the time, was that it had ovens for baking bread. The two forward masts carried square-rigged sails, and the two aft were lateen rigged. It was armed with over 70 cannons of various sizes. The Santa Maria carried the grand master of the order to Malta after the surrender at Rhodes. In 1532, an accident caused an explosion, which resulted in the ship’s total destruction in Grand Harbour. A new, even larger carrack, named the Santa Anna, was built as a replacement. Both carracks (sometimes called carracka) presented a beautiful and fearsome sight. Soon, however, the expense of operating the huge ships, coupled with their reduced effectiveness against newer and faster ships, made them obsolete. In 1548, the Santa Anna was dismantled and the salvage used to create the major portions of three more modern fighting ships.

View of Balutta Bay with Hilton Tower.

Two temples built 5,000 years apart, the Ggantija Temple and the Xewkija Church (1978) on Gozo.

Statue of Queen Victoria in Republic Square, Valletta.

View down Old Bakery Street in Valletta.

Fort St. Elmo with World War II watchtower and Tigne Point high-rise apartments across Marsamxett Harbor.

Window opening in the Mnajdra Temple (3150–2500 BCE).

The prehistoric cart ruts, tracks carved into the corraline limestone surface. Located near the Dingli cliffs in Siggiewi, Malta, they are known as "Clapham Junction." Their age and purpose are still a mystery.

Le Meridian Hotel on Tower Road in Balutta Bay fronted by traditional globigerina stone buildings illustrates changes in Maltese architecture and the lack of space to build on the island of Malta.

Caves in the coralline rock on Gozo first occupied by Phonician settlers.

View of Valletta across Marsamxett Bay. The Carmelite church dome and the spire of the Anglican church are prominent landmarks.

The classic Maltese residential door. An interior door with windows, an exterior door to keep out dust fronted by a gate. Until the early 20th century, goats wandered freely in the streets and the gates kept them out.

The Santa Maria Tower on Comino island was built by the Knights of St. John in 1618 as a defensive outlook for potential Turkish invaders. It was used as the dungeon from which the "Count of Monte Cristo" escaped in the 2002 film shot entirely in Malta.

A globigerina quarry on Gozo. This sedimentary limestone is the traditional building material of the Maltese islands giving most buildings in the islands a golden yellow hue.

The Royal Navy Bighi Hospital building in Kalkara at the entrance to the Grand Harbour.

A dog surveys the scenery from a traditional Maltese "galleria." These enclosed balconies were favorite places to discreetly view the goings on in the street below.

The new Parliament building on Freedom Square by Italian architect Renzo Piano.

New (2015) Valletta City Gate by Italian architect Renzo Piano.

The Hagar Qim temple with protective covering supplied through EU funding.

Auberge de Castille in Valletta, built by the knights in 1570 to house the knights of the langue of Castile, Leon and Portugal, it was rebuilt in 1740 and now serves as the office of the prime minister.

Statue of Jean Parisot de La Valette in Valletta with author.

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GREAT SIEGE OF 1565. The Great Siege of 1565, in which an attacking force of Ottoman Turks numbering approximately 40,000 was successfully repelled by the vastly outnumbered defenders of Malta, is one of the two most celebrated heroic events of Maltese history (the other being the siege of World War II). Suleiman “the Magnificent,” under whom the Ottoman Empire had reached the peak of its military, economic, and cultural power, was determined to conquer the Order of the Knights of St. John to put an end to their marauding attacks on merchant ships in the Mediterranean. As a young ruler in 1522, he had made the mistake of allowing the Knights to leave their stronghold on the island of Rhodes after having defeated them. Forewarned about the intentions of the Turks to invade the islands, the Knights brought to Malta one of the foremost European military engineers, Bartolomeo Genga, to design a new fortress on the Sciberras peninsula, the hilltop where the city of Valletta was later built. Genga died in Malta before any work could be started, and the work was stopped in 1563 to concentrate efforts on strengthening the existing fortifications instead. As soon as the Turkish fleet was sighted on 18 May 1565, the preparations for the coming battle intensified. Against this tremendous force of arms, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette had approximately 8,500 men under his command. This included 592 Knights, not all of whom were physically fit for battle; 5,830 Maltese militia and irregulars; l,230 mercenary soldiers, mostly from Spain; several hundred Italian volunteers; and a small group of galley slaves released under pledge of faithful service. All buildings outside Birgu and Senglea were razed to the ground to avoid their being used as cover for sharpshooters. The farmers were ordered to bring all animals and crops inside the walls of Birgu, Mdina, and the Citadel in Gozo. Everyone was ordered to take refuge within the fortified cities of Birgu, Senglea, and Bormla. A few Knights plus cavalrymen were sent to Mdina. There is no record of the Maltese nobility participating in either the preparations or the battles. They stayed in their homes in Mdina, probably out of resentment that the order did not consider them qualified to become members and because they had not been consulted about battle plans and defenses. The Turkish invading force consisted of almost 200 ships, including 138 war galleys commanded by Admiral Piali Pasha, grandson-in-law of Suleiman. The ships carried an estimated 40,000 of the best soldiers Suleiman could muster, including Janissaries reared from infancy for fighting, and Layalars, religious fanatics seeking death in a “holy cause” whom the Turks used to spearhead all their battles. In command of the army was Mustapha Pasha, a veteran of the Turkish defeat of the Knights at Rhodes. On 21 May, an assault on Birgu was made despite Sultan Suleiman’s order to wait for the arrival of Dragut—a Turkish corsair fighting on behalf of the Suleiman, he knew the islands well. He would have devised a more success-

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ful strategy had he been there in time. A fierce hand-to-hand fight outside the walls of Birgu raged for six hours, in which the attackers were repelled, with heavy loss of life on both sides. The Turks next attacked Fort St. Elmo on the tip of Sciberras peninsula, estimating that it would fall in four or five days. Great cannons were placed on the hilltop above the fort to begin pulverizing the walls. But because much of the defensive works had been cut into the solid rock, the defenders remained mostly unscathed. On 29 May, another 250 defenders were sent across the harbor from Fort St. Angelo, bringing the total in Fort St. Elmo to 1,500. Soon after these reinforcements arrived, the first mass assault started, led by the Janissaries. They were beaten off with a variety of weapons, including fire and hot oil. The sweltering heat and humidity of Malta’s summer made fighting difficult for both sides, but especially for the Knights in their heavy armor. St. Elmo was under continual cannon bombardment. Massive waves of attacks on 10 and 16 June left piled up dead bodies in the ditches by the ruined walls. On 23 June, Fort St. Elmo finally fell, killing all defenders except for five Maltese soldiers, who managed to escape by swimming across Grand Harbour. The invaders took no prisoners and went so far as to behead the dead Knights and send the bodies floating on wooden crosses past Fort St. Angelo. Enraged, Valette had all his Turkish prisoners decapitated and fired their heads as cannonballs across to the Turkish lines. The fall of St. Elmo had cost the invaders dearly. Dead were Dragut and several other top officers plus over 8,000 soldiers. A few days later, the invaders lost another 3,000 men in two separate attempts to take Birgu. On 2 August, a tremendous bombardment of St. Angelo began. Five more days of fierce fighting followed, but just when a Turkish victory in Senglea seemed certain, Mustapha Pasha sounded the retreat. The cause of this amazing turnaround was the action of the small force of the order’s cavalry, which came out of Mdina at the peak of the battle. They attacked the huge, minimally defended Turkish camp at the harbor, killing thousands of sick and wounded soldiers, burning stores, stampeding horses, and creating a general panic. When he heard of the attack, Mustapha mistakenly thought that a large relief force from Sicily was preparing to surround him and therefore sounded the retreat. Discovering the truth, he became enraged and called for two additional assaults. During the first, the 70-year-old Valette led a charge, which rallied a victory from what seemed to be certain defeat. In a second assault, on 23 August, the defense won a fragile victory thanks in large part to the sick and wounded who joined in the fighting. Although minor skirmishes continued, the invaders were badly demoralized.

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On 7 September, promised Sicilian reinforcements arrived at the northern end of the island, and Mustapha ordered a hasty retreat. By the next day, the remaining 15,000 Turkish soldiers departed Malta. When word of the victory spread throughout Christian Europe, there was great rejoicing, which resulted in an outpouring of wealth and riches upon the Order of St. John as an offering of gratitude. The Great Siege of 1565 by Ernle Bradford is a detailed and gripping account of one the most challenging moments in Malta’s history. See also GREAT CARRACK OF RHODES; KNIGHTS AFTER RHODES; LANGUES. GREEK PRESENCE. About 600 BCE, the Phoenicians controlled the North African coast and the west and north of Sicily. Greece was in control of southern Italy and the eastern and northeastern shores of Sicily. That there were no hostilities between the two powers seems to indicate that they had entered into some kind of agreement for peaceful coexistence. As Malta was part of the Phoenician area of domination, it was spared any Greek attempts to change the status. However, there is evidence of trade with Greece, and there are even some Greek temple building ruins.

H HAPSBURG DYNASTY. The marriage of Ferdinand II to Isabelle of Castile in 1479 politically reunited Spain. Phillip, archduke of Austria and duke of Burgundy, married their daughter, Joanna. Their firstborn son became Charles V, the Holy Roman Emperor. Their youngest son, Ferdinand, married Anna, sister of Louis II of Hungary and Bohemia. A series of favorable marriages such as these created the dynasty’s expansive empire. In 1530, at the urging of Pope Clement VIII, Charles V granted to the Order of the Knights of St. John the islands of the Maltese archipelago with the added obligation to maintain the defenses of Tripoli in North Africa. In exchange for all of this, the order was made responsible for the payment of an annual rent of one falcon to be paid to the Holy Roman Emperor. HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE. Based on the British system, Malta’s public health care is comprehensive, equitable, and fully integrated at the national level under the regulation of the Ministry of Health. Funded by general taxes and national insurance, it is available free of charge to all Maltese (and European Economic Area [EEA] citizens with European Union health identity cards). All drugs used during in-patient treatment and for the first three days after discharge are free of charge for the patient. Maltese citizens who qualify because of low income or selected chronic diseases are entitled to free drugs dispensed at government-run pharmacies. In 2014, almost 10 percent of GDP was spent on health care, slightly above the EU average. The government is currently paying about 70 percent of total healthcare costs, while 30 percent is privately funded. Routine dental care is provided by licensed private practitioners and paid out of pocket by the patient. Health care has a long history in Malta, beginning with the temple builders. Evidence of pottery forms depicting diseased body parts has led some to conclude that these were offerings to the gods in hopes of a cure for the donors’ afflictions. The Romans left more convincing evidence of medical practice: carvings of surgical instruments on a stone slab in the catacombs at Rabat. A tombstone found near Mdina is inscribed in Greek, identifying a Christian physician named Domesticus. 141

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The earliest hospitals in Malta were established around the middle of the 14th century, certainly by 1372, when a Franciscan friar was recorded as being in charge of a hospital named Santo Spirito in Mdina. Beginning in the 16th century, with the arrival of the Knights of St. John, whose origins as Hospitallers to the crusaders made them eminently knowledgeable in medicine, health care got a significant boost. The knights founded a hospital called “The Sacred Infirmary” in Birgu, where they first settled. Their skill in surgery and knowledge about the importance of sanitary procedures (such as the use of silver plates and cutlery) are credited with helping them defeat the attacking Turkish forces, who, lacking such care and regard for a sanitary environment, suffered far greater losses due to injury and infections. In 1574, the Sacred Infirmary was relocated to a larger facility in Valletta. A separate hospital for women called the “Casetta” was opened in Valletta in 1659 by Grand Master Martin de Redin. Health care was also available in the towns and villages via special services provided to poor women. In 1815, after the plague outbreak of 1813–1814, the British established a quarantine facility, the Lazzaretto on Manoel Island, and united all hospitals in Malta under common management. Sir Themistocles Zammit, a medical health officer, pushed to introduce chlorination of the water supplies and in 1887 helped to discover the cause of “Malta fever,” a disease spread by the thousands of milk goats running free in Valletta. In 1936, the Public Health Department was established, taking charge of all hospitals, including charitable hospitals initially established to serve the poor, which were from then on used by the general public needing medical care. The British greatly expanded hospital capacity on the islands due to the large number of casualties in World War I and World War II. Malta continued the tradition of the order as a place of healing for sick and wounded, becoming a center for treatment of thousands of wounded soldiers, earning Malta the nickname “nurse of the Mediterranean.” In 1980, under the socialist government of Dom Mintoff, hospital admission and treatment was made free of charge. Doctors went on strike in 1977 when Mintoff forced them to work at public clinics and capped their wages. He tightened the control of the government over health care by moving the authority to license doctors from the president to a minister. Many doctors fled the islands, mainly to Great Britain. The strike lasted 10 years, ending in 1987 when a Nationalist government was returned to power. It had a silver lining: many doctors who had left Malta to practice medicine in other developed countries returned in 1987, bringing with them new skills and knowledge that benefited medical care on the islands. Recently, a serious brain drain of doctors leaving Malta has been occurring again; over half of doctors educated in Malta have left for Great Britain and the United States, where salaries and working conditions are significantly better. The socialized medi-

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cine has also created bottlenecks involving excessive waiting periods for patients seeking medical treatment For example, in June 2008, a backlog of over 9,000 patients waiting up to two years to see an optometrist was reported in Parliament. A recent survey determined that the Maltese are not very physically active. They are the least likely of all EU citizens to take a ten-minute walk. The survey also found that over a third claimed to have been on a diet in the past year, and 78 percent of respondents claimed to be in “good” health. Maltese people spend on average close to 90 percent of their lifespan in good health, longer than in any other EU country. Maltese life expectancy in 2015 was 81.9 years, up from 78.4 years in 2000. The incidence of obesity is currently of great concern, as Malta has the highest rate in the EU. Twenty-five percent of the adult population and 30 percent of 15-year-olds are overweight. The main causes of death in Malta are circulatory disease and cancer, the former being almost twice as common as the latter. The most frequent cancers are non-melanoma skin cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer, and breast cancer in women. Diabetes is among the top five most significant diseases in Malta and is expected to increase by about 50 percent, from 39,000 cases in 2000 to 57,000 by 2030. New laws against smoking in restaurants and bars, or in cars when children are present, while not yet strictly enforced, have helped to discourage smoking and reduce the incidence of lung cancer. Binge drinking, especially among youth, has become a problem in recent years. The percentage of 11year-olds responding to a survey that they had got drunk within the last 30 days rose from almost 0 percent to 10 percent among boys and 5 percent among girls. For 15-year-olds, that percentage climbed to 29 and 15 percent respectively, the highest in the EU. The Ministry of Health is responsible for funding, managing, and regulating all health care in Malta. Over 6,000 workers are directly employed in the system, which includes seven public and three private hospitals in addition to a 1,000-bed facility for the aged. Nine public health centers, distributed throughout Malta and Gozo, serve self-referred patients seeking general, noncritical care. Planning to supplement the main hospital on Malta, St. Luke’s, with a state-of-the-art acute care, teaching, and research facility began in early 1990. The project’s ballooning size and cost led to considerable political controversy, delaying completion several times. Originally intended to include 650 beds, its capacity was increased to 800 beds and 8,000 rooms when the Malta Labour Party (MLP) briefly came back into power. A no-confidence vote in Parliament in 2004, triggered by cost overruns, failed by only four votes to dislodge the Nationalist government. The hospital was scheduled to open in 2005, but was not opened until November 2007, at a total cost of over €600 million, more than three times the original estimate. Christened

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“Mater Dei,” it is one of the largest hospital buildings in the world, and its operating costs are currently estimated at about €10 million per month, a strain on the government’s finances that is sure to continue, causing great controversy in the nation. One year after Mater Dei’s opening, a shortage of beds and lengthy wait times were already being lamented. In an attempt to decentralize government, providing more transparency and oversight, legislation was enacted in 2003, establishing an independent Medical Council to regulate standards of ethics and practice. In March 2017, in an attempt to cut costs by privatizing some hospital operations, the government awarded a controversial €2 billion concession to Vitals Global Health, a completely unknown health-care company registered in the British Virgin Islands. The firm was contracted to upgrade and manage Karen Grech, St. Luke’s, and Gozo hospitals for 30 years. The controversial and ambitious contract, negotiated behind closed doors by then minister of health Konrad Mizzi, called for the company to invest some €220 million in the first few years to rehabilitate and operate the three hospitals. The contract also included the addition of 130 beds and construction of a new building to house a medical college on the Gozo hospital site. Many of the deadlines for completion of the projects passed with very little work done. The government had to find temporary facilities for the medical students of the college at great additional expense. Only 21 months after signing the contract, VGH sold the concession to an American company, Steward Healthcare. Amid a public outcry over the mishandling of contract negotiations and the expenses involved, the Maltese doctors went on a brief strike, but the government is still refusing to make some of the contract details public. HERITAGE MALTA. Recognizing the importance of its national cultural heritage sites to tourism and eager to tap into European Union (EU) funds, the Maltese government passed the Cultural Heritage Act in 2002, establishing Heritage Malta as the national agency responsible for the “management, conservation, interpretation and marketing” of Malta’s numerous national museums and sites. Thirteen museums and seven UNESCO World Heritage Sites are some of the 36 sites under its management, including Fort St. Angelo, the megalithic temples, chapels, caves, and catacombs. The head office of Heritage Malta is located in Valletta in a building that itself has an extensive history. Built in 1533, it originally housed the Collegium Melitense, which later evolved into the original campus of the Royal University of Malta. Heritage Malta is responsible for the following museums and sites: Museums: Archaeology Museum, Citadella at Victoria, Gozo Folklore Museum, Citadella at Victoria, Gozo

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Ghar Dalam Cave and Museum, Birzebbuga Inquisitor’s Palace, Birgu Malta Maritime Museum, Birgu National Museum for the Maltese Language, Birgu National Museum of Fine Arts, Valletta National Museum of Archaeology, Valletta National Museum of Natural History, Mdina National War Museum, Valletta Natural Science Museum, Citadella at Victoria, Gozo Old Prison, Citadella at Victoria, Gozo Palace Armoury, Valletta Domus Romana, Rabat Temples and catacombs: Abbatija tad-Dejr catacombs, Rabat Borg in-Nadur temple, near Birzebbuga Ggantija Temples (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Gozo Hagar Qim Temple (UNESCO World Heritage Site), near Qrendi Hypogeum of Hal-Saflieni (UNESCO World Heritage Site), Paola Mnajdra Temples (UNESCO World Heritage Site), near Qrendi Skorba Temples, near Zebbiegh in Mgarr St. Paul’s Catacombs, Rabat Salina Catacombs, near Naxxar Ta’ Hagrat Temples, near Zebbiegh in Mgarr Tal-Mintna Catacombs, Mqabba Tarxien Temples, Tarxien Tas-Silg Temples, near Marsaxlokk Other sites: Roman Baths, Ghajn Tuffieha San Pawl Milqi, Roman villa, Burmurrad State Rooms, Grandmaster’s Palace, Valletta Ta’ Kola Windmill, Xaghra, Gozo HMS ILLUSTRIOUS. Late in the evening of 10 January 1941, the new aircraft carrier HMS Illustrious limped into Grand Harbour, listing badly and steering only with the engines. While guarding a convoy for Greece about 80 kilometers (50 miles) west of the Maltese Islands, it was attacked by 87 German dive-bombers and sustained six serious hits. This was the first major attack by the German Fliegerkorps X in the Mediterranean area. Lost were 126 dead and 91 wounded, and the ship itself seemed to be mortally wounded, with a caved-in flight deck and all aircraft elevators out of commission. First estimates were that it would take many months just to get it ready to put to sea and over a year to have it ready to fight again. Repairs

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were started immediately by over a thousand Maltese dockyard workers of every specialty. The ship was quickly painted yellow to blend in with the surrounding limestone bluffs. A bombing raid was expected at any time, but initially none came. In the meantime, all of the guns around the harbor and on the ships in the harbor were directed to form a blanket pattern in an attempt to disrupt low-level bombing attacks. Six days later, in the early afternoon, 70 German bombers, escorted by several dozen Italian fighters, arrived to begin the attack. At the same time, the most intensive antiaircraft barrage ever in the defense of a single ship was begun. RAF Hurricane fighters managed to down five of the attackers. The result was a failure for the Axis force, which returned for a second try in the afternoon. That was no more successful than the first. Three days later, on Sunday morning, an even heavier attack was made, but again, the ship escaped serious damage. That evening, under the cover of darkness, the Illustrious left Malta and one and a half days later was in Alexandria. After additional repairs, it sailed to the United States for a complete overhaul. It was later returned to duty in the Mediterranean. See also WORLD WAR II. HOWARD, JOSEPH (1862–1925). Malta’s first prime minister, Joseph Howard served from 1921 to 1923. Although his Unione Politica Maltese Party gained 14 seats in the Legislative Assembly in the 1921 elections, that number still fell short of a majority in the 32-seat assembly. As a result, a government had to be formed through a coalition with the Labour Party, which had 7 seats. Howard’s selection as prime minister was unusual in that his personal views were very close to those of the Constitutional Party, which also gained seven seats. The first act passed by the new government was the Religion of Malta Declaration Act, proclaiming Roman Catholicism as the official religion of all of Malta. Its passage was not without controversy and was but a preliminary to many later debates over the Church–state relationship. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; GONZI, ARCHBISHOP MICHAEL, KBE (1885–1984). HYZLER, DR. ALBERT V. (1916–1993). Born on 20 November 1916, Albert Hyzler studied medicine at the Royal University of Malta and became a doctor, like his father (leader of the Democratic Action Party), and also followed in his father’s footsteps by going into politics. Elected to Parliament in 1947, he served as minister of health in the government of Paul Boffa. Hyzler had to resign his ministerial position because of constant disagreements with Prime Minister Borg Olivier and joined the Malta Labour Party in 1953. He successfully won subsequent elections, spent a

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month in jail after being arrested during the 1958 riots against the British, and retired in 1976. He served as acting president from 27 December 1981 to 15 February 1982.

I ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION. In recent years, Europe has witnessed a significant increase in the flow of economic and political refugees from Africa and the Middle East. The exponential growth in numbers of irregular migrants as a result of the “Arab Spring” and the conflict in Syria has caused a major crisis for Europe. As the southernmost and smallest country in the European Union (EU), Malta has been experiencing particular difficulties in dealing with this problem. Not only is Malta situated in the middle of the most direct migration route from Africa to Europe, its membership in the EU makes it an attractive gateway for refugees seeking employment in the wealthier member states of northern Europe. Almost 15,000 illegal migrants had landed in Malta by 2002. In 2005 alone, 48 boats carrying 1,822 persons arrived, and by 2016 the number had grown to 19,000. However, the number of illegal migrants has slowed down considerably in recent years Lacking sufficient proper facilities for housing the large number of migrants, Malta was criticized by several international human rights groups for its policy of automatic detention for any migrants without visas and for housing the refugees in military barracks and tents under primitive conditions. On several occasions, migrants in confinement escaped by knocking down flimsy fencing but were quickly recaptured. In January 2005, a group of detainees denied asylum and in the process of being deported rebelled at the Hal Safi detention center. Maltese police, brought in to quell the uprising, were accused of using excessive force. An official investigation into the matter, while admitting that one policeman had struck a detainee who was on the ground, declared that the police were justified in their actions and blamed poor supervision and inadequate facilities. The incident was widely covered in the media, casting Malta in an unfavorable light. An inspection team sent to Malta by the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to investigate the situation complained of deplorable conditions. Which country is responsible for dealing with illegal immigrants is a question that continues to cause friction among Malta, Italy, and Spain, among the southern EU countries most severely affected by migrants from Africa. On 26 October 2004, the EU Commission created Frontex as a specialized 149

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and independent body headquartered in Warsaw to coordinate border security operations of member states. In April 2006, the European Parliament passed a resolution to address the immigration crisis, pledging to give Malta financial aid to cope with illegal migrants. Malta spent over €5.8 million on over 1,800 illegal immigrants who arrived in 2006 alone. The EU Parliament passed the Dublin Regulations, the principal aims of which are to prevent an applicant from submitting applications for asylum in multiple EU member states and to reduce the number of “orbiting” asylum seekers, who are shuttled from member state to member state. The country in which the asylum seeker first applies for asylum must either accept or reject the claim, and the seeker may not restart the process in another jurisdiction. Furthermore, any member state has the right to deport a migrant to the country through which the migrant first entered the EU. In July 2006, a Spanish ship carrying 51 refugees was denied access to Maltese shores because the refugees had been picked up in Libyan waters. Malta transported three persons needing hospitalization to shore but forced the ship to remain at sea for eight days until Spain agreed to take the refugees. In May 2007, 27 shipwrecked Africans spent several hours clinging to a Maltese-owned tuna pen that was being towed by Maltese fishermen in the Mediterranean. The fishermen would not let the refugees board their ship, leaving them in the water clinging to the pen until they were rescued by an Italian vessel and taken to the Italian island of Lampedusa. These incidents and numerous others like them have caused a major international uproar, putting Malta on the defensive. The issue has also caused a rise in anti-EU sentiment among the Maltese and is partly to blame for the emergence of populist antimigrant groups, including two new right-wing parties: Azzjoni Nazzjonali, formed in June 2007 (inactive after 2010) and Moviment Patrijotti Maltin, (MPM, Maltese Patriotic Movement), founded in April 2016. On 18 October 2013, reacting to the drowning of a large number of migrants, the Italian government launched Operation Mare Nostrum, a year-long effort to deal with the large number of migrants trying to enter Italy. At least 150,000 migrants, mainly from Africa and the Middle East, were rescued and brought to Italy before the operation ended on 31 October 2014, when the EU’s Frontex commenced its Operation Triton. Under this program, Italy continued to control the rescue and border control operations but with financial support from 15 other EU members, including Malta. Demographic data published by the Maltese National Statistics Office (NSO) showed that between 2006 and 2012, immigration flows to Malta increased from 3,889 to 7,111. In 2012 alone, 7.4 percent of the population increase was due to immigration. In June 2010, the EU established the European Asylum Seekers Office (EASO) to assist member countries in coordinating the asylum process. Malta agreed to host the office, which opened in February 2011. The main aim of the EASO is to facilitate improved protec-

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tion for asylum seekers and coordination between member states. In February 2017, at an informal summit of EU leaders held in Valletta, a plan was agreed to spend €2 billion for training, equipment, and support for Libya’s national coast guard in an effort to disrupt the smuggling business and to support local communities in Libya to improve conditions there for migrants. The funding is also intended to support international organizations involved in voluntary return activities. Malta and six other southern countries in the EU (France, Italy, Spain, Cyprus, Greece, and Portugal) met in Rome on 10 January 2018 to continue discussions on establishing a bloc, a “southern front” first suggested by French president Macron, to influence EU policies, especially on the economy and migration. This led to the latest Frontex operation, called Themis, which was launched in February 2018. The obligation to deal with migrants now rests on the country coordinating the rescue mission on a case-by-case basis, continuing to follow international maritime law, which means that migrants have to be taken to the nearest “place of safety.” Malta is concerned that the new agreement will probably mean an increase in the number of migrants landing on its shores. Illegal immigration is certain to remain a major problem for Malta and the EU for a long time. See also CRIME. INDEPENDENCE. For centuries, Malta enjoyed intermittent periods of limited independent control over its internal affairs as various ruler-appointed bishops, the Universitas, or consuls represented the Maltese to the Romans, Aragonese, or later the British government. Had the uprising against the French succeeded, or the Treaty of Amiens been accepted, Malta might already have gained its independence at the beginning of the 19th century with the expulsion of the French. Certainly the Maltese, who invited the British to Malta, must have had a sense of being independent at the time, but this too quickly proved to be an illusion. Freedom from foreign rule came in fits and starts as the British granted constitutional rights only to withdraw them and replace them with others. World War II had a great democratizing effect: it built self-confidence in its survivors, especially the women who had been called to take over the jobs of men away at war, and its aftermath revealed the weaknesses of political institutions. The result was an increased demand for political freedom. The time had come for the powers of Europe to disentangle themselves from their colonial past by granting independence to their colonies. Malta, like many others, had outlived its usefulness to Great Britain, which could no longer afford to support it, neither financially nor militarily. In 1947, a new constitution was granted by Britain, restoring the sharing of rule (first introduced in 1921), under which the Maltese could decide local issues, leaving defense

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and foreign policy decisions to the British. This newest constitution gave women the right to vote, abolished the Senate, and replaced it with an enlarged Legislative Assembly of 40 democratically elected members. The Maltese citizens were divided about the future of their islands. Not all were in favor of the push for independence: Dom Mintoff, leader of the Malta Labour Party (MLP), pursued integration with Great Britain. He thought Malta should become a part of the United Kingdom and envisioned three Maltese as elected members of the British Parliament. This was opposed by the Catholic Church, which was concerned about its possible status in a predominantly Protestant country, while others, worried about losing their jobs, also preferred the status quo. The Nationalist Party (NP) leaders wanted dominion status for Malta. Meanwhile, the British government, seeing the division among the Maltese, decided against integration, so independence became the most widely agreed upon solution. Achieving it took a decade and a half. Finally, on 21 September 1964, Malta and Great Britain signed the Anglo–Maltese Mutual Defense Agreement, and Malta became a sovereign nation within the British Commonwealth. The “Mintoffians,” upset that this had occurred during the time the NP was in power, steadfastly maintained that true independence was not achieved until Mintoff had renegotiated the final withdrawal of British troops, which occurred on 31 March 1979. That day became known as “Freedom Day.” Others thought that independence was achieved on 13 December 1974, when Malta became a republic. Even today, the debate among the Maltese continues as to which day should be celebrated as the one “real” independence day. See also BRITISH RULE; FRENCH INVASION; NATIONAL HOLIDAYS. INDIVIDUAL INVESTOR PROGRAMME. See CARUANA GALIZIA, DAPHNE (1964–2017); CRIME; ECONOMY; FINANCIAL SERVICES; INVESTMENT. “INNU MALTI”. In 1923, Maltese poet Mgr. Dun Karm Psaila wrote lyrics to accompany music composed by Dr. Robert Sammut, and the piece became known as “Innu Malti” (Maltese anthem). Originally written primarily for school pupils, the piece gradually began to be played and sung at a variety of public events. With the passage of time, its popularity increased, and it was officially recognized as the national anthem at the time of independence in 1964. A short but beautiful melody coupled with words of equal beauty, “Innu Malti” stirs strong emotions in the Maltese people. According to Malta’s premier poet and author, Oliver Friggieri: “The anthem has inces-

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santly expressed and is still expressing the most salient aspect of Malta’s cultural identity, namely the belief in God, an uninterrupted tradition of some seven thousand years (the pre-Christian and then the Christian periods).” See also MUSIC. INQUISITION. Tribunals of the Inquisition differed in method and purpose from nation to nation. In Malta, the primary objective was reforming morals among the Knights, clergy, and religious. Flirting with the opposite sex or with adolescents was only one of the vices it sought to correct. A secondary role of the inquisitor was protecting the public from the dangers of heresies, mainly those brought to Malta by outsiders militating against the Roman Catholic faith. Such heresies included the failure to accept the teachings or the authority of the Church, studying or teaching a publicly dishonored religion (e.g., Lutheranism or Calvinism), reading forbidden books, necromancy with the dead, and sorcery with the devil to gain worldly goods. The penalties were wide ranging and included spiritual penance, confiscation of property, confinement to village or domicile, imprisonment, hard labor, and in extreme cases, death. The goal of the Inquisition was penitential, aiming at the persuasion of those accused to confess their heresy and submit themselves to the Church. The earliest records in Malta list a regional or proinquisitor in 1433, but the Tribunal came into its greatest authority in 1561 when the Holy Office in Rome conferred upon Mgr. Cubella the fullest power to investigate and proceed against all acts of heresy. The result was the creation of an unusual situation at the highest level of ecclesiastical authority: three persons of virtually equal authority. The grand master of the Knights of St. John was officially an equal of all the monarchs of Christendom. But when granting Malta to the Knights, the Holy Roman Emperor had reserved the right to nominate the local bishop, who was then given a voice in the order’s affairs. With Cubella as inquisitor, a three-way struggle for authority and deference began to take place. Each attempted to shelter his own followers from the actions of the others, thus creating a climate that weakened rather than strengthened the Catholic faith. A building located in Vittoriosa (Birgu) originally served as the Court of Justice before it was renovated and expanded into a palazzo with courtyard in 1574 to serve as the office and residence of the first inquisitor. It was further modified by the 61 inquisitors who served over the following three centuries until the Inquisition was abolished by Napoleon in 1878. The jail cells located on the first and second floors contain numerous carvings of historical interest made by prisoners in the soft limestone walls. Today the three-story structure houses a museum, which often serves as a venue for special exhibitions and is now under the control and management of Heritage Malta.

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INTERDICTION. See BARBARA, AGATHA (1923–2002); CATHOLIC CHURCH; GERADA, BISHOP EMANUELE (1920–2011); GONZI, ARCHBISHOP MICHAEL, KBE (1885–1984); MINTOFF, DOMINIC “DOM” (1916–2012). INTERNMENT AND DEPORTATION. At the outbreak of World War II, the British began taking into custody all those suspected of being dangerous because of nationality or political sympathies. The first were those of German, Austrian, or Italian birth, including a number of female “artistes” from the Strait Street cabarets. In May 1940, a number of Maltese were interned without due process, particularly those leaders of the Nationalist Party known to be or alleged to be Italian sympathizers. Included were Dr. Enrico Mizzi, the leader of the party, and several business leaders and other professionals. In June 1940, the chief justice and president of the Court of Appeal, Sir Arturo Mercieca, received his summons. The internees were kept in Fort Salvatore in the Cottonera Lines, briefly confined in the Corradino prisons, and later moved to the St. Agatha convent in Rabat. In early February 1942, the British government decided to exile 43 (the majority) of the group, including Mrs. Mercieca and two of their children. A court ruling found the internment illegal on the grounds that no crime had been committed, so a change in the law to legalize the deportation was debated on 9 February in the Council of Government. Arguing against the change, Council Member Sir Ugo Mifsud made such an impassioned speech defending his fellow citizens’ human rights that he suffered a heart attack and died two days later. The change in law was voted for anyway, and shortly before an appeal was to be heard that would ultimately be decided in their favor, the detainees were deported to Uganda on 13 February 1942. Many contracted malaria, though all were ultimately returned to Malta in March 1945. In retrospect, it appears to have been an unnecessary and expensive measure, for the deported group of Maltese proved to be anything but subversives in later years once they reentered full political life. See also BORG PISANI, CARMELO (1914–1942); BORG, SIR GEORGE (1887–1954); ITALIA IRREDENTA. INVESTMENT. Prior to Malta’s independence, most investment on the islands was in military infrastructure. The Knights of St. John, and later the British, were preoccupied with building fortifications, harbors, hospitals, and barracks. After 1964, the newly independent country was focused on restructuring the economy for manufacturing and tourism. Hotels, factories, and warehouses sprang up, albeit on a limited scale. The government took businesses under its control and became the major investor. The economy was

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tightly regulated, imports restricted, and high taxes and tariffs put in place. These conditions tended to discourage investment and held back economic growth. The Nationalist Party took control of the government in 1987 and ushered in a significant change in economic policy, favoring a more liberal, market-driven economy. The Malta Investment Management Company Limited (MIMCOL) was set up and registered on 21 April 1988 as a limited liability company with the primary objectives to manage, restructure, and selectively divest from the portfolio of state-held investments, those businesses, mostly in the manufacturing and service sectors, which in addition to being loss-making enterprises, competed unfairly with the private sector. Malta formally applied for membership in the European Union (EU) in 1990, hoping to gain access to EU funding, new markets, and investment opportunities. The prospect of membership also enabled the government to justify much-needed economic and legal reforms, opening the country’s markets for more competition. Tax and other incentives were put in place to encourage foreign businesses to invest in Malta. In 1994, legislation was introduced to modernize the regulations and laws governing financial services provided from and through Malta. This has attracted a number of foreign banks, such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation (HSBC), resulting in a rapid growth of financing and investment activity. The value of aggregate assets of banks based in Malta doubled from 2004, growing to €42 billion in 2009. By 2016, foreign direct investment had grown to almost €160 billion. Malta’s insurance business grew from €116 million in premiums to €508 million from 2004 to 2007. Similarly, the number of investment funds increased by 33 percent from 2008 to 2009, in spite of the global financial crisis at that time. The Maltese have substantial business contacts and investments in North Africa. They speak a Semitic language in addition to English, so Malta, a member of the EU and the “bridge of the Mediterranean,” is particularly well positioned to serve the relatively new and growing niche market of Islamic finance. Malta is seeking to become a center of Islamic banking, serving North Africa and Islamic populations in Spain and Italy. Changes in tax and banking laws are being instituted to accommodate the specific needs of Islamic Sharia laws. EU membership in 2004 and adoption of the euro in 2008 have boosted Malta’s economic stability and therefore its attractiveness to foreign investors. The World Economic Forum’s Competitiveness Index for 2017–2018 ranked Malta as the 17th soundest banking system in the world out of 134 countries. In a recent executive survey, Malta ranked fifth as the most likely foreign site for new foreign direct investment.

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A controversial “Individual Investor Program” was launched in 2014 that allowed foreigners to acquire a Maltese passport in exchange for a payment of €650,000 to a national development fund plus an investment of €150,000 in Maltese government stocks and bonds. In addition, the prospective citizen must own real estate worth a minimum of €350,000 for at least a year to meet a “residency” requirement. The heavily criticized program grants the holder of a Maltese passport visa-free access to 166 countries and has drawn much interest from Russian clients suspected of seeking to circumvent sanctions in their home country. When the program was first announced two years ago, the European Parliament objected, saying: “EU citizenship should not be for sale at any price.” In 2016, revenue from the passport sales changed a deficit of €104.1 million (about 1.1 percent of GDP) to a surplus of €112.9 million. Well over 700 passports have been issued to non-EU nationals since the program’s launch. The European Commission has no say in an EU country’s citizenship and does not formally endorse or approve cash-for-passport programs . The country’s well-educated, relatively low-cost, English-speaking workforce will continue to be a positive factor in attracting foreign investment to Malta. See also BANKING; TRADE. ITALIA IRREDENTA. Translated as “unredeemed Italy,” the movement became prominent in Italy in 1878 and advocated the incorporation into Italy of neighboring regions having a primarily Italian population. The movement gained a good deal of support in Malta, particularly among the educated classes, the same group that supported the early Nationalist Party. ITALY. Consisting of a long peninsula extending from the Alps over 1,127 kilometers (700 miles) south to the Mediterranean Sea, the large islands of Sicily and Sardinia, plus several smaller Italian islands, Italy is Malta’s closest neighbor. For much of its history, Italy has been Malta’s main model for things artistic and intellectual. Even during British rule, the majority of the cultural presentations in Malta’s Royal Opera House were from the neighboring nation. In the 8th century BCE, the Etruscans settled in the north and the Greeks along the coasts in the south. In the 5th century BCE, a Celtic invasion drove the Etruscans south until they were defeated by the Samnites. They, in turn, were defeated by the Romans in several wars spanning the years 326–290 BCE. From the 5th century BCE to the 5th century CE, Italy witnessed the rise of Rome and the Roman Empire. Even so, firm control was never established over southern Italy and Sicily. The land remained fragmented into independent entities, such as the Kingdoms of Sicily and Naples, under con-

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tinually changing political control. Napoleon remade the map of Italy several times. When Victor Emmanuel II became king in 1861 under a unification movement called the Risorgimento (resurgence), Venice and Rome remained outside. In 1866, Venice joined the united Italy, and in 1870, Italian troops annexed Rome by force. Even so, the dispute with the papacy was not finally resolved until 1929. From 1861 until 1922, Italy was ruled by Victor Emmanuel II, Humbert I, and Victor Emmanuel III. It expanded by the addition of Somaliland, Eritrea, and Libya as colonies. In the early 1920s, political unrest led to the rise of fascism and Benito Mussolini, creator of the totalitarian “corporate state.” He conquered Ethiopia (1935–1936) and seized Albania in 1939. On 11 June 1940, Italy declared war and very soon thereafter dropped the first bomb on Malta. By 1943, it had lost in North Africa to the Allies, and Sicily had been invaded and lost. Italy surrendered to the Allies, who later recognized it as a cobelligerent against Germany. A referendum in 1946 made it a republic, and in 1949, it was accepted as a member of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO). Mussolini’s speeches referred to Malta as a part of Italy’s natural domain, and until the hostilities of World War II began, a sizable portion of the population of Malta agreed with him. Agreement quickly changed to anger once the bombs began to fall. After the war, the US Marshall Plan helped to rebuild Italy’s economy, and it joined the European Union (EU) as a charter member, signing the Treaty of Rome in 1957. Beginning in late 1969, Italy suffered more than a decade of great political upheaval known as the “lead years,” when rightwing and left-wing factions—most notorious among them the radical communist faction known as the Red Brigade—were involved in bombings, kidnappings, and killings. It was the Red Brigade that kidnapped and executed Prime Minister Aldo Moro, a member of the Christian Democratic Party. Since Malta gained its independence, Italy has concluded numerous bilateral, regional, and multilateral agreements with its neighbor on common issues, working hard to restore a bond that had been severed by World War II. Access to Italian television programs helped, but financial assistance was even more effective. Beginning in 1979, Italy has signed five financial protocols, giving Malta grants and loans in excess of €500 million to help with restructuring its economy, building roads, power stations, and other infrastructure. Italy also donated several ships and helicopters for Malta’s use in combating drug trafficking. The latest Italo–Maltese protocol agreement covered the period 2004–2007 and amounted to €75 million.

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Most recently, the two countries, along with Greece and Spain, have worked hard to win EU assistance in dealing with illegal immigration from North Africa. Relations between Italy and Malta were temporarily strained in April 2009, when a dispute arose over which country was responsible for a boatload of refugees. The two countries still participate in the EU Cross Border Programme, which is designed to create closer territorial cooperation. This program helped pay for an undersea electric power transmission cable to connect Malta and Sicily, allowing the two countries to export and import electrical power. The EU funding will also permit a feasibility study for a similar project involving a gas pipeline between Sicily and Malta that would replace the much less efficient and more dangerous liquid natural gas tanker storage system currently in use. In July 2015, Italian police arrested 41 individuals accused of money laundering by setting up website betting companies in Malta, raising concerns about corruption in the Maltese financial services and gaming industries. See also BORG PISANI, CARMELO (1914–1942); CRIME; E-BOAT ATTACK; ITALIA IRREDENTA; LANGUAGE QUESTION.

J JESUITS. The Fathers of the Society of Jesus were always active in the political, educational, and religious life of the islands. The order came to Malta to set up a college (approximately at the level of today’s high schools) in 1592 in Valletta. The wide interests of the members plus their activist conduct often brought them into the center of controversy. In 1639, some young Knights of St. John were disciplined by the grand master and blamed the Jesuits for their punishments. In youthful anger, they created a disturbance at one of the pre-Lenten carnival celebrations, an action not well received by the local population. In anticipation of the possibility of a popular uprising on behalf of the Jesuits, the grand master forced them to leave for Sicily. After the anger had subsided, they were permitted to return, but only after promising to lead more sedate lives. A much more serious event occurred in 1768. When Charles V expelled the Jesuits from Portugal, Spain, and France, Grand Master Emmanuel Pinto de Fonseca, wanting to be rid of the Jesuits and hoping for financial gain, seized the opportunity to do the same. He expelled the Jesuits from Malta and confiscated all of their property. After lengthy discussions and negotiations, Pinto was able to gain papal approval for the conversion of the Jesuit college into a university in 1769, taking over the original building constructed by the Jesuits. The structure was renovated in 2003 to house the administrative offices of Heritage Malta. See also EDUCATION. JEWS OF MALTA. Recent evidence indicates that a population of about 500 Jews lived in Malta and Gozo during the 15th century. About one-fourth to one-third the population of Mdina was Jewish, estimated to be 300 persons. It is likely that most came to Malta from England and the European continent to escape persecution. There is little evidence that they experienced the same sort of bigotry in their new homeland. In addition, the Jews were comfortable linguistically in Malta, for their own Semitic language was very similar to Maltese. Some of the families lived in Malta for several generations. 159

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The comfortable life for Malta’s Jews came to an abrupt end in 1492. Ferdinand II of Spain signed a decree on 31 March calling for the expulsion of all Jews from his kingdom, including Sicily, Malta, Gozo, and Pantelleria. The only exceptions were to be those who had converted to Christianity. However, even those who converted after the decree were permitted to stay. A short time was allowed for the deportees to take care of their personal affairs. After extinguishing all debts, they were permitted to depart with their wealth. All the Jews from Malta and Gozo were transported to Messina, Sicily, where they joined their coreligionists from that large island. The only remaining evidence of a Jewish presence in Malta during that era is a few place-names and some family names of those who converted. Today, approximately 125 followers of the Jewish faith live in Malta. See also RELIGION.

K KARM, DUN. See PSAILA, MONSIGNOR DUN KARM, CBE (1871–1961). KNIGHTS AFTER RHODES. After their defeat by the Turks, the Knights of St. John left Rhodes on 1 January 1523 and sailed to a variety of Mediterranean ports for a year. In January 1524, the pope granted to the order a temporary base at Viterbo, and the search for a permanent base began. The next six years involved a great deal of political manipulation and intrigue. After Pope Clement VIII exerted considerable pressure on the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, the Maltese islands were awarded to the order as their new home, which the Knights, hoping for a much grander location, accepted reluctantly. In October 1530, their fleet moved into Grand Harbour and dropped anchor. The reluctance of the Knights was more than matched by the disappointment of the Maltese, who resented the fact that they had not been consulted. The action was considered a breach of the promise made to them by King Alfonso that the islands would never be separated from the royal domain. Official protests by the Maltese went unanswered. Although the Maltese nobility, fearing a loss of their authority and privileges, were the most angered, it is likely that the other citizens looked upon their new overseers with guarded optimism, hoping both for increased protection against the Saracens as well as a substantial increase in their economic well-being. Grand Master L’Isle-Adam took quick action to attempt to calm the fears of the nobility. It is likely that the Knights thought of Malta only as a temporary base until something better could be arranged. In the original grant by the Holy Roman Emperor, Tripoli in North Africa was included as part of the Knights’ defense responsibility. When Tripoli fell in 1551, any hopes of gaining a better home were also lost. All energies and resources were turned to strengthening the meager fortifications of Malta. The Maltese, with their extensive knowledge of the sea, became an important addition to the Knights’ sea warfare capabilities.

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Although the local economic situation was booming because of all the construction, the order’s finances were unstable. The Protestant Reformation had resulted in a massive loss of valuable church property. The Church of England’s break from papal authority did the same and also resulted in the loss of the English Langue. Nevertheless, the Knights attempted to maintain a hospital at Birgu and a fleet of eight war galleys in addition to all of their defensive constructions. Furthermore, the fear of an expected invasion by the Turks required the purchase of a stockpile of supplies and munitions. As these financial pressures continued to increase, a remarkable man was elected grand master: Jean Parisot de la Valette, who turned out to be a person of great vision and leadership ability. He proved to be the man for the time. See also GREAT SIEGE OF 1565. KNIGHTS OF MALTA. See KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. Founded in 1048, the Sovereign Order of Malta began in Jerusalem as a brotherhood for protecting the poor and sick pilgrims at the Christian hospital in the holy city. The founder and first leader was Brother Gerard (later referred to as “Blessed Gerard”), who used the title of rector. The hospital and adjoining church were dedicated to St. John the Baptist. When the first Crusade captured Jerusalem in 1099, the hospital was already in full operation. Fourteen years later, Pope Paschal II gave his approval to the hospital, placing it under the protection of the Holy See. The papal bull changed the brotherhood into a Holy Order of the Roman Catholic Church with the sole right to freely elect the rector’s successors without interference from any other authority, ecclesiastic or lay. This has been confirmed and expanded by successive pontiffs. Succeeding Rector Gerard was Raymond du Puy, who was given the title of master of the hospital. Late in the 13th century, the title became grand master. Under Raymond du Puy, the order expanded to include military and chivalric duties as well. It became the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem (later the words “of Rhodes” and “of Malta” were added to the official name). The grand master also introduced the white, eight-pointed cross (the Maltese cross), which has remained the symbol of the order to this day. The flag of the order, red with the eight-pointed cross in white, received papal approval in 1130. After the Crusades failed and Jerusalem fell to the forces of Islam in 1187, the Knights of the Order moved to Cyprus and added what was to become an equally important element to their military capability, a naval force. The time in Cyprus was difficult, as the order was there only as a guest of the king.

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In 1310, the order gained absolute control of the island of Rhodes and began the task of fortifying it. The grand master and his council took on all of the duties of nationhood, including the minting of coins, maintaining diplomatic relations with other states, and so forth. While in Rhodes, the order became a major power of the eastern Mediterranean, using that power for the defense of Christendom as well as to harass the forces of Islam whenever possible. In 1522, the Turkish forces, under the leadership of Suleiman the Magnificent, attacked Rhodes, laying siege to the fortifications. After six months, the Knights were forced to surrender. Impressed with the Knights’ bravery, Suleiman was generous in setting the terms of the surrender, a generosity he would later greatly regret. The order was permitted to leave in its own ships with its arms and other movable property. It then moved from place to place for seven years without a home base until, in 1530, the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles V, ceded to the order in sovereign fief both the islands of the Maltese Archipelago and Tripoli in North Africa (the latter was lost to Islam in 1551). The Knights ruled Malta until 1798, when they surrendered to Napoleon’s forces without giving any opposition, leaving the island in disgrace. In the later years of its rule in Malta, the order had become decadent, and the Knights’ lavish lifestyle was a drain on the Maltese economy. Thus, the Maltese population was only too glad to see them leave. Today, the Knights are headquartered in Rome, located at 68 Via Condotti, a building that houses the smallest nation in the world. It contains the headquarters of the sovereign order, descended from that original brotherhood in Jerusalem and known in Rome as the Sovrano Militare Ordine di Malta. Larger than ever, it concentrates its activities on providing funds for the operation of hospitals, an ambulance service, halfway houses, and the like. It provides medicines, equipment, and medical volunteers worldwide. Although the order retains a fondness for the trappings of nobility, it continues to emphasize its original goals. It also continues as a sovereign order, maintaining diplomatic relations with 95 other nations; holding its own courts of law; and issuing its own passports, postage stamps, and even coins. The order returned to Malta in 1964, after independence was gained, in the form of an ambassador to the new nation. In 1989, the order held an international gathering of Knights in Malta for the first time since their departure in 1798. On 24 August 1994, the order was granted observer status in the United Nations. It maintains an embassy in Valletta. A controversy arose in 2013 when Grand Master Matthew Festing fired one of the order’s top knights, Grand Chancellor Albrecht Freiherr von Boeselager, a German. The reason given was that Boeselager had distributed tens of thousands of condoms in developing countries, offending the conservative sensibilities of the grand master. When Pope Francis got word of this, he called the grand master to the Vatican and asked him to resign. The all-

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male top leaders of the Knights of Malta are not religious clerics, but each take vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience to the pope. Although Festing resisted, claiming that the order was a sovereign entity, he ultimately resigned. Boeselager was reinstated, and the Vatican announced the appointment of a committee to investigate the matter and that Grand Commander Ludwig Hoffmann von Rumerstein would lead the order until a permanent leader could be found. See also AUBERGES; GREAT SIEGE OF 1565; KNIGHTS AFTER RHODES.

L LABOR UNIONS. See TRADE UNIONS. LABOUR PARTY. See MALTA LABOUR PARTY (MLP). LANGUAGE QUESTION. When the British arrived in Malta in 1800, they found two languages in place: Italian, used by the intellectual and higher business classes, and Maltese, used by everyone else. Unlike Italian, however, Maltese (Malti) existed only as a spoken form of communication. Subtle, and eventually not so subtle, actions were taken by the British to encourage the learning and use of English while discouraging the same for Italian. These attempts were usually less than successful because of several factors, primarily the fact that English was looked upon as a Protestant language while Italian was felt to be Roman Catholic. In addition, Italian carried positive cultural acceptance, particularly for the educated. In 1880, the colonial governor, following the recommendations contained in several reports of royal commissioners, began a series of changes designed to encourage the learning and use of the English language. Not only was English to be the official language of the schools and the university, but proficiency in English was to be of primary importance in all civil service appointments. At the same time, the colonial government encouraged the use of Maltese, especially in the teaching of English, as a weapon against the entrenched Italian. By 1934, Maltese and English had become the official languages of the law courts, and Italian had lost all such standing. In the past, Italian had been the symbol of Maltese nationalism, but that language quickly lost such support when Italy became an enemy in World War II and its air force began bombing the islands. In its place, the Maltese language became a rallying point of nationalist feelings. More recently, the English-language skills of the Maltese have given the nation a major economic advantage as globalization drives Europeans to Malta to learn English in a sunny climate. More than 30 very successful English-language schools have become a niche industry, contributing to Malta’s economy. Meanwhile, the requirement that any student seeking admis165

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sion to the University of Malta pass a proficiency examination in Maltese was dropped because of concern that it excludes many foreigners from studying in Malta. However, the Maltese also perceive globalization as a threat in the form of illegal immigrants from Northern Africa and cheap goods from Asia, among other issues, which has heightened nationalist feelings and concern about preserving Malta’s identity, culture, and language. The successful insistence on including Maltese as an official language of the European Union and the debate over the spelling of the word euro are recent examples. A new “language question” arose with a proposal to offer a Maltese as a Second Language course at the University of Malta. Although intended for foreign students, critics asked whether this course would be available to Maltese students as well and if so, the concern was expressed that this could lower the standards for native speakers. See also VASSALLI, MIKIEL ANTON (1764–1829). LANGUES. French for “tongues” or “languages,” the langues were a practical way of grouping the different languages (and therefore political and cultural heritages) of the Knights of St. John. In the early years of the order, this was necessary to facilitate quick communication. Each langue had its own quarters, or auberge, as can be seen in the side chapels in the St. John’s Co-Cathedral, each dedicated to a different langue. This grouping continued while the Knights remained a fighting order. The langues were Aragon, including Catalonia and Navarre; Auvergne; Castile, including Leon and Portugal; England; France; Italy; Germany; and Provence. Each langue developed specialized expertise and was given particular responsibilities. For example, the langue of Italy was in charge of the navy, while the French managed the hospital (Sacred Infirmary), and the English were responsible for the cavalry. The English Langue virtually ceased to exist as a result of the breach between Rome and King Henry VIII. After the order’s departure from Malta, there were attempts to create a Russian Langue, with little success. See also GRAND MASTERS OF THE ORDER OF ST. JOHN (IN MALTA); ST. JOHN AMBULANCE BRIGADE. LAPARELLI, FRANCESCO (?–1570). A former pupil of and later assistant to Michelangelo, Francesco Laparelli became an expert in military architecture and had been involved in a number of Vatican commissions when he arrived to assist the Knights of St. John in December 1565. Within three days, he had a plan ready for the grand master and his advisers. His first proposal was to strengthen the defenses of the Three Cities area in anticipation of a quick return of the Turks. He next proposed using the Sciberras peninsula for a totally fortified city. He also gave full support to Grand

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Master Jean Parisot de la Valette’s idea that Malta itself was a natural fortress with marvelous deepwater harbors. Because of that, it was a perfect home for the Convent of the Knights. Laparelli stayed at his task for only two years before requesting and getting permission to leave the islands. Laparelli left Malta in 1569 and died of the plague at Candia on the island of Crete in 1570. See also ARCHITECTURE; CASSAR, GEROLAMO (1520–1592); FORTIFICATIONS; VALLETTA, CITY OF. LAZZARETTO. See FORTIFICATIONS; HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE; PLAGUE. LETTERS PATENT. See BRITISH RULE. LIBYA. The first embassy opened by a newly independent Malta in 1964 was in Libya. Because it is one of its closest neighbors to the south and controls an abundance of oil, Malta viewed Libya as an important partner for trade. Five years later, Muammar Qaddafi, a soldier in the Libyan army, took control of the country to establish “the Great Libyan Arab Socialist Jamahiriya” (Arabic, roughly translated as “rule by the masses”), leading a coup that deposed the Libyan king Idris on 1 September 1969. In 1971, when Dom Mintoff was elected prime minister of Malta, he used the threat of closer relations with Libya as a bargaining chip in negotiations with Great Britain for continuing to rent Malta’s naval base. Qaddafi was viewed by the Western powers with suspicion, and Mintoff went so far as to have the Libyans arrive with a planeload of crates, suggesting that the Libyans were prepared to take Great Britain’s place, supplying the Maltese with weapons. The strategy was successful, resulting in the British paying more for the right to extend their stay until 1979. Nevertheless, Mintoff shared the Libyan colonel’s socialist leanings. He developed a closer rapport with Qaddafi, who supplied Malta with funds to cushion the impact of the British troop departure, the ceremony for which was attended by several hundred Libyans shipped in by Qaddafi for dramatic effect. Meanwhile, several hundred Maltese made good money working in Libyan oil fields, and Libya agreed to sell Malta oil at a discounted rate. Mintoff, for his part, sought to convince his people that the Arab neighbors, whom the Maltese for centuries had reviled as the archenemy of Christianity, the “Saracens,” who had invaded Malta, were in fact “blood brothers.” Qaddafi contributed funds to build the national sports stadium and a mosque in Malta (to date, the only one on the islands). He also established two Arab cultural centers. In return, the Maltese government briefly made the study of Arabic a prerequisite for admission to the university. History books

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were rewritten, depicting Malta as culturally closer to North Africa than Italy and Europe. This was a tough sell that the Maltese populace never fully bought. In a 2009 editorial, a Maltese journalist wondered whether Mintoff’s efforts actually reinforced rather than eased prejudice against Arabs among the Maltese population. In 1984, pressured by Qaddafi, who was seeking greater international support, Malta signed a treaty of “Friendship and Cooperation” with Libya, which agreed to train and arm Maltese forces. In April 1986, when US president Ronald Reagan ordered a bombing attack on Qaddafi’s living quarters, Maltese air controllers warned the Libyans about approaching unidentified aircraft, thus reducing the element of surprise the Americans had sought. Maltese–Libyan relations were not always smooth, however. In 1980, Libyan gunboats confronted the Maltese navy in a dispute over oil field exploration. Because the Maltese were (and still are) buying oil from Libya at a special discount, the Malta government retreated. Colonel Qaddafi visited Malta for the last time in November 1984. The Nationalist Party returned to power in 1987 and began reversing many of Mintoff’s policies, adopting a distanced approach to relations with Libya while seeking to rebuild ties with the West and join the European Union (EU). The 1988 bombing of Pan Am flight 103 over Lockerbie, Scotland, later proven to have been instigated by Libyan agents based in Malta, did not help Maltese–Libyan relations, nor did the 1995 assassination of the Palestinian leader of Islamic Jihad, Fathi Shqaqi, which was carried out by Israeli agents in Malta. In 1992, the United Nations (UN) imposed sanctions against Libya because it refused to hand over the agents accused of arranging the bombing of the Pan Am flight. Although Malta and Libya had considerable mutual investments at risk, Malta supported the UN sanctions by shutting down the only flights serving Libya. However, it maintained service by sea between the two countries, the main remaining transit point for passengers and cargo to and from Libya. In 1999, Maltese authorities intercepted crates containing Scud missile parts bound for Libya, which were returned to Great Britain. In 2004, Malta joined the EU and reinstated visa requirements for Libyans traveling to Malta. In 2008, the arrest of Qaddafi’s son, Hannibal, by Swiss authorities who accused him of beating two of his servants, caused a diplomatic row between Switzerland and Libya that soon expanded to include the Schengen agreement countries when Col. Qaddafi imposed travel restrictions on citizens of all Schengen member countries. Libya further retaliated by arresting two Swiss businessmen, accusing them of illegal activities. Malta, Italy, and Spain played a major role in finally resolving the dispute.

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The “Arab Spring” uprisings in Tunisia and Egypt caused Qaddafi great concern, and in anticipation of a “day of rage” protest scheduled for 17 February 2011 to commemorate victims of a public execution in 1987, Qaddafi ordered the arrest of well-known lawyer and human rights activist Fathi Tarbel on 15 February. At a demonstration against Tarbel’s arrest, the riot police engaged a crowd of protestors with tear gas and rubber bullets. This overreaction only caused greater anger, and two days later, mass protests sparked an uprising that would eventually lead to the capture and execution of Qaddafi. In the ensuing battle against Qaddafi’s forces, Malta played a major role, not only in the evacuation of thousands of wounded Libyans and ex-patriot workers, but also in coordinating the bombing raids by US, British, and other European forces that were flying over Maltese-controlled airspace. Since the death of Qaddafi at the hands of rebels on 20 October 2011, Libya has descended into chaos, with many political factions continuing to fight for control of the country and its oil wealth. The Government of National Accord, which is recognized as the official government of Libya by the international community, is unable to provide security. An estimated 30 to 40 percent of Libya’s crude oil is being smuggled out of the country to Italian Mafia organizations via Malta, Sicily, and Greece under the watchful eyes of border control agents bribed by the smugglers. The total breakdown in security has also allowed the Islamic State (IS) to gain a foothold in Libya after being defeated in Syria and Iraq and has led to a significant increase in human trafficking of illegal immigrants to Europe via Malta, Sicily, and Greece. See also FOREIGN POLICY; FRAZIER, VANESSA (1969–); FREEDOM DAY. LIGUTTI, MONSIGNOR LUIGI (1915–1984). In 1969, when serving as the Vatican’s representative to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations in Rome, Luigi Ligutti was appointed apostolic visitor to Malta. This came in response to a request to the Vatican by Archbishop Michael Gonzi. Ligutti was to act as a consultant, assisting in the reorganization of the administration of the property of the Catholic Church in Malta in accordance with the reforms of the Second Vatican Council. To assist in the challenging assignment, the McKinsey firm of management consultants was engaged. That firm hired two British Roman Catholic priests who were finance and administration experts to assist in the task. The report of the consultants was completed in September 1970 and was sent to every priest in Malta. The report was approved and signed by the archbishop, Mgr. Ligutti, and Mgr. Emmanuel Gerada to certify that it was to become official policy. It contained a number of specific recommendations with the goal of improving the use of Church property and other capital toward the maximization of

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income and its use. Of major interest to the priests was the recommendation that their salaries be brought at least to the level of teachers’ salaries. In all of the meetings and consultations, Ligutti acquired a great admiration of Gonzi but, according to his biographer, came to suspect the actions of Gerada. He left the islands feeling that the problems of the Church, which he had been sent to solve, were going to continue and most likely intensify. LISBON AGENDA. In March 2000, European Union (EU) ministers, concerned about the EU’s lagging economic performance, met in Lisbon, Portugal. The meeting resulted in the adoption of a goal for the EU to become “the most dynamic and competitive knowledge-based economy in the world, capable of sustainable economic growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion and respect for the environment . . . by 2010.” To achieve such an ambitious goal, EU members were to “step up the process of structural reform by completing the internal market . . . investing in people . . . [and] applying an appropriate macro-economic policy mix.” Labeled the Lisbon Agenda (also Lisbon Strategy), the EU leaders’ summit intended to signal a turning point for EU business and innovation by promoting more research (spending at least 3 percent of GDP), entrepreneurship, and information technology by increasing spending and reducing red tape. A November 2004 progress report submitted by the former prime minister of the Netherlands, Wim Kok, complained that “(an) overloaded agenda, poor co-ordination and conflicting priorities” were preventing the EU from achieving its Lisbon targets. The report puts the main blame, however, on the “lack of political will of the member states.” Matters were not helped by a slowdown in the global economy that hit Europe especially hard. Undaunted, the EU Commission relaunched the agenda in 2005 but chose to focus only on the economic aspects, abandoning its social and environmental goals. A London-based think tank, the Centre for European Reform (CER), presented a progress evaluation of the Lisbon Agenda in the spring of 2005, which ranked Malta as a “villain” in last place (27th of 27 EU members) with regard to achieving the agenda targets. While praising Malta’s high level of public access to the internet (“e-readiness”) and the lowest tax burden on low-wage earners (15.8 percent), the report was critical of the country’s total lack of renewable energy sources (versus the EU 2010 goal of 20 percent), total reliance on landfills for waste disposal, lowest secondary school completion rate (47.9 percent versus the EU goal of 85 percent), second lowest female employment rate (33.6 percent), and highest level of subsidies. Clearly, many of these shortcomings relate to Malta’s particular geographic location, size, and population density and will remain difficult challenges for years to come. See also EDUCATION; PRIVATIZATION; WOMEN.

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LITERATURE. Two factors have severely limited the development of Maltese literature: the size of the audience and its linguistic diversity. The Maltese population, which has never exceeded half a million, was for a long time largely illiterate (80 percent in the 1860s). Also, over the centuries, Maltese writers have written works using six different languages: Arabic, Latin, Sicilian, Italian, Maltese, and English. Rooted in the Semitic language of the islands’ Arabic occupiers, the Maltese language (Malti) was limited to everyday usage among the common populace, while Latin and later, with the arrival of the Knights, Italian, were elevated to languages of the privileged, educated, and ruling class of Malta. The earliest known literature written in Maltese is a poem attributed to Pietro Caxaro, a notary public born in Mdina. Caxaro died in 1485, and scholars assume that he wrote the poem shortly before his death. A copy of the poem, which was included in notarial documents dating from the 1530s prepared by a descendant of Caxaro, was discovered in the archives of Mdina by Godfrey Wettinger and Michael Fsadni in 1966. The second oldest work of Maltese literature known to exist is a 16-line poem, the “Sonetto,” composed in the 1670s by Giovanni Francesco Bonamico to eulogize Grand Master Nicholas Cottoner. A doctor by profession, Bonamico mainly wrote in Latin, producing several collections of poetry, numerous treatises on medical and scientific topics, and memoirs of his travels throughout Europe from 1657 to 1676. Except for these two works, Italian was the language of Maltese writers, while Maltese was the language of everyday conversation. The first book printed in Malta in 1643 was in Italian, and it was not until the mid-1800s, under the influences of the Romantic movement, which fostered nationalism and a return to cultural roots, that Maltese became a primary language of Maltese literature. The presence of Italian exiles from the Risorgimento affected Maltese literature as well as politics. Mikiel Anton Vassalli, in his Vocabolario Maltese (1796), introduced the notion of the Maltese language as a national cultural inheritance to be valued as a key symbol and delineator of a country. Pride in a national consciousness was further stoked by Italian writers of the Risorgimento, who fled Italy and (ironically) encouraged the Maltese to free themselves of foreign influences. Giovanni Antonio Vassallo (1817–1868) is considered the first major Maltese poet to actively promote the use of Maltese in his writing. A shortage of resources, coupled with the boom and bust cycles of war inflicted on the economy of an island fortress, forced many Maltese to leave Malta, making the theme of emigration a main topic of Maltese literature. In 1967, the avant-garde literary revival movement Moviment Qawmien Letterarju arose, which included Oliver Friggieri, who became a professor of Maltese at the University of Malta and is best known for a collection of novels and poems. Other writers in this group included Frans Sammut

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(1945–2011) and Alfred Sant, the playwright, novelist, and politician who served as prime minister (1996–1998), as well as Lino Spiteri, one of modern Malta’s most celebrated authors. Reality intruded with a greater focus on the individual confronting his or her environment in a “love hate relationship that was characteristic of some modern Maltese novels and short story collections such as Sant’s. . . . The First Palms of the Prickly Pears (1968), Sammut’s . . . and Friggieri’s . . . The Lie (1977).” These works represented a shift from creating a national identity to finding meaning in a personal identity, ironically at a time when Maltese were, to a much greater extent, being exposed to the wider world. “The island itself is perhaps going through such a process of self appraisal” (Frendo and Friggieri 1994). A new wave of writers is shaping the contemporary literature scene. Foremost among these authors are Norbert Bugeja, Immanuel Mifsud, Adrian Grima, Antoine Cassars, and a number of female writers exploring feminist themes: Nadia Mifsu, Clare Azzopardi, and Simone Inguanez. Increasingly, contemporary literature is written in Maltese, although there are still a number of works in English and Italian. The 1960s witnessed the beginning of a period of rebellion against traditional forms and confining social norms. Lino Spiteri wrote Rivoluzzjoni do minore in 1980, a fictionalized account of the conflict between the government and the Church. See also “INNU MALTI”. LOCAL COUNCILS. Given Malta’s small territory, its foreign masters felt they could sufficiently govern through a single centralized institution. Local issues of the various towns and villages were not well understood or much considered by the ruling powers. Control in a more democratic manner by a local government did not exist until very recently. Except for the relatively elitist Universita and Consiglio Popolare bodies that existed for a few centuries before the British took control, official government existed only at the national level. The parish priest was the closest to any kind of local official. It was he who saw to it that the town or village received its share of road repairs, police protection, and similar services. In February 1993, the government published a bill calling for the setting up of local councils. On 30 June, the Parliament approved the Local Councils Act (Act no. XV of 1993), modeled on the European Charter of Local Self-Government, which the Maltese government, as a member of the Council of Europe, had signed and ratified. In November 1993, the first local elections were held, with a 63 percent turnout. Currently, there are 68 local councils: 54 in Malta and 14 in Gozo. British citizens who meet the electoral qualifications as set out in the Local Councils Act were eligible to stand as candidates and to vote for their respective councils, along with Maltese electors. When Malta joined the EU in

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2004, the right to vote and stand in local council elections was extended to all EU nationals, resident in the Maltese Islands, who are registered and possess a Maltese identity card. There are no intermediary governing structures between the councils and the national government. Elections are to be held every year for one-third of the councils, which serve a three-year term. The number of councilors representing each locality is determined by population: communities with fewer than 1,000 elect 5, whereas communities with 20,000 or more elect the maximum of 13. Councils receive grants from the national Parliament and have reasonable authority to spend the amounts for local community needs, road maintenance, parks, and other services. In 2000, local wardens were appointed to enforce laws on a local level. Such local control is an entirely new experience for the Maltese. On 24 April 2001, Act no. XIII of 2001 amended the Constitution to more firmly implant local councils in Malta’s governance structure. In 2014, the minimum age for voting in local council elections was lowered to 16, effective in January 2015. See also CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS.

M M.U.S.E.U.M. See ST. GEORGE (1880–1962). MAITLAND, LIEUTENANT GENERAL SIR THOMAS, GCB, GCH (1759–1824). Malta’s first colonial governor, Thomas Maitland was appointed both governor and commander in chief in 1813 and served until his death in 1824. He was a reformer and an efficient but autocratic administrator. When he arrived in Malta, the plague was raging, and the economy was in a very serious recession. He promptly attacked both problems, gaining eventual success. In retrospect, his accomplishments were many. He not only reorganized the court system, bringing in trial by jury, but also separated the executive, legislative, and judicial powers of the colony and abolished the Universita. Although he declared that English would replace Italian as the official language of government, in this he was much less successful. Because of his stern, strong will, he was known as “King Tom” by one segment of the population, at the same time that other segments approved of his actions. He died in Malta in 1824 and is buried in the Upper Barakka Gardens overlooking Grand Harbour. See also BRITISH RULE; LANGUAGE QUESTION. MALTA COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (MCAST). Established and mostly financed by the government as a community college, MCAST was launched in 2001 to provide vocational and technical training needed to establish a knowledge-based society capable of coping with global competition. MCAST has nine institutes: Agribusiness, Art and Design, Building and Construction Engineering, Business and Commerce, Community Services, Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Information and Communication Technology, Maritime, and Mechanical Engineering. The college currently serves about 4,000 full-time and 5,000 part-time students at various sites, including a center in Gozo. MCAST has become a priority for Malta as the shift from manufacturing to service jobs intensifies, especially in light of the Lisbon Agenda of the European Union (EU), the planned SmartCity development, and increasing investments in Malta by the 175

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financial sector. Consequently, the government issued a strategic plan for 2007–2009 that sought to grow the student body at MCAST and encourage more adult participation in retraining. On 27 May 2007, Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi announced the Malta government’s intention to spend Lm50 million for a new campus that would combine the various institutes scattered about the island at one central location and allow enrollment to grow to 10,000. MCAST received cofunding from the European Social Fund 2007–2013 for a €7 million expansion of its nontraditional student program to increase access through technology. In October 2014, MCAST opened a new campus in the former School of Arts premises on Gozo and, in cooperation with the Malta Gaming Authority, inaugurated the European Gaming Institute in November 2017 to prepare workers for the online gaming industry. See also ECONOMY; EDUCATION. MALTA ENVIRONMENT AND PLANNING AUTHORITY (MEPA). See ENVIRONMENT; FLIMKIEN GHAL AMBJENT AHJAR (FAA). MALTA-EU STEERING AND ACTION COMMITTEE (MEUSAC). See EUROPEAN UNION. MALTA FEVER. Malta fever is so named because the microbe that causes the disease was discovered there in 1886 by Surgeon Major (later Sir) David Bruce. The microbe was named in his honor, Brucella melitensis. The severity of the disease among British servicemen imposed a financial burden on the British government, and in an effort to determine the cause and eliminate it, a medical commission was set up in cooperation with the government of Malta. The commission included one Maltese in its membership, Dr. Themistocles Zammit. After the testing of a wide array of substances without success, Dr. Zammit began experiments with milk goats. At the time, large herds of these animals were driven into the towns and cities to supply milk directly to the people living there. The goats were then milked right on the doorstep of the family or military personnel making the purchase. On 25 June 1905, Zammit discovered the microbe in the blood of some goats, as many as 5,000 of which were said to be wandering in the streets of Valletta at the time. The microbe was transferred to humans through the consumption of the milk from infected goats. The method of testing the milk is still known as “Zammit’s test.” The medical profession as well as the government of Malta carried out a series of protests about the use of their geographical location in the name of a disease, urging the use of the term

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undulant fever instead. The abandonment of the label was slow, until the introduction of the term Brucellosis in honor of the discoverer of the microbe. See also HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE. MALTA FUNGUS. A black fungus so well accepted that it has a Latin name, Fucus coccineus melitensis grows on the top of a very tiny island close to the west coast of Gozo. This island, called Fungus Rock, was considered so important to the Knights of St. John that a permanent guard was kept in the tower on Gozo overlooking the island. At some point early in the era of the Knights, it was learned from the locals that the fungus had curative properties for dysentery and blood conditions, such as hemorrhages and wounds. Although the curative powers of this fungus were accepted for hundreds and possibly thousands of years, a scientific analysis at Bighi Naval Hospital in 1968 failed to find any basis for this acceptance other than a mildly anesthetic effect. See also HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE. MALTA INVESTMENT MANAGEMENT COMPANY LIMITED (MIMCOL). See INVESTMENT; PRIVATIZATION. MALTA LABOUR PARTY (MLP). The first Labour Party was formed prior to the 1921 elections. The first leader was Lieutenant Colonel William Savona. For that election, the electoral program called for the reform of the system of taxation with the abolition of the bread tax and greater emphasis on the use of direct taxation. Compulsory education coupled with improvement in the elementary curriculum, was an additional part of the program. The language question, always a major factor in elections at the time, involved the advocacy of Maltese as the language of instruction, with English the only other language to be studied up to the fourth standard. After that, English and Italian were to be studied pari passu (on an equal basis). The party also called for the terms of enlistment of Maltese in the British military to be the same as for British enlistees. As a final nod to its constituency, the platform called for improved housing for the labor force. In 1921, the party was successful in gaining 22 percent of the seats in the Legislative Assembly and 29 percent in the Senate, a reasonable result for a newly organized party. However, both party membership and electoral support continued to decline until the outbreak of World War II. In 1945, the party’s name was changed to the Malta Labour Party (Partit tal-Haddiema in Maltese). It won 90 percent of the seats in the Council of Government and 100 percent of the Executive Council. In elections under the new 1947 Constitution, the party gained 65 percent of the seats available.

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However, a series of disputes among the party leaders caused what had been a powerful political force to become fragmented. It again gained majority control in 1955, holding it until 1962. During that period, the party favored integration with Great Britain, but a referendum on the subject brought less than conclusive results. The party advocated voting rights for all over the age of 18. It also opposed self-government until the colonial government had created a sound economic situation in the islands. In the elections of 1962, the MLP lost to the Nationalist Party (NP), which then presided over the Independence Day events. After gaining majority control of Parliament in 1971, the MLP maintained that control until 1987. During that time, under the forceful leadership of Dom Mintoff, abrupt changes were made in both the educational system and the university structure, private medical service was virtually abolished, and strict controls were placed on imported products. Constant pressure was maintained on the British government for increases in all forms of financial payments to Malta. On the international political scene, there was a definite leaning toward the Eastern bloc. Cordial relations were maintained with, and economic grants received from, North Korea, the People’s Republic of China, and Libya, among others. The party supported government control of banking and many enterprises and opposed membership in the European Union (EU), at that time called the European Community. The NP was returned to majority control of Parliament in 1987 and retained control in the 1992 elections. In 1997, the MLP regained control and immediately set about freezing Malta’s application to join the EU, filed by the preceding Nationalist government. It also replaced the VAT system instituted by the previous government with a tariff and excise tax regime. Internal party strife between Prime Minister Alfred Sant and Mintoff caused the former to call for snap elections, which returned the Nationalists to power after less than two years. The MLP strongly opposed EU membership for Malta, proposing a “partnership” status instead, and encouraged its members to boycott the referendum on 8 March 2003 that was to decide the issue. In a strange twist, although the referendum decided in favor of joining the EU by a 53.6 percent majority, MLP leader Sant claimed victory on the dubious basis that fewer than half of the eligible voters had voted in favor of joining. More recently, the Labour Party has accepted and supports Malta’s membership in the EU, through which it continues to access many financial benefits. Several controversial remapping scandals involving development zones and building permits, a decline in the tourism industry, high energy prices, and a flood of illegal immigrants, among other issues, caused significant voter dissatisfaction with the ruling NP government. This gave the MLP high hopes that it would be returned in the general elections of 2008. Party leader Sant, once again the MLP candidate for prime minister, was a familiar face to

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voters who were looking for change, and the MLP offered little in the way of fresh alternatives. Nevertheless, the MLP lost the election by only 1,500 votes. As a result of losing a third general election in a row, Sant resigned, and a new leader, Joseph Muscat, was elected party leader. The party’s name was changed to Partit Labourista (Labour Party) in November 2008, and in the 2013 general elections, the party won a major victory, with Muscat becoming prime minister. The Labour Party government was reelected in a snap election held 4 June 2017. See also BARBARA, AGATHA (1923–2002); BOFFA, SIR PAUL (1890–1962); BUTTIGIEG, DR. ANTON (1912–1983); DIMECH, EMMANUEL (1860–1921); MIFSUD BONNICI, DRS. CARMELO; POLITICAL PARTIES. MALTA RAILWAY. From the beginning, the Malta Railway was an unusual venture: a narrow-gauge railroad on a small island with little distance between stations to service a very poor population. It seemed obviously doomed to failure from the very start. Yet the necessary capital was obtained outside of Malta, and construction began in early 1879. After several delays, the Malta Railway opened to the public in early 1883 with a route running from Valletta to Mdina. Because the locomotives were too small for the abrupt grade changes along the route, repair and maintenance costs proved much higher than anticipated. As a result, the venture was never able to cover its operating costs, much less give a return to its investors. In 1889, the line was forced to shut down for 29 days while extensive repairs were made to the locomotives. In frustration, the Malta government seized the property under the forfeiture provisions of the original concessions agreement. The government immediately repaired the old equipment, purchased some upgraded new equipment, and made improvements in the right of way. In 1900, a short but expensive extension was made from Mdina to Mtarfa, where a new British military barracks and hospital were under construction. Although the railway finally began to show a profit, it was short-lived. In 1903, a new concession for the construction and operation of a tramway from Valletta to neighboring towns was granted by the government. This diminished the use of the railway. A spurt of increased usage occurred during World War I when wounded soldiers were transported to the hospital at Mtarfa. After the war, motorized buses were imported, and another change in public transportation caused the demise of the tramway at the end of 1929 and the railway in early 1931. Although the railway ended as a financial failure, it was a social success. For the first time, the lower classes were able to afford to travel to the countryside for Sunday outings or to join the religious festas of other towns.

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They took advantage of these opportunities, which previously had been available only to the wealthier classes. No railroad of any kind has operated in Malta since 1931. MALTA SHIPYARDS. See DOCKYARDS. MALTA SUMMIT. See UNITED STATES–SOVIET SUMMIT. MALTA WORKERS PARTY. See BOFFA, SIR PAUL (1890–1962); MALTA LABOUR PARTY (MLP). MALTESE CROSS. The Maltese cross, an eight-pointed cross with four straight-lined, pointed arrowheads whose points meet in the center with their ends split into indented V’s, is a symbol associated with the Knights of Malta. The Maltese cross is placed on a red background or worn on a black mantle. The geometric shape of an eight-pointed star used as a decorative element was already found in sixth-century Byzantine culture and on coins minted in the 11th century by the Duchy of Amalfi. The cross was referred to as “the Amalfi cross” and was already accepted by the first grand master of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem (Knights Hospitaller), Raymond Du Puy, as an official symbol of the order before it became more widely associated with the Knights after their relocation to Malta. The first known mention of the “Maltese cross” was found in a 1489 document requiring the Knights of Malta to wear “the white cross with eight points,” but the first physical evidence of its use by the Knights was found on two coins minted by the order in 1567. The eight points of the cross denote the eight different langues of the order. Later, they came to signify the eight obligations of a knight: to live in truth, have faith, show humility, love justice, be merciful, be sincere and wholehearted and endure persecution. The Maltese cross is defined by the constitution of the Order of St. John and remains the symbol of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, of the Order of Saint John and its allied orders, of the Venerable Order of Saint John, and of their various service organizations. The cross has also been adopted in variously modified forms by many nations for military honors and by service professions such as the firefighters. It is also displayed as part of the Maltese civil ensign and appears on the Maltese one and two euro coins, not to mention serving as a trademark for Airmalta. See also KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. MALTESE FALCON. See HAPSBURG DYNASTY.

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MALTESE LANGUAGE. See MALTI. MALTESE NOBILITY. Titles of nobility date back to the Norman conquest of the islands in 1090. The ancestors of many of the current noble families arrived in Malta with Count Roger or shortly thereafter and were granted parcels of land. A bit later, the kings of Sicily granted several titles. After 1530, when the Knights of St. John came to rule over Malta, a number of Maltese were awarded titles by various monarchs of Europe, which were recognized by the grand masters. The nobility was abolished in 1798 during the French occupation but reestablished under British rule a few years later. In 1889, the Committee of Privileges of the Maltese Nobility was founded; it continues functioning to this day. It maintains a website listing 30 Maltese titleholders. On 23 June 1975, the Dom Mintoff government withdrew all official recognition of titles of nobility. Nevertheless, their use continues today, though only informally. Mdina, known as the Citta Notabile, is still home to a large number of the Maltese noble families. MALTI. The primary and daily language of Malta is Malti. It was long thought to have its roots in Phoenicia and Carthage. Since the early 15th century, travelers to Malta have described the Maltese language they heard spoken there in various ways: Arabic, mixture of Arabic and Italian, Saracen, or Carthaginian. In 1700, the English poet John Dryden considered it to be a “Fez Moorish language.” Professor Heinrich Johannes Maius, a German philologist who published Specimen in Lingua Punicae Hodierna Melitensium Superstitionem (A Sample Punic language in its Maltese survival) in 1718, argued for a similarity between Maltese and the Punic languages. The first Maltese known to describe his country’s language was Gian Pietro Francesco Agius de Soldanis. Between 1750 and 1759, he published several volumes written in Maltese, made the first attempt at creating a Maltese alphabet based on Roman letters, and also considered Maltese to be of Punic origin. In 1790, Mikiel Anton Vassalli published a new Maltese alphabet, adding seven letters to the one originally published by de Soldanis. Vassalli also wrote a grammar of the Maltese language, published in 1791, followed by a dictionary in 1796. More recent scholarship has concluded that Malti stems from North African Arab dialects transmitted via Sicily. Although its construction is obviously Semitic, it is a living language filled with words originating from Sicily, Italy, Spain, France, and England. Malti was strictly only a spoken language until early in the last century, despite attempts at creating a written form dating back to the time of the Knights of St. John. The Roman alphabet (a version of Vassalli’s with a few adaptations made in 1921) is still used rather than Arabic script, the only modern Semitic language to do so.

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Recently, scholars have been more successful in standardizing spelling and other aspects of Malti so that books, newspapers, signs, and other written usages of Malti are very extensive. Still, occasional debate has surfaced in the Maltese press about the spelling of loan words. At one time, Italian was the primary language of the educated class. English was used to a far lesser extent. The colonial authorities constantly applied pressure to increase the use of English, and in the 1930s, it began to supplant Italian. World War II caused a more abrupt decrease in the use of Italian, the language of the enemy. Today, English is recognized as an official language along with Malti. More than 90 percent of the nation’s 435,000 citizens speak it at home. However, Italian is rapidly regaining its earlier strength through the popularity of Italian television, which is easily available to the entire populace. As a result, a high percentage of Maltese are trilingual, at least to some degree. In seeking to join the European Union (EU), the Maltese government successfully negotiated to have Malti included as an official language of the organization. This means that all official documents and debates need to be translated into Malti (as well as all 22 of the other official languages). This created an immediate demand for translators and interpreters of Malti and the other languages. EU membership prompted another interesting debate, over how to spell euro in Malti. In June 2004, the Maltese Parliament passed the Maltese Language Act, establishing the National Council for the Maltese Language. The council was given the sole authority to determine the correct spelling of words and phrases that enter Maltese usage from other languages. After careful study of various options, the council chose ewro as the correct word to use at about the same time the secretary of the Maltese Parliament, Tonio Fenech, was quoted as saying that euro would be the spelling in all legal documents and in the public information campaign leading up to the adoption of the euro on 1 January 2008. In March 2018, the Matriculation and Secondary Education Certificate (MATSEC) Examinations Board created a controversy when it proposed that a “Maltese as a Foreign Language” course should be established at the University of Malta. The concern was that the new course would be open to all students, thereby lowering the standards for the requirement of facility in the Maltese language. Maltese is one of four European languages at risk of being severely diminished due to underutilization in technology, where English is dominant, and mobile applications in Maltese are rare. See also LANGUAGE QUESTION. MAMO, SIR ANTHONY J., Kt., OBE, QC (1909–2008). As the culmination of a long and distinguished career, Anthony Mamo became the first president of the republic, serving from 1974 to 1976. Born in Birkirkara on

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9 January 1909, his entire education was obtained in Malta, first at the Archbishop’s Seminary and then at the Royal University of Malta, where he graduated with a BA in 1931 and a doctor of laws in 1934. Mamo served as Crown counsel from 1943 to 1952, as legal adviser to four prime ministers, and as attorney general from 1955 to 1957. At the university, he was professor of criminal law from 1943 to 1957. In 1957, Mamo was named chief justice and president of the Court of Appeal. He held those positions until 1971, when he became the first Maltese citizen to be named governorgeneral by the British Colonial Office, and he carried that title until the ties to the British Crown were severed in 1974. Although elected to the presidency by a Labour government, Mamo was highly respected by persons of all shades of political opinion. Mamo died on 1 May 2008, the oldest living head of state in the world at the time. See also BRITISH RULE. MANOEL THEATRE. The theater was financed by and opened by Grand Master Manoel de Vilhena and was later called by his name. At the opening celebration on 9 January 1732, he specified that it was to be “for the honest recreation of the people,” which is why it was called teatro pubblico or “public theater” until almost a century later when, in the early years of British rule, it was renamed the Royal Theatre (teatro real) The horseshoeshaped construction was completed in 10 months, with an interior entirely made of wood. For almost 130 years, with several unpleasant interruptions, the theater was the main performance venue in Malta for operas and dramas. It was sold to private owners in 1861 but fell into disuse after the newly constructed Royal Opera House was inaugurated in 1866. For a while, the theater was used as a cheap hotel for vagrants and homeless persons, who rented rooms for pennies a night. When the opera building burned down in 1873, the theater was renamed the Manoel Theatre after its original benefactor and, for four years until the opera was rebuilt, enjoyed a renaissance. However, when the newly rebuilt Opera House was opened, the Manoel Theatre again fell into decline and was converted into a dance hall and cinema. During World War II, it again served as a refuge for homeless people. After the war had completely destroyed the Opera House, Manoel Theatre was taken over by the government, which spent 10 years restoring it to its former glory and reopened it in 1960. Like most buildings in Malta, the theater has a bland exterior without any distinguishing architectural features. The inside is another matter. An ornately decorated, paneled ceiling is highlighted by a large crystal chandelier, and the dark green color of the hall is offset by 22-carat gilded ornamentation. There are 45 boxes plus the presidential box, reserved in past years for the grand masters and later for the British king or queen.

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Manoel Theatre continues to be the scene of concerts, recitals, ballet, opera, and theatrical productions. The theater has a capacity of 623 seats, has its own orchestra, and operates the Manoel Theatre Academy of Dramatic Arts. In 1993, the government allocated funds for the renovation of what is not only a major tourist attraction but also a historical treasure, one of Europe’s oldest theaters still in use. The renovations were not undertaken until 10 years later, and the bulk of them were completed in 2004. A museum offering backstage tours and exhibits with artifacts from the theater’s past is connected to the theater. The oldest theater in Europe still in continuous use, the Manoel Theatre is once again a jewel, putting on performances enjoyed by locals and tourists alike. MDINA. This Maltese city has had many different names over its long history. The Arabs, who used it as their capital city, called it Medina. To the Romans, it was Melita. Early on, the Knights of St. John called it Città Notabile. But after the completion of Valletta in the 16th century, Mdina became known as Citta Vecchia, or the “old city.” To the Maltese, it has always been Mdina and was the capital until the arrival of the Knights. Because of its easily defended location on a 152-meter (500-foot) ridge, evidence exists of settlements on the site dating at least as far back as the Bronze Age. A sister city located outside the fortifications, named Rabat, has a history almost as long. Tradition holds that Publius, the Roman governor, welcomed Paul the Apostle to this area in 60 CE and that St. Paul lived in a cave in the adjacent town of Rabat during his stay in Malta. In the 12th century a cathedral was founded on the site where the two reputedly first met. Severely damaged in the 1693 earthquake in Sicily, it was rebuilt between 1696 and 1705 as the baroque church that still stands today. The seat of the Archdiocese of Malta, it is considered the masterpiece of the Maltese architect Lorenzo Gafà. The ruins of a Roman villa (Domus Romana), located at the edge of these two cities, have become part of a museum. Mdina was home to many of the Maltese nobility and remains so to the present, an excellent example of a medieval walled city that is still inhabited. It is also commonly referred to as the “silent city” due to its narrow, curved alleyways that muffle sound and because automobile traffic is highly restricted. See also PALAZZO FALZON. MEDIA. Although Malta is a tiny country with only 435,000 inhabitants, representing a small audience further divided by the usage of several languages, it has a surprisingly high number of media outlets: 4 daily and 10 weekly newspapers, half of them published in Maltese (Malti) and the other half in English, all available on the internet as well as in print, in addition to a

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dozen online-only newspapers, mostly in English; about a dozen radio stations covering the nation, mostly in Maltese; and six television channels broadcast by four stations in Maltese, English, and Italian. Such diversity poses a serious challenge to the commercial viability of popular print and audiovisual media. Limited resources make them more dependent on financing and therefore more susceptible to influence by the government and/or other powerful institutions with particular agendas. This might partly explain a peculiarity of the Maltese media: many outlets function as direct organs of the political parties, the trade unions, or the Catholic Church. Thus, in addition to state-run media, the Nationalist Party (NP), the Labour Party, the General Workers’ Union (GWU), and the Church each has its own own newspaper as well as radio and/or television station. The four daily newspapers are the Independent and the Times of Malta in English and two Maltese dailies, L-Orrizont (The Horizon) and InNazzjon (the Nation), published by the GWU and the NP, respectively. Although circulation numbers are not publicly revealed, the Times of Malta, a conservative-leaning paper, is the most widely read, with an estimated circulation of 30,000. Since the license to own a printing press was strictly controlled by the government under the Knights and even into the first four decades of British occupation, the earliest newspaper in Malta was published by the French occupation forces in 1798. The Journal de Malte was printed in French and Italian, the latter being the language of the educated in Malta at the time, but only in 500-copy runs. It ceased publication after several months when the French occupiers were forced to retreat into the walled city of Valletta. The French departed after two years, and the only newspaper, the Gazetta del Governo (Government journal), was published by the British from 1813 on, albeit in Italian. However short their stay, the French left a lasting imprint: the Maltese word for newspaper today is still gurnal (pronounced with a soft g like the French word journal), instead of the Italian gazetta. Freedom of the press was finally granted in 1939, and various supporters of the Italian Risorgimento, the Catholic Church, and others founded newspapers—some in Italian, others in English—promoting their particular perspectives and causes. The four daily papers were all published in Italian until the late 1870s. Lehen is sewwa (The voice of truth), a paper published by the Church in Maltese without interruption since 1928, is the oldest surviving newspaper. Responding to the murder of the Maltese journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, on 16 October 2017, 45 journalists from 15 countries, representing 18 organizations, including Le Monde, the Guardian, the Süddeutsche Zeitung, the New York Times, and the Times of Malta, joined in the “Daphne Project” to process and expose information on corruption that

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Caruana Galizia had gathered. In its annual ranking of 180 countries regarding freedom of the press, the Reporters Without Borders organization placed Malta 65th, 18 places lower than previously. Radio was first provided by the British occupiers in the mid-1930s over cable through a system called rediffusion, which was used until 1970. Television broadcasting first came to Malta from Italy in 1957 and soon afterward from the island itself. However, licenses were tightly controlled and became political pressure tools, as the government of Dom Mintoff refused to grant the NP a broadcasting license. This was changed in 1991 when a new broadcasting law was adopted that permitted competition from private television broadcasters in Malta. Satellite and internet technology have completely changed access to media and information in Malta as elsewhere. In October 2003, Finance and Economic Affairs Minister John Dalli announced that Malta had a higher rate of internet users per 100 inhabitants than countries such as Greece, Spain, and France. From the beginning of 2000 to the end of 2001, Malta’s internet users per 100 inhabitants doubled, from 13.3 to 25.4. By 2016, 80 percent of the Maltese population was using the internet. Facebook, Google, and other online resources, such as Caruana Galizia’s blog, made the internet the most popular source of news for most Maltese. Given the importance of the internet, the Maltese government included plans for a submarine fiber-optic link between Malta and Gozo in the budget for 2017 as well as another one linking Malta’s backbone to Marseille, France. Telecommunication providers GO and Melita already have submarine cables, but because all three are connected to only one country, Italy, there is concern that an accident or natural disaster could cut off the country. Established in 1961, the Broadcasting Authority monitors and regulates all radio and television broadcasts originating from the Maltese Islands. It is an independent statutory body consisting of a chairperson and four other members appointed by the president of Malta. Malta’s only independent and nonpartisan think tank, the Today Public Policy Institute (TPPI), recently argued that the Malta Broadcasting Authority and the Malta Communications Authority should be merged into a new “Malta Media Authority” that would regulate both telecommunications and broadcasting, This would reflect the rise of internet use, through which it is now possible to view the same news bulletins and current affairs programs on both television and the internet. “It is desirable for the regulator to be able to deal with all these technologies simultaneously,” TTPI board members Petra Caruana Dingli and Clare Vassallo stated in a discussion paper, “Confronting the Challenge: Innovation in the Regulation of Broadcasting in Malta,” which was presented to Prime Minister Joseph Muscat. The paper also stated that the “political manipulation of popular opinion” is the major weakness of Malta’s broadcasting. In this light, they suggested that the proposed Malta Media Authority set up a

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new television channel as an alternative private TV channel to the NET and ONE run by the political parties. They said that this new channel could broadcast programs edited by nonmainstream political parties, civil society groups, and nongovernmental organizations. “A new channel of this type might provide one step towards moving away from the dominance of the private broadcasting stations by the two major political parties.” To date, this advice has not been followed. MEDITERRANEAN CONFERENCE CENTER. The Sacred Infirmary was built in 1574 by the Knights of St. John. Although not in use at the time, it was badly damaged by bombs during World War II. In the period 1950–1960, there were plans for restoration, which were not carried out due to a lack of funds. Finally, in the late 1970s, new plans and the necessary funding were put together for the project. The restored infirmary was inaugurated on 11 February 1979 and renamed the Mediterranean Conference Center. The restoration was called “superb” and won the Europa Nostra Award. Severely damaged by fire on 25 March 1987, the facility was rebuilt and reopened on 4 October 1989. This state-of-the-art conference center boasts a main conference hall capable of seating 1,400 and five other rooms seating from 70 to 450. Each room also contains simultaneous interpretation facilities and the latest in audiovisual equipment. The La Vallette Restaurant on the premises is available to serve and seat 1,000 persons at one time. A series of exhibits displaying the history of the building as a hospital under the Knights was opened in its subterranean passageways in 2005. MEGALITHIC TEMPLES. According to carbon dating, these are among the oldest free-standing, human-made structures known to still exist anywhere in the world. Constructed between 3600 and 3000 BCE, they are older than the pyramids of Egypt, Stonehenge in England, or any structures from ancient Greece or Rome. The word megalithic comes from the Greek mega, meaning “big,” and lithos, meaning “stone.” Although megalithic temples can be found elsewhere in the world, there are 23 sites on Malta, representing an unusually high concentration, especially for such a remote land. They were built without the use of any mortar. The oldest of the temples is a pair called Ggantija (the Maltese word for “giant,” because it was presumed that only giants could have moved such huge stones) and is located in Gozo. They consist of limestone slabs standing 6.67 meters (20 feet) above the earth, each weighing many tons. It is a source of amazement that the people who constructed the temples were able to move these slabs, much less to stand them up vertically in positions that have remained little changed for over 5,500 years. The later temples on Malta contain beautiful and intricate

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carvings on the stonework. Three are especially interesting in this regard: Hagar Qim, Mnajdra, and Tarxien. They are typically on high ground with two, three, or more elliptical chambers connected by passageways. Another temple, the Hypogeum (from the Greek hypo, “below,” and geo, meaning “earth”) of Hal Saflieni was constructed below ground level and was carved out of the living globigerina limestone. Although its layout is similar to the other temples, it was constructed on three different levels, each containing a number of circular chambers with vaulted ceilings. The site, situated in a residential area of Paola, was accidentally discovered as builders were digging a foundation while constructing a new home. Although they attempted to hide the find from the authorities, word leaked out, and the site was saved for the public to explore instead of being cemented over. Created about 3000 BCE, it was like the other temples in that it was first a place of worship and later used for burial of the dead. The most impressive of the rooms architecturally, called “the holy of holies,” was probably used for the sacrifice of animals. Another unusual room is the oracle chamber, which contains a 61-centimeter circular opening into an adjoining echo chamber. Interestingly, it will resonate a male voice but not a female one. A number of female figurines were discovered in the temples and are on display in the Museum of Archaeology, located in the former Auberge de Provence in Valletta. The Hypogeum and the Ggantija temples were designated World Heritage Sites by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization in 1980, and five other temples, including Hagar Qim and Mnajdra, were added to the list in 1992. In the run-up to joining the European Union (EU), Malta began to better appreciate the importance of the sites to tourism. A major incident of vandalism at the Mnajdra site in April 2001 caused a public outcry and demonstrations, motivating the government to use some of the EU funding to better protect the sites. A protective roof was installed over several of the temples in order to shield them from the elements, and new museums were opened at the Ggantija and Hagar Qim/Mnajdra sites. See also ARCHITECTURE; ZAMMIT, SIR THEMISTOCLES (1864–1935). MERCIECA, SIR ARTURO. See BORG, SIR GEORGE (1887–1954). MERCIECA, MONSIGNOR JOSEPH (1928–2016). Born in Victoria, Gozo, on 11 November 1928, Joseph Mercieca attended the Gozo Seminary and was ordained in March 1952. He earned a BA (London) and SThD. from Gregorian University and a JD from Lateran University. He served as rector of the Gozo Seminary from 1959 to 1969, when he was called to Rome. While at the Vatican, he served in several responsible positions, including

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judge of the Roman Rota and consulator of the Sacred Congregations of Sacraments and of Doctrine of the Faith. In 1974, Mercieca was named auxiliary bishop of Malta and on 29 November 1976 was consecrated as the archbishop of Malta upon the resignation of Archbishop Michael Gonzi. Although bishops are normally required to tender their resignation upon turning 75, which Bishop Mercieca did in 2003, the Vatican asked him to continue serving until the installation of Archbishop Pawlu Cremona, which took place on 26 January 2007. Mercieca died in Zejtun, Malta, on 21 March 2016, at the age of 87. MICELI-FARRUGIA, DAME LILIAN (1924–). A prominent philanthropist and a model of volunteerism, known in Malta for her extensive involvement in charitable work, Dame Miceli-Farrugia was born Lilian Bartoli on 16 December 1924 to a businessman and politician. She was educated at the Convent of the Sacred Heart in St. Julian’s, Malta. On 12 January 1946, she married Anthony Miceli-Farrugia, KM, subsequently managing director and chairman of the Simonds Farsons Cisk Brewery, and they raised six children. Between 1963 and 1979, she served as chairman of the Co-Workers of Mother Teresa. The well-known nun from India praised her for creating and editing a newsletter for the Youth Co-Workers called I Thirst, which was circulated in 72 countries. With Mgr. Philip Calleja, Lilian Miceli-Farrugia and Claudia Taylor-East cofounded SOS Albania in 1991, a committee established in Malta to provide humanitarian aid to Albania. In addition to sending 53 containers of supplies and founding a clinic and a home for handicapped children in Elbasan, Albania, they equipped the first Roman Catholic Church and parish center and established an English-speaking middle school in Korce, Albania, run by a Maltese lay teaching society. They also provided humanitarian assistance to the Kosovar refugees in Albania and Malta, establishing playgrounds for deprived children in Kosovo. Between 1991 and 2015, Miceli-Farrugia chaired the board of SOS Malta, a nongovernmental organization that has aided earthquake victims in Pakistan and tsunami victims in Sri Lanka and has supported charitable work in Malta. She has organized numerous fund-raisers for local hospitals, orphanages, schools, churches, and nursing organizations. She served as president of the Friends of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (FMOM) in 2002–2003 and, between 1973 and 1993, chaired the board of governors of Sacred Heart School. Her years of leadership in charitable work have earned her many honors. In 1993, she was named Dame of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (DM) and was the first woman to serve on its council in Malta. Her country honored her with the Medal for Service to the Republic in 1994. She received the title Dame of Magistral Grace of the Order of St. Lazarus in

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1995, was chosen Senior Citizen of the Year in 1999, and in recognition of her exemplary philanthropic services, was conferred the SMOM’s title Dame of Magistral Grace in Obedience in 2006 and Dame Grand Cross in 2016. MICELI-FARRUGIA, MARK (1950–). Born on 23 July 1950 in St. Julians, the son of a prominent Maltese family in the beer brewing business, Mark Miceli-Farrugia attended the University of Malta and graduated from the London School of Economics in 1976 with an MS in Management Studies. Miceli pursued a career marketing beverages in Malta, Canada, and Italy. Convinced by a French oenologist that Malta had all the prerequisites for producing quality wines, Miceli-Farrugia founded Meridiana Wine Estate in 1994 in partnership with Marchese Piero Antinori, descendant of one of the world’s oldest vintner families (whose Giovanni di Piero Antinori founded the Florence Guild of Winemakers in 1385). Meridiana pioneered in Malta the production of quality wines to internationally recognized standards from grapes grown exclusively on Maltese soil. Following the example of his father, who introduced the uniquely Maltese soda drink Kinnie, Miceli-Farrugia developed and marketed a new carob-based liqueur, Leila, in 2004. In 1992, Miceli-Farrugia graduated from the Mediterranean Academy of Diplomatic Studies at the University of Malta and in 2003 was appointed as nonresident ambassador to the Baltic states of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. He has served on various public and private boards, including the Malta Chamber of Commerce and Enterprise, Malta Enterprise, L. Farrugia and Sons Ltd., and the Farsons Group of Companies. He was elected president of the Maltese–American Chamber of Commerce, serving from 2005 to 2007. On 25 July 2007, he presented his credentials as ambassador to the United States, a post he held until 31 July 2011. He also serves as high commissioner designate of Malta to Canada and the Bahamas. Miceli-Farrugia is married to Josette, a solicitor, and they have a son, Christopher. MIFSUD, SIR UGO P. (1889–1942). Ugo Mifsud, born in Valletta on 12 September 1889, was Malta’s third prime minister and the first to serve a full term. He graduated from the Royal University of Malta in 1910 with a degree in law and pursued a successful career in international law based in Brussels. Mifsud was elected secretary to the National Assembly committee drafting a constitution. In 1921, he was elected to the Legislative Assembly as a candidate for the Unione Popolare Maltese (UPM) party. On 24 September 1924, he became the youngest prime minister in the British Empire. When the UPM merged with Enrico Mizzi’s Partito Democratico Nazionalista (PDN) to form the National Party, Mifsud became coleader of the new party. He was part of the delegation that traveled to London in 1932, submit-

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ting Malta’s petition to be granted dominion status. Mifsud headed five different ministries at various times in his political career, including finance (1924–1926) and justice (1926–1927 and 1932–1933). On 9 February 1942, he suffered a heart attack after delivering an impassioned speech against the plan to deport several Maltese citizens viewed as Italian sympathizers, and he died on 11 February 1942. See also PANZAVECCHIA, MONSIGNOR IGNAZIO (1855–1925); POLITICAL PARTIES. MIFSUD BONNICI, DRS. CARMELO. So numerous are the members of the Mifsud Bonnici family involved in Malta’s politics that the clan could be considered the Maltese equivalent of the Kennedy family in the United States. There are, in fact, three persons from the same family named Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici, each having earned an LLD degree at the University of Malta and each having served or currently serving as a representative in the government. A fourth relative, Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici, son of the first Dr. Carmelo and (like his brother, Giuseppe, a professor of philosophy of law and an emeritus chief justice), also holder of an LLD, served as president of Malta (1994–1999). The first Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici was born in 1897. He served as minister of the treasury in the Nationalist Party governments of 1924 and 1932. He was a respected professor of criminal law at the University of Malta and served on the Elected Council under British rule. He died in 1948 after a long illness. The second Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici, nephew of the first, was born on 17 July 1933. He received his BA and LLD at the Royal University of Malta and did additional study in industrial law at London University. Unlike the rest of his clan, who were Nationalists, he made his mark with the Labourites when, as one of their legal advisers, he helped to prevent the Nationalist government from passing an industrial relations bill that included provisions for criminalization of striking workers. He became deputy leader of the Malta Labour Party (MLP) in 1980, minister of labor and social services in 1982, and senior deputy prime minister and minister of education in 1983. Mifsud Bonnici gained the nickname of “Doctor Zero” because he was not elected but rather appointed (co-opted) to replace another MP who did not complete his term. Similarly, upon the resignation of Dom Mintoff on 22 December 1984, he became prime minister, hand-picked by Mintoff himself, who had the political influence to get Mifsud Bonnici elected, many think as a defensive move to preclude election of another candidate less amenable to Mintoff. Although Mifsud Bonnici was given most of the blame for the party’s loss in the 1987 election (it was said that his heart attack was caused by that blame), he was made leader of the opposition and held that title until the party again lost in the elections of 1992. He was succeeded as

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leader of the party and leader of the opposition by Dr. Alfred Sant. In 2005, Mifsud Bonnici briefly made headlines with his strong opposition to the MLP support for the newly drafted constitution of the European Union. The third Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici was born in Floriana on 17 February 1960 and was named after his grandfather, first mentioned above. He earned his LLD from the University of Malta in 1984. A Nationalist, like his father Ugo, he was elected as a Nationalist MP in 1998 and 2003. He was appointed secretary for the Ministry of Justice and Home Affairs in 2003 and reappointed in 2004. After the March 2008 general election, Mifsud Bonnici was appointed as minister for justice and home affairs. This meant he was also responsible for the courts of justice, the attorney general’s office, the police corps, immigration, airport security, correctional services, civil protection, and data protection. In February 2009, Mifsud Bonnici presented a “White Paper on Restorative Justice,” which sought to initiate a public discussion on significant reforms to Malta’s penal system, including the possibility of parole. The Restorative Justice Act was passed three years later as a result. In January 2012, Mifsud Bonnici was made minister for home and parliamentary affairs, which included the role of leader of the House of Representatives, but he resigned as minister a few months later when a motion of no confidence supported by all Labour Parliamentarians, including one of his own Nationalist Party members, Franco Debono, was passed. Mifsud Bonnici was reelected to Parliament in 2013 and 2017. He is also a senior lecturer in Roman law at the University of Malta. See also MIFSUD BONNICI, DR. UGO (1932–). MIFSUD BONNICI, DR. UGO (1932–). Born in Cospicua, Ugo Mifsud Bonnici received a BA in 1952 from the Royal University of Malta and an LLD in 1955. He was editor of Malta Letteraria from 1952 to 1962 and of Il Poplu in 1966. Although Cospicua, where he still resides today, is a stronghold of the Labour Party, he was successful as a Nationalist Party candidate for Parliament in every election beginning in 1966. In 1987, he was named minister of education and held that position until his selection as president in 1994. During his tenure as minister of education, Mifsud Bonnici became known for his continued encouragement of the fine arts, appearing personally at most concerts, recitals, and art exhibitions. During the same period, he served as president of the General Council and the Administrative Council of the Nationalist Party. He is married to Gemma Bianco, and they have three children. See also MIFSUD BONNICI, DRS. CARMELO.

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MINTOFF, DOMINIC “DOM” (1916–2012). Born in Cospicua on 6 August 1916, one of 11 children, Dominic Mintoff completed the lyceum in 1933 and received a BSc degree in engineering and architecture from the University of Malta in 1937. A Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, he was awarded a master’s in engineering science in 1939. Mintoff served as an architect in Malta (hence earning the Maltese nickname il Perit (“the architect”) and as a civil engineer in Great Britain. He had joined the Labour Party in his youth and became secretary general upon his return to the islands in 1943. After being elected to membership on the Council of Government and the Executive Council in 1945, he was elected to Parliament under the new Constitution in 1947. Mintoff was named deputy prime minister and minister of works and construction in the new government. After resigning from Parliament in 1949 he was chosen leader of the Malta Labour Party at age 33, the youngest leader of the MLP to date. A combative politician, he first served as prime minister from 1955 until 1958, when he resigned in protest against the British firing of several dockworkers. The British government declared a state of emergency in the wake of the ensuing riots of April 1958, which were instigated by Mintoff’s supporters. The MacMichael Constitution was abrogated. Mintoff is blamed by many for his strident opposition to the British and the Catholic Church. In 1962, Archbishop Gonzi issued an interdict, a letter stating that any one voting for Mintoff and the other Labour candidates was guilty of a mortal sin and could not receive the sacraments in church. Mintoff was reelected, but the Nationalist Party candidates got more votes, so he served as leader of the opposition from 1962 until the elections of 1971, when Labour won and he was elected prime minister for the second time. Mintoff was returned to Parliament in every election he contested until the end of his last term in 1997. Although he resigned a total of three times in his political career—once in conflict with Malta’s government, once when the British declared a state of emergency, and in 1984 to let a younger man take over—Mintoff served his government with only minor interruptions for over 50 years, including two terms as prime minister. More than mildly influenced by the Fabian Society during his days at Oxford, Mintoff's socialist leanings were evident as he nationalized the Malta Dockyards, banking, shipping, and many other industries. He courted Muammar Qaddafi of Libya and the Communist regimes of Cuba, the Soviet Union, and China. He was forced often to state publicly, “I am not and never was a Communist,” a label his opponents attempted to attach to him. Tremendously popular among the working class, he seldom wavered in his antiBritish and anticlerical policies. His proposals for the relations between church and state became known as Mintoff’s “Six Points” and were the center of continuing tension between the MLP and the Church. These principles, which included a secular state, separation of church and state, and state, civil marriage, were eventually achieved by agreement between the two.

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Among Mintoff’s other accomplishments were a painful reorganization of the university along more contemporary lines and the transformation of Malta into a republic headed by a president. He forced the reduction of fiscal reliance on the military expenditures of other nations together with a nonaligned status. He had the hospitals, which were previously owned by the Church, brought under government control and helped to establish a greater commonality among public, private, and Church-run schools. These changes did not happen easily and were accompanied by corruption and often by violence. Mintoff was abrasive, disputatious, and impatient. He was used to having his way, and several times vague suggestions were made that violence might be directed at those who opposed him. A contemporary member of the Foreign Service recently published his experience of Mintoff berating a minister in front of his colleagues for suggesting an idea that Mintoff called ridiculous, but several days later himself proposed and claimed as his own. This contrarian aggressiveness caused a split in the MLP when Mintoff voted against a project championed by MLP members. Mintoff’s vote against his own party caused the collapse of the government and ended the Labour Party rule of Prime Minister Alfred Sant after less than two years. In 2006, at age 90, Mintoff sued the government and received a settlement because his property was adversely affected by a nearby recycling plant. He was both loved and hated. It can be said, without fear of contradiction, that Mintoff, in establishing Malta as a welfare state, brought more changes to this small nation, and in a shorter time, than any leader in all of its modern history. He died in his home in Tarxien on 20 August 2012. See also PRIVILEGIUM FORI. MIZZI, DR. ENRICO (1885–1950). Enrico Mizzi was born in 1885, shortly after his father, Dr. Fortunato Mizzi, had formed Malta’s first political party. Like his Maltese father (his mother was Italian), he was educated in law. By upbringing and education, he was Italianate through and through, and this was a root cause of his anti-British and Maltese nationalist sentiments. He looked to Italy as Malta’s “mother country,” saying that the Maltese and Italians were united in fact and should be united in law. Mizzi was first elected to the seat from Gozo in 1916 and promptly stated that he was the representative for the Italian nationality of Malta. He was soon arrested and condemned to a year of imprisonment. The governor reduced the penalty to a reprimand. However, in May 1917, Mizzi was arrested and courtmartialed for sedition during wartime. He was found guilty of all charges and sentenced to another year of imprisonment. Although this sentence was also reduced, this time to a severe reprimand, Mizzi lost the right to practice his profession.

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In the late 1920s and early 1930s, Mizzi’s newspaper, Malta, published high praise for Benito Mussolini and Italian fascism. He strongly suggested that Italy and Great Britain enter into a trade of colonies, Malta for Eritrea, but only if Malta were granted “the dignity of a free people.” Politically, he was able to bring several other parties together under the banner of the Nationalist Party. When World War II began, Mizzi was interned by the British and then deported to Uganda. After the war, with Italy as a North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) partner, his rehabilitation was hastened. A cultured and intelligent man, he was a true patriot. He died in 1950. MIZZI, DR. FORTUNATO (1844–1905). Educated in law, Fortunato Mizzi was first elected to the Council of Government in 1880. He consistently opposed the colonial government because its elected members were always in the minority. In the election of 1883, he was courted by the Partito AntiReformista because he was both a man of principle and a champion of Italian culture and language, which he called “the tongue given to the Maltese by mother nature.” The party placed primary emphasis on the retention of Italian as the language of commerce, education, and government. Mizzi was returned to the council in that election, only to resign in 1886, an action that became his antigovernment practice throughout his political life. He joined his voice with that of Gerald Strickland to advocate a return to the Consiglio Popolare. This agitation resulted in the Constitution of 1887. As editor of his own newspaper, the Gazzetta di Malta, Mizzi was unwavering in his opposition to government policy and in his support of Maltese nationalism and all things Italian. He once said the Maltese were attached to “the British Flag, the language of Italy and the religion of the pope.” Strickland’s strong pro-British stance eventually caused a severe rift between the two. Mizzi was also a bitter foe of Sigismondo Savona. Eventually, the Partito Anti-Reformista became the Partito Nazionale with Mizzi as leader. In turn, that party was the ancestor of the contemporary Nationalist Party. Fortunato Mizzi died on 18 May 1905, and his son, Enrico Mizzi, succeeded him as leader of the Partito Nazionale. See also ITALIA IRREDENTA; POLITICAL PARTIES. MIZZI, KONRAD (1977–). Born 4 November 1977 in Pieta, Konrad Mizzi was educated at De La Salle College and the Paolino Vassallo Upper Lyceum. He earned an undergraduate degree at the University of Malta and master’s and doctoral degrees in strategic management studies at the University of Nottingham. His early career was spent working for the accounting firm Deloitte and British Telecom. He later joined Pcubed, a management consultancy, where he was in charge of energy and infrastructure projects in the Europe, Middle East, and Africa region, concentrating on energy projects

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in Malta and the United Kingdom. Mizzi met his wife, Sai Liang, when they were both students at the University of Nottingham. The couple married in 2001 and have two children. He served as a consultant to the office of the prime minister, where he led various projects including the first publicprivate partnership to improve landscaping of Malta’s main roads and roundabouts. He also held the post of CIO at Enemalta. In the general elections of 2013, Mizzi ran for and won a seat in Parliament as a Labour Party candidate. He was appointed minister for energy and the conservation of water, serving between 2013 and 2014, and as minister for energy and health from 2014 until 2016. Controversy erupted in August 2013 when it was revealed that without an open call for applications, Sai Mizzi was appointed as a trade envoy to Asia, and later also as consulgeneral in Shanghai, with an annual salary of €160,000. Eyebrows were further raised when a freedom of information request exposed the details of her contract, covering three years during which she was paid a total of €558,000, including a long list of extensive benefits. A much more serious scandal erupted in early 2016 after the journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia alleged that Konrad Mizzi had opened a secret account in New Zealand. Two months later, the “Panama Papers” were released, confirming that Mizzi and Keith Schembri, the prime minister’s chief of staff, had indeed established secret offshore shell companies in Panama under a tax-evasion scheme with the Panamanian law firm Mossack Fonseca & Company. Mizzi is suspected of hiding money skimmed as bribes from oil purchases from Azerbaijan. He claims innocence and that the trust was set up to manage his family’s assets, but thousands of Maltese have demonstrated in the streets, calling for his dismissal. Prime Minister Muscat removed Mizzi’s ministerial portfolio but kept him on for a while as a “minister without portfolio.” Mizzi resigned from his position as deputy leader of the Labour Party, a post to which he had just been elected a few weeks before. Sai Mizzi’s contract was extended six months until she was replaced in February 2017. Meanwhile, Caruana Galizia alleged that the prime minister’s wife was the owner of a third secret account in Panama. When Caruana Galizia was brutally murdered by a car bomb in 2017, the European Parliament sent a delegation to Malta to examine the state of the rule of law in the country. Calls for the prime minister to dismiss Mizzi, who was reelected to Parliament in June 2017 and appointed minister for tourism, have thus far gone unheeded. As minister of health, Mizzi was also involved in another controversy: negotiating the privatization of three hospitals with a contract to a health-care management company, Vitals Global Healthcare (VGH). The company was set up by investors based in the British Virgin Islands who have little experience in the health-care field. The 30-year contract, with terms unusually favorable to VGH, was awarded before the close of a public call for proposals.

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See also CORRUPTION. MOSTA DOME. Malta is a land of over 350 churches, and the St. Marija Assunta parish church in Mosta is one of the most impressive. The phrase “parish church” usually denotes a humble structure without any particular architectural significance, but this is not true in Malta, where ordinary churches can resemble the cathedrals of other nations. Built in neoclassical style and featuring one of the largest domes in the world, it is a close imitation of the Pantheon in Rome, including a colonnade entrance. Construction was begun in 1883 and completed 27 years later. On 9 April 1942, at about 4:40 p.m., a German bomber was attempting to hit the Ta’ Qali airfield located just west of Mosta when his bomb release mechanism malfunctioned. The bomb drop was delayed by several seconds, so that instead of striking the airfield, a bomb plunged through the dome of the church, hit the marble floor, bounced off a wall, and skidded the entire length of the building. It not only did not explode, but not one of the 350 worshippers in the church was injured. About the same time, two other bombs fell just outside the church, also without exploding. The people of Mosta have no difficulty accepting that they received divine protection that day. Today, the bomb that fell through the roof is still on display for visitors to the church. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH. MOVIMENT PATRIIJOTTI MALTIN. See POLITICAL PARTIES. MUSCAT, DR. JOSEPH (1974–). Joseph Muscat was born on 22 January 1974 in Pieta. He received his secondary education at St. Aloysius College. Muscat joined the Malta Labour Party (MLP) Youth Forum, becoming its financial secretary in 1994. Muscat earned two bachelor’s degrees at the University of Malta, one in management and commerce and another in public policy, as well as a master’s degree in European studies in 1997. In 2007, he earned a doctorate from the University of Bristol with the dissertation “Fordism, Multinationals and Small and Medium Enterprises.” Muscat began his professional career as a reporter for the MLP’s Super One Radio station and later became director of news for the party’s television station. From 2001 to 2003, he edited the party’s online newspaper maltastar.com and served in the central administration of the MLP as secretary of education. Muscat was part of an MLP working group developing the party’s policies on the European Union. Although originally a strong opponent of Malta’s joining the EU, he was elected as one of the first five Maltese members of the European Parliament when Malta became a member in 2004. Elected as

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leader of the MLP, he subsequently relinquished his seat in the European Parliament on 1 October 2008 to become leader of the opposition for the newly renamed Partit Labourista (PL) and replaced Joseph Cuchieri as a member of Malta’s Parliament. The PL won the general election, defeating the Nationalist Party in convincing fashion gaining a nine-seat majority on 9 March 2013, and Muscat was elected prime minister. Under his leadership, many of the policies begun under the previous administration were continued and expanded, especially efforts at balancing the budget, taking maximum advantage of EU funding for infrastructure projects, and privatizing state-run entities, including several of the hospitals. Malta’s economy under the Muscat-led Labour government has enjoyed unusual growth, with low unemployment and low inflation. Muscat hosted the biennial CHOGM (Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting) in 2015 and held the Presidency of the Council of the European Union in the first half of 2017. Muscat’s government has come under fire from the EU for selling Maltese passports and citizenship to foreigners. His government has also been tainted by allegations of corruption. In May 2016, documents known as the “Panama Papers” were released, revealing that one of his ministers, Konrad Mizzi, and Muscat’s chief of staff, Keith Schembri, had hidden funds from questionable sources in secret offshore accounts. In spite of this, Muscat initially kept Mizzi on as a “minister without portfolio,” until Mizzi was reelected to Parliament and named minister of tourism” A few weeks later, Muscat’s wife was also accused of owning such an offshore account, although this remains unproven. Journalist and blogger Daphne Caruana Galizia, who first revealed the allegation, was brutally murdered by a car bomb in 2017. Two projects that have not worked in Muscat’s favor are causing public outcry: a contract to manage three hospitals and to build a medical college in Gozo negotiated by Konrad Mizzi with a company based in Singapore that has failed to honor its commitments at great expense to the Maltese government, and a similar situation with regard to a Jordanian company that, although it has had no experience in education, was granted land in a protected nondevelopment area to build an American-style university, promising to bring 4,000 foreign students to study in Malta. The enrollment has thus far not exceeded 25 students, and the 15 faculty hired to start the new semester were abruptly fired. It remains to be seen how long the electorate will tolerate this accumulation of questionable dealings. MUSEUMS. Recognizing the increasing importance of tourism to the economy and that Malta needed to expand its offerings for tourists beyond “sun and sand,” the country has dramatically increased both the quality and number of Malta’s museums in recent decades. There are over 30 museums and

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historical sites, 21 on Malta and 9 on Gozo. Many of these are under the management of the national Heritage Malta Trust; others are privately owned, such as the Casa Rocca Piccola, a residence with a 400-year history that is still partially occupied by its owner, the Baron Nicolas de Piro. Others are run by nongovernmental organizations, such as Palazzo Falzon. The oldest public museum is the National Museum of Archeology, first opened in 1905 as the Museum of Valletta and later reopened as the National Museum of Archeology in 1924 under the dedicated direction of Dr. Themistocles Zammit. Many of the collections in Malta are eclectic; for example, the Cathedral Museum in Mdina contains the second largest collection of Albrecht Durer prints in the world, along with an extensive coin collection. Some installations may not really qualify as museums, such as the Sacred Infirmary “Museum” located in the underground passageways of the former infirmary, now Malta’s main conference center. It is not a museum; other than some pharmacy jars, it doesn’t house many artifacts but rather numerous life-sized figures depicting scenes from the time when the subterranean chambers and passageways were used as a hospital. Similarly, the Fort Rinella 100-ton cannon exhibit might also not qualify as a museum, although it is of great historical interest. Other “museums,” such as the one housed in Jean Parisot de la Valette’s chapel in Vittoriosa, contain a hodgepodge of very interesting church artifacts (in addition to Valette’s hat) that document various periods of history but are displayed without professional organization or proper preservation techniques. Much of this is due to lack of funds in the face of such an abundance of rich heritage. More recently, EU funding has helped with the construction of new modern museums at the megalithic temples of Ggantija, Skorba, Hagar Qim, and Mnajdra. Fort St. Elmo, long neglected and closed to the public, has been completely refurbished as a museum, displaying the history of Malta since the Great Siege using computer photo and sound projection systems. See also DOMUS ROMANA; GHAR DALAM; INQUISITION; PALAZZO FALZON; ST. JOHN’S CO-CATHEDRAL. MUSIC. It is safe to assume that the prehistoric Neolithic temple builders had rituals that involved some singing or chanting, yet aside from the mention of various cantors such as Guido Anselmi (1112), Philippus (1124), and Willelmus (1234), and reference to nine musicians employed by the militia at Mdina, the earliest written records documenting the existence of music in Malta date from 1600. The Knights of St. John brought with them from the various houses of Europe a new level of cultural and artistic sophistication. This included music, especially that used in church services, for which the knights and their bishops established “cappellas” in Valletta and Mdina. At first they hired musicians from Italy, which became an important training ground for Maltese musicians such as Pietro Gristi (1696–1738) and Girola-

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mo Abos (1715–1760), both sent to Naples as young men to study music. Abos never returned to Malta and traveled extensively, becoming a conductor and composer well known throughout Europe. Gristi did return and was appointed maestro di cappella (director of the choir) at the cathedral in Mdina in 1717. Giuseppe Balzano (born in Valletta, 19 September 1616), the maestro di cappella at the cathedral in Mdina, is credited with the earliest work by a Maltese composer. Written in 1652 and entitled “Beatus Vir,” the composition is a motet for two tenors, bass, and continuo in the early Italian baroque style. Although it is Balzano’s only signed and complete work known to exist, recent research has identified seven other hymns and cantatas as likely composed by him. In the middle of the 17th century, a new form of music, the opera, was introduced to Malta from Italy. In 1664, Annibale in Capua, probably written by Sicilian composer Vincenzo Tozzi, was performed in Valletta. A libretto by Enrico Magi, Dafne, ovvero La Vergine Trionfante (circa 1650), is the earliest Maltese opera text known to exist, although there is no evidence of who, if anyone, composed music for the text or of whether the work was ever performed. The enthusiasm in Malta for the new form of music is evidenced by the construction of the Manoel Theatre in 1732. A venue well suited for opera performances, it remains one of Europe’s oldest such theaters still in use. Mikiel Ang Vella (1715–1792) was born and died in Bormla, where he is credited with being the first to introduce the secular cantata to Malta, another musical development that originated in Italy. He also started the first school in Malta that was modeled on those of Italy and devoted to training musicians. His students included Azopardi, Isouard, Burlo, and Magri, all significant musicians and composers in the mid- to late 18th century. Nicolo Isouard (1773–1818), who in later life preferred using the name Nicolo de Malthe, brought Malta to the attention of music lovers throughout Europe. Like most Maltese composers before him, he left Malta to study in Naples, where he soon made a name for himself by composing a highly successful opera, L’Avviso ai Maritati, which had its debut in Florence in 1794. Grand Master Emmanuel de Rohan called him back to Malta to serve as maestro di cappella at St. John’s Co-Cathedral in Valletta for several years, but Isouard, a Francophile, left Malta when the French were evicted from the islands. He settled in Paris, where he became an instant success with operas in the opéra comique style, such as Jeannot et Colin, Joconde, and Cendrillon, which were well received throughout Europe. He never returned to Malta and died in 1818. Two families who created music in Malta for almost two and a half centuries deserve particular mention. These were a remarkable five generations of the Nani family and a contemporary four generations of the Bugeja family.

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Angelo Nani (1751–1844), a contemporary of Isouard, was a violinist from Venice hired to play for the order by Grand Master de Rohan. Angelo’s son, Emanuele Nani (1768–1860), was also a violinist and maestro di capella who performed throughout Europe. He conducted a concert in honor of Alexander Ball upon the latter’s arrival to govern Malta. Emanuele’s son, Dr. Paolo Nani (1814–1904), was the most prolific composer of the family. He took over his father’s position upon the latter’s death. Paolo’s son, Antonio Nani (1842–1929), became a popular maestro di cappella as well and composer of church music still popular today. Antonio’s son, Paolo Nani (1906–1986), was the last musician of this impressive lineage; he studied in Rome and, like his father and grandfathers before him, served as a popular maestro di cappella. A similar family dynasty, lasting almost two centuries, began with Pietro Paolo Bugeja (1772–1828), for whom Angelo Nani (mentioned above) served as first violinist. A successful composer, Bugeja served as maestro di cappella in Naples for five years before returning to Malta to become musical director at the Teatro Reale (Manoel Theatre). He succeeded Francesco Azzopardi as maestro di cappella at St. John’s Co-Cathedral in 1809, a position he handed down to his son, Vincenzo Bugeja, 19 years later in 1828. In addition to replacing his father as musical director in numerous churches, Vincenzo wrote an opera, Lodoviska, funeral masses, antiphons, and six symphonies. His younger brother Filippo (1808–1891) was an organist, pianist, and musical director, as was Vincenzo’s oldest son, Riccardo Bugeja. The greatgrandson of Pietro Paolo, Vincent Bugeja (1910–1967), founded and directed the Malta Amateur Theatrical Company after the Italian opera company departed Malta because of the approach of World War II. Although Italian operas were still on the program, the performers were entirely Maltese. The most noteworthy Maltese composer of the late 19th century is Paolino Vassallo (1856–1913), whose symphonic poems, concert overtures, and symphonies used advanced harmonic language and French structures, breaking away from the Italian forms and structures that had dominated Maltese music for centuries. Vassallo was a leader in the motu proprio effort of Pope Pius X to make church music less florid and more dignified and sacred. In the 20th century, four composers achieved international recognition: Carmelo Pace (1906–1993), Charles Camilleri (1931–2009), Pawlu Grech (1938–), and Joseph Vella (1942–). The most significant form of Maltese folk music is the ghana, a musical narration usually in rhyme and accompanied by guitar. Other musical instruments used for folk music in Malta are those common to the Mediterranean region, including flutes, pan flutes, tambourines, and drums, among others. Unique to Malta is a form of bagpipe called zaqq, which is traditionally made

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from a dog skin and held under the arm. Since with the feet stretched upward it still closely resembles the animal from which it is made, this instrument is offensive to modern sensibilities and likely to disappear. Music in Malta has also been promoted over the centuries by the many band clubs in towns and villages, which participate in feast days and other communal celebrations. National song contests have been held in Malta since 1960, and Maltese singers have competed in the very popular annual Eurovision Song competition since 1971. Although Maltese have never won the competition, two second-place and two third-place finishes make it the most successful country that has never won the European-wide competition. Since 2009, Malta’s premier opera singer, Joseph Calleja, who has appeared in many of the world’s prominent opera houses, has presented annual concerts in the Florianna Graneries starring many well-known singers from around the world. See also ROYAL OPERA HOUSE.

N NATIONAL ANTHEM. See “INNU MALTI”. NATIONAL HOLIDAYS. Five days are celebrated in Malta as official national holidays: Independence Day, 21 September, celebrates Malta’s gaining its independence from Great Britain in 1964; Republic Day, 13 December, celebrates the change from monarchy to republic in 1974; Freedom Day, 31 March, commemorates the departure of the last British military forces from the islands in 1979; Sette Giugno, 7 June, commemorates the deaths of four young Maltese in the bread uprising of 1919, considered the birth of nationalism in Malta; and finally, the Feast of Our Lady of Victories (Il Victorja) on 8 September has triple significance for the islands—it celebrates the birth of Our Lady, the defeat of the Turks ending the Great Siege of 1565, and the collapse of fascism in Italy, ending the assault on Malta during World War II. The day is commemorated with a traditional wreathlaying ceremony at the Great Siege Monument in Floriana. Because independence was achieved while the Nationalist Party (NP) was in office, its celebration is favored by that party, whereas Republic Day and Freedom Day occurred while the Malta Labour Party held office, and the celebration of these holidays receives particular encouragement from that part of the political spectrum. In addition to the official national days, there are no fewer than nine other public holidays on which workers get time off, including Christmas, New Year’s Eve, Workers’ Day (1 May), and religious holidays such as Good Friday and several feast days. In 2006, the ruling NP government, in an attempt to improve Malta’s productivity, moved to reduce the number of holidays workers get by ending the practice of granting a day off in the following week whenever a holiday falls on the weekend. The Labour government under PM Muscat made a campaign promise to reinstate the practice and is still planning to do so as of this writing, NATIONAL LIBRARY. Known locally as the Biblioteca, the library’s origins go back at least to 1555, when the books of deceased Knights of St. John were automatically bequeathed to the order. In 1763, 9,700 volumes 203

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were given by a Knight, L. Guerin de Tencin, for the purpose of turning the total collection into a public library. In 1776, the Order declared these volumes a public library in perpetuity. In 1785, the design and construction of a new building was commissioned. However, because of the French invasion and subsequent British occupation, the building was not truly used as a library until 1813. It was not until the 20th century that the collection gained major importance when, under Head Librarian Sir Hannibal Scicluna, the archives of the order were acquired. After World War II, an equally important part of the collection became devoted to items of Melitensia. With the opening of a new public library in 1974, it remained solely a research library; in 1976, it became in name what it really had been for so many years: the National Library of Malta, a major cultural asset for so small a nation. In 2013, the library began a project aimed at digitizing its holdings. Access to work that has already been digitally recorded can be obtained online at http://digivault.maltalibraries.gov.mt/. NATIONALIST PARTY (NP). In the 1921 elections, the Unione Politica Maltese, led by Mgr. Ignazio Panzavecchia, topped all others in votes received. At the same time, the weakest showing was by Dr. Enrico Mizzi’s Partito Nazionalista Democratico. In the 1924 elections, the relative positions of the two parties changed little, but they did join together to form a minority government. As a result of this coalition, the Partito Nazionalista was formed on 26 January 1926, largely through the political skill of Dr. Mizzi. The program for the 1927 elections promised to protect the use of the Italian language in education and the courts. Although English and Italian were equally accepted for educational purposes, the party was adamant that Italian remain the sole language of the courts. The Nationalists barely lost the 1927 election for the Legislative Assembly, but they did gain control of the Senate. After taking office following the elections of 1932, the Nationalists proceeded on a blatant pro-Italy course, encouraging the use of the Italian language and disseminating fascist propaganda. Official warnings to the party went unheeded, and the colonial governor suspended the Constitution in 1933. After the end of World War II, the political appeal of the Italian language and culture had ceased to exist, and the NP dropped any mention of Italy from its program. Even the party name was changed from the Italian “Partito Nazionalista” to the Maltese “Partit Nazzjonalista,” the name it uses today. Instead of its old platform, it began to champion other matters of political concern, primarily the drive to gain dominion status within the Commonwealth.

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The party’s leanings were for independence, a mild form of democratic socialism coupled with a pro-business attitude, and an international position favoring the Western bloc of nations. The drive to join the European Union (EU) was successfully led by the NP, which remained in power from 1987 until 2013 with the exception of a 22-month interlude when the Malta Labour Party (MLP) took over. The process of adopting EU laws, norms, and standards, along with a few controversial development projects, a general slowdown of the economy, and evidence of corruption by some ministers, caused popular dissatisfaction with the NP in government among Maltese voters. Victories for the MLP in local council elections of 2008 and 2009, in addition to the results of EU parliamentary elections in June 2009, indicated dissatisfaction with the Nationalist government and its leader, Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi. The NP managed to win the general election of 2008 by only 1,500 votes, thanks in part to the personal charisma of Gonzi and a poorly managed campaign by the opposing MLP candidates. However, when a Nationalist member of Parliament, Franco Debono, voted against his own party, the Nationalists lost the election in a Labour landslide, causing Gonzi to resign as leader of the party. He was replaced by Simon Busuttil, who led the party until the snap election of 2017 in which the Nationalists formed a coalition that called itself Forza Nazzionali with a newly formed party, the Democratic Party. When the Labour party again won, Busuttil resigned as leader of the NP and was replaced by Adrian Delia. See also BORG OLIVIER, DR. GIORGIO (1911–1980); DE MARCO, GUIDO (1931–2010); FENECH ADAMI, DR. EDWARD, KUOM, LLD (1934–); GANADO, DR. HERBERT (1906–1979); LANGUAGE QUESTION; MIZZI, DR. ENRICO (1885–1950); POLITICAL PARTIES; TABONE, DR. VINCENT “CENSU” (1913–2012). NATO. See NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO). NEOLITHIC SETTLEMENTS. Although Malta can be seen from Sicily on a very clear day, the actual movement of humans across the 100-kilometer (60-mile) span of the Mediterranean came relatively late, probably about 5000 BCE. When Neolithic tribes finally arrived, they found fertile land, abundant animal life, and a surrounding sea filled with fish. Evidence indicates that they brought some livestock with them. This would mean that in addition to farmers, they must have been skilled sailors as well, capable of building and sailing fairly large vessels. The numerous caves on both Malta and Gozo also provided natural shelters. Later, simple huts, grouped into small villages, were erected, the remains of which were discovered at Skor-

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ba, just outside the village of Zebbieh on Malta. Artifacts discovered at this location span the period of about 4000 BCE to 2500 BCE, well into the Copper Age. See also ARCHAEOLOGY; MEGALITHIC TEMPLES. NOBILITY. See MALTESE NOBILITY. NONGOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS (NGOs). Given the primary influence of the Catholic Church in Malta, it is not surprising that benevolent work by various groups has historically been an important aspect of Maltese society. Numerous NGOs (known as voluntary organizations), consisting of political and cultural groups, sports organizations, band clubs, foundations, and professional associations, are active in Malta. The culture of volunteering has its roots in the activity of the Church organizations, particularly their missionary work. Once teacher training was instituted in the 1940s, teachers became very involved in NGO activity as well, creating professional organizations and offering volunteer services. Until the passage of the Voluntary Organisations Act of 11 December 2007, NGOs were not required to register with the government. The act established the office of a commissioner for voluntary organizations to be the regulatory authority responsible for overseeing the voluntary sector. The commissioner is tasked with giving the sector more visibility and ensuring that NGOs in Malta act in a transparent and accountable manner, fulfilling the purposes for which they were established. All NGOs are required to register with the office of the commissioner. There are currently over 1,400 associations, clubs, and foundations registered covering a very wide array of interests and goals. They include local branches of international NGOs such as the Red Cross. It is estimated that 12 percent of the population or about 50,000 volunteers are active in the sector. The act defines a volunteer as a person who, of his or her own free will, provides unremunerated services through or for a voluntary organization without regard to financial gain. According to the act, a voluntary organisation is a foundation, a trust, an association of persons, or a temporary organization. It is voluntary, established by a written instrument for any lawful purpose and independent, especially of government and other public authorities. See also DIN L’ART HELWA; FLIMKIEN GHAL AMBJENT AHJAR (FAA); FONDAZZJONI PATRIMONJU MALTI (FPM); FONDAZZJONI WIRT ARTNA (FWA). NORMAN CONQUEST. Near the beginning of the 11th century, Normans returning from a pilgrimage to the Holy Land passed through southern Italy. While there, they were invited to stay and become employed as mercenary

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soldiers. Over the years, they were joined by other Norman fighters and became very powerful. Gradually, they began to rule over their former employers. The first Norman leaders were the sons of Tancred, a Norman knight. After gaining control of Calabria in the foot of Italy, the Normans turned their attention to Sicily, invading it in 1061 under the leadership of Tancred’s youngest son, Roger. The Arabs controlling Sicily put up fierce resistance, and it was not until 1090 that it fell. That same year, Roger and his fleet, using a ruse, took the island of Malta from the Arabs without bloodshed on either side. Roger gained a revered place in the history of Malta, a place which has, it seems, grown with the passage of time. Tradition holds that it was Roger the Norman who gave Malta its flag by tearing off a portion of his own flag. Malta still remained a backwater, however. While many art treasures and examples of fine architecture of that time were left in Sicily, almost nothing remains in the Maltese Islands except for a few homes in Mdina and a series of lookout towers along the seashore. There is some evidence of a Muslim presence until about 1122. In that year, the Arabs refused to pay their annual tribute and secretly plotted to massacre the Maltese as a first step toward regaining the islands. The plot was discovered by accident, and the slaughter was turned the other way. Word of the situation was sent to Sicily, and Roger’s son and successor, Roger II, mounted a second conquest. The leaders of the uprising were put to death, and many Arabs were deported. See also ARAB RULE. NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO). Never itself a member of NATO, except by proxy through the British, the Malta government had accepted the stationing of a NATO command post and continued to work closely with Great Britain and other NATO member countries after Malta achieved independence. This changed abruptly when the Malta Labour Party (MLP) government of Dom Mintoff came into power in 1971, strongly advocating a foreign policy of nonalignment. Mintoff envisioned Malta as a “Switzerland in the Mediterranean,” a neutral and peace-promoting nation. As a result, the subheadquarters that NATO had maintained in the Lascaris war rooms on Malta were forced to close and moved to Naples, Italy, where they are still located today. The British forces were allowed to remain until 1979, but only after Malta had negotiated greatly increased financial contributions from the United States, Great Britain, and other NATO members. US warships ceased making liberty calls until 1992, after the Nationalist Party (NP), with a decidedly more pro-Western stance, had been returned to power. Malta is still very proud of its posture of neutrality, but in 1995 opted to join the Partnership for Peace (PfP) program, which had been created in 1994 for nations wanting a more limited relationship with NATO that did not necessarily require committing troops.

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When the MLP government of Alfred Sant regained power in 1996, it suspended Malta’s participation in the PfP, stating that it ran counter to Malta’s neutrality, which is written into its constitution. In 2003, workers at the dockyards, strong MLP supporters who initially balked at being asked to work on the US warship LaSalle, ultimately gave in to financial realities. The NP government softened its stance toward NATO, which was asked to and did provide security during the high-profile Commonwealth Heads of Government meeting in November 2005. On 4 April 2008, at the NATO Bucharest Summit, Malta announced that it was rejoining the PfP as well as joining the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council, a forum for NATO allies and PfP partners. Cables from the US embassy released by Wikileaks in 2011 revealed that before the 2008 election the Gonzi government had secret discussions with NATO about rejoining. Due to the sensitive nature of the issue, PfP membership was never mentioned during the campaign. After narrowly winning the election, Gonzi made public the decision to rejoin and assured the Maltese that this would not affect Malta’s neutrality but would enhance the country’s participation in European Union (EU) matters. The Armed Forces of Malta would benefit from rejoining, as membership enables participation in NATO’s humanitarian and rescue exercises as well as giving access to confidential documents exchanged between NATO and other PfP members. The Labour Party strongly objected, stating that the country’s reactivation of membership in PfP was “invalid as it failed to comply with Malta’s Treaties Act” because the government had not referred the matter to Parliament. However, after the Labour Party won the election of 2013, its views changed, and Malta continues to cooperate with NATO closely through the PfP. Malta has much to offer the NATO Alliance, such as special expertise in international maritime law and search and rescue capabilities in the Mediterranean, as well as providing a bridge to the Arab countries and culture. NATO, for its part, currently conducts a maritime operation, Sea Guardian, that patrols the Mediterranean Sea, helping Malta and the EU to cope with illegal migration and terrorist threats in the region. In April 2017, NATO secretary general Jens Stoltenberg met with EU defense ministers at a gathering in Valletta for talks on European defense and strengthening NATO–EU cooperation. To maintain its neutrality, Malta uses the Greek embassy as its contact point for communications with NATO. NOTTE BIANCA. See VALLETTA, CITY OF.

O OMBUDSMAN. On 25 July 1995, the Parliament adopted a bill creating the Office of the Ombudsman, a Swedish word meaning “representative.” The ombudsman is an institution established by a constitution or statutes and directed by a high-level public official who is to be totally independent of government influence. However, the government may request that the ombudsman render an opinion on a particular matter. The ombudsman’s primary duty is to investigate and act on complaints by individual citizens about administrative actions of their government and its officials, agencies, or employees. The ombudsman then may recommend remedies as well as criticize and publicize the action or inaction of the government. Although the existence of such a representative has been noted as early as the Qin dynasty in China, the modern version of an ombudsman was established in Sweden by an act of Parliament at the beginning of the 19th century. The European Union and much of the rest of the world have adopted the office along with the Swedish word for it. The ombudsman of Malta is appointed by the president, but the appointment must be approved by a two-thirds vote of the Parliament, to which the ombudsman reports on decisions and actions taken. The term of the ombudsman is currently set at five years and can be extended by reappointment for another five years. The first ombudsman, Joe Sammut, was appointed in 1995 and served two five-year terms. On 12 December 2005, Parliament unanimously approved the appointment of former chief justice Joseph Said Pullicino as ombudsman. In 2010, the Ombudsman Act was amended to permit the appointment of commissioners for administrative investigations. Three appointments were called for, one each to focus on complaints concerning health, the environment, and planning and education. The ombudsman has the power to appoint additional commissioners. The commissioner dealing with education was replaced and an ombudsman for the university replaced by the latter. In 2016, Anthony Mifsud was appointed by the prime minister and approved by Parliament to be the new ombudsman.

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OPERATION HERKULES. When Crete was invaded by the Germans on 20 May 1941 and subsequently surrendered on 1 June, the Maltese expected to be next on the Nazi hit list. Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, commander of all the German forces in southern Italy and Sicily, had suggested the possibility of such an invasion to Adolf Hitler as early as February 1941. After strong urging from Kesselring, Hitler had agreed to the proposal. However, as time went by, Hitler’s reluctance to give real consideration to such an invasion remained. Nevertheless, Kesselring went forward with the planning and preparations under the code name Herkules. It was to be a joint invasion with the Italians, who called it Operazione C3: Malta. By May 1942, three airstrips for gliders near Catania, Sicily, were being used for training. The invasion was to be by amphibious landings, parachute drop, and troop-carrying gliders. Almost 100,000 well-trained German and Italian soldiers and their equipment were poised for the main event, set for the early morning hours of 10 July. But a call to action never came. After the capture of Tobruk, Libya, on 21 June, the invasion date was postponed amid the euphoria of that success. It turned out that this postponement was final. In his published memoirs, Kesselring said that two major errors were committed by the Axis powers in the conduct of the war. The first he listed as Italy’s failure to occupy Malta at the beginning of the war. The second was Hitler’s refusal to invade the islands later on. See also WORLD WAR II. OPERATION PEDESTAL. Although Malta had long been a net importer of almost every commodity, additional demands for imports accompanied its military response to German and Italian bombardments during World War II. Estimates indicate that the islands needed 26,000 tons of supplies (23,587 metric tons) each month—the balanced cargo of three large merchant ships. In 1942, British air and submarine forces became increasingly successful in destroying Axis cargo ships en route to North Africa in support of the campaign there. In an effort to eliminate this serious threat to their success, the Italian and German air forces greatly increased the bombing attacks. During March and April, the tonnage of bombs dropped on Malta was twice the amount dropped on London during the entire year of its worst air raids. Special attention was given to denying any resupply by hitting the convoys often and hard on their way to Malta from either the eastern or western ends of the Mediterranean Sea. During the first six months of 1942, a total of less than 26,000 tons landed at Malta, and that was at a cost of 29 Allied ships either sunk or badly damaged. In spite of severe rationing for both civilians and military personnel, great shortages were occurring. Because of the scarcity of food, some calculated that the islands would be forced to surrender between 31 August

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and 7 September 1942. Aviation fuel and antiaircraft ammunition would be fully depleted even before that time, forcing an end to almost all military activity against the enemy. It was decided that a massive effort would be made to get critical supplies to the beleaguered islands. A huge convoy under the name of Operation Pedestal was ordered by the British forces to escort 14 merchant cargo ships to Malta. These ships were to be protected by two groups of escorts: Force Z, with 2 battleships, 4 aircraft carriers, 3 cruisers, and 12 destroyers; and Force X, with 4 cruisers, 12 destroyers, and a fleet tugboat. Accompanying them was Supply Force R, consisting of two tankers, four corvettes, and a tugboat to refuel the convoy at sea. Following behind the main convoy was another aircraft carrier escorted by eight destroyers. Aboard this carrier were Spitfire fighters to be flown to Malta. The entire convoy was to proceed through the Mediterranean to a point east by southeast of Sicily, called the Skerki Bank, where Force Z was to turn back, leaving the protection of the remaining convoy with Force X. The Axis powers were aware of the convoy’s intentions before it even left Great Britain, and they made plans to counter it with massive air, sea, and undersea attacks. They were successful in sinking nine of the important cargo ships and damaging the remaining five. However, those five did arrive in Malta to unload 55,000 tons of cargo. The last one to arrive was the tanker SS Ohio, which was sinking as it was brought into the harbor, lashed between two destroyers. It arrived on 15 August, the Holy Feast Day of the Assumption, known in Malta as Santa Marija Day. The convoy is still reverently referred to as “il-Convoy ta’ Santa Marija.” Four naval ships were sunk and six suffered major damage. Over 350 lives were lost, but the strength of Malta was revived. OPERAZIONE C3: MALTA. See OPERATION HERKULES. ORDER OF ST. JOHN. See KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. OUTREMER. From the French outre mer, meaning “overseas,” this was the name used during the 1lth, 12th, and 13th centuries to refer to the Latin colonies in the Holy Land and the Levant. Hoping to recover these lands from the control of the Muslims, the Christians of Europe formed various Orders of Knights under papal sanction, including the Order of St. John. Loosely translated, Outremer was used to refer not only to the lands themselves but also to the efforts at their recovery. Thus, the Crusades were efforts at Outremer. See also ARAB RULE; KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN.

P PALAZZO FALZON. One of the oldest buildings still standing in Mdina, this was originally a one-story house built in the first half of the 13th century. A second story was added in the 15th century. It was purchased in 1927 by Captain Olof Gollcher, OBE, who united various parts of the building into a home and renamed it “The Norman House.” Born into one of the noble families of Malta, Gollcher was a philanthropist and artist. He collected an impressive number of valuable objects, including paintings, silver, furniture, jewelry, oriental rugs, armor, and a library containing over 4,500 valuable books and manuscripts. In 1943, he intended to donate the house to the Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem in the British Realm, of which he was a member, but the order did not feel capable of managing the property, which was handed over to the Captain O. F. Gollcher Art and Archeology Foundation. In 2001, the Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti was given control over the management and restoration of the Palazzo. A five-year restoration process was finished in 2007, when the Palazzo was opened to the public as a historic house museum. See also ARCHITECTURE. PANZAVECCHIA, MONSIGNOR IGNAZIO (1855–1925). A champion of the “Catholic cause,” Ignazio Panzavecchia became the leader of the Unione Politica Maltese (UPM), a successor to the Partito Popolare. The UPM was pro-Church, staunchly anti-Protestant, populist, somewhat pro-English language, and antigovernment but not anti-British. In the 1921 elections, the UPM gained the largest number of seats of all the contesting parties but still had to form a coalition government. As the leader of the majority party, Mgr. Panzavecchia normally would have become the prime minister, but he declined the position because of his ecclesiastical ties. After the elections of 1924, the Unione Politica merged with the Partito Democratico Nazionalista to form the Partito Nazionalista (PN). See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; MIZZI, DR. ENRICO (1885–1950); POLITICAL PARTIES.

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PARDO, DR. ARVID (1914–1999). Born in Rome on 12 February 1914 to a Maltese father and a Swedish mother, Arvid Pardo was orphaned as a young child and raised by his uncle, an Italian diplomat. He earned a degree in diplomatic history at the University of Tours and a doctor of international law degree at the University of Rome in 1939. Active in the antifascist movement in Italy, he was arrested, first by the Italians and then by the German Gestapo. After his release at the end of the war, Pardo moved to London, where he became a civil servant for the United Nations in a variety of capacities. In 1964, he was named Malta’s first permanent representative to the UN, a position he held until 1971. During this time, he also carried, simultaneously, the responsibilities of ambassador to the United States, ambassador to the USSR, and high commissioner to Canada. In 1967, Ambassador Pardo addressed the UN General Assembly concerning the questions surrounding the control and resource management of the world’s oceans and seas. He made what was considered by many the radical proposal that the seabed and ocean floor “underlying the seas beyond the limits of present national jurisdiction” should be “the common heritage of mankind.” His speech led directly to the UN International Conference on the Law of the Sea, which examined those questions as well as the sharing of that wealth by all of the earth’s nations. Because of that speech and the activity it aroused, Dr. Arvid Pardo is generally recognized as the “father of the Law of the Sea.” He served as professor of political science at the University of Southern California from 1975 to 1990 and passed away in Seattle, Washington, on 19 July 1999. On 5 December 2017, Ambassador Carmelo Inguanez, permanent representative of Malta to the United Nations, delivered a national statement in the UN General Assembly commemorating the 50th anniversary of Dr. Pardo’s landmark speech. PARLIAMENT. The Parliament of Malta (Kamra tad-Deputati or Chamber of Deputies) is a single House of Representatives, operating under rules that are modeled on the British House of Commons. Its members include the president, who is elected by the members of Parliament (MPs). MPs are elected in general elections for five-year terms from 13 five-seat constituencies. This means that the normal number of MPs is 65. However, under a rule agreed upon as a constitutional amendment shortly before the election of 1987, if the party receiving the majority of the popular votes does not win the majority of seats, additional seats are awarded to give it a majority. As a result, 69 MPs, 35 members of the Nationalist Party, and 34 members of the Malta Labour Party were serving in the 13th Parliament after the election of 2008. The Parliament’s composition, powers, and procedures are laid out in chapter VI of the Constitution, including “standing orders” detailing the rules and order of the Parliament’s sessions. The first standing orders were

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granted in 1850, when the Parliament was known as the Legislative Council. The Parliament met in the Grand Master’s Palace until May 2015, when the new, first purpose-built Parliament building in Freedom Square was inaugurated. Parliamentary sessions take place from 5:00 p.m. until 9:00 p.m. on Mondays, Tuesdays, and Wednesdays whenever there is a quorum of at least 15 MPs. Parliamentary secretaries (currently 14) are appointed by the prime minister, who is in turn appointed by the president if elected by the Parliament. In 1995, the Parliament established five standing committees to deal with increased legislative responsibilities as Malta was preparing to join the European Union. Audio live broadcasts of parliamentary debates were first made available on 11 July in the same year. Since 2005, live audio broadcasts of both parliamentary debates and committee meetings have been accessible on the parliamentary website at https://paralament.mt/. See also ARCHITECTURE; POLITICAL PARTIES. PARTIT DEMOKRATIKU. See FARRUGIA, DR. MARLENE (1966–); POLITICAL PARTIES. PARTIT LABURISTA. See MALTA LABOUR PARTY (MLP); POLITICAL PARTIES. PARTITO ANTI-REFORMISTA. See MIZZI, DR. FORTUNATO (1844–1905); PARTITO NAZIONALE; POLITICAL PARTIES. PARTITO NAZIONALE. The Partito Anti-Reformista (PAR) was started in 1880 in opposition to Sigismondo Savona’s encouraging the learning of English. The PAR was anti-British, against promotion of the English language, and very successful in arousing public opinion against the government. It had substantial support among professionals and gained an adept politician as leader, Dr. Fortunato Mizzi. Soon the party’s name was changed to Partito Nazionale (PN). With the return of Lord Gerald Strickland to the Maltese political scene, the PN had another strong supporter of English and England to battle. Dr. Enrico Mizzi, Fortunato’s son, gradually gained the PN leadership position and set out to increase the pro-Italy and pro-Italian stance of the party. The name changed again, this time to Partito Democratico Nazionalista. Under this name it contested the first elections in 1921 and 1924 under the Constitution of 1921. After the latter election, it entered into a minority coalition with the Unione Politica Maltese. This coalition resulted in a merger of the two parties into the Partito Nazionalista, which, by 1939, became known as the Nationalist Party.

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PARTITO NAZIONALISTA. See NATIONALIST PARTY (NP); POLITICAL PARTIES. PARTITO POPOLARE. See POLITICAL PARTIES; SAVONA, SIGISMONDO (1837–1908). PARTITO UNIONISTA. See POLITICAL PARTIES; SAVONA, SIGISMONDO (1837–1908). PARTNERSHIP. During the debates preceding the referendum on whether Malta should join the European Union (EU), the Malta Labour Party leader, Dr. Alfred Sant, and his followers were strongly opposed to Malta’s membership. They argued that Malta should pursue a “partnership” with the EU states, even though, as the pro-EU forces led by the Nationalist Party pointed out, partnership was not an option being offered by the EU. PARTNERSHIP FOR PEACE. See NORTH ATLANTIC TREATY ORGANIZATION (NATO). PASSPORT, SALE OF MALTESE. See CARUANA GALIZIA, DAPHNE (1964–2017); CRIME; ECONOMY; FINANCIAL SERVICES; INVESTMENT; MIZZI, KONRAD (1977–); MUSCAT, DR. JOSEPH (1974–). PAUL THE APOSTLE. The shipwreck of St. Paul in 60 CE (the generally accepted date, although some place the event at 58 or even 53 CE) is probably the most well-known event in the history of Malta. Paul was a prisoner being taken by sea from Jerusalem to Rome in the custody of Julius, a Roman centurion. He was accompanied by St. Luke, who was not a prisoner and who later chronicled the events in the Acts of the Apostles. It was late in the fall, and the safe sailing season was nearing its end. Paul warned the centurion that if the voyage were continued, there would be “hurt and much damage, not only of the lading and the ship, but also of our lives.” His words were not heeded, and the ship continued on its journey. Soon they were in the midst of a fierce storm, one so bad that they had to take in the sails and let the wind drive them where it chose. There were 146 persons aboard. After several days, the crew and passengers threw all of the gear overboard to lighten the ship. After a few more days, Paul admonished them for not listening to him but also told them that an angel of his god had told him that all would be saved but that the ship would be lost. After 14 nights, the sailors reported that they were fast approaching a rocky shore and that they feared breaking up. They lightened the ship to the maximum, jetti-

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soning cargo and gear in order to stay with the vessel until they were able to run it aground. When it finally did, the forepart remained intact, but the stern broke into pieces. Those who could swim, did so, and those who could not, held on to broken pieces. In that way, all were able to reach the beach and safety. Eventually, they discovered that they were “on the island called Melita and the barbarous people showed us no little kindness.” Because they did not speak Greek, the Maltese were considered barbarians, a typical prejudice of that time. Luke wrote that Paul performed several miracles early in their stay, including the healing of the ill father of St. Publius, the “chief man of the island.” Paul stayed with Publius for three days and then moved to a cave now known as St. Paul’s Grotto, located beneath the Parish Church of St. Paul in Rabat. The cave is reputed to be the first recognized church in Malta. It seems obvious that the first seeds of Christianity were sown by this event in what is today a strongly religious nation. However, it was not, as often suggested in Malta, a sudden conversion but rather a long, gradual process. Although some historians argue that the events of the biblical narrative took place on an island other than Malta, this view is soundly rejected by most Maltese. A feast in honor of St. Paul, the patron saint of Malta, is celebrated every 10 February in the Parish Church of St. Paul Shipwrecked in Valletta. It is the first festa of the year and one of the most popular among the Maltese and tourists alike. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; RELIGION. PHOENICIAN RULE. It is generally assumed that the Phoenicians spread outward from their home in the Levant on the shores of Syria around 1000 BCE. They moved along the trade routes of the Mediterranean, establishing settlements as they went. It is further assumed that the Phoenicians colonized Malta about 800 BCE as a logical stopping place between the eastern and western parts of their domain. Not only was its location of great benefit, but it also possessed the best natural harbors of the region, a factor of great importance to a seafaring people. The larger island of Malta was called Malet by the Phoenicians, a word meaning “refuge.” There seems to have been an easy transition between the Bronze Age people and the new inhabitants. The Phoenician pottery found in graves and tombs of the period is very similar to that of the Bronze Age. The Phoenicians were primarily interested in trade rather than conquest, and their shipbuilding and navigational skills were developed toward that end. A major discovery concerning this period was made in 1697 in Malta. Two stone candelabra, each containing dual inscriptions of a prayer to the Phoenician god Melkart, were discovered. The inscriptions were in both Greek and Phoenician. An 18th-century scholar, Abbe Bartholomy, was able to use the

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inscriptions to decipher the Phoenician alphabet. Phoenician rule of the islands ended in 480 BCE, when the Carthaginians moved in to little, if any, resistance. PLAGUE. The Maltese suffered from several major outbreaks of the plague. The first occurred in 1592–1593, during the rule of the Knights of St. John, and lasted a whole year, killing an estimated 3,000 persons, or one in nine of the entire population. The epidemic resulted in near famine for the population of the islands as merchants refused to unload grain shipments in fear of contracting the disease. The order instituted rules of quarantine so severe that anyone coming to Malta had to first spend time in isolation, and guards had standing orders to shoot to kill anyone caught violating the quarantine. Visitors to Malta had to spend 40 (quaranta in Italian) days in isolation. A second epidemic, lasting only nine months, occurred in 1675–1676 and claimed nearly 9,000 lives. The last major outbreak was in 1813–1814. The British established the quarantine facility Lazzaretto on Manoel Island, which successfully contained all future outbreaks. POLITICAL PARTIES. Political polarization has been a constant feature in a Maltese population that for most of its history was ruled by outsiders. The cultural divide between those Maltese who welcomed, or at least accepted, the laws and customs of Roman, Spanish, Italian, French, or British occupiers of the time and those who did not continues to this day, albeit in altered form. A total of 23 different parties have contested the general elections to date, but only 12 managed to gain a seat in Parliament. Political parties in Malta had their roots in the spirit of nationalism that swept across Europe during the middle of the 19th century. Italian political refugees agitating for a united Italy fled to Malta and brought with them their struggles for liberalism and constitutionalism. At the same time that the opening of the Suez canal on 17 November 1869 increased Malta’s strategic importance to Great Britain, causing it to value Malta more in terms of a fortress outpost than a colony, the Maltese upper classes were clamoring for more say in their local affairs. Because Italy could pose a threat to British control, the British became concerned about the Italian influence on that portion of the Maltese population that consisted of the professional class and the ecclesiastics. Thus, political leaders in Malta saw themselves divided over “the language question” between those who favored the British (and therefore use of the English language) and those who saw their cultural roots in Italian language and customs. Should Malta become “anglicized” (Protestant and English-speaking) or remain Catholic, conducting business in Italian? The

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“modernizers” (today they might be considered the proponents of globalization) were the reformers (Riformisti). They were pro-British, like the Anglophile Sigismondo Savona, who formed the Partito Popolare and was opposed by the Italophiles, who became staunch opponents of reform (AntiReformisti), the party that through various mergers ultimately became the Nationalist Party (NP). Or should Maltese be the language of an awakening nationalism? The latter was not a question until the 1930s, when Maltese orthography was standardized and pride in one’s native language became, for the first time, accepted. World War II had three important results for Malta: a strengthening of pro-British attitudes among many Maltese, a simultaneous desire for personal and national liberation among others, and a strengthened labor movement as Great Britain began to draw down its forces and related local employment. The labor movement organized as the Malta Workers Party, which later became the Malta Labour Party, renamed in 2008 as the Partit Laburista (PL, the Labour Party). The pro-British Constitutional Party, led by Lord Gerald Strickland, had merged with the Anglo–Maltese Party but dissolved shortly after World War II. The two parties that emerged as dominant after World War II were the MLP and the NP. In the 1950s, the major dispute between the two was whether Malta should become a dominion of or be integrated into Great Britain. By the 1980s and 1990s, the main issue had become whether or not to join the European Union. A Communist Party was organized by a disgruntled group of former MLP members in 1969. It contested the general election of 1987 but won only 0.1 percent of the vote, failing to win a seat in Parliament. Other more recent parties have experienced similar fates. Azzjoni Nazzjonali (National Action), a conservative party, was founded in 2007 in the face of illegal immigration but only contested the 2008 election. Moviment Patrijotti Maltin (Maltese Patriotic Movement), set up in 2014, has held a series of public protests over migration and what it describes as “forced integration,” drawing complaints of racism and xenophobia. The movement suffered embarrassment when its leader admitted on television that he did not know the words to the Maltese national anthem. None of these fringe parties have managed to get more than 1 percent of the votes in any general election they contested. A similar fate has dogged the Alternattiva Demokratika, which focused on environmental issues, and another new party, Alleanza Bidla (Alliance for Change), both formed out of frustration with the leading NP and Labour Party. Malta’s system of “single, transferable vote” is designed to encourage multiple parties, but this has not happened in recent elections. Although seven parties contested the general elections of 2008, only two, the NP and

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the MLP, managed to get any seats in Parliament. One factor explaining this may be that in addition to newspapers, both of the two dominant parties own and operate their own television stations. Another new party, Partit Demokratiku (Democratic Party), called “the Orange Party,” was formed in 2016 by Marlene Farrugia, who negotiated an arrangement for her party to run in a coalition with the Nationalist Party called Forza Nazzjonali (National Force) in a snap election called for 3 June 2017. Six parties fielded candidates in the 2017 election. Although the coalition lost to the Labour Party, two Democratic Party candidates, Marlene Farrugia and her partner, Godfrey Farrugia, were elected, the first time since 1962 that a candidate from a third party gained a seat in Parliament. See also MEDIA; UNIONE POLITICA MALTESE (UPM). POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION. The severe World War II bombing damage to the majority of buildings on both sides of Grand Harbour left Malta with a major rebuilding task. As soon as the bombing runs ceased in 1943, the reconstruction was begun. It could have been done in a quick, haphazard way. Luckily, the reconstruction was just that: an attempt to rebuild what had been destroyed to the state it had been in before. As a result, Valletta and the Three Cities (Vittoriosa, Cospicua, and Senglea) appear today much as they did before the war. That is a big plus for tourism. In contrast, the beautiful single-family dwellings that had lined Tower Road, the coastal road in Sliema, have largely been razed to make way for modern high-rise apartment buildings, and although these are not unattractive, the beauty of a consistent style of architecture from the colonial era has been lost. Reconstruction continues to this day with the help of European Union funding. The latest project is the restoration of buildings on Manoel Island, including the Lazzaretto, Fort Manoel, and the Chapel of St. Anthony of Padua, at an estimated total cost of €400 million. Restoration of the chapel has already been completed. Built in 1727, it was three-fourths destroyed by a direct bomb strike and lay in ruins for over 65 years. Malta spent many years receiving numerous suggestions and engaging in much controversy before deciding what to do about the ruins of the Royal Opera House in Valletta. The site was finally repurposed as an open-air performance venue designed by the Italian architect Renzo Piano and was inaugurated on 8 August 2013. See also FORTIFICATIONS. PRECA, DUN GORG. See ST. GEORGE (1880–1962).

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PRESIDENT. By act of Parliament, Malta became a democratic republic with constitutional authority vested in the president, who must be a citizen and is elected by the House of Representatives (the Parliament). The president is the figurehead of the nation, responsible for upholding the democratic posture of society and, although not permitted to take sides among the various political parties, is obliged to support the policies of the government in power. In addition to being the figurehead representative of Malta, the president is responsible for appointing the prime minister and the executive branch of the government. At the state opening of a new Parliament, it is also the constitutional duty of the president to present the government’s plan for the upcoming five years based on the platform presented to the voters. By tradition, the president’s first official visit is with the pope. Election of the president is by resolution of Parliament and is for a period of five years. Removal from office may be made by a similar resolution on the grounds of inability to perform the functions of the office or misbehavior. The first female president was Agatha Barbara, elected in 1982. Whenever the president is absent from Malta, the prime minister, in consultation with the opposition party, appoints an acting president. The flag of the president was established in 1988 and bears the seal of the republic on a dark blue field with a Maltese cross in gold at each corner. Those who have served in the office thus far are as follows: 1974–1976

Sir Anthony Mamo

1976–1981

Dr. Anton Buttigieg

1981–1982

Dr. Albert Hyzler (acting, 27 December–15 February)

1982–1987

Agatha Barbara

1987–1989

Paul Xuereb (acting, 16 February–3 April)

1989–1994

Dr. Vincent (“Censu”) Tabone

1994–1999

Dr. Ugo Mifsud Bonnici

1999–2004

Professor Guido de Marco

2004–2009

Dr. Edward Fenech Adami

2009–2014

Dr. George Abela

2014–

Marie-Louise Coleiro Preca

PRETI, MATTIA (1613–1699). The Knights of St. John were the sons of the wealthy nobility of Europe, and they used their wealth to try to make Malta a place worthy of their presence. Many famous and near-famous artists were brought to the islands to use their talents in the embellishment of the auberges and palaces. One of the most talented of these was the Italian

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painter, designer, and architect Mattia Preti. Born in Taverna, Calabria, in 1613, he developed his artistic reputation in Rome and Naples before coming to Malta in 1661, where he became known as the Cavalier Calabrese. It was Grand Master Rafael Cottoner who first commissioned Preti to paint the ceiling of St. John’s Co-Cathedral. From this he went on to embellish the entire interior. He created 18 spaces within the church in which he depicted various episodes in the life of John the Baptist. It was he who did the drawings for all of the carvings and sculptures in the nave and the aisles. He also did important work on the interiors of the cathedral in Mdina and St. George’s Basilica in Gozo. He died in Valletta in 1699 and is buried in the Co-Cathedral under one of the ornate marble tombstones among the Knights of St. John. It can be said that Preti was responsible for much of Malta’s artistic glory. See also ARCHITECTURE; CARAVAGGIO (1573–1610). PRIME MINISTERS. The prime minister of Malta is appointed by the president after the former has received a majority vote of Parliament. The prime minister appoints a cabinet that assists him or her in carrying out responsibilities for the executive branch of government, which include running the government and keeping the president informed of government affairs. If the prime minister is out of the country or incapacitated in any way, the president may appoint another member of the cabinet as a president pro tem. Thirteen men have served as prime minister, an office first established in 1921. Several have held the office two or more times, with Dom Mintoff’s terms totaling the largest number of years served. The office did not exist from 1933 to 1947 and from 1958 to 1962. Nine of the 13 current and former prime ministers have doctoral degrees. Four of them each served two nonconsecutive terms. 1921–1923

Joseph Howard, OBE

1923–1924

Dr. Francesco Buhagiar

1924–1927

Sir Ugo P. Mifsud, KB

1927–1932

Sir Gerald Strickland, GCMG

1932–1933

Sir Ugo P. Mifsud, KB

1933–1947

office abolished

1947–1950

Dr. Paul Boffa, OBE

1950–1950

Dr. Enrico Mizzi

1950–1955

Dr. Georgio Borg Olivier

1955–1958

Dominic (Dom) Mintoff

PRIVATIZATION

1958–1962

office abolished

1962–1971

Dr. Georgio Borg Olivier

1971–1984

Dominic (Dom) Mintoff

1984–1987

Dr. Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici

1987–1996

Dr. Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami

1996–1998

Dr. Alfred Sant

1998–2004

Dr. Edward (Eddie) Fenech Adami

2004–2013

Dr. Lawrence Gonzi

2013–

Dr. Joseph Muscat



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PRIVATIZATION. As the British forces prepared to depart from Malta, strong measures were needed to transform the country’s economic base away from reliance on servicing the troops and their ships. The government had to steer the economy toward tourism and manufacturing by investing heavily in owning and operating the nation’s major industries and companies. This was a necessary and positive development in the early years of independence. However, the Malta Labour Party (MLP) government of Dom Mintoff became so focused on creating jobs and cutting Malta’s reliance on imports that it carried the government’s role in the economy too far, stifling private business and burdening the country with many overstaffed, inefficient, heavily subsidized enterprises. By the late 1980s, approximately 42 percent of the nation’s workforce was employed by the government. More than 10,000 companies in activities as far ranging as film production, printing, agriculture, tourism, shipping, and manufacturing were government owned, representing a 77-percent increase in the 11 years between 1980 and 1991. When the Nationalist Party (NP) regained control of the government in 1987, it embarked on an ambitious and difficult program of privatization. The disposition through sale of assets, stock, or simply shutting down of government-owned companies was motivated in part by preparations for membership in the European Union (EU), which requires deficit reduction and does not permit some of the subsidies necessary to keep these companies solvent. More generally, the privatization trend is an economic and political reality imposed by the forces of global competition. This is especially important for such a small, vulnerable island economy. In 1988, the Malta Investment Management Company (MIMCOL) was set up to manage, monitor, and rationalize government investments. On 22 November 1999, the government issued a white paper, laying out its plans concerning privatization. By then, over 40 companies had already been transferred wholly or in part to the private sector, including entities such as the

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postal service, Maltapost, the Public Lotto, the Mid-Med Bank, the Bank of Valletta, and the Malta International Airport. This process not only improves economic productivity and investment, it also generates cash for the government while reducing its deficit. In cases where the elimination of many jobs is required, as with some of the larger infrastructure and service entities, the privatization process has been and continues to be especially difficult. A culture of guaranteed lifetime employment and the half-day schedules during summer months cultivated by the MLP government led to overstaffing that in most cases now requires job cuts of 20 to 50 percent. Needless to say, the trade unions have strongly resisted such measures. In 2006, a deal to sell the government-owned shipping company, Sea Malta, to an Italian firm was contested by the General Workers’ Union (GWU). When the GWU refused to agree to some of the conditions of the sale, negotiations collapsed, and a determined NP government simply liquidated the company, eliminating 150 jobs. Given the greater government investment and number of workers involved, the situation at the dockyards was particularly difficult to resolve. Other entities such as the Malta International Airport, the National Lottery, and the postal service Maltapost have been successfully privatized. The Muscat government has continued the effort to reduce state ownership of entities. Most recently, the controversial lease of three state-owned hospitals to little-known overseas investor operators, a quasi form of privatization, caused a temporary strike by the doctors, nurses, and midwives. The national airline, Air Malta, a marina, and Enemalta, the sole provider of energy in Malta, are among other entities the government is still having difficulty transferring to private ownership. A Chinese company, Shanghai Electric, purchased a one-third interest in Enemalta in 2014. See also BANKING; ENERGY; INVESTMENT; LISBON AGENDA; TRADE UNIONS; YACHT MARINAS. PRIVILEGIUM FORI. A legal term that refers to the right to choose in which court a case could be tried. It gained for the clergy the right to be tried before an ecclesiastical judge in all civil and criminal matters. The original reasoning was that many laymen have inclinations to suppress the clergy and that it was not appropriate to have priests and nuns brought before lay judges. The abolition of the privilegium fori was one of the demands made by Dom Mintoff in his fight with the Catholic Church. See also RELIGION. PROGRESSIVE CONSTITUTIONAL PARTY. See STRICKLAND, MABEL EDELINE, OBE (1899–1988).

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PSAILA, MONSIGNOR DUN KARM, CBE (1871–1961). Dun Karm (his pen name) was born on 18 October 1871 in Zebbug. He began writing poetry in Italian during his student days at the seminary. Ordained a priest in 1894, he became a teacher at the seminary and later an assistant librarian at the public library. It was in 1912 that he wrote his first poem in Maltese, and he continued to write more until his death. In 1923, he wrote the lyrics for a piece of music composed by Dr. Robert Sammut. It has become the national anthem, “Innu Malti.” Most of Dun Karm’s poems have been translated into English. His poetry covered all aspects of ordinary life in the small country. Dun Karm was a founding member of the Ghaqda tal-Kittieba tal-Malti (Writers Union of Malta), and in 1927, he was elected president and editor of the organization’s journal, Il-Malti. Between 1947 and 1955, he compiled a three-volume Maltese–English dictionary. In 1945, the Royal University of Malta conferred upon him the honorary degree of doctor of literature, and in 1956, Queen Elizabeth II decorated him with the Commander of the Order of the British Empire. Malta honored him with the title “Poet Laureate of Malta.” He died on 13 October 1961. See also LITERATURE. PULLICINO ORLANDO, JEFFREY. Born 27 November 1963 in Sliema, Malta, Jeffrey Pullicino Orlando was educated at De La Salle College and graduated from the University of Malta in 1987 with a degree in dentistry. As a 16 year-old student he was already politically active, organizing a demonstration against the education policies of the Mintoff regime. He served as student representative on the faculty board of the dental surgery school and participated in the Nationalist Party (NP) youth movement. In 1992, he was elected to the local council in Zebug on the NP ticket. He was subsequently elected to Parliament in 1996, 1998, 2003, and 2008 and has held the posts of shadow minister for telecommunications, head of delegation of the Maltese Parliamentary Delegation to the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe, and vice president of the Assembly. Pullicino Orlando was appointed chairman of the Malta Council for Science and Technology in March 2010 by Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi. His term was extended twice by the current Labour Party administration led by Joseph Muscat. Pullicino Orlando was married to Marlene Farrugia, also a dentist and a politician originally with the NP. They have three children and were divorced when it became legal, after a lengthy separation. In an unusual twist, both switched party allegiances. She first switched to Labour and then started a new party, and he later joined Labour. They were frequently on opposite sides of controversial issues. A devout Catholic, she was opposed to divorce. Despite being a member of the PN at the time, Pullicino Orlando initiated a motion in Parliament that resulted in a referendum on legalizing divorce in Malta and voted with the Labour opposition in a motion causing Richard

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Cachia Careuana, Malta’s ambassador to the European Union, to resign. Citing serious differences with the party leadership, Pullicino Orlando resigned from the NP on 20 July 2012, remaining as an independent member of Parliament. For the 2017 election, he switched his allegiance and ran for Labour but failed to be elected. Pullicino Orlando continues to serve as executive chairman of the Malta Council for Science and Technology (MCST). PUNIC WARS. There were three of these wars between Carthage and Rome. Although Rome possessed a powerful army, Carthage ruled the Mediterranean Sea. As a result, each was jealous of the other’s power. In 260 BCE, a Carthaginian galley became stranded in Italy during a storm. The Romans were able to seize the vessel to study its construction. In a short time, a powerful navy was built, and Rome declared war. During the first war (264–241 BCE), the Romans occupied Malta as a base for the attacks on Africa. After a naval victory, the Romans landed in Carthage. They lost the land battle, however, so a peace was arranged. Sicily was awarded to Rome, and Malta was awarded to Carthage. The Carthaginians proceeded to fortify the islands as an outpost for defense. In the second of the wars (218–202 BCE), Malta was again captured by the Romans. After a series of land battles across southern Europe, the Carthaginians were defeated at the Battle of Zama, and a second peace was established. Even though it had suffered a severe loss, Carthage made plans to attack again. Rome did the same. The Third Punic War (150–146 BCE) began with a siege of Carthage. After four years of resistance, the city was completely destroyed, and Rome was victorious. The survivors of the siege were sold as slaves. Malta stayed under Roman rule. Eventually, some of the marble from the palaces of Carthage ended up as part of the altars of the churches of Malta. See also FORTIFICATIONS.

Q QUEEN ELIZABETH II (1926–). Queen Elizabeth II’s coronation took place on 2 June 1953, at Westminster Abbey. She was queen of Malta for a little more than 10 years, from 21 September 1964, when the Crown Colony of Malta became an independent sovereign nation in the Commonwealth, until 13 December 1974, when Malta became a republic, albeit remaining in the Commonwealth. The queen’s constitutional roles in Malta were mostly relegated to a governor-general. Before becoming queen upon the death of her father on 6 February 1952, Her Majesty had already, on four occasions between 1949 and 1951, spent time in Malta with her husband, Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, who was stationed on Malta as a royal navy officer. They lived in Gwardamangia (Pieta), in a villa owned by Lord Mountbatten, the duke’s uncle. As queen of Malta, Elizabeth visited the country in 1967 and made mention of this visit in her Christmas message that year: “Today Malta is independent, with the Crown occupying the same position as it does in the other self-governing countries of which I am Queen. This is the opening of a new and challenging chapter for the people of Malta and they are entering it with determination and enthusiasm.” The queen returned to Malta at the end of May 1992 in order to commemorate the 50th anniversary of the George Cross award and more recently in 2015 to attend the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting (CHOGM). See also BRITISH RULE.

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R RABAT. Situated directly outside the walls of Mdina, Rabat (from the Arab word for “suburb”) is home to almost 20,000 inhabitants. It occupies much of the former site of the Roman town of Melita. When the Arabs took over Malta, they fortified a part of the city, which became the capital Mdina, and left two-thirds of the original city as a suburb, or Rabat. Many subterranean passageways and catacombs in Rabat, originally dug out by the Romans to bury their dead, were used as secret worship sites by the early Christians. The Apostle Paul is believed to have occupied a grotto in Rabat during his stay on Malta. St. Paul’s and St. Agatha’s catacombs are now popular tourist sites under the management of Heritage Malta. REDIFFUSION RADIO SYSTEM. This is a system of radio relay by wire, which was available to each home and business. As very few wireless radios were available, the rediffusion system was a form of monopoly in public communication. The civilian government controlled that monopoly except in matters of civil aviation, public safety, and defense, when control passed to the British colonial government. Of course, after independence the ambiguity of control ceased to exist. The system remained in use into the mid-1970s. See also MEDIA. REFERENDA. Only seven referenda have been held to date in Malta. In 1870, the Maltese electorate was asked to decide the question: “Are ecclesiastics to be eligible for the Council of Government?” It passed overwhelmingly with almost 60 percent of those eligible voting. On 11–12 February 1956, the question of integration with Great Britain gained an almost four-toone favorable vote, but the results were unacceptable because of a low turnout of the eligible voters after the Nationalist Party and others discouraged participation. On 2–4 May 1964, the question posed was whether Malta would accept the Independence Constitution. The answer was yes, as the referendum passed with a favorable vote of 54 percent. The fourth referendum, held on 11 November 1973, was restricted to the voters of Gozo, asking them to decide whether Gozo should remain a separate entity from Malta 229

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with its own civic council and taxing authority in addition to having representatives in Malta’s Parliament. Amazingly, fewer than 200 (less than 2 percent) of the 15,621 eligible voters voted, 88 percent of whom were overwhelmingly in favor. In fact, all but the 1870 referendum were decided by less than a majority of eligible voters. The fifth referendum was on the question of whether Malta should join the European Union. The Maltese were very divided on this issue, with the Nationalist Party strongly in favor and the Malta Labour Party (MLP) vehemently opposed. The vote on 8 March 2003 was in favor of joining, but because only 48 percent of eligible voters voted for EU membership, the MLP leader, Alfred Sant, unsuccessfully tried to maintain that the anti-EU faction had won. On 28 May 2011, another contentious referendum to decide whether divorce should become legal in Malta resulted in 38 percent of eligible voters voting in favor versus 33 percent against, leaving the Philippines the only country in the world in which divorce is illegal. The most recent referendum, held in Malta on 11 April 2015, asked voters to agree or disagree that the spring bird hunting season for quail and turtle doves should remain open. The vote was in favor by the slimmest of margins: of the 338,450 eligible voters, 75 percent voted, 37.4 percent in favor and 36.7 percent against. In 1996, the Referenda Act of 1973 was amended to permit citizens to vote to repeal certain existing laws. Such an “abrogative” referendum requires a petition signed by at least 10 percent of the eligible voters and can be prevented from taking place if Parliament votes to amend the legislation or is dissolved. See also POLITICAL PARTIES. REFORMISTI. See SAVONA, SIGISMONDO (1837–1908). RELIGION. The Maltese Constitution states in article 2 (i): “The Religion of Malta is the Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion.” In article 32, it provides, among other fundamental rights and freedoms, protection from discrimination on grounds of “race, place of origin, political opinions, colour, creed, sex, sexual orientation or gender identity.” Even under Arab rule, Malta remained a Christian nation. The Arabs did not attempt to force their beliefs upon the native population, although there were a few subtle encouragements, such as exemption from some taxes for those professing the Muslim faith. When the Knights of St. John arrived, the encouragements went the other way. An example is in the operation of the Sacred Infirmary. It was open to persons of all faiths, but non-Catholics were not allowed to stay in the Great Ward for more than three days unless they agreed to receive religious instruction from one of the Roman Catholic chaplains. During the

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time of British rule, the Anglican Church established a presence in Malta, and political battles sometimes involved the power of the Church, but there was always agreement that Malta was a Roman Catholic nation. Although religious instruction in Roman Catholicism is required in all state schools, and the government cooperates with the Catholic Church in a foundation that provides funds to Catholic schools, freedom of religion is strictly enforced. Since the passage of the Ecclesiastical Entities Act of 1991, all kinds of churches have the same rights, such as owning property, having their ministers perform marriages, and so forth. Approximately 350 Roman Catholic churches and chapels exist in Malta, but there are only a handful of Protestant churches (mainly serving nonMaltese residents and visitors), including two Anglican (St. Paul’s Pro-Cathedral in Valletta and Holy Trinity in Sliema) and the Church of Scotland (in Valletta), also serving as the congregation of some Methodists. Several hundred Baptists, Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Fellowship of Evangelical Churches, and Hindi are also present in Malta. An estimated 3,000 Muslims, of which approximately 150 are native born, 600 naturalized, and the remaining 75 percent foreigners, are served by one mosque and two schools. There are about 125 persons of the Jewish faith and a synagogue in Ta’ Xbiex. A key concern of the Maltese with regard to joining the European Union was whether divorce and embryonic cell research, both strongly opposed by the Catholic Church, would perforce become legal upon membership. Until 2011, Malta was one of two countries in the world where divorce was illegal. The impacts of globalization, which have increased since Malta joined the EU, have caused significant changes in Maltese social mores, many opposed by the church hierarchy. Legalization of divorce; rights of gay, lesbian, and transgendered persons (2014); and same-sex marriage (2017) are signs of a more liberal population less accepting of Catholic dogma. While 95 percent of the Maltese population claims to be Roman Catholic faithful, results of a survey conducted in 2015 indicated that attendance at Mass has fallen to approximately 40 percent. Nevertheless, the Catholic Church, with its schools, societies, festas, and band clubs, still heavily influences Maltese social life, especially among older citizens. See also JESUITS; JEWS OF MALTA; VATICAN CHURCH–STATE PROCLAMATION. RHODES, THE KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN ON THE ISLAND OF. See KNIGHTS AFTER RHODES; KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. ROMAN RULE. The Romans held Malta for a time during the first of the Punic Wars and came into full control early in the second of the three wars. Roman troops under the leadership of the Consul Sempronius Longus cap-

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tured Malta in 218 BCE, and the archipelago became incorporated into the Republic of Rome. Remains of over 30 villas, several baths, monuments, sculptures, coins, and inscriptions attest to the long history of Roman culture in Malta. The Maltese were at first granted a limited form of autonomous government, although still considered a conquered territory with primary governance from Rome. In 117 BCE, both Malta and Gozo were raised to the official level of municipium, with autonomous local government vested in legislative, executive, and to a lesser extent, judicial functions. Gradually, the language and culture of the Maltese became less Punic and more Roman as the lifestyle of the colonial master was emulated. Coins bearing both Latin and Punic inscriptions are evidence of this. The economy of the islands also improved as their products of textiles and honey became famous throughout the Roman world. It is likely that the name Melita, used by the Romans, came from the Latin word meli, meaning “honey.” Immediately across the moat in front of Mdina is the newly renovated museum Domus Romana, which sits on the site of a former roman villa. Evidence of the Roman presence on Malta continues to be unearthed. See also ARCHAEOLOGY; CARTHAGINIAN RULE. ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO (1882–1945). In North Africa in 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt and Prime Minister Winston Churchill agreed to visit Malta when it was possible. They both did in 1943, Churchill in November and Roosevelt in December. Roosevelt arrived at the airport and spoke to the huge crowd gathered there. He said that for some time he had wanted to pay a tribute to the people of Malta and that he was presenting it that day in the form of a scroll. He read: In the name of the people of the United States of America, I salute the Island of Malta, its people and defenders, who, in the cause of freedom and justice and decency throughout the world, have rendered valorous service far above and beyond the call of duty. Under repeated fire from the skies, Malta stood alone but unafraid in the center of the sea, one tiny bright flame in the darkness—a beacon of hope for the clearer days which have come. Malta’s bright story of human fortitude and courage will be read by posterity with wonder and with gratitude through all the ages. What was done in this island maintains the highest traditions of gallant men and women who from the beginning of time have lived and died to preserve civilization for all mankind. I have signed it and dated it, December 7, 1943.

Roosevelt was able to view his words on a ceramic plaque fixed to the outside wall of the Grand Master’s Palace on Kingsway (now Republic Street) in Valletta when he and Churchill stopped in Malta on their way to Yalta in early February 1945.

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ROUNDTABLE CONFERENCE. In 1955, Prime Minister Anthony Eden of Great Britain called for a conference to consider the proposals for a closer association between Malta and the United Kingdom, including the proposal for integration promoted by the Malta Labour Party and Dom Mintoff, which meant that Malta would be represented in the British Parliament. Malta was the only British colony ever considered for integration. The conference was composed of members from each of the three main parties represented in Parliament. It was to consider constitutional and related questions from these proposals. The conference held 12 sessions in London and 3 in Malta. Leaders of the three major political parties in Malta were invited to express their views and did so. The final report was published in December. In summary, it said that the Maltese people were entitled to political equality and, if they so chose, to representation in the Parliament of the United Kingdom. The expectation was that a referendum would be held in Malta. Before that could be done, however, the archbishop of Malta and the bishop of Gozo issued a pastoral letter, which said, in effect, that whatever the changes, the status quo of the Church had to be guaranteed in writing. In addition, the Nationalist Party called for a boycott of the vote. Although the referendum passed by a vote of 67,607 to 20,177, the results were open to question because more than 62,000 eligible persons did not vote. As a result, Eden stated that the representation question would only be settled in the future by another, much more positive vote in Malta. The question of integration quickly disappeared as an issue in Maltese politics as attention shifted to the matter of independence. ROYAL OPERA HOUSE. Designed by the British architect Edward Middleton Barry, it was constructed in the years 1862–1866 in Valletta and was one of the largest and most ornate structures in Malta. Almost completely gutted by a fire on 25 May 1873, it was restored within four years and continued to serve as the cultural and social center of Malta until World War II. In the evening on 7 April 1942, this architectural gem was destroyed in an Axis bombing raid. Over 65 years later, a portion of the front steps and facade were all that remained, and the future of the site continues to be a political football. In 1946, German prisoners of war reputedly offered to rebuild the structure free of charge, an offer that was rejected by the Malta Labour Party (MLP) leader Dom Mintoff, who feared competition for scarce jobs. In 1953, after failing to secure assistance from the British War Damage Funds, the Nationalist Party government planned a project to rebuild a scaled-down version of the opera house on the site, but the MLP government came into power and scratched the project in 1954 before it got under way. Shortly after the war, several small shops were established in the basement of

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the facade, while the rest of the space formerly occupied by the building was used as a parking lot. In 2005, a plan to build a new Parliament building on the site was considered, but strong public opposition stopped the idea. In the summer of 2006, a cultural festival staged in the space was so well received that the government decided to develop the site as a permanent open-air stage for performing arts. As part of an overall plan to redesign the Valletta gate and Freedom Square, including construction of a new Parliament building, the Italian architect Renzo Piano’s plans for an open-air stage on the opera house site were realized in 2015. ROYAL UNIVERSITY OF MALTA. See UNIVERSITY OF MALTA.

S SACRED INFIRMARY. Although the Order of St. John began as a hospital organization, it soon became a fighting order of the first rank. Even so, it never lost its concern for the Hospitaller aspect of its reason for being. Important hospitals were set up in Cyprus and then in Rhodes after the Knights left the original in Jerusalem. When they settled in Malta, one of their first tasks was to set up a functioning infirmary in Birgu. That hospital functioned even under bombardment throughout the Great Siege. A few years afterward, a new hospital opened in about 1575 in the new fortified city of Valletta. It became the envy of the nations of Europe. Modeled after Santo Spiritu in Rome, the Great Ward was (and is) one of the largest rooms in Europe, at 56.4 meters in length, 10.7 meters in width, and 9.4 meters in height (185, 35, and 31 feet, respectively). It gained renown because of its cleanliness at a time when such conditions were not given high priority in the treatment of the ill or wounded. To protect against the transmission of disease, the patients ate off sterling silver plates. This marvelous structure was severely damaged during the bombing raids of World War II but has been restored and is now a center of international meetings of all kinds. In 2005, the extensive underground passageways and chambers were restored and opened as a museum, with exhibits displaying the history of the infirmary. See also HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE; MEDITERRANEAN CONFERENCE CENTER. SAID PULLICINO, JOSEPH (1937–). Joseph Said Pullicino was born in Sliema on 16 January 1937. He studied at the Lyceum and the Royal University of Malta, where he graduated in 1958 with a major in history and earned a doctor of laws degree in 1961. He went into private practice in the fields of civil and commercial law. He served on several committees, advising the government on improving the administration of justice and the courts of Malta.

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Said Pullicino was appointed commissioner of justice and later chairman of the Commission for the Investigation of Injustices, a post he retained for a number of years even after his appointment as judge in 1990. He sat mainly in civil courts, where he also presided over constitutional cases involving human rights. He was sworn in as chief justice in July 1995, and in this position he presided over the Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeal, the Court of Criminal Appeal, and other courts. For eight years, Said Pullicino served as Malta’s representative on the Venice Commission for Democracy through Law at the Council of Europe. As chief justice he was ex officio vice president of the Council for the Administration of Justice. After his retirement in January 2002 as chief justice emeritus, he was appointed chairman of the Malta Broadcasting Authority, serving until December 2005. On 12 December 2005, the House of Representatives unanimously appointed him parliamentary commissioner for the administrative investigations, otherwise known as the ombudsman. He was reconfirmed as ombudsman in 2011 and served the five-year term. He married Geraldine Micallef, and they have one daughter, Lara. SAMMUT, DR. ROBERT. See “INNU MALTI”; PSAILA, MONSIGNOR DUN KARM, CBE (1871–1961). SANT, DR. ALFRED (1948–). Born in Sliema on 28 February 1948, Alfred Sant received both bachelor’s and master’s of science degrees from the Royal University of Malta. He then studied in Paris at the Institut international d’administration publique, where he was awarded a diploma in international affairs in 1970. After five years in the Foreign Service stationed in Brussels, he took a leave for additional study, earning an MBA at Boston University with high honors in 1976 and a DBA from Harvard University in 1979. Sant returned to Malta to practice as a management consultant from 1977 to 1980 and then became the executive chairman of the Malta Development Corporation, a post he held until 1982. He then became active in politics as the chairman of the information department of the Malta Labour Party (MLP), leaving the position when he became president of the party in 1984. He was elected to Parliament in 1987 and was chosen leader of the party in 1992 after the resignation of Carmelo Mifsud Bonnici. In part due to the introduction of a value-added tax (VAT), an extremely unpopular but necessary step in preparing Malta to join the European Union (EU), the MLP won the general election in 1996, and Sant was sworn in as prime minister on 28 October. Dom Mintoff, still active as an MP, was upset about a development project championed by Sant. When Mintoff voted against his own party in a closely divided Parliament, Prime Minister Sant

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decided to call snap elections after only 22 months in office. The MLP and Sant suffered a severe defeat, returning the Nationalist Party to power, which immediately reactivated the application to join the EU. Sant became the leader of the opposition and strongly opposed Malta’s bid for EU membership, arguing for a partnership with the EU instead. When the referendum on the EU question was held in 2003, he urged his party members to boycott it or to destroy their ballots. Although over 90 percent of eligible voters voted, with 53 percent in favor, Sant insisted that the MLP had won because fewer than half the eligible voters had voted in favor. This puzzling interpretation had the result that the streets of Malta were filled with noisy jubilation by both camps. Sant continued as a controversial leader of the opposition and the MLP until resigning after he was defeated for the third consecutive time and his party lost the national election of 8 March 2008. In 2014, in spite of his prior opposition to Malta’s joining the EU, he was elected as one of six Maltese members of the European Parliament, gaining more votes than any of the other candidates. Sant is also a prolific author, having published six novels, three plays, and several short stories and essays. See also POLITICAL PARTIES. SAVONA, SIGISMONDO (1837–1908). Sigismondo Savona was born to a working-class family, completed the lyceum, and enlisted in the Royal Malta Fencible Artillery. As a sergeant he was sent to a two-year course for teachers at the Royal Military School in Chelsea, England. He graduated with a first place on the final examination. He resigned from the military in 1865 and then opened what became the best school in Malta for the teaching of the English language and also started publication of an English-language newspaper, Public Opinion. He soon became the acknowledged leader of an informal pro-British group known as the “Reformisti” because of their advocacy of the reform of the educational system to use English rather than Italian. The colonial governors had been trying to encourage the use of English but without much success. Savona saw English as an important tool in helping Maltese students understand democracy and eventually be able to use democratic institutions. He was appointed director of education and, in that capacity, also became the rector of the university, even though he had never attended one. After entering politics, his positions changed significantly. He became a populist dedicated to Maltese self-government. He was a clever debater, a charismatic leader, and, to his opponents, a completely unscrupulous demagogue. In 1891, a new party, the Partito Unionista, was formed with Savona as its leader. It lasted only two years. In June 1895, at a public meeting in Valletta, another political party was formed by the raising of hands in the gathered crowd. It was called the Partito Popolare, and Savona was elected leader in the same manner. By now, he had become a patriot who identified

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the Maltese language (Malti) as the language of the nation. He had become almost anti-British, most certainly anticolonialist. In addition, he had become pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant. Savona gained the adulation of the masses and, as much as anyone, was responsible for bringing them to an awareness of their political power. He died in 1908. See also LANGUAGE QUESTION. SCHENGEN AGREEMENT. One of the original goals of the European Union (EU) was to promote freedom of movement for citizens of its member states. A major issue was whether or not non-EU citizens should also be permitted this same freedom, which meant all border controls within the EU could be eliminated. Because the EU member states could not all agree, a meeting of five that could was held in the town of Schengen, Luxembourg. At this meeting, France, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands agreed to create a territory without internal borders. Signed on 14 June 1985, the “Schengen Agreement,” as it became known, paved the way for other EU member states to join the “Schengen area,” which grew to include 13 countries by 1997 and 30 countries by 2007. The Nordic countries, including EU members Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, already belonged to a similar agreement among themselves, which was absorbed into the Schengen Agreement. As a result, Norway and Iceland also participate. Switzerland ratified the agreement in 2004. In addition to the elimination of all internal borders, the agreement provides for common rules regarding visas, asylum rights, and checks at external borders as well as an electronic system to exchange information. The Schengen Agreement was incorporated into EU law as part of the Treaty of Amsterdam on 1 May 1999, which meant that Malta, as a new member, was obligated to participate upon meeting certain requirements. Great Britain and Ireland obtained a derogation, allowing them to maintain their borders, although they participate in some aspects of Schengen, such as the exchange of information. Upon the approval of Malta’s security system, sea border controls were lifted by Malta on 21 December 2007, and its air border controls were lifted on 30 March 2008. The rise in terrorism prompted the EU to develop a Schengen Information System (SIS) for sharing data about persons crossing its borders. A secondgeneration information system (SIS II) that includes biometric data was to be finished by 2006 but did not become operational until 9 April 2013 due to the complexity of the system. Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Ireland, Romania, and the United Kingdom currently do not participate in Schengen.

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SCIBERRAS, SIR FILIPPO (1850–1928). On 23 November 1918, as president of the Comitato Nazionale (a committee formed to defend the rights of the Maltese), Filippo Sciberras issued an appeal inviting all legally constituted organizations to send a delegate to a representative assembly. The announced intent of the assembly was to present a united front in the request for a new constitution from the colonial government. The appeal emphasized that there existed an emergency situation. In February 1919, the first meeting was held under the name Assemblea Nazionale, and Sciberras was elected the presiding officer. The original motion for a new constitution was withdrawn, and a substitute was passed unanimously. It called for the establishment of complete autonomy in local affairs. The British response was not only slow but also much less than positive. The Assemblea was in session again on 7 June 1919 as the disastrous events that have become known as Sette Giugno erupted. Afterward, the Assemblea called upon all parties to suppress their political differences in order to present a united front to the British. The final result of this effort was the new Constitution of 1921, the first under British rule to give any real degree of self-government to the Maltese people. The new legislature was convened on 1 November 1921 and was opened by the Prince of Wales. The climax of the ceremony was the knighting of Sciberras for his leadership in convening the Assemblea Nazionale. SCICLUNA, EDWARD (1946–). Born 12 October 1946 in Rabat, Edward Scicluna graduated from Plater College in Oxford, England, with a degree in social studies. He earned a bachelor’s degree in economics from the University of Malta in 1975 and a master’s degree and doctorate, also in economics, from the University of Toronto in 1982. From 1981 to 1990, he served as professor and head of the Department of Economics at the University of Malta. Professor Scicluna held several important posts in government, including as director of Malta Financial Services Authority (1997–1999) and as chair of the Malta Council of Economic and Social Development (1999–2003). He also served the Central Bank of Malta as a director (1997–2003) and on the Development Bank Auditing Committee of the Council of Europe (1997–2000). He was a frequent consultant to the European Union Commission on matters of banking and finance, especially concerning the adoption of the euro, and served on Malta’s National Euro Changeover Committee from 2005 to 2008. In 2009, Professor Scicluna became politically active, joining the Labour Party, and was elected as a member of the European Parliament. In the EU Parliament, he served as vice chair of the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs and as a substitute member of the Committee on the Envi-

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ronment, Public Health and Food Safety. Running on the Labour ticket in 2013, he was elected as a member of the Maltese Parliament and appointed minister of finance by Joseph Muscat, the newly elected prime minister. Scicluna was reelected in June 2017 and continues to serve as minister. SCICLUNA, SIR HANNIBAL. See NATIONAL LIBRARY. SERRACINO INGLOTT, REVEREND PETER (1936–2012). Malta’s most internationally recognized contemporary scholar, Peter Serracino Inglott, was born on 26 April 1936 in Valletta. He earned a BA from the Royal University of Malta in 1955 and was awarded a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford, from which he received an MA and the Chancellor’s Prize for English Prose in 1958. In 1963, he was awarded a PhD from the Universita Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano. From 1987 to 1988 and 1992 to 1996, he served as rector of the University of Malta. An unusually witty and charming person, affectionately known as Father Peter to faculty and students alike, he set up his office in a refurbished traditional Maltese stone farmhouse adjacent to the University of Malta campus, where he directed the university’s Mediterranean Institute. He was a member of the Planning Council to establish the International Ocean Institute and president of the Commonwealth Association of Universities (1995–1996). Father Peter chaired the Malta Council of Technology and Science for a decade and was a consultant of UNESCO on the Rights of Future Generations, as well as Malta’s representative to the European Union’s Convention to draft a constitution, to name just a few of the major organizations he served. Serracino Inglott was a member of the faculty at colleges and universities in Malta, Canada, the United States, and Italy and authored several books, including Encounter with Malta, and a great number of articles on a wide variety of subjects, from art and music to philosophy and the social sciences. He wrote libretti for two operas by his countryman, the composer Charles Camilleri. In September 2006, the Commission of the Bishops’ Conferences of the European Community (COMECE) appointed Serracino Inglott a member of the “Committee of the Wise,” which was charged with preparing a report to clarify the values on which the EU is based. He received numerous awards, including honorary doctorates from Luther College in Decorah, Iowa (1989), and the University of Brunel (UK); the Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur (France, 1990); the Cross of Merit (Portugal, 1995); the Cavaliere di Gran Croce (Order of Merit, Italy, 1995); and the Kumpann ta’ L-Ordni tal-Mertu (Companion of the Order of Merit, Malta, 1995). Father Peter passed away on 16 March 2012.

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SETTE GIUGNO RIOTS. Although the Maltese had experienced a fair amount of prosperity as a result of World War I, the war’s economic aftermath magnified the tensions that had long existed between the British masters and their colonists. The lack of any significant voice in their own destiny was a constant irritant to the Maltese. The economic effects of the war’s end fell most heavily upon the lower classes, whose inferior educational opportunities and poor housing conditions merely added to increasing unemployment. An additional irritant was the rising cost of living, particularly the price of bread, the major staple of the Maltese diet, which more than tripled between 1914 and 1918. A series of protests began, strangely, with an organized march by university students on 10 March 1919. They were protesting a new system of awarding degrees. The demonstration was quickly turned into a political protest, and four students were taken into custody by the police but were later found not guilty. On 7 June 1919, an important meeting concerning Maltese unity was held in Valletta. The gathering crowds quickly became unruly, throwing stones and attacking a shop that was flying a British flag. The university, the lyceum, and the Daily Mail Chronicle presses were all trashed. The police were unable to control the crowds, and the acting governor, General Hunter Blair, brought in soldiers to restore order. The troops were inexperienced recruits without adequate training in crowd control. In the tenseness of the situation, someone fired, probably out of fear, but without orders to do so. A young man, Emmanuele Attard, was killed. A short time later, Guze Bajada from Gozo was shot while carrying a banner. The two killings only intensified the unruliness of the crowds. Another angry crowd gathered in a threatening way in front of the Chronicle Press. In fear, the lieutenant ordered his men to fire, and another young man bearing a banner, Lorenzo Dyer, fell mortally wounded. At this point, a group of Maltese clergy and political leaders went out amid the crowds in an attempt to calm their anger. They made an appeal for the removal of the soldiers, who eventually withdrew, restoring an uneasy peace. The following morning, crowds again entered Valletta to place flowers and wreaths where the dead had fallen. The British and their Maltese supporters began taunting the crowds, and numerous fights broke out. At this point, British Marines, more highly trained than the earlier troops, were called to restore order. While they were doing so, Carmelo Abela was bayoneted and killed. Though the four young dead Maltese men had been only marginally involved in the entire protest, they have attained the status of martyrs to the cause of Maltese nationalism, which, it is said, was born that day. From that point on, the British were forced to treat the needs and the desires of the Maltese in a different way. 7 June is still celebrated as a national holiday. See also SCIBERRAS, SIR FILIPPO (1850–1928).

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SICILIAN VESPERS. This is the name given to the revolt of the Sicilians against the rule of the Angevins. It began on Easter Monday, 30 March 1282. The immediate cause was an incident in which a Sicilian woman (many said a bride) was insulted by a French soldier outside the Church of Santo Spiritu in Palermo at the hour of vespers. The incident resulted in widespread rioting against all of the French persons in the city and quickly spread throughout the whole island. Almost the entire French population of Sicily was murdered. The opposition to the rule of Charles I of Anjou was strong, but also working to promote unrest was Pedro III of Aragon, whose wife, Constance, was the daughter of King Manfred of Sicily. What had begun as a popular uprising because of many grievances, particularly high taxation, was quickly channeled toward the wishes of the nobility and particularly Pedro of Aragon, who sent his ships to take advantage of the situation. His negotiations resulted in his acclamation as king of Sicily by a Palermo Parliament in December 1282. It was the beginning of Aragonese rule over Sicily and later, Malta. See also UNIVERSITA. SICILY. The largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, Sicily is just 96.6 kilometers (60 miles) north of the Maltese archipelago. It is very likely that the first inhabitants of Malta came from Sicily, probably settling first in Gozo and then Malta. The histories of Sicily and Malta ran in parallel ways. When the same nations dominated the two at the same time, Malta was usually made subservient to Sicily whether in legal, governmental, or ecclesiastical matters. Although the two have the same roots, they developed quite differently in social structure and especially linguistically. Sicilian evolved from its Latin roots and Maltese from its Semitic roots. Although the awarding of Malta to the Order of St. John diminished the association between the two, given its proximity to Malta, Sicily remains the primary supplier of imports. This is also the cause for so many illegal immigrants coming to Malta, hoping to use it as a stepping stone for the journey to Europe via Sicily. Once World War II faded in memory, Malta again came under ItaloSicilian influence through the radio and television programs broadcast from Sicily, which can be easily received despite the distance. In 2015, a subsea electric interconnector cable was installed, providing a cleaner source of energy directly from Sicily to Malta. Two ferry routes operating between Malta and Sicily, offering a combined total of 22 sailings per week, also promote increased commercial and cultural exchanges between the islands. More recently, concern has been growing regarding attempts by the Mafia in Sicily to infiltrate the gaming and financial services industries in Malta. See also CORRUPTION; CRIME; ITALY; SICILIAN VESPERS.

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SLAVE UPRISING. In 1749, during the reign of the Portuguese grand master Manoel Pinto de Fonseca, an attempt was made by both the house and galley slaves of the Knights of St. John to seize control of Valletta and its adjoining cities. It was a well-conceived plan and could have gained some degree of success except for a betrayal by one of the conspiracy’s leaders. After a disagreement with other slave leaders, the disgruntled conspirator reported the entire plot to the grand master. Pinto acted quickly to put down the uprising. More than 60 of the suspected ringleaders were hanged, and security over all slaves was tightened. Even house slaves, normally granted wide freedoms, were sent to live in the slave quarters under close observation. See also SLAVERY AND SLAVE TRADE. SLAVERY AND SLAVE TRADE. During the reign of the Knights of St. John, slavery was an accepted part of life in Malta. The slave trade was also an important source of the order’s wealth and income. As their naval forces became more successful, they acquired a surplus of slaves even though their own need for them had increased. This surplus was sold to traders in Italy and Sicily, providing what we now call “current funds.” Even into the 18th century, the order had need for over 2,000 slaves both in Malta and on its naval ships. On a much smaller scale, slavery in Malta is still an issue today, as in most of the world. The latest US Trafficking in Persons report includes Malta as a source and destination country for men, women, and children subjected to sex trafficking and forced labor. The report ranked Malta in the second tier because, although it does not meet minimum standards, the Maltese government has increased its efforts, identifying more victims and providing them with shelter and services. Training for police and border personnel and diplomats has also been provided; however, the report notes that no convictions of perpetrators have been obtained since 2012. See also CRIME; SLAVE UPRISING. SMARTCITY. In early 2006, Dubai-based TECOM Investments announced that it would invest approximately US$110 million in a project to be called “SmartCity@Malta.” This would represent the single largest private investment in Malta ever. TECOM is a telecommunications and information technology company set up by the Dubai government, which has already developed a strategic base for about 700 technology companies, including Microsoft, IBM, Cisco Systems, and other global IT companies in Dubai, naming it “Dubai Internet City.” The idea is to provide a similar “one-stop” site in Malta for companies needing IT support. SmartCity seeks to take advantage of Malta’s European Union membership, its location between Europe and

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North Africa, and the Maltese “linguistic bridge” between English and Arabic. The facility was intended to become part of a network of future SmartCities around the world, enabling businesses to get global access to markets, labor, and innovation. Malta’s government projected that within eight years the SmartCity project would create about 6,000 knowledge-based jobs and an additional 2,500 support positions. Located on the Ricasoli peninsula in Kalkara (across the Grand Harbour from Valletta), the total cost of the project was projected to be in excess of €275 million and to cover 360,000 square meters of land. It includes a public park and 60,000 square meters of residential development. Site preparation began on 11 October 2007. The government made a commitment that the bureaucratic procedures facing a new company seeking to do business at the site could be completed within 10 days. There was some concern about whether enough Maltese would be sufficiently trained to fill all of the positions required by the project. The project was officially launched on 14 June 2008, and on 20 March 2009, Parliament unanimously approved a motion to transfer land at Ricasoli to SmartCity under a 99-year lease. Malta, Ltd., a US joint venture project with TECOM Investments in which the government holds a 9 percent stake, has invested a total of US$300 million in the project. The first occupants arrived in 2009, but SmartCity is not expected to be fully operational before 2020, and there have been several problems in recent years. Thus far, the number of jobs has fallen short of the 3,600 promised. A new private hospital, St. Ioannes Paulus II, intended to provide a first-class medical center and projected to cost €100 million, was announced by the prime minister in 2015. It was supposed to be finished by the end of 2017, yet construction has not yet begun, and the government is threatening the builders, who owe almost €5 million for the land, with cancellation of the agreement. Another project at SmartCity for which construction has yet to begin involves the sale of more than 400 high-end private condos even before the necessary approval from the government planning authorities has been obtained. The Maltese government currently holds a 10-percent shareholding in SmartCity and is represented on the board of directors by Keith Schembri, the prime minister’s chief of staff. See also ECONOMY. SOVEREIGN MILITARY AND HOSPITALLER ORDER OF ST. JOHN OF JERUSALEM, OF RHODES, AND OF MALTA. See KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN.

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ST. GEORGE (1880–1962). Born in Valletta and educated in the Lyceum, Gorg Preca developed his religious fervor at an early age, serving as an altar boy. After attending the seminary, he fell seriously ill from a respiratory disease and lost the use of a lung. His survival hung so much in doubt that his physician reportedly counseled against buying the vestments for his ordination, as Preca was not expected to live very long. Crediting the intercession of St. Joseph for his miraculous recovery, he was ordained on 22 December 1906. The following year, at age 27, Dun Gorg (Father George), as he became known popularly, realized a bold vision he had harbored for several years: in a small rented house, he established a society of lay instructors organized to help the less well educated congregants by giving instruction in the Bible and theology. The Society of Christian Doctrine (SDC) was viewed with suspicion by the Church leaders and with derision by some others. Two years after its founding, the SDC had expanded into several houses when it was ordered closed down by the Curia. The bishops feared that its lay instructors were themselves too poorly trained to give proper instruction. However, because of Preca’s persistent dedication and popular support, the order was soon rescinded. Nevertheless, it was not until 1932 that Archbishop Mauro Caruana officially sanctioned the organization. An avid scholar of Latin, Preca had chosen as the motto for the SDC “Magister Utinam Sequatur Evangelium Universus Mundus” (“Master, may the entire world follow the Gospel”). This was shortened to the acronym M.U.S.E.U.M., which subsequently became the popular name for the organization. The SDC has spread beyond the shores of Malta and currently has a membership of about 11,000 with centers in Australia, Peru, the Sudan, Kenya, Great Britain, and Albania. A prolific writer, Preca authored over 150 books and pamphlets in Maltese. In 1952, he was nominated as a papal secret chamberlain with the title of monsignor, but true to form, he rejected the offer, remaining humbly focused on his life’s work with the SDC until his death on 26 July 1962. This served to greatly enhance his popularity and made him venerated by the faithful. In 1964, the scientifically inexplicable healing of a Maltese who had suffered from a detached retina of the left eye was attributed to the intercession of Father George Preca and declared a miracle. As a result, Preca was declared “Venerable” on 28 June 1999, and on 27 January 2000, Pope John Paul II signed the decree officially confirming the healing. On 23 February 2007, the “Blessed George” was declared the first Maltese Catholic saint and was now named San Gorg in Maltese. An estimated 5,000 worshippers from Malta attended the ceremony of his canonization in Rome on 3 June 2007. See also RELIGION.

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ST. JOHN AMBULANCE BRIGADE. In 1831, the English Langue was reorganized in Great Britain but without the consent of the Grand Magistry of the Order of St. John in Rome. Nevertheless, there has always been complete and friendly cooperation between the two separate organizations devoted to the same ends. This English priory was granted a royal charter into the British Order of Chivalry by Queen Victoria in 1888. It was this order that created the St. John Ambulance Brigade, with duties and obligations virtually identical to those of the modern Knights of Malta. It is strongest in the nations of the British Commonwealth. See also KNIGHTS OF ST. JOHN. ST. JOHN’S CO-CATHEDRAL. Commissioned by Grand Master Jean de la Cassiere in 1572, construction was begun in 1573 on the conventual church dedicated to John the Baptist, the patron saint of the order. The architect, Gerolamo Cassar, designed a structure with twin towers and a plain facade concealing the heavy stone buttresses. The external appearance is very plain—even austere—but the interior inspires descriptions full of superlatives from all who visit it. Sir Walter Scott said it was the most striking interior he had ever seen. The walls are covered with ornate carvings in the stone, and everywhere there is a burst of color. The floor is paved with 400 memorial tombstones of deceased Knights of St. John, slabs of inlaid marble with designs of spectacular craftsmanship. There are sculptures and oil paintings in most of the eight side-aisle chapels, each of which is dedicated to one of the langues. In the 17th century, the cathedral’s interior was redecorated by Mattia Preti and other artists. The interior of the church is considered to be one of the finest examples of high baroque architecture in Europe. On certain feast days, a set of 14 magnificent Gobelin tapestries is hung. These tapestries, along with many vestments and other religious artifacts, are usually displayed in a museum located in adjacent chambers, including the oratory where the ceremony to induct Knights into the order was held. The oratory houses the most famous painting in Malta, The Beheading of John the Baptist by Caravaggio. The designation “Co-Cathedral” was applied after the 1820s when the bishop of Malta, whose seat was in the old capitol, Mdina, was also permitted to use St. John’s, which is certainly one of the nation’s most important buildings both artistically and historically. The cathedral’s exterior was slightly damaged by aerial bombardment in 1941, but no works of art were lost because the contents of the cathedral had been transferred elsewhere.

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In 2001, the St. John’s Co-Cathedral Foundation was set up to administer and maintain the cathedral and its museum. The cathedral was restored between the late 1980s and the early 1990s. A complete restoration of the exterior was begun in July 2014. Restoration of the central part of the façade was completed in September 2015. See also ST. LAWRENCE BY THE SEA. ST. LAWRENCE BY THE SEA. When the Knights of St. John first arrived in Malta in 1530, they settled in Birgu (later renamed Vittoriosa). Though it was by then both a fighting and medical order, it was still primarily a religious brotherhood. As such, one of its first acts was to select a conventual church. Chosen was one of the oldest on the island, St. Lawrence by the Sea. It had been built as a small chapel in 1090 and enlarged in 1508. It remained the principal church of the order until after the Great Siege and the construction of the fortified city of Valletta. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; ST. JOHN’S CO-CATHEDRAL; THREE CITIES, THE. ST. PAUL. See PAUL THE APOSTLE. ST. PUBLIUS. Mentioned in the Bible (Acts 28:7) as the “chief of the island,” Publius was a Roman governor of Malta who welcomed St. Paul when the latter was shipwrecked on Malta. Publius converted to Christianity and was consecrated as bishop of Malta. He was martyred by the Romans under Emperor Trajan in about 112 CE. A biblical saint, Publius was never canonized and so is not technically the first saint of Malta, although he is revered as one of its patron saints in addition to being the patron saint of the town of Floriana. His feast day is celebrated on 21 January. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; PAUL THE APOSTLE; ST. GEORGE (1880–1962). STOLPER, WOLFGANG FRIEDERICH (1912–2002). Wolfgang Stolper, a Harvard economist, headed a United Nations team that arrived in Malta in 1962 to assist in the production of a plan for the economic development of the islands. He possessed great experience, having spent two years assisting Nigeria in a similar way. The team’s report, called the “Stolper Report,” carried proposals for encouraging light industry, tourism, specialized agriculture, and conversion of the dockyards to civilian use. However, Stolper’s greatest emphasis was on Malta’s rising unemployment problem. The report urged that 10,000 Maltese each year for at least the next five years be encouraged in every possible way to immigrate to other countries in order to find

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work. The goal was to reduce the size of the workforce as the nation struggled for self-reliance. In response to the urgings of the report, an emphasis upon emigration was a major part of the early development plans immediately after independence. See also INVESTMENT; TRADE. STRICKLAND, LORD GERALD (1861–1940). Gerald Strickland was born in Valletta on 24 May 1861. His father was English, a captain in the Royal Navy, and a practicing Roman Catholic. His mother was a member of the Maltese nobility. At age 18, he inherited the property of his grandfather and became Count della Catena. Educated in law at the Royal University of Malta, he also attended the Jesuit College outside Rome and Cambridge University in England, where he excelled in debate. His professional career was unusual because he served both Great Britain and Malta. In 1888, he became chief secretary to the government of Malta, that country’s highestranking civil service officer. Beginning in 1902, he served as the governor of a number of British colonies, including the Leeward Islands, Tasmania, Western Australia, and New South Wales. In 1917, Strickland returned to Malta to become a major player on the political scene. In 1921, he founded the Anglo–Maltese Party, which merged with the Maltese Constitutional Party a few months later to become the Constitutional Party under his leadership in opposition until 1927. In 1924, Strickland was elected as a Conservative member of the British Parliament from Lancaster and served until 1927. Early in 1928, he was raised to the peerage, becoming Baron Strickland of Sizergh and thus an automatic member in the British House of Lords. He served as prime minister of Malta from 1927 to 1932. An ardent imperialist, he had a dominating and aggressive personality and was a vigorous opponent of all attempts to make Malta Italian. Although he possessed a great number of strengths, his major weakness was a tendency to fiercely attack the opposition, with the result that public opinion became polarized and tempers ran hot and heavy. At one point, there was even an attempt to assassinate him. Strickland’s pro-British stand was accompanied by an equally strong anticlerical position. Even though he was a practicing Catholic, his tenure as prime minister was one of continuing battles with the Maltese Church and even with the Vatican. It finally resulted in a pastoral letter to the clergy, signed by the archbishop of Malta and the bishop of Gozo, which said, in effect, that it was a grave sin to vote in the elections of 1930 for Lord Strickland or any of his candidates and that priests were forbidden to administer the sacraments to those who refused to obey the instructions. The British protested this action to the Vatican, but the protest was rejected. Then the

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governor of Malta, with the full approval of London, refused to allow the elections to be held. Lord Strickland remained as prime minister in an advisory capacity. In May 1932, Strickland addressed a letter of apology to the pope, and it was accepted. Early in June, it was declared that since the pope had accepted the apology, the pastoral letter was rescinded. A few weeks later, the elections were permitted, and the Nationalist Party was the winner. However, the Nationalist’s blatant pro-Italy, and even pro-fascist, stance caused the governor to suspend the Constitution in 1933. After the elections of 1939, Strickland became the majority leader in both the Council of Government and the Executive Council. He lived just long enough to see the first Italian bombs fall on his homeland. He died on 22 August 1940 and was buried in the Cathedral in Mdina according to his hereditary right. See also LANGUAGE QUESTION; STRICKLAND, MABEL EDELINE, OBE (1899–1988). STRICKLAND, MABEL EDELINE, OBE (1899–1988). The daughter of Sir Gerald Strickland and his wife, Edeline Sackville Strickland, Mabel Strickland was born on 8 January 1899 and educated in Tasmania and Australia. During World War I, she was a cypher officer on the staff of the commander in chief, Mediterranean, of the Royal Navy. She served as secretary and general assistant to her father, who was the leader of the Constitutional Party from 1921 until 1940. In 1944, she was awarded the Order of the British Empire and was elected to the Legislative Assembly as a Constitutional Party candidate in 1950 and 1951. In 1953, she was the main force in organizing the Progressive Constitutional Party (PCP) and became its leader. As a candidate for the PCP, she was elected to Parliament in 1962. Whatever her party affiliation, Mabel Strickland was a respected and authoritative voice as editor of the Times of Malta from 1935 to 1950 and the Sunday Times of Malta from 1935 to 1956. Although she expected to succeed her father as the leader of the Constitutional Party, two major obstacles stood in her way: Maltese culture simply could not adapt to a female in a position of political leadership, and on top of that, she had never learned to speak Maltese. Later in her life she complained, pointing to her sizable breasts, “If it wasn’t for these, I’d have been prime minister.” Sadly, this was probably true. “Miss Mabel” died on 29 November 1988, a Maltese patriot who never spoke the language. See also MEDIA; WOMEN. SULEIMAN THE MAGNIFICENT (1494–1566). See GREAT SIEGE OF 1565; TURKISH THREAT.

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SWABIAN RULE. William II, king of Sicily and Malta, died in 1189 without an heir. Next in line of succession to the throne was the daughter of Roger II, Constance, but she was married to Henry of Hohenstaufen, the son of the emperor of Germany. Because the Sicilian populace did not look favorably upon this shift from Norman to German rule, they, with the backing of the newly elected pope, Clement III, saw Tancred of Lecce crowned king in 1190. He claimed the title as an illegitimate son of Hauteville descent. His reign was a short one, filled with treachery and intrigue. He died in 1194, opening the way for Henry VI, who on Christmas Day of the same year was made Emperor Henry VI of Hohenstaufen, king of Sicily, ending the rule of the Normans in Malta and beginning that of the Swabians. The day after the coronation, Constance gave birth to a son. She made sure that there would never be any doubt that the child was her son and thus the grandson of Roger II and Frederick Barbarossa. No ordinary child, he later would become known as “Stupor Mundi” (the wonder of the world). When Henry VI died in 1197, he was succeeded as king by the three-year-old Frederick II. When Constance died in 1199, the affairs of Sicily and Malta remained in an unsettled state until Frederick II came of age in 1220. Although he had definite Arabic leanings in his everyday life, he did seek to evict rebellious Muslims from his domains. By 1224, he had succeeded in expelling them completely from Sicily and Malta. About the same time, the population of Celano was expelled to Malta in punishment for supporting local feudal barons against the Crown. The result was a distinct shift in the religious balance of Malta in favor of Christianity. In 1240, Frederick II sent 18 falconers to Malta, then a famous breeding sanctuary for the birds of prey. Frederick II was a patron of the arts and founder of the University of Naples. An early supporter of the separation of church and state, he was in constant conflict with the pope as he sought to diminish papal influence and ability to collect revenues. He died excommunicated in 1250. Although three other members of the Hohenstaufen family ruled for short periods, the end of Swabian rule in Malta came in 1268. See also ARAB RULE; CATHOLIC CHURCH.

T TABONE, DR. VINCENT “CENSU” (1913–2012). Born on 30 March 1913, in Victoria, Gozo, Vincent Tabone earned a degree in pharmacy from the University of Malta in 1933 and an MD in 1937. During World War II, he was regimental medical officer for the Royal Malta Artillery and later became an ophthalmic specialist trainee at Mtarfa Military Hospital. In 1946, he earned a diploma in ophthalmology at Oxford University, received a diploma in ophthalmic medicine and surgery from the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, and a diploma in medical jurisprudence from the Royal Society of Apothecaries of London. From 1956, he served as a member of the International Panel of Trachoma Experts of the World Health Organization (WHO) and in that capacity was a medical consultant in 15 different Third World countries. In 1954, he founded the Medical Officers Union, serving as president until 1962. That organization evolved into the Medical Association of Malta (MAM). In 1961, Tabone became a member of the Executive Committee of the Nationalist Party and served as its secretary general from 1962 to 1972, deputy leader from 1972 to 1977, and president of the Executive Committee from 1978 to 1985. Elected as a member of Parliament in every election from 1966 through 1987, he served as minister of labor, employment, and welfare from 1966 to 1971. In that capacity, he made a proposal at the United Nations (UN) in New York, calling that body’s attention to the needs of the growing number of aged persons. This led to the establishment of the UN Institute on Aging, with headquarters in Valletta. In 1987, when the Nationalists were returned to power, Tabone was named minister of foreign affairs and again made a proposal to the United Nations. This concerned the dangers of human impacts on climate change and led to the UN Resolution on Climate Changes. In March 1989, he resigned as minister, and on 4 April 1989, he was elected by Parliament as the fourth president of Malta. Tabone died on 14 March 2012 at his home in Sliema.

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THREE CITIES, THE. Situated on two peninsulas jutting out into Grand Harbour across from the capital city of Valletta are three adjoining towns with local councils, still known by their Maltese names—Birgu (Vittoriosa), Bormla (Cospicua), and Isla (Senglea)—collectively referred to as “The Three Cities.” When the Knights of St. John arrived in Malta in 1530 under the leadership of Grand Master Phillipe Villiers de L’Isle Adam, the capital city of the time, Mdina, was located in the center of the island on a high hill occupied by the Maltese nobility and not easily accessible. The knights wanted to be closer to their ships and chose to locate on a peninsula in Grand Harbour. They built Fort St. Angelo at the tip of the peninsula by a village called Birgu (il Borgo) and encircled the area with fortifications that encompassed Birgu as well as two other adjacent villages, named Cospicua (Bormla) and Senglea (Isla). The most extensive fortifications were around Cospicua, which was later given the name Citta Cottonera. The name Cottonera is often used to refer collectively to the “Three Cities.” The knights built their residences or auberges in Birgu, as well as a palace and a hospital. In honor of the victory over the Turks in the Great Siege of 1565, Birgu was renamed Citta Vittoriosa (victorious city), usually shortened to Vittoriosa, but the order moved its headquarters and residences to the newly constructed city of Valletta shortly afterward, and even today, Vittoriosa is still called Birgu by the locals, who also use Bormla and Isla alternately. Because of their location close to the dockyards, the Three Cities were heavily bombed during World War II and are today still predominately working-class neighborhoods, strongholds of the Malta Labour Party. Recently, a new mega-yacht harbor, hotel, and casino have begun to revitalize the area, which includes the Malta at War Museum, the Malta Maritime Museum (in the former bakery of the British forces), Fort St. Angelo, and the restored Inquisitor’s Palace among its tourist attractions. TOURISM. At the time of independence in 1964, there was virtually no infrastructure in place for the tourist industry. Because Malta had been a military base, tourists were obviously not encouraged to visit. Needed were hotels and restaurants, swimming pools, tennis courts, and all the other amenities desired by tourists. Also needed were the human services provided by sightseeing guides, waiters, clerks, maids, and so forth. People had to be trained not only in new occupations but also in new attitudes. The methods and manners used in dealing with soldiers and sailors would not be acceptable to tourists. Although the industry grew slowly, it has become a major sector of the economy, serving almost two million visitors a year and representing about 25 to 30 percent of Malta’s GNP. Its importance was underscored when, after the election of 2008, Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi took tourism as part

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of his portfolio. The government spent €4.43 million in 2007 on improving tourism, which employed over 40,000 workers, more than one-quarter of Malta’s workforce. Aircraft landings are approaching an average of 1,000 per month, and 2.9 tourists per resident arrived annually. In 2008, 397 cruise liner port calls visited Malta’s Grand Harbour, carrying 537,000 tourists. From 1995 to 2005, the number of five-star hotels grew from 5 to 15, with the number of beds in this category increasing more than fivefold, from 1,274 to over 7,000, as Malta attempts to capture a higher-spending clientele. At first the Government Tourist Board emphasized “sun, sea, and sand” in its literature. That has gradually changed to an increased emphasis on “visible history” and less mention of sand (there are only a few small, sandy beaches, and they are typically crowded). Fifteen government-financed museums exist on Malta and five on Gozo, in addition to a significant number of private or church-owned museums. A significant problem has been that tourism seems to be concentrated during the summer months. Membership in the European Union has given Malta access to structural funds that have been used to upgrade numerous tourist sites and improve or add new tourist activities, such as diving and rock climbing. By concentrating on business incentives, health, sports, and other cultural tourism, the Malta Tourist Authority hopes to attract more tourists in the off-season, helping to relieve pressure on the islands’ infrastructure and environment during the summer months. Another niche market that has grown considerably in the last two decades is that of “language tourism.” At the end of 2000, there were 29 registered English-language schools, serving over 35,000 students annually. By 2017, the number of schools had grown to over 40, serving 85,000 learners, half of them adults. The language schools employ over 2,000 teachers and staff members and account for 15 percent of the annual bed nights, most of them in home stays or in four- and five-star hotels. The Tourist Board is also exploring the promotion of health tourism, capitalizing on Malta’s relatively inexpensive yet sophisticated health-care system. A number of factors, including competition from the former communist countries of Eastern Europe, a rise in the incidence of global terrorism, and a national airline (Air Malta) with a higher cost structure and fuel shortages, caused significant declines in tourism to Malta in the first five years of this century. The government has responded by increasing expenditures on upgrading infrastructure and tourism promotion, and after several years of intense debate, it was finally convinced to offer special conditions encouraging low-cost airlines to serve Malta. Ryan Air began flights to Malta from Great Britain and the European continent in October 2006, followed by German Wings, Meridiana, and a number of other airlines. A new cruise terminal completed at the Valletta Pinto Wharf in the summer of 2005 has also helped to increase cruise liner arrivals, which numbered over 150 in 2017.

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Special events, such as powerboat and aircraft races; fireworks competitions; and the Notte Bianca (“White Night”) and Notte Magica (“Magical Night”) in Valletta, celebrating culture and music, have been organized in recent years by the Malta Tourist Authority in hopes of attracting more tourists to Malta. Tourism was also boosted when Valletta was designated as one of two “European capitals of culture” in 2018. Great Britain, Germany, and Italy have been the traditional countries of origin for tourists visiting the archipelago, but increased advertising campaigns and more cities being served by low-cost airlines have brought a growing number of tourists from Russia, Denmark, Austria, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. Malta’s adoption of the euro and simplification of border controls under the Schengen Agreement also helped boost tourism. Malta’s draw, especially among northern Europeans, remains its consistently sunny climate, an English-speaking population, an amazing concentration of history covering millennia, proximity to Europe, and, perhaps, a certain aura of exoticism. However, as Malta’s economic reliance on tourism grows, pressures on the environment have increased, raising a growing concern about the islands’ tourist-carrying capacity. TRADE. As a small island nation in the middle of the Mediterranean, Malta has been very dependent on trade for most of its history. The Phoenicians were among the earliest to establish trading and pirating outposts on the islands, which became an important stopping point for Greek, Carthaginian, and Etruscan traders. By the time the Romans chased the Carthaginians from Malta in 218 BCE, there was a considerable volume of commerce in Maltese cloth (especially for sails) and olive oil production. The Arab invaders introduced citrus fruits and developed cotton as an important crop. The earliest reference to any manufacturing on Malta is found in an 11th-century Arab chronicle that mentions the building of ships from trees, described at the time as being plentiful. More detailed information about Maltese trading activity is available from the Aragonese, for whom Malta was an important way station in their trade with the African coast. Their records indicate that by the late 13th century, Malta was dependent on Sicily for wheat supplies, in exchange for which they traded Maltese cotton. By the beginning of the 15th century, the Maltese had replaced Turkish suppliers to the cloth makers of Genoa, Barcelona, and Montpellier. That the cotton crop became an important source of revenue is also evidenced by the 2 percent tax levied on cotton exports by the Universita in 1472. King Ferdinand appointed officials to maintain checks on the quality of the goods. Much later, as sails were replaced by steam engines, the cotton trade disappeared from Malta.

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When the Knights of St. John arrived in 1530, they expanded trade in Malta to a whole new level. They moved the center of Maltese politics and commerce from the old capital of Mdina, located high on a hill in the center of the island, to Birgu in Grand Harbour, with easier and more direct access to the sea. The Knights provided Malta with access to a sophisticated supply chain of connections with various trading centers in Europe. Goods were also gotten by attacking passing ships, especially those of the Ottoman Turks, looting their cargo, and selling their crews into slavery. Piracy and the slave trade—an important source of wealth and income for the Knights—were still accepted realities of life in the Mediterranean at the time. After the British arrived in 1800, Great Britain became Malta’s major trading partner. The dockyards and harbor facilities were expanded to provide a naval recoaling station, a key outpost for the British Empire’s control of the Mediterranean, from Egypt to the Strait of Gibraltar. Shipbuilding and repair facilities were greatly expanded. The importance of Malta as a trading entrepôt grew significantly with the opening of the Suez Canal in 1869. Sicily continued to be a major source of grain and other supplies. By the time the British departed in the late 1970s, Malta’s economy had become too reliant on the jobs and income from the occupying forces. The Malta Labour Party government of Dom Mintoff attempted to soften the economic impact of British troop withdrawal, reducing dependence on outsiders and creating jobs by raising high tariffs on imports, limiting foreign currency exchange, and nationalizing much of the country’s industry. This dampened international trading activity in the 1970s and 1980s. Mintoff’s anti-Western policies led to relationships and trade agreements with communist and other controversial regimes, such as Libya, which agreed to supply Malta with petroleum at favorable rates. When the Nationalist Party regained control in 1987, Edward Fenech Adami’s administration reversed many of Mintoff’s policies, reducing import tariffs, privatizing government-owned companies, liberalizing laws to encourage foreign investment, and preparing Malta for membership in the European Union (EU). As globalization gained momentum and Great Britain joined the EU, Malta’s trade increasingly shifted that way as well. Two-way trade with the EU, especially in the clothing and electronics sectors, was already at 65 percent of Malta’s GDP shortly before it gained EU membership in 2004. Malta was accepted as a member of the World Trade Organization in 1995. Given the relative openness of its economy and its limited resources, Malta’s balance of trade remains very vulnerable to external economic shocks, such as recent increases in the cost of energy, 100 percent of which, until recently, had to be imported, 95 percent in the form of oil and 5 percent as coal. Approximately 80 percent of the nation’s food supply is imported. Reliance on trade in services, which represent about 75 percent of the total

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economy, has increased in recent decades. Tourism, at approximately 25–30 percent, is still the most significant, but financial services, transshipment, online gambling, and information technology have grown significantly as competition from Asian economies has reduced exports of Malta’s manufactured goods. In 1988, the government opened the Malta free port facility, which handles the bulk of Malta’s trade and transshipment of goods. In recent years the free port has handled as many as three million 20-foot container equivalent units (TEUs) per year. It includes facilities for storage and includes an oil bunkering and offloading facility. The operation of the free port was turned over to private enterprise through a 30-year lease agreement in 2004, later extended to 65 years. Total exported goods in 2016 amounted to approximately US$3.6 billion and imported goods to US$7.13 billion, resulting in a negative trade balance of US$3.53 billion. Malta is expected to continue running a trade deficit for some time as it adjusts its infrastructure to EU standards. In 2016, Malta exported to 164 different countries. The top five destination countries were United States (20.3 percent), Germany (10.7 percent), Egypt (8.3 percent), France (6.3 percent), and Italy (5.7 percent). Malta’s imports come from South Korea (23 percent), Italy (22 percent), Russia (6 percent), Turkey, and the United Kingdom. TradeMalta, Ltd., a public–private partnership formed between the government of Malta and the Malta Chamber of Commerce, Enterprise and Industry was established in 2015 to help Malta-based businesses gain access to international markets. The organization, 51 percent owned by government and 49 percent by the chamber, administers an incentive scheme to support Maltese businesses participating in trade missions and exhibiting at international trade fairs. TRADE UNIONS. The first attempt at a union-like organization in Malta occurred in 1885 with the founding of the Society of Workers in Senglea. Because the society aroused the suspicions of local segments of the Catholic Church, the name was changed to the Society of Catholic Workers. This did little to diminish those suspicions, however. Eventually, the society attracted the support of Emmanuel Dimech, an action that again caused suspicions to increase within the Church and then among the upper classes. In the face of this opposition, the society ceased to exist about 1912. English workers, brought to Malta to work in the dockyards during World War I, encouraged the Maltese workers to organize. As a result, trade unions, especially at the dockyards, grew rapidly. The unions were continually confronted with opposition from the Church, which feared that they were socialist organizations and therefore antireligious. Even the archbishop, in a letter issued in 1921, questioned the purposes

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and goals of unions. By 1929, the Malta Labour Party (MLP) was instrumental in gaining passage of the Trade Union Act, which gave legitimacy to the trade union movement. After that, the movement progressed, although with periodic reversals. In February 1943, the General Workers’ Union (GWU) was formed. It included workers from the dockyards, the government, and private industry. By July 1944, it had absorbed most of the smaller unions into its membership, estimated at 35,000. Its various publications were of great value in spreading the union message. In 1986, the GWU, together with the second largest union, Union Haddiema Maghqudin (UHM), mainly a “white collar” union of clerical workers, had gained a total union membership of over 60,000, just slightly over 60 percent of the wage and salary workers. Today, there are 91,576 trade union members in Malta (47 percent of the total workforce), represented by about 35 union organizations, 9 of which belong to the Confederation of Malta Trade Unions (CMTU), an umbrella group. The GWU, with 46,831 members still the largest union, representing about 56 percent of trade union membership, does not participate in the CMTU because of its strong ties to the MLP, while the UHM, which does, represents about 30 percent of the total union membership with 26,103 members. Strong, but smaller, unions include the Malta Union of Teachers (MUT), representing 7,905 members; the MUMN (midwives and nurses), with 3,181 members; and the MUBE (bank employees), with 2,970. In the summer of 2006, the GWU leader, Tony Zarb, created a controversy when he fired two leaders of the Public Sector Union’s workers. A number of members revolted against Zarb’s autocratic leadership and left the union to form their own, causing a dispute about who actually represented the workers. Similarly, in December 2008, the MUT withdrew from the CMTU because of a disagreement about procedures in negotiations with the government about electricity prices. The need to cope with global economic competition will continue to threaten cohesion and viability of trade unions, as demonstrated in the case of the dockyards. TRANSPORTATION. Because it is an island nation, there are only two ways to get to Malta: over water or by air. Almost two million tourists arrive in Malta annually, most of them by air, some by ferry from Sicily and Italy, and most recently in 2017, a reported 700,000 by cruise ships. Grand Harbour, Malta’s principal deepwater port for handling cruise passengers and car ferry service in addition to freight, is located along the southern edge of Valletta. The Marsamxett Harbour, situated on the other side of Valletta, handles some cargo and, in stormy weather, car and passenger ferries from Gozo. Car and passenger service between Malta and Gozo is normally operated on a daily basis between Cirkewwa on the northern end of Malta and Mgarr on Gozo, a 25-minute ride. A less frequently used passenger ferry

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service also operates between Sliema and Valletta. A traditional form of travel over water involved a boat called a dghajsa, a smaller version of the Italian gondola. Today, it is mainly used to transport tourists touring the harbors. A similar fate has befallen the traditional karrozin, a horse-drawn cart today only used by tourists for touring Valletta and the surroundings. It was not until shortly after World War II that commercial air service began operating from Malta at an airfield in Hal Far. The first license issued by the British Empire to a private airline was granted to Air Malta in 1948. Since then, the state-owned airline has served the islands with regular connections to major cities in Europe and Africa from the country’s lone airport at Luqa. Air Malta is struggling financially, having to compete against more efficient, lower-cost, foreign-based air carriers. Several attempts by the government to privatize it in part or whole have failed to date. The two other airfields, Hal Far and Ta’Qali, were used primarily during World War II and have been closed. Helicopter service between Malta and Gozo has ceased, but from time to time there are discussions about construction of a runway for fixed-wing aircraft on Gozo. Similarly, float plane service has operated on occasion between Grand and Mgarr Harbours. Once on the islands, the private automobile is far and away the preferred mode of transportation. As in most former colonies of Great Britain, cars drive on the left side of the road. There are 360,000 licensed vehicles (the fifth-highest number of vehicles per capita in the world) and 2,550 kilometers of road in Malta. Many streets and roads are still in poor condition; however, conditions have significantly improved with the help of European Union funding. Buses first appeared on the island in 1905, operating between Valletta and St. Julians. Until 2011, about 500 privately owned large buses operated as an association of 400 owner-operators serving Malta from a central terminal just outside the Valletta gate. Many of them were outdated, heavily polluting 50and 60-year-old antiques whose owners customized them with personalized interior decorations. They became popular tourist attractions, although the routes were confusing, buses often did not arrive on time, and their drivers were notoriously aggressive and unfriendly. On 3 July 2011, the network of service bus routes across Malta was taken over by a private company, Arriva, which introduced a fleet of modern low-floor buses. The traditional buses were only used for special heritage services. However, Arriva’s operation had many problems, including drivers who resented the new owners and frequently failed to show up for work. Frequent schedule disruptions and three fires on special articulated buses within a 48-hour span led the government to nationalize the bus system on 1 January 2014 as Malta Public Trans-

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port. On 8 January 2015, Malta Public Transport (MPT) was sold to Autobuses Urbanos de León, which kept the MPT name and has considerably improved the bus service on Malta and Gozo. Over 400 privately owned and operated red minibuses (seating 14) also serve the islands, mostly for transporting schoolchildren, workers, and tourist groups. In addition, several double-decker buses are operated by tourist companies on Malta and Gozo. A maximum fleet of 250 taxis on Malta and 50 on Gozo is currently serving the two islands, mainly in the larger urban areas. Until 2010, they were unregulated and without meters, making them the source of frequent complaints, especially from unsuspecting tourists. The only railroad on Malta, nicknamed by Maltese il-vapur tal-art (the ship on land), went into service in 1883 from Valletta to near Mdina. It was extended to Mtarfa in 1900, but it ceased operations in 1931, succumbing to competition from a tramway that was inaugurated on 23 February 1905 and to the advent of private cars on the islands. Transport Malta, the government agency responsible for overseeing transportation in Malta, recently issued the National Transport Plan 2025. This extensive, comprehensive study of over 400 pages, financed in part by EU funding, identifies priority actions for physical infrastructure, capacity, and regulatory improvements within the restraints of available financial resources. It makes numerous recommendations to improve the movement of people on the islands. These include, among others, restricting automobile traffic by implementing high-occupancy vehicle lanes, reducing pollution by creating low emission zones, encouraging bicycle use by installing two cycling corridors, improving the average speed of public transport, adding high-speed ferry service, and improving road infrastructure moderately. See also MALTA RAILWAY. TREATY OF AMIENS. This treaty between Great Britain and France was signed on 17 July 1802. It exemplified what was to become a long-term British disregard of the opinions and the rights of the Maltese. Because there was no consultation with any faction in Malta, the treaty was in complete opposition to the desires of the populace. Malta was to be returned to the Order of St. John and placed under the questionable protection of Naples. In addition, Austria, Britain, France, Prussia, Russia, and Spain were to guarantee Malta’s neutrality. The anger of the Maltese over these terms was immediate, and a Declaration of Human Rights was drawn up by all the representative deputies and lieutenants of the villages and towns. It held that the sovereign lord of the Maltese was the king of Great Britain and Ireland. However, before any action was taken on the Maltese protest, both sides violated the treaty. The British finally broke with it altogether, deciding to remain in Malta. Napole-

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on, in his anger, gave the British an ultimatum to leave the islands. In May 1803, war was declared again by the French. Subsequent events were to convince the British of the strategic value of the Maltese Islands, and any thoughts of allowing them to pass into the possession of any other power were quickly abandoned. See also TREATY OF PARIS. TREATY OF PARIS. This treaty name has been used to refer to several important treaties signed in or near Paris, France, from 1763 to 1947. The one in 1814 was between France and its foes, the main allies of Austria, Great Britain, Prussia, and Russia, after Napoleon’s first abdication. France paid no financial penalties and had most of its colonies returned. Great Britain was permitted to retain Malta, supporting the status quo. The Congress of Vienna in 1815 confirmed the actions of the treaty. See also TREATY OF AMIENS. TURKISH THREAT. From 1000 to 1300 CE, the Turks came to accept the Muslim faith and to adopt Islamic customs and manners. To this Muslim world, they brought a pride in their own military ability while retaining their own language. They embraced the concept of jihad, or “holy war.” The Sultans Orkhan (1326–1362) and Murad (1362–1389) were the first to bring together an Ottoman State and by the 1350s were moving into Europe both as settlers and as invaders. In 1453, Constantinople fell to this strengthening “oriental horde,” and the Turks began building what was to become a formidable navy. In 1520, Suleiman I (called “The Magnificent” by the Christians and “The Lawgiver” by the Muslims) succeeded his father, Selim I, as Ottoman sultan at age 26. It was during his 46-year reign that the Ottoman Empire reached the peak of its glory, almost entirely at the expense of Christian Europe. With powerful military forces on both land and sea, it carried the jihad threat throughout Europe but especially in the Mediterranean area. See also GOZO; GREAT SIEGE OF 1565.

U UNION HADDIEMA MAGHQUDIN. See TRADE UNIONS. UNIONE POLITICA MALTESE (UPM). Mgr. Ignazio Panzavecchia was the driving force in the recruitment of the party members in its early days. When the time came to contest the election of 1921, it had become the largest party in Malta. Because it was still not able to gain enough seats for a majority, its minority government had to look to the Labour Party for support. Its platform included making Roman Catholicism the official religion of Malta and the teaching of English and Italian on an equal basis. In addition, it advocated a change in the system of taxation, adjusting the burden to the financial means of the taxpayer. In spite of the latter, the party’s main supporters were from the wealthier professional, educated, and ecclesiastic classes. In the election of 1924, the UPM was again successful but without gaining a majority. It formed a coalition with the Partito Democratico Nazionalista, eventually resulting in a union of the two to form the Partito Nazionalista (PN). See also CATHOLIC CHURCH; LANGUAGE QUESTION; POLITICAL PARTIES. UNITED NATIONS (UN). On 1 December 1964, shortly after acquiring independence, Malta joined the United Nations as that body’s 114th member. The new member emphasized its unique role in the Mediterranean region as a bridge between Africa and Europe and gained the General Assembly’s respect by soon taking an active part in the work of the organization. Malta’s first permanent representative to the UN, Arvid Pardo, addressed the UN General Assembly concerning the questions surrounding the control and resource management of the world’s oceans and seas. He proposed that the seabed and ocean floor “underlying the seas beyond the limits of present national jurisdiction” should be “the common heritage of mankind.” This led directly to the adoption of the 1982 UN Convention on the Law of the Sea,

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which entered into force on 16 November 1994. Malta has also pushed for the development of safeguard provisions favoring developing countries that are net importers of commodities. As a result of Malta’s participation in discussions on problems of the elderly, the UN adopted the Vienna Plan of Action, under which Malta agreed to establish the International Institute on Aging in Valletta, which was inaugurated on 15 August 1987. In 1990, then deputy prime minister and minister of foreign affairs Guido de Marco was elected president of the 45th UN General Assembly, serving from September 1990 through September 1991. Malta continues to actively pursue UN action on environmental issues of the common spaces of the world, the role of the ocean, and climate change as well as measures to deal with the particular challenges facing small island nations. Through its membership in the United Nations, Malta seeks to contribute to a more peaceful, safe, and just world through initiatives such as the Law of the Sea, the support of the elderly, and the protection of the climate. Malta maintains a permanent mission in New York that works within the UN to promote Malta’s interests and is currently led by Ambassador Carlos Iguanez. See also TABONE, DR. VINCENT “CENSU” (1913–2012). UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. See EISENHOWER, DWIGHT D. (1890–1969); EMIGRATION; LIBYA; ROOSEVELT, FRANKLIN DELANO (1882–1945); UNITED STATES–SOVIET SUMMIT. UNITED STATES–SOVIET SUMMIT. This was a major meeting between US president George H. W. Bush and Mikhail Gorbachev, chairman of the Presidium and general secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party, on 23 December 1989. Although the original plans were for the meetings to be held aboard the Soviet cruiser Slava and the US cruiser Belknap, high winds and generally foul weather caused a change in plans. The Soviet cruise liner Maxim Gorky was moored in Marsaxlokk Harbour and became the location of the meetings. Among the other major participants were Secretary of State James Baker and the USSR’s minister of foreign affairs, Eduard Shevardnadze. While no formal agreements were signed, the summit is viewed as a major turning point in East–West relations. The two leaders agreed to continue efforts toward weapons reduction and to jointly seek ways to end regional conflicts. Of equal importance, however, was American support of Soviet efforts at reforming the USSR’s political and economic systems. Although Bush arrived in Malta early on the morning of 1 December, Gorbachev did not arrive until late in the evening. He had detoured by way of Rome, where

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he had a private audience with Pope Paul II at the Vatican. This reconciliation ended the 70-year breach between the Soviet Union and the Roman Catholic Church. UNIVERSITA. The revolt against the Angevin rule in 1282 resulted in political and economic instability, from which a new local form of political organization known as Universita emerged. A form of town council whose members were drawn from local nobility, it was headed by a hakem or capitano della verga, assisted by four imhallfin or giurati and other officials. The Universita was the local administration responsible for maintaining the fortifications, the markets, and sanitation—in short, the general functioning of the town. The Universita funded itself by raising taxes. Occasionally, it sent envoys to the king in Sicily to present petitions or grievances known as capituli, requesting action or funds for a particular issue. In the last quarter of the 14th century, Universitas were established in Mdina and on Gozo that essentially ruled these towns without much outside political interference, even after the arrival of the Knights of St. John in 1530, although by 1550 a Knight was appointed by the grand master to head the Universita in Gozo. In the late 17th century, an advisory council, which became known as the Consiglio Popolare, was constituted to give broader voice to the upper class. When the British arrived, a form of consiglio popolare was briefly reestablished, but it was banned as of 1 January 1819 by a proclamation of the governor. See also LOCAL COUNCILS. UNIVERSITY OF MALTA. The origins of the present university can be traced to 1592, when Bishop Gargallo and Grand Master Hughes de Loubens de Verdalle invited the Jesuits to Malta to organize a college called the Collegium Melitense. They did so in Valletta, receiving authority from Pope Clement VIII to confer degrees in philosophy and theology. A Medical Faculty was started in 1647 when Grand Master Nicholas Cottoner founded the School of Anatomy in the Sacred Infirmary of the order. In 1769, Pope Clement XIV gave Grand Master Pinto de Fonseca the authority to raise the college to full university status. On 5 June 1901, the university gained top recognition throughout the British Empire for its medical program. In 1937, royal patronage was granted, and it became the Royal University of Malta until 1976, when an amendment to the Education Act eliminated the patronage, and it became the University of Malta again. The 16-year reign of the Malta Labour Party from 1971 to 1987 placed great stress on the institution. Most of the Faculty of Medicine left in a dispute with the government. Then, in the 1978 amendments of the Education Act, the Faculties of Engineering and Architecture, Medicine and Sur-

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gery, and Dental Surgery were transferred to the College of Arts, Science and Technology (called the Polytechnic), which had been at the approximate level of an American vocational-technical junior college. It was renamed the “New University.” The Faculty of Theology was transferred to the Archbishop’s Seminary at Tal Virtu in Rabat. The remaining Faculties of Arts, Science, and Laws were given the name of the “Old University.” Another amendment in 1980 caused the suppression of the Faculties of Arts and Science, while Law was transferred to the “New University,” which then became the “University of Malta.” With the return to power of the Nationalist Party in 1987, the Faculties of Arts and Science were reestablished, and those who had been transferred away were returned to the university campus at Tal Qroqq, Msida. The distinction between “new” and “old” ceased to exist, as did the College of Arts, Science and Technology. Its building eventually became the home of the lyceum. A relaxation of admission quotas for students in most faculties has resulted in a great increase in the size of the student body and required a large expansion of the physical facilities. Today, the University of Malta encompass four campuses: the main one at Tal Qroqq, Msida, the original site in Valletta, the Gozo campus (established in 1992), and the Institute for Sustainable Energy in Marsaxlokk. It is recognized as the oldest university in the British Commonwealth outside the United Kingdom. Since Malta joined the European Union, the EU’s Erasmus program has established exchanges with several universities in Europe. Tuition for Maltese and other EU citizens is free. In 2016, the student body numbered around 12,000, including 600 international students. The university consists of 14 faculties: Arts; Built Environment; Dental Surgery; Economics, Management, and Accountancy; Education; Engineering; Health Sciences; Information and Communication Technology; Laws; Media and Knowledge Sciences; Medicine and Surgery; Science; Social Well-being; and Theology. It also houses 18 institutes, including various specialized subjects such as small island nations, the Mediterranean region, diplomatic studies, European studies, and Maltese studies, to name just a few. In March 2016, the government announced that it had signed an agreement with a Jordanian company to open a second university in Malta. The American University of Malta (AUM) was projected to enroll 4,000 mostly international students who sought an American-style college education. Scheduled to open in the fall of 2016, the AUM has so far failed to attract more than 30 students, some enrolling only in order to gain entrance to Malta and the EU and disappearing shortly after arriving in Malta. Most of the newly hired faculty were abruptly let go after the first semester, causing great embarrassment to the Muscat government, which had promoted the controversial project.

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See also BORG COSTANZI, EDWIN J. (1925–2013); MALTA COLLEGE OF ARTS, SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY (MCAST); SERRACINO INGLOTT, REVEREND PETER (1936–2012). UPRISING OF THE PRIESTS. The grand masters of the Order of St. John were all autocrats who ruled the Maltese citizenry absolutely. As the most educated group, the Maltese clergy were often the most resentful. In their position of respect, they passed this resentment on to their parishioners. The situation became especially antagonistic under Grand Master Francis Ximenes de Texada, a Knight of the Langue of Aragon. In his zeal to improve the precarious state of the order’s finances at the time, he imposed harsh and abrupt economic reforms. These had severe negative results for the people. There was high unemployment coupled with a shortage of food. To improve the supply of fresh meat, Ximenes decided to encourage the breeding of more rabbits. As part of the plan, he ordered that hunting of any kind be outlawed. This order was received with great anger. Hunting was a major form of recreation for most males, including the clergy. To make matters even worse, he forbade the clergy from participating in secular events, particularly field sports. Soon thereafter, some priests were caught hunting and were publicly punished, causing an even further deterioration of relations between the grand master and the bishop. In 1775, a group of approximately 24 clerics was involved in a general uprising against the order. In a surprise attack, they took Fort St. Elmo and other parts of the fortifications of Valletta. The expected rebellions elsewhere in the islands failed to materialize, and the priests were taken as prisoners by the Knights. Ximenes ordered the priests to be beheaded and their heads displayed on pikes at the entrance to Valletta. The others were imprisoned. Relations between the Maltese and the order, never very cordial after the Great Siege, fell to a new low. This ended a few months later with the death of Ximenes. His successor as grand master, Emmanuel de Rohan, provided a stark contrast. His first action was to pardon all involved in the uprising. He went on to win great personal popularity by a series of broad reforms, which were of lasting benefit to the populace. See also CATHOLIC CHURCH.

V VALETTE, JEAN PARISOT DE LA (1494?–1568). Jean Valette joined the Order of St. John of Jerusalem at the age of 20, and there is no record of his ever again visiting the family estates in Toulouse, France. A handsome man, he was fluent in Italian, Spanish, Greek, Arabic, and Turkish. By the time the order was forced to leave Rhodes on 1 January 1523, he was 28 years old and had already been a galley slave for over a year after his capture by a Turkish corsair. He gained his freedom through an exchange of Muslim and Christian prisoners. He had also served as the captain general (admiral) of the order’s fleet, an appointment usually given to an Italian. After arriving in Malta, he was one of the very few who believed that it was exactly the right place for the order to be located. In 1557, at the age of 63, he became the grand master of the order. A brilliant leader, Valette planned thoroughly, made sure his planning was put in place by those he was leading, and should the need arise, was quick to adjust. He was aware that the Turks were planning an invasion because of the information he had received by way of the very good espionage system the order had developed in Constantinople. Under the circumstances, he was as prepared as any leader could have been for the Great Siege of 1565, and certainly the end result is evidence of that. In the midst of the continuing battle, at one point, though wounded, he led a countercharge—and this at about age 70! After the siege, he was certain the Turks would return, and he immediately set out to improve the fortifications and to gain replacements for the Knights killed or maimed during the battles. As Valette was doing this planning, a number of dissenting Knights planned to leave Malta and had even gone so far as to pack the order’s religious relics and other valuables for shipment. It was always said that he did not drive, he led, and in this instance, he was able to overcome the objections with logic (combined most probably with a bit of senior officer authority), by pointing out that Malta was a natural fortress, perfectly suited for the order’s home. Valette was as strong for the Knights’ religious practices as for their military prowess. When, after the siege, he was offered a cardinal’s hat, he declined, explaining that he felt that the military side of the order was not 267

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suitable for a cardinal and that he did not wish to leave the order. In July 1568, he suffered a stroke, which took his life. He was buried in the new city, which bears his name. How and when Valletta came to be spelled with a double l is not clear. A Latin inscription composed by Sir Oliver Starkey, Valette’s personal secretary and a Knight of the Langue of England, translated, reads: “Here lies la Vallette, worthy of eternal honor. Once the scourge of Africa and Asia from whence he expelled the barbarians by his Holy Arms, he is the first to be buried in this, his beloved city which he founded.” His tomb is located below the altar of St John’s Co-Cathedral. VALLETTA, CITY OF. After their success against the Turks in the Great Siege of 1565, the Knights of St. John fully realized that there would be another attempt to oust them from Malta. The experience of the siege showed that the high Sciberras peninsula would have to be fortified because of its command over both Grand Harbour and Marsamxett Harbour and the adjoining areas. It was decided to build a fortified city covering virtually the entire peninsula in order to provide protection both against marauding pirates and corsairs and against the anticipated second invasion by the Turks. The Vatican architect Francesco Laparelli was sent to be in charge of the task. He drew the plans for a rigid grid, with streets running the entire length parallel to the shoreline and with others crossing at right angles transversing the width. The original plan was to level the hills and valleys, but the urgency of the military need, plus the great cost involved, caused that plan to be canceled, and the streets were allowed to follow the natural contours. Laparelli’s plans located the Palace of the Grand Master in the center of the city in a large square. The other major buildings, such as the conventual church (later named St. John’s Co-Cathedral) and the various auberges, were similarly located on the drawings. On the morning of 28 March 1566, a High Mass was celebrated, and the first foundation stone was laid for the new fortified city named in honor of Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette. After two years, Laparelli tired of the task and asked to be relieved. He was succeeded by his assistant, Gerolamo Cassar, who, though following the original plans, created the architectural beauty of the city. Though severely damaged in the bombings during World War II, it was substantially rebuilt along its original lines. Its bastion walls seem to rise from the sea, topped with rectangular buildings and domed churches. Valletta, the capital city of the Maltese islands, remains one of the most important planned cities of the Renaissance, one of the first and few European cities laid out with parallel streets and right angles. The requirement to place a religious statue in the corner of every building situated at a street corner is still evident today in many places.

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More recently, however, Valletta had become a city in decline. Full of tourists, shopkeepers, and government workers during the day, there was, with a few exceptions such as the Manoel Theatre and the St. James Cultural Center, little to attract visitors at night, when the city seemed desolate. Over 40 percent of its buildings were unoccupied because of outdated rent control laws that prevented property from being rented out, a situation that is gradually being addressed by the politicians. With assistance from European Union funds, the government has taken several measures to revive Valletta. A recent park-and-ride system, coupled with stringent restrictions on driving in the city, has greatly reduced congestion and pollution, which had been eating away at the soft limestone of Valletta’s architectural heritage. The bus terminus, previously located directly in front of the entrance to Valletta, has been moved to the side. Unsightly air conditioners are being removed under government pressure, and repairs to many structures are ongoing. A “White Night” street party continues to be very successful at drawing crowds, and buses have been convinced to schedule service later at night. The Valletta Gate, the main entrance into the city, has been completely redesigned along with Freedom Square, in which the new Parliament building and open theater have been constructed. Much of the work has been funded by the EU, which designated the city a “European Capital of Culture” for 2018. In preparation for the big year, a major tourist draw, Valletta intensified its efforts to clean up the city and as has become more “gentrified,” property values and rents have begun to rise, displacing poorer residents. See also ARCHITECTURE; FORTIFICATIONS; ROYAL OPERA HOUSE. VANDALS. Although there is no supporting evidence, some historians believe that Malta was occupied by the Vandals in 454 and the Goths in 464. There is evidence that Roman general Belisarius was in Malta in 533 CE after the reconquest of Africa and on his way to Sicily. Some think he was there merely to rest between two hard battles. On the same minimal evidence, others believe he defeated the Goths and returned the islands to the Byzantine Empire. VASSALLI, MIKIEL ANTON (1764–1829). Vassalli was born 5 March in Zebbug, Malta, to a peasant family. His father died when he was only two. A bright student, he studied in Rome in preparation for the priesthood but soon came under the influence of the Enlightenment movement and the French Revolution.

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He was an avid student of linguistics, winning a prize for his knowledge of Arabic when he was 21 years old. He proposed reforms in Maltese education, especially regarding the teaching of reading and writing in the Maltese language. Vassalli felt that the use of foreign languages was the cause of Malta being less developed than other European countries such as Italy and France. He argued for free national education that would prepare young Maltese to become productive members of society, for which a unifying national language was essential. In 1790, Vassalli published a new Maltese alphabet, adding seven letters to the one originally published by de Soldanis. Vassalli also wrote a grammar of the Maltese language, published in 1791, followed by a dictionary in 1796. He published a second Maltese grammar in Italian (1827), a book of Maltese proverbs (1828), and a translation of the Gospels into Maltese. In tune with the intellectual currents sweeping across Europe, Vassalli sought to educate Maltese and promote a more egalitarian society. He offered suggestions to the grand master that included ceasing all attacks on Muslims, allowing Maltese to become Knights, and opening Malta’s harbors to free trade. His calling for social change put him in conflict with the ruling classes, and he was sentenced to life in prison, suspected of colluding with French factions attempting to overthrow the order. Escaping to Italy and France, he spent 20 years in exile, during which he married Catherine Formosa de Freaumaux. In 1820, Vassalli was permitted to return to Malta and became the first professor to occupy the Chair of Maltese and Oriental Languages at the Royal University of Malta, a position created for him. Considered by many to be the “father of the Maltese language,” he died on 12 January 1829. Refused burial by the Catholic Church, Vassalli is buried in the Protestant cemetery in Floriana. A statue of him stands in his hometown of Zebbug. Two novels and several poems and songs have been written about him. See also LANGUAGE QUESTION; MALTI. VATICAN CHURCH–STATE PROCLAMATION. In 1828, the Vatican agreed to three major requests put to it by the British. These related to the relationships between the Roman Catholic Church in Malta and the colonial rulers. The first restricted the jurisdiction of Ecclesiastical Courts to spiritual matters only. The second abolished the right of sanctuary in criminal cases. The third stipulated that all clergy, except bishops, could be made subject to court proceedings. The proclamation had the effect of reducing the ecclesiastical immunities, something the Knights of St. John had tried to achieve but without success. See also RELIGION.

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VELLA, ASTRID (1959–). Born in Sliema on 10 June 1959, Astrid Vella earned a BA in English and French at the University of Malta and pursued further French studies at the University of Tours (France). Vella began her career as an investment promotion officer to France with the Malta Development Corporation, a government agency for the promotion of industry in Malta. She later managed an advertising agency. After the birth of her children, she worked as a freelance journalist and marketing consultant. A course in baroque architecture at the International Institute of Baroque Studies in Malta was the prelude to her becoming an activist, seeking to protect Maltese heritage and environment. In 2006, shocked and angered at the impending destruction of the oldest house in Sliema, which developers were being permitted to carry out despite laws and regulations to protect such heritage structures, she cofounded Flimkien ghal Ambjent Ahjar (“together for a better environment”). A very petite individual, Vella has successfully combined passion, energy, and determination with experience in marketing and journalism, enabling this “small big woman” from Sliema to gain sufficient public support to successfully block several proposed development projects that threatened historic buildings and/or infringed on environmentally sensitive land. She has organized rallies at which concerned citizens are able to voice their disapproval of the government’s policy on the environment. Vella has also advised residents’ groups all over Malta and Gozo facing serious health problems due to overdevelopment, traffic congestion, and toxic emissions as well as loss of residents’ rights, such as access to environmental information, public beaches, and gardens. Other priority issues she pursues include alternative energy, climate change provisions, and measures to protect Malta’s scant water resources. In December 2008, her work was recognized by the European Union (EU) with the EU Voluntary Work Award, presented in Strasbourg, France. In April 2017, Vella announced that she was relinquishing her position as coordinator of the organization and moving overseas.

W WOMEN. Although statues and figurines found at archaeological sites of the temple period suggest that the female was worshipped as a fertility goddess, it is not clear whether a matriarchal form of governance ever existed on the islands. The figure of Mary is highly revered by the overwhelmingly Roman Catholic country, but it is primarily in her role as mother of Jesus that she is so honored. As the Dutch sociologist Jeremy Boissevain and others have pointed out, the inferior status of women, a situation common in many Mediterranean countries, has been reinforced by the two major institutions of Maltese life: the Catholic Church and the government. Women were considered unclean and blamed for the fall of man. Their honor was to be protected lest the family reputation be sullied. In the villages, traditionally distinct differences in gender roles are still reflected in terms of space: the public domain belonging to the male, the private domain being ruled by the woman. Men are comfortable hanging out in the village square, while women tend to remain in their homes, over which they exercise control. However, globalization is changing Malta’s social norms and values greatly. The traditional faldetta, a large, black, hooded cape worn by women to shield them from public scrutiny, has disappeared. Women teachers are no longer required to resign their positions in public schools upon getting married or becoming pregnant, and female tourists wearing bikinis are no longer arrested as they still were in the early 1960s. Since 1993, the husband is no longer the legal head of the household in Malta. Especially since World War II, when women were badly needed to work in factories to replace the men who were off at war, there has been a significant shift in women’s roles and a concurrent demand for gender equality. Maltese women gained the right to vote in 1947. They voted in their first election on 25–27 October of that year, in which Dr. Paul Boffa was elected prime minister. The labor movement, with its socialist ideology under the strident leadership of Dom Mintoff, promoted the equality of all workers, including women. On 16 February 1983, the longtime Malta Labour Party member Agatha Barbara was elected as third president of Malta, the first 273

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woman to hold the office. However, this remained a relative anomaly. In April 2014, Marie Louise Coleiro Preca became the second woman to serve as president. To date, no woman has served as prime minister. Malta has ratified a number of international conventions that are designed to guarantee equal rights for women, including the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (in 1991) and International Labour Organization conventions on equal pay and employment discrimination. Antidiscrimination legislation was written into the Maltese Constitution (1964) and the civil and criminal codes as well as numerous other acts of Parliament. The Constitution was amended in 1991 to provide equal rights to women. In 2003, in preparation for joining the European Union (EU), Parliament enacted the Equality for Men and Women Act (EMWA), promoting gender equality and prohibiting sexual discrimination and harassment. It also established the National Commission for the Promotion of Equality for Men and Women, which came into existence in 2004. As in many other areas, the laws and intentions are far better than their enforcement. The number of women appointed to top government posts has risen only slightly; two of eight ministries in the cabinet and less than one-third of the directorships in the prime minister’s office are staffed by women. On 11 October 2006, Madam Justice Abigail Lofaro became the first woman judge ever appointed in Malta. In elected positions, the results are even less encouraging: only 81 women (compared to 1,000 men) have ever been candidates in one or more national campaigns since women gained the right to vote in 1947. Recent elections have shown some improvement, with 4 of 16 female candidates elected in 1996, 6 of 24 in 1998, 6 of 23 in 2003, and 6 of 19 in 2008. The 2013–2017 legislature included only 9 women among its 69 parliamentarians, leaving Malta a miserable 143rd in an Inter-Parliamentary Union ranking of countries’ shares of women MPs. Compared to other Western European nations, these results are fairly poor. Only two women have served as president, and Malta and Cyprus are the only two EU member countries with no women representing them in the EU Parliament. A 1995 study analyzing results for women candidates in Maltese general elections had found no bias on the part of the electorate against women candidates, who were only slightly less likely to be elected (23 percent) than their male counterparts (25 percent). The study concluded that the low number of women in Parliament was due to some other factor; it blamed a party leadership reluctant to nominate women and reluctance on the part of women to run. The study also mentioned that incumbents had a significant advantage and were usually reelected, making it harder for women to gain a foothold in politics. It concluded that women were more socially than politically motivated to run and thus more likely to concentrate on parochial and familial issues than the larger national ones.

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Prime Minister Lawrence Gonzi made the hiring of women a priority, and the situation has improved further under his successor, Prime Minister Joseph Muscat. In 2017, Muscat said that the government would like to introduce quotas to increase the number of women in national decision-making posts. However, only 30 percent of the 264 decision makers in the civil service are women, according to Equality Minister Helena Dalli, responding to a parliamentary inquiry in February 2018. Although in real wages, Malta boasts the smallest gender gap among all EU member countries, on average, women in Malta are paid 11 percent less than their male counterparts performing the same work. The female employment rate in Malta has improved in recent years but still remains at 53 percent (versus 76 percent for males), the lowest in the EU. The obstacles facing women at work remain the familiar ones: lack of access to adequate child care; the “glass ceiling,” which means that only 15 percent of Maltese managers are women; and the aforementioned gap in pay. In addition to a general lack of support from male partners, there is still tremendous social pressure by church and society for women to stay at home, taking care of the family. Since 1995, women have outnumbered men at the university, yet only 30 percent of female graduates enter the workforce. Those who do not cite “personal and family” reasons. A recent report by a visiting team of International Monetary Fund advisers commented on the importance of raising female participation in the labor force, which it cited as “a major driver of GDP growth.” The National Council of Women of Malta was established in 1964 as a nonpartisan, nongovernmental umbrella organization for individual women and women’s groups. It seeks to promote human rights and equality of opportunity for women. However, it was not until 40 years later, in 2004, that Parliament passed the EMWA. As part of the social changes taking place recently in Malta, more attention is being paid to sexual violence and domestic abuse, subjects that were formerly not discussed. Domestic violence has become the second most frequent crime in Malta after theft. A staggering 1,257 cases of domestic violence were reported to the police in 2017, a 183 percent increase over the 405 incidents reported in 2008. Yet these do not include the unreported cases, the “dark figures of crime.” A 2011 national study by the Commission on Domestic Violence reported that over a quarter of women in Malta have experienced one or more incidents of physical and/or sexual violence at the hands of a current or former partner. More than half of those women never sought assistance. The government has been slow to react to this issue. There has been much discussion, and a Commission on Domestic Violence was set up under Article 3 of the Domestic Violence Act (Chapter 481) on 1 March 2006. Malta ratified the Council of Europe convention on preventing and fighting vio-

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lence against women, the so-called Istanbul Convention, in 2014, but it has taken over three years to draft a plan to implement the agreed to laws, which should be presented to the cabinet in 2018. A “Gender-Based Violence and Domestic Violence Strategy” was published on 25 November 2017, promising to offer a holistic plan to help victims. However, enforcement is a common problem in Malta; only five convictions for domestic violence were handed down in 2017. The legalization of divorce in 2011 may help to remove some of the stigma attached to leaving an abusive marriage. See also BARBARA, AGATHA (1923–2002); CARUANA GALIZIA, DAPHNE (1964–2017); COLEIRO PRECA, MARIE-LOUISE (1958–); FARRUGIA, DR. MARLENE (1966–); FRAZIER, VANESSA (1969–); MICELI-FARRUGIA, DAME LILIAN (1924–); STRICKLAND, MABEL EDELINE, OBE (1899–1988); VELLA, ASTRID (1959–). WORLD HERITAGE SITES. As a result of growing international concern over threats to cultural and natural wonders of the world, such as ancient temples in Egypt threatened by the construction of the Aswan Dam and the city of Venice slowly sinking into the sea, the Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage was adopted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) on 16 November 1972. This convention established a World Heritage Committee that uses a set of criteria by which certain cultural or natural sites of interest are selected to become official World Heritage Sites. Sites on the list, which numbered over 830 as of 2007, are eligible to receive financial assistance for preservation, management, and publicity. In 1980, three sites in Malta were designated as World Heritage sites: the Hypogeum, the City of Valletta, and the Ggantija Temples. In 1992, the temples of Hagar Qim, Mnajdra, Tarxien, Ta Hagrat, and Skorba were added to create the megalithic temples of Malta. When Malta made substantial alterations to the entrance to Valletta without first consulting UNESCO, there was an uproar that threatened to remove Valletta from the list of sites. Fortunately, the controversy died down, and Valletta retains its designation. WORLD WAR I. The “war to end all wars” began when Austria declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914 in reaction to the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and his wife. A week later, on 5 August 1914, Malta was mobilized after Germany, France, and Great Britain had entered the conflict. With its deepwater port located midway between the Suez Canal and Gibraltar, Malta had become a very significant base for the British navy as a coaling station and shipyard with dry docks for maintenance and repair

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work. The war effort would rely on Malta in additional ways: as a center for treating sick and wounded soldiers, an internment camp for prisoners of war, and a source of recruits, including soldiers and skilled support laborers. Most important of these was the hospital function. Almost 60,000 sick and wounded soldiers were treated in Malta, earning it the nickname “nurse of the Mediterranean.” At the beginning of the war, there were four small hospital facilities with a total of 278 beds. By the end of hostilities, the number of hospitals and beds had expanded to 28 and 20,000, respectively. Of particular significance was the 1915 Gallipoli Campaign, which resulted in an unusually high number of dead and wounded. The British had further developed the islands’ already impressive fortifications, and Malta was so heavily defended that it was never attacked during World War I, but the conflict had other impacts on the citizenry. When it ended, of the 24,000 Maltese who served Britain in the war, close to 600 had lost their lives. From an economic standpoint, the war affected Malta by creating inflation and shortages as war-related activities on Malta ramped up, followed by unemployment and poverty as the war ebbed. See also BRITISH RULE; DOCKYARDS; ECONOMY; HEALTH AND HEALTH CARE. WORLD WAR II. World War II began at 4:45 a.m. on 1 September 1939, when the old German battleship Schleswig-Holstein fired its 11-inch guns into a Polish ammunition depot near Danzig. That was quickly followed by the land and air blitzkrieg into Poland. Although there had been no declaration of war by the Germans, the British and French did declare war, on 3 September. As a British colony, Malta was officially at war with Germany from that date. However, Malta’s “real” war, the “second great siege” (after the one of 1565), started over nine months later when Italy made a formal declaration of war and quickly followed it with a bombing raid, the first of the many that were to occur over the next three years. Malta was to earn the dubious distinction of having received the greatest tonnage of bombs of any of the World War II targets of either side. Because Malta had been left without any effective defensive capability, the Italians could have invaded the islands with little difficulty. Only three ancient airplanes could be used against the incoming bombers. However, Malta was saved by the overly cautious and inept conduct of its enemy in those early days of the conflict and later by the nature of its terrain and sturdy building construction. The numerous caves and tunnels, particularly on the island of Malta, the major target, provided safe shelters from air bombardment. As all buildings were of stone, there was nothing to burn; a bomb hit on a single building destroyed only that building. Besides, the relentless bombing attacks served only to harden the will of the people.

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A state-of-the-art tanker, the SS Ohio, owned by the Texas Oil Company and on loan to the British, was part of a convoy bringing oil to Malta, which was beginning to face starvation and certain defeat from lack of supplies. The Ohio was attacked numerous times over two days. Bombed from the air and hit by a torpedo, the ship was in imminent danger of sinking, so the order to abandon ship was given. Four other escort ships managed to maneuver alongside, barely keeping the ailing vessel afloat just long enough to bring it and its precious cargo into Grand Harbour as thousands of cheering Maltese welcomed them. Once the cargo was unloaded, the Ohio sank to the bottom of the harbor. Its oil and the food on the four other supply ships that made it to Malta (nine others were sunk) enabled Malta to avoid starvation. The dramatic incident was viewed as a miracle by the devout Maltese. Such good fortune and the earlier failure of the enemy to act more forcefully when Malta was weakest gave the British time to bring in reinforcements, particularly fighters and bombers, and turn the tide of war. This not only prevented an invasion but also helped transform the islands into an offensive machine, a “stationary aircraft carrier,” which became a major factor in the Allied victory in North Africa in mid-May 1943. With the end of the North African campaign, Malta became more of a provider than a receiver of bombs and other munitions. Ships, stores, ammunition, vehicles, and all the other necessary supplies for the impending Allied invasion of Europe were everywhere. There was also a massive buildup of the air arm. Supreme Allied Commander General Dwight D. Eisenhower chose Malta as the headquarters for the initial invasion activities “because of her splendid naval communications system.” In addition to Eisenhower, Bernard Montgomery, Lord Louis Mountbatten, and others of the top command were there. D-Day was 10 July 1943, and 3,000 ships and large landing craft, with 115,000 British Commonwealth and 66,000 American troops, were ready. Harsh weather from a freak storm made the operation much more difficult, but it proceeded successfully. Among the first to land was the 231st Infantry Brigade of the King’s Own Malta Regiment, which used a white Maltese cross on a red shield as its brigade insignia. On 13 July, the supreme Allied commander first set foot on Axis-dominated Europe. Italy surrendered on 8 September 1943, the feast day of Our Lady of Victories. Under the terms of the agreement, the Italian fleet was to surrender at Malta. The fleet sailed from various ports under the guard of parts of the British Mediterranean fleet. Germany’s anger over the surrender of its ally became evident when the flagship of the fleet, the Roma, was sunk by a radio-controlled German bomb, killing the commanding admiral and a great number of officers and men. By the end of the month, 76 ships of the Italian navy had surrendered in Malta, including 5 battleships, 6 cruisers, 6 destroyers, and 23 submarines. Admiral Sir Andrew Cunningham sent a message to

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the British admiralty that read, “Be pleased to inform their Lordships that the Italian Battle Fleet now lies at anchor under the guns of the Fortress of Malta.” For Malta, World War II had effectively ended. See also BRITISH RULE; DOBBIE, LT. GENERAL SIR WILLIAM GEORGE, KCB, CMG, DSO (1879–1964); E-BOAT ATTACK; GEORGE CROSS (GC); GLOSTER GLADIATOR; GORT, LORD, VC, GCB, DSO, MVO, MC, ADC (1886–1946); GREAT SIEGE OF 1565; HMS ILLUSTRIOUS; OPERATION HERKULES; OPERATION PEDESTAL; POSTWAR RECONSTRUCTION.

X XERRI, DUN MIKIEL. During the blockade of the French garrison holding Valletta in 1798–1799, there were many attempts by the Maltese to overcome the soldiers. A plan was made for a joint effort between those trapped inside the walls and those outside. On 12 January 1799, there were to be simultaneous attacks on a number of major buildings inside the city and on various entrances through the walls. It was hoped that the general confusion of such widespread attacks would bring success. Instead, the plan was discovered in advance, and 45 persons were shot to death in the Palace Square (today named Freedom Square). In the group was one of the leaders of the plan, Dun Mikiel Xerri, a priest. His execution only served to harden the Maltese opposition to the French. See also FRENCH INVASION; FRENCH OCCUPATION. XIMENES DE TEXADA, GRAND MASTER FRANCIS. See UPRISING OF THE PRIESTS. XUEREB, PAUL (1923–1994). Born on 21 July 1923, Xuereb was educated at St. Aloysius College in Birkirkara and Flores College in Valletta. During World War II, he interrupted his studies to serve as an antiaircraft gunner with the Malta artillery, earning several medals for bravery. From 1944 to 1946, he worked as a clerk at the dockyards. He immigrated to London in 1946 and worked as an accountant while continuing his studies. Xuereb returned to Malta in 1950, first managing a trading firm before becoming a teacher at the Lyceum. In 1959, he gave up teaching to become the literary editor and assistant editor of the Malta Labour Party (MLP) news publication the Voice of Malta. He successfully ran in the elections of 1962 as a member of the MLP and was reelected in 1966, 1971, 1976, and 1981. In August 1971, he was appointed parliamentary secretary in the prime minister’s office and later served as minister of trade, industry, agriculture, and tourism. Xuereb resigned his parliamentary seat on 27 April 1983 to make way for the leader designate of the MLP, Dr. Karmenu Mifsud Bonnici. Never actually sworn 281

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in, Xuereb was appointed as acting president of Malta from 16 February 1987 to 4 April 1989. Not only did Xuereb serve on numerous company boards, including as chairman of the Mid Med Bank and the Malta Development Corporation, but he also was an accomplished author of historical guidebooks and novels. He died on 6 September 1994.

Y YACHT MARINAS. Located in the center of the Mediterranean Sea, it is no surprise that Malta has become a yachting center. However, it was not always so. When it was a military base of Great Britain, there was no encouragement given to visits by private yachts. It was only after independence that there were significant moves to attract such visits. A marina was developed first in the Ta’ Xbiex area, offering attractive rates for slip rental and utilities. As part of economic restructuring, the dockyards organization in 2003 developed an entirely new business niche, the overhaul and repair of luxury yachts. This has helped to attract more sailors to the archipelago’s deep, natural harbors. Several new marinas have been opened in Grand, Marsamxett, and Mgarr Harbours, but they still cannot satisfy a burgeoning demand for berthing space. The newest of these, Grand Harbour Marina in Vittoriosa, has added 230 berths, raising the total capacity of Malta’s yacht marinas to nearly 1,500 for a current demand estimated at 3,500. Located on the very site where the Knights of St. John first anchored their ships, the newest facility was dedicated on 27 November 2005 by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, who was in Malta for the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting. Grand Harbour Marina is managed and 80 percent owned by a private company, an initial step in the government’s plan, announced in 2006, to make yacht marinas more competitive through privatization. In April 2008, the government announced a call for proposals to add 21 new marinas, offering a total of 4,800 berths, and in June 2009, called for bids on 25-year concessions for private operators to manage the Ta’ Xbiex, Msida, and Mgarr marinas. Currently, there are only eight marinas in Malta and one in Gozo. Most have successfully been privatized, but in 2018, Transport Malta finally received bids on the leasing of the Gzira Garden Marina. The Ports & Yachting Directorate has a regulatory role in monitoring the maritime activities that take place within the internal and territorial waters of Malta and also manages port facilities, which are under the control of the authority, including yachting and mooring facilities.

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YACHTING MALTA. Launched in April 2015, Yachting Malta is a public–private organization with the primary role of promoting yachting activities in Maltese waters. It seeks to identify and attract high-profile yachting events to the Maltese Islands. Its members also foster and provide education and training in the fundamentals of sailing, powerboat racing, and water safety “with particular emphasis on the young.” The government provides funding for and consults with Yachting Malta regarding infrastructure projects such as new breakwaters, yacht services, and marinas. In addition to promoting Malta as a destination and wintering base for yachts, especially the high-end super yachts, the organization generates proposals related to planning, policy, tax incentives, legislative updates, and enforcement matters concerning the yachting industry.

Z ZAHRA, JOSEPH F. (1955–). Born in 1955, Joseph Zahra graduated in 1976 with a first-class honors degree in economics from the University of Malta and a master’s degree in economics in 1979. He cofounded Misco (Market Intelligence Services Co., Ltd.), Misco International, Ltd., and Impetus Europe Consulting, Ltd. He has served as chairman of the Bank of Valletta (1998–2004), Maltacom (2003), and their subsidiaries, and as a board director of the Central Bank of Malta (1992–1996) and the Malta Development Corporation (1995–1996). He is today a board member on a number of public and private, local and international companies based in Malta and overseas. Zahra has a strong personal interest in the arts and culture. He held the chairmanship of the first Malta Council for Culture and the Arts (2002–2003) and was a member of the Committee for the Guarantee of Maltese Heritage and Arts (2002–2005). In his capacity as chairman of the National Euro Changeover Committee, Zahra was responsible for the changeover in Malta from the local currency to the euro on 1 January 2008. Since 2006, he has served as the chairman of the National Commission for Higher Education, responsible for changes and oversight of the higher and tertiary education sector in Malta. For over 10 years, he held the position of visiting lecturer in economics at the University of Malta. Since 2000, he has been a lecturer in managerial economics at the University of Messina. Zahra is one of five members of the International Audit Committee of the Vatican State. Pope Francis named Zahra the president of the Pontifical Commission for Reference on the Economic-Administrative Structure of the Holy See in 2013. The commission is tasked with reviewing accounting practices of the Vatican and Holy See. In 2014, the pope also chose him to serve on the Council for Economic Affairs, which will oversee the work of the newly established Secretariat for the Economy, an agency that regulates finances of all departments of the Curia.

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A published poet and playwright, Zahra was awarded the Gold Medal of the Malta Society for Arts, Manufactures and Commerce by the president of Malta. He married Lucienne Naudi, and they have two children, David and Maria. ZAMMIT, SIR THEMISTOCLES (1864–1935). A true Renaissance scholar, Themistocles “Temi” Zammit was successful in many fields, whether as medical practitioner, researcher, historian, professor, or archaeologist. Zammit was born in Valletta on 30 September 1864. Graduating from the Royal University of Malta as an MD in 1889, he began his distinguished career focused on medicine. He was a member of the joint British–Maltese commission charged with finding the cause of undulate fever, more commonly known as Malta fever. It was he who, in 1905, discovered that the microbe was transferred from goats (running wild in the streets of Valletta at the time) to humans, and the test for the disease bears his name: Zammit’s test. In 1920, he left the medical profession to become the rector at the University of Malta, a position he resigned in 1926 to focus on historical and archaeological research. The university’s emblem and motto were created by him. He authored a number of books covering a variety of subjects related to Malta’s history. As an archaeologist, for over three decades Zammit headed the excavations of the Hypogeum; the temples of Hal Tarxien, Hagar Qim, and Mnjadra; the cart tracks; and the Roman baths, among other sites. He wrote books about his discoveries, gaining an international reputation. Zammit founded what later became the National Museum of Archaeology and completed his long and productive career as its director, a position later held by his son, Captain C. G. Zammit. His influence over that extensive collection persists to this day. Sir Zammit died on 2 November 1935. See also MEGALITHIC TEMPLES. ZAMMIT DIMECH, DR. FRANCIS (1954–). Born on 23 October 1954, Francis Zammit Dimech studied at St. Aloysius College and the University of Malta, where he served as president of the Students’ Representative Council and was active in the Nationalist Party (NP) youth movement, of which he also was president. Zammit Dimech earned a doctorate in law in 1979 and an MA in financial services in 1999. After running, unsuccessfully, as a candidate in the general election in 1981, he practiced law before being elected to Parliament in 1987 and appointed parliamentary secretary for transport and communications in 1990. Reelected in 1992, he was appointed minister of transport and communications and from March 1994, minister for the environment, with responsibility for the environment, capital construction, water services, energy, waste, and the Planning Authority.

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After the Nationalists returned to power in 1998, Dr. Zammit Dimech was reappointed as minister for the environment, serving until 2002, when he was appointed minister of resources and infrastructure, and then in 2003 as minister of tourism (reconfigured as tourism and culture under the Lawrence Gonzi government), a sector that has grown in importance to the economy of Malta but that had struggled at the time. His last ministerial appointment was as minister of foreign affairs. Dr. Zammit Dimech served in Parliament from 1987 to 2017, when he became a member of the European Parliament. He earned an MBA from the University of Reading, UK, in 2013 and is currently working on a PhD in broadcasting law at the University of Malta.

Bibliography

CONTENTS Introduction I. History 1. General 2. Ancient History 3. Medieval History 4. Knights of Malta 5. Great Britain and Malta 6. World War I 7. World War II II. General Descriptions, Travel Guides, and Photo Essays 1. Travel 2. Guidebooks 3. Photo Essays 4. Maps III. Select Topics 1. Archaeology 2. Architecture 3. Arts and Performing Arts 4. Economy 5. European Union 6. Geography, Geology, and Nature 7. Politics 8. Society III. Reference Sources 1. General 2. Bibliographies 3. Dictionaries 4. Websites

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INTRODUCTION Although it is a very small nation, Malta has a rich history and a thriving cultural environment in literature and the arts. In recent years, the volume and quality of works on the history and culture of the Maltese islands has increased dramatically. While the majority of written publications are in English, theatrical presentations are more often in Maltese, and whereas the music performed by the symphony orchestra is usually of the standard classical variety, that performed by the local band clubs generally has a “Mediterranean” identity. The islands are a paradise for visual artists of all types. Technology in recent decades has permitted the printing of many beautiful coffee-table books: photo essays highlighting the natural beauty and vibrant colors of Malta. The Maltese language is used by a very small community of speakers (slightly over 400,000), and English is an official language of Malta; therefore this bibliography only includes works in English with an emphasis on those written since 1995, when the first edition of this Historical Dictionary of Malta appeared. The Melitensia Section of the Library at the University of Malta and the National Library have the most extensive collections of items about Malta anywhere. In the United States, there are two collections at collegiate libraries that emphasize publications about the islands. St. John’s University in Collegeville, Minnesota, has the Malta Study Center of the Monastic Manuscript Microfilm Library. The center houses an extensive collection of microfilm copies of medieval manuscripts and archival documents from Maltese libraries in addition to a wide range of published works on the island’s history, literature, and culture. A similar Malta Study Center exists at Luther College in Decorah, Iowa, featuring a collection of library materials on all aspects of Malta’s history and culture, from prehistory to contemporary times. The European Documentation and Research Center at the University of Malta’s main campus in Msida houses documents concerning Malta and the European Union. It has published numerous works on Malta’s economy and EU membership. For the casual reader seeking a general overview of Malta’s history, the most current and fairly comprehensive overview of Maltese history, culture, and political events can be found in the guidebook Malta and Gozo by BBC journalist Juliet Rix (Bradt Guides, 2015) or Vincent Zammit’s Malta: History and Tradition, which has a great number of photographs by one of Malta’s premier photographers, Daniel Cilia.

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A more detailed general history is Stefan Godwin’s Malta, Mediterranean Bridge (2002). In his preface, Godwin describes Malta as a “missing link for understanding regional interrelationships that remain hidden or poorly understood.” His work provides a very readable yet detailed history of the political, economic, social, and cultural developments on the Maltese islands from prehistory to the twenty-first century. For more detailed descriptions of sites and artifacts of Malta’s prehistory and early history, readers should consult Professor Anthony Bonanno’s The Archeology of Malta & Gozo 5000 BC–1091 AD, a concise introduction to Malta’s pre- and early historical archaeological sites, as well as the Malta’s Living Heritage series published by Midsea Books in collaboration with Heritage Malta, specifically: Malta: Prehistory and Temples by David H. Trump, Malta: Phoenician, Punic, and Roman by Anthony Bonnano, and Malta: The Medieval Millennium by Charles Dalli, each of which is over 300 pages in length and richly illustrated with hundreds of photographs by Daniel Cilia. Numerous coffee-table books published by Miranda in its 360 Degrees series offer stunningly elegant photography on a variety of topics: the Neolithic temples, chapels of Malta, the city of Valletta, underground Malta and the Knights, and many others. Chronicle of Twentieth Century Malta by Joseph Bonnici and Michael Cassar offers a 500-page, year-by-year collection of major news stories with photographs and illustrations covering the years 1900 through 1999. Much has been written about various eras and aspects of the Knights of St. John. Among these works, H. J. A. Sire’s The Knights of Malta is most comprehensive. Ernle Bradford’s The Great Siege of 1565 is still highly recommended as the most readable and gripping account of an event that remains important to the Maltese psyche. Concerning the modern political and cultural history of Malta, the wellknown Maltese historian Henry Frendo has written several important books. His Maltese Quest for Independence offers a very detailed and at times personal account of Malta in the latter half of the twentieth century as it struggled to become an independent nation-state. Also still very valuable are his earlier Malta: Culture and Identity (coauthored with Maltese poet and author Oliver Friggeri, 1994) and Party Politics in an Island Fortress: The Malta Experiment (1979). In Ambivalent Europeans, the British ethnographer and social anthropologist Jon P. Mitchell presents interesting insights concerning the impacts of globalization and the prospect of EU membership on Maltese attitudes, culture, and traditions, especially through the lens of church festivals (festi), band clubs, political party affiliation, and gender.

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On Malta’s economy, Edward Spiteri’s Malta: From Colonial Dependency to Economic Viability, Maltese Economic History from 1800–2000 (2002) offers the general reader a comprehensive and not overly technical discussion of how Malta’s economy has changed in the last two centuries. General information on Malta and the EU can be found in Malta 2014: 50 Years of Independence/10 Years of EU Membership by Henry Frendo and Enrico Formica, European Integration: The Maltese Experience (2004) by Christopher Pollacco, and Malta in the European Union: Five Years On and Looking into the Future, edited by Peter Xuereb (2009).

I. HISTORY 1. General Atauz, Ayse Devrim. Eight Thousand Years of Maltese Maritime History: Trade, Piracy, and Naval Warfare in the Central Mediterranean. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2008. Attard, Edward. A History of the Malta Police, 1800–1964. Malta: Colour Image, 2003. Attard, Joseph. Malta: A History of Two Millennia. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2002. Blouet, Brian W. The Story of Malta. Rev. ed. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2004. Boisgelin de Kerdu, Pierre Marie Louis de. Ancient and Modern Malta: Containing a Description of the Ports and Cities of the Islands of Malta and Goza, As Also, the History of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, from Their First Establishment in Malta, Till the Beginning of the 19th Century: with a Particular Account of the Events Which Preceded and Attended Its Capture by the French and Conquest by the English. With an Appendix, Containing a Number of Authentic State-Papers. 3 vols. London: G. J. Robinson, 1804. Facsimile of the first edition. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 1988. Bonello, Giovanni. Histories of Malta. Vol. 1, Deceptions and Perceptions; Vol. 2, Figments and Fragments; Vol. 3, Versions and Diversions; Vol. 4, Convictions and Conjectures; Vol. 5, Reflections and Rejections; Vol. 6, Ventures and Adventures; Vol. 7, Closures and Disclosures. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2000–. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. A Chronicle of Twentieth Century Malta. Malta: Book Distributors, 2004. Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. Mediterranean: Portrait of a Sea. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1971.

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Bugeja, Lino. A Maltese Odyssey: The Historical, Artistic and Architectural Heritage of the Maltese Islands. San Gwann, Malta: BDL, 2016. Camilleri, Mark. A Materialist Revision of Maltese History (870–1919). Hamrun, Malta: SKS, 2016. Cassar, Carmel. A Concise History of Malta. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 2000. Cassar, Michael. The Story of the Maltese Buses, 1931–2014. San Gwann, Malta: BDL, 2015. Cassar, Paul. Early Relations between Malta and the United States of America. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 1976. Cassar, Paul. Medical History of Malta. Publications of the Wellcome Historical Medical Library, new ser., vol. 6. London: Wellcome Historical Medical Library, 1965. Cassola, Arnold. Malta-Sicily: People, Patriots, Commerce (1770–1860). Siracusa Morrone, 2016. Castillo, Dennis A. The Maltese Cross: A Strategic History of Malta. Contributions in Military Studies, no. 229. Westport, Conn.: Praeger Security International, 2006. Ciappara, Frans Enlightenment and Reform in Malta, 1740–1798. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 20086. Cilia, Daniel, ed. Malta before History. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2004. Cini, Charles, and Jonathan Borg, eds. The Maritime History of Malta: The First Millennia. Valletta, Malta: Heritage Malta, 2011. De Lucca, Dennis. Giovanni Battista Vertova: Diplomacy, Warfare and Military Engineering Practice in Early Seventeenth Century Malta. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 2001. Elliott, Peter. The Cross and the Ensign: A Naval History of Malta, 1798–1979. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1980. Fiorini, Stanley, ed. Documentary Sources of Maltese History. Msida: University of Malta, 1996–. Gambin, Kenneth, ed. Malta, Roots of a Nation: The Development of Malta From an Island People to an Island Nation. Malta: Heritage Malta, 2004. Ganado, Albert, and Joseph C. Sammut. Malta in British and French Caricature, 1798–1815: With Historical Notes. Valletta, Malta: Said, 1989. Gauci, Charles A. The Genealogy and Heraldry of the Noble Families of Malta. 2 vols. Valletta, Malta: Gulf, 1981–1992. Gauci, Charles A. Of Maltese Generals and Admirals. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books Ltd., 2015. Gerada-Azzopardi, Eric. Malta Revisited: An Appointment with History. Rev. ed. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1984. Goodwin, Stefan. Malta, Mediterranean Bridge. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Grima, Rueben. The Making of Malta. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2008.

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Kearney, J. Michael. Malta Concerto. Bellevue, Wash.: Elfin Cove, 2000. The Malta Stamp Collection, 1964–2004. Marsa, Malta: Maltapost, 2004. Malta Study Circle. Malta, the Postal History and Postage Stamps, 1576–1960. Malta: Malta Study Circle, 1985. (Supplement to Malta, the Stamps, and Postal History . . .). Rizzo Naudi, John. Brucellosis: The Malta Experience: A Celebration, 1905–2005. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprise Group, 2005. Savona-Ventura, Charles. Ancient and Medieval Medicine in Malta: Before 1600 AD. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2004. Schofield, John, and Emily Morrissey. Strait Street: Malta’s “Red-Light District” Revealed. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2013. Staines Spiteri, David, ed. Airliners in Malta. Ta Qali, Malta: Malta Aviation Museum Foundation, 2000. Testa, Carmel. The French in Malta, 1798–1800. Maltese Social Studies 10. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 1997. Wettinger, Godfrey. Slavery in the Islands of Malta and Gozo Ca. 1000–1812. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2002. Wismayer, J. M. A Miscellanea of Historical Records. Sliema, Malta: J. M. Wismayer, 2003. Zammit, Vincent. Malta: History & Tradition. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. San Gwann, Malta: BDL, 2008. Zolina, Elizaveta., ed. Malta and Russia: Journey through the Centuries, Historical Discoveries in Russo–Maltese Relations. Valletta, Malta: E. Zolina, 2002. 2. Ancient History Attenborough, David. The First Eden: The Mediterranean World and Man. London: Collins, 1987. Bonanno, Anthony. The Archeology of Malta & Gozo 5000 BC–AD 1091. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. Valletta, Malta: Heritage Malta, 2017. Bonanno, Anthony. Malta: Phoenician, Punic, and Roman. Malta’s Living Heritage. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2005. Casson, Lionel. The Ancient Mariners: Seafarers and Sea Fighters of the Mediterranean in Ancient Times. 2nd ed. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1991. Galea, Michael, and Canon John Ciarló , eds. St. Paul in Malta: A Compendium of Pauline Studies. Malta: privately printed, 1992. Galea, Michelle. Palazzo Falson: A Historic House Museum. Introduction by Maurice de Giorgio. Photographs by Enrico Formica. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2007. Grant, Michael. The Ancient Mediterranean. New York: Scribner, 1969.

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Harden, Donald B. The Phoenicians. London: Thames and Hudson, 1963. Reprinted with revisions and extended bibliography. Harmondsworth, Middlesex, UK: Penguin Books, 1980. Sammut, Felix. Saint Paul in Malta. 6th ed. Rabat, Malta: Religjon u Hajja, 2002. 3. Medieval History Buhagiar, Mario. The Christianisation of Malta: Catacombs, Cult Centres, and Churches in Malta to 1530. BAR International Series 1674. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2007. Dalli, Charles, and Daniel Cilia. Malta: The Medieval Millennium. Malta’s Living Heritage. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2006. Luttrell, Anthony. Medieval Malta: Studies on Malta before the Knights. London: The British School at Rome, 1975. Pé rez de Alesio, Mateo. The True Depiction of the Investment and Attack Suffered by the Island of Malta at the Hands of the Turks in the Year of Our Lord 1565. 3rd ed. Translated with notes by Denis J. Calnan and Giovanni Ercole Testaferrata Abela. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1965. Pickles, Tim. Malta 1565: Last Battle of the Crusades. Illustrated by Christa Hook. London: Osprey Pub, 1988. 4. Knights of Malta Abela, A. E. The Order of St. Michael and St. George in Malta, and Maltese Knights of the British Realm. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1988. Balbi, Francesco. The Siege of Malta, 1565. Translated from the Spanish edition of 1568 by Ernle Bradford. London: Folio Society, 1965. Bedford, W. K. Riland. Malta and the Knights Hospitallers. London: Seeley, 1894. Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. The Great Siege. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1961. Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. The Shield and the Sword: The Knights of St. John. London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1972. Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. The Sundered Cross: The Story of the Fourth Crusade. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1967 Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich. Malta, Island of Christian Heroes: Life in Malta in the Early 17th Century. Introduction by Thomas Freller. Translated by Alfred Scalpello. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2001. Cassar, Paul. The Holy Infirmary of the Knights of St. John: “La Sacra Infermeria.” Valletta, Malta: Mediterranean Conference Centre, 2005.

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Cavaliero, Roderick. The Last of the Crusaders: The Knights of St. John and Malta in the Eighteenth Century. London: Cape, 1960. New afterword by the author. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2001. Dauber, Robert L., and Michael Galea. Austrian Knights of Malta: Relations Malta–Austria 1530–1798. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2006. De Ransijat, Bosredon. The Seven Year Balance Sheet of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem from 1st May 1778 to the End of April 1785. Introduction and glossary by J. M. Wismayer. Naxxar, Malta: Universal Intelligence Data Bank of America (Europe), 1984. DeGiorgio, Cynthia. Saints and Heros for the Knights of Malta. Photographs by Joe Borg. Malta: Midsea Books, 2014. Dijkhof, Hans J. Hoegen. The Legitimacy of Orders of St John: A Historical and Legal Analysis and Case Study of a Para-Religious Phenomenon. Amsterdam: Hoegen Dijkhof Advocaten, 2006. Earle, Peter. Corsairs of Malta and Barbary. London: Sidgwick & Jackson, 1970. Engel, Claire É liane. Knights of Malta: A Gallery of Portraits. London: Allen & Unwin, 1963. Freller, Thomas. The Anglo–Bavarian Langue of the Order of Malta. Malta: Pubblik-azzjonijiet Indipendenza, 2001. Freller, Thomas. The Last Corsairs of Malta: An Incredible True Story. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2007. Freller, Thomas. Spies and Renegades in Hospitaller Malta. Pietà , Malta: Pubblik-azzjonijiet Indipendenza, 2004. Galea, Michael. German Knights of Malta: A Gallery of Portraits. Valletta, Malta: Burgelli, 1986. Galea, Michael. Grandmaster Aloph De Wignacourt, 1601–1622: A Monograph. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2002. Gauci, Liam. In the Name of the Prince: Maltese Corsairs 1760–1798. Valletta, Malta: Heritage Malta, 2017. Grima, Joseph F. The Fleet of the Knights of Malta: Its Organisation during the Eighteenth Century. San Ġwann, Malta: BDL, 2016. Hoppen, Alison. The Fortification of Malta by the Order of St. John (1530–1798). 2nd ed. Msida, Malta: Mireva Publishers, 1999. King, E. J., and Harry Luke. The Knights of St. John in the British Realm: Being the Official History of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem. 3rd ed. London: Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, 1967. Knights of Malta, Ant Zammit Gabarretta, and J. A. Mizzi, comps. Catalogue of the Records of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem in the Royal Malta Library. 1964–.

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Lo Celso, Luciano, and Adrian Busietta. The Triangle of Mediterranean: The Knights of Malta between the Kingdom of Naples and Arabs–Barbary States of Maghreb = Il triangolo del Mediterraneo: I cavalieri di Malta tra il Regno di Napoli e gli stati arabi-barbareschi del Maghreb. Malta: Castello Entertainment, 2001. Mula, Charles. The Princes of Malta: The Grand Masters of the Order of St. John in Malta, 1530–1798. San Ġ wann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2000. Muscat, Joseph, and Andrew Cuschieri. Naval Activities of the Knights of St. John: 1530– 1798. Maltese Social Studies 11. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea, 2002. Nicholson, Helen J. The Knights Hospitaller. Woodbridge, Suffolk, UK: Boydell, 2001. Nicolle, David. Knights of Jerusalem: The Crusading Order of Hospitallers 1100–1565. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 2008. O’Malley, Gregory. The Knights Hospitaller of the English Langue, 1460–1565. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Phillips, Simon. The Prior of the Knights Hospitaller in Late Medieval England. Woodbridge, UK: Boydell Press, 2009. Quintano, Anton. The Maltese-Hospitaller Sailing Ship Squadron: 1701–1798. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2003. Riley-Smith, Jonathan Simon Christopher. Hospitallers: The History of the Order of St. John. Crusader Worlds. London: Hambledon, 1999. Savona-Ventura, Charles. Knight Hospitaller Medicine in Malta: 1530–1798. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2004. Setton, Kenneth Meyer, ed. A History of the Crusades. 6 vols. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1955–1989. Sire, H. J. A. The Knights of Malta. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1994. Spiteri, Stephen. Armoury of the Knights: A Study of the Palace Armoury, Its Collection, and the Military Storehouses of the Hospitaller Knights of the Order of St. John. Valletta, Malta: Midsea in association with Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna, 2003. Spiteri, Stephen. Fortresses of the Knights. Rev. ed. Hamrun, Malta: Book Distributors, 2001. Spiteri, Stephen. The Great Siege: Knights Vs. Turks, MDLXV: Anatomy of a Hospitaller Victory. Tarxien, Malta: Gutenberg Press, 2005. Testa, Carmel. Romegas. Maltese Social Studies. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea, 2002. Thake, Robert. Patriotism, Deception and Censorship: De Soldanis and the 1751 Account of the Uprising of the Slaves. San Gwann, Malta: BDL Publishing, 2013.

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Vella, Andrew P. Malta and the Czars: Diplomatic Relations between the Order of St. John and Russia, 1697–1802. Valletta: Royal University of Malta, 1965. 5. Great Britain and Malta Abela, A. E. Governors of Malta. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1991. Austin, Douglas. Churchill and Malta: A Special Relationship. Stroud, UK: Spellmount, 2006. Austin, Douglas. Malta and British Strategic Policy, 1925–43. Cass Series 13. London: Cass, 2004. Bonham-Carter, Charles. The Bonham-Carter Diaries, 1936–1940: What the British Governor Thought of Malta and the Maltese. Edited with an introduction by John Manduca. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2004. Chesney, A. G., comp. Historical Records of the Maltese Corps of the British Army. London: W. Clows & Sons, 1897. Facsimile. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 1986. Chircop, John, ed. Colonial Encounter: Maltese Experiences of British Rule, 1800–1970s. Malta: Horizons, 2015. Cremona, J. J. An Outline of the Constitutional Development of Malta under British Rule. Msida: Malta University Press, 1963. Crowley, Roger. Empires of the Sea: The Siege of Malta, the Battle of Lepanto, and the Contest for the Center of the World. New York: Random House, 2008. Frendo, Henry. The Origins of Maltese Statehood: A Case Study of Decolonization in the Mediterranean. 2nd ed. Malta: H. Frendo, 2000. Grech, Jesmond. British Heritage in Malta. Miller Guides. Malta: Centro Stampa Editoriale Perseus, Plurigraf, 2002. Gregory, Desmond. Malta, Britain, and the European Powers, 1793–1815. Madison, N.J.: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, 1996. Harding, Hugh W. Maltese Legal History under British Rule (1801–1836). Msida: Malta University Press, 1980. Hough, Barry, and Howard Davis. Coleridge’s Laws: A Study of Coleridge in Malta. Cambridge, UK: Open Book Publishers, 2010. Lloyd, Trevor Owen. The British Empire, 1558–1995. 2nd ed. The Short Oxford History of the Modern World. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Louis, William Roger, Alaine M. Low, Nicholas P. Canny, and P. J. Marshall, eds. The Oxford History of the British Empire. 5 vols. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998–1999.

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Mallia-Milanes, Victor, ed. The British Colonial Experience, 1800–1964: The Impact on Maltese Society. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 1988. Refalo, Michael. Slavery—Malta at the Crossroads: Transhipment of Slaves in a British Colony during the Nineteenth Century. San Gwann, Malta: BDL Publishing, 2015. Smith, Simon C. Malta. British Documents on the End of Empire, vol. 11. London: The Stationery Office, 2006. Wismayer, J. M. The History of the King’s Own Malta Regiment and the Armed Forces of the Order of St. John. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1989. 6. World War I Brittain, Vera, Alan Bishop, and Terry Smart, eds. Chronicle of Youth: War Diary 1913–1917. London: Gollancz, 1981. Mizzi, J.A. Gallipoli: The Malta Connection. Luqa, Malta: Tecnografica, 1991. Zarb-Dimech, Anthony. Malta During the First World War, 1914–1918. Malta: A. Zarb-Dimech, 2004. 7. World War II Abela, A. E. Malta’s George Cross and War Gallantry Awards. Valetta, Malta: Progress Press, 1989. Ansel, Walter. Hitler and the Middle Sea. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1972. Attard, Joseph. The Battle of Malta. London: Kimber, 1980. Austin, Douglas. Churchill and Malta’s War 1939–1943. Gloucestershire, UK: Amberley Publishing, 2010. Barnham, Denis. Malta Spitfire Pilot: A Personal Account of Ten Weeks of War, April–June 1942. London: Grub Street, 2013. Bennett, G. H., and R. Bennett. Survivors: British Merchant Seamen in the Second World War. London: Hambledons, 1999. Bennett, Ralph Francis. Ultra and Mediterranean Strategy. New York: Morrow, 1989. Beurling, George F., and Leslie Roberts. Malta Spitfire: The Diary of a Fighter Pilot. London: Greenhill, 2002. First published by Oxford University Press, 1943. Bezzina, Charles. Wartime Gozo 1940–1943: An Account of the Bleak Years. Victoria, Gozo: printed by the author, 2015. Bezzina, Charles. When the Sirens Wailed: Memoirs of Wartime. Translated by Alfred Palma. Victoria, Gozo: printed by the author, 2012.

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Bradford, Ernle Dusgate Selby. Siege: Malta to 1940–1943. London: Hamilton, 1985. Clayton, Tim, and Phil Craig. The End of the Beginning: From the Siege of Malta to the Allied Victory at El Alamein. New York: Free Press, 2002. Cull, Brian, and Frederick Galea. Hurricanes over Malta: June 1940–April 1942. London: Grub Street, 2001. Cull, Brian, and Frederick Galea. Spitfires over Malta: The Epic Air Battles of 1942. London: Grub Street, 2005. Cull, Brian, Nicola Malizia, and Frederick R. Galea. Spitfires over Sicily: The Crucial Role of the Malta Spitfires in the Battle of Sicily, January–August 1943. London: Grub Street, 2000. DeBono, Charles. Malta during World War II: The Strategic Role of the Island during the Conflict. Malta: BDL, 2017. Forty, George. Battle for Malta. Hersham, Surrey, UK: I. Allan, 2003. Foss, Denis, and Basil Entwistle. Shoot a Line: A Merchant Mariner’s War. Yeovil: Linden Hall, 1992. Franks, Norman L. R. Buck McNair, Canadian Spitfire Ace: The Story of Group Captain RW McNair DSO, DFC and 2 Bars, Ld’H, CdG, RCAF. London: Grub Street, 2001. Galea, Frederick R. Call-Out: A Wartime Diary of Air/Sea Rescue Operations at Malta. St. Julians, Malta: BIEB BIEB, 2002. Holland, James. Fortress Malta: An Island under Siege 1940–1943. London: Orion, 2003. Jackson, Bill. Air Sea Rescue during the Siege of Malta. Leicester, UK: Troubadour, 2010. Jackson, Robert. The Royal Navy in World War II. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1997. Jellison, Charles A. Besieged: The World War II Ordeal of Malta, 1940–1942. Hanover, N.H.: Published for the University of New Hampshire by University Press of New England, 1984. Johnston, Tim, and Chaz Bowyer. Tattered Battlements: A Fighter Pilot’s Malta Diary D-Day and After. London: Kimber, 1985. Kurowski, Franz. Luftwaffe Aces. Translated by David Johnston. Winnipeg, Man.: J. J. Fedorowicz, 1996. Leighton, Frank. Frayed Lifelines: A Siege Survivor’s Story. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford, 2003. Lucas, Laddie. Malta: Thorn in Rommel’s Side—Six Months That Turned the War. London: S. Paul, 1992. Massimello, Giovanni, and Giorgio Apostolo. Italian Aces of World War 2. Oxford: Osprey, 2000. McCaffery, Dan. Hell Island. Toronto: J. Lorimer, 1998. Mitcham, Samuel W., and Friedrich von Stauffenberg. The Battle of Sicily. New York: Orion, 1991.

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301

Mizzi, Laurence. When War Broke Out. Translated by Joseph M. Falzon. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2000. Nichols, Steve. Malta Spitfire Aces. Aircraft of the Aces. Oxford: Osprey, 2008. Page, Christopher L. W. The Royal Navy and the Malta and Russian Convoys, 1941–1942. London: Cass, 2003. Pearson, Michael. The Ohio and Malta: The Legendary Tanker That Refused to Die. South Yorkshire, UK: Leo Cooper, 2004. Ralph, Wayne. Aces, Warriors & Wingmen: Firsthand Accounts of Canada’s Fighter Pilots in the Second World War. Mississauga, Ont.: John Wiley, 2005. Ratcliffe, Christina, Tamara Marks, and Frederick R. Galea. Women of Malta: True Wartime Stories of Christina Ratcliffe and Tamara Marks. Rabat, Malta: Wise Owl Publications, 2006. Roba, Jean-Louis, and Martin Pegg. Jagdwaffe: Luftwaffe Colours. Vol. 4, sect. 2, The Mediterranean, 1942–1943. Classicolours. Burgess Hill: Classic, 2003. Rogers, Anthony. Battle over Malta: Aircraft Losses & Crash Sites, 1940–42. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton, 2000. Rogers, Anthony. 185: The Malta Squadron. Staplehurst, UK: Spellmount, 2005. Shores, Christopher F., Brian Cull, and Nicola Malizia. Malta: The Spitfire Year 1942. London: Grub Street, 1991. Spooner, Tony. In Full Flight. Canterbury, UK: Wingham, 1991. Spooner, Tony. Night Fighter Ace. Stroud, Gloucestershire, UK: Sutton, 2003. Spooner, Tony. Warburton’s War: The Life of Wing Commander Adrian Warburton, DSO, DFC, DFC(USA). Bristol, UK: Cré cy Books, 1994. Thake Vasallo, Clare, and Ivan Callus. Malta at War in Cultural Memory: Representations of “The Madonna’s Chosen People.” Valletta, Malta: University Publishers, 2005. Thomas, David Arthur. Malta Convoys 1940–42: The Struggle at Sea. London: L. Cooper, 1999. Tomblin, Barbara. With Utmost Spirit: Allied Naval Operations in the Mediterranean, 1942–1945. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 2004. Twiss, Peter. Navy Flyer: Reminiscences of a Fleet Air Arm and Test Pilot. London: Grub Street, 2005. Vella, Philip. Malta: Blitzed but Not Beaten. Valletta, Malta: Published by Progress Press for the National War Museum Association, 1997. Wade, Frank. A Midshipman’s War: A Young Man in the Mediterranean Naval War 1941–1943. Victoria, B.C.: Trafford, 2005.

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Warlow, Ben. The Royal Navy at Malta: A Collection of Old Photographs Taken by the Ellis Family at Malta. Liskeard, Cornwall, UK: Maritime, 1989. Whelan, John Allison. Malta Airmen. New Zealand in the Second World War; Official History, no. 17. Wellington, N.Z.: War History Branch, Department of Internal Affairs, 1951. Williams, Paul. Malta: Island under Siege. Barnsley, UK: Pen & Sword, 2009. Wingate, John. The Fighting Tenth: The Tenth Submarine Flotilla and the Siege of Malta. London: L. Cooper, 1991. Woodman, Richard. Malta Convoys, 1940–1943. London: John Murray, 2000. Wragg, David W. Malta, the Last Great Siege: The George Cross Island’s Battle for Survival, 1940–43. Barnsley, UK: L. Cooper, 2003. Zarb-Dimech, Anthony. Mobilisation in Action: A History of Civil Defence, Malta, 1940–1943. Malta: privately printed, 2003.

II. GENERAL DESCRIPTIONS, TRAVEL GUIDES, AND PHOTO ESSAYS 1. Travel Bianchi, P., and Peter Serracino Inglott, eds. Encounters with Malta. Malta: Encounter Books, 2000. Boffa, Charles J. The Islets of Comino, Filfla, Haġ ret Il-Ġ eneral and the Volcanic One (Graham) That Was. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2003. Breithaupt, Johann Friedrich. Malta, Island of Christian Heroes: Life in Malta in the Early 17th Century. Introduction by Thomas Freller. Translated by Alfred Scalpello. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2001. Byrd, Melvin Richard. Malta from Melita and Ogygia: Observations of the Maltese Archipelago. N.p.: M. R. Byrd, 2003. Freller, Thomas. The Cavaliers Tour and Malta in 1663: One Journey and Two Accounts. Pietà , Malta: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, 1998. Freller, Thomas. Gozo, the Island of Joy: Gozo and Its Visitors; Adventurers, Scientists, Noblemen, and Writers. Mġ arr, Malta: Colour Image, 1997. Guillaumier, Alfie. Malta’s Towns and Villages. Translated by Terry Asphar. Mount Vernon, N.Y.: T. Asphar, 2003. Manduca, John, and Cecily Napier. City of Mdina and Rabat. 3rd ed. Illustrated by Cecily Napier. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2003.

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303

Quintin, Jean. The Earliest Description of Malta (Lyons 1536). Translated by Horatio C. R. Vella. Sliema, Malta: DeBono Enterprises, 1980. Guilford, Conn.: Globe Pequot Press, 2015. Rix, Juliet. Malta and Gozo. 3rd ed. Guilford, Conn.: Bradt Travel Guide–Globe Pequot Press, 2015. Stephenson, Charles, and Steve Noon. The Fortifications of Malta, 1530–1945. Illustrated by Steve Noon. Fortress 16. Oxford: Osprey, 2004. 2. Guidebooks Azzopardi, Aldo E. Malta and Its Islands. Luqa, Malta: Miller Distributors, 1999. Azzopardi, John. Mdina: The Silent City, Rabat, Mosta. Luqa, Malta: Miller Distributors, 1999. Baedeker’s Malta. 2nd ed. Basingstoke, UK: AA, 2000. Bain, Carolyn. Malta and Gozo. 3rd ed. Oakland, Calif.: Lonely Planet, 2007. Borg, J. The Public Gardens and Groves of the Maltese Islands: A Visitor’s Guidebook. Mġ arr, Malta: Colour Image, 2005. Boulton, Susie. Malta & Gozo. 4th ed. Peterborough, UK: Thomas Cook, 2009. Camilleri, Alex, Annalise Falzon, and Alan Deidun. Malta, Gozo & Comino—Off the Beaten Track: The Ecological Walk Guide. Malta: Nature Trust, 2003. Dillon, Paddy. Walking in Malta: 33 Routes on Malta, Gozo and Comino. A Cicerone Guide. Milnthorpe, UK: Cicerone, 2004. Lemon, Peter G. A Guide to Shore Diving the Maltese Islands. Lavenham, UK: Lavenham Press, 2000. Lockhart, Douglas. Landscapes of Malta, Gozo and Comino: A Countryside Guide. 5th ed. Sunflower Landscapes. London: Sunflower, 2007. Magro Conti, Emmanuel. The Malta Maritime Museum, Vittoriosa. Insight Heritage Guides 11. Malta: Heritage Books, in association with Heritage Malta, 2006. Manduca, John. Gozo: Sun, Sea and History. 8th ed. Welcome Travel Guide. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2003. Miller, Ned. Maltese Island Diving Guide. Malta: Miller Distributors, 1997. Richards, Brian. The Best of Malta. 2nd ed. Globetrotter. London: New Holland, 2008. Rix, Juliet. Malta and Gozo. 3rd ed. Guilford, Conn.: Bradt Travel Guide–Globe Pequot Press, 2015. Rose, Lesley Anne. Frommer’s Malta & Gozo Day by Day. Hoboken, N.J.: Frommer’s, 2009.

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Salter, Richard. Diving Gozo & Comino: The Essential Guide to an Underwater Playground. Oxford: Dived Up, 2017. Spiteri, Stephen C. A Visual Guide to the Fortifications of Malta. Photographs by Oliver Gatt. Malta: BDL, 2017. 3. Photo Essays Aquilina Ross, Geoffrey. Malta 7000 Years of History: From Neolithic Times to European Union. Photographs by Enrico Formosa. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2016. Arrigo, Kurt. Malta: A Coastal Journey. Malta: 2005. Boccazzi-Varotto, Attilio, Daniel Cilia, and Joseph Bezzina. Gozo & Comino 360◦. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 1992. Bonello, Giovanni, and Graham Smeed. Malta Picture Postcards, 1898–1906. Malta: privately printed, 1986. Bonett, Giudo. The Natural History of the Maltese Islands: As Seen through a Photographer’s Lens. San Gwann, Malta: BDL Publishing, 2011. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. Malta and Gozo, Then and Now. Malta: Book Distributors, 1998. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. The Malta Grand Harbour and Its Dockyard. Malta: privately printed, 1994. Cilia, Daniel. Panoramic Malta & Gozo. San Gwann, Malta: Book Distributors, 2009. Formica, Enrico, Daniel Cilia, and Attilio Boccazzi-Varotto. Malta 360◦. Rev. ed. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2002. Fü rst, George, and Giovanni Bonello. Nostalgias of Malta: Images by Geo Fü rst from the 1930s. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2006. Grima, Reuben, and Enrico Formica. The Museums of Malta 360◦. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2006. Mattei, Emma, and Jon Banthorpe, eds. Uncommon: Malta & Gozo. Sliema, Malta. Miranda Publishers, 2011. Priuli and Verlucca, eds. Malta World Heritage Sites 360 Degrees. Sliema, Malta: I Miranda Publishers, 2006. Priuli and Verlucca. Underground Malta 360 Degrees. Vols. I and II. Sliema, Malta: Miranda Publishers, 2005. Ross, Geoffrey Aquilina. The Maltese Islands from the Air. 2nd ed. Photographs by Jonathan Beacom. Balz: Proud, 1995 Spiteri, Stephen C. A Visual Guide to the Fortifications of Malta. Photographs by Oliver Gatt. San Gwann, Malta: BDL, 2017.

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4. Maps Ganado, Albert, and Joseph Schiro. The Pre-Siege Maps of Malta: Second Century AD–1654. San Gwann, Malta: BDL, 2016 Great Britain. Malta and Gozo. 4th and 5th eds. London: Geographical Section General Staff, 1958. National Geographic Society (US), John B. Garver, John F. Dorr, Laura Robinson Pritchard, and Juan J. Valdé s. The Historic Mediterranean 800 B.C. to A.D. 1500. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic Society, 1982. United States Board on Geographic Names. Malta: Official Standard Names Approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names. Washington, D.C.: The Board, 1971.

III. SELECT TOPICS 1. Archaeology Azzopardi, Elaine, and Timmy Gambin. Archaeology and the Sea in the Maltese Islands. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2012. Blom, Adrian van der, and Veronica Veen. The First Maltese: Origins, Character and Symbolism of the Ghar Dalam Culture. Fia Publications, 1992. Bonanno, Anthony. An Illustrated Guide to Prehistoric Gozo. Gozo: Gaulitana, 1986. Bonanno, Anthony, and Mario Mintoff. Malta, an Archaeological Paradise. Rev. ed. Valletta, Malta: M. J. Publications, 1997. Buhagiar, Mario. Late Roman and Byzantine Catacombs and Related Burial Places in the Maltese Islands. BAR International Series 302. Oxford: B.A.R., 1986. Cilia, Daniel. Malta before History: The World’s Oldest Free-Standing Stone Architecture. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2004. Ellul, Joseph. Malta’s Prediluvian Culture at the Stone Age Temples with Special Reference to H̳ aġ ar Qim, Gh̳ ar Dalam, Cart Ruts, Il-Misqa, IlMaqluba & Creation. Malta: privately printed, 1988. Ellul, Michael. History on Marble: A Corpus of Inscriptions in the Presidential Palaces in Valletta, San Anton and Verdala, Malta. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1998. Gregory, Isabelle Vella. The Human Form in Neolithic Malta. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2005.

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International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean. Archaeology and Fertility Cult in the Ancient Mediterranean: Papers Presented at the First International Conference on Archaeology of the Ancient Mediterranean, the University of Malta, 2–5 September 1985. Edited by Anthony Bonanno. Amsterdam: B. R. Grü ner, 1986. Joussaume, Roger. Dolmens for the Dead: Megalith-Building throughout the World. Translated by Anne and Christopher Chippindale. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1988. Maempel, George Zammit. Ghar Dalam: Cave and Deposits. Malta: privately printed, 1989. McDonald, Neil. Malta and Gozo: A Megalithic Journey. Malta: Megalithic Publishing, 2016. Micallef, Paul I. Mnajdra Prehistoric Temple: A Calendar in Stone. Malta: privately printed, 1992. Mohen, Jean-Pierre. The World of Megaliths. New York: Facts on File, 1990. Morana, M. The Hypogeum: A Jewel of Ancient Malta. Malta: M.J. Publications, n.d. Pace, Anthony. The Hal-Saflieni Hypogeum, 4000 BC–2000 AD. Malta: National Museum of Archaeology, Museums Department, 2000. Parker, Rowland, and Michael Rubinstein. The Cart-Ruts on Malta and Gozo. Gozo: Gozo Press, 1984. Sagona, Claudia. The Archaeology of Malta: From the Neolitic through the Roman Period. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015. Sagona, Claudia. The Archaeology of Punic Malta. Ancient Near Eastern Studies 9. Leuven, Belgium: Peeters, 2002. Sagona, Claudia, Isabelle Vella Gregory, and Anton Bugeja. Punic Antiquities of Malta and Other Ancient Artifacts Held in Private Collections. 2 vols. Dudley, Mass.: Peeters, 2003–2006. Sultana, Sharon. The National Museum of Archaeology, Valletta: The Neolithic Period. Insight Heritage Guides 13. Sta. Venera, Malta: Heritage Books in association with Heritage Malta, 2006. Tansai, Davide, and Nicholas C. Vella, eds. The Late Prehistory of Malta: Essays on Borġ in-Nadur and Other Sites. Oxford: Archaeopress Publishing, 2015. Trump, David H. Malta: An Archaeological Guide. 2nd ed. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2000. Trump, David H. Malta: Prehistory and Temples. 2nd ed. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. Malta’s Living Heritage. Malta: Misdea, 2004. Veen, Veronica. The Goddess of Malta: The Lady of the Waters and the Earth. Haarlem, Holland: Inanna-Fia Publication, 1992. Vella, Nicholas C. The Prehistoric Temples at Kordin III: Kordin. Insight Heritage Guides, no. 5. Sta. Venera, Malta: Heritage, 2004.

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307

Weston, Gordon E. The Maltese Cart-Ruts: Unraveling an Enigma. Valletta: Progress Press, 2010. 2. Architecture Abel, Chris, and Richard England. Transformations: Richard England, 25 Years of Architecture. Valletta, Malta: Mid-Med Bank, 1987. Azzopardi, John, ed. The Church of St. John in Valletta, 1578–1978: An Exhibition Commemorating the Fourth Centenary of Its Consecration, St. John’s Museum, Valletta, 3 June–3 July 1978. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1978. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. The Royal Opera House, Malta. Malta: privately printed, 1990. Borg, Malcolm. British Colonial Architecture: Malta, 1800–1900. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2001. Borg, Ruben Paul, ed. Challenges in Conservation of Architectural Heritage. Malta: Kamra tal-Periti, 2011. Bugeja, Lino. Vittoriosa: An Ancient City of Culture; The Cultural Architectural and Ecclesiastical Heritage of Birgu, Malta. Malta: printed by the author, 2014. Buhagiar, Vincent, John Ebejer, and Alberto Miceli Farrugia. Impressions, Aesthetics, Design. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2006. Cassar, JoAnn, and Reuben Grima, eds. Approaches to Industrial Heritage: What Works? Malta: Farsons Foundation, 2013. De Giorgio, Roger. A City by an Order. 3rd ed. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1998. De Giorgio, Roger. The Sovereign Palaces of Malta. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2001. De Giorgio, Roger. The Temple of the Knights of Malta. Sliema, Malta: Miranda Publications, 1999. England, Richard. Richard England: Architect as Artist. Edited by by Dennis Sharp. London: BookART, 2007. Fsadni, Michael. The Girna: The Maltese Corbelled Stone Hut. Translated by Louis J. Scerri. Malta: Dominican Publication, 1992. Galea, Michael. Malta: The Palace of the Grandmasters and the Armoury. Valletta, Malta: M. J. Publications, 1988. Ganado, Albert, ed. Palace of the Grand Masters in Valletta. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2001. Grima, Joseph F., and Enrico Formica. The Historic Chapels of Malta and Gozo 360 Degrees. Vol. I. Sliema, Malta: Miranda Publishers, 2010. Heathcote, Edwin, and Richard England. Richard England. Chichester, West Sussex, UK: Wiley-Academy, 2002.

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Hoppen, Alison. The Fortification of Malta by the Order of St. John, 1530–1798. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, 1979. Hughes, Quentin. The Building of Malta during the Period of the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, 1530–1795. Rev. ed. London: A. Tiranti, 1967. Hughes, Quentin. Fortress: Architecture and Military History in Malta. London: Lund Humphries, 1969. Hughes, Quentin, Conrad Thake, and Daniel Cilia. Malta the Baroque Island. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea, 2003. Jaccarini, Carol. Ir-Razzett: The Maltese Farmhouse. Malta: C. J. Jaccarini, 2002. Johnston, Shirley, and Anthony Cassar de Sain. Splendor of Malta. New York: Rizzoli, 2001. Knevitt, Charles, and Richard England. Connections: The Architecture of Richard England, 1964–84. London: Lund Humphries, 1984. Luttrell, Anthony. Medieval Malta: Studies on Malta before the Knights. London: British School at Rome, 1975. Mahoney, Leonard. 5000 Years of Architecture in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Valletta Publishing, 1996. Mangion, Giovanni, ed. Maltese Baroque: Proceedings of a Seminar on “The Baroque Route in Malta” Held at the Ministry of Education, Beltissebh, Malta, on 3rd June, 1989. Malta: Ministry of Education and Council of Europe, 1989. Munro, Dane, and Maurizio Urso. Memento Mori: A Companion to the Most Beautiful Floor in the World. Valletta, Malta: MJ Publications, 2005. Muscat, Mark Geoffrey. Maltese Architecture 1900–1970: Progress and Innovations. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2016. Said-Zammit, George A. The Architectural Heritage of the Maltese Islands. Tal-Virtu’, Rabat: The Minor Seminary, 2008. Sammut, Joseph. Malta and Gozo: Views and Hues; A Colourful Diversion. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2005. Thake, Conrad. Contemporary Architecture in Malta. Birkirkara, Malta: Kite Group, 2016. Thake, Conrad, and Quentin Hughes. Malta: War & Peace: An Architectural Chronicle 1800–2000. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea, 2005. Vella, Godwin. The Gran Casteello at Rabat, Gozo: An Appreciation of the Civil Architectural Legacy. Ghawdex, Malta: Wirt Ghawdex, 2011.

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3. Arts and Performing Arts a. Art

Balzan, Francesca. Jewellery in Malta: Treasures from the Islands of the Knights (1530–1798). Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2013. Borg, Vincent, ed.. Contemporary Christian Art: Malta 2002, the Fourth Biennale of Christian Art. Mdina, Malta: Cathedral Museum Publications, 2002. Buhagiar, Mario. The Iconography of the Maltese Islands, 1400–1900: Painting. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1987. Buhagiar, Mario. The Late Medieval Art and Architecture of the Maltese Islands. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2005. De Giorgio, Cynthia, and Keith Sciberras. Caravaggio and Paintings of Realism in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books for the St. John’s CoCathedral Foundation, 2007. De Piro, Nicholas. The International Dictionary of Artists Who Painted Malta. 2nd ed. Malta: Audio Visual Centre, 2002. De Piro, Nicholas. The Quality of Malta: Fashion and Taste in Private Collections. Malta: AVC Publishers, 2003. Farrugia, Jimmy. Antique Maltese Ecclesiastical Silver. 2 vols. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2002. Giorgio, Cynthia de. The Image of Triumph and the Knights of Malta. Malta: Printex, 2003. Grima, Reuben, Charles Frederick de Brocktorff, and Daniel Cilia. The Archaeological Drawings of Charles Frederick De Brocktorff. Photographs by Daniel Cilia. Malta: Midsea, 2004. Harker, Margaret F. Photographers of Malta, 1840–1990. Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2000. Hibbard, Howard. Caravaggio. New York: Harper & Row, 1983. Inglott, Peter Serracino, Gino Gauci, Lino Borg, and Antonio Espinosa Rodriguez, eds. Sacred Art in Malta, 1890–1960. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1990. Manduca, John. Antique Furniture in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2002. Morris, Desmond. The Boats of Malta: The Art of Fishermen. Malta: Faraxa, 2016. National Museum (Malta), and Antonio Espinosa Rodríguez. Paintings at the National Museum of Fine Arts in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1990.

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Prins, A. H. J., and Joseph Muscat. In Peril on the Sea: Marine Votive Paintings in the Maltese Islands. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1989. Sammut, Edward. Notes for a History of Art in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1955. Sciberras, Keith, Alessandra Anselmi, et al., eds. Melchiorre Cafà : Maltese Genius of the Roman Baroque. Valletta: Midsea, for the History of Art Programme, University of Malta, 2006. Sciberras, Keith. Caravaggio to Mattia Preti: Baroque Painting in Malta. Photographs by Joe Borg. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2015. Sciberras, Keith. Roman Baroque Sculpture for the Knights of Malta. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2004. Sciortino, Antonio, and Dennis Vella. Antonio Sciortino: Monuments and Public Sculpture; Catalogue of the Exhibition Inaugurated at the National Museum of Fine Arts on the 19th December 2000 by H.E. Prof. Guido De Marco, President of Malta. Malta: National Museum of Fine Arts, 2000. Terribile, Tony. Też ori fil-knejjes Maltin = Treasures in Maltese Churches. Pieta, Malta: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, 2002. Vella, Charlene. The Mediterranean Artistic Context of Late Medieval Malta, 1091–1530. Valletta. Malta: Midsea Books, 2013. Vella, Raphael, ed. Cross-Currents: Critical Essays on Art and Culture in Malta. Malta: Allied Publications, 2008. Wain, Kenneth. Luciano Micallef: A Study. Msida: Malta University Services, 1993. Xuereb, Paul, ed. Edward Caruana Dingli (1876–1950): Portraits, Views and Folkloristic Scenes. Valletta, Malta: Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 2010. Zerafa, Marius, and Catherine Sinclair Galea, ed. Caravaggio—Diaries: Extracts from Fr. Marius Zerafa’s Diaries. Malta: Grimand, 2004. b. Literature and Literary Criticism

Abela, Joseph S. The Loggia of Malta: A Historical Novel Set in 16th Century Malta. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1992. Andersen, H. C. A Visit to Germany, Italy, and Malta, 1840–1841: A Poet’s Bazaar I–II. Translated by Grace Thornton. London: P. Owen, 1985. Arberry, A. J. A Maltese Anthology. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. Attard, Dunstan. Island I Call Home: Poems from a Mediterranean Island. Coral Springs, Fla.: Llumina Press, 2004. Ball, David. The Sword and the Scimitar. London: Cornerstone, 2004. Bartolo, Hella Jean. The Malta Connection. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1976.

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Briffa, Charles. Rhythmic Patterns in Maltese Literature. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 2001. Briffa, Charles, ed. This Fair Land: An Anthology of Maltese Literature. London: Francis Boutle Publishers, 2014. Bugeja, Godwin F. Short Stories from Malta. Cambridge, UK: Janus Publishing, 2016. Butler, Gwendoline. Coffin in Malta. New York: Walker, 1965. Buttigieg, George Gregory. Of Craft and Honor and a Templar’s Chronicles. Luqa, Malta: Miller Distributors, 2006. Cassola, Arnold. The Literature of Malta: An Example of Unity in Diversity. Sliema, Malta: Minima, 2000. Davies, Sheila. The Young Marchesa: A Story of Malta. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1951. Dun Karm. Dun Karm, Poet of Malta. Translated by A. J. Arberry. University of Cambridge Oriental Publications, no. 6. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1961. Ebejer, Francis. Come Again in Spring: A Novel Set in America. Malta: Union Press, 1973. Ebejer, Francis. English Plays. 3 vols. Valletta, Malta: A. C. Aquilina, 1980. Ebejer, Francis. Evil of the King Cockroach. London: Macgibbon & Kee, 1960. Ebejer, Francis. In the Eye of the Sun: A Novel Set in Malta. London: MacDonald, 1969. Ebejer, Francis. Leap of Malta Dolphins: A Novel. New York: Vantage Press, 1982. Ebejer, Francis. Requiem for a Malta Fascist (or The Interrogation): A Novel. Valletta, Malta: A. C. Aquilina, 1980. Ebejer, Francis. A Wreath for the Innocents: A Novel. London: Macgibbon & Kee, 1958. Fairfax, Saxon. The Switchback. Valetta, Malta: Progress Press, 1900. Friggieri, Oliver. The Misfit: A Maltese Novel. Translated by Chas Briffa. Malta: Faraxa, 2015. Hamilton, Lyn. The Maltese Goddess: An Archaeological Mystery. New York: Berkley Prime Crime, 1998. Le Fort, Gertrud. The Song at the Scaffold. Translated by Olga Marx. New York: Sheed & Ward, 1933. Marlowe, Christopher. The Jew of Malta. Edited by N. W. Bawcutt. The Revels Plays. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1978. Monsarrat, Nicholas. The Kappillan of Malta. New York: Morrow, 1974. Portelli, Terrence, ed. Tangerine Sky: Poems from Malta. Malta: Midsea Books, 2017. Portelli, Terrence, ed. Beyond a Satin Sea: Stories from Malta. Malta: Midsea Books, 2017.

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Pynchon, Thomas. V., a Novel. Philadelphia: Lippincott, 1963. Short, Agnes. The Crescent and the Cross: A Story of the Great Siege of Malta, 1565. London: Constable, 1980. Sultana, Donald. The Journey of Sir Walter Scott to Malta. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1986. Sultana, Donald. Journey of William Frere to Malta in 1832: Preceded by a Sketch of His Life and of the Frere Family, with Particular Reference to John Hookham Frere: a Monograph in Two Parts. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, [1990]. Sultana, Donald. Samuel Taylor Coleridge in Malta and Italy. Oxford: Blackwell, 1969. Sultana, Donald. The Siege of Malta Rediscovered: An Account of Sir Walter Scott’s Mediterranean Journey and His Last Novel. Edinburgh: Scottish Academic Press, c. Music

Camilleri, Charles, and Peter Serracino Inglott. Mediterranean Music. Foundation for International Studies at the University of Malta, 1988. Casha, Manuel. Maltese Għana & Prejjem Music: A Journey into Maltese Traditional Music Roots. Australia: printed by the author, 2016. Sapienza, Edwige, and Joe Attard, eds. Charles Camilleri: Portrait of a Composer. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1988. University of Malta and Paul Xuereb. The Maltese Opera Libretto: A Catalogue of the Librettos in the University of Malta Library; With an Introductory Essay. Msida: Malta University Press, 2004. d. Theater

Mangion, Michael, ed. Teatru Manoel, the National Theatre of Malta: ad honestam populi oblectationem. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2016. Xuereb, Peter. Curtain Up! Theatre in Malta (1963–2015). Malta: Midsea, 2017. 4. Economy a. General

Baldacchino, Godfrey. Worker Cooperatives with Particular Reference to Malta: An Educationist’s Theory and Practice. The Hague, Netherlands: Institute of Social Studies, 1990.

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Baldacchino, Godfrey, ed. Entrepreneurship in Small Island States and Territories. New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis Group, 2015. Baldacchino, Godfrey, Saviour Rizzo, and E. L. Zammit. Evolving Industrial Relations in Malta. Luqa, Malta: Agenda in collaboration with Workers’ Participation Development Centre, 2003 Bonanno, Nicolas S. Capital, Accumulation, and Economic Growth: In Theory and as They Relate in the Maltese Paradigm. Documents Economiques 44. Fribourg, Switzerland: Editions Universitaires Fribourg, 1989. Bonello, Giovanni. La Borsa: The People, the Building, the History. Valletta: Malta Chamber of Commerce, 2013. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. The Malta Railway. Rev. ed. Malta: privately printed, 1992. Bonnici, Joseph, and Michael Cassar. Malta Tramway and the Barracca Lift. Malta: privately printed, 1991. Briguglio, Lino. Island Economies—Plans, Strategies, and Performance, Malta. Canberra, Australia: Research School of Pacific Studies, 1992. Briguglio, Lino. Macroeconomics and the Maltese Economy. San Gwann, Malta: BDL Publishing, 2011. Briguglio, Lino, and Gordon Cordina, eds. Competitiveness Strategies for Small States. Malta: Islands and Small States Institute of the Foundation for International Studies, 2004. Briguglio, Lino, Gordon Cordina, Nadia Farrugia, and Constance Vigilance, eds. Small States and the Pillars of Economic Resilience. Islands and Small States Institute, University of Malta and the Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 2008. Briguglio, Lino, Gordon Cordina, and Eliawony J. Kisanga, eds. Building the Economic Resilience of Small States. Formatek for The Islands and Small States Institute of the University of Malta and the Commonwealth Secretariat, London, 2006. Camilleri, Perit Denis. Housing Affordability in Malta: A Conference Organized by the Chamber of Architects & Civil Engineers–Malta in Conjunction with the Building Industry Consultative Council. Malta: The Building Industry Consultative Council, 2000. Caruana, Carmen M. Education’s Role in the Socioeconomic Development of Malta. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. Coldman, Alfred. Malta: An Aviation History. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2001. Debono, John. Trade and Port Activity in Malta: 1750–1800. Malta: J. Debono, 2000. Delia, E. P. Papers on Malta’s Political Economy. 2nd ed. Malta: Midsea, 2006. Johnson, Tom. Malta and Gozo Buses. Telford, UK: British Bus Publishing, 2003.

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Lerin, Franç ois, Leonard Mizzi, and Salvino Busuttil. Malta: Food, Agriculture, Fisheries, and the Environment. Options Mé diterrané ennes, no 7. Paris: CIHEAM, 1993. Pollacco, Christopher. An Outline of the Socio-Economic Development in Post-War Malta. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 2003. Rigby, Bernard. The Malta Railway. 2nd ed. Usk: Oakwood, 2004. Rizzo, Saviour, ed. Green Jobs from a Small State Perspective: Case Studies from Malta. Luxembourg: Green European Foundation, 2011. Senior, John A. Malta Bus Album: A Pictorial Record of Buses in Malta & Gozo Spanning Fifty Years. Glossop: Venture, 2004. Spiteri, Edward J. Malta: From Colonial Dependency to Economic Viability, 1800–2000. Sliema, Malta: Edward Spiteri, 2002. Staines, David Spiteri, ed. Airliners in Malta: A Historical and Pictorial Review; Eighty Years of Civil Aviation in Malta. Malta: Malta Aviation Museum Foundation, 2000. Vella, Catherine C., ed. The Maltese Islands on the Move: A Mosaic of Contributions Marking Malta’s Entry into the 21st Century. Lascaris, Valletta, Malta: Central Office of Statistics, 2000. Xuereb, Peter, ed. The Fight against Poverty. Msida, Malta: The European Documentation and Research Centre, 2008. Zammit, E. L. A Colonial Inheritance: Maltese Perceptions of Work, Power and Class Structure with Reference to the Labour Movement. Msida: Malta University Press, 1984. b. Banking and Finance

Consiglio, John A. A History of Banking in Malta: 1506–2005. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2006. Pirotta, Godfrey A., and Edward Warrington. Guardian of the Public Purse: A History of State Audit in Malta, 1800–2000. Malta: National Audit Office, 2001. Sammut, Joseph C. Currency in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Central Bank of Malta, 2001. Sammut, Joseph C. From Scudo to Sterling: Money in Malta, 1798–1887. Valletta, Malta: Said, 1992. c. Tourism

Briguglio, Lino. Sustainable Tourism in Islands and Small States. 2 vols. London: Pinter, 1996.

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Pollacco, John. In the National Interest: Towards a Sustainable Tourism Industry in Malta. Malta: Fondazzjoni Tumas Fenech ghall-Edukazzjoni fil-Ġ urnaliż mu, 2003. 5. European Union Berger, Helge, and Thomas Moutos, eds. Managing European Union Enlargement. CESifo seminar series. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004. Cassola, Arnold. A Maltese in the European Parliament: 1999–2003. Brussels, Belgium: European Federation of Green Parties, 2004. Frendo, Henry, and Enrico Formica. Malta 2014: 50 Years of Independence/ 10 Years of EU Membership. Sliema, Malta: Miranda Publishers, 2014. Harwood, Mark. Malta in the European Union. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2014. Micallef Grima, Jean. Small States and EU Governance: Malta in EU Decision-Making Processes. Switzerland: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018. Pace, Roderick. The European Union’s Mediterranean Enlargement: Cyprus and Malta. London: Routledge, 2005. Pace, Roderick. Microstate Security in the Global System: EU–Malta Relations. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 2001. Pierros, Filippos, Jacob Meunier, and Stanley Abrams. Bridges and Barriers: The European Union’s Mediterranean Policy, 1961–1998. Brookfield, Vt.: Ashgate, 1999. Pollacco, Christopher. European Integration: The Maltese Experience. Luqa, Malta: Agenda, 2004. Pollacco, Christopher. The Mediterranean: The European Union’s “Near Abroad.” Luqa, Malta: Agenda, 2006. Sajdik, Martin, and Michael Schwarzinger. European Union Enlargement: Background, Developments, Facts. Central and Eastern European Policy Studies, vol. 2. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 2008. Xuereb, Peter, ed. The Constitution for Europe: An Evaluation: EDRC Conference 2005. Msida: European Documentation and Research Centre, University of Malta, 2005. Xuereb, Peter, ed. The Future of the European Union: Unity in Diversity. Msida: European Documentation and Research Centre, University of Malta, 2002. Xuereb, Peter, ed. Malta in the European Union: Five Years On and Looking to the Future. Msida: European Documentation and Research Center, University of Malta. 2009.

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6. Geography, Geology, and Nature Azzopardi, Anton. A New Geography of the Maltese Islands. 2nd ed. Malta: St. Aloysius’ College Publication, 2002. Boffa, Charles J. The Islets of Comino, Filfla, Haġ ret Il-Ġ eneral and the Volcanic One (Graham) That Was. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2003. Bonett, Guido, and Joe Attard. The Maltese Countryside. Vol. 1, Pictorial Guide to the Flora of the Maltese Islands; Vol. 2, Pictorial Guide to the Fauna of the Maltese Islands. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2005. Borg, John J. Nature at Ħaġar Qim Heritage Park: Qrendi. Malta: Heritage Books, 2015. Borgese, Elisabeth Mann, and David Krieger, eds. The Tides of Change: Peace, Pollution, and Potential of the Oceans. New York: Mason/Charter, 1975. Briguglio, Lino, et al. Malta National Report: Submitted by the Government of Malta to the World Summit on Sustainable Development, Johannesburg, 2002. Malta: 2002. Buhagiar, Keith. Malta and water (AD 900 to 1900): Irrigating a Semi-Arid Landscape. Oxford: BAR Publishing, 2016. Cachia, Charles, Constantine Mifsud, and Paul M. Sammut. The Marine Shelled—Mollusca of the Maltese Islands. Illustrated by Alfred Caruana Ruggier. Marsa, Malta: Grima Printing & Publishing Industries, 1991–. Casha, Alex. Where to Watch Birds and Other Wildlife in Malta. Ta’ Xbiex: BirdLife Malta, 2004 Cassar, Louis F., and Darrin T. Stevens. Coastal Sand Dunes under Siege: A Guide to Conservation for Environmental Managers. Malta: International Environment Institute, Fenech, Katrin. Human-Induced Changes in the Environment and Landscape of the Maltese Islands from the Neolithic to the 15th Century AD: As Inferred from a Scientific Study of Sediments from Marsa, Malta. BAR International Series 1682. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2007. Fenech, Natalino. A Complete Guide to the Birds of Malta. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2010. Formosa, Saviour, ed. Future Preparedness: Thematic and Spatial Issues for the Environment and Sustainability. Msida: University of Malta Press, 2014. Haslam, S. M., J. Borg, and J. M. Psaila. River Kbir: The Hidden Wonder; A Field Study Guide. Malta: 2002. Lanfranco, Edwin, and Guido Bonett. Wild Flowers of the Maltese Islands. Nature Guide Series. Malta: BDL, 2015. Mifsud, Mark. Maltese Nature in Focus. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 2003.

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Pedley, Martyn. Limestone Isles in a Crystal Sea: The Geology of the Maltese Islands. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2002. Pedley, Martyn, and Michael Hughes Clarke. Geological Itineraries in Malta & Gozo. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2003. Sultana, Joe, and Charles A. Gauci. A New Guide to the Birds of Malta. Valletta: Malta Ornithological Society, 1982. Sultana, Joe, and John J Borg. History of Ornithology in Malta. Xemxija, Malta: Birdlife of Malta, 2016. Sultana, Joe, and Victor Falzon, eds. Wildlife of the Maltese Islands. Floriana, Malta: Environment Protection Department, 1996. Valletta, Anthony. The Butterflies of the Maltese Islands. Malta: G. Muscat, 1972. Valletta, Anthony. The Moths of the Maltese Islands. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1973. Weber, Hans Christian. Ornamental Plants of Malta. Weikersheim: Margraf, 2008. Weber, Hans Christian. Wild Plants of Malta. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2004. Weber, Hans Christian, and Bernd Kendzior. Flora of the Maltese Islands: Field Guide. Weikersheim: Margraf, 2006. Wood, Lawson. Sea Fishes and Invertebrates of the Maltese Islands and the Mediterranean Sea. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2002. Zammit-Maempel, George. Illustrators and Their Illustrations of Maltese Fossils and Geology: A Historical and Biographical Account. Contributions to a History of Maltese Geology and Palaeontology. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprise Group, 2007. 7. Politics a. General

Baker, Randall, ed. Public Administration in Small and Island States. Kumarian Press Library of Management for Development. West Hartford, Conn.: Kumarian Press, 1991. Bezzina, Joseph. Gozo’s Government: The Autonomy of an Island through History. Rabat, Gozo: Gaulitana, 2005. Cachia, Francis. Global Diplomacy Reflected in Malta: A Decade of Decisive Developments in International Affairs, 1993–2003. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2004. Clemmer, Edward J. Alfred Sant Explained: In-Novella Ta’Malta Fil-Mediterran. Malta, 2000. De Marco, Guido. Momentum. Valletta, Malta: Office of the President, 2002.

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De Marco, Guido. Momentum II. Valletta, Malta: Office of the President, 2004. Dobie, Edith. Malta’s Road to Independence. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1967. Fenech, Dominic. Responsibility and Power in Inter-War Malta. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2005. Frendo, Henry. Malta’s Quest for Independence: Reflections on the Course of Maltese History. Valletta, Malta: Valletta Publishing & Promotion, 1989. Frendo, Henry, ed. Maltese Political Development 1798–1964: Selected Readings. Malta: Interprint, 1993. Frendo, Henry. The Origins of Maltese Statehood: A Case Study of Decolonization in the Mediterranean. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1999. Koster, Adrianus. Prelates and Politicians in Malta: Changing Power-Balances between Church and State in a Mediterranean Island Fortress, 1800–1976. Studies of Developing Countries 29. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1984. Malta. Office of the Prime Minister. Office of the Permanent Secretary. A Profile of the Public Service of Malta: Current Good Practices and New Developments in Public Service Management. 2nd ed. Edited by Charles Polidano. Country Profiles Series. London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2002. Mangion, Raymond. Speakers’ Rulings in the Parliament of Malta: The Legislative Assembly 1921–1924. Vol. I, Parts 1 & 2. Msida: University of Malta Press, 2015. Mintoff, Dom, ed. Malta: Church, State, Labour: Documents Recording Negotiations between the Vatican Authorities and the Labour Party, 1964–1965. Malta: Malta Labour Party, 1966. Nalizpelra (Maurice Tanti Burlo). Blame It on Dom. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2003. O’Donoghue, Sarah. Industrial Relations and Political Change in Malta. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 2003. Pirotta, Godfrey A. Malta’s Parliament: An Official History. Malta: Office of the Speaker of the House of Representatives, Malta and the Department of Information, 2006. Rossi, Enzo. Malta on the Brink: From Western Democracy to Libyan Satellite. European Security Studies, no. 5. London: Alliance Publishers, for the Institute for European Defence & Strategic Studies, 1986. Saliba, Evarist. No, Honourable Minister: Memoirs of a Maltese Senior Diplomat. San Gwann, Malta: Book Distributors, 2007. Staines, Patrick. Essays on Governing Malta (1800–1813). San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2008.

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Vassallo, Mario Thomas, ed. Public Life in Malta: Essays on Governance, Politics and Public Affairs in EU’s Smallest Member State. Vol. I. Msida: University of Malta, 2012. Warrington, Edward, and Godfey A. Pirotta. Guardian of the Public Purse: A History of State Audit in Malta, 1814–2014. 2nd ed. Malta: National Audit Office, 2014. b. Constitutions

Borg, Tonio. A Commentary on the Constitution of Malta. Malta: Kite, 2016. Cremona, J. J. The Maltese Constitution and Constitutional History since 1813. 2nd ed. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1997. Malta. Progressive Constitutional Party. Maltese Constitutional and Economic Issues. Introduction by Mabel Edeline Strickland. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1959. Malta Constitutional Conference. Malta Demands Independence: Official Documents of the Talks Held in London between the Delegation of the Malta Labour Party and the Delegation of the United Kingdom Government in November–December, 1958. Malta: Malta Labour Party, 1959. c. Elections

Bowler, Shaun, and Bernard Grofman, eds. Elections in Australia, Ireland, and Malta under the Single Transferable Vote: Reflections on an Embedded Institution. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2000. Felice-Pace, Joe, and Richard Felice Pace. Who’s Who in the House, 1921–2006: Results of Maltese General and Casual Elections. Valletta, Malta: Midesea, 2006. Giglo, Albert. Malta: Analysis and Consequences of Elections 1921–2003. Valletta, Malta: Studia Editions, 2007. d. Foreign Affairs

Cassar, Joseph. Gonzi and Malta’s Break with Gaddafi: Recollections of a Premier. Birkekara, Malta: Kite Group, 2012. Coleiro, Christine. A Propitious Partner. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1997. Gauci, Victor J. The Genesis of Malta’s Foreign Policy: A Personal Account. Malta: Agenda, 2005.

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e. Political Parties

Frendo, Henry. Party Politics in a Fortress Colony: The Maltese Experience. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 1979. Koster, Adrianus. Prelates and Politicians in Malta: Changing Power-Balances between Church and State in a Mediterranean Island Fortress, 1800–1976. Studies of Developing Countries 29. Assen: Van Gorcum, 1984. Mintoff, Dom, ed. Malta: Church, State, Labour: Documents Recording Negotiations between the Vatican Authorities and the Labour Party, 1964–1965. Malta: Malta Labour Party, 1966. 8. Society a. General

Abela, A. E. Grace and Glory: Malta; People, Places & Events—Historical Sketches. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1997. Abela, Anthony M. Secularised Sexuality: Youth Values in a City-Island. Valletta, Malta: Social Values Studies, 1998. Abela, Anthony M. Transmitting Values in European Malta: A Study in the Contemporary Values of Modern Society. Valletta, Malta: Jesuit Publications, 1991. Abela, Anthony M. Values of Women and Men in the Maltese Islands: A Comparative European Perspective. Valletta, Malta: Commission for the Advancement of Women, Ministry for Social Policy, 2000. Attard, Frans A. The Malta Book of Records and Firsts. 2nd ed. Birkirkara, Malta: Uprend Publishing, 2007. Attard, Lawrence E. Early Maltese Emigration, 1900–1914. Valletta, Malta: Gulf, 1983. Attard, Lawrence E. The Great Exodus: (1918–1939). Marsa, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 1989. Attard, Lawrence E. Profiles in Maltese Migration: A Series of Nineteen Biographies Covering the Period from 1792 to 2000. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2003. Boffa, Charles J. Malta’s Grand Harbour and Its Environs in War and Peace: Historical Scenario, World War One and Two, Social Dimensions, People in Wartime, Medical and Health Objectives. Malta: Progress Press, 2000. Boissevain, Inga. A Maltese Marriage. San Gwann, Malta: Choppy Books, 2015. Scenario, World War One and Two, Social Dimensions, People in Wartime, Medical and Health Developments. Malta: Progress, 2000.

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Camilleri-Cassar, Frances. Gender Equality in Maltese Social Policy? Graduate Women and the Male Breadwinner Model. Luqa, Malta: Agenda, 2005. Carville, Alan, and Mark Avellino. Malta 24/7. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2005. Cassar, Carmel. Society, Culture and Identity in Early Modern Malta. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 2000. Cassar, George, and JosAnn Cutajar, eds. Sociological Aspects of the Maltese Islands. Msida, Malta: Indigo Books, 2004. Catania, Paul, and Louis J. Scerri. Naxxar: A Village and Its People. Malta: P. Catania, 2000. Census of Population and Housing Malta, 2005. Valletta, Malta: National Statistics Office, 2007. Ciaparra, Frans, The Social and Religious History of a Maltese Parish: St. Mary’s Qrendi in the Eighteenth Century. Msida: Malta University Press, 2014. Ciorbaru, Adriana. Youth Policy in Malta: Report by an International Panel of Experts Appointed by the Council of Europe. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe Publishing, 2005. Cutajar, Josfinn, and Georg Cassar, eds. Social Transitions in Maltese Society. Malta: Agenda, 2009. Cutajar, Josfinn, and Georg Cassar. Sociological Aspects of Maltese Society. Malta: Indigo Press, 2004. De Piro, Nicholas. Lost Letters: An Ostensibly Historical Divertimento. London: Pedigree, 1986. Formosa, Marvin, Ageing and Later Life in Malta: Issues, Policies and Future Trends. San Gwann: BDL, 2015 Gatt, Rose Ann, Christopher Mallia, and Gabrielle Mifsud. Government and Sport: A Historical Review (1962–2002). Edited by Michael Aquilina. Msida: Institute for Physical Education and Sport, University of Malta, 2004. Goodwin, Stefan. Malta, Mediterranean Bridge. Westport, Conn.: Bergin & Garvey, 2002. Leopardi, Edward Romeo. Malta’s Heritage: Selections from the Writings of E.R. Leopardi. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1969. Managing People in Malta: Case Studies in Local Human Resource Management Practice. Edited by Godfrey Baldacchino, Antionette Caruana, and Mario Grixti. Luqa, Malta: Published in collaboration with the Foundation for Human Resources Development, Agenda, 2003. Mifsud, Immanuel. In the Name of the Father (and of the Son). Malta: Midsea Books, 2012. Mitchell, Jon P. Ambivalent Europeans: Ritual, Memory, and the Public Sphere in Malta. London: Routledge, 2002.

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Mizzi, J. A. Scouting in Malta: An Illustrated History. Valletta, Malta: privately printed, 1989. Montalto, John. The Nobles of Malta, 1530–1800. Maltese Social Studies 4. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 1980. Refalo, Michael. Waking the Dead: Nineteenth Century Obituaries as a Mirror of Maltese Society (1815–c.1910). Malta: BDL, 2017. Savona-Ventura, Charles. Contemporary Medicine in Malta, 1798–1979. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2005. Sciriha, Lydia. Keeping in Touch: The Sociolinguistics of Mobile Telephony in Malta. Luqa, Malta: Agenda, 2004. Sultana, Ronald G., and Godfrey Baldacchino. Maltese Society: A Sociological Inquiry. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 1994. Tabone, Carmel. Maltese Families in Transition: A Sociological Investigation. Casa Leoni, Sta. Venera, Malta: Ministry for Social Development, 1995. Xerri, Raymond C. Gozitan Crossings: The Impact of Migration and Return Migration on an Island Community. Gozo and the Gozitans 1. Qala, Malta: A&M Printing, 2005. b. Biographies and Autobiographies

Bencini, Alfred J. Nothing but the Truth: An Illustrated Autobiography. N.p.: Penprint, 1981. Catania, Charles. Andrea De Bono: Maltese Explorer on the White Nile. London: Minerva, 2001. Ciappara, Frans. M.A. Vassalli (1764–1829): An Enlightened Maltese Reformer. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books Ltd., 2014. De Marco, Guido. The Politics of Persuasion: An Autobiography. Valletta, Malta: Allied Publications, 2007. Freller, Thomas. The Life and Adventures of Michael Heberer Von Bretten: The German Robinson Crusoe in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Valletta Publishing, 1997. Ellul-Micallef, Roger. Zammit of Malta: His Times, Life and Achievements. Vol I. Valletta, Malta: Allied Publications, 2013. Frendo, Henry. Ċ ensu Tabone: The Man and His Century. 2nd ed. Malta: Maltese Studies, 2001. Ganado, Albert. Judge Robert Ganado: A History of the Government Departments from 1815 and Lawyers from 1666. San Gwann, Malta: BDL Publishing, 2015. Gauci, Charles A. Of Maltese Generals and Admirals. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books Ltd., 2015.

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Goulston, Jill. Gozo Glimpses: The Heart of a House. London: Blackie, 2003. Mangion, Tony S. The Maltese: A Collection of Portraits and Biographies. Malta: privately printed, 2002. Massa, Daniel. PSI Kingmaker: Life, Thought and Adventures of Peter Serracino Inglott. Mriehel, Malta: Progress Press, 2013. Sammut, Austin. The Court Martial of Enrico Mizzi, 1917. Maltese Social Studies. Malta: Midsea, 2006. Sant, Alfred. Confessions of a European Maltese. Malta: SKS, 2002. Schiavone, Michael. Dictionary of Maltese Biographies. Vols. I & II. Pietà , Malta: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, 2009. Smith, Harrison. Lord Strickland: Servant of the Crown. Edited by Adrianus Koster. 2 vols. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1984–1986. Zammit, Andre. Sir Luigi Camilleri:His Life and Times. San Gwann, Malta: Book Distributors, 2010. Zammit Marmara, Desmond. Paul Boffa: Malta’s First Labour Prime Minister. Translated by Anne Schranz. Hamrun, Malta: SKS Publishing, 2012. Zarb-Dimech, Anthony. Moments in Time: An Album of an Old Maltese Family. Malta: A. Zarb-Dimech, 2003. c. Education

Caruana, Carmen M. Education’s Role in the Socioeconomic Development of Malta. Westport, Conn.: Praeger, 1992. Mifsud Bonnici, Ugo. An Introduction to the Law of Education. Msida: University of Malta Press, 2013. Zammit Mangion, Joseph. Education in Malta. Valletta, Malta: Studia Editions, 1992. d. Folklore and Folk Culture

Attard, Robert. Malta: A Collection of Tales and Narratives. Zebbug, Malta: Edward De Bono Foundation, 2001. Attard, Robert. Malta: A Second Collection of Tales and Narratives. Foreword by Edward De Bono. Zebbug, Malta: Edward De Bono Foundation, 2001. Attard, Robert. Malta: A Third Collection of Tales and Narratives. Foreword by Edward De Bono. Zebbug, Malta: Edward De Bono Foundation, 2003. Azzopardi, Consiglia. Gozo Lace: An Introduction to Lace Making in the Maltese Islands. Gozo: Azzopardi, 2005. Camilleri, George, trans. Realms of Fantasy: Folk Tales from Gozo. Victoria, Gozo: privately published, 1992.

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Camilleri, Joseph C. A Taste of Maltese Folklore: Tradition and Heritage. Ħal Tarxien, Malta: BDL, 2015 Cassar-Pullicino, Joseph. Folktales of Malta and Gozo: A Selection in English Translation. Valletta, Malta: University Publishers, 2000. Cassar-Pullicino, Joseph. Studies in Maltese Folklore. Rev. ed. Msida: Malta University Press, 1992. Mifsud, Stephen D. The Maltese Bestiary: An Illustrated Guide to the Mythical Flora and Fauna of the Maltese islands. Blata I-Bajda, Malta: Merlin, 2014. Muscat, Joseph. The Dghajsa and Other Traditional Boats. Valetta, Malta: Fonazzjoni Patrimonju Malti, 1999. e. Food

Borg, Miriam. Healthy Mediterranean Recipes from Malta: With Calorie Counts and Step-by-Step Photos. Olive Garland Series. Malta: Karl Borg, 2005. Caruana, Claudia M. Taste of Malta. New York: Hippocrene, 2009. Caruana Galizia, Anne, and Helen Caruana Galizia. The Food and Cookery of Malta. Rev. ed. Totnes, Malta: Prospect Books, 1997. First published as Recipes from Malta. Valleta, Malta: Prospect, 1972. Cremona, Matty, and Kurt Arrigo. A Year in the Country: Life and Food in Rural Malta. 2nd ed. Malta: Proximus, 2004. Mattei, Pippa, and Kurt Arrigo. 25 Years in a Maltese Kitchen. Sliema, Malta: Miranda, 2003. Meekers, Georges. Wines of Malta: The Essential Guide. Luqa, Malta: Miller Distributors, 2006. Mitze, Rainer. Malta’s Mediterranean Cuisine. Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Germany: Umschau, 2004. Parkinson-Large, Pamela. A Taste of History: The Food of the Knights of Malta. Lija, Malta: MAG Publications, 1995. Wirth, Caroline. The Best of Maltese Cooking. Narni-Terni, Italy: Plurigraf, 1991. f. Language

Aquilina, Joseph. Maltese: A Complete Course for Beginners. 2nd ed. Teach Yourself Books. London: Hodder Headline, 1994. Aquilina, Joseph. Papers in Maltese Linguistics. Valletta: Royal University of Malta. Reprinted with corrections. Valletta: Malta University Press, 1970.

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Braunmü ller, Kurt, and Gisella Ferraresi, eds. Aspects of Multilingualism in European Language History. Hamburg Studies on Multilingualism, vol. 2. Amsterdam: J. Benjamins, 2003. Bugeja, Paul. Maltese: How to Read and Speak It. 3rd ed. Valletta, Malta: A. C. Aquilina, 1979. Caruana Dingli, Noel. The French Language in Malta and the Napoleonic Period. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 2002. Hull, Geoffrey. The Malta Language Question: A Case History in Cultural Imperialism. Valletta, Malta: Said International, 1993. Sutcliffe, Edmund Felix. A Grammar of the Maltese Language, with Chrestomathy and Vocabulary. Valetta, Malta: Progress Press, 1960. g. Law and the Legal System

Attard, David Joseph, The Maltese Legal System. Vols. I & II. Msida: Malta University Press, 2012. Mifsud Bonnici, Ugo. An Introduction to Cultural Heritage Law. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2008. Mifsud Bonnici, Ugo. An Introduction to the Law of Education. Msida: University of Malta Press, 2013. h. Media

Frendo, Henry. The Press and the Media in Malta. Bochum, Germany: Projekt Verlag, 2004. Sammut, Carmen. Media and Maltese Society. Lanham, Md.: Lexington Books, 2007. i. Religion and Philosophy

Azzopardi, John. Portable Altars in Malta. Malta: Patrimonju, 2000. Boissevain, Jeremy. Saints and Fireworks: Religion and Politics in Rural Malta. 3rd ed. Valletta, Malta: Progress, 2000. Ciappara, Frans. Society and the Inquisition in Early Modern Malta. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2000. Cornuke, Robert. The Lost Shipwreck of Paul. Bend, Ore.: Global Publishing Services, 2003. Gambin, Kenneth. Two Death Sentences by the Inquisition Tribunal of Malta, 1639. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2006.

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Jaccarini, Carol, and Mauro Inguanez. Dom Mauro Inguanez, 1887–1955: Benedictine of Montecassino. Translated by Victor Buhagiar. Mdina, Malta: Cathedral Museum, 1987. Kilin. A Hundred Wayside Chapels of Malta & Gozo. Valletta, Malta: Heritage Books, 2000. Luttrell, Anthony. The Making of Christian Malta: From the Early Middle Ages to 1530. Aldershot, Hants, UK: Ashgate, 2002. Montebello, Mark. Malta’s Philosophy and Philosophers. Pieta, Malta: Pubblikazzonijiet Indipendenza, 2011. Montebello, Mark. 20th Century Philosophy in Malta. Malta: Agius & Agius, 2009. O’Shea, Stephen. Sea of Faith: The Shared Story of Christianity and Islam in the Medieval Mediterranean World. New York: Walker, 2006. Rountree, Kathryn. Crafting Contemporary Pagan Identities in a Catholic Society. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2009. Tabone, Charles. Religious Beliefs and Attitudes of Maltese University Students. Msida: University Chaplaincy, University of Malta, 2003. Vassallo, Mario. From Lordship to Stewardship: Religion and Social Change in Malta. The Hague, Netherlands: Mouton, 1979 Vella, Andrew P. The Tribunal of the Inquisition in Malta. Royal University of Malta Historical Studies 1. Valletta: Royal University of Malta, 1964. Wettinger, Godfrey. The Jews of Malta in the Late Middle Ages. Maltese Social Studies 6. Valletta, Malta: Midsea, 1985. Yaffe, Martin D. Shylock and the Jewish Question. Johns Hopkins Jewish Studies. Baltimore, Md.: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1997. j. Women

Abela, Anthony M. Women’s Welfare in Society. Valletta, Malta: Commission for the Advancement of Women, 2002. Camilleri, Frances. Women in the Labour Market: A Maltese Perspective. Msida, Malta: Mireva, 1997. Deguara, Angele. Life on the Line: A Sociological Investigation of Women Working in a Clothing Factory in Malta. Malta University Press, 2002. Galea, Frederick R. Women of Malta: True Wartime Stories of Christina Ratcliffe and Tamara Marks. Rabat, Malta: Wise Owl Publications, 2006. Hoe, Susanna. Malta: Women, History, Books and Places. Oxford: The Women’s History Press, 2015.

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III. REFERENCE SOURCES 1. General Malta: Country Study Guide. International Business Publishers, 2005–. Published annually. Malta Year Book. Sliema, Malta: De La Salle Brothers, 1988–. Published annually. Manduca, John. Malta Who’s Who. Valletta, Malta: Progress Press, 1987. Schiavone, Michael J., and Louis J. Scerri. Maltese Biographies of the Twentieth Century. Pietà , Malta: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, 1997. Wettinger, Godfrey. Place-Names of the Maltese Islands: Ca. 1300–1800. San Gwann, Malta: Publishers Enterprises Group, 2000. 2. Bibliographies Boswell, David M., Brian W. Beeley, and John Richard Thackrah. Malta. Rev. ed. World Bibliographical Series, vol. 64. Oxford: Clio Press, 1998. Camilleri, Ninette, and Romaine Petrocochino. Supplement to “A Checklist of Maltese Periodicals and Newspapers”: Covering the Years 1974–1989. Valletta: Malta University Publications, 1990. National Library of Malta. A Checklist of Maltese Periodicals and Newspapers in the National Library of Malta (Formerly Royal Malta Library) and the University of Malta Library. Compiled by Anthony F. Sapienza. Valletta: Malta University Press, 1977. Portelli, Sergio. A Bibliography of Nineteenth-Century Periodicals in the National Library of Malta Collection. Valletta, Malta: National Library of Malta, 2000. Xuereb, Paul. Melitensia; A Catalogue of Printed Books and Articles in the Royal University of Malta Library Referring to Malta. Msida: Malta University Press, 1974. 3. Dictionaries Aquilina, Joseph, comp. A Comparative Dictionary of Maltese Proverbs. Valletta: Royal University of Malta, 1972. Aquilina, Joseph. Concise Maltese English, English Maltese Dictionary. Sta. Venera, Malta: Midsea Books, 2006. Briffa, Charles. The English Maltese Dictionary for the 21st Century. Valletta, Malta: Allied Publications, 2015.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

Busuttil, E. D. Kalepin: (Dizzjunarju) Ingliz-Malti = English–Maltese Dictionary. 3rd ed. Valletta, Malta: Muscat, 1976. Cassar, Mario. The Surnames of the Maltese Islands: An Etymological Dictionary. Malta: Book Distributors, 2003. Farrugia, Carlo. Dictionary for Financial Services: English–Maltese—Maltese–English. Valletta, Malta: Midsea Books, 2006. Schiavone, Michael. Dictionary of Maltese Biographies. Vols. I & II. Pietà , Malta: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza, 2009. 4. Websites a. General

http://www.aboutmalta.com/ http://www.malta.com/ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/MT.html http://my-malta.com/ b. European Union

European Union (Malta English language portal), http://europa.eu/abc/european_countries/eu_members/malta/index_en.htm European Union Commission Representation in Malta (English portal), http:/ /ec.europa.eu/malta/welcome_en.htm Legal Malta (legal information about Malta and the EU), http://www.legalmalta.com/european/ c. Government of Malta

Department of Information, Malta, http://www.doi.gov.mt/ Government of Malta official website (in English), http://gov.mt/index.asp?l=2 Heritage Malta, National Agency for Museums, Conservation Practice and Cultural Heritage, http://www.heritagemalta.org/home.html National Statistics Office, Malta, http://www.nso.gov.mt/site/page.aspx d. Libraries

Melitensia Library at the University of Malta, http://www.um.edu.mt/library/ departments/melitensia

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National Library of Malta, www.libraries-archives.gov.mt/nlm/index.htm National Library of Malta, digitized collection, http://digivault.maltalibraries.gov.mt/ St John’s University Malta Study Center, http://www.hmml.org/centers/malta/ University of Malta Library, www.lib.um.edu.mt/ WorldCat, the world’s largest network of library content and services, www.worldcat.org/ e. Maps

Attard, Frans A. The Maze: Street Atlas, Malta and Gozo. Malta: Uptrend Publishing, 2016. Interactive map of Malta (Visit Malta website of Malta Tourism Authority), http://www.visitmalta.com/includes/map/popup1.html Political map of Malta, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/malta_pol84.jpg Relief map of Malta, http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/malta.gif f. Media

Di-ve (online news site), http://www.di-ve.com The Independent (daily newspaper), http://www.independent.com.mt Lovin’ Malta (news and online television), http://www.lovinmalta.com Malta Today (weekly online news service), http://www.maltatoday.com.mt MaltaMedia (online news service), http://www.maltamediaonline.com The Malta Star (online daily), http://www.maltastar.com/pages/ ms09cont.asp Radio Stations of Malta, http://www.listenlive.eu/malta.html The Shift (online news service), http://theshiftnews.com The Times of Malta (daily newspaper), http://www.timesofmalta.com/ g. Museums

Malta’s National Museums & Sites, http://heritagemalta.org/museumssites/ Visit Malta: Museums and Galleries, https://www.visitmalta.com/en/museums-and-galleries

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h. Nongovernmental Organizations

BirdLife Malta (environmental NGO to protect birds), https://birdlifemalta.org/ Commissioner for Voluntary Organizations, https://education.gov.mt/en/ vo_home/Pages/vo_home.aspx Competitive Malta (organization to improve Malta’s economic competitiveness), http://www.competitivemalta.com/competitivemalta/home.aspx Din L’Art Helwa (National Malta Trust, heritage preservation organization), http://www.dinlarthelwa.org/ Flimkien Ghal Ambjent Ahjar (environmental action organization), http:// www.ambjentahjar.org/ Fondazzjoni Patrimonju Malti (Malta heritage preservation organization), http://www.patrimonju.org/patrimonju/home.aspx Fondazzjoni Wirt Artna (Malta heritage preservation organization), http:// www.wirtartna.org/main_menu/AboutUs/tabid/1198/Default.aspx General Workers Union, www.gwu.org.mt/ L’Union Haddiema Maghqudin (Union), www.uhm.org.mt/ Malta Chamber of Commerce and Enterprise, http://www.chamber.org.mt i. Politics and Law

Alternattiva Demokratika (The Green Party), http://www.alternattiva.org.mt/ page.asp Malta Constitution, http://justiceservices.gov.mt/DownloadDocument.aspx?app=lom&itemid=8566 Malta Labour Party, http://maltalabourparty.com/ Partita Nazzjonali (The Nationalist Party), http://www.pn.org.mt/ Legal information about Malta, http://www.legal-malta.com/ Political Parties of Malta, https://www.um.edu.mt/projects/maltaelections/ maltesepolitics/politicalparties j. Society

Crime in Malta, www.crimemalta.com Maltese Society, http://thecommonwealth.org/our-member-countries/malta/ society k. Tourist Information

Lonely Planet guide, http://www.lonelyplanet.com/malta

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Malta Tourist Board website, http://www.visitmalta.com/main



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About the Author

UWE JENS RUDOLF (BA, MA, ABD, University of Cincinnati; MBA, University of Southern California) is professor emeritus of accounting and management at Luther College, where he taught from 1971 to 2011. Originally hired to teach German, he had completed the coursework and examinations for the PhD in German literature when the college decided to cut his position. However, armed with grant money for the purpose, a colleague, Professor Warren Berg, the original author of this Historical Dictionary of Malta, convinced Rudolf to abandon his half-written dissertation to retrain as an accountant. After earning an MBA and passing the CPA examination, he was granted tenure in the Department of Economics, Accounting and Management headed by Berg. Rudolf taught courses in accounting, international business, and global issues at Luther. He has extensive teaching and business consulting experience in Europe, Asia, and Africa. On occasional leave from Luther College, he has worked in France, Germany, China, Japan, and Malta. He led 16 January-term, study abroad courses for Luther College students, traveling to Australia and to numerous countries in Asia, Europe, and Africa. He served as director of international studies and study abroad programs at Luther College and led students on semester-long programs in Norway and Tanzania. Following closely in the footsteps of Berg, his senior colleague and mentor, Professor Rudolf, like Berg before him, was appointed codirector (along with his spouse, Ruth Caldwell, professor emerita of French at Luther College) of a summer program, the Institute in American Studies for Scandinavian Educators, serving in that role from 2007 to 2012. Like Professor Berg, Rudolf developed a great admiration and love for Malta, a country he has visited countless times, including two sabbatical leaves. When it came time to update the dictionary, Berg asked Rudolf to take over responsibility for subsequent editions of this volume, and his response was never in doubt.

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